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"Sallies of the Imagination"

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"Sallies of the Imagination" visual imagery and the works of Laurence Sterne
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Gerard, William Blake
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English
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vii, 317 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Comic books ( jstor )
Gestures ( jstor )
Graphics ( jstor )
Illustration ( jstor )
Images ( jstor )
Painting ( jstor )
Sentiment ( jstor )
Textual criticism ( jstor )
Visual arts ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF ( lcsh )
English thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
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theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2002.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 300-316).
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William Blake Gerard.

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University of Florida
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"SALLIES OF THE IMAGINATION"
VISUAL IMAGERY AND THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE



















By

WILLIAM BLAKE GERARD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2002






























Copyright 2002

by

William Blake Gerard














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to express my gratitude to Patricia Craddock and Alistair Duckworth, whose
invaluable commentary of my work strengthened not only this dissertation, but also my
perspective of scholarship; I would also like to thank C. John Sommerville for his last-
minute help. I am especially indebted to my director, Melvyn New, whose outstanding
examples of professionalism, integrity, and, above all, humanity, represent seemingly
unattainable models for my nascent career. I also gratefully acknowledge the remarkable
contributions of my family, whose inspiration and support made this project possible in
ways too numerous to count here.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOWLDEGMENTS .................................................................... 111i

A B STR A C T .............................. .............................. ........... .. .. I ........... vi

CHAPTER

1 "THE QUICKEST COMMERCE WITH THE SOUL": AN EXAMINATION OF
THE FUNCTION OF VISUALITY IN THE WORKS OF
LA U R EN CE STERN E ..................................................................... 1

L letters ........................................................................................ 9
S erm o n s ..................................................... ............................... 14
A Political Romance and Memoirs ...................................................... 19
A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy ...................................... 20
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman .............................. 26
N o te s ........................................................................ .. ... ........... 3 7

2 CRITICAL COMMENTARY ON STERNE'S VISUALITY.......................... 54

Part 1: "Anti-Shandeans, thrice-able Critics, and fellow-labourers":
1760-1957 ................................................................................. 54
Part 2: "Your Criticks and Gentry of refined taste": Stemrne and the Visual
after 1964 .................................................................................. 98
N o tes ................................................................................... ... 13 0

3 TO "MUTUALLY ILLUSTRATE HIS SYSTEM & MINE": EIGHT WAYS OF
LOOKING AT "TRIM READING THE SERMON," 1883-1995 .................... 142

N o tes ................................................................................... ... 17 1

4 BENEVOLENT VISION: THE IDEOLOGY OF SENTIMENTALITY IN
CONTEMPORARY ILLUSTRATIONS A SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY AND
THE MAN OF FEELING .................................................................. 188

N o tes ................................................................................... ... 2 2 3

5 "POOR HAPLESS DAMSEL!": VISUALIZATIONS OF THE MADWOMAN
UNDER THE TREE, 1770-1884 ............................................... ....... 241









N o tes ...................................................................................... 2 7 7

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................ 300

APPENDIX: A SELECTED LIST OF VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE
WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE .......................................................... 312

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................... 317














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

"SALLIES OF THE IMAGINATION":
VISUAL IMAGERY AND THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE

By

William B. Gerard

May 2002

Chair: Melvyn New
Major Department: English

An outstanding component of the writings of Laurence Sterne-present in his

correspondence and sermons as well as Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey-is

his use of pictorial language and technique, a rhetorical trope I label "visuality." The

starting point of this study is an extensive examination of visuality throughout Sterne's

works, not only to document its prevalence but also to discover and identify similarities in

its use throughout his diverse work. For example, Sterne consistently asks his readers to

visualize a character or place with carefully crafted descriptions conveyed by words alone.

The second chapter is a thorough survey of the critical commentary on Sterne, from

the first reviews to the latest scholarly writings. Although detailed discussion of Sterne's

visuality has coalesced only in the last forty years, I have uncovered a significant history of

similar discussion spanning the more than two centuries since Sterne's first publication

that represents him as an artist reflective of contemporary values: thus Sterne is described

as a realist, impressionist, mannerist, and surrealist.








These chapters provide the foundation for two subsequent chapters exploring several

ways in which the visual illustrators of Sterne's texts, from the contemporary works of

Hogarth and Bunbury to the recent photo-collages of John Baldessari and the comic book

by Martin Rowson, all function as interpreters of Sterne's own visuality, through what W.

J. T. Mitchell describes as the "dialectic of word and image." Chapter 3 examines eight

variations of "Trim reading the sermon" that have accompanied editions of Tristram

Shandy in the last 120 years; the wide range of depictions of this scene-sentimental,

comic, stylized, and abstract-suggest changing critical and cultural attitudes towards

Sterne's work as well as towards the idea of text itself (symbolized by the sermon) in the

twentieth century. Chapter 4 examines the contemporary illustrations of both A

Sentimental Journey and Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling as didactic readings that

emphasize socially benevolent sentiment. Chapter 5 views the changing visual depictions

of "Poor Maria" between 1770 and 1884 as indications of shifts in the perception of the

sentimental.














CHAPTER 1
"THE QUICKEST COMMERCE WITH THE SOUL":1
AN EXAMINATION OF THE FUNCTION OF VISUALITY
IN THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE


Within a week of his arrival in London as the celebrated author of the highly successful

first two volumes of Tristram Shandy, Laurence Stemrne wrote to William Hogarth to

request an illustration for the first London edition of his book.2 In a letter delivered by an

intermediary, Richard Berenger, Steme jestingly offers "both my Ears ... for no more

than ten Strokes of Howgarth's witty Chissel, to clap at the Front of my next Edition of

Shandy." Evoking the pictorial phrase "Orna me," an echo of Swift's correspondence to

Pope, Stemrne adds, "Write something of Yours to mine, to transmit us down together hand

in hand to futurity."3 Sterne requested a rendition of a specific scene from the artist,

asking for the "loosest Sketch in Nature, of Trim's reading the Sermon to my Father &c,"

a passage Sterne endowed with both a strong sense of the visual and numerous references

to Hogarth's treatise, The Analysis of Beauty. An illustration by Hogarth of this scene,

Sterne states somewhat enigmatically, "wd do the Business--& it wd mutually illustrate

his System & mine- (Letters 99).

The scene Sterne suggests uniquely manifests his "visuality"-a term I will use to

designate an author's tendency toward the use of visual elements in a verbal text. This

quality is apparent on several levels in Sterne's description of Trim reading the sermon:

Sterne uses visual language to create the scene, cramming the pictorial description with








minute detail; he directly relates the process of verbal description to the process of visual

representation (TS II.17.141.12-25); and, bringing to the forefront Tristram's self-

consciousness, Sterne uses the passage to reflect on his own rhetorical technique of the

visual (TS II. 17.141.26-28).

Hogarth responded with an illustration which weaves together two separate

descriptions in the text. His depiction of Dr. Slop asleep in the chair visualizes a passage

that appears twenty pages before the sermon-reading:

Imagine to yourself a little, squat, uncourtly figure of a Doctor Slop, of about
four feet and a half perpendicular height, with a breadth of back, and a
sesquipedality of belly, which might have done honour to a Serjeant in the Horse-
Guards.
Such were the out-lines of Dr. Slop's figure, which,-if you have read
Hogarth's analysis of beauty, and if you have not, I wish you would;-you must
know, may as certainly be caracatur'd, and convey'd to the mind by three strokes
as three hundred. (TS 11.9.121.1-10)

In his rendering of Dr. Slop (see fig. 1-1), Hogarth seems especially attentive to Sterne's

"three strokes" of verbal description-height, breadth, and belly-portraying Slop as an

ensemble of simple forms and lines, a caricature rather than a realistically drawn human

figure. Hogarth's depiction of Slop, however, is a projection of the spirit as well as of the

literal meaning of Sterne's portrayal, visually capturing the graceful brevity of the tone of

the prose as well as its tendency toward unlikely embellishment.

In contrast, Sterne's description of the central element of the sermon-reading scene,

the figure of Corporal Trim, abounds in visual detail. Sterne explains that "before the

Corporal begins, I must first give you a description of his attitude" (TS II. 17.140.7-8);

"attitude" is, of course, a word borrowed in this context from the vocabulary of the visual

arts, an equivalent to "pose" today, and Sterne seems to be self-consciously placing








himself in the role of visual artist. Sterne perversely suggests that "to paint Trim, as if he

was standing in his platoon ready for action" would be "as unlike all this as you can

conceive" (TS II. 17.140.13-15), implying, as he does elsewhere in Tristram Shandy, that

significance frequently lies in the unseen and unsaid. His description absurdly employs the

absurd precision of a systematic draftsman, calculating the position of Trim's body "to

make an angle of 85 degrees and a half upon the plain of the horizon" (TS II.17.140.17-

18). In addition, the minute physical description of Trim's exact pose (TS II. 17.140.16-

22; 141.12-25; 142.1-11) suggests that this passage is a skeptical reflection of Walter's-

and possibly Hogarth's-tendency to create, and attempt to abide by, questionable

systems. These various uses of visual rhetoric serve to simultaneously describe a "picture"

for readers and satirically reflect upon the description.

Some of the satirical aspects of the references to the visual arts in this passage have

been noted by R. F. Brissenden, who more broadly observes that "Sterne is clearly

interested both in the formal pictorial values of his 'composition' and in the physical

relationships which govern the disposition of the objects that come within its boundaries."4

Remarking that the "possibility of drawing formal analogies between writing and painting

... obviously interested Sterne" (105), Brissenden only begins to explore the enormous

variety and frequency of Sterne's visuality. The governing metaphor of the visual is to

Brissenden first and foremost a means to an end: it "illuminates the philosophical bases of

his satire" (93). In contrast to the critical inclination, of Brissenden and others, to divert

the analysis of Sterne's visuality toward a generic end (such as satire), I will attempt to

demonstrate, in the pages that follow, that Sterne's earnest and spontaneous use of the

visual is not only abundant and multi-faceted, but is also meaningful as an end in itself








Perhaps the most extensive writer to date on Sterne's visuality, William V. Holtz, finds

a similar argument rising from the passage, asserting that the "figure of Trim is clearly

mock pictorial-in Sterne's intention if not in Tristram's."5 Holtz notes that the writer's

attitude toward Hogarth in the passage "seems to have been one of amused admiration"

(25), pointing out that Sterne's description is "couched in phrases that question the

adequacy of Hogarth's theory" (26). Holtz concludes that Sterne's descriptive method

projects a "system" at variance with Hogarth's, consisting of "a detailed representation of

posture, gesture, and expression within the limits of nature" (26). Sterne's implicit

system, Holtz contends, is somehow both "in opposition to Hogarth's own" and "also a

technical analogue of Hogarth's own style." While broadening the discussion about the

visual references in Sterne's description, aspects of Holtz's analysis seem to undermine his

contention that Sterne meant the scene as "criticism" of Hogarth; if Sterne's aim were

critical (much less satiric) perhaps it would have been less ambiguous. In addition, it

would be unlikely that Sterne would direct Hogarth to a passage satirizing the artist's

work while asking him a favor.

Hogarth not only seems to acknowledge Sterne's references to him in his depiction

with his portrayals of Trim and Dr. Slop, but also includes other elements described by

Sterne, as if to anchor the illustration more surely in the text (as well as literally

responding to Sterne's plaintive "Orna me"). Mentioned elsewhere in Tristram Shandy,

but pictured here, is Toby's map (although Sterne does not specify its location on the

parlor wall); the engraving's second state, based on additions to the original drawing by

Hogarth, also features Trim's hat on the floor and a clock which might be associated with








the "large house-clock which we had standing upon the back-stairs head" (TS 1.4.6.18-19)

that Walter winds punctually every month.6

More subtle connections exist as well. In his study of Hogarth, Ronald Paulson

observes that the descriptions of Trim and Slop "are in fact based on the comic ratios of

Hogarth's chapter 'Of Quantity'" in The Analysis of Beauty and, more broadly, notes that

in Tristram Shandy "everywhere traces of Hogarth and Hogarthian assumptions are to be

found."7 In another examination of the artist, Jenny Uglow also finds affinities between

Hogarth and Stemrne, citing their mutual interest in the "shaping power of passion" as well

as their shared ability "to express personality through the body." Perhaps most

significantly, Uglow describes Tristram Shandy as an analogue of Hogarth's work, using

visual language to suggest that "its narrative circled like a Hogarth print, where we choose

our starting point, pause on details and fill in gaps."8

Given the background of the visual elements in the text and the references to Hogarth

in the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy, the artist's visual interpretation invites

speculation about how the illustration comments on the text itself Brissenden asserts that

Hogarth's portrayal maintains a "spirit of comic inversion" (99), maintaining that

Hogarth's depiction is a visual counterpart to Sterne's text, rather than a commentary or a

continuation of a dialogue between text and image. Holtz, even though he feels that

Tristram Shandy had "adapted-and criticized" (28) Hogarth's earlier theories, also sees

the illustration of Trim reading the sermon as complementing Sterne's text, since "Slop

and Trim illustrate Hogarth's distinction between caricature and the comic" (29).

Considering the interpretive function of Hogarth's visualization, Melvyn New notes a

close agreement between the illustration and Sterne's description, not only in the artist's








inclusion of significant items (especially in the more detailed second state), but also in their

respective compositions, where "in typical Hogarthian fashion, the sermon defines the

visual centre of the work."9 New points out that the success of this verbal-visual union is

manifested in the "transparency" of Hogarth's illustration, which "allows us to see the text

through the drawing; by uniting text and image, he unites Sterne with the reader."10 In its

ability to form a bridge between Sterne's words and his reader, Hogarth's image also

represents the artist's acceptance of the author's aesthetic challenge; the result engages the

reader/viewer as well, who, willing and observant, finds him- or herself swept up in the

exchange between writer and artist.

Hogarth's ability to continue the conversation with Steme is facilitated by shared

descriptive techniques and aesthetic philosophies. Brissenden finds "a remarkable

similarity between some of his [Sterne's] own ideas and methods and those of William

Hogarth" (93; explored again and at length by Holtz, 26-27), and identifies their shared

stylistic qualities as a kind "satiric rococo" that has the "qualities of lightness, elegance,

surprise and wit" (107). Catherine Gordon sees the parallel between the ideas of artist and

writer as being particularly evident in the revision of "the initial hastily prepared plate"

which implies Hogarth's growing "appreciation of Sterne's technique of allusion and

association."" To Gordon, this indicates Hogarth's discovery of"a correspondence

between the writer's approach and his own" and "supports Sterne's assertion that the

engravings 'would mutually illustrate his System and mine.'"12

Although Holtz asserts that there is "evidence that Sterne had Hogarth's theory of

comic forms in mind in other places" (29) in Tristram Shandy, he does not see the

illustration itself as a reflection of Sterne's commentary about the artist. Approaching








Tristram Shandy from a Hogarthian perspective, Ronald Paulson asserts that "many of

Hogarth's doctrines of contrast, of variety, and above all of intricacy" are evident in

Sterne's work.13

The engraving of the sermon-reading scene was followed by Hogarth's illustration of

Tristram's christening for the frontispiece to Volume Three the following year (see fig.

1-2):

My father followed Susannah with his night-gown across his arm, with nothing
more than his breeches on, fastened through haste with but a single button, and
that button through haste thrust only half into the button-hole.
-She has not forgot the name, cried my father, half opening the door...
(TS IV. 14.344.18-23)

Importantly, this passage immediately follows the curate's cranky christening of Tristram,

so the arrival of Walter depicted in the illustration is a particularly Shandean moment of

inevitable frustration; in fact, in Hogarth's portrayal the curate's lips still seem to be in

motion, just finishing their pronouncement. Susannah looks on smugly, while the face of

the strangely expressive infant Tristram appears panicked at the apparent chaos around

him. A floor clock stands in the background, perhaps a reference to the previous

illustration as well as a reminder of the very beginning of Tristram's pattern of

disruption-his conception.

No intriguing request from Sterne, if ever there was one, survives to put Hogarth's

depiction of the christening into a literary or historic context; we do not know whether

Sterne requested the subject in another fashion (in person or through the publisher) or

whether Hogarth chose it himself It is worthwhile to note, however, that Sterne's

description of this moment, like the sermon-reading scene, is described in particularly

visual terms, inviting illustration with a number of graphic cues (Walter's position, his








disheveled dress, and his act of opening the door).14 In his rendition of the christening,

Hogarth seems to follow a pattern established in the sermon-reading scene of focusing on

a central point of action, close adherence to the verbal text in the depiction of character

and setting, and the inclusion of only a few ornamental, non-textual elements (such as the

portrait over the door) which might be seen as distractions from Sterne's meaning.

Although in this instance Sterne provides no explicit discussion of aesthetic theory for

Hogarth to comment visually upon, the illustration nevertheless becomes a similar

complement to the text.

Sterne's interest in using language to evoke aspects of the visual is evident throughout

his writings, although the type ofvisuality, as well as its intensity and frequency, varies

among his works. Sterne's visuality is perhaps most prominent in the highly pictorial

constructions of character and scene, a technique which, as I demonstrate in Chapter 2,

has repeatedly caught the attention of critics for more than 240 years; it is also evident in

his discussions about writing and metaphors, and in his assertions of the primacy of the

visual sense.15 Although an exhaustive listing here of every visual element in Sterne's

work would displace most other directions for this study, I do want to review thoroughly

(if not comprehensively) the occurrence of visuality in his texts as a means of establishing

the different styles of this rhetorical technique, and suggest the significance of the visual as

an under-explored aspect of Sterne's writing. A careful investigation of Sterne's visuality

also provides a valuable basis for the discussion of the interpretive function of the visual

representations of Sterne's work that will be addressed in future chapters.








Letters

Although Sterne employs visual rhetoric in his letters, his correspondence also

provides a glimpse into the extent of his interest in things visual, either in the form of

decorative prints, the various apparatus of drawing and painting, or his unique relationship

with a portrait of Eliza Draper. This evidence of Sterne's interest in the visual arts-

which in the instances of the portraits of himself and especially of Eliza verged on the

obsessive-suggests one basis from which his rhetorical visuality sprang.

As a window into his personal life, Sterne's letters reveal the persistence and range of

his interest in the acquisition and production of the visual arts. Sterne tells Stephen Croft

that he "will take care to get your pictures well copied,"'16 and relates his acquisition of

"six beautiful Pictures executed on Marble at Rome" to Eliza (Letters 357), and, a few

months before his death, thanks "L.S. Esq." for "the prints-I am much your debtor for

them-if I recover from my ill state of health ... I will decorate my study with them"

(Letters 412). On two occasions, Sterne states that he gave Mrs. James "a present of

Colours apparatus for painting" (Letters 324; see also 412); Sterne infrequently brings up

gift-giving in his correspondence, and perhaps this mention is indicative of the priority he

placed on the visual arts. His commentary on amateur artistry is not always positive,

however: he counsels his daughter Lydia that since "you have no genius for drawing...

pray waste not your time about it" (Letters 212).17

Sterne's correspondence provides instances of pointed criticism of visual art, as well.

Sterne remarks on the almost magical properties of Benjamin West's portrait of William

James to "L.S." (probably Laurence Sulivan, see Letters 413 n. 1): "such goodness is

painted in that face, that when one looks at it, let the soul be ever so much un-harmonized,








it is impossible it should remain so" (Letters 412). 18 Sterne also carefully analyzes a

portrait of Eliza Draper: "It is the resemblance of a conceited, made-up coquette," not an

accurate depiction, and presents an "affected leer" and other errors "which is a proof of

the artist's, or your friend's false taste" (Letters 313). While he provides specific points of

analysis, in both cases Sterne uses commentary about visual representations to reinforce

and project his personal opinion of the subjects-James's beneficence and Eliza's beauty.

On three separate occasions in the letters, Sterne discusses portraits of himself at

length. On one occasion, he asks Robert Foley,

is it possible for you to get me over [to England] a Copy of my picture anyhow?-If
so-I would write to Mil Navarre to make as good a Copy from it as She possibly
could-with a view to do her Service here-& I w' remit her 5 Louis-I really
believe, twil be the parent of a dozen portraits to her-if she executes it with the spirit
of the Original in y hands-for it will be seen by half London-and as my Phyz-is as
remarkable as myself--if she preserves the Character of both, 'twil do her honour &
service too- (Letters 231)

Sterne's detailed consideration of his portrait, its reproduction, and its effect on the public,

points to the high value he placed on the impact of visual representation. More

specifically, his interest seems to stem from the potent combination of his avid interest in

the visual arts and the representation of himself to posterity-and, quite likely, the

opportunity to perform an act of kindness for a young French woman.19

Sterne's personal interest in portraiture is, however, most dramatically manifested in

his nearly obsessive relationship with a portrait miniature of Eliza Draper.20 He relates, for

example, in the Journal to Eliza:

after a tolerable night, I am able, Eliza, to sit up and hold a discourse with the sweet
Picture thou hast left behind thee of thyself, & tell it how much I had dreaded the
catastrophe, of never seeing its dear Original more in this world-never did that Look
of sweet resignation appear so eloquent as now; it has said more to my heart-&
cheard it up more effectually above little fears & may be's-Than all the Lectures of








philosophy I have strength to apply to it, in my present Debility of mind and body.
(Letters 330-31)

To Sterne, the picture of Eliza acts as a replacement for the actual person, allowing him to

hold an imaginary (yet vivid) two-way "discourse" with the image. The effect of the

portrait is almost magical, touching the beholder on a super-rational plane above "all the

Lectures of philosophy"; the image's eloquence, which apparently makes reason-driven

"philosophy" ineffectual, speaks directly to Yorick's heart (a parallel might be drawn to

the contrast between Walter Shandy's logical systems and Trim's and Toby's intuition).

Perhaps more than any other example of Sterne's mention of actual paintings in his letters,

his empowering of Eliza's portrait attests to his belief in the power which the visual can

convey beyond words. This conviction is also suggested (although less passionately) in

the meaning Sterne seemingly invests in the many carefully crafted pictorial descriptions of

character in his work.

The relationship between Sterne and Eliza's portrait is so compelling that the image

also takes on the role of proxy social companion with whom Stemrne travels, and about

whom he invites comments from others. The scenario described in the 13 June entry of

Journal to Eliza is typical: "Your picture has gone round the Table after supper-& y'

health after it, my invaluable friend!-even the Ladies, who hate grace in another, seemed

struck with it in You ..." (Letters 379).21 It seems that Sterne was not reticent about

publicly parading his affections for Eliza Draper, and he produced the portrait frequently;

Cash notes five instances but adds, "There must have been dozens of other times of which

we have no record" (275 n. 54). Sterne seems to have had so strong a bond with this








particular piece of art that he is even pictured, in a caricature portrait, showing off the

miniature of Eliza [see fig. 1-4].22

The many instances of Sterne's describing a picture in his letters are also characteristic

of similar visual moments in his other writings. Howard Anderson comments on the

power of Sterne's letters to engage his reader visually, pointing out that "Stemrne is adept

at rendering a scene so that the reader quickly takes part in it, rather than presenting a

description from which he can stand aside."23 One of Sterne's first surviving letters relates

to his wife-to-be, Elizabeth Lumley, the story of the death of a friend "by a sad accident"

(Letters 18), and asks: "Who can paint the distress of an affectionate mother, made a

widow in a moment, weeping in bitterness over a numerous, helpless, and fatherless

offspring?" (Letters 19). The evocative nature here is not dependent on painstaking visual

precision for its success; indeed, the qualities of being "helpless" and "fatherless" elude

simple visualization. Sterne's creation of an evocative picture (signaled not only by the

verb "paint" but by the specific "direction" of the style and content of the prose) is notable

here because of the recurrence of a similar technique throughout Sterne's later work-

similar to the visual imperative evident in his sermons, and an early parallel to the

conspicuous comparison with visual art that takes place when Trim reads the sermon in

Tristram Shandy.

Throughout his letters, Sterne is very free in adapting the vocabulary of visual arts to

his descriptive needs; the concept of writing a "picture" frequently represents the

accumulation of verbal "strokes" (each a detail of the composition), and the resulting

description is often compared to the act of visual depiction by the narrator/artist. After

suggesting a detailed future scenario in which he and Eliza Draper are reunited and happy,








Sterne asks, "How do you like the History, of this couple, Eliza?... tis a rough Sketch-

but I could make it a pretty picture, as the outlines are just" (Letters 359). Similarly,

when Sterne describes his mysterious venereal infection to Eliza, he adds that his

explanation has "taken me three Sittings-it ought to be a good picture-I'm more proud,

That it is a true one" (Letters 330). In both instances, the visual lends credibility to

possibly far-fetched ideas by fleshing them out with an imagined reality. In one case,

pictorial "framing" provides a means of coyly hinting at his desire to realize a fantasy; in

the other, the parallel with pictorial creation is able to convey discreetly the difficulty

Sterne experiences in explaining his physical condition.24

Sterne uses the descriptive analogy of the visual arts to help define character in a

general sense, as well. He suggests to an unnamed correspondent that "reason and

common sense tell me, that if the characters of past ages and men are to be drawn at all,

they are to be drawn like themselves .. and it is as much a piece of justice to the world,

and to virtue too, to do the one, as the other" (Letters 88). In the same letter, he asks, "if

like the poor devil of a painter, we must conform to this pious canon, de mortuis. &c.

which I own has a spice of piety in the sound of it, and be obliged to paint both our angels

and our devils out of the same pot. ." (Letters 88-89). These instances of the broad

application of visual concepts prefigure (or parallel) the more complex and reflexive

application of the technique in Sterne's fiction.

There are several minor instances of visuality in Sterne's correspondence when a visual

element is a passing reference rather than a dominant analogy. Explicit metaphors make

subtle visual references ("we are often painted in divers colours. ." [Letters 403]), while

implicit metaphors refer to the visual more indirectly ("Like rocks but half discovered, we








were ill Judges how near we were to venture" [cited in Cash 357]); the latter are more

frequent and elude precise definition.25 Another minor aspect of visual rhetoric is the use

of theatrical terminology, such as Sterne's relation to Eliza of his "systems of living":

"there wants only the Dramatis Personee for the performance-the play is wrote-the

Scenes are painted-& the Curtain ready to be drawn up.-the whole Piece waits for thee,

my Eliza-" (Letters 364).26 In its many forms, discussion of the visual in Sterne's

correspondence attests to both its role in his personal life and its importance to how he

defines the world.


Sermons

A sermon, with its need to convey a message to a congregation, almost seems to

demand a certain amount of imaginative visualization to be effective. Although Sterne's

sermons contain passages that describe a particularly pictorial scene and make other

references to the visual, however, there is reason to be cautious about attributing any

language in them directly to Sterne. In the mid-eighteenth century sermons, were, by their

very nature, usually highly derivative of both other sermons and Scripture; many parallel

passages have been found in other texts which Sterne apparently "borrowed" wholesale.27

While some of Sterne's visuality in his sermons is worthy of analysis as apparently original

work, his use of particular visual techniques and expressions borrowed from other

sources-evidently because he felt they were effective rhetorically-deserves attention as

well. Significantly, Steme apparently embellishes the work of others with his own visual

cues, a further testimony to his belief in the effectiveness of visuality.








The most common form ofvisuality in Sterne's sermons is the visual imperative, a

rhetorical technique which commands the reader/listener to share the writer/speaker's

vision. Sterne is certainly not unique in the use of the visual imperative; to an extent, it is

found both in Scripture and in sermons of the period.28 However, by combining the

imperative with his ability to provide a highly pictorial description of scenes and people,

Sterne's technique of "writing" a picture often achieves a vividness more striking than the

work of his contemporary sermon writers; here, perhaps more than with any other aspect

of his sermon-writing, Sterne anticipates the fiction-writing of his later years. Sterne's use

of the visual imperative creates its strongest impression when repeated several times in a

single passage, as if each command to view were a single stroke toward the cumulative

image of a scene. A particularly pictorial passage occurs in the "Abuses of Conscience"

sermon, an almost verbatim version of which is read by Trim in Tristram Shandy; with

brief, intense commands, Stemrne urges the listener/reader to "See the melancholy wretch"

(Sermons 265.18-19), "Behold this helpless victim" (21-22), "Observe the last movement

of that horrid engine" (24-25), "Consider the nature of the posture in which he now lies

stretch'd" (25-26), "See how it keeps his weary soul hanging upon his trembling lips..".

(28-29), and "Behold the unhappy wretch" (30).29 Using the repetition of forceful

language within the brief space of a paragraph, Sterne again and again directs the attention

of his audience with the use of vivid visual imagery, constructing the scene in the minds of

his audience one detail at a time. These details, intriguingly, seem to refer to aspects of

the physical ("trembling lips") or the emotional ("melancholy"); the combination of the

two within one passage appears to augment the impact of the verbal picture.









The visual imperative also occurs in brief passages, such as "Here then let us stop to

look back a moment" (Sermons 420.25), or "Let him go into the dwellings of the

unfortunate, into some mournful cottage... There let him behold the disconsolate

widow-sitting-steeped in tears" (Sermons 54.22-25).3o In these more isolated

instances, the technique serves more as an accent rather than as a primary means of

conveying a description.

Portrayals of both places and people in the Sermons frequently resound with a more

passive type of pictorialism. For instance, the visual end product of a picture or a painting

is directly named, as in "I see the picture of his departure" (Sermons 187.11),31 or the

process of depiction is described in visual terms, as in, "he will tell you, that his

imagination painted something before his eyes, the reality of which he has not yet attained

to" (Sermons 8.24-26). The inclusion of this more subtle visuality embellishes the

common visual elements Sterne shares with other sermon writers with the distinct

language of painting and drawing.32

In his sermons, Sterne often "draws" verbal descriptions of people with the language

of the visual. He calls the Devil's perception of Job "a bad picture, and done by a terrible

master, and yet we are always copying it" (Sermons 165.24-25). Another instance alludes

to the primacy of the visual over the verbal; Sterne's depiction of Joseph's pity for his

brothers, poignantly expressed by Joseph bursting into tears, "furnishes us with so

beautiful a picture of a compassionate and forgiving temper, that I think no words can

heighten it" (Sermons 119.12-14).33 Characteristics of people are described in terms of

the process of illustration, as well as its final product: Sterne feels that it is a great "piece








of justice to expose a vicious character, and paint it in its proper colours" (Sermons

110.14-15).34

The hint of visual elements also serves to strengthen metaphors, as with Sterne's

warning against passing "a hard and ill-natured reflection, upon an undesigning action; to

invent, or which is equally bad, to propagate a vexatious report, without colour and

grounds" (Sermons 107.12-14). Visual metaphors are not as common in the Sermons as

the pictorial description of places and people, but they do augment the work's tendency

toward visuality.35

In the Sermons, Sterne frequently adopts visual passages from the work of others;

perhaps more telling of his absorption with elements of visuality, however, is the insertion

of visual passages into texts he otherwise adopts verbatim. For instance, readers of

Sterne's passage

To conceive this, let any man look into his own heart, and observe in how different
a degree of detestation, numbers of actions stand there, though equally bad and vicious
in themselves: he will soon find that such of them, as strong inclination or custom has
prompted him to commit, are generally dressed out, and painted with all the false
beauties which a soft and flattering hand can give them... (Sermons 37.3-9)

will find strong parallels with a passage in Jonathan Swift's sermon, "Difficulty," ("almost

certainly Sterne's source," observes New) in the Notes:

let any Man look into his own Heart, and observe in how different a Light, and under
what different Complexions any two Sins of equal Turpitude and Malignity do appear
to him, if he hath but a strong Inclination to the one, and none at all to the other. That
which he hath an Inclination to, is always dressed up in all the false Beauty that a fond
and busy Imagination can give it" (n. to 37.3-11).

Although Swift's reference to "false Beauty," in which a sin might be "dressed up in,"

itself has implications of the visual, Sterne's revision, which discusses the same sin

"dressed out, and painted with all the false beauties which a soft and flattering hand can








give them," embellishes the original passage with a distinctly painterly metaphor. This

type of modification (one of several in the Sermons) further suggests the value placed by

Sterner on the rhetorical technique ofvisuality as a way of creating a more effective picture

of a scene, person, or thing, and thus increasing the impact of his presentation.36

Visual elements that are either clearly adopted from other sermons or occur frequently

enough to be considered commonplace in contemporary sermon composition also play a

role in Sterne's sermons. For example, the adopted phrase, "eyes [or eye] of the world" is

repeated several times (Sermons 159.14, 166.5, 245.11); indicating a kind of social

evaluation, the phrase also suggests the primacy of the visual as a means of judgment.37

Other visually oriented expressions frequently used by others include "at first sight"

(Sermons 114.10, 180.13), and "look," "see," "view," and similar verbs to indicate

"consider" (a few examples include Sermons 14.13, 74.8, 284.5-7, and 322.8).

Sterner uses several other types of visual metaphor that are tangential to the pictorial in

his sermons. For instance, the three-dimensional form comes into play for metaphorical

purposes in his statement, "To judge rightly of our own worth, we should retire a little

from the world, to see all its pleasures and pains too, in their proper size and

dimensions" (Sermons 183.24-26).38 Theatrical terminology also has a similar minor role

in Sterne's visual discussion; he notes, for instance, "we who now tread the stage, must

shortly be summoned away" (Sermons 290.2-3).39

Even the idea of "appearance" occurs with unusual frequency and carries special

significance in Sterne's sermons, as in the warning that "outward appearances may, and

often have been counterfeited. ." (Sermons 125.2-3). Likewise, Sterne explains that,

regarding the pharisee's character, "If you looked no farther than the outward part of it,








you would think it made up of all goodness and perfection.. ." (Sermons 58.7-8). The

ability of "appearance" to mask true value allows it to conceal positive traits, as well: to

the Jews, Christianity was "a religion whose appearance was not great and splendid,-but

looked thin and meagre..." (Sermons 342.13-15).4o The seeming dangers of

"appearances" that Sterne counsels against in Sermons vividly contrast with Yorick's

ability to use appearance effectively to make judgments in A Sentimental Journey, such as

his choosing a "desobligeant" by seeing what would hit his fancy "at first sight" (ASJ

76.7-77.9). Similarly, when looking for someone to direct him to the opera, Yorick writes

that he "cast with my eye into half a dozen shops as I came along in search of a face not

likely to be disordered by such an interruption; till at last, this hitting my fancy, I had

walked in" (ASJ 161.8-10). Sterne the sermon-writer seems to caution his audience

against judging by the same standard that his fictional narrator, Yorick, thrives on and

through which he establishes that most fundamental of connections, sentimental

communion.


A Political Romance and Memoirs

The visual elements in the text of A Political Romance are fewer, and feature less

detail and cohesion, than in other works by Sterne. In "The Key," an absurd associative

relationship is suggested on the basis of visual resemblance: one member of the Club "was

positive the Breeches meant Gibraltar; for, if you remember, Gentlemen, says he, tho'

possibly you don't, the Ichnography and Plan of that Town and Fortress, it exactly

resembles a Pair of Trunk-Hose, the two Promontories forming the two Slops, &c. &c."41

The visual provides a conveyance for metaphor, as well: a great "Variety of Personages,








Opinions, Transactions, and Truths, [were] found to lay hid under the dark Veil of its

Allegory. ..42

Sterne's brief Memoirs almost entirely lacks allegorical or metaphorical visuality,

perhaps because of the relative directness of its subject matter; in fact, its straightforward

story and even tone is often reminiscent of Sterne's relatively colorless business

correspondence. The Memoirs, however, does include an oft-cited personal detail relating

to the visual: during his twenty years at Sutton, Sterne relates, "Books, painting, fiddling,

and shooting were my amusements."43 While this statement invites speculation about the

more exact role the visual arts played in Sterne's life, it is sufficient to note here the

obvious tie between his visual (and sometimes specifically painterly) language and his

occasional pastime.44


A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy

Sterne uses very different types of visuality in A Sentimental Journey, and to very

different ends, than in his other works. In addition to direct references to painting, and the

use of vivid descriptive pictoralism (Brissenden suggests the scenes in the work have "the

fresh and limpid quality of water-colour sketches" [96]), the visual also plays a more

essential role as the primary mode of sentimental connection negotiated through Yorick's

observation of appearance and gesture. Time and again, pictorial elements in A

Sentimental Journey create a unique aura of communication with the reader, conveying

meaning with the language of the visual.

The descriptions in A Sentimental Journey that include direct references to painting are

few, but those few use visuality as a substantial and central component of description.








Initially depicting himself sitting at his desk and writing the monk's description, Yorick

conjures up the image of Lorenzo "before my eyes":45 he had "one of those heads, which

Guido has often painted-mild, pale-penetrating, free from all common-place ideas of

fat contented ignorance looking downwards upon the earth-it look'd forwards; but

look'd, as if it look'd at something beyond this world" (ASJ 71.29-32).'46 Not only does

Sterne provide a picture of Yorick at work, but he also conveys a very specific idea of the

monk's appearance by using an actual artist's style as a model, and his use of this style

expresses a sense of the subject's spirituality. He goes on to explain that "the rest of his

[Lorenzo's] outline may be given in a few strokes" (ASJ 72.36), reminding us that Sterne

himself is "painting" the description. In effect, Steme paints Yorick who paints Lorenzo

in the style of Guido, and the presence of the devoted portrayer in the text frames and

enriches the portrait of the Monk.

In Sterne's description of the Captive, Yorick reveals an even stronger sense of visual

imagination as he "look'd through the twilight of his grated door to take his picture" (ASJ

201.10-11); later, although his "heart began to bleed" (202.19), he is compelled "to go on

with another part of the portrait" (202.19-20) of the victim. Sterne uses visuality here to

provide the detailed description necessary to inspire a deep sense of pity in a fashion

similar to the use of visual elements in the Sermons, while also conveying the emotional

distress felt by the narrator himself Yorick's evocation of the Captive is so powerful that

he cannot continue his description: "I burst into tears-I could not sustain the picture of

confinement which my fancy had drawn" (203.31-32).47 The narrator's sympathetic

reaction to his visualization of the Captive's pathos is so profound that he is swept up in

the distress of his subject and cannot bear to continue his description.








Many scenes in A Sentimental Journey rely heavily on visual cues to describe character

without expressly mentioning visual art. Yorick describes his first sighting of the Patisser:

"I could not help looking for some time at him as I sat in the remise-the more I look'd at

him-his croix and his basket, the stronger they wove themselves into my brain-I got out

of the remise and went towards him" (ASJ 210.27-30). Yorick then details the elements

of a visual inventory: a "clean linen apron which fell below his knees" (210.31-32) and the

Patisser's countenance bearing "a sedate look, something approaching to gravity"

(210.41-42). Yorick's compelling visual attraction to the subject (he "could not help

looking" at the Patisser) spurs this review of visual characteristics, a technique which is

especially prominent in better-known episodes, such as "The Starling," "The Temptation,"

and, of course, "The Case of Delicacy. "'48 The types of visual description in A Sentimental

Journey-both the conspicuously painterly and those scenes which evoke a strong sense

of the visual-can be seen as invitations from Sterne to illustrators of his work to depict

these particular scenes, invitations that, as subsequent editions of A Sentimental Journey

testify, have been accepted frequently and with a sense of active engagement on the part

of illustrators.49

The visual is also manifested in the high value Yorick places on the appearance of

people and things to form his opinions of them. On one occasion, he explains that he

remainedd at the gate of the hotel for some time, looking at every one who passed by, and

forming conjectures upon them..." (ASJ 239.5-7), demonstrating his recreational, and

perhaps slightly compulsive, interest in gauging individual character based on appearance.

Yorick's pastime, however, hints at a sense of loneliness-he is merely a spectator, and his

attempts to bridge his isolation with visual contact (at least in these cases) fails. Yorick's








separation from the world is also illustrated in his description of himself at his hotel

window in Paris: "I walked up gravely to the window in my dusty black coat, and looking

through the glass saw all the world in yellow, blue, and green, running at the ring of

pleasure" (ASJ 155.12-156.14); here he views a brilliantly colored reality from which he

feels spatially separated and chromatically distinct. The visual, then, can be a means of

initiating and continuing a connection between people-the basis of sentimentality-as

well as a means of emphasizing difference between them.

In A Sentimental Journey, the visual is often simultaneously the point of contact and

the point of decision. For example, Yorick achieves sentimental communion with the

Grisset through visual contact and determination: he "had given a cast with my eye into

half a dozen shops as I came along in search of a face not likely to be disordered by such

an interruption [a request for directions]; till at last, this hitting my fancy, I had walked in"

(ASJ 161.8-10).50 Elsewhere, Yorick reads detailed meaning into appearance, although

with less certainty: "I fancied it [the lady's face] wore the characters of a widow'd look,

and in that state of its declension, which had passed the two first paroxysms of sorrow,

and was quietly beginning to reconcile itself to its loss-but a thousand other distresses

might have traced the same lines" (ASJ 94.33-37).51 To Yorick, faces are visual

documents that reveal a sense of individual character and history, and they almost always

invite him to further conversation, or, at least-owing to his belief in a shared feeling

among all humanity ("are we not all relations?" [ASJ 191.92-93])-the desire for it.

Closely related to Yorick's dependence on appearance is his frequent reception and

interpretation of the unspoken language of gesture. In the chapter appropriately titled








"The Translation," Yorick describes this language and his understanding of it in some

detail, as he "translates" the old French officer's gesture of removing his spectacles:

Translate this into any civilized language in the world-the sense is this:
"Here's a poor stranger come in to the box-he seems as if he knew no body; and
is never likely, was he to be seven years in Paris, if every man he comes near keeps his
spectacles upon his nose-'tis shutting the door of conversation absolutely in his
face-and using him worse than a German."
The French officer might as well have said it all aloud ... (ASJ 171.17-24)

The visual gesture is expanded, through Yorick's interpretive facility, into a coherent and

relevant verbal statement of sentimental community. He explains, "There is not a secret so

aiding to the progress of sociality, as to get master of this short hand, and be quick in

rendering the several turns of looks and limbs, with all their inflections and delineations,

into plain words" (ASJ 171.28-31). Yorick adds that when he walks "the streets of

London, I go translating all the way" (ASJ 171.32-33). This concept of the physical

expression of an unspoken language also appears in "The Gloves" (ASJ 168.9-169.26), as

Yorick and the Grisset are simultaneously engaged in a dual conversation, one mundane,

the other sentimental (and erotic); he verbally asks for directions, she responds, but a

significant amount of bodily communication passes between them, as well. Yorick's

reflection on the Grisset's physical expression summarizes the obvious importance Sterne

attributed to its power of communication throughout his work: "there are certain

combined looks of simple subtlety-where whim, and sense, and seriousness, and

nonsense, are so blended, that all the languages of Babel set loose together could not

express them" (ASJ 168.9-12).52

Vocabulary borrowed from the visual arts creates and augments metaphors throughout

A Sentimental Journey. For instance, the "learned SMELFUNGUS" set out in his travels








"with the spleen and jaundice, and every object he pass'd by was discoloured or distorted"

(ASJ 116.28-31).53 More complex metaphors rely directly on painterly concepts for their

impact, such as Yorick's declaration that "I conceive every fair being as a temple, and

would rather enter in, and see the original drawings and loose sketches hung up in it, than

the transfiguration of Raphael itself' (ASJ 218.69-219.72). Not only are people compared

to physical structures, but their inner identities are imaginatively idiosyncratic visual

creations compared to "original drawings and loose sketches."54

Yorick also affirms the primacy of the visual with statements that hint at psychological

or philosophical links with sense perception. He notes: "Now a colloquy of five minutes

... is worth one of as many ages, with your faces turned towards the street: in the latter

case, 'tis drawn from the objects and occurrences without-when your eyes are fixed

upon a dead blank-you draw purely from yourselves" (ASJ 90.32-36). Here Yorick

asserts what had become a Lockean commonplace: direct sensations-here visual

stimuli-are our primary source of ideas; Sterne may, of course, be reducing the

commonplace to a joke, but the statement is in keeping with the overall value Yorick

places on the visual, both explicitly and implicitly, suggesting he is a creature enormously

dependent on his sense of sight for establishing definitions of himself and others, perhaps

operating under a notion (pace Descartes) of video ergo sum.55

The unique emphasis on the visual in A Sentimental Journey is further indicated by the

presence of a mandatory graphic in its pages. An illustration of Yorick's family crest,

complete with a starling, seems to have appeared in every subsequent edition of the work,

albeit occasionally replaced by an interpretive rendition (ASJ 205). Sterne's interest in








offering his readers a "picture" in his work reaches a literal reality with this artwork, in

that the crest is itself a visual representation of Yorick (and even more of Sterne).56

Sterne's discussion of actual artwork in A Sentimental Journey is limited. In addition

to the reference to the painter Guido, Yorick twice mentions a portrait of Eliza, which she

"had tied in a black ribband" around his neck (ASJ 147.43). This portrait, the fictional

counterpart to the one alluded to repeatedly and at length in Sterne's Letters, also

functions as a kind of icon for Yorick, who "blush'd as I look'd at it-I would have given

the world to have kiss'd it,-but was ashamed" (ASJ 147.44-45). In many ways, Eliza is

a real companion to Yorick in A Sentimental Journey, a living being projected from a

portrait, echoing the role the portrait plays in Sterne's correspondence.57 The value

placed by Yorick on this miniature resembles the story of Pygmalion, where love has the

ability to animate the inanimate; the life the portrait assumes through Yorick's devotion

also parallels the many characters that come to life in Sterne's works through his

affectionate visual descriptions.


The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman

Sterne's visuality assumes its most complex, lengthy, and reflexive forms in Tristram

Shandy. Many extended descriptions of characters explicitly evoke painting as a parallel

to verbal portrayal; the most commented-upon examples feature the narrator/painter

reflecting on his own composition. Less obvious instances include numerous other

episodes that contain lengthy pictorial descriptions without specifically citing the visual

arts. Sterne also uses visual imagery as a prompt to inspire a character's mental chain of

association, and, in a related usage, defines the conceptual by literally embodying abstract








entities in physical forms, often with comic effect. Less complex forms of visual rhetoric

that have appeared in Sterne's other works also appear in Tristram Shandy: brief, but

distinct, metaphorical applications, specific references to painting, the focus on appearance

and gesture as conveyors of meaning (which Paulson calls "unprecedented" [277]), non-

pictorial visuality, and a diluted form of the visual imperative. In addition, the inclusion of

several extraordinary typographic and graphic treatments further affirms Sterne's interest

in the manipulation of visual elements.

Perhaps the most unusual, and intriguing, instance of visuality in Sterne's published

work is his conscious paralleling of the construction of visual pictures with the

construction of verbal ones in Tristram Shandy. While the deliberate "painting" of a

picture with words appears in other eighteenth-century texts before Stemrne, perhaps most

notably in the novels of Fielding and Smollett, the obsessive narrator of Tristram Shandy

not only paints a picture with words, but as he paints he often reflexively critiques his

technique and his verbal illustration in the process-and then comments on his own

commentary. Perhaps the best-known, and most carefully wrought, instance of Tristram's

self-conscious "writing" of a picture is the scene of Trim reading the sermon mentioned

earlier, as well as the description of the "out-lines of Dr. Slop's figure" (TS 11.9.121.6)

that precedes it. These verbal sketches conspicuously draw from both Hogarth's

theoretical Analysis of Beauty (1753) and his graphic style of illustrating character, while

reflexively satirizing his technique. The literary renown of Sterne's descriptions was

sealed with Hogarth's uncannily sympathetic drawings for the book, which, as mentioned

earlier, perpetuate the circle of reflexivity.








Among several other instances of detailed and reflexive visual depictions of characters

is Tristram's description of the "very handsome" (TS VI.9.588.18) inn-keeper's daughter:

"Janatone ... stands so well for a drawing--may I never draw more, or rather may I

draw like a draught-horse, by main strength all the days of my life,-if I do not draw her

in all her proportions, and with as determined a pencil, as if I had her in the wettest

drapery.- (TS VI.9.589.10-15).58 As in the text that describes Trim reading the

sermon, Sterne goes beyond simply suggesting a visual portrayal by including an ironic

reference to his act of depiction ("drawing ... with as determined a pencil") which casts

him as an artist of images, and not of words. However, rather than making the physical

description or himself the focal point of this passage, Tristram concludes with a pointed

message of care diem: "he who measures thee, Janatone, must do it now-thou carriest

the principles of change within thy frame" (TS VI.9.589.23-25). As a subject, Janatone's

mutability serves as a reminder of the changes inevitable in all human existence, but as an

object, she becomes a symbol of the artistic immortality for which Sterne himself yearned.

Later in the same passage, in a similar spirit of both evoking and avoiding a physical

description, Tristram seems to acknowledge that the visual depiction of his aunt Dinah

(and by extension, Janatone) demands a certain mastery he does not possess: he would

scarce answer for Dinah's picture "were it but painted by Reynolds" (TS VI.9.590.6).59

As a result, he abandons his attempt at verbal depiction of the visual with self-conscious

anxiety, stating that

if I go on with my drawing, after naming that son of Apollo, I'll be shot-
So you must e'en be content with the original. (TS VI.9.590.7-9)








Here Sterne seems to transcend the need for an exacting, painterly description,

surrendering, perhaps, to either Tristram's forgetfulness or to his own inability objectively

to depict his subject, the latter possibly the result of his realization of the inadequacy of

words to accurately describe a visual image, the fleeting nature of beauty, or even the

distractions of desire.

Acknowledging the vital role the visual plays in Tristram Shandy, Brissenden contends

that Sterne would not write a highly pictorial passage like Trim's sermon-reading simply

to convey a visual idea of the scene, but that he, "though obviously making some attempt

to achieve through the medium of language something analogous to what the artist attains

through the use of paint, is mainly interested in satirizing and parodying some of the

conventional aesthetic theories of the day" (95). This plausibly utilitarian rationale for

Sterne's use of the visual, however, effectively devalues the visual impact of this passage

as a humorous gesture rather than an end in itself, and also overlooks the persistence of

visual elements throughout Sterne's work, which can accentuate sentimental, as well as

comic, moments in the text.60

Visual elements that do not make explicit mention of the visual arts are instrumental in

descriptions of characters and locations in Tristram Shandy, as well. In these cases,

visuality either is asserted for a moment-the focus on a gesture or object-or is

continuous, depicting several elements over the course of a scene with visual acuity.

These intensely visual passages seem to freeze the moment into a verbally described

picture, with either comic or sentimental effect, or a particularly Sternean combination of

the two. For instance, after Walter is informed that Tristram's nose has been crushed "as

flat as a pancake to his face" (TS III.27.253.10), he retires to his room and throws








"himself prostrate across his bed in the wildest disorder imaginable, but at the same time,

in the most lamentable attitude of a man borne down with sorrows, that ever the eye of

pity dropped a tear for" (TS 111.29.254.24-255.4). Indeed, the reader's imaginative eye is

particularly called into play in the following description:

The palm of his right hand, as he fell upon the bed, receiving his forehead, and
covering the greatest part of both his eyes, gently sunk down with his head (his elbow
giving way backwards) till his nose touch'd the quilt;-- his left arm hung insensible
over the side of the bed, his knuckles reclining upon the handle of the chamber pot,
which peep'd out beyond the valance,-his right leg (his left being drawn up towards
his body) hung half over the side of the bed, the edge of it pressing upon his shin-
bone.-He felt it not. A fix'd, inflexible sorrow took possession of every line of his
face. (TSI 111.29.255.4-14)

Here the meticulous attention to detail-the incidental position of Walter's elbow, his

knuckles touching the nearly concealed chamber pot, the careful placement of his legs-

combines to create a precise image of Walter's pose, each aspect a verbal "stroke" which

accumulates toward a picture. The intense attention paid to pictorial minutiae, even in the

absence of explicit metaphor, emphasizes Sterne's belief in the primacy of the visual in

description, and especially in its effectiveness in pathetic scenes-even if the pathos is

tempered, in Sternean fashion, with humor, indicated by the presence of the chamber pot

here.

While every part of Walter's portrait (except, perhaps, the chamber pot) emphasizes

his grief, Sterne uses a similar technique of accumulating visual details to stress the comic

aspect of Trim's operation of the "artillery" he improvised for Toby's bowling green.

Here Sterne's precise physical description of Trim-the "ivory pipe, appertaining to the

battery on the right, betwixt the finger and thumb of his right hand,-and the ebony pipe

tipp'd with silver, which appertained to the battery on the left, betwixt the finger and








thumb of the other" (TS VI.27.548.6-10)-not only creates a humorously credible image

of an improbable moment, but the very meticulousness of the individual "strokes" of

physical description makes the portrait all the more humorous. These last two scenes

reveal the similarity in Sterne's visual techniques toward two different ends: just as each

detail of Walter on the bed augments the pathos in one instance, the visualization of each

detail of Trim's invention heightens comedy in the other.61

Visual detail may also prompt a character's chain of association, connecting seemingly

unrelated ideas, often with an emphasis on the potentially absurd tendencies of associative

relationships. For instance, Sterne pictures Walter "taking his wig from off his head with

his right hand, and with his left pulling out a striped India handkerchief from his right coat

pocket, in order to rub his head" (TS 111.2.187.3-6). Although Brissenden observes that

these moments have a "strange, hallucinatory vividness and clarity" (94), the moment also

elucidates Toby's surprising chain of association that conflates the "transverse zig-

zaggery" (TS 111.3.189.4) of Walter's movements with the fortifications of Namur and

consequently with his wound. The trumpeter's wife in Slawkenbergius's Tale displays a

similar (and equally revealing) type of visual association as she and her husband attempt to

describe the stranger's outstanding feature:

--What a nose! 'tis as long, said the trumpeter's wife, as a trumpet.
And of the same mettle, said the trumpeter, as you hear by its sneezing.
-'Tis as soft as a flute, said she.
-'Tis brass, said the trumpeter.
-'Tis a pudding's end-said his wife.
I tell thee again, said the trumpeter, 'tis a brazen nose.
I'll know the bottom of it, said the trumpeter's wife, for I will touch it with my
finger before I sleep. (TS IV.S.T.293.1-10)








In seeking physical parallels to describe the stranger's nose, the trumpeter's wife inevitably

makes associations with phallic objects, which, in turn, implicitly lead the reader to

"penis"; the game of bawdy association is crowned with her proclamation that "I shall

touch it with my finger before I sleep." In both these instances of Toby's zig-zaggery and

the trumpeter's wife, the characters are driven by their visually inspired hobbyhorses into

their various trains of association, resulting in seemingly unlikely scenarios of

associativeness as a window into the eccentric, yet recognizable, workings of the human

mind.62

Visual moments in the text also serve as anchors for narrative digression; the verbal

picture is a vivid and concrete moment to which the narrator can repeatedly return. As

Toby and Walter are depicted going down the stairs, Tristram intervenes, asking, "Is it not

a shame to make two chapters of what passed in going down one pair of stairs? for we

are got no farther yet than to the first landing, and there are fifteen more steps down to the

bottom" (TS IV. 10.336.13-16). This picture becomes a departure point for Tristram's

"chapter upon chapters," which, in turn, leads again to the brothers Shandy on the stairs

(TS IV. 11-12.339.1-340.21); Tristram finally offers his readers a crown "to get my father

and my uncle Toby off the stairs, and to put them to bed" (TS IV. 13.341.1-2). Significant

in each of these instances is the use of visualized action to embellish the recurrent scene on

the stairs: Toby "hitting my father a desperate blow souse upon his shin-bone" (TS

IV.9.335.7-8) with his crutch, or the action of Walter "drawing his leg back, and turning

to my uncle Toby" (IV. 11.339.3-4). Similarly, Tristram also repeats the image of Toby

three times over thirty pages in the process of taking the pipe from his mouth and striking

out the ashes (TS 1.21.70.17-19, 1.21.72.24-25, and 11.6.114.4-7). In typically self-








reflexive fashion, Tristram later discusses his use of this technique as he comments on the

difficulty of controlling his narrative: "-I have left my father lying across his bed, and my

uncle Toby in his old fringed chair, sitting beside him, and promised I would go back to

them in half an hour, and five and thirty minutes are laps'd already" (TS III.38.278.13-16).

Visual moments may be significant in other ways, as well. The detail of Trim's motley

Montero-cap (described as "scarlet," "furr," and "light blue, slightly embroidered" [TS

VI.24.542.16-19]) is a consistent element in both Trim's tragic (as his brother Tom's

bequest) and comic moments (as part of his improvised uniform under the command of

uncle Toby). Both of these descriptions also abound in visual cues which make elements

of the story vivid, without the specific naming of painting or drawing, but which

nevertheless compel the eye of the reader's imagination.

Metaphors which use visual elements in Tristram Shandy add to the work's rhetorical

effectiveness and supplement the pervasive motif of visuality. Often the ideas of light and

dark play parts in these metaphors: Walter, for instance, "look'd upon every thing in a

light very different from all mankind" (TS III. 12.215.17-18), and Tristram proclaims that

"we live amongst riddles and mysteries-the most obvious things, which come in our way,

have dark sides, which the quickest sight cannot penetrate into" (TS IV. 17.350.11-13).

Metaphors may be polychromatic, as well, as Tristram notes of his "spirits": "in no one

moment of my existence, that I remember, have ye once deserted me, or tinged the objects

which came in my way, either with sable, or with a sickly green" (TS VII. 1.575.16-18).

Even varieties of experience can assume visual parallels; the Shandys' trip to the Continent

"appears of so different a shade and tint from any tour of Europe, which was ever

executed" (TS VII.27.618.6-7).63








In certain instances, the visual imperative overtly invites the reader to share in the

narrative vision. "Now if you will venture to go along with me, and look down into the

bottom of this matter. .." (TS 11.2.98.27-99.1-3) and "let us leave him then in the vortex

of his element. ." (TS VII.21.610.8-9) both echo, if more weakly, the strongly engaging

language (some of it originally cribbed from other sources) the pastor Sterne unleashed on

his congregation. Tristram's imperatives, by contrast, are usually less commanding and

more insinuative-like the "cursed" (TS VII.43.650.2) slit in Nanette's petticoat, from

which Tristram cannot take his eyes.64

Perhaps the most frequent appearance of the visual in Tristram Shandy, however, is

Sterne's use of the concrete image for the common purpose of incarnating abstract ideas.

One relatively well-known passage compares days and hours to rubies and "light clouds of

a windy day" (TS IX.8.754.20-21). Tristram cites Prignitz in stating "that the excellency

of the nose is in a direct arithmetical proportion to the excellency of the wearer's fancy"

(and hints at a pun in the process) (TS III.38.275.22-24), and the midwife's fame is

represented as a "circle of importance" (TS 1.13.39.15) of "about four or five miles" (TS

1.13.39.23-24). The hobbyhorse itself is a playful, yet accurate, visualization of personal

obsessions, with specific physical features of "gait and figure" (TS 1.24.87.2) that bear a

man's "fancy." Broader applications of this metaphor include Toby's bowling green,

which is both a literal miniaturization of European fortifications (TS VI.23.539.14-17) and

a figural (and, perhaps, symbolic) projection of Toby's obsession, and Tristram's journey

to France, a concrete representation of a flight from sickness and death.65

The physical body conveys meaning in Tristram Shandy in the form of gesture and

countenance, but usually does not express the language of sentimental bonding prominent








in A Sentimental Journey; rather, the body becomes the point of transmission for a variety

of subtle messages, most frequently comic. Sterne seems to be presciently parodying

Yorick's hobby of physiognomy in A Sentimental Journey when, during his conversation

with the ass, Tristram admits that "never is my imagination so busy as in framing his

responses from the etchings of his countenance" (TS VII.32.630.14-15). During

Tristram's less self-reflexive moments, however, physical appearance can also project

internal values in a fashion similar to that in A Sentimental Journey: e.g., Toby's

"benignity of... heart interpreted every motion of the body in the kindest sense the

motion would admit of' (TS 111.5.192.12-14). Overall, the frequent attention paid to

gesture, attitude, and appearance in Tristram Shandy suggests that in contrast with the

text's verbal nature, the visual, like the visual nature of this text, remains a vital way of

communicating what words cannot by themselves properly express.66

The visual is not only conveyed by the pictorial; references to dramatic visualization,

mechanical structures, webs, and labyrinths all play roles in description and metaphor.

Playing the stage manager, Tristram begs "the reader will assist me here, to wheel off my

uncle Toby's ordnance behind the scenes,-to remove his sentry-box, and clear the

theatre, if possible, of horn-works and half moons" (TS VI.29.549.16-19), thus using the

theatrical motif self-consciously to envision and manipulate a visual moment.67 The

mechanical appears as an actual device, such as Lippius's clock (TS VII.30.625.19-

626.20), or as an allegory, such as the smoak-jack, which is compared to Toby's

associative mind (TS 11H. 19-20.225.11-226.16).68 Far more infrequent are instances of

images of webs and mazes, which provide additional variations on three-dimensional

visualization.69








Sterne's idea of the visual in Tristram Shandy also extends beyond verbal description

to the inclusion of special typography (Old English typefaces, Greek characters, pointing

hands, and a struck-through word, as well as lines full of dashes, italics, and asterisks),

pages that are black, blank, and marbled, and graphic representations of several digressive

plot lines, and Trim's gesture with his walking stick. All of these incidents of graphics that

are mandatory elements in the text extend beyond an author's typically verbal expression,

and, to varying degrees, are reliant on a more basic and particularly visual sense than

words to be "read" on any given page.70

Beyond his verbal and graphic visualizations, Sterne demonstrates his appreciation for

the visual arts with several references to specific artists. Walter's "whole attitude" is

described as "easy-natural-unforced: Reynolds himself, as great and gracefully as he

paints, might have painted him as he sat" (TS III.2.188.9-11). Sterne, referring to his own

book as a "grand picture" (TS III. 12.214.1), evokes the achievements of great painters for

comic comparison: "there is nothing of the colouring of Titian, the expression of

Rubens,-the grace of Raphael,--the purity ofDominichino,.-the corregiescity of

Corregio,-the learning of Poussin.-the airs of Guido.-the taste of the Carrachi's,.-or

the grand contour of Angelo" (TS III. 12.214.4-8). In an absurd gesture, Sterne attempts

to define his "picture" by the virtuosity it lacks, nearly obscuring the fact that it is not a

"picture" at all, but a written text. In addition, Sterne's comically encyclopedic

knowledge of artists and their particular talents reveals another side of his visual

perspective, not only as a writer who carefully incorporates visual elements into his work,

but as a self-mocking connoisseur of paintings; he may be parodying the "cant of critics,"

but he has read their books and knows their conclusions.








The abundance and sophistication of Sterne's references to the visual arts and the

visual metaphors throughout his written works suggest his deep personal interest in

graphic depiction, which sketchy biographical information implies rather than confirms.

More significant to this investigation, however, is the enormous value Sterne placed on

visuality as a means of expressing characters, places, and ideas; this technique will play a

vital role in determining the actual visual response to his texts by illustrators in the 250

years since their initial publication. Through their work, these illustrators will express

different readings of scenes, opening up new avenues to understanding Sterne's texts;

after reviewing the abundant previous critical discussion of Sterne's visuality, I will

explore these pictorial perspectives as products of a combination of artistic vision on the

part of the illustrators, the influence of contemporary cultural attitudes, and, of course, the

text itself


Notes

1. "Let it suffice to affirm, that of all the senses, the eye ... has the quickest
commerce with the soul." (The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman, two
volumes, ed. Melvyn New and Joan New [Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 1978],
V.6.432.4-7. Citations will be to the original volumes and chapters, and the page and line
numbers of the Florida text will hereafter be cited parenthetically in the text.)

2. For a more complete account of Sterne's London visit, see Arthur H. Cash,
Laurence Steme: The Later Years (1986; London: Routledge, 1992), 1-53, and William
V. Holtz, "Pictures for Parson Yorick: Laurence Sterne's London Visit of 1760,"
Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 (1967): 169-84. In Hogarth: Art and Politics 1750-1764
(New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers U. Press, 1993), 276-84, Ronald Paulson relates the
encounter in the context of the artist's life.

3. Letters of Laurence Sterne, ed. Lewis Perry Curtis (1933; Oxford: Clarendon,
1965), 99. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text.








4. R. F. Brissenden, "Sterne and Painting" in Of Books and Humankind: Essays and
Poems Presented to Bonamy Dobr6e, ed. John Butt, J. M. Cameron, D. W. Jefferson, and
Robin Skelton (London: Routledge, 1964), 95. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text.

5. William V. Holtz, Image and Immortality: A Study of"Tristram Shandy"
(Providence, RI: Brown U. Press, 1970), 20. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text.

6. In "Hogarth as Illustrator" (Art in America 36 [1948]: 198), Robert E. Moore
notes that the artist "carried out the directions faithfully, but though the group is well
composed, he has apparently taken little delight in the task; and in the figure of one
listener, Dr. Slop, he has descended to caricature." This comment is at odds with Sterne's
own description (possibly a prescient hint to Hogarth), however, that Dr. Slop "may as
certainly be caracatur'd, and convey'd to the mind by three strokes as three hundred" (TS
11.9.121.8-10).

7. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth: Art and Politics, 279. Paulson notes that Sterne was
possibly satirizing Hogarth in his discussion of smoke jacks and wigs (TS III. 19.191-92,
III.20.202), adding that he "would not put it past the opportunist Sterne to have included
satire on Hogarth as a nod toward Reynolds; but his ethos was closer to Hogarth's" (282).
Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text.

8. Jenny Uglow, Hogarth: A Life and a World (London: Faber and Faber, 1997), 623.

9. Melvyn New, "William Hogarth and John Baldessari: Ornamenting Sterne's
Tristram Shandy," Word & Image 2:2 (1995): 183.

10. New 192.

11. Catherine Gordon, "'More Than One Handle': The Development of Sterne
Illustration, 1760-1820," Words: Wai-te-Ata Studies in Literature 4 (Wellington: Wai-te-
Ata, 1974), 48.

12. Gordon 48.

13. Paulson 277.

14. Numerous other scenes in Tristram Shandy similarly "invite" illustration, as well;
see 47 n. 61.

15. Of course, Sterne neither invented the pictorial construction of verbal
descriptions, nor was he the only writer who reflected on this visual method of writing.
Classical comments on this technique that had become cliches in the eighteenth century
include Horace's observation in Ars Poetica of"Ut picture., poesis" ("as with a picture, so
a poem," seemingly intended as a passing comment about the placement of figures and
critical perspective, but by the eighteenth century universalized beyond its original








context) (Horace [Quintus Horatii Flacci], Satirae. Epistolae. Ars Poetica [London:
Lockwood, 1872] 95:361), and Simonides's comment that "'rilV I[Lev Cwypactfav
7to0ilotv oGt(t jav npooayopEuet, TV 6e 7toirlotv CWypa)itav CXaAouoav"
("painting is silent poetry, and poetry a speaking picture" in Greek Lyric III: Stesichorus.
Ibycus. Simonides. and Others, ed. David A. Campbell, Loeb Classical Library
[Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard U. Press, 1991], 362:346f).
Holtz points out that "by Sterne's day 'literary pictorialism' constituted a complex but
thoroughly established tradition." Citing just a few examples, Holtz notes that Pope finds
the tenth book of the Iliad praiseworthy for "the Liveliness of its Paintings," Fielding
explains "his theory of the comic novel with terms drawn from painting," and Smollett
describes the novel as a "large, diffused picture, comprehending the characters of life,
disposed in different groups, and exhibited in various attitudes" (14).
For a detailed history of literary pictorialism, see Jean H. Hagstrum, The Sister Arts:
The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (1958;
Chicago and London: U. of Chicago Press, 1987). Useful insights of the text-image
dynamic can be found in the work of W. J. T. Mitchell, especially Iconology: Image. Text.
Ideology (1986; Chicago and London: U. of Chicago Press, 1987).

16. Croft had evidently lent the pictures to Sterne so that he could have copies made
for himself, the delay was due to Sterne's lending them to a lady friend. See Letters 128.

17. After Sterne's death, Lydia Sterne and the publisher Becket discussed printing a
six-volume edition of Tristram Shandy. A family friend and political celebrity, John
Wilkes, suggested to Lydia that she draw four illustrations to serve as frontispieces for the
edition to complement the two by Hogarth, and she seems to have warmed to the idea.
For better or worse, however, nothing ever came of the project. See Cash 348.

18. The phenomenon of an individual's appearance affecting the viewer's mood
occurs elsewhere in Sterne's work; in A Sentimental Journey, for instance, Le Fleur is
described as having a "passport in his very looks" (ASJ 149.12-13), a characteristic that
encourages an amiable reaction in others.

19. Curtis notes that the portrait referred to here is "possibly the water-colour by
Carmontelle [see below], though more likely a lost portrait executed for Foley" (Letters
232 n. 6), and cites an earlier letter that appears to refer to the same portrait: "I believe I
shall beg leave to get a copy of my own [picture] from yours, when I come in propria
persona" (Letters 202). Steme also mentions a portrait of himself in a letter to Thomas
Becket: "M' Toilet.. will give you two SnuffBoxes-they are of Value-in one is my
Portrait, don[e] here.. ." (Letters 167).
Of another portrait of himself, Sterne writes to David Garrick: "The Duke of Orleans
has suffered my portrait to be added to the number of some odd men in his collection; and
a gentleman who lives with him has taken it most expressively, at full length-I purpose to
obtain an etching of it, and to send it you" (Letters 157-58). Curtis identifies the artist as
Louis Carogis and notes that "the lively sketch in water-colour is to-day in the Musie
Conde at Chantilly" (Letters 159 n. 9).








In addition, mention of another type of portrait-a caricature-appears in his letters:
"The 2 Pictures of the Mountebank & his Macaroni-is in a Lady's hands, who upon
seeing 'em,-most cavallierly declared She would never part with them" (Letters, 148).
For more detailed documentation of the portraits of Sterne, see Arthur H. Cash, The Early
and Middle Years (London: Methuen, 1975), 299-316.
Last, a three-dimensional representation of Sterne's work is discussed in a letter to Dr.
John Eustace, who sent a gnarled walking stick to Sterne, calling it "a piece of shandean
statuary" (Letters 404). Sterne responds, "Your walking stick is in no sense more
shandaic than in that of its having more handles than one. ." (Letters 411), possibly
referring to a general concept of multiple meanings, such as in Walter Shandy's
proposition that "every thing in this earthly world .. has two handles" (TS 11.7.118.12-
13), or, alternatively, to Tristram's proclamation that "by seizing every handle, of what
size or shape soever, which chance held out to me in this journey-I turned my plain into
a city" (TS VII.43.648.18-20).

20. Sterne apparently refers to this portrait directly in A Sentimental Journey;
however, as Cash points out, the picture was probably mounted in his snuffbox, not in a
pendant (275). Sterne mentions the portrait in reference to A Sentimental Journey twice
in his letters. In the 17 June entry in the Journal he writes: "I have brought y name Eliza!
and Picture into my work-where they will remain-when You & I are at rest for ever"
(Letters 358). In the 13 June entry, Sterne notes that he has "a present of a portrait,
(which by the by, I have immortalized in my Sentimental Journey)" upon which he places a
great value (Letters 357).
Other passages in Sterne's correspondence further reinforce the importance of Eliza
Draper's portrait to him. The 31 July entry to the Journal notes: "am tired to death with
the hurrying pleasures of these races-I want still & silent ones-so return home to
morrow, in search of them-I shall find them as I sit contemplating over thy passive
picture .." (Letters 384). For a similar instance of the portrait as a point of
contemplation, see also Journal, 27 July (Letters 382); both passages imply the spiritual
value Sterne assigned to Eliza's images. In a letter to Eliza, Sterne responds to a similar
gesture oficonization on her part: "And so thou hast fixed thy Bramin's portrait over thy
writing-desk; and will consult it in all doubts and difficulties.-Grateful and good girl!
Yorick smiles contentedly over all thou dost. ." (Letters 305).

21. For additional examples of the portrait as an admired proxy companion, see
Letters 312 and 339.

22. A caricature portrait of a group of men including Sterne painted by John Hamilton
Mortimer in the late 1760s portrays the writer pulling open his shirt to display a heart-
shaped locket (Cash 365; see fig. 1-3). Besides possibly visually suggesting that Sterne is
"baring his heart," a relevant metaphor for his tendency toward the expression of
sentiment in his writing, Mortimer's depiction seems to refer directly to the public
obsession with the portrait evident in Sterne's letters. Cash notes that "Mortimer invented
the locket: Sterne had the picture mounted in a snuffbox" (275; see also Letters 388:
"however I will enrich my gold Box, with her [Eliza's] picture"). Sterne does proclaim his








intention of mounting the portrait in a locket, however: "I verily think my Eliza I shall get
this Picture set, so as to wear it, as I first proposed-abt my neck-I do not like the place
tis in-it shall be nearer my heart-Thou art ever in its centre" (Letters 379-80).

23. Howard Anderson, "Sterne's Letters: Consciousness and Sympathy" in The
Familiar Letter in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Howard Anderson, Philip B. Daghlian, and
Irvin Ehrenpreis (Lawrence, KS: U. of Kansas Press, 1966), 137. Anderson recognizes
the visual as an important part of this rhetorical strategy, noting that the "inclusion of
gesture and situation makes the reader see Stemrne working and gives to the letter an
element invariably present, if unnoticed, in conversation" (142). (A rare actual
manifestation of this verbal implication, the visual evocation of the writer at his desk,
actually occurs in Tristram Shandy [IX. 1.737.2-7].)

24. In a similar personalized use of visual language, Steme writes to Catherine
Fourmantel: "I shall be out of humour with You, & besides will not paint your Picture in
black which best becomes You, unless you accept of a few Bottles of Calcavillo..."
(Letters 81). In a letter apparently sent to both Eliza Draper as well as an unnamed
countess, Sterne writes, "I can paint thee blessed Spirit all-generous and kind as hers I
write to. ." (Letters 361).
In Sterne's correspondence, as in his fiction, words are recognized to have the ability
to generate a "picture." To Eliza Draper, he claims his declarations of affection will
provide "a better Picture of me, than Cusway Could do for You" (Letters 356; Curtis
notes that Richard Cosway was the likely painter of the portrait of Eliza in Sterne's
possession, 359 n. 3 and 314 n. 2). Sterne describes Tristram Shandy to David Garrick as
"a picture of myself, & so far may bid the fairer for being an Original" (Letters 87).
Sterner was by no means alone in the eighteenth-century in using this technique of
"writing" a picture. Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett are among the prose writers in
this period who emphasize visual elements in their descriptions.

25. Implicit visual metaphors, which make only passing, and sometimes vague,
reference to visual elements, are difficult to precisely define, but such hints of the visual
are widespread throughout Sterne's texts. In one more obvious instance, Sterne writes to
Eliza: "I have not had power, or the heart, to aim at enlivening any one of them [his letters
to her], with a single stroke of wit or humour... I hope, too, you will perceive loose
touches of an honest heart, in every one of them" (Letters 316). The use of the words
"strokes" and "touches" hints at parallels in the visual arts without making an explicit
connection. See also "strokes" in Letters 307.

26. For another dramatic metaphor, cf Letters 58.

27. Regarding the eighteenth-century practice of sermon composition, see Melvyn
New's Introduction in Notes to the Sermons (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 1996),
especially 21-27. The frequency of appearance of general visual elements in other
eighteenth-century sermons is evident from even a cursory examination of the substantial
excerpts of the work of others included in Notes.









28. For instance, a search in an electronic version of the Richard Challoner edition of
the Bible (1750-52) (Literature Online, 1996-2001 ProQuest Information and Learning
Co., 17 October 2001 ) reveals approximately 800 instances
of the word "behold." Other instances in the Sermons include 19.20, 19.26, 27.19-23, and
54.22-25. (Citations refer to The Sermons of Laurence Sterne, ed. Melvyn New
[Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 1996]; page and line numbers hereafter cited
parenthetically in text.) In general, the use of the visual imperative by Sterne in his
sermons would have reinforced his message by repeating similar biblical language that
carried the stamp of authority and with which his audience was already on familiar footing.
In "Sterne as Editor: The 'Abuses of Conscience Sermon'" (Studies in 18th-Century
Culture 8 [1979]: 243-51), New specifically mentions the "series of imperatives" in this
sermon, with which "Sterne invites his auditors to go with him" (248).
For a comparative (and less pictorial) use of the visual imperative, see Isaac Maddox's
1743 charity sermon, "The duty and advantages of encouraging public infirmaries," as
provided in Notes 97-98.
Brissenden observes that "a reading of Sterne's published works-including the
Sermons-would be enough to demonstrate that he was unusually well acquainted with
both the theory and the practice of painting" (93-94).

29. In Notes, New cites a parallel with a passage in "The Captive" from A
Sentimental Journey: "I beheld his body half wasted away with long expectation and
confinement.. ." (298 n. 265.22-23; ASJ 202.12-13).

