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Distribution of cotton seed in ...
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U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OP PLANT INDUSTRY.
N. ....l. Now and Rare Seed D.stribution,
WASHINGTON. D. C.


IASISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.

i tl thirteenth distribution of cotton seed(] conducted bhy Ilo
........... stribution in cooperation with the cotton-br eding
f .thie Bureau of Plant Industry.
O th put 11 years, approximately .30 varieties of cotton iiivo
&tnbuted. These hamo been developed by tie expe-fs of the
f Plant Industry or selected by then because of special
.......... :i
..m.thod of distribution followed last year has proved so goner-
.t..i..t.ry that it is proposed to continue it this season. Tho
dstribution of a small quantity of seed (1 quart), to enable
to. become acquainted with the characteristics of the
will be followed in the most inr-omising sections by a special
tu, which is fully explained under the headijin IReport of
d. aitwting." The special distribution furniiishes to those
EJ enough seed to produce at least one full bale of the new
-y f cotton and also: to produce a stock of seed for planting a
dmsble acreage the following season.
d one new variety is being sent out this year. It is now consid-
r" ed more important to establish a few superior varieties in general
cultivation than to add to the number of new varieties. Experience
with former distributions shows that supplies of pure seed must be
ma iaed by the Departmentof Agriculture and repeated distri-
.. ..iom. made until a new variety has become wellny lichd.
a'B'u :An introductory statement on "Improv cmen1) t/j ty)n''p
by Selection," by 0. F. Cook, who is in charge 14 .cotLto:T-A P
work of this bureau, explains how the seed m .to utilized fck
bst advantage by the farmer. t
ggA.AKLErP
.....Ct in UC-ar4. '
::: Approved: .
Wx. TATnoR, *..%- ..... -
Chef of Buau. 80UCi'>
iJAuvAT 2, i1o15. -

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IMPROVEMENT OF TIlE IWrFlTON CROP IY SEI: (' TH N.
lhovw r n i1t,' f:,rnir iii1k1 tfi ,i'-t ,s, ,,f 21 .i :ill slur ,,f -',1 of
a supe1 rior stectelr id v% ri'h 2 1 iiiiTle '"l:iiimtiii-rz ,iii itIl\i ii'.. tilt?
methods lIv w ilich -'l ic -p' piI i i ui, ..I.. :.- Ti l: l l 'hi'l
variety from det mratmilion. Thi' in, :1l \w.iv ,f tr'.,titIIrt I .-iIn ill ]iI :i ti-
tity tIf select -,ecI'd i n t, lit. iil cldr, i.li'tId Ii ii-- li tin- I'.*n '* tl)
learn the tri-ue vniltin' ut i new v.ritr t py tr pjisii i' \ tli[, iIIrit v (if
mi unimprovedC stock.
TESTING NOT TO BE Cl)M[INiAi WITH Sli.IIrTI)N.
A mistake im tli- fre(|iuently l), fa3-in1 F-. ;11nil -ltuu'lin i' li jprI if<.s-
sional breeder.-, i.; t, Ittiviiil t i 1,nLiiInI irti , _, I I r'I'tliw ng.
Tl(he new variety of cotton i plN;antil I'y tli, -.Id of ikel ],.iI vairictIy
or it inixotl stock in order [ii to ItL it- I,'ii\ i.'r, II ,LI I 'I d i v'I ,: i\'l from
the same Aint')IIL1i g to increase ti L t .tw k ,lf di. it, v vn i ty. Thilis
plan is open to the serious (diuiii- lii th tl O -.e I tf ili' 1 iw \ ri-et i
when gathered in the fall will iiin t t1i I uri .,] .r'|i-:iit If h i0,1g rohtl-
tamminted by crossing with the li,'al] -.L[ict v.-, tl it i wv -'|,wiIl V.rlu0
will be lost. The aniounlt of twl'i"'-' iil'lii" \i lli t itt l Im ;ilil Ni aird thlio
seasonll, ldepelitdi i on the niii:l'I.itn"e if is" l" ,i1.hr iu..c't-, that
carry the pollen friii oup flowe\\'r ito ir.ilt '],lit tlhn, i- -u.tilly t,,O
much crossing to mnak," it snfe to rely ,-n I, ,, ptritY 1-f ilv I.ttock of
seed that. has been gri,'nn close to ni'[lthir vLTrit'ly of cotton
I S.I.ATION oF EEl) I'l \I', iS.
A farmer who wi,h,-.h to mi;i.k :i reaIll; .ii',1fil.t0 test of the value
of a new variety shimld pialnt thi sei' at least 300 yarils Front other r filil- o(f cot ,II r sriat'rlid tlu.refroin
by 25 ur 30 rows 'f ci'iiri. An i-,,Ilat.it' pl.iti li._ i, or iiri ]riviIL', of
course, for a elo-e (otilp:irist'i with 0th li,:,l v:arictv. It'll lii~ ,:in hIo
made in the fiffwin. rear to fnuliibt rti'r i l\V.iit.z,., Witlh the
larger stock of -;i,,d th,.n av, i-ilail,' :; field li:it.I. c in 6, mak.l', *is
well as test pli, iIi.z. li- th' third yv.ar t.hert will lie (t'llIIgh seed
to stock cvii i li fr ; f(arn ii ith ti1 i, w '. A int v't if it ha. I I-. hown it seif
superior unditr t ,i lo'eI l Cii!i lit'lit S.
Many friiivt'-rs :2ire unwilli,-: to grive th, proper care to a new
variety until they have anid it prelimitnarv lest and convinced tiem-
selves that it. is really superior. It is for this reason that tlie plat
of endiLng out. ai smaller quantity of seed in the genteral di-,tribuiiOm
has been adopted. Those who use this small sample of se.d fir test-
i"g purposes and plant it in the same field with another v:-rhtv" or
3







DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.


a mixed stock of cotton are advised not to save seed in the fall with
any idea that they are keeping a pure stock of the new variety in
this way. If the farmer is convinced that the new variety is supe-
rior be should get a fresh stock of the seed and plant it in a separate
breeding plat, as far away as possible from any other field of cotton.
The distribution of seed of superior varieties of cotton is no longer
limited to a single season, as the custom formerly was. Unless
improved varieties become established in cultivation in some part of
the United States the work of breeding and distribution serves no
useful purpose. To increase the number of varieties in a community
is not desirable. On the contrary, there would be a distinct advan-
tage if the whole community would grow one variety, if the best va-
riety could be determined. The danger of mixture of varieties by
crossing and the mixture of seed at the gin would both be reduced,
and the uniformity of the product would enable the community to
secure a higher price for its cotton.1
WHY SELECTION MUST BE CONTINUED.
Unless selection is continued the value of a variety is sure to de-
cline. A well-bred variety is superior to ordinary unselected cotton
not only in having better plants but in having the plants more nearly
alike. Whether selection has any power to make better plants is a
question, but. there can be no doubt of the power of selection to keep
the plants alike. Even in the best and most carefully selected stocks
inferior plants will appear, and if these are allowed to multiply and
cross with the others the stock is sure to deteriorate. The pollen
from the flowers of inferior plants is carried about by bees and other
insects and the seeds developed from such pollen transmit the char-
acters of the inferior parent. Even if they do not come into expres-
sion in the first generation they are likely to reappear in the second
generation.
To grow cotton from unselected seed involves the same kind of
losses as in an orchard planted with unselected seedling apple trees.
Less cotton is produced and the quality is also inferior. The higher
the quality of the cotton the more stringent is the requirement of a
uniform staple. Unless the fibers have the same length and strength
they can not be spun into fine threads or woven into strong fabrics.
PRESERVATION OF VARIETIES BY SELECTION.
The method of selection to be followed in preserving a variety from
deterioration is entirely different from that employed in the develop-
ment of new varieties. The breeder of new varieties seeks for excep-
tional individuals and prefers those that are unlike any variety pre-
I Sme o the nu.aerou3 airqantges t- be gpned by a better organization of cotton-growing communities
have been described in an article published in the Yearbook ol the Department of Agriculture for 1911
under the title "Cotton Improvement on a Community Basis."







DISTRIBUTION OF COTrrON SEED IN 1915. 5

viouslv known. ifr tie selhctiro in N Iing cal-rrtied ,i In preserve t
variety, the objec-t is niot to se .ri' '-., fromi tin l,' j iiliiir paints, but
to ri'jit ct ill that. d.vit' frii- i tlhel (liiit-i r S first qualification for such Sl.eciiAiu is : fariihali irity with thu i.l.hitis
of growth i nd 1 th.,r ch;iri(ncti'r-4 if fth vo iriil\', to ,iiiitil, flt f:Lrnier
or brewder to confn', hii,; ihlt' tion11 tj tlit' plinlts ihat itillirt, ti) th
"form" or typlt" ir 1h1 vViiM.'t V I 1i r1 i, 1iill t!'.:It v'.iiy fr-iui
t ho type. M ost of tio !t i ti r j-l:- il ir r-', t I, i vr f i'.:.ft ti-,,r 1L0ii at
the samio time would incrv';.o thi (ivieri-sityv if IhO variety aMid lih.ltenc
its degeneration.
IMPROVED) MI|ETWlf (0F FI:u. Srl.:-CTION.
No matter how good a nnew vartv mainy bec or htw iarcf'ifl- it may
have been brdil an .-cl -clet ci, if rior ill,,tiit ]r ii:h.'l to appear,
especially when it is grown undcr ndi. w iil iiii ii Ol'UieiCtolio lii'litiins.
A special effort is bing niitde to) liiilit theli li-'tribluiiii to st,-el from
uniform fields of cotton, lut scl.htin i.', i .' -.di rv I, kc..ep any variety
from deterioration, and it is us;rliss to, wit uI:tii the iletcriorntion
becomes serious before beginning ihho si.-lctioim. If proper attention
be paid t0 the roguing oit (of iif,',iir ])l-[J,. in tiht .ir.st seasin tliero
may be much less variation inII the sectlI, tht v-irit y li, orminilr letter
adjusted to the new corltlitions.
As uniformity is one of the fir.t es-4nti.ls if value in It variety,
the behavior of a new varietyy iII tllis rr-;pert i, o(n of the fir-st tiinng,
to hobe noted. Do not wait till the crio- ii r.ii-i, buit l wIat.h tli I) plants
in the early part of tit," season. Even lt iri the tinim of fliwecrilng
it is possible to dist inguish "f-irtk" plants by ilifferences in th'ir
habits ot growth or the chararttrs oif their sterns and loaves. MVlin-
ever such variations (:IIn It d'tecteii. tli'y slitiiultl b1' pullil out ,i. unto
in order to, prI -vent thI rI, ,siig ,f the ,',,,I pl;'.i. xvi; hi infrijr
pollen. After trhe bNidls I.iin ih, ro:, h mature .-izt' it i-; well to g.,
through the p1:t L12%.Lill ;1n1 p)ll 'it all plants that show Ily tihe sil.,ll
size or other pD ctlieariti-'s of tlihe bI'1L ti.at, their ha Ii l "t-,.1 n a v, ri:,li,,i
from tho standard s of lito variety. Tihes prul mminn .rw si-leciir.s
greatly simplify thi final s,'li' .ctin in the fall. wlh ii atteinttin c.iai lie
limited to the vi'hll and to the ch:ir.tcters of the lint and scedstl.'
Ls7-E or ProGENY n\ows IN SELECTION.
Selection can lI) made still nmre efficient, bv the u;c' of proz.,.ny
rows. The seed of select individual plants is picked separate lv int,
paper bags and planted the next season in ailj-rcnt, row-1, il urilr
to test the behavior uf the pro.genics of the dilTerenrit ind iviIlual-. An
SM Lthods of s'leclion am trrMl-- in ri?3t- r i, l.j in Lircular N i,, f r h lurjr u .: '4iInL I i'i-.lTry,
U. S. D,'trtm-nt of Agricultur?.entil1 "COLoFIn S'?li-c. on l In h. L'rrii by Il ,P rl.ar-.c"''s Mi e C sialks,
Imav and bDLs." S',- si: Bull! ia No. 1i3of thi Dur'au of Plnlt Lnduslry. U. S. I.cprtment alo Ari-
cLutztra, eatltied "Local Adjusm.r zt ol C:ltan Var.wtts."







