Distribution of cotton seed in ...


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Distribution of cotton seed in ...
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United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ( Washington, D.C )
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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29028486
oclc - 14924061
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Full Text

. -* ":: .... ... .. ^

..ited States Department of
i*:..i.: Nw mad Rar Seed Diatribu
-_;: wAsGIGTON D. C.

.iS.ty-4it distrihnutifn of eotitn see! uiimdmiu ted ced
pemtioin with the cotton-hnt' lit, iiut-ii.ili,. ( Frau 9utl19 years, approximately .'0 varitfies of cotitn have heen di.trihullted.
Developer! by the experts i hl lt1Jr lliui uf Plant luithlry Lim r s-lr. ',hl
Sof special lrical value,
l iwn if a snall qiLumitity of nrd (1 'Iuairt. t, nalile the farmer
with the charaw-lteristics of the v'aricLy. will Iew fllui ||'ti b~y a swrial distribution thi [dhlim-iu %.:Par. which is (ully
^Bgi il'.fe heading Kert oif rceulto of Il ,iatii.'." This sp-r'ial distriliu-
.. :t who submit fanvrallit rt.lmrls Liidcl smanilhl, holl if the (rTop
ack.age p ik d "te e i ititfe ll'iufiit sdl tI priulil'a' at I,,st 1il1i? full ,1ile
COI eott)Ln aidni also to proiluce a sti-k 1i su.e "flowing weamn. 3
statement on "I mpnrvemnent of the C",tLiIi ( rnp by Seolectin."
l loia in charge' of ti ilitn-lr win ,,r'dir., ',rk 1f ihils bur'iau, explaiils
pyl be utilized W the Lest, ad vantav Iiy the farmer.
It. A. t).KI. '.
A.punon ial in ('l(nrt .

olr make the chest use of at small lt'ark ,f SeI of a s1 ip rilrT srloetePd
iSimniftanding and applvlying the mith,.iuA by % n h si ct h tseed is i-ri-
.asN'p the selected variety" from detelLritralion. The uii.ual way if ilitat-
I i oli select seed is n'lt atl all calruiate.,l ti enal'le the fai-n'.r t, i learn
It tnew variety or to prt serve thq purity cif au impnijved st-,-k.
talade frequently by farmer. ani sometinies .y privnflrf-inahl hre,|lp'r,. is
|b combine teeting with brdrlin,. Thr nw v arily of rnlfloni i3 plani<-,
iofthe loal v-arietv or a mixed stork in orier to ti-t it.q lehatinr, and coji
hia the samine planting tou increase tho stock oif the viw varitltv. Thi.- j'lan
ithe serious danger that the eed of the new 'anety whu-in allllhtned inll the
.tit be pure, on account of heini, crontami.iled hy 'cr,,isSitii wiih the lI, al
bO thlat itse special -lute will ie lIt-l. The amount ,f crim- innt diifors with thao
lld the eaion. dejxiidliug on t.he abundance of bee.n ir iIh-,r iiu -u ts that
poll" n from one owner to anutliher, linbut llheie is iL-nially ts. umnitih crosing
tlri o rely on the purity of any stvrk uf seed that ]i- Lern gro-wn cloe to
Evey of cotton.
mer who wishes to mnsku a really adequate tI'? nf the value of a new variety
1I4 t the eed in a separate plat. removed at lha.l :1") yards frmm other Del',as
w uted therefrom by Vi or 30 rows of corn. An islaled planting d(s
Course, for a clise comparinson with the lokral variety. but this can le
llowing year to much better advantage. With the \a'rgr stick of sped
field planting can be made. as well aI tfet jilantinFR-. In the third
till be enough seed to stock even a large farm with the new variety, if it
It.lf perior under the local conditions.

1.: .....:



