Citation
Ian Parker Collection of East African Wildlife Conservation: The Ivory Trade

Material Information

Title:
Ian Parker Collection of East African Wildlife Conservation: The Ivory Trade
Creator:
Parker, Ian.S.C.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Folder 14
Physical Description:
t.ypescript report plastic spiral bound

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ivory Trade
Africia wildlife

Notes

Abstract:
"A consultancy undertaken for Dr. Iain Douglas-Hamilton on behalf of the united states fish and wildlife service of the department of the interior, and the international union for the conservation of nature and natural resources, Morge, Switzerland."
General Note:
The Ivory Trade which consists of the commerce in ivory, biological aspects, discussions and recommendations and tables.
General Note:
Ian Parker Collection Re: East African Wildlife Conservation.
General Note:
Box 17: Galana Game Management Scheme (Part 2 of 3) with maps, notes, table cc.s, cc. correspondence, transcript, manuscript memos, docs, accounts.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the African Studies Curator (danrebo@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.

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/ (k) The lessee woula be permitted to capture and sell live anim4s
/ to approved zoos and scientific institutions subject to the
complying with existing laws and regulations applying to that
trade.

(1) The Game Department would maintain an adequate force of Game
Guards on the lessees land subject to the lessee reimbursing
Government with the cost of their salaries and maintenance.

Yours sincerely,




I, R. Gr ood
CHIEF GAME WARDEN

Copies to: Sir Wilfred Havelock.
c/o B. Russell Esq.,
Agriculture House,
NAIROBI.

J. Peberdy, Esq.,
Range Management Section,
Department of Agriculture.
NAIROBI.





c/O the Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Natural Resources,
'Walpole St.,
/ Freetwun. Sierra Leone.

/De a al ,/ 15th March j, j


Dear Ian,
As I was sort stuff ready to tae 'with me I c a rqss your
letter dated 9th January aj realized that had never replied. Do please
accept my apologies. I brought it with me o0 this trip as a priority
letter to write.
I am out on my own this time and feel much happier about this. Riney
is staying behind in Switzeralnd to work up the Handbook, I am glad that
you turned his list visit to such good See but note that he has served his
purpose and that you do not wish a repeat performance. I don't blame you.
With such a challenging project which we have I am loathe to say this but
will be glad when the end of the year comes and the project ends, at least
insofaras present arrangements are concerned and we will go our own ways.
I will be interested to see what he does as I certainly am quite convinced
that he will never work in a team for long. I reckon I am a fairly
easy going bloke but I just can't get on with him at all and I am
wondering whether he could really get on with anyone with whom he was
obliged to associate closely. He is not terribly popular in SR. So be it,
its a pity as he is very able in so many ways and works very hard.
I have no further information re heat treatment of 'dried meat. I
left this with Phil Glover and Dr Russell and although I have written once
or twice, I have no information to date. This is a pity as, if the answer
is not known, I would have though that the laboratory side of things would
not be too difficult. It would certainly be a good thing if this point
could be sorted out in time for the IUCN general assembly due to be held
in Nairobi in September this year. I shall keep nagging away at it
I was surprised to note the contents of your first para. I would have
thought that Ian would be watching Galana like a hawk as, in my opinion,
there simply cannot be too much interest, assistance and effort of all kinds
put into schemes of this kind. Their success or otherwise will be important
factoOs for moulding the furtnwe of wildlife irL. Africa. I agree with you
that other than in very special cases private enterprise is the answer; this
has been proved time and time again. I would be very interested in anyb
developemnts in the direction you indicate. The rather specialized game
product is a rather particular type of egg just now and the cattle egg would
logically make the basket more secure. I know full well what you mean by
the ultra purist conservationist. When discussing wildlife in general with
a certain gentleman for whom I have the geratest respect and admiration, a
few weeks ago he said, 'the, trouble with FAO is that it is really only
concerned with man's belly; our aims are rather higher than this.' I
pointed out to him that I was convinced that one of the main ways of achievin
g these lofty aims probably was via man's belly and in fact without this
approach we may remain in the realm of idealism instead of realism and lose











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many faults but I believe his heart is in the right place and he has done much
good work. Will you be attending the IUCN General Assembly in September next? T hope
so as I would certainly value daredt contact with you agamn.
B I must get on now. Please excuse my bad typing but it is not all that easy
for an amateur like myself in a climate such as this. I have lOdays gruellino- time
in the bush in front of me before leaving for Ghana and. then Dahomey and Congo (Brazz)
If you do write, please use my home address which is 'La Perrette, Pursins. Vaud. ai
Switzerland' as you did last time, for obvious reasons and do let me knowv if ther '
is anything in which you ma~y feel I may be of assistance. I am giving a public
showing of a series of colour slides I have brought with me. Utilization will feature
and will include your set-up of which J have several good ones.
Please give my kind regards to your wife.
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UNION INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL UNION
POUR LA CONSERVATION DE LA NATURE FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
ET DE SES RESOURCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Banque: Union de Banques Suisses, Vevey (Vd) van:--k :nion Bank of Switzerland, Vevey (Vd)
Ch. post. II 22605 Lausanne / Post. ch. II 22zz6o5 Lausanne
S(o021) 71 44 22 / (o021) 71 44 22

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Dear Ian, \ / / "'
awaited~~t me on myreurnfogtehore
\. : ...**'
It was very good of you indeed to havewitten to me at length. Yor letter
awaited me on my return from the former French Congo las W/Eo
First of all do please let me know your leave address in Nairobi as we must
at least meet for a good talk whilst the General Assembly is on. As a farmer I am
afavid I find that few of the punditry group with which I am mainly in contact have
their feet anywhere near the ground in any respect. Some manage one leg, but then
they/mi/ are often diverted by having the other one cocked up like a dog having a
leak. Your letter clearly indicates that our approach is basically the same and thus
whilst I do not believe there is an easy royal road towards anything but small
scale game utilization, at present, a constant exchange ibf ideas between people who
have adequate knowledge of all aspects is profitable. I comment on the points you
raise seriatim.
Your second para. I quite agree with the point you mkke. Private enterprise still
operates in a large scale in West Africa where political instability is as great as
ever, or even more so. It is not very difficult to obtain Govt. participation in
any worth while project and once security is achieved, the worst hurdle is passed. I
met the managing director of a large French cattle enterprise with expanding interests
in Gabon and the Fr.Congo the other day. They introduced the N Dama breed into these
areas from the Ivory Coast some years ago and have now built up a herd of over 7,00O
in the Congo alone. They have been compelled to allow Govt. to participate on a sort
of sleeping partner basis but they are fairly happy about the way things are shaping
and are at least able to plan on a long term basis. Your answer might be- that's all
right for a country with a Govt.
What is the land tenure situation in the aeea you mention? I am a bit nervous
about development of permanent water points unless these can be carefully regulated.
Whilst this is possible with boreholes for any animals, one cannot control wild animals
around dams. X 20 acre/domestic livestock unit land cannot stand much dvc in the
way of water development cost s. But satisfy ecological requirements and I feel it
will stretch your economicalmost to breaking point. At any rate it would need careful
investigation. Afa,
With the experience of many groundnut I (actual and type) gxxiH schemes
both for crops and livestock, I would certainly support your view that, with the
rainfall you indicate, supplementary irrigation would be a prerequisite for crop
husbandry and even then, success would depend on many other factors. I was delighted
to find that an area I looked at in the French Congo in 1951, with high rainfall (60"),
but poor soils, is derived savanna, carried a groundnut scheme, involving crops and
livestock; It started in 194.9 and folded up in 1955. You can believe it or not but
this huge area which is about 200 miles by 100 is almost devoid of people and if we
proposed game utilization, there would be no opposition! Its an interesting problem
as savanna has developed within high forest and high forest still exists in wide
belts to the north and south. The only game spp. are those of forest and hence
they are not getting on too well. But we might introduce if we can find something i
suitable.
Turning to meat, you say that existing game stocks could produce -- million lb
usable meat p.a. This would amount roughly to about 1- million lb on the hoof or a
biomass$of 4001b/sq.mile. You then mention a figure for, presumably, part of the aeea
at 20 acres /beast. Assuming that your average beast liveweight is 5001b, the cattle
biomass would amount to 16,0001b /sgomile. How do you account for these differences
in estimate?Either actual game stocks -re well bK1=xsemiim&t above your estimate or
populations are ,in fact, low and if so why. The point is that land which can carry
16,000 lb/sq.mile of cattle, with water, can carry 2 to 5 times that amount of game
with/ ehe spp. you have- of that I am certain. Again, 1 OOO from 300pso milgs is,
about bd. /acre You would certainly be safe on That estimate even on I" rana
would say. On the other hand, assuming that a beast takes 5 years to mature, your





2.
estimate for cattle use would produce 4/- per cacre, that is assuming that a mature
bullock is worth about 20.

Your point re infant mortality of elephant is interesting- nice biological control
for present conditions. There would be a case for water devt. for elephant, which can
travel so far.
I agree that there is a world market for protein, even as there is an even greater
demand. The limiting ft factors are a) lack of purchasing power b) traditional tastes
which do not change easily or qic ly. TXzisaxexpB2a iiztaxszE c) religious taboos
and d) disease. I tackled Neil Reid of FAO again only 10 days ago and he still seems
adamant that meat produced in Africa should be used in Africa and that this process
will evolve gradually on a village industry basis. This will in turn set up V slow
chain reaction sociological changes which will demand higher standard of living etc etc.
I can agree with him only so far. As a vet, of course, he is biased more towards
sickness of animal rather than land. My contention is that Africa other than
locallyBai^ over vaste area o gpelessly overloaded with protein or a vraiety
of reasons is not used .This in itself is bad enough iu w s even worse is that in
the process of subsidized, uncontrolled or other build up of animal populations (with
game, often as a result of other land-use)land is depleted beyond repair. In such
circumstances, off-loading meat wherever a market exists can only be right,
provided that at least revenue or part thereof returns to the source of supply in
Thich form it can be converted to raise living standards by any means deemed suitable.
I keep on pointing this out to FAO and other organizations including UNICEF, in
which organisation my brother holds a key post. He spends much of his time in India
and other Asian countries. Do write to him in a personal capacity if you wish; his
address is R.A.Hill,giik Apto3e, 20, Beekman Place, New York 22. NY. USAPeople
can do nothin- without ammunition and though he has indicated he can little at present
one never knows. iiost of the protein subsidies dished out to these countries is
factory prAared in count-ies like the US where protein surpluses occur. I am sure
we have got to aim at an exportable product which can compete with anything else
and I don't think that canning is the answer as it is expensive and difficult to
achieve inder field conditions. Some other sterilising process must be found and
I return to sun dryin- + heat treatment, In spite of repeated enquiries I have been
unable to obtain any advice or information on this matter. I might have a go at
Nestles along the lake here in the next few weeks and see if I can get anything out
of them or if not, try to get them to/ conduct some tests
I must awaybnow and lookmforward to receiving further comments from you in
due course. Please excuse my bad typing. I like to do letters such as this myself-
there are too many snoppers around here.' With kind regards to C ristine & yourself
and- keep smiling and battling. I spent the last ASP trip in West Africa on my
own and it was rather more pleasant.

yours ever,



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LAKE VICTORIA HOTEL\ ^ -
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Telephone:- I 0 B
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UNION INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL UNION
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ET DE SES RESOURCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES

T616gramme: UNICORN, Mor P) (021) 714422

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CONFIDENTIAL
COLLEGE OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, MWEKA
TELEPHONE P.O. BOX 793
KIB OSHO 18 P.O. BOX 793 ... .
---- W; ,MOSHI
TELEGRAMS TANGANYIKA
"GAMESCHOOLL TANGANYIKA

WLS/CONF/1 22nd October, 1965.




I. Parker Esq., /
c/o A.H. Liowat, F.R.C.S.E., / \
P.O. Box 861, /
NAKURU,
Kenya.


Dear Ian,
Thank you very much for your letter of 6th October. We
recently returned from a long safari and I am sorry that you
have waited so long for an answer.
The position about the job I mentioned to you is that I
have been asked to look around for suitable people who might
be able to take up posts on the staff at iiweka and to make a
preliminary approach to them. We are still waiting to know
whether funds can be found to pay such people but I think it
likely that they can. I am not yet in a position to offer
you a post here but can only try to find out from you what the
chances are of your being available and on that basis send your
S name in1the people who would probably finance the post (an
American foundation or the U.N. Special Fund perhaps).
As regards the salary, nothing can be decided about that yet.
It would depend to a great extent on the age, experience, and
qualifications of the candidate and would presumably be related
to his present salary, but would include a reasonable extra
sum for inducement. If I were to make a guess a starting salary
for someone in your position it would be of the order of 1200 -
1500.
It is not essential for you to make a positive reply yet.
Indeed, you could not be expected to give one on the very slender
information I have given you. However, It would help me if
I could have your reactions to my suggestion of a Kb salary
level and tell me what you are now getting. I would also need
to know your age, experience in the Kenya Game Department, any
academic qualifications, and anything else which you think would
be helpful. This would be treated as confidential but it would
help mB to guide me in my recommendations to the Aiericans. If
your st salary is low now (i.e. local terms) I would certainly







want to see you get more.


Please give my regards to your wife. I have very pleasant
memories of my short visit to you on the Galana Risrt.


Yours sincerely,




Hugh Lamprey. ..


Principal.
C.A.W. M.




-^----*1 ^






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THE OLD EAST AFRICAN TRADING COMPANY. LTD


ASSOCIATED WITH:
THE EAST ASIATIC COMPANY, LTD.
COPENHAGEN
TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS: BROCHE
STELEPHONEt 0901


MOMBASA,
Kenya
P.O. BOX 2010


November 15th, 1957


J. Parker, Esq.
Game Warden,
KILIFT


Dear Sir,

We confi' ou
this week and have
following prices for -


ersation with you earlier
to advise that we offer the


Suspension-dried Buffalo Hides:


FIRSTS


- 80 cents per lb.


SECONDS 50 cents per lb.
THIRDS 25 cents per lb.


Wet Salted Crocodiles:


Measurments


25"
20"
15"
12"
9"
6"


& Over
- 24i"
- 191"
- 141"

-8i"


Grade I Grade II Measurements


8.25
7.50
6.75
6.50
4.50
3.25


6.00
5.00
4.50
4.50
3.50
2.00


25" & Over
20" 24j"
15" 191"
6" 4i"


Thirds & all kinds
2.00 of buttons.
1.75
1.50
1.00


faithfully,


WSH/sf


DIRECTORS: K. W. KNUDSEN A. BRONDAL
(DANISH) (MANAGING) (DANISH)
P. 0. RASMUSSEN
(DANISH)


W. S. HARPUR W. J. C. LOESL M. PAC4H
(BRITISH CZECH ORIGIN) (DANISH)
H. G. RUDE H. STRAUSS
(DANISH) (BRITISH AUSTRIAN. ORIGIN)


t8


J. POLLAK
(BRITISH CZECH ORIGIN)





P. ZIMMERMANN.
CABLES: ZIMTAX, NAIROBI
BANKERS: BARCLAYS BANK D.C.O.
PHONE 80251
P.O. BOX2127 NAIROBI KENYACOLONY
YOUR REF.
OUR REF. PZ/MW/53740 22nd. October 1957.
OUR REF.

J.Parker Esq..,
Game Warden, ..
Game Dept.
P.O.Box 54,
KILIFI.


Dear Sir,

SMany thinks for your letter Oof the 3rd.Oct. Please forgive
me for not answering immediately, out things have been very busy
S these past weeks with Safaris.

Regarding your offer for for animal, heads,feet, aid head
skins. I will be only too willing to purchase any froai you if
they are as you state, salted very well and also shade dried.
I an always getting asked for head/skins etc., so if you could
send me a few samples, I could then give you an offer. You will
appreciate that it is difficult for me to estimates unless I do
see the condition of the hide, as well as the way that they have
been cut etc., you must realise that I would only require. them
for mounting, therefore, the lips, and ears, must be skinned out
very well.
Should you ever be down in iai:obi, maybe you could ring me
up, and then we could talk about things.
A Awaiting your reply at your convenience, I am,

Yours faithfully,

SU44 ( secretary)
p.p. P. Zimmetmanno




MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND WATER RESOURCES


All correspondence should be EN DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES
addressed to "The Director of
Veienrnary Services" VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY
Parcels by rail: Kibera Siation P.O. KABETE
Telegrams: *Vetlab, Kabele"
Telephone: FORT SMrrH 231-2
In repl, please quole number ... .............. 25th. 'eb iruary 19.8.
and date ,,

Ref: BONES/1.W/196.

J. Parker, Esq., /
Game Warden, k /
KI=I.

RE: BONES

Immediately on my return from the Voi Show I contacted
the railway authorities regarding rates of freight for transport
of bones between Mariakani and Athi River. They quote Shs.57/-
per ton, provided the bones are despatched in truck loads (Class
9).

As mentioned to you we can offer Shs.180/- per ton for
the bones, delivered to Athi River, where they can be processed
by the mobile plant.

You stated you knew of several contractors willing
to transport the bones from the Game Reserve to Mariakani.
Without knowing their charges it is impossible to estimate how
much the collectors would be paid, and therefore before applying
to the Game Department for permission, I should appreciate if
you could obtain quotations.

May I say that I had the opportunity of discussing
your suggestion with the Provincial Commissioner, Coast Province,
during the Show, and. he assured me of his support.

As soon as I hear from you I will make the official
application to the Game Warden, Nairobi.





for DIRECTOR OF VETERINARY SERVICES.


IM/EJN




MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND WATER RESOURCES


All correspondence should be
addressed to the "Provincial
Veterinary Officer"
Telegrams: "PROVET", Mombasa
Telephone: 87260
When replying please quote
Ref. No ........... S.T.O K/2/16/270.
and date

I.Parker Esq.,
Game Warden,
Game Department,
P.O.Box 34,
KILIFI.


DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES
PROVINCIAL VETERINARY OFFICE
P.O. Box 92, MOMBASA


..... 12th....... May,..........19.59



^ )I ." -


GAME MANAGEMENT SALE OF ELEPHANT MEAT.


Permission is granted to bring one elephant
(dead) to the K.M.C., Mombasa for the purpose of
conversion into meat meal, bone meal etc.

The question of the mobile plant will be taken
up with Kabete and I will let you know their reaction.






ex/a." ?. 91'^-
VETERINARY 0fCtR IN CHARGE,
COAST PROVINCE.


Copy to:
The Kenya Meat Commission,
Mombasa.


CNL/BTM.






ljenya eieat eommiddion

Jeepteone fort Weitz 271
fetgeramd Bef ,.omnasa.

Iead Office: T. 0. Bo.x 2S2,
airei.


IISA/45

The Game Warden, (
Game Depart-.ent,
P.O. Box 34,
Kilifi.


P. 0. TBx 8226

9f e5(Maiupa 6aujewan,

X omgada.




21st i',1ay 1959


Dear Sir,
We are in receipt of your letter of the 18th ,r'ay 1959
regarding an eleThant carcass.
SWe have sent a copy of your letter to our Technicl
Controller in Nairobi and will be able to let you bve our
decision when we have heard from hi.rn.

Yours faithfully,
*| ~for I:-,:TrA -TT Ci..ION



B. KYrcmar
"' worksork s Tip.nager


*





Ienya J.ieat eommi6dion

OJeitepone Port Reitz 271
5Tetelrams 6Beef yiontdasa.

gMead Office: 1. 1. o %x 282,
airoti.


Ref.MSA/45


The Game Warden, .
Game Department,'
P.O.Box No. 341
KILIFI. /


Dear Sir,


. (9. 'Box 8226


(911 Maiupa eaudewau,

/Komtada.


8th June,1959.


vDhant a1rcass


Further to our letter of 21st May,1959, we have
now had a reply from our Head Office.
It is regretted we are not able to assist in this
matter as our Works here are too small and we have not
the equipment necessary.


Yours faithfully,
for KENYA MEAT COM SSION.
-7~e a


B.Krcmar,
Works Manager.


BK/GK


AL


7 /14





NORTHERN PROVINCE DISTRICT OFFICE,
Telegraphic Address: .
"POLITICAL, MOSHI" P.O. Box 109,
Telephone Nos.: Moshi 3 & 8 MOSHI

Ref. No .. ......19/16/129 ..... .... .. ..... .... Julyy .....


The Game Warden,
TVNGERU. /



The Game Warden of the Coast Province of Kenya
is instituting game management schemes in his area whereby
tribes in certain parts will be allowed to hunt a quota
of game animals. These will produce a supply of game meat
for which he wants to find a market and has suggested that
the Chagga might be interested. I have made enquiries
locally and it appears that the Chagga might be interested
in buying the meat of the softer-skinned animals for a low
price. Before going any further with this scheme I write
to ask whether you would approve of the sale of such game
meat in.oshi District in accordancd with section 56 of
Cap.502/ The Game Warden of the Cos Province estimates
that he will be able to deliver a lorry-load of meat each
week into this District. Most of the meat would be dried
but a small proportion of it would be fresh. I write to
ask, therefore, for your views and recommendations on
this matter.






DISTRICT COM16IONL.

/

Copy to: The Game Warden, kilifi, Coast Province, Kenya.]





NORTHERN PROVINCE DISTRICT OFFICE,
Telegraphic Address: 1
"POLITICAL, MOSHI" P.O. Box 109,
Telephone Nos.: Moshi 3 & 8 MOSHI
ef ... ...... ..... .................................... 3-r .. La y .. ........................... 19.5 .
Ref. INTO 9/16/1.0..u....,...1.9./9.5/.3




The 'aie Wa- en,
Kilifi,
coast Province,
fcnva.






Since .:.-.t .: you -. I have j.-.. enquiries
of the -!.,-' a butch as to ..i.rr ti.. are i-":-;.. 3tL..
"" in : ,:., g .- meat -- ou. hose vi _.) are -,J_)-_r.,'...::
are .W.t int- s- .. -... non-i-L_::.,: .'_w.-, who are seT.!1, -" in
..-. ,... ar-. L. c.:,.,,' also to be v,..;' -.-.. .fui about
..._'..l. in u is e. i have, :. --,ver, :..Lt one of
t.(A .-ro.. J.L.nt : front .c,.o Division who sayL he
o,,_ild L,- i..ter ---,^ i:. I'l.:.':_,. ;:';^.".*.. j.;.- t of tb-,-. folio, io,-
-.i.i ....l .----: t, "",r,.. Ga -l e, -iraffe.
te sD..-t .. that the ;"`ce he would be /i]?-ir," to "--.y would
be 40 cent, a -... or ie t .. 20 cents a lb. for
.t, L ,!.'-. ] woul. .- able to buy 2,000 1:... a -.
;.~~~ ,ti ..
:.,i' *i." >u.- down for it.

2, ,-s ,, i_ -, iro1 ,. enclo.cd cc.'.- of a letter
lch i :'.. snt to i .-. our l_ isolation
r C restricts t,. .-le of ....- at e:w.'ijt with t'., written
-i',..i sic.,. of t.- jaime < ..-.. and ,ie shall a..&it the
reply of t;.. i.. a,.-.:. c.. this ,. matter.





Telegraphic Address: "ASSOCIATED" Telephones:
Code: BENTLEY'S No. 2 NAKURU 2481, (6 Lines

THE KENYA FARMERS' ASSOCIATION (Co-operative) LIMITED


Head Office: P. 0. Box 35, NAKURU, Kenya Colony
6/M/670
IN REPLY REFER TO .......................................
Please address the Association and not an individual. 15th July, 1959.


Game Warden,
Game Department,

KILIFI.
P.O. Box 34


Dear Sir,

Dried Meat

SWe have for acknowledgment your letter of 8th
July and we thank you for giving us details of your
@ most interesting Game Management Scheme.

In the past we have had unfortunate experience
in handling dried meat, and it is now a matter of
policy that we do not stock this in our Branches, but
this does not preclude our placing orders for direct
supply to our Members.

In the first place we should like to see an
analysis of the dried meat which, we note, is mainly
elephant, and a quotation on a f.o.r. Mombasa basis
detailing the weight per bag. Provided the analysis
is suitable and the price competitive we should then
be pleased to advertise this and place orders with you
-" on receipt of fimnn orders from farmers.

*With regard to the stockfeed aspect of your
Scheme there are, as you probably know, certain diffi-
culties insofar as we, not unnaturally, will only sell
bonemeal or meatmeal provided it has a guaranteed protein
content which is acceptable to the consumer, and the
product must, of course, be doubly sterilised and guar-
anteed free from Anthrax, otlthough we are unsure
whether this would apply to elephant meat and bonemeal.





'7 :1 of all East African produce. Importers of farmers' requirements.
Kenya Branches: '. Hey- Karatina Kite enrich, Lumbwa. Lugari, Maragua, Monmasa, Mo'o.; N ku: Nairob,
Naivasha, Nanyuki, Nar M ru, Soik, Thomcsns T Managing Agents: Tanganyika Fares Assciatn Ld.
Branches: Arha. Iringa, Moshi. Oldeani. Uwemba.












Game Warden, Kilifi.


Probably your most satisfactory outlet for bulk
quantities would be to the Kenya Meat Commission and Express
Transport Ltd., in Nairobi, from whom at present we obtain
all our requirements of the two products.

We trust the foregoing information will be of benefit
to you and we look forward to receiving your further comments.

Yours faithfully,
THE KENYA FAIUMERS' ASSOCIATION (CO-OPERATIVE) LTDo


(D.L. Kendle-Coldwell)
Trading Manager.


-2-


15/July/59





From,
JAFFERAU LALJI
GAZI & GOGONI COCONUT ESTATES.
PLANTATION P.O. Box 732,
Phone GAZ 7.Box 732
OFFICE MOMBASA;
MOMBA^SA^ 3414 MOMBA A

AskL


Mombasa,.....? .:7 ......... 19 .... .
To,

I 7Q. r^ f^____


'^J0o' OF%. &A.4x i o."




PollcI-wb








I Messrso Splendid Stores,
P.O.Box 7215,
Mombasa. (Kenya)
V

dated: 20th July '59


J. Parker Esq., -
Game Warden,
Kilifi


Gentleman,
Re: Elephant hair Bracelets.

Your esteemed name has been introduced to us by Mr. Ikram Hassan who has
been very friendly with us and our brother Mr. Maru of Barclays bank Mombasa.

We want elephant hair bracelets for our shop which is situated on
Sheikh Juhdani Rbad. There are enquiries from tourists who visit our shop
and ask for elephant hair bracelets which is a Mombasa Souvenir.

We shall be glad if you will send us your pricelist together with a sample
of the same. If your price is favourable we shall be your permanent customer
to buy bracelets from you in wholesale quantity.
Mr. Ikram Hassan, has advised that we shall get the necessary permit from
you for bracelets which we shall bv from you and as such we shall be glad to
receive the same from o' in order to be safe and within the law.

Thanl-in7 you and in anticipation of an early reply,


We are,
Very Truly Yours,
For: S.LEN'.r) ST'INS

n /^^I ]







I i L I
1 !' 1 I NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CO.
.-' "----'~ '. ~FORT ATKINSON, WISCONSIN
TELEPHONE JORDAN 3-2446
/L. an PwUkeA.
Box 3q/ aVt maci
KUqiji, Kenya,
(acil A'dica
27, 1,5
DeaA, J2an:
Re.turmed t.o iAe .dla-ej laail. /ondcay., and fuw.i now gejUTin .to w/ieAe
-9 can e-t my dcejkI cleaned or3 and wAiLe a ew o0 you Wien TeJL ow'd
oveit in AIrVica.
-9 Aave done a JLLttle condacJ wo'A on zome o" tAe a.Leemw wALucA You
and -9 cd/Lc".ed and 6elieve .Aeh.e i4 aogina .o 6e a J.emendouw demand
toA Atem ele Tin tAths cowa ao .
W1(JI 6e looking foAwwvtd lto Aecejiving yoUA. 4ample- or 4ome os iAe
'4" and aLo any ilemn tAaL uou jeeJ you can get -iLcveda, 6ucA
aA ge}La puAwe-d, elephani bLAaceleJL, iALagye bAaceelA, eJ-c.
We are pJlanning lo eJlL Af.ke / acai e6onu waAe loo, and Adi would go
S along wJLA i- ,4 d ine.
* -9 enjoyed ve&A much JfAe vhJi widA uou and DenniA PalmeA'. Nexlt Jime
you 4ee Aim, five Aim my A.egaALs. Hope lo kea) 3Aom you doon.
Kind perAonal w uAe-j.
S~inceteJg,
NaoionaL ApAicuJwLaa SupplD Co.


eo W. Roejte
PA".eiderdL
LtiR: cmc
M1 SUPPLY HEADQUARTERS FOR VO-AG INSTRUCTORS AND AGRICULTURAL LEADERS










Ref: G. A. 22//Vol. 11/55.


Office of the District Commissioner,
Central Nyqnza, Kisumu.
12th August, 1959.


The Secretary,
Kisumi Chambers of Commerce,
KISUMU.

Dear Sir,

I forward herewith a copy of a letter dated 5.8.59
received from the Game Warden Kilifi which may be of
inte-rest to your members.
Yours faithfully,



^ .. .-o ,


fRGA/1O DISTRICT COMDISSIONEi ,
CENTRAL NYLiA,


Copy to: The Game Ymardern,
P.O. Box 34,
mILIFI,




BOAZ S iMU'--A
P. o. o,; 121
1v4 -.'RAGOL 1'


fTO 6^. 012 3





t J'
PIA FI
^ sir,
J(J~ rd ke- et(. ^






1^ +1\^ - V

/ /


Ar-e) MeaL!P
I -C~e iv %'-
s kaM b' -
C R {,,.
^fl'ljJ/J (y. M-t e.w,,.,


4f


58


I/





ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON)

0cCV% y ROYAL CO EGE STREET
W? // < LO [DON
TELEPHONE 0 LO DON
EUSTON 1 ECA/MW f 1.w.1


Department of Physiology. th August, 1959.

t P.W.M.Copeian Esq., M.A.,M.B.,B.Chir.,
Barnet General Hospital,
Wellhouse Lane,
Barne t.

Dear Dr.Copeman,
Many thanks for your very friendly
letter of 31st July, which reached me only last
Friday. I an most grateful to you for having
written and would be particularly interested to
get in touch with your friend in the Game
Department.
I shall be away until the second
week in September, but should like on my return
to meet you to discuss the matter more fully.
|
^~~~ Yorsierly,


E.C.Amoroso.

/ *.










TELEGRAMS AND CABLES: "DALGETY", NAIROBI
POSTAL ADDRESS: P.O. BOX 30345. NAIROBI
TELEPHONE: NO. 21281/5

DALGETY AND COMPANY LIMITED
INCORPORATEDD IN THE UNITED KINGDOM)

HAMILTON HOUSE
HEAD OFFICE,
6S.-6 LEADENHALL STREET NAIROBI
LONDON, E.C.3
AEA/JW Kenya Colony
REFERENCE NO.-

.---- 12th August 1959


,. I l
Game Department,
P.O. Box 34,
KILIFI.

Dear Sirs,

We refer to your letter of the 5th August addressed to
our Nakuru Branch, which has been passed here for attention.

We are precluded from handling dried meat and meat
products under our distributorship arrangements with the Veterinary
Department of Kenya but in your case it may be possible to work in
your products alongside theirs. To enable us to consider it further
would you please advise what kind of game you intend culling, whether
supplies will be available with any regularity and when you propose
starting, and on receipt of this information we will consider the
matter further.

Yours faithfully,
DALGETY AND COMPANY LIMITED




A. E.Alldritt
HEAD OF MERCHANDISE





Telegrams: "GAME", Nairobi GAME DEPARTMENT
Telephone. No. 20672-3 RP.O. Rem 211, NAIROBI
Rcf. No. GA. ..............' '


j 0' HQL^^,^q.^


P-0-~~"- 'o '^





(4 A ^ /^ ^^ yce/



fek~ 7e-e 6 ^^' 7~r~~ JA&c<^^ A^^^
e-7 7- -/ 7 A _






.^/ .2 ^^'^ ^ ^^^'
f



_T'--/.,.^. /^ / ^ ^ ^ f ^
t^i cc`7t
1AX-7

4>1

'Ati f-1


ox.











d/o District Commissioner's Office,
South Nyanza District,
P.O. Kisii.

12th August, 1959.

The Game VWardern, -
P.O. Box 34,
KILIFI. \

Dear Sir,

Re: DRIED MAT.
Reg.Your letter of 6/8/59


Very fortunately it has come to my notice that
you intend selling Dried Meat to Traders who would be
interested.

A am writing on behalf of my father who is a
trader and owns butchery. I should be grateful if
you would please let me know pArticulars of salesand
how delivery is to be done.

On receipt of this, I will endr-vocmr to arrange
with my father to place in MIs order for the quantity
he requires. My, father is of Cenritral Nyanza, Location
South Ugerya, Sub-Location Simenya, P.O. Box 18:, Yala.

As he is well conversant with the sort of trade
I hope you will be .kinrd enough to consider his application
in the light that he is in a better position and well
established as a fresh meat seller which will I think
move along rrothly with dried meat.

I am his Elder son and am working in the
District Commissioner's Office Kisii. I am prepared
to assist my father financially. )/


Yours faithfully,









Splendid Store,
P.O.Box 7215,
Mombasa.
llth August '59


I.C.S. Parker Esq., <
P.O.Box 34,/ i
Kilifi
(Kenya)

Gentleman,
Re: Elephant hair Bracelets.

acknowle,'-.e receipt of your letter of
4th inst For which we tVank yon.
As !.er Majesty's Warship is paying a short
visit to lomlbasa within a few days time we i,-ht
have enquiries ahout t'e eloveinentioned 1 rocelets
from the Navy personels and in order to kKKKxK
satisfy their needs we advise you to supply us
with the sane at the competitive prices.
fo start with we neood 50 bracelets and please
let us know what amoimt we should remit ',"'u tu
suver the cost plus postage.
It yoa are eoni-i to Momhasa, please see
us personally at ou'lr shop aL Sheikh Jundani Rd
op,,u.ite Regal Cinema, 3rd sliop from Mombasa
Hardware.
D'A i :ri 'F you ,id in anticipation of an early
eply.
"'W.e are,
Y ours faithbfully,
?or: SPLEjID SrO1ES.

j^-P^LP M.






THE
,^ ]ROYAL INSTITUTE OF IPUBLIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE
/ (INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER)
PATRON: HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN

LABORATORIES iLP
23. QUEEN SQUARE. LONDON, W.C.I. TELEPHONE:
LANGHAM 2731/2
TELEPHONE:
TERMINUS 4788/6206



SECRETARY, ABH/IC
V A. R. HORSHAM, F.C.'.S.

YOUR REFERENCE No. ; : 1
11h August, 1959.

*Dear Dr. Copeman,

Thank you very much for your letter, which
reached me on the 7th August.
I have since mentioned your enquiry to one
of the Members of Council, who has now referred it
for expert opinion to a pathologist.

I will keep you informed of anything which
now takes- place.

O Yours sincerely,




Secretary.



P.W.M. Copeman, Esq.,M.B.,B.Ch.,
Barnet General Hospital,
Wellhouse Lane,
Barnet, Herts.








ROYAL INSTITUTrE OF IPUBLXC HEALTH AmND HYGIENE
(INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER)
PATRON: HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN

LABORATORIES I : TELEPHONE
23, QUEEN SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.I. TELEHONE
LANGHAM 2731/2
TELEPHONE
TERMINUS 4788/6206



SECRETARY,
S A. R. HORSHAM. F.C.I.S.H/IC.I

YOUR REFERENCE NO.:
17th August, 1959.

Dear Dr. Copeman,

I am afraid that I am corresponding with the
Game 'WVarden, Mr. Ian Parker, through you, as he has not
in fact written to me recently, and I am not aware of
his address. ...-

/ I have been making some rather extensive
'Y enquiries and feel that, while you may consider that
( the enclosed reply is a little to the ppint, you will,
I think, appreciate that the Institute would not in any
way wish to undertake some sort of research work or
project which it could not successfully carry out.

Perhaps, therefore, you would be kind enough
to send a copy of this communication to Mr. Parker,and
ask him to let me have a fairly full reply to it. (I
enclose an extra copy for your own personal retention).

Please forgive me if this seems to have taken
some time to do, but I know that you will appreciate
that I want to be as helpful as possible from the
Institute's angle.
Yours sincerely,


---Sere t ary.
P.W.M. Copeman, Esq.,M.B.,B.Ch.,
Barnet General Hospital,
Wellhouse Lane,
Barnet, Herts.






64


COPY August 15, 1959.


Dear Mr. Horsham,
x x x x

I think this is primarily a matter of economics and
I consider the Game Warden should do some more thinking on
his problem. Thus, he must know -
1. Whether elephant meat is, or is not, eaten in Kenya.

2. Who sells it.
5. Who buys it, and
4. Whether there is a ready market for it, fresh or dried,
I(like Biltong in South Africa).

The question of handling the meat, fresh or dried, chilled
or frozen, is linked to the appeal, flavour and palatability, and
the economics of marketing, rather than to a page of laboratory
results giving the water content of selected cuts of the chilled
meat, the protein-nitrogen and total-fat content, as percentage
of the weight and dried weight, compared with similar values for
beef and mutton.

The question of how it compares as a food is to be answered
by existing practice; for even if the Itoratory values showed
results comparable to beef or mutton (and I have no reason to
believe the results will be very different), a certificate to
this effect from the Institute would not persuade people in Kenya
to eat elephant meat, or use elephant fat, if it had a flavour
they did not care for. Whale meat in this country is a strict
parallel
If, after thinking again, the Game Warden wishes the tests
made, we would require to have one-pound samples of sarlected cuts,
delivered by air-freight, chilled, so as to give reasonably accurate
results comparable wich similar llues for meat obtained fresh in
this country.
/ As regards the glands, Messrs. Burroughs Wellcome & Co.,
Euston Road, London, N.W.l. would, I believe, be interested in
the pancreas, Messrs. Evans Medical Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex,
Should be interested in the thyroid, and each of these firms would,
if written to, supply instructions :-s to how the glands were to be
delivered from the moment the animal was sacrificed, while Dr.
P.J. Randle, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cpmbridge,
would no doubt be interested in the pituitary gland.

x x x
Mr.A.R.Horsham,F.C.I.S.,
Secretary: The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene,
28, Portland Place, London, W.1.





Telephone: 9
HOP W0 Ext.: UY'S HOSPITAL,
R: PMFB/ST LONDON, S.E.1
Ref.: PMFB/8T
D. PC12th August 1959.
Dr. P. Copeman, -
Barnet General Hospit ,I '
Welhouse Lane,
BARNET, Herts. /

*Dear Peter,
Thank you for yr y interesting letter.

It seems to me that some useful purpose might be served by employ-
ing elephant glands in some way or another, although at the moment I
find it rather difficult to suggest anything myself.

I am glad you have written to Professor Amgroso as he might well
have a bright idea about this. The other two people who might be
interested in this are Sir Solly Zukerman, who is not only an endocrin-
ologist but also the Secretary of the Zoo, and Dr. A. S. Parkes and I
will mention this matter to them in due course.

Another line which might be worth exploring is the various
,/ Pharmaceutical firms that make hormone extracts. I lave friends in
on --vfwo or the-d-iug houses and I will discuss the matter with
them also in due course.