6 DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.

inferior progeny can be rejected as a whole and selection limited to
the best rows. It often happens that a very good plant produces a
comparatively inferior progeny, which would not be excluded from
the stock unless the progeny-row test were made.
Nevertheless the use of progeny rows is no substitute for skill and
care in making the selection, for if the selected plants arc not all of
the true type of the variety, admixture by cross-polination will occur
in the progeny rows the same as in a mixed planting. Protection
against the danger of crossing between different progenies can be
secured by holding over a part of the seed of the select individuals
used to plant the progeny rows. The remainder of the seed that pro-
iduced the best progeny row can be planted in an isolated breeding
plat in the year following the progeny test. In this way a special
strain is developed from a single superior plant.
METHODS OF TESTING COTTON VARIETIES.
The best way to test the behavior of two varieties of cotton is to
plant them in alternate rows so that they can be compared carefully
during the growing season and the yield of each row weighed sepa-
rately at the end of the season. Of course, it is often possible to
judge that one variety is superior to another without weighing, but
if the results arc nearly equal weighing is necessary. Even experi-
enced cotton men are likely to make errors in guessing at the yields
of different rows of the field. A variety that. "scatters" its lint may
appear to be yielding much more than a storm-proof variety with
dense, compact lint that can be shown to be much more productive
by comparison of actual weights of seed cotton and percentages of
lint.2 The lint values are also to be compared, especially in long-
staple varieties.
ADMIXTURE OF SEED IN GINS.
One of the most serious difficulties in maintaining the uniformity
of a superior variety of cotton is the mixture of seed in gins. A few
farmers have their own gins or small hand gins for their seed cotton,
and in some localities giving establishments are beginning to pro-
vidle small gins that are kept. clean for ginning seed cotton. Some
f.arrmiers take care to avoid the mixture of seed by holding their seed
cotton until the end of the season, when the time can be taken to clean
out the gin. It is also possible to plant progeny rows or seed plates
with unginncd seed by wetting the lint before planting or by pressing
the seed into moist ground.
0. F. CooK,
Bionomist in Charge.
See Circular No. 11 of tho Bureau of Plant Industry, entitled "Danger in Judging Cotton Varieft T
by Lint Perccntagts," which may bo had from Lthe Superintendent of Documents, Government PrintUn
Office, Washington, D. C., at 5 cents a copy.


. ^ ^ ___. i
















REPORT' OF ,CL'TS (f' PL.XANTIN(f;.


