Distribution of cotton seed in ...

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Distribution of cotton seed in ...
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ( Washington, D.C )
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toLO.fc; IO
.,> g <..IM. i/e__ __, ,''^f-o-/"':-

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUlT4Y
*L. *BUREAU OF PLANT INDUS$ tY U
New and Rare Seed Distribution, 1 r
to
WASHINGTON. D. C. .


S DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEEDED

!F-bS is the eighteenth diili-ilti Iit 41 ,(,f rut ( .TI d c(miltdcLuLml-by
SOffice of Seed DisLtilJiti,,1 in i iuunritii, \v ili ili ttn-rc'ie'-
iB vestigat 1'(if the BUiirrlt if I 'l:1iL lit lIlntri.
ritng the p|ait 1. ye:ir.., ;11iii') i tlitrly :,11) 'V:uritie." of cotton
beeln distribiuitel. Tli'.' Ih 1 '1 1 I i I l)VI v(Il))iI q'I tlie I'XI)ti-s
SBur'eani of Plant Inllhstrv or0 si'luctuil I lV tilt il I 'eLAlai,c (if
: local value.""
i method of distribution followed in thle pai-t fw y.i'.s has
so generally s:itisiart'ory that it is Il opo'ed Io c',tiniii' it
emsitsn. The genenrl di-tribitimn of a s.nmll ,ii~niti ,f m-,'d4
) to enable tihe' farmirne to li'roie ;aruiiiiiit'd %% 1i t hi' ciha;ir-
*ics of the variety. will be followedl in tihe mo,.t lpiiii ,.inu see-
tions by a special di.triliiuition tlihv f lli n IiIL y,.-.; liicli is fully1
,... plained under the hclhd i Iit pIrt f I.-"li- ,f i)l:iitiniu." This
qi: :!:... eial distribution fiirni-'l s to Iho-, "lw o -iuliii, f;i oi :ili, rI )irts
Sltid Sdample bolls of tihe crop ,rim n f'rnol it' 'ln- I';talrlt:1w-' otf s,'ed
a. icient seed to produce at lenst (nel- flll I:1il. (d' tl in,. wr \;ai,.ty of
l and also to produce a st-ck o.f setv'i fir i1tiitgn :;i ',i Ii-iirable
Ii the following -easmm.
seed of only one n'w r:iaidVt is 11-1ii1r dilit liiird 1lue, \\\al;\
now considered more iiapnponitin( t -lili) ] a ;t'\v slriiprm
| tKi* in general cultivation tlm:n to :id to t hu- iiuiiii-lr of new
*neties. Experience with forii-r ,1iiii, ,itu lio"s tha:it iilpplis
i pure seed nmusr be nmaintainc, I Ivi- th, Dep.,,.iii, of A.\,.i'idItire
.,1| repeated distribution unih ut il :i u,. aiw 11a't i.1- brconi'e well
lished.
'AAf introductoi'v Ihitemeniit on Iipiirnvi'ii ,ent of (ti cotton -r'p
iN s section, by 0. F. Coolk. tlho io, i .i:ii''s of tl,, '.,ittin h-ifcling
.. work of thi. bureau. rxplirins, low the II-id ;l ii:i\ .,r irili'i'.1 to the
: best advantage by tie fal'la.'i'.
I. A. O KLIfl.
- Jtfioluiuit'l in Charge.
S Approved:
r-- WM. A. T,\n.on,
C/'rif of Burcau.
%_ObOBER 30. 1919.
14fl30-1




Er--7









IMIROVE'1iEM OF TillHE COTTONN ( Iil' BY SI:ll; TION.

