Distribution of cotton seed in ...


Material Information

Distribution of cotton seed in ...
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C


Subjects / Keywords:
Cottonseed -- Geographical distribution -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Seed Distribution.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with 1903; ceased with 1923.
General Note:
Description based on: 1912; title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029028486
oclc - 14924061
lccn - sn 86045134
ddc - 633.51 U65
System ID:

Full Text

..... I.v llr'lI I I'mn i'l. **.. I
a. D.-4o.

New and Rare Seed Dintribution.


MT.his is the seventeenth distribution of 'cotton see I conidli'ciel 1V
the Oiee..of Seed Distribution in ooiperattion willih thi' C-n111-l,'r,,d-
nkm vetieators of the Bureau of P'l:ant linilustrv.
S.... "During the past 15 years. it1pproxinuit'" .lv itirI I5., uf'5.1)!~M
been distributed. These have Ieen develope, by thie e(xpirt. ,- )f il
ure aM.u of Plant Intdustiv or selected hy then elW'ii'-e of f ci:il i, :il

A.. The method of distribution followed in the past ftv' \c:ir.s lin-
SL j qao generally satisfactory that it is propose'l It ,, ii;iniiir. it
season. The generanI distribution of a sinidl (U:qtiti; ,1"1 -,',
.yj1quant), to enable the farmer to bet'onie acqiiainted w itli i litr-
s eristics of the variety, will be followed in tlih imost iw',i, I I .,- 11 i..r
tions by a special distribution thi following '.ver. w, hil i- f1,llv
explained under the heading Report of reuilt o(f plantit,.' 'lii'
.secial distribution furniolhe, to thlio,.e w-ho :diilnnit fLi\,rll '. r:nI', s
aad sample bolls of the c'rop gro\\n ft'r, Iin lhe )itan-I ,'l<;i:.> ,' -v't d
sufficient seed lo produce at le:upit one' full ,;lnc ,1f ti ili,, \:Ir],.iv f
cotton and also to produce a stock of eed( for polling :;I 'li-hl'rrubin
acreage the following season.
The seed of only one. nfew varety i,. liei, tiii- 'util'iii. t i.- v'..tr.
It is now considered more imiportani to estal'lisli ., ft'.% si]lru.n' \:i-
sties in general cultivation than it, iauld ti thti' ImIIl,, ',f i,'v. \:trir-
ties. Experience with foniner di.trilutitions -hwm- (1l1a ,',,ii,.,- of
pure seed nimust Ix' nmaintained I,\ thle Dl'partnment of Agrinc iltn'r alnd
repeated distributions inmde until ;i new \;riit\ l I:- %,Ila,o.ni, wv il
An introductory statement on IniprovtinieTlt ,f tIli t action crop
by selection." by (0. F. Cook. who is in charge of the 'i, -oii-i,'reding
work of this bureau, explains, how the seed 1iiiv I6 utilized to th,
best advantage by the farminer.
R. A.
A gronoini (ga^W~a
Approved: "
K. F. Kn.FRNI.rAN, 2%4- a
.-lrthiql tf, of Bureau. ":
SPrxTEMFR 19. 1918. w "

C' .,

. I


How can the farmer make the best use of a small stock of seed of
a superior selected variety? By understanding and applying the
mnthod- by which select seed is produced, so as to keep the selected
variety from deterioration. The usual way of treating a small quan-
titv of select seed is not at all calculated to enable the farmer to
learn the true vallue of a new variety or to preerve the purity of
an improved stock.
A mistake made frequently by farmers, and sometimes by profes-
sional breeders, is to attempt to combine tenting with breeding.
The' new varietN of cotton is planted by the side of the local variety
or a mixed stock in order to test its behavior, and seed is saved from
the same planting to inicreai-e tlhe -tock of the new variety. This
plan is open to tlhe -eriouti- danger that the seed of the new variety
when gathered in the fall will not be l)ure. on account of being con-
taminated hby crossing wit the Ical variety, so that its -pecial value
will be lost. The amniount of cro'zsing differs with the locality and the
season, depending on the abundance of bees or other insects that
carry the pollen from one flower to another, but there is usually too
much cro:-ing to make it safe to rely on the purity of any stock of
seed that has been grown close to another variety of cotton.
A farmer who wishes to make a really adequate test of the value
of a new variety should plant the seed in a separatee plat, removed
at least 300 yards from other fields of cotton or separated therefrom
by 25 or 30 rows of corn. An isolated planting does not provide, of
course, for a close comparison with the local variety, but this can be
made in the following year to much better advantage. With the
larger stock of seed then available a field planting can be made, as
well as test plantings. In the third year there will be enough seed
to stock even a large farm with the new variety, if it has-, shown itself
superior under the local conditions.
Many farmers are unwilling to give the proper care to a new
variety until they have made a preliminary test and convinced them-
e>,1, ,ta % it is really superior. It is for this reason that the plan
--- of j i iei 6Aht. a smaller quantity of seed in the general distribution
,ias'oeelrajltN. Those whlio use this .mall sample of seed for test-
?" g' ing p)po11s'), ftjdrt plant it in thle siname field with another variety or
Sc. j .*$,,ixel ,tocR of 6ottoni are advised not to save seed in the fall with
N X, : va ; Ith lh, tIhey atR, kepilng a pure stock of the new variety in
', thi wav.t 'If the- farmer is convinced that the new variety is supe-
*P. 2

DisTR[iBUTIION OF 1'1l7T11N SKIED IN 19tl9.