Ma-Vn-Vmrr.aje unwilling to give lihe proper care 1o a new variety until they have
nWaJ'a J 7l7l%, :i anrd (onvinced themselves that it is really superior. It is for
4ti. ItM.-&JaU .j-t i of 'ending out a smaller quantity of seed in the general
T n^- i;7ii,,.,?,eliyyaa itcdl. Those who use this small sample of seed for testing
a _r l,. aim d plai onV ift same field with another variety ora mixed stock of cotton
:III%;'li']-,I 1,t 1)' r 'aww .d in ihe fall with any idea that they are keeping a pure
0 m$i _k ol til t,- va-ri.f'l is way. If the garner is convinced that the new variety
4J14<, he .14 ,i1uld cMQ t',,sh sto-ck of the seed and plant it in a separate breeding
,. al. a--'ji .nwa 1vax$'.sirlt from any other field of cotton.
Is w 'h lieilIuil 1 10 sc' OSfsuperior varieties of cotton is no longer limited to a single
00 JiF, as lit' custom r'irllv was. Unless improved varieties become established
iidiilsvati)nii in sown i pajof the United states the work of breeding and distribution
)Ws ieosste~u^(s. To increase the number of varieties in a community is
a contra h-re would be.a distinct advantage if the whole
omM wow ine variety, if the best variety could be determined. The
danger oZ-T'M ure of %arietios by crossing and the mixture of seed at the gin would
both be reurlc,:-d. nnld ihe uniorinily of the product would enable the community to
secure a higher price fur its colltton.
I'nless selection is continued, the value of a variety is sure to decline. A well-
bred variety is superior to ordinary unselected cotton not only in Ihaving better plants
but in having tihe plants mniorr- nearly alike. Whether selection has any power to
make better plants is a question, but there can. be no doubt of the power of selection.to
keep the plants alike. Even in the best and most carefully selected stocks inferior
plants will appear, and if these are allowed to multiply and cross with-the others the
stock is sure to deteriorate. The pollen from the flowers of inferior plants is carried
about by bees and oihier insect, and the seed developed from such pollen transmit
the characters of the inferior parent. Even if they do not come into expression in
the first generation they are likely to reappear in the second generation.
To grow cotton from unselected seed involves the same kind of losses as in an orchard
planted with unselected seedling apple trees. Less cotton is produced and thequality
isalso inferior. The higher the quality of the cotton thle more stringent is the require-
ment of a uniform staple. Unless the fibers have the same length and strength they
can not be spun into tine thlreads or woven into strong fabrics.
The method of selection to be followed in preserving a variety from deterioration is
entirely different from that employed in the development of new varieties. The
breeder of new varieties seeks for exceptional individuals and prefers those that are
unlike any variety previously known. If the selection is being carried on to preserve
a variety the object is not to secure seed from the peculiar plants, but to rejectall that
de\iare from the characters of the variety. The first qualification for such selection is
a familiarity with the habits of growth and other characters of the variety, to enable
the farmer or breeder to conline his selection to the plants that adhere to the "form't
or type" of the varietyy and to reject all that vary from the type. Most of the latter
would ir,-,ce to I.e very inferi:,rand at the same time would increase the diversity of the
variety and hasten its degeneration.
No matter how gooA a new variety may be or how carefully it may have been bred
and selected. infericio plants are likely to appear, especially when it is grown under
ncw and unacrus.toni'lI conditions. A special effort is being made to limit the distbi-
bution to Feed from inikerni fields of cotton, but selection is necesarv to keep any vari-
ety Irom det.r ir.tiiion, and it is inadvisable to wait until the deterioration becomes
EIirious before lhcriiiinnint- ih, selectio'n. If proper attention I.be paid to the roguingout
of inferior plants inii the lirst seaz.oa there may be much le-ss variation in the second,
the variety hec._miit l-etler adjusted to the new conditions
A\s. uniformity is o.,! (if the lirst essentials of value in a variety, the behavior of a new
variety in this 'respe t i., one of the first things to he noted. Do not wait till the crop
matlui-, Ibut %at( I their plants in the early part of the sea-on. Even before the time
oi floweriug it is possible to distinguish 'freak" plants by differences in their habits
o! rrowtb or the clhaiaa it.'r. of their stems and leaves. X whenever such variations can
I I -,elrected ihey lauiiliJ lie pulled out at once, in order to prevent the crossing of the
P,.,I plaiiis with iniicriir pollen After the holls begin to reach mature size it is well
to ., through thile plat agaiuaud pulloutall plants that show by thesmall size or other

IiI 'rIzlIIii "I'r IN I.' ( 'nl'i'liN I.I i i N I'-'t 3

ppetilliniriti.,i nf l tif' lill th.i il .u*, l)i.! I .* ii I i' v.ti. friiii l .. I ira l.ir.I ,if cii,'
11ri e I [' lll ' %i' lll ii n'im t i r% i Inlii n j ':i: r ll iil l. li l .- l t I l I i -, Il..r1 lIn fI il u l.
Irliell at111 iil lli t I I I In r I e Ir h- I r i iI .II v, I' i 'lli.r.L t I l l I II I -t r'..1
1. 'SE OLF lPHIL 04 :NY IMM4 I1 *4~r 111114

inferior I I cliin i l."'i I | aili I'tlll i O l- I i1i.'l 'I. 1 11 1 *1.. 1 1Ir' 1
o ai il,. I. n nl1lil,.1 r i I r ,I.r r. in vr.., I -, ;,L.'l ,. Lil. p,, ,, i .ll .- 1., ,. '. l .i X I'N v l
St,.1 th1lI, ,4 ii. Ij'4, Iif irn iut T2. T'.0' . ii, i .ullIiap f'r -1 ..elI .ini I). r. ITm -r Il" '.I,.IeL
iltheli illllin l fl IT i i ii ll l I i l tlTl i Tr ii' .- .i r.I. ,r -. l .. i i. .l iA I Illf. .1l i: .
j" htlurt'l iou: L l I ,fl" llL i li.ttI|. ill thicTl a i \ .r. pil... I I .. 1 i I I,.- L i ,. r.in ,i
pin turi .r 'r et.eli", t u LL lI ili iiil 11.% r13u'liui, ,I lr i ti Ti '.b i i ,ll |rr'1' 'ii". 1
row fil wLrr nIll~it"
N te%'(v r l'h ihi- I, f ill- It of p ri,..,i II \ ,%%4- i,- 11"i -,ll, I. 1 ,i fr j., ll .ll.l .ir. iln I l kl-ili'
th e Brihf tioin. for f ll 1 if I, j -l.. l-l.livii- :tir,- rv-, ill ., ih,, r 11 Il ... .. 1 'i r ,,- ;,,l-
m ix turi, by %%t'III-in l li ,i i w I il 111r'ir lII III,,* r,,_-. 11 I..\- % i ll i, .Il. il i ,I rinl i, 1
plantingh rlint.irtl '. ."-lii i- hit I I, il-' r ,, ~ rI i-Ji .l I,, ,. i 1i .lihI r.- ll ," illi.
can he srruit'l Ii' Khln lni _- i l'. I r .L |'.iri iof Ill. ~. .1 1, 1 r 1,], i ir ii, i'li;.il- i1-, I f,1
plant the i-rng- 'l r> w A. "'lli' r- iliin ii l r Fillh -,.' i.i ,r,. ii', I r li t i ';'"-"' I'.
row a l e' lit lla'iil' d i an i- tl.n It ri 1. 1 i ei i i it I ' Lr f.,ill .p,' ,. I.,-
te t. In this wa) .is [ei i.i1 .ll r.-LiIi i 1 i n ,lt I Til .1 -l'in i. -l -ijI, riir jI Lil.
MEHlI11S OF TESTING; ( OTTn)N VR'11i"l--i..
The hest wnI\- in It-'t thIe 1.ha.iviir of lt i, \,ari- il.i oAf (ni.n i- i I.) I ihi ill I III In
mltLm aln c rows. tn that ilhf'v ran Il i .iFII.iY, il I .rILIll. cluirii i, it .-r.i% 'I L- 11 .111l
the yield of each row woiu ii- l se. i.rllr .l .Ill il' 1 .ii.- ,I ih,, -f oi- l ilI r-ilir-i I i-
oflen p ibh le o ju l, i i ll" .i v it lil" rrLii:c ier I, .ie,.ili. IIi'lI..ilI Wt'lhilic!." l.il
if the restill ar- rn -arl" 'ii.il w ci.hlie,.. i- -l . r -. I , ri '.tjii i,.ii, ,iI i.,lliii 1111n-11
wre likely i nl rrtor iak- err i .jl.II iiF' ; 11 1'.' 'u r I l' i .ilif, r,' II I 'i 11"i l i'll A
v rietly tha ti "iratl.-i il .- I h ll a. .In p11 '. 1, I t il l.,. iiiT iii i' li ih i a -,i'li-
proof u'ril wirh ii n-,. rrriniiia' line l riii Ic n .i ii,,i r ht I- Film l i ii -r ln.liiri
by col ii.p l'i ii f l .iI wi .'liI.4l if .'e'I r-,li.ll .inl ..rt u'ii.i.'" ,"i rImi "i'eu llnt
' values are alall' to ht'e c-rnil.ilr'l. -19 '.-4 i .illl" I t,,i'.I-i. .ll' .rri i'-i.

