The imported cabbage worm (Pontia rapà Linn.)

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Title:
The imported cabbage worm (Pontia rapà Linn.)
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Publisher:
Gov't Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 21639533
oclc - 27942791
System ID:
AA00020403:00001

Full Text
/0 7


CIRCULAR NO 60

r-44 I4 l -SutLtes__JJhuliit t iF All icl 4
r 1'1 -I -__ rllll til cv. I
.._ A 0 .NTOMOI.OGY. .J NI ,
| Il {1 ~ 11>1 AN ,j I..lr ,,11 .I i .i "* /- \L
... i I/

L ,-- *- XLL -ULI l' al'l U'tllllI,: I l ,

lI'H 1 1. I 'inii II I F 1 C
I d I 'lrl. t',i, .,! i "r.. :,,,l / I ', ... .i i, ,
Eil:\ I.l \1 i I IMHACT IC' I It -
"]in1' w,,r.4l ,,f" th,'ii IInI.nn ,I.-Irlni i ivp ene timh'H it 1 ,ibl. i. .n Zl i, ent' ifrr iv (it. lar\..1 ,r .1 ,' u[]lln ,I a w liilr hrii li I i-it 1.1 1.1t -, 11 1:,
uis I',iia, ( I'ir.is) ripir,
l.iiiii. Tlil t.- r|ilili[ r, r'I' r a
,'il].il thli iiiilport ':il, < "
hlu g,, wilrull. i ilt iii. ir \, ...t" <
tiij w ll k ii.] l y ';iril- by .farm-
-V] -F-"
,rs tthrmilii u'ilit li i i. n-i' -
try as w'-ll :i- in ll l lii d I
W4Virl4l. illdI ,w :l,,[,ill iii -::"" Fis.*,
s ct,l the imipori.l ,:il- I; Jl
hli i u}f nttl ,r ll,,"1,.,! lil.>-, ./ fi paB + .'-. '? a
tsligr bliitrI iir hili ^ 1
the whrilett lim l'ilit, ]lilller' ;. ;, .
Ily. is IL f.Liliili;- )lIijr t Ii ,eut li t ,
neairlv evrr.'iip. It i.-s .. ,l "
gen rll a'r l i.i. lli .l ,Iegnu tb a.,iI -46
the but trtivl is thlel.triit I" "
Of the L. orimis. C .
T his caihh -ti,, % D 'ilm i., ;- { 1 "- i 1
velvety grt''el in ,',,hr. ,'
iiuch like' thu cI;'-'i ig,;,.-
on w hhi'h it fr,..,ls ln. .,I i .i .. .I hll a.l-- i- r.ni ii -<>, r-.jir i
thi .l< +!++++lifrl,+ ti + hf w +-
.i I -h,.'hI'l'. elilarfiil ; +l. + n lnlrc in milf+ (nr+itrtnial)
if vie ,',I tlhr'iUgii ; ill r-
diliilan hiiTiil IInls. i.i s,iti h, I... :,,ii,-W hat riiliL' i in il iii, \ 1.ti,.I with
smanii ll lick splts. Thur, is. :i I.liil 1.,llo. tripe down iI thI middle ,4 the
hu'k :andil :i r'w ,f yllw ipI- .ihiii, *,a h side in line w ith ti, -pir., I. -
ir Ibret:thiliiv ir It ii11':-i-iir -. i.i l t'll-,_rm i l" i Ailhlt a l i ,hlh anl a:1
fourth, jresJ liiii.g thiu .ijipl .ir.ii, ,I- tmi in li.'inr. 1, '.
"Ih' lul trlti y hi:i .L A IL. etp -iil st, f if p-ifrl i% ijir-li,.-. a d is tii,.
nmarkedi within liI.ck iin.ir ti tip- --f ii. fore- In..'-. as i t o i.i ;-
I, ai. reprei.sitiiig t.l- f.in.l..I Ifn tlii.- sex ihr, ar two i iiOw-pi.,' ii-
blactk sputs ,in v::'h [filr.-w iicIg: tihe ii.ihl- (I 2) lia ilyv one. ll,,tI