rior, he .should g'l It I fr,-h l.i k ,1 qlit -Lt l :i't I Ilil ill i i -I,'Iat .i;'
b 'eed ing plat.,-I-, fti" it,,,,.i.t lip -llle frmilni ;ill.% i,'" IM l 4.d" , T h ll' i-tu il, ll w i l t ,l .'.ll ,," 11,r l -tr',i ,Lr .,i n il llll i- I ,, li ,ll ,.,"
li ited'tl t", : -li.U l'' -'. 'i.-''ii. :I- l tl til-ti n l 1 I,,,t ll? \ :t-. 1 l'Ih ,.
im pli't-\% .l v ari tiv -, wIxtr m, i-l:ti li -lirl in iltli l lll iM -,0 ,,,' l'im l (if
usthe ful p litl v .. llI ,, n'-k ,l,' it' lLtlii'i i i I'l-t il ii- .11 .1 -V'I\IIi l iY
is not dhf.lii| r 'u u it l ,,. ii ,' Id'! t't,. 21i1'! ,\.i i i !t i,~ 11. -tiii 11 't I d l-
V, lln tia { it thn' (eli, l ,',,,, in iin t\ d v,, Il -. 11,,'... ,,n-' ; 'IN.i ,t I t" t1' l ,t".t
V IlI'lety t'O tllIl J il Il t,.rl Illll,,il. "i'l,,, ,l:, lt.'l' fill \t i ll v % I, ,r i i v,- l .v
rl'ossin a.ll l tiv' innixtll ,f 'l .I l \i ,r I' I I ull iI ,, 1 .r rL.,lIt< t I,
til dl th ,e fn il ,I t',,it ,I il Ill.- |w i, ldL l .l. tl t,, ,' ,,ir r ,iul \" l t (J
secure ai higlit'r >i i'i' futr i v., I (ini.'
\ I V I ,I l.FIl l" t.0, M l -71' lBE ul> I I .\ I.I).
t nll e'e-, !-,le tv i t i i-, t'llt i I tltiv tiniv \".ilh ;i I.ir' .t\ It f-,r, -,.
de cline. A i tI 'll-lr 1 l \- ri \ it I i'i'r f r tI it liii.,l \ 1l r-1 It.. ii i i'l-
toil licit onlV i l li 'i ht -[ t, ttrr p lant.- ll l in l].'I i llI.I,- I'l I it ilt lt'('
nearly alike. W lit1 lt'I st' t'tic iii Ii:1- ail l ,V ,i)r "' tri sI;it:,. 1I1 ;1 i ill.i't-
is in quest in. lut lien'v vai lit' i tiou dtiiltl f tilt' ,, t'r ,,l' .h ti4i tuii(i
keel the l;ints :alike v. Evt i i ln tI l -;t t n' d l ii -i ,i- ':ti l' ,llt -.l CI.tl
stockk ini''rioi plaiit %\ill aipj et'a anidt if the-ic ,', :r.iii,,l i'il i,, i iilli-
PIV anrill 1f):-, w ith tlec othIIer the sto 'k ii'k -,l1 i, ,lt1'riir:l,. Il'l,,,
pollen fr+m1 tit' flower'Ir, if tinfrior pi:lilt- I t'iiir.ll :il ii \'\ Ii ,%
ind othei'r insects, aniid then seed lte'evlioped f't-n -iiht'li pltllt' lI1i':i-iiit
thle c 'liir.ctI x'-, of tli' inlferio pal't'nil. \A vii itf tlht.Y li iinit ,'ii, ,. iiiti)
cX[)re^--iun in the first virun r.'ttion tlt-y \- r(1 liikelv tis r,0: 1i~ i,'r i l I ltt
seufinti uvlrnpratitoi.
to griv" cotton fron ii instlcetelI -t.t, iiliv]- Ihi' O :iW lTil nfI
los?.es is in all 1 orch.i1rl 1 lzhtrItt'tl \\ 1ith iln-,li'vli'tl seetlliiig L |p lit.' trv,,-.
Les." cotton i., ]l>m lire(h ;1n1 tile ,iii.ilit% i- ;il-4 ii",ri,,r. T Ih l i,_l.rr
the ilinality of tleo toonI lit im 'rt -1riigeiin t is lit ioililiit'iin' t ilI" ;I
unifor"i stapler. I 'lii-- the lit, lia h t' tilt' ->anu' l,'iivi.tl ;ni] .-tr'.li."ih
they eiin nit lit' -p nil into lint' thii'e:tl. (,Iu \" 'en 11nlt i 'itiu,, f;'i l'ri'-.
I'HREs iI\IATI"I N o IE Ri.\1;FI r .ES ill s."I I[ The tepthotd of selection to be fo|il'i in pre-,,rviing i variety
front dieterioraition is entirely fliffi'rtiit frt'i', tlHIt emipl)'etd in tlie
development of new vtartietiPe. Tit' l)et'dt'r of new varit'ti,'- seeks
for exct'eptional individuals and prt'efers those that are unlike ailv
variety pi-eviously known. If the selection is being carried on to
preserve a variety, the object ik not to secure seed from thlie peculi;ir
plant-. but to reject nil that deviate from tillhe chariacter- ,if ile
SSome of thl numerous advainl-g i'o bie rainelnpd by a better organizatl.n .f 'rnfinn-
growing conmunilies hive t i. n d,srcnbed in an arlh-i,, published in it". \-.' r ,i,,k .,f ii.,
Department of Agriculture for 1l11 under the title "Cotton Impruven,.t'i .,tn ,, J ',,.u
munity BaaLs."


variety. The first qualification for such selection is a famiiliarity
with the habil, of growth and other characters of the variety, to
enable the farmer or breeder to confine his selection to the plants
that adhere to the form or "type" of the variety and to reject
all that vary from the type. Most of the latter would prove to be
vertv inferior and at the same time would increase the diversity of
the variety and hasten it., degeneration.
No matter how pood a new variety inmay he or how carefully it may
hliavo li.'i Irmi aind -elected, inferior plants are likely to appear,
e-peciall % Vien it i: grown utinder new and unactutomed conditions.
A i-tiend 14'i t is being made to limit the distribution to seed from
inif',riii, litlI d f c .ottonj, but selection is necessary to keep any variety
f1,il dit, riir.tiol. ifnid it is inadvisable to wait tintil the deteriora-
tio, I'eineIUs -c''ious before beginning the selection. If proper atten-
tiol I.,1 k, 1"t ( lie ilw ogti ;ig ouit of inferior plants in the first season
lihren' ii..y ie lit'i Ih let-. \:iriation in the second, the variety becoming
helt',r :iilj,-tecil i0 thie Ine\V conditions.
A- itiIf-1initv i- one if tlhe fir-t essential, of value in a variety,
thlie Iei ;i'"r of a now variety in this re-pect is one of thlie first things
to be niotd. Do rnot wait till thle crop natiircs., but wZatch the plants
in tie irliy part of the sea-on. E\ner before the time of flowering
it ;- p,,,'-.ible to di-tingnish freak" plant. by differences in their
liabit, of gritli 'ir tlhe characters ,if their stem- and leaves. When-
eier selich .riation-. can be detected they should be pulled out at once,
in oriler to prevent thle crosinr of the good Plants with inferior
pollen. After the bolls begin to reach mature size it is well to go
through thle plat again and pull out all plants that show by the small
size or ether pecnliaritie, of the bulls that there had bIeen a variation
from tie standardss of the variety. These preliminary selections
greatly :iinplify the final selection in the fall. when attention can be
limited to thle yield and to the characters of the lint and seeds.'
Selection can be made still more efficient by thlie use of progeny
rows. The seed of select individual plants is picked separately into
paper bags and planted the next sea,,on in adjacent rows, in order
to tebt tlie behlia\ ior of the progenies. of the different individuals. An
inferior progeny can be rejected as a whole and selection limited to
the best row,. It often happens that a very good plant produces a
.Method. if .itvl,.tinn ar trenAted in gri-ot, r detail in 'iciulani No 611, o( the Bureau of
'Plant ludu.li3. '. S. LDepurtmerit of A li.'ulture, 'ntiIllcd Cuton Seilection on the Farm
by tIll Ciiiji actii- ,f 4 hi Stall:-. l.e.e.a es. and 0o11 S.-. al-o Bull'tin No. 15!) of
11u. Burmna' of I'lant Indu-tlry, I. S. DIpartmen of Agri uinltne, entitled Lu.al Adjust-
mint of I'OItill V:ilicetie.' "

