Material Information

Manbarklak Eschweilera longipes (Poit.) Miers, Eschweilera subglandulosa (Steud.) Miers : family: Lecythidaceae
Series Title:
Report ;
Portion of title:
Eschweilera longipes (Poit.) Miers, Eschweilera subglandulosa (Steud.) Miers : family: Lecythidaceae
Added title page title:
Information leaflet, foreign woods
Physical Description:
7, 3 p. : ; 26 cm.
Gerry, Eloise, b. 1885
Kryn, Jeannette M
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Lecythidaceae   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 5-7).
General Note:
Caption title.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Eloise Gerry and Jeannette M. Kryn.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029190692
oclc - 244295360
System ID:

Full Text


Forest Products Laboratory,- Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture

Eschweilera longipes ('oit.) iiers
Eschweilera ;b ',iij (Steud ) :.'irs
F,.",1 i: Lecythidaceae


ELOISE *JLiiTY, Forest Products Technologist
JEi.'.:;iETTE .1. Klir., Forest Products Technologist
Division of Silvicultural Relations

Distribution and f-lbitat

T-fhe tnus Eschweiiera includes about 80 species distriouted troar eastern
Brazil through the Amazon basin to Trinidad ;,;d Costa kic,, Su; L:-*. is
the chief source of manbarklak, obtair-.el from at lea:' t.wo s-pecius
Eschxveilera ln'-ir_ s (Poit.) hiiers and F -I 1
Fifteen or more species of s v','ilera occur *a i.L.,;i 'uia.a and -re
called kakeralli without diLstinction as to kind, but a", s t' 7? percent
of the kakeralli trees are the more valuable black kakeralli, iEsj'a -ilera
sagotiana L.,iers. T'.e black kakeralli of British Guiana closel'3 rcembles
the maanbarklak of Surinam (3, J, 16).-

-Jai-itained at M.,:,Jison, Wis., in cooperation with the; of
W isconsin.

-rTderlined numbers in parentheses refer to thie list of ni',r,-red
references at the end of the article.

-1- "ricuiur e-.'i" adrlrson

Rept. lIo. I960


Other Common iNames

..^.barklak is also known by the following names (13, l4, 16):

13a: 1, : k
Black r-.ralli
Kakaralli wadilikoro
. n*- arkraki

Tamoenin -r..atere
Tapirin kwatere
Tapoeloe kwatelie
Tekarajan kwatere
Toledclo rod
Topoeroe kwatere
vadilie kakaralie
i.'d .d.rie

The Tree

,,.nbarklak trees vary in size from sm-Ill to fairly large, Some specimens
may reacl a height of 100 feet. The bole is usually straight and cylin-
drical. 'I!,: butt, however, may be somewhat fluted and buttressed. The
bark is dark gray.

The flowers of Eschweilera longipes are large, reddish or violet, and
ftrra ciLuters at the ,r.:l; or sides of the branches; those of E. suLglandulosa
are smaller, white or cream colored, and fragrant (iL).

The Wood


.. h artwood is gray or olive brown to red brown, scr.. '.".itt streaked,
a.d rAther sharply demarcat._d from the yellowish sapwod (9 L16)'


h lutet~r is rather low.

,exIture and Grain

anb'.riklak has a uniform and rather fine texture and is t ,pically straight
raied (16).

,R1 t. o -960



In the ,a:.u rklak group, the Fpecfic ty (air dry) r.rt,
ranges from 110 to 1.25, and the weight from 69 to T3 puds r c oac
foot (lb), ihe specific gravity (weight and volume at 1i percent
moisture content) of manbarklak tested at The Institute f r Physical
Research at Delft, The >;therlands, ..w l.OC to 1101.-

S'-hanical Proertes,
1- wood is hard, compact, tough, and strng (2"), Although avere
strength values for manbarklak are not available, thc mechaa nicalh rpr-
ties for another srecies, black kakeralli (E, s'.'otira) from h1itLish
ti ii :t, have been Jetermined at Yale (19) ad aore rcse d in taoe 1.