sexes have a (i,1 4.:ia,1,,liii1 smaller black spot at the upper extremity of
the hind-winii-. The body of the teimle, is whitish ; tliit uif thle male
is usually darker above. The male is gen-.rally a little the sinaller.
The under surface of the hind-\ igs are uniform s.iat in str:iw-yellow and
there are generally two black spots h-|owing1 ithrugl, in lih sexes.
The ,.L-' are f1.ii*irii. p.il yellowish, and .-tru',igly ribl -d (fig. 1. b).
Tliy are large n.,,ugli to be readily seen with the unl;deiil eye, and are
deposited -iiL'ly, 'nv ily on the lower surface of the outer leaves of cab-
l,.,_'' and other food plLint.-
When the caterpillar or "worm" becomes full grown it attaches itself
to a I :lli,:ig. leaf or other nearby object, fastens itself y' n,-ans of a
-I iii,.-like jirlh. and often within the same day transfornis to :a chrysa-












Fl(,, 2.-Imported cabbagfe butterfly malt,. wmgs expand(.d, a; i-.11 >AiMO.
folded ill natural r testing position at rigiht-somew%hat enlarged ii-nirna im]
lis of the appearance indicated at fik-nin 1, d. ThI'liryiei I:. nl vai-a-
ble color, to be influenced in this respect t bje upon





which it is placed. The color thus varies from ..irly gra"\ to
green, and dark gray. The length of the chrysalis is a little less than
~ \





three-fourths 2-ported cabbage butterfly malef ig expanded, aa inch. ir.-



NATURE OF INWY.lKV
foThis lded i natural reing poito at right-oly termed at enlarged f the l bge-




grower, and the dread of every careful cook and house%% ife. It begins
ws ofr the appearan e indicated at principal d. l;ige lrais t i r fore u'aria-ll
ble color, :,ee_. 111._ to be influenced in this respect iv t li- ,,l~je,.t 111p1,1





towhich it is planted. AfThe coloriddling thus varies from di gion to ie lfter-w.
wagreen, arched todark gray. The length oftack the chrysalisetend iers a litte leaves than
three-y fo urths of an inch.rei itself in the ed-, whic ade ost
NATURE OFO lNII'H\




This .al_-by its dark green excrightly termeand the baneit is difficult to reachbbage-
grower, and the dread of everesult, careful ci;:cook af(re houseni. It to marketgins
work early in the season, and the principal ,Llill ge is tI Ievl,'fore- u.-ually
to .v,,LII ', p~lants. After riddling the outer 1i.;,v,. which ,,rentinue after-
ward attached to the 4:tilk. it attacks the more tender i iner leaves as
they form, frequently :v.reueiiig itself in the lea-'il-, which are nItle1 mo1(st
Ill,-i._,ihly by its dark gree. n excrement, and where it is alitlicult to reach
with insecticides. As a result, ,..lil,;1,_e.- before being senrt to market
must h)e carefully examined and the dl:iiii4,.,1 leaves plurkld away: and
before e. ,k iing it is frequently necessary to tear the heads ; piirl iIt see t hat
no ,li-,ul, in- worm" is lurking within. Even after tlie di.-li is Louked
there is danger of an admixture of animal with the vegetable food. In
cool weather the <.; itrpillr frli,.lIIintlly I,.eds in free exposure on the
upper surface of the leaves in the sunshine.










