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Pocket guide to the West Indies, British Guyana, British Honduras, the Bermuda, the Spanish Main and the Panama Canal.

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Title:
Pocket guide to the West Indies, British Guyana, British Honduras, the Bermuda, the Spanish Main and the Panama Canal.
Physical Description:
488 p. front., illus., plates, double maps, double plans, facsim. 18 cm.
Creator:
Aspinall, Algernon Edward, Sir, 1871-1952.
Publisher:
Rand, McNally, Duckworth & Co.
Place of Publication:
London; Chicago
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
West Indies -- Guidebooks.
Guyana -- Guidebooks.
Belize -- Guidebooks.
Bermuda Islands -- Guidebooks.
Spanish Main -- Guidebooks.
Canal Zone -- Guidebooks.
Belize.
Bermuda Islands.
Canal Zone.
Guyana.
South America -- Spanish Main.
West Indies.
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:

Notes

General Note:
"Printed in Great Britain." Adverstisements: xii p. at end.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Algernon E. Aspinall ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
From: https://archive.org/details/pocketguidetowes00aspi : The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright restrictions for this item.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 615646801
System ID:
AA00020050:00001


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Glass Book 7ELA

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THE POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES

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TO K. A.

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THE POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES BRITISH GUIANA, BRITISH HONDURAS, THE BERMUDAS, THE SPANISH MAIN, AND THE PANAMA CANAL BY ALGERNON E. ASPINALL Author of The British West Indies" "West Indian Tales of Old "West Indies and Guiana CHICAGO NEW YORK RAND, McNALLY & COMPANY

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Aitm First Published igoy New and Revised Edition igio Reprinted 1912 New and Revised Edition 1914 By transfer Department of State 1919. Printed in Great Britain by BALLANTYNE & COMPANY LTD Tavistock Street' Covent Garden London A/./OfeVr

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CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. General Information i II. General Information (continued) 13 III. General Information (concluded) 28 IV. The Bermudas 55 V. The Bahamas 74 VI. Barbados 86 VII. British Guiana and British Honduras 125 VIII. Jamaica and Its Dependencies 156 IX. Trinidad and Tobago 211 X. The Windward Islands 245 XI. The Leeward Islands 204 XII. Guadeloupe and Its Dependencies, and Martinique 356 XIII. St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix, St. Martin, St. Eustatius, Saba, and Curacao 367 XIV. Cuba and Porto Rico 380 XV. Haiti and Santo Domingo 408 XVI. The Spanish Main 415 XVII. The Panama Canal, Colon, and Panama 427 XLVIII. Some West Indian Industries 442 XIX. Concluding Remarks • 458 INDEX 461

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS The Memorable Battle of the Saints Frontispiece The Queen's Staircase, Nassau To face page 84 Codrington College, Barbados ,, 106 In the Botanic Gardens, British Guiana ,, 140 (By F. V. McConnell) A Street in Georgetown, British Guiana „ 140 (By I. N. Carvalho) All that remains of Kyk-over-al, British Guiana ,, 144 (By F. V. McConnell) The Famous Shark Papers ,, 176 The Entrance to Nelson's Quarters, Port Royal, Jamaica (By A. C. Kelway) ,, 182 A Characteristic View in Jamaica ,, 184 The Rodney Memorial, Spanish Town, Jamaica ,, 188 Government House, Trinidad ,, 188 Giant Bamboos, Trinidad ,, 226 Guayaguayare Beach, Trinidad ,, 234 (By Randolph Rust) The Pitch Lake at La Brea, Trinidad ,, 234 The Promontory of St. George's, Grenada ,, 254 Part of St. George's, Grenada ,, 254 Fort Duvernette, St. Vincent (By J. C. Wilson) „ 288 Laborie, St. Lucia ,, 288 A Street in St. John's, Antigua ,, 300 The Dockyard, English Harbour, Antigua ,, 300 Camelford's Anchor, English Harbour, Antigua ,, 306 Brimstone Hill, St. Kitts ,, 300 Roseau, Dominica, from the Sea ,, 344 A Typical Valley in Dominica ,, 344

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LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS MAPS The West Indies To face page -The Bermudas New Providence, the Bahamas -Barbados A Topographical Description and Admeasurement of the Yland of Barbados (An old Map, 1 673 ) British Guiana Jamaica Trinidad Tobago, Grenada, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines y St. Lucia, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Dominica, and Montserrat Martinique, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, and the Saintes Cuba and Porto Rico Haiti and Santo Domingo The Panama Canal 1 7 6 90 128 158 212 246 296 353 382 410 428 To face page PLANS Bridgetown, Barbados Georgetown, British Guiana Kingston, Jamaica A Plan of Port Royal before and after the Earthquakes of 1692 and 1907 Port of Spain, Trinidad To face page The Carenage, Grenada, in 1700 page Havana, Cuba To face page An old Plan of the Siege of Havana page 98 136 168 181 222 253 386 388 TABLE Dollars and Sterling Table End of book vii

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This guide has been rewritten to a great extent, and several new features have been introduced which will, it is hoped, add to its usefulness. So many travellers now visit the Bermudas on their way to or from the West Indies that the inclusion of those islands outside the tropics should require no further justification. The compiler will welcome any suggestions for improving the book, and desires to thank the many kind friends who have so ungrudgingly assisted him, and especially Mr. Frank Cundall, Mr. N. Darnell Davis, C.M.G., Mr. F. H. Watkins, I.S.O., and Mr. W. R. Hunt. vii

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English Miles ISLANDS •^g^JtZZ V— ^ 1 LnDwao^f £ |5 1 Longitude. West 70 from Greenwich, StanfcrriLs Geoa 1, Sstcih'

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THE POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES CHAPTER I GENERAL INFORMATION The West Indies : Position and Names : Geology : Climate : Health : Food and Beverages : Meals : Expenses : Servants and Wages : Money : Banks : Roads and Motoring POSITION AND NAMES. The West Indies consist of a chain of islands varying in size from 44, 178 square miles, the area of Cuba, to small islets of only a few acres in extent, stretching in a curve from Florida to the northern coast of South America. Beginning at the north-west with the Bahamas, they end at the south-east with Trinidad off the coast of Venezuela. The origin of their name is traced to the fact that when they were first sighted by Columbus he believed that he had reached India by a western route, as it had long been his ambition to do. The name Antilles, which is also given to the islands, is said to be derived from Antilla, or Antiglia, a mythical land which was believed to exist in the west, and is placed on ancient charts about two hundred leagues to the westward of the Azores. Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, and Porto Rico are known as the Greater Antilles, while the semicircle of smaller islands to the east is sometimes called the Lesser Antilles. The Spaniards used to style these Lesser Antilles, which are exposed to the prevailing north-easterly winds, the Windward Islands (Islas d$ harlovento), and the four large islands comprising the Greater 4ntiUes, the Leewar4

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2 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Islands (Jslas de sotavento), from their more sheltered position. Tourists should, however, disabuse their minds of this classification, which no longer holds good, the terms Windward and Leeward being now applied to two entirely different groups of British islands, to which reference is made below. The British West Indian Islands are divided into six separate colonies : (i) The Bahamas ; (2) Barbados ; (3) Jamaica, with Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Cayman Islands ; (4) Trinidad and Tobago ; (5) the Windward Islands, including Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines ; and (6) the Leeward Islands, comprising Antigua, with Barbuda and Redonda, St. Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla, Montserrat, Dominica and the Virgin Islands. The colonies of British Guiana on the mainland of South America and British Honduras in Central America are also generally considered part of the British West Indies, owing to their proximity and to the many interests which they and the islands have in common. Of all the West Indian islands, Cuba, an independent republic, which has as a dependency the Isle of Pines, is by far the largest. Next to Cuba in size comes the island of Haiti, the old Espagnola or Hispaniola, which comprises Haiti at the western end and Santo Domingo at the eastern end, both of which are also republics. The other islands of importance beside those mentioned above are : Porto Rico (American), St. Thomas, Santa Cruz or St. Croix, and St. John (Danish), Guadeloupe (with its dependencies the Saintes, Marie Galante, Desirade or Deseada and St. Bartholomew), and Martinique (French), Curacao and its dependencies (Dutch), and St. Martin (owned jointly by the Dutch and French). GEOLOGY. Most of the West Indian islands have very distinct traces of volcanic origin, while the small coral animal has also done its work in providing a field for European colonisation. Many of the almost land-locked harbours are easily recognised as the craters of extinct volcanoes, and other signs of volcanic action are not wanting. It soon becomes abundantly clear to the visitor that the

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GENERAL INFORMATION 3 islands are the peaks of a submerged range of mighty mountains. The range is known to geologists as the Caribbean Andes, which at the beginning of the Tertiary Period formed a connecting link between North and South America. It is claimed that this has been proved by the discovery in Georgia and Carolina of the fossilised remains of animals which still exist in South America, by the similarity of the tribal habits and customs of the Indians of Guiana to those of the North American Indians, and by traces found in Guadeloupe of the Megatherium, a prehistoric animal which could never have existed within the narrow limits of a comparatively small island. At this period the position of the present Isthmus of Panama was probably occupied by a group of islands, of which one at least — now represented by Ancon Hill overlooking Panama City — was of volcanic origin. The subsidence which brought about the present physiographic condition of the Antilles was in all probability a gradual one. The distribution of the flora and fauna shows that the first result was the formation of a large island occupying the site of Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, and Porto Rico. One of the facts adduced in proof of this is the distribution of a group of birds, which are called in Jamaica Green todies." The genus consists of only four species, which are confined to the above four islands. The fact that the birds are not found elsewhere shows that at one time these islands were all one, and the additional fact that each of the four possesses its own separate species evolved from the common form, proves that separation took place later on. Soundings, taken in the locality, confirm this view. When the Isthmus of Panama was formed the land was much higher than it is at present. This is proved by the fact that the borings made by the Canal engineers have shown the existence of old channels of the Rio Grande and Chagres a few hundred feet below the sea level. There are petroleum and manjak deposits in Barbados and Trinidad, and the latter island has also a source of wealth in its famous asphalt or Pitch Lake. Gold and diamonds are found in British Guiana. Many of the islands have mineral springs, and sulphur deposits abound.

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4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Before deciding to visit a part of the world with which he is unfamiliar, a tourist very properly asks what climate he will find there ; what the conditions of health are in the places to be visited ; what kind of food will be put before him ; and what his expenses are likely to be. An endeavour will accordingly be made to answer these very important questions before the writer proceeds to describe the chief characteristics of the different islands, British Guiana and British Honduras. CLIMATE. Taken as a whole, the climate of the West Indies is decidedly healthy. Indeed, in many parts it is extremely salubrious all the year round, and this may also be said of all the islands in the winter months. Climatic conditions vary of course very much according to locality, those places farther from the equator and those more exposed to the north-east tradewinds being naturally better off than others less favourably placed. The rainy season sets in as a rule about June, and lasts until the end of the year, with a break in about August or September, or later as in the case of British Guiana ; but the days when the sun does not shine at all are very rare, and it is almost always possible to predict when the rain is coming. The nights are transcendently beautiful, the moon shining with a brilliancy unknown at home, while that magnificent constellation known as the Southern Cross rears its stately form over the horizon. With the exception of Trinidad, Tobago, and Grenada, the islands are subject to occasional hurricanes in August, September, and October ; but, fortunately, such disturbances do not come without a warning fall in the barometer, and due notice of their probable approach is signalled from stations of the United States Weather Bureau, the ominous signal being two red flags with a black centre hoisted one above the other. There is an old negro adage concerning hurricanes which June, too soon. July, stand by August, come it must. September, remember. October, all over. JJurricanes oi such violence as to cause serious damage to

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GENERAL INFORMATION 5 buildings or loss of life are, happily, not frequent in any given place. Montserrat, for example, which suffered from a hurricane in 1899, had, it is said, previously enjoyed immunity for upwards of one hundred years. Volcanic eruptions are fortunately confined to the Montagne Pelee in Martinique and the Soufriere in St. Vincent, both of which had been quiescent for very many years prior to the trouble of 1902 and are now peacefully sleeping again ; and seismic movements are generally so slight as to be scarcely noticeable. During January, February, and March, the north-east trade-winds blow with great regularity, rendering these months particularly pleasant, and, speaking generally, year in and year out, the favourable features of the West Indian climate far outnumber the bad. HEALTH. There are well-qualified physicians in each of the West Indian islands and in British Guiana and British Honduras, besides an efficient medical service. Indeed, throughout the West Indies there is no lack of medical men ; but tourists who adopt the usual precautions as to diet and mode of living should not require to have recourse to their ministrations. It used to be said that the best way to ensure good health was to keep the pores of the skin open and the mouth shut Owing to the moisture in the air and the prevalence of the trade-winds for the greater part of the year, the heat of the sun is felt far less than it is at the same temperature in New York or London, and for this reason sunstroke is practically unknown in the West Indies ; but, all the same, visitors should on no account expose themselves to the direct rays of the noonday sun. Exercise in moderation is very desirable. A thorough wetting by the rain should be guarded against, and chills at sundown avoided. Of late years, the sanitary arrangements in the West Indies have undergone substantial improvement, with the result that outbreaks of serious fever are of extremely rare occurrence, and they seldom occur in the winter months. Malaria of a mild form is met with in most of the islands in the summer — Barbados being a notable exception — but new-comers are not as a rule susceptible to it until they have resided for at least ten or twelve months in the West Indies, and

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6 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES tourists therefore need feel no apprehension on this score. It has been proved beyond all doubt that the mosquito is the chief source of infection in various tropical fevers, the anopheles being the communicating agent of malaria and the stegomyia that of yellow fever. It is very important, therefore, that every traveller should take precautions against being bitten by these objectionable insects and should invariably sleep under a net in places where mosquitoes exist. Rigid anti-mosquito regulations are now being enforced in all the islands of consequence and in British Guiana and British Honduras, with the result that mosquitoes are far less plentiful than they used to be. The West Indies are remarkably free from infectious diseases common in temperate climes, and also from those ailments which are commonly associated in the mind and body with an English winter. Many private houses and several hotels have swimming-baths, and in most residences there is a large bath in which it is almost possible to swim. There is generally a shower-bath also, and in British Guiana its use forms the most popular style of bathing. FOOD AND BEVERAGES. The question of what to eat and what to drink in the West Indies is one which deserves a few remarks. To a visitor fresh from temperate climes, both food and beverages present decided features of novelty. Beef and mutton find their places on the board, though, owing to the climate, they are as a rule tough, except in the larger islands in which supplies from the United States are obtainable. Chicken and guineafowl figure extensively on the menu, but otherwise a tropical table differs materially from one at home. This is chiefly the case with the fish and vegetables. Of the former there are the flying-fish — the dish par excellence of Barbados, and very good it is too — snapper, snook, mullet, and grouper, all of which are deservedly popular. The cascadura, a fresh-water fish which is eaten in Trinidad, is alleged to have properties not unlike those possessed by the fountain of Trevi at Rome. The visitor who throws a penny into the fountain is certain to return to Rome, and he who partakes of the cascadura can, it is said, never

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GENERAL INFORMATION 7 live far from Trinidad. Conchs are a favourite article of diet in the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. In the Bahamas they are so plentiful that the people born there are nicknamed Conchs.' 1 Among the vegetables are yams — floury and soft to the palate — sweet potatoes, tannias, eddoes, ochros — the pods of which, cooked like asparagus, are excellent — plantains, delicious when fried, cassava, Indian corn, papaws, pigeon peas, to mention a few only, while a capital salad is made from the heart of the lofty cabbage palm (Oreodoxa oleracea). The Avocado pear (Per sea gratissima) merits a class to itself for excellence. With a squeeze of lime and some red pepper it makes delicious eating, and the consistency and colour of its contents have earned for it the name midshipman's or subaltern's butter. It is, however, at dessert that the greatest surprises are forthcoming. Bananas, both big (Gros Michel) and dwarf (Musa Cavendishii), are known at home, but the very small fig banana, or Lady's Finger, is not often seen out of the tropics, and, while all fruit of this description has a much better flavour in its native home than in England or America, the latter kind is for flavour the acme of perfection. Oranges while actually green are exquisite, and the West Indian tangerine variety is infinitely better than any ever seen at home. The grafted mangoes, for which Jamaica is especially famous, are exquisitely delicate in flavour, while a sound Antigua pineapple is something to dream about. It is not long before the visitor makes the acquaintance of some of the following fruits, which are among the most popular in the West Indies : Custard, mammee and star apples, citrons, Barbados cherries, golden apples, granadillas (the fruit of the passion flower), guavas, limes, mangoes, melons, pomegranates, sapodillas, shaddocks, and sour sops. In Trinidad, Grenada, and Antigua, the small oysters which adhere to the roots of the mangrove trees form a novelty, and should be asked for ; while in British Guiana it would be rank heresy to ignore the famous pepper-pot." The ingredients of this savoury dish are : Pork cut into small pieces and fried until brown, a partially roasted fowl also cut up, an onion, a dozen shallots, and a few dry chillies,

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8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES stirred well in a large earthenware pipkin, locally called a buck-pot. To this is added a sauce consisting of two tablespoonfuls of moist cane sugar, one and a half tablespoonfuls of salt, and a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper mixed well with hot water, with seven to ten tablespoonfuls of cassareep (the concentrated juice of the bitter cassava) added until the concoction is brown. This is boiled and allowed to simmer for one and a quarter hours, and then boiled up again next day for half an hour. On the third day the pepper-pot will be ready for table. The pot must be constantly replenished, and if heated up day after day it will last for many years, in fact, if carefully tended the older it is the better. The writer has been privileged to partake of a pepper-pot said to be over one hundred years old. The Lapp or Labba (Ccelogenys paca), a little creature resembling a glorified guinea-pig, and the Agouti (Dasyprocta agouti) furnish exquisite dishes in Trinidad, where crabs' backs are also a recognised luxury. In Dominica and the French islands the edible frog, known as the crapaud (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) or the slender-toed frog — so called because it is web-footed — is considered a great delicacy. It is served to unsuspecting visitors under the name of mountain chicken." The iguana, a tree-lizard, also furnishes a palatable dish, while groo-groo worms, large maggots — as, for want of a more appropriate name, they must be called — found in the growing heart of the palm-tree, are also looked upon as a choice luxury. The taste in respect to beverages in the West Indies follows very closely that prevailing at home ; but a newcomer should guard against the tendency to increase the quantity consumed which must inevitably result from a rising thermometer. The water in the principal towns is, as a rule, quite drinkable ; but it is best to be on the safe side and to insist upon its being filtered. This is usually done by means of a Barbados drip stone," a large block of coral rock hollowed into a convenient shape through which the water drips into a receptacle below. Light wines or whisky and soda in moderation are perhaps the safest drinks in the tropics ; while for abstainers, lemonade,

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GENERAL INFORMATION 9 ginger-ale, kola, and similar concoctions can always be obtained ; and lime squashes will be found infinitely preferable to the familiar lemon squash. Among other beverages peculiar to the West Indies which should be asked for are pimento dram and falernum, while the old-time sangaree also has its devotees. The latter, which is very refreshing, consists of wine, water (perhaps), sugar, nutmeg, a slice of lime, and an abundance of crushed ice. It is a good rule to avoid all stimulants before the midday meal, though an appetiser before dinner, which may take the form of a cocktail or a "swizzle," is recommended. The swizzle is made from gin, whisky, brandy, or vermouth, which is mixed in a jug with bitters, grated ice, and a modicum of sugar, and frothed up with a swizzle-stick, the latter being the stem of a plant with radiating branches, apparently provided by nature for this special purpose, which is made to revolve backwards and forwards between the palms of the hands. A recipe which it would not be easy to beat is the old and familiar : One of sour (lime juice), Two of sweet (syrup), Three of strong (gin), and Four of weak (water). In Barbados the great appetiser is a swizzle known as green bitters." The ingredients (which can be obtained in England from the West Indian Produce Association, 14 Creechurch Lane, London) are one wineglassful of old rum, one of white falernum, half a wineglassful of water, wormwood bitters to taste, and plenty of crushed ice. The whole is frothed up with a swizzle-stick and is consumed while still frothing. MEALS. Coffee is the first meal of the day in the West Indies. It connotes a cup of the beverage from which its name is taken, or of tea or other liquid refreshment, whatever be its nature, which is served with toast and butter at the early hour of 6 a.m. Breakfast is somewhat of a movable feast. It may be put on the table at any time between 10 and 12.30, according to the locality, and it will be found to partake more of the nature of luncheon at home. Tea follows at 4.30 or 5; and dinner at the usual

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io POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES time of 7 or 7.30. At first, the difference in the hour of meals in various islands is rather bewildering, but the visitor soon gets accustomed to the changed conditions. EXPENSES. The cost of a visit to the West Indies must, of course, depend very largely upon the tastes and the temperament of the individual. While at sea, there are, after the ticket has been paid for, no expenses except for wines, &c, and the inevitable tips. With regard to the latter, it may be mentioned that to ensure the best attendance it is a good plan to give the cabin steward and waiter their tips in two instalments, half at the beginning of the voyage (with a promise of further largess if satisfaction is given) and half at the end. For a voyage of twelve days it is usual to give the cabin steward £1 ($4.80), the waiter at table 10s. ($2.40), the bathroom steward 55. ($1.20), and the boots 2s. 6d. (60 cts.). On shore, 10 per cent, of the amount of the charge or bill will be found to be a good basis for calculating the amount of tips. At most of the hotels and lodgings in the West Indies, from 8s. 4^. ($2) to 12s. 6d. ($3) per day is the charge for board and lodging. Added to this must be the expenses of various expeditions involving the use of buggies, horses, motor-cars (in the larger places), boats, and trains ; but the tourist will be on the safe side if he estimates his expenses on shore at from £1 ($4.80) to £1 10s. ($7.20) a day, without taking into consideration what he may spend on those delightful curios and souvenirs, the purchase of which for friends at home is one of the pleasures of travel. SERVANTS AND WAGES. Excellent black servants of every class can be obtained throughout the West Indies. They are faithful, and if treated well but firmly are extremely willing and obliging. The scale of wages is approximately as follows : butlers, ^20 ( $96) per annum ; parlourmaids, ^12 105. ($60) to ^20 ($96) ; nurses, £15 ($72) to £20 ($96); cooks, £15 ($72) to ^20 ($96); and coachmen, ^20 ($96) to £25 ($120). MONEY. British silver is the currency in the British West Indies ; but British and American gold is negotiable. Gold doubloons — the old Pieces of Eight of the days of the Buccaneers — were finally withdrawn from circulation

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GENERAL INFORMATION n all over the British West Indies in June 1908. Public accounts are as a rule shown in sterling ; but as banking and private accounts are mainly kept in dollars and cents, and as much trading is conducted on this basis, a table for comparing the relative values of dollars and cents and £ s. d. is given at the end of the book. The notes of the local banks are very largely used, and those issued in one island can generally be cashed in others at face value. It is, however, best to change them before leaving the island of issue. In Cuba there is no special currency, American and Spanish coinage being used. In Haiti the unit is the Gourde ; but both in that republic and in the neighbouring one of Santo Domingo American gold circulates freely. In the other islands the currency is that of the countries to which they belong. In Colombia the unit is the Peso, in Venezuela the Bolivar, and in Panama the Balboa, but in each of these countries American gold is freely accepted. BANKS. The Colonial Bank (capital, ^2,000,000 ; paid up, ^600,000 ; reserve funds, ^150,000. London address, 16 Bishopsgate, E.C. ; New York address, 82 Wall Street) has branches in Antigua, Barbados, British Guiana (Berbice and Demerara), Dominica, Grenada (branch at St. George's and agents at Grenville), Jamaica (branches at Kingston and Port Antonio and agents at Falmouth, Montego Bay, Port Maria, and Savanna-la-Mar), St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, and Trinidad (branches at Port of Spain and San Fernando). The bank issues letters of credit, drafts on demand and telegraphic transfers on the branches, receives for collection bills of exchange, and conducts general banking business connected with the West Indies. The Colonial Bank also affords banking facilities between the West Indies and Canada through its agents in the Dominion, the Bank of British North America. The Bank of Nova Scotia (capital, $10,000,000 ; reserve funds, $11,000,000 ; headquarters, Halifax, N.S.) has eight branch offices in Jamaica (Kingston, Port Antonio, Port Maria, St. Ann's Bay, Montego Bay, Savanna-la-Mar, Black River, and Mandeville), two in Cuba (Havana and Cienfucgos), and one in Porto Rico (San Juan) ; and the Royal Bank of Canada (capital, $25,000,000 ; reserves,

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12 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES $13,570,000 ; head office, Montreal, Canada ; London office. Princes Street, E.C.) has branches in the Bahamas, Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Grenada, Jamaica, Trinidad, Cuba, and Porto Rico. In the Bahamas there is also the Bank of Nassau (capital, $100,000), which does a deposit and discount business, and in Bermuda the Bank of Bermuda, and M. T. Butterfield and Son's Ltd. Bank. ROADS AND MOTORING. Generally speaking the roads in the British West Indies are good. Fourteen years ago there was not a motor-car to be seen in the islands ; now they are popular, and in British Guiana, Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and elsewhere there are companies from which cars can be obtained on hire, repairs effected and supplies of petrol secured. There is an import duty on motor-cars which varies in the different colonies, but the duty is refunded when the cars leave the island again. The freight on motor-cars from the United Kingdom to the West Indies is approximately at the rate of £1 15s. per 40 cubic feet and 20 per cent, primage, and from the United States 10 cents per cubic foot with. a minimum charge of $25. Only visitors contemplating a long stay in Barbados, Jamaica, or Trinidad could, however, be advised to have their motor-cars sent out, for in British Guiana, though the roads are good, the distances are short, and in the small islands the roads are either too indifferent or too hilly for comfort. Even in Jamaica the area suitable for motoring is restricted, owing to the unbridged watercourses which have to be crossed, and prove fatal to the combustion arrangements. In Barbados the speed limit is fixed at twenty miles an hour in the country and eight miles in town, while in British Guiana, Jamaica, and Trinidad the driver is only compelled to drive with safety and to observe the usual police traffic regulations. In Bermuda motor-cars are entirely banned, and there are many who think this a great advantage. In Cuba and Porto Rico the roads are good and automobiles can readily be hired.

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CHAPTER II GENERAL INFORMATION {continued) Steamship Communication : Routes from the United Kingdom : Europe : Canada : The United States : South America Having made up his or her mind to visit the West Indies, the next matter for the consideration of the tourist is the route to be taken. The facilities for reaching the West Indies, whether from the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, the United States, or South America, are ample, and there are more or less frequent opportunities for getting from island to island by steamer, sloop, or schooner. Unless compelled to do so by the stress of circumstances, tourists will do well to avoid the two latter means of communication, which are uncertain, and often involve considerable discomfort. As a general rule, the only sleeping accommodation on such vessels is in what is called a dog hutch," a sort of elongated chicken-coop chained to the deck, and generally infested with beetles and other obnoxious insects, though it is only fair to add that there are notable exceptions. During the tourist season, which extends from the end of November to April, the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company offers an excellent series of special tours throughout the West Indies at reduced rates, and special arrangements for tourists from Canada and America are made by the same Company, the United Fruit Company, the Quebec Steamship Company, the White Star Line, the Norddeutscher Lloyd Company, and the Hamburg-American Line. A list of the principal shipping companies whose steamers visit the West Indies, together with particulars regarding their itineraries and the fares charged, is given herewith. For convenience the various companies are numbered, and the *3

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14 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES following table will help the reader to ascertain which companies serve the various islands and countries : From United Kingdom. From Europe. From Canada From United States. From South America. Antigua i 78 1 8 13 1 19 Bahamas — — — 22 24 — Barbados 13 5 7 8 9 1 8 n 13 1 11 19 23 26 28 23 25 26 27 28 Bermuda — — 13 1 15 19 — ; British Guiana 145678 1 8 10 11 13 1 11 14 19 — British Honduras 9 5 — — 21 — Cartagena 1 3 5 1 11 — 1 21 — Colon . 12 3 5 1 10 11 — 1 15 18 21 — Cuba . 1 9 15 1 10 15 — 1 22 23A 24 24A 27 Curasao 3 5 15 — 11 20 — Dominica 1 78 1 8 13 1 19 — Grenada 1 7 1 13 1 14 — Guadeloupe 10 — 19 — Haiti — 10 11 15 — 11 15 — Isle of Pines — — — 22 — Jamaica 12379 I I2A 13 — 1 15 21 27 La Guaira 1 3 5 I IO II 15 — 1 11 15 20 — Martinique 1 I IO — 1 19 27 Montserrat 1 7 I 13 1 — Nevis 1 I — 1 — Porto Rico — 10 15 — 17 20 27 Puerto Colombia 13 5 1 10 11 15 — 1 15 21 — St. Kitts 1 7 I 13 1 19 — St. Lucia 1 7 8 1 8 10 13 1 19 — St. Thomas 3 8 8 15 — 19 — St. Vincent 1 7 1 13 1 — Santa Cruz — — 19 — Santa Marta 2 3 2 — 21 — Santo Domingo 10 15 — 16 — Tobago 1 I — 1 — Trinidad 13 5 7 8 9 1 8 10 11 12 13 1 11 14 25 27 28 Turks Islands 16 ~ From England (Southampton). (1) The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (London, 18 Moorgate Street, E.C., and 32 Cockspur Street, S.W. ; Canada, Messrs. Pickford and Black Ltd., Halifax, N.S. ; the United States, New York, Messrs. Sanderson and Sons, 22 State Street). The transatlantic steamers of this company (under contract with the Imperial and Colonial Governments) leave Southampton on alternate Wednesdays for the West Indies and New York, calling at Cherbourg, the Azores (in summer only), Barbados, Trinidad, Puerto Colombia, Cartagena, Colon, Jamaica, and Cuba (Antilla). Leaving New York on alternate Saturdays,

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION 15 From England — continued the steamers touch at the same ports on the homeward journey. Trinidad is the junction for intercolonial steamers, and passengers and mails are transhipped there for Georgetown (British Guiana), Tobago, Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Antigua, Nevis, and St. Kitts, and also for La Guaira, Pampatar (Margarita), and Carupano. The ordinary fares are as under : Single Tickets. Return Tickets. To OR FROM Southampton or Cherbourg. First Class. Second Cabin. First Class. Second Cabin. £ £ £ £ Azores (St. Michael's) 10 7 — — Antigua 25 20 40 30 Barbados 24 18 38 27 British Guiana 25 20 40 30 Colon 30 20 45 30 Cartagena 30 20 45 30 Cuba (Antilla) 30 20 45 30 Dominica 25 20 40 30 Grenada 25 20 40 30 Jamaica 30 20 45 30 New York. 35 25 60 40 Montserrat 25 20 40 30 Nevis 25 20 40 30 St. Kitts 25 20 40 30 St. Lucia 25 20 40 30 St. Vincent 25 20 40 30 Pto. Colombia 30 20 45 30 Tobago 25 20 40 30 Trinidad 25 20 40 30 Servants, f first-class fare (in servants' accommodation only). Besides the above-mentioned intercolonial steamers there are smaller vessels plying (a) round Dominica, (&) between Dominica, Martinique, and St. Lucia, (c) round Jamaica, (d) round St. Lucia, (e) round Trinidad and between Trinidad and Tobago, and (J) round Grenada. The Company arranges a series of independent tours from England and New York at very moderate prices. The Company also maintains a regular weekly service

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16 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From England — continued between New York and Bermuda. Fares; from $18.75 single and $25.00 return. The Ocean Yachting Steamer Arcadian (twin screw, 8939 tons) is also employed for special cruises from New York to Bermuda in January, February, and March. The Company also conducts a service between St. John, N.B., and Halifax, N.S., and the British West Indian islands and British Guiana (see No. 13, page 20). Fleet : West Indian transatlantic steamers : Essequibo, 8500 tons ; Ebro, 8500 tons ; Oruba, 5971 tons ; Danube, 5885 tons ; Tagus, 5545 tons ; and Trent, 5525 tons. Intercolonial steamers : Balantia (twin screw), 2379 tons ; Berbice (twin screw), 2379 tons. Coasting steamers : Barima, 1500 tons; Belize, 1500 tons; Jamaica, 11 38 tons ; Yare, 299 tons ; Toff, 229 tons ; Teign, 229 tons ; and Towey, 229 tons. Bermuda route : Arcadian, 8939 tons, and Caribbean, 5824 tons. The HamburgAmerican Line (see page 22). (Bristol and Liverpool.) (2) Elders and Fyfjes Ltd. (31 Bow Street, London, W.C.). Steamers sail frequently and at regular intervals from Avonmouth, Bristol, to Kingston (Jamaica), Port Limon (Costa Rica) and Colon (Panama) ; from Liverpool to Santa Marta (Colombia) ; and from Rotterdam to Santa Marta, the round trip in each case taking five weeks. The boats have been specially built for the West Indian banana trade. The first six vessels of the fleet (see below) can take 65 passengers each ; but the others have accommodation for 12 only. In conjunction with the United Fruit Company, facilities are given for passengers proceeding to Barrios, Bocas del Toro, and other Central American ports. Fares : Kingston, £20 and .£35, Port Limon and Santa Marta, ^25 and 45. Fleet : Changuinola, 6000 tons ; Motagua, 6000 tons ; Patuca, 6100 tons ; Bayano, 5948 tons ; Patia, 591 1 tons j Chagres, 5288 tons ; Aracataca, 4400 tons ; Manzanares, 4400 tons ; Tortuguero, 41 61 tons ; Reventazon, 4041 tons ; Barranca, 41 15 tons ; Chirripo, 4041 tons ; Manistee, 3869 tons; Pacuare, 3891 tons; Nicoya, 391 1 tons; }datiyia, 3870 tons ; Miami, 3762 tons ; mdZent, 3890 tpns.

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION i; From England — continued (Dartmouth.) The Direct Line of Steamers (see below). (Liverpool.) (3) Frederick Leyland and Co. Ltd. (27 James Street, Liverpool). Regular sailings from Liverpool to Barbados, Trinidad, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Curacao, Port Limon, Santa Marta and Cartagena ; also to St. Thomas, Puerto Colombia, Colon, and Kingston (Jamaica), Puerto Mexico, Vera Cruz, Tampico, and Progreso. Fares ; Barbados and Trinidad, £17 10s. ; Kingston, ^20 ; St. Thomas, ^16 ; Venezuela, Colombia, Colon, and Mexico, £20 per adult, including train fare London to Liverpool. (4) The "Booker" Line (Booker Bros., McConneli and Co. Ltd., 77 The Albany, Liverpool). First-class cargo steamers of this line sail from Liverpool to Demerara (British Guiana) direct every three weeks. They have accommodation for a limited number of cabin passengers. (5) The Harrison Line (Richard Bulman and Co., of Mersey Chambers, Liverpool). Cargo steamers from Liverpool to Barbados, and thence to Trinidad, Demerara, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello and Curacao. Also from Liverpool to Puerto Colombia, thence to Cartagena, Colon (Panama), Belize, Stann Creek, Puerto Barrios and Livingston. Fares : Barbados and Trinidad, £17 10s. ; Belize, £2$. Elders and Fyffes Ltd. (see page 16). (London.) (6) The Demerara and Berbice Steamship Co. Ltd. (William Smith and Co., of 86 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C.), London to Demerara and Surinam. Fares : to Demerara, £ij 10s. (7) The Direct Line of Steamers (Scrutton, Sons and Co.; 16 Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. ; Prentice, Service and Henderson, 175 West George Street, Glasgow). Fortnightly sailings from London and Dartmouth to Barbados, Grenada, Trinidad, and Demerara. Fares : £ij 10s. Transhipment is effected at Barbados for St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, &c. Four-weekly sailings to Antigua; St. Kitts, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Fares : £17 10s. Four-weekly sailings to Jamaica (Fare : £iy 10s.), proceeding to Puerto Mexico, Vera Cruz, and Tampico.

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1 8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From England — continued (8) The East Asiatic Company Ltd. (Copenhagen; London agents, Escombe, McGrath and Co., 3 East India Avenue, E.C.). Steamers leave Copenhagen, Rotterdam, and London every four weeks and proceed direct to St. Thomas (14 days). They then call at Antigua, Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados, Trinidad, Demerara, and Paramaribo. Firstsiloon passengers only are carried, and tickets for the round voyage, which occupies about eight weeks, cost ^38. Two new steamers are being built for this service and should be commissioned soon after the publication of this guide. A fully qualified medical officer and a stewardess are carried on each of the steamers. The cabins are situated amidships on the main and upper decks. Fares from London : St. Thomas, single, £17 10s. ; return, £33 10s. ; Antigua and Dominica, single, £iS 10s. ; return, £35 10s. ; Barbados and St. Lucia, single, £19 ; return, £36 ; Trinidad and Demerara, single, £20 ; return, £38. From Scotland (Glasgow). (9) The Direct Line of Steamers (Prentice, Service and Henderson, 175 West George Street, Glasgow ; Scrutton, Sons and Co., 16 Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C.). Three-weekly sailings to Barbados, Trinidad and Demerara. Fares : £17 10s. ; also calling at, or transhipping at Barbados for other West India Islands; also occasional sailings to Jamaica and Cuba as cargo offers. From Belgium (Antwerp). The HamburgAmerican Line {see page 22). From Denmark (Copenhagen). The East Asiatic Company Ltd. (see above). From France (Bordeaux, Havre, and St. Nazaire). (10) Compagnie Generate Transatlantique (Paris, 6 Rue Auber; London, 8 Lloyd's Avenue, E.C.) A steamer leaves St. Nazaire every 28 days, calling at the following ports : Pointe-a-Pitre and Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe), Fort-de-France (Martinique), La Guaira, Puerto Colombia, and Colon. A steamer also leaves Havre, Bordeaux, and Santander every twenty-eight days, calling at Pointe-aPitre and Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe), Fort de-France

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION ig From France — continued (Martinique), Trinidad, Carupano, La Guaira, Puerto Colombia, and Colon. A steamer also leaves St. Nazaire on the 21st of each month for Santander, Corunna, Havana (Cuba) and Vera Cruz. An intercolonial steamer leaves Fort-de-France every twenty-eight days, on the arrival of the transatlantic steamer from St. Nazaire, and touches at St. Lucia, Trinidad, Demerara, Surinam and Cayenne (French Guiana). A steamer leaves Havre and Bordeaux every twenty-eight days for San Juan (Porto Rico), Puerto Plata, Cape Haitien and Port au Prince (Haiti). Fares : London to Trinidad via Southampton and Havre : First cabin, £32 to £40. Elsewhere according to route. Fleet : Espagne, 1 1,926 tons ; La Champagne, 7299 tons ; La Navarre, 6,983 tons ; Guadeloupe, 7166 tons ; Perou, 7163 tons ; Haiti, 6600 tons ; Puerto Rico, 6600 tons ; and He de Cuba, 11,000 tons. (Cherbourg.) The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company {see page 14). (Havre.) Compagnie Gen&rale Transatlantique {see page 2 1 ) and The Hamburg-American Line {see page 22). (Marseilles.) La Veloce Navigazione Italiana a Vapor e {see page 20) From Germany (Hamburg). The Hamburg-American Line {see page 22). From Holland (Amsterdam). (11) Koninklijke WestIndische Mail Dienst (The Royal Dutch West India Mail, de Riiyterkade 125, Amsterdam), under contract with the Netherlands Government for the conveyance of mails. Line A. Steamers sail from Amsterdam every fortnight, the ports of call being Paramaribo (Dutch Guiana), Georgetown (Demerara), Trinidad, Venezuelan ports, Curacao, the principal Haitian ports, New York, and vice versa. Line B. Steamers sail from Amsterdam and Rotterdam every three weeks, calling at Barbados, La Guaira, Curacao, Puerto Colombia, Cartagena and Colon, and back via Cartagena, Puerto Colombia, Curacao, Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, Trinidad, Havre to Amsterdam. Cargo-boats till 191 5 ; then passenger steamers.) Line C.

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20 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From Holland (Amsterdam) — continued Steamers also leave New York every fortnight for Paramaribo (Dutch Guiana), calling en route at Barbados, Port of Spain (Trinidad), and Georgetown (British Guiana), and returning via Trinidad to New York. Fleet : Jan van Nassau, 3350 tons ; Lodewyk van Nassau, 3350 tons ; Commewyne, 2486 tons ; Nickerie, 2478 tons ; Prins der Nederlanden, 2207 tons ; Prins Frederik Hendrik, 2164 tons ; Prins Maurits, 212 1 tons ; Prins Willem I., 2 121 tons ; Oranje Nassau, 3721 tons, and Prins Willem V '., 2108 tons. (Rotterdam.) The East Astatic Company Ltd. (see page 1 8) and Elders and Fyjfes Ltd. (see page 16) (12a) De Algemeene Stoomvaartmaatschappij (Managers, Wambersie and Zoon, Rotterdam). Fortnightly sailings between Rotterdam and Jamaica, and vice versa. Each steamer has first class accommodation for thirty passengers. The cabins are situated amidships on the main and upperdecks. Also a suite of very comfortable state rooms is obtainable. A fully qualified medical officer and a stewardess are carried on each of the ships. From Italy and Spain (Genoa and Barcelona). (12) La Veloce Navigazione Italiana a Vapor e (Genoa, Italy, Via Balbi No. 6). Trinidad can be reached from Genoa, Marseilles, and Barcelona by this line every month. Fares from Genoa, 1st class, from 700 frcs. (^28) ; 2nd class, from 550 frcs. (£22) ; 3rd class, 210 frcs. (£8 8s.). From Spain (Santander). Compagnie Ge*n£rale Transatlantique (see page 18), "La Veloce" (see above), and The Hamburg American-Line (see page 22). From Canada (St. John, New Brunswick, and Halifax, Nova Scotia) (13) The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (Agents: Halifax, N.S., Pickford and Black Limited). The steamers of this company under contract with the Government of the Dominion of Canada sail from St. John, New Brunswick, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, every fourteen days on the following routes alternately : (a) Bermuda, St. Kitts, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St.

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION 21 From Canada — continued Vincent, Barbados, Grenada and Trinidad, and returning from Georgetown to St. John, calling at Trinidad, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua, St. Kitts and Bermuda, (b) Bermuda, St. Kitts, Antigua, Barbados, Grenada and Trinidad, and returning from Georgetown, calling at the following islands : Trinidad, Barbados, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Antigua, St. Kitts and Bermuda. Children under twelve, half rate ; under eight, quarter fare, one child under three, free. First-cabin passengers are allowed 20 cubic feet of baggage, second 15 cubic feet of baggage, third 10 cubic feet free, excess being charged for at is. per cubic foot. I St 1st 2nd 2nd 3rd Halifax, N.S. Class Class Class Class Class Single. Return. Single. Return. Single. $ $ $ $ $ Antigua 50 80 35 60 25 Barbados 55 85 40 65 30 Bermuda 30 50 25 40 15 Demerara 70 100 50 75 40 Dominica 55 85 40 65 30 Grenada 60 90 45 70 35 Montserrat 55 85 40 65 3 St. Kitts 50 80 35 60 25 St. Lucia 55 85 40 65 3 St. Vincent 55 85 40 65 3 Trinidad 60 90 45 70 35 The steamers on this service are : Caraquet, 4890 tons ; Chaudiere, 3985 tons ; Chaleur, 4747 tons ; Chignecto, 4745 tons. Transfers can be made in connection with this service at Trinidad to Main Line Steamers to New York and Southampton, and for North and South Pacific Ports, via Colon and Panama. From the United States (New York). The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company {see page 14). (14) The Trinidad Line of Steamers (The Trinidad Shipping and Trading Co. Ltd., 29 Broadway, New York ; Rich-

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22 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From the United States (New York) — continued mond Street, Trinidad ; Head Office, 175 West George Street, Glasgow). The vessels of this line, which have excellent accommodation for travellers, leave New York every ten days for Grenada and Trinidad, and vice versa. Fares : single, $55 (£11 9s. 2d.) ; return, $100 (^20 16s. 8d.). The passage occupies about eight days. From October to January the service is extended to Demerara. Fare : single, $70 (£14 us. 8d.) ; return, $135 (£28 is. 6d.). Steamers: Matura, 6600 tons; Mayaro, 5800 tons; and Maracas, 4000 tons. (15) The HamburgAmerican Line (Atlas Line Service, London, 15-16 Cockspur Street, S.W. ; New York, 41-45 Broadway ; Hamburg) A steamer of this company leaves New York every Saturday for Jamaica, direct, arriving at Kingston on the following Friday, and a steamer leaves Kingston for New York every Thursday evening. Fares : single £9 to ^15 ; return, £17 2s. to £28 10s. During the winter months, beginning in December, a special steamer runs between New York and Jamaica fortnightly, leaving New York on Wednesday and Jamaica on Tuesday. Fares : first-class cabin, £9 and upwards. Through tickets are issued from London via Southampton, in connection with the company's transatlantic service. Besides the Jamaica route, a special service is maintained by this line between New York and all Haitian ports, leaving New York every Thursday, with connections to Savanilla, &c. ; also four times a month to Colon and monthly to Guatemala. Steamers of the HamburgAmerican Line leave Hamburg via Havre and Southampton, twice a month, for Santander, Corunna, and Havana, Cuba, arriving at the latter port in seventeen days. This service is at present served by the s.s. Furst Bismarck, Kronprinzessin Cecilie, Ypiranga and Corcovado, vessels each over 8000 tons. Intermediate steamers proceed from Hamburg via Antwerp, Spanish ports and the Canary Islands to Havana (Cuba) and Mexico. The company also maintains regular sailings from Europe to Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, Haiti, Jamaica, Venezuela, Curacao, Puerto Colombia, Port Limon, and Porto Barrios. Cargo steamers leave Hamburg twice a month for St

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION 23 From the United States (New York) — continued Thomas and Havana, Cuba. Fares : £2.0. Children over twelve full fare ; from two to twelve, half fare, and under two years free. These steamers give a convenient opportunity for travelling between St. Thomas and Havana. The steamers on this service are Syria and St. Jan. During the winter months the twin-screw steamer Victoria Luise, 16,500 tons, and others make a series of cruises to the West Indies, Spanish Main, Colon, and Bermuda. (16) Clyde Steamship Company. (Santo Domingo Line, 1 1 Broadway, New York). Steamers leave Pier 34, Brooklyn, New York, three times a month (approximately 10th, 20th and 30th) for Grand Turk (Turks Islands) and Monte Cristi, Puerto Plata, Sanchez, Samana, Macoris, La Romana, Santo Domingo City and Azua in Santo Domingo. Fares • to Grand Turk, $35, and to Santo Dominican ports, $40 to $70. Round-trip tickets are issued in either direction at twice the single fare less 5 per cent., the return portion being available for six months from date of issue. Special cruise, 23 days, all expenses, $120. Fleet : Algonquin, 4780 tons ; Seminole, 4447 tons, and Iroquois, 6060 tons displacement. (17) The New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company (New York, 1 1 Broadway ; London, Ben. Ackerley and Son, 10 Fenchurch Street, E.C.). Steamers leave Pier 35, Brooklyn, New York, at 12 noon every Saturday, for San Juan, Porto Rico (Pier No. 1) — 1380 miles — which is reached in five days. They call at Ponce two days later, and Mayaguez two days later again. The steamers leave San Juan on the return voyage every Wednesday at 5 p.m. Fares : First cabin, $45 up ; second cabin, $25 to $30. Rate for entire cruise, including every expense on the trip down and return and while aboard the steamer and on the island, touching at the three ports, first cabin, $110 to $120. A direct service is maintained between New Orleans and Porto Rico by the s.s. Ponce. Passenger Fleet : Brazos, 10,000 tons ; Carolina, 8000 tons ; Coamo, 8000 tons ; San Juan, 6000 tons ; Ponce, 6000 tons ; Ramos, 1500 tons. (18) The Panama Rail Road Steamship Line (New York,

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24 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From the United States (New York) — continued 24 State Street). Steamers leave Piers 52 and 67, North River (foot of Gansevoort Street and West 27th Street respectively) every five days, for Cristobal (Colon) Fares: To Cristobal, cabin $75.00; Round trip, $100.00. Fleet : Ancon, 10,000 tons ; Cristobal, 10,000 tons ; Colon, 6000 tons ; Panama, 6000 tons ; Allianca, 4500 tons, and Advance, 3000 tons. (19) The Quebec Steamship Company Ltd. (A. E. Outerbridge and Co., 29 Broadway, New York). Steamers sail every fourteen days from New York to St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados, and Demerara. The voyage from New York to the first port takes about six days, and the length of time spent at each of the islands is about six or eight hours. After discharging cargo the steamer usually proceeds to the next port at night, so that tourists have an opportunity of going ashore during the daytime. The length of time required to make the round trip from New York to Demerara and back is almost thirty days, the steamers calling off the islands on the voyage north in passing, whether by day or at night, to pick up mails and passengers and freight. The rate of passage from New York to any island is $50 (^10 85. 4^.), $55 (^11 gs. 2d.), and $60 (£1 2 ios.), according to the accommodation, and to Demerara, $70 (^14 us. 8d.). For some special deck cabins there is an extra charge of $5 (£1 os. iod.). The 5.5. Bermudian, leaves New York for Bermuda every Wednesday at 10 a.m. and returns every Saturday. Return tickets are double the above rates. Fleet : Guiana, 3600 tons ; Parima, 3000 tons ; Korona, 3000 tons, and Bermudian, 10,518 tons. (20) The Red D Line (New York : Bliss, Dallet and Company, 82 Wall Street). Steamers leave New York weekly. In one week they visit San Juan (Porto Rico), Curacao, La Guaira, and Puerto Cabello, and in the next, Mayagiiez (Porto Rico), La Guaira and Curacao. The company also maintains a service between Curacao and Maracaibo. Fares : San Juan and Mayagiiez, $35

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION 25 From the United States (New York) — continued {£7 5s. lod.) ; Curasao, $60 (£12 10s.) ; La Guaira, $60 (^12 10s.) ; Puerto Cabello, $65 (^13 10s. iod.). Fleet : Caracas, Philadelphia, Zulia and Maracaibo. (21) The United Fruit Company (Head Office, 131 State Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.). New steamers of this line sail from New York (Pier 16 East River), every Wednesday, 12 noon, for Kingston, Jamaica, proceeding from there to Colon (Panama), Cartagena, Puerto Colombia, and Santa Marta (Colombia) ; every Saturday at mid-day for Kingston (Jamaica), Colon (Panama), and Port Limon (Costa Rica) ; and every Thursday at 3 p.m. for Santiago (Cuba), and Belize (British Honduras). Steamers leave New Orleans every Thursday at 11 a.m. for Belize, and Boston every Thursday for Havana and Port Limon. First-class Fares : New York and Kingston, $45 one way, $85.50 round trip ; New York and Belize, $45 ; New Orleans and Havana, $25 ; New Orleans and Belize, $25 ; and Boston and Havana, $45. Special summer excursion rates : between New York and Kingston, round trip, $75. Frequent sailings between Port Antonio, Jamaica, and Annotto Bay, Port Maria, Oracabessa, Rio Nuevo, St. Ann's Bay, Runaway Bay, Dry Harbour, Rio Bueno, Falmouth, Montego Bay, Lucea, and Green Island. European Traffic Agent, A. J. Shepherd, 9 New Broad Street, London, E.C. Fleet: New York — Jamaica Service: Almirante, 5000 tons ; Santa Marta, 5000 tons ; Metapan, 5000 tons ; Zacapa, 5000 tons ; Sixaola, 5000 tons ; Carrillo, 5000 tons ; Tivives, 5000 tons ; and Pastor es, Calamares and Tenadores, each 8800 tons : New York — Santiago and Belize : Suriname and Saramacca each 3284 tons. (22) The Ward Line (New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company ; New York, Pier 14, East River). Steamers leave New York (Pier 14) every other Friday at 3 p.m. for Nassau, Bahamas (4 days), Guantanamo, Cuba (7 days) and Santiago, Cuba (8 days), returning from Santiago on the following Tuesday week and Nassau on Friday and reaching New York on Monday ; on every Saturday at 1 p.m. for Havana, Cuba (4 days), returning on Saturday, reaching New York on Tuesday ; and on every Thursday at 1 p,m.

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26 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From the United States (New York) — continued for Havana (4 days), Progreso (6 days) and Vera Cruz (8 days), returning from Vera Cruz on Thursday, Havana on Tuesday, and reaching New York on Friday. Fares : from New York to Nassau, first cabin $25 to $45, second cabin $15 ; to Havana, first cabin $45, second cabin $15 ; from Nassau to Havana or vice versa, first cabin $25. Fleet — Nassau and Cuba service : Vigilancia, 6400 tons ; Seguranca, 6400 tons. Cuba service: Saratoga, 10,112; Havana, 10,112 tons. Cuban and Mexican service : Esperanza, 7500 tons ; Mexico, 9685 tons ; Monterey, 7500 tons ; Morro Castle, 9500 tons. Connections are made at Havana with the United Railways of Havana to Batabano, Cuba, and at Batabano with the Isle of Pines SS. Co. for Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. The Isle of Pines steamers leave Batabano on Wednesday and Friday on arrival of train leaving Central Station of the United Railways of Havana in Havana at 6 p.m. Fare : first class, including stateroom on steamers, Havana to Isle of Pines, $7.60. (23a) The Munson Steamship Line. Steamers sail several times every month from Pier 9, East River, at 12 noon, for Nipe Bay and other Cuban Ports. Fare : $35.00. (23) The Booth Steamship Company Ltd. (Head Office : Tower Building, Liverpool ; London Office : 1 1 Aldelphi Terrace, Strand ; New York : Booth and Co., 17 Battery Place; Barbados: Laurie and Co. Ltd.). Passenger steamers of the Booth Line sail from New York on or about the 7th and 17th of each month for Para and Manaos, via Barbados, and vice versa, leaving Manaos about the 7th and 17th of each month. Fares : New York-Barbados, $55 single, $110 return; Para-Barbados, $40 single, $70 return; Manaos-Barbados $60 single, $105 return. Koninklijke West-Indische Mail Dienst (see page 19). (New Orleans.) (24a) Southern Pacific Atlantic Steamship Lines. Steamers leave New Orleans for Havana every Saturday at 11 a.m. and Havana for New Orleans every Saturday at 2 p.m. Fare : $25.00, or round trip $45.00. The United Fruit Company (see page 25),

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STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION 27 (Key West and Miami, Florida.) (24) The Peninsular and Occidental Steamship Company (Jacksonville, Florida). From the first week in January to the first week in April a steamer plies weekly between Miami, Florida, and Nassau, Bahamas. Fares : single $15 ; round trip $26. Steamer : Miami. A steamer leaves Key West daily (Sunday excepted) at 9 a.m., reaching Havana at 5.30 p.m. There is also a daily service in the opposite direction, the steamer leaving Havana at 10 a.m. and reaching Key West at 6.30 p.m. The company also conducts a service between Port Tampa and Havana. From South America (Brazil). The Booth Steamship Company Ltd, (see page 26). (25) Lamport and Holt Line (Liverpool, Royal Liver Building ; New York, Busk and Daniels). Steamers call at Barbados and Trinidad fortnightly en route from the Argentine and Brazil to New York. The steamers Vestris, 9800 tons, and Vandyck, 9800 tons, call at Barbados on their south-bound voyage. (26) Lloyd Brazileiro (Corrientes 394, Buenos Ayres). Steamers of this line ply between New York and Brazil, sailing every four weeks, and calling at Barbados en route. (27) The Houston Line (10 Dale Street, Liverpool). Steamers call at Trinidad, Barbados, Martinique, Ponce, San Juan, Jamaica, Cienfuegos, Havana, Matanzas and Cardenas on voyage from River Plate to Boston and New York. (28) The Prince Line (Milburn House, Newcastle-onTyne ; Paul F. Gerhard and Co., 8-10 Bridge Street, New York) Steamers of this line call at Barbados and Trinidad fortnightly on their voyage between Brazil and New York. From India (Calcutta). (29) The Nourse Line (James Nourse Ltd., London, 71 King William Street ; Calcutta, 5 Commercial Buildings) Steamers of the Nourse Line leave Calcutta with emigrants and cargo on or about the 27th of each month for the principal West Indian ports. Accommodation is provided for passengers between Trinidad and other West Indian islands, also between the West Indies and Calcutta.