In order to (Idetrlem ii, i i 'ij ii r I i \'e valiei, ,f the Iii rtnnt V'irii.-
ties of cotton illn v'arI'Is ot titi-rovinwin r.',i ii',l. report will bo
reque.,ted'l 1i tl,, iii11iiii11 of 1'1.1 toI ilIt' ilt the ft.llowiiig., items:
l) 1"'haravti- r of tilt, 4,'il
^2) t'hajr-ctr ,i thin .'<.i m..
e1) \h ,'r th, i' .1i .11 tho nw11 v.jr,_ w.v g i.ol-; ted or planted with a IocI variety
for Ciinimpiari?n1 .
01) Nanim I xil v.i rii Iv ii -.I i r ', ; .,i. >n.
(5) Siz., .,inl .i'hl f row r pl i., r i' 111 f ,v % .,ri, I. .
(Co) Yield .1I eqiiiual row or l t.f t1 Ili., I."- il vari ty.
(7 [Litii," i 1 tho now v;rin'ty i" r v',iir ,l.,iii hr ,thrr ex-i'.11h It. W ,*,d. f.ur, or
Pur.
(R' A mnlbpI -' se'I r" it tn r.; r-~.. nr'ITi ten "'.1 TI :, bolls, h, l cottn from
onch bull ti h ]e ]picked .ir'f ii'..:l '. r.ijippd epartely in a na1ll piece, i t ,'.tT,,
Growers who i-.l ti>i (iool't' with the 1)'p:rtl iietit of A,,ri'iil-
Luro in tht, iupr ivenlejI t of ctt1, in varieties are FL r,.I.d to keep careful
notes of tLhe l)itliiviir of the varivt nt ri ,rd, so that a proper report
may be niathi' ili tlt fall. A ll.Tak will be sent for this purpose.
Growers who wish tIi ,h.liir -' in the sp.,i:il distribution lh lowing yvar will 1 w' cxpirtie.l i,, furnish a i -', alI sample tt<' seed
cotton, a.s nmeiitiontt] iiiidr itrin (if the above list. Tiw-. samples
aro to he usd] f,,ut dittrimniniti tin htii.tll. quality, and l I,'i,,t.L.L,'
of linIt.. "ril.l ilifIt'i 11i ,1 Ril .l l dt.d 1 to tion of larger 'UaitIL.til.'-. of -vet'il pro, y half iim-lhl-) to le sent
to Community., t!,.t nr. lil.lv tao :id- ,pt the new varieties and estab-
lish them ^ii r, .;'. l:a ,'iltvi tit i~i' .
'The +iijt' inh.- a ot I ,mpmnied by the name a addis 4f the
grower, as ,lI a.s.t 1.0- al 1ne of tle vIiit'. y t'II '.V It has been Iece(-
sary to di.-caLril r i:Li1V ph.ies bIecaue they were not marked and there
was no way to identify them.





J g.. .. I "'ah ...







VARIETIES DISTRIBUTED.


LONE STAR.

The Lone Star variety belongs to the Texas big-boll type and was
bred in Texas by Dr. D. A. Saunders. of the Bureau of Plant Industry.
It was developed from a single superior plant found in a field of Jack-
son cotton in the Colorado River bottom near Smithville, Tex., in
August, 1905.
In 190S plats of this selection largo enough to give a fair test of
yield and lint qualities under field conditions were planted at Waco,
Denison, and ('uero, Tex. The yield, percentage, and quality of lint
were better than in any other variety with which it was compared,
and this superiority has been retained in subsequent seasons.
Following is a technical description of this variety:
Plant of medium height with one to four limbs and many long fruiting branches;
main stem very short jointed and less hairy than the majority of big-boiled varieties;
the limbs ascending, generally producing fruiting branches at their base; fruiting
branches numerous, horizontal or ascending, long, medium short jointed; leaves
medium to large, very dark green; petioles very long, somewhat drooping or recurved;
bolls very large, round or broadly ovate, IA to 1 j inches in diameter. II to 2 inches
iu length, with very short, blunt points, 35 to 45 to the pound; involucral bracts
very large, closely appressed, coarse veined, deeply cut into long teeth, the longest
teeth often meeting over the end of fully developed green bolls; pedicels of medium
length, U inches in length below to three-fourthls of an inch at the top of the main
stem and the extreme ends of the primary and fruiting branches; the bur thick and
heavy, with very blunt points; lint 1 inch to 1J inches in length, very strong, and of
uniform length of fiber, 38 to 40 per cent.
In this variety the limbs begin to develop fruiting branches 4 to 7
inches from their bases instead of near their extremities. This ap-
pears to be an advantage under weevil conditions, as in years of
heavy infestation the bulk of the crop must be obtained from the
lower third of the plant. In selection, considerable stress has been
laid upon the short-jointed character of the main stem as essential in
developing an early-fruiting tendency. The habits of growth are
similar to those of the well-known Triumph cotton, and under some
conditions the two varieties appear almost indistinguishable; but in
other places obvious differences appear, and these are in favor of the
Lone Star. The plants arc less inclined to become prostrate, the
bolls are larger, and the lint longer and more abundant. Very
8




A.







SDISThIBUTION Or COTTON SEED IN 1015.