Seasoning and Shrir.-

Shrinkage data for minbirklak ar rot available, but results of tests (n
the similar wood, black kaKeraili (x, sagotiana) are presented in table 2e
Shri'i.. e data for greenheart (0cotea rcdiaei7 and white oak (.'i ercus
alba) are included or comparison, Recent tests of black kaKerali
she..'.. t little or no warping, checkin-, or asing and consqently
I -n o r c a o e ~ d n n osedu n l
the wood was rated only moderately difficult to air dry. Exposed,
unpainted wood, however, may show considerable chec:in (il)

Resistance to Decay and -iine Borers

Ssilica in m;anbarklak is reported to be a factor in its high resistance
to marine borers. The wood is especially resistant in brackish water in
places where Dermerara "- enheart (Ocotea rodiaei 6z) has bten severely
d-nm.-ed (12, 16). There is a reo,,rd of 17 years of serve in S....
and ranbarKiak has shown the best record of a large nrm.ber of resistant
species aft-r 1 c years of exposure to mrarine-borer attack in experiments
conducted ;.t Balboa, Canal Zone (3). Van itersr and o'hngen (7) i-n an
early paper report that manbarklak may be :ttao: that this may be prevented by keep-ing th,-- w eLth r ., ry, unoir wate r
to avoid deterioration. In a recent, ZipubLlibhed rp ot.-,
J. L. ienfait, Director of the Forest Prod ts ... a nara L rsituo .
in The iethe rlands, states t. zt mianbarklak belongs in uuracr i.'v Cass 2.
A foot note to the report epiaus toat the wds i:s class have been
exposed in a temperate climate, Vithiout prcarvative treatme t, Io' frcm
15 to 30 years in permanent contact aith Wm t col or from h t ears
to weather and wind, with se ..rJ 1a mage ,; ng.

Unpublished data in a communication dated ,rc 26, 3, from J .
Bienfait, the Director cf the Forest Producs Roesearch irstitute T..,j.,
Delft, The '*-therlands.


Aept. ::D. 1960

black kae-eralli was rated very durable in resistance to both the
reprsentative broivn-rot fun-uis (Poria mnonticola) and the white-rot
fungus ( 'l ,'.'- versicolor (3),

,c _r--int C- r '_- .ri .- tr i,

i.-an.barklak is rated difficult to work and to glue. It splits readily.
.... wood n be finished, hc"-v-e, with a smooth, slate-like surface (3).

Pfiffur (13) reports that manbarklak has an ash content of 2.24 percent
withi a large amowlt of siliceous material pres,,nt. Tests of black kakeralli
( sargtiana) made at the Institute of Paper '-: C-. ,.stry showed an csh
cor.tent of only 0,63 percent. Spectrcrp}hic analysis, hc.'...ver, indicated
that the ash was nigh in siliceous .,-terial (20).

.;anbarklak is considered excellent for : ..ine construction in sea water,
ev(-n in the tropics (_16), its ability to withstand attack by marine
borers as already been discussed in this report. It serves iccally for
s h ,es purposes as the simun.iar wood, black kakeralli; for *.e, for
',"'sts, crossties, and construction .' ere durability is a requirement. Tht
l:ter wood is considered suitable because of its strength properties and
rhi h wear or abrasion resistance, for ice sheathing for boats, factory
flooring, shoe keels for Inding boats, and pulp miill equipment, such as
ouaters and bed plates (3).


pores are m,'derately small, solitary, or in small groups. Paren-
c tsypic-lly abundant, in numerous continuous bands one, two, cr
mere ceils in width. Strands of crystals are common. Inclusion, of
silica art reported in the parenchymatous tissues of manbarklak (1. '2.



1. Amnos, G. L.
!1)2, Silica In Timbers.
Cojmlonwealth Scientific and lndustiai Research Oriani-
zation. Bull. No. 267, p. 22. Mvilbournu, Austr:..lia

2. Clapp, 'Jilliam F., Laboratories
n. d. Tropical .od ..-rine Borer Tests, Kure Beach,
North Carolina,
Preliminary Report No 1 i (A report on work
sponsored byv the Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept,,,
'.Lsh'ngton, D. C.)

3. Dickinson, F. E,, Hess, R. G., and '-.,njaard, F. F.
1949. Properties and Uses of Tropical voods, i.
Trop. Woods No. 95, PP. 69-73. Ylioe University,
School of Forestry, N.-, Haven, konn.

4. bdimonson, C. He
199.. Reaction of Wioods from South American and Caribobean
Areas to i. rine Borers in Hawaiian .nters,
Caribbean Forester Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 37-hi.
U.S.D.!9. Forest Service. Trop. For. Expt. Sta,,
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.

5, Hughus, J. H.
1947,. Forest Resources of British i-uiana, p. 99,
Georgetowvin, Brit. Guiana.

o. Hterson, G van Jr,
1934. The Significance of the Anatomy of J/ood for the
Preservation of Marine Structures ., -.linst the
Shipworm (Teredo).
Proc. 5th Pacific Sci. Congress, Victoria and
Vancouver, B. C Canada. Pp. 3907-11.