How va; th Ih 1'nrlri i ikr iuilke i best use 4f a siuall sto k f seedm of
i1 iupCrior .m-Iihii.l varietyy I'v iii 'i '1-i.ii'idin and appl.\ill,-, the
iiet Ihils Illy %% ic el .II ct seId is produced, so as to keep ti -,li.I
'i 'it, i'oil dli' ii, i i i, i. I-li. usual w 1iv 11f li ,,:i i, i l sIiiall qIIiin-
tiiv (if s I hei t.-e Ii il lot at :ill calculated to enable the r'.lnier to
Ic r il tI, iii "iliti 1. o 1f a new variety or to i 'r\ l- the lil it\ of
ill iliipl-ved st.n'k.
I'l.-l l, NOT TO BE COMBIIINED % II -I I I IiNX.
A inih tit:ik' 1iiiid fliiiniilt I l bv f.,iii ll1 -, :inl sl iitiuiies li, profes-
siolull il lIl' c lh-v i', i-, I >, :to llo rni|t to voiiibine t,- ilvl.,_ w it\% 1',II.I.ll
The now % Iliil't v of ',tlton is p,111 ii,'tl I,\ tliw sihe ,,f the local va i ly
or ai inixcd [I.iF l ill order to test its behiavi or, and seed is saved f'rom
thiu saliiw' piliniiii,_ Iti ill, I i(:- the sto k of the linew variety. This
plant i. opetn itipe -rrious ,:ilgiLr that the seed 10" thei neiw vlriety
when g:ithlie'rild iII tlilt. fall will not be p1mrr. on account of 1,,l'11 i con-
tauninaltd by 1'l',--ii ig with the local variety, so that it- special value
will be lo-t. Tihe .iiount If LTir,--ill,. till hr-I. with the locality and tiho
season. dleplendlin g on the abundance of bees or ot her iis. t- tliat
carry Ihe pollIii. fr'lii (oinec tlh, r to ;.'iiiillLir, but there is 1i-n.l!. too
much crossing to miike it safe to IL\ onl the purity of Iany stock ,i
seed that lia ben gi'llwn close to another varitl of cotton.
IiT..ATIj OF SEED PLANTS.
A fariner %xlio wi-hi, to make a ri-:illv adequate test of the value
of a nlew varlltv -Itiih1ld plant the ',1 in a separate pli.,. rt,.i,,,
at least 30 0;i id. fri n, other lit-ll. I cotton or separ.ii, therefromi
by :5 or 30) rows oif crn. An isolated ]il.iiil i 41 does not [>i,,\l d1, 'if
coir'e, for n l, -i, ciliparison with the local variety, but this canbe
mnlade in the filh iniii.-' \..r to much better :1 it:i.. W'iili the
larg,'i- stn'k of -.d t1i hen available a field ii pll it,, 'an bie ili,. as
well it tvr-t i)l.n iL,'-. In the third i.:lii there will be ::,;, 1i' -0,'1
to "too k ClItI a I:ire !;, iiil with the new vaif ity, if it h shown i1i- If
nipIrior iind12'" Iile !)'al1 conditions.
M .aiiv f.i ,,ieIr- ,iir ii illiI. to i i,. ti, l>ip,[>r care to a iW,'v
irictyV I until i 111v li: 11 e made Q i' liOilii.,i Iy te't and conlvl: ,.- them-
sl-c iIV r1 il is rI,,ll superior. It is fr tii raon tl it the plan
of ,,1iilidiin 1, it Sii Lsii:lltr 1i|:itititY of eed in the "ei:'i.i dli-i '1 ,,it i'n
hais b,,n adoptvi,. Tlti-c \!ih, uis this small -.4iH;L ,f seed fri test-
ing ptirpn-c.- and !)l:,t it in the a hme i, Id with another variety or
a mixed sto, k of cotton are ndvi-cd not to save -'*,.l inI tlr, illl \ ith
any idea that they :ire keeping a pure stock of the niew v:ii-.l\ in
this way. If the former is convinePd that the nlew v:iriiy is suipe-
S








DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1920.


