Citation
Ian Parker Collection of East African Wildlife Conservation: The Ivory Trade

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Title:
Ian Parker Collection of East African Wildlife Conservation: The Ivory Trade
Creator:
Parker, Ian.S.C.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Folder 15
Physical Description:
t.ypescript report plastic spiral bound

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Subjects / Keywords:
Ivory Trade
Africia wildlife

Notes

Abstract:
"A consultancy undertaken for Dr. Iain Douglas-Hamilton on behalf of the united states fish and wildlife service of the department of the interior, and the international union for the conservation of nature and natural resources, Morge, Switzerland."
General Note:
The Ivory Trade which consists of the commerce in ivory, biological aspects, discussions and recommendations and tables.
General Note:
Ian Parker Collection Re: East African Wildlife Conservation.
General Note:
Box 17: Galana Game Management Scheme (Part 3 of 3) with maps, notes, table cc.s, cc. correspondence, transcript, manuscript memos, docs, accounts.

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te yea the Positio .oape b Wild ifet In Kilifit MMU
andWf 6 dbal atd.Arca opno towar the cas fft ~
cosevaton has aw e mo untr~d got black amn haong fel tt t
the goveet presere ga at his expnse aM tht he is the loser all rom.
Aeftpoaching opeftios duin th ya cstina to sawte this Veaee
Loal .atr wer not slw to tak ad~t of the situottion sad atip
talk has becom a crtain vot-cate to l use,
Peac i s anl Its formM incsed nd- this tr= wiSl son ~su
the pr ntipewhing nj in e
Cro ft gl tog 1.ca, has ntatl*4 muc loe to all, thre istritse,
I an of the opinion, as I was $ last ra that the vaue of dame0m to
sgimdtur exoseds th cash inom derive from controlled are foes.
DMJ the litter six msn t of Usyer, I have had to give a lo~ t Us
to the expeimna $bu o the 4= Mhm !Soo. Ths hee to th
cst ofrtine daif. I 4seto th lo sffrn D-.s for selo bOU4
wer they have Wated s.
Thog the coas itself ha ousmn long rain sod umodrte abot
the hintrlan Maba a btd yea to fte deraa of the sc of Sthe whole,
I sM21 U to be bref~ eu this subJet as it miuet be covre fa o
comrehnsvel b the At-ocigtuals reot.
Thraq;W tey"It became mre an er ~ap~ t that the cuion 9" few
ImilledU by the Anipo n empg me rapidl weaing of. A vey o
visr t pwhers a" in oprtin The use of bush faee IoM
rattist Kwle -n bita, ism nowq m to KLIM aroun the
Yet River Hitero this was a bom~ area only* In this southern part of
Kilift th min offeners ila and Durm cbeoal burnes. T fail=*
of cros ve a wd Qemadesan reor to chrcoal main or a li4ing Th
isomse In this trdesutd In deeer wW deee ww e attuttof bithewto
utmed bush and the o s of poc it directly relaed to this
exIasa. Vsw s in the chrca arm hw d compartively little MUMa~
bHow rvnoth or the Smf and on up to thetam thefp a uv e itoly
#4 the 1"pg wine,
AaUVoahUWtoss and in the f irt six waths of the year odce house to baus
aeuvhes in Kaeq KUMf ad %vf Ditics Also a certini wwiut of b
ptrolling wm cariedot
While cutting th trac fro Nacknmo Row to the Galaza for the Gas*
Maagment Scem the recet remains of nm seens Qlt., thre buffalog five
rhino and six elephant were found. Th latter two speis sinus their trophies.
All these mb ae we found on the acua alinment of the trwk or a ver short
wa off it. Th tel per aqa mile mst be ver bfy Tw poche we"
apreenedwhile tedntheir -nr lies* Ow of the claims that siteen
aw shad ben rmo from his bush teoe by elphat.
Cotolled Are 3Blak 239 2M, ad to a loomsere 259 howe suffered a
spate of illicit btiq fun midtsts of RbeAn. Partis# usually Aiscog
,cme out ove vebmWs equippd with pru sptlighs and but ~mat bynikt
The pu-bles axe uualy about half a dozenstog OnGly oe of the pat poseemee
a licm. ad be chrgs the others a fee to cme with blue Bah ahl shot to
bovot by oe. of these clients. It the pwrt is apene the lime holder
alsime It as his aad having wA ke$ a regiser of prevous stus killed, f
first of that specisi o Us r5mostre 2% ol tim the ca be cagh to it th
e"t Ot 014




An OpratIO s PUNS U stop this OS shtt" An 'the P2- WVIS
bn tt 1.14 aS AUO a Mr A& of the tandin & ShPI COP CA trr
wit aegod ifenaio o the rots use by the min faw a"l wbey
wer. This intmio a passe to the pole*# who, to the best of faith
pase it to the Gam Dep~tment aad als to eM. ~WUh M.A. Rhn Me
iSm lm wont to AY&A aW in his poition of Hms Varden gt Avar to tell
his ala he kmw. Kbin then compil the details taft a repot and .iiulated
It to you# the anti-paingq tern u and U ayof laiin that it was a reult at
When the opmtton wet into actiong It wa a complete failur. I **M
help fooling that Ka -m directly rosonsble for givin the Oboys' a
"Up-ff~ Hi asoeation wiltw bw tig parties is Itaws as I tomdn hia
with a party of twlve at Bobum in Block 25. Of the twelv" only ouths
a vald 1z Tume ose.
The ta nse o mst hao to sning In their Sae registe defeaft
the purews of these rate in keepng the local Om Vwonu-t-dt
in Wtattoing on in igeam.
Belw to a tablo gtiin the repective cos.trUo are blacs and th
sarw of haa wmies sht in each block. fte mot ppuar blwek for vU
paties is Sea 27 Vw Wakuae.Temo yo atme in this are am
kille br Prfesiona Boa)r md thei cliets. Block 24 to bacng vM
ppuar with hutes f Momasa both 1CL wW Ullapl. Th min awm
for tid being t big decin of all spete In Black 23 and to a 3e..w
de Mak 25.
Yhe tabe also giv a m~ of4 sth Us sss nest siesn (or pKMPO
I bulA 8V the easist to Sineto
,ei Roth TOW SUL* M
2D212223 24 25 26 2
neh*3 4 2 28 M 4 */Sa.
N I AW W go so 40 AM I
SIfl 1 1w AW I I owI f4063
MA 0 1 1W I N 1 3 -0 4 936a-
Oryx 2 1 1" so 1 4 4 OP to ,,
LIOS SW OW 40 0 I W OW 1 3 4
tepr 10 Or so e- aw 1 I
1441se of 3 20 2 1 4 00 to10
ram 1 0 2 12 4 10 31 310/"
Tt2 W o- W $" 2 0/a
WfteWotk I OP 00 OF 1 40 a -0 20/-
Redw AW va 2. 1 40 1 15/.
Wams I OW If 4 1 aw 2 7 U 51A
Urd 1 2 2046 2 9 30 Ig/
4 1 m 4 1 1 2 9 23 115A.
Oeem 40 W I -W 2 3 30/-
Wartbog 2 3 4 3 4 K 8iI
pbaok W 40 to 40 0 W *
bl* w aw 0 NO OW 00 40 go
I 324 0 5 39 1 4 19 or 40 4* 1
rnr ft1 %Oo TOM ,1I




This table is compiled from Game Registers received by me in 1959. 1 would
repeat that it is not accurate, as a number of people fail to submit a game
register or are very late in doing so.
Rhino These beasts are still thin on the ground and deserve the full
protection they have ejoyed during the past year* The largest populations
are to be found in Controlled Area Blocks 2D and 21 -, both -within the Game
Management Scheme. Arun the bases and on most of the larger hills in Telta
the rhino are distinctly more nmerus than in the flat NWika. The much
thicker vegetation on the former so doubt accounts for this.
Sableo I an very much against the proposal to allow a number of sable
to be shot on licence. My reasons are t
a) the sable of Kenya are an isolated populatioap and should their numbers
ever reach the t danger level' there is no possibility of natural
replenishment of the stock fro Ta -ganyik
b) Sable are a species that have unergone a steady decline in numbers
over the last fifty years The area which is populated today is less
than one tenth of that occupied fifty years ago.. This is confirmed
by the older members of the local tribes.
Where once found all over the hinterland of Kilifi even into what is today
the Tsavo National Park there no remains a small group of Sable on Mangea Hill,
The decline has ocurred within living memory.
In Kwalet Sable are today only found east of the Kwale-Tang Read in any
numbers. Again, within living memry, they once extended in some strength west
of Kilibasi Hill
It is difficult to attribute this alarming decrease in numbers to poaching
alone. Sable are wary creaturesp as much so as any of the other large antelope.
Why then should they suffer extermination while landp olrx and kongoni continue
to occupy what was once commn ground? What the reasons are for this population
"crash" are yet mysteries. All we can accept in formulating policy is that the
decline has taken place, and that we do not know whether it continues or not.
o) There is no one who knows how many sable there are In Keny. Any figure
is but an approximation, Theoretically therefore no one can say what culling
rate the species can sust ain. This very important principle of conservation
should be applied in its most absolute sense where precious species such as sable
are concerned. The only policy therefore, that the Game Depar tment can apply
with moral conviction in the face of its ignorance (and ignorant we are|) is to
maintain a "status quo" until scientific fact dictates otherwise. It is no
argument to claim that "it has been proved in America that to kill the herd bull
is tO allow new blood into the herd and is therefore beneficial to the species."
This has not been proved with Sable and to apply what might fit ene unglte
to another without proof is amateurish and dangerous.
I request most strongly that until the Game Department has a scientist who
can tackle the question competently, Sable Antelope remain Royal Game in Kenya.
Other Species. I sttl believe that leopard warrant full protection*
However in view of the fact that only one was shot by hunters last year I shall
let the matter rest.
CONSERVATION MEASURE.
Leopard have been a nuisance on the coast south of Mombasa. To cope with
the situation a leopard trap of the box type was constructed. Three leopard
- two males and a very preg-zant female were transported to the Tsave National
Park (East). Two were released at A -uba dam and one on the Galena River. I
recommend that the policy of dealing with leopard trouble in this way be
continued. The stock of leopard in the Nyika has been 'Very sadly depleted in
the past and needs restocking badly if it is to hold its own. It is an expensive
procedure but I think well worth the cost,
The leopard trap built was made from material supplied by the Game Department,
by the National Parks at Vol. The cost of labour and gas for welding etc* was
met entirely by the Park autherities and therefore a joint ownership is exercised
over the trap. The agreement is that if the trap is not being used by the Gamae
Department, the Parks may use it, and vice versa.




The Sbima Hills hawo Mat Pot stsites as a fau= 00"ftrwAtios uftt.
If a viebleseriesof wild nim could be built up,, the proximity of the
i to N1obqsqthir vr considrable scenic beauty would etmble. a a
second only to the Mirbi Nationa k to be created. At the mt there
are only thre vreaentqable specion of animals In the area; buffalo, sable
antelope and elephant. They %re shy and war an yet, not of qny v-ilu as
a tourist attraction. Howeer I am of the opinion tlr-t other sp,3ci-e such an
ImpmlntKngn and Zebra would flourish adgreatly enhance the v,-lua of the
areal, if imported,&1~ ~ ~Qib
Today the orest Dt is attptig to establih exotic tree
plantations on the northern end of the hills. Thog it wy nt be arnarsat
to the nesr future, itto inseitabi# that the interests of fauna and orestr
will clash. It ha nevr proved otherwise where large Afrio,,t P-al re
conerd. Now t the tim to did wich hem to base If mney ta spent
on both causes and one evetually *polls th dom of the other,, then ny finae
spent on the other tostedt.
tIorestr or rther the stablient of' etic plantations, has, until
very~ recently, been a failure on the Shimb Hills. Today the difficulties of
seleting suitable species for the ara my have been oveme* dowavr any
return fron fore-try will not be ap-aret for m3ay years to eone.
A p t r h f eue the Asericaniea tion) of
tourists hih Mombasa as a port would enue-would provide a cnt aceptable
return within a compratively short spaes of time* It must be borne in mind
however, that the aba Hills will even tually constitute sn island in a sea o
agricultr. The efets of this will be felt try the shwba owners adjaent to
the Hillso and therefore the benefits of any fanl park would have to be
distributed locAlly and be uuh as to obliviate looses swandby agricultualistse
The $Ghinba Alls 'Porest Reuerve has been ceated an "'Aenity Forest." ft
it both the plntn of forego trees and the conservation of lnj anmauls ae
to be practised. I will repeat myself s these two activities-ar. ultimately
incompatible, It therefore followa that to spend moe on both to to wate that
spent on one. It is urgent that R policy decision be taken on which money Is to
be sent foretry or fwxm At prsent no one is in a position to nake tht
deci- % lot s known of foest, but nothing at R. about faun-, or its
proper conseeti. The ovuscourse seem to be thereore, to appoint a
competent e n, or tem. to produce a report an the ecologr and mtwal
potentialities of the are with particular readto its mcne e erits. Lac
of finance will mak this difficult, but could an approach be made to the N
411d Life Society for its sisac in putting the problem to the Conservation
Trust In Now Yof? If cash is to be as" fro Gmeg the seventy five squire *Ue
of the ;hi HUI Rser offer o of the "e bets" in
I naso ec mnd that the stau of the ShIsha Rills be -altered to that or
a full ams "serve. Only sable ar protected legally at present. Any other
cre-itures sybe shot on licence and % controled qre permit for Block 24.&
An attempt to put down minerals to attrat the sable and buffalo and thus
make them ore visible is to be maeby the Forestry Depsitent after the short
rains have ended. The mlt *too was provided by the Gne s pnrtment earlier in
the year,
It was with no little alar I board the Divisional Forest Officer an thtt
this unique forest was regarded as a "-ftl resev". Thuhthis nrea has no
potential as a reee earnr from tourists, its value. to science Is grato
Several species of birds, and at least one diker (Cepheophuea sdersi.) are
confined to this forest and ame found nowhere ele in the world.
ibwver it was later agred that n portion of the forest would be creted
a "rnture reserve" and left in its pristine state. The emet are We not yolk
been demrcated,




neyla ma District2 u
4 Shiaow nils
Dii E~~ states
KUMtS District 4 abk-okePrs
4 Vtewali
I near Debaso M1l1
)alindi qub ftistrict 5 tah
Tetta 4 state rftatas
I Vol S3isal stte
5 ftekinnon Ros Buchma
foreperimentalU phae
48
32112 wle I Shlid Hills9
KUM~f 2 Yisubvaa
= Taita 1asi
Hippo Kwale 2 Fait
Mueh -vg was invited on Raini Sur Ratat. during the P",ind
Af ut Oetaber. It is at this time of the yea that 'the dosnutis rip~ and
these sees the direct caus for the mmer of elephant coming Into the coastal
strip. All elezhqnt killed in Kae wer bulls.
in KUMif thv ArnbkaSkk hard continued their sporadic shamba rsi&e
It aan neme ttvit this gru sh~oulde Mw bee use fo te~ eprmnw
of the Game- 17al U-,nt Scem. Roweer weather conditions precluded tis.
North of the 3aak In the Garashi Qnd Kmsmfa locations three elephnmt
were shot. Teeseem to be some influx of elephant from the hneln i
Jrj periods. 1!ver the Game Maaeet 3cem borders on these locations od
in Euture alU "control" complats should be 4et withi far kaore easily*
In Tet" a cotimi kmll was hear houhu the year from Vi Sisal
Estte. T shall deql with this in a leter pragphe Uphant did a consderabl
wount of dqanto the sothrnan of Teita Concessions 7,stata. The only
water for man miles around %no situated but a short way outside the sial in
thr vimtnte River course It wea this that attrated the elephant to the
proximity of the ett. One elephant was abet in the water hole. This poluted
It and drove the olephant elswhere, Wvevar I have had twinges from my
conscioe evr since Re it most certinly could not be termed "conservation*"
All the elopbant watering there were in extremely poor conition. It was most
noticeable that because the Teita Concessions 1 state is keipt so verY olwmn sm
neat, elephant do not lilce venturing into the fields of sisal, but confine their
-ictivities to the fringes close to the cover of the bush*
laevbant dwnge Zivani Etate but no re-uetg for assistance war* received*
It eppmars to ze that the v-ilua of "Vms control" lies in the good-will it
creates in the public toward the GOae Department. The term "Gsoo Control" itelf
I feel is ltirgaly a misnomer. The only time that shooting elephant is
successful Is whomasmall umbers are concerned. When a large w~ber move into
in area and incidental crop isamgs in done As a result (suwh Re when iho dam nuts
ripen on the south coast) shootingo hts ver little effet, Hovever the odwl
"w ue engenderel is rwrh%:)s worth the cost of a few elephant# but it does sees a
tit of "m left hook".




An uwin eae 9eur wd en ver7 I arge inburs of giraffe took a famy to
sisal poles an Zwai Estate at ?&vat&. The Estate uses large numers of theme
poles for mking frut crte and for building purposes. The quantity of pole
eaten by girafe was such thit the Satate had to consider importlaC poles frm
an outside soure. fte giafehad to be moved. Various methods were trie4.
They wae~ chivied with 3hotusg the idea being that they would be no atun by
the emill shot that they would take to the buh cver to return. They Cmud
the wu of a socwito a I" and rem-4ined on the estate. A few were then
shot 'by the Msukr but with little effect on the other. T decide-7 th-.,t If a,
lot veore shot at oe the remiiaer wight to impressed by such it cataatrophe.
Accordingly# ametean were shot in a very short space of times Again witmt
affect. The only answer to the problem were:
ato annihilate them all or
bto tur them into an asset to the 2sate, wdho would then be clad to have thew*
A draft plan was prepared whereby a giraffe pax week waz to be shot to fulfl
part of the states' s weekly meat requirement. Thaeco~c were nwh th4i the
zatate would save mony to the tune of hunreds of pounds per an by far ees"
the value Df the "lost" sisal poles. A trial period of three months would dwi"
whether it wms feasible to continue a further three months of tis coeppiag some
It it was#, the idea would be exploited father. The Fstqte would have to Vhum
anisthtisngequipment and the giraffe would be marked and inhered. To il
mind the situation presented an ideal opportunity for carrying out valuable
resrmh on Cirffe as well as tunn them into an asset to the Estate*
As the Natinl Park is adjacent to the Zetate, their co-operation wa
sauk~t. ;rda Harahll Svc tentative approval to the plan, but after
consultations with Col. C itdraw his pport.
An result I took no further action ad the intate oaaent have abet
a lot mor giraffe to no cmell benefit. The giraffe comes fr=n the Rationl
P-rk and It mut now be up to them to solve the problem.
I have" almeay stated that where larg :mbers of elephant are concerned
"Control work" is of little ralue. .where is this more apparent than on the
H~znul sestion of Vol Sisal 3state. This %zings seetion h-%3 -a common bounary
of oe sovm miles, with the Tsavo ?ark. The Vol river flows withit the Park
north of this bounuand it rrvides several important watering points for
elephant tward the midnle of each dr eason. At =%,h times eleomt cwnrt
In the area ad the a-isal onMsL 'Enastate W-fers severely from their attention,
This perennia problem is fUrther aggrae& by two factors. k ra-pesr
tank an the ftt pipe lima is situated on the estate. The outflow from this Mas
created a all-season water supply and It definitely brings elephant close to this
sisal.
Secomly the state of the plantation Itself la to aL gret degree responsible
for the attention elephant pay it. The sisal has not been cleared for yers and
thick buoh, In fiiot In placs it to thcke than the virgin bush outside the
Upstate# provides bait for any passing jumbo. Whees on the lumculate teita
Oonosions Rftate the anals we reluctant to r@netrate into the sisal confining
their activities to the fringes, an 14iboO this fear tosabsent, and the elephant
havoc no qualms about plugn Into the heart of the $jungle**
What ban been done In the past to alleit this sittion? Over the 7emr
many, usay eleknt have been shot. When a lot of elephant are about, diffet
groups enter the sian each occasion. Skr off on hard and the next nib
another omes In. The elepat mare ht and the damage contiuies. Shooting on
this estL'e has been very definitely proved to be of no avail whatsoevr. fta
"Public-roltions" v-alue mentioned earlier of control shooting is also outveige
by t0hs lossz Inflicted on Niatioa1 Park's stock. gore, in tho most heavily toowvd
Arm of the "rk it La essential that the ge to tame and viewable. If shooting
elephant in the sisal to not of any use# to continue to to Increase the loe vwd
distribute it In other fields.




It has boon pointed out to the tat Iftnaseet th-At if th* sisal mft
cleane the trouble would be greatly leseed ad that this is a buici atop is
&*lvia the problea6 13woerg this they very fi~mly refus to do. Laak of
fiawe to elatwW as the reso.
To the past the National Par autorties have, taken a very grat 4"al of
trob to assist the Extt aae have spent considerable sums of mnvse in doing8&
It wa believed that a thick wall of brush and earth would dater may elphut
An agrement ias made whereby the -Estate wer to provide nachinary ari the Pafe
thR fuel and supervision. Viith the complete failure of the Ploaio' quiowto
the parks provided their own bulldozer. Apair the 'r tate failed to car out
their part of the bzgi.The plan was abandoned.
A ver ftir 4ere of success wsahieved wim Park rr~r vre post*# s
Swrd arond the sisal at ni~t. Tho Estate ge to employ niglt gwrd it
the Park's a ranel trained them. Thi sshm felltruh after four days
when the Asianspriigi eiedi a o m ok
Th whole history of this estate in the sphere of crop prtcinhas been
founed on iadofnw and icmeec.N lnhsee encridtruh
The M point thait has been proved is thit sotn the elephant des not solve
the probes wWi inflietn an adtitional loin on the Tsavo Park.
I shaln not go into any detAil or this sujeeto Suffice it to sty tWa it1
Is moat gmtifying that it Mes received such vide support both laternally aod
interoatioumlly. Its success is largely due to the very native interest
displayed by the Amsistra.tiono
Herein lien the cae for the very ubpywild life situ.tioa of today.
No matter how suh mey is spent on anti-poachingg or scientific resftrO
no m-atter how svh international support isenndrorhwcsim ou
and perorveg a" the alff of the Gw Dopqrtmentl fauna conz: rrtioa Is
any country will be dependent ultimately on local public opinion. Public
opinion in Ken"a will very shortly be "African opinion". Africa,- opinion to
today ag4-inst fauna eomsemtion unreservedly. Whyt? The reason it obvio=s
and justifiable.
Prior to the advent of the Xuroea, most of the Batu people aM
especially those of the Csnt Province, derved a very large proportion of
their protein re--utrimtq *rom wild animals* To a devee -lias anzlus
nn~-bed he towihstndthe hs~ conditions In which the people lived.
%;ild life Was %alayp a Stany food source in times of dr *t in spits of
fifty years teivilisatios' the standard of agriculture is ruch t?)a-t wild life
ir till an important forod sore in Inrd times.
The Wild Animals Protection Ordinic and the licence nd feos re-,Uired
by it, where by a man may hnt, very effectively prevent the Afric:' n zruntia
legxilly. He therefore porches.
Poaching ma be divided into two cntegrien. ?ir.,t the follow who ~tts
for the pot and for recreation. Second the comoricil hunter with his nethads
of organised slaughter.
The fomr cam be likmned to the --, ish conrmntriaking hl-- rabbit*#
and there ire nound reasons as to whyr he should be allowed to continue to do thing
Tachnially he tranagreges the law. He is the ens ioqt of criminals to catch.
Hence the case earlier this year of an old Giriam in posseasion of twelve arow
andl one dikdik skin eighteen months imrsnet An abuae of justice?
I know thit were I a cowunist agitator this would be the type of m-41ria I ankft&
?he econd category of poacher iR wily, u professional ad a ral menace to
gnee To nut an effective end to this trade African opinion %ust be obtain"*.
This will cover be offered unless the ordirAry abasba ownce a opportunities am
omeliorated in the 1J.A*NO. Rural people the world over hunt,ad the Africa*
in no exeption.




This point has hitherto been tred is vmor policy deciuions, The
Tnysent of controlled are feen to the local District Councils Is an
" kawiegmn of the faet th-A the African has a direct right to the boefits
of g *e Howevr thick does nut seen enug and it ic the individiwl who wst
be aimed At. I feel that in heavily populated area~tsuch no slorle the
co7astr.l strip, ae, fo= of hixtine should be allowed. Bu; Abuckf Juiker eteot
hundedsof these aials are killed illicitly every year. Could not soe fof
of cheap licence be issued for these species in certain areas.- All dues going
to t-ho local A.t.. The incre--se in the number of tseanim 1ls killed W*Uld
not be gra. The value in _ania.- at least some sun--ort for ennarvntion
would be more than wrth it.
V411d Life affair houhu KUM#fi K1l and Teita for the yer 19"9
"Never have we hqd it so bid"'
(with apologies to the Tories.)
L..Parkor
1--IM 'Jardenjo Kilifi.
Oxpiea to: zProvincial Cmi, 5.o-rj Mombaz;,
District Cisowiaonor, Kilifig
Toitag
District f io-r, ;4-iindie




Tfqvieable eries of wild Untwaln oud1 06 built up-, th~e pkvxiity~ o- t MV
Hill* to foabqnqjtheir vey consideritble, scenic bamuty would esmbl tt
second only t4 the ftkimbi Natimml, Pr to be cmeated. At the mnt there
gare only three prsentobIo secian of Ranio*as in the area bWfalo# 3 bls
*~ntelopo and sle1pbst. They we shy and wptry and an yet, w4t of asy vtlw~ as
a toaftst attrattos. Nowenr I an of the opinion thst other spacje3 such or
Impal-i, :Kon sed, sebra would flourish and grpmtly e*bhm~c* the vaus of the
Today 'the foreat Deatet Is attempting to establiah emotic trat
plantations on the northern end of the hills. Thoughi it my nact be a~ppnrent
it the nesr future# it to iosvitable that the interests of f,,vna mWd fomsetry
will clasb. rt hns vovez proved otherwise where Lxrgo Afrtcan manl are
cooerse. New to ths tUWe to decide wbih fbors. to bMW9~ If sonoy to spnt
on both enusos anais eveUmlly apell. thw 4ora of the other# then any M3
spent on the other to vast*&
'11orestrys or rather the t-Abliaent of exotic pl4ntationa, tns# until
veryp recently* been a failure oe the Shiaba Rills. Today then dtffttt~s of
aelecting suitable species fer the areas may he bean ovemomse. ib'owr any
return from forestry will not be npmarent for viny year* to come.
*A Caw park~ with a large Othrough-low" (e~una 'the arcgsto f
tourlate *= which Mmaaas a port would ensure would provide u moqt --ceptablo
return within a comiparatively short ee of time* It *ast be borme in mind
however, that the Shimba Hils will eventually constitute aa isla4 in a sea of
agriculture. TM. effects of this will be felt by thi sheba o,-mers adjacent to
the n1lls and therefore the benefits of an faa Wek vould have to be
distributed looc3.1y an~d be ouch an to obl-lviatr losses wttie by agricultu"W
The U-blaba Hills Forwat Remeve has be,7n created an "Awemity forest." I&
it both the platlag of foreign trees and the cosrmtion o~f lae awe ane
to Le praottioed. I will repent myself i tbase two activities are ratlioitely
incomipatibl*4 tt therefore follow! that to speMd monoy on both is to waste that
sentt on one* It is urgent that a policy decision be takon on which coey is to
ba ajpo@t forestry or fwma. At present no one is in a por-Ation to m,-ike that
dectzi lon. k lot1 to kown of foxvotry., but nothing at all about fauna or ita
-,=pr cnsuv ton.The obvious course seems to be theref ore to appoint a
competent person, or teia, to produce a report on the ecology Wn rntural
potWti-litieq of the area with particular regad to its ecosafte aerite. Lack
* of ficsmne will si this diffioultq but could an approach be soft to the Kemyn
dild Life Sooiety for itaist in puttlnd the problem to the Conservation
Truat in Now Tort? It cash in to be sift from, Game#V the vaty live aqwav sibm
of the hlsba HUI* Rserve offer one of tile "beat beWs in ftqp#4
I also reomend that the status of the Miba Hills be altered to that of
a full Cereservs Ovly sable re protected legally at present* Any other
croatures way be shot on 11cteme and s coatr* l9e arms penit for Block 24.
An attespt so put down wimarals to attract the sable and buffo-le and thus
smae thow no"e visible is to be made by the Forestry D*epartmwot after the short
rains have ealsed. The salt oft*. iis pmovided by the GameDprmaseriri
the yoar.
It was with little alum I board Use Divisional Forest OftMcar say that
this unique forget was roardod as a "ftel reserve'". Though th19 nres Kas no
potential an n revenme earner fins touristaip Its, vmluo to sciLoce to pMeit.
f:ea spece of birds, anW at least one dulker (Cepheophuw aiderst) are
Oonfivid to this forest ad sve found ntovhero also to the world.
H Iowver it was later aveed that a portiom of the forest would be created
a N~meresrr" & lot l is pistasstate. The smat area We got yet




hbimba auiL3s hav ereas potent t3 oie Vr it.3'~ ~u~t
rf a vievible verts of vdld mtaalai could be built up tho pro xtil~ty f tlh*
Rill* to 14osb~sqtheir vf7 considerable scenic beauty old emsble q, ir
second only to the ftirobt. %%tiom1 lurk, to be ared, At the mwmet three
a~re only7 three premtlo apcies of antiw3a in the &resl; buffalo, sJbla
antelope mud eopbant. TbeW o fty and wary and ma let# not of ay vtlw~ ase
a touiist attravtiov6. However r ex of the opinion that other asc tez suclha-,o
1mmtl-x# Ken ad Pebn vou4 flourish and Sre~atay ehne the v,- tua of the
Toay the Poreat Deatet to attempting to esitablieh exativ tree
Vl Iqtstio= on *be northern *ad of the hills* Though it =ay not be ap~nrant
In the snya fvutuw* it to iowwitable 'that *be lateresta of fmm aamd forestry
will clash* It has never proved otherwise where larxe Africin mzas ao
concerned. Now to the time to defide wbith "horse to baW*" If roney to spent
on both mauses and one eventually solls the doom of the other# tkom wWriyw
spent on the other is wastiod.
roreUt9y or mnther the establistmat of exatic plantsticaz tne# until
very recentlyq been a failure on the Shiiba Wlls. Today thin diffic-lt ies of
electing suitable species for the ara a" hae btan ovrm However any
return from forestry will cot be apmal; tar may yeexs to come.
A asne park with a large 'through-flow" (excwue V~e Asericaoatoo) of
tourists wih 11obasa as a port vould ensure a. would provide a aost axeeept~iblo
return within a easmarativoly short spac of 'time* It must be borne in mind
however, that the Shtubn Hitlls will eventually constitute an isLand in a sea of
Wgioiultv"'. TMe effects of this will be felt by th,- shbk owners adjacet to
the ills and 'therefore the benefits of awW faunal park wold kave to be
distributed loc- -ly anid be such to eblivitn losses motaied by ariculturals!
The -Xbaba Hills Fareut R~erve hso be- n created an "Amenity Yorest." In
it both the planting of foreign trees aud the ommrwvntion of largo .aniw,1 av
to Lie practised. I will repeat myself : 'these two activities ae Tltinately
iwcoapstibla. It therefore follow? that to spend smay on both in to Waste that
pent or, on** It is urgent that !P policy deocion be t~akon on vhich mvtey is to
be spat forestry or fan-. At present no one is in a "otit i" to mke tht
decis~loa. & lot is known of forestry, but nothing at %U1 about faun%. or it.
rropar cone~w tioe The obvious course seems tr, be theref oro, to a-point a
comptentperam, or' teRm, to produce a report on the ooologr and natural
potetialitiesn of the area with particular regard to ite sootio merits* lrpk
* of fiaaso Will ak* -this Aifficult, but coald im approach be mnade to the "myn
411.6 Life Societl tow Its amsmein putting the, problem to fte C fantion
Trust to Now York? It asf to to be made fros Gamol, tVo seventy five sqtxav miles
of the 4himba HUI*e Reserve, offer am of the "best beWto is ya,
I also redommesa th-at the status of the ftlimta Hills be altered to that of
a full Saw rservo. Only *ablea a"e protected leoally at present. Wn other
ermiatuse my be shot on liotenoo and a contro lled area permit for Meeok 24.
At attempt to put down uinorals to attmt the sable and buffalo and thus
sake them more visible to to be undo by' the Forestry Deatmn after the short
ralas have eaded. Tho mat oft. was provided by the On"e Ispirtment earlier in
tho yoar.
It was with to little alurm I board the Divisional Forest Gfficer may that
this unique rove"t was retVarftd as a *fuiel reser",*Tog this nres has no
potential mo; a reveomw earziW ftfe touristal Its vouo to sciewee to gra1
Several ripooie. of birfs, and at least cne dulkar (00*amophus Adderst) ane
oonrfinsed to thin forest and ame found vovbetv olso to the world*
i*owever it was later agreed that a port iot of the forest vwud be oreated
a Owt~we anar" nd Uftt ia its pristine *tats. The *=at area has not yet




T1 i tvfto eries of wild asala 0Wbe bui up, thO rr~iY Of ths
second only to the drb ainlPrk# to be arao At the mstbr
.%m only three miatbl* aeon of aalmml in 'tjb art uflvabf
,] tqop elephant.~ Th" Ur WW WW4 WUT &a a 7", no$ of ay 'VIAW. as
-i touriast 1%tmwticm. kbmvr I as of the opinionR tbt other selaah
Inpalt Kmg a ar ebm~ would flourish and grnetl~r *nac the vzltp mf the
In the nes fwtuw.# i to tawtbl that the 1n*rm t,, of fawam and fomtry
will clanh. It hk avr pr'ove otherwise wbrv lar Aici r,
conared Nw to the tlw to dwoide vb~ch "ba to baor If moeyt spent
or. bothi ftuss and ea evnually *"Iel -the dow ot th there# Vm say fiwAsft
spent on the other toe wae.
very iretly, beea a falUs on the Shisb gill. Twadsy thr df 4 tou", ties of
selecting suitable spectes for the 2jam hav* be~meramoivs n
reur fr s t fwill v,11nt b* apr~ret for mas rwr to camow
tourists which Kombasa as a port voul enur Youl roid a mo ,t
return ithin a cowpsratively short opw of time. It sat be bone to wiM
h~owv tbet the Obab Hill will eventually wsi e an Isand In a aea of
agricultW*. The effes of this will be folt by tlu hamb omerv adjaot to
1the RtU* Wa therefore thG b~t sit Of MYf )tlpr would hae. to be
distrIbuted locally ind be euch *ato obliviate losses mtined by agricxul sts.
The 4hla Mille Forw avarv ha bw*i create to "Aml oos.1I
it boW PUUv a o~s rmsd t oxmsat~ lav mall am
to be peatlood I willrpatza s tkaw two acft*tke ire TA-41atal
inoapaibes It Vtefore faow, tba~t to aedmnyo ohi oaetn
Ameialon. A lot Is lwnv of fatry, but sothig at all sbro ft or-its
cmptwv pew#o tote to -rota a rert on the ecol aad mtm
Wild Lift Soitty for its wasuce s pate the poo otoCnsvto
I also recmam th,.t the status of the 9hel U111a be matre to that of
u full Sa esn. Onl sable amVrtftto Lo~wv at present, AW othar
crtueawa bo-shat on liaa* ad a control aro p*oitf Bicok R4.
tho year* a1tf
i w" wth so lit~ t *a asm I badthe Di$4ioba P mtOficer wrUn
1I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ "" -ar bav ~ ~ w* R w~A.e~.s




vecoW, oaiy to *1.w batrobt Watiam Pak to to *mtd$ t them t hr
-xi cmly tbree p~stable spoca of aalegl in tbe aroat buf~lov 3ablo
,=teo =a 616bat. They are WW am OX &ad %a yet I Ot oft any~ Vn1 as
,i to r t *aton. i~w4m I aof the opialonR tbt ote peieauhw
,nsla# Sonmand Zebra would flourish &0 grftty eit= the vilue of tho
are, f imaported.
Tdythe Foret eutetiatepig oeutihe iore
plant-411oms on the nothr edof the hi1. To& tm dtbo..-nra
in thoe near future# t to tavrtilge Wat the itVt ffxt n r
wilfl clash. rt tm ave W rovd otb~ervs wbere large Africn rmnIte
can"rnad ft I th# t~w to decide vb4oh "hoso to ba If mnyto spent
or. both mues and on eveuti.Uy spells the dot e *other, thenP nnyrin
spmt on the other in wated.
?Po-Aryq or mtbar the eatab au~t of 0MCpti#top al Wi
very recently, been a falure on the Shiba Hills. 4o-* th 4tf3tieg of
selecting wtable spectoo for the 2.rm my bae be vrm.Hm n
return tm foesr will not be apparent for ms" yeas to cO,,
A -m park with a 1**truh-l (euvo te Ameic-,jriation) ait
to~ist hih Momrta a3 a par wul ansuro would4 provide a lz-t nei ept-Abla
retl;n~ within a cosp5?xtively short ope of tim* It mustb orn to mind
liw~rgthat the Sh"Hill will entuaxy eatte ila4 in a ; aa of
agrcultare The ef Uof this wiU bo falt by thc e~iwbo *,vmnr ad e to
the R111 W~ tberefr the benefits of an faft park would hae to be
4istri~tie loc Qly and be zuch to obliviate losses wandbagi;taitz
It both the p~UA of fvxtg tvsa mOfartaso a~ an r
to e ratidwI w1U reet u *si s bs two activities rire ~Uimt.ly
incopatble It thomfobro foUov t1L&,u to sapeictid or. both is t t t
setoni one. It Is urget thekt a policy deion be tpke onwia onyt to
b aan ftWr or ftns At present no me in In a poto to mak thqt
Amilion. A lot Is kove of forestry, but nothing nt all. abottfuto-
,av per o1.t cma to I s tin. %a obwnoorj om to e Uoof t. to e a
Trut it NW b*Tt OA isu tob t f"O thO Wfttt fiwv sqw"* OUG
of the SWabs H1s ftse. **fawo of the "bes bwt"' s12len
I als rw*ws thmt the sttu of the ghlbaA be atWt hto
the year,




APPENDIX FOR COL. HURT ONLY.

STAFF.
1. Dokorta Guye.

Lazy and irresponsible. However he is capable of
shooting elephant.
A likeable rogue. With practise he will be a competent
hunter. Absolutely fearless.
A good tracker and would suit you as a gun-bearer.
He is rather inclined to be sullen.
Not a hunter. A hard and willing worker though, and a
worthwhile member of the staff.
Extremely dumb and very shy. However he is useful to
have about camp and he works hard.
Smart and clean. An able fellow but tends to be lazy.
He would do well on the leopard trp.
Smart and honest. A good man who tries h -rd at anything
to which he is put. A useful all-rounder though with
no "control work" experience.
A very good man but rather seqk to be 9 Cpl. IHe
would do very well as a gte guard and guide in the
Shimba Hills Reserve
Not over-intelligent, but would do well in an
anit-poaching ajuad.
To be retired if a pension is forthcoming.
Good. I have already expounded his virtues to you
verbally. He is ex-Potgeiter.
Not a Game Scout.
Not aG ame Scout.

2. Debase Galogulo.
3. Barisa Bagila.
4. Ndege Guyo.
/
5. Diwani Warede.
6. Muthani Mute.
7. N~ee Male.
A. Charo Mboru.
9. Chengo Konde.
10. 7ena Noa.
11. EKitsao Mwavulo.
12. Mwinahaji Mwandale.
13. Shehe Abdalla.




Telegrarpis: "GAME", Nairobi (I GM EPRMN
Telephone: No. 20672-3
Ref. No. GA .......................' 0 4 III
UI 2 Y ".trUTV "/ 7711"R TO TFF 1,TmL---.
The -tirst kneol the ', 1-me :av~o.nt htie Offtci,.Ily onore on the
:jirst of July 191i9. its limi,,ed objectives re z
L) to prove th,,t the. prodU-ts of COrtlin wild antmjlj Os~i
elepit, have a ready m,-ut and
ii) to !xm if the 'Vuingulua -I-" nbl to '.ho life In the
sahwz dues to stirt aoxt yokr,
Tbal mlu Tw!enty Wftliq.Tulu vere mcruitad soets eoetefirst
of Jutly. Tan c-,.m f m aiver Dz"istrict, Belen mlii n three fl-o
V-e ",aindt 3Sub-itstrict, It a biou f ";h a t tee~a
Z~- ciifference in toer, :,at betveen tibmatin ?mme the Tt, Piver are-, ind
'tos t' Klim Atr only a very sCto-t tTefive of- thr i" ift '4-li-tilu
-Ol te CCOxip of their own Volition. T,-e v,.-,oajois were ianne!Ltoly filled
by i ws RieTere i L rm onister t trea f'p~c.t o
-!h-3 thel~y Cus ex t oean dhp Lm very il:eg'M pa.T o )t f
thi thy hve orkd a~ nd hei uo1eis eyellcmt, hin-k 1'rs Rily
wil ea m out On thi2; roint.
xu of thej better km)-r hunters, of 't twenthv adn'ruin in
th is ffr0?e To r golhots,, for the nou of tmir given,
nd e- stly beit a teaat ru h DPt. anti-poachln ; in htigc te.
A chllen Io b-en iv t th,7 -,,tio i rkr Va ot and am"t- i- to be:
rrr neu Thfey C-h 0";1 llx be --,,I y '0 sh1oot -,ebit on th vi r oi wiin 1C '
nrrt month.
A~ ~ ~~~~~~o lt~eoe b-bra-.,u elected ,long -with four K r to
alyinie him, rme -all -resare --iven throul; Ilia.
Origzinailly i a ne e htteShm huduiieteeeln
inth bk~okkeforres: t for -thei ma jority of itsn,- v~oim e con t
r-lat on the oa lia procli~ed this n l loathv ee ht~f 01~'l
in Toit. D itriat where dry comditiunc ha-ve pxmvailod. U!3ing, jo~n sht
mo control,' is cot very satisfactory as w h :v h-12 to wait until m i
don tocree, ndinv: riably- this is 1in 7n inconvenient -ta ifcutlce
hvrg ''30 h -)o driedl ~em e lpatIsbe okdota l tly
over r- ,ur hunre unds,




uig july -and 4uguIA!3 zi,, tw;o thuadfv ude onsof mea0 t
bee sldt3 J;Iffez- .i 0aj ofG i hefrs onincn o n thousa_,nd
pouswa T s Sold at -,/60 CtF3 pr"' pound The-: seon t /0sPpound At
thslatrprice Mr. Jafferali 1-m, .!r-- to buy all ecnprdc provided
t ht utliority for resae is3 --r.-nted -to hiTi ilb ie.It wa3 ade
certo r Jferl tht the ;'ee~eb o easbndto ,f to him.
oto to" KisnyPie inl theCnowihaanttv rdrfra ute
tc on. A Fhe fr t t is' inL th 11C ur C' al s peIhve to
acet rieof -/50" cL!3 Per, pound; bjut m~eit cler tha ny folloing
woi b t igenrice. Ieiso oipr i 'n wierm -the
Qon~ auhoriies ~aiagefrxl Voi to KsnlPe s98 e ()ls
It is felt, t-at a go mea t Lar~k,,?i. xtt in, the 61g raofTuni
Th Amiisraio i Msh hve beer, most c-p iv. Hoee ayfurther
step arehel10 up until theTnnil ae -~tethv gvn~riso
fortheimprtof Game inattint Ta n y iI,
.he K.PA. Amgty and the_ Uimwu Chmc fCmeo aebore contacted
wjit h -a view,, to buying dried meat. All w- nt ute)rfia ono h subject
.7die inrterested. T'he D iotrict _omsinr nKswu a~e n isii
A t -,re cent gm"p, t p-rt of eacaas is~ watd-al h o anrd viscera.
I r !pn ur tha t if Vii-s oudbptteihthe me toc mG::roei and
boe eas hev- ,,e of the: carc-3se ould inraecniea.TeOnly
posilew-to, cei int thisf woud Ve t-,'ut awlecr a tou an offal
plant ~ ~ such aseit nteKMC atolw in Iombaa. dtthyhe
re;ed! to% (10 thi.s Tn my mind -)Ch Ili j-eimn -sesnt s it will if
andPrtei m Isir away i dean asstckfeed1S_ I aold recent that
An meica,"r. Le .Roethe of the- Iatiorf, gr utua Supl C"ompanry
of Wiisconsin, Ut !;.A. believes('2 that thr oldh igdmu frsc tohe
as ~~ ~ c elohn Tet eleh t ,arrclt, gir,~ har Jre1~e Cntelope h1ide 0s
and7-v 1the suv) aril- eha se o tilriinmn ob t to him.
Land' south. of' the rive,.r is- NAtivf: LadUit whereas the-J Porth- bank is rown Ln
and ::ore icurc from poii_ steei adra ad olago ll
e/the ro-ad cou _le otutd 'U the Raiwa taiona akno o
Sovi fore oriecosigwa haetbedved. Wterit i7, it I1e
bam.d to be xesie Lan ,i th j'? er hal -Lof111 th 114F- e o n tht ln
bewenthe shm n aid is copsdmirly of lcSoto'01 A ny
a111 weathr routr oMlnii mratcbe ni h tp Of rive resn
has~~~~~~~~~~~" bco Ueie Cpo teeaQmtr&stmut :ret~nudcd




Thu W1eauny lov" rc1 e to s cr nci the q Relme -n~e wetShe ith Wqjr
Qb Hiou within ino boundary. Thqu 4h thi, !,,, ,ot pffej I'as it ,s of Qh
Lapart~nce that it "u" be 1w bte Y t &-a 1 rla op" rtMIty 7 Tre-nu ,,
have Soid thnt to alloy the OcheMe to Pe'on 1- l -Is On lm r iVAW a hy"0th"Cotion
o~ evuuein! is 1 :oiQ-t the Mvhpheuer orain--C. They hqvQ j-pped tp t tk(
1chem uo redit itQelf With ll gther trohi vhich inninve "AWn 11nu,
00Vp 1! malo i~t, Vdeo lad other produc, To ton eYes on the 1 a thure is'
Cc dilror~nep bietwn ivory, dried wit, or -ie too. onwtinc g-" I
AVOdificut t. A &-n~ins the principle ypoy!b them y la~ to thnkvevyj"n p
1n fe01 tMA win th W -l1 of TM in hyroth"" tior op Ynveaun -ni ~rfr
itthr wnr wordv, irn vnqibe
Tic -runsurj hAj state thj by vr-oti, t Wnchm it. ou L ig they 13iL
b- Mre tn n prec! d nce whVrePbVy the pi enj n -er i p Q teS vt or ina i n t N
73020 J --r '-knuq th they i fron 4I0 hiu Qht Wn coto"by thQ owcxr it.
TOPs v uAiryt is :adl convinciMang D the irunceh in wireoy p ebie in
the ~JL f the -"K.na 7r~ hey It*, it Kpt W 4re4d 04 it nvrmn
i)mL Wen hot run by n oar of 7r tn- nj but Mhon MWeite villte I V Vm
ian -omnt Acheme be lnveroi nt Vprt- t Q n it 'n ee '.ee 3t h
woem on-if bt eif = a I :ti ng an' -ru by 1 :n Ci ano
10 -,rozuq Kr ped- no war-n h h~i.Thywl be Ta,&- u
desir-, tVo tf vont heSc e was nevpr Ae-i -nod as a urdeno va nevr nu&d
~ f te nanou ~r ato VQtte~hp-~ i- ';o ir to n: V~ V-r
eoniQ~i C aaouu of a~ ita. 'Kin iY 2007~u yitcffi Low v
ToAw Wil- 1" ji y q i t in njth ig ~to toj Qnv ;ea: t
tMnn it would by very oqny Oic Soe Fronaury to fir? itsel in Q 'WIL~ j ilwhrvby
jrasrV lhall gant yo the Sc10me 4,0 pn-Ct V- I U of the Ivory r ~-- 'Vlr tine
the ivop, is ;W1, I P7-oMs17, would never i ren hi cwh in -Tra v~ v i
04e original Scheyn to which "sf"iMY ngrcd in j;V0 711, iNOW"~ V~ Ivory
VON-~ nrVOIU-1 to 1"W nnonm. Wft tooh 0 1 Zl,() ;- I~~ne ti :- ywrecr
nod ~ ,! :to~ qp ?u~tv "7" YOe h- ifoined "? thiQ reV0r0al iLh4' ruh
to haLuotic tb-I ~ha rl atr fteJeee~aLi
the 2c-iary~ d~cni~ hij ora~nhouu' b m u outa ~i-CcoLat
I t Inv 0"~ kthe 7xn Ytle no l i in -op;e to n othr-tt o ak bfe
of :wa ~ nJ olr n 1t,~ Mhor nhouV ;n -mte 100 nh~ t oi netfo
roanito OF O'is ache-ew I0 17-= e n004"ent icee re to bp Vi Y- iioffa
conor'-aonin the-. fuu 2 (nd i M the l Alvor 1 2ji T07ane ,t che-i is&
nuceoefil ) 7 lol am -ue he w be) the TrePsry wDi Find that 4 j nd




>0 ltts fro the7e che wtould re 1o Vheic o~ fr, cnto ior vr
felt fl~frIy. hY I- VGUSt ~ICO-Pt the f- Ct th-t the revenue trotl Control ivory-
in not tablee and is bound to dwindle in Vie f:,.,c o;f ciitai aa trie nuber
of elphmt will decrease.