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CHAPTER III GENERAL INFORMATION {concluded) Outfit : Passports : The Voyage : Time : Table of Distances : Customs : Telegrams : Postal facilities : Population : Religion : Freemasonry : Language : The Laundry : Books OUTFIT, There is no need to buy an elaborate outfit for a visit to the West Indies. It should be borne in mind that the less luggage that is taken the better it is for the temper. Where much land travelling is contemplated, substantial leather suit-cases and portmanteaux are best. They can be kept in good condition and insect-proof by periodical applications of brown boot polish. A capacious canvas sack, with a padlock fastening, into which surplus effects can be dumped at the last minute, is the greatest convenience, and a fold-up cabin tidy with pouches for the various articles of the toilet is almost indispensable. A few cakes of sea-water soap are a comfort. Should the steamer be the base of operations of the tourist, steel or stout leather cabin trunks are recommended, the most convenient size being 36 in. long, 20 in. wide, and 14 in. deep. For storing outer clothing there is nothing better than tin uniform cases known as canisters in the West Indies, where they find great favour in the bush." The same clothes should be taken as would be worn in a hot summer in England. Merino or some similar fabric should invariably be worn next the skin, and linen suits, which are provocative of chills, avoided. Flannel next the body is conducive to that irritating complaint known as prickly heat and other skin troubles. Warm clothing must not 28

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GENERAL INFORMATION 29 be doffed too soon at sea, and on no account should it be sent home, as it is essential for the homeward voyage. For men, thin flannel or light tweed suits, breeches, and gaiters, and thin dress clothes, canvas shirts, with merino or silk underwear and pyjamas, are most suitable. Thick merino socks or stockings are best, as they prevent the feet becoming chilled when wet or damp. Ladies should take their usual thin summer dresses, but shun openwork blouses, which are a source of great attraction to mosquitoes, and, owing to the action of the sun, give the wearer the appearance of being tattooed when she appears in evening dress. Dresses and parasols made of glace silk and chiffon taffeta should also be left at home, as they suffer in the tropics. Ladies are strongly advised to provide themselves with articles of pongee or of soft washing silk and also with sun veils of brown gauze or fine chiffon. They would be well advised too to lay in a supply of good cold cream, lotions, toilet soap, &c, before sailing. Citronella oil lightly applied to the face and hands will be found wonderfully effective in warding off the attacks of mosquitoes. Hats should be shady and of as light weight as possible, and ladies should always wear wool or silk next the skin. They should also provide light wraps for protection against chills in the evenings, and heavier ones for travelling by sea. For night attire a material called India Gauze, a mixture of silk and wool, is recommended, being soft and light and affording just the necessary protection from chills, against which it is particularly necessary to guard, no bed clothing to speak of being provided. Silk stockings are preferable to cotton, and two pairs of the former worn at the same time are said to be impervious to mosquitoes. Sequin dresses should not be taken, as the sequins yield to the great heat and become sticky. A large sun umbrella should be carried in the sun, and, as it is often necessary to start for long day excursions before dawn, when the temperature is, comparatively speaking, low, a loose flannel coat or wrap is indispensable. A thin silk tea-gown and an ordinary evening dress should also form part of the outfit. Tourists will be well advised not to make themselves too conspicuous with puggarees and similar eccentricities

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3 o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES as cabmen and boatmen naturally consider those who do so to be fair game, and deal with them accordingly. Terai hats may be taken with advantage, but other kinds of sun hats are best purchased locally. They should, if possible, have red linings, as these mitigate the harmful effects of the actinic or chemical rays of the sun. Blue spectacles are a comfort in Barbados, where the glare from the coral roads is very trying. A waterproof cape will be found convenient, but in ordering it care should be taken to mention that it is for use in the tropics, as beetles have a predilection for inferior caoutchouc. Kid and patent leather should be avoided for footwear for the same reason. Deck chairs can nowadays generally be hired aboard the steamers (R.M.S.P. Co., 4s. for the voyage), but to ensure complete comfort it is better for the traveller to take his or her own. A photographic camera should certainly be included among the impedimenta of the tour. Owing to the remarkable rarity of the atmosphere, surprisingly good results can be obtained with a hand camera ; but to secure the best it is desirable for those who do not develop their own negatives to send back the exposed films in tin cases sealed with sticking plaster for development at home, and to arrange for a fresh supply of films or plates to be sent out to them every fortnight. It is in this way that the most successful results are secured, though films and plates can be obtained and developed in the larger islands and British Guiana. Golf clubs should be taken by those tourists who contemplate a stay of any duration in the Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, British Guiana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Antigua, St. Vincent, Cuba, or Porto Rico, and also tennis racquets. For deep-sea fishing, special tackle may be taken, and also a gun for sport in those islands where it can be enjoyed. PASSPORTS. Passports are not required in the British West Indies, but they are necessary in Haiti and Santo Domingo, and. travellers in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the French, Danish, and Dutch West Indies are advised to carry them to save inconvenience when evidence of identity or nationality is required. This applies also to countries on the Spanish Main. Applications for passports should be addressed to The Passport Department, Foreign Office,

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GENERAL INFORMATION 31 London, S.W.," and must reach there before 5 p.m. on the day prior to that on which the passport is to be issued. The charge for a passport is 2s., and copies of the regulations are obtainable from the Foreign Office on application. In America applications for passports should be addressed to the Passport Bureau, State Department, Washington. THE VOYAGE. The delights of a sea voyage have often been described, and no visitor to the Caribbean who commits his impressions to paper on his return fails to expatiate regarding the familiar scenes and amusements on shipboard, such as the daily sweep on the run of the ship, the parade of the crew on Sunday, the fiddles on the tables in rough weather, leading inevitably to reference to the concerts, the fancy balls, and so on, which make the eleven days between Southampton and Barbados, the ten days between Avonmouth and Jamaica, and the shorter journeys between Canada and the United States and the West Indies pass so pleasantly for the traveller who takes Kingsley's advice, and towards his fellow passengers is To their faults a little blind ; And to their virtues very kind. The itinerary of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company is subject to variation, but at present the vessels of this line leave Southampton punctually at midday. A special train from Waterloo runs alongside the steamer at Southampton Docks, which are reached in two hours. In an incredibly short space of time passengers, luggage, and mails are aboard, and the steamer is slipping down Southampton Water, passing Netley on the left, or port side, as it should now be called. On turning into the Solent, past Calshot Castle (right), Cowes, the famous yachting headquarters in the Isle of Wight, is seen, and then in succession Yarmouth, Totland Bay, Alum Bay, and the Needles to the left, with Hurst Castle standing out on a spit of sand to the right. The pilot is dropped off the Needles, and the steamer proceeds to Cherbourg, where passengers are embarked that evening, and thence to the Azores, where the first call is made during several months of the year. Occasionally, however, a stop is made at Vigo, whose magnificent bay

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32 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES has been the scene of many naval engagements. The town was assaulted and burnt by the English under Drake and Norris in 1589 ; and, on October 22, 1702, the combined English and Dutch fleets attacked the French and Spanish in the port. Several men-of-war and galleons were taken and many destroyed, and an abundance of plate and other valuable effects fell into the hands of the conquerors. Vigo was taken by Lord Cobham in 1719, but relinquished. It was again captured by the British in 1 809, but was restored to its former owners. From Cherbourg then, or Vigo, the transatlantic voyage begins. Two days out the cold winds begin to lose their sting, and on the third there is felt an appreciable change in the climate, which becomes sensibly milder, even if the weather is stormy. After four days, the romantic group of islands known as the Azores is reached. These Western Islands, as they are also called, belong to Portugal, from which they are distant 800 miles, and are supposed to be the site of the ancient Atlantis. They were discovered in the fifteenth century by Van der Berg, of Bruges, and by 1457 the whole of the islands were discovered, and the name Azores given to them from the number of goshawks (Port. A gov) found on them. From 1580 to 1640 they were subject to Spain. The islands must always have a peculiar interest for Englishmen as being the scene of the memorable engagement between the Spanish and British fleets on August 30, 1 591, when the redoubtable deeds of valour were performed by Sir Richard Grenville, whose ship the Revenge engaged eight great Spanish galleons for twelve hours, and was boarded three times : And the sun went down, and the stars came out far over the summer sea, But never a moment ceased the fight of the one and the fiftythree. Ship after ship, the whole night long, their high-built galleons came, Ship after ship, the whole night long, with her battle thunder and flame. Here it was that Sir Richard, shot through the body and

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GENERAL INFORMATION 33 through the head, having been carried by the stately Spanish men to their flagship, said : I have fought for Queen and Faith like a valiant man and true ; . With a joyful spirit I Sir Richard Grenville die. The Azores consist of three distinct groups of islands, which are connected by wireless telegraphy. To the southeast are St. Michael's and Sta. Maria ; in the centre, Fayal, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira, and Graciosa, and to the northwest, Flores and Corvo. The most important trade centre is Ponta Delgada (the sharp point), the capital of St. Michael's, the principal island. This town, which for size ranks third amongst the cities of Portugal, has an excellent harbour and a population of 20,000. The boat-fare to the shore is 15. and the steamers usually wait in port for a sufficiently long time to enable passengers to take one of the following drives, which are recommended : (1) To Pico do Salomao or Pico do Lima, from both of which eminences there are good views. (2) To the Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande and Lombadas, a three hours' drive to a valley containing thermal springs and a small bathing establishment. Thence a good path for donkey riding winds through picturesque scenery to Lombadas. (3) To Lake Fogo, which can be reached on foot from the carriage road by those making the circular drive to Villa Franca and Ribeira Grande. Excursions are also recommended (when time permits) to Sete Cidades. Passengers drive by a pleasant route which occupies two hours to Lomba la Cruz, whence a bridle path leads in three-quarters of an hour to the summit of the Crater (donkeys can be hired). Also to Povocao, whence the ascent to Furnas can be made by carriage or donkey in about two hours. The best hotels in Ponta Delgada are Brown's Hotel, at the back of the town, and Acoriano Hotel, near the landingstage. After passing the Azores, awnings are put out, and the first touch of the tropics begins to make itself felt ; cooler garments are donned, and the officers of the ship appear in white suits. The Roaring Forties, as the seas between c

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34 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES latitudes 40 and 50 are called, are by no means so formidable as they are supposed to be, and need inspire no apprehension. Soon the Sargasso Sea is entered, and tourists will note, probably for the first time, the remarkable Gulf weed, which floats in a vast eddy or central pool of the Atlantic between the Gulf Stream and the equatorial current. It was on entering this sea that the crew of Columbus' ships very nearly mutinied, believing that the vessels had reached land, and were on the verge of running on the rocks, though really the ocean is here fully four miles deep. The origin of the weed is not known, but the mass was once presumably attached to rocks, though it is now propagated as it floats on the surface. In colour it is yellow, and it supports fish, crabs, cuttlefish, zoophytes, and molluscs, but owing to the pace of the ship it is not easy to get any satisfactory specimens of it on board. Whales are now occasionally sighted, and the flying fish become a constant source of interest. With the sun glinting on their silvery wings, they look like dragon-flies as they leap round the bows of the ship. That they actually fly cannot be denied, but their flight appears to be like that of the now old-fashioned glider flying-machine, requiring some considerable impetus to give it a start ; and this is soon expended. The fish forces its way through the water, and, rising from it, is carried forward and skims the surface, gaining momentum each time it touches the waves. The size of the fish is that of a small herring ; and there are always many old travellers who will tell one how they have seen them fly on board the ship, though really this can only occur on sailing ships whose gunwale is near the water — as described by Jeaffreson in 1676 {see page 36) — unless, perhaps, the fish with unerring aim flies gaily through the port-hole. The first sight of the island of Barbados is, as a rule, obtained overnight, when the Ragged Point light is seen blinking on the starboard bow, and Carlisle Bay is generally reached in the early morning, as the sun rises over a scene of considerable animation. The novelty of the surroundings will never be forgotten. A string of lighters emerges from the harbour and bears down upon the steamer to land

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GENERAL INFORMATION 35 or tranship baggage. Boatmen jostle each other about the gangways, while woolly-haired diving boys of every shade of colour paddle about in rude home-made boats soliciting coins, which they retrieve from the water with remarkable skill and agility. Some of the more daring of the boys will, for a piece of silver, dive under the steamer and come up the other side. The steamers of Elders and Fyffes Ltd., which have succeeded those of the subsidised Imperial Direct West India Mail Service, now proceed to Jamaica direct, reaching Kingston in from ten to eleven days. The voyage from Canada or the United States is naturally a much shorter one. Though one sometimes feels the heat far more in New York than in the West Indies, the change of climate is as a rule far more sudden by this route than when one follows the advice of the old sea-captain and steams south till the butter melts and then due west." From Canada St. Kitts is reached in eight days ; and from the United States to the Bahamas is a run of three days only, and to Jamaica one of four days. The route usually followed from northern ports to Jamaica is past Watling's Island and through the Crooked Island and Windward Passages (see map). Steamers for the Lesser Antilles keep well out in the Atlantic. If the steamer arrives at Jamaica, as she generally does, at dawn, it well repays one to be on deck very early to see the sun rise over the glorious Blue Mountains, putting to shame the blinking light of the lighthouse at Plum Point. The difference of a voyage under modern conditions from one in the old days has often been emphasised, and tourists who are lucky enough to be able to obtain copies of Monk Lewis' "Journal" or Jeaffreson's "Young Squire of the Seventeenth Century" may sit in comfort in their deck chairs as the steamer forges her way along at a speed of from fifteen to nineteen knots and read of the discomforts with which their forbears had to put up. Jeaffreson took leave of his friends at Billingsgate, was rowed down to Gravesend on February 16, 1675-6, and went aboard the Jacob and Mary, a vessell of about a hundred and fifty tunns, 14 or 16 gunns, and a square stearne." This was

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36 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES on Thursday, and on Sunday she anchored in the Downs", where we went ashoar ; but the wind in two or three dayes promessing faire," she proceeded on her way, only to put in at Plymouth on the following Saturday, the 26th, the windes being contrary," and compelling them to ride at anchor for tenne dayes." On March 6, "the winde comeing about to the north-east," they again hoisted sayle and stood out to sea. . The tenth day it blew hard which made a verry rough and hollow sea, which raked us fore and aft, breakeing sometymes over our quarter ; in which great seas, our shipp's crew concluded, that our little leakie companion (a small vessel which had been keeping up with them), was buried." Off the islands called the deserts," a sail was sighted which we doubted was a Turke ; and made us putt ourselves in a posture of defence, and the next morning, flndeing that he had chased us all night ... we prepared all things for a fight, arid continued in that posture all the day and night." On arriving at Madeira they were verry neare losing our shippe, the master being unacquainted, and comeing too boldely in near the shoar, in a daingerous place." On Tuesday, the 1 8th, they crossed the Tropic of Cancer, and were much diverted by the flying fish, which, though common at sea, may be a subject of wonder to such as are home-bred . they fly in whole shoales, but not very farre, for no sooner are theire wings dry, but they drop into theire element, the water. It is usual for them to fly into the shipps. We had one or two come on board our vessell." On Monday, May 8th, the island of Deseada was sighted, which was a welcome sight to us, who were forced to keepe the pump goeing night and day, by reason of a dangerous leake we had sprung at sea, which we could not finde, and which increasing would have soone beene too much for us, if bad weather had kept us at sea." The vessel did not finally reach Nevis until Sunday, May 21, and from thence Mr. Jeaffreson sailed in a shalloope, and with my goods and servants arrived that night at St. Christopher's," more than three months after his departure from London Nowadays the conditions are very different, and the voyage seems over all too soon.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 37 THE TIME. For those who are making their first voyage the table of watches on board ship, which is given below, will be useful. At the conclusion of each half -hour of the watch the ship's beT is sounded ; once for the first half -hour, twice for the second, and so on, until eight bells is sounded. The two short dog watches were arranged to make the total number of watches seven and so obviate the two companies into which the crew is divided being on the same watch on successive nights. The sun rises over London some four or five hours before it rises over the West Indies, and so, going west, Middle Watch. Forenoon Watch. ist Dog Watch. Midnight 8 bells. 8.0 a.m. 8 bells. 4.O P.M. 8 bells. 12.30 A.M 1 >> 8.30 „ 1 „ 4.30 „ 1 ,, 1.0 2 ,, 9.0 ,, 2 5-o „ 2 ,, 1.30 „ 3 M 9-30 >. 3 5-30 „ 3 .. 2.0 4 .. 10.0 ,, 4 6.0 ,, 4 .. 2.30 ,, 3-o „ 5 ,. 6 ,, 10.30 ,, 5 11.0 ,, 6 1 2nd Dog Watch. 3-30 ,. 7 . 11-30 .. 7 6.3O P.M. 1 bells. 4-o „ 8 M Noon 8 7-o „ 2 ,, 7-30 „ 3 .. 8.0 ,, 8 „ Morning Watch. Afternoon Watch. Evening Watch. 4.0 A.M. 8 bells. Noon 8 bells. 8.0 P.M. 8 bells. 4-30 ., 1 .. 12.30 P.M. 1 8.30 ,, 1 . 5.0 „ 2 1.0 ,, 2 ,, 9.0 2 5-30 „ 3 1.30 „ 3 . 9-30 3 6.0 ,, 4 2.0 „ 4 ,, 10. 4 6.30 ,, 5 2.30 „ 5 M 10.30 5 7-o „ 6 30 ,, 6 ,, 11.0 6 7-30 „ 7 3-30 „ 7 „ 11.30 7 8.0 „ 8 4.0 ,, 8 „ Midnight 8 the hands of the clock have to be put back every day, while on the eastern voyage they are put forward. The time is checked at midday from the position of the sun by means of the sextant. When the weather is too cloudy for observations the position of the ship is defined by what is callecl "dead reckoning," that is to say, a calculation

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38 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES based on the distance traversed since the last reckoning was made. The actual difference of solar time in the West Indies compared with that in London is given below ; but since 191 1 standard time has been adopted in the British West Indies. In the Lesser Antilles this is 4 hours, in the Bahamas and Jamaica 5 hours, and in British Honduras 6 hours slow of Greenwich. Thus when it is noon in London it is 8 a.m. in Barbados and 7 a.m. in Jamaica. Barbados . .3 hrs. 58 min. 29 sec. earlier. Demerara Jamaica St. Thomas Trinidad 3 ., 54 .. — 5 hrs. 6 min. — earlier. 4 ,. 19 . 43 4 . 6 ,, — The difference of time as compared with that of New York may be gauged from the fact that the time in New York is 4 hrs. 56 min. and 2 sees, earlier than that of London. TABLES OF DISTANCES. In the following tables the distances in miles on several of the principal steamer routes are given. TRANSATLANTIC MAIL ROUTE Southampton 84 I Cherbourg 3713 I 3629 J Barbados 3916 J 3832 I 203 j Trinidad 4781 I 4697 I 1068 1 865 I Puerto Colombia 4863 I 4779 I 1 1 50 1 947 1 82 I Cartagena 5144 I 5060 1 1431 j 1228 I 363 1 281 j Colon 5704 I 5620 1 1991 I 1788 j 923 | 841 I 560 I Jamaica 6049 I 5965 I 2336 I 2133 I-1268 | 1186 1 905 I 345 I Cuba 7279 I 719 5 I 3566 j 3363 1 2498 1 2416 I 2135 I 1575 I 1230 j New — — York INTERCOLONIAL MAIL ROUTE Trini dad 96 I Grenada 173 I 77 I St. Vincent 233 I 1 37 I 60 1 St. Lucia 316 I 220 I 143 I 83 j Dominica 425 I 329 I 252 I 192 I 109 I Montserrat 462 j 366 1 289 1 229 1 146 j 37 I Antigua 511 I 415 I 338 I 278 I 195 1 86 1 49 I Nevis 522 j 426 j 349 I 289 I 206 1 97 I 60 1 1 1 I St. Kitts

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GENERAL INFORMATION 39 ST MAIL ROUTE BAHAMAS AS RICO St. John, N.B. New York CANADIAN MAIL ROUTE BAHAMAS AND PORTO RICO 283 1 Halifa x | 967 | Bahamas 1043 | 760 | Bermuda Florida 1968 I 1685 I 925 I St. Kitts I 187 I Bahamas For distances beyond St Kitts see New Y ork tables on preceding page | 13 80 | Porto Rico LA GUAIRA, DEMERARA AND BERMUDA ROUTES Trini dad Trini dad 105 [ Carupano I360 | Demerara 145 I 40 I Pampatar New Y ork 351 I 246 I 206 I La Guaira 1 700 | Bermuda CUSTOMS. Personal baggage is exempt from duty in the West Indies, and the customs officials in British Guiana, British Honduras, and all the islands, whatever their nationality may be, are courteous and considerate. There is unfortunately a remarkable absence of uniformity about the customs' duties, each island having its own tariff, which includes specific duties on certain articles, and a general ad valorem duty — that is to say, a duty of a certain fixed sum per ^100 value — with an extensive free list. In 1913 a preferential tariff in favour of Great Britain and Canada was introduced in the British West Indies with the exception of Jamaica and the Bahamas, to meet the requirements of a reciprocal trade agreement with the Dominion. Under this agreement a certain number of articles if imported from Great Britain or Canada enjoy a preference of 20 per cent, in the British West Indian islands (the Bahamas and Jamaica excepted) and in British Guiana. There is, however, no need to give the tariffs, as genuine tourists are not troubled by the customs authorities, and the regulations are by no means so strict as they are at the most lax Custom House on the Continent. Such articles as tobacco, in any quantity, and also spirits in bulk, are dutiable ; but excellent cigars can be got in the West Indies, and the spirits are best left behind. TELEGRAMS. British Guiana, and every West Indian island of importance, with the exception of Nevis, Mont-

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40 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES serrat, the Virgin Islands, and Tobago, are in telegraphic communication with the outside world by the cables of the West India and Panama Telegraph Company Ltd. (Spencer House, South Place, London), and the Direct West India Cable Company Ltd. (33 Old Broad Street, London), the last-named having a cable between Bermuda, Turks Islands, and Jamaica working in conjunction with a cable between Halifax, N.S., and Bermuda. And systems of wireless have been established at New Providence in the Bahamas ; Bridgetown, Barbados ; Port of Spain, Trinidad ; Scarborough, Tobago ; and Georgetown, British Guiana. Between Grenada and Carriacou, and Antigua and Montserrat, communication is maintained by means of the heliograph. Telegrams by Direct West India Cable Company should be marked on the address via Bermuda," for which additional words no charge is made. This Company has a wireless station at Bowden, Jamaica. Arrangements have been made by the Imperial Government and the Governments of Canada and the West Indian Colonies for the reduction of charges to a uniform rate of 2s. 6d. per word between the United Kingdom and the British West Indies, and 15. 6d. between Canada and the British West Indies, and also for the reduction of intercolonial rates D ef erred messages are accepted at half rates POSTAL FACILITIES. There is mail communication with the United Kingdom fortnightly by the steamers of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, and in the case of Jamaica by those of Elders and Fyffes Ltd. There are also frequent opportunities for posting by private ships, letters in this case being marked "pers.s. or "per first opportunity ; but as a general rule it is best to adhere to the regular mail steamers. The prepaid rate of postage on letters from the United Kingdom to the British West Indies, and vice versa, is id. per oz., and to foreign possessions i\d. for the first ounce and i\d. for each extra ounce or fraction thereof. On postcards the rate is id. each, and on papers \d. per 2 oz., whatever the destination may be. The left-hand half of the address side of postcards as well as the back may be used for written communications. With Canada and the United States there is also frequent mail communication.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 4i Express Letters and C.O.D. Service. In Bermuda, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent, and Trinidad, letters are accepted for express delivery in the United Kingdom, the full fee of id. being collected from the addressee ; but if express delivery is required to be made from the G.P.O. or from the head district office in London at an address outside the ordinary delivery of such office, or beyond a distance of one mile from the local post office in the provinces, the charge is id. per mile. Parcels from the same places will be delivered express in the United Kingdom within the usual limits of ordinary parcel delivery for a special fee of $d. prepaid. A Cash on Delivery or C.O.D. postal service recently established between the principal islands and the United Kingdom has proved a great convenience. Parcel Post. The rates for Parcel Post from the United Kingdom to Bermuda and the British West Indies are : Limit of Size. Not exceeding 3 lb. 7 lb. 11 lb. IS. 2S. 3s. Length, Breadth, or Depth. 3ift. To foreign possessions the rates are : Length and Girth combined. 6 ft. Limit of Size. Cuba Guadeloupe or\ Martinique / St. Thomas, &c. Length, Breadth, or Not exceeding Depth. 3 lb. 7 lb. 11 lb. 2S. 2d. 2S. nd. is. id. 2 ft. 2S.2d. 2S.6d. 2S. lod. 2 ft. 3! ft. 25. 3S. 4s. Length and Girth combined. 4 ft. 4 ft. 6 ft. Parcels are subject to customs regulations, and an accurate statement of the nature and value of the contents and other particulars has to be made. Money Orders. Money Orders may be sent to the British, Danish and Dutch West Indies, and also to Cuba and Porto Rico, payment in the latter case being advised through New York and paid in dollars and cents (£1 = $4 87 cents). The poundage fees range from id. for sums not exceeding £1 to $s. id. for sums over ^38 but not exceeding £40. The limit transmissible is ^40 to the British, Danish and Dutch West Indies, and ^20 to Cuba and Porto Rico. Orders must be taken out a full day before the departure of the mail. When, however, application is made too late, the advice can be telegraphed for 6d., with supplementary fee of 6d. for each order. Postal Orders. British Postal Orders are now issued and paid in Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Grenada,

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42 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Jamaica, Tobago, Trinidad, the Leeward Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands. The poundage varies from \d. for an order for 6d. to i\d. for one for 21s. POPULATION. The population of the West Indies, taken as a whole, is of a very cosmopolitan character, including as it does Negroes, East Indians, Chinese, Corsicans, and Portuguese ; besides the English, Spanish, French, Dutch, and Danish colonists and their descendants, and latterly, too, Americans. The larger islands — Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Jamaica — appear to have been inhabited at the time of their discovery by a gentle and timid race, the Arouagues or Arawaks, while the smaller islands were peopled by the Charaibes or Caribs, who arrived from unknown parts in fleets of canoes. The Arawaks were soon exterminated ; but the Caribs were for very many years a source of trouble. Even now there are many families of pure-blooded Caribs in Dominica and a few also in St. Vincent, where nearly all the remaining people of this race in the island lost their lives during the eruption of the Soufriere in 1902. Happily the Caribs have now lost their warlike propensities, and are desirable members of the communities of which they form part. In British Guiana there are still many aboriginal Indians, including the Arawaks, the Macusis, the Arecunas, and the Ackawois. Soon after the European occupation of the islands the want of labour began to be felt severely, and the system of slavery, which was inaugurated by the Portuguese as early as 1481, was adopted by Spain for the West Indies, the first slaves being imported by the Spaniards to work in the mines of Hispaniola before the year 1503. The monopoly of the slave trade was given by Charles V to a Flemish courtier in 151 7, from whom it passed to Genoese merchants, and then to the Portuguese. Sir John Hawkins began slave trading in 1562, and Sir Francis Drake followed in 1 568 At the end of the sixteenth century the Dutch took up the trade, and in 1662 and 1672 English African Companies were formed to introduce slaves. In 1688 the African slave trade was thrown open to all British subjects, and at the end of the seventeenth century 25,000 negroes were annually imported in British ships into the British colonies. In 171 3 the English obtained

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GENERAL INFORMATION 43 the famous Assiento or contract to supply Spanish America with slaves. The South Sea Company who got it were pledged to pay duty for every slave imported by them into the Spanish West Indies and it was arranged that the King of Spain should receive one fourth of the net gains. This monopoly did not pay, and a claim for £68,000 preferred against the English Company by the King of Spain in 1739 led to war, and though, by the treaty of Aix-laChapelle in 1748, the agreement was renewed for four years, it was finally annulled in 1750 on the payment by Spain of £100,000 as compensation. The agitation against the slave trade began in earnest towards the latter part of the eighteenth century, the first motion against it being made in the British Parliament in 1776. The Society for the Suppression of the Slave Trade was founded in 1787, and in the succeeding years an active campaign was carried on by Wilberforce, Clarkson, and others, with the result that in 1807, at the instance of Lord Grenville, the Act was passed for the abolition of the trade. Slavery still continued ; but in 1834 this too was abolished. By the famous Act which received the Royal assent on August 28, 1833, it was decided that all the slaves in the British colonies were to become free on August 1, 1834, but were to be apprenticed to their former owners until 1838, and in the case of agricultural labourers until 1840 ; while £20,000,000 was voted as compensation to the slave owners at the Cape, in Mauritius, and in the West Indies, the proportion allotted to the latter colonies being £16,640,000, a figure which fell short of the value of the slaves as appraised by the Commissioners by £26,460,000. The capital invested in land, cultivation, buildings, and machinery upon the estates on which slaves were located could not have been less than £80,000,000. Antigua and also Bermuda dispensed with the apprenticeship system altogether, and it was in no case continued after 1838. Slavery was abolished in the French colonies in 1848, in the Dutch West Indies in 1863, in Porto Rico in 1873, and in St. Thomas in 1876. The slaves were gradually emancipated in Cuba by an Act of the Spanish Senate of December 24, 1879, which took effect on February 18, 1880, and the

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44 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES total abolition of slavery in that island was brought about by a decree dated October 6, 1886, After the total abolition of slavery in the British colonies, the question of labour once again became acute, and efforts were made to supply the deficiency with free labourers from Havana, St. Helena, Rio, and Sierra Leone, but they were not permanently satisfactory. In 1838 East Indian immigration, which began in the preceding year, was prohibited. But the ban was removed in 1845 when the introduction of East Indians to British Guiana and Trinidad under indenture was begun. It has continued annually — with the exception of 1849-50 — ever since, under the control of the Home and Indian Governments. Similar immigration to Jamaica began in 1845, an ^ to St. Lucia in 1859 ; but the introduction of East Indians into the two latter islands has been of an intermittent nature, and the only colonies now receiving them regularly are British Guiana and Trinidad, though Jamaica receives shipments from time to time. Any visitor particularly interested in this matter should study the immigration ordinances of British Guiana and Trinidad, which were published as a British Blue-book in 1904 [Cd. 1989]. It suffices here to say that the main features of the system are that the East Indians are recruited by Emigration Agents, whose headquarters are at Calcutta. The immigrants are under agreement to serve their employers for five years at a wage of is. i%d. per day for able-bodied adults, and 8d. per day for those who do not fall under this category. All of those who arrived in the colony before August 5, 1898, are entitled to a return passage to India on payment of one fourth of the passage money in the case of males and one-sixth in the case of females ; and, after ten years' residence in the colony, immigrants are entitled to their return passage on paying one-half the fare in the case of males and one-third in the case of females, the balance being paid by the planter. As a matter of fact, the East Indians are so happy and contented in the West Indies that the proportion availing themselves of the return passage is very small, especially since the practice was initiated of giving them land and other privileges in lieu of back

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GENERAL INFORMATION 45 passage, and many of those who do return to India soon find their way back to the West Indies again. The ordinances contain elaborate provisions for the welfare of the immigrants, and in the colonies employing East Indians there are Protectors of Immigrants to see that the law is carried out. Surgeon-Major D. W.D. Comins, who was sent by the Indian Government to the West Indies to report on the system, declared in 1893 that as regards the general arrangements made for Indian immigrants, I have nothing but admiration to express. The system has passed through successive stages of improvement, until it now stands a pattern to all the world of successful and liberal management. Of all the colonies in the West Indies, Trinidad is the favoured home of the coolie settler, where he can easily and rapidly attain comfortable independence and even considerable wealth with corresponding social position." East Indian Immigration was the subject of inquiry by a Committee under the chairmanship of Lord Sanderson in 1909, and those requiring further information on the subject would be well advised to peruse the report (Blue-book [Cd. 5192]), which bears striking testimony to the value of the system. In 1853, Chinese were introduced into British Guiana and Trinidad, and in 1854 some also arrived in Jamaica. In 1867 their importation was discontinued, owing to the Chinese Government insisting upon a return passage being conceded. Still, another shipload reached British Guiana in 1874. Many Chinese remain in the colony, where they are closely connected with the retail trade. With regard to the white population, the brief histories of the various colonies which are given on subsequent pages will sufficiently indicate its origin. In the days of slavery each slave owner was compelled to employ a certain number of white servants to serve in the militia, and these men helped to swell the population, while Oliver Cromwell sent out many Irish prisoners, notably to Nevis and Montserrat ; and Barbados received a large influx of Royalists at the time of the Commonwealth. Many English gentlemen, Royalist officers and divines, were sent out to the island and sold as slaves, and it is on record that a number changed

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46 Pocket guide to The West indies hands at a cost of 1500 lb. of sugar per man Their descendants, known as mean whites and "red legs," are still found there. At the close of the American Revolution many loyalists emigrated from America to the West Indies with their slaves. Jamaica and the Bahamas were particularly favoured, and it is estimated that the latter islands gained between 6000 and 7000 inhabitants between June 1783 and April 1785 from this source. Even the ubiquitous Teuton is not omitted from the list of those who have helped to populate the islands, for in 1840 Mr, King imported twenty-nine Germans into St. Lucia, while Syrians are also found in Jamaica and several other islands. They go out at their own expense and become pedlars, many of them amassing considerable sums of money. In Cuba the white population consists mainly of descendants of old Spanish families and immigrants from Spain who still flock to the island. There is also a considerable American population, while in Porto Rico Americans have settled in great numbers in recent years. In conclusion, a word may be added about the term Creole," which is often believed by those who have not visited the West Indies to apply to people of coloured descent. This is not the case. A Creole is any one actually born in the West Indies. Thus, a child born of white parents in the West Indies is a Creole. The term is even applied to animals, and it is by no means unusual to speak of a Creole cow or a Creole dog, while even agricultural produce is not excluded, and maize grown in a particular island may be referred to as Creole corn RELIGION. To whatever sect they may belong visitors will find their religious wants fully provided for. Jamaica, Barbados, British Guiana, the Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands are dioceses of the Church of England. In Jamaica the Church of England was established in 1662, but in 1870 a law was passed providing for its gradual disendowment, and it is now practically self sup porting, with capital funds amounting to ^60,000. The Baptists and Wesleyans are the next sects in importance in order of the size of their congregations. Presbyterians and Moravians

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GENERAL INFORMATION 4; have a large following, while there are also Roman Catholics and Jews in the island. In Barbados the majority of the inhabitants belong to the Church of England, which is endowed from the general revenue. The island is the see of a bishop, in which is included the Windward Islands also. Small Government grants are given to the Wesley ans and Moravians, and also to the Roman Catholics, who are, however, few in number. The Leeward Islands also form the see of a bishop of the Church of England, whose principal followers are in Antigua and St. Kitts, while in Montserrat the inhabitants are largely Anglicans and Wesleyans. In Dominica the inhabitants are principally Roman Catholics, whose bishop resides at Roseau in that island. The inhabitants of the Virgin Islands are mainly Wesleyans. In St. Lucia the Roman Catholics largely predominate, and their church is supported out of the general revenue of the colony. In St. Vincent, where the Church of England was disendowed in 1889, one half of the population are members of the Church of England and one third Wesleyans, while in Grenada one half are Roman Catholics and one third members of the now disestablished Church of England. In Trinidad the Roman Catholics are by far the most numerous sect. The Archbishop of Port of Spain resides in that island. The hours of holy worship differ in no way from those adopted at home. The churches are well ventilated, and compare favourably in this respect with many in European cities. FREEMASONRY. Freemasonry is largely practised in the British West Indies, and lodges exist in all the large islands and most of the smaller. In Barbados there is a District Grand Lodge, which has jurisdiction over six Craft Lodges. Mark Masonry is also represented by a District Grand Lodge, controlling three Mark Lodges. The Scotia Lodge has a Royal Arch Chapter attached to it, and there is a Rose Croix Chapter. Scottish Masonry is strongly represented in Trinidad, there being no fewer than four Craft Lodges, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, four Royal Arch Chapters, one Rose Croix Chapter, one Consistory, one Preceptory of Knights

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48 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Templar, with a Priory of the Knights of Malta. English Masonry is represented by three Craft Lodges Freemasonry was dormant in St. Lucia until 1899, when a lodge under the Grand Lodge of England was formed. Grenada has the Lodge St. George, No. 3072 on the register of the Grand Lodge of England. Jamaica possesses, under the English constitution, a District Grand Lodge, with eleven Craft Lodges under its jurisdiction. There is also one Craft Lodge in direct communication with the Grand Lodge of England. English Royal Arch Masonry is also represented by a District Grand Chapter and four Chapters attached to Craft Lodges. One Preceptory of Knights Templar and two Rose Croix Chapters also represent the higher degrees of English Masonry. A Provincial Grand Mark Masons' Lodge governs four Mark Masons' Lodges. In Scottish Masonry there is a District Grand Lodge, five Craft Lodges, one Royal Arch Chapter, and five Mark Lodges. British Guiana possesses a District Grand Lodge under the English constitution, with five Craft Lodges, one Royal Arch Chapter, a Rose Croix Chapter, and a Preceptory of the Knights Templar, with a Priory of the Knights of Malta attached. There is also one Craft Lodge under the Scotch constitution. Antigua has two Craft Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England, one Mark Masons' Lodge, a Rose Croix Chapter, and a Royal Arch Chapter. In St. Kitts there is a Craft Lodge working under the Scotch constitution. There are also lodges in St. Thomas (356), Curacoa (653), Turks Islands (647), and at Nassau in the Bahamas (443). It will thus be seen that Freemasonry is strongly represented in the West Indies. Much of this masonic spirit may be traced to the military occupation of those islands, while the register numbers of three lodges in Jamaica, 207, 239 and 354, two in Demerara, 247 and 385, and one in Barbados, 196, under the English constitution, show their antiquity. Masonic visitors are, of course, welcomed at these lodges in true masonic spirit. LANGUAGE. It may seem superfluous to add a paragraph regarding language, but the writer is prompted to do so by the many inquiries he has received from intending

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GENERAL INFORMATION 49 visitors to the West Indies, who seem to think that the islands are peopled by savages speaking unknown tongues. On the contrary, the inhabitants are mostly Englishspeaking. The mode of speech attributed to them in books, such as massa for Master," &c, does not really adequately describe their style, which owes its piquancy to a drawling and sing-song method of delivery, accentuated to a marked degree in Barbados, where even many of the whites are infected with it. In the islands which have been in the possession of France, such as Dominica and St. Lucia, the negroes speak a rather bewildering French patois, though they understand French. A peculiarity in Montserrat is the Irish brogue which the negroes acquired from the Irish who were sent to the island by Oliver Cromwell. It still remains a marked characteristic of their speech. In the little island of Saba there is a somewhat similar peculiarity of speech, the inhabitants speaking with distinct Somersetshire and Devonshire accents. In Trinidad, French and Spanish are much spoken by the wealthier classes, and of course a knowledge of these languages enhances the pleasure of a visit to Cuba, Porto Rico and the Spanish Main. THE LAUNDRY. Jane Anne Smith, the buxom black laundress who used to salute passengers on their arrival at Barbados, taking from them their washing and selling to them her famous Barbados hot sauce is — alas — no more ; but she has many imitators. Some are good and others exceedingly bad. It behoves tourists therefore to make the closest inquiries before submitting their garments to them. In most of the islands the laundry work is good and the hotels are in touch with the best artistes. In British Guiana the Chinese undertake washing with the usual satisfactory results. They are past masters in the art of cleansing clothes. BOOKS ON THE WEST INDIES. It adds immensely to the pleasures of travel to know the history of the places visited. The more it is studied beforehand, the more fascinating and enjoyable does the tour become. Many books have been written about the West Indies ; but most of the older works are now, unfortunately, out of print. They can, however, generally be seen at the West India

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50 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Committee Rooms, the Royal Colonial Institute, or the British Museum. The following list includes the volumes which should prove most useful and interesting to those contemplating a visit to the West Indies. General Nouveau Voyage aux lies de l'Amerique." By Pere Labat, 1722. "The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies." By Bryan Edwards, 1793. "Chronological History of the West Indies."* 3 vols. By Capt. Thomas Southey, 1827. "A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus." By Washington Irving. London : Cassell and Company Ltd., 1 828. The West Indies and the Spanish Main." By Anthony Trollope. London : Chapman and Hall, 1859. The Cruise of H.M.S. Bacchante 1879-1882." By Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales. London : Macmillan and Co., 1886. The English in the West Indies, or the Bow of Ulysses."* By J. A. Froude. London : Longmans, Green and Co., 1888. History of the Buccaneers of America." By J. Esquemeling, 1684. London: Sonnenschein, 1893. Down the Islands." By W. A. Paton. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co., 1888. "The West Indies."* By C. W. Eves. London: Sampson Low and Co. Ltd., 1889 (4th edition, 1897). A Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. II. The West Indies." By C. P. Lucas. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1890 (2nd ed,, revised by C. Atchley, I.S.O., 1905). In Sugar-Cane Land." By Eden Phillpotts. London : McClure and Co., 1893. The Cradle of the Deep." By Sir Frederick Treves, G.C.V.O. London : Smith Elder, 1908. The British West Indies. Their History, Resources and Progress." By Algernon E. Aspinall. London : Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1912. West Indian Tales of Old." By Algernon E. Aspinall. London : Duckworth and Co., 191 2. West Indies and Guiana." Six lectures written for the Visual Instruction Committee of the Colonial Office. By Algernon Aspinall. London, 1914. "The Colonial Office List." London: Waterlow and Son Ltd. (annual). General Information for Intending Settlers." The Emigrants' Information Office, 31 Broadway, Westminster. Out of print, but can be seen at various libraries.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 51 Bahamas Sketches of Summerland." By G. J. H. Northcroft. 191 2. The Land of the Pink Pearl." By L. D. Powles, 1888. Barbados History of Barbados." By Sir Robert H. Schomburgk. London : 1848. An Account of a West Indian Sanatorium." By Geo. J. H. Sutton Moxly. London : Sampson Low, Marston and Co., 1886. Cavaliers and Roundheads in Barbados."* By N. Darnell Davis. Georgetown, British Guiana, 1887. "Annals of Codrington College." By T. H. Bindley, D.D. London : The West India Committee, 1910. The Barbados Handbook." By E. Goulburn Sinckler. Published by order of the Legislature. London : Duckworth and Co., 1914 (annual). Bermuda The Historye of the Bermudaes or Summer Islands." Hakluyt Series, 1882. All About Bermuda." By John J. Bushell. Bermuda : The Colonist Building, 1911. British Guiana "Among the Indians of Guiana."* By E. F. im Thurn. London : Kegan Paul, Trench and Co., 1883. Twenty-five Years in British Guiana." By Henry Kirke. London : Sampson Low, Marston and Co., 1898. "History of British Guiana." By James Rodway, F.L.S. Georgetown, Demerara, 3 vols., 1894. In the Guiana Forest." By James Rodway, F.L.S. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894 ; second edition, 191 1. Handbook of British Guiana." By George D. Bayley. London : Dulau and Co., 1909. The British Guiana Handbook." By Alleyne Leechman. Dulau and Co., 191 3. Guiana, British, Dutch and French." By James Rodway, F.L.S. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 191 2. British Honduras The Colony of British Honduras, its resources and prospects." By D. Morris. London: Stanford, 1883. The Cayman Islands Handbook of the Cayman Islands." By George S. S. Hirst, M.B. Jamaica : Times Printery, 1910. Out of print, but can be seen at various libraries.

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52 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Jamaica The History of Jamaica." By Long. London, 1774. The Annals of Jamaica." By G. W. Bridges. London : John Murray, 1828. Studies in Jamaica History." By Frank Cundall, F.S.A. London : Sampson Low, Marston and Co. Ltd,, 1900. "A History of Jamaica." By W. J. Gardner. New edition. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1909. In Jamaica and Cuba." By H. G. de Lisser. Kingston (Jamaica) : The Gleaner Co. Ltd. The Handbook of Jamaica." London : Stanford (annual). Jamaica in 1912 : A Handbook of Information for Intending Settlers and Visitors." By Frank Cundall, F.S.A. The Institute of Jamaica. London : H. Sotheran and Co. "Lady Nugent's Journal." Privately published 1839. New edition edited by F. Cundall. London : A. and G. Black, 1907. Trinidad At Last." By Charles Kingsley. London : Macmillan and Co., 1871. "Trinidad."* By L. A. A. de Verteuil. London: Cassell and Co., 1884 (2nd edition). The Sea Fish of Trinidad." By Harry Vincent. Port of Spain, 1910. Trinidad and Tobago Year Book." By J. H. Collens. Port of Spain, Trinidad Government Printing Office (annual). The Handbook of Trinidad and Tobago." By Lieut. -Col. J. H. Collens, V.D. Port of Spain : Government Printing Office, 1 91 2. Tobago A History of Tobago." By H. T. Woodcock, 1 867. Handbook of Tobago : Hints to Settlers." By Lieut. -Col. J. H. Collens, V.D. Port of Spain : Government Printing Office, 1912. Grenada The Grenada Handbook, Directory and Almanac." London : Wyman and Sons Ltd. (annual). St. Lucia St. Lucia." By Henry H. Breen. London, 1844. Hints to Settlers in St. Lucia." By Edward J. Cameron, C.M.G. Barbados : The Imperial Department of Agriculture, 1911. St. Vincent An Historical Account of the Island of St. Vincent." By Charles Shephard, Esq. London: Ridgway and Sons, 1831. Out of print, but can be seen at various libraries.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 53 The Guide Book to St. Vincent." By Hon. Mrs. Gideon Murray, Kingstown (St. Vincent) 1913. Obtainable at the West India Committee Rooms, London. The St. Vincent Handbook, Directory and Almanac." Edited by Robert M. Anderson. Kingstown (St. Vincent) : (annual). Antigua "Antigua and the Antiguans." London: Saunders and Otley, 1844. History of the Island of Antigua." By V. L. Oliver. London : Mitchell and Hughes, 1894, 1896 and 1899. Dominica The History of the Island of Dominica." ByT. Atwood, 179 1. "Dominica, Illustrated and described." By the Hon. H. A. Alford Nicholls, C.M.G. Dominica, a Fertile Island." By F. Sterns Fadelle. Obtainable at the West India Committee Rooms, London. Notes on Dominica." By S. Grieve. London : A. and C. Black, 1906. Dominica : Hints and Notes to Intending Settlers." By His Honour Douglas Young, C.M.G. Obtainable at the West India Committee Rooms, London. St. Kitts "A Young Squire of the Seventeenth Century." By J. C. Jeaffreson. London : 1878. Nevis Natural History of Nevis." By Rev. William Smith. Virgin Islands The Virgin Islands, B.W.I." A Handbook of General Information. 1912. By D. C. Fishlock. Obtainable at the West India Committee Rooms. Cuba Cuba Past and Present." By R. Davey. London : 1898. The War in Cuba." By J. B. Atkins. London : 1899. The Rough Riders." By Theodore Roosevelt. London : 1899. Porto Rico Porto Rico : Its Conditions and Possibilities." By W. Dinwiddie. London : 1899. Report on the Island of Porto Rico, its Population, &c." By H. K. Carroll. Washington. Haiti Hayti, or the Black Republic." By Spencer St. John. London, 1884. (2nd edition, 1889.) Out of print, but can be seen at various libraries.

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54 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES "Where Black Rules White." By Hesketh Pritchard. London : 1900. Martinique Two Years in the French West Indies." By Lafcadio Hearn. New York and London : Harper and Brothers, 1902. M. Pelee and the Tragedy of Martinique." By A. Heilprin. London, 1902. Panama The Panama Canal and its Makers." By Vaughan Cornish, D.Sc. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1909. Panama : the Canal, the Country, and the People." By Albert Edwards. New York : Macmillan and Co., 191 1. Panama and What it Means." By John Foster Fraser. London : Cassell and Co. Ltd., 1913. Fiction Tom Cringle's Log." By Michael Scott. The Cruise of the Midge '." By Michael Scott. Peter Simple." By Captain Marryat. "Westward Ho! By Charles Kingsley. The Conqueror." By Gertrude Atherton. The Gorgeous Isle." By Gertrude Atherton. Gossip of the Caribbees." By W. R. H. Trowbridge. The Wooings of Jezebel Pettifer." By Haldane Macfall. London : Simpkin, Marshall and Co.

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CHAPTER IV THE BERMUDAS The still vex'd Bermoothes" "The Tempest," Shakespeare GENERAL ASPECT. The Bermudas or Somers' Islands, more popularly known as Bermuda, are not in the West Indies ; but so many touring steamers visit them on their way to and from the Caribbean Sea that the inclusion of an account of them in the present volume requires no justification. The Bermudas consist of a group of about three hundred small islands lying in the shape of a sickle in the Western Atlantic in latitude 32 15' N. and longitude 64 51' W., about 580 miles to the east of Cape Hatteras, and 667 miles from New York. They are all of coral formation, and are described in the report on the vogage of H.M.S. Challenger* as a coral atoll '.* situated on the summit of a large cone with a wide base, rising from the submerged plateau of the Atlantic." Their total estimated area is 19 square miles, or less than oneeighth of that of Rutland. The principal island, generally known as the Main Island, near the centre of which, at the head of a deep inlet, Hamilton the capital is situated, is about 14 miles long and has an average width of about 1 mile. Next to it in importance is St. George's Island at the extreme north-east, with a spacious harbour, on the shore of which St. George, the former capital, stands. The other islands of consequence are : Ireland Island at the north-west, which is entirely given up to the Naval Dock* H.M.S. Challenger was sent by the British Government on an extended cruise for exploration with a scientific staff, selected by the Royal Society, in December 1872. She returned in 1876. 55

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56 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES yard, Boaz and Watford, devoted to military depots and garrison, and Somerset, Smith's, St. David's, Cooper's Nonsuch, Rivers, Ports, and Godets. The entire chain from St. George's to Ireland Island is connected by means of bridges and causeways, for a distance of 22 miles. The Bermudas are almost surrounded by dangerous reefs, the approach to the capital being by a long channel, the entrance to which is called the "Narrows," extending from St. George's Island to Grassy Bay, a sheltered anchorage off Ireland Island. The northern coasts of the islands are much indented ; but approach to them is dangerous owing to the presence of many sunken rocks. The islands have no rivers, and though several wells exist the water from them is brackish, and the inhabitants are consequently dependent upon the rainfall for drinking water. The whole chain is comparatively flat, the highest elevation being 245 ft. only. The islands are divided into nine parishes, namely, St. George's, Hamilton, Smith's, Devonshire, Pembroke (in which the capital is situated), Paget, Warwick, Southampton, and Sandys. The total population is 20,000, of which one-third is white, the remainder being coloured. Bermuda is now the headquarters of the West Atlantic Squadron. Until 1904 there were about ten cruisers and other vessels on the North American station, the flag officer of which had the status of a Commander-in-Chief. In the redistribution of that year, most of these ships were withdrawn and their places taken by training ships of the Particular Service Squadron, of which the Commander-inChief took charge. In 1907, on a change of flag officers, the new admiral ceased to be a Commander-in-Chief, and the squadron was no longer designated for Particular Service," while in 1909, it ceased to be associated with the North American station in name, and became simply the Fourth Cruiser Squadron. This was replaced in 191 3 by the West Atlantic Squadron. INDUSTRIES. The early settlers in the Bermudas were planters, and the inhabitants followed agricultural pursuits until the abrogation of the charter of the Somer Islands Company in 1684 (see page 59), when they took to trading and piracy. In vessels made of the native cedar, they

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THE BERMUDAS 57 traded with the West Indies and America, and carried salt fish from Newfoundland to Europe, returning with cargoes of port wine. On occasions, too, they would meet the fleets from India and carry the produce of the East to the West Indies. This industry was, however, practically killed by the advent of steam, and the inhabitants then had to look about for other means of employment. Colonel William Reid, the Governor at this critical period, solved the difficulty to some extent by calling attention to the agricultural possibilities of the Bermudas, and now, though only one-quarter of their area is suitable to cultivation, the islands yield crops of potatoes, onions, tomatoes, and other vegetables which find a ready market in the United States in the months when those products are not in season in America. The Bermudas might indeed be described as the Market Garden of the United States. Within the last twenty or thirty years a lily bulb industry has also been developed with success, thanks to the efforts of General Russell Hastings, and large quantities of the varieties known as Longiflorum and Harrisii are grown. Only a small quantity of arrowroot, for which the islands are famous, is now exported, and it realises exceptionally high prices in the English Market. Fish of great variety abound in the waters surrounding the islands and form the basis of a profitable local industry. Green and hawksbill turtle are also caught. The principal exports in the year 191 2 were : Onions crates 140,000 value ^31,183 Potatoes barrels 43,891 ,, 42,281 Lily bulbs packages 2,735 >> 2,245 Arrowroot cwt. 96 ,, 628 The direction of trade in the same year was : Imports. Exports. The United States £353-599 ^111,414 British Colonies 106,366 2,895 The United Kingdom 170,779 2,277 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table, on next page, of the revenue and expenditure and the imports and exports for the past ten years :

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POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ £ £ £ 1903 57,i69 55,503 539,688 125,343 1904 63.475 61,133 590,000 130,305 1905 53,32i 65,307 543,222 116,428 1906 53, 2I 3 69,064 398,176 121,295 1907 67,538 59,172 410,596 140,598 1908 57,o68 53,586 390,522 105,392 1909 68,921 67,093 440,648 183,884 1910 78,593 68,392 517,074 106,508 1911 67,538 59,172 545,540 129,925 1912 83,629 78,210 637^7^ 116,586 CLIMATE. Bermuda is justly famed for its climate, which, though less equable than that of the islands within the tropics, is particularly charming during the winter months, when the temperature ranges between 60 and 70 Fahr. During the greater part of the year the islands are swept by health-giving ocean breezes and, except perhaps in September, the climate is rarely oppressive. The annual rainfall is about 60 inches. HISTORY. The discovery of the Bermudas is attributed to Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard, who touched there in his ship La Garza (the Hawk) in 1515, and gave them their principal name. Ferdinando Camelo, a Portuguese from the Azores, submitted a scheme to the King of Spain in 1 527 for colonising the islands, but it proved abortive, and the only evidence that he ever took possession is furnished by his initials and 1543 inscribed on what is now called Spanish Rock on the Main Island. In 1593 one Henry May was wrecked in a French ship on the shoals off the Bermudas, and reaching the shore remained there for five months. After that year the islands were often sighted by mariners who called them the "Isles of Devils" in consequence of their evil reputation for storms and hurricanes. The next recorded visitor to them was Sir George Somers, a worthy of Dorsetshire. When on a voyage to the newly formed colony of Virginia in 1609, he was separated from his companions in a terrific storm, and his vessel, the Sea Venture, was wedged between two rocks off what is

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THE BERMUDAS 59 now St. George's Island and became a total wreck. On July 28 the ship's company managed to land, and they remained on the islands until the following May, when they succeeded in reaching Virginia in ships of their own building. The circumstance that they found the colonists there almost starved prompted Somers to return for supplies to the Bermudas, which he described as the most plentiful place that I ever came to for fish, hogs, and fowl." Soon after his arrival, however, he died, and while his heart was buried where the town of St. George's now stands, his body was taken to England and interred at Whitchurch in Dorsetshire. The Bermudas were now most favourably spoken of. In 161 2, fifty settlers were despatched to them by the Virginia Company, whose charter was extended to include the Somer Islands as they were called ; and Richard Moore, ship's carpenter, was made first Governor. Three years later, the islands were sold to the Governor and Company of the City of London for the Plantation of the Somer Islands," and they remained in the possession of that concern until 1684, when it was dissolved in consequence of the complaints of the settlers. At the beginning of the Commonwealth the Bermudians remained Royalist, and, in company with Barbados, Antigua, and Virginia, the Bermudas were consequently penalised by the Act of the Long Parliament which prohibited trade with those colonies ; but in February 1652 the Governor and Council took the oath of allegiance and the ban was removed. Before passing from the history of the Bermudas the reader may be reminded that the islands were immortalised by Shakespeare, who no doubt derived his inspiration from the opening scenes of ''The Tempest," in which he refers to the "still vex'd Bermoothes," from the shipwreck of Sir George Somers, two years previously. CONSTITUTION. Next to the House of Commons the House of Assembly of Bermuda is the oldest legislative body of the kind in the British Empire. Representative government was introduced into the colony in 1620, or one year only after the Assembly of Virginia — the first in the British colonies — was established,

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60 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The Governors have, since 1684, been appointed by the Crown, and the laws are enacted by a local legislature consisting of the Governor, a Legislative Council of nine members, three of whom are official and six unofficial, and a House of Assembly, comprising thirty-six members, four of whom are elected by each of nine parishes. The Governor is assisted by an Executive Council consisting at present of four official and two unofficial members. It is noteworthy that the members of the Executive and Legislative Councils and the House of Assembly are paid 8s. a day for each day's attendance. Governors since 1902 Lt.-Gen. Sir H. L. Geary, K.C.B. 1902 Lt.-Gen. Sir Robert McG. Stewart, K.C.B. 1904 Lt.-Gen. Joscelyn H.Wodehouse, C.B., C.M.G. 1907 Lt.-Gen. Frederick W. Kitchener, C.B. 1908 Lt.-Gen. Sir George M. Bullock, K.C.B. 191 2 HOTELS. Hamilton. The Hamilton Hotel on the hill-side above the wharves. Pension $5 (£1 os. lod.) and upwards. The Princess Hotel at the west end of the town, so called after H.R.H. Princess Louise, who visited Bermuda in 1883, $5 (£1 os. xod.) per day and upwards. The American House, below the Hamilton, $3 (125. 6d.) per day and up. The Kenwood, in Reid Street, $3 (12s. 6d.) and up. The Imperial Hotel, $3 (125. 6d.) and up. The Point Pleasant Hotel, H. C. Outerbridge, $2.50 (10s. $d.) to $3 (12s. 6d.) The New Windsor Hotel, on the east side of Queen Street, Rooms, $1.50 (6s. 3d), Pension $3 (125. 6d.) and up. Warwick East. Hotel Belmont. Flatt'S. Hotel Frascati, $3 (12s. 6d.) and up. St. George's. The St. George Hotel, on the Rose Hill prpperty, once owned by Governor Tucker, $4 (16s. 8d.). There are also numerous boarding-houses, a list of which is given in the Bermuda Almanack, in various parts of the islands, and private houses can occasionally be rented by visitors making a prolonged stay. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Bermuda is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 13, 15 and 19 in the list on pages 14 to 27.