rior, ihe shniilld get a fresh stock of the seed and plant it in a separate
I reedil I ]dilt. :i1 fai a a ;isv s possible from any other field of cotton.
The di.,tribultion of seed of superior varieties of cotton is no longer
limited to a single season, as thle t-ustomi formerly was. Unless
iliproved va:rititt. becolne establislhIed in cultivation in some part of
the united States the work of breedinlg and distribution serves no
Ii-i-fiful pil pose. To increase the number of varieties in a community
is not dcirable. On the contrary. there would be a distinct ad-
vantalge if tln, wNh11le c-,InlIunit\ v;ould .ro one variety, if the best
viarity t'l'.ild le d.ett minned. The dai nL,-r of mixture of varieties by
c',,I--iig ani the mixture of seed at the gin would both be reduced,
and tlhe uniformity of the product would enable the community to
secuTre a higher price for its cotton.1
WHIY SELECTION MUST nE CONTINUED.
ITnles.c se-letion is continued, thle value of a variety is sure to
de(liine. A well-bred va rietV is superior to ordinary unselected cot-
ton not only in hav ing better plants but in having the plants more
nearly alike. Whether selection has any power to make better plants
is aI quet4tion, but there cian be no doubt of tlhe power of selection to
keep the pl;aints alike. Even in the best and most carefully selected
.-tocks inferior plants will appear, and if these are allowed to multi-
ply anid cro,, with thle other,; the stock is sure to deteriorate. The
pollen from ti-h Ilowers of inlfTrior plants is carried about by bees
and other insects, and thle seed developed from such pollen transmit
thle characters of tile inferior parent. Even if they do not come into
expresSion in tlhe fir-t generation they are likely to reappear in the
se<-ond generation.
To grow cotton from unselected seed involves the same kind of
ln-.es a.s in ;iii orchard planted with unselerted seedling apple trees.
Lc.,- cotlto is pro,,I tduted and the quality i- ;ilo inferior. The higher
tlI 1cM. lit x' .Af thiet'(uitl)n the mure st i' 2_cilt is the requirement of a
uifIII' m -11 pIc'. I l-Ics,, the filler's liave tlel !hi'ate length and strength
thlv ';'a iiii'-_t I piin into fine thliread:t- r oien into strong fabrics.
l'[i",!EVA.\TtIoN OF VAiSiFirs nY SELECTION.
TI,, 1ltliill oIt -V.l..tiiLot to Bc fodllowcd in pro-trt iing a variety
fIt iii ,lc i i V I :Itiotf io ent iircy di fl' rnt from IIit I .l e ployed in tlihe
dc,,loin: :nt fotr ex t'cptiot:tl individiils and prefers tiose that are unlike any
\Ilict.v p1evhizt-ly klii," n. If tlite cle,'tion is being carried on to
jjlict-Cl'c :t vait. \. t'n oljec.t i- not to secure seed from thle peculiar
plants, but to reject all that deviate from the characters of the
Sonme of the numerous adrsntages to be gained by a better organization of cotton-
growing communities hare been described In an article published In the Yearbook of the
Department of Agriculture for 1911 under the title "Cotton Improvement on a Com-
munity Basis."








p i Tl I't '; Ill. t-i 1 l .N sI..lI' IN P.2'1. 6

Svnritv. 'i ils t ,Ii:Ilii l i f,,I -tI h.,r ,.n 5 a i, li 'ty
i i~ill, t I l,.,liii ,,rt' { '" ',,, l .,,Ii ,,,l"'I,,.' ,] ,i i.i, t, ,- ,," i' the .,,-,.l^ to
It il h e th,' l l ,,i 10 Ir I % 11.,.l' .l I Ill. II l 1,1. -1.h+11Ntl to the l'! ,,i .^

tlh:iI lli'ri i", ili '" i ,, u i "tI"" ,t ti, .. arirty .ii''t to rj'-'.t
ill li:il \':ii l lt lit "ii]',' fil-. II" Il l *r' r w l lt i prvve t1 be
a ll' 111"\"f. fll', l -4l 1 ,1 :11 Iill ...- I ',, .,pv, ; l'. r k,+; in+ h{ ,l l~ l z + t- b

iti it' \;i 'i.n l i t i lIii l'nt t- I a- i 11 ;1 ov.