MINUTES OF THE FIRST MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE
OF THE GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEE CA
HELD IN THE D.C.'s OFFICE KILIFI ON 27.8.1959
1. The Committee consists of:-
District Commissioner Chairman
District Officer Malindi
District Agricultural Officer Kilifi
Major D.L.W. Sheldrick, M.B.E.
Game Warden Kilifi
It was noted that Major Sheldrick was on the Committee in a personal
capacity, and not as a representative of the National Parks.
2. The responsibilities of the Committee were defined thus :-
"To initiate policy and organise the running of Phase 1 of the Game Management
Scheme."
3. The Committee decided that a copy of the minutes of the meeting, and
all future minutes be sent direct to the Nuffield Foundation as a matter of
courtesy.
4. It was decided that the acquisition of the portion of Native Land
Unit south of the Galana be taken up with the African District Council. It
was felt that the correct method was either to offer the A.D.C. a rent for
the land, or to offer to make that land in the Adu-Marafa area, (at present
heavily populated by Giriama without legal right) part of the Native Land
Unit in return for the excision from the N.L.U. of the land between the
Voi and Galana.
5. The Game Warden was asked to establish a temporary H.Q. on the
south bank of the river as soon as possible and to cut a track along the
eastern boundary of the National Park from Mackinnon Road to the temporary
site.
6. The siting of a permanent H.Q. was discussed. It was felt that
the position should be on the north bank in Crown Land for political security.
S However, a method of crossing the river presents such difficulties that no
decision could be reached. It was further recommended that as early as
possible a survey of the river crossing be undertaken.
7. The Committee recommended the whole Game Management area be
gazetted as an Outlying District a's soon as is possible. It is vital to
the scheme that no outside concessions in any way affecting the natural
resources of the area be granted without the prior approval of the Committee.
The District Commissioner agreed to take up the matter with the Provincial
Commissioner.
8. It was desirable and urgent that the road from Malindi into the
Tsavo Park be repaired. It was recommended that the Minister for Tourism
be approached for funds for this purpose. It would be a major tourist
route, and shorten the distance between Nairobi and Malindi considerably.
9. It was noted by the Committee that the scheme in its ultimate
form will have to purchase certain heavy machinery for the construction and
maintenance of roads and dams etc.
10. From data gained by the Game Warden since the first of July, it
is apparent that without the tusks an elephant carcass is worth 924. This
being so, the Game Management Scheme as envisaged will not be possible
without the ivory. With respect the Committee would ask the Treasury to
reconsider its decision and allow the scheme to keep its own ivory. The
Committee was unanimously of the considered opinion that it would not be
possible to initiate and carry through the scheme without ivory.




The Committee further recommended that should the ivory not be made
available the scheme should be closed down forthwith as to attempt to run
it otherwise could only lead to failure.
11. It was decided that a memorandum on the ivory question be
prepared and submitted to the Mihister for African Affairs so that the
issue may be brought to the attention of the Council of Ministers. The
Game Warden agreed to prepare this paper.
12. It is essential that an ecological survey of the Game Management
Scheme area be carried out as soon as possible. The Committee recommended that
a request for a Fulbright Scholar be made through the Minister for African
Affairs.
13. It was felt that other potentialities of the scheme such as the
construction of a series of tTreetopl type of lodges in the*Game Management
Area be carefully investigated.
14. It is clear that unless an agreement be reached whereby hunting
safaris give the scheme the full value of beasts they shoot, there will be
a olash of interests. The question will be taken up,
15. The Committee recommended that the Game Warden be relieved of all
routine duties other than elephant control so that his undivided attention
may be paid to the Game Management Scheme.
16. The Committee requested that the Game Warden be allowed to kill a
maximum of twentyfive elephant other than those shot on crop protection.
The reasons being:- I
a) When an elephant is shot "on control" it is more often than not killed
in an inaccessible spot. The carcase then cannot be fully utilised and
accurate figures so urgently needed are not obtainable.
b) The immediate work to be undertaken by the Game Warden will be cutting
boundaries and tracks for the scheme. In all cases this will be some distance
from settled areas where normal elephant control is done. It is therefore
practical to kill the elephant needed for experiment and to keep the scheme
going in the same area as the track cutting.
17. It was recommended that the Kenya Meat Commission be approached
by the Ministry of African Affairs for their co-operation in processing an
elephant carcase in the Commission's Mombasa offal plant. It was felt that
producing much needed meat and bone meals for stockfeed might well be the most
profitable use of an elephant carcass. It is therefore important that this
potential be investigated before the scheme-proper starts.
18. As the marketing of dried meat was A considerable task on its own
the Game Warden was asked to contact the Trades and Marketing Officer in
Mombasa for assistance.
19" The Game Warden was also asked to keep full details of weights of
meat, cost of transport and amounts of meat taken by participants.
20. The Committee was of the unanimous opinion that the Scheme would
need a second officer when Phase 2 started.
21. The next meeting of the Committee will be held on Priday
25th September at 10-30 a.m. in the D.C.'s Office, Kilifi.
Minutes confirmed this 0 / day of,
;h*a0ir*m*a'n*:0"*,**




Telegrams: "GAME", Nairobi
Telephone: 'No. 20672-3
Ref. No. GA ................
OAAARMGM
-eon Reor by the

GAME DEPARTMENT
)P.O. B~oxR1R I
to the emmito

Routino work as Gam Waen Kiii,, ha utale the amutoff
tim shoul hav sent on the Schm. ?rgs since Vie last
Colattee Hetin has been difnpointn.
The D.o. n of Klif and I took a cutof the people rosident
ithenetween te o, n Galm Rivers that w wish to incld
in the Scemen. The" ar

60I Tal*.

Ux? 3f the Valiangul a" emloe by rtsirl71neTh
two Wab bro illicit tmb. Thereaiin Vanulu and -th 0tia
are chaeoa burers. The also attempt cutivation div the ras but
Galdm ase a crop.
Thr a" u-p to thr"e hundred alien' co~oalbrn in tiie a
Ths many al Gi sai, oose fro Ba and toarVe cot during the
dry ason after laating their crops in tha a ins.
cheroaL urin on the present sale and by present methods in doing
immnseha.= to the regioto Purhermor th charcoal potentii! of the a~
will li; ve been ehutdin a ya'sw time, It is obviouz that thoe will
be aongsiderable opposition to the inclusion of the are to t soemee
I oa thit the eatiuate of 1500 poa* rent to the A.Ce as nffotdb
Mr. Hila in the estlites he prdodafter th1 Ut metngp to be
Asdieced(Mi* 5 last meeting) a trik ain the o:-itr %,
bouiry no M boon sqt~e and is proeeding apaoe. All twenty of the
achwe s Waltarqulu am qt preent eg on third, wvko
I have not produced the emmumoIvryta hinsotnl




nwfllwftmmbr O h C~dtfbll 3S O~
Ua~w D*.U, Sbddick MBOBOD
Ditit QMGIo 2 ELIM# a*4 as Seartaxy
at" The Commtt e hAte beat wq tofrwr
(ei) The Vupmd for a diret wwbp o
s-ea be puedwbmWa a o
siem vabue in the Aft
-aatvll* ahd be afxe to th
for0 th iste Samm Ih ~
(b) A, om~vU ppo abcmi be ost to the Preftuas
Conosine -~ xt&U aa a a gras a
Th Ganttoo not that the am&. bolm *Mv n
oqpmmmtt wa s4i1t eru to the A*D*o~ both
in GIS= O&ad =d hffed thin wmld apem t V
ft mi4time size of the a require for UsShae
200 An" sr Miln and that a the UO* ama I*
!9 he Gams W~rdn"parted about 4 mnus nm $a
Mn 7- Aoi anShe vmUng of the Gam -w
ar* anan utline stxAct had bems Idjuard br %be reont -m of
ABU*% -,* M Obm prmo prp0wob the netwtf
Mbl he Am wat rputa tut in the 00m dt
bin ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ih Bi toteC~#teGVM fK at tHe 1

4m It W




A* I

HishatG~tas*P=MIIa maradmto A*
S~x~axW7Co. Subjet whereja be M&~ uwsd the -a for
the BsW Nothing further hail yet been. boor

Tho Gomitime therefore resolved that a ftirther apoc
should be wAs to the Tresr since it wa futils to engage on W wtsL4
pgss until the qu stimsof ivory reveme h"l boms settled,* (Aotin by M)
XlAA*W of Afria Affair. abu the nervioss at & fufl.-brot oohelar,
(Action by B.0)
IA&* Te OGaw RWae reported that the Bjunbad Hotel
MLJU :V It was noted that C4s.ut wul taks ow the
GaMe UW a routine duties in Decexb~cro
JAI 1659 Perassic ba been obtand for the. Oam Warden to
kM 2 olehmtzforstatistisllprosf teainChf W
MA9 L7M Terewa hope of a masting betwasn. IL~o Paker s
Us-Po~ng Ghmmof the KwVa Meat Caision in 14"rbi duxtaW this
As wek,
hisrpo xesv adhxflclca burning in the proped
Scham mas the Cowxttee decidled to investigate three points w

TRe naur of the Arabuko forest an& its
chrw Potential I

(Vi The futare of aharoal i n ombasal
(ill The nethoda used by Kwale District to prevent
mom I~zm Dage f2E Phase a Ato2J #0
The Commitee. miterated ther evittim tt
two mq"4te -u Adwna to the Axlentation of phias 2*
(N~ Defidto proof that the Schem will ok
ii Th useof Use money grantac by the SfII
Foundation*
hkase I. was dae4.gm to l.ait untU eaoabe
ymvm was fortho of the Schmal s potential summso T.is aheadd Ue
availble later this year* MeaaNhile Col. Hurt will take over the Ga
APa~tin the Ais~to md its equint* trew phase 2 as rea~
,~Uoig ooniions being satisfied

(a The land issue beU4-, clenared up*
(b The mny frin the Nuffield 011usis
() The isio with the Treasury Leiag

being available
oleared. VV0

ME




3-
Zt ts*u~3~' last was to be the da~to there was as twpat ita.*

for the sond Europma Offloor being momite. Thke Gone Ward4 spedt
U" attaohaie,

TeCmmittoo ren4ved to ok for It7*50 from th NUfMO4A
lin tbA first year whidh wou be usd yrimriV on capital

Famdati~0

QUIZ "The Cbmirama gave his blessig to a VrojecteA m.tUW
in ~ ~ ~ 14"b drnth oigweek between tke Gam Wrden Major? Shalduick
represntative from tba kmia~stry ofAfrian Affaireq a rromtIvo from thu
Trxea=72 eac a represtative from the Game Dpartt
-0 Tb nex mekeina f the Cm4tU*. Ai be bsA as
Xi~te onfirmed. tWi ******"y of *S$$~
WANA Rn!TM GIM]WWJF SU O

-we




4; : .

PRESENT.- A.F. Barnwell, Esq., PAr ri~nt Secreta-ry~
for o's d~eeopment (Chairr.an)
J. :rdy L~s., iistry of kifrican Aff-irs.
. Behrens, 9Lisa Treasury.
Lt Col 1'. Sai,_-_2an Grc D,_artment (Headquarters).
'I. Parlker, EsqI., 'cclarder. Kilifi.
K. Syrith, Esq., o~ Derarti :-nt (Headquarters).
E. St venson, Esq., MiniLstry of For(-st Developrmpt,
'Ian anf] Fisho2ries.
Mr, Barnwell said t'l- t ii eetin'," w,-s ccLled i.Ximarily to
decide whether or -not -thre expeririasntal Gai7-, ianiz.- zent ZScheme
was to go on, and i'17 so ; t2n~c and ad.-inistrativ-3
arrangofi-ents were to b,;; rrade t-'_, start of fhase II,
Mr. Behrens asked if h- c)ula e ivsn Ln: outline of w hat
had already be-en done on P'l-'se I.
Mr, Parker outline% ho-J the scLmo:e had alrec dy operated to
date und _r Phase I and coi to h -t there jer~ to b,: a
ready market for the sl of x-tfromk elephants a~id t17at the
-,-relimninary experi,.ints were still continuing. He also stated
that the aralan-u e fallLi. in. with the schone .,-nd thney had
worked cxtr,:, nly harJ' i-a th-- st few months. He also pointed
out t1--at _F-hase T will_ '-~ o ce se whion Col. Hurt arrives _- _'the
Co -'sttta of thi,_: y _:ar. Th,_-, C o _. .itte e runnin, th1-is scneieee
are co-nfident thtPa~II will work, _iS the 4aL;*:.-n-,ulu are
takin-, to disciplin-~ P or exi 1:rle, they -.l cr,,ady xnder-'
tdkn anual LO. to c a'vr i ierl
"r arnwell s, 4, thal; "Col. Hu rt will '-,,v to ta-e over 'he
vehicles nd m-lndby the is' Tan--,jary if th orn wor-k of the
Game Depcart3 i .-t at Ic 2oC-..t to be ~~r~ properly. This
would then le,7vo the w2~~T.~itL-.o transport or ar.s ar.tai
different position wo-ol, ari-_: uill:_ ss axn early _'cision could be
taken.
Mr. Par'ker sai,-! in af'_w _- to a queiry hro: r. Behrens that
there was no diffi,3-i]ty in ssellin-; r..-at L,;-L 'htihe obtained
,Pper c,,-rcuas. In !-is oiri-nion 'Il-ere were ready mark--ts in the
B,.;lg:iean Con,:o ~n ynaforL ,t Sup plies but Col. Sandeman
F-tated that in tile case of t.:, Fl-ia Con-o, Uad eesatn
to sll ~at. ~ .; t- t ~iat the Kc ya Co-rt Comission
w er e i nt e ret ed in c,,~e .ephant~t for do, ,r co-nsu.LPtion in
the United Kingdom.
Mr. Behrens pointed out that the, y wer%-, in f _ct, looking at
samples an" firm oirlers oln a large scale were another factor 'out
Mr. Park.,,r s, Ad tr-ey wece confident thiat they could sell the
200 carcuses which would be available.
Mr. Hard, ttdtat~tog the r:-tarketing of meat was one
of the factors, as w.1as th-c. rzLabilit:tion of valiangulu, the main
problem was on-e of "ame Control 1--,d vlanagement,, He pointed out
that -the are ultimately a-7-ected was ,-ch wider h.ILIan that
covered by the sc_ -eme as it included the Tsavo as well as the
Tana area. The elephant were already destroying their habitat
in the Tsavo Park, probably because tiney war being driven there

/by poachers and




- 2-

by poachers and action was urg-Etly required to cut down poaching
and to spread the elephant population over a larger area. if
the K'ational Pairks eventually had to shoot on control t hen they
would obtain the revenue.
Mr. Bc.riiwell eit out thiat if a. Ga-r-e 'arden took over
the scheme t'L-en tae Ga-Le Dopa- ,'.-.nt would hL. ve to heave an
additional Post of a Ga,--.e -.,Jar,_en fo-c norr-;,.1 dut"i! -,s aInd -oroba.bl'Y
an assistant for scl sehe.e as i' viould. Lr m evcso
tw,;o officers to rim it. Gn of the r o why Phase ", hZa1d been
on a limited scale w!,. shorta--c of jrsonanel.
Mr. Parker sa-i-, in r--ly, to ".r. 1 ehrens thtivory fetched
abo!)t j 100 Per b,-,.:st in additio..- tUo thj72T' ,r T,-eat, Lact,
ears etc. and t ,lr-a>.Y about 21,200 .orth of ivory h,.-d been,
passed to the Ivory, .ooia, ,ts3, J.-Pial vraetrevinae, -..-ereas
only abou-' .'21C wer dmlh~fo h aliam,,ulu f rom tes le
of the meat.
1C
Mr. 11 rdy confir-red Zft ian; 'ulu had bcen kept in
full eri-ploymient in P'ta~e I -i. n(:, aet on of rrvelrug g-ezerally
he state(:,.a ev--.- wit'+1"_O -0' af L lmit i, will t _e two or
' three years before c.-,-y excc.ss is -ass--d to t ]i Zchequer. Mr-.
Barnwell- stated t.iat t s:c or __r12 f h sh'.s could
not be -oroved on Phnase I. Only fuill scale, oprei,,tions in-,as Ir
could -Qrove _0~G ~sh ', a~ Sib a lthiouh hc be l4L-v-,-- i t was.
' He visualized 1,haat ,-he E~xcheqi: c- -vould not :_;nef it to any great
extent until Phase =I was ae
N'r. Lehrens pif out t,-,Zt iit could .-ot neacessarily be
expected that th'-e -, ; iould g--ree to aii expenditure
equivalent to E esti-at;:_k e. ea. ask-d if in future the.
sche-,e was to 1 c based on tht cin of 200 ele:--,1'ants.
Mr. Parker -IoinleC. otit t1--t vel-l if t"L-l servic-es of an
Ecologist could 11ot c obt--i- t-ie was i..c thiat 10 rer cent
of ~ ~ -6 11 ~dcul ecl a.1hu dec-neasilr the. eleph--nt
population. He ad uner-ca oial s~urvey anC !-ad counted
a ccllcentrE 1 h,, 2 of about ,0 irhn. Itwscranta
. l ere werf .,~ore V-aitatl but' to be or-,:e5.< side tney had t;- -'en
10 per c; nt o_-L 2,000 -thus erim at t-n ot_,r=,tional -F'iaure of
' 200 elephants -1-r "'11nu-71 S s e, 1 eo i-port-_.nce of holdin,,
the popule tioe ( -le-phant I ric- evel to LD'.rove th-e
fLertility of1- L:~1. t 1- d h a r,:-covored it could
eventually cz~ya 1-o t.~ _- 2 -r of ::.Iohants.
Lhr. Dehrens .:t-"u.e6 that" !"ierc ee to be reasonable
grounds for the sch-_;.-e both on f-Iinancial -nd policy b!-sis.
Mr. Barn .,ell asked -.iho -.,,:s -oin, to run til ,,:-hme in
future .nd Mr. 7 ehr, Is replica -%ti oul, h,.,ve 'o be the,-
subject of correspondence,
Mr. Behrens sug -e stetf, in ans c to a query from Mr.
Barnwell, that th.finance wo-jld be -,provided through thae annual
estimates rather than in a fund. ivr. arnwell :,ointed out that
nthe case of capital expenditur- fund would be easier to
operate bec -usc -funds vetn A- for ca-rital expenditu-0e through annual
estimates fl~ ot be :;.x-,ended until nother financial year,
because of thae physical dif-ficultir,s of building a,-ythin, in the
area,
Mvr. Barnwell ask_ if aniiual estirriltes were to prevail
whether the Waliantgulu were to tl_-c -e &overment ser-,,-:nts as there
is a basic asswunption thrdt persons paid from the annual estimates
are Govern:,:ent servCrInts.

/M. _Behrens, said




-3 -

Mr. ehrens said th ts points woul1d have to be
considered by the Treasury.
MrHardys~t that. his N~inist-_ r was2 of the opinion
thaL~ it should~ '- a scheme opor ,tcr' the Gae.Ieartmnent on
a Game VJote.
.1r. Barnwell st:7tad tnt i'reassury 1thority would be
required before a~ny approach co,, -ld 7--_ -..:ate to the ruf$field
Foundation for '.-e r,,:.le_,se (-f CI-ital funds -'or ..-hc- vehicles arid
equipment for Phase II.
Mr. Bel-iens s ~~ he .iould records of the
i,-eetin-- and -copy of thl'e esti,-: tes -:,,',ich have alrea,-,y been
prepared -for --ener-. uid ,.nc-_. Il' -chec ritinuation of 'the Scheme
w,-,s approved then he Iio e d till_-t Ili iiiitry co--,ld finance it on
a cash basis until such a_-e -- plementary Estiinate had been
approved. Mr. _, 'rnw&Tll 'om'irath this co--,-,d be done.
22nd October,, 1959




GA. 22/1/2/3/59 24th November, 1959.
S MINUTES OP THE THIRD MEETING OP THE GALANA RIVER
GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME HELD IN TH1 DISTRICT COMMISSIONER'S
OPPICE AT KILIFI ON 23RD NOVEMBER, 1959.
The following members of the Committee were present:
District Commiassioner Chairman
District Agricultural Officer, Kilift,
District Officer, Malindi,
S Mr. D.L.W. Sheldrick; M.B.E.,
Game Warden, Kilifi Secretary.
M. Matters Arising from Minutes of Previous Meetings.
i Min.5/59. The Game Warden reported that progress on the track
continued and it was now some seventeen miles long.
Min.8959. The Chairman reported that as yet no approach had been
made to the Minister for Tourism. 'The Committee felt that if the
road was to fulfil its requirement, i.e. an important tourist route,
at least*20 per mile would have to be spent. The stretch in
question, from Matelane to the Park boundary, was some 30 miles.
The Chairman agreed to quote the support of Malindi Township Committee
in his application to the Minister. fAction by D.C.)
Min.12/59. When in Narebi in October, the Game Warden had seen
Mr. Hardy of African Affairs about a Pulbright Scholarship. Apparently
it was the duty of the Ministry of FP rests, Game and Pisheries to make
the application to the Fulbright Trustees. However the Permanent
Secretary for this Ministry had been unable to support the application
Through lack of finance. The Committee felt that the annual sum of
145,000 for scientific research that was set aside in the scheme's
estimates must have been overlooked. This amount would surely cover
the subsistence and travelling expenses of the Pulbright scholar,
should the award be granted. The Committee asked the Game Warden to
advise the Ministry of Foreste on this point. The assistance and
backing in the application for a Fulbright award offered by the
Chairman of the Kenya Wild Life Society was noted with gratitude.
Min.129/. It was again recorded that Col. Hurt was arriving in
iDecember and from hen on would be responsible for all routine game
matters in Kilifi, Kvale and Toita Distriote.
Min.17/59. The Game Warden reported that while in Nairobi he had met
Mr. King of the K.M.C. and had discussed the poessir g of an elephant
carcase. Mr. King seems interested in the idea. Nothing further had
however been heard from the K.M.C. and the Game Warden was asked by
the Committee to enquire again whether the experiment could take place.
(Action by Q.W)




Min.26/59. The Game Warden reported that a Mr. E. Goss of the
Forest Department was very keen to join the Game Management Scheme
and would do so if selected. He was known personally to both
Mr. Sheldrick and the Game Warden and seemed suitable in every way.

MINW50/59.
*s
)

The map showing the area* of Native Land Unit to be exchanged for the
Crown Land in the Marafa-Adu area was studied, The District
Commissioner and Distriot Officer Malindi pointed out that the
exchange was highly desirable from an Administrative point of view
as it would solve the problem presented by over 800 tax payer
living "illegally" in the Crown Land around Adu and Marafa.
The District Agricultural Officer stated that agriculturally the
Crown land had a much higher potential than that part of the N.L.U.
in questions the rainfall in the former being up to 50 per annum
while in the latter seldom exceeding 10" The Committee felt that
the land exchange was more desirable than paying a renty though the
rent would be offered first, as requested by the Provincial
Commissioner, perhaps at 1/- per acre or 9976 p.a. The Committee
did not think that the latter idea would be acceptable to the people.
The Chairman then proposed the following procedure:
1) to take the matter before the Squatters Committee on
Nov. 25th,
ii) clear it with the Provincial Cemmissioner,
iii) present it to the local Land Board,
iv) hold barasas in the locations concerned,
v) bring it-before the A.D.C. Meeting to be held in
March 1960.
After careful consideration the Comittee recommended that the.
financial basis of the scheme should be reconsidered and that it
revert to the original idea. Otherwise the chief object of the
scheme would be prejudiced, namely to prove the economy ef Game
Management. All the revenue derived from the scheme Including
trophies should be credited to an independent fund under section
seven of the Wild Animals'Protection Ordinance No. 18 of 1951.
All financial arrangements, a nd the running of the scheme as it
was originally planned would be fully authorized by sections 7t
53, 54, 57, 38 (3) and 14 of the Wild Animals' Proetetion
Ordinance.
The next meeting of the Game Management Scheme Cemittee was fixed
for 5th Deceaber at 10.50 a.a.
Minutes oeaimod thio day of




40

GALAT~A GAME MANAGEMENTIIE~N

SCHEME

FIRST ViATUdlL REPOR"LT

lst APRIL 1960 30th JUNE 1961




LIST OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
PART ONE HISTORY AND ORG-ANiISrii~IOI
HISTORY
OBJECTS
BOUNDARIES
i,,MHOD OF EXPLOITAT'iION
ORGA1~ISTfION
PART TWO- RESULTS ANTD PROGRESS
STAiFF
FINANCE
ADVISORY COM-dlTEE'E
BUILDINGS
RODS All-M IRSRIP
TRASPORT
BOTNDADRIES AN~D LAD EXCHANGEG~i
RAINFALLL RECORDS
POCHING
LEGL HU-',TII'LIG
ELEPH:-'TT HU]TING AND SALE OF PROCEDS
OTHER ANI'ILALS SHOT
FISHINGS
AERIAL COUN~TS
PUBLICITY

CONCLUSIONJ




INTRODUCTION

Past game preservation policies have isolated the
interests of wild animals from those of man. Emphasis has
been placed on the creation of sanctuaries wherein fauna
and flora are shielded from human activity. With an
expanding population devouring vacant land, it is difficult
to foresee these lasting unless they produce substantial
revenue and employment. To date, economic argument for
their retention has been based on tourism. Though lucrative
and an obvious means of exploiting the wild life resource,
only a portion of the country's game land is suited to it.
As an industry it is subject to world politics and is thus
unstable. Wild Life's cultural and aesthetic standing is
western in concept and not generally appreciated by
Africans. The crux of conservation in Kenya is genuine
African comprehension and agreement. This is lacking
because tourist benefits are too indirect and abstract
values beyond present appreciation.
Livelihoods common the world over,-are those pertaining
to the production of food. It follows that upon these rest
common and fundamental values. It has been suggested that
marginal lands in Kenya may yield more protein by management
of the indigenous animals than through cattle. If this
hitherto neglected possibility can be successfully
demonstrated conservation will assume new importance. In
becoming a major source of food and occupation its worth
will be apparent to everyone. As such it becomes part of
man',: land use and not a barrier to it. The basic purpose
of the Galana Game Management Schei:me is to explore the
potential of this new field.




PART ONE HISTORY AND ORGANISATION
HISTORY.
By 1956 poaching in the Coast and Southern Provinces
reached such proportions that the purpose of the Royal Tsavo
National Park was jeopardised. Prominent culprits were the
Walia ngulu. Traditionally hunters with little liking for
agriculture, this small tribe had succumbed to pecuniary
enticement. They no longer hunted for food alone, but
concentrated on highly priced trophies. An anti-poaching
campaign was launched and some 400 offenders imprisoned. Of
this total, more than 50% were Waliangulu. As an immediate
measure against illegal hunting the drive was successful.
However, on release from jail, the culprits were no nearer
accepting the reasons for conservation than they were before
serving their sentences. In this respect the operation failed.
Since their memories can recall, the Waliangulu lived off
wild animals. Until money became the motive, the beasts
withstood this hunting. Policies wherein hunting requirements
of primitive people are married t> sound conservation have been
successfully implemented in Canada. This prompted N.M. Simon,
Chairman of the Kenya Wild Life Society and D. Sheldrick
Warden of the Tsavo National Park (3ast) ,to suggest the tribesmen
be permitted to indulge in some form of controlled hunting.
Their proposals were made public in Simon's Paper
"Futuxe Conservation Trends" dated August 1957.
In October 197 an officer of the.Game Department was
detailed to examine the possibilities of establishing a scheme
on the lines proposed. The investigation sho,-ed the system would
be feasible. Beyond the immediate spheres of conservation and
the habilitation of the Waliangulu7 it offered a means of
utilising arid and hitherto unproductive land. A report
recommending the Scheme's implementation with some basic
modifications was submitted to the Chief Game Warden in
January 198.
Government accepted the plan but it was not until the
Nuffield Foundation generously offered a grant ot 10,000 toward
carrying it out that the decision to start was taken. Jauary
1960 was the (ate set for commencement. In the interim period
some research was carried out into the market for game meat.
The Waliangulu were informed of the Government's intention and
they reacted favourably. This interim period was referred to as
Phase One of the Game Management Scheme. It was not until
April 1960 that the Scheme proper got under way.
OBJECTS.
The Scheme's aims are:-
i) to demonstrate that the management of wild life is a
positive land use, andshow that game can compete
favourably with domestic stock, in certain areas.
ii) to bring hitherto vacant land into production and
thereby give legal and profitable occupation to men
who were previously engaged in illegal and destructive
activities.
BOTlDARIES.
The area covered by the Scheme is shownv on the M,1ap Fig. 1
and comprises some 3,000 sq. miles. Within the boundaries, all
land north of the Galana is Crown Land while that to the south
is in the Giriama Native Land Unit. It is hoped that.the latter
tract will be exchanged by the Giriama for a larger and more
fertile piece of Crown Land to the north of Marafa in the
Malindi sub-district.




iTHOD OF EXPLOITATION.
Animals within the Scheme would be regarded in the same
light as ranch cattle. They would be utilised to obtain as big
a revenue as possible, though care taken that species would be.
Culled within their recruiting capacity.
At the outset, little -data was available on the various
animal populations. Until experience provided this, Scheme
activities and income would be based on culling 200 elephant
annually. An aerial count over a small sector of the adjacent
Park had revealed 31000. It was known at the time that there
were elephant in other parts which went uncounted. Believing
that there was extensive movement between Scheme anid Park, the
figure 3,000 has been used as a base for culling estimates.
From Simpson and Kinloch's Paper (Appendix I Annual Report,
Game &Fisheries Department, Uganda Protectorate, 1953) it appears
that an elephant population can replace an annual loss of 10%
through natural increase. To be well within this limit it was
decided to keep the Scheme quota to 200 per annum until further
knowledge was available.
Elephant would be shot and a team of Waliangulu then cut up
the meat. After being sun dried this would be sold. The ears,
feet and other commodities would also be marketed and the ivory
sent for sale by Government Auction in Mombasa. From experiments
in Phase One of the Scheme it was known that a large bull
elephant could produce 700 lbs of dried meat, while the average
from both sexes was 400 lbs. Hunting would not take place in the
wet seasons and thus be restricted to about seven months of the
year.
It was decided that the Scheme should be run by two
Game 'Wardens seconded from the Game Department and under direction
of the Chief Game Wardenr The senior man would organise finance,
general administration and the marketing of-produce. His junior
would conduct field operations and development.
Scheme finances wVould.be controlled through a special fund
by the Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Tourism Forests
and Wild Life. To this, money earned and granted would be
credited. All expenditure, including the two Wardens' salaries
would be met from it. On the ist March 1960 the Permanent
Secretary issued an Accounting Directive and Scheme Fund Rules
which gave detailed instructions for operating the Scheme. In
view of the grants-in-aid made by the Kenya Government, it is
the Permanent Secretary's responsibility to prepare revenue and
expenditure estimates for Ireasury approval. Accounts must be
audited at the end of each Financial Year. Attached as
appendices to this Report are Revenue and Expenditure Estimates
for the Financial Zears 59-60 and 60-61.
A local committee comprised of the District Commissioner
and District Agricultural Officer, Kilifi, District Commissioner
Tana River District District Officer Mallndi, D. Sheldrick
Warden of Tsavo National Park (East), and the Scheme Wardens,
was to advise the Chief Game Warden on formulating policy.
Headquarters would be established on the Galana but only
temporary buildings erected in case experience might later indicate
a more suitable site. All Scheme personnel would live at this
base ca.p.
The Waliangulu and others whom the Scheme was to benefit
directly would be ..engaged as employees. They would receive a
small monthly salary, rations and given an opportMunity to earn
a bonus on their labour. It was hoped that this.system would
offer incentive to work and give scope for a moderate income.




Ideally all those previously dependent on poaching would be
employeA and able to earn 100 a year. (This is the target of
the Swynnerton Plan for Agriculture. It must also be-the
Scheme's to prove the economy of game management.) It was
accepted that this'goal would take several years to attain.
All human activities other than those concerned with the
Scheme would be precluded within the boundaries. Exceptions
to this rule would be that professional hunters and their clients
would still hunt the area and existing Galla grazing habits could
continue.
PART TWO RESULTS AND PROGRESS
Month Wardens Clerk Artisans Drivers Participants Labourers
19O
Aril i -
May 1 1 20 25
June 1 1 23 44
July 1 1 19 31
August 1 1 2 1 23 33
September 2 1 2 1 25 52
October 2 1 2 1 40 50
November 2 1 2 1 38 49
December 2 1 2 2 38 26
19 61
January 2 1 2 2 40 17
February 2 1 2 2 39 18
March 2 1 2 2 41 18
April 1 1 2 2 35 17
May 1 1 1 2 35 17
June I 1 1 2 35 7
-no...AGAe* Senior Game Warden Lt. Col, R.A.F. Hurt was
posted to the Scheme on the ist of September but was transferred
to Simba on the 24th MIarch, While with the Scheme, Col. Hurt was
on leave 7 17th November and 22nd December 2nd January, and
was away on medical grounds 13th 24th March. Game Warden
I. Parker joined on the 1st April 19c60 and was with the Scheme
throughout the period. For eight of the fifteen months covered
by this report, there was only one Warden which has proved a
severe drawback.
Cgk. Mrs. Parker was employed as clerk from 1st May 1960.
In this capacity she has shouldered much of the routine
administration.




SArtisans. Provision was made in the Estimates for the'
employment of two artisans. They were paid Shs 250/- per month
,." and rationed. In the latter months when most of the building s
~were complete there was insufficient work for two men and onewa
discharged.
' DriyeL_. Each of the Scheme lorries has an African driver* :
As with the Wardens, these men are seconded from Government, but
their salaries are paid from the Scheme Fund. Unfortunately,
three of the men taken on proved unsuitable and were dismissed.
Lgboulrs. As the Waliangulu were to be kept free for
: hunting operations and were also rather unwilling manual workers
a number of Giriama and Taita labourers were employed for the
housing and road projects. These men were rationed and paid a
daily wage of Shs 1150. While building and track cutting was the
Scheme's major activity, labourers in fact outnumbered the
Waliangulu participants. A total of C1,015 was received by these
labourers in pay and rations.
Participants. (Waliangulu) As the Scheme is largely for
their benefit, the Waliangulu employed have, since its inception
been referred to as participants' in preference to employees.
~it would be incorrect to say that the tribe was wholeheartedly in
favour of the Scheme. They regard it with some suspicion as a
'marifa ya serikali' (literally "Government Racket") and given a
free hand would prefer reverting to their old ways. However many,
have taken the opportunity of employment of a type to which they
are suited, near to their homes. Every month some have had to be
turned away as in this initial stage it has not been possible to
engage all who wanted work. Seventysix different Waliangulu were
employed in the, period covered. T'he average length of service of
those who had left before the 1st July 1961 was 5.26 months, while
that for the men still in employment was 7.87 months. Fig. 2
indicates the number of months completed by the Waliangulu and those
still in employment. On the basis that each man has 2.2 dependents
it is estimated 'that the Scheme directly supported an average of
102.6 Waliang-ulu per month. In the fifteen months, ;c1,586 was
paid out to thema in Lhe f orm o f salaries, bonuses and rations.
initially the terms offered the participants were a monthly
salary of 25/-, 15/- worth of rations plus free meat valued at
~12/- a bonus on all viork properly done and free medical treatment.
Though they all earned in the region of 60/- in the first April,
they were suspicious of and did not like the bonus system. It
became obvious that it would not prove successful. In view of this
the basic wage was raised to 45/- p.m. and the bonus only retained
for the pi,oduction of dried meat and other co :,v~odities. On the
completion of a year's service a participant was to be awarded a
five shilling increment. The Warden in charge could give three
such increments at anuy time for increased responsibility and
efficiency. Raises a bove this limit had to be sanctioned by the
Chief Game garden.
In order to induce longer service in the next financial year
the basic salary of a newcomer will be dropped to 40/- p.m. for a
probationary period of six months. On completion of this the
participant will be awarded increments according to his proved
conduct and efficiency, up to the maximum the Warden is entitled
to give. Also the value of rations is to be inrae o h 0
and in view of its lack of success,,it is proposed to abandon the
bonus system.
F INiLnC.
~This report treats the fifteen months covered as one period
S though in fact -the first three months were in the 1959-60 financial
year. Earned Revenue was approx. 49756 (including ivory'and meat
on hand'30.6.61) and Expenditure C13,882. This unsatisfactory




6,
position was due to the quota of elephant not being attained,
which in turn rests on three factors:-
i) the lack of a second Warden for eight of the
fifteen months,
ii) the Ministry's refusal to allow the necessary
transport to be purchased at the outset and
iii) a lack of motorable tracks made the elephant
inaccessible.
The Scheite has been handicapped from the start by funds not
being uade available when they were expected0 No authority to
incur expend* ure in the 1960 61 year was received until the
5th Novemberr. When given it was not in accordance with the
estimates and this was not rectified until the 1st February 1961.
The resultant unauthorised spending and general air of uncertainty
was unfair on th- ar'ens and retarded progress considerably.
From perusal of correspondence between the Chief Garie Warden and
the initr on the subject, bla-r for the delays is put on the
necessity to obSain 1reasary approval for expenditure. No reason
has beon givn or th delay in 'he purchase of transport. Funds
were availatl)l :;n the 1059-60 year for the purchase of the Scheme's
AP full complement of a Laid Rover and two five-ton Bedfbrds. Only
one lorry was bou'rht at the s'ta-rt, the Land Rover was not received
until t!he 3th aiUst, end the second lorry until the 15th December .
Lack of transpcrz strnglr d hunting oprations for the first nine
months,
Thanks are duez to tna kccolrnting D'epartment for the
assistance and advice th-y h-ve given to the Scheie from the
bagiiiinE.
10VISORY CNh2u~
Due commritte held only one rather interrapted meeting in the
D.O ,ialidl.-1s o]ff c, 3n tihe 12th 1%ovember, Progress was reviewed
and a nurnbe:r of iltems mnciudin; the insurance of personnel, the
sale of produc _, poaching, licensed hunting and the exchange of
land were disc,._s sed. Recomn11 ka-1*a ions on the issues that arose are
included in th,., chapters to whicl- they pertain.
. BUIL D!NGQ
Tempo.c I-D,.. headquarters for the Scheme were sited on the
Galana's north bank a ains t the 2savo Park boundary. Situated on
this bank means that comnw2,inications will be cut whenever the river
floods, thoug it s ?dori 1oes this for Cny great length of time.
South of i-r1- -iver is Native Land Uni and only 300 of the Scheme's
39000 sq. ra.les are in it. These factors influenced the decision
to buil d in the nort'i bank Cron Land.
Buildin coijmncod in Liu. 1960 and was the primary activity
for ths n,-Xt fo 'r Ai ib ds, A ,,dfj of 5500 was allowed for the
constractio_ two diardons' houses, an office-cum-store a
driver's and 12 partic pants! uts. Dsind W lasb for a
ifaxiMun o five years, they were built as cheaply as possible.
The 4ardens! houses and the office-store were given concrete floors.
All roofs weie of maku-i and the walls of split sisal poles, with
the except ion of ond garden's house in which they were made of reed
matting. Con-truct; frci left-over material were a large open
shed with co.czete floor for b2eparing and storing trophies, a
garage for all tGhe Sche,11t.. transport, a fuel depot and six hundred
concrete block. for the cons ruction of an armoury.
3efoe tihe huts ;;ere complotc, tents were provided for
participants and labourers.




ROADS AND AIRSTRIP.
A fifty mile road from the Galana to Mackinnon Road'was
completed. Apart from giving access to the Scheme, it serves
as part of its western boundary as well as serving a similar
flinction for Kilifi and Kwale districts. It also represents part
of the eastern boundary of Taita district and the National Park
and a valuable fire-break to the latter. The route was surveyed
by a member of the Survey Department and a preliminary trace cut
by Scheme labour. The Scheme also provided the National Parks
with 1,000 to cut and form the road with their machinery.
In addition to the Access road thirty.eight miles of
motorable tracks were cut to facilitate hunting,'and 100 miles of
old track reopened. It is hoped that in the next financial year
these will be extended and graded. When the river level was low,
it was possible to ford it in a Land Rover in several places.
Lorries however, could not undertake this crossing.
Thanks are due to the National Park authorities for the use
of their roads and river crossing at Lugards Falls. Without this
permission the Scheme could not function.
A seven hundred yard airstrip was cut and levelled by hand,
close to the Scheme headquarters.
TRANSPORT.
Difficulties in obtaining the transport complement have been
mentioned under Finance. Vehicles belonging to the Scheme are a
long wheel base Land Rover 0HMS 06C6, and two 5 ton Bedford
diesels ORMS 69B0 and 30C5. Respective mileages are:-
0H1MS Acire Mils
06C6 8. 8.60 18,265
69B0 1. 4.60 21,115
30C5 15.12.60 6,679
Total cost of running the vehicles in the period covered was
f584 and that of maintenance, 358.
Despite the fact that the Scheme is non-government, the
vehicles are registered OiS. As such they cannot be insured by
an Insurance firm. Shortage of transport has already demonstrated
its crippling effect and should one of the vehicles be lost in an
accident, it would break the Schema. It is very doubtful if the
Government in its present condition would ',tap up' for a new lorry
in such circumstances. From the Scheme's point of view cost of
registration, licensing and insurance would be a worthwhile
investment. The position will remain unsatisfactory until the
transport is registered privately by the Scheme.
BOUNDSIES AND LAND EXCHANGE.
Apart from the main access road no Scheme boundaries were
demarcated. This-is unfortunate as little progress in
preventing entry of poachers and charcoal burners will be made
until the borders are clearly defined on the ground. The lack
of a second Warden is behind this holdup. Boundary cutting needs
constant supervision and other activities have prevented the
Warden devoting time to it.
The Kilifi African District Council approved the exchange of
,7$ sq. miles of Native Land Unit on the river's south bank for
416 sq. miles of Crown Land on the north side to the east of the
Scheme. Thanks are due to the District Commissioner, Kilifi and
the committee set up by the Council to look into the matter for
negotiating.the exchange. Final approval is awaited from the
Colonial Office.




In May the District Conssioner informed a number of
charcoal burners operating in the Scheme that they had to move
out. Many went, but it will be difficult to complete the
eviction until boundaries are definitely shown.
&RIUNFILL RECORDS.
Records were kept as from the 1st 1ugust 19609 for rainfall
at the Scheme Headquarters. Amounts are:-
1960 August .055 1961 January .205
September .06 February 1.87
October 4.34 March 1.135
November 1.035 April 1.485
December 1.875 May Nil
June ..12
TOTAL : 12.18 inches
This rain fell in 37 days giving an average fall of 0.329 ins.
On a further 27 days traces of rain fell that were too slight to
be recorded. Rainfall seemed to be heavier in the north and east
of the Scheme. With t e exception of the first two and last two
months, the rain was sufficient to keep the vegetation green.
The general drought that affected the rest of the country was not
felt at all.
POACHING.
The placing of the Headquarters deterred poaching along the
Galana between the Tsavo Park and Kisiki-cha-Mzungu. Much of the
Scheme's hunting took place in this zone and it was frequently
patrolled. Formerly this area was heavily poached.
Elsewhere illegal hunting was serious. In January,. 2 Wakamba
and a iigiriama were arrested near Hoshingo for having oryx meat.
The man who killed the beast was sentenced to 16 months, and his
accomplices to Il months imprisonment each. In May two Wakamba
leopard trappers were disturbed at Dakadima Hill. 'hey escaped
arrest though thJir traps and water containers were confiscated.
The remains of a giraffe and a lesser kudu were found in the
hideout, On several occasions licensed hunters reported instances
of poaching in the south eastern portion of the scheme.
SWhile counting el-phant from the air in June, several
hideouts and 24 carcasses were seen in the charcoal burning area
south of Kisiki-cha-Mzungu. Seven of the 29 elephant shot in
February and i'arch near the Park boundary, had fresh arrows in
them.
From these few instances poaching appears to have been
extensive. It would be rash to say that more than 5fo of the
offences in the area, are knorin. The opening of the area with
roads, the defining of borders and the expulsion of charcoal
burners who are prime offenders, will alleviate the problem.
However, it will not be surmounted until the Scheme can afford
its own police force of scouts as recommended by the Advisory
Committee.
LEG' HUNTI-NG.
The situation was unsatisfactory. A licence holder could
hunt the Scheme if he had the required Controlled area Permit.
Animals killed came off Scheme quotas but no money was received
for them. The ,'dvisory Committee recommonded that the hunters
should pay the full value of the animals they shot.' The Chief
Game Warden replied that the principle of state ownership of all
wild animals must be adhered to and all licence fees therefore
paid to Government. It would be unfair for the licensee to have
to pay the worth of the animal in.addition to the licence fee.