One of the ninost vir 'i ilrilnl rhTiit in m.L iiinn ii ,_' I l, ll iiiji*'-,'rni v if a supi,,r irc
Variety' of colon Il' lil iI II ilr 0qi ,,JIl -i 2111 i' \ I 6 I.iLriiil r, li i i. r own i mil 1 iII,
m all hand O'in 'r for Ihir .i ,Ii (i # ,- it ii c l Iin -,iii,' ,.'iii 1.C- Teih l '1.' iT.tlilhI n ,i Tiuii T
we beginni g to pr iiI. -cii.1ll -_'I i-I I a.i Ir.t- k I 1 11 a ili r I .nitiliin' .,*',.I tienli. Sl.in
faii er Itake canr t-i- a ic I llw' inllxiiir,- 1l 14 -1 I. 4 hii, iiih ll, I .. I ri ,iiiiT ilT i ili li,.
eldof Lhe season. wlhin i ll.i' i'le I. r.AkTn i", 1. .i i ,il r, -'i ii iL ii-llL '0 .--ill._i
to plant. proigeny rnw' ic)r .ri,, li.- 1 1 'ili II'I !iil,',iI- i I- V 1 I I. i ii, l iri; Ii ifl'r
planfingor by prle-lLug ill.'. sc'.l intIo ii,,i.! limiiil.
i "I i i' tu. >
12 *'ii ... 1 1_ I liru-p.,

The Lone Star variety hplnnzqs to Thor Tix -' .j.:. l'ill t.i ,, .1 1 I .71 l..-1- irl Te .
by Dr. Ii. A. Saundtr. f ornirrl," of til' I ir,.i i of I'l.'ii I irli ,-' I U.-' -I%' rl'1i,,,
from a single superior plant found in a lihil ,I la' t.-.i. il.1i... 11i ii i i *'',raJo li'.r
bottom near Snuithville. Tepx.. in Au.iiii I'lti
In 1908 plates nf thi. s.eil tion lari'- urln-ii-h I, -i '. o' .1 f.iir T, -i .,? ',i.-I I .iI lint qu.tli-
ties under fi-Idl conditions wern pLani..-I at I.. Iii.-, .Ii" i i,,,cir Tie'. T r li
yield, percentage, and quality of lint vitri- hleti. iii iri I .ii'. i' .. .riii'.i aith whlt i
it was compared, and this superioril. liI r.n b ',l.i i J1 1111.-- *i' iI .'I Oi..
The following is a technical elt'schiplion iii I i.n \.Ti,'.
Plant of medium height with on, Itn four livil. i. .iri.I ii 1-'. In -: friTiin? hranrli'-.
main stem \cty short jointed and lep-.q lih i IIn .i niI-T! of t!li'- lii:.lill',i variTmi..
the limbs isceilding. generally produtitie fliiiit in r.1ir',.hi at hivir Iia.qe: fruiiie-l

I For a complete dn avi ion of Ihi aulnnllture nf M-dl in ni1" -e' ri' ..lr "'. l ir'i"'.i'ir ...". nf ih i -
IDep rtmentl o Alricuallure. enlilk'It "Cn& iri.-e,. \1.\I I:, r 1. 1 % \' 2 I, 1 l .t It ,ir.tiiiii'iii i ln ih
may be obtained Irom the itupeinntiendein i Uoeunifen.t, OTi.ilit'It l I'rilii; g iLin ,I. f l i.ujiiini, i) .
ML cents a copy.