DIST'riij "I'Il N ilF I I i ,N 1'-I I I .1N I'll'

C0liii ; lt iVel'V i Iferiir pi, r'gt 1\. I' I I lr \ ,iii 'li i 'it I I I '\, I lI from
tlie stock ililes. tilhe oggelV-'row t'- ti t'e i' ii.!'.
Neverilhele-- lit. t ii-. f i,'I',1ii i, IN i- I -'I .. J titute f. r skill :, IIl
c rit' ill i ,lii I t, l l ii ,: -rlrt'! iI. fIIr if li.i -.' I li il p I' l- are iId a;ll 'I f
the true tit|I ,If fliv \;ir'iv(v. .id [i i I X ll V I .% .- .I. it ,II w ill ,,..,,
in th e fro Ln n \',\\ li' -;ilii :i- ill t ,1,1\,'Ll l hl., ill l,'", I'I I.I1,,' 1 t l1
agaitinst lit,. alinti "er aF ,i :n,.ing ip etl itn ilitl'r''iit j'r,_',r*- cil lie
secured Y Iin. I ,lituli iver ;1 I.it O)f tint '.. 'i iI (lii' .,..,'i *ii.li\ il'i:il
ut'il to pilltI iIn pit'i'-t'iV rt'i,.. Ti' ri.iiiu;nhli of the eed tht pro-
d uliCI tl r Iest lt, .> l t- \\ ili tr l.ilitn l in ;in i- ,I.,It,.,l br 1l iii
|lhit ill tlr w ..i I ''ll,,v i _",. Ill I r"ILi'ii\ t,'.- Il th is I ;i v ml.','h,]
Strain i. ,le\ ll,,ir.Il I'riti a -nigitl' 'i iii'r pil.it.
\1 I lAl I I ,hI- F T ..'lI NI; 'i Ti" IN '\ \IF:ITTF,.
The best \%;iv to te-'t thl lhelaiviuir of t(io ) :irieties of -ott>lln is to
plaint tliiie in :Ilteriltl' rows so that t 'he ,IuI [il : l lh Cl r', [,l',llv
during the g'rwing .'eiiln ;inul lilt' yilv l I : t:, hi row "iiL1\, '--- pa-
raitelv at the ond of the season. Of oiii-. iio its ,ftii, po1t sille to
jildge that ur.t variety is Huplrior to :111;it liR thout v\'.. <.1 ,'., but
if thie n'sulllt iiI-t1 r'e i'rl"y tj-i1. ililg ini is'uieo--:ir'y. "L".-i Cen 'Xpei-
enced cotton men I' i, like]%- to make t'I'I-rors i iill l--iiig atI the yields
(if different rows of ile field. A in rittv tlint matterss" it- lint 1nu1y
appear to be yelling mucli more (hiii i zto)rinpiwitf t valitl with
dlense. uoinp.it lint thaii ca;n lihe .'lown to lie iiiiclh more productive
by comparisonl of a;t i-l weight, oIf serd attiii and per. in(,1.'- i.tf
lint. Tlit' lint ;il- e :so t l:i staple viirifreti.
One of the ino-t :erinli- tliffirili,.r> in ani.iaiii iiigs the ,iif'i:,nil v
of at superior %ii.nh-\ id' IO.ttiln i- Ih. ili!\tii,. ifI -.,''d illn rli-. \ few
farmers li:ive Ilhiur ',% i gin:l I"r :nlADll luiAl t!in- ll'r their ,it]l r (l., i,.
aind in somonJeU lor;l iliit', LI iii iiI r '- t- :;ii.i-lilitqii!- ;ire It .-iiiijliiiiL tiL pro-
vide smiill in- n iial aire kept ,lhian I'mr giiinin s,',il cotton. Some
farniers take care to ;,iaIl thle inixtiri ifl' -'i'l Lh. atllhii, i!iir seed
cotton until tlie end of tie easonl. \\ lihi tlhe tilit ca (llbe taken to clean
out the gin. It i1 alno possible to pl;int i i'o rt'ii rows or seet ijl:'t
with uinginned seed by wetting the lint before )pl;iiniri, or '.y pr. --it._,
the seed into moist ground.
0. F". .'i.,ii.

See Ci'rcular No. 11 tmf it. [lur.-.au of Pilni Industry. ,nttli Dianger In .Illi..
Cotton Vnriltiv. by Liot P'.-ri: nilt bhith may eI. bad (rom the Snl ,. r .ii.ir., ri f
Documents, Governmrnt I'rintilng Offlc' Wn'hlngtron. I' C'.. Fit 5 cnts a opy.
i For a compi ,ri, dl. .'i..-ti ul ta ii adriiiixire -f -eed In gins, see Bulleftin 28 oc tihe
r. S. Departmeut of Agricrzli' ur'. 'nitlill ,,I I-' I Gl i;n ing a i a Factor In tot ton-Seed
Deterioration." which niny h. otnitineti frii hi,' O 'w ll,-riniitidnt of documents Govern
ment Prinilng Office. Waiahinigton. Ii C. ni -a Ienr-i a i,


The Lone Star variety belongs to the Texas big-boll type and was
bred in Texas by Dr. D. A. Saunders, of the Bureau of Plant Indus-
try. It was developed from a single superior plant found in a field
of Jackson cotton in the Colorado River bottom near Smith ville, Tex.i
in August, 1qt(.'.
In B'IDS plats of this selection large enough to give a fair test of
yield and lint qualities under field conditions were planted at Waco,
Deniion, and Cuero, Tex. The yield, percentage, and quality of lint
were better than in any other variety with which it was compared,
and this superiority has been retained in subsequent seasons.
Tin; following is a technical description of this variety:
'l-iint of medium height with one to four litnlis and many long fruiting
branches; main stem very short jointed and less luliry than the majority of big-
boiled varieties; the limbs am'endling. generally prodluciiig fruitinE branches at
their base; fruitina hr.iiil,.es nuitil'us. horizontal m-r ucenliiing, long, medium-
slhort jointed; leaves medium to large, very dark green; petioles very long,
somewhat droopiug or recurred ; bolIs very large, round or broadly ovate, lj to
11 inches in diameter, 11 to 2 inches in length, with very short, blunt points,
35 to 45 to the pound; involucral bracts very large, closely appressed, coarse
veined, deeply cut into long teeth, the longest teeth often meeting over the end
of fully' developed green bolls; pedicels of medium length. 14 inches in length
below to tlhree-fliurths of an inch at the top of the main stem and the extreme
ends of the primary and fruiting branches; the bur thi-k and heavy, with very
blunt points; lint 1 inch to 11 inr-he.s in length. very strong., and of uniform
length of fiber, 38 to 40 per cent.
In this variety the limbs begin to develop fruiting branches 4 to 7
inches from their bases instead of near their extremities. This ap-
pears to be an advantage under weevil condition.-, as in years of heavy
infestation the bulk of the crop must be obtained from the lower
third of the plant. In selection, considerable stress has been laid
upon the short-jointed character of the main stem as essential in
developing an early-fruiting tendency. The habits of growth are
similar to those of the well-known Triumph cotton, and under some
conditions the two varieties appear almost indistinguishable; but in
other places obvious differences appear, and these are in favor of the
Lone Star. The plants are less inclined to become prostrate, the bolls
are larger, and the lint longer and more abundant. Very large yields
have been reported-more than two bales per acre on measured areas.