SIn the next financial year however, Controlled Area Fees would
be paid to the Scheme. Hitherto, these had gone to the
African District Council.
Between April 1960 and June 1961, 15 hunting parties shot
14 elephant and a number of smaller animals. Difficulty was
experienced in getting them to record the latter for the benefit
of the Scheme. With the payment of Controlled Area Fees, accurate
records would be kept in future.
ELEPHjNT HUNTING 2ND S.2 SLE OF PROCEEDS.
a) Hunatin. Building in the first three months and rain in
November, December and April 1,61 precluded elephant hunting
during these monthss. When possible to dry meat in 1960 the one
lorry was available for only short periods at a time. Activities
were thus confined to a radius of 20 miles of the headquarters on
the north bank of the river. Before tracks were cut, this area
was very inaccessible. This and the restriction of range made
operations inefficient. 44 days were spent hunting and only 16
elephant shot, working out at an average of 2.75 days per beast.
The arrival of the second lorry permitted hunting over
greater distances and elephant movements could be followed.
.n increase in efficiency is obvious in the period January to
June 1961; 8 days were spent hunting and 46 elephant accounted
for. The average days.per elephant dropped to 1.26. However,
the figure must reach .75 day per elephant before it is
satisf ctory.
In the months following the rains, January and May 1961,
elephant were difficult to locate and appeared to be on the move
the whole time. .erial reconnaissance will overcome this problem
in the immediate 'u-turjc but the ultimate answer is a
comprehensive road network.
Figures for elephant killed are:-
April June i January 4
July 1 February 16
ugust 4 March 13
September 6 April 1
October 4 May 2
o ovebor Nil June 10
Dec,_iboer 1
Total killed by the Scheme 62
licensed hunters 14
poachers 24
100
Of the 62 elephat killed by the Scheme, one was for
dissection by the Anatoical Society of Britain, and the meat of
two decomposed before drying. From the remaining 59, 20,208 lbs
of dried meat were obtained; an average of 342.5 lbs per beast.
It was established that there is a weight loss of approximately
76% while t'he meat dries on the racks and this increases if it is
stored for long periods. It is perhaps of interest to note that
an average scrub cow in conditions similar to those found in the
Scheme, will yield about 40 lbs of dried meat. Scheme production
in the 15 months is comparable to an off-take of 500 such cattle.
The average meat weight per elephant was low. This
unsatisf;actory position was due to laziness on the part of the
participants. While hunting near Garbiti settlement in June
quantities of meat were stolen from the drying racks by people
not employed in the Scheme. Though aware of this pilfering, the
Walia ngulu did nothing to stop it. They were punished, but lack
of supervision and o-ganuisation underlies the trouble. Again
the shortage of a Wardon makes itself felt.




a e -2f 1i:eat -, total of 19,058 lbs of dried meat were
sold, 460 lbs distributed as free sai~ples, 400 lbs destroyed by
Dermestes and a'balance of 290 lbs remained on hand at the end
of June, Revenue from sales was ;869.17.40 giving an average
price of 91.3 cents per lb. Buyers were as follows:-
Gazi Estate (Jafferali Lalji) 10;988 lbs
Famine Relief 6,160 lbs
Vipingo Estates Ltd 1,600 lbs
Africane traders 310 lbs
Mr. Jafferali Lalji originally wanted to buy all the Scheme
produced for resale, but his untim--ly d7,ath occurred before this
was organized.
Investigations showed a consierable market existed in the
rural A*frican areas. voweer the loy .o. purchasing power of the
local Ya3ant idividu,-l sales would be small. frico-n tralers were
approached but -,g,in lack of c_i tl pro-'ibited bulk sales. They
were prepared to oake quantity o- cre it bui, this is against
Schce -. policy. Uo exploit this ild tthe Scheme may have to set
up its o"I rntai sales line to t te Doctct to tho conumer.
This rould require considerable or.anisation and is beyona present
staff -a-acitics.
c) Ijory. The positiona reg c ivory is unsatisfectory.
Al produce b-. t--e Schemn goes tc ei rnuent revenue. Originally
i's value was not to be related to -;i annual Governirant Scheme
grant though thi was rev-rse T'e oson iven by the Treasury
fo2 refusinG to E-llow te Scili to mea :t i e olim. ivory and to
credit the proceeds dirc; o 5 w is "tat it woul
constitute a 1ypoth ction of revenue and create a precedent."
Facts on the issue are cimpla. The law states "trophy means
any horn tooth, tusk, bone, claw, hoof' skin? hair? feather, egg
or other durable part of any game a(Wild animalss
Protction Ordinance Part I, Section 2, Interpr-tation.) Tusks
are troph-,ies and there is no othe-r leglly acceptable description
of them. The Treasury have give-n peraiicsion for proceeds fror
the sale of trophies except ivory, to be credited to the Scheme
Fund. 'hr epby in their o-wn woi _-s ;l.y have constituted a
hypothecation of revenue and create, precedent. The reason for
equivocating over tusks is surely because of their high value
* :and not a question of law or pri-nciple.
The iAdvisoy Corittee rtco-eic the Scheie should be
allowed to sell its own ivory. --ore than any other factor, ivory
going to GoverrE,_,nt i responsible for- Waliangulu suspicion of
tl Sche-1-1e.
29141+ lbs of Schel-1 ivory were sole, by Government auction
for approxima tcly _2240 -,-d 2016 lbs were on hand at the end of
June, valu ,d at about EH512.
d) Feet and 1c s total of 26 elephant feet were SOI l
fr Shs 750/- ai84r ears fc'ch,,d Shs 1925-. The market for
thle _olmer is not steady locally, but there appears to be a
rising demand for well prepared ears. 2' ::s- are difficult to
skin an( many were daiaeed before the -r ticipents developed
the knack.
total of 47 beasts wrr killed to provide fresh mieat for
the cnJ-p. Species as follo- is:-
Oryx 13 Grants Gazelle 4
Watrbuck 11 Lussr Kuda 2
Buffalo Gerenrkh 2
Kongoni 5 Impala 2
Eland 5




Weights recorded were'*-
Oryx Male0 323 lbs, 392 lbs, 332 lbs
Oryx f emale 286 lbs
Watorbuck male 438 lbs, 34+1 lbs
Waterbuck female 381 lbs
Buffalo male 1250 lbs, 14+61 lbs
Lesser Kudu male 205 lbS
Detailed ma-asurolents of theso animals were kept axid are in
Schei-,i recordS,
FISHING.
In I.-ay: 196.o7 Dr., Whitehead a-rd C. Harris of the Fisheries
Depanrtra,- n-k carried out a survey of p is opulation i n t'-h e
Galana near -Headquartors. 11 species werec collected. 11o St
numerous, were Tilapia Hossa 2bica. :Ov conditions in the
river did not seemz to favour their grow-.-tl to any size;
670 were caug-ht with an average weiz1I C of .96 of' an ounce. It
was decided that t'he river did not of f -r an pospcects of any
quic7., return throu -h -Cfi, and no :..Ctio econ lias taken in
this f-ld by the Sch-':.
~.orial- coluibs of elephant weeeridout ovcr parts of
the Sci'eIrac in jau_:' FO-b_'U"11?y m-rc Ia nd June. ihemoS*
recorded in --ny one count _4 ~+000 -in ju2n,,. Details of
eleph,- nt movements ant, behavior -r. obs6_-v&'_'L have been kept P-nd
will be included in the n xt iyacU -Hoport, W-.i, n additional data
has accumulated.
The policy pursue h: b en to Cive li'k" .1 publicity as.
possible to t&hehe ac1it is rumn profit. Despite
hisevera nriaeshve app _(l La the press. Only one of
these, ,hrat by uh:) G o vcr nmont C 11 P res s Of f i cSr, W! s o ff i Ciall11Y
-anctio-nc Ln --r'icle in T-he ibu Star, author unknown,
resultecd in an ord,-r b ];n- plac-3d wi L" TAe Sc-'reme for lovebir1-"s.
Their connection with blcphnt i. benj inve_,:iUgatedl




12.,
CONCLi~rij Ofi
Basically the Schem,.e is a -finanicial el--erci~ e andi as, such
showed a loss in i's first ;ex an caus-,,-s for this appear
'to lie witi-in the -inistrr s sphere, andc'.were:
i) .tLe lack of a w 'ren 1-o2 ac~ of th timea
ii) the with!ol,-in,, ; of funds ? ad tianspor t.
Two War -ns are th, 7i;ium the ch: roruires ndthis has
been emphasised. in all etL t an6. re Gs leafin,7 to the
acceptnco of t Sche.me by Gov-cr-nL.-,-,t. Oil 'Che ,-,round, the
need for roacis L :c- .r.C.cls -xras initialY nndar e s t 1at e d
In othor as,,ects thae Schemei has s ovm considerable
promise. A section of -"ho 'Vali-Jan -ulu ou;ni has been
employed and ths Will increas-e a-, fast as 'Jobs are created.
Other tribes ha- ,-- also buete L--s:r de-ree.
'Nine tons of tl'ie i-oct co-'con'--ted pr-ote-in, has been .made
av -ilable f or huL,-,n c~anton, am.the fact that a market
exists for it denontrated.
Poachiing Over a :cl area hasr bee-n rLeduced to acceptable
limits, zand the general situation benefited if only by the
r e mo val f rom f fel1d o f th osce Vh -V. erC e emiplo ye d.
Deosite the disappointin -financial outcome, the
Gane Sc-'---L--t Sche e arde consider-rble prress in its
first year.
I 5C. Parker
Aft,~de

1, t 1Dc~~r 961l.




~R.

T~Y

Dakadicatha
(%.Dakadimia

Dakawachu

IT CS

Lali

Sala

Dakabuko
a-l a n i- 4-R.- .-

,2

o.

I N D 1 A -,T

M4o-.-bas a
/ A1,To. o' i a'u-e Scale =l1" to 20 miles.

Fig., No: 1. SK.,i;,'H ,1AP '20 SHI~' OW J4Az ~~u.
Sch.--me oundaries
Park ....
Land 21-:change Croim LanC,=
Native u'and Unit
Old roads -
New Sche ---e roads
Hunting- tracks

Kipin-1,

7-) d




EMPLOYMENT OF PARTICIPANTS

1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1-15

P 12
11
e 10
9
o 8
7
6
"3
e 2
1
@Months

K Those still employed on 1.7.61
SThose that left by 30.6.61

Total 31
Total 45




GRS/VI/1

23rd Alarch,

Citief' Game Warden,,
P.O* Box 241$L
NAL, OBII

Herewith 41 copies of the 1st Schane-i -LnLual Report.
Please woulk y, d forward one to Lhe 7a.il ou-ndation
as. one of' their conditions- attcho r .euant o'L 10,000
was that they received ore teShi' Amraal Reports.
Also I have not Lx4~ a~ycpisdrect to thUi(: ry




ANY INQUIRY REGARDING THIS TELEGRAM SHOULD BE ACCOMPA
BY THIS FORM AND IF POSSIBIB THE ENVELOPE.
amond Prm-100,000 pads-6/89n TA I

TEL

RAM
Origin legran
Service Instructions

,e_ I

.. .. .. -.... .

*... .. ..




\b Telegram by radip.
5.4.62.
GAME NAIROBI.
Copies of report sent to Committee Members
Draft read and approved by Major Grimwood.




IICAN POSTS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATION
T EllLEG R AM'
Regd. No. -Pef Office of Orwgn To, NO. 8 To
I~5t.~THe ,vmG ,tioq Y

a AL4c..L fpio~.

pt-v 13 W,., ecttlices 4& a -4w

TA 1

D 1,

....... ......
ANY INQUIRY EGARDING THIS TELEGRAM SHOULD) BE ACOOMPAXIED
BY THIS FORK AN~D IF POSSIBLE THE ENVELOPE.
Prov-100,000 P"1--5/59




OFICIAL TELEF-RAM
leA
S --- $0 V 6
-774 -e C,7
-/e







I




~Ryan Investments Ltd,
\ P.0.Box 30493,
I NAIROBI.
/ 17th October, 1963.
I .S.C.Pak s
P.0.Box 861,
NAKURU.
Dear Mr. Parker,
Your extremely comprehensive and most interesting
report on the Galana Game Management Scheme has been passed
over to me by Mr. Ryan. He has asked me to contact you
and represent him at any meeting called of the persons listed
in your copy letter, to discuss proposals in connection with
this scheme.
I note from your October letter that you suggest
calling a meeting between 21st and 30th October. I presume
that the meeting will be held in Nairobi.
Before I can give any advice to Mr. Ryan regard-
ing possible investment in the scheme, it would be necess-
ary for me to visit the area to obtain first hand know-
ledge of what you are doing. I feel that it may be necess-
ary to have preliminary talks with the five persons named
in your letter, before I am able to accompany you to
Galana.
Provided you give me notice, say one week, I
will make a point to attend the meeting.
Looking foNard to hear from you,
M ging Director.
JH K/SV. '(J.H. Kertell)




DiRIECTOS1. RAY RYAN (AMCNICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. 'MILL.

RYA 1~N INVESTMENT ME: TS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLEi. RYVEST
QUERNSWA, TFLZHoNK,- 20265 NAIROBI,,
F. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
--W 4 16th Nerembert 190
Nro A.P..Fletcher
This iel by wy ofbeig n intodctry iat 4 t
yog olowngcnvrstin*Ihae ad.-wihmr lx ~re
of te Glan. lder no ono men ace&*
Mr. kVRyan m original approached la
rearin ivetmntInth Shmeshul te re b aal-
abl fo pivae ivetmet.As r .Ayn srepesntaiv
in as Afic th woleprblm ws assd o m Ly r. yg
justbefoe h lef Zeqa i Ocoberthi yea, Nedles t
say xr Ryn as isied heare wih In rrkr "ha
alredy nri ~d nteest n dveloingthearea 19too

Coutd*/ 24100**000




DIRCCTONSI. RAY RYAN (ANCRICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.

RYAN

INVESTMENTS

LIMITED

NEW STANLEY HOUSE, STANDARD STREET.

BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O.
QUaRNSWAY,
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI.

2.6th Noveabr 1961.

I would be ver plessO to how froa you to
indicate your interest# and then you will be kept pted
right up to the inwtso all developmts s n when
theq ou.
I wish to sapaos, t i onlusiong that a great
deal will depend a our maInga satisfactory binding age-
sent with 'the Rgoa uhrteqbto tebsso
wht havi In nu"Ife ue htti b* razf
without sueh difficultys
With vey ind *R~rd&,
age*a M 4n
b V. Harle s*

CAOLKS:- RYVEST
TELFPHONP.- 20265 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBV.

1W 2 400




Datz~ons- RY RYN (&ra W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
RYAN INVES .-NTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE, STANDARD STREET.
BANKERS-
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLES.- RYVEST
QUEENSWAY.
P. 0. Box 30011. TULEPHOME.- 20285 NAIROBI,
NAIROBI. P.,0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
29jth Noveiaber, 1963.
vor ~owr~~ tog
The Ghairmang
coast 7 e..;on Aa -ez;Iby,
Y.().Zox 2424,
Sir#
SThis C~ompany is interested In a proposal viat a ;opan~
should be Ife rnod t-o take over the exii~tnr zjchezae with aufilaient
capital to ace~lcp the area to the 6- st vnt~ andi jyo doi4n,6
make a cot-.,iderable contribution towarcds lnraan ocal
efiloL y telt .
""he prioprosal tlhat we wish t o put forvierd is th,-t 'Ube
following proinrtr ih-o, c~ crvn-rise thep basis ol' Jfirm o.A'i e r Vade by
you to i;s wl-Ach would lbe o)er :'or acceptance for a poxioru of two
a o n th IJ- t-rh an- offer waf; m;.: e we would within the period of
twomotj end aVOUr t.7 promote the LCoz pan~y to taike over the
- cherae. ae should ment-lf-n that o-ur G~nairmnai hmi af. A-sociate
are aln-.'ady so 'itrr- teo i the Acheme that thiey mi,.ht well
between lthem 1.e ;prepared Vo inject the necesary capital but you
will a~ruseth,:t before 6Xoint2 so tbe~f woulo wibri to Mean
opport...iity of inv#, itt.,atinj; a -- an,.ootf 01, the 4QiOin taill
la order tI.-at svuch an invz si atior, eould be carri(-.-
out with a fir;,, C L,-it-!ejt in Mindo the or'4er whiAch we would
likce youa to make should a ,ntain the fa .-awint, pointaz-
1. : 'kat a GCoi- qany be '[ored with. a paid up cash capital
ofk~QW)and tha,.t the C oast egloi Az a
and/or o,4qh local authorities fw A
nominate,, be allowed a free 167'




fDIRECTORS2. RAY RYAN (AMERICAN) .J. Wi. HARLEY. J5. MILLS.
RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BANKERS -
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLES,. RYVEST
QUERNSWAY, TEKLEPMONK,- 20265 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30011,
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
20 ""ha't the company be ,iante- a least of the 'total
area of the -.11-heme as deiirate by existing
1 oundaries and L-eing aprxmtl VD,~X es
at a -enperaorn rent.
3. The league be for ar -Anitial period of five years
with an optiou to the f.ompany to renew for a further
period of 30 year on the name terms and without awW
additional comtmert#
4.That the Gompany, uL.,.ertakes to Invest tip to the
full amount of Ito cash capital in the ,-evelopenit
and running of' the jeheme within the initial period
of 5 years, such inveot*"ents to e ace as wid4 when
the :-oard of Ilirectora of the Goni._ &n consider
ne i ary .
541 That at no time would the _oaat .ei &isay
, ad/r helocal authorities as iainority si-are-
holuer be required to fiind any -art of the cash
capital required to deielop or manage the W$chem*&
6. That the C;oast iiegion Aezb and/~or trio local
authorities wo-,ld at all11 time have the right to
a~polnt one -:e:7,er of the 13oird of iii-ecters of the
Con~panq to re .reserit their Inter-ots.
7. "'ha~t the iConpany unoertakes to so mianag-e the natural
animal population of the ochme that at no time d~ue
to the (;ompwny's -,peratioris would the area become
denuded of such animal population, ifurther that by
the 'Company's of-,orts and investment, "nd as
knowlcd~z: was acquired duri%~ the expcrimer~
the overall animal population would be ei
to increase within the tboua43 of the
area to accept such increase.




DIRacTORs,- RAY RYAN (AuEmicAm) J. H. KERTELL, #. W. HARLEY. J3. MILL..
R-YAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
BANKERSt"
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CANLts, RYVEST
QUISENSWAY, TELEPHONE.- 20285 NAIROBI,
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
BID
a. That the Com.--any be licensedi bj the -vaze department
to control, develop and siploit, the areas animal
pop~ulatlan& in any way it seez 14%. and within the
riteiples outlined in para 7 aboye. Thia licence
to 'te for a terb coneu.- ent with the ;o.%pany#8 leana
ol the area, aii4 to --1e a-,Aijet to a jaere-ly nosiizal
axinual fee Payable to vie ~ae i.epartme.,t, in view
of the overnment's indirect iter 'st in the equity
of the (;ompany,
9.That the .-Se 1:01art-,etls overall licence to the
Company -reclude t he aZ e .ep artaoent from raising
ony additional fee for suir.h bo-afidie hunt --Is 1.
iiht be atithoris!, c -',. the ',om-'any to tinter the
area for huntin purposes,
100 That the --nmpany p-od uce auolzed accourits at the er4.
of each year o,, op.eratiom and declare a di',iead
of s-aca amount a~n ij availaule 4Cor tdistri ,Wdt io
to the 6ihareholdersq
11. That the shareholders in the ;oml-aay be at all tv"-es
such persons or co-mpanieL; as zay be acceptable to
the -Oast i'egion sllby
-We hope that the oomparty can 'ue initiat" a" soon as
possible and ve look forw~ar4 to receivin,,! your confirmation
of an offer alon ; the lines indicated,
Youars faithully#
J-1 Is V K er"




OHUToRS,. RAY RYAN (AN1R9ICA) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.

RYAN

BANKURSI-
BARCLAYS BANK D.CO.
QuarNEwAY,
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI.

Ref i/A/5.

INVESTMENTS LIMITED
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.
CANLIES. RYVEST
TELzpmoNE,. 20265 NAIROBI.
P. 0. Box 30493 NAIROBI.
16th December,# 1963.

fto Oivl Socrtar7,
coast Regiont
The seooretat,
P*0*otX 2424,
NODMUSA.

Doar Sir,

Galana Game Management Scheme

Thank you for your letter ADW2/6/105 of 13th
December, 1963. I quite appreciate the reason for the delay
in the proposed meeting and I now would like to confirm that
both Ir. Parker and myself will be available to attend the
next meeting of the Regional Land Committee at 10 a.m. on
13th January, 1964,
Yo )1a faithfully,
V i Directo
JHK/BV.(J.H,* Xortell)
oooo I* Porker Esq.,
P.O.Box 8619
NAKURU

)0

eA J c#v-r.1

i I-

j A-L




-AOL













OIRACTOR1. RAY RYAN tAMEimCAw. J. HI. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS.
R AN-.INVESTMENTS --"'' LMITED-,
NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STA 4DARD STREET.
BANKERS..
BARCLAYS BANK D...CADLES.k- RYVEST
QUEENSWAY. TLPOE.225NIOI
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI. P. 0. Box S0493 NAIROBI'.
R~sHI/4.,29th Jammuw7 I14#
fte RXIetr For Natural Zesauvse,
P*00Boz 0027t
'We wish to conirmlw that this opnwaaprch
with a view 1o establish ur nteest in aknoeth
present Governental Game aaeetShn tGl
ma Xr Ra ya h visited the Uhs n flow over the ara
in question, Just before loxving Aria for the United Stats.
the matter wan pased over to the writer for further Invostigation
an negotiations with the varius eataoinlvd
As the ar lie within Use authority of the Geset
Rei onal Assembly, ou initial appoach was to that body in
oer tht there could be no aisunerstnln regrIng
%. -'- We arran~ for Cost sresntatives tofly t"o
aerial safris the cnsierble expze Involved being not
from ova ow rsurceso T9 writer visited Mombasa to &+toM
a meting of the Coast Region 1sano* 0oiate on 13th Janury
1964, Following tis visie w were pleed to I1er that our
propsalhad been accorded approval subject to asatsatr
lae being drawn up, We undrstand that a coy of our oiia
pr5ooal wspassed ever to you for information# however# we now
vxcos further copy of that letter, dated 29th Novber# .960
It Is thi*s Compnys intention to Invest the sunmof
L9400 900 in the Scheme# provided a wtully agreeable pepossl
can be finslised, Wa we base our opertions on cattle touismI
apsmis of h venture, we approached the MinisteFo giutr
'to obtain his approval to the cattle side of the operations Our
alrroach to his was met with enthusau ad he was kind eneu&
to ring your Miisr to arrane wu firet meeting for 21st
Jauay 1964a
As a result of the phone call between yourw Miistry
and that of Ariultur we were able to meet without a of1ielal
~appoah by ourselves to you in writing* The m"elprpseo
thi1ter, thereforeg is to got the recod tral and ensure
that the necesar mention is recorded in both your fils end
Ours.




DiRiECToRS. RAY RYAN CANKRICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. MARLEY. J3. MILLS.

RYAN

INVESTMENTS

LIMITED

NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET.

BANKgKSI.
BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O.
QueENEWAY,
P. 0. Box 30011.
NAIROBI.

CABLES1.. RYVEST
TELEPHoNEf,- 202855 NAgROst,
P. 0. Box 30403 NAIROBI.

RUIR/4*

29th Jnury 1964o

OR

our second n**tix hold yetrdy8th -Jma~ -,
16,resulted in a most contructive OfaD A Prv
in prinoiple was accorded by you NWaistr. A eoerdin
was the made V your Pemnet deretr that Aajor Grinwo
and the writer shoiu no poceed with the preparation of a
draft proposal on all points affootn the GaeD*atet
Wherever difference of opin~ion ariss, between the timDparl-
men~t and this Comny the matter Will be refeio back to
your Ministry f"or a ftlg
In omeIusion we wish to reord ou appreciation of
the speed with which negotiations have bee handled to dot* and
th* courtesy we bjave experienced from all members of yuir slart
with Whom we have come into contact,

JWV8V,6




~x~B~

12th Auguet 1957.

The Secretaryp
Game Po~olioy Comenitteep,
RAIROBII
Dear Sr,,
I ancloseoopes of two private papers I have writte
mne on futur conservation trends with pariclar emphsisn game
mranagemrent maethods and the rsettlement of the Walisgeulup andn the
other an natgle sanotuariesq whih you mey care to cifrclate to
member of the Ow Policy Canitbtes.
I should be glad to dicusrs these -papers with you~ or
your Ommidttee at arq time shouhald you wishrh to do so*
Yours fathflly

(sg) N.M., Simon*s

I 1




FUUE CONSERVATION TREDS
0 These thoughts representing what is probably a fresh approach
P ~to the problem of conserving the game animals of East Africa are based
on the premise that the only hope for the future of the wild fauna in
East Africa lies in a comprehensive system of true National Parks in which
the rights of the animals predominate over all other interests, such Parks
being regarded as sacrosanct*
National Reserves were originally designed as an interim measure
according to the terms of the 1933 London Convention, and therefore have
no permanence* The general concensus of opinion is that this interim
period must now be regarded as ended, and consideration should be given
as 4 matter of urgency to up-&Tading suitable parts of these Reserves to
National Park status*
It is axioatic that the hard core of all conservation
planning must be a representative and comprehensive National Parks system,
but running parallel with these National Parks must be other oonmwrvation
areas which I should like to refer to as "Game Management Zones". Before
explaining the functions of these areas, it is necessary to state clearly
that, in my opinion, it is vital to accept the fact that whether we like it
or not, it is unlikely that wild animals will be allowed to survve for any
lent of time purely for aseftetic reasons, and unless it can be shown that
these wild creatures can ontribute directly or indtirectly to the economy
of the counter, they will eventually be ompelled to give way to move
profitable enterprises, and the needs of human expansion* It is therefore
essential in my opinions to adopt an entirely fresh attitude towards the
wild animals we are endeavouring to conserve for posterity, and prove
beyond a shadow of doubt that if our concern is admittedly partially
aesthetic, that is entirely coincidental and go on to show that wild
animals are of very real economic benefit to the whole Colony* However
unpalatable it may bet the fact remains that in order to ensure the
survival of the greatest possible umbers of wild animals, their right to
live will be largely jugd n relation to their contribution to the
e~onomy of the Colony.
In the case of the National Parks, this condition is already
fulfilled in that our Parks bring in considerable revenue from the tourist
traded
It is my contention that the present National Parks although
admirable in themselves are insufficient to ensure the future of the
Colony' s wild lifeg and it is for this reason I suggest additional gum
management zones* In this connection it is necessary to emphasise that
this concept is based on the belief that certain areas of Lany would
yield a biger eonomic return to the country as a whole under wild fauna
than under domestic livestock* This precept is undeniablep though it may
not be easy to convince Government of its wisdom because of political
or other considerations*
The point to emphasise is that game management schemes oou].d
only be undertaken if it could be shown that the areas selected were
being more wisely used in carrying stocks of game than in any other form
of land use* The question is 'basically one of properland utilisationg
and I strongly maintain that certain types of land,9 often of sub-sconomic
value to human enterprise, could and should be more beneficially and more
wisely employed carrying wild animals than would be possible under any7
other form of land use*
Government must be persuaded that land is man's basic resource
and that in future it will be necessary to think loe in terms of exploiting
the soil and more in terms of conserving the land itself, Julian Huxley
sums it up by explaining that "We must apportion the use of land not only
according to our various human needs, but also according to its varying
. capacities of continuing yield whether that yield be of food wild lifep
timber or recreational space. Above all, we must see that its yield
capacity of whatever sort, is not reducted (or even totally lost) by
faulty or short.-sighted exploitation"*

Idallyq each National Park should be surounded by,-kg.




- 2 -
management &reap although this will not always be possible to achieve, the
latter acting as a form of protective outer barrier for the central kernel
of the Park proper* In these game management zones, it will be necessary
to accept the fact that there is nothing morally wrong in harvesting an
annual crop of wild animals in precisely the same way as a farmer has no
compunction in marketing his excess cattle or sheep every year* This crop
would be harvested by the hunter under a carefully controlled system, and
the fees from licences would provide a considerable cash return, I would
suggest that' a separate fee should be levied for every individual animal
shotp depending on the species. If such a scheme were open to African
hunters in the same way and under the same conditions as anybody sle, poaeh-
ing might well be reduced to smaller proportions than is the case today
and at the same time the African be ensured of his meat requirements*
I am particobrly mindful of the needs of such tribes as the
Waliaunguu who rely for their livelihood on bunting and yet are virtually
poahing themselves out of existenct at the present time by exifessive and
entirely indiscriminate methods, and in the prcess destroying their own
means of livelihood. If these tribesmen could be persuaed to participate
in such a scheme and made to realise that it is to their own advantage to
ensure its success, it might tend to solve a number of existing conflicting
problems. It is no secret that the Administration is making little
headway in devising ways and means of providing alternative occupations
for the Waliunguu and a scheme such as this might go some way in helping
to solve present difficulties*
In the first place it would be essential to decide the total
number of each particuAlar species the land in question could carry and an
annual census of the animals would have to be taken. Any surplus over
and above the optimum number could then be hunted under lieenceo Once the
excess nubers of a given species had been accounted for, no further culling
of that particular species would be allowed in any circumstances until the
following season,
It would also be necessary to have carefully regulated closed
seasons* I would further suggest that every hunter issued with a licence
be required to fill in a card which would be handed tO the warden on
completion of the safari i, stating the species and sex of the animal killed
the area in which it was taken and any other relevant information
without which it would be impossible to keep a firm check on the total
annual crop. Any breach Of the regulations by hunters would be strictly
punished, and the offender prohibited from further hunting, It is
interesting to note that in the United States and other countries schemes
similar to this have been used for a number of years, and from the
information at my disposal it is safe to say that such a system has been
instrumental in savigmn species of wild animals from virtual extinction*
For instance, twenty years ago in the United States in one area
of approximately 700 square miles the deer were being indiscriminately
slaughtered and were on the verge of extinctio,, By instituting strict
game management methods the stage has now been reached where an annual crop
of 40p000 deer is harvested by licensed hunters and the revenue thus
received makes the scheme finanotally self supporting*
Denmark, a small and highly developed country, has an extremely
efficient system of game management, and it will surprise many eople to
know that each year it is necessary to shoot over 18,000 deer in order to
keep the deer population within the carrying capacity of the land*
One further example will suffice. In Sweden before the first
World Warp elk were being hunted indiscriminately and about 1#500 a year
were being culled and the species faced extinction. A proper management
system was devised, and today no less than 15,000 are hunted under licence
every year and the species is still on the increase*
Controlled Hunting Areas:
Controlled hunting areas make no pretence of providing any long
term security either for the animals or for the hunter, There is virtually
no future for Kenyats fauna within the existing loose system of controlled
bunting areas. With the present rapid expansion of the Afrioanpopulationg




- 3-

the constant demand for more land for African settlement, and other
form of developments these controlled hunting areas are bound to be
assailed, reduced in size and extent and must eventually disappear al-
together* Farthermorep although certain game areas of Kenya are at
present afforded protection by the tsetse it is only a matter of time
(possibly not more than a year or two) before the fly is mastered by
improved scientific tenhniquee, and these areas too will be thrown open
to settlements and the fauna will once again be forced to give way*
There is little time left in which to acts and I most
strongly recommend that a survey be undertaken with the object of hvn
certain selected controlled hunting areas, and parts of the present fly
country set aside and gazetted as Game Management Zones with long term
security*
I was interested to note that during the course of the recent
Serengeti Inquiry, Mr. Boiwker Douglass gave as his opinion that the only
game available to the hunter in the future would be the overflow from
the National Parks./, All the evidence points to the fact that this
statement is not far short of the truths and if game management schemes
on the lines I have suggested were adopted they would represent a
charter for the hunter as well as for the animals. I am convinced that
it is as much in the interests of the professional hunter as the
conservationist to press for the creation of game management zones*
I should add that the United Nations Agricultural Food
Organisation has funds available for any likely shceme "that can increase
-food production in under-developed areas, and if approached might be
willing to provide money for experimntal purposes along these lines.
In this connection it is interesting to note the steps that
have already been taken in Canada to provide the native Indians with
a properly organised game management systems which serves the dual
purpose of conserving wild animals and providing the Indians with useful
and beneficial employment* I am indebted to Mr. Bruace Wright, Director
of the Northeastern Wild Life Station, Whld Life Management Institutes
for having provided the following facts, which speak for themselves*
I am firmly of the opinion that similar game management shoeme should
be undertaken in East Africa*
Fur Bearing Animals and their Management in Canada for the
~Benefit of the Natives*
There are two principal fur bearers in Canada managed for the
benefit of the native Indians Beaver and Muskrat*
Intensive beaver management began about 40 years ago on the
southern and of James Bay under the direction of the Hudson Bay Company
post Factors Jimy Watt, who induced his Indians to desist from trapping
the few beaver that were left an their almost trapped,-out hunting
grounds so that they could reproduce and re-stook the area. This was
augmented by introducing some now stocks but most of the areas were re-
built from the remaining breeding stock, The attempt was a success from
the beginning, and as soon as the beaver population could stand a
harvest a quota was worked out for each family trap line based on the
number of occupied beaver houses on it, By this method the natives could
easily see the disastrous effect of over-oropping because the number of
occupied houses was smaller the following year and their quota was
reduced accordingly. This soon sank homes and it even became necessary
to urge some tippers to take a larger harvest to protect the food supply*
The Government then took up the scheme and made a beaver
preserve of several thousand square miles at +the southern end of James
Bay where only Indians could trap. The beaver population is kept with-
in the limit of its food supply and the Indians have a steady income -
something they never had before*
A system of registered trap lines is in force over most of
southern Canada today* Under this system a trap line becomes the
personal property of the individuals and he is hold responsible by
Government for not over-trapping it, It is a tangible asset upon which




-4-

he can borrow money from the bank or will to his son. It is his for as
long as he looks after it, but it can be taken away at any time for abuse*
This applies to Whitest Indiana and Eskimos.
Muskrat management is carried out in a somewhat different manner*
Muskrats live in large marshes, not in the forest streams as beavers do.
It is sometimes necessary to instal water control constructions such as dams,
in order to bring the marsh up to its maximum caring capacity for rate.
Extreme fluctuations in water level are to be avoided and over population
will rain the food supply. Therefore it is necessary to have an adequate
trapping force on hand to crop the harvest when the limits of the carryng
capacity is reached* The total Indian population is then mustered to
turn out and trap. The profits are shared among them.
Such managed marshes, mainly in the northern prairie provinces
are the mainstay of the Indians in the ares, It is a self-perpetuated
major industry for them, and all that is needed is the service of a game
manager to set it up originally and work out the annual quota to be harvested
Some truly remarkable figures are available on how the ratn population can
be increased under management*
These two types of far bearer maagment are recognised in Canedas
as the best possible land use practice for these areas, and as it is the
homeland of the Indian the benefit goes to them (and keeps them off the dole).
I have asked David Sheldrick, Warden of Tsavo National Park
(East) for his comme on the scheme, and in wholeheartedly endorsing
the idea of game management sones, he has these suggestions to make*
"Following the successful conduct of the anti-poaching campaign,
large scale poaching has now ceased in the Tsavo Park* It would, therefore,
appear to be an opportune moment to provide the Waliungulu with suitable
employment while there is still an effective degree of control over the tribes
and while they are still in a cooperative frame of mind* I would therefore
suggest that a pilot game management scheme be undertaken in the area lying
to the eastof the Tsavo Park boundary on the main Mombasa/Nairobi roadt
thence north to the Tiva River, but excluding the settled coastal strip*
A scheme in this area would in no way interfere with any other projects as
this type of country is almost useless except for carrying game. A few
Galls, go there at certain times of the year, but there is no settlement in
the accepted sense. In the past this country has been heavily poached by
Wakamba and Giriama, but the Waliungualu should be able to put a stop to
this very quickly if given the proper backing*
This area should be declared a Game Management Zone, and all
the Waliungulu persuaded to move into it except those with alternative
employment. Two young European Officers, one from the Administration and
one from the Game Department, who really believe in the scheme, and who
could gain the confidence of the Waliungulu, should be appointed to admini-
ster the scheme with a group of Waliun&gulu elders to assist them. As
Chiefs and headman are unkown in this particular tribe, I suggst that this
Kiama consist of renowned hunters who would be accepted by the Waliungalu#
It would be the responsibility of the Euopeans to formulate a clear out
policy for game management in the area, and the duty of the .iama, to see
that such a policy was understood by the tribesmen and duly enforced.
The number of animals to be shot would be very carefully regulated
and the Waliungulu would have to understand that although the figure would
be low durin the first few years (it may even be necessary to close the
area entirely until game stocks are replenished through natural increase)
this figu re would progressively increase. The Waliungulu would have to
apply to the Kiama for licenses, and fees would be levied on a sliding scale,
regulated in the-first instance on their ability to pay. When the scheme
gets on its feet a certain number of licenses could also be issued to
non-residents who would of course have to pay the full feast the proceeds
going to the Game Management Committee*

All licences would be issued and strictly controlled by this




-5 -

Committee working under the adIvice of the O.C. of the scheme in full
consultation with the Waliunguu elders,
The Committee would have to set up their own marketing
organisation to dispose of trophies and dried game meatV and the income
from this source would also help in eventually making the scheme
financially self supporting. Notrophies or meat would be sold
privately but would have to be marketed through this central organisation
There is no reason why a scheme of this nature run on
businesslike lines should not in time become financially sound. This
pilot scheme should be for th benefit of the Waliungulu only, Any
other tribesmen wishing to hunt in the area could only do so if
approved by the Game Management Committee, and they would then
have to pay the full fees. If this pilot scheme were successful there
is of course no reason why similar schemes should not be undertaken for
the benefit of other tribes*
It would also be essential for the Committee to form a control
team to investigate any complaints and to carry out any necessary control
work in the area* Any trophies derived from such control work would be
marketed through the central organisation, thereby benefiting the
Waliungulu as a whole* It might also be worth considering whether this
same control team could assist in elephant control work along the
perimeter of the Game Management Zone adjoining the Tana and the coastal
belt, thus relieving the Game Department of this duty.
It would be necessary to purchase suitable rifles which
would be maintained by the Central organisation, such weapons being hired
out to licence holders when required. In addition it would prove
necessary for the Game Management Committee to build up a small police
force to patrol the area and keep out unauthorised people and prevent
poaching*
For this undertaking to become successful it would be necessary
for the Game Management Committee to have absolute control of the tribes-
men in the area* There is no doubt that if the Waliungulu were to think
that this scheme was for the benefit of Europeans or other tribesmen it
would fail, but if they can see that licensed hunters make a'useful
financial contribution through paying fees they may come to favour the
admission of a limited number of sportsmenp and non-residents*
From the point of view of the National Parks such a game
management zone adjoining the boundary of the Tsavo Park would-undoubtedly
be of tremendous assistance in elininating the poachers from the Park
itself* This being sot the stocks of game within the National Park
would increase rapidly, and the overflow from the Park would at the
same time help to stock the game management zone and vice versa*
Voi, 1st August, 1957a David Sheldrick."
One proplem that will soon have to be squarely faced concerns
the question of achieving a satisfactory balance between the needs of
the farming community, including the African pastoralists (and more
particularly the Masai) in areas of special interest from the point of
view of fauna conservation*
There is little doubt that it will be necessary to obtain
and maintain the good will and cooperation of the Masai, Farming and
game preservation are~noompatiblep and whatever the attitude of the Masai
towards wild animals may have been in the past it seems to me to be more
than probable that as Masai development and ranching schemes go forward,
the Masai themselves will inevitably come to regard wild animals in much
the same light as the majority of European farmers do at present. There
are already signs of this changing attitude and as Masai livestock
eprfoae in quality and quantity there will be ever increasing demands
0 o a out the game both as a protection against disease and as a




-6-
means of conserving the limited grazing and water supplies* A case in
point concerns the Ngong National Reserve where ranching schemes proposed
for the next decade may possibly spell the eventual end of the Nairobi
National Park, unless alternative arrangements of mutual benefit to both
the Masai and the National Parks can be devised.
What I am sure it comes down to is that whether we like it
or not wild fauna will eventually largely disappear from both European
and African farming areas, and it follows that the only long term hope
for preserving the fauna of East Africa lies in a system of National
Parks and game management zones. If this premise be true urgent steps
should be taken to work out an overall policy for game in East Africaq and
set aside certain clearly defined sonesq adequate in size and extent to
cover the range and habitat of all species of faunal in which there will be
no human rights whatever, and which will be regarded as absolutely sacrosancN
A broad definition of a game management zone would be an area wherein
the wisest form of land use would be the conservation of wild life.
An exception to this generalisation might be considered in
certain special areas such as the Amboeli National Reserve. It is my
belief that if the Masai were brought into a form of partnership at
Amboseli on a profit sharing basis they would quickly come to realise the
benefits of preserving wild animals. Although at present the Masai
receive some 20% of the gross revenue from visitors going to Amboseli,
this money goes into the coffers of the Kajiado African Council and the
ordinary Masai pastoralist is probably entirely unaware that this is the
case.
In order to bring home to the Masai the material advantages
of conserving game, I would suggest that in future instead of the National
Parks paying a cheque to the District Commissioner, Kajiado, an annual
Barazsa bebild at Amboseli at which the money is handed over to the Masai
in hard cash so that the Masai can see with their own eyes the benefits
deriving from fauna conservation.
A scheme on these lines appears to me to be coming as near as
we are likely to get to striking a balance between farming and conservation
interests. Alternatively, there would appear to be considerable virtue
in working out a plan either to buy or to lease land at an agreed annual
rental from the Masai for game conservation purposes. I have in mind
such areas as the fly country adjoining the Trans Mara Reserve. This
fly belt represents probably the finest game country remaining in Kenya
which at present is almost useless to the Masai owing to the prevalence
of fly, The Masai would appear to have much to gain and little to lose
in agreeing to lease this fly country for conservation purposes, but unless
steps are soon taken to reach some form of agreement, it is probable that
before many years have passed the tsetse will have been mastered, and
the Masai will utilise this fly country for their own domestic livestock.
Inthis event, the game will once again be forced to give way, and this
magnificent faunal area will have been lost. Should the Serengeti
Committee of Inquiry reco-mend my proposal that the northern boundary of
the Serengeti Nation Park be extended to link up with the Mara Triangle
I insider that no time should be lost in coming to an agreement with the
Masai Administration regarding the future of the Loita Plains*
One of the most impressive lessons to be learned from the
Serengeti Committee of Inquiry was the enormous influence a man of Professor
Pearsall's standingcmn exert in the field of fauna conservation. It
therefore appears Ibgical for East African conservation interests to link
up as colsely as possible with the Natum Conservancy in the United Kingdotm
and thereby obtain the benefit of the knowledge and the influence of men
of the calibre of Professor Pearsall and Dr. Fraser Darling.
I believe that it would be to the inestimable advantage of
either the Royal National Parks of Kenya or the Kenya Wild Life Society
to send a representative to the United Kingdom to make firsthand contact
with the Nature Conservancy and obtain their support and at the same time
to visit various Europequ and North American countriesp with the object
of acquiring full details of the systems of game management which have
been developed there with such outstanding success. Many of the problems




-7 -

and difficulties with which we are now faced have been successfully
mastered in other countries and in my view we would be foolish to
disregard the experience gained at great cost over many years in these
countries. The money spent in sending an individual to study these
tried and proven methods and techniques would be amply repaid by the
valuable additional knowledge so gained, and the useful personal
contacts that would be established.
This memorandum should be read in conjunction with the article
on Nature Sanctua -iesp copy of which is attached,
(Sgd) NM IM
P.O. Box 20110,
NAIROBI.
1st August, 1957 o




The primary concern of the National Park and the Game
Department in Kenya is naturally to safeguard the Colony' s fauna, and
this admirable objective has in itself been sufficient to occupy their
energies and resources. But it should not be forgotten that there are
many other areas not necessarily of faunal interest which should also be
afforded adequate protection and preserved for posterity.
For instance y the Boni Forest, north west of Lama, was until
recently a most interesting area of indigenous forest, inhabited by a
number of Vz species of small mammals, some of which were not found else-
where in Kenya* Until recently this comparatively remote forest was
virtually untouched but during the intervening period a number of tribes-
man have been known to enter the area with a view to poaching wild animalio
Their normal procedure was to out down the smaller trees and
bushes, and the lower branches of the larger trees, and with this
material construct a large bush fence in the shape of a horse-shoo extending
sometimes for several miles. Then at the right time they set fire to
this fene, and the animals enclosed within the balzing trap rushed for
the only exit whereupon they were attacked and slaughtered by the waiting
men, The result of this was that not only the animals themselves were
destroyed, but in the process the forest was desiccated, and to such
an extent that it has now to all intents and purposes ceased to exist,
Many by gradually eating into the forest, destroyed the secondary
growth and damaged the larger trees; then the forest itself and all
forms of life, whether animal, bird$ reptile or insect, which~slied for
existenceon the forest, underwent a radical change. The balance of
nature was first upset and then eventually destroyed. It is difficult to
overstate the fact that deforestation not only destroys the trees, but
also a great deal of animal life as well as plants and smaller creatures
that can only exist in association with the forest itself,
Another example concerns the upper reaches of the Tana River,
On either side of the river bank is a long narrow protective strip of
indigenous forest, This forest strip should more properly have been left
completely untuched, but tribesman have been allowed to clear the forest
belt and cultivate the land for agricultural purposes, This continuous
line of cultivation now stretches for many miles on both banks of the
river with the result that elephants and other wild animals have no
alternative but to cross through the cultivated land in order to drink.
The Africans, then of course, complain that their shambas are being
damaged or destroyed, and the Game Department is promptly called in to
carry out control measures on the elephant*
The question is basically one of proper land utilisation, and an_
overall colony-wie olioVfrln-s is urgently needed. If develop-
ment continues at the same pace that has been evidenced in the period
since the end of the war (and there is no sign of slackening) another
decade or so will see the end of many unique-areas which should more
properly be preserved for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations*
It is not difficult to provide examples of the lack of a common policy
or even to show that various Government departments and organisations
although doing their admirable work in their own spheres, sometimes have
conflicting aims and interests*
Few will deny that the most important function of the Forest
Department is the protection of catchment areas, for water is the very
lifeblood of a country such as Kenya. It seems that although the revenue
derived from timber production is important to the colony, an even more
vital function of the Forest Department is to protect water sources. But
when it is realised that the Agricultural Depar~tment$ who no doubt are
equally concerned with the question of water conservation, have allowed
African tribesmen in the Elgeyo-Tambah area to exploit the forest catch-
ment area on the Elgeyo escarpment for agricultural purposes with serious
effects on the water supplies feedirgthe plains 'country at the foot of
the escarpment, I begin to wonder whether the wires are not somewhat crossed.