.\. ,..irl .,- I-1,;'d when this i ,,. w..e wIl rm "a I restricted tI li'' it d
r' :.i. I 1 '.111., ,. N','-v 10,," .,i 1 d N ew X i Y ork it d id _,, .it 'I 1111 ,_,*.
At A. ll..,i' I.,\. Vt., in that it it 'aused the tlt. l h'l. trut ti,,ii f
;i ri if iI I ,,i,|.i.-i d plant he *lrn wrmr made their A'|' IrIIi t
.itnil tIrL' Ilr-t ,,I .", |'l, im l., r, ailt | ther wern f.,* ll i ii 5H 1 t >( ill ;| htt.-ad.
T I,,' .\ l -, l' , I .in v. ,e s t im a te d t h e s a m l,- ,. a lo w ', .-'|*tn "" 1 hi t in *
vwlnit.r ,,t liii I,,' aloni'. ..imin i, I '2.1111,1 i adt of v II' u T1W h A mli,,l i- eai r, .i.. .lii,_ tI
M Air i i- ii ir .ith,,i N.X,.\ ',,tl, rCity. lere thnc iu inse't- 1 i.'0 'T .I on+tll\ tilt P '11'
I,,l'. ir,,.. i.,-,1 ,- d iil,* l 1"t, I ns :- t s stiitiit. ,d i t thIi llf a i illiu Il llrr.
i .\ ilit Itr, '-l n i,'1- llr, t 1l, lt h w iti l t l<' 1i d iI llpl t iii f th i il ls ,.- '
niunt. 111 I \-"1 11 i a r t'a l e \1 it rk i'tu i at l I aI I the i l )-cot lh 0I
I -' ati t'lnT .lli, 1.-,- to ilit, ,1 (lei I .'t'!rii p li'i Ii isl f) in ntit i i ., ,,il .
SI i i- I i. I n r,, Iti i l ;irt !,i tI i, ,i ,. i iii, .1 a t| l lrancf Ie t .










IT i-11 -li- n t ap ea i'tie rii tium it Il~t W- 'idda tllrtn Wil lit Owll,
Iniiit rll -i ,l -. Il1't I ilr, th il till tr s t' Il tliili fro >? st e.i i of Ihf

I ,,-t f,*. tit," il.it", a-nd nuro d out the eiss lo irdy n- tiv p fI I-r eI.
ORH.llIN \N IDISTiKIBITIluN.

I1,, ii]'rrt ,1 iII. i _',- i n tlfrlly W it." iniit , } ,.ip l- I,.i11 .1 q l tl l | }mii^ le lo n t hic d a t' }f iH -r s r iit l ritni .l ;lln d \t: 'I f ~- r

I II ...L i I I.,I ,I,, .1 capture at { IKUh {';n l!,. i. I.^CiO. It Iw a Is InI It
.i ;.:. l i I '. i i m I II i l I \% o y { a r s l ;i t < 'r i l l t l |n s ; i r l n' ; i l i !y I iu rl I V'*r I' tl
M-i' .it" l~ i i-t ll[ [was o|}s#'lv d aIt illtfrlv il7 inl [in I~ l;., i* Iir-I ili,'.ir.ini in iiie Initid -r ,l's w is litih cd i %1 i- it.
"'1,h. *ll.l, i .._i y,.,r it w .Ws {'m'l in inortlilnm Nr w 1 ..ii.-t.1.i ;ii/{d \rr-
T 1 I I I',I'i it hId rea il Nw York. aId a frw yra;' ltrr I, ,11