30. See also: "Look out of your door,-take notice of that man: see what disquieting,
intriguing and shifting, he is content to go through, merely to be thought a man of plain
dealing... Behold a second, under a shew of piety hiding the impurities of a debauched
life... Observe a third going on almost in the same track.. ." (Sermons 162.17-26).
Notes observes that "Sterne paints several imaginative portraits here, and in the following
paragraphs, but the mark of his unique hand is found much more in the punctuation...
than in the content" (202 n. 162.22-163.5). The intensity of the visuality, shown in these
longer passages, might suggest Sterne's inclination toward that means of expression
which, if not entirely unique, does place him in a group of writers-both of sermons and
of fiction-who skillfully and effectively use this technique.
For additional multiple instances of the visual imperative describing a scene or place,
cf. Sermons 14.19-16.16, 20.2-4, 24.14-19 (to which Notes comments: "Sterne has
several echoes of this passage in his fiction" [79 n. 24.14-23]), 85.19-23, 222.1-6, 265.14-
16, and 365.4-9.
Usually meant for a mortal audience, the visual imperative can also be directed to the
deity: "0 GOD! look upon his afflictions.-Behold him distracted with many sorrows.."
(Sermons 18.19-20); cf. 181.1-3.
For other instances of the "simple" visual imperative, cf Sermons 10.10, 20.2-4,
46.27-32, 85.13-15, 85.24-27, 100.5-7, 101.8-20, 193.29-30, 205.17-18, 205.23-26,
258.30-31, and 265.1-3.








31. The description of the Prodigal Son's departure that follows is so vivid and
distinct in its detail, New comments in Notes that "Sterne would almost seem to have a
specific picture in mind," adding that the "parable was often illustrated"; no matching
rendition has yet been identified, however (224 n. 187.11-19). This note also includes an
excerpt from Robert Goadby's An Illustration of the New Testament (1760), s.v. Luke
15:11, which remarks on the visuality of the original version of the tale: "it abounds with
the tender Passions, is finely painted with the most beautiful Images, and is to the Mind
what a charming diversified Landscape is to the Eye."
Other instances of naming a "picture" in the context of the visual imperative include
Sermons 10.18-19, 46.27-28, 66.4-8, and 381.18-19. For implied pictures, cf. 206.24-
207.1, 230.9-12, and 260.22-28. For an ambiguous use of the word "drawn," cf. 260.18-
19.
As in his correspondence, Stemrne occasionally uses the visually based original/copy
parallel in descriptions in his sermons. He relates that there is a danger "if the scene
painted of the prodigal in his travels, looks more like a copy than an original..."
(Sermons 192.32-193.1). Cf 96.20-24 and 393.22-25.

32. For other instances of using the process of drawing or painting to describe a place
or thing, cf. Sermons 167.27-168.1 and 260.22-28.

33. Sterne self-mockingly praises the picture over the word elsewhere, perhaps most
notably in his description of Janatone in Tristram Shandy. See 27-28.
In his treatise on the visual arts, Leonardo Da Vinci asserts a similar point about the
supremacy of the visual over the verbal. Addressing the poet, he states: "your pen will be
worn out before you have fully described something that the painter may present to you
instantaneously using his science" (Leonardo on Painting, ed. Martin Kemp [New Haven,
CT: Yale U. Press, 1989], 28).

34. Another prominent example of the visual description of people also seems to
allude to an analogue in individual psychological processes: "we have been very successful
in later days, and have found out the art, by a proper management of light and shade, to
compound all these vices together, so as to give body and strength to the whole, whilst no
one but a discerning artist is able to discover the labours that join in finishing the picture"
(Sermons 107.31-108.3). For other direct references to drawing or painting in respect to
character, cf. Sermons 24.29-30, 47.3-5, 51.4-6, 51.8-13, 51.19-21, 84.24-26, 85.4-12,
92.30-31, 104.20-23, 134.14-19, 233.11-14, 301.30-302.5, 322.23-25, and 410.25-30.
Sterner also uses the metaphor of the "glass" as a way of expressing a medium for the
display of his verbal observations: "Whoever takes a view of the life of man, in this glass
wherein I have shewn it..." (Sermons 72.5-6). Notes points out that this usage is
commonplace (n. to 19.3; cf. 19.3-4, 101.28-30, 415.17-18, and possibly 211.20-22).
It is worth noting that the occasional description of the process of verbal "illustration"
in the Sermons lacks the self-reflexive commentary found in Tristram Shandy; see 47 n. 62
below.


35. For other visual metaphors, cf. Sermons 178.8-11 and 180.18-19.









36. For other textual variations that reflect Sterne's inclusion of visual elements, cf
Sermons 27.19-25 (and 81 n. 27.19-28.21), 216.24-26 (and 251 n. 216.21-26), 392.22-26
(and 420 n. 392.22-3 1).

37. Notes provides an example of the phrase from Hall (199 n. 159.12-25), and a
search of Literature Online (1996-2001 ProQuest Information and Learning Co. 17
October 2001 ) reveals ten prose occurrences of this
expression that predate Sterne. For other identifiable adoptions of the visual (some of
which are embellished by Sterne with additional visual rhetoric), cf. Sermons 39.12-16
(and 92 n. 39.12-24), 66.19-25 (and 121 n. 66.16-25), 200.29-32 (and 237 n. 200.31),
373.5-8 (and 401 n. 372.32-373.18), and 412.10-15 (and 445-46 n. 412.10-15).

38. For another reference to shapes, cf Sermons 133.27-32.

39. For other references to the theatrical, cf. Sermons 173.4-6 and 231.32-232.6.

40. For other instances of "appearance," cf. Sermons 36.24-28, 58.13, 185.5-8,
308.7-10, 308.12-14, 309.22-26, and 421.5-6.

41. A Political Romance (in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, ed. Ian
Jack [1965; Oxford and New York: Oxford U. Press, 1984]), 217. The idea of the false
connotations of the visual is expressed in the Sermons, especially "appearances" (see n.
40, above).

42. APR 221-22. For other examples of metaphorical visuality in A Political
Romance, see also: "The President of the Night, who is thought to be as clear and quick-
sighted as any one ." (APR 214); "Why, answered the Partition-Treaty Gentleman,
with great Spirit and Joy sparkling in his Eyes" (218); and "the Parson went on with a
visible Superiority" (219).

43. Sterne's Memoirs: A Hitherto Unrecorded Holograph Now Brought to Light in
Facsimile, intro, and commentary by Kenneth Monkman (Coxwold, UK: Laurence Sterne
Trust, 1985), 22.
Sterne's practices in the visual arts are outlined by Cash in Laurence Sterne: The Early
and Middle Years (London: Methuen, 1975), 196-214.
Wilbur L. Cross, in The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne (New Haven, CT: Yale U.
Press, 1925), 107, cites John Croft's opinion of Sterne's own abilities in the visual arts:
"he wou'd take up the pencil and paint pictures. He chiefly copied portraits. He had a
good idea of drawing, but not the least of mixing his colours." For a more detailed
examination of the evidence of Sterne's capabilities in the visual arts, see Holtz, 3-4.
Judging from his mention of painting apparatus and use of visual metaphor, Holtz
concludes that "painting occupied a large measure of Sterne's attention" (6) and that he
possessed "a special visual and 'painterly' bias in his own sensibility," a quality Holtz
enigmatically calls "hard to prove, but hard to disbelieve" (15).









44. In Laurence Sterne: The Early and Middle Years, Cash notes that "Sterne may not
have been an accomplished painter, but he was sensitive to spatial and chromatic
arrangements and had a highly developed visual imagination" (212).

45. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr.
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1967), 70.19. Hereafter cited
parenthetically in the text.

46. Stout (71 n. 29) identifies Guido (1575-1642) as a painter of the Bolognese
school, and notes occurrence of the phrase, "the airs of Guido," in Tristram Shandy
(111. 12.214.7). See also n. to 8.3 in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, ed.
Melvyn New and W. G. Day (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, to be published 2002).

47. The use of visual language does not guarantee a response by illustrators, however:
the head of Lorenzo is only rarely depicted in editions of A Sentimental Journey, while in
contrast the Captive was a very popular subject from the late-eighteenth through the early-
nineteenth centuries.

48. Episodes which include lengthy visual descriptions (and which also have been the
frequent subjects of illustration) also include Yorick's second meeting with the monk (also
known as "The Snuff Box"), "The Dead Ass," "The Letter. Amiens" (also known as "The
Merry Kitchen"), "The Pulse," "Maria," and "The Grace."

49. Noting the difficulty of analyzing the text-image dynamic in The Illustration of
Books (New York: Pantheon, 1952), David Bland remarks that "illustration is at best an
impure art" (12). Other factors contributing to the decision to illustrate certain scenes
might include the interest of individual artists and, at times, the cultural value of specific
episodes as sentimental or erotic tableaus.

50. For another instance of spontaneous kinship, cf: Yorick relates that "an old
Desobligeant in the furthest corner of the court, hit my fancy at first sight, so I instantly
got into it" and found it "in tolerable harmony with my feelings" (76.6-7, 77.9-10).

51. For other instances of unusual value placed on appearance, cf. 89.9-12, 91.3-5,
94.33-37, 113.12-14, 124.1-3, 124.7-10, 149.12-14, 207.13-16, and 207.25-27.

52. For other instances of communication through unspoken language, cf. "The
Monk" (73.1-74.34), "The Remise Door" (97.28-37), "The Pulse" (162.26-30), "The
Translation" (172.37-173.67), "The Fille De Chambre" (189.39-42), and "Maria" (271.49-
52); cf. Toby and Wadman on the sofa (TS IX.20.772.10-19).

53. For other examples of painterly language, cf. ASJ 72.45-50, 82.72-74, 92.19-27,
125.34-37, 131.8-12, 190.89-191.93, 199.89-200.93, and 277.1-7. For theatrical
language, cf. ASJ 257.5-8.









54. Most visual metaphors in A Sentimental Journey are less direct than this example.
For other examples, cf. ASJ 197.49-54 and 264.45-46. For three-dimensional metaphors,
cf. ASJ 166.23-167.30 ("like rough pebbles shook long together in a bag ..") and
232.43-233.52 ("The English... preserve the first sharpnesses which the fine hand of
nature has given them").

55. See John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. Peter H.
Nidditch (Oxford: Clarendon, 1975). Throughout his works, and especially in Tristram
Shandy, Sterne seems (sometimes playfully) aware of Locke's contention that sight is "the
most comprehensive of all our Senses" (II.ix.9.146.27-28); numerous critics have
suggested elaborate lines of influence from Locke to Sterne.
Perhaps of most interest here is Locke's observation that the "Perception of the Mind
.. [is] most aptly explained by Words relating to the Sight" (II.xxix.2.363.10-11). This
assertion seems to coincide with Sterne's tendency toward visuality in his writing.
Significantly, this passage in ECHU appears immediately before Locke's statement that
"The cause of Obscurity in simple Ideas, seems to be either dull Organs; or very slight and
transient Impressions made by the Objects" (II.xxix.3.363.29-31), from which Sterne
freely adapts the following passage in Tristram Shandy:
the cause of obscurity and confusion, in the mind of man, is threefold.
Dull organs, dear Sir, in the first place. Secondly, slight and transient impressions
made by objects when the said organs are not dull. (TS 11.2.99.1-6)

56. See Stout 205 for the most commonly reproduced version of the crest. No
editions of A Sentimental Journey seem to have excluded the coat of arms. The graphic
which appears in the first edition in 1768, or a close variation of it, is almost universally
reproduced. In rare cases, the artist who illustrates the edition will also redraw the coat of
arms in their own style.
Stout cites the association between Sterne's name and the Old English word for
starling, steam, and observes that the bird makes a "fittingly emblematic crest to the arms
of a sentimental, quixotic knight-errant like 'poor Yorick'" (see ASJ 156.19). For more
on this and the legitimacy of Laurence Sterne's claim to this coat of arms, see ASJ n. to
205.37-40.

57. For more on Sterne's portrait of Eliza, likely the real-life counterpart to these
references in A Sentimental Journey, see previous discussion in 40 nn. 20, 21, and 22,
above.

58. In The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman. Volume III: The Notes
(Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 1984), New points out: "As Sterne probably knew,
the use of wet drapery, the practice of the ancient sculptors, was not recommended for
painters" (457 n. 589.14-15).
Descriptions that refer to the visual arts are abundant in Tristram Shandy, and it is
worthwhile here to make note of a few additional outstanding examples instead of
attempting a complete catalogue. Tristram claims a kinship with artists as fellow creators,








stating that"-- Writers of my stamp have one principle in common with painters.-
Where an exact copying makes our pictures less striking, we choose the less evil; deeming
it even more pardonable to trespass against truth, than beauty" (TS 11.4.104.13-16). The
analysis of painting also becomes a metaphorical method for judging scenes; Tristram has
torn out his chapter describing the procession to the visitation dinner house because "the
painting of this journey, upon reviewing it, appears to be so much above the stile and
manner of any thing else I have been able to paint in this book, that it could not have
remained in it, without depreciating every other scene" (TS IV.25.374.17-20).
Parallels between Sterne's description and painting are vivid in his depiction of Mrs.
Shandy standing outside the partially open parlour door: the "picture" of her rivals an
actual work of art: "the listening slave, with the Goddess of Silence at his back, could not
have given a finer thought for an intaglio" (TS V.5.427.1-2). In Notes, New states that
this is "Almost certainly an allusion to the well-known classical statue Arrotino
('Whetter') in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence" (354 n. 427.1).

59. Reynolds, of course, had painted Sterne's portrait by the time this chapter was
written. For more on the relationship between Sterne and Reynolds, see Holtz 30-38, and
Cash, The Later Years, 31-32 and 108-10.

60. Brissenden also notes that Sterne "often uses the language of the artist, speaking
of strokes, tints, outlines, attitudes, lights, keeping, colouring and design with the fluency
and assurance of one who knows exactly what such terms mean" (94). Sterne's pervasive
use of visual elements, however, does not come under separate scrutiny in Brissenden's
study as part of Sterne's rhetorical technique.

61. The instances of intensely visual descriptions are so numerous, that a
comprehensive list is less helpful than the observation of several particularly striking
examples. Worth noting is Slop's entrance into the parlour, where he "stood like
Hamlet's ghost, motionless and speechless, for a full minute and a half, at the parlour
door, (Obadiah still holding his hand) with all the majesty of mud" (TS II. 10.124.2-5);
here Sterne paints a verbal picture that recalls the previous scene of Slop's collision, and
forebodes Slop's ill mood during Trim's reading of the sermon. Another instance
illustrates Walter's splenetic character:

-My father thrust back his chair,- rose up,-put on his hat,-- took four
long strides to the door,-jerked it open,-thrust his head halfway out,-shut the
door again,-took no notice of the bad hinge,-returned to the table,-pluck'd my
mother's thread-paper out of Slawkenbergius's book,-went hastily to his bureau,-
walk'd slowly back, twisting my mother's thread-paper about his thumb,-unbutton'd
his waistcoat,--threw my mother's thread-paper into the fire,-bit her sattin pin-
cushion in two, fill'd his mouth with bran,---confounded it... (TS 111.41.282.27-
283.9)

Here the multitudes of small visual details-short, powerful verbal "strokes" depicting
actions and things-accumulate to create a vivid, multifaceted portrait of Tristram's








father; indeed, in their sequential presentation, Sterne seems to anticipate the ultimate
visualization of life made available in film.
Briefer visual descriptions include Tristram's self-depiction in the act of writing (TS
111I.39.278.27-279.2) and the position Trim assumes as he begins to relate the "Story of
the king of Bohemia and his seven castles" (TS VIII. 19.682.16-683.2).
For Tristram's comments on his own descriptive ability, see TS VI.21.534.3-8.

62. See also Toby's focus on the crevice during Walter's discussion of "the right end
of a woman" (TIS 11.7.117.20-21f). Locke observes that "Ideas that in themselves are not
at all of kin, come so united in some Mens Minds, that 'tis very hard to separate them,
they always keep in company, and the one no sooner at any time comes into the
Understanding but its Associate appears with it" (ECHU II.xxxiii.395.31-34). The
relationship between Sterne's use of association and Locke's theory on the subject has
been explored by several critics; overall, the emphasis of these investigations have been on
verbal, and not visual, association.

63. Other notable instances of visual metaphor include Yorick's deathbed description
of his head, which is "so bruised and misshapen'd with the blows which ***** and *****,
and some others have so unhandsomely given me in the dark ." (TS 1.12.34.17-19) and
the fanciful suggestion that "had my uncle Toby's head been a Savoyard's box, and my
father peeping in all the time at one end of it,-it could not have given him a more
distinct conception of the operations in my uncle Toby's imagination, than what he had"
(TIS III.26.252.19-22).

64. Other significant instances of the visual imperative include Trim's verbal flourish
during the telling of a war story ("Look along the line-to the right-see! Jack's down!"
[TS V. 10.436.17]) and Tristram's address to "Jenny" ("whilst thou art twisting that
lock,-see! it grows grey" [TS IX.8.754.22-23]). The visual imperative also serves as a
convenient device for the narrator of the story of the abbess of Andouillets, who, after a
description of the drunk muleteer, declares "let us leave him then in the vortex of his
element, the happiest and most thoughtless of mortal men-and for a moment let us look
after the mules, the abbess, and Margarita" (TS VII.21.610.8-11).

65. The description of abstract values using visible and concrete symbols is a common
device throughout literature, and Sterne's use of this technique not only illustrates a point,
but often seems to be intended as a satirical application of the device. For instance,
Walter's statement that "knowledge, like matter, he would affirm, was divisible in
infinitum" (TS 11.19.170.25-26) questions Walter's certainty about the value of learning.
When Obadiah announces Bobby's death, "-A green sattin night-gown of my mother's,
which had been twice scoured, was the first idea which Obadiah's exclamation brought
into Susannah's head" (TS V.7.429.15-17). Less absurdly comic versions of the visual
concretization of the abstract occurs in Sterne's discussion of his own work: "surveying
the texture of what has been wrote, it is necessary, that upon this page and the five
following, a good quantity of heterogeneous matter be inserted, to keep up that just








balance betwixt wisdom and folly, without which a book would not hold together a single
year" (TS IX. 12.761.2-6).
Tristram's reflexive tendency makes a commentary on this technique of visualizing the
abstract inevitable, comically expressed in his "experiment" with "two pegs stuck slightly
into two gimlet-holes" representing wit and judgment (TIS III.preface.235.23ff); by toying
with the knobs, he underlines the limitations, as well as the absurd potential, of making the
abstract visual. His self-consciousness in this passage, which compels the reader with
near-imperatives to share the narrator's comparison, also resembles his self-commentary
regarding descriptions of characters.

66. Other notable instances of expression of character and things through attitude,
gesture, and other aspects of appearance include Walter's recovery from grief signaled
when he "pushed the chamber-pot still a little farther within the valance-gave a hem-
raised himself up upon his elbow" (TS IV.6.331.14-16). The "language" of gesture is
more explicitly demonstrated by Trim's bow to Toby, "which generally spoke as plain as a
bow could speak it-Your honour is good" (TS VI.7.503.14-15). A visual effect that is
perhaps even more direct is the appearance of Toby himself, who is described as having
"marks of infinite benevolence and forgiveness in his looks" (TS IX.32.805.8-9).
A tangent to this approach is the discussion of the interior/exterior dichotomy, most
vividly illustrated by "Momus's glass" (TS 1.23.82.10), which would allow the observer to
view "the soul stark naked" (TS 1.23.82.20); see 118 n. 82.10-12. Cf TS 111.4.189.18-20
and VI.5.497.11-26. The commonplace origin of this concept is suggested in 404 n.
497.11ff.

67. For other visual references to the theater, cf. TS 1.19.63.24-64.1, 11.3.114.2-3,
11.8.120.8-11, 11.10.124.2-4, II.19.169.17-18, and IV.S.T.318.4-5.

68. For other references to the mechanical, cf TS 1.22.81.25-82.5, III. 18.222.15-16,
111.41.283.23, 111.42.286.12-16, IV.8.333.17-334.9, IV. 12.340.17-19, IV. 19.354.8,
V.6.427.6-14, V.15.444.21-23, VI.17.525.4-5, and VII.1.575.5. Some of Sterne's use of
mechanical allusion seems to comment on Julien Offray de la Mettrie's concept of
l'homme machine.

69. For instances of mazes and labyrinths, see TS II.3.103.22-24, IV.Slawk.317.25,
and VI.37.565.4-6. For more on this subject, see Stephen Soud, "'Weavers, Gardeners,
and Gladiators': Labyrinths in Tristram Shandy" (Eighteenth-Century Studies 28:4 [1995]:
397-411).
For examples of web imagery, see TS IV. 19.355.20-21 and VI.33.558.9-15. For more
on the subject, see John B. Lamb, "A 'Chaos of Being': Carlyle and the Shandean Web of
History" (CLIO: A Journal of Literature. History, and the Philosophy of History 20:1
[1990]: 23-37).

70. A single mandatory graphic exists, of course, in A Sentimental Journey in the
form of Yorick's starling-adorned crest. For more on the phenomenon of graphics and





50


unusual type treatments in Tristram Shandy, see Holtz, Image and Immortality, 80-89 and
Chapter 2, Part 2 of this study.










~U ...uiA.:p.r. I ~i. I.
~ ~\w~


"-.2., fA f a w .Araf


Illustration by William Hogarth (first state) for Laurence
Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman
(London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1760), 1: frontispiece.


Figure 1-1.










I O.W a


". /Ila ; ". j" **?/"


Figure 1-2. Illustration by William Hogarth for Laurence Sterne, The
Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman (London:
R. and J. Dodsley, 1761), 3: frontispiece.









































Detail from John Hamilton Mortimer, A Caricature Group
(n.d. [c. 1767]; polychrome oil on canvas).


Figure 1-3.














CHAPTER 2
CRITICAL COMMENTARY ON STERNE'S VISUALITY

The stylistic thread of visuality that weaves its way through Sterne's work plays a

significant part in characterizing what Edmund Burke describes in 1760 as his "very lively

and very irregular imagination."2 Sterne's visual rhetoric has attracted critical attention

from the appearance of the first volumes of Tristram Shandy, attention which continues,

pursuing increasingly diverse approaches, for the entire 250 years since their first

publication. So copious is this diverse historical commentary on Sterne's visuality, in fact,

that the following selective critical history is divided into two parts: the first two centuries

of discussion will be addressed in the first part of this chapter, while the many recent

studies of the subject will come under examination in the second part. In addition to

opening up many valuable avenues for further discussion, the volume of commentary

about Sterne's visuality suggests the presence of a uniquely pictorial aspect in his work, a

quality I will seek to illuminate in this study through the combined investigation of

previous criticism, Sterne's texts, and illustrations of those texts.


Part 1: "Anti-Shandeans. thrice-able Critics, and fellow-labourers":' 1760-1957

In the fifty years after the initial appearance of Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental

Journey, critical observation of Sterne's visual rhetoric is often found in both

contemporary reviews and private observations of his work; Alan B. Howes's extensive

documentation of early Sterne commentary in Sterne: The Critical Heritage is an








invaluable tool in chronicling the early stages of this evaluation. Precisely because Howes

did not set out specifically to collect discussions of Sterne's visuality, the pervasiveness of

critical observations in his collection that address this rhetorical technique attests to the

pervasiveness of the recognition of visuality as a component in Sterne's work.

Discussions of this pictorial element are sometimes brief; for example, Horace

Walpole, writing about "Sterne's sentimental travels" to Thomas Gray in 1768, comments

that "though often tiresome," they are "exceedingly good-natured and picturesque"

(Howes 202). Joseph Pierre Frenais similarly remarks in the preface to his 1776

translation of the first four volumes of Tristram Shandy that Sterne's descriptions are

"picturesque" (Howes 395). And, yet again, in the 1796 Le Reveur Sentimental, Pierre

Blanchard observes that "I know of no one like Sterne who can find the picturesque,

distinctive trait that you have seen a thousand times but never noticed" (Howes 405).

Blanchard's recognition of Sterne's ability to describe unnoticed details is, as we shall see,

a common factor among many of the observers of Sterne's visual rhetoric.

The recognition of Sterne's "picturesque" writing-referring, it would seem, to a

general idea of verbal pictorialism rather than to the specific visual aesthetic promoted by

William Gilpin and others-is complemented by discussions that refer more specifically to

the visual arts. An unsigned entry on Stemrne in An Historical and Critical Account of the

Lives and Writings of the Living Authors of Great Britain (1762) remarks that the writer's

"Characters approach almost to Caricaturas" after the style of Rabelais (Howes 151). In

1777, the anonymous writer of Yorick's Skull calls Tristram Shandy an "admirable

caricature of history" rather than "an exact portrait of private life" (Howes 243). The

connection to the visual arts is also hinted at in an unsigned piece in the Critical Review








(1761) that calls attention to the similarity of Sterne's writing to Rabelais's in "the

address, the manner, and colouring" (Howes 126); similarly, in A Commentary Illustrating

the Poetic of Aristotle (1792), Henry James Pye notes Sterne's "high coloring" (Howes

317). The editor of the 1790 Beauties of Sterne touts his collection as having "true

Shandean colouring," as opposed to earlier editions that "were of rather too confined a

cast,-and that, contrary to the original, the utile and the dulce were not sufficiently

blended, or in equal quantities."3 Ignatius Sancho, in a letter to an unidentified friend

dated 1778, suggests the connection to painting even more strongly, commenting that

both Fielding and Sterne had "palettes stored with proper colours of the brightest dye,"

and that "their outline" was "correct-bold-and free" (Howes 176).

Many critics describe Sterne's writing with terms borrowed from the visual arts,

enlarging and enhancing the parallel in the process. In 1760, an unidentified acquaintance

of Sterne notes his belief that Sterne "meant to sketch out his own character in that of

Yorick" (Howes 59), while an unnamed reviewer in the 1768 Critical Review mentions

that, in rendering the monk, Sterne has "taken great pains to draw the figure" (Howes

198). More detailed metaphors using visual language emerge from commentary of this

period, as well: Jeremiah Newman, in his 1796 Lounger's Common-Place Book, observes

Sterne's talent "to sketch out affecting and masterly pictures" (Howes 298), and an

unsigned review in the Journal Encyclopedique (1760) praises the "dazzling quality of his

portraits" in Tristram Shandy (Howes 382). An anonymous 1786 French review

proclaims that "the most lively and realistic pictures .. flow in turn and without order

from his [Sterne's] facile, natural, and unconstrained pen" (Howes 401). An anonymous

reviewer of the 1786 Fr6nais translation of A Sentimental Journey also compares the text








to artwork, suggesting that Sterne's "pictures are chosen from the common ranks of

society, conceived with delicacy, and executed with wit and gaiety. He has ... the rare

talent of arousing our interest by pictures and details that we see every day" (Howes 389).

In addition to hinting at the effectiveness of visuality, these reviewers also identify a

consistent quality ofjoy and spontaneity in his creation of verbal pictures that seems to be

related to the popular conception of the author himself.

A 1761 pamphlet, Alas! Poor YORICK! or. a FUNERAL DISCOURSE, uses the

visual metaphor with more ambivalence; addressing Sterne, its writer states that "though

you had no principal figures that made a true composition, yet the corners of your picture

presented here and there entertaining decorations" (Howes 134). On the other hand, the

enduring importance of these "pictures" is asserted by Clara Reeve, author of The Old

English Baron, in her 1785 The Progress of Romance, when she notes that his depiction of

Maria, Le Fever, and the Monk "are charming pictures, and will survive, when all his other

writings are forgot" (Howes 263).

It is the particular metaphor of painting, however, which seems be the most prevalent

means of comparing Sterne's words with the visual arts in this period, a parallel Sterne

himself seems to have encouraged (though perhaps only half-seriously) with his discussion

of the theories ofdu Fresnoy, da Vinci, Hogarth, and Reynolds, and also in his visually

evocative descriptions, such as of the Monk Lorenzo in Sentimental Journey.4 The

painterly metaphor is often broadly applied by Sterne's readers, as with Ignatius Sancho's

1778 observation that both Fielding and Sterne were "great masters, who painted for

posterity" (Howes 177). In 1771, Thomas Jefferson considers Sterne's writing a "lively"

painting which is a "tolerable picture of nature" (Howes 215); Georg Christoph








Lichtenberg calls Sterne "the inimitable pleasant babbler and painter of emotions" (Howes

442) in 1799; and in 1790 Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin labels Sterne the "original

painter of sentimentality" (Howes 457). The connection between painting and the

expression of feeling that Karamzin notes is echoed by the philosopher Pierre-Simon

Ballanche fils, who comments in 1801 that Sterne "painted the emotions in uncommon

situations, in picturesque groupings, in subtle observations of customs" (Howes 406)-

likely intending the use of "picturesque" as "like of having the elements of a picture"

(OED). The metaphor of painting frequently occurs in this period to convey an

appreciation of Sterne's descriptions of feeling; for instance, Frenais, in his preface to his

translation (1776) of the first four books of Tristram Shandy, comments that Sterne

"always paints his subjects with propriety and it would be difficult to paint them with more

feeling or more delicacy" (Howes 394). Similarly, John Ogilvie, in his Philosophical and

Critical Observations (1774), lauds Sterne on his ability to "paint" so as to "imitate nature

in her most delicate signatures" as well as his "instantaneous perception of certain

attitudes" (Howes 240).

Several commentators, however, focus specifically on Sterne's descriptions of specific

people and places in reference to painting; in 1785, Mallet du Pan, touching on the

emotional aspect of Sterne's "painting," states that "no one tells a story with greater

interest, nor sketches in details with more truth, nor paints with more feeling than Sterne,"

in the stories of Uncle Toby and the fly, the Abbess of Andouillets, and especially the tales

of Le Fever and Maria. Here, observes du Pan, "there is no blurred stroke of the brush,

no affectation nor exaggeration" (Howes 400). In her 1786 evaluation of Sterne's

visuality, Madame Suard enthusiastically comments on the precision of Sterne's








descriptions: "With what art, what truth, he paints a scene and traces a portrait! Look, I

beg you, at that of good Father Lorenzo: he draws him for us with features so clear, so

precise, that it seems to me a skillful artist, taking his palette, could paint him for us from

the description" (Howes 404). Perhaps it is because they read Sterne in translation, but

both Du Pan and Suard, despite the specificity of their readings, seem almost more

inclined to praise Sterne as a creator of visual depictions than of verbal ones.

Sterner's tendency toward a "painterly" technique inspires some critics to draw more

direct comparisons with artists. In 1771, Voltaire finds Sterne's pictorial ability superior

to that of visual artists, observing that in the "Abuses of Conscience" sermon in Tristram

Shandy, "among several pictures superior to those of Rembrandt and the pencil of Callot,

there is one of a gentleman and man of the world, spending his days in the pleasures of

eating, gaming, and debauchery" (Howes 391). In a similar vein, Chrisoph Martin

Wieland asks in 1767 that when Sterne "paints for us happy scenes of naively beautiful

nature, what writer has ever been so much of a Correggio as he?" (Howes 424).

Needless to say, many of these commentaries are the stock-in-trade of an age that was

yet to be taught to distinguish aesthetically between the visual and the literary; writers with

styles as diverse as Fielding and Richardson were also highly praised for their "paintings"

of human nature. Without making any claim, therefore, that this vocabulary occurs more

often in Steme criticism than in other commentary (although I suspect it does), what I

want to establish is the variety of expressions the fundamental trope received, how it

broadly covered many aspects of both novels, and, most important, how it prepares the

way for the actual visual representations that came to accompany Sterne's work down the

"gutter of Time." It is perhaps a post-hoc fallacy, but one might suggest, at least, that the








higher incidence of illustrations of Sterne's work than of Richardson's or Fielding's,

reflects the fact that among critics and readers, a higher incidence of visual metaphor did

come into play.

Perhaps the most interesting contemporary comments on Sterne's visuality are those

that analyze the reception of Sterne's verbal "painting" as a prompt to the reader's

imagination. The anonymous writer of "The Leveller" in Westminster Magazine of 1775

responds to the visually compelling aspect of Sterne's prose (perhaps in a fashion similar

to the function of the visual imperative discussed in Chapter 1): "I thought I saw before

me the little fat Doctor, mounted on his diminutive poney ... I thought I saw the hasty

Obadiah, mounted on a great unruly brute of a coach horse... I painted to myself the

terror and consternation of the Doctor's face... All these, I say, with many other

additional circumstances, painted themselves so strongly on my imagination, that I laughed

most immoderately loud" (Howes 241-42). The description seems to attribute to the

written passage the ability to create an active, moving vision, a continuously "painted"

scene, just as the frames of a film move forward and together; enthralled by this verbally

generated spectacle, this reader confesses to behaving indiscreetly-laughing "most

immoderately loud"-his testimony to Sterne's vivid depictions.

At least one contemporary observer attempts to scientifically analyze the effect of

Sterne's visuality. In 1792, Dugald Stewart, an important theorist of affective psychology,

connects Sterne's descriptive ability to the triggering of a pathetic emotional response

from the reader: "what we commonly call sensibility," he writes, "depends, in a great

measure, on the power of imagination" (Howes 318). Stewart observes that the

sympathetic perceiver will visually project from a pathetic situation all the unfortunate








circumstances that surround it, and as he imaginatively "proceeds in the painting, his

sensibility increases, and he weeps, not for what he sees, but for what he imagines"

(Howes 319). This process, Stewart asserts, is "beautifully illustrated" (Howes 319) by

Sterne's use of the starling in A Sentimental Journey. Stewart's focus on the response

provoked by Sterne's visual rhetoric, rather than simply on the technique itself, suggests

an underlying theme to the ongoing critical discussion about the Sterne's pictorialism: the

desire to describe the elusive effect the visual elements have on his readers.

In addition, as has already been suggested, the attitude toward the visual quality of

Sterne's work was not always a flattering one; some critics seized on Sterne's visuality as

a morally reprehensible characteristic of his work. In The Citizen of the World (1760),

Oliver Goldsmith appears to be referring to Sterne in his discussion of a certain writer who

iconoclastically "paints things as they are, revealing to "the erring people that the object

of their vows is either perhaps a mouse, or a monkey" (Howes 93). Vicesimus Knox, in

Essays Moral and Literary (1787), stresses a variation on the idea of visual exposure,

stating "it is, indeed, easy to attract the notice and the admiration of the youthful and the

wanton, by exhibiting loose images under a transparent veil."5 The condemnation of

Sterne's "imagery" is a popular point for Sterne's detractors. In 1797, William

Wilberforce accuses Sterne of a mischievous style that "excites impure images" in the

reader "without shocking us by the grossness of the language" (Howes 302). An unsigned

notice in the 1767 Gentleman's Magazine remarks that Sterne "lessens the power of the

most important of all passions, by connecting disgustful images with its gratifications"

(Howes 180). George Gregory's 1787 complaint that Sterne resorts to "the readiest and








most copious source of pathetic imagery" (Howes 265) reflects another variation in this

perceived danger of imagery, emphasizing banality instead of a moral threat.

Some hostile commentators are more direct in their condemnation of Sterne's ability

to create pictures in the reader's mind. John Ferriar, in the second edition of Illustrations

of Sterne (1798), observes that Sterne "dwelt with enthusiasm on the grotesque pictures

of manners and opinions, displayed by his favorite authors" (Howes 289). Mary Berry

takes a similar approach in 1798, commenting that Tristram Shandy, "while it diverts,

always reminds me of a Dutch portrait, in which we admire the accurate representation of

all the little disgusting blemishes-the warts, moles, and hairs-of the human form"

(Howes 320). To many contemporary critics, Sterne's visuality constitutes an important

part of his talent, but this same ability condemns him in the eyes of others; both groups,

however, seem to concur on the engrossing effect of the technique.

Several late-eighteenth-century critics who found more good than bad in Sterne's

work discuss their reactions to the writer's visuality in more depth. In an unsigned review

in the Monthly Review (1765), Ralph Griffith is moved emotionally by Sterne's invocation

to the "Just disposer of our joys and sorrows" in A Sentimental Journey: "Give me thy

hand, dear Shandy!" Griffith implores, "Give me they heart!-What a delightful scene

hast thou drawn! Would we had it upon two yards of REYNOLDS's canvass!" (Howes

165). He is similarly affected by the scene describing the widow Wadman's eye in a

comment which escalates to a more general praise of the visuality of Sterne/Tristram:

"Never was any thing more beautifully simple, more natural, more touching! 0 Tristram!

that ever any grosser colours should daub and defile that pencil of thine, so admirably

fitted for the production of the most delicate as well as the most masterly pictures of men,








manners, and situations!" (Howes 166). Here and elsewhere, perhaps the most powerful

tribute to Sterne's visuality comes in the form of imitation of his style. Griffith concludes

with recommendations to Sterne: "Paint Nature in her loveliest dress-her native

simplicity. Draw natural scenes, and interesting situations" (Howes 168). In a later

unsigned review in the Monthly Review (1768), Griffith comments on Sterne's depiction

of the monk Lorenzo: "What an affecting, touching, masterly picture is here!" (Howes

199). Griffith's repetitive praise of the effectiveness of Sterne's visuality suggests the

centrality of the technique to his consideration of the text, and hints at the role of the

individual reader's response in making the pictures engaging.

The poet known as the "Swan of Lichfield," Anna Seward, cites different visual

criteria for her methodological critical praise of Sterne's work in 1787, noting its "original

colouring" (Howes 268). Comparing Tristram Shandy with Memoirs of Martinus

Scriblerus, Seward states, "there is an immense superiority in the vividness with which he

[Sterne] has coloured his Shandy" (Howes 269); and in 1788 she cites visual elements to

defend Steme against charges of simply rewriting the earlier work: "it cannot be denied

that this joint work of Pope, Swift, and Arbuthnot, suggested to Steme the plan of

Tristram Shandy;-but how has he drawn it out!-how glow his colours in the vivid tints

of Nature!" (Howes 270). By citing Sterne's use of "color" as a differentiating quality of

Sterne's writing, Seward appeals to the vocabulary of the visual arts almost as if standard

critical language could not sufficiently explain the difference.

Seward also focuses on the ability of Sterne's descriptions to create both auditory and

visual sensations in the reader's mind, suggesting that "we see and hear the little domestic

group at Shandy-hall" (Howes 269). Everyone in the Shandy household, Seward








contends, "down to the fat scullion, lives-and they are, by those happy characteristic

touches, that mark the hand of genius, brought to our eye, as well as to our ear" (Howes

270). Although Seward cites only one scene that demonstrates Sterne's ability to appeal

directly to the senses to bring scenes to life, the same animating factor is a hallmark of all

his work, as demonstrated by the array of voices I have briefly outlined here.

Perhaps the least public, and yet most profuse, discussion of Steme's technique in this

period is the marginalia written by John Scott, the Earl of Clonmell, between 1769 and

1789 in his copy of A Sentimental Journey. Paul Franssen, describing Clonmell's wide-

ranging commentary, states that "most prominent are his [Clonmell's] remarks on the

descriptive, pictorial element"; in addition, he "underlines many words in the text to bear

out the pictorial element" in Sterne's work.6 Franssen's meticulous cataloguing of

Clonmell's notes bears out his conclusions: "no fewer than 40 annotations consist only of

the word 'picture' by itself, and 20 times more he uses it in a longer phrase" (160). Some

of Clonmell's briefer remarks include concise visual references, such as "the Painter's

stroke" (162), while his longer marginal notes provide sometimes startling commentary on

the nature of the text-image dynamic. For example, after "The Letter. Amiens," Clonmell

observes that "nothing can furnish better Instances of humourous Description than this

Chapter, the minuteness with Which each Active particle is exactly described puts the

whole Picture before you "(163).7 Clonmell is one of the few commentators at this

time to view Sterne's work within a tradition of literary pictorialism, pointing out that

"Milton seems to have laid ye foundation of Stem's Stile of painting in yC following

Observation, Each Motion formd Each Word, Describing Belial his great Model of

Oratory" (164).8 Clonmell's annotations are of particular value not only because, as








Franssen points out, he "is not a professional critic, but an ordinary (be it well-educated

and intelligent) man" (194), but also because of the extraordinary depth and range of his

commentary on Sterne's visuality.

Discussion of Sterne's works declined in the period from 1800 to 1840, perhaps due

to a decline in their overall popularity, a result of a shift in literary tastes, or simply the

natural evolution of popular works in the next generation (that is, before they achieve the

status of"classic.") Undoubtedly, some of the dearth of critical commentary was also

influenced by assumptions about Sterne's personal life that threw a cast of immorality over

his work. In particular, unsavory rumors abounded about his treatment of his wife and

mother (the latter the inspiration for Byron's journal entry about "that dog Sterne, who

preferred whining over 'a dead ass to relieving a living mother'-villain-hypocrite-

slave-sycophant!" [Howes 346]). Although these stories tainted Sterne's reputation,

some critics, like Samuel Taylor Coleridge, were beginning to consider the work on its

own merit, separated from assumptions about the personal history of the author and his

age. If commentators were fewer in this period, those who did address Sterne's literary

merit in general-and the visuality important to this study, in particular-ventured into a

more detailed and thoughtful analysis than that produced by Sterne's contemporaries.

Many of the metaphors chosen by critics regarding Sterne's descriptions again suggest

the visual arts as a relevant parallel. Hugh Murray, in 1805, remarks that Sterne "excels

particularly in minute imagery, and the affecting detail of little incidents" (Howes 327),

though William Bulwer notes in 1863 that Sterne's "most exquisite characters are but

sketches and outlines."9 An unsigned essayist in The Port Folio of 1811 observes that a

trait of Sterne is "the vivid and distinct descriptions he gives us, not only of the peculiar








turns of thinking, but also of the speaker's person, and his peculiar attitudes in speaking.

With the exception of the inimitable Cervantes, it will be difficult to find another writer,

who, in this branch of composition, exceeds Laurence Sterne" (Howes 339). And in an

1818 lecture, Coleridge praises Sterne's expertise in depicting the "traits of human nature,

which so easily assume a particular cast and color from individual character" as well as his

expression of "all that happiest use of drapery and attitude, which at once gives the reality

by individualizing, and the vividness by unusual, yet probable, combinations."10 Although

these critics do not specifically state that Sterne is drawing verbal pictures, they do

acknowledge the importance of his use of visual evocation in his creation of distinctive

characters.

Other commentators were more direct in comparing Sterne's techniques to those of a

visual artist. In 1821 Thomas Hood, upon seeing a distressed young woman, recalls that

Maria "came into my mind, exactly as Sterne had drawn her" (Howes 368). Analyzing

Sterne's visuality in detail, Richard Cumberland, in his Memoirs of 1806, observes that

Sterne's "real merit lies not only in his general conception of characters, but in the

address, with which he marks them out by those minute, yet striking, touches of his pencil,

that make his descriptions pictures, and his pictures life" (Howes 217). Using the older

definition of "pencil" as "paintbrush," Cumberland focuses on the attention Sterne pays to

visual details that allows his descriptions to move beyond mere verbal drawings ("that

make his descriptions pictures") to become part of an imagined reality ("his pictures life").

It seems to have been this pictorial quality that inspires Hood to make the comparison

between the real entity before him and the fictional Maria.








Employing a direct reference to painting in an essay for the 1810 British Novelists

series, Anna Laetitia Barbauld pinpoints a different aspect of Sterne's verbal-visual ability,

noting that he "resembles those painters who can give expression to a figure by two or

three strokes of bold outline, leaving the imagination to fill up the sketch" (Howes 332).

The more general metaphor of "painting" as "describing" is fairly common, however, such

as suggested by Charles-Athananais Walckenaer in the 1830 statement that "Sterne paints

mankind while seeming only to try to amuse his readers and to make sport of them and of

himself' (Howes 415). This usage is echoed by Charles Nodier's 1830 observation that

"the good and discerning Yorick-as Sterne has painted himself-is a wise man with a

jovial and ever so slightly caustic spirit, but benevolent and urbane" (Howes 421). In

1822, Giovanni Ferri di S. Costante, however, only uses the idea of "painting" as a

synonym for physical depiction as a starting point: "It was Marivaux who gave the first

example of the genre of which Sterne was reputed creator, which consists of painting

human life with more truth, making visible in the heart of man a great number of rapid

movements, so that they can hardly be noticed" (Howes 466). The variety of visual

readings of Sterne's work not only attests to the widespread recognition of this quality,

but also demonstrates the range of visual elements that interest individual critics (that

catch their eyes, so to speak), as if they were actually viewing a painting and focusing on

different aspects for discussion.

The use of visual metaphor to describe Sterne's work can recall the author's use of

similar language, although such usage can also border on a generic language of

description. For instance, the anonymous writer of the critical essay in the 1807 Classic

Tales anthology, edited by Leigh Hunt, comments that Tristram Shandy "displays shrewd








observation, ready and genuine wit, and well-drawn character."" The visual aspects of

the characters' depictions are further emphasized here by observations like "Le Fleur is an

exquisitely painted child of nature" and that "the sorrows of Maria are touched with a

pencil as soft and captivating as her own melodious pipe" (280-81). The commentator

also sees Sterne's visuality as a means of capturing a more elusive quality of mankind,

citing "a spirit of humanity and benevolence [that] will find itself cherished by a variety of

scenes supplied by the sprightly or the sombre pencil" (281). The critic seems to

repeatedly return to the emotional value of the visual, implicitly suggesting its function as

a prompt to the reader's feelings.

Dominique-Joseph Garat, one of Sterne's most ardent French admirers, also furnishes

thoughtful observations on the visual aspects of his work. In his 1820 book, Memoires

historiques sur le XVIII sickle et sur M. Suard, Garat often uses the common metaphor of

"paints" for "describes" as do other critics, but adapts the usage to a more complex-in

this case psychological-context, noting that "always himself torn between passions and

virtues, Sterne paints men as not apparently much in control of their actions and their

destinies" (Howes 410). Garat also recognizes the value of Sterne's ability to evoke

painterly pictures with words, pointing out that he

draws so clearly the things and the people he chances upon, he paints them with colors
so life-like, that you forget everything in the enchantment of the portraits and the
varied tableaux that he traces. He has the shading and the touch of all the great
schools and all the great masters-the pencils and the brushes of the Flemish, the
Romans, and the French follow each other in the style of an Englishman, too original
to be of any school and too filled with all the physical and moral impressions from
nature herself not to render them by turns with the most lifelike manners of all the
schools. (Howes 410)








Garat marks the success of Sterne's portrayals by their ability to dominate the reader's

thoughts: Sterne's technique "makes you forget everything." He also describes these

compelling characters with the terminology of painting, and strengthens the parallel

between the arts of painting and Sterne's writing by comparing Sterne himself favorably to

the most admired schools of painters. Sterne's visuality is, according to Garat, the ability

to gather "physical and moral impressions from nature herself," and his great virtue is the

ability to render "lifelike manners." Garat hints at the philosophical implications of

Sterne's realistic depictions with the astute remark, that "under the brush of Sterne, man is

not imprisoned; he is tossed about" (Howes 410).

Throughout his discussion of Sterne, Garat asserts that Sterne's descriptions of

"lifelike manners" paradoxically do not "capture" an image at all, but instead liberate the

image of man from the constraints of physical depiction. This is a key element in defining

Sterne's use of the visual in character description; Sterne does not provide the visual

instructions that create a concrete personage as do Fielding and Richardson, but rather

alludes to a few key defining elements that compose themselves variably in the reader's

mind, making the experience of imagining Sterne's "pictures" different for each reader. It

is Sterne's "sketching" of character in a "few strokes" (apparent in both his and Hogarth's

renditions of Dr. Slop) that enable multiplicities of images of this scene to thrive in the

imagination-and on paper as illustrations. This process comes about because, as Garat

seems to assert, the human figure is released from the "imprisonment" of complete

physical description in Sterne's work, and assumes completion in the mind of the reader.

Though far more cautious in his enthusiasm, Walter Scott, in an essay in his Lives of

Eminent Novelists and Dramatists (first published in 1823), also takes note of the visual








characteristics of Sterne's prose. Tristram Shandy, he states, "is no narrative, but a

collection of scenes, dialogues, and portraits, humorous or affecting, intermixed with

much wit, and with much learning, original or borrowed."'12 Although Scott seems to

disapprove of the structure of Sterne's fiction, he clearly finds individual visual elements

worthy of praise, such as the characters of Toby and Trim, which "are drawn with... a

pleasing force and discrimination" and provide a "lively picture of kindness and

benevolence" (520). Sterne's ability to create a remarkable portrait, however, becomes

problematic for Scott, as he wrestles with the paradox of the excellence of Sterne's self-

depiction with his own opinion of the author's personal life. Scott recognizes "the general

likeness between the author and the child of his fancy" and he would "willingly pardon the

pencil, which, in the delicate task of self-delineation, has softened some traits of his own

features and improved others" (520). A similar ambiguity pervades Scott's statement that

"Yorick, the lively, witty, sensitive, and heedless Parson, is the well-known personification

of Sterne himself, and undoubtedly, like every portrait drawn of himself by a master of the

art, bore a strong resemblance to the original" (519). Again, Scott's recognition of the

visual element of Sterne's writing is mixed with a reluctance to concede Sterne's status as

a "master of the art."

Probably the most rigorous commentator on Sterne's visuality in this period was the

clergyman Edward Mangin, whose numerous letters on literary subjects were published in

1814 as a collection, A View of the Pleasures Arising From the Love of Books. Mangin's

commentary, unlike Scott's, focuses almost exclusively on the text itself, and his applause

for Sterne's visuality is effusive; he remarks, for instance, that A Sentimental Journey

"abounds... in fine specimens of what may be called the art of painting with his pen, in








which the author was a very great master: he exhibits on paper the talents of Carlo Dolce,

Vandyke, Teniers and Hogarth, and is often not inferior in composition, colouring and

truth to any of them."13 Mangin not only makes a parallel with the visual arts, but even

touts the superiority of Sterne's verbal pictorialism over the abilities of several celebrated

visual artists.

Mangin also pinpoints individual scenes in Sterne's work for their particularly visual

elements. He states that, compared with the depiction of Maria, that of the Monk "is a fill

length portrait by the same expert hand, but in a quite different taste from the last: no one

can for a moment doubt that it is from nature and from the life. The idea of a painting was

in Sterne's mind when he undertook to give his admirable likeness of Father Lorenzo"

(94-95). Sterne's painterly inclination is, of course, partially revealed by the text, which

states that the Monk had "one of those heads, which Guido has often painted";14 clearly,

though, Mangin is interested in building on the visual aspects of the passage. "The

drawing goes on incomparably," Mangin continues, "and is indeed worthy of Guido

himself' (96). Mangin again implies the quality of Sterne's written portrait in comparison

to a painted or sculpted one: "This might be the outline of a picture or a statue, though

indeed of a fine one; but the author's concluding strokes give it life" (98).

Perhaps the most telling instance of the depth of Mangin's investigation into Sterne's

visuality is his concession that, due to the number of examples, "it would be wearisome to

collect and comment on all the instances which might be produced of Sterne's powers and

versatility" (98).15 Significantly, Mangin's many observations on Sterne's visuality were

likely to have been influenced by his possession of the Earl of Clonmell's heavily

annotated edition of the work.16








From 1840 through the early-twentieth century, critical discussion about Sterne's

work initially continued its quantitative decline, and then sparked to life again, the subject

of discussion for an increasingly "professional" cadre of literary commentators and

biographers (unfortunately for Sterne, a rather diaphanous line separated the two

categories) who occasionally became engaged at length with issues of rhetorical style.

Critical recognition of the strength of Sterne's use of visual elements in his writing

sometimes even survived the harshest judgments against the moral value of his text and

unsavory rumors about his life. For instance, in his lecture published in 1853, William

Makepeace Thackeray describes the scene of Tristram's meeting with Nannette as "a

landscape and figures, deliciously painted by one who had the keenest enjoyment and the

most tremulous sensibility,"'17 but then paradoxically adds that this description (as well as

all of Sterne's writing) contains "a latent corruption-a hint, as of an impure presence"

(291)-he had, perhaps, shocked himself with his own sensuous description of Sterne's

visuality. It is almost as if Thackeray could not help but privately take pleasure in the

"picturesque and delightful parts" (270) of the work of the man he felt it necessary to

publicly condemn as a "wretched worn-out old scamp" (281).

Parallel to this perspective, however, was an increasing critical focus on Sterne's

writing as an entity worthy of analysis apart from the author's life, carrying on a tradition

begun in Sterne studies by Coleridge and Scott, and, more pertinently, by Clonmell and

Mangin. Percy Fitzgerald, writing a critical biography of Sterne in 1864 (revised thirty

years later), repeatedly cites the visual aspects of scenes and characters in Sterne's writing.

In reference to the sermon, "The case of Elijah and the widow of Zarephath considered,"

the first writing of Sterne to appear in print, Fitzgerald comments that in "describing the








scene where the child is restored to life" Sterne's "taste for painting breaks out, and he

pictures for his congregation the various figures of'the piece'";"8 for Fitzgerald, this use

of the visual clearly adds to the effectiveness of the parson's message. Later, Fitzgerald

records Sterne using a similar technique for a different purpose, as when Sterne "described

his new pastoral life to his friend Lee in a very tempting picture, like all his pictures"

(2:161). This example demonstrates Fitzgerald's view of Sterne's visuality; although he

does not comment directly on its impact, he does imply both the importance of the

technique and Sterne's talent for it. In addition, Fitzgerald states that "in his letters, too,

Mr Sterne gave little pictures, which show (as has been here so often insisted on) what a

literal romance of his life he meant Tristram to be" (2:24), he precisely captures Sterne's

ability to visualize scenes.

Fitzgerald echoes previous critics in his labeling of Sterne's characters as a "gallery of

original men and women" (1:153), and similarly sees the depiction of Slop as particularly

related to the form of visual caricature: Steme, he notes, "was called on with

remonstrances, and even threats, to alter the personal strokes and colouring of his

portrait" of Yorkshire's Dr. Burton (1:122). In reference to Tristram Shandy, Fitzgerald

attributes to Sterne's visuality the ability to create a lasting impression on his audience.

There was a

fixed period of fame for him [Sterne] and his book, founded on the humours of the
four or five leading characters-my Uncle Toby, Mr and Mrs Shandy, Trim and Dr
Slop-these outlines have become fixed in the public mind, like the incidents and
characters in Don Quixote. These are so clear in their drawing, and have been so
much referred to and quoted, that they have become known and familiar, even for
those who have never seen or read the book. (1:168)








Sterne's method of "drawing" characters, which etches their figures in the public mind,

seems to be so effective, in fact, that they break free from the text that gave them birth (as

well as from the author himself) and become independent entities unto themselves.

Most of Fitzgerald's observations about Sterne's visuality concern descriptions in A

Sentimental Journey. The idea of the "picturesque" is prevalent throughout his

commentary, perhaps best exemplified by his remark that "over the incidents of the old

posting journeys from Calais up to Paris hangs a picturesque cloud. They are full of

colour and good scenic effect" (1:205); as if to emphasize his point, the word

"picturesque" is repeated five times in two pages.

Although Fitzgerald occasionally does use visual terminology to define the general

pattern of description in A Sentimental Journey-he notes, for instance, that Sterne's

"sketches of the old towns are dashed in as oddly and as quaintly as are their projecting

gables and twisting streets" (1:207)-his most explicitly "artistic" discussion refers to

particular moments in the work that were "illustrated" with words. Indeed, when

Fitzgerald describes the work as full of "charming sketches, with the bloom and fragrance

of the romantic south upon them, full of life and delicacy and colour" (2:23-24), he raises

the question whether it is even possible to characterize Sterne's descriptive writing

without depending on visual language to convey its vividness.

Fitzgerald comments at length on several individual scenes, "pleasant glimpses and

pictures" (2:27) that Sterne depicts. He appropriately responds to Sterne's description of

the innkeeper, M. Varennes, at the inn in Montreuil, who introduced him to Le Fleur, with

his own visual imagining: "We have even a sketch of the landlord, who corrected Mr

Sterne's French .... We see his rotund figure standing before Mr Sterne" (2:86). Among








many examples noted by Fitzgerald we can include his praise of the "pathetic picture of

'the Dead Ass' before the door of the post-house at Nampont" (2:87), and of Sterne's

pictorial technique at the end of Sentimental Journey, where "we have delightful little

glimpses, full of local colour and exquisite pastoral effect" (2:96). Fitzgerald also readily

crosses the boundary between the written and the visual arts in his discussion, noting that

Yorick and the grisset in the glove-shop constitute a "little scene which inspired Newton

with a fresh Leslie-like cabinet picture" (2:92), and that the scene of the farm family

readying for the Grace "makes a perfect pendant to that other picture which he saw in the

Bourbonnois, on his first journey" (2:96)-meaning, presumably, the contrasting

melancholy of the highly pictorial description of lone Maria.

Fitzgerald even frames his regret about Sterne's inability to continue his story in visual

terms, stating that, in regard to Sterne's unfulfilled plans to visit Spain, "we can only

regret the loss, for he has been so successful with his French brush: how he would have

revelled in the Spanish tints!" (2:40) Overall, perhaps Fitzgerald has the most visual

orientation of all previous critics, and, in addition to the numerous allusions to Sterne as a

visual artist, he uses the term "photograph" in describing a verbal sketch of a person or

scene (1:149), thus applying to Sterne's ability to capture a visual essence in words, a

relatively new technology.

The Reverend Whitwell Elwin includes Sterne in his lengthy 1902 study, Some XVIII

Century Men of Letters, declaring that "no novelist has surpassed Sterne in the vividness

of his descriptions, in the skill with which he selects and groups the details of his finished

scenes" and that he has "a rare power of delineation by slight and easy touches."'9

Although his treatment of Sterne is brief in comparison to Fitzgerald's, Elwin nonetheless








not only comments on instances of Sterne's visuality, but also explores how the technique

functions to generate sympathy in the reader. Elwin cites Dugald Stewart's comment

regarding the description of the Captive as a "beautiful illustration of the power of the

imagination in conjuring up circumstances which awaken sensibility,"20 and continues,

"they must, indeed, be master-strokes which in half a dozen sentences could convey such

an intense impression of the miseries of a dungeon" (76). Elwin's invocation of Stewart's

theory suggests a continuing effort by Sterne's readers to explain the success of the

sentimental in his works in visual terms, and perhaps helps us understand why so many

illustrators, early and late, have been compelled to re-portray these scenes. Here, too,

Elwin hits upon the paradox of Sterne's minimal descriptions that produce vivid pictures;

the reconciliation between minimalism and vividness might exist in the imagination, but,

perhaps, it is not Sterne's, but the reader's, that actually paints the picture.

In contrast to the bias toward the pictorial in Sentimental Journey evidenced by

previous critics, most of Elwin's discussion instead revolves around the visual aspects of

Tristram Shandy. Defending Sterne against attacks on his originality, he uses visual

description in his contention (mentioned previously by Seward) that "the crude outline of

the character of Uncle Toby's brother is clearly borrowed from that of the elder

Scriblerus, but it is filled up with a dramatic skill to which the original has no pretension"

(53). More importantly, perhaps, Elwin uses visual language as a means to describe why

the portrayal of Uncle Toby deserves special praise:

The strokes with which the portraits [of Toby] are drawn are altogether so deep and
yet so delicate, so truthful and yet so novel, so simple in outline and yet so varied in
the details, so comical and yet so charming, that it may be questioned if, out of
Shakespeare, there is a single character in English fiction depicted with greater or even
equal power. (56)









Using the visual metaphor to a more complex end, Elwin offers insight into the effect of

Tristram Shandy on the reader: the text is "full of interior meanings which escape the mind

on a rapid perusal, and the interest is sustained, and the pleasure increased, by the

numerous beauties which keep rising into view the longer we linger over the work. It is a

kindred merit that he shines in painting by single strokes" (69). The carefully extended

metaphor of painting becomes not only a means to describe Sterne's technique of writing,

but suggests a way to appreciate the text; both a painting and Tristram Shandy respond to

a similarly patient "eye" which is appreciative of detail.

Although Walter Bagehot claims only a few years after Elwin that Tristram Shandy is

"a book without plan or order" and is "in every generation unfit for analysis,"21 he too

succumbs to the temptation of praising Sterne's visuality; Sterne has, proclaims Bagehot,

"fine sensibility" and an "exquisite power of entering into and of delineating plain human

nature" (303). Bagehot asserts that "there is no better painting of first and easy

impressions than [in A Sentimental Journey]" (297), and that, specifically, the scene of Le

Fever in Tristram Shandy is "the portrait-painting of the heart. It is as pure a reflection of

mere natural feeling as literature has ever given, or will ever give. The delineation is

nearly perfect" (288-89). Bagehot echoes previous critics in his observation that the

visual elements in Sterne's work function as a conduit to feeling, and in the process

reveals his own profound response to Le Fever's "nearly perfect" portrayal.

To Bagehot, Sterne's talent at visual depiction can make sentiment transcend its

possibly unsavory physicality: he notes that "the feeling which would probably be coarse in

the reality is refined in the picture" (289). But, in contrast to his approval of several








examples of Sterne's visuality, Bagehot's overall enthusiasm is clearly limited; "here the

great excellence of Stemrne ends as well as begins .... It is an imperative law of the writing

art," he insists, with an eye toward form, "that a book should go straight on" (289).

The extensive biography of Sterne by H. D. Traill in 1882 catalogues many instances

of visual writing, at times describing their pictorial aspects in great detail, a reflection of

Traill's belief in the author's "insight into character and his graphic power."22 An unusual

comment regarding visuality in the Memoirs notes that the depiction of Roger Sterne "is

touched in with strokes so vivid and characteristic that critics have been tempted to find in

it the original of the most famous portrait in the Shandy gallery"; it is "a captivating little

picture" (8). Traill also identifies the persona generated by a Sterne letter as a "self-

painted portrait" (51).

Following the lead of other Victorian critics, Traill focuses on Sterne's portrayal of the

residents of the Shandy parlor as particularly evocative of the visual. He notes that "the

two most elaborate portraits" in the first volume of Tristram Shandy are "the admirable

but very flatteringly idealized sketch of the author himself in Yorick, and the Gilrayesque

caricature of Dr. Slop" (36), which he later identifies as a "burlesque portrait" of the real-

life Dr. Burton (41). Traill's reference to the well-known political cartoonist James

Gillray (1757-1815) draws an interesting and previously unexplored parallel between

Sterne's images and those of eighteenth-century political cartoonists. Traill's more

detailed observation that "before we reach the end of the first volume, the highly

humorous if extravagantly idealized figure of Mr. Shandy takes bodily shape and

consistency before our eyes" (44) is a recognition of Sterne's compelling verbal depiction

of character that is similar to the visual imperative noted in Chapter 1 in reference to the








sermons. Traill also pauses to examine Sterne's depiction of Toby, which is "one of the

most perfect and delightful portraits" in "the gallery of English fiction" (37). And, to

express the impact of this example of Sterne's characterization, Traill again clearly evokes

the visual arts: "an artist may put a hundred striking figures upon his canvas for one that

will linger in the memory of those who have gazed upon it; and it is after all, I think, the

one figure of Captain Tobias Shandy which has graven itself indelibly on the memory of

mankind" (168). Here and elsewhere, the frequency of, and similarity between, the

various discussions about Sterne's use of the visual suggests the possibility that Traill and

others are thoughtlessly evoking stale tropes of appreciation and nothing more. The

nature of the tropes chosen and their very consistent return to visuality seems to indicate

as much about the nature of criticism as it does about Sterne's texts. At the same time,

however, the very sameness of the remarks begins to define something unique about

Sterne-not only his visuality, but how he uniquely creates pictures in the reader's

imagination.

Traill calls the seventh volume of Tristram Shandy a "series of travel-pictures" (80),

asserting that the "sketches of travel" in this volume, "though destined to be surpassed in

vigour and freedom of draftsmanship, by the Sentimental Journey, are yet excellent" (89).

He singles out the story of the Abbess and her novice in particular as an exercise in visual

writing, noting that, although the scene has a tendency toward bawdiness, it is "quite

perversely skilful" as "a mere piece of story-telling, and even as a study in landscape and

figure painting" (90); that is, a passage that is particularly evocative of the visual arts. In

his analysis of this passage, Traill implies the redemptive role of visual elements in

justifying what he sees as questionable elements in Sterne's work, as the details of the








passage "bring the whole scene before the eye so vividly" that it could simply have been "a

piece of his characteristic persiflage" (90).

Perhaps because the work was frequently viewed with suspicion in Victorian society,

Traill seems generally less interested in exploring the function of its visual rhetoric in A

Sentimental Journey. The people described in A Sentimental Journey, he notes, "make up

a surprising collection of distinct and graphic characters" that are "touched with wonderful

art"; the monk, in particular, is "one of the most artistic figures on literary canvas," a

reminder of Sterne's references to painting in his description. Traill also reflects on

Sterne's technique of verbal "sketching," noting, with what had become a commonplace,

that the minor characters are "touched in with only a couple of strokes" (119).

As with Tristram Shandy, Traill does not merely catalogue observations of Sterne's

visuality, but makes special efforts to evaluate the visual quality of scenes; regarding the

starling episode, for example, he suggests that "the details of the picture are too much

insisted on, and there is too much of self-consciousness in the artist" (165). Though he

finds its execution occasionally flawed, Traill acknowledges the importance of Sterne's

"draughtsmanship," which, "whether as exhibited in the rough sketch or in the finished

portrait, is unquestionably most vigorous" (168). Like Bagehot, Traill also identifies

Sterne's examples of verbal "painting" with his best writing, noting that "when Sterne the

artist is uppermost, when he is surveying his characters with that penetrating eye of his,

and above all when he is allowing his subtle and tender humour to play upon them

unrestrained, he can touch the springs of compassionate emotion in us with a potent and

unerring hand" (166). Here the "hand" of the writer is nearly synonymous with that of the

visual artist, blurring the defining line between the two, much as Sterne does in his writing.








More important, perhaps, is Traill's observation (similar to Elwin's) that it is specifically

the visual elements of Sterne's writing which act upon the reader's sympathy.

Three critics of this period-Leslie Stephen, Thomas Seccombe, and Charles

Whibley-comment on Sterne's visuality only briefly and in general terms, but each has

something important to observe. Referring to Sterne's ability to "paint" with words,

Stephen notes that "one can hardly read the familiar passages without admitting that

Sterne was perhaps the greatest artist in the language."23 Seccombe echoes this sentiment

by making a direct comparison between Sterne's outstanding depiction of characters and

"a few of the canvases of Jan Steen," which have "something of the same power to arrest

one by their striking animation and fidelity to the life."24 Whibley, calling Sterne "a master

of the picturesque," also uses terminology borrowed from the visual arts to emphasize

Sterne's fidelity to nature: "Even when he coloured his observation with caricature, he still

drew from life."25 Although these varied comparisons might be the result of the individual

responses to Sterne's visual rhetoric, they also attest to Sterne's creative complexity,

which can be seen as suggesting (as well as defying) different visual conventions.

Without asserting that any one of the three qualifies as a subtle critic in modem eyes

(and we will seem equally naive, perhaps, a century from now), it is interesting to note

how Jan Steen's Dutch realism and the contemporary picturesque serve as attempts to find

a visual analogue to a mode of visual description that eludes straightforward analysis.

While implying that the range of interpretations of Sterne's visuality is the result of the

different responses it creates in different readers' minds (which may be seen represented in

many of the illustrations I will allude to in the course of this study), this observation also

suggests Sterne's playful interest in defying creative conventions; for instance, in his








descriptions of Trim reading the sermon (discussed at length in Chapter 1). Sterner shows

an awareness of working within the tradition of literary pictorialism while simultaneously

satirizing that very tradition.

The most detailed observations from these three critics-all writing between 1890 and

1910-involve the rendering of the residents of Shandy Hall, and their visitor, Dr. Slop.

Stephen's comments about the visual description of Walter, Toby, and Dr. Slop in the

parlor is worth examining at length:

The imaginative humourist sets before us a delicious picture of two or three concrete
human beings, and is then able at one stroke to deliver a blow more telling than the
keenest flashes of the dry light of the logical understanding. The more one looks into
the scene and tries to analyse the numerous elements of dramatic effect to which his
total impression is owing, the more one admires the astonishing skill which has put so
much significance into a few simple words. The colouring is so brilliant and the touch
so firm that one is afraid to put any other work beside it. Nobody before or since has
had so clear an insight into the meaning which can be got out of a simple scene by a
judicious selection and skilful arrangement of the appropriate surroundings.26

In his detailed observation of Sterne's "delicious picture," Stephen not only describes the

writing in visual terms, but also evaluates Sterne's text as a kind of picture in order to

describe the text's particular effectiveness. That is, Stephen does not seem as interested in

the de facto existence of Sterne's visuality as in the result it produces in the reader.

Stephen links the text's effectiveness in this regard to Sterne's minimalistic technique of

the visual, which is able to "deliver a blow more telling than the keenest flashes of the dry

light of logical understanding"; in other words, Sterne's method provokes an emotional

reaction from the reader, using brief but precise details that depict a credible reality in the

crucible of the reader's mind. This ability of Sterne to put "much significance into a few

simple words" is conceived as a visual process by Stephen, perhaps because of Sterne's

content, or perhaps because the visual analogue offers the best (though still imperfect)








means of describing the process by which Sterne's writing affects us, the readers. This is

further suggested by Stephen's statement praising Sterne's "judicious selection and skilful

arrangement of the appropriate surroundings"; again, visual parallels provide a means to

describe Sterne's technique of careful composition, but, of course, Sterne is not painting a

picture. Stephen's commentary lays bare the critical tendency to frame Sterne's text in

visual terms, an imperfect but somewhat functional means of expressing its effectiveness in

moving the reader's imagination.

The importance of the visual aspect of Sterne's writing occurs to Seccombe in

hindsight, as he examines certain perceived deficiencies of A Sentimental Journey, where

"one misses irremediably the Shandean group of portraits. It is, it seems to us, in the

marvellous distinctness with which these creations detach themselves from his too

bespattered and often confused canvas that Sterne's grandeur really lies."27 Using

pictorial language, Seccombe suggests that the contrast provided by the less acceptable

elements (those bespatteredd" and "confused" parts) enhances the more positive, visual

aspects of Sterne's writing. While praising Sterne's admirable ability to create distinct

portraits, Seccombe's mention of his negative traits hints at George Saintsbury's summary

of the pattern the discussion of Sterne took during this period: "it has become a

commonplace and almost a necessity to make up for praising Sterne's genius by damning

his character."28 In fact, Seccombe uses the contrast created by these positive attributes of

Sterne's writing to blacken even further what he sees as its questionable aspects: "Amid

affectation, tediousness, leering, and obscenity, we come to passages relating to these

remarkable figures which stand out like chefs-d'oeuvre in a large gallery of uninspired

replicas and other fifth-rate compositions."29 Although he lauds the effectiveness of the








"Shandean group of portraits," it is difficult to say whether, in the end, Seccombe

advances our understanding of Sterne's visuality at all, or merely wields it as a tool to

discredit the elements he did not like in Sterne's writing.30

The prominent portraits of the Shandy brothers represent a standard of comparison for

Charles Whibley, who asserts: "Dr. Slop, the man-midwife, the honest, sensitive Corporal,

the alluring Widow Wadman, even Susanna [sic] and Bridget-are they not all drawn with

as sure a hand as the Shandy brothers, if with less distinction than that noble pair?"31 At

least for Whibley, the rendering of the Shandy brothers provides a standard for discussion

of the verbal "painting" of character, again not in positive terms, but as a result of his

criticism of what he sees as less laudable characters in the work; one wonders if he would

praise the "noble pair" in relation to, say, the paragons of virtue Clarissa or Pamela, in

quite the same way.

Although there are differences in their observations, the focus by these three critics on

the family gatherings of Tristram Shandy might reflect a general disinterest in other parts

of the work (which might have been seen as verging on more risque content) as well as in

Sentimental Journey. Stephen's use of a visual metaphor to make this moral concern clear

seems to reinforce a general critical approach that makes the pictorial central in the

discernment of moral value: "When we think of Sterne as a man, and try to frame a

coherent picture of his character, we must give a due weight to the baser elements of his

composition."32

Some critics in this period, however, show an increasing willingness to investigate

Sterne and his writings without condemning either for moral transgression. Writing in his

study of the English novel, Sterne's first great champion, Wilbur L. Cross, notes that








Sterne "enlarged for the novelist the sphere of character-building, by bringing over into

fiction the pose and the attitude of the sculptor and the painter."33 Although he did not

expand on this idea in his introduction to his ground-breaking 1904 edition of Sterne's

Works, he would treat it at length later in his Life of Sterne; overall, Cross's careful

examination provides a vital model for future investigation of Sterne's life and work.

In his Sterne: A Study, Walter Sichel tries to distinguish between Sterne the man and

Sterne the author, an attempt perhaps best demonstrated by his isolation of textual

discussion in a separate chapter entitled, "Sterne's Authorship"; Sichel may have been the

first critic of Sterne's work clearly to separate the two entities in such a fashion. His

evaluation of Sterne's style shows a careful analysis of his text, and he points to several

instances of what he calls "word-painting" and "word-colour."34 He draws an intriguing

parallel between the verbal and the visual, for example, when he notes Sterne's visual

effectiveness as a kind of "miniaturist" of portraits-his "power of reducing large outlines

with effect" and "his predilection for small pieces"-which were "imaged by the

duodecimos which held them" (207). In other words, Sterne's "miniature manner" of

description is mirrored by the compact size of the volumes used for the early editions of

his work; this will be an insight worth pursuing in terms of the busy canvases of many of

Sterne's illustrators, precisely because they had to include so many details from the text in

a relatively small space-in the case of the earliest book illustrations, roughly three by five

inches in size.

Painterly comparisons predominate in Sichel's discussion, such as his observation that

Sentimental Journey "deals with the small amenities of life, and paints them in pastel"

(187). To Sichel, Sterne is an "impressionist" who uses "the method, or rather the spirit,








of suggestion, as opposed to the method, or rather the substance, of description. Its

appeal is associative" (173). The element of association, of course, is linked to Sterne in

other ways, but Sichel's assertion of Sterne's use of visual "suggestion" may hint at a

reason for his success in pictorial description. Sichel seems so enthusiastic over Sterne's

visuality, in fact, that he wrestles the English language to express his observations: for

example, referring to Sterne's depiction of character, Sichel comments that he

picturesques attitude with unique grace and concentration" (186).

Tristram's description (also praised by Thackeray) in Volume VII of Tristram Shandy,

of the nymphs and swains he meets on his journey from Nismes and Lunelle is of particular

interest to Sichel; he notes that the scene "glows like a pastoral by Gainsborough, and

perhaps best illustrates Sterne's artistry in word-painting" (178). In another instance,

Sichel refers to the meeting between Maria and Tristram and asks, "Could any impression

be more delicately rendered?" (181). He continues: "What a subject for a painter! Yet

what artist could match the author?" (182). Certainly Sichel would have known of the

many visual renditions of Maria and Tristram, both as prints and book illustrations

(although they were outnumbered by depictions of Yorick and Maria, or Maria alone), so

the question is not a rhetorical device, but rather an assertion of the superiority of the

visual aspect of Sterne's written text to any and all actual physical depictions, past,

present, or future.

There is, perhaps, even greater praise available than asserting the strength of Sterne's

text over painting or drawing. To make this further point, Sichel cites a passage from

Tristram Shandy: "to behold upon the banks advancing and retiring, the castles of

romance, whence courteous knights have whilome rescued the distress'd--and see








vertinginous, the rocks, the mountains, the cataracts, and all the hurry which Nature is in

with all her great works about her-- '35 "The last sentence," Sichel asserts, "gives more

than tints: it pictures thought" (184). Here the critic sees this verbal expression as a direct

projection of impressions and ideas, and suggests that visual rhetoric can act as a nearly

transparent means of conveyance, a Momus's glass into the mind.

After providing many such varied observations of Sterne's use of visual language,

Sichel declares: "As an artist he endures. As an artist he is palpable and living" (289).

Not only does Sichel divorce biographical information that had previously obscured some

criticism of Sterne from his work, but he also recognizes that Sterne's work has lasting

aesthetic value-secured in the language of the visual.

Critics throughout the twentieth century follow Cross and Sichel in their general

willingness to move away from the biographically tainted discussion of Stemrne to a more

rigorous analysis of his texts, with notable exceptions like F. R. Leavis. The first part of

the twentieth century also marks the continuation of Sichel's expansion of critical

discussion of Sterne's visuality into areas of specific critical application, as well as the

onset of analyses of particular visual renditions of Sterne's work; although critical

approaches changed, the observation of Sterne's visuality persisted. In 1921, the Russian

formalist Victor Shklovsky, for instance, who declares that Tristram Shandy is "the most

typical novel in world literature" because of the similarity between its content and its form,

suggests a visual parallel to the book's structure, noting that "the disorder is intentional

.... it is strictly regulated, like a picture by Picasso."36

It is useful to consider here how critical parallels drawn between Sterne's work and

visual analogues, such as the example Shklovsky provides, perhaps exemplify a long








history of the inadequacy of the comparison implied by the idea ofut picture poesis.