SWith kind regards,

Yours sincerely,


P M. F. Bishop -
~~P.. M. F. Bishop ---^
^> ~ ~ "',.K.V '*<.. *'* "A -







I L 1 1
L\ (\ ] I NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CO.
,~- .^ FORT ATKINSON, WISCONSIN
TELEPHONE JORDAN 3-2446
/A. Jan PankeL
P. O. Box 3q aa. moi.
KI#.l, Kenya Colony., (fai Atlca-

Oco6 6, 6 5? / ,

De9at Jan: 7 C-

-9-t wa46 good lo yel yoUA nice leJLe,/ S4ieln6eA.L 27i14 loa/ay, and
-9 can 6tAieJ-uy appAt~ciajie UyOUA digycutie-. -9 am Aopiny hkowe~ve~it
Aat you w il 6e adle lo dendI u" IAe collection o4 Ain anad
elepkanu air. a1aaceJeJb and ot- eA .item., a. .oon a4. pod4.i6l.e.
-9t mAihl 6e 6ebel to la6eJ ike package "commeAcial dample,6 o3' no
value ".

e-4., .we ate planrunin ano/Aet. xafa'i lo Kenya, peo6a64! duAny IAe
mordAh of 9anucvut and e'i.ucviy, i96i, and 9 am koping i/ad we can
*^ nave linp yoin o l l 41eca4on 6y lhal lime. SuAely. would enjfoy.
. 6ome 'Aooliny wihA you a ihal lime.

Kind peAronal wU.iAei.

SRnceae4,
National Aal cu.L .al Supply Co.


eo W. foeiae
PAjie'l.denI
LM: cmc

SUPPLY HEADQUARTERS FOR VO-AG INSTRUCTORS AND AGRICULTURAL LEADERS






P. ZIMMERMANN.
CABLES: ZIMTAX. NAIROBI
BANKERS: BARCLAYS BANK D.CO.


YOUR REF.
OUR REF.


...the ol
the fol


PHONE 80251
P.O.BOX2127 NAIROBI KENYACOLONY


19th. Cc tober,1959.


from --. Game i anl.a-e.ement Scheme


11
Ti
11
II
Ba'c


._:.rs :'..20/-
"i st.lO/-
-"ro-._t -eet 40
n~~7 .1 eu -
" "I 030
Joot 10
P--t t.-.t -_ t


. .... .. 140/-
20/
....* ." .: 20/-
/-..... *. 80/-
>/-..... ;. 10/-
30/- & 60/-

Total: '. 370/-


/-ti
rr"411 <.*
V .,, :2ali^


I'


e~

If
c~7~pA


CCs.
/(0


4 P/-







BUTTON MANUFACTURERS
LAKE SOLAI -, 't ,
KENYA Vs


Laj Farker Esq., 4-ee c U o.
wajl-ana River uame V-anacrement c
P .O .Voi r' \


Dear lan,
Thank you very in for your letter.l didn't know whatner I
had your address right or not,however it found you which is the main
thing.

I have beren thinking this whole thing overhand have come to
the conclusion the best thing I can do is come down and see you, on the
spot and work out the best and most economic way of collecting and
shelling the nuts on the spot .Once you have .ut the nuts on the rail
at Voi or Mac.Road the cost to Solai will be in the region of ./j
a bag.That means that landed at Solai they would cost me .o 16/) .I
know the Asian who is supplying me at the moment is getting them from
the Turkana at 7/.- a bs shelled,he then charges me lo/- abag to transport
them 190 miles on his lorry, 170 miles of which he does -tywaz em.ty.

As far as I can see there are two alternatives 3 You sell
them to us unshelled or 2) We send you down a set of saw machines
and you shell and slice them in which case we could a ord to pay you
somewhere in the region of -u/- a oa7.The sliceing in itself is not a
big job.But as the ratio id a.-roxarr-itely bags of nuts to 1 bag of
slices the saving in transpooA would be considerable.


I am free to come down more or less any time in the next






.DOIA. XALTD.

BUTTON MANUFACTURERS
LAKE SOLAI
KENYA


fortnight,I have a Land Rover came bea etc.,so if you could give me
a couple of ccn-secatie -It when ,ou are at home I will ui.j down
and see you.

I think this would be worth doinq as I am sore ve can work
o07t a wa .vherby,you make a good profit and I get the nuts cheeker
And also su.ort a -uropean and a good cause and not an siai.Lersonaly
the I lss ei 's to EoS -S!!.-171- A0sias t) Yar er i amI

Yours sincerely








ED MAGRUDER
OIL PROPERTIES
MIDLAND, TEXAS

527 MIDLAND TOWER May 5, 1962 MUTUAL 4-B7B1





Mr. lan Parker
c/o Tsavo National Park
Voi, Kenya

Dear Ian,

I I realise that there has been a long delay between my departure aid
this letter. However, I had to wait a long time for these maps to
be sent from Uncle Sam, it seems that the stock of these seldom or-
dered maps is kept in the Panama Canal Zone. Anyway, here they are
and I see that they are really as erroneous and incomplete as some
of the others I have seen.

Last week I saw our congressman from this district and will have to
make arrangements to go to Washington to have a long enough visit
with him to get any progress made in regard to the effort to import
some of your African animals to this country.

I am very serious about this and feel that one of the primary ways
in which they can be preserved is through importing them into this
country and putting some of them in some of our National Parks for
the purpose of exhibiting them to the public. Our Congressman is
the Chairman pf the House of Rerresentatives Committee on National
Parks and is in a position to help a great deal. One of the largest
and most suitable parks in the country from the standpoint of ter-
I rain, climate, vegetation, and remoteness is in his district and is
the Big Bend Park. This place would be perfect for almost all of the
plainsgame. I feel that they would breed and live under almost the
same conditions that they enjoy over there when they are released
in this park, which covers thousands of square milecof the Big Bend
country.

Day before yesterday I had a letter from the president of the Shikar
Safari Club who told me that he and a group of Californians have the
approval of the Department of Agriculture to set up a game refuge
for animals from Africa out there. I am going to put him in touch
with you if you think it will be feasible for you and the Game De-
partment to set up a program of capturing and shipping some qfthese
animals to us.

Ian, it was wonderful for me to have the opportunity of meeting and
being with you and Chris. I thoroughly enjoyed my stay on the Galana
with you. I know that your work is often frustrating and I admire
and appreciate your pluck in staying with it. Perhaps if we can set
up this scheme to buy some of your animals from you, it can become
more rewarding for you. I would appreciate hearing from you in






-2-





regard to the above and I hope that you will be able to get the
Game Department to sanction a program such as this.

Please give Chris my regards and also little Susan.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,


Ed





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SWHY 5,000 ELEPHANTS MAY BE SLAUGHTERED
A A 'rLTrE of growing worry over
IA Africa's vanishing wildlife, game
* wardens in Kenya fear they may have
to shoot 5,000 elephants. This would be
the biggest such slaughter ever.
The reason, as reported by NBC cor-
respondent George Clay in a broad-
cast from Nairobi: An aerial count in
Southeast Kenya tallied 15,000 ele-
phants in 13,000 square miles-5,000
more than the area can support.
Each elephant. Mr. Clay pointed
out, eats a fifth of a ton of vegetation a '
day. If left alone, the 15,000 elephants '.'%t
will have eaten all the forage in the
area within a year. Then, not only the 9
elephants but other game will starve.
Came conservationists met in Nairo-
bi on September 14 to seek an alterna-
tive to slaughter, which they regard as
particularly tragic in light of predic-
tions the free-roaming African elephant KENYA ELEPHANT-There are 5,0
may disappear in a few decades, denude thenat#Pqsparks of vege


00 too many, and their appetites threaten to
station, starve both elephants and other animals
U. S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT, Sept. 24, 1962







TELEPHONE 55641



Ian Parker, Esq.,
c/o P.O. Box 861,
Nakuru,
Kenya, East Africa.



Dear Ian,


C'.
7100p-


kTMENT OF VETERINARY CLINICAL STUDIES
SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
_MINGLEY ROAD
CAMBRIDGE




29th Miay 1964. kD000
V
^- 4I00


Just a line to let you know I have discovered a
potential market for elephant biltong. The Greyhound Racing
Association kennels just north of London have about 500 dogs,
each of which consumes --lb meat per day, cooked, for 5 days
a week. At present they are feeding third quality whale meat,
which is costing them 1/2-d per lb. I discussed the elephant
idea with the veterinary surgeon in charge, Col. Coulden, and
he was keen to try a sample. I have also checked up on import
restrictions; there are none as far as I can see that ap.:ly to
elephant meat.

If you are interested, 1 suggest that you quote Coulden
a price per ton, and offer to send 100 lbs free, the G.R.A. to
pay freight charges they might pay air fare. You could
obviously compete very favourably on the above costings. The
address is: y

Col. L.W. Coulden, M.R.C.V.S.,.
* Greyhound Racing Associations Ltd.,
i-e Hook Kennels, A
Northaw, F) .'P
Potters Bar, or U
Middlesex.
to pss o toAlistair,
I will be sending you, to pass on to Alistair, a
manuscript of a paper I have just written with Buss on elephant
ovaries. I will also send a copy to Don Stewart. Could you
also pass the above gen. on to Don?


Best wishes,


\%




1 "


ED MAGRUDER
OIL PROPERTIES
MIDLAND, TEXAS

5Z7 MIDLAND TOWER September 19, 1962 MUTUAL 4-B781







Mr. lan Parker /
Galana Game Management Scheme /
P.O.
Voi, Kenya \ [

Dear Ian:

Some little time ago I was in California and visited with the
man about whom I told you earlier. He told me that he had met
lan Grimwood in Seattle, Washington when they were there to-
gether for a world conference of some sort conderning game.
*I believe that it would be profitable for you to mention this
to Grimwood with the end in view of exporting some of your
rarer animals to Mr. Maurice A. Machris, 550 South Flower, Los
Angeles 17, California. I have a letter from him concerning
the Arabian Oryx in which he took a great interest and appa-
rently discussed at length with Grimwood.

I heard some time ago from John Lawrence telling me of his
various trips to your part of the country recently. Today I
talked with Bobby Burns, he is apparently going to come over
there again in the near future to hunt with John again. You
must right at this time have some of my friends from this
part of the country there near ou Bill and Anne
Meeker and Bobby Fre a o Winninger. -

/Yxou will find aclipping from one of our most popular national
f magazines enclosed. It is not hard for me to guess where the l
t information comes from nor who.gathered it. Is the little ? ? I
plane still in good shppe? / 'c,, -- .,-L .-........ o -w-sy /

My plans o raise some of your game are still ra elous
since it appears that there is a great deal of red tape to be
cut along the way to getting approval to import wild animals.

Give my very best to Chris and little Susan. Let me hear from
you when you have time to write.

Sincerely,


Ed
'" Ed .iy *




'/








Wildlife Utilization Services
CONSULTANTS AND GAME RANCHERS (Pvt.) Ltd.
Directors: 4 W II Dr. A. S. Mossman t o4, cv* Tel. Add.: "GAME"



oou11i~IA fl:Eoe:A 117
U. C. R. N.
Dept. of Zoology
Private Bag 167 H
SALISBURY, S.R.
August 8, 1964

Ian Parker
c/o A. H. Mowa
SP.O. Box 861
SNAKURU, Kenya

Dear Ian,

Many thanks for your helpful letter of July 31st. I'm
writing to Grzimek and Glover as you suggest. I suspect I-K.now
who has been maligning the game ranchers. Hope Grzimek will be
able to tell where he got his information from. If anything is dn
writing we may be getting somewhere.
The shooting is going ahead with the Department of National
Parks and Wild Life Mgt. doing the dirty work. There is some
little hope that they may be able to introduce a little sanity
in spite of the pressures that will be put on them. Probably the;:
only assistance possible now will be moral support for the "Game"
Dept. to act for modifications in plans, and pressure that may even-
tually lead to abandonment of this method. The selected species
will be (they hope) exterminated over an area of 4,000 square miles.

* The Vets have been hammering me and W.U.S. but in spite of
this, we are now back in operation and should, we hope, be able to
accumulate a small financial backlog. Hope it will be sufficient
to weather their next attack. There is vi tunally no demand for
consultants here; at least not for the only people who can do the work
You might contact people in this country -- it is quite possible
that you could find consulting work here, and possibly in S. Africa
as well. At present we are solely a game ranching company. I'll
enclose a couple of things that may interest you. The fact that
we game ranch probably prevents some cansulting--I'm not sure this
is so however.
Peter Johnstone has retired as a director but is a major
share holder. Right now he is busy getting his leg operated on -
a job that has needed doing for 3 or 4 years now.

Your hippo data are darn interesting -- good job

Best regards,




Archie Mossman.

SUPPLIERS OF QUALITY GAME PRODUCTS, CONSULTANTS ON GAME AND VELD MANAGEMENT,
GAME RANCHING TECHNIQLOS, WILDLIFE POPULATION ASSESSMENT









University College of
Rhodesia & Nyasaland
Post Bag 167 H
Salisbury, S. Rhodesia

June 23, 1964




Ian Parker
P. 0. Box 861
c/o 4 H. Mowat, Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
NAKURU, Kenya /

Dear lan,

Many thanks indeed for your most interesting letter
of the 8th of June 1964, Your comments on the fate of the
Galana area are most interesting. It seems Griiwood has
found it difficult to change. As you know, somewhat similar
troubles shifted him out of N. Rhodesia. Where will he go
next?

I hope you, your wife, and Alistair Graham are able
to make a go of the wildlife research and management in
East Africa. It will be purely a case of people recognizing
the need for your services. Will you do just consulting type
work or are you actually planning to game ranch for people?
I'll send you what I can under separate cover. Forget the
costs and postage routine. I'll also try to give you a list
of references that may be useful and will include it with
this letter.,

The Veterinary people together with A least the
Secretary for Agriculture here are using the spectre of
tsetse fly advance to achieve certain ends. At the February
14th meeting of the Game Ranchers Association on Buffalo
Range, the Director of Veterinary Services, Mr. T. Lees May
stated the Veterinary Department a proposals for control of
tsetse fly when asked about the rumours that were flying
about. He shocked almost all of us with his statements,
including his statement that they proposed to exterminate
all bushbuck, warthog, kudu, bush pig, elephant and buffalo
from the Gbna-re-Zhou game reserve, and the same over vast
stretches, of Southern Rhodesia. The Game Ranchers Association
combatted this and I, as secretary, did much of the work.
The Vets and related Agriculture people, including almost
certainly the Sect'y for Agriculture, Charles E. Murray, have
adopted a policy of getting me personally and of getting
the game ranchers too, but especially the company of which
I am a director. Their approach has been and continues to be
one of discrediting us as wanton slaughterers for private
profit. They also make things especially difficult for my
company in other ways.

I had not realized that they had got quite as far
afield as Kenya, but it does not surprise.me. It would be
most useful if we could learn how the rumours you mention
arrived in Kenya.
Since contacting people overseas on behalf of the
Game Ranchers Association (I agreed with this approach under
the circumstances) I have been taken to task by several elected
members of government and by the new Secty for Lan& and






Natural Resources. Their approach is that this sullys the
image of S. Rhodesia and that it is none of their business
anyway although that latter is implied and not said. They
have made promises of opposition to unreasonable slaughter
too, which is good of them. We have been waiting for some
sort of clear statement or evidence of what is going to be
done before calling for further help. The time is probably
very near. They have promised to contact us before going
ahead and so far have not done so.

The most we have said is that if it can be clearly
shown to our satisfaction that game shooting corridors of
reasonable width and length must be established to protect
existing enterprises, we will back them in doing this.
This I think is a reasonable approach. However, a reasonable
approach is the last thing they appear to want, because their
true aims seem to have little or nothing to do with tsetse
fly as far as I can make out. We have never said that we
recommend a policy of wild life extermination as a method
of tsetse control. By the way, the E. Afrixan Wildflie foc,
wouldn't support us because of the political implications.

Africa has some very unlovely personalities to
balance with the nice ones. Sometimes I think the unlovely
ones are the most common. Certainly most will put up with
almost anything to avoid a scrap for a good cause when they
see that they may personally loose in the process. In a
way I suppose that is just good sense, but it surely doesn't
favor good government and good conservation. At the moment
we are "hanging tough" to see what will actually happen.
-The game people are supposed to do the shooting which will
almost certainly go ahead. In a public statement Dr. Cockbill
the other night, said they would shoot in an area of 4,000
square miles. I doubt that we will consider these to be of
"reasonable width and length".

If you can find out how those rumours got going
in Kenya I'd be very much obliged.

Hope all will go well for you. Please give our
regards to your wife.

Sincerely yours,




Archie S. Mossman


asm/mlm





IAN PARKER




I. recommend strip counts (in a vehicle, on a bicycle,
on foot, on horseback or some other) for brushy country.
In bush country, a standard predetermined strip width is
unrealistic in my estimation. All animals of the species
are not seen within the strip calculated for each species.
Hence, the arguments of Davis in Manual of Wildlife Investi-
gational Techniques are invalid. You can prove this to your
own satisfaction by comparing results with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
observers per vehicle. You will find that the more observers,
assuming they don't talk, the more animals seen and the
higher the calculated population. We were also able to
check against a known population in similar conditions. The
method grossly underestimates small buck such as duiker and
steenbtck.

In your area, it would pay to attempt a standardization
of spoor counts against known populations or at least against
some other census techniques. Savory has been using spoor
counts in this country, I think with reasonable success where
only rough estimates are required. And this has always been
the case where he has used the technique.

In America, much reliance is put on percentage use
estimates of key forage species and game takes are related
to need for more or less grazing pressure. Past history of
known kills allows one to increase or decrease the kill as
necessary even though never actually knowing the numbers of
animals present. One would prefer to know the number of
animals, but it isn't really essential for relatively rough
management. Where one wants to take a maximum permissible
yield I'm afraid we'll have to know how many animals we'll
be dealing with.

Some references (list not very selective) that may be
of use follow--ours first, reprints exhausted on most.

Dasmann, Raymond F. and Archie S. Mossman. 1960. The economic
value of Rhodesian game. The Rhabsian Farmer, April 15,
1960.
1961. Commercial use of game animals on a
Rhodesian ranch. Wild Life (now Africana & E. Af. Wildlife
Journal) 3 (3): 6-14. Also Mimeo.

_________ 1962a. Reproduction in some ungulates in
Southern Rhodesia. Jour. Mamm. 43 (4): 533-537. (enclosed).

_______ 1962b. Road strip counts for estimating
numbers of African ungulates. Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 26 (1): 101-
104.

Dasmann, Raymond F. and A. S. Mossman, 1962. Abundance and
population structure of wild ungulates in some areas of
Southern Rhodesia. Jour. Wildl. Mgmt. 26 (3): 262-268.

Mossman & Dasmann. 1962. Game Ranching Handbook (enclosed).

Mossman & Dasmann. 1962, Ovulation & implantation Impala.(encl'dj

Mossman, et al. 1963. Neck snare. (enclosed).

Dasmann, Raymond F. and Archie S. Mossman. 1962. Population I
studies of impala in Sduthern Rhodesia. Jour. Mamm. 43
(3): 375-395.








Riney, Thane and Graham Child.' 1964. Limitations of horn
height as an index to ageing the common duiker
(Sylvicapra immia) Arnoldia 1 (1): 1-4. (Nat'l Museum
of S. Rhodesia).
Child, Graham. 1964. Growth and ageing criteria of impala,
Aepyceros melampus. Arnoldia ? pp. 128-135.

Child, Graham and Thane Riney. 1964 (?) Abnormal dentition
in the common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), impala (Aepy-
ceros melampus) and Sharp's grysbuck.(Raphicerus sharpei).
Occasional papers of the nationall Museums of Southern
Rhodesia No. 27 B pp. 1-4.

You probably know the East African work of Beuchner,
Buss, Petrides, Swank, Longhurst (not published I guess),
Ledger, Payne, Harthoorn, Talbots, etc.

If you don't already have it, I strongly recommend that
you get Mosby, et al, 1963. Wildlife Investigational Techniques.
(Second Editionj. This is obtainable from Wildlife Society,
Fred G. Evenden Exec. Secty. 2000 P Street, N. W., Suite 615,
Washington, D. C. 20026, U. S. A.

Dasmann, Raymond F. has a very nice little book out
called "African Game Ranching"-published in England. It
probably won't tell you anything you don't already know, but
it is a nice, simple, easy-reading summary of things.

For a asy reading treatise on wildlife management get
Durward Allen's "Our Wildlife Legacy".

The best general range text is probably Stoddard and
Smith "Range Management". 1955.



A.S.M.


asm/mlm






Division of Natural Resources
Humboldt State College
Arcata, Califor.
25 April 19i

I Z
\'.97*


Ian Parker
Qalana Game k.anagement
P. 0. VOI
Kenya
Dear Ian:


It was a pleasure t receive'your letter of April 18 and I look
forward to seeing your rept-of the Galana Game a-'agement Scheme. I'll
try to answer your questions.
You comment that "development has virtually no limit--the greater '
(. the capital available the greater the development." I think this is the
place to start in my reply. There is a definite limit to the productivity
(Energy fixation rate) of any organism. Therefore, there is a definite
limit to the results that can be obtained from development. Secondly,
with domestic stock, the curve of production against capital investment
levels off at the top. In the case of net return on capital investment,
the curve crosses from profit to loss. To my knowledge, no such curves
have been worked out for game. All of his means that within a given geo-,
graphic unit, there are both actual and practical limits to what can be
accomplished with investment. a i i
Secondly, the output of gami can almost certainly be increased with
"development." '.e know, for example, that on good range deer breed earlier
produce more twins, and rear them more successfully than on poor range.
One of the simplest, most useful, and most economical ways to achieve this
is to crop the. animals, maintaining an optimum popul-ition relative to their
environment generally and forage especially. In terms of the sigmoid
population increase curve, we try to maintain the populations near the top
of the exponential increase portion of the curve. There is every reason
to expect similar results with African game but I know of no data that can
be used to assess this. This is obviously one of the places where study
is urgently needed.

A simple "development" is to ensure surface water in formerly dry areas
where good forage exists. This has worked for game elsewhere and it should
also work in Africa. Again, adequate "before" and "after" data are not
available for any area in Africa, to my knowledge. Suggestive observations
however, have been made.
Cattle can supplement game. However, the increase in production is
dependent upon the extent to which they do not compete ecologically with
other species. For example, if they eat a plant species not eaten by
other animals they alone will convert it into meat. Approximately to th
extent they eat plant species eaten normally by other meat producers the
will decrease the meat production by the other species. Based upon the
efficiency with which the two use the species, one could choose between
them, everything else being equal. It never is.


Ir







25 April 1963
Page 2


In practical terms, it may be possible to increase sustained pro-
duction slightly in Africa by adding cattle sheep and goats to the existing
fauna. There are, however, some sociological relationships between man and
his domestic stock that make me very, very cautious about suggesting such
additions. T'.i with domestic stock causes overgrazing, erosion and environ-
mental degradation. This is almost an axiom. The exceptions are so rare
as to excite profound interest and surprise when they occur.

I don't think it is safe to expect an increase in production in Africa
comparable with what might possibly be done in temperate areas upon intro-
duction of new species. The reason lies in the theory that the African
fauna has had a long time to evolve. The number of large ungulate species
in Africa attest to the correctness of the notion that most niches for
ungulates are probably pretty well filled already.


Sincerely,


S. Mossman
Coordinator, Game I,.nragement

ASM:lm










47A











/\ V}

May 23, 1 963


I. S. C. Parker
Galana River Game management Scheme/
P. 0. Voi
Kenya
* Dear lan:
Thank you for your letter of .!ay 15 which arrived yesterday. I can
well understand your concern over the possibility that the cattle ranch-
ing efforts south of the Galana Game -'anagement Scheme will eventually
pose a threat to your area. At this distance I find it difficult to make
a really sensible judgment concerning the feasibility of introducing cattle
development into the game management scheme. I am especially impressed
with your comments that "all the dry weather watering points are now set-
tled and inaccessible to animals." You also mention that the area has
many potential large dam sites. If this is so, there must also be consid-
erable opportunity for construction of smaller dams.

When you took me on the drive up the Galana River and back, I was
favorably impressed with the abundance and variety of animals seen near
the river. In fact, as you know I was convinced that in consideration wit-h
the distribution of water the area was heavily over-stocked by herbivorous
animals. Development of water for game in Southern Rhodesia through the
use of small dams and windmills has proven quite successful when done
correctly. Since cattle require a far closer spacing of water holes than ,'t
game animals, it appears to me that the development of water would be a
necessity not only for increasing game but also for cattle. As I see it
then, the question becomes one of timing as well as financing. If it is
not necessary to show a large financial return from your area almost immed-
iately, then one has time for natural increase'the animal stocks to provide
the financial return. One means of increasing the carrying capacity for
big game animals that drink is to increase the amount of time the temporary
water remains in areas where good grazing occurs. In other words, with a
minimum outlay one can deepen and protect temporary water holes tha-oTghk
holding the animals on the wet season range for a longer period of time.
This can be expected to increase the game populations approximately in pr
portion to the increase oft-ie-e- thatqremain in areas of good grazing.

If the seasonal nature of game harvesting were to become a problem
the operation of a canning or meat processing plant, another solution
might be to establish a plant at Voi and buy cattle from Africans or fr
the European cattle scheme which you mentioned.

C I am still impressed with the problem of supplying meat to people
t4ee-relatively primitive economy. How does one supply animal protein
the people who,,reall y eed.(it when they are unable to pay in any mann
other than^Aservices 6r-art acts. The marketing problem certainly se
be our biggest worry, and it's a pity in many ways wh-en we have to th






May 23, 1963
Page 2

overseas markets when the Africans themselves really need the meat. If
this problem could be solved, I doubt that you would have any trouble
obtaining all the development capital that you might wish for.
In estimating the time that will beavailable before financial results.
-w4t compete successfully with cattle, you will have to know approximately
how many animals you've got and about how fast you can expect them to
increase given favorable conditions. Therefore, I am very happy to hear
that you are :e'kin an attempt to census your area and I certainly look
forward to seeing the results you obtain.
I have been offered a lectureship at the University College of Rhodesia
and Nyasaland, and if all goes as expected we will be arriving there by
September 1. This means that I am going to be very busy between now and
Then, and I may not be able to get at an analysis of your Road Strip Count
data. If you have the population estimates worked out I certainly ought
to find time to look over your data and comment on them. It would be very
nice if we could find time to visit you again and look things over on the
ground, but I doubt that this will be possible. I understand that Dr. Lee
Talbot, University of California at Berkeley, will be coming to Africa for
two months, starting in June, to evaluate the many requests for game ranch-
ing funds that the United i'tions has received. I think it might be wise
for you to contact him directly if you can for any comments he may have.
I will thermofax your letters to me, and send them to him.

Please give my regards to your wife. How's the baby?

Yours sincerely,


A. S. Mossman
I Coordinator, Game ianri.gement


ASM o1 m


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I.S.,. PA. R P ER


dat. 25.10.60,io J.L.H.Y'l. to I. Crimwood,

enclosingc cov),' letter L. Farrer-Erou-n to Croskill of 20.10.60

th.-- do not feel able to consider the suggestion that the

Fou.nud.tion grant might be regarded as applicable to other

approved came management schemes until the position relating to the

u.R.11.S. has been satisfactorily settled from the Foun.dl.tion's

point of vi m-.".


I was able to brin- :-our letter of the l5th S pt. before the

trustees of tlhe- Foundation at their last meeting. They asked me

to let you know that"-

The point at issue is, as you k.now, tlhe sal- of ivory. In the

pro.,posals originally submitted to the Foundation, there was not

any -iQjestion of '- t proceedss from the sal. of. ivor-- bein7

excluded from thf financial record of th, scheme -m the ourpose of

w'hich was to ascertain the am'Iount of livelihood that could be

.rou :nt back to thle '.Jaliengul]i tribe. Hal th:- F-und'-tien 1novn

that receipts fro rm ivory were tw be b L.a': nr for general revenue-

and not b-. cre-dited,.t tho t-, Scheme, it would not indeed -cld not,
.s a charitable or-anisation have m'de th:- grant. ain, therefor

desired by the trust,? --s to .asl the Kenya Covrnn to carry out

thet-rs n 'the t s j:ic he Found.t _ion's grant w.s sought. It mayb e

added th.t, provided th: ivory receipts were credited to the

GRS, the-- Founda-s. ion trwo'ild be satisfied if, for th.e, time being

the szum in excess of the annual rai;l:.- in- ai:e were placed to a
special reserve not a:ailab.le for expenui t.re during g the first

thr- earr of the Sch.-ne.

N^ N

SI.R. -rimw'od to .A.-. flurt, .2.3.-".:,. 'Than': you rfr rei

l.:tter of ti. th. I ,.n. ver-y glad that yo ta:e so ]-ind. to
-~~~ ~~ T ... ;- is .:.-,oin7 Lo b
4te,, ide? of t- ,in- ov-,er the GRS as I a.n cert-i. I. is .oin to be

4]IC, sinecujre.


PR I






Telegrams: "GAME", Nairobi

Telephone. No. 20672-3
Ref. No. GA ................ .


GAME DEPARTMENT
P.O. Box 241, NAIROBI








THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOFFREY GIBBS,K.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE PARRER-BROWN, C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Regen's Park, London,N.W i
PRImrose -9
Telegrams: ound London N.W. 1

PERSONAL 31st January, 1964.




Dear Mr. Parker,

I have now received from Roger Short the copy of your
Galana River Scheme Report, and have found it very interesting
and illuminating. I have also had the benefit of a long talk with
Roger. You have certainly had your share of difficulties, but
I do think encouraging progress has been made, and it is of course
particularly gratifying that proposals are now afoot to put the
scheme on a 100% commercial basis. I do hope this will succeed.

What I would like to ask you for are two things. First,
so that I may return your report to Roger for his own reference,
I wonder if you can send me a duplicate. I thought this should
not be any problem because I notice it has been stencilled.

The second thing is that for the trustees, purposes we
ought to have a shorter summary of progress made in the three-
year period, and which brings them right up to date with the
prospects for the future. This summary report should properly
come from the authorities responsible for the scheme, andwhoihlandle
the Foundation's grant, namely the Ministry of Tourism, Forests and
Will Life. A letter from Mr. Webster, as long ago as April 1962,
did in fact refer to a draft of such a report, which was to be sent on,
but so far as I can see this was never received. Would you feel able
to take this up with Major Grimnwood and/or the Ministry?

With all good wishes,

/Tours sincerely,



J.W. McAnuff,
Assistant Director.

lan Parker Esq.,
Galana River Management Scheme,
c/o The Ministry of Tourism, Forests and Wild Life,
P.O. Box 30027,
Nairobi,
Kenya.








THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOPFREY GIBBSX.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE PARRER-BRO C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Regen's Park, London,N.w. \
PRimrose 8871-9 i /
Telegrams: Nutfound London N.W. 1 V I



CVIII/46 lot ary 1964


Dear Mr. Parker,

Thank you very much for your interesting letter, and I
am most grateful for the copy3bf your Galana River Game
Management Scheme report. I can now return the other one
to Roger Short.

I hadn't quite realized what your own personal position
was nowadays, but I db, of course, fully understand that it
might be difficult for you to extract, on our behalf, an
official report from the government authorities. Nonetheless,
we do, of course, have the right to insist that they produce
something, and if your own intervention fails, I shall not
hesitate to writ direct to the officials concerned.

Meanwhile, I do wish you every success with the new
venture, and again, I am very' grateful to you for bringing me
up to date.

With best wishes,

]Yours sincerely,




SJ.W. McAnuff

Ian Parker, Esq.,
c/oA.H. Mowat, Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P. 0. Box 861,
Nakuru,
KENYA.







THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION

PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOFFREY GIBBSK.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESUE FARRER-BROWN, C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Regen's Park, London,N.W.1
PRimrose 8871-9
Telegrams: Nuffound London N .W. I


COM/46 20th May, 6




Dear Mr. Parker,

Unfortunately Dr. McAnuff is away ill at the
moment, so I am writing to thank you for your letter
of the 12th May. We hope that he may be back in the
office next week, when he will see your letter, and
will be able to consider what action should now be taken.
It is certainly very disappointing to hear that the scheme
has fallen through in this way.

Yours sincerely,


Secretary to Dr. McAnuff.

lan Parker Esq. ,
P.O. Box 861,
Nakuru,
Kenya.












Dr. R.V. Short,
Dept. of Clinical Studies,
School of Veterinary Medicine,
Madingley Road,
CAMTBR IDGE,
I-ngland.


P.O. Box 861,

NAKURU, Kenya.

12th May, 1964.


Dear Roger, .

Hercwith a copy of a letter to Nuffield, a newspaper

cuttg anid two memoranda. -Te'dious and repetitive reading,

but virtually all aspects of our 'problem' are covered.

I'd be mo.t grateful for your thoughts and comments. Could

you gauge Uuffield's reaction for me?



With very best wishes,
Yours aye,





P.O. Box 861,
NAKURU,
Kenya.

i, u O 12th May, 1964.

The ..ufffield Foundation,
Nuffield Lodge,,.
Regents Park, /
LONDC.N. N.W.I. /


Dec-r 1r. !,,at.nuffi,

I regret to inform you that the project to take over the
Game "b'nagement Scheme haE fallen through. Attached are two
memoranda and a nespapcr cutting vwbich, though tedious readinr-,
give the position as it stands today.

It is very dirs.)Pocintin,. th-t the project haa foundered on
the obstifLU.c cf one -.ian. It vcu]d seem nrlw that tlie paot four
ycar'3' *.: -o 'nnd the roncy- inve::ted haz 'been vzsted.

s.:,-.; : e being inimade by the '"nyp Co:oft. PRei-on1nl. GC-vernrment
and the CC:Ltr-.1 M'iniL-tr'y of Ariculture to revive the Sc.eOre-on
the lines we envisLge,, but the ztme, Dcnpr-tment's ..t..itude first
has to cbe oIv-.rccMe. As your Fcu"-:-.!ti.in was the initial go-sor
of tho) SIchcmi^ ,nd t.hiat entitli.td to z-,v.-l..e of policy tr,-ard it,
a feyw f.,ueo-ti':ns' Vr ccn-miento' front you to the Kenya Government
would be of cOnrideC-:ble value. Addressed to the Prime Minister's
Office they would enrendcr a rather more lively resTponse than w
would bc; f:.--tico!,i.in rr- C .: the 'iu.I ti'r of 7--.tural *czcurces.
If jcu have n:.t :,eL :caeiv',x a cc :' of the "'.ehea:i- report officially
this ,r.i-ht be jutificctlon for such an appTroach.

I polo-'se for ulei'ettin- y,., enter a sordid Government
wrangle, but I intend to leave no stone unturned to get the
Scheme progressing in the rig-ht direction.

With best wishes,

Yours sincerely,


Ian Parker.







THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOITREY GIBBSK.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE PARRER-BROWN, C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Regent's Park, London,N.W.l
PRimrose 8871-9
Telegrams: Nuffound London N.W. 1

CVIII/46 28th February, 196



Dear Mr. Parker,

Thank you very much for yo letter of e
23rd February, and I am exceedingly gra for
your efforts to get us an official report on the Gdana
River Management Scheme. I hope these will be
successful, if not, as you say, we will make a direct
approach.

With many thanks again, and all good wishes,

SYours sincerely,



J.W. McAnuff, ,
Assistant Director.

Ian Parker Esq. ,
c/oA.H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P.O. Box 861,
Nakumu,
Kenya.







j' HE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
fkj~ f \PATRON; H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
RMA.: THE HON. SIR GEOS5 REY G1BBSK.C.H.G. DIRECTOR: LESUE SARRER-DROWN, C.B.E.

"/ Nuffield Lodge, Regent's Park, London,N.WI
PRImros 9
Telegrams: N und London NW. 1


COM/46 1st June, 1964.



Dear Mr. Parker,

Many thanks for your letter, and for giving us the up-to-
date story on the Galana Scheme. It is certainly all rather sad.

I greatly welcome your advice, but I think in the first
instance I ought to do the more straight forward thing of requesting
an official report from the Ministry, and decide tWhat next to do
after that. I shall in any case be going out that way in August,
and might well take that opportunity of having some higher level
discussion if that seems sensible. I would hope also that I might
have the pleasure of meeting you, and on present plans I should
be in Nairobi over the 17th 19th August.

With best wishes,

17 Yours sincerely,




J.W. McAnuff, '
Acting Director.


Ian Parker Esq.,
P.O. Box 861,
Nakuru,
Kenya.







THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION


Nuffield Lodge,
Regent's ParAi-t
LONDON.-.W.l
S/


10th June 1964
,(. /

Dear Mr Parker,

Many thanks for your letter, and I am sorry about this
further impediment to getting the Galana scheme established on
a permanent footing.

On present plans, I expect to be in and around Nairobi
on 18th, 19th and 20th August. I will, of course, confirm this
to you later when the details of my itinerary have been finally
settled.

With best wishes,

Yours sincerely,




J.W.McAnuff
Acting Director






Ian Parker Esq.,
c/o A.H.Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P.O.Box 861,
NAKURU,
Kenya.






0


0
Sender's name and address: .......... The.. Nu.ffi..eld. ....Fo und.ato ..on.,.

...................................................................... ..... .......... ...... ................

............................................... .r .. ..n ..... .r.. .............

........................................ om Q ... .1 .......
England


AN AIR LETTER SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY
ENCLOSURE; IF IT DOES IT WILL BE SURCHARGED
OR SENT BY ORDINARY MAIL.
4 Second fold here











................................an ...P ar.. er.... s q... .......... ....................................
.................................cn/j...A..R.Mo.wa~t..Zaq<. ....E 2.E.*..S..E. ,

.......................................E. Q. x.B.O .... 1 ... ........ ...........
NAKURU, Kenya




L ~~anrq inJ' usdn ..









THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR OEOFFREY GBBS, K.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE FARRER-BROWN,C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Re e. rk,London,Nwi
P mirose 8871-9
Telegrams: Nuff und London .W. 1


AIII/I 18th June, 1964.




Dear Parker, \

O Further to my letter of 10th June, I can now confirm that
I expect to be in Nairobi between midday on Monday 17th August, and
Friday the Zlst. I shall have a number of things to do concerning
the University College and one or two other of our interests in the
area, but I do very much hope that we shall be able to meet and
discuss the Galana scheme situation. I just do not know if there is
any point in trying to see the area I have an uneasy feeling that
time will be at too much of a premium for that but we can just see
how things turn out.

I wonder if you would let me know what sort of times you
would have free during the period I have mentioned, and then I can
see how best to fit something in.

With best wishes,

/Yours sincerely,




J.W. McAnuff.

Ian Pakker Esq.,
c/oA.H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P.O. Box 861,
KAKURU,
Kenya.









THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION
PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER
CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOFPPREY GIBBS,K.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE FARRER-BROWN, C.B.E.

Nuffield Lodge, Regenl's, ParkLo On,N.W.1
PKImros0e 8871-9
Telegrams: Nuffound London N .W. 1


A 111/ Z \\ /3rd July, 1964.
R



/ {Ir


Dear Parker, /

Jutt a further line o confirm try arrangements when I
reach Nairobi. I have just written to a Mr. Vivian infhe Ministry
of Natural Resources in Nairobi, suggesting I call to see him late
in the afternoon of Tuesday, 18th August, to discuss Galana, and
itwould of course be the greatest help to me if we were able to
have a chat beforehand. Would you be able to join me for lunch
that day at the New Stanley Hotel, where I shall be staying? In
view of postal delays at this end, and other contingencies it
might be best if you were to leave a message at the hotel.

Meanwhile the news from the Ministry of Natural Resources
is simply that "Major Grimwood will be submitting to us an official
report on the scheme".

I look forward to seeing you.