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THE BERMUDAS 61 An efficient Island Steam Service is maintained daily (Sunday excepted) between Hamilton (shed No. 6) and Mangrove Bay (40 mins.), Boaz (50 mins.), and Ireland Island (40 to 60 mins.). Single fare, gd. (18 cents). There are regular steam ferry services between Hamilton (foot of Queen Street) and Salt Kettle across the harbour daily (including Sundays) [fare, 2d. (4 cents) each way ; Sunday, 3d. (6 cents.)], and between St. George's (Market Wharf) and St. David's daily (Sunday excepted). There is also a boat ferry service between Hamilton (near shed 6) and Paget West. Steam launches, steamers, and motor boats can be hired by the day or trip. Sailing boats can be engaged at rates from 45. 2d. ($1) per hour, and rowing boats from is. (24 cents). There are several Livery Stables where carriages can be obtained. Single carriages to hold three, 45. 2d. ($1) first hour, 2s. id. (50 cents) per hour after. Double carriages to hold five, 8s. 4^. ($2) first hour, 4s. 2d. ($1) per hour after. Bicycles can also be hired from is. o%d. (25 cents) per hour. The islands have admirable roads covering 109 miles, fifteen of which are under military control The use of motorcars in Bermuda is prohibited, a circumstance which adds greatly to the comfort of visitors. The islands are in telegraphic communication with Halifax, N.S., and thence with|the United States, Europe, &c, by the cables of the Halifax and Bermudas Cable Company, and with Grand Turk, Jamaica, and the West Indies by the cables of the Direct West India Cable Company. By the former the ordinary message rate to England is only 60 cents (2s. 6d.) per word, and for plain language messages 30 cents (is. 3d.) per word. SPORTS. The Hamilton Cricket Club, founded in 1891, has a club-house on the Richmond Cricket Ground which was completed in 1907, and welcomes visitors ; the Sandys United Cricket Club was established on Somerset Island in 1 90 1. Lawntennis is very popular; and there are two golf clubs — the Garrison, with links on the North Shore near Prospect, and the Hamilton, with links at Spanish

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62 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Point. The roads are excellent for cycling (a cycling map can be obtained at the Royal Gazette Stationery Store). For yachtsmen there is the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club, founded by Mr. Samuel Triscot in 1841, with a club-house in Hamilton, and the Hamilton Dinghy Club; while the Bermuda Boat and Canoe Club, with headquarters at Pitt's Bay, also caters for wet bobs ; the waters round the islands are ideal for motor-boats. The bathing, too, is exceptionally good and safe. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The first land which visitors to Bermuda usually sight is the eastern end of St. George's and St. David's Head on the island of the same name. Some nine miles from the shore is the projecting pinnacle of rock known as North Rock, on which a light has now been placed. "It consists," wrote Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales, who visited it in 1880, in The Cruise of H.M.S. Bacchante," of three or four jagged brown sandstone teeth, that stand up a dozen or fifteen feet above the water and rise from a widespread and submerged stone plateau in the midst of the northern reefs. On approaching the islands, steamers enter ' The Narrows," a buoyed ship-channel round the eastern end of St. George's, and proceed along the north coast of the islands inside the dangerous coral reefs and shoals to Grassy Bay, a secure anchorage off Ireland Island. The reef to the right on entering "The Narrows" is Sea Venture Flat, on which Sir George Somers was wrecked in 1609. It was near the north-east corner of St. George's that Sir Thomas Gates built the Deliverance which, with the Patience built by Sir George Somers on Main Island, carried the company of the Sea Venture {see page 59) to Virginia. On the hill side the barracks of part of the Imperial Garrison are seen. After rounding St. Catherine Point, on which Fort Catherine stands, Murray Anchorage is reached. The islands passed in succession are St. George's, at the extremity of which is a Martello tower erected in 1822, the tiny Coney Island — which widely differs from its namesake near New York and has on it a curious tower in which salt raked in Turks Islands used to be stored for transhipment — and Long or

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THE BERMUDAS 63 the Main Island. Flatt's Village is soon clearly discerned with North village just beyond. Behind it is Mount Langton, the residence of the Governor, and a little beyond is Admiralty House on Clarence Hill. Looking south, as the steamer lies at anchor in Grassy Bay, Ireland Island is seen on the starboard or right-hand side, with its dockyard and naval establishment over which floats the White Ensign, which since the institution of the West Atlantic Squadron will be seen more frequently in Bermudian and West Indian waters. Next to it are Boaz and Waftord Islands, with Somerset Island and the Main Island beyond. The highest point which strikes the eye is Gibbs Hill, rising 245 ft. above the sea and surmounted by a steel lighthouse, To a visitor from northern climes the scene is full of novelty and it would be difficult to describe adequately its charm. The islands are covered with a mantle of vivid green grass, while the surrounding sea, on the other hand, is a deep cobalt blue which shows up the brilliant yellow Gulf weed that floats on the surface. Pinnaces and motor launches flit here and there, and yachts spread their sails to receive the almost constant breeze. The water is so clear in these favoured regions that rocks, which are really fathoms below the surface, can be seen so distinctly that they appear to be quite near. From Grassy Bay steamers pass along the narrow Stags and Two Rock channels in a south-easterly direction to the land-locked harbour, on the north side of which stands Hamilton (population 2627), the capital of the Bermudas. Hamilton, which owes its name to Henry Hamilton, Governor when it was incorporated in 1790, succeeded St. George's as the seat of Government in 181 5. It is a picturesque town of white houses laid out on a rectangular plan on gently rising ground. The principal shops or stores and merchants' warehouses are in Front Street, which runs parallel with the wharves, and in Queen Street which leads to the Hamilton Hotel. Turning to the right along Front Street on landing at the wharf one comes to a square, green with many trees, among which is a cedar planted by Prince Alfred, afterwards Duke of Edinburgh, the uncle of our present King, when he visited Bermuda in 1862.

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64 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES A monument in the square perpetuates the memory of William Reid, Governor from 1839 to 1846, who was the first to call attention to the agricultural possibilities of the Bermudas. It is inscribed : Erected A.D. MDCCCLXI By authority of the legislature in grateful remembrance of the public services and private worth of Major-Genl. Sir William Reid, K.C.B., Governor of Bermuda from 1839 to 1846. On the north side of the square stand the Public Buildings erected in 1839, which contain, besides the Council Chamber and usual Government offices, the Public Library (open 10 to 3 except on Sundays or holidays) and a small Museum. Behind the Public Buildings stand the Post Office (open daily — Sundays and holidays excepted — from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. in summer and from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. in winter), and the Sessions House, erected in 181 7, the upper part of which is devoted to the House of Assembly and the lower to the Courts of Justice. The Clock Tower, now lighted by electricity, was erected to commemorate Queen Victoria's first Jubilee in 1887, the work being completed in 1893. Passing from the wharves up Burnaby Street, the first cross-road is Reid Street, so-called after Governor Reid, in which are situated the Masonic Hall and the Post Office (both to the right) Proceeding farther up Burnaby Street, we come to Church Street, in which are the Cathedral (to the right) and the Hamilton Hotel (to the left) The Cathedral, which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity and has a seating capacity of 1200, replaces a building destroyed by fire in 1884. The chancel was consecrated on May n, 191 1, by Bishop Jones. It is a handsome edifice built of native limestone faced with Caen stone for the doors and windows. The tower (144 feet high) is partly built of Nova Scotia free-stone. The total cost was about $60,000. The foundation stone of the palatial Hamilton Hotel was laid with full masonic honours by Captain Charles Elliott, R.N., the then Governor of Bermuda, in August 1852, but the hotel was not opened until 1863. Since that year it has received many additions, and it may now be con-

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THE BERMUDAS 65 sidered one of the best and finest hotels in this part of the world. Opposite the hotel is the Mechanics' Kail, built in 1850 to house the Bermuda Mechanics' Beneficial Association. On the left-hand side of Queen Street are the grounds of Par la Ville, in which there is a famous rubber tree. In the former residence is the Museum of the Bermuda Natural History Society (open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Sundays excepted). The north end of Burnaby Street is called Cedar Avenue, a delightfully shady walk skirting one side of Victoria Park, an ornamental garden containing many beautiful flowering shrubs and trees, besides a somewhat conventional bandstand erected to commemorate Queen Victoria's Jubilee, which was formally opened in 1890. A continuation of the road leads to St. John's, the Parish Church of Pembroke Parish. In it lie the remains of Bishop Field and Sir Robert Laffan, Governor from 1877 to 1882, whose name survives in Laffan 's Plain," Aldershot. Mount Langton, the Governor's residence (about 1 mile from the wharf), is reached by way of Burnaby Street and Cedar Avenue. The present building, which was designed by Messrs. Hay and Henderson, of Edinburgh, was begun in 1886 and completed in 1892. The property received its name from an estate in Berwickshire owned by Sir James Cockburn, Governor of Bermuda from 1814 to 1819. Here the representative of the sovereign dispenses hospitality, and many enjoyable At Homes are held in the charming grounds which were purchased by the Government in 181 4. Clarence Hill (4 miles from the wharf), the residence of the senior officer on the West Atlantic station, is no less favourably situated. It stands about 1 J miles to the west of Mount Langton. The property was purchased by the colony in 18 16 for ^2000 and presented to the Crown. The grounds, though divided by the Spanish P-uint road, are connected by a tunnel cut in the limestone rock. A slope leads to Clarence Cove or Abbot's Bay where there is a delightful bathing-place. The small island in Hamilton Harbour known as White's Island (5 minutes' row by boat) is much frequented on

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66 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES account of the excellent bathing to be had there. The island is private property and there is a small fee for bathers. On Agar's Island, near Hamilton, is the exceedinglyinteresting Aquarium of the Bermuda Natural History Society, located in an old powder magazine, which well deserves a visit. The island can be reached by steamer (is. there and back ; admission, is.). Ireland Island can be reached either by road or by water (6 J miles b}r steamer ; 14 miles by road ; 2 hours by carriage). Steamers of the Bermuda Transportation Company perform the journey under contract with the local Government for the conveyance of the mails, and call also at Boaz Island and Mangrove Bay, Somerset Island. Leaving the wharf the steamers pass among an archipelago of islets through Two Rock Passage into the Great Sound. Oxford Point is passed on the right, with a quaint monument of tools, bayonets, and iron hoops erected by the men of the 56th Regiment, now the 2nd Battalion of the Essex Regiment, who were isolated there during an outbreak of yellow fever. On approaching Ireland Island, the Commissioner's House on East Point is a conspicuous object. In a sheltered position off the island lies a huge Floating Dock with a length over all of 545 ft., breadth 126 ft. 2 in., and an extreme lifting power of 17,500 tons. This mammoth dock was built at Wallsend-on-Tyne and was towed to Bermuda by powerful tugs in the early summer of 1902, the voyage taking over fourteen weeks. The enclosed basin in which vessels can lie in perfect security is called The Camber. Ireland Island was purchased by the Imperial Government as a site for a naval station in 1809, and preliminary operations were commenced in the following year by slave labour. Convict labour was substituted for that of slaves in 1824, and the convicts were stationed on Boaz Island where the military barracks now are. The convicts were withdrawn in 1863 and the graves of those of them who died during their sojourn in the islands alone remain to remind one of them. Permission can be obtained to visit the dockyard, which can be inspected on week days between

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THE BERMUDAS 67 the hours of 10 a.m. and noon. Visitors should remember that no photographs may be taken of the dockyard or of any of the fortifications in the islands. When the North American and West Indies fleet was replaced by a special Cruiser Squadron in pursuance of the policy of the Bluewater school, the dockyard became less busy than it used to be ; but it is now more resorted to again. There is much of interest to be seen. In the twin towers of the main building are two clocks — one to tell the time of day and the other that of high tide. A slab bears the inscription : Bermuda Yard Latitude xxxii. xix'. i". n. Longitude lxiv li\ xxxvi". w. By Captain Owen, R.N. Visitors should on no account omit to ask their cicerone to point out the old ship's bell of the Shannon, an interesting souvenir of the memorable engagement between that vessel and the American frigate Chesapeake off Boston on June 1, 1 81 3, which hangs in a niche in the wall near by. After a desperate encounter lasting eleven minutes, during which Captain Philip Vere Broke of the Shannon was disabled, and Captain Lawrence of the Chesapeake was fatally wounded, the American vessel was compelled to strike her colours, which now hang in the Royal United Service Museum in Whitehall, London. The bell, which bears the date 1740, was cracked by a bullet. Below the niche is a tablet inscribed : Bell said to have belonged to H.M.S. Shannon and damaged during her engagement with the U.S. Frigate Chesapeake ist June 1813. The road for carriages or cyclists to Ireland Island is clearly shown on the map which faces page 56. Pedestrians can take a short cut by crossing the ferry from Hamilton to Paget. The several islands traversed are connected by bridges, and many exquisite views can be obtained en route of the islands in the Great Sound, on which many Boer

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68 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES prisoners were confined during, and immediately after, the last South African War. Visitors wishing to get a good idea of the lie of the land should make a detour at Gibbs Hill and ascend it (245 ft.) and the lighthouse (105 ft. 9 in. to the gallery) which commands a truly magnificent view. The lighthouse, which is of steel, was erected at a cost of ^5500 between 1844 and 1845, and the present revolving light was installed in 1904. It has an illuminating power of 99,930 candles and can be seen for a distance of 27 miles. A steam ferry crosses Hamilton Harbour to Salt Kettle. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the Bermudians were actively engaged in the salt industry in Turks Islands (see page 204), Salt Kettle was one of the entrepots of the trade. Here the salt was stored prior to transhipment to America. St. George's (12 miles; by the North Shore Road by carriage if hours) can be reached from Hamilton by the North Shore, Middle, or South Shore Roads, which converge at Flatt's Village. Visitors are recommended to go by the first-named road, which is by far the most pleasant, and to return by the South Shore. The North Shore Road, which runs along the coast at the foot of the main ridge extending from Spanish Point opposite Ireland Island eastwards, is reached by way of Cedar Avenue, St. John's Church, and Mount Langton. The old church dates from 1 62 1 ; but it was rebuilt in 1721, and again in 182 1. Where the road turns to the right along the coast, is a curious rock known as the Ducking Stool. Tradition has it that it was here that the local scolds were punished in the approved style in the olden days. Two miles farther are The wells where H.M. ships used to water before the present tanks were erected. Flatt's Village (4J miles ; £ hour from Hamilton), which stands at the very narrow mouth of a large inlet of the sea called Harrington Sound, is the next point of interest. The small island just off the coast, with which it is connected by a small causeway, is Gallow's Island. A post at its highest point identifies the spot where a negro slave was hanged in a gibbet in 1754 for murdering his master.

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THE BERMUDAS 69 Flatt's is now a place of little consequence, but it was once a shipping port of some size. The Middle Road to the Flatt's begins at the east end of Hamilton and joins the North Shore Road at Zuill's Park, a distance of \ mile from the village passing Prospect Hill, the military camp. This road can be taken on the excursion to Spanish Rock (3 miles) and Knapton Hill (4 miles). Harrington Sound is a large inlet of the sea which, but for a narrow mouth bridged at Flatt's, would be an inland lake. It is always a source of great attraction to visitors, and especially to those of them who are interested in geology, for in its neighbourhood there are many remarkable limestone caves. The island to the north-east of Flatt's is Trunk Island. After crossing the Flatt's Bridge, the visitor can proceed by either the shorter North Road or the longer but more interesting South Road, which together encircle the Sound, meeting in the neighbourhood of the Causeway, to which reference is made below. The most direct route to St. George's is by the North Road, passing Shelly Bay, which affords a good view of Ireland Island and Somerset Island, and Bailey's Bay, in the neighbourhood of which are the justly famed Joyce's Caves with their many stalactites and stalagmites. The long cave with two entrances recalled to the minds of the young princes in 1880 that of which Stephano in The Tempest (Act ii, scene 2) said My cellar is in a rock by th' sea-side, where my wine is hid." To approach the second cave ladders are needed, and here the stalactites are even more remarkable, assuming all kinds of fantastic shapes. A stalagmitic bust of Shakespeare is shown among other curiosities. The South Road round the Sound passes many points of interest, the most notable of which perhaps is the Devil's Hole, now the property of the Trott family. This pool, which is also known as the Grouper's Grotto and Neptune's Grotto, is stocked with fish whose every movement can be plainly seen in the remarkably clear water, which rises and falls with the tide, being connected with the sea and not with the Sound. At the eastern corner of the Sound is the

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7o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES old property known as Paynter's Vale, and above it rises Paynter's Hill, which is very well worth climbing for the superb views which it affords of the Sound on one side and Castle Harbour on the other. Near by is Shark's Hole, another interesting cave over which the road passes, and proceeding farther one comes to the famous Walsingham Caves, which well repay a visit. It was at Walsingham that Ireland's poet, Tom Moore, resided for a few months when he was Registrar of the Vice-Admiralty Court. He did not remain long in the islands, but delegated his duties to another man. Tom Moore's calabash tree is also pointed out to visitors. Near by are the scarcely less famous Fern Caves, the Blue Hole, and Castle Grotto, all of which should be inspected. The South Road eventually joins the North in the neighbourhood of the Causeway. Until 1871 communication with the island of St. George's could only be effected by ferry from Coney Island to the mouth Of Castle Harbour, and in bad weather the capital was often cut off from the other islands for days at a time. In that year, however, St. George's was connected with the Main Island by means of a causeway, which was begun in 1867 under the direction of Lieutenant Hime, R.E., and opened amid the rejoicings of the inhabitants in 1871. The length from a spot called Blue Hole at which it starts is 1 mile and 1430 yards, and the cost of its construction was ^32,000, towards which the Imperial Government contributed £8500. For the first part of the distance the Causeway crosses the open harbour like the bridges from Mestre to Venice. It is then carried over Long Bird Island, which is connected with Stocks Point on St. George's Island by a swing-bridge. This when open affords access to St. George's Harbour from the north. From Stocks Point the road to the old capital leads round Mullet Bay and under the guns of the old Fort George, affording superb views of St. David's Island and Smith's Island, besides numerous others. St. George's, which, like the island on which it stands, owes its name to Sir George Somers, is an exceedingly picturesque town of 1500 inhabitants. It was founded in 1 61 2, but not incorporated until 1797. Until 1815 when the seat of Government was transferred to Hamilton it was

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THE BERMUDAS 71 the capital of the Bermudas. The town stands on the shores of the harbour of the same name, which is well protected from the south by St. David's Island, and is approached from the sea by a narrow channel known as the Town Cut, commanded by the guns of Fort Cunningham on Paget's Island. St. George's is built on sloping ground, on the highest part of which is Fort George ; but it is shut in on the north by rising 'ground on which military barracks are situated. The principal landing-place is at the Market Square, off which stands the small Ordnance Island. The Town Hall, which contains the offices of the Halifax and Bermudas and the Direct West India Cable Companies and Hotel, faces the square. The Hotel St. George, opened in 1907, stands on the Rose Hill property, once the residence of Governor Tucker (1 803-1 805), about 100 ft. above the town. It commands a noble view of Castle Harbour, Castle Island, and St. David's. In front of the hotel are two trees said to have been planted as sprigs from a bride's bouquet many years ago. Behind the old Government House is the entrance to the Public Gardens, which deserve a visit. In the wall on the left-hand side of the entrance is a tablet to the memory of Sir George Somers. It was erected at the instance of Governor Sir John H. Lefroy, and is inscribed : Near this spot was interred in the year 1610, the heart of the heroic Admiral Sir George Somers, Kt., who nobly sacrificed his life to carry succour to the infant and suffering plantation now the State of Virginia. To preserve his fame for future ages, near the scene of his memorable shipwreck, 1609, the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of this Colony for the time being, caused this tablet to be erected 1876.

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72 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES In 1620 Governor Nathaniel Butler caused the following inscription to be placed over the spot : In the year 1611 Noble Sir George Summers went hence to heaven. Whose well-tried worth that held him still imploid Gave him the knowledge of the world so wide ; Hence 'twas by Heaven's decree that to this place He brought new guests and name to mutual grace ; At last his soul and body being to part He here bequeathed his entrails and his heart." Near the Somers' tablet is the inscription : CHARLOTTE HOPE POSUIT JOHANNES HOPE PRAEFECTUS 25TH DECEM. ANNO. I726. The memory of the founder of the colony is further perpetuated by a monument in the Public Gardens which was unveiled on February 14, 191 1, by the then Governor Sir F. W. Kitchener, the funds being provided by the Colonial Legislature. It is inscribed : 1 609-1 909 In Commemoration of the Settlement of these Islands On the 22d of July, 1609 and In honour of Admiral Sir George Somers, Kt. At whose instance largely the Settlement was effected this Memorial has been erected out of a Grant made by the Legislature of the Colony. The Post Office and Customs are in a building in Water Street to the east of the Market Squrre. The old church of St. Peter's in York Street deserves a visit. It was built in 17 13 on the site of one erected as far back as the year 161 2 by Governor Moore. The tower Sir George Summers died in 1610. 161 1 is no doubt poetic license.

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THE. BERMUDAS 73 was added in 18 14. The Communion plate, which is dated 1684, was the gift of King William III. Many interesting walks and expeditions can be made from St. George's, notably to the Barracks, which command a very fine view, to St. David's Island, &c. Returning to Hamilton, the South Road can be joined either at Tucker's Town or at the Devil's Hole. The beach and natural arch at Tucker's Town merit inspection. The first place of interest reached is Periston's Pond (2 miles), a brackish lake apparently separated from, but really communicating with, the sea by underground channels. Near by is the historic Spanish Rock inscribed : F + 1543 which is shown to prove that Ferdinando Camelo, to whom reference is made above, actually visited Bermuda. The military road between Tucker's Town and Spanish Rocks is claimed to be — and we quote the Bermuda Almanack — an unrivalled seaside drive."

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CHAPTER V THE BAHAMAS Expulsis piratis commercia restituta The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. The Bahamas or Bahama Islands consist of a chain of coral islands with a total area of 44031 square miles. They lie between latitude 21 42' and 2 7 34' N. and longitude 72 40' and 79 5' W., and extend from off the coast of Florida to the north of Haiti. According to the report of Governor Rawson W. Rawson, they include twenty-nine inhabited islands and over 3000 islets and rocks. The principal islands are : New Providence (in which is the capital, Nassau), Abaco, Harbour Island, Eleuthera, Inagua, Long Cay, the Biminis, Cat Island, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, Exuma, Long Island, Grand Bahama, San Salvador, and Watling's Island, all of which are Ports of Entry ; and Crooked Island, Acklin Island, Mayaguana, the Berry Islands, and Andros. The large islands are for the most part situated on the eastern edge of the plateau on which the archipelago rests, and rise precipitously from great depths of ocean averaging between 2000 and 2700 fathoms within a mile from the shore. On the west there is a vast submerged bank stretching from the Gulf Stream to within a few miles of the coast of Cuba over which the depth of water rarely exceeds four fathoms. On the south, between the islands of Long Island and Long Cay, there is a deep-water channel only forty miles wide, known as the Crooked Island Passage, which in the near future should be widely known among mariners, since on the opening of the Panama Canal the majority of vessels going to and from 74

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THE BAHAMAS 75 Canadian and North American ports to the Canal will pass through it. New Providence lies on the south of the Providence Channel and is situated on the very edge of soundings, the depth of water within half a mile of Nassau Harbour being 1 800 feet. Off its western and southern shores there lies an extraordinary body of deep water, known as the Tongue of the Ocean," which separates New Providence from Andros. The larger islands all have the same general configuration. They are protected by long and dangerous reefs, shifting sand bores and coral heads, access to the land being obtained by tortuous passages and narrow openings navigable only by vessels of shallow draft. The land arises abruptly from the sea to a long narrow ridge, seldom more than 150 ft. high, behind which is a marshy swamp, studded here and there with shallow pools and lagoons. Beyond these again rises another low ridge. The land is nowhere of great elevation, the highest point (in San Salvador) being only 240 ft. high ; while Grand Bahama is less than 40 ft. above highwater mark. There are no minerals of any kind in the colony, and the only deposits of any commercial value are formed in the numerous caves in the shape of bat manure, locally known as Cave Earth. The islands, however, produce fairly good building stone (coral detritus), of which the more ambitious houses and edifices are built. The only river in the entire group is in Andros Island. INDUSTRIES. The chief industry is the collection of sponges, the value of the export of which is about one-half that of the entire exports from the colony. At the end of 191 1 there were about 180 schooners of from 7 to 37 tons burthen with an aggregate tonnage of 2925, and 402 sloops of from 3 to 15 tons burthen with an aggregate tonnage of 2746, engaged in the sponge fisheries of the Bahamas. Attached to these vessels were 1490 open boats, while the number of men and boys employed was 31 14. In addition there were about 463 open boats unattached to any vessel, engaged in the gathering of sponges along the shores of some of the islands. There were about 250 men and women employed, principally in Nassau, in clipping, sorting, packing, and otherwise preparing the sponge for export.

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76 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The cultivation of sisal hemp is increasing year by year, and, in spite of the fluctuations of price, is the great mainstay and support of the peasant proprietors of the colony. In 191 2, 8,067,485 lbs. of fibre, valued at £66,427, were exported, against 2,336,497 lbs. in 1902. As a home industry for women and children, the cultivation of sisal is capable of great expansion ; but as an enterprise for the employment of capital on a large scale it has not proved satisfactory, owing to the shortage of labour. This shortage is due to the high wages paid for agricultural labour in Florida. An American company has secured concessions for cutting pine lumber in Abaco, Andros, and Grand Bahama. It employs over 500 labourers. Bahamas pitch pine is the hardest and the heaviest known in the world. For flooring it is unequalled, but carpenters object to it as it is impossible to drive a nail into it without first boring a hole. An endeavour to establish Sea Island cotton industry is meeting with very limited success. The pineapple industry has languished, owing to the keen competition of Cuba and Hawaii, whose fruit is protected by the United States tariff. There is one factory as Nassau operated by an American company, and one at Governor's Harbour, Eleuthera. On Exuma sheep flourish, and salt is produced by the evaporation of the water from brine on Ragged Island and elsewhere. Coco-nuts, too, thrive all through the islands, despite the hurricanes which occasionally sweep over them. The values of the principal articles of export in 191 2 were as follows : Sponges ^172,051 Lumber £21,293 Pine -apples 5, 17 5 Turtle shells 3,151 Sisal . 66,427 Conch Shells 450 The direction of trade in the same year was as follows : Imports Exports United States . ^247,551 . ^135,669 Canada . . 12,714 .. i,337 United Kingdom, . 84,485 . 55,320 FINANCIAL POSITION. Opposite is a comparative table giving the revenue and expenditure and the imports and exports of the colony for the last ten years.

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ISMLI mWW F2EIBllfCE SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES o X & fr i 2 3 4 Ai^ ?fe? 31cu^^J r* low Swampy J :.,.* ** pine, J ( L. Killarney \ or Petty L. Numerous sm$ manqr. islands 6to8ffaLoveI.W:

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,>JV r! 4^ JF'^^^pifij^^^-* ^ J r rat&m / =.' ''..ii'4#
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THE BAHAMAS 77 Revenue Expenditure Imports Exports £ i i I 1903-4 7*, 337 74, 38 249,590 210,493 1904-5 71,112 69,825 297,241 194,936 1905-6 77, 2 94 70,256 308,544 222,905 1906-7 79,058 71,087 329,H5 221,925 1907-8 89,694 79,790 372,937 22^ 1908-9 81,862 99,655 369,490 183,558 1909-10 77,578 92,858 343,489 165,1 16 1910-11 84,386 85,315 239,014 188,2 : 1911-12 85,592 82,676 3H,095 209,251 1912-13 97,574 88,077 358,in 276,115 For calendar years 1 903-1 91 3. CLIMATE. The climate of the Bahamas is equable and extremely healthy. At Nassau the mean temperature during the first three months of the year is 71 Fahr., and during the hottest months only 82.4' Fahr., the mean temperature throughout the year being 77 Fahr. The lowest temperature in the last twenty years was 53 Fahr., and the highest 98 Fahr. During the winter months little rain falls, and the prevalent winds in winter blow from the north, north-east, and north-west for about thirty-six days out of ninety, and from the east about twenty days, while for the whole year there are only on an average eighteen days of calm. The colony is singularly free from malaria and no case of yellow fever has occurred in it for over hirty years. The birth-rate averages fortytwo per thousand, and the death-rate twenty-four. This comparatively high rate is attributed to the fact that three-fourths of the population inhabit islands where there are no doctors and where a lamentable ignorance of the ordinary laws of sanitation prevails. HISTORY. The Bahamas were discovered by Columbus, who landed in 1492 on San Salvador (now identified with Watling's Island), his first landfall in the New World. The original inhabitants, whom the discoverer called the Lucayans, were indolent, and were soon exterminated by the Spaniards, who sent most of them to work in the mines

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78 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of Hispaniola (Haiti) The islands were first occupied by Bermudians. Settlers went to Eleuthera in considerable numbers from the Bermudas in 1 647-1 660 and some years later also to New Providence. In 1670 the island were granted by King Charles II to the Duke of Albemarle and others as Lords Proprietors, who, however, on October 27, 171 7, surrendered the civil and military government to the Crown. Soon after the foundation of the colony it became one of the chief haunts of the Buccaneers, who degenerated into pirates and made the islands the base of their marauding expeditions and the scene of their debaucheries. The Spaniards resented this and frequently raided and destroyed the English settlements ; but it was not until 1 71 8, when Captain Woodes Rogers, R.N., the rescuer of Alexander Selkirk from Juan Fernandez, was appointed Governor that piracy was suppressed. He caused no fewer than eight of the chief offenders to be hanged on one day. In 1782 a force of Spaniards captured Nassau and held it for some months ; but in 1783 it was retaken by Colonel Deveaux of South Carolina in the manner described on page 84. In 1784 the population of the colony was more than doubled by the arrival of Loyalists from Georgia and Carolina with their slaves. These staunch men and true were given grants of land, and made admirable colonists. The subsequent history of the colony has been peaceful. During the American Civil War Nassau became the headquarters of blockade runners, and the colony enjoyed a period of unparalleled prosperity, the total volume of trade actually rising from ^491,979 in i860 to ^10,019,510 in 1864. No fewer than 393 vessels entered, and 584 cleared for blockaded ports. Of these 64 are known to have been captured or sunk. CONSTITUTION. Like Barbados and the Bermudas, the Bahamas possess representative institutions without responsible government. By an Order in Council dated July 25, 1728, a General Assembly with legislative powers was constituted. This Assembly met for the first time on September 29, 1729. There is an Executive Council, consisting of the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the

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THE BAHAMAS 79 Attorney-General and Receiver-General as ex-ojficio members, and five unofficial members. Every member, other than an ex-officio member, must vacate his seat after five years, but may be reappointed. The Legislative Council consists generally of nine members nominated by the Governor and confirmed by the Crown. The House of Assembly consists of twenty-nine members, elected for seven years on a most liberal franchise which amounts practically to manhood suffrage, there being in 191 1 no fewer than 13,768 on the electoral roll. Governors of the Bahamas since 1887 Sir Ambrose Shea, K.C.M.G. 1887 Sir W. F. Haynes Smith, K.C.M.G. 1895 Sir G. T. Carter, K.C.M.G. 1898 Sir William GreyWilson, K.C.M.G. 1904 George B. Haddon Smith, Esq., C.M.G. 191 2 HOTELS. Nassau. The Hotel Colonial (owned by the Florida East Coast Hotel Company), overlooking the harbour, has accommodation for 600 guests. Board and lodging, £1 os. lod. ($5) per day and upwards. Hotel Royal Victoria (owned by the same company) can accommodate about 200 guests. Hotel Clifton, 10s. 5^. ($2.50) per day. There are also numerous lodgings and boarding-house where the rates vary from £2 is. 8d. ($10) to £4 3s. Ad, ($20) per week. Several private families take in paying guests, and furnished houses can be leased at very reasonable rates. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. The Bahamas are served by the steamship companies numbered 22 and 24 in the list given on pages 14 to 27. Communication between Nassau and several of the out islands is maintained by eleven schooners, subsidised by the Government to carry mails, passengers, and freight. Sailing and motor boats can be hired by the day or season with competent men to manage them, and to arrange fishing parties, &c. Hackney cabs are plentiful in Nassau, and people wishing to make a complete tour of the island of New Providence can hire motor-cars from an ever-increasing number of proprietors.

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80 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Cable communication is effected with Jupiter in Florida, and a wireless apparatus with a range of 400 miles has been established near Fort Charlotte at Nassau by the AngloFrench Wireless Company. The island has a very efficient telegraph service conducted by the Government. SPORTS. The Nassau Lawn-tennis Club has two grass courts, and the Hotel Colonial two grass and one dirt court. Numerous tennis tournaments are held in winter. The Florida East Coast Hotel Company has picturesque nine-hole golf links with a small club-house in the grounds round Fort Charlotte, and a professional is employed. (Subscription, $10 for the season, and less for shorter periods.) Several competitions are held during the winter, and there is also an annual championship match. Court golf," played over a miniature course with putters and lofters only, was originated in Nassau by Dr. Casselberry. There are three cricket clubs in New Providence, and Rugby football is played during the winter months. Duck-shooting can be indulged in on Lakes Cunningham and Killarney from November to April ; and wild pigeon afford good sport for the gun in August and September, especially on Green Cay, about sixty miles south of Nassau. The sea fishing to be had is excellent. Tarpon have been found in considerable numbers off Andros (thirty miles from Nassau). Yachting is much indulged in, and the wellprotected harbour of Nassau offers every advantage for sailing. The bathing from the bathing beach on Hog Island is unsurpassable. CLUBS. The members of the Nassau Club and the Porcupine Club extend hospitality to visitors suitably introduced. The Porcupine Club on Hog Island, overhanging the harbour, besides being a social club, makes excellent provision for bathing. All the Charter members" are American. The subscription is $15 (£3 2s. 6d.) for two weeks, or $25 (£$ 4s. 2d.) for the season. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Nassau (population 12,554), the capital of New Providence, is picturesquely situated on a gently rising coral strand at the north-east end of the island facing north, and on the shore of a harbour protected by the flat and narrow Hog Island. A recent visitor

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THE BAHAMAS 8i described the approach to the town from the sea in the following terms : The ocean of deep sapphire suddenly changes to a lagoon of emerald green surrounded by shores of snow-white coral sand. Beyond, the white limestone houses of the town, intermingled with groves of graceful palms, and half concealed by gorgeous Poincianas, rise on a gentle slope against a sky of purest blue ; and again, as one strolls along the clean white streets, a surprise is in store at every turn ; now it is the graceful drooping bells of the Datura, a little later the delicate perfume from a hedge of Oleanders, in the distance the brilliant crown of a Poinciana ; and in almost every garden the Bougainvillea can be seen in all its glory. The S.S. Miami from Florida is able to enter the harbour and to lie alongside the wharf at Rawson Square ; but larger vessels have to anchor off the lighthouse on Hog Island, their passengers being landed in a tug. On entering the harbour, the first conspicuous object is the huge Colonial Hotel on the sea front. It occupies part of the site of old Fort Nassau completed in 1697, and stands in Bay Street, the main thoroughfare of Nassau, running parallel with the sea. The large Blackbeard's Well under the hotel was in the south-west bastion of the Fort. Quite near where this luxurious hotel now stands eight pirates were hanged on December 12, 171 8. At 10 o'clock on that day they were led to the top of the rampart fronting the sea. Thence they were conducted down the ladder to the foot of the fort wall to the gallows, whereon a black flag was hoisted. They were allowed three-quarters of an hour under the gallows, which they spent in singing psalms. — The History of the Pirates. The Customs formalities on landing at Rawson Square — so called after Sir Rawson W. Rawson, Governor from 1 864 to 1869 — are not by any means alarming, and American visitors in particular are generally agreeably surprised at the cursory nature of the examination of their personal effects which is made. Rawson Square is separated by Bay Street from the Public Buildings, which form three sides of a quadrangle, in the centre of which is a statue of Queen Victoria, unveiled by Sir William GreyWilson, the then Governor, on May 24, 1905. The centre building

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82 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES contains the Supreme Court, the General Post Office and the Legislative Council Chamber. In the latter are oil paintings of George III, Queen Victoria, and Edward VII, and busts of Shakespeare and H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh. That of the poet was ordered to commemorate the tercentenary of his birth, and was unveiled in 1 867 by Lady Rawson, who also unveiled the bust of our King's uncle in 1868. The eastern wing contains various Government offices, while in the western wing is the House of Assembly. Behind the General Post Office stands a huge silkcotton tree (Bombax ceiba) which almost rivals in size the famous Tom Cringle's tree in Jamaica. This remarkable tree, whose branches spread out in some directions as far as 116 ft., was introduced originally from South Carolina, and is the ancestor of all the other silk-cotton trees in the island. The huge buttress-like extensions of the stem are a remarkable provision by Nature to enable this immense tree to withstand hurricanes. To the south of the General Post Office stands an octagonal building which was once a prison and is now the Public Library. It has a very well equipped reading-room and museum, to both of which visitors are welcome. Bay Street is the chief thoroughfare of Nassau. It runs parallel with the sea front along the entire length of the town. On the north and sea side are the wharves and business premises of the merchants, the Royal Bank of Canada, and the Bank of Nassau ; while on the south side are wellappointed stores or shops. The street is diverted at the Hotel Colonial, and, passing round the back of that caravanserai, takes one to within a short distance of the historic Fort Charlotte, which stands on the rising ground about a quarter of a mile from the road, and commands the western entrance to the harbour. This old fort, called after Queen Charlotte, the consort of George III, is now surrounded by the golf links belonging to the hotel. It was built in 1788 by John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, the last British Governor of New York and Virginia and Governor of the Bahamas from 1786 to 1796. It contains many curious underground stairways, corridors and dungeons, which are now the home of innumerable bats : one species

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THE BAHAMAS 83 of these is, as far as is known, only found in New Providence. Near-by tower the masts of the ship-to-shore wireless station. The Sponge market or Exchange should certainly be visited. The sponges, after being roughly cleaned and dried, are laid out in lots. The members of the Exchange then inspect them and make their bids on slips of paper. The successful bidder then removes his sponges in sponge drays — large and lightly built crates carried on twowheeled carts — to the sponge yards. Victoria Avenue is the name of a picturesque avenue of royal palms planted in 1904 by the members of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire in memory of her late Majesty Queen Victoria. Government House, at the top of the hill behind the Colonial Hotel, called Mount Fitzwilliam, after Richard Fitzwilliam, Governor 1 733-1 738, is reached by George Street, which runs at right angles to Bay Street at the east end of the Hotel Colonial. En route to it, the Cathedral on the left-hand side of George Street may be visited. It occupies the site of an older church, and was opened for divine service on April 19, 1840, the foundation-stone having been laid by Sir Francis Cockburn, the then Governor of the Bahamas, in 1837. It is a plain building of stone. The See of Nassau was formed in 1861. Governor John Tinker (1 738-1 759), Lieut. -Governor James E. Powell (1 784-1 786) and Sir Henry Marr, of the 47th Regiment, were buried in the Cathedral. Government House was erected by Governor Halkett in 1801. The statue of Columbus standing in the gardens, which cover about eighteen acres, was modelled with the assistance of Washington Irving, and was presented to the colony by General Sir James Carmichael Smith. Beyond Fort Charlotte the continuation of Bay Street takes one to Old Fort ( 1 1 f miles from Nassau) and then Clifton, which boasts the only cliffs in the island. Still farther South-west Bay (15 miles from Nassau) is reached. Here the mail steamers land passengers when northwesterly gales render the harbour bar impassable. From this bay a drive of nineteen miles can be taken through the pine forests across the island to Nassau.

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84 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES A pleasant drive can be taken to Fort Montagu (2|miles from Nassau), built in 1742, which commands the eastern end of the harbour and overlooks the narrows between Hog and Athol Islands. It was on a spot a little to the east of this fort, which owes its name to the Duke of Montagu, that Colonel Deveaux, of the Royal Foresters of South Carolina, a dashing young officer barely twenty-five years of age, landed on April 14, 1783, when he made his memorable descent on New Providence and bluffed the Spaniards into submission. The expedition was conducted entirely at his own expense, the remains of his fortune shattered by the war then just concluded being devoted to it. With a mere handful of volunteers embarked in two brigantines he sailed for Harbour Island and Eleuthera, where he collected some recruits ; but his force never exceeded 220 men, who had only about 150 muskets among them. The Spaniards in Fort Montagu were caught napping. Only one of their sentries was awake, and he was captured with a lighted match in his hand just as he was about to blow up the fort. Deveaux now took up a position on the ridge overlooking the works which commanded the town, and in order to make the Spaniards believe that he had a large force at his disposal, caused his men to be rowed backwards and forwards between the ships and the shore. On their way to the shore they stood up ; but as they were rowed back to the brigantines they hid below the gunwales. He also placed dummy soldiers on the heights, and, to terrorise the Spaniards, dressed up some of his men as Indians. The ruse answered admirably and the Spanish Governor, Antonio y Sanz, capitulated after only one round of shot had been fired from Deveaux' batteries. It is easy to imagine what his disgust must have been when he discovered how completely he had been hoodwinked. Fort Fincastle, which stands on the ridge called Bennet's Hill to the east of Government House and overlooking the town, should be visited. It can be approached by the Queen's Staircase, a remarkable flight of steps, sixty-seven in number, cut out of the solid coral rock. This quaint old fort, which takes its name from the second title of Lord Dunmore (see page 82), by whom

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THE BAHAMAS 85 it was built about 1793, is chiefly noteworthy on account of its peculiar shape, which bears a striking resemblance to that of an old-fashioned paddle-wheel steamer. It tapers fore and aft, if one may use that expression, while on either side are buttressed fortifications which look strangely like sponsons. Like Fort Charlotte, Fort Fincastle is now used as a signal station, and the beflagged signal mast heightens the illusion. The view of the surrounding country from the battlements is very striking. The Sea Gardens at the eastern end of Nassau Harbour are a never-failing source of attraction to visitors. A glassbottomed boat is chartered from the Colonial Hotel or Rawson Square, and through this can be seen in all their startling reality the wonders of life beneath the sea. The visitor gazes in amazement at a submarine garden decked with growing corals, some assuming the shapes of waving yellow feathers, and others those of purple fans, among which swim fishes of every size, shape, and hue, as one writer has aptly said, like butterflies in a garden of brilliant flowers.' By those fond of bathing many enjoyable days can be spent on the north shore of Hog Island. Here there is an exquisite beach of firm white coral sand. This during the season is crowded with bathers who revel in the sea water, which rarely falls below 70 Fahr. in temperature. A visit to the Beach finds a place in the daily programme of most visitors, who for the modest fee of is. (25 cents) can secure a passage to and from Hog Island, the use of a dressing-room, a luxurious bath and freshly picked oranges and grape-fruit ad libitum. The fruit is, in characteristic West Indian style, peeled and impaled on sticks, an arrangement which adds not a little to the comfort of the consumer. By those who are fond of yachting or boating many pleasant and interesting excursions can be made to other islands — popularly known as Out Islands — of the Bahamas group. A trip through the Exuma Cays, for example, where one can sail for some sixty miles between densely wooded islets and cays in a depth of water seldom exceeding ten fathoms, is an ideal way of spending a few days.

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CHAPTER VI BARBADOS Et penitus toto regnantes orbe Britannos. The Colony's motto, adapted from Virgil, Eclogue i, 1. 67 GENERAL ASPECT. Barbados, which is situated in latitude 13 4/ N. and longitude 59 37' W., is the most easterly of the West Indian islands. It is about 21 miles long by 14 broad, and its total area is 166 square miles, or rather larger than that of the Isle of Wight. Its population is 171,893, or over 1033 to the square mile. With the exception of the Scotland District in the north-east, the island is of coral formation, and it is almost encircled by coral reefs, which in some parts, as, for example, off St. Philip, extend nearly three miles to seaward, and prove dangerous to navigation. The island is very flat, but it rises in terraces to a ridge in the parish of St. Andrew, culminating in Mount Hillaby, the highest point, 1105 ft. high. The Scotland District, which is enclosed in a semicircular sweep of the ridge in the north-east, is composed of sandstone, clays, and radiolarian and foraminiferal marls. The soil of the rest of the island, though remarkably fertile, has very little depth, and has undoubtedly been in part formed by successive eruptions of the Soufriere in St. Vincent, whose ashes, carried by an upper current of air for nearly 100 miles, fell as recently as 1902 over the island. The first recorded fall occurred during the eruption of May 181 2. It caused the greatest consternation, and is still talked of as the fall of May Dust." Barbados has no natural harbour, though the open roadstead of Carlisle Bay on the west is well sheltered, and there is a small inner harbour 86

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BARBADOS 87 or careenage protected by the Mole head, a structure of masonry. The island has no streams to speak of, owing to the porous nature of the soil, which permits the water to percolate the coral rock till it forms numerous subterranean channels and wells. These streams eventually find their way into the sea below the low-water mark, and at Freshwater Bay on the leeward coast, when one is bathing, the sand is forced up under the feet by the fresh water. The island is divided into eleven parishes : St. Michael (in which Bridgetown, the capital, is situated), Christ Church, St. Philip, St. John, St. Joseph, St. Andrew, St. Lucy, St. Peter, and St. James, with St. Thomas and St. George in the centre. INDUSTRIES. The principal industry of Barbados is sugar, which began to be manufactured successfully in the island about the middle of the seventeenth century. Barbados was the first place in the British dominions in which the sugar-cane was planted. Much of the cane juice is now manufactured into what is known as Fancy Syrup, which is marketed in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The area under sugar-cane cultivation is about 74,000 acres, and taking 315 gallons of syrup as equivalent to a ton of sugar, about 50,000 tons of sugar are secured from half that acreage every year. The Sea Island cotton industry was revived in 1902 with success, and the acreage under this form of cultivation amounts to nearly 2000 acres, from which about 900,000 lbs. of lint are raised. The Chinese or Dwarf Banana (Musa Cavendishii) is also cultivated, and about 40,000 bunches are now shipped from 100 acres of land. Manjak or glance pitch was for some years exported from several mines near the College estate, to the extent of about 500 tons per annum ; but the best mines have now been worked out and closed. Petroleum has been proved to exist in Barbados, and the West Indian Petroleum Company incurred considerable expense in boring for oil. A survey of the island was made by Mr. Cunningham Craig in 191 2, and the industry may soon be established on a commercial footing, provided that the planters can be induced to pull together. The principal exports in the year 191 2 are given on the next page.

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88 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Sugar . 28,732 hogsheads, value ^312,693 Fancy Molasses 63,533 puncheons, ,, 301,876 Choice Molasses 21,510 ,, ,, 81,739 Cotton . 415,887 lbs. ,, 26,191 The direction of trade in the same year was : United Kingdom British Colonies Foreign Countries Coal for Bunkers Imports. £559,629 374,755 53i47 Exports. £ 91,414 777,333 126,807 90,015 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of Barbados is shown by the following comparative table of the revenue and expenditure, and the imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure Imports.* Exports.* £ £ £ £ 1903-4 180,831 176,309 821,618 552,891 1904-5 185,056 178,797 1,069,312 860,982 1905-6 192,291 180,932 1,042,562 935,844 1906-7 204,704 186,016 1,192,328 932,966 1907-8 209,817 188,296 1,271,530 935,256 1908-9 189,805 198,865 1,225,870 948,178 1909-10 195,803 199,625 i,ii*9,343 888,086 1910-11 213,298 211,949 1,345.194 1,088,830 1911-12 221,906 215,696 i,539,7 IG 1,005,931 1912-13 234,126 230,339 1,465,431 1,085,569 For calendar years 1 903-191 3. CLIMATE. Barbados is undoubtedly the healthiest of all the West Indian Islands. The temperature, as a rule, varies from 75 Fahr. to 83 Fahr. ; the island enjoys the full benefit of the north-east trade-winds, and in the winter months the minimum mean temperature at night falls as low as 63 Fahr. The annual rainfall varies from about 50 to 70 inches. The rainy season sets in about the beginning of June and lasts until the end of October. On the windward side, the climate is especially invigorating, and the island is much patronised by residents in neighbouring colonies as a health resort. The birth-rate is about ^6 and the normal death-rate not more than 26 per thousand.

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BARBADOS 89 HISTORY. The actual date of the discovery of Barbados is uncertain, but it is said that it was visited by some Portuguese in 1536, who called the island Los Barbudos after the bearded fig-trees which they found there, and left behind them a stock of pigs. It was not until 1605 that the British took possession of the island. In that year the crew of a vessel called the Oliph Blossome, fitted out by Sir Oliph Leigh with stores and settlers for Guiana, landed on the leeward coast and erected a cross, inscribing on a tree near by, James K. of E. and of this Island." The actual settlement was not, however, effected until twenty-one years later, when Sir William Courteen, a wealthy London merchant, hearing glowing accounts of Barbados from the crew of one of his vessels, which was compelled, through stress of weather, to touch there on the way from Brazil, decided to equip an expedition and send out settlers to it. This he did under the protection of the Earl of Marlborough, who received the promise of a patent which covered Barbados. Sir William Courteen's ship, the William and John, reached Barbados in 1626 with about forty emigrants, who landed and founded Jamestown or Hole Town, near the spot where the first landing was made. Though authorities have hitherto given the end of 1624 or the beginning of 1625 as the date of the arrival of the party, a search of the island records has made it sufficiently clear that 1626 is actually the year from which the settlement of Barbados dates. On September 13, 1625, the island was included in the commission given to Warner, the coloniser of St. Kitts, his patron being the Earl of Carlisle, who, two years later, obtained from Charles I a grant of nearly all the Caribbean Islands. The Earl of Marlborough opposed it vigorously ; but the matter was compromised by Lord Carlisle agreeing to settle on him and his heirs an annuity of £300. All went well for a year, and then, while Lord Carlisle was absent on a mission, Sir William Courteen induced the Earl of Pembroke to lay claim to the island. The Earl was successful in obtaining a grant of it, but Lord Carlisle returned, and was reinstated. This nobleman then took active steps to strengthen his position. He offered land to private adventurers, and allotted 10,000 acres to nine

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90 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES London merchants. Sixty-four settlers landed under Wolferstone and proceeded to found St. Michael's Town, now Bridgetown. They became known as the Windward men, as opposed to Sir William Courteen's settlers, who were called the Leeward men, and in 1629, after a bitter struggle, the latter were overpowered. Lord Carlisle died, deeply involved, in 1636, leaving the Caribbee Islands in trust for the payment of his debts, with remainder to his son and heir. The latter transferred his interest to Lord Willoughby of Parham for twenty-one years. Lord Willoughby, soon after his arrival in the island, caused an Act to be passed acknowledging the King's right to dominion over Barbados, and this Act also recognised his own position. Many Royalist families found shelter in Barbados, and the island offered a stout resistance to the forces of the Commonwealth. Cromwell accordingly despatched to it a fleet of seven ships, under Admiral Sir George Ayscue. After a stubborn defence the Royalists yielded on honourable terms, which were embodied in Articles of Agreement signed on January 11, 1652. Lord Willoughby was compelled to relinquish the government, and in the following years the population was swelled by Scotch and Irish exiles and unruly' men who were to be sold as white servants for seven years. At the Restoration thirteen gentlemen of Barbados were created baronets in consideration of their sufferings and loyalty during the Civil War. Lord Willoughby agitated for a revival of his rights, and on June 13, 1663, the Privy Council decided that half the annual profits derived from Barbados should go to him for the rest of his lease, with remainder to the Government, and one half towards the discharge of the Marlborough claim and to the payment of ^500 a year to the heirs of Carlisle. After the discharge of all liabilities, the heirs of Lord Carlisle were to receive ^1000 per annum. For the purpose of raising this money a duty of 4^ per cent, was imposed on all exports from the island. This was a constant source of grievance to the inhabitants, who in 1832 complained that they had through it been mulcted of no less a sum than ^6,000,000. In 1834 the Legislature of Barbados passed an Act remitting the duty ; but it was not finally

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A topographic all Description and Admeasurement of trie YLAND of (BARBADOS m the We^ INDYAES Witktiielll llcuile^ of the Seueraii plcmtacorxs// .i £ '9 "V: ft? a ^-^^^

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BARBADOS 91 abolished until 1838, when it was repealed by an Act of the Imperial Government. CONSTITUTION. Barbados possesses representative institutions without responsible government. They date from the Royal Charter of Charles I, June 2, 1627, and were confirmed by the Commonwealth in the articles of surrender of the island signed on January 1 1 165 2. Next to the House of Commons and the House of Assembly in Bermuda, the Barbados House of Assembly is the most ancient legislative body in the British dominions. The Government now consists of a nominated Legislative Council of nine members, and a House of Assembly, consisting of twentyfour members elected annually by the people on the basis of a moderate franchise. At general elections to the latter body there is frequently no contest, a fact which speaks volumes for the contented state of the inhabitants, who prefer to devote their time to the development of the island rather that to political strife, an example which might with advantage be followed elsewhere. The executive functions of the Government are performed by an Executive Council which consists of the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, and the Attorney-General ex officio, and such other persons as may be nominated by the King, and an Executive Committee which consists of the Members of the Executive Council, one Member of the Legislative Council, and four Members of the House of Assembly nominated by the Governor. This Executive Committee introduces all money votes and Government measures and prepares the Estimates. Governors of Barbados since 1889 Sir Walter J. Sendall, K.C.M.G. 1889 Sir James S. Hay, K.C.M.G. 1892 Sir Frederic M. Hodgson, K.C.M.G. 1901 Sir Gilbert T. Carter, K.C.M.G. 1904 Sir Leslie Probyn, K.C.M.G. 191 1 HOTELS. Bridgetown. The Marine Hotel, Hastings, two miles from town. Tram-cars pass near the grounds. A good and airy hotel, conducted on the American system.