medium to large, very dark green; petioles very long, somewhat drooping or recurved;
bolls very lar.e, round or broadly ovate, lH to l inches in diameter, lit to 2 inches ia
length, wilh vnc isorl, I'lunl points, 35 to -15 to the pound; involucral bracts very
large, elJos, ly niipr(..-rd, coarse veined, deeply cut into long teeth, the longest teeth
oiten mi, ,:l, over lhi end of fully developed green bolls; pedicels of medium length,
1U inche:- ii, length below to three-fourths of an inch at the top of the main stem and
the extreme enids of the primary and fruiting branches; the bur thick and heavy-
with very blunt points; lint 1 inch to 1! inches in length, very strong, and of umiFaG
length of fiber, 3.S to -40 per cent.
In this variety the limbs begin to develop fruiting branches 4 to 7 inches from their
bases instead of ne=ar their extrcmitJes. This appears to be an advantage under
weevil conditions, as in years of heavy infestation the hulk of the crop must be obtained
from the lower third of the plant. In selection, considerable strCess has been laid upon
the short-jointed character of the main stem as essential in developing an early-
fruiting tendency. The habits of growth are eiimilar to those of the well-known
Triumph cotton, and under some conditions the two varieties appear almost indis-
tinguishablle, but in other place obvious differences appea.ir, and these are in favor of
the Lone Star. The plants are less inclined to become prostrate, the bolls are larger;
and the lint longer and more abundant. Very large yields have been reported-more
than two Inl-R,. per acrC on m.i-asureP'l areas. Under favorable conditions the fier
attains 14 indies in length. Many bales of this cotton ha'e been sold at a premium.
The lonec Stin is undoubtedly lthe bet variety now available for general planting
in the T.exas black-land helt and adjacent regions. The variety isbeinggrown exten-
sively in Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The seed for this distribution was grown
by R. W. 'lChiisti un. Manchester. N. C., and A. J. Bolton, Simon Pinturf, and A. L.
Ban rtley & Brother, Clarksvdle. Tex.
The Trice cotton is an earlv-matiring short-staple variety developed by the late
Prof. S M. Bain, oif the Tennessee Agr< cultural Experiment Station, a collaborator of
the Bureau of Plint Industry It is the result of fuur years' selection from an early
variety' found 'n thlie farm ufM ,r. L.uke Tn'rii e, near llendersou, C hester County, Tenn.
The ori-ziunal vjiii.'t3 is 'aid r,, lhave comic [frim southernn Missoiiiri and is known locally
in t'he;c-r I',:.unt\. .IS li,-iLoll 1 li -er. In the work of sole' tion particular attention
was cien to ?ai liness. pIrodii'-tiveron-', form of. stalk, and laige bIolls. the crops being
produced ,in the fa.iri of Mr. \V. N McFadden. in Fayette I'oiunty. Tenn. A trial
made ,ilon.side the original vaiety' in 19118 shhowed a distinct improvement in all the
qualities snEI'-ht in the 4elet'i(i,. as tell as heater unif'ormity.
Thoirh developed \viLh spe' i-al rcfeencr-. I the licht, sandy soils of western Ten-
ne'?ee, the variety his ,,iven ex-rlient returns in other districts. The most active
demand for the eied has coin' from northern Miasi-sippi, where the invasion of the
boll -weev il h.:ii le, Ios th1 r ri'inting. of earlier \.tritipe: but the variety has also proved
vuliable in either ,irlii'-l nt \<.' invaded b1 weevils, for it is distinctly superior to
Kine and other vari,- ivt- pri oel I. r extreme eirline;s.
The Tri,-e c,,t',in is tlhn' dc-, Iihji.
Prtlit ratlic-i si:dill. 2 to -' i fel hit.h. of Peroterkin type. rarely v ilh distinct basal
braniii h-s. %etiy i,.li.i frui:ing braii. liea n'iruu-iou.', shut jiltted: leaves light green,
il ri-Wfliiiii -i;, h liii- i,. h-111 m ,iiiiii ton larze. ovate often an.'u l.ir. 4 to .3 locked;
sPetd l.%._c. \viii ii'L-, \V litfih 'ir I'r, nwnish fuzz; lini line, se\en-eighths to 1 inch long;
pcit '.t -A.',I( I i lil. 2 t,, :; .' set -,r- (., ly.
Thi-i varit'v h.i% ing Ie.n ,lo.-'rlpe.i from a clinter type, thi-; character is liable to
reoppar. Tel'i riur e t._',c op r-,, er-inu apparently i g(;7e-iater under more adverse soil
condition'.. III ni.iniriln Tho th< \aiii .. clii-ier plants -;hould he removed frh'om the
field as e.rl ;y.n pu-.-ihle. '1 lit yct.i'l nuw distributed was grown by'A. R. Bridger,
Bells, Tenun.
The Columbia cotton is an early lon.-staple variety, well adapted to South Carolina
and .ldju it'l Si.i.'-:. It w \ui dcrin-d from a short-staple variety, the Russell Big Boll.
The lcst 4ele'-ti'.n WaS n.>ade in 1'902 at C'(Ainbia, S. ('., Liv Dr. 'H. J. WVebber, formerly
in charge uof the cotton-breedimng ork if the Bureau of Plant Industiry, and resulted
inll the finding of a iniigle l,.gn-lintcd plant that gave a superior progeny in 1903.
Thirrughiui thIo pro', et-s selevti,,n the aim was to select plant? Ira ing the Russell
type of brau as distinct from lthe Russell variety The very large boll has also been retained, and
the variety is in every respect of true Upland type aside from the length of lint md
the color of the luzz.

- -* .-. . ^ ........ ...

