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| 1 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Revolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban Nation March 31, 2014 May 23, 2014 Smathers Library Gallery George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida Curated by Margarita Vargas Betancourt and Lillian Guerra with assistance from Alexis Baldacci and Daniel J. Fernandez Guevara Women have been primary protagonists of the cycles of revolution and counterrevolution that shaped occupations and 1959 transformation into a Communist society ruled by an authoritarian system, women occupied the front lines of protest movements for social justice and greater democracy. Yet as political activists, intellectuals, workers a nd self conscious witnesses, women have been not only sidelined politically by government, but they have remained mostly invisible in formulas for achievi ng greater freedom are also frequently collapsed into simple accounts of supporting rather than challenging Cuban patriarchy. Seen through epic events and everyday accounts, women emerge as foremost revolucionarias against all odds.
| 2 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Neill and Nancy Macaulay 1959 Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Nancy Macaulay Nancy Macaulay (American) We Had to Give up Our Dream Temporarily at Least June 1961 Unpublished Manuscript Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Nancy Macaulay Nancy Macaulay (American) September 1, 1959 Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Nancy Macaulay Certificate for Voluntary Donation to Agrarian Reform March 20, 1959 Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Nancy Macaulay against Batista. So much so, that in 1958 he joined the Rebel Army and began fighting in the Sierra Maestra. After the triumph of the revolution, Neill brought his wife Nancy, pregnant with their first child, to live with him in Cuba. The May 1959 Agrarian Reform made it possible for them to establish a small farm in Pinar del Ro: the Finca Nancy. Nancy wrote many warm letters home describing the Agrarian Reform and the Finca Nancy as a dream come true. She embraced her life as a wife, mother, and peasant, and was enthusiastic about the positive impact that the revolutionary reforms were having the increasing collectivization of agriculture forced the Macaulays to leave Cuba and the Finca Nancy. Untitled n.d. Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections These girls formed part of the first graduating class of Minas del Fro a school in the Sierra Maestra to politically, many of these teachers subsequently witnessed mass peasant uprisings against Communist economic policies and subsequent campaigns of sta te repression. Here, the girls await their graduation ceremony, presided over by Fidel Castro.
| 3 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation [Portraits of women] c.1960s Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel P edro Gonzlez Endowment Rural women were among the beneficiaries of the literacy campaigns. In the larger photograph, Ale and Rosa offer a small token to their teacher, Ernesto Chvez, who they call their hermanito or brother, in the dedication. Cubans from the cities where literacy was much higher joined the literacy campaigns. This presented a unique moment in Cuban history, where rural and urban, black and white came into contact for the first time. [Escambray Escuela Rural] c.1960s Gelatin silver p rint Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment [Escambray Escuela Rural] c.1960s Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Lib rary purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment The 1959 Cuban Revolution made good on its promise to provide free and accessible schools for all Cuban youth. Ernesto Chvez is pictured here with his students in a rural hut with dirt flo ors, called a boho Many of these children would learn to read and write before their parents. [Portrait at Cima Turquino] c.1960s Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment male and female students to the highest mountain peak in Cuba, El Pico Turquino. In this picture, both female and male rur al instructors posed before a bust of Jos Mart as a revolutionary rite of passage. El Pico Turquino became a revolutionary pilgrimage site for instructors of literacy campaigns, students, foreign office members, and anyon e who wanted to relive the sacrifice of the revolutionary struggle in the mountains.
| 4 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Elena Gil Izquierdo (Cuban) La educacin de las domesticas: una agudizacin de la lucha de clases n.d. Federacin de Mujeres Cubanas, Direccin Nacional Special & Area Studies Collections Early FMC endeavors targeted the most visible remnants of the capitalist system, such as maids and ve and empowering project. This study of FMC efforts to educate former domestic workers argues that these projects were part of a true socialist revolution in which the state offered the proletariat the ability to advance through educational and employment opportunities. The study also mentions a more self serving motive: to instill political loyalty among the women and their families. Ofelia Dominguez Navarro (Cuban) De 6 a 6 : la vida en las prisiones cubanas 1937 365.97291D671d Latin American & Caribbe an Collection Ofelia Domnguez Navarro, Mirta Aguirre, and Mariblanca Sabas Alom were upper class activists who autobiography, De 6 a 6 describes vivid scenes of mothers with their children in prison, medical negligence, and camaraderie among the political prisoners during her three stints in Cuban prisons (Castillo del Prncipe, Guanabacoa, and Nueva Gerona) under Machado. Teresa Casuso (Cuban) and Elmer Grossberg, Translator Cuba and Castro 1961 Random House 972.91063C3552c Latin American & Caribbean Collection In her autobiography, Teresa Casuso, student activist at the University of Havana during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado, discusses the beatings, murders, and police intimidation suffered by student leaders that sought autonomy for the University from government intimidation and terror. Casuso participated in both the 1933 and 1959 revolutions, yet eventually fled to the United States.