U under f[i ,ni',l elh ,.,ii>1itiiil- tih ltll. r atlains I i HH.'iII! il h.1i1lli.
7l* nll.N li lh's i)f illh 1'011611i 1ii1 ,0 V I .,iI ld lit I pr.i' i ii l 1 l ,,l ,
Stlaiur i.s iinli)liilItetill\ the b v istl\ ii(i\ avfi il.dI. folr L' iii i planlt-
ing il llh iv T Xil.- 1Ilii, '-llanIu ll il iidi adj.,vrit l'-- l- 1i,. arety
is being .'li\i, Ii vxliisl.'i%'IV ill Tex.iI. ()l:il,.ra:i. anti Ark aliens.
Tit -.tl fior tilns li6i 'lil it)i in was gtl\% I'"i the ]) partlilln t ,,f
Agri,.iltuni ,\ b Mr.-.sr. C. E S-1.1 ,r, W i\:il.,'ii,.. T v-t; IN. W .
Chri-tian..M ail,.,.rr, N. C.; ;ild W E':. .il'ILkL--. (',,, 0lLii,,I. A\ .I.
The Tricer cotton is .n e.i1-ii :el ritiiring showrt--t:,l1 ari> t ,h.-
velopt 1I liv PrOf. S. 1. IL 'il. of the Tennesse .\ Liciltli I \I" \ i-
LiUent S tiOiilii. 1a ',ll.ilior':ttor of the Burelau of I'l:1i1l I ndvutrl. It Is
tile result i4 filir v'.i-' .m'lhct iii fi'4ii, ai n early variet- l'iiil onv
the farin of Mr. Likv Trii.t., near I Iiili-nor-ii. t li,-I i' (',ii .\ TI'enn.
The uriginil \il'iril is said to ha\' i'ii' froi I'JI0Itlieni M.i--il'iii ;iil,
is known lu a'ill v ill ('l 'tI- (i, (.'-,iii v as il'11 ioll ('lii.- .r. In tie
work of select ioij ]:irliiul ar attention was (JiIi to eiliii.-, i ii,.ii, -
tiveness. foriii of stalk, and 1 i r'l I,,,]1-. the ,'r'nil 1.'vrig lpi (illi, vl on
the farm of Mr. W. N. M, l".idiin. in F;i ('tl County. Tenn. \
trial made anlong-ithi thlt ouri.1in1il vairi'tY ( in 1)lDil .hlio I. l a distinct
improvcnint ii Aill the ,iiilitii,' .'iil_ it i lin t ;lit 'tiin. as well as
greater uniforinit v.
Ti"],igh ,lv, iiiq.v wIth special e ffirti et' to the light. ;-iiillv -oils
of western T-in[W.-~-v.. the vO iintv li.,s given excellent returns in o rh
dist ricts. T im iuiost ;i'tix dtnizindl for the seed li.i- c i o .,ii
northern Mississippi. where the invasion of the boll weevil has led to
the planting of earlier \,iriutie-; Im it the v litti" has also prov ed
valuable in otihr diy istrits not yet invidvtild by wevx il-. for it i- di,-
tinctlyv superior to Kinm and other varieties prized for extreme
earliness. The l)bfhavliiior of pi atitini- of Trii'c cotton ,lriii, t he
twi sesi iis d ii;lit,- that tl. \ ii is w--"I' dist-ribition 1ro
the northern rim of thle cotton belt anM in the S(uiit litit1c1i .,,i.i-.
The Trite, cotton is thus ;e.- ril-ii. :
Pl lnt riilitrr -itill 2 to 5 fetI high, of I'firkkin l.\I e, i 'i. rly with di tint ITl ,i-,ii
branctihes. %vt3 priliii, rUiilii-Iihriii. h,- iiiiii rr',i-,i. short J.iii I; It aves1 lIght
green, of iuntliumh size. hir-utle; hi, niedl ua to 1,it"1'.i. '. i', often uis.'ii1;i, 4 to
5i locked st'Fl lrarze. with il.nri wloii-i or brownish fuzz; lint itIr. seven.
eighths to I incii long: pter',eni:K ( of lint 28 to :_; : isea :rly.
This variety having been developli.I from a cluster type. this (lh;nr-
neter i- liable to reappear. The pertntig, of reversion ;ipparentlYv is
greater under mnore aidver-v -oil condilii, in. I L nm:iiainiligi tlie
variety. Cluster points should Ibe rI'nloI'd from the nfilI as :;iil\ as
The seed now distribhit-d was growfi by Mr. A. V r. ,ridil'r Bell-.

DISTJIMIL"rI'iN OlF' '1 r'l ijN .-1:1.IP IN 1',1P.


The Columbia cotton is an early long-staple variety, well adapted
to South Carolina and adjacent States. It was derived from a short-
staple variety, the RLIusell Big Boll. The first selection was made in
190)2 at Columbia. S. C.. by Dr. H. J. Webber, formerly in charge of
the cottorn-breeding work of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and re-
sulted(l in the finding of a -,ingle long-linted plant that. gave a superior
prow iiy in 190.. Thrloughlout the process of selection the aimin was
to select plants haIing the Russell type of branching and boll, so
that the plant of the ('olimnilia is scarcely recognizable as distinct
from the liis-Ill vai iety. lThe very large boll has also been retained,
and the variety is in every respect of true Upland type aside from
the length of lint iiid the o.dor of the fuzz.
The Russell vriety producee, a large seed covered with dark-green
fuzz. ThIis character is 'very undesirable. owing to the discoloration
of the lint if ginned while sonmevehat wet by the pulling off of the
green fuzz and ;11,l? o\"i Hg to tlhe green color giving undesirable
linters. In breeding tlii.- vNariety by selection, thlierefore, special at-
tention has been given tu selecting a white seed. The great majority
of the plants of the Columbia variety now produce white seed. but
this character lihais not as vet been entirely fixed and some green seed
continues to be ilidlucEil. There i.-, also a tendency to produce occa-
sional plants with grecenidh lint. These -hould be rejected in pick-
ing, as the lint is worthless and )prodLuces un undesirable discoloration
in the bale. The proportion of green seeds is much larger in some
seasons than in others. owing to some influence of external conditions
not yet iinlder'.-tod.
The following is a technical description of this variety:
Plant low, compact. of Ru,-ell type, having several long, branching basal
limbs, viN'iirt'us, proliti<; Iills lIire to ver.y lhar;e. oivate. short pointed, opening
well, mainly 5 locked : seeds large, fuzzy, %uhite or greenish, 8 to 10 per lock;
lint very -trun.-. froin 11 io 1 l iiiLhe. in length, tine, ?.ilky. and very uniform in
length: percent:-'e of lint, 29 to 33: ,e:i'on enrly in comparison with thle older
long-staple varieties.
As a result of continued high prices for long-staple Upland cotton,
Columbia cotton is being quite extensively planted in South Carolina
and adjacent States.
The Columbia cotton is increasing rapidly in popularity and in
some neighllorhoods has become the dominant variety. Growers
accessible to iiIg-stalc. markets usually -ecure a premium of 5
cents or more above correspIonding grades of short-staple cotton.
Contrary to the genenil impression that long-staple varieties are
unproductive, the Columblia cotton often outyields short-staple va-
rieties gri, In tnd'lr the s:ino conditions. The danger now is that
failure to keep the seed pure will result in the production of large