** .7c


,I-ri iluL 'r niN ( V ii t''" iPX zI i;t> II N 1'-'21 5

T he Rb llRu' l vari,.v pr,. rt 4 it a r, .. .. .r,. 1 'li ,!.i :l r I n fi, iliit
I1 channel t'te re -n .v U,.l1. iI.l... ,.i'.; r, ii... .. .. 1 i ,r ., i ... I. , i' :r, o'I i ii'
ornewhlat we%' l i,'' i il i '. i , ', i \ td i ' L I r, 1 "u r
I S ttqp l lt h -tI ii .4' I ,- II l l, -I I I 'l 1 . ,i ll ..'.% I I i I. ,' l 'I l ii l, l l -
Of th- t'4111i,1l.i.t r.ir,'' I,.. p i .li. hir ltt tn .. '.. 1.. I. 1 not 'I yIt
bti en'tirvi'ly hxi'L ItlI -,I-.*.. i'' L "' eouniI to Lb ih ,. is al aI
S t rdenrury to 'i'H'1p .... .>-i..l |.! hiLn t iii *. .-li i t i,. 14 ,. ,1 l l ,. ,, 1".I
in picking, .1 2 I 'll il JI i. i,, il, -- ni.[ I...& ... d ir b ,11 1 .,,, il, Ih,
bi le. The pr..'.rrl,, .i reim. ni . i" I;i. I ". in e ii 'I in cii .< r-,
owing i .i' l' ,1 l ilillirIc ,i **l Il ....111 I I, r I't iindertI 'od.
T ht iihi bi 4 il .I I, ] iA .[I ili'll I t I 1i1 '-I rt.-
Plant lew. v.inij'.',, .4i li,- ll rVl .h i,.. 1e r 1- I-r.e .,, *, l li.ib.,I
vigorous, prhliIr '. l, lk lrjr.' I.,, 'r. I.r.,: o'ate, ]h,1 .-I u!11 1 .1- ,-IIII il. ii,..1ivI
hTI 'kirl. m', I'i r'. filn.' lii L'r ni-li 8 to ,, i I k lint -r.i.n'.. ir..im
1j to 1 1, il, Ill-, III ll I ,I -il .. lt ir, '. r%\ l!,io f. ir I Son I' .- 'h | l '' *I lint,
29 to :1:I, Lca .ii e.tI'l., in tI l I.i |'.ri- -! i l t i l older i !. *.ii' r ii. -
As a ritull i ,l' ,nrtt iii .-Il hl .-tl Tr, ,, l. ,vi l-o I jd.iitl I .I,. liil t 1 i .t4to
is being Li titr' ,' Il i' i l' p l.Il l',- 1 l ",.'L*il I .'.,ll,.' M -,l-.ILI,,I nA ".- 'lit ., -_
1% ',h I, t 11t 01i.l. ,'.dr -1.t 1-'tttn-,ru .L- II rap,,,l', ill I' 'i'1, i ...Iti Ill -, it' i _.h i ,rh- ....-4 4
n br '.ro ue Etitl ,|.,,l [.l* t I- .irm lvt%.. t 'r ill ,*.- 1 t I I ilt r- O .Lf I. '.l 4 r-lial" l.
baa becomei tilt' d''riiiu.iinl '..rim-iv. i *r'*.se<*]- .r --ii.1. i: i 11 ; irl ni.iI kc ei.- ui~itdI-Iv
Iecure a IIrT i tLi "' i ,r ,iii, .1 .,,., 'r 1 *:i i:i- [ '. i -!or r aij.I, o. ,i-'
ton. t'tntrarv t,, 1. 1 1 i '-I 'l imiTIr :-ionl lit .1 -m .r .tire mprod active,
the Co Lnlnii 't [..'" t n ilLt r ,l ii r hl,-1 -1 1" i,, -i. L [ 1 1 -n ii' 1- Iit 1un der ili'- a
condititmf Trle IS l.iiA r i'7 I ll .it 1 i.in.'i- to .1 the ,smi pure ill. jr ul, in the
pruductr.inu of lart'e -|ii.,, ti f'- 1 oii -.t ; fiber r I ill i;irL!'," it., i- 1 ,i ti'i of ili ,
variety l in."' (lhi iliiirri it', ,,' *" i ii n ed fi-inl it ii .i.1 t oeot -.. I Ii is alI ,
tir.j t.int th.ti tc,:IlIItUii .- ii' i M l!-ri.akjnt i, ti,' rodu iL ..- .,l cotton should .1 r-r -
vide thivnL 'l %ilh l ',, f. ii .- fr fill 1ai1l:11iim.i- the iiiiof.' niiti'. i leet riti .
In order to w.ue r, a ptritmiiini. .p,'-iall ier I ,''-.' -i.iplhr r i,- e ary to pickI the
Cotton wilh care. Fi1. 1 unlv I, .\,ihh, .i-..t., .inIl ,th. r r.i-h l !t to avoid immature
and weather-wai'.' I i,,.14 Ii i .i l-i i.,'-9( i A 1 r.I cotton he dr,;. b ore .iitiI:.
In imce [nc ilt-i i ii, it l- I- i,-I ,'.1 0i.i: 1 1 . A'illein*.r Ce tto -,n -i1' '- mo)re ilil .i IA .- I lrVii
varieties ir'Im tic nfr,,tI i, lire: I,,1!- I i attaks 'f alnth.rai o or frm other
causmo Thtitt ia;..,.r. .i, na r' i-. I e iin i,.!iji..,- favor s chmh luxuriant ,It'.* ,'lii.
ment of fnli.g.e thaul r!,. I..'. ar, I. i il i:. I .t id r h e i' I tl. T i:i if I li rli-
his ra nttoi in i! i. -. inh -! i.' -!l ,i r' *it.; are if I "'-r I i'r,,m me
localiLik-'. in the i un '', ti. Tl'.- .* .1 jd iliii.-- oi the A"- I. are not retained under
the miret extrriiv,. I': i ii -i i, I l.A ar : i' I .,i coi ered in the drier i- .i- :,' of liit .
Southwe-st. T ir .-,.-.l I tv ,lizi ri 'l : it"oL,'.. by C. II. ti i :i:c. Lv.,- y, b. I.'
Dit R','.n A ~ ~ ac %'( tn l-i
The Duran,..o i, r6 .. I rc 1 ... ln!.i .I 1,' .-... '- n. intoduc I l clima
tiz'ul i, th"li ]',i, ..., \ .1 1.i ii i.. .l i- e. iloried from a 'l.-\,p .a l stw k,
Plpp,.-,"| i, I,.- , ji ..; i, :.,.. I.. nt,' L' TI e d fir the Jirt plant
iLg wlr t. L'L 1':i i','.i .1 1, I" ,- *,i 1. l i I-. L. I ,i"ton front I an i. ii i ad
by the M ." :i *. r -i .i1 ;. i. i ::- ih'.\; -ii.'! 'fte r i -r l _...ii- I
acclinkai i ,i1-i i.r .1 in,. i -. rn I' \.L., a -1 I'.,lar -n''i *L p" rj -d l -Itri
w which Lli, inr,., :ia l hiir.li.--. ". : ..: I .I :- .. 1
The rLu. I ,ti '.i iiuinIt I X 0 i' ., i -i jl-iC. i,. r . :Fl ,' i..1- -Tii- .. rtl.. j'i,,. cotton
RS in tarlv ptlu i. 'i.' ..ri,. .L.n.iiP'.I 'n .1 '.. ti r.tI.. .I' V CO liti ri., !I I l. ', I6 :A'.
States. I LIt aI 2ii .i '. i'!r :. -:ilt.- i ha tii il l,! -jI'i a-i n t i- I1 lit i'ri-L i,.,i
re 1i.0nj ,>il -iod 'iilt', r t 1 : ;. -. a- w, I1 -i 1it If r! L i il-tril of the .i :iSIh .L.-liT.rii
Staic-. ]l '-\F,.T'.ri. ,i- a.- i.ir 11-.rill .- N.-i" ,k. Va i- ha e en -.. r 1 com-
paruim i'a\,'r.i!l: w'iii lhI. I- .t.i.I iir I artl ii.m ilii'-i: i.ri -.iit arit e In the
M P ri. V h \ .1 t'.'.a r'.ia i h-' I'l.ra, --... .I i. i- .ir .-* 1i .1 the iI.ri--taprli',
varintvi,-. :1 %;n tP- [>r .,,i ,i ii ii i I 1111itL L hiilh, r sl 1it. 1 I1 i 'i il -, vrr.'il -i
the irrr ir.e-i l*]ni'l tl"- fri ":i l, \-
In earlinNs hlt' ri'irti't,'i *-,.Itn i- ufi.s'irrrr!'. cip ri.-r to thlo C'.,i:1i1 Li. which is an
stvantag:,' i n eia i ,---il. itft'iet ri.'-,'n ir wh,'n' h..- 1-.L-,n i 'h *r,
The linrit i? ri x'r-.llt nft ri.! nit and artm. r:- .a ,," h l- f 1; inl' I.'- iiT, f m rle
conditions Ti7e I-a!i.q f il',mrnrn ryi r'i-'flii' thu ar prr.,liie-.i h.i'- ben sld at froim
2 to 1Il ccnts a p.,n'-d a!,',vc thr pri-vaiiin.: market prict.e-i i- 4h,,rt-ti.qillo c-.lin. pre
mmim of fi or t cents hbeinr,. ihe ni:'e
The follovin:z .a short fr.-hnical uc',crip', i'n of .this aritfv
Plant of upright hair. ,with a -Lrui central a.ilk ud rtihr -liiff. .as.',-..i'lins
vegetative branches. l"ruiftiig I-ralithes ui uuderat.- [IC:tgli or rath.-i short, under