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92 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Rooms, light, and attendance, 4s. to 85. per day. Breakfast, 3s. Luncheon, 3s. Dinner, 45. Board and lodging, 10s. to 15s. per day, or with rooms with baths, 16s. 8d. per day. Each meal served in room, is. \d. extra. The Balmoral Hotel, also at Hastings. Board and lodging, 85. 4^. to 12s. 6d. per day. Breakfast or luncheon, 3s. ; dinner, 45. The Ice House Hotel, Lower Broad Street, Bridgetown, near the harbour. Board and lodging, 65. 3d. per day, £8 65. 8d. per month. Rooms, light, bath, and attendance, 3s. per day, or £3 2s. 6d. per month. Sea View Hotel, at the top of Garrison Hill, St. Michael's, close to the Savannah and Hastings Rocks. Rooms, light, and attendance, bath, and coffee," 45. per day, or £4 35. 4^. per month. Board and lodging, 65. 3d. and 8s. 40". per day, £8 65. 8d. to £9 75. 6d. per month. Bay Mansion, conveniently situated in Bay Street, Bridgetown. Board and lodging, 6s. per day ; for a stay of over two months, £y 15s. per month. Hotel St. Lawrence, near St. Lawrence Chapel and Christ Church. Board and lodging, 6s. 3d. per day, £2 is. 8d. per week, £8 6s. 8d. per month. Tram-cars pass within walking distance of the hotel. Private houses can be hired at Hastings and along the St. Lawrence coast, where the bathing is excellent, and elsewhere for from £5 per month and upwards. The Crane, St. Philip. The Crane Hotel, on a cliff by the sea, thirteen miles from Bridgetown. Reached by railway, motor-car, or carriage. Room, including coffee and use of sea and fresh-water baths, 3s. per day. Board and lodging, 8s. \d. to 10s. 6d. per day, or from £2 10s. per week. Bathsheba, St. Joseph. Atlantis Hotel, beautifully situated. Train stops quite near the door. Board and lodging, 6s. per day, £2 is. 8d. per week, or £j 10s. per month. Special arrangements for families. Beachmount Hotel (close to the railway station), 6s. 3d. and 8s. ^d. per day, £2 is. 8d. to £2 10s. per week. Children and nurses half price. Speightstown, St. Peter. Ebenezer House, conveniently situated. Meals can be obtained at short notice. MEANS OP COMMUNICATION. Barbados is served by steamship companies numbered 1* 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13,

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BARBADOS 93 19, 23, 25, 26, 27 and 28 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Steamers anchor in the roadstead of Carlisle Bay, while boats and launches enter the Careenage, as the harbour is called. The tariff for boats is : from the wharf to any vessel, is. ; with one or two passengers and return, including a wait of a quarter of an hour, is. 8d., or half an hour, 2s. Between sunset and sunrise the boatmen are entitled to charge double fares. On the days of the arrival and departure of the mail steamers the boats, many of which are named after celebrities, are in great demand. Motor-cars and carriages are obtainable in Bridgetown from Messrs. Burton and Co., Pinfold Street, and Messrs. J. G. Johnson and Co., Coleridge Street. Motor-cars can be hired by the hour or day to carry four or five, at the Bridgetown Garage, Fort Royal ; the Barbados Garage Co., Westbury Road ; and the City Garage and Stable Co., Victoria Street ; and carriages from Goodridge and Co., Chapel Street, and various other stable proprietors. The usual charge for motor-cars is at the rate of is. per mile, but on the days of arrival of the tourist steamers the charge is from £6 to £8 per day, according to the size of the car and the number of seats in it. The two best motor drives are (1) to Hackleton's Cliff, St. John's Church, Codrington College, the Crane Hotel, Lord's Castle ; and (2) along the western coast by Hole Town and Speightstown to the Animal Flower Cave, Farley Hill and Cherry Tree Hill, and back by Cole's Cave. Each drive takes a day. The fare is about £6 per seat. Pair-horse carriage, about £1 13s. 4<2. per day, or ^14 per month. Single-horse, 16s. 8d. per day, or £y per month. Short drives at a low rate, according to time and distance. Cycles can be obtained from Newsam and Co., Beckwith Place, 2s. 6d. per day. A railway (2 ft. 6 in. gauge) owned by the Barbados Light Railway Ltd., runs under contract with the Colonial Government from Bridgetown, across the southern part of the island and up the Windward Coast to St. Andrew's (24 miles). The whole journey takes two hours. On several days in the week there is an early morning train, and every week-day an early afternoon train to St. Andrew's. Similarly on several days there is an afternoon train, and

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94 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES every week-day an early morning train from St. Andrew's to Bridgetown. A list of the firstand third-class fares (there is no second class) and stations, with their distances from Bridgetown, is given below : Miles from Bridgetown. Fares. i st Class. 3rdClass. Bridgetown Kingston Wood Halt. Rouen Bulkeley Windsor Carrington Sunbury Bushy Park Three Houses College Siding Halt Bath Martin's Bay Halt Bathsheba Joe's River Halt St. Andrew's 2* Si ?t ii I2f 19* 24 s. d. 3 6 9 1 o i 3 i 6 i 9 2 O 2 6 2 6 s. d. if 3 4 6 7 8 8 IO I O I O At the Halts," trains stop to set down passengers on notice being given to the guard, and passengers may also be taken up at these places. Special through trains are run at low fares at short notice in the tourist season to Bathsheba, &c, on the pretty north-east coast, making the journey in much shorter time than the ordinary trains which stop at all stations. Full information as to time-tables, charges, &c, can be obtained in England from the Managing Director, Barbados Light Railway Ltd., Gwydir Chambers, 104 High Hoiborn, London, W.C., and in Barbados at the Manager's office. Bridgetown and Speightstown are kept in touch with one another by a service of smart schooners, as well as by road. SPORTS. There are many cricket and football clubs, including the Wanderers, the Pickwick, the Windward, and the Spartans. The Lodge School and Harrison College also have clubs. There is, too, a Country Club where tennis is

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BARBADOS 95 played in the Rectory grounds, St. Peter. Nearly every house in town and country has a well-kept lawn, where either lawn-tennis or croquet is played. There are several lawn-tennis clubs, notably Belleville, Strathclyde, Bulkeley, and the Savannah, where play is above the average. Polo is played twice a week on the Garrison Savannah ; and under the auspices of the Barbados Turf Club, which is affiliated to the Jockey Club of England, race meetings are held periodically. There are private golf links at Codrington College, "Porters" and "Kent," and the Savannah has been leased to the Sports Club, which encourages racing, polo, lawn-tennis, and golf, the clock-tower being now the clubhouse of the Savannah Club. Sailing boats can be hired. Good line fishing can be had, as well as trolling for Barracouta with rod and line from sailing boats ; and the bathing is excellent at St. Anne's, Hastings, Warsaw, Worthing, the Crane, and Freshwater Bay. SOCIAL CLUBS. The Bridgetown Club, on the top floors of the handsome building of the Barbados Mutual Life Assurance Society in Beckwith Place, is one of the best social clubs in the West Indies and is open to visitors on introduction by a member. So too is the Junior Club in Trafalgar Square, and also the Union on the second floor of the Ice House Hotel in Lower Broad Street. The Savannah Club, on the Garrison Savannah referred to above, is also very hospitable. The club-house has a reading-room, drawing-room, card-room, &c. A Ladies' Club was formed in 19 1 2 with premises in Broad Street, and is well patronised. The Y.M.C.A. has its rooms in Trafalgar Square. Visitors are also admitted to the Free Library in Coleridge Street. The building was the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and the large collection of books which used to be kept in the Public Buildings was removed to it in 1906. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The first view of Barbados generally causes tourists who have pictured in their minds the beauties of tropical scenery some little disappointment. They see a long, greyish shore, relieved only here and there by tall palm-trees, waving casuarinas (Casuarina equisetifolia), and an occasional aermotor. The island to the left

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96 POCKET CxUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES as one faces the shore is Pelican Island, on which the quarantine station is situated, while on the right is Needham 's Point. As there is no harbour accommodation for them, steamers visiting the port of Bridgetown lie in Carlisle Bay, an open roadstead which owes its name to the Earl of Carlisle, to whom Charles I granted the island in 1627. The wharf is reached by launch or shore boat, which enters the Careenage, a harbour of modest dimensions, the entrance of which is protected by a mole terminating in the mole-head." The Customs Department and the Harbour Master's Office and Chamber of Commerce are on the wharf. Visitors to Barbados who are desirous of seeing the sights to the best advantage are recommended to visit the rooms of the Barbados Improvement Association in Synagogue Lane, where they will be able to obtain every information. Bridgetown, the capital (population 16,648), is hot and dusty. It derives its name from an Indian bridge which the first settlers found where the Chamberlain Bridge now is, and was called in its early days The Bridge." Pere Labat, who visited the town in 1700, described it as handsome, with straight, wide, clean and well laid out streets. The houses," he wrote, are well built in the style of those in England with many glazed windows ; they are magnificently furnished. In a word the whole place has an appearance of cleanliness, gentility and wealth which one does not find in the other islands. . The shops and merchants' warehouses are filled with all that one could want from every part of the world. One sees a number of goldsmiths, jewellers, clock-makers and other artificers ; . the largest trade in America is carried on here. ... It is said that the climate of the town is not good and that the swamp near by renders the place unhealthy. I never noticed this from the complexion of the inhabitants which is beautiful — especially that of the women. The place swarms with children, for every one is married and the women are very prolific." The chief shopping centres are in Broad, High, Roebuck and Swan Streets, where the stores "—as the shops are called — are quite as good as those in most provincial towns

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BARBADOS 97 in the Mother Country. On mail day and on Friday, which is known as planters' day, when planters flock into the city to discuss matters with their attorneys, the streets are particularly animated. The principal residential centres are in the suburbs of Belleville and Strathclyde. The chief thoroughfare is Broad Street, at one end of which is Beckwith Place (so called after Sir George Beckwith, K.B., Governor 1808 to 18 14), and at the other Trafalgar Square. The former is overlooked by the handsome building of the Barbados Mutual Life Assurance Society, erected in the nineties at a cost of ^30,000. On the first floor are the offices of the Sugar Industry Bank and a spacious hall in which banquets are held. The Bridgetown Club occupies the whole of the second floor. The Fountain in Beckwith Place was the gift of Mr. John Montefiore. Behind the Barbados Mutual building are the Jubilee Gardens, laid out to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, and St. Mary's Church, which stands near the site of the first place of worship erected by the earliest settlers. The Public Market is in Cheapside, a little way beyond these gardens. The Cable Office of the West India and Panama Telegraph Company is at the corner of Lower Broad Street and McGregor Street. Trafalgar Square, which was formerly called the Green," contains one of the earliest statues erected to the memory of Lord Nelson. It was once claimed to be quite the first, but an earlier one was erected in Montreal in 1808. News of the hero's victory and death reached Barbados on December 20, 1805 ; there was a brilliant illumination three days later to celebrate the victory, while on January 5 a funeral sermon was preached at St. Michael's Church on the death of the hero. Subscriptions were invited towards the erection of the statue, and ^2300 was subscribed in a few weeks. The Green was purchased for ^1050, towards which sum the Legislature contributed ^500. The statue, which is of bronze, and represents the Admiral in full uniform, was erected on March 22, 1813. Lieutenant-General Sir George Beckwith, the Governor of Barbados, who had already laid the first stone of the pedestal on February 24 in that year, performed G

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98 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the ceremony of unveiling. The inscription on the pedestal runs : To the Memory of Horatio Lord Viscount Nelson, K.B., Vice-Admiral of the White, The Preserver of the British West Indies In a moment of unexampled peril ; The Hero, whose various and transcendent merits, Alike conspicuous in address, decision, action and achievement Throughout his whole unparalleled career of glory, No powers of language can sufficiently delineate, This Statue was erected by The grateful inhabitants of Barbados, On a spot of ground appropriated to it By a public grant of The Colonial Legislature. In accordance with the solicitations of a select Committee, That so sincere though humble a tribute Of esteem, admiration, and gratitude to their Illustrious Deliverer Might be rendered more congenial To his generous and exalted spirit, From the hand of one, Himself a Hero and a Benefactor to this country, The first stone of the Pedestal was deposited by His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir George Beckwith, K.B. The Beloved and Patriotic Governor of Barbados, And Commander of the Forces in the Leeward Islands February 24, a.d. 18 14. Esto Perpetua On the occasion of the Nelson centenary on October 21, 1905, Trafalgar Square was again the scene of great rejoicings. The statue was decorated with flowers by day and illuminated at night, and the populace celebrated the event in a suitable manner. The Public Buildings, which form an imposing group in Trafalgar Square, are substantially built of coral rock hewn locally, the style being a modification of the Italian Renaissance, the open arcades having Gothic instead of the usual rounded arches. They were erected from the designs of Mr. J. F. Bourne, Superintendent of Public Works, and opened in 1874. In the western wing, which is divided from the eastern by a drive studded with palms and other tropical trees, are shown the Council and Assembly rooms.

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BARBADOS 99 The latter have stained glass windows, containing portraits of the sovereigns of England from James I. — during whose reign Barbados was first settled (see page 89) — to Victoria. In the Lobby there are paintings of the Hon. A. J. Pile and the Hon. T. Yearwood, late Speakers ; Sir John Sealey and W. M. Howard,* Members of the House of Assembly ; also engravings of the Hon. J. B. A. Lynch, Thomas Gill and Charles T. Cottley ; and a bronze bust of Sir Conrad Reeves, a former Chief Justice and an eloquent member of the House of Assembly. In the windows of the Council Chamber are the coats-of-arms of successive Presidents of the Council and Speakers of the House of Assembly. There are also portraits on the walls of two of the Earls of Harewood, whose family have long owned property in the islands, besides one of Governor Sir James Lyon, K.C.B., the inscription on which records that it was painted at the expense of the ladies of Barbados ; and one of the Hon. William Bishop, President of Barbados in 1800. In the eastern wing are the Post Office (overlooking Palmetto Square) and the offices of various Government departments. In the enclosure between the two wings is a Bearded Fig tree (Ficus Barbadensis), planted in 1905 by Lady Carter on the occasion of the celebration of the tercentenary of our taking possession of the island. The small garden to the east of the buildings is known as the Fountain Garden. The Anglican Cathedral, also built of coral rock, stands in St. Michael's Row, to the east of the Public Buildings. It occupies a site presented by Colonel W. Sharpe, who lies buried under the altar (his gravestone can be seen), and it replaces a building erected in the seventeenth century which was blown down by the great hurricane of 1780. The cost of building the cathedral was defrayed mainly by the money raised by a lottery which was sanctioned by the Legislature. By means of this lottery the vestry raised ^5000 towards building the cathedral and ^5000 for the erection of the churches of St. Thomas, W. M. Howard, who represented St. Philip and, later, St. Lucy for many years, was Father of the Agricultural Societies in Barbados.

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ioo POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES St. Lucy, St. George, and Christ Church. The font dates from 1680. The inscription round the top in Greek capital characters is a palindrome and reads : NI^ON ANOMHMA MH MONAN O^IN (" Wash the sin not merely the skin "). Also in contracted Greek cursive is the phrase "IctOl KciBapos (" Be thou clean "). By some it is still believed that the organ was originally designed for a Roman Catholic church and that it was being conveyed to one of the French islands when it fell into the hands of Lord Nelson, who sold or gave it to St. Michael's. The reredos is from a design by George Herbert Kitchin, son of the late Dean of Durham. The rooms of the Women's Self-Help Association in Trafalgar Square are a popular resort of visitors. The Association, which was started in 1907 by Lady Carter, the wife of the then Governor, with the support of the ladies of Barbados, does a useful work in relieving distressed gentlefolk. There is a sale-room, where the work of the members, including embroidery, Island pottery, old jewellery, photographs, postcards, &c, can be purchased, in addition to luncheon, tea, and toilet rooms. The Central Police Station is in Coleridge Street, about a five minutes' walk from Trafalgar Square. The Free Library, also in Coleridge Street, was first established in 1847 with books taken from the Literary Society of Barbados and the Clerical Library. The building was the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and was opened in 1906. Above the Library is a lecture hall, which is also used for public entertainments. Adjoining is the Town Hall, where the Legislature met from 1729 to 1784. It now serves as the Law Courts. The cellar was formerly used as a prison. The Cotton Factory is about a hundred yards farther at a residence in the White Park Road which was formerly known as "Friendly Hall," and is owned by the Barbados Co-operative Cotton Factory Company Ltd. (A description of a cotton factory will be found on page 456.) After 1905, when the garrison was withdrawn from Barbados, Queen's House, just off the Constitution Road, the official residence of the officer commanding the troops, was purchased by the local government for ^3200, and the grounds, now known as Queen's Park, which are prettily

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BARBADOS 101 laid out with a lake, terrace and parterres designed by Lady Carter, the wife of the Governor at the time, were thrown open to the public on June 10, 1909. They are within an easy walk of Trafalgar Square. Behind the Park are the buildings and grounds of Harrison College. Barbados has several higher-grade schools, the principal being this college and the Lodge, Combermere, Coleridge, Alleyne, and Parry schools* for boys, and Queen's College and the Alexandra school for girls, each receiving a Government grant, the total amount applied in this manner being ^2625. There are also 164 primary schools for Protestants, Wesley ans, and Moravians, Government House is quite near Bridgetown and can be approached from Trafalgar Square by Constitution Road and Government Hill. The house, which is called '•' Pilgrim," was first used as the residence of the officer administering the government in 1703. It can be reached by tramcars which pass within 100 yards of the entrance. Washington's Residence. George Washington visited Barbados in 1751 with his brother Lawrence, who was an invalid. Mr. C. P. Clarke and Mr. N. Darnell Davis, after a search of the island records, are satisfied that Captain Richard Crofton's house in which the visitors stayed was one at the corner of Bay Street and Chelsea Road. George Washington sailed from Virginia on September 28, 1751, and arrived in Barbados on or about November 3, returning on board the Industry on December 22 in the same year. At first he and his brother experienced some difficulty in finding lodgings, until We pitched on the house of Captain Crofton, commander of James's Fort. He was desired to come to town next day to propose his terms." These proved to be £1 5 a month, exclusive of liquor and washing, which we find ourselves." Of the house Washington writes : It is very pleasantly situated near the sea, and about a mile from town. The prospect is extensive by These schools received their names from a Mr. Harrison (who founded a school for poor white boys), Lord Combermere (Governor from 1817 to 1820), Bishop Coleridge (1824 to 1842), Sir John Gay Alleyne (Speaker from 1766 to 1797), and Bishop Parry (1842 to 1872).

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102 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES land and pleasant by sea, as we command a view of Carlyle Bay and the shipping." The Savannah of St. Anne's is a fine open space of some fifty acres in extent, surrounded by a belt of handsome trees, a little over a mile from Bridgetown. Formerly it was the parade ground of the garrison, but since the withdrawal of the troops in 1905-6 it has been devoted to sports of various kinds. The central building with the clock tower is now the house of the Savannah Club, which organises games of polo twice a week and race meetings on a course round the Savannah periodically. The Club has several excellent tennis lawns and well-kept golf links. To the north of the club-house is the property known as Bush Hill, and at the intersection of the roads stands a monolith to the memory of fourteen soldiers and a married woman of the 36th Regiment (now the 2nd Bn. Worcestershire Regiment), who were killed in the hurricane of 183 1. It is inscribed : Near this spot rest the remains of fourteen soldiers and one married woman of the 36th regiment who were killed by the destruction of the barracks and hospital during the awful visitation of the hurricane August iith, 1831. This Monument is erected by the Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates of the same Corps as a tribute of respect to the Memory of their Departed Comrades. Peace to their Remains. John Lowther Fecit. The hurricane, which took place on August 11, was one of exceptional violence. Sir James Lyon, the then Governor, in his official report, which was published in the London Gazette of October 27, said : On the evening of the 10th the sun set on a landscape of the greatest beauty and fertility, and rose on the following morning over an utter desolation and waste. The prospect at the break of day on the nth inst. was that of January in Europe — every tree, if not entirely rooted up, was deprived of its foliage and of many of its branches ; every house within my view was levelled with the ground, or materially damaged ; and every hour brought intelligence of the most lamentable accidents, and of very many shocking deaths. This monolith was originally erected near the Military Hospital at Hastings.

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BARBADOS 103 At the cross roads beyond the Grand Stand is another somewhat severe monument, to the memory of Lieut. Colonel Patrick Henderson and of the officers and men of the Royal York Rangers who fell in action in the campaign in Martinique, the Saintes and Guadeloupe in 1809-10. It is inscribed : Sacred to THE Memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Henderson, of the York Light Infantry Volunteers, Who expired at Guadeloupe, as Major Commanding the Royal York Rangers, on the 28th of August, 1810, ignorant of the promotion conferred upon him by his Sovereign for his brilliant and important services at the head of this corps during the CAMPAIGNS OF 1809 AND l8lO, AT Martinique and Guadeloupe. This Tablet is inscribed by Lieutenant-General Sir George Beckwith, K.B., Commander of the Forces, as a mark not only of private friendship, but as a testimony of public respect for his military character. To the Memory OF THE UNDER-NAMED OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS OF The Royal Rangers Who fell in action in the Army commanded by Lieut. -General Sir George Beckwith, K.B., at the Reduction of the French Colonies of Martinique, the Saintes, and Guadeloupe in 1809 and 1810 Lieutenants. — John Symons, P. G. Copley, Sam Gregg, Robt. Martineau Serjeants.— Sylvan Nannoo, J as. Maxwell, J. B. Rodgerson Corporals. — Chas. Collins, Wm. Knight, Wm. Lee. Drummer. — Jas. Foley. [The names of forty-three privates follow.] St. Anne's Castle, a quaint fort facing the bay, was erected in 1703 by Sir Bevil Granville, in honour of Queen Anne. Hastings Rocks (20 minutes by tram) is another lung

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104 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of Bridgetown, where the band plays periodically. It commands a charming view of the sea. Beyond Hastings are the seaside villages of Worthing and St. Lawrence, where excellent bathing can be obtained. Country Excursions The country excursions which can be made from Bridgetown are numerous, and each one of them can be enjoyed in a day or less. The Windward Coast, however, deserves a much longer stay. The Cotton Tower, St. Joseph (i hour by motor, i| hours by carriage), once a signal station, is the third highest position in the island (1091 ft.). It stands at the top of a narrow defile, leading towards St. Joseph's Church, which has been called the Devil's Bowling Alley. St. John's Church (14 miles ; 1 hour by motor-car, 1^ hours by carriage from Bridgetown) stands at a short distance from the edge of a cliff 824 ft. high, which commands an extensive view of the coral-fringed Windward Coast. In the churchyard is pointed out the tomb of Ferdinando Paleologus, the last descendant of the Greek Christian Emperors of that name, who were driven from Constantinople by the Turks. He was the son of Theodoro Paleologus (who was buried at Llandulph in Cornwall) by his wife Mary Balls, and he was successively vestryman, sidesman, churchwarden, and trustee of St. John's Church in the seventeenth century. The tradition of the death and burial of a Greek prince from Cornwall was for many years current in Barbados ; and when the Church of St. John was destroyed by the hurricane of 1831, the coffin of Ferdinando Paleologus was discovered in the vault of Sir Peter Colleton under the organ loft. The remains were reinterred in a vault belonging to Josiah Heath, Esq., in 1906, and a memorial stone was erected by public subscription to mark the place where they now rest. The memorial, made of Portland stone, represents the porch of a Greek temple, with Doric columns and with the cross of Constantine in the centre. It bears the following inscription, the wording of which was borrowed

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BARBADOS 105 as far as possible from the monument of Theodoro Paleologus in Llandulph Church, Cornwall : HERE LYETH YE BODY OF FERDINANDO PALEOLOGUS DESCENDED FROM YE IMPERIAL LYNE OF YE LAST CHRISTIAN EMPERORS OF GREECE CHURCHWARDEN OF THIS PARISH 1655-1656, VESTRYMAN, TWENTYE YEARS. DIED OCT. 3. 1678. The altar desk in the church, presented by Mr. J. C. Lewis, is inscribed M.X. to F. Paleologus, Obt. 1678." The church was erected at a cost of ^4000 in 1836 to replace one built in 1676 which was completely destroyed by the hurricane of 183 1. It has a handsome set of silvergilt altar plate, presented by Mr. Robert Haynes. The stained glass windows were the gifts of the Thomas and Gittens families ; the wooden pulpit, carved by a local craftsman, was given by Mr. George Sealy, and the Caen stone font with marble columns by Dr. Thomas. From Hackleton's Cliff, St. Joseph, which is 997 ft. high (12 miles ; 1 hour by motor, 2 hours by carriage from Bridgetown) the view over St. Andrew's and the hilly Scotland District of the island is even more attractive than that from St. John's Church. Dealing with it in his "History of Barbados," the Rev. G. Hughes quoted Glover's description of the Straits of Thermopylae : There the lofty cliffs Of woody Aeta overlook the Pass ; And far beyond, o'er half the surge below, Their horrid umbrage cast. Mr. Hughes mentions also that when we first settled the island catacombs were found dug out of the rocks in the face of this cliff, where lie the Remains of those, who, like the Patriarchs of old, procured to themselves Places of Re/t." Bowmanston Waterworks, St. John (1 hour by motor, i£ hours by carriage). One of the principal sources of water-supply for Barbados is an underground stream

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106 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES at Bowmanston in St. John's parish. The water is pumped from a cave 250 ft. below the surface and 350 ft. above sea-level. This cave, which is of great geological interest, varies in width from 10 ft. to 30 ft. and from 35 ft. to as much as 50 ft. in height. The water runs with great speed in a southerly direction and has a daily average flow of three million imperial gallons. The water percolates through the coral rock, which absorbs the rainfall very readily. The engines at the pumping station can raise two million gallons daily. Waterworks were first established in Barbados in 1 861, and the island now has a splendid system of water-supply, as the numerous and well patronised standpipes (sometimes called by the blacks ' Queen Victoria's pumps ") all over the island demonstrate. One of the most picturesque, and at the same time interesting, places in the island is Codrington College (15 miles ; i£ hours by motor-car, 2 hours by carriage, 1 hour by rail to College Siding), which stands on the side of a hill overlooking the sea on the Windward Coast. Codrington, which is the oldest university college in the West Indies, is affiliated to Durham. It was founded by Christopher Codrington, Governor-General of the Leeward Islands, who died in 1710, and bequeathed two sugar estates, Consett's and Codrington's — now called College and Society — which consisted of 763 acres, three windmills with the necessary building for the cultivation of sugar, 315 negroes, and 100 head of cattle, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in trust for the maintenance of a convenient number of professors and scholars, all of them to be under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience ; who shall be obliged to study and practise Physic and Chirurgery, as well as Divinity ; that by the apparent usefulness of the former to all mankind they may both endear themselves to the people and have the better opportunities of doing good to men's souls, whilst they are taking care of their bodies." At that time the plantations were computed to yield a net income of £2000 clear of all charges. The erection of the college buildings was begun in 1716, and the masonry was finished in 1 72 1 ; but it was many years before the college was

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BARBADOS 107 completed, owing to a debt due to the Society from the estates, which was not cleared off until 1738. The stone used, which is a conglomerate of limestone, was taken from the hill behind the college, and the timber was brought, at Government expense, in ships of the Royal Navy from Tobago and St. Vincent. The college was first opened as a grammar school on September 9, 1745. Hurricanes and other disasters impoverished the estates, and it was not until 1834 that it was placed on a proper academic footing by Bishop Coleridge. In 1875 it was affiliated to Durham. Successive Principals have been : Rev. J. H. i Pinder, 1830 ; Rev. Richard Rawle, 1 846-1 864 ; Rev. J W. T. Webb, 1 864-1 884 ; Rev. A. Caldecott, 1 884-1 886 ; Bishop Rawle, 1 888-1 889; the Rev. (now Archdeacon) T. H. Bindley, 1890-1909; and Rev. A. H. Anstey. In 1898 Codrington College passed through a serious crisis, the revenue from the sugar estates being insufficient for its maintenance, but with the help of the West India Committee an emergency fund was raised and an impending calamity averted. A walk of twenty minutes up the hillside from Bath Station on the railway (15^ miles by train from Bridgetown) brings the visitor to the handsome college buildings. In front of them is a broad lake, behind which rises a hill. On it is situated the Society Chapel and graveyard, a prominent feature of which is a cairn of stones, surmounted by a granite monolithic cross, under which lie the remains of Bishop Rawle. The cairn is inscribed : RICHARD RAWLE BISHOP PRINCIPAL OF CODRINGTON COLLEGE BORN l8ll DIED 1889 The best view of the college buildings is obtained from this position. On the left is the Principal's residence, formerly the Great House of the estate and one of the oldest as well as the most handsome buildings in Barbados. On the right is the college proper, with lecture

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108 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES rooms, dining-hall, and chapel below, and the students' quarters above, the whole being by no means unlike the so-called New Buildings at Magdalen College, Oxford. The chapel, which is beautifully panelled with cedar and mahogany, was first used on St. Barnabas' Day, 1748. The glass mosaic of the "Good Shepherd," the work of James Powell of Whitefriars, was presented by Mr. William Grey, afterwards Lord Stamford, and friends in 1 882. The brass chandelier was the gift of Mr. Henry Pratt and St. John's Parish, and the lectern was subscribed for by the Bishops of the Province, who held their Synod at the College in 1887. The mahogany sanctuary rails and gates are good examples of local work, while the altar, with beautiful pedestals of ebony cordia and lignum vitse, was fashioned by Benjamin Thorne, a native cabinetmaker. Behind the high table in the hall is a bust of the founder copied by Grimsley of Oxford from the statue by Sir Henry Cheere in the Library of All Souls, of which Codrington was also a benefactor. It was presented by the Warden and Fellows of All Souls, and was placed in position in 1843. Above the bust and over the doors on either side are the arms of Archbishop Howley, President of the S.P.G., by whom the college was opened, and Dr. Coleridge, Bishop of Barbados, first visitor of the College. A magnificent avenue of cabbage palms or palmistes (Oreodoxa oleracea) leads from a triple arched portico, which divides the chapel from the hall, to the foot of the hill, and a row of these stately trees also fringes the lake, contributing in no small degree to the beauty of the scene. Many of the trees, which are fully 80 ft. in height — the tallest is over 100 ft. — are computed to be more than one hundred years old. Two royal palms were planted at the end of the avenue nearest to the belfry on December 31, 1879, by Princes Albert Victor and George of Wales. But the one planted by Prince Albert Victor died, and when in 1892 the news of the death of the beloved Prince reached the island, the negroes were not at all surprised. We knew Prince Eddy die soon," they said, his cabbage die Kingsley first saw cabbage palms, which form such a conspicuous feature of West Indian scenery, in St. Kitts,

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BARBADOS 109 and he was much struck by their beauty. Grey pillars, which seemed taller than the tallest poplars, smooth and cylindrical as those of a Doric temple. ... It was not easy ... to believe that these strange and noble things were trees," he wrote. The college possesses a large swimming bath. On the beams supporting the roof are the following lines, the first four of which are from Samuel Rogers' Epistle to a Friend," while the others were composed by Principal Rawle : Emblem of life which, still as we survey, Seems motionless, yet ever glides away. Emblem of youthful wisdom to endure, Still changing yet unchangeably still pure. Like this fresh cleansing wave still useful be, Though rough thy passage to the boundless sea. Still in that sea thou shalt not stagnant lie, But ever useful tasks of blessing ply. And on the reverse side of the beams : Of sacred scenes these crystal streams may tell, Bethesda's pool or soft Siloam's well. Enjoy the pleasures these pure waters give, But think of those which make the bathers live. There is a fountain, Holy Scriptures say, Where souls may bathe and sins be washed away. Let all thy studies help thee Him to know Through Whom for thee those heavenly waters flow. Bathsheba, St. Joseph (14 miles ; i£ hours by motorcar, 2 hours by carriage, igfmiles by rail, from Bridgetown), a popular seaside resort, and Chalky Mount, both on the Windward Coast, are reached by the Barbados Light Railway. From Bathsheba the Potteries on the top of the Mount can be visited. They are difficult to approach by carriage. Here the crude, though picturesque earthenware "guglets," "monkeys," and "conerees," as they are called according to their shape, are fashioned by skilful black artificers at their very primitive potter's sheds. At Bathsheba it is pretty to see the flying fish fleet return after its labours. The little vessels of about 16 ft. in length of which it is composed pick their way through the openings of the coral reef, and it seems remarkable that they are not upset. Each boat is manned

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no POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES by the proverbial two men and a boy and each carries three nets. The owner gets a third of the proceeds of each day and the rest is divided. There are about two hundred boats on the coast and they are busily employed, except during the three hurricane months when they do not go out at all. The most enjoyable way of seeing Chalky Mount is to make up a picnic party and go by train, and lunch at the "Benab" just under the Mount, a bungalow belonging to Mr. R. H. Emptage. From there the Potteries can be reached afoot. Chalky Mount, which rises almost from the beach to a height of 571 ft., is composed of clay and limestone with some ferruginous deposit. It is very rugged and consequently a stiff climb. Indeed, except by a goat track on the west side it is almost inaccessible. The hill has three peaks, and its geological formation is very curious, the disturbed strata, which owing to the absence of vegetation can easily be seen except on the lower slopes, pointing to former convulsions, some say of a volcanic nature. Apart from the Benab there are no houses nearer than two miles, and passing trains once or twice a day are the only reminder of civilisation in this lonely spot. The Crane, St. Philip (14 miles ; if hours by motor, 2 hours by carriage from Bridgetown), on the rugged south-east coast, is much resorted to for health and pleasure. It can be reached by carriage or by train to Bushy Park and thence by carriage, or by motor-car. It was once an important shipping place and took its name from the crane which was used in hoisting produce and goods. The coast here is rugged and very picturesque. To the south is a delightful pool called the Mare, while to the north is the celebrated Dawlish Bounce, where a seawater bath can be enjoyed without the bather going into the sea. Long Bay or Lord's Castle, St. Philip (1 hour by motor, 2 hours by carriage), is situated about a mile from the Crane Hotel. It is one of the finest mansions in the West Indies, but for many years it has been unoccupied. The present structure was built in 1820 for Mr. Samuel Hall Lord, to replace the original building, which dated

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BARBADOS m from 1780, In shape it is square ; it has four entrances approached by black and white marble steps, and is surmounted with battlements. The walls are immensely thick, and well calculated to withstand hurricanes. In 1 83 1 the outside of the house was being repaired when it was struck by the terrific cyclone of August 11, and though the scaffolding was carried off by force of the wind and deposited in the mill-yard of the Three Houses Estate, three miles away, the building was uninjured. The chief features of the interior are the handsome ceilings in plaster-work. A man named Warren was brought out to do the work in the old slavery days as a militiaman, when the planters were bound by law to leaven their holding of blacks with a certain number of white men. But though he is generally credited with it he really did very little, the bulk being done by one Charles Rutter, whose son was recently employed to repair the ceilings. The work took Rutter and Randals, who was also brought out, three and a half years to complete. At the end of the long drawing-room and dining-room there are handsome mahogany columns made from trees grown in the island. The large looking-glasses, now dulled by age, convey some idea of the magnificent scale on which the house was furnished, and it is recorded that it was filled with priceless china and Chippendale furniture, of which a few specimens still remain. The present owner of the house, which Schomburgk describes as "an oasis in the desert," is Mr. William H. Trollope. Before the lighthouse at Ragged Point was erected, the wrecks on the Cobblers, a long low coast reef which almost closes in Long Bay, were significantly numerous, and many were the weird tales of lanterns tied to the branches of the coco-nut trees to snare sailors to their doom which used to be recounted by the oldest inhabitants." A large number of the coco-nut trees, under which the fallow-deer roamed, still remain. Ragged Point, St. Philip (15 miles ; 1 hour by motor, 2 hours by carriage). This lighthouse is generally the first landmark sighted on nearing Barbados. The view of the Atlantic from it is very fine, and the spot is a favourite

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ii2 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES pleasure resort. The little island near by is known as Culpepper's Island. Visitors interested in social questions or in agriculture should obtain permission to inspect Dod's Reformatory, also in St. Philip, which was established in 1883. On the lands attached to it is a botanical station where sugar-cane seedling experiments are conducted. On the way to or from Lord's Castle Christ Church (J hour by motor-car, 1 hour by carriage) can be visited. It was erected in 1837 from designs by Captain Senhouse, R.N., at a cost of ^4000, to replace a building destroyed by the hurricane of 1831. For those of a psychological turn of mind, a visit to the churchyard has a peculiar and absorbing interest. A strange occurrence took place there in 1820, the cause of which has never been satisfactorily explained. Whenever a certain vault, which had been hermetically sealed, was opened, the coffins which it contained were found in a state of confusion. It was generally believed that this was due to some supernatural agency. Whether this was so or not it must be left to the reader to judge after the perusal of the following authentic account, compiled by the late Hon. Forster M. Alley ne in 1908 : The Barbados Coffin Story has been told many times : by Sir Robert Schomburgk in his History of Barbados ; by Viscountess Combermere in the life of her husband, Governor of the island at the time the event occurred, who based her account on an anonymous pamphlet entitled Death Deeds ; by Mr. Robert Reece in the columns of Once a Week, and, perhaps, by many others. I myself heard the story from the lips of Sir Robert Bowcher Clarke, who was present at the opening of the vault, and my own father, though not present at the opening, was in the island at the time, and made mention of it to his sister in England, as is evidenced by a letter from her to him, which is still in my possession. Some months ago Mr. Andrew Lang wrote to me that a similar disturbance among coffins had taken place in the public cemetery at Arensburg, on the island of Oesel, in the Baltic, in 1844, as detailed by R. Dale Owen in his Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World." Numerous high authorities were quoted for the verification of this event, and it is stated that an official inquiry was made into the circumstance, and the report was signed by all its members and placed on record in the consistory, where it "is to be found

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BARBADOS 113 among its archives, and may be examined by any traveller." An inquiry by the Society for Psychical Research revealed the fact that there is no such document in existence, nor is any such story known to the owner of the vault. I therefore asked myself, what authentic evidence had we to prove that our Barbados story was really true ? That it was so, I had not the smallest doubt, but how could I prove it ? Indeed Mr. Lang wrote to me saying that he had read a paper before the Folk-Lore Society on the subject, and it was received very sceptically by the President, and, in fact, was treated with scant interest. I therefore determined to see if I could not obtain first-hand authentic proof. My first step was to go to Christ Church, the place where the vault is situated. I examined the Burial Register and found the names of the occupants of the vault, as will be given below, and their interments duly attested by the Rector, Dr. Orderson, but absolutely without comment, and not the smallest hint that anything extraordinary had taken place. I had the Parochial Treasurer's accounts examined, thinking that some clue might be obtained from them, but there was nothing. Neither do the files of contemporary newspapers which are still extant make any mention of it. Some time afterwards, when I was almost in despair, for I had only discovered several old copies of lists of the interments, evidently furnished by Dr. Orderson, with comments on the disturbances among the coffins, I heard accidentally that the Hon. Nathan Lucas, M.L.C., whose name is always mentioned as having been present at the opening of the vault on April 18, 1820, together with Lord Combermere and others, had left a large number of manuscript volumes. These are all written in his own hand and contain copies of old records, as well as notes of topographical and archaeological interest, and narrations of other occurrences within his memory. I found that some of them had passed into the possession of Mr. Racker, the proprietor of the Agricultural Reporter, who kindly lent me one of them, which contains a detailed account of the opening of the vault. This, then, is an absolutely authentic document ; it is in the handwriting of Mr. Nathan Lucas, who was himself an eye-witness, and is attested by the then Rector of Christ Church, the Rev. Thomas D. Orderson, D.D. It also contains drawings of the vault, and of the position of the coffins, made on the spot by the Hon. Major Finch, Lord Combermere' s A.D.C., and similarly attested by Dr. Orderson. I now transcribe Mr. Nathan Lucas' statement, which has never before been printed ; it is stamped with truth in every word, and the original of it is still extant. I need only add that it was always believed that Lord Combermere sent home to England an official account of the occurrence duly certified ; but a careful search at the Record Office has hitherto produced no results, It is fortunate, therefore, that in the original of the subjoined narrative we have a document which places the truth of the story beyond all cavil. H

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ii 4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES "This Vault," it runs," is in the west end of the Churchyard, next the wall of the stable. Part is dug out of the live rock ; all the rest is wall, arched at the top. The rock is the common Lime Stone of the Island. It is an appurtenance to Adam's Castle Estate, which formerly belonged to the family of Walrond, from whom it passed to the Elliots, and is still called Walrond 's Plantation.' How it came to the family of Adams I am not informed. The entrance into it, over the steps, is closed with a ponderous slab of blue Devonshire marble ; the front is closed with a double wall, from top to bottom, an inner and outer, not united. On the tombstone is the following inscription, exactly copied for me by the Rector of the parish, the Revd. Doctor Thomas Harrison Orderson : 'Here lies the body of The Honble. James Elliot, Esq., Son of the Honble. Richard Elliot, Esq., He married Elizabeth the daughter of The Honble. Thomas Walrond, Esq., of this Island, He was brave, hospitable and courteous Of great Integrity in his Actions ; And conspicuous for his judgement and Vivacity in conversation. After his merit had advanced him to the Honour of being one of His Majesty's Council He was snatched away from us The 14.TH of May Anno Domini 1724 in the 34th year of his age, And died lamented by all who knew him. In honour to his memory his truly sorrowful Widow has erected this Tomb.' ' In this vault the leaden coffins having been found displaced several times, it became a matter of curiosity and inquiry ; and being at Eldridge's Plantation, next the Church, in Company with the Right Honble. Lord Combermere, on a visit to the Proprietor, Robert Bowcher Clarke, Esq., on the 18th of April, 1820, it became a subject of conversation at noon, when the negroes were coming home from the field. We took eight or ten of the men directly with us to the Churchyard, to open the Vault, and sent off for the Rector, The Revd. Dr. Thos. H. Orderson, who very soon arrived. His Lordship, myself, Robert Bowcher Clarke, and Rowland Cotton, Esq., were present during the whole time. On our arrival at the Vault, every outward appearance was perfect, not a blade of grass or stone touched ; indeed collusion or deception was impossible ; for neither ourselves nor the negroes knew anything of the matter ; for the subject was hardlystarted in conversation before we set out for inspection ; and the Churchyard cannot exceed half a mile from Eldridge's.

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BARBADOS ii5 The annexed drawing with the references was made for me at the instance of the Doctor, copied from one sketched on the spot by the Honble. Major Finch, who very soon joined our party at the Vault. The following particulars were obligingly supplied by the Doctor. I was present from beginning to end : and no illusion, trick, or deception could have been practised. Parish of Christ Church. In the Churchyard there is a Vault, which by the Inscription on the Tomb belongs to the Elliot family, in which Vault no person had been buried for many years. In July 1807, application was made to the Rector to permit the remains of Mrs. Thomasina Goddard to be interred in the Vault ; and when it was opened for her reception, it was quite empty, without the smallest appearance of any person having been buried there. Mrs. Goddard was buried July 31st, 1807. February 22nd, 1808, Mary Anna Maria Chase,Infant daughter of the Honble. Thomas Chase was buried in the same Vault in a Leaden Cofhn. When the Vault was opened for the reception of the Infant, the Coffin of Mrs. Goddard was in its proper place. July 6th, 18 12, Dorcas Chase, daughter of the Honble. Thomas Chase was buried in the same Vault. Upon the Vault being opened for her reception, the two Leaden Coffins were evidently removed from the situation in which they had been placed ; particularly the Infant, which had been thrown from the North East corner of the Vault where it had been placed, to the opposite angle : The Coffin was nearly upright in the corner, but the head was down to the ground. September the 2 5th, 1 8 16, Samuel Brewster Ames, an Infant was buried; and the Leaden Coffins, when the Vault was opened, were removed from their places, and were in much disorder. November 17th, 1816, the Body of Samuel Brewster (who had been murdered in the Insurrection of Slaves on the 15th of April preceding and who had been previously buried in the Parish of St; Philip) was removed and interred in the Vault, and great confusion and disorder were discovered in the Leaden Coffins. July 7th, 18 19, Thomasina Clarke was buried in the same Vault, and upon its being opened much confusion was again discovered among the Leaden Coffins. 'N.B. — When Miss Clarke was buried, the Coffin of Mrs. Goddard had fallen to pieces ; and was tied up in a small bundle, between Miss Clarke's coffin and the Wall; and on April 18th, 1 820, the bundle was in situ. At each time the Vault was opened, the coffins were replaced in their proper situations ; and the mouth of the Vault was regularly closed and cemented by Masons, in the presence of the Rector and some other persons. On the 7th of July, 1 819, private marks had been made at the mouth of the Vault in the Mason work, and on the 18th day of April 1820 the marks 10 ere perfect. 'On the 1 8th day of April 1820 the Vault was opened at the request of Lord Combermere, in the presence of his Lordship

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Leaden Miss Th Qarke \ Wooden Coffins. I Coffins. 116 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The Honble. Nathan Lucas, Robert Bowcher Clarke, and Rowland Cotton, Esq. The two annexed drawings represent the situation of the Coffins. No. i as they were left on the 7th of July, 1 8 19 ; and No. 2 the situation they were found in the 1 8th April, 1820. [The drawings are not reproduced.] Mary Anna Maria^ Chase Dorcas Chase were in Mrs Goddard f were in Honble. Thomas Chase S. B. Ames and S. Brewster '" Since the 1 8 th of April, 1820, all the Coffins have been removed from the Vault at the desire of Mrs. Chase, and have been buried in a grave, and the Vault still continues open. The Vault is dug in the ground, about two feet in the live rock ; and the descent into it is covered with a large block of blue Devonshire marble ; which will take some hours to be removed and replaced again in its proper situation. It will take at least four able men to remove the stone. Certified March 26th, 1824. 'T. H. Orderson, D.D. '"Rector. For The Honble. Nathan Lucas.' In England, at this day, the body is first enclosed in a shell ; that in lead, and lastly, the Coffin of State without all, ornamented, etc. In Barbados, it is otherwise; the body is put at once into a Coffin of State, etc., and that is inclosed in Lead, at the Grave, and is without the wooden Coffin. The Children's coffins were placed upon bricks in the Vault. Mr. Chase's on the Rock, the bottom of the Vault. Now how could one of the Leaden Coffins be set upon end against the wall ? Why were the coffins of wood in situ ? and why was the bundle of Mrs. Goddard's decayed Coffin found where it had been left ? Wood certainly would first float. There was no vestige of water to be discovered in the Vault ; no marks where it had been ; and the Vault is in a level Churchyard, by no means in a fall much less in a run of water. Earthquake could not have done this without levelling the Churchyard to the ground. Being informed some time after that a similar occurrence had been said to have happened in England, I had the account looked for, and the following copy was given to me ; I did not see the work from whence it was extracted, but I have no reason to doubt the accuracy of it. From the European Magazine for September 181 5. The Curious Vault at Stanton in Suffolk.' "(Qy. Which of the Stantons ? N.L.)

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BARBADOS 117 On opening it some years since, several Leaden Coffins, with wooden cases, that had been fixed on biers, were found displaced to the great astonishment of many inhabitants of the village. The Coffins were placed as before, and properly closed : when some time ago, another of the family dying, they were a second time found displaced ; and two years after, they were not only found all off the biers, but one coffin as heavy as to require eight men to raise it was found on the fourth step that leads into the Vault.' Whence arose this operation, in which it is certain no one had a hand ? N.B. It was occasioned by water, as is imagined, though no sign of it appeared at the different periods of time that the Vault was opened." (The following is the statement of Mr. Lucas as regards the Christ Church Vault. ) I examined the walls, the Arch and every part of the Vault, and found every part old and similar ; and a mason in my presence struck every part of the bottom with his hammer, and all was solid. I confess myself at a loss to account for the movements of these Leaden Coffins. Thieves certainly had no hand in it ; and as fqr any practical wit or hoax, so many were requisite to be trusted with the secret for it to remain unknown ; and as for negroes having anything to do with it, their superstitious fear of the Dead and everything belonging to them preclude any idea of the kind. — All I know is that it happened, and that I was an Eye witness of the fact ! So superstitious did the people become that it was decided to close the vault. The coffins were removed and buried elsewhere in the churchyard in separate graves. The vault now stands deserted and forlorn, and if curiosity prompts him to enter it the visitor will probably find nothing inside except perhaps some stray leaves and a few bones thrown there at some later date. The Old Churchyard, Christ Church, contains several notable monuments. Oistin's Town, Christ Church (fhour by motor-car, i|hours by carriage), is a small fishing village chiefly notable as having been the place where, at Ye Mermaid's Inn," the articles for the capitulation of Barbados were signed by the Royalist Commissioners of Barbados and the Commissioners of the Commonwealth in 1652, after a stubborn defence. No trace of the inn, which was kept by a Welshman, now remains. A beautiful view of Oistin's is obtainable from Kendal Fort — so-called from James Kendal, Governor from 1689

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n8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES to 1694. A pathway across the fields leads to a spot where a few guns still remain, but the stonework has been removed. South Point Lighthouse (90 ft. high) which is built throughout of iron, also commands an extensive view. In the Parish Church of St. George a painting of the Resurrection by the American Quaker painter Benjamin West, afterwards President of the Royal Academy, is to be seen. Mr. Frere, the then owner of Lower Estate," commissioned West to paint the picture for the altar in 1786, but when the painting arrived it was put away in an outhouse on the estate in consequence of a dispute with Mr. Thomas, the Rector. It will be noticed that the eye of the centurion is damaged. This is due to the act of a carpenter of burglarious intent who broke into the outhouse and was so alarmed at the fixed manner in which the centurion was glaring at him that he pushed the eye in. The picture was sent to England to be repaired ; but West had meanwhile died, and no artist of repute would meddle with the work. The vestry once refused an offer of /2000 for the painting. Gun Hill, St. George (6 miles ; f hour by motor-car, 1 hour by carriage from Bridgetown), commands a fine view of the valley of St. George. In the event of any outbreak of illness the white troops used to camp at this spot, which is delightfully cool and healthy. On the side of the cliff is a grotesque British lion sculptured by Col. H. J. Wilkinson, and though as a work of art it cannot be compared with Thorwaldsen's masterpiece at Lucerne it is very cleverly executed. Below it is a quotation from the Vulgate of Psalm lxxii. 8 : DOMINABITUR A MARI VS AD MARE A FLUMINE VS AD TERMINOS ORBIS TERRARUM which is translated, He shall have dominion from sea to sea and from the river unto the ends of the world ; and the inscription is doubtful Latin : Hen. Joa. Wilkinson Gen. Coh. Ped. IX Britan. Trib. Castr. Sculpsit a.d. mdccclxviii. (Henry John Wilkinson, Colonel Commanding the 9th British Foot Regiment, tribune of the Camp, carved it in the year 1 868).

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BARBADOS 119 Welchman's Hall or Westwood Gully (1 hour by motor-car, 1^ hours by carriage by way of Warren's, Cane Garden and Holy Innocents Chapel), with its luxuriant tropical vegetation and Cole's Cave (also an hour's drive from Bridgetown) both deserve attention. Like most of the numerous gullies for which Barbados is famous, that of Welchman's Hall is of great interest and beauty. It can, however, only be explored on foot. These gullies are mostly situated in the north-west centre of the island. They are deep clefts like river-beds which cut the upper ridges at varying intervals from the centre to the west. After heavy rains they become tearing torrents which rush down to find an outlet in the sea ; but at ordinary times they hold no water, though great boulders and rocks brought down from the higher levels indicate the force of the flood. The cliffs in some places rise to a height of over 150 ft. and the scenery is decidedly fine. Many noble trees and beautiful palms, chiefly of the cabbage and macaw variety, clothe with their verdure the bottoms of the gullies, while the rocks and boulders are clad with every variety of creeper and fern, and wild flowers, including orchids, grow in profusion. In the sides of some of the gullies are curious caves. At Sion Hall, for example, there is one which is carpeted with ferns of rare beauty. It has also numerous small pools formed by the water which continually drips through the porous rock overhead. Here it is said that the monkeys came to quench their thirst and to seek shelter. In Lewis gully in St. Thomas are to be seen some stalactites w T hich assume fantastic shapes — one resembles a crocodile, and another an elephant's head. This gully has a grass road through it which ends in a narrow path like a Devonshire lane. Welchman's Hall or Westwood Gully is, however, the most attractive and picturesque of all. It is clothed with luxuriant tropical vegetation, while at the bottom a sparkling streamlet yields nourishment to an immense variety of ferns and creepers. Many of the gullies are spanned by massive stone bridges built for the most part during the old days of cheap slave labour. Indeed it is well that the bridges are massive, as they have to with-

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120 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES stand a tremendous rush of water after a tropical downpour of rain. In Cole's Cave, in St. Thomas (7 miles from Bridgetown ; \ hour by motor-car, 1 hour by carriage), a most interesting underground river can be seen. Permission must, however, first be obtained from the manager of Walke's Spring Estate, on which it is situated. It is also desirable to take a guide and torches. The entrance to the cave is at the bottom of a deep gully clothed with tropical vegetation. At a distance of about one hundred yards from the mouth the cave divides at the Fork into two branches, and from the side of the larger of these a clear stream issues. The cave a little farther on becomes more spacious, and forms a basin which has been called the Bath," but it then contracts again, and the outlet of the stream has never been discovered, though an old story is still current in the island that a duck was put into the water at the end of the accessible part of the cave and found a safe exit at Indian River in St. Michael. Schomburgk says : The duck, it is said, was exhausted and nearly stripped of its feathers, perhaps by passing through fissures and coming in contact with projecting rocks. The story is possible, but unlikely ; unfortunately there is another version of it which says that the duck was recovered in Scotland district. Richard Blome, writing in 1672, says that these caves were often the sanctuaries of such negro-slaves that run away, in which they oft-times lie a good while ere found out, seldome stirring in the day time. . And it is supposed that these caves were the habitations of the natives. Richard Ligon confirms this. In his True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes," published a year later, he says : The runaway negres, often shelter themselves in these Coverts, for a long time, and in the night range abroad the Countrey, and steale Pigs, Plantins, Potatoes, and Pullin, and bring it there ; and feast all day upon what they stole the night before ; and the nights being dark and their bodies black, they scape undiscern'd.