k' t I tra t l ionaS t l yt1ar thicrf ,lr Ii I I i s fIouitd in SO IIP 10W
|,.... I.il'v hI l i- it i n I !I I iln I lli -1y 1""i it hlad pli{netrat1 d soutI-1 h\\ rd t.1 t' fi l il l I, ..-_. iI
T" i. ,li-tri,1i'lon lias 1 fnitihi/u d until lno t spioimts is known prac-
i, .ill in I k. ,', .4i i,.- and Trrrio ry 4f 1& l'nii~n. a'l,",, .:l, ik is n cli-
-Inll I~ re1.1rtt4d A's nI.w\ t ] s n ilii ll or' les isoltit*d I iliiy.
li ,I.... nolt appear to I>l aln1 inhla1litanii l ,,I ;irtitllai lift /4c oin\
iiii k I' to l Oe as nIt h uf ;1 l}c t in t ]' I''. I ";il l ill (';li;d i 1 il,1
\. ii-Ilt.Ir
In 11 r ,.' m -1 r H
>'l'ln- it tivet, species a1d the itiip 'i i ',,I i l 10 in l14, i i 1li .* i tm in '' l /' t/.. i, i,, I I, .
11 i lk 11- 1 al- 1 14 t ll th il i l l 'T .il. .l)pucK's inttrmlj nu. d J froLml flip 11 t' rl !l'n i-
appr** tin1 timn nativf Al il n rifr and hckirviv cunl ifits -liil.
w hiil in* W on"i\i rs ltiI t1e Im ictt>. I Ilii h riti'r's Iriiliit,, lh, -tIithnIrn
r~nhli t, ,,r l, i lli iN. is ilinlln1 Sli rti{l li/l!' to dise'lliy'lh lia thn'' iinlil'itt 1 -r1"' r' ccai-
-Iiiit.ill\ iF,, I ill, i r!twi wi iln liin~lfr;ilf Ilm ih!b'r? t.o loca;liln'S n,.. i,, ir I, i,{ /ha-
".'l' l P u Iiii htte ln atljfiil (or loniit per iods.
'I;,t, '. beiifvecl it. wis initroidliet'd in IK' il or l' I-,- Rs{e ipt. l[>pt. \-',. for
I t'- ;. i 11,"- A ,ii, .i.:1 i i. eeOi. Wof this lit' i, f t .1 ', 1 Iy i.li. I -
if'l l Ef- ] i-l. itn I "" .n1. I '.ili V'ol. II, 1I' 1. I 1 I I l i. P i i 1 1 I .










the P.icific. in most localities between the thirtieth and sixtieth degrees
of latitude. In Switzerland it occurs on the level of perpetual snow,
and in this country it has been taken on the barren subalpine heights
of the White Mmint.iinis.
FOOD AND OTHER HABITS.
The imported ca:li, ,ig worm feeds on the foliage of nearly all cru-
ciferous )l111nt., is particularly fond of cabbage and cauliflower, and
somewhat less destructive to turnip, radish, mustard, and horseradish.
It also does considerable injury to ornamental plants, such as nastur-
tiunm. iiignhinetti, sweet alb:-uni, and spider plant (Cleome).'
The butterflies sip the nectar of flowers of ninv kinds, and are to ihe
seen any time liivrin An them. They are especially fond of the
white blossoms of .riiuifvr:-, also of such plants as white aster, lavender,
and thistle. Like other llttirilii-., this species is diurnal, and is on the
xwing from early iis,,irinig until near dusk. It is a comparatively slow
flyer, but capable of extended flight for hng distances. The butterflies
sometimes iiiigr' .aite in immense swarms, as has frequently occurred
where the insect has emigrated from the continent of Eurnpe to England.
Its occurrence in mid-ocean has been recorded.
LIFE tI'-T RYV.
The. butterflies appear as early as March, even in the Northern States,
and thert.after can usually be seen flying about calbbage fields and else-
where, ltirouglinut the year, until after several severe frosts in October.
In the Gulf States they occur lirliig;li,,lt the season.
Egg deposit commences soon ift-r the bulttrliies appear; in fact,
pairing and eg--laying may 1begin within a day or two after the adult
issues from the chrysalis. The duration of the different stages varies
ii,..rding to temperature. The ul,.-,r\.,l ,g it,'ri.nd is from four to
eight d(lays.
The larva eats voraciously and grows with gri.it rapidity, attaining
full maturity in from ten dlay:- to two week after liatilhing. It nolts
four times; hence there are livi distinct -la..., the first mnolt taking
place (in warm weather) in about two d,1v: from the hour of lit<.ching,
the second stage Li-tin-' two or three da.% ; the third and fourth. onle or
two ,1.\.- each, and the fifth, four or five ilI..:-. The duration ,f the
chrysalis -t ige is from seven d:iy.- to a fortnight 'luring the summer
tin,. but the last chrysalides formed in the more northern States re m a in
iii1..v.lp',l during the winter until the f,,l01oing spring.
The life 1y3'i' occupies i',.- v"l r.iimi between twenty-two djys
and five weeks. Even in New imgnl:il this species is credited with
1'.i*i tripll-liiri1',l d. but in the District of (C'unil'ia and vicinity there
It is a decided pest on this plant in the District of Columbia.
,Technical descriptions -f the diffti'ent haivl -t a- with particular reference
,, iii dr-,11piir Iii .alt. g;ik ii by W. F. Mrncui i.Jonir. N. Y. Ent. SAc., Vol.
VI I I, pi". I -::, M1 2,', I'.1n.