qi-mne Cr(, oliioi,)nS coming semiclistered. Foliage rather deep green, reddening
iall.cr early i1 tle eAIP3',tiI. Leave of medium siie, usually with tive or seven
rather riri'v. taper'irg loheo, leaves with three lobes being less frequent than in
mont oller var'iou..; rof 'plnid cotton. Involucral bracts rather small, triangular,
coiitlate, nimIc. i ",'ih rateicr short teeth. 'alyx lobes rather irregular in length,
s,,niltime- verN I,, *- and r;', ader. Bolls of medium'or rather large si/e: under favor-
ahl ,-,pIlitliii n0itit G0 to the pound. Shape of bolls, conic oval, with rather smooth
putn.i.,, Ihe oil lands deeply buried. The proportion of 5-ocked bolls varies usually
frin 40 to *.- per cent Seeds of medium size, covererl with white funz and hearing
iltundiit l,r- e I lint about 1l inches long under favorable conditions. Lint percent-
,1 to 31.
More co.mphlte accounts of the characters and habits of the Durango cotton in corn-
parison with those of other varieties are 1o lie found in several of the publications
of the Department of Agriculture.' The seed now distributed was grown by R. C.
Keenan, C'olurnbia, S. C'.
The Meade is an UTpland variety (if long-staple cotton. The present stock has been
developed from a few exceptionally desirable plants that were discovered in 1912 by
Mr R-owland M. Meade, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, in a field near Clarklville,
Tex. It has not been possible to trace definitely the origin of the parent stock. The
local information indicated that it hadrl been brought from Arkansas several years
before and was not i'own nxten:ively in Texas. It was called rather indiscriminately
"Black Rattler." or i" Blackseed," but does not correspond with descriptions of either
of the varieties known by those names in other districts Mr. Meade was the first to
appreciate the pos.sil.iliLies- of breeding a superior type from this stock, and the work
was well under way at the time of his death in June, 1916. The variety has been
named Made in hi, honor.
As now grown in the Southr.astern States, the Meade variety has lint averaging 11
inches irj l(en'th. The fibers are exceptionally uniform, with little or no tendency to
shortened lint at the the base df the seeds. The seeds are large and brownish black,
bi.,in only slightly tufted withiii white fuzz at either e-nd. Under boll-weevil conditions
in IGeorgia the Meade has given excer-llent results, yieldiLqg three to four times as much
as the Sea Island cotton whelicn planted in alternate blocks so that careful comparisons
could be made. 'Ihe lint has been received on the Scea Island markets of Georgia in
competition with Sea Island cotton with very favorable comments. Several bales of
tlire Meade were sold in Savannah in 1917 at a premium oi half a cent above the current
price of Sea Island cotton.
The Meade differs from other Upland long-staple varieties in its very close resem-
blauce to Sea Island fiber of the character that has been produced in Georgia and
Florida and in the fact that its smooth seeds adapt it for ginning on the roller or "long-
staijld'" in, so that no radical changesare required in the substitution of the Meade for
Sea Island cotton. The work of .election to maintain the purity and uniformity of
the slock is being continued in cooperation with several communities in Georgia and
South C'arolina.
The following is a description of the variety-
Plant erect, of ave rage height with regular internondes of medium length on both the
main stalk and on the v'egetative branches. Internodes of the fruiting branches rather
long, with little tendency to take the shortened "cluster" form. Leaves of medium
size and rather thin texture, not deeply cut, a larger proportion with only three lobes
than in most varieties. Inv%,,lucral bracts of medium size, not exceeding the bolls, with
10 slender teeth. Bolls medium size with a thin bur, opening readily even under
humid conditions. Seeds large, about 3,000 to the pound, nearly naked after the lint
is removed. Irownish b'a k, slichtlv tufted at either end. Lint 14 to 1j4 inches in
length, uniform, with po '1 luster, slightly heavier bodied than Sea Island cotton,
scarctly distingtiuishable from Sea Island when properly ginned. Seed extra large.
Lint p,.rcenta-'c, 26.
In a comparison of alternate blocks of Meade and Sea Island cotton grown near
Valdosta. Ga., in the sea,-on of 1917, the Meade was picked two weeks in advance of the
Sea Island and yielded almost twice as much, 230 pounds as compared with 117 pounds.
Picking is easier because the Meade bolls arc about twice as large as the Sea Island.
Ten 4-locked bolls of the Meade variety yielded 65.7 grams of seed cotton compared
with 35.7 grams from ten -I-locked bolls of Sea Island, but 75 per cent of the Sea Island
bolls have only three locke. The Meade has 75 per cent of 4-locked and 25 per cent of
Ct'co U. S Deniarvment r Ag.rcinltiire. iurcaii onr Plant Inductr lbulletin No 220, enitllod "Relation
ol Drninhi I,, P% iil tRsimrlijcc 1I. CotLLuu," aid Farners' Bullet'In 501, entitled "Cotton Improvemtint
ulider V. cCvil Culidiri113L '