7. oand Shngen, N, L,
1911. Ropportover onderzoekinLen verricht omtrent geconstsate!rdl
aantasting van het zoogenaiMd manbarkli k [ Report on
Investigations on the Ascerained Deterioritionl of the
So-called ianbarklak.]
De i, rnieurs, No. 11,ii The Netherlands.

8. Kynoch, vviii'tr.. and Norton, Nevell A.
13 v. Mechanical Properties of Certain Tropical oods,
Chiefly from South Americ-ai
Bull, 1o. 7. 87 pp. University of iuchi~an,
School of Forestry and Conservation, Ann Arbor, l cih.

rtept. No. i.60

9. Lamb, George
1)9?. *Foreign Woods Eschvweilera sagotiana Black Kak'ier.lli.
Wood and hood Products Vol. .:, 2, pp. 76-7.
Chicago, !!i.

10. ___________
1952. Foreign 'Joods, ischweilera sp. -- i.-nl-arklak,
Wood and .ood Products Vol. 57, .Ib. 9, pp. 16, 79.
Chicago, Ill

11. i:iarkwardt, L. J., and vilson, T. R. C,
1935. 3trenrth and Related Properties of '4oods crown in
the United States.
Tech. Bull. L79, 99 pp. U. S, Dept. Agr,,
Washington, D. C.

12. ivietcaife, C. R, and Chalk, L.
1950. Anatomy of the Dicctyledons.
Vol. 1, pp. 631-636. Clarendon Press, Oxford
University Press, London, fingo, and iov/w York.

13. Pfeiffer, J. Ph.
1926-1927. De Hootsoorten Van Suriname.
Vol. 1, pp. 4OL4-o08 Vol. 2, tables.
Koninklijke Verecniging Koloniaal Institute,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

1)4. Puile, A,
1932-19L1. Flora of Juriname.
Vol. 3, Part 1. Dialype-talae. Pp. 129-1l8.
Kolonial Lnrstituut, .dc'd eling NJo. 30,
Amsterdamr, The Netherlands.

15 recordd, S. J.
194L. Randmn ULbservations on Tropical American Timberrs.
Trop. Woods lo. 77, pp 6-7.
Yale University School of Forestry, 'ow Haven, Conn.

16. ______ anrid Hess, t. vi
19143 T L,-rs of the I -':w world, pp. 223-225.
Yale University Press, "'.,w Haven, Conn.


17. record, S, J. ind i Uell, C. D.
1')2L. Timbers of 'ro pLctl A.merica, pp. 465-4,6)
Yale University rress, New Have,, Conn.

18. Stand, u.
19h74 Surinam Timbers. P. 24,
Agricultural Experiment Station,
Paramaribo, Surinam.

19. .tangaard, F. F, and .usUciler, ,. F,
1952! Properties and Ues of Tropical '.>'cds, Ilii.
Tropo, 4Vods No> )8, pp. 102-305,o
Yale University, School of 1'"restry, G'o Hav, Cn.

20. ',ise) Louis E.
3.951, Composition of Trop3c4.l .'oods, (A report on work
:p)nsored by tlie Office of Naval Research, U. S.
;v). 82 pp. Institute of Paper Chemistry,
Appleton, cmisconsin.

riept. No. 1960

L)bie l.--ecnanical properties of olacx Kaxeralli and the comiparabole
V.". t "!- t t.- :ak`


- -Black Kaki------ Gre-- -- --t :--hite Oak
:Black Kakeralli., Gret,!-ili. .-irt :.'.hite Oak

: Eschwe

Mois ture content
Grtoen,., . . . . . ., percent:
Air-dryi--. .... .. ... ., .percent:

Specific gravity
Based on volume when green and
.. ight when ovendry. ............
Based on volume and weight "':-en
ovendry... .. . .

Static bending
Fiber stress at proportional limit
Green... .. .... .psi :
Air-dry........ ... .. .. ...p ,s.i, :
.i:,dulus of rupture
Green.... ... . .. .. .... o p s i
A ir-dry._ p i
-,dulus of elasticity
Green.. 1000 p.s.i .
Air-dy -............ 19000 pSs~i.:
!ork to proportional limit
Green..,, per cu. in."
Air-dry-.....,in.-lbe per cu. in,:
Vo irk to maximum load
reen......., in.-ib. per cu. in.:
Air-dry,-ib. per cu, in.:

Compression parallel to grain
Fiber stress at proportional limit
Air-dea ..... .. .. .. .ps.i.