mustbe one or more adl ditinral T,, i. i.i -. a> l titri is a I" --iltili;
o'f at least six in the extreme "..ii I I. r, -I I i toirn dVIelhp's ,I
wild |'l.Il-.
N ATt JHat. LNt'IOII:S.
\\ere it not lor t'urtatin i:utural chvrks this S|M'-H^ w,,hlII ,, sa *'till
Wr..t,.r |" tc lii it is. whe t usit ic,,1..,rt,~t ,ff its i t II III I1.lit ;It-iA

11,ll Ii ,.-it,-, all i Int lt lit tioins fro ii ,+u. t)i otf tlti< n, I Ifits














.1
I I I
/


(f~ tnh1 iaiih. ^ <-~ '* ^*~















I I I -
-- . + .G .











ivihCU'wdrt q a ivs~t~- ~ti I n a"ta vl n
i1. tn.S. lo+ tll ih r tt* Itrfs if B'll al H t, 1211t: ili 1, t..ri rlull aad









p;Ir -i 's ccoon A, seclyondary pt'l;. r,nitir! 'i/n 'iroijttt A l.T't.:~
t,,i '. .\i'in fi, .i : l,",,r Bou i,, Li (a l _'. pS)r. w +nt 11 ..... 1' ta1 ii Mrtj ll in
I.a ^'.:I fir,,t t 'he l.i1T lLi ,ui ir tlit :rutinti ui1 l'- thf is "-i | j ." lit lhl its

... i-., - ,, > .

.-" . "l <:.. ..-' ..+. . .
-- t .--: *+'.', -' _.*" -'t

\-y <-- ". -';', "_" .,' +.




hostFf.i'i,., I l.Pr
which camelt uilltlcr the" writer's (l,*'t'rv;iti,+n. A\ l irvat wtliich hi~irt hicf
,l,-r ,,,.lr"r. 1,,. this patrasite is shown inl *i-,' *I, t.,_.' l|hir with tlir+
Iin.ir-it,.+'s cocoons. A secondary p+[ r;isitt*. ;i mtinu t ch++lcis 1;!.,. 7f'l+rns-
riehuis tliit t-'tJ'tpt,,tt' Boneh<'-, wais also+ present, Init didi nt niilitattp
;,_';iin-l the ,'if,., ti\',ii.--. of the Ar1.iii, 1, -. O)f simfilar ilii,',ii!lr<'c tu)









this Apiinteles is a chalcis fly, 1t-.romutl,.c puparium Linn. (fig. 5),
noticed in this country in l.Si;9, having evidently been imported with
its host.
Wi-p-. p.irtictl.irly Polistes pallipes Lipel., and related forms are
also of great service in idluiing the numbers of thi. and other cabbage
v\I nii,-, :ipji,.iriing to prefer them to other prey.
A .II:ll. evil-smelling il.:nt-liut. Phlmiil, wvolffii Sital. (fig. ti).
secretes itself in flowers, such as thistle and goldenrod, and destroys
numbers of the liutlirrlis. c;ijituriiing them and sucking out their vital
fluids.




I,'.



/ \, /

Fit, ..5- I'frro lvs li farum: fmale at left : le e at rig ht- highly magnified ,r ; iial
Numerous other enemies attack this, .,11,. ,'a worn in addition io the
ones that have been enumerated,1 and it is sometimes subject to a ciin-
,,,i,.~ bacterial disease2 similar
. to that of the .:,lI,'.,w looper.' It
is, however, less -,' 'IPtile t lls
."^''*f '.^ 1 -O ~malady, and is seldom l..-'d'rD. in
^*-^ /h .m nu nbers by it. The par'asiti'.
(. flies can be ,i.-'iii;ir- d.1 by c',iliv. t-
'I.- -.. itg, the larvaw and hlirv:alid1es of
t r ,~ ti i t i.. tatthe cabbage butterfly and ilacing
F1!*.. fi, ..... tn t folfhi: o, dorsal viow; b. lat- Mc ua
eral view: c, front leg: d. snout- (1, h. enlarged: them in barrels or boxes eov'ered
Mi tre ct II4(l (t from I I yi with I i coarse mosquito inilim.,
which will prevent the 'it ii flips from e:tapiing when they idevelop
;i ,l prtilit the i1 ucl(1 sinaller parasites to issue and continue their w,,,,I
work.
!KI .M) l ldl..'-.