rlls1 1110,1 I I,\ IIl. I II II l\ SI-1' L I N '1I'1 .

qiiiintit ie. if Ii ,% i lil, *I r that N ill injure t Ii reput tion "t I.O
v,,riety, Illrii,' tlin iniil,,i,nnr{,,, (if .,,,,niii i.l distribution ,. -,.T,.rt
s ilt It i,. il.-,, ii l,,,rtaTnl that I I nI I. Itii e !,nat I il,,i.._. t( I reduce
ljnp -stlllh r tl l -,1, idh pn>, l. tt,. [l-,l\,., w ith S ; 1ll ,. I'.r
mait 1 :l iL, '_ tilti [J f i f it' I" > .I varieties.
In 4IrLer (to -ecii'rt a |irIlii i, I ]. " i.llT for l,,i,,I -I:,'1. it i%
nef esmi l,% In Ii'l thlie cott(nl ill ca,i not iilv too o\,. l,,I 1 ea11-
aHil II., ""i tr;Ili but to aI oid ininittu re aid weatier-'tainei i.,ii1.
It i- :i, II, -:i i\ that the ctottun he *ii |cfore .._ ,"i,-.'. but not
"ilitil" :i il iir Ii. Ih, lint 'hou ld .I "alive." II it '', ,. is
i., ta I) ,,ie ,ii .,mf ng ,i, II'I ul,,inh I,,L" .\iir shora I-tc Co n to IIo
liixcit i, ll,. -;ioie l>ii,.' Tliere is no Imrkitt fur rixefd balel.
In -rI n.T [,.,lili,.. it is l,1li*\ nl that the 1'.lii iia cotton -i 'tiliI r-
nflrc hlin mT"t i iI hr varieties -,iin tite roo!'[._,d ,.T tVe l> at :tick- 11f .i 11i 1 ii l T'- t)r f 'i-Ill other rI%'s11. 'l .. -I,* il.iil ,i ,l .
ii'i'rrr ..ci li'n coinlii iuii. fa\,,r -1i1 ]i luxuriant ,Il\., E1,n|'oiin ( of
foli;Tii lirt i InIIIll are 0 lCI t moist by heaay lhade. l' I'I -ii 6iiit
of (ol, iil :V ,I I tti, in Texas is not ;iI, i-l. It ,I , ,l.' -,< 11,h ii( results
are r'pirt,,,I ft,,nr -oiii, localities- in the coalt belt. 'In' 1'',,1 'i'!.,11-
tie-. of tII, t ,;eirc r' not r,.ta i ,el under the motre extreme, iitrl iieii
that ;re' .,terin ,'lC(,iihiterIi' in the di,, i n r i..,_ ,,,-,i of the .N' 'i, lowest.
Tn,.-.e l fur thi .- thi riljtt in was L 'I_, by I I;r- H. L 'CaI-
penter. IEasley. S. C., and K. C. K,.c, in. C(luioi!i i. S. C.

The Duranio is. a new type of Up'llanI lond Itall,. Cittni. intro-
duced ,nii ,ticlinilizedl by the Dp:iniment of Agriculture. 'I lhe
original stock of -ecd came froinm the .IeM,,ic;ii .late of DiiIr.nig,. lant
the variety \i- .,rr,',, i air -ch t" svril years in T\i' .L
chiefl0 ;at D[ l lRio anidl S:in .iA ttriio. ,,t', i, lf I i n.- ,li-tril1uted. 1'1.1
results of nuiievnoii- experiments |i .-i the recommendation of the
Durang cut ton ;t- an ..'^l p)roductidke variety :I'.Iolt,1 to a : iil,
rangire of condition- in the U'nited S"taie-. It has Lt,_ ,, l.I-ter results
than other Iing--taple varieties in the ilri,_:if',, rpiii- iit thle S,,ith.
western States. ;I- well as in TJpl:,nil districts of lth Si 11iiitltal;-I,'r
States. In exoperimnts as f;r i11rti-1 as N'Irfol(k. Va.. \,6-1- have
been ct-'ireil cn1oiip:rinlW li, i vr;illy \'. Iti I \!!_ and others Iv-miatuir-
ing short--',11pi varietle-. The chief center ,,f lr'i.liitiii is in the
Imperial Valley of California. where the l)t,:l;iio ,, cotton has out-
yielded thle sl,,rt---tiple vN:-ricti-., as well as produced lint of much
higher value.
In earline-s tlhe TD)uriiingo, ottmn is distinctly Nmlperior to tile C,-
lumllia. %'hi,.i i an ad ;iant.i!rc in w\ve\il-int feted regions or whetr'
the season is short. ThTre seems also to be le i-.ceptili1ity to
injuries hy ;inthruicnose. perlp-I- on ,ccTimiit of tlIe more ,pen f,,li.ge.