fraii e ie 'ra i *1.1 1. .111 i i 1,1.1 *: i l~'* i ei1 i i '- in mi l th elm 'liii
ti .) IeuIrii c- i i< i I I L'. 'Il 1 1 "i l %Il j If I I'c I I -"itt e lI
t l ), l l i, ttv i- l .l .. I ; '1l. h i 1l it-ol11th it i II s :i-
h l e l ,..I ,t ,l ,.,I .,, ,I I ,'t l l, : t h I\ t fl It "
L .,l l L-'| i,ll \ V, l i, ll il 1- 1 \% 1 ; l It I I .. V, I il l lilt P l i, t 1' 11' .
A t') ILAVI: llorf itf I: i, P ; i. rin i- iiiIc i !r-UeI ; '1'l' of1 te (Ii -td f
Shi ei t i"l 'i.ll ti f 4 iii. 1 u ln 1h i i rn I -, i," i'- I,: 1 t-, 1 t at c arihth
frlmi thi i It-r14 i ti ,,l 11-11. Alr 11 i i .L ,- t i ,i t'l 1 1 I i lnt e1 tlhe ir u, I' r.,
tio n l i',', -t -c 'i,, I.I'- 1 1 10. k iigi '-il l,' -,f' ', 1 i Iii I fi i tt,. etL0 n-
ti r, l ail p 1, tl,. I]-I, 1 ,,_I l , 1 It ,,1 1 'i r i l.e p It in I- the ii e ta
thpr t ivt'l i. 1'ili L' ..- \ I u I II, ri. t I t i t'e < ii1 "il ltie J .I.ii I, ,id i I I Lo .
feiott 'r ;plj,-t,.,l \lt i t il e I 1 1, let',i iw-.
As m ll 1il', riiLitY I., Ii ',' I' iit' u ti -t ..-,'fli:1]- 'I f V\ lut t in a v.ir l,` a
thie befll rvi,,, If i, Ih.e .,,i' tv il til-, r1tI 't' I I i-, ,, of the limit tlit, -,i
to be inol al. Di ii it %;m1 I til tlI I'r,,ii i,,tiur '.-. iwt w ntch then
plant., iie lirN rl p rt (t' liv -.i .iii l. ,',l, the ti 'm o I









i f rio ,r.' En 'i lt' ii I itt'' i' tutel i -t11 11 1 :' I
floweriii it' t Is p .-itlh, t, ,l ii. in, LIT I'I.I "" i1, 1' \'\ Ia.i n es
in their Im bil.- f .rit thllIl ,ll t, L':n i -l If tltvi, s ,ters 1n 1 l. It .,v -es.
W hlci,' r ,it' \:1 u. n i.mir 1'. i I,,' ,1*'ti, I n',l I -l' 1o1t1 l 1We filled out
at o ltle. inl or,. h I i j r v it I lit, r ,.:-i. ,i j, ill. -. 1 I lu i ntl wi th iIin-
ferior l ill.-n. A l', r tlL, I. ,,I- ,'l ",, t," r, t,'1 I,, rit+i i w it is w el to
Po th1 rough tle' lpl:r t ;i' in .it l | e ,, it .AIl t 'l.,i l th it nh1 I the
sm .till siZe O ( tthrtlI Ir'L ,'111'r1 0 ,,'- .1' 1I, l .,lI- itiat I'. w 1, h Ia l e a
variation fr'-i, tlr, -t:h;, ,hll.l" 11 *.,' I". p iv im iiin H V
,h,,.t i,,ll T-r,.lll\ ,l .i ,,l i' l ;,. .~ 11,. l i1 tin1 ', w | il tt.n -




.e c'iBIr ofL P at i dir. "I .I I ,,. I Ii .'Il f ,r ictu r, tt kf 1 1 I. 1 d .."


elalt Io Coto n N ar I i
M t: I.- j r. r t 1 r i f, r 6- 1i r j, I
rlrl t. ilL, I ,.111 \,. f t I. -* 1 ".!' "t .I 'h f .*'* *

l ,i 'i ln r ~'.' Ind.us i':. l i I, i 'l,,I, L r I. ; l it4' t. ,' I , r .
p ;;h e i. '- I t e *, r, l ,I ; . t r ii ' *I '-' . .. t ' T o, r

M[,lh,,,l- "- f << l ,r l ,it, rr. ...1 l, ,i ,- i. .'.r l-;,lil 1 In 'ir, Iil i *(B. (Mt of thr t+++{+ t
I'lani IiluiO-lry. l." "S I'* pir,,i, ni , .\ n.'rl lz,. t'ri.rl i'.tton OH 0+ t the +r m

the Bureau of Plant Industl.ry. L S. L[>.cti ,irsi m ll of .Agrl:ultiuw, "mttl,-] L-ka vl Adjm-t-
ment of Colton Varietieo."