DISTIIlBlI'It TiN (F '(iT'TT')IJN -I.I. IN !7

5-locked Iill.s. IItn :;,'ri'iit nl 1f Ihli t r i.-,- I, l , ?h. ll-r Ii j,'., .. i. I,.% r
in thil M rUti' li lII 111 '4,.i1 I l.in,1 ,,.r "ii .i \ Il I...' I." n" i .. ;, .11.l
30.7 for S, I-lautid. T1h 11- 4 i it,. n-i ,i I ... .iN ,i r ... i l rh *n', jlii, .li I .I. ,'
UM tie. t'LI 1;l rti t I 'i 1 .1 I.I I l I 'i, .I Ii .iii.n'.l .!i .. ,. ii',l 11i. ii,
xuaar kIrl i'n't u Is > Ie l M.- I .tii l" ilici N ..I IIIiii ll ,In 1e .. '; I I l h.1' I* 11i' I,, lII
fae lrtlt l .h lii t %j l 'I -i i .- '.,, IL -i !1 l, r 1| Ti .111 .,h l i r. 1 L
In t 'iir r I' 10 1 .llr' r- i- ".Ilri'il.," W1l-4 -,- I l-l 'i' l ,.r1. i. | I I.It I .I& IIl
ml] rketet It I. lel.'-l r% IrL\ 11llm M v.Li.- i be .i.--. . '1 :ll.A I IIIt., .1 i l,.I, -lilt :.'
riiaiilerr anlil %%lit .ih"' 1 11 ?.Il r,, il .I[ I % l h I w(it V, I l- 'l l, i- i.-,I. 111 1 1!. .. 'I IlLu
fac t th a t IIn,, l l .4 ll ., it .i l'i ., .. r'' '; I, ... . .! 4 I. .r .- l lu
L'p liltil \.;rir tn ~< .i i ,-l 11, ],,-l il,.i nl1 i,, ..... II 11 h iL, ll -1 1l .1 .r
This %ariviy, like IiiTlran..I. Ii. r1 i il ii,[ '. 1 -i ,] :;.l r.'Irr,.znt4
a new frriui if l' nd lii i'll '] ji I O L l \ i 1t II .'.i iL il I r hI I i i.,i '";.,.'- 1 lhi i[riIi.aIl
stock wa.s i*milali el I', M, h -r-, t i \ I I lli, a d U. I' I , --. I. [..,iriin..,ir .(
Agri ultlur.. in A .\ I. : i. i1 liI .'.i 1 ,' : I'|.Ij..-. inll .i' i i I 'h. .rIl.,r, 11'''o,
as the rvsiult uL aI t t i ILII i -. r- T I ,lIT [T ,f ihl i iili" . tl1 i .n 1 . f1 . i i Fili i I i% I -
boll type of cotton i it m illiuri Ml r\ ii., 1. 1 l. in,' l.,f n di ... i i r-. I during a IT | iuU U x1 '-
dition coi(durteil liyt Mr I I' i....k
The prelimunar) 1 mi, rk ,,i I i i iial.'i :i.'I -, I 1> .. ,I -Na. lel t :i Irin r t li, .\, alh
stock wastrarri d tin ll' l m11 1 i i illl rI 'l i \.i- 111 li ..' I. 'll'n. : IVl I'll I ll
1911 the variety wa- ,i l.iI .iirl ,,r ilii,' Iiri tl nt" 11 i a ii i l I I1-[- at II U4 'I T'.\ I>yrijyr
the lasti i x aras it li1-'' _i ir vi r taii-ia i.'r,.' reul t in Iver l I. .. llli, I in 'T'%x.w ,
Oklahlionma, and we.!tl-rhi "Ti''nhm-i"'m" 11 i.1 -irt-tr cted ,r,.- i'..,' '.i I at nt i'lIli ill
Oklahunia a. laruge.l Imliil -iIiiL i .rlier than Lone .t or 'i 'iii'l,, |'riilt, iig, a
similar al1iuiiL.i:R t. Of liI Il wilt :1 -I ILL' I'. li.LT 1. 1 i- r -i4 ple.
The president sirain. alapl vI'' il ni ri, I 'r n .ri.l'i i-. 1, i-'.ii i a selectioi of 1 'i plants
made by DIr 1). A t-aun.lth. frihil. r 1rL4hl t,, 1,-' Li ii at XWtouin I'll.
The variety may bei d t-' rilI'itd Ii. linm, U.ll .1a it, l, -
Plant of lediu.hglihil, with .d r,,'i'. vrect main s I.,,, 1i .- or priiiim.ary
hranclhes ivw, fire. I ll" aim'.ml'lhin ll'2 riF T nl- brantlI -h-.ri j,.it, 1 ..-. ihl u1,,w r
braches long, w ijuj iin L (i r% .liii, .il i i. il l: i. c .iO .1 -.lii ii -i.'r.-.l .II ..ir.in o..
Leave o(f illeditLin ii/.m.. dark Lri- 'ii. ri, i -' I till, IIlli -1 ,ll-. i-'I ilL'. %iih ll\ i, I.il t...,
on the ir uitinnit -h Irn ht- hri-' lil .-. the il t l, lu-- :ii,, A i ,h i p iiiiI,, il,,. r1i.-t'nillinr
those of the )urango. hloll., lleti n1 -i i't,' 14 inches or I i ..4i ,. ii tji-tl llI'on4
with a rather rliort Ilu iii .' ll ,'1l II i i in 11 h. ' iiii'l I i ,,iiii r.il I -T i ll- ii r inall
for an Aieliran \arih, % rair, I,. ra.ii l-i. ini. ,r' r hlii h.lf the length of the mature l.lls.
teeth lung and nairrw anid ,"'iiiwhay *. i.'Ilh -Ii' '.L often i ciitrln, iI,." 0', r th, lbud.l
Pedicel. of in'ilitli thn.Ih1 It". 111 hi'- i'lir- 'ill. I I. l. iT. ', ni'till niu ihi ickn,',1,
tornu-proui. iljninnt,' ,wil I lhl I i A it 1 i:.: ii lien.-, ii.i.ill t 1 it ll, wTiii L,',.1i drag a"l
extIra stioii c.lar \t liii '. iil, iii r, .111'. r- l i i j', ,, JL I hint .1-' 11 ;.-.
In the sihaie of the pilarnt, il', 1. p.' 4i I 111. aid ; i. i!l\ in ilh .i.itlit of thi lint,
Acala. i., >li.tin'i frin ill ,il-r .1".n' I1. and i -,-1 .. i, n"ist -i rki in- ,orts thus fat
introdur k'd. ii rilt'm0-1 .1 ili-Iti, r TrI Iil Ir.il need in ir. ii'rih.: so ewhat I Irli'.r Ill:ii1
Lowi' St t li 1 ar lih l r I., .l- il I ,1r..1, I 'I1 il1" ac' -ount it I s 1 ih rL pi[ lI i,\ .i%,'ili in
cultia i 'in I| r -i nlit -, I ilh- 'il ,I \.i- and i I .i ,'!"ij I t is .Ir. .ii. %it'. ll kitn i in
BOII* i illilii(11111T1 .ii I," .l .i- 1 .,l reede r e T'iitiro- .1 r, .u0t -ailm for the
Ste. ri.ii.l ili- 1' i .iltiiIh ii K Ir I i I', I li.*-'- in th e ".etions make it i -'iF,, iu llv
ada-rl i, ii,' lit 1h01,i laiil-', wlh ',l Ti on tends to riiw rank and be late in nli.iliJrii.:
antil i ti nhr" nii, r il' i'rri hii.l l1i.l- v.here lfst dOrr it r.,'. in : eat ,n. Il is
partilularlv inil -I A. i. Intr Il.- ...-. I rl alnt the extra -1rri-ui ,.I ii- lii i.r In li'o
l ii.-uilaij ll .irl .i .tIT .t\ ria r'iiiT li i .f i I ",i to -' a Iale Th,' seed f' -r iII
dtl ri lUnilln t.L ,i'4 i li v 1. \. k I L 1i. aii, M.A.iii It, -i.r, I. a., lnd A. D1. Fuwlc'r,'
Clarkavill-, T,.'\.