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BARBADOS 121 These thieves, it appears, used to be hunted down successfully by Liam Hounds." The Hole or Hole Town, St. James (7 miles ; \ hour by motor, f hour by carriage), is noteworthy as being the spot where the English in the Oliph Blossom first landed in 1605, and as being the landfall of Sir William Courteen's settlers, under Richard Deane, in 1627. The town was afterwards called James Town in honour of James I. The town has little of interest beyond the old Fort behind the Police Station and the Tercentenary Monument. The latter was unveiled on November 30, 1905. It is inscribed : 1605 — 1905 THIS MONUMENT COMMEMORATES THE TERCENTENARY OF THE FIRST LANDING OF ENGLISHMEN FROM THE OLIVE BLOSSOM," NEAR THIS SPOT ABOUT THE MONTH OF JULY 1605. THEY ERECTED A CROSS AND INSCRIBED ON A TREE THE WORDS JAMES K. OF E. AND THIS ISLAND," THUS CONSTITUTING POSSESSION FOR THE CROWN OF ENGLAND IN WHOSE UNINTERRUPTED POSSESSION THIS ISLAND HAS REMAINED. THE CORNER STONE WAS LAID ON THE 3OTH NOVEMBER I905. BY HIS EXCELLENCY SIR GILBERT T. CARTER, R.N., K.C.M.G. THE GOVERNOR OF THE ISLAND IN THE PRESENCE OF MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE AND A LARGE CONCOURSE OF THE INHABITANTS THE COST OF ERECTION WAS DEFRAYED BY PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTION OF THE INHABITANTS St. James's Church, Hole Town, boasts an old bell inscribed "God Bless King William 1696," also a font dated 1684, and very old communion plate. The bell was brought away by General Sir Timothy Thornhill from Martinique after a successful attack on that island. A curiously worded inscription on a monument to the wives of Sir John Gay Alleyne, whose family resided for generations at Porters {see below), should be read. Porters Wood (8 miles ; \ hour by motor-car, 1 hour by carriage from Bridgetown), with its flock of wild monkeys,

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122 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES which gaily disport themselves in the mahogany trees, and St. James's Church, are both very well worth attention. At Porters, now the residence of Dr. Graham Pilgrim, there is a very delightful swimming-bath, the origin of which is sufficiently explained by the following inscription which it bears : Invito dudleio woodbridge Arm Amante nihilominus munditias Aqua nimium inundante In Balnearium Hoc Conclave abiit vii Kal. Apr. mdccxxxv. Thos. Hill. Invenit. [Trans. This chamber was turned into a bath by Dudley Woodbridge, Esq<, reluctantly, though he loved cleanliness, because of its being constantly flooded. March 26, 1735. Sculptured by Thomas Hill.] Speights town (pronounced Spikestown), St. Peter (fhour by motor-car, i|hours by carriage from Bridgetown), formerly a shipping place of importance once enjo3^ed a considerable trade with Bristol, earning in consequence the name of Little Bristol. Mr. E. G. Sinckler, in his ' Handbook of Barbados, ' says that it was probably built on the lands of William Speight, a member of Governor Hawley's Parliament in 1639. Communication between it and Bridgetown is maintained by a fine fleet of schooners which perform the journey of 12 miles in 1^ hours. The town has a church — St. Peter— and several chapels. It is here that the flying-fish industry is best seen. Speightstown is also the headquarters of a small whaling industry. Speightstown used to be defended by Denmark Fort, which is now an alms-house. The guns and platform are still in a good state of preservation. All Saints, St. Peter, is the oldest church in the island. It has many stained glass windows and the tombs of William Arnold (one of the first settlers), Sir John A. Gibbons, Bart., and Sir Graham Briggs, Bart. St. Nicholas Abbey, St. Peter (i£ hours by motor, n\ hours by carriage from Bridgetown), is chiefly

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BARBADOS 123 remarkable because it is the only house in Barbados with fireplaces. It is built in late Elizabethan style, and is one of the oldest mansions in the island. The drawingroom is panelled with Barbados cedar. The proprietor is Mr. C. J. P. Cave. From Cherry Tree Hill, a short distance beyond the Abbey, there is a striking view of the Scotland District, with Hackleton's Cliff {see page 105) beyond. Farley Hill, in St. Peter's (16 miles ; \\ hours by motor-car, 3 hours by carriage from Bridgetown), the residence of the late Sir Graham Briggs, is notable as being the original home of the beautiful Farliense fern {A diantum Farliense). J. A. Froude stayed here in 1887. In the grounds are trees planted by Prince Alfred, afterwards Duke of Edinburgh, who visited the West Indies in the Euryalus in 1861, and by Princes Albert Victor and George (now King George V), who toured the Caribbean in H.M.S. Bacchante in 1879-80. From Grenade Hall, St. Peter, a disused signalstation near by, a fine view of the Scotland District can be obtained. At Turner's Hall Wood, St. Andrew (14 miles; 1^ hours by motor-car, 2 hours by carriage from Bridgetown), on a ridge stretching from the semicircular cliffs at the northeast, is seen the sole remnant of the virgin forest, which covers 46 acres of land and is now owned by Sir Hugo Fitzherbert, Bart., of Tissington Hall, in Derbyshire. It consists mainly of locust, cedar, fustic and bully trees, which once completely clothed the island. Of these, locust and fustic bulked largely among the exports of Barbados in the seventeenth century,. Near it are the borings of the West India Petroleum Company, and a tiny — so-called — boiling spring, the gas (carburetted hydrogen) rising through which can be ignited and used for cooking purposes on a very small scale. On the way to the wood, Porey Spring, St. Thomas' (7^miles from Bridgetown), and gully, can be visited. The spring has lost its picturesque appearance since it was artificially controlled, but the gully like that at Duns combe half a mile farther on, is very beautiful. The Animal Flower Cave, St. Lucy (21 miles ; \\ hours by motor-car, i\ hours by carriage from Bridgetown),

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I2 4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WESl? INDIES This remarkable cave was once only approachable by the cliff side, and a visit to it was in consequence not unattended by danger. It can now, however, be safely entered by a flight of stone steps at the back of the first cave, a large vaulted room about 80 feet long, 40 wide and 20 high, with several "portholes" overlooking the sea, through which the waves break with great force at high tide. The second cave contains a pool of water, and is called the Bathing Cave. From it the Carpet Room is reached. It has a pool of water in the centre, and it is here that the "animal flowers (sevpulce or sea-worms) used to flourish. Few now remain, however, the majority having been destroyed or carried off by predatory tourists. The fee for visiting the cave is is. per head, and a similar fee gives one the entree to a Rest House near by. Maycock's Fort, picturesquely situated in the same parish, is now bereft of its guns. Treasure is said to be buried there, but all endeavours to trace it have failed. The bay near by bears the ill-omened name of Hangman's Bay.

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CHAPTER VII BRITISH GUIANA AND BRITISH HONDURAS BRITISH GUIANA Dawius petimusque vicissim The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. British Guiana, which lies between latitudes g and i N. and longitudes 57 and 61 W. on the north-east coast of South America, to the south-east of the West Indian islands, has a total area of over 90,500 square miles, of which quite 99 per cent, are undeveloped. The colony has a coast-line of about 250 miles, and extends inland to a depth of nearly 600 miles. Of its population of 296,041 — 3.3 to the square mile, as compared with 1033 in Barbados — nearly one half consists of East Indian immigrants, who have been introduced every year, with one exception, in varying numbers since 1845. The inhabited portions of the colony are the alluvial flat which extends from mid-water mark to a distance inland of about ten miles, and the banks of the rivers for some distance from the mouths. The front lands, or lands on the sea-board, are flat and low, and the sea is kept out at high tide and the land drained by an elaborate system of sea-defences and canals established by the former Dutch owners. The soil, being alluvial, is naturally rich and fertile. The interior of the colony consists of swampy grass plains called savannahs, dense forests and bush, and ranges of mountains. The primitive forests are only occupied by a few Indians, with here and there a wood-cutter's, a golddigger's, or a diamond-washer's camp. A series of sandhills, now covered by tall forest trees, runs parallel to the 125

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126 POCKET CxUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES sea-coast beyond the savannahs, and it is supposed that these hills were left by the receding sea in remote times. The highest of the mountains is Roraima (8740 ft.), which, though precipitous near the summit, has been ascended on several occasions. The colony has four great rivers, the Demerara, the Essequibo (with its principal tributaries the Mazaruni, Cuyuni, Potaro, and Rupununi), and the Berbice, which give their names to the three counties, and the Corentyn, which divides British from Dutch Guiana. The Essequibo River, which drains more than half the area of the colony, is 600 miles long, and has an estuary 14 miles wide. The Demerara River is navigable for a distance of 80 miles and the Berbice for SS miles from their mouths ; but, generally speaking, the rivers are impeded above the tideway by numerous rapids, cataracts and falls, which render navigation of the upper reaches difficult. The principal waterfall is the Kaieteur on the Potaro River, which plunges over a tableland into a deep valley — a sheer drop of 740 ft. There is also a fine waterfall on the Kuribrong River and another on the Ireng River. Mention may also be made of the Pakatuk Falls, the Tumatumari cataract on the Potaro, and the Waraputa cataracts on the Essequibo. On the rocks at Waraputa may be seen some of the curious rock carvings called timehri by the Indians, the origin of which has never been discovered. The most notable of these picture writings is, however, on the Timehri rock on the Corentyn river. INDUSTRIES. Sugar, with its allied products — rum, molasses, and "Molascuit," a cattle food composed of the interior cellulose fibre of the sugar-cane mixed with molasses — constitutes by far the most important industry of British Guiana. Demerara sugar, which is manufactured in each of the three counties of the colony, has a name for excellence all the world over. The total area under sugar cultivation in the colony is about 69,600 acres, as compared with about 36,000 acres under rice ; 12,000 acres coco-nuts ; 3000 acres coffee ; and 2100 acres cocoa. The area under rice is being largely increased, and it is probable that this industry will undergo considerable development in the near future. Coffee and cotton were formerly produced in

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BRITISH GUIANA 127 large quantities in British Guiana ; but the cultivation of these crops, for which the soil is still admirably suited, languished after the abolition of slavery. On the extreme east coast of Demerara there is a considerable area under coco-nuts, and this form of cultivation is being extended. At Agatash, on the left bank of the Essequibo River, about two miles above Bartica, there is a fine lime estate on which citrate of lime is manufactured, and some of the islands below Bartica are devoted to tobacco-growing. Rubber — chiefly Hevea Brasiliensis — is rendering a good account of itself at the Government station, and on several private estates ; and the collection of balata from the tree known as Mimusops globosa forms an important industry. This gutta-percha-like substance is largely used for insulating purposes and in the manufacture of belting, &c. In the interior gold is recovered by placer washing, and also to a less extent by quartz-mining, while a system of dredging and hydraulic washing has been adopted with great success. Many kinds of timber are exported, including the valuable greenheart, mora, &c. British Guiana greenheart (Nectandra Rodicei) has been largely used for the locks, &c, on the Manchester Ship Canal and more recently on the Panama Canal. The principal exports from British Guiana during the financial year 1 9 1 2 were as follows : Product. Quantity. Value. Sugar .... Rum (proof) Molascuit or Cattle Food 77,788 tons 2,382,937 galls. — tons £1,019,489 149,01 1 I 7, I 4S Molasses Gold .... Diamonds 176,011 galls. 48,779 oz. 5,229 carats 7,489 177,968 6,861 Balata .... Timber 705,214 lbs. 284,530 cub. ft. ioi,547 13,091 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table on next page showing the revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years.

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128 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. 5 i i i £ 1903-4 555.853 530,225 1,656,023 1,810,038 1904-5 512,972 511,182 i,537,59i 1,991,048 1905-6 522,493 506,173 1,662,205 1,994,394 1906-7 535,745 514,053 1,690,804 1,843,107 1907-8 546,882 519,706 1,765,358 1,711,543 1908-9 540,053 539,196 1,838,947 2,104,176 1909-10 540,269 546,7H 1,774,457 1,985,337 1910-11 563,101 542,758 1,749,766 1,820,198 1911-12 593.499 558,626 1,814,180 2,172,766 1912-13 580,446 590,745 1,703,355 1,798,597 Calenc iar years after 1910-1 1. Imports. Exports 52.75 40.34 6-59 40.27 5.OI 3-57 31-45 11.84 The direction of the trade of the colony in 191 2 was as follows : United Kingdom Canada Other British Colonies Foreign countries CLIMATE. The climate of British Guiana compares favourably with that of other tropical countries, and is by no means so unhealthy as people at home have been led to believe. The temperature is uniform, rarely rising above] 92 Fahr. or falling below 75 Fahr. The mean annuals temperature of Georgetown is 82 Fahr., and the average rainfall of the colony about 90 inches. On the high lands in the interior the climate is not unlike that of British East Africa. The long rainy season lasts from about the middle of April until August, and the short rainy season through December and January. The birth-rate is 27.3 and the death-rate 30.8 per 1000. HISTORY. The history of Guiana is interesting from the fact that it was one of the first countries in which Englishmen attempted to settle. The name is derived from an Indian word meaning water," which was given to the region extending from the River Orinoco to the Amazon. In 1498, when on his third voyage, Columbus, after sighting

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BRITISH GUIANA 129 Trinidad, passed the mouth of the Orinoco. In the following year Amerigo Vespucci coasted along Guiana, and in 1500 Pinzon, after discovering the Amazon, passed along the whole coast of Guiana to the Orinoco. The Spaniards however, never settled in the country on account of the hostility of the cannibals, but other Europeans managed to secure the warmest friendship of the savages. In 1595 Sir Walter Ralegh visited the Guianas in search of the mythical City of Gold, the El Dorado which had existed in the imagination of the Spaniards for nearly a century. The belief in the existence of this city was based on the tales of a Spanish soldier, who was set adrift by his companions when on an exploring expedition up the Orinoco. On finding his way back some months after, he told how he had been taken by the Indians to a great inland lake with golden sands, on which was a vast city roofed with gold. After exploring the Orinoco, Sir Walter Ralegh returned to England and published the Disco verie of Guiana." On Tortuga Island in the Orinoco not far from Manoa, the spot where Sir Walter Ralegh's son was buried is pointed out. After Ralegh's visit the country was made known to Europeans, and English, French, and Dutch traders were often seen on the coast. The Spaniards tried to drive them away, and in a few cases destroyed the trading stations ; but ultimately settlements were made, the earliest known in what is now British Guiana being a fort on a small island at the confluence of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni rivers, which they called Kyk-over-al, or Look over all," from its commanding situation. A settlement was also formed on Fort Island, near the mouth of the Essequibo, which became the seat of government of the colony of Essequibo — now one of the counties of British Guiana. The date of the foundation of the settlement at Kyk-over-al is uncertain, but it may be fixed at about 1620. It came into the possession of the Dutch West India Company, which was incorporated in 1621 and was by the terms of its charter supreme among all the Dutch possessions in America. In 1624 the colony of Berbice — now another county of British Guiana — was founded by Van Peere, a merchant of Flushing, under

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130 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES licence from the company. The central colony of Demerara was an offshoot from Essequibo, and was established in 1745. In 1740 settlers from other nations, mainly English, began to arrive from the West India Islands in considerable numbers, the Dutch were quite outnumbered, and Stabroek — now Georgetown — became a town of importance. The Dutch and English came into a state of open conflict in 1780, and in the following year all three settlements capitulated to Great Britain. In 1782 the English were defeated by the French, and in 1783 the colonies were restored to the Dutch, who retained them until 1796, when they were captured by a British fleet from Barbados. They were again restored to the Dutch by the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, but in the next year they capitulated to the English, to whom they were finally ceded ini8i4. Ini83i the three colonies were united under the name British Guiana, of which Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice were declared to be counties in 1838. CONSTITUTION. The Constitution of British Guiana differs from that of any other West Indian colony. It comprises a Governor, an Executive Council, a Court of Policy, and a Combined Court, the last consisting of the Governor and members of the Court of Policy and six financial representatives. The members of the Court of Policy, whose duties are now purely legislative, used to be elected by a College of Electors, but they are now elected by the direct vote of the people. The Combined Court has the power of imposing colonial taxes and auditing accounts, and discussing freely the estimates prepared by the Governor in Executive Council, in which the administrative functions of the Court of Policy are now vested. Governors of British Guiana since 1 896 Sir A. W. L. Hemming, K.C.M.G. 1896 Sir Walter J. Sendall, G.C.M.G. 1898 Sir Alexander Swettenham, K.C.M.G. 1901 Sir Frederic M. Hodgson, K.C.M.G. 1904 Sir Walter Egerton, K.C.M.G. 1912 HOTELS. Georgetown. The Hotel Tower, in Main Street, is recommended. Rooms, 4s. 2d. per night ; board

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BRITISH GUIANA 131 and lodging, from 8s. 4$. to 10s. $d. per day. The Victoria Hotel, High Street : board and lodging, 10s. per day j special terms per month. The Ice House Hotel, Stabroek : board and lodging, 6s. 3d. per day ; special terms per month. Good lodgings are obtainable at the houses of Mrs. Stephenson, Mrs. U. R. White, Miss Coombs, Mrs. July, and Miss Van Sertima, all in Main Street, of Mrs. Simpson in Camp Street, and of Miss Jones in Middle Street; board and lodging terms about 6s. 3d. per day. There are also hotels at New Amsterdam, at Bartica, Morawhanna and Mount Everard in the North-west district, and at Rockstone (Sprostons' Hotel), at which the terms are moderate. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. British Guiana is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, and 19 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Most steamers go alongside the wharves, or stellings as they are called. Most of the leading residents in Georgetown hire carriages from the Georgetown Livery Stables Co. or W. P. Humphrey, instead of keeping their own. Terms : pair-horse carriages, ys. 6d. first hour, 55. per hour after. Single carriage, 4s. first hour, 3s. 4d. per hour after. Bicycles can be hired for £2 per month. Motor-cars can also be hired. The Demerara Railway Company has two railways in the colony, namely, the Demerara and Berbice Railway, which runs along the east coast from Georgetown to Rosignol (3 hours), and the West Coast Railway, which runs along the west coast to Parika (i8£ miles ; 50 min.). The first portion of the railway was opened as far back as 1848 and is therefore the pioneer railway of South America. On the Demerara and Berbice Railway passengers may be taken up or set down at any of the recognised side lines, namely, Success, La Bonne Intention, Mon Repos, Lusignan, and Nonpareil, on payment of an extra fare of 48 cents for each stop outside the station. First-class return tickets are issued at single fare and onethird. Special arrangements for Saturday to Monday. The names of the stations, their distance from Georgetown, and the fares are given in the tables on the following page. At the stations marked with

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132 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES i Fares from Demerara and Berhice Distance Georgetown. Railway. from Georgetown STATIONS. 1st Single. 2nd Single. Miles. Cents. Cents. Georgetown — — — Kitty if 12 6 Plaisance 5 28 14 Beterverwagting 7l 40 20 Buxton 10} 56 28 Nonpareil — Enmore !3i 68 34 Golden Grove — Belfield n\ 80 40 Clonbrook i.7i 88 44 Mahaica 2\\ 108 54 De Kinderen 26^ 140 70 Mahaicony 32i 160 80 Belladrum 4Q| 200 100 Lichfield 44i 220 no Fort Wellington 5i 256 128 Rosignol (for New Amsterdam ) 66} 300 150 Distance from Vreeden-Hoop. Fares from Georgetown West Coast Railway. STATIONS. (including Ferry). I St Single. ilable for following fare. 2nd Single. Miles. Cents. Cents. Vreed-en-Hoop — 12 ava the ngle 6 Windsor Forest 28 14 Blankenburg — 36 i2 '™ 18 Hague 6f 36 ckei sue the 18 Leonora 8| 40 20 Uitvlugt 48 +3 .% jv 24 Boeraserie 12 5 2 go-g 26 Tuschen 13* 60 2 >>£ -f-> e& t? 30 Greenwich Park 15 64 Re thed day) 32 Parika iSj 84 42 Trains stop when required at these stations.

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BRITISH GUIANA 133 an asterisk trains can be stopped by signals or on notifying the conductor at the preceding station. The Head Office of the Demerara Railway Company (H. G. McMurdie, secretary) is at no Cannon Street, London, E.C. There is a motor-bus service between New Amsterdam and Skeldon (47 miles) on the extreme eastern boundary of the colony. Ferry-boats cross the Demerara River between Georgetown and Vreed-en-Hoop at frequent intervals (fares : 1st class, 12 cents ; 2nd class, 8 cents) ; the Berbice River between New Amsterdam, Rosignol, and Blairmont — (fares : 1st class, 16 cents ; 2nd class, 8 cents) ; and the Essequibo River between Tuschen and Leguan Island (fares : istclass, 32 cents ; 2nd class, 16 cents). There is a short railway between Wismar, a small settlement sixtyfive miles up the Demerara River, which is reached daily, Sundays excepted, by Sprostons' steamers, and Rockstone on the Essequibo ; and Government and Sprostons' steamers Ltd. visit many other points of interest in the colony. The enterprising company (Sprostons Ltd.) has arranged a series of select week-end trips at very moderate prices which include full board and lodging. The regular services of the company are as follows : (1) From Georgetown to Suddie, Essequibo, calling at Leguan, Wakenaam, and Aurora daily, returning on the same day. (2) From Georgetown to New Amsterdam (Berbice) every Monday and Thursday evening, returning every Tuesday and Friday evening. (3) From Georgetown to Mount Everard, every Tuesday at 12.30 p.m., returning to Georgetown on Fridays, and calling at Morawhanna both ways. A launch runs between Mount Everard and Arakaka on the Barima for the purpose of carrying mails and passengers, and towing batteaux when there is sufficient water in the river. (4) From Georgetown to H.M. Penal Settlement, and then to Bartica Grove, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday at 8.30 a.m., returning on Wednesday, Friday, and Monday, touching at Tuschen both ways, leaving Bartica at 8 a.m. The steamer does not, however, call at the Settlement on Court days, which fall on every first and third Tuesday in the month. (5) From Wismar for Akyma and Mallali, every Wednesday and Saturday at 6.30 a.m., returning every Tuesday and Friday at 8.30 a.m.

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134 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES (6) From New Amsterdam at 7 a.m. every Monday and Thursday, touching at intermediate stations, and arriving at Coomacka at about 9 p.m. From Coomacka on Tuesdays at 9 a.m., touching at intermediate stations, arriving at Mara at about 6 p.m. on Tuesdays, leaving there on Wednesdays at 7 a.m., and arriving at New Amsterdam at about 9 a.m. On Fridays the steamer runs through to New Amsterdam, leaving Coomacka at about 5.30 a.m., and arriving at New Amsterdam about 6.30 a.m. The days and hours of departure are subject to variation, and inquiries should be made at the stellings or landing-places, or at Messrs. Sprostons' ofhces, Lots 3 to 6, Lombard Street, Georgetown. The fares are as follows : Essequibo Route 1st Class. 2nd Class. Georgetown to Leguan . Si. 00 $0.48 ,, Wakenaam . 1.50 0.48 ,, Aurora . 2.00 0.48 Suddie . 2.00 0.48 Berbice Route 1st Class. 2nd Class. Georgetown to New Amsterdam $1.44 $0.72 Essequibo River 1 st Class. 2nd Class. Georgetown to Tuschen . $1.00 So. 24 H.M. Penal Settlement . 2.00 0.64 Bartica . 2.00 0.64 The fares for the return journey are the same. Berbice River Service 1st Class. 2nd Class. New Amsterdam to Mara . $0.68 $0.24 ,, Bartica S telling 1.50 0.50 , Friendship (Patoir's) . 2.04 0.68 ,, Coomacka . 3.00 1. 00 Tramcars. Georgetown has an admirable service of electric tramcars conducted by the Demerara Electric Company Ltd., a Canadian undertaking with a capital of $900,000. The routes are as follows : (1) Belt Line. Company's Office, Water and Croal Streets, crossing Camp Street, New Garden Street (cricket ground), Middle Street, and crossing Camp Street and Main Street into Water Street. (2) Sea Wall Line. Platform (Sea Wall), Main Street, Ben-

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BRITISH GUIANA 135 tinck Street, Water Street, Lombard and Broad Streets, Croal and Camp Streets, and Camp Road. (3) La Penitence and Church Street Line. La Penitence, Stabroek Market, Company's Office, Church Street, Water Works, New North Road, New Garden Street, and vice versa. (4) East Bank Line. Main Street, through Water Street, Lombard Street, Albouystown, La Penitence, along the public road, running through the sugar plantations, Ruimveldt and Houston to the terminus at Peter's Hall. The cars run at intervals of fifteen minutes throughout the day, and stop at positions marked by poles painted white. The schedule of fares is : Single fare, 5 cents ; tickets purchased in strips of three, 12 cents per strip ; children's tickets in strips of nine, 24 cents per strip. Transfer tickets from any one line to another are free. Special cars can be engaged for trolley parties for $2.50 per hour. SPORTS. Cricket, lawn-tennis, golf, and football are popular, the principal clubs being the Georgetown Cricket Club, with its ground at Bourda, the Demerara Golf Club, with links at Turkeyen (4^ miles from Georgetown), the Georgetown Football Club, and La Penitence and Vreeden-Hoop Lawn-tennis Clubs. For wet bobs there is the Demerara Rowing Club, with a boathouse at La Penitence, and the Ituni Rowing Club in Berbice. There is a capital racecourse at Bel Air near Georgetown, the property of the Demerara Turf Club Ltd., which has succeeded the D' Urban Race Club, an institution founded by Governor Sir Benjamin D'Urban on September 28, 1829. Berbice has also a very good course. SOCIAL CLUBS. The Georgetown Club, founded in 1858, is quite one of the best in this part of the world, and it is extremely hospitable to visitors, who are introduced by members. Above it are the Assembly Rooms, which can be used either as a theatre or a ball-room. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The front lands of British Guiana are below the level of the sea, and the first view of the Magnificent Province, as the colony is called, is not, therefore, inspiring. The sea is muddy, owing to the matter in it brought down by the mighty rivers and kept in suspension by the opposing forces of the great ocean currents. The monotony of the long and low coast-line fringed with bush and scrub is broken here and there only

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136 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES by the tall chimneys of the sugar factories. Ten miles from the coast the steamer passes the Demerara Lightship rolling at anchor. Georgetown (population 57,577), the capital of British Guiana, was founded by the British in 1 78 1 and laid out by the French in the three following years. It was given the name Stabroek as a compliment to the Lord of Stabroek in Holland on the return of the Dutch in 1784, but was called Georgetown in 1812. The original town now forms the Stabroek district of the capital. The town lies on the right bank of the Demerara River, near the mouth of which is the protecting Fort William Frederick. The streets are wide and clean, and the houses — with few exceptions — are constructed of wood, and are raised upon brick pillars from 8 to 10 ft. high to keep them from damp emanations from the ground. With their windows protected by green Venetian jalousies they are not unpicturesque and are certainly deliciously cool. The numerous street trees and gay gardens of the private houses, with their wealth of foliage and flowers, have earned for Georgetown the designation of the Garden City of the West Indies." The streets are laid out in rectangular blocks and some of them are intersected by open canals or freshwater trenches. In these nourishes the gorgeous Victoria Regia lily which, discovered by Haenke in South America in 1 80 1, was first found in British Guiana on Gluck Island in the Essequibo. The trenches are also inhabited by a whole colony of frogs, whose whistling and croaking form a rather unmusical accompaniment to the barking of dogs and the crowing of cocks which are features of the so-called still tropical night." The city is well lighted with electricity and is provided with an excellent electric tram and telephone service. It is supplied with water from the Lamaha Canal, which connects with the Lamaha, a branch of the Lama Creek, a tributary of the Mahaica, some twenty miles distant. The water is pumped from a reservoir at the Camp Street waterworks into the service pipes of the city. Artesian wells have recently been bored with success and form an additional source of water-supply. On landing at the stelling or wharf, one enters Water Street, the leading commercial centre of the city, which

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BRITISH GUIANA 137 runs parallel to the right bank of the Demerara River for about two miles. It is in this street that the principal merchants' offices are situated. In it and in Lombard Street are many very attractive shops and stores. Not far from the stellings stands the Stabroek Market, a huge iron and glass structure 80,000 sq. ft. in area (1882), which in the early hours of the morning presents a scene of great activity, while at the other end the Reading Room and Museum of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society (an institution founded in 1844 and incorporated in 1866) occupy a prominent position. The museum is open free every day, and those who have not time to visit the interior of the colony may get some idea of what life in it is like from the Natural History collection and picture gallery of local views. A large proportion of the fauna of British Guiana can be studied as mounted specimens, and so also can Indian curios of every kind, relics of cannibal feasts, stone implements, specimens of rocks, including gold quartz and diamondiferous gravels, and in fact almost everything found, grown, or made in British Guiana. Adjoining the Museum is the Reading Room, to which a visitor may be introduced by a member of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society. It contains a respectable collection of English newspapers, reviews, and magazines. It has also a comprehensive number of works of standard authors and of local books, which can be inspected on application to the librarian. Before leaving the building the visitor should ascend to the top of the signal tower, which surmounts it, to obtain a view of Georgetown. A still better view can be enjoyed from the Lighthouse. The General Post Office, centrally situated in a building which was formerly the Tower Hotel at the corner of North and Hincks Streets, is open from 6 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. There are also several branch offices. The Free Public Library and Reading Room at the corner of Church and Main Streets was the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie. To the south-east of Stabroek Market are the Public Buildings, in which the Government offices are situated, and where the meetings of the Legislature are held. They

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138 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES are built of brick, iron and stucco, and date from the early thirties. Government House, which has fine reception rooms and cool bedrooms, stands between Main and Carmichael Streets in spacious grounds. The Victoria Law Courts form an imposing group of buildings in the High Street in line with the Town Hall, a handsome modernised Gothic building designed by the Rev. Ignatius Scoles, SJ. (1889). The Law Courts, built of concrete and wood, were designed by Baron Siccama and opened on the late Queen Victoria's birthday, May 24, 1887. Besides the Supreme Court they contain the offices of the Department of Lands and Mines, the Harbour Master, the Official Receiver, the Surgeon-General, and the Law Officers of the Crown. In front of the Law Courts is a marble statue of Queen Victoria erected by the citizens in 1894 in commemoration of her Jubilee. The Anglican Cathedral, dedicated to St. George, is an airy building capable of seating 1500 people. The first English church in Georgetown — then Stabroek — was built in 1809 and was known as the chapel of St. George. It was succeeded by a brick structure which became unsafe in 1877 and gave place to a temporary building called the Pro Cathedral. The foundation-stone of the present building, which was designed by Sir A. Blomfield, was laid in 1889, and in 1892 Bishop Austin, Primate of the West Indies, celebrated his jubilee as a bishop and officiated in the Cathedral for the first time. A special feature of the fabric is its immense height, which is well calculated to show off to advantage the magnificent timber of the colony of which it is constructed. It contains many memorial tablets of interest and some fine stained-glass windows. Those in the baptistery were the gift of Bishop Swaby, now Bishop of Barbados and the Windward Islands, who succeeded Bishop Austin in the see. The marble font, also the gift of Bishop Swaby, representing an angel holding a shell, is similar in form to one in Inverness Cathedral and is very beautiful. The handsome wrought-iron chancel screen was the gift of Mrs. Woodgate Jones and the side screen was presented by the married ladies of the colony.

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BRITISH GUIANA 139 The altar rails were the gift of Professor Austin of Salt Lake City. The electrolier in the chancel was given by the late Queen Victoria, the brass cross at the altar by the Church of Antigua, and the lectern by the Church of Barbados on the occasion of Bishop Austin's jubilee. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, which was designed by the late C. Castellani and was opened in 1 87 1, was completely destroyed by fire on March 7, 191 3. It was a noble example of colonial architecture and cost $140,000 to build. Another Roman Catholic church of importance is that of the Sacred Heart in Main Street. The rooms of the Ladies' Self-Help Association, an institution founded by Lady Egerton, wife of Sir Walter Egerton, are almost opposite the church. St. Andrew's Kirk, at the corner of High Street and Brickdam, with its high steeple and quaint double-angled roof, is historically interesting. Begun in 181 1 as a kerk by the Dutch, it was opened as a kirk by the Presbyterians in 181 8. The building still rests on the low wall of red bricks laid by the Hollanders. The roof is made of greenheart black with age and as hard as a bone." There are several other churches belonging to Anglicans, Presbyterians, Wesleyans, Congregationalists, besides other Christian denominations, two Roman Catholic convents, a Mohammedan mosque, and a Hindoo temple. The Promenade Gardens are interesting, though small. They are near the centre of the city, and form, together with the Sea Wall and Botanical Gardens, the principal afternoon resort of the people. Both can be reached by tramcar. The Sea Wall, which extends from Fort William Frederick at the mouth of the Demerara River to Plantation Kitty on the east coast, was begun in 1858 and took thirty-four years to complete. It was built mainly by convict labour with granite brought from the penal settlement on the Mazaruni River. The excellent band of the Georgetown Militia plays at these places alternately with the Botanic Gardens^ one day a week being devoted to each. The Botanic Gardens, 150 acres in extent, at Vlissengen, at the back of the town, are easily reached by electric tram.

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140 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES In the north wall of the Lodge a clock was placed in 1909, with a brass tablet to perpetuate the memory of Mr. George Samuel Jenman, Government Botanist and Superintendent of the Gardens from 1879 to 1902, to whose knowledge, skill, and work the colony is indebted for the laying out of the Gardens and the formation of the herbarium." Here there is to be seen a large variety of palms, including the cabbage palm, the aeta, the coco-nut palm, besides the traveller's tree, so called because water is always to be found at the base of the leaf, and many other tropical trees of great beauty. Here, too, will be found the magnificent Victoria Regia water-lilies in the ponds. Many of the leaves measure from 4 to 5 ft. in diameter ; and being turned up at the edge they closely resemble large green trays. They and the Indian nelumbrium are weeds in the colony ; but these are by no means all, for there are red, white, and blue nympheas in all their wealth of beauty. There are also nurseries and trial fields, covering an area of about forty acres, where experiments with many varieties of economic products, and especially with seedling canes, are conducted. Formerly, new varieties of cane were only obtainable by chance variation. Now the minutely subdivided arrow or bloom of a full-sized cane is laid on the top of a rich soil in a wooden tray, the soil having been previously baked in order to kill all weeds, and the fertilised seeds germinated in the ordinary manner. When about an inch high, the tiny grass-like shoots are transplanted into baskets and eventually bedded out in the experimental cane grounds adjoining. Throughout its whole career, each cane selected for further test is known by a number prefixed with a letter indicating the colony of origin — thus D stands for Demerara — so that when a variety turns out favourably its history can immediately be traced. In the garden lakes can be seen alligators and some specimens of the manatee or water cow. Among the recognised sights of Georgetown is a noble avenue of cabbage palms along the front of Plantation Houston. A delightful drive can be taken on the electric cars (East Bank line, seepage 135) from Main Street through this avenue. By this line one can reach the^Chinese

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:; a IN THE BOTANIC GARDENS, BRITISH GUIANA The graceful tree on the right is the Fan or Traveller's Tree A STREET IN GEORGETOWN, BRITISH GUIANA Showing a Trench with the Victoria Regia Lily growing in it

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BRITISH GUIANA 141 Quarter in the Werk-en-Rust district of Georgetown, which is well worth a visit. Here many quaint Oriental ornaments may be purchased. Save for a propensity for gambling which has periodically to be checked, the Chinese live quietly in the colony, and give little or no trouble, forming excellent and useful colonists : many of them, too, are good churchmen. The line also passes in front of the East Indian settlements to the terminus at Peter's Hall, four miles out of the town. There is a shorter but scarcely less handsome avenue on the outskirts of the city near the Orphan Asylum at the end of "Brickdam 9 a broad boulevard bordered by a trench. The name Brickdam reminds one that the roads are paved with red brick clinkers which obviate the glare that is so unpleasant in Barbados and elsewhere. New Amsterdam (population about 9000), the capital of Berbice, is reached from Georgetown by Sprostons' steamer in 6| hours, by rail to Rosignol in 3 hours, and thence by ferry-boat (j hour) or by road and ferry. By the latter the journey is fatiguing and monotonous unless undertaken in a motor-car. Numerous native villages are passed which were established by the negroes immediately after the abolition of slavery. In Demerara the largest of these villages are Buxton and Plaisance, each with over 3000 inhabitants. New Amsterdam is situated on the right bank of the Berbice River, near the mouth of a tributary of the Canje creek. The town is very clean and is lighted by electricity, but it has by no means such a bustling appearance as Georgetown. Indeed, Anthony Trollope said that three people made a crowd in New Amsterdam, which resembles an old Dutch town rather than an English one, though the old Dutch capital of Berbice was Nassau, 100 miles up the river. The city has only two streets of importance, Main Street and the Strand In the Promenade Gardens, which with the Esplanade are the most popular places of recreation, is a statue of the late Queen Victoria. All Saints Church (Anglican), which is conspicuous near the steamer stelling, was consecrated by Bishop Coleridge in 1839. It has a stained-glass window which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1851, and was

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142 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES presented by Queen Victoria. The handsome electrolier was subscribed for by members of the church in memory of Bishop Austin. To the left of the west door is a brass to the memory of Sir Henry Katz Davson, Chairman of the West India Committee, January 7 to February 21, 1909, and Deputy Chairman, June 23, 1898, to January 7, 1909, erected by the Executive and unveiled on their behalf by the then Governor, Sir Frederic Hodgson, on April 23, 1910. The Berbice Race-course, which lies behind the town, is justly considered to be one of the finest in the West Indies. It was opened in 1909, and spring and autumn race-meetings, at which horses from the islands as well as the colony compete, are held every year. Sugar Factories. No visitor should on any account leave the colony without first inspecting one of the sugar factories (one of the finest is on Plantation Diamond, 8 miles from Georgetown), and endeavouring to visit The Bush." If time is not limited, a trip to one of the creeks of the Demerara River will fully repay the trouble. Few places in the world are so interesting, and if the stranger gets a sight of the native Indian under primitive conditions, he will feel that the so-called savage is one of nature's gentlemen. Reserved and quiet, he has gone on his way through the ages without trouble or worry, minding his own business and retiring before other races. There is no reason to be afraid of him, for he is the gentlest person in the country. Again, the tales of jaguars, snakes, and venomous creatures are all exaggerated. A sportsman or a naturalist would be fortunate indeed if he met with any of these. No doubt they are present, but they are only to be found in the bush and by those who know where to look for them. Sprostons' steamers afford opportunities for making many expeditions at a small cost. Leguan, Wakenaam, and Sutidie can be visited in one day. Suddie lies on the Arabian coast on the west side of the mouth of the Essequibo River, and is the centre from which Onderneeming, with its Government farm and Experiment station, the Ituribisce and Capoey Lakes, and the Pomeroon dis-

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BRITISH GUIANA 143 trict can be reached. The steamer skirts various islands at the mouth of the Essequibo, among them being Dauntless Island, which had a romantic origin. Mr. James Rodway, in his fascinating book In the Guiana Forest," gives the following account of it : At the beginning of this century the charts of the mouth of the River Essequibo showed a bank of hard sand, dry at low water," to the east of Leguan Island. This place continued as a sandbank for over sixty years — how long it had been in existence before is doubtful, but we may safely state that it could hardly have been less than a century altogether, and from all appearances it might remain in the same condition for as long again. About the year 1862, however, an estates' schooner, named the Dauntless, was wrecked on this Leguan Bank, partly broken up and embedded in the sand, where its presence was shown by a slight elevation, and one or two ribs sticking out above the surface. These jagged points arrested a few pieces of the tangle which came down the river, and on this were deposited some seed of the courida. Then began the work of building up an island which to-day is about two miles long by one broad, and is known on the chart as Dauntless Island." Tumatumari Falls, on the Essequibo River, the starting point for the gold-fields, is reached by steamer up the Demerara River to Wismar (65 miles), from there by light railway to Rockstone (18 miles), a small clearing on the right bank of the Essequibo, which here takes a tremendous sweep to the left, and thence by launch, four to six days being required for the expedition. Above Wismar on the Demerara River are the villages of Akyma and Mallali. For those with less time at their disposal, the trip from Rockstone to the Etaballi Falls is recommended. This trip can be easily taken from Georgetown within a weekend. On the rail journey Greenheart Camp, a centre of the timber industry, is passed. A lively boat's crew of Bucks or aboriginal Indians and Bovianders," as the cross between the old Dutch inhabitants and Buck is called, paddle one down eight miles to the Etaballi Falls, the passage of which is very exciting. The captain stands on the poop steering with a paddle tied to the gunwale and exhorting his crew. With much jabbering and singing of chanties and hymns, they propel the boat at a great pace,

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i 4 4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The river near here is about three miles wide, and what appears to be the bank often turns out to be a huge island. The midday meal can be partaken of on the river bank, and the return journey made in four or five hours. The boat's crew, stripping themselves to the skin and leaping into the water, haul the boat up the rapids when occasion requires. The village of Bartica, forty -five miles up the Essequibo, is a favourite spot to visit. It sprang into existence at the time of the gold boom and was first known as Bartica Grove, from a grove of mango trees there. To the north-west of Bartica is the penal settlement for prisoners undergoing long terms of imprisonment. There is a launch and boat service from Bartica up the Cuyuni to Camaria Falls three times a week, and from there a launch runs to Matope Falls. Kyk-over-al. At the confluence of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni Rivers, to the south-west of the penal settlement, is the site of the old Dutch fort Kyk-over-al, of which a few traces still remain. Kartabo, or Cartabu, Point near by is the starting-place for Peter's mine, reached by a bridge 200 ft. over the Puruni River. Omai, seventy miles above Bartica, on the left bank of the Essequibo, is another important mining-centre. Mount Everard. A four days' trip via the mouth of the Waini River and the Morawhanna passage to the Barima River and thence to Mount Everard, the starting-place by launch or boat for Koriabo (25 miles) and the Arakaka goldfields (106 miles), is recommended as affording a good opportunity of seeing the tropical forest in comfort. There are rest-houses at Mount Everard and Arakaka. Morawhanna, the chief Government station of what is called the North-west District, is situated 160 miles to the northwest of Georgetown. Gold was discovered in the neighbourhood in about 1889. Mount Everard was so named after Sir Everard im Thurn. Kaieteur Fall. The Kaieteur, or Old Man's, Fall, on the upper branch of the river Potaro, a tributary of the Essequibo, was discovered by Mr. Barrington Brown, of the Geological Survey, on April 24, 1870. The Potaro River here flows over a sandstone and conglomerate table-

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ALL THAT REMAINS OF KYK-OVER-AL, BRITISH GUIANA The original Dutch settlement at the confluence of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni Rivers

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BRITISH GUIANA 145 land into a deep valley below, with a total fall of 822 feet, or five times the height of Niagara. For the first 741 feet the water falls as a perpendicular column into a basin below, from which it continues its downward course over a sloping cataract 81 feet in height, and through the interstices of great blocks of rock, to the river below. The width varies from 350 feet in the dry season to 400 feet in the rainy season, and the depth similarly varies from a very few feet to 20 feet. Mr. (now Sir) E. im Thurn, who was formerly Government Agent of the North-west District, thus describes the fall, which he first visited in November 1878 : It was at Amatuk, that is, on first entering the Kaieteur ravine, that we reached the most beautiful scenery of that beautiful river. If the whole valley of the Potaro is fairyland, then the Kaieteur ravine is the penetralia of fairyland. Here, owing to the moisture-collecting nature of the sandstone rock, the green of the plants would seem yet greener and more varied. Under the thick shades were countless streamlets trickling over little ledges of rock among pigmy forests of filmy ferns and mosses. The small feather-like tufts of these ferns, each formed of many half-transparent fronds of a dark cool-looking green colour, were exquisite. Larger ferns, with a crowd of ariods, orchids, and other plants, covered the rocks between these streams in new and marvellous luxuriance. Two curious forms of leafless white-stalked parasitic gentians (voyria), one yellow the other white, were especially noticeable. On either side rose the tall granite cliffs, which form the sides of the ravine ; the sandstone rock, of which they are a part, extends in an unbroken piece from this to Roraima. The appearance of their perpendicular tree-crowned walls, broken here and there by gaps, recalls the pictures of that mountain. Far up on the faces of the cliffs were ledges, on which grew a few green plants. Some idea of the size of these cliffs may be drawn from the fact that the field-glasses showed these plants to be tall forest trees. . After two hours' climb through the forest, we came out on the savannah from which the Kaieteur falls. . Crossing the savannah we soon reached the Kaieteur cliffs. Lying at full length on the ground, head over the edge of the cliff, I gazed down. Then, and only then, the splendid and, in the most solemn sense of the word, awful beauty of the Kaieteur burst upon me. Seven hundred and fifty feet below, encircled in black boulders, lay a great pool, into which the columns of white water, graceful as a ceaseless flight of innumerable rockets, thundered from by my side. Behind the Fall, through the thinnest parts of the veil of foam and mist, a great black cavern made the white of the water look yet more white. K

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146 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Sir E. im Thurn visited the Fall again in 1879. This second visit was made at the end of a heavy rainy season, when the scene presented a much grander aspect. He thus describes it : Crossing the savannah, and coming to the edge of the cliff over which the Potaro falls, we once more lay down, bodies along the top of the cliff, heads over its edge. It was a very different scene from the last time. Then it was beautiful and terrible ; but now it was something which it is useless to try to describe. Then a narrow river, not a third of its present width, fell over a cliff in a column of white water, and was brought into startling prominence by the darkness of the great cave behind ; and this column of water before it reached the small black pool below had narrowed to a point. Now an indescribable, almost inconceivable, vast curtain of water — I can find no other phrase — some 400 ft. in width, rolled over the top of the cliff, retaining its full width until it crushed into the boiling water of the pool which filled the whole space below ; and at the surface of this pool itself only the outer edge was visible, for the greater part was beaten and hurled up in a great high mass of surf and foam and spray. In recent years the Fall has been visited by quite a number of visitors, and the enterprising firm of Sprostons Ltd., the pioneers of internal communication in the colony, has rendered an expedition to it possible even for those who only spend a few weeks in British Guiana. The firm gives the following rough outline of the proposed itinerary to and from Kaieteur : First day. Leave Georgetown by steamer at 8 a.m. and arrive Wismar about 4 p.m. Leave Wismar by train about 5 p.m. and arrive Rockstone 6.15 p.m. Second day. Leave Rockstone by launch at 6.30 a.m. and arrive Tumatumari Cataract between 5 and 8 p.m., according to the state of the river. Third day. Leave Tumatumari by launch at 7 a.m. and arrive Potaro Landing 9 a.m. Leave Potaro Landing on foot 10 a.m. and arrive Kangaruma at noon. Leave Kangaruma by boat at 1 p.m. and arrive Amatuk Cataract 5 p.m. Fourth day. Leave Amatuk by boat at 7 a.m., take breakfast at Waratuk Cataract and proceed to Tukait by 4 p.m. Fifth day. Leave Tukait at 7 a.m. and climb to top of Kaieteur by 11 a.m. at latest. Sleep at top of Kaieteur or return to Tukait same night.

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BRITISH GUIANA 147 Sixth day. Leave Kaieteur or Tukait, as the case may be, and proceed right through past Waratuk to Amatuk or Kangaruma before dark. Seventh day. Leave Amatuk by boat and walk from Kangaruma to Potaro Landing, in time to catch launch which leaves daily at 2 p.m. for Tumatumari. Eighth day. Leave Tumatumari by launch at 7 a.m. and arrive Rockstone about 4 p.m. Ninth day. Leave Rockstone by train at 7 a.m. and arrive Wismar at 8.15 a.m. Leave Wismar at 8.45 a.m. by steamer and arrive Georgetown about 4 p.m. The cost of the expedition varies according to the size of the party, from $65 (£13 10s. 10 d.) to $150 (£31 5s.) per passenger. Roraima. Sir Everard im Thurn was the first to ascend Roraima, the remarkable mountain in the Pakaraima range on the western border of the colony, in December 1889. On it the boundaries of Guiana, Venezuela, and Brazil meet. Though few visitors care to face the exertion which an expedition to this mountain necessarily involves, the following description of his visit has a fascinating interest : The first impression was one of inability mentally to grasp such surroundings ; the next, that one was entering on some strange country of nightmares, for which an appropriate and wildly fantastic landscape had been formed, some dreadful and stormy day, when, in their mid-career, the broken and chaotic clouds had been stiffened in a single instant into stone. For all around were rocks and pinnacles of rocks of seemingly impossible fantastic forms standing in apparently impossibly fantastic ways-— nay, placed one on or next to the other in positions seeming to defy every law of gravity — rocks in groups, rocks standing singly, rocks in terraces, rocks as columns, rocks as walls and rocks as pyramids, rocks ridiculous at every point with countless apparent caricatures of umbrellas, tortoises, churches, cannons, and of innumerable other most incongruous and unexpected objects. And between the rocks were level spaces, never of great extent, of pure yellow sand, with streamlets and little waterfalls and pools and shallow lakelets of pure water, and in some places there were little marshes filled with low, scanty and bristling vegetation. And here and there, alike on level space and jutting from some crevice in the rock, were small shrubs in form like miniature trees, but all apparently of one species. Not a tree was there ; no animal life was visible ; nor, it even seemed, so intensely quiet and undisturbed did the place look, ever had been there. Look where one would, on

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148 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES every side, it was the same, and climb what high rock one liked, in every direction, as far as one's eye could see was this same wildly extraordinary scenery. During the early part of November 1894, Messrs. J. J. Quelch, F. V. McConnell, and C. A. Lloyd made the ascent to the summit by the same ledge on the south-west face of the mountain by which Sir E. im Thurn ascended, and spent three days and two nights on the top of the plateau, which they again visited in 1898. Within the compass of this guide it is only possible briefly to outline the features of British Guiana which present themselves to the visitor making a short stay. To describe adequately the wonders of the hinterland of the Magnificent Province would require many pages. It must therefore suffice here to say that it is a country of boundless possibilities which requires only the attention of the capitalist to bring it into the front rank of our possessions overseas. BRITISH HONDURAS Sub Umbra Floreo The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. British Honduras, which lies in latitudes 18 29' and 15 52' N. and longitudes 89 9' and 88 io' W., on the east coast of Central America, has an area of 8598 square miles, of which only a very small portion has as yet been developed. Along the coast-line, which extends for a distance of 180 miles from Yucatan to the Bay of Honduras, are a number of cays or coral islets, the largest of which is about 30 miles east of Belize. The country along the coast is mostly low-lying, with numerous lagoons and a narrow strip of sand along the seaboard, which is fringed with coco-nut palms. The rivers include the Hondo, which forms the northern boundary between the colony and Mexico, the New River, on which is the former military station of Orange Walk, the Belize, which flows from the Guatemala frontier and has at its mouth Belize, the capital of the colony, the Sibun, the Mullens

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BRITISH HONDURAS 149 River, the North Stann Creek, the South Stann Creek, the Monkey River, the Rio Grande, and the Sarstoon River, which separates British Honduras from Guatemala on the south. The general formation of the colony beyond the swampy coast lands is divided into (1) Cohune ridges, which take their name from the graceful palm Attalea Cohune growing in profusion on their fertile soil and comprise the lower tracts of the rivers ; (2) Pine ridge, which includes the higher levels and takes its name from the Pine (Pinus cubensis) found in it ; and (3) Broken ridge — often covered with dense jungle and intermediate between the Cohune and Pine ridges. The principal islands, or cays, off the coast are Turneffe (a corruption of Terra Nova), St. George's Cay, English Cay, and Ambergris Cay. They are much resorted to for bathing and fishing, and there are several week-end residences on St. George's Cay. INDUSTRIES. Mahogany cutting is the chief industry, and large quantities of logwood and hard woods of various kinds are also shipped. The gum of the Sapodilla tree, which is called Chicle, is exported to the United States, where it is largely used for making chewing-gum. To the south of Belize bananas are being cultivated with success, and with the completion of the Stann Creek Railway this industry is likely to increase rapidly. In the year 1912 the principal exports were : i.'_ Value Mahogany 16,019,932 ft. £212722 Cedar 2,683,811ft. 33,045 Logwood 3,622 tons! 13,433 Chicle 3,309,277 lbs. 192,000 Bananas 470,039 bunches 21,606 Coco-nuts 6,553,539 25,239 The direction of trade in the same year was : Imports Exports United Kingdom £1 37, 057 £63,586 United States 272,885 462,445 Mexico 226,139 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table on next page of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years.

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ISO POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. $ $ $ $ 1903-4 301,194 266,039 1,772,976 1,853,181 1904-5 309,790 282,258 1,757,319 1,863,871 1905-6 332,110 300,351 1,876,560 1,835,250 1906-7 391,861 321,439 2,200,541 2,019,006 1907-8 395,183 506,701 2,415,723 2,211,036 1908-9 360,915 535,979 2,676,723 2,201,799 1909-10 395,855 592,120 2,704,248 2,209,023 1910-11 459,295 542,810 2,819,217 2,344,380 1911-12 1,201,908 532,123 2,886,677 2,685,849 1912-13 575,243 611,131 3,496,908 2,856,043 CLIMATE. The climate of British Honduras is subtropical in character, though the colony is within the tropics. The maximum shade temperature on the coast is 90 Fahr. and the minimum 62 Fahr. The average annual rainfall is about 100 inches. The dry season extends from the middle of February to the end of May, and the heaviest rainfalls occur in September, October, and November. HISTORY. The coast on which British Honduras stands was discovered in 1502 by Columbus on his fourth voyage. Its earliest settlers are said to have come from Jamaica in 1638, being attracted by the mahogany and logwood. The islands off the Mosquito Coast had already been settled about eight years before by a chartered company, of which the Earl of Carrick was chairman and John Pym treasurer. The Mosquito Indians lived on terms of amity with the English, whom they helped to keep off the Spaniards, and in 1670 sought the protection of England. This was given them to the extent of the Governor of Jamaica exercising some supervision over the settlement, and in 1739 the native king signed a treaty giving up the country to England. A few years later forts were erected on the island of Ruatan, but they were dismantled in 1763, and though the King of Spain allowed the settlers to reside within a certain district they were treated with great severity. The wood-cutters, or Bay-men "as they were called now had their headquarters

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BRITISH HONDURAS 151 on St. George's Cay, and on September 10, 1798, with the help of the crew of a British sloop, the Merlin, they defeated a force of 2000 rn^n under General O'Neil, the Governor of Yucatan t in the memorable battle of St. George's Cay, the ^Tmiversary of which is still celebrated every year in the colony. In spite of this success the settlement was not officially recognised, and the inhabitants managed their own affairs. Their laws were resolutions passed at public meetings, which, after a visit of Admiral Sir William Burnaby, were codified and published as Burnaby's Laws." Until 1786 the chief executive officer of the settlement was a magistrate elected annually. In that year a Superintendent was appointed by the Home Government in his place, and with the exception of the period from 1790 to 1797, when magistrates were again elected, Superintendents were regularly appointed until 1862, when the settlement was declared a colony and a LieutenantGovernor subordinate to the Governor of Jamaica took their place. This official was succeeded in 1884 by a Governor and Commander-in-chief, and British Honduras is now quite independent of Jamaica. CONSTITUTION. British Honduras is a Crown Colony. It has an Executive Council consisting of the Governor and six members, three of whom sit ex officio, the other three being appointed, and a Legislative Council comprising the Governor and five official and not fewer than five unofficial members appointed by the Governor. Governors since 1891 Sir C. A. Moloney, K.C.M.G. 1891 Colonel Sir David Wilson, K.C.M.G, 1897 Sir E. B. Sweet-Escott, K.C.M.G. 1904 Colonel Sir E. J. B. Swayne, K.C.M.G., C.B. 1906 Wilfrid Collet, C.M.G. 1913 HOTELS. Belize. The International. Board and lodging $1.00 per day and upwards. Yearwood's. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. There is unfortunately no direct steamship communication between the mother country and British Honduras ; but intending passengers can select any of the routes overleaf :

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152 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES (i) Via New York ; d} t rail to New Orleans, and thence to Belize by United Fruit Company's mail steamers (leaving New Orleans every Thursday). Time, about I 5 days. (2) Via New York ; by rail to Mobile and '\hd*G$ to Belize by Orr-Laubenheimer Company. Fortnightly. (3) Via New York ; to New Orleans by Southern Pacific 5.-?* Company Ltd., and thence to Belize by United Fruit Company. (4) Via New York ; United Fruit Company's steamers from New York to Belize (one passenger and one cargo steamer each month). (5) Liverpool to New Orleans by Leyland Line (time, about 17 days), and thence to Belize by United Fruit Company. (6) Liverpool to Belize by Harrison Line direct (monthly service). (Time, 3 to 4 weeks.) (7) Bristol or Liverpool to Colon per Elders and Fyffes Ltd. ; Colon to Belize by United Fruit Company. Communication between Belize and Stann Creek and Punta Gorda is maintained by a weekly steamer of the United Fruit Company ; and between Belize, Corosal and Orange Walk (New River) by a weekly mail steamer which connects with the United Fruit Company's mail steamers to and from New Orleans. On the Belize River motorboats ply between the capital and El Cayo several times a week, except in dry weather ; and communication between Belize and all important places on the coast, cays, and various rivers is maintained by sloops and motor-boats. A Government railway runs inland from Stann Creek to Middlesex, a distance of 25 miles. The roads are not at present suitable for wheeled traffic except in the immediate vicinity of towns, and between El Cayo and Benque Viejo. There is a canal between Sibun Bight and Manatee which is suitable for light draft boats only. Belize and Corosal have good local telephone services, and trunk lines connect the capital with Stann Creek, Punta Gorda, El Cayo, Benque Viejo, Corosal, and Orange Walk. A cable laid under the Rio Hondo connects British Honduras with Payo Obispo, Mexico, and a wireless ship to shore station has been established in the colony. SPORTS. Lawn-tennis is played on concrete courts of the polo and golf clubs, and there are also several private courts. Cricket is played from May to October, and there are several native cricket and football clubs. The Belize

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BRITISH HONDURAS 153 Golf Club, which was established in 1900, has a nine-hole course (subscription $1.25 per month and $10 entrance fee). Polo is played on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays from October to March by the members of the Belize Polo Club founded in 1895 (subscription $15 per annum and $7.50 entrance fee), under Hurlingham rules modified tG suit local conditions. Fishing is a pursuit which is not much foiiC.yed, though tarpon, calipever, snapper, bass, mullet, grouper, king-fish, and barracouta are plentiful. The sheltered water between the mainland and the line of reefs about ten miles to windward is admirably suited to sailing. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Belize (population 10,478), the capital and seat of government, straggles up both sides of one of the mouths of the river of the same name. It is a clean and bright little town, with several public buildings. Prominent among them are the Government Office and Court House, Government House, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral, which, if not strikingly handsome, serve their purpose sufficiently well. The houses, many of which are roofed with iron as a protection against fire, are in some cases surrounded by small gardens with picturesque fruit and shade trees, among which the ubiquitous coco-nut palm predominates. Along the river fronts are stores and private residences. A bridge connects two parts of the town, and the river below presents a busy scene with its numerous pitpans — the native boat— and motorboats, which ply between 'the capital and El Cayo, 100 miles distant on the western frontier, where goods are transferred to mule-back for the Peten district of Guatemala, the cays, the rivers, and various points along the coast. The rivers of the colony provide scenery of a varied character. In the lower reaches, tropical jungle of the richest kind is seen. Farther up the country becomes hilly, and the banks high and often rocky, and abounding with maidenhair and other ferns and vegetation. Mahogany camps can be inspected by permission of the firms engaged in cutting. These firms engage the services of an expert woodman — a hunter," or timber cruiser," as he is

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154 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES called — who locates and reports on suitable trees within easy reach of the rivers. A track is then cut through the forest to the tree selected, and the wood-cutters proceed with their work. After the tree has been lopped and cleaned, it is trucked/' or hauled by oxen, to the riverside at night by torchlight, out of consideration for the bullocks, which could hardly work during the heat of the day. The logs are then allowed to lie at the riverside until the rains bring sufficient water to enable them to be floated — or "driven," as it is called — down to the mouth, where they are boomed, or fastened together, by dogs until they are hauled out to be trimmed, or squared, ready for shipment. St. George's Cay> a small island about ten miles to the north-east of Belize, besides being exceedingly picturesque, is historically interesting as having been the scene of the memorable engagement in which the Spaniards were defeated by the British settlers in 1798 (see page 151). It was on this island that the first English settlement was made. Many residents in Belize now have residences on St. George's Cay to which they repair for week-ends or longer. Each house has a bathing kraal and the fishing and sailing off the coasts are excellent. Sergeant's Cay, Goff's Cay, English Cay, and Tobacco Cay are a few of the numerous cays lying along the Coral reef about ten miles to windward of the mainland which, though they provide very primitive accommodation, are occasionally resorted to by visitors who are satisfied with sea-bathing, fishing, and sailing. Manatee some fifteen miles to the south of Belize, is another holiday resort of rather a primitive character. Here there are extensive lagoons. At Ben Lomond, on the Northern Lagoon there are stalactitic caves. Still farther to the south is the agriculturally promising Stann Creek district. The town of Stann Creek is a well-to-do little place which has lately acquired some importance through its connection with the pioneer railway of the colony. This line, which has a 3 -ft. gauge, starts from a pier in the sheltered waters of Commerce Bight to the south of the town, and runs inland for a distance

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BRITISH HONDURAS 155 of about 25 miles to a terminus in the middle of rich agricultural land at the foot of the mountains to the west. The railway was begun in 1907, and considerable areas of land alongside the line have already been successfully put under banana cultivation. On the Rio Grande in the Stann Creek District some ancient pyramids faced with cut stone, filled with stone and brick and standing on a stone-faced platform, are preserved as historic monuments. Their origin is unknown. In the Cayo District, near Benque Viejo, there are also some interesting ruins. Here there is a three-storied temple the ground floor of which is still in a good state of preservation. Near it is a fine sculptured stela. An account of these ancient remains is given in the British Colonial ReportMiscellaneous [Cd 6428]— published in 1912.

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CHAPTER VIII JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES Indus liter que serviet uni The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. Jamaica lies towards the north of the Caribbean Sea, about 90 miles south of Cuba and 1150 to the north-west of Barbados. It is rather more than twice the size of Lancashire, having a total area of 4207 miles, and its population was shown by the census of 191 1 to be 831,383. The total length of the island is 144 miles, its extreme breadth 49 miles, and its least width (from Kingston to Annotto Bay) 21^ miles. Turks and Caicos Islands (population 5615), with an area of 169 square miles, though geographically part of the Bahama Islands, the Cayman Islands (population 6ooo), whose area is 87 square miles, lying no to 156 miles north-west of the west end of Jamaica, the Morant Cays, three tiny coral islets, with an area of 2 square miles, 33 miles south-east of Morant Point, and the Pedro Cays, about 40 miles south-west of Portland Point, the most southerly point near the centre of the coast, are all dependencies of Jamaica. The island of Jamaica is very mountainous, and history relates that Columbus, wishing to describe its features to Queen Isabella, took a piece of paper in his hands and crumpled it up. The main ridge of mountains runs east and west, with spurs extending to the north-west and south-east, the latter terminating in the east in the famous Blue Mountains, the highest peak of which has an altitude of 7423 ft. Jamaica is indented with many bays and harbours, notable among which are Port Antonio at the eastern end, and Montego Bay at the 156

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 157 western end of the north coast, and Old Harbour and Kingston, both on the south side of the island. The lastnamed, which is the finest harbour in the West Indies, has a total area of about 16 square miles, and it is computed that its depth over, or one might say under, at least 7 square miles, is from 7 to 10 fathoms. It is protected by a long spit of land called the Palisadoes, 71 miles long, at the extremity of which stands the town of Port Royal. Jamaica has many rivers and streams, which are mostly rapid, principal among them being the Black River, which runs through St. Elizabeth, with its Maggotty Falls, in the southwest, navigable for 25 miles, and the Rio Grande in the north-east. While most are picturesque, the Roaring River, with its beautiful falls in St. Ann's Parish, and the Rio Cobre, which empties itself into Kingston Harbour, are specially noteworthy in this respect. Among the many other streams are Plantain Garden River, in the parish of St. Thomas, which waters a broad and fertile valley, and the Martha Brae River, near the mouth of which is Falmouth town and harbour. The island is divided into three counties : Surrey in the east, Middlesex in the centre, and Cornwall in the west ; but these divisions are of little importance politically, and the local affairs of the colony are under the control of Boards in the fourteen parishes, which form the true political divisions. INDUSTRIES. Jamaica possesses large areas of land at various altitudes well suited for the cultivation of all tropical and sub-tropical products. In the old days sugar and rum were supreme, but in 1893-94 they were supplanted for the first time as the principal industries of the island by fruit, which has since been steadily growing in importance as an article of export. In 191 2 the acreage under different kinds of produce was as follows : bananas, 82,435 acres ; coffee, 24,473 acr es ; sugar-canes, 34,766 acres ; coco-nuts, 16,691 acres ; and cocoa, 13,355 acres. Ground provisions, pimento and guinea-grass are also extensively grown, the total area under cultivation of all kinds being 941,708 acres. Of the fruit exported, the principal kind is bananas, the shipments of which amount |to 20,000,000 bunches per annum, the bulk going J;o the United States of

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158 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES America. Oranges are next in importance, the total exported annually being 40,000,000. Coco-nuts number 25,000,000, and grape fruit, shaddocks, limes, and kolanuts are also shipped in appreciable quantities. In actual value fruits account for 58.3 per cent, of the colony's exports ; sugar and rum 12 ; and coffee, 5.5. per cent. Jamaica is, of course, famous for its rum, and on a few estates in the island the sugar-canes are grown primarily with the object of rum manufacture. The coffee from the Blue Mountains of Jamaica fetches the highest price of any in the world, and the ordinary estate coffee is excellent. Jamaica is the main source of supply of pimento, or allspice, of which the average annual exports are over 110,000 cwts. Bitterwood, ebony, fustic, lignumvitae, and logwood are among the woods exported, and the dye is now extracted from the latter by a secret process at the West India Chemical Works at Spanish Town and also at a factory at Lacovia in St. Elizabeth. Tobacco is grown and cigars are manufactured at several factories Prominent among the industries of Jamaica must be mentioned penkeeping, which denotes a branch of agriculture including cattle and sheep breeding, horse and mule breeding, and dairying, the pens being large farms, which afford a lucrative and healthy occupation to many of the inhabitants. The principal exports in the year ending December 31, 191 2, were : Fruit e ,297,131 including bananas, 13,382,072 stems ^1,241 187 and oranges 30,737,900 38,422 Wood . 42,228 tons 93,346 Logwood extract 24,898 pkgs. 175,677 Pimento . 107,504 cwts. 78,388 Sugar . 197,960 cwts. 132,798 Rum . 894,679 galls. 67,100 Coffee . 89,586 cwts. 274,730 Cocoa . 65,675 cwts. 139,833 Coco-nuts . 22,949,450 nuts 108,627 The direction of the colony's export trade in 191 2 was as follows : United Kingdom 13.2 per cent. ; United States, 59.8; Canada, 5.5; other countries, 21.5. FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the following comparative table of

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NegriMIarb'" NeortlF?

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Stanrbrdi &eo graphical Estdb*

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 159 revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports.* Exports.* 1 i £ t 1903-4 926,164 822,876 2,014,477 1,543,267 1904-5 • 75L562 824,816 1,682,355 1,436,725 1905-6 865,696 821,612 1,941,938 1,843,180 1906-7 887,228 828,115 2,261,469 1,992,007 1907-8 1,021,937 935-427 2,854,042 2,360,202 1908-9 933>75Q 911,095 2,240,335 2,268,253 1909-10 992,977 1,033,794 2,561,674 2,628,307 1910-n 99o,399 987,3 4 2,614,943 2,568,221 1911-12 1,161,014 1,155,208 2,865,553 2,945,157 1912-13 1,206,161 1,304,930 3,050,479 2,709,203 Since 1909 the Imports and Exports Returns have coincided with the calendar year. CLIMATE. Jamaica offers a variety of climates. Near the sea-level the temperature varies from 68 Fahr. to 85 Fahr., but in the mountains it often falls as low as 45 Fahr. on winter nights. Houses in the Blue Mountains even have fireplaces, and at the Blue Mountain Peak frost is not unknown. There are two principal rainy seasons, namely, in May and October, but there is generally more or less rain all through the summer months. As a rule, less rain falls in Kingston than in most other parts of the island. The great heat is tempered by sea breezes during the day and land breezes by night. The birth-rate is 39.0 and the death-rate 22.1 per 1000. HISTORY. Jamaica, the largest of the British possessions in the West Indies, was discovered by Columbus on May 3, 1494. He called it St. Jago, after the patron saint of Spain, but it reverted to its native name Xaymaca (" well wooded and watered "). On his fourth and last voyage he again visited the island. Being caught in a violent storm, he ran his ships aground in St. Ann's Bay, on the north coast. The exact spot now bears the name of Don Christopher's Cove. When Columbus died in 1506,

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i6o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES his son Diego inherited his property, and went out to Hispaniola (the island now divided between the republics of Haiti and Santo Domingo) as Governor. On arriving there he found that Jamaica had been partitioned between two Spaniards, and accordingly, in order to establish his rights, he sent out Esquivel, or Esquimel, to found a settlement in the island under his direction. The settlement was made on the north side ; but between the years 1520 and 1526, the colonisation having extended to the south, the town of St. Jago de la Vega, now Spanish Town, was founded, and this soon became the chief town. In 1596 the island was raided by the English under Sir Anthony Shirley, who attacked and plundered Spanish Town, and in 1643 Colonel Jackson, with 520 men from the Windward Islands, landed at Port Royal and exacted a ransom from the defenders. But Jamaica remained Spanish for 161 years, and it was not until May 11, 1655, that it changed hands. On that eventful day it yielded to a force under Admiral Penn and General Venables, sent out by Cromwell against the neighbouring island of Haiti. In 1657-8 an attempt was made to recapture the island for Spain ; but most of the colonists were apathetic, and those who were not joined the Maroons, or runaway slaves — the name is an abbreviation of cimarron, and is derived from the Spanish Cirna, or mountain top — in the interior of the island, and so began the long series of troubles with the Maroons which was finally put an end to after the quelling of the rebellion in 1796 by the deportation of many of the rebels to Nova Scotia. In June 1670, the British occupation of Jamaica was formally recognised by the Treaty of Madrid Colonisation was proceeded with, and there was a large influx of soldiers, who did not make good colonists, and also of very undesirable refugees. A number of settlers also came from Nevis and other West Indian islands. Jamaica became one of the headquarters of the Buccaneers, a daring band of freebooters of all nationalities, who were deadly opposed to the rule of Spain. They derived their name, Buccaneers, from South American hunters, who joined pirates known as flibustiers from the Dutch flyboats in which they made their expeditions. These hunters were in the habit of drying

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 161 their meat on wooden grills called boucans," and the name Buccaneers was given to the whole gang. Their headquarters were at Port Royal, which became a town of immense wealth, and perhaps the richest in the West Indies, while Morgan, one of their leaders, eventually became Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica. CONSTITUTION. Jamaica has a Legislative Council, consisting of the Governor, who has only a casting vote, five ex officio members, namely, the Senior Military Officer, Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, Director of Public Works, and Collector-General, and such other persons, not exceeding ten in number, as his Majesty may from time to time appoint, or as the Governor may from time to time provisionally appoint, and fourteen persons elected by the people, one for each parish. The elected members have the control in financial matters. The Council is dissolved at the end of five years from the last preceding general election, if it has not been previously dissolved. There is also a Privy Council, with the usual powers and functions of an Executive Council. Governors of Jamaica since 1888 Sir Henry A. Blake, G.C.M.G. Sir Augustus L. Hemming, G.C.M.G. Sir J. Alexander Swettenham, K.C.M.G. Sir Sydney Olivier, K.C.M.G. . BrigadierGenl. Sir William Manning, K.C.M.G C.B 1888 1898 1904 1907 1913 HOTELS. Jamaica has some good hotels, conducted on the American system. In Kingston there is the Myrtle Bank, rebuilt in 19 10. Board and lodging, $5 and upwards per day in winter, $3 and upwards in summer. The Constant Spring Hotel (temporarily closed 191 4), 6 miles from Kingston, can be reached by electric car. It stands 470 ft. above the level of the sea and at the foot of the mountains. The Manor House Hotel, near the Constant Spring, has 30 rooms, and is excellently managed. Board and lodging from 125. per day. The St. Andrew Hotel (Mrs. Austin) on the car-line, between Halfway Tree and

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1 62 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the Cross Roads, from 14s. a day. South Camp Road Hotel (H. A. Evelyn, manager), from $4 a day, and the Imperial Hotel, from $3 a day, both in the South Camp Road. Good accommodation can also be had at the Grenville Private Hotel (the Misses Farquharson) 112 East Street, at Earl's Court (Mrs. Cook's), 18 North Street, at Montague House (in North Street), and at Melrose House (Miss Phillips), 1 17 Duke Street. All are on or near the car-line, and enjoy a well-merited reputation for comfort. Board and lodging 125. a day and upwards. Hill Gardens furnished cottages, six miles from Kingston on the Constant Spring car-line, can be leased on reasonable terms (apply S. J. Streadwick, 70 Harbour Street, Kingston). There are also several smaller hotels and plenty of lodgings to be had at prices varying from 15s. to £2 10s. per week. Balaclava. Miss Roberts' lodgings — Rooms 3s., Board and lodging £1 12s. per week. Bath. Comfortable accommodation may be obtained at the Bath Fountain, one mile from Bath (apply to the Matron or to the Clerk, Bath Corporation, Bath P.O.). Black River. Shearer's Boarding House and Mrs. Constantine's Boarding House. Brown's Town. Richmond Hotel (Mrs. Sutherland) — 8s. per day, Board and lodging £2 10s. per week. Castleton Gardens. Accommodation can be obtained during the winter months at Castleton Cottages, on the road between Kingston and Annotto Bay. Hollymount. Holly mount House, on the summit of Mount Diablo, 2700 ft., commands magnificent views of both sides of the island ; 30 rooms — Board and lodging 12s. per day and upwards. Malvern (Santa Cruz). Lawrence House. Mandeville. Hotel Mandeville, 2061 ft. above the sea — Rooms 45., Board and lodging £2 10s. to £3 per week. Newleigh (Mrs. Halliday), Board and lodging £2 10s. per week. The Grove (J. B. Dick) — Board and lodging 105. per day, £3 3s. per week. Bloomfield Hotel (M. Braham) Milk River. There is a boarding house at the baths.

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 163 Moneagiie. Moneague Hotel, about 900 ft. above the sea — Rooms 4s., Board and lodging £2 10s. per week. MontegO Bay. Spring Hill Hotel — Board and lodging $3 per day. Staffordshire House (Mrs. Jervis) — Board and lodging Ss. 4d. per day. Sanatorium Caribee— Board and lodging 10s. 6d. per day. Montego Bay Hotel — Board and lodging 12s. per day, £3 105. per week. Furnished cottages can also be obtained and many families take paying guests. Montpelier. Mack field Hotel (Mrs. Munroe) — Rooms 4s., Board and lodging £4 10s. per week. Port Royal Mountains. Flamstead (Mrs. Dick) — Board and lodging, about £2 & week. Port Antonio. The Titchfield Hotel of the United Fruit Company (rebuilt after a fire in 19 10) — Board and lodging from $5 per day upwards. The Waverley Hotel. Spanish Town. Hotel Rio Cobre — Rooms 4s., Breakfast 3s., Luncheon 2s. 6d., Dinner 4s. 6d., Board and lodging £3 to £4 per week. St. Ann's Bay. Hotel Osborne (Miss Hart), about 5 minutes from the wharf and within 3 miles of Roaring River. In addition to the hotels mentioned, there are boardinghouses in nearly all the towns of any size, varying in merit, where wholesome, if not elaborate, cooking can be obtained, and there are indications that the rural districts are preparing to make better provision than heretofore for the reception of visitors. On private enquiry, a few planters, pen-keepers, and others may be found who are willing to take paying guests on suitable introduction ; and for those who can afford the time this is perhaps the best way of getting to know the country and the people under home-like conditions. Stopping at hotels, where there are any, and lodging-houses, the expense of board and lodging may be assumed roughly to be from 15s. to £1 55. a day, if travelling quickly. In Jamaica, as elsewhere, longer sojourns mean a reduced daily expenditure. MEANS OP COMMUNICATION. Jamaica is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 12A, 15, 21 and 27 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The steamers go alongside the wharf at Kingston and there is consequently no landing charge. The roads in Jamaica are numerous and

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1 64 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES attractive for motorists, the gradients on the hills being not too steep and the fords usually passable. Kingston and its suburbs have a smart service of electric trams run by the West India Electric Company Ltd. whose lines are 25 miles in extent. Fare, 2d. a journey. Two lines, the Avenue and East Street Belt," run round and through the city. Another goes east to within a short distance of Rockfort, another north for about six miles to Constant Spring, and a third, called the Hope Gardens line, runs for six miles to Papine, on the way to Gordon Town. There are several livery stables in Kingston, including those of Harold E. Bolton, W. G. Clark, and A. E. Clough. The general charge for carriages for long distances is £1 per day. On extended tours, arrangements can be made for a charge to include the cost of feeding the driver (15. 6d. per day) and horses (a charge varying according to the market prices of fodder). Double buggies for shopping in Kingston and St. Andrew can be had for 6s. per hour, and saddle ponies for morning and evening rides 8s. Cabs, known locally as buses," can be hired in Kingston, Spanish Town, Old Harbour, Port Antonio, Porus, Linstead, and Ewarton, for 6d. per journey within the town limits, and by arrangement for longer distances. There are fair livery stables in most of the country towns of the island, where prices are lower than in Kingston. There is quite a number of motor-cars in the island, both private and for hire, and cars can now be hired at most of the principal towns. In Kingston they can be obtained at the West Street Garage, the Motor-Car Car and Supplies Ltd. (Harbour Street), and Bolton's Motor Service (36 Duke Street). The cost is about 15. to is. 3d. per mile, counting from the garage back to the garage. Mail coaches run regularly at stated times between Montego Bay and Lucea (25 miles, 4 hours), fare 8s. ; Santa Cruz and Balaclava (16 miles, 3 hours 5 min.), fare 6s. ; Black River and Ipswich (18 miles, 3 hours 5 min.), fare 6s. ; and Savanna-la-Mar and Montpelier (22 miles, 4 J hours), fare 6s., daily, The Jamaica Government Railway (gauge, 4 ft. 8£ in.) starts from the west end of Kingston, which it connects

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 165 with Spanish Town (£ hour), Old Harbour (1 hour), Porus (2% hours), and Montego Bay (7 hours). Another line extends from Spanish Town to Bog Walk (25 minutes) and Port Antonio (3*hours, 4 hours and 20 mins. from Kingston). From Bog Walk, Ewarton is reached by a branch line (27 minutes), and another branch line, the first section of which was completed in 191 3, opens up the Rio Minho valley and Upper Clarendon from May Pen. Week-end tickets are issued at the price of a fare and a half. Carriages meet all the trains at the principal stations. In the following tables are the names of the stations and their distances from Kingston. MONTEGO BAY LINE Miles from Kingston. Fares. 1st Class. 3rd Class. s. d. s. d. Kingston — — — Gregory Park 6* 1 6 Grange Lane 9 1 6 9 Spanish Town n| 2 1 Hartlands 15 2 6 1 3 Bushy Park 20 3 6 1 9 Old Harbour 22f 4 2 May Pen 32* 5 6 2 9 Four Paths 37 6 2 3 1 Clarendon Park 42J 7 2 3 7 Porus 46| 8 4 Williamsfield 53 8 10 4 5 Kendal 54J 9 2 4 7 Greenvale 6i£ 10 2 5 1 Balaclava 7i 11 10 5 11 Appleton 76% 12 10 6 5 Ipswich 851 14 4 7 2 Catadupa 94 15 8 7 10 Cambridge 97f 16 4 8 2 Montpelier I02f 17 2 8 7 Anchovy 105J 17 8 8 10 Montego Bay II2l 18 9 [Montego Bay can also be reached once a week via St. Ann's Bay by motor-car (126 miles) which leaves Gardner's

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1 66 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Store, Harbour Street, every Friday at 8.30 a.m. Fare £1 10s. per seat.] PORT ANTONIO LINE* Miles from Kingston. Fares. 1st Class. 2nd Class. 5. d. s. d. Kingston — — — Bog Walk 20£ 3 6 1 9 Riversdale 26* 4 1 2 3 Troja 30f 5 2 2 7 Richmond 35* 6 3 Albany 42 7 3 6 Annotto Bay 49l 8 4 4 2 Buff Bay sH 9 10 4 11 Orange Bay 6ii 10 4 5 2 Hope Bay 66 11 5 6 St. Margaret's Bay 69i 11 8 5 10 Port Antonio . 75 12 6 EWARTON BRANC H* Kingston — — Linstead 23I 4 2 Ewarton 29 5 2 6 Clarendon Bran* ;Hf Kingston — — Suttons 42£ 7 6 3 9 Chapelton 45* 8 4 Connects at Spanish Town, to which the route is identical with that on the Montego Bay line. f Connects at May Pen. A Government launch plies between Kingston and Port Royal five times a day. Fare is. (25 cents). Some idea of the very beautiful coast-line of Jamaica may be obtained by taking a trip in the coastal steamer which starts from Kingston, and 'takes about eight days to perform the journey round the island. (Service under revision 1914.) The principal ports (going to the east from Kingston) are ;

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 167 Kingston Dry Harbour Morant Bay Falmouth Port Morant Montego Bay Port Antonio Lucea Annotto Bay Sav.-la-Mar Port Maria Black River Ocho Rios Alligator Pond St. Ann's Bay Kingston The Cuba Railroad Company's 5.5. Prince Rupert leaves Kingston and Port Antonio for Santiago (Cuba) on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays — from Port Antonio {j\ hours) and from Kingston (17 hours) ; and returns on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Fares, including meals and berth, Port Antonio and Santiago, $15.00 ; Kingston and Santiago, $12.00. Through routes from Kingston to Havana or vice versa, $35.00. Return fare, $60.00. SPORTS. Cricket is popular in Jamaica, and the cricket clubs include Kingston, Kensington, the Garrison, Melbourne, and Lucas. Football also has its votaries in the cooler months, and lawn-tennis, golf, and croquet are played all the year round. Lawn-tennis tournaments, open to strangers if introduced, are held at the Liguanea Club at Knulsford Park, near Halfway Tree, and the St. Andrew Club, at Cross Roads. Polo is very popular, and is played weekly at the Camp and on the ground of the Kingston Polo Club. The links of the Jamaica Golf Club adjoin the Constant Spring Hotel, and there are links at the Liguanea Club, where there are also numerous lawntennis courts. Yachting and rowing can be enjoyed in Kingston and other harbours. There is fair sport in Jamaica for rod and gun. Blue pigeon, the bald-pate, the ringtail pigeon, the whitewing, the pea dove, the white-belly, and the partridge are the principal game-birds. The close time is from March 1 to about July 15, or sometimes even to August 21. Jamaica is also visited every winter by large flocks of duck and teal, besides snipe, which afford good sport. With regard to fish, snook, snappers, and tarpon are to be caught with rod or hand-line at the mouths of nearly all the rivers. Tarpon also abound in the bays and inlets, and often scale over 100 lb. Higher up the rivers, mountain mullet, sandfish, snook, tarpon, and drummer are all to be caught.

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1 68 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Racing takes place under the Jamaica Jockey Club at Knutsford Park, and also on the old Kingston racecourse and in the country districts. Jamaica has upwards of 2200 miles of main roads, most of which are well suited for motoring. The gradients rarely exceed 5 per cent., or 1 ft. in 20, though occasionally gradients of 20 per cent, are met with. Motorists are advised to consult the official Itinerary of the Main Roads," published at the Government Printing Office. SOCIAL CLUBS. Kingston. The Jamaica Club at 59 Hanover Street in Kingston, founded in 1872, welcomes visitors. The Liguanea Club at Knutsford Park opened by Chief Justice Sir Fielding Clarke in 19 10, and the St. Andrew Club off Cross Roads, founded in 1895, are select Country Clubs." The Royal Jamaica Yacht Club has a club-house in Rae Town, which commands a splendid view of Kingston harbour. MontegO Bay and the other towns of importance also have comfortable social clubs. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Kingston. After rounding Port Royal (see page 180), at the extremity of the spit of land known as the Palisadoes, the steamer proceeds along a buoyed channel in Kingston Harbour. To seaward on the land to the left rise the Healthshire Hills, on which is Rodney's Look-out," erected when the great admiral was on the Jamaica station, 1771-1774. The grim Apostles Battery — so called from the number of its embrasures — Fort Henderson and Fort Augusta are passed in succession on the left ; but it is not until the steamer is quite near the city that Kingston is seen nestling at the foot of the superb mountains, the nearer of which is the Long Mountain, with the famous Blue Mountains beyond. The first glimpse of the city is not prepossessing, for where there might have been a sea-wall — if a suggestion made by Mr. E. A. de Pass and others after the earthquake and fire of 1907 had been carried out — is an ugly line of irregular wharves. Kingston, the capital of Jamaica (population 57,379), is the largest town in the British West Indies, covering as it does with the suburbs an area of about 1080 acres. The streets run at right angles to one another, and the principal thoroughfares are traversed by electric cars (see

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 169 page 164). The city has an excellent telephone service, and is lighted with gas, while many of the churches and public and private buildings have electric light. The foundation of the city dates from 1692, when Port Royal, then the chief town, was destroyed by an earthquake and the survivors moved to the lower part of Liguanea, the property of Sir William Beeston, where Kingston now stands. It was not, however, until 1870 that the city became the capital of Jamaica, the seat of government being transferred to it from Spanish Town in that year by Governor Sir John Peter Grant. On January 14, 1907, Kingston was almost completely devastated by earthquake and fire. The season was at its height and the number of visitors was swelled by a distinguished party, including Lord Dudley and Mr. Jesse Collings, brought out by the great shipowner, Sir Alfred Jones, in the R.M.S. Port Kingston, to attend the West Indian Agricultural Conference which was to be held in Kingston for the first time. The day opened brilliantly fine, the sun shining from a cloudless sky, and there was no indication of the impending disaster. In the morning the Conference met at the old Mico College in Hanover Street, and was opened by the Governor, Sir Alexander Swettenham. An adjournment was made for lunch, and at 2.30 the delegates reassembled. Shortly after, a loud rumbling noise was heard, which was at first taken to be heavily laden waggons passing down a neighbouring street. The rumbling became a roar, punctuated by an appalling series of bangs, and in a moment the whole room was shaken violently up and down, the floor rising and falling in a distinct series of waves. Windows fell out, pictures came tumbling down, and all was confusion, the room being filled with debris. Similar scenes were being enacted all over the city, which for long after the first shock was quite covered by a pall of dust. Fire assisted in the work of destruction, and it is estimated that the loss of life was between 1000 and 1500 persons, while that of property was set down at from £1,000,000 to £1,500,000. A Mansion House fund for the relief of the sufferers amounted to £55,395, and as the result of representations made by the local Legislature and the West India Committee, a free Imperial grant was made by Parliament of £150,000 and a loan of £800,000 was authorised. The funds were distributed by a Relief Committee, afterwards the Assistance Committee. The city has since been rebuilt on greatly improved lines. On emerging from the Customs sheds, the first street one reaches is Port Royal Street, running parallel with

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i;o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the harbour front, in which many merchants' offices and warehouses are situated. At the east end is the building of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, in which the Cable offices of the West India and Panama Telegraph Company and the Direct West India Cable Company are also housed. Painted yellow, this is one of the most picturesque buildings of the post-earthquake Kingston. The hall is panelled with West Indian mahogany. Parallel to Port Royal. Street is Harbour Street, in which some of the best stores are situated. At the east end, a little back from the roadway, is the palatial Myrtle Bank Hotel, constructed in the old Mission style, which replaces a red brick building wrecked in 1907. It has two wings stretching towards the harbour, which secure for the hotel the full benefit of the refreshing sea breeze, appropriately called the Doctor." Harbour Street is intersected near the centre by King Street, the most important thoroughfare in Kingston, which extends from the water front to the Victoria Park, and beyond that again to the northern limits of the city. Near the water side is a statue of Sir Charles Metcalfe, Governor from 1839 to 1842, by Edward Hodges Baily, R.A., a pupil of Flaxman, which was first erected in Spanish Town, the House of Assembly voting ^3000 for the purpose. It was subsequently placed at the top of King Street, but was removed to its present site in 1898 to make room for a statue of Queen Victoria. It now stands on a pedestal which for some years supported Bacon's statue of Rodney, now at Spanish Town. Sir Charles Metcalfe, who was one of Jamaica's most popular Governors, is represented bareheaded and wearing the insignia of the Bath. On the original pedestal is the following inscription : This Statue is erected in honor of The Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, Bart. k.cb. Now Baron Metcalfe By the grateful inhabitants of Jamaica in commemoration of the benefits derived from his wise, just and beneficial administration of the government of the island A.D, 1845

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 171 On the lower pedestal, erected to receive Rodney's statue, is placed an earthenware tablet (similar to those erected by the Royal Society of Arts in London) which was put up by the Institute of Jamaica in 1892, to record the following fact : 12 feet west of the centre of this pedestal, Commander Green, u.s.n. in 1875 erected the longitude STATION OF Kingston and found it to be 5h. 7m. 10.65 s. (76 47' 39-8") West of Greenwich. ij Proceeding from the Metcalfe statue up the street, one comes to the Victoria Market on the right, a commodious iron structure which cost, including the lands purchased, ^22,778. The market presents an animated scene in the early hours of the morning, especially at Christmas, and should certainly be visited about 6 a.m. After crossing Harbour Street, the imposing building of the Colonial Bank, with frontages on that street, King Street and Water Lane, is reached. It is built in Queen Anne style from designs by Messrs. Hoare and Wheeler, and was opened in 1909. The plinth is finished with green marble from Sweden, and the roof is covered with green glazed tiles, which with the copper-covered domes strike a pleasing note of colour. Nearly opposite the Bank is the restaurant called The Oleanders, which is a favourite resort for luncheon and at tea-time. A little higher up King Street on the left is the imposing building of the Bank of Nova Scotia, m the upper floor of which the rooms of the Royal Jamaica Society of Agriculture and Merchants' Exchange — the local Chamber of Commerce — are situated. The architects were Messrs. Darling and Pearson, of Toronto, who chose the Mission style as being most appropriate for the site. The banking hall is a particularly handsome and wellventilated room. On the right of King Street in the Coronation Building, which faces on to Tower Street, is the office of the Jamaica

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172 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Tourist Association* where between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. information of every kind regarding the island can be obtained free of charge, expeditions planned, &c. Beyond the Bank are the Public Buildings in two blocks, one on either side of the street. After the earthquake of 1907 Sir Sydney Olivier, the then Governor, saw, and wisely grasped, the opportunity of concentrating the various Government offices, which till then had been as widely scattered as the branches of the Board of Trade in London. The result is two handsome blocks of buildings, each covering an area of approximately 32,430 sq. ft., and enclosing a space laid out with gardens and palm trees. Both blocks were designed by Sir Charles Nicholson, and consist of three floors, while each has a flat roof, which with the verandahs and colonnades gives the building quite an Eastern appearance. The western block was built by Messrs. Cowlin and Son, Bristol, but the eastern one was constructed in its entirety by Messrs. Mais and Sant, a local firm. The western block contains the Treasury and Savings Bank, the offices of the Collector-General, the Collector of Taxes, the Stamp and Customs Department, and on the uppermost floor the Audit Office, while at the northern end is the spacious Post and Telegraph Office. The eastern block is devoted to the Supreme Court, the Law Library, the offices of the AttorneyGeneral and Administrator-General, the Registry of Titles and the Kingston Court, while the upper floor is occupied by the offices of the Inspector-General of Constabulary and Prisons, the Surveyor-General and Land Department, the Education Department and the Board of Education. To the east of this block a charming garden extends to Church Street. The fittings and furniture throughout the buildings were specially constructed from native hardwood. The Railway Station of the Jamaica Government Railway stands some blocks to the west of the Public Buildings, and can be reached by Barry Street, which runs past the northern end of the Post Office. Beyond the Public Buildings on the right-hand side of King Street stands the Parish Church. When in 1695 Kingston was laid out by Colonel Christian Lilly after the destruction

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 173 of Port Royal three years previously, provision was made for a Parish Church. The year of its actual construction is not known, but the earliest date on a tombstone is 1699, and on the Communion plate 1701. The first Rector was the Rev. William Collins, M.A., of St. Catherine's College, Cambridge, who was appointed in 170 1. A tower was added between the years 1740 and 1774About the beginning of the nineteenth century the building was extended in length and a handsome Baldacchino was added. In 1 883 to 1 885 the building was considerably enlarged by the addition of side aisles, giving extra accommodation for 500 persons and making sitting room for 1200 in all. In 1895 the Vestry was added and the old brick wall, which formerly surrounded the churchyard, was replaced by present railing. The church was very seriously damaged by the earthquake of 1907, but happily the roof and floor of the church remained intact, and the organ (erected in 1878), the lectern (1886), the bell (1890), the pulpit (1891) were saved from the wreckage. The church was restored on its original lines with slight modifications — which included an extension of the nave by 18 ft. at the western end, so that it now covers the ground occupied by the old tower. It was opened for Divine Service on February 21, 19 10. The Church has always been known as the Kingston Parish Church, and no record exists of its ever having been dedicated to any Saint, till, on its reconsecration when rebuilt after the earthquake, it was dedicated to St. Thomas. Most treasured of all its monuments is the tombstone, in the chancel, of Vice-Admiral John Benbow, who died on November 4, 1702, of a wound in his leg received in an engagement with Mons. du Casse during a battle on August 2i, 1702, which is described in West Indian Tales of Old." The gallant Benbow, with one ship, engaged the French squadron, consisting of five ships. The battle began on August 19. Out of seven English ships five refused to support Benbow, and a sixth was soon disabled. But in the Breda he attacked the Frenchmen, and was three times boarded. He was shot in the leg, and, when sympathised

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174 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES with, he said, I am sorry for it too ; but I had rather have lost them both than have seen dishonour brought upon the English nation. But, do you hear, if another shot should take them off, behave like brave men and fight it out." But the day was lost and the Breda returned to Jamaica with the wounded and disconsolate Admiral. Monsieur Du Casse, in a letter to Benbow, wrote, I had little hope on Monday last but to have supped in your cabin, but it pleased God to order* otherwise, and I am thankful for it. As for those cowardly captains who deserted you, hang them up ; for, by God, they deserve it." Two of the captains were tried by a Council of War and were sent home and shot on board the Bristol at Portsmouth, not being suffered to land on English ground. A third was condemned to imprisonment and loss of pay, and a fourth died. The tombstone is inscribed : HERE LYETH INTERRED THE BODY OF JOHN BENBOW ESQ. ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE A TRUE PATTERN OF ENGLISH COURAGE WHO LOST HIS LIFE IN DEFENCE OF HIS QUEENE AND COUNTRY NOVEMBER YE 4TH I702 IN THE 52 D YEAR OF HIS AGE BY A WOUND IN HIS LEGG RECEIUED IN AN ENGAGEMENT WITH MONS R DU CASSE BEING MUCH LAMENTED. Other monuments of note are those of Malcolm Laing and his wife (1794) and Dr. Fortunatus D'Warris and his step-daughter (1792), all by John Bacon, R.A. ; Edward Manning (1756), Member of the House of Assembly for Kingston ; John Wolmer, the founder of Wolmer's School ; William May, Rector (1722) ; Captain Samuel Phillipps (1757), who received a gold medal and chain for cutting out H.M.S. Solebay from St. Martin's Road ; John Jacques (181 5), first Mayor of Kingston ; and Vice-Admiral Bartholomew Rowley (181 1). In the churchyard are the tombs of Janet Scott, sister of Michael Scott (author of Tom Cringle's Log "), of Robert Bogle, his brother-inlaw, and of Robert Hamilton, who was the original Aaron Bang in the Log." Amongst other places of worship in Kingston are St.

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 175 George's in East Street, St. Michael's in East Queen Street (both Anglican) ; the Scotch Kirk in Duke Street, the Calabar Church (Baptist) in East Queen Street, and the Jewish Synagogue in East Street. Beyond the church and facing down King Street is a Statue of Queen Victoria from the chisel of E. Edward Geflowski, erected in 1897 at a cost of £800, which was voted by the Legislature to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee. Though the statue was not overthrown by the earthquake ten years later, it was turned about a third of the way round on its pedestal by that occurrence. Behind is Victoria Park, an open space, now adorned with trees and with a fountain, which was formerly used as a market and a parade ground for the troops. It was for many years known as the Parade Gardens ; but in 19 14 the name was, at the suggestion of the local branch of the Victoria League, changed by the Mayor and Corporation to Victoria Park. On February 14 of that year the ceremony of naming the park was performed by Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, grand-daughter of Queen Victoria. The statue on the east side represents Edward Jordan, a native of the island who took a prominent part in the emancipation movement and was decorated with the C.B. On the north side is the statue of Dr. Bowerbank, a former Member of the House of Assembly and Custos of Kingston (1862), who originated many local charities. The Ward Theatre, presented to the city by the late Lieut. -Colonel Hon. C. J. Ward, C.M.G., for many years Custos of Kingston, is in North Parade Street at the north side of Victoria Park. It was designed by Mr. Rudolph Henriques, a local architect, erected by his firm, and opened in 191 2. A portrait of the generous donor, by Mr. Tennyson Cole, hangs in the vestibule. The Coke Chapel, which also faces the Park (on the east side), is of interest from its having been erected on the site where Doctor Coke, Wesley's colleague, used to preach. Headquarters House, where the Legislative Council has met since 1870, when the Government was removed from Spanish Town to Kingston, stands at the junction of Duke and Beeston Streets. It is one of the few buildings

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176 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of note in Kingston which escaped the earthquake conflagration of 1907, and is said to owe its origin to a wager made by four wealthy merchants, Jasper Hall, Thomas Hibbert, John Bull, and another, as to who should build the most magnificent dwelling. The result was the erection of Jasper Hall (which, till the earthquake, stood in High Holborn Street), Headquarters House, Bull House in North Street, and a house in Hanover Street, once called ' Harmony Hall." History does not relate who won the bet, but Mr. Frank Cundall, who tells the story, thinks that it should have been Jasper Hall. Headquarters House during the lifetime of Thomas Hibbert, who arrived in Jamaica in 1734 and became one of the principal and most wealthy merchants of Kingston, was called Hibbert 's House," and it was given its present name when it was acquired by the War Office. Mr. Hibbert was buried on Agualta Vale estate, now the property of Sir John Pringle, in St. Mary, where his tomb can be seen. The Institute of Jamaica in East Street, rebuilt after the earthquake in reinforced brick and concrete (A. E. Herschel, architect), has a library of nearly 14,000 volumes. It is especially rich in Jamaican and West Indian literature. The collection includes an extremely rare set of old newspapers and a unique series of almanacs and handbooks. Members (5s. per annum), subscribers to the library (25. per quarter), and members of affiliated societies (no fees) can borrow books. The Institute also has a readingroom, a museum of unique interest, containing as it does zoological, geological, botanical, and archaeological specimens, and an art gallery with a collection of portraits of Jamaica worthies to the number of 200. In the museum may be seen the bell of the old church of Port Royal, which was engulfed in the earthquake of 1692 ; two silvergilt maces, formerly belonging to the House of Assembly and the Council ; the original Shark Papers," whose story was made use of by Michael Scott in the "Cruise of the Midge," a remarkable old gibbet, and other objects of interest. In 1855 the Port Royal bell was discarded, its tone having been spoilt by a crack. Somehow or other it found its way into an old curiosity shop, from which it was

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%• • v •: 4 V i M#-HM 4 '; J. 1 M : 71 >^ ,\ j : ; : i ^ vj in H ^ j-ii • v J til

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 177 rescued during the administration of Sir John Peter Grant. The bell bears the following inscription : Ihesv Maria et Verbum Caro Factum est et Abita from the 14th verse of the first chapter of St. John's Epistle in the Vulgate : Et Verbum caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis. ." It also bears a cross formed by a series of stars and two small designs in relief, placed in duplicate on opposite sides, representing the Virgin and Child, and probably St. George or St. Michael. The story of the famous Shark Papers," as narrated by Mr. Frank Cundall, the cultured Secretary of the Institute, is briefly as follows : The brig Nancy, of 125 tons, owned by Germans by birth but naturalised citizens of the United States, left Baltimore for Curacao on July 3, 1799, commanded by Thomas Briggs, her cargo consisting of dry goods, provisions, and lumber. She put in at Oruba, and proceeded to Port au Prince, in Haiti, and having carried away her maintop mast she was making the best of her way to the Isle of Ash, or Isle la Vache, a small island off the south coast of Haiti, when, on August 28, she was captured by H.M.S. Sparrow, a cutter commanded by Hugh Wylie, and sent in to Port Royal with another prize, a Spanish cruiser. A "libel," or suit for salvage, was brought in the Court of ViceAdmiralty at Kingston on September 9, 1799, by George Crawford Recketts, Advocate-General, on behalf of Hugh Wylie, Esq., Commander of H.M. cutter Sparrow, against a certain brig or vessel called the Nancy, her guns, tackle, furniture, ammunition, and apparel, and the goods, wares, merchandise, specie, and effects on board her, taken and seized as the property of some person, or persons, being enemies of our Sovereign Lord and King, and good and lawful prize on the high seas, and within the jurisdiction of this Court." A claim for the dismissal of the suit, with costs, was put in on September 14, backed by affidavits, in which, as it subsequently transpired, Briggs and Schultze of the Nancy perjured themselves freely. While the case was proceeding, Michael Fitton, acting Lieutenant, produced on the same day certain papers which he had found in a shark caught off Jacmel, while he was cruising in the Ferret, a tender of H.M.S. Abergavenny, the flagship at Port Royal. He was cruising in company with Wylie, who was in command of the Sparrow cutter, another tender of the Abergavenny. They had gone out with the object of earning for the stationary flagship a share of the prizes which were constantly being taken by the cruisers. On rejoining after an accidental separation, Fitton invited Wylie by signal to come to breakfast : and while waiting for him the shark was caught, and the papers were found. When M

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1 78 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Wylie came on board the Ferret, he mentioned that he had detained an American brig called the Nancy. Fitton thereupon said he had her papers. Papers ? answered Wylie ; why, I sealed up her papers and sent them in with her." Just so," replied Fitton, ' those were her false papers ; here are her real ones." These papers, together with others of an incriminating nature, found on the Nancy some time after her capture, concealed in the captain's cabin, in a cask of salt pork, so hard drove in that it was with difficulty they could be taken out," led to the condemnation of the brig and her cargo on November 2 5> I 799It m ay be mentioned here that, about three years before, the Nancy had been captured by a French privateer, and carried into Guadeloupe, and there condemned as American propert}^. The old Court-house of Kingston, in which the case was tried (now used for domestic purposes), is still standing at the south-west corner of Hanover and Harbour Streets. The shark's jaws were set up on shore, with the inscription, "Lieut. Fitton recommends these jaws for a collar for neutrals to swear through." The actual papers found in the shark lay until 1890 (with the affidavit of Lieut. Fitton) in the archives of the Court of Vice-Admiralty, where are many other documents of great interest connected with Jamaica's early history. They are now placed in the Institute of Jamaica. They consist of letters written in German, and are wrapped in another piece of paper, on which is written a memorandum of their authenticity by John Fraser, who was then Surrogate in the Court of Vice-Admiralty. Copies have been made for reference of all the papers now in the Vice-Admiralty Court concerning this strange case, and from them have been gathered the particulars given above. In the United Service Museum, London, is the head of the shark which swallowed the papers. In this connection it may be mentioned that another case somewhat similar, though fraught with less dramatic results, occurred twenty years since at Kingston, when a well-known resident by the harbour shot a crocodile, and found in it the collar of his wife's favourite cat The Jamaica Club is housed in a spacious building in Hanover Street, in which the Masonic Temple is also situated. In Wesley Chapel, in Tower Street, used to stand

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 179 one of the most curious pulpits in the Empire. It was built around the mast of a ship sunk in the ground and encased in copper, and stood 24 ft. high. It was encircled by a spiral staircase entirely of wood, the whole being constructed of Jamaica mahogany. The pulpit was the work and the gift of a black man who had been a slave, and has been valued at /400. To the north of the old racecourse are the twin buildings of Wolmer's Schools, a charity established by John Wolmer of Kingston, a goldsmith, by his will dated May 21, 1729, now Kingston's foremost school, and behind them the Mico College (for training elementary school teachers, founded under the Lady Mico charity in 1834), reconstructed after the earthquake, then partially destroyed by fire in 1 910, and again rebuilt. The Mico Charity was originally established by the will of Lady Mico, widow of Sir Samuel Mico, a member of the Mercers' Company, who died in 1666 and left ^1000 to redeem poor slaves," and by the middle of the nineteenth century the original sum had increased to £1 20,000, which, when slavery was abolished, enabled the college to be founded. At the village of Halfway Tree there is a memorial to King Edward which takes the form of a clock-tower embellished with a bust of our late sovereign, and, under it, the words : KING EDWARD VII THE PEACEMAKER. The memorial, which owed its inception to Mr. L. A. Rattigan, a patriotic son of Jamaica, was unveiled on March 28, 1913, by Governor Sir William Manning. The parish church of St. Andrew, near by, like that at Kingston, lost its tower as a result of the earthquake of 1907, and its nave has been extended westward over the site of it. The first church was built on the old burial-ground between Constant Spring Road and King's House. The second, which was. built in 1685 near the present site, was ruined by the earthquake of 1692. The present church was completed in 1700, but it has been much altered since then. The registers date back to 1666 and are the oldest in the island, though the earlier ones are only a transcript. Though he

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180 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES was buried in Kingston, Admiral Benbow's burial is recorded in the St. Andrew's register. Among the monuments of interest may be mentioned those of the Hon. James Lawes (1733), by JohnCheere, one of the best pieces of iconic sculpture in the island ; Zachary Bayly (1769), with an epitaph by his nephew and heir, Bryan Edwards the historian ; Admiral D avers (1746) ; and General William A. Villettes (1808), Lieutenant-Governor, by Sir Richard Westmacott. RearAdmiral Charles Holmes, Commander-in-Chief, 1760— 61 ; Christopher Lipscomb, first Bishop of Jamaica ; Lucas Barrett, geologist ; Commodore Peter Cracroft (1865) ; and Sir James Fergusson, who was killed by the earthquake of 1907, were buried in the churchyard. In the old burial-ground at Halfway Tree lie buried George Bennett, who came here a soldier under General Venables," and two infant sons of Governor Sir William Beeston, who died in 1677 and 1678, and Elizabeth Dalling. King's House, the official residence of the Governor, is about 4 miles from Kingston in the parish of St. Andrews, on the Liguanea Plain. Like the Public Buildings it was designed by Sir Charles Nicholson ; it is constructed of reinforced concrete. The building comprises three floors, the rooms being arranged round an open patio, and most of them opening on to broad verandahs. The billiardand ball-rooms are lofty apartments, the latter measuring 70 ft. by 30 ft. The grounds cover about 177 acres, and the main approach is by a drive hedged in with many beautiful palms, and is gay with hibiscus, poinsettia, and many flowering shrubs. The historic town of Port Royal stands at the extremity of the spit of sand known as the Palisadoes, which protects Kingston Harbour. It can be reached by Government launch from the Ordnance Wharf {see page 166) It is of great historic interest, and was, prior to the earthquake of June 7, 1692, considered the finest town in the West Indies, and at that time the richest spot in the universe," being as it was the headquarters of the buccaneers, and as such the emporium and mart of their ill-gotten wealth. The rector of the parish thus described the disaster j

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 181 p < O t^ fe o B Oi < p a ffl H c-

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1 82 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Whole streets, with their inhabitants, were swallowed up by the opening of the earth, which, when shut upon them, squeezed the people to death, and in that manner several were left with their heads above ground, and others covered with dust and earth by the people who remained in the place. It was a sad sight to see the harbour covered with dead bodies of people of all conditions, floating up and down without burial, for the burying place was destroyed by the earthquake, which dashed to pieces tombs, and the sea washed the carcases of those who had been buried out of their graves. At Green Bay, across the harbour, there is still to be seen the tomb of Lewis Galdy, a native of Montpelier in France, a merchant, Member of the Assembly, and Churchwarden of Port Royal, who was swallowed up by the earthquake, and by the providence of God was, by another shock, thrown into the sea and saved. The tomb is inscribed : HERE LYES THE BODY OF LEWIS GALDY, ESQ., WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE AT PORT ROYAL THE 22ND DECEMBER I739HE WAS BORN AT MONTPELIER IN FRANCE, BUT LEFT THAT COUNTRY FOR HIS RELIGION AND CAME TO SETTLE IN THIS ISLAND, WHERE HE WAS SWALLOWED UP IN THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN THE YEAR 1 692 AND BY THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD WAS BY ANOTHER SHOCK THROWN INTO THE SEA, AND MIRACULOUSLY SAVED BY SWIMMING UNTIL A BOAT TOOK HIM UP ; HE LIVED MANY YEARS AFTER IN GREAT REPUTATION, BELOVED BY ALL WHO KNEW HIM, AND MUCH LAMENTED AT HIS DEATH. Port Royal was destroyed by fire in 1703, and again in 1 81 6 ; and in 1722 it was devastated by a hurricane. In front of the officers' quarters is a lawn, at each corner of which is a colossal figure-head painted in gaudy colours. One is the figure-head of H.M.S. Aboukir, a former port guardship, wrongly said to represent Lord Nelson. The chief objects of interest are the church and Fort Charles, where Nelson commanded in 1779. The staircase or entrance to what is known as Nelson's Quarter Deck — a space on the ramparts adjoining the great hero's quarters — still stands as shown in the illustration. Over the doorway the arms of Nelson are emblazoned on a panel, and on an adjacent wall there is the stirring injunction :

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THE ENTRANCE TO NELSON S QUARTERS, PORT ROYAL, JAMAICA Nelson's coat-of-arms can be seen painted up over the door

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 183 IN THIS PLACE DWELT HORATIO NELSON YE WHO TREAD HIS FOOTPRINTS REMEMBER HIS GLORY. The fort takes its name from King Charles II. It was commenced in 1662, and rebuilt by Lilly in 1699 after the earthquake. St. Peter's Church, built in 1725-26, contains a large number of naval and military monuments, the most striking among which are those to Lieutenant William Stapleton, R.N. (1784), who was killed by the bursting of a cannon at Port Morant, by Roubiliac, and to Captain Augustus James de Crespigny (1825), who served under Nelson at Trafalgar. Port Royal used to be an important naval station, but the dockyard has now been closed and reduced to the position of a cadre after an existence of practically two and a half centuries. The port guardship H.M.S. Urgent was removed in 1903. On the Palisadoes is Gallow's Point, now a mangrovecovered promontory, where many a pirate was hanged as described in Tom Cringle's Log : The signal had been given — the lumbering flap of the long drop was heard, and five-and-twenty human beings were wavering in the sea breeze in the agonies of death The other eighteen suffered on the same spot the week following ; and for long after, this fearful and bloody example struck terror into the Cuban fishermen. There is also a burial-ground on the Palisadoes. On the Hope road, out of Kingston, is the Jamaica College, one of the Colony's principal boys' schools, and also Hope Gardens, a beautiful botanical garden, covering 210 acres, which is the headquarters of the Director of Agriculture, and is reached by tram (5^ miles from the city). It occupies the site of Hope Sugar Estate, which was once the property of Lady Temple, afterwards Marchioness of Buckingham. Large nurseries contain upwards of 100,000 plants, such as orange, cocoa, rubber, nutmeg, mango, coffee, &c. The Farm School which is attached to the gardens affords agricultural training to the sons of small farmers. A botanical station of still greater beauty is that known as Castleion Gardens in the parish of St.

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1 84 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Mary, on the road between Kingston and Annotto Bay. The gardens, which are 19 miles from Kingston, are 456 ft. above the sea and contain a large collection of tropical plants and economic spice and fruit trees. The Gardens, which were established about 1862 on the banks of the Wag Water, are a 19-mile drive over Stoney Hill and down the valley of the Wag Water. The expedition requires a whole day, and lunch may be had at Castleton Cottages. In the Gardens may be seen in lavish profusion specimens of almost every known tropical plant, including cocoatrees, rubber, kola, cardamoms, nutmegs, pine-apples, &c. The tram-cars run beyond Hope Gardens to Papine Corner, from which a drive may be taken up the romantic Hope River valley to Gordon Town (9 miles from Kingston). Here ponies or buggies can be obtained for a ride or drive to Newcastle, the old military cantonment, 4000 ft. above the sea (19 miles from Kingston), which was established during the Governorship of Sir Charles Metcalfe (1839-1841). From Newcastle to Catherine's Peak there is a fair riding-road. The view of both sides of the island from the Peak is very beautiful. The road from Newcastle is continued to Hardwar Gap and down the Buff River Valley to Buff Bay on the north side of the island. From Gordon Town the drive may be extended through exquisite scenery to Mavis Bank, lying in a superb amphitheatre of hills in the heart of the district which produces the world-famous Blue Mountain coffee. The expedition to Blue Mountain Peak (7360 ft.) and back takes two days, and should only be undertaken by those who can ride or care for hill-climbing on foot. Arrangements for the trip can be made at the offices of the Jamaica Tourist Association. Tourists are recommended to drive to Gordon Town or Mavis Bank early enough to arrive by 9 a.m. There they can be met by ponies, ordered overnight, and proceed by zigzag bridle-paths up the mountain side past Petersfield coffee plantation, over Guava Ridge, through Mavis Bank, passing the church on the left, down Green Valley, over the river, and then turning abruptly to the left. Magnificent views are

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u S t -1 a;

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 185 obtained of Cinchona, Catherine's Peak, Content Gap, and the valley of the Clyde. The night is spent in a small hut at the summit of the Peak. Spanish Town, or St. Jago de la Vega, on the banks of the Rio Cobre (the Copper River) (-£ hour from Kingston by train), was the former capital of the island. Visitors who prefer to drive to Spanish Town along the broad high road pass the historic Ferry Inn at the boundary between Kingston and St. Catherine, just before the seventh milestone and the huge silk-cotton tree near by, referred to in Tom Cringle's Log," which trunk described as twenty feet through of solid timber ; that is, not including the enormous spars that shoot out like buttresses, and end in strong twisted roots, that strike deep into the earth and form stays, as it were, to the tree in all directions." The "Ferry Inn," which was once a popular "half-way house, has long since fallen from its high estate, the need for it having been obviated since the construction of the railway. Lady Nugent makes several references to it in her Journal.* She visited it on various occasions in 1803, and wrote : I was much entertained ; for the Inn is situated on the road between Kingston and Spanish Town, and it was very diverting to see the odd figures and extraordinary equipages constantly passing — kittareens, sulkies, mules, and donkies. Then a host of gentlemen, who were taking their sangaree in the Piazza ; and their vulgar buckism amused me very much. Some of them got half tipsy, and then began petitioning me for my interest with his Honour — to redress the grievance of one, to give a place to another, and so forth ; in short it was a picture of Hogarth . Spanish Town was once a town of considerable importance, and the wellconstructed group of Government Buildings round its central square testifies to its former grandeur. Among the more notable of these is the old King's House, the official residence of former Governors, on the west side. It was built from designs by Craskell, the then engineer of the island. The plans were approved during the administration of Lieutenant-Governor Henry Moore in 1759-62, and the building was completed in First printed for private circulation in 1839 ; published in an abbreviated form in 1907.

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1 86 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES 1762, after the arrival of the Governor, William Henry Lyttelton. The expense of building the house, which was considered the noblest and best edifice of the kind, either in North America or any of the British Colonies in the West Indies," amounted to nearly ^21,428 sterling. The facade is about 200 ft. long, and we are told that the freestone used in its construction came from the Hope River course in St. Andrew's. The columns supporting the portico are of Portland stone, and the pavement of white marble. Long, in his "History of Jamaica," gave the following description of the interior in about 1774 : Two principal entrances lead through it into the body of the house ; the one opens into a lobby or antechamber, the other into the great saloon, or hall of audience, which is well proportioned, the dimensions being about 71 by 30 ft. and the height about 32 ; from the ceiling, which is covered, hang two brass gilt lustres. A screen, of seven large Doric pillars, divides the saloon from an upper and lower gallery of communication, which range the whole length on the west side ; and the upper one is secured with an elegant entrelas of figured ironwork. The east or opposite side of the saloon is finished with Doric pilasters, upon each of which are brass girandoles double-gilt ; and between each pilaster, under the windows of the attic story, are placed, on gilt brackets, the busts of several ancient and modern philosophers and poets, large as life ; which, being in bronze, the darkness of their complexion naturally suggests the idea of so many Negroe Caboceros, exalted to this honourable distinction for some peculiar services rendered to the country. At the north end, over a door which opens into the lobby, is a small movable orchestra, made to hold a band of music on festive occasions. The furniture below consists of a great number of mahogany chairs and settees, sufficient to accommodate a large company, this room being chiefly used for public audiences, entertainments, balls, and the hearings of chancery and ordinary. At the south end are three folding doors, opening into a spacious apartment, in which, by the Governor's permission, the Council usually meet ; whence it has received the name of the councilchamber. . Above the council-chamber is a banquetingroom, or drawing-room, of the same size, hung with paper, and neatly furnished. This room communicates with the upper gallery and a back staircase, and enjoys a view of the saloon through some windows ranging with those of the attic story : it is seldom used except on public days, and is perfectly well calculated for the purpose. These different apartments take up about one half of the whole building. The room over the lobby, being somewhat darkened by the pediment of the portico, was converted by Governor Lyttelton into a chapel for private

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 187 devotions. It is neatly fitted up, and with great propriety adapted to this use. The northern division of the house consists of three large rooms below, communicating with each other, and with a long gallery, all of which are handsomely furnished and well lighted : this gallery has commonly been used either for public suppers, when balls were given in the hall, or as a sheltered and retired walk in wet weather. The upper story is disposed in a suite of chambers, divided by a long narrow gallery from a range of smaller apartments. Curiously enough, as was the case with the Law Courts in London, the question of a grand staircase appears to have been completely overlooked when the designs were passed. Opposite King's House is the building in which the House of Assembly used to meet. The north side of the square is graced by a stately memorial of Admiral Rodney, who defeated de Grasse off Dominica on April 12, 1782. A temple, with a cupola and lanthorn supported on open arches, and connected with the neighbouring buildings by a colonnade, shelters a statue of this naval hero by the elder Bacon. On the front panel of the pedestal is the following inscription : GEORG. BRYDG. RODNEY BARON RODNEY NAVAL. PRAEL. VICTORI PRID. ID. APRILIS A.D., MDCCLXXXII. BRITANN. PACEM REST. D.D.D. S.P.Q. JAMAICENSIS. Which may be rendered : TO GEORGE BRYDGES RODNEY BARON RODNEY VICTOR IN A SEA FIGHT ON THE DAY BEFORE THE IDES OF APRIL IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD I782. HE RESTORED PEACE TO BRITAIN. THE LEGISLATURE AND THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA PRESENTED [THIS MEMORIAL]. Rodney is represented as clad in a short-sleeved tunic and he has a cloak over his right arm. On his feet are sandals and a Medusa's head is suspended from his neck. This statue was considered one of Bacon's finest works. It is flanked by two fine bronze cannon, cast at Douai in

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1 88 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES 1748 by Jean Maritz, which were captured from the Ville de Paris, the magnificent vessel which was the gift of the city of Paris to Louis XV. One of these extremely handsome pieces of ordnance, whose decoration was on a par with the splendour of the French flagship, is called Le Precipice," and the other Le Modeste," and they bear the following inscription : ULTIMA RATIO REGUM PLURIBUS NEC IMPAR, LOUIS CHARLES DE BOURBON COMTE D'EU DUC D'AUMALE. Precisely similar cannon are included in the collection at the Tower of London. It is fitting here to recall that the memorable battle which secured to us our West Indian colonies began at 7 a.m. on the glorious April 12, and lasted until 6.30 p.m.* The English lost 261 killed and 837 wounded, and of the French no fewer than 14,000 were accounted for as captured or killed. The Ville de Paris carried 108 guns and 1300 men. When Spanish Town — the St. Jago de la Vega of the Spanish, founded in 1523 — ceased to be the capital of Jamaica, during the governorship of Sir John Peter Grant in 1870, Rodney's statue was removed to Kingston, but such was the outcry of the inhabitants of the former city, that it had to be replaced. In the Gallery in the Institute of Jamaica is the painting by R. E. Pine, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784, and described as Portrait of Lord Rodney in action aboard the Formidable, attended by his principal officers ; the time chosen for reproduction being evidently that when the Ville de Paris struck her flag to the Barfleur. Near the Central Square is the Cathedral, dedicated to St. Catherine, and constructed of red bricks, which form a pleasing contrast to the surrounding foliage. An inscription over the door records that the church was thrown downe by ye Dreadfull Hurricane of August ye 28 Anno An account of the Battle of the Saints, as the engagement was called, is given in West Indian Tales of Old." London : Duckworth and Co.

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THE RODNEY MEMORIAL, SPANISH TOWN, JAMAICA The guns flanking the statue were taken from the Ville de Paris GOVERNMENT HOUSE, TRINIDAD This palatial residence of the Governor overlooks the Savannah

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 189 Domini MDCCXII and was rebuilt in 17 14." The present tower was added in 1817. This, the oldest cathedral in the British Colonies, has many monuments, of which the most notable is one by Bacon, erected by the people of Jamaica to the Earl and Countess of Effingham, who died in 1790. On a pyramidal obelisk of marble is an urn decorated with festoons of flowers and the arms of the Earl of Effingham. Above are represented the Chancellor's seal of the island, the mace and sword, and the scales of Justice. On one side of the monument, supporting the urn, is a figure emblematic of Jamaica, bearing the crest of the island on her zone ; on the other side a boy holding an olive branch in his hand resting on a cornucopia full of tropical fruits, while his right hand rests on a shield on which are blazoned the arms of Jamaica, which are heraldically described argent on a cross gules, five pine-apples ; dexter supporter an Indian female, in her exterior hand a basket of fruit ; sinister, an Indian warrior, in his exterior hand, a bow, both plumed. Crest, an alligator passant. Motto : Indus uterque serviet uni. Other notable memorials which the church contains are those to the wife of Sir Adam Williamson and Dr. Brodbelt (both by Bacon), Sir Basil Keith, Governor of Jamaica (d. 1777), by J. Wilton, R.A. ; Colonel William Selwyn, Governor of Jamaica (d. 1702) ; Sir Thomas Modyford, Governor of Jamaica (d. 1679) ; Sir Thomas Lynch, Governor of Jamaica (d. 1684) ; The Earl of Inchiquin, Governor of Jamaica (d. 1692) (erected by the present Lord Inchiquin) ; Samuel Long, Speaker of the Assembly, Chief Justice (d. 1683) ; Peter Beckford, Lieut. -Governor (d. 1 7 10) ; Anne, wife of Sir Adam Williamson, Lieut. Governor (d. 1794) ; Colonel John Colbeck, who came with ye army that conquered the island (d. 1682) ; Major-General James Bannister, late Governor of Surrenham [Surinam] (d. 1674) ; and Humphrey Freeman, who was at ye takeing of this island (d. 1692) The monuments include one of the Countess of Elgin, wife of Governor the Earl of Elgin (1842-46), and another, which particularly deserves attention, was erected to a distinguished barrister and former Advocate-General of the island, who enjoyed the uncommon felicity to be unenvied by any, the delight and admiration of all." Spanish Town once had a monastery.

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190 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES an abbey, and two churches, of which no traces now remain. In 1655, in the very year in which the English took the island, Vice-Admiral William Goodsonn, one of the Commissioners charged with the conduct of the expedition sent out by Cromwell, requested that some godly ministers with monies for their maintenance should be sent out ; and it was one of the instructions to Colonel Doyley when he was made first Governor of the colony in 1661, that he should give the best encouragement to ministers that Christianity and the Protestant religion, according to the profession of the Church of England, may have due reverence and exercise amongst them," and five ministers were soon sent out. In 1664 there was but one church in the whole island (at Spanish Town), being a fair Spanish Church ruined by the old soldiers but lately in some measure repaired by Sir Charles Lyttelton." In Mulberry Garden, the present Poor House, there is a noble tamarind tree under which, it is said, Colonels Raymond and Tyson were shot for conspiracy in 1660. Eagle House, which stands behind the Public Hospital in King Street, is full of historic associations. Locally it is known as John Crow House, from the eagle which surmounts one of its gate-posts. It is said to have been the residence of William O'Brien, second Earl of Inchiquin, Governor of Jamaica 1660-61. To Bog Walk (boca de agua, or water's mouth), a very beautiful gorge of the Rio Cobre, is a charming drive from Spanish Town. A pleasant excursion can be made from Kingston by taking the early morning train to Spanish Town, and driving thence through the gorge to the village of Bog Walk. At the lower end is the Dam of the Rio Cobre irrigation canal, and at the upper end is Gibraltar Rock, through which the railway to Ewarton passes by means of a tunnel half a mile long. After resting the horses for half an hour, the tourist should drive back to within three miles of Spanish Town. Here he can leave the buggy and embark on a punt on the irrigation canal — which, shaded as it is by coco-nut palms and tropical foliage, is of surpassing beauty — rejoining the buggy again within a short

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 191 distance of Spanish Town. After luncheon at the Rio Cobre Hotel, he can return to Kingston by train, the whole trip occupying the best part of a day. From Spanish Town one line of the Government Railway runs by a circuitous route to Port Antonio on the north side and towards the eastern end of the island. Port Antonio, on the north side of the island, 75 miles by train from Kingston, is the headquarters of the United Fruit Company of Boston, Mass. It is situated on the shore of a magnificent harbour divided into two parts by a promontory on which the palatial Hotel Titchfield stands. The small island opposite it is called Navy Island. The town is divided into two parts, Upper and Lower Titchfield (named after the settlement, which was called Titchfield after one of the titles of the 1st Duke of Portland, who gave his chief title to the parish), the former standing on a peninsula and the latter extending along the sea-shore. The old military barracks in the upper town are now used as a school. Formerly a village of modest dimensions, Port Antonio has been raised to a position of importance through the development of the banana industry. During the SpanishAmerican war of 1898 it was the headquarters of the war correspondents and Press representatives. Many pleasant drives can be taken from Port Antonio, the more notable being those to Moore Town — the site of a Maroon settlement {see page 160) — the Blue Hole, a lagoon of exquisite beauty, and the Swift River. From Port Antonio, MontegO Bay, the second town of Jamaica, situated on the north coast near the west end of the island, can be reached by the coast road by motor-car in about 8 hours or carriage in 3 days (distance 128% miles). The first place of importance reached is Annotto Bay (28^miles) on the right bank of the mouth of the Wag Water (a corruption of the Spanish agua alta) river. This is a shipping port on the railway line between Kingston and Port Antonio. The quaint belfry of the Chapel in the main street, which resembles an exaggerated meat-safe, should be noticed,

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1 92 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Port Maria (44^ miles) is a thriving port much frequented by fruit steamers, which are loaded here with bananas from St. Mary's parish. Oracabessa (51^miles), a small town but an important fruit centre. The name is said to be derived from Cabeza de Oro, the Golden head." Ocho Rios (64^ miles) is a small town with a well-protected harbour of growing importance. The name has been interpreted to mean eight rivers," but it is more probably derived from chorrSra, a spout, after the waterfall near by. It was here that Sasi, the Spanish Governor who had given up the island to Penn and Venables in 1655, landed again and was defeated by Governor Doyley in 1657. Sasi, whose camp had been in a swampy place (now identified with Shaw Park estate), retreated to a. bay about eight miles to the west, which has ever since been called ' Runaway Bay, ' and here he embarked in a canoe and made good his escape. The Fern Gully and the Roaring River Falls can be visited from Ocho Rios or taken en route to Moneague, Ewarton, and Kingston (see next page). St. Ann's Bay (71^miles) is the Santa Gloria of Columbus. Here, says Mr. Cundall, the discoverer anchored on May 3, 1494, and not far from here (possibly in Don Christopher's Cove) he ran his caravels ashore on June 24, 1503, staying until June 28, 1504.* The fort erected in 1777 is now used as a slaughter-house. Windsor Fort was erected in 1803. Dry Harbour (85^ miles), a small town of no importance, has been identified by Mr. Frank Cundall as Puerto Bueno, where Columbus landed after discovering Jamaica on May 4, 1494. On Hopewell and Cave Hall estates, about 1% miles distant, are some interesting caves. Six miles inland is Brown's Town (1200 ft.), the largest township in St. Ann. Rio Bueno (9of miles) has an old fort called Fort Dundas, which bears the date of 1778. In the Great House of Bryan Castle (about 2§miles from Rio Bueno) Bryan Edwards wrote his famous "History of the West Indies," which was first published in 1799. "Preservation of Historic Sites, &c, in the West Indian Colonies," Colonial Report, Miscellaneous, No, 84, 1913.

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 193 Falmouth (106^miles from Port Antonio) was once a, shipping port of consequence. In the spacious Court House are portraits of General Sir John Keane, Lieut. Governor from 1827 to 1829, and Sir Charles Metcalfe, Governor from 1839 to 1842. The Parish Church contains monuments to John Hodges (1787), a member of a wellknown West Indian family, and James Blake (1753). From Falmouth to Montego Bay (see page 195) the distance is 22 miles. From Spanish Town a branch line of the railway runs to Ewarton (173miles, 1 hour). From here an enjoyable expedition can be made over Mount Diablo (10 miles) to Moneague, whence a drive may be taken through the famous Fern Gully to Ocho Rios and the Roaring River Falls. Fern Gully is a natural gorge of surpassing beauty, with steep sides covered with ferns, through which a winding road runs towards Ocho Rios. Sir Harry Johnston described the gully, which he was largely instrumental in saving from vandal banana growers, to the writer, in the following terms : It is an amazing botanical exhibit, with about twenty-five different species of ferns, tree-ferns here and there at the top, ferns with immense fronds, filmy creeping ferns, ferns with fronds like curled wire or carved green bronze, an epitome, in fact, of the fern sub-class." Roaring River Falls, the property of the Hon. Sir John Pringle, is the largest waterfall in the island. The water descends in a series of foaming white cascades and is broken in its course by rocks, on some of which plants and palms have maintained a foothold. This trip will occupy two days ; but quite a week can be profitably spent in St. Ann's Parish. Hollymount House on Mount Diablo is itself well worth a visit ; the views from it are of exceptional beauty. There are pretty walks through the forest amid orchids and ferns, and many butterflies, also parrots, parakeets, and other strange birds are seen. After leaving Spanish Town, the main line of the railway proceeds through a fertile banana district to May Pen, the junction for the Clarendon branch.

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194 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES From here an expedition can be made to the ruins of Colbeck Castle, which dates from the seventeenth century. At Milk River, which is 13 miles from May Pen station and 12 miles from Clarendon Park (buggy hire for one person 8s., for two 12s., or for three 15s.), there is a thermal mineral bath, an analysis of the waters of which gives the following results : Chloride of sodium 20.77 Chloride of potassium 0.16 Sulphate of soda 3.40 Chloride of calcium 1.50 Chloride of magnesium 4.12 Besides traces of lithia, bromine, and silica. The efficacy of the waters has stood the test of over a century. Jamaica has no fewer than fifteen mineral springs, including saline, calcic, sulphurous, and chalybeate waters, but only those at Milk River and the bath of St. Thomas the Apostle at Bath in St. Thomas-in-the-East are put to systematic use. The river abounds in fish, including calipevers, mullet, &c. From Milk River Bath a visit can be made to the sugar-growing district of Vere. At the southeastern extremity of Vere is Portland Cave, at the foot of Portland Ridge, a visit to which is, however, only recommended to the adventurous. From Vere a splendid road passing the Salt River and Cockpit River leads to Old Harbour. Williamsfield (53 miles, 2 hours 20 minutes from Kingston) is the station for Mandeville (2000 ft.), a popular resort which owes its name to the second title of the Duke of Manchester, Governor in 1808. The village (5 miles from the station) has its church, school-house, and Court House. Many enjoyable drives can be taken to places in the neighbourhood, one to Spur Tree Hill being deservedly popular. Conveyances may be obtained for the drive to Malvern in the Santa Cruz Mountains (28 miles, fare 40s.), which can, however, be reached more expeditiously from Balaclava Station (70I miles from Kingston by rail). Near Balaclava Station are the celebrated Oxford Caves in the May Day Mountains on Oxford Pen, about 1000 ft. above sea level. The various galleries and halls which extend for several hundred yards under the mountains

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 195 contain many curious stalagmites and stalactites. The climate of the Santa Cruz Mountains is the finest in the island, and is particularly well suited to those suffering from pulmonary complaints. On the Santa Cruz Mountains are Potsdam and Hampton, the boys' and girls' schools of the Munro and Dickenson Trusts, which owe their existence to the liberality of two former residents of St. Elizabeth. From Malvern a visit may be paid to the Maggotty Falls on the road to Ipswich Station (85I miles from Kingston by rail). Near Cambridge Station (97I miles) is the Seven Rivers Cave {see page 197). Montpelier (io2§ miles) is in the midst of what is probably the most beautiful and fertile agricultural country in Jamaica. It forms part of the long, wide valley which extends from Montego Bay east for fifty miles or more, and provides most of the twenty thousand stems of bananas shipped each week from that port. From Montpelier, Savannah-la-Mar, the principal town of Westmoreland, is reached (21 J miles). It is the shipping port of a prosperous sugar-growing district which also produces coffee, ginger, and logwood. The Parish Church, built as recently as 1903-4, occupies the site of one erected in 1799. The tomb of the founder, George Murray (1804), can be seen. Ten miles from Montpelier by rail is Montego Bay, the town next in importance to Kingston, and a terminus of the railway, which possesses much historic interest. When visited by Columbus on his second voyage in 1494 it was a large Indian village, and traces of Arawak life have been found in caves round the bay, where the late Dr. Bastien, of Berlin, obtained many good specimens. During the Spanish occupancy much lard was exported from the town, and to this it owes its name, which is a corruption of manteca or hogs' butter. On Myranda Hill are the ruins of an old Spanish monastery. The Parish Church of St. James replaces an edifice believed to have been built very early in the eighteenth century, for in 1733 a Bill was passed for appointing a proper place for building a church.'* The foundation-stone of the present church was laid on

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196 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES May 6, 1775, and the building was opened in 1782. Hakewill described it as the handsomest church in the island. Among the monuments which it contains, those of Mrs. Rosa Palmer and Dr. George Macfarquar (1786), both by John Bacon, R.A., are conspicuous. The former is inscribed as follows : NEAR THIS PLACE ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF MRS. ROSA PALMER, WHO DIED ON THE FIRST DAY OF MAY, 1/90. HER MANNERS WERE OPEN, CHEERFUL AND AGREEABLE, AND BEING BLESSED WITH A PLENTIFUL FORTUNE, HOSPITALITY DWELT WITH HER AS LONG AS HEALTH PERMITTED HER TO ENJOY SOCIETY. EDUCATED BY THE ANXIOUS CARE OF A REVEREND DIVINE, HER FATHER, HER CHARITIES WERE NOT OSTENTATIOUS BUT OF A NOBLER KIND. SHE WAS WARM IN HER ATTACHMENT TO HER FRIENDS, AND GAVE THE MOST' SIGNAL PROOFS OF IT IN THE LAST MOMENTS OF HER LIFE. THIS TRIBUTE OF AFFECTION AND RESPECT IS ERECTED BY HER HUSBAND, THE HONOURABLE JOHN PALMER, AS A MONUMENT OF HER WORTH AND OF HIS GRATITUDE. This lady, who must not be confused with the wicked Mrs. Palmer to whom reference is made below (see page 199), was buried in the churchyard of the same church and her tombstone is inscribed : UNDERNEATH THIS STONE ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF ROSA PALMER, WIFE OF THE HON. JOHN PALMER OF THIS PARISH, WHO DIED THE 1ST DAY OF MAY, I79O, AGED 72 YEARS. Other monuments are to the memory of Dr. William Fowle (an early work of Sir Richard Westmacott, 1796), and Mrs. S.N. Kerr (by Henry Westmacott, 1814). The handsome east window was the gift of Mr. W. F. Lawrence and others. At Doctor's Cave the bathing is unsurpassed (tickets for the bathing clubhouse at Gardner's book store), and just beyond it is a well-kept sanatorium. The Harbour offers

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 197 every facility for safe boating. The Bogue Islands, where oysters grow on the trees, are well worth visiting, and there are miles of coral reefs in the neighbourhood, over which visitors can pass in perfect safety, inspecting the while the most remarkable marine gardens. There are several caves of interest in St. James' Parish, but the most noteworthy is near Cambridge (14 miles from Montego Bay by road) called Seven Rivers Cave, which has many chambers adorned with fantastic stalagmites. The roads in the parish are very good for driving, motoring or cycling, and there are several good livery stables (town limits 6d. ; per hour 3s. 6d. ; per day, £1). The Parade was laid out by Custos James Lawrence in 1755, and the Square— in which there is a bust of the late John E. Kerr, a prominent citizen and custos of the Parish of St. James — was named Charles Square after Admiral Charles Knowles, Governor of Jamaica from 1752 to 1756. Near the gate of the old barracks is an octagonal and battlemented tower known as The Dome, where the watchman used to guard a spring called the Creek, which fills a stream of fresh water. Among the many delightful drives which can be taken from Montego Bay the following are recommended : Catherine Hall (1 mile, \ hour), where visitors can inspect a typical modern sugar factory, Reading Stream, with its historic cotton-trees (3 miles, 1 hour), Great River, with its many pretty falls and favourite picnic spots {6\ miles, 2 hours), Rose Hall (10 miles, 3 hours), Montpelier (10 miles, 3 hours) — {see page 195), John's Hall Dam, a picturesque old sugar estate dam (8 miles, 2\ hours), Marley Castle, once the home of Isaac Lascelles Winn, the great Quaker (11 miles, 3 hours). The site of Maroon Town, once called Trelawny Town, where the Maroons made their last stand against the Government in 1795, which has practically disappeared, and Accompong, still a Maroon settlement, are situated in the wild and romantic Cockpit Country, a district some 10 by 15 miles in extent in the west central part of Jamaica. The Maroons, who derived their name from the Spanish cimaron — wild or fierce — or perhaps from cima — mountain-top— are the

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198 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES descendants of escaped negro slaves of the Spaniards and the runaway slaves of the English, who for years proved a menace. They kept up a guerilla warfare with the colonists, and although treaties were made with them from time to time they were not finally suppressed until after the Maroon War of 1795, the cost of which was ^350,000. After the struggle most of the Maroons were expatriated to Nova Scotia at a cost of ^49,400. Mr. Frank Cundall gives the following account of a visit to the Cockpit Country. At one time it gave the impression of a number of stunted cones rising from a plain ; at another the feeling was one of a number of basins like the Devil's Punch-bowls of England ; at all times, except where there was a clearing for corn, bananas, or bread-kind, it appeared thickly wooded — mahogany, cedar, mahoe, Santa Maria, and broadleaf being prominent, and mosquito wood and red shingle wood, and other lesser known woods being pointed out by our guide. ... As one rides along these defiles the mournful note of the solitaire suggests the nervousness which might have fallen on the soldiers marching through a thickly wooded, rocky, unknown country, every crag of which might conceal a foe, to whose foot such mountain paths were familiar. At Maroon Town itself, we found a clearing on which cattle were grazing, and a police station (just abandoned) built on the site of the officers' quarters of half a century ago. Near by was the well which supplied the settlement with water, and a barracks, some 130 ft. long by 30 ft. broad, which had once possessed an upper story of wood, little now remaining of the stoutly built lower walls of limestone quarried in the neighbourhood. There also were the powder-house and the cells, the hospital and the kitchens and the mess-house, which, placed on an immense rock open to the sea breeze from the east, commanded a view over Trelawny to the sea by Falmouth miles away. It was once a substantial building of three storeys, the solid steps leading up to the second floor being still usable. Opposite the mess-house rise two large conicaf hills calling to mind the twin Pitons of St. Lucia — the one called Gun Hill (because a gun had been placed in position there, possibly the howitzer with which Walpole did great execution), the other Garrison Hill. Then we saw the tank some thirty feet long, fed by a clear stream in which the soldiers were wont to bathe ; then, saddest of all, a few tombs — one recalling the death in 1840 of a coloured sergeant of the 68th (or Durham) Regiment, another to the wife of a quartermaster of the 38th Regiment who died in 1846, and a third to the paymaster of the 101st Regiment who died in 18 10 ; while a nameless tomb, the oldest inhabitant told us, belonged to a Colonel Skeate, who, being ill when his regiment left, was buried by the incoming regiment.

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JAMAICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 199 The wood behind the police station was, we were told, almost impassable. For miles the thick woods lie untrodden by man, except when a few Maroons or other negroes go hunting the wild hogs which abound, or fowling," i.e. shooting pigeons. After leaving Maroon Town we visited the chief settlement of the Maroons in the west end of the island, Accompong, and experienced rough travelling. In places there was nothing but the bare limestone rock for yards, without a scrap of earth. Nothing but a pony bred in the district could have negotiated it successfully. But once on the main path riding was easy. One was struck by the amount of cultivation on either hand ; here and there a patch of bananas, here and there yams, and so on. On reaching the town of Accompong, we saw a number of houses scattered about and a small church nearing completion. Across a pit stood the Colonel's house on the opposite side. Rose Hall in particular calls for mention, for apart from its being typical of the palatial great houses in which West Indian planters lived in the days when sugar was king, it is said to be haunted by the ghost of Mrs. Palmer. This is not the lady whose virtues are recorded on the monument by Bacon in the church, but a second Mrs. Palmer — an Irish immigrant — whose residence in Jamaica was characterised by the extreme brutality with which she treated her slaves and the facility with which she disposed of her husbands. The Hon. John Palmer, of Rose Hall, was her fourth, and she wore a ring inscribed, If I survive I shall have five." Fortunately, however, this inhuman wretch did not survive, but was herself murdered, being strangled by her slaves on the neighbouring estate of Palmyra. For many years rumour connected this modern Brinvilliers with the monument in the church, and certain marks in the neck of the figure of Jamaica — wrongly believed to be Mrs. Palmer — were pointed out by the superstitious. The monument was, however, erected to the memory of the Hon. John Palmer's first wife. The house, which was erected in 1760 at a cost of £30,000, was at that time one of the most handsome great houses in the island. Hakewill writing of it said : [' It is placed at a delightful elevation, and commands a very extensive sea view. Its general appearance has much of the character of a handsome Italian villa. A double flight of stone steps leads to an open portico, giving access to the entrance hall ;

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200 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES on the left of which is the eating-room, and on the right the drawing-room, behind which are other apartments for domestic uses. The right wing fitted up with great elegance and enriched with painting and gilding, was the private apartment of the late Mrs. Palmer, and the left wing is occupied as servants' apartments and offices. The principal staircase in the body of the house is a specimen of joinery in mahogany and other costly woods seldom excelled and leads to a suite of chambers in the upper story." Drives can also be taken to Lucea (25 miles along'Tthe coast road to the west, 6J hours), and Falmouth (22 miles, 6| hours ; see page 193). The parish church contains a monument to Sir Simon Clarke, Bart., by Flaxman (1777). The main coast road to the east of Kingston leads to Rock Fort. Three miles from Kingston is the terminus of the tram-cars near Rock Fort Gardens, a place of entertainment. A mile farther on is a quarry worked by convicts, a brickedin public bath with curative waters, and the historic Rock Fort. The road proceeds past Harbour Head (i|miles) and the Hope River (J mile), which, though generally dry, is impassable after heavy rains ; § mile farther are the huts of the cable companies, | mile beyond which the Cane River — also usually dry — has to be crossed. Bull Bay (o| miles from Kingston) is a straggling town of no importance. Beyond this town the road crosses the Yallahs River (7 \ miles), passes the Yallahs Ponds (3 miles), and after crossing the Johnson River (5f miles) reaches Morant Bay {30^ miles from Kingston), the scene of the rebellion of 1 865 which was suppressed by Governor Eyre. Bath, in the parish of St. Thomas (40 miles from Kingston), boasts the hottest mineral spring in the island. It can be reached by a bridle road just beyond Morant Bay or from Port Morant (7 Jmiles farther on), from which it is 6J miles distant. The road from the town of Bath to the spa follows the windings of a deep and narrow gorge. Along the bottom of this flows a perennial spring, to which, rolling down the rocky sides covered in fern, numerous rills contribute. The mineral waters break from the

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TURKS AND CAlCOS ISLANDS 201 rocks at different levels, and can be distinguished from the ordinary waters of the gorge by their warmth. The largest spring issues from the face of a perpendicular rock. A covered reservoir of masonry has been built round the outlet, and a pipe fixed in it carries the water to the bathhouse. In wet weather the temperature of the water, as it runs from the rock, has been taken as 128 Fahr., and it rises in dry weather to 130 Fahr. Tradition asserts that these waters were discovered by a negro who in his own person found their efficacy. The analysis of the Bath water gives the following mineral constituents in one gallon of water : Chloride of sodium .... 13.84 grains. potassium .... 0.32 ,, Sulphate of calcium . . 5.01 ,, ,, sodium .... 6.37 ,, Carbonate of sodium . . 1.69 Silica ...... 2.72 ,, Oxide of sodium combined with silica 1.00 ,, Organic matter . . 0.99 Beyond Port Morant the coast road proceeds past Phillipsfield (2 J miles), Golden Grove (4 miles), Amity Hall (if miles), from which place a road leads to Holland Bay and Morant Point Lighthouse, Manchioneal (io| miles), and Priestman's River (g% miles), to Port Antonio (see page 191) (jy miles to Kingston by this route). An excursion to the mountains fromBath by thedina-Cuna road is most interesting. The road (a bridle-path) passes over a wild and mountainous district, and, crossing the main ridge enters the valley of the Rio Grande, which flows out on the north side of the island. The bridle-path is continued to Moore Town, and arrangements can be made for buggies to meet travellers and convey them to Port Antonio, 7 miles distant. TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS GENERAL ASPECT. The Turks and Caicos Islands consist of two distinct groups between latitudes 21 and 22 N. and longitudes 71 and 72 37' W., the former lying to the east and the latter to the west of the Grand Turk Passage, which is about 21 miles wide, and forms one of

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202 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the principal passages for vessels sailing from Europe, the United States, and Canada to Cuba and Jamaica. The Turks Islands consist of a number of uninhabited islets and of Grand Turk and Salt Cay, with a population of 1681 and 398, and an area of 10 and 6 square miles respectively ; while the Caicos group comprises numerous small cays and six larger islands, South Caicos, East Caicos, Grand or Middle Caicos, North Caicos, Blue Hills or Providenciales, and West Caicos, with a population of 3536. The Caicos Islands, which lie in the form of a large semicircle, compose the northern and part of the eastern and western borders of what is known as the Caicos Bank, which, fringed on the south by a reef, is to all intents and purposes a large and shallow lake of salt and whitish water, extending in its widest parts 50 to 60 miles north and south and 75 miles east and west. INDUSTRIES. The principal industries are the collection of salt, sponges and conchs, and the cultivation of fibre. The process of making salt in these islands is that of solar evaporation, the hot sun and strong winds, together with a low rainfall, furnishing ideal conditions for the industry. The salinas or salt-ponds are partitioned off into series of basins with sufficient fall from one set to another to cause the water to flow through them, the vegetable and mineral impurities being successively precipitated before the brine reaches the last set, called making pans," where the salt becomes crystallised ready for raking. Above a million bushels (28 to 40 bushels to the ton), of the value of ^25,000, is annually exported in bulk, most of it finding a market for packing purposes in the chief towns of the eastern seaboard of the United States. There are two companies in the Caicos Islands for the cultivation and extraction of sisal fibre. The export of sisal fluctuates considerably, ^7351 gross value being shipped in 1910, ^1225 in 1911, and ^4718 in 1912, this variation being caused by uncertain prices and climatic conditions. The sponge fisheries are confined exclusively to the Caicos Bank, where there are five purchasing stations among the islands, which buy the sponges gathered, the chief varieties being sheepswool, velvet, reef, yellow, and grass. Owing

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TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 203 to the destructive methods of fishing and to the absence of regulations for the conservation of the beds, the output has decreased of late years, and experiments on a small scale have been recently made with the propagation of sponges by cuttings, which have demonstrated the possibility of cultivation by that method In 1 90 1 sponges to the value of ^9277 were shipped, but in 1912 the value fell to £1451. Conchs are gathered chiefly for their meat, which is a favourite article of food locally and in Haiti. Occasionally a pink pearl is found in the conchs, the shells of which are burned to make lime. The principal exports for the year 191 2 were : Salt . £18,603 Sisal . £4718 Sponges 1 45 1 Conchs . 553 The direction of trade in the same year was : Foreign Countries ..... £38,084 United Kingdom . . 6191 British Colonies ..... 9334 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the dependency is shown by the following comparative table of revenue and expenditure and imports and exports for the past ten years : Year Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ i £ £ 1903 8,678 9,810 30,956 32,054 1904 6,466 8,ooi 24,121 24,487 1905 6,243 7.279 28,230 24,022 1906 6,809 7,080 27,572 24,940 1907 7,391 7,H9 27,660 23,817 1908 7,44 11,430* 24,426 24,768 1909 7,748 7,454* 25,262 18,936 1910 8,648 6,827 27,916 24,461 1911 8,318 7,695 24,722 23,703 1912 8,215 8,092 27,662 25,947 £4800 expended on hurricane relief in these years. CLIMATE. On the whole the climate is healthy, the extreme range of temperature being from 58 to 93 and

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204 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the mean 78 ; but the absence of fresh vegatables, practically the whole of the food consumed being imported, renders residence for Europeans very trying. HISTORY. Although included in the same dependency, the Turks Islands have a separate history from that of the Caicos Islands ; for, in spite of their proximity and frequent intercourse, the two groups from 1799 to 1848 were regarded as two parishes, St. Thomas and St. George, of the Bahamas Government. The Turks Islands were discovered about 1 512, but no attempt at occupation was made until 1678, when their value for the production of salt was recognised by the colonists of Bermuda. As late as 1781 the first Royal Regulations for the government of the salt-ponds show clearly that no permanent settlement or idea of fixed property in the ponds was entertained. Recognition was then given to the Head Right system, whereby one-third of the ponds was reserved to meet the expenses of common government and the other two-thirds were annually shared among all British inhabitants present in the island on February 10. Every adult was entitled to a full share ; while children, measured according to what may have been the forerunner of the decimal system, were allotted so many tenths in proportion to their height. The owners of slaves received the benefits of the shares allotted to their slaves. It would appear that some of the public officials and the ministers of religion received their salaries in bushels of salt ; which calls to mind the ancient salarium or salt allowance of the Roman soldier. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Bahamas Government, perceiving the strategic and growing commercial importance of the islands, laid claim to them as forming geographically an integral part of the Bahamas group, and, despite the vigorous protests of the Bermuda salt-rakers, it was determined by Order in Council in 1804 that the legislation of the Bahamas Government should be extended over them. After a bitter struggle lasting over half a century, it was ultimately recognised that difficulties of communication and conflicting commercial and industrial interests between the Turks Islands and the other islands of the colony rendered common legislation impracticable and impossible.

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TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 205 In 1848 an Order in Council placed the Turks Islands and the Caicos Islands as an independent administration under the supervision of the Governor of Jamaica. In the meantime, emancipation with its social upheaval had necessitated a change in the tenure of the ponds, the Head Right being replaced by a leasehold system. The Caicos Islands, which in 1848 were appended to the Turks Islands for the purposes of government, were originally occupied by loyalist refugees from Georgia after the declaration of independence by the United States ; but the white owners, owing to losses by severe hurricanes and the destruction of their cotton, sugar, and other crops by insect pests, seem to have lost heart and departed, abandoning the lands to their slaves, who rapidly lapsed into semi-barbarism. The traditions of Old Massa are still to be traced among the descendants of these slaves. After their incorporation with the Turks Islands serious attention was directed to the capabilities of the group for salt production, and about 1850 Cockburn Harbour was laid out in salt ponds on more modern lines than those of Grand Trunk and Salt Cay, and it was not long before it was able to export more salt than either of the two settlements. For several years after the establishment of independent government, remunerative prices enabled the lessees of the salt ponds to carry on the industry with a fair margin of profit, but a succession of bad seasons rendered a further change of tenure from leasehold to freehold imperative. The conversion to fee-simple was granted in 1862, onetenth of the value of the salt exported being secured as royalty in perpetuity to the Crown. The hurricane of 1866, however, left both the Government and the pond owners in a state of financial embarrassment, and, after a hopeless struggle for several years, the export tax on salt was removed (the royalty still continuing), drastic retrenchment effected, and the elective system of legislation abolished, the islands becoming in 1873 a Crown Colony and a dependency of Jamaica. : CONSTITUTION. The Legislature of the Turks and Caicos Islands, which, as we have seen, now form a dependency of Jamaica, consists of a Legislative Board comprising

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2o6 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the Commissioner and Judge, and no fewer than two or more than four other persons appointed by the Governor of Jamaica. Commissioners since 1893 Edward J. Cameron, C.M.G. 1893 W. Douglas Young, C.M.G. 1901 F. H. Watkins, I.S.O. 1906 HOTELS. There are no hotels or boarding-houses in the islands. Visitors should therefore furnish themselves with suitable introductions and make arrangements for board and bed in advance. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Since the termination of the Imperial Direct West India Mail Service there has been no direct communication, Messrs. Elders and Fyffes Ltd. kindly dropping passengers at Grand Turk whenever requested. The Clyde Line from New York to Santo Domingo call at Grand Turk about every ten days ; and a Canadian steamer from Halifax to Jamaica calls each way once a month. The boat fare between the steamer and the shore is is. each way. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. A visitor to the Turks and Caicos Islands can best spend his time in studying the life and character of their inhabitants and the manner in which the industries referred to above are carried on. There are no sights properly speaking ; but the charm and novelty of life on coral islands which are off the beaten track, together with the hospitality of the inhabitants, go far to make up for their absence. The Commissioner's residence, Waterloo," is situated about 3 miles from the landing stage at the south-west of the island. The principal church is about a quarter of a mile from the settlement. THE CAYMAN ISLANDS GENERAL ASPECT. The Cayman Islands, which constitute a dependency of Jamaica, lie between latitudes

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THE CAYMAN ISLANDS 207 19 16' and 19 45' N. and longitudes 79 83' and 81 30' W., no to 156 miles to the north-west of the west end of Jamaica. They comprise Grand Cayman (population 4128), Little Cayman (population 136) and Cayman Brae (population 1300), and have a total area of 87 square miles. Grand Cayman is 17 miles long by 7 wide, Little Cayman 9 miles by 1 mile, and Cayman Brae 10 miles by 1 mile. The coasts of Grand Cayman are for the most part rock-bound, and the island is surrounded by reefs. On the north side it has a large harbour over 6 miles wide. It has two towns — Georgetown and Boddentown — and several villages. In Grand Cayman there are about 40 miles of roads, and in Cayman Brae 15 miles, which are very well kept. The inhabitants are well-to-do and there is no poverty, each family having its own homestead, which is invariably most tidily kept. It is noteworthy that the percentage of illegitimacy is far less in the Caymans than it is in Jamaica and other West Indian islands. INDUSTRIES. The Cayman Islands are the centre of an important turtle-fishing industry, the turtle being caught off the Cays on the coast of Nicaragua and brought to the islands to fatten. They are then sent to Jamaica for shipment abroad. The fishing fleet consists of about thirty-three schooners and sloops. The green turtle caught are shipped to England and America, but the hawks-bill turtle are killed and their shells — which form the tortoiseshell of commerce — removed. When the green turtle are first caught the initials of the owners are cut on their shells and they are placed in crawls until the boats are ready to return to the Cayman Islands. The green turtle have a keen sense of locality, and cases have been known where they have escaped and been found in the fishinggrounds over three hundred miles away. Other industries include the manufacture of rope from the thatch palm, which grows wild, the raising of cattle and horses, and the cultivation of coco-nuts, which has been extended rapidly in recent years. FINANCIAL POSITION. The revenue and expediture and imports and exports for the last five years are given in the table on next page.

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2o8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure Imports. Exports. 1 1 i i 1907-8 4,569 2,773 22,774 11, 629 1908-9 3,610 3,735 22,091 11,995 1909-10 2,824 3,282 23,858 11,371 1910-11 2,779 2,716 26,232 18,992 1911-12 3,795 2,700 28,444 12,323 CLIMATE. In summer the weather is somewhat hot, the temperature averaging about 84 Fahr. ; but in autumn and winter it is refreshingly cool, the morning temperature often being below 70 Fahr. On the whole the islands are extremely healthy. The rainfall averages about 70 ins. per annum. HISTORY. The Cayman Islands were discovered by Columbus on May 10, 1503, on his return voyage from Porto BeHo to Hispaniola, and were called by him Las Tortugas from the abundance of turtle which he found there. Their present name has been attributed by the late Dr. G. S. S. Hirst, Commissioner from 1907 to 1912, to the fact that early settlers found alligators, or cayman as they are still called in Jamaica, in the lesser islands. Another ingenious though less plausible suggestion is that it is derivable from Cay Mano — the cay like a hand. With regard to Cayman Brae, we are told that Brae is synonymous with Bluff." The islands were never occupied by the Spaniards, but were mainly settled by English from Jamaica. Their formal colonisation dates from 1734, between which year and 1741 a number of patents of land were issued. The present inhabitants are mainly the descendants of the original settlers and their servants, as each patentee was compelled to carry with him to the island a certain number of white men besides slaves. In 1774 there were, according to Long, one hundred and six white persons on the island of Grand Cayman, who had a Chief or Governor of their own choosing." For many years the islands were frequented by buccaneers, and hidden treasure has been found in them from time to time.

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MORANT CAYS AND PEDRO CAYS 209 CONSTITUTION. The government of Cayman Islands, which, as above stated, form a dependency of Jamaica, is administered by a Resident Commissioner. Local affairs are controlled by a body styled the Justices and Vestry," whose enactments become law when assented to by the Governor of Jamaica. The Commissioner is a veritable "Pooh-Bah," carrying out as he does, besides the duties of Chief Executive Officer, those of Collector-General of Customs, Treasurer and Judge. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. There is, unfortunately, no steamer communication, and the mails are sent to and from Jamaica at irregular intervals by fishing schooners. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Visitors to the Cayman Islands must be content with the novelty of their surroundings and a study of the people and their industries as far as occupation is concerned. Among the natural curiosities at Boddentown are a cave which extends for some hundreds of yards under the sea and a remarkable natural cistern, said to be from 40 to 42 ft. deep, which contains clear spring water, at East End. The cistern measures 70 by 50 ft., and is situated in the middle of a cliff of solid flint rock. It is said to assume a turbid appearance and to emit offensive smells on the approach of a storm. There is also a curious cave containing wide subterranean passages on the north side of the island about \\ miles inland from Old Man's Bay. MORANT CAYS AND PEDRO CAYS The Morant Cays and Pedro Cays were taken possession of on behalf of the British Crown in 1862 and 1863 respectively. They were not at first annexed to any colony, but the Governor of Jamaica was given powers to deal with any guano islands or cays within the West Indian naval waters which were not already dependencies. Letters Patent were issued in June 1864, authorising the Governor of Jamaica to grant leases of, and licences to take guano from, the islands. In 1906 the Morant Cays were leased for seven years to Captain S. E. Bodden, and the Pedro

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210 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Cays for seven years to Captain John Greenwood. By Letters Patent the Cays were formally annexed to Jamaica by a proclamation on June i, 1882. For judicial purpose the Cays now form part of the parish of Kingston. The Morant Cays are 33 miles to the south-east of Morant Port, and comprise three small islets. Here the sea birds arrive in great numbers in March and April and lay their eggs, which are conveyed by schooner to Jamaica. The Pedro Cays are 40 or 50 miles to the south-west of Portland Point, and consist of four islets, known respectively as North-east, Middle, South-west, and South Cay.

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CHAPTER IX TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TKINIDAD Miscerique probat populos et feeder a fungi Adapted from Virgil GENERAL ASPECT. Trinidad, which lies off the delta of the Orinoco, between latitude io 3' and io 5c/ N. and longitude 6o 55' and 61 56', is rather smaller than Lancashire, its total area being 1754 square miles. Its population, which at the census of 191 1 was 312,803, is composed of black and coloured people of African descent, and families of English, French, Spanish, and German extraction, while no fewer than one-third of the inhabitants are East Indian immigrants, who were first introduced into the West Indies in 1845, an d now arrive in Trinidad from Calcutta at the rate of 2400 every year. In shape, Trinidad is rectangular, with promontories at the four corners, those at the north-west and south-west being extended towards the mainland and enclosing the Gulf of Paria, which is practically a land-locked sea between Trinidad and Venezuela, with narrow straits north and south. The straits at the north are called the Bocas del Dragone, or Dragon's Mouths, and those at the south the Boca del Sierpe, or the Serpent's Mouth. There seems to be little reason to doubt that Trinidad at a distant date was connected with the mainland, and it is plainly noticeable that the three islands in the northern straits, namely, Chacachacare, Huevos, and Monos, are of the same formation as the mountains on the Spanish Main. The north coast of Trinidad is rock-bound, and the east coast is so exposed to the surf as to be almost unapproachable at

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212 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES some periods of the year, while the south coast is steep in parts. There are, however, several suitable shipping ports on the west coast. The island is somewhat mountainous, and it has three distinct ranges of hills running east and west, the highest points being El Tucuche and the Cerro de Aripo, both 3075 feet high. The rivers, though numerous, are unimportant, the Caroni and Couva on the western side and the Oropouche and Ortoire on the eastern side being the principal. The island has eight counties, four north of the central range which ends at San Fernando on the west, and four south of it, but for administrative purposes it is divided into wards. Port of Spain (population 59,796), in the county of St. George, at the angle formed by the north-western promontory above referred to, is the capital and trade centre of the island. It has as yet nothing approaching a proper harbour, and as large steamers cannot get very near owing to the shallowness of the water, passengers have to reach the shore in a launch. Port of Spain has many handsome buildings, and enjoys the advantages of electric light, telephones, and an extensive electric tramway system. The town has an adequate water-supply and drainage system, and a notable authority — the late Sir Rubert Boyce — pronounced it one of the most sanitary cities in the West Indies. The second town in order of importance is San Fernando (population 8667), thirty-five miles from the capital. Next to it comes Arima (population 4020), which has been granted a charter of incorporation, and stands about sixteen miles inland from Port of Spain. INDUSTRIES. The soils of Trinidad, though varied, are extremely fertile, and are therefore capable of producing large crops of sugar, cocoa, rubber, and all kinds of tropical produce. About 445,703 acres are now cultivated and 597,637 remain still ungranted. Cocoa is by far the largest industry of the island, the value of the exports of this commodity being now about double that of sugar, which only occupies second place. Molasses, rum, rubber, bitters (Trinidad is the present home of the famous Angostura bitters, the manufacture of which was transferred to it

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TR Dragons Montis ^ ^ K-^V?^ <£§ Z*A* I030' N.Lat. Cancfrejos ./?a>vl TreunsF?