2-
The trouble with crossing key wires of this nature is that the resultant
shot circuit may well throw the whole works out of gear.
Not only animals but inseote, birds and plants, are dependent
ontheir environment, and if that environment is destroyed the creatures
themselves are destroyed with it, unless they are fortunate enough to
be able to addapt themselves to changed circumstances, When nature
heid sway the process of adaption normally took place very gradually
indeed over countless generations. Many forms c life are incapable
of rapid adjustment and therefore go under.
What it amounts to is that practically all forms of life,
animal and vegetable, depend on some other of life for survival and it
is almost impossible to think in terms of preserving one without the
other. Preservation of fauna is closely interlinked with the
preservation of flora and other forms of life, and it is therefore/wis
to concentrate on preserving one and ignoring the other.
Adequate blocks of land should be permanently protected
because of their scenic value or for their interest to the botanist
or zoologist. They may contain outstanding examples of different
types of indigenous forest (such as cedar, podot bamboo, mvuliv camphor
etc.) or they may serve as a green belt surrounding ever-expanding townso
Considerationshould be given to the settingup of a Committee
of knowledgeable people who are alive to the urgency of the problem,
and who will in the first place compile a list of all the areas through-
out Kenya in need of complete and absolute protection, and request
Government to gazette these as fully protected nature sanctuaries. At
the same time steps should be taken to build up a small research
organisation working in conjunction with the Committeef for without
the detailed knowledge that only scientific research can provide, there
is little hope that an overall policy in the best interests of the whole
country can be devised.
Mention has already been made of the urgent need for a faunal
research centre, and this organisation could well be responsible for
search into the broader issues
NOEL SIMCK.
Jun 1957.
K\
1\




P.O. Box 20110
NAIROBI
KENYA COLONY
9th October, 1957.
Ian Parker Esq
Game Departmen;
P. O. Box 34,
K IL I FI.
Dear Ian,
I was very glad indeed to have your letter of the
4th October and to know that you have been asked to produce
a report on the proposed "Waliungulu Game Management Scheme".
The facts relating to similar management schemes in other
countries quoted in my Memorandum, have been obtained from
a variety of sources. Mr. Bruce Wright, Director of the
North Eastern Wild Life Station, Wild Life Management
Institute of Canada provided the information regarding
fur bearing animals for the benefit of the native Red Indians.
He is at present, so far as I am aware, working in the
Serengeti National Parks on a study of predator movements
and you will therefore be able to contact him by writing
to him c/o Gerry Swynnerton.
With regard to facts concerning schemes in the
United States I suggest you write to the United States
Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service,
Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland.
In Denmark the individual to contact is:-
Count G. Ahlefedlt Bille, Fjellebro, Rudme, Denmark, who is
Game Warden of Denmark and will, I know, be delighted to give
you all possible assistance.
As you can imagine I am as keen as anyone to see
this game management scheme go forward and achieve complete
success so I hope that you will not hesitate to contact me
if there is any help or assistance that I can give you. At
the same time I should be grateful if you would keep me
informed of developments from your end. Meanwhile, all good
wishes.
irs sincerely,




~CORONATION AVENUE,
P.O. Box 20110
NAIROBI
~KENYA
- T 61: 2 3380....
Ian Parker, Esq.,
c/o the Game Department,!
KILIFI. A
Dear Ian,
A brief line to return your photographs on
soil erosion in the coast province. Very many thanks
indeed for allo6 me to have the use of them.
I know you will be interested to hear that
the Ministry has agreed with my suggestion that I be
allowed to present the paper on Game Management to the
forthcoming East African Fauna Conference scheduled to be
held in Nairobi next month. I feel that a full discussion
of the idea at this level will do nothing but good, and may
well help to accelerate Government's acceptance.
With all good wishes,
Yours

Eno.




CONSULAR HOUSE,
CORONATION AVEU,
P.O. Box 2011I0
NAIROBI
KENYA
Tel: 23380
24th September, 1958.
Ian Parker, Esq.,
Game Department,
P.O. Box 34,
Dear Ian,
Your letter of the 10th September was awaiting
me on my return from Athens yesterday. Many thanks indeed
for allowing me to see a copy of Adis's masterpiece con-
cerning the Ministry's attitude towards the Waliangulu Game
Management Scheme. I am glad to know that the )?.C. has
decided to take a strong line over this matter, and would
greatly appreciate being allowed to hear of any further
developments in this connection.
You will be interested to know that the Scheme
was discussed at the Athens Conference and achieved a strong
measure of support from the delegates. Behind the scenes I
was able to do a considerable amount of lobbying, and people
like Dr. Worthington, Professor-Pearsall, Lord Hurcombe, to
say nothing of the American representatives, are whole-
heartedly in support of this pilot project. Possibly my
most useful contact was with a Mr. Waterson of the Food &
Agricultural organisation, with headquarters in Rome. I
discussed the Waliangulu Scheme with him in considerable
detail and asked his advice on how to raise money to get
a pilot scheme in motion. He informed me that a U.N.O. fund
.of one hundred million dollars per annum has recently been
created for under-developed areas,'and he appeared to be
considerably impressed with the idea of farming wild animals
as a useful source of protein for under-developed areas.
To cut a long story short, I have arranged that
Dr. Fraser Darling will stop off at Rome on his return journey
to the United Kingdom on the completion of his Mara ecological
reconnaisance early in December where he is to meet represen-
tatives of F.A.0. and endeavour to talk them into providing
the money to get this Scheme going.




- 2 -

Meanwhile, I spoke to Mervyn Cowie and Willie Hale
yesterday morning and they agreed to see Adie immediately
to impress upon him the importance of this project. However,
I do not hold out very great hopes that the money will be
found anywhere in Kenya, but I am feeling reasonably
optimistic that F.A.O. will come to our assistance.
I return Adie's letter herewith as requested
but would ask you to be good enough to keep me informed
of any interesting developments, particularly with regard
to the attitude of O'HBagan, Much as I should like to see
you during the Royal Shows I am afraid that I shall be away
during that period but I look forward to being able to sea:
you next time you are in Nairobi.
Under separate cover I have sent you a copy of
my memorandum on Nature Sanctuaries which-has been forwarded
to the Chief Conservator of Forests. I shall be glad to
hear what you think of the idea.
With all good wishes.
Yours sincerely,
NMS/MEB

Encl:




KENYA WILD LIFE SO0C IE TY

CONSULAR HOUS
CORONATION AEU
P. 0. BOX 20110
NAIROBI
Chief Conse rvator of Forests, h r(n3Speme, 98
Forest Department.. 5n etmbr 98
P. 0. Box 30027, ...
NAIROBI.
Dear Sir,
NATURE RESERVES
I wish to thank you sincerely for allowing me the
opportunity of discussing the question of Nature Reserves-
and for listening so patiently and sympathetically to my
sugge stions.
In the fact of constantly increasing competition from
human development it becomes ever more necessary to devise
means of preserving adequate regions in which no development
or commercial exploitation will be permitted. In my opinion,
certain outstanding areas, because of their botanical, faunal,
scenic or geological significance, should be afforded complete
and permanent protection while there is still an opportunity
to do so.
The Forest Department is in the privileged position of
controlling extensive, unspoiled, indigenous regions. You
would be performing an extremely valuable service to the
country as a whole if you would initiate a scheme for gazetting
certain selected parts of the Forest Estate as Nature Reserves
in which no commercial exploitation of any kind would be
permitted. These Nature Reserves should include as many
different types of habitat throughout the Colony as possible$
thus preserving at least representative samples of varied
forest forms in their pristine state for the future.
Ir Nature Reserves would remain under the control of the
Forest Department and would be administered by the staff of the
Forest Department as part of their normal duties. It seems
unlikely that any additional expenditure would be required.
oe In my opinion, it would be essential for you to retain
Full powers to authorise the culling of any species of animals NM
in the Nature Reserves in order to prevent damage or destructioy--
of the habitat and to keep the numbers of wild animals within
the carrying capacity of the land.
I do not think the average man in the. street fully
understands that the first essential of any conservation plan
is the preservation of habitat, failing which the conservation
of wild life in the widest sense is impossible, A good
example of the application of this basic principle can -readily
be seen by comparing indigenous forest with exotic plantations.
The former is virtually pulsating with many forms of wild life
while the latter are almost lifeless. The preservation of
flora is the essential prerequisite to the preservation of
fauna and avifauna.

/In view




In view of the dominant role the Forest Department must
occupy in the establishment of any Colony-wide conservation
plan, I would request you to give favourable consideration to
gazetting certain selected Darts of the Forest Estate as
Nature Reserves, Should you agree to take this step, I can
pledge the fullest support of the Kenya Wild Life Society in
assisting you in this important task.
As the preservation of all forms of wild life are so
closely inter-related, I have sought and obtained the advice
of experts in the ornithological, botanical, entomological and
faunal fields in drawing up a list of areas regarded important
enough to be considered for Nature Reserve status. Their
comments and recommendations, together with their reasons for
selecting the areas mentioned, are attached for your
consideration.
You may care to consider setting up an Advisory
Committee to study all aspects of the question and assist you
in formulating precise recommendations possibly on the lines
of the Advisory Committee recently appointed by the Governor
to assist the Chief Game Warden in matters relating to the
capture and export of wild animals and birds.
Yours faithfully,
N. M. SIMON
Chairman




APPEDIX y
FOREST NATURE RESERVES
ORNITHOLOGICAL RECOMMENDATIONS
By Mr. J. G. Williams
Ornithologist Coryndon Museum
The two outstandingly important forest regions from the
zoological, and especially from the avifaunal point of view
are :-
1. The Kakamega Forest and smaller adjacent forest
areas in Western Kenya (the Kakalelwa and Mlaba
Forests), and
2. The Sokoke Arabuku Forest in the Coast Province.
REASONS FOR IMPORTANCE.
Kakamega, Kakalelwa and Mlaba Forests.
This forest area contains a richer and more varied
bird-life than any other forest area in Kenya Colony. Some
460 species of birds have so far been recorded of which ca. 50
species are found nowhere else in the Colony. There are
several endemic birds confined completely to this area, eg. the
Brown-Capped Eremomela (EREMOMELA BADICEPS TURNERI) and the
Golden-Bellied Wattle-Eye (DYAPHOROPHYIA CONCRETA SILVAE).
Sokoke Arabuku Forest.
Again this is an extremely rich forest area for birds,
with completely different species to the Kakamega Forest region.
The region is especially rich in endemic species, eg. Sokoke
Pipit (ANTHUS SOKOKENSIS), East Coast Akalat (SHEPPARDIA
SOKOKENSIS), Spotted Ground Thrush (PSOPHOCICHLA GUTTATA
FISCHERI), Pale-Bellied Sunbird (ANTHREPTES PALLIDIGASTER),
and Clarke's Weaver (PLOCEUS GOLANDI).
The following forest regions are also of great
importance ornithologically :-
1. Mt. Kenya Mountain Forest.
2. Mt. Elgon Forest.
3. Kasigau Forest in the Teita District.
4. Shimba Hills Forest in the Coast Province.
REASONS FOR IMPORTANCE
Mt. Kenya Mountain Forest.
A rich endemic avifauna with such species as Mt. Kenya
Ibis (LAMPRIBIS OLIVACEA AKLEYORUM) and Mt. Kenya Jackson's
Francolin (FRANCOLINUS JACKSONI POLLENORUM). The forest also
I-rnTmn




\II

-2-
forms a refuge for species which may be shot out elsewhere, such
as the Crowned Eagle (STEPHANOAETIS CORONATUS), .Rufous Sparrow-
Hawk ACCIPITER RUFIVENTRIS RUFIVENTRIS) and the Black River
Duck ANAS SPARSA LEUCOSTIGMA).
Mt. Elgon Mountain Forest.
Forest area not yet fully explored ornithologically.
Has a rich avifauna and several species which do not occur
elsewhere in Kenya. Eg.: PRing-Necked Francolin (FRANCOLINUS
STREPTOPHORUS), Shelley's Francolin (FRANCOLINUS SHELLEYI
SHELLEYI), and the El on Yellow-Legged Owl (GLAUCIDIUM
TEPHRONOTUM ELGONENSE),
Kasigau Forest, Teita District.
This tiny forest has several endemic species which will
become extinct if the forest is destroyed. Examples of these
are :- Teita Thrush (TURDUS HELLERI) and the Teita Grey-Breasted
White-Eye (ZOSTEROPS SILVANUS),
Shimba Hills Forest, Coast Province.
Another forest area which is not yet completely explored
from the ornithological viewpoint. An abundant avifauna
intermediate between that of the Sokoke Forest and the North-
Eastern Tanganyika forests with several endemic species and
races, eg. :- Smaller Yellow-Streaked Greenbul (PHYLLASTREPHUS
DEBLIS RABAI).
The following forest areas are still unknown ornithol-
ogically :-
1. Witu Forest, Coast Province.
From its geographical position and the little we
know of its vegetation this forest is likely to be
of the greatest importance.
2. Mukogodo Forest, North Nyeri.
Area completely unknown from the avifaunal point of
view.
3, South Western Mau Forest.
Area still imperfectly known zoologically.
4. Chepalunga Forest.
Important as a meeting place of Eastern, Western
and Southern forms. Avifauna imperfectly known.
5. The three Forest Areas in the Coast Province, Gazi,
Boni and Mrima Hill are still almost completely
unknown zoologically. All that is known is that all
possess abundant and varied bird faunas.
6. The Forest Areas of Marsabit, Kulal, Nyiro and the
Mathews Range in the Northern Frontier Province of
Ken;ya.
All possess endemic bird forms and all remain to be
explored ornithologically. The Mathews Range is
probably the most likely of these forest areas to
possess at present unknown species.

/Small




c

-3-
SMALL FOREST AREAS AROUND NAIROBI.
The three forest areas around Nairobi Karura, Ngong
Road, and Dagoretti Forests are important as being the centre
of distribution of one of the rarest African Eagles, Ayres'
Hawk Eagle (HIERAAETUS D3SIUS). In addition several endemic
species are confined to this area, for example the Black-Headed
Apalis (APALIS MELANOCEPHALA NIGRODORSALIS).
OTHER FOREST AREAS.
The following three forest areas are still incompletely
known ornithologically and further collecting and research
may indicate that sections are worthy of designation as
nature sanctuaries;-
i. The Meru Forest (Lower Imenti), North East of Mt. Kenya.
2, Kaptagat Forest.
3. The various forested areas of the Cherongani Hills.




APPENDIX
MAMMALIAN FAUNA-OF KEN~YA FORESTS
By Mr. J. D. L. Fleetwood
Cory-nif-- n Museum
The mammrals listed below are dependent on the
preservation of their forest environment. Mammals under-
lined are very local in -"Zitribution.
Mt. Elgon
Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni Stuhlmann' s Blue Monkey
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus
Heliosciurus multicolor elegans Forest Squirrel
Denaromus acraeus Tree Mouse
II ruddi If ;I
Thaxnnomys surdaster elgon-Ts Long-tailed wood Mouse
*Cephalophus harveyi barbertoni Barbertonfs RedDie
it Negrifrons fosteri Foster's Black-fronted Duiker
Cricetomys gaffbianus elgonis Giant Rat
Cercopithecus neglectus Brazza Monkey
Kakamega anid Nandi Forests
Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Greater Bushbaby
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus
Heliosciurus multicolor elegans Forest Squirrel
Lophiomys ibeanus Maned Rat
Dendromus i. insignia Tree Mouse
Thamnornys surdaster discolor Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Giant Forest Hog
Cephalophus caerulus musculoides Blue fluiker
Tragelaphus scriptus dama Bushbuck
Syncerus c. caffer Buffalo
Cricetomys gambianus elgonis Giant Rat
Peroaicticus potto ibeanus Potto
Cercopithecus nictitans schmidti, Red-tailed Monkey
Nandinia binotata arborea Tree-Civet
Anomalurus j. jacksoni Flying Squirrel
Protoxerus stangeri bea Giant Forest Squirrel
Atherurus turneri Brush-tailed Porcupine
Hy-psignathus monstrosus Hammerhead Fruit-Bat
Mau Forest
Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Greater Bushbaby
Cercopithecus mitis neumanni Blue Monkey
Colobus polykomos matschiei Black and White Colobus,
Lophiomys i. ibeanus Maned Rat
Hylomyscus denniae Tree-Rat
Praomys jacksoni peromyscus Forest Rat
Thamnnomys i. ibeanus Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Cephalophus harveyi ignifer Red Duiker
T 1oaer~ulun3 musculoides Blue Dulkter
Boocerus eurycerus isaaci Bengo
Tragelaphus scriptus dama Bushbuck
Syncerus c. caffer Buffalo
Felis aurata Golden Cat
Cephalophus sylvicultor ituriensis Yellow-backed Duiker




-2-

Sokoke Forest

Galago crassicaudatus lasiotis
Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus
Paraxerus pallaitus tar-ae
Thamnomys surdaster littoralis
Tragelaphus scriptus i veu
Rhinonax cryy
Cephalophu3 adersi

Greater Bushbaby
Blue Monkey
Red Bush Squirrel
Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Bushbuck
Giant Elephant-Shrew
Ader~s Duiker

Tana River Forest

Cercopithecus mitis a .torqua tus
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus
Colobus baddius rufomitraitus
Mrima Hill an a~ Orest
Galago, crassicaudatus lasiotis
Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus
Colobus polykomos palliatus
Thamnomys surdaster littoralis
Heliosciurus undulatus daucinus
Paraxerus palliatus frerei

Blue Monkey
Mangabey
Red Colobus

Greater Bushbaby
Blue Monkey
Black and White Colobus
Long-tailed 1ood.-Mouse
Forest Squirrel
Red Bush Squirrel

Karura, Ngong~ etc.

Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Dendrohyrax arboreus bettoni
Dendromus nairobae
Cricetomys gambianus kenyensis

Greater Bushbaby
Syke' s Monkey
Tree Hyrax
Tree Mouse
Giant Rat

Mathews Range

Dendromus insignis percivali
whytei capitis
Thamomys ibeanus lutosus
Colobus Polvkomos -percivali
Lophiomys thomnasi

Tree Mouse
It It
Long-tailed Wood Mouse
Black and White Colobus
Maned Rat

Taita Hills

Praomys taitae
Cercopithecus nitis kibonotensis
HelioBCiurUS undulatus shindi

Forest Rat.
Blue Monkey
Forest Squirrel

Forests East off Rift Valley, North to Marmanet Forest

Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Colobus polykomos kikuyuensis
Lophiomys ibeanus hindei
Cricetomys gambianus kenyensis
Dendrohyrax arboreus bettoni
Praomys jacksoni peromyscus
Cephalophus harveyi ignifer
Tragelaphus scriptus deloxneremei
Booceros eurycerus isaaci
Syncerus c. caffer
Loxodonta africana
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
Galeriscus jacksoni

Greater Bushbaby
Sykefs Monkey
Black and White Colobus
Maned Rat
Giant Rat
Tree Hyrax
Forest Rat
Red Duiker
Bushbuck
Bongo
Buffalo
Elephant
Giant Forest Hog
Four-toed Mongoose.




Mt. Kenva Forests

Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis
Cercopithecus mitis kolbi
Colobus polylcomos kiku,,rensi3
Heliosciurus ruafobrachiacm keniae
Cricetomys gamibanus kei.rensis
Hylo cho e iL;. 1_ J
Cephalophuis: .Locki
Tragelaphus scriptus delamerei
Boocerus eurycerus isaaci
Loxodonta af ricana
Syncerus c. caff er
Dendrohyrax arboreus c-:-iayi

Greater Busbhbaby
Syke's Monkey
Black and. White CoJlobus
Forest Squirrel
Giant Rat
Giant Forest Hog
Black-fronted Duiker
Bushbuck
Bongo
Elephant
Buffalo
Long-tailed Vood.-Mouse
Tree Hyrax




APPENDIX-11l
FOREST CONSERVATION IN EAST AFRICA
By Mr. R, H. Carcasson
Entomologist Coryndon Museum
A. SOME GErkTL ASPECTS
The cont~ ._... exi.,!!JI~ce of most types of forest growth
is dependent on a hiultipOlicity of soil, climatic and other
factors reacting upon one another and upon the plant and
animal life of the forest in the most complex and delicately
balanced fashion.
In East Africa the majority of our small and scattered
forest areas are growing vnder what may, for want of a better
word be termed marginal ,nditions; the very moist conditions
of the last pluvial period have been succeeded by a phase of
progressive dessication and it is only the ability of the
forest to create and maintain its own environment which has
enabled it to survive under conditions far less favourable than
those under which it became originally established.
It is the complex harmony of ecological action and
reaction, acting as a closed cycle, without loss of assets or
resources that ensures survival under deteriorating conditions,
Any tampering with this cycle, however minor, such as felling
of timber, grazing of forest edges and glades by domestic
animals, thinning of undergrowth.. cutting of roads etc.,
constitutes a wastage of resources which no biological
community can resist for long without undergoing profound
changes, particularly under conditions that are not optimal.
There is of course a tendency for the forest to protect
itself from such encroachments and for wounds to heal, but it
must be clearly understood that such powers of recovery are
limited, especially where climatic conditions are not favourable
and that any process of denudation, however small and limited
at its inception, if continued, will eventually reach a point
beyond which recovery is impossible.
Our knowledge of forest ecology is far too incomplete
to permit a reliable assessment of the maximum degree of
exploitation compatible with an adequate margin of safety.
There is little doubt that forests help to mitigate
climatic extremes and it is therefore obvious that the conserv-
ation of limited areas of forest is far easier and far more
likely to be permanent if such forests are part of or adjacent
to larger forest areas.
In view of the beneficial influence of the forest on
climate and on water resources and in view of the scattered
and residual nature of the forests of East Africa, total
conservation of all forest areas must be regarded as imperative.
Any concessions to economic pressure or to vested interests at
the expense of our forests constitutes a serious risk to the
patrimony of future generations.

/B. Entomological




-2-

B. ENTOMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FOREST CONSERVATION.
Our knowledge of the insect fauna of the forested regions
of East Africa is still in its infancy and an enormous amount
of research remains to be done in this field. Without adequate
protection of forests there is a serious and imminent danger
that large numbers of ins. ect species may become extinct prior to
discovery and deseri-pti-,-) Indeed, it is very probable that
hundreds of unknown sp ;.-es have already perished.
This may appear a matter of little concern to the average,
layman, but it must be remembered that pure science must
precede the application of scientific discovery.
Insect pr..,-tors anl parasites of economic pests must be
discovered in the wild state before they can be harnessed to
man's needs, and there is little doubt that biological controls
are often the cheapest, safest and most effective, and it is
probable that many of them still await discovery in our forests,
C. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS.
The insect fauna the forests of Kenya is influenced by
geographical and climatic factors and these two major influences
are quite distinct and often mutually independent.
There are 6 main regions from the geographical point
of view :-
1. The Nandi-Elgon forests, with strong affinities with
the Congo fauna.
2. The isolated forests of the Northern Frontier, with
Sudanese and Abyssinian influences and many endemic
elements.
3. South Nyan~za, with strong Rhodesian-Angolan influences.
4. East Rift highland forests, with a large endemic insect
fauna.
5. West Rift highland forests, also with a large endemic
element.
6. Coastal forests, with numerous South African and
some Madagascar affinities,
The insect fauna varies within each of these regions
in response to the botanical composition of the forest, which
in its turn is controlled by elevation, rainfall, aspect,
drainage, soil and sundry other factors.
Should it therefore be impossible to enf orce the
protection of all forest areas as suggested above# one must
at least ensure that adequate areas of all main types of
forest within each region be placed under total protection
as soon as possible,
The protection of the forest areas listed below is
suggested as the irreducible minimum needed for current and
future research into the country's insect fauna.

/Elgon




Elgon
Kakame ga
Kakal ewa
Malaba
Kaptagat
Che rangani
Mt, Kenya
Upper Meru
Lower Meru
Mukogod6.
Kikuyu Es: ---rpment
Aberd~area~
South-Wes-u-
Chep al-ngu
Narura
Ngong
Dagore tti
Kibwe zi
Kas igau
Witu
Sekoke-Ar-abuk~o
Shimba Hills
Ga zi
Mrima Hill
Kulal
Mt. Nyiro
Mars abi t
Matthews Range
Tana River Gallery Forest




|
S J

APPENDIX IV ..
FOREST CONSERVATION IN EAST AFRICA
2.-'ROM A BC-' IT i C, POINT OF VIEW
,W2 SOL" ..,*,,J.XL,-, O MOLLUSCA)
So3. Verdcourt
Ap art from the supreme importance of preserving forests
from a climatic point of view, a fact which is now being stressed
by most ecologists and hydrologists the cutting down of entire
forests often causes the extenction of certain plants and
molluscs, not onily in 7-7he forests themselves but also in
surrounding c-o~zntry due to depletion of rain fall and complete
alteration of the ecological conditions. Once forest is cut
dowen, even for replanting by exotic trees, the undergrowth
species, often of extreme interest, and the forest floor fauna
disappear. This is not a matter which is ever likely to cause
any public feeling as in the case of large mammals or the more
showy birds, but the wilful extinction of species when a little
thought could ensure their preservation with a minimum of
hindrance to more worldly matters is a moral crime in the
opinion of most naturalists. Even from an economic point of
view it is not always a sane policy. Many drug plants are yet
to be found and it is quite conceivable one might clear an area
of something far more valuable than the future produce from the
land cleared,
One of the chief difficulties of suggesting areas for
preservation is that practically nothing is known of the majority
of our forests from a botanical point of view. I doubt if,5/o
of the forests have ever had a botanist in them. The study -of
forest trees is a difficult one. Even in the Usambaras where
botanists have collected for 60 70 years it is very easy to
discover a new tree by assiduous collecting. There are certain
areas the destruction of which would constitute more of a loss
than others. The Usambaras for example contain hundreds of
species which are either endemic or occur only in the Uluguru
Mountains. A forest like the Karura Forest contains very little,
if anything which occurs nowhere else, yet even the Kaz ura
Forest is not worked completely for its trees, So little
forest is left in Kenya that the strongest pleas must be made
for the preservation of as much as possible. The Director#
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. has been approached by letter and
asked for his views and also for the views of his expert staff
concerning individual areas of interest.
Mr. Corner, possibly the foremost botanist in the world
today has recently stressed the fact that the forest areas of
the Tropics are a vast biological storehouse and that many
biological problems could be settled by setting up tropical
biological stations. His lecture and letter are appended
to my report.
Certain areas in Kenya are of the utmost botanical
interest. Foremost are the coastal forests which are scarcely
known botanically and contain many striking endemic species and
also many known but undescribed new species, particularly in
the Annonaceae. The following areas should in my opinion be
completely preserved.

/of




-2-

Of supreme importance from the point of view of endemic
species are the Coastal Forests. Everything possible should
be done to safeguard as many of these forests as possible
particularly the following:-
All forests in the Lamu area especially that at
Mambasasa and Utwani which abound in undescribed
new species of Uvaria, Uvariastrum, Diospyros,
Dracaena etc.
The Solzke and Arabuko Forests, the Shimba Hills, Mrima
Hill and Budu Ki f sini Forests. Such rare plants as
Ellipanthus hem :.dradenioides are found nowhere else and large
numbers of new species remain to be recollected and described.
There are innumerable rare plants such as Gigasiphon, Lannea
amaniensis, Pseudobersama, Lovoa, Lasianthus ferrugineus, and
1variodendron which are restricted to small forest patches.
At least one area of typical Mangrove swamp should be
set aside as a reserve since it is an interesting association
which could easily disappear.
Mt. Elgon has a striking flora of interesting herbs and
alpines the forest is of less interest from the point of
view of the species in it as from the point of view of maintain,-
ing the habitat in its present state. The mollusc fauna is
highly peculiar and very many species appear to be endemic.
The Cherangani Hills have a remarkable subalpine flora which
must be in delicate balance.
Kakamega Forests. This is of outstanding importance
to Kenya. It is the Eastern limit of the W. African type
flora and although it is difficult to mention individual species
which do not occur in Uganda or W. Africa, from a phytoge-
graphical point of view this forest is the most important in
Kenya. Some of the interesting species are Uvariopis congensist
and other Annonaceae, Maesopsis emini, Entandrophragma,
Aningeria altissima, Cordia millenii, Mussaenda spp. etc.
Mt. Kenya Forest. Interesting but not so much for its
individual species as for the preservation of a mountain
habitat with distinct vegetation belts. The Imenti forest
is undoubtedly one which should be preserved.
The Aberdare and other highland forests contain few
species of tree which are of interest but at least some areas
should be set aside in the Mau, Kikuyu Escarpment and Aberdare
forests for complete preservation.
The small forests around Nairobi, Karura, Ngong Road,
Dagoretti, Ngong Hills and Muguga should be set aside as
amenities and also because they are close enough for educational
purposes. The near presence of a piece of forest to future
educational establishments may do a great deal to help Nairobi
biological students of the future, Few other large cities
have the chance to preserve such amenities. Apart from this
fact the forest contains interesting Sapotaceae and a striking
species of Uvariodendron.
Some forest areas in the Teita and Ukamba areas need
preservation e.g. the Chyulus, Kibwesi, Kisigao and Taveta,
Taveta forest is for example the only Kenya habitat for
Alangium salviifolium. The preservation and extension of
forests in this large dry area of Ukamba is fundamental to
ensure future grasslands to the west since the -winds blowing
across the area will become drier as this region approaches
desert conditions.
/In




-3
In the N.F. Province it is important to preserve what
forests there are left to maintain forest habitats. The
ground fauna of these forests is of,'great interest and is
scarcely know as yet. From a water conservation point of view
their preservation is absolutely essential, These forests
could be made reservoirs of water which can be piped down to the
plains people thus keeping them out of the forest and helping
to preserve the latter, The Kulal scheme is already underway.
Mt. Kulal, Mt, Marsabit, Uraguess and Maralal are exceedingly
interesting islands of forest in a desert area and tremendous
economic assets. Marsabit contain some interesting species such
as Premna rmaximas Ocotea Kenyense which are only found in the
Meru and Mt. Kenya forests.
To end o ks report I would like to make a recommendation
for the appointm-,ent of a Field Forest Botanist to collect and
study forest tre es in Kenya and also to make complete surveys
in areas which are being cleared. The best chance of studying
forest trees is during felling operations. Such a botanist
could be attached to the Herbarium.




~CONSULAR HOUSE,
CORONATION AVENUE,
GEN/Gt/ P.O. Bx20110
NAIROBI
KENYA
' Tel: 23380
A 20th October, 1958.
Jan Parker, Esq., \
Game Warden, k
Game Departments
P.O. KILIFI ///
Dear Ian,
I know you will be interested to see the
enclosed letter which I wrote to the M~inistry of Forests
with regard to obtaining financial assistance for the
Waliangulu Scheme through the Nuffield Foundation. I
also attach a copy of Adie's reply.
I am informed privately that Farter-Brown
is very much taken with the Scheme and, in fact, considers'
it the most promising of the various proposals put up to
him during his recent African tour. At the same time, we
are making- the necessary approaches to F.A.O. headquarters
in Rome and I am very optimistic that one or the other
of these two sources will eventually provide the necessary
financial assistance.
With all good wishes.
Yours sincerely,
Encls: '




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L~Ai n
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I I/. M.CONSULAR HOUSE,
GEN/G.M.CORONATION AVENUE,
P.O. Box 20110
NAIROBI
KENYA
Tel: 23380
' 6th O,,ctober,19.
The Permanent Secretary, \
MINISTRY OF RESTT DEVELOPM'i \
GAME FISHERIES, /\\\ /
GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGFON SCOHEME,
It may not be generally appreciated how important
the Galena River Game Management Scheme is in relation
to the future of wild life conservation in Kenya. The
scheme provides the first opportunity to prove or dis-
prove that wild life$ properly managed on a sustained
yield base, is of considerable economic significance
in marginal or sub-marginal regions.
The scheme must first and foremost be regarded as
an experiment, of a somewhat revolutionary nature, in
utilization of the wild life resource.
In view of the experimental aspect it is of
fundamental importance to have a full-time ecologist
attached to the scheme from the outset of phase two
with the object of collecting and collating adequate
date from which proper conclusions can be drawn. Unless
this is done the scheme ceases to have any experimental
value and the principle objective of the scheme is not
met.
I respectfully request that immediate consideration
be given to the appointment of an ecologist and would
appreciate learning whether your Ministry is prepared to
take the initiative in this regard.
The obvious choice would be a Fulbright Scholar and
perhaps you will correct me if I am wrong in believing
that applications for Fulbright awards must be made by
the Government concerned.
May I add that I shall be only too willing to assist
in any way possible in advancing this suggest ion. For
your information Dr. F. Fraser Darling Is in the United
States at the present time and would, I am sure, be
willing to approach the Fulbright Trustees should you wish
him to do so.
Yours faithfully,
Noel M. Simon,
Chairman.




20th October, 1959.
Dr, F. Fraser Darling, D,8c,# Pho1)., 1,.L*D,
THE~ CC)41,.RVATIGN FMCDATLIN,
309 Zst 40th Street,
P~ew York, 163,
U So A*
Depr Frank,
Here is a copy of the official reply from the
Ministry to my letter req-uesting the Kenya Go'vernment
to consider applying for a Fulbrig;ht Scholar to be
s, pointed to the Wlualianiulu Game Management Ocherie.
I am of the opinion t ,-nt unless qco,%)etent
ecolo Irzt Is pjointed th., jri -oiple obetof h
scheme will not be met. Its value as an imnvort nt
experiment in wild life management uncier i:"vt African
conditions will be largely lost.
If you agree with this point of view I wonder
whether you would give conpicerit ion to meeting the
rjubsiptence expenses of an ecologist through the
African Wilr, Lif e Fund ?In this event It would not
be unreaonable to press government to .-rovide housing
and a suitable vehicle se well as giving their full
support to thp npplication for aj Fulbri,.ht ajwnrd for
thi : pa.rticular purpose,
Yours sincerely,
Noel Simon
Copy to: Dr. F Airfield
6t




6th October, 1959,
The Permenent *ecvf-trry
IN1 !T -1 Y 0?F FO T -N MI ~IT
Devr Barnwll,
The q,.,twh#J draft of tqn ,vticle was written wi
o (livect retiult of the rfecerit, titi~t the- Lmirdstry
I c,,;ze arWby wltt the fin Irms*i that mFainy of
the partI4i.nt- hrivirw got o-ff trveir ch ,,Ai th#- fact
consl~pred~ th hAd fnlfil' ,, their rfrsonsibilitietj.
The sttltwle pere to he no that w- havc si4ld
whpat Is happening tt I-r t kvnn t to o mjfwtlling
But nobody a~erUto hriwe :iv,, r, ny relthou-rht to
peelywha- re,-,irel to bin don to 8],-levi.ste thre
1 'uvewye~~e h- Orinci,lo of' re~fusing to
rt I c a un 1ez,:: 1 ;,n Cdo. so Constru4tjiC-VCej. "IY'tei
ottUrst& nt roetj ~a to C.(--rtntn actions of
th- oomm.,u,,iry bt un i he on lie ,v~one ith -a
prgetiefil solution I--r,;y a not on to help i7,i:rovp
the aliatnoeltl iIt esp quit, neaiti
end unreFasonrabl- 1to exi)-ct oan to evo
soluion~xfle$,themen~ioe inimaely oni~~rsd it h
thP 8it~ht!Ol C.,n augetwaiye s-nd merriv of obt! 1ninel- It,
Tfdiq the uie~~failed to Au, .sn thr e -ie of the
t;,ttLac h rd v~~i la r) att to r-rv ,Ay that jf e Ct.
40Yuui ton eve coet~wudb ~e d.
a ~Yourt. filroef5)-ly,

14-oel. 'inon




camfpaigni there hto been a co-ndr--t ive lu~l! In
povahing act ivitiee but during the poet few months
the question hi again reared its ugly heed, qame
Rangers deiscribe the situation Ps more serious then
it hns -ver bee~n before. "any of the ipoachera who
were aonvictr-d se a result of th(.. sucoesfu~l coa~Ig
two yebrseQ v u ave long eince CO.-I'etd their prison
Senteicea ;,j,4 hn-ve r" v"'i-te tu th,--ir eai
practices, having irn tie nosi letxned a number of
new tric'ks from their exieenci.. They are nor- whpjt
iR gnti-rAlly kriowl. e* 'fly' and ope als;O fully Ownre
thnt the intensive ct~pimiaiV s~,--vr-4t thper rpc-tered out
mAny months hgo.
~~ot ionly ia the ~oo si'rtlvrove- their
t ,:!hine Lut another ntir-ly new fftor nlow omdJAIetes
the. situritiur. Raod-edLed~veri. con L, rendily
)iurch;-, .ic for a nioapot outlay and, thuri Pqu% j ( the
rroilorn )oacher tois ai~l the ndvfantngea of' mobility and
can be mrny -111teb fr m thn ucee o the crimpe bfore the
alarm con be riei
In the July issue of VWILD I) It was attated that
unlessB a sotisfatory soluti.pn to som, of i ,)Pt rfre'i
more pr-essinF conserveto Probea.old be devised
Anti i-vlemented witi 5 years 'it mi-gt be too lette to
save the situation, Tj ie Wns not an h~irCal
outburst aimed atctching jubliu imag4to but




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Thi s table i s compU ed fro m Game Registers received by me in 1959c< I \llould rep a t that it i s not accurate, as a number o f people faU to submit a game register o r are very l ate in doing so. PROTECTION O F CERTAIN SPEJIES. Rhi no. These beasts are still thin on the gro und and deserve the full protection they have enjoye d during t he pas t yeara The largest p o pulations are to b e f o und i n Controlled Area Blocks 20 and 21 both within t he Game Management Scheme. Aroun d the bases and o n most o f the larger hills i n Teita the rhino are d istinctly more numerous t han i n the fla t NY1ka. The m uc h thicker ve getation o n t he f o rmer no doubt accoun t s for this. S b le. I am very much agains t the pro posal to allo w a number o f sable to b e sho t o n 1 icenoe. 1,1y reaso ns are: a ) t he sable o f Kenya are an isolated p o pulation and should their numbers ever reach t he I daoger level' there i s no possibility o f natural replenishment o f the stock fro m T ganyika. b) hIe are a s pecies that ha v e u ergone a at ady decline i n numbers ove r the last fifty years. The area hich i s populated today i s less tba o ne tenth of that occupi ed fifty yeaxs ago. Thi s i s co nfirmed by t he older embers o f the local trib Where o nce f oun d allover the h i nterland o f Kilif i ... e v en i n t o what i s today t he Tsavo Nat ional Park -there now remains a small g roup o f Sable o n Mangea Hill. The decline has occurred within living me ory. In Kwale, Sable are t o day only found east o f the K waleTanga R o ad i n any numbers. Again, with i n living e ory, they 0 c e extended i n some strength west of Kilibasi Hill. It i s diffioult to ttribute t h i s alarming decrease in numbers to p ching alone. S b1e are w ry creatures, as uc h so as any o f the other large antelope. Itlhy then should they suffer exterminatio ",hU e eland, oryx a n d k ongon i conti nue to occupy what was o nce co m o n ground7 t the reasons are f or this p o pulation crash" are yet my tenes. All we can accept i n formulati ng policy i s that the decline bas t aken place, and t t we d o not kn o w whether i t conti nues o r not. 0) T ere i s n o o ne who knOI ho' an sable there are i n Ken Any f ure i s but an approximation T he oretically therefore n o o ne can say what culling r a t e the spe Cie s c an sustain. Thi s very importan t prinCiple o f co nservatio should be applied i its ost a b solut se e where precious spec ies such as sable ar concerned The only po1io y therefore, that the Game Department can apply with m oral co nviction i n the o f its i gn orance ( and i gn orant we are!) i s to m intain a "statu q uo" u til scienti fic fact d otates It i s no argum n t to clai m t t "it bas be en prove d i n A eric that to kill the herd bull i s to allo w new blood into the herd and i s beneficial to the species." Thi s has ]2i be en proved w ith Sable and to apply what m ight f i t on e u ul te to another without proof i a teurish and dangerous I request m ost strongly that u til the Gam Department has a scientist who can tackle the question co patently, S able Antelope remain Royal Game i n Kenya Other S pecies. I still believe that l e opard warrant full protectio n H owever i n view o f t h fact that only o ne w s shot by hunters last year I shall let the matter rest. CONSERVATION MEASURES. Leop ard ha v e b een a nuisa c e on the co a t S O t h of M o mbasa To co p e with the situation a l e opard trap o f the box t ype was co nstructed. Three leopard t w o males and a very pregnan t female -ere t nsported to the Tsavo National Park (East). Two were released a t Aruba dam and o ne on the G ana River. I recommend t ha t the p o licy o f deali ng w ith 1 opard trouble i n this way be co ntinued The stock o f leopard i n the Ny1ka has been very s adly depleted i n the pas t a n d needs res tOCkin g badly i f it i s t o hold its owno It i s an expensive prooedure but I think well worth the cost. The l e o p a r d trap built was made from materi 1 supplied by the Game Department, by the National Parks a t Voi. The cost o f and gas f o r welding etc. was met entirely b y the Park authorities and therefore a joint ownershi p i s exercised ov e r the trap. The agr eement i s 'tha t i f the tra p i s not being used b y the Game Department the Parks may us e it, and vice versa

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6 1 1 9 .. t 4 1 11 1 5 t t --0 1 5 -

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PAGE 9

" o Lei.

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of r

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on oth uses Ad 0 t on the other U At t Only hot 00 110 tU of' rJY at of ot r .u.a..".... :24. t t

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e

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;;pgazt@1 Ii to t!rt

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\ \ APP n I X FOR COL. HURT ONLY. ST'l.FF 1 D o k orta G u yo. 2. Debase Gal ogul0 3 Bagila. 4 rJdege Guyo I 5 D i wani \farede. 6 'iuthani 7 Ng e M wale. 8 Ch aro Mboru. 9 Che ng o Konde. 1 0 Kenga Ngoa. 1l. K i t sao 1""/9, vul 0 12. lJJ linah'lji JJjwandal e 1 3 Shehe Abdalla. L zy and irresponsible. H owever ha i s capable of sho oting elephan t A l ikeable r o gue \'1ith practise he will be a competen t hunter. Absolutely fearless. A good t cker and ',/ onld suit you as a gun-bearer. He is rather inclined t o be sullen. Not a hunter. A a n d willing worker and a w orthwhile member o f the staff. E rem ely d b and v ery shy. T1O',Jever he i s use ul t o h ave about cqmp he works h qrd. Smqrt and cle'ln An able fello w but tends to be l azy. He o uld d o ,.,ell on the l e op ard t r"lp honest. A m q n who tries qt anythi ng to which he i pt. A useful thou'Sh i th no C ntro 1 'IOrkll ex 3rience. A very oo d m n but seak to be Cpl. He would do very as g:::tte gU'lr d nd gu i d e in the Reserve. Tot over-intelligent, b u t would do ell i n an s l.lad. T o be retire if pension i s forthcomine. Good. I have already expo unded his virt es to 0 verbqlly. He i s exPotgeiter. ot a G me Sc out. N o t a G me Sc out.

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( GAME", Na.irobi T e l e phone: No. 20672-3 R ef. No. GA ................. !h first t irot of Jul 1959. It 1) the DEPARTM ENT 2'41, ). r; 't AuguBt, 1959 0 ncad on the I 11y 'in the d object:';; of th o th thlt dur1ng tno oxperll!lental :\M very irre r Ii .y. In o. ito 0 e ellent. I think Mr. Risley In,.,if''.r!1I''ft of twenty tr-l 1n:Jtruction in h t tor tho ount of ivec, De e.nti-poa.chlog in a Ghoo log aonteDt. "ivon to tho tt. tit VOl and a 13 to b0 d7 to shoot nt em th 1r ithin til' A 1 er, ......... ,"'"u 'ith f::Jur c!. or;:; to dYic hill, and 11

PAGE 16

During July n Augus s two thousand i1 e hundred poutlds of t oat MS beet sold to J ftoral! talji ot Gazi. he ira' consign eot of on thousand vas sold at /60 s per p u d. The sec n at -110 eta por pound. At this lat'tar price Mr.. 11 agr d to ball e ean. prodooe -p!"()Y'1ded that utuo.r1ty r r -1 i granted to him. fhis wtll b giv 1'1.. H; was made claar to Mr", Jenerali th2t tb Gch e by no ':1RS boutld to saIl to him. The Nasa TJ.'.idirt..g C pany with xt natv Congo interusts has aak(.od us to e nd on tou to r nyi Pi r n th Co 0 'itb. a.,. tativ oxil r for a. further t n -'-ons As th first t n is in the tur at' a s'!lmple, I have aiJI.'oed to accept a price of -/50 eta par un I t ada it ole!1r that any followi. v uld be at a highor priC. P tasiOD t port t awaited the Con"'o authorlti.... Railaga f 01 to Kaseny1 Pier a 9/85 pa 100 1 e .. I 1s felt that a od tarat at in the C I!:f9l area f Taugany! The Adoinietnt1on tn M a1rl. I ave be oat co-oo rati re.. However any further steps are hel; up until the Game Departm at given per lasion for the i port of Gn M t tot '\ Th K.F.A.., DalsetJ' Ii Chamber of crommerce h':lve ooen contact with a vi t,/ to uyi dried t. All want f her information on the subject and se interested.. The District C is ion rs in Ki u, and KisU. h'l.ve been asked to fOl'llard the uames ot ny traders 1n their Districts who ight b in ereated. At pr ent a t part t sob c rc is ted all the bo e anu viacera. Itt i:t thi could be put 0 us with the meat to protein and bone eals the 'Valu or the C9.l'C ould inc The only possible ay to ascert in thi. auld be to put n whole Cru."C"'l.8C through an offal plant K . C. factory ill M baaa. To date they ha: e refus d to do thi- ai d s h n experiment is essential as it will, it successful, provide e. mucb. () e st9.b1e 3rkot for tile Gab a' G products.. BonG and Protein ale are 1 13 d and as stock r ads I yould reeo that the C0Glm1ttee appreach he Chairman of t e K . .C. for 8.ooiatal1ce. An ric 0, Mr. "lteo Wi. Root 1 ot th Na.tional Agrloul tuml Supply CompaD,7 of WisCOQ in, U.S.A., believes 4her would be n big for Duch trophies as fa t, nir bracelets, antelope hidos and other :Juch flrit.clea. I e has asked for a trial connignmf'mt to be sent to him. This viII be despatched r ady. HEA. UQUARTER OP T IS SCHrJ.t E. I f 81 t t the Head Quar5era of tb.a Scheme should be r:>ituated 00 the north bllnk of the (}alarm aG CIOM to -tha national ParkE: boundl3ry !I.E:; possible $ The IQnd south of th river 18 Native Land U i vher s the north k is Crown Land ad mor secur from politico. As the 1s hud r ad sandy soU a good 1ll1-road could be conntructed to th Rail 4Y otation at Mac tnnon Road. S e form of rlv r croaning oulcl bav 0 b devised. t vel' it is it 10 bound to b xp naive. Iland in th Bastem hqlf ot' the chama 11 d hat lri.ng betweon the soh ,P, and Malin i 1s co od ainll" of Bleel cotton soU. Any all-v, .ther route to rla11ndi 18 p etic bl. Until tJ e type or river eros ing has boen deoide upon the Head QU"lrte G tl utJt r ':"j.in undoctd rl.