Sterne seems always to be compared to the best artists of the time of the commentator,

rather than to one particularly appropriate tradition; since he obviously cannot actually

reflect every mode of visual style, the comparison seems emptied of content.

In his two discussions in the late 1920s, J. B. Priestley's observation that Sterne

"approached life with a large reading-glass up to his eye" is an appropriate metaphor for

his own recognition of the visual value of the details in Sterne's writing. The "reading-

glass" also serves Priestley as an apt vehicle for differentiating the style of Sterne from

Richardson, who "is simply taking care not to omit the smallest details in his large

scheme"; Sterne, on the other hand, "goes to work, and in an entirely different spirit,

simply on the details, enlarging and colouring them."37 This paralleling of pictorial

methods also suggests that Sterne's humor and exuberance ("enlarging and colouring"),

contrasts in an almost visual sense with the more austere style of Richardson. Priestley's

emphasis on Sterne's details here echoes Stephen's observation, although Priestley hints at

the comic and indiscreet potential of Sterne's "enlarging" elements of his picture. Sterne

himself justifies the inclusion of hyperbolic detail in his fiction as part of its satiric effect.

In a letter, Sterne responded to criticism that he overindulged in detail when describing

Slop's fall: "that very thing should constitute the humour, which consists in treating the

most insignificant Things with such Ornamenta ambitiosa, as would make one sick in

another place."38 However, Sterne seems to be very selective in his exaggerated use of

minutiae, usually offering "strokes" of a picture rather than furnishing an entire scene with

exact description-thus, in some ways, very unlike a Dutch painter.








Like many critics before him, Priestley sees the depiction of character as the most

successful specific application of Sterne's visuality, and goes on to discuss its effectiveness

in detail. He comments that Sterne makes "people distinct to us, sharply outlined against

the higgedly-piggedly background" and that he "has no master in this method of creating

character" (xi). Priestley's recognition that Toby is a particularly successful visual

evocation, also the subject of previous critical discussion, is reflected in his repeated

references to the compelling qualities of Sterne's verbal depictions of him:

Toby appeals to the eye; we can see him, parading for the Wadman campaign ... he
cuts a fine figure in the imagination, limping past to the widow's or conducting one of
his dream-sieges from the sentry-box or puffing at his pipe, his red beaming foolish
face all aglow, at his brother's fireside. Such little pictures do not easily fade out of
39
the memory.39

We can see Toby in his hat with the tarnished gold-lace, his blue and gold coat that
was rather too small for him, and his red plush breeches; and the picture is completed
by his pipe and sentry-box and fortified bowling-green. Mr. Shandy does not offer the
imagination so many clear outlines and so much colour. (Introduction xi-xii)

Toby is as solid and unmistakable as a hill. At any moment, we can see him in his
faded regimentals, with his lame leg and crutch, very complacently smoking his pipe by
the fire. ("Brothers" 144)

Priestley's consistent quotation of visual descriptions of Toby, while perhaps revealing his

own preferences in the text, also echoes critical recognition of Sterne's tendency to use

visual touches to create descriptions of particular characters and scenes addressed to the

sentimental, an approach that is readily apparent in his drawing of Toby's character.

There is a hint, too, of the forcefulness of Sterne's renderings-the idea of the visual

imperative again-as they imprint themselves on the imagination: Priestley notes that they

"do not easily fade out of the memory."








Except for some sketchy previous discussion about Hogarth's illustrations for Tristram

Shandy, Priestley seems to be the first critic actively to engage in weighing the relationship

of the book's illustrations (in Priestley's edition, drawn by John Austen) to the text: he

observes that, with his drawings, the artist is "catching another aspect" of the Shandys,

and Priestley recognizes their significance: "These drawings of his, since they are more

than idle pieces of decoration, tell us a great deal." Priestley sees Austen's artwork as the

product of a specific cultural mode: "Fifty years ago he [Austen] would have done very

different drawings, would not have chosen these particular moments for illustration"

(Introduction v). This suggestion, that illustrations can be seen as signaling changing

interpretations of the text, anticipates more detailed discussion along these lines in the

future, including, of course, this study.

The great turning point of Sterne studies, along with the 1904 edition of Works, was

Cross's scholarly biography, first published in 1909 and revised in two subsequent editions

of 1925 and 1929; without doubt, this work on Sterne's life and canon, along with

Curtis's Letters in 1935, made possible all that has followed in Stemrne studies in the

twentieth century. Hence it is important to note that Cross goes to great lengths to

establish Sterne's pervasive and continuing interest in the visual arts throughout his life,

including the documentation of own efforts at painting and drawing. Cross examines

several artworks attributed to Sterne: a supposed caricature of his wife; "The Montebank

and his Macaroni" (probably co-painted with Thomas Bridges); and a "jolly tail-piece" of

two cocks fighting (which was possibly used in the original publication of A Political

Romance). In addition, Cross also notes Sterne's acquaintance with the painters

Christopher Steele and George Romney (the latter painted four scenes from Tristram








Shandy, now lost), the copy of A Sentimental Journey that Sterne was rumored to have

illustrated for his friends, and the possibility (now disproved) that engravings of classical

subjects signed "L. Stern [sic] del Romae" were his work.40

Cross's commentary on the textual evidence of Sterne's experience in the visual arts

is simple and lucid: "That Sterne was a painter before he wrote Tristram Shandy, must

have been surmised by every reader of the book; for he therein employs so easily the

technical terms of the art for running up parallels on the mechanics of literary expression,

or for describing the poise and movement of his characters" (1:105). Although Clonmell

and Mangin were perceptive analysts of Sterne's visuality, the simplicity of the connection

Cross observes belies the 150 years it took for it to be made; finally, Sterne criticism was

able to abandon some of the malicious myths surrounding his life (thanks in no small part

to Cross himself) and begin to explore the ways in which that life emerged in his writings.

Although Cross thus opens the door to the broad recognition of the visual in Sterne's

fictions, the actual application of this idea in his biography of the author is limited. In fact,

it is the visual aspect of Sterne's sermons that have the most particular attraction for

Cross; he notes that Sterne's sermons are "a whole series of portraits drawn with a few

strokes from his own experience and observation. Sometimes a sermon consists of a

single character-sketch rendered in full detail; it may be Job or Herod" (1:227). These

"portraits" form a critical element in Cross's idea of the sermons themselves, which he

sees as being made up of "graphic and pathetic pictures, flowing on in a well-ordered

series" (2:62). The effectiveness of Sterne's creation of visualized tableaus in his sermons

invites comparison with another "projected" art: the stage drama. The careful

arrangement of verbal pictures in Sterne's sermons simulates the composition within a








stage proscenium in a manner which differs markedly from his verbal pictorialism for

comic effect. Overall, although Cross did not apply this insight into Sterne's visuality to

his other works, he does point us toward the potential development of the subject.

Commenting about Sterne's style in his 1929 study of the novel, E. A. Baker expands

on Cross's observations, weaving the discussion of the text into a psychological profile of

the author. Arguing that "visual sensations were to him [Sterne] the keenest," Baker

analogizes Sterne's philosophy with the visual arts, stating that "sensation and emotion

constitute his mental life; they are also the box of colours with which he paints." To

Baker, this observation that Sterne "paints" with "sensation and emotion" is not an

isolated point of analysis, but rather an opening into his extended discussion of Sterne's

verbal pictorialism. He notes, for example, that Sterne had a "contagious delight in

pictorial effects, more vivid than any narrative,"41 and provides specific examples of

especially visual descriptions from A Sentimental Journey to support his assertion; the

"vignettes" he cites-which include those depicting the monk, the grisette, her husband,

and the fille de chambre-have, perhaps not coincidentally, frequently been the subjects of

book illustrations, as well. While critics of the previous century, such as Thackeray, felt

the need to shield themselves from Sterne's personality in order to enjoy his verbal

pictorialism, Baker finds a close connection between the author and his work.

Noting that "scores of similar pictures leap to the eye" in Sterne's work (264), Baker

carefully examines the technique behind Sterne's success with visual elements. Especially

significant to Baker is the manner in which Sterne "paints" with words, seizing

"impressions at their very birth, in all their freshness and vividness" (266). This

observation, reminiscent of Tristram's interest in "seizing every handle, of what size or








shape soever, which chance held out to me'42 in his continental travels, emphasizes the

seeming spontaneity of Sterne's verbal pictorialism. Baker defines this type ofvisuality as

"impressionism" that parallels the style in painting: "The writer simply sets down the

impressions received by an onlooker, the reactions of his consciousness to outward

things" (264). The dance with Nannette and the tale of Le Fever, Baker continues, are

outstanding examples of this type of rendering, "two gems of impressionist art" (265).

Baker asserts that the visual element is only part of this technique, however: "instead of a

reasoned and coherent picture of the world, as if contemplated by the eye of omniscience,

Sterne gives the impressions of sight, sound, contact, atmosphere, as they strike upon the

mind" (265-66). In declaring Sterne an impressionist, Baker echoes Sichel, but in both

cases the use of the term raises questions about the applicability of any visual analogue;

can Sterne be both a Dutch-style realist, meticulously detailing domestic scenes, and an

early-twentieth-century impressionist, recording a highly personalized perspective, at the

same time? Again, the impossibility of defining a consistent visual parallel to Sterne's

style reminds us that he is not drawing a picture after all, but writing descriptions of

imagined pictures. The legend on Rene Magritte's La Trahison des images (The

Treachery of Images), "Ceci n'est pas une pipe" ("This is not a pipe") can be seen as

illustrating a fallacy similar to the one committed by the critics. Magritte pokes fun at the

tendency to mistake an image for the object it represents, while literary discussion of

Sterne's work, time and time again, treats verbal descriptions as if they were visual ones.

In the Introduction to the 1929 edition she edited, Leslie Stephen's daughter, Virginia

Woolf, defines A Sentimental Journey as "a succession of portraits" rather than a linear,

plot-driven work; in the depiction of these portraits, she points out, Sterne was able to




Full Text

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" SALLIES OF THE IMAGINATION VISUAL IMAGERY AND THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE By WILLIAM BLAKE GERARD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2002

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Copyright 2002 by Willram Blake Gerard

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to Patricia Craddock and Alistair Duckworth whose invaluable commentary of my work strengthened not only this dissertation but also my perspective of scholarship ; I would also like to thank C John Sommerville for his last minute help I am especially indebted to my director Melvyn New whose outstanding examples of professionalism integrity and above all humanity represent seemingly unattainable models for my nascent career I also gratefully acknowledge the remarkable contributions of my family whose inspiration and support made this project possible i n ways too numerous to count here i ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLDEGMENTS .. ..... .... ... ... ...... . .... .... .. ... .. ............ .. . ..... ....... iii ABSTRACT ...... ... ............ . .. . ............ .. .. ... .. ....... ..... .. .. .. .......... .......... vi CHAPTER 1 "THE QUICKEST COMMERCE WITH THE SOUL" : AN EXAMINATION OF THE FUNCTION OF VISUALITY IN THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE .. ..... .............. .. . ... .. ... .... .... .. ... .. ......... ... .. . ... 1 Letters .... .... ............. ... .. ... ... .. .. . ......... ...... .............................. 9 Sermons ..... . ...... ......... .. ......... ..... ... .. ... ... ....... . .. .... ..... .. ............ 14 A Political Romance and Memoirs ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. ... ..... ...... ........... ... ... 19 A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy .. ... . .... ....... .. .. .. .. ..... .. . 20 The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman . .. .. .. .. ................ 26 Notes ....................... .. ..... ... .......... ............. ................................ 37 2 CRITICAL COMMENTARY ON STERNE'S VISUALITY ....... .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 54 Part 1 : "Anti-Shandeans, thrice-able Critics, and fellow-labourers" : 1760-1957 ................ .. .... .. ... ....... ..... .... . ...... . ......... ............... 54 Part 2 : "Your Criticks and Gentry of refined taste": Sterne and the Visual after 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Notes ... .. .. ........ ... .. ... .. ......... ... ... .. ... ... .. ... . . .. .. .. .. .. .... ... .. .. 130 3 TO "MUTUALLY ILLUSTRATE HIS SYSTEM & MINE" : EIGHT WAYS OF LOOKING AT "TRIM READING THE SERMON," 1883-1995 .... ............... 142 Notes .. .... .. ... .. ........ . .. . .. . ................... ... ..... ... ... . .... ... .. .... 171 4 BENEVOLENT VISION: THE IDEOLOGY OF SENTIMENTALITY IN CONTEMPORARY ILLUSTRATIONS A SENTIMENT AL JOURNEY AND THE MAN OF FEELING ... .. .......... .. ... .. ....... ............ ... .... .. .. .. ........ 188 Notes ..... .. ... .. ... ... . ....... ... .. ...... .............. ..... ...... .... ...... .... . ... 223 5 "POOR HAPLESS DAMSEL!" : VISUALIZATIONS OF THE MADWOMAN UNDER THE TREE, 1770-1884 ........ ........... ... ............ .. ...... .... .. . . .. ... 241 iv

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Notes .. .... ... . .... ....... .. ... ............. ... .. .. ... .......... . ... .. . .. .. .. ..... .. 277 BIBLIOGRAPHY .. .. ... .. ... .. ......... ... .. ................ ... ..... ...... .. . ............... 300 APPENDIX: A SELECTED LIST OF VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE . .. .. .. .. ... ......... .... ... . ... .. ........ .............. 312 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................... ...... .... ........... .... .. .. .. ...... ..... 317 V

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy "SALLIES OF THE IMAGINATION'' : VISUAL IMAGERY AND THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE By William B. Gerard May 2002 Chair : Melvyn New Major Department: English An outstanding component of the writings of Laurence Sterne-present in his correspondence and sermons as well as Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey-is his use of pictorial language and technique a rhetorical trope I label "visuality." The starting point of this study is an extensive examination of visuality throughout Sterne s works, not only to document its prevalence but also to discover and identify similarities in its use throughout his diverse work For example, Sterne consistently asks his readers to visualize a character or place with carefully crafted descriptions conveyed by words alone. The second chapter is a thorough survey of the critical commentary on Sterne, from the first reviews to the latest scholarly writings. Although detailed discussion of Sterne s visuality has coalesced only in the last forty years, I have uncovered a significant history of similar discussion spanning the more than two centuries since Sterne's first publication that represents him as an artist reflective of contemporary values : thus Sterne is described as a realist, impressionist, mannerist, and surrealist. vi

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These chapters provide the foundation for two subsequent chapters e x ploring se v eral ways in which the visual illustrators of Sterne s texts from the contemporary works of Hogarth and Bunbury to the recent photo-collages of John Baldessari and the comic book by Martin Rowson all function as interpreters of Sterne s own visuality through what W J. T. Mitchell describes as the dialectic of word and image ." Chapter 3 examines eight variations of "Trim reading the sermon" that have accompanied editions of Tristram Shandy in the last 120 years ; the wide range of depictions of this scene-sentimental comic stylized, and abstract-suggest changing critical and cultural attitudes towards Sterne s work as well as towards the idea of text itself (symbolized by the sermon) in the twentieth century Chapter 4 examines the contemporary illustrations of both A Sentimental Journey and Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling as didactic readings that emphasize socially benevolent sentiment. Chapter 5 views the changing v i sual depictions of Poor Maria between 1770 and 1884 as indications of shifts in the perception of the sentimental. v ii

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CHAPTER 1 "THE QUICKEST COMMERCE WITH THE SOUL": 1 AN EXAMINATION OF THE FUNCTION OF VISUALITY IN THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE Within a week of his arrival in London as the celebrated author of the highly successful first two volumes of Tristram Shandy, Laurence Sterne wrote to William Hogarth to request an illustration for the first London edition of his book. 2 In a letter delivered by an intermediary, Richard Berenger, Sterne jestingly offers "both my Ears .. for no more than ten Strokes ofHowgarth's witty Chissel, to clap at the Front of my next Edition of Shandy." Evoking the pictorial phrase "Oma me," an echo of Swift's correspondence to Pope, Sterne adds, "Write something of Yours to mine, to transmit us down together hand in hand to futurity 3 Sterne requested a rendition of a specific scene from the artist, asking for the "loosest Sketch in Nature, of Trim's reading the Sermon to my Father &c," a passage Sterne endowed with both a strong sense of the visual and numerous references to Hogarth's treatise, The Analysis of Beauty An illustration by Hogarth of this scene, Sterne states somewhat enigmatically, "wd do the Business--& it wd mutually illustrate his System & mine-" (Letters 99) The scene Sterne suggests uniquely manifests his "visuality"-a term I will use to designate an author's tendency toward the use of visual elements in a verbal text. This quality is apparent on several levels in Sterne's description of Trim reading the sermon : Sterne uses visual language to create the scene, cramming the pictorial description with 1

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minute detail ; he directly relates the process of verbal description to the process of visual representation (TS II 17 141.12-25) ; and bringing to the forefront Tristram s self consciousness Sterne uses the passage to reflect on his own rhetorical technique of the visual (TS II.17 141.26-28) Hogarth responded with an illustration which weaves together two separate descriptions in the text. His depiction of Dr Slop asleep in the chair visualizes a passage that appears twenty pages before the sermon-reading : Imagine to yourself a little squat uncourtly figure of a Doctor Slop of about four feet and a half perpendicular height with a breadth of back and a sesquipedality of belly which might have done honour to a Serjeant in the Horse Guards Such were the out-lines of Dr Slop's figure which -ifyou have read Hogarth s analysis of beauty and if you have not I wish you would ; -you must know may as certainly be caracatur' d and convey d to the mind by three strokes as three hundred (TS II 9 121.1-10) In his rendering of Dr Slop (see fig 1-1) Hogarth seems especially attentive to Sterne s three strokes of verbal description-height breadth and belly-portraying Slop as an ensemble of simple forms and lines a caricature rather than a realistically drawn human figure. Hogarth s depiction of Slop however is a projection of the spirit as well as of the literal meaning of Sterne s portrayal visually capturing the graceful brevit y of the tone of the prose as well as its tendency toward unlikely embellishment. In contrast, Sterne s description of the central element of the sermon-reading scene the figure of Corporal Trim abounds in visual detail. Sterne explains that before the Corporal begins I must first give y ou a description of his attitude (TS II 17 140 7-8) ; attitude" is of course a word borrowed in this context from the vocabulary of the visual arts an equivalent to pose today and Sterne seems to be self-consciously placing 2

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3 himself in the role of visual artist. Sterne perversely suggests that to paint Trim as if he was standing in his platoon ready for action would be as unlike all this as you can conceive (TS II 17 140 13-15) implying, as he does elsewhere in Tristram Shandy. that significance frequently lies in the unseen and unsaid His description absurdly employs the absurd precision of a systematic draftsman calculating the position of Trim' s body to make an angle of 85 degrees and a half upon the plain of the horizon (TS II. 17 140 1718). In addition the minute physical description ofTrim's exact pose (TS II 17 140 1622 ; 141.12-25 ; 142 1-11) suggests that this passage is a skeptical reflection ofWalter and possibly Hogarth s-tendency to create and attempt to abide by questionable systems These various uses of visual rhetoric serve to simultaneously describe a picture for readers and satirically reflect upon the description. Some of the satirical aspects of the references to the visual arts in this passage have been noted by R. F Brissenden who more broadly observes that Sterne is clearly interested both in the formal pictorial values of his composition and in the physical relationships which govern the disposition of the objects that come within its boundaries 4 Remarking that the possibility of drawing formal analogies between writing and painting ... obviously interested Sterne (105) Brissenden only begins to explore the enormous variety and frequency of Sterne s visuality. The governing metaphor of the visual is to Brissenden first and foremost a means to an end : it illuminates the philosophical bases of his satire (93) In contrast to the critical inclination of Brissenden and others to divert the analysis of Sterne s visuality toward a generic end (such as satire) I will attempt to demonstrate in the pages that follow that Sterne s earnest and spontaneous use of the visual is not only abundant and multi-faceted but is also meaningful as an end i n itself

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4 Perhaps the most extensive writer to date on Sterne s visuality William V Holtz finds a similar argument rising from the passage asserting that the figure of Trim is clearly mock pictorial-in Sterne's intention if not in Tristram s 5 Holtz notes that the writer s attitude toward Hogarth in the passage seems to have been one of amused admiration (25) pointing out that Sterne's description is couched in phrases that question the adequacy of Hogarth s theory (26) Holtz concludes that Sterne s descriptive method projects a "system at variance with Hogarth s consisting of"a detailed representation of posture, gesture and expression within the limits of nature (26) Sterne s implicit system Holtz contends is somehow both in opposition to Hogarth's own and also a technical analogue of Hogarth s own style While broadening the discussion about the visual references in Sterne's description aspects ofHoltz's analysis seem to undermine his contention that Sterne meant the scene as criticism of Hogarth ; if Sterne s aim were critical (much less satiric) perhaps it would have been less ambiguous In addition it would be unlikely that Sterne would direct Hogarth to a passage satirizing the artist s work while asking him a favor. Hogarth not only seems to acknowledge Sterne's references to him in his depiction with his portrayals of Trim and Dr. Slop but also includes other elements described by Sterne as if to anchor the illustration more surely in the text (as well as literall y responding to Sterne's plaintive Oma me ). Mentioned elsewhere in Tristram Shandy. but pictured here is Toby s map (although Sterne does not specify its location on the parlor wall) ; the engraving s second state based on additions to the original drawing by Hogarth also features Trim's hat on the floor and a clock which might be associated with

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5 the "large house-clock which we had standing upon the back-stairs head" (TS 1.4 6 18-19) that Walter winds punctually every month 6 More subtle connections exist as well. In his study of Hogarth, Ronald Paulson observes that the descriptions of Trim and Slop are in fact based on the comic ratios of Hogarth's chapter 'Of Quantity"' in The Analysis of Beauty and, more broadly, notes that in Tristram Shandy "everywhere traces of Hogarth and Hogarthian assumptions are to be found 7 In another examination of the artist, Jenny Uglow also finds affinities between Hogarth and Sterne, citing their mutual interest in the "shaping power of passion" as well as their shared ability "to express personality through the body." Perhaps most significantly, Uglow describes Tristram Shandy as an analogue of Hogarth's work, using visual language to suggest that "its narrative circled like a Hogarth print, where we choose our starting point, pause on details and fill in gaps. 8 Given the background of the visual elements in the text and the references to Hogarth in the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy. the artist's visual interpretation invites speculation about how the illustration comments on the text itself Brissenden asserts that Hogarth's portrayal maintains a "spirit of comic inversion" (99), maintaining that Hogarth's depiction is a visual counterpart to Sterne's text, rather than a commentary or a continuation of a dialogue between text and image Holtz, even though he feels that Tristram Shandy had "adapted-and criticized" (28) Hogarth's earlier theories also sees the illustration of Trim reading the sermon as complementing Sterne's text since "Slop and Trim illustrate Hogarth's distinction between caricature and the comic (29) Considering the interpretive function of Hogarth's visualization Melvyn New notes a close agreement between the illustration and Sterne's description, not only in the artist's

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6 inclusion of significant items ( especially in the more detailed second state), but also in their respective compositions, where "in typical Hogarthian fashion, the sermon defines the visual centre of the work." 9 New points out that the success of this verbal-visual union is manifested in the "transparency" of Hogarth's illustration, which "allows us to see the text through the drawing; by uniting text and image, he unites Sterne with the reader 10 In its ability to form a bridge between Sterne's words and his reader, Hogarth's image also represents the artist's acceptance of the author's aesthetic challenge; the result engages the reader/viewer as well, who, willing and observant, finds himor herself swept up in the exchange between writer and artist. Hogarth's ability to continue the conversation with Sterne is facilitated by shared descriptive techniques and aesthetic philosophies Brissenden finds "a remarkable similarity between some of his [Sterne's] own ideas and methods and those of William Hogarth" (93; explored again and at length by Holtz, 26-27), and identifies their shared stylistic qualities as a kind "satiric rococo" that has the "qualities oflightness, elegance, surprise and wit" ( 107) Catherine Gordon sees the parallel between the ideas of artist and writer as being particularly evident in the revision of "the initial hastily prepared plate" which implies Hogarth's growing "appreciation of Sterne's technique of allusion and association 11 To Gordon, this indicates Hogarth's discovery of"a correspondence between the writer's approach and his own" and "supports Sterne's assertion that the engravings 'would mutually illustrate his System and mine "' 12 Although Holtz asserts that there is "evidence that Sterne had Hogarth's theory of comic forms in mind in other places" (29) in Tristram Shandy. he does not see the illustration itself as a reflection of Sterne's commentary about the artist. Approaching

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Tristram Shandy from a Hogarthian perspective Ronald Paulson asserts that many of Hogarth s doctrines of contrast of variety and above all of intricacy are evident in Sterne's work. 13 The engraving of the sermon-reading scene was followed by Hogarth s illustration of Tristram's christening for the frontispiece to Volume Three the following year (see fig 1-2) : 7 My father followed Susannah with his night-gown across his arm with nothing more than his breeches on fastened through haste with but a single button and that button through haste thrust only half into the button-hole -She has not forgot the name, cried my father half opening the door .. (TS IV 14.344 18-23) Importantly this passage immediately follows the curate s cranky christening of Tristram so the arrival of Walter depicted in the illustration is a particularly Shandean moment of inevitable frustration ; in fact in Hogarth's portrayal the curate s lips still seem to be i n motion, just finishing their pronouncement. Susannah looks on smugly while the face of the strangely expressive infant Tristram appears panicked at the apparent chaos around him A floor clock stands in the background perhaps a reference to the previous illustration as well as a reminder of the very beginning of Tristram s pattern of disruption-his conception No intriguing request from Sterne, if ever there was one survives to put Hogarth s depiction of the christening into a literary or historic context; we do not know whether Sterne requested the subject in another fashion (in person or through the publisher) or whether Hogarth chose it himself. It is worthwhile to note however that Sterne s description of this moment like the sermon-reading scene is described in particularly visual terms inviting illustration with a number of graphic cues (Walter's pos i tion, his

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disheveled dress and his act of opening the door) 14 In his rendition of the christening Hogarth seems to follow a pattern established in the sermon-reading scene of focusing on a central point of action close adherence to the verbal text in the depiction of character and setting and the inclusion of only a few ornamental non-textual elements (such as the portrait over the door) which might be seen as distractions from Sterne's meaning. Although in this instance Sterne provides no explicit discussion of aesthetic theory for Hogarth to comment visually upon the illustration nevertheless becomes a similar complement to the text. 8 Sterne s interest in using language to evoke aspects of the visual is evident throughout his writings, although the type of visuality, as well as its intensity and frequency varies among his works Sterne's visuality is perhaps most prominent in the highly pictorial constructions of character and scene a technique which as I demonstrate in Chapter 2 has repeatedly caught the attention of critics for more than 240 years ; it is also evident in his discussions about writing and metaphors, and in his assertions of the primacy of the visual sense 15 Although an exhaustive listing here of every visual element in Sterne s work would displace most other directions for this study I do want to review thoroughly (if not comprehensively) the occurrence of visuality in his texts as a means of establishing the different styles of this rhetorical technique and suggest the significance of the visual as an under-explored aspect of Sterne s writing A careful investigation of Sterne s visuality also provides a valuable basis for the discussion of the interpretive function of the v i sual representations of Sterne's work that will be addressed in future chapters

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9 Letters Although Sterne employs visual rhetoric in his letters, his correspondence also provides a glimpse into the extent of his interest in things visual, either in the form of decorative prints, the various apparatus of drawing and painting, or his unique relationship with a portrait of Eliza Draper. This evidence of Sterne's interest in the visual arts which in the instances of the portraits of himself and especially of Eliza verged on the obsessive-suggests one basis from which his rhetorical visuality sprang As a window into his personal life, Sterne's letters reveal the persistence and range of his interest in the acquisition and production of the visual arts Sterne tells Stephen Croft that he "will take care to get your pictures well copied," 16 and relates his acquisition of "six beautiful Pictures executed on Marble at Rome" to Eliza (Letters 357), and, a few months before his death, thanks "L.S Esq." for "the prints-I am much your debtor for them-if I recover from my ill state of health . I will decorate my study with them (Letters 412) On two occasions, Sterne states that he gave Mrs James "a present of Colours apparatus for painting" (Letters 324; see also 412); Sterne infrequently brings up gift-giving in his correspondence, and perhaps this mention is indicative of the priority he placed on the visual arts His commentary on amateur artistry is not always positive, however : he counsels his daughter Lydia that since "you have no genius for drawing ... pray waste not your time about it" (Letters 212) 17 Sterne's correspondence provides instances of pointed criticism of visual art as well Sterne remarks on the almost magical properties of Benjamin West's portrait of William James to "L.S." (probably Laurence Sulivan, see Letters 413 n 1): such goodness is painted in that face, that when one looks at it, let the soul be ever so much un-harmonized,

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10 it is impossible it should remain so (Letters 412) 1 8 Sterne also carefully analyzes a portrait of Eliza Draper: "It is the resemblance of a conceited made-up coquette ," not an accurate depiction and presents an affected leer and other errors which is a proof of the artist s or your friend s false taste" (Letters 313) While he provides specific po i nts of analysis in both cases Sterne uses commentary about visual representations to reinforce and project his personal opinion of the subjects James s beneficence and Eliza s beauty On three separate occasions in the letters Sterne discusses portraits of himself at length. On one occasion, he asks Robert Foley, is it possible for you to get me over [to England] a Copy of my picture anyhow?-If so-I would write to M 11 c Navarre to make as good a Copy from it as She possibly could-with a view to do her Service here-& I wd remit her 5 Louis-I really believe twil be the parent of a dozen portraits to her-if she executes it with the spirit of the Original in y hands for it will be seen by half London-and as my Phyz-is as remarkable as myselfif she preserves the Character of both 'twil do her honour & service too(Letters 231) Sterne s detailed consideration of his portrait its reproduction and its effect on the public points to the high value he placed on the impact of visual representation More specifically his interest seems to stem from the potent combination of his avid interest in the visual arts and the representation of himself to posterity-and quite likely the opportunity to perform an act of kindness for a young French woman 1 9 Sterne s personal interest in portraiture is however most dramatically manifested in his nearly obsessive relationship with a portrait miniature of Eliza Draper 20 He relates for example, in the Journal to Eliza : after a tolerable night I am able Eliza to sit up and hold a discourse with the sweet Picture thou hast left behind thee of thyself, & tell it how much I had dreaded the catastrophe of never seeing its dear Original more in this world-never did that Look of sweet resignation appear so eloquent as now ; it has said more to my heart-& cheard it up more effectually above little fears & may be s Than all the Lectures of

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philosophy I have strength to apply to it, in my present Debility of mind and body (Letters 330-31) 11 To Sterne, the picture of Eliza acts as a replacement for the actual person, allowing him to hold an imaginary (yet vivid) two-way discourse" with the image The effect of the portrait is almost magical, touching the beholder on a super-rational plane above all the Lectures of philosophy" ; the image s eloquence, which apparently makes reason-driven philosophy ineffectual, speaks directly to Yorick's heart (a parallel might be drawn to the contrast between Walter Shandy's logical systems and Trim's and Toby's intuition) Perhaps more than any other example of Sterne s mention of actual paintings in his letters his empowering of Eliza's portrait attests to his belief in the power which the visual can convey beyond words This conviction is also suggested (although less passionately) in the meaning Sterne seemingly invests in the many carefully crafted pictorial descriptions of character in his work. The relationship between Sterne and Eliza s portrait is so compelling that the image also takes on the role of proxy social companion with whom Sterne travels and about whom he invites comments from others. The scenario described in the 13 June entry of Journal to Eliza is typical : Your picture has gone round the Table after supper-& y health after it my invaluable friend!-even the Ladies who hate grace in another seemd struck with it in You ... (Letters 379) 21 It seems that Sterne was not reticent about publicly parading his affections for Eliza Draper and he produced the portrai t frequently ; Cash notes five instances but adds There must have been dozens of other times of which we have no record (275 n 54) Sterne seems to have had so strong a bond with this

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particular piece of art that he is even pictured in a caricature portrait showing off the miniature of Eliza [ see fig 1-4] 22 12 The many instances of Sterne's describing a picture in his letters are also characteristic of similar visual moments in his other writings Howard Anderson comments on the power of Sterne s letters to engage his reader visually pointing out that Sterne is adept at rendering a scene so that the reader quickly takes part in it rather than presenting a description from which he can stand aside 23 One of Sterne's first surviving letters relates to his wife-to-be Elizabeth Lumley the story of the death of a friend by a sad accident (Letters 18) and asks : Who can paint the distress of an affectionate mother made a widow in a moment weeping in bitterness over a numerous helpless and fatherless offspring? (Letters 19) The evocative nature here is not dependent on painstaking visual precision for its success ; indeed the qualities of being helpless and fatherless elude simple visualization Sterne s creation of an evocative picture (signaled not only by the verb paint but by the specific direction of the style and content of the prose) is notable here because of the recurrence of a similar technique throughout Sterne s later work similar to the visual imperative evident in his sermons and an early parallel to the conspicuous comparison with visual art that takes place when Trim reads the sermon in Tristram Shandy Throughout his letters Sterne is very free in adapting the vocabulary of vi sual arts to his descriptive needs ; the concept of writing a picture frequently represents the accumulation of verbal strokes (each a detail of the composition) and the re s ulting description is often compared to the act of visual depiction by the narrator / artist. After suggesting a detailed future scenario in which he and Eliza Draper are reunited and happy

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13 Sterne asks, "How do you like the History, of this couple, Eliza? ... tis a rough Sketch but I could make it a pretty picture, as the outlines are just" (Letters 359). Similarly when Sterne describes his mysterious venereal infection to Eliza, he adds that his explanation has "taken me three Sittings-it ought to be a good picture-I'm more proud That it is a true one" (Letters 330) In both instances, the visual lends credibility to possibly far-fetched ideas by fleshing them out with an imagined reality In one case, pictorial "framing provides a means of coyly hinting at his desire to realize a fantasy ; in the other, the parallel with pictorial creation is able to convey discreetly the difficulty Sterne experiences in explaining his physical condition 24 Sterne uses the descriptive analogy of the visual arts to help define character in a general sense, as well He suggests to an unnamed correspondent that "reason and common sense tell me that if the characters of past ages and men are to be drawn at all they are to be drawn like themselves ... and it is as much a piece of justice to the world, and to virtue too to do the one, as the other" (Letters 88) In the same letter he asks, "if like the poor devil of a painter we must conform to this pious canon, de mortuis, &c which I own has a spice of piety in the sound of it and be obliged to paint both our angels and our devils out of the same pot .. (Letters 88-89) These instances of the broad application of visual concepts prefigure ( or parallel) the more complex and reflexive application of the technique in Sterne's fiction There are several minor instances of visuality in Sterne's correspondence when a visual element is a passing reference rather than a dominant analogy Explicit metaphors make subtle visual references ("we are often painted in divers colours ... [Letters 403 ]), while implicit metaphors refer to the visual more indirectly ("Like rocks but half discovered, we

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14 were ill Judges how near we were to venture [cited in Cash 357]) ; the latter a r e more frequent and elude precise definition 2 5 Another minor aspect of visual rhetoric is the use of theatrical terminology such as Sterne s relation to Eliza of his "systems ofliving ": there wants only the Dramatis Personee for the performance-the play is wrote-the Scenes are painted-& the Curtain ready to be drawn up -the whole Piece waits for thee my Eliza" (Letters 364) 26 In its many forms, discussion of the visual in Sterne s correspondence attests to both its role in his personal life and its importance to how he defines the world Sermons A sermon with its need to convey a message to a congregation almost seems to demand a certain amount of imaginative visualization to be effective Although Sterne s sermons contain passages that describe a particularly pictorial scene and make other references to the visual however, there is reason to be cautious about attributing any language in them directly to Sterne In the mid-eighteenth century sermons were by the i r very nature, usually highly derivative of both other sermons and Scripture ; many parallel passages have been found in other texts which Sterne apparently borrowed wholesale 2 7 While some of Sterne s visuality in his sermons is worthy of analysis as apparently original work his use of particular visual techniques and expressions borrowed from o t her sources-evidently because he felt they were effective rhetorically-deserves attent i on as well Significantly Sterne apparently embellishes the work of others with his own v i sual cues a further testimony to his belief in the effectiveness of visuality.

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15 The most common form of visuality in Sterne s sermons is the visual imperative a rhetorical technique which commands the reader / listener to share the writer / speaker s vision. Sterne is certainly not unique in the use of the visual imperative ; to an extent it is found both in Scripture and in sermons of the period 28 However by combining the imperative with his ability to provide a highly pictorial description of scenes and people Sterne s technique of writing a picture often achieves a vividness more striking than the work of his contemporary sermon writers ; here perhaps more than with any other aspect of his sermon-writing Sterne anticipates the fiction-writing of his later years Sterne s use of the visual imperative creates its strongest impression when repeated several times in a single passage as if each command to view were a single stroke toward the cumulative image of a scene A particularly pictorial passage occurs in the Abuses of Conscience sermon an almost verbatim version of which is read by Trim in Tristram Shandy: with brief, intense commands, Sterne urges the listener/reader to "See the melancholy wretch (Sermons 265 18-19) Behold this helpless victim (21-22) Observe the last movement of that horrid engine (24-25) Consider the nature of the posture in which he now lies stretch d (25-26) See how it keeps his weary soul hanging upon his trembling lips . (28-29) and Behold the unhappy wretch (30) 29 Using the repetition of forceful language within the brief space of a paragraph, Sterne again and again directs the attention of his audience with the use of vivid visual imagery constructing the scene in the minds of his audience one detail at a time These details intriguingly seem to refer to aspects of the physical ( trembling lips ) or the emotional ( melancholy ) ; the combinat i on of the two within one passage appears to augment the impact of the verbal picture

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The visual imperative also occurs in brief passages, such as "Here then let us stop to look back a moment (Sermons 420 25), or "Let him go into the dwellings of the unfortunate, into some mournful cottage .. There let him behold the disconsolate widow-sitting-steeped in tears" (Sermons 54.22-25) 3 0 In these more isolated instances, the technique serves more as an accent rather than as a primary means of conveying a description 16 Portrayals of both places and people in the Sermons frequently resound with a more passive type of pictorialism For instance, the visual end product of a picture or a painting is directly named as in "I see the picture of his departure (Sermons 187 11) 3 1 or the process of depiction is described in visual terms as in, "he will tell you that his imagination painted something before his eyes, the reality of which he has not yet attained to" (Sermons 8 24-26) The inclusion of this more subtle visuality embellishes the common visual elements Sterne shares with other sermon writers with the distinct language of painting and drawing 3 2 In his sermons Sterne often draws verbal descriptions of people with the language of the visual. He calls the Devil's perception of Job a bad picture and done by a terrible master, and yet we are always copying it" (Sermons 165.24-25) Another instance alludes to the primacy of the visual over the verbal ; Sterne's depiction of Joseph's pity for his brothers poignantly expressed by Joseph bursting into tears, furnishes us wi t h so beautiful a picture of a compassionate and forgiving temper that I think no words can heighten it" (Sermons 119 12-14) 33 Characteristics of people are described in terms of the process of illustration as well as its final product : Sterne feels that it is a great piece

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of justice to expose a vicious character, and paint it in its proper colours (Sermons 110 14 15). 3 4 17 The hint of visual elements also serves to strengthen metaphors as with Sterne s warning against passing "a hard and ill-natured reflection upon an undesigning action ; to invent or which is equally bad to propagate a vexatious report without colour and grounds (Sermons 107 12-14) Visual metaphors are not as common in the Sermons as the pictorial description of places and people, but they do augment the work s tendency toward visuality 35 In the Sermons Sterne frequently adopts visual passages from the work o f others ; perhaps more telling of his absorption with elements of visuality however is the insertion of visual passages into texts he otherwise adopts verbatim For instance readers of Sterne s passage To conceive this let any man look into his own heart, and observe in how different a degree of detestation numbers of actions stand there though equally bad and v i cious in themselves : he will soon find that such of them, as strong inclination or custom has prompted him to commit are generally dressed out and painted with all the false beauties which a soft and flattering hand can give them . (Sermons 37 3-9) will find strong parallels with a passage in Jonathan Swift s sermon Difficulty ," ( almost certainly Sterne s source observes New) in the Notes : let any Man look into his own Heart and observe in how different a Light and under what different Complexions any two Sins of equal Turpitude and Malignity do appear to him if he hath but a strong Inclination to the one and none at all to the other That which he hath an Inclination to is always dressed up in all the false Beauty that a fond and busy Imagination can give it" (n to 37.3-11) Although Swift s reference to false Beauty in which a sin might be dressed up in ," itself has implications of the visual Sterne s revision which discusses the same sin dressed out and painted with all the false beauties which a soft and flattering hand can

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18 give them ," embellishes the original passage with a distinctly painterly metaphor. This type of modification ( one of several in the Sermons) further suggests the value placed by Sterne on the rhetorical technique of visuality as a way of creating a more effective picture of a scene person or thing and thus increasing the impact of his presentation 36 Visual elements that are either clearly adopted from other sermons or occur frequently enough to be considered commonplace in contemporary sermon composition also play a role in Sterne s sermons For example the adopted phrase eyes [or eye] of the world is repeated several times (Sermons 159 14 166 5 245 11) ; indicating a kind of social evaluation the phrase also suggests the primacy of the visual as a means of judgmen t. 37 Other visually oriented expressions frequently used by others include "at first s i ght (Sermons 114 10 180 13) and look ," "see, " view ," and similar verbs to indicate consider (a few examples include Sermons 14 13 74 8 284 5-7 and 322 8 ) Sterne uses several other types of visual metaphor that are tangential to the picto r ial in his sermons For instance the three-dimensional form comes into play for metaphorical purposes in his statement To judge rightly of our own worth we should retire a little from the world to see all its pleasures--and pains too in their proper size and dimensions" (Sermons 183 24-26) 3 8 Theatrical terminology also has a similar minor role in Sterne's visual discussion ; he notes for instance we who now tread the stage must shortly be summoned away (Sermons 290 2-3) 39 Even the idea of appearance" occurs with unusual frequency and carries special significance in Sterne s sermons as in the warning that outward appearances may and often have been counterfeited . (Sermons 125 2-3) Likewise Sterne explains that regarding the pharisee s character If you looked no farther than the outward part of it

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19 you would think it made up of all goodness and perfection ... (Sermons 58 7-8) The ability of "appearance to mask true value allows it to conceal positive traits as well : to the Jews Christianity was "a religion whose appearance was not great and splendid,-but looked thin and meagre ... (Sermons 342.13-15). 40 The seeming dangers of appearances that Sterne counsels against in Sermons vividly contrast with Y crick s ability to use appearance effectively to make judgments in A Sentimental Journey such as his choosing a "desobligeant" by seeing what would hit his fancy "at first sight" (ASJ 76 7-77 9) Similarly when looking for someone to direct him to the opera, Yorick writes that he "cast with my eye into half a dozen shops as I came along in search of a face not likely to be disordered by such an interruption ; till at last this hitting my fancy I had walked in (ASJ 161.8-10) Sterne the sermon-writer seems to caution his audience against judging by the same standard that his fictional narrator Y crick, thrives on and through which he establishes that most fundamental of connections sentimental commuruon A Political Romance and Memoirs The visual elements in the text of A Political Romance are fewer and feature less detail and cohesion than in other works by Sterne In The Key an absurd associative relationship is suggested on the basis of visual resemblance : one member of the Club "was positive the Breeches meant Gibraltar ; for if you remember Gentlemen says he tho possibly you don t the lchnography and Plan of that Town and Fortress it exactly resembles a Pair of Trunk-Hose the two Promontories forming the two Slops &c &c 4 1 The visual provides a conveyance for metaphor, as well : a great Variety of Personages

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Opinions, Transactions, and Truths [were] found to lay hid under the dark Veil of its Allegory . 4 2 20 Sterne's brief Memoirs almost entirely lacks allegorical or metaphorical visuality perhaps because of the relative directness of its subject matter ; in fact, its straightforward story and even tone is often reminiscent of Sterne s relatively colorless business correspondence. The Memoirs however does include an oft-cited personal detail relating to the visual : during his twenty years at Sutton, Sterne relates, "Books painting fiddling, and shooting were my amusements 4 3 While this statement invites speculation about the more exact role the visual arts played in Sterne's life it is sufficient to note here the obvious tie between his visual (and sometimes specifically painterly) language and his occasional pastime 44 A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy Sterne uses very different types of visuality in A Sentimental Journey. and to very different ends than in his other works In addition to direct references to painting and the use of vivid descriptive pictoralism (Brissenden suggests the scenes in the work have "the fresh and limpid quality of water-colour sketches [96]) the visual also plays a more essential role as the primary mode of sentimental connection negotiated through Yorick s observation of appearance and gesture Time and again pictorial elements in A Sentimental Journey create a unique aura of communication with the reader conveying meaning with the language of the visual. The descriptions in A Sentimental Journey that include direct references to painting are few, but those few use visuality as a substantial and central component of description.

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21 Initially depicting himself sitting at his desk and writing the monk s description Yorick conjures up the image of Lorenzo "before my eyes ": 45 he had one of those heads which Guido has often painted-mild pale-penetrating, free from all common-place ideas of fat contented ignorance looking downwards upon the earth-it look' d forwards ; but look'd, as if it look d at something beyond this world" (ASJ 71.29-32). 46 Not only does Sterne provide a picture of Yorick at work, but he also conveys a very specific idea of the monk's appearance by using an actual artist's style as a model and his use ofthis style expresses a sense of the subject's spirituality He goes on to explain that the rest of his [Lorenzo s] outline may be given in a few strokes" (ASJ 72 36) reminding us that Sterne himself is painting the description In effect Sterne paints Yorick who paints Lorenzo in the style of Guido and the presence of the devoted portrayer in the text frames and enriches the portrait of the Monk. In Sterne s description of the Captive, Yorick reveals an even stronger sense of visual imagination as he look'd through the twilight of his grated door to take his picture (ASJ 201 10-11 ) ; later although his heart began to bleed (202 19) he is compelled to go on with another part of the portrait (202.19-20) of the victim Sterne uses visuality here to provide the detailed description necessary to inspire a deep sense of pity in a fashion similar to the use of visual elements in the Sermons while also conveying the emotional distress felt by the narrator himself Yorick s evocation of the Captive is so powerful that he cannot continue his description : I burst into tears I could not sustain the picture of confinement which my fancy had drawn (203 31-32) 47 The narrator s sympathetic reaction to his visualization of the Captive's pathos is so profound that he is swept up in the distress of his subject and cannot bear to continue his description

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22 Many scenes in A Sentimental Journey rely heavily on visual cues to describe character without expressly mentioning visual art Yorick describes his first sighting of t he Patisser : I could not help looking for some time at him as I sat in the remise---the more I look d at him his croix and his basket the stronger they wove themselves into my brain I got out of the remise and went towards him (ASJ 210 27-30) Yorick then details the elements of a visual inventory : a clean linen apron which fell below his knees (210 31 32) and the Patisser' s countenance bearing a sedate look, something approaching to gravity (210.41-42) Yorick s compelling visual attraction to the subject (he could not help looking at the Patisser) spurs this review of visual characteristics a technique which is especially prominent in better-known episodes such as The Starling ," The Temptation ," and of course The Case ofDelicacy ." 48 The types of visual description in A Sentimental Journey-both the conspicuously painterly and those scenes which evoke a strong sense of the visual-can be seen as invitations from Sterne to illustrators of his work to depict these particular scenes invitations that as subsequent editions of A Sentimental Journey testify have been accepted frequently and with a sense of active engagement on the part of illustrators 49 The visual is also manifested in the high value Yorick places on the appearance of people and things to form his opinions of them On one occasion he explains that he remain d at the gate of the hotel for some time looking at every one who pass d by and forming conjectures upon them . (ASJ 239 5-7) demonstrating his recreational and perhaps slightly compulsive interest in gauging individual character based on appearance Yorick s pastime however hints at a sense ofloneliness he is merely a spectator and his attempts to bridge his isolation with visual contact (at least in these cases) fails Yorick s

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23 separation from the world is also illustrated in his description of himself at his hotel window in Paris : I walked up gravely to the window in my dusty black coat and looking through the glass saw all the world in yellow, blue and green running at the ring of pleasure (ASJ 155 12-156 14) ; here he views a brilliantly colored reality from which he feels spatially separated and chromatically distinct. The visual, then can be a means of initiating and continuing a connection between people-the basis of sentimentality as well as a means of emphasizing difference between them In A Sentimental Journey. the visual is often simultaneously the point of contact and the point of decision For example Yorick achieves sentimental communion with the Grisset through visual contact and determination : he had given a cast with my eye into half a dozen shops as I came along in search of a face not likely to be disordered by such an interruption [a request for directions] ; till at last this hitting my fancy I had walked in (ASJ 161 8-10). so Elsewhere Yorick reads detailed meaning into appearance although with less certainty : I fancied it [ the lady s face] wore the characters of a widow d look, and in that state of its declension which had passed the two first paroxysms of sorrow and was quietly beginning to reconcile itself to its loss but a thousand other distresses might have traced the same lines (ASJ 94 33-37) s 1 To Yorick, faces are visual documents that reveal a sense of individual character and history and they almost always invite him to further conversation, or at least-owing to his belief in a shared feeling among all humanity ("are we not all relations?" [ ASJ 191 92-93 ])-the desire for it. Closely related to Yorick s dependence on appearance is his frequent reception and interpretation of the unspoken language of gesture In the chapter appropriately titled

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" The Translation, Yorick describes this language and his understanding of it i n some detail as he "translates the old French officer s gesture ofremoving his spectacles : Translate this into any civilized language in the world-the sense is this : 24 Here s a poor stranger come in to the box-he seems as ifhe knew no body ; and is never likely was he to be seven years in Paris if every man he comes near keeps his spectacles upon his nose-' tis shutting the door of conversation absolutely i n his face--and using him worse than a German The French officer might as well have said it all aloud . ( ASJ 1 71 17-24) The visual gesture is expanded through Yorick s interpretive facility into a coherent and relevant verbal sta t ement of sentimental community He explains There i s not a secret so aiding to the progress of sociality as to get master of this short hand and be quick in rendering the several turns of looks and limbs with all their inflections and delineations into plain words (ASJ 171 28-31 ) Yorick adds that when he walks the streets of London I go translating all the way (ASJ 171 32-33) This concept of the physical expression of an unspoken language also appears in "The Gloves (ASJ 168 9-169 26) as Yorick and the Grisset are simultaneously engaged in a dual conversation one mundane the other sentimental (and erotic) ; he verbally asks for directions she responds but a significant amount ofbodily communication passes between them, as well Yorick s reflection on the Grisset s physical expression summarizes the obvious importance Sterne attributed to its power of communication throughout his work : there are certa i n combined looks of simple subtlety-where whim, and sense and seriousness and nonsense are so blended that all the languages of Babel set loose together could not express them (ASJ 168 9-12) 5 2 Vocabulary borrowed from the visual arts creates and augments metaphors throughout A Sentimental Journey For instance the "learned SME LF UNG U S set out in his travels

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25 "with the spleen and jaundice, and every object he pass' d by was discoloured or distorted (ASJ 116 28-31 ) 5 3 More complex metaphors rely directly on painterly concepts for their impact such as Yorick's declaration that I conceive every fair being as a temple and would rather enter in and see the original drawings and loose sketches hung up in it than the transfiguration ofRaphael itself' (ASJ 218.69-219 72). Not only are people compared to physical structures but their inner identities are imaginatively idiosyncratic visual creations compared to "original drawings and loose sketches 54 Yorick also affirms the primacy of the visual with statements that hint at ps y chological or philosophical links with sense perception He notes : Now a colloquy of five minutes .. is worth one of as many ages with your faces turned towards the street : in the latter case tis drawn from the objects and occurrences without-when your eyes are fixed upon a dead blank-you draw purely from yourselves (ASJ 90 32-36) Here Yorick asserts what had become a Lockean commonplace : direct sensations here visual stimuli-are our primary source of ideas ; Sterne may of course be reducing the commonplace to a joke but the statement is in keeping with the overall value Yorick places on the visual both explicitly and implicitly suggesting he is a creature enormously dependent on his sense of sight for establishing definitions of himself and others perhaps operating under a notion (pace Descartes) of video ergo sum 55 The unique emphasis on the visual in A Sentimental Journey is further ind i cated by the presence of a mandatory graphic in its pages An illustration of Yorick s family crest complete with a starling seems to have appeared in every subsequent edition of the work albeit occasionally replaced by an interpretive rendition (ASJ 205) Sterne s interest in

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offering his readers a picture in his work reaches a literal reality with this artwork in that the crest is itself a visual representation of Yorick (and even more of Sterne) 56 26 Sterne s discussion of actual artwork in A Sentimental Journey is limited In addition to the reference to the painter Guido Yorick twice mentions a portrait of Eliza which she had tied in a black ribband around his neck (ASJ 147.43) This portrait the fictional counterpart to the one alluded to repeatedly and at length in Sterne s Letters also functions as a kind of icon for Yorick who blush'd as I look'd at it I would have given the world to have kiss d it ,but was ashamed (ASJ 147.44-45) In many ways Eliza is a real companion to Yorick in A Sentimental Journey a living being projected from a portrait echoing the role the portrait plays in Sterne s correspondence 5 7 The v alue placed by Yorick on this miniature resembles the story of Pygmalion where love has the ability to animate the inanimate ; the life the portrait assumes through Yorick s devotion also parallels the many characters that come to life in Sterne s works through his affectionate visual descriptions The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman Sterne s visuality assumes its most complex lengthy and reflexive forms in Tristram Shandy Many extended descriptions of characters explicitly evoke painting as a parallel to verbal portrayal ; the most commented-upon examples feature the narrator / painter reflecting on his own composition Less obvious instances include numerous othe r episodes that contain lengthy pictorial descriptions without specifically citing the visual arts Sterne also uses visual imagery as a prompt to inspire a character s mental chain of association and in a related usage defines the conceptual by literally embodying abstract

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27 entities in physical forms, often with comic effect. Less complex forms of visual rhetoric that have appeared in Sterne s other works also appear in Tristram Shandy : brief, but distinct, metaphorical applications, specific references to painting the focus on appearance and gesture as conveyors of meaning (which Paulson calls unprecedented [277]) non pictorial visuality and a diluted form of the visual imperative In addition the inclusion of several extraordinary typographic and graphic treatments further affirms Sterne s interest in the manipulation of visual elements Perhaps the most unusual and intriguing, instance of visuality in Sterne s published work is his conscious paralleling of the construction of visual pictures with the construction of verbal ones in Tristram Shandy While the deliberate painting of a picture with words appears in other eighteenth-century texts before Sterne perhaps most notably in the novels of Fielding and Smollett the obsessive narrator of Tristram Shandy not only paints a picture with words but as he paints he often reflexively critiques his technique and his verbal illustration in the process and then comments on his own commentary Perhaps the best-known and most carefully wrought instance ofTristram s self-conscious writing of a picture is the scene of Trim reading the sermon mentioned earlier as well as the description of the "out-lines of Dr Slop s figure (TS 11 9 121 6) that precedes it. These verbal sketches conspicuously draw from both Hogarth s theoretical Analysis of Beauty (1753) and his graphic style of illustrating charac t e r, w hile reflexively satirizing his technique The literary renown of Sterne s descriptions was sealed with Hogarth s uncannily sympathetic drawings for the book which as mentioned earlier perpetuate the circle of reflexivity

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28 Among several other instances of detailed and reflexive visual depictions of characters is Tristram's description of the "very handsome" (TS VI.9.588 18) inn-keeper's daughter : "Janatone ... stands so well for a drawing--may I never draw more, or rather may I draw like a draught-horse, by main strength all the days of my life,-if I do not draw her in all her proportions, and with as determin'd a pencil, as ifl had her in the wettest drapery --" (TS VI.9 589.10-15) 58 As in the text that describes Trim reading the sermon, Sterne goes beyond simply suggesting a visual portrayal by including an ironic reference to his act of depiction ("drawing . with as determin'd a pencil") which casts him as an artist of images, and not of words. However, rather than making the physical description or himself the focal point of this passage, Tristram concludes with a pointed message of carpe diem: "he who measures thee, Janatone, must do it now-thou carriest the principles of change within thy frame" (TS VI 9 589 23-25). As a subject, Janatone's mutability serves as a reminder of the changes inevitable in all human existence, but as an object, she becomes a symbol of the artistic immortality for which Sterne himself yearned Later in the same passage, in a similar spirit of both evoking and avoiding a physical description, Tristram seems to acknowledge that the visual depiction of his aunt Dinah (and by extension, Janatone) demands a certain mastery he does not possess: he would scarce answer for Dinah's picture "were it but painted by Reynolds" (TS VI. 9 590. 6). 59 As a result, he abandons his attempt at verbal depiction of the visual with self-conscious anxiety, stating that ifl go on with my drawing, after naming that son of Apollo, I'll be shotSo you must e'en be content with the original. (TS VI 9.590 7-9)

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29 Here Sterne seems to transcend the need for an exacting painterly description surrendering perhaps to either Tristram's forgetfulness or to his own inabilit y objectively to depict his subject the latter possibly the result of his realization of the inadequacy of words to accurately describe a visual image, the fleeting nature of beauty or even the distractions of desire Acknowledging the vital role the visual plays in Tristram Shandy. Brissenden contends that Sterne would not write a highly pictorial passage like Trim s sermon-reading simply to convey a visual idea of the scene but that he though obviously making some attempt to achieve through the medium of language something analogous to what the artist attains through the use of paint is mainly interested in satirizing and parodying some of the conventional aesthetic theories of the day (95) This plausibly utilitarian rationale for Sterne's use of the visual however effectively devalues the visual impact of this passage as a humorous gesture rather than an end in itself, and also overlooks the pers i stence of visual elements throughout Sterne's work which can accentuate sentimental as well as comic moments i n the text 60 Visual elements that do not make explicit mention of the visual arts are ins t rumental in descriptions of characters and locations in Tristram Shandy. as well In these cases visuality either is asserted for a moment the focus on a gesture or object or is continuous depicting several elements over the course of a scene with visual acuity These intensely visual passages seem to freeze the moment into a verbally described picture with either comic or sentimental effect or a particularly Sternean combination of the two For instance after Walter is informed that Tristram's nose has been crushed as flat as a pancake to his face (TS ill 27 253 10), he retires to his room and throws

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30 "himself prostrate across his bed in the wildest disorder imaginable but at the same time, in the most lamentable attitude of a man borne down with sorrows that ever the eye of pity dropp'd a tear for" (TS III 29 254 24-255.4) Indeed, the reader's imaginative eye is particularly called into play in the following description : The palm of his right hand, as he fell upon the bed, receiving his forehead and covering the greatest part of both his eyes, gently sunk down with his head (his elbow giving way backwards) till his nose touch d the quilt ; --his left arm hung insensible over the side of the bed his knuckles reclining upon the handle of the chamber pot, which peep d out beyond the valance,-his right leg (his left being drawn up towards his body) hung half over the side of the bed the edge of it pressing upon his shin bone -He felt it not. A fix d inflexible sorrow took possession of every l i ne of his face (TS III.29 255.4-14) Here the meticulous attention to detail the incidental position of Walter's elbow his knuckles touching the nearly concealed chamber pot the careful placement of his legs combines to create a precise image of Walter's pose each aspect a verbal stroke which accumulates toward a picture The intense attention paid to pictorial minutiae even in the absence of explicit metaphor emphasizes Sterne's belief in the primacy of the visual in description, and especially in its effectiveness in pathetic scenes---even if the pathos i s tempered, in Sternean fashion with humor indicated by the presence of the chamber pot here While every part of Walter s portrait (except, perhaps the chamber pot) emphasizes his grief, Sterne uses a similar technique of accumulating visual details to stress the comic aspect of Trim s operation of the artillery" he improvised for Toby s bowling green Here Sterne s precise physical description of Trim the ivory pipe appertaining to the battery on the right betwixt the finger and thumb of his right hand ,and the ebony pipe tipp'd with silver which appertained to the battery on the left betwixt the finger and

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31 thumb of the other" (TS VI 27.548 6-10)-not only creates a humorously credible image of an improbable moment, but the very meticulousness of the individual "strokes" of physical description makes the portrait all the more humorous. These last two scenes reveal the similarity in Sterne's visual techniques toward two different ends: just as each detail of Walter on the bed augments the pathos in one instance, the visualization of each detail of Trim's invention heightens comedy in the other. 61 Visual detail may also prompt a character's chain of association, connecting seemingly unrelated ideas, often with an emphasis on the potentially absurd tendencies of associative relationships For instance, Sterne pictures Walter "taking his wig from off his head with his right hand, and with his left pulling out a striped India handkerchief from his right coat pocket, in order to rub his head" (TS III.2.187.3-6) Although Brissenden observes that these moments have a "strange, hallucinatory vividness and clarity" (94), the moment also elucidates Toby's surprising chain of association that conflates the "transverse zig zaggery" (TS III.3 189.4) of Walter's movements with the fortifications ofNamur and consequently with his wound The trumpeter's wife in Slawkenbergius's Tale displays a similar (and equally revealing) type of visual association as she and her husband attempt to describe the stranger's outstanding feature : --What a nose! tis as long, said the trumpeter's wife as a trumpet. And of the same mettle, said the trumpeter as you hear by its sneezing -'Tis as soft as a flute, said she. -'Tis brass, said the trumpeter -'Tis a pudding's end-said his wife. I tell thee again, said the trumpeter, 'tis a brazen nose I'll know the bottom of it, said the trumpeter's wife, for I will touch it with my finger before I sleep (TS IV.S.T.293 1-10)

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32 In seeking physical parallels to describe the stranger's nose the trumpeter s wife inevitably makes associations with phallic objects which in tum implicitly lead the reader to "penis ; the game of bawdy association is crowned with her proclamation that I shall touch it with my finger before I sleep In both these instances of Toby s zig-zaggery and the trumpeter s wife the characters are driven by their visually inspired hobbyhorses into their various trains of association, resulting in seemingly unlikely scenarios of associativeness as a window into the eccentric yet recognizable workings of the human mind 6 2 Visual moments in the text also serve as anchors for narrative digression ; the verbal picture is a vivid and concrete moment to which the narrator can repeatedly return As Toby and Walter are depicted going down the stairs Tristram intervenes, asking Is it not a shame to make two chapters of what passed in going down one pair of stairs ? for we are got no farther yet than to the first landing and there are fifteen more steps down to the bottom (TS IV I 0 336 13-16) This picture becomes a departure point for Tristram s chapter upon chapters which in tum leads again to the brothers Shandy on the stairs (TS IV. l l-12 339 1-340 21) ; Tristram finally offers his readers a crown to get my father and my uncle Toby off the stairs and to put them to bed (TS IV.13 341.1-2) Significant in each of these instances is the use of visualized action to embellish the recurrent scene on the stairs : Toby hitting my father a desperate blow souse upon his shin-bone (TS IV.9 335 7-8) with his crutch or the action of Walter drawing his leg back and turning to my uncle Toby (IV 11 339 3-4) Similarly Tristram also repeats the image of Toby three times over thirty pages in the process of taking the pipe from his mouth and striking out the ashes (TS 1 21.70 17-19 1.21.72 24-25 and 11 6 114.4-7) In typically self

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33 reflexive fashion, Tristram later discusses his use of this technique as he comments on the difficulty of controlling his narrative : "-I have left my father lying across his bed, and my uncle Toby in his old fringed chair, sitting beside him, and promised I would go back to them in half an hour and five and thirty minutes are laps'd already" (TS 111.38 278 13-16) Visual moments may be significant in other ways, as well The detail of Trim s motley Montero-cap (described as "scarlet ," "furr," and "light blue, slightly embroidered" [TS VI.24.542 16-19]) is a consistent element in both Trim's tragic (as his brother Tom's bequest) and comic moments ( as part of his improvised uniform under the command of uncle Toby) Both of these descriptions also abound in visual cues which make elements of the story vivid without the specific naming of painting or drawing but which nevertheless compel the eye of the reader s imagination. Metaphors which use visual elements in Tristram Shandy add to the work s rhetorical effectiveness and supplement the pervasive motif of visuality Often the ideas of light and dark play parts in these metaphors : Walter, for instance look d upon every thing in a light very different from all mankind (TS 111.12 215 17-18) and Tristram proclaims that we live amongst riddles and mysteries-the most obvious things which come in our way, have dark sides which the quickest sight cannot penetrate into (TS IV.17 350 11-13) Metaphors may be polychromatic as well as Tristram notes of his spirits ": "i n no one moment of my existence that I remember have ye once deserted me or tinged the objects which came in my way either with sable, or with a sickly green" (TS VII 1.575 16-18) Even varieties of experience can assume visual parallels ; the Shandys trip to the Continent "appears of so different a shade and tint from any tour of Europe which was ever executed (TS VII.27 618 6-7) 6 3

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34 In certain instances, the visual imperative overtly invites the reader to share in the narrative vision 'Now if you will venture to go along with me and look down into the bottom of this matter ... (TS II.2 98 27-99 1-3) and let us leave him then in the vortex of his element .. (TS VII 21.610 8-9) both echo if more weakly the strongl y engaging language (some of it originally cribbed from other sources) the pastor Sterne unleashed on his congregation Tristram s imperatives by contrast are usually less commanding and more insinuative-like the cursed (TS VIl.43.650 2) slit in Nanette s petticoat from which Tristram cannot take his eyes 64 Perhaps the most frequent appearance of the visual in Tristram Shandy. however is Sterne s use of the concrete image for the common purpose of incarnating abstract ideas One relatively well-known passage compares days and hours to rubies and light clouds of a windy day (TS IX 8.754 20-21) Tristram cites Prignitz in stating that the excellency of the nose is in a direct arithmetical proportion to the excellency of the wearer s fancy (and hints at a pun in the process) (TS III.38 275 22-24) and the midwife s fame i s represented as a circle of importance (TS 1 13.39 15) of about four or five miles ( TS 1.13 39 23-24) The hobbyhorse itself is a playful yet accurate visualization of personal obsessions with specific physical features of gait and figure" (TS 1 24 87 2) that bear a man's "fancy Broader applications ofthis metaphor include Toby s bowling green which is both a li t eral miniaturization ofEuropean fortifications (TS VI 23 539 14-17) and a figural (and, perhaps symbolic) projection of Toby s obsession and Tristram s journey to France a concrete representation of a flight from sickness and death 6 5 The physical body conveys meaning in Tristram Shandy in the form of gesture and countenance but usually does not express the language of sentimental bonding prominent

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35 in A Sentimental Journey: rather, the body becomes the point of transmission for a variety of subtle messages most frequently comic Sterne seems to be presciently parodying Yorick's hobby of physiognomy in A Sentimental Journey when during his conversation with the ass Tristram admits that never is my imagination so busy as in framing his responses from the etchings of his countenance" (TS VIl.32 630 14-15) During Tristram s less self-reflexive moments however physical appearance can also project internal values in a fashion similar to that in A Sentimental Journey : e.g Toby s "benignity of .. heart interpreted every motion of the body in the kindest sense the motion would admit of (TS III 5 192 12-14) Overall the frequent attention paid to gesture attitude and appearance in Tristram Shandy suggests that in contrast with the text s verbal nature the visual like the visual nature of this text remains a vital way of communicating what words cannot by themselves properly express 66 The visual is not only conveyed by the pictorial ; references to dramatic visualization mechanical structures webs and labyrinths all play roles in description and metaphor Playing the stage manager Tristram begs the reader will assist me here to wheel off my uncle Toby s ordnance behind the scenes --to remove his sentry-box and clear the theatre if possible ofhorn-works and half moons (TS VI 29 549 16-19) thus using the theatrical motif self-consciously to envision and manipulate a visual moment. 6 7 The mechanical appears as an actual device such as Lippius s clock (TS VII 30 625 19626 20) or as an allegory such as the smoak-jack which is compared to Toby s associative mind (TS III.19-20.225 11-226 16) 6 8 Far more infrequent are i nstances of images of webs and mazes which provide additional variations on three-dimensional visualization 6 9

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36 Sterne's idea of the visual in Tristram Shandy also extends beyond verbal description to the inclusion of special typography (Old English typefaces Greek characters pointing hands and a struck-through word as well as lines full of dashes italics and asterisks) pages that are black, blank and marbled, and graphic representations of several digressive plot lines and Triin s gesture with his walking stick. All of these incidents of graphics that are mandatory elements in the text extend beyond an author s typically verbal expression and, to varying degrees are reliant on a more basic and particularly visual sense than words to be read on any given page 7 0 Beyond his verbal and graphic visualizations Sterne demonstrates his appreciation for the visual arts with several references to specific artists Walter's whole attitude is described as easy-natural unforced : Reynolds himself, as great and gracefully as he paints might have painted him as he sat (TS III.2 188 9-11 ) Sterne referring to his own book as a "grand picture" (TS 111.12. 214 I), evokes the achievements of great painters for comic comparison : there is nothing of the colouring of Titian ,-the expression of Rubens -the grace ofRaphael ,-the purity ofDominichino ,the correg i escity of Corregio ,the learning of Poussin -the airs of Guido ,the taste of the Carrachi s -or the grand contour of Angelo (TS 111 12 214.4-8) In an absurd gesture Sterne attempts to define his picture by the virtuosity it lacks nearly obscuring the fact that it is not a "picture" at all but a written text In addition Sterne s comically encyclopedic knowledge of artists and their particular talents reveals another side of his visual perspective not only as a writer who carefully incorporates visual elements into his work but as a self-mocking connoisseur of paintings ; he may be parodying the cant of cri t ics ," but he has read their books and knows their conclusions

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37 The abundance and sophistication of Sterne s references to the visual arts and the visual metaphors throughout his written works suggest his deep personal interest in graphic depiction which sketchy biographical information implies rather than confirms. More significant to this investigation, however is the enormous value Sterne placed on visuality as a means of expressing characters places, and ideas ; this technique will play a vital role in determining the actual visual response to his texts by illustrators in the 250 years since their initial publication. Through their work these illustrators will express different readings of scenes opening up new avenues to understanding Sterne s texts ; after reviewing the abundant previous critical discussion of Sterne s visuality I will explore these pictorial perspectives as products of a combination of artistic vision on the part of the illustrators the influence of contemporary cultural attitudes and of course the text itself 1 Let it suffice to affirm that of all the senses the eye . has the quickest commerce with the soul." (The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentle m an two volumes ed Melvyn New and Joan New [Gainesville FL : U. Press of Florida 1 978], V.6.432.4-7 Citations will be to the original volumes and chapters and the page and line numbers of the Florida text will hereafter be cited parenthetically in the text .) 2 For a more complete account of Sterne s London visit see Arthur H Cash Laurence Sterne : The Later Years (1986 ; London: Routledge 1992) 1-53 and William V. Holtz "Pictures for Parson Yorick : Laurence Sterne's London Visit of 1760 ," Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 (1967) : 169-84 In Hogarth : Art and Politics 1750-1764 (New Brunswick NJ : Rutgers U. Press 1993) 276-84 Ronald Paulson relates the encounter in the context of the artist s life. 3 Letters ofLaurence Sterne ed Lewis Perry Curtis (1933 ; O x ford : Clarendon 1965) 99 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text

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38 4 R. F Brissenden "Sterne and Painting" in Of Books and Humankind : Essays and Poems Presented to Bonamy Dobree ed John Butt J.M Cameron, D W Jefferson and Robin Skelton (London : Routledge 1964) 95 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 5 William V. Holtz, Image and Immortality: A Study of Tristram Shandy (Providence RI : Brown U Press 1970), 20 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 6. In Hogarth as Illustrator (Art in America 36 [1948]: 198) Robert E Moore notes that the artist "carried out the directions faithfully but though the group is well composed he has apparently taken little delight in the task ; and in the figure of one listener Dr Slop he has descended to caricature This comment is at odds with Sterne s own description (possibly a prescient hint to Hogarth) however that Dr Slop may as certainly be caracatur d and convey' d to the mind by three strokes as three hundred (TS 11.9 121.8-10) 7 Ronald Paulson Hogarth: Art and Politics 279 Paulson notes that Sterne was possibly satirizing Hogarth in his discussion of smoke jacks and wigs (TS ID 19 191-92 III 20 202) adding that he would not put it past the opportunist Sterne to have included satire on Hogarth as a nod toward Reynolds ; but his ethos was closer to Hogarth s ( 282). Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 8 Jenny Uglow Hogarth: A Life and a World (London : Faber and Faber 1997) 623 9 Melvyn New William Hogarth and John Baldessari : Ornamenting Sterne s Tristram Shandy ," Word & Image 2 : 2 (1995) : 183 10 New 192 11. Catherine Gordon "' More Than One Handle ': The Development of S t erne Illustration 1760-1820 Words : Wai-te-Ata Studies in Literature 4 (Wellington : Wai-te Ata 1974) 48 12 Gordon 48 13 Paulson 277 14 Numerous other scenes in Tristram Shandy similarly invite illustration as w ell ; see 47 n 61. 15 Of course Sterne neither invented the pictorial construction of verbal descriptions nor was he the only writer who reflected on this visual method o f writing Classical comments on this technique that had become cliches in the e i ghteenth century include Horace s observation in Ars Poetica of"Ut pictura, poesis ( as with a picture so a poem ," seemingly intended as a passing comment about the placement of figures and critical perspective but by the eighteenth century universalized beyond its original

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39 context) (Horace [Quintus Horatii Flacci], Satirae, Epistolae, Ars Poetica [London : Lockwood 1872] 95 : 361) and Simonides's comment that "'tfiv ev (wypmp(av 1toirio1.v Ot.W7tWO
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40 In addition mention of another type of portrait a caricature-appears in his letters : The 2 Pictures of the Mountebank & his Macaroni-is in a Lady s hands who upon seeing em -most cavallierly declared She would never part with them (Letters 148) For more detailed documentation of the portraits of Sterne see Arthur H. Cash The Early and Middle Years (London: Methuen 1975) 299-316 Last a three-dimensional representation of Sterne s work is discussed in a letter to Dr John Eustace who sent a gnarled walking stick to Sterne calling it a piece of shandean statuary (Letters 404) Sterne responds Your walking stick is in no sense more shandaic than in that of its having more handles than one . (Letters 411 ) possibly referring to a general concept of multiple meanings such as in Walter Shandy s proposition that every thing in this earthly world .. has two handles (TS 11 7 118 1213) or alternatively to Tristram s proclamation that by seizing every handle of what size or shape soever which chance held out to me in this journey-I turned my plain into a city (TS VIl.43 648 18-20) 20 Sterne apparently refers to this portrait directly in A Sentimental Journey: however as Cash points out the picture was probably mounted in his snuffbox not in a pendant (275) Sterne mentions the portrait in reference to A Sentimental Journey twice in his letters In the 17 June entry in the Journal he writes : I have brought y name Eliza! and Picture into my work-where they will remain-when You & I are at res t for ever (Letters 358) In the 13 June entry Sterne notes that he has "a present of a portrait (which by the by I have immortalized in my Sentimental Journey) upon which he places a great value (Letters 357) Other passages in Sterne s correspondence further reinforce the importance of Eliza Draper s portrait to him. The 31 July entry to the Journal notes : am tired to death with the hurrying pleasures of these races-I want still & silent ones-so return home to morrow in search of them-I shall find them as I sit contemplating over thy passive picture ... (Letters 384) For a similar instance of the portrait as a point of contemplation see also Journal 27 July (Letters 382) ; both passages imply the spiritual value Sterne assigned to Eliza s images In a letter to Eliza Sterne responds to a similar gesture of iconization on her part : And so thou hast fi x ed thy Bramin s portrai t over thy writing-desk ; and will consult it in all doubts and difficulties -Grateful and good girl! Yorick smiles contentedly over all thou dost . (Letters 3 0 5) 21 For additional examples of the portrait as an admired proxy companion see Letters 312 and 339 22 A caricature portrait of a group of men including Sterne painted by John Hamilton Mortimer in the late 1760s portrays the writer pulling open his shirt to display a heart shaped locket (Cash 365 ; see fig 1-3) Besides possibly visually suggesting that Sterne is baring his heart ," a relevant metaphor for his tendency toward the express i on of sentiment in his writing Mortimer s depiction seems to refer directly to the public obsession with the portrait evident in Sterne s letters Cash notes that Mortimer invented the locket : Sterne had the picture mounted in a snuffbox (275 ; see also Letters 388 : however I will enrich my gold Box with her [Eliza's] picture ) Sterne does proclaim his