| 5 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Vilma Espn Guillois (Cuban), Asela de los Santos Tamayo (Cuban), and Mara Yolanda Ferrer Gmez (Cuban) Women in Cuba: The Making of a Revolution within the Revolution 2012 Pathfinder HQ1507 .E875 2012 Latin America & Caribbean Collection In 1960, the revolutionary state created the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC) and named Vilma Espn, wife of Ral Castro and veteran of the Sierra Maestra, president. The group has spearheaded efforts to integrate women into the workplace, reduce domestic w ork and childcare, and promote gender equality. While these endeavors have altered traditional gender roles in Cuba, the FMC is also restrictive: it strives to liberate women from male dominance in order to put them at the service of the state. Membership is open to all Cuban women who identify with the revolution. Guadalupe Hechaverra, Editor (Cuban) 150 recetas de huevos 1984 Editorial Oriente TX 745.C5 1984 Rare Books Collection Gift of Lillian Guerra An unpredictable and insufficient food supply req uires creativity to survive. Eggs were often widely available and not rationed during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. Now imagine eating them for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. How many of these 150 recipes sound palatable and appealing? Ration Cards 1961 1963 Ernesto Ch vez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Purchased with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment These ration cards are typical of the early 1960s. In August 1961, a basic and temporary rationing program was introduced to combat food shortages caused by social and economic upheaval. It was later expanded to include more food items and basic goods. Consumers would bring their card to their assigned site and claim whatever they were due, so long as it was in stock. Because women ar e usually charged with feeding the family, they have been disproportionately affected by the long lines and other frustrations of the ration system. Though the specific goods and quantities on the ration have varied over the years, rationing continues in C uba today.
| 6 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Letter to Neill and Nancy Macaulay from Lucille August 15, 1962 Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Nancy Macaulay government. Even former fidelistas like Lucille, an American missionary living in Cuba, were concerned. Attempts to highlight the gravity of conditions often focused on the children who were not receiving sufficient nutrients during their formative years. Another common concern was that Castro had chosen Communism. Lucille alludes to this in her suspicious reference to the influx of Russian and Chinese advisors who she believ ed to be behind the latest cut in rations. Aurora de Mena (Cuban) The pearl key, or midnight and dawn in Cuba 1896 Vance Print. Co. 972.611 M534t Rare Books Collection The daughter of a plantation owner, Aurora de Mena was disowned by her family for spy ing on Spanish forces during her teenage years. In 1894, just one year before the outbreak of the Independence War, de Mena went into self imposed exile in Florida. While in Florida, s. To raise The Pearl Key After independence, she returned to Cuba and became a leader in the development of the public school system. Estan sacando de la funeraria el fe r et r o que contiene los r estos mortales de W illiam From Bohemia January 31, 1957 Modern print from microfilm Latin American & Caribbean Collection Bohemia, Cuba to the brutality of the Fulgencio Batista s dictatorship. W illiam Sole r a fourteen yea r old sympathizer of the 26 of July movement, had been tortured and killed by Batista s security forces; Sole r s body was found in a Santiago de Cuba warehouse. On January 4, his mother and five hundred other women marched in Santiago to protest. In this photograph taken for Bohemia, W illiam Sole r my son! People,
| 7 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Cesen los asesinatos de nuestros hijos. Madres Cubanas. From Bohemia January 31, 1957 Modern print from microfilm Latin American & Caribbean Collection This Bohemia photograph depicts five hundred Santiago women, dressed in black, walking the streets of Santiago de Cuba in silent protest. The black connotes bereavement and they demand that the Gertrudis Gmez de Avellaneda (Cuban) Sab 1920 [Original published 1841] Agencia General de Librera PQ6524.S3 1920 Latin American & Caribbean Collection The daughter of plantation owners, Gertrudis Gmez de Avellaneda was born into prestige and privilege. Yet her upper class upbringing did not insulate her from the violence and revolution of the time. Surrounded by th e abolitionist movement, she wrote Sab A revolutionary and controversial novel in which slaves are generous and ethic humans and a white woman declares her love to Sab, a slave. Aida Garca Alonso (Cuban) Manuela la Mexicana 1968 Casa de las Amricas 91 7.29103G216mc.2 Latin American & Caribbean Collection A Mexican trained anthropologist, Aida Garca Alonso returned to Cuba in the early 1960s to document the often ambiguous experience of liberation that the revolutionary state offered former, mostly bla Manuela La Mexicana was written from the perspective of Manuela Azcanio Alas (1890 1964), a Mexican exile who became a major community activist in the notorious slum of Las Yaguas. It was a bestseller among Cuban readers of the late 1960s for its sincere, often critical assessments of life before and after the revolution.
| 8 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Aida Garca Alonso (Cuban) Cada quien tena que cargar con sus cosas From Life in the yaguas Photographs by Aida Garca Alonso n.d. Digital Library of the Caribbean Aida Garca Alonso (Cuban) Manuela hablando con el coronel From Life in the yaguas Photographs by Aida Garca Alo nso n.d. Digital Library of the Caribbean These photographs are part of the illustrations that Aida Garca Alonso wanted to include in the second edition of Manuela la Mexicana which would have been published gime censored the publication. Nitza Villapol (Cuban) and Martha Martnez (Cuban) Cocina al minuto 1960 Roger A. Queral TX716.C8 V5 1960 Rare Books Collection Gift of Lillian Guerra Nitza Villapol (Cuban) Cocina al minuto 1980 Editorial ORBE TX716.C8 V5 1980 Rare Books Collection Gift of Lillian Guerra Chef Nitza Villapol was a fixture in Cuban kitchens for nearly half a century. In 1948, her cooking show, Cocina al minuto, premiered on Cuban television. She would go on to publish multiple editions of a cookbook by the same name until the show went off the air in 1993. Nitza did not shy away from acknowledging the difficulties of feeding a family in revolutionary Cuba and thus was the leading voice in the Cuban culinary scene. She provided readers and viewers with functional ways to transform an insufficient and inconsistent food supply into palatable dinners, night after night. These two recipes for carne fra illustrate the differences in food availability between 1960 and 1980. Though the 1980 recip e (2) produces almost the same amount of servings as the 1960 recipe (1), it does so with less than half the meat.
| 9 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Lillian Guerra (Cuban American) February March 2009 Manuel Ray Oral History Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Lillian Guerra Margot Preece From the The San Juan Star A Kind of Courage and June 4, 1964 and n.d. Manuel Ray Oral History Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Lillian Guerra Aurora Chacn del Ray spent the early parts of her sixty five year marriage to Manolo Ray, raising kids resista nce against Batista and serving as Minister of Public Works, Manolo Ray resigned from his government office and started an underground organization with the intention of bringing down the Castro regime. His political activities required him to go into hidi ng to protect his wife and their growing family. When Aurora finally left Cuba in October 1960, she did so with only thirty dollars and their five children, the youngest of whom was ten months old. Manolo remained in Cuba to continue his counterrevolutiona ry efforts. Portrait of Carlos Gonzlez Blanco done while in prison n.d. Carlos Gonzlez Blanco Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Untitled [Portrait of Ara, Frida, and Carlos Gnzalez Blanco] 1954 Carlos Gonzlez Blanco Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Throughout his years in prison, Carlos Gonzlez Blanco wrote continually to his family who were living in the United States. His letters tell of his pride as a father and husband, of the nostalgia of the happy moments that were boyfriends. What he leaves out is his life in prison, the loneliness, the despair, the torture, the hunger, the illness. His wife Ara and his daughter Frida got hints of Ca
| 10 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Letter to Higinio Fanjul September 6, 1933 Braga Brothers Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Gift of George Atkinson and B. Rionda Braga Workers, lesser military officials, and students toppled the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado. In January 1933, two hundred thousand sugar workers walked off the job, paralyzing the economy. Though nued. In this corporate correspondence to Higinio Fanjul of the Manat Sugar Company, another company official related his fear of bloodshed, concerns for family safety, and the nature of his discussions with U.S. officials as a result of the 1933 Revoluti on. Jos Mart (Cuban) Cartas de Mart Facsimile made by the Archivo Nacional for Mara Mantilla y Miyares, viuda de Romero Romero Family Papers Regarding Jos Mart, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Eduardo S. Romero In this February 2, 1895 letter, Jos Mart the 1895 War of Independence mother Mara Miyares, in order to ignite the fla relationship to Mantilla is controversial; some believe she is the illegitimate daughter of Mart and Miyares, a claim she always denied. The National Archives in Havana presented this facsimile collection of letters to Mantilla after she donated the originals. Letter from Victoria to Ernesto Chvez April 7, 1962 Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment Letter from Emma to Ernesto Chvez July 18, 1969 Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment The Revolution of 1959 reshaped Cuban society. As society shifted, so did the personal relat ionships that existed prior to the revolution. Ernesto Chvez received this letter from his girlfriend, Victoria (1). In it, she told him that she understood his revolutionary fervor and would never impede his service to the revolution. Yet, in light of hi s distance from her, she did not want to formalize their relationship. While he was in the sierra training to become a teacher, Chvez also received this letter from his little sister For young Cubans r eceiving military training in Cuba or the Soviet Union and teaching in brigades for the literacy campaigns, holding on to family and intimate relations was often difficult.
| 11 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Stevens R. Renfrow, U.S. Cuban Refugee Program (American) Letter to Mercedes Blanco from Steven R. Renfrow March 12, 1976 Carlos Gonzlez Blanco Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Frida Masdeu Mercedes Blanco was heartbroken over the incarceration of her son, Carlos Gonzlez Blanco. She wrote to anyone she felt could possibly intervene to secure his release; even the first lady of the United States, Ford forwarded that letter to the Cuban Ref ugee Program, whose response is seen here. Inverna Lockpez (Cuban American) Dean Haspiel Artist Jos Villarrubia Colorist and Pat Brosseau Letterer Cuba My Revolution 2010 DC Comics/Vertigo PN6727.L63 C83 2010 Latin American & Caribbean Collection class Cuban girl who Cubans, Lockpez was forced into filling the void created b y masses of middle class doctors, teachers, and managers who fled Cuba. In her account, she was wrongfully imprisoned while giving medical attention to a 2506 Brigade member during the Bay of Pigs invasion. She was stripped naked, shot with hot and cold wa ter from a hose, electroshocked, and interrogated. Robert N. Pierce (American) Untitled January 29, 1959 Gelatin silver print Robert N. Pierce Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Robert N. Pierce Robert N. Pierce was one of many Amer ican journalists invited to Cuba by Fidel Castro as part of Operation Truth. Castro hoped this would cultivate positive press in the United States about the trials and executions of security officials responsible for atrocities committed during the Batista dictatorship. Here families and friends anxiously waited to see prisoners at La Cabaa fortress in Havana. Robert N. Pierce (American) Untitled January 26, 1959 Gelatin silver print Robert N. Pierce Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Robert N. Pierce
| 12 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Robert N. Pierce (American) Justicia para mi hijo y millares ms asesinados January 21, 1959 Gelatin silver print Robert N. Pierce Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Gift of Robert N. Pierce more that have been assassinated. Direccin provincial de establecimientos penitenciarios December 31, 1969 Reproduction of Certificate Reina Peate de Tito Collection, Special & Area Studies Collections Gift of Reina Peate de Tito Because she was female and less likely to draw unwanted attention, Reina Peate de Tito was approached by groups seeking to overthrow the revolutionary state in 1961. That same year she was arrested and imprisoned for counterrevolutionary activity. After serving eight years, Peate received this certificate upon her release. Nelson Rodrguez Diguez (Cuban) Recuento para la historia. Mujeres en la heroica gesta contra el totalitarismo en Cuba 2009 Gift of Nelson Rodrguez Diguez An ex political prisoner in exile, Rodrguez Diguez gathered the stories and photos of hundreds of Cuban women who suffered similar fates on the island. Convicted of counterrevolution or conspiring against the state, some women served sentences up to thirty years. Yet the Cuban public received little or no information about their prosecution and rela ted denials of individual political freedoms. This book ignored struggles. Las primeras manos que cuidan al nio August 8, 1960 Geo r ge A. Smathers Papers, Special & Area Studies Collections A primary goal of the revolution was to bridge the rural urban gap that divided Cuba. One of the many solutions to raise the rural standards of living was to extend healthcare into the countryside. The increased demand for healthcare professionals necessitated advertisements such as these, which urged women to show their revolutionary colors and become nurses. The demand was also exacerbated by the flood of educated professionals who left the island after 1959.
| 13 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Letter to Senator George A. Smathers from Madres Cubanas en el Exilio March 1962 George A. Smathers Papers, Special & Area Studies Collections requested t he U.S. government send men with combat experience to help train and equip a Female Liberation Army to fight against the revolutionary state. They justified their radical stance with their status as mothers. In their plea, they describe the heartache of lo sing loved ones and sympathize with women who remained on the island struggling with food shortages that jeopardized the well being of Album de la Revolucin Cubana 1952 1959 c. 1959 Special & Area Studies Collections Children cut and paste cartoon panels in the set order to assemble this propaganda comic book. The ried roles and their contributions to the revolution. Untitled n.d. Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Taken by official photographers of the Batista regime at the Goicura military base in Matanzas, this image shows military wives giving used clothing away to poor families in the early spring of 1956. Only weeks later, rebels backed by deposed Authentic Party President Pro de Socarrs launched a failed assault on the base. Women, including some military wives, provided key intelligence for the assault. [Little girl on tank] 1959 Gelatin silver print Neill Macaulay Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Gift of Nancy Macaulay The triumph of the 1959 Revolution exploded in collective celebration. One immediate impact of the triumph was the reunification of families that had been split by the fight against Batista.
| 14 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation [Woman aiming rifle] c.1960s Gelatin silver print Ernesto Chvez Collection, Special & Area Studies Collection Library purchase with funds from the Manuel Pedro Gonzlez Endowment The Cuban Revolution of 1959 opened many new spaces for women. As in the Chinese and Russian Revolutions, women were allowed access to military and militia training. The woman in the photograph sharpens her skills as a marksman in rural military training. Monica Brown (Peruvian American) and Rafael Lpez (Mexican American) My name is Celia : the life of Celia Cruz / Me llamo Celia : la vida de Celia Cruz 2004 Luna Rising 39h12918 Matancera. Celia was the first female popular musician in Cuba to sing to African insp ired music to a national audience. In 1960, she left Cuba for Mexico and later New York where she joined Tito Puente and the Fania All Stars as the only female singer in male dominated salsa. Her music reflected the life of the Latinos living the barrios. Throughout the world, her catchphrase ¡Azcar! is synonymous with Cuba. Rachel Weiss (American) Celia Gonzlez (Cuban) and Yunior Aguiar (Cuban) Marital Status, 2004 8 From Rachel Weiss To and from utopia in the new Cuban art University of Minnesota Press 2011 Six marriage certificates and six divorce certificates N6603.2.W45 2011 Latin American & Caribbean Collection Upon marriage, the state offers the chance to purchase food and alcohol for a small wedding reception. Over the years, Cuban artists C elia Gonzlez and Yunior Aguiar married and divorced each other six times. This performance served as commentary and evidence of the various methods of working within the bureaucracy to circumvent the restrictions on everyday life. The repeated behavior is indicative of
| 15 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Rachel Weiss (American) and Tania Bruguera (Cuban) El peso de la culpa (The burden of guilt, 1997 99) From Rachel Weiss To and from utopia in the new Cuban art University of Minnesota Press 2011 Color photograph still from performance N6603.2.W45 2011 Latin American & Caribbean Collection role of the Cuban people historic complicity as voluntary, even proud partners in the bloody, messy everyday system of citizen on citizen surveillance on which the state has relied. Pastor Vega, Direc tor (Cuban) Retrato de Teresa 1979 Zafra Video DVD PN1997 .R5135 2000 Latin American & Caribbean Collection Portrait of Teresa is a Cuban drama that reflects the challenges faced by Cuban women: family life, work, participation in labor unions, participation in local committees, and a husband that is unwilling to follow her into the twentieth first century. The director demonstrates her struggles masterfully, by depicting scenes with no narration that follow Teresa, portrayed by Daisy Granados, w aking up at dawn, preparing dinner for the evening, preparing lunch, making breakfast, dressing her children, staying late at work, and getting home exhausted to a jealous, albeit cheating, husband. Huber Matos (Cuban) Yoani, Rosa Maria, Bertha y Eliecer From La Ideal 2013 E184.C97 Latin American & Caribbean Collection Contemporary opposition toward Ral Castro manifests itself in many different forms on the island; women are at the forefront of all of these attempts to expand civil liberties. Blogger Yo ani Snchez, public stances against the government. This article, in the exile magazine La Ideal accuses Ral Cubans freedom to travel outside the country. The article argues that Yoani Snchez, Rosa Mara Pay,
| 16 R evolucionarias: Women and the Formation of the Cuban N ation Las Damas de Blanco Feliz Ao 2010 2010 www.damasdeblanco.com The Ladies in White formed in 2003 in response to the politically motivated arrest and imprisonment of seventy five human rights defenders and independent journalists. The members of the group are all female relatives of the imprisoned dissidents. They protest peacefully each Sunday, attending mass and walking silently through the streets dressed in white. Because they oppose the state, which mai ntains strict control over most economic activity, the Ladies have few resources at their disposal. This freely available calendar represents one attempt to raise awareness of their struggle.