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IVORY The Treasury ha e refused to credit the Game ent Soheme with Ivory obtained within Though tills docs not affect 1 it 1a of such impol'tance that it m Gt ,be deb9.ted ".t the opportunity.. The Treasury said to allow the Schema to keep gell ita own is a hypothecation of revenue and is the Exchequer They haVe the Scbeme credit itself with all other tr'ophie..:. \,Jhich include Rhino Horn, Leop'lT'{, akins, me t, lidos and other products. In the eyos of the lr.lw thclt'o is n!> difference between Ivory, dried eat, or A piec<, of Ostrich egg' a ahell. It to difficult to determine the prinCiple whereby they came to this deciei:m ".nd one feels th'l.t even tbe aale of meat is a of rcvenuo ;J.mi thcl'ei'ore in thetr own words, impossible. The has that by the Sch e its OVo ivory tbey will be creqting a whereby they endangerin, themselves of tho ,000 per nnum they gain from shot control' by the Game Dept. This argument is h rdly convincing as the preced at 19 already established in tho of the National Parku. They are, it be alreed, not quite a Governmen t but run by n Board of' Trunteesl but then neither Jill the Game Scheme be a Government ent, and it has been the scheme vh 11 self accounting and run by a local Bonrd. Tile Trea3ury fire spendi no money on the Schecu:'!. They "'ill be losing no money by the Scha""e ao no revenue tlhqt 0 ver Te'!ches Government fI'OOl the rea The Scheme was never as a burden and never need be, to th -, Tre9.sU'x-y. Ap'lrt froz:! the generous gMnt of ,000 the Scheme in Going to n'J:d c. very conaid-mble amount 01' This it could s j') ly itself from it:; own v ry sale. 'hen tho Scheme s plen . ed those who conceivod and produced it believed trn.t ... ho Ivory -JO lu bo credited to the Scheme but tt, it Hould be e and rot fu11'ill its purpose. I know ttt':lt withol.Lt the Ivory, the Game nt not, h'"l.ve th support of those ,"rho denignod it. 1 h'lve been eivan to Ul erat nd that on receint of I"ory from tho Schemo the Troosury will rn !"inC I'l grant in aide to the scheme. In uii'f1cult times it would be very e:lnY for the Treasury to find itself in a pObUion whereby i"t co'lld not. ake the grant and unless (l vory firm agrefflUont is m'lde that the 'rrea.."'Iury eMIl gront to the Scheme the exact V9.1ue of the Ivory pro v ry time the ivory is oldt I 11y, ,",ould never nrrree to such 9.n arrangcl"Gnt. The original Scltero to hieh Nuf'f1eld agreed to give el.O,O)O included Iihe Ivory beine croel'ted to thc .scheme. ft r the ,000 was gr.mt{'!( th':3 101nt \J1F' r('!versed and the "'onnd:1.ti'Jn h vn bean informed cf thi!" revern-l1, i-t h'\s 110t : ..... fm brouitht to thJ1r notice th' t ort in!")toI'S of the .Jobe:to are not in ::1.ooor' 1ce \Ii h the 9 dec inion. This oint S ould b0 m (10 oul; of 'f'1.; I'n() s 1:0 ':;he l1'ouml tiona I think th'lt the Com 1itt e wo'ld be in order to ask for the mtter to b,", t'.lkctl before M.E. h1moelf. Th t thO) TreaSUl"T s-:lOul be don ied nny revenue at all from the G'lJllC thn'lti tneot Scher.lc; I do fa After all, the Scheme is taking in some 20:)0 sq. miles of Cro\-m JJund nd I fecl th: t they should be entUlcd tf' ,. Guhst"oti"1.1 rent from this. II; would .1.'0 be uaden tandsole if they were to cl1'J.rE'c "'OYl ty 0 :tIl products of this scheme. If Game Moor-gamant Schemoa aro to bo ttl" b of fauna conecrv ti'"Jn. in the futu (and if the Gal::ma. River
PAGE 18

Royalitias :from these Sohemes would replfiLca the inCOUlC from control ivory very natlsfactorlly. They must llccept the fnct tmt the revonue froftl oontrol ivory is riM stable alld 18 bOUl"ld to dwindle in the face of civ11100.tiofl as the numbers of elephar.rt Vill deo:r-eaee. .s.c .. Parker Ga e Warden, Ktlifi & Executive Offioer G.R.G.M.S. Phase 1.

PAGE 19

/. , 1.' MINUTES OF THE FIRST MEETiNG OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME HELD IN THE D. C '.' e OFFICE KILIFI ON 27.8.1959 The Committee consists District Commissioner Chairman District Officer Malindi District Agricultural Officer Kilifi Major D.L.W. Sheldrick, M.B.E. Game Warden Kilifi It was noted that Major Sheldr1ck was on the Committee in a personal capaCity, and not as a representative of the National Parks. 2. The responsibilities of the Committee were defined thus :"To initiate policy and organise the running Phase 1 of the Game Management Scheme." 3. The Committee decided that a copy of the minutes of the meeting, and all future. minutes be sent direct to the Nuffield Foundation as a matter of courtesy. 4. It was deoided that the acquisition of the portion of Native Land Unit south of the Galana be taken up with the African District Council. It was felt that the correct method was either to offer the A.D.C. a rent for the land, or to offer to make that land in the Adu-Marafa area, (at present heavily populated by Giriama without legal right) part of the Native Land Unit in return for the excision from the N .L.U. of the land between the Voi and Galana. 5. The Game Warden was asked to ,establish a temporary H.Q. on the south bank of the river as soon as possible and to cut a track along the eastern boundary of the National Park from Mackinnon Road to the temporary site. / 6. The siting of a permanent H.Q. was discussed. It was felt that the position should be on the north bank in Crown Land for political security. However, a method of crossing the river presents such difficulties that no deoision could be reached. It was further recommended that as early as possible a survey of the river crossing be undertaken. 7. The Committee recommended the whole Game Management area be gazetted as an Outlying District a s soon as is possible. It is vital to the scheme that no outside concessions in any way affecting the natural resources of the area be granted without the prior approval of the Committee. The District Commissioner agreed to take-up the matter with the Provincial Commissioner. 8. It was desirable and urgent that the road from Malindi into the Tsavo Park be repaired. It was recommended tha t the Minister for Tourism be approached for funds for this purpose. It would be a major tourist route, and shorten the distance between Nairobi and Malindi considerably. 9. It was noted by the Committee that the scheme in its ultimate form will have to purchase certain heavy machinery for the construction and maintenance of roads and dams etc. 10. From data gained by the Game Warden since the first of July, it is apparent without the tusks an elephant carcase is worth This being so, the Game Management Scheme as envisaged will not be possible without the ivory. With respect the Committee would ask the Treasury to reconsider its decision and allow the scheme to keep its own ivory. 'The Committee was unanimously of the considered opinion that it would not be possible to initiate and carry through the scheme without ivory.

PAGE 20

' The Committee further reoommended that should the ivory not be made available, the scheme should be closed down forthwith as to attempt to run it otherwise could only lead to failure. 11. It was decided that a memorahdum on the ivory question be prepared and submitted to the for African Affairs so that the issue may be brought to the attention of the Council of Ministers. The Game agreed to prepare this paper. 12. It is essential that an ecological survey of the Game Management Scheme area be carried out as soon as possible. The Committee recommended that a request for a Fulbright Scholar be made through the Minister for African Affairs. 13. It was felt that other potentialities of the scheme such as the construction of a series of 'Treetop' type of lodges in the' Game Management ,area be carefully investigated. '14. It is clear that unless an agreement be reached whereby hunting safaris give the scheme the full value of beasts they shoot, there will be a clash of interests. The question will be taken up. 15. The Committee recommended that the Game Warden be relieved of all routine duties other than elephant control so that his undivided attention may be paid to the Game Management Scheme. 16. The Committee requested that the Game Warden be allowed to kill a maximum of twentyfive elephant other than those shot on crop protection. The reasons being:-8.) When an elephant is shot lion controll! it is more often than not killed in an inaccessible spot. The carcase then cannot be fully utilised and aocurate figures so urgently needed -are not obtainable. b) The immediate work to be undertaken by the Game Warden will be cutting boundaries and tracks for the scheme. In all cases this will be some distance from settled areas where normal elephant control is done. It is therefore practical to kill the elephant needed for experiment and to keep the soheme going in the same area as the track outting. 17. It was recommended that the Kenya Meat Commission be approached by the Ministry of Afrioan Affairs for their co-operation in processing an elephant caroase in the Commission's Mombasa offal plant. It was felt that producing much needed meat and bone meals for stookfeed might well be the most profitable use of an elephant carcase. It is therefore important that this potential be investigated before the scheme-proper starts. 18. As the marketing of dried meat was a considerable task on its own the Game Warden was asked to contact the Trades and Marketing Officer in Mombasa for assistance. 19.' The Game Warden was also asked to keep full details of weights of meat, cost of transport and amounts of meat taken by participants. 20. The Committee was of the unanimous opinion that the Scheme would need a second officer when Phase 2 started. 21. The next meeting of the Committee will be held on Friday 25th September at 10.30 a.m. in the D.C.'s Office, Kilifi. Minutes confirmed this lv! day 17.f7' p .. 1!!! ......... Chairman. -

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T e l e gr a m s : G AME", Nairobi T e l e phon e : N o 20672-3 R ef. No. G A . ............ ... e I GAME DEPARTMENT 2 -60

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; I .{ r'

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-' -, -.

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t 1I0'\fombon 2 (

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'" '. PRESENT A F c Barnwell, Esq., A:;. P2rm2ncmt Secre tc1.r y for F orsst Development ( Ch a i n-lan ) i TJ'-'rdy-Ti:cn !I'ii ot' Afrl' C"'D Aff::"l r s Q J..!. ,.:..:.J tJ ""1 0, --___ J CI. E Behrens, DSq., Treasury. Lt .Col. u8.r."E; Ds::::.e.rtrlent (Headquarters). / 1 Parker, ESQ. uL .:S Je.rden, Kili i . K Sr. i th, Esq. G ar:::: Departn'!ent (Headquarters). B Stevenson, Esq. of Forest and Mr. Barnv.Tell said the meeti:'l; vl...;.S c a l led IJr i '!!arily to decide whe th2r or not the experimental Gai:18 "IanaC; 0ment Scheme was to g o on, and ii' so -'/::': t i'inanci;:;.l and aOl!li n i s trati '18 arrangements were to be made the start of Phase II. 1'1r Behrens asked i I !12 C u e given Ll'l outline of \-Iha t had already been done on I .Hr. Parker outlined ho, the had alreE:dy oPerated to date und?r Fhase I and "Chc: t there c.ppea.I'c:' to be a ree.dy n.arket for the s 2 1(; of .::ea t fro eleph2.n t s &'L1d tl:.at the prelim inary experLlents 'yler e still He Cl.lso stated tho. t the a r s I c.J..IL1::; i!l wi th schome c:md they had worK Ed h are i n the past lew He a lso poilted out that : will to Col. Hurt arri v e s the Coc:.st .:.. t the of tht: ysar. ttee runni n G thi s s cneme are cO.n.:ident the? t Pha s s II Hil l t13 the ,lal i2..:lbulu are taking to uisciplir_s a:::, for eX.3l1ple, they are :--.lr8ady uJlder taking jianual 12.boi.-.:' to ThicLl t i _ey aI'S <172rSe in Gener a l . l-I."r. 3arnwell t a t Co l Hurt i,-iill to tcJ.ke over the -vehicles ftnd by the 1st Jc..:rJ.ary if the 'vrorl-;: of the Game Departm.s:::::.t a t tt-.e COLst If.3 to be 1lr oper l y This would then l e:'.ve the ::)c'::leEle -,;ithO'L1..t tr:-nsport or ""nil S and a different p osi t ion c.ris::. an earl y cccision could be taken. Mr. Parker said in to a query Mr. Behrens that there no difficulty in s sllin-; meat i::'t.:.!d he o b t a ined 24 per c ercus. In his opinion were raady markats i n the Belgian Cong o and for supplie s but Co l Sandeman F t u .ted that in the c ase of t h e EalGia'l Congo, U,rs8.nda \.;erG startino t o sell ID8at .stc tG(:. t:'1at the l\.8. _ya were in C G elephcnt for consw. ption i n the Un ited Kingdon. Mr Behrens pointed out that th
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. 2 -by poachers and nctio n 1.vEtS urgsntly r equi red t o c u t d own poaching and t o spread eleph ant p O pulCltion o ver CJ. l a rger If the Parks e ventually h&d t o shoot o n control t hen they would obtain the r e venue . Mr. BLI' n w e l l D o i n tl:;G. out th&. t L : ::. Gnr-1e ifJa r clen took ove r the sch e m e the Depart=ent would to have a n a d dition a l p ost of a Gam e for d uti8 S nnd probabl y an a s s istant for !::..;. ,: s c he,'..c as i'J rould r ::;.:;.uire tt1 0 servic.:.-s o f hro officers t o run it. of the itlhy Phase I hc.d been on a l i mited s c a l e s h orta;:;8 of :gersoD:lel M r t Pa:r..ker i1 repl:,r to ?Lr. thD.t i vory fetched abo u t p e r b 02.s t i n t:lciditio.l to the L+ I' o r r:leat, feet, ears etc. andchG.t &lr6a.;.7 abo u t 1,200 '.'10rth o f i vory had been pe.ssed t o the I'vory ilS potc!:.tio.l r evenue, .There9. s only about .-"24-0 ':!er8 ... bla .:.. or / aliangulu fron the sEi.l e of the mea t H r Ec:.rdy confir:'\ed . t ..;t-2 ,tJ,:.liang ulu h&.d bee J. kept i n f ull employr !len t L: hla.::;e I Q!lc. on t ile o f gei1.er a lly he stated thct eVJfl it will two or three year s before excess is t o the B a r nvlell stated a t s:.:.cccss or ct:!er 1 trise of t h e s che::e could not be proved on Phase I Gnly s cale i n I I cou l d he believsd i t w a s He visualized that the 'Jould not t o any extent until Phas e III 11las M r E8hrens out it could necessa rily b e expected that t h e -gree to an expenditure equiva lent to tre elue. ask8d i f i n f uture the scher::.e ;ras to be bassc1. on th c .-..1I il16 of 200 e18phaIlts. Mr. Parker pOiltec out even if services of art E c ologist coule: Hot :'6 thc:r0 vlaS G v i c ..... m c 6 tho.t 1 0 per cent o f the herd La the p O I ulation He {-Lad 1.lrLc..ertc ... ken c .': ... eriC?.1 S1 r-vey and had counted a heri of about 3 ,000 It was certai n that ':h ere i.{ers ':ore "chan that but to be on safe s ide they had tr:}..:e n 10 per o f' 2 ,000 thus ::.rri v ir:..:, at the o r-:;rational f i .:5ure of 200 e lephant s ;.>::r 8.nnlID.. He s t r "sS8r,[ tele ili':port, .. l1ce of h o l d ing the p opulati o ,;. c:: elep h<.A.nt c a i':2rticu18.r level to improve fertility of lc:.nd tlhc'!, la!.1d haec r ecov ered i t c o u l d eventua l 1] a s:C'e' t2_ r 1..Lber of 21e:--hants J tc.teci th2ct l.::lere "co be reasonab l e grour:ds i' o r the s chs .. ,e both on c ;inanci2.1 ... nd polic y b:tsis. Hr. B a.rn.rell asked I,vc:.s ; o i n::; to run the scheme i n future Mr repl ied th. t thi s w ould to be tte subject of corr espondence. H r Behrens sug.;est ec1 i n to a query I rOIll Hr. Barnvlell, that f inance be p r o v ided throug h t h e annual estinates r a t her than i n a f u n d Mr. Barnw ell o i n ted out that i n the case o f capi t a l tur::. 2. fW1d 1 v ould be easier to opers.te oec;"lJ.S 0 funds v o tsG. f o r e a p i tal expenG.i throug h alJ.l1u a l esti m a t e s m ight not be expended until anothe r f i n anci a l year bec ause o f t h e physica l dif.1. icu l t i e s of building a.tly t h ing i n t h e area. Nr. Barn well a sk2d i f am1ua l estim8.t e s w e r e to p r e v ail w hether the Walia ngulu were to Gov ernment s e rv2nts as t h e r e is a basic assw:lpti o n thd t perso n s p a i d froTLl the annual estimate s are Gov e rIln ent servants. / H r BehreY1.. s a i d

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-... 3 -. Mr _Behrens s a i d th,:, t t.i."le s e p O ints 1,AToulc1 have t o be considered b y the Mr. Ha r d y that his lvii nist 3 r w e .. s of t h e o p l nlon it should be a s chene o p e r 2 ted the Gans D epartment on a Gam e Vote I : r Barnwell .. s t::. t ec tha.t 'Treasury a u t hori ty would b e requ ired before [my be = a d e to the Nuffi eld F oundation i o r :.:: e r 3 l e-:J.se o f cC'pita l f unds vehicle s cmd equipment for Pha s e II. H r Behrens sc-. i'J. "chat he '.'[Quld '.v::-.r!.t reco r d s of the a n d a cop y o f the estiEat e s wtich have a lread y b e e n prepared for g e ner2.1 oui dc,n c e I f the CD ntin u atio n of t h-3 Sch eme w a s approved then h e M i l i s t r y c a uld finance it on a c a s h basis u::;.til such th',e .i Estimat e had been approved. M r .Jjarnwell cOL -:.f irm6d the.. t t his cO':.ll d be done 'rvfI"T"TRY O-;:P -1)7' .. .-;; .. ._0 J. 4 .. l.:c.J.J L .wlJ L .. -,HI, G A H E A H D FIoB..EnIE S 2 2 n d October, 1 959

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/ .. G.A. 22/1/2/3/59 24th November, 1959. MINUTES OF THE THIRD MEETING OF THE GALANA RIVER GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME HELD IN THE DISTRICT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE AT KILIFI ON 23RD NOVEMBER, 1959. The following members of the C9mittee were present: District CommisSioner Chairman District Agricultural Officer, Kilifi, District Officer, Malindi, Mr. D.L.W. Sheldrick, M.B.E., Game Warden, Secretary. Matters Arising from Minutes ot Previous MeetinS'. Min. 5/59. The Game Warden reported that progress on the traek continued and it was now some miles loag. Min.S/59. The Chairman reported that as yet De approach had bten made to the Minister for Tourism. "The Committee felt that if the road was to fulfil its requirement, i.e. an impcrtant tourist reute, at least" iZ) per mile ... euld have to be ,pent. The stretoh in question, from Matelane to th. Park boundary, was some 30 miles. The Chairman agreed to quote the of Malindi Township Committee in his application to the Minister. (Action by D.C.) Min. 12/29 Wh.n in Na"i.nt"b1 1n Oeteber, the Game Warden bad seen Mr. Hardy of Afriean Affairs about a Fulbright Scholarship. Apparently it was the duty of tho Ministry" of Game and Fisheries to make the to the Fulbright Truetees. However the Permanent Secretary for this Ministry had be.n uDBble to support the applioation through lack of finance. The Committee felt that the annual sum of (3,000 for sci.ntifie that was set aside in the Bcheme's estimates must have been overlooked. This amount wculd surely cover the Bubsistence and travelling expenses of the Fulbright scholar, should the award be granted. The Committee asked the Game Warden to advise the Ministry of Foreste on this peint. The assistance and backing in the application for a Fulbright award Gtfered by the Chairman of the Kenya Wild Life Soeiety was noted with gratitude. It was e.ga.in that Cel. Hurt Was arriving in Daoember and fr"o'trl" then would be r98ponaible for all routine game matters in Kilifi, Kvale and Teit& Distriots. Min.llL29.. the Game Warden re-poned whUe in N&irob1 he had met King ot the K.M.C. and bad discuesad the of an elephant carcase. Mr. King seems interested io. the idea. Nothing further had however been heard from tho K.M.C. and the Game Warden was asked by the Committee to enquire again whether the experiment could take place. (Action by G. W. )

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... Min. 2 "6/59. The Game Warden reported that a Mr. E. G089 of the Forest Department was very keen to join the Game Management Soheme and would do 80 it selected. He was known personally to both Mr. Sheldrick and the Game Warden and seemed suitable in every way. MIN.-3Q/59. The map showing the area. of Native Land Unit to be exchanged for the Crown Land in the Marafa-Adu area wae studied. The District Commissioner and District Officer Malindi point&d out that the exchange wae highly desirable from an Administrative point 8f view as it would solve the problem presented by over 800 tax liv1ng "illegally" in the Crown Land around Adu and Mar&fa.. The District Agricultural Officer stated that agrieulturally the Crown land had a much higher potential than that part 81 the N.L.U. in question; the rainfall in the former being up to per annum while in the latter seldom exceeding 10 ". The Cemmittee felt that the land exchange wae more desirable than paying a rent, though the rent would be offered first; as requested by the Provincial Commissioner, perhaps at 1/-per acre or p.a. The Committee did not think that the latter idea be acceptable te the people. The Chairman then proposed the following procedure: i) to take the matter betore the-Squatters Committee on Nov. 25th, 1i) clear it with the Provincial Cemmission&r, iii) present it to the local Land Boaro, 1v) hold in the leoations C8aCerl'led, v) bring it-be:fore the A.D.C. Mee'ting to be held in March 1960. After careful the Cemmittee recommended that the" financial basis of the scheme should be reconsidered al'ld that it revert to the original idea. Otherwise the chief ebjeot of the scheme would be prejudiced, namely to prove the ecenemy ef Game Management. Ail the revenue derived from the soheme including trophies should be credited to an independent fund und.r eeetien seven of the Wild Animals' -Protection Ordinance No. 19 et 19S1. All financial a nd the running of the soheme a.s it was originally planned would bt tully by 7, 53, 54, 57, 38 (;) and 14 of the Wild Animals' Pr8t$otion Ordinanoe. The Ilext meeting of the Game Management Sche1ll9 Cemmi ttee WaS find for 5th at 10.30 a.m. M1nut.a oent1rmed tb1e day of

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I GALAl"VA GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME FIRST i,mAL REPORT 1st APRIL 1960 30th JUNE 1961

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LIST O F CONTENTS INTRODU C TI O N PAs."qT ONE HISTORY ORGAl'HSATIOU HISTORY OBJECTS BOUNDARIES l{ETHOD OF EXPLOITATION ORGANISATION PART TWO RESULTS STAFF FINAl'JCE ADVISORY COMl.J:'i'TEE BUILDIUGS ROADS AND AIRS7RI P TRAI\J SPORT BOUNDARIES AlilD LAl' ID RAINF.ALL RECORDS POACHING LEGAL HUNT nrG ELEPHkiT HuNTING AlilD OF' OTHER A N IIvlALS S H O T FISHI1-J"G AERIAL COUNTS PUBLICITY CON CLUSION

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/ .. INTRODUCTION Past game preservation policies have isolated the interests' of wild animals from those o f man. E mphasis has been placed on the creation of sanctuaries vlherein fauna and f lora are shielded from human activity. With an expanding population devouring vacant land it is difficult to foresee these lasting unless they produc e substantial revenue and employment To date, e conomic argument for their retention has been based on tourism. Though and an obvious means of exploiting the wild life resource, only a portion of the country s game land is suited to it. A s an industry it is subject to world politics and is thus unstable. Wild Life l s cultural and aesthetic standing s vTestern in concept and not generally appreciated by Africans. The crux of conservation in Kenya is genuine African comprehension and agreement. Th i s is lacking because tourist benefits are too i ndirect and abstract values beyond present appreciation. Livelihoods common the world over are those pertai ning to the production of food. It follows that upon these rest common a...n.d fundamental values. It has been suggested that marginal lands in Kenya may yield more protein by management of the indigenous animals than through cattle. If this hitherto neglected possibility ca...n. be successfully demonstrated, conservation vTill assume new importance. In becoming a major source of food and oc cupation its worth "Till be apparent to everyone. As such it becomes part of ma...n.13 land use and not a barrier to it. The basic purpose of the Galana Game Sc hewe i s to explore the potential of this ne\v field. -' ;

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2. PART ONE HIS T ORY A N D ORGA N !SATION I H S T ORY .. By 1956 poaching i n 'the C o ast and Southern P r o vince s reac heQ such proportions that t h e p urpose of t h e R o yal Tsavo National P a r k w a s jeop ardised. Prominent c ulprits w e r e the vlaliangulu Traditionally bunters with littl e liking f o r a g ricu lture, this small t r ibe had succumbed t o pec un i a r y enticement They no longer hunte d for f o od a l on e bu t c once ntrated on highly priced troph i e s An antipo a c h i ng campa i gn vTas launc h e d and some 400 offenders impr isoned. Of t his total, more t han 50% wer e Waliangulu. A s an immediat e measure a gainst i l l egal hunting t h e drive vTa S successful. H o wever, on rele a s e f rom jail, the culprits wer e n o nearer accepting the reaso n s for c on serv a tion than they were befo r e ser ving their sentences. I n this r e sp e c t the operation Sin c e their memories c an recall, t h e Vlaliangulu lived off vlild animalso Until m oney be came the mot i ve the beasts \ l i thst ood thi s h unting. P olicie s l"he r e i n hunt i n g requi r e ment s o f primit i ve peo ple are married m soun d conservation have been successfully im p l emented in Canada. This prompte d N M C hairman of the Kenya W ild Life S ociety and D Sheldri c k Warden o f the T s avo National Park (Zast5, t o the tribesm e n b e permittea -to indulge in some form of control led hunti n g The i r proposal s were made public i n Sim o n I s P ap e r llFut:..tr8 Conservation Trends" dated August 1957 0 In O ctober 1957 an officer of the Game Department was detailed to examine the possibilities of estab1isn i ng a scheme on the lines proposedo The investigation shm'led the syste!Il would be feasible. Beyond the immediate spheres o f c onservati on and the habilitation of the Waliangulu, i t o ffered a of uti l ising arid and hitherto land. A r ep o r t rec ommending the S cheme s w ith s ome basic modifications vTaS s ubmi tted to t.he Chief Game vlard e n in January 1958 Gove1"'nment accepted the plan but i t v l a s n o t until the Nuffi e l d FOUi.1.dati on generously offered a grant o t ,000 to'YTard carrying i t out, that the decision to start vl a s ta!.:en o ,January 1960 was the date s e t for I n t h e i n tel' im period s ome researc h was carried into tbe market for game m e a t The Wali a.ngulu \'Tere i nformec. of the Governme n t s intention and they reacted favourably. 1his inter im periQd was referre d to as Phase One of the ,Game Management Sc heme It was no t until April 1960 that the Sc heme proper got unde r vlay 0 OBJECTS 0 The S cheme s aims i) t o demonstrate that the management of wild life i s a posi ti ve l and use, and shOlv that game can c ompet e f a vourabl y w ith domestic stock, in certain are as. ii) t o bri ng hitherto v acant l and int o production an d thereby g i ve legal and profitab l e occupat i on t o men w h o 'VTere previousl y engaged i n illegal and destructive acti v i t ies. The area covered by the SChel!le i s shov m o n t h e l'lap F i g I comprises s o me 3 000 sq. miles. Withi n the b oundaries, all l and no r t h o f the Galana i s C I'ovm L and vl.h,i l e that t o the south i s i n the G i r iama Hative L and Unit. I t i s hpped that the latter tra c t vTill be e x changed by the Giriama for a lar-ge r an d m O l e f ertil e p iece of C r own Land t o the north o f Harafa i n the

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e , ""THO D O F EXPLOITATION Animals w ithi n the S cheme w o u l Q be regarded in the same light as ranch cattl e They "[Qul d be ut,ilise d t o obtain as big a revenue as possibl e though care taken that species would b e culled l",ri thin their xecrui tint; capacity. At the outset, little data vlaS availabl e o n the vario)ls animal populations. Until experienco provided thi s Sc heme acti vi t ies Dl'lCl. incone vlOuld be based on culling 2 00 e lephant annually. aerial count over a small sector of the adj a cent Park had revealed 3 ,000. It 'vas knovm at the time that there were elephant in other parts vThich "Tent uncountedo Beli eving that there vTas extensive movement bet"ltleen Scheme and Park, th.e f igure 3 ,000 has been used as a base for rolling estimates From Simpson Kinloch' s Paper (Appendix I Annual Report, Game &ELsheries Department, Uganda Protectorate, 1953) i t appears that an elepha-Dt populaiion can replace an annual loss of 10 % through natural increase. To be \lTell w i thin this limi t it vlaS decided to keep the Scheme quota to 200 per annum further Imovrledge \'1as available., :d:lephant would be shot and a team of -v'ialiangulu then cut up the meat. After being sun dried this vTould be sold. The ears, feet and other commodities vlOuld also be marketed and the ivory sent for sale by Government Auction in From experiments i n Phase One of the Schem.e it '\,IlaS knOl'Tn that a largo bull elepha..11.t could produce 700 lbs of dried meat, v[hile the average from both sexes was 400 lbs. Hunting would not tlli{e p lace i n the vret seasons and. thus be restricted to about seven months of the yearo It ;''1(:..s decided that the Scheme should be run by two Game Wardens seconded from the Game Department and under direction of the Chief Game Warden. The senior man vwuld organise f inance, general administration and the marketing of, produce. His junior would conQuct field operations and develGpment. S cheme financ8:3 c ;ould .be controlled through a special fu..11.d by the Secretary to the Mini3try of Tourism, Forests a..11.d Wild Life. To this, money earned a-Dd granteo. ",ould be credi ted. All expcmdi ture, including the tvTO Wardens I salaries woulG. b8 met from it. On -elle 1st Harch 1960 the Permanent Secretary issued Directive and Schene FLLDd Rules vThich detailec:. ins tructions for ope:ra ting the Sc heme 0 I n view of the grants-in-aid made by the Kenya Government, i t i s the Permanent Secretary' s responsibility t o prepare revenue and expendi ture estimates for i'reasury approval. AccoQ;.'lts must be audited at the end of each Financial Y ear. Attached as appendices to this Report are Revenqe Expenditure Estimates for the Financial !ears 59 -60 and 60 -61 A local committee comprised of the District Commissioner and District Agricultural Officer! Kilifi, District Commiss ioner Tana River District, Offlcer Mal indi, D o Sheldrick Warden of Tsavo National Park (East), ru'ld the Sc heme Wardens, was to advise the Chief GaBe Warden. on formulating policy Headquartel"s 'I,'lOuld be established o n the Galana but o n l y temporary b uildings erected in case experience m ight later indicate a more sui<.:a15le site. All Scheme pe2:'sonne l l.vould live a t this base carilp 'l'he Walia-11.gulu and others whom the S cheme was to benefi t directl y would b e ::mgaged as employees 0 '.L'hey w ould receive a small monthly salar'y, rations ancl given a n opp.ortunity to earn a bonus on theil-' labouro lt \'las hoped. that thi s system would offer incentive to vTork and give scope for a moderate income.

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e . 4. all those previously dependent on poaching would be employed and able to earn a year. (This is the target of the Swynnerton Plan for Agricultureo It must als o pe.the Schem e s to prove the economy o game management.) It was accepted t hat this' goal would take several y ears to attain. All human activities o t her than thoi3 e co nc erned vri th the Sche m e wou l d be precluded w i t h i n the boundarie s Exceptions to this rule w o u l d be that professional hunters and their clients would still hunt the area and existing Galla grazing habits co u l d continue. PART TWO RESU L T S P ROGRESS ---------.... _-.--._. _ ----M onth -tlardens Clerk Artisa.:.'1s Drivers Participants Labo urers -T9bO .-----April 1 15 July 1 1 1 1 9 31 --_._--------. -----. --_ .. ----.b.ugust 1 1 2 1 2 3 33 ---_ . -_._------_.-. _--_ ._-----September 2 1 2 1 25 52 -----.... -_ ..... ..... -_ .. _.-..... _. ----_ ..... October 2 1 2 1 40 50 ------,---. ---_.--_ .. __ . ----_ ... -., ........ ... _--_. -....... N oveLlber 2 1 2 1 3 8 4-9 -----------_. ----. --'--'---... --------Dec ember 2 1 2 2 38 2 6 1961'----'---. .-----... --. -----. J anuary 2 1 2 2 4 0 17 ._----_ .... -----F ebruary 2 1 2 2 39 18 j:'iarch 2 1 2 2 4-1 18 _____ _ ___ . ____ ____ _ _________ J _ _ ____ ____ A pril 1 1 2 2 35 17 ._-_._---.. ----------_._-_. __ ----. .-.------M a y 1 1 1 2 35 17 _____ .. ___ ... 1 .. __ ._. ______ _ __ ____ . _____ J une 1 1 1 2 3 5 7 -----. -----_. __ ---.-----_ .. _--_._-_._-------Senio r War den Lt. Col R A F Hurt was posted to the S cheme o n the 1st of S e ptemb e r bu t was trans f erred to Simba on the 24-th i 'larc h While "lith t h e Scheme, Col. Hurt was on leave 7 17th N o vembe r end 22n d Dec ember 2n d January, and was alvay on medical g r ounds 13th -24th March. Game Warden I Parker joined o n the 1st April 1 96 0 and 'Was with the Sc heme through ou t the period. For e ight of the fifteen mont h s covered by this r e p ort, there v i a s only o n e v l a !' den "Thich has proved a severe dravT back . Clerk. Mrs Park e r was employed as clerk from 1st Nay 19 60. I n this capacity s he has shouldered much' of the routine admi nistration

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. , '. e .--v 5. Artisans. Provision was made i n the E stimates for the' employment o f two They were pai d Shs 250/-p e r month and rat i one d I n the latter months when m o s t of the building s were co mplete there was insuffi c ient wor k for two m e n and one was discharged. D r ivers. Each of the Scheme lorries has an African drive r A s with the-'Wardens these men are seconded from Gover nmen t but their salaries are pai d from the Scheme Fund. Unfortunately, o f the men taken on proved unsuitabl e and wer e dismissed As the Waliangulu were to be kept free for hunting operations and were also rather unwi lling manua l worker s a number of Giriama and Taita labourers were employed for the housi ng and road projects. These men were rationed and paid a daily wage of Shs 1 / 50 While building and t rack cutti ng was the Sc heme's major activity, labourors in fact outnumbered the Waliangulu participants. A total of ,015 viaS received by these labourers in pay and rations. Participants. (Vlaliangulu) As the S cheme i s largely for thei r benefit, the waliangulu employed have, since its inceptio n been referred to as 'participants' in preferenc e to employeeso It would bo incorrect to say that the tribe was wholeheartedl y i n favour of the Sc heme They regard it with some suspicion as a 'marifa ya serikali' (literally "Government Racket") and g iven a free hand would prefer reverting to their old ways o However many have the op portunity of employment of a type to which they are suited, near to their homes. Every month some have had to be turned avTay as in this ini tial stage it has not been possible to engage all "Tho wanteG. ..... Tork Seventysix different waliangulu vTere employed in the pE:riod coverea. The average length of service of those who haa left before tho 1st July 19 6 1 was 5 .26 months while that for the men still in employment was 7 0 87 months F i g o 2 indicates the number of months completed by the and those still in employment. On the basis that each man has 2 0 2 dependents it is that the Scheme directly supported an average of 1020 6 Waliangulu per month In the fifteen months , 586 was paid out to them in the form of salaries, bonuses and rations. Ini tially the terms offeree;, the participants '''Tere a monthly salary of 25/-, 1 5/-worth of rations plus free meat valued at 12/ a bonus on all properly done and free medical t reatment Though they all earnen in the region of 60/in the first Apr i l they were suspicious of and did not like the bonus systemo It became obvious that it would not prove successful. In view of this the basic vTage was raised to 4-5/p m and the bonus only retained for the production Ool dried meat and other COi :l1TIodi ties. On the completion of a year' s service a partiCipant was to be awarded a five shilling increment. The Warden in charge could give three such increments at time for increased responsibility and efficiency. Raises above this limit had to be sanctioned by the Chief Game warucn. In order to induce longer service in the next f inancial year the basic salary of a ne-wcomer vTill be dropped t o 40/p m for a probationary p eriod of six months On completi on of thi s the participant will be awarded increments accordi ng to h i s p roved conduct and efficiency, up to the maximum the War den is entitled to give. Also the value of rations is to be increased to Shs 20/-, and in vievl of its lack of success, it is proposed to aba.."1don the b onus system. Thi s report treats tho fifteen months c ove red as one p eriod though i n fact the first three months were i n the 1959 6 0 financial year Ear n e d Revenue was approx. 4,756 ( including i vory and meat o n hand 30 6 .61) and Expenditure 13 882 Thi s unsatisfactory

PAGE 37

. .' p o sition was due to the quota o f e l ephant not b eing attained, w h ich i n tUl"n rests on thr'ee i ) the l a c k of a second \!Jarden for e ight of the fifteen months, ii) thc lVIinistr' y s refusal to allovl the necessary transport to be purchased at the outset and iii ) a of motorable tracks made the e lephant inaccessible. The S cheiile hc:s been han d icapped fr9m the start by funds not being iilade ava.ile.ble vlhen they vTere expected. No autho.ci ty t o i n cur expendi cul"e in the 1960-61 year vlas received unti l the J 5th When given it was not in accordance vii th the estimates and this Tllas not rectified until the l.st February 196 1 The resultant unauthorised spending and general air of unc e rtainty was LLl1fair on thCJ v/arc2.r .ms and retarded progre3s considerabl y From perusal of cor-respondenc8 betwecn the Chief G ame vlarden a..l1d the Ministry on th8 subject, for thc delays is put o n the necessi ty to obco.in j:ruas .lry approval for expendi ture. N o reason has been given for the delay in the: purchase of transport. Funds were availablc; thc 1959-60 year for the purchase of the S cheme s full complmaent of d Land Rover a.'1.d tvlO fi ton Bedf6rds. Only one lorry i'jaS bouCht at the sta.:'t, ti.le Land Rovel;' vlaS not received until the 8th hU'!IJ.St an.d th sGcone: lorry until the .l5th uec embe r Lack of tra:.f'lspor-c hunting operations for the fil"St n ine months. Tha..nks a.re ciu,::: to the AccotmL.ing Department for the assistance a."'lU adTjice L.h::.y h0.v8 given to the from the begLL'1ing. The hold only one ra.ther interru.pted meeting in the D.O. :-ialin.di' S offic J 011 tho 12th Progress was revi ewe d a..Dd a of i telIls i:'1cluding the insurance of personnel, the salo 0_ prod'.lce I poachtng, licensed hunting and the exchaJ."lge of la....'1.d v;ere disc:.lssed. Recomrn'3ndations on the issues that arose are incluc:.o d in th,) chapters to which they pertain. Tempo.r 'cu".! headquarters for the Schomc wer e si ted on the Galana' s north [Ja.nk the J.'sav o Park bound{uy. SituatGd on this bank i.118aX1S th,lt comrimnications will b e cut when ever the river floods, it seldom Qoes this 2ny gre2t of t ime. South of th:::. l'iv8r is Native Land Unit and only 300 of the S cheme s 3 ,000 sq. aro in These factors influenced the decision to bui=..ct in the: norttl bank Crovm Land. Building C0Ll.'110nCod in 1960 a..11.d was thlJ primary acti vi ty for the next fO'T A budget of was allowed fo: the constrtlctio:.:: two ',Iial'uons hOUS25 an officG-,cull1-store, a driver1s and 12 participants! huts. to last for a. maxiIilUL1 oi' fi ,TC years, they vlere built as ch0aply as possible. '1'he vJaro.ens : hOi1.ses and the office-store i.vere gi van concrete floors All roofs "Tero of rtwkuti and the Halls of spli t sisal p oles, wi th the exception of on,:;: Narden' s house i n which they Tere made o f reed mattinge left-ovor material wore a large open shed T:Tith COl!Creto Iloor for }.I.:."eparing .::md storing a garag8 for all the Sche!..l1(; transport, a fuel depot and s i x hundred concret,:; blocks lor the cons truction of an armoury. Defore the huts vcre complote
PAGE 38

r 1 R O ADS AIRS TRIP A fifty mil e road from the Galana to Mac k i nnon R oad' was c ompleted. Apart from givi ng access to the S cheme it serves as part of its western boundary as vrell as serving a similar functio n f o r Kilifi and Kwale districts. I t a l s o represent, s part of the eastern boundary of Taita district and the National Park and a valuable fire-break to the latter. The route vlaS surveyed by a membe r of' the Survey Department and a preliminary trace cut by Scheme labour. The Scheme also provided the National Parks wi th l? 000 to cut aXld form the road vii th their machinery. In addition to the Access road thirty. eight mil e s of motorable tracks were cut to facilitate hunting,' and 10 0 miles of old track reopened. It is hoped that in the next financial year these will be extended and graded. When the river level was low it was possible to ford it in a Land Rover in s everal places. Lorries however, could not undertake this crossing. Thanks are due to the National Park authorities for the use of their roads and river crossing at Lugards Falls. Without this permission the Scheme could not A seven hundred yard airstrip was cut and levelled by hand, close to the Sc heme headquarters. TIliNSPORT. Difficulties in obtaining the transport compl ement have been mentioned under Finance. Velucles belonging to the Scheme are a long wheel base Land Rover OHHS 06C67 and tvlO 5 ton Bedford diesels OHMS 69BO 30C5 mi13ages are:OHMS Miles 06c 6 8 8 60 18,265 69BO 1 21,115 30C5 15.12. 60 5,679 Total cost of running the vehicles in the period covered was 584and that of maintena...l1ce, 0 Despite the fact that the S cheme is non-government, the vehicles are registered OilliS. hS such they cannot be insure d by an firm Shortage of transport has already demonstrated its crippling effect an d should on o of the vehicles be lost in an accident, it would break the It is very doubtful if the Government in its present condi tion would 'tap up I for' a new lorry in such circumstances. From the Scheme s point of view cost of registration, licensing and insurance would be a vlOrthwhile investmento 'rhe posi tion \'iill remain unsatisfactory until the transport is privately by the Sc heme &j.'JD EX;CH,:J.'JGE. Apart from tho main access road no Schem boundaries vlere demarcatedo This,is unfortunate as little progress in preventing entry of poachers and charcoal burners will be made until the borders are clearly defined o n the ground. The lack of a s e con d Warde n is behind' this holdup. Boundary cutting needs constant supervision a...l1d other acti vi ties have prevente d the Ward en devoting time to it. The Kilifi IJ'rican District Council ap proved th.e exchange of 3 75 sq. miles of Native Land Unit on the river' s south bank for '4-16 sq m i les of Crown Land on the north side to the east of the S cheme Thanks are due to the District Comm issioner, Kilifi and the committ ee set up by the COill1cil to look into the matter, for negotiating, the exchange Final approva l i s awaited from the Colonial Officeo

PAGE 39

In May, the District Commissioner informed a number of charcoal burners operati ng in the Sc heme that they had t o m ove out. Many went, but i t will be difficult to complete the eviction until boundaries are definitely sho1tm. RiiINF 1..11 RECOfiDQ Records wer e kept a s from the 1st August 1960, for rainfall at the Sc heme Headquarters. are: 196 0 .August 055 1961 January .205 September 0 6 February 1.8 7 Octob e r lr.3lr March 1.135 November 1 035 .ci.pril 1.lr85 D e cember 1 .875 Hay Nil June 12 12.18 inches Th i s rain fell i n 37 days giving an average fal l of 0.329 ins. O n a further 27 days traces of rain fell tha t w er'e too slight to be recorded. Rainfall seemed to be heavi e r i n the north and east of the Sc heme With exception of the f irst two and last two months the rain "lIas sufficient to keep the vegetation green. The general drought that affected the of the country was not felt at all. The placing of the HeaQquarters deterred poaching along' the Galana bet\"een the 'rsavo Park atl.Q 1 \1uch of the S cheme s hunting took place in this zone and it waS frequently \ patrolled. Forr.18r1y this area ,!as heavily poached. Elsewhere illegal hunting itlas serious. In January, 2 Wakamba and a l-lgiriama arrested. near Hoshingo for having oryx meat. The man who killed the beast was sentenced to 1 6 months his accomplices to II months imprisonment each. In May two wakamba leopard trappers 'IIlere disturbed at Dakadima Hill. 'Ihey escaped arrest though th(;ir trEtps a.I1Q water containers were confiscated. The remains of a giraffe and a lesser kUQU wer e fOill1d i n the hideout. On several occasions licensed hunters reported instances of poaching i n the south eastern portion of the s cheme. While counting e13phant from the air i n June, several h i cleouts and 2lr carcasses i.rere seen in the cha:i.'co a l burning area south of K isiki-cha-Hzungu SGven of the 29 e lephant shot in February Dl1d l '1a.rch near tho Park boundary, had fresh' arr01tlS in them From these few instances 90aching appears to be,en extensive. It would be rash to say that more than 5% of the offences in the area, are YJlmmo The openi ng of the area wi th roads, the defining of borders and the e xpUlsion of charcoal burners \o7ho are primo offenders 'IIlill alleviate the problem. H o wever it 1,vill not bE: surmounted until the S cheme c an a f ford its 01trtl police force of scouts as recommended by the Committee. 1:& GLL The si tU3 .tion was unsacisfactory licenc e could hunt the S che:;;w if he had the required Controlled Area P erm i t lillimal s killed camu off S cheme quotCtS but no money 1.1[3,S r e ceived for them The Committee recommended that the hunters should pay tho full value of the animals they shot: The C h ief Game War, den r eplied that tho principle .of state ownership o f all wild animals must be adhe red to and all licence fees therefore paid to Governm en t It would be unfair for the licensee to have to pay the worth the an imal i n addition to the licence fee.