Yours sincerely,




J.W. McAnuff. -.


lan Parker Esq.,
c/oA.H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P.O. Box 861,
Nakuru,
Kenya.









e/o A. H. Iowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E.,
P. 0. Box 861,
NAIXURU,
Kenya.



\31st July 1964.
/ vr

Dear Dr McAnuff /
Syou for your letter dated 23rd July.
I would be delighted to accept your invitation to lunch
at the New Stanley Hotel on the 18th of August. While you
are out here would it be at all possible for you to visit
the Galana area? If I were to fly you down in my own
aircraft we could go down and back in a day.
Let me know when you do receive your official
report on the Scheme, it will be worth celebrating!
Looking fornqrd to seeing you,
Yours sincerely,



Ian 2arl'er.
Dr J. W. T.TcAnuff,
The Nuffield Foundation,
Nuffield Lodge,
Regents Park,
LONDON, N.W. 1.
(copied to the New Stanley Hotel to await collection.)








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Full Text

PAGE 1

v (k) The lessee would be permitted to capture and sell live animals to approved zoos and scientific institutions subject to the complying with existing laws and regulations applying to that trade. (1) The Game Department would maintain an adequate force of Game Guards on the lessees land subject to the lessee reimbursing Government with the cost of their salaries and maintenance. Copies to: Sir Wilfred Havelock. c/o B. Russell Esq., Agriculture House, NAIROBI. J. Peberdy, Esq., Range Management Section, Department of Agriculture. NAIROBI. Yours sincerely, I. R. Gr mwood. CBlEF GAME WARDEN

PAGE 2

D ear Ian, c/o the Permanent Secretar,y, Ministry of Natural Resources, Walpol e st., Freetwun. Sierra Leone. r;" "o.:r_ . \, 15th March '.6] "'I. As I stuff ready to ty:' with me' I your letter dated 9th January a realized that had never replied. D o please accept my apologies. I brought i t with me 0 this trip as a priority letter to write. I am out on my own this time and feel muc h happier about this. Riney is staying behind in Swiitzeralnd to work up the Hand.b oo k I am glad that you turned his visit to suc h good but note that he has served his purpose and that you d o not wish a repeat performance. I don't blame you. 1ii th such a challenging project 'Thich we have I am 10athe to say thi s but will be glad when the end of the year comes and the project ends, at least insofaras present arrangements are concerned and w e will g o our own ways. I will be interested to see what h e does as I certainly am quite convinced that he will never work in a team for long. I recko n I am a fairl y easy going bloke but I just can't get on with him at all and I am w ondering whether he could really get on with anyone with whom he was obliged t o associate closely. He is not terribly popular in SR. S o be it, its a p ity as he is very able in so many ways and works very hard. I have no further information re heat treatment o f dried meat. I left this with Phil Glover and Dr Russell and although I have written once or twice, I have no information to date. This is a pity as, if the answer is not known I would have though that the laboratory side o f things w ould not be too difficu.lt. It would certainly be a good thing if t his point could be sorted out in time for the ruCN general assembly due to be held i n in September this year. I shall keep nagging a way a t it I was surprised to note the contents of your first par a I YTould have thought that Ian would be YTatching Galana like a hawk as, i n my opinion, there simply cannot be too much interest, assistance and effort o f all kinds put into schemes of this kind. Their success otherwise will be important factg)g)s for moulding the furrb:m.ee of i-Tildlife irk Africa. I agree with you that other than in very speciCLl cases priv8.te enterprise is the ans Ter; this has been proved time and time again. I would be very interested in anyb developemnts i n the direction y o u indicate. The rather specialized gF.Lme product is a rathhr particular type of egg just now and the cattle egg would logically make the basket more secure. I know full well what you meRn by the ultra purist conservationist When discussing wildlife i n genera l with a certain gentleman for whom I have the geeatest respec t and admiration, a few weeks ago he s aid, 'the trouble with FAO is that it is really only concerned with m an's belly; our aims are rather h igher than this.' I pointed out to him thA.t I was convinced that one o f the ways o f achievin g these lofty aims p'robably was via man s belly and in fact without this approach we may remain in the realm of idealis m instead o f reqlism and lose

PAGE 3

.1,;', \ \ i .\ L .J .. l .... Q) S Q) ..Q C) U".l .p Q) s Q) b.o crl en 0' Q) Ul S rI ttl 0 H Q) crl ..\<: H (1j .. \1" ... I crl P-i crl 0 s::: /: : ...r .. <1 t rl 0 .0 po :2 . .2 0 "" c 0 P-i Jl t ;. , f! i i .. Q UJ :>-< (j Z t:z:: <: <: :::r:: z U'l :< o UJ U co r-....l o .....J <: Z 9 t: ::J U'l 0 o UJ :::r:: 0 U'l Q r-ffi t: Z 1 t:z:: "'-f. 11 UJ 0 en H '" Z 'r< l1 n t:z:: t:z:: Ii U'l i :; z3 i j o g .. ------... . -----.-.----------_.---_.-------_ .. _-_ . _----._.------------------------------. : -----------------... .------------------.. the resourc e in the proces s H e t here .. T a s probably quite '3. bit o f truth in this. I whether your r e l'3.tion s h i p s with Mann '3.re any better? I hear he obt'3.ined quite ,? b t of f in"'ncial .assi s tance from some source or other. He m'3.Y h'3.ve m'3.ny f aults but I believe h i s h eart i s in the right p l a c e and he done muc h g o od w ork. Will you be a t t ending the ruCN Gene r a l in September next? I hone s o as I would cert'3.inly value dmrect contact w ith you '3.gamn Xm I must g e t on now. Please excuse my bad typing but it i s not all that for a n a m ateur lik e myself i n a c l imate suc h as thi s I have IOdays t ime in the bush i n front o f m e before leaving for Gha n a a n d the n Dahomey and Congo If y o u d o .. Trite, please use my h ome a(tnress hich is L a Perrette, Bursins. S w i tzerla n d a s you d i d l a s t t i me, for o bvio s re'3.sons '3.nd do let me kno. if is anything i n Thic h you ma, y f eel I m3.Y be o f 8.ssistance. I a m giving a p u blic s h owing of a series o f colou r slides I have brought with me. Utilization will feature and will includ e your set-up of "Thic h r have several good ones. Please give my k ind reg a rds t o y o u r d f e y o urs very sincerel y 4u fb(ivt l P e ter.R H ill.

PAGE 4

-( UNION INTERNATIONALE POUR LA CONSERVATION D E L A NATURE ET D E S E S R E S SOURCES Banqu e : U ni o n de Banques Suisse s Vevey (Vd ) Ch. post. II 22 605 L a usann e C1J ( 021) 714422 Dear Ian, g INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES Po s t. ch. II 2.2. 605 Lausann e nion Bank of Sw i tzerland, Ve vey (Vd) C1J (02.1) 71 442.2. \ V .,... MORGES pres L a usanne q 19th May/ T 9 63 0 \ ( S ''sse) \ .; G) It "las very good of you indeed to have itt R to me at length. Yo.; letter await ed m e on my return from the f ormer French ongo las w/Eo First of a l l do please let me lenOy! your leave address in Nairobi as we must at least meet for a go o d talk whilst the General Assembly is on As a farmer I am I find that few of the punditry group with which I am mainly in contact have t heir feet a n ywhere near the ground in any respect. Some m a nage one leg, but then are often diverted by having the other one cocked up like a dog having a leak. Your letter clearly indicates that our approach is basically t h e same and thus whHst I do not believe there is an easy royal road towards anything but small s c a l e game utilization at present, a c onstant exchange fuf ideas getween people who have adequate knowledge of all aspects is profitable. I comment on t he p oints you raise seriatim. Y our sec ond para. I quite agree with the point you mkke. Private enterprise still operates in a large scale in West Africa where political instability is a s great as e ver, or even more so. It is not very difficukt to obtain Govt participation in any worth while project and once security is achieved, t he worst hurdle is passed. I met the managing director of a large French cattle enterprise with expanding interests in Gabon and the Fr.Congo the other day. They the N Dama breed into these areas from the Ivory Coast some years ago and have now built up a herd of over 7,000 in the Congo alone. They have been compelled to allow Govt. to participate on a sort of sleeping partner basis but they are fairly happy about the way things are shaping and are at least able to plan on a l o ng term basis. Your answer might be -thats all right for a country with a Govt What is t he land tenure situation in the aBea you mention? I am a bit nervous abou t development of perm anent water points unless these can be carefully regulated. Whilst this is possible with bo r eholes for any animals, one cannot con trol wild animals around dams. 20 acre/domestic livestock unit land canno t stand much in the way of water development cos t s. But satisfy ecological r equiremen t s and I feel i w ill stre ch your to breaking point At any rate it would need careful investigatio n h. ;tTv/!.4 Wi t h t he experience o f many groundnut s!dl ... r"lu x: (actual and type) shhemes l both for crops and livestock, I w ould certainly support y our view that with the rainfall you indicate, supplementary irrigation would be a prerequisite f o r crop husbandry and even then, success w ould depend o n many other factors. I was delighted to find t ha t an area I looked a t in the French Congo in 1951, with high rainfall (6011), but poor soils, is d erived savanna, carried a groundnu t scheme, inv olving crops and livestock; It started in 1949 and folded up in 1955. You can believe it or no t bu t this huge area which is about 200 miles by 100 is almos t devoid of people and if we pro p os ed game u t ilization, there would be n o oppos i tion. Its an interesting p roblem as savanna has develo pe d wi thin high forest and high forest still exisits in wide belts to the nort h and south. The only game sPp are those o f forest and hence t hey are not getting on too well. But we might introduce if we can find s omething xxiX suitable. Turning to meat you say that existi ng game stocks c ould produce t million Ib usable meat p a Thi s would amount roughly t o about II million Ib on the hoof or a biomass iof 4 001b /sq.mile. You then mention a figure for, presumably, part of the aeea a t 20 a cres /beast. Assuming that your average beast liveweight is 5001b, the cattle biom ass would amount to 16,OOOlb /sgomile. Ho,", do you account for these differences in estimate?Either actual game stocks well above your estimat e or population s are ,in fact, low and if so whyo The point is that lan d whi c h can carry 1 6 ,000 I b /sq.mile of cattle, wi t h water, can carry 2 to 5 times tha t amount of game w ith the spp. you have of that I am certtin. 000 from JOOO i s a bout 6 d 7 a c r e You w ofild certainly be sa. e on e venton 10" I w ould say. On t he other hand assum O l ng too a beast takes, years 0 mat ure, your

PAGE 5

2. estimat e for cattle use w ould produce 4/-p e r cacre, that is assum i ng that a mature bullock is wor t h aboutt 20o Y our poin t re infant mortalit y of elephant is interesting-nice biological control for present c ond itionso There would be a case f or water devt. for elephant, which can travel so far. I agree that there i s a w orld marke t f or protein, eve n as there is an even greater demand. The limiting fKtNX factor s are a) lack o f purchasing power b) traditional tastes which d o no t change easily o r qmic Ry. c) religious t aboos and d ) d isease. I tackl e d Neil Reid o f FAO agai n only 10 days ago and he still seems adamant that meat produced in Africa should b e u s e d in Africa and that this process will evolve gradually o n a village ind ustry basis Thi s wil l in turn set up slow chain react i o n s ocio l ogical c hange s which will demand higher standard o f living etc e tc. I can agree with him only s o faro As a vet, of course, h e i s b iased more t o ward s sicknes s o f animal rat h e r t han land My contention is that Africa than locally o ver vaste area 0 e l essly overloaded with pro tei a vraiety o f reas6 n s i s not used .Thi s jn itse l f is ba e n o u lS even worse is that in the process o f s ub sidized, uncontrolled or other build up o f animal populat i ons (vTi t h gam e o f t en as a resul t of other land-use)land i s depl e ted beyo n d repairo I n suc h circumstances, off-loadi n g meat l'1herever a market exists can o n l y be r ight provided that at least revenue or part thereof returns t o the S Ourc e o f in < Thich f orm it can be c onverted to raise living s t a ndards b y a n y means d eeme d sui t able. I keep on pointing t h i s out t o F A O and other organizations including UNICEF, in which organisation my brother holds a key posto He spends much o f his time i n India and o t h e r Asian c ountr:iJes o Do write to him i n a personal capacity i f y ou wish; his address i s R o A Hill,*PtxfR Apt o3e, 20 Beekman Place, New York 22 0 NYo U S AoPe o p l e can d o n othing w ithou t ammunition and though he has indica t e d he can littl e a t resent on e never knO .FS 0 Most of the protein subsidies dished out t o these oount r ies is f a oto:mr i n count ies like the US where protei n surpluses ocouro I am sure we hav e got to a i m at a n export3.ble product whioh oan o ompete wi t h any t h ine e lse and I don't think that canning is the ans e r as it is expensive and d ifficult t o a oh lie v e Under f i e l d oond itionso Some othe r sterilis i n g process must be f ound 3.nd I return to sun dr,y i n g + heat treatmento I n spite of repeated e n quirie s I hav e been unable t o obtai n any advice or information on this matter. I m ight have a g o a t Nestles along the lake here in the next few weeks and see i f I oan get anyt hing ou t o f them o r i f n o t tr,y to get them conduct some test s I m ust awaybnow and l ook mforward to reoei v i n g comment s fro m y o u in du e oourseo P lease excuse my bad typing o I like t o d o l e tter s suc h as thi s myselfthe r e a r e too many snoppe r s around here! W ith k ind regards t o C r i stine & y oursel f andk eep smi l ing and bat tlin g o I spent t h e last ASP trip i n West A f rioa o n my o v m a n d it was rather mor e pleasanto yaurs ever, ;1 i rz-e( UK..e-, LA (J.et"Y'etk, !5 l{Y>fM

PAGE 6

LAKE VICTORIA HOTEL (UGANDA HOTELS LTD.) L \/\ Te/ephone: Entebbe 644 & 862 ;.Te/egrams:_ /' () jJ "lavicho!e'" r lJl // '1 .. -rtv-7' &--7 t

PAGE 7

L \,) f .. i "-, f t '" . '-> 7' S h Cdr I c/( Y ,) :" ,,-, ," r ( '-'" 1 h i 1 AN AIR LETTER SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY '" 1 ENCLOSURE; IF IT DOES IT WILL BE SURCHARGE ... OR SENT BY ORDINARY MAIL. -----.... _e

PAGE 8

UNION INTERNATIONALE POUR LA CONSERVATION DE LA NATURE ET DE SES RES SOURCES INTERNATIONAL UN ION FOR CONSERVATION OF N AT URE AN D NATU RAL R ESOU RCES (021) 71 44 22 Sui s se .. SW' tzerland y t'v B-,A. -C-l /Ju:,A .. U 't.-'-j 014. c.e'---fi7 c-1 e vi .tt"'"" -,rh.c. 9 tLf -e ..> fo-&.1--"'-"1 e v / r?t Cl!&1Ao, tU-( ruJ." 41..R.. dA-e "-'I' v "lCJ. r ht ... (; ''--7 c,<...HJ-f..<..W N Lj Pr 1-u.--6'-? c:ft 'JL .2, !Z-t t c.a.L ut L! r1u-t..; (.U-t.U t-4.,. ",./J, Of c:Lv. c:{ rl I u; ... u ... ......<..J, au,{.f. s If u., ....; li..t t.p c c. .. L4 Ci, fkr.r ;hvc..vd-Cfe '7 lW'UU); 'V a...v-d j\":" cJ.-1,(...l) 3 ar...t 1(...'-1, c-l1..tJ.-t. c.(NL./ tl .. .c-.. .6 ().-t,J7 ft/v-(. c'1 lit "l-' c --v -e.. d..u <.f.-.r.-(. -d.e ct..{..7 .... {,;.../.. of rfA..t Y0..e... MJ,<-/ r(Lt) (j rl1-<. cuvfZ uz...,vI-.....{ 1 0 1)1.A-A c1-A-U,;; ---t-.c......e rJ.....I-q1 (,'...tL. rt-f -'l.K<-/ l' .ce iJ? tJ.--. IJ cUA. T f..;f G(J....t.
PAGE 9

,--------. -----, -. t' r t i oR= I f (" C'. r. r '\ "'=-; J .r;.. i\ ,(\ (-. r ...... \'11 t ..,. \ \ d O l J t" s.. t f\ f' (' <:\ (-.. S t ..\ '-. '-.l "-" ('. no. r \' "-i p "'-. It -4 E-, ,-"" -' ".-::-""_""0 -' J . t { :L t '-.:.. )'). ) 1'" IiIII '1';:t : -r -f I f:!' ( r. '>.)",u (. ,..IF. J "-t '" "') ;-f. 1 t t t'2 I "_!:). t. r .;>. '" .. __ : -;.", ) _. t' '} '1:' Abaondor I EXpddltour I Mlttonto: IU eN, Morges, V aud, Suisse Switzerland _ -C' r.. !'>.. = { '"" .' ::. ,-'" : ,{-. ""ri =--I\,_=-: t" \ t' _ . = _ = -1 't --.' _ =;r -I'" .. .=-=' 7---", Dllrf _-= .Nti 'Sij-:; == (0..;= J _ :: conteno.!:! -n,BSSu_ n oggettO __ = .. -:",--_=--:: =J.:2:1" ..L J'\= -_ .. Fmnkettir !\ir'elle Fr. -.65' --= -' --_ J =-'": (" -' R .. =-:':: .:_ -=Affrnnchlssamont valallio POUgoU9 109 pays -, t:' r "'" t\ Aff"!.ncazlon.o valovolo por'tu.ttl,gl' atet! fr x"" -(;:! (: I' f'\ -J' ", ,.; 1---. f'., r. S .. -; \(;-. t" \.) f. 1 .l\ f t 1"., t .. SJ== J \.. ,,('::;:lk

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CONFIDENTIAL C OLLEGE OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, MWEKA TELEPHONE KIBOSHO 18 TELEGRAMS: GAM ESC HOD L ": .1. WLS/CONF/l .. I. Parker Esq. c/o A.H. owat, F.R.C.S.E., P.O .. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya. Dear Ian, P O BOX 793 MOSH I TANGANYIKA 22nd October, 1965. Thank you very much for your letter of 6th October. We recently returned from a long safari and I am sorry that you have waited so long for an ans wer. The position abou t the job I mentioned to you is that I have be e n aske d to look a roun d for suitable people who might be able to take up posts on the staft at weka and to make a preliminary approach to them W e are still waiting to know whether funds can be foun d to p ay such people but I think it likely that they can. I am not yet in a position to offer you a post here but can only try to find out from you what the chances are of your being available and on that basis send your name people who would probably f inance the post (an American foundation or the U.N Special Fund perhaps). As regards the salary, nothing can be decided about that yet. It would d epend to a great extent on the a ge, experience, and qualifications o f the candidate and would presumably be related to his present salary. but w ould include a reasonable extra sum for inducement. If I were to make a guess a starting salary for someone in your position it would be of the order of It is not essential for you to make a positive reply yet. I ndeed, you could not b e ex pected to give vne on the very slender information I have given you. How ever, It would help me if I could have your reactions to my sug gestion of a stxxJ salary level and tell me what you are now getting. I would also need to kno w your age, experience in the Kenya Game Department, any academic qualifications. and anything else which you think would be helpful. This woul d be treated as confidential but it w ould help m to guide me in my recommendations to the If your xiKx salary is low now (i.e. local terms) I l d wou certalnly

PAGE 11

want to see you get more. Please give my regards to your wife. I have very pleasant memories of my short vislt to you on the Galana R iYat Yours sincerely, ILR Hugh Lamprey, Princirnal. C.A.

PAGE 12

Ec 2.

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THE OLD EAST AFRICAN TRADING COMPANY, LTD ASSOCIA T E D WITH: THE EAST ASI A TIC COMPANY LTD. COPENHAGEN TELEGR A PHIC ADDRESS: BROCHE TELEPHONE: ese1 J. 'Parker, Esq. Game Warden, KILIFI MOMBASA, Kenya P. O B O X 2010 November 15th, 1 957 ) 0 0 Dear Sir, W e confir our con ersation with you earlier this week and have p e to advise that we offer the following prices for -Suspension-dried Buffalo Hides: FIRSTS SECONDS THIRDS 80 cents per lb. 50 cents per lb. 25 cents per lb. Wet Salted Crocodiles: Measurments Grade I 8.25 7.50 6.75 6.50 4.50 3.25 Grade II 6.00 5.00 4.50 4.50 3.50 2.00 Measurements 25" & Over 20" 24t" 15" 191 25" & Over 20" 24i" 15" 191" 12" -14 9" lIt" 6" 14t" 6" 8 t WSH/sf O IRECTOIlS : K. VI. KNUDSE N A. DRONDAL W. S. H ARPUR W, J. C. LOE9L M. PAGH (OANISH) (MANAGING) (OANISH) (BRITISH CZECH ORIGIN) (OANISH) P. o. RASMUSSEN (DANISH) H. G RUDE H. STRA USS (Of\ N ISH) (BRITISH A USTRIAN. ORI G IN) Thirds & all kinds of buttons. 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.00 o J. POLl-AK ( BRITI S H C ZECH O RIGIN)

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P. Z I M MER MAN N YOUR REF. OUR REF. CABLES: ZIMTAX. NAIROBI BANKERS: BARCLAYS BANK D.C. O PZ/MW/3740 J .Parker Esg. Game Warden, Game Dept. P.O.Box KILIFI. Dear Sir, PHONE 80251 P O. BOX 2127 NAI ROBI KENYA COLONY 22nd. October 1957 Many for your letter of the 3rd.Oct. Please forgive me for not a nswering immedi ately, out things h ave been very busy these past weeks with u afaris. your offer for for animal, heads, feet, a! d head skins .L ill oe only too willing to purchase any from you if they are a s you state, very well and also sha d e dried. I am always getting asked for he'd/skins etc., so if you c ould send me a few samples, I could then give you an offer. You will appreciate that it is difficult for me to estimates unless I do see the condition of the hide, a s well as the way that they have been cut etc., you must realise that I would only require them for mounting therefore, the lips, and ears must be skinned out very well. bhould you ever be down in 'obi, maybe you could ring m e up, and then we could talk about things. Awaiting your reply at your convenience, I am, You r s faithfully, t-\ (secretary) p.p. P.

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND WATER RESOURCES All correspondence should be addresse d to "The Director of V e terin ary Servi ces" P arce l s by rail: Kib e ra St a tion Telegrams: "VeUa b Kabete Telephone: FORT SMITH 231-2 In r e pl y please quote number and date Ref: BONES/l.n/l96. J. Parker, Esq., Game Warden, KILIFI. RE: BONES DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES VETERINARY RESEARCH LABORATORY P O KABETE Immediately on my return from the Voi Show I contacted the railway authorities regarding rates of' freight for transport of bones between Mariakani and Athi River. They quote Shs.57/per ton, provided the bones are despatched in truck loads (Class 9) As mentioned to you we can offer Shs.180/-per ton for the bones, delivered to Athi River, where they can be processed by the mobile plant. You stated you knew of several contractors willing to transport the bones from the Game Reserve to Mariakani. Without knowing their charges it is impossible to estimate how much the would be paid, and therefore before applying to the Game Department for permission, I should appreciate if you could obtain quotations May I say that I had the opportunity of discussing your suggestion with the Provincial Commissioner, Coast PrOvince, during the Show, and he assured me of his support. As soon as I hear from you I will make the official application to the Game Warden, Nairobi. for DIRECTOR OF VETERINARY SERVICES.

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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL AND WATER RESOURCES All c o rres p ondence s hould be a ddr e sse d t o th e "Prov incia l DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SERVICES PROVINCIAL VETERINARY OFFICE P O Box 92, MOMBASA Vete rin ary Officer T e legr a m s : "PROVET", Mombasa Te l e phon e : 87260 Wh e n r e plying pl ea se quote Ref N o ... ....... . S3. r9. G:K/ 2/l 6/270 ... ...... M?Y. ..... . ,19.5.9 a nd d a te I.Parker Esq., Game Warden Game Department, P.O .B o x 34, KILIFI. GAME MANAGEMENT SALE OF E LEPHANT MEAT ., Permission is granted to bring one elephant (dead) to the K.M.C., 10mbasa for the purpose of conversion into meat meal, bone meal etc. The questi on of the mobile p lant wi l l be taken up with Kabete and I will let you know their reaction. {!J...(,"J40 VETERINARY 0 ER IN CHARG E COA PROVINCE. Copy to: The Kenya Meat Commission, Mombasa. CNL/BTM.

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Xenya Meat eommiddion PQrt 'Reitz 271 G)3ee/ 3r[omta&a. tJeead e!!ice: P. e. Gf30x 282) Xiroti. lVISA/45 The Game Warden, Game Departmentt P.O. Box 34, Kilifi. Dear Sir, P. e. Gf30x 8226 ell eaudeway) Momtada. 21st May 1959 We are in receipt of your letter of the 18th 1959 regarding an elephant carcass. We have sent a of your letter to our Technical Controller in Nairobi and will be able to let you have our decsion when we have heard from him IECC Yours faithfully, for KENYA lV'EAT COlVIMISSION ; B. F.-rcmar Wor s Manager

PAGE 18

e Xenya 3Y[eat eommiooion Pert Gfleitz 271 fietefam& GJ3eel :Jr[omCada. 3f.eaJ r3llice: <>P. e Gf30x 282) :NairoCi. Ref.MSA / 45 The Game Warden, /. /' Game Department, P O .Box No. 34'# KILIlli Dear Sir, f. (3. 130x 8226 (311 eauoeway) :Jr[omtaoa. 8th June,1959. Elephant Further to our letter of 21st May,1959, we have now had a reply from our Head Office. It is regretted we are not able to assist in this matter as our Works here are too small and we have not the equipment necessary. Yours faithfully, for KENY A MEAT B.Krcmar, BK/GK Works Manager.

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I NORTHERN PROVINCE Telegraphic Address: "POLITICAL, MOSHI" Telephone Nos.: Moshi 3 & 8 R ef. No ...................... 19/16/1.2.9 The Game' arden, rr.8NGERU. DISTRICT OFFICE, P.O. Box 109, MOSHI ...... ..... ....................... -3-r.G ... July .. ;.. .. .. .. .... 19 .. 59 / / The Game arden of the Coast Province of Kenya is instituting game management schemes in his area whereby tribes in certain Rarts will be allowed to hunt a quota of game animal s lhese will produce a supp l y of game meat for which he wants to find a market and has suggested that the Chagga might be interested. I have made enquiries locally and it appears that the Chagga might be i nterested i n buyin g the meat of the softer-S4:inned animals for a low price. Before going any further with this scheme I write to ask whether you would a pprove of the sale of such game meat i o sh i District i n accordanaa vith section 56 of Cap.502. The Game arden of the Coat Provin c e estimates that he will be able to deliver a lorry-load of meat each week into this istrict. 'ost of the meat w ould be dried but a small proportion of it w ould be fresh. I write to ask, therefore, for your view s and recommendations on this ma t ter Copy to: The Game arden, ilifi, oast Province, Kenya

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' -I NORTHERN PROVINCE Telegraphic Address: "POLITICAL, MOSHI" Telephone Nos.: Moshi 3 & 8 T 1 9/16/13 0 R e f .,0 ....................................... ................... ....... l'he Lrame harden, l\il i fi, c: o a s t :Prov i n c e h .en y a DISTRICT OFFICE, P.O. Box 109, MOSH! 17- .......................... 1 ........ J.nly. .. ? .............. ........ ... .. 19., '0 1 have enOU.lrles o iLtCe T11ee t ins you L. --0 sl .. i C1 of the Ghag8a butchers as tc A.t;thel thej are inte.L'estec, in buyin .,a e neat fTom you l'ho::3e who art; l.iohamedaGs are not L.te,,:e:teo. and non --ohaLledans who are i n ohamedan areas mu_o also have to be very careful about in this trade. I have hO\lever, TI.et o1'::e of the T'roy. inent butchers fron anb o .Ji v i sion 1:,ho says h e ould oe inte_ es ted in buying gaI"e meat Gf the fol l o'.'/ing aLimals: zebra, lartebeeste, u iraffe .. (] sta tes that the }:rice t e ','.ould be w illin to pay rJOuld De 40 cents a lb. for fresh Leat and 20 ceGts a lb. for dr'ied J.eat, al Q Le be aLle to buy 2 000 Ibs. a 17ee1.. ane paJ' cas. Gown for it. 2 s you \ ill see frO!.. the e closea c o py of a tel' "hicl ...L ave to the uar.e arceL, our legislati on rf..strict...l the sale Gi' ga e bt .. at except "!,ith t ne written pe rrr..issiori of u a ,e If arde ane.., e shall av"ai t tne repl y o f the ua=e .. arneJ on tLis batte r

PAGE 21

T elegraphic Addresl: U ASSOCIATE D Code: B ENTLEY'S No. 2 Tel ephones: NAK U R U 2481, ( 6 Line.; THE KBNYA FARMERS' ASSOCIATION (Co-operative) LIMITED ilk H ead Office: P O Box 35, NAKURU Kenya Colony 6/M/67 0 IN R E P LY R U E R TO ....... ... ........... ............... P lease address lb. AssociaHon a nd Dol an Indi vidual. 15th July, 1959. Game Warden, Game Department, P.O. Box 34, KILIFI. Dear Sir, Dried Meat We have for acknowledgment your letter of 8th July and we thank you for giving us details of your most interesting Game Management Scheme. In the past we have had unfortunate experience in handling dried meat, and it is now a matter of policy that w e do not stock this in our Branches, but this does not preclude our placing orders for direct supply to our Members. In the first place we should like to see an analysis of the dried meat which, we note, is mainly elephant, and a quotation on a f.o.r. Mombasa basis detailing the weight per bag. Provided the analysis is suitable and the price competitive we should then be pleased to advertise this and place orders with you on receipt of firm orders from farmers With regard to the stockfeed aspect of your Scheme there are, as you probably know, certain difficulties insofar as we, not unnaturally, will only sell bonemeal or meatmeal provided it has a guaranteed protein content which is acceptable to the consumer, and the product must, of course, be doubly sterilised and guaranteed free from Anthrax, ct\,l though we are unsure whether this would apply to elephant meat and bonemeal. Exporters of all Eaat African produce, Importers of farmers' requ ir em e n ts. Kenya Branohes : Eldoret, Elburgon, Hoey s Bridge. Karatine, Kitaie Kericho, Lumbwa, Lugeri Meregue, Mombase, 11.1010, Naruru NairobI, Naivesha, Nanyuh Naro Moru Rcngei, SOllie, Thomson's Falls, Tanganyike Manag i ng Agents: Tanganyika Asscciation Ltd, Branohes: Arusha. !ringa. Moshi. Oldeani. U wemba.

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Game Warden, Kilifi. -2-l5/JUly/59 Probably your most satisfactory outlet for bulk quantities would be to the Kenya Meat Commission and Express Transport Ltd., in Nairobi, from whom at present we obtain all our requirements of the two products. We trust the foregoing information will be of benefit to you and we look forward to receiving your further comments. Yours faithfully, THE KmqYA FARMERS I ASSOCIA ON (CO-OPERATIVE) LTDQ (D.L. Kendle-Coldwell) Trading Manager. f

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F r om GAZI & GOGONr COCONUT ESTATES. {PLANTATION Phon e GAZI 7 O F F ICE: B A S A 3414 P. O. Box 732, MOM BASA Mombasa, .. .l( ... : . 1. ........ .... 19 .rt. To, f}} R P ____

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J Parker Esq., Game Warden, K ilifi Gentleman, Re: Elephant hair Bracelets. Mess r s Splendid Stores, P .O. B o x 7215 M ombasa. ( Ken y a ) dated: 20th July '59 Your esteemed name has been introduced to lIS by Mr. Ikram Hassan who has been very friendly with us and our brother fr. lIaru o f Darclays bank Mombasa. We want elephant hair bracelets for our shop which is situated on Sheikh Juhdani Road. There are enq iries from tourists who visit our shop and ask for elephant hair bracelets which is a fumbasa Souvenir. We be glad if y u will send us your pricelist togethe r with a sample of tbe same. If your price is f avoura Ie ,ve shull be your permanent customer to buy bracelets from yon in wholesale quantity. fr. Ikram llas<>an, has adV!ised that we shall get the necessary permit from you for bracelets which we shall buy from you and as such we saIl e glad to receive the same from y'>u in order to be safe and within the law. Thankinr.: YOl]o and n anticipation 0 f an early reply, li'or : We are, Very Truly Yours, SPLBNDID C)'J)V; PROP. l' r

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Ilk. Jan P rvz.kvz. Box 3'-/-Ken?fa, [(ud At MC a f)eaA Jan: NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CO. FORT ATKINSON, WISCONSIN R.e..iUAned .to .the .-d.ta.i.UJ 1M.t IfhndG.ff' and J-U.-d.t now ge..iling .to whvz.e a J can ge..i m?f dUJh cleaned ott and w.JU..;te a tew ot ?fOU tiAe tellOW.-d ovvz. iA AtMca. e e J have done a l..i..t..J.le con.i.ac.i. woAh. on .-dome ot .the llerruJ whi..ch ?fOU and J and belJ...eve .thvz.e goiAg .to be a .i.AemendoU.-d demand tOA. .them hvz.e iA Will be 100hiA g tOA.waAd .to A.eceiviAg ?f0uA. .-damp1UJ ot .-dome ot .the and aiAo an?f derruJ .tha.t. ?fOU teel ffOU can ge..i .-d.taA.i.ed, .-duch M g.ebA.a pWWUJ, elephan.t. bA.acele.i..-d, bA.acele.i..-d, e..ic. We aAe p1anni..ng .to .-dell .the iJ1MCLi ebon?f waAe .too, would go along wdh d tiAe. J enj-o?fed veAff much .the wdh ffOU and f)enni../.J Palmvz.. Nex.t. lime ?fOU .-dee Iu..m, gi..ve Iu..m m?f A.egaAeld. Hope.to heaA tA.om ?fOU .-doon. Kind pvwonal SiAcvz.e4-, Na.i.i..onal Supp1?f Co. eo W. PA.UJi..deni. LUR:cmc SUPPLY HEADQUARTERS FOR VO-AG INSTRUCTORS AND AGRICULTURAL LEADERS

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The Secretary, Office of t h e Distri c t CoIIllTlissioner, Central Nyanza, Kisumu. 12th August, 1959 Kisumu Chambers of Commerce, Dear Sir, I forwar d herewith a c opy of a lette r ated 5 8059 received from t he Game a rde n Kilifi Ihich m a y be of to y our members. JffiG;1 .0 Copy to: The Game ;ardern, P O. B ox 34, Y ours faithfully .. DI lCT COMMISSIONE .. CENTRAL NJArZA,!.

PAGE 27

, SOP . "7 S/:t.M -.J L J:'. Q. L v': 12l 58 iVj ",F:AGOL I To a/i. G t UZ-[) Ii. f If/(..;H e i'l ,r J SeJJ dl:eJ MeJ%-r .-J wW f l-eMe. T'v p-JeA.;J'5 / J s laJ). b-Q... 'l \a-J 10 If/so IeJ1 J A Me. f1 .... Q... 11 .. \,1' /'0 -'-/YI-.J . /rv1f1Jr g""$ --

PAGE 28

ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE (UNIVERSITY OF LONDON) ROYAL EGE STREET TELEPHONE EUSTON 53 2 1 ECA/MW Department of Physiology. th August, 1959. Esq., M.A.,M.B.,B.Chir., Barnet General Hospital, Wellhouse Lane, Barnet. Dear Dr.Copeman, Many thanks for your very friendly letter of 31st July, which reached me only last Friday. I an m o s t grateful to you for having written and would b e particularly interested to get in touch with your friend in the Game Department. I shall be a way until the second week in September, but s hould like on my return to meet you to discuss the matter more fully. Yours sin .. w E.C.Amoroso.

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TELEGRAM S AND CABLES, "OALGETY". NAIROBI POSTA L ADDRESS, P .O. BOX 30345. NAIROJil I TELEPHONE, NO. 21281/5 DALGETY AND COMPANY LIMITED HEAD OFFICE I 65 LEADEN HALL STREET LONDON. E C.3 Game Department, P.O. Box 34, KILIFI. Dear Sirs, IN THE UNITe:O KINGDOM) REFERENCE NO. _____ I HAMILTON HOUSE NAIROBI Kenya Colony 12th August 1959 W e refer to your letter of the 5th August addressed to our Nakuru Branch, w hich has been passed here for attention. W e are precluded from handling dried meat and meat products under our distributorship arrangements with the Veterinary Department of Kenya but in your case it may be possible to work in your products alongside theirs. To enable us to consider it further would you please advise what kind of game you intend culling, whether supplies will be available w i t h any regularity and when you propose starting, and on receipt of this information we will consider the matter further. Yours faithfully, DALGETY AND OMPANY LIMITED A E.Alldritt HEAD OF MERCHANDISE

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T e l egra ms: "GAME" Nairobi GAME DEPARTMENT Telephone : No. 20672-3 r.O. I{I""':": I, Ref. No. GA .............. P O e e \/ III J J1 /....1 \/ A a -/ tt t-t ---( /-/'evf-'l r t1 I I 1-: 7Z 4 ---oj u-z.,.t?fe. '-U?kC. ,-

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The Game Warden, P.O. Box 34, KILIFJ. Dear Sir, c/o District Commissioner' s Office, South Nyanza District, P.O. Kisii. 12th August, 1959. Re: DRIED AT. Ref.Your letter of 6/ 8 /52 Very fortunately it has come to my notice that you intend selling Dried .eat to Traders who would be interested. am writing on behalf of my father who is a trader and owns butchery. I should be grateful if you would please let me know particulars of salesand r. how delivery is to be done. On receipt of this, wi endevour to arrange '.'lith my father to plFce in bis order for the quantity he requires. My father is of Central Nyanza, Location South Ugenya, ub-Location Simenya, P.O. Box 18, Yala. As he is well conversant with the sort of trade I hope you will be kind enough to consider his ,application in the light that he is in a better position and well established as a fresh meat seller which will I think move along smothly with dried meat. I am his Elder son and am working in District Commissioner's Kisii. I am to assist my father financially. Yours faithfully,

PAGE 32

Splendid Store, P O Bo x 72 1 5 Mombaaa 11th August '59 I.Co S o Par er Esq., P O o Box 34, Kilifi ( K e ya) Gentleman, Re : hair Bracelets. 'I aclmowledrre 4th inst wlic eceipt 0 your letter o E we t,'8onk von. As lIer .fajesty' s Varship is paying a s hort visit to .fumlasa few days time we might have not t' e e lovementio ed raccleta rom t'e.8o SOld i, order to k aatis their n erl s ''''0 advise you to Sll pl. us t sane at tIe compeatitive prices. To start wit we need 50 bracelets ana pie Re let us k ow w at amount we shou rl rem i t you "to uvVcr t e cost pI s I t are coning to fu m aaa, please sec 1S personall a"t 0' 1.' shop at S eikh Jundani Rd oPlJosite ne al Cinel"1a 3rd Bll0p from Hombaaa TInrd are. fhanki,g you in anticipation of a early epl 0 'Ie are Yours faith ully, 7or: 5P' ID ,J:;. P uP

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TEE AIL liN'lf'lITlUTIE OlF JP>lUBILlI
PAGE 34

. TEE ROYAL lINTn'll"l[J'll"lE OF Pl[JlBLn:CC (INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER) PATRON: HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN LABORATORIES: 23. QUEEN SQUARE. LONDON. W C .!. TELEPHONE: LANGHAM 2731/2 TELEPHONE: TERMINUS 4788/8206 SECRETARY: ARB/ICI 2c W;( A R. HORSHAM. F.C.I.S. YOUR REFERENCE No.: X e 17th August, 1959. Dear Dr. Copeman, I am araid that I am corresponding with the Game Warden, Mr. Ian Parker, through you, as he has not in fact written to me recently, and I am not aware of his address .... I have been making some rather extensive enquiries and feel that, while you may consider that enclosed repLz is a little to the RDint, you will, I thlllk, appreciate that the Institute would not in any way wish to undertake some sort of research work or project which it could not successfully carry out. Perhaps, therefore, you woul d be kind enough to send a copy of this communication to Mr. Parker and ask him to let me have a fairly full reply to it. (I enclose an extra copy for your own personal retention). Please forgive m e if this seems to have taken s ome time to do, but I know that you will appreciate that I want to be as helpful as possible from the Institute's angle. Yours sincerely, --:""S-e-cre t ary P W .M. Copeman, Esq.,M B.,B.Ch., Barnet General Hospital, Wellhouse Lane, Barnet, Herts.