Appr.. A' T r
t'.,/i' ,.t li'ir,.iit.

SErTEMBElDR l, 1122.

w. *

*:: ..... ,,d o e .. w itt'e q r ....... "........
..... ....n k q m ...'......
i4-ound' yellow return Mard"
'rt rned to the Department oa..... .g... i .... thIe
lit testing the comparative value ot. thiB sar ...,...^o .lHl
..a blank form will be sent in the f.ll of I Sfor U S .kin via
results obtained, including the following item*;.:.^
(1) Character of. the soil. ., .,
(2) Character of the season. ',...
(3) Whether the seed of the new variety was isolated or planted
for comparison. i,^
(4) Name of local variety used for comparison. ",,
(5) Size and yield of row or plat for the new variety. : II
(6) Yield of equal row or plat of the local variety,. ..
(7) Rating of the new variety for your section-whether excelle" l
(8) A sample of seed cotton representing ten 5-locked bIl 6
each boll to be picked carefully and wrapped separately in a
Should the report of the preliminary test prove to the Dep-IH ....
that the variety is desirable for the grower's conditions and if ad-)
seed cotton is submitted in accordance with instructions, he will be
in the special distribution of half-bushel lots of seed of the same variety
season. "
In order to take advantage of this special distribution it will be nec
grower to keep careful notes of the behavior of the plants grown
package of seed, so that a complete report can be made on the-blak ...
sent for that purpose. .
The sample Lolls are to be used for determining the length, quaJ
of lint. This information, together with the detailed report, will e
experts of the Department to decide whether the variety is promising
er's conditions and will aid in assigning the distribution of the larger
such communities only as are likely to adopt the new varieties and
regular cultivation. '?..
The samples should be accompanied by the name and address of the"i
as the name of the variety grown. In previous years it has been nec
Many samples because they) were not marked and there was no way to ident

381262 Ili6II37I/llhlliii