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1:. / . 9 1111. the next financial year, hOv18ver, Controlled Fee s v{ould b e paid to the S cheme H itherto, these had go n e to the District C ouncil. Between 1960 and June 1961, 1 5 hunting parti e s shot 1 4 e l ephant and a number of smaller animals. Diffic u lty was experienced i n getting them to record t h e l atter for the benefi t of the Sc heme With the payment of Controlled i1.rea Fee s accurate records -muld b0 kept in future. a ) Building i n the first three months and rain i n November cmd 19 6 1 precluded elGphant huntint; during these ; : 1Onths When possible to dry meat i n 19 60, the one lorry was available for only short p eriods at a time were thus confined to a radius of 20 miles of the headquarters on the north bank of the river. Before tracks were cut, this area was very inaccessible. This and the restriction of range made operations inefficiont. 44 days were spent'hunting ana 1 6 elephant shot, working out at average of 2.75 days per beast. 1'he arrival of the second lorry permitted hunting over greater distance s and elephant movements could be follovled ..!Jl increase in efficienc y i s obvious in the period J a11.uary to June 1961; 58 days \'Iere spent hQ11.ting and 46 e lephant accounted for. The avera.ge days p e r elephant dropped to 1 .26. HOvTever, the figure must reach .75 day per elephant before i t is satisfactDry. In the months follovling the rains, Januar'y and Fay 1961, eleph2.11.t vTere difficult t o locate and appeared to be on the move the whol e time. ..: .. erial recorL11.ais3nce vTill overcome this problem in the iITI!J1Gcliat.e futu.re, but the ultimate anS\
PAGE 41

. e I 10 . f b ) Sale QU:1eat ..' .. total o f 1 9,058 Ibs of dried meat were sol6., 4-60 Ibs distributed a s f ree sl.ldp les, 400 I b s destroyed by Dermeste s and a'b alance o f 290 Ibs on hand a t the end of Ju..Yle o R e v enue :Crom sales vias 6 9 .17. 4 0 giving an averag e price o f 9 1 .. 3 cents Ibo Buyers 'ltTere a s f o llows:Gazi E s t a t e (Jafferali 1alji) Famine Relie f Vi p ingo Estate s 1td 1:..frican t raders 10,988 Ibs 6,16 0 Ibs 1,600 Ibs 310 Ibs N r J affer ali 1 alji originally vIan teG. to b u y all the S cheme p roduced for resal e but h i s untir:lGly d:::ath before t h i s vTaS Investigations show e d a market existed in the r u r a l 3.reas. SC)'vTO'rer v3ry 10'.1 purchasing pov18r of the local n:3ant i rlo.i vidual sal')s vTo".ll:' 'Of: sIDe.ll t r a6.e r s vrer e approached but 3.bCl.in lack of proi.-:ib i ted bulk sal u s '.L'hey vlGr e prepared to tllice: Quan.ti t:;r 0'1 c.:.'e:i.i t but this i s agains t policy. ':!:o exploi t tnis :':i:;lo. the S cheme may hav e t o set u p its O1m ratc:.il sales lirl8 to t11e to tho c o n sume r Th i s -dol.llG. .;:equire considerc..ble o.;.nGanis['.tiorl and is beyonG. present staff c ) Ivory. The posi tio::1 rGg2.rdLl; is uns atisfc::.ct oI'Y. produced the Scheme goes to Joverm18rlt rev e:nue O r i g inally l'tS value 'YT2,S not to be related to -ci1G all.1lual Gove rlli2GD t S cheme g rant though las rev3rs-3d. T:18 ;:c.:,.son 6i ven by the T reasur y fo.:-.!. cfusing to to its mm i vor y a..'11.d t o credi t the dir';ct to '!':IP. is 1 1 th:;1.t i t vTould consti tute a l:ypoth:!c-Ol.tion of rovenue arId create a precedent. 11 Facts on the i3SUC tlre 'l'he laid stQtes "trophy mean s any horn, tooth, tusk, bone, e lm", hoof, ski n ? feather egg o r other durable pa ... t of eny Game a.l1.imal o 11 (Wlld Protection Ordin.ancc: P a r t I, S3ction 2 Interpretationo ) Tusks. are and the.::e i s rlO oth3r lesa.ll-r acceptabl e o f them. The Treasury have gi po.::':ussion for proceods from the sale of trophies except ivory, to be credited t o the S cheme Fund. 'l'1.1.ereby i n their Oy,-_'1 1101' :::; have constituted a hypothecation of revenu.e a.Yld crcatec..:. precedent. 'rhe reason for oqui vocating ovc:r tJ.sks is S I'ely because of thei r h igh v a lue a n d not a question or la," or prLlciple. 'rhu ... dvisoi"'y COlJilli ttee r9coarr..:-.1(ed the SC!lGllU should be allovred t o sell its own ivory. tha21 any other facto_, i vo r y going to G overnment i:o resp0i.1:::.;ible rOl' suspicion 01 t l::;; SCheLlG. 29 14t Ibs oJ.. Sche:'18 i v!Cre solG. by Gove:rni'!W_1 t for approxira.J.Gely .1-0, :::'':'ld 2016 10s Here on hand at the end o f J un:! at about d ) FEH?t .api. j;g..s. total of 26 elephant feet were solct fIjI' Shs 7 5 01 and 84ears fotch(;d Shs 1925 1 1'he markut f o:.. the former i s not locally, bIt there app aI'S t o be a ris in.c:; demend for vmll ,y'r:=; 0 a r e d ifficult t o skin ane. many 'ltTere damaged. the :9 :'..l<:;icipants developed the _[l1ac k the ; .. tota l 0.. 4 7 ce:np Species O ryx W a t o I'buc k Buffalo Kongoni E land beasts were k i l lcG. to provide f r e s h mea t f o r as follO';'1s: 13 11 7 5 5 Grants Gaz e lle 1 8::::8er K u d u Gerenuk I mpa l a 4 2 2 2

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'" / 11. It/eights recorded were:-Oryx male 323 Ibs, 392 Ibs 332 Ibs Oryx female 286 Ibs Wat erbucJ.{ male Lr38 Ibs, 3Lrl Ibs Waterbuck female 381 Ibs Buffalo male 1250 Ibs, 1%1 Ibs Lesser Kudu male 205 Ibs Detailed ffiGaSUrGl:l:311 ts of -Chose: a..nirlc.ls "Jere kept :D:lu are i n Schel! B records 0 FISrUHG. I n }:lay 196, 0 Dr Whitehead and C of the Fisheri e s Department carried out a survey of tl:e fi,s11 population i n the Galana near }Ieaclquartorso 11 species ':18J:'O coll:2)cted. Hos t nUillGrOUS -vTGre Tilapia Mos sC).!.:-:oica. conch tions i n the ri-Ifer d i6. not see:TI to favour their grm-rtl"!. to e .ny size; 670 "rere caUGht with &'1. average of .96 of an ounce. It \vas decide0. that the ri-Ifer did not offar ...:110 )rospc:cts of any .:'9turn throu=:;.h fish, and c.ction lijas taken in this fi.01d by the SCh0L1e .. COtL.'1. t.s of elephc:lt i-wrG out over parts of the Scl"ler.lG in J: .. n'.l : .!'y Febl'u.::.ry .ila:ch, !lay ai.1.d June. '.the most recoraed in:my one count .4-,000 -in Junr..;. DGtails of eleph:.nt mOV0ments and beh2,viou.2 l-:.:::.vu beon kept and ,'Till b3 included in l1.8Xt Rcpor-c 1';!.1Gn additioi1.al data' has accumulo.ted. ThG policy bQen to Give .little publicity as. possible to the it is .i.".LT1.i!1g pl'ofi t Despi te .this, severcJ. articles .c.3.ve the P!'Gss Only one of these, thtlt bycbe GovCr!lI20nt Cl!i J": PI'GSS Officer, 1.,ms officially sanctio:1.\;:c.. .4..'1. :...rticle L1. ::he ':'Jh3.n"::lG:b'1l'g Stc.r authOl' Ul1..!.cl1.01m, resul ted ir.. an ordor b..::inz plc.:.c : d the SChel:le for 'Their connGction with c l.3ph2.:lt i;:.. inves ticated 1

PAGE 43

12. c o n C LUSION Basically the Scheme is a fina:..flc i a l a:..flQ as suc h showed a loss in its first year. Main causes for t h i s .appear t o lie w i thi n the s sphere, anc.-l vlere: i) the l a c k of a f 01' much 01 the t ime, ii) tlle vri t.hJ101c :in6 o f fu:.'1cS O';'1.Q tr a .nspor t Tl10 vlal'G.ci1.S are tho EliniiJ.Ll1i1 the Sche::l:: rOQuire:3 and thi s has been emphasised in' all estL.:.::.tes I'eports le3.0.ing to the of th0 S cher,le by Government On tho ground, the need for roads 2':_1.cl JcrB_cl;:s v_ras ini t iell; unci.ores tir!lO.-ced I n othe r aspects the Scheme has shovT!1 considerabl e proril ise. A section of tho vlaliaxlful u COi.!Ellli1.i ty has been employed aIld t h i s \'Till increase ;:;: fast a s jobs are cre2.ted. Other tribes h2.'T8 3.1;:;0 to B. lesE-or cls6ree. Nine toni of most concentrated has been mad e aV2,ilable for htll!la.i:l ::';'1.G. the fact that a rilarket exist3 for it denon.:-cratede Poaching over a sr:211 area ha3 reduced to a c ceptabl e l i m its, a'ld the i f only by the removal froI!! field of tho::::e -.. .-ere e::1ployed. Despite the financial outcome, the GaJ.1e l:ana.:;eIJont S Che2!le :-laG.e consiG.er-able progress i n its f irst yeaI'. I lE: t DeCer;1b2 I' 1961. I G C Parker j{.aPclQJ1 /

PAGE 44

IJ Xl I 0 3.1.1 / / / /' / / Dakao.icatha A I I I I I ('Dakad i m a ) / ,/ ,. .. .. ----.--I Dak a vTachu "7 \ \ ", I, ..... . / T l a , n a ... H \ : R I ./ / I I ( / ./ DakabUko ; / ,-' 'I I / ,I __ ... n -8.R .. ._ L / . l'1a.ngea ( i I \ \ /Hill ". ;' I / / ,/ 4 _, . Kipirli L., Kilifi / ? I N D I A if -I / / ) 1 o:nbasa A c Scal e = 11 to 2 0 miles. F i g N o : 1 .. :J2.Fr _S)lOv { _ .. Sch.)1l1e B oundaries = Pal'k 11 I I = __ ---Lan d &cchange Crmm = Native Land Unit = :.'y, .... Old roads N el: S chelle roads = __ Hunting tracles = ---I

PAGE 45

.. P 12 11 e 10 o p b 1 3 e 2 1 EMPLOYIvlENT OF PARTICIPlti1\TTS Month s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 14 15 Those still on 1 7 6 1 T otal 31 C2J Those that left by 30 6 6 1 T otal 45 .:

PAGE 46

............. 1 ........ \ I , / 1'_" .. I f GRS/VI/1 C ef Game vJarden, P .. O Box 241, NALTtOBI. 23ra Harch, 2 Hereldth 1j. copies of the 1st Schc, ne Annual Roport. Please rrou.1d y,pp, fOl"ward Qne to the J u..f.field Foundation as, one of their conditions attached to grant of ,000 uas t..nat they received copies the Schem o s Annual Reports .. Uso I have not sent
PAGE 47

EAST AFRICAN POSTS AND TELECOMMUNI C A T IO N S ADMINI B o r 0 ............................. ,. .................... "' ............... ..... ................................................ ..... ........ ........... __ .. ....................... ....................................................... .... . ANY ENQUmy REGARDING TR18 TELEGRAM SHOULD BE .A.OOO M1;'ANI(l D BY TRIS FORM AND IF POSSmLE THE ENVELOP E I)iamo n d Prell8-l00.000 pI1(iS-6/69 . T A l /

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Telegram by radip. 5.4.62'Copies of report sent to Committee Members Draft read and approved by Major Grimwood. r-0

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BAS'l' AFRICAN POSTS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATION BorO TELEGRAM Regd. No. ;' . ..... ............................................ ....- ..... -........ __ .... -. ............. ---t -._-_ _-_._ _-_ ..... . ...................................................... .. .. ...... .m .. .............................. : ........... ... .. ... .. ...... .. ... ANY ENQUIRY REGARDING THIS TELEGRAM SHOULD lJE AOOOMPANIED BY Tms FORM AND IF POSSIBLE THE ENVEL OPE. ______ Pres8-100.000 pade-5/69 TAl

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-It .... ADDR ,8 I'! -$Olf;. link Ifl la(, .: MY /J/'f/II/{htit... ora 'fJHtJj//'JVCIFIL /),;$7!fiC1 I/
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e 1': r

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I.S.C. Park P.O .Box 861, NAKURU. Dear Mr. Parker, Ryan Investments Ltd, P .O.Box 30493, NAIROBI. 17th October, 1963. Your extremely comprehensive and most interesting report on the Galana Game Management Scheme has been passed over to me by Mr. Ryan. He has asked me to contact you and represent him at any meeting called of the persons listed in your copy letter, to discuss proposals in connection with this scheme. I note from your October letter that you suggest calling a meeting between 21st and 30th October. I presume that the meeting will be held in airobi. Before I can give any advice to Mr. Ryan regarding possible investment in the scheme, it would be necessary for me to visit the area to obtain first hand know ledge of hat you are doing. I feel that it may be necessary to have preliminary talks with the five persons named i n your letter, before I am able to accompany you to Galana. Provided you give me notice, say one week, I will make a point to attend the meeting. Looking forward to hear from you, JHK/SV.

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DIRECTORS, -RAY RYAN (AMERICAN) J. H. KERTELL. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS. RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O. CABLES -RYVEST QUEE!NSWAY, TELEPHONE. -20265 NAIROBI. P. O. Box 30011. NAIROBI. P. O. Box 30493 NAIROSI o /

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D,RECTORS, RAY RYAN (AMERICAN) J H KERTELL. M W. HARLEY. J. MILLS. RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. D C O. CABL&, RYVEST QUEENSWA.Y, P O Box 30011. TELEPHONE, 20265 /;'IA,RO.,. P O Box 30493 NAIROBI. NAIROBI. 2nd r

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DIR2CTOAS,. RAY RYAN (AM';R M. W. HARLEY. J MILLS. RYAN INVES ...:.NTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. BAI'lKERS:_ BARCLAYS BANK D .C.O. QUEEHSWAY, P O Box 30011. NAIROBI. hou i J 1 yon to of '.lCO,t)f' tW/or in ii. e d C .... LES'. RYVEST TEL.EPHONEI 20265 NAIROBI, P O Box 30493 N ... IROBI. L t .tail i1.a1

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I: DIRECTORS,RAY RYAN ("MERIC"'" J. >N. HARLEY. J MILLS. RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. BANKG:U!I: BARCLAYS BANK D C O C"BLU,_ RYVEST QUIi.KHSWAY. 20265 NAIROBI. P O Bo. 30011. NAIROBI. P O Bo. 30493 NAIROBI 2 -2 t be eo! e to 1 of exi ti

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:r DIRECTons, -RAY RYAN (AMERICA"' J. H. KERTEl.l.. M W. HARLEY. J. MILLS. R Y A N I N V EST MEN T 5 LIM I TED NEW STANl.EY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. BARCLA YS BANK D C O. CA8LEa, RYVEST QUSe:NSWAY, P O Box 30011. T ELEPHONEI_ NAIROB I NAIROBI. P O Box 304g3 NAIRO B I 3 8. t C t 1 i 1 t in 1(. in pri cip a Of to oe t 0 i t ri 11 t' 1 ie e to h C r 1. 10. for au or to n r m t tl: IS t Io til tri / i o n to 11. t '" ( to y c il:1 1 oon 0 ore yur co .f1 i 1 ,r J { r'"

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D,RECTORS, RAY RYAN (A""RICANI J H. KERTELL. M W HARLEY. J. MILLS. RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET. BANKIlRSI -BARCLAYS BANK D C O CABLES RYVEST QUE&N&WAY, P. O. Box 30011. Ref:RI/ A/5. The 01 vil Secretary, Coast Region, The Secretarllat, P.O.Box 2424, MOMBASA. Dear Sir, TaL.EPHONEI 20265 NAIROB., P O. Box 30493 NAIROBI 16th December 1963. I Galana Game Management Scheme Thank you for your letter of 13th December, 1963. I quite appreciate the reason for the delay in the proposed meting and I no would like to confirm that both Mr. Parker and myself ill be available to attend the next meeting of the Regional Land Committee at 10 a.m on 13th January, 1964. JHK/sv. c.c. I. Parker Esq., P.O. Box 861, NAKURU. 8 faithfully, iA (J .H. K rte11)

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,

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..... -'--DIRBCTORS, RAY RYAN IAMBRICAN) J H. KERTELL,. M. W. HARLEY. J. MILLS. -RYAN I NV ESTM E 'NT' S L I M ITED STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD BAHKIiRS, BARCLAYS BANK \J C .O. QUEIiNaWAY. P O Box 30011. NAIROBI. .." r or 27, n I CABLKD I RYVEST T EL.PHON, .. 2026' S P O. Box 30493 NAIROBI.

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) DIRs cToRa RAY RYAN ( AMERIC A N ) J H KERTELL. M W HARLEY. J. MILLS. RYAN INVESTMENTS LIMITED NEW STANLEY HOUSE. STANDARD STREET BARCLAYS BANK D C O CABLES RYVEST QU2HSWAY, P. O Box 30011. TELEPHON2 1 20265 NAIR O BI N AIROBI P O. Box 30493 NAI. R OBI. A/4. 2 -2 -t 'I

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; t -C o p y The Secretary, Game Polioy Committee, NAIROBI. Dear Sir, P.O. Box \\ NAIROBI. 12th August, 1957. I enoloseoopies of two private papers I have written one oil future oonservation trends With partioular emphasis on game management methods and the resettlement of the Wal.i\lD8ll1u, and the other on nature sanctuaries, whioh you may aare to oirculate to members of the Policy Conmittee. I should be glad to these ,papers With you or yau.r Co ttee at any time should you wish to do so. \ (Sgd) H.X. Simon. ','

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C o These thoughts representing what is probably a fresh approach ruTURE CONSERVATION TRENDS P y to the problem of conserving the game animals of East Africa are based on the premise that the only hope for the future of the wild fauna in East Africa lies in a comprehensive system of true National Parks in which the rights of the animals predominate over all other interests, such Parks being regarded as sacrosanct. National Reserves were originally designed as an interim measure according to the terms of the 1933 London Convention, and therefore have no permanenceo The general concensus of is that this interim period mst now be regarded as ended, and consideration should be given as a matter of urgency to up-grading sui table parts of these Reserves to National Park status. It is axiomatic that the hard core of all conservation planning must be a representative and comprebansive National Parks system, but running parallel with these National Parks must be other conservation areas which I should like to refer to as "Game Management Zones". Before explaining the functions of these areas, it is necessary to state clearly that, in f'Il3 opinion, it is vital to accept the fact that whether we like it or not, it is unlikely that wild animals will be allowed to survive for length of time purely for aesthetic reasons, and unless it can be shown that these wild creatures can contribute directly or indirectly to the econOl1l1 of the country, they will eventually be compelled to give way to more profitable enterprises, and the needs of human expansion. It is therefore essential in T1I1 op1nion, to adopt an entirely fresh attitude towards the wild animals we are endeavouring to conserve for posterity, and prove beyond a shadow of doubt that if our concern is admittedly partially aesthetic, that is entirely coincidental, and go on to show that wild animals are of very real economic benefit to the whole Colony. However unpalatable it may be, the fact remains that in order to ensure the survival of the greatest possible numbers of wild animals, their right to live will be largely judged in relation to their contribution to the of the Colony. In the case of the National Parks, this condition is alreaQy fulfilled in that our Parks bring in considerable revenue from the tourist trade. It is T1I1 contention that the present National Parks although admirable in themselves are insufficient to ensure the future of the Colony's wild life, and it is for this reason I suggest additional game management 30nes. In this connection it is necessary to emphasise that this concept is based on the belief that certain areas of Kenya would yield a bigger economic return to the country as a whole under wild fauna than under domestic livestock. This precept is undeniable, though it not be easy to convince Government of its wisdom beoause of politioal or other considerations. The point to emphasise is that game management sohemes could only be undertaken if it oould be shown that the areas seleoted were being more wisely used in carr,ying stocks of game than in any other form of land useo The question is basically one of properland utilisation, and I strongly maintain that certain types of land, often of sub-econom1o value to human enterprise, could and should be more beneficially and more wisely empla,yed carr.ying wild animals than would be Jossible under other form of land use. Government must be persuaded that land is man's basic resOl1l'ce and that in future it will be neoessary to think less i terms of exploiting the soil and mor e in t erms of conserving the lti\ud i tsel!. J u lian Huxl y sums it up by e xplaining that ''We must apportion the use of land not only according to our various human needs, but also according to its varying .' capaci ties of continuing yield whether that yield be of food, wild life, timber or recreational space. Above all, we must see that its lield capacity of whatever sort, is not reducted (or even totally lost) by faulty or short-Sighted exploitation"o Ideally, each National Park should be surrounded

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l 2 management area, although this will not always be possible to achieve, the latter acting as a form of protective barrier for the central kemal of the Park proper. In these game management zones, it will be necessar.y to accept the fact that there is nothing morally wrong in harvesting an annual crop of wild animals in precisely the same way as a farmer has no compunction in marketing his excess cattle or sheep every year. This crop would be harvested by the hunter under a carefully controlled system, and the fees from licences would provide a considerable cash return. I would suggest that' a separate fee should be levied for every individual animal shot, depending on the species. If such a scheme were open to African hunters in the same way and under the same conditions as anybody else, poaching might well be reduced to smaller proportions than is the case today, and at the same time the African be ensured of his meat requirements. I am particukrly mindful of the needs of such tribes &8 the Waliaungulu who rely for their livelihood on bunting and yet are virtually poaohing themselves out of existenct at the present time by exBessive and entirely indiscriminate methods, and in the process destro.ying their own means of livelihood. If these tribesmen could be persua.ded to participate in suoh a soheme and made to realise that it is to their own advantage to ensure its success, it might tend to solve a. number of existing conflicting problems. It is no secret that the Administration is mald.ng little headway in devising ways and means of providing alternative occupa.tions for the Waliungulu and a scheme such &8 this might go some way in helping to solve present difficultieso In the first place it would be essential to decide the total number of each particular species the land in question could carry, and an annual census of the animals would have to be taken. Any surplus over and above the op'timum number could then be hunted under licence. Once the excess numbers of a given species had been accounted for, no further culling of that particular species would be allowed in 81lY circumstances until the following season. It would also be necessary to have carefully regulated closed seasons. I would further suggest that every hunter issued with a licence be required to fill in a card which would be handed to the warden on completion of the safari, stating the species and sex of the animal killed, the area in which it was taken and any other relevant information, without which : it would be impossible to keep a firm check on the total annual crop. Any breach of the regulations by hunters would be strictly punished, and the offender prohibited from further hunting. It is interesting to note that in the United States and other countries schemes similar to this have been used for a number of years, and from the information at 'l1I:J disposal it is safe to say that such a system has been instrumental in sav1ngma.ny species of wild animals from extinction. For instance, twenty years ago in the United States in one area of approximately 100 square miles the deer were being indiscriminately slaughtered and were on the verge of extinction. By instituting strict game management methods the stage has now been reached where an annual crop of 40,000 deer is harvested by licensed hunters, and the revenue thus received makes the scheme financially selt supporting. Denmark, a small and highly developed oountry, has an extremely efficient system of game management, and it will surprise many people to know that each year it is necessar,y to shoot over 18,000 deer in order to keep the deer population within the carrying capacity of the land. One further example will suffice. In Sweden before the first World War, elk were being hunted indiscriminately and about 1,500 a year were being culled and the species faced extinction. A proper management system was devised, and no less than 15,000 are hunted under licence every year and the species is still on the increase. Controlled Hunti96 Areas: Controlled hunting areas make no pretence of providing any long term security either for the animals or for the huntero There is virtuallJ no future for Kenya's fauna within the existing loose system of controlled hunting areas. With the present rapid expansion of the

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-3 -the constant demand for more land for African settlement, and other forms of development, these controlled hunting areas are bound to be assailed, reduced in size and extent, and must eventually disappear altogethero Furthermore, although certain game areas of Kenya are at present afforded protection by the tsetse it is only a matter of time (possibly not more than a year or two) before the fly is mastered by improved scientific techniques, and these areas too will be thrown open to settlement, and the fauna again be forced to give There is little time left in which to act, and I most strongly recommend that a survey be undertaken with the object of having certain selected oontrolled hunting areas, and parts of the present fly country set aside and gazetted as Game Management Zones with long term security. I was interested to note that during the course of the recent Serengeti Inquiry, Mr. Bowker Douglass gave as his opinion that the only game available to the hunter in the future would be the overflow from the National Parksy All the evidence points to the fact that this statement is not far short of the truth, and if game management sohemes on the lines I have suggested were adopted they would represent a charter for the hunter as well as for the animals. I am convinoed that it is as much in the interests of the profess"ional hunter as the conservationist to press for the creation of game management zones. I should add that the United Nations Agricultural Food Organisation has funds available for likely shceme -that oan increase -food production in under-developed areas, and if approached might be willing to provide money for exper1Bental purposes along these lines. In this conneotion it is interesting to note the steps that have been taken in Canada to provide the native Indians with a properly organised game management system, which serves the dual purpose of oonserving wild animals and providing the Indians with useful and benefioial. employment. I am indebted to Mr. BNoe Wright, Direotor of the Northeastern ild Life Station, j)ld Life Management Institute, for having provided the following facts, whioh speak for themselves. I am firmly of the opinion that similar game management shoemes should be undertaken in East Afrioa. Fur Bearing Animals and their J4anagement in Canada for the Ben efit or the Natives. There are two principal fur bearers in Canada managed for the benefit of the native Indians Beaver and Muskrato Intensive beaver management began about 40 years ago on the southern end of James Bay under the direotion of the Hudson Bay poet Factor, JillmY' Watt, who induced his Indians to desist from trapping the few beaver that ere left on their almost trapped-out hunting grounds so that they could reproduce and re-stock the area. This was auSJl16nted by introduoing some new stook, but most of the areas were rebuilt fram the remaining breeding stock. The attempt was a success from the beginning, and as &'loon as the beaver population could stand a harvest a quota was worked out for each family trap line based on the number of occupied beaver houses it. By this method the natives could easily see the disastrous effect of over-cropping beeaase the number of occupied houses was smaller the following year and their quota was reduced accordingly. This soon sank home, and it even became necessary to urge some t:aappers to take a larger harvest to protect the food supply. The Government then took up the scheme and ma.de a beaver preserve of several thousand square miles at the southern end of James Bay where only Indians could trap. The beaver population is kept with in the lim1 t of its food supply and the Indians have a income something they never had beforeo A s,ystem of registered trap lines is in force over most of southern 6anad.a. today. Under this system a trap line becomes the personal property of the indiv1dual, and he is held responsible by Government for not over-trapping it. It is a tangible asset upon which

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-4-he can borrow money from the bank or will to his son. It is his for as long as he looks after it, but it can be taken away at any time for abuse. This applies to Whites, Indians and Eskimos. Muskrat management is carried out in a somewhat different manner. Muskrats live in large marshes, not in the forest streams as beavers do. It is sometimes necessary to instal water control constructions such as dams, in order to bring the marsh up to its maximum carrying capacity for rats. Extreme fluctuations in water level are to be avoided and over population will ruin the food supply. Therefore it is necessary to have an adequate trapping force on hand to crop the harvest when the limit. of the carrying capaci ty is reached. The to al Indian population i s then mustered to turn t and trap. The profits are shared among themo Such managed marshes, mainly in the northern prairie provinces are the mainstay of the Indians in the area It is a self-perpetuated major industry for them, and all that is needed is the service of a game manager to set it up originally and work out the annual quota to be harvested. Some truly remarkable figures are available on how the rat. population can be increased under management. T ese two types of fur bearer management are recognised in Cand.da as the best possible land use practice for these areas, and as it is the homeland of the Indian the benefit goes to them (and keeps them off the dole). ****** I have asked David Sheldrick, arden of Tsavo National Park (East) for bis comments on the scheme, and in wholeheartedly endorsing the idea of game management zones, he has these suggestions to make. "Following the successful conduct of the anti-poaching campaign, large scale poaching has now ceased in the Tsavo Park. It would, therefore, appear to be an opportune moment to provide the Waliungulu with suitable employment while there is still an effective degree of control over the tribe, and hi Ie they are still in a cooperative frame of mind. I would therefore suggest that a pilot game management scheme be undertaken in the area lying to the eastof the Tsavo Park boundary on the main Mombasa!Nairobi road, thence north to the Tiva River, but excluding the settled coastal stripo A scheme in this area would in no way interfere with any other projects as this type of country is almost usel'ess except for carrying game. A fell Galla go there at certain times of the year, but there is no in the accepted sense. In the past this country has been heavily poached by Wakamba and Giriama, but the Waliungulu should be able to put a stop to this very quickly if given the proper backing. This area should be declared a Game Management Zone, and all the Waliungulu persuaded to move into it except those with alternative employment. Two young European Offioers, one from the Administration and one from the Game Department, who really believe in the scheme, and who could gain the confidence of the aliungulu, should be appointed to admini ster the scheme with a group of Waliungulu elders to assist them. As Chiefs and headmen are unkown in this particular tribe, I suggest that this Kiama consist of renowned hunters who ould be accepted by the WaliungulU4 It would be the responsibility of the Europeans to formulate a clear cut policy for game management in the area, and the duty of the Kiama to see that such a policy was understood by the tribesmen and duly enforced. The number of animals to be shot would be very carefully regulated and the Waliungulu would have to understand tha.t although the figure would be low during the first few years (it may even be necessary to close the area entirely until game stocks are replenished through natural increase) this figure would progressively increase. The Waliungulu would have to apply to the Kiama for licences, and fees would be levied on a slidi scale, regulated in the 'first instanoe on their ability to When the scheme gets on its fee' a certain number of 'licences coUld also be issued to non-residents who would of course have to the full fees, the proceeds going to the Game Management Committee. All licences would be issued and strictly controlled by this

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-5 -Committee working under the advice of the O.C. of the scheme in full consultation with the Waliungulu elders. The Committee would have to set up their own marketing organisation to dispose of trophies and dried game meat, and the income from this source would also help in eventually making the scheme financially self supporting. Notrophies or meat would be sold privately but would have to be marketed through this central organisation. There is no reason why a scheme of this nature run on businesslike lines should not in time become financially sound. This pilot scheme should be for she benefit of the Waliungulu onlyo Any other tribesmen wishing to hunt in the area could only do so if approved by the Game Management Committee, and they would then have to the full fees. If this pilot scheme were succes sful t here i s o f course no reason why similar schemes Should not be undertaken for the benefit of other tribes. It would also be essential for the Committee to form a control team to investigate any complaints and to carry out any necessary control work in the area. Any trophies derived from such control work would be marketed through the central organisation, thereby benefiting the Waliungulu as a whole. It might also be worth conSidering whether this same control tsam could assist in elephant control work along the perimeter of the Game Management Zone adjoining the Tana and the coastal belt, thus relieving the Game Department of this duty. It would be necessary to purchase suitable rifles which be maintained by the Central organisation, such weapons being hired out to licence holders when required. In addition it would prove necessary for the Game Management Committee to build up a small police force to patrol the area a n d keep out unauthorised people, and prevent poaching. For this undertaking to become successful it would be necessary for the Game Management Committee to have absolute control of the tribes men in the area. There is no doubt that if the Waliungulu were to. think that this scheme was for the benefit of Europeans or other tribesmen it would fail, but if they can see that licensed bunters make a useful financial contribution through paying fees they m8\Y come to favour the admission of a limited number of sportsmen, and non-residents. From the point of view of the National Parks such a game management zone adjoining the boundary of the Tsavo Park would.undoubtedly be of tremendous assistance in elininating the poachers from the Park itself. This being so, the stocks of game within the National Park would increase rapidly, and the overflow from the Park would at the same time help to stock the game management zone, and vice versa. Voi, 1st August, 19570 David Sheldrick. II ******* One proplem that will soon have to be squarely faced concerns the question of achieving a satisfactory balance between the needs of the farming community, including the African pastoralists (and more particularly the Masai) in areas of special interest from the point of view of fauna conservation. There is little doubt that it will be necessary to obtain and maintain the good will and cooperation of the Masai. Farming and game preservation areiDcompatible, and whatever the attitude of the Massi towards wild animals have been in the past, it seems to me to be more than probable that as Masai development and ranching schemes go forward, the Masai themselves will inevitably come to regard wild animals in much the same light as the majority of European farmers do at present. There are already signs of this changing attitude, and as Masai livestock impr9ves in quality and quantity there will be ever increasing demands to clear out the game both as a protection against disease and as a

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'\ -6 -means of conserving the limited grazing and water supplieso A case in point concerns the Ngong National Reserve where ranching schemes proposed for the next decade may possibly spell the eventual end of the Nairobi National Park, unless alternative arrangements of mutual benefit to both the Masai and the National Parks can be devised. What I am sure it comes down to is that whether we like it or not wild fauna will eventually lareely disappear from both European and African farming areas, and it follo s that the only lang term hope for preserving the fauna of East Africa lies in a system of National Parks and game management zones. If this premise be true urgent steps should be taken to work out an overall policy for game in East Africa, and set aside certain clearly defined Bones, adequate in size a.l?-d extent to cover the range and habitat of all species of fauna, in which there will be no human rights whatever, and which will be regarded as absolutely sacrosanolt A broad definition of a game management zone would be an area wherein the wisest form of land use would be the conservation of wild lifeo An exceptiDn to this generalisation might be considered in certain special areas such as the Amboseli National Reserve. It is m:f belief that if the Masai ere brought into a form of partnership at Amboseli on a profit sharing basis they would quickly come to realise the benefits of preserving wild animals. Although at present the Masai receive soma of the gross revenue from visitors going to Amboseli, this money goes into the coffers of the Kajiado African Council and the ord.inary Masai pastoralist is probably entirely unaware that this is the case. In order to bring home to the Masai the material advantages of conserving game, I would suggest that in future instead of the National Parks paying a cheque to the District CoDlllissioner, Kajiado, an annual J3araza be bild at Amboseli at hich the money is handed over to the hsai in hard cash so that the lfasai can see with their own eyes the benafi ts den ving from fauna conservation. A schema on these lines appears to me to be coming as near as we are likely to get to striking a balance between farming and conservation interests. Alternatively, there would appear to be considerable virtue in working out a plan either to or to lease land at an agreed annual rental from the Masai for game conservation purposes. I have in mind such areas as the fl country adjoining the Trans Mara Reserve. This fly belt represents probably the finest game country remaining in Kenya which at present is almost useless to the Masai owing to the prevalence of flyo The llasai would appear to have much to gain and little to lose in agreeing to lease this fly country for conservation purposes, but unless steps are soon taken to reach some form of agreement, it is probable that before many years have passed the tsetse will have been mastered, and the Masai will utilise this fly country for their own domestic livestock. Inthis event, the game will once again be forced to give way, and this magnificent faunal area will have been lost. Should the Serangeti Committee of Inquiry recommend proposal that the northern boundary of the Serengeti Nation Park be extended to link up with the Mara Triangle I
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l l ... \ 7 and difficulties with which we are now faced have been successfully mastered in other countries and in ury view we would be foolish to disregard the experience gained at great cost over many years in these countries. The money spent in sending an individual to study these tried and proven methods and techniques would be amply repaid by the valuable additional knowledge so gained, and the useful personal contacts that would be establiShed. This memorandum should be read in oonjunction with the article on Nature Sanctuaries, copy of which is attached. P.O. Box 20110, NAIROBI. 1st August,1957o (Sgd) N .14. SDIION.

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, \ --.. ---. -, CASE FOR NATURE SANCTUARIES. \ \ The primary concern of the National Parks and the Game Department in Kenya is naturally to safeguard. the Colony's :f:auna, and this admirable objective has in itself been sufficient to occupy their energies and resourees. But it should not be forgotten that there are many other areas not necessarily of faunal interest which should also be afforded adequate protection and preserved for posterity. For instance, the Bani Forest, north west of Lamu, was until recently a most interesting area of indigenous forest, inhabited by a number of species of small mammals, some of which were not found elsewhere in Kenya. Until recently this comparatively remote forest was virtually untouched but during the intervening period a number of tribesmen have been known to enter the area with a view to poaching wild animals. Their normal procedure was to cut down the smaller trees and bushes, and the lower branches of' the larger trees, and with this material construct a large bush fence in the shape of a horse-shoe extending sometimes for several miles. Then at the right time they set fire to this fence, and the animals enclosed within the balzing trap rushed for the only exit, whereupon they were attacked and slaughtered by the waiting men. The result of this was that not only the animals themselves were destroyed, but in the process the forest was desiccated, and to such an extent that it has now to all intents and purposes ceased to exist. Man, by gradually eating into the forest, destroyed the secondary growth and damaged the larger trees; then the forest itself and a 1 forms of life, whether animal, bird, reptile or insect, whichmlied for existenceon the forest, underwent a radical change. The balance of nature was first upset and then eventually destroyed. It is difficult to overstate the fact that deforestation not only destroys the trees, but also a great deal of animal life as well as plants and smaller creatures that can only exist in association with the forest itselfo Another example concerns the upper reaches of the Tana River. On either side of the river batik is a long narrovi protective strip of indigenous forest, This forest strip should more properly have been left completely untouched, but tribesmen have been allowed to clear the forest belt and cultivate the land for agricultural purposes. This continuous line of cultivation now stretches for many miles on both banks of the river with the result that elephants and other wild animals have no alternative but to cross through the cultivated land in order to drink. The Africans, then of course, complain that their shambas are being damaged or destroyed, and the Game Department is promptly called in to carry out control measures on the elephant. The question is basically one of proper land utilisation, overall colony-wide pol1gy for land use is urgently needed. If develop ment continues at the same pace that has been evidenced in the period since the end of the war (and there is no Sign of slackening) another decade or so will see the end of ma.tlY unique areas which should more properly be preserved for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations. It is not difficult to provide examples of the lack of a common policy or even to shaw that various Government departments and organisations although doing their admirable work in their own spheres, sometimes have conflicting aims and interests. Few will deny that the most important function of the Forest Department is the protection of catchment areas, for water is the very lifeblood of a country such as Kenya. It seems that although the revenue derived from timber production is important to the colony, an even more vital function of the Forest Department is to protect water sources. But when it is realised that the Agricultural Department, who no doubt are equally concerned with the question of water conservation, have allowed African tribesmen in the Elgeyo-Tambach area to exploit the forest catch ment area on the Elgeyo escarpment for agricultural purposes with serious effects on the water supplies feedingthe plains country at the foot of the escarpment, I begin to wonder whether the wires are not somewhat crossed.

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l c -2 -The trouble with crossing key wires of this nature is that the resultant shott circuit may well throw the whole works out of gear. Not only animals but insects, birds and plants, are dependent environment, and if that environment is destroyed the creatures thepselves are destroyed with it, unless they are fortunate enough to to addapt themselves to changed circumstanceso When nature h!:d sway the process of adaption toOk place very gradually p:deed over countless generations. Many forms elf life are incapable jof rapid adjustment and therefore go under. / / What it amounts to is that practically all forms of life, ani' mal and vegetable, depend on some other of life for survival and it is almost impossible to think in terms of preserving one without the other. Preservation of fauna is closely interlinked with the preservation of flora and other forms of life, and it is to concentrate on preserving one and ignoring the other. Adequate blocks of land should be permanently proteoted beoause of their scenio value or for their interest to the botanist or zoologist. They may contain outstanding examples of different types of indigenous forest (such as cedar, podo, bamboo, mvuli, camphor etc.) or they may serve as a green belt surrounding ever-expanding Considerationshould be given to the settingup of a Committee of knowledgeable people who are alive to the urgency of the problem, and ho will in the first place compile a list of all the areas through out Kenya in need of complete and absolute protection, and request Government to gazette these as fully protected nature sanctuaries. At the same time steps should be taken to build up a small research organisation working in with the COmmittee, for without the detailed knowledge that only scientific research can provide, there is little hope that an overall policy in the best interests of the whole country can be devised. Mention has alreaq been made of the urgent need for a faunal I research centre, and this organisation could well be responsible for esearch into the broader issues. NOEL SIMON. 1957.