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41 intention of mounting the portrait in a locket, however : I verily think my Eliza I shall get this Picture set so as to wear it as I first proposed-ab 1 my neck-I do not like the place tis in it shall be nearer my heart-Thou art ever in its centre (Letters 379-80) 23 Howard Anderson, Sterne's Letters : Consciousness and Sympathy" in The Familiar Letter in the Eighteenth Century. ed Howard Anderson Philip B Daghlian and Irvin Ehrenpreis (Lawrence KS : U of Kansas Press, 1966) 137 Anderson recognizes the visual as an important part of this rhetorical strategy noting that the inclusion of gesture and situation makes the reader see Sterne working and gives to the letter an element invariably present, if unnoticed in conversation (142) (A rare actual manifestation of this verbal implication, the visual evocation of the writer at his desk actually occurs in Tristram Shandy [IX.1.737 2-7].) 24 In a similar personalized use of visual language Sterne writes to Catherine Fourmantel : I shall be out of humour with You & besides will not paint your Picture in black which best becomes You unless you accept of a few Bottles of Calcavillo .. (Letters 81 ) In a letter apparently sent to both Eliza Draper as well as an unnamed countess Sterne writes I can paint thee blessed Spirit all-generous and kind as hers I write to ... (Letters 361). In Sterne s correspondence as i n his fiction words are recognized to have the ability to generate a picture To Eliza Draper he claims his declarations of affection will provide "a better Picture ofme than Cusway Could do for You" (Letters 356 ; Curtis notes that Richard Cosway was the likely painter of the portrait of Eliza in Sterne s possession 359 n 3 and 314 n 2). Sterne describes Tristram Shandy to David Garrick as a picture of myself, & so far may bid the fairer for being an Original (Letters 87) Sterne was by no means alone in the eighteenth-century in using this technique of "writing a picture Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett are among the prose writers in this period who emphasize visual elements in their descriptions 25. Implicit visual metaphors, which make only passing and sometimes vague reference to visual elements are difficult to precisely define but such hints of the v isual are widespread throughout Sterne s texts In one more obvious instance Sterne writes to Eliza : I have not had power or the heart to aim at enlivening any one of them [his letters to her] with a single stroke of wit or humour ... I hope too you will perceive loose touches of an honest heart in every one of them (Letters 3 16) The use of the words "strokes and touches hints at parallels in the visual arts without making an explicit connection See also strokes in Letters 307 26. For another dramatic metaphor cf Letters 58 27 Regarding the eighteenth-century practice of sermon composition see Melvyn New's Introduction in Notes to the Sermons (Gainesville FL : U Press of Florida 1996) especially 21-27 The frequency of appearance of general visual elements i n other eighteenth-century sermons is evident from even a cursory examination of the substantial excerpts of the work of others included in Notes

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42 28 For instance, a search in an electronic vers i on of the Richard Challoner edition of the Bible (1750-52) (Literature Online, 1996-2001 ProQuest Information and Learning Co. 17 October 2001 ) reveals approximately 800 instances of the word "behold ." Other instances in the Sermons include 19.20 19.26 27 19-23 and 54 22-25 (Citations refer to The Sermons of Laurence Sterne, ed Melvyn New [Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida 1996] ; page and l i ne numbers hereafter c i ted parenthetically in text ) In general, the use of the visual imperative by Sterne in his sermons would have reinforced his message by repeating similar biblical language that carried the stamp of authority and with which his audience was already on familiar footing In Sterne as Editor : The Abuses of Conscience Sermon"' (Studies in 18 th -Century Culture 8 [ 1979] : 243-51 ) New specifically mentions the series of imperatives in this sermon, with which Sterne invites his auditors to go with him (248) For a comparative (and less pictorial) use of the visual imperative see Isaac Maddox's 1743 charity sermon The duty and advantages of encouraging public infirmaries ," as provided in Notes 97-98. Brissenden observes that a reading of Sterne s published works-including the Sermons-would be enough to demonstrate that he was unusually well acqua i nted with both the theory and the practice of painting" (93-94) 29 In Notes New cites a parallel with a passage in The Captive from A Sentimental Journey : I beheld his body half wasted away with long expectation and confinement ... (298 n 265.22-23 ; ASJ 202 12-13) 30. See also : Look out of your door,-take notice of that man: see what disqu i eting intriguing and shifting he is content to go through merely to be thought a man of plain dealing . Behold a second, under a shew of piety hiding the impurities of a debauched life . Observe a third going on almost in the same track ... (Sermons 162.17-26) Notes observes that Sterne paints several imaginative portraits here and in the following paragraphs but the mark of his unique hand is found much more in the punctuation . than in the content" (202 n 162.22-163 5) The intensity of the visuality shown in these longer passages might suggest Sterne s inclination toward that means of e x pression which, if not entirely unique does place him in a group of writers both of sermons and of fiction-who skillfully and effectively use this technique For additional multiple instances of the visual imperative describing a scene or place cf Sermons 14 19-16 16 20 2-4 24.14-19 (to which Notes comments : Sterne has several echoes of this passage in his fiction" [79 n 24 14-23]) 85 19-23 222 1-6 265 1416 and 365.4-9 Usually meant for a mortal audience the visual imperative can also be directed to the deity : O GOD! look upon his afllictions -Behold him distracted with many sorrows .. (Sermons 18 19-20) ; cf 181.1-3 For other instances of the "simple" visual imperative cf Sermons 10 10 20 2-4 46 27-32 85 13-15 85 24-27 100 5-7 101.8-20 193 29-30 205 17-18 205 23-26 258.30-31 and 265 1-3

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43 31. The description of the Prodigal Son s departure that follows is so vivid and distinct in its detail New comments in Notes that "Sterne would almost seem to have a specific picture in mind ," adding that the parable was often illustrated "; no matching rendition has yet been identified however (224 n. 187 11-19) This note also includes an excerpt from Robert Goadby's An Illustration of the New Testament (1760) s v Luke 15 : 11, which remarks on the visuality of the original version of the tale : it abounds with the tender Passions, is finely painted with the most beautiful Images and is to the Mind what a charming diversified Landscape is to the Eye ." Other instances of naming a picture" in the context of the visual imperative include Sermons 10.18-19, 46 27-28, 66.4-8 and 381.18-19 For implied pictures cf 206 24207.1 230 9-12 and 260 22-28. For an ambiguous use of the word drawn ," cf 260 1819. As in his correspondence, Sterne occasionally uses the visually based original/copy parallel in descriptions in his sermons He relates that there is a danger if the scene painted of the prodigal in his travels looks more like a copy than an original . (Sermons 192 32-193.1) Cf. 96 20-24 and 393 22-25 32 For other instances of using the process of drawing or painting to describe a place or thing cf Sermons 167 27-168.1 and 260.22-28. 33. Sterne self-mockingly praises the picture over the word elsewhere perhaps most notably in his description of Janatone in Tristram Shandy. See 27-28 In his treatise on the visual arts Leonardo Da Vinci asserts a similar point about the supremacy of the visual over the verbal. Addressing the poet he states : your pen will be worn out before you have fully described something that the painter may present to you instantaneously using his science (Leonardo on Painting ed Martin Kemp [New Haven CT: Yale U. Press 1989], 28) 34 Another prominent example of the visual description of people also seems to allude to an analogue in individual psychological processes : "we have been very successful in later days, and have found out the art by a proper management of light and shade to compound all these vices together so as to give body and strength to the whole whilst no one but a discerning artist is able to discover the labours that join in finishing the picture (Sermons 107 31-108.3) For other direct references to drawing or paint i ng in respect to character cf. Sermons 24 29-30, 47 3-5 51.4-6 51.8-13 51.19-21 84 24-26 85.41 2 92 30-31 104 20-23 134 14-19 233.11-14 301.30-302 5 322.23-25 and 410 25-30 Sterne also uses the metaphor of the glass as a way of expressing a medium for the display of his verbal observations: Whoever takes a view of the life of man in this glass wherein I have shewn it .. (Sermons 72.5-6) Notes points out that this usage is commonplace (n to 19 3 ; cf 19 3-4, 101.28-30 415 17-18 and possibly 211.20-22) It is worth noting that the occasional description of the process of verbal illustration in the Sermons lacks the self-reflexive commentary found in Tristram Shandy: see 47 n 62 below 35 For other visual metaphors cf. Sermons 178 8-11 and 180 18-19

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44 36 For other textual variations that reflect Sterne s inclusion of visual elements cf Sermons 27 19-25 (and 81 n 27 19 28.21) 216 24-26 (and 251 n. 216 21-26) 392 22-26 (and 420 n 392 22-31). 37 Notes provides an example of the phrase from Hall (199 n 159 12-25) and a search ofLiterature Online (1996-2001 ProQuest Information and Leaming Co 17 October 2001 ) reveals ten prose occurrences of this expression that predate Sterne For other identifiable adoptions of the visual (some of which are embellished by Sterne with additional visual rhetoric) cf Sermons 39 12-16 (and 92 n 39.12-24) 66 19-25 (and 121 n 66 16-25) 200.29-32 (and 237 n 200.31) 373 5-8 (and 401 n 372 32-373 18) and 412 10-15 (and 445-46 n 412.10-15) 38 For another reference to shapes cf Sermons 133 27-32 39 For other references to the theatrical cf Sermons 173.4-6 and 231 32-232 6 40 For other instances of appearance, cf Sermons 36 24-28 58 13 185 5-8 308 7-10, 308 12-14 309 22-26 and 421.5-6 41 A Political Romance (in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy ed. Ian Jack [1965 ; Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press 1984]) 217 The idea of the false connotations of the visual is expressed in the Sermons especially appearances (seen 40, above) 42 APR 221-22 For other examples of metaphorical visuality in A Political Romance see also : The President of the Night who is thought to be as clear and quick sighted as any one ... (APR 214) ; "Why answered the Partition-Treaty Gentleman with great Spirit and Joy sparkling in his Eyes (218) ; and the Parson went on with a visible Superiority (219) 43. Sterne s Memoirs : A Hitherto Unrecorded Holograph Now Brought to Ligh t in Facsimile intro. and commentary by Kenneth Monkman (Coxwold UK : Laurence Sterne Trust 1985) 22 Sterne s practices in the visual arts are outlined by Cash in Laurence Sterne : The Early and Middle Years (London : Methuen 1975), 196-214 Wilbur L. Cross in The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne (New Haven CT : Yale U. Press 1925) 107 cites John Croft s opinion of Sterne s own abilities in the visual arts: "he wou d take up the pencil and paint pictures He chiefly copied portra i ts He had a good idea of drawing but not the least of mixing his colours ." For a more deta i led examination of the evidence of Sterne s capabilities in the visual arts see Holtz 3-4 Judging from his mention of painting apparatus and use of visual metaphor Holtz concludes that painting occupied a large measure of Sterne's attention (6) and tha t he possessed a special visual and painterly' bias in his own sensibility ," a quality Holt z enigmatically calls hard to prove but hard to disbelieve" (15)

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45 44 In Laurence Sterne : The Early and Middle Years Cash notes that Sterne may not have been an accomplished painter but he was sensitive to spatial and chromatic arrangements and had a highly developed visual imagination" (212) 45 A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy. ed Gardner D Stout Jr (Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1967) 70 19 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 46 Stout (71 n 29) identifies Guido (1575-1642) as a painter of the Bolognese school and notes occurrence of the phrase, "the airs of Guido in Tristram Shandy (ill 12 214 7) See also n to 8 3 in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy. ed Melvyn New and W. G. Day (Gainesville, FL: U Press of Florida, to be published 2002). 4 7 The use of visual language does not guarantee a response by illustrators, however : the head of Lorenzo is only rarely depicted in editions of A Sentimental Journey. while in contrast the Captive was a very popular subject from the late-eighteenth through the early nineteenth centuries 48 Episodes which include lengthy visual descriptions (and which also have been the frequent subjects of illustration) also include Yorick s second meeting with the monk (also known as "The Snuff Box ). "The Dead Ass "The Letter Amiens" (also known as "The Merry Kitchen") The Pulse ." Maria and The Grace. 49 Noting the difficulty of analyzing the text-image dynamic in The Illustration of Books (New York : Pantheon 1952) David Bland remarks that illustration is at best an impure art (12) Other factors contributing to the decision to illustrate certain scenes might include the interest of individual artists and at times the cultural value of specific episodes as sentimental or erotic tableaus 50 For another instance of spontaneous kinship cf. : Yorick relates that an old Desobligeant in the furthest comer of the court. hit my fancy at first sight so I instantly got into it" and found it in tolerable harmony with my feelings" (76 6-7 77 9-10) 51. For other instances of unusual value placed on appearance cf. 89 9-12 91.3-5 94 33-37 113.12-14 124 1-3 124 7-10, 149 12-14 207 13-16 and 207 25-27 52 For other instances of communication through unspoken language cf. The Monk" (73 174 34) "The Remise Door" (97 28-3 7) "The Pulse" (162 26-30) The Translation (172 37-173 67) The Fille De Chambre (189 39-42) and Maria (271.4952) ; cf. Toby and Wadman on the sofa (TS IX.20.772 10-19) 53 Forotherexamplesofpainterlylanguage cf ASJ72.45-50 82 72-74 92 19-27. 125 34-37 131.8-12 190 89-191.93 199 89-200 93 and 277 1-7 For theatrical language, cf ASJ 257 5-8

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46 54 Most visual metaphors in A Sentimental Journey are less direct than this example For other examples cf ASJ 197.49-54 and 264.45-46 For three-dimensional metaphors cf. ASJ 166.23-167 30 ("like rough pebbles shook long together in a bag ... ") and 232.43-233.52 ( The English ... preserve the first sharpnesses which the fine hand of nature has given them ) 55 See John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. ed Peter H. Nidditch (Oxford : Clarendon 1975) Throughout his works and especially in Tristram Shandy. Sterne seems (sometimes playfully) aware of Locke's contention that sight is the most comprehensive of all our Senses" (II.ix 9 146.27-28) ; numerous critics have suggested elaborate lines of influence from Locke to Sterne Perhaps of most interest here is Locke's observation that the "Perception of the Mind ... [is] most aptly explained by Words relating to the Sight" (II.xxix 2.363 10-11) This assertion seems to coincide with Sterne's tendency toward visuality in his writing. Significantly, this passage in ECHU appears immediately before Locke's statement that "The cause of Obscurity in simple Ideas seems to be either dull Organs ; or very slight and transient Impressions made by the Objects" (II.xxix.3 363 29-31 ) from which Sterne freely adapts the following passage in Tristram Shandy : the cause of obscurity and confusion, in the mind of man, is threefold Dull organs, dear Sir, in the first place Secondly, slight and transient impressions made by objects when the said organs are not dull (TS 11.2 99 1-6) 56 See Stout 205 for the most commonly reproduced version of the crest. No editions of A Sentimental Journey seem to have excluded the coat of arms The graphic which appears in the first edition in 1768, or a close variation of it is almost universally reproduced In rare cases the artist who illustrates the edition will also redraw the coat of arms in their own style Stout cites the association between Sterne s name and the Old English word for starling steam, and observes that the bird makes a "fittingly emblematic crest to the arms of a sentimental, quixotic knight-errant like poor Yorick"' (see ASJ 156.19) For more on this and the legitimacy of Laurence Sterne's claim to this coat of arms see ASJ n to 205 37-40 57 For more on Sterne's portrait of Eliza, likely the real-life counterpart to these references in A Sentimental Journey see previous discussion in 40 nn 20 21 and 22 above 58 In The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman, Volume III: The Notes (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida 1984), New points out: "As Sterne probably knew the use of wet drapery the practice of the ancient sculptors was not recommended for painters (457 n 589 14-15) Descriptions that refer to the visual arts are abundant in Tristram Shandy. and it is worthwhile here to make note of a few additional outstanding examples instead of attempting a complete catalogue. Tristram claims a kinship with artists as fellow creators

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47 stating that --Writers of my stamp have one principle in common with painters Where an exact copying makes our pictures less striking we choose the less evil ; deeming it even more pardonable to trespass against truth than beauty (TS II.4 104 13-16) The analysis of painting also becomes a metaphorical method for judging scenes ; Tristram has tom out his chapter describing the procession to the visitation dinner house because the painting of this journey upon reviewing it, appears to be so much above the stile and manner of any thing else I have been able to paint in this book, that it could not have remained in it without depreciating every other scene" (TS IV 25 374 17-20) Parallels between Sterne s description and painting are vivid in his depiction of Mrs Shandy standing outside the partially open parlour door : the picture" of her rivals an actual work of art : "the listening slave with the Goddess of Silence at his back could not have given a finer thought for an intaglio (TS V.5.427 1-2) In Notes New s t ates that this is Almost certainly an allusion to the well-known classical statue Arrotino ('Whetter ) in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence" (354 n 427 1) 59 Reynolds of course, had painted Sterne s portrait by the time this chapter was written For more on the relationship between Sterne and Reynolds see Holtz 30-38 and Cash The Later Years 31-3 2 and 108-10. 60 Brissenden also notes that Sterne "often uses the language of the art i st speaking of strokes tints outlines attitudes, lights keeping colouring and design with the fluency and assurance of one who knows exactly what such terms mean (94) Sterne s pervasive use of visual elements however does not come under separate scrutiny in Brissenden s study as part of Sterne s rhetorical technique 61 The instances of intensely visual descriptions are so numerous that a comprehensive list is less helpful than the observation of several particularly striking examples Worth noting is Slop's entrance into the parlour where he stood like Hamlet's ghost motionless and speechless for a full minute and a half, at the parlour door (Obadiah still holding his hand) with all the majesty of mud (TS II 10 124 2-5) ; here Sterne paints a verbal picture that recalls the previous scene of Slop s collision and forebodes Slop s ill mood during Trim's reading of the sermon Another instance illustrates Walter s splenetic character : -My father thrust back his chair rose up ,put on his hat ,-took four long strides to the door ,jerked it open ,thrust his head halfway out -shut the door again -took no notice of the bad hinge -returned to the table ,pluck d my mother's thread-paper out of Slawkenbergius s book -went hastily to his bureau walk d slowly back twisting my mother's thread-paper about his thumb -unbutton'd his waistcoat threw my mother s thread-paper into the fire -bit her sattin pin cushion in two fill d his mouth with bran -confounded it .. (TS ill.41.282 27283 9) Here the multitudes of small visual details-short, powerful verbal strokes depicting actions and things accumulate to create a vivid multifaceted portrait of Tristram s

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father; indeed, in their sequential presentation, Sterne seems to anticipate the ultimate visualization of life made available in film Briefer visual descriptions include Tristram's self-depiction in the act of writing (TS IIl 39 278 27-279 2) and the position Trim assumes as he begins to relate the "Story of the king ofBohemia and his seven castles" (TS VIII 19 682 16-683.2). For Tristram's comments on his own descriptive ability, see TS VI.21.534.3-8 48 62. See also Toby's focus on the crevice during Walter's discussion of"the right end ofa woman" (TS II 7 117 20-21f). Locke observes that "Ideas that in themselves are not at all of kin, come so united in some Mens Minds, that 'tis very hard to separate them, they always keep in company, and the one no sooner at any time comes into the Understanding but its Associate appears with it" @CHU II xxxiii 395 31-34). The relationship between Sterne's use of association and Locke's theory on the subject has been explored by several critics; overall, the emphasis of these investigations have been on verbal, and not visual, association. 63. Other notable instances of visual metaphor include Yorick's deathbed description of his head, which is "so bruised and misshapen'd with the blows which***** and***** and some others have so unhandsomely given me in the dark .. (TS 1.12 34 17-19) and the fanciful suggestion that "had my uncle Toby's head been a Savoyard's box, and my father peeping in all the time at one end of it,--it could not have given him a more distinct conception of the operations in my uncle Toby's imagination, than what he had" (TS ID 26.252.19-22) 64 Other significant instances of the visual imperative include Trim's verbal flourish during the telling of a war story ("Look along the line-to the right-see! Jack s down!" [TS V.10.436 17]) and Tristram's address to "Jenny" ("whilst thou art twisting that lock,-see! it grows grey" [TS IX.8 754 22-23]) The visual imperative also serves as a convenient device for the narrator of the story of the abbess of Andoiiillets who, after a description of the drunk muleteer, declares "let us leave him then in the vortex of his element the happiest and most thoughtless of mortal men-and for a moment let us look after the mules, the abbess, and Margarita" (TS VII.21.610 8-11) 65. The description of abstract values using visible and concrete symbols is a common device throughout literature, and Sterne's use of this technique not only illustrates a point but often seems to be intended as a satirical application of the device. For instance, Walter's statement that "knowledge, like matter he would affirm was divisible in infinitum" (TS II 19 170 25-26) questions Walter's certainty about the value of learning When Obadiah announces Bobby's death, "-A green sattin night-gown of my mother's, which had been twice scoured, was the first idea which Obadiah's exclamation brought into Susannah's head" (TS V 7.429.15-17). Less absurdly comic versions of the visual concretization of the abstract occurs in Sterne's discussion of his own work : "surveying the texture of what has been wrote, it is necessary, that upon this page and the five following, a good quantity of heterogeneous matter be inserted, to keep up that just

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49 balance betwixt wisdom and folly without which a book would not hold together a single year (TS IX 12 761.2-6) Tristram's reflexive tendency makes a commentary on this technique of visualizing the abstract inevitable comically expressed in his "experiment with two pegs stuck slightly into two gimlet-holes representing wit and judgment (TS III preface 235.23fl) ; by toying with the knobs he underlines the limitations, as well as the absurd potential of making the abstract visual. His self-consciousness in this passage which compels the reader with near-imperatives to share the narrator's comparison, also resembles his self-commentary regarding descriptions of characters 66 Other notable instances of expression of character and things through attitude gesture, and other aspects of appearance include Walter s recovery from grief signaled when he pushed the chamber-pot still a little farther within the valance-gave a hem raised himselfup upon his elbow (TS IV 6 331.14-16) The "language of gesture is more explicitly demonstrated by Trim s bow to Toby "which generally spoke as plain as a bow could speak it-Your honour is good" (TS VI 7.503 14-15). A visual effect that is perhaps even more direct is the appearance of Toby himself, who is described as having "marks of infinite benevolence and forgiveness in his looks (TS IX.32 805 8-9) A tangent to this approach is the discussion of the interior/exterior dichotomy most vividly illustrated by Momus's glass (TS 1 23.82 10) which would allow the observer to view "the soul star k naked (TS 1.23 82 20) ; see 118 n. 82 10-12. Cf. TS 111.4 189 18-20 and VI 5.497 11-26 The commonplace origin of this concept is suggested in 404 n 497 llff. 67 For other visual references to the theater cf TS 1.19 63.24-64 1 Il 3 .1 14 2-3 11 8 120 8-11 Il.10 124 2-4 II.19 169 17-18 and IV.S T.318.4-5 68 For other references to the mechanical cf. TS 1.22 81.25-82 5 111.18 222 15-16 III.41.283 23 111.42.286 12-16 IV.8 333 17-334 9 IV.12 340 17-19 IV 19 354 8 V.6.427 6-14 V 15.444.21-23 VI.17 525.4-5 and VII.1.575 5 Some of Sterne s use of mechanical allusion seems to comment on Julien Offray de la Mettrie s concept of l'homme machine 69 For instances of mazes and labyrinths see TS 11 3 103 22-24 IV.Slawk 317 25 and VI 37 565.4-6 For more on this subject see Stephen Soud '" Weavers Gardeners and Gladiators : Labyrinths in Tristram Shandy" (Eighteenth-Century Studies 28:4 [1995]: 397-411) For examples of web imagery see TS IV 19 355 20-21 and VI 33 558 9-15 For more on the subject, see John B Lamb "A Chaos of Being' : Carlyle and the Shandean Web of History (CLIO : A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 20 : 1 [1990]: 23-37) 70 A single mandatory graphic exists, of course in A Sentimental Journey in the form of Yorick s starling-adorned crest. For more on the phenomenon of graphics and

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so unusual type treatments in Tristram Shandy. see Holtz Image and Immortality. 80-89 and Chapter 2 Part 2 of this study

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Figure 1-1 Illustration by William Hogarth (first state) for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Gentleman (London: R. and J. Dodsley 1760) 1: frontispiece 51

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l ol ,_ /1<;~/( n !,/ ~--~ Figure 1-2. illustration by William Hogarth for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London: R. and J. Dodsley 1761 ), 3 : frontispiece 52

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Figure 1-3 Detail from John Hamilton Mortimer A Caricature Group (n d [c 1767] ; polychrome oil on canvas). 53

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CHAPTER2 CRITICAL COMMENTARY ON STERNE'S VISUALITY The stylistic thread of visuality that weaves its way through Sterne's work plays a significant part in characterizing what Edmund Burke describes in 1760 as his very l i vely and very irregular imagination 2 Sterne's visual rhetoric has attracted critical attention from the appearance of the first volumes of Tristram Shandy. attention which continues pursuing increasingly diverse approaches for the entire 250 years since their first publication So copious is this diverse historical commentary on Sterne s visuality in fact that the following selective critical history is divided into two parts : the first two centuries of discussion will be addressed in the first part of this chapter while the many recent studies of the subject will come under examination in the second part In addition to opening up many valuable avenues for further discussion the volume of commentary about Sterne s visuality suggests the presence of a uniquely pictorial aspect in his work a quality I will seek to illuminate in this study through the combined investigation of previous criticism Sterne's texts and illustrations of those texts Part 1: Ant i -Shandeans, thrice-able Critics, and fellow-labourers : 1 1760-1957 In the fifty years after the initial appearance of Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey, critical observation of Sterne s visual rhetoric is often found in both contemporary reviews and private observations of his work ; Alan B Howes s extensive documentation of early Sterne commentary in Sterne : The Critical Heritage is an 54

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55 invaluable tool in chronicling the early stages of this evaluation Precisely because Howes did not set out specifically to collect discussions of Sterne s visuality the pervasiveness of critical observations in his collection that address this rhetorical technique attests to the pervasiveness of the recognition of visuality as a component in Sterne's work Discussions of this pictorial element are sometimes brief; for example Horace Walpole writing about Sterne s sentimental travels to Thomas Gray in 1768 comments that "though often tiresome," they are exceedingly good-natured and picturesque (Howes 202) Joseph Pierre Frenais similarly remarks in the preface to his 1776 translation of the first four volumes of Tristram Shandy that Sterne's descriptions are picturesque (Howes 395) And yet again in the 1796 Le Reveur Sentimental, Pierre Blanchard observes that I know of no one like Sterne who can find the picturesque distinctive trait that you have seen a thousand times but never noticed (Howes 405) Blanchard s recognition of Sterne s ability to describe unnoticed details is as we shall see a common factor among many of the observers of Sterne s visual rhetoric The recognition of Sterne s picturesque" writing-referring it would seem to a general idea of verbal pictorialism rather than to the specific visual aesthetic promoted by William Gilpin and others-is complemented by discussions that refer more specifically to the visual arts An unsigned entry on Sterne in An Historical and Critical Account of the Lives and Writings of the Living Authors of Great Britain (1762) remarks that the writer s "Characters approach almost to Caricaturas after the style of Rabelais (Howes 151 ) In 1777 the anonymous writer of Yorick s Skull calls Tristram Shandy an admirable caricature of history rather than "an exact portrait of private life (Howes 243). The connection to the visual arts is also hinted at in an unsigned piece in the Critical Review

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56 (1761) that calls attention to the similarity of Sterne's writing to Rabelais's in "the address, the manner, and colouring" (Howes 126); similarly, in A Commentary Illustrating the Poetic of Aristotle (1792), Henry James Pye notes Sterne's "high coloring" (Howes 317). The editor of the 1790 Beauties of Sterne touts his collection as having "true Shandean colouring," as opposed to earlier editions that "were of rather too confined a cast,-and that, contrary to the original, the utile and the dulce were not sufficiently blended, or in equal quantities. 3 Ignatius Sancho, in a letter to an unidentified friend dated 1778, suggests the connection to painting even more strongly, commenting that both Fielding and Sterne had "palettes stored with proper colours of the brightest dye," and that "their outline" was "correct-bold-and free" (Howes 176) Many critics describe Sterne's writing with terms borrowed from the visual arts, enlarging and enhancing the parallel in the process. In 1760, an unidentified acquaintance of Sterne notes his belief that Sterne "meant to sketch out his own character in that of Yorick" (Howes 59), while an unnamed reviewer in the 1768 Critical Review mentions that, in rendering the monk, Sterne has "taken great pains to draw the figure" (Howes 198). More detailed metaphors using visual language emerge from commentary of this period, as well : Jeremiah Newman, in his 1796 Lounger's Common-Place Book, observes Sterne's talent "to sketch out affecting and masterly pictures" (Howes 298), and an unsigned review in the Journal Encyclopedique (1760) praises the "dazzling quality of his portraits" in Tristram Shandy (Howes 382). An anonymous 1786 French review proclaims that "the most lively and realistic pictures .. flow in tum and without order from his [Sterne's] facile, natural, and unconstrained pen" (Howes 401) An anonymous reviewer of the 1786 Frenais translation of A Sentimental Journey also compares the text

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57 to artwork, suggesting that Sterne's "pictures are chosen from the common ranks of society, conceived with delicacy, and executed with wit and gaiety He has .. the rare talent of arousing our interest by pictures and details that we see every day" (Howes 389). In addition to hinting at the effectiveness of visuality, these reviewers also identify a consistent quality of joy and spontaneity in his creation of verbal pictures that seems to be related to the popular conception of the author himself A 1761 pamphlet, Alas! Poor YORICK! or, a FUNERAL DISCOURSE, uses the visual metaphor with more ambivalence; addressing Sterne, its writer states that "though you had no principal figures that made a true composition, yet the comers of your picture presented here and there entertaining decorations" (Howes 134). On the other hand the enduring importance of these "pictures" is asserted by Clara Reeve, author of The Old English Baron, in her 1785 The Progress of Romance, when she notes that his depiction of Maria, Le Fever, and the Monk "are charming pictures, and will survive, when all his other writings are forgot" (Howes 263). It is the particular metaphor of painting, however, which seems be the most prevalent means of comparing Sterne's words with the visual arts in this period, a parallel Sterne himself seems to have encouraged (though perhaps only half-seriously) with his discussion of the theories of du Fresnoy, da Vinci, Hogarth, and Reynolds, and also in his visually evocative descriptions, such as of the Monk Lorenzo in Sentimental Journey 4 The painterly metaphor is often broadly applied by Sterne's readers, as with Ignatius Sancho's 1778 observation that both Fielding and Sterne were "great masters, who painted for posterity" (Howes 177) In 1771, Thomas Jefferson considers Sterne's writing a "lively" painting which is a "tolerable picture of nature" (Howes 215); Georg Christoph

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58 Lichtenberg calls Sterne "the inimitable pleasant babbler and painter of emotions (Howes 442) in 1799 ; and in 1790 Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin labels Sterne the original painter of sentimentality" (Howes 457) The connection between painting and the expression of feeling that Karamzin notes is echoed by the philosopher Pierre-Simon Ballanche fils who comments in 1801 that Sterne "painted the emotions in uncommon situations, in picturesque groupings in subtle observations of customs (Howes 406) likely intending the use of picturesque as "like of having the elements of a picture (OED) The metaphor of painting frequently occurs in this period to convey an appreciation of Sterne s descriptions of feeling; for instance, Frenais in his preface to his translation (1776) of the first four books of Tristram Shandy. comments that Sterne "always paints his subjects with propriety and it would be difficult to paint them with more feeling or more delicacy" (Howes 394) Similarly John Ogilvie in his Philosophical and Critical Observations (1774) lauds Sterne on his ability to "paint so as to imitate nature in her most delicate signatures as well as his instantaneous perception of certa i n attitudes (Howes 240) Several commentators however focus specifically on Sterne's descriptions of specific people and places in reference to painting ; in 1785 Mallet du Pan touching on the emotional aspect of Sterne s painting ," states that no one tells a story with greater interest nor sketches in details with more truth nor paints with more feeling than Sterne ," in the stories of Uncle Toby and the fly the Abbess of Andouillets and especially the tales of Le Fever and Maria Here observes du Pan there is no blurred stroke of the brush no affectation nor exaggeration (Howes 400). In her 1786 evaluation of Sterne s visuality Madame Suard enthusiastically comments on the precision of Sterne s

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59 descriptions : With what art what truth, he paints a scene and traces a portrait Look I beg you at that of good Father Lorenzo: he draws him for us with features so clear so precise that it seems to me a skillful artist, taking his palette could paint him for us from the description (Howes 404). Perhaps it is because they read Sterne in translation but both Du Pan and Suard despite the specificity of their readings, seem almost more inclined to praise Sterne as a creator of visual depictions than of verbal ones Sterne s tendency toward a "painterly" technique inspires some critics to draw more direct comparisons with artists In 1771 Voltaire finds Sterne's pictorial abilit y superior to that of visual artists observing that in the Abuses of Conscience sermon in Tristram Shandy. among several pictures superior to those of Rembrandt and the pencil of Callot there is one of a gentleman and man of the world, spending his days in the pleasures of eating gaming and debauchery (Howes 391) In a similar vein Chrisoph Martin Wieland asks in 1767 that when Sterne paints for us happy scenes of naively beautiful nature what writer has ever been so much of a Correggio as he? (Howes 424) Needless to say many of these commentaries are the stock-in-trade of an age that was yet to be taught to distinguish aesthetically between the visual and the literary ; writers with styles as diverse as Fielding and Richardson were also highly praised for their paintings of human nature Without making any claim therefore that this vocabulary occurs more often in Sterne criticism than in other commentary ( although I suspect it does) what I want to establish is the variety of expressions the fundamental trope received how it broadly covered many aspects of both novels and most important how it prepares the way for the actual visual representations that came to accompany Sterne s work down the "gutter of Time ." It is perhaps a post-hoc fallacy but one might suggest at least that the

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60 higher incidence of illustrations of Sterne s work than of Richardson s or Fielding s reflects the fact that among critics and readers, a higher incidence of visual metaphor did come into play. Perhaps the most interesting contemporary comments on Sterne s visuality are those that analyze the reception of Sterne s verbal painting as a prompt to the reader s imagination The anonymous writer of The Leveller in Westminster Magazine of 177 5 responds to the visually compelling aspect of Sterne s prose (perhaps in a fashion similar to the function of the visual imperative discussed in Chapter 1) : I thought I saw before me the little fat Doctor mounted on his diminutive poney .. I thought I saw the hasty Obadiah mounted on a great unruly brute of a coach horse . I painted to myself the terror and consternation of the Doctor s face . All these I say with many other additional circumstances painted themselves so strongly on my imagination that I laughed most immoderately loud (Howes 241-42). The description seems to attribute to the written passage the ability to create an active moving vision a continuously painted scene, just as the frames of a film move forward and together ; enthralled by this verbally generated spectacle this reader confesses to behaving indiscreetly-laughing most immoderately loud -his testimony to Sterne s vivid depictions At least one contemporary observer attempts to scientifically analyze the effect o f Sterne s visuality In 1792 Dugald Stewart an important theorist of affective psychology connects Sterne's descriptive ability to the triggering of a pathetic emotional response from the reader : what we commonly call sensibility ," he writes depends in a great measure on the power of imagination (Howes 318) Stewart observes that the sympathetic perceiver will visually project from a pathetic situation all the unfortunate

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61 circumstances that surround it and as he imaginatively proceeds in the painting his sensibility increases and he weeps not for what he sees but for what he imagines (Howes 319) This process Stewart asserts is "beautifully illustrated (Howes 319) by Sterne s use of the starling in A Sentimental Journey Stewart s focus on the response provoked by Sterne s visual rhetoric rather than simply on the technique itself, suggests an underlying theme to the ongoing critical discussion about the Sterne s pictorialism : the desire to describe the elusive effect the visual elements have on his readers In addition as has already been suggested the attitude toward the visual quality of Sterne s work was not always a flattering one ; some critics seized on Sterne s visua li ty as a morally reprehensible characteristic of his work. In The Citizen of the World (1760) Oliver Goldsmith appears to be referring to Sterne in his discussion of a certain writer who iconoclastically paints things as they are revealing to the erring people that the object of their vows is either perhaps a mouse or a monkey (Howes 93) Vicesimus Kno x, in Essays Moral and Literary (1787) stresses a variation on the idea of visual exposure stating it is indeed easy to attract the notice and the admiration of the youthful and the wanton by exhibiting loose images under a transparent veil. 5 The condemnation of Sterne s "imagery is a popular point for Sterne s detractors. In 1797 William Wilberforce accuses Sterne of a mischievous style that excites impure images in the reader without shocking us by the grossness of the language (Howes 302). An unsigned notice in the 1767 Gentleman s Magazine remarks that Sterne lessens the power of the most important of all passions by connecting disgustful images with its g r atifications (Howes 180) George Gregory s 1787 complaint that Sterne resorts to "t he readiest and

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most copious source of pathetic imagery (Howes 265) reflects another variation in this perceived danger of imagery emphasizing banality instead of a moral threat. 62 Some hostile commentators are more direct in their condemnation of Sterne s ability to create pictures i n the reader s mind John Ferriar in the second edition of Illustrations of Sterne (1798) observes that Sterne dwelt with enthusiasm on the grotesque pictures of manners and opinions displayed by his favorite authors" (Howes 289) Mary Berry talces a similar approach in 1798 commenting that Tristram Shandy. while it diverts always reminds me of a Dutch portrait in which we admire the accurate representation of all the little disgusting blemishes the warts moles and hairs-of the human form (Howes 320) To many contemporary critics Sterne's visuality constitutes an important part of his talent but this same ability condemns him in the eyes of others ; both groups however seem to concur on the engrossing effect of the technique Several late-e i ghteenth-century critics who found more good than bad i n Sterne s work discuss their reactions to the writer's visuality in more depth In an uns i gned review in the Monthly Review (1765) Ralph Griffith is moved emotionally by Sterne s in v ocation to the Just disposer of our joys and sorrows in A Sentimental Journey : Give me thy hand, dear Shandy!" Griffith implores "Give me they heart!-What a delightful scene hast thou drawn! Would we had it upon two yards ofREYNOLDS s canvass !" (Howes 165) He is similarly affected by the scene describing the widow Wadman s eye in a comment which escalates to a more general praise of the visuality of Sterne/Tristram : Never was any thing more beautifully simple more natural more touching! 0 Tristram that ever any grosser colours should daub and defile that pencil of thine so admirabl y fitted for the production of the most delicate as well as the most masterly pictures of men

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63 manners, and situations!" (Howes 166) Here and elsewhere, perhaps the most powerful tribute to Sterne's visuality comes in the form of imitation of his style Griffith concludes with recommendations to Sterne : "Paint Nature in her loveliest dress-her native simplicity Draw natural scenes, and interesting situations" (Howes 168) In a later unsigned review in the Monthly Review (1768), Griffith comments on Sterne s depiction of the monk Lorenzo : "What an affecting, touching, masterly picture is here!" (Howes 199). Griffith's repetitive praise of the effectiveness of Sterne's visuality suggests the centrality of the technique to his consideration of the text, and hints at the role of the individual reader's response in making the pictures engaging The poet known as the Swan of Lichfield," Anna Seward, cites different visual criteria for her methodological critical praise of Sterne's work in 1787, noting its original colouring" (Howes 268) Comparing Tristram Shandy with Memoirs ofMartinus Scriblerus, Seward states, "there is an immense superiority in the vividness with which he [Sterne] has coloured his Shandy" (Howes 269) ; and in 1788 she cites visual elements to defend Sterne against charges of simply rewriting the earlier work : "it cannot be denied that this joint work of Pope, Swift, and Arbuthnot, suggested to Sterne the plan of Tristram Shandy ;but how has he drawn it out!-how glow his colours in the vivid tints of Nature!" (Howes 270) By citing Sterne's use of"color" as a differentiating quality of Sterne's writing Seward appeals to the vocabulary of the visual arts almost as if standard critical language could not sufficiently explain the difference Seward also focuses on the ability of Sterne's descriptions to create both auditory and visual sensations in the reader's mind, suggesting that "we see and hear the little domestic group at Shandy-hall" (Howes 269) Everyone in the Shandy household Seward

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64 contends down to the fat scullion lives-and they are by those happy characteristic touches that mark the hand of genius brought to our eye as well as to our ear (Howes 270). Although Seward cites only one scene that demonstrates Sterne s ability to appeal directly to the senses to bring scenes to life the same animating factor is a hallmark of all his work as demonstrated by the array of voices I have briefly outlined here Perhaps the least public and yet most profuse discussion of Sterne s technique in this period is the marginalia written by John Scott the Earl of Clonmell between 1769 and 1789 in his copy of A Sentimental Journey Paul Franssen, describing Clonmell s w i de ranging commentary states that most prominent are his [Clonmell s] remarks on the descriptive pictorial element "; in addition he underlines many words in the text to bear out the pictorial element in Sterne s work 6 Franssen s meticulous catalogu i ng of Clonmell's notes bears out his conclusions : no fewer than 40 annotations consist only of the word picture by itself, and 20 times more he uses it in a longer phrase (160) Some of Clonmell' s briefer remarks include concise visual references such as the Painter s stroke (162) while his longer marginal notes provide sometimes startling commen t ary on the nature of the text-image dynamic For example after The Letter Arniens ," Clonmell observes that nothing can furnish better Instances of humourous Description than this Chapter the minuteness with Which each Active particle is exactly described puts the whole Picture before you ... (163) 7 Clonmell is one of the few commenta t ors at this time to view Sterne s work within a tradition ofliterary pictorialism point i ng out that "Milton seems to have laid l foundation of Stem s Stile of painting in l following Observation Each Motion formd Each Word Describing Belia! his great Model of Oratory (164) 8 Clonmell s anno t ations are of particular value not only because as

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Franssen points out, he "is not a professional critic, but an ordinary (be it well-educated and intelligent) man" (194), but also because of the extraordinary depth and range of his commentary on Sterne's visuality 65 Discussion of Sterne's works declined in the period from 1800 to 1840, perhaps due to a decline in their overall popularity, a result of a shift in literary tastes, or simply the natural evolution of popular works in the next generation (that is, before they achieve the status of"classic ") Undoubtedly, some of the dearth of critical commentary was also influenced by assumptions about Sterne's personal life that threw a cast of immorality over his work. In particular, unsavory rumors abounded about his treatment of his wife and mother (the latter the inspiration for Byron's journal entry about "that dog Sterne, who preferred whining over 'a dead ass to relieving a living mother'-villain-hypocrite slave-sycophant!" [Howes 346]). Although these stories tainted Sterne's reputation, some critics, like Samuel Taylor Coleridge, were beginning to consider the work on its own merit, separated from assumptions about the personal history of the author and his age. If commentators were fewer in this period, those who did address Sterne's literary merit in general-and the visuality important to this study, in particular-ventured into a more detailed and thoughtful analysis than that produced by Sterne's contemporaries Many of the metaphors chosen by critics regarding Sterne's descriptions again suggest the visual arts as a relevant parallel. Hugh Murray, in 1805, remarks that Sterne "excels particularly in minute imagery, and the affecting detail of little incidents" (Howes 3 2 7), though William Bulwer notes in 1863 that Sterne's "most exquisite characters are but sketches and outlines. 9 An unsigned essayist in The Port Folio of 1811 observes that a trait of Sterne is "the vivid and distinct descriptions he gives us, not only of the peculiar

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66 turns of thinking but also of the speaker s person and his peculiar attitudes in speaking With the exception of the inimitable Cervantes it will be difficult to find another writer who in this branch of composition exceeds Laurence Sterne (Howes 339) And in an 1818 lecture Coleridge praises Sterne s expertise in depicting the traits of human nature which so easily assume a particular cast and color from individual character as well as his expression of "all that happiest use of drapery and attitude which at once gives the reality by individualizing and the vividness by unusual yet probable combinations 1 0 Although these critics do not specifically state that Sterne is drawing verbal pictures they do acknowledge the i mportance of his use of visual evocation in his creation of d i stinct i ve characters Other commentators were more direct in comparing Sterne s techniques to those of a visual artist. In 1821 Thomas Hood upon seeing a distressed young woman recalls that Maria came into my mind exactly as Sterne had drawn her (Howes 368) Analyz i ng Sterne s visuality in detail Richard Cumberland in his Memoirs of 1806 observes that Sterne s real merit lies not only in his general conception of characters but i n the address with which he marks them out by those minute yet striking touches of his pencil that make his descriptions pictures and his pictures life (Howes 217) Using the older definition of pencil as paintbrush ," Cumberland focuses on the attention Sterne pays to visual details that allows his descriptions to move beyond mere verbal drawings ( that make his descriptions pictures ) to become part of an imagined reality ( his pictures life ) It seems to have been this pictorial quality that inspires Hood to make the comparison between the real entity before him and the fictional Maria

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67 Employing a direct reference to painting in an essay for the 1810 British Novelists series, Anna Laetitia Barbauld pinpoints a different aspect of Sterne's verbal-visual ability noting that he "resembles those painters who can give expression to a figure by two or three strokes of bold outline, leaving the imagination to fill up the sketch" (Howes 332) The more general metaphor of"painting" as "describing" is fairly common, however such as suggested by Charles-Athananais Walckenaer in the 1830 statement that "Sterne paints mankind while seeming only to try to amuse his readers and to make sport of them and of himself' (Howes 415). This usage is echoed by Charles Nodier' s 1830 observation that "the good and discerning Yorick-as Sterne has painted himself-is a wise man with a jovial and ever so slightly caustic spirit, but benevolent and urbane" (Howes 421 ) In 1822, Giovanni Ferri di S. Costante however, only uses the idea of"painting as a synonym for physical depiction as a starting point: "It was Marivaux who gave the first example of the genre of which Sterne was reputed creator, which consists of painting human life with more truth, making visible in the heart of man a great number of rapid movements, so that they can hardly be noticed" (Howes 466). The variety of visual readings of Sterne s work not only attests to the widespread recognition of this quality, but also demonstrates the range of visual elements that interest individual critics (that catch their eyes, so to speak), as if they were actually viewing a painting and focusing on different aspects for discussion The use of visual metaphor to describe Sterne's work can recall the author's use of similar language although such usage can also border on a generic language of description For instance, the anonymous writer of the critical essay in the 1807 Classic Tales anthology, edited by Leigh Hunt, comments that Tristram Shandy "displays shrewd

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68 observation ready and genuine wit and well-drawn character 1 1 The visual aspects of the characters' depictions are further emphasized here by observations like Le Fleur is an exquisitely painted child of nature and that the sorrows of Maria are touched with a pencil as soft and captivating as her own melodious pipe (280-81 ) The commentator also sees Sterne s visuality as a means of capturing a more elusive quality of mankind citing a spirit of humanity and benevolence [that] will find itself cherished by a variety of scenes supplied by the sprightly or the sombre pencil (281 ) The critic seems to repeatedly return to the emotional value of the visual implicitly suggesting its function as a prompt to the reader s feelings Dominique-Joseph Garat one of Sterne s most ardent French admirers also furnishes thoughtful observations on the visual aspects of his work. In his 1820 book Memoires historiques sur le xvnr siecle et sur M Suard Garat often uses the common metaphor of paints for describes as do other critics but adapts the usage to a more complex-in this case psychological-context noting that always himself tom between passions and virtues Sterne paints men as not apparently much in control of their actions and their destinies (Howes 410) Garat also recognizes the value of Sterne s ability to evoke painterly pictures with words pointing out that he draws so clearly the things and the people he chances upon, he paints them with colors so life-like that you forget everything in the enchantment of the portraits and the varied tableaux that he traces He has the shading and the touch of all the great schools and all the great masters-the pencils and the brushes of the Flemish the Romans and the French follow each other in the style of an Englishman too original to be of any school and too filled with all the physical and moral impressions from nature herself not to render them by turns with the most lifelike manners of all the schools. (Howes 410)

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69 Garat marks the success of Sterne s portrayals by their ability to dominate the reader s thoughts : Sterne s technique makes you forget everything He also describes these compelling characters with the terminology of painting and strengthens the parallel between the arts of painting and Sterne's writing by comparing Sterne himself favorably to the most admired schools of painters Sterne's visuality is according to Garat the ability to gather physical and moral impressions from nature herself, and his great virtue is the ability to render lifelike manners. Garat hints at the philosophical implications of Sterne's realistic depictions with the astute remark that under the brush of Sterne man is not imprisoned ; he is tossed about (Howes 410) Throughout his discussion of Sterne Garat asserts that Sterne s descriptions of lifelike manners paradoxically do not "capture an image at all but instead liberate the image of man from the constraints of physical depiction This is a key element in defining Sterne's use of the visual in character description ; Sterne does not provide the visual instructions that create a concrete personage as do Fielding and Richardson but rather alludes to a few key defining elements that compose themselves variably in the reader s mind making the experience of imagining Sterne's pictures different for each reader It is Sterne s sketching of character in a "few strokes (apparent in both his and Hogarth s renditions of Dr Slop) that enable multiplicities of images of this scene to thrive in the imagination and on paper as illustrations This process comes about because as Garat seems to assert the human figure is released from the imprisonment of complete physical description in Sterne s work and assumes completion in the mind of the reader. Though far more cautious in his enthusiasm Walter Scott in an essay in his Lives of Eminent Novelists and Dramatists (first published in 1823) also takes note o f the visual

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70 characteristics of Sterne's prose Tristram Shandy he states is no narrative but a collection of scenes dialogues and portraits humorous or affecting intermixed with much wit and with much learning original or borrowed 12 Although Scott seems to disapprove of the structure of Sterne s fiction he clearly finds individual visual elements worthy of praise such as the characters of Toby and Trim which are drawn with ... a pleasing force and discrimination and provide a "lively picture of kindness and benevolence (520) Sterne s ability to create a remarkable portrait however becomes problematic for Scott as he wrestles with the paradox of the excellence of Sterne s self depiction with his own opinion of the author s personal life Scott recognizes the general likeness between the author and the child of his fancy and he would willingly pardon the pencil which in the delicate task of self-delineation has softened some tra i ts of his own features and improved others (520) A similar ambiguity pervades Scott s statement that Yorick the livel y, witty sensitive and heedless Parson is the well-known personification of Sterne himself, and undoubtedly like every portrait drawn of himself b y a master of the art, bore a strong resemblance to the original" (519) Again Scott s recognition of the visual element of Sterne s writing is mixed with a reluctance to concede Sterne s status as a "master of the art Probably the most rigorous commentator on Sterne s visuality in this period was the clergyman Edward Mangin whose numerous letters on literary subjects were published in 1814 as a collection A View of the Pleasures Arising From the Love ofBooks Mangin s commentary unlike Scott s focuses almost exclusively on the text itself, and his applause for Sterne s visuality is effusive ; he remarks for instance that A Sentimental Journey abounds ... in fine specimens of what may be called the art of painting with his pen in

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71 which the author was a very great master : he exhibits on paper the talents of Carlo Dolce Vandyke Teniers and Hogarth and is often not inferior in composition colouring and truth to any of them ." 13 Mangin not only makes a parallel with the visual arts but even touts the superior i ty of Sterne s verbal pictorialism over the abilities of several celebrated visual artists Mangin also pinpoints individual scenes in Sterne s work for their particularly visual elements. He states that compared with the depiction of Maria, that of the Monk is a full length portrait by the same expert hand but in a quite different taste from the last : no one can for a moment doubt that it is from nature and from the life The idea of a painting was in Sterne s mind when he undertook to give his admirable likeness of Father Lo r enzo (94-95) Sterne s painterly inclination is of course partially revealed by the text which states that the Monk had "one of those heads which Guido has often painted "; 1 4 clearly though Mangin is interested in building on the visual aspects of the passage The drawing goes on incomparably ," Mangin continues and is indeed worthy of Guido himself (96) Mangin again implies the quality of Sterne s written portra i t in comparison to a painted or sculpted one : This might be the outline of a picture or a statue though indeed of a fine one ; but the author s concluding strokes give it life (98) Perhaps the most telling instance of the depth ofMangin s investigation into Sterne s visuality is his concession that due to the number of examples it would be wearisome to collect and comment on all the instances which might be produced of Sterne s powers and versatility (98). 15 Significantly Mangin s many observations on Sterne s visuality were likely to have been influenced by his possession of the Earl of Clonmell s heavily annotated edition of the work. 1 6

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72 From 1840 through the early-twentieth century critical discussion about Sterne s work initially continued its quantitative decline and then sparked to life again the subject of discussion for an increasingly professional" cadre of literary commentators and biographers (unfortunately for Sterne a rather diaphanous line separated the two categories) who occasionally became engaged at length with issues of rhetorical style Critical recognition of the strength of Sterne s use of visual elements in his writing sometimes even survived the harshest judgments against the moral value of his text and unsavory rumors about his life For instance in his lecture published in 1853 William Makepeace Thackeray describes the scene ofTristram's meeting with Nannette as a landscape and figures deliciously painted by one who had the keenest enjoyment and the most tremulous sensibility ," 17 but then paradoxically adds that this description (as well as all of Sterne s writing) contains a latent corruption-a hint as of an i mpure presence (291 )-he had perhaps shocked himself with his own sensuous description of Sterne's visuality. It is almost as if Thackeray could not help but privately take pleasure in the picturesque and delightful parts (270) of the work of the man he felt it necessary to publicly condemn as a wretched worn-out old scamp (281 ) Parallel to this perspective however, was an increasing critical focus on Sterne s writing as an entity worthy of analysis apart from the author's life carrying on a tradition begun in Sterne studies by Coleridge and Scott and more pertinently by Clonmell and Mangin Percy Fitzgerald writing a critical biography of Sterne in 1864 ( revised thirty years later) repeatedly cites the visual aspects of scenes and characters in Sterne's writing In reference to the sermon The case of Elijah and the widow of Zarephath considered ," the first writing of Sterne to appear in print Fitzgerald comments that in describing the

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73 scene where the child is restored to life Sterne's taste for painting breaks out and he pictures for his congregation the various figures of the piece "'; 18 for Fitzgerald this use of the visual clearly adds to the effectiveness of the parson s message Later F i tzgerald records Sterne using a similar technique for a different purpose as when Sterne described his new pastoral life to his friend Lee in a very tempting picture like all his pictures (2 : 161 ) This example demonstrates Fitzgerald s view of Sterne s visuality ; although he does not comment directly on its impact, he does imply both the importance of the technique and Sterne s talent for it. In addition, Fitzgerald states that in his letters too Mr Sterne gave little pictures which show (as has been here so often insisted on) what a literal romance o f his life he meant Tristram to be (2 : 24) he precisely captures Sterne s ability to visualize scenes. Fitzgerald echoes previous critics in his labeling of Sterne s characters as a gallery of original men and women (1 : 153) and similarly sees the depiction of Slop as particularly related to the form of visual caricature : Sterne, he notes was called on with remonstrances and even threats to alter the personal strokes and colouring of his portrait of Yorkshire s Dr Burton (1 : 122) In reference to Tristram Shandy. Fitzgerald attributes to Sterne s visuality the ability to create a lasting impression on his audience. There was a fixed period of fame for him [Sterne] and his book founded on the humours of the four or five leading characters my Uncle Toby Mr and Mrs Shandy Trim and Dr Slop-these outlines have become fixed in the public mind like the incidents and characters in Don Quixote These are so clear in their drawing and have been so much referred to and quoted that they have become known and familiar e v en for those who have never seen or read the book. ( 1 : 168)

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74 Sterne s method of drawing characters, which etches their figures in the public mind seems to be so effective, in fact that they break free from the text that gave them birth (as well as from the author himself) and become independent entities unto themselves Most of Fitzgerald's observations about Sterne s visuality concern descriptions in A Sentimental Journey The idea of the picturesque is prevalent throughout his commentary perhaps best exemplified by his remark that over the incidents of the old posting journeys from Calais up to Paris hangs a picturesque cloud. They are full of colour and good scenic effect (1 : 205) ; as if to emphasize his point the word picturesque is repeated five times in two pages. Although Fitzgerald occasionally does use visual terminology to define the general pattern of description in A Sentimental Journey he notes, for instance, that Sterne s sketches of the old towns are dashed in as oddly and as quaintly as are their project i ng gables and twisting streets" (1 : 207)-his most explicitly artistic discussion refers to particular moments in the work that were illustrated with words Indeed when Fitzgerald describes the work as full of charming sketches with the bloom and fragrance of the romantic south upon them full oflife and delicacy and colour (2 : 23-24) he raises the question whether it is even possible to characterize Sterne's descriptive writing without depending on visual language to convey its vividness Fitzgerald comments at length on several individual scenes pleasant glimpses and pictures (2 : 27) that Sterne depicts. He appropriately responds to Sterne s description of the innkeeper M Varennes at the inn in Montreuil who introduced him t o Le Fleur with his own visual imagining: We have even a sketch of the landlord who corrected Mr Sterne s French .. . We see his rotund figure standing before Mr Sterne (2 : 86) Among

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75 many examples noted by Fitzgerald we can include his praise of the "pathetic picture of 'the Dead Ass' before the door of the post-house at Nampont" (2 : 87), and of Sterne's pictorial technique at the end of Sentimental Journey, where "we have delightful little glimpses, full of local colour and exquisite pastoral effect" (2:96) Fitzgerald also readily crosses the boundary between the written and the visual arts in his discussion, noting that Yorick and the grisset in the glove-shop constitute a "little scene which inspired Newton with a fresh Leslie-like cabinet picture" (2 : 92), and that the scene of the farm family readying for the Grace "makes a perfect pendant to that other picture which he saw in the Bourbonnois on his first journey" (2 : 96)-meaning, presumably, the contrasting melancholy of the highly pictorial description of lone Maria. Fitzgerald even frames his regret about Sterne's inability to continue his story in visual terms, stating that, in regard to Sterne's unfulfilled plans to visit Spain, "we can only regret the loss, for he has been so successful with his French brush: how he would have revelled in the Spanish tints!" (2 : 40) Overall, perhaps Fitzgerald has the most visual orientation of all previous critics, and, in addition to the numerous allusions to Sterne as a visual artist, he uses the term photograph" in describing a verbal sketch of a person or scene (1 : 149), thus applying to Sterne's ability to capture a visual essence in words, a relatively new technology The Reverend Whitwell Elwin includes Sterne in his lengthy 1902 study, Some XVIII Century Men of Letters, declaring that "no novelist has surpassed Sterne in the vividness of his descriptions in the skill with which he selects and groups the details of his finished scenes" and that he has "a rare power of delineation by slight and easy touches ." 19 Although his treatment of Sterne is brief in comparison to Fitzgerald's, Elwin nonetheless

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76 not only comments on instances of Sterne's visuality but also explores how the technique functions to generate sympathy in the reader. Elwin cites Dugald Stewart s comment regarding the description of the Captive as a beautiful illustration of the power of the imagination in conjuring up circumstances which awaken sensibility ," 2 0 and continues they must indeed be master-strokes which in half a dozen sentences could convey such an intense impress i on of the miseries of a dungeon (76) Elwin s invocation of Stewart s theory suggests a continuing effort by Sterne s readers to explain the success of the sentimental in his works in visual terms and perhaps helps us understand why so many illustrators early and late have been compelled to re-portray these scenes Here too Elwin hits upon the paradox of Sterne s minimal descriptions that produce vivid pictures ; the reconciliation between minimalism and vividness might exist in the imagination but perhaps it is not Sterne s but the reader s that actually paints the picture. In contrast to the bias toward the pictorial in Sentimental Journey evidenced by previous critics most of Elwin s discussion instead revolves around the visual aspects of Tristram Shandy Defending Sterne against attacks on his originality he uses v isual description in his contention (mentioned previously by Seward) that the crude outl in e of the character of U ncle Toby s brother is clearly borrowed from that of the elder Scriblerus but it i s filled up with a dramatic skill to which the original has no pretension (53) More importantly perhaps Elwin uses visual language as a means to describe why the portrayal of Uncle Toby deserves special praise : The strokes with which the portraits [of Toby] are drawn are altogether so deep and yet so delicate so truthful and yet so novel so simple in outline and yet so v aried in the details so comical and yet so charming that it may be questioned if out of Shakespeare there is a single character in English fiction depicted with greater o r even equal power (56)

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77 Using the visual metaphor to a more complex end, Elwin offers insight into the effect of Tristram Shandy on the reader : the text is "full of interior meanings which escape the mind on a rapid perusal and the interest is sustained and the pleasure increased by the numerous beauties which keep rising into view the longer we linger over the work. It is a kindred merit that he shines in painting by single strokes" (69) The carefully extended metaphor of painting becomes not only a means to describe Sterne's technique of writing but suggests a way to appreciate the text ; both a painting and Tristram Shandy respond to a similarly patient eye" which is appreciative of detail. Although Walter Bagehot claims only a few years after Elwin that Tristram Shandy is "a book without plan or order" and is "in every generation unfit for analysis 21 he too succumbs to the temptation of praising Sterne's visuality ; Sterne has, proclaims Bagehot, "fine sensibility" and an "exquisite power of entering into and of delineating plain human nature" (303) Bagehot asserts that "there is no better painting of first and easy impressions than [in A Sentimental Journey]" (297), and that, specifically, the scene of Le Fever in Tristram Shandy is "the portrait-painting of the heart. It is as pure a reflection of mere natural feeling as literature has ever given, or will ever give The delineation is nearly perfect" (288-89) Bagehot echoes previous critics in his observation that the visual elements in Sterne's work function as a conduit to feeling, and in the process reveals his own profound response to Le Fever's "nearly perfect" portrayal. To Bagehot, Sterne's talent at visual depiction can make sentiment transcend its possibly unsavory physicality: he notes that "the feeling which would probably be coarse in the reality is refined in the picture" (289) But in contrast to his approval of several

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78 examples of Sterne s visuality Bagehot' s overall enthusiasm is clearly limited ; here the great e x cellence of Sterne ends as well as begins . .. It is an imperative law of the writing art," he insists with an eye toward form "that a book should go straight on (289) The extensive biography of Sterne by H. D Traill in 1882 catalogues many instances of visual writing at times describing their pictorial aspects in great detail a reflection of Traill s belief in the author s insight into character and his graphic power ." 22 An unusual comment regarding visuality in the Memoirs notes that the depiction of Roger Sterne is touched in with strokes so vivid and characteristic that critics have been tempted to find in it the original of the most famous portrait in the Shandy gallery "; it is a captivating little picture (8) Traill also identifies the persona generated by a Sterne letter as a self painted portrait ( 51) Following the lead of other Victorian critics, Traill focuses on Sterne s portrayal of the residents of the Shandy parlor as particularly evocative of the visual. He notes that the two most elaborate portraits" in the first volume of Tristram Shandy are the admirable but very flatteringly idealized sketch of the author himself in Yorick, and the Gilrayesque caricature of Dr. Slop (36) which he later identifies as a burlesque portrait of the real life Dr Burton (41) Traill's reference to the well-known political cartoonist James Gillray (1757-1815) draws an interesting and previously unexplored parallel between Sterne s images and those of eighteenth-century political cartoonists Traill s more detailed observation that before we reach the end of the first volume the highly humorous if extravagantly idealized figure of Mr. Shandy takes bodily shape and consistency before our eyes ( 44) is a recognition of Sterne s compelling verbal depiction of character that is similar to the visual imperative noted in Chapter 1 in reference to the

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79 sermons. Traill also pauses to examine Sterne s depiction of Toby which is one of the most perfect and delightful portraits in the gallery of English fiction (37) And to express the impact of this example of Sterne's characterization Traill again clearly evokes the visual arts : an artist may put a hundred striking figures upon his canvas for one that will linger in the memory of those who have gazed upon it ; and it is after all I think the one figure of Captain Tobias Shandy which has graven itself indelibly on the memory of mankind (168) Here and elsewhere the frequency of, and similarity between the various discussions about Sterne's use of the visual suggests the possibility that Traill and others are thoughtlessly evoking stale tropes of appreciation and nothing more The nature of the tropes chosen and their very consistent return to visuality seems to ind i cate as much about the nature of criticism as it does about Sterne s texts At the same time however the very sameness of the remarks begins to define something unique about Sterne-not only his visuality, but how he uniquely creates pictures in the reader s imagination. Traill calls the seventh volume of Tristram Shandy a series of travel-pictures (80) asserting that the sketches of travel" in this volume though destined to be surpassed in vigour and freedom of draftsmanship by the Sentimental Journey. are yet excellent ( 89) He singles out the story of the Abbess and her novice in particular as an e x ercise in v i sual writing noting that although the scene has a tendency toward bawdiness it is quite perversely skilful as a mere piece of story-telling and even as a study in landscape and figure painting (90) ; that is a passage that is particularly evocative of the visual arts In his analysis of this passage Traill implies the redemptive role of visual elements in justifying what he sees as questionable elements in Sterne s work, as the details of the

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80 passage bring the whole scene before the eye so vividly" that it could simply have been a piece of his characteristic persiflage (90). Perhaps because the work was frequently viewed with suspicion in Victorian society Traill seems generally less interested in exploring the function of its visual rhetoric in A Sentimental Journey. The people described in A Sentimental Journey. he notes "make up a surprising collection of distinct and graphic characters" that are touched with wonderful art ; the monk in particular is one of the most artistic figures on literary canvas ," a reminder of Sterne s references to painting in his description Traill also reflects on Sterne s technique of verbal "sketching," noting, with what had become a commonplace that the minor characters are "touched in with only a couple of strokes" (119). As with Tristram Shandy. Traill does not merely catalogue observations of Sterne s visuality but makes special efforts to evaluate the visual quality of scenes ; regarding the starling episode for example he suggests that "the details of the picture are too much insisted on and there is too much of self-consciousness in the artist (165) Though he finds its execution occasionally flawed Traill acknowledges the importance of Sterne s "draughtsmanship ," which "whether as exhibited in the rough sketch or in the finished portrait is unquestionably most vigorous" (168) Like Bagehot, Traill also identifies Sterne's examples of verbal painting with his best writing, noting that "when Sterne the artist is uppermost when he is surveying his characters with that penetrating eye of his and above all when he is allowing his subtle and tender humour to play upon them unrestrained, he can touch the springs of compassionate emotion in us with a potent and unerring hand" (166). Here the hand of the writer is nearly synonymous with that of the visual artist blurring the defining line between the two much as Sterne does in his writing

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More important perhaps is Traill s observation (similar to Elwin s) that it is specifically the visual elemen t s of Sterne s writing which act upon the reader s sympathy 81 Three critics of this period-Leslie Stephen Thomas Seccombe and Charles Whibley-comment on Sterne s visuality only briefly and in general terms but each has something important to observe Referring to Sterne s ability to paint with words Stephen notes that one can hardly read the familiar passages without admitting that Sterne was perhaps the greatest artist in the language. 23 Seccombe echoes this sent i ment by making a direc t comparison between Sterne's outstanding depiction of characters and a few of the canvases of Jan Steen ," which have something of the same power to arrest one by their striking animation and fidelity to the life 24 Whibley calling Sterne a master of the picturesque ," also uses terminology borrowed from the visual arts to emphasize Sterne s fidelity to nature : Even when he coloured his observation with carica t ure he still drew from life 25 Although these varied comparisons might be the result of the ind i vidual responses to Sterne s visual rhetoric they also attest to Sterne s creative comple xi ty which can be seen as suggesting (as well as defying) different visual conventions Without asserting that any one of the three qualifies as a subtle critic in modem e y es ( and we will seem equally nai"ve perhaps a century from now) it is interesting to note how Jan Steen s Dutch realism and the contemporary picturesque serve as attempts to find a visual analogue to a mode of visual description that eludes straightforward analysis While implying that the range of interpretations of Sterne s visuality is the result of the different responses it creates in different readers minds (which may be seen represented in many of the illustrations I will allude to in the course of this study) this observation also suggests Sterne s playful interest in defying creative conventions ; for instance i n his

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82 descriptions of Trim reading the sermon (discussed at length in Chapter 1) Sterne shows an awareness of working within the tradition of literary pictorialism while simultaneously satirizing that very tradition The most detailed observations from these three critics-all writing between 1890 and 1910-involve the rendering of the residents of Shandy Hall, and their vis i tor Dr Slop Stephen s comments about the visual description of Walter, Toby and Dr Slop in the parlor is worth e x amining at length : The imaginative humourist sets before us a delicious picture of two or three concrete human beings and is then able at one stroke to deliver a blow more telling than the keenest flashes of the dry light of the logical understanding The more one looks into the scene and tries to analyse the numerous elements of dramatic effect to which his total impression is owing, the more one admires the astonishing skill which has put so much significance into a few simple words The colouring is so brilliant and the touch so firm that one is afraid to put any other work beside it. Nobody before or since has had so clear an insight into the meaning which can be got out of a simple scene by a judicious selection and skilful arrangement of the appropriate surroundings 2 6 In his detailed observation of Sterne s delicious picture ," Stephen not only describes the writing in visual terms but also evaluates Sterne s text as a kind of picture in order to describe the text s particular effectiveness That is Stephen does not seem as interested in the de facto existence of Sterne s visuality as in the result it produces in the reader Stephen links the text s effectiveness in this regard to Sterne s minimalistic technique of the visual which i s able to deliver a blow more telling than the keenest flashes of the dry light oflogical understanding "; in other words Sterne s method provokes an emotional reaction from the reader using brief but precise details that depict a credible reality in the crucible of the reader s mind This ability of Sterne to put "much significance into a few simple words is conceived as a visual process by Stephen perhaps because of Sterne s content or perhaps because the visual analogue offers the best (though still imperfect )

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83 means of describ i ng the process by which Sterne s writing affects us the reade r s This is further suggested by Stephen s statement praising Sterne s judicious selection and skilful arrangement of the appropriate surroundings "; again visual parallels provide a means to describe Sterne s technique of careful composition but of course Sterne is no t painting a picture Stephen s commentary lays bare the critical tendency to frame Sterne s text i n visual terms an imperfect but somewhat functional means of expressing its effectiveness in moving the reader s imagination. The importance of the visual aspect of Sterne s writing occurs to Seccombe in hindsight as he e x amines certain perceived deficiencies of A Sentimental Journey where one misses irremediably the Shandean group of portraits It is it seems to us in the marvellous distinctness with which these creations detach themselves from his too bespattered and often confused canvas that Sterne s grandeur really lies 2 7 Using pictorial language Seccombe suggests that the contrast provided by the less acceptable elements (those bespattered and confused parts) enhances the more pos i tive visual aspects of Sterne s writing While praising Sterne s admirable ability to create distinct portraits Seccombe s mention of his negative traits hints at George Saintsbury s summary of the pattern the discussion of Sterne took during this period : it has become a commonplace and almost a necessity to make up for praising Sterne s genius by damning his character ." 2 8 In fact Seccombe uses the contrast created by these positive attributes of Sterne s writing to blacken even further what he sees as its questionable aspects : Amid affectation tediousness leering and obscenity we come to passages relating to these remarkable figures which stand out like chefs-d oeuvre in a large gallery of uninspired replicas and other fifth-rate compositions 29 Although he lauds the effectiveness of the

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" Shandean group of portraits ," it is difficult to say whether in the end Seccombe advances our understanding of Sterne s visuality at all or merely wields it as a tool t o discredit the elements he did not like in Sterne s writing 3 0 84 The prominent portraits of the Shandy brothers represent a standard of comparison for Charles Whibley who asserts : Dr. Slop the man-midwife, the honest, sensitive Corporal the alluring Widow Wadman even Susanna [sic] and Bridget-are they not all drawn with as sure a hand as the Shandy brothers if with less distinction than that noble pair ?" 3 1 At least for Whibley the rendering of the Shandy brothers provides a standard for discussion of the verbal "painting of character again not in positive terms but as a result of his criticism of what he sees as less laudable characters in the work ; one wonders i f he would praise the noble pair in relation to say the paragons of virtue Clarissa or Pamela in quite the same way Although there are differences in their observations the focus by these three critics on the family gatherings of Tristram Shandy might reflect a general disinterest in other parts of the work (which might have been seen as verging on more risque content) as well as in Sentimental Journey Stephen s use of a visual metaphor to make this moral concern clear seems to reinforce a general critical approach that makes the pictorial central in the discernment of moral value: When we think of Sterne as a man and try to frame a coherent picture o f his character we must give a due weight to the baser elements of his composition 32 Some critics in this period however show an increasing willingness to investigate Sterne and his writings without condemning either for moral transgression Writing in his study of the English novel Sterne s first great champion Wilbur L. Cross notes that

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Sterne enlarged for the novelist the sphere of character-building b y bringing over into fiction the pose and the attitude of the sculptor and the painter. 33 Although he did not expand on this idea in his introduction to his ground-breaking 1904 edition of Sterne s Works he would treat it at length later in his Life of Sterne ; overall Cross s careful examination provides a vital model for future investigation of Sterne s life and work. 85 In his Sterne : A Study Walter Sichel tries to distinguish between Sterne the man and Sterne the author an attempt perhaps best demonstrated by his isolation of textual discussion in a separate chapter entitled Sterne's Authorship" ; Sichel may have been the first critic of Sterne s work clearly to separate the two entities in such a fashion His evaluation of Sterne s style shows a careful analysis of his text and he points to several instances of what he calls word-painting and "word-colour. 34 He draws an intrigu i ng parallel between the verbal and the visual for example when he notes Sterne s visual effectiveness as a kind of miniaturist of portraits his power of reducing large outlines with effect and his predilection for small pieces -which were imaged by the duodecimos which held them (207) In other words Sterne s miniature manner of description is mirrored by the compact size of the volumes used for the early editions of his work ; this will be an insight worth pursuing in terms of the busy canvases of many of Sterne s illustrators precisely because they had to include so many details from the text in a relatively small space-in the case of the earliest book illustrations roughly three b y five inches in size Painterly comparisons predominate in Sichel s discussion such as his observation that Sentimental Journey "deals with the small amenities oflife and paints them i n pastel ( 187) To Sichel Sterne is an impressionist who uses the method or rather the sp i rit

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86 of suggestion as opposed to the method or rather the substance of description Its appeal is associat i ve (173) The element of association of course is linked to Sterne in other ways but Sichel's assertion of Sterne s use of visual suggestion may hint at a reason for his success in pictorial description Sichel seems so enthusiastic over Sterne s visuality in fact that he wrestles the English language to express his observations : for example referring to Sterne s depiction of character Sichel comments that he "picturesques attitude with unique grace and concentration (186) Tristram s description (also praised by Thackeray) in Volume VII of Tristram Shandy. of the nymphs and swains he meets on his journey from Nismes and Lunelle is of particular interest to Sichel ; he notes that the scene glows like a pastoral by Gainsborough and perhaps best illustrates Sterne s artistry in word-painting (178) In another instance Sichel refers to the meeting between Maria and Tristram and asks Could any i mpression be more delicately rendered? (181) He continues : What a subject for a painter Yet what artist could match the author? (182) Certainly Sichel would have known of the many visual renditions of Maria and Tristram both as prints and book illustrations (although they we r e outnumbered by depictions of Yorick and Maria or Maria alone ), so the question is not a rhetorical device but rather an assertion of the superiority of the visual aspect of Sterne s written text to any and all actual physical depictions past present or future. There is perhaps even greater praise available than asserting the strength of Sterne's text over painting or drawing. To make this further point Sichel cites a passage fro m Tristram Shandy : to behold upon the banks advancing and retiring the castles of romance whence courteous knights have whilome rescued the distress dand see

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87 vertinginous the rocks the mountains the cataracts and all the hurry which Nature is in with all her great works about her--" 3 5 The last sentence ," Sichel asserts gives more than tints : it pictures thought (184) Here the critic sees this verbal expression as a direct projection of impressions and ideas and suggests that visual rhetoric can act as a nearly transparent means of conveyance a Momus's glass into the mind After providing many such varied observations of Sterne s use of visual language Sichel declares : As an artist he endures. As an artist he is palpable and living (289) Not only does Sichel divorce biographical information that had previously obscured some criticism of Sterne from his work but he also recognizes that Sterne s work has lasting aesthetic value--secured in the language of the visual Critics throughout the twentieth century follow Cross and Sichel in their general willingness to move away from the biographically tainted discussion of Sterne to a more rigorous analysis of his texts with notable exceptions like F R. Lea vis The first part of the twentieth century also marks the continuation of Sichel' s expansion of critical discussion of Sterne s visuality into areas of specific critical application as well as the onset of analyses of particular visual renditions of Sterne s work ; although crit i cal approaches changed the observation of Sterne s visuality persisted In 1921 the Russian formalist Victor Shklovsky for instance who declares that Tristram Shandy is the most typ i cal novel in world literature because of the similarity between its content and its form suggests a visual parallel to the book's structure noting that the disorder is intentional .... it is strictly regulated like a picture by Picasso 36 It is useful to consider here how critical parallels drawn between Sterne s work and visual analogues, such as the example Shklovsky provides perhaps exemplify a long

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history of the inadequacy of the comparison implied by the idea of ut pictura poesis Sterne seems always to be compared to the best artists of the time of the commentator rather than to one particularly appropriate tradition ; since he obviously cannot actually reflect every mode of visual style the comparison seems emptied of content. 88 In his two discussions in the late 1920s J. B. Priestley s observation that Sterne approached life with a large reading-glass up to his eye is an appropriate metaphor for his own recognition of the visual value of the details in Sterne s writing The reading glass also serves Priestley as an apt vehicle for differentiating the style of Sterne from Richardson who is simply taking care not to omit the smallest details in his large scheme "; Sterne on the other hand goes to work and in an entirely different spirit simply on the details enlarging and colouring them 3 7 This paralleling of pictorial methods also suggests that Sterne s humor and exuberance ( enlarging and colouring ) contrasts in an almost visual sense with the more austere style of Richardson Priestley s emphasis on Sterne s details here echoes Stephen s observation although Priestley hints at the comic and indiscreet potential of Sterne s enlarging elements of his picture Sterne himself justifies the inclusion of hyperbolic detail in his fiction as part of its satiric effect. In a letter Sterne r esponded to criticism that he overindulged in detail when describing Slop's fall : that very thing should constitute the humour which consists in treating the most insignificant Things with such Ornamenta ambitiosa as would make one sick in another place 38 However Sterne seems to be very selective in his exaggerated use of minutiae usually offering strokes of a picture rather than furnishing an entire scene with exact description thus in some ways very unlike a Dutch painter

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89 Like many critics before him, Priestley sees the depiction of character as the most successful specific application of Sterne's visuality, and goes on to discuss its effectiveness in detail. He comments that Sterne makes "people distinct to us, sharply outlined against the higgedly-piggedly background" and that he "has no master in this method of creating character" (xi) Priestley's recognition that Toby is a particularly successful visual evocation, also the subject of previous critical discussion, is reflected in his repeated references to the compelling qualities of Sterne's verbal depictions of him : Toby appeals to the eye; we can see him, parading for the Wadman campaign . he cuts a fine figure in the imagination, limping past to the widow's or conducting one of his dream-sieges from the sentry-box or puffing at his pipe, his red beaming foolish face all aglow, at his brother's fireside Such little pictures do not easily fade out of the memory 39 We can see Toby in his hat with the tarnished gold-lace, his blue and gold coat that was rather too small for him, and his red plush breeches; and the picture is completed by his pipe and sentry-box and fortified bowling-green Mr. Shandy does not offer the imagination so many clear outlines and so much colour (Introduction xi-xii) Toby is as solid and unmistakable as a hill At any moment, we can see him in his faded regimentals, with his lame leg and crutch, very complacently smoking his pipe by the fire ("Brothers" 144) Priestley's consistent quotation of visual descriptions of Toby, while perhaps revealing his own preferences in the text, also echoes critical recognition of Sterne's tendency to use visual touches to create descriptions of particular characters and scenes addressed to the sentimental, an approach that is readily apparent in his drawing of Toby's character There is a hint, too, of the forcefulness of Sterne's renderings-the idea of the visual imperative again-as they imprint themselves on the imagination: Priestley notes that they "do not easily fade out of the memory

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90 Except for some sketchy previous discussion about Hogarth's illustrations for Tristram Shandy. Priestley seems to be the first critic actively to engage in weighing the relationship of the book's illustrations (in Priestley's edition drawn by John Austen) to the text : he observes that with his drawings the artist is catching another aspect of the Shandys and Priestley recognizes their significance : "These drawings of his, since they are more than idle pieces of decoration tell us a great deal. Priestley sees Austen s artwork as the product of a specific cultural mode : Fifty years ago he [Austen] would have done very different drawings would not have chosen these particular moments for illustration (Introduction v). This suggestion that illustrations can be seen as signaling changing interpretations of the text anticipates more detailed discussion along these lines in the future including of course this study. The great turning point of Sterne studies along with the 1904 edition of Works was Cross s scholarly biography first published in 1909 and revised in two subsequent editions of 1925 and 1929 ; without doubt this work on Sterne s life and canon along with Curtis s Letters in 1935 made possible all that has followed in Sterne studies in the twentieth century Hence it is important to note that Cross goes to great lengths to establish Sterne s pervasive and continuing interest in the visual arts throughout his life including the documentation of own efforts at painting and drawing Cross examines several artworks attributed to Sterne : a supposed caricature of his wife ; The Montebank and his Macaroni (probably co-painted with Thomas Bridges) ; and a jolly tail-piece of two cocks fighting (which was possibly used in the original publication of A Political Romance) In addition Cross also notes Sterne s acquaintance with the painters Christopher Steele and George Romney (the latter painted four scenes from Tr i stram

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Shandy. now lost), the copy of A Sentimental Journey that Sterne was rumored to have illustrated for his friends, and the possibility (now disproved) that engravings of classical subjects signed "L. Stem [sic] del Romae" were his work. 40 Cross's commentary on the textual evidence of Sterne's experience in the visual arts 91 is simple and lucid : "That Sterne was a painter before he wrote Tristram Shandy, must have been surmised by every reader of the book; for he therein employs so easily the technical terms of the art for running up parallels on the mechanics of literary expression, or for describing the poise and movement of his characters" (1:105). Although Clonmell and Mangin were perceptive analysts of Sterne's visuality, the simplicity of the connection Cross observes belies the 150 years it took for it to be made; finally, Sterne criticism was able to abandon some of the malicious myths surrounding his life (thanks in no small part to Cross himself) and begin to explore the ways in which that life emerged in his writings Although Cross thus opens the door to the broad recognition of the visual in Sterne's fictions, the actual application of this idea in his biography of the author is limited In fact it is the visual aspect of Sterne's sermons that have the most particular attraction for Cross; he notes that Sterne's sermons are "a whole series of portraits drawn with a few strokes from his own experience and observation Sometimes a sermon consists of a single character-sketch rendered in full detail; it may be Job or Herod" (1 : 227) These "portraits" form a critical element in Cross's idea of the sermons themselves, which he sees as being made up of "graphic and pathetic pictures, flowing on in a well-ordered series" (2:62) The effectiveness of Sterne's creation of visualized tableaus in his sermons invites comparison with another "projected" art: the stage drama The careful arrangement of verbal pictures in Sterne's sermons simulates the composition within a

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stage proscenium in a manner which differs markedly from his verbal pictorialism fo r comic effect. Overall although Cross did not apply this insight into Sterne s visuality to his other works he does point us toward the potential development of the subject. 92 Commenting about Sterne's style in his 1929 study of the novel E A. Baker expands on Cross's observations, weaving the discussion of the text into a psychological profile of the author Arguing that visual sensations were to him [Sterne] the keenest ," Baker analogizes Sterne s philosophy with the visual arts stating that sensation and emotion constitute his mental life ; they are also the box of colours with which he paints To Baker this observation that Sterne paints with "sensation and emotion is not an isolated point of analysis but rather an opening into his extended discussion of Sterne s verbal pictorialism He notes, for example, that Sterne had a "contagious delight in pictorial effects more vivid than any narrative ," 41 and provides specific examples of especially visual descriptions from A Sentimental Journey to support his assertion ; the "vignettes he cites-which include those depicting the monk the grisette her husband and the fille de chambre-have perhaps not coincidentally, frequently been the subjects of book illustrations as well While critics of the previous century such as Thackeray felt the need to shield themselves from Sterne s personality in order to enjoy his verbal pictorialism Baker finds a close connection between the author and his work Noting that scores of similar pictures leap to the eye in Sterne s work (264) Baker carefully examines the technique behind Sterne s success with visual elements Especially significant to Baker is the manner in which Sterne paints with words se i zing "impressions at their very birth in all their freshness and vividness (266) This observation reminiscent of Tristram s interest in "seizing every handle of what size or

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93 shape soever which chance held out to me 42 in his continental travels emphasizes the seeming spontaneity of Sterne s verbal pictorialism Baker defines this type ofvisuality as impressionism that parallels the style in painting : "The writer simply sets down the impressions received by an onlooker the reactions of his consciousness to outward things" (264) The dance with Nannette and the tale of Le Fever Baker continues are outstanding examples of this type of rendering "two gems of impressionist art (265) Baker asserts that the visual element is only part of this technique however: instead of a reasoned and coherent picture of the world as if contemplated by the eye of omniscience Sterne gives the impressions of sight, sound contact, atmosphere as they strike upon the mind (265-66) In declaring Sterne an impressionist Baker echoes Sichel but in both cases the use of the term raises questions about the applicability of any visual analogue ; can Sterne be both a Dutch-style realist meticulously detailing domestic scenes and an early-twentieth-century impressionist recording a highly personalized perspective at the same time? Again the impossibility of defining a consistent visual parallel to Sterne s style reminds us that he is not drawing a picture after all but writing descriptions of imagined pictures The legend on Rene Magritte s La Trahison des images (The Treachery oflmages) Ceci n'est pas une pipe ("This is not a pipe ) can be seen as illustrating a fallacy similar to the one committed by the critics Magritte pokes fun at the tendency to mistake an image for the object it represents while literary discussion of Sterne s work, time and time again treats verbal descriptions as if they were visual ones In the Introduction to the 1929 edition she edited Leslie Stephen s daughter Virginia Woolf, defines A Sentimental Journey as a succession of portraits rather than a linear plot-driven work ; in the depiction of these portraits she points out Sterne was able to

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94 "cultivate a kind of shorthand which renders the several turns of looks and limbs into plain words 4 3 This observation, of course paraphrases Yorick s declaration of his skill at physiognomy in Sentimental Journey that he is "master of this short hand and .. quick in rendering the several turns of look and limbs with all their inflections and delineations into plain words 44 As I have remarked in Chapter 1 the verbal translation ( as Yorick calls it 45 ) of physical movement into verbal expression is central to Sterne s visuality Woolf however sees Sterne's skill at physiognomy as having an inverse effect ; thus she asserts in a 1932 essay he transfers our interest from the outer to the inner 4 6 instead of the other way around In other words Sterne s visual depiction of character acts as an agent which transfers the reader's interest from physical appearance to internal qualities of personality Significantly several critics have used distinctly modem analogies in their attempts to describe Sterne's use of the visual. The novelist Elizabeth Bowen for instance states that Tristram Shandy is (perhaps paradoxically) "dementedly natural in its course surreal i st in its association of images 47 Albert Baugh on the other hand compares the wo r k to "comic-strip drawings ," and compl i ments Sterne s talent at portraying small scenes snapshots one might call them 48 In his discussion of the passage describing Trim dropping his hat in the kitchen Arnold Kettle finds a tentative parallel between Sterne s visuality and the theater: "This is not merely brilliant comic drama very much of a scene with the simultaneous actions and reactions of several characters contrasted grouped individualised and at the same time brought together interpenetrating ; it does things which the stage cannot ever do ." 4 9 The parallels with dreams comic strips photographs and the stage all do indeed capture aspects of Sterne s visual descriptions but as Kettle

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95 suggests, these analogues can only describe part of their impact. Moreover, the shifting nature of the parallels to whatever is the latest art form suggests a flaw in the analogy itself (or perhaps only a flaw in literary criticism) : we see a literary work through the operative metaphors that provide basic guidelines to an age's aesthetic understanding but which by their very nature, cloud the work as much as they elucidate it In his 1949 Introduction for Tristram Shandy. John Cowper Powys-who wrote introductions to lavishly illustrated editions of both Tristram Shandy and Sent i mental Journey-hints at Sterne s use of the visual to compel his audience to participate in his text explaining that "to Maria's side the reader is ... led, as if he were a pensive background loiterer in some tender eighteenth-century Landscape with Figures ,,,so The image of Maria in Sentimental Journey plays a special role in Powys s analysis : At the moment I have three versions in different print before me as I contemplate this scene and one of these . has the picture of Maria on the arm of the Traveller while in his other hand he holds so I like to think the pocket handkerchief marked with an S for Shandy ." 51 Powys s act of supplementing his discussion of Sterne's text with visual depictions of it can be seen as a strategy to assign a concrete quality to Sterne s Protean visuality in order to facilitate discussion ; this approach directly anticipates my study by using illustrations as a means to broaden our understanding of Sterne's work. As we cross mid-century Sterne s visuality becomes a characteristic of generic identification for Ian Watt in The Rise of the Novel. He argues that "Sterne s narrative mode gives very careful attention to all the aspects of formal realism : to the particularisation of time, place and person ; to a natural and lifelike sequence of action ; and to the creation of a literary style that gives the most exact verbal and rhythmical equi v alent

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96 possible of the object described In contrast to assertions by Sichel and Baker of Sterne s impressionism Watt defines Sterne s tendency toward visual description as a manifestation of r ealism Watt s argument about the rise of the novel in empirical realism demands seeing Sterne as Jan Steen rather than Auguste Renoir ; although a picture is supposed to be worth a thousand words the fact remains that words often create what we think we see Thus even by Watt's reckoning this idea of realism is inherently flexible ; many of the scenes in Tristram Shandy. Watt states achieve a living authenticity that combines Defoe s brilliant economy of suggestion with Richardson s more minutely discriminated presentation of the momentary thoughts feelings and gestures of his characters ." 5 2 Watt s comparison of Sterne s visual techniques with t hose of Defoe and Richardson ultimately weaken his argument however inasmuch as the distinctive elements of visual realism become so variable an idea that it can be applied equally to writers with very different styles The multitude of visual designations attached to Sterne s visuality raises important questions about how his text creates a location for variable responses on the part of readers The idea that Sterne s texts contain a reflexive element which is determined by the readers themselves is suggested by Sterne on several occasions in Tristram Shandy For example Sterne claims that writing is but a different name for conversation .. no author who understands the just boundaries of decorum and good breeding would presume to think all : The truest respect which you can pay to the reader s understand i ng is to halve this matter amicably and leave him something to imagine in his tum as well as yourself 53 As a component of his text Sterne s visuality appears to have a similarly reflexive quality which serves to tell us as much about the commentator as the texts being

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97 discussed. Critics have seen Sterne variously as realist, mannerist, impressionist, surrealist, the creator of "comic-strip drawings," photographer, and dramatist; this shifting model indicates the multitude of visual perspectives Sterne's visuality creates, and the range of these perspectives suggests that each is anchored within an age, or culture, which helped to define the terms critics chose to describe Sterne's text Perhaps Wolfgang Iser' s phenomenological examination of reader response is useful in considering this multitude of visualities; after all, Iser comments on the reactive aspect of Tristram Shandy, calling it "something like an arena in which reader and author participate in a game of the imagination 54 Moving beyond this particular observation, Iser' s discussion finds expression, significantly, in visual terminology For instance, Iser suggests that with a literary text we can only picture things which are not there; the written part of the text gives us the knowledge, but it is the unwritten part that gives us the opportunity to picture things; indeed without the elements of indeterminacy, the gaps in the text, we should not be able to use our imagination (388) While he is not specifically addressing Sterne's text in this instance, Iser pinpoints issues which have been recurrent in this critical history. The variability of visual analogues to Sterne's work seems to be dependent not only on the society from which a critic writes, but also on the individual reader's process of filling the gaps that are characteristic of Sterne's text The reader visualizes the "three strokes" of Slop's figure as a being of flesh and blood, and in doing so, Iser asserts, the character, "pictured" in the imagination, becomes more alive than if he were described in close and precise detail. The consistent and frequently complex discussion of the visual elements in Sterne's work over the first two hundred years since their publication reinforces my observation,

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98 suggested by my documentation of visuality in Sterne s texts in the previous chapter that this constitutes a unique element in his work. While other eighteenth-century prose writers employ pictorial techniques none seems to be cited as frequently or at such length for this characteristic by their readers clearly the result of Sterne s diverse and effect i ve use of visual techniques in his prose This distinction may also be seen in the numerous illustrated editions of Sterne s works which may be seen as extensions of the v i sual texts that they represent ; while the many visual portrayals might suggest an artistic responsiveness to Sterne s visuality they also seem to be tied in with cultural factors as well a subject I will explore at length in future chapters Part 2 Your Criticks and Gentry of refined taste ": 55 Sterne and the Visual after 1964 Already the subject of varied approaches during the first two hundred years of critical discussion Sterne s visuality became the subject of increasingly diverse yet focused investigations after 1964 The studies of the visual elements of Sterne s work in this period emphasize visuality either as part of the content of his text or as a product of the graphic effects of the printed text In addition discussions of visual portrayals of Sterne s text-paintings prints and book illustrations-become a separate area of stud y, occasionally appearing in combination with textual examinations This expansion and specialization of critical discussion not only reinforces the potential for analys i s of the visual elements inherent in Sterne s text (both verbal and graphic) and the illustrations of those texts suggested in previous commentary on Sterne ; it also provides a substant i al basis for the second half of my study which explores the relationship between Sterne s text specific visual depictions of the text and the cultural reception of his wor k.

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99 The range and effectiveness of Sterne s visual rhetoric noted by numerous critics cited in the first part of this chapter as well as in Chapter 1 is vital to my study of illustrations of Sterne s work and develops into the subject of detailed and thoughtful commentary after 1964. A particularly thoughtful examination by R. F. Brissenden briefly e x plores the manifestation of language and concepts borrowed from the visual arts in A Sentimen t al Journey and Tristram Shandy. Brissenden notes Sterne s personal experience with painting and drawing commenting that "his technique as a novelist benefited from his experience as an amateur artist "; his analysis builds on textual evidence rather than spotty biographical information however, asserting that the possibility of drawing formal analogies between writing and painting ... obviously interested Sterne 5 6 Brissenden makes several observations of Sterne s visuality observing the frequency of his use of the technique : a reading of Sterne s published works-including the Sermons-would be enough to demonstrate that he was unusually well acquainted with both the theory and the practice of painting (93-94) Brissenden tersely catalogues the specific vocabulary used by Sterne noting that he often uses the language of the art i st speaking of strokes tints outlines attitudes lights keeping colouring and design with the fluency and assurance of one who knows exactly what such terms mean ." This approach he continues is most obvious perhaps, in his treatment of character "; but then almost paradoxically Brissenden states that Sterne does not in general give detailed physical descriptions of people but when he speaks of drawing a character he uses the phrase with deliberate precision (94) Brissenden's attempt to describe the elusive quality of Sterne s description of character seems to agree with S i chel's and Priestley s observa t ions of Sterne s impressionism ": a not strictly realistic yet highly evocative means of

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depicting physical appearance and personal characteristics, a verbal technique that one might see most strongly paralleled in caricature-like illustrations of Sterne s work. 100 Although Brissenden singles out specific aspects of Sterne s text for their visual effect-for instance, he observes that the scenes in A Sentimental Journey have the fresh and limpid quality of water-colour sketches : the details are few but beautifully placed and one remembers the clear ambiance in which each small tableau is bathed and the soft bright touches of colour (96)-he is less interested in cataloguing Sterne s rhetorical technique than finding the contexts for its de facto existence Brissenden closely identifies Sterne s style with that of William Hogarth noting the remarkable similarity (93) between the two especially in a shared emphasis on "intricacy and variety (106). As noted in Chapter 1 Brissenden identifies this as a shared interest in the rococo style which is characterized by shared traits of lightness elegance surprise and wit ( 107) 57 To Brissenden, the agreement between the styles of both artist and writer represents a standard for the successful illustration of texts that he implies is rarely achieved Aside from identifying a visual parallel to Sterne s style Brissenden also ascribes agency to Sterne s use of visual rhetoric, observing that though obviously making some attempt to achieve through the medium of language something analogous to what the artist attains through the use of paint, [Sterne] is mainly interested in satirizing and parodying some of the conventional aesthetic theories of the day (95) To this end Brissenden focuses on Sterne s discussion both conspicuous and subtle of aesthetic theorists in Tristram Shandy and suggests that the connoisseurs and theorists of painting are among the first targets of Sterne s satire (96) While Brissenden provides an intriguing analysis of Sterne s visuality his contention that i t serves to illuminate the

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philosophical bases of his satire (93) overlooks many instances of visuality and consequently neglects the many other ways that the technique funct i ons in the text 101 In his monograph Image and Immortality : A Study of Tristram Shandy. William V Holtz repeats Brissenden s pattern of selective citation of visual components in Sterne s text and the consequent association of Sterne s visual rhetoric with specific thematic functions. Initially echoing Watt s generic concern Holtz sees the visual elements of Sterne as an important part of the demand for realism that is the novel s defining characteristic as well as a means of asserting "the traditional acknowledgment of the primacy of visual e x perience and of the exemplary status of the painter s art in imitating reality More tenuously Holtz also sets out to probe Sterne's personal interest in the visual the character and temperament of the author himself, that complex of attitudes gifts and biases "; this establishment of a biographical foundation however is by Holtz' s early admission elusive ," 5 8 and primarily restricted to a recitation ofreferences from Sterne's letters cited elsewhere and Cross s biography proves to be a crit i cal dead end Although Holtz notes that to a vital and complex tradition of literary p i ctorialism and a newly fledged genre of fiction he [Sterne] brought an acute visual imagination (15253), specific discussion of Sterne s use of visual language is limited to a brief overview (93-97), supplemented by occasional references some of which usefully isolate unique aspects of Sterne s literary pictorialism Expanding on his reading of the dynamic between Sterne and Hogarth in the scene of Trim reading the sermon Holtz notes that a similar use of visual signs the dramatization of verbal problems" (70) are represented by Trim s act of dropping the hat or Toby s understanding his brother s emotional state by his pose as he lies prone after hearing of Tristram's accident. These passages Holtz asserts in

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102 contrasting the powers of verbal and visual depiction cast Sterne as a passionate participant in the ongoing debate that is frequently (if incorrectly) identified with the phrase ut pictura poesis. 59 Holtz investigates Sterne's role in the debate noting that "Lessing's interest was in the expressive functions oflanguage Locke s in the referential ; Sterne in a quizz i cal probing of the relationship between word and thing examines both (68) As Holtz usefully points out the passages in Tristram Shandy that emphasize the communicative powers of gesture and appearance also explore this ambiguity : To the extent that Locke found language inadequate for communication Lessing found it inadequate for art ; and Sterne discovered in the dark gap between sign and meaning rich possibilities for dramatic complications at once comic and deeply significant (68) Sterne's "dark gap however, has become infamous as a location for the projection of profound critical hypotheses while consistently eluding critical attempts at definition ; clearly too, illustrators were able to derive meaning from this dark gap ," albeit in remarkably different ways Holtz also reflects on Sterne s painterly technique of examining his characters as they are "frozen" in mid-action "The implications and effects of this device are complex ," he states the carefully posed static figures of Mr and Mrs Shandy can certainly be called verbal pictures ; the details of expressive signs we have seen interested Sterne greatly and the minute fidelity with which he recorded them resulted in many similar pictures which halt the narrative progress (110) Rather than subject these "pictures to individual analysis, however Holtz sees them as means to an end primarily as a way deliberately to disrupt the narrat i ve He notes that the pictorial metaphor in Tristram s analysis of storytelling, when he compares narration to a man planting cabbages [TS VIIl 1.655 1

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103 15], carries a double burden The elaborate rendering of posture gesture and expression seems obviously aimed at producing detailed visual effects ; but the metaphor remains valid in a broader sense as well for the polar opposite of narrative movement : the suspended actions the minute attention to detail, the nontemporal ordering of materials (97) Holtz stresses the painterly or pictorial aspect of Sterne's work primarily in regard to the descriptive technique in vignettes and then only briefly ; it can be argued that i n doing so he overlooks a considerable body of additional visual rhetoric that might have augmented his argument concerning the fundamental role of the visual in Sterne s understanding of his world Holtz asserts that Tristram Shandy is unique in its extreme reduction of dramatic action to tableau x"; these static posed vignettes (I 07) create a sense that the reader tends to experience Tristram Shandy as a series of tableaux spatially organized w i thin themselves but also demanding a final unified nontemporal apprehension which would approximate Tristram s simultaneous awareness of different aspects of the story he wants to tell (109) Holtz s emphasis on the tableau x is less a result of his inte r est in their pictorialism, however than a result of his analysis of a type of narrative technique that serves to halt the flow of storytelling He maintains that this type of realism more strongly represents the human experience ofreality as opposed to Watt s real i ty of a linear narrative ; Holtz s concept seems particularly suited to actual visual illustratio n, with its emphasis on position and appearance to convey meaning 6 0 Overall reflection on Sterne s perspective toward time becomes central to Holtz s consideration of the visual elements in Tristram Shandy Sterne s means of controll i ng time in his fiction through frozen pictorialized action Holtz contends reflects a

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104 strategy-manifested in Sterne's interest in his own portraits-to cope with his own frail mortality/ 1 Holtz notes that the "pictorial was for Sterne closely connected with his sense of identity and his awareness of approaching death" (151). Ironically the "immortality that Sterne covets and seeks through this technique (and through his act of writing) is indeed attained by the continuing interest in his work as well as through the many visual renditions that have been inspired by his verbal pictorialism Martin C Battestin suggests in his 1974 essay that all of the functions of the visual in Sterne s text reflect different types of denial He observes that during the scene of Trim in the kitchen after Bobby's death, Sterne freezes time holding an act or gesture indefinitely suspended while allowing the mind to run free We have the illusion that the threat of Time has been neutralized 6 2 Battestin sees the visual conventions that pervade Sterne s text as a result of a mistrust of words (noting Tristram s declaration I hate se t dissertations [TS ill.Preface 235 9]) or the result of a Lockean recognition of their inadequacy (similar to Holtz s point) when Sterne eschews words altogether' ( 266) Last, he notes the importance of body language "the gestures or postures of the body . which express the sentiments of the heart more vividly than speech can do (268). Although both Holtz and Battestin suggest coherent functions of Sterne s visuality they fail tend to reduce Sterne's use of visual technique to their own biographical or critical concern ; indeed the more one examines the recent studies of Sterne s pictorial ism the more likely it seems that the least thesis-ridden commentary on the subject will be found in the actual visual renditions of his work. In the first part of his extensive biography Arthur H. Cash approaches Sterne s visual tendencies from another perspective reinforcing the emphasis placed by Sterne s previous

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105 biographer, Wilbur L. Cross on his personal experience with the visual arts as a possible basis for his pictorial writing Conceding that Sterne "may not have been an accomplished painter Cash observes that "he was sensitive to spatial and chromatic arrangements and had a highly developed visual imagination His habit of apprehending experience in visual terms was deeply ingrained 6 3 Prudently avoiding the difficult-to-prove assertion that Sterne s tendency toward the pictorial had a basis in his actual experience as a visual artist Cash proceeds to identify specific elements of his visuality : his sense of space ( discussion of which will develop into a separate thread of critical discourse as we shall see) his sense of color and his ability to create a picture in the reader s imagination Cash s analysis also recognizes Sterne's complex process of perception and integration in creating the pictorial aspects of his work : Sterne often interposed his visual apprehension before the verbal translating his primarily imagined situations and characters into secondarily imagined paintings precisely drafted and detailed or into imagined sketches often comic always charged with symbolic meaning These in tum he communicated by means of words (212-13) By stressing the evident bias toward the visual in Sterne s creative imagination Cash suggests a credible and concise psychological process by which Sterne makes words into images and then images into words which, in tum generate new images in the reader s mind This process might be tentatively extended to encompass the generation of images in the mind of the illustrator that are eventually rendered on paper Henri Fluchere makes several salient observations about Sterne s visuality particularly in regard to its use in depiction of character ; like Cash his observations tend to be w i de ranging and inclusive perhaps because he does not limit himself-like Brissenden and

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106 Holtz-by attempting to prove that the technique serves a single function Commenting on the long history of sometimes harsh criticism of Sterne s work Fluchere insists that no one ever seriously contested the claim that Sterne is a great painter of characters a painter of genius 64 Fluchere particularly emphasizes Sterne's ability to animate his cast of characters who come alive . appearing like real people in the eyes of the imagination friendly, persuasive men and women we should like to be on familiar terms with forgetting that they are not creatures of flesh and blood but pure creations of the mind (272) Like Priestley Fluchere isolates Sterne s portrayal of Uncle Toby as being particularly effective so much so that the reader s sense of his vibrant character lives beyond the pages of the book : "The character grows in a way detached from its context: uncle Toby leaves behind the book and his history to become the friend and companion of the critic who has thus objectivized him walking at his side marvellously near and touching and ready to conform to the picture the critic has created for himself (273) Fluchere cites several instances of detailed pictorial description in Sterne although the parallels he finds w i th the visual arts are best expressed (perhaps not surprisingly) in his discussion of the scene of Trim reading the sermon: he observes that Sterne adjusts Trim s legs knees and feet to the required angles as if he were arranging a silhouette on canvas .. . Trim s attitude is observed and reproduced with all this careful precision because it perfectly expresses that inner emotion of the orator (278) Sterne's ability to bring his characters to life Fluchere suggests is a result of his ability to convey character through appearance ; an important aspect of this is the visual description of gestures which write a character s story for not only do they foreshadow accompany and underline his emotion or thought but they may also modify the exterior

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107 world" (280). The intense attention that Sterne gives to detailing gestures does indeed magnify their significance although Fluchere ( or his translator) becomes cryptic in regard to the effect of gesture on the exterior world ; perhaps he is suggesting that the emphasis placed on minutiae displaces the predictable components of reality Ultimately Fluchere attributes the effectiveness of Sterne s technique to his recognition of the preeminence of the visual ; he states that the eye observes records understands, expresses and speaks all at once It is alive to the plastic value of a description to the composition of a picture and to the significance of a single gesture or movement (277) Both Fluchere and Cash recognize the importance of Sterne s use of the visual in his characterizations a conclusion they seem to reach haphazardly without trying to prove a specific thesis In doing so, they pinpoint a factor in the successful illustration of Sterne s texts as well : the vividness of the portrayal both comic and sentimental in text and in pictures to a large degree determines the effectiveness of the characterization Sterne s visuality manifests itself through nonverbal means as well. The idea that Sterne s text conveys meaning through its very appearance on the page not only through the various overt devices and "tricks ," but in more subtle ways ranging from the use of dashes or the spacing on the pages is argued by Christopher Fanning who asserts that there is a connection between the physical spaces we are asked to visualize as part o f the Shandys world and the book as a visual object in our hands ; he suggests that both contribute to certain unifying themes in the text. For example, he observes that the spatial separation of the men conversing in the parlour from Mrs Shandy and the midwife who are labouring over Tristram s birth in the bedroom above correlates w i th the separate spheres of male and female activity that are themselves figures for satiric distinctions

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108 between theory and practice (430) ; 6 5 he finds this separation echoed in Sterne s use of line spacing and typography in the beds of justice passage (TS Vl 18 526-29) where the excessive white space on each page conveys the idea of the distance between Walter and Elizabeth. In this way one might suggest that Sterne's printed text already contains within itself not merely the seeds of the visual tradition I will be examining but its first examples. While one can press such an idea too far (and Fanning sometimes is cleve r rather than precise) this approach suggests a subtle dimension of visuality that subconsciously c r eates a sense of shared textual and spatial structure Examining Sterne s text from another perspective Elizabeth Wanning Harries isolates the popular eighteenth-century motif of the fragment as a recurrent and significant form in Sterne's text Drawing together visual and textual examples of the fragment from historical sources Harries notes that planned fragments could be a way to acknowledge the partial, biased nature of our experience and at the same time suggest a wider context for that experience a matrix that could hold it together ." 66 Harries draws together different representations of the fragment in Sterne s work from his conspicuously broken textual structures to what might be seen as a general theme of non-completion and disconnection adding that Sterne emphasizes the desultory disjointed character of his novels by including sections he labels as fragments ( 41 ) Citing visual e x amples of the fragment prevalent in the late-eighteenth century Harries compares Sterne s theme of textual fragmentation to the fashionable artificial ruins that were constructed in many eighteenth-century gardens that emphasize the interplay of chance and design (43) Harries observes that Sterne s fragmented text like the crumbling walls of the ruins call our attention to their deliberate incompleteness (43) and

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109 associates this structural tendency with the central meaning of the non finito the way that an aesthetic of the unfinished leads to an aesthetic (and ultimately an ethic) o f participation (45) This sense of"participation" seems aligned with Sterne s overt addresses to his readers which include invitations to engage with his work such as the inclusion of the blank page In addition Harries states the fragmentary suggests the pathos of the unfinished ," and like other graphic representations in and of the t ext implies the inadequacy of words" (47)-a recurrent idea in the studies of Sterne s visuality. 6 7 It may be agreed that Sterne s sense of the book as physical object is stronger than in other contemporary authors and hence the illustrative tradition that accompanies his text is in part at least a response to Sterne s view that how a book appears to the reader is already at least a partial illumination of its meaning Often the subject of passing remarks in previous criticism the role of Sterne s innovative pictorial and typographic effects in Tristram Shandy become the subjects of closer investigation in the late-twentieth century Recalling that Sterne called the marbled page the motly emblem ofmy work (TS 111.36 268 7) Peter de Voogd asserts that it acts as an analogue not a direct correspondence to Sterne s art. 6 8 De Voogd is particularly interested in a contemporaneous aesthetic theory that endorses the use of accidents as opposed to trusting to 'a regular plan"' (280) Most intriguing though least provable-de Voogd proposes to evaluate Tristram Shandy as a visual work as if it were a single painting a portrait of Tristram's mind (280) De Voogd suggests that Tristram Shandy is representative of an important shift in emphasis from lively order to organized irregularity in eighteenth-century art citing Reynolds's advocating the use of accidents "' Hogarth s emphasis on variety and

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110 intricacy and "Longinus's praise of seeming disorder" (281) as other examples More specifically de Voogd draws a detailed parallel between Sterne s work and the theories of the artist Alexander Cozens who was interested in a sense of"liveliness and spontaneity" in his work. To achieve this Cozens employed the technique of"the Blot (282) which although maintaining the appearance of randomness is a means to a deliberate end It facilitates invention [ and] gives spontaneity and freedom of expression to the finished composition" (283) De Voogd suggests that Sterne s writing process resembled Cozens s act of composition : "One can imagine Sterne jotting down as they came his ideas and thought-associations in first drafts doing with words what Cozens advised his students to do with the brush (283). Returning to the blot-like composition of the marbled page de Voogd compares it to Tristram Shandy : Sterne s book is like the marbled page . seemingly haphazard the child of contingency accidental utterly dependent on the whims of chance and circumstance (285) 69 In Image and Immortality. Holtz focuses on Sterne s typographical and supratypographical (81) additions to his text as devices within the pictorialist trad i tion of literature According to Holtz this tradition extends beyond textual content such as writing a picture and finds a parallel in the expressive nature of emblem poems Reviewing these graphic elements in a later study Holtz suggests that the non-verbal elements convey a distrust of the adequacy of language. 70 In a sense all of these conclusions can be true ; these elements in Sterne s text like the words themselves seem to convey a multitude of meanings In a later study (in many ways a continuation of the first) de Voogd examines Tristram Shandy as a "' co-existential verbo-visual whole by analyzing the function and

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111 effects of the non-verbal aspects of the text of the first editions of Tristram Shandy in the light of the aesthetic effect of the printing and lay-out of its 1,594 duodecimo pages 71 By looking at this edition de Voogd suggests, we return to the closest incarnation of Sterne s intent in creating a hybrid verbal-visual text The concept of co-existentiality according to de Voogd, is when the text's verbal and visual elements are so intimately interwoven that they form an aesthetic whole (384) Aside from noting the more obvious-and frequently commented upon-graphic effects like the marbled black, and blank page typographical oddities and juxtaposed Latin/English te x t, de Voogd addresses the design of the typeface in the first edition of Tristram Shandy. the highly irregular letter and the nervous look of the original Caslon Pica (386) as part of the whole. Ultimately ( and not very usefully) de Voogd admits that the meaning of these visual elements might be as elusive as that of the text itself, suggesting that to read the original text of Sterne s book one must to a very great extent submit to a lexical and visual guessing game (387) The critical observations of Holtz, Fanning Harries de Voogd and others on the physical structure of the text and its graphic apparatus emphasize a different aspect of Sterne s visuality than its verbal pictorialism ; the visuality generated by these textual and graphic structures creates another dimension to Sterne s descriptive visuality reinforcing the role of the visual function in Sterne s texts. This structural and graphic aspect of visuality offers strong possibilities for further exploration, but can only be applied tangentially to my current study possibly as a way the text becomes manifest in visual representations Strong indications of the visuality inherent in Sterne s work are the numerous paintings prints and book illustrations which it has inspired Critical examinations of

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112 visual representations of characters and scenes from Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey have been the subject of over fifteen studies in the last thirty years and have adopted two basic approaches : either documentation of the catalogue of an artist or a time period, along with the historical and biographical contexts of these visual representations ; or the study of the relationship between the visual representation, Sterne's text and cultural interests and attitudes contemporary with the portrayal ( and that might include a documentary catalogue as the foundation for such analysis). The various efforts to document different pictorial groupings and time periods of Sterne illustration will be discussed briefly here, and utilized later in this study as needed ; the critical discussions, however will be more important to this study both as the bases of further investigation and as models of pictorial/textual/cultural analysis T C. D. Eaves, in his extensive unpublished doctoral dissertation on the early illustration of eighteenth-century English fiction, notes that "of all English literature, the two novels of Laurence Sterne had perhaps the greatest appeal with artists from 1760 to 1810, and the study of their illustration is of more than passing interest 72 -a significant observation, since his study documents the visual renderings of the work of Richardson, Fielding, Goldsmith, and Smollett, as well In the chapter on Sterne Eaves catalogues the paintings, prints and book illustrations of his work in the late-eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and analyzes thematic trends in the depictions Eaves believes that the humorous aspects of Sterne's texts have been repeatedly masked by aesthetic and cultural influences that cast both his works as primarily sentimental; he laments of A Sentimental Journey that "painters, printsellers, and publishers .. had minimized to virtual non-existence its Rabelaisian humor" (249) by the 1790s Likewise Eaves

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113 suggests that, in light ofthis trend, the humor of Tristram Shandy "could not be obliterated, but it could be and was minimized, even altered through the choice of milder subjects and the use of delicate techniques of composition and expression" (250) Although this conclusion about the early history of Sterne illustration (similar to the one later reached by Catherine Gordon) is the central element of his study his briefer observations will be useful to my focused examinations of the period such as my discussion of the image of Maria in Chapter 5 Eaves points out that "an obvious gain of the study of illustrations "is that it leads to a clearer understanding of how .. eighteenth-century readers interpreted his novels (258), a hypothesis I build on in my own examination of sentimental illustration in Chapter 4 Although Eaves s work occasionally suffers from flawed assumptions and an evidently strong critical bias against any sentimental interpretation of Sterne's works he offers foundational data for the further study of Sterne illustration as well as a valuable model for its analysis Along with his general study of the visual representations of eighteenth-century fiction Eaves's short essay on George Romney's four paintings of scenes from Tristram Shandy predates other similar studies by forty years ; I include it in this section because of its thematic relation to more recent studies Here Eaves s primary concern is dispelling scholarly rumors about the relationship between the young painter and Sterne and controversy over the dating of Romney's compositions He does, however provide a catalogue of the four paintings-evidentially the earliest pictorial representations (1762) of Tristram Shandy after Hogarth s illustrations Only one of these paintings survives in any form: "The Entrance of Dr Slop into the Parlour of Mr Shandy exists only as an

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114 engraving, while "The Death of Le Fever," "Obadiah Making his Bow to Dr. Slop as the Doctor is Falling in the Dirty Lane," and "A Garden Scene, with Uncle Toby and Trim Building their Fortifications" have disappeared entirely 73 Eaves's brief study in attempting to clarify previous assumptions about the friendship between Romney and Sterne and the dating of the paintings, stops enticingly short of conclusions that might be drawn about the confluence of ideas between the country parson and the soon-to-be famous artist perhaps present in these paintings-leaving such interpretations one hopes, to future studies Although overshadowed in range and depth by Eaves' s work Catherine Gordon s studies, which focus primarily on paintings, utilize a similar dual approach cataloguing artwork while secondarily introducing contemporaneous critical perspectives ; like Eaves, Gordon suggests that visual representations can act consistently as interpreters of texts specifically focusing on how Sterne's "works were seen and interpreted visually and how shifting public opinion developments in society and changes in artists' traditions affected the treatment of subjects from Sterne's novels 74 In addition, the catalogue assembled by Gordon independent of her commentary lists 147 paintings derived from Sterne s works between 1761 and 1869, in addition to five prints, a valuable reference tool for future scholars Gordon analyzes the visual details of many of the paintings in this period based on Sterne's work, adding to her historical compiling of painters' biographies and excerpts from contemporary reviews of Sterne's work sensitive and deft "readings" of paintings as a means of discerning critical attitudes toward Sterne's work. For example Gordon notes that Joseph Wright's painting, Sterne's Captive "displays the influence of his [Wright's]

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115 Roman study in the derivation of the figure from Michelangelo s Sistine Adam while reproducing the detail of Sterne's description and reflecting his mood of suffering melancholia ( MTOlf 52) This melancholia, Gordon observes (echoing Eaves) was part of the predominantly sentimental perspective readers maintained toward Sterne s work. Further reinforcing the parallel between reception and depiction is Gordon s assertion that the 1782 edition of the Beauties of Sterne (which states on its title page that its excerpts were "Selected for the Heart of Sensibility ) contains every subject from Sterne used by artists during this period ( MTOlf' 54) Gordon goes on to draw a broade r conclusion reinforcing Eaves s perspective about the depiction of subjects from Sterne s works at this time suggesting that they ensured that Sterne s reputation after his death was not as a comic satiric or bawdy writer but as a feeling heart. As Sterne s own face and figure derived from the Reynolds portrait of 1760 became the source for many painted Y oricks and Tristrams so the misfortunes of his characters were transferred and caused the compassionate to sigh for Sterne himself ( MTOlf 52) 75 However, although visual portrayals of the sentimental aspects of Sterne s works were prevalent at the end of the eighteenth century a humorous perspective toward his work (which as Gordon has previously mentioned appears primarily in prints but exists also in some illustrated editions) as well as toward the author himself ( at least three separate editions of jest books depict Sterne as a comic character) seems to have been occasionally e x erc i sed as well. Gordon also focuses on the growth in popularity of paintings that touch upon the erotic elements in S t erne's work. For instance at least eleven paintings were produced

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116 from 1830 to 1860 of Yorick and the Grisette some of which "follow the traditional identification of Yorick and Tristram with Sterne himself and so both base their figure on Reynolds' portrait" OOPS 85) perhaps the result of widespread beliefs about the author's personal life Gordon observes the presence of a comic theme in combination with erotic elements in Leslie s Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman, which along with G S. Newton s Yorick and the Grisette are seen as scenes of amusing flirtation displaying the comedy of feminine guile and male discomfiture OOPS 85). These paintings Gordon continues "established a new pattern for later Sterne illustration During the rest of the nineteenth century a majority of Sterne subjects whether drawn from A Sentimental Journey or from the now more popular Tristram Shandy. usually depicted two figures in an amusing or ridiculous situation (BPS 87) Closer analysis of this trend the range of subject matter in Gordon's study sometimes leaves certain questions unanswered-could reveal not only a better idea of the Victorian perception of Sterne but also some suggestions that could help answer the riddle of sexuality in nineteenth-century England Several flaws detract from Gordon s two studies. First Gordon draws her conclusions almost exclusively from the style and content of paintings which she explains had been dictated to a certain degree by convention thus making them less persuasive mirrors of cultural attitude Second Gordon's exclusion of, by and l arge prints and book illustrations makes it difficult to accept her findings as truly representative of current cultural perspectives toward Sterne s work. An examination of the portrayals in many of these prints and illustrated editions will conflict with some of Gordon s conclusions-for instance as mentioned earlier the apparent popularity of jest books that use Sterne as a comic figure while paintings with sentimental themes were in vogue Last

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117 Gordon tends to polarize the attitudes expressed in the paintings of Sterne's work as clearly either sentimental or comic (a distinction Sterne himself might have discouraged) ; although she provides a valuable catalogue which supplements the work of Eaves, her polarized perspective serves as a reminder that illustrations, like verbal texts, rarely correspond to neat categories. In a much briefer analysis of artwork of the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries derived from Sterne's texts, Richard D. Altick notes that by the 1800s, "although his [Sterne's] literary stock remained fairly high in the wake of the Romantic critics' enthusiasm for him, the spreading nervousness about his 'indecency' combined with revelations of his untidy private life to reduce his readership Thus his acceptability in art theoretically was contingent on at least two opposing forces." 76 Al tick presents several such intriguing cultural-aesthetic junctures in his chapter on Sterne, noting for instance, a distinct change in subject matter in Sterne paintings as a result of nineteenth-century critical reception : Victorian moralists and critics agreed in deploring the Rabelaisian and satirical strains in Tristram Shandy. and consequently the twenty or so paintings that are recorded between 183 0 and 1885 concentrated exclusively on its pathetic and amiably humorous episodes" (403-4). Altick's generalization clearly conflicts with Gordon's suggestion that several paintings in the period "touch upon the erotic"; while further investigation might settle this disagreement, the split of opinion-which are likely reflections on the same visualizations-suggests to the future scholar the intrinsic subjectivity of visual interpretation W G Day's examination of an important Sternean icon, Charles Robert Leslie's painting of My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman, is a good example of the archival

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118 work that remains to be done in the area Day summarizes the artist's biography stressing his particular interest in Tristram Shandy (his biographer observes that it was one of Leslie's favourite books and has furnished the subject of one his best pictures 7 7), before carefully documenting a history of the famous image The core of Day's discussion centers on his observations of its intriguing resonance throughout the nineteenth century comparing its hold on the public imagination (83) to the popularity of Maria s dep i ction in the late-eighteenth century (Additional renditions ofLeslie s image have been discovered since Day s study adding weight to this suggestion 78 ) Day does not extend his discussion to hypothesize about the cultural implications of this image as was attempted by Eaves Gordon and Altick although he certainly provides sufficient materials for a more thematic inquiry into the Leslie portrait and its relationship to Sterne s text 7 9 By their very nature prints derived from Sterne s work were less aesthetically refined than paintings (though sometimes derived from them) but were seen by much larger audiences who could either possess their own copies or borrow them from a subscription library The print culture played a significant role in late-eighteenth-century life and the boom in the print industry spurred by a combination of technological advancement and the increased availability of disposable income coincides with a period of strong interest in Sterne s work both in its original forms and in popular collections such as Beauties of Sterne. De Voogd notes that this artwork was available in booklet form in this period : printsellers brought out series of prints on particular subjects in numbered sets stitched together and intended for binding in an album by the prospective buyer 80 Several different series of prints portraying scenes from Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental

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119 Journey were published, each series ranging in number from four to twelve images each ; in addition many more individual prints ( some adopted from paintings, as Gordon observes) were popular as well David Alexander catalogues sixteen print renditions of Sterne s work during the late eighteenth century tracing their derivation, when applicable from paintings He observes that in this period many prints began to appear based on pictures that were not exhibited and which had in fact been painted primarily to be engraved "; 81 in fact Angelica Kauffinann famous for her rendition of Maria sold several pictures directly to printsellers (118) as opposed to displaying them first in formal venues such as t he Royal Academy Alexander adds that at the end of the 1780s print publishers briefly became the dominant patrons of painters (119) thus suggesting a strong connection between artistic production and public demand and linking prints directly to the public perception of Sterne's work. Alexander also discusses the various types of engravings that depict Stemean subjects differentiating between inexpensive mezzotints" (117) and elegant stipples [which] were by no means cheap and were aimed at the fashionable end of the market" (119). By clarifying some relatively obscure aspects of the eighteenth-century print industry Ale x ander provides an idea of the economic and perhaps social range of appeal of the visual portrayals of Sterne s work which forms a useful parallel to my discussion of book illustrations during the same period In his 1991 examination of Henry William Bunbury s four print renderings ofTristram Shandy ( 177273 ) de Voogd suggests the wide popularity of the series pointing out that the publishers went for large numbers [that] the lithographed versions could be easily reproduced and sets coloured and uncoloured still tum up fairly regularly 8 2 These

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120 prints, de Voogd asserts, portray Tristram Shandy as first and foremost a comic novel. Both in his choice of subjects and in the caricaturesque execution of his designs he goes for farce rather than humour (143) De Voogd s recognition of the caricaturesque aspect of the depiction of Toby evokes the frequent critical discussion by Stephen and Priestley among others-of the character in visual terms as well as the apparent popularity of the reproductions of Leslie s painting The comic portrayal of Sternean subjects which experiences a lull during the primarily sentimentally minded period between 1780-1820 will eventually form a significant part of the tradition of Sterne illustration that like the focus on the sentimental seems to fluctuate with changes in popular and critical tastes De Voogd provides similar documentation and commentary in his examination of Robert Dighton's 1784 prints of Tristram Shandy. offering background information on the artist as well as the full particulars of the series of twelve washed over pen drawings 8 3 by the same artist. De Voogd emphasizes the significance of the subtitle of the series ( representing the most interesting sentimental, and humorous Scenes in TRISTRAM SHANDY [88]) noting that Dighton like Bunbury "designed his prints for the print trade and not for a book publisher ; in other words he was free to choose his own format (89) This suggest i on implies that Dighton may have depicted scenes that either enjoyed great popularity or that particularly interested him as moments that invited visualization Here de Voogd carefully accounts for the subjects of these prints within the larger scope of previous Sterne artwork cataloguing previous book illustrations of Tristram Shandy (two by Hogarth 1760; probably four by Rooker 1780 ; eight by Stothard 1781 ; five by Dodd 1781) as well as prints (four by Bunbury 1773) and suggesting possible

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121 lines of influence between them Within this larger scheme, de Voogd uses Dighton' s work to dispute Gordon's statement that Bunbury's was one of the few humorous renditions of Tristram Shandy. and emphasizes Dighton's critical role in the history of Sterne illustration, asserting that he was "the first full-scale illustrator of Tristram Shandy. and in his choice of the 'most interesting, sentimental, and humorous Scenes' he presented the buyer of his album with the whole range of moods and styles which his source could give rise to ." De Voogd valuably strengthens the discourse on book illustration by suggesting the specific criterion of "inclusiveness," and goes on to praise "the open mindedness with which Dighton approached the novel . which enabled him to illustrate both its serious and its comic aspects" (97-98; my italics) In his assertion of two differing interpretations embodied in Dighton's work, de Voogd serves to caution those who might be tempted to make critical generalizations about the interpretive function of illustrations; just as the shifting tone of Sterne's multi-faceted work seems to defy simple categorization, the illustrations of these texts, which can mirror their verbal ambiguity, frequently elude straightforward analysis, as well While prints of Sterne's work enjoyed broad popularity in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, book illustrations of scenes from Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey were also frequently seen in this period; book illustrations, of course, would persist long afterwards, as print series became replaced by stereoscopes, and eventually, televisions and computer screens 84 The long history of book illustration of Sterne's texts has inspired a range of critical commentary in the late-twentieth century a response which only begins to explore the potential of the topic Many of these studies include brief remarks about the visuality of Sterne's text in general and its relationship to

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Hogarth's depictions in particular ; they are most valuable for the purposes of my study, however, as investigations of individual artists and periods which form part of a larger tradition of book illustration of Sterne's work. 122 W G Day briefly investigates Michael Angelo Rooker' s illustrations to Tristram Shandy for the ten-volume 1780 edition of Sterne's Works (likely the first illustrated edition); Day asserts that Rooker (who was a successful painter) had an interest in Sterne which was independent of financial considerations 85 Day catalogues the engravings of Rooker's illustrations for Tristram Shandy ( Trim bringing in the jack boots " Susannah setting fire to Slop's wig," "Tristram and the ass being driven through the gateway of Lyons," and "Toby and Trim at the sentry box"), and compares Rooker's depiction of the fall of Dr Slop to the rendition drawn by Bunbury several years earlier. 86 David Mc.Kitterick, in his similar study of a group of drawings by John Nixon which had been exhibited at the Royal Academy (and which were apparently the basis of his illustrations in the 1787 edition of The Beauties of Sterne), 87 observes that Nixon's pictures represent in their mood and in their form a confluence" (86) of the traditions of book illustration print making and painting, but while providing a useful catalogue ofNixon s drawings of scenes from Steme, 88 he also suggests that Nixon's artwork "shows disappointingly little originality in their composition (95) T. C D Eaves in his previously mentioned dissertation, provides perhaps the most comprehensive catalogue to date of the first five decades of book illustrations of Sterne s work, as well as substantial thematic analysis of several series of illustrations Eaves i s particularly interested in what he sees as the shift in artistic emphasis from the comic to the sentimental, a change in taste he attributes in large part to Joshua Reynolds who inspired

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123 "painters and illustrators (many of whom were students of the Royal Academy) to keep their principal attention fixed upon the higher excellencies "' 89 Eaves views this lesson of Reynolds as significant in the decision of many artists to depict "the more tragic and moving passages ofliterature" (230) thus suppressing the native English flair for humor and burlesque (232) in book illustration. Eaves suggests that this trend worked against Sterne's work, claiming that "no artist could, with any degree of accuracy to the text totally ignore the paintable humorous passages and devote himself entirely to sentiment (228) He acknowledges (somewhat begrudgingly) what he sees as the prevalence of this illustrative approach adding that this visual association of the text with sentimentality undoubtedly influenced not only later illustrators, but also readers of all periods (259). Eaves makes several solid observations but much more data could be compiled contemporary critical voices in particular-before making such temptingly broad conclusions about the influence of book illustration on the text s reception Eaves makes two points that are essential to both his study and my own First as mentioned earlier he affirms that Sterne's works were more frequently illustrated than those of contemporary fiction writers suggesting that a particular quality in Sterne s text-perhaps his visuality-invited pictorial depiction Second Eaves is interested i n gauging the influence of other factors on the portrayal of Sterne s work noting that "English art-graphic and literary-changed from neo-classic to 'romant i c and the growth and eventual dominance of the 'romantic in taste is brought out clearly i n the pictorial representations of Sterne's two novels (259) ; Eaves might make some awkward assertions such as neglecting to explore his terms fully but his idea of using artwork as a cultural thermometer is one I hope to continue here

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124 In two brief studies, Serge Soupel examines the illustrations that accompany four nineteenth-century editions of A Sentimental Journey In the first, he traces the lines of influence between the work ofBertall and A. Lavieille (1849), Edmond Hedouin (1875), and Maurice Leloir (1884), comparing their renditions of"The Monk "The Husband," "The Temptation ," "The Patisser," and "The Case of Delicacy Aside from filling in another gap in the long and varied catalogue of Sterne illustration (and at least a dozen illustrated translations of Sterne's work have been published), Soupel suggests a consistent focus on scenes of"high sentimental ambiguity" which hint at "lascivious expectation" (203), 90 and, possibly, a parallel between the illustrations and French erotic prints from earlier in the century Soupel continues this investigation with a later note on the works of Marold, finding in them "a sharp contrast with earlier etchings found in previous French editions (121); 91 Marold may have avoided depicting sentimental scenes such as "The Monk," Soupel suggests, because they were "overexploited" by previous artists. Soupel provides brief, though useful, commentary suggesting an interpretative trend in French illustrations of A Sentimental Journey that acknowledges, and later retreats from, the erotic element in Sterne's text. 92 In his study of the book illustration of A Sentimental Journey during the 1920s Paul Goring notes that the period is of particular interest due to the quantity of illustrated editions and a consistency in the interpretation of the text chosen by illustrators Goring observes that the history of the book's illustration "shows that visual interpretation of the text has been as varied as its critical reception. Like much of its criticism its illustration has tended either to promote a reading of true sentimentality or give emphasis to Yorick's carnality 93 Goring discusses specific illustrators from this period (Vera Willoughby

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125 Norah McGuinness J.E Laboureur, Valenti Angelo Polia Chentoff and Bernard Roy) in this context, and concludes that they present a reading which stresses the carnal (64) Although the sentimental/ erotic split ( which in itself is an oversimplification that devalues Sterne s playful ambiguity) may have been prevalent in the 1920s it hardly pro v ides a foundation for an inclusive reading of all of the illustrations of the period much less over the already substantial history of the illustrations of A Sentimental Journey Goring grounds his theoretical perspective in James Laver s 1929 assertion that the purpose of illustration was seen to be the creation of mood Narrative content is often subjugated by style in order to convey this sense of the book s prevailing sentiment' or at least that which the illustrator interprets as prevailing (56). Thus in contrast to his l i st of precise criteria that might be used to analyze illustrations Goring s emphasis shifts to discern a more general idea of mood" conveyed by the artwork a hazy idea at best and thus an uncertain foundation on which to organize either a critical or an historical analysis of Sterne illustration. Melvyn New investigates the relationship among William Hogarth John Baldessari (who provided artwork for a 1988 edition of Tristram Shandy) and Sterne s te x t finding parallels in the similar artistic status of the two illustrators of Tristram Shandy. and offering careful analysis of their respective work Drawing a distinct contrast between the two he first observes that Hogarth appears to have worked in tandem with Sterne s aesthetic (which owes something to Hogarth in the first place) : Trim s awkward stance not only alludes directly to Sterne s text .. but also to Hogarth s signature in the drawing the reference of Trim to the awkward dancers in his Country Dance used to illustrate the line of beauty (and its satiric counterpart) in his Analysis of Beauty (183) 94

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126 On the issue of referentiality New demonstrates that Baldessari has an opposing perspective noting the artist's stated interest in the liberation of artists from service to anything but their own vision (191) While the "transparency ofHogarth s illustration allows us to see the text through the drawing New contends Baldessari's is an exercise of authorial power with vengeance (192) In addressing Baldessari s non-traditional renderings (as well as the artist's own philosophy), New argues for a visual portrayal of a text that engages and meshes with its contents and in doing so perhaps identifies a useful criterion for thinking about illustrations of texts in general and of Sterne's texts in particular. In one of the most wide-ranging investigations of the history of book illustration of Tristram Shandy Andrew Ellam recognizes the particular relevance of the visual to and its thematic resonance with ," 9 5 Sterne s text and he endeavors to encompass all of the long history of illustration of the work from its first publication to the present day (par 1) into his analys i s ; of course in a short study such an inclusive approach can at best be only a sketch Echoing Gordon Ellam maintains that illustrations create another level of meaning both an active interpretation of the text and (when substantial in number) a separate story line. Ellam provides extended discussions of the book illustrations of Tristram Shandy by Rooker Austen and Baldessari as well as the Leslie painting of Uncle Toby and the widow Wadman (which most likely should be considered as part of a separate illustrative tradition) offering frequently insightful comparisons between different artists as well as close attention to composition and detail. (His discussion of Austen s artwork borrowing heavily from Priestley s Introduction is overall one of the few rough spots i n his

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127 analysis. 96 ) However the constraints of space cause Ellarn to summarise TS s illustrative history (par 16) resulting in an irregular and incomplete survey of illustrated editions of Tristram Shandy that renders some of his generalizations problematic. For instance his dismissive opinion of the artwork of Furniss and Wheeler as mediocrity is not supported by examples which might have suggested thematic relationships with other illustrations Ellam avoids conclusions about the themes and patterns that might be suggested by a broader survey of the illustration ofTristram Shandy. and instead shifts the direction of his discussion to engage the idea of what constitutes appropriate visual interpretation of the text Citing New s observation of the intrusive quality ofBaldessari s approach Ellam glosses his perspective : "Arrogance and frivolity appear to be New s chief complaints of Baldessari ; both could be equally well made of Rowson The respect which each of these artists lacks for their text is displayed in their work (par 39) However Ellarn provides no reading of Martin Rowson's comic book version of Tristrarn Shandy to support his claim 97 Ellam eventually positions himself as an apologist for laissez-faire illustration contradicting what he sees as New s assertion with his own view that the intrusive presence of the artist does not make the forms chosen by Rowson or Baldessari automatically inappropriate to book illustration (par 41) New's rejection of a generalized form of illustration as an intrusion ," but specifically the signature work of Baldessari which he identified as insensitive and arrogant, implies no such rejection of Rowson s work ; moreover Rowson would disagree that he illustrated Sterne s work at all Ellam continues on this tangent which is only peripherally related to the ma i n thrust

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128 of his study, stating that "to restrict illustration to traditional forms would confine it to the unnecessary repetition both of previous artists and of its text" (par. 44). By concluding with this obvious point, Ellam dodges more potentially interesting directions that would reasonably evolve from a more careful and focused engagement with Sterne illustrations, and the aesthetic questions they do naturally raise. 98 In what might be seen as further testimony to the profuse visual characteristics of Sterne's text, visual representations of his work appear in less conventional forms as well The critical commentary implied by the inventive comic-book version of Tristram Shandy (mentioned is Ellam's study) is examined in an essay by its own author, Martin Rowson, who laconically explains that he "came to enhance Sterne, not mock him 99 Commenting on Rowson's graphic novel, David H. Richter observes that the artist graphically illustrates Sterne's storytelling technique of "narrativity and stasis," the balance between forward-moving narration and when this narration "comes to a dead stop ." 100 Rowson's stasis, Richter explains, aside from paralleling Sterne's technique, provides a visual equivalence to what D W Jefferson called the "tradition of learned wit" by pictorial points ofreference in lieu of Sterne's less-familiar textual ones, thus returning to modern readers "an aspect of the text that .. [they] can never directly experience" (88) Although Richter is cynical about the ability of modern readers to comprehend Sterne's scholarly digressions, his suggestion that a series of illustrations can mirror verbal technique creates a useful vector for further pursuit in the study of book illustrations. Visual portrayals of Sterne's work on decorative items suggest both the popularity of his texts and their inherent visuality De Voogd explores the background of a folding paper fan produced in 1796 (reproduced in the Shandean) that features three oval-shaped

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129 scenes from A Sentimental Journey : Yorick and The Monk, " La Fleur and Madame De L*** ," and "Yorick and The Glovers [sic] Wife" ; these were presumably popular passages at the time De Voogd estimates that millions of fans were made sold and thrown away each year 101 in the late-eighteenth century and comments that it is nice to know that Sterne's text (which itself contains no reference to fans) was apparently popular enough to cause this fan to be made (134) Similarly I briefly investigate the frequent reproduction of the image of Maria of Moulines on Wedgwood pieces at the end of the eighteenth century More than a dozen different pieces were adorned by the image which seems to have been freely adapted from the popular prints ; these include medallion jewelry, teapots sugar bowls bud vases and perhaps most striking foot-high statuettes of the character labeled Sterne s Maria 102 This subject invites further examination and I will explore it in more detail in Chapter 5 of this study ** All of the previous examinations of the visual portrayals of Sterne s work whether addressing paintings prints or book illustrations are valuable to this study as pieces of a vast historical puzzle a puzzle to which I hope to contribute a fragment or two to its slowly evolving form Especially useful here will be those studies that combine ekphrasis with additional thematic examination such as suggestions of the manifestation of cultural attitudes in the style and context of the visualizations These more complex approaches not only provide models (both positive and negative) for my approach to similar investigations but they also offer opinions on trends of Sterne illustration that I will engage as I proceed down similar paths. These engagements may embrace or reject

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130 previous opinion, but in either instance they are the signposts that must be heeded as this study addresses the interpretative function of the illustrations of Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey. The profuse and diverse discussion of the visual rhetoric of Laurence Sterne and the 240 years of illustration of his texts testify to the real and abiding relationship between word and picture in Sterne's work, a relationship which is far from being completely explored ; on the contrary, the many visual renditions of Sterne s words I contend, have much to reveal about implicit meanings in Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey. meanings that I will explore in the following chapters 1 Now, my dear Anti-Shandeans, and thrice able critics and fellow-labourers ( for to you I write this Preface) .. "(TS 111.20 228 5-6). 2 Sterne : The Critical Heritage, ed. Alan B. Howes (London and Boston : Routledge and Kegan Paul 1974) 106 Hereafter Howes and cited parenthetically in the te x t. 3 Beauties of Sterne 11 th edition (London : G Kearsley 1790) vii v 4 For more on Sterne s use of art theory see Holtz 19-65 and Brissenden 5 Vicesimus Knox Essays Moral and Literary. 9 th edition (London : Charles Dilly 1787), 3 : 215. 6. Paul Franssen Great Lessons of Political Instruction' : The Earl of Clonmell Reads Sterne, Shandean 2 (1990) : 160 161. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 7 For the corresponding passage see ASJ 149-52 8 In his notes (197 n. 11 ) Franssen states that Clonmell is mistaken ; not Belial but Adam is being praised for his eloquence The speaker is Raphael (Earadise Lost VIII 21823) 9 Alan B. Howes Yorick and the Critics : Sterne s Reputation in England, 1760-1868 (1958 ; New Haven CT : Archon 1971) 170

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131 10 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, "Lectures of 1818" in Coleridge s Miscellaneous Criticism, ed Thomas Middleton Raysor (Cambridge, MA : Harvard U Press, 1936) 123, 126 11. "Sterne : Critical Essay on His Writings and Genius" in Classic Tales Serious and Lively with Critical Essays on the Merits and Reputation of the Authors, ed Leigh Hunt (London: John Hunt and Carew Reynell, 1807), 277. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 12 Walter Scott "Laurence Sterne" in Lives of Eminent Novelists and Dramatists (1834 ; London : Frederick Warne, 1870), 519. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 13. Edward Mangin, A View of the Pleasures Arising from the Love of Books : In Letters to a Lady (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Browne 1814) 92 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 14 ASJ 71. For more on the background of Guido, see 71 n 29 15 For further discussion, see Chapter 1 16. In his article on Clonmell (153), Franssen notes that "Edwd Mangin" is written on the inside front cover of the first volume of Clonmell's edition of A Sentimental Journey. 17. William Makepeace Thackeray, "Sterne and Goldsmith" in The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century (London: Smith, Elder, 1853), 289 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 18 Percy Fitzgerald, The Life of Laurence Sterne (1864; London : Downey 1896) 1 : 56. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 19 Whitwell Elwin, "Sterne" in Some XVIII Century Men of Letters, ed. Warwick Elwin (London : John Murray, 1902) 2:69 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 20 Dugald Stewart, Collected Works (Edinburgh : T. Constable, 1854), 2 : 452 21 Walter Bagehot, The Collected Works of Walter Bagehot : The Literary Essays. ed. Norman St. John-Stevas (Cambridge, MA : Harvard U. Press, 1965), 2 : 288 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 22. H. D Traill, Sterne (London : Macmillan 1889) 79 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 23 Leslie Stephen, Hours in a Library (1892 ; New York : Johnson Reprint 1968) 3 : 142

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24 Thomas Seccombe Laurence Sterne in The Age of Johnson : 1748-1798 (London : George Bell and Sons 1909) 186 25 Charles Whibley "Laurence Sterne in Studies in Frankness (1898 ; London : Kennikat 1970) 102 94 26 Stephen 163 27 Seccombe 185 28 George Saintsbury Introduction to The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy Gentleman (London : J. M Dent 1894) 1 : ix 29 Seccombe 185 132 30 Thackeray's influence dies hard and not until the mid-twentieth century is Sterne finally released from it although even as astute a modem critic as Christopher Ricks will borrow Thackeray s mawkish to characterize Bramine s Journal in his introductory essay to a recent edition ofTristram Shandy ([London and New York : Penguin 1997] x ) 3 1 Whibley 93 32 Stephen 172 33 Wilbur L. Cross, The Eighteenth-Century Realists in The Development of the English Novel (1899 ; New York: Macmillan 1963) 73 34 Walter S i chel Sterne : A Study (Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott ; London : Williams and Norgate 1910) 178 183 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 35 TS VII 29 623 10-15 36 Victor Shklovsky Sterne s Tristram Shandy : Stylistic Commentary in Russ i an Formalist Criticism ed Lee T Leeman and Marian J. Reis (1921 ; Lincoln NE : U. of Nebraska Press 1965) 57 28 37 J. B. Priestley Introduction to The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (New York : Dodd Mead ; London : John Lane 1928) vi Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 38 Letters 79 The term omamenta ambitiosa "literally ambitious (or ostentatious) omament "is evidently derived from Horace [Quintus Horatii Flacci] Ars Poetica ," Satirae, Epistolae Ars Poetica (London : Lockwood 1872) 97 : 445-50 : Vir bonus et prudens versus reprehendet inertes

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Culpabit duros, incomptis adlinet atrum Traverso calamo signum, ambitiosa recidet Omamenta, parum claris lucem dare coget Arguet ambigue dictum mutanda notabit, Fiet Aristarchus ; (A good and skilled man will censure the feeble verse, Will criticize the harsh [verse] will smear through the unpolished [verse] With a mark of a pen, will cut away ambitious Ornament will know to give luster to [verse] with too little light, Will prove doubtful words will mark that which needs to be changed To be an Aristarchus ; ) 39. J. B. Priestley "The Brothers Shandy" in The English Comic Characters (New York : Dodd Mead, 1925) 128-29 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 133 40 Wilbur L. Cross, The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne (1909 ; New Haven CT : Yale U Press 1925) 1: 107-9 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text For further discussion regarding artwork for a volume of poetry by Michael Woodhull signed L. Stem del Romae ," see Arthur H. Cash Laurence Sterne : The Early and Middle Years (London : Methuen, 1975) 212 n 1. It is worth noting however that Woodhull was possibly a subscriber to the posthumous edition of Sterne s Sermons in 1769 41. E. A. Baker Sterne in The History of the English Novel (1929 ; New York : Barnes and Noble 1950) 263 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 42 TS VII.43.648.18-19 43 Virginia Woolf, Introduction to A Sentimental Journey (Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press n d [ c 1929]) xi x. 44 ASJ 171.29-31. 45 ASJ l 70ff 46 Virginia Woolf, "The Sentimental Journey ,"' in The Second Common Reader (New York : HBJ 1932) 84 In his Introduction to The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (New York : Heritage 1935) Christopher Morley recognizes an aspect of this short hand" in Sterne's work noting that "perhaps no writer has ever lingered with more tender and malicious effect upon the momentary postures which betray our human oddity (v) While interesting in the context ofWoolfs comments Morley s observations also invite further inquiry : what "human oddity is revealed and why is Sterne so successful in its portrayal? 47 Elizabeth Bowen English Novelists (London : Collins 1947) 20

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48 Albert Baugh, A Literary History of England (New York : Appleton-Century Crofts 1948) 1024 134 49 Arnold Kettle An Introduction to the English Novel (1951 ; London: Hutchinson 1977) 1 : 79 50 John Cowper Powys Introduction to The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy (London : Macdonald 1949) 29 Both editions of Sterne which include introductions by Powys are also heavily ornamented with original illustrations by Brian Robb. 51. John Cowper Powys Introduction to A Sentimental Journey (New York: Capricorn Books 1964) 22 52. Ian Watt The Rise of the Novel : Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1957) 291 In his essay "Laurence Sterne in The Early Masters of English Fiction (Lawrence, KS: U. of Kansas Press ; London : Constable 1962) Alan Dugald McKillop points out the paradox of Sterne s realism in comparison to other prose writers of the eighteenth century thus quietly refuting Watt : "We do not find in Sterne formally described interiors but we have details of costume furniture and other impedimenta given as never before (189) 53 TS 11 11.125 16-23 54 Wolfgang Iser The Reading Process : A Phenomenological Approach ," Twentieth-Century Literary Theory. ed Vassilis Lambropoulos and David Neal Mille r (Albany NY: State U. ofNew York Press 1987) 382 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 55 TS 11.2 96.21-22 56 R. F Brissenden Sterne and Painting in Of Books and Humankind : Essays and Poems Presented to Bonamy Dobn~e ed John Butt J.M Cameron D W Jefferson and Robin Skelton (London : Routledge 1964) 93 105 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 57 In The Rococo Style ofTristram Shandy (Bucknell Review : A Scholarly Journal of Letters, Arts and Sciences 24:2 [1978]: 38-55) Gerald P. Tyson attempts to put Sterne s visuality within a specific thematic perspective by pursuing Brissenden s suggestion of Sterne s rococo" style ; he specifically addresses the relations between rococo style in the visual arts and the rococo style of this novel in the hope that such an inquiry can offer a fuller and deeper knowledge of the work s technique (38) Tyson proposes to evaluate the influence of the gestalt of rococo art which implies a characteristic ontology shared both by the artists who created this style and the audience that embraced it" (39) Noting graphic elements missing pages and transposed elements

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all of which "call attention to the book as object (43) Tyson ties this self-conscious quality of the work to the rococo. 135 58 William V Holtz, Image and Immortality : A Study of Tristram Shandy (Providence RI : Brown U. Press 1970) 15 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 59 For further discussion ofut pictura poesis see Jean H. Hagstrum The Sister Arts : The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (1958 ; Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1987) 60. Examining the illustration of sentimental novels in Description and Tableau in the Eighteenth-Century British Sentimental Novel (Eighteenth-Century Fiction 8:4 [1996]: 34-55) Anne Patricia Williams discusses Sterne s depiction of Le Fever's death as a visualized tableau that "relies on gesture and external expression for its emotional import (473). Williams observes the particularly visual aspects of the scene : The characters are wordless Language cannot represent the sentiments they express Le Fever s love for his son and the comfort he feels in entrusting him to Toby The visual element of the scene which Williams suggests constitutes a single moment through a series of simul t aneous gestures with the actors organized spatially around the bed" (475) is thus heightened by the lack of dialogue and the consequent need to focus on appearance to find significance Williams points out that, in the language of sentiment body position and expressiveness of glance were understood as the indicators of meaning ( 4 7 5) making the scene attractive to visual depiction in a drawing or painting Sterne s frequent use of the meticulously composed and detailed scene is replete with significant but coded gesture ; Williams s discuss i on in fact can easily be extended to survey not only Sterne s pictorial scenes but also how their renderings in words mimic their effectiveness in other media 61. For further discussion of Sterne s perspective toward his portraits see Chapter 1 9-11 62. Martin C Battestin The Providence of Wit: Aspects of Form in Augustan Literature and the Arts (Oxford : Clarendon 1974) 264-65 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 63. Arthur H. Cash, Laurence Sterne : The Early and Middle Years (London : Methuen 1975), 212 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 64 Henri Fluchere Laurence Sterne : From Tristram to Yorick, trans Barbara Bray (1961 ; London and New York : Oxford U. Press 1965) 271. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 65 Christopher Fanning On Sterne's Page : Spatial Layout Spatial Form and Social Spaces in Tristram Shandy Eighteenth-Century Fiction 10:4 (1998) : 430 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text

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66 Elizabeth Wanning Harries, "Gathering Up the Fragments : Hamann Herder Sterne," in The Unfinished Manner : Essays on the Fragment in the Later Eighteenth Century (Charlottesville, VA: U. of Virginia Press 1994), 35. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 136 67 An alternative to Harries s visual theme of the fragment is proposed by Steven Soud in "Weavers Gardeners and Gladiators' : Labyrinths in Tristram Shandy (Eighteenth-Century Studies 28 : 4 [1995]: 397-411) Soud suggests that the form of the labyrinth embodies Sterne's most fundamental insight into human nature : as temporal mundane beings we are compelled to impose upon a labyrinthine world our self-made labyrinths that work, albeit unsuccessfully to satisfy our urge for coherence amidst chaos (398). Soud focuses on the labyrinthine structures mentioned in the text : Toby s fortifications for instance can be seen as "a form-a parody perhaps-of the garden labyrinth ( 400) Yet the bowling green Soud points out is a surrogate for the labyrinth of trench-works at Namur where Toby received his wound and is a place where Toby can "reestablish his lost control (403) by imposing his order on the labyrinthine confusion of existence However Soud concludes Tristram (like Toby) in his vain attempts to arrange the story of his life falls prey to his own desire for order : in weaving a labyrinth he is paradoxically at the same time entrapped by it (407). Although Soud s observation of a pervasive visual structure in Tristram Shandy can be seen as an extension of the author s visuality unlike the structural standards proposed by Fanning or Harries the labyrinth does not appear to have graphic parallels in the text. Pat Rogers in Ziggerzagger Shandy : Sterne and the Aesthetics of the Crooked Line (English: The Journal of the English Association 4 7 : 173 [ 1993] : 97-107) suggests the significance of the zigzag shape" of the narrative line in Tristram Shandy. which is paralleled by the repetition of that form in structures mentioned in the text including military fortifications and cabbage beds. Arguing against Brissenden and Tyson Rogers suggests that the returning angles of the zigzag have a direct bearing on the narratology of the novel (97) and that the line of Shandy .. .. owes less to current rococo trends than to the zigzaggery of architecture and military engineering (98) Rogers i dentifies the zigzag form as pervasive in Tristram Shandy stating that "even at the smallest level of literary organization within individual sentences the same basic model can often be discerned" (99) 68 Peter J. de Voogd Laurence Sterne the Marbled Page and the Use of Accidents "' Word & Image 1:3 (1985): 279 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 69 Different aspects of the marbled page are the subject of several other stud i es as well In "Tristram Shandy : The Marbled Leaf' (Library 27 [1972]: 143-45) W G Day addresses the difficulties in inserting the marbled leaf into the volume ; Susan Otis Thompson's Tristram Shandy : The Marbled Leaf (Library 28 [1973]: 160-61 ) supplements Day s discussion Other examinations of the marbled pages include T. John Jamieson A Note on the Marbled Page in Tristram Shandy ," American Notes and Queries 16 (1977) : 56 ; Alexander Whyte Whitaker Emblems in Motley : L iterary Implications of the Graphic Device in Tristram Shandy. DAI 40 (1979) : 1487 A-88A ;