On account of the erect form of the plants, the Durango cotton is
well suited to the new system of cotton culture which suppresses the
vegetative branches and keeps the plants close together. This is of
great advantage where the growing season is of short duration.1
The lint is of excellent quality and attains a length of 14 inches
under favorable conditions. The bales of Durango cotton thus far
produced have been sold at from 2 to 10 cents a pound above the
prevailing market prices of short-staple cotton, premiums of 5 or 6
cents lbeinig the rule.
Tlin following is a short technical description of this variety:
Plant of uprihlit habit. with a strong central stalk and rather stiff, ascending
vet.getative bran.lies.-. Fruiting branches of moderate length or rather short,
uu'lei sinue 'ondition-. becoming semicluster. Foliage rather deep green, red-
dtkiiiiig natler curly in tie .cason. Leaves of medium size, usually with five or
seven rather narrow tapering lobes, leaves with three lobes being less frequent
than in most other varieties, of Upland cotton. Involucral bracts rather small,
triangular, curate, margined with rather short teeth. Calyx lobes rather irreg-
ular in length, soujetime4 very long and slender. Boils of medium or rather
large size; under taivurnlle conditions about 60) to the pound. Shape of bolls,
cnmic ov.al, wvith r;athlit-r Mioth surface, the oil glands deeply buried. The pro-
portion of 5-lockt-d hulls varies usually from 40 to 50 per cent. Seeds of medium
size, covered with white fuzz and bearing numudiant even lint about 1. inches
lung under favorable conditions. Lint percentage, 32 to 34.
More complete accounts of the characters and habits of the Du-
rangi cotton in comparison with those of other varieties are to be
found in several of the publications of the Department of Agricul-
The seed for this distribution was grown by Messrs. C. H. Carpen-
ter. of Easley. S. C.; R. C. Keenan. of Columbia. S. C.; W. E. Hotch-
kis. Courtland, Ala.; and W. C. Bindel, Carlsbad, N. Mex.


The Meade is an Upland variety of long-staple cotton. The
present ,tock has been developed from a few exceptionally desirable
plants that were discovered in 1912 by Mr. Rowland M. Meade, of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, in a field near Clarksville, Tex. It
has not been possible to trace definitely the origin of the parent stock.
The local information indicated that it had been brought from
Arkansas several years, before, and it has not been grown very exten-
sively in Texas. It was called rather indiscriminately "Black Rat-
tier,." or "Blnckseed," but does not correspond with descriptions of
either of the varieties known by those names in other districts. Mr.
See U. S. Department of Agricultur.. Farmers' Bulletin 601, "A NPw System of
Cotton Culture and It, Application," 1914
2See LT. S. Department of Acrriculturm. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin No. 220,
entitled Relation of Droight to Weevil Rekiqtnnce in ,l'tnon." ind Formers' Rulltin 501,
entitled Cotton nImproemeut under Weevil Conditions."

; t ,radt' e vi wa i h Ii'- l .tillrO w.il Ill,. pIib lritI ,, t" i t
siililiriir type r, I Is this -I1i a 1. w ork wa~ %\ I %.11 i1-. r wIay at
tlt- ti n oli f his dhnl in .niic'. I9'lii. 'l' l h' iat i ',ii ii i ii[,l
AtPlcidf inl hi." hoinorl.
.A s II Jw L'', lI in ilir. Sn ililicii-lt i'ii llii.-. lilt. M ..iilr. :ri.iv hnis
lh it iiv'i riin^ t' i t'- in O w i,,irtli. T ,i lil tr- tre ,. ,,.,i ,pt,, d ni-

forim. willi little or 1n, teinde-cy to shorteneCd linit at the hi.-i- iI' the
Seedl -. Ti,,' l et illr' elii ^' :lllii si',", ,in-, llhla k. l,.- r Only -hllllilv
tiifikud within \1h01 fi/./ at either II'l. I',i.h toll-weevil -iVl'ii-
in 4,iorr- the M.Vh h hiir in.' I < i ,, il, I;i i. -illi-- ,i>lv liii. thrte to
foulir tint'- It- niiir'li as the .,;I I-l-iil I cotton whe h i ii 11:1, 'i l in altel-
ialt bhik' ,, thlai i ,.il'fiil comparioii-s could ie made. Thie liit has
bVL"TI i', i\ViL, on he 1 S' i l -l:ini l miarketis 1f i- ,ilrla in <,i:ii'[il ,ii11
Silli Si .' l.; 1 ild 'otti Iln with very I:;ivorable colitmenic:t. -, iI:il i,.l.-
of ilh le1.'I, i're .nl, in S ivaInnah in I'll7 at a; pi cinium oiii f half a
cent !il" the current price it f SiI IsLlid cot( toi.
Thi. .1is.le ,i ilt'ir from other V!,s1.i,1 I -lii pile v arieties in iits
very o.. mblance to Se.i Island fiber (of the ,'i:ir, i i'r that 1i.;-
beeni pro liici in A hrgia ii and lliili andII in t hIe f:;I t that its smoot I
seed, a1l.lilp it for iniiiui;' onI the roller or ",,IIL, -I(:l1l '" 1iii. so that
no radical cliiil -il ar reqiiirl, in Ill, li-. ii i il i,,,t of the Mi,:i-l, for
Seall Island otoii. Tin work of selection for the purpose ,,f local
adjustment 1aitih a view to the introduction of the M.-,,I. variety in
the Sea Island! dis-triets of (eor,'Lri: has been -iiidst.iI for tilt, past
three vears in South Caroli n: inil n,',r.i:u ,, .-. G. S. Meloy.
The following is a description (if the v.irit: v
Plant erect. ,,"r ivfr i'!i. lirihi with reguiir linterinodes .r medium I1ii,-tih on
borh tih nuin stalk and on tmhi vp,'tntiv,, hr:illrhpr- Tniornr,'.- of the fyrilwi-'
bnilil'bes t rtiher Iniii. with lilM t teudeney to iake the lIo.riviisl luster tft-iii
Li-i n" uediuxm s ie till rnisllir thin texture, not ,I',plv c t, a li'Lrr pr'pnr-ilin
witli nlv Iihrec ob thani inl mosi varieties. Iniius .il bracts of medliuml
size. not IN .tl il- the I,11. witlX i 10 P hrii, I i .tr *,l I. I. ll- ii lu,,iii size with
a thini hur u,1>,iii ri.,lil s eN vC ullder lim d .,iili ,iis-. .,.. ,.irr about
3.0(i ii> ill,' 1,0i1i-i1 nearly naked ,fi'r I ih' lint Is rlf'i,,o.s.t brownisli 1.ihrk.
slightly tuilit'l at either enil Lint 1| to 1 i inches ti n Ieiiitli. iliifriiri. awith :Ln-o
lumei r. sli.li tl. heavier ii. liij 1 than :1 Is. lind cotton. ;ii-,ry 1i:ihi-i.-iiliih ,
fromI Sen lsl ll it wlei prolier l. inniit'l lAnt i,'r'.isi ,1e. 2t: lint iillI-\. 55.
In a comlnparison of alternate block, of M',,de aind Sc:i Island cotton
grown near \'aldlosta. Ga., in the sea -,,n '-f 1A17. the 'eaule was picked
two weeks il advance of the Se.i ll-danl and \iir.idi almost twice as
much. 230 pr Iuinds as coniptred with 117 polind". Idl' kinr is eler
because the Meade bolls are about twice as large as the ,vi, Island.
Ten 4-locked bolls of the Mende v;itrit fielded 6i.-7 grains of wed!
cotIon compared with 3-".7 gr:rmns from ten t-ll i-ked bolls of S,.i
Island. but 7.1 per rent of the Sea Illan| Imll. have only three. h-oks.
The Meade hias 75 per cent af 4-locked and 21. per cent ,f .-locked