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-COpy Dear Mr. Horsham, x x August 13, 1959. x x I think this is primarily a matter of economics and I consider the Game Warden should do some more thinking on his problem. Thus, he must know -1. Whether elephant meat is, or is not, eaten in Kenya. 2. Wno sells it. 3. Who buys it, and 4. Whether there is a ready market for it, fresh or dried, (like Biltong in South Africa). The question of handling the meat, fresh or dried, chilled or frozen, is linked to the appeal, flavour and palatability, and the economics of marketing rather than to a page of l aboratory results giving the water content of selected cuts of the chilled meat, the protein-nitrogen and total-fat content, a s percentage' of the weight and dried weight, compared with similar values for beef and mutton. The of how it compares as a food is to be answered by e xisting practice; for even i f the values showed results comparable to beef or mutton (and I h ave no reason to believe the results will be very different), a certificate to this effect from the Institute would not pf:l'rsuade people in Kenya to e a t elephant meat, or use elephant fat, if it had a flavour they did not c are for. Whale meat in this country is a strict p aral;La. If, after thinking again, the Game Warden wishes the tests made, w e would require to have one-pound samples cuts, delivered by air-freight, chilled, so as to give reasonably results compa r able w i'ch similar values for meat obtained fresh in this country. A s regards the glands, Messrs. Burroughs Wellcome & Co., Euston Roa d Lon don, N W.I. wou l d I believe, be interested in the pancreas, Mess r s .w ans Medica l Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex would be interested in the thyroid, and each of these firms would, if written to, supply instructions to how the g l ands were to be delivered from the m oment the animal was sacrificed, while Dr. P.J. Randle, Department of Biochemistry, university of Cambridge, would no doub t be interested in the pituitary gland. x x x Mr. A.R.Horsham,F.C.I.S., Secretary: The R oy a l Institute of Public Health and Hygiene, 28, 'Portland P l ace, London, W.l.

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y Telephone: HOP 3500 Ext : Ref.: PMFB/ST Dr. P. Copeman, HOSPITAL, LONDON, S.E.l 12th August 1959. Barnet General Hospit Welhouse Lane, 1 \ BARNET, Herts. I? _Dear Peter, \.j Thank you y interesting letter. It seems to me that some useful purpose might be served by employing elephant glands in some way or another, although at the moment I find it rather difficult to suggest anything myself. I am glad you have written to Professor Ameroso as he might well have a bright idea about this. The other two people who might be interested in this are Sir Solly Zukerman, who is not only an endocrinologist but also the Secretary of the Zoo, and Dr. A. S. Parkes and I will mention this matter to them in due course. Another line which might be worth exploring is the various Pharmaceutical firms that make hormone extracts. I lave friends in o wo 0 ese drug houses and I will discuss the matter with also in due course. With kind regards, Yours P M F. Bishop

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NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CO. FORT ATKINSON, WISCONSIN TELEPHONE JORDAN 3-2446 1t1n.. !Jan P aMVt P.O. Box JlI-!<.iLlti., Ken?fa Colon?f, [rud. AtJUca Oc;/obVt 6, 1959 \ \ \ \ (fftv, f)eaA !Jan: !J.t wO/.J g-ood .to g-e.t ?f0Ult ni.ce letiVt ot Sep.tembVt 27.th .toda?fJ and !J can /.J Ultel?f ap p.ILeci.a.t e ?fO UIt ditt i.cu.l.ti..e-a !J (JJ7l ho pi.ng-ho we vVt, .tha.t ?fOU will be able .to -dend U4 .the collec.ti.on ot /.Jhi.n4 and elephan.t haiA b.ILaceleU and o .t hVt Uem4, O/.J -doon O/.J po/.J/.Ji.ble. !J.t be be-a.t .to label .t he pachag-e /'commVtci.ai /.Jample-a ot no I /I Vo.A..Ue Ye-a, we aAe planni.ng-ano.t hVt /.Ja trvzi. .to Ken?fa, p.ILobabl?f duJUng-.the mon.i.M ot f}anuaA?f and ]eb.ILuaA?f, 1961, and!J (JJ7l hopi.ng-.tha.t we can have g-oi.ng-tull /.JeO/.Jon b?f .tha;[ .ti.me. SUltel?f would enjo?f -dome /.Jhoo.ti.ng-wuh ?fOU a;[ .tha;[ .ti.me. Kind p Vl/J 0 n al wi.-dh e-a Si.ncVte-4;, Supplff Co. LUR:cmc SUPPLY HEADQUARTERS FOR VO-AG INSTRUCTORS AND AGRICULTURAL LEADERS

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P. Z I M MER MAN N YOUR REF. OUR REF. e t I .IF CABLES: ZIMTAX. NAIROBI BANKERS: BARCLAYS BANK C C O PHONE 80251 the 7 2 2 2 1 2 .w1e.Jhant II II II II Baby I .) .;J1 e P O. BOX 2127 N A I ROB I KENYA COLONY 1 9 t h O ctober, 1959. the Game 1 ana8ement u c heme (2 '.5.20/- ... 140/ -II @' .10/ ... s:tS. 20/-"ront 'eet 40/-.. 80/ -II II G 30/-.. ... W e 60/ -II ;'loot I. 1'/ v ...J. 1 0 / hant Front 30/ 60/ -Total : .> 3 7 0 / Z i:nL1e rmBJ1.J.1. II t

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lau arker Esq., e Hi ver Game .P.O .-Voi Dear Ian,. Thank you Tery m f...or your letter.r didf(.It knovi Vihather had your address right or not,h o',7ever it found you which is the main thing I have been tl1.inking this hole thing over, and have come to th e conclusion the best thing r can do is come d own and see yo u, on the s,tJot and work out the best and most economic way of cOilecting and sh e lli n g the nuts 0 nth e s ,tJot. n c e you h ave .J:I ut the nut son t h e r a1 1 at Voi or ac.Road the cost to ola i vlill be in the region of ,-,/W a bag.That means that landed a t ,"'ola i they would cost me.t.C 16/..:0.1 know the Asian Iho is su l ying me a.t the moment is getting tnem from the Turkana at 7/_ a ba.g shelled,he then charges me 1.)/_ abag to t rans,tl rt _them 190 miles on his lorry,170 miles of which he does Owuywa;y em.tJty. As faT as r .can see thel'e are t w o alternatives 191 You sell them to us unshelled 0 r 2) 7' e send yo u down a set 0 f ?aw machines and you shell and slice them i n "lhich case we cquld a70rd to ay ou somewhere in the re on of 40/ ... a bag.The sliceing in itself IS t a bi g j 0 b.But as the rat io i el aworimat ely .) bag s 0 f nut s to 1 bag 0 f slices the s av&ing i n trans ort w o uld be considerable. I am free to come do,' n ro.oare or less any time in t e next

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B UTTO N MANUFACTURERS LAKE SOLAI KENYA fo rt ni gh t ,I have a ]'and Rover cam..t-' bea et c ., so if y o u co uld ve me a COUi> e of 1."1. PS '..,hen you a r e at. h o me I will ni.t;J dow and see you. I think this would be \70rth doin a s I am .;;Jure we ca Nork o 'n: a Nay mske :::l .::Jrofit ':1.nd I IJet t:he nut s cnee.l:'er n d also SU1l0rt es.n 3.n:i 0 0 d caus and .lot 3.n si .2e.rsor a t h e IE's s 11 t 1. S l .IS Ll::; :J.a1l.tJjer am. Yours si cerly

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ED MA,GRUDER O I L PROPERTIES MIDLAND, TEXAS 527 M I OLAND TOWER May S, 1962 MUTUAL 4-8781 e Hr. Ian Parker c/o Tsavo National Park Voi, Kenya Dear Ian, I realise that there has beeR a long delay between my departure aDd letter. However, I had to wait a long time for these maps t o be sent from Uncle Sam, it seems that the stock of these seldom ordered maps is kept in the Panama Canal Zone. here they are and I see that they are really as erroneous and incomplete as some of the others I have seen. Last week I saw our congressman from this district and will have to make arrangements to go to Washington to have a long enough visit with him to get any progress made in regard to the effort to import some of your African animals to this count!'".>'. I am very serious about this and feel that one of the primary ways in which they can be preserved is through importing them into this country and putting some of them in some of our National Parks for the purpose of exhibiting them to the public. Our Comgressman is the Chairman of the House of Representatives Comrrdttee on National Parks and is in a position to help a great deal. One of the largest and most suitable parks in the country from the standpoint of terrain, climate, vegetation, and remoteness is in his district and is the Big Bend Park. This place would be perfect for almost all of the plainsgame. I feel that they would breed and live under almost the same conditions that they enjoy over there when they are released in this park, which covers thousands of square the Big Bend country. Day before yesterday I had a letter from the president of the Shikar Safari Club who told me that he and a group of Californians have the approval of the Department of Agriculture to set up a game refuge fDr animals from Africa out there. I am going to put him in touch with you if you think it will be feasible for you and the Game Department to set up a prog:r'arn of capturing and shipping some pfthese animals to us. Ian, it was wonderful for me to have the oportunity of meeting and being with' you and Chris. I thoroughly enjoyed my stay on the Galana with y ou. I know that your work is often frustrating and I admire an d appreciate your pluck in staying with it. Perhaps if we can set up this scheme to buy some of your animals from you, it can become more rewarding for you. I would appreciate hearing from you in

PAGE 42

e -2 -regard to the above and I hope that you will be able t o get the Game Department to sanction a such as this. Please give Chris my regards and also little Susan. I look forward to hearing from Sincerely, Edl

PAGE 43

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PAGE 44

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PAGE 45

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PAGE 46

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PAGE 49

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PAGE 50

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PAGE 51

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PAGE 52

. -

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WHY 5,000 ELEPHANTS MAY BE r J\T A TIME of growing worry over M. Africa's vanishing wildlife, game oj( wardens in Kenya fear they may have 1. to shoot 5,000 elephants This would be the biggest such slaughter ever The reason, as reported by NBC correspondent George Cl ay in a broad cast from Nairobi: An' aerial count in Southeast Kenya tallied 15,000 ele phants in 13,000 square miles-5,000 more than fhe area can support. Each e leph ant, Mr. Clay pointed out, eats a fifth of a ton of vegetation a day. If left alone, the 15,000 elephants will have eaten all the forage in the area within a year. Then, not only the elephants but other game will starve. Game conservationists met in Nairo bi on September 14 to seek an a lternative to slaughter, which they t:egard as particul arly tragic in light of predic tions the free-roaming African fillephant may disappear in a few decades. 16 KENYA ElEPHANT-There are 5,000 too many, and their appetites threaten to parks of vegetation, starve both elephants and other animals U. S NEWS & WORLD REPORT, Sept. 24, 1962

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It--L----: (?J ARTMENT OF VETERINARY CLINICAL STUDIES TELEPHONE 55641 Ian Parker, Esq., c/o P O B o x 861 Nakuru, Kenya, East Africa. Dear Ian, r / 1 SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE I Aj/'-/ V INGLEY ROAD I V ( / CAMBRIDGE / 1 j 2Y '2..C"O /' ;S< (Jftk (7 lO O O '1 .", 29th l vay 1964. .,0 -(/ ,.. I 0 0 I 0 '0' C) 7--, :: 3 ,(' :l A.r. .. J Oust a line to let you know I have d iscovered a potential ma rket for elephant b iltong. The G reyhound Racing Association k ennels just north of Lond o n have about 500 dogs, eac h of which consumes t l b meat per day, cooked, for 5 days a w eek. At present they are feeding third quality whale meat, vlhich i s cost i n g t h em 1/2td per l b I discussed the e lephant idea with t h e veterinary surgeon in char ge, Col. Coulden, and h e was keen to try a sample. I have also checked u p on i mport restrictions; there are none as far as I can see that apply to elephant meat. If y o u are interested, I suggest that you quote Coulden a price per ton, and offer to send 1 0 0 Ibs free, t h e G R A t o pay freight charges t hey m ight pay air far e Y OU could obviousl y compete very favourably on the a bove costi n g s !he address is: If Col. L .. Coulden, M R C V S., Greyhound Racing Associations Ltd., l'he Hook l-':ennels, () aW-Northavv, 1) Bar, rf/' rhddle sex. .. .... tJ}-. \-/ -. t I will be sendi n g you, to pass o n t o Alistair, a manuscri p t of a paper I have just I'rri tten 1 'li t h Buss on elep hant o varies. 1 will also send a copy to Don s tewart. Coul d you also pass t h e above gen. on to Don? Best 1tlishes,

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'l R ED MAGRUDER It ; OIL PROPERTIES MIDLAND. TEXAS 527 MIDLAND TOWER September 19, 1962 MUTUAL 4-8781 Mr. Ian Parker Galana Game Management Scheme P.O. Voi, Kenya Dear Ian: Some little time ago I was in California and visited with the man about whom I told you earlier. He told me that he had met Ian Grimwood in Seattle, Washington when they were there together for a world conference of some sort conderning game. I believe that it would be profitable for you to mention this to Grimwood with the end in view of exporting some of your rarer animals to Mr. Maurice A. Machris, 550 South Flower, Los Angeles 17, California. I have a letter from him concerning the Arabian Oryx in which he took a great interest and apparently discussed at length with Grimwood. I heard some time ago from John Lawrence telling me of his various trips to your part of the country recently. Today I talked with Bobby Burns, he is apparently going to come over there again in the near future to hunt with John again. You must right at this time have some of my friends from this part of the country there Bill and Anne Meeker and Bobby Fre You will find aclipping from one of our most popular national magazines enclosed. It is not hard for me to guess where the ?omes from nor Is the p ttle /; .. -tf... ;j:;; plane stl.ll 1n good shJpe?, CYUC4 / 2li.r_ :.vvJT., My plans 0 raise some of your game are still ra e since it appears that there is a great deal of red tape to be cut along the way to getting approval to import wild animals. Give my very best to Chris and little Susan. Let me hear from you when you have time t 0 write.

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Wildlife Utilization Services CONSU LTANTS AN D GAME R A NCHERS Directors: J I Dr. A S. Mossman !"t, M ... h OY\. Ian Parker c/o A. H. Mowa P.O. Box 861 NAKURU, Kenya Dear Ian, (Pvt.) ltd. Tel. Add.: "GAME" PRI' 'I Ii Q} 9 J8Wb\ (D. 130' )(' I' 7 \tcST ffl8118e8itl y(CI."c> i 88WTIIEAI"-lleDI!8h\ U. C. R. N. Dept. of Zoology Private Bag 167 H S A LISBURY, S.R. August 8, 1964 Many thanks for your helpful letter of July 31st. I'm wri ting to Grzimek and Glover as you suggest. I suspect lL-Jtnow who has been maligning the g ame ranchers. Hope Grzimek will be able to tell where he got his information from. If anything is u n writing we may be getting somewhere. The shooting is going ahead with the Dep artment of National Parks and Wild Life Mgt. doing the dirty work. There is some little hope that they may be able to introduce a little sanity in spite of the pressures that will be put on them. Probably the only assistance possible now will be moral support for the "Game" Dept. to act for modifications in plans, and pressure that may eventually lead to abandonment of this method. The selected species will be (they hope) exterminated over an area of 4,000 square miles. The Vets have been hammering me and W.U.S. but in spite of I this, we are now back in operation and should, we hope, be able to accumalate a small financial backlog. Hope it will be sufficient J to weather their next attack. There is no demand for consultants here; at least not for the only people who c a n do the work You might contact people in this country --it is quite possible that you could find consulting work here, and pOSSibly in S. Africa as well. A t present we are solely a game ranching company. I'll enclose a couple of things that may interest you. The fact that we game r anch probably prevents some consulting--I'm not sure this is so however. Peter Johnstone has retired as a director but is a major share holder. Right now he is busy getting his leg operated on a job that has needed doing for 3 or 4 years now. Your hippo data are darn interesting --good job Best regards, Archie Mossman. SUPPLIERS OF QUALITY GAME PRODUCTS. CONSULTANTS ON GAME AND VELD MANAGEMENT. GAME RANCHING TECHNIQlfES. WILDLIFE POPULATION ASSESSMENT

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I ran Parker P. O. Box 861 c/o Ai H. Mowat, Esq., F.R.G:.S E., NAKURU, Kenya Dear Ian, University Oollege of Rhodesia & Nyasaland Post Bag 167 H Salisbury, S. Rhodesia June 23, 1964 Many thanks indeed for your most interesting letter of the 8th of June 1964. Your comments on the fate of the Galana area are most interesting. It seems Grimwood has found it difficult to Qhange. As you know, somewhat similar troubles shifted him out of N. Rhodesia. Where will he go next? I hope you, your wife, and Alistair Graham are able to make a go of the wildlife research and management in East Africa. It will be purely a case of people recognizing the need for your services. you do just consulting type work or are you actually planning to game ranch for people? I'll send you what I can under. separate cover. Forget the costs and postage routine. 1111 also try to give you a list of references that may be useful and will it with this letter. The Veterinary people together with least the Secretary for Agriculture here are using the spectre of tsetse fly advance to achieve certain ends. At the February 14th meeting of the Game Ranchers.Association on Buffalo Range, the Director of Veterinary Services, Mr. T. Lees May stated the Veterinary Department's proposals for control of tsetse fly when asked about the rumours that were flying about. He shocked almost all of us with his statements, including his statement that they proposed to exterminate all bushbuck, warthog, kudu, bush pig, elephant and buffalo !from the Gona-re-Zhou game reserve, and the smme over vast stretches, of Southern Rhodesia. The Game Ranchers Association combatted this and I, as secretary, did much of the work. The Vets and related Agriculture people, including almost certainly the Sectly for Agriculture, Oharles E. Murray, have adopted a policy of getting me personally and of getting the game r anchers too, but especially the company of which I am a director. Their approach has been and continues to be one of discrediting us as wanton slaughterers for private profit. They also make things especially difficult for my company in other ways. I had not realized that they had got quite as far afield as Kenya, but it does not It would be most useful if we could learn how the rumours you mention arrived in Kenya. Since contacting people overseas on behalf of the Game Ranchers Association (I agreed with this approach under the Circumstances) I have been taken to task by several elected members of government and by the new Secty for

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2 Natural Resources. Their approach is t ha t this sullys the image of S. Rhodesia and that it is none of their business anyway although that latter is implied and not said. They have made promises of opposition to unreasonable slaughter too, which is good of them. We have been waiting for some sort of clear statement or evidence of wha t is going to be done before c alling for further help. The time is probably very near. They have promised to contact us before going ahead and so far h ave not done so. The most we have said is that if it c a n be clearly shown to our satisfaction tha t game shooting corridors of reasonable width and l Ength must be established to protect existing enterprises, we will back them doing this. This I think is a reasonable approach. However, a reasonable approach is the last thing they appear to w ant, because their true aims seem to have little or nothing to do with tsetse fly as far a s I c a n make out. We have never s aid tha t we recommend a policy of wild life extermination as a method of tsetse c ontrol. By the way, the E. Afrixan Soc. wouldn't support us because of the political implications. Africa has some very unlovely personalities to balance with the nice ones. Sometimes I t hink the unlovely ones are the most common. Certainly most will put up with almost anything to avoid a scrap for a good c ause when they see that they may personally loose in the process. In a way I suppose tha t is just good se.nse, but it surely doesn't favor good government and g ood conservation. A t the moment we are "hanging tough" to see wha t will actually happen. The game people are supposed to do the shooting which will almost certainly g o ahead. In a public statement Dr. Cockbill the other night, said they would shoot in an arE a of 4,000 'square miles. I doubt tha t we will consider these to be of "reasonable width and length". If you can find out how those rumours got going in Kenya lid be very much obliged. Hope all will g o well for you. Please give our regards to your wife. Sincerely yours, Archie S Mossman asm/mlm

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IAN PARKER I recommend strip counts (in a vehicle, on a bicycle, on foot, on horseback or some other) for brushy country. In bush country, a standard predetermined strip width is unrealistic in my estimation. All animals of the species are not seen within the strip calculated for each species. Hence, the arguments of Davis in Manual of Wildlife Investigational Techniques are invalid. You can prove t his to your own satisfaction by comparing results with 1, 2, 3, 5 observers per vehicle. You will find that the more observers, assuming they don't talk, the more animals seen and the higher the calculated population. We were also able to check against a known population in Similar conditions. -rhe method grossly underestimates small buck such as duiker and steenb"dlck. In your area, it would pay to attempt a standardizatiom of spoor counts against known populations or at least against some other census techniques. Savory has bee n using spoor counts in this country, I t hink with repsonable success where only rough estimates are reEluired. And this has always been the case where he has used the technique. In America, much reliance is put on percentage use estimates of key forage species and game takes are related to need for more or less grazing pressure. Past history of known kills allows one to increase or decrea.se the kill as necessary even though never actually knowing the numbers of animals present. One would to know the number of animals, but it isn't really essential for relatively rough management. Where one wants to take a maximum permissible yield I'm afraid we'll have to know how many animals weIll be dealing with. Some references (list not very selective) that may be of use follow--ours first, reprints exhausted on most. Dasmann, Raymond F. and Archie S. Mossman. 1960. T he economic value of Rhodesian game. The Rhdesian Farmer, April 15, 1960. 1961. Commercial use of game animals on a Wild Life (now Africana & E. Af. Wildlife Journal) 3 (3): 6-14. Also Mimeo. __ __ 1962a. Reproduction in some un gUlates in Southern Rhodesia. Jour. Mamm. 43 (4): 533-537. (enclosed). 1962b. Road strip counts for estimating ungulates. Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 26 (1): 101-104. Dasmann, Raymond F. and A. S. Mossman, 1962. Abundance and population structure of wild ungUlates in some areas of Sputhern RhodeSia. Jour. Wildl. Mgmt. 26 (3): 262-268. Mossman & Dasmann. 1962. Game Ranching Handbook (encloed). Mossman & Dasmann. 1962. Ovulation & implantation Impala.(enclldl Mossman, et ale 1963. Neck snare. (enclosed). Dasmann, Raymond F. and Archie S. Mossman. 1962. Population studies of impala in Sfuuthern Rhodesia. Jour. Mamm. 43 (3): 375-395.

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2 Riney, Thane and Graham Ohild. 1964. Limitations of horn height as an index to ageing the comm on duiker (Sylvicapra grimrnia). Arnoldia 1 (1): 1-4. (Nat'l M useum of S. Rhodesia) Child, Graham. 1964. Growth and ageing criteria of impala, aepyceros melampus. Arnoldia ? PP. 128-135. Child, Graham and Thane Riney. 1964 (?) dentition in the common duiker (SIlvica12ra grimmia), impala ceros melampus) and Sharp's grYbuck .. (Raphicerus sharpei). Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia No. 27 B pp. 1-4. You probably know the East work of Beuchner, Buss, Petrides, Swank, Longhurst (not published I guess), Ledger, Payne, Harthoorn, Talbots, etc. If you don't already have it, I strongly recommend that you get Mosby, et al, 1963. Wildlife Investigational Techniques. (Second Edition): is obtainable from Wildlife Society, Fred G. Evenden Exec. Secty. 2000 P Street, N. W., Suite 615, Washington, D. O. 20026, U. S. A. Dasmann, Raymond F. has a very nice little book out called "African G ame Ranching"--publibhed in England. It probably won't tell. you anything you don't already know, but it is a nice, simple, easy-reading summary of thihgs. For ankasy reading treatise on wildlife management get Durward Alren's "Our Wildlife Legacy". The best general r ange text is probably Stoddard and Smith --"Range Management". 1955. A.S.M. asm/mlm

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( Ian Parker 6alana Game Management P O VOl Kenya Dear Ian: / Division of Natural Resources Humboldt State College Arcata, 25 April I ( \ It was a pleasure t receiv./your letter of April 1 8 and I look anagement Scheme. forward to seeing your rep 0 f the Galana Game I 'll try to answer your questions. You comment that "development has virtually no limit--the greater i the capital available the greater the development." I think this is the place to start in my reply. There is a definite limit to the productivity (Energy fixation rate) of any organism. Therefore, there is a definite limit to the results that can be obtained from development. Secondly, w ith domestic stock, the curve of production against capital investment levels off at the top. In the case of net return on capital investment, the curve crosses from profit to loss. To my knowledge, no such curves j hav e been worked out for game. All of his means that with i n a given geo, graphic unit, there are both actual and practical limits to what can be accomplished with investment. '? ,',) W ,,,,",,", ;;7":"!1 . '"t.. \. the output of game c a n a lmost ceftainly be increased with "development." W e know, for example, that on good range deer breed earlier, prGduce more twins, and rear them more successfully than on poor range. One of the simplest, most useful, and most economical ways to achieve this i s to crop tha. animals, maintaining an optimum population relative to their environment generally and forage especially. I n terms of the sigmoi d population increase curve, we try to maintain the populations near the top of the exponential increase portion of the curve. There is every reason to expect similar results with African game but I know of no data that can be to assess this. This is obviously one of the places where study is urgently needed. A simple "development" is to ensure surface water in formerly dry areas where good forag e exists. This has worked for game elsewher e and it should !J also work in Africa. Again, adequate "before" and "after" data are not a v ailable for any area in Africa, to my knowledge. Suggestive observations howe ver, have been made. Ca t tle can supplement game. However, the increase in production is dependent upon the extent to which they do not compete ecologically with other species. For example, i f they eat a plant species not eaten by other animals they alone w ill convert it into meat. Approximately to t h extent they eat plant species eaten normally b y other meat producers the will decrease the meat production by the other species. Based upon the efficiency with which the two use the species, one could choose between them, e verything else equal. It never is.

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25 April 1 963 Page 2 In p ractical terms, i t may be possible to increase sustained production slightly i n Africa by adding cattle sheep and goats to the existing fauna. Ther e are, some sociological relationships between man and his domestic stoc k that make me very, very cautious about suggesting such additions. Man with domestic stock causes overgrazing, erosion and environ mental degradation. This i s almost an axiom. The exceptions are so rare as to excite p rofound interest and surprise when I don't think i t is safe to expect an increase in production in Africa c omparable with what might possibly be done in temperate areas upon introduction of new species. The reason lies in the theory that the African fauna has had a long time to evolve. The number of large ungulate species i n Africa attest to the c orrectness of the notion tha t most niches for ungulates are probably pretty well f'illed already. S i ncerely, Coordinator, Game Management ASIJI: 1m

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DIVISION OF NATURAL RESOURCES I. S C. Parker GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY HUMBOLDT STATE COLLEGE JVIay 23, Galana River Game Management S cheme P O Voi Kenya Dear Ian: ARCATA CALIFORNIA Thank you for your letter of May 15 which a r rived yesterday. I can well understand your concern over the possibility that the cattle ranching efforts south of the Galana Game IVla nagement S cheme will eventually pose a threat to your area. A t this distance I find it difficult to make a really sensibl e judgment concerning the feasibility of introducing cattle developmen t into the game manage ment scheme. I am especi ally impressed with your comments that Hall the dry weather watering points are now sett.led and inaccessible to animals.1T You also mention that the a rea has many po tential larg e dam sites. If this is so, there must also b e consid erable opportunity for c onstruction of smaller d ams. When you took me on the drive up the Galana Rive r and bac k I was favorably impressed with the a bundance and v ariety of animals seen near the river. In fact, as you know I was convinced that in consideration the distribution of area was heavily o ver-stocked by herbivorous animals. Development of water for g ame in Southern Rhodesi a throug h the use of small dams and w indmills has proven quite successful when done correctly. Since cattl e require a far closer spacing of vvater holes than 1 ',,'5t g ame animals, it appears to m e that the develop ment o f w ater wou l d be a not only for increasing game but also for cattle. As I see it then, the question becom e s one of t i m i n g as well as financing If it is not necessary to show a larg e fina ncial returni.7f rom your area almost immed iately, then one h a s time for ,natural increaseDthe animal stocks to provide the financial return. One means of increasing the carrying c a p acity for I big game animals that drink is to increase the amoun t of time the temporary water remains in areas where good grazing occurs In other words, vvith a minim u m outlay one can deepen and protect temporar y water holes ho lding the animals on the wet season range for a longer peri od of time. This can be expe cted to increase the g ame po pulations approximatel y in p r portion to the increas e oflbhose in a reas of good grazing.
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May 23, 1 963 Page 2 overseas markets when the Africans themselves really need the meat. If this problem could be solved, I doubt that you would have any trouble obtaining all the development capital that you might wish for. './ tv (r{.A 4ft.4>\..C In estimating the time that will, b _e..Byailable before financial results;, compete successfully with catt l ehou will h ave to know approximately how many animals you've got and about how fast you can expect them to increase given favorable conditions. Therefore, I am very h a ppy to hear that you are making an atte mpt to census your area and I cert a inly look forward to seeing the results you obtain. i-<-lMfN""-" -'I I have been offered aftlectuFeship at the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and i f all goes as expected we will be arriving t here by Se ptember 1. This means that I am going to be very busy between now and then, and I may not be able to get at an analysis of your Road Strip Count data. If you have the p o pulation estimates worked out I certainly ought to find time to look over your data and comment on them. It would be very nice i f we could find time to visit you a gain and look things over on the ground, but I doubt that this will b e po s sible I understand that Dr. Lee Talbot, University of Califor n i a at Berkeley, will be cornin g to Africa for two months, starting in June, to evaluate the many requests for g ame ranching funds that the United Nations has received. I think it mi ght be wise for you to contact him directly if you can for any comments he may have. I will thermofax your letters to me, and send them t o h im. Please give my regards to your wife. How' s the baby? Your s sincerely, A S Mossman Coordinator, Game Manag ement

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PRIVATB \ \ \ f"}.'1 I' I.S.C. PARKER GAM/16/1/11 dated 25.10.60, J.L.H. enclosing copy letter L Farrer-Brm'ffi to Croskill of 20.10. 60 "they do not feel able to consider the suggestion that the Foundation grant m ight be regarded as applicable to other approved game management schemes until the position relating to the G.R. M.S. has been satisfactorily settled from the Foundation' s point of view" I was able to bring your letter of the 15th S ept. before the trustees of the Foundation at their last meeti ng They a sked me to l e t you know that"\ 1 The point at issue is, as you kno w the sale of ivory. In the proposals originally submitted to the Foundation, there was not any question of the proceeds from the sale of ivory_ being excluded from the financial record of the s c heme -the purpose of which vias to ascertain the amount of livelihood that could be brought back to the Waliangulu tribe. Had the Foundation known that receipts from ivory "\V-ere to be taken for general revenue and not be credited to the Scheme it v!Quld not -indeed could not, as a charitable oTganisation -have made the grant. I am, therefo desired by the trustees to ask the Kenya Government to carry out the terms on "1;-rhich the Foundation I S gra.nt itja.S sought. It maybe added that, provided the ivory receipts were credited to the GR,S, the Founda"Cion would be satisfied if, for the time being the sum in excess of the annual grant in-aide "Tere placed to a special reserve not available for expenditlre during the first three years of the Scheme. I.R. Griml,vood to R.A.F. Hurt, 25.3.60. Thank you for your ) letter of the lL tho { { the idea of tal{in over the GRS as I run certain it is going to be I am very glad that you so kindly to g no sinecure. 11

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T e l egrams: "GAME", Nairobi Telephone : No. 20672-3 R ef. No. GA ... .............. if '. GAME DEPARTMENT P.O. Box 241, NAIROBI .. r. .

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TI-IE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION PATRON: H. M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOPFREY GIBBS,K.C. M .G. DIReCTOR : Lesue PARReR BROWN C.B.e. Nuffield Lodge, Regenrs Pdrk,London,Nwl Telegrams: PERSONAL 31st January, 1964. Dear Mr. Parker, I have now received from Roger Short the copy of your Galana River Scheme Report, and have found it very interesting and illuminating. I have' also had the benefit of a long talk with Roger. You have certainly had your share of difficulties, but I do think encouraging progress has been made, and it is of course particularly gratifying tliat proposals are now afoot to put the scheme on a 100% commercial basis. I do hope this will succeed. What I would like to ask you for are two things. First, so that I may return your report .to Roger for his own reference, I wonder if yeu .can. send me a duplicate. I thought this should not be any problem because I notice it has been stencilled. The second thing is that for the purposes we ought to have a shorter summary of progress made in the three-year period, and which brings right up to date with the prospects for the future. This summary report should properly come from the authorities responsible for tb.e scheme, and whothlihdle th.-e Foundation" s grant, namely the Ministry of' Tourism, Forests and Wila Life. A letter from Mr. Webster, as long ago as April 1962, did in fact refer to a draft of such a report, which was to be s 'ent on, but so far as I can see this was never received. Would you feel able to take this up with Major Grimwood and/or the Ministry? With all good wishes, Ian Parker Esq. Ga1ana River Management Scheme, sincerely, J. W. McAnuff, Assistant Director. c/o The Ministry of Tourism, Forests and Wild Life, P. O. Box 30027, Nairobi, Kenya.

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THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION PATRON: H. M QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOFFREY GlBBS,K.C.M.G. DIRECTOR : LESLIE PARRER-BRO ; C B .E. Nuffield Lodge, Regents PdrkLondon,NWI/-K\\ V ... PRImrose 8871-9 7 \ \ Nu"="' Loo'oo N W CVIII/46 lOtB: Dear Mr. Parker, Thank you very much for your interesting letter, and I am most grateful for the copy'of your Galana River Game Management Scheme report. I can now return the other one to Roger Short. I hadn't quite realised what your own personal position was nowadays, but I d c of course, fully understand that it might be difficult for you to extract, on our behalf, an official report from the government authorities. Nonetheles s, we do, of course, have the right to insist that they produce something, and if your own intervention fails, I shall not hesitate to write direct to the officials concerned. Meanwhile, I do wish you every success with the new venture, and again, I am very' grateful to you for bringing me up to date. With best wishes, Yours sincerely, Iv. J. W. McAnuff Ian Parker, Esq., c/oA.H. Mowat, Esq. F.R.C.S.E., P. O Box 861, Nakuru, KENYA.

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THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION PATRON: H. M QUEE:N ELIZABETH THE: QUEEN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOFFREY GIBBS,R. C .M.G. DIRECTOR: LE5UE PARRER'BROWN, C B .E. Nuffield Lodge, Regents Park,London,N:w.l PRImrose 8871-9 Telegrams: Nurround London N .W. I COM/46 20th May, Dear Mr. Parker, Unfortunately Dr. McAnuff is away ill at the moment, so I am writing to thank you for your letter of the 12th May. We hope that he may be back in the office next week, when he will see your11.etter, and will be able to consider what action should now be taken. It is certainly very disappointing to hear that the scheme has fallen through in this way. Ian Parker Esq. P.O. Box 861, Nakuru, Kenya. Yours sincerely, 6 c:= Secretary to Dr. McAnuff.

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Dr. R .. V .. Short, Dept. or Clinical Studies, Sc hool or Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, CAMBRIDGE, E ngland .. Dear R oger, ./ P.O. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya. 12th May, 1964. H e rcwi t h a c o p y 01' a letter to N u rrield, a n e w spaper cutting and t w o m e moranda.. Tedious and r epetitive rea d i n g but virtually a l l a spects of o u r 'pr ob l e m a r e c o vered. IV d b e m o s t grateful ror your t h oughts and cormnent s.. Cotlid you gau g e Nuffield's reacti o n for m e ? very best wishes, Y o u r s aye,

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T h e lTui'fie1d Found ation, Nuf'fie1d L o d ge, R egents Par'k, M?NDOl'J .. .:1 .. Dear H l .. P o .. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya. 12th May, 1964" I ;r>egret to inform you that t h e project to take over the arne Ha nageme n t Scteme has fallen througllg Attached are two and a neDspap c r c utting which? though t edious r adi n e give the position us it s t and:; today .. It is very disappoi nting t he.t the pr'c;ject han foundered o n t.he obstin::.'.cy o f ne wan J t v.uuld seem now thai t. 1 e papt four yea:cs i . orland th inY ster haD een ,Hs t eC/. '. e v e'"' ;Y' bein.g made b;y the C061st ReG .cmnJ Guv rl1f:1ent and tl1c C\Jntr-a l Hinistl'Y of t o t l e f7c ere' 011 the lines ell v i saged., but the (}l:;unp. Dep1 :rtmcnt. t s o.ttitviie first has to be As Y0'Lli' PouvdE\tio n 'Vr more ively response than V'J wou l d be :eox> h.eom ing .:'rOIn he o f l;atura l I f yO'l have lOt y';::'C rc '>ei-0 d. :..... C()P:I of t.he r e p ort officially t h ifJ m i.;ht 1Je justific:?!. t ion f o r OUC,h un approach. I o. 010:;: .60 for suggestlne YOLl e nter a sordid Gov-errunent wran gle, but .:.. intend to leave no stone unturn.ed to get the c herne progl'essing in the right dil'ectionc With heQt wishes, Yours sincerely, Ian Parker.

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THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION PATRON: H. M QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HON. 5JR GEOFPREY G1BBS,K. C M .G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE PARRER'BROWN, C.B.E. Nuffield Lodge, Regents Pdrk,London,Nwl PRImrose 8871-9 Telegrams: Nuffound London N .W. I CVIII/46 Dear Mr. Parker, Thank you very much for yo e 23rd February, and I am exceedingly gr for your efforts to get US an official report on the Gci.ana River Management Scheme. I hope these will be successful, if not, as you say, we will make a direct approach. With many thanks again, and all good wishes, Ian Parker Esq. Yours sincerely, J. W. McAnuff, Assistant Director. c/o A. H. M ow atE sq. F. R C S. E. P.O. Box 86 1 Nakulllu, Kenya.

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THE QUEEN MOTHER DIRECTOR: LESLIE FARRER-BROWN C B .E. Nuffield Lodge, Regents Park,London,Nwl COMj46 1st June, 1964. Dear Mr. Parker, e Many thanks for your letter, and for glvlng us the up-to-date story on the Galana Scheme. It is certainly all rather sad. I greatly welcome your advice, but I think in the first instance I ought to do the more straight 'forwaa:d thing of requesting an official report from the Ministry, and decide whp.t next to do after that. I shall in any case be going out that way in August, and might well take that opportunity of having some higher level discussion if that seems sensible. I would hope also that I might have the pleasure of meeting you, and on present plans I should be in Nairobi over the 17th -19th August. With best wishes, Ian Parker Esq. P.O. Box 86 1 Nakuru, Kenya. J. W. McAnuff, A cting Director.