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Ian Parker Esq., Game Department, \ P. O. Box 34, KILIFI. 0J Dear Ian, P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA COLONY 9th October, 1 9 57. I was very glad indeed to have your letter of the 4th October and to know that yo u have been asked to produce a report on the proposed Itvlaliungulu Game Management Schemelt The facts relating to similar management schemes in other countries quoted in my l1emorandum have been obtained from a v.ariety of sources. Mr. Bruce Wright, Director of the North Eastern Wild Life Station, Wild Life Management Institute of Canada provided the information regarding fur bearing animals for the benefit of the native Red Indians. He is at present, so far as I am aYTare, worki'ng in the Serengeti National Parks on a study of predator movements and you will therefore be able to contact him by writing to him c/o Gerry SwYTIUerton With regard to facts concerning schemes in the United States I suggest you write to the United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, l-faryland. In Denmark the individual to contact is:-Count G hlefedlt Bille, Fjellebro, Rudme, Denmark who is Game Warden of Denmark and will, I know be delighted to give you all possible As you can imagine I am as keen as anyone to see this game management scheme go forward and achieve complete success so I hope that you will not hesitate to contact me i f there is any help or assistance that I can give you At the same time I should be grateful if you would keep me i n f ormed of devel opments from your end Meanwhi l e all g o od wi shes. YOR U sinc erely , J /

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Ian Parker, Esq., c/o the Game Department, KILIFI. Dear Ian, /' 21st Marc CONSULAR HOUSE, CORONATION AVENUE, P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA -Tel: 23380 A brief line to return your photographs o n soil erosion in the coast province. Very many thanks indeed for allowidg me to have the use of them. I know you will be interested to hear that the Ministry has agreed with my suggestion that I be allowed to present the paper on Game Management to the forthcoming East African Fauna Conference scheduled to be held in Nairobi next month. I feel that a full discussion of the idea at this level will do nothing but good, and may well help to accelerate Government's acceptance. With all good wishes, Yours Enc. 1\

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\ . Itnlla Ian Parker, Esq., Game Department, P.O. Box 34, KILIFI Dear Ian, Wltilh lift 24th juritill CONSULAR HOUSE, CORONATION AVENUE, P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 September, 1958. Your letter of the 10th September was awaiting me on my return from Athens yesterday. Many thanks indeed for allowing me to see a copy of Adie's masterpiece concerning the Ministry's attitude towards the Waliangulu Game Management Scheme. I am glad to know that the p.e. has decided to take a strong line over this matter, and would greatly appreciate being allowed to hear of any further developments in this connection. You will be interested to know that the Scheme was discussed at the Athens Conference and achieved a strong measure of support from the delegates. Behind the scenes I was able to do a considerable amount of lobbying, and people like Dr. Worthington, Professor Pearsall, Lord Hurcombe, to say nothing of the American representatives, are wholeheartedly in support of this pilot project. Possibly my most useful contact was with a Mr. Waterson of the Food & Agricultural Organisation, with headquarters in Rome. I discussed t h e Waliangulu Scheme with him in considerable detail and asked his advice on how to raise money to get a pilot scheme in motion. He informed me that a U.N.O. fund of one hundred million dollars per annum has recently been created for under-developed areas, and he appeared to be considerably impressed with the idea of farming wild animals as a useful source of protein for under-developed areas. To cut a long story short, I have arranged that Dr. Fraser Darling will stop off at Rome on his return journey to the United Kingdom on the completion of his Mara ecological reconnaisance early in December where he is to meet representatives of F.A.O. and endeavour to talk them into providing the money to get this Scheme gOing

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, \ / I -2 -Meanwhile, I spoke to Mervyn Cowie and Willie Hale yesterday morning and they agreed to see Adie immediately to impress upon him the importance of project. However, I do not hold out very great hopes that the money will be found anywhere in Kenya, but I am feeling reasonably optimistic that F.A.O. will come to our assistance. I return Adie 's I -etter herewith as requested but would ask you to be good enough to keep me informed of any interesting developments, particularly with regard to the attitude of O'Hagan. Much as I s ould like to see you during the Royal Show I am afraid that I shall be away during that period but I .look forward to being able to sea, you next time you are in Nairobi. Under separate cover I have sent you a copy of my memorandum on Nature Sanctuaries which has been forwarded to the Chief Conservator of Forests. I shall be glad to hear what you think of the idea. With all good wishes. Yours sincerely, ....---'NMS/MEB Enel:

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I \ J .. K E N YAW I L D L I F E SOC I E T Y CONSULA R HOUSE COR ONATIO N AVENUE P. O. BOX 20110 N A I R O B I o C h ief Conserva t o r o f Forests, F orest Department, Znd Sep temb er, 1 958 P o O. B o x 30027, N A I R O B I D e a r Sir, NATURE RESERVES I wis h t o thank you sinc e r e l y for allowi n g me t h e opportunity of d i s cussing the questi o n of Natur e R eserves and for listening so patiently and sympa t hetic a lly to my suggestions. In the f act of increasing c ompetition from 2 human dev e l o pmen t it bec omes ever mor e necessary to devise mean s o f preserving regions i n whi c h no devel opmen t o r commercia l expl oitation will be permitte d In my opi n ion, certa i n outstanding areas, because of their bot anical, f aunal, scenic or geological signific ance, shoul d b e afforde d complete a n d p e rmanent protection while there i s still an op portunity t o do so. The Forest Department is in the privileged position of controlling extensive, unspoiled, indigenous regions. You would be performing an extremely valuabl e servic e to the c ountry as a whol e i f you would ini t iate a s chem e for gazetting cer t ain selected parts of the Forest E stat e a s N ature R eserves i n which n o commercial exploitation o f any kind would be permitted. These Nature Reserves should i nclude as many different type s of habitat throughout t h e C o lony as possible, thus p r e s erving at leas t representati v e samp les o f varied forest forms i n their pristine state for the future. r Nat u r e Reserves wou l d remain under the control o f the Forest Department and would be admi nistered by the staff of the Forest Department as part of their n o rm a l duties. It seems unl ikely that any additional expendit u r e would be I n m y op i n ion, i t would be essentia l for you to r e t ain ful l powe r s to authorise the c u l l i n g of any species of animals in the N ature Reserves i n order to p r e v ent damage or o f the hab i t a t and to keep the numbers of wild ani m a l s wi thin the c arrying capacity of the land. I do n o t t hink the average man i n the. stre e t fully understands that t h e first essentia l of any conservation p lan i s the preservation o f habitat, failing w hich t he c onservation o f wild life in the w idest s ense i s impo ssib l e A g ood example o f the ap p l i c a t ion o f thi s basic principle c a n readily be seen b y compa r i n g indigenous forest with exotic p l a ntations The former i s virtu a lly pulsa t ing with m any f orms o f wild while the latt e r a r e a lmost lifel e s s The preservation of flora is the e ssentia l t e t o the pr:eserva tion of fauna a n d avifauna lIn view

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. 2 -In view of the dominant r o l e the B'ores t D epartment must occupy i n the establishment of anJT C o lony-wide conservation plan, I would you to give fav ourable consideration to g azetting certa i n sel ected parts of the Forest Estate as N ature R e s erves. S h ould you agree to take this step, I can ple d g e the fullest support of the Ken y a Wild Life Society in assistin g you i n thi s important task. As the p reservatio n of all for m s of wild life a r e s o clo s e l y i n ter-re l a ted, I h ave s o u ght and o b t aine d the advice o f experts i n the o rnitho l o gica l botanical, entomologica l and fauna l f i e lds in d r a w i n g u p a list of a reas regarded important enou g h t o be c onsidered for N a ture Reserve s t atus. Th eir comments and r e c ommen dations together with their reasons for s e l ectin g the areas mentione d a r e attached for your consider atio n You may care t o c onsider s etting up an A dvisory Committee to study all a spects of the and a ssist you i n f ormulating p r e c i s e r e c ommend a t ions possi b l y on the l i n e s of the Advisory Committee r e cently appoi n ted b y the Gove r no r t o assist the C h i e f Game 1 a rden i n matters r e l ating t o the capture and export of wild animal s a nd birds. Your s faithfully N M SIMON Chairman

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FOREST NATURE RESERVES ORNITHOLOGICAL By Mr. J. G. Williams Ornithologist Coryndon Museum The two outstandingly important forest regions from the zoological, and especially from the avifaunal point of view are :-1. The Kakamega Forest and smaller adjacent forest areas in Western Kenya (the Kakalelwa and M laba Forests), and 2. The Sokoke -Arabuku Forest in the Coast Provinc e REASONS FOR IMPORTANCEo Kakamega, Kakalelwa and laba Forests. This forest area contains a richer and more varied bird-life than any other forest area in Kenya Colony. Some 460 species of birds have so far been recorded of whic h c a 50 species are found nowhere else in the Colony. There are several endemic birds confined completely to this area, ego the Brown-Capped Eremomela (EREMOMELA BADICEPS TURNERI) and the Golden-Bellied (DYAPHOROPHYIA CONCRETA SILVAE). Sokoke -Arabuku Forest. Again this is an extremely rich forest area for birds, with completely different species to the Kakamega Forest region. The is especially rich i n endemic species, eg. Sokoke Pipit (ANTHUS SOKOKENSIS), East Coast Akalat (SHEPPARDIA SOKOKENSIS), Spotted Ground Thrush (PSOPHOCICHLA GUTTATA FISCHERI), Pale-Bellied Sunbird PALLIDIGASTER), and Clarke's Weaver (PLOCEUS GOLANDI). The following forest regions are also of great importance ornithologically :-1. Mt. Kenya Mountain Forest. 2. Mt. Elgon Forest. 3. Kas igau Forest in the Teita District. 4 Shimba Hills Forest i n the Coast Province. REASONS FOR Mt. Kenya Mountai n Forest. A rich endemic avifauna with such species as Mt. Kenya Ibis (LAMPRIBIS OLIVACEA AKLEYORUM ) and Mt. Kenya Jackson's Francolin (FRANCOLINUS JACKSONI POLLENORUM). The forest also form

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2 -forms a refuge for species which may be shot out elsewhere, such a s the Cro wned Eag l e (STEPHANO .. BETIS CORONATUS)., . Rufous Sparrow Hayrk (ACCI P I'I'ER RUFIVENTRIS RUFIVENTRIS) and the Black River Duck (ANAS S PARSA LEUCOSTIGMA). Mt. Elgon Mounta i n Forest. Forest a rea not yet full y explored ornithologically. Has a rich avifauna and several species which do not occur elsewhe r e in Kenya E g.: Francolin (FRANCOLINUS STREPTOPHORUS), Shell.ey I s Franc olin (FRANCOLINUS SHELLEY I SHELLEYI), and the Y ellow-Legged Owl (GLAUCIDIUM TEPHRONOTUM ELGONENSE). Kas i g a u Forest, Teita District. species which will Examples of these Teita Grey-Breasted Thi s tiny forest has several endemi c become extinct if the forest is destroyed. are :-Teita Thrush (TURDU S HELLERI) and the Wnite-Eye (ZOSTEROPS SILVANUS). S h i mba Hills Forest, Coast Province. Another forest a r e a which is not yet completel y explored from the ornithological An abundant avifauna i n termediate between that o f the Sokoke Forest and the NorthEastern Tanganyika forests r ith severa l endemic species and races9 ego : S m alle r Y ellow -Streaked Greenbul (PHYLLASTREPHUS D E BLIS RAE I ) .. The follow i n g f o rest a reas are still UJliQlown ornithol. ogically :-1. Witu Forest, Coast Province. From its g eogr a p hica l position and the little we kno w of its vegetatio n this forest is likely to be of the greatest importance. 2 f.ukogodo Forest, North Nyeri. Area completely unknO\ 7U the avifaunal point of view. 3. South Uau Forest. Area still imperfectly kno v m zoo logically. 4 Chepalunga Forest. Important a s a m eeting place of Eastern, Western and Southern forms. Avifauna imperfectly known. 5 The three Forest Ar eas in the Coast Province, Gazi, Boni and Mrim a Hill are still a lmost comp letel y unknown zoologically All tha t is known is that all possess abundant and v aried bird faunas 6. The Are a s of Marsabit, Kulal, Nyiro and the Mathe w s Range i n the Northern Frontier Pl:Qvince of Keny a All possess endemic bird forms a nd all remain to be explored ornithologically. The Mathews Range is probably the most likely of these forest areaS to possess a t present unknown species. ISmaIl

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-3SMALL FOREST AREAS AROUND NAIROBI. The three forest a reas around Nairobi -Karura, Ngong Road and D ago retti Forests are important as b eing the centre of distribution o f one of the r a rest African Eagles, Ayres' Hawk Ea g l e ( HIERAAETUS In addition several endemic species are confined to this area, for examp l e the Black-Headed Apalis (APALIS MELANOCEPHAL A NIGRODORSALIS). OTHER FOREST AREAS. The following three forest area s are still i n completely known ornithologically Jnd further collecting and research may indicate that sections a r e worth y of designation as nature sanctuaries;-1. The Meru Forest (Lower Imenti), North East of Mt. Kenya 2. Kaptagat Forest. 3 The various forested areas of the Hills

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APPENDI2L.JiJI MAMMALIAN FAUNA OF KENYA FORESTS By Mr. J. D. L. Fleetwood CorynC'. ',n Museum The mammals listed below are dependent on the preservation of their forest environmcnt. Mammals underlined are very loca l i r. ..-:.tstribution. Mt. Elgon C ercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni Colobus pol ykomos matschiei Heliosciurus multicolor elegans Dendromus acraeus ruddi Thamnomys surdaster elgonis Ceph alophus h arveyi barbertoni Negrifrons fosteri Cricetomys garnbianus elgonis Cercopithecus neg l ectus Kakarnega and Nandi Forests Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Colobus polykomos rnatschiei Heliosciurus rnulticolor elegans Lophiomys ibeanus Dendromus i. insignis Thamnomys surdaster discolor Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Cephalophus caerulus rnusculoides Tragelaphus scriptus darna Syncerus c. caffer Cricetornys garnbianus elgoni s Perodicticus potto ibeanus Cercopithecus nictitans schmidti Nandinia binotata arborea Anornalurus j. jacksoni Protoxerus stangeri bea Atherurus turneri Hypsigngthus monstrosus Mau Forest Galago crassicaudatus argentatus Cercopithecus mitis neurnanni Colobus polykomos rnatschiei Lophiorny s i. ibeanus Hylornyscus denniae Praornys j a cksoni peromyscus Thamnomys i. ibeanus Cephalophus harveyi ignifer ( n o9.cFuluB musculoides Boocerus eurycerus isaaci Tragelaphus scriptus darna Syncerus c. caffer Felis aurata Cephalophus sylVicultor ituriensis Stuhlmann's Blue Monkey Black and White Colobus Fores t SQuirrel Tree Mouse II 01 Lon g-tailed Wood Mouse Barberton' s Red Duiker Foster's Blac k -fronted Duiker Giant Rat Brazza Monkey Greater Bushbaby Black and White Colobus Forest Squirrel Maned Rat Tree Mouse Long-tailed Wood Mouse Giant Forest Hog Blue Duiker Bushbuc k Buffalo Giant Rat Potto Red-tailed Monkey Tree-Civet Flying Squirrel Giant Forest Squirrel Brush-tailed Porcupine Hammerhead Fruit-Bat Greater Bushbaby Blue Monkey B l a c k and White C olobus Maned Rat Tree-Ra t Forest Rat Long-tailed Wood Mouse Red Duiker Blue Duiker Be n g o Bushbuck Buffalo Golden C a t Yellow-backed Duiker

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2 Sokoke Forest Galago crassicaudatus lasiotis Cerc opithecus m i t i s albotorquatus P a raxerus pallaitus T hamnomys surdaster littoralis Tragelaphu8 scriptus Rhinonax cl!.:C:;.:.9..1:L! : '!:5. Tana R iver Forest Cercopithecus mitis g aleritus C o lobus badi ruf'omi tF13. t':!. Gal ago crassicaudatus lasiotis Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus Colobus 'poly komos palliatus Thamnomys surdaster littoralis Heliosciurus undu latus daucinus Paraxerus palliatus frerei Karura, Ngong etc. Galago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis Cercopithecus mitis k olbi Dendrohyrax arboreus bet toni Dendromus nairobae Cricetomys gambianus kenyensis Mathew s Range Dendromus insignis percivali ;, whytei capitis Thamnomys ibeanus lutosus percivali Lophiomys Taita Hills Praomys t a i tae Cercopithecus mitis kibonotensis Heliosciurus undulatus shindi G reat e r Bush b a b y Blue Monke y Red Bush Squirre l Long-tailed Wood Mouse B ushbuck G iant Elephant-Sh rew Aders Duiker Blue Monkey Mangabey Red C o lobus Greater Bushbaby Blue Monkey Blac k and White C olobus Long-tailed Wood-Mous e Forest Squirr e l Red Bush Squirrel Greater Bushbaby Syke's Monkey Tree H yrax Tree Mouse Giant Rat Tree Mouse \I Long-tailed Wood Mouse Blac k and White Colobus Maned Rat Forest Rat Blue Monkey Forest SCluirrel Fo rests East of Rift Valley, North to Marmanet Gal ago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis Cercopithecus mitis kolbi C olobus pol ykomos kikuyuensis Lop hiomys ibeanus hindei Cricetomys gambianus kenyensi s Den d r ohyrax arboreus bet toni Praomy s jacksoni peromyscus Ceph a lophu s harveyi ignifer Tragel aphus scriptus de lameremei Booc e r o s eurycerus isaaci Syncerus c. caffer Loxodonta afr i c a n a Hylochoerus m einertzhageni G a leriscus j a cksoni Great e r B ushbab y Syke' s Monke y B l a c k a n d White C o l obus Maned R a t Giant R a t Tree Hyrax Forest R a t R e d Duike r Bushbuck Bong o Buffalo Elephant Giant Forest Hog Four-toe d Mongoose

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e e 3 -Mt. Keny a F o rest s G alago crassicaudatus kikuyuensis C ercopithecus miti s k olbi Colobus polykom o s Heliosciur u s rufob r a chium ken i a e Crice tomys g ami b anus k e J en sis Hylo choer-"L:_ j : ; ;;}: : _.k_ C epha lophu8 O:;J.L [l.ook i T r a gelaphus H crip t u s de lame r e i Boo ceru s euryc erus isaaci Loxodonta a fric a n a Syncerus c. caffer T hamnorn.ys g igas Dendrohyrax G r e a t e r B u s hbaby Syke' s Monke y B l a c k and White C olob u s Forest Squirrel G i ant R a t G iant Fores t Hog B l a c k f r onte d Duiker Bushbuc k Bong o Elepha n t Buffa l o L o n g t a i led WoodMouse Tre e Hyrax

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.. e APPENDIX III FOREST CONSERVATION I N E AST AFRICA By Ha Carcasson Entomologist Coryndon M useum The .. (. of most types of forest growth i s dependent on a uultipiicity of soil, climatic and other factors reacting upon one another and upon the plant and animal life of the forest i n the mos t complex and delicately balanced fashion. In East Africa the majority of our small and scattered forest areas are growing under what may for wan t of a better w o r d be termed marginal JJnditions; the very moist conditions of the last pluvial period have been succeeded by a phase of progressive dessication and it is only the ability of the forest to create and maintain its own environment which has enabled it to survive under conditions far less favourable than those under which it became originally established. It is the complex h a rmony of ecologic a l a ction and reaction, acting as a closed cycle, without loss of assets or resources that ensures survival under deteriorating Any tampering with this cycle however minor, suc h as felling of timber, grazing of forest edges and glades by domestic animals, thinning of undergrowth, cutting of roads etc., constitutes a wastage of resources which no biologic a l community can resist for long without undergoing profound changes, particularly under conditions that are not optimal. There is of course a tendency for the forest to protect it$elf from such encroachments and for wounds to heal, but it must be clearly understood that such powers of r ecovery are limited, especially where climatic conditions are not favourable and that any process of denudation, however small and limited at its inception, if continued, will eventually reach a point beyond which recovery is impossible. Our knowledge of forest ecology is far t oo incomplete to permit a reliable assessment of the maximum degree of exploitation compatible with an adequate margin of safety. There is little doubt that forests help to mitigat e climatic extremes and it is therefore obvious tha t the conservation of limited areas of forest is far easier and far more to be permanent if such forests are part o f or adj acent t o larger forest areas. In view of the beneficial influenc e of the forest on climate and on water resources and i n view of the scattered and residual nature of the forests o f East Africa, total conservation o f all forest areas must be regarded as imperative. Any concessions to e c onomi c pressure or to vested interests at the expense of our forests constitutes a serious risk to the patrimony of future generations. lB. Entomological

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-2B. ENTOMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FOREST CONSERVATION. Our knowledge of the insect fauna of the forested regions of East Africa is still in its infancy and an enormous amount of research remains to be done in this field. Without adequate protection of forests there is a serious and imminent danger tha t large number s ()f j.J:1SCGt species may become extinct prior to discovery and Indeed, it is very probable that hundreds of unknown spo0ies h ave already perished. This may appear a matter of little concern to the average, layman, but i t must be remembered that pure science must precede the of scientific discovery. Insect p r o .. ':1.tor s ani parasites of economic pests must be discovered in t h e wild state befor e they c a n be harnessed to manfs needs, a nd there is little doubt that biological controls are often the c heapest, safest and most effective, and it is probable that man y of them still await discovery in our forests. Co PRACTICAL RECO ,ENDATLONS. The inse c t fauna , the forests of Kenya is influenced by geographical and climatic factors and these two major influences are quite distinct and often mutually independent. There are 6 mai n regions from the geographic a l point of view :-1. The Nandi-Elg on forests, with strong affinities with the Congo fauna. 2. The isolated forests of the Northern Frontier, with Sudanese and Abyss inian influences and many endemic elements. 3. South Nyanza, wi t h strong Rhodesian-An golan influences. 4. East Rift highland forests with a large endemic insect fauna. 5. West Rift h ighland forests, also with a large endemic element. 6. Coast a l forests, with numerous South African and some Madagas car affinities. The insect fauna varies withi n each of these regions in response to the botanical composition of the forest, which in its turn is controlled by elevation, r ainfall, aspect, drainage, soil and sundry other factors. Should it therefore be i m possi ble to enforce the protection of all forest areas as suggested above, one must at least ensure that adequate areas of all main types of forest within each region be placed under total protection as soon as possible. The protection of the forest areas listed below suggested as the irreducible minimum needed for current and future research into the country f s insect fauna. /Elgon

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: E l go n Kakamega Kakalew a Malaba Kaptacat Cherangani M t Kenya Upper Meru Lower Meru M uko godo Kikuyu Esc''''rpment Aberdaree South -Wes ... Chep al-.mgu Kurura Ngong Dagoretti Kib wezi Kasigau Witu Shimba Hills Gazi Mrima Hill Kulal Mt. Nyiro Marsabit Matthews Range 3 -Tana River Gallery Forest

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APPENDIX IV FOREST CON SERV A T J O N IN E AST AFRICA l!'ROM A Be'o J.' "POIN T O F VIE W O N MOLLUSCA) "8':-0 3 Verd c ourt from the importanc e of preserving forests from a climatic p oint o f view, a fac t which i s now being stressed by most e c o logists and hydrologists the c utting down of entire forests often causes the extenction of c ertain plants and molluscs, no t c:n.ly iE forests themselves but also in surround ing due to depletion of r ain fall and complete alteration of the eco logic a l conditions. Once forest is cut dovm, even for r ep lanting by exotic trees, the undergrowth species, ofte n o f extreme interest, and the forest floor fauna Thi s is not a matter which i s eve r likely to cause any p ublic feeling as in the case of l a rge mammals or the more showy bjrds, but the wilful extinction of species when a little tho ught could ensure their preservation w ith a minimum of hindrance t o more worldly matters is a mor a l crime i n t h e opinion o f most naturalists. Even from a n economic point of view i t i s not a l ways a sane policy. Many drug p l ants are yet to be found and i t is quite conceivable one mi ght clea r an area of some t h ing far more valuable than the produce from the land cleared One of the chief difficulties of suggesting areas for preservation i s that p r a ctically nothing is known of the majority of o u r forests from a botanical po int of view I doubt if of t he f ores t s hav e e ver had a botanist i n them. The study o f forest trees i s a d ifficult one. Even i n the Usambaras where botanists h a v e c olle cted for 60 70 years it is very easy to discover a n e w tree by assiduous collecting. There are certa i n areas t h e destruction of whi c h would constitute mor e of a loss than other s The Usarnbaras for examp l e contain hundreds of species which a r e either endemic or occu r only in the Uluguru Mount ains A forest l ike the Karura Forest contains very litt l e ; if anyth ing which occu r s nowhe r e else, yet e v e n the Karura Forest i s not worked compl e t e l y for its trees. So little forest i s left i n Kenya that the strongest plea s mus t be made for the preserva t ion of as muc h as possi b l e The Director, Royal Botanic Garden s Kew, has been app roached by letter and asked for h i s views and a lso for the views of his e xpert staff c oncerning indi v idual a reas of interest. Mr. Corner, possi bly the foremost botanist in the world today has r ecently stre ssed the f act that the forest areas of the Tropics are a v ast biologica l s t orehouse and that many biological problem s c ould be settle d by setting up tropical biological stations. H i s l ecture and letter are appended to my report. Certain areas in K enya are of the utmost b otanical interest. Foremost are the co astal forests which are scarcely known botanically and contain m any striking endemic species and also many known but undescribe d new species, particularly in the Annonaceae. The following areas should in my opinion be completely preserved. /Of

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. -2Of supreme importance from the point of view of endemic species are the Coastal Forests. Everything possible should be done to as many of these forests as possible particularly the following:-All forests i n the Lamu area especially that at Mambasasa and Ut wan i whi c h abound in undescribed ne w species of Uvaria, Uvariastrum, Dracaena etc. The and Arabuko Fores ts, the Shimba Hills, Mrima Hill and Budu sini Forests. Such rare plants as Ellipanthus' are found nowhere else and numbers of new species remain to be recollected and There are i nnume rabl e rare p lants such as Gigasiphon, Lannea amaniensis, Pseudobersama, Lovoa, Lasianthus ferrugineus, and UNariodendron which are restricted to small forest patches. At least one area of typica l Mangrove swamp should be set aside as a reserve since it is an interesting association which could easily disappear. Mt. Elgon has a striking flora of interesting herbs and alpines -the forest is of less interest from the point of view of the species in it as from the point of view of ing the habitat i n its present state. The mollusc fauna is h i gh l y peculiar and very many species appear to be endemic. The Cherangani Hills have a remarkable subalpine flora which must be in delicate balance. Kakamega Forests. This is of outstanding importance t o Kenya It is the Eastern limit of the W African type flora and although it is difficult to mention individual species which do not occur in Uganda or W. Africa, from a phytogeg raphical point of view this f orest is the most important in Kenya. Some of the interesting species are Uvariopis congensis, and other Annonaceae, Maesopsis emini, Entandrophragma;. Aningeria altissima, Cordia millenii, [ussaenda spp. etc. Mt. Kenya FDrest. Interesting but not so much for its individual species as for the preservation of a mountain habitat with distinct vegetatio n belts. The Imenti forest is undoubtedly one which should be preserved. The Aberdare and other highland forests co ntain few species of tree whi c h are of interest but at least some areas should be set aside in the Mau Kikuyu Es carpment and Aberdare forests for complete preservation. The small forests around Nairobi, Karura Ngong Road, Dagoretti, N gong Hills and Mugug a should be set aside as amenities and also because they are close eno ugh for educational purposes. The near presence of a piece of forest to future educational establishments may do a great deal to help Nairobi biological students of the future. Few other large cities have the chance to preserve such amenities. Apart from this fact the forest conta ins interesting Sapotaceae and a striking species of Uvariodendron. Some forest areas in the Teita and Ukamba areas need preservation e.g. the Chyulus, Kibwesi, Kisigao and Taveta. Taveta forest is for example the only Kenya habitat for Alangium salviifolium. The preservation and extension of forests in this l arge dry area of Ukamba is fundamental to ensure future grasslands to the west since the winds blowing across the area will become drie r a s this region approaches desert conditions. lIn

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> -3-In the N.F. Province it is important to preserve what forests there are left to maintain forest habitats. The ground fauna of these forests is of great interest and is scarcely know as yet. From a water conservation point of view their preservation is absolutely essential. These forests could be made reservoirs of water which c a n be piped down to the plains people' thus keeping them out of the fo.rest and helping to preserve the latter. The Kul a l scheme is already underway. Mt. Kulal, Mt. Marsabit, Uraguess and Maralal are exceedingly interesting islands of forest in a desert area end tremendous economic assets. Marsabit contain some interesting species such as Premn a maxima, Ocotea Kenyense which are only found in the Meru and Mt. K enya forests. T o end .. .LS report I would like to make a recommend ation for the ... ""'lent o f a Field Forest Botanist to collect and study forest tT-08S in Kenya and also to make complete surveys in areas which are being cleare d The best chance of studying forest trees is duri n g felling operations. Such a botanist c ould be attached to the H erbarium.

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e GEN/GM/ Ian Parker, Esq., Game Ward e n Game Department, P.O. KILIFI Dear Ian, CONSULAR HOUSE, CORONATION AVENUE, P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 I 20th October, 1958. I know you will be interested to see the enclosed letter which I wrote to the Ministry of Forests with regard to obtaining financial assistance for the Waliangulu Scheme through the Nuffield Foundation. I also attach a copy of Adie1s reply. I am informed privately that Farrer-Brown is very much taken with the Scheme and, i n fact, considers it the most promising of the various proposals put up to him during his recent African tour. At the same time, we are making the necessary approaches to F.A.O. headquarters in Rome and I am very optimistic that one or the other of these two sources will eventually provide the necessary financial assistance. With all good wishes. Yours sincerely, Encls:

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2 .. I I

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{ f lenJlff Wltilb lift jl1itill GEN/G.M. The Permanent Secretary, MINISTRY OF fOREST DEVEI..oPW iiJ'i FISHERIES, Nairobi. =---Dear Sir, --CONSULAR HOUSE CORONATION AVENUE P O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 6th,October, 1959. GALANA RIVER GAME RCHEME It may not be generally appreciated how important the Galana River Game Management Scheme ,is in relation to the future of wild life conservation in Kenya. The scheme provides the first opportunity to prove or disprove thst wild life, managed on a sustained yield basis, is of considerable p,conomlc significance in marginal or sub-marginRl regions. The scheme Must first and foremost be regarded as an experUnent, of a somewhat revolutionary nature, in utilization of the wild life resource. In view of the experimental aspect it is of fundamental importance to have a full-time ecologist attached to the Bcheme from the outset of phase two with the object of collecting and collating adequate data from which proper conclusions can be drawn. Unless this is done the scheme ceases to have any experimental value and the principle objective of the is not met. I respectfully request that immediate consideration be given to the appointment of an ecologist and would appreciate learning whether your inistry is prepared to take the initiative in this rp.gard. The obvious choice would be a Fulbright Scholar and perhaps you will correct me if I am wrong in believing that applications for Fulbright awards must be made by the Govp,rnment concerned. May I add that I ahall be only too willing to assist 1n any way possible 1n advancing this suggestion. For your information Dr. F. Fraser Darling 1s in the United States at the present tUne and would, I am sure, be willing to approach the Fulbright Trustees hould you wish him to do so. Yours faithfully, Noel M. Simon, Ohairman.

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e e 20th ctober, 1959. Dr. F. Fraser D r11n THE COl' f V ,TIO T FOu 5 40th 1 'fork, 1 D. c., Ph.D. LL.D., T /0 U. S.2..!. Here is a co y of th 0 ftcia1 from the ini try to my r re.u tin the Kenya ov rnm nt to consi r 8).lyin for a 'ulbri-ht Scholar to be a -)o1ntf..d to the' :al1an mlu am 'ana' ment P'ch e I am colo ," sch Copy to: t t lnlp,sA N com etpnt object of the et. It value 88 an i nt life m ns cament una r .. 8Bt African 1 r' 1y 10 vie' I wo er tv me .. t ing the Yours .1ncerrly, 1 lmon

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I .e 'i' ht" P rm l.i 18!L, Y c r B n .11, y r t of 'n tI ... C 1 ... C nt y u'( lr:c ly, 1 a wr'lttor 08 It vh i 1stry ate.

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, Ii 'ince th, conclu ion of t n ,h r hs n t' v 1 IJ. 1n )0 .chin (;t1. vitiea ut ttl A t r, I ths th f':!' t, or i I fI""f n I' ar its u he I co q.. me '" e h the n r io B t'lt n l;!'.' it h e B .:; 0 tho .voach 1'f; ctP 88 8 l' It 0 th Ur.CCA. f. 11 c' n t 0 ,yeere 1..c co l,.tc the il" prison 4;lit"i ... 4,1'21 .J.' lou!'1 11'8C1, ic S, U('I) er-of n . tri il' n v,' h t iR e. nJ. ,0 fully t. tv C [1"J i I 1 .1:. ,m /'Ii ny n1,L JOII v.l tt e v ) til 11" t 'rnique -\ 1" ce .. I icates e th eituoti n. ver) can 1; r l.H111y 1 e I d, t n Y v: tr'Lv: V 'v l'O }()' ch r' 1 H all v 01' rtlob_lity n mOllY th l'rrn c n th VI f t t t '.t nnl om' be devl d ;:: n( 1 f 1 :r.nent (. y r t 0 1 t;-: to ve trH3 i tu t i P. 8 ot c tchln i.luhll ut

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e e calc ltlt 1 he f"ct. 'IJ. rrc(nt 0 tor rk of voachln cOM}ltc t.,., th overall -'tu tiun imm II' bl:.r nd unle BU'C 1 m a Ul'OS 0 n e comb t -iorat 1 tljt of ff ir ttJi t m,-tlJJl m y 1 tv b It 1 all v ry t (J and 'ffi n at t n .. on ill r that ur' t th r er l'kely 0 be> 0 .0 Jr ci cl,Y rhat should b on The 'lam D I' m t n t, 10n ... 1 P ,eke ITlll. t t,t.'> l ... tie r !tl-'1{ '(.:h n utu u t r c lve t V I'Y i;h t Jrior1t ""VI". to ttl ,0 f c 1 0 V I' Ja u t 1957. (11'1 .h. e ) thfJ e t. a!' rojPctJ unl 0 e v ry 1uol n ed fo thp ,1 t er 01' an 1. a t 10 ,. i. th. nv t to ext r t n no 101 he I't;.d it mh' a t t on of n mu t r, '0 I n i1" n u ( n Jut m 0 1 m Ul'l J qu in to i.lt .ly, ty tilfl t' b 01 y t .0 8ry i t -t m

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, j -- e e th y C'n at be t onl y t em,.,or L'i l y all :vi t c:. t} n h_, 10n :r-t eolut -on b ,ne f,h Ihf.> 8UrL cr. < n m y ot b(; 0 1'P,O ily IAt' toed. it. if; p. 1 th m' 1 to t to t of t l' t r l r 1 es fl t t. i (u e no B lutlon will e founa. o 8 1mI'".! .mpt to i P.l t fy t i SU' -o t 11,1 0 /'A of o' n '0 lonft n; i to [.01(1 the vi th Wi}. 11 t.o no or., t :;0 Of. 1" t/h5., JI'O). r,'rJ l' or-11' 6101'1& 1'//1' lin or \"I'" ;oc y .-:1 -f.' j 11 . !=HlC. nee .t '/oul b th tr a1 t a ul C I tr 1 j r l t th" th Y 1'1 v r to c o oth.l' th'n

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r' IfRE C0NS. VA ION tt.Ool.C.L.Boyle. he una Preservation ty. c/o Zoologic l. S 1 ty ot London, Re nt Park, LONDON. N.W. I ear 0010-.1 710, I ppreciate r c i article and being ked to 26th Nov CONSULAR HOUSE, CORONATION AVENUE P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel : 23380 copy of your Oryx Your infor tion concerning the lar tinancial gr nt fro the Colonial. Dev lop nt ad 1t e Fund 16 l.1:r m encouraging and. it pro rly used. this cenerous aid shoul nable the Oonservation Unit to be intained and d v loped al g the lines by Protesaor P areall and th Committ e of Inqu:l.r1. r1ze my vie. in the Kenya Wi14 Lite copy of wbich was e nt to you. The ux ot the is it se G to me, is whether 0 not the Conservtion Unit Committee is working to an intelligent, well consider d oomprehensive plan. Unl 53 they have a blue print to which they can .ork they will jl18t E!,J drifting aimlesGly along, ithout 1mo iug quite wh re they are he ding. I made a particular point 'Of Serengeti about three eeks ago. Fro the pot I oame away ith the distinct is r ther like a rudder-less sh1p. flying down tu tho my diaousuiotW 1th men on impr asion that the e In my vie. this atnte of affaire 0 n only b by bringing ut cknowledged rt to situation on the round and to drllw up a comp h nsiv th Con 3rv tiOD Committee w11l th n r quir d A sound l)lan, together with firm G.. )lio t '.ou ill..aa ar in my orinion, absolutely eGsential. Unlea::> r ear the on y y well be fritter d way, and th re little to ahow tor it. re diod tuCly th l"Ilan h1ch to impl m nt. o' that tliis is don .a,. e I think one should be oautious regarding at tements troe Tanganyika th t the Cons rva.tion Unit Ool!lnlitte is .vorfectly oapable of drawing up it own plan. 'l'hi olearly is not so. Not only 18 th re no individual on th Committe wit sufficient ecological knowlod to produc a blue print but, even if th r war as Gover nt Serv t his recomm ndat10na would still b subject to approval by hi Minister in DAr-1 and in th process the plan would be whittled down until .it b came worthl Ga. On17 an entir 1y indep ndent xpert from out ide East At ioa c n be expect d to provide the ane er. C OAt "'.

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j t CONSULAR HOUSE C ORONA nON AVENUE, P .O. Box 20] 10 NAIROBl KENYA T e l : 23380

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Dr F .Fraser Darling, D .Sc., Shefford Woodlands House Newbury Berks, ENGLAND. Dear Frank, CONSULAR HOUSE CORONATION AVENUE P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 7th December ,l959. I share your great disappoint nt at Ford's Knowing how hard you have worked on the project it must be a terrible anti climax. It is so frustrating to realise that a relatively modest contribution from Ford, which they could well afford, could have gone a long flay towards r'. trieving the faunal situation in Africa. I may be wrong but I cannot help feeling that they still regard oonservationists as long haired cranks. The reason for this is not very difficult to find. The ory of preservation for preservation's sake is, I am sure, one of the major factors leading to people bracketing ith elderly do agers who insist on leaving their fortunes to the local cats home or the R .S.P.C.A. It is essential for us to overcome thiB unjustified prejudice. In view of Ford's decision and bearing in mind the limited time remaining to us, I believe that if Rockfeller cannot help there is only one solution remaining. In my article on the Luangwa Conference I mentioned the desirability of producing a "Swynnerton Plan" for wild life. Naturally I had hoped that the Ford Conference would provide just that. We now appear to have no option but to go it alone and produce our own tlSwynnerton Plan". It would be a simple exercise to invite selected experts in different fields to contribute a chapter. The main theme of the work ould be to lay str ss on the economic significance of wild life, particularly in marginal or sub-marginal regions. This Blue Print would, in short, attempt to analyse the problems confronting us and propose how they could hest be overcome For instance, I am convinced that in certain semi-desert regions the crop ing of wild life should be recognised as a legitimate form of agriculture and, as such, should receive the active support of the Agricultural Department. Nobody has ever suggested that the Agricultural Department should be invited to set up game management schemes as part of their proper funotion. It will interest you to know that Leslie Brown (now Director of Agriculture) recently produoed figures shpwing that the average P-.,. .. return per aore from the non Europeanl\areas of Kenya w s 3 shillings' per annum I am quite certain that we would have little difficulty in proving that ild life, properly managed. could greatly exceed that. It might be a good idea to invite Leslie Brown to contribute a chapter to the Blue Print on "Wild Life Management as a legitimate Agricultural pursuit". oont 2

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; ( Dr li' iraQ :0 rlin 2. ... Simil ly Dr-lover eould provide a section on coun try, ell':phasisin he uch more logiCtll ito lei be to ro .uoe rotein fr lid an.i. 1s in .fly country rat lor than aLto 0 'ntroduc stock. Rarthoorn could contribute from a v torinary tand o' t nd GO on. 'fost impo tant of all ould uire a ect on on r'n nco an' i ae no reason 1hy 'Ie A ould not auade our 0 n 'l'rea ury and "tat'stical D rtment to j
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PERSONAL. IoParker,Esq., Game Department, PoOoBox 34, KILIFlo My dear Ian, C ONSULAR HOUS E, CORONATION AVENUE P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 12th December, 19599 I greatly appreciated your letter of the 3rd December and admire your courage for having written to the Ministry as you did. All I ask is that you do not do anything too rash in telling the powers-that-be what you think of them, for the simple reason that we badly need you in the Game Department -for the very reasons you mention in your letter. You are the only member of the Game Department to have the right approach to conservation and if you go it would be a serious blow to conservation at a particularly vital juncture in wild life affairso I know how difficult and frustrating it must be for you, but for Heaven's sake stick it out through thick and thine We need youo When I was last in Nairobi I had a series of meetings with the Governor; the Minister of Forests and various Members of Legco, principally regarding the Sessional Papero I also took the opportunity to discuss the Waliangulu Scheme with H.Eo and The most interesting intelligence is that HoEe has promised to look into the matter and see whether my allegation that lithe whole scheme is being ham strung through Government inertia and red tapetl is correct. Blunt surprised me when I complained at the lack of an ecologist for the scheme, by informing me the money now existed to employ one but they could not find a suitable individualo I immediately asked, and obtained, his authority to write to Frank Darling and get him to recommend a suitable person. This I have done. Frank has also written to the Nuffield Foundation and asked them to put a bomb under the Kenya Governmento This for your private information alone 0 I entirely agree with the other observations in your letter, particularly with regard to the attitude and function of the Game Departmento Perhaps the best answer I can give lies in the attached copy of a letter to Frank Darling outlining my idea of a "Swynnerton Plan for Wild Life"o I am sure this could be the medium for f ormulating a really comprehensive long term policy. I am equally certain that without a proper Blue Print we are all just wasting our time. Will y o u treat my letter to Frank with discretion, and let me know what you think of the ideao cont 2

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I' .; 2 Finally I have become enthused with the idea of setting up our own private "Game Management" Scheme and have been in touch with David concerning it. I would like to purchase a considerable area of Crown Land adjacent to the Tsavo Park with the object of farming game as a commercial propositiono This might necessitate floating a company for the purpose and I see no insuperable difficulty in obtaining the capitalo A thousand people each contrihuting would give you all you need in the way of finance and with land at fifty cents an acre a million aeres would cost only ,0000 I would dearly like to do this as it is vitally important to the future of fauna in East Africa9 to prove conclusively the economic value of wild animals. There is no need to draw your attention to the obvious advantages of dOing this under system of private enterprise 0 Apart from anything else I am convinced iD would be an extremely sound investment. And once we had proved the economic possibilities inherent in game management people would be falling over themselves to do likewise. I am certain the future lies along these lineso With all good .wishes, Yours ever,

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."'" KENYA WILD LIFE SOCIETY Memorandum No. 28 Some observations on the potentialities of certain arid regions of Kenya sub marginal to conventional Introduction Kenya can' very roughly be divided into two zones. On the one hand are areas of hig h rainfall and good agricultural potential; o n the other are regions of low rainfall and poor fertility. T h e former are rightly being developed for agridultura l purpose s Thi s memorandum is concerned with the latter. The Problem The low r a i n f all regions of K e nya are more extensive than t h e areas of h igh fertility and, w i t h a rapidly expanding human populatio n exerting ever increasing pre.ssure on the land i t is inevitable that increasing attention will be focus e d on measures aimed at utilizing mar ginal and sub marginal regions. Dur ing recent months conside r a ble interest has been shown in. the so-called llunused lands" lying between Ulu and the Coa s t and i t has been suggested that they should be "develo ped" i n the interests of Kenya s h uman inhabitants. There is n o disagreement with this proposal; the problem arise s as t o the precise form this development should take. The Conventional Approach By "developmentll the average per son thinks in terms of normal agricultural techniques, and ther e i s no doubt that in certain selected parts situated i n l o w r ainfall areas conventional development, such as irrigatio n projects 8 n d so on, are feasibl e albeit expensive. However, such projects could a t be s t only be applied to relativ ely small and isolated pockets o f Kenya s marginal lands. There s till remains the difficu lty o f know ing how to utilize the vast areas of arid, semi-desert c ountry s ituated principally in the N.F.P. and betw een M a k indu and the Coastal strip. Prop osals have been made that l a r g e scale cattle ranching s c hemes should be initiated i n these areas. Even a cursory examination of the economic factors inseparable from such a proposal does not give grounds for optimism. It would be surpr ising i f this parched country co uld carry even as much as a beast t o 30 acres. This admittedly o ptimistic target cou l d only be achieved provided large sums of money were first spent o n the provision of adequate watering points in a part of the country particularly deficient i n water r esources. I n this c onnection it is inter esting to note the r ecent sta tement by the Director of Agriculture that even by stret-ching h i s calcu lations to the utmo st, he cannot concede" a return from the African pastoral a r eas higher than She 3/per acre per annum. I t shoul d be emphasised that he is referring to areas far more f avourably endowed than the regions mentioned i n thi s memorandum Most important of all, it is now more generally recognised that the introduction of domestic stock into submarginal lands would inevitably lead to dissipation of a delicate habitat. One o nly has to look at what has ha],)pened in the Kajiado District, or several other similar pastoral areas which, be it noted, are of a far superior type of

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-2 than those under review, to realise what could happen in the poorer regions situated, for example, on the Eastern boundary of the Tsavo National Park. The Ecological Solution Present day ecologists in no way doubt the wisdom of utilizing good land for wise husbandry, but they d e question the sense of disturbing or eliminating flora and fauna on marginal or sub-marginal land s for it is land in these categories which so rapid l y deteriorates under conventional systems o f pastoralism a n d a griculture. If a regio n is not capabl e of adaptation to farming, the ecologist would propose that meas ures should be taken to harvest such crops as the c ountr y naturally-provides. Ecologists w o u l d a lso agree tha t in the semi-desert regions o f Kenya the potentialities inher e n t in proper utilization of the ungulate fauna as a valuable natural r esource have been almost entirely negl e cted or overlooked. These a r e the natural cattle of the country. Why, then, spend effort and m oney eliminating the very specie s of animals eminently adapted to these marginal regio ns, in order to attemp t to replac e them with domesticated speCies which are ent irel y unsuited to the environment? N o t only is Africa's ungUlate fauna ideally adapted t o mar g inal conditions as well as possessing a n atural resistance to most of the diseases and parasites affecting domestic stock, but the complex of wild creature s effects the f u llest possible utilization of habitat without, in the process, har m ing or destroying the habitat. This is a vital co n sideration in maintenance of' environment. T o quote from a statement by Dr Fraser Darling, the 20 o r 3 0 ungulates to be found under natural conditions in most parts o f Kenya "ranging from e leph ants down to the smalle s t antelopes, each have their par ticular niche, their particular c a l I o n the environment, their particular influence on it. The stratification of species i s significant in maintenanc e o f habitat, and cannot be disregarded when the habitat i s tender as i s so much of Africa." Each animal within the spectrum of 20 to 30 species has its own special contribution to make and by this means the m ost effective usO is made of the habit at, without in any w a y maltreating the structure. If this spectrum is r educed t o 2 or 3 species of domestic animals, which in any event a r e ill adapted to the enviro nment not only will they b e unable t o the habitat as efficiently as indigenous a nim a l s but there is a very real probability that their impact on the environment will result i n l a r g e scale desication o f soil and vegetative cover. Conclusion In conside r i n g t h e future of these dry lands, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the ungulate fauna is at once Kenya's most negl ected and potentially most valuable natural resource In a country such a s this which is notably deficient in protein it seems unwise to ignore the latent possibilities to be found in a system of efficient utilization of Nature's c attle on a basis of sustained optimal yield. Quite apart from the important consideration of proper land

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. j 3 -usage, such a system has considerable socio/economic significance, p articularly in relation to primitive tribal communities. It seems reasonable and logical to suggest that in many parts o f Kenya incapable of no rmal agricultura l development, consideration should be given to harvesting the complex of ungulate species under natural conditions for the direct benefit of indigenous tribesmen and that such a system should be recognised as a legitimate agricultural pursuit. Mawingu, Molo. 25th December, 1959. NOEL SIMON.