largo yields have lbeeII reported ninurt than twou ,hI1, per itere fi1n
measured areas. underr ft iv 'orlaule ,' ti i i til IL' lit jil-r, fit anll ., I I
inch 's in leinigth. MIIiiv lbill'e. (f ilii, c'ti't In 11i;% be, ii .,',il iii it
pri-tniiiuztii Ti Lorint St r ii i.tiidn ,liilidlv liif. ,1.t %;uL w v il'% it.:tIl-
able fur general p airing inll the t' .\:i, l ,I,'k-l;i, l I ,i ail, iIljJ ,,.,i ,
regions. The variot" is best ,known i lli \ii iiil \ '-f WIiL4', % 'lur'T ii
is replacing atil other types of -lii)rt-stl i.'l, h LI'l I(I ,, it,,i.
Thi Mseed fi'r tIhls d.iti buti', wi.- t ,i 'i fr li.' I )F11ii liii'uli ,,r
Agriculluro lnear \W aco, l l'\ M I.rsi-'. .lidill (.'1i ta.,ii iLil I). M .
Crcnslhaw.
TRICE.
The Trice cotton is an early-matl'ira i .n slirt-tinipli' vari*t v de-
vdloped by Prof. S.. Ba. B in, of tire 'I't .'L-~' A 'I 'ill ,21111ri:l EXpi',i-
merin Station, ft collaborator of t lie Bil'Ii rIJ I ;" l'l. rmt [idtI I(, It. is
tho result of four 'Ol.ns' selection fr'in ;ii iil ariY vanini. I tJnd oltn
the farm of Mr. Luke Trice, Inic lrinih r?,tni. (',.-.tctr (.'tuiint Tenrn.
The or1igin- l vrity i, said to hvi,' ciine titi niouiutl-'r .1r Mis1uri und
is knowTn locally in ('lestcr C'ou1nt i.Y "Il:,t- loll U Clusitr." In 0o0
work of selection particular attcnt ion wa,.i ,ri, oen t( earline-.ss, iialduc-
tiveness, for-m of st:ilk, nt1 hiig'o 1 ,11 lIs, tiln' cr-'js iwin'z ptod necd on
the farm of Mr. WV. N. McFaddehn, Iln Ia'VeT- I C('urnly, '[Tn. A
trial rado alongside the original vatir'lv int ll is." .how J id n dJsttinct
improvement in all the qualitie-, i soul.It in tine lotionn, as well as
greater uniformity.
Though developed with special referrnceo o thr lieligt, sandy sods
of western Tennessee. the variet v hlias Livi, excU.erit returns in other
districts. The most active demand fur th, si.d his couii from
northern Mississippi, where the invasion if Ithe [oll wevil hIa.-, led to
the planting of carhcer veitinrts: but tile variotuy has also proved
valuable in other districts not vet inTvadedi 1Y weevvls, for it is (is-
tinctly supiit'iur to Kini' anil ,liT ir var-iIt .- piiztdu for extreme
earliness. TThr behavior o two seasons intdicat,,s l t thlt varit? is wonthy of distribution across
the northern rim of the cott!,n bi'lt nnd in the Souttheastern States.
The Trice cotton is thus decriIed:
Plant rather small, 2 to 3 h.-vt Iiiz.i, f T 'etcrkin typr, rarw-Iv riili tlit liit bJasal
bmrncli.s, v r\ pr',lili' ; fru tiiig br'mi,, lnI < 1 ,- I,;,'r,,,...-.!'.,rl j,'ruii'1,. i. .- Ii,'iit [ret n,
of medium Fiz', liir- to. holL. n.,-iiiIin It larz'. r\.iale. oftelri an-i:lar. 4 to 5 lurkit.;
icd largo, with leinse whnitlAi or hritwiliLsh ut, lint fine. sevt-tu.-iglahtb to 1 intl> lung;
percentage of lint 2S to :3, .a-I 'r, earl.
This variety having been developed from a cluster type, this char-
acter is liable to reappear. The percentage of reversion apparently is
greater under more adverse soil conditions. In maintaining the
variety, cluster plants should be removed from the field as early as
possible.




... .. ............. .' :. .. ... .



10 DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.

The seed now distributed was grown by Mr. T. C. Long in the
vicinity of Jackson, Tenn.; Mr. Frank Lindsay, Portsmouth, Va.; and
Mr. R. A. Bridger, Bells, Tenn.
COLUMBIA.
The Columbia cotton is an carly long-staple variety, well adapted
to South Carolina and adjacent. States. It was derived from a short-
staple variety, the Russell big boll. The first selection was made in
1902 at Columbia, S. C., by Dr. H. J. Webber, formerly in charge of
the cotton-breeding work of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and re-
suited in the finding of a single long-linted plant that gave a superior
progeny in 1903. Throughout the process of selection the aim was
to select plants having the Russell type of branching and boll, so
that the plant of the Columbia is scarcely recognizable as distinct
from the Russell variety. The very large boll has also been retained
and the. variety is in every respect of true Upland type aside from
the length of lint and the color of the fuzz.
The Russell variety produces a large seed covered with dark-green
fuzz. This character is very undesirable, owing to the discoloration
of the lint if ginned while somewhat wet by the pulling off of the
green fuzz and also owing to the green color giving undesirable
linters. In breeding this variety by selection, therefore, special at-
tention has been given to selecting a white seed. The great majority
of the plants of the. Columbia variety now produce white seed, but
this character has nut as yet been entirely fixed and some green seed
continues to be produced. There is also a tendency to produce occa-
sional plants with greenish lint. These should be rejected in pick-
ing, as the lint is worthless and produces an undesirable discoloration
in the bale. The proportion of green seeds is much larger in some
seasons than in others, owing to some influence of external conditions
not yet understood.
The following is a technical description of this variety:
Plant low, compact, of Russell type, having several long, branching basal limbs,
vigorous, prolific; bills large to very large, ovate, short pointed, opening well, mainly
5 locked; seeds large, fuzzy, white or greenish, 8 to 10 per lock; lint very strong,
from 14 to IT.% inches in length, fine, silky, and very uniform in length; percentage
of lint 29 to .1,; 5cason early in comparison with the older hlng-staple varieties.
As a result of continued high prices for long-staple Upland cotton,
Columbia cotton is being quite extensively planted in South Carolina
and adjacent States.
The Columbia cotton is increasing rapidly in popularity and in
some neighborhoods has become the dominant variety. Growers
accessible to long-staple markets usually secure a premium of 5
cents or more above corresponding grades of short-staple cotton.
Contrary to the general impression that long-staple varieties are