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THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION 10th June 1964 Dear Mr Parker, Many thanks for your letter, and I am sorry about this further impediment to getting the Galana scheme established on a permanent footing. On present plans, I expect to be in and around Nairobi on 18th, 19th and 20th August. I will, of course, confirm this to you later when the details of my itinerary have been finally settled. With best wishes, Ian Parker Esq., c/o A.H.lvlowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E., P.O. B ox 861, NAKURU, Kenya. Yours sincerely, J.W .McAnuff Acting Director

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( j: ... : / e Sender's name and address: ........... .... .... ...................................................... ... ............. ............................................... .. .... ............ ......................................... :r...Q.@Q.N ... N .W. l ...... England AN AIR LETTER SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY ENCLOSURE; IF IT DOES IT WILL BE SURCHARGED OR SENT BY ORDINARY MAIL. Second Cold here j .................... ................................................ ..................... ................................................................................ : 11 .............................. I.an. .. J?,arker. ... Esq .... ,. .............................................. .................................. c.!.a ... A ... R .. M o .w.a.t .. Es.q, ... ., .... F. .R c: ... S ... E. ....................................... P ... Q .... B .Qx ... e.6.l. ...................................... NAKDRU, Kenya ............................................................................................................ -, -

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THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION PATRON: H M. QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HON. SIR GEOPPREY G1BBS,K.C.M.G. DIRECTOR: LESLIE PARRER'BROWN, C B .E. Nuffield Lodge. Rege:.n. ,..,... P YIril'rose W l AIII/I 18th June, 1964. Dear Parker, Further to my letter of 10th June, I can now confirm that I expect to be in Nairobi between midday on Monday 17th August, and Friday the 21st. I shall have a number of things to do concerning the University College and one or two other of our interests in the area, but I do very much hope that we shall be able to meet and discuss the Galana scheme situation. I just do not know if there is any point in trying to see the area -I have an uneasy feeling that time will be at too much of a premium for that -but we can just see how things turn out. I wonder if you would let me know what sort of times you would have free during the period I have mentioned, and then I can see how best to fit something in. With best wishes, sincerely, J. W. McAnuff. Ian PaJr.ker Esq. c/o A.H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E., P.O. Box 86 I NAKURU, Kenya.

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AIII/I THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION P ATRON: H M QUeeN El.IZABeTH THe QueeN MOTHER CHAIRMAN: THE HaN. SIR GEOPPREY GIBBS, K C M. G DIRECTOR: L ES L I E P A RRER'BRO WN, C B .E. Nuffield Lodge, Regents. ark, Lo PRImrose 8871-9 T e legrams: Nuffound London N W I \ \ \ \ 23rd July, 1964. Dear Parker, Just a further line 0 confirm tny arrangements when I reach Nairobi. I have just written to a Mr. Vivian in ihe Ministry of Natural Resources in Nairobi, suggesting I call to see him late in the afternoon of Tuesday, 18th August, to discuss Galana, and it would of course be the greatest help to me if we were able to have a chat beforehand. Would you be able to join me for lunch that day at the New Stanley Hotel, where I shall be staying? In view of postal delays at this end, and other contingencies, it might be best if you were to leave a message at the hotel. Meanwhile the news from the Ministry of Natural Resources is simply that "Major Grimwood will be submitting to us an official report on the scheme". I look forward to seeing you. J. W. McAnuff. Ian Parker Esq. c/o A.H. Mowat Esq., F.R. C.S.E., P. O. Box 861. Nakuru, Kenya.

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c/o A G H o Mowat Esq. F.R.C.S.Eo, P O Box 861, NAmJRUI) Kenya. 31st July you for your letter dated 23rd July. I would be delighted to accept your invitation to lunch at the New Stanley Hotel on the 18th of August. While you are out here would it be at all possible for you to visit the Galana area? If I were to fly you down in my own aircraft we could go down and back in a day_ Let me know when you do receive your official report on the Scheme, it will be worth celebrating! Looking forward to seeing you, YOU1'S sincerely, Dr J .. W.o rJIcAnuff 9 The Nuffield Foundation, Nuffield Lodge, Regents Park, Ian Parker. LONDON, N. V.. 1. (copied to the New Stanley Hotel to await collectiono)

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Telegrams: "GAME" Nairobi Telephone : No. 20672-3 Ref. No. GA ................. e e /)tA-. .. I-Acn f e-/'-j'i I t c_ J /J.,<: Ct'-I. 7 /1
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Telegrams : "GAME". Nairobi Telephone: No. 20672-3 Ref. No. GA ................. GAME DEPARTMENT P . O. Box 241, NAIROBI L.JJ i l-It--e

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Telegrams: "GAME", Nairobi Telephone : No. 20672-3 Ref No. GA ................. L. t \ r t ) I 1r LJ )'4 '::!o l n L P ... r l .. 'r l---I l . \ t t L'.", v .l./)t.. /'. -; I\, "' l\t -... I ,,(,! H e "'{. .. It J t 11...-(( j u 1\ .. :1 t L r A.-V t I L VI I'...-.y' U f..., t c'" I, 1\.. . .. tt. {,. r tt-V" L-1\..1 t, V-Iii: I. l r ) j ( 1 L \ L: P-,t f: \ .) GAME DEPARTMENT : r .I P.p. Box 241, N.A:IRt>I1I j.. ,,.. i It K..,' ""ij. A (...t. 1 't,..". li/ t ".. II '., H Iv; .... -I I, L r v, '1/ \. ,"', L .... i l tt I V ? ;iJ L /(.-f. P i ., It l I v: r '_ r .I

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:xxxx:xnxxxx 34, Kilifi. 7th May, 1959. Provincial Veterinary-Officer, Veterinary Department, P.O Box 92, rJIOMBASA. GArtil: MANAGEr-lEN T SAL E OF ELEPHAN T Mi. T The G e vernme n t h a s the institution of a Game Na n agement Scheme in the hinterlands of Kilifi and Tana River Districts. The Nuffield F o und Rtion h ave mos t generously gra n ted a sum of with which to start it. Very hroadly the obje.cts are: 1) To explai-ii wild animals to such a degree that the benefits derived from them ensure their survival. 2) To make use of a hitherto unproduetive region tn which agriculture and stoekreartng are impracticable 3) To settle the hunters of the Wasanya people in a \-lay of life congenial to them. Elephant \ .01:.1d be the TIlB.i nstay o-f -1;he scheme. Thi s bei ng so, I \.,ish to find Ol t e::m.ctly t.,hst. t c n n be made a n 8le p hSl.nt. The Kenya Mea t Commissi o n 1'4ombasa have tentatively agreed to oarry out a n experiment in turning one elephant into mea t meal, bone meal and tallo\
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( / \ \' { xxxxxxxxxxx 34, K111f1. 18th May, 1959. Kenya Meat Commission, P.O. Box 8226, MOMBASA. Dear Sirs, It is the policy of the Game Department to establish a Game Management Scheme in the hinterland of the Kilifi and Tana River Districts. The object will be to exploit the Game to its fullest advantage. The animals will thus ensure their own survival. Elephant will undoubtedly be the mainstay of the scheme. One elephant is capable of producing large quantities of meat, fat and bone. However, if elephant are to be exploited in this way it is realised that the matter is of vital interest to the Kenya Meat Commission and the Veterinary Department. At present the Veterinary Department are trying to reduce the numbers of African stock through an increased beet intake. This would hardly be aided by the Game Department if we were to put quantities of elephant meat on the market. The meat is palatable to many africans. Also from a medical point of view large quantities of game meat which would be difficult to certify clean, must be undesirable. It is therefore felt that the most practicable use to which an elephant carcase can be put, is to convert it into sterilised protein and bone meals. The market for these is l arge and comparatively stable. At present the K.M.C. is the only manufacturer of these products in Kenya. As one of the hall-marks of the Game Management Scheme must be simplicity, I feel that it would be to our mutual advantage if the K.M.C. h andled the elephant.carcases and products. However it is impossible to talk business without f acts and figures and I therefore ask if an elephant carcase can be processed in your Mombasa plant on any Sunday convenient to you. It will be of the greatest value as an experiment as this has never been done before and no f acts are available about an elephant's potentialities. All the products gained from this experimental elephant would of course be K.M.C. property. The Veterinary DeJ>artment have given their permission in this respect, by their letter STOCK/2/16/270 of 12.5.59 to me copied to you. I would be grateful for your early reply, and remain Yours faithfully, I.S.C. Parker Game Warden, Kilif1.

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. \ To The Trading Manager, Kenya Farmers' Association, P.O. Box 35, NAKURU. De :r Sir, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx P.O. Box 34, 8th July, 1959 The Game Dep rtment are commencill8 a Game t1anagement Scheme in this 'lrea; The principle being to put wild life on a competitive basis with agriculture or stock rearing. By doing this wild animals would become a form of livelihood to a section of -hhe community and as such be in a very secure posi'tion. It \
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( ( District Commissioner P O. KISUI'1U. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx P.O. B o x 34, Kilifi. 5th August, 1959. A Game Management Scheme is being started by this Department in the Coast Province; the idea being to turn a larg e tract of land of n o agricultural or pastoral potential into a productive region by selective culling of t he indig enous stock of \"rild animals. Benefits accruing from the scheme will be 1. A form of land use compatible with the n atural conditions, 2. That the fauna by paying its way is i n a secure position, 3. The victims of the antip o aching drive (i.e. those A fricans whese livelihood was hunting and hunting only) will have an opportunity to continue legally a way of life in keeping with their traditions. One of the main products of the scheme will be dried meat -mainly elephant. Nyanza is a 'meat hungry I area, and is thus a potential mar ket for the management sc hemel s produce. Tribesmen from your district 1r/orking on the Coastal Estates relish dried meat. Could you therefore put me in touch with any i n your distric t who m i ght be i n buying dried meat in quantity from the Game Management Scheme. I am prepared to send 100 lb samples to any potential buyer loS.C. Parker Warden Kilifi.

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( ( ( / \\ 1.\') District 1\-1,\ P.O KAKAMEGA. bf" V xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx P .O. B o x 34, Kilifi." 6th August, 1959 A Game Management Scheme is being started by this Department in the C oast Province; the idea b e i ng to turn a l a r g e tract o f land of no agricultura l or pastoral potential into a pro ductive region by selective culling o f t he indi genous stock of wild "animals. B enefits accruing from the scheme will 1 A form o f l and us e co m p atible with the natural conditions, 2. That the fauna by paying its way is i n a secure position, 3. The victims o f t he anti-poaching drive (i.e. those Africans whos e livelihood was hunting and hunting only) will h ave a n op p ortunity to continue legally a way o f life in keepin g w ith their traditions. One o f the mai n products o f the scheme will be dried meat -mainly cle hant. Nyanz a is a 'me a t hungry' a rea, and is thus a p otential marke t f o r t he managemen t scheme's produce. Tribesmen from y ou r district w orking o n the C oast a l Esta tes relish dried meat. Could you therefore put me i n touch with any traders in y o u r district who m i g h t be interested i n buying dried meat in quantity from the Game Management Scheme. I am prepared t o send 10 0 lb samples to any p otential buyer. I.S.C .. Parker Game Warden Kilifi.

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f c ,. District Commissioner, P. O KISII. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx P O B o x 349 Kilifi. 6th August, 1959. A Game Scheme is being started by this Department in the C o ast Province; the being to turn a l arge tract of land of n o agricultural or pastoral potenti a l into a productive region by selective cull ing of t he indigen ous stock o f \"ild Benefits a ccruing from the scheme will be : 1. A form of land use compatible with the natural conditions, 2. Tha t t he fauna by paying its way is in a secure position, 3. The victims o f the anti-po ching drive (i.e. those Africa ns whose livelihood was hunting hunting only) w ill have an opnortuni ty to continue legally a 'v/ay of I ife in keeping with their traditions. One o f the m ain nroducts o f the will be dried meat -mainly elephllnt. is a '!Jleat hun gry' area, and is -thJ.Js a potentia l market .for the produee. Tribesmen from working on tho CO'3.stal Estates relish dried meat. Could y ou therefore put me in touch with any traders in ypur district who mi ght be interested in buying dried meat in quantity from the Game Management S cheme. I am prepared to send 10 0 Ib s amples to any potential buyer. I Parker Game Warden Kilifi.

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T e l egra ms: "GAME" Nairobi Telephone : No. 20672 3 R ef. No. GA ................. ..: iCtAl.:., ... 0 .diY 'OLI e------ )(. r ir': (' .1"'1.;... r 0 Ii : .. JP.J 2 c C:.j -(0' r. 1 I ... ( IT. t: 'tea in elf l' t G .AME DEPARTMENT P.O. Box 241; NAIROBI lU. 1 ) \ ... :.., J./:, .... ... 0 n Ji h..) C re: I', .1. 1 .:..xt t .. o .1 or.-!,\: ":1 .... 0 '"'. .... i' (_ . Jl 1.1. ..

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II.Ur rucf1:i, 1 .. 1 10 L,

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\ { The Secretary, .t The Roye.' Ins t1 tute of hl1c 2 3 Portland Plf3ce, r.ON1:0N, \'1.:1 Hr. Horsham, XXXXXlCXXXXX 3 4, Kilifi" 12th September, 1 959. i{y friend, Dr Peter Copem1n, n::LS skeel ro to writE direct1:! to you and (':xr l'3-ir. the a ims and objects of t h e Garee Management Scheme are emb'lrking on :in thi. p8rt of ( e nY'l Bri.efly then, the f'ollo'ofing (J,rs the princi-ples of th 8"J:le. In t he hinterland o f Kenya' 8 Coast P r ovince are vast tr-'cts of arid c o 1ntry Today they are uninhabited; but as the population o f the Province ex ?nds, 'lnd it ig doing so ver-y ;c oidly, !?eop1e will. be oreed it.to these 1'.nds. As yet, the primitive has only two fo.i:ms of 18,nd u s e 1 at;l"iculture 'lnd stoc k-kee?ing. These acti ities, with the conditions thRt p r e v ail 'n the :1r eas ol:m on y lead t o extensive dessication rmrl erosion. Such congeq ences are alrcad one of Africa's worst h e adaches. T h e dry thornbush regi o n3 do, h O"!ever, support a "loalth of wild life. 'lie believe t .. t thi. col'ld be maae USE.' of, and its proper e xploitati.on bGcome the li.velihood of a 18.,:se numbel" of people. It would be th only rC"llistic wa.y of h arnessing this type of country for man's use.' Re son in};>: on th se 1 in;: \ve n r ofl c8d a o:;.'of't plan whi.ch hRS a ccepted b by the Kenya Government and backed by the Nuf.lield ... ound ation \d th a ,000 f r _nt. The 1lI.'1instay of' the Ge.lana Riv.er cheme (for th'lt it its c umbersome title) \'Jil l be elephant. believe th'Jt 80me t .. o 1'mdred c n be culled per annum without; end'J.n gering tIl e s reflies 8 q \-IholEl. Our immediate problem is to de:fine the most economical way o f utilising an eleph'3. t c nrC'Jse. Elephant meat is e '-lten by a number of East Africa n tribes F.\. n r 1 t bere is no lac k of m 'rket. It is a very palatable meat resembling beef though Hith 9. much 0 rser I, rain. DiRtance A.nd transpoc't decree thF.l.t it be sold in a. suh-dried form (not as true bUtoo whic h is salted). H wever no d s :ta is, to ray 1< oi Jlec1ee ':3.:LL f3.b1.8 n the exact 3.oo1ysis of lep h -;wt mE'::.t T hough I d o o t t .in:':: i;11':1.t i.t wi} ly from tha t o ethel:' animals, ":\irrh t there n o be Q h i ; !1e proportion of 900e desirable ingredierlt? On th<.:! of. _chance t'18.t 'bbi' triight bo so, a nd o r t 10 interest ",rhieh is cone ide rable, <113 \>la n t some {;'le ph 1nt meat a ':3.1ysed. It h9,8 been recorded tnS1.t Africuns put on c ondition veryrap-rely '<;lJ. \.Jith ele9hc.n.t flesh. T:h'9 could be a case of quantity a s oppose-d to s ome superior quality, but ther e :3. r be other r!H,(30n. Today many h o rmone extracts are used in met'licine. Those t.hat c annot be made synthetically are obtained erOto the duct-less glands of various HUh ?"3 rticub r ro r to at'! eleph'1t1t IS greJ1t s.ize mi g l t ther e not be a.

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t, ( potentia l u E'! for eleph'lnt g l ands? Summin up: we w ant t o make maximu lll econo mic u s a o f every e l e phan t we s h o o t and are -prepared t o no stone unturne d in ou r e fforts t o reach this goal. W e are -prepared to s e n d s ampl e s o f any part of an e lephan t for e x e r i m e n t or nalysis to rep u t a b e orgl'lnisations. A n y a SFli.S'-: ll1 c e 01' advi c e t hs.t the It stitute c a n offer us \
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; T e l cgra ms: G AME", Nairobi T e l e phone: No. 20672 3 R ef. No. GA ........ ......... Leo \Obt lC .P:rcl:idcnt j I! n t ion:: 1 1\ 1 cut t ,U'[ 1..1') T 'l'l . c r LCO : s CC. lcf.c C,. 1; L I 0')( D ( In. 11 . tl 0': e;;. 1 ,..,' 'uly tr l. 1 r ... ... ;1 .I. J L 5 . J l \ GAME DEPARTMENT , P.O. Box 241: NA'mOBi'j I J t. ... -:t,-'! .,I. ,. """" ... ( "'4/ r ... .J -. ....... 1 [ )010 .i. (-L __ t(r O '" ( ... .1 '" t...Jv J.. J'-oI .... '1. (' c: 11011 U ... V.I.'" .j. t. .1' ( t, ;.1 -t'Leu II 1'1 OJ LC ivt. f." i.: L to J )' 1,L. .. 11 J..L .... 0 l' 1 1

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I I i l , \ O C Coast Platoon, Kenya Regiment (T o F .), P O Box 3165, M OMBASA. Galana River Game Manage ent Scheme, P O VOl. 14th May, 1960 I am nO"l,v stati ome 200 o dd mi les by road fro m Mombasa 1>lhich makes it some'tfha t impracticable for me to attend Weekend CMnps. I have been to Regimen t Headquarters in Nairobi and informed them that as far as Weekend Camps go, I must be counted out, but that I will rriake every effort to attend on e of the t't1 0-1'leek Annual Camp sat N anyuki f! I S C Parker K R 4617

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Dear Neil \ Galana R iver Game Management P O VOl. 28th May, 1 960 Re: Voi Sisal Est ate Herewith some rather poor snaps taken on Voi Sisal Estate. H01lfever, I think they convey a g oo d impression of the state of the Estate is in. Photo No.4-is a close-up of' p lants that have been damaged by Baboon, i o e the leaf i s broken off whil e still young If you Sche e look c a refull y at the other photos sho1,ving large r areas of sisal you "\vill see that t his Baboon damage i s v ery w idespread indeed. Photo N o 5 shows an elephffi1 t shot by Sheral i Khan "in the sisal' 1;Jhil e da"!laging crops. Perhaps our idea of a sisal p lant differs from Sherali Khan' s Yours,t! /

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G1 8/I/2 "the Ch ief Game Warden GOJn0 Departmm t . o B ox: 2 -1, lITArriOD 1 1. Dur ing J m l e A 0 .. A [:In hOYlor.ary Garflo '1a:cden fro"'" l\f,joro, spent tliJO H C-Jks v i til u s I n his timo ho Qj:' ganisec1.. G n u nupel'vised the Scheme hll_ting opol'a'ions Ho ShuitlOd that he 1..ras qulto a eompetfdnt htmter nn-capabLj or ha..Ylcliin g JL 2 b hil e he \va", hOl'e 1. asked ,him i f ho i.-lQS i n eref3 t)(1 in ta_ ing a temp rary job I'.ri.th tho Scheme He has jl!st ur:ltten to n18 a n ,a. SdyS tha t he i s v0ry Leen t o be !om.1 tn.) Scheme ..,eco n Li m 3 As he 11 ... 1S privat e Gans th i s not o.nd 1 y perturbed b y Game Dept t o rms. He has, tu my Y.r1oitrle('ige n e ier re' l y had to \-iOrk i n liit. l i _fo 1 ',_,; '['o.thor too 1 tclly I a 'v.r i e;gc L f i gel'. 'Jer ho to apply for c perlna..'1Cnt post i n Dopar -1. en c I 1,lOLlld. -ChOn> --'Iico :J0101"O rOCOJllltlOl1tUn8; l1J m J_O\h:78r 's on,.! .-,job, i s <: CO?dp", t':m t h:.:u te and. avo ilalJle at a ti;rllC iliC "rill J: Q,ve to l1LU1.t very hard? he has a degrGo in oolog y ? ho l,::nous SUDllili Gnc. con .flO)'" 0 Africans and above ,,1 1 is I..con I fool that he fits the Schorn. I S I'oquiz'ement perfec t l y 4 0 Unl t ho_o i s a c' ance of gotUn&; 11istai r to the SCh0ii10 in the im _e 'j-j a .I'u t.,uro ca;.0. ethS ni th be tcJ en 0 as tho G cond 11.1' en for tho f i Gl 1 Ci 81 Y al'?

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GRS/I/3. A Seth-Smith LSqo Rotharinl Farm, Dear 29th August, 1 T hank you for your note and my apologies for not ansl'Jering ere this Ho\fever the matter of your employment rested a long time in airobi before they gave me a repl y I regret that the T reasury have nm;]' decreed that this Schel J e is t o be run by one warden only and having reached this decision they elocted 1, 0 0 off the Scheme s GOV1lt grant for our '61-'62 financial year. I am very sorry indeed t o have led y o u up the 'garden path' Tony but when I last wrote to you I had jus b ; e n tol d in ,airob i tha' C vJe 'HOlll d bo getting a second LJarden and d i d I have a..l1.y suggestions as to Ylho it shoul be. to say t h e Scheme ha.s Ii ttl e chance of SUBcess -..,i thout tvlO Europe,,s . I be up in for a fortnight a s from the th of September. During this t ime re w i l l come up aD.d visit you at "', indest rebards to Rene Yours aye,

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, ( :(1. 1I1o..c:.r!.lder 52'1 S! iii an :Lovre, l..i -LIth.:" l' k ,IT. S A Dear Galan Game Mandgcraent Be lew,o P O VOl. 21s t JWle, 1 962 Very many tl1.aJ.1l1:S f yOUJ.:' letter oj.nd tho mal)S. hey are 'bettE t _l..'Yl m ;::'/.: hu\' C ot.-'!.t l!ere in that they have less-<1o"(,',il....J1 thor-of rei-reX 01'I'O.l.'o. T.l'e J'win physic:ll i s morE l.!.ClIl Cel.. Ld.Y-ivl: tIlfd l.:z..' Cut G .t:iV. bJ..' .. H, .. OUl .. in, i.t theyr put a ifel e of G ron oue j'LU1k a11.U 1t:.!ft out ttl:.:; lo.1'gcst l1il1 i tho Qibv_icte Aga.in vory th:.u1ks fo.L LIla croub.Le you ;e11t to in r: cnc; l:c' 1 _:. 1-' !d a 1 eg< "c.ing tho e"rpOJ.,t or' tLcre u.:.. e 1 J?; 1)USd I bili tics hel l.!.u..., I o'Ld :.:.Lbb0 .... t is yO.J.. hav'e tLe Iv ... ;al Li,LO bu.ttonoo. L rolle l.nCG1 e::;t-e' (".n\.:. t::0 L..::'ca .J...!.lto I .L::"ch dK t:.ni..! a'i s are i.., be moved 1'O:;l. you c, . J 'mi .:;, "l,' :ecw." tv this Scheme I \.TonI, then ,slllytl i t tluL tv l,hc Ga-",0 lJCp<::,,_ nus' ; GO',O.i..LLlt311t we shou] he :...blc: to ..Liconce .l e0S :}.i.lC '. '.C .:1.i 1 (J..e111(:.1l S 1:' Jut hel "1:9 0 ti i.t i.': ...Iulc, Lile Geon lilies of t his I.Jcllo llG a PO'tJ' r of o :-1 G l::lj e(' tiU;l ',i' doll I'S tlla L s::llu (n, those aolmals -re bl' LbO .LiLt at --h" ... U ...... 1.v '08 LL f:: iL" "'-" epi1c:,nt:; .r:.lno, > ;:::1 0 "ld., sc_ ga;:; 1 1 0e Ce _c_1tl..:t" -. .. t 12.0':; d'--ui\: an\.., vn. 'Cor '1'1113 eat COULl--"ill ',lso 1;0 obcai eL, but 1 1.. 3.b.lUO not be 1;-1\;1 C 0.:..2.0 u::,,_o. n G Io"l'::; to:.: HOU U be w c'gra '::::f111 i" Jull pu::; tll"",t; group of' Culi 0.l'n":"a:.1s in c nt.lC' tl 'le. 'llle.IJ 0;. 0 c'uch rec.J." ..... sts Ie get the bet to' If l'TC are to TIl8Jte D. f' naneial success of t' is Sche,ne t! s' "of animals is '1. obvious SOlL'CG of .1.CO r,o it ,;ill ens l"E f,;ur ivaI 01 'haLo sJ)eciGs you a:..'lage to GS ta.bli.=>h ia til.) States. \iJc .G, I r end 0.ff Il0.1. '-:: .::t..1.u. 0 fO..!. ...... Tcl_U "U 'ing from Y U d.gdia SOO:l. lu'is lS __ 0r ::.rind .:. SXJ.e fro;.1 myself &: S t 10m-s aye,

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Lt.Col. D;!L; Brig)1t, OBE Telegrams: KENREG" Nairobi Ref. No. K .R.I ...... / ...... / ...... Dear / THE KENYA REGIMENT (T F.) P.O. Box 2216 NAIROBI ........... 1i'. ...
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1I.Jr. C.B. Merowit, Friends of AFRICA Tarrytown, New York. Dear Mr. Merowit, in America, c/o Galena Game Scheme, .P.O. VOl, Kenya 12th September, 1962. Thank you for your Ie e 25th August in which you request detailed information in connection with a proposed cropping enterprise you have under consideration. As it is necessary for me to go to Nairobi for various meetings, I am unable at the moment to give this matter my whol e attention as I would have liked, and I shall therefore write to you as soon as possible after my return, giving fullest possible information in rusponse to your letter. Sincerely, I.S.C. Parker

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( .. ---------... _--Dear' r'll na ra 11..; Vel-Y w.ny hew.;:8 i .. '-' -: fo:.. Lho isc 11 <1rl"01. 'ihich has al'l"j.V3 safelj. hope ,0 p .. 1L-.:;.. vi' oly l .. m.: i\, t. 'V. 0 holL h':!r" J.V. ill. .;.' \ ,,:r J ca v,' 1/.1 :.i:lich .i 0 _' .'cal.lY b' ,,0 '\:' ou each Judii l' 1 1 told yo ,_ lG t ):' that S 1, \'; La ;".ed fro"a [>1 inf ;:taLi It -/a8 '. "j:'eat )''i Y "<,,, .h8 'If j,:y '1< ."DlllO fro'l \J 2_' Y g <"L'l c ,lave 1."C ) -n Chr'L '}!ld < r 1.y;:, J..-f: al1\..l. ag'i 1 Vf)_'y 0" you 3):H, -6c "Jly OlJ. C fO lop.;::) .i s C:ll l" e 'C' 1 .. v -.-.: .. ) CI 1,-,C01 0 1 ..

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Personal Mr. Clement E. Merowit, Friends of Africa in America I arrytown, /' y:" Me::::.:: \ \ i 22nd December 2. May I apologis yet a n for the delay in replying t o you .. I am writing in a pure personal and confidential capacity and not as an officer in the Kenya Game Department. Arnold Fletcher and I did discuss various ways of exploiting the economic potential in this area r S ,,,ild life. How"ever 1.ve did not go into great in dravling up figures. The first prerequisite is land. Kenya is on the threshold of Independence and at present is being split into five separate regions, each. of which will have its ovm land policies. Any transaction over land tenure will therefore have to wait until these regional assemblies have been established and are working. It is difficult to forecast their reaction to pu tting aside a tract of land for game cropping under priVate enterprise. If a sufficiently high rental was offered it may be agreed to immediately. However there is a fear of neo-colonialism among the Africans and I can cite two instances in Tanganyika during the past year where an annual rent in exce'ss of ,000 for small uninhabited hunting blocks was turned down. At present no money at all is received in revenue from these areas. Summing up the question of land; very uncertain at present, and likely to be so until mid '64. Regarding your detailed questions:-1. Poachers sell dried game meat for approximately 1/-per Ib in this area of Kenya. In Tangany ika and elsewhere in Kenya the price is considerably higher. The experimental Scheme I am running has produced approximately 37.5 short tons of dried meat since it started. All has been sold at between -175 cents and 1120 per lb. Hence the basis for calculating dried meat at Shs 1/-per lb. I regret that I have no trust in anything Dr. Mann states and am sure that the meat glut resulted from too high a price for the African consumer. Also at one time he tried' to sell camel meat as c attle biltong and severely upset the legal biltong trade! Wholesale price culled beef upwards of 1/-per lb. I believe poached meat sells at as much as 21-per lb in Tanganyika and is mostly antelope. 2. Hunting Parties: these cannot be regarded as an efficient way in which to take the whole of one's game crop. They are however a valuable source of income and should be worked into the cropping program me. I think the figure $ 2,000 reasonable. They might well prefer to associate with a well-known white hunter organisation and b e free to move about. Once a firm has taken land on a cropping enterprise are they gOing to allow the White Hunter on to their land? When the various game areas are turned into cropping schemes and local parks (and this is happening everywhere now) the days of the free roaming hunter are over.

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\ \ 3 Some Zebra hides may bring 100 shillings but I think that wholesal e the price maybe rather lower. However I have had littl e to d o with zebra personally. Buffalo hides do not bring in r e gu lar prices. They sometimes go for / 8 0 cts per lb and a g ood hide will probably w eigh close o n 100 lbs. At other times it is difficult to sell them. This fluctuation in price results fro m the fact that supplies have been very irregular in the past. With a steady supply, it would no doubt stabilise. 4 The average number of zebra buffalo elephaJ;lt oryx pounds of meat obtainable from a 350 5 0 0 "3,000 1 50 Apart from elephant I have insufficient knmvledge to state what numbers of other species could be taken. Elephant crop for the Scheme population = between 150 and 200 per annum. This quota can be augmented from the neighbouring Park population which overflows into the Scheme at certain times. Work on the exact numbers is in progress at the moment and the results should be available in six months time. 5. Captured e lephant. Our price is per female, per male. This price is low as being Government, we have to sell to local trappers and not compete on the open market. The trappers sell at up to ,000 per beast to Zoos etc. If a private firm was to undertake game management no doubt they could c ompete on the open market The market for elephant calves is limited and I doubt that the figure could regularly exceed twenty per annum. We hav e not attempted to sell any other animals but believe that there is a good demand for Lesser Kudu, Gerenuk and Oryx, all of which abound in the Scheme. Each of these animals should be worth more than . 6. Our estimates for income are based on wholesale prices. Ivory = 15/ -per lb, Ears = 40/each and Feet = 50/each. An elephant = average 50 lbs ivory, 2 ears, 2 feet = 7. Canning. This is a subject on which I have no knowledge at all. Suffice it to say that a canning plant would make more efficient use of a carcase. The product would be sterilised, not be subject to disease restrictions and would keep indefinitel These are very great advantages over a fresh or dried meat trade H o wever as yet there is an established market for canned e lephant meat etc. It vlOuld probably take a big injection of capital to create such a market. Much has been sai-d about canning by the likes of Dr. Mann but nothing yet proved. I believe a cheap locally made canning plant would cost in the region of Details about development, building and other capital investments I am not prepared to give.at present. The S cheme I am now managing is due to run for an experimental three years ending June 30th 1963. After this period I will be preparing a very detailed report on all aspects of the Scheme. I will send you a copy of this report.

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I \ Summing up, I that given a free hand there is a very great future in game management. H owever the political situation i s such that little can really be done until the 'dust has settled'. The final report on this Scheme will contain all the information gained over a period of three years and will show a far clearer picture than I can give now. I feel that it may be of interest to conta c t Major Grimwood and obtain his reaction. It may be negative as the Game Department here is set on keeping a strangle hol d on anything to do with wild life. Again since r e apologies for the delay in replying and also for a rather negative letter. A merry Christmas and prosperous New Year to you; Yours Sincerely, Ian Parker.

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A ;111 1 I' ly t:.i1[ J S 0.' y 11:' ltC_ Lnl -OG..l..' 0 ... "" 1 I ... 1 J1::.1 L. lle

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( 1 \ / /. J I J I III GAME MANAGEMENT SCHEME. North of the main MombasaiNairobi road and east of the 'savo National Park lies the Galana Game Management Scheme comprising some 3,000 square mil es9 This land has been set aside for a three year period to demonstrate the potential in wild life management.. With no capital available for development this" experiment has been limited in scope. However, it has demonstrated that the elephant population can vii thstand culling and provide a lucrative income. Some idea has also been gained of the economic potential in other animals.. In addi tion to the \vild life, I believe the area could support a large number of domestic animals .. The three year trial period ends in J "une 63. It seems an ideal opportunity for private enterprise to take over the land and continue 1;vhere the Govern.rnent leaves off, developing it on a ranching/game management be.sis. In the present financial straits it is difficult to see the Government finding the capital with \lhich to develop the area, thus" exploi tation, other than by private enterprise, is likely to continue at a very low level. I suggest the syndicate consider the inclusion of the Game Management Sche m e in their present project. Both areas have tre endous potential in cattle and wild life. The Scheme area some development (250 miles of road, airstrips and temporary HoQo ) would provide the better experimental groundo While trials are carried out and experience gained itlith domestic stock there vJould be some income from wild animals to off set expenditure.. Two important packing concerns are interested in estab lishing plants in the Scheme to can game meats A supply of beef in addition could only increase their conviction. Some American financiers have shown interest in the concepto The larger the area operated by the syndicate the less will be the risks due to erratic rainfall. When one area was droughted, st09k might be moved to the othero It is unlikely that both will be affected at the sa:ne time. If only one area is taken it is more than probable that the other might opposition which I feel would be undesirable. A Syndicate taking both areas with the professed aim of developing the coast hinterland ( with judicious selection of local politicians to sit on the board) would be more acceptable to the local people than two or more lesser companies operating smaller concessions.. Perhaps royalties" on produce or profit could replace rent per acre. o 0 0 These notes are written in a personal capacity and not as an officer of the Game Department. I apologise if they are not vkry lucid. However, shortly I hope to be able to produce deta Iled proposals and plans. / I .SoC. Parker

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11. he::. .. 1 "\ .L l I. vi! vV 1 ... J.l 1 '.J. 1

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GRS/ 25th March, Dear Regarding your in tended visit to the Scheme, here'\vi th a brief itinerary of what vie will do: 1st day. Down the Hal.indi road past 1 atolanC!, back toward Lali and out to the Koromi river course, then return to Lali for the day. Out to Dakawachu calling at Bisambala en routeo Spend the night at Dakawachu. 3rd day. To Dera (large natural dam) and return to for the night, -4th day. Up the Shell track and over to Dakadima. Spend the night there. 5th day-" Over to the Ti Va flood plains and return Dakadima .. 6th dayo Return to Lalio While trying to be econo mical with time, we could not form a balanced picture of tbe area without covering the ground set out in the itinerary" 'We \vill therefore need a minimum of six days in the field. If you come by road an 3. addi tional tvlO days vlOuld be required in \vhich to motor dOlID and back to N airobi. I will try to scrape up enough cash to hire a plane, but do not count on this. I hope it will be possible to collect botanical spedimens as well as 'soil samples from all the areas we visit. Regarding the more general elephant problem, I do not seem to be pulling my weighto T o remedy thiS, I am writing uP. what information I can gather together in the form of general These, if of the required standard! may form a useful background to the papers on elephant food by vavid and Peter N-B, and James Glover's and your own on the count and population dynamics. When cOming back from Moshi, we noticed what appeared to be extensi ve regeneration ofuCommiphorati between l'aveta and i1aktau. Has David tol.d you about this? Few of the trees appeared to have boles o.ver 6" in diametero If l-ie l1ave the time \-vhen you come down, we might take a quick trip over thereo Regarding the "fly" survey of' the Sche m e -have you any idea yet as to \.,hen this \'lill be done? Christine sends her regardso Best wishes from myself9 Yours, r

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. 1 Galana Game lIanagement Scheme, P O VOl, Kenya. 18th April, Dr A. Di vision of' Natural '-6 Humbolt State College, / \ \\ ARCA TA! C "Uf'ornia. G't?<'v\ \ Dear Just a short note t th you .for the various items of literatu.re you have sent me over the last tw o years. They have been greatly appreciated I aSsure you. Please accept my apologies for not 1rrri ti!..1.g ere this. he Scheme completes its three year trial perj,od in Jillle. At the end of which 1111 be producing a detailed report, and you'U be receiving a copy. I h ave beari in contact v.rit h Peter Johns tone and he vITi tes Mossman and Dasmann proved that a certain p;.ece of land could prOdrlCG D. mor e meat from game ,;ith0u development than cattle 'i'rith develop1 ';'11. t and C01'1 ect. st.ocking.!f At. present I am particularly interested in the possibilities of' cattl e and game combined. In the instance quoted above, the crux of the matter is 1::i th the \-TOrcl t development I The meat output from gama on this land vd thou t development is x. Is this 1 ts ceiling'? Could x be increased by development? Development has virtually no li:m.i t -the greater the capital available the gI'eater the vJi th cattle the carrying capacity of the land ca.11. be increased along a pJ;'edictable curve per unit of development (investmento ) PresUIilably this 1'lOuld be so "vi th a \1ild animal populatiol19 Has any Hork been carried out investigating this? .Perhaps the production graph curves per uni t of development for game aDd cattle remain pare.llel though this seems to me UIlILl.cely. If they diverge and g81!le output i ncreases faster so much the better,. But if they converge where does this point occur. Given unlimited money for development at vrhat point do c attle become more p:r'ofi than game. Of course the land on 'l.vhich the "fOrk is done mus t govern the pointo If you have done research compaz 'ing the t\iO m.ethods of meat production in Rhodesia di. d you get any iTIltling of N'her e it m ight lie. I hope the foregoing has not proved v_11.intelligible and you see m y queryo Best ;.,rishesto and the c hildren from Christing and myse lf, Yours Sincerely,

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GRS/ / xf\ Dr. P E Glover, Department of Veterinary Services' Veterinary Research Labora. tory "II V P O. KAB";'ill. '/ C!' Dear 18th April!j 63. l 'hank you very much for your letter. The fourth in fay 1tTould be quite convenient. to me for your visito We've had a lot of rain recently and. our area is in .fine fettle. Very large numbers of elephant seem to h ave moved into the Schem e OV.H' the past six weeks; mainly from the northern area of tho Park9 A brief study of elephant 'roads' has proved interes ting a{ld i dica tes cu1. unbroken move m e t from the eastern to I thl.llilba and 8011 thern Ukambani. I hope to have look at aerial photos of the area in the Survey Depart .Ll. t H Q \.,h8n next 1.J.1 Aa l.lobi.. 1'hoso should shO\.v the complete netlmrko Do you. kl101v ,ihex'e I can get figlJ.res for the number of cattle owned by .l.lusai in Kajiado District, the estimate6. cell'rying capaci ty of the District a.l1d the methods -rherebythis latter i'i&ure was ar:C'i ved at? I would be very orateful indeed for ffi1y information o n theso querieso hank you very much indeed for arranging for J 'an Le Roux to come do\\rtlo We are building up a COllectio n of the grasses occurring 1101"e.. T o 1-Tho m should I send these for identificatJ.on? We hope to visit airobi in the first 'week of ,.lay, and 1.'1ill look you up then. Again many thanks. Cbristine sends her regards; the same from myself .. Yours