Jiaximum crushing strength
,reen .......... .. ... pesoi
A i yi .. ... i ,. ;sji

l odulus of elasticity
Grcen.. ............ .1,000 p.s !i,:
Air-drJ)............. ,100 p.s.i.
Hardness ::

Green end .................... . :,
iGreenr side ..... .............. b .
,:ir-drzJ. end .................. b.:
Air-dry,- side . ..... ...... b ,:







7, 7









3;, 4





Ocotea : Qercus
rodiaei a: l
- - - -- - -

2.7 : 68
14.8 : 12

13 25

3 'y' C
-25, 0


*!2 920


-2 ,o30

0,88 0

1,06 : 0

10 : 4,700
)0 0.200

'0 8.300
0 "%200

'0 2,250
)0 1,7 0

3.31 : 1
1-4.02 : 2

-304 11
>2,0 14






: 7,)Ao
, 5'0ID

1 0

'Sheet 1 of 2)

EpDt :'i 1L

Table l.--i,-chanical properties of black kai-eralli and the comparable

weods. greerhearb and 'white oaks (Continued)



:Black Kakeralli: (}roenheart
EscL..- iiera : Ocotea
sagotiana : rodiaei
Compression perpendicular to grain
Stress at proportional limit
Grn... ...... .. 1,580 2 0+0
Air-dr- p 3 .30 1 .97u :

Tension perpendicular to grain
Green ...... 560 1,C70
Air-dr,. ......... .... ..p.s.i 6: 60 ,020

Grebn. ......... ....... . ,io: 1,790 31,730
Air-dry ................... p.s. ,. 2)250 *1,)830

Cleavage, per in. of width:
Air-dry ....... .ib. per in, of width:

Toughness-. ...... in.-lb. per specimen:




**99 9999)99 '0.

hi ue Oak
Q1 ,rc Ls



1,2 0
1 ') %r
2, C00



-JLhis table shows results of tests on black kakeraili made by the Yale School
of Forestry in cooperation Awith the Office of V.1val Research and the Bureau
of Ships, U. S. .vy Department. Average strength values for all the logs
tested are presenLed (1)). :.,: results of tests on greeni-eart, cited in the
samc !ale report, were taken from Kmynoch and Norton's publication (6.
Valu'-s given for ,rhite oak and cited in the Yale r port uere taken from the
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Technical Bull, 479 (11).

2Source and number of logs; Black kakeralli -- British Galana, 2 logs,
Gr' British G'uiana, ..ite Oak -- United States,
1Ai--drr '-Iues adjusted to 12 percent mcistur content 'ept dIsi'nate-
"-), in which case the actual moisture content at tm OL teOti i, (ce
moisturee Ccntenta' in table) applies.
-The load in pounds required to embed a O.L4L-inch steel ball tL nail its
-o1' ess values are the average of tests green and air-dry s! cimens /o
by 5/8 by 10 inches loaded on the tangential face over in 8-inc h s an.
-Value obtained for plank ,rterial r, ceivd from the w ori Shy,,rd.

(Sheet 2 if 2)

report No, 1960


Table 2.-- .ri. -.: valu.-., f:r r:a.: lli ar.d v;oods,
greenheart and white oak1- __

2 _
Sp,-.cies and so a'c Shrink3ge- -
Radial : Tang-,.:rtial : Longitudinal : Volumetric __2
------...---.-------------- -------- ------------ ---------------- __
Percent: Percent : Percent Percent g

Black Kakeralli :
(Eschvweiler' sagoti:riia) :
rLis3i .uiana : 9 10.5 : 0,34 lh.


(Ocotea r jiaei)
British Guiana

.r. -te Oak
(^aercus alba)
United States







,:This table shows results of tests on black kakeralli made by the Yale
School of Forestry in cooperation with the Office of a'-ival Research
and the Bureau of Ships, U. S. hlavy Departmen't. Average strength
values for all the logs tested are presented (3), The results of the
tests on grernlh-art, cited in the same Yale report, were taken from
Kynoch and Norton's publication (8). Values given for white oak and
cited in the Yale report were taken from the U. S. Dept. of Agiiculture
Technical Bull. )479 (l1).
Shrinkage values represent shrinkage from the .rten to the ovendry
condition e.-:,',. :sed as a percentage of the green dimension,

' - port .1 .L0,,

:ft o, 0 a ,*a: