te yea the Positio .oape b Wild ifet In Kilifit MMU
andWf 6 dbal atd.Arca opno towar the cas fft ~
cosevaton has aw e mo untr~d got black amn haong fel tt t
the goveet presere ga at his expnse aM tht he is the loser all rom.
Aeftpoaching opeftios duin th ya cstina to sawte this Veaee
Loal .atr wer not slw to tak ad~t of the situottion sad atip
talk has becom a crtain vot-cate to l use,
Peac i s anl Its formM incsed nd- this tr= wiSl son ~su
the pr ntipewhing nj in e
Cro ft gl tog 1.ca, has ntatl*4 muc loe to all, thre istritse,
I an of the opinion, as I was $ last ra that the vaue of dame0m to
sgimdtur exoseds th cash inom derive from controlled are foes.
DMJ the litter six msn t of Usyer, I have had to give a lo~ t Us
to the expeimna $bu o the 4= Mhm !Soo. Ths hee to th
cst ofrtine daif. I 4seto th lo sffrn D-.s for selo bOU4
wer they have Wated s.
Thog the coas itself ha ousmn long rain sod umodrte abot
the hintrlan Maba a btd yea to fte deraa of the sc of Sthe whole,
I sM21 U to be bref~ eu this subJet as it miuet be covre fa o
comrehnsvel b the At-ocigtuals reot.
Thraq;W tey"It became mre an er ~ap~ t that the cuion 9" few
ImilledU by the Anipo n empg me rapidl weaing of. A vey o
visr t pwhers a" in oprtin The use of bush faee IoM
rattist Kwle -n bita, ism nowq m to KLIM aroun the
Yet River Hitero this was a bom~ area only* In this southern part of
Kilift th min offeners ila and Durm cbeoal burnes. T fail=*
of cros ve a wd Qemadesan reor to chrcoal main or a li4ing Th
isomse In this trdesutd In deeer wW deee ww e attuttof bithewto
utmed bush and the o s of poc it directly relaed to this
exIasa. Vsw s in the chrca arm hw d compartively little MUMa~
bHow rvnoth or the Smf and on up to thetam thefp a uv e itoly
#4 the 1"pg wine,
AaUVoahUWtoss and in the f irt six waths of the year odce house to baus
aeuvhes in Kaeq KUMf ad %vf Ditics Also a certini wwiut of b
ptrolling wm cariedot
While cutting th trac fro Nacknmo Row to the Galaza for the Gas*
Maagment Scem the recet remains of nm seens Qlt., thre buffalog five
rhino and six elephant were found. Th latter two speis sinus their trophies.
All these mb ae we found on the acua alinment of the trwk or a ver short
wa off it. Th tel per aqa mile mst be ver bfy Tw poche we"
apreenedwhile tedntheir -nr lies* Ow of the claims that siteen
aw shad ben rmo from his bush teoe by elphat.
Cotolled Are 3Blak 239 2M, ad to a loomsere 259 howe suffered a
spate of illicit btiq fun midtsts of RbeAn. Partis# usually Aiscog
,cme out ove vebmWs equippd with pru sptlighs and but ~mat bynikt
The pu-bles axe uualy about half a dozenstog OnGly oe of the pat poseemee
a licm. ad be chrgs the others a fee to cme with blue Bah ahl shot to
bovot by oe. of these clients. It the pwrt is apene the lime holder
alsime It as his aad having wA ke$ a regiser of prevous stus killed, f
first of that specisi o Us r5mostre 2% ol tim the ca be cagh to it th
e"t Ot 014
An OpratIO s PUNS U stop this OS shtt" An 'the P2- WVIS
bn tt 1.14 aS AUO a Mr A& of the tandin & ShPI COP CA trr
wit aegod ifenaio o the rots use by the min faw a"l wbey
wer. This intmio a passe to the pole*# who, to the best of faith
pase it to the Gam Dep~tment aad als to eM. ~WUh M.A. Rhn Me
iSm lm wont to AY&A aW in his poition of Hms Varden gt Avar to tell
his ala he kmw. Kbin then compil the details taft a repot and .iiulated
It to you# the anti-paingq tern u and U ayof laiin that it was a reult at
When the opmtton wet into actiong It wa a complete failur. I **M
help fooling that Ka -m directly rosonsble for givin the Oboys' a
"Up-ff~ Hi asoeation wiltw bw tig parties is Itaws as I tomdn hia
with a party of twlve at Bobum in Block 25. Of the twelv" only ouths
a vald 1z Tume ose.
The ta nse o mst hao to sning In their Sae registe defeaft
the purews of these rate in keepng the local Om Vwonu-t-dt
in Wtattoing on in igeam.
Belw to a tablo gtiin the repective cos.trUo are blacs and th
sarw of haa wmies sht in each block. fte mot ppuar blwek for vU
paties is Sea 27 Vw Wakuae.Temo yo atme in this are am
kille br Prfesiona Boa)r md thei cliets. Block 24 to bacng vM
ppuar with hutes f Momasa both 1CL wW Ullapl. Th min awm
for tid being t big decin of all spete In Black 23 and to a 3e..w
de Mak 25.
Yhe tabe also giv a m~ of4 sth Us sss nest siesn (or pKMPO
I bulA 8V the easist to Sineto
,ei Roth TOW SUL* M
2D212223 24 25 26 2
neh*3 4 2 28 M 4 */Sa.
N I AW W go so 40 AM I
SIfl 1 1w AW I I owI f4063
MA 0 1 1W I N 1 3 -0 4 936a-
Oryx 2 1 1" so 1 4 4 OP to ,,
LIOS SW OW 40 0 I W OW 1 3 4
tepr 10 Or so e- aw 1 I
1441se of 3 20 2 1 4 00 to10
ram 1 0 2 12 4 10 31 310/"
Tt2 W o- W $" 2 0/a
WfteWotk I OP 00 OF 1 40 a -0 20/-
Redw AW va 2. 1 40 1 15/.
Wams I OW If 4 1 aw 2 7 U 51A
Urd 1 2 2046 2 9 30 Ig/
4 1 m 4 1 1 2 9 23 115A.
Oeem 40 W I -W 2 3 30/-
Wartbog 2 3 4 3 4 K 8iI
pbaok W 40 to 40 0 W *
bl* w aw 0 NO OW 00 40 go
I 324 0 5 39 1 4 19 or 40 4* 1
rnr ft1 %Oo TOM ,1I
This table is compiled from Game Registers received by me in 1959. 1 would
repeat that it is not accurate, as a number of people fail to submit a game
register or are very late in doing so.
Rhino These beasts are still thin on the ground and deserve the full
protection they have ejoyed during the past year* The largest populations
are to be found in Controlled Area Blocks 2D and 21 -, both -within the Game
Management Scheme. Arun the bases and on most of the larger hills in Telta
the rhino are distinctly more nmerus than in the flat NWika. The much
thicker vegetation on the former so doubt accounts for this.
Sableo I an very much against the proposal to allow a number of sable
to be shot on licence. My reasons are t
a) the sable of Kenya are an isolated populatioap and should their numbers
ever reach the t danger level' there is no possibility of natural
replenishment of the stock fro Ta -ganyik
b) Sable are a species that have unergone a steady decline in numbers
over the last fifty years The area which is populated today is less
than one tenth of that occupied fifty years ago.. This is confirmed
by the older members of the local tribes.
Where once found all over the hinterland of Kilifi even into what is today
the Tsavo National Park there no remains a small group of Sable on Mangea Hill,
The decline has ocurred within living memory.
In Kwalet Sable are today only found east of the Kwale-Tang Read in any
numbers. Again, within living memry, they once extended in some strength west
of Kilibasi Hill
It is difficult to attribute this alarming decrease in numbers to poaching
alone. Sable are wary creaturesp as much so as any of the other large antelope.
Why then should they suffer extermination while landp olrx and kongoni continue
to occupy what was once commn ground? What the reasons are for this population
"crash" are yet mysteries. All we can accept in formulating policy is that the
decline has taken place, and that we do not know whether it continues or not.
o) There is no one who knows how many sable there are In Keny. Any figure
is but an approximation, Theoretically therefore no one can say what culling
rate the species can sust ain. This very important principle of conservation
should be applied in its most absolute sense where precious species such as sable
are concerned. The only policy therefore, that the Game Depar tment can apply
with moral conviction in the face of its ignorance (and ignorant we are|) is to
maintain a "status quo" until scientific fact dictates otherwise. It is no
argument to claim that "it has been proved in America that to kill the herd bull
is tO allow new blood into the herd and is therefore beneficial to the species."
This has not been proved with Sable and to apply what might fit ene unglte
to another without proof is amateurish and dangerous.
I request most strongly that until the Game Department has a scientist who
can tackle the question competently, Sable Antelope remain Royal Game in Kenya.
Other Species. I sttl believe that leopard warrant full protection*
However in view of the fact that only one was shot by hunters last year I shall
let the matter rest.
Leopard have been a nuisance on the coast south of Mombasa. To cope with
the situation a leopard trap of the box type was constructed. Three leopard
- two males and a very preg-zant female were transported to the Tsave National
Park (East). Two were released at A -uba dam and one on the Galena River. I
recommend that the policy of dealing with leopard trouble in this way be
continued. The stock of leopard in the Nyika has been 'Very sadly depleted in
the past and needs restocking badly if it is to hold its own. It is an expensive
procedure but I think well worth the cost,
The leopard trap built was made from material supplied by the Game Department,
by the National Parks at Vol. The cost of labour and gas for welding etc* was
met entirely by the Park autherities and therefore a joint ownership is exercised
over the trap. The agreement is that if the trap is not being used by the Gamae
Department, the Parks may use it, and vice versa.
The Sbima Hills hawo Mat Pot stsites as a fau= 00"ftrwAtios uftt.
If a viebleseriesof wild nim could be built up,, the proximity of the
i to N1obqsqthir vr considrable scenic beauty would etmble. a a
second only to the Mirbi Nationa k to be created. At the mt there
are only thre vreaentqable specion of animals In the area; buffalo, sable
antelope and elephant. They %re shy and war an yet, not of qny v-ilu as
a tourist attraction. Howeer I am of the opinion tlr-t other sp,3ci-e such an
ImpmlntKngn and Zebra would flourish adgreatly enhance the v,-lua of the
areal, if imported,&1~ ~ ~Qib
Today the orest Dt is attptig to establih exotic tree
plantations on the northern end of the hills. Thog it wy nt be arnarsat
to the nesr future, itto inseitabi# that the interests of fauna and orestr
will clash. It ha nevr proved otherwise where large Afrio,,t P-al re
conerd. Now t the tim to did wich hem to base If mney ta spent
on both causes and one evetually *polls th dom of the other,, then ny finae
spent on the other tostedt.
tIorestr or rther the stablient of' etic plantations, has, until
very~ recently, been a failure on the Shimb Hills. Today the difficulties of
seleting suitable species for the ara my have been oveme* dowavr any
return fron fore-try will not be ap-aret for m3ay years to eone.
A p t r h f eue the Asericaniea tion) of
tourists hih Mombasa as a port would enue-would provide a cnt aceptable
return within a compratively short spaes of time* It must be borne in mind
however, that the aba Hills will even tually constitute sn island in a sea o
agricultr. The efets of this will be felt try the shwba owners adjaent to
the Hillso and therefore the benefits of any fanl park would have to be
distributed locAlly and be uuh as to obliviate looses swandby agricultualistse
The $Ghinba Alls 'Porest Reuerve has been ceated an "'Aenity Forest." ft
it both the plntn of forego trees and the conservation of lnj anmauls ae
to be practised. I will repeat myself s these two activities-ar. ultimately
incompatible, It therefore followa that to spend moe on both to to wate that
spent on one. It is urgent that R policy decision be taken on which money Is to
be sent foretry or fwxm At prsent no one is in a position to nake tht
deci- % lot s known of foest, but nothing at R. about faun-, or its
proper conseeti. The ovuscourse seem to be thereore, to appoint a
competent e n, or tem. to produce a report an the ecologr and mtwal
potentialities of the are with particular readto its mcne e erits. Lac
of finance will mak this difficult, but could an approach be made to the N
411d Life Society for its sisac in putting the problem to the Conservation
Trust In Now Yof? If cash is to be as" fro Gmeg the seventy five squire *Ue
of the ;hi HUI Rser offer o of the "e bets" in
I naso ec mnd that the stau of the ShIsha Rills be -altered to that or
a full ams "serve. Only sable ar protected legally at present. Any other
cre-itures sybe shot on licence and % controled qre permit for Block 24.&
An attempt to put down minerals to attrat the sable and buffalo and thus
make them ore visible is to be maeby the Forestry Depsitent after the short
rains have ended. The mlt *too was provided by the Gne s pnrtment earlier in
It was with no little alar I board the Divisional Forest Officer an thtt
this unique forest was regarded as a "-ftl resev". Thuhthis nrea has no
potential as a reee earnr from tourists, its value. to science Is grato
Several species of birds, and at least one diker (Cepheophuea sdersi.) are
confined to this forest and ame found nowhere ele in the world.
ibwver it was later agred that n portion of the forest would be creted
a "rnture reserve" and left in its pristine state. The emet are We not yolk
neyla ma District2 u
4 Shiaow nils
Dii E~~ states
KUMtS District 4 abk-okePrs
I near Debaso M1l1
)alindi qub ftistrict 5 tah
Tetta 4 state rftatas
I Vol S3isal stte
5 ftekinnon Ros Buchma
32112 wle I Shlid Hills9
KUM~f 2 Yisubvaa
= Taita 1asi
Hippo Kwale 2 Fait
Mueh -vg was invited on Raini Sur Ratat. during the P",ind
Af ut Oetaber. It is at this time of the yea that 'the dosnutis rip~ and
these sees the direct caus for the mmer of elephant coming Into the coastal
strip. All elezhqnt killed in Kae wer bulls.
in KUMif thv ArnbkaSkk hard continued their sporadic shamba rsi&e
It aan neme ttvit this gru sh~oulde Mw bee use fo te~ eprmnw
of the Game- 17al U-,nt Scem. Roweer weather conditions precluded tis.
North of the 3aak In the Garashi Qnd Kmsmfa locations three elephnmt
were shot. Teeseem to be some influx of elephant from the hneln i
Jrj periods. 1!ver the Game Maaeet 3cem borders on these locations od
in Euture alU "control" complats should be 4et withi far kaore easily*
In Tet" a cotimi kmll was hear houhu the year from Vi Sisal
Estte. T shall deql with this in a leter pragphe Uphant did a consderabl
wount of dqanto the sothrnan of Teita Concessions 7,stata. The only
water for man miles around %no situated but a short way outside the sial in
thr vimtnte River course It wea this that attrated the elephant to the
proximity of the ett. One elephant was abet in the water hole. This poluted
It and drove the olephant elswhere, Wvevar I have had twinges from my
conscioe evr since Re it most certinly could not be termed "conservation*"
All the elopbant watering there were in extremely poor conition. It was most
noticeable that because the Teita Concessions 1 state is keipt so verY olwmn sm
neat, elephant do not lilce venturing into the fields of sisal, but confine their
-ictivities to the fringes close to the cover of the bush*
laevbant dwnge Zivani Etate but no re-uetg for assistance war* received*
It eppmars to ze that the v-ilua of "Vms control" lies in the good-will it
creates in the public toward the GOae Department. The term "Gsoo Control" itelf
I feel is ltirgaly a misnomer. The only time that shooting elephant is
successful Is whomasmall umbers are concerned. When a large w~ber move into
in area and incidental crop isamgs in done As a result (suwh Re when iho dam nuts
ripen on the south coast) shootingo hts ver little effet, Hovever the odwl
"w ue engenderel is rwrh%:)s worth the cost of a few elephant# but it does sees a
tit of "m left hook".
An uwin eae 9eur wd en ver7 I arge inburs of giraffe took a famy to
sisal poles an Zwai Estate at ?&vat&. The Estate uses large numers of theme
poles for mking frut crte and for building purposes. The quantity of pole
eaten by girafe was such thit the Satate had to consider importlaC poles frm
an outside soure. fte giafehad to be moved. Various methods were trie4.
They wae~ chivied with 3hotusg the idea being that they would be no atun by
the emill shot that they would take to the buh cver to return. They Cmud
the wu of a socwito a I" and rem-4ined on the estate. A few were then
shot 'by the Msukr but with little effect on the other. T decide-7 th-.,t If a,
lot veore shot at oe the remiiaer wight to impressed by such it cataatrophe.
Accordingly# ametean were shot in a very short space of times Again witmt
affect. The only answer to the problem were:
ato annihilate them all or
bto tur them into an asset to the 2sate, wdho would then be clad to have thew*
A draft plan was prepared whereby a giraffe pax week waz to be shot to fulfl
part of the states' s weekly meat requirement. Thaeco~c were nwh th4i the
zatate would save mony to the tune of hunreds of pounds per an by far ees"
the value Df the "lost" sisal poles. A trial period of three months would dwi"
whether it wms feasible to continue a further three months of tis coeppiag some
It it was#, the idea would be exploited father. The Fstqte would have to Vhum
anisthtisngequipment and the giraffe would be marked and inhered. To il
mind the situation presented an ideal opportunity for carrying out valuable
resrmh on Cirffe as well as tunn them into an asset to the Estate*
As the Natinl Park is adjacent to the Zetate, their co-operation wa
sauk~t. ;rda Harahll Svc tentative approval to the plan, but after
consultations with Col. C itdraw his pport.
An result I took no further action ad the intate oaaent have abet
a lot mor giraffe to no cmell benefit. The giraffe comes fr=n the Rationl
P-rk and It mut now be up to them to solve the problem.
I have" almeay stated that where larg :mbers of elephant are concerned
"Control work" is of little ralue. .where is this more apparent than on the
H~znul sestion of Vol Sisal 3state. This %zings seetion h-%3 -a common bounary
of oe sovm miles, with the Tsavo ?ark. The Vol river flows withit the Park
north of this bounuand it rrvides several important watering points for
elephant tward the midnle of each dr eason. At =%,h times eleomt cwnrt
In the area ad the a-isal onMsL 'Enastate W-fers severely from their attention,
This perennia problem is fUrther aggrae& by two factors. k ra-pesr
tank an the ftt pipe lima is situated on the estate. The outflow from this Mas
created a all-season water supply and It definitely brings elephant close to this
Secomly the state of the plantation Itself la to aL gret degree responsible
for the attention elephant pay it. The sisal has not been cleared for yers and
thick buoh, In fiiot In placs it to thcke than the virgin bush outside the
Upstate# provides bait for any passing jumbo. Whees on the lumculate teita
Oonosions Rftate the anals we reluctant to r@netrate into the sisal confining
their activities to the fringes, an 14iboO this fear tosabsent, and the elephant
havoc no qualms about plugn Into the heart of the $jungle**
What ban been done In the past to alleit this sittion? Over the 7emr
many, usay eleknt have been shot. When a lot of elephant are about, diffet
groups enter the sian each occasion. Skr off on hard and the next nib
another omes In. The elepat mare ht and the damage contiuies. Shooting on
this estL'e has been very definitely proved to be of no avail whatsoevr. fta
"Public-roltions" v-alue mentioned earlier of control shooting is also outveige
by t0hs lossz Inflicted on Niatioa1 Park's stock. gore, in tho most heavily toowvd
Arm of the "rk it La essential that the ge to tame and viewable. If shooting
elephant in the sisal to not of any use# to continue to to Increase the loe vwd
distribute it In other fields.
It has boon pointed out to the tat Iftnaseet th-At if th* sisal mft
cleane the trouble would be greatly leseed ad that this is a buici atop is
&*lvia the problea6 13woerg this they very fi~mly refus to do. Laak of
fiawe to elatwW as the reso.
To the past the National Par autorties have, taken a very grat 4"al of
trob to assist the Extt aae have spent considerable sums of mnvse in doing8&
It wa believed that a thick wall of brush and earth would dater may elphut
An agrement ias made whereby the -Estate wer to provide nachinary ari the Pafe
thR fuel and supervision. Viith the complete failure of the Ploaio' quiowto
the parks provided their own bulldozer. Apair the 'r tate failed to car out
their part of the bzgi.The plan was abandoned.
A ver ftir 4ere of success wsahieved wim Park rr~r vre post*# s
Swrd arond the sisal at ni~t. Tho Estate ge to employ niglt gwrd it
the Park's a ranel trained them. Thi sshm felltruh after four days
when the Asianspriigi eiedi a o m ok
Th whole history of this estate in the sphere of crop prtcinhas been
founed on iadofnw and icmeec.N lnhsee encridtruh
The M point thait has been proved is thit sotn the elephant des not solve
the probes wWi inflietn an adtitional loin on the Tsavo Park.
I shaln not go into any detAil or this sujeeto Suffice it to sty tWa it1
Is moat gmtifying that it Mes received such vide support both laternally aod
interoatioumlly. Its success is largely due to the very native interest
displayed by the Amsistra.tiono
Herein lien the cae for the very ubpywild life situ.tioa of today.
No matter how suh mey is spent on anti-poachingg or scientific resftrO
no m-atter how svh international support isenndrorhwcsim ou
and perorveg a" the alff of the Gw Dopqrtmentl fauna conz: rrtioa Is
any country will be dependent ultimately on local public opinion. Public
opinion in Ken"a will very shortly be "African opinion". Africa,- opinion to
today ag4-inst fauna eomsemtion unreservedly. Whyt? The reason it obvio=s
Prior to the advent of the Xuroea, most of the Batu people aM
especially those of the Csnt Province, derved a very large proportion of
their protein re--utrimtq *rom wild animals* To a devee -lias anzlus
nn~-bed he towihstndthe hs~ conditions In which the people lived.
%;ild life Was %alayp a Stany food source in times of dr *t in spits of
fifty years teivilisatios' the standard of agriculture is ruch t?)a-t wild life
ir till an important forod sore in Inrd times.
The Wild Animals Protection Ordinic and the licence nd feos re-,Uired
by it, where by a man may hnt, very effectively prevent the Afric:' n zruntia
legxilly. He therefore porches.
Poaching ma be divided into two cntegrien. ?ir.,t the follow who ~tts
for the pot and for recreation. Second the comoricil hunter with his nethads
of organised slaughter.
The fomr cam be likmned to the --, ish conrmntriaking hl-- rabbit*#
and there ire nound reasons as to whyr he should be allowed to continue to do thing
Tachnially he tranagreges the law. He is the ens ioqt of criminals to catch.
Hence the case earlier this year of an old Giriam in posseasion of twelve arow
andl one dikdik skin eighteen months imrsnet An abuae of justice?
I know thit were I a cowunist agitator this would be the type of m-41ria I ankft&
?he econd category of poacher iR wily, u professional ad a ral menace to
gnee To nut an effective end to this trade African opinion %ust be obtain"*.
This will cover be offered unless the ordirAry abasba ownce a opportunities am
omeliorated in the 1J.A*NO. Rural people the world over hunt,ad the Africa*
in no exeption.
This point has hitherto been tred is vmor policy deciuions, The
Tnysent of controlled are feen to the local District Councils Is an
" kawiegmn of the faet th-A the African has a direct right to the boefits
of g *e Howevr thick does nut seen enug and it ic the individiwl who wst
be aimed At. I feel that in heavily populated area~tsuch no slorle the
co7astr.l strip, ae, fo= of hixtine should be allowed. Bu; Abuckf Juiker eteot
hundedsof these aials are killed illicitly every year. Could not soe fof
of cheap licence be issued for these species in certain areas.- All dues going
to t-ho local A.t.. The incre--se in the number of tseanim 1ls killed W*Uld
not be gra. The value in _ania.- at least some sun--ort for ennarvntion
would be more than wrth it.
V411d Life affair houhu KUM#fi K1l and Teita for the yer 19"9
"Never have we hqd it so bid"'
(with apologies to the Tories.)
1--IM 'Jardenjo Kilifi.
Oxpiea to: zProvincial Cmi, 5.o-rj Mombaz;,
District Cisowiaonor, Kilifig
District f io-r, ;4-iindie
Tfqvieable eries of wild Untwaln oud1 06 built up-, th~e pkvxiity~ o- t MV
Hill* to foabqnqjtheir vey consideritble, scenic bamuty would esmbl tt
second only t4 the ftkimbi Natimml, Pr to be cmeated. At the mnt there
gare only three prsentobIo secian of Ranio*as in the area bWfalo# 3 bls
*~ntelopo and sle1pbst. They we shy and wptry and an yet, w4t of asy vtlw~ as
a toaftst attrattos. Nowenr I an of the opinion thst other spacje3 such or
Impal-i, :Kon sed, sebra would flourish and grpmtly e*bhm~c* the vaus of the
Today 'the foreat Deatet Is attempting to establiah emotic trat
plantations on the northern end of the hills. Thoughi it my nact be a~ppnrent
it the nesr future# it to iosvitable that the interests of f,,vna mWd fomsetry
will clasb. rt hns vovez proved otherwise where Lxrgo Afrtcan manl are
cooerse. New to ths tUWe to decide wbih fbors. to bMW9~ If sonoy to spnt
on both enusos anais eveUmlly apell. thw 4ora of the other# then any M3
spent on the other to vast*&
'11orestrys or rather the t-Abliaent of exotic pl4ntationa, tns# until
veryp recently* been a failure oe the Shiaba Rills. Today then dtffttt~s of
aelecting suitable species fer the areas may he bean ovemomse. ib'owr any
return from forestry will not be npmarent for viny year* to come.
*A Caw park~ with a large Othrough-low" (e~una 'the arcgsto f
tourlate *= which Mmaaas a port would ensure would provide u moqt --ceptablo
return within a comiparatively short ee of time* It *ast be borme in mind
however, that the Shimba Hils will eventually constitute aa isla4 in a sea of
agriculture. TM. effects of this will be felt by thi sheba o,-mers adjacent to
the n1lls and therefore the benefits of an faa Wek vould have to be
distributed looc3.1y an~d be ouch an to obl-lviatr losses wttie by agricultu"W
The U-blaba Hills Forwat Remeve has be,7n created an "Awemity forest." I&
it both the platlag of foreign trees and the cosrmtion o~f lae awe ane
to Le praottioed. I will repent myself i tbase two activities are ratlioitely
incomipatibl*4 tt therefore follow! that to speMd monoy on both is to waste that
sentt on one* It is urgent that a policy decision be takon on which coey is to
ba ajpo@t forestry or fwma. At present no one is in a por-Ation to m,-ike that
dectzi lon. k lot1 to kown of foxvotry., but nothing at all about fauna or ita
-,=pr cnsuv ton.The obvious course seems to be theref ore to appoint a
competent person, or teia, to produce a report on the ecology Wn rntural
potWti-litieq of the area with particular regad to its ecosafte aerite. Lack
* of ficsmne will si this diffioultq but could an approach be soft to the Kemyn
dild Life Sooiety for itaist in puttlnd the problem to the Conservation
Truat in Now Tort? It cash in to be sift from, Game#V the vaty live aqwav sibm
of the hlsba HUI* Rserve offer one of tile "beat beWs in ftqp#4
I also reomend that the status of the Miba Hills be altered to that of
a full Cereservs Ovly sable re protected legally at present* Any other
croatures way be shot on 11cteme and s coatr* l9e arms penit for Block 24.
An attespt so put down wimarals to attract the sable and buffo-le and thus
smae thow no"e visible is to be made by the Forestry D*epartmwot after the short
rains have ealsed. The salt oft*. iis pmovided by the GameDprmaseriri
It was with little alum I board Use Divisional Forest OftMcar say that
this unique forget was roardod as a "ftel reserve'". Though th19 nres Kas no
potential an n revenme earner fins touristaip Its, vmluo to sciLoce to pMeit.
f:ea spece of birds, anW at least one dulker (Cepheophuw aiderst) are
Oonfivid to this forest ad sve found ntovhero also to the world.
H Iowver it was later aveed that a portiom of the forest would be created
a N~meresrr" & lot l is pistasstate. The smat area We got yet
hbimba auiL3s hav ereas potent t3 oie Vr it.3'~ ~u~t
rf a vievible verts of vdld mtaalai could be built up tho pro xtil~ty f tlh*
Rill* to 14osb~sqtheir vf7 considerable scenic beauty old emsble q, ir
second only to the ftirobt. %%tiom1 lurk, to be ared, At the mwmet three
a~re only7 three premtlo apcies of antiw3a in the &resl; buffalo, sJbla
antelope mud eopbant. TbeW o fty and wary and ma let# not of ay vtlw~ ase
a touiist attravtiov6. However r ex of the opinion that other asc tez suclha-,o
1mmtl-x# Ken ad Pebn vou4 flourish and Sre~atay ehne the v,- tua of the
Toay the Poreat Deatet to attempting to esitablieh exativ tree
Vl Iqtstio= on *be northern *ad of the hills* Though it =ay not be ap~nrant
In the snya fvutuw* it to iowwitable 'that *be lateresta of fmm aamd forestry
will clash* It has never proved otherwise where larxe Africin mzas ao
concerned. Now to the time to defide wbith "horse to baW*" If roney to spent
on both mauses and one eventually solls the doom of the other# tkom wWriyw
spent on the other is wastiod.
roreUt9y or mnther the establistmat of exatic plantsticaz tne# until
very recentlyq been a failure on the Shiiba Wlls. Today thin diffic-lt ies of
electing suitable species for the ara a" hae btan ovrm However any
return from forestry will cot be apmal; tar may yeexs to come.
A asne park with a large 'through-flow" (excwue V~e Asericaoatoo) of
tourists wih 11obasa as a port vould ensure a. would provide a aost axeeept~iblo
return within a easmarativoly short spac of 'time* It must be borne in mind
however, that the Shtubn Hitlls will eventually constitute an isLand in a sea of
Wgioiultv"'. TMe effects of this will be felt by th,- shbk owners adjacet to
the ills and 'therefore the benefits of awW faunal park wold kave to be
distributed loc- -ly anid be such to eblivitn losses motaied by ariculturals!
The -Xbaba Hills Fareut R~erve hso be- n created an "Amenity Yorest." In
it both the planting of foreign trees aud the ommrwvntion of largo .aniw,1 av
to Lie practised. I will repeat myself : 'these two activities ae Tltinately
iwcoapstibla. It therefore follow? that to spend smay on both in to Waste that
pent or, on** It is urgent that !P policy deocion be t~akon on vhich mvtey is to
be spat forestry or fan-. At present no one is in a "otit i" to mke tht
decis~loa. & lot is known of forestry, but nothing at %U1 about faun%. or it.
rropar cone~w tioe The obvious course seems tr, be theref oro, to a-point a
comptentperam, or' teRm, to produce a report on the ooologr and natural
potetialitiesn of the area with particular regard to ite sootio merits* lrpk
* of fiaaso Will ak* -this Aifficult, but coald im approach be mnade to the "myn
411.6 Life Societl tow Its amsmein putting the, problem to fte C fantion
Trust to Now York? It asf to to be made fros Gamol, tVo seventy five sqtxav miles
of the 4himba HUI*e Reserve, offer am of the "best beWto is ya,
I also redommesa th-at the status of the ftlimta Hills be altered to that of
a full Saw rservo. Only *ablea a"e protected leoally at present. Wn other
ermiatuse my be shot on liotenoo and a contro lled area permit for Meeok 24.
At attempt to put down uinorals to attmt the sable and buffalo and thus
sake them more visible to to be undo by' the Forestry Deatmn after the short
ralas have eaded. Tho mat oft. was provided by the On"e Ispirtment earlier in
It was with to little alurm I board the Divisional Forest Gfficer may that
this unique rove"t was retVarftd as a *fuiel reser",*Tog this nres has no
potential mo; a reveomw earziW ftfe touristal Its vouo to sciewee to gra1
Several ripooie. of birfs, and at least cne dulkar (00*amophus Adderst) ane
oonrfinsed to thin forest and ame found vovbetv olso to the world*
i*owever it was later agreed that a port iot of the forest vwud be oreated
a Owt~we anar" nd Uftt ia its pristine *tats. The *=at area has not yet
T1 i tvfto eries of wild asala 0Wbe bui up, thO rr~iY Of ths
second only to the drb ainlPrk# to be arao At the mstbr
.%m only three miatbl* aeon of aalmml in 'tjb art uflvabf
,] tqop elephant.~ Th" Ur WW WW4 WUT &a a 7", no$ of ay 'VIAW. as
-i touriast 1%tmwticm. kbmvr I as of the opinionR tbt other selaah
Inpalt Kmg a ar ebm~ would flourish and grnetl~r *nac the vzltp mf the
In the nes fwtuw.# i to tawtbl that the 1n*rm t,, of fawam and fomtry
will clanh. It hk avr pr'ove otherwise wbrv lar Aici r,
conared Nw to the tlw to dwoide vb~ch "ba to baor If moeyt spent
or. bothi ftuss and ea evnually *"Iel -the dow ot th there# Vm say fiwAsft
spent on the other toe wae.
very iretly, beea a falUs on the Shisb gill. Twadsy thr df 4 tou", ties of
selecting suitable spectes for the 2jam hav* be~meramoivs n
reur fr s t fwill v,11nt b* apr~ret for mas rwr to camow
tourists which Kombasa as a port voul enur Youl roid a mo ,t
return ithin a cowpsratively short opw of time. It sat be bone to wiM
h~owv tbet the Obab Hill will eventually wsi e an Isand In a aea of
agricultW*. The effes of this will be folt by tlu hamb omerv adjaot to
1the RtU* Wa therefore thG b~t sit Of MYf )tlpr would hae. to be
distrIbuted locally ind be euch *ato obliviate losses mtined by agricxul sts.
The 4hla Mille Forw avarv ha bw*i create to "Aml oos.1I
it boW PUUv a o~s rmsd t oxmsat~ lav mall am
to be peatlood I willrpatza s tkaw two acft*tke ire TA-41atal
inoapaibes It Vtefore faow, tba~t to aedmnyo ohi oaetn
Ameialon. A lot Is lwnv of fatry, but sothig at all sbro ft or-its
cmptwv pew#o tote to -rota a rert on the ecol aad mtm
Wild Lift Soitty for its wasuce s pate the poo otoCnsvto
I also recmam th,.t the status of the 9hel U111a be matre to that of
u full Sa esn. Onl sable amVrtftto Lo~wv at present, AW othar
crtueawa bo-shat on liaa* ad a control aro p*oitf Bicok R4.
tho year* a1tf
i w" wth so lit~ t *a asm I badthe Di$4ioba P mtOficer wrUn
1I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ "" -ar bav ~ ~ w* R w~A.e~.s
vecoW, oaiy to *1.w batrobt Watiam Pak to to *mtd$ t them t hr
-xi cmly tbree p~stable spoca of aalegl in tbe aroat buf~lov 3ablo
,=teo =a 616bat. They are WW am OX &ad %a yet I Ot oft any~ Vn1 as
,i to r t *aton. i~w4m I aof the opialonR tbt ote peieauhw
,nsla# Sonmand Zebra would flourish &0 grftty eit= the vilue of tho
are, f imaported.
Tdythe Foret eutetiatepig oeutihe iore
plant-411oms on the nothr edof the hi1. To& tm dtbo..-nra
in thoe near future# t to tavrtilge Wat the itVt ffxt n r
wilfl clash. rt tm ave W rovd otb~ervs wbere large Africn rmnIte
can"rnad ft I th# t~w to decide vb4oh "hoso to ba If mnyto spent
or. both mues and on eveuti.Uy spells the dot e *other, thenP nnyrin
spmt on the other in wated.
?Po-Aryq or mtbar the eatab au~t of 0MCpti#top al Wi
very recently, been a falure on the Shiba Hills. 4o-* th 4tf3tieg of
selecting wtable spectoo for the 2.rm my bae be vrm.Hm n
return tm foesr will not be apparent for ms" yeas to cO,,
A -m park with a 1**truh-l (euvo te Ameic-,jriation) ait
to~ist hih Momrta a3 a par wul ansuro would4 provide a lz-t nei ept-Abla
retl;n~ within a cosp5?xtively short ope of tim* It mustb orn to mind
liw~rgthat the Sh"Hill will entuaxy eatte ila4 in a ; aa of
agrcultare The ef Uof this wiU bo falt by thc e~iwbo *,vmnr ad e to
the R111 W~ tberefr the benefits of an faft park would hae to be
4istri~tie loc Qly and be zuch to obliviate losses wandbagi;taitz
It both the p~UA of fvxtg tvsa mOfartaso a~ an r
to e ratidwI w1U reet u *si s bs two activities rire ~Uimt.ly
incopatble It thomfobro foUov t1L&,u to sapeictid or. both is t t t
setoni one. It Is urget thekt a policy deion be tpke onwia onyt to
b aan ftWr or ftns At present no me in In a poto to mak thqt
Amilion. A lot Is kove of forestry, but nothing nt all. abottfuto-
,av per o1.t cma to I s tin. %a obwnoorj om to e Uoof t. to e a
Trut it NW b*Tt OA isu tob t f"O thO Wfttt fiwv sqw"* OUG
of the SWabs H1s ftse. **fawo of the "bes bwt"' s12len
I als rw*ws thmt the sttu of the ghlbaA be atWt hto
APPENDIX FOR COL. HURT ONLY.
1. Dokorta Guye.
Lazy and irresponsible. However he is capable of
A likeable rogue. With practise he will be a competent
hunter. Absolutely fearless.
A good tracker and would suit you as a gun-bearer.
He is rather inclined to be sullen.
Not a hunter. A hard and willing worker though, and a
worthwhile member of the staff.
Extremely dumb and very shy. However he is useful to
have about camp and he works hard.
Smart and clean. An able fellow but tends to be lazy.
He would do well on the leopard trp.
Smart and honest. A good man who tries h -rd at anything
to which he is put. A useful all-rounder though with
no "control work" experience.
A very good man but rather seqk to be 9 Cpl. IHe
would do very well as a gte guard and guide in the
Shimba Hills Reserve
Not over-intelligent, but would do well in an
To be retired if a pension is forthcoming.
Good. I have already expounded his virtues to you
verbally. He is ex-Potgeiter.
Not a Game Scout.
Not aG ame Scout.
2. Debase Galogulo.
3. Barisa Bagila.
4. Ndege Guyo.
5. Diwani Warede.
6. Muthani Mute.
7. N~ee Male.
A. Charo Mboru.
9. Chengo Konde.
10. 7ena Noa.
11. EKitsao Mwavulo.
12. Mwinahaji Mwandale.
13. Shehe Abdalla.
Telegrarpis: "GAME", Nairobi (I GM EPRMN
Telephone: No. 20672-3
Ref. No. GA .......................' 0 4 III
UI 2 Y ".trUTV "/ 7711"R TO TFF 1,TmL---.
The -tirst kneol the ', 1-me :av~o.nt htie Offtci,.Ily onore on the
:jirst of July 191i9. its limi,,ed objectives re z
L) to prove th,,t the. prodU-ts of COrtlin wild antmjlj Os~i
elepit, have a ready m,-ut and
ii) to !xm if the 'Vuingulua -I-" nbl to '.ho life In the
sahwz dues to stirt aoxt yokr,
Tbal mlu Tw!enty Wftliq.Tulu vere mcruitad soets eoetefirst
of Jutly. Tan c-,.m f m aiver Dz"istrict, Belen mlii n three fl-o
V-e ",aindt 3Sub-itstrict, It a biou f ";h a t tee~a
Z~- ciifference in toer, :,at betveen tibmatin ?mme the Tt, Piver are-, ind
'tos t' Klim Atr only a very sCto-t tTefive of- thr i" ift '4-li-tilu
-Ol te CCOxip of their own Volition. T,-e v,.-,oajois were ianne!Ltoly filled
by i ws RieTere i L rm onister t trea f'p~c.t o
-!h-3 thel~y Cus ex t oean dhp Lm very il:eg'M pa.T o )t f
thi thy hve orkd a~ nd hei uo1eis eyellcmt, hin-k 1'rs Rily
wil ea m out On thi2; roint.
xu of thej better km)-r hunters, of 't twenthv adn'ruin in
th is ffr0?e To r golhots,, for the nou of tmir given,
nd e- stly beit a teaat ru h DPt. anti-poachln ; in htigc te.
A chllen Io b-en iv t th,7 -,,tio i rkr Va ot and am"t- i- to be:
rrr neu Thfey C-h 0";1 llx be --,,I y '0 sh1oot -,ebit on th vi r oi wiin 1C '
A~ ~ ~~~~~~o lt~eoe b-bra-.,u elected ,long -with four K r to
alyinie him, rme -all -resare --iven throul; Ilia.
Origzinailly i a ne e htteShm huduiieteeeln
inth bk~okkeforres: t for -thei ma jority of itsn,- v~oim e con t
r-lat on the oa lia procli~ed this n l loathv ee ht~f 01~'l
in Toit. D itriat where dry comditiunc ha-ve pxmvailod. U!3ing, jo~n sht
mo control,' is cot very satisfactory as w h :v h-12 to wait until m i
don tocree, ndinv: riably- this is 1in 7n inconvenient -ta ifcutlce
hvrg ''30 h -)o driedl ~em e lpatIsbe okdota l tly
over r- ,ur hunre unds,
uig july -and 4uguIA!3 zi,, tw;o thuadfv ude onsof mea0 t
bee sldt3 J;Iffez- .i 0aj ofG i hefrs onincn o n thousa_,nd
pouswa T s Sold at -,/60 CtF3 pr"' pound The-: seon t /0sPpound At
thslatrprice Mr. Jafferali 1-m, .!r-- to buy all ecnprdc provided
t ht utliority for resae is3 --r.-nted -to hiTi ilb ie.It wa3 ade
certo r Jferl tht the ;'ee~eb o easbndto ,f to him.
oto to" KisnyPie inl theCnowihaanttv rdrfra ute
tc on. A Fhe fr t t is' inL th 11C ur C' al s peIhve to
acet rieof -/50" cL!3 Per, pound; bjut m~eit cler tha ny folloing
woi b t igenrice. Ieiso oipr i 'n wierm -the
Qon~ auhoriies ~aiagefrxl Voi to KsnlPe s98 e ()ls
It is felt, t-at a go mea t Lar~k,,?i. xtt in, the 61g raofTuni
Th Amiisraio i Msh hve beer, most c-p iv. Hoee ayfurther
step arehel10 up until theTnnil ae -~tethv gvn~riso
fortheimprtof Game inattint Ta n y iI,
.he K.PA. Amgty and the_ Uimwu Chmc fCmeo aebore contacted
wjit h -a view,, to buying dried meat. All w- nt ute)rfia ono h subject
.7die inrterested. T'he D iotrict _omsinr nKswu a~e n isii
A t -,re cent gm"p, t p-rt of eacaas is~ watd-al h o anrd viscera.
I r !pn ur tha t if Vii-s oudbptteihthe me toc mG::roei and
boe eas hev- ,,e of the: carc-3se ould inraecniea.TeOnly
posilew-to, cei int thisf woud Ve t-,'ut awlecr a tou an offal
plant ~ ~ such aseit nteKMC atolw in Iombaa. dtthyhe
re;ed! to% (10 thi.s Tn my mind -)Ch Ili j-eimn -sesnt s it will if
andPrtei m Isir away i dean asstckfeed1S_ I aold recent that
An meica,"r. Le .Roethe of the- Iatiorf, gr utua Supl C"ompanry
of Wiisconsin, Ut !;.A. believes('2 that thr oldh igdmu frsc tohe
as ~~ ~ c elohn Tet eleh t ,arrclt, gir,~ har Jre1~e Cntelope h1ide 0s
and7-v 1the suv) aril- eha se o tilriinmn ob t to him.
Land' south. of' the rive,.r is- NAtivf: LadUit whereas the-J Porth- bank is rown Ln
and ::ore icurc from poii_ steei adra ad olago ll
e/the ro-ad cou _le otutd 'U the Raiwa taiona akno o
Sovi fore oriecosigwa haetbedved. Wterit i7, it I1e
bam.d to be xesie Lan ,i th j'? er hal -Lof111 th 114F- e o n tht ln
bewenthe shm n aid is copsdmirly of lcSoto'01 A ny
a111 weathr routr oMlnii mratcbe ni h tp Of rive resn
has~~~~~~~~~~~" bco Ueie Cpo teeaQmtr&stmut :ret~nudcd
Thu W1eauny lov" rc1 e to s cr nci the q Relme -n~e wetShe ith Wqjr
Qb Hiou within ino boundary. Thqu 4h thi, !,,, ,ot pffej I'as it ,s of Qh
Lapart~nce that it "u" be 1w bte Y t &-a 1 rla op" rtMIty 7 Tre-nu ,,
have Soid thnt to alloy the OcheMe to Pe'on 1- l -Is On lm r iVAW a hy"0th"Cotion
o~ evuuein! is 1 :oiQ-t the Mvhpheuer orain--C. They hqvQ j-pped tp t tk(
1chem uo redit itQelf With ll gther trohi vhich inninve "AWn 11nu,
00Vp 1! malo i~t, Vdeo lad other produc, To ton eYes on the 1 a thure is'
Cc dilror~nep bietwn ivory, dried wit, or -ie too. onwtinc g-" I
AVOdificut t. A &-n~ins the principle ypoy!b them y la~ to thnkvevyj"n p
1n fe01 tMA win th W -l1 of TM in hyroth"" tior op Ynveaun -ni ~rfr
itthr wnr wordv, irn vnqibe
Tic -runsurj hAj state thj by vr-oti, t Wnchm it. ou L ig they 13iL
b- Mre tn n prec! d nce whVrePbVy the pi enj n -er i p Q teS vt or ina i n t N
73020 J --r '-knuq th they i fron 4I0 hiu Qht Wn coto"by thQ owcxr it.
TOPs v uAiryt is :adl convinciMang D the irunceh in wireoy p ebie in
the ~JL f the -"K.na 7r~ hey It*, it Kpt W 4re4d 04 it nvrmn
i)mL Wen hot run by n oar of 7r tn- nj but Mhon MWeite villte I V Vm
ian -omnt Acheme be lnveroi nt Vprt- t Q n it 'n ee '.ee 3t h
woem on-if bt eif = a I :ti ng an' -ru by 1 :n Ci ano
10 -,rozuq Kr ped- no war-n h h~i.Thywl be Ta,&- u
desir-, tVo tf vont heSc e was nevpr Ae-i -nod as a urdeno va nevr nu&d
~ f te nanou ~r ato VQtte~hp-~ i- ';o ir to n: V~ V-r
eoniQ~i C aaouu of a~ ita. 'Kin iY 2007~u yitcffi Low v
ToAw Wil- 1" ji y q i t in njth ig ~to toj Qnv ;ea: t
tMnn it would by very oqny Oic Soe Fronaury to fir? itsel in Q 'WIL~ j ilwhrvby
jrasrV lhall gant yo the Sc10me 4,0 pn-Ct V- I U of the Ivory r ~-- 'Vlr tine
the ivop, is ;W1, I P7-oMs17, would never i ren hi cwh in -Tra v~ v i
04e original Scheyn to which "sf"iMY ngrcd in j;V0 711, iNOW"~ V~ Ivory
VON-~ nrVOIU-1 to 1"W nnonm. Wft tooh 0 1 Zl,() ;- I~~ne ti :- ywrecr
nod ~ ,! :to~ qp ?u~tv "7" YOe h- ifoined "? thiQ reV0r0al iLh4' ruh
to haLuotic tb-I ~ha rl atr fteJeee~aLi
the 2c-iary~ d~cni~ hij ora~nhouu' b m u outa ~i-CcoLat
I t Inv 0"~ kthe 7xn Ytle no l i in -op;e to n othr-tt o ak bfe
of :wa ~ nJ olr n 1t,~ Mhor nhouV ;n -mte 100 nh~ t oi netfo
roanito OF O'is ache-ew I0 17-= e n004"ent icee re to bp Vi Y- iioffa
conor'-aonin the-. fuu 2 (nd i M the l Alvor 1 2ji T07ane ,t che-i is&
nuceoefil ) 7 lol am -ue he w be) the TrePsry wDi Find that 4 j nd
>0 ltts fro the7e che wtould re 1o Vheic o~ fr, cnto ior vr
felt fl~frIy. hY I- VGUSt ~ICO-Pt the f- Ct th-t the revenue trotl Control ivory-
in not tablee and is bound to dwindle in Vie f:,.,c o;f ciitai aa trie nuber
of elphmt will decrease.
MINUTES OF THE FIRST MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE
OF THE GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEE CA
HELD IN THE D.C.'s OFFICE KILIFI ON 27.8.1959
1. The Committee consists of:-
District Commissioner Chairman
District Officer Malindi
District Agricultural Officer Kilifi
Major D.L.W. Sheldrick, M.B.E.
Game Warden Kilifi
It was noted that Major Sheldrick was on the Committee in a personal
capacity, and not as a representative of the National Parks.
2. The responsibilities of the Committee were defined thus :-
"To initiate policy and organise the running of Phase 1 of the Game Management
3. The Committee decided that a copy of the minutes of the meeting, and
all future minutes be sent direct to the Nuffield Foundation as a matter of
4. It was decided that the acquisition of the portion of Native Land
Unit south of the Galana be taken up with the African District Council. It
was felt that the correct method was either to offer the A.D.C. a rent for
the land, or to offer to make that land in the Adu-Marafa area, (at present
heavily populated by Giriama without legal right) part of the Native Land
Unit in return for the excision from the N.L.U. of the land between the
Voi and Galana.
5. The Game Warden was asked to establish a temporary H.Q. on the
south bank of the river as soon as possible and to cut a track along the
eastern boundary of the National Park from Mackinnon Road to the temporary
6. The siting of a permanent H.Q. was discussed. It was felt that
the position should be on the north bank in Crown Land for political security.
S However, a method of crossing the river presents such difficulties that no
decision could be reached. It was further recommended that as early as
possible a survey of the river crossing be undertaken.
7. The Committee recommended the whole Game Management area be
gazetted as an Outlying District a's soon as is possible. It is vital to
the scheme that no outside concessions in any way affecting the natural
resources of the area be granted without the prior approval of the Committee.
The District Commissioner agreed to take up the matter with the Provincial
8. It was desirable and urgent that the road from Malindi into the
Tsavo Park be repaired. It was recommended that the Minister for Tourism
be approached for funds for this purpose. It would be a major tourist
route, and shorten the distance between Nairobi and Malindi considerably.
9. It was noted by the Committee that the scheme in its ultimate
form will have to purchase certain heavy machinery for the construction and
maintenance of roads and dams etc.
10. From data gained by the Game Warden since the first of July, it
is apparent that without the tusks an elephant carcass is worth 924. This
being so, the Game Management Scheme as envisaged will not be possible
without the ivory. With respect the Committee would ask the Treasury to
reconsider its decision and allow the scheme to keep its own ivory. The
Committee was unanimously of the considered opinion that it would not be
possible to initiate and carry through the scheme without ivory.
The Committee further recommended that should the ivory not be made
available the scheme should be closed down forthwith as to attempt to run
it otherwise could only lead to failure.
11. It was decided that a memorandum on the ivory question be
prepared and submitted to the Mihister for African Affairs so that the
issue may be brought to the attention of the Council of Ministers. The
Game Warden agreed to prepare this paper.
12. It is essential that an ecological survey of the Game Management
Scheme area be carried out as soon as possible. The Committee recommended that
a request for a Fulbright Scholar be made through the Minister for African
13. It was felt that other potentialities of the scheme such as the
construction of a series of tTreetopl type of lodges in the*Game Management
Area be carefully investigated.
14. It is clear that unless an agreement be reached whereby hunting
safaris give the scheme the full value of beasts they shoot, there will be
a olash of interests. The question will be taken up,
15. The Committee recommended that the Game Warden be relieved of all
routine duties other than elephant control so that his undivided attention
may be paid to the Game Management Scheme.
16. The Committee requested that the Game Warden be allowed to kill a
maximum of twentyfive elephant other than those shot on crop protection.
The reasons being:- I
a) When an elephant is shot "on control" it is more often than not killed
in an inaccessible spot. The carcase then cannot be fully utilised and
accurate figures so urgently needed are not obtainable.
b) The immediate work to be undertaken by the Game Warden will be cutting
boundaries and tracks for the scheme. In all cases this will be some distance
from settled areas where normal elephant control is done. It is therefore
practical to kill the elephant needed for experiment and to keep the scheme
going in the same area as the track cutting.
17. It was recommended that the Kenya Meat Commission be approached
by the Ministry of African Affairs for their co-operation in processing an
elephant carcase in the Commission's Mombasa offal plant. It was felt that
producing much needed meat and bone meals for stockfeed might well be the most
profitable use of an elephant carcass. It is therefore important that this
potential be investigated before the scheme-proper starts.
18. As the marketing of dried meat was A considerable task on its own
the Game Warden was asked to contact the Trades and Marketing Officer in
Mombasa for assistance.
19" The Game Warden was also asked to keep full details of weights of
meat, cost of transport and amounts of meat taken by participants.
20. The Committee was of the unanimous opinion that the Scheme would
need a second officer when Phase 2 started.
21. The next meeting of the Committee will be held on Priday
25th September at 10-30 a.m. in the D.C.'s Office, Kilifi.
Minutes confirmed this 0 / day of,
Telegrams: "GAME", Nairobi
Telephone: 'No. 20672-3
Ref. No. GA ................
-eon Reor by the
)P.O. B~oxR1R I
to the emmito
Routino work as Gam Waen Kiii,, ha utale the amutoff
tim shoul hav sent on the Schm. ?rgs since Vie last
Colattee Hetin has been difnpointn.
The D.o. n of Klif and I took a cutof the people rosident
ithenetween te o, n Galm Rivers that w wish to incld
in the Scemen. The" ar
Ux? 3f the Valiangul a" emloe by rtsirl71neTh
two Wab bro illicit tmb. Thereaiin Vanulu and -th 0tia
are chaeoa burers. The also attempt cutivation div the ras but
Galdm ase a crop.
Thr a" u-p to thr"e hundred alien' co~oalbrn in tiie a
Ths many al Gi sai, oose fro Ba and toarVe cot during the
dry ason after laating their crops in tha a ins.
cheroaL urin on the present sale and by present methods in doing
immnseha.= to the regioto Purhermor th charcoal potentii! of the a~
will li; ve been ehutdin a ya'sw time, It is obviouz that thoe will
be aongsiderable opposition to the inclusion of the are to t soemee
I oa thit the eatiuate of 1500 poa* rent to the A.Ce as nffotdb
Mr. Hila in the estlites he prdodafter th1 Ut metngp to be
Asdieced(Mi* 5 last meeting) a trik ain the o:-itr %,
bouiry no M boon sqt~e and is proeeding apaoe. All twenty of the
achwe s Waltarqulu am qt preent eg on third, wvko
I have not produced the emmumoIvryta hinsotnl
nwfllwftmmbr O h C~dtfbll 3S O~
Ua~w D*.U, Sbddick MBOBOD
Ditit QMGIo 2 ELIM# a*4 as Seartaxy
at" The Commtt e hAte beat wq tofrwr
(ei) The Vupmd for a diret wwbp o
s-ea be puedwbmWa a o
siem vabue in the Aft
-aatvll* ahd be afxe to th
for0 th iste Samm Ih ~
(b) A, om~vU ppo abcmi be ost to the Preftuas
Conosine -~ xt&U aa a a gras a
Th Ganttoo not that the am&. bolm *Mv n
oqpmmmtt wa s4i1t eru to the A*D*o~ both
in GIS= O&ad =d hffed thin wmld apem t V
ft mi4time size of the a require for UsShae
200 An" sr Miln and that a the UO* ama I*
!9 he Gams W~rdn"parted about 4 mnus nm $a
Mn 7- Aoi anShe vmUng of the Gam -w
ar* anan utline stxAct had bems Idjuard br %be reont -m of
ABU*% -,* M Obm prmo prp0wob the netwtf
Mbl he Am wat rputa tut in the 00m dt
bin ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ih Bi toteC~#teGVM fK at tHe 1
4m It W
HishatG~tas*P=MIIa maradmto A*
S~x~axW7Co. Subjet whereja be M&~ uwsd the -a for
the BsW Nothing further hail yet been. boor
Tho Gomitime therefore resolved that a ftirther apoc
should be wAs to the Tresr since it wa futils to engage on W wtsL4
pgss until the qu stimsof ivory reveme h"l boms settled,* (Aotin by M)
XlAA*W of Afria Affair. abu the nervioss at & fufl.-brot oohelar,
(Action by B.0)
IA&* Te OGaw RWae reported that the Bjunbad Hotel
MLJU :V It was noted that C4s.ut wul taks ow the
GaMe UW a routine duties in Decexb~cro
JAI 1659 Perassic ba been obtand for the. Oam Warden to
kM 2 olehmtzforstatistisllprosf teainChf W
MA9 L7M Terewa hope of a masting betwasn. IL~o Paker s
Us-Po~ng Ghmmof the KwVa Meat Caision in 14"rbi duxtaW this
hisrpo xesv adhxflclca burning in the proped
Scham mas the Cowxttee decidled to investigate three points w
TRe naur of the Arabuko forest an& its
chrw Potential I
(Vi The futare of aharoal i n ombasal
(ill The nethoda used by Kwale District to prevent
mom I~zm Dage f2E Phase a Ato2J #0
The Commitee. miterated ther evittim tt
two mq"4te -u Adwna to the Axlentation of phias 2*
(N~ Defidto proof that the Schem will ok
ii Th useof Use money grantac by the SfII
hkase I. was dae4.gm to l.ait untU eaoabe
ymvm was fortho of the Schmal s potential summso T.is aheadd Ue
availble later this year* MeaaNhile Col. Hurt will take over the Ga
APa~tin the Ais~to md its equint* trew phase 2 as rea~
,~Uoig ooniions being satisfied
(a The land issue beU4-, clenared up*
(b The mny frin the Nuffield 011usis
() The isio with the Treasury Leiag
Zt ts*u~3~' last was to be the da~to there was as twpat ita.*
for the sond Europma Offloor being momite. Thke Gone Ward4 spedt
TeCmmittoo ren4ved to ok for It7*50 from th NUfMO4A
lin tbA first year whidh wou be usd yrimriV on capital
QUIZ "The Cbmirama gave his blessig to a VrojecteA m.tUW
in ~ ~ ~ 14"b drnth oigweek between tke Gam Wrden Major? Shalduick
represntative from tba kmia~stry ofAfrian Affaireq a rromtIvo from thu
Trxea=72 eac a represtative from the Game Dpartt
-0 Tb nex mekeina f the Cm4tU*. Ai be bsA as
Xi~te onfirmed. tWi ******"y of *S$$~
WANA Rn!TM GIM]WWJF SU O
4; : .
PRESENT.- A.F. Barnwell, Esq., PAr ri~nt Secreta-ry~
for o's d~eeopment (Chairr.an)
J. :rdy L~s., iistry of kifrican Aff-irs.
. Behrens, 9Lisa Treasury.
Lt Col 1'. Sai,_-_2an Grc D,_artment (Headquarters).
'I. Parlker, EsqI., 'cclarder. Kilifi.
K. Syrith, Esq., o~ Derarti :-nt (Headquarters).
E. St venson, Esq., MiniLstry of For(-st Developrmpt,
'Ian anf] Fisho2ries.
Mr, Barnwell said t'l- t ii eetin'," w,-s ccLled i.Ximarily to
decide whether or -not -thre expeririasntal Gai7-, ianiz.- zent ZScheme
was to go on, and i'17 so ; t2n~c and ad.-inistrativ-3
arrangofi-ents were to b,;; rrade t-'_, start of fhase II,
Mr. Behrens asked if h- c)ula e ivsn Ln: outline of w hat
had already be-en done on P'l-'se I.
Mr, Parker outline% ho-J the scLmo:e had alrec dy operated to
date und _r Phase I and coi to h -t there jer~ to b,: a
ready market for the sl of x-tfromk elephants a~id t17at the
-,-relimninary experi,.ints were still continuing. He also stated
that the aralan-u e fallLi. in. with the schone .,-nd thney had
worked cxtr,:, nly harJ' i-a th-- st few months. He also pointed
out t1--at _F-hase T will_ '-~ o ce se whion Col. Hurt arrives _- _'the
Co -'sttta of thi,_: y _:ar. Th,_-, C o _. .itte e runnin, th1-is scneieee
are co-nfident thtPa~II will work, _iS the 4aL;*:.-n-,ulu are
takin-, to disciplin-~ P or exi 1:rle, they -.l cr,,ady xnder-'
tdkn anual LO. to c a'vr i ierl
"r arnwell s, 4, thal; "Col. Hu rt will '-,,v to ta-e over 'he
vehicles nd m-lndby the is' Tan--,jary if th orn wor-k of the
Game Depcart3 i .-t at Ic 2oC-..t to be ~~r~ properly. This
would then le,7vo the w2~~T.~itL-.o transport or ar.s ar.tai
different position wo-ol, ari-_: uill:_ ss axn early _'cision could be
Mr. Par'ker sai,-! in af'_w _- to a queiry hro: r. Behrens that
there was no diffi,3-i]ty in ssellin-; r..-at L,;-L 'htihe obtained
,Pper c,,-rcuas. In !-is oiri-nion 'Il-ere were ready mark--ts in the
B,.;lg:iean Con,:o ~n ynaforL ,t Sup plies but Col. Sandeman
F-tated that in tile case of t.:, Fl-ia Con-o, Uad eesatn
to sll ~at. ~ .; t- t ~iat the Kc ya Co-rt Comission
w er e i nt e ret ed in c,,~e .ephant~t for do, ,r co-nsu.LPtion in
the United Kingdom.
Mr. Behrens pointed out that the, y wer%-, in f _ct, looking at
samples an" firm oirlers oln a large scale were another factor 'out
Mr. Park.,,r s, Ad tr-ey wece confident thiat they could sell the
200 carcuses which would be available.
Mr. Hard, ttdtat~tog the r:-tarketing of meat was one
of the factors, as w.1as th-c. rzLabilit:tion of valiangulu, the main
problem was on-e of "ame Control 1--,d vlanagement,, He pointed out
that -the are ultimately a-7-ected was ,-ch wider h.ILIan that
covered by the sc_ -eme as it included the Tsavo as well as the
Tana area. The elephant were already destroying their habitat
in the Tsavo Park, probably because tiney war being driven there
/by poachers and
by poachers and action was urg-Etly required to cut down poaching
and to spread the elephant population over a larger area. if
the K'ational Pairks eventually had to shoot on control t hen they
would obtain the revenue.
Mr. Bc.riiwell eit out thiat if a. Ga-r-e 'arden took over
the scheme t'L-en tae Ga-Le Dopa- ,'.-.nt would hL. ve to heave an
additional Post of a Ga,--.e -.,Jar,_en fo-c norr-;,.1 dut"i! -,s aInd -oroba.bl'Y
an assistant for scl sehe.e as i' viould. Lr m evcso
tw,;o officers to rim it. Gn of the r o why Phase ", hZa1d been
on a limited scale w!,. shorta--c of jrsonanel.
Mr. Parker sa-i-, in r--ly, to ".r. 1 ehrens thtivory fetched
abo!)t j 100 Per b,-,.:st in additio..- tUo thj72T' ,r T,-eat, Lact,
ears etc. and t ,lr-a>.Y about 21,200 .orth of ivory h,.-d been,
passed to the Ivory, .ooia, ,ts3, J.-Pial vraetrevinae, -..-ereas
only abou-' .'21C wer dmlh~fo h aliam,,ulu f rom tes le
of the meat.
Mr. 11 rdy confir-red Zft ian; 'ulu had bcen kept in
full eri-ploymient in P'ta~e I -i. n(:, aet on of rrvelrug g-ezerally
he state(:,.a ev--.- wit'+1"_O -0' af L lmit i, will t _e two or
' three years before c.-,-y excc.ss is -ass--d to t ]i Zchequer. Mr-.