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137 Diana Patterson "' The Moral of the Next Marbled Page in Tristram Shandy ,"' DAI 50 : 9 (1990) : 2911A ; Peter de Voogd, "'O. C.' and the Marbled Page Shandean 2 (1990): 231-33 ; Diana Patterson Tristram s Marbling and Marblers ," Shandean 3 (1991): 70-97; and Alain Bony, La Couture et le Gond : La Page Marbree dans Tristram Shandy, Etudes Anglaises : Grande-Bretagne, Etats-Unis 37 : 1 (1984) : 14-27 Several unpublished studies unavailable as of this writing address aspects of Sterne s visuality : Stephen V. Whaley "The Optics of Shandyism Q2AI 33 [1973]: 4371A) ; Anne R. Null Imagery in Laurence Sterne s Tristram Shandy Q2AI 25 [1975]: 6104A] ; Peter Ford "' No Gross Daubing' : Tristram Shandy and the Visual Arts (unpublished MA thesis [1970] S U.N Y. New Paltz) ; and Karen Lisa Schiff, The Look of the Book : Visual Elements in the Experience of Reading 'Tristram Shandy' to Contemporary Books Q2AI 59 : 7 [1999]) : 2488-89 70 William Holtz Typography Tristram Shandy. the Aposiopesis etc The Winged Skull ed Arthur H. Cash and John M Stedmond (Kent OH : Kent State U. Press 1971) 247-57 Here Holtz suggests that non-verbal elements in Sterne s te x t convey a distrust of the adequacy of language Other discussions of the graphics and typography in Sterne's work include Roger Moss, Sterne s Punctuation ," Eighteenth-Century Studies 15 (1981-82) : 179-200 ; Anne Bandry Tristram Shandy ou le plaisir du tiret ," Etudes Anglaises : Grande-Bretagne Etats Unis 41:2 (1988) : 143-54 ; Jean-Claude Dupas "' Carre blanc ou la page blanche de Tristram Shandy ," in L'Erotisme en Angleterre XVIIe-XVIIIe siecles ed Jean-Francois Gournay (Lille FR: Presse U. de Lille 1992) 39-50 ; Andrew Walter Hazucha Typography as Text : Revisions of Meaning in the Works of Laurence Sterne, DAI 54 : 10 (1994) : 3756A-57A ; J. Paul Hunter From Typology to Type : Agents of Change in Eighteenth Century English Texts, in Cultural Artifacts and the Production of Meaning : The Page, the Image, and the Body ed Margaret J.M Ezell and Katherine O Brien O Keefe (Ann Arbor MI : U. of Michigan Press 1994) 41-69 ; Michael Vande Berg Pictures of Pronunciation : Typographical Travels through Tristram Shandy and Jacques le fataliste Eighteenth-Century Studies 21:1 (1987) : 21-47 ; and Manuel Portela Typographic Translation : The Portuguese Edition of Tristram Shandy ( 1997-98) ," in Ma(r)king the Text : The Presentation of Meaning on the Literary Page ed. Miriam Handley and Anne C. Henry (Ashgate Aldershot UK : n p 2000) 291-308 In "A Portrait and a Flourish (Shandean 1 [1989]: 129-32), de Voogd presents evidence which suggests a historical source for Sterne s inspiration for the graphic flourish of Trim s walking stick in Tristram Shandy 71 Peter de Voogd "Tristram Shandy as a Aesthetic Object ," Word & Image 4 : 1 (1988) : 383 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text Hereafter cited parentheticall y in the text 72 T. C D. Eaves "Graphic Illustrations of the Principal English No v els of the Eighteenth Century" ( diss Harvard U. 1944 ) 25 8

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73 T. C D Eaves George Romney : His Tristram Shandy Paintings and Trip to Lancaster Huntington Library Quarterly 2 (1944) : 323 138 74 Catherine Gordon '"More Than One Handle : The Development of Sterne Illustration 1760-1820 Words: Wai-te-Ata Studies in Literature 4 (Wellington : Wai-te Ata 1974) 47 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text as MTOH." Because Gordon's two studies overlap in both critical approach and subject matter they merit simultaneous examination Additional citations are from British Paintings of Subjects from the English Novel 1740-1870 Outstanding Theses in the Fine Arts from British Universities (New York : Garland 1988) hereafter cited parenthetically in the text as BPS 75. For another perspective on the many derivations of Sterne's image from the Reynolds portrait see Bosch n 25 below 76 Richard D Altick Paintings from Books : Art and Literature in Britain, 1760-1900 (Columbus OH: Ohio State U. Press 1985) 335 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 77 W G Da y, Charles Robert Leslie's My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman The Nineteenth-Century Icon of Sterne s Work ," Shandean 9 (1997) : 88 after Charles Robert Leslie Autobiographical Recollections : By the Late Charles Robert Leslie, RA. ed T. Taylor (London : John Murray 1860) 1:lviii Day s article is hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 78 Peter de Voogd s note on the stereoscope slide of the statue derived from Leslie s painting and my own note on the Vanity Fair political cartoon inspired by the painting are scheduled to appear in Shandean 13 (2002) 79 Tangential to the study of the paintings of Sterne s work is the discussion of the portrait paintings of Sterne himself In Laurence Sterne : The Early and Middle Years Cash includes an appendix (299-316) that catalogues the portraits including some inauthentic examples Rene Bosch explores how Reynolds s portrait suggests future characterizations of Sterne in the frontispiece engravings taken from the painting in 'Character in Reynolds Portrait of Sterne ," (Shandean 6 [1994]: 8-23) A brief note on Sir Joshua Reynolds s 1760 portrait of Sterne appears in TLS (28 Feb 1975 : 222) In addition de Voogd locates an image of Sterne-as-Yorick in a 1783 geography book in A Portrait and a Flourish (Shandean 1 [1989]: 129-32) Paul Kaufman in A True I mage of Laurence Sterne (BNYPL 66 : 10 [1962]: 653-56) describes the bronze statue of Sterne in York Minster Library and disputes whether a painting attributed to Gainsborough is actually of Sterne In addition to the studies noted here a short discussion of the role of painting in A Sentimental Journey Paul Denizot s Ecriture et peinture dans Le Voyage Sentimental ffiulletin de la Societe d'Etudes Anglo-Americaines des XVIIe et XVIIIe Siecles 40 [1995]: 35-46) was unavailable at the time of this writing

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139 80 Peter de Voogd Robert Dighton's Twelve Tristram Shandy Prints ," Shandean 6 (1994) : 88. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 81 David Alexander, "Sterne the 18 th -Century Print Market and the Prints a t Shandy Hall ," Shandean 5 (1993) : 118 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 82 Peter de Voogd Henry William Bunbury Illustrator of Tristram Shandy ," Shandean 3 (1991) : 140 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text W G Da y supplements de Voogd s study with the discovery of Another Bunbury (Shandean 4 [1992]: 245-47) 83. De Voogd Dighton ," 87 84 David McKitterick argues for a clear distinction between the trades in Trist r am Shandy in the Royal Academy : A Group of Drawings by John Nixon" (Shandean 4 [1992]: 85-110) pointing out that the tradition of caricature ... was quite independent of booksellers usually employing a quite separate group of artists Print trade and book trade might nudge each other ; but in the 1770s and 1780s they did not often collaborate (88) 85 W G Day Michael Angelo Rooker s Illustrations to Tristram Shandy ,"' Shandean 7 (1995) : 32 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 86. For a plate probably by Rooker which predates the 1780 edition of Works see W B. Gerard A Rooker Predating (Shandean 11 [2000-1]: 147-50) 87 McKitterick 85 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 88 McKitterick catalogues the subjects of Nixon s twelve illustrations : Uncle Toby and Corporal Trim "; The arrival of Dr Slop ; Obadiah in the doorway uncle Toby and my father at the table "; Uncle Toby my father and Dr. Slop "; "The beginning of Slawkenbergius Tale "; Uncle Toby and my father ; news of Bobby s death "; "T he scullion Susannah Corporal Trim Obadiah and the coachman ; news of Bobby s death "; Le Fever and uncle Toby "; Walter Shandy s bed of justice "; Corporal Trim and Uncle Toby beside the summer house" ; The wife of the chaise-vamper at Lyons "; and Widow Wadman and uncle Toby ." 89 Eaves Graphic Illustration ," 230 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the te xt Quote from Joshua Reynolds s Discourse IV ," Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds ed Henry William Beechy (London : n p. 1 886) 1:345 90. Serge Soupel Lavielle Hendouin Leloir and the Voyage Sentimenta l," Shandean 2 (1990 ): 203

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91. Serge Soupel "Marold s Voyage Sentimental, Shandean 8 (1996) : 121. 92 This is especially problematic in light of the number of illustrations in some of these editions ; Leloir s A Sentimental Journey. for instance contains over two hundred pieces of artwork. 93 Paul Goring Illustration of A Sentimental Journey in the 1920s ," Shandean 6 (1994) : 55 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. 140 94 Melvyn New William Hogarth and John Baldessari : Ornamenting Sterne s Tristram Shandy ," Word & Image 11 : 2 (1995) : 182 Hereafter cited parenthet i cally in the text The instrumental role played by Hogarth s Country Dance is also suggested by its use on the cover of the recent Penguin edition of Tristram Shandy 95. Andrew Ellam From Sterne to Baldessari : The Illustration of Tristram Shandy. 1760-1996 14 July 2001 par. 1. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text by paragraph. 96. Ellam par 32-34. For discussion of Priestley s commentary on Austen s work see Chapter 2 Part 1 7173 97 Rowson is not mentioned at all in New's discussion on Baldessari a fac t that is hardly surprising as Rowson's work was published after New s study. 98 Unpublished studies of Sterne illustration unavailable as of this writ i ng i nclude Paul Goring "Illustration as Interpretation : A Study of Illustrated Editions of Laurence Sterne s A Sentimental Journey (unpublished Master s thesis U. of Wales 1993) 99 Martin Rowson "Hyperboling Gravity s Ravelin : A Comic Book Vers i on of Tristram Shandy ," Shandean 7 (1995) : 66 100 David H. Richter Narrativity and Stasis in Tristram Shandy. Shandean 11 (1999-2000) : 70 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 101. Peter de Voogd Sterne All the Fashion : A Sentimental Fan ," Shandean 8 (1996) : 133 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 102 W B Gerard '" Poor Maria in Wedgwood ," Shandean 12 (2001) : 78 88 Worth noting in brief, as well are the discussions of visualizing of Sterne s texts on stage film and television : Ambarnath Catterjee Dramatic Technique in Tristram Shandy, Indian Journal of English Studies 6 (1965) : 33-43 ; Martha S Damf, Tristram Shandy : A Dramat i c Adaptation ( unpublished Master s thesis Vanderbilt 1966) ; Lodwick Hartley Laurence Sterne and the Eighteenth-Century Stage ," PLL 4 ( 1968 ): 144-57 ; Marsha Kinder and Beverie Houston A Critical Adaptation of Tristram Shandy, Eighteenth-Century Studies 10 (1977) : 484-92 ; and Peter Steele Sterne s

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141 Script : The Performing ofTristram Shandy." in Augustan Studies ed Douglas Lane Patey and Timothy Keegan (Newark DE : U. of Delaware Press 1985) 195-204

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CHAPTER3 TO "MUTUALLY ILLUTRATE ms SYSTEM & MINE : 1 EIGHT WAYS OF LOOKING AT "TRIM READING THE SERMON "1883-1995 Several factors contributed to the increased popular and critical interest in Sterne s work in the early-twentieth century : a more balanced less Victorian perspective toward Sterne and his work as set forth by Wilbur L. Cross and others ; new interest in prose stylistics and experimentation by modernists, for whom Sterne was an exemplar; and lastly a renewed interest in the eighteenth century as a whole as the seedbed for both modernist and post-modernist reactions against the nineteenth century In this chapter I will demonstrate how this renewed enthusiasm for Sterne which persisted to the end of the century, is manifested in the shifting perspectives of eight book illustrators through their depictions of"Trim reading the sermon ." Each of these illustrations reflects a specific way of seeing Tristram Shandy. the result of what W J. T Mitchell calls the artful planting of certain clues in a picture which "endows the picture with eloquence. 2 The elements within each illustration the pictured objects ," along with the setting compositional arrangement and color scheme ," Mitchell asserts may all carry [an] expressive charge" that convey[s] moods and emotional atmospheres ." 3 I suggest that the "clues that Mitchell endows with significant analytical value combine in an illustration to convey the idea of a system a specific method of understanding the text And in the example of "Trim reading the sermon ," the 142

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perspectives expressed by these systems provide unique insight into how Sterne was viewed, critically and culturally over the course of 110 years. 143 In addition all of the illustrations establish a relationship to Hogarth s rendition of Trim reading the Sermon [see fig 1-1] considered in Chapter 1 of this study as one of the necessary starting points for any discussion of Sterne s visuality This unique standard of the text-image dynamic was requested by Sterne specifically to illustrate this scene (through a third party) the text of which contains allusions to Hogarth s work ; this is the only known instance of Sterne asking for an illustration much less a specific one 4 The resulting illustrat i on is a particularly transparent" (to borrow a term from Melvyn New) projection of Sterne s text duplicating the verbal description and mood with only minor additions to the content of Sterne's original verbal picture. 5 The relevance of Hogarth s version of the scene some 230 years after it first appeared has been recognized recently by its reproduction in the recent Penguin edition of Tristram Shandy ; it is reproduced as well in the scholarly Florida edition 6 Owing perhaps either to its potential for expressiveness or a sense of tradition the scene of Trim reading the sermon is also probably the most frequently illustrated passage from Sterne in the twentieth century thus providing a broad range of material for analysis This diverse sampling is further enhanced by contemporaneous discussions of the scene and more generally of the goings-on in the Shandy parlor and I will include excerpts from some of this relevant commentary to augment the perspectives suggested by the artwork. These contemporary criticisms most published within a decade of t he appearance of the illustrated editions (if not actually within the edition itself) reinforce the different systems suggested by the illustrations

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144 The illustration of the scene by Harry Furniss for an 1883 edition ofTristram Shandy [see fig 3-1] provides a useful starting point from which to start mapping changing attitudes toward Sterne Furniss's artwork appears at a time when several critics still found fault with Sterne and his work largely because of the circulation of unfa v orable stories about the parson from York (some of them true) ; the period s negative perspective is perhaps best represented by Thackeray s quite thorough biographical and aesthetic condemnation of Sterne in his lectures published in 1853 7 By Furniss s time however some gestures had appeared (such as Percy Fitzgerald's apologetic biography and the publication of new but non-illustrated editions of Tristram Shandy by David Herbert [1872] and James P Browne [1873]) that reflected a possible reconciliation between Sterne and the reading public By its very existence, Furniss s illustration can be considered as one of these gestures a careful negotiation of a subject by an author still deemed to be in questionable taste Furniss s depiction of the scene seems to a modem eye somber spare and static The parlor framed vertically like Hogarth s is small and dark, the walls are unadorned and the only furniture in evidence are chairs crowded next to each other Furniss follows t he rules of orthodoxy in his composition depicting Trim in the center of the picture standing in profile although perhaps too stooped over the sermon ; his position is contrived and awkward, belying Sterne s depiction of the corporal s natural grace and suggesting that Sterne's text is being somehow subverted The face of Walter expresses unsmiling concern here and Toby's is nearly featureless but clearly directed toward Trim The grotesque quality of Slop s expression suggests a more permanent repose if not a caricature of Dr. Johnson Still although the illustration seems to lack liveliness (which

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145 may admittedly, be accentuated by the comparison with Hogarth) the picture can be seen as depicting a feeling moment in the intimate environment of the Shandy parlor Walter and Toby form a contained unit with Trim leaning toward them while Slop on the other side of the room and emerging from behind Trim, is clearly outside this circle of intimacy The seeming interest of Walter and Toby in the sermon reinforces the centrality of the document to the scene perhaps suggesting that the message conveyed by the sermon s text is beginning to be heard over individual characterization or background The intense engagement of the Shandy brothers in the reading brings to mind the quality of absorption identified by Michael Fried (noted above in Chapter 3) in reference to Jean-Baptiste Greuze s painting Un Pere de famille qui lit la Bible a ses enfants [see fig 3-2]. Although Furniss is not as persuasive" as Greuze in portraying his characters as wholly absorbed in the reading itself ," 8 the Shandys are indeed solely focused on Trim s reading of a sacramentalized text much as the family in Greuze s painting is focused on the father s reading of the Bible No icons such as hats maps or footstools are present depriving the scene of distracting references (The lack ofreminders of Toby's wound in his groin might correspond with the admiration of the character by the Victorians perhaps most famously portrayed in the image of a healthy though still nai:Ve Toby in Charles Robert Leslie s popular painting where Toby s cane is almost-but not quite-hidden [see fig 516] ) Even Stop's non-engagement serves a purpose stressing the interest expressed by the other characters with a distinct contrast and paralleling the role played by the small child in the lower right of Un Pere de famille In contrast to the somber and thus un-Stemean atmosphere Furniss presents one might also detect a comic contrast between the attentiveness of the Shandys and Stop s

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146 state of oblivion The gentle humor of the comparison ennobles Walter and Toby and recalls Sterne's mockery of Slop ; at the same time, it projects a safe (though admittedly low-key) humor that echoes Victorian perspectives toward Sterne, the rejection of bawdy or religiously irreverent aspects of Sterne s comedy Critics of the late-nineteenth century placed emphasis on the masculine intimacy of Shandy Hall and its gentle good humor seeing it as a contrast (and to an extent, a remedy) to what was seen as Tristram Shandy s unacceptable comic elements and Sterne's own questionable history. Leslie Stephen praises that wonderful group of characters who are antagonistic to the spurious wit based upon simple shocks to a sense of decency That group redeems the book ... We must therefore admit that the creator of Uncle Toby and his family must not be unreservedly condemned ." 9 Charles Whibley repeats Stephen s enthusiasm claiming that to speak temperately of the brothers Shandy is impossible .. . They are eternal with the eternity of literature 10 In keeping with Furniss s depiction Whitwell Elwin notes that Dr. Slop is never introduced upon the scene except to expose him to contempt. 11 These i ngredients of emphasis on Walter and Toby a quality of gentle non-risque humor (if it exists at all) and perhaps a focus on the seriousness of the sermon all combine to identify Furniss s depiction as a product of Victorian sensibilities The efforts of Wilbur Cross to assess Sterne more objectively in conjunctio n with shifting public values at the tum of the century may have helped to create a ne w perspective toward Sterne and his work. The 1920s and 1930s saw an explosion in book publishing in general and four new illustrated editions of Tristram Shandy appeared between 1925 and 1936 They are among the most lavishly illustrated treatments of the

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text, with scores of new drawings ; three of the four include new renditions of Trim reading the sermon." 147 The first of these is Rowland Wheelwright's 1926 color rendering which stands as the only truly polychromatic illustration of the scene [see fig 3-3]. Wheelwright captures a clearly identifiable moment in the passage toward the end of the reading when there is but a leaf or two left (TS II 17 161). As he is reading the sermon Trim is deeply affected by the parallel between the description of the tormented prisoner and his brother s predicament, and finally can no longer control his feelings : Oh! tis my brother cried poor Trim in a most passionate exclamation dropping the sermon upon the ground and clapping his hands together! fear tis poor Tom (TS II 17 162) The choice of this particular moment is a marked departure from the opening of the passage illustrated by Hogarth and Furniss both of whom seem consciously to reflect on Sterne's elaborate verbal description of Trim s posture The style of Wheelwright's depiction recalls book illustrations of the lateVictorian era a detailed rendering of character and setting touched with a Pre-Raphaelite glow All the figures are focused on a very gentlemanly Trim whose hands and head are captured in an expressive gesture of noble grief that transcends words ; his position and bright coloring ensure his visual domination of the image. The Shandy brothers off to the side of Trim are scaled smaller than in Furniss's rendering, and seem not to be sharing Trim s emot i on, but witness it at a remove The potentially comic figure of Slop is minimized pictured in partial profile and directly facing Trim as if the speaker were addressing the atrocities of the Inquisition specifically to the doctor

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148 As if to accentuate the emotional aspect of the scene many of the traditional icons which may be associated with comic episodes (such as the clock or the walking stick) are not present A footstool usually associated with Toby an overcoat (perhaps Slop's ? ) discreetly thrown over a chair and the Shandys' long-stemmed pipes remain as allusions to the text (and perhaps to Hogarth as well ) Notable is the unusual size and splendor the Shandy parlor assumes in the Wheelwright rendition (which is further accentuated by its color reproduction in a quarto volume measuring four times the size of Hogarth s illustration) with elaborate window hangings tall expansive multi-paned windows an elegant portrait o v er the fireplace and a large (Turkish?) carpet all of which are imaginative supplements to the text perhaps suggesting a class association with the sentimentalism portrayed Andrew Ellam suggests that Wheelwright's illustrations aspire to the heights of prettiness and adds that his work (like Cleland s which will be discussed shortly) de-vivifies TS into costume drama 1 2 The emphasis on setting and costume in Wheelwright's picture does seem to reduce its focus on the psychological aspects of the scene, but it is clearly meant to depict in its own time and place an emotionally dramatic moment nonetheless Wheelwright s picture clearly stresses the sentimental aspect of the sermonr eading passage, particularly emphasizing the physical manifestation of Trim s distress which he feels, after all for the imagined distress of his brother Tom-and in which the viewer is invited to share as well Significantly it captures a moment in which emotion prevails over verbal expression when a pictorial description of some sort must appear to explain what dialogue cannot ; indeed Trim s act of dropping the sermon, like the natura l grace he

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projects when he begins his reading, demonstrates a purely physical eloquence beyond words, which in the first instance at least defies Sterne's comic verbal description 149 Writing a year later, E A. Baker observes that in Sterne's sermons "the sentimental vein comes out strongly in the retelling of pathetic stories and that "Sterne prided himself more on his faculty for experiencing and expressing sentiment than any other gift 13 Baker thus reinforces the centrality of sentiment to Sterne's work although he does allow that it "too often strikes the ordinary cold-blooded reader as false sentiment. 1 4 Baker's willingness to assign some credibility to Sterne's sentimentalism as a positive feature of his work, in contrast to the late-Victorian critics who saw it as a negative quality suggests a broad change in the perception of Sterne a change reflected in the sincere depiction of a feeling moment in Wheelwright s illustration In several ways John Austen s black-and-white depiction of the scene [see fig 3-4] represents a radical stylistic departure from previous visualizations Austen s abstracted characters are reduced to bold, sweeping curves frequently manifested as graceful arcs that combine into Hogarthian serpentine lines Some suggestion of movement can be seen in the nondefinitional arcs extending from Walter s and Trim s right hands which serve to both animate the tableau and enclose the pairs of characters into implied oppositional circles : the nai"ve and feeling Trim and Toby in one the cynical Walter and Slop in another. The consistently spaced, bold crosshatching that indicates shading stands in contrast to the almost invisibly blended work of Hogarth and Furniss and in conjunction with the exaggerated forms of the characters calls attention to Sterne s careful arrangement of the scene as a tableau

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150 Notably Austen is the first illustrator of the scene to work without a frame to contain the action, instead allowing the characters themselves to shape the image on the page The composition in fact includes only the four characters and two minimally defined chairs ; there are no walls or windows either to diminish or distract from the grouping or to suggest a defined sense of place The characters floating in a void that they must themselves define are (as in Furniss s rendition) deprived of all the icons of Sterne s work : the map boots and maybe most significantly, Toby s crutch and footstool. Although Austen includes some identifying physical attributes (such as the sesquipedality of Stop s belly) the figures are similar with bulky nearly interchangeable limbs Body language is the primary means of projecting character : Toby is contentedly engaged in the sermon as expressed by his patiently perhaps piously folded hands in contrast to Walter s more aggressive posture gesturing toward Trim with his pipe and Slop slightly oblivious verges on caricature stolid obese and motionless As in Furniss s version the bareness of the scene prevents it from alluding to differen t narrative aspects of the story (such as Toby s wound and the problems caused by a clock) and focuses the viewer s attention solely on the frozen moment in time. Austen s stark rendition deprives the reader of extraneous embellishment and naturalistic rendering producing instead an emphasis on the theatrical aspects of the sermon s recitation as a carefully designed tableau In his introduction to this edition J. B. Priestley remarks at length on Austen s artwork noting that there is a vague suggestion of marionettes about these figures ," 15 which in tum suggests the artful manipulation of the characters by the author ; this perhaps is best expressed in Sterne s text by the narrator s attempts to get Toby and Walter up the

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151 stairs More obviously the figures in Austen s drawings suggest the comparison with marionettes in their highly stylized forms and contrived positioning Priestley s comment about the puppet-like quality of the figures might be viewed as reflecting a tendency to condemn eighteenth-century characters as less realistic in comparison to those in nineteenth-century fictions ; we see this contrast of course though the eyes of Henry James who states that the air of reality (solidity of specification) seems to me to be the supreme virtue of a novel. 16 But perhaps Priestley is instead calling attention to the fact that Sterne s characters have as much to do with service as vehicles for the author s intentions ( as in emblems and allegorical writing more generally) than with the realism of novelists like James or Flaubert Nonetheless Priestley finds a particular contemporary relevance in Sterne ( If the modem novel can be said to have had a father . then that father is Steme 17 ) which is in tum shown in Austen's treatment of Sterne s text : Fifty years ago he would have done very different drawings would not have chosen these particular moments for illustration 18 Priestley finds a parallel between the work of fiction writers of his time and Austen s visual interpretation of Sterne : a pervasive quality of exasperation It is perhaps the prevailing mood of the post-War intellectuals and few ofus are untouched by it ," he observes ; You can discover it peeping out all over the place in Mr Austen s drawings ." 1 9 Priestley notes instances of exasperation in Sterne s text and in Austen s illustrat i on of Trim reading the sermon we might see this quality in the seeming tension between Walter and Trim and more theoretically in its spare style In addition Priestle y anticipates this present study by emphasizing the interpretive value of book illustrations

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152 asserting that Austen s drawings since they are more than idle pieces of decorat i on, tell us a great deal. 20 Although he departs from more traditional styles Austen closely adheres to Sterne s text depicting Trim as he held the sermon loosely ,not carelessly in his left hand raised above his stomach and detach d a little from his breast ; -his right arm falling negligently by his side as nature and the laws of gravity order d it ,but with the palm of it open and turned toward his audience ready to aid the sentiment in case it stood in need (TS 1.17 142) The moment illustrated by Austen could be one of many in the course of Trim s reading but his careful attention to Sterne s description of the characters whatever interpretation might be drawn from his style of drawing results in depictions that remain faithful to the literal text they illustrate and hence make us more willing perhaps to accept their figurative accuracy as well Returning to a more traditional style of rendering T M. Cleland s 1935 illust r ation of Trim reading the sermon [see fig 3-5] is attentive to many specific details included i n Sterne s text Cleland's vertical black-and-white line drawing supplemented by shades of sepia recalls Hogarth s version in his rendering of character and setting but has shifted the perspective so that the illustration more actively incorporates the viewer within the scene rather than spying on the orator from behind Light from an unseen w i ndo w dramatically streams over the middle third of the picture illuminating the carefull y posed Trim as ifhe were in a spotlight while Walter off to the side sits in the shade (perhaps a sign of the victory of Trim s natural unstudied and unsystematic approach o v er Walter s persistent systematization) The seeming inclusion of the viewer in the picture arguabl y

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153 functions as Sterne s text does, by opening a window into the private idiosyncratic world of the Shandys. As opposed to Austen's more stylized artwork, Cleland makes extensive use of naturalistic detail: there is a considerable attention to the design of the furniture the draping of fabrics, and the variable shadings of surfaces, as well as a precise rendition of small objects. This style of detailed rendering also enhances the expression of the characters themselves : we can see in their well-rendered faces Trim's sincerity Slop s peevishness Toby's entrancement and a hint of Walter s peevishness The attention to detail in Cleland s version of the scene also helps to highlight the abundant presence of icons that bind the image to the text A hat and walking stick lie on the floor near Trim s feet the latter to be used with an extravagant flourish later in the story A book presumably the copy of Stevinus lies open on a table Toby grasps his crutch firmly in one hand and holds a long-stemmed pipe-perhaps an allusion to Hogarth This detail greatly contributes to the strength of historical veracity in Cleland s depiction His variable costuming of the characters (in contrast to Austen s dressing them similarly) bears a close resemblance to Hogarth s drawing and further fleshes out the personae of the characters themselves The specific objects included in the comfortably cluttered room reveal Cleland's careful attention to historical accuracy from the carpet covered wood floor and various pieces of furniture to the cow-shaped creamers in the background. While Cleland probably could not have known this the room actually resembles the low-ceilinged beamed parlor of Shandy Hall more than any previous illustration, including Hogarth s even down to the positioning of the window 21

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154 Cleland' s artwork can be seen as suggesting a rediscovery of the value of the historical Sterne minimally distorted by the age ; and as reconsidering perhaps the modernity that Sterne was hailed for only ten years before not only by Priestley, but also by Virginia Woolf and others Cleland s adherence to the textual basis of the scene might signify the beginning of a willingness, after more than a century of distortion and exaggeration about Sterne and his work to accept and value both on their own terms not as paradigms of indecency, false sentiment-or even modernity. In some ways, then Austen seems to echo the sentiments suggested by Wilbur L. Cross in the Preface to his 1925 revision of Sterne's biography : Nowhere have I intended to spare Sterne nor to idealize him 22 The visual interpretation of Trim reading the sermon" would take a different tum in the hands of Brian Robb who provided two different view of the scene for the 1949 Macdonald s Classics Illustrated edition : one Trim reading the sermon, posed precisely ; and the second fourteen pages later a depiction of the dramatic reader and his audience as the text describes Trim nearing the end of his oration Like Austen s Robb s drawings have no containing frames and his figures are more stylized than naturalistic ; Robb s approach however favors informal but artful scribbles instead of the bold highly stylized curves of Austen and the result is closer to caricature than abstraction. Robb s first rendering is of Trim alone mouth open chest comically puffed out absorbed in his reading of the sermon [see fig 3-6]. A vertical line drawn in front of his body is nearly perpendicular to one on the floor ; an arc connecting the two spans over the number 85 0 proclaims Trim s exact stance an obvious reference to Sterne s hyperbolic descript i on However while Trim s position is conspicuously advert i sed and his feet are placed in accordance with the passage his right hand instead of being open

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155 and turned towards his audience," clutches a walking stick, perhaps an allusion to Trirn's use of one later in Tristram Shandy to vaguely define "whilst a man is free-" (TS IX.4 743). The figure-perhaps a bit bulkier than Sterne's idea of the character-is dressed in the suggestion of period costume, including a neck ruffle and breaches. Trim's face is sketched vaguely but comically, forming an ironic contrast with the precision of the geometrical configuration The group scene of the reading [see fig. 3-7] is spread panoramically across a small unframed rectangular space, featuring Trim on the far right, who, in response to a particularly dramatic moment, gestures grandly with his right hand (The text directly below the illustration describes the Corporal's animation: "Here Trim kept waving his right-hand from the sermon to the extent of his arm." 23 ) The three seated characters portray distinct attitudes : Walter listens, hand on his knees, spherical Slop slouches and sulks, and Toby, puffing on his pipe, assumes an air ofleisurely contemplation. In contrast to the care Robb takes in defining character, he neither depicts the varied icons displayed prominently in Hogarth and Cleland ( and that are also mentioned in the text), nor does he suggest any idea of background in either illustration With its seemingly loose and roughly defined style of caricature, Robb's artwork presents itself as unconventional and highly individualistic, while still being referential, qualities which proclaim, perhaps, a philosophical kinship with Sterne In the Introduction to the edition illustrated by Robb, John Cowper Powys identifies a similar quality in Sterne, suggesting that "deep in the most intimate fibre of the author's identity there stirs a wanton and wilful revolt against all the recognized rules usually observed in the writing of any kind of fiction 24 Judging from Robb's loosely sketched

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156 figures and capacity for improvisation-for instance he introduces two unexplained characters (a harlequin and a clown with the head of an ass after Bottom) who dance through the pages of the heavily illustrated edition-the artist could well be as guilty of the "orgiastic cerebralism 2 5 of which Powys playfully accuses Sterne Powys confesses to being left completely unmoved by the deaths of Le Fever and Yorick as well as by the scene of Maria a result he feels of the exaggerated artfulness of the situation rather than a reaction to the situation itself 26 Sentiment does not seem to have had the value in 1949 that it held twenty years before and Robb's depiction of the sermon-reading heightens instead the comic aspects of the scene Perhaps Powys wistfully looks for something else in Sterne s humor however something as difficult to define as a few stray feathers and a wisp of thistledown (a quality reminiscent of Robb s drawings) : that is something to keep us in heart . as we hope against hope for a kindlier world 2 7 While Robb s artwork is unconventional it expresses a cautious optimism that complements the meaning Powys underlines The depiction of Trim reading the sermon by John Lawrence in 1970 follows Robb s pattern of highlighting the speaker in one picture while depicting a broader idea of the scene in another. I n the first Lawrence portrays Trim in profile [see fig 3-8] a faithful projection of the text : his body is angled and hands and feet positioned as Sterne describes the character and a hat lies at his feet ; the sermon itself seems too large in proportion to the figure As in the Robb version there are no identifying characteristics of Trim s surroundings of a room or listeners and Lawrence s rendition is nearly de v oid o f humor ; here Trim reading the text is a personal experience-he is focused on the text not on his audience-like the reader s own interaction with the book itself

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157 The companion picture, a distinct contrast to the stark clarity of the single figure, depicts the closely-cropped, seated forms of Toby and Slop emerging from a jumble of lines and curves within a dark rectangle [see fig. 3-9]. The top part of the frame is overwhelmed with sinuous billows of smoke which escape from Toby's mouth while he looks on with benevolent complacency, almost inviting the viewer into the scene Slop stares away, his fists clenched and face set in consternation Lawrence seems to indicate a contrast between Toby's dreamy expression (perhaps a function of the smoke) and Slop's angry response to the reading of the sermon. The close proximity of the figures to the viewer and the unique, downwards-facing perspective suggests that Lawrence framed the scene from Trim's own point of view The primitive and angular appearance of Lawrence's rough-hewn woodcuts conveys a paradoxical feeling of being simultaneously "antique" and modem; their monotonal minimalism and sharp-edged forms seem to refer to Austen's illustrations, while denying the comic potential of the text The white wedges that convey shading, a product of the medium, create a roughness and a visual tension on many of the surfaces in the illustration. Lawrence's predominantly dark and somewhat ambiguous artwork suggests a gloomier side of Sterne, perhaps hinting at the memento mori that hovers over even the work's lighter moments Lawrence's dual vision of the scene juxtaposes the starkly depicted Trim, seemingly deeply and passionately engaged in delivering his literally obscure text to a barren room (save for a vague black mass, perhaps a shadow), with the busy, disorderly rectangle from which the partial figures emerge, barely discernible from the background images of the scene. These images perhaps suggest the idea of an absurd world, a place where a public

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158 address is turned back reflexively on the speaker (a tendency of Tristram's narration, as well) and the audience is separate and irrelevant. In 1968, John Traugott finds a parallel between Sterne's "subversion of notions of neo-classical reason and personality" and "our own relentless and I am afraid sometimes pompous expose of absurdity in existence 28 Traugott contends that modem man finds a "fellow spirit" in Sterne, someone "who ignores nature's simple plan, with its springs and cogs, to discover fragmentary and solipsistic life." 29 In his analysis of the contemporary relevance of Tristram Shandy, Traugott identifies issues that seem to pervade Lawrence's visual interpretation as well. However individual the depictions of "Trim reading the sermon" examined thus far have been, the last two series of illustrations in this chapter radically depart from the previous examples in both style and content. In both cases, they are no longer book illustrations, but are designed to carry their own significance apart from Sterne's text Rather than simply being innovative portrayers of Sterne's work, these artists essentially reinvent the work in their own image, creating something very different from illustrations to Tristram Shandy in the process A significant indication of the revised status of the illustrator in the late-twentieth century is the packaging of the artwork in relation to the text itself John Baldessari' s graphic interpretations of Sterne's work for the 1988 Arion Press edition are presented in their own accordion-fold publication entitled John Baldessari : Photo-collages for "Tristram Shandy" with quotations from the novel by Laurence Sterne Even before examining the graphics within its covers the title of this separate portfolio alone signifies a shift from the status of previous illustrators of the book who shared the billing with Sterne; Baldessari's illustrations, as we will see, will provide additional evidence of this

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159 new arrangement. The Arion Press describes its edition of Tristram Shandy as having "three volumes" slipcased together : Sterne's work (derived from the text of the Florida Edition), Baldessari's 39 double-page photo-collages, and an "essay on the author and the novel" by Melvyn New. In addition, Arion Press marketed separately "five large-scale original lithographic prints by John Baldessari of photo-collages conceived for the Sterne project," placing further emphasis not only on the visual over the verbal elements of the project, but on Baldessari as the raison d'etre of the production rather than Sterne. 30 Although illustrators in the late-eighteenth century had produced suites of illustrations independent of Sterne's printed text as well-usually of A Sentimental Journey Baldessari's production represents an entirely different approach toward the printed word Before this project, Baldessari had gained critical notice for his photo-collages, and the illustrations here are in the style of his other artwork, incorporating "found" black-and white movie stills and bold graphic inserts Baldessari' s rendition of the sermon-reading scene obviously departs from previous treatments of the scene-and from most previous book illustration in general-by not attempting anything like a literal representation; the characters, setting, and details evident in both the story and prior graphic renditions are nowhere to be found Like Robb and Lawrence, Baldessari employs two images to depict the sermon-reading scene, although they might be considered as a single complex, double page rendition, as well Both of the images feature a photograph of a single figure. The first, on the right side of the spread [ see fig 3-1 O], seems to be a martial artist frozen in a mid-air maneuver, his clenched right hand and foot thrust aggressively forward toward a target, the left arm and leg folded behind. The background is a blur, emphasizing the single character whose identity is completely obscured by a yellow disk-an signature

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160 element that occurs in Baldessari s previous artwork. The included text Sterne s comically meticulous portrait of Trim's position ( But before the Corporal begins I must first give you a description . His attitude was as unlike all this as you can conceive [TS 11 17 140 7-15]) suggests that in his illustration the artist is echoing Sterne by offering his own commentary on the positioning of the human figure. The second image [ see fig 3-11] also portrays a male figure caught in mid-action The figure on the left is a study of contrasts with the first: he is dressed in a dark formal suit and hat, and has slipped and is about to land on his back. The chaotic mood is augmented by a container of flowers falling sideways to the ground on the right. He i s flanked by arrangements of flowers on pedestals, and he faces a defined space : a wall with decorative molding and what appears to be a large curtained window Dark wooden paneling and a dark floor suggest a somber order that is cast into disarray by the toppling central figure The included text in this instance ( He stood for I repeat it to take a picture of him at one view with his body sway d, and somewhat bent forwards ... [TS 11 17 141 12-25]) is a continuation of the above passage describing Trim s pose before he reads the sermon adding yet more detail about the precise position of the reader s body and referring to Hogarth s line of beauty The choice of subject might be seen as ironically reflecting the passage offering a situation of frenetic activity to contrast with Sterne s carefully described reader of the sermon Equally ironic perhaps the actual te xt apparently being illustrated ("This I recommend to painters . for unless they practise it ,they must fall upon their noses [TS 11 17 141.26-28]) is not the text provided b y Baldessari

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161 In both cases, the inclusion of the text might serve as aesthetic garnish for Baldessari's images, but they also represent a type of abridgment of Sterne's text : those unfamiliar with Tristram Shandy might consider the text included in the illustration as the entire basis for the artwork, while those actually familiar with Sterne's work, perhaps, will puzzle over the selection of these passages by Baldessari Like the disk, the inclusion of the text in the artist's work is, as New observes, another "Baldessari signature," 31 which can be traced in his earlier work. The blocks of text from the sermon-reading passage in Tristram Shandy featured here are not captions, but fundamental parts of the illustrations The first is 92 words and the second 155 words in length, set in neat, justified blocks of Univers typeface ~ presumably the content of the text relates to the illustrations of which it is a part, but its choice of design implies that these groupings of words are themselves meant to have some aesthetic significance independent of their literal meaning, perhaps simply as another graphic element in the composition. Baldessari s choice of an ostentatiously modem sans-serif font represents a conspicuous distancing from the eighteenth-century Caston face in which the Arion Press set the full text of Tristram Shandy The aestheticization of the text-and by implication the re-orientation of its meaning-is further stressed by the chiasmus formed by the two facing plates with the blocks of text and images symmetrically paired-a sense of order one feels Sterne would have found baffling as a portrayal of his unruly text In both ofBaldessari's depictions of the scene there seems to be a focus on the generic idea of the pose and its control ( the line of science) and possible vulnerability ( falls on his nose) ; the genericism in the first illustration is emphasized by the anonymity created

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162 by the disk fixed on the leaping figure and in the second by the fact that we only see the back of the figure Perhaps most conspicuously these photo-collages appear to address the positioning of the human body : both the figures are depicted in motion, one disciplined the other haphazard The motion in both cases is presumably brief ; both figures will end up on the ground in seconds This perhaps implies an allusion-as in the cited excerpts-on the frozen moments in Sterne s text as a whole when the narrator suspends time and carefully examines his subject in a way that would otherwise be impossible This observation of the fleeting nature of time finds many parallels in Sterne of course from Walter s inability to keep up with his son s growth when composing the Tristra-predia to Tristram's awareness of his own encroaching mortality Baldessari s photo-collage for the sermon-reading scene inevitably presents itself as a highly individual interpretation of the text creating loose thematic resemblances to the narrative rather than literal ones Considering all ofBaldessari s artwork for the edition Ellam suggests this that the illustrations are thematically associated with the text : the artist eschews Tristram's narrative in that each passage illustrated is exploited for the semantic content it contains in itself, and sometimes in relation to symbols used i n the novel. 32 New notes on the other hand that the contrasts between the images i n Baldessari's illustration for the scene-flying versus falling discipline and control versus chance 33 -opens the door to the observation of a series of visual contrasts : light versus dark front versus rear, outside versus inside informal versus more formal dress which may in tum signify the paradoxical qualities of militancy and sentimentality contained in Toby and Trim In a broader sense then, we might also be viewing a symbolic representation of the varied contrasts in Tristram Shandy : spontaneous grace versus

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163 contrived elegance book learning versus experience Walter s head versus Toby s heart Protestant versus Catholic and man s desire versus his finite nature to name bu t a few Given the heavy emphasis on positioning in his depiction and his inclusion of the allusion to Hogarth in Sterne s text the artist may have had Hogarth in mind as w ell as Sterne but rather than paying conspicuous homage to either, Baldessari distinctly and deliberately break s the connection with both and instead emphasizes his own vi s i on o v er theirs-perhaps demonstrated best in his appropriation of the text to fit his visual needs. The artist has commented that his intention was "not to illustrate Tristram but t o complement it 34 Noting the transparency of Hogarth s rendition the ability to see the text through the image ," which unites author and reader-New suggests that access to the text is blocked rather than facilitated in Baldessari s intensely authoritarian representation 35 Although some positive elements of transparency might be found in Baldessari s work -the use of human figures as opposed to completely abstract forms the focus on position which alludes to the textual emphasis even an attentiveness implied b y inclus i on of the text (which New views as an act of usurpation 36 ) overall Baldessari s artwork supplants both Sterne s text and most ideas of book illustration defying the criteria suggested by Mitchell for the evaluation of visual representations ; the pictured objects," setting composit i onal arrangement and color scheme in the illustrations are at best connotative of Tristram Shandy. and suggest only coded connections with the text In the last part of the twent i eth century Tristram Shandy gained critical recognit i on as a type of experimental fiction that happened to be inconveniently situated in history Larry McCaffery' s feeling that it is a commonplace to note that Tristram Shandy i s a

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164 thoroughly postmodern work in every respect but the period in which it is written 3 7 reflected widespread critical opinion in the 1980s and 1990s as Sterne s work was hailed for its apparently prescient qualities of meta-narrative and indeterminateness Some criticism in this period, like Baldessari's artwork seemed to attempt to derive meaning from Sterne's text by actively working against its intent : as I observe in Chapter 4 Robert Markley for instance suggests that Sterne s sentimentality in A Sentimental Journey is anything but benevolent, but rather a manifestation of ideological exploitation Similarly, Markley' s essay on J. Hillis Miller's "deconstruction of Tristram Shandy. 3 8 like Baldessari's project demonstrates an interest not in Sterne's text but in an abstracted ideology applied to it. Perhaps the best example of the tendency to abstract Tristram Shandy into something else entirely is the comic-book adaptation of Tristram Shandy by Martin Rowson The comic-book form shifts the relationship between the graphics and text and the heavily interpretative process of Rowson himself ( who is listed as the book s author) makes his depictions something very different from a book illustration in the usual sense At the same time Rowson s depiction of the sermon-reading scene shows a certain attentiveness to both Sterne and Hogarth that implies a consciousness of both the text and the tradition behind his work. The very definition ofRowson s illustration of the scene is problematic : it actually extends over six frames ( three of which are included here), and illustrates the sequence immediately preceding the sermon as well Toby's invocation of Stevinus Trim s retrieval of the volume and the discovery of the sermon in its pages The dialogue included within the borders of the frames is all the text the reader is offered ( and some text

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165 is Rowson's, not Sterne's); the description of Trim therefore, is only represented in Rowson's visual portrayal [see fig. 3-12] Rowson s prominent allusion to Hogarth's illustration is the overlaying of a draftsman's grid on the figure of Trim illustrating Sterne's description of Trim s pose by labeling the angle of his back. (Perhaps Rowson was familiar with Robb's rendition as well which also pictures the labeled 85 0 angle ) Beyond the allusion however the artwork moves toward parody of the parody when i t labels with equal precision the angles created by both Trim s feet and the bottom of his coat. Rowson s illustrations of Slop and Trim seem to be caricatures of Hogarth s caricatures : Slop is even more round and Trim is portrayed as elegantly posed but grotesque with a long thin nose enormous jaw, and peg-like teeth The two Shandy brothers are clearly distinguishable from one another ( other illustrators have shown a tendency to conflate the two) although they share an identical expression of benevolent contentment during the reading of the sermon Walter is depicted as heavy with a wide pear-shaped face and short wig while Toby is drawn as thin and oval-faced wearing an elaborate double-peaked wig and without any of his icons Other artists visually projecting Sterne s characterizations have tended to depict Walter as angular and sharp edged and Toby as rounder and heavier Rowson is significantly (and perhaps consciously) different from his predecessors in this respect and perhaps creates i n his rendition of the Shandys a symbol of the contrary nature of his "system of viewing Sterne While Rowson is attentive to Sterne s description of the scene in the placement and attitudes of the characters of Trim Toby Walter and Slop the artist is interested in

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166 moving beyond Sterne s text and asserting his own vision ofTristram Shandy In an essay about his work Rowson states that he had considered actually illustrating Tristram Shandy. but couldn t some centuries after Hogarth quite see the point "; he claims benignly that he came to enhance Sterne not mock him 39 Rowson s enhancement ," however is ultimately more a play on Sterne rather than an illustration of Tristram Shandy. the creation of an entirely different work that has elements in common with the original ; perhaps however, this is always the case of critical commentary which is in fact the genre to which Rowson s comic book might belong Put another way Rowson is not so much illustrating Sterne, as he is the critical tradition that has flowed down the gutter of Time with it. Nowhere is this more evident than on the other side of the same panel which includes dialogue between the artist s self-portrait and his (fictional talking) dog Pete "; 40 like some readers before him Pete wants to bolt from the sermon-reading and find a shortcut to another part of the story In a sense the introduction of the conspicuously (a n d comically) self-referential characters of Rowson and his dog (who seems to represent Rowson s alter-ego) creates a greater disparity with Sterne's text than Baldessari s interpretations ; but we might suggest that Rowson is at least frank and self-mocking in his departure If Rowson is seeking to remake Tristram Shandy in his own image at least he adopts something of the self-conscious whimsy of a Shandean tone in doing so He replaces Sterne s self-conscious narrator with himself, a logical progression one might suggest ; he makes the parallel more distinct with the Tristram-ical caprices in which he indulges as he relates his version of Tristram Shandy

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167 All of the frames in Rowson' s version of the scene appear to be cramped and small, and the characters in their chairs are depicted against a dark, featureless background The careful ordering of space (probably inherent, in part, to the comic-book form) to an extent parallels the contemporary critical interest in the significance of spatial definition in Tristram Shandy. In a recent discussion, Christopher Fanning, for instance maintains that the definition of the spaces in the parlor and the bedroom upstairs "correlates with the separate spheres of male and female activity that are themselves figures for satiric distinctions between theory and practice 41 Rowson' s depiction of himself in the sermon reading reveals, perhaps, his identification with the masculine company in the Shandy parlor-a distinction borne out, perhaps by Rowson's idiosyncratic volume In addition to offering visual parallels to contemporaneous critical perspectives, these eight renditions of"Trim reading the sermon" can be seen as reflective of different types of textual commentary when considered in the context of Paul Ricoeur's readings ofW Dilthey, in which he identifies "two fundamental attitudes which may be adopted in regard to a text": 42 "explanation" and "interpretation." The explanatory attitude, according to Ricoeur, is a cooperative approach to a work which serves to "prolong and reinforce the suspense which affects the text's reference to a surrounding world," while the interpretative stance takes the act of reading a step further, and serves to "lift the suspense and fulfil the text 43 The renditions of the scene discussed here reflect these two different approaches to "reading" Sterne's text The earlier illustrators, Furniss, Wheelwright Austen, and Cleland, provide explanatory readings of the scene by portraying elements already present in Sterne's text (comedy, sentiment, or, in the cases of Austen and Cleland a little of

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168 each) They present little, if anything beyond the parameters of the text Even Austen s more radical (by contemporary standards) stylization and elimination of background does little to detract from the directness of his rendering as a straightforward projection of Sterne's text Austen however subtly deviates from the explanatory attitude : his enigmatic style does not represent a comic sentimental or even merely a blandly expository atti t ude but instead suggests a darker tension and angst that does not seem to directly relate to the text The illustrations by Robb and Lawrence might also been seen as explanatory approaches which prolong and reinforce the text's reference to the surrounding world "; in fact in their shared method of dual depiction of the scene they emphasize Sterne s dichotomy between speaker and audience, which is in itself a commentary on the relationship between author and reader. However like Austen s they are transitional also hinting at interpretative inclinations. While Robb s style of caricature might be seen as a representation of Sterne's own verbal sketching the occasional but unexplained appearance in the book s illustrations of two whimsical characters-a donkey-headed harp player and a clown [see fig. 3-13] suggest a desire to do more than simply illustrate Sterne's text While the illustrations of Austen Robb and Lawrence might be seen as incorporating both modes of "reading ," the renditions of Baldessari and Rowson are more clearly interpretative ; each in his own way acts to "lift the suspense and fulfil the text In contrast to his inclusion of a segment of Sterne s text in his artwork (which in a sense has the function of its denial as a verbal entity) Baldessari is less interested in representing the scene than presenting his cleverness with its interpretation which awaits the adulation of

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169 the artist's admirers. Although Rowson's rendition resembles earlier illustrations of the scene in some respects, his act of self-inclusion in the frame reflects his act of interpretation; he usurps Tristram's narrative voice and substitutes his own The array of explanatory and interpretative attitudes toward Sterne's text expressed in these illustrations of "Trim reading the sermon" might be seen as an analogue to the recent history of literary criticism From the end of the nineteenth to the early-twentieth centuries, critical strategy focused primarily on textual investigation, culminating in the careful analyses of the New Critical movement of the mid-twentieth century This critical approach would be considered explanatory using Ricoeur' s standard, since it emphasizes the elements inherent in the literary work. The artwork of Furniss, Wheelwright and Cleland parallel this critical approach by representing the comic, sentimental, or perhaps, "realistic" aspects of Sterne s texts. Even Austen's more abstract rendition projects the essence of the sermon-reading scene although its visual style might be seen as an analogue to modernist interests in minimalism and structuralism stressing form and movement over detail in his composition The portrayals of the scene by Robb and Laurence also project the essential elements of the scene, but their deviation from an explanatory attitude is suggested by Robb s addition of non-Sternean characters and Lawrence s style Criticism in this period (1948 to 1970) is likewise marked by the introduction of factors external to the text myth phenomenology and reader response to name a few to the discussion of literary works. As with the artwork of Robb and Austen critics frequently applied external analogues or philosophies in their readings suggesting at least an inclination toward interpretative attitudes.

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170 By 1988-the date ofBaldessari s artwork-criticism increasingly had utilized more rigorous philosophical and ideological approaches which sometimes quite deliberately created a schism between the commentary and the text itself The anti-referentiality of Baldessari's artwork finds a parallel in highly interpretative critical perspectives utilizing political gendered and anti-textual stances that were often more interested in the projection of the individual critic than in the elucidation of the text. The conspicuous self insertion of the critic into textual analysis is represented by Rowson s inclusion of himself as a character in the sermon-reading scene as well as the artist-first illustrations of Baldessari As a result the sermon itself-the central element of the scene the text within the text that is the subject of mock-critical discussion in the Shandy parlor-assumes a larger role ; it is not only the Abuses of Conscience ( a title which itself could relate to this critical history) but a universal symbol of the Literary Text as it becomes the focus of a wide variety of opinions over time, just as the illustrations of the scene between 1883 and 1995 seem to change perspectives to match contemporary critical commentary Through the visual portrayals of this universalized Literary Text we see the sermon-held b y Trim "loosely -not carelessly (TS II.17 142 1-2}---demonstrate the dogged persistence of the word itself, the battered logos which in spite of the shifting winds of opinion remains central to literary criticism.

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1. Letters of Laurence Sterne, ed. Lewis Perry Curtis (1935; Oxford : Clarendon, 1965), 99 Hereafter Letters 171 2 W. J. T. Mitchell, Iconology : Image, Text, Ideology (1986; Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press, 1987), 41 3. Mitchell 41. 4. In the absence of information indicating its origin, the possibility exists that either Sterne, or his publisher Dodsley, requested the second illustration, "The Christening of Tristram," from the artist. Hogarth's rendition of the scene originally appeared in the first edition of Volume Three in 1761. Melvyn New, noting that "both illustrations are of sacramental moments," comments that he "would like to believe Sterne directed Hogarth to the scene as was the case a year earlier" ("William Hogarth and John Baldessari : Ornamenting Tristram Shandy," Word & Image 11 :2 [1995]: 186) Certainly after being so enthusiastic and specific in his first request for the first illustration it is difficult to believe Sterne would have been ambivalent about providing prompts for the second 5 New 192 Hogarth's rendition is particularly attentive to the details in Sterne's text The clock in the illustration, while probably an allusion to Tristram's conception (and, perhaps, the focus on time in the book), clearly is not, as New points out (183), the "large house-clock which we had standing upon the back-stairs head" (The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman, ed. Melvyn New and Joan New [Gainesville, FL: U. Press ofFlorida, 1978], 1.4.6) which triggers Mrs. Shandy's infamous inquiry above New identifies the festoon as "the only object not originating in the text" (183) While it may have merely been a decorative embellishment on Hogarth's part, the festoon (or swag) may have symbolic significance. Swag is defined in the OED as "a wreath or festoon of flowers foliage, or fruit fastened up at both ends and hanging down in the middle, used as an ornament." The definition of festoon is "a chain or garland of flowers, leaves, etc., suspended in a curved form between two points"; noting its derivation from festa, the entry relates that "the etymological sense would thus be 'decoration for a feast."' It is worthwhile observing that festoons ( or swags) appear only rarely in Hogarth's works, and then only as an architectural (as opposed to a decorative) device. The definitions suggest several explanations for the festoon Its inclusion might relate to an as-yet-unidentified custom connected to celebrating the birth of a child (A parallel to this is Walter's later observation, on the death of Bobby, that "the Thracians wept when a child was born ... and feasted and made merry when a man went out of the world" [TS V.3.424], implying from contrary example that births may have been celebrated in some fashion.) Although less related to the text, the festoon may also be connected to a recent harvest festival-or the idea of a birth as a harvest.

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172 6 Some late-eighteenth-century editions of Tristram Shandy that include original art (such as London : Strahan 1780) reprint Hogarth s two illustrations as well ; many feature the Hogarth sermon-reading scene as the only illustration (such as Dublin: Henry Saunders, 1761 London : n p 1783 and 1790 and London : H. Symonds 1793) Significantly, no book illustrator appears to have attempted to compete with Hogarth by illustrating the sermon-reading scene until Harry Furniss in 1883 7 Significantly according to Thackeray s lectures Hogarth was held in high esteem during the Victorian era most likely because his great "novelistic series of prints such as Marriage a la Mode and The Harlot s Progress, can easily be interpreted as having a strong moral message. Regarding his depiction of morally questionable characters William Makepeace Thackeray points out "a glimpse of pity for his rogues never seems to enter honest Hogarth s mind" ( Hogarth Smollett, and Fielding in The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century [London : Smith Elder 1853] 222) To Thackeray Hogarth also has appeal as a recorder of the past: To a student of history these admirable works must be invaluable, as they give us the most complete and truthful picture of the manners, and even the thoughts, of the past century" (228) Although Hogarth depicts acts of lewdness ( and certainly a taste for this material existed among the Victorians), Thackeray sees the artist (in contrast to Sterne) as properly condemning immoral activity 8 Michael Fried Absorption and Theatricality : Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1980) 10 9 Leslie Stephen Hours in a Library (1892 ; New York : Johnson Reprint 1968) 3 : 153 10 Charles Whibley Studies in Frankness (1898 ; London : Kennikat 1970) 92 11 Whitwell Elwin, Sterne in Some XVIII Century Men of Letters ed Warwick Elwin (London : John Murray 1902) 2 : 56 12 Andrew Ellam From Sterne to Baldessari: The Illustration of Tristram Shandy ," 1760-1996, July 14 2001 , par. 21. 13 E A Baker Sterne in The History of the English Novel (1929 ; New York : Barnes and Noble 1950) 7:250 14. Baker 258 260 15 J.B. Priestley Introduction in The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy Gentleman (New York : Dodd Mead ; London: John Lane 1928) v 16 Henry James The Art of Fiction in The Art of Criticism ed William Veeder and Susan M. Griffin (Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1986) 173

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173 17 Priestley vi 18 Priestley v 19 Priestley viii. 20. Priestley v 21 It is uncertain whether Austen would have been able to visit Shandy Hall in Coxwold North Yorkshire, in the early-twentieth century, or in what condition he would have found it At that time it was a probably a home for farm laborers and in an advanced state of disrepair Arthur H. Cash comments that when he first saw the structure in 1965 "it stood forlornly empty its medieval timbers weakened by dry rot and death-watch beetle its garden a jungle (Laurence Sterne and Shandy Hall [Coxwold UK : Laurence Sterne Trust 1990] 13) 22. Wilbur L. Cross, Preface in The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne (1909 ; New Haven CT: Yale U. Press 1925) 1 : x 23 The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Macdonald 1949), 159 ; for the text in the Florida Edition see 11 7 160 24 John Cowper Powys Introduction in The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Macdonald 1949) 7 25 Powys 11. 26. Powys 27 27. Powys 32 28 John Traugott Sternean Realities : Excerpts from Seminars Chaired by John Traugott : 'New Directions in Sterne Criticism' and Gardner D. Stout Jr .: Sterne and Swift"' in The Winged Skull : Papers from the Laurence Sterne Bicentenary Conference ed Arthur H. Cash and John M Stedmond (Kent OH : Kent State U. Press 1971) 76 29 Traugott 77. 30 Announcing Tristram Shandy from the Arion Press" (San Francisco : Arion Press n d [c 1988]) : n p .. 31. New 183 32 Ellam par. 37

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174 33 New 185 34. Quoted by Gerrit Henry in "John Baldessari, Gentleman," The Print Collector s Newsletter 20 (1989) : 51. 35. New 192 36 New 192 37. Larry McCaffery, Introduction in Postmodern Fiction: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide, Movements in the Arts 2 (New York: Greenwood, 1986), xv. 38 See Robert Markley "Tristram Shandy and 'Narrative Middles': Hillis Miller and the Style ofDeconstructive Criticism in Deconstruction at Yale, ed Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer (Norman, OK: U. of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 179-90 39 Martin Rowson, "Hyperboling Gravity's Ravelin: A Comic Book Version of Tristram Shandy. Shandean 7 (1995) : 64, 66 40 Rowson 69 41. Christopher Fanning, "On Sterne's Page : Spatial Layout Spatial Form and Social Spaces in Tristram Shandy." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 10:4 (1998) : 430 See also Chapter 2 Part 2 107-08. 42. Mitchell 44 42. Paul Ricoeur, "What is a Text?" in Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences ed and trans John B. Thompson (Cambridge and New York : Cambridge U. Press ; Paris : Editions de la Maison des Sciences de I 'Homme 1981 ) 15 8 Although Ricoeur summarizes Dilthey' s points in order to dispute their oppositional relationship-an act of interpretative reading in itself-I will consider the two categories distinct for the purpose of my discussion. 43. Ricoeur 158

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Figure 3-1. 175 Illustration by Harry Furniss for Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : J.C Nimmo and Bain 1883)

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Figure 3-2 Jean-Baptiste Greuze Un Pere de famille qui lit la Bible a ses Infants (1755 ; polychrome oil on canvas) 176

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177 Figure 3-3. Illustration (polychrome) by Roland Wheelwright for Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Harap ; New York: Brentanos, 1929), 13 2

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178 Figure 3-4 Illustration by John Austen for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : John Lane ; New York : Dodd Mead, 1928), 104.

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Figure 3-5 Illustration (sepia-tinted black-and-white) by T M Cleland for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (New York : Heritage Press 1935), 80 179

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Figure 3-6 Illustration by Brian Robb for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Macdonald 1949), 145 180

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Figure 3-7. 181 Illustration by Brian Robb for Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Macdonald, 1949), 159

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182 Figure 3-8 lliustration by John Lawrence for Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Folio Society 1970) 101

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Figure 3-9 183 Illustration by John Lawrence for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Folio Society 1970) 112

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184 ....... : .... .. : . ..:.sut l>efore the Corporal l>egins, I must first giV~ : you a descrip.:. ...... tion of his attitude ;~tti.,.rwi$8 fjij wiO naturaUy stao d r:epresente~ by your irr1ag_iriat(c>.rt i n ail u o.&asy po$ture,~~tiif.~ PEJr:P&rtdicyhir -divttJingj:he heigf-tt o(flis body equally upoo > ,_ boitj)egs '. ttis Ety~J(l~A 8$]1 ofrd&.1ty;~his look determined, cnnehing ttje sermon in hi~ '. left .. h~nd. Oke hi~ firel"ock il ln wor.cl, you would be apt to paint Tr:im, as if he was standing in his pfatoonready for ~c;tio11 :--His altiti,ade wa, 8$ \.lnlike alJ thls ;as yo.u can conceive, .. .. .. (U, xvii, 116) Figure 3-10 Illustration (black-and-white with color insert) by John Baldessari for Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (San Francisco : Arion Press, 1988), n p ..

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He stood,-for I repeat it, to take the pict:ure of him in at one view, With his bo~v~w,v : d ; ~n <1 some wttat J>.~ht :forwa r ds. "":' h i s right leg fi r m under him ; sostaining seven ~ eighths of his whole weight -the foot.of his left leg, the defect ofwhich was no dis advantage to his attitude, advanced a little,-not laterally, nor forwards, but in a line betwixt them: his ~nee bent, but that not violently, but so as to fall within theJimits of the line of beauty:-and I add, of the line of science 100;-for consider. it had one eighth part of his body to bear up ; :-so that In this case the position of the; leg is determined,-becausethe foot coul-d be no further advanced, or the kn~e more bent, than what would alJow him, ,:r.u,clJl),ji (i aUy to i eceive an eigh t h p~rt of his whole weight under 1t, ~ andlc { cafrv if too. .. .. (11 xvii, 111) :.: 185 Figure 311 Illustration by John Baldessari for Laurence Sterne The Li fe and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman (San Franc i sco : Arion Press 1988) n p ..

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'v(f'\,\'1'?$n 11t1s IS 1Ht fAA,So>{ '(ofl."1.j~ S'fWtE ~ lllSNlr ~'4E+! 1'~ Cl)l;{~o >tSffr1Co ]'Sl(Cf4 Ol.)l<,tc., )(~ ~lUt \INl,OCXi~ "Bi\~ .1~.0 CltS~'f~ bHAtl~1riM! 186 Figure 312. From Martin Rowson The Life and Opinions of Tris t ram Shandy, Gentleman (Woodstock New York : Overlook Press 1997) n p ..

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Figure 3-13 Illustration by Brian Robb for Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London : Macdonald, 1949), title page detail. 187

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CHAPTER4 BENEVOLENT VISION: THE IDEOLOGY OF SENTIMENTALITY IN CONTEMPORARY ILLUSTRATION OF A SENTIMENT AL JOURNEY AND THE MAN OF FEELING Among the earliest book illustrations of A Sentimental Journey is a 1780 Edward Edwards portrayal of Yorick and Maria seated their attention focused intently on the sentimental symbol of the handkerchief in Yorick s hand [ see fig 4-1] Dense bushes and trees dominate the background stretching to the very edges of the picture ; the radiant somewhat disordered appearance of the leaves and limbs evokes both a rural wildness and a mood of transcending the mundane setting Sylvio lies placidly at Maria s feet suggesting a quieting of Yorick s animal nature in the presence of sincere melancholy The only hint of civilization is the rear of Yorick s remise partially visible i n the distance positioned almost as i f it is looking away. The figures are placed in theatrically exaggerated poses which accentuate the drama of the moment and they are dressed well though not opulently ; several distinguishing elements mentioned in the text (Yorick s clerical garb and wig Maria s pipe and loose hair) are absent; instead they seem to resemble members of the English middle class of the late-eighteenth century Maria is calm, reserved-looking and quietly introspective ; Yorick appears engaged but does not project the upheaval of undescribable emotions" 1 described in the text By depicting the characters in the illustration as members of the same social and economic class as the 188

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189 readers of the book, Edwards creates a connection between the fictional and the real and in doing so draws attention to the sentimental benevolence implied in Sterne s text. Contributing to the impact of this message is the quality of absorption identified by Michael Fried (after Denis Diderot) in relation to late-eighteenth-century paintings : that is the tendency of the figures in a picture to focus on a single object, which serves to enclose and dramatize the depicted moment. 2 Edwards s illustration demonstrates this quality both by resting on the supreme fiction that the beholder does not exist and by creating an internal casual and instantaneous mode of unity ." 3 The characters' concentrated gaze on the handkerchief, then not only reinforces the object s centrality as a symbol of benevolence and fidelity, but by promoting the quality of absorption generates a unified poignant, and ultimately more instructive moment than Sterne s text by itself By stressing Yorick s sympathy for the attractive (but vulnerable) Maria in a remote rural setting, Edwards portrays an exemplary moment of compassion and self-contro l. His flat almost two-dimensional illustration seems to convey meaning beyond a simple description of character and scene and contributes to an iconography of sentiment that will be visually reinforced over the next thirty years by the illustrators of Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey and Henry Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling In this chapter I will analyze illustrations from these works and demonstrate their tendency toward the depiction of ethical behavior that is seemingly recommended by the texts. The contemporary illustrations of these works provide a historically privileged perspective on the texts that assigns a didactic role to sentimental expression ; in both the written and visual depictions this didacticism finds its metonym in specific locations

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190 I want first to i dentify several different types of sentimental expression and second to link them to the particular locations in which they occur The close coordination between different types of sentimental behavior and different places denoted visually by several illustrators suggests that these scenes acted as lessons in sensibility for increasingly urbanized and tough-minded city dwellers. The illustrations I propose functioned not only as overall programs advocating the adoption of sympathetic perspectives but also as models recommending appropriately moral behavior in certain circumstances that were associated with specific locations The notion of the sentimental in the works of Sterne and Mackenzie is perhaps most fundamentally defined either as possessing elevated and refined intellectual feeling or simply as possessing sympathy. 4 This idea has more recently been recognized as physical and verbal as well as emotional and intellectual ; John Mullan for example observes that the articulacy of sentiment is produced via a special kind of inward attention : a concern with feeling as articulated by the body .. .. transcending the influences of speech 5 The projection of delicate fellow-feeling can indeed elude verbal expression as Mullan argues but as the early illustrators of A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling suggest this projection does not end with the human body In fact both the verbal and the visual texts describe locations that share in the physical definition of sentimental moments and hence establish their own vocabulary of sentimenta l discourse The illustrations underline the fact that the place in which the body finds itself helps determine the bodily experience of sentimental and sympathetic exchanges Another approach to the visualization of sentiment is put forth by Melvyn New who notes that each episode [ of A Sentimental Journey] suggests the value of nonv erbal

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191 communication and, at the same time, explores the failure of language in the search for 'connection. "' 6 In a sense, the dilemma of"connection" explored in Sterne's work is dramatized by its illustrators, who reinforce the words of sentiment with a visual language that communicates a type of non-verbal expression similar to what the written text describes. The pictorial arsenal of the visual artist, then, becomes the means of bridging the communicative gap between the author's words and the reader, while emphasizing a distinctively didactic element of the text To some degree, Mackenzie's work also shares an exploration of the problem of"connection," although Harley seemingly experiences less success in forging emotional bonds. The "non-verbal communication" visually expressed in depictions of both texts stresses the need for the physical "connection" lacking in language alone and, in doing so, suggests a benevolence based on actions, not words. Although sentimental ideology is conveyed in the texts, it remains only a verbal idea; when the words are imaginatively embodied in pictures, however, the vicarious "connections" that are made more effectively suggest an ethical code. Sentimentalism was a strong cultural force in the forty years after the publication of these works, and the artwork that accompanies the work of Mackenzie and more especially Sterne,' I contend, echoes and enhances the didactic message of the texts. The illustrations examined in conjunction with this argument are, with one exception, all from editions of A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling published before 1810 I was only able to obtain two illustrated editions of The Man of Feeling for this study; my research reveals that possibly only five were published before 1810, as opposed to at least fourteen illustrated editions of Sterne's work in this period. Sterne was reprinted more often than Mackenzie during this time (100 editions to 49), 8 which partially explains the

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192 lack of illustration, but might also suggest that Sterne's emphasis on successful social intercourse proved more inviting to visual depiction than did Mackenzie's more subdued text Thus the scarcity of illustrated editions of Mackenzie aids rather than impedes my argument, supporting my assertion that visual artists recognized visual cues more frequently in A Sentimental Journey than in The Man of Feeling Rather than attempt an encyclopedic listing of every instance of sympathy or fellow feeling in The Man of Feeling and A Sentimental Journey, I will instead focus on several passages in each work that demonstrate climactic incidents of sentimental communion between characters and pair them with contemporary illustrations of the passages illuminating aspects of the sentimental text that modem eyes frequently overlook Because both works express so many nuances of sentiment, it might be useful first to group these sentimental moments by certain distinctive features the most significant of which turns out to be the actual location of each sentimental encounter, a particularly useful distinction in considering their didactic effect. A breakdown of sentimentalism into separate categories in this way is aided-and even encouraged-by the episodic structure of the works themselves Using the locations featured in contemporary illustrations as a guide I will analyze sentimentalism as it functions in social domestic, pathetic and erotic spheres in A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling: a fifth type of sentiment the romantic, exists in the texts but its physical location and thus its visual depiction is elusive 9 Social sentiment is evident in Edwards's second illustration for the 1780 edition o f Works which depicts the exchange of snuff boxes between Yorick and the monk Lorenzo with Madame de L *** looking on [see fig 4-2]. Yorick's neat gentlemanly att i re

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193 contrasts with the monk s austere robes and sandals but the two clerics looking intently into each other's face share a moment of transcendent fellow-feeling at the very moment the snuffboxes (resembling small bowls in Edwards's interpretation) change hands The emphasis on the moment of physical exchange mirrors the exchange of feelings visible here through bodily and facial expression A blanket or large bag lies behind the figures and tufts of grass sprout near the monk s feet. Madame de L * holds a closed fan suggesting a relaxed attitude and a willingness to participate in the fellow-feeling of the moment. The surroundings hint at urban development : a large tile-roofed, two-story structure (presumably the hotel) rises to the left, behind the remise In the background a sprawling tree is contained behind a wall containing it outside the polite arena of the courtyard; just as the sentiment divides the men in the picture from the ungenerous more confrontational parts of their natures so the wall divides the natural world into its savage and its benevolent aspects The exchange between Yorick and the monk seems to stress both their social differences ( as expressed by their dress) and the public venue in which their sentimental communion takes place As in Edwards s depiction of Maria and Yorick the gestures of the figures seem exaggerated and unnaturally frozen in position suggesting both the stiflhess and symbolic import of hieroglyphs The atmosphere of Yorick s second meeting with the monk Lorenzo the e x change of snuff boxes negotiated through the language of gesture as much as of speech is perhaps best described by the stream of good nature in his [the monk s] eyes (ASJ 101) as he accepts the gift from Yorick. The exchange symbolizes the recognition of a fraternal bond between two like-minded and ultimately like-named strangers and provides an e x ample of fellow-feeling subsuming pride Mullan s observation about the need for visual signals

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194 to express sentiment is especially applicable here ; with its focus on postures and gestures," the scene asserts his view of the potential of sensibility to be "both private and public 10 Social sentiment as projected in this scene, is characterized by the nearly spontaneous fellow-feeling between strangers or near-strangers and usually takes place on a street or road public venues associated with random meetings Yorick perhaps best defines social sentiment when he asks "are we not all relations? ( ASJ 191 ) asserting an implicit if invisible interconnectedness among all mankind This idea is repeated by Harley when he reminds the school mistress "let us never forget that we are all relations ." 1 1 This type of sentiment is also evident in the actions of the little French debonaire captain who came dancing down the street (ASJ 107) and placed himself between Yorick and the female traveler, later identified as Madame de L * Carrying his introduction in his demeanor (apparently like La Fleur who as I note later has "a passport in his very looks [ASJ 149]) the minor character of the captain is never truly a stranger nor does he allow others to be strangers to him He immediately establishes a social fellow-feeling with Yorick and the lady in the public venue; and by asking Et Madame a son Mari? (ASJ 108) he formally cements the bond of fellow-feeling that Yorick and Madame de L * had previously developed A variation of social sentiment is portrayed in the 1809 illustration by Louis Lafitte [see fig 4-3] which depicts Harley s discovery of old Edwards who lay fast asleep on the ground (MF 59) 12 along the public road There is an immediate marking of characte r in the attitudes of the figures : Harley s active and dynamic pose (the angle of his walking stick suggests he has just taken a step backwards) contrasts with the inert almost

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195 collapsed figure of old Edwards, whose slumped position evokes sympathy from the viewer just as it does from Harley in the text. As in the 1780 illustration of Yorick and the monk there is a marked contrast in costume between the dapper and elaborate dress of Harley and the disarrayed uniform of old Edwards ; even Harley s elegant walking stick opposes Edwards s simple staff although, significantly they both rest at the same angle hinting at an emot i onal alignment between the characters Beyond the worn but inherently attractive landscape-a visual projection of old Edwards s ennobling trials lie on the left several buildings which along with the sign post mark the sett i ng of Harley s pending benevolence as very public Lafitte seems to be responding to-and augmenting-a specific textual cue that describes Harley, gazing on old Edwards with the most earnest attention "; the text adds that Edwards was one of those figures which Salvator would have drawn ," and goes on to describe the picturesque setting which includes fantastic shrub-wood and a rock with some dangling wild flowers (MF 59) Lafitte is meticulous in his recording of this narrative detail down to the gibbet-l i ke "finger-post, to mark the directions of two roads (MF 59) This finger-post is associated with the neat and angular Harley while the sprawled Edwards personifies the picturesque qualities of the blasted tree and the crumbling ruin on which he rests Mackenzie s reference to the painter Salvator Rosa (1615-1673) along with his particularly visual description in addition to being an invitation to potential illustrators and an overt homage to the picturesque acts as a means of stressing the visual magnitude of the moment increasing the reader s recept i vity to Edwards's plight. Harley s re-acquaintance with the old soldier Edwards on a public road is first and foremost a communion of feelings between two seemingly unacquainted