DisITiI;I'TioN Il. rnr'llN S.-1'1 IN 99.'il.


bolls. On account of the larger size of the seeds the lint percentage is
lower in the Meade than in Sea Lsland cotton-at Valdobta 26.8 per
cent for the Meade and 30.7 for Sea Island. This is at the rate of
1,365 pounds of see-d to a 500-pound bale of Meade, compared to 1,111
potiunds of seed from a 500-pound bale of Sea Island cotton. The oil
content of the Meade seed is unusually high, about 24 per cent having
been reported. Both varieties yielded fiber of the same length. 1i
In order to be a successful competitor with Sea Island cotton on
the Sea Island markets it is necessary that the Meade cotton be
harvested and ginned in the same manner and with care equal to
that with which Sea Island is usually handled. The fact that the
plants have the sanie general appearance and behavior as short-staple
Upland varieties affords no justification for careless handling of
the fiber.
This variety, like Durango, has been developed from imported seed
and represents a new form of Upland cotton previously unknown in
the United State s. The original stock was obtained by Messrs.
G. N. Collins and C'. B. Doyle. of the Department of Agriculture, at
Acala, in the State of Chiapas, in southern Mexico, in December,
1906, as the result of an expedition sent out for this purpose, the
(xitence of a native big-boll type of cotton in southern Mexico
having been discovered during a previous expedition conducted by
Mr. 0. F. Cook.
The preliminary work of acclimatizing and *-electing desirable
strains from the Acala stock was carried on chiefly in southeri'Texais
in the years between 1907 and 1911. In 1911 the variety was planted
for the first time on a field basis at Waco. Tex. During the last six
years it has given very -atisfactory results in several localities in
Texas,. Oklahoini. arnd western Tennes. e. It ha., attracted very
.favorable attention in Oklahoma as a large-boiled cotton earlier than
Lone Star or Triumplh. producing a similar abundance of lint with a
somewhat longer sta ple.
The present strain, adapted to northern conditions, is from a
selection of 20 plants made by Dr. D. A. Saunders from the original
field gown at Waco in 1911. These selections were planted in
progeny rows the following year in an isolated block at Waco. and
all but three of the progenies were discarded that fall. The three
progenies were increased in 1913, and in 1914 a part of the increase
was planted at Okemah, Okla.. and a part at Clarksville. Tex.
The variety may be described technically as follows:
Plant of medium hlieighlit. with strong, erect main stemi. Womd limbs or priuniry
branches few, erect or ascending. Fruiting branches short jointeil. zigzag,. the

DISTRIII'" Ti N i ll.," r' N '1I If i: 110il'.

h litl- II' I ,,.-,l 1In h Iii ih .r |t t h| c. |v|I i(>' '*' itl it ,,.r'.t
lill.ir:i, I .' I *l~ i. KI of u| il liii| | l ark -'. ii n tln|?>f i' 1 z i n,, rttk 1' -11 I11 '

I Ii h, 1..I i, the I iniin the tI i I.I iil. .,i I Ipeciall in tt I.
li. 'ii If i -n L .\l.I: iii. i f i ii,. I' all other i ari and i s
Ur I '1. ij. "-I st ril iii -,I I thu ,I r I lt r ducei d. It hai I re
rIR L iiM iliaiie 1h I)iIr Inig-th ii th oat er ;ariL'ty..,,1 "1m, be- to
be I tl Ul 'll dat c llPr'-lnl-d i|, lif lllll- I .II dll, he TeJ | bI 11 1- 1 *] tI Ih f 1111-
tknii I li- i :nv ln habits- of ,i'iu 1iii. a*1 t cl a- in it i c ihracters I I theL

fibe'. it IiM.'ltS a d io 1 t I ii> iriil i'i.i I inie d i. w iti],I.,,i oni ewxat
earlierr Ihi iI lt il t 'Ij", ot her ,ii. 0l.% 11 .1 1t1O- 1. i r I ttl : UC 11Ilt lit

"chii.-a2 L,, I'e :,l~llly eNxl,'I~l',l in t uhi6ation in parts~ ,f northern
TL'xa' aiid Oklanie. It is already well kii l n in soie coiiunu-
ntis. 1 otilt iot al c ,l er .ithA r and is i riv..,r., are ii hl ii,, a rvar it le for I
0111 fjr it' 1111, nn"o~rlvn; *irt, thusl 'ir f I trodueed. 1 ,It I Imoret

the re'mI.anim to Diinie calling it a KnIa Its erart ine. in1 the -I1tions
1 ilit U. ii I.l1.p i:, ly% ;V: iII, iel to ii t he bottom is I., -' I the cott-l tends
tol gITl) :iI:,k il, be latI il l Tn iit l 'iI,. N l-fl o n the i ore noi' I then
highlk r. It Ilhets fra -t h, i ili1rten- the gil, i i ii n. It is paIIie n-
eal'lier tllaiti I-niile IIt w i kr the tIi.,L- 'l c tto n i n tIi rI I'I : I i t

lar' united also l or i:iiltyhe gI-X.Iir, and the extra .i rin h f iLts i f ilother.

In the long-.taple iiia ketA.\i': l' ]riii a premium of 7.:,U to $12
Thexa seed for klhi a iiist rit IS tin wa l oli I frnoi IN :-lrrow Bros..-
Dnltn, TL. nl I r an d I Mer..\. Ii. an-a r.trI iI, Tex.I for

The Dixic iwlt-resitant cotton hll its ,,riinc- in ta resiant idi-
niiikils 11 r-'pci-C-iiily ;iihi.1i1100 to 111k bottom14) i ir lee c to tendsk

tid t l soWI lion ;il hie at Triny, 1.l.1. in o Th : 1o ln wre p1-r1e
isumahiiid %Ili'n flefntai hhri-d thet cn two II''f th numerous varieti-

of Up~lan,! cotton being grown there on wilt -infe,.ted land. Thii, line
larof wotk ws begl n for th W. A. l ri n with the objecrnnIt f pits duliner.
Ina trlin of cotton thait crulci be urii-,ssff : grown on lands'7.0 to 1hat2
a bale.

Tei seed for 1tli h the wilit or "lao-rotaine dissen Frrow this
Quiinlan. Tex.. and1 Mr. A. B. Fowlepr. ( Iarksille., Tex.