Barnwell- stated t.iat t s:c or __r12 f h sh'.s could
not be -oroved on Phnase I. Only fuill scale, oprei,,tions in-,as Ir
could -Qrove _0~G ~sh ', a~ Sib a lthiouh hc be l4L-v-,-- i t was.
' He visualized 1,haat ,-he E~xcheqi: c- -vould not :_;nef it to any great
extent until Phase =I was ae
N'r. Lehrens pif out t,-,Zt iit could .-ot neacessarily be
expected that th'-e -, ; iould g--ree to aii expenditure
equivalent to E esti-at;:_k e. ea. ask-d if in future the.
sche-,e was to 1 c based on tht cin of 200 ele:--,1'ants.
Mr. Parker -IoinleC. otit t1--t vel-l if t"L-l servic-es of an
Ecologist could 11ot c obt--i- t-ie was i..c thiat 10 rer cent
of ~ ~ -6 11 ~dcul ecl a.1hu dec-neasilr the. eleph--nt
population. He ad uner-ca oial s~urvey anC !-ad counted
a ccllcentrE 1 h,, 2 of about ,0 irhn. Itwscranta
. l ere werf .,~ore V-aitatl but' to be or-,:e5.< side tney had t;- -'en
10 per c; nt o_-L 2,000 -thus erim at t-n ot_,r=,tional -F'iaure of
' 200 elephants -1-r "'11nu-71 S s e, 1 eo i-port-_.nce of holdin,,
the popule tioe ( -le-phant I ric- evel to LD'.rove th-e
fLertility of1- L:~1. t 1- d h a r,:-covored it could
eventually cz~ya 1-o t.~ _- 2 -r of ::.Iohants.
Lhr. Dehrens .:t-"u.e6 that" !"ierc ee to be reasonable
grounds for the sch-_;.-e both on f-Iinancial -nd policy b!-sis.
Mr. Barn .,ell asked -.iho -.,,:s -oin, to run til ,,:-hme in
future .nd Mr. 7 ehr, Is replica -%ti oul, h,.,ve 'o be the,-
subject of correspondence,
Mr. Behrens sug -e stetf, in ans c to a query from Mr.
Barnwell, that th.finance wo-jld be -,provided through thae annual
estimates rather than in a fund. ivr. arnwell :,ointed out that
nthe case of capital expenditur- fund would be easier to
operate bec -usc -funds vetn A- for ca-rital expenditu-0e through annual
estimates fl~ ot be :;.x-,ended until nother financial year,
because of thae physical dif-ficultir,s of building a,-ythin, in the
Mvr. Barnwell ask_ if aniiual estirriltes were to prevail
whether the Waliantgulu were to tl_-c -e &overment ser-,,-:nts as there
is a basic asswunption thrdt persons paid from the annual estimates
are Govern:,:ent servCrInts.
/M. _Behrens, said
Mr. ehrens said th ts points woul1d have to be
considered by the Treasury.
MrHardys~t that. his N~inist-_ r was2 of the opinion
thaL~ it should~ '- a scheme opor ,tcr' the Gae.Ieartmnent on
a Game VJote.
.1r. Barnwell st:7tad tnt i'reassury 1thority would be
required before a~ny approach co,, -ld 7--_ -..:ate to the ruf$field
Foundation for '.-e r,,:.le_,se (-f CI-ital funds -'or ..-hc- vehicles arid
equipment for Phase II.
Mr. Bel-iens s ~~ he .iould records of the
i,-eetin-- and -copy of thl'e esti,-: tes -:,,',ich have alrea,-,y been
prepared -for --ener-. uid ,.nc-_. Il' -chec ritinuation of 'the Scheme
w,-,s approved then he Iio e d till_-t Ili iiiitry co--,ld finance it on
a cash basis until such a_-e -- plementary Estiinate had been
approved. Mr. _, 'rnw&Tll 'om'irath this co--,-,d be done.
22nd October,, 1959
GA. 22/1/2/3/59 24th November, 1959.
S MINUTES OP THE THIRD MEETING OP THE GALANA RIVER
GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME HELD IN TH1 DISTRICT COMMISSIONER'S
OPPICE AT KILIFI ON 23RD NOVEMBER, 1959.
The following members of the Committee were present:
District Commiassioner Chairman
District Agricultural Officer, Kilift,
District Officer, Malindi,
S Mr. D.L.W. Sheldrick; M.B.E.,
Game Warden, Kilifi Secretary.
M. Matters Arising from Minutes of Previous Meetings.
i Min.5/59. The Game Warden reported that progress on the track
continued and it was now some seventeen miles long.
Min.8959. The Chairman reported that as yet no approach had been
made to the Minister for Tourism. 'The Committee felt that if the
road was to fulfil its requirement, i.e. an important tourist route,
at least*20 per mile would have to be spent. The stretch in
question, from Matelane to the Park boundary, was some 30 miles.
The Chairman agreed to quote the support of Malindi Township Committee
in his application to the Minister. fAction by D.C.)
Min.12/59. When in Narebi in October, the Game Warden had seen
Mr. Hardy of African Affairs about a Pulbright Scholarship. Apparently
it was the duty of the Ministry of FP rests, Game and Pisheries to make
the application to the Fulbright Trustees. However the Permanent
Secretary for this Ministry had been unable to support the application
Through lack of finance. The Committee felt that the annual sum of
145,000 for scientific research that was set aside in the scheme's
estimates must have been overlooked. This amount would surely cover
the subsistence and travelling expenses of the Pulbright scholar,
should the award be granted. The Committee asked the Game Warden to
advise the Ministry of Foreste on this point. The assistance and
backing in the application for a Fulbright award offered by the
Chairman of the Kenya Wild Life Society was noted with gratitude.
Min.129/. It was again recorded that Col. Hurt was arriving in
iDecember and from hen on would be responsible for all routine game
matters in Kilifi, Kvale and Toita Distriote.
Min.17/59. The Game Warden reported that while in Nairobi he had met
Mr. King of the K.M.C. and had discussed the poessir g of an elephant
carcase. Mr. King seems interested in the idea. Nothing further had
however been heard from the K.M.C. and the Game Warden was asked by
the Committee to enquire again whether the experiment could take place.
(Action by Q.W)
Min.26/59. The Game Warden reported that a Mr. E. Goss of the
Forest Department was very keen to join the Game Management Scheme
and would do so if selected. He was known personally to both
Mr. Sheldrick and the Game Warden and seemed suitable in every way.
The map showing the area* of Native Land Unit to be exchanged for the
Crown Land in the Marafa-Adu area was studied, The District
Commissioner and Distriot Officer Malindi pointed out that the
exchange was highly desirable from an Administrative point of view
as it would solve the problem presented by over 800 tax payer
living "illegally" in the Crown Land around Adu and Marafa.
The District Agricultural Officer stated that agriculturally the
Crown land had a much higher potential than that part of the N.L.U.
in questions the rainfall in the former being up to 50 per annum
while in the latter seldom exceeding 10" The Committee felt that
the land exchange was more desirable than paying a renty though the
rent would be offered first, as requested by the Provincial
Commissioner, perhaps at 1/- per acre or 9976 p.a. The Committee
did not think that the latter idea would be acceptable to the people.
The Chairman then proposed the following procedure:
1) to take the matter before the Squatters Committee on
ii) clear it with the Provincial Cemmissioner,
iii) present it to the local Land Board,
iv) hold barasas in the locations concerned,
v) bring it-before the A.D.C. Meeting to be held in
After careful consideration the Comittee recommended that the.
financial basis of the scheme should be reconsidered and that it
revert to the original idea. Otherwise the chief object of the
scheme would be prejudiced, namely to prove the economy ef Game
Management. All the revenue derived from the scheme Including
trophies should be credited to an independent fund under section
seven of the Wild Animals'Protection Ordinance No. 18 of 1951.
All financial arrangements, a nd the running of the scheme as it
was originally planned would be fully authorized by sections 7t
53, 54, 57, 38 (3) and 14 of the Wild Animals' Proetetion
The next meeting of the Game Management Scheme Cemittee was fixed
for 5th Deceaber at 10.50 a.a.
Minutes oeaimod thio day of
GALAT~A GAME MANAGEMENTIIE~N
FIRST ViATUdlL REPOR"LT
lst APRIL 1960 30th JUNE 1961
LIST OF CONTENTS
PART ONE HISTORY AND ORG-ANiISrii~IOI
i,,MHOD OF EXPLOITAT'iION
PART TWO- RESULTS ANTD PROGRESS
RODS All-M IRSRIP
BOTNDADRIES AN~D LAD EXCHANGEG~i
ELEPH:-'TT HU]TING AND SALE OF PROCEDS
OTHER ANI'ILALS SHOT
Past game preservation policies have isolated the
interests of wild animals from those of man. Emphasis has
been placed on the creation of sanctuaries wherein fauna
and flora are shielded from human activity. With an
expanding population devouring vacant land, it is difficult
to foresee these lasting unless they produce substantial
revenue and employment. To date, economic argument for
their retention has been based on tourism. Though lucrative
and an obvious means of exploiting the wild life resource,
only a portion of the country's game land is suited to it.
As an industry it is subject to world politics and is thus
unstable. Wild Life's cultural and aesthetic standing is
western in concept and not generally appreciated by
Africans. The crux of conservation in Kenya is genuine
African comprehension and agreement. This is lacking
because tourist benefits are too indirect and abstract
values beyond present appreciation.
Livelihoods common the world over,-are those pertaining
to the production of food. It follows that upon these rest
common and fundamental values. It has been suggested that
marginal lands in Kenya may yield more protein by management
of the indigenous animals than through cattle. If this
hitherto neglected possibility can be successfully
demonstrated conservation will assume new importance. In
becoming a major source of food and occupation its worth
will be apparent to everyone. As such it becomes part of
man',: land use and not a barrier to it. The basic purpose
of the Galana Game Management Schei:me is to explore the
potential of this new field.
PART ONE HISTORY AND ORGANISATION
By 1956 poaching in the Coast and Southern Provinces
reached such proportions that the purpose of the Royal Tsavo
National Park was jeopardised. Prominent culprits were the
Walia ngulu. Traditionally hunters with little liking for
agriculture, this small tribe had succumbed to pecuniary
enticement. They no longer hunted for food alone, but
concentrated on highly priced trophies. An anti-poaching
campaign was launched and some 400 offenders imprisoned. Of
this total, more than 50% were Waliangulu. As an immediate
measure against illegal hunting the drive was successful.
However, on release from jail, the culprits were no nearer
accepting the reasons for conservation than they were before
serving their sentences. In this respect the operation failed.
Since their memories can recall, the Waliangulu lived off
wild animals. Until money became the motive, the beasts
withstood this hunting. Policies wherein hunting requirements
of primitive people are married t> sound conservation have been
successfully implemented in Canada. This prompted N.M. Simon,
Chairman of the Kenya Wild Life Society and D. Sheldrick
Warden of the Tsavo National Park (3ast) ,to suggest the tribesmen
be permitted to indulge in some form of controlled hunting.
Their proposals were made public in Simon's Paper
"Futuxe Conservation Trends" dated August 1957.
In October 197 an officer of the.Game Department was
detailed to examine the possibilities of establishing a scheme
on the lines proposed. The investigation sho,-ed the system would
be feasible. Beyond the immediate spheres of conservation and
the habilitation of the Waliangulu7 it offered a means of
utilising arid and hitherto unproductive land. A report
recommending the Scheme's implementation with some basic
modifications was submitted to the Chief Game Warden in
Government accepted the plan but it was not until the
Nuffield Foundation generously offered a grant ot 10,000 toward
carrying it out that the decision to start was taken. Jauary
1960 was the (ate set for commencement. In the interim period
some research was carried out into the market for game meat.
The Waliangulu were informed of the Government's intention and
they reacted favourably. This interim period was referred to as
Phase One of the Game Management Scheme. It was not until
April 1960 that the Scheme proper got under way.
The Scheme's aims are:-
i) to demonstrate that the management of wild life is a
positive land use, andshow that game can compete
favourably with domestic stock, in certain areas.
ii) to bring hitherto vacant land into production and
thereby give legal and profitable occupation to men
who were previously engaged in illegal and destructive
The area covered by the Scheme is shownv on the M,1ap Fig. 1
and comprises some 3,000 sq. miles. Within the boundaries, all
land north of the Galana is Crown Land while that to the south
is in the Giriama Native Land Unit. It is hoped that.the latter
tract will be exchanged by the Giriama for a larger and more
fertile piece of Crown Land to the north of Marafa in the
iTHOD OF EXPLOITATION.
Animals within the Scheme would be regarded in the same
light as ranch cattle. They would be utilised to obtain as big
a revenue as possible, though care taken that species would be.
Culled within their recruiting capacity.
At the outset, little -data was available on the various
animal populations. Until experience provided this, Scheme
activities and income would be based on culling 200 elephant
annually. An aerial count over a small sector of the adjacent
Park had revealed 31000. It was known at the time that there
were elephant in other parts which went uncounted. Believing
that there was extensive movement between Scheme anid Park, the
figure 3,000 has been used as a base for culling estimates.
From Simpson and Kinloch's Paper (Appendix I Annual Report,
Game &Fisheries Department, Uganda Protectorate, 1953) it appears
that an elephant population can replace an annual loss of 10%
through natural increase. To be well within this limit it was
decided to keep the Scheme quota to 200 per annum until further
knowledge was available.
Elephant would be shot and a team of Waliangulu then cut up
the meat. After being sun dried this would be sold. The ears,
feet and other commodities would also be marketed and the ivory
sent for sale by Government Auction in Mombasa. From experiments
in Phase One of the Scheme it was known that a large bull
elephant could produce 700 lbs of dried meat, while the average
from both sexes was 400 lbs. Hunting would not take place in the
wet seasons and thus be restricted to about seven months of the
It was decided that the Scheme should be run by two
Game 'Wardens seconded from the Game Department and under direction
of the Chief Game Wardenr The senior man would organise finance,
general administration and the marketing of-produce. His junior
would conduct field operations and development.
Scheme finances wVould.be controlled through a special fund
by the Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Tourism Forests
and Wild Life. To this, money earned and granted would be
credited. All expenditure, including the two Wardens' salaries
would be met from it. On the ist March 1960 the Permanent
Secretary issued an Accounting Directive and Scheme Fund Rules
which gave detailed instructions for operating the Scheme. In
view of the grants-in-aid made by the Kenya Government, it is
the Permanent Secretary's responsibility to prepare revenue and
expenditure estimates for Ireasury approval. Accounts must be
audited at the end of each Financial Year. Attached as
appendices to this Report are Revenue and Expenditure Estimates
for the Financial Zears 59-60 and 60-61.
A local committee comprised of the District Commissioner
and District Agricultural Officer, Kilifi, District Commissioner
Tana River District District Officer Mallndi, D. Sheldrick
Warden of Tsavo National Park (East), and the Scheme Wardens,
was to advise the Chief Game Warden on formulating policy.
Headquarters would be established on the Galana but only
temporary buildings erected in case experience might later indicate
a more suitable site. All Scheme personnel would live at this
The Waliangulu and others whom the Scheme was to benefit
directly would be ..engaged as employees. They would receive a
small monthly salary, rations and given an opportMunity to earn
a bonus on their labour. It was hoped that this.system would
offer incentive to work and give scope for a moderate income.
Ideally all those previously dependent on poaching would be
employeA and able to earn 100 a year. (This is the target of
the Swynnerton Plan for Agriculture. It must also be-the
Scheme's to prove the economy of game management.) It was
accepted that this'goal would take several years to attain.
All human activities other than those concerned with the
Scheme would be precluded within the boundaries. Exceptions
to this rule would be that professional hunters and their clients
would still hunt the area and existing Galla grazing habits could
PART TWO RESULTS AND PROGRESS
Month Wardens Clerk Artisans Drivers Participants Labourers
Aril i -
May 1 1 20 25
June 1 1 23 44
July 1 1 19 31
August 1 1 2 1 23 33
September 2 1 2 1 25 52
October 2 1 2 1 40 50
November 2 1 2 1 38 49
December 2 1 2 2 38 26
January 2 1 2 2 40 17
February 2 1 2 2 39 18
March 2 1 2 2 41 18
April 1 1 2 2 35 17
May 1 1 1 2 35 17
June I 1 1 2 35 7
-no...AGAe* Senior Game Warden Lt. Col, R.A.F. Hurt was
posted to the Scheme on the ist of September but was transferred
to Simba on the 24th MIarch, While with the Scheme, Col. Hurt was
on leave 7 17th November and 22nd December 2nd January, and
was away on medical grounds 13th 24th March. Game Warden
I. Parker joined on the 1st April 19c60 and was with the Scheme
throughout the period. For eight of the fifteen months covered
by this report, there was only one Warden which has proved a
Cgk. Mrs. Parker was employed as clerk from 1st May 1960.
In this capacity she has shouldered much of the routine
SArtisans. Provision was made in the Estimates for the'
employment of two artisans. They were paid Shs 250/- per month
,." and rationed. In the latter months when most of the building s
~were complete there was insufficient work for two men and onewa
' DriyeL_. Each of the Scheme lorries has an African driver* :
As with the Wardens, these men are seconded from Government, but
their salaries are paid from the Scheme Fund. Unfortunately,
three of the men taken on proved unsuitable and were dismissed.
Lgboulrs. As the Waliangulu were to be kept free for
: hunting operations and were also rather unwilling manual workers
a number of Giriama and Taita labourers were employed for the
housing and road projects. These men were rationed and paid a
daily wage of Shs 1150. While building and track cutting was the
Scheme's major activity, labourers in fact outnumbered the
Waliangulu participants. A total of C1,015 was received by these
labourers in pay and rations.
Participants. (Waliangulu) As the Scheme is largely for
their benefit, the Waliangulu employed have, since its inception
been referred to as participants' in preference to employees.
~it would be incorrect to say that the tribe was wholeheartedly in
favour of the Scheme. They regard it with some suspicion as a
'marifa ya serikali' (literally "Government Racket") and given a
free hand would prefer reverting to their old ways. However many,
have taken the opportunity of employment of a type to which they
are suited, near to their homes. Every month some have had to be
turned away as in this initial stage it has not been possible to
engage all who wanted work. Seventysix different Waliangulu were
employed in the, period covered. T'he average length of service of
those who had left before the 1st July 1961 was 5.26 months, while
that for the men still in employment was 7.87 months. Fig. 2
indicates the number of months completed by the Waliangulu and those
still in employment. On the basis that each man has 2.2 dependents
it is estimated 'that the Scheme directly supported an average of
102.6 Waliang-ulu per month. In the fifteen months, ;c1,586 was
paid out to thema in Lhe f orm o f salaries, bonuses and rations.
initially the terms offered the participants were a monthly
salary of 25/-, 15/- worth of rations plus free meat valued at
~12/- a bonus on all viork properly done and free medical treatment.
Though they all earned in the region of 60/- in the first April,
they were suspicious of and did not like the bonus system. It
became obvious that it would not prove successful. In view of this
the basic wage was raised to 45/- p.m. and the bonus only retained
for the pi,oduction of dried meat and other co :,v~odities. On the
completion of a year's service a participant was to be awarded a
five shilling increment. The Warden in charge could give three
such increments at anuy time for increased responsibility and
efficiency. Raises a bove this limit had to be sanctioned by the
Chief Game garden.
In order to induce longer service in the next financial year
the basic salary of a newcomer will be dropped to 40/- p.m. for a
probationary period of six months. On completion of this the
participant will be awarded increments according to his proved
conduct and efficiency, up to the maximum the Warden is entitled
to give. Also the value of rations is to be inrae o h 0
and in view of its lack of success,,it is proposed to abandon the
~This report treats the fifteen months covered as one period
S though in fact -the first three months were in the 1959-60 financial
year. Earned Revenue was approx. 49756 (including ivory'and meat
on hand'30.6.61) and Expenditure C13,882. This unsatisfactory
position was due to the quota of elephant not being attained,
which in turn rests on three factors:-
i) the lack of a second Warden for eight of the
ii) the Ministry's refusal to allow the necessary
transport to be purchased at the outset and
iii) a lack of motorable tracks made the elephant
The Scheite has been handicapped from the start by funds not
being uade available when they were expected0 No authority to
incur expend* ure in the 1960 61 year was received until the
5th Novemberr. When given it was not in accordance with the
estimates and this was not rectified until the 1st February 1961.
The resultant unauthorised spending and general air of uncertainty
was unfair on th- ar'ens and retarded progress considerably.
From perusal of correspondence between the Chief Garie Warden and
the initr on the subject, bla-r for the delays is put on the
necessity to obSain 1reasary approval for expenditure. No reason
has beon givn or th delay in 'he purchase of transport. Funds
were availatl)l :;n the 1059-60 year for the purchase of the Scheme's
AP full complement of a Laid Rover and two five-ton Bedfbrds. Only
one lorry was bou'rht at the s'ta-rt, the Land Rover was not received
until t!he 3th aiUst, end the second lorry until the 15th December .
Lack of transpcrz strnglr d hunting oprations for the first nine
Thanks are duez to tna kccolrnting D'epartment for the
assistance and advice th-y h-ve given to the Scheie from the
Due commritte held only one rather interrapted meeting in the
D.O ,ialidl.-1s o]ff c, 3n tihe 12th 1%ovember, Progress was reviewed
and a nurnbe:r of iltems mnciudin; the insurance of personnel, the
sale of produc _, poaching, licensed hunting and the exchange of
land were disc,._s sed. Recomn11 ka-1*a ions on the issues that arose are
included in th,., chapters to whicl- they pertain.
. BUIL D!NGQ
Tempo.c I-D,.. headquarters for the Scheme were sited on the
Galana's north bank a ains t the 2savo Park boundary. Situated on
this bank means that comnw2,inications will be cut whenever the river
floods, thoug it s ?dori 1oes this for Cny great length of time.
South of i-r1- -iver is Native Land Uni and only 300 of the Scheme's
39000 sq. ra.les are in it. These factors influenced the decision
to buil d in the nort'i bank Cron Land.
Buildin coijmncod in Liu. 1960 and was the primary activity
for ths n,-Xt fo 'r Ai ib ds, A ,,dfj of 5500 was allowed for the
constractio_ two diardons' houses, an office-cum-store a
driver's and 12 partic pants! uts. Dsind W lasb for a
ifaxiMun o five years, they were built as cheaply as possible.
The 4ardens! houses and the office-store were given concrete floors.
All roofs weie of maku-i and the walls of split sisal poles, with
the except ion of ond garden's house in which they were made of reed
matting. Con-truct; frci left-over material were a large open
shed with co.czete floor for b2eparing and storing trophies, a
garage for all tGhe Sche,11t.. transport, a fuel depot and six hundred
concrete block. for the cons ruction of an armoury.
3efoe tihe huts ;;ere complotc, tents were provided for
participants and labourers.
ROADS AND AIRSTRIP.
A fifty mile road from the Galana to Mackinnon Road'was
completed. Apart from giving access to the Scheme, it serves
as part of its western boundary as well as serving a similar
flinction for Kilifi and Kwale districts. It also represents part
of the eastern boundary of Taita district and the National Park
and a valuable fire-break to the latter. The route was surveyed
by a member of the Survey Department and a preliminary trace cut
by Scheme labour. The Scheme also provided the National Parks
with 1,000 to cut and form the road with their machinery.
In addition to the Access road thirty.eight miles of
motorable tracks were cut to facilitate hunting,'and 100 miles of
old track reopened. It is hoped that in the next financial year
these will be extended and graded. When the river level was low,
it was possible to ford it in a Land Rover in several places.
Lorries however, could not undertake this crossing.
Thanks are due to the National Park authorities for the use
of their roads and river crossing at Lugards Falls. Without this
permission the Scheme could not function.
A seven hundred yard airstrip was cut and levelled by hand,
close to the Scheme headquarters.
Difficulties in obtaining the transport complement have been
mentioned under Finance. Vehicles belonging to the Scheme are a
long wheel base Land Rover 0HMS 06C6, and two 5 ton Bedford
diesels ORMS 69B0 and 30C5. Respective mileages are:-
0H1MS Acire Mils
06C6 8. 8.60 18,265
69B0 1. 4.60 21,115
30C5 15.12.60 6,679
Total cost of running the vehicles in the period covered was
f584 and that of maintenance, 358.
Despite the fact that the Scheme is non-government, the
vehicles are registered OiS. As such they cannot be insured by
an Insurance firm. Shortage of transport has already demonstrated
its crippling effect and should one of the vehicles be lost in an
accident, it would break the Schema. It is very doubtful if the
Government in its present condition would ',tap up' for a new lorry
in such circumstances. From the Scheme's point of view cost of
registration, licensing and insurance would be a worthwhile
investment. The position will remain unsatisfactory until the
transport is registered privately by the Scheme.
BOUNDSIES AND LAND EXCHANGE.
Apart from the main access road no Scheme boundaries were
demarcated. This-is unfortunate as little progress in
preventing entry of poachers and charcoal burners will be made
until the borders are clearly defined on the ground. The lack
of a second Warden is behind this holdup. Boundary cutting needs
constant supervision and other activities have prevented the
Warden devoting time to it.
The Kilifi African District Council approved the exchange of
,7$ sq. miles of Native Land Unit on the river's south bank for
416 sq. miles of Crown Land on the north side to the east of the
Scheme. Thanks are due to the District Commissioner, Kilifi and
the committee set up by the Council to look into the matter for
negotiating.the exchange. Final approval is awaited from the
In May the District Conssioner informed a number of
charcoal burners operating in the Scheme that they had to move
out. Many went, but it will be difficult to complete the
eviction until boundaries are definitely shown.
Records were kept as from the 1st 1ugust 19609 for rainfall
at the Scheme Headquarters. Amounts are:-
1960 August .055 1961 January .205
September .06 February 1.87
October 4.34 March 1.135
November 1.035 April 1.485
December 1.875 May Nil
TOTAL : 12.18 inches
This rain fell in 37 days giving an average fall of 0.329 ins.
On a further 27 days traces of rain fell that were too slight to
be recorded. Rainfall seemed to be heavier in the north and east
of the Scheme. With t e exception of the first two and last two
months, the rain was sufficient to keep the vegetation green.
The general drought that affected the rest of the country was not
felt at all.
The placing of the Headquarters deterred poaching along the
Galana between the Tsavo Park and Kisiki-cha-Mzungu. Much of the
Scheme's hunting took place in this zone and it was frequently
patrolled. Formerly this area was heavily poached.
Elsewhere illegal hunting was serious. In January,. 2 Wakamba
and a iigiriama were arrested near Hoshingo for having oryx meat.
The man who killed the beast was sentenced to 16 months, and his
accomplices to Il months imprisonment each. In May two Wakamba
leopard trappers were disturbed at Dakadima Hill. 'hey escaped
arrest though thJir traps and water containers were confiscated.
The remains of a giraffe and a lesser kudu were found in the
hideout, On several occasions licensed hunters reported instances
of poaching in the south eastern portion of the scheme.
SWhile counting el-phant from the air in June, several
hideouts and 24 carcasses were seen in the charcoal burning area
south of Kisiki-cha-Mzungu. Seven of the 29 elephant shot in
February and i'arch near the Park boundary, had fresh arrows in
From these few instances poaching appears to have been
extensive. It would be rash to say that more than 5fo of the
offences in the area, are knorin. The opening of the area with
roads, the defining of borders and the expulsion of charcoal
burners who are prime offenders, will alleviate the problem.
However, it will not be surmounted until the Scheme can afford
its own police force of scouts as recommended by the Advisory
The situation was unsatisfactory. A licence holder could
hunt the Scheme if he had the required Controlled area Permit.
Animals killed came off Scheme quotas but no money was received
for them. The ,'dvisory Committee recommonded that the hunters
should pay the full value of the animals they shot.' The Chief
Game Warden replied that the principle of state ownership of all
wild animals must be adhered to and all licence fees therefore
paid to Government. It would be unfair for the licensee to have
to pay the worth of the animal in.addition to the licence fee.
SIn the next financial year however, Controlled Area Fees would
be paid to the Scheme. Hitherto, these had gone to the
African District Council.
Between April 1960 and June 1961, 15 hunting parties shot
14 elephant and a number of smaller animals. Difficulty was
experienced in getting them to record the latter for the benefit
of the Scheme. With the payment of Controlled Area Fees, accurate
records would be kept in future.
ELEPHjNT HUNTING 2ND S.2 SLE OF PROCEEDS.
a) Hunatin. Building in the first three months and rain in
November, December and April 1,61 precluded elephant hunting
during these monthss. When possible to dry meat in 1960 the one
lorry was available for only short periods at a time. Activities
were thus confined to a radius of 20 miles of the headquarters on
the north bank of the river. Before tracks were cut, this area
was very inaccessible. This and the restriction of range made
operations inefficient. 44 days were spent hunting and only 16
elephant shot, working out at an average of 2.75 days per beast.
The arrival of the second lorry permitted hunting over
greater distances and elephant movements could be followed.
.n increase in efficiency is obvious in the period January to
June 1961; 8 days were spent hunting and 46 elephant accounted
for. The average days.per elephant dropped to 1.26. However,
the figure must reach .75 day per elephant before it is
In the months following the rains, January and May 1961,
elephant were difficult to locate and appeared to be on the move
the whole time. .erial reconnaissance will overcome this problem
in the immediate 'u-turjc but the ultimate answer is a
comprehensive road network.
Figures for elephant killed are:-
April June i January 4
July 1 February 16
ugust 4 March 13
September 6 April 1
October 4 May 2
o ovebor Nil June 10
Total killed by the Scheme 62
licensed hunters 14
Of the 62 elephat killed by the Scheme, one was for
dissection by the Anatoical Society of Britain, and the meat of
two decomposed before drying. From the remaining 59, 20,208 lbs
of dried meat were obtained; an average of 342.5 lbs per beast.
It was established that there is a weight loss of approximately
76% while t'he meat dries on the racks and this increases if it is
stored for long periods. It is perhaps of interest to note that
an average scrub cow in conditions similar to those found in the
Scheme, will yield about 40 lbs of dried meat. Scheme production
in the 15 months is comparable to an off-take of 500 such cattle.
The average meat weight per elephant was low. This
unsatisf;actory position was due to laziness on the part of the
participants. While hunting near Garbiti settlement in June
quantities of meat were stolen from the drying racks by people
not employed in the Scheme. Though aware of this pilfering, the
Walia ngulu did nothing to stop it. They were punished, but lack
of supervision and o-ganuisation underlies the trouble. Again
the shortage of a Wardon makes itself felt.
a e -2f 1i:eat -, total of 19,058 lbs of dried meat were
sold, 460 lbs distributed as free sai~ples, 400 lbs destroyed by
Dermestes and a'balance of 290 lbs remained on hand at the end
of June, Revenue from sales was ;869.17.40 giving an average
price of 91.3 cents per lb. Buyers were as follows:-
Gazi Estate (Jafferali Lalji) 10;988 lbs
Famine Relief 6,160 lbs
Vipingo Estates Ltd 1,600 lbs
Africane traders 310 lbs
Mr. Jafferali Lalji originally wanted to buy all the Scheme
produced for resale, but his untim--ly d7,ath occurred before this
Investigations showed a consierable market existed in the
rural A*frican areas. voweer the loy .o. purchasing power of the
local Ya3ant idividu,-l sales would be small. frico-n tralers were
approached but -,g,in lack of c_i tl pro-'ibited bulk sales. They
were prepared to oake quantity o- cre it bui, this is against
Schce -. policy. Uo exploit this ild tthe Scheme may have to set
up its o"I rntai sales line to t te Doctct to tho conumer.
This rould require considerable or.anisation and is beyona present
c) Ijory. The positiona reg c ivory is unsatisfectory.
Al produce b-. t--e Schemn goes tc ei rnuent revenue. Originally
i's value was not to be related to -;i annual Governirant Scheme
grant though thi was rev-rse T'e oson iven by the Treasury
fo2 refusinG to E-llow te Scili to mea :t i e olim. ivory and to
credit the proceeds dirc; o 5 w is "tat it woul
constitute a 1ypoth ction of revenue and create a precedent."
Facts on the issue are cimpla. The law states "trophy means
any horn tooth, tusk, bone, claw, hoof' skin? hair? feather, egg
or other durable part of any game a(Wild animalss
Protction Ordinance Part I, Section 2, Interpr-tation.) Tusks
are troph-,ies and there is no othe-r leglly acceptable description
of them. The Treasury have give-n peraiicsion for proceeds fror
the sale of trophies except ivory, to be credited to the Scheme
Fund. 'hr epby in their o-wn woi _-s ;l.y have constituted a
hypothecation of revenue and create, precedent. The reason for
equivocating over tusks is surely because of their high value
* :and not a question of law or pri-nciple.
The iAdvisoy Corittee rtco-eic the Scheie should be
allowed to sell its own ivory. --ore than any other factor, ivory
going to GoverrE,_,nt i responsible for- Waliangulu suspicion of
29141+ lbs of Schel-1 ivory were sole, by Government auction
for approxima tcly _2240 -,-d 2016 lbs were on hand at the end of
June, valu ,d at about EH512.
d) Feet and 1c s total of 26 elephant feet were SOI l
fr Shs 750/- ai84r ears fc'ch,,d Shs 1925-. The market for
thle _olmer is not steady locally, but there appears to be a
rising demand for well prepared ears. 2' ::s- are difficult to
skin an( many were daiaeed before the -r ticipents developed
total of 47 beasts wrr killed to provide fresh mieat for
the cnJ-p. Species as follo- is:-
Oryx 13 Grants Gazelle 4
Watrbuck 11 Lussr Kuda 2
Buffalo Gerenrkh 2
Kongoni 5 Impala 2
Weights recorded were'*-
Oryx Male0 323 lbs, 392 lbs, 332 lbs
Oryx f emale 286 lbs
Watorbuck male 438 lbs, 34+1 lbs
Waterbuck female 381 lbs
Buffalo male 1250 lbs, 14+61 lbs
Lesser Kudu male 205 lbS
Detailed ma-asurolents of theso animals were kept axid are in
In I.-ay: 196.o7 Dr., Whitehead a-rd C. Harris of the Fisheries
Depanrtra,- n-k carried out a survey of p is opulation i n t'-h e
Galana near -Headquartors. 11 species werec collected. 11o St
numerous, were Tilapia Hossa 2bica. :Ov conditions in the
river did not seemz to favour their grow-.-tl to any size;
670 were caug-ht with an average weiz1I C of .96 of' an ounce. It
was decided that t'he river did not of f -r an pospcects of any
quic7., return throu -h -Cfi, and no :..Ctio econ lias taken in
this f-ld by the Sch-':.
~.orial- coluibs of elephant weeeridout ovcr parts of
the Sci'eIrac in jau_:' FO-b_'U"11?y m-rc Ia nd June. ihemoS*
recorded in --ny one count _4 ~+000 -in ju2n,,. Details of
eleph,- nt movements ant, behavior -r. obs6_-v&'_'L have been kept P-nd
will be included in the n xt iyacU -Hoport, W-.i, n additional data
The policy pursue h: b en to Cive li'k" .1 publicity as.
possible to t&hehe ac1it is rumn profit. Despite
hisevera nriaeshve app _(l La the press. Only one of
these, ,hrat by uh:) G o vcr nmont C 11 P res s Of f i cSr, W! s o ff i Ciall11Y
-anctio-nc Ln --r'icle in T-he ibu Star, author unknown,
resultecd in an ord,-r b ];n- plac-3d wi L" TAe Sc-'reme for lovebir1-"s.
Their connection with blcphnt i. benj inve_,:iUgatedl
Basically the Schem,.e is a -finanicial el--erci~ e andi as, such
showed a loss in i's first ;ex an caus-,,-s for this appear
'to lie witi-in the -inistrr s sphere, andc'.were:
i) .tLe lack of a w 'ren 1-o2 ac~ of th timea
ii) the with!ol,-in,, ; of funds ? ad tianspor t.
Two War -ns are th, 7i;ium the ch: roruires ndthis has
been emphasised. in all etL t an6. re Gs leafin,7 to the
acceptnco of t Sche.me by Gov-cr-nL.-,-,t. Oil 'Che ,-,round, the
need for roacis L :c- .r.C.cls -xras initialY nndar e s t 1at e d
In othor as,,ects thae Schemei has s ovm considerable
promise. A section of -"ho 'Vali-Jan -ulu ou;ni has been
employed and ths Will increas-e a-, fast as 'Jobs are created.
Other tribes ha- ,-- also buete L--s:r de-ree.
'Nine tons of tl'ie i-oct co-'con'--ted pr-ote-in, has been .made
av -ilable f or huL,-,n c~anton, am.the fact that a market
exists for it denontrated.
Poachiing Over a :cl area hasr bee-n rLeduced to acceptable
limits, zand the general situation benefited if only by the
r e mo val f rom f fel1d o f th osce Vh -V. erC e emiplo ye d.
Deosite the disappointin -financial outcome, the
Gane Sc-'---L--t Sche e arde consider-rble prress in its
I 5C. Parker
1, t 1Dc~~r 961l.
a-l a n i- 4-R.- .-
I N D 1 A -,T
/ A1,To. o' i a'u-e Scale =l1" to 20 miles.
Fig., No: 1. SK.,i;,'H ,1AP '20 SHI~' OW J4Az ~~u.
Land 21-:change Croim LanC,=
Native u'and Unit
Old roads -
New Sche ---e roads
EMPLOYMENT OF PARTICIPANTS
1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1-15
K Those still employed on 1.7.61
SThose that left by 30.6.61
Citief' Game Warden,,
P.O* Box 241$L
Herewith 41 copies of the 1st Schane-i -LnLual Report.
Please woulk y, d forward one to Lhe 7a.il ou-ndation
as. one of' their conditions- attcho r .euant o'L 10,000
was that they received ore teShi' Amraal Reports.
Also I have not Lx4~ a~ycpisdrect to thUi(: ry
ANY INQUIRY REGARDING THIS TELEGRAM SHOULD BE ACCOMPA
BY THIS FORM AND IF POSSIBIB THE ENVELOPE.
amond Prm-100,000 pads-6/89n TA I
.. .. .. -.... .
*... .. ..
\b Telegram by radip.
Copies of report sent to Committee Members
Draft read and approved by Major Grimwood.
IICAN POSTS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATION
T EllLEG R AM'
Regd. No. -Pef Office of Orwgn To, NO. 8 To
I~5t.~THe ,vmG ,tioq Y
a AL4c..L fpio~.
pt-v 13 W,., ecttlices 4& a -4w
ANY INQUIRY EGARDING THIS TELEGRAM SHOULD) BE ACOOMPAXIED
BY THIS FORK AN~D IF POSSIBLE THE ENVELOPE.
S --- $0 V 6
-774 -e C,7
~Ryan Investments Ltd,
\ P.0.Box 30493,
/ 17th October, 1963.
I .S.C.Pak s
Dear Mr. Parker,
Your extremely comprehensive and most interesting
report on the Galana Game Management Scheme has been passed
over to me by Mr. Ryan. He has asked me to contact you
and represent him at any meeting called of the persons listed
in your copy letter, to discuss proposals in connection with
I note from your October letter that you suggest
calling a meeting between 21st and 30th October. I presume
that the meeting will be held in Nairobi.
Before I can give any advice to Mr. Ryan regard-
ing possible investment in the scheme, it would be necess-
ary for me to visit the area to obtain first hand know-
ledge of what you are doing. I feel that it may be necess-
ary to have preliminary talks with the five persons named
in your letter, before I am able to accompany you to
Provided you give me notice, say one week, I
will make a point to attend the meeting.
Looking foNard to hear from you,
M ging Director.
JH K/SV. '(J.H. Kertell)
DiRIECTOS1. RAY RYAN (AMCNICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. 'MILL.
RYA 1~N INVESTMENT ME: TS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLEi. RYVEST
QUERNSWA, TFLZHoNK,- 20265 NAIROBI,,
F. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
--W 4 16th Nerembert 190
This iel by wy ofbeig n intodctry iat 4 t
yog olowngcnvrstin*Ihae ad.-wihmr lx ~re
of te Glan. lder no ono men ace&*
Mr. kVRyan m original approached la
rearin ivetmntInth Shmeshul te re b aal-
abl fo pivae ivetmet.As r .Ayn srepesntaiv
in as Afic th woleprblm ws assd o m Ly r. yg
justbefoe h lef Zeqa i Ocoberthi yea, Nedles t
say xr Ryn as isied heare wih In rrkr "ha
alredy nri ~d nteest n dveloingthearea 19too
DIRCCTONSI. RAY RYAN (ANCRICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
NEW STANLEY HOUSE, STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O.
P. 0. Box 30011.
2.6th Noveabr 1961.
I would be ver plessO to how froa you to
indicate your interest# and then you will be kept pted
right up to the inwtso all developmts s n when
I wish to sapaos, t i onlusiong that a great
deal will depend a our maInga satisfactory binding age-
sent with 'the Rgoa uhrteqbto tebsso
wht havi In nu"Ife ue htti b* razf
without sueh difficultys
With vey ind *R~rd&,
age*a M 4n
b V. Harle s*
TELFPHONP.- 20265 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBV.
1W 2 400
Datz~ons- RY RYN (&ra W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
RYAN INVES .-NTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE, STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLES.- RYVEST
P. 0. Box 30011. TULEPHOME.- 20285 NAIROBI,
NAIROBI. P.,0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
29jth Noveiaber, 1963.
vor ~owr~~ tog
coast 7 e..;on Aa -ez;Iby,
SThis C~ompany is interested In a proposal viat a ;opan~
should be Ife rnod t-o take over the exii~tnr zjchezae with aufilaient
capital to ace~lcp the area to the 6- st vnt~ andi jyo doi4n,6
make a cot-.,iderable contribution towarcds lnraan ocal
efiloL y telt .
""he prioprosal tlhat we wish t o put forvierd is th,-t 'Ube
following proinrtr ih-o, c~ crvn-rise thep basis ol' Jfirm o.A'i e r Vade by
you to i;s wl-Ach would lbe o)er :'or acceptance for a poxioru of two
a o n th IJ- t-rh an- offer waf; m;.: e we would within the period of
twomotj end aVOUr t.7 promote the LCoz pan~y to taike over the
- cherae. ae should ment-lf-n that o-ur G~nairmnai hmi af. A-sociate
are aln-.'ady so 'itrr- teo i the Acheme that thiey mi,.ht well
between lthem 1.e ;prepared Vo inject the necesary capital but you
will a~ruseth,:t before 6Xoint2 so tbe~f woulo wibri to Mean
opport...iity of inv#, itt.,atinj; a -- an,.ootf 01, the 4QiOin taill
la order tI.-at svuch an invz si atior, eould be carri(-.-
out with a fir;,, C L,-it-!ejt in Mindo the or'4er whiAch we would
likce youa to make should a ,ntain the fa .-awint, pointaz-
1. : 'kat a GCoi- qany be '[ored with. a paid up cash capital
ofk~QW)and tha,.t the C oast egloi Az a
and/or o,4qh local authorities fw A
nominate,, be allowed a free 167'
fDIRECTORS2. RAY RYAN (AMERICAN) .J. Wi. HARLEY. J5. MILLS.
RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLES,. RYVEST
QUERNSWAY, TEKLEPMONK,- 20265 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30011,
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
20 ""ha't the company be ,iante- a least of the 'total
area of the -.11-heme as deiirate by existing
1 oundaries and L-eing aprxmtl VD,~X es
at a -enperaorn rent.
3. The league be for ar -Anitial period of five years
with an optiou to the f.ompany to renew for a further
period of 30 year on the name terms and without awW
4.That the Gompany, uL.,.ertakes to Invest tip to the
full amount of Ito cash capital in the ,-evelopenit
and running of' the jeheme within the initial period
of 5 years, such inveot*"ents to e ace as wid4 when
the :-oard of Ilirectora of the Goni._ &n consider
ne i ary .
541 That at no time would the _oaat .ei &isay
, ad/r helocal authorities as iainority si-are-
holuer be required to fiind any -art of the cash
capital required to deielop or manage the W$chem*&
6. That the C;oast iiegion Aezb and/~or trio local
authorities wo-,ld at all11 time have the right to
a~polnt one -:e:7,er of the 13oird of iii-ecters of the
Con~panq to re .reserit their Inter-ots.
7. "'ha~t the iConpany unoertakes to so mianag-e the natural
animal population of the ochme that at no time d~ue
to the (;ompwny's -,peratioris would the area become
denuded of such animal population, ifurther that by
the 'Company's of-,orts and investment, "nd as
knowlcd~z: was acquired duri%~ the expcrimer~
the overall animal population would be ei
to increase within the tboua43 of the
area to accept such increase.
DIRacTORs,- RAY RYAN (AuEmicAm) J. H. KERTELL, #. W. HARLEY. J3. MILL..
R-YAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CANLts, RYVEST
QUISENSWAY, TELEPHONE.- 20285 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
a. That the Com.--any be licensedi bj the -vaze department
to control, develop and siploit, the areas animal
pop~ulatlan& in any way it seez 14%. and within the
riteiples outlined in para 7 aboye. Thia licence
to 'te for a terb coneu.- ent with the ;o.%pany#8 leana
ol the area, aii4 to --1e a-,Aijet to a jaere-ly nosiizal
axinual fee Payable to vie ~ae i.epartme.,t, in view
of the overnment's indirect iter 'st in the equity
of the (;ompany,
9.That the .-Se 1:01art-,etls overall licence to the
Company -reclude t he aZ e .ep artaoent from raising
ony additional fee for suir.h bo-afidie hunt --Is 1.
iiht be atithoris!, c -',. the ',om-'any to tinter the
area for huntin purposes,
100 That the --nmpany p-od uce auolzed accourits at the er4.
of each year o,, op.eratiom and declare a di',iead
of s-aca amount a~n ij availaule 4Cor tdistri ,Wdt io
to the 6ihareholdersq
11. That the shareholders in the ;oml-aay be at all tv"-es
such persons or co-mpanieL; as zay be acceptable to
the -Oast i'egion sllby
-We hope that the oomparty can 'ue initiat" a" soon as
possible and ve look forw~ar4 to receivin,,! your confirmation
of an offer alon ; the lines indicated,
J-1 Is V K er"
OHUToRS,. RAY RYAN (AN1R9ICA) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
BARCLAYS BANK D.CO.
P. 0. Box 30011.
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
TELzpmoNE,. 20265 NAIROBI.
P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
16th December,# 1963.
fto Oivl Socrtar7,
Galana Game Management Scheme
Thank you for your letter ADW2/6/105 of 13th
December, 1963. I quite appreciate the reason for the delay
in the proposed meeting and I now would like to confirm that
both Ir. Parker and myself will be available to attend the
next meeting of the Regional Land Committee at 10 a.m. on
13th January, 1964,
Yo )1a faithfully,
V i Directo
oooo I* Porker Esq.,
eA J c#v-r.1
OIRACTOR1. RAY RYAN tAMEimCAw. J. HI. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
R AN-.INVESTMENTS --"'' LMITED-,
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STA 4DARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D...CADLES.k- RYVEST
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box S0493 NAIROBI'.
R~sHI/4.,29th Jammuw7 I14#
fte RXIetr For Natural Zesauvse,
'We wish to conirmlw that this opnwaaprch
with a view 1o establish ur nteest in aknoeth
present Governental Game aaeetShn tGl
ma Xr Ra ya h visited the Uhs n flow over the ara
in question, Just before loxving Aria for the United Stats.
the matter wan pased over to the writer for further Invostigation
an negotiations with the varius eataoinlvd
As the ar lie within Use authority of the Geset
Rei onal Assembly, ou initial appoach was to that body in
oer tht there could be no aisunerstnln regrIng
%. -'- We arran~ for Cost sresntatives tofly t"o
aerial safris the cnsierble expze Involved being not
from ova ow rsurceso T9 writer visited Mombasa to &+toM
a meting of the Coast Region 1sano* 0oiate on 13th Janury
1964, Following tis visie w were pleed to I1er that our
propsalhad been accorded approval subject to asatsatr
lae being drawn up, We undrstand that a coy of our oiia
pr5ooal wspassed ever to you for information# however# we now
vxcos further copy of that letter, dated 29th Novber# .960
It Is thi*s Compnys intention to Invest the sunmof
L9400 900 in the Scheme# provided a wtully agreeable pepossl
can be finslised, Wa we base our opertions on cattle touismI
apsmis of h venture, we approached the MinisteFo giutr
'to obtain his approval to the cattle side of the operations Our
alrroach to his was met with enthusau ad he was kind eneu&
to ring your Miisr to arrane wu firet meeting for 21st
As a result of the phone call between yourw Miistry
and that of Ariultur we were able to meet without a of1ielal
~appoah by ourselves to you in writing* The m"elprpseo
thi1ter, thereforeg is to got the recod tral and ensure
that the necesar mention is recorded in both your fils end
DiRiECToRS. RAY RYAN CANKRICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. MARLEY. J3. MILLS.
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O.
P. 0. Box 30011.
TELEPHoNEf,- 202855 NAgROst,
P. 0. Box 30403 NAIROBI.
29th Jnury 1964o
our second n**tix hold yetrdy8th -Jma~ -,
16,resulted in a most contructive OfaD A Prv
in prinoiple was accorded by you NWaistr. A eoerdin
was the made V your Pemnet deretr that Aajor Grinwo
and the writer shoiu no poceed with the preparation of a
draft proposal on all points affootn the GaeD*atet
Wherever difference of opin~ion ariss, between the timDparl-
men~t and this Comny the matter Will be refeio back to
your Ministry f"or a ftlg
In omeIusion we wish to reord ou appreciation of
the speed with which negotiations have bee handled to dot* and
th* courtesy we bjave experienced from all members of yuir slart
with Whom we have come into contact,
12th Auguet 1957.
Game Po~olioy Comenitteep,
I ancloseoopes of two private papers I have writte
mne on futur conservation trends with pariclar emphsisn game
mranagemrent maethods and the rsettlement of the Walisgeulup andn the
other an natgle sanotuariesq whih you mey care to cifrclate to
member of the Ow Policy Canitbtes.
I should be glad to dicusrs these -papers with you~ or
your Ommidttee at arq time shouhald you wishrh to do so*
(sg) N.M., Simon*s
FUUE CONSERVATION TREDS
0 These thoughts representing what is probably a fresh approach
P ~to the problem of conserving the game animals of East Africa are based
on the premise that the only hope for the future of the wild fauna in
East Africa lies in a comprehensive system of true National Parks in which
the rights of the animals predominate over all other interests, such Parks
being regarded as sacrosanct*
National Reserves were originally designed as an interim measure
according to the terms of the 1933 London Convention, and therefore have
no permanence* The general concensus of opinion is that this interim
period must now be regarded as ended, and consideration should be given
as 4 matter of urgency to up-&Tading suitable parts of these Reserves to
National Park status*
It is axioatic that the hard core of all conservation
planning must be a representative and comprehensive National Parks system,
but running parallel with these National Parks must be other oonmwrvation
areas which I should like to refer to as "Game Management Zones". Before
explaining the functions of these areas, it is necessary to state clearly
that, in my opinion, it is vital to accept the fact that whether we like it
or not, it is unlikely that wild animals will be allowed to survve for any
lent of time purely for aseftetic reasons, and unless it can be shown that
these wild creatures can ontribute directly or indtirectly to the economy
of the counter, they will eventually be ompelled to give way to move
profitable enterprises, and the needs of human expansion* It is therefore
essential in my opinions to adopt an entirely fresh attitude towards the
wild animals we are endeavouring to conserve for posterity, and prove
beyond a shadow of doubt that if our concern is admittedly partially
aesthetic, that is entirely coincidental and go on to show that wild
animals are of very real economic benefit to the whole Colony* However
unpalatable it may bet the fact remains that in order to ensure the
survival of the greatest possible umbers of wild animals, their right to
live will be largely jugd n relation to their contribution to the
e~onomy of the Colony.
In the case of the National Parks, this condition is already
fulfilled in that our Parks bring in considerable revenue from the tourist
It is my contention that the present National Parks although
admirable in themselves are insufficient to ensure the future of the
Colony' s wild lifeg and it is for this reason I suggest additional gum
management zones* In this connection it is necessary to emphasise that
this concept is based on the belief that certain areas of Lany would
yield a biger eonomic return to the country as a whole under wild fauna
than under domestic livestock* This precept is undeniablep though it may
not be easy to convince Government of its wisdom because of political
or other considerations*
The point to emphasise is that game management schemes oou].d
only be undertaken if it could be shown that the areas selected were
being more wisely used in carrying stocks of game than in any other form
of land use* The question is 'basically one of properland utilisationg
and I strongly maintain that certain types of land,9 often of sub-sconomic
value to human enterprise, could and should be more beneficially and more
wisely employed carrying wild animals than would be possible under any7
other form of land use*
Government must be persuaded that land is man's basic resource
and that in future it will be necessary to think loe in terms of exploiting
the soil and more in terms of conserving the land itself, Julian Huxley
sums it up by explaining that "We must apportion the use of land not only
according to our various human needs, but also according to its varying
. capacities of continuing yield whether that yield be of food wild lifep
timber or recreational space. Above all, we must see that its yield
capacity of whatever sort, is not reducted (or even totally lost) by
faulty or short.-sighted exploitation"*
Idallyq each National Park should be surounded by,-kg.
- 2 -
management &reap although this will not always be possible to achieve, the
latter acting as a form of protective outer barrier for the central kernel
of the Park proper* In these game management zones, it will be necessary
to accept the fact that there is nothing morally wrong in harvesting an
annual crop of wild animals in precisely the same way as a farmer has no
compunction in marketing his excess cattle or sheep every year* This crop
would be harvested by the hunter under a carefully controlled system, and
the fees from licences would provide a considerable cash return, I would
suggest that' a separate fee should be levied for every individual animal
shotp depending on the species. If such a scheme were open to African
hunters in the same way and under the same conditions as anybody sle, poaeh-
ing might well be reduced to smaller proportions than is the case today
and at the same time the African be ensured of his meat requirements*
I am particobrly mindful of the needs of such tribes as the
Waliaunguu who rely for their livelihood on bunting and yet are virtually
poahing themselves out of existenct at the present time by exifessive and
entirely indiscriminate methods, and in the prcess destroying their own
means of livelihood. If these tribesmen could be persuaed to participate
in such a scheme and made to realise that it is to their own advantage to
ensure its success, it might tend to solve a number of existing conflicting
problems. It is no secret that the Administration is making little
headway in devising ways and means of providing alternative occupations
for the Waliunguu and a scheme such as this might go some way in helping
to solve present difficulties*
In the first place it would be essential to decide the total
number of each particuAlar species the land in question could carry and an
annual census of the animals would have to be taken. Any surplus over
and above the optimum number could then be hunted under lieenceo Once the
excess nubers of a given species had been accounted for, no further culling
of that particular species would be allowed in any circumstances until the
It would also be necessary to have carefully regulated closed
seasons* I would further suggest that every hunter issued with a licence
be required to fill in a card which would be handed tO the warden on
completion of the safari i, stating the species and sex of the animal killed
the area in which it was taken and any other relevant information
without which it would be impossible to keep a firm check on the total
annual crop. Any breach Of the regulations by hunters would be strictly
punished, and the offender prohibited from further hunting, It is
interesting to note that in the United States and other countries schemes
similar to this have been used for a number of years, and from the
information at my disposal it is safe to say that such a system has been
instrumental in savigmn species of wild animals from virtual extinction*
For instance, twenty years ago in the United States in one area
of approximately 700 square miles the deer were being indiscriminately
slaughtered and were on the verge of extinctio,, By instituting strict
game management methods the stage has now been reached where an annual crop
of 40p000 deer is harvested by licensed hunters and the revenue thus
received makes the scheme finanotally self supporting*
Denmark, a small and highly developed country, has an extremely
efficient system of game management, and it will surprise many eople to
know that each year it is necessary to shoot over 18,000 deer in order to
keep the deer population within the carrying capacity of the land*
One further example will suffice. In Sweden before the first
World Warp elk were being hunted indiscriminately and about 1#500 a year
were being culled and the species faced extinction. A proper management
system was devised, and today no less than 15,000 are hunted under licence
every year and the species is still on the increase*
Controlled Hunting Areas:
Controlled hunting areas make no pretence of providing any long
term security either for the animals or for the hunter, There is virtually
no future for Kenyats fauna within the existing loose system of controlled
bunting areas. With the present rapid expansion of the Afrioanpopulationg
the constant demand for more land for African settlement, and other
form of developments these controlled hunting areas are bound to be
assailed, reduced in size and extent and must eventually disappear al-
together* Farthermorep although certain game areas of Kenya are at
present afforded protection by the tsetse it is only a matter of time
(possibly not more than a year or two) before the fly is mastered by
improved scientific tenhniquee, and these areas too will be thrown open
to settlements and the fauna will once again be forced to give way*
There is little time left in which to acts and I most
strongly recommend that a survey be undertaken with the object of hvn
certain selected controlled hunting areas, and parts of the present fly
country set aside and gazetted as Game Management Zones with long term
I was interested to note that during the course of the recent
Serengeti Inquiry, Mr. Boiwker Douglass gave as his opinion that the only
game available to the hunter in the future would be the overflow from
the National Parks./, All the evidence points to the fact that this
statement is not far short of the truths and if game management schemes
on the lines I have suggested were adopted they would represent a
charter for the hunter as well as for the animals. I am convinced that
it is as much in the interests of the professional hunter as the
conservationist to press for the creation of game management zones*
I should add that the United Nations Agricultural Food
Organisation has funds available for any likely shceme "that can increase
-food production in under-developed areas, and if approached might be
willing to provide money for experimntal purposes along these lines.
In this connection it is interesting to note the steps that
have already been taken in Canada to provide the native Indians with
a properly organised game management systems which serves the dual
purpose of conserving wild animals and providing the Indians with useful
and beneficial employment* I am indebted to Mr. Bruace Wright, Director
of the Northeastern Wild Life Station, Whld Life Management Institutes
for having provided the following facts, which speak for themselves*
I am firmly of the opinion that similar game management shoeme should
be undertaken in East Africa*
Fur Bearing Animals and their Management in Canada for the
~Benefit of the Natives*
There are two principal fur bearers in Canada managed for the
benefit of the native Indians Beaver and Muskrat*
Intensive beaver management began about 40 years ago on the
southern and of James Bay under the direction of the Hudson Bay Company
post Factors Jimy Watt, who induced his Indians to desist from trapping
the few beaver that were left an their almost trapped,-out hunting
grounds so that they could reproduce and re-stook the area. This was
augmented by introducing some now stocks but most of the areas were re-
built from the remaining breeding stock, The attempt was a success from
the beginning, and as soon as the beaver population could stand a
harvest a quota was worked out for each family trap line based on the
number of occupied beaver houses on it, By this method the natives could
easily see the disastrous effect of over-oropping because the number of
occupied houses was smaller the following year and their quota was
reduced accordingly. This soon sank homes and it even became necessary
to urge some tippers to take a larger harvest to protect the food supply*
The Government then took up the scheme and made a beaver
preserve of several thousand square miles at +the southern end of James
Bay where only Indians could trap. The beaver population is kept with-
in the limit of its food supply and the Indians have a steady income -
something they never had before*
A system of registered trap lines is in force over most of
southern Canada today* Under this system a trap line becomes the
personal property of the individuals and he is hold responsible by
Government for not over-trapping it, It is a tangible asset upon which
he can borrow money from the bank or will to his son. It is his for as
long as he looks after it, but it can be taken away at any time for abuse*
This applies to Whitest Indiana and Eskimos.
Muskrat management is carried out in a somewhat different manner*
Muskrats live in large marshes, not in the forest streams as beavers do.
It is sometimes necessary to instal water control constructions such as dams,
in order to bring the marsh up to its maximum caring capacity for rate.
Extreme fluctuations in water level are to be avoided and over population
will rain the food supply. Therefore it is necessary to have an adequate
trapping force on hand to crop the harvest when the limits of the carryng
capacity is reached* The total Indian population is then mustered to
turn out and trap. The profits are shared among them.
Such managed marshes, mainly in the northern prairie provinces
are the mainstay of the Indians in the ares, It is a self-perpetuated
major industry for them, and all that is needed is the service of a game
manager to set it up originally and work out the annual quota to be harvested
Some truly remarkable figures are available on how the ratn population can
be increased under management*
These two types of far bearer maagment are recognised in Canedas
as the best possible land use practice for these areas, and as it is the
homeland of the Indian the benefit goes to them (and keeps them off the dole).
I have asked David Sheldrick, Warden of Tsavo National Park
(East) for his comme on the scheme, and in wholeheartedly endorsing
the idea of game management sones, he has these suggestions to make*
"Following the successful conduct of the anti-poaching campaign,
large scale poaching has now ceased in the Tsavo Park* It would, therefore,
appear to be an opportune moment to provide the Waliungulu with suitable
employment while there is still an effective degree of control over the tribes
and while they are still in a cooperative frame of mind* I would therefore
suggest that a pilot game management scheme be undertaken in the area lying
to the eastof the Tsavo Park boundary on the main Mombasa/Nairobi roadt
thence north to the Tiva River, but excluding the settled coastal strip*
A scheme in this area would in no way interfere with any other projects as
this type of country is almost useless except for carrying game. A few
Galls, go there at certain times of the year, but there is no settlement in
the accepted sense. In the past this country has been heavily poached by
Wakamba and Giriama, but the Waliungualu should be able to put a stop to
this very quickly if given the proper backing*
This area should be declared a Game Management Zone, and all
the Waliungulu persuaded to move into it except those with alternative
employment. Two young European Officers, one from the Administration and
one from the Game Department, who really believe in the scheme, and who
could gain the confidence of the Waliungulu, should be appointed to admini-
ster the scheme with a group of Waliun&gulu elders to assist them. As
Chiefs and headman are unkown in this particular tribe, I suggst that this
Kiama consist of renowned hunters who would be accepted by the Waliungalu#
It would be the responsibility of the Euopeans to formulate a clear out
policy for game management in the area, and the duty of the .iama, to see
that such a policy was understood by the tribesmen and duly enforced.
The number of animals to be shot would be very carefully regulated
and the Waliungulu would have to understand that although the figure would
be low durin the first few years (it may even be necessary to close the
area entirely until game stocks are replenished through natural increase)
this figu re would progressively increase. The Waliungulu would have to
apply to the Kiama for licenses, and fees would be levied on a sliding scale,
regulated in the-first instance on their ability to pay. When the scheme
gets on its feet a certain number of licenses could also be issued to
non-residents who would of course have to pay the full feast the proceeds
going to the Game Management Committee*
All licences would be issued and strictly controlled by this
Committee working under the adIvice of the O.C. of the scheme in full
consultation with the Waliunguu elders,
The Committee would have to set up their own marketing
organisation to dispose of trophies and dried game meatV and the income
from this source would also help in eventually making the scheme
financially self supporting. Notrophies or meat would be sold
privately but would have to be marketed through this central organisation
There is no reason why a scheme of this nature run on
businesslike lines should not in time become financially sound. This
pilot scheme should be for th benefit of the Waliungulu only, Any
other tribesmen wishing to hunt in the area could only do so if
approved by the Game Management Committee, and they would then
have to pay the full fees. If this pilot scheme were successful there
is of course no reason why similar schemes should not be undertaken for
the benefit of other tribes*
It would also be essential for the Committee to form a control
team to investigate any complaints and to carry out any necessary control
work in the area* Any trophies derived from such control work would be
marketed through the central organisation, thereby benefiting the
Waliungulu as a whole* It might also be worth considering whether this
same control team could assist in elephant control work along the
perimeter of the Game Management Zone adjoining the Tana and the coastal
belt, thus relieving the Game Department of this duty.
It would be necessary to purchase suitable rifles which
would be maintained by the Central organisation, such weapons being hired
out to licence holders when required. In addition it would prove
necessary for the Game Management Committee to build up a small police
force to patrol the area and keep out unauthorised people and prevent
For this undertaking to become successful it would be necessary
for the Game Management Committee to have absolute control of the tribes-
men in the area* There is no doubt that if the Waliungulu were to think
that this scheme was for the benefit of Europeans or other tribesmen it
would fail, but if they can see that licensed hunters make a'useful
financial contribution through paying fees they may come to favour the
admission of a limited number of sportsmenp and non-residents*
From the point of view of the National Parks such a game
management zone adjoining the boundary of the Tsavo Park would-undoubtedly
be of tremendous assistance in elininating the poachers from the Park
itself* This being sot the stocks of game within the National Park
would increase rapidly, and the overflow from the Park would at the
same time help to stock the game management zone and vice versa*
Voi, 1st August, 1957a David Sheldrick."
One proplem that will soon have to be squarely faced concerns
the question of achieving a satisfactory balance between the needs of
the farming community, including the African pastoralists (and more
particularly the Masai) in areas of special interest from the point of
view of fauna conservation*
There is little doubt that it will be necessary to obtain
and maintain the good will and cooperation of the Masai, Farming and
game preservation are~noompatiblep and whatever the attitude of the Masai
towards wild animals may have been in the past it seems to me to be more
than probable that as Masai development and ranching schemes go forward,
the Masai themselves will inevitably come to regard wild animals in much
the same light as the majority of European farmers do at present. There
are already signs of this changing attitude and as Masai livestock
eprfoae in quality and quantity there will be ever increasing demands
0 o a out the game both as a protection against disease and as a
means of conserving the limited grazing and water supplies* A case in
point concerns the Ngong National Reserve where ranching schemes proposed
for the next decade may possibly spell the eventual end of the Nairobi
National Park, unless alternative arrangements of mutual benefit to both
the Masai and the National Parks can be devised.
What I am sure it comes down to is that whether we like it
or not wild fauna will eventually largely disappear from both European
and African farming areas, and it follows that the only long term hope
for preserving the fauna of East Africa lies in a system of National
Parks and game management zones. If this premise be true urgent steps
should be taken to work out an overall policy for game in East Africaq and
set aside certain clearly defined sonesq adequate in size and extent to
cover the range and habitat of all species of faunal in which there will be
no human rights whatever, and which will be regarded as absolutely sacrosancN
A broad definition of a game management zone would be an area wherein
the wisest form of land use would be the conservation of wild life.
An exception to this generalisation might be considered in
certain special areas such as the Amboeli National Reserve. It is my
belief that if the Masai were brought into a form of partnership at
Amboseli on a profit sharing basis they would quickly come to realise the
benefits of preserving wild animals. Although at present the Masai
receive some 20% of the gross revenue from visitors going to Amboseli,
this money goes into the coffers of the Kajiado African Council and the
ordinary Masai pastoralist is probably entirely unaware that this is the
In order to bring home to the Masai the material advantages
of conserving game, I would suggest that in future instead of the National
Parks paying a cheque to the District Commissioner, Kajiado, an annual
Barazsa bebild at Amboseli at which the money is handed over to the Masai
in hard cash so that the Masai can see with their own eyes the benefits
deriving from fauna conservation.
A scheme on these lines appears to me to be coming as near as
we are likely to get to striking a balance between farming and conservation
interests. Alternatively, there would appear to be considerable virtue
in working out a plan either to buy or to lease land at an agreed annual
rental from the Masai for game conservation purposes. I have in mind
such areas as the fly country adjoining the Trans Mara Reserve. This
fly belt represents probably the finest game country remaining in Kenya
which at present is almost useless to the Masai owing to the prevalence
of fly, The Masai would appear to have much to gain and little to lose
in agreeing to lease this fly country for conservation purposes, but unless
steps are soon taken to reach some form of agreement, it is probable that
before many years have passed the tsetse will have been mastered, and
the Masai will utilise this fly country for their own domestic livestock.
Inthis event, the game will once again be forced to give way, and this
magnificent faunal area will have been lost. Should the Serengeti
Committee of Inquiry reco-mend my proposal that the northern boundary of
the Serengeti Nation Park be extended to link up with the Mara Triangle
I insider that no time should be lost in coming to an agreement with the
Masai Administration regarding the future of the Loita Plains*
One of the most impressive lessons to be learned from the
Serengeti Committee of Inquiry was the enormous influence a man of Professor
Pearsall's standingcmn exert in the field of fauna conservation. It
therefore appears Ibgical for East African conservation interests to link
up as colsely as possible with the Natum Conservancy in the United Kingdotm
and thereby obtain the benefit of the knowledge and the influence of men
of the calibre of Professor Pearsall and Dr. Fraser Darling.
I believe that it would be to the inestimable advantage of
either the Royal National Parks of Kenya or the Kenya Wild Life Society
to send a representative to the United Kingdom to make firsthand contact
with the Nature Conservancy and obtain their support and at the same time
to visit various Europequ and North American countriesp with the object
of acquiring full details of the systems of game management which have
been developed there with such outstanding success. Many of the problems
and difficulties with which we are now faced have been successfully
mastered in other countries and in my view we would be foolish to
disregard the experience gained at great cost over many years in these
countries. The money spent in sending an individual to study these
tried and proven methods and techniques would be amply repaid by the
valuable additional knowledge so gained, and the useful personal
contacts that would be established.
This memorandum should be read in conjunction with the article
on Nature Sanctua -iesp copy of which is attached,
(Sgd) NM IM
P.O. Box 20110,
1st August, 1957 o
The primary concern of the National Park and the Game
Department in Kenya is naturally to safeguard the Colony' s fauna, and
this admirable objective has in itself been sufficient to occupy their
energies and resources. But it should not be forgotten that there are
many other areas not necessarily of faunal interest which should also be
afforded adequate protection and preserved for posterity.
For instance y the Boni Forest, north west of Lama, was until
recently a most interesting area of indigenous forest, inhabited by a
number of Vz species of small mammals, some of which were not found else-
where in Kenya* Until recently this comparatively remote forest was
virtually untouched but during the intervening period a number of tribes-
man have been known to enter the area with a view to poaching wild animalio
Their normal procedure was to out down the smaller trees and
bushes, and the lower branches of the larger trees, and with this
material construct a large bush fence in the shape of a horse-shoo extending
sometimes for several miles. Then at the right time they set fire to
this fene, and the animals enclosed within the balzing trap rushed for
the only exit whereupon they were attacked and slaughtered by the waiting
men, The result of this was that not only the animals themselves were
destroyed, but in the process the forest was desiccated, and to such
an extent that it has now to all intents and purposes ceased to exist,
Many by gradually eating into the forest, destroyed the secondary
growth and damaged the larger trees; then the forest itself and all
forms of life, whether animal, bird$ reptile or insect, which~slied for
existenceon the forest, underwent a radical change. The balance of
nature was first upset and then eventually destroyed. It is difficult to
overstate the fact that deforestation not only destroys the trees, but
also a great deal of animal life as well as plants and smaller creatures
that can only exist in association with the forest itself,
Another example concerns the upper reaches of the Tana River,
On either side of the river bank is a long narrow protective strip of
indigenous forest, This forest strip should more properly have been left
completely untuched, but tribesman have been allowed to clear the forest
belt and cultivate the land for agricultural purposes, This continuous
line of cultivation now stretches for many miles on both banks of the
river with the result that elephants and other wild animals have no
alternative but to cross through the cultivated land in order to drink.
The Africans, then of course, complain that their shambas are being
damaged or destroyed, and the Game Department is promptly called in to
carry out control measures on the elephant*
The question is basically one of proper land utilisation, and an_
overall colony-wie olioVfrln-s is urgently needed. If develop-
ment continues at the same pace that has been evidenced in the period
since the end of the war (and there is no sign of slackening) another
decade or so will see the end of many unique-areas which should more
properly be preserved for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations*
It is not difficult to provide examples of the lack of a common policy
or even to show that various Government departments and organisations
although doing their admirable work in their own spheres, sometimes have
conflicting aims and interests*
Few will deny that the most important function of the Forest
Department is the protection of catchment areas, for water is the very
lifeblood of a country such as Kenya. It seems that although the revenue
derived from timber production is important to the colony, an even more
vital function of the Forest Department is to protect water sources. But
when it is realised that the Agricultural Depar~tment$ who no doubt are
equally concerned with the question of water conservation, have allowed
African tribesmen in the Elgeyo-Tambah area to exploit the forest catch-
ment area on the Elgeyo escarpment for agricultural purposes with serious
effects on the water supplies feedirgthe plains 'country at the foot of
the escarpment, I begin to wonder whether the wires are not somewhat crossed.
The trouble with crossing key wires of this nature is that the resultant
shot circuit may well throw the whole works out of gear.
Not only animals but inseote, birds and plants, are dependent
ontheir environment, and if that environment is destroyed the creatures
themselves are destroyed with it, unless they are fortunate enough to
be able to addapt themselves to changed circumstances, When nature
heid sway the process of adaption normally took place very gradually
indeed over countless generations. Many forms c life are incapable
of rapid adjustment and therefore go under.
What it amounts to is that practically all forms of life,
animal and vegetable, depend on some other of life for survival and it
is almost impossible to think in terms of preserving one without the
other. Preservation of fauna is closely interlinked with the
preservation of flora and other forms of life, and it is therefore/wis
to concentrate on preserving one and ignoring the other.
Adequate blocks of land should be permanently protected
because of their scenic value or for their interest to the botanist
or zoologist. They may contain outstanding examples of different
types of indigenous forest (such as cedar, podot bamboo, mvuliv camphor
etc.) or they may serve as a green belt surrounding ever-expanding townso
Considerationshould be given to the settingup of a Committee
of knowledgeable people who are alive to the urgency of the problem,
and who will in the first place compile a list of all the areas through-
out Kenya in need of complete and absolute protection, and request
Government to gazette these as fully protected nature sanctuaries. At
the same time steps should be taken to build up a small research
organisation working in conjunction with the Committeef for without
the detailed knowledge that only scientific research can provide, there
is little hope that an overall policy in the best interests of the whole
country can be devised.
Mention has already been made of the urgent need for a faunal
research centre, and this organisation could well be responsible for
search into the broader issues
P.O. Box 20110
9th October, 1957.
Ian Parker Esq
P. O. Box 34,
K IL I FI.
I was very glad indeed to have your letter of the
4th October and to know that you have been asked to produce
a report on the proposed "Waliungulu Game Management Scheme".
The facts relating to similar management schemes in other
countries quoted in my Memorandum, have been obtained from
a variety of sources. Mr. Bruce Wright, Director of the
North Eastern Wild Life Station, Wild Life Management
Institute of Canada provided the information regarding
fur bearing animals for the benefit of the native Red Indians.
He is at present, so far as I am aware, working in the
Serengeti National Parks on a study of predator movements
and you will therefore be able to contact him by writing
to him c/o Gerry Swynnerton.
With regard to facts concerning schemes in the
United States I suggest you write to the United States
Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service,
Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland.
In Denmark the individual to contact is:-
Count G. Ahlefedlt Bille, Fjellebro, Rudme, Denmark, who is
Game Warden of Denmark and will, I know, be delighted to give
you all possible assistance.
As you can imagine I am as keen as anyone to see
this game management scheme go forward and achieve complete
success so I hope that you will not hesitate to contact me
if there is any help or assistance that I can give you. At
the same time I should be grateful if you would keep me
informed of developments from your end. Meanwhile, all good
P.O. Box 20110
- T 61: 2 3380....
Ian Parker, Esq.,
c/o the Game Department,!
A brief line to return your photographs on
soil erosion in the coast province. Very many thanks
indeed for allo6 me to have the use of them.
I know you will be interested to hear that
the Ministry has agreed with my suggestion that I be
allowed to present the paper on Game Management to the
forthcoming East African Fauna Conference scheduled to be
held in Nairobi next month. I feel that a full discussion
of the idea at this level will do nothing but good, and may
well help to accelerate Government's acceptance.
With all good wishes,
P.O. Box 2011I0
24th September, 1958.
Ian Parker, Esq.,
P.O. Box 34,
Your letter of the 10th September was awaiting
me on my return from Athens yesterday. Many thanks indeed
for allowing me to see a copy of Adis's masterpiece con-
cerning the Ministry's attitude towards the Waliangulu Game
Management Scheme. I am glad to know that the )?.C. has
decided to take a strong line over this matter, and would
greatly appreciate being allowed to hear of any further
developments in this connection.
You will be interested to know that the Scheme
was discussed at the Athens Conference and achieved a strong
measure of support from the delegates. Behind the scenes I
was able to do a considerable amount of lobbying, and people
like Dr. Worthington, Professor-Pearsall, Lord Hurcombe, to
say nothing of the American representatives, are whole-
heartedly in support of this pilot project. Possibly my
most useful contact was with a Mr. Waterson of the Food &
Agricultural organisation, with headquarters in Rome. I
discussed the Waliangulu Scheme with him in considerable
detail and asked his advice on how to raise money to get
a pilot scheme in motion. He informed me that a U.N.O. fund
.of one hundred million dollars per annum has recently been
created for under-developed areas,'and he appeared to be
considerably impressed with the idea of farming wild animals
as a useful source of protein for under-developed areas.
To cut a long story short, I have arranged that
Dr. Fraser Darling will stop off at Rome on his return journey
to the United Kingdom on the completion of his Mara ecological
reconnaisance early in December where he is to meet represen-
tatives of F.A.0. and endeavour to talk them into providing
the money to get this Scheme going.
- 2 -
Meanwhile, I spoke to Mervyn Cowie and Willie Hale
yesterday morning and they agreed to see Adie immediately
to impress upon him the importance of this project. However,
I do not hold out very great hopes that the money will be
found anywhere in Kenya, but I am feeling reasonably
optimistic that F.A.O. will come to our assistance.
I return Adie's letter herewith as requested
but would ask you to be good enough to keep me informed
of any interesting developments, particularly with regard
to the attitude of O'HBagan, Much as I should like to see
you during the Royal Shows I am afraid that I shall be away
during that period but I look forward to being able to sea:
you next time you are in Nairobi.
Under separate cover I have sent you a copy of
my memorandum on Nature Sanctuaries which-has been forwarded
to the Chief Conservator of Forests. I shall be glad to
hear what you think of the idea.
With all good wishes.
KENYA WILD LIFE SO0C IE TY
P. 0. BOX 20110
Chief Conse rvator of Forests, h r(n3Speme, 98
Forest Department.. 5n etmbr 98
P. 0. Box 30027, ...
I wish to thank you sincerely for allowing me the
opportunity of discussing the question of Nature Reserves-
and for listening so patiently and sympathetically to my
In the fact of constantly increasing competition from
human development it becomes ever more necessary to devise
means of preserving adequate regions in which no development
or commercial exploitation will be permitted. In my opinion,
certain outstanding areas, because of their botanical, faunal,
scenic or geological significance, should be afforded complete
and permanent protection while there is still an opportunity
to do so.
The Forest Department is in the privileged position of
controlling extensive, unspoiled, indigenous regions. You
would be performing an extremely valuable service to the
country as a whole if you would initiate a scheme for gazetting
certain selected parts of the Forest Estate as Nature Reserves
in which no commercial exploitation of any kind would be
permitted. These Nature Reserves should include as many
different types of habitat throughout the Colony as possible$
thus preserving at least representative samples of varied
forest forms in their pristine state for the future.
Ir Nature Reserves would remain under the control of the
Forest Department and would be administered by the staff of the
Forest Department as part of their normal duties. It seems
unlikely that any additional expenditure would be required.
oe In my opinion, it would be essential for you to retain
Full powers to authorise the culling of any species of animals NM
in the Nature Reserves in order to prevent damage or destructioy--
of the habitat and to keep the numbers of wild animals within
the carrying capacity of the land.
I do not think the average man in the. street fully
understands that the first essential of any conservation plan
is the preservation of habitat, failing which the conservation
of wild life in the widest sense is impossible, A good
example of the application of this basic principle can -readily
be seen by comparing indigenous forest with exotic plantations.
The former is virtually pulsating with many forms of wild life
while the latter are almost lifeless. The preservation of
flora is the essential prerequisite to the preservation of
fauna and avifauna.
In view of the dominant role the Forest Department must
occupy in the establishment of any Colony-wide conservation
plan, I would request you to give favourable consideration to
gazetting certain selected Darts of the Forest Estate as
Nature Reserves, Should you agree to take this step, I can
pledge the fullest support of the Kenya Wild Life Society in
assisting you in this important task.
As the preservation of all forms of wild life are so
closely inter-related, I have sought and obtained the advice
of experts in the ornithological, botanical, entomological and
faunal fields in drawing up a list of areas regarded important
enough to be considered for Nature Reserve status. Their
comments and recommendations, together with their reasons for
selecting the areas mentioned, are attached for your
You may care to consider setting up an Advisory
Committee to study all aspects of the question and assist you
in formulating precise recommendations possibly on the lines
of the Advisory Committee recently appointed by the Governor
to assist the Chief Game Warden in matters relating to the
capture and export of wild animals and birds.
N. M. SIMON
FOREST NATURE RESERVES
By Mr. J. G. Williams
Ornithologist Coryndon Museum
The two outstandingly important forest regions from the
zoological, and especially from the avifaunal point of view
1. The Kakamega Forest and smaller adjacent forest
areas in Western Kenya (the Kakalelwa and Mlaba
2. The Sokoke Arabuku Forest in the Coast Province.
REASONS FOR IMPORTANCE.
Kakamega, Kakalelwa and Mlaba Forests.
This forest area contains a richer and more varied
bird-life than any other forest area in Kenya Colony. Some
460 species of birds have so far been recorded of which ca. 50
species are found nowhere else in the Colony. There are
several endemic birds confined completely to this area, eg. the
Brown-Capped Eremomela (EREMOMELA BADICEPS TURNERI) and the
Golden-Bellied Wattle-Eye (DYAPHOROPHYIA CONCRETA SILVAE).
Sokoke Arabuku Forest.
Again this is an extremely rich forest area for birds,
with completely different species to the Kakamega Forest region.
The region is especially rich in endemic species, eg. Sokoke
Pipit (ANTHUS SOKOKENSIS), East Coast Akalat (SHEPPARDIA
SOKOKENSIS), Spotted Ground Thrush (PSOPHOCICHLA GUTTATA
FISCHERI), Pale-Bellied Sunbird (ANTHREPTES PALLIDIGASTER),
and Clarke's Weaver (PLOCEUS GOLANDI).
The following forest regions are also of great
importance ornithologically :-
1. Mt. Kenya Mountain Forest.
2. Mt. Elgon Forest.
3. Kasigau Forest in the Teita District.
4. Shimba Hills Forest in the Coast Province.
REASONS FOR IMPORTANCE
Mt. Kenya Mountain Forest.
A rich endemic avifauna with such species as Mt. Kenya
Ibis (LAMPRIBIS OLIVACEA AKLEYORUM) and Mt. Kenya Jackson's
Francolin (FRANCOLINUS JACKSONI POLLENORUM). The forest also
forms a refuge for species which may be shot out elsewhere, such
as the Crowned Eagle (STEPHANOAETIS CORONATUS), .Rufous Sparrow-
Hawk ACCIPITER RUFIVENTRIS RUFIVENTRIS) and the Black River
Duck ANAS SPARSA LEUCOSTIGMA).
Mt. Elgon Mountain Forest.
Forest area not yet fully explored ornithologically.
Has a rich avifauna and several species which do not occur
elsewhere in Kenya. Eg.: PRing-Necked Francolin (FRANCOLINUS
STREPTOPHORUS), Shelley's Francolin (FRANCOLINUS SHELLEYI
SHELLEYI), and the El on Yellow-Legged Owl (GLAUCIDIUM
Kasigau Forest, Teita District.
This tiny forest has several endemic species which will
become extinct if the forest is destroyed. Examples of these
are :- Teita Thrush (TURDUS HELLERI) and the Teita Grey-Breasted
White-Eye (ZOSTEROPS SILVANUS),
Shimba Hills Forest, Coast Province.
Another forest area which is not yet completely explored
from the ornithological viewpoint. An abundant avifauna
intermediate between that of the Sokoke Forest and the North-
Eastern Tanganyika forests with several endemic species and
races, eg. :- Smaller Yellow-Streaked Greenbul (PHYLLASTREPHUS
The following forest areas are still unknown ornithol-
1. Witu Forest, Coast Province.
From its geographical position and the little we
know of its vegetation this forest is likely to be
of the greatest importance.
2. Mukogodo Forest, North Nyeri.
Area completely unknown from the avifaunal point of
3, South Western Mau Forest.
Area still imperfectly known zoologically.
4. Chepalunga Forest.
Important as a meeting place of Eastern, Western
and Southern forms. Avifauna imperfectly known.
5. The three Forest Areas in the Coast Province, Gazi,
Boni and Mrima Hill are still almost completely
unknown zoologically. All that is known is that all
possess abundant and varied bird faunas.
6. The Forest Areas of Marsabit, Kulal, Nyiro and the
Mathews Range in the Northern Frontier Province of
All possess endemic bird forms and all remain to be
explored ornithologically. The Mathews Range is
probably the most likely of these forest areas to
possess at present unknown species.
SMALL FOREST AREAS AROUND NAIROBI.
The three forest areas around Nairobi Karura, Ngong
Road, and Dagoretti Forests are important as being the centre
of distribution of one of the rarest African Eagles, Ayres'
Hawk Eagle (HIERAAETUS D3SIUS). In addition several endemic
species are confined to this area, for example the Black-Headed
Apalis (APALIS MELANOCEPHALA NIGRODORSALIS).
OTHER FOREST AREAS.
The following three forest areas are still incompletely
known ornithologically and further collecting and research
may indicate that sections are worthy of designation as
i. The Meru Forest (Lower Imenti), North East of Mt. Kenya.
2, Kaptagat Forest.
3. The various forested areas of the Cherongani Hills.
MAMMALIAN FAUNA-OF KEN~YA FORESTS
By Mr. J. D. L. Fleetwood
Cory-nif-- n Museum
The mammrals listed below are dependent on the
preservation of their forest environment. Mammals under-
lined are very local in -"Zitribution.
Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni Stuhlmann' s Blue Monkey
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus
Heliosciurus multicolor elegans Forest Squirrel
Denaromus acraeus Tree Mouse
II ruddi If ;I
Thaxnnomys surdaster elgon-Ts Long-tailed wood Mouse
*Cephalophus harveyi barbertoni Barbertonfs RedDie
it Negrifrons fosteri Foster's Black-fronted Duiker
Cricetomys gaffbianus elgonis Giant Rat
Cercopithecus neglectus Brazza Monkey
Kakamega anid Nandi Forests
Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Greater Bushbaby
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus
Heliosciurus multicolor elegans Forest Squirrel
Lophiomys ibeanus Maned Rat
Dendromus i. insignia Tree Mouse
Thamnornys surdaster discolor Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Giant Forest Hog
Cephalophus caerulus musculoides Blue fluiker
Tragelaphus scriptus dama Bushbuck
Syncerus c. caffer Buffalo
Cricetomys gambianus elgonis Giant Rat
Peroaicticus potto ibeanus Potto
Cercopithecus nictitans schmidti, Red-tailed Monkey
Nandinia binotata arborea Tree-Civet
Anomalurus j. jacksoni Flying Squirrel
Protoxerus stangeri bea Giant Forest Squirrel
Atherurus turneri Brush-tailed Porcupine
Hy-psignathus monstrosus Hammerhead Fruit-Bat
Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Greater Bushbaby
Cercopithecus mitis neumanni Blue Monkey
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus,
Lophiomys i. ibeanus Maned Rat
Hylomyscus denniae Tree-Rat
Praomys jacksoni peromyscus Forest Rat
Thamnnomys i. ibeanus Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Cephalophus harveyi ignifer Red Duiker
T 1oaer~ulun3 musculoides Blue Dulkter
Boocerus eurycerus isaaci Bengo
Tragelaphus scriptus dama Bushbuck
Syncerus c. caffer Buffalo
Felis aurata Golden Cat
Cephalophus sylvicultor ituriensis Yellow-backed Duiker
Galago crassicaudatus lasiotis
Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus
Paraxerus pallaitus tar-ae
Thamnomys surdaster littoralis
Tragelaphus scriptus i veu
Red Bush Squirrel
Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Tana River Forest
Cercopithecus mitis a .torqua tus
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus
Colobus baddius rufomitraitus
Mrima Hill an a~ Orest
Galago, crassicaudatus lasiotis
Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus
Colobus polykomos palliatus
Thamnomys surdaster littoralis
Heliosciurus undulatus daucinus
Paraxerus palliatus frerei
Black and White Colobus
Red Bush Squirrel
Karura, Ngong~ etc.
Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Dendrohyrax arboreus bettoni
Cricetomys gambianus kenyensis
Syke' s Monkey
Dendromus insignis percivali
Thamomys ibeanus lutosus
Colobus Polvkomos -percivali
Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Black and White Colobus
Cercopithecus nitis kibonotensis
HelioBCiurUS undulatus shindi
Forests East off Rift Valley, North to Marmanet Forest
Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Colobus polykomos kikuyuensis
Lophiomys ibeanus hindei
Cricetomys gambianus kenyensis
Dendrohyrax arboreus bettoni
Praomys jacksoni peromyscus
Cephalophus harveyi ignifer
Tragelaphus scriptus deloxneremei
Booceros eurycerus isaaci
Syncerus c. caffer
Black and White Colobus
Giant Forest Hog
Mt. Kenva Forests
Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Colobus polylcomos kiku,,rensi3
Heliosciurus ruafobrachiacm keniae
Cricetomys gamibanus kei.rensis
Hylo cho e iL;. 1_ J
Tragelaphus scriptus delamerei
Boocerus eurycerus isaaci
Loxodonta af ricana
Syncerus c. caff er
Dendrohyrax arboreus c-:-iayi
Black and. White CoJlobus
Giant Forest Hog
FOREST CONSERVATION IN EAST AFRICA
By Mr. R, H. Carcasson
Entomologist Coryndon Museum
A. SOME GErkTL ASPECTS
The cont~ ._... exi.,!!JI~ce of most types of forest growth
is dependent on a hiultipOlicity of soil, climatic and other
factors reacting upon one another and upon the plant and
animal life of the forest in the most complex and delicately
In East Africa the majority of our small and scattered
forest areas are growing vnder what may, for want of a better
word be termed marginal ,nditions; the very moist conditions
of the last pluvial period have been succeeded by a phase of
progressive dessication and it is only the ability of the
forest to create and maintain its own environment which has
enabled it to survive under conditions far less favourable than
those under which it became originally established.
It is the complex harmony of ecological action and
reaction, acting as a closed cycle, without loss of assets or
resources that ensures survival under deteriorating conditions,
Any tampering with this cycle, however minor, such as felling
of timber, grazing of forest edges and glades by domestic
animals, thinning of undergrowth.. cutting of roads etc.,
constitutes a wastage of resources which no biological
community can resist for long without undergoing profound
changes, particularly under conditions that are not optimal.
There is of course a tendency for the forest to protect
itself from such encroachments and for wounds to heal, but it
must be clearly understood that such powers of recovery are
limited, especially where climatic conditions are not favourable
and that any process of denudation, however small and limited
at its inception, if continued, will eventually reach a point
beyond which recovery is impossible.
Our knowledge of forest ecology is far too incomplete
to permit a reliable assessment of the maximum degree of
exploitation compatible with an adequate margin of safety.
There is little doubt that forests help to mitigate
climatic extremes and it is therefore obvious that the conserv-
ation of limited areas of forest is far easier and far more
likely to be permanent if such forests are part of or adjacent
to larger forest areas.
In view of the beneficial influence of the forest on
climate and on water resources and in view of the scattered
and residual nature of the forests of East Africa, total
conservation of all forest areas must be regarded as imperative.
Any concessions to economic pressure or to vested interests at
the expense of our forests constitutes a serious risk to the
patrimony of future generations.
B. ENTOMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FOREST CONSERVATION.
Our knowledge of the insect fauna of the forested regions
of East Africa is still in its infancy and an enormous amount
of research remains to be done in this field. Without adequate
protection of forests there is a serious and imminent danger
that large numbers of ins. ect species may become extinct prior to
discovery and deseri-pti-,-) Indeed, it is very probable that
hundreds of unknown sp ;.-es have already perished.
This may appear a matter of little concern to the average,
layman, but it must be remembered that pure science must
precede the application of scientific discovery.
Insect pr..,-tors anl parasites of economic pests must be
discovered in the wild state before they can be harnessed to
man's needs, and there is little doubt that biological controls
are often the cheapest, safest and most effective, and it is
probable that many of them still await discovery in our forests,
C. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS.
The insect fauna the forests of Kenya is influenced by
geographical and climatic factors and these two major influences
are quite distinct and often mutually independent.
There are 6 main regions from the geographical point
of view :-
1. The Nandi-Elgon forests, with strong affinities with
the Congo fauna.
2. The isolated forests of the Northern Frontier, with
Sudanese and Abyssinian influences and many endemic
3. South Nyan~za, with strong Rhodesian-Angolan influences.
4. East Rift highland forests, with a large endemic insect
5. West Rift highland forests, also with a large endemic
6. Coastal forests, with numerous South African and
some Madagascar affinities,
The insect fauna varies within each of these regions
in response to the botanical composition of the forest, which
in its turn is controlled by elevation, rainfall, aspect,
drainage, soil and sundry other factors.
Should it therefore be impossible to enf orce the
protection of all forest areas as suggested above# one must
at least ensure that adequate areas of all main types of
forest within each region be placed under total protection
as soon as possible,
The protection of the forest areas listed below is
suggested as the irreducible minimum needed for current and
future research into the country's insect fauna.
Kikuyu Es: ---rpment
Mars abi t
Tana River Gallery Forest
APPENDIX IV ..
FOREST CONSERVATION IN EAST AFRICA
2.-'ROM A BC-' IT i C, POINT OF VIEW
,W2 SOL" ..,*,,J.XL,-, O MOLLUSCA)
Ap art from the supreme importance of preserving forests
from a climatic point of view, a fact which is now being stressed
by most ecologists and hydrologists the cutting down of entire
forests often causes the extenction of certain plants and
molluscs, not onily in 7-7he forests themselves but also in
surrounding c-o~zntry due to depletion of rain fall and complete
alteration of the ecological conditions. Once forest is cut
dowen, even for replanting by exotic trees, the undergrowth
species, often of extreme interest, and the forest floor fauna
disappear. This is not a matter which is ever likely to cause
any public feeling as in the case of large mammals or the more
showy birds, but the wilful extinction of species when a little
thought could ensure their preservation with a minimum of
hindrance to more worldly matters is a moral crime in the
opinion of most naturalists. Even from an economic point of
view it is not always a sane policy. Many drug plants are yet
to be found and it is quite conceivable one might clear an area
of something far more valuable than the future produce from the
One of the chief difficulties of suggesting areas for
preservation is that practically nothing is known of the majority
of our forests from a botanical point of view. I doubt if,5/o
of the forests have ever had a botanist in them. The study -of
forest trees is a difficult one. Even in the Usambaras where
botanists have collected for 60 70 years it is very easy to
discover a new tree by assiduous collecting. There are certain
areas the destruction of which would constitute more of a loss
than others. The Usambaras for example contain hundreds of
species which are either endemic or occur only in the Uluguru
Mountains. A forest like the Karura Forest contains very little,
if anything which occurs nowhere else, yet even the Kaz ura
Forest is not worked completely for its trees, So little
forest is left in Kenya that the strongest pleas must be made
for the preservation of as much as possible. The Director#
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. has been approached by letter and
asked for his views and also for the views of his expert staff
concerning individual areas of interest.
Mr. Corner, possibly the foremost botanist in the world
today has recently stressed the fact that the forest areas of
the Tropics are a vast biological storehouse and that many
biological problems could be settled by setting up tropical
biological stations. His lecture and letter are appended
to my report.
Certain areas in Kenya are of the utmost botanical
interest. Foremost are the coastal forests which are scarcely
known botanically and contain many striking endemic species and
also many known but undescribed new species, particularly in
the Annonaceae. The following areas should in my opinion be
Of supreme importance from the point of view of endemic
species are the Coastal Forests. Everything possible should
be done to safeguard as many of these forests as possible
particularly the following:-
All forests in the Lamu area especially that at
Mambasasa and Utwani which abound in undescribed
new species of Uvaria, Uvariastrum, Diospyros,
The Solzke and Arabuko Forests, the Shimba Hills, Mrima
Hill and Budu Ki f sini Forests. Such rare plants as
Ellipanthus hem :.dradenioides are found nowhere else and large
numbers of new species remain to be recollected and described.
There are innumerable rare plants such as Gigasiphon, Lannea
amaniensis, Pseudobersama, Lovoa, Lasianthus ferrugineus, and
1variodendron which are restricted to small forest patches.
At least one area of typical Mangrove swamp should be
set aside as a reserve since it is an interesting association
which could easily disappear.
Mt. Elgon has a striking flora of interesting herbs and
alpines the forest is of less interest from the point of
view of the species in it as from the point of view of maintain,-
ing the habitat in its present state. The mollusc fauna is
highly peculiar and very many species appear to be endemic.
The Cherangani Hills have a remarkable subalpine flora which
must be in delicate balance.
Kakamega Forests. This is of outstanding importance
to Kenya. It is the Eastern limit of the W. African type
flora and although it is difficult to mention individual species
which do not occur in Uganda or W. Africa, from a phytoge-
graphical point of view this forest is the most important in
Kenya. Some of the interesting species are Uvariopis congensist
and other Annonaceae, Maesopsis emini, Entandrophragma,
Aningeria altissima, Cordia millenii, Mussaenda spp. etc.
Mt. Kenya Forest. Interesting but not so much for its
individual species as for the preservation of a mountain
habitat with distinct vegetation belts. The Imenti forest
is undoubtedly one which should be preserved.
The Aberdare and other highland forests contain few
species of tree which are of interest but at least some areas
should be set aside in the Mau, Kikuyu Escarpment and Aberdare
forests for complete preservation.
The small forests around Nairobi, Karura, Ngong Road,
Dagoretti, Ngong Hills and Muguga should be set aside as
amenities and also because they are close enough for educational
purposes. The near presence of a piece of forest to future
educational establishments may do a great deal to help Nairobi
biological students of the future, Few other large cities
have the chance to preserve such amenities. Apart from this
fact the forest contains interesting Sapotaceae and a striking
species of Uvariodendron.
Some forest areas in the Teita and Ukamba areas need
preservation e.g. the Chyulus, Kibwesi, Kisigao and Taveta,
Taveta forest is for example the only Kenya habitat for
Alangium salviifolium. The preservation and extension of
forests in this large dry area of Ukamba is fundamental to
ensure future grasslands to the west since the -winds blowing
across the area will become drier as this region approaches
In the N.F. Province it is important to preserve what
forests there are left to maintain forest habitats. The
ground fauna of these forests is of,'great interest and is
scarcely know as yet. From a water conservation point of view
their preservation is absolutely essential, These forests
could be made reservoirs of water which can be piped down to the
plains people thus keeping them out of the forest and helping
to preserve the latter, The Kulal scheme is already underway.
Mt. Kulal, Mt, Marsabit, Uraguess and Maralal are exceedingly
interesting islands of forest in a desert area and tremendous
economic assets. Marsabit contain some interesting species such
as Premna rmaximas Ocotea Kenyense which are only found in the
Meru and Mt. Kenya forests.
To end o ks report I would like to make a recommendation
for the appointm-,ent of a Field Forest Botanist to collect and
study forest tre es in Kenya and also to make complete surveys
in areas which are being cleared. The best chance of studying
forest trees is during felling operations. Such a botanist
could be attached to the Herbarium.
GEN/Gt/ P.O. Bx20110
' Tel: 23380
A 20th October, 1958.
Jan Parker, Esq., \
Game Warden, k
P.O. KILIFI ///
I know you will be interested to see the
enclosed letter which I wrote to the M~inistry of Forests
with regard to obtaining financial assistance for the
Waliangulu Scheme through the Nuffield Foundation. I
also attach a copy of Adie's reply.
I am informed privately that Farter-Brown
is very much taken with the Scheme and, in fact, considers'
it the most promising of the various proposals put up to
him during his recent African tour. At the same time, we
are making- the necessary approaches to F.A.O. headquarters
in Rome and I am very optimistic that one or the other
of these two sources will eventually provide the necessary
With all good wishes.
~~ntooztfi A .rnt)e*
lfll !j, .) o
re o mo
-zian's t ,ko (x
'0 ao V.vr
aral-l-wal t Ivern's ru
t fZO 'r__
301 ar d u
I I/. M.CONSULAR HOUSE,
P.O. Box 20110
' 6th O,,ctober,19.
The Permanent Secretary, \
MINISTRY OF RESTT DEVELOPM'i \
GAME FISHERIES, /\\\ /
GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGFON SCOHEME,
It may not be generally appreciated how important
the Galena River Game Management Scheme is in relation
to the future of wild life conservation in Kenya. The
scheme provides the first opportunity to prove or dis-
prove that wild life$ properly managed on a sustained
yield base, is of considerable economic significance
in marginal or sub-marginal regions.
The scheme must first and foremost be regarded as
an experiment, of a somewhat revolutionary nature, in
utilization of the wild life resource.
In view of the experimental aspect it is of
fundamental importance to have a full-time ecologist
attached to the scheme from the outset of phase two
with the object of collecting and collating adequate
date from which proper conclusions can be drawn. Unless
this is done the scheme ceases to have any experimental
value and the principle objective of the scheme is not
I respectfully request that immediate consideration
be given to the appointment of an ecologist and would
appreciate learning whether your Ministry is prepared to
take the initiative in this regard.
The obvious choice would be a Fulbright Scholar and
perhaps you will correct me if I am wrong in believing
that applications for Fulbright awards must be made by
the Government concerned.
May I add that I shall be only too willing to assist
in any way possible in advancing this suggest ion. For
your information Dr. F. Fraser Darling Is in the United
States at the present time and would, I am sure, be
willing to approach the Fulbright Trustees should you wish
him to do so.
Noel M. Simon,
20th October, 1959.
Dr, F. Fraser Darling, D,8c,# Pho1)., 1,.L*D,
THE~ CC)41,.RVATIGN FMCDATLIN,
309 Zst 40th Street,
P~ew York, 163,
U So A*
Here is a copy of the official reply from the
Ministry to my letter req-uesting the Kenya Go'vernment
to consider applying for a Fulbrig;ht Scholar to be
s, pointed to the Wlualianiulu Game Management Ocherie.
I am of the opinion t ,-nt unless qco,%)etent
ecolo Irzt Is pjointed th., jri -oiple obetof h
scheme will not be met. Its value as an imnvort nt
experiment in wild life management uncier i:"vt African
conditions will be largely lost.
If you agree with this point of view I wonder
whether you would give conpicerit ion to meeting the
rjubsiptence expenses of an ecologist through the
African Wilr, Lif e Fund ?In this event It would not
be unreaonable to press government to .-rovide housing
and a suitable vehicle se well as giving their full
support to thp npplication for aj Fulbri,.ht ajwnrd for
thi : pa.rticular purpose,
Copy to: Dr. F Airfield
6th October, 1959,
The Permenent *ecvf-trry
IN1 !T -1 Y 0?F FO T -N MI ~IT
The q,.,twh#J draft of tqn ,vticle was written wi
o (livect retiult of the rfecerit, titi~t the- Lmirdstry
I c,,;ze arWby wltt the fin Irms*i that mFainy of
the partI4i.nt- hrivirw got o-ff trveir ch ,,Ai th#- fact
consl~pred~ th hAd fnlfil' ,, their rfrsonsibilitietj.
The sttltwle pere to he no that w- havc si4ld
whpat Is happening tt I-r t kvnn t to o mjfwtlling
But nobody a~erUto hriwe :iv,, r, ny relthou-rht to
peelywha- re,-,irel to bin don to 8],-levi.ste thre
1 'uvewye~~e h- Orinci,lo of' re~fusing to
rt I c a un 1ez,:: 1 ;,n Cdo. so Constru4tjiC-VCej. "IY'tei
ottUrst& nt roetj ~a to C.(--rtntn actions of
th- oomm.,u,,iry bt un i he on lie ,v~one ith -a
prgetiefil solution I--r,;y a not on to help i7,i:rovp
the aliatnoeltl iIt esp quit, neaiti
end unreFasonrabl- 1to exi)-ct oan to evo
soluion~xfle$,themen~ioe inimaely oni~~rsd it h
thP 8it~ht!Ol C.,n augetwaiye s-nd merriv of obt! 1ninel- It,
Tfdiq the uie~~failed to Au, .sn thr e -ie of the
t;,ttLac h rd v~~i la r) att to r-rv ,Ay that jf e Ct.
40Yuui ton eve coet~wudb ~e d.
a ~Yourt. filroef5)-ly,
camfpaigni there hto been a co-ndr--t ive lu~l! In
povahing act ivitiee but during the poet few months
the question hi again reared its ugly heed, qame
Rangers deiscribe the situation Ps more serious then
it hns -ver bee~n before. "any of the ipoachera who
were aonvictr-d se a result of th(.. sucoesfu~l coa~Ig
two yebrseQ v u ave long eince CO.-I'etd their prison
Senteicea ;,j,4 hn-ve r" v"'i-te tu th,--ir eai
practices, having irn tie nosi letxned a number of
new tric'ks from their exieenci.. They are nor- whpjt
iR gnti-rAlly kriowl. e* 'fly' and ope als;O fully Ownre
thnt the intensive ct~pimiaiV s~,--vr-4t thper rpc-tered out
mAny months hgo.
~~ot ionly ia the ~oo si'rtlvrove- their
t ,:!hine Lut another ntir-ly new fftor nlow omdJAIetes
the. situritiur. Raod-edLed~veri. con L, rendily
)iurch;-, .ic for a nioapot outlay and, thuri Pqu% j ( the
rroilorn )oacher tois ai~l the ndvfantngea of' mobility and
can be mrny -111teb fr m thn ucee o the crimpe bfore the
alarm con be riei
In the July issue of VWILD I) It was attated that
unlessB a sotisfatory soluti.pn to som, of i ,)Pt rfre'i
more pr-essinF conserveto Probea.old be devised
Anti i-vlemented witi 5 years 'it mi-gt be too lette to
save the situation, Tj ie Wns not an h~irCal
outburst aimed atctching jubliu imag4to but