In the treatment of this l-ji*-ies it should be kept in mind that other
worms" and other cabbage pests, are more often present than not.
Arsnicals.-The best remedy is one of the arsenicals; and Paris
green and arsenate of lead are preferred to others in common use. If the
former is used it nmay be applied either 1dry or wet, prlfvr;ilily, however.
Among other predaceous enemiies observed in this country are the wheel hug
(Arilits cristatits Linn.) and the armed -,ihl.lr hug (Podisis spinfosus I;ll. I.
The ,t ili.,. worm is also t.:i -iii/rd Ib\ the Taehina IIv Exorista ,':..iqr,.i -ill.
Thte writer has a list of 10 a i' linii. l. I Iuropean parasites.
'Microoccuus pieridis Burrill. 3A ii,li'wrpt ( J'li, ii) brassiere Iil-v.










i4-i Mi i A. it th I rI t l about 1 i'.ie, tl ,,I t |i ir:- ,1 tI 1 I -, 1 ., liti I t I
ic.,i,.r. II -l.i.l. l r. appliei d wi +it thr ler ilils ;irf i,- r ++I itit N ii- 1(n



l i r.ei,' it e''l,; ,Ii.- ,, li ,.,tlre- ......i it,. i':ii i- c i i, f ,i+, e -I, ii; i- !- Tiic ,Ie+t1

I *ii*l 'ciir p l' ill 11. liilr. tlice ;cre-.111 la m '.i- r 'I \ie ci BY -eieI *irt l e-
l':n l ,i l l, i,. h ad~s. O)thn'r ,liili, ,li in+ +i+,ho ld follow+ .'is + lir im l.


I'I-,# .,, li te wd, ith nii ,l t +ifc i y uwii il Ihr head. Il e ai+ .I uIt lI 1i1


Iri i i l. [ti r thai t ii tt. r, evn later, fs tlie p oison .-i., l ,, ,i- IeI.,,,
lil.iil- .,li, .... t ,,,,,,tl ly w within t -irn r fot ur wi e,: k+i ,iee r ,i li. ,U il *.1






luiir ,i ,ii i Wi]I hUlf e ti.e1 d it. Ctif t' e f l i .-1 "+ itI I. _i \ 1 i ,- 1- 11
:i,,l lik li l IIe li1,.l 1._' ,ilr -f thi r |l r+W, it i ,. i-Al y et+-.inr+il ++;i I*



,-I i|>i, l u i I iih thce pr i )irl titr i e tice I< th i il i l I i +t t ll tiei
lr.'inc -itli I.itir and -It ir hi.u irurI, i ,.l.li t.t1. 1.. i S+ Th'. i lrthi. letin-
;l'',ir ,,1 "r *'S iinnet'a ,, .-11- il +itl+ ot herlt S\+',t, lini,- ;lind .iliitllt I ipo ndi~ ,,I


li7i h, ilt .I ,,.ill ,, of wdi t r; ri ;,f tI- ,i? kc w1i"n ttite-lel, ei 0iixttrt +lie il
I lA .. i i. ,t I il li it a ,ii ,' i In itc- V Ii | it I it ij n rI ily
-i iiikl ,.,l it i er wet fetdry, ov rtltli ll. ,I ., .e pltlant lt.