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Telephone Nairob i 23380. CONSULAR HOUSE P.O. Box 20110 Nair obi Kenya

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-. ", l .. ,l JenJJR WIilh lift :inriet!l J .Farrer own,E g., The NUffi 1d Foundation. Nu.f.:field Lodg t Regents Park LONDOH. N.W.I Dear .Farrer Brown, In a r cent lett to writ. to 7011 wi th .l'eOLIE1.IL.",lIana e nt Sehe CONSULAR HOUSE CORONATION AVENUE P.O. Box 20110 NAIROBI KENYA Tel: 23380 er arl1 g Gal tiv r e As you know. hi 1 the tir t full-scale attempt at prop .I' t ot the wild lite r oure. 0 a sustained 71_14 ba 1 ver to be rt n in t Ur1ca and it is thank to the gen .1'0 1t7 01 the BUttiel Foundation that the Soh... 8 co nc d. H .T .1', in spit ot 0 t .eloo and t1melT d, a u b r of asp ets of the Bches have giT cau. tor oonc r.n I ho 70 will all to 11st so of t 4iLticul. t1 8 with h1ch are faced to enabl 700 to appro h th K D7 Go ernme t n thi import t matter, should lOU 1 to do so. 1. PRnlCpLE OBJECTIVE. th t tir t and tore 0 t this proj a a lar e scale xper nt d ign 4. to proT wh ther or not ... 11 11te can b anag d for the soc1al and econo c b tteraent of indig nous tr1b en. This b iDS 0, 1t 1 Tery n ce ar.T to acquir ad quate factual data fro which fira conclusions ay be drawn, and in my opinion the only 'fI87 ot achieviDg thi is to have a .fUll time cologist attached to th Sche e. Altho gh Gov rnment has agreed 1n principle to the appointment Gam D P t nt ooloSi tt it appear he will not be ploy xclu 1vely on th Galana Soh me but 111 b. op rat! on a Colony d b i with only a limit d amount 01' his ti b ing d voted to th Sch m its It. I am sure you ill agree, is 11' unsati faotory. becau unl a lUll t ind1vidu can b appoint d to the Scheme flI13 results noM v ar hardly likely to be and the princ1pl obj ctiv will not be et. 2. REVENUE. One of the obj ots of th Sche e is to prov as tully as possible the oonomio valu of wild lif manag menti 1 sub marginal r glans. In order to achieve thiS, all revenue produced must be 'ploughed into th Soh me in order to make it financially If-suttie! t. The Kenya Government haa r fu d to allow th Soh me to r tain proc d fro the sale ot its own ivor7. Gover nt has, h w ver, agr eel to an annual grant to the Sche and the val of the c :1; ;2

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.. ( -'i l -2 t It as originally gr ed thut the Soh me should b controll d by a looal eo itte. eo tt is already in eXiste c bu e ma to c y littl authority in 0 far as th inistry of Frat D v 10 nt, & ish rie is concern d or ple, it as the una. ou opinion of the eo tt th t th 0 em should hay its own c 1 gi t an ad quate 01 rioal sta. th th e reComm ndations ha b r jected by th tr,r. STA The e .function e:rl istry h s pp !nil not to be wher re th t nistry haa assur d th Prot i n 1 p ot sion 1 hunters will b allowed e a in the past. A any animal killed w111 h ve to co fro the total ual d ea etc., will be aid into th 1 will 10 und r thi This G unag nt Sohe s designed to sh primitiv trib n th ben it to b derived from prop r CODS rvation practices. A uch it is Bom thing qUite out 1d th ir pr vious xp ri nc d i follo s that the proj ot 111 onl7 suce d provid d it has the oontidene of the tr1b men cone rned. For thi rea on I hay maintained that Professional Hunter must b exolud d trom th ar a until such tj. e as th ehe ha prov' d suoces fUl. Oth 1 th Waliangulu may 11 su p at it b ing merely a COy r for European inter at One the ch e i reason why Profe ianal Hunt th ar a provided (a) th lioeno ree b fit th Gon ral Rev Due. fir y establish d I can no should not b al10 d into agr e and (b) all elf and do n go in I hope th w co nt will Berve to ho there is cau e for anxietr.1 to the present conduct 0 the Seh If any pOints require c1 rif1cation or laboration. plea do not hesitate to ask. e.o. Dr. F .Fr e r Darl Tn Con rvstion NEW YORK 16 Y V B A Yours sincerelY. N S1 ON Chai an D .BC., Ph D., LL. D.,F R S E., oundationt

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. e N Simon Esq., Internatio n a l Union for o f Nature and Nat u r a l ORGES VADD, Switzerland. Dear c/o A H. M o w a t Esq., F.R C. S E P.O Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya 13th A u g u st, 1 9 6 4 C o n servation I\V'" ) I resigne d from t h e Kenya Game Department i n January. S i n c e t h e n Ghristine, Alan Root, Alistair G aham ( a qualified zoolog i st) and mys e l f have formed a busine s partnership in the name o f Wildlife Services. We are under the guidance of Phil Glover. Our aim is t o provide a service to undertru:e tildlife research and management for conservation authorities and land owners. Though a business, our basic princi ple i a that good takes precedence over financial ez:pediency. Thougll based in Nairobi, we are prepared to operute anyuhere. We have recentl y completed a hippo count for the Uganda Game Department and Us. tional Parks, and have been asked t o und e r take g them. \e are also booked to undertake an assessment of a c ocodile populat'on in the Selous Reserve o f Tanganyika. .'hile interested in the "hole field of research and management, we are specialiSing in populati on counts. Recentl y we have heard that I.U.C.N. are considering a census of 7ild asse s in Soma lia and Ethiopia. Should this be the case may I take t h i s opportunity of registering our ilterest in undertaking the p r oject for you. W ith our experience of Africa, game counting, and t h e fact that we are on the doorstep, we feel w e have a n advantage over peopl e and organisations from e lsewhere. We a lso have our own aircraft and eqUipment for this type of work. W e would be grateful of consideration in any o ther projects I.U.C.N m a y h ave in mind in this line. I hope all fares well with you (you a r e certainly ell away from Molo where as muc h r ain has fallen i n the last month as did in t h e f loods of t 61! ) W ith best w ishes, Yours,

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UNION INTERNATIONALE POUR LA CONSERVATION DELA N ATU RE ET DE S ES RES SOURCES Teiegramme : U N I COR N Morge s Ref: 0/1/1 I Parker, Esq., C/o P O Box 861, Nakuru, Kenya. Dear Ian, MORGE S VAUD Suisse Switzerland INTERNATIONAL U NION FOR CONSERVATION O F NATURE AN D NATU RAL RESOU RCES rp (021) 71 4401 19th August 1964 I was very interested to receive your letter of 13th AUgust ctn d admire your enterprise in establishing ./il dlife .3ervices. You are perfectly correct in that IUC is considering a census of v/ild asses in ..... omalia and -tthiopia. There are also severa l othe r rare species i n that region for which a census is needed although, in passing, cannot help wondering what sort of reception and co-operation a iairobi based firm would receive from the Somalis at the moment. rlowever, while Ie are agreed that census work could_and should be undertaken, we are up against the perpetual problem of lack of funds for the purpose. herefore, although I will certainly bear your firm in lliind in the event of a suitable opportunity occurring I am bound to add that no suc h openings are in sight at presen t I do not know whether you intend producing a brochure or some type of prospectus, but if you should do so, please be sure to send m e a copy so that I have full particulars on record. It was good to hear from you again and I wish you and your firm all po sible success . / i th best wishes, Yours !L. for

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----=--=--=--------:: ---= ----------I Parker, .b;sq., C/o P O Box 861, Nakuru, Kenya .frique de l 'Est Abeendor J J Mlttonto: J U eN. Morg es, V au d itzerl a nd D ort kelnerlol Gegenstiindo onthnlten -No aolt contonlr-nucun objot Non dove contonoro noasun oggotto -Frankatur ruralle Uindor Fr. .65 Affronchlssemenrvalablo pour tous le8 I!,ays fro -.66 Affranca:zlone valevolo jjll stetl fr.-.66 .=..=----::-

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r1'"Sf r rJStJ'f i,s f r J c:i -T fl =t J f 0 [ \ r 1= r f i s l fo P t t r1" i f, f -\ I -{ r f J. '-'./ I F:t 'I ( r A" 1,' r ; J Tt' f 7_ t j '1 of k k i e l J .f Ik J jl, i fl r t {;-i r L f -1 f f t t t '. t-e. f f r f f Y t,." f } f r ? t t! f J'; J ; I t ;} J r > -1 't, t, 11t t l f' f r \ Jl'/r f r f r r ,r f J t t"f f ift loft y d i ,L""'-. J '1 "0' i r 7 J t f t' -fl f J \ JJ \ Jf f f r -l r"lf J; p I J U) t J \ / r (\l () [ -r ,t r 5-\ fl J ...... ) ..,r [ r:. 7 ..... '" fl } J r r 1 J -I 5 F f) -' 1 fl :1. f t F c o,l' t a : i f I ( L I r -;> I I fo-I J'" f 1 )' fl. I L ,Di (f r -.. p, v 1 -(} f f [F J J f /0 f:t J t, t ? S\.. V) \' f ,-J h 7T; f 2-f'J f ; rd ;, cf t I f:, 'I r '9 i

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r i AIR LETTER' r \ I I" FI V AEROGRAMMJ! \ \ C1 i, .--' / ;::e> "*' ..... --: .,). """""",,, f J t f:' \ f >-e:, ( J'> ,. r; 2 i .. . . : .......... J: F' f r r. r r -{ f l ........... . 2 f j 1. r f ........... f I .......: ............. .. I I J ir f f -! Il .. .. .. -.. .. ..... .... -i r r tit f' II ......... . t t It F I ...... .......... ...... [,t fir. I ................................................................................................ ... c [i i f >-1 <-1. I i '? f r I AN AIR LEITER SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY e t.r f [ ) 1 ENCLOSURE ; IF IT DOES IT WILL BE . SURCHARGED f '" r: f 1 OR SENT BY MA,lL. r;:::' <; 1 I r r .' r 1 y, -r I" i ./ i =__ ___________________ .... ___ _______ --''-_____________

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minitler5itp of QCnmhrillge PRO FE 559 R L. P. PUG H TELEPHONEL CAMBRIDGE TEL E G RAM 5 55641 6 LINEoC; Ian Parker, E s q., P.O Box 861 Nakuru, Kenya, East Arica. Dear Ian, DEP RTMENT OF VETERINARY CLINICAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE MADINGLEY ROAD, CAMRRJDGE. 1963. I am slowly getting into the swing of thi n g s h ere after a most enjoyable trip to outh Africa. I wa s particularly impressed by the boys a t the ruger National Park, who are doing some v e r y nice !fork. They are using a cro ssbow and Pal mer-type s yring e ,vhich i s manufactured in S Africa, for killing elephant i n the Park. They use an o v e rdose of scoline, and claim that they can kill an animal, and eat its meat after vlards, vTi t h out any upset to the others. You will f ind an account o f thi s in O ryx", vol. 7 p .35, 1963, and the person i n charge of the vrork is .Jr. C1e V Pienaar, Skukuza, Kruger National Park, Transvaal, South Africa. This m ight be of great interest t o David Sheldrick The refe rence I told you abou t t h e mating o f African elephants i n captivity is Ktihme, 'T. (1963), Zeitschr. ftir Tierp s y c hologie, 20, 06, Be obac htungen an afrik anischen Elefanten ( Loxodontaafricana B lumenbach 1797 ) im Freigehege II, and h i s address i s 'IaxPlank-Insti tut ftir Verhaltensphysiologie, Seewiesen/Obb und d e m Georg -von-Opel Freigehege ftir T ierforsc hung e V., Kronberg/Taunus Unfortunately I do not have a reprint o f this paper. 'Jhen Don Stevlart arrives, I will give h i m my b i bliography on elephants, "Thich I hope he will give to you. I d o h ope that you will vlri te t o the Nuffield Foundation, and send them a copy of your report t ogether 'vi th your personal views on the difficulties you are encountering If you can keep the S cheme g Oing, I w ould love t o come o u t for about 9 months with wife and family as from Jul y 1964 and work full t ime with you. I will not make any move i n this direction until I hear from y o u as to t h e fate o f the S c h eme. If I can, I would lik e

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2 -to work o n reproduction i n the elephant, rhi no, and giraffe with y o u It i s an exciti n g possibility, and it would be w onderful i f i t c ame off. I have tackled Professor Parkes about the possibility of g etting Alistair signed on for a Ph. D., and h e s ounds qUite enthusi a s tic about it. I 1'Till keep prodding, and h ope to be abl e t o let Alistair know one way or the other within the next f o u r weeks. You might tell him that I have not been i d l e i n t h i s matter. I sent the elephant pituitary off to the States the other day, and they should be getting in touch with you. They were suggesting offering you $2.00 per pituitary, and I told them this was ridiculous. Depending on the results of their assay, they may vTell jack it up a bit. The parathyroid gland t issue that I collected tuxned out to be only lymph node when I looked at it histologically. I have now examined all the temporal g and sections that Gilfrid collected and alas I cannot find any consistent d ifferences between the sexes. But i t would still be worth collecting some weights of temporal glands, and some more b its for histology. I had an interesting case today a 70 year old Indian elephant cow which vlaS killed in a moribund condition at London Z o o and its ovaries showe very recent corpora l utea and ovulations. S o it looks as if they cah breed well into old age. Since my return, I have spent quite a bit of time on the crossbow and syringe. I think vTe nOvT have a much better idea of vThat is wanted, ana. wi thin a onth I hope we may have a very c heap device actually in pro uction. D o let me know how Gilfrid got on trying to dart calves; also let m e know if you want anymore of the drug 99 as the representative of t h e firm is c oming to see me in a few days time. That' s about all the news I can think of at the moment; do keep in touc h Be st "fishes,

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TELEPHONE 5564 I Ian Parker, Esq., c/o A H Mowat, sq., P O B ox 861 NAKURU, Kenya, East Africa. Dear Ian, D EPARTMENT OF V E TERINARY CLINICAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE MADINGLEY ROAD CAMBRIDGE 23rd April 1964. I vTaS naturally terribly isappointed t o hear that after all your hard work and tremendous enterprise the Scheme is going to fold up. I feel l ike being trite and quoting: "if you can stake your all upon one turn of pitch and toss, and lose, and start again fro the beginning and never breathe a word about your loss ... ". It seems a terrible shame that conflicts of personality and matters of personal pride can wreck ente r prises like that. But one even sees the same sort of thing happening here, and I suppose one must just be resigned to the fact. 1ary and I are very keen to come out to East Africa, and I have made to get the necessary 6 months leave of absence as from t h e beginning of December. I t hink that it migh t nov; be best for us to g o and join Dick Laws, or else possibly go to Rhodesia on o n e of the larg e cropping schemes there, where I could certainly get the giraffe material I "Tant. Do please keep in touch and let me know how things develop and in particular let m e know if I can be of any help whatsoever. Very best wishes,

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TELEPHONE 5564 I Ian Parker Esq., c/o P O Box 861, N akuru, Kenya. D ear Ian, DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY CLINICAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE MADINGLEY ROAD CAMBRIDGE 22nd ay 1 964 I was g lad to hear fro you, and I only vfish t hat there was something I could do to help from this end. 1 have vfri tten a strong letter to Don stewart, suggesting t hat he raise a of pOints vri th G r vrood about the S c heme but am doubtful whether this will do muc h good. Also my boss (an F R S ) will be out in a irobi shortly on an advisory visit sponsored by the Royal Society and I 'Till see if h e can help. D r McAuuff is c e rtainly very concerned about the situation, and vTill also be coming out i n person some ti e this year. I think you should definitely maAe a point of seeing him. Bu t I think that the Nuffiel d oundation vrould c ertainly be um-Tilling to make a loan to a c ompany vTi th the present atmosphere prevailing in the Game Department. Unfortunately bodies lies . C N and }l1. A O are pretty useless i n such circumstances. I gather t hat Thane Reine has now joined F A O as its special African adviser, and I do not t hink he is sympathetic to cropping schemes in general. One distinct possibili ty t hat you should explore i s to vTri te dire c t to Sir Julian Huxley, c/o Royal Society House, London. I think that t h e most fruitful line of approach wou l d be (1) t here is an elephant problem throughout E Afric a and before it can be solved we desperatel y need ore information on biology, profitability of cropping, effect of cropp ing on her d structure etc. (2) the S c heme is the ideal pilot to supply all this information, and fast. (3 ) the Scheme is foundering on a trivial issue of personalities, and it Hants a strong influential person to step,in and instill so e common sense. I feel sure t hat you should push t h e Scheme on its \ Tidest meri ts, i e elephant control as a problem in many countries, 8.-.11.d indicate hOvT serious t his problem is becoming i n 'lsavo and Uganda. My plans have of course ground to a halt. I have all the necessary leave o f absenc e from this end, and a good hint t hat I s hall get the necessary f ina cial support.

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2 The elephant work continues her e on some samples that B u s s has sent me. Briefly (1) I do not think one can use temporal gland structu r e as an indication of sexual status of bulls, (2) I am more convinced than ever that there is a sexual c y cle in bulls. To reduce numbers most effectively, I think Q n e should attempt to cull bulls running "Ti th herds of C O'V1S first of all. (3) I nOvl disagree I'Ti th muc h of Perry s vTork. It looks as if the elephant ovulates only one follicle at a time, but that a variable number of infertile oestrous periods occur at t h e end of the 2 -year lactational anoestrus before a pregnanc y supervenes. Counts of the number of corpora lutea i n the o v a ries early i n pregnanc y may therefore reveal the number of suc h infertile c y cles. One w ould suppose that the infertile oestrous c ycles woul d decrease in number as the elephants beco e more con centrated, and there are more males on the ground. hus fertility might l'Tell increase I'ri th i ncreasing elephant numbers. Once again, shoot t h e bulls i n C OyT herds first of all. I have just this moment had a tal to D r Mann H e will be in Nairobi for a fey, days to\'rar s the end of June, and will mak ing all his arrangements there via Binns at 1 A V R O., Muguga If you would like to meet him, 1 suggest you contact Binns directly in a fevT vTeeKS time. 'ust close nO'-T -sorry that I cannot be of more direct hel p to you, Cheers,

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Dear Ian, It is a long time since I weote to you and I hope you are flourishing well -all of you. I had a letter from Cartwright sometime ago telling me that you had collected, or were sending for, the other two specimen boxes, so I have been waiting and watching to hear if something was at the Docks for me -either at Mombasa or hep8, but t here has been no sound so I suppose you have not bean lucky. I do hope that when you get the chance you will be able to send us some fresh lymphatic glands -it does not matter where they are from but Professor Cave at St. Bartholomew's Hospital is really most anxious'to have some more glands as fresh as those I got on our first trip. He has already written one paper and wishes to write more. Work is proceedina ahead quite satisfactorilY and one day I am oertain there will be a 0 flood of reports, but they take their time and they cannot be rushed. It was most interestdng to see that lymphatic glands of an elephant are different to anything else, being haemoplymph glands only. You ..,vill be surprised to hear that when you stuck that neat Formalin in to the back of the elephant, into what we thought was a descending colon, it was put into the kidneys and I am a;f.raid they have been oompletely ruined and are just like armour plate, no knife will touch them; otherwise the elephant was perfect. I have not heard anything as to how you are managing with the food situation and procuring o f meat which after all was the basis of the Galana scheme. My interests unfortunately have been somewhat different, but there we are I would like to know, when you have t h e time, how you have been managing and whether it has worked out as satisfactorilY as you and David thought it would. On paper and from what I saw it seemed that it must do so, but there we are, what one works out and what happens in the end is often so much different I do hope that you are all quite well and that this winter has not been like the last one when you were all flooded out. Over here of course we have had one of the w orst winters ever, certainly the worst in my lifetime -minus 40F. down here, but I am pleased to say my central heating stood up to it so that life was at least bearable, although one could hardly go out. 4IJ When you are getting the lymphatic glands and other bits, please do not forget the central nervous system; nerves, anything connected with the brain and the nervous system is anxiously required and if a brain oould be put in a buck even" of 10 % Formalin, not stronger, I am sure Bill Cartwright could contrive to get io packed a n d sent to England on the Uganda, where the and Chief Officer I am certain, will do all they can to help me, having been one of their staff. I do hope yhe family is flourishing. Please let me k now how many now. With kindest regard to you, Christine and the family and best wishes, Yours P.S. Please exouse a handwl!1itten typed letter. correspondenoe. [ 3 'T-' "'-3

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i tl Sender's name and address: .. .... ...... ..... .. AN AIR LETTER SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY ENCLOSURE; IF IT DOES IT WILL BE SURCHARGED OR SENT BY ORDINARY MAIL. : ... : : fold \ 'C : .......................................................................................................................................................................... :l : : 1i AEROGRAMMB ... j tf, \-" \ ;;:') ... ... \.(;,), () ..... "i$1; 'i c::ik .. .... ............................. ... ... ......... ................................ ..... ... ...... ...... .......................... ............................ ............................. . : ................. : ...................................... . -..;. ...-n,.. ...

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Hotel N@rrevold N0RREVOLDGADE 24. K0BENHAVN K TELEFON CENTRAL 16753 -Ml 2217 / (Jut-st" to. /6/ i / i '09 ;;l L d-7 t 7 uuf 4-",=<-a:r 4e J trn '7' 'V'-'-V4 :J 7 U,,;; .L I r-z 7 hi' ;' L=-/u' &<1 '7 LJrwA /CLd. A "L'? ""-L '( 1/4 -:; ( W-0'?-7 M-jd /L-A:& ;-I Lz. J d 0'J 4-..---
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70L / / C:CU/1.f'5EH I (/fr9.

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY All correspondence should be a ddressed to "The Director of Veterinary Services Parcels by rail : Kibera Station Telegrams: "VetIab, Kabete Telephone: FORT SMITH 231-2 In reply please quote number DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY P .O. KABETE . S:t;l,l .. .. 1.963. ..... ...... .. ... 19 ... and date Tl/3/121o Ian Parker, Esqo, Game Warden, Galana River Game Management S cheme, PoCo VOlo Dear Ian, Thank you very much for your letter an I am very much looking forward to doing a trip with you but I cannot see how I can fit it in just at the moment. However, would it be too late to make it the fourth week in May? In the meantime, I have asked le Roux to contact you and to make a survey of the fly situation in the area concerned o Mr. le Roux will do his best to fit the survey in before the end of Aprilo If you happen to be visiting Nairobi any time, please look me UPQ With best regards, Yours sincerely, (p oEo Glover) Chief Zoologist for Director of Veterinary Services .,.

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY All corre s pondenc e should be I DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES a ddre s sed to "The Director of VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY P .O.KABETE V e t er inary Services" Parcel s by r a il: Kibera Station T e leg ra ms : Vetlab, K a bete T e lephone: FORT SMITH 231-2 In r eply please quote number .. .. l9.q3p .. ............ 19 . . ( ) and date Tl/3/l22 Ian Parker, Esq o Game Warden, G a lana Rive r Game Management Schmme, PoOo Voio Dear Ian, Dr. Glover instructed me to contact yo u with a request for more details ab out a tsetse survey of an area adjoining the Galana Ri ver Game SchemeQ I would be most grateful for the necessary information, t o en a b l e me t o get maps and arrange a tentative programme for the near future 0 All things being equal, I hope to be at the Coast during the last week of Apr i l and would like to see you if possible. I will c o n t act yo u again t o arrange a dateo JGLR/ N P Yours Sincerely, o..J Ie Roux) Field Zoologist for Chief Zoologist f or .;,;AOIIogl,.;o_D...;;i;..r_e_c;..t;..o_r __ o;..f __ c;..e..;.,8_

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/Y)j'

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY All correspondence should be addressed to "The Director of Veterinary Services" Parcels by rail: Kibera Station Telegrams: Vetlab, Kabete" Telephone: FORT SMITH 231-2 In reply please quote number and date I. Parker, Esq., Game Warden, DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY P.O. KABETE .... )9.e?3. .. .......... 19 ... Galana River Game Management Scheme, P.O. Voi. Dear Ian, Thank you for your letter of the 18th April. I am looking forward to doing the safari with you in the last week in May. fctually, I hope I shall see you on the 7th when I visit Voi. Regarding your queries about the numbers of cattle etc. in the Kajiado district, I have asked my secretary, Miss Poland, to aee if she can get them Roy Lewis and send them to you. Le Roux tells me that you have collected quite a lot of plapts from your area, mainly grasses; if you send them to us I will try and get them identified for you. With my best regards to you and Christine, Yours sincerely, p.p. P.E. Glover. by Dr. Glover before leaving on safari.

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Ail correspondence should be addrer,sed to "The Director of Vet e rinary Services" Parcels by rail : Kibera Station Telegrams: "Vetiab Telephone: FORT SMITH 231-2 In reply please quote number and date TA/28/ I. Parker, Esq., Game Warden, DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY P.O. KABETE ... .l\.P;r'.U., J,,963 .... .... ... . .. 19 ... Galana River Game Management Sche me, P.O. Voi. Dear Mr. Parker, Here are some figures in reply to the query in your letter of the 18th April: -In 1957/1958 the estimated total cattle population in the Kajiado district was 528,000. (This figure was calculated by adding 10% to the number of pI euro-pneumonia inoculations, whi ch aimll1a t giving a 9(yfo cover.) Ref. Mr. R. W Lewis' minute of 13.1.63 on Mr. Prole's StoCk/Gen/l/62 of 30.10.1962). In 1958/1959 the estimated total cattle population was 624,000. (Figure based on rinderpest inoculations multiplied by five, as these inoculations aim at a 20% cover). Ref. Mr. R. W Lewis -as above. Mr. Prole (Veterinary Officer, N gong, -previously Kajiado) estimated the total cattle population in t he Kajiado district at 250,000 at the time of writing (30th October, 1962). He estimates the maximum carrying capacity of Kajiado Masailand (excluding Kekonyukie) as 400,000. I do not know ho w he arrived at this last figure, but perhaps you could write to him at the Provincial Veterinary Office, N gong, P.O. Box 24914, Karen Yours sincerely, for P.E. Glover Chief Zoologist for Director of Veterinary Services

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OF AGRIcutTuim, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND RESOURCES ' 1 Telegrams : "PROV1!T .' -Niyng DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES Telephone : Karen 5)4 PROVINCIAL VETERINARY OFFICE When replying please '-} Ref No, , .... , If' and date I.S.C. Parker Esq., Galana River Game Management P.O. Voi. Dear Mr. Parker, SOUTHERN PROVINCE, P.O. Box 24914, KAREN June, 1963. Thank you for your letter of 0 I am sorry to have been long in replying but the questiorsthat you ask are very difficult or impossible to answer correctly. Kajiaao Masailand is an area of great contrasts and even greater variability from year to year. The round figure of a stock carrying capacity of .00,000 has been arrived at by the study of reports of various officers dealing with the stock population and state of the land during the last 20 years. The population estimates have been arrived at in various ways and may not be very accurate. The state of the land is arrived at by examin.*lon while on safari and individual officers vary in their pessimism or optimism with various schemes. If the stock capacity of the land is determined by the number of cattle grazing that land without detriment for 12 months then during the past twenty years this has probably varied from 300,000 to 500,000. I have no figures for the area occupied by bush and grass. k ,map of Kajiado grassland prepared by Mr. in showed that about in good grass cover and i light grass cover but with overgraz1na and denuding around permanent watering points (total area 4! million acres). Y 'ost of the area was usable by cattle at some time of the year mountain tops and lake Amboseli. Fly is not of great importance. Most of the area has some bush but with plenty of grass i & between at the present although during the drought was desert. -I do not know t he effect of the as competi t f olfs for gnazing but no dougt the Athi plains suffer from Zebra, W11debeeste and Kongoni. 'Fhe water supplies are adequate in the district and in fact the water supplies contributed in the denuding of the district instead of locally around waterholes. Animals died in the drought of starvation not thirst. Although modern methods have been tried in the past they have met with on1y limited ..... and the vast majority of cattle are kept under traditional methods of husbandry. I am sorry I provide you with more precise information but as ;r'ar as I knoW! it does not exis,t. I have prepared a report in population in Kajiado and w,ill let you have a copy. J.H.B. Prole. VETERINARY OFFICER, MASAI-LAND. JHBPj!IKW.

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" \ Wildlife utilization Services (Pvt) LTD. \ <"l.-'iO p / \6 r 2nd. March 1965. Dear / a--n Thank YOll 0 letter received yesterda;r,I was just to write toyou but ,had to rush off to Liebigs ranch anq so colle ted mai+, it tvas very pleasant 1;0 hear froIp. y'ou. 1 f i As you can see from my adress I have already started on IW very pleasant. too to be "free", ao strange, to be making out pB\1slip s -4 \providing the where wi thall :Cor the pq f Ilam very pleased to hear that european farmers are keen to ranch gameq up your 'W8:3', when I have' got organised here and have some eapi tal 40 'you thiDk it possible for my compan;y to get land in Kenya to game ranch? I think we would be a worthwhile asset to have in a gaD}e ranching I was s _erious about offering my seI:V'ices as a game ranching consultant, who and what Dept. would I write to in KeI\Va anq the other East African c01ltrieS' to my services, would like me to qome up to your in an advisery e capacity (also personal visit). Ybu be surprised to hear that Archie Mossman is a partner ,of mine, ollce he is actually working ,in the comp8.D\Y you will see that we wil be able to supply a good consmlting .sevice, at the moment I tam sure what Archie will be doing he teach at the University in Salisbury or he take a job on game ranching in Uganda, we would offer consulting services but are afraid that might not accept a Rhodesian citizen on political grounds,if he worked there first then afterwards it mB' be ad different story. If however, the compaIW does weD, then he will come straight here from America. I would suggest that if land is being opened for game ranching I think it should be stipulated that cattle are allowed to be kept otherwise you will find people maling capital from their game and then going over completely to cattle and to be allowed to exterminate their game to get rid of oompetition for grazing. People often have a cattle complex which is quite horrible in the lengths go to,I suppose the Masai have this complex, so will understand what I mean. Get settlers with a game complex, look I know nothing about the market potential in Kenya but I I am still willing to take up a game ranch there. My previous employer had a cattle complex to the extent where he doe's not want to tolerate buffalo, gnu or zebra in the cattle camps,from the disease aspect chiefly and also grazing competition, I reckon the disease aspect is over rated and a'S, for the correct: stocki.ng of species. is the answer. Naturally if one is mainly acattle rancher one does not wa.I1t too many grazing game animals but one should certainly have all tha browsers and would be a foll not to. . I must first point out that I'am not working for Liebigs but them so much for each,animal, and then dispose of the" meat mysfl3lf, which will be mostly turned into biltong Ilam hoping to_ sell bulk loads of fresh meat to one company or person. There is at the moment only one pure game ranchar and he really hasn 1 t got started yet, his is not very big yet but he intends to buy more land and bring it up to about 50,000 acres Styles place is 20,000 acres game and 52,000 acres cattle and game, he calls his place a Cattle & Qame ranch, he also has sugar plantations on the place. Henderson's place has 65,000 acres game and 82,000acres cattle and game(but not much big stuff in the paddocks)I5,000 acres of cattle paddock prodaced a potential pf over a ,000 of impala,zebra etc. Spencers place does not belong to him but he has shares ih the cattle and the right to have all ;irhe money from the game, I suspect if bisHboss" sees he is making a lot out of ithe will want his cut too. I will give the adresses of some of these people

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and y.ou peable . to I donlt think t1.leY-1PJ.I-!rlnd. be a good to write teo as he is very keen and he definately combines all farming activities with game .Allan Savory Game Ecologist in this country is also a bloke to write to he is virtually the founder df allthe game ranchers thru his unselfish zeal and work far beyond the call of his duty, he is not a biased man in fact I get' anoyed 'with him at times leOS he encourages people to run cattle and game to-gether when they have the oppurtuni ty to run only game. Allan Savory Esq. G.C. Style Esq. Dick Spencer Esq. Game Ecologist, Buffalo Range (Pvt) Ltd Mean;ievale Ranch, Dept. Wild Life Conservation, P.O. BUffalo Range. P.Bag 9157 P.O.Box 8565, S. Rhodesia. Fort Victoria. Causeway, Salisbury Ian Esq. R.O Hodgson Esq. I Will give you other adresses '" Doddiebw;n Ranch, Moriah Ranch, when I have them available P.Bag 12, P .O. Box 45, but these are the main ones that West N:i,cholson. Mas4aba. count at the moment. By it is more convrnient a sepepate game section if cattle aswell, this makes it easier to harvest the game with traps et-e. and Dasmann proved that a certain piece of land could produce at least a quarter more meat from without 4evelopement than cattle with developme:q.t.and correct stocking, this' picular piece of land has to be . capablie of, producing more game than they origi:q.ally thought, this probably makes it a thiEii more. /, .. . .. -Ihope t have been of help.. 1 .......................... : ........ : .... ::: ....... : ............... : ............ : ....... : .. : ....... . .. ...... ...... : ............. . .. . . ........................... ..... .......... . .. iil 3 0. 0>' 0. 0. !' : : T Vi g 0. ro D b ;X>' H --?t. .. :

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Wildlife Utilization Services CONSULTANTS AND GAME RANCHERS Directors : P A. Johnstone, Dear / CvY' (Pvt.) Ltd. Tel. Add. : "GAME" PRIVATE BAG TOWLA -WEST NICHOLS O N SOU THERN RHOD I 4th 1963. \ C('t L-\\\i'" Thank you for your letter of the 18th April,which W ... "" --,",, appreciated. I must firstly point out to you that Ilam not against a cattle/ game ranch in faooet I I am fully .in favour of them, you have misunder-stood me. I was refering to the danger of would be cattle ranchers ,.. . using game to get the qapital from game expliotation in order to go over to cattle completely, after a good atttempt at extermination by over harvesting to rake in the capital. Cattle with game makes harvesting more difficult due to the danger of trapping when catt Ie are with the. game, tho with padddocks one could move the catt,le out while undergoing a period of trapping. l'1y lease covers a area of about IOO,OOO acres of it has been severly damaged by cattle in the past,in fact the owners do not carry cattle there any longer and it is left to the game, which maintain the poor condition but at nothing like the leval the native squattters with their live stock do on parts of it, this peice of land has had heavy huntip.g on it for the past ten years but still has the best game numbers in the best condition on the whole ranch, this is probably due to the high uhleached mineral content of the soil, but I feel mainly to no interference from modern cattle ranchimg '--:l.._-000 tu.J er/ practices, the rest of the ranch under. I you very much for the addresses you sent me, I will make use of them. At the moment my plate is very fullland my worries many, tho my happiness the highest ever. I have an idea why don't you come for a vacation to my place you and your family are most welcome to and visit here we will be able to teach each other a few tricks in this game Can you outline for me your handling of elephants, I haveonly taken two of my quoto of 20, the first was SUPPLIERS OF QUALITY GAME PRODUCTS, CONSULTANTS ON GAME AND VELD MANAGEMENT, GAME RANCHING TECHNIQUES, WILDLIFE POPULATION ASSESSMENT Town Sales Representative: T. Coffin Grey, P.O. Box 1325, BULAWAYO. Tel. Add.: "GAME", Telephone 81351, after noon

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shot to please a section manager because they weee said to raiding crops, we got only the feet and 50 lbs of ivory out of that one the second promised about worth of biltong but the rain came and ruimed all the higher priced stufffFrom now on we intend to get full value for each elephant, so any tips would be gratefully received. I ; : have taken :3 Giraffe of my 20 allowed, and to-d .... sold the skins for IO each, I was expecting each. ? I think the paper you refer to of Mossman & Dasman is the "C6lIlercial Utilization of Game in S. Rhodesian, Pam not sure tho. The same piece of land they reffer to has now had its rate increased, so now the production is even more than the cattle. It seems my expences for equipment,buildings,wagas,etc. in fact every cost possible since I came here is ,000, production in the first month, which has been a slow month,seems to be in the region of Ei a I,OOO, but not less than I have two european hunters and a manager and 40 africans. I will possibly shortly have a retired gentle-man to work solely in the shed leaving the manager free to vehicles, bookwork, supervise. I myself do shed supervision and a certain amount of hunting, and a lot of traveling around the country to meetings and on business. The Game Ranchers have formed themselves into an Association,we hope to affiliate to the Rhodesia Farmers Union. This body (R.N.F.U.) don't seem to like us very much will spread Foot & Mouth Disease Allover the country and so close down our tobacco and beef export economy. This I feel is largely ignorance, I havea manual on ''Meat Handling in Underdeveloped8 Countries II by Dr Mann he do' es not once mention game meat handling in this, I was surprised, anyway I have got quite a few tips out of it. I must end now,please let me know about your elephant handling. YOurs sincerely,

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Wildlife Utilization Services CONSULTANTS AND GAME RANCHERS Directors : Dr. A S Mossman M. M. Robertson Hr. Ian Parker, c/o A.H. Esa.,FRCSE, P o Bo 861, IVIakuru, M.tYA. Dear Sir, ( Pvt .) Ltd. Tel. Add. : "GAME" Phone 70. J:>RWArcBAG T-C>WI=A -I / P.O, Box 117 MARO! 7th Jyly, 196L L We believe that the enclosed leaflet on our aims ELl1d princ iples will be of interest to Should desire further information on our organisation' s activities, please do not hesitate to contact this office. Yours fRithfully, DnmC'.J..v!-{ SUPPLIERS OF QUALITY GAME PRODUCTS, CONSULTANTS ON GAME AND VELD MANAGEMENT GAME RANCHING TECHNIQUES, WILDLIFE POPULAT I ON ASSESSMENT

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(PRIV A TE) LIMITED. OUR COMPANY MOTTO: .-_._-"Good Conservation is Good Econmucs" OUR AIMS AND PRINCIPIES. . 1. To establish, naintain and expand a successful business based upon the rational utilization of natural 2. Th..rough such enlightened private enterprise to point the way toward resour'ce utilization that achieves "Environmental Conservation" and thus encourage the development of a uland Ethic". ("Eri'nrolThlental Conservation" is an holistic approach to the conservation of natural resources. One cann.ot achieve adequate conservation of any single segnent of our environment without also conserving all other segments. "land Ethic" is the inclusion of land within the ethical f'raElevrork of Elan.) 3. To research and education l eading to the benefit of mankind through environI1ental conservation. 4. To encourage the active participation of all peoples in enlightened wildlife utilization for their benefit, in order to instill in the desire for its conservation through sustained yield utilization. 5. In the operation of this business, good conservation shall take precedence ove r financial erpediency. 6. It follows that our clients, vvhile serving their own i nterest by dealing vvi th a reputable concern, are also directly assisting in rebuildin g and Ii1aintaining the Country's heritage. Registered Office: P.O. Box 117, stan d 41, Karoi, S.Rhodesia. Telephone: Karoi 70. S & S. W/15.

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Telephone: 60425/6 Telepraphic Address: WILDLIFE. Salisbury P.O. BOX 8365, CAUSEWAY, SAlIlSBURY, S. RHODESIA Ref. 26/GR/Gen/4. AIRMAIL. I.S.C. Parker Galalla Game Management Scheme, P.O. KENYA: Mr. Parker, Date 11th May, 1963. Thank you for your letter of the 10th May 1963. Mr. Johnstone has mentioned your scheme a couple of times and in fact I have just seen him and he said that you might be writing to us. We are still striking many teething troubles ourselves, but first to answer your I. Game is successfully combined with cattle on all of our game ranches -in fact they are all cattle ranches now turning to game utilisation as well, having carried the game for many years and not used it apart from sport hunting, biltong making for private consumption and rationing of labour. 2. All of the ranches; have cattle and game completely mixed and "l< integrated although a couple have set aside definate game areas. This has been done purely for the benefit of the game and not because of any disease worry. It is primarily to avoid excessive disturbance of herd boys with their dogs and cattle in the main game areas. 3. Yes we have a lot of experience of the effects of game on pastures although we still a tremendous lot more knowledge on the finer detail of each species and of the hundreds of possible combinations. As we have'nt yet got these answers for domestic stock after hundreds of years of research the game position is not too worrying. Our feeling is that we know enough to be able to operate game management without any danger to the game or range if given a but we do not yet know enough to be ablemo do so at optimum productivity. Again an almost exact parallel to the cattle position. One thing 1 clear and that is that under present conditions unless game is properly < managed it causes as much range da.mage as cattle and other domestic stock. C\" A little of what we know of the effects of game on pasture I have written up for the Symposium being held here in September so this will become available and published. Unfortunately I a copy I would let you have one now. This is a paper on Game in Southern Rhodesia and covers several facets which might concern you people -census, density indices, cropping etc. Don't forget that our experiences on pasture effects are only applicable in principle but not in detail to your situation. I find vhere that each and every game situation has got to be investigated and treated on its own particular merits on practically no two ranches are my recommendations the same. 4. There are no authenticated cas'es that I am aware of in the major diseases I say. major diseases because these are the only ones which I have really gone into. W e have a tremendous amount of talk of disease here

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... -2 ... here much of it bordering almest on the realms of' science fiction. Our major disease worry is foot and mouth but although we h a ve an unbroken game to game contact from the Limpopo to the Z ambezi our foot and does not occur allover, furthermore; where it does occur, does not ceincide with the areas of greatest game concentration although it does to show a correlation with areas ef most abused range. Our main }V control technique against spread of food and mouth when there is an outbreak is the cattle cordon which I believe is also used in South Game is unimpeded a nd can move to and fro through a cordon and yet the A disease is usually confined. Like most African Ceuntries our kno wledge of disease is still very limited in certain fields and I don't knew ho w long this is going to take to rectify, but w e hope not too long as genuine efforts are now being made and we have recently seen the appointment of a Game Research Officer to our Veterinary Department. Like most places up until recently there has been no one to speak out scientificially for game and a great tendency for game to be blamed for everything to which no immediate solution could be found. I only hope some of the above is of use to you. I am not quite clear whether the Galana Scheme is attached to Kenya Game Department or not and who if anyone :is doing on your utilisation. I only hope your experiences and findings, administrative, financial and seientific, will be published in an available form. It could be of great help to us when we begin schemes in African areas. Yours sincerely, C.R. S A V RY. WILD RES EARCH OFFICER. CRS/A OS/C. For DIRECTOR OF WILD LIFE CONSERV ATION.

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" Telephone: 60425/6 Telegraphic Address: WILDLIFE. Salisbury P.O. B O X 83 6 5 C -A USE WAY; SAL I S BUR Y. S. RHO DES I A Ref. No ref written in the field. Ian Parker Esq., P .O '.Box 861, Nakuru. Kenya. Dear It Thankyou very much indeed for sending me a copy of the work on your Galana scheme. I have just been dOlin in the southern lowveld running a short training.course on wildlife management for our chaps in the area' and we finnished upx at Peter Johnstones camp where I saw the copy you sent him and found time to read it briefly. I had intended borrowing it frGm him when this one arrived. I have not gone into detail yet but I was impressed with your philosophy and am sure you are on the right lines. Arcgie M ossman when he carne back from the Nairobi conference last month was telling me something of the scheme and also something of the difficulties under which you are having to work. In 1957 I had to struggle against the same difficulties from the same basic'sourse so you have my full sympathies. Our game utilisation is increasing almost daily as one ranch after another starts up now. Resistence to game ranching from game p echple is now fairly low as most-see the necessity for ii but now the troubles are competition with beef producers, and fast looming is the problem of acute shortage of staff with sound training in ecology and game management. I worry about this a great deal as it is a need facing most countries in Africa and the full significance has not yet really hit home to people as I am sure many of them feel that we can employ biologists and this will suffice. For many years we had some very good biologists in the Central & East African .e Departments and yet ,Te never got moving on game management until we had ecologists get moving and some of the strongest resistence to advance came from the biologists. I have great hopes that Mossman's course at this university will help us out as not only has he the knowledge and the ability but he is a thinker and practical and he has been involved in the everyday field problems 'l'Ti th us. Once again amny thanks for sending the report. Yours sincerely, C.R.Savory.

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BUFFALO RANJGE TELEPHONE: TRIANGLE 21 TELEGRAMS: STYLE I.S.C. Parker Esq., Galana Game Management Scheme, P. O VOl, Kenya. Dear Mr. Parker, RANGE SOUTHER N RHODESI A Sunday, 2nd. June, 1963 Thank you very much for your letter of the 10th. May, 1963. I must apologise for the delay in replying but I have been unable, for one reason and another, to get down to correspondence until to-day. B ,uffalo Range was a Crown 1e.nd ranch allotted to me in November, 1952, and i s 53,448 acres in extent, bounded on the Eastern side by a nine mileriver frontage of the Chiredzi River, which normally runs throughout the year, but carries large ,pools of water occupied by hippo even when the river stops flOwing after a very long dry season. It is along this front that we have set aside 2 0 ,000 acres as a game ranch. The only cattle in the game section are about 30 head which are kept as a milk ... herd near the homestead. We run over 2,000 head of cattle on the balance of the ranch and on hired graaing next door. last year we had to allow the cattle manager to move i nto the game section owing to a shortage of grazing after an exceptionally long dry season, but it is our intention to keep the cattle out ccmpletely as much as possible. The cattle run in nine or ten completed paddocks and soma are kraaled at night. Most of the game is along the river8front, the game section being on an average 3 to 4 miles deep. At the same time there is lots of game in the catt le section where we do a amount of cropping, the impala in particular being found allover the ranch These impala are the mainstay of our game ranching and the Department of Wild ldfe Conservation have allowed us 1,000 on our permit this year. For my first eight years here I built up the impa la population by cropping for boyst rations the rams only, no more than a maximum of 50 does being cropped during that period.

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, I will try to answer a few of your questions. First of all, I like to keep the catt 18 out of the game section becauae with cattle brought in it is always and the becomes eroded. The hippo heavily graze the river ... front in certain areas, so much so, that we have been given 10 on our permit this year. Cattle had badly over'" grazed 'the river area before we took over the ranch, causing bush encroach ... mente As our stocking rate for cattle down here is only one beast to twenty acres, you can see why we are leasing grazing SO as to keep the cattle out of the game section. Apart from the over-stocking point of view it is not necessary to separate the cattle from the game. the latter simply moving away as the cattle come in. On the other hand, having cattle in a game area i s considered quite a good thing from the foot and mouth point of view, as it is felt that if the game are carrying foot and mouth disease, the cattle would contract it from the game and it would be picked up on our fortnightly inspection of cattle. Last year we had foot and mouth disease on the ranch among 300 head of cattle in the game section, and I thought that would be the end of my venture. After two weeks of worry, it was proved conclusively that the disease was brought on to the ranch by a flock of sheep that had been purchased from the neighbouring Hippo Valley Estate. The sheep failed to react when inoculated, and one or two carried lesions. They had contacted cattle from across the Lundi River where the disease was raging. I shot several buck at this time in an endeavour to find the disease among them, but failed to do so. W e feel that, perhaps, the game is often wrongly blamed for carrying and harbouring the disease. We isolated the 300 head of cattle in a paddock containing gal!le and bordering on a neighbour. The neighbour's cattle did not contract the disease, and nor did the 1,400 head we had moved to the top half of the ranch and which had not contacted the di sea sed 300 head e Some of the poorest grazing area comes into the game section, and is well stocked with game. At the same time, we also have some of the best grazing i n this section. I am sorry that I ea'Mot yet quote you accurate figures as to costs etc., but I have done sufficient game ranching realize that there is 11 jolly good living to be made out of it. I am posting you a Farmers' Weekly of the 13th. February in which our venture is written up. The costs were given to the reporter by a son, and are far too high. In future we are going to keep accurate figures and records. Mr. Larry Roberts, who has met you, has come to help me, and has promisee to write to you. In the past I have been too busy on my om to keep all figures. We have been flying impala carcasses to Salisbury three times a week by Rhodesian Air Services. The la.st consignment was 14 carcasses by Dakota. Now the Rhodesia National Farmers' Union are worried .lest foot and mouth disease be carried up to the tobacco and maize area and affects the export of our tobacco, maize and cattle or rather beet. I ha.ve been asked" in the national interest' to stop the export and a committee has been appointed to go into the Apparently the virus can be carried in the marrow of the bones, but surely the. same applies to cattle?

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3. If I had my own way I would certainly abandon cattle altogether in favour of game as a means of land use, as I have always been interested in game, and game ranching is the best means of game preservation, while there is no doubt as to the economic possibilities. If you have not got a copy I will obtain one and post you Dr. Mossman t s It HANDBOOK ON GAME RANCHING IN SOUTHERN RHODESIA". He and Dr. Dassman were two Fulbright research scholars who came out from the U.S.A. at the invitation of our Museum, 'and studied game ranching .. and instituted it on Messrs. Henderson Bros. ranches in the Gwanda District. That was in 1960. We commenced operations in April, 1961. On the whole, our populations are pretty static, especially the 'impala, which, in the dry weather, move backwards and forwards on the river front. This is not fenced. sides of the ranch have just the normal fence, and kudu, eland and impala do move to a certain extent as they jump the fence. The wildebeest are static, as are the zebra. They very soon got to know the fences and do not go through or jump them. The sabla seem to move to a certain extent and go under the fences, getting down on their knees on occasions, although I would say that one the whole they are pretty static. Duiker, grysbok and bushbuck seem, on the whole, static. Wildebeest carry "snotsiekte", but we have had no deaths from this among our cattle', in the ten years I have been here. It is a fatal disease as you know, and I do know ranchers dowm at Nuanetsi who have lost 80 and 60 head of cattle respectively, from the disease. This would be one reason for keeping cattle out of the game The movement of game we do, not find a major drawback. With the vast development taking place on two sides of me, Hippo Valley Estate on the South, and Triangle Sugar Estate on the West, it probably is to our advantage. We have no proof here of disease being carried by the game to the ta cattle, and although I have seen lots of foot and mouth disease I personally have never seen game with it, though of course I know game contracts it as do the cattle. For ten years I was a Dip Supervisor in a Native Reserve and dealt a lot with F. M. disease from the. time we had the first outbreak in 1931. I also did a lot of shooting and, as I say, never personally found it in game. It was found in impala and kudu in the Nuanetsi area that time. Your last question is a tricky one, and I would like to answer it fairly. We have a tobacco export crop of 000, 000, a maize export of about ,000,000, and a growing beef export. If the disease were carried up to the area producing these exports, the position would be disastrous. Hence apparently the present worry of our R.N.F.U. We would naturally, as game ranchers, like the Veterinary Department to work for us as well as the cattle industry. I have suggested they inspect all our game carcasses complete with legs and heads, in our cold rooms. The question is, is there not a very great risk of also leaving these supposed endemic areas? Last year a fortnightly inspection of cattle was missed on Hippo Valley, during which time the cattle appear/ad to have had the disease and recoveredl

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I do feel thet we game ranchers could be of inestimable help to research workers on diseases and to veterinary research, with the large number of ani!W.le channelled through us. Now I feel I've earned a sundowner, and am off to have one with Larry. If there is anything else we can tell you, do not hesitate to write. We will be only too pleased to tell you what we can. Regards, Yours sincerely,'

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BUFFALO RANGE (PRIVATE) LIMITED DIRECTORS: G C STYLE E STYLE R E STYLE C S STYLE P NIMMO ( A L T.) D E Q CAWOOD (ALT.) P. O. BUFFALO RANGE S RHODESIA I.S.C. Parker Esq., Galana Game Management S cheme, P.O. VOl, Kenya. Dear Mr. Parker, TELEGRAMS: BUFFALO RANGE TELEPHONES: OFFICE } STORE BUTCHERY RANCH MANAGER SUGAR SECTION GAME SECTION TRIANGLE 21 ZAKA 0-0223 TRIANGLE 0-2003 ZAKA 0-0203 11th. October, 1963. Many thanks indeed for your report on the Galana Game Management S cheme, April, 1900 -June, 1963, received yesterday. I am most interested in the report and very grateful for the copy. W e are getting on famously here and now have good markets for everything. To-day I am leaving for Mombasa where I am taking my wife for a short holiday. On my return I will try and get down to writing a report of our little effort from the day we started, and include photographs, and will certainly send you a copy. I think I told you in a previous letter that Larry Roberts is helping me here. I believe you knew each other in Kenya. Once again, my very sincere thanks. With kind regards, Yours (G.C.