6 DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1920.

comparatively inferior progeny, which would not be excluded from
the stock unles-.s the progeny-row test wero made.
Neverthele.-, the use of progeny rows is no substitute for skill and
care in making the selection, for if the selected plants are not all of
the true type of tlhe variety, admixture by cros-.,-pollination will occur
in the progeny rows the sante as in a ,nixed planting. Protection
against the danger of crossing between different progenies can be
ecu.ured by I holding over' a part of the seed uf the select individuals
used to phlnt (lie progeny rows. Tlhe remainder of the seed that pro-
dutii'dl the I- i-t progeny row ';iin b planted in an isolated breeding
pl:,t in tilt Nea' following tlhe progeny test. InI this way a special
Atr;iin i< tdrveloped from a single superior plant.
METHiODS 1. T[.1r]NG COTTON V.\iIiIL u:.
Tlit Iest way" t, to -t h IjelMiViol of t\\o :arlietiet, of stjlwio is to
pl:nt them in alternate rows .-o tliat they can be compared carefully
diiring tlie growing 1a.on 1 and tlie yield of each row weighed sepa-
rately at thle end of the season. Of course, it is often possible to
judge that one variety i, superior to another without weighing, but
if the re-ult- are nearly equal, weighing is ntce-;:ry. Even experi-
enced cotton men are likely to make errors in guessing at the yields
of different rows of the field. A variety that shatterss" its lint may
appear to be yielding much more than a storitproof variety with
detnsc compact lint that can be shown to be much more productive
by onhparion of actual weight; of seed cotton and percentages of
lint.' The lint values are also to be compared, especially in long-
.t:i)le varieties.
ADMIXTUtRE OF SEED I-N GINS.2
()ne of tlie most serious dificultics in maintaining the uniformity
If i ..Iljurior variety of cotton is the mixture of seed in gins. A few
'.riet have thlieir own gins or small hand gins for their seed cotton,
i,, in suiii1 l,.':, litie-, ginning e.stablilihment.-, are beginning to pro-
Sii c -iiiml] gin- tllat are kept clean for ginning r-.Vd cotton. Some
lz':iret.s take care to av oid thle imixtire of seed ly holding their seed
,-,tiliin intil thi end of tlih' .e:con, when the time ian be taken to clean
11it lit,, -!in. It i- rdl-o po-,,iblc to plant progeny rows or seed plats
', ii iiilililci.! -ctd l'v \'tttint the lint before plattilg or by pressing
,ll -,,I'kl ; ,L i -t g0 '0o111d.
0. F. Coos,
B;uiiioi;st in Charge.
'I t'r iil.ar No. 11 of it'l- B 'Diii of Pltnt In lut.trv. entiled "Danger In Judging
I'.I I..11 \.t.I i.*ll I, 1 .Lilt Pr-r>i t;n .'rc ." rii.'l It in'h i I.. I, lId 'riiii thir Supt-rlnteondent of
I,. i:uii't I a -. i .,c' ne.r t im t I'rl l liI,' Offlre. W '- II 'TI',r Pl (C'.. at 5 rc.-ntc n copy. SRI- also
I 1ull lii No 4.1. U. S. [D'irtTi ent of Acriculrure, .ntitlcel Lint Percentnge and Lint
It,..! t% t'lln mi .Mrrthod.is o I rcernmin:ltion."
-i'.I. .1 _,iilt, ,li' ,114 ziiin iof the adnmixiurc of .ceid in pins. seOe ulletim 288 of the
I .' l'ii.r|Tliii in!f .\ rtnll I tirer. conlltled "Cu-ilom i Ginnlng as a Factor In Cotton-Seed
I'. I. il.r.ittiill. 'v%1 1h 1' 1%, C-.btaliu(-1 froni theI Suprrintendent of Documents, Govern-
111 ni t I'ini iu- (ifflir., WVi.hington, D. C.. ut G cents a copy.