%







DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.


productive, the. C(,luililit. cotton oft.n oittlli'll-d. short-stapli' va-
rieties grown under thli t saIn' conditions. "rli', d:nier n(w is thilt
failure to keep the seed ]lIurc will ictilt in tlL,, i,',,Iliuct!inl (If hitan
quantities of uneven fiber that will 1iijtict. Ill. rulpiitttlii (if illt
variety. Henee the importance of vortn lind i, il-tri, ,tin of slr,'ct
seed. It is also imnport,,nt that I0,iinnitni,- imchrliktn, l i> pt,,durn
long-staplo cotton siluld prj llr ih I ict,.Ic .-s itllI f:i.litil I s for
maintaining tlie uniforniiiy (if -el.ct vanii, w,.
Ili order to secure a prInliumil, IspJc]:1lly fr l,,mn stziplfl, it I- li.rces-
sarv to pick the cotton wilh care, Io(t l'I ti l\( lilI, l t':\ 1111d" 11, ,titr
" trash, liIt to, iiv l iiniiiiiilur,' itiii I u 'ill -'t tiiiuuIl Iu1l'l. It 11 a1iio
niee'essa'rv that thl, cotton be dry lbfurua gi lni,,. liiil1 "1l tt'ial" aid
har-h. Thie lint should I feCl ,l VII. 'I'llr -i I I.'. I I- :il, I 1,t IL) wI W LIn,'d
a auji'st allowingll hl'r and short. Cott ll It i, Ili nil,.\,il Il LILLc s-lRi, bale.
There is no market for nixied IIli'V-.
In somo loie litit',s it is believrd t l int lti' (',illliini .l, c'titn sIfltrs
more tlian the e',thr \aricti ,,nrini tl wtmi'ii n- rf iti,,i ,ll tl'rou hii
attacks of niithrlc-iiu0.-! Io fl-ron I n iL r.'.I. Ii' .e (,ligII .N are
increased wliNhe conlitiiiis f: ,vtIr s.i !i l,'I.\ ini i..Il ilvt l i'[i ten tr of
follagn that the boll-s are k jpt nioi i-L lv I,..t l -Iil:t,'. TIIc pI ,iiI ing
of (C'olunlilia cotton liT T'Ix 1, nft tilv i-,!. i tl 'l i xc rilh 1t re-;ults
are reported from some loiealit i.s an tli r',,:,-t h.li. i'[triv nd qali-
ties of the ,triiety are not retained under the more extreme conditions
that arc often encountered in the drier irtilv- of the Southwest.
The seed for thi-. distribution was grown lIvy Mc-.-r-. C. HI. Carpenter,
Easlery, S. C., and R. C. Keennii. C',hilmlia. S. C.
DURANGO.
The Durannir is a new ypt* of I pl:nid lonhi.r--tnple cotton. intro-
duced and nrclinmHi.-:,d l y the l),,j: irtment of Az.%riculture. T['io
original stock of seed came from the M, \- iI State of Do r.TiI:o. ,lt
the variety was grown nnd seletetIl for several years in T'.\'x, cLitfl'i
at Del Rio amld San Alttoniio, libf'fore I'ingL d1li.iliuted. Tile results
of numerous experiments ji:tify e rt comncnndititin of the Du ango
cotton as an carly priuluctive variety nd:ipt,1, to a wile range of
conditions in the I niLed Statets. It has -giv-in better results than il tier
long-staple varieties in the irri:ited ,ei-niis o(f the SutJthweste(rn
States, as well as in laplnd districts of the South,.astern States.
In experiments as far north as Norfolk, Va.. yields have been secured
comniparwig favorably with King and other earl:- rmit during sl:ort-staple
varieties. The chief center of production is in the Imperial Valley
of California, where the Durango cotton has outyielded the short,-
staple varieties, as well as producing lint of much higher value.
In earliness the Durango cotton is distinctly superior to the
Columbia, which is an advantage in weevil-infested( regions or where







DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.


the season is short. There seems also to be less susceptibility to
injuries by anthracnose, perhaps on account of the more open foliage.
On account of the erect form of the plants, the Durango cotton is well
suited to the new system of cotton culture which suppresses the
vegetative branches and keeps the plants close together. This is of
great advantage where the growing season is of short duration.,
The lint is of excellent quality and attains a length of 1ii inches
under favorable conditions. The bales of Durango cotton thus far
produced kave been sold at from 2 to 10 cents a pound above the
prevailing market, prices of short-staple cotton, premiums of 5 or 6
cents being the rule.
Following is a short technical description of this variety:
Plant of upright habit, with a strong central stalk and rather stiff, ascending
vegetative branches. Fruiting branches of moderate length or rather short, under
some conditions becoming semlcluister. Foliage rather deep green, reddening rather
early in the c.ason. Loaves of medium size, usually with 5 or 7 rather narrow taperfng
lobes, loaves with 3 lobes being kss frequent than in most other varieties of Upland
cotton. Involucral bracts rather small, triangular, cordate, margined with rather
abshort tecthl. Calyx lobes rather irregular in length, sometimes very long and slender.
Bolls of medium or rather large size; utinder favorable conditions about 60O to the pound.
Shape of bolls, conic oval, with rather smooth surface, the oil glands deeply buried.
The proportion of 5-locked bolls varies usually from 40 to 50 per cent. Seeds of
medium size, covered with white fuzz and bearing abundant even lint about Ij inches
long under favorable conditions.
More complete accounts of the characters and habits of the Du-
range cotton in comparison with those of other varieties are to be
found in several of the publications of the Department of Agriculture.2
The seed for this distribution was grown by Messrs. L. S. Mumford,
of Lanevijie, Ala.; Frank Lindsay, of Portsmouth, Va.; C. H. Carpen-
ter, of Easley, S. C.; and W. M. Law, of Hloltville, Cal.