I I l, I ., I I t r II, .-fA I,.t., ,. ;I w r, te it e II, ,i n
i't .I ,,i ti I i Y.. wit s ai visc l ii a r + ', l dy a.,- th-is, ,it it- 0 _' w I lr.l

] I"'%,.. i l| Mt I I, .ill\ o hif i, to tl,- 1l l t- a di I kille s ,iel i ati twili which
i 1it : Ir, .- 1 i, ,ont t. It is tl tt' t f r ly ,'llli. I- I t iti, l i- I, I i,- h ,wt lVer

,il .l y ') il ofi t he lit llt i y of ii i Iiit ,.' thii |ro il I r tt H.iii \citat -re.
h" I',-. ,1 i- ui~ts is n Lot s c I', l live ra thei arset i<,itln li.e+ ictl2 e itl ite
;iipli( :i li><,,t Iti neesalr3 foi r th. ii r1y to c onn.e l i' i to. direiIt (L'ntiee withi






-i.-. i CI n .1 il.1 'crd ier l to l- it -ei I i *'-- 'ec c.hAea-ctl cit~
't iir t 1,r i iS ,l t So l i- I i-1I I l a1 1r \ii- Il+ ii f it- t A -ivt vc in s lo ll

t1 i.'t hilil,'d with four li ies itn ,", i._li Ifdt'oitinol Ilri Niod tih k ptal
lilihtl\ -I I I I,, I t ,en- ty foi r ii iih (.' i., h I), l .a- iV-. ,,,ri llit uA h i la-
,i ,,-iir.I.il'. ii'toius- nds of d lil. iir ile C \ e er i t !; i -d to ima l ei, til I- -q t
ii itI' , i ji-S ta.ie+.- tI 'ci i tli- i is ha re tlt ie -+o- stly :iid, it].,i.-, saiid tlc
,1i-, ,nl,, iti. leaves, hias tile id, nl, r _'e, o[ liot I,, urj- p!o{ionoIs ito humatnli

*1' n *",!,, *, ,*ir ... f nrt c m i'H/i t u'+ l ie t, 1.7+ # l i if,, + fjiln'td -+ i lI,. i ... Il i. i! .-i> hl ++.i

Iecile. icti- II *rlelI li-i tc-" ,, I .L i- I Il, I, Itii ,- I 1,, I I Iir ii l I, c i,.rc
I-'ill ci'..' i 1 it l hiti I lille I't i ,. .I ,1 ,i. I p iltti--. iit u. i.I af It ail l-
.,i! |.lh i'-i I,. Il, I., tII I.'l I-.i .. .1 1 1ei 1d11r Iiit Ii f tic .l ;i e l t lw li
ldi' .il .I~ I1l .tlti1 ,il 1.I i ir- i. i i it in i 1'-.I H it ,, t 1, -1j] l I At- i liA t
,li i.l- i c... ar i n al i-Ist ance ii r li 1 I. -ii .l I". h it'",'i eli2 -n ii r aIt r
I.i, I % it I .1- I1. Il- i l .. 1 ti ,. .i .i i til li l i r tl- e l. I t 1 'It .ite i\'% ll rn
;it-i t ii ti ll lit[%? If11 tin' I i + lli ll t I I fl* f .;ltA n ,
Mili1 IlI1' I.-.. e d ite 4it" I p ci Iit tci fit' |kl t toi i-. I ii.. '. t I t w in---

'iii,,' l I iii ill ,1i f il- tI r i li r w-li,- i ldI 1 1 .n lv ; i1 i ti I ,
Ili t AI ll. I.- I- titii k in i l l. t io h"l1 i ,i> ,4 I 1 ... ;,. t lit i I I 'I'.liJr-ittl,
-1 J.11 1 11 -r 1 iI I 1031-1*>d 01 *_. 1. i t. i .. to -se n -Io 1 1 pi i IctH N .Ag. %ntlr <'i -f -i I. I l I .1 Il"
,i li i ll ilil i il--k- I *1.0 .'I il, i ,, 1 --1 iln -li l I, j i it 1,.i 1, I r I I'a ri? '' _1 ,il
thl llni. i11111i iI1,r, to IIIl,,rlh hi- I~iiniil\ ,,I t ,ir Ii, i V ili ,,i tw o( '. i, i I,+e atr
li'.liinl\ ,,i ilIi- ilJI, i'.',' as di,| I ..ill,,,'-. .irill altterwar~d? W iti+ qliie ti+iin'd !n+' Ill
x IIh in r,,',:i.lI i [I, r 1, ." iillil powdery ailhslailic*'t ,+I lie lhcadl \!ii.... i ,~i im++i+-
iilll i uI 1 .llil lI 'l l,.il il I t, i i r ull il I, 1 , A l