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Pers. C.De Hill Esq .. Glanjoro Farms Ltd., P .O. Box 50, NA-KUHUo Dear 18th April, 63. Since your visit in 3anuary, I have done quite a bit more research into the possibilities of this Game. anagement Scheme going over to private enterprise on a cattle-game basisa We have made a collection of the local and grasses. A tsetse survey starts today. '.1.'he cut and graded mileage of road has gone up to 400 The of grassland avail able for cattle s cands at 800 square miles provic.:ir:g "'later can be laid o n .. A variety of good dam sites have been found.. Further investigatior: has shown that a great part of the area w a S extensively grazed by the Galla for at least the 200 years prior to the advent of the White mano A good indication that it is s uitable cattle countrys I hope to have a fu.lly detailed proposal out by the e n of 3une .. I'd be very grateful if you could give me a rough idea of the answers to the following questions: Run...ning 20,000 head of cattle on a basis of 20 acres per beast in a 15" po a .. rainfall '''hat woul d be your expected marketable take-off per annum? Could YOLl give any approximation as to 1.v-hat the joint annual labour and veterinary costs m ight be to run 20,000 head in Kenya today? If you are flying dO'tom to the coast in near future, please do dro p in.. We hope to be in Nakuru on the 'iveekend 4-th -5th for Chrictine's brother's wedding, and v:ill call round at Glanjoroo Chris sends her regards to all at GlaL'1joro; the same from myself. Yours

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? ( / I ( D ear Gal i1anag e men t Sch e me, P.O. VOI, K enya .,: ".> 18th April, Many t hanks fo.!. informativ e letter. As to offering y our services i n E o A the pec..p l e "rho are most likel y to be i nteres ted are: The Chief Gan e Warden, Game Department, P .O. B o x 2Ltl, Nairobi, Ken y a ; Th e G ame Warden Game Department, P.O .. ENTEBBE, iJgandai The Game Ward e n Tanganyika Game D i visio:l P O DAR Eti SALAM 1 Tanganyika1 and the Director, Tanganyika if a t i onal P arks, P.O. AR U S HA, Tanganyika .. We would very much like to see you up here but regret that at the moment cou l d not afford to pay for any consultant s e r viceso However i f you hav e the opportunity, p lease do pay us a personal visito Regardj.ng the purchase of la..l1.d for game ranching in Kenya at prese!!. things are very unsettled "\"lith Independence approaching and it is difficult to forecast -vrha.t the future policy to"ivard land purchase will be. In the better far"11ling areas? game to a l l extents an.d purposes has already been exterminated.. J he countrics bes t gaille lands ar'e ei in the hands of African pastoral tribes 1 the ,1asa:t, Sam.buru notably, or have becn incorporated int,O local p arks or the i{ational Park systemo In general the cOtmtryl s plans for the exploitation of its g"-":" .1G have been biased tOl:lard tourism.. The only large tract. of gam e In..1.d unoccupied by humans or a Park of some sort is that' in 1tThich this Scheme is situated. A lready ... "e are dra"'!,lJing up plans for the v:ho l e of this are a som e\vhat 3.,000,000 acres to be taken over" "by p rivate enterprise lwit....l1. a very deliberate policy of gai n ing a..'1 absolute monopoly,,) hvhet her o r not this p lan comes off is, of course, another I think, offers better oppor tuni ty for the purchase of tracts of unoccupied la..'1d for game ranchingo I fully understand your apprehension on the cattl e.,.game issue, but do not entirely agree with YOUe I am of the opinion that cattl e and game can be run togethor. 81 ::-pl'). :..;iHgly enough, there is e vidence the tremendous game popul a 'cions of the Masai areas of Kenya and 'l'anganyil(a ar'e largely a resl.ll t of a fire climax induced by Prior to the advent of the 1n1.ites the Aasa,i had lived vith the game "I;1ith little or no conflict of in.t eresto At that point cattle 1fere con.trolled by d.iseuse etc and seemed t.o hold a sta I e position in the ecology. r.L such a state they are an addition to an area and not a detraction from ito F'rom the bes t land use a...'1g1e, this is the posi tion in "Hhich they should be kept. 'he fact that f armers have a tendency to

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( capitalise their game and t hen revert to cattle only, i s no < indictment of running game and cattle. It only menus that the farmers are ignorant. There i s only one cure for that -education 'I'his is only demonstrab l e by successful experimento Basically both cattl e and game ranching h ave one common 0 ject. production. As land uses they are s o closel y allied that the areas suitable solely for game ranching ro1d solely for cattl e are in a minority T:!.. ere Africa t s pastoral lands are concernedo Many thanks for the addresses you sent. I shall be writing t o the folk concerned shortly for the "opposition'stt view Inci clen tally what paper lvas i t in 'l,v 'i1i eh 10 s sman and Dasmann shovJed that a .f,iGce of land could pIoduce at least a quarta l' more tha...l1. cattle uith develop ent and correct stocking? I must end here, Best vnshcs, Yours,

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.. ;. 18th Dear Ve y many thanks for your letter of arch 15tho I vlOuld very much like to attel.d the Io U.C .. N General Assombly in September. H01'Yever,;r don't think that If 11 be invi ted.. I 'viII be in Nairobi on leave at that time, so hope to have the opportunity of meeting you when you come out. Regarding the development of this area by private enterprise on D. game-cattle basis, I have talked \vith many people on the subject since last \vri ting t o you. As suspected. the died-in-the-\voo: conservationist ..recoils in horror, but can produce only emotion and no logic in oppos1 tion.. {ost people hmvever, have seen the basic sense in the idea. David Sheldrick voices a fenr that will, I thir.lk, form the basis of our Parks' attitude and policy toward the concept.. His outlool{ was that private enterprise, l"lith money making its sale lay bo tempted to exploit giJ.!'D.O stocks beyond their reproductive capacities. Political uncertainties undoubtedly tend to vate enter" rise seck its profi ts on shor term projects and David's f0ar is justified. However, providing that there is a"t--!al"eness that this temptation axists it Can be <-lv8rted and does not provide valid ground for opposing the project. Very si,mply, these aI'e the lines along 1..Thich I 9Jll thinking at present. he Area. 3,000 square miles in the hinterland of Kenya's Coast Region, all lying under 2000' a ltitude above sea level. Irhe eastern third has a 20ft annual rainfall, the centre third has between 10" and 20" pea., and the "Testern third ha.:: 10" or under. Correspondingly, the vege"Cation in the east is thick bnsh 3nd forest, in the centre acacia cormniphora bush and grassland, and in the 1:Test much Rparser commip.rwra bush with little grass. 'llhe only permanent ':Iator is the G alana ri vcr flovring through the southern part of the area from 1'lest to east. A large seasonal 1'i vel' -the Ifi v a flovlS along the northern boundary. Numerous small seasonal arise in the centre tl ird of the area and flmv east\,/ards through the eastern sector. These provide a host of dam si tes that could provide permanent surface "tvater. N o boreholes have been sunk in the area and the subsurface potential i s as yet w1knovmo In the west, there are few dam si tes but some of the natural waterholes might be improved to beco e at le8.st semi-permanent" The aridness of the greater part of the region renders crop raising precarious. Irrigation might be done in limited zones at considerable expense.. the 'vhole area could not be put to agriculture 0 From the point of vie"T of producing meat 1 the country shmvs a much greater potentialo Already o n the ID.ild are ge.L.'1e stocks (elephant, buffalo, e land, oryx and zebra) that on present estlmates could produce three quarters of a million pound.s of usable flesh and bone per annum. (These estimates 0 be revised shortly aft0r vIe have attempted to census the pop"t..llatiol1s. As you knolr! 1.'119 only have accurate information on elephant
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a further source of revenue Wth th here I am certain that I have gained p::ivate this ,meth?ds and under hardly W1y development at all. p v e an of 0,000 An income of 000 from 3 000 Just Itpeanuts" '''hen to A suar: miles is, of course this revenue a lot 'of c cattle ran?h. To the area in research and wo have t? be are,concerned the roturn per Where animals as 1 t has never been done before Th cannm:; be assessed to investment on any scale H en major block g1:laranteed in SO!1le other owever the can be :' to be forthcoming. money is' are som e 800 square miles the projecto the area if permanent water b a e_y to cattl e 20 acres per beast it is m o' . e Carried at between game and cattle ex;e that.. v-JQu l d be no clash As a farmer I'm s ure you'll on vhe plane of diseaseo 25,000 head of cattle would turnover revenue that will s t -e o .ere t-he source of establishment of i.'Tate; e In moti?n. With tile T o some extent the elephanl p will increase. e asier t.r:> .han d l e . (Th a. 10n.1.. would become more static :Ln1 cuLt ;C!.o,.,t3.11 ty l-,.Q ere appears 1..,0 a very high rate of to the (,ha t some of. this is permanen v water th1.s "vould covered in dry weather. take for meat The greatest block .to combining cattle and game previ0uSLY has been that no farms have been tailored to a region's ecology. Game that might be on one mants land today is on allother's tom orrowo With the size of the project area in mind this is entirely dispensed "'!JTi tho I hoped that this verbal.ramble has not bored you Peter, and that you have got the idea I'm trying to put acrosSo A number of folk are interested and would like to invest. However a vast amount needs yet to be done to get things off the groundo '" Though there is a ,.]"orld shortage of protein it seems extraordinarily difficult to t a p this marketo Meat from Africa, both game and cattle, is suspect from disease and hygiene angles over much of the world. 'Game' comprises a variety of animals not all of which are considered palatable 0 The local mea t industriel are a jungle of 1 jiggery-pokeryt 0 It seems to m y raind that the best use for all !!1eats produced in 8. project such as is in mind, would be to process i t and convert it into a hygienic and exportable product o n the spot. This means canning or a protein mealo How do UNICEF and FAO set about rectifying protein deficiencies in Asia? Is there any way in which the output of this area might be used.through either of these organisations? Any information on these lines would prove extremely useful and I'd be g-ateful for any that you could giveo Regrettably Dr. Hann and I still do not see eye to eyeo Well, I must end. Christine sends you her kindest regards. The same from myself, Yours,

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( G C o StyI-.. 'fr 1 ,-,-,'1ge ( vt) .. a P'WI' L -. G" .:' ..... ; U tU-\.L T I S o Rho' asia ... iJear Sir, GuIana -ar G ,1Ul1agem ... lc e!1::)'l G v I, :\: C T a iCt.'--.. R C (.k. Jetl\.,\..S 6) .2.. 3 b "3 HI' 0 Peter J 'oh."I J_ Y1 of ,Jtili zatlc. 1 S;-;rvi ces (Pv' G Lv,., in. .-ler;t informs me that you aDage ga 0 y:)Ul' l ane1 as "';011 3.12 ranch cattle" I am partlc..llp.xly intol"es"(,ed in the ion of c al_tIe and game as a land use and -,IOJ.ld be very crater .... 1 for any :Lnformation on the subject can give TiI G DJ y o u separate cattlG from gam e areas ano. vlce ver'sa? If so vThY" i s t.his necessary? Do you confine gaL'!e to the pO:)j:er par-cs of 'jTU ll.' ranch? Per acre is the return fro m your !Ya,llG coqparable to elle retCl.!'l1 through a attIe? From a purely economic vie\';lJoint 5 you rep lace game 1 .-;i th cat tIe if yo.1. could? Ho'\,v lon.g have YO'.I b',.:::1 ill.;:3 .... Ylaging game cO'J:..'T!ercially on you.r land? \1J'ould you consider abandonlng cattl' in f avour of Fame only as a means of lana use? Are your gar1l8 populations static on your land or do they move )l. t (into other ranches and farms? If so is this a m.ajor dra\rbac:r? I t so .ms a logical supposition tha t game anima l s are vector's i' various cattle diseases, but h ave you. any actual proof that this is so? If so does this disease factol" out'weigh the v a luG of 1'3 ,)1' iD ita t,rortiH'rhile risk in your opinion? I apolOGise if I am impertinent 1n th:.se questions, but So Dhodesia appears to be the only co!mtry in vihich farillers arc trying game ranching $ Only people such as yourself can provi" o informatior.L on results and its practicabilii:;y.. There s e ems t be considerable scope for cattle and g.stme in Kenya and it Hou l d be foolish to ignore elle cha.;.'lce if it really is feR.sioleo I hope it not inconvenience you to answer my questions .. Yours since.eely, I S C. Parker

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t' G i..i.lana Q:.11G J a agement AlIa Savory Game Itcologist, Dept. Life Conservation. I 0 "'''-836 r.:' ......v J ) !f C au.::: G\T3 .;r, SALI,SBJEY G S .. .hos.esia Dear Sir, P O VOl. Kenya I am i n vestiga ing the possi bili ty of cOi:'ibinine ga e '!'lCl cattl e on this 3 ,000 s q luile game me-nage ant Sche eCl Peter J hnstone of il l ife Jtilization Se vices (pvt) LLd Jicholson has that contact you tor I would be 7ery g ratefu_ indee d for aetails of any instElYJ.ces you knO\' l of in v[11.ic11. game h a'" successf lIly been cOJlbine' \,;i th :Ln pRrti.cular C'8.ses in \li11ich is :1.ct i n Bny 'Ja y i s o lated lrom. vI' c8.ttle p a .;:Jtures He, v e you any experienc e of the effect of on p3.stJ.re? Are there many authenticated cases of' the transmission o f disease from game to cattl e in Rh odesia; 1 apologise for a...YlY inconvei'Li ence this. ay ::.ol.1.L you. (..0 s1 cer-ely,

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/.' lr 0 Pl :'ol o C / o I v:Lnci a l Vec e.cinary Orfi c e P O e B o x 24 914'} Dear i{r" Prole, lOth day 9 6J I h a v e been inform e d by Dr. P G lover tha" yO"J. hc.ve the ma..-x:imU.11 c arrying capac i ty of Kaj iado .Mas ail and ( exclu.c1.i. u g Ke wnyt\_ie) [It 400,000 h e a d of c attl e I \-lolJ_l d be v ery gr':lt c ... -l l fo.:: det ails you C:L v e me on 11o .... r t h i s f:LE"Lre Hat:> r 1 v oL. : 'App r o ximb. tl y 1rTh t ( i n square of tn.z t OT" al open w hat area is bush and gra s s but gl'Clz a b l e by cat t I e <:,1)1 l 1>lhat a lea i s entirel y unsu it.e d to them? In yOU_i l.: .. sscsC'mo t U
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( \ T o 1 0 -,{;. t 'i'ic.:lu. J L/o Vete.ri.!1t::r.-y ell 1; & U q. ;( .. J 1 .. ear iharlt you lor ::TOlU: .ay i .. hJ S"t.ho i l.:J.s;..; till) by f f:: r tloi C) ..!or u I it 1:'O tdd. he t r.w::d tab '; .pOl.' VO.1 to C ..:'11:> C!1 ',11,:.-30:1-::.... bar',: of tho 1'1 ver. 8h.c) tId vL3 L '!.gal'd IS Gt: :,LCUtty be ltv.iill also be di l'ic<..ul; to c.:".-),.';s tt: ... J i'i'vex' :::.l Co .1: C(i.;rl,Po 1 '\vould 911i.:.eJ..l a vlgfH'O'18 St.Tim ,norn:':".:.: anc. light [' S H..; .J. tl C \oj t be dO''1G 18 on l,he nor beJ'1.'t. 1'1 add.i.. U.'.)'. i t. ..... C 1i'\ ''11" <-"", 11' tj:l .. t-"'''1';0 TJ{"' r; (.':"',1; C'\T"'!.-.. _"-... -L.L..t..v___ 0-1..., ....... c .Jv.l... .J"""_ .1. ... ::.1 "'ol. ..... _.1.\J '.J .. .. At p..:-'esent 'C.i1G CQuseliTay :",t Laga.i..'ds is G.f"sLbl8 to ., orr! .!.:. 3U&ges :you. get y u.r lO..t.:-ry 0 .1 1 o.i:'ril"!s "'Ii i.:.h 1.1 a: y equipLent and Tatu aCl"oc,e :::s soon 0.S l1of,s";'J)l v r f-,;"rthcr rain upstrocl .. f!lo In t.;.ho ('\\"0!"t. vi' 'vh,) co. 'f.CI.n.l'! ": ';:'il1 ;).:.ifl-! i':1P!IGSc.:J-lc to Lo;'l.1 ='ovcrL on ctle r20Lh VOLt ev-'l:l leave '/O ... ll.'C Otl" the b&nk a.i1d .. drl1 over -che oncGl> Yc." d h avG :1 ... os l;"'Lb="L:.h6d C ai!:ip 0::1. the :orth bDtlk from u11iel:.. YOI!. Cw l.ld d ) V:O.l \ / .Lhc !.lrea 1:1 l;.rhid? thA fly su-rv8y 5.._ mos t nOc:dez.:. co Jpri tbe Dlaine'! i ti,10 centro -f' the Pres m.ing that. yo:: H.:tll'" be S V1I' ting tho s.',rvey .1. 11 \ '..'din-:ely. O'L j. Liac,l,' .1 'Y .:riil be 'l.Lf-r'ex'e:"lt. -0 GloV'er' s as he vJ'ill be vis.i.tin g :1.1"08,' .,-:'lfJ'."e<'!. .... t.ll r..r""l"'o ''''e iy J. ... ..J 5"1' n 1 '"'1!:l'" \..,,;'"' 11-' C': v.,.n 'J.'" "': ',,"1 ( j .;, ..... ...., 0\ .. 1 v v +-Q . r--l,_""",,,-L.!. ... .... CI y. -..... '" rhG 8C11er:lo \.Jil.l pl'mriJe O V O.i:'ytli''lg _eq.lireJ by hil"l bed, beddin cra'1sport etc 0 "'1d 111.3 uL_l be om: g),test ,.r... Lali .. cae.. Dr;.. 1).. Glover, I Chir,;f : '2 ... ".rch abs, KAB E I I /

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.r-?ers. : 'y. A llrO co c m <., Y l JJ... 4 0 1 ..J .... :f:....I"..\J., Di vision of \bttlral Hesoul'co:;s, .. I" ;lbold t S tate Coli 'Ge A,r{c; .L., C .,lifoI;nj. a r l hEi .lli_ yon yo r J t"'cP-" of April 811.d for "he [lJ1SlW"S to ;llY quer:L eF. I shal.1 give YO'J. a trief bac _gro 1'1.J 3.S to hOH tho cpos Jiuns had Originally the Sche ,18 .1.vas tl10ught to be mar(:5in<. t co It .x:y removed thu G'llla from the area. then o:w 'oae 13c1 Cl. d 1;11 th it tsetse fly. thin Ii vino l11en0ry .. he area 1:1.:;'S cove 'eel by vc y do -so busho H01..rever, O,te1' the last tHG.rl tJ y()ar s started by-the mcpan.aing huma.11. popliutions in the ea::;t, have again opened 'p the country D u r '::"ng the period vihen bush coverod thl.:l certain of the larger ung .lates .,. eland, o,ryx, zebra. a.nd giraffe dimLlish'?d .:JON vlhe.1. th8 Cl.l'oa is O.(lce more s yli cab .t.G to .;1 om the nucleus of theso animals is too small for ;1. rapi repopulat:.ion of the area. In+il .l.-ecently sevel'e I a lso aSListeci in holcing thew back. 'e mnjor difference to the a es from. a C8IltU.'.'Y ago is that all the c.ry \veath01' \" points n..re nOH settled and inaccessable to animals. Hence at the time of i 'le 11", ve a tract of la d 80 te 3,000 square iniles iw. ex te.lYt.. of it seei.ns productive C'.nd n umerous lax-ge dam si tes are a.vai1ableo At present it. seeiI.S V82Y un .derpopulate6.. by \.vil allim Is 0 -eho pa.st three years i:Ie halTe been e ploi ting the olephu.lt popv.l tion t o a limited degree" In its second yeru.'" the Schell o pald its Hay and shmvs signs of 01!'lg tho same this year 0 Houevor, anluss substa.D.tial capital 1s 8vailable for developing tho output \orill at a v el."Y 101,<]' level. In t _e pre:3ent cir c.ln1stances the enya Government is conlpletely unabl. to provide t his c apital .. SO.l.th of the Scheme som e cattle men (. ,'u x'opeun Gl.t lers) have a syndicate and are taking over sO. no 500 i'Qil')s of l ar..' It is y opinion that they Ifill r u n cattJ.u O i l it succes s f ully. If hey do 5 CClvet oLl8 ey83 \ \ril1 be cast elsG1.fl1 el'o -th0 Sche ne 0 With our Im'1 O!..ltput w e \ rill be unable to proser.t a I"Jus'J;:-;.ablE; economic arg1JJTIent. for gaii1e VerQ.8 cactlco .'h e immediate quest.ion then 1:3 1101:1 does ono obtain c' p i tal to eot t.he Scile""'16 moving cpicklyo Private en erpl'ise ",,8e "713 ans \ e1'. II01lfover 5 pri v" te en erprise baal 8 at the idea of purchasing, leasing or' l n_ ine J 000 sqnQre miles for game m e t As yet it is in its i a s a la.7'ld 'lS O here 0 Poople

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are c...i'raic1 t o venture $ 1,000, 000 "tv hell tn.';) yossib l G !' tLlr sure still s o u nJ.l::n own. I bGliove $ 1,000, 000 "twu.l bo tll sort of capi tul neode t o float a c O Jllpany to dev elop he area q ... l y 0 :::' ... ,;>ee S to me that tlli:3 j. s I.J"bel e c attl e c o m e i as a n to the 01" as a ill.a1.cing stop g a p L m t i l the gar ani ma l s into t h e i r sc.rid3. IrJith 40,000 head of cat I e a larg e e n o u O !l L llCO"1le "tv o u l d resu l t t o justif y m o ney b e il1w !:>p:> t o n the ;:l v elopmen t of the a r e a Admi t todl y there i s a t h a t cattl e men may try t o 0 s t fiJ..d lif e c ompl etel y i f a v o n r o f tot:c, l c a ttleo IIov revGr i f the area i:--o ept as a uni t 0 eph3.!' aro co., 'erned i t u s t ) o n l y one third t h e centre S -,e tion i s sLli + e d t o C!'l t t l e Thi s is an 1 n i t i a l a':;aiEs t c e .. t t l e d o i n a t i n g the entire a rea. T h e 1'0. t i s a t o the gaille men t o de:"Jo:'lStrate ,vild life p otcmtial before the poi n is \'Therein. c ':'ltt l e w ill b e p '),sh d 1.11-'-.0 t ill s\li table area.L Crsctse f l y i n these other z ones v.Ji l l remai n a tempor"nr a l l y o ) .A f 1.lI't h e r poi n L f o r Ghe in-crod-:'l c tio n of cattle 0 are stil. ho.vi l L E r"ifficu lty in J.iSPOSlllg t r.l'1a t her e I t S 8 8ms t o s the b e s"" use o f our. C"TCc'l.SS->'S \ vill b G t o c:.:m t hem oX' cOIr,rert t hom i nto protei n meal. A f acto r y would be nec e s sary f o r s2ch a A f a ctory n eeds regLllar supplies. :Jild cni mals are dtff:2..culJc to c r op regul a r l y and produ c tion flt1.ctua tas v i i t h t h e S88 sons. A r e g L lar of cattle "TOu la. iron o E t t h e i r r egul aritie s i n s "pp J to t h e Summing up, i t appears to m e that here v T e h a y c one o f tho f e , instances v rh e l 'ein c a t t l e could genuinely b8 use d 0 augm e n t p r oduct i o n from t h e land. This will only b e s o i f the area c a n be r e tained a s a unit W i tho u t l a r g e capital the S chem e l,\ i i l l n o t with o t h e r uses for 1rhich capi t a l i s a v aila ble. Pl'ivc:-:te e nterprise se.e ms t h e b e s t vl8.y i n liThich t o deve lop the area Hence m y ext r e m e intere::::;t i n cattl e '1 l y I d o this? Chr isting.. sends hCl' k ind reeaY'as t o tho c h i l d ren a u ; Olll 'sel f i' h e s ame t o you all from myself' Your' s Ie S o C P e..rke r

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'," ./ --7th July, .. ..) 1 '1HE L t'SS. 'fhe Royal Natic;, al f'crks 8_1'e all .Jq .l1P.)8d \11\...h H i t sets u.''1.d can ac t.. each 0 e11er' 0:1 a reg., Inr e vcry mornint-. .Lheir l:all 3.1'e .'Jalrob1 II. i be1'dare and 'Ie. T[,QVO Gast, ifoi !est _':iL'.s A.I1i LOGgo j\ \oservo e Cer' une f'etel' .J. 'lt1O Pe v8r .l.hl'ee ?c eel' .Fa 1.1' Love 1"'010 nOgl_l' .:. t 7 30 a m each a )u npl ng Schc.fle ';."10L l' 01'C O pat 'ols lce..n /ble y. olIr. D Lbar 'tiic tal' 1 2 an j Afl:er c.)n t<1-.: t i "l.g 'hoso, he :110' 1 calls tho G to e _lr.n t c'chcme .L sign A.ll CchE:'llo mc:,11 (excGPt regis LGi'OU 111" L i cl..es) i>:> col1ec ted t..h9 l)ark...., allu held for' Lhe Schc.le 'J t t s r . VoL. i y (,eler;r:lm 1 :1ill be I'oad by the'n ove r the 1.:Tireless. 8i nils..r1y 8. s tOe -u f siGned <.mu s CU np8d offici.:J.l lelegr' a'1s i s hole. Ll ldcir offiCe and Lelogra'l.> fro m 'Che are t":l.Ken 0 er .11e r:'1uio. A t d a 01' S ortly afC8.C Lh.:. l.savo "",ast call uP .i-'GL cks H i n airobi COYlL::'Ct the 7:'..!,i.ouS laclonal :-.J.r;{,s. 'l.'h i e offers a Jirec t l.i.n!{ to c'h.irobi for the he'wlue throlgh Po cer 3 tIe ho.VG k8p t 'essagQs :"11i."0'J.(;11 iJnrks ir()bi to all absolui:,e min.i ''1'1''1 a'l.O o
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1 2 I P e r sons stc k a n d requiring trsatment S c heme H Q :l.lllSt report by 7 a.m or in the evening. I 1 0 t rea tmen t given dl.lring working hours. N o o n e i s pemn itted t o excuse 1 imself wor k on hie own d iagnosi s Leavec l SCClY i n bed' can only b e g iven by the Scheme Warden. I 3. WORKING HOURS. O f flcia l SC.hJme h O llrs are 7
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). 1 3 Roasons for s outh b unl{ route: 1 direct from Malindl to t h e :;;>ublic part of the I'savo I'ark 2 Much less black cotton 3 Not subje c t e d to c losure by flood ing o f Galana 4 On north b a n k lios through i3cheme an a r ea. no' c opened to seLLler10nt, 1tlhereas o n the south bank i t lie s across a tr,:l c t o f land uni t whick w o u l d greatl y benefit f ron a road "raversing ico 7 veHICL 2 .'11IN'.L'ENANCE. All l ight main enance of vehicles i s carried out at Sche e II. Q greasing, changing fi..tel fil ters adjus tments and rninol' Iepairs) S pares aro o b tainod from Lbe agents 1'1otor l'art, Coopers, and I H C Limi t e d orf ro:n Karsand&s Chaturbhuj of B o x 8 5 1 d o :nOasa The offer much faster servic e than the I f ordereu b y telegram Lhey geIl8ra2.1y have spal'es '-'-P by passenger train t o Voi within a dey. '1ajor J.'epairs etc are supposec'. to be O 'J.t by . 0 I>J. in riombasa or Nairobi (Form G .P. 1 88 ) 0 The dairobi workshop i s of I.JlC though both 2re hopelessly BlmT anG. very "ncompet(;H1t 1 take the to a pl'iva"e f o rL'l (.1oL("\l'1art in 1oiombasD are very bad) but this usually wor"ries 1..;'1e a ccountan ts. B Ol.-rever, we get ove r this by Lhe follcwing pr"ocedure ake Lile vehicle to _'lOIJ and ask the n if they ean do the job i n x days, malcind sure that this i s imposstbl e Get them to SFlY t.hat they C(,ElllO t (on ,pa.por) you are free to use the fir m o f y our choic e If aceo ... mLs then query the private f irm i nvoice, you can. pl'ouace 'he letter-. 3 Poaching along tho cast of the Scheme is seriol1.s l3nd has ly C'n (;cttin; over the last Lhree years IIm're ver, the o f roads and O..l.!. hunting a c t ivit.ies in l..he centre and t.he es l-crn par 'Cs has l'edLlced poaching to 8ll obsolut(>fJ1ini'llUlll i:2 .hese 6.reas. In the past vle hav e carried out o ccasional .raid ("'1 t tlemonts along our boundary. These a1'e never Clone 011 spec I t:; abvays on infor!llation. 2 and 30 cases have beE3rJ. pruseeuted succes!.>fully. I havl3 off8r ea. a rev'la .I'd of 8 h s 300/ -per person arl'ested by Scheme employees \vhom they c<:itch buntinO" in the Scheme. 10 date only 2 peo p l e have bee n 8.1 r(3stcd in this vray.. i i Houlu be vls11 't:"Ul1 s out.h from ilVachu to Dakab k o to K o r a m i

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), 4 10. TROPHIES AND P R ODUC E A s all produce is d erived fro m game ani mals it has to b e sol d under conditions lai d d own. by Wild Animals Protection O r dinanc e I v o r y and r hino horn are sold by Government a u c tion twice a in trophie s may be taken into the 1 vox:y R o o m a"L any e xcept two m onth s prior t o an a uctlon. It 18 a s \1ell t o enqu.J.re from the Game en i l c the Ivory H o om(B o x 2144, .r1 0 m b asa) t.h e pro p o s e d auction date s sora e months in. adva.nc e vihen u cosigmn e n t i s elivere d t o the I vory Room t h e Scheme h a s to p I' ep al'e a lis t of t h e tUfl\{ n w.nbers a n d "tFla ights t o be handed over a t I.he nme t ime 8 :JrtG y o u A R.c.C: p-' AT fJIB J: OF JELL V ,.l "Y Shou l d a private indi v idLlal l,dsh t o buy a patr of Scheme tusks y o u a r e a t l i bert y to sel l them t o Ho rever: tha t-h e price paid i s higher t han the our ren"C mark..:; t pl"'l..C e J.. 0 a.a t e 'le tlaVe n.e v e r sold :It _mder shs 20. rer Ind Buy e r s o f articles that are for pl-ocessing" 01' res '.l e in the country( skins, e l opl.?J } t 03.rS f et, 6c bone mu.s t b e iss cd \J'it h H s.!ll e pvl'm l t to cover t h e arl,lclc s A sale permit may n o be lS5])ed t?anybody for an urticle shot on I Bu.yers ""ho \,-;ish t o hAke covered b y the W A P o oUI. of t h e cOLln try mus t be 1 [' u e d \vi t h a n export per m i t nhis cO'ITer s any ani m a l tha t mip'ht be b O-Lgh t by people suc h a s S teyn ..... Any o np t radin g i n ,e.0 u g h t fro:.! the Schem.e in, possession of' a 1?ernut & f o g for d e dlers p crnut S11 S 2 0 I n t h e e a s y o f tra.c ters o:::pcrlllen t l n g \ofl t11 the s a l e of luI ton g three i j G i a l consi gnments n o t e x ceedi n g 2001bs each may b e covered by a sal e perm i t After.!. this they iilust take o u t a dealers p ermj c i f they l.-raTI t t o d o f u r the!' tr ade "'t,ri t h lhe pr' o d u c t D o n o t iSF -tG a d ealers perm i t t o anyone whom y o u kno w to ha1 6 been i n t r o uble w,,,t.b. h e I }ame D ept. Notify the lJep t o f any d e a lers perm i t that y o u issue a n d mak e SUIe that t hey a.r e valid for S chem e meat onl y S w-e e xport a...'1d de..:} er's par m i ts <1-enol" ally -'Jad e v alid f o r one yea r from Lhe date of iss L l e.. Y'o u are a t llbert y t o sho r ten thj. F peri o d if y o u so \ Jisb.. In t h e caSG of a ale per mit belng issJ.ed for the' sal e of mea t it sho o l d b e .nade v dlid f o r a o f three months Messrs L e a Bros G n d Blakemlli"1 Ltd l'nau.; an agr eement w i t h u s to h a n dle all OUI' d a s the y fou n d t hat t hey had too r:1Uch of our poor qu.ali t y bil ton& o n their hand s Hm'le v el' if the n e w type the Scheme n It! mak G S ...,e lls \v-ell t h e y rnighL resum. e t h e i r al'r angoment This has a v antages a s e a t is dispa tche d ':s pro _tuced 8to_>at';8 :J.nd antidGr tes !:.1G...tsures are then unde rta1{e n b y t h e f i rl'. !'!c.:.,.e of the m e a s ures v e have taken agains dermestes a r e v e r y effective. lhe g o l d811 rule seems t o be not t o store it, b t l t sek l i t a s quick l y 2 S possible. Origlnally we Eold a t -1'75 cts per p01.U1d col l ec;ted a t Lali o r -/85 cts \....o l i vered t o Na i robi. '.L'hi s p rice i s and w e are nmv askin g 1/20 cts per poun d HOltJever this may prove t o h i g h for t h e Africa n market( i e jlalindi) a no. it i .l.p t o y o u t o get \1ha t y v Q can. Iessrs ROvlland liard hoO.ve d. monopol y 01. OUI' e 1 e1 hant ears. H i therto Lhe price has bee!""l shs LI-O f o r a large ear and "hs 30. for a s mall one. H01lGVer this fir-m ha s n ov! off ered Lt6. per large and s h s 3 5 per s mall It I:ro u l d b e silupl H If y o u t o rais e t hem t o s h s 50 and )JO respectively. An ear comprises tHO an o u t e r and a n inne r A p i c e 8(::11s a t hal f the pric e of XNXl!!U a whole ear. Sell dallage d or d efective e a...rS a t h a l f price e R o \ ,rland Ward hav e a s k e d 1 S t o hrmv none away. Zimme r man Ltd \lfi l l b u y e lephant fee t and Rll s uch troph : h ad skins etc. Price shs per l a r g e f oo t B r acelets sell Cl. t shs 1/5 0 each if the buyer takes large Lantiti e s i.e. s i x dozen o r m ore. L ess than ... his s ell at shs 2.

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' .' THE CAP'lUR.c. AND SALE OF E L "PRANT The price 1 01' Cl fe:ll'11 c a l f caught b y t h e S chem e is 5 0 and 125 for a ma l e lIm rev.r 'He h ave allo\.red N S teyn of Arusha to ca teh elephant himself a t 8 0 female and male. W e cannot s e l l a t less than the latt 3 r pric e a s i t w o u l a t h e n b e lower tha n t h e Gove rnment license f e e The Scheme i s no L as yet per mj. t ted to c a p l,u r e 9.n d sel l a n y other Lype of ani mal deliberately. HOvJever sho .ll d a n anima l com e into you r hand s acciaentally i f the mothe r i s sho t or the c a l f f ound orphaned, this c o u ld. :.hen b e s o l d Steyn catches by chasing a h e r d o f e l e phant, i n a v ehic l e and then c tving out the .calf of h i s choise. 'his techniqu e as done b y h i m i s very e f f ective but h a s the drawba c k of causing considerable disturba...'1.c e t o the ani mal::. 0 keep this t.o a !uini'll'.lrn only herds of under 15 ani ma l s ( t h i s incl u ues e v es) bel chase d A s soon a s a calf is eU'lght b l o o a slides ahd sample s s h o u l d be t aken As severa l o f 1Jhose CCl.Llght last yea r c o ntracte d a form o f Babesia it i s a gool.. p r ineir-le t o ect e ach cal f \[i t h 13ureni l a s soon :1S r.h e ini t.i;: l b lood samp les hav e been lak8J.1. N o other trappers thaXl J Leyn an. d possibly Seago are al101. I I t o trap elephant in the S c heme Carr H c .1't ley and etc can only b e s o lLi. beasts ca' lght by Lhe 0cheme. ;fake cerati n c hC'..t S e a go, and Randal l pay on collection a s they h ave a very bad n a m e f o r n o t paying if l,hey can possibl y get a-v.Tay w ith i t I f' an animal dies after the:l hav e take n c h a r g e of i c -ehe lil.abili L y i s Lheirs a n d the Schem e i n n o \:!'3.y responsible lJer y maall calves ni e pa r difficul t t o rear g ener ally not \"orth the bother. If a n attempt., i s v O be made h owever I recommend Ghat i t sho 1 1J. b e fGJ on cooked u.ji u i t h cons iderable qu.::.nti t i e s of lCasylan 1 pro"C ein conce n trate added. hi s i s a v a ilabl e ltd lairobi. Also make certain t h e calf' i s fed a v e r y hie h qu.anti c y of c a lci'JJ 1 2 lIT' O F r,' CynI CA.:... .i). J A I3190d s amples ShO : 1ld be collcc t t d from r y e J.cphant s h o t f o r .01' Harthoor n of the J n i vers i ty Co llege of t::. A II.) has provid J d bo c t.,le5 for t.he p.lrpo.se Fl'om each elephant tV-TO samples .silOLtld b o t.:ak en; one of 1;!hole bJ.ood Dnd one of S SI'IJ.lJl only .A t-h.ermos f 1 11ed '1'ri 11 ice shou l u pl' e s EH'v e samples in he f i e l c o v,.hole blo o d should not b9 frozer 1 thoC'.g h serum k eeps \-[ell l.h i s If possibl e c h e sampl e s ShOl l l d not b e kep t l onger vhan one v18ek at L ali. I f :Il l t on the p assenge r train A t Voi packed in d colu the x mos t h e s amplGr. trd v e l 0 lfai r obi overniGht and ca. 1 b e coilil ecte d che foll o wing m o r n i n g if cl lTt ...... s Stloe is s ent t o Ha .r:tho orn via he Parks radio. Harthoo rns aadres s = lJr A .l1arthoorn, Dept o f Physiolog : !niV(H'sit y o f E A P .O.KABiL:!;. B lood slides sho;.ll d be senv ("0 D
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6. [hen a p lant -hat is being eaten i s identified five specimens must b e taken a n d pressed. If possible fruit, seeds and. flowers should be taken. In the case of a trce five small p i eces o f bark be pressed l,oJith the leaves etC. '-;hen app. 3lbs 'Jf psrt of t h e plant L hat was eeing e aten be collected and into a bundle; also app. 3!.lbs of the parts of Lhe plant L-hat l,...rere not being eaten mad e into l a si1nilar :ruut bl.:;.ndle. These &re are t.hen given correspondi!'...g n n.mbers w i i.,h the specimens In plant press an" all entered in Lhe regi ster" -'he 3 Ib samples should then be shade driod. I h e n drythoy shou l d be m' .de up inco parcel s and sent to Dr DOllgal for analysis. certain they are well l &celld. Address t o DR. H w D OLJGAL, Grasslands ::-:esearch Station, P O E o x 450, KI1.ALB. I S C Park T.