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196 individuals who might just as easily have assumed an attitude of ambivalence or even animosity toward each other. Instead Harley's reading ofEdwards s face ( he had that steady look of sorrow which indicates that its owner has gazed upon his griefs till he has forgotten to lament them" [MF 60]) provokes his sympathetic offer and his charitable gesture of taking Edwards s knapsack, and eventually leads to their mutual recognition 1 2 The 1803 illustration of The Passport by William Marshall Craig [see fig 4-4] emphasizes the relaxed social interaction between two male strangers whose fellow-feeling (symbolized by their common interests in Shakespeare and the opposite se x ) provides the foundation for a sentimental bond The semi-public setting of the Count' s salon is the arena in which official business (in this case Yorick's solicitation of help in obtaining a passport) is not an end in itself, but rather an opportunity to meet a like-minded indi vi dual. Comfortably seated with one arm tossed over the back of his chair and one foot perched on his knee the Count de B * * looks on while the grinning Englishman in an attempt to relate his name lay d my finger upon YoRicK (ASJ 221) in an open volume of Hamlet. This moment parallels the earlier episode of social sentiment with the French captain in that the establishment of the formal bond of social introduction is comically (and tellingly) secondary to an emotional bond instantly forged by visual contact. The difference in costume here suggests that this informal moment is being shared by members of different classes ; the Count s ruffled cuffs and medallion contrast with Yorick's pla i ner clothing an aspect more obvious in the original hand-tinted polychrome in which the various blues of the Count's vest breeches and jacket vividly oppose Yorick's somber black costume The layers of meaning in Craig s rendition of this scene-official convivial social-re i terate the multivalent nature of the sentiment expressed in Sterne s text

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197 As an example of social sentiment, Yorick's meeting with the Count de B**** regarding his passport demonstrates how official business could be conducted in a sensitive and humane-rather than a coldly efficient and emotionless-manner. The Count de B**** listens to Yorick's story "with great good nature" (ASJ 216) and tells him not to worry; their amiable conversation rapidly veers to their mutual interests in literature, the opposite sex, and national characteristics and social visits In Yorick's case, this sympathetic means of doing business is very practical, for he obtains the passport and, it seems, a new and intimate acquaintance in the Count. The social sentiment depicted in these renditions suggests a transcendence of social status through the illustration of a democratizing emotional and moral similarity among all people The sense of universality is poignantly illustrated by the "sons and daughters of poverty" (ASJ 132) in the courtyard in Montriul who politely refuse Yorick s proffered charity, redirecting it to the neediest within their group; in doing so they demonstrate civility seemingly inappropriate to their status, yet credibly rendered due to the stress on mutual fellow-feeling Yorick comments on the anomaly, asking "for what wise reasons hast thou order' d it that beggary and urbanity, which are at such variance in other countries, should find a way to be at unity in this?" (ASJ 132). Yorick's wistful inquiry to a "just heaven" (ASJ 132) implies a further question, however : if French beggars can exhibit a spontaneous civility born of sentiment, then why can't all men? Scholars of late-eighteenth-century English culture note a historical foundation underlying the need for the public civility that social sentiment could inspire G J. Barker Benfield notes that, in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century "streets and other public places remained susceptible to intrusion from the impolite" ; and that "fictional men

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198 of feeling . welcomed hetereosociality in the facilities supplied by the urban renaissance." 13 Barker-Benfield's observation that the shift was both cultural and spatial is refined further by Michele Cohen, who enlarges John Brewer's definition of politeness ("a complete system of manners and conduct based on the arts of conversation") by placing it "at the heart of the sociability that developed in the social and cultural spaces of the new urban culture of early eighteenth-century England." 14 The illustrations of Yorick's interaction with the French captain, the monk, and the Count de B * *, as well as Harley's meeting with old Edwards, all assert a sensibility that creates a comfortable, and possibly amiable, public sphere by positing an emotional and spiritual kinship that could kindle sympathetic feelings among all men. The second mode of sentiment I would like to discuss, the domestic, is evident in the 1795 portrayal of"The Grace" by Richard Newton [see fig 4-5], which depicts the jovial camaraderie of a happy and fruitful family in a distinctly rural setting Yorick is central to the scene, seated on the "sopha of turf' between the "old man and his wife" (ASJ 283), but his clothing and his somber expression set him apart from the fluid and ethereal dance he raptly observes Although Sterne did not include any children in his scene, Newton enhances its domestic quality by depicting a child in the lap of the mother, weaving maternal sentiment into the overall idea of "Grace The stone farm house suggests the enduring, possibly mythic, relevance of the moment. Above Yorick's head hangs a bird cage, an object that harmonizes the illustration with an earlier moment in A Sentimental Journey. when the starling invokes sympathy from Yorick; the appearance of the cage here ties both Yorick and the starling into the same sympathetic web as the dance. The assorted figures in the dance-graceful, delicate women and angular, big-footed men

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199 form a harmony of opposites while paying conspicuous homage to the painting The Country Dance by William Hogarth the first illustrator of Sterne by depicting his sinuous line of beauty in the dancers movements The costumes of the two dancing men hint at the power of the dance-and domestic sentiment-to reconcile class difference : one figure wears a tri-comered hat adorned with a cockade a lace-fronted and lace-cuffed shirt and what seems to be a military jacket while the other also wearing lace cuffs is dressed i n a simpler jacket and cap ; their female partners are dressed as rural peasants A character in enormous jack-boots presumably Le Fleur stands off to the side but his fixed gaze and broad smile suggest his mental engagement in the revels The style ofNewton s rendition successfully blends elements of the comic with a description of the spiritual much as Sterne himself does in his text Taken as a whole, the composition and linear grace o f this illustration asserts both the earthly and spiritual benefits of happy domesticity As opposed to the conspicuously public aspect of social sentiment domestic sentiment is most often portrayed in and around modest dwellings and represents a bonding sympathy between members of a household and importantly extends to welcomed guests A significant but subtle statement of domestic sentiment occurs before The Grace ," when Yorick happens upon a little farm-house surrounded with about twenty acres of vineyard about as much com-and close to the house on one side was a potagerie of an acre and a half, full of every thing which could make plenty in a French peasant s house (ASJ 281) The bountiful scene is a reflection of the fecund resident family which consists of a n old grey-headed man and his wife with five or six sons and sons-in-law and their severa l wives and a joyous genealogy out of em (ASJ 281 ) As Yorick describes their after dinner dance which becomes The Grace," it becomes apparent that the earthly bless i ngs

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200 enjoyed by this family-the farm s plenty and their own abundant company-are basically manifestations of a simple deeply held sympathy with each other and the world around them : It was not till the middle of the second dance, when, from some pauses in the movement wherein they all seemed to look up I fancied I could distinguish an elevation of spirit different from that which is the cause or the effect of simple jollity.-In a word I thought I beheld Religion mixing in the dance (ASJ 283-84) The link between sentiment and religion in this domestic scenario is reinforced by Yorick's observation of the confluence between the two in a passage shortly before his arrival at the farmhouse in which he praises the great SENSORIUM of the world! which vibrates if a hair of our heads but falls upon the ground in the remotest desert of thy creation (ASJ 278), a passage which resounds with Scriptural echoes Here the rural family s domestic sentiment is more than a sympathetic link between its members ; it is also a conduit to and from a deity who cradles the world in the grasp of its sensitive and providential care Mackenzie perhaps best depicts domestic sentiment in Edwards s relation of an episode in his little farmhouse on Christmas Eve where his "son s two little ones were holding their gambols around us ; my heart warmed at the sight : I brought a bottle of my best ale and all our misfortunes were forgotten" (MF 63) The cozy domesticity of this scene is mirrored later in Mackenzie s work albeit darkened by the shadow of tragedy : after Harley establishes Edwards on a small farm with his orphaned grandchildren the old man, with a look half turned to Harley and half to heaven breathed an ejaculation of gratitude and piety (MF 71) Harley is particularly proud of his role in this re establishment of the good man s domesticity, remarking that upon his initial return with Edwards s family his enjoyment was as great as if he had arrived from the tour of

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201 Europe with a Swiss valet for his companion, and half a dozen snuff-boxes, with invisible hinges, in his pocket" (MF 70) His recognition of the worthlessness of"Fashion, Bon ton, and Vertu," which "are the names of certain idols, to which we sacrifice the genuine pleasures of the soul" (MF 70) further reinforces Mackenzie's assertion that in the pleasures of domestic sentiment lie the foundations for true happiness. Like Newton's "Grace," the figures in George Cruikshank's 1832 "The Dance at Amiens" [see fig. 4-6] also project Sterne's delicate balance between humor and delicate feeling, emphasizing the comic aspect of the moment without detracting from the harmony implied in the depiction Here the celebration is set in a large, well-equipped kitchen, and the spiral array of the figures frozen in mid-motion suggests a continuous movement of dance, which, like "The Grace," has a significance that reverberates beyond its immediate time and place The seeming disarray within the frame conceals a careful compositional balance : the fireplace opposes the open door, and three figures with uplifted hands create the boundaries within which Le Fleur, the fille de chambre, and a vigorously dancing male figure construct a smaller, more intimate circle; together the concentric circles form a concentric universe and suggest an underlying harmony amidst the riotous celebration This all-embracing microcosm even includes two dogs, who, forsaking four legs for two, become humanized in their attempt to join in the festivities. A figure at the far left peeks in through an open door, drawn into the movement's joyous gravity. The open door beckoning visitors to join in the festivity and the pot in the fireplace, along with Le Fleur's enlivening presence in the household, contribute to the suggestion that domestic sentiment is an inclusive, rather than exclusive, phenomenon Cruikshank's depiction is stylistically linked to an even older tradition of humorous illustration of Sterne's text begun by

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Hogarth and continued by Bunbury, Newton, and Rowlandson 15 Cruikshank s work might be seen as a move away from the purely sentimental depiction of A Sentimental Journey as cultural interest in sentimentalism began to shift ; but in contrast to its comic surface, the artist's illustration projects a deep sense of joyous harmony in its domestic setting 202 In Sterne s text the dance itself is set into motion by the polite necessity of Count de L*** s servant having to reciprocate Le Fleur's kind gesture of a cup or two (ASJ 149) of wine an exchange of drink which mirrors the exchange of sentiment among servants that escalates into an explosion of merriment and fellow-feeling The cohesion of warm emotion among fellow servants in the cozy environment of the kitchen creates an atmosphere of joyous domestic sentiment less profound but similar to the scene of The Grace This is at least partially enabled by Le Fleur who is described as having a passport in his very looks ," and who has set every servant in the kitchen at ease with him (ASJ 149) ; almost spontaneously La Fleur starts playing his fife (one of his few talents was the ability to "play a march or two upon the fife [ASJ 124]) and leading off the dance himself with the first note ," he sets the fille de chambre the maitre d hotel the cook the scullion and all the houshold dogs and cats besides an old monkey a-dancing (ASJ 149) The absurdly inclusive roster of participants reminiscent of Sterne s breathless lists in Tristram Shandy. implies the presence of a kind of universalized sentiment and the engagement of animals in the moment makes the sentiment even more universal. More spontaneous and lacking the actual consanguinity of The Grace ," this episode in the domestic space of a kitchen implies a shared fellow-feeling among all people (and all creatures for that matter) that waits for provocation to surface

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203 These instances of domestic sentiment in A Sentimental J oumey and The Man of Feeling and, perhaps more so, their illustrations, depict what Barker-Benfield calls sentimentalism's "elevation of social ties and affections" which contrast with "the selfish and antisocial values of the world," 16 while also portraying the continuation of the ancient conflict between urban and rural, cosmopolitan and domestic Thus, as John Brewer notes, sensibility, although comparable to an urban idea of "politeness," nonetheless "accorded better with the more sober, domestic character of provincial life." 17 Similarly, Jeffrey L. Duncan noted years ago that the abiding impression of"The Grace" is the "goodness of these humble people who share the moral perfection traditionally concomitant with their idyllic life 18 What these illustrators specifically help us see in the texts of Sterne and Mackenzie, perhaps, is that the lesson of politeness stemming from sympathy was not only directed toward the upper class longing for an ideal, patrician relationship with the rest of society, but that among middleand lower-class readers, there was, quite possibly a real and prevalent desire to believe in the moral efficacy of simple domestic life. A similar emphasis on domestic sentiment may be found in other works of this period, such as Oliver Goldsmith's poem, "The Deserted Village" and William Cowper's poem, "The Task." That is to say the domestic sentiment expressed in these scenes both verbal and visual, consistently suggests a universal fellowship of feeling among all men. Just as in the case of the social sentiment expressed by the beggars in Montriul (and by old Edwards), these instances of domestic sentiment run counter to the modernist assumption that sensibility was the sole province of educated urbanites as reflected by Shaftesbury's exclusionary vision and exemplified in Robert Markley' s sweeping generalization that, "the

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204 ideology of sentiment .. explicitly promotes narrowly conservative and essentialist views of class relations ." 1 9 More accurate I believe is John Mullan s observation : especially in the writings of Richardson and Sterne sensibility is not necessarily credited as a possession uniquely of the educated and property-owning .... certain servants or industrious members of the lower classes can have access to sensibility as natural gestural expression "; 20 this would seem to infer a broader appeal and more egalitarian stance for sentiment than Markley' s reading allows and is borne out by both the texts and illustrations discussed here as well as by the work of proletarian poets such as Robert Bums This development of sensibility in the second half of the eighteenth century a clear shift away from the social elitism of Shaftesbury suggests the possibility-or at least the desirability-of a democratizing equivalence of feeling among all classes in society The third mode of sentiment I will discuss the pathetic, is manifested in the 1 794 illustration ofMaria and Yorick by M. Archer [see fig 4-7], which depicts the pair after Maria gives Tristram s handkerchief to Yorick and then plays her service to the Virgin (ASJ 274) on her pipe After she returned to herself, they both rise and Yorick offers to accompany her to Moulines ; in response Maria put her arm within mine (ASJ 274) In this illustration Yorick is shown supporting Maria her limp arm entwined in his sturdy one while he makes an equally strong gesture with his left hand ; Maria lingers a step behind her face downcast while Sylvie sports alongside on his tether Most interesting perhaps is the way Yorick s gaze is turned directly almost awkwardly toward Maria s face ; his effort to connect with her through the eyes as he does so often with charac t ers (the grisette being the prime example) is here thwarted by Maria s withdrawn stance-the angle of her head tilted and downcast along with the sagging of her body denotes her

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205 double distress and seemingly impenetrable woe-still clearly Yorick is trying to reach her The dense stand of trees to the left and the still water to the right seem at a dimensional remove, physically isolated while they act to isolate the moment. The strength of Yorick s movements casts him in a heroic form as he seems to be pulling the languid Maria away from the cave-like darkness formed by two tree trunks toward the light perhaps symbolic of a more hopeful future 2 1 Both overtly and symbolically the illustration seems to advocate benevolent personal intervention on behalf of the mentally distressed Pathetic sentiment is defined here as an exchange between a suffering being and a sympathetic listener/viewer Pathetic sentiment always seems to involve a victim who engages her ( though sometimes his) witness in her distress through the relating of a story and the signaling of tears. The establishment of a connection between the two characters ( a process which necessarily engages the reader as well) is based almost entirely on a tale of undeserved woe and the victim rarely is described as having any fault other than an affectionate and sensitive disposition-so sensitive in fact that distraction or madness seems a commonplace result. The episode in A Sentimental Journey featuring Maria provides the archtypical example of pathetic sentiment by projecting an isolated two person tableau. Yorick discovers her through "a little opening in the road leading to a thicket .. under a poplar-she was sitting with her elbow in her lap, and her head leaning on one side within her hand-a small brook ran at the foot of the tree (ASJ 270) Maria s location-seemingly the same place to which Sterne left the character in Book IX of Tristram Shandy-emphasizes isolation a place where the offended creature of nature banishes herself in a futile attempt at reconciliation with her woeful reality

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206 Pathetic sentiment-spurred by a cause similar to Maria's-surfaces in The Man of Feeling in the "dismal mansions" (MF 19) of Bedlam, where, in a practice well-known to Londoners of the eighteenth century, a party of curiosity-seekers visits for a day's entertainment Harley, after interacting with several seemingly satirical "wise" men, is led to the women's quarters and notices an inmate "whose appearance had something of superior dignity" (MF 21). She "showed a dejection of that decent kind, which moves our pity unmixed with horror" (MF 21), and her story, related by the keeper, exacts from Harley "the tribute of some tears" (MF 22) The "unfortunate young lady"-she never is named-is, like Maria, driven partially insane by lost love, the recollection of which is revived by the handling of physical symbols; her "little garnet ring" (MF 22), like Maria's dog, is a reminder of her happy past. While the young lady in Bedlam does not share Maria's countryside setting, she and Harley, like Maria and Yorick, form a sentimental tableau of victim and sympathizer, equally isolated from their surroundings Incomplete beings, each pair finds completion in the other, excluding the rest of the world in the intensity of their communion. In fact, the infernal chaos of Bedlam, separated both psychologically and physically from the urban environment, is itself suspended in the formation of a sentimental moment which is, in many ways, as emotionally delicate as Maria's scene under the poplar. The description of the run-down dwelling of the disgraced Emily Atkins in The Man of Feeling projects a similar isolation, although it is set in yet a different type of environment. The sentimental exchange of her storytelling and Harley's sympathetic reception takes place "up three pair of stairs" in a "small room lighted by one narrow lattice" (MF 37) In this enclave, the site of the young woman's shame, Harley and Emily form a strongly

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207 framed sympathetic tableau which, like the scene in Bedlam effectively screens out the dismal surroundings This enclosing tableau heightens the impact of the passage s direct plea for charity that is aimed particularly at woman readers : Oh! did the daughters of virtue know our sufferings . . Their censures are just but their pity perhaps might spare the wretches whom their justice should condemn (MF 45) Unlike previous scenes of pathos which only i mply a didactic message the legend of this sentimental tableau is explicitly stated In this location which represents Emily s moral and emotional downfall Harley s behavior shows receptivity to Emily's plea : he is not at all motivated b y sexual or worldly desire and is markedly sensitive toward her individual plight-in a word he is ethical and it seems to be the isolated encounter of the sufferer and the comforter that forms the heart of the ethical moment. The feeling heart binds the narrator to his single subject in a manner that defines an emotional proscription of space shared by the sufferer and the sympathizer The spat i al analogue to this type of sentimental relationship is suggested in Stothard s 1792 illustration of Yorick contemplating the caged starling [ see fig 4-8] barely visible at the top of the picture where his fellow-feeling for the bird is imaged by the box-like passageway that forms a virtual cell around the foregrounded pair. In this instance the caged enclosure of the bird is echoed by the walled enclosure of Yorick and hence sufferer and comforter are bound together both physically and emotionally isolated from the bustle and act i vity of the world at the other end of a dark and barren alley Stothard s illustration helps us to see something in Sterne s text that might not otherwise be apparent-namely that Yorick s encounter with the bird depends on the isolated tableau the scene describes The bold and full presentation of Yorick emphasizes the s y mpathetic

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208 nature of his communion with the bird an elevated but proportionately minimal figure Yorick s sturdy pose which resembles Archer's depiction of him with Maria denotes physical strength to complement his sympathy both of which are necessary for the successful relief o f misery The isolation of the pair is particularly significant as well : only "in private ," in camera (and the image partakes of the form of what one sees in the camera obscura) can one allow for the full and ethical response to the plight of t he caged bird ; but in private--because it is private-Yorick s response is transformed from the ludicrous to the ethical and the feeling heart is bound to a fellow-creature in a foundational act of sympathy-one-to-one In addition Stothard s reflection on Sterne s abolitionist subtext is hinted at by the inclusion of an unfettered dark-skinned possibly turbaned figure leaning on a staff dimly visible in the background The 1802 illustration of The Captive by Gerard Rene Le Villain [see fig 4-9] is actually a picture within a picture depicting both the powerfully imagined pathetic scene and Yorick's reaction to it. The inner image portrays the bearded Captive stooped in his stone cell hands and feet in chains holding in his hand one of his l i ttle calender of small sticks (ASJ 202) ; some light streams in through the iron-grated door and the entire scene is encircled by something like the mist of Yorick s imagination The outer enclosing image portrays a fashionably dressed Yorick in the elegantly furnished room of the hotel complete with ornate bed chairs desk and even elaborate ceiling moldings Y orick i s turning away from his imagined victim with a dramatic gesture one hand trying to stop the vision while the other seizes his forehead in reaction to his own sympathet i c despair The legend confirms the moment of sentimental climax : I could not sustain the picture of confinement which my fancy had drawn ," which is Yorick s response to seeing the "i ron

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209 enter[ing] his [the Captive's] soul" (ASJ 203) The fantastic and histrionic elements in this illustration might be seen to have practical purposes : The well-appointed room and Yorick's elegant (and certainly not priest-like) costume seem to address this episode to the middle and upper classes, whose sympathy at this time was being solicited most particularly by abolitionist organizations; in this sense, Le Villain's depiction of the Captive might be seen as a pragmatic advertisement formed from the antislavery message in Sterne's text-complete with a light-skinned victim with whom they could easily sympathize. Although some critics desire to identify the Captive as an incarcerated criminal (Markley labels him simply a "prisoner," 22 while Lorenz Eitner remarks acidly, "the thought that the sufferer might be a felon is not likely to trouble the sympathetic beholder" 23 ), Yorick clearly finds his "single captive" among "the millions of my fellow creatures born to no inheritance but slavery" (ASJ 201), and he had previously exclaimed, "Disguise thyself as thou wilt, still slavery! .. still thou art a bitter draught ... thousands in all ages have been made to drink of thee" (ASJ 199). Although some of Sterne's statements seem more generally humanitarian than specifically anti-slavery, critics who overlook these specific references to slavery in their quest for an exploitative sentimentalism not only do Sterne's text a disservice, but also nullify its significant social direction of using fellow-feeling as a springboard to social reform. Markman Ellis notes that the scene has "not been treated as part of Sterne's discourse on slavery" and suggests that "the theme of slavery is perhaps an ideally suited raw material for a sentimentalised expression 24 Sterne's passage (and perhaps more so Le Villain's illustration) remains at

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its core an emotional passage condemning the inhumanity of any type of captivity on moral grounds 210 While these scenes occur in different types of settings they reinforce the consistency of a tableau-like isolation as a representative characteristic of pathetic sentiment The background typically loses significance in these scenes Gust as the street scene is minimized in Stothard s portrayal of Yorick and the starling) This visual treatment reiterates the verbal text s tendency to focus all attention on the foreground portrayal of the victim and his or her sympathizer ; this approach to the presentation of pathetic sentiment, verbal or visual very effectively engages the sympathy of the reader / viewer by directing his or her attention intently and forcefully on the pathos of the moment. In fact the different locations of pathetic sentiment the "dismal mansion of Bedlam the seat under the poplar the shabby room the cage, and the gloomy dungeon-share a sense of isolation from the world, and this physical separation augments the pathos of these scenes by emphasizing the emotional distance between the victim and the rest of society. In actuality this geographical distance actual or virtual, may have provided opportunities for unscrupulous and unsympathetic exploiters (men in particular) of the distressed and the intimate scenes described by Sterne and Mackenzie may be seen as offering a counterargument for and guidance in legitimate sympathetic behavior. Ellis explains "sentimental scenarios work by being personalised unique and discrete so as to place the maximum pressure on the relation between the subject and the viewer 25 The isolation of the sufferer and sympathizer inevitably emphasizes the moral aspect of pathetic sentiment which is most effectively relayed and received on a one-to-one basis ; to a degree the viewer of the illustration shares in this intimacy as well The contemporary art i sts who

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211 render A Sentimental Journey emphasize the text's tendency to stage pathetic sentiment in isolated locations that are transformed into sites of delicate fellow-feeling and in the process enhance the text s recommendation for revised cultural attitudes toward insanity the abandonment of women, prostitution, and slavery The fourth and last mode of sentiment, the erotic, is set forth in Thomas Rowlandson' s lightly detailed, almost comic 1808 illustration of "Yorick Feeling the Grisset' s Pulse [ see fig 4-10]. Yorick, in somber black and seated causally with his legs crossed at the knees (in a feminine style perhaps reflecting his delicate approach to seduction) gingerly cradles the grisset's wrist with one hand while the other hand is intriguingly hidden The grisset whose thick, inelegant arm and strong features help identify her as working class has her feet positioned as if she is ready to spring up, and her eyes are focused intently on her husband; her mind seems open to his attentions while her body is given over to Yorick The husband-who occupies the space between the dark and private depths of the shop and the bustling public arena of the street-bows cordially, hat in hand ; the fancy garb portrayed by Rowlandson here raises the character several notches in social rank over his description in Sterne's text perhaps suggesting that middle and upper class males might emulate what looks like the husband's genteel tolerance in a situation that could have erupted in violence. A tension between restraint and sexual energy is suggested by the contrasting figure of the monk, seemingly frowning on the activities in the shop from the busy street outside, and the pert poodle and smiling head mannequin near the grisset ; these bold and bright symbols of sensuality win out in the composition against the distant and dim figure of the monk Here private space borders the public area but erotic sentiment

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212 and emotional bonds overwhelm both-Yorick does not release the wrist the grisset does not shrink-and Rowlandson clearly gives the palm to the sexual 26 Throughout A Sentimental Journey. Yorick's establishment of fellow-feeling with female characters conceals a barely-disguised discreetly reciprocated sexual intent. This erotic mode of sentiment is frequently expressed in urban surroundings but at a remove from the eye of the world in a private sphere ensconced in the public 27 For instance Yorick looking for someone to provide him with directions to the Opera comique ," walks along "in search of a face not likely to be disordered by such an interruption (ASJ 161) His prerequisite for social intercourse is a sympathetic character and the grisset confirms his choice with her spoken response of "most willingly and the physical act of rising up from the low chair she was sitting in, with so chearful a movement and so chearful a look (ASJ 161 ) Here the mutual recognition of a sympathetic bond between Yorick and the grisset creates an understanding on which to base their momentary erotic exchange suggestively manifested when Yorick tries on a pair of gloves and as Rowlandson depicts takes the grisset s pulse ; these exhibits of "sentiment take place in the private urban enclave of the grisset s shop. Rowlandson s style helps to visually represent Sterne s verbal ambiguity here by effectively portraying a delicate balance between the sentimental and the erotic An 1803 illustration by John Thurston [ see fig 4-1 1] envisions Yorick and the fille de chambre sitting side by side on his bed Seated in an upright yet comfortable manner the young woman shows Yorick the purse she has made to hold the crown he gave her which he carefully inspects ; the impropriety of her being seated on the bed is subtly enhanced by the probably improper position of Yorick's hand the back of which lingers just above her

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213 knee ("I held it [the purse] ten minutes with the back of my hand resting upon her lap looking sometimes at the purse sometimes on one side of it [ASJ 236]) The focus o f the figures on the purse demonstrates Fried s quality of "absorption mentioned earlier in reference to the illustration of Yorick and Maria ; the concentrated gaze of the characters on the object to the exclusion of everything (and everybody) else here not only intensifies the erotic tension of the image but also serves to unify the tableau around a discrete center and strengthen its message of consensual relations. Both of the figures have their legs crossed at the ankles perhaps a gesture of restraint although the woman s ankles are titillatingly revealed hinting at an underlying erotic desire Perhaps the most suggestive feature of the illustration is the opulent bed itself, the heavy curtains of which seem to threaten to come loose to engulf the pair within its dark inner sanctum a covert space physically as well as morally distant from society and its mores As a whole the illustration seems to emphasize an almost shared feeling of innocence which even if it does constitute a prelude to sexual contact (and we can never be certain from Sterne s text) stresses the need for emotional mutuality as the foundation for a sexual relationship Although some readers have found Yorick s interaction with the fille de chambre to be an example of class exploitation ( curiously indifferent to most of the verbal and gestural dialogue Markley focuses on Yorick's gift of a crown as representing the mercantile mot i ves of sentiment 2 8 ) I would suggest to the contrary that the exchange of delicate feelings in the chapters The Fille de Chambre and The Temptation" (and perhaps i n The Pulse as well) reveals Yorick s reluctance to use class to coerce an erotic liaison ; instead he extends a sentimental egalitarianism to likely candidates who must respond in kind in order for the possibility of erotic contact to proceed Certainly there is no

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214 indication that the fille de chambre' s appearance at Yorick's hotel is motivated by the promise of financial or social gain. On the contrary, Yorick and the young woman are equally able to prompt sensitive reactions out of each other, notwithstanding differences in class, and their (probably fleeting) relationship can be said to provide a model for erotic exchange based in fellow-feeling rather than exploitation. The ambiguity of the "Conquest," of course, extends itself to the ambiguities of the reader concerning sexual union; sexual impropriety is, after all, a question of who is writing and reading the conduct book, and here Sterne constructs the scene as either reticent or provocative-we cannot tell which. Underlying this playful ambiguity, however, the episode and, perhaps more so its visual rendition, present the reader with an application of sentimental interaction that promotes emotional mutuality as a basis for relations between the sexes. Interestingly, the illustrations of this scene that accompanied Sterne's text in the first forty years of publication emphasized the moment of tense delicacy in the hotel, stressing the balance between propriety and sexuality in a private, yet urbane, setting that is perhaps closer to Sterne's own intention than recent efforts to settle the question of Sterne's "conquest" by theories of exploitation The illustrators seem to suggest an emphasis on the feeling moment rather than the possible physical interaction between the two, reducing the sexual implications of the scene in favor of the depiction of fellow-feeling between the sexes. Jean Hagstrum correctly observes that "Sterne was preoccupied .. with both physical love and sentimental delicacy, both being the kinds oflove that bind humanity together." 29 The mixture of these two concerns lies at the heart of an erotic sentiment that promotes consensual sexuality; this would ideally be nurtured in the cultured atmosphere of an urban( e) environment, yet at a private remove

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215 Other incidents of Yorick's establishment of erotic sentiment include his encounters with Madame de L *** in the remise, the Marquesina di F*** on the steps of the Milan opera, and the Piedmontese lady in the last episode, "The Case of Delicacy ." While the last instance occurs at an inn, the lady's urban sophistication clearly facilitates the initial negotiations and enriches their discussion with an erotic subtext The Man of Feeling. significantly, contains no similar instances of erotic sentiment; Emily Atkins's attempt "to force a leer of invitation into her countenance" (MF 33) inspires a pathetic, rather than erotic, sentimental reaction from Harley The association between the city and a corrupting sexuality existed throughout the eighteenth century After her rape, Clarissa states that "I knew nothing of the town or its ways," 30 a theme that recurs in works such as "The Deserted Village," "The Task," and George Crabbe's "The Village" (1783); in the case of Emily Atkins, the city is the site of her social and moral downfall. The didactic effect of a sexuality of sensibility recommends, perhaps, a more gentle and balanced physical relationship between the sexes, a distinct revision of what Barker-Benfield identifies as the older "warrior society [which] ruled their women with brute force ." 3 1 Sterne's purpose-well-portrayed by Thurston seems intent, for example, on the reciprocity of female desire in Yorick's sexual encounters; recognizing this tendency, New alludes to the foundation of erotic sentiment, suggesting that "perhaps Sterne's major insight into the nature of human desire is the idea that the most satisfying human union is achieved when the female penetrates and the male receives 32 The ability of the feminine to "penetrate" in erotic sentimentality is symbolized by the fille de chambre' s assertive gesture of repairing Yorick's stock, passing "her hand in silence across and across my neck in the manoeuvre" (ASJ 236), as the young

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216 woman's needle repeatedly pierces Yorick's clothing This quality is also evident, as New points out, in the grisset' s "quick black eye" that shot through two such long and silken eye-lashes with such penetration, that she look'd into my very heart and reins" (ASJ 16869) 33 On the other hand Harley's reticence to take advantage of female misery for sexual gratification can be seen as a feminized tendency just as Emily Atkins s bold solicitation implies her partial masculinization Perhaps growing from this exchange of roles comes the desire for consensual relations between the sexes and a renewed condemnation of society s exploitation of women both of which attitudes seem to be associated with the new manners required for urban life where women were both more sophisticated about their sexuality and more miserable when objectified But in order to understand this reformation it is necessary to recognize that not all sexual surrender is the result of exploitation; Sterne and the eighteenth-century illustrators of his work seem to have realized that better than some of his modern commentators Although my study of the contemporary illustrations of the four categories of sentimental expression in literature-the social the domestic the pathetic and the erotic-and their definition in terms of specific location-is necessarily brief and tentative I would like to suggest a few possible conclusions pertaining to A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling, based on an admittedly preliminary study of the illustrated editions of these texts I was able to consult. With some consistenc y, the illustrations of both of these works locate social sentiment in public arenas such as streets or roads ; domestic sentiment in modest rural farmhouses ; pathetic sentiment in tableau-l i ke scenes of isolation ; and erotic sentiment in the city but discreetly hidden from public v i ew The close association of sentiment and location reflected by contemporary illustrators suggests

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217 to me that the sentimental scenes in these works are being asked to serve as lessons in sensitive behavior in an increasingly civilized urban environment. People on the road gentlemen and beggars alike-instead of being viewed as either nuisances or enemies are shown to have the ability to share fellow-feelings that transcend social barriers Homes even city apartments can aspire to embody the standards of a rural domesticity that features a close and companionable family A broadened sympathetic outlook on the part of members of the middle and upper classes could shift the perspective toward the plight of distressed people from ignorance or ostracization to sympathy and charitable offers of assistance Even erotic relationships might be viewed as extensions of the delicate facility of sentiment rather than the result of bodily urges, thus advocating a degree of consensus and equality between the sexes In these ways the models of sentiment expressed in the artwork accompanying early editions of A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling. in their "readings of the texts recommend location-specific lessons in behavior for their readers in the mid-eighteenth century To some extent this didactic sentimentality asserted by the illustrators of A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling is in concert with some recent critical observations that attempt to put the combined lessons of sentimental fiction into a socio historical context Barker-Benfield sees the more effeminate male advocated by sentimental literature as a civic improvement over the rake of the alehouse cul t ure of the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. He notes that the proponents of the new ideology of sensibility ... posed the social affections'-sympathy compassion benevolence humanity and pity-against selfishness. 3 4 John Dwyer states that the novels of Mackenzie "should be read primarily as moralistic tracts outlining a gentle

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218 sensibility' productive of an active benevolence and concomitant social harmony 35 Focusing this concept more specifically Elizabeth F oyster comments that in the eighteenth century arguments in support of manly self-control and governance were g i ven an unprecedented force when they became the desirable characteristics of the polite or civil gentleman "; 3 6 these characteristics of course, form the prerequisites for sentimentalism. This cultural shift in the direction of benevolence and the consideration toward others seems to be reflected most strongly in both Sterne and Mackenzie in the behavior of Yorick and Harley toward strangers of both sexes By directing attention to the plight of the poor and disenfranchised sentimental didacticism could also rouse sympathetic feelings in its readership toward charitable causes; this aspect of the texts is enhanced even further by the artists visualizat i ons which bring their words to life with an impact stronger than words alone Commenting on the phenomenon of the sentimental novel Ellis notes that although it was entertainment ," it was a recognised agent for the dissemination of argument and advice ; and as such was a powerful method of advertising charitable concerns in the mid century 37 Specific instances of pathetic sentiment in Sterne and Mackenzie pictured by illustrators seem to emphasize the possibility of extending fellow-feeling between socially unequal individuals-such as the poor or insane-through the recognition of basic emotional similarities between humans ; the didacticism of these episodes is further enhanced by the locations of the sentimental dramas which seem to suggest specific places where acts of sympathy could ( or should) be practiced More broadly the illustrations of these texts can been seen to depict the possibility of a spontaneous and innate relationship among people of different social classes by

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219 representing everyone as participating in similar ideas of sentiment in locations used by all social classes. In addition, the episodes of social and domestic sentiment demonstrate examples of fellow-feeling between poor or working-class people that might be considered enviable by a middleor upper-class reader. The contemporary illustrations of Sterne's and Mackenzie's texts offer a privileged perspective of the period, a unique window into the perception of eighteenth-century sensibility that runs counter to modem ideas about the immoral or exploitative nature of sentiment The artists, inspired by the written texts and yet forced to work within the limitations of physical as well as cultural frames, distill sentiment into its essential signifying elements-images and symbols of urban politeness, domestic harmony, sympathy between individuals, and a mutual and emotional sexuality The illustrations help us see sentimentalism as a moral and socially ameliorating institution because they focus the viewer's attention on the specific components of the feeling moment possibly more effectively than the words themselves While a single illustration by itself might have difficulty in making this claim on behalf of sentimentality, as a group the depictions act collectively to define a code of morality latent in the texts, and function as a basis from which the modem viewer may excavate a contemporary perspective which has been obscured by time: the real physical existence of each and every sufferer, the presence of the human body as a reality rather than an ideological abstract, the linking of two human beings in emotional communion, and, most of all, the relationship between any two people made to comprise one proximate image. Indeed, these images form the "ideology" of eighteenth-century sentiment and may well constitute a more profound basis for ethical social conduct than anything we have developed in our own time

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220 Sentimental texts have been accused of perpetuating the social, cultural, and economic status quo, acting as propagandistic tools of the ruling classes to wield control over their social and economic inferiors. Seemingly motivated by ideological thinking, Markley claims that in A Sentimental Journey. Sterne "attempts to resolve the problems of championing bourgeois virtue in a hierarchically structured society by using money as a way of assigning and confirming value. 38 Markley' s favorite example of this type of economic-sentimental transaction is Yorick's act of giving a coin to the fille de chambre in the street as he commends her virtue; this example, however, is one of only a few moments in either Sterne or Mackenzie where money is involved. In his rush to prove the predominance of economic factors in sentimental literature, Markley has necessarily overlooked the particulars of the majority of sentimental exchanges in Sterne's work as well as the true currency common to them all : emotion Similarly, George Haggarty has accused Harley (and Yorick is similarly guilty in his eyes) of being a "late capitalist subject" acting for his own narcissistic satisfaction in his attempt to help Emily Atkins ; 39 I would suggest, instead, that in neither exploiting her nor leaving her on the street, he offers a lesson that furthers the cause of humanity In her examination of The Man of Feeling. Maureen Harkin similarly finds any possible didacticism conveyed by the text blunted by the hero's ultimate ineffectuality : "his apparent inability to intervene in any but the most limited sense (by means of donations to individuals) to prevent or redress the wrongs he laments 40 This claim becomes problematic, however, when considered in light of the two major episodes in which Harley very effectively helps to reconstitute families : his rescue of Emily Atkins and his assistance to old Edwards and his grandchildren While Harley does not initiate a national campaign

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221 to prevent the exploitation of women by predatory males or to end the use of press gangs as a military recruiting technique he does successfully remedy two domestic disasters using compassion as his guide This too is an important ethical-and political-lesson The sympathetic gesture of assistance however insignificant it may appear from certain politically-motivated perspectives, grows from the recognition of the individual as a valid entity (a recognition Yorick overtly and specifically exercises with the Captive) With its ability literally to embody the words on the page the visual portrayal of indiv i dual suffering is able to create a stronger sympathetic bond by more directly and forcefully asserting a moral message ; a depiction of Emily Atkins her father and Harley [see fig 412] for instance uses the human form to starkly relate the message of fellow-feeling. The unsigned illustration affirms the importance of the individual in the conveyance of the sympathetic message ; while the illustration may actually date from almost any point in the nineteenth century it starkly conveys the message of fellow-feeling The three figures closely cropped by the frame form a composition that balances the plea for sympath y with the recipient of the plea : one side of the picture depicts Harley and Emily their hands extended in appeal with Emily s hand nearly touching her father s drawn sword ; the other side depicts Atkins in uniform and with his hand on his breast at the moment of doubt when his anger melts into pity The figures are dressed well though plainly ; Emily s dress is probably of better quality and in better condition than her costume is portrayed in Mackenzie's text and the loose tresses that fall on her shoulder suggest a disorder reminiscent of Sterne s Maria whose emotional descent is also tied to male betrayal. Very little background competes with the figures in the foreground : the corner of a w all, one of the few discernible details divides the image neatly into two halves

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222 Perhaps everything in this illustration is subordinate to the faces of the characters however : Harley earnestly and expectantly meets Atkins s eyes with his own ; Emily blocks access to Harley while her expression pleads her condition with eyes uplifted but face angled down suggestive of both hope and shame ; and Atkins shows an expression that reveals a slowly dawning sympathy The face, which may be tentatively described with words but can be truly represented only visually I would suggest is crucial to the success of the illustrator in conveying a moral didacticism Writing on the philosopher Emmanuel Levinas Donald R. Wehrs states that "the dimension incarnate in the other s face .. will not release us from obligation and ... cannot be grasped by our partisan partial categories whatever their validity 41 Looking back over the illustrations discussed here the faces of the characters are consistently central explicitly or implicitly reaching out to the viewer The transcendent appeal of the face is the unspoken magic ingredient in visual depictions of these texts of sentiment, the magnet that draws the viewer into sympathetic communion while their instructive visual tales unfold The chemistry of this communion however may be more complex than simple fellow-feeling for the sufferer as Wehrs suggests : that which is incarnate in the other's face is not merely 'produced' by other potentially inferior cultural categories (as with the monk) nor is it merely the effect of generalized materially grounded desire (in which case exchanging sex for money with the fille de chambre would be to follow nature) Rather in the theological language that Sterne and Levinas share what is incarnate in the face of the other is the image of God ; all our notions and projects must arise from and answer to the predication of our ipseity upon the ethical relation that incarnation will not allow us to evade. 42 The face therefore presents to the viewer an unavoidable imperative a confrontation not only with another person, but with the universe itself The sentimental text and more obviously its illustrations use the face not only as a superficial badge that attracts the

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223 sympathy of the viewer but also as a conduit to a higher power which redeems and reinforces the sentimental intercourse by weaving the moment-and the viewer-into a universal whole the great S EN SO RJUM of the world" (ASJ 278) The process of viewing" in itself carries another moral implication that these boo k illustrations seem to exploit consciously or otherwise Ian Heywood cites Iris Murdoch s desire to lift the siege of the individual by concepts and recognizes her insistence that "at the roots of morality almost its primary units are the efforts of one individual to achieve the good of another and a vital part of these efforts is attention described as a just and loving gaze directed upon an individual reality "' 4 3 By compelling us to look upon individual realities ," the illustrators of A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling cut through a morass of political and social preoccupations-both in their age and our own to illuminate an ideology of sentimentality inherent in their texts an ideology which recommends ethical behavior as a link to both individual people and a larger matrix that touches all humanity 1 Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy. ed Gardner D Stout Jr. (Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1967) 271 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 2 Michael Fried, Absorption and Theatricality : Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1980) esp 7-35 An example that Fried cites from a 1761 painting by Carle Van Loo suggests parallels with the absorptive quality ofEdwards s composition : in it he notes the obliviousness of the girls to being observed dramatizes their raptness in the story (27) Sterne and to a lesser degree Mackenzie also express Fried s quality of theatricality ," especially in their narrative approaches 3 Fried 103

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4 On the definition of sentiment see Erik Erametsa A Study of the Word Sentimental and of Other Linguistic Characteristics of Eighteenth Century Sentimentalism in England (Helsinki : n p. 19 51 ) esp 54 224 5 John Mullan Sentiment and Sociability : The Language of Feeling in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford : Clarendon 1988) 16 6. Melvyn New Proust s Influence on Sterne: Remembrance of Things to Come ," MLN 103 (1988) : 1040 7 For further discussion of the phenomenon of sentimentalism in the la t e-eighteenth century see R. F Brissenden Virtue in Distress (New York : Barnes and Noble 1974) ; Carol McGuirk Robert Burns and the Sentimental Era (Athens GA: U. of Georgia Press 1985) ; Janet Todd Sensibility : An Introduction (New York : Methuen, 1986) ; Sensibility in Transformation ed Syndy Conger (Rutherford NJ and London : Fairleigh Dickinson U. Press 1990) ; Isabel Rivers Reason, Grace, and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England (Cambridge and New York : Cambridge U. Press 1991) ; Ann Jessie Van Sant Eighteenth-Century Sensibility and the Novel (Cambridge and new York : Cambridge U. Press 1993) ; Barbara M Benedict Framing Feeling : Sentiment and Style in English Prose Fiction, 1745-1800 (New York : AMS, 1994) ; Jerome McGann The Poetics of Sensibility: A Revolution in Literary Style (Oxford : Clarendon 1 996) ; as well as the works of Mullan Markman Hagstrum, and Barker-Benfield cited elsewhere in this chapter 8 These statistics gleaned from the combined online resources of the English Short Title Catalogue (2000 British Library and ESTC/NA, 21 May 2001 ) the Research Library Group Union Catalogue (18 May 2001 < http : //eureka.rlg org > ) and the catalogue of the National Library of Scotland ( 28 May 2001 < http : //main-cat.nls uk>) in conjunction with the British Library Catalogue ( 22 April 2001 ) include the publication o f bot h single titles (A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling) and edit i ons of the authors complete works The figures on editions of Sterne s Works are supplemented by Alan B. Howes s Yorick and the Critics : Sterne s Reputation in England, 1760-1868 (New Haven CT : Archon 1971) Editions of selections such as Beauties of Sterne (which also appear to outnumber similar collections of Mackenzie s work) were not included Re i ssues were counted as new editions for the purposes of this survey Although this is necessarily a preliminary and incomplete study more catalogues could be scrutinized and information about the number of each edition sold would obviously be desirable (if such informa ti on i s indeed discernible )-my survey presents a basic idea of the popularity of the two te xt s especially in relation to one another In general b i bliographies and book catalogues are notorious for underreporting illustrated editions ; the only means of certainly determining whether an i ndividual edition is illustrated or not entails on-site inspection To complicate this further illustrations were occasionally tipped in to otherwise non-illustrated editions and different cop i es within the same otherwise uniform edition include different illustrations While not e v ery edition

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225 from these authors was available to me a substantial number were individually reviewed for this study 9 Of all the types of sentiment portrayed in A Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling, romantic sentiment the fifth and final category, is the most difficult to visualize, possibly because the fellow-feeling is imaginatively embodied within a single character rather than realized by the actual presence of characters in a physical location This type of sentiment indeed might be identified by its lack of place except perhaps as it occurs in the fanciful realm of the lover's heart Eliza the subject of Yorick's romantic fi x ation is mentioned six times in A Sentimental Journey : she is not involved in any action per se but is addressed by the narrator as though he intended her to read his words Her only physical appearance is in the form of a portrait miniature the little picture which I have so long worn and so often have told thee, Eliza I would carry with me into my grave (ASJ 67) Paralleling Sterne's actual relationship with a portrait of Eliza Draper Yorick treats the miniature as a real person ; however, the fellow-feeling that Yorick expresses for Eliza in A Sentimental Journey is never reciprocated Although set briefly in an actual place the location of romantic sentiment in The Man of Feeling also exists primarily in Harley's imagination Harley is so overwhelmed by romantic sentiment-and the possibility that it would not be reciprocated-that his tearful confession to Miss Walton is made only after he has resigned himself to death Their sentimental communion is therefore short-lived: "He seized her hand a languid colour reddened his cheek a smile brightened faintly in his eye. As he gazed on her i t grew dim it fixed it closed (MF 92). In both instances the idea-and ideal-of romantic sentiment is too remote and elusive to be tied down to an actual location ; t he absence of illustrations of these incidents further suggests the difficulty of depicting a physical space where romantic sentiment can take place A skeptical interpretation of these passages might question whether romantic sentiment could actually be shared by two people in a real" location at all ; it would be a challenge finally accepted by the Brontes 10 Mullan 16 11. Henry Mackenzie The Man of Feeling. ed. Kenneth C Slagle (New York : Norton 1958) 68 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 12 Harley s tendency to use appearance to judge character ("physiognomy was one of Harley s foibles" [MF 29]) is depicted as fallible however, leading several critics to broadly conclude that sentiment is an ineffective way of interacting with the world For instance in Mackenzie's Man of Feeling : Embalming Sensibility ," ELH 61:2 (1994) Maureen Harkin observes that once out of his familiar domain one of Harley s most obvious and consistent features is his lack of skill in decoding signs (330) ; as a result Harkin continues Harley assumes the position as an inferior interpreter ," which strikes at his most fundamental claim to authority (332). It might be suggested however t hat it is the narrator who claims didactic authority and not Harley as is demonstrated by the chapter heading His skill in physiognomy is doubted (MF 35) The gap of authority between the narrator and Harley suggests the possibility that Harley's errors themsel v es

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226 are meant to have instructive meaning by representing the dangers of reliance on sentiment alone for making judgments, without the complementary influences of reason and expenence Conversely, Yorick's ability to render "the several turns oflooks and limbs with all their inflections and delineations, into plain words" ( ASJ 171) meets with frequent success as a means of determining character. 13 G. J. Barker-Benfield, The Culture of Sensibility : Sex and Society in Eighteenth Century Britain (1992 ; Chicago and London : U. Chicago Press, 1996), 94 and 218-19 14 Michele Cohen, "Manliness, Effeminacy and the French : Gender and the Construction of National Character in Eighteenth-Century England, in English Masculinities 1660-1800, ed Tim Hitchcock and Michele Cohen (London : Longman, 1999), 46 Cohen cites from John Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination : English Culture in the Eighteenth Century (London: HarperCollins, 1997) 111 15 Scenes in Sterne's work were depicted in a comic style as prints independent of text from the 1770s through the 1790s. See David Alexander, "Sterne, the 18 th -Century Print Market, and the Prints in Shandy Hall," Shandean 5 (1993): 110-24, as well as Peter de Voogd, "Henry William Bunbury, Illustrator of 'Tristram Shandy,"' Shandean 3 (1991) : 138-44 and "Robert Dighton's Twelve 'Tristram Shandy' Prints ," Shandean 6 (1994) : 87-98 16. Barker-Benfield 218. 17 Brewer 498 18. Jeffrey L. Duncan, "The Rural Ideal in Eighteenth-Century Fiction Studies in English Literature 8:3 (1968): 530. 19. Robert Markley, "Sentimentality as Performance: Shaftesbury, Sterne and the Theatrics of Virtue" in The New Eighteenth Century: Theory, Politics, English Literature, ed Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown (1987 ; London : Routledge 1991) 212 20 Mullan 238. 21 Archer's depiction of a standing Maria is different (perhaps deliberately so) from the predominant image of the character in paintings and prints during the late-eighteenth century which depicts her sitting forlorn and alone under a tree The character of Maria was often painted in this seated pose from 1770 onward, and young women of the period often assumed the melancholy air and costume of Maria for their own portraits ; the character also appeared frequently in this seated form on decorative household items Thus Yorick's persistent memory of the pose and location of Maria ("in every scene of festivity I saw Maria in the back-ground of the piece, sitting pensive under her poplar" [ASJ 277]) to some extent foretells the cultural resonance of her image. For more on the

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227 depiction of Maria in paintings, see Catherine M Gordon, British Paintings of Subjects from the English Novel 1740-1870 (Outstanding Theses in the Fine Arts from British Universities ; New York and London : Garland 1988) 73-76 ; and Richard D Altick Paintings from Books : Art and Literature in Britain, 1760-1900 (Columbus OH : Ohio State U. Press 1985) 402-3 For a discussion of representations of Maria on decorative pottery see W B Gerard Sterne in Wedgwood : Poor Maria' and the Bourbonnais Shepherd '" Shandean 12 (2001) : 78-88 22. Markley 226 23. Lorenz Eitner "Cages Prisons, and Captives in Eighteenth-Century Art ," in Images of Romanticism : Verbal and Visual Affinities ed Karl Kroeber and William Walling (New Haven CT: Yale U. Press, 1978) 34 24 Markman Ellis The Politics of Sensibility (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge U. Press 1996) 71, 72 25 Ellis 72 26 Rowlandson s artwork according to the title of the edition is "from Original Drawings by Newton ," acknowledging their debt to previous illustrations by Newton ( originally published in 1795 but revised and republished several times before 1820) including fig. 4-5 The Grace," which has been discussed above. A strong resemblance exists between the renditions of the two artists (according to the Research Library Group Union Catalogue [11 June 2001 ] these drawings have apparently been mistakenly attributed to Rowlandson on occasion) but overall Rowlandson s style might be seen as refining both the comic and sentimental elements of Sterne s text first delineated by his predecessor 27. The phrase "eye[s] of the world" is used three times in Sterne s sermons (The Sermons of Laurence Sterne ed Melvyn New [Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida 1996] 159 14 166 5 245 11) to denote the judgmental observation of society The visual reference is of particular interest when considering how the illustrators represent society s gaze (for instance by the monk in Rowlandson) in depictions of erotic sentiment. 28 Markley 210-11 29 Jean Hagstrom Sex and Sensibility : Ideal and Erotic Love from Milton to Mozart (Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1980) 259 30. Samuel Richardson Clarissa, or The History of a Young Lady. ed Angus Ross (London : Penguin 1985) 1105 31. Barker-Benfield 79

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228 32 New 1038 33 New 1037 34 Barker-Benfield 65 215 35 John Dwyer, Clio and Ethics : Practical Morality in Enlightened Scotland The Eighteenth Century 30 : 1 (1989) : 65 36 Elizabeth Foyster Boys will be Boys? Manhood and Aggression 1660-1800 in English Masculinities 1660-1800 165 37 Ellis 16 38 Markley 220 39 George Haggarty Amelia s Nose ; or Sensibility and its Symptoms ," The Eighteenth Century 36 : 2 (1995): 147 40 Harkin 327. 41. Donald R. Wehrs Levinas and Sterne : From the Ethics of the Face to the Aesthetics ofUnrepresentability" in Critical Essays on Laurence Sterne ed Melvyn New (New York : G. K. Hall, 1998) 324 42 Wehrs 324 43 Ian Heywood '" Ever More Specific ': Practices and Perceptions in Art and Ethics in Interpreting Visual Culture : Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Visual ed Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell (London : Routledge 1999) 202. The Murdoch citations are from The Sovereignty of Good (London: Ark 1970) 32 and 34

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Figure 4-1 229 . . .. . .. . lglul aawam, ..r. "lcc off~7 J;;m 1:"17J't1 b.Y w:J-traMn,.:r. aMI, C ,// ;//,w,m>.T.il.iim!)',T.E-i, an.r h '. Illustration by Edward Edwards for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey in The Works of Laurence Sterne (London : W Strahan T. Cadell G Robinson J. Murray ., T Evans etc 1780) 5 : 220

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Figure 4-2 ft il'l!Jlutau.ml tl'.! tvAa,f~rrlimi l ~ ; / /.livr ll 7;"17Sc. '7Y lf.f tr a.nan J tml nl /i, .l{, / n :n. r o n .h7. fu m:p r, IEmw &,.. 230 Illustration by Edward Edwards for Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey in The Works of Laurence Sterne (London : W Strahan T. C ade ll, G Robinson J. Murray ., T. Evans etc ., 1780) 5: 36

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> w" Figure 4-3 ,ml ,. ,. /,/,' ,;';f ,,/ ~> h:;.1:.r, # : .. .,J ., # ,,, .~ '',:,d /41,t .,-1, :/ /J,,r i 1 1yA/" /A, , n;r.l /r r //.-1 "J/'-'WN//M ; ,. ,. ., Illustration by Louis Lafitte for Henry Mackenzie The Man of Feeling (Paris : Theophilus Barrois 1807) 105 231

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Figure 4-4 Illustration (hand-tinted polychrome) by William Marshall Craig for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (London : T Hurst ; C Chapple 1803) 105 232

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233 Figure 4-5. Illustration (hand-tinted polychrome) by Richard Newton for Laurence Sterne, Sterne's Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (London : William Holland 1795), plate 11.

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234 Figure 4-6 Illustration by George Cruikshank for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (London: J. Cochrane 1832).

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Figure 4-7 Illustration by M Archer for Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (London : J. Creswick & Co. 1794). 235

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236 Figure 4-8 Illustration by Thomas Stothard for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (London : J. Good; E and S Harding 1792)

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' I a,uU,u,t ,rarltJl;l flu~7'1~'..ti,re : o/ c(1t}/;;1m1enl tvh1di 1'1.lJ/ jo/tf,'lj /u,d r/mn,11 t c t. Figure 4-9. Illustration by Gerard Rene Le Villain for Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (Paris: Ant. Aug Renouard, 1802), plate 4 237

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238 Figure 4-10. Illustration (hand-tinted polychrome) by Thomas Rowlandson for Laurence Sterne, The Beauties of Sterne : Comprising his Humourous and Descriptive Tales, Letters, etc etc. (London: Thomas Tegg, 1808) frontispiece.

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239 Figure 4-11 Illustration by John Thurston for Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy in The Works of Laurence Sterne (London: J. Johnson, etc 1808), 2 : frontispiece

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Figure 4-12 240 Illustration (unsigned) for Henry Mackenzie, The Man of Feeling in The English Comedie Humaine Home Library (New York: Century 1907) frontispiece.

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CHAPTERS "POOR HAPLESS DAMSEL!" : 1 VISUALIZATIONS OF THE MADWOMAN UNDER THE TREE 1770-1884 Shortly after sharing in the sorrow of Maria at Moulines Yorick attempts to vary his emotional diet by plunging into the local festivities of the French countryside but finds himself hampered by the indelibility of her doleful image : There was nothing from which I had painted out for myself so joyous a rio t of the affections as in this journey in the vintage through this part of France ; but pressing through this gate of sorrow to it my sufferings had totally unfitted me : in every scene of festivity I saw Maria in the back-ground of the piece sitting pensive under her poplar ; and I had got almost to Lyons before I was able to cast a shade across her (ASJ 277 1-7) The haunting picture of Maria in effect acts as a counterweight to Yorick s impuls i ve desire for the joyous The passage also reflexively exploits visual conventions and i n Yorick s confession of the impact of Maria s image of him simultaneously testifies to the impact of visual language on the reader. When this verbal visualization is conjoined with pathos the visual sense (evoked by words) acts as a conduit to the object of pity a technique Sterne brings to bear repeatedly and effectively throughout his work 2 This is only one of several instances in Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey when Sterne describes the character of Maria using compelling visual language creating a strong sense of both her identity and location ; this visuality augments the i mpact of her depiction a depiction that inspired many additional verbal and pictorial renderings for more than a hundred years after its initial publication This pictorial technique is especially 241

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242 evident on Tristram s, and later Yorick's arrival, when Maria is framed by elements in the scene which serve to isolate and emphasize her as a lone figure who magnetically attracts the attention, and consequently the sympathy of the viewer/narrator (and thus of the reader) Approaching Maria Tristram is struck by her appearance which he describes simply directly and with earnest feeling : We had got up by this time almost to the bank where Maria was sitting : she was in a thin white jacket with her hair all but two tresses drawn up into a silk net with a few olive-leaves twisted a little fantastically on one side--she was beautiful ; and if ever I felt the full force of an honest heart-ache it was the moment I saw her(TS IX.24 783.4-9) Maria s first scene in A Sentimental Journey. though portraying a changed character expands on the pathos of the initial description : When we had got within half a league of Moulin es, at a little opening in the road leading to a thicket, I discovered poor Maria sitting under a poplar-she was sitting with her elbow in her lap and her head leaning on one side within her hand-a small brook ran at the foot of the tree . .. She was dress d in white and much as my friend described her except that her hair hung loose which before was twisted within a silk net.-She had, superadded likewise to her jacket a pale green ribband which fell across her shoulder to the waist ; at the end of which hung her pipe (ASJ 270 35-39 271.42-46) The elements of the later scene-the specific aspects of Maria's dress in addition to t he tree and brook were to become standard, recognizable features in the visual portrayals of Maria immediately identifying a seated young woman as Sterne s character A little dog (ASJ 271.47) Sylvio (whose name reinforces the rural atmosphere of the scene) has replaced the goat to which Tristram compares himself; we are told almost incidentally that her goat had been as faithless as her lover" (ASJ 271.46) in the later version altering Maria s story to blame a fickle lover instead of a scheming local churchman for her woes ; compounded with the loss of her father, the goat's straying makes the character even more

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243 worthy of a stranger s sympathy Maria's emotional upheavals converge in her relationship with her dog ; she tells Sylvie, "Thou shalt not leave me, and Yorick discerns that "she was thinking more of her father than of her lover or her little goat (ASJ 271.5051) As in the earlier passage in Tristram Shandy. Sterne's continuation of the Maria story in the later work uses visual elements to forge a bond between the character and the reader Edward Mangin an Anglican minister and accomplished amateur critic was an early observer of Sterne s visual cues and in his discussion of A Sentimental Journey verbally paints a variant portrait of Maria himself. 3 He observes that Sterne s portrait of the forlorn and gentle Maria is complete in all the lines and tints which constitute grace and softness : her form that ofloveliness not impaired but rendered more engaging by feebleness and sorrow than the beauty of health and happiness can ever be; her ornament a riband of pale green : her attitude, sitting with her elbow in her lap and her head leaning on one side within her hand : her hair streaming loose and tears trickling down her cheek. The scenic accompaniments are appropriate and finely in contrast: the season that of the vintage in the Bourbonnois the finest district of France ; and the children of labour rejoicing in the prospect of plenty .. 4 ( emphasis Mangin s) Mangin describes Sterne s passage as if it were a painting in his mind s eye a meticulously imagined entity that supplements or possibly completes Sterne s pictorial language. In the imagination ofMangin and many other readers Maria had coalesced into a mult i dimensional entity from the suggestions of Sterne s words conveying a physical and spiritual presence beyond the text Significantly, too this description stresses the attractiveness of Maria s melancholy over the "beauty of health and happ i ness ," an aesthetic and cultural perspective which had persistent appeal during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century.

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244 Mangin was not alone in his enthusiasm for Maria who had become, in the decades after Sterne's death the source of inspiration for derivative publications and ballads by enthusiasts as well as for dozens of different visual portrayals in paintings prints and book illustrations including decorations on teapots and vases After the initial flush of popularity of the sentimental "cult of Maria her image changed emphasizing the therapeutic companionship of Yorick ; by the middle of the nineteenth century however Maria was again portrayed alone sometimes with darker undertones that stressed her status as a social outsider In this chapter I propose to investigate a selection of the wide range of images o f Maria from 1770 to 1884 as different readings of Sterne s text each of which suggests a changing cultural perspective toward the interaction between sentimentality and the cultural idea of the feminine Dozens of different visual depictions of Maria appeared during this period and while the basic elements of the composition-the figure of the young woman the tree the dog and the brook-were staple components of these portrayals the arrangement of these elements along with the intermittent inclusion o f Yorick, vary to project distinctly different ideas of the character. John Mullan suggests that the widespread interest in Sterne's Maria was due to a fundamental visual appeal the result of the character s ability physically to project delicate feeling : The body of the young woman, unresolved into matrimonial stability becomes the site of an encounter between sentiment and adversity the space in which sensib i l i ty can become visible 5 Mullan s observation is particularly pertinent when considering the visualizations of Maria which I will consider in three roughly defined chronological groups : The Figure of Mourning (1770-1810), Maria Rescued (1790-1830) and Maria as

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245 Other (1840-1884) These thematic headings are not inclusive and neatly self-contained however, and merely act as basic reference points from which further discussion can proceed. The projection of Maria as a figure of mourning clearly originates in Sterne s text not only expressed overtly by the pathos of the narrative description but also implied by the sympathy expressed toward her by others In Tristram Shandy. the postillion accompanying Tristram relates the story of Maria explaining that "but three years ago .. the sun did not shine upon so fair so quick-witted and amiable a maid (TS IX 24 782 1011 ) ; her distresses the result of the intrigues of the local curate of the parish (TS IX.24 782.13) have reduced her to a state of incommunicative madness Sympathy for the young woman though localized is universal : she is the love and pity of all the villages around us (TS IX.24 782 9) ; and, hearing her song after hearing her story Tristram springs out of the chaise to help her (TS IX.24.783.18-19). In A Sentimental Journey the grieving appearance of Maria s mother t ells Yorick her daughter s story before she open d her mouth (ASJ 270 24) The tale saddens even Le Fleur "whose heart ," Yorick tells us seem d only to be tuned to joy (ASJ 270 32) Yorick's scene with the character is considerably longer and creates a more profound depth of feeling than Tristram's After hearing of her travels Yorick declares to Maria ( at least in his thoughts) that wast thou in my own land where I have a cottage I would take thee t o it and shelter thee : thou shouldst eat of my own bread, and drink of my own cup-I would be kind to thy Sylvio-in all thy weaknesses and wanderings I would seek after thee and bring thee back-when the sun went down I would say my prayers and when I had done thou shouldst play thy evening song upon thy pipe, nor would the incense of my sacrifice be worse accepted for entering heaven along with that of a broken heart (ASJ 273 21-29)

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246 Yorick's powerful promise, while conditional, is nevertheless the most effusive statement of sympathy possible : he offers to house and feed Maria and look after her suggesting that the action would spontaneously culminate in a simultaneously mundane and ethereal daily communion The scriptural echoes in this passage noted by Tom Keymer contribute further to building the idea of a spiritual moment, not only through the use of similar language but more implicitly by creating a link between the sacred and the sentimental. 6 Maria's connection to the divine reinforces her saintly suffering and validates the sentimental sacrament she offers No one knows how Maria came by her pipe or the skill to play it but the postillion explains "we think that Heaven has assisted her in both (TS IX.24. 782 20) In the later text Maria tells Yorick she is unaware how she had borne her wanderings and how she had got supported (ASJ 272 18) and she asserts the existence of divine sympathy with her explanation that God tempers the wind ... to the shorn lamb" (ASJ 272 19-20) 7 These claims of connection to the divine validate the sympathetic reaction of her fellow characters and of her audience by further validating her worthiness as an object of compassion The almost religious experience of sympath y that Maria inspires in Sterne s other characters and by extension in the readers of her story and even (or perhaps even more especially) in the viewers of her image-might be expressed by Yorick with simple eloquence : I am never so perfectly conscious of the existence of a soul within me as when I am entangled" in such melancholy ad v entures (ASJ 270 20-22) The experience of sympathizing with Maria it is implied insp i res a greater realizat i on of a spiritual self, suggesting the character as central to a type of

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247 generalized religious awakening with a strong resemblance to the brand of feeling Christianity Sterne preached in the pulpit. 8 The popularity of Maria both as a verbal and visual entity appears to be both a catalyst and a response to this sentimental fascination. Sterne's Maria as she was called in numerous inscriptions was a powerful phenomenon of the late-eighteenth century a character strongly connected to a thriving cultural interest in sentimentalism. Along with the episodes of the Monk the Sword and Le Fever s death from Tristram Shandy. Maria-almost always depicted with her dog Sylvie as described in Sentimental Journey-symbolized an era which relished tender feelings inspired by pathos for its own sake and also as evidence of a humanity promoted by the philosophers of the eighteenth century and by Christianity itself. 9 Maria was among the first subjects of the visual depiction of Sterne s work and quickly became a popular image in the era appearing in a painting by George Carter in 1774 and in another fourteen paintings displayed at the Royal Academy and the Society of Artists before 1792 ; ten of these were speedily published as mass-produced prints within a year of their exhibition 1 0 Varied evidence of the broad phenomenon of Maria in England (and even the United States)ll includes additional texts intended to appeal to those who yearned for more of Maria s story than Sterne provides in a total of roughly fourteen pages of Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey Sterne s description of the character was published separately within The Whole Story of the Sorrow of Maria ofMoulines (1793) and as a twelve-page booklet (shared with the tale of the Monk) at the tum of the century ; other writers supplemented the original story with The Letters of Maria (1790) and Sterne s Ma ri a; A Pathetic Story With an Account of her Death, at the Castle of Valerine ( c 1800) 1 2 These texts undoubtedly helped to foster the figure of poor Maria as an icon of

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248 fashionable melancholy enhancing the delicate titillation of the collections of 1770s and 1780s known as the Beauties of Sterne by elaborating on the plight of a character that the sentimental movement found irresistible In addition the slow melodies of songs like "Moulines Maria A favourite ballad taken from Sterne (c 1785) by John Moulds (and sung by Miss George at Ranelagh in 1790) and "I laugh I sing (Sterne s Maria) ( c 1800) by Victor Pelissier no doubt elicited a tear or two from their listeners 13 The popularity of the figure of Maria seems to have been influenced by several cultural factors Most fundamentally Maria appears to be another manifestation of her namesake an earthly sufferer of tragedies whose solitude further accentuates her pathos T he similarity of Maria s tale to others in Western literature-Dido Shakespeare s Ophel i a and Rowe s Jane Shore-probably assisted in ensconcing the character as a cultural i con In the visual arts Gordon notes that "an attractive young woman with a small do g against a landscape background was an established formula of eighteenth-century portraiture 14 perhaps an outgrowth of seventeenth-century pastoral convention. Gordon observes that when this formula is augmented by an approved literary source ," the combination of the pathos of unrequited love and the hint of tragedy could in Reynolds s words exhibit the character of a species and achieve the great design of speaking to the heart 15 -a suggestion that holds particular meaning with Sterne s character It seems as if the variety of cultural factors-past myth trends in academic painting the blend of romance and tragedy-came together to foster the popular image of mourning Maria during her first visual incarnation in the late-eighteenth century. Another reason for the continuing popular interest in Maria is her unique place in Sterne s fiction as a character who appears in both of his major works of fiction (with the

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249 possible exception of his autobiographically variable appearance as Yorick) altered in the second instance by circumstances that took place in the interval ; the continuation of the character in this manner which implies a continuing independent existence beyond the pages of the book, assists in the construction of an illusion of a convincing living ," character who is merely documented by Sterne s text and not invented by it. (Cervantes created a similar illusion by having characters in Part Two of Don Quixote comment on the wayward knight as the subject of rather than only a character in Part One ) The impression of reality created by this sense of continuation may or may not have been intended by Sterne who may have only been interested in embellishing a previous passage in his earlier work (as well as exploiting perhaps an increasing popular interest in sentimental subjects) but the effect implies that Maria exists as an entity distinctly apart from the verbal text. This extra-textual dimension of Maria s character undoubtedly contributed to her cultural appeal as well as to her popularity as a visual image especially as a pictorial representation independent of Sterne s text. Much might be further explored about the cultural interest in the figure of Maria in this period ; it suffices here for me to note the obvious popularity of the character and resulting significance of her visual depictions. Indeed perhaps the most substantial evidence of Maria s popular following is expressed by the widespread interest in her visual representations whether hanging in galleries published as prints or embellished on household items While the core of this study is to examine book illustrations ( which by definition are the type of visual portrayal most intimately mated with the text and which therefore carry the most immediate interpretative implications) the early history of

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250 Maria's visualization would not be complete without considering her many other pictorial representations that form a foundational tradition for the visual portrayals of the figure The first visual rendering of the character is George Carter s 1774 painting Miss Carter as Maria in which the artist arranges the figure in the pose of noble mourning [ see fig 5-1] that would characterize the treatment of the scene over the next ten years. The young woman sits under the poplar her head slightly bent supported by one hand ; her other hand rests in her lap, creating a geometrically balanced figure that projects quiet and self-absorption Maria finds a metaphor in the picturesque tree behind her stricken but surviving on which she rests and she is surrounded by dense foliage enhancing the mood of isolated melancholy A small opening in the middle right reveals a distant village and the long serpentine road leading from it emphasizing Maria s removal from the source of her distress as well as from any possible consolation Her sole companion is Sylvio who straining at his tether is the only dynamic element in the picture; his depiction as a neatly groomed French poodle might be at variance with Sterne s initial portrayal of Maria as a peasant girl but hints at the character s popularity among the middle and upper classes where a similar pet might be kept. Although Maria-modeled by the artist's daughter sits in what would become the standard pose of the figure for a generation most future treatments would alter Carter s perspective depicting Maria instead in profile a more reticent approach that perhaps better accentuates the language of pathos expressed by the position of her body At least fifteen paintings of Maria usually depicted alone followed over the next twenty years further entrenching her in the public s visual imagination Commenting on the two renditions of Maria painted by Joseph Wright of Derby in 1777 and 178 1, Gordon

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251 observes that Maria had "become an universal but decorous and elegant image of melancholia." These depictions of Maria, Gordon continues, were "admired by an audience to whom Sterne had taught the pleasure of feeling the pulse of their own emotions by indulgence in the feelings of others, and who prided themselves on their possession of a 'Heart of Sensibility "' 16 Thus Gordon suggests, painted renditions of Maria served as emotional prompts to a public inclined toward delicate feeling supplementing as well as perpetuating a cultural vision of the character as melancholy and alone Sternean scenes became the subject of many popular prints and print series during the late-eighteenth century many of which were engravings of Academy paintings David Alexander observes that prints had developed into the ideal medium for such material noting that with the expansion of the print market and the advent of large public exhibitions of paintings, it "became possible for artists to paint more subject pictures rather than landscapes or portraits ; 17 Sterne s works in a sense offered the right subject matter at the right time for the print trade In 1774 a year after the publication of four engravings of comic scenes from Tristram Shandy by Henry William Bunbury the first print of Maria appeared derived from the Carter painting described above Although it is difficult to ascertain the number of these prints that were sold seven additional paintings by other artists were engraved for the mass market over the following ten years (as well as other renditions of the character possibly not yet documented), suggesting the widespread popularity of prints of Maria 18 Perhaps the most famous of these prints is a 1779 engraving of a painting by Angelica Kauffinann [see fig 5-2]. It is a side perspective-nearly a profile-of Maria seated : as in

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252 Carter's painting, her tilted head rests on her hand and her upper leg supports her elbow Maria's face is forlorn though composed, her hair is in disarray and one hand limply holds Sylvio' s tether; in contrast with his deeply self-involved mistress, the dog is alert perhaps listening for the footsteps of Yorick or even of the viewer Thick tree branches hover over the young woman's head like dark clouds, an embodiment of her mood and the serene mountains like those in a conventional landscape painting rise in the distance Her encapsulation within an oval frame focuses the importance of her meaning more distinctly by excluding superfluous background and thus intensifying attention on her lone figure. Kauffinann s image is often credited as the formative depiction of Maria that was the source of many derivations, although it only varies from Carter s in perspective and very slightly in the position of the figure. Other versions that are clearly derived from Kauffinann's may have yet to appear or perhaps previous discussion has been misgu i ded The most frequently cited (and perhaps sole) reference to the popularity ofKauffinann s Maria is an oft-excerpted editor s note from Joseph Moser's 1809 essay Memoir of the Late Angelica Kauffinann RA ," which claims that Numerous indeed were the copies which she made of the original design of that picture The prints from it were circulated all over Europe. In the elegant manufactures of London Birmingham etc. it assumed an incalculable variety of forms and dimensions and was transferred to a variety of articles of all sorts and sizes from a watch-case to a tea-waiter. 16 Kauffinann may indeed have greatly broadened the popularity of the image of Maria but the claim that it was singularly Kauffinann' s design that was broadly adopted is problematic There remains a strong possibility that the unnamed editor was referring to

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253 the popular Wedgwood design, but a definite visual parallel between the two portrayals is not evident [ cf fig. 5-3]. Indeed, the most prolific and persistent appearance of Sterne's character in the late eighteenth century was on several forms of Wedgwood stone-ware. Between 1780 and 1820, nearly identical designs oflone Maria in profile, Sylvio, and a tree (or alternatively, a branchless trunk on shorter pieces) adorned at least a dozen different signature jasper ware pieces, including tea-canisters, sugar bowls, and tea pots-occasionally as components of solitaires, tea sets designed for one [ see fig. 5-3]. Reduced to the basic elements of young woman, dog, and tree, the scene became a neo-classical motif that blended easily with the range of themes portrayed on Wedgwood pieces such as "Sportive Love," which features a woman in a loose gown playfully pinching a cherub's cheek. Maria was occasionally paired with the Bourbonnois shepherd on Wedgwood pieces for reasons of emotional contrast as well as aesthetic symmetry The active and outgoing shepherd is briefly described in A Sentimental Journey as "the roughest peasant who traverses the bleakest mountains" and who "finds the lacerated lamb of another's flock" (ASJ 279 21-22) The obvious parallel between the wounded lamb and Maria (who refers to herself as a "shorn lamb" seven pages earlier [ASJ 272 20]) further suggests Yorick's identification with the compassionate shepherd; like the peasant, he also feels "some generous joys and generous cares beyond myself' (ASJ 278 14-15) and tends to the innocent young woman in her distress, a role that would be further emphasized in the next generation of depictions of the scene Wedgwood historians, possibly unaware of the period's pre-existent tradition of paintings and prints of the character, wholeheartedly credit Lady Templetown with