HOLDON.

Holdon belongs to the Texas big-boiled type of cottons and repre-
sents the extreme of the series of big-boll varieties. The lint is longer
and the bolls larg-r and with more of the storm-proof quality than in
any, other variety. The original plant, from which it was developed
was selected from the same field as the progenitor of Lone Star. It
was found in the Colorado River bottom near Smithville, Tex., in
1005, and the stock has been bred carefully ever since. During the
last three years it has been grown on a field basis both at Waco and
Clarksville, Tex.
Scc U'. S. D.partmnicnt of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin CC1, r.:i!ld "A New System ct Cotton
Culture and lls ,rpliicaion," I1;4.
2 Soe U. S. Department or Agriculture, Bureau cf Phlnt Industry Bullclm No. :0, cntit! d "Relation
of Drought to Weevil resistance min Cctton," and Farmers' Bulietin CI, entitled "CGilon Improvement
urder W.ev'J Conditions."







DISTRIBUTION (F COTTON SEED IN 1015.


Following is a technical chdscript lit i of theI virivt :
riPlant crr-t or w irri lim vilv frlii,'I l ,' d it1ilm.ifif. -' 2 1 4 f, t 1 ii. I ?_ rJi within rIathIr
irregular joinils. IrtlratiiM l,>ran, II r .... l l tnl. I l I. r' L. l Ir 1III: I ,i lI -ar-
ing fruiting br ti live (riiin IiIr LF tI ':1.-, frr ilrl :. I im IL-i iiiliii:ir in.-, horaont l,
m edium Io pli rtl j,,li ti [.,..vi, l.ir:'-.. T!.,,] a1. [i I l.-'it ,,i.l r,.di. |i,,-t, Ife lb .i\ y.
lItMge r il..i tlit' Ilr i.I I it t li.i 1 r ,i 1 ,1r.i,;. ,I It! r I A! .111 ii [ |' .d! r.ii A
FhI w rc s il.a r.,. tiiirr'i dl htil 1, \'TV 1.irrt' i, '1 'I, [i'l ., ,t .'l Ir", I bolls ,'11
largeCst isize, 3-. Il *Il I' l l.m ]'- [ im.m-iT ,. I,.. m n'.. i1. Il I i -'r I..Lrr, 1 l .i. ,.
with a \ Vry abrupt, Ii]iri, IlILt p'!i, I lI. i iO .- k d..':l I .' -' i' ,, at twi t
w lien o l)Cii A til l l.i.q. 'if I 1i I Itr| I l li' r 1 1 .1 It I .1: 1 \ i ] J.irk. 'I I ir, -*-. ii,.
and on til l' ults itlt :i dt.,r. r l k-. '- L a!i ;i [ I r 'I ni r, ; *..I .ril 'I I .I I- A pr. -q' I l
l.un '.If llii-I rhiar.Irt r icu fin if ii ,n-Il lii I..i: .ir l .L:: I .... .1.. .i ir., I r 1- 'riirijilh
anrid other T' lxa.s Ii.i ll, .l -1, ,It' 1 L .1 1 r I Ii 'I ,r I T 1 I ri rf .L I aS in ll i-
V-.ie' i v 1i.1,i It tiI full I' ini'h -, I"ili .11 i r i '- -Ilk' I Ii' -, Ii I Iru n : 1 i to
&. p 'r cont. St.-i2l ini'diiiiL i ti, lar ,'. c r% I ,r l .. 1 l .1 i I. ri'4- l.'.- ii:., lioldon hI
2 by far the lIrgcst icr(i cntiLigc f 5-hlint ku.d Iill- .111. \.xri i,. I i,.imin
In spite of the dcisorganization ,rf i Iit i' I if; rI 1 ti i [1r,-stInt
season the lint of this- vnrietv 0 rn ti.lit fr,,ii 'Ii ' 1.1! '.iits fill tihe
ClhIrksville (Tux.) inarket. \hei MiiilIIir._ -l,,,rt cittltii \\ LS lUiigi
front 6 to 7. ce'nt.s. Oln I(t,(oiliit ,f II ilil, k Inir1 r Iil' varietyy is
meCilium late in tupenig ainld is nlot It In [rm'itill 10',1la,11 fI'r I[it north-
ern section ot the Cotton Belt. '"Ih1 -TI,,rn-[,'1ITif q!t:Jit\ is mani-
fested in a hiiih deg-ree, on aCoIliont 'If til' ttr I:LliTultIi ii lint. wlhirch
remains very compact ani i 'fliifT-. (lit it lit hiIt. l'ia kiltl is not,
easy ntint i the bolls are well a pen(il.
'The seed for this (ILstribulion w:SI, grown lbv Mr. W. ,J. Park. of
Clarksville. Tex.
DIXIE, A WILT-RESISTANT VARIETY.