Inli-t! til lli quart i'"' ,:t of cotton Iee stt for hI r pirt-
liiiiiiirvI tritl w ill be Ifi.i, a '. iow retuAn cit|d +bowi.IL il,. variety
o' the -m.,il -'ii. % lIch is to le rtwirncd to the l'tlt i -,i,., of .\1A
cultilrki' I11 '.-.'* Ilk, a, i, is ". ill iI, to coollnattc in i, i i l+ the a a,,-
puriitciv vallii, a, this 1 :1 ,ii lI'i tho-e retur,,iii,' this \, luw r,::il.
a ilalnk iii ', i ll be sent in the fall of l1', fI' Is ie ti 1'i. i1' a de-
t ilek d irvi JI, rt q,f O w 1, -n1- il- ,IN to dli ,. 1. ilo, iiini- i-, I ... it lc- i lt s:
I I I .i[, ti l a I Itiv .... )I
2 1 f <'li 1an i i. ,t i aI* ti \ t +il ': or i. r li h 'l
11 or il- %lii~ ili :1 i !i> wai1m
11l '-l l'oir rn il|iii"'r
'fl > liiln" ,'t l,,i' il \ m1+,'i ,i-,',l fior +tii.t+til. (65 Si-' :,- lil I al ,I f r.w or R ii t f Il',. 1 w1 v1A .
(l'1 Yi n', qi[ *ii.it row %xr bl.t ,"f the R-nl varit ly+
IT t I.nil-' ,i, llia IieW \..il'Ii for utilr %srQcIIUU -wl tli r ltie '. h1riF il,
or [oillr.
(1I1 .\ ..'iiilh *, -i' ,i cottolln i i'i' i ii ,- teI l I,. i.,..; 1, -, tile -, ,a I cotton
fl'ill rli lil ,II i '* i'-l ,l i H ill i. I r ,|' 1" ,.i 1, 111 *'t' .1'1 tn a -I, II I ii ', e
of iii.Pl'r.
ShonllI tihe ieii t of the ,pihi i ll Wi te1 prove to the )a.piirtiiLent
(if Agricultiire tli:it the v.irit;'. is desirable for the 'r'i', ,aintli
tioni.s ail ifti ilia ,ll -.0ii 'lr iil, thei seel cotton is -iiluinitt',il in
ctc'Olidance t\itli in-Ililt limia-, hlie t\\ill be perlintilt.aI to hare in th
spt'ecial di.-trilaiit III of liil f.lIu-l,. lots of -e' d of thle '-1 '.1 iri'tv the
following swt-;oii.
In order to t:iI :i1. ,a ti i! i t-, ,f this -"" ,i., ,li-i rilUlIti it 'ill be
iiPciP.Bsriv for th --i,, tI to keep I i I't iil otIt- the 1,l1.tior of the
plaints rown 'roiii the a'l.it ,.i, L 1,'" of seed. so that a ,.,ii0t#0e
rti iirt vi il e iii.i'dl on ll 1a lil.ic: which ', ill be sel it t',j that ii p< .
Then -:ii[ilt' ,ill- are to I,' w ed Ii ,ih ti iiiiIiLr' the Il,,,i ii. ,li.ility,
and per ntl' ilit:I d'i lint. '1 I I L ',i'liii i ,1 ii. I-,LVll r nli tI he ii't: l'
report. will c,.Al'h,' the cottoin, p"l-1t- .'f the '1- ,tiitent to decide
wlitlth'r Ihle v\ ii 'w is ij'iiiil-l-;2 undeA the v .1''i. co i dio and
will lidt ill .I--,ii'IiIL the il-i liii Ilii of the I' I. ,- of seed to
snich cOliluill,'iY. Q i>- ad ar l ilt,1 to 'rl'aIit the new Narlatic- ,il
t'+l'il lli hl i l i inl i I 11 r iiliT .11 i-0, .
Th' -:lIIplfh- 'hi 'll he :,i' : i".,i.' 1 Iv the nami1e and ,i -- of
the 'mw rtt NN wvil a1s the riamle f the variety: '.',. In j', \* Ils
"var'- it IliAl-. Ii.'n ii,' '--:i' to dui-c.iiI iliinV -.iipl, becau li',v
Welt' nIOt IIi'l rltd and hlicWN WAI n1o %,L to u iklntifL them.


WASHINOTON : GOVEBNMhT PRINTING oriEc: 1$.0


REPo, T uF 1,IS 41F Pl.\Vtrl'.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
ii~Ir o L~ll A rrlrrliiIIlItill iiirJiM rll lI 111 111111
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