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254 creating the popular design of Maria in 1787. Templetown s portrayal was orig i nally modeled from beautiful cut Indian paper ," the product of the hobby of pictorial paper cutting commonl y used at the time for portrait silhouettes 20 Robin Reilly suggests a specific market for the stone-ware pieces in the late-eighteenth century noting that Josiah Wedgwood was appealing predominantly to female taste, which was an increasing l y important aspect of his business "; thus, she notes it is "not surprising that a woman artist created the design 21 Perhaps it was important for Wedgwood to credit an actual woman (who might have represented a social model of sorts) instead of a painter associated with the fine arts with the image to complete its appeal to its target audience However i t is difficult to imagine that Lady Templetown had not been exposed to reproductions of artwork by Carter and Kauffmann prior to executing her own design The image of Maria also appeared as an isolated motif on jewelry medallions produced by Wedgwood and set in cut steel by Josiah Wedgwood s friend and fellow manufac t uring innovator Matthew Boulton for bracelets pins earrings and belt and shoe buckles The evident popularity of these pieces not only demonstrates a cultural interest in the dep i ction of Maria but inasmuch as they could be worn a sense of personal identification with her melancholia-a mood representative perhaps of an entire aesthetic The popular infatuation with the character is strongly suggested in the fashionable pose struck by the Duchesse D Orleans in a 1789 portrait by Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun ; not only is the noblewoman dressed in a loose unstructured peasant costume but she is also wearing a Wedgwood belt buckle medallion of Maria [see fig 54]. The somber gaze of the Duchesse her face propped up on one hand while the other lies limp the tasseled vision of peasantry, all contribute to the suggestion that during this period Sterne s Maria was far

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255 more than a character in a book but rather a regular and prominent resident in the popular 22 1magmat1on Considering the explosion of Maria's lone image in paintings and prints and on Wedgwood in this period it seems remarkable that contemporaneous illustrated editions of both of Sterne s works either portray other scenes or depict the character accompanied by Yorick. These editions however were few in number and by the time illustrated editions of Sterne began to appear more often at the tum of the century the standard visual depiction of the character had shifted dramatically A suggestion of this shift is seen in Thomas Stothard s 1792 portrayal [see fig 5-5] which is in many ways similar to the 1780 illustration of Maria and Yorick by Edward Edwards [see fig 4-1] discussed earlier Stothard depicts Yorick at Maria s side but portrays the melancholy figure as self-isolated by her personal distress in the same pose in which she had frequently been depicted before Even though she is now accompanied her body language radiates the same sad self-engagement as portraits of her unaccompanied ; and although appearing concerned Yorick seems unable to penetrate the young woman s isolated melancholia to establish the communion of fellow-feeling described by Sterne in scenes from both his works Yorick holds the handkerchief, but it carries no sentimental significance without Maria s emotional engagement ; even Sylvio is inactive curled up to the far left However although Maria might appear as lost in Stothard s illustration as she was when depicted alone Yorick s presence does hint at some hope for the emotio n al recovery of the character as well as stressing the significance of the sympathizer i n a revised sentimental equation

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256 Although it might be tempting to overstate the role of Maria in late-eighteenth-century society as say a mourning goddess of the Cult of Sensibility we may safely say that she was clearly a special (and still under-explored) figure in this time a fictional character who invited an emotional reaction to which many responded by giving Maria a life beyond the pages of Sterne s text Her ideological significance is perhaps best indicated by the fact that her early depiction as an isolated figure neither disappeared nor continued indefinitely ; rather, it mutated into images in which a male figure rejoins her as part of the scene Rather than representing a static unchanging figure, she evolved ; and her evolut i on as a cultural figure is mirrored by this evolution of her image After the initial predominance of Maria's portrayal in paintings and prints which most often depicted the solitary seated figure, book illustrations began to increasingly replace prints-and it seems the paintings that inspired them-as the primary means of visually projecting the character Paintings of the single figure continued but the number transferred to prints seems to have dwindled as the initial flush of interest in Maria as a lonely and distressed figure waned While the original posing of the figure emphasized the character's exquisite delicacy her undeserved distress and more subtly her resilience these characteristics helped pave the way for the next phase of Maria s visual depiction where she is portrayed as a subject worthy of charitable sympathy and active redemption The portrayal of Maria as a figure worthy of sympathy by a feeling individual-a figure who eventually becomes Maria Rescued is particularly expressed by Yorick s response to her tears : I sat down close by her ; and Maria let me wipe them away as they fell with my handkerchief-I then steep'd it in my own-and then in hers-and then in mine-and then I wip d hers again-and as I did it I felt such undescribable emotions within me

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257 as I am sure could not be accounted for from any combinations of matter and motion (ASJ 271.53-58) Yorick's reaction to this experience with Maria reiterates and deepens the spiritual connection between the sympathetic response and an enhanced sense of self: he comments "I am positive I have a soul ; nor can all the books with which materialists have pester d the world ever convince me of the contrary (ASJ 271.59-61) The link between sympathy and self-realization frames the scene as the site of personal discovery for Yorick (and possibly Sterne s readers) making the image of Maria and the story it connotes a culturally acknowledged emotional touchstone Ellis observes that at this time moralists sought to instruct young women how to learn or reinforce a proper sincere and virtuous sensibility" ; 23 just as the illustrations of melancholy Maria were in effect visual guides for the cultivation of what was seen as a sensitive and attractive persona the subsequent mode of the character s depiction implies a didactic message, as well The next phase in the portrayal of Maria viewed the character not as an example or epitome of melancholy feeling but as a figure rescued from her distress through the active interest of a sympathizer Having hinted at her past tragedies Yorick sees that he had touch'd upon the string on which hung all her sorrows she look'd with wistful disorder for some time in my face ; and then without saying an y thing took her pipe and play' d her service to the Virgin The string I had touch' d ceased to vibrate--in a moment or two Maria returned to herself let her pipe fall-and rose up. And where art you going Maria? said I -She said to Moulines Let us go said I together -Maria put her arm within mine and lengthening the string to let the dog follow in that order we entered Moulines (ASJ 273 36-37-274 38-45) Yorick responds to Maria's distress by attempting to ease it offering himself as a physical support that mirrors his emotional role as sympathizer. Depictions of Maria from 1790 to

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258 1820 (which usually took the form of book illustrations) portray the very conclusion of this passage and thus emphasize Maria as a figure who is more an object of sympathy and sentiment than a symbol of solitude and sadness Although the depiction of Maria in paintings and prints before 1790 overwhelmingly featured her alone in a landscape a few toward the end of the period began to introduce Yorick as an actively sympathetic figure into their compositions For example a 1782 painting by Kauffmann The Handkerchief Moulines emphasizes the tear-soaked symbol of fellow-feeling in the center of the image a rather large handkerchief held limply on one end by a forlorn Maria and firmly on the other end by a concerned and inquisitive Yorick [ see fig 5-6] The handkerchief, which Yorick uses to alternatively wipe away Maria s tears and his own is the symbol of the common bond of delicate feeling between the characters and is analogous to the illustration itself as a sentimental bridge between sufferer and sympathizer (or viewer) Kauffinann's image like Stothard s 1792 illustration, is an embellishment of the motif of solitary Maria, suggesting a social model for a practical reaction to a compassionate impulse toward the distressed Two years later James Northcote recomposed the depiction of Maria portraying her in a painting with her arm though Yorick s outside the town gate ofMoulines [see fig. 57]. Here Maria is clearly emerging from her solitary despair both physically and emotionally ; she is on the brink of social engagement with Yorick looking toward if not directly at his face with only a suggestion of melancholy reluctance in her expression and pose Yorick extending his other arm towards the town through an archway smiles in her direction with what might be seen as a hint of humor or even lewdness in his expression. Although Yorick is pictured as a rescuer in this painting Northcote appears

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259 also to have incorporated the often-reproduced image of Sterne-as-Yorick into his work; Sterne's reputation as a humorist (evidenced by the publication of two jest-books in the 1780s) suggests Yorick's role as convivial socialite in contrast to the sentimental role played in Stothard's illustration and Kauffmann's painting of the pair The numerous book illustrations of Maria between 1790 and 1820 almost exclusively depict a similar scene with Yorick, though usually in a more rural setting. The unsigned frontispiece from the anonymously authored sequel Sterne's Maria published around 1800 [see fig. 5-8] features the couple strolling gracefully down a forest path surrounded by luxuriant and buoyant foliage. Maria is standing even straighter than her depiction in the Northcote portrayal, the tilt of her head the only remaining bodily sign of her distress; Yorick seems engaged in conversation with her, gesturing with his right hand. The scene, in fact seems reminiscent of Adam and Eve in the garden, with the idealized flora framing, and seeming to welcome and applaud, the couple. If the message of the picture was not clear enough, the legend recalls the restorative moment of contact from Sterne s text, when "MARIA put her Arm within mine ... "; the inscribed tablet radiates decorative lines that serve to further focus attention on its text and suggest its connection with a cosmic order. Yorick seems subsumed by the gentle landscape, realigning the aggressive and assertive influence of man-here tempered by compassion-with a passive, feminized idea of nature A variation of the theme of the rescue of Maria can be seen in one of a series of aquatint prints by I. H. Clark in 1820 [see fig 5-9]. Here Yorick, dressed as an early nineteenth-century clergyman and dapper with a stylish hat and a walking stick under his arm, strolls with a poised, well-dressed and carefully coifed Maria through a manicured

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260 garden The sophistication that replaces the innocence evident in earlier depictions is further reinforced by the large urban structures that loom in the background to the left and Sylvio's fancy collar and careful grooming The many colors used in this rendition which was included in a collection titled Humourous Illustrations to the Works of Sterne-increase the rich and lush quality of the moment, one that can be seen less as an instance of pathos and sentimental communion and more as a scene of middle-class courtship The same basic configuration of Yorick leading Maria first appeared in paintings (later engraved as prints) in the late 1780s, and became the dominant mode of book illustration of Maria from 1790 to 1820 Rendered by seven different artists for new editions in this period (two additional illustrations depict the pair seated) 24 the image of Yorick rescuing Maria was reproduced with only minor stylistic variation repeating again and again its message of masculine compassion and strength as a cure for feminine distress and ultimately the idea of restorative companionship These illustrations then might be seen as pictorial suggestions of companionship and marriage as practical prescriptions for emotionally distraught young women-the same women who perhaps had been emotionally sensitized by their identification with the lonely melancholia of the abandoned Maria as represented in the first generation of visualizations of the character The proliferation of this new Maria published in so short a period in fact resembles a type of advertising campaign Noting that the "most popular prescription" for female hysteria at the time was marriage John Mullan observes that images of marriage as the resolving institution of a moral and material economy [existed] in many different kinds of writing throughout the

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261 eighteenth century Mullan cites the 1771 statement by the physician John Ball that i f the hysteric female "be single and of a proper age, the advice of Hippocrates should be followed who wisely says that a woman's best remedy is to marry, and bear children [emphasis Ball s]. 2 5 Similarly the popular 1798 text A Physical View of Man and Woman, in a State of Marriage reiterates the concept in its relation of a case of a grieving young widow who suddenly had become subject to epileptic fits and who eventually "found her 'cure in the arms of a second vigorous husband 2 6 While suggesting that male companionship can help heal a range of female afflictions the author of A Physical View lingers on one type of sufferer who would particularly benefit from male companionship specifically a young woman .. her head dolorous her respiration interrupted every moment will only permit her with pain to articulate some words which she pronounces with a feeble tremulous, and obstructed voice . her dull eyes her gloomy and drooping aspect excite the compassion of every beholder ; she seems no longer connected with the world and all in Nature is indifferent to her eyes excepting the lover for whom her heart still conserves some activity 2 7 This description could easily be a representation of Sterne s Maria essentially mirroring as it does the physical appearance and behavior which triggers Yorick's ( and the reader s) compassion. A Physical View of course was supposedly written to document the conditions of actual humans and not fictional characters but clearly this description which lists symptoms of melancholia perhaps fashionable among middleand upper-class women-may easily have been inspired jointly by such eighteenth-century literary characters as Sterne s Maria and Goethe's Lotte (who not coincidentally was also depicted as a mournful figure on Wedgwood jasper-ware though for a briefer period than Maria) 2 8 The general prescription of A Physical View that marriage may be

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262 recommended as the most efficacious means to obtain the cure of many diseases" 29 may be reflected in the pervasive image of Maria and Yorick during the period, intended as a suggestion to remedy real-life female melancholia with male companionship Although these scenes of Yorick sitting with, or leading, Maria overwhelmingly stress human suffering and a sympathetic response, some artists, like Northcote, suggest in their portrayals a less generous motive on the part of the parson, fostered, perhaps, by Sterne's reputation as an admirer of women Gordon observes that those painters who depicted two-character scenes were often "well aware of the potential for scenes of flirtatious intrigue derived from Sterne's novels where the licentious excitement was perhaps even heightened by the presence in these suggestive situations of a recognisable and famous clergyman" @PS 79). These erotic connotations seem, however, to be more revealing of the artists' attitude toward Sterne than the text of the scene itself; nevertheless, the possible connection between increasing rumors about Sterne's philandering and pictures of Yorick accompanying an attractive young woman may have made the once-popular image of the pair seem less appealing as the century progressed. Ellis, noting the recurrent literary motif of the moral fall of women such as Emily Atkins in The Man of Feeling. states that there was a perception that a "stimulated passion for romantic love" could "lead to the weakening of the prophylactic power of innocence 30 Thus, there perhaps existed a broader basis than simply the suspicion of Yorick's (or Sterne's) concupiscence that eventually led to a distaste for the subject of Yorick escorting Maria Both of Sterne's scenes of Maria that prompted delicate feeling were also capable (almost perversely) of creating mirth. As Tom Keymer notes, "it is as though the book might be consumed in different ways by different categories of reader : the naive may read

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263 it as pure feeling, productive of tears; the sophisticated may read it as pure irony productive rather oflaughter." 31 Keymer may be simplifying Sterne's audience somewhat but there are elements in the scene that can easily be understood as bawdy and Keymer cites previous critics (including Sterne's contemporaries) who recognize this characteristic as well Analyzing Sterne's allusions to sexuality in his depictions of Maria Keymer makes a strong case for the satirical aspects of the scene as well as asserting the possibility that Sterne was parodying Andrew Marvell's "The Nymph Complaining for the Death of Her Faun. 3 2 Keymer broadly describes Sterne's text as one in which "sentiment is both practiced and parodied, indulged and undermined" (13) A predominantly satirical attitude towards Maria's scenes, however remains more or less unvisualized in the first hundred years of their representation suggesting perhaps the increasing use of visual renderings for pathetic rather than comic, subjects After the intense popularity that visual representations of Maria-either sitting in profile or walking with Yorick-enjoyed from 1770 to 1820 a period of less frequent and simultaneously more varied portrayals of the character ensued One example an unsigned book illustration [see fig. 5-10] from a 1827 edition of A Sentimental Journey featu r es Maria and Yorick seated under the tree ; Maria is shown in profile a close variation of the figure of mourning popularized fifty years earlier Yorick however is physically distanced from Maria and does not seem to be particularly concerned with her distress The dilution of sentimental communion may in part be the result of a less refined illustrative technique in this example but the overall effect of the portrayal is a denial of the delicate feeling depicted almost exclusively in conjunction with the scene for fifty years Two other illustrations of Maria published during the late 1820s to the earl y

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264 1830s 33 also similarly depict Maria and Yorick physically and spiritually separated from each other, suggesting a less sympathetic approach toward the emotionally distraught one that isolates the victim rather than offering her restoration to society Another variation in the profuse tradition of visual depictions of the character is manifested in an 1833 print, after a painting by John Doyle, entitled A Study for Sterne's Maria. In spite of the subject's obvious connection to Sterne's text the artist decided to change her dog Sylvio into a lamb, "as more emblamatical [sic] of innocence 3 4 The revision of Maria s iconic character (which had always been indicated by the presence of her pipe and her dog-or more rarely her goat) seems to indicate a cultural desire to find a new role for Maria-here as a symbol of innocence rather than what might have become a less fashionable figure of mourning or distress. No illustrations of Maria between 1840 and 1884-and she appears in five out of six illustrated editions in this period-depict her in the previous popular styles of either a virtuous solitary mourner or an accompanied walking figure. The usually unsympathetic renderings of the character in this period suggest altered attitudes toward Sterne the cultural notion of sentiment, and possibly toward femininity in general. In at least one visual portrayal the aura of melancholy is diminished considerably ; in others continuing an earlier trend Maria's physical and emotional separation from Yorick became more pronounced, and partially as a result, the character is pictured less as a subject of compassion and more as a hopeless madwoman whose unproductive and anti-domestic femininity might have been seen as a threat to a culture that was attempting to culti v ate opposing values in its young women.

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265 A distinct shift in the cultural attitude toward Sterne can be detected in H. D Traill s 1882 study of the author. Traill emphasizes the pictorial effectiveness of the te x t noting that Maria's figure is tenderly drawn and that the accessories of the picture-her goat her dog, her pipe, her song to the Virgin-though a little theatrical perhaps are skilfully touched in," 35 but he resents the sympathetic figure of Yorick (and by extension Sterne), observing that the artist has no business within the frame of the picture and his intrusion into it has spoilt it (159) Echoing Thackeray s condemnation of Sterne Traill seems particularly sensitive to what he sees as Sterne's technique of manipulating his readers into a sentimental response commenting that we are taken straight into Maria s presence and bidden to look at and pity the unhappy maiden as described by the Traveller who met her ( 159 ; emphasis Thackeray s) Thus in addition to what might be taken as a loss of interest in the value of delicate feeling for its own sake which Maria seems to have symbolized until almost mid-century-public attitude toward the character might have changed owing to increased suspicions about Sterne s emotionally exploitative techniques as well Just as passages addressing Yorick s active sympathy provided a foundation for the ideas of the mournful or rescued Maria a specific moment in Sterne s text seems to inspire the images of the character as Other-a figure either angelic or socially estranged-in the mid-nineteenth century As Yorick is about to leave Moulines he stops "to take my last look and last farewel of Maria" in the marketplace and observes that Maria tho not tall was nevertheless of the first order of fine forms affliction had touch d her looks with something that was scarce earthly-still she was feminine-and so much was there about her of all that the heart wishes or the eye looks for in w oman ..

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266 (ASJ 275.3-7). A strange, and perhaps uniquely Sternean, balance is struck in this passage: Maria is described as being somehow otherworldly (something about "her looks" is "scarce earthly"), yet she is still "feminine" to the point of representing corporeal desire ("all that the heart wishes, or the eye looks for .. ") This balance between the unreal and the real the abstract and the concrete, is conveyed differently in visual portrayals in this period, accentuating as well the moral qualities suggesting either positive or negative aspects of the spiritualized. Instead of being a model of delicate feeling or a subject of charity, these illustrations view Maria as a figure of superlative femininity, capable of conveying either a blessing or a curse. The angelic Maria is suggested in a 1854 title page depiction [ see fig 5-11] that is, intriguingly, the only illustration in a single-volume edition of Sterne's Works ( excepting a frontispiece derived from Reynolds s portrait of the author). Here Maria is shown standing on a river bank, gazing downward with a mild expression; her endearing gesture of a finger on a lip implies minor distraction, suggesting the state of being lost in thought. She is dressed in middle-class attire, in a cape, bodice, pleated dress, and neat shoes ; her ribbon and pipe, symbols of her illness, are absent. By her dress and attitude, Maria more closely resembles a young, middle-class Englishwoman who temporarily lost her way while walking her dog than a French peasant driven mad by love and death A dark hollow in the bowed trees behind her forms an enclosing cartouche presenting the figure like a statue in a niche while also hinting at the shape of heavenly wings This setting combines with the feathered edges of the rough borders of the image to intensely centralize Maria within the composition The still waters of the "brook" near her feet reinforce the calm serenity of this depiction; they might even reflect the image that the

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267 character stands contemplating in narcissistic fashion As in the early seated portrayals of Maria Sylvie sits at her feet looking up at her. Maria s lack of distress is further suggested here by her strong posture upright position and neat dress The heavy air of melancholy clearly evident in earlier pictures of solitary Maria is nearly absent possibly suppressed here by a Victorian sense of stoicism This image appea r s to be an updated version of the seated character in mourning possibly a mid-nineteenth-century model of proper behavior for young women projecting benevolence and emotional restraint. The Victorian idea of a woman's role as dutiful repository of emotional and spiritual strength in the home was advanced both implicitly and explicitly in several texts of the day One blatant representative of this widespread cultural perspective was Sarah Stickney Ellis whose The Women of England ran to twenty-one editions within a few years. 3 6 Addressing a large and ambitious female middle class (those belonging to that great mass of the population ofEngland which is connected with trade and manufactures 3 7 ) Ellis seeks to emphasize that the home comforts and fireside virtues (10) are desirable-even necessary-feminine qualities ; martyr-like self-sacrifice to t he home is expected and women must accustom themselves to the practice of personal exertion in the wa y of promoting general happiness (11) Throughout her book Ellis promotes the model of an ideal woman who is educated but submissive to male authority and who is expected to dutifully tend the hearth while her husband focuses on financial and political interests This ideal bode ill for the figure of Maria who had represented an impract i cal and unseemly indulgence in emotion In her guide, Ellis specifically targets "the sickly

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268 sensibilities, the feeble frames, and the useless habits of the rising generation" ( 11 ), finding in some young women "an eagerness to escape from every thing like practical and individual duty" ( 12) Although Ellis' s position ultimately has broad social ramifications ( she exclaims at one point: "You have deep responsibilities . a nation's moral wealth is in your keeping" [ 13 ]), she seems most urgently distressed by the possibility of squandered affections that could have been directed elsewhere: There may exist great sympathy, kindness, and benevolence of feeling, without the power of bringing any of these emotions into exercise for the benefit of others They exist as emotions only .... [and] are permitted to die away, fruitless and unproductive, in the breast where they ought to have operated as a blessing and a means of happiness to others. (17) This is a specific directive for the suppression of self-indulgent feelings; the traditional depiction of Maria as listless and self-absorbed would seem to lose general favor in this cultural climate, and, worse yet, might provide a bad example to young female readers Thus in this unsigned 1854 illustration, Maria's cultural momentum-the continued interest in the character, after the period of its intense popularity-seems to have contributed to the remodeling of her image in the contemporaneously commendable (but barely recognizable) mold of domestic angel. Women who did not fit into this ideal of emotional durability ( or, from another perspective, self-sacrifice) and who indulged themselves in their emotions could be marginalized as mad or even monstrous-a perspective that seems to have greatly influenced Maria's depictions in the five other book illustrations published between 1840 to 1884 Indeed, these less positive portrayals outnumber the angelic illustrations of the character, hinting at a strong social tendency to isolate self-indulgent sentimentalism, as well as demonstrating the difficulty of adapting a character who had represented the very

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quintessence of delicate feeling a half-century before to the new model of ideal womanhood. 269 Maurice Leloir-who produced more than two hundred drawings of A Sentimental Journey that adorned more than a half-dozen English-language editions in the 1880s and beyond-emphasizes the tragic depth of Maria's madness, portraying a character utterly lost to the world [see fig 5-12]. 38 Although his work must be considered a French approach toward Sterne, its welcome among English readers suggests a strong cultural affirmation of his perspective. Leloir pictures Maria sitting casually, almost as if she had awkwardly landed in her position; her hair is unkempt, and one hand rests on the back of Sylvio's neck, whose head, bearing a doleful expression, rests affectionately on her upper leg The most compelling feature of the image is Maria's gaze She is utterly uncommunicative with everything around her, including Sylvio, and is completely engaged in her own thoughts. Yorick, sitting cross-legged, holds a handkerchief which, ignored by Maria, is no longer the central sentimental symbol of the scene as it had been in Edwards's depiction [ see fig. 4-1 ], but rather an incidental element; the scene, in fact, portrays Yorick as a well-meaning but ineffective sympathizer who has objectified Maria instead of bonding with her The tamed rural setting, featuring a gentle slope covered with only short vegetation, several large trees, and a sturdy, well-maintained fence, imparts a more artificial atmosphere than previous depictions of the scene, suggesting a reflection of the restrained (as opposed to the previously unabashedly spontaneous) nature of compassion in Yorick's breast. Instead of depicting a meeting of sensibilities, Leloir' s illustration cynically seems to stress the wide gulf that separates the two characters.

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270 At least two other series of illustrations 39 from this period similarly stress Maria s madness presenting a distinct variation of late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth-century images of Maria and Yorick In addition to book illustrations at least one painting of the character in this period Stem s Maria [sic] (1768) by W. P Frith also emphasizes Maria s mental disorder [see fig 5-13]. 4 Frith s portrayal suggests a quality of unsettling quietness as well as a permanence to Maria s madness The character s gaze i s subtly askew directed at something to the right instead of at the viewer to whom her body is turned ; she clutches her pipe in her hand, as if she has just finished playing her mysteriously inspired service to the Virgin." Her hair in disarray, seems to be tossed by the wind but the trees behind her are strangely still Dressed plainly she is framed by these two trees one thriving and one half-dead; a miniaturized village-similar to the one in Carter s painting [ cf fig. 5-1 ] is tucked away insignificantly to the side the tiny representation of reality in Maria s world Frith s Maria is accompanied by her goat, one of several portrayals in this period that depicts the earlier mention of the scene in Tristram Shandy 36 In this rendering Maria sunk into the depths of distress is barely aware of her pet who looks off in a different direction as if already planning his escape Her obliviousness to the presence of the viewer reflects an uncertain and disturbing quality to her madness and hints at a greater potential for destabilization and erratic behavior than portrayed in earlier visualizations of the character. The several mid-century illustrations and Frith s painting all portray Maria as irretrievably lost in her madness an object of redoubled pity owing to the trials she has suffered and her inability to cope with them and represent a marked contrast with the

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271 depictions of a durable and melancholic character prominent fifty years earlier that inspired a cult of admirers The lost otherworldly" quality of madness shown in these Victorian images, while emphasizing an element already present in Sterne's work might also be seen as a warning to young women of the mid-nineteenth century of the effects of overindulgence in personal emotion By advertising a negative model of feeling these illustrations, in effect act as further affirmation of the prevalence of the cultural attitude perpetuated by Sarah Stickney Ellis ; these mid-to-late-nineteenth-century representations of Maria suggest a view that women who deny their role as providers of spiritual strength to others are doomed to physical and spiritual exile on the fringes of society These portrayals of Maria as clearly (and somewhat frighteningly) deranged also reflect a contemporaneous cultural interest in the story of another unfortunate young woman, Ophelia who, like Maria decades before spawned a following of her own in the second half of the nineteenth century. Bran Dijkstra credits Ophelia s popularity she was the subject of many paintings in this period and a cosmetics line was named for her to the cultural appeal of the idea of a "love-crazed self-sacrificial woman 4 2 The parallels between the lost loves the ensuing loss of senses, and even the association with water shared by the two characters suggest their joint contribution to a cultural idea that projected the dangers of intense emotions Arthur Hughes s 1852 portrait of Shakespeare s character [see fig 5-14], in fact could been seen as representing Maria instead : the rural setting and proximity to water and above all, the figure s physical and emotional isolation from society create a portrait of feminine hypersensitivity which further suggests the replacement of the cult of delicate feeling with a cautionary awareness of the dangers of emotional sensitivity

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272 Sterne's description of the mysterious appearance of Maria's pipe and the simultaneous onset of her musical ability hints at the last trend in the character's visual depiction in this period Tristram is first attracted to the character by her music ("the sweetest notes I ever heard" [TS IX.24.781.25]), which leads to a visual unveiling of Maria by the postillion, who leans "his body on one side to let me see her, for he was in a line betwixt us" (TS IX 24 781.28-82.1 ). While the music, speaking in a way Maria could not with words, may have provided a basis for sentimental communion between the characters (and was frequently illustrated as such in the late-eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries), at least two illustrations hint that Maria's song has become more suspect by the mid-nineteenth century, perhaps being viewed as a means of beckoning passers-by to share in her scene of self-pity and dissipation. This perspective casts Maria in the seemingly unlikely role of mythological siren, who lures healthy and productive people ( especially men) to share in her sentimental spell, transforming them from productive members of society into anti-social and self-indulgent connoisseurs of delicate feeling. Thus the "broken and irregular steps" with which Tristram walks "softly to his chaise" (TS IX.24. 784 16-17) may have been seen as suggesting the potentially destabilizing effect of Maria on her future auditors-or readers After the initial engaging song that gives Tristram pause, Maria plays a "cadence so melancholy, so tender and querulous" that he "sprung out of the chaise to help her, and found myself sitting betwixt her and her goat before I relapsed from my enthusiasm" (TS IX.24.783 17-20). 43 This reaction, with the spiritual connotations ofthe eighteenth century idea of enthusiasm, 44 suggests the compelling nature of the supernaturally inspired music, creating another link between Sterne's character and a siren

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273 While the 1848 portrayal of Maria by Darley does not depict the character playing music it does feature her pipe prominently by her side ; in this illustration she sits almost upright her head tilted slightly with her hands resting in her lap [see fig 5-15]. Her eyes closed, her face half in shadow she appears passive and yet her figure radiates an unusual energy. Her long hair flows loosely and erratically merging with the vaguely defined vegetation behind her A frail foot-hardly suitable for walking-emerges from underneath a loose simple gown and the ribbon from her pipe coils serpentine in her lap Everything around Maria is oddly still and fixed as if enchanted ; even the usually vigorous Sylvio is statue-like, almost merging with the background A waterfall on the left and a broken branch are partially hidden in shadow There is a suggestion here of magical languor and the figure of Maria influenced by a Pre-Raphaelite aesthetic is fluid full of sinuous curves ; the surreal quality of the picture is enhanced further by Maria s closed eyes. Some elements hint at darker connotations : the diamond design on Maria s thigh resembles fish scales a visual cue reiterated by the character s tapering lower half and association with water In addition to these details the desolate scenery and soporific Sylvio add a certain insidious quality to Maria s portrayal which suggests her role as siren a perspective echoed in an 1853 illustration as well. 45 Perhaps this perspective toward Maria coincides with another cultural trend in the last half of the nineteenth century Dijkstra, noting that writers such as Tennyson Rossetti and Baudelaire grappled with sirens mermaids and their deadly desires (266) records a widespread interest in these subjects for paintings adding that sirens could be disguised as water sprites mountain sprites or Loreleis (261 )-a connotation that could potentially lend a sinister air to the traditional depiction of Maria near a brook. Maria may

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274 have been seen to represent a threat of spiritual seduction into feelings of indulgent pity and self-pity which marked a certain cultural fear for Victorian men and women alike At any rate it is a portrayal of Maria that is clearly different from the unabashed invitation to sympathy and support in the early periods I have outlined The change in emphasis in Maria s visual depictions from a character worthy ofrescue to a figure of lost madwoman or siren seems to signal a decisive split with the idea of pathetic sentiment she had formerly represented ; the idea of reveling in delicate emotion an act which the character symbolized to many admirers of sentiment may have been seen by mid-century as succumbing to a type of weakness that was not in keeping with a revised view of the feminine (or masculine for that matter) 4 6 In this sense Maria became an anti-model, an example of how not to react, and thus was predominantly rendered in less admirable forms ; to the Victorians, Maria may have represented a model of poor behavior under duress, as well as what may have been seen as a manifestation of an unfortunate female tendency toward irrationality. The iconic momentum of Maria slowed considerably through the early-twentieth century. Although Maria still appeared in Sterne s work during the resurgence of interest in the author in the 1920s and 1930s, illustrations of the character were less frequent and were visualized with less consistency than they previously had been 47 Yet the image of Maria stubbornly persisted in the form of decoration on Wedgewood stone-ware: vases adorned with a design very similar to the 1780 original were produced by Wedgwood through the early 1980s. 48 By the end of the twentieth century however Maria had become more a generic visual symbol than a literary character to most of the English

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275 speaking world, eventually evolving into a visual embodiment of melancholy unrelated to a specific textual or cultural reference The examination of visual portrayals of Maria from 1770 to 1884 reveals distinct trends in the depiction of the character that can be considered as visual indicators of shifts in cultural ideas regarding sentimentality and femininity Over slightly more than one hundred years Maria acts as a symbol of delicate feeling that was alternatively portrayed as being heroic, inspiring sympathetic compassion or acting as a negative model of dangerous emotional sensitivity. Growing beyond an existence as a character from Sterne's works Maria became a screen on which society projected changing cultural attitudes toward sentimentality Gradually through the nineteenth century interest in the character (though not in Sterne) dwindled and visual portrayals of Maria were replaced in popularity by pictorial reproductions of Uncle Toby adapted from Charles Robert Leslie's 1829 painting which like images of Maria were also reproduced in the form of prints as well as on pot lids and other household items 4 9 By the end of the century Toby had become the dominant subject in illustrated editions of Tristram Shandy. as well 5 0 Leslie s image seen here in the form of the popular Lumb Stocks engraving [see fig 5-16] depicts the Widow Wadman s attack" on Toby s sentry-box Here Mrs. Wadman has edged herself close" (TS IX.24 705 21) to Toby beseeching him to look i nto her eye for a non-existent mote. Tristram describes his uncle s futile search "with twice the good nature that ever Gallileo look d for a spot in the sun" (TS IX.24 706 21) which results instead in his discovery of one lambent delicious fire furtively shooting out from e v ery part ofan eye that undoes him (TS IX.24.707 5-7) Given the modesty of the character in Sterne s text Toby ironically dominates Leslie's composition blocking Mrs

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276 Wadman with one knee, while she appears submissive and physically overwhelmed in the small space. The portrayal of Toby, however, with his steadfast focus on the bewitching eye, betrays the character's vulnerabilities, in the sincerity of his gaze and the openness of his bodily expression. The tempting Wadman is described in the text as a type of siren, but this depiction, stressing her cramped position and intimate offering, instead suggests her role as passive supplicant. In contrast to Maria, Toby represented a different type of sentiment to Victorian tastes, one that actively attends to external objects of compassion, manifest in the tale of Le Fever ( which was excerpted in the second half of the nineteenth century), 51 as well as in the stories of the fly and Walter's lament; as such, Toby had taken on the benevolent role assumed by Tristram/Y orick and the Bourbonnois shepherd in earlier visualizations. Significantly, the date of Leslie's original painting-1831-roughly coincides with a turning point in the popular portrayal of Maria, who at this time was being illustrated less frequently and becoming more an object of restrained pity and fear than earnest sympathy. I would suggest that the cultural focus shifted from the icon of Maria to that of Toby, whose active attributes were better suited to ambitious Victorian society; both characters, however, evolving into entities beyond Sterne's text, became remarkable types of cultural phenomena in their respective eras, emblems of emotional sensitivity that visually projected changing social ideas about the expression of sentiment.

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277 1. TS IX.24 784 13 2 Other examples of visualized pathos in Sterne's work are especially prominent in his sermons, where they similarly function to prompt the sympathy of the audience Additional discussion of the visual imperative can be found in Chapter 1 14-15 3 As mentioned earlier Mangin was probably inspired by comments i n the Earl of Clonmell s personally annotated copy of A Sentimental Journey that reflect at length on the visual effects generated by Sterne s text ; see Chapter 2 Part 1 47-48 4 Edward Mangin A View of the Pleasures Arising from a Love of Books : In Letters to a Lady (London : Longman Hurst Rees Orme and Browne ; and Upham 1814) 9294 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. Although published in 1810 Mangin s commentary on Maria possibly was written at least a decade earlier. Catherine Gordon suggests that Mangin may have been inspired by a print of Maria when writing this passage (British Paintings of Subjects from the English Novel 1740-1870 Outstanding Theses in the Fine Arts from British Universities [New York and London : Garland 1 988], 74)-as John Cowper Powys openly admits to being when writing his commentary 125 years later (see Chapter 2 Part 2 78) 5. John Mullan, Sentiment and Sociability : The Language of Feeling in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford : Clarendon 1988) 227 6 Tom Keymer ed A Sentimental Journey and Other Writings by Laurence Sterne (London : J.M Dent ; Vermont: Charles E Tuttle 1994) finds likely sources in Samuel 12:3 Isaiah 56 : 7 and Psalm 141:2 (159 nn 97) 7 In his notes to A Sentimental Journey (159 n 97) Keymer locates the first use of this proverb, commonly believed to be biblical in Henri Estienne Les Premices (1593) 47 where it appears as Dieu mesure le froid a la brebis tondue 8. For further discussion of the sentimental-religious characteristics of Sterne s sermons see Arthur Hill Cash Sterne s Comedy of Moral Sentiments : The Ethical Dimension of the "Journey" (Duquesne Studies Philological Series 6 ; Pittsburgh PA: Duquesne U. Press, 1966), esp. 103-24 9. Arguably the positive humanism of philosophical tracts like David Hume s Treatise of Human Nature (1739-40) and Adam Smith s The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) complemented the benevolence of Christian belief ( especially that of Latitudinarian Anglicanism) to create a particularly fertile environment for the growth of sent i mentalism See also Chapter 4 224 n. 7 for a list of resources that address sentimentalism 10 Gordon 263-67

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278 11 There appears to have been widespread interest in sentimentalism on both sides of the Atlantic in the late-eighteenth century Several publishers in the United States produced editions of Sterne s work (including Beauties) as well as of Henry Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling : for further discussion see Lodwick Hartley "' The Dying Soldier and the Love-Lorn Virgin ': Notes on Sterne's Early Reception in America" (Southern Humanities Review 4 [1970] : 69-80) 12 See The Letters of Maria (London : G Kearsley 1790); The Whole Story of the Sorrows of Maria, ofMoulines Selected from Various Works of the Celebrated Sterne A Tale, Founded on Fact (Boston : n p 1793) ; Maria (n p .: n.p ., n d [c. 1800]) ; and Sterne's Maria: A Pathetic Story With an Account of Her Death, at the Castle of Valerian (London : R. Rusted n d [c 1800]) The Letters of Maria identifies Maria s lost lover as St. Flo, a similarly sensitive being who turns to religion after their separation ; these embellishments of Sterne's story strongly parallel Alexander Pope s 1717 Eloisa to Abelard ," with which it shares elements of true love deterred religious piety and Gothic settings 13 The ballad by John Moulds entitled "Stem's Maria (Philadelphia : G Willig between 1795 and 1797) was also known after its opening line as "' Twas near a thicket's calm retreat "; it was frequently republished and continued to appear in collections through the mid-nineteenth century "Stem's Maria had been re-published in Boston between 1810 and 1814 by Nathaniel Coverly Jr. along with the song "The Rose ," which begins To a shady retreat fair Eliza I trac d ." The apparent expansion of the pantheon of Stemean sentimental heroines to include Eliza is intriguing in light of the scarcity of her appearances in A Sentimental Journey (see Chapter 4 225 n 9) and as evidence of the cross-pollination between the real and fictional popular images of Sterne The frontispiece of the Dove Classics edition combining Letters from Yorick to Eliza with A Sentimental Journey and Goethe s The Sorrows of Young Werther (London: T Allman, 1835) by C Heath features Yorick and Lydia gazing at a painting of Eliza with the caption underneath : She has got your picture and likes it "; this along with a title page portrayal of Maria constitutes all the illustration in this edition implying a growing identification of Maria with Eliza as well as a popular interest in the characters For a more comprehensive catalogue of late-eighteenthand early-nineteenth-century music adapted from Sterne s texts see J. C T. Oates "Maria and the Bell : Music of Stemean Origin ," in The Winged Skull : Bicentenary Conference Papers on Laurence Sterne ed Arthur H. Cash and John M Stedmond (Kent OH : Kent State U. Press 1971) 313-15. 14 Gordon 73 Unfortunately Gordon does not provide examples to support this assertion ; these paintings would provide useful comparisons with the many visual renditions of Maria

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279 15. Gordon 73-74 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text. The citation is from Joshua Reynolds, Discourses on Art, Discourse III, ed. Robert R. Wark (New Haven, CT : Yale U. Press, 1966), 50-51 16 Catherine Gordon, "More Than One Handle," Words: Wai-te-Ata Studies in Literature 4 (Wellington: Wai-te-Ata, 1974), 53 17. David Alexander, "Sterne, the Eighteenth-Century Print Market, and the Prints in Shandy Hall," Shandean 5 (1993) : 110. 18. Gordon, BPS 263-67 Additional extant prints (as well as paintings) of Maria may be miscatalogued in ignorance of their literary reference. One example of this miscataloguing can be seen in the item description for an online auction that describes a Wedgwood vase depicting Maria, the Bourbonnois shepherd, and two cherubs as "a sweet little love story, told in four beautifully executed scenes" ( 23 November 2001) Neither Maria, Sterne, nor A Sentimental Journey is mentioned in the description. 19. Unsigned editor's note to Joseph Moser, "Memoir of the Late Angelica Kauffmann, RA.," The European Magazine and London Review (April 1809): 254. 20 In The Dwight and Lucille Beeson Wedgwood Collection at the Birmingham Museum of Art (Birmingham, AL : Birmingham Museum of Art, 1992), Elizabeth Bryding Adams states that the design was adapted for Wedgwood in 1783 (62) Little is known about the actual production numbers of Wedgwood and other porcelain and pottery items; even the Wedgwood archives, which document most of the variety of items that were embellished with the image of Maria, offer no help in gauging the production numbers of these pieces One might suggest that, since the current auction price of a 1 790 tea pot featuring Maria is priced the same as a similarly dated teapot without the motif, the pieces were likely as widely produced in similar numbers as other designs. For additional examples and analysis, see W B. Gerard, '"Poor Maria' in Wedgwood," Shandean 12 (2001): 88-98 21. Robin Reilly, Wedgwood Jasper (1989; New York: Thames and Hudson 1994), 156. 22. Although the predominance of the solitary, mourning Maria of most visual renditions gave way in the 1 790s to portrayals of the character accompanied by Yorick, the image of the lonely and melancholy Maria continued in the decorative arts, peaking in the first two decades of the nineteenth century, when Wedgwood, Spode, and Staffordshire all produced freestanding statues of Maria. In addition, small dishes with no manufacturing marks with the motif of the mournful Maria were produced ; these may have been extremely common in their time.

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280 Wedgwood apparently continued to produce Maria's images on jasper-ware through the late-twentieth century It might be suggested, however that the link between the image and Sterne s text had dissolved for most of the buying public along the way ; as a result, Maria became an icon independent of her originating text 23 Markman Ellis, The Politics of Sensibility (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge U. Press 1996), 27 24 The complete list of the seven editions which include similar images of Maria walking with Yorick is as follows : A Sentimental Journey. London : J. Good and E and S. Harding 1792 (by Thomas Stothard) ; London : J. Creswick and Co ., 1794 (by M Archer ; see fig. 4-7) ; Vienna: R. Sammer 1795 (unsigned) ; London : William Holland 1795 and 1797, and London : J. Wallis, 1812 (by Richard Newton) ; Edinburgh : J. Fairburn and A. Mackay 1806 (unsigned) ; a print series Humourous Illustrations to the Works of Sterne (London: J. Bumpers 1820) by I. H Clark ; and the anonymously written and illustrated Sterne s Maria (London : Rusted n d [c 1800]). Two editions include portrayals of the seated pair (A Sentimental Journey. London : T. Hurst and C Chapple 1803 [by William Marshall Craig] and London: Jones and Co ., 1831 [ unsigned]) Aside from these seven I have not located any other book illustrations of the character published in this period 25 Mullan 227 The quote from John Ball is from The Female Physician; or, Every Woman Her Own Doctor (London : n.p 1771) 11 26. De Lignac A Physical View of Man and Woman, in a State of Marriage Translated from the Last French Edition ofM de Lignac (London : Vernor and Hood 1798) 2 6 27. A Physical View 2 8-9 28 According to Adams the depiction from Goethe s The Sorrows of Young Werther, designed by Lady Templetown in 1787, portrays Lotte as she kneels at the tomb of her lover (120) The thematic similarity between Maria and Lotte (whose source of distress is different from Maria's) adds further evidence to the popularity of melancholy themes during the late-eighteenth century. 29 A Physical View 2 7 30 Ellis 164 31 Tom Keymer Marvell, Thomas Hollis and Sterne s Maria : Parody in A Sentimental Journey ," Shandean 5 (1993) : 10-11. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text

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281 32. Keymer suggests that Maria's scene in A Sentimental Journey is a parody of Marvell's poem noting parallels between the two texts such as the theme of a lost love [which] is poignantly recapitulated or renewed by the loss of a pet" ( 15) and the name Sylvio, shared by both the nymph's lover and Maria s dog While a parody of"The Nymph's Complaint" might have gone unnoticed by most of Sterne's contemporary readers-Marvell was not popular among the general reading public in 1768-Keymer asserts it may have been appreciated within Sterne's circle, which included Thomas Hollis, a wealthy "enthusiast of Marvell" (19) who initiated a new edition of the poet's works For Keymer, the parodic connection to Marvell makes it "hard to think of Maria as simply an instance of picturesque distress or even as the subject of some mildly improper rapture She becomes instead an instance of parody, an ironically debased version of the grieving nymph" (15-16) 33 One of the two additional editions which include the motif of the separated pair is a composite edition of A Sentimental Journey. Letters from Yorick to Eliza and The Sorrows of Young Werther (London : T. Allman, 1835; seen 10 above) ; C Heath s illustration for the title page portrays Yorick at a considerable distance from Maria. 34. John Doyle, A Study for Sterne's Maria (lithograph; London : Thomas McLean 1833). 35 H. D Traill, Sterne (London : Macmillan 1889) 157. Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 36 Research Library Group Union Catalogue (16 November 2001 ) suggests that the fifth edition of The Women of England was published in the same year as the twenty-first edition The headnote in The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Victorian Age 7 th ed. (New York ; London: W W Norton and Co. 2000), 1721 states that Ellis's book went through sixteen editions i n two years 37 Sarah Stickney Ellis, The Women of England, Their Social Duties, and Domestic Habits, 21 st ed (London; Paris : Fisher Son and Co. 1839) 19 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text Ellis also authored The Wives of England in 1843 3 8. Leloir s lively visualizations set a popular standard in illustration for decades to come: for instance his work accompanies a one-page excerpt from A Sentimental Journey in the Golden Book Magazine nearly a half century after its initial publication ( 14 : 81 [Sept. 1931]: 131) The Leloir illustration examined here is from A Sentimental Journey. Philadelphia : J. B Lippincott 1885 ; a partial list of other editions with the same ( or slightly abbreviated) series of illustrations includes Paris : Jules Tallender n d [ c. 1880] ; Paris : Librarie Artistique, 1884 ; New York : Brentanos n d. ; New York: J. W. Boulton 1884 ; London: G. Routledge and Sons 1885 ; Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott 1887 1891 ; and New York : Belford Co n.d [c 1890].

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282 39. The two other editions which feature Maria in this vein are A Sentimental Journey. London : Routledge 1888 ( Illustrated with seventy-five engravings on wood by Bastin and G. P. Nichols from Original Designs by Jacque and Fussell ) and Paris : Ernest Bourdin n d [ c 1890] ( Edition illustree par MM Tony Johannot et Jacque") The later edition duplicates some artwork from the earlier one but the depiction of Maria is different in each 40 Gordon catalogues twelve other academy paintings portraying Maria between 1840-1884 although reproductions or descriptions of these works were unavailable for examination as of this writing 41 Three paintings and one book illustration make visual reference to Tristram Shandy s Maria perhaps an attempt to separate the character from its sentimental o ri gins See Gordon, BPS 88 42. Bram Dijkstra Idols of Perversity : Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siecle Culture (Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press 1986) 46 42 Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text 43 Tristram sjesting description ofMaria s seeming confusion suggests a reference to the myth of Circe : MARIA look'd wistfully for some time at me and then at her goat--and then at me-and then at her goat again and so on altemately---Well Maria, said I softly--What resemblance do you find? I do intreat the candid reader to believe me that it was from the humblest conviction of what a Beast man is that I ask d the question . (TS IX 24 783 21-784 3) Just as Ulysses s men are transformed into swine by Circe Maria s confused gaze seems to "transform Tristram into a goat ; in both instances the bestial associations mirro r aspects of the male inner psyche. Here the goat also conveys a tug of the sensual that might balance the scene s stress on delicate and ethereal feeling and thus might prevent Tristram from becoming a disembodied sympathizer 44 Modem readers may not appreciate the Stemean ambiguities present in the use of enthusiasm, which according to the OED could indicate either possession by supernatural inspiration" or misdirected religious emotion in the eighteenth century 45 The unsigned illustration of Maria from Tristram Shandy (London : Ingram Cooke and Co ., 1853 frontispiece) also suggests Maria s role as siren 46 At the same time however the late-eighteenth-century idea of delicate sentiment seems to have survived in this period perhaps savored in private by clandestine admirers

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283 At least one edition of The Beauties of Sterne (bound in the same volume as The Beauties of Johnson [New York : Leavitt and Allen 1856]) was published in mid-century and the contents of its ornately bordered pages are nearly identical with similar collections of seventy years before As in the earlier edition both versions of the story of Maria are included in the mid-century version of Beauties 4 7 While Maria continued to be illustrated in both of Sterne's long fictions in the twentieth century at least four illustrators of Tristram Shandy (Austen Lawrence Baldessari and Rowson) did not portray her. 48 See W B. Gerard "Sterne Illustrated (Shandean 13 [2002]) for additional information abou t nineteenthand early twentieth-century portrayals of Maria on Wedgewood jasper-ware and similar decorative items 49. The widespread interest in portrayals of Uncle Toby has been most comprehensively documented by W G. Day in "Charles Robert Leslie s My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman ': The Nineteenth-Century Icon of Sterne s Work ," Shandean 9 (1997) : 83-108 Uncle Toby was prominent in several literary anthologies in the mid nineteenth century as well as the primary subject of a selection of Sterne s work The Story of My Uncle Toby, etc (New York : Scribner Welford and Co ., 1871) compiled by his biographer Percy Fitzgerald. The character also may have been the inspiration for a series of children s books and for the name of an Australian supermarket chain As is the case with Maria the broad cultural phenomenon of Toby deserves a more deta i led analysis than can be provided in this space 50 For instance the other five scenes by Darley in the 1852 edition primarily feature Toby as do four out of the six illustrations by Henry Furniss published in 1883 51. Excerpts from Sterne s work entitled The Story of Le Fevre and Noble Poverty appear in Gleanings from Popular Authors, Grave and Gay (London : Cassell and Co ., n d. [c 1890])

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Fig. 5-1 George Carter Miss Carter as Maria (n d [ c 1773 ] ; polychrome oil on canvas) 284

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Fig 5-2 W W Ryland, 1779 engraving of Angelica Kauffinann Maria near Moulines (1777 ; polychrome on copper) 285

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Fig 5-3 Wedgwood "solitaire" jasper ware tea set [c 1780]. The image of Maria is featured on the teapot, left center 286

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Figure 5-4 Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun, Duchesse d Orleans (1789 ; polychrome oil on canvas) 287

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Fig. 5-5 Illustration by Thomas Stothard for Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey (London : J. Good and E. and S. Harding, 1792), frontispiece 288

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Fig 5-6 Angelica Kauffinann, The Handkerchief Moulines (1782; polychrome oil on canvas) 289

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Fig 5-7 John Northcote Yorick and Maria at Moulines ( 1784 ; polychrome oil on canvas) 290

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Fig. 5-8 Illustration (unsigned) for the anonymously written Sterne s Maria (London : Rusted n d (c 1800]) frontispiece 291

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Figure 5-9 Illustration (hand-tinted polychrome) by I. H. Clark for Humourous Scenes from Sterne (London : J. Bumpus 1820) 292

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Fig 5-10. Illustration (unsigned) for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey (New York: James Gournay 1827) 175 293

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Fig 5-11 Illustration (unsigned) for Laurence Sterne, Works (London : Henry G. Bohn, 1854), title page detail. 294

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Fig 5-12 Illustration by Maurice Leloir for Laurence Sterne A Sentimental Journey (Philadelphia : J. B Lippincott 1884) facing 190 295

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296 Fig 5-13. W. P. Frith Stem s Maria [sic](l868 ; polychrome oil on canvas)

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297 Fig 5-14 Arthur Hughes Ophelia (1852 ; polychrome oil on canvas)

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M/\ I HA. Fig 5-15 Illustration by Darley for Laurence Sterne Works (Philadelphia : Griggs Elliot and Co ., 1848) 298

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Fig 5-16 Lumb Stocks, engraving [ c 1880] of Charles Robert Leslie, My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman (1829 and 1831; polychrome oil on canvas) 299

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Elizabeth Bryding The Dwight and Lucille Beeson Wedgwood Collection at the Birmingham Museum of Art Birmingham, AL: Birmingham Museum of Art, 1992 Alexander, David "Sterne, the 18 th -Century Print Market, and the Prints at Shandy Hall." Shandean 5 (1993) : 110-24 Altick, Richard D Paintings from Books : Art and Literature in Britain, 1760-1900 Columbus, OH : Ohio State U. Press, 1985 Anderson, Howard. "Sterne's Letters: Consciousness and Sympathy The Familiar Letter in the Eighteenth Century Ed Howard Anderson Philip B. Daghlian and Irvin Ehrenpreis Lawrence KS: U of Kansas Press, 1966 130-47 "Announcing Tristram Shandy from the Arion Press." San Francisco : Arion Press n.d. [c 1988]. Bagehot, Walter. The Collected Works of Walter Bagehot : The Literary Essays. Ed Norman St. John-Stevas Cambridge, MA : Harvard U. Press, 1965 Ball, John The Female Physician: or, Every Woman Her Own Doctor. London : n p ., 1771 Baker E A "Sterne The History of the English Novel. 1929 New York : Barnes and Noble, 1950 240-76. Barker-Benfield, G J. The Culture of Sensibility : Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1992. Chicago and London : U. Chicago Press 1996. Battestin Martin C The Providence of Wit: Aspects of Form in Augustan Literature and the Arts. Oxford : Clarendon 1974 Baugh, Albert. A Literary History of England. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts 1948 Bland, David The Illustration of Books New York : Pantheon 1952 Bosch Rene Character' in Reynolds Portrait of Sterne ." Shandean 6 (1994) : 8-23 300

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Bowen, Elizabeth English Novelists London: Collins, 1947 Brewer John. The Pleasures of the Imagination : English Culture in the Eighteenth Century London: HarperCollins 1997 301 Brissenden, R. F "Sterne and Painting ." In Of Books and Humankind : Essays and Poems Presented to Bonamy Dobn~e. Ed John Butt, J.M Cameron, D W Jefferson, and Robin Skelton London : Routledge, 1964 93-108 British Library Catalogue. Cash, Arthur H. Sterne s Comedy of Moral Sentiments : The Ethical Dimensions of the "Journey". Duquesne Studies Philological Series 6 Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne U. Press 1966 Cash, Arthur H ., and John M Stedmond, ed "Sternean Realities : Excerpts from Seminars Chaired by John Traugott : 'New Directions in Sterne Criticism'; and Gardner D Stout, Jr .: 'Sterneand Swift. "' The Winged Skull : Papers from the Laurence Sterne Bicentenary Conference Kent, OH: Kent State U. Press 1971 76-96 Cash, Arthur H. The Early and Middle Years. London : Methuen 1975 Laurence Sterne and Shandy Hall Coxwold UK : Laurence Sterne Trust 1990. Laurence Sterne : The Later Years 1986. London : Routledge, 1992. Cohen, Michele "Manliness, Effeminacy and the French: Gender and the Construction of National Character in Eighteenth-Century England." English Masculinities 16601800 Ed Tim Hitchcock and Michele Cohen London: Longman, 1999 44-61. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Miscellaneous Criticism. Ed Thomas Middleton Raysor Cambridge MA : Harvard U. Press 1936 Crane R. S. Suggestions toward a Genealogy of the Man of Feeling "' The Idea of the Humanities Vol. 1. Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1967 188-213 Cross, Wilbur L. The Development of the English Novel. 1899 New York : Macmillan, 1963 --. The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne 1909 New Haven CT : Yale U. Press 1925. Day W G Tristram Shandy : The Marbled Leaf Library 27 (1972) : 143-45

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"Another Bunbury. Shandean 4 (1992) : 245-47. Michael Angelo Rooker s Illustrations to Tristram Shandy ."' Shandean 7 (1995) : 30-42 --. Charles Robert Leslie's My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman : The Nineteenth-Century Icon of Sterne s Work." Shandean 9 ( 1997) : 83-108 302 Dijkstra, Bram. Idols of Perversity : Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siecle Culture Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press 1986 Duncan, Jeffrey L. The Rural Ideal in Eighteenth-Century Fiction ." Studies in English Literature 8 : 3 (1968) : 517-35 Dwyer John Clio and Ethics : Practical Morality in Enlightened Scotland ." The Eighteenth Century 30 : 1 (1989) : 4572 Eaves, T. C D George Romney : His Tristram Shandy Paintings and Trip to Lancaster ," Huntington Library Quarterly 2 (1944) : 321-26 -. Graphic Illustrations of the Principal English Novels of the Eighteenth Century Diss Harvard U. 1944 Editor's note Memoir of the Late Angelica Kauffinann RA. by Joseph Moser. The European Magazine and London Review April 1809 : 251-65 Bitner Lorenz Cages Prisons, and Captives in Eighteenth-Century Art ." Images of Romanticism : Verbal and Visual Affinities Ed Karl Kroeber and William Walling New Haven CT : Yale U. Press 1978 13-38 Ellam, Andrew From Sterne to Baldessari : The Illustration of Tristram Shandy, 17601996 Ellis Markman The Politics of Sensibility Cambridge and New York : Cambridge U. Press 1996. Ellis Sarah Stickney The Women of England, Their Social Duties, and Domestic Habits 21 s t ed London and Paris : Fisher Son and Co 1839 Elwin Whitwell "Sterne Some XVIII Century Men of Letters Ed Warwick Elwin London : John Murray 1902 2: 1-81

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English Short Title Catalogue 2000 British Library and ESTC/NA. Enthusiasm Oxford English Dictionary 2 nd ed 1991. Oxford : Clarendon 1994 Erametsa Erik. A Study of the Word Sentimental and of Other Linguistic Characteristics of Eighteenth Century Sentimentalism in England. Helsinki : n p ., 1951 Fanning Christopher "On Sterne s Page : Spatial Layout, Spatial Form and Social Spaces in Tristram Shandy Eighteenth-Century Fiction 10:4 (1998) : 429-50 303 Fitzgerald Percy The Life of Laurence Sterne. 1864 London : Downey 1896 Fluchere Henri Laurence Sterne : From Tristram to Y crick. Trans Barbara Bray 1961 New York and London : Oxford U. Press 1965 Foyster Elizabeth Boys Will Be Boys ? Manhood and Aggression 1660-1800 English Masculinities 1660-1800 Ed Tim Hitchcock and Michele Cohen London : Longman 1999 151-66 Fried Michael. Absorption and Theatricality : Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot. Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1980 Gerard W B. A Rooker Predating Shandean 11 (2000-01) : 147-50 '" Poor Maria in Wedgwood ." Shandean 12 (2001) : 78-88. Sterne Illustrated Shandean 13 (2002) : to be published 2002 Gordon, Catherine. "'More Than One Handle ': The Development of Sterne Illustration 1760-1820 ." Words : Wai-te-Ata Studies in Literature 4 Wellington : Wai-te Ata 1974 47-58 -. British Paintings of Subjects from the English Novel 1740-1870 Outstanding Theses in the Fine Arts from British Universities New York and London : Garland 1988 Goring Paul. Illustration of A Sentimental Journey in the 1920s Shandean 6 (1994) : 55-66 Haggarty George Amelia s Nose ; or Sensibility and its Symptoms ." The Eighteenth Century 36 : 2 (1995) : 139-56

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304 Hagstrum, Jean H. Sex and Sensibility : Ideal and Erotic Love from Milton to Mozart Chicago and London: U. of Chicago Press, 1980 --. The Sister Arts : The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray. 1958. Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press, 1987 Harkin, Maureen. "Mackenzie's Man ofFeeling : Embalming Sensibility ELH 61:2 (1994) : 317-340 Harries Elizabeth Wanning "Gathering Up the Fragments : Hamann Herder Sterne The Unfinished Manner : Essays on the Fragment in the Later Eighteenth Century Charlottesville, VA: U. of Virginia Press, 1994 34-55 Headnote The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Victorian Age Ed M H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt. 7th ed New York : Norton, 2000 1721 Henry Gerrit. "John Baldessari Gentleman." The Print Collector's Newsletter 20 (1989) : 51-53 Heywood, Ian "'Ever More Specific' : Practices and Perceptions in Art and Ethics Interpreting Visual Culture : Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Visual. Ed Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell London : Routledge, 1999 198-217 Holtz William V Pictures for Parson Yorick : Laurence Sterne's London Visit of 1760." Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 ( 1967) : 169-84 --. Image and Immortality : A Study of"Tristram Shandy Providence RI : Brown U. Press 1970 --. Typography Tristram Shandy. the Aposiopesis, etc The Winged Skull : Bicentenary Conference Papers on Laurence Sterne Ed. Arthur H. Cash and John M Stedmond Kent OH: Kent State U. Press, 1971. 247-57 Horace [Quintus Horatii Flacci]. Ars Poetica Satirae, Epistolae, Ars Poetica London : Lockwood 1872 87-98 Howes Alan B Yorick and the Critics : Sterne's Reputation in England, 1760-1868. 1958. New Haven CT: Archon 1971. --, ed. Sterne : The Critical Heritage London and Boston : Routledge and Kegan Paul 1974.

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305 Introduction. Beauties of Sterne 11 th ed London : G Kearsley 1790 vv11 1. Iser Wolfgang The Reading Process : A Phenomenological Approach Twentieth Century Literary Theory Ed Vassilis Lambropoulos and David Neal Miller. Albany, NY : State U. ofNew York Press 1987 381-400 James, Henry The Art of Fiction The Art of Criticism. Ed. William Veeder and Susan M Griffin. Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1986 165-96 Kaufman Paul. A True Image of Laurence Sterne BNYPL 66 : 10 (1962) : 653-56 Kettle Arnold An Introduction to the English Novel. 1951 London : Hutchinson 1977 Keymer Tom. Marvell Thomas Hollis and Sterne's Maria : Parody in A Sentimental Journey Shandean 5 (1993) : 9-31. --, ed. A Sentimental Journey and Other Writings by Laurence Sterne London : J. M Dent ; Vermont : Charles E Tuttle 1994 Knox Vicesimus Essays Moral and Literary 9 th ed. London : Charles Dilly 1787 Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo on Painting Trans. Martin Kemp and Margaret Walker Ed Martin Kemp New Haven CT: Yale U. Press 1989 Leslie Charles Robert Autobiographical Recollections: By the Late Charles Robert Leslie, RA. Ed. T. Taylor London : John Murray 1860 The Letters of Maria London : G Kearsley 1790 Lignac de A Physical View of Man and Woman, in a State of Marriage. London : Vernor and Hood 1798 Literature Online 1996-2001 ProQuest Information and Learning Co Locke John An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Ed Peter H. Nidditch Oxford: Clarendon, 1975 Mackenzie Henry The Man of Feeling Ed Kenneth C Slagle New York: Norton 1958. Mangin, Edward A View of the Pleasures Arising from the Love of Books : In Letters to a Lady London : Longman Hurst Rees Orme and Browne 1814

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306 Markley, Robert "Tristram Shandy and 'Narrative Middles' : Hillis Miller and the Style ofDeconstructive Criticism Deconstruction at Yale Ed Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer. Norman OK: U. of Oklahoma Press 1985 179-90. --. Sentimentality as Performance : Shaftesbury Sterne and the Theatrics of Virtue." The New Eighteenth Century: Theory, Politics, English Literature. Ed Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown 1987 London : Routledge 1991. 210-30 McCaffery Lawrence F Introduction Postmodern Fiction : A Bio-Bibliographical Guide Movements in the Arts 2. Ed Lawrence F McCaffery New York : Greenwood 1986 xi-xxviii McGuirk Carol. Robert Bums and the Sentimental Era Athens GA: U. of Georgia Press 1985 McKillop Alan Dugald Laurence Sterne. The Early Masters of English Fiction Lawrence KS : U. of Kansas Press ; London : Constable, 1962 182-219 McKitterick David Tristram Shandy in the Royal Academy : A Group of Drawings by John Nixon Shandean 4 (1992) : 85-110 Mitchell W. J. T. Iconology : Image, Text, Ideology 1986 Chicago and London : U. of Chicago Press 1987 Moore Robert E Hogarth as Illustrator ." Art in America 36 (1948): 193-204 Morley Christopher. Introduction The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman. New York : Heritage 1935 v-viii Mullan John Sentiment and Sociability: The Language of Feeling in the Eighteenth Century Oxford : Clarendon 1988 Murdoch Iris. The Sovereignty of Good London : Ark 1970 National Library of Scotland Catalogue. New, Melvyn. Sterne as Editor: The Abuses of Conscience Sermon ."' Studies in 18 th Century Culture 8 (1979) : 243-51. --. The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman, Volume ill : The Notes Gainesville FL: U. Press ofFlorida 1984

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307 ---. "Proust's Influence on Sterne : Remembrance of Things to Come MLN 103 (1988) : 1031-55 --. Introduction Notes to the Sermons Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida 1996 1-55 --. "William Hogarth and John Baldessari : Ornamenting Sterne's Tristram Shandy Word & Image 2 : 2 (1995) : 182-95 Oates, J.C T Maria and the Bell : Music of Sternean Origin." The Winged Skull : Bicentenary Conference Papers on Laurence Sterne. Ed Arthur H. Cash and John M. Stedmond Kent OH : Kent State U. Press, 1971. 313-15. Paulson Ronald Hogarth : Art and Politics 1750-1764. New Brunswick NJ : Rutgers U. Press, 1993 Powys, John Cowper. Introduction The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne London : Macdonald, 1949 7-32 ---. Introduction A Sentimental Journey by Laurence Sterne New York : Capricorn, 1964 7-26. Priestley J.B The Brothers Shandy The English Comic Characters New York : Dodd Mead 1925 128-57. --. Introduction The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence Sterne New York : Dodd Mead ; London : John Lane 1928. v-xvi. Reilly Robin Wedgwood Jasper 1989. New York: Thames and Hudson 1994 Research Library Group Union Catalogue Reynolds Joshua Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds Ed Henry William Beechy. London : n p 1886 Richter David H. Narrativity and Stasis in Tristram Shandy Shandean 11 (19992000): 70-89 Ricks Christopher Introductory essay The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence Sterne. Ed Melvyn New and Joan New London and New York : Penguin 1997 vii-xxv

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308 Ricoeur, Paul. "What is a Text?" Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences Ed and trans. John B. Thompson Cambridge and New York : Cambridge U. Press ; Paris : Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1981. 145-64 Richardson, Samuel. Clarissa, or The History of a Young Lady. Ed Angus Ross London: Penguin, 1985. Rogers, Pat. "Ziggerzagger Shandy : Sterne and the Aesthetics of the Crooked Line ." English: The Journal of the English Association 47 : 173 (1993) : 97-107 Rowson, Martin "Hyperboling Gravity's Ravelin : A Comic Book Version of Tristram Shandy Shandean 7 (1995): 62-86. Saintsbury, George Introduction The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence Sterne London : J.M Dent, 1894 vii-xxxvi Scott, Walter. Laurence Sterne Lives of Eminent Novelists and Dramatists 1834 London : Frederick Warne, 1870 506-21. Seccombe, Thomas The Age of Johnson : 1748-1798. London: George Bell and Sons, 1909 Shklovsky, Victor "Sterne's Tristram Shandy: Stylistic Commentary Russian Formalist Criticism. Trans and intro. Lee T. Lemon and Marian J. Reis 1921. Lincoln, NE : U. of Nebraska Press, 1965. 25-57 Sichel, Walter. Sterne : A Study Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott; London : Williams and Norgate 1910 Simonides Greek Lyric ID: Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonides, and Others Ed. David A Campbell Loeb Classical Library Cambridge MA and London : Harvard U. Press, 1991. 362 : 346f Soud Stephen "'Weavers, Gardeners, and Gladiators' : Labyrinths in Tristram Shandy Eighteenth-Century Studies 28:4 (1995) : 397-411. Soupel, Serge. "Lavielle, Hendouin Leloir and the Voyage Sentimental. Shandean 2 (1990) : 203-13. ---. "Marold's Voyage Sentimental." Shandean 8 (1996) : 121-28 Stephen, Leslie Hours in a Library 1892. New York : Johnson Reprint 1968

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"Sterne: Critical Essay on His Writings and Genius ." Classic Tales Serious and Lively with Critical Essays on the Merits and Reputation of the Authors Ed Leigh Hunt London : John Hunt and Carew Reynell 1807 265-82 309 Sterne Laurence The Whole Story of the Sorrows of Maria, ofMoulines Selected from Various Works of the Celebrated Sterne A Tale, Founded on Fact. Boston : n p 1793 Maria n p : n p n d. [c 1800]. The Story of My Uncle Toby, etc Comp Percy Fitzgerald New York : Scribner, Welford and Co ., 1871. --. "The Story of Le Fevre and "Noble Poverty Gleanings from Popular Authors, Grave and Gay London : Cassell and Co. n.d. [c 1890]. 236-40 and 35860 Letters of Laurence Sterne Ed Lewis Perry Curtis 1933 Oxford : Clarendon 1965 --. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy with The Journal to Eliza and A Political Romance Ed Ian Jack. 1965 Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press 1984 -. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy Ed Gardner D Stout Jr Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1967 ---. The Life and Opinions ofTristram Shandy, Gentleman 2 vol. Ed Melvyn New and Joan New Gainesville FL: U. Press of Florida 1978. -. Sterne s Memoirs: A Hitherto Unrecorded Holograph Now Brought to Light in Facsimile Intro and commentary by Kenneth Monkman Coxwold UK : Laurence Sterne Trust 1985 --. The Sermons of Laurence Sterne Ed Melvyn New Gainesville F L: U. Press of Florida 1996 --. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy Ed Melvyn New and W G Day Gainesville FL : U. Press of Florida, to be published 2002 Sterne s Maria A Pathetic Story With an Account of Her Death, at the Castle of Valerian London : Rusted n d [c 1800].

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310 Stewart Dugald Collected Works Edinburgh : T Constable 1854 Thackeray, William Makepeace The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century London : Smith, Elder 1853 Traill H. D Sterne London : Macmillan 1889 Traugott John Sternean Realities : Excerpts from Seminars Chaired b y John Traugott : 'New Directions in Sterne Criticism ; and Gardner D Stout Jr .:' Sterne and Swift "' The Winged Skull : Papers from the Laurence Sterne Bicentenary Conference Ed Arthur H. Cash and John M. Stedmond Kent OH: Kent State U. Press 1971. 76-96. Tyson Gerald P "The Rococo Style of Tristram Shandy. Bucknell Review : A Scholarly Journal of Letters, Arts and Sciences 24 : 2 (1978): 38-55 Uglow Jenny Hogarth : A Life and a World London: Faber and Faber, 1997 Voogd Peter J. de Laurence Sterne the Marbled Page and the Use of Accidents "' Word & Image 1:3 (1985) : 279-87. Tristram Shandy as a Aesthetic Object. Word & Image 4: 1 (1988) : 383-92 A Portrait and a Flourish Shandean 1 (1989) : 129-32 Henry William Bunbury Illustrator ofTristram Shandy. Shandean 3 (1991) : 138-44 Robert Dighton's Twelve Tristram Shandy Prints ." Shandean 6 (1994) : 8698 Sterne All the Fashion : A Sentimental Fan Shandean 8 (1996) : 133-36 Watt Ian The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding Berkeley and Los Angeles : U. of California Press 1957. Wehrs Donald R. Levinas and Sterne: From the Ethics of the Face to the Aesthet i cs of Unrepresentability Critical Essays on Laurence Sterne Ed Melvyn New New York : G K. Hall 1998 311-29 Whibley Charles Laurence Sterne Studies in Frankness 1898 London : Kennikat 1970 81-113

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Williams, Anne Patricia "Description and Tableau in the Eighteenth-Century British Sentimental Novel." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 8 :4 (1996) : 465-84 Woolf, Virginia Introduction A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy by Laurence Sterne Oxford and New York : Oxford U. Press, n.d [c 1929]. v-xvii. 311 --. "The 'Sentimental Journey "' The Second Common Reader. New York: HBJ, 1932 80-88.

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APPENDIX: A SELECTED LIST OF VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WORKS OF LAURENCE STERNE The following is a list of visual references included or discussed in this study Entries are grouped under the titles of the texts that they depict and are organized chronologically within each group When possible other editions that include the same illustrations have been listed under each artist's name as well. N.B Illustrators of early editions are often unidentified or identified by last name only If a painting had been engraved the image is listed under the painter s name Books : Tristram Shandy William Hogarth London : R. and J. Dodsley 1760 Unsigned London : Ingram Cooke and Co 1853. Henry Furniss London : J.C. Nimmo and Bain 1883 John Austen London : John Lane ; New York : Dodd Mead 1928 Roland Wheelwright London: Harap ; New York : Brentanos, 1929. T M. Cleland New York : Heritage Press 1935 Brian Robb London : Macdonald 1949 London : Macdonald 1975 John Lawrence London: Folio Society 1970 312

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John Baldessari San Francisco: Arion Press 1988 A Sentimental Journey Edward Edwards London : W Strahan T. Cadell G Robinson, J. Murray T. Evans etc 1780 Thomas Stothard London : J. Good and E. and S Harding 1792 M Archer London: J. Creswick and Co 1794 Unsigned Vienna : R Sammer 1795 Richard Newton London : William Holland 1795 London : J. Wallis 1812 ( slightly variant plates) Gerard Rene Le Villain Paris : Ant. Aug Renouard 1802 William Marshall Craig London : T Hurst and C. Chapple 1803 Unsigned Edinburgh : J. Fairburn and A. Mackay 1806 John Thurston London : J. Johnson etc. 1808 Unsigned New York : James Gournay 1827 Unsigned London : Jones and Co. 1831. C Heath 313 London : T Allman 1835 (with Letters from Yorick to Eliza and The Sorrows of Y oung Werther)

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Jacque and Fussell London : Routledge, 1888. Tony Johannot and Jacque Paris : Ernest Bourdin n d [c. 1890]. Maurice Leloir Paris : Jules Tallender n.d [ c 1880]. Paris : Librarie Artistique 1884 New York: Brentanos n d [c 1885]. New York : J. W Boulton 1884 Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott 1885 Philadelphia : J.B Lippincott 1887 1891. New York: Belford Co n d [ c 1890]. Troy, NY : Nirno and Knight 1892 Golden Book Magazine 14 : 81 ( Sept. 193 1) Brian Robb London : Macdonald 1954. New York: Capricorn Books 1964 Works George Cruickshank London : L. Cochrane 1832 London : Navarre Society n d [1873 and 1926]. London : Hutchinson 1906 Darley Philadelphia : Griggs Elliot and Co 1848 Unsigned London: Henry G Bohn 1854. Beauties of Sterne Thomas Rowlandson London : Thomas Tegg 1808 314

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Prints and Print Sets : Richard Newton London: William Holland, 1797 (variant of 1795 A Sentimental Journey above) ; also 1812, 1818 (some variants of 1797 above) I. H Clark Humourous Illustrations to the Works of Sterne. London: J. Bumpers, 1820 John Doyle A Study for Sterne's Maria. London : Thomas McLean, 1833 Paintings : George Carter Miss Carter as Maria. n.d. [ c 1773]; polychrome oil on canvas. Angelica Kauffinann Maria near Moulines. 1777; polychrome oil on copper Engr. W.W. Ryland, 1779. Angelica Kauffinann The Handkerchief Moulines. 1782; polychrome oil on canvas John Northcote Yorick and Maria at Moulines 1784 ; polychrome oil on canvas Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun Duchess d'Orleans. 1789; polychrome oil on canvas Charles Robert Leslie My Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman 1829 and 1831 ; polychrome oil on canvas Engr. Lumb Stocks, n.d [c. 1880]. W P Frith Stern's Maria [sic]. 1868; polychrome oil on canvas Other Renditions of the Work of Laurence Sterne: Lady Templetown, designer Wedgwood "solitaire" jasper-ware tea set. n.d [c. 1780]. 315

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Unsigned Illustration for Sterne s Maria London : Rusted n d [c.1800]. Martin Rowson The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman Woodstock NY : Overlook Press 1997 Visual Renditions of Other Literary Texts : Arthur Hughes Ophelia 1852 ; polychrome oil on canvas Louis Lafille 316 Illustration for Henry Mackenzie The Man of Feeling Paris : Theophilus Barrois 1 807 Unsigned Illustration for Henry Mackenzie The Man of Feeling New York : Century 1 907

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH William B. Gerard was born in New York, grew up in Jackson Heights, Queens, and graduated from Stuyvesant High School in Manhattan After attending Harpur College at the State University ofNew York at Binghamton and Hunter College of the City University of New York, he pursued a career in magazine publishing, culminating in the creation of a national consumer magazine in 1992 William received a bachelor's degree in English from Florida Atlantic University in 1996 He wrote his master's thesis on Laurence Sterne under the directorship of Carol McGuirk and received a master's degree in English from FAU in 1997 He entered the University of Florida in 1998, where he continued his study of the work of Laurence Sterne under the guidance of Melvyn New. William has accepted the position of Assistant Professor of English at Auburn University Montgomery beginning Fall 2002. 317

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Professor of English I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Patricia Craddock Professor of English I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy /1l,L h )s~L Alistair Duckworth Professor of English I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy C. John Sommerville Professor of English History This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of English in the College of Liberal Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy May 2002 Dean Graduate Schoo l


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