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" Dear C/o P .O. Box 8 '1, NAKU U Kenya 27th A ril, 1964 You may rem e I be l ere iI K y a y ou mentioned interest in the project I was \ orking o n ; i e t h e t ake-over of a l a r g e tract o f l and for game manag e ment through priv ate enterprise. At t h e time the Ameri c an millionaire, Ray R y an was ne gotiating ith the K eny a Government for t he l and i n q uestion. These n e g otiations h a ve broken do n and R yan has withdraw n his pro p ositio n The area constitutes s o m e 3 ,000 s quare miles east of t h e Tsavo atio na l Park in t h e coast region of Kenya. Thou gh ithout t h e spectacular animal populations o f p l a c e s such as the Serengeti, a wide variety o f animals occur in it. Elephant, lion, l eopard, buff alo, rhino, e l and oryx, lesser k u du, gerenuk and gj raffe t o name a fe. he e l eph a n t p o pula tion f l uctua t e s as t here is s ome movement i n a nd out o f the adjoining Tsa vo Jat j ona l Park Em ever it is o ne o f t h e area' s most outstanding a s sets and one of t h e fe p l a c es Ither e herds' of 1,000 o r m o r e elephant do occur. Fro m 1 9 60 until 1 903 I established a d r an the Govern mel t s Galana Game kanagement 'rhis as a project e mbracing t h e a r e a c o n cerned to investigate uses to, i ch, ild life c b e put a nd to establish this form of' management as a competitive l and use. The projec t started ru1d a s rlll on a v ery limited amount of' c apital. D ur'ing t h e tria l period t h e eco n omy as based on 'croppin 'elephant. T his c arri ed out under very primitive conditio_s vith l a ck of facili t i es o r previous experience. Nonethe less, the project 'broke even and d i d not los e any money. Dur i ng t h e same p eriod safari parties visited t h e are a (entirely for t e purpose of hunt i ng,) and the rev en ue thus gen erated as considerab l e I am c on vinced t ha properly developed and utilised t he 5 000 scue-re mil s produce very considerab l e profit.

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2 Development c o uld t ake l a ce alo n g tl1re main lines; tourism c a t I e and gam m anagement As I s e e i t the area off r s t he ,tourist t h e o ppo"rtuni ties t o hunt 'iitl rif l e an d ph o t o g r a ph game. The latter a sp ect 1 o uld n o t b e carri ed out s o much from vehicles, bu t more on foot o r p ossibly h o r s eba c k This m e t h o d is one t ha t has been overlooked i n the rush t o pil e "pa c kage tourists" into v ehicles a nd run t h e m a l love r E a s t Africa. N onet h e l es s i t c a n be m uch m o r e ex citing an d r e warding t han just s i tting in a c ar: Unde r such circumstan c es tourists 'ould come a s indi viduals o r very small partie s pa ying h igh rate s but g e t ting exclu s l ve trea tment. The resorts of Malindi and K ilifi on t h e c oa s t a r e only 50 m inutes a i a y b y light a i r craft and the Tsavo Par k g i v es f a cilities for driving and v i e vi ng game fro m a v e h icle C a t I e It is considered tha t up to be f c attle co uld be ranc hed i n 1e a r e. i i t out confl Icting i t I l th needs of t he ild life. Any d e ve l opThent be soundly backed by t e considerable rev e nue such a herd w o uld roduce 1 anage m ent IDea ns use of a percenta g e o f t h e wild anim a l s ( generally n o more t ha n t hey can replace through annua l reproduction) for t h e production o f hides troph i es and m e a t pro ducts. L es s i s kno w n about t his field t h e other t l 'IO. Ho-,r e v e r w h a t i s kn o v n i ndic ates t ha t great potelti a l exists. For e xample, t he a r ea c an withst an d 1 6 0 elephan t I e m o ved annually. E a c h e l e phant o n a v er'age ill produ ce: I vory Ears (leather) 1 8 Belly kin (leather) 5 F e e t ( stools etc.) 7 Tai l hair ( br acelets) 1 Carc ass = 5,000 l b s of meat, bon e & viscer a It i s t h e u s e o f t h e c a r cass tha t at present is i n a ve r y p r imitiv e stag e Ext r a ction o f fats, and conversion into bon e and m eat meals m a y b e the m ost profitable use.

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3 -The c ap ital to carry out t he develop ment required ould be l a r e 100,000 ove r a period of 5 ye a r s Is s uch c ap i t a l a vail a b l e in S v itzerland ; are you i n ter sted i n helping to set up a com p an y for t he purp ose a n d do you k n o w o f a nyon e w h o w o uld be? I vould be v ery g r ateful f o r an early ans ere ; i th v ery be s t t1ishes Y ours sincerely,

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,I D H L n. r ey PriJ. lci,t.<' 1 College of \\ ildlife 1.a a e :Jer l I 1i'V 1\ L .. J.:LLV1 P O 1:.05111. TaLga l y i k a .. Dear C/o P O Box 861 lJKDl U K uy "'9 t h A .ril, I e Ver y man y thanks inde for c o ducting us around ',-veka or.. the lt h.. I apologise for turning up s o late that it had to be s c h a rush. Hugh you may remember tha t you ment t qned that a Germa lor some Ger mans he.d offered to take over a controlled al'ea i_ rangonyjka to be run as tl1e i r private preserve along "1:;11 t r o l ines bu;.. 1aC! been tur'ned d ad!.!. by your Game Depart jIlt '\ould it" b at all possible for m e to be thc_ nalli sana addresses (? I} n o 'I this is perhaps t DntamOUI1t to askiliE fa' S tate secrets, but a 'vave of' renewed i tel'ti::lt tJJC private-enterprj seGulana Pl.'oJ(;ct a l",.l'i \tlj" ltD. .; ini try o f AgI'iclilt u:r e U'" O ';oa t I cgio '.leI eil.bly m'e taking uy til C U gels nn it \. OGl e (). of: cur 1,1 E) HL" sil,.i a I' Lc !det j/Ld:' fol":& '(1 by nYE_' ill u. t.. b t l,e r o f ::ucce;-)'. i s ae:t iri2 e -"'jr tt"JlCUf.l1 s o I 1.... 0 round u p otller interested ,Ol't j Chr'; '" e __ J. cend::. he!' br:st ts t Ycurs .:e

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e ( Jens K Touborg Esq., 704 v Potta atamie St., T ECUMSE N Michigan, UoS A Dear J ens C/o P.O. Box 861 NAKU" U K ya. 29th April, 196 4 S i n c e l as t I wl'ote to you a c ouple of m ont hs ba c \:, t h i ngs have not gone too well. The pro po .sal s put f'orwa:rd by Ray R yall to take over the D ,OOO square mile GalaIla Game rua agefficnt S cheme ha ve f allen t.Tough However, it w ould appear that the Gov ernment is very interested in any similar pro' osa l and d e f initely vants the area to be fina n ced and developed by prtv atel:::nterprise. I feel that there is immense s co p e in t he project o n a tourism c attle, game management basi s H o vever, I have to find backers. Do you know of an yone may be interested in financing any suc h project? Would you yourself b e interested in investing in it? ,Should you feel t h e slightest interest or feel t ha t someone you may kno w v.ould be I will send you a report on what was ac hieved by the Game Management S cheme while w e ran it, together with detailed estimates and a ssessments of hat cou l d be done under priva t e enterprise. Hopi ng t ha t you are i n the best o f health. Kindest regard from both Chri stin e and myself, Your aye

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C/o P.O. B o x 861, AKU U Kenya. Bobbie Burns Esq., 30th April, 1 9 4 3 15 1st National Bank Buildinb Wichita Fall s T1MS, U S .A. Dear Bobbie, ] uch water has passed beneath the bridge since last w e met an d t his letter lill no doubt com e as somet hing of a surprise. The Game M anagement Scheme at Lali h a s completed its three ye a r trial p riod ruld p l ans 9Te now being laid for its future development. I t has been decided that the area could best be developed through private enterprise. The whole area of 3 ,000 s q u are miles is therefore likely to be leased to any individual o r company who makes the first bid. I h a v e resi gned fro m the Game Departm ent to try and organise s uch a company_ I feel from the e xperien c e gaine d over t he four years I lived there that an enterprise bas d on tourism sport hunting etc., c a t 1 and brune ero' p i g silo I d b profi te.ule. V ould you as a erson be interested in f o rming or snari r g i n the format ion of a co m )an y to ta over h e eheILe area? Do you know anyo e else m i ght be interested i any sue ven ture? Thi s \ 0 I d be a way in VL'1i ch one could secure a large priva t 'reserve w ould the Shikar Club b inter sted? If you are at all intere ted and feel thaL there is any merit in these i d eas, I will send you a etLiled re 0 t on the S c h e n e and estimates on the area' p o ential. Christine sends Abbie, the kids and yourself her best wishes The same from myself. Yours,

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I, '. Ilonsi ur Concarneau, d Finis.tere, .. Dea r ec h e n art, C/o P O B o 8 1, .NAKURU, K enya. 5th ay, 19 64 . l en e Babault yes the tragic news of your p aren t s g Both Chri 'tin e a.nd I were s n oc k ed 0 hea it a d se.d y o u OUI' sincer e c o ldol n c es. You may r e m mber t h a t when y o u ve.ce out her la.st y D r yo u f It tl'la tit o uld b e l_O!:::sible t c 0 s i l" .. 8.1 b t f r i I t unit fer nI'Cc. \:"11:..( lld L ...culd 'be v n g r a tef 1 i nd e e d fo:!: an; v i'1J.rtllv Qetail you Ol..:.ld 'ive me r'EJE)1.L'diLE' CC' l o f Sl:C _ ai. mit b lU tJ.16 ,t"Tic 11a 1.;0 l e be b a i li ed. f O l tne v rio S l>l'OGuct 1 &. t s !l!eht alid oon e l e31s. y et. be i.te resten i b u y i l L F t ne, G ;:T oduc ts? T h e lJI ojec t to t c.kc over the G2.1anc. i s tc...kiL Q a 101 c t o l1!at ; an kyaT: :1?S ,Ii thdr8i7n h i s i 1 tel est d ,I v el' t'!61'e a1' sever""l othe r o s s i b':"l i tiE; thc::t v e a r e iIlvestigaLi g at r e ellto I sC"t7 G I' a l p l a c e s i r B8. S t Africa ele1--11 elel-l1anL I>O ll Ul ati01 <: will h av e t c b reduc e d by considerab e "-:-101' t h e p opll ation of t h e l s a vo a r k I J a y h a v e to b e 1 educ e d by as n mch a s 2 ,OU. I am r y i n g to obtai n c o ntracts to do suc h work on a fully conn ercial basis" h e i very D.ll skin f rom ea r s and bell y would ensure p r o f i t, but I a1' cer ain G 1 a the authorities i l l reouire full use of .. t lle carcasses. Any processi ng ilant w o uld have to be able to d e a l J ith 1000 elephant annually ( = 2,000,000 kilogrammes a pp.) I'ith b e s t v i s hes to your wife and yourself, also Alban b e n next you see him. Yours Sincerely, I a n Park r

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,'e Dr. R V Short, I C/o Box 861, AKURU. Dept .. o f :Veterinary C 11nica1 Studies, 0 c11001 o f V teriltary Medicine, I I 5th May, 1 964. r a Gingl y } o a ell. Dea r V r j D2. 1 Y the dart iLl geno \ \ q C\' I () j\L-\ \ ,/ o fo' "our let en-o f 23rd L ril '->L Id aL,o oJ Til uch the S C.L1GI ., 1188 f elle n thI' vnere t { y a n t:.:: c on e -TIWd, it \ ct...1.G. '3.p t.2.r -LIlA v t 0 TilUCt g round 1 a" be n gained 1'01' }il'ojcci.. to bl;j ab.;;naCfl. cd 1 \16 1 "inistry of anc. .'..egiona Gover n llt m:e otn detern i n ed t l J2.t it. ..;) .. 18.11 roce d i i ene fel1: or a l i C L er. I He ow pre ty (es ra 0 fill :.:iv a ;c ei "el' Jrise pa" d 0 back t he p:cojeet. aave yo ........ 8.l'lY ideas? Do you 1 i nk tnal. luffield m i gh t gran t a straight to a co l pan y to g e tit under way ? C O L ld you make a few subtle en q uL. ies alon g t e e lines ? I shall b e sending you s ome bumph on the ituation as it i s a l s o 1{0 uffield -by the e nd o f L is week. ,best

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Vic Bundesen Esq., Regional Range Off'icer, Regional Agricultural Dept., P.O. Box 90, MOMBASA. Dear P.Oo Box 861,. NAKURU, Kenya. 19th May,: 1964. I understand that the Game Warden, Ian Grllnwood, will be meeting the Regional Agrarian Committee and Land Board toward the end of this month and that you will be present at one or other of' these meetings. I think you know that Ray Ryan did offer to take over and run the present Game Management Scheme area on a game-cattle basis. His proposal was withdrawn because of' the difficulties placed in his way by Ian Grimwood .. If' the Regional authorities wish the area to be run by private enterprise, and I think that they will, there are bodies who will finance the project; but upless Grtmwood changes his attitude the difficulties that caused Ryan ,to withdaw will again prove an obstacle. Basically Grimwood's motives are that the use of wild life shall remain entirely within the control of' his Department. To this end he argues that the law prevents. hun granting the freedom private enterprise would require. His arguments are generally accepted thI'ough ignorance of the GBtile Ordinance on the part of the other parties. I feel that it may be well worth your while to get hold of' a copy of t h e Wild Animals Protection Ordinance urior to the meeting and pay particular attention to sections 14, 15, 39t3) and 33(l)(2f). Enclosed are two memoranda which may help give you a clearer picture of the legal background to the problem of game use. A point that will almost certainly arise is that Grllnwood will state that game is the property of the state. Nowhere in the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance is this statedo Game only becomes state property ij'When it dies naturally ii when it is killed illegally iii when it is legally killed in defense of property or life by a person not in possession of the neces-ary permit to kill tha t animal One has to have a licence to kill or capture animals but there is no law stating state ownership of live 'wild animals. With best W i shes, Yours Sincerely,

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I y. J G 196 r ..... .... ReCOil .ly ,e w\I'e hOCH" __ -\0 Aooocic'";io ill.G w con iaucnce' e policy 0 1'0 -\hio e c,ud ill:' 0 Il"UlliOU!(' '.he. > gc.OO l'",nchi g is becoming eyeD of (; .be uood 10ICfs ',.ro,. 'bL)Cll dot. i. yOU? coun.t <> o ")1:' jCC'" 0 G 0'"11'13_ \h (brJG 00 in.he Gaae Jlm, O='J Je r'c '''' "'orrning c'lc.lf' of OYJUCiI'f:: an conserve,.ion in fr.at . U'R"ica., !!,Q. heR" (} .:10 ..... (',;'''C ('oing in llioucoia., D-c' Ge l:!J if -J scon ,0 be pinc' i g --OLl!' e 0-, you suoulc "-id De you })-bliS:l C oUY-:').i:1g ye .? I would "be ve-Y' gr-.... t.c .... ul 0.\ -... "\ nc' m .!i-.,hocl. L.'wo you c:: .. c imell;.o c mID ir.g ." d 'wUt ... IDp:!.l ,nch:li.nc in Jr -.... :,3" A c allY ;j'},'i' i j ... i .:.J wV':' ',Ie.. l!e OA3 J .... 'Y ::'-0. C loro Q, a '\l!ah" c;aoG or] :JUG .C'..ined y ilt! ][0 t.':lcrc ('allY (1c-}, ailu i OR' ........ ".ion avnHc.bll.c on

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. U t .,.., s. o yo u One:2i !..,1'" "',," .0 . 10 'Oil _i.!l. e lJe.p 1 po Ol,;io[J _OK' ouoy .. .ypiLlg, Il{ 13 C c. ':nquio':':v .o, .e .. )0. lCO, Yo I'S,

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.. ./ Dr Archie Mossman, University College of Post Bag 167 H, SALISBURY, Southern Rhodesia. Dear Archie, c/o A. H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.Eo, P. o. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya. 31st July 1964. Many thanks for your letter and the references and papers you sent up. Apologies for not replying sooner but I have only just returned from a job in Uganda. Yes we are interested in undertaking actual management work in addition to providing a consultant service. We have been offered a very big cropping project in Uganda involving hippo, buffalo and possibly elephant. However we shall not know whether we shall get the work definitely until September. We were engaged to survey the hippo population in a nine mile section of the Nile east of the Murchison Falls Park. In this stretch we counted 2357 hippo with definite grounds for believing that this does not comprise the total population. We conducted the count from the air,(we now have our own aircraft,) and were amazed at the total. Luckily the water was very clear and one could see hippo beneath the In September we are booked to carry out a survey on crocodile over 100 miles of river in central Tanganyikao The reaction of the various conservation authorities in Uganda and Tanganyika has been very favourable to the formation of our firm. However, a s is natural, they are waiting to g ee the results of the first few projects we undertake before committing themselves to the long term research and management work that we are seeking. The Kenya Game ment we have not yet approached, nor do we intend undertaking work for Grimwood until we have establishe d ourselves elsewhere. It would not be worth our while to have a row with him before we were known! I would be very interested to hear how Wildlife Utilisation SerYices are doing. Is there a great demand for consultant work in Rho desia? Do you derive greater income from this or from actual mana ge ment in the field? What news of Peter Johnstone? We have not heard from him for some time. Regarding your tsetse problem; the rumours first reached us through Dr Grzimek who reported that a recent meeting of the Frankfurt Zoological Society had passed a resolution condemming the support given to The policy of game extermination by the Southern Rhodesian Game Ranchers Association. How they came to believe that your association was in favour of ex t ermination I do not know. I most strongly r ecommend that you write to Grzimek and put things straight with him. He is a very powerful figure in the conservation world and to have him believing what he obviously does does you no good whatsoever. I think his a ddress will be Dr Bernhard Grzimek, the Frankfurt Zoo, Frankfurt/Maine, West Germany. It would a p pe a r that someone has been maligning you with great effect! I have mad e inquiries a s to why the E.A. Wildlife Society refused to come out in the open and condemn S. Rhodesian extermination policies. As you said in your letter it is deemed unwise to comment on the goings on in countries outside East Africa when they are a purely East African Society. I am certain this is nothing more tha n shirking the issue or plain woolly thinking. If the Frankfurt Zoological Society, The British Fauna Society, the New York Zoological Society and others can and do comment on

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2. conservation matters outside their own countries, the n the E. A. Society c a n a t l east d o lik e wise. I sha l l do a certain amount of stirring in the society circles in the next few week s to see if the attitude can be changed., M e anwhile I mos t strongly advise you to write to Phil Dr P.E. Glover, P o. Box 14466, Nairobi putting the facts to him a nd asking him fmr any advice or help that he can give. He is the h ead of the Keny a Tsetse Department and without doubt the most emminent authority on tsetse on the continent. He i s a n ardent conservationist a nd it is through him tha t the K enya Tsetse D ept has never advoc ated game shooting a s a tsstse control m e asure. He is avery good friend of ours and I a m sure getting into contact will to your good. If there is a ny way I c a n be of assista nce to you please let me k no w Loo king forward to hearing from you again; our best w i shes to Mildred, yourself and the Yours aye, / ;' ,1 Ian Parker.

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e A .. (JulIen Esq., C/o Voice o.f' Kenya, P O Box 30456, NAI ROBI Dear C/o A. H Mowat Esq., F .R.C.S.E., P .O. Box 861, NAKURU 11th August, 1964. / / Enclosed are papers pertaining to the Game Management Scheme. I would be very grateful if you would return them as scan as you have perused them. Regarding any figures pertaining I must emphasise they are insurf'icient base estimates of economic potential. form sufficient reason for expenditure investigation of economic potenti al. to game cropping: grounds on which to However, they do on a detailed --With best wishes, Yours,

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/ e c/o A.H. Mowat Esq., F.R.C.S.E., P.O. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya. 12th August, 1964. M. Marc Pechnart, Concarneau, SUD FINISTERRE, France. Dear Please accept my apologies for taking so long to write to you. However my investigations in Uganda took more time than I had anticipated. I have made enquiries with the Kenya Immigration Department about you acquiring resident's status in Kenya. If you wish to retain your French nationality and reside in Kenya you must request a Class B entry permit :from the Kenya Government. Requests must be made to the ]mmigration Department, P.O. Box 30191, Nairobi. There should be no difficulty at all in obtaining such a per.mit. It will entitle you to come to and leave Kenya as and when you wish. With such status you would be a resident as far as the game laws and the acquisition or lease of land is concerned. With regard to the Galana, the situation has not improved. Terrorists from Somalia are still in the vicinity and the Government have closed nearly half the area to the public. Under these circumstances it is not worth considering renting or buying any part of the Galana. As yet I have not heard of any large property elsewhere in Kenya that would be suitable :for Game ranching, but I am still making enquiries. I think that I mentioned in my last letter that I, my wife and two colleagues have formed a business partnership under the name of Wildlife Services. W e are under the patronage of one of the most eminent ecologists in Africa -Dr. Glover. Our aims are to assist Game Departments, National Park authorities and land owners by undertaking (1) any form of wildlife research that may be required (2) any cropping of animal populations or management that might be necessary (3) scientific collections of flora and fauna for institutes of research or learning. W e have been approached by the Uganda Game Department to reduce the hippo population in part of the Nile by 500. W e have investigated the possibilities and find that we could make good money out of the proposition. W e would buy the hippo from the Government and then sell them to the local people who remove them from the site of killing. This has been done in other parts of Uganda by the National Park authorities and has shown very great profit. In the same area as the hippo, the Game Department wishes to reduce the elephant population by 2,500. It is almost certain that if we undertake the 500 hippo and do the work well, they will ask us to buy the elephant. However this number of elephant could not be consumed by the local people. They would have

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2 to be processed. We are thus very interested in going into partnership on this with you. (Last year the Game Department in Uganda shot 800 + elephant in this one small area and the carcasses were left to rot. You will agree this is a terrible waste. ) What I therefore suggest is that once we have made a good name with the authorities in Uganda, you came out here have a look at the elephant then together we go and make a proposition for the 2,500 elephant to the Uganda Game Department. Naturally this must be kept in confidence as there are many here who would like to get such a project. From the conservation point of view, it is essential that these elephant are used properly. By doing this we can demonstrate their true value and thus give strong reason for their conservation. Wha t do you think of this? Could you come out and see the prospects yourself about January February next year? W e could then arrange for your resident's status for Kenya. W e also. have the possibility of a large project with hippo in Tanganyika. Again this would require processing as the area is far r emoved fram any large human populations. W e are going to investigate this early next month. Looking forward to hearing from you. With best wishes to yourself and your Wife, Yours Sincerely, Ian Parker.

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c/o A.H. M owat Esq., F.R.C.S.E., P.O. Box 861, NAKURU, Kenya . 13th August, 1964. Peter Hill Esq., La Perrette, BURSINS, / VAUD, SWitzerland. Dear Peter, Much water has passed b eneath the bridge since last I wrote. The Game ranagernent Scheme stagGers on but only just. You may remember th t I strongly advocated the S cheme be taken over by private enterprise. This policy was agreed to by the powers that be. I was successful In finding an investor willing to tak e over the entire project. This was Ray Ryc-m, the A merica n oil maan tee He agreed t o the following conditions: 1. 3. 4. that he invest ,000 in the venture within 5 years tha t in to normal Company Tax, 20 % of his profit would be d onated to government authorities cropping quotas for the various s pecies should be subject to t he arbitrary decision of an ll1partial scientific cocmnittee to establish l"'esearch facilities in the S cheme. However' Ian Gr'imwood requires such tight control on wha t the proposed co mpany c.id t ha t it amounted to dictation of what we could or could not do. Ryan refused to such strictUl7es on his investment and quite rightly withdrew his proposal. The Game Department attitude is so negative that I reSigned f rmn it. The Scheme stagnates having had no less than 4 wardens run it since I left on leave a year ago. Since reSigning, my wife, Alan Root and one A.listair Graham a qualified zoologist -and I have formed a business partnership in the name of Wildlife Services. W e are under Phil Glover's guidance. Our aim is to provide a service to c arry out wildlife research and management for conservation author-'i ties and land owners. Though a business firm, our principle is good conservation shall take precedence over finaneial expediency .. We have already undertaken a hippo count for the Uganda Game Department and Parks and are booked to c arry out an assessment of a crocodile population in Tanganyika. It is likely we will

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" undertake some major cropping work in Uganda thoug h this is not yet finalised. We would be particularly grateful if you could give us consideration in the event of I.U.C.N. requirin.g any work done in Africa. Have you anything in mind we could undertake? With best wishes and looking forward to he'ring from you, Yours aye,

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I " Dear I c/o P.O. Box 861, NAK.1JRU, Kenya. 50th September, 1965. Attached is a copy of the Game Management Scheme report. With this as a background, herewith are some ideas on the takeover of the Scheme by private enterprise. Three years' experience she w s the region's potential lies in meat production and tourism. Recent work in Rhodesia and SQuth Africa 'on the combination of domestic stock with wild life as a land use has given promising results. M aximal meat production can be achieved :'n this waY9 and providing that stock is fitted to the ecology as opposed to radically changing the ecology to suit stock, there seems to be little reason why it and wild life should not be run together. Two problems arise in using wild animals in a meat industry. Through seasonal movement output tends to be irregular and, where human consumption is concerned, prejudice exists against the use of certain species. Irregularity in supply can be reduoed in consequenoe if a complementary source of supply exists. Stock would provide this. Prejudioe against specific m eat does not arise when the raw product is prooessed or rendered into concentrates and by-products. If all meat produced could be subjeot to the same processing and sales procedure as against separate procedures for each different type, a stronger and more stable industry would result. this can only be done if returns for stock are competitive with prices obtainable elsewhere and if K.M.C. opposition can be overcome. Monsieur Pechenart can provide information on the former point and Mr. Hill can g ive guidance on the latter. The live weight available for cropping annually from elephant is 960,00 0 Ibs ( 436,365 kg. ) Other game species may well bring this to over 1,0 00,000 Ibs in a relatively short time. However as their numbers have not yet been aocurately assessed I do not attempt at this point to make an estimation of potential production. The Galla kept cattle over much of the present Scheme in the last century. W hen they withdrew it appears bush encroached on the former grass areas and with it Tsetse flies. These .sucoessfully prevented further use of the area. However in recent years extensive fires have destroyed large tracts of bush and to a considerable degree eliminated the fly. Glossina longipennis occurs over the 'ivhole area.., though the incidence of trypanosomiasis with this species of fly seems very low. Cattle have been successfully kept at the Scheme headquarters for two years. It is the present opinion of Tsetse Department's Zoologist J.G. le Roux that the incidence is as low as in the ar0a south of M aokinnon Road in which there lare large numbers of native stock. From the tsetse point of view

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. 2. it seems as though cattle could exist successfully in the area. However this can only be proved by trial. Sheep and goats may also prove a useful form of exploitation and the possibility warrants investigation. Before any trials with stock can be undertaken, water supplies must be developed. This can be dene by the construction of surface dams and 'Australian tanks', or by the drilling of boreholes. Numerous sites exist for the former. The potential for boreholes can only be determined with certainty by drilling. The Ministry of W orks Hydrological Department carried out pr01iminary tests around Dakabuko in August this year. Their findings sugges : L that there is con ciderablc subsurface water in the area, but that it may be held in clay which will not release it. Tourist potential lies initially in sport hunting. A number of overseas visitors w ould like to stay in one place, hunt a limited bag (elephant, rhino, buffalo, lion, eland, oryx, lesser kudu, gerenuk, Grant's gazelle and birds) and be able to remain as long as they wished in preference to the routine of motoring allover East Africa and being limited in time area. As private land the Scheme could cater for this category of tourist better than any existing organisation. Unless satisfactory financial returns could be arranged no hunterss other than those e mployed by the oompany taking over the Scheme, would be permitted to hunt the area. If the Scheme is taken over by private enterprise the concern must have abs01ute control 0f policy toward and exploitation of the area's wild life. At present control 0f all aspects of exploitation are vested in the Game Department. All wild life including that on private land, is the property of the State. The land owner only has the right to destroy an animal or animals d8:IpaglJ}g hip property. (Damage does include bending a slade of grass:) H0wever he has no right to utilise the animal so destroyed in any way unless authorised by the Department. Hunters on private l and must also be in possession of a valid game licence. In exploratory conversations with the present Chief Game W arden it was obvious to me that he was very unwilling to surrender any of the Department's legal position. There are clauses in the W "ild Animals Protection Ordinance whereby permissi0 n can be granted for the exploitation of wild life. However, this would always be subject to the Chief Game Warden's whim. In view of the changes that will take place in this country a very much firmer and more positive state would have to be arranged; (perhaps imposed on the Game Department by higher auth 0rity,) before it WQuld be worth investing money in the venture envisaged. I have approached the Regional administration unofficially and they are in favour of the take-over by private enterprise. The Chief Game W arden also favours it but envisages rather stringent Departmental control over the operation. The local are in favour of a commercial company.

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(3. What is now required is a meeting of all interested parties tJ decide on details, and an official approach made for the acquisition of land. Monsieur Marc Pechenart is due out in Kenya toward the end of October. It seems suitab1e that the meeting should take place on a date between 22nd and 30th October. Mr. Ray Ryan has suggested the Mount Kenya Safari Club as a venue. I am therefore asking him to select a date and act as our Che. irman. With best wishes? Mr. Ray Ryan Messieurs Pechenart Mr. C.D. Hill Mr. G. Powys Mr. R. Babault Mr. A Archer Yours 1. S. C. Parker --

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/ -It' wild animals are to live the ne.ec;i'land. To secure such land outside of National Parka, fauna conservation must prove oompetitive with a.lternative la.nd uses. As yet there 1s no instance in Kenya in whioh such conservation haa proved more profitable than or ranching. Wild lif*t through Tourism does earn the country sevel'al mill ion pounds a year. However this revenue is from fauna on many millions of acres 4t and compared on a money per aore basis with agricultural and pastoral land usee 1s ver-y loW. Wild life has to all extents and purposes been exterminated in agriculturally developed areas. It now only exists in vacant lands or those only sparsely populated by humans. It would be naive to suppose that these lands will remain undeveloped and. unoocupied, be they in the Coast h1ntepland, Masai land or Northern Region. The eountryts exploding population makes it a matter of time before they are developed. The Tana Irrigation S cheme is an example. Though inevitable that game will be eltminated in arable areaSt the of Kenya's vacant land 1s pastoral. The sustained use or wild lite could be / \ ) incorporated in its development. Unless this does happen a.nimals will largely cease to eXist outside the country's National Parks. The Game Department has deemed it in the interests ot conservation to retain direct of all aspects of the eXploitation of wild life and rendered it unattractive on pr1vate land. The result of this polley bas been the opposite. of its intent. Despite the Department's power to prevent or restrict exploitation of game, it has no power to prevent tlle landowner k1lling all animals on his land. Thus as it is unprofitable the majority of farmers have exterminated it. (It is rumoured that the Game Department 1e seeking the enactment of legislation to curtail the power of landowners to control wild animals on their land. It is moat unlikely that an agrioultural community could tolerate this.)

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. As an area is developed so it comes under ownership. Once a body (be it an individual, eo-operative society or company) aSSlJUles ownership or lease of land on whioh its existence will depend, it will demand control of the use of that land. If v;1ld life is directly profitable to the owner and he can manage it as he sees fit, its value is apparent and survival automatically ensured. The necessity for a Game Department policy change is plain, The difference between the old and new course is such as to make the trans1tion difficult. Difficulty however, is no reason. fornot 4t attempting what ie obviously right. The make-up of the Game Department will have to be changed from the present "police licensing bureaulf to a research organisation fulf"illing a similar .. role to that the Veterinary Department playa for the livestock industry. A sudden change of policy in which landowners were given a free reign to exploit wild life after virtually total prohibition, (and the lack of knowledge this has engendered) would endanger the asset before its potential was understood. Free. trade in game prodUcts would give illicit hunters good cover. Produce would undoubtedly have to be directed through reoognised. channels. It has been said. that wild lite eXploitation on private land can only be undertaken by advanced people. There is some truth in this, ( \ b-u.t 1 t is worth bearing in mind that the WaNderobo peoples of the Mau had an effective conservation system long before the advent of the white man in Africa. Thin list of complications and difficulties could go on tad infinitum'. It 1s worth that ebstacles arentt genuine reasons for not truting the correct course. Because of the diff'loulties involved, the. transition of the Game Department from its to a new outlook Gannot be undertaken rapidly. It must be a gradual process over a period of years' Nevertheless, it must be embarked on 1nmedia.tely, as enough time has been lost. When a bona tide landowner presents a senaible propOSition for the uae ot his wild life, he should be given as much freedom and encouragement aa possible from the Ministry of

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. I'" 3. Natural Resources The development of the wild life industry ean only flourish in the hands of private enterprise because all developed land becomes 'ownedt ult1mately. II The Galana Game Management cherne oonmeneed in 1960. Its main objective YsS to investigate the potential of wild life management as a land use in that area. In 3 years running the Scheme broke even financially. Some idea of the area's potential was obtained limited developments out. However, operations were at a very primit1ve level and it will not be poss1ble to raise this or exploit the potential more fully unless the necessary capital is made available. It must aleo be run as a business venture and th.is is not possible under Government. The plJopoaal has been made and accepted in principle by the authorities that the logical progression tor the Scheme is :fOI' it to b-e taken over and continued by private enterprise. Messrs. Ryan Investments Ltd have expressed a desire to take over the S cheme and have submitted proposals to the Qovernment The Regional Government has approved the lease of land and the M inistry of AgricUlture have expressed approval of the (which includes the ranching of cattle.) The Ministry of ITatural Resources has expressed a desire to see the project implemented However, the conditions upon which the Game Department insis t the proposed company should operate are unaceeptable. In brief, Ryan Investments Ltdts proposals are as follows:(1) That the proposed lease the present S cheme are$ for 5 years with the option to lease for a fUrther 30 years (11) That the company guarantel3 to invest 100,000 within the first 5 years ( i11) the oo&et regional authorities shall be annually awarded 10% or Company profits or ,000, whichever is the greater

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(iv) That the central government be awarded a peroanta e of Company profits (v) That both the central and regional governments shall have the authority to appoint one man each to the board of In return the company eXpects to be allowed to eXploit the area's wild life in any way it sees fit. It would do this by encouraging sport hunting tourists, game cropping and sale of animals to zoos etc. In addition it would. indulg in cattle ranohing in certain parts of the area. The Gam.e Department is not prepared to concede the company the t'ight to explo1 t the game unless subject to its strict control. The company would haVe to obtain a permit to kill animals, another to sell any product from a game yet another to capture any animal, 4. and yet a further permit to sell any such animal. In addition any customer the company would have to obtain a Game Department licence to hunt any-animal the company wished him to hunt. The Chief Game would be empowered to dictate the methods whereby the animals could or could not be killed. To expeet a business man to invest ,000 in a project over which control of what can and what cannot be done reate with the Game Departmen t is f \ unreasonable. More especially so when it is considered that a. land ovmer or lessee can destroy any game on his land without so muoh as a word to the Chief Game Warden. T h conservatlonistts objection to the completely free hand required by the company is What1s to prevent the company from over-exploiting the game in a short period and then out? The is that there is nothing to stop a lando ner his game if he so wishes. and there is nothing the Game Departm ent can do about this. However Ryan Investments Quld expect government to have faith in its intentione in view of the faets that: -

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a. (1) it guaranteed to invest ,000; hardly likely it its purpose was only short term (i1) the company expects profits :rrom the game over a long period and is hardly likely to cut ita own throat by 'mining the garnet over a short period ( iil) two government officials will be on the board of directors and thus government will hav e a direct say in company policy. 5. The Game Department argue under present law, &nyone who wished e to hunt on the compsny's land would have to obtain a permit first tram the Game Department. If this wa$ really so Ryan Investments are not i.nterested in the project. However there are sections in I the .A.P.O. by which this requirement can be bye-passed. Similarly, all trophies found c a n be a arded. to t.he company. The subject of licences, licenco fees, and the ownership of trophies are a.ll w1th1n the power ot the M1n1stry of Natural Resources to It is perhaps worth stating that if any law is not in the 1nterests of a country then it can be amended. The Game Department also argue that if the extensive liberties envisaged were granted to the proposed company. it would be oompelled to ot:fe-p similar concessions to other land. owners. This would be perfeotly true in a similar (-<. case, and very much to the country's benefit. However, it would be under no compulsion whatsoever to oonoede similar terms to anyone unless were to offer a similar proposition. In order to oonserve some anllnals the Game Department has prohibited their capture or killing and the sale of any roduct from them. Rhino are a partioular example. The prinoiple that unless an animal is an economic asset it will not last. applies as much to rare as to eommon beasts. If' there is a demand .for a. produot and authority bans trade 1n it, the only effect the ban will have is to make the trade illegal. This in turn raises t.he pr1oe, wh1eh makes risk of breaking the law more s.ttp8.ct1 ve. It does not diminish demand. If the area has any rare beast in sufficient numbers for the company to explOit, it will wish to do so. it 1s quite

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.. 1M in order ths t the sale of products from such animals should be channelled through s:geaified sources. ffhis source must be decided on by both authority and producer together as with agricuilitural products; not laid do w n by the Game Department alone. It is fully understood that in the country's present financial state the Treasury cannot relinquish a source ot revenue unless an alternative is apparent. Present income to the Government from the S cheme is .000 annually derived from tourist licence fees. The oompany when formed would replace this s ource with taxes and a percentage of profits which should greatly exceed the present revenue . Summing up therefore:Ryan Investments offer Kenya. an investment of elOO,OOO to form a company to take over the Galana Game M anagement S cheme. They offer 10% of profits to the Coast Regional Government (guaranteeing a. minimum or ,000 :p.a.). and a percentage to the central government. In addition, to ensure company activity is in keeping With the country's po11e1es, two of the company direotors be government officials. Th e tourist trade v.11l benefit from the attractions to be developed. Tax revenue lill be increased. Private will t eke over development and experiment in a field of conservation that Government cannot finance. However if this progress is to be achieved, the Game Department must sacrifice its control of wild life exploitation in that area. '.Phis the Game Department refuse to do. Is the Minister of Natural Resources prepared to override it? This memorandum is written in an entirely personal capacity in an effort to clar1fv the issues before the Ministers' meeting Phr. Ryan. I.S .C. Parker 6th March. 1964.