The Dixie wvilt.-rc-i-,t;iiiit, cottoli ILadl it-, ,WiitYj il aL rt'islant indi-
vidua! selection mari' ast. TnI' v A\I. ill I'm2-,. Tlim' il;IhI. was ]r<-
sumablv an accidlIntii l h1lri lh 'th et Wat titI If ile Iiltlu4n,1mu11]-- varieties
of Upland cott.ou l)rig, grT--lwn tir, I'lnl uWilt-itifl-ctic-i l l. Ti- liii l
of work was beg)uI hv Mr. W'. A. Or!on wit!I tit, ouit.t. <,f i rm-iluciilt
a strain of cotton t.liat, could lie sto'sri.-fullv gi '\viil mjj .itil- that wnt-'I
infected iwithi (lie wilt. or "llark-rtl- t" di..Ii,.ea.(. i-rni li, iri-i ini.i1a
selection a ,uniform strain w'..s dth,-,iuIC'a d tILIcII l]rovai-d lig-ilytv resist
ant to wilt and which was suh-equentl v nnme I" )Dixit,." During
the succeeding years of its develpient fr, lth. rW Irt lt I tI lin bred
by the most- careful methods of individual selh'cetim a.n1d [rMi',,u y-row
tests, always being plantetdi on wilt-infeeted l ind ,l ,1 tliiat nonrtsistant
plants would bo eliminated as they al)petred irad orlyv the most
resistant retained. As a result, thel variety li has been cm;isiderably-
imnproved in uniformity, wilt resistance, caurliness, size of boll, and
length of lint.







14 DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON SEED IN 1915.

Through the planting of the wilt-resistant Dixie cotton, combined
with the use of t.lie root-knot rotations outlined below, the wilt or
black-root disease is being successfully controlled. The variety has
now been grown on a largo scale throughout the wilt-infected see-
tions of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and other States for
several years and has proved well adapted for use on land where other
varieties suffer severe loss from wilt. Crops of a bale or more per
acre have been grown in numerous localities on such wilt-infected
land. Farmers owing hundreds of acres of land on which wilt
reduced the crop 50 to 75 per cent with ordinary varieties have stated
that the use of Dixie cotton ihas saved them from financial ruin.
The following is a technical description of the variety:
Plant vigorous, wilt resistant, of medium height, pyramidal, nearly of the Peterkin
type, usually with two or more large basal branches and with long, slender, slightly
drooping fruit limbs; leaves of meiliumrn size; bolls of medium size, about 75 being
required for 1 pound of seed colton, easy to pick, but very, storm proof; seed small,
weight of 100 seeds 10 grams, variable in color, but typically covered with greenish
brown fuzz; lint about seven-eighths of an inch; percentage of lint to seed 34 to 35.
Root-klot, is very generally associated with the wilt disease and
is by many farmers confused with it. The two diseases are distinct
and require different methods of treatment. Wilt is caused by the
attacks of the fungus Fusarium vasinfectum, which penetrates, grows
in, and plugs the water-carrying vessels of the plants, thus preventing
the rise of water. This disease attackLs only cotton and okra. Root-
knot is caused by nematodes, or eclworms, microscopic in size, which
bore into the roots and cause knots or swellins on them. Theso
nematode-infectced areas of the root are thereby weakened and fur-
nish points of entrance for the wilt fungus. Root-knot is known to
attack many farm crops besides cotton, notably cowpeas, tomatoes,
cucumbers, and cantaloupes. The damage resulting from the two
diseases occurring together is much greater than from either alone.
Different meti:ods of treatment are necessary for the control of
the troubles. Wilt. can be successfully controlled by planting a wilt-
resistant variety of cotton in connection with the usual crop rota-
tions practiced by the best farmers. When root-knot occurs on land
already infected with the wilt disease no cotton should be planted on
it until the diseased field has been rotated one, two, or three years,
according to the severity of the disease, with crops immune to the
trouble. The best rotations fur such root-knot infected land include
corn, barley, ,:t-. wheat, rye, Iron or Brabham cowpeas (these are
the only commercial varieties known to be resi-tant to root-knot),
velvet beans, peanuts, and beggarweed. The individual farmer can
make up from this list of crops the rotations best. suited to his locality
and system of farming. The object in view is to starve out the nema- |







DISTRIBUTION OF ('VrTTON Sl.EI- IN lOl., 15

todos by plant.ing crops 9ti which tho- can not livo. Ar.i'r 6o rfoot.-
knot Ihns I(w zn t.h u. rdflvco(I II V 1-1t1 iit,', tho I )xi, vWilt-r,.19 4,01ii ,
variety of octtonl shouldih Iplil 110id (ItI 11. ldi|i wh\iilh 0 h l ls will
, disoi.iso.
Tliho sood for this distrilmilij ion WIL.; ru\\t I1 Inil Iby Mr. .J. C. C.
Brunsotii, loiipnc('O, S. ('., liilr" I Ill' SillIITVi-' liII -If Mr W. V \ (;illl4rt,
wiho Ilt Ls i-i'uiigul thio dlistribultiii (If Dixie cutll seid for tho NVL(Il
of 1915.



I(


WASHINGToN: t;(M.VRXnM T PPI~rrtINc OFFicE : 131'





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