Thn, Dixie% lilt-resistant cotton hndl its (,ri-'in in a resistant indi-

origial sielction a innit Tfrny, st rain iwas TlIo plant whih pro-..
shighly ine istare to wil t hybanrd which was beq ientl nameroud "Dariie.s
of Upland cotton being girnvii there on, wilt -infoirted land. TIi' I ine 10
of work vii-s hopin by "Mr. W. A. Orinn with the olbject of producincr
a st'rain of votion Ifhat erm'ild he- sm;iepss fully grnwri on landtsta
wI'vrt infcwtod with the wilt or "Mlark-root diseas-e. Firmn this
original selection a nilfnirm strain w. developedi Nwhirli pro'f1
highly' re-istiant to wilt andwhich wsub quhpiently mnimed D'ixi.
During the succeeding ye:irs of its de- ilopnient the vnriet, has i,,,n
bred by the nio..t careful methodIs of individiial selection and pro -
I s.-P '. S [.'purtiiu, t o( Agrliulture. i 'armer B' Bulliiu l;.',, etilltili'd I'.,nt l \ [it
and Root-Knot," 1914,


eny-row tests, always being planted on wilt-infected land so that
nonresistant plants would be eliminated as they appeared and only
the most resistant retained. As a result, the variety has been con-
siderably improved in uniformity, wilt resistance, earliness, size of
boll, and length of lint.
Through the planting of tlhe wilt-resistant Dixie cotton, combined
with the use of the root-knot rotations outlined below, the wilt or
black-root disease is being successfully controlled. The variety has
now been grown on a large scale throughout the wilt-infected sec-
tions of South Carolina, Georgia. Alabama, and other States for
several yevs and has proved well adapted for use on land where
other varieties -iffer severe loss from wilt. Crops of a bale or more
per acre have been grown in numerous. localities on such wilt-
infected land. Farmers owning hundreds of acres of land on which
wilt reduced the crop 50 to 75 per cent with ordinary varieties have
stated that the use of Dixie cotton has saved them frnm financial ruin.
The following is a technical description of the variety:
Plant 'viinriu., \ilt resistant, of medium heighlit, p.ratnid.l, nearly of the
P1terkin type. usually with two or more large ba.al branches and with long,
slender, slightly dru'jing fruit limbs; le:'ives of medium size; bolls of medium
size, about 75 being required for 1 pound of seed cotton, easy to pick, but very
stormproof; seed rm;ial, weight of 100 seedls 10 grams, variable in color, but
typically covered % ith greenish brown fuzz; lint about seven-eighths of an inch;
percentage of lint to seed, 34 to 35.
Root-knot is very generally associated with the wilt disease and
is by many farmers confused with it. The two diseases are distinct
and require different, methods of treatment. Wilt is caused by the
attacks of the fungus Fisarium. va.sinfectum, which penetrates, grows
in, and plugs the water-carrying vessels of the plants, thus preventing
the rise of water. This disease attacks only cotton and okra. Root-
knot is caused by nematodes, or eelworms, microscopic in size, which
bore into the roots and cause knots or swellings on them. These
nematode-infested areas of the root are thereby weakened and fur-
nish points of entrance for the wilt fungus. Root-knot is known to
attack many farm crops besides cotton, notably cowpeas, tomatoes,
cucumbers, and cantaloupes. The damage resulting from the two
diseases occurring together is much greater than from either alone.
Different methbds of treatment are necessary for the control of
the troubles. Wilt can be successfully controlled by planting a wilt-
resistant variety of cotton in connection with the usual crop rota-
tions practiced by the best farmers. When root-knot occurs on land
already infected with the wilt disease, no cotton should be planted on
it until the diseased field has been rotated one, two, or three years,
according to the severity of the disease, with crops immune to the
trouble. The best rotations for such root-knot infected land include


'orn, lharlt\ "l-. \ i-'..t. r' t,. Tr',m ,or ['r:,1,1:1i.l 'm ..a. (t0n-.s4, In
itie' ')iil\' 'iiiiiii'i"'iii] \:i ri'tiis k ,iiun, to In 't-idiit to rot, -kIiil),
'elvh t' btril .s. pr i t-.. Ii-l% vdiL' t'l. nl-, ilTvit,]ilil fill ,.T (;:ill
Maiike ii|) fl'ii tll ;i li-t of 'ro- tOi r ntiil Vyset'tii if ftll riiilg. Tiz. i)i' rl ilC'' ij i s t' I ti (1t. OUt the nenm; -
todL.s I) pli|)ri tI ,'lg i l). ',1 \hicih tI l. el not live. .\ Atur the root-
knot Ii;1% liWil thli- r.ii'l ,In i'(.ii,. the Di.ti \\milt -r-'i4;iint
vai irt \ If cuttoni -.I,()l i be lt I :,iit,', on II.I I which I :I-) lii-:, ile \%ilt.
'I'll%: s..d fir lliu tli4ril tii ii w _i ._'.,1 v,, ', M r. ('. C. l'iriiiiin,m
Fl .i-rIt S. I.. i ., he -,ih ,,. i ,i ,,' M i. L I. at.,-',i. \lI(' 1h.1
attr.rngt Ihti Ith itii.rljutliioi of Dixie 0'410o .-c,. lr tl. di Cr .,suil u il'.1j.


3 1262 08866 3918


Inclosed with the quart package of cotton seed sent for
liminary trial will be found a yellow return card showing the'
of the seed sent, which is to be returned to the Deparpmanot ^i.
culture in ca'e the grower is willing to cooperate in testing ".i:....
parative value of this variety. To those returning this yellow'i
a blank form will be sent in the fall of 1919 for use in giving
tailed report of the results obtained, including the following itmI"'
(1) Character of the soil. '. .'.
(2) Character of the season.. .. ..
(3) Whether the seed of the new variety was isolated or planted w.i th.,la..
variety for comparison.
(4) Name of local variety used for comparison.
(5) Size and yield of row or plat of the new variety. .' j qri.3'
(61 Yield of equal row or plat of the local variety. .. :ii. -..
.*(f l"lting of the new variety for your section-whether excellent, goo4,n
or poor.
(8) A sample of seed cotton representing ten 5-locked bolls, the. seed *w0tt
from each boll to be picked carefully and wrapped separately in a a1aJ lp
- of paper. -
Should the report of the preliminary test prove to the Depat ii..
of Agriculture that the variety is desirable for the groweai..
tions and if a 10-boll sample of the seed cotton is submitted'.. ..,;.,
accordance with instructions, he will be permitted to share in th ':..
special distribution of half-bushel lots of seed of the sane varietyt..,,
following season. ,:.. :,; .
In order to take advantage of this special distribution it will.I" ... '
necessary for the grower to keep careful notes of the behavior of the '".
plants grown from the quart package of seed, so that a complete
report can be made on the blank which will be sent for that purpose.
The sample bollk are to be used for determining the length, quality,
and percentage of lint. This information, together with the detailed
report, will enable the cotton experts of the Department to decide .;
whether the variety is promising under the grower's conditions and .
will aid in assigning the distribution of the larger lots of seed to
such communities only as are likely to adopt the new varieties a ad
establish them in regular cultivation.
The samples should be accompanied by the name and address of
the grower, as well us the name of the variety grown. In prevMious
years it has been necessary to discard many samples because they
were not marked and there was no way to identify them.