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'/" / 1fi1". 7 --, ( -A FURTHER MEMORANDUM ON RYAN i;.UT LTD'S PROPOSAL TO TA:rqJ; OVER THE G lL.4.UA GAME CllE.:'E, GIVING OP T1 PI' P S:ED CLMP!'NY SINTEr TICNS SUGG-STIONS AS T FlOW THESE rJ ... Y BE EF,cECTED -mER' TE ILD ANHAL.q PROTF..GTION O?J)INANCE \ \ Ryan Investments Ltd have proposed of a company to tak over the Galan8 Game Management vcrema The Regional authorities at the coast have agreed to such a company leasing the present Scheme area for 6 years with the option of a further 30 years. The intentions of the proposed company would be :-(1) To exploit the area's wild lie on a sustained yield basis, (2) To establish and ranch cattle within the area. (3) To be able to embark on any form of land use that may be 'uited to the (4) To carry out and to encourage research into the biology the area and .its fauna as a fundamental basis for their management, (5) To invest a of ,000 over the first 5 years of the lease and subsequent to that any further capital ; e necessary for the pursuance of ita policy, (6) To provide employment for local people. SECTl N I l'HE: EXPLOITNrlc.N OF LIPE The word exploit used in this memorandum is synonymous with utilise. The company Would wish to exploit all of the wild life potential of the area and this includes taking advantage of any natural mortality. The intention to eXploit the life on a sustained yield basis is stated and is one ot the conditions upon which the Coast Regional Land Committee agreed to grant the necessary lease. By 'on a sustained yield ba.<:>is' the company means tto utilise as many animals of various species as possible without depleting their overall populations.t It is interded to exploit the area's "1ld in the following WallS:-

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2 -(1) Game cropping (2) Tourism through sport hunting, photog r aphing and viewing. By game cropping is meant the killing of' animals and the sale of any products from them. This will includ the sale of meat fresh, dried or in processed i'orm; the sale of skins and other trophies. The number of antmals to be cropped would be based on as scientific a basis as is possible. (It is to collaborate with any qualified persona and institutions who may be willing to assist.) Game cropping includes the intention to capture and sel l live animals. It will be company policy to encourage tourism by providing facilities for the hunting, photographing and vieting of animals. These faoilities will consist of:(a) the provision of roads, (b) the rovision of accommodation, (hunting lodges and viewing blinds) (c) the proviuion or qualified personnel to assist hunterG and conduct parties, (d) the of equipment tentage etc. If' the intentions outlined. above are to be carried out, the co mpany would have to be completely free to (1) decide on the numbers and means animals are cropped, (2) choose how its produce shall be disposed or and (3) decide on its own _ees and regulations to the hunting, photographing and viewing of wild lire within its boundaries, by tourists. (Such touristz Will have to be exempted from paying normal lice ce fees to the Game Department.) Present Game Department policy does not permit ouch freedom. Different permits are required for e ech of the following co mpany requir'ements :-(1) to 'crop' animal s commercially, (2) to capture any animal,

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:3 -(3) to sell any animal or part of any animal and (4) to export or part of an an1mal. All such pennits may only be issued at the or the Chief Game and subject to conditions he may i."Tlpone. .At present, toul"lsts who wished to hunt on the Pl'>oposed co. pany leasehold, '\!: auld be compelled to purcha.se genel" 1 and special game licences from the Game Department. l1es.."rs. Ryan Investments Lt 00 no t agree to 'these conditions a", their illvestment an acti it1e; vJoulc1 be emtirely in the hands of' the Game Department. Before the company could come into being and the investment take place, it is essential that the Game relinqUish its control of tLe exploitation of'" the areats wild life. At the time the "'ild Animals' Protection Crdinance aas drafted (1951) the concepts or game management held today, had not been envisaged in Kenya Provision for exploiting wild life as foreseen by the proposed company was not ea.tered I'er in the Crdinance. Nevertheless it is possible for th Game to meet the proposed company's requirements under the following sections of the Wild Animalst Protection Ordinance. Garqe g!'on:ping and 1'ourist Puntinr:. Section 14(1) "NotWithstanding anything to the contrary in this Ord inance, the Chief Game y: arden, wi til the approval of the }inister, may in his discretion grant to any person, or may refuso 'V i thout assigning any rea.son for his refusa.l, a permit (in this Ordinance called a Chief Game .lardent 8 permit) which shall entitle such person, subject to provisions of sections 18, 19 & 20 of this Ordin&nc to hunt and kill any animal in any place, at any tUde and by any means. (2) A Chief G""me Warden's permit shal be subject to v'ha tever coOO1 t ions th.e hief Game .r-d n. may impose 1n his absolute discretion.

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-4(5) There shall be paid for a Chief Game iarden's sueh fee, i t any. as the Chief Game 'arden may atthe time of the grant of such permit, f'ix.1l It will be noticed that the time limit to the validity of a Chief Game Vt. arden' s permit is not fixed by law. and its dUl"ation is subject to his discretion. To enable it to carry out game cropping as envisaged, the proposed compru1Y will require a Chief Game penm1t valid for the of the company's lease entitling the company to kill any game anima s on its leasehold at any time, by any means and in any place that the oompany saw fit. ro fee would be payable for such permit. Tour'1st hunter requirements could alao be covered by a Chief Game -vard.en's p rmi t. Any tourist who wisheti to hunt on the leasehold, provided he ,as not barred by law from holding such permit, would be granted a Ohief Game permit entitling him to hunt on the leasehold subject to the company's approval and conditions imposed by the company. Such a permit would be a technicality to overcome the law (Gection 8 (I) ) which states that a hunter may only kill game on a game licence, for which he has to pay a fee to the Game or on a Ohier Game ,arden's permit. The issue of such permits could be out by the company itself. Game Trapping. Section 15(1) HNotwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Or inance, the Chief Game 'Varden may in his discretion gr nt to any orson, or may ref'use without assigning any reason f'or his refusal, a pe ..it (in this rdinance called a penuit to capture vhich shall entitle such per_on, subject to the provisions of sectionn 18, 19 20 of this Ordinance to hunt and capture any game anil71al. (2) Such permit shall be valid for such period as the Ohief Warden may in his discretion deter.mine

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5 (3) There shall be paid for a permit to capture suoh fee, if any, as the Chief Game Warden may, at the time of' the grant or such permit, fix." The proposed company V'.t'Quld require a capture :permit va11d for the duration of the company's lease whiohwould entitle the company to capture any game within the leasehold by such means and at such time as the company saw tit. Trophies obtained other than those acquired througn game cropping or tourist hun,ting. Sections 39(3) and 53(l)(2f) make it possible for the Chief Game Warden to wa1ve Government's right to the property 1n any game animal, trophy or meat; and award it to the company. The proposed company would thererore requ1pe that an agreement be concluded whereby all found game antmals, troph1es, and meat within the Soheme leasehold would be possessions of the company for the duration of its lease, and government's r1ght to such trophies waived by the Ohief Game Warden. Sale and Export of Game An1ma;ts. Tro12h1es and M ea;t. Under Bection 34 of' the vi/lId Animals t Protection Ordinance any sale of a.ny game animalt trophy or meat must be covered by a sale permit. The proposed company could not come into being unless the Game Department were to guarantee that sale pePIDita would be granted for all legal company products requiring them fur the d.uration of the company's lease.' For the snke of convenience the company itself oould issue sale permits for trangnctions covering the majority of game prodUcts, the counterfoile of Which would then be returned to the Game Department. It is aocepted that certain commodities auld best be channelled through mutually approved routes to obviate cover for poached prodUcts. Such commod1ties reqUire sale permits issued directly from the Game Department.

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6 Tra.de in Game Tr912h1es and Meat The company would have to take out an annual Dealer's Permit as required by section 35. No objection to this 1s envisaged provid1ng that a guarantee is given that covering all aspects of the company's activities would be granted for the duration of the company's lease. Export ff(rm1ta. The proposed company envisage no in oomply!ng with Seot1on 37. Protection would have to be given the company from Sectiona 38 and 49 of the W.A.P.O. Only if the foregoing conditions can be fulfilled would it be poss1ble to start the eompany. It is realised tha.t they are considerable devia.tions Trom practices pursued in the past. They give ground for fear that the company could over-exploit the area's wild life on a short term basiS. Although Rya.n Investments Ltd feel the venture will prove profitable it is realised that to start with much of the work will be experimental and the investment will involve a much greater risk than purchasing shares on the $took exchange. The Minister of Natural Resources ia asked to balance this risk against his Ministry's risk in granting the freedom requested and at the same bear in m1nd:(1) That the investment of .000 is hardly 1ndicative of short policy, (2) Tha.t two Government nomineesw11l be members of' the board of directors and thus able to influence po11cY'. (3) That the use wild life on a sustained yield baeis, is one of the clauses in the agreement 1n Which the Regional Land Board gave their approval, (4) That much of the company business in trophies will be carried out directly through Messrs. Ltd., an established and approved firm,

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-7 -(5) That both Regional and Central Govel'n.l'llents ill suffer no financial loss as they are each guaranteed a percentage of eompany profits in addition to the investment of ,000 ne capital. An ultimate safeguard for the Government m1ght be a oondition whereby tlit in the eyes of' the Oabinet the oompany's activities ,ere not in the interests of the country, they could order the cancellation of all the oompany's permits. In the event of this happening, the Government would be bound to oompensate the company the value of all permanent on the leasehold." II CATTLE Certain sections of the proposed area amounting to a or one third of the titsl leasehold appear suitable for cattle ranching on a large scale. These grasslands are relatively new and small numbers of wild Competition between them and livestock would not be great. Company policy ould be to combine ranching and game management as has been done with certain success in Rhodesia. Lion might cause loss sufficient to warrant their reduction in certain sectors. The company would have to be completely free to do this if necessary. It 1s not yet established that cattle can be ranched successfully in large numbers in the apparently suitable areas. However, history, the faot that a few beasts have been kept at the Scheme headquarters for more two years, and the opinions of several qualified persons, strongly suggeet that ranching will be feasible. Though some of the grassland might carry a beast to less than 10 acres, present plans would not allow for stocking at less than 20 acres per beast. Thus the potential beef herd might number 32,000 head. However, it will be some years before this optDnum 1s reached. would have to be provided on all the grazing areas, and this the company intends doing.

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, -8 Qther Land Uses. Thou.gh no other land uses are envisaged by the company at present, experience m1ght indioate that there may be some sUitable to the area. If this was the case the eompany would Wish to 'be able to embark on them. Again this memorandum 1s wFitten in a capacity e to clarify the proposed company's intentions and requirements. l,s,e. Parker 9th M a.rch, 1964.

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1. lD t1 ,vi t ., Ute laml tain 8. 3. 10 tb.1 r &hall, th d tion of 8 t ( l"einaft r t) to bunt. eM ld.ll a r of b tor f It toe p. If' to c t tOl' e t 0 b e te.k into ticm .x m s. c tin to initial t to shall nt tor a in OIl .' right ,or epe to do 7. 1rl thi. t C

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_rtea, ANt. .... are Mr1se4 ( ) Bhe.301-Crocodlle t 2. .. 30/-D! it 2. 10/-Du1Jter, 2. 10/Belle, Grant' 8 2. 1cV-zell Th 'a 2. 101-rtebeeat, 2. 30/-Impala 2. .. 1Q/-Orlbi 2. ft 10/:-ak, bohor 1. .. 301-Stcinbok 1. It 10/-1. .. 301-I Q 1. 30/-2 It 10/t 2. ft 30/-bra, ft 30/-8 20/-r pe1"ll1t (b) Speoiea. l' ot lic C I F tor licenoe. CoDtrolled whioh be 1 aueel bea H. m.. AI. a 1. 75/-1so!-3. 20/-w-DJS"r, b1 1. 10/-20/-Mter, 1. 10/20/-lQiker, black 10/-b-ontecl 1. ,.. KlADd 1. 7s/-lscV-Ilepbmt 2. ;l,5OCt-200/-2,OCXJ/-'j(XJ1-1,000/-GeftDIIk 1. 20/-401 C&nt 1. 401-Glfttte . ,"-lW-

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.. '" 'i.' II fo 1. 2'JV-SOO/. I4cm, 1. 2501-500/1. 1 00/-1 20/-401- 1. IIJI-r 20/-W--1. -w1. 201-Il)/-0l7x, hOt 20/-I 1. trich 1. 751-1sh1-I 1. 10/-20/-Rh1noc 1. 1, V-1,00'"./-cle, Cbrul1 rl 1. 20/-W-opi 1. -2 401-t 1. ,sf. 150/6. the in fto.-So e of'l-At.mi volt. I'd t utU,,,m I'd .. All bird other bird Dq ,,_oIioWM o or

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1 & lTG. cjooo Eoq .. l.J1 bU.ll' 0, I!'oso, P o O .. Dox 2'.h .,VEIGA. G .h Jun. II 1964. Pm' .ber "',0 OUif' brief convci'o(!'. ion in .he r.l orn T i'oC hereuit D. ShOFt outline of our inte!} ionso Vie e.w 0 provide e. serfVice ,0 lc.ruioune!("s? :io n aut. 'OIrit.ieB end scic i::'ic ino+i( .. 10 S in ...... bo foUouing t'iQ,yn : -ll.o 1':'>0 illldert",, short orr long tei'm Ji'ese l'ch OlD. TIildlH'09 l",n( usc e.nd Asetse roll. (Dr .. Glover OUT!' (1 viser io one of .he uorld' s foreoos. e.u,!ori .ies on msctsc oblcosg e.s '\rolll. Q,D being e. eclncnt ecologia .. ) 2 0 mo undcrto.'e the ClOche. .ie s of g,.oe ci'opping for lcnao'ulllers (1 d conOC1"'VB ion D.U .hori ios 3 0 0 geno con 11'01 and olirnioo. i o 0 ccke ociellltific eollcctiolllG of fQ.UDD" ant geo cgiccl speci l<.'H!C foil' tcec ling 0..00 sciontific it-a H.u .iono 50 "'0 co c ct spec io.] .. sOll se. c.ris. As you 0 e of "'he firs', It,.,n otJllcrG '0 cOlloi eli.' u::;i g i 1Hdlifo on C'. G S ,n.i ad oo.'Jio l1e 'TOulti lirte .0 ,en<1eT1' our ocrvices .0 you + aGE/ODG gn.oc yO 110., ions on yOUi' JI ncb \"0 CL C e.lso in ,os-est.cd in CQ,ii'Irying OU .... e.c cIrop ... )ing and LDli'"ket ing of o.ui -0 Il1ying you 0.. per becot,,, IX' you m'c in 0 1eo .... od in OUi' -ncollo o t'.! -)10 8e drop i:le c. line c..lli ue 17ill CODC Ui) 0 0 dioCllS.'J .be o::.A ,_"Ci' iu .hero W i l heo. \lis !lOG, Your;!

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. 5}O t1J:' t.bj or G irn\7o o 1 !!!=':1Jre of ,he Galc.m GaDa 1 afia.gea
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19th Apri 1966 i ck GI'",Ve s Esc... Box 7'} 1, :3P_t L".;), lTevada., U. t:.A. 'l'hank uu ver./ Lluch indeed :t'or Jom' ve:ry y..ind gil."t 0 10.;" sorry t t He "ere ble to do so li "title for v 1: mule yo.'). ;'9":'0 heJ.'e 0 .10 rever, you turned U) t r ther' hectic ti);le. "{et; l.'ding your l' eiJ' for i If ,',1 ",tion on a 100 Ib eleph' nt, I c sure th tIc .n give J u vel' little infoJ.'m _U n th t 'Hill be of :..e'. v _lue. O:r recent inrlic t .. 3 th'.t luO poundol'", re old am. '.lso 1< ... le eleph .1tS suffer .. ,o_,t it r' te thro h m n induced nd otL-er n tu_' 1 cues S::1 eX'mple, n 1e olo_)h nt in the 'tio ml is lucky to live lonoer vhan 35 ye rs. Cl _i.lLll lile.Jp n silould be 60 65 e rs.) I think t_ .. t the li:;:'e exuec'Vncy in 'both nd is o..,sibly some'rh' t on the S'cI.e lines. 'i.'hus it is obviou", tlL t 1 0 _'01: nders c-n only form ver small percerlta<.,.e of JO-'-1..'.l<:.tion et '.ny one time. hile w'orkine; in the li<>.l<:..n G8.me 1;n wement Scheme u. cOI_J'u,nction the .savo L,tio <-.1 rLr.r_ d,;. v:.Jry c Lsider::-ble of e:;:oial e op <-llt CQUntilJ.g, and d .... t:b.is I must h ve persom,lly COL.. te ome 25 000 ele )h ... t, ... i.., tot:...l is m, d.e tlP of a. seriec of count..., Oiler i:J, IJeriod 0:: three e .. .11<:1 nt. of the ele1-'L.:1t iTi 1 h:..ve .;OCL t .e' sa e anim s r",cot..nted t di "fel'snt t.J..J:'!es. ttouGh not p .rticu.Ld,r1y interested. in bi_ ivory, 1 did koep 2. of tLC very bib elephs,nL see 1 (over Ibs ",iJ.e: r.nLl their occurrence OJ:' .. e out t .:i me.Th t 1e th none il everiJ 200G elephant eeng Fro thib, r tnink 't 1 t J. t is obv' OwlS't'1 t the t ",in.:;. of ]/'0 j,lounder ph::: it.l 1 ruely mL tter' _' 1 c1 no hI t 10 ood tLa rofc",sio J I:u.nte r vT ,0 uccomp nic..,; J QUo i thin the Li. ito t.,i 3 luok t.lLro J.' .LCU m incre..,8 one t s eh nce slightly_ :qb 1, "'..n .;;:.. n "J.'oi'eS;;:lOl ... 11. t, tor il '" h ,S n ou ""tand w 'eoo f J. :i: e i VOl.' '.l.d believe Lis s stem GLOed 10'11 Jcrt '1.:. to .ili'lll 1; cLL u 0 1 no ThoW' OLl his j) :i:'t, bue by st; "tiiol1illr.:> tr c erG at str tcuic oL t"" '11 over hi.., l.:.Ul tin' block conhnuc ly ...... eepir!o' in touch" i th t T e y do the loob_no for the ele",h. nt nil till he ",e,., hi 0 c_ nce of CO;lt ctinl.:;l big eleph nt veri; con..;ider' bly 0 1 do not 110'-othGr .. untel'S lTl.LO e1 ploy ttis t chni u i ilL uch t -'olcughne,.j .... It i "10 Tn th, t CC1 t in s iJ t ey tend to rem"in .,.0 _.e Th t lore sedent ._' ou ... .{no T ed 'e of the e '" reo cert i 1" 1.1; s. 'i:o n me vicini ty of the'" n'). liver e1 ta p,rtict41 1'1 a.d September; the ,Lliv't i 'Tt') x' ltu.1J..e, 10cl.17, 1/'len Lh .: .{!;au loc -27; .I;lock .53 i .. 1so ood. O\leVO:C, T I uotu in them e 1vi th in the ern ht.si se th' t 11 tIle se &,1'e ..... s are 11e vou.r ... y n'i elell.J. .t OCUl' enoe in tllei sUujeot 0 rh toyer clim tic eel eLi. io S .reY ail. 1 t; 'rou_d ap.'e J.' tll t ou h d b' d luck in l,lock 33 bec use a lot f big 010 _'h nt h,3e come out of it in the p.;.st 0 d sa th-.10_ t of the ele ... Jh'l t lochs il A.er,' 'r d.1SO '" ffeclied b l' il1f n l'e the.,ofore l ... ,co.f.

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/ / j 2 I n U,;o..l1d a the situation i lil so e w h a-t different i n th .. t t_1e COUl'lt:::y genelH1, lly b. ..... s... uch _ll.she J.'w.L f .... 11 u. <1 t h e aleph, .n t apge W' to 1.e veJ.'y muc h m ore 13 -('tic. : o',rever t here io3 not s o much 1< ... n<1 YJ ilu.ole in L;a'anda f'o:[' huntil-'<.S n d the only bloc_' t o c ont,,-ill area s Lble e1e.)11; l1t opul tion i'1 a re1:. lii vely undi 02.tur heel te, is the elephr...n t S'lCtU" ry n orth o f the l>.urc .. iso:"1 "ration, 1 'I r Co ':;hi., i > t bib .OCiI.. 0 l ""Lld c:.nd hi.; e opbeen 'en ot: to' it sL.ce it {'. s o.l.)encd. to h unting Bev r'.1 ye; rfJ <. go. I would Sr. ',1 inly on tL.3 'sis of c1im&.te, tLi s e1eJ)11 nt 3anctuc ry _lorlQ t"_c .., L bank oi' the 1 bel" i 1 e offers a better cll ce '{;h 1 any,-here one to obt'L bie.; ele p h .... nt 0 I do not t.b.ink th t t 'erc h, t,,"r...,c t . ovement ou.t of S .no G"" :t time 01 the yeo j.' a1 th01,loh hunti:p-v comh tions in it c'm be e ... treraoly di::'I'icult due to ong urgain .. er(;ent Le of 1 rt:.>6 (old anim 1 ... ) to the rest o f t"le _Jo)Ul tio .:il not be <.;..nd, in th COu: oJ.' '" month IS huntillg the dioe me.' be 10' ded i Gt you, ou -;i.Ll only Sv3 members v_' the 95 /v O:c m e 01.' po A.A.l tion r!uch 0 ... It L1 of 1es>.:) tD. n 100 bJ in I b01i ve tIl t the Com,t-lt 1:3, 11:' 2lclc. i1 life 1)(;'ve10.!?ment teo" of _'.0. 30x 1764, 'a.l ... Jab. h ve monopo1 1.1 Cire<, so t ll t if you were to .n 'Ob e it JOt... ould n ve to "lihe sa.' r i tL.roub ... .L themo If JOLl do tbi..;, I '('ould lut rr.y :nono J11 1te 0 ,'yo n,;e:' h ..... llte:l:'1:! < eh' 1) n' 1:led ic ( ....,lunt who, thOLe Jr ... "Ok .. 16 r l1d or, c.:'ld perh' ps not the b'3st cc:unp oIg<..ni e or ontert. iner, J.1;., ver;! ::.JOU_lei hunter Ild h'.., oood record for bit:.> ivory. I lO,j not i. o ':.'aLzania ot ".l.' he[Lsa.y, cncl tIU.; mo.-"'.e no com',lent on it. lee t. .. .. i_1 tIl" ,1U_ 0 101' Col ou_ been of some Ude thou ,1: onoe i_'t, v.nd I ho"?e th t tri. lotter 11 100 pounder J._ J..rbe y luck. S Sl.noe 'Ell

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C. H o Field B s g N oU.ToA.E P o. QUEEN ELlZABErH PARK. Deal' ) / 30th May, 1967 0 Thank you for your letter and proposed research programme. Apologies for the delay in replying. I read your proposal with interest and h ave the following Qomments to m ake. M y m ajor criticism is tha t a s outlined, prog r amme is far too much for one man underta ke. The costing is also unrealistic. Starting 1 '1i th your aeria l counts. Presum ably each population will h ave to be subject to at least one complete count each y ear. The cost of such a count can b est be assessed on the siz e of the range occupied qy the elephant, and in all instances these overflow well outside the Park boundaries. The Murchison south communi ty occupies about 1,000 s quare miles. The counts done s o far h ave e ach t aken 28 hours flying a t 120 m.p.h. In a Super Cub the speed woul d be ne arer 90 m.p.h. and take 37 hours. Overall costs of runni ng a Super Cub probably amount to Shs 85 per hour = per count. M.F. P. no rth bank 'will require at least a s much, as would Q.E.P. Kidepo might amount to less, but would probably be at least 100. Y o u woul d t hu s h ave to provide for at least 00 per annum for one complete count o f the four populations. For 4years t his 1I1ould amount to Once the size of e ach po pu l ation had been established and the extent of its r a nge lc'..nouu, it mi ght be possi ble to establish seasonal distribution in relation to food a nd w ater by flying a series of transects over e ach areao These woul d presumably cover one tenth of e ach area and have to be done at least once a month o The cost would t herefore amount to one tenth of the cost of the overall counts = 60 multiplied by multiplied by 4(years) = 28800 The time involved to conduct the complete counts and the regular samples would be 19336 flying hours exclusive of the time between Parks. If it was po ssible to maintain an average of five hours per day flying, this aspect pi the programme would occupy 267 days of your time. However it is unlikely that you woul d be able to average 5 hours per day. On top of this you obviously intend embarking on aerial photography thoL.Lgh to you do not say. Nevertheless this will also involve time and possibly a furthe r 100 hours to b e o f arJ3' value 0 Your eS-'Glmate of costs for flying instruction i s correct but unless yo u are exceptionally lucky this Hill take u p six weeks of your time in N airobi. Summing up your a erial costs therefore you will require about 500 and b e fully occupied for at least 300 days o This latter figure abounts to nearly one quarter of the p r ogramme's available time.

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e 20 The acquisition of a second hand Fo24 aerial camera might cost but its placing in an 'aircraft with all the necessary subsidiary equipment would amoun t to 5000 What will be the cost of processing9 and most important of all interpretation? Before purchasing the camera 1-lh a t exaotly is it you vlant to get out of it? I have no idea of the cost of darting and immobilisation equipment 01.' how much .would be required for radio transmitters and reoeiverso However I feel tha t if you have to purchase these items it will amount to a figure uell in excess of 00. With regard to the rearing and housi ng of tame animals presumably you have detailed costs for 'bhis at N.U.T.A E. nevertheless I vTOuld have thought a staff of two Africans would be necessary at .10 per m o nth e aoh = 180 per annum Q Where would you obtain oontrol animals from? All I have to g o o n regarding ditching oosts a x-e Woodley's in the E.A. ildlife Journal Vol III 1965 po 89 -94. H e costs manual di tching a t Shs 7 per y ard but feels it 1'lOuld be mOL'e in the region of Shs 10 today. With regard to the fact tha t labourers in Uganda appear about i as efficient a s those in Kenya I would accept the latter figure a s conservative. Thus costing a t Shs 10 per yard your programm e r equires either 6 miles (Scheme 1) or 4 miles (Scheme II) = or 35200 Also do not delude yourself that there are any plots in MoF.N.Po containing Terminalia. There are not! You. would presumably require plots l aid out here as well and your costs would mount still further 0 It would appea r then that ditching would cost at least for Scheme I or for Sche m e II. However I have my doubts about these and feel that expenses will be much higher.. W h o vn.ll supervise the oonstruction of the ditches? The potential income from 250 elephant properly used is more in the region of ,000 though it would not be p OBsi ble to realise this at 20 animals per monthe up your oostings I do not see your programm e anything less than and probably costing up to l5,OOOu I cannot see as one investigator, possibly managing the so heme you layout. I think t a t the programme confined to any one of the p o p;ul ations would be prac'liical and very v aluable 0 he most oompact and best k110im of the four communi ties is that on the MFP south bapJ.c" This is to be the subject of a monograph (Lav1s Parker and Johnstone) ,ihich should be out by the end of this year. It would provide a good background for the detailed work you wish to embark onQ have our cropping here and are commencing our trek back to Kenya.. I hope we can meet before I pullout finally" Dick .. Till be coming up either in June or early Juiliy for a fortnight's study of elephant in Eudongo. Perhaps you could join us for a fe\'/' days? Let m e know if this is possible and 1 ; 11 give you dates w hen they are finalisedo All the best9 Yours

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' t TorJ,Y Cullen EB4.., Po O Box 30510, NAI ROBI. Dear 11th Oct., / for your l etter of the 9th October. The Animal Produetion SOCiety of X enY Ll. \Ht S formed e a rly t lti. s Its a im::> are to prop-o t e the interests of 'anima l produce' producers i n the l'Ti.dest sense. It thu::.:; cover", liildlife, fish and d o mestic stuc.re.. The Society i::; com rised m ainly of ranchers, bu t i s heavily le",vened witn veterina.r'i ans, bioloClcal sClentist", and \"ildlife p e o ple. ':;"he r[;;.nge m a natjement folK are p romi nent and Cire ve.ry pro-rilium Leslie B r own a lso produced a p aper of some interest. OIne 1 2 0 people attended and w e consider this fir::;t effort a g r e a t success I o u lJ. you lik e to be come a mem b e r ? P re::;i d e n"t of t e ;:lociety is B C a rles (c. Universi t y Vet.), Vice-presid e n t i s H.R. (Vet.), Secretar y i s r:i:ed Campion (A.H.LT.r.) and '.lreasurer i s 'lied Ledger E V. O ) Our annu a l subscrip t ion i s Shs 2 /-and of the Soci ety is a t A H.I.T. I a t n.bete. Please join! Our Loli o ndo proj ect is nm'f underi-TaY and \ie are llroducing very h igh l u ality frozen gam e meats. Unfortunately we b.re forbidden to sell i n .n..enya -the traditional enya Game Dep a rtment reaction! Until this i;3 done a1'fa y \ii t h \"e will see little pro gress. lith best w ishes, Yours aye,

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DICK, HEre with a confidential and unofficial copy of a communication w i th the Galana owners. From it you ldll see the present state of affairs. Though still very cautious they are not as anti as I had originally believed. I am certain that if they can see the benefits of a sample crop they will deceide to tak e one. W e would treat these in the same way as previously -should they awk us to undertake the work. OVer to you 23rd Octo ber, 1967. Dea r Martin and Mike, Herevd th a summary of the pOints covered in our discussion at Mivei "a yesterday. I h ave elaborated on several aspects. Exploi tation of your elep h ant population c a n be divided into two categories -tourism and commercial cropping. The former can be further subdivided into sport hunting and game viewing. The Galana does not lend itself to the l atter readily, and sport offers the only immedi ate aspect o f tourism worth developing. rj.lhere need be no clash of interest between sport hunting a nd commercial cropping if both are c arried out correctly. Indeed, in our experience the two activities are entirely complementary. As trophies the elephant cropped commerCially are of little interest to the sport sman and conve niently they live in -the main separate from trophy bulls. sportsmen would also welcome the opportunity to take part in a crop iug programme and we had many applications from such people during our work i n Uganda and in Kenya. only case for not taking an f rom your elephant population would be if it w a s below the Ci:!.rr in; capacity o.f the land &nd in a state of decline. Such a case \'fOllld be rare and in Has t Africa nearly always Qttributable to human interference such as poaching or excessive legal huntin50 The size of offtake our elephant can sustain will depen on 1;6 si:t.e in relation to the carrying ci;1paci ty of the ran e on t-1hich it lives. rl'he minimum number of elephant in the Ga.lana can be 1'e iably assessed from the air. There are established techniques for doing thi sand it is i-lOrthl-rhile discussing these with Dick Laws and I"urray ,Iatson a t Voi. r .rhe structure of an elephant community c a n also be gauged from the air. Th i s can be done with considerable accuracy with a s;-mple of aerial photoC;I'Qphs in -fhi ch the proportion of immature animals of v a rioufcl sizes c a n be compared vIith the proportion of adults of vetrious si:t.es. information will also allovl' a .;orkin' estimate to be nla.de of whether the population is in a state of incl'ease or decrease. l!1rom these results it can be inferred with sufficient reliability for a basic management programme whether the animals are above or below the area's carrying capacity. If a trial sample of elephant are t uken the data sO obtained make it possible to establish all the .foregoing requirewents with absolute accuraoy. It is further pOlilsible to describe the popUlation::; productivity over at least the preceding tvrenty years. It also allOW-IS detailed prediction of future trendso It is a strong argument for taking a sample crop as thus the status of the popU lation and its producti vi ty l-1il l not be subject to any conjeotures

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If your elep hant p o pu l ation i s above the c arrying capacity of t h e Galana ran e a nd i n a sta t e o f decline, the rate of decrease should be artificially a ccelerated unti l the elep hant are w ithin the range's c arryinb capacity. If uch a process were to be a l l o wed to t ake its o m course, i t w-ould b e slow and ttL e many yea r s i n which the decline o f stock could not be put to u se. B y accelerating the dec r e ase through organised cropp i ng the surplus woul d De utilised, produce SUbstantial revenue an get the rema i n i ng anim als into a productive state in a ver short time. U e have established conclusively tha t elep h ant crop) i ng on any s c ale m u s t be c arried out by the herd and not by individuals; i n f a c t the herd must b e treated as the ind ividua l This precludes t isturbanc e to the remCl.inder of the p o pulation and we h ave demonstrated this very clearly l-ti th the offtak e of 2000 in !;lurchison a _d the 300 in 'lls avo e the elimina.tion of a herd ",hould not t a ke p l ace in close proxi l ity to other herds. T e ta.k i ng of ,jbarr en" co 1 S as p rC:!-ctised i n creates maximal d istu b nee a s it co nditions all a nim a l s remai n i ng i n the her d to avoid man b,nd b,lso .L'emoves the "Know ell e resevoir" tha t undoubted y i. res ponsible for the very great success of elep hanto I n few other a nim als i f any, is the beh a Viour o f a erd so complet ly tlomi n ated by a sing l e imh vidual as by the m atriach in an eleJ;hant family unit. Her longevity and vre a l th of experience is of prime import-n c e to her family unit and this should be taken into considera t ion in any elep h ant pro ramme 0 Th e long lif e and retention of .. no fledge i s also a reason '-Thy Itre sting" the Galana p o p Ul ation will be of Ii ttle benefit. f.Phe genera l c a r ioess o f elephant i n ',llsa.vo il:3 a good example of how long i t takes elep ho.nt communities to settle down after intensive d isturbance by humans. A rter nearly tv!entcY years of r i go rous p r otection only t ose a r ou n d Voi a nd Jruba are moder ately tame hlsewhere i n the Pa r k they are wild F.xceptions to thi s rule are b ulls who freq u ent area s close to human activity. they are so sedenta r y they subject to many mor e contacts with humans a.nd thus they be come tame very much more quick y. Properly carried out should not d i5turb the commun i ty a s a 1-Thole. A WO:I'd of caution, do ot regard elep ho.n t as a n annu a l cropo Their reproduction i s no t an even output f rom yea r t o ear but s eems to run on a 5 to 7 year cycle. I would certa inly the taking of a l a rge crop once every cycle r ather than smaller off takes once a y e ar. For s port hunting your policy shot...ldbe of only shooting animals with tusks of more tha n 80 lbs. The attached diagram .fill exp lain the mechanics of this fairly simply. SUch a policy will ensure a constant s upply of l arge elep h ant and is based on the growth of ivory w ith age. I e nclose some data on this f rom D i ck La\ { s Most of the basic d a t a for managing the Galana eleph ant p o pulation i s already a v aila ble. D ick La\-1s and Watson h ave been collecting informa tion from all t e '1'sa\l'o a nd populations for the past 9 months, a nd I am certain tha t they would be ver;} ,-Tilli n g to discuss and advis e you on cour es to take. I most strongly advise yo u to visit DiCK and Murray personally i n the i mmediat e future. Th e informution that they can g i v e you will put an end to most of the s peculation of what yo u m ight or m ight not b e able to do with your elep h ant.

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With regard to crocodile, I shall end you a copy of our recommendations to the Game Depar tment with regard to Rudolf. Therein lies much thc1.t is applicC:l.ble to crocodile management elSel'1here. Please trea t this a s strictly confidential. Major points in crocodile management are : 1) a wild population cannot take heavy cropping without artificia l recruitment 2) a rtificia l recruitment i s e asily justified: 96% mortality occurs bet\.,een h atching a nd maturity and by f a r the reC:l.ter proportion of this occurs i n the crocodiles' first y e ar. The and h atching of eggs unde r artificial protection, keeping the hatchlings until they are Ils ensiblell crocodile (probably at b e t vteen 6 llonths and 1 year) and then releasin them into n atural habitats to grow u p i n the wild, woul d result i n g r e u t l y increased recruitment and enable proportl nate cropping of the adult population. 3) i f of a wild p o pulation takes p lace it should occur outside of the laying, incub ation, h atching and 6 ueeks post _atching periods. It has been demonstrated tha t the presence of the female is absolutely essentia l at hatching a s she digs u p the egg a nd 1 i thout thi s aid the uho l e clutch ldll be lost 0 Her presence during bhe incubation and post hatching i s the only means whereby the eggs and young are safeg u a r ded from predators 0 Breeding seasons usually take p l ace during periods o f 10 water with hatching occurring just before annual floods. Th i s h a s t o be verified for the Gal ana. fildlife Services are v e ri! interested indeed in in atl-Y a spect of wildlife research or man a g ement in the Galana regard to elephant in particular, if there is C:l. cropping pro ramme w e 170 Id like to undertake this for you Preferably vTe vTould like to underta ke this on the basis of costs and profits shared 50/50. I f hOH 6ver y o u .re quir e us to pay you pe r beast and undertake the programme by our. elves, w e ,,[ould be prepared to offer y ou per b e ast p _oviding the work could take place in an are a with ade q u ate tracks to enable us to operate e f ficiently. T he price of pe r beast i of course related to a cro s s section of the p opu l ation obtained by takin fam i l.]' units as w e h ave d one elsew_lere. If you so wished ... e would be qu ite prepared to surrender the iVO I'y to you i n lieu of however i t i s onlJ fai r to point out thr t this woul d i nvolve you in extra handling the sale of this commodity Feeling tha t we might be tempted to take l a r g e ivory if w e keep the ivory ourselves is somevThat be. elessoihen the p r og r amme i s commit ted to taki ng herds it is entirely uneconom ical to search for ivory and w e I .. ould refer you t o our record in the taKi n of 2,300 elephant for evidence of ivory selection. FUrthermore it i s qu ite feasible to exclude the majority of ITlC:l.tur'e bulls from any cropp i ng o 1 tha t at pre ent we Hould expect to 0 t ain about 20 Ibs of ivory a nd ..1 5 .. Torth of skin per elephant taking family units. It should also b e possi ble to obtain 10 vTorth of bil tong per beast though this commodity is f a r less certa i n of saleability and price than ivory o r ski n I hope tha t the is of some v alue and tha t we will be able to co-ope rate ,jOintly in the ne a r future. Enos. With best wishes to 30U both9 Yours slncerely, Ian Parker IILDLIFE SERVICES LIMITED

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1M. ..9fftw .IN DIREC T ORS: MR. & MRS. M ANDERSON MR. & MRS. M. G PRETTEJOHN 2nd. November, 1967. Dear Ian, Many thanks for your letter and all the information. Mar tin has actually taken your letter with him and will be writing to you direct. I think that your findings on croce are most interesting and Tony Dyer will be using these facts when he starts 'fork on the crOCI in the very near future. We were not able to see Dick Laws about the elephants, though Charles Moore has had a word with him. We gather he would like a sample of the elephant on Galana and considers that culling 300 would do no harm. However, Martin and I have decided not to do this during the first year. For one thing, we would first like to get the 'hunting shareholders' established, and for the second, we feel that this job could not be done efficiently until we have improved and increased the roads thoughout the area. Further, we prefer to keep the elephants alive and doing the job of several D.Ss in the way of bush-clearing at least until we have some practical proposals regarding methode of really utilising the meat when the elephant are If and when it comes to the point of making a definite decision on shooting any number of elephants, we will first get in touch with you. Yours sincerely,

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16, AVENUE DU PRESIDENT WILSON PA55Y 53-93

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I Co ncarneau, le 12 Juin 1964 SFIM CONCARNEA U FINISTER E TELEPH.74 TELEX 73039 DIRECTION GENERALE Mr. Ian PARKER C/o P.O. Box J 6-:L .I NAKURU /' \' MP/YL Dear Ian, Kenya r (!; \ ) \ Thank you for you and your wife sentiment's about our terrible loss. My father was fery fond of Kenya. His last letter was for Rene asking if he found something interesting as an estate or property he could buy. Considering the small unit to treat elephant carcasses, I can propose you something : I would provide you with a complete unit, small, but good enough to handle about 3 tons a day. This unit should be considered as a pilot plant, but would be big enough t6 be immediately efficient and money making. This unit would be an used one but in very good condition being completely revised by us, checked, repainted, etc... and vTould be provided vTi th enough spare parts, etc... This uni t would be mainly constituted by : 1) One digestor, containing 3 tons an each operation. 2) One steam generator, rugged ans able to use wood, coal, or charcoal, or a mixture of all three. 3) One 4) One 5) One 6) The decanter for fats fat washer an purifier dryer for meat meal necessary piping, bolts, etc I would probably myself to start it. I would ask you : To be in for the value of the equipment. To do what's necessary to giYe me a real Kenya statute, in order to make me a resident. To help me in getting a part of the Galana, by buying land or renting it.

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SFIM Direction Generale My wish, in all this, is to help in doing something worthwhile, so those beautiful animals will not be killed and partly wasted, help to build efficient control and help you to realize something which is, in final, done to protect wildlife. I also would like to be considered as part of the Kenya people, and not only like a client, which is desagreable to me. venture. P.s.-And I would like also to be your partner in this What do you think of all this ? Faithfully yours. Marc PECHENART I am including an analysis of your elephant'fat good characteristies. Would be easy to sell at a fair price for this, here, would be at the moment, around sixty sterling pounds a ton, in drums.

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