livings or htldoi--ti" aillinials. If it is niot used in liberal quantity, how-
Hver, a pri pi ition oi the -att-rpiillars are merely nunimbed by this mixture
a:nil ri-r-Cover. Y'ilunler .nterpillar's are more susceptible.
Hivil-pij''itrief.- -ill* tlit- kitl'liin g;irdlen wI heire, ftlr obvious reasons, it
i4 tishllsii.ilml'i t1' ii t :i..'sr'ii'nilsIii, haiml-picking i4 somelilnes practiced,
isir-i,.illy whenii plants ;ire first set out.
7'he inrn-miv'al rfiwedq.-According to Prof. L. Bruner, corn meal
'ltistt.l 'iI I:;il,.' tc au;iises tinl- wrins" to drop off, and protects the
crop until tlIh mneal is walshe'l Ia'way Lby ra in. It is applied in the morn-
inIg liih. ti,,. i w i l li ;Illl is saiil to ai( t is :i de-tt-rrent.
('h. fari,', i. q il td iii i' frip V.r..-If c(,opt-rtiont in clean methods of
l:lriiill, .1,iil ill Ith *.if -it Ii' ii,' : l. a iils 'ihd by any possibility be secured,
ilnli If tlii, li,-S ilul, till Iit. r\iavages of 1his p'st night be averted. The
i,;:ittii ,tf I,..i inlg ,;ll ie l.ilkl illn ie ieid alter the main crop is off
i. :.' iirr'lii.isilil' ,iii i. All rI iiil.iilits sl ii.m l lie guthtered and destroyed
\iill tli,. ix.t'ltiiIl f, ;a I'few left :t ri'piuilar intervals through a field as
lir',s |ii Iir fl' sli'iilh, w\lhir fr,..ilil.. i< Ifreely j1,i.-oned with arsenilcals so lhat the
I:i-t i'iir'l'-ti'li %ill li: '" I'no ]ilaice toi ,l'velop- in the fields.
Ti'h jl;li:;fiini ,of jjtior'l v-ni.ii's.-It is matter Ofl coninon obser-
viliii. lli'i n ly lltl ui.l.rht thlli.it tile twio parasitic enemy ies of this
.p -i ( 't,.',,,q pu sI. piopair'um and l Anl inl.l.'.s .floni 'rtluls) do excellent
.i'Iv(,. ill rill iw' ll t ni0inhirs o ilf their lIst. The means by which
tllty :ill l'e ,'1iii ilI':i'J l s i.s di si rilfe tl on il page (.
A\tlt'inlpts liiv'' alo, lIt.'n llnini p 1 utilize diseases of this insect for its
.ntirol, lint \\ithiit veryy inicoutiraiging results.
li /I,,i'r%' \ill kill this wtinr," lbut is nlot as satisfactory a remedy
:I- tl,, ;i.,l. t-liiil:il-.
T'I'up {I'i' ..-.\ ililiei-ly si,.Jgesteil bty one of our correspondents was
te.-te'l y tl,' \\riltr :i'ain-t this aiind other cabhage "worms," includ-
IIig tI ltie l-i'r. .in' touniid oirtlilr-ss. It consists in placing fresh cab-
Iiig' li V- ,, > 'veIr [li IlI-, tl.- -i niglit, ithe Suipposition being that the
" \\'in." \%ill gitli'erin' i.r thei-se traps and can be destroyed next
I Al iii i1r,.
,p r\ l e~' \lil :
JA .1:1" \'v11.et)N,
iS'f rnI'rn. of Ayrit'-i lluhr

\W \-lli\i,,'ri'N. 1). ..April .S, 190:,.



DOCUMI


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 05252 3247
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