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'';.;/.;;. '...' ^Mv '•''"*" : • < raxiajDt ?2&j? Matur P 2 Jp^rtM-H — — Mayaxo P* SAVANNA X^RANBt %:' UvM.— ^o ^*7 fGaleota P.' t*>^> v Stan-Fords Geographical Estate

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TRINIDAD 213 the troubled state of that republic), coco-nuts, coffee, copra, fruit, asphalt (from the famous Pitch Lake described below), and petroleum from the local oil wells, figure largely among the exports. The values of the principal articles of export in the year 191 2 were as follows : Cocoa 41,525,627 lb. ^1,007,990 Sugar 33,165 tons 529,123 Rubber 6,916 lbs. 1 ,040 Coco-nuts 16,305,038 61,278 Fruit — IT ,033 Asphalt 176,077 tons 202,106 Petroleum 4,295,707 gals. 18,432 The direction of import trade in the same year was ; United Kingdom, 36.4 ; United States, 31.6 per cent. ; Canada, 7.^ ; France, 2.6 ; Venezuela, 2.6 ; Germany, 1.3 ; other British possessions, 7.9 ; and other countries, 4.7. The direction of export trade was : United States, 39.5 per cent. ; United Kingdom, 22.6 ; France, 11 ; Canada, 9.2 ; Venezuela, 3.1 ; Germany, 4.1 ; other British possessions, 1.7, and other countries, 8.8. FINANCIAL POSITION. The following is a comparative table of the revenue and expenditure, and the imports and exports of the colony for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ £ £ £ 1903-4 804,440 818,860 2,526,450 2,27$A4* 1904-5 811,614 810,258 2,629,051 2,479,274 1905-6 847,953 869,981 3,303,611 3,168,706 1906-7 765,272 810,474 3,120,717 2,872,325 1907-8 871,201 781,038 3,374,824 3,907,503 1908-9 834,745 855,050 2,682,702 2,500,195 1909 853,565 863,253 3,288,826 3,218,092 1910 948,383 843,050 3,343,011 3,467,588 1911 950,744 901,018 5,018,848 4,769,486 1912 932,513 893,498 4,682,325 4,472,577 In considering the figures of the imports and exports, it should be borne in mind that they include all mer-

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2i 4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES chandise imported for transhipment and re-exported, which amounted in 1912 to ^2,088,182, and bullion and specie, of which ^65,260 was imported and ^26,315 exported. In contravention of an existing treaty Venezuela imposes a surtax of 30 per cent, on imports from the West Indies ; but for this the transhipment trade would be far larger. CLIMATE. The climate of Trinidad is hot and damp. The mean annual temperature is 8o Fahr., but at night the thermometer often falls below 70 Fahr. in Port of Spain, and lower still in the hills. The wet or rainy season is subject to variation, but it generally extends from May to December, with a short break in September, and the annual rainfall is about 62 inches. Trinidad is fortunate in being out of the hurricane zone, and it is singularly free from the seismic disturbances which afflict at times some of the other islands. The birth-rate is 34 and the death-rate 30 per 1000, but the latter would be considerably less were it not for the excessive infant mortality among the black population. HISTORY. Trinidad was discovered by Columbus during his third voyage on July 31, 1498, and named by him after the Trinity, the idea being, it is said, put into his head by his sighting three very conspicuous peaks in the southern range of hills in Moruga, now known as the Three Sisters. Be that as it may, it is certain that the first land which he saw was the south-eastern corner — now Cape Galeota — which he called La Galera. He sailed along westward, and entered the Gulf of Paria by the Boca del Sierpe, or Serpent's Mouth, and after bartering with the Indians whom he found there, he sailed from the north of the Gulf through one of the Bocas del Dragone, or Dragon's Mouths. No definite attempt was made to settle the island until 1532, when a Spanish Governor, Don Antonio Sedeno, was appointed to preside over its destinies. In 1577 or 1584 the settlement of St. Josef de Oruha was founded on the spot where the present town of St. Joseph stands, seven miles inland from Port of Spain. The town was destroyed by Sir Walter Ralegh, who visited the island in 1595, and caulked his ships with pitch from the spot called by the naturals Piche and by the Spaniards Tierra de Brea (the

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TRINIDAD 215 Pitch Lake). The fortunes of the island fell to such a low ebb in 1740 that the colonists complained that they could only go to Mass once a year and then only in clothes borrowed from each other, and Mr. Joseph in his History of Trinidad says that he learnt from an old paper that the Cabildo or Municipality had but one pair of small clothes among them. In 1780, at the instance of M. St. Laurent, a Frenchman from Grenada, who had visited the island and recognised its possibilities, the Spanish issued a decree encouraging foreigners to settle in Trinidad, and in the year 1783, a further proclamation having been issued calling attention to the advantages offered by its fertile soil, a large influx of settlers resulted. Don Josef Maria Chacon was sent out as Governor, and the population rose rapidly from 300 in 1783 to 18,000 in 1797. In 1796 a quarrel took place between the men of a British squadron, who had been attacking some French privateers in the Gulf of Paria, and the colonists. A party of officers were visiting a Welsh lady in what is now Frederick Street, when some of the French privateersmen insulted a British sailor from the Alarm. A fight resulted, the officers rushed to the rescue, and a general melee ensued ; the Commodore, Captain Vaughan, landed a force on the following day, and, though he withdrew before a conflict took place, this incident formed one of the grounds on which Spain declared war with Great Britain a few months afterwards, and on February 12, 1797, a large British expedition set out from Martinique under Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Harvey to reduce the island. The Spaniards relieved Admiral Harvey of the responsibility of an attack by setting fire to their ships, which were lying under Gaspar Grande in Chaguaramas Bay, their Admiral, Apodaca, setting the example by strewing rosin, sulphur, and other combustibles on the decks of his own three-decker. On February 18, without a fight, Chacon surrendered Trinidad to Sir Ralph Abercromby, an event which has been so charmingly described by Charles Kingsley, and the general's aide-decamp, Picton, was appointed Governor. The cession of the island was confirmed by the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. CONSTITUTION. Trinidad, with which the neighbouring

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216 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES island, Tobago, has since January i, 1899, been incorporated, is a Crown Colony. The government is administered by a Governor, with an Executive Council of six members. There is also a Legislative Council, consisting of ten officials, and of such other unofficial members as the Governor may appoint. These unofficial members hold their seats for five years, and are at present eleven in number, Governors of Trinidad since 1891 Sir Napier Broome, K.C.M.G. 1891 Sir H. E. H. Jerningham, K.C.M.G. 1897 Sir C. A. Moloney, K.C.M.G. 1900 Sir H. M. Jackson, G.C.M.G. 1904 Sir George R. Le Hunte, G.C.M.G. 1909 HOTELS. Port of Spain. The Queen's Park Hotel, situated on the south and breezy side of the Savannah, is quite one of the best in the West Indies — rooms and attendance 6s. 3d. and upwards ; board and lodging 12s. 6d. per day. The Family Hotel, Marine Square — rooms and attendance 55. per day ; board and lodging 8s. \&. The Hotel de Paris, in the old Union Club premises, Abercromby Street — rooms and attendance 4s. id. per day ; board and lodging 8s. ^d. per day. The Standard Hotel, opposite the railway terminus — rooms and attendance 4s. id. ; board and lodging 6s. 3d. per day. Mrs. Bryant's Lodgings, 7 Queen's Park, E. (facing the Savannah), 8s. <\d. per day. In the Five Islands furnished houses are obtainable for £2 to £3 per week ; and in Monos, Gasparee, and Chacachacare private houses can also bejrented by the week, fortnight or month at the rate off £$\ to ^10 per month, visitors providing their own linen and cutlery. At Gasparee Mrs. H. Vincent takes paying guests, if suitably introduced, for 8s. 4^. per day. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Trinidad is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 25, 27 and 28 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Thejreturn launch fare from steamer to the shore is 2s. per passenger. The roads in Trinidad are excellent for riding, driving, motoring, and cycling. Carriages are obtainable at Collie's

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TRINIDAD 217 stables, Woodford Street, Haynes Clark's stables, Tragarete Road, and also at Abercombie Stables — Single, 45. per hour ; pair, 8s. for the first hour, 6s. after ; £1 os. lod. per day and upwards ; and of W. T. King and Son, St. Vincent Street — Single, 45. per hour ; pair, 8s. ; £1 os. lod. per day. There are also numerous garages where motor-cars can be hired. The electric cars of the Trinidad Electric Company Limited run in Port of Spain and the suburbs every fifteen minutes, affording an excellent means of seeing a great deal of the life of the neighbourhood in a very short time. The routes are as follows : (1) From the railway station via Charlotte Street, Park Street, and Tragarete Road westward to Cocorite and Four Roads. Fare for the whole distance, \d. by ticket, or 6d. cash. (2) From the railway station via St. Vincent Street, Park Street, St. Ann's Road, and thence through Belmont. Fare, 2d. by ticket, or 3d. cash. (3) From the railway station via Frederick Street, then along the east side of the Savannah, going northward into St. Ann's Valley. Fare, 2d. by ticket, or 3d. cash. (4) From the railway station via Frederick Street, entering the Savannah, and skirting the southern and western ends of it as far as the Maraval corner. Fare, 2d. by ticket, or 3d. cash. (5) The "Belt" route, round the Savannah after 5 p.m. daily. Fare, 2d. by ticket, or 3d. cash. Tickets are purchasable at the Transfer Station, Park Street, or from the car conductors, at the rate of six for is. Passengers travelling without tickets must pay 3d. a journey, but any passenger may transfer from one route to another without extra charge, except in the case of the Belt circuit, to which no transfer is allowed. It is therefore possible to ride from Cocorite to Belmont, a distance of about four miles, for 2d. Pair-oared boats can be hired for £2 to £2 10s. per month, or a small fishing boat for £1 to £1 10s. The Trinidad Government Railway runs to San Fernando (1 hour 48 mins.), and Princes Town (2 hours 21 mins.) ; from Cunupia (Jerningham Junction) on the San Fernando line there is an extension to Tabaquite (15 miles) and thence to Rio Claro. On March 2, 1908, the Legislature approved the construction ofextensions from Tabaquite to Poole and

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218 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES from San Fernando to Siparia. The San Fernando-Siparia line, which was opened in November 191 3, between St. Joseph and Debe, runs almost its whole length through the sugar districts of the Colony, while the steamers from San Fernando, besides La Brea, serve the principal oil-field district. Another branch opens up some of the chief cocoa districts and goes to Arima (16 miles) and Sangre Grande (29 miles, 1^hours). The latter is the prettiest line for excursions. It affords a series of lovely views of the central range of hills to the right going from Port of Spain, and of the northern range on the left, and gives tourists anadmirable opportunity of gauging the importance of the flourishing cocoa industry, which has not even yet reached the full limit of its development. On the next page is a list of the stations on the railway, their distance from Port of Spain, and a schedule of fares. Steamers run in connection with the trains at San Fernando, to Cedros (4 hrs 35 mins.), and once a week to Icacos (5 hrs. 5 mins), calling at La Brea (i|hrs.) and Brighton (for the Pitch Lake), Guapo (2 hrs.), Cap-de-Ville (2 hrs. 50 mins.), Irois (3 hrs. 25 mins.), and Granville Bay (4 hrs. 5 mins.), returning the same day on Tuesdays and Saturdays ; and returning on the following day, on Sundays and Thursdays. Return fares : From 1 st class and Saloon. 2nd class and Saloon. Port of Spain to La Brea Cedros Icacos £ 5. d. IS 3 1 1 1 Sh s. d. 1 1 2,\ 16 10 18 4 Refreshments may be obtained on board the steamer. There is a steamer service between Port of Spain and the Five Islands (50 mins.), Gasparee (1 hr. 10 mins.), Monos (2 hrs. 25 mins.), and Chacachacare (2 hrs.) by the Government Gulf Steamers on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. The fares are low, the rate to Chacachacare being only 4s., or 6s. 3d. return. On Wednesdays and Saturdays cheap day return cabin tickets are issued at single fares.

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TRINIDAD 219 to Return Single Stations between 3 Tickets. Tickets. 05 4-> I St 2nd 3rd I St 2nd 3rd s CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. Port of Spain and Miles. $ c. $ c. $ c $ c $ c. S c. San Juan 4 36 24 12 24 16 8 St. Joseph 7 63 42 21 42 28 14 r Tunapuna 9 81 54 27 54 36 18 .2 Tacarigua 10 90 60 30 60 40 20 £ Arouca 12 1 8 72 36 72 48 24 9) •a Dabadie H 1 26 84 42 84 56 28 2* Arima 16 1 44 96 48 96 64 32 O Guanapo *9 1 71 1 14 57 1 14 76 38 & Cumuto 23 2 7 1 38 69 1 38 92 46 Guaico 28 2 42 1 58 83 1 61 1 5 55 CO Sangre Grande 29 2 46 1 61 84 1 64 1 7 56 Caroni 11 99 66 33 66 44 22 Cunupia 14 1 26 84 42 84 56 28 'Jerningham Junct. 15 1 35 90 45 90 60 30 Longdenville 18 1 62 1 8 54 1 8 72 36 J3 Todd's Road 21 1 89 1 26 63 1 26 84 42 2 Caparo* 23 2 7 1 38 69 1 38 92 46 m< Brasso Caparo* 27 2 35 1 55 80 1 57 1 3 53 Tabaquite 30 2 52 1 62 86 1 68 1 8 57 Oh Brothers Road 34 2 75 1 73 95 1 83 1 15 63 CJ San Pedro Trace 39 3 00 1 85 1 06 2 00 1 23 70 ,Rio Claro 43 3 23 1 94 1 14 2 15 1 29 76 Chaguanas 18 1 62 1 8 54 1 8 72 36 Carapichaima 21 1 89 1 26 63 1 26 84 42 Couva 25 2 25 1 50 75 1 50 1 50 California 27 2 35 1 55 80 1 57 1 3 53 Claxton Bay 30 2 52 1 62 86 1 68 1 8 57 Pointe-a-Pierre 32 2 63 1 6 7 90 1 75 in 60 San Fernando 35 2 79 1 74 97 1 86 1 16 65 Corinth 38 2 96 1 82 1 04 1 97 1 21 69 Debe 43 3 23 1 94 1 14 2 15 1 29 76 Penal 46 3 45 2 07 1 23 2 30 1 38 82 Siparia 5i 3 S3 2 30 1 35 2 55 1 53 90 m § / Union 35 2 79 1 74 97 1 86 1 16 65 S3 1 Reform 37 2 90 1 79 1 2 1 93 1 19 68 •gg] Williamsville 39 3 1 85 1 6 2 1 23 70 *£ [Princes Town 43 3 23 1 94 1 14 2 15 1 29 76 Caparo fares apply to Brasso Piedra, and Brasso Caparo fares to Flanagin Town.

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220 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The steamer depots are in telephonic communication with Port of Spain, via San Fernando, and public messages may be sent by telegraph from all railway stations, with a few unimportant exceptions A service of local trains runs from Port of Spain to Tacarigua (ten miles on the Arima line) at short intervals throughout the day. Twice daily the trains go as far as Arima. Regular steamer communication with Tobago is maintained by coastal steamers of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, which run in connection with the transatlantic mail steamers. The steamers now on this route are the Barima and the Belize, two new vessels built on the lines of the inter-colonial steamers specially for the service. The itinerary of the steamers is as follows : In the Week of Arrival of Transatlantic Steamer from Home Monday, midnight. A steamer leaves Port of Spain for Blanch isseuse, Matelot, Grande Riviere, Sans Souci, Toco and Scarborough (Tobago) ; thence via Manzanilla, Mayaro, Guayaguayare, Moruga and Erin, back to Port of Spain, reaching there on Friday night. Tuesday, 6 p.m. A steamer leaves Port of Spain for Toco and Scarborough ; thence round Tobago, going east, back to Scarborough, which she leaves again at 8 p.m. on Thursday for Port of Spain, reaching there at 6 a.m. on Friday. Friday, 8 p.m. A steamer leaves Port of Spain for Scarborough direct, arriving at 6 a.m. on Saturday. She returns at io p.m., via Toco and the north coast ports, arriving at Port of Spain on Sunday afternoon. In the Week of Departure of Transatlantic Steamer for Home Monday, io p.m. A steamer proceeds round Trinidad, going south to Erin, Moruga, Guayaguayare, Mayaro, Manzanilla, and thence to Scarborough. Monday, 8 p.m. A steamer proceeds from Port of Spain to Scarborough direct, and thence round Tobago, going west, and leaving Scarborough at 8 p.m. on Thursday for Port of Spain direct, arriving there at 6 a.m. on Friday. The inclusive fare for the trip round Trinidad or Tobago by either steamer is $io (£2 is. Sd.). To those wishing to see the Orinoco River, opportunit is afforded by the comfortable river boats of the Compan

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TRINIDAD 221 iVnonima di Navegacion fluvial y Costafiesa de Venezuela, which connect at Port of Spain with the Royal Mail steamers, and proceed every week to Ciudad Bolivar, whence smaller boats convey such passengers as may desire to proceed farther, to the upper reaches of the river. SPORTS. Cricket is deservedly popular, The Queen's Park Cricket Club, which has a membership of 400, occupies a large and enclosed ground beautifully situated, with an extensive pavilion and visitors' stand. The club, of which the Governor is president, also affords opportunities for lawntennis, boxing, and athletics. The Trinidad Turf Club, afhliated to the Jockey Club of England, holds race meetings at midsummer and in December, which attract very large crowds to the picturesque course on the Savannah. Several minor meetings are held in the country during the year, one always taking place between Christmas and New Year's Day ; apart from the very fair sport to be enjoyed, the assemblage of so many races in quaint costumes in the Queen's Park is a sight well worth witnessing. The St. Andrew's Golf Club has a large membership and well-kept links on the Savannah. Football is played continuously during the cooler months ; and for votaries of lawn-tennis there is the Tranquillity Tennis Club, which has courts near the Queen's Park Hotel, and also the St. James's Tennis Club, with courts on the Savannah near St. James's barracks. Bathing, tarpon and other kinds of fishing, cycling, and sailing can also be indulged in. Plenty of tarpon are to be caught in Macqueripe Bay, and the sea fishing in the Bocas is excellent. One hundred and sixteen different kinds of fish are found in Trinidad waters, of which eighty-five are food fishes and thirty-one are not used for food. Cavalli or carangue, tarpon or grand ecaille, king-fish or tasard, and the barracouta are the most highly prized by sportsmen. Alligators are found in the Caroni River, two miles from Port of Spain, and flamingoes and several kinds of wild duck give good sport for the gun. In a word, there is no lack of sport in Trinidad. SOCIAL CLUES. There are three excellent social clubs to which visitors are admitted on introduction by members,

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222 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the Union in Marine Square, founded in 1878, the Savannah, in the position indicated by its name, and the St. Clair, near the Savannah. The St. Clair Club, to which ladies as well as gentlemen are admitted, has extensive grounds, where lawn-tennis and croquet are played. The Public Library occupies a handsome building in Brunswick Square. There is a large and well-stocked free reading-room, and a library containing 25,000 volumes, which is open daily (Sundays excepted) from 8 a.m. till 9 p.m. Subscription, i2s 4 or £1 per annum, for two or four volumes, payable yearly, quarterly, or monthly. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. There is a great deal to be seen in Port of Spain and the neighbourhood. The town, which has been characterised as the cleanest and most sanitary in the West Indies, occupies the site of the old Indian village Conquerabia. It is well built, and the streets, which are well proportioned, are lighted by electricity. The Commercial News Room adjoins the Harbour Master's Office on the site of the old battery which was on the sea front before the foreshore was reclaimed. From the wharves — where the Customs' formalities are of the slightest so far as visitors are concerned — St. Vincent, Abercromby and Chacon Streets, and Broadway, which all run parallel to each other, lead to Marine Square, really more a spacious boulevard than a square in the proper sense of the term. It was established by Sir Ralph Woodford on land reclaimed from the Gulf, and extends from St. Vincent Wharf at the west to the Roman Catholic Cathedral at the east. The Roman Catholic Cathedral (the Church of the Immaculate Conception) is a Gothic building situated in Marine Square. Like the Anglican Cathedral, it was designed by Mr. Reinagle and erected at the instance of Sir Ralph Woodford, in memory of whom it contains a mural tablet by Chantrey. The foundationstone was laid on March 26, 181 6, but the Cathedral was not opened until April 15 (Palm Sunday), 1832. The Colonial Bank and the Royal Bank of Canada are both in Marine Square, the latter occupying a building at the corner of Broadway '{see next page). In Columbus Square to the east of the Roman

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TRINIDAD 223 Catholic Cathedral there is a handsome fountain surmounted by a statue of Christopher Columbus, which was presented to the town by one of its citizens, Mr. Hippolite Borde, and unveiled in 1881, when the square was opened. It is inscribed : CRISTOFORO COLOMBO DISCOVERER OF THE ISLAND, 3 1 JULY, I498. In Harris Square, between Marine Square and the Savannah, a statue perpetuates the memory of Lord Harris, Governor from 1846 to 1854. Near the foot of the old Almond Walk, now widened and called by the less romantic name of Broadway, are the Railway Station and electric Tram terminus. Port of Spain has excellent Stores, as the shops are called, built of stone or concrete, with lantern roofs and ornamental iron galleries ; and every conceivable necessity of life can be obtained in Frederick Street and Marine Square. The General Post Office in St. Vincent Street is open from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; on Saturdays from 7 a.m. to noon ; and on Sundays and public holidays from 7 a.m. to 8 A.M. Proceeding up Abercromby or Frederick Streets, one reaches Brunswick Square, an open space laid out by Governor Sir Ralph Woodford at his own expense. In the middle of it a fountain presented by the late Mr. Gregor Turnbull is a centre of interest. The Square is said to occupy the site of an engagement between two tribes of Indians, and for this reason it used to be called the Place des Ames — the Place of the Souls. On the west side of it is the Red House, or Government Building. It was burnt down during a riot on March 23, 1903, but has since been rebuilt on a greatly enlarged scale, and now forms quite the most imposing structure in the British West Indies. The new Government offices were completed, and the various departments moved into them from the temporary offices, which they occupied for over three years, in October 1906. The new offices are commodious and airy, and afford ample space and facilities for the storage of records. The principal Court of Justice at the southern end of the buildings

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224 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES and the Legislative Council Chamber, which occupies the northern extremity, are particularly handsome halls, the decoration of which reflects credit on local workmen. Immediately opposite, on the east side, is the Greyfriars Presbyterian Church, while on the south side stands the handsome Holy Trinity Cathedral (Anglican). The Cathedral was erected during the governorship of Sir Ralph Woodford from the designs of Mr. Philip Reinagle, a son of the artist. The foundation-stone was laid on May 30, 1 81 6, and the building was consecrated on Trinity Sunday, May 25, 1823. A monument by Chan trey to Sir Ralph, who did for Trinidad much what Haussman did for Paris in the matter of improvements, is in the south aisle. It is inscribed : SIR RALPH WOODFORD BARONET FOR FIFTEEN YEARS GOVERNOR OF THE COLONY AND FOUNDER OF THIS CHURCH WHO WAS BORN ON THE 2 1 ST JULY I784 AND DIED ON THE l6TH MAY 1 82 8. THE INHABITANTS OF TRINIDAD DEEPLY SENSIBLE OF THE SUBSTANTIAL BENEFIT WHICH HIS LONG ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT CONFERRED UPON THE COLONY AND OF THE IRREPARABLE J LOSS WHICH THEY SUSTAINED BY HIS DEATH HAVE CAUSED THIS MONUMENT TO BE ERECTED AS A LASTING MEMORIAL OF HIS MANY PUBLIC AND PRIVATE VIRTUES AND OF THEIR RESPECT AND GRATITUDE. The high altar and choir stalls of carved mahogany and cedar are excellent examples of West Indian workmanship. The marble reredos was erected by public subscription as a memorial to Bishop Hayes (1889 to 1904 ) and was dedicated in 191 1. A chiming apparatus is attached to the peal of eight bells, the gift of Bishop Rawle. On the north side of the square are the City Commissioners Offices, which contain oil paintings of General Picton and of several other governors of Trinidad, and the Public Library, which was opened 1851 and has now upwards of 25,000 volumes. The present building was opened in 1902. The Police Barracks close by are a substantial building erected in Italian Gothic style at a cost of ^90,000. Near the top of Frederick Street on the left is the

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TRINIDAD 225 Government Laboratory, which replaces a building dating from 1872 destroyed by fire in 1896. Farther up the street (left) is the Royal Victoria Institute erected to commemorate Queen Victoria's Jubilee, and opened in 1892. It was considerably enlarged in 1901 by the addition of the memorial wing to Queen Victoria, and again in 191 3 by one to King Edward. The latter was opened by Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, who at the same time announced that King George had consented to the Institute receiving the designation Royal." It contains an interesting museum of local products and natural history specimens, in addition to lecture rooms, reading and recreation rooms, and an entertainment hall. It is managed by a Committee and subsidised by the local Government ; and educational, art, and industrial classes have been successfully organised in connection with it. The latter are conducted by the Board of Industrial Training in a well-equipped building generously presented by the late Mr. B. H. Stephens and his brother, Mr. J. Stephens. In front of the Institute is an anchor which was recovered from the depths of the Gulf and is supposed to have belonged to one of Columbus' ships. The Savannah, known as Queen's Park, an extensive open space of nearly 130 acres, is the centre of life in Trinidad, round which is the fashionable residential quarter. It has few trees except round the edge, but a clump of cabbage palms, popularly known as the Seven Sisters, forms a particularly noticeable feature. Near the centre is the small private cemetery of the Peschier family. The Savannah is covered with grass, on which golf, cricket, football, and other games are played. It is here also that the racecourse, with its stands, is situated. This pleasureground, round the inside of which the electric trams run, is fringed with villas and mansions, several of which would not look out of place in Park Lane, and it is surrounded by an asphalt path — called the Pitch Walk — which presents an animated appearance in the cool of the evening when the rank and fashion of Trinidad take their airing. The fireflies after dark are very numerous and strikingly beautiful. Queen's Royal College, on the west side of Queen's p

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226 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Park, is a very handsome building, designed and built by the Public Works Department of Trinidad, to which it does infinite credit. It was opened on March 24, 1904, by the then Governor, Sir Alfred Moloney. The college, whose students vary in age from nine to twenty years, has a spacious lecture hall and several class-rooms. Founded in 1859 under the name of the Queen's Collegiate School, as the Goverment Department for higher education in the colony, its sphere of influence was extended in 1870, when it was first called Queen's Royal College by permission of Queen Victoria. The clock and chimes in the tower were the gift of Mr. W. Gordon Gordon, a prominent citizen, to commemorate the reign of King Edward VII. The St. Glair Experiment Station, which was established in 1898, is situated at the north-west corner of the Savannah between the Maraval and Serpentine Roads and not far from the ground of the Queen's Park Cricket Club. Government House stands at the foot of the hills at St. Ann's on the north or far side of the Savannah, which it overlooks. It is a substantial building of limestone, erected in 1875, on the Indian model, from designs by Mr. Ferguson, at a cost of ^45,000. Its surroundings are very attractive, for it stands in the world-famous Botanic Gardens, to which Charles Kingsley devoted so many pages of glowing description in "At Last." They were established under the direction of Mr. David Lockhart in 1820, and enriched by plants from the historic St. Vincent Garden three years later. When Kingsley visited Trinidad in 1869 the old Government House had been destroyed, and the Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon — afterwards Lord Stanmore — with whom he stayed, lived in a cottage just outside the gardens, the remains of which can still be seen. The Gardens were formerly the sole domain under the charge of the Botanic Department, now merged in the Department of Agriculture. But as they proved too small for the double purpose of amassing a collection of tropical plants and the carrying out of experimental work, the closely adjacent St. Clair Experiment Station was added in 1898. In it are now situated the offices, herbarium, library, meteorological instruments, a seismograph for

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* ^i GIANT BAMBOOS, TRINIDAD This magnificent clump of Bamboos [Bambusa gigantea) is over iooft. high

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TRINIDAD 227 recording earthquakes, and the nursery. Small-scale experiments are carried out at St. Clair ; but with the modern development of the Department all large-scale experiments have been transferred to St. Augustine Estate (adjoining the Government Farm at St. Joseph) and at River Estate (on the way to Blue Basin), permission to visit which is readily given on application to the Director of Agriculture. Government House Gardens, now set free from more utilitarian purposes, are being developed as a store-house of tropical plants arranged with more regard to ornamental effect than was possible in their former more crowded condition. The following are amongst the more noteworthy objects of interest to the visitor with a short time at his disposal : The front lawns near the bandstand with their beds of decorative tropical plants ; the adjacent fernery ; the collection of palms, in which the Gardens are rich, including not only native species but also introductions such as the oil palm of West Africa (Elcsis guineensis), the talipot of Ceylon (Corypha umbraculifera), the date palms and other species of Phcenix ; the graceful bamboos, including the old clump of the magnificent giant bamboo of Java (Dendrooalamus giganteus) ; the curious screw pines (Pandanus spp.) supported on their curious stilt roots ; and the native cannon-ball tree (Couroupita guianensis). Masses of colour are provided in season by the flamboyante tree (Poinciana regid), the Queen of Flowers (Lagerstrcemia flosregince), the wonderful Burmese Amherstia nobilis, the tree Cassias, such climbers as the gorgeous bougainvilleas, the Shower of Gold (Bignonia), and the beautiful white and gold Camcensia maxima near the Fern Houses. Amongst the shrubs the crotons, hibiscus, and poinsettias, cannot fail to delight the visitor from temperate regions. Scattered about the gardens are numerous examples of the umbrella-shaped saman or rain-tree (Pithecolobium saman), the finest example being one by the west corner of Government House. The Nutmeg Ravine affords a delightfully shady walk, along which are to be seen specimens of the panama hat plant (Carludovica palmata) and the vegetable ivory palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa). By the far end of the Nutmeg

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228 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Ravine is a fine collection of palms, mostly native, and the fern and orchid houses, surrounded by more beds of ornamental plants. Amongst recent interesting additions to the Gardens are young trees of the handsome Colevillea racemosa and the Indian laburnum (Cassia fistula), planted by H.R.H. Prince Albert of Wales and H.H. Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein during their visits in 191 3. The back of the Gardens contains several pleasant walks, and every one should take one of the paths up the hill to the Look-out," or Folly, a shelter at an elevation of about 300 feet, whence there is a splendid panoramic view over Port of Spain, the Gulf, and away over the Caroni swamp to San Fernando Hill, a conspicuous object in the distance to the left. The Constabulary Band plays in the Gardens on Wednesdays and Sundays from 5 p.m. to dusk, and once a month, at about full moon, in the evening. At the upper end of Charlotte Street (right) is the Colonial Hospital, which occupies a handsome block of buildings standing in spacious grounds. Prince's Building, in a small Savannah to the south of Queen's Park, was erected in 1861 in anticipation of a visit by H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, which never took place. It is now used for theatricals, concerts, dances, &c. A delightful afternoon drive may be taken through Cocorite to Carenage and back along the coast, affording a fine view of the sunset over the Five Islands. About four miles beyond Carenage is Macqueripe Bay, a favourite resort of picnic parties. Country Excursions The Maraval Reservoirs (4i miles from Port of Spain), which, together with the Diego Martin Waterworks, are the main source of water-supply of the city, are a pleasant afternoon's drive. The reservoirs, which are scrupulously clean and surrounded by brightcoloured crotons, oleanders and ferns, are by no means unpicturesque. The Blue Basin at Diego Martin is 9 miles from Port of Spain (3 hours by carriage or 1-1^ by motor there and back). The beginning of the drive is through the interesting

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TRINIDAD 229 East Indian village of Peru, and thence up the Diego Martin valley. Port George, near Peru, but 1120 ft. above the sea-level, commands a splendid view of Port of Spain, the Gulf, and Venezuela beyond. Fort George, now a signal station, was built in 1805 by Governor Sir Thomas Hislop. It proved the ruin of a wealthy merchant named George Dickson, who spent a fortune of ^80,000 in defending himself against charges of committing irregularities in connection with the supply of materials, before he was acquitted. It was to this fort that the merchants of Port of Spain took their books and valuables when Nelson's Fleet was mistaken for that of Villeneuve, which he was pursuing immediately before the battle of Trafalgar. At one part the Diego Martin valley opens out into a flat plain, which formerly used to be under sugar-canes, but is now for the most part quite uncultivated/ The plain has an evil reputation, having been the scene of no fewer than four blood-curdling murders, the last having been when a priest was brutally murdered and was found tied to a tree. About a mile this side of the Blue Basin are situated the new Waterworks, which were formally inaugurated in 1907. The River Estate was acquired by the Government in 1897 in order to protect the sources of water-supply. The lower portion is now cultivated as a cacao estate in charge of the Department of Agriculture. It occupies a natural amphitheatre of timber-covered hills with an opening to the south. On this ridge are situated the North Post signalling station and wireless telegraphy station. At the head of the valley conveyances stop, and visitors proceed afoot up a winding mountain path for about half a mile. The Blue Basin is a small lake, forty or fifty yards in diameter, into which a waterfall precipitates itself in a slanting direction from the midst of dense tropical foliage. Visitors can generally depute a small boy to bathe in the limpid waters (if one of the party does not care to do so himself), and thus form the foreground to a striking picture for the camera. To the Saddle (18 miles from Port of Spain), a pass in the mountain range dividing the Maraval and Santa Cruz valleys, is a splendid ride or drive through some of the oldest cacao estates in the island.

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2 jo POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The Maracas Fall (340 ft. in height) is far finer than the Blue Basin, but the expedition to it requires a full day. The Maracas Fall is, of course, seen at its best in the rainy season, but at any time of the year it is noteworthy. The water falls over a perpendicular wall of solid rock 340 ft. high, splitting itself in the air, and thus producing a constant shower. The rock is covered with mosses and ferns and tropical plants of every description. It is reached by train to St. Joseph (7 miles), and thence by carriage (7^ miles), through very characteristic scenery and many cocoa plantations, in the direction of El Tucuche, one of the two highest peaks in Trinidad, which is about 4 miles beyond the fall. The sleepy little town of St. Joseph, the former capital of the island, founded as far back as 1577 and called after Don Josef de Orufia, a former Governor, was the scene of the mutiny of free black recruits of the West India Regiment under Donald Stewart or Daaga on June 17, 1837, of which a graphic description is given in E. L. Joseph's History of Trinidad." Many of the mutineers were shot on the spot where the convent now stands. The barracks were situated on the Savannah beyond the church, the main buildings were on the left of the road and the parade ground on the right. Daaga, who was the adopted son of the King of the Paupaus, a savage African race, was captured by some Portuguese by treachery while he was transferring to them some slaves whom he had taken during a predatory expedition. The Portuguese vessel on which he was entrapped fell into the hands of the British and he and many other captured Africans were induced to enlist in the West India Regiment. Daaga nurtured in his heart deep hatred against all white people and he it was who persuaded the recruits to rise. Happily they were unskilled in the use of firearms ; otherwise the bloodshed — about forty lives were lost — would have been far greater. Many deeds of valour were done, not the least of which was the ride of Adjutant Bently from the Officers' Quarters to the Barracks under a rain of bullets. Happily the mutiny was suppressed and after a courtmartial Donald Stewart, Maurice Ogston, and Edward

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TRINIDAD 231 Coffin, the three ringleaders, were executed before the barracks. The mutineers marched abreast. The tall form and horrid looks of Daaga were almost appalling. The looks of Ogston were sullen, calm and determined ; those of Coffin seemed to indicate resignation. At eight o'clock they arrived at the spot where three graves were dug ; here their coffins were deposited. The condemned men were made to face to westward. Three sides of a hollow square were formed, flanked on one side by a detachment of the 89th Regiment and a party of artillery, while the recruits (many of whom shared the guilt of the culprits) were appropriately placed in the line opposite them. The firing-party were a little in advance of the recruits. The sentence of the Courts Martial and other necessary documents having been read by the Fort Adjutant, Meehan, the chaplain of the forces, read some prayers appropriated for these melancholy occasions. The clergyman then shook hands with the three men about to be sent into, another state of existence. Daaga and Ogston coolly gave their hands ; Coffin wrang the chaplain's hand affectionately, saying, in tolerable English, I am now done with the world." The arms of the condemned men, as has been before stated, were bound, but in such a manner as to allow them to bring their hands to their heads. Their night-caps were drawn over their eyes. Coffin allowed his to remain, but Ogston and Daaga pushed theirs up again. The former did this calmly ; the latter showed great wrath, seeming to think himself insulted, and his deep metallic voice sounded in anger above that of the Provost Marshal, as the latter gave the words "Ready! Present!" But at this instant his vociferous daring forsook him. As the men levelled their muskets at him, with inconceivable rapidity he sprang bodily round, still preserving his squatting posture, and received the fire from behind ; while the less noisy, but more brave, Ogston, looked the firing party full in the face as they discharged their fatal volley. In one instant all three fell dead, almost all the balls of the firing-party having taken effect. The savage appearance and manner of Daaga excited awe, admiration was felt for the calm bravery of Ogston, while Edward Coffin's fate excited commiseration. The town has several churches, that of the Roman Catholics being noteworthy on account of some very old stainedglass windows. In the churchyard is the curious old tomb of the Farfan family. Near by are the Government Stock Farm and the St. Augustine Estate, where the large-scale experiment work of the Department of Agricul-

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232 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES ture is carried on. Permits to visit both can be obtained from the Department. In the drawing-room of the former residence, "Valsayn," Don Josef Maria Chacon, the last Spanish Governor, signed the treaty of capitulation to the English in 1797. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Harvey were the English representatives, and the Mayor, Don Jose Mazan, was also present. His portrait and that of his wife are shown. It was through the orchard that Sir Walter Ralegh and his men approached when they burnt the town in 1595. The Stock Farm, now 350 acres in extent, was originally started in 1879 at St. Clair, and was removed to its present site in 1901. Here some fine Zebu cattle can be seen. The Royal Palm near the manager's office was one of two planted by Prince Albert Victor and Prince George (our present King) when they visited Trinidad in the Bacchante in 1880. St. Augustine Estate, also at St. Joseph, was purchased by the Government in 1900. It is administered by the Department of Agriculture. Here cultivation and manurial experiments are conducted. In the Montserrat district, reached by train to Claxton Bay (30 miles, ifhours from Port of Spain), the chief object of interest, besides the many cocoa estates, is the Black Virgin in the small church of Notre Dame de Montserrat at Tortuga. It is a wooden figure of the Madonna and Child, which was imported by Mr. Joaquim Colomer from Spain, and, though her features are not those of a negress, her face and hands are quite black. There is also another Black Virgin in Trinidad, at a church in Siparia, near La Brea, and it is said that she was taken into Port of Spain by a priest, but that, like the Bambino of the Ara Coeli, in Rome, she found her way back to her original home. The view from Montserrat is at all times exquisite ; but it is seen at its best when the Bois Immortel (Erythrina umbrosa) is in bloom. This tree, which is planted to shade the cocoa trees and is consequently called madre de cacao," is in January and February ablaze with a brick-red flower. San Fernando, the second town of the island (35 miles from Port of Spain, two hours by train), was founded by Chacon in 171 2 and named after the son of Carlos IV of

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TRINIDAD 233 Spain, who afterwards became Ferdinand VII. It is situated on the slopes of a hill of cretaceous formation, which stands out by itself near the sea in the undulating Naparima district, the principal sugar-growing part of the island. From this centre several Sugar Estates and factories may be visited. They include the Usine St. Madeleine of the St. Madeleine Sugar Company Ltd. (4 miles from San Fernando) and La Fortunee Estate, belonging to Tennants Estates Ltd. All are equipped with modern machinery of a very elaborate character, and they are in striking contrast in this respect to many of the estates in neighbouring islands. The Usine St. Madeleine is an immense building resembling a railway station rather than a sugar factory. It was the first central factory erected in the British West Indies, having been founded in 1870 by the Colonial (later the New Colonial) Company at the instance of Sir Nevile Lubbock, who was also responsible for the development of cane farming, a system by which peasant proprietors grow sugar-canes and deliver them when ripe to the factory. The principle of the central factory system, in which the future of the West Indian sugar industry is believed to lie, is the grouping together of a number of estates whose sugar-canes are ground at one central base, with the result that a considerable saving of expense is effected. The canes are brought to the factory by locomotives over railways, of which there are some 60 miles running through or in communication with the estates which feed this particular Usine. There are now nearly 12,000 prosperous cane farmers in the neighbourhood, of whom more than half are East Indians. Princes Town (8 miles by rail, and 7 by road from San Fernando) is chiefly worthy of notice on account of the mud volcanoes 5 or 6 miles to the south-east of it, which, however, it must be admitted, are rather disappointing, although they are now considered to indicate the presence of oil in the strata below, which a company will soon endeavour to exploit. The mud volcanoes are excrescences on the surface of a bare muddy flat, from which muddy water and gas ooze. Occasionally the little

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234 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES volcanoes are very active ; but they have never done any harm. The residents in the neighbourhood call the place the Devil's Wood-yard." Prior to a visit of his Majesty King George, who was then Prince George of Wales, and his brother Prince Albert Victor, during their cruise in the Bacchante in 1880, the town was known as the Mission, having formerly been, like Arima, a spot where the missionaries worked among the original Indian inhabitants. Two Poui trees planted by the young Princes in the churchyard are pointed out to visitors. The railings which surround them were put up in 1887 to commemorate Queen Victoria's Jubilee. The Pitch Lake at La Brea is reached by Gulf steamer from Port of Spain or by train to San Fernando, and thence by steamer, the expedition occupying a whole day. To go to Trinidad without visiting the Pitch Lake would be like going to Rome without entering St. Peter's. The lake is a vast deposit of bituminous matter, 114 acres in extent. The surface, except for small wooded islands, is bare of vegetation and hard enough to bear foot traffic and also carts, while by the aid of a sort of corduroy road made of palm branches, it supports a cable tramway. The pitch is dug out and loaded into buckets which are carried by cars on the tramway. These buckets, suspended on a cable, are conveyed by a system of telpherage along a jetty known as Brighton Pier," whence the pitch is shipped to all parts of the world. It is possible to pick up masses of the pitch and to mould it into shapes without soiling one's hands, the pitch being mixed with grit and not pure ; and almost as fast as it is dug out, fresh material works itself in by natural pressure from the sides and from below. The lake is at present leased to the New Trinidad Lake Asphalt Co. Ltd., who export on the average about 200,000 tons of pitch annually. Mr. Arthur W. Sewall, the Chairman of the Company, and the majority of the Board are Philadelphians, while Mr. H. F. Previte is the London director. The origin of the deposit has caused no little discussion, but the best opinion seems to be that the asphalt is a carboniferous deposit formed under the influence of petroleum which has escaped from the oil sands beneath. The lake

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) GUAYAGUAYARE BEACH, TRINIDAD A delightful drive in buggies can be enjoyed on the sands THE PITCH LAKE AT LA BREA, TRINIDAD It is quite safe to walk on the pitch, over which runnels of water trickle

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TRINIDAD 235 itself, owing to the absorption of the sun's rays, is one of the hottest spots in the world, while it is peculiarly subject to sudden showers of cold rain. The white employees of the company used to reside on Brighton Pier, which consequently resembled a lake village. Now, however, the whole forest has been cut down and they are accommodated in a group of charming houses which looks quite like a garden suburb. Near by are seen the huge oil tanks. A peculiarity of the spot is the presence of a singularly unattractive breed of pelicans. There is a tradition that the village of a tribe of the Chaimas occupied the spot where the Pitch Lake now is. These Indians offended the Good Spirit by destroying the humming-birds, which were animated by the souls of their deceased relations, and were therefore, as a punishment, engulfed with their village and all their belongings. The whole of this district has undergone a remarkable change in recent years as a result of the development of the local petroleum industry. Permission can readily be obtained to inspect the oil wells, tanks and pipe-lines. The Manjak Mines, near San Fernando (35 miles by train from Port of Spain), will interest many. They are said to contain the largest deposits of this mineral yet discovered. Manjak is a form of bitumen in a solid and very pure state. It is used principally for electric insulation, and in the manufacture of varnish and enamel. The Guayaguayare Oil-Fields should also be seen if time permits. They can be reached by the contract coasting steamer of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., which proceeds round the island once a week. The northeast trade-wind, fresh from across 2500 miles of ocean, blows uninterruptedly straight upon the East Coast, lashing the shallow sea into foaming breakers for more than a mile out. The shore for sixteen miles is lined with waving coco-nut trees extending to the very edge of, and sometimes on to, the sandy beach itself, the whole forming, as it suddenly breaks upon the eye, the marvellous panorama of life, sound, and colour which Kingsley pictured forty-five years ago. The existence of the Cocal, as it is called, is attributed to a French vessel laden with coco -nuts having been wrecked

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236 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES on the coast many years ago. Many of the nuts took root, grew and multiplied. The train to Sangre Grande (29 miles from Port of Spain) takes visitors to within a few miles of the more northerly part of the east coast (Bande de L'Est) and carriages and motor' buses are always available to convey passengers from the railway station for the rest of the journey. Here there is a glorious expanse of sands, and the conditions of scenery and climate closely resemble those prevailing on the Guayaguayare beach. The Five Islands, near Port of Spain, and Gasparee, Monos, and Chacachacare at the Bocas, form ideal picnic resorts, which are much frequented from Saturday to Monday. They are visited by the Gulf steamer four times a week. The chief residences are La Tinta, Boissiere's, Rust's and La Haute on Chacachacare ; Wehekind's on Huevos; and Domus, Balmoral, Morrison, Protheroe's Copper Hole, Grand Forest, Pampelonne's and Kenny's on Monos ; and on Gasparee, Pointe Baleine, Fort Dragon, St. Mary's, Acham's, Herrera's, Bourne's, Sorzano's, Boda's, Goodwille's, Savary's, Bombshell Bay, and Gamble's. In Chaguaramas Bay, opposite Gasparee, a Floating dock, formerly owned by the Trinidad Dock and Engineering Company, but now the property of the local Government, is moored. It has an over-all length of 365 ft., an inside width of 56 ft. and can lift ships of 4000 tons. On Gasparee, or Gaspar Grande, there are some very remarkable stalagmitic caves which rival the Blue Grotto of Capri for beauty. They are situated at Pointe Baleine, the western extremity. A boat can be hired at St. Mary's, where the Gulf steamer calls four times a week, and the boatman or a watchman is generally ready to act as guide. A walk of twenty minutes through bush and guinea-grass leads to the entrance of the big cave. The descent is made by crude ladders. The caves have never been fully explored, but it is said that they were used as a treasure store by the buccaneers. Trinidad is essentially an island for a prolonged stay, and not a few who visit it avail themselves of the opportunities which it affords for the profitable investment of capital.

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TOBAGO 257 TOBAGO Robinson Crusoe's Island GENERAL ASPECT. If for no other reason than that it is the island from which Defoe drew his descriptions for his immortal work, Robinson Crusoe," Tobago — which at one period of its existence was called New Walcheren — has a peculiar fascination and charm. It lies in latitude ii 9' N. and longitude 6o 12' W., about 75 miles south-east of Grenada and only about 20 miles north-east of Trinidad, the actual distance between Scarborough, its chief town, and Port of Spain being 70 miles, and the nearest points in the two islands Point Petit and Point Galera respectively. The island, of which the population at last census was 20,762, is 26 miles long and y\ miles wide at its greatest breadth, and has a total area of 114^ square miles. Unlike its neighbours, it lies east and west. As regards the geological formation of the island, it may be noted that Mr. Cunningham Craig, the late Government Geologist, has observed that the northern range of Trinidad is entirely formed of metamorphic rocks and is part of the same massif which forms almost the whole of Tobago. A main ridge of hills 18 miles in length runs down the centre of the northern portion, culminating in Pigeon Hill (Speyside), which is 1900 to 2000 ft. above the sea. Long deep valleys run up to it from either side, divided from each other by spurs which branch off from the main ridge. These valleys are very fertile, each having its own stream. The principal river is the Courland in the north-west, named after the Viking Duke who in the seventeenth century exercised almost sovereign sway in Tobago. The central portion is undulating, with little valleys and conical hills, and the south end is quite flat. About 53,000 acres are owned privately ; 6360 acres in the north are set apart as a rain and forest reserve, and the remaining 13,640 acres are Crown lands available for sale. The chief areas of cultivation are on the south side, on which the slopes of the hills are less steep than in the north. Scarborough (population 2500), the capital of Tobago, is situated at the

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2 3 8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES south of the island, about eight miles from the south-west point. The only other town is Plymouth, really only a village (population 1200), on the north side, five miles from Scarborough. The principal villages are Roxburgh in the Windward district and Moriah in the northern. Around the coast there are many excellent bays, most of which are well sheltered and afford safe anchorage with deep soundings. Indeed, Man-o'-War Bay, a very spacious harbour, is said to be capable of affording shelter to the whole of the British fleet What is most wanted for Tobago is the introduction of capital and labour ; given that, there should be no reason why this beautiful island should not regain a large portion at least of its former prosperity. A hopeful feature is the number of new settlers from the Old Country who have lately acquired plantations in different parts of the island. INDUSTRIES. The soil of Tobago is fertile and capable of producing a variety of tropical products. Sugar is no longer the staple of the island, cocoa, coco-nuts, rubber, coffee, and nutmegs having now taken its place. The largest cocoa plantations are in the Windward district and at Roxburgh, where the latest developments in cocoa cultivation and preparation may be seen. WTiat is known as the contract system is frequently adopted in the establishment of a cocoa estate. The land is given out to contractors in parcels of three to five acres for a term of years — usually five. The contractor has entire possession of the land during that period, reaps the ground provisions, and plants it in cocoa. At the expiration of the contract, the trees are counted, and a fixed price, usually 15.., is paid for each full-bearing tree, 6d. for each tree not full bearing but over three years of age, and 3d. for each tree between one year and three years. These agreements are dealt with under the Agricultural Contracts Ordinance and a statutory form of contract has been established. Rubber (Castillo a elastic a and Hevea brasiliensis) has been planted to a considerable extent, and this product, now that it has begun to reach the "tappable" stage, should add materially to the welfare of the island. Limes are also being planted, the soil being very suitable for citrus cultivation. Tobacco is produced to a small extent in the Leeward district, and is used locally

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TOBAGO 239 for pipe smoking. Cotton is also grown in the flat lands of the Leeward district, and Thornton's hybrid, a local product, has given excellent crops, but stainers and other pests have hindered the progress of this important industry. An impetus has been given to the raising of stock by the establishment of the Government Stock Farm. CLIMATE. The climate of Tobago is delightful. The mean temperature is 8o Fahr., but owing to the extensive seaboard, the heat is nearly always tempered by a cool sea breeze. This is particularly the case in the dry season, from December to June. In the wet season, especially during the months of August and September, the heat is sometimes oppressive owing to the stillness of the moistureladen atmosphere. The rainfall varies very much in different parts of the island. In the southern portion it does not exceed 60 inches in the year, and land in that part occasionally suffers from drought, through its having been almost entirely denuded of forest in order to make room for the cultivation of the sugar-cane. In the central and Windward districts, the rainfall varies from 85 to 95 inches, and in some parts of the northern district it exceeds 100 inches. The island is outside the hurricane zone. The birth-rate is 24 and the death-rate 19 per 1000, but over 45 per cent, of the deaths are those of children under five years of age. HISTORY. It would require many pages to record fully the history of Tobago, for the island has changed hands more often than any other in the West Indies. It is believed that when it was first discovered by Columbus in 1498, it was an uninhabited island. Some colonists from Barbados effected its first settlement in 1625, but there are writers who say that the English flag was first hoisted over it as early as 1580. In 1628 the island was included in the grant made by Charles I to the Earl of Montgomery, but the first settlers were attacked by Caribs from the mainland or the neighbouring islands, and many were killed, those who escaped settling on the island of New Providence. Four years later 200 Zeelanders from Flushing landed, but within a year they too were driven away by the Indians, who were goaded on by the Spanish. In 1642 James, Duke

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240 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of Courland, sent out two shiploads of settlers, who were followed in 1654 by Dutch colonists, collected by two Flushing merchants, who established themselves on the southern coast. A dispute soon arose between the two groups of settlers, and in 1658 the Courlanders were completely overpowered by the Dutch, who remained in sole possession of the whole island until 1662. In that year the Dutchman Cornelius Lampsius, one of the founders of their colony, was created Baron of Tobago and proprietor of the island as a Dutch dependency under title from the Crown of France. In 1664 the grant of the island to the Duke of Courland was renewed. The Dutch refused to recognise his title, and in 1666 the island was captured by privateers from Jamaica. A small garrison was left, but within a year it was compelled to surrender to a few Frenchmen from Grenada, who in their turn abandoned the colony in 1 667, leaving the Dutch in possession. In 1672 Sir Tobias Bridges, with troops from Barbados, broke up the Dutch settlement ; but the Dutch returned, only to be defeated by a French fleet under Count D'Estrees after one unsuccessful attack in 1677. Louis XIV restored the island to the Duke of Courland, who in 1682 transferred his title to a company of London merchants. In 1748 the island was declared neutral by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. From 1762, when it was captured by our forces, to 1781 Tobago was in the hands of the British ; but in the latter year the colony capitulated to the French under the Marquis de Bouille, and in 1783 it was ceded to France. Ten years later it was retaken by the English, but again restored to France by the peace of Amiens in 1802. In 1803, however, it was recaptured by Hood, and it was ceded to England in 181 4, since which date it has remained a British colony. CONSTITUTION. By an Order in Council of October 20, 1898, it was provided that the island of Tobago should become a ward of the united colony of Trinidad and Tobago ; that the revenue, expenditure, and debt of Tobago should be merged in those of the united colony ; that the debt due from Tobago to Trinidad should be cancelled ; that (with some specified exceptions) the laws of Trinidad should operate in Tobago, and those of Tobago cease to

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TOBAGO 241 operate so far as they conflicted with the laws of Trinidad ; and that all future ordinances of the Legislature of the colony should extend to Tobago, with the proviso that the Legislature should be able to enact special and local ordinances and regulations applicable to Tobago as distinguished from the rest of the colony. This Order in Council was brought into effect from January i, 1899, by a proclamation of the Governor issued on December 8, 1898. The post of Commissioner, the officer who formerly administered the government, ceased to exist, and the post of Warden and Magistrate was created. By a Proclamation in 191 3 the title of Commissioner was given to the Warden. HOTELS. Tobago has no hotels properly speaking ; but at Scarborough there are several boarding-houses, including Fairfield (f mile from the landing-stage) and Peru Cottage, the terms for board and lodging at which are Ss. 4-d. per day or according to arrangement. At convenient distances throughout the island there are Government Rest Houses." Permission to use them can usually be obtained from the Commissioner or District Officers. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Tobago has no direct steamship communication with the mother country and Europe. There is, however, weekly communication between the island and Trinidad by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company's steamers Barima and Belize which run once a week from Port of Spain, Trinidad, to Scarborough, and then round Tobago and back to Port of Spain, with an extra trip once a fortnight direct between Port of Spain and Scarborough to bring the English mail (see page 220) Nearly all the roads were originally made by the French during their occupation, and were more remarkable for their skilful tracery than for the condition of their surface, which left much to be desired. One can now drive all over the Leeward district and as far as Charlotteville (28 miles), Man-o'-War Bay. A drivingroad all round the island is now being made, and although the numerous bends and occasional watercourses render them rather risky for motor-cars, the main roads are quite good for twoand four-wheeled carriages and bicycles. The roads across the island are driveable for part of the way, and the

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2J r 2 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES bridletracks will in time be made into driving-roads. Good riding-horses can be hired for 2s. per hour, 6s. per day, or £i os. lod. per week ; and dog-carts and buggies can be engaged for ios. to 255. per day. SPORTS. There is a J awntennis club at Burleigh Castle, near Scarborough, to which visitors are welcomed. Cricket is played by the Tobago Cricket Club. The sea bathing is good and may be indulged in with perfect safety and without fear of sharks or treacherous currents, and the same applies to boating. Fish is abundant in river and sea, the most appreciated being snapper, kingfish, grouper, and Spanish mackerel. Eels are plentiful, and also lobsters, crabs, crayfish, oysters, and several kinds of turtle. Deer and game birds are abundant. Among the latter is the cocorico, a bird which resembles the English pheasant, and is believed to be peculiar to this island. Tobago is also visited by migratory birds, including plovers and Ramie pigeons. The birds of plumage are superior to those of any of the other islands. Into the small island known as Little Tobago, off Speyside," Sir William Ingram, the owner, has successfully introduced Birds of Paradise. SOCIAL CLUB. The members of the Union Club at Scarborough extend hospitality to visitors suitably introduced. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The little town of Scarborough, which succeeded Georgetown as capital in 1769, was formerly called Port Louis. It is picturesquely situated at the base of a hill 425 ft. high overlooking the harbour of the same name, once called Rockly Bay. In 1790 during a mutiny of the French Garrison the town was destroyed by fire. At the top of the hill is the old Fort King George, where the ruins of barracks, military hospitals, &c, remain to testify to its former importance. The old barrack square is now the radio-telegraphy station, and on the brow facing Trinidad stands the lighthouse. A charming view of the surrounding country can be obtained from this spot. The old Dutch and French forts, the buildings of which have long since been levelled to the ground, were quite near by. The principal buildings in Scarborough are the Government

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TOBAGO 243 offices, police barracks, Anglican, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic churches, Court-house, Royal Gaol, and Colonial Hospital. Government House, where the Governor and Judges reside on their periodic visits, is -|mile from Scarborough. The Government Stock Farm, established with the object of improving the breed of stock in the island, overlooks the harbour. The Botanic Station near the landing-stage deserves a visit. It was established on an abandoned sugar estate called Dealfair." The Petit Trous Beach, where the races are held, is a lovely flat stretch about three miles from Scarborough, and quite close at hand a London syndicate prospected for oil, of which there are frequent surface indications. The expedition to Robinson Crusoe's Cave, 10 miles from Scarborough to the west, which is very interesting, requires a full day. In this trip may be included the BUCCOO Reef, which at low tide is a wonderful storehouse of beautiful shells ; the adjoining Lagoon at Bonaccord Estate is a favourite spot for boating and fishing. A visit to the Mason Hall and Big River Falls to the north of the island takes half a day. There are many rides which can be enjoyed in the country through romantic scenery, and also round the island, halts being made by permission of the Warden at various rest-houses en route. At a distance of about i| miles from the northeastern end of Tobago is the island of Little Tobago, now the property of Sir William Ingram. The rocks in the channel between it and the main island are known collectively as Goat Island. Little Tobago is about a mile long and has a total area of about 400 or 500 acres. It is clothed with dense tropical vegetation from the water side to the summit of its hills, which rise to a height of 490 ft. above the sea level. It was into this island that Sir William Ingram introduced Birds of Paradise (Paradisca apoda) from the Aru Islands, Dutch New Guinea, in 1909. The island was once the home of an old hermit named Mitchell, who was marooned upon it. The descendants of the fowls which he kept are still to be found in the island in their wild state.

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244 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Writing of Tobago in 1683, Captain John Poyntz said : Thou art here presented with The Present Prospect of the Island of Tobago, about forty Leagues distant from Barbadoes ; but far excelling that Island, and indeed any other of the Caribbee-Islands, in the Fertility "and Richness of the Soil, and in the Commodiousness of its Bays and Harbors : and it is no paradox to affirm, That though it lies more south, the Air is as Cool and Refreshing as that of Barbadoes : and yet Exempted from those affrighting and destructive Hurricanes that have been often Fatal to the rest of the Caribbee-Islands. . And I am perswaded that there is no Island in America, that can afford us more ample Subjects to contemplate the Bounty and Goodness of our Great Creator in than this of Tobago ; And this, I speak not by hearsay, or as one that has liv'd always at home ; but as one that has had Experience of the World, and been in the greatest part of the Caribbee-Islands, and most parts of the Continent of America, and almost all His Majesties Forreign Plantations ; And after having view'd them all, have chosen this Island of Tobago to take up my quietus est in. Though Captain Poyntz, whose object was to attract capital to the island, was not guiltless of the fault common to most company promoters — that of drawing the long bow — it must be admitted that this part of his description of Tobago is remarkably accurate.

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CHAPTER X THE WINDWARD ISLANDS GRENADA Clarior e tenebris The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. Grenada, the most southerly of the Windward Islands and the seat of government of that British colony, lies in latitude 12 5' N. and longitude 61 40' W., 90 miles to the north of Trinidad, 68 miles southsouth-west of St. Vincent, and 100 miles south-west of Barbados. It is about 21 miles long and 12 miles broad, its total area being 120 square miles, or about half the size of Middlesex, and its population 59,864, or 500 to the square mile. The island is very mountainous, and is only equalled by Dominica for the beauty of its scenery. The highest points are Mount St. Catherine, 2749 ft., from which spurs branch off, forming valleys of great beauty and fertility, Mount Sinai (2300 ft.) and the mountain over the Grand Etang (2014 ft.). Along the east and south-east coast the mountains gradually slope off to the sea, but on the whole of the west coast the mountains run sheer down. The island is purely volcanic in its origin, the chief centres of eruption appearing to have been in the neighbourhood of Mount St. Catherine and the Grand Etang, a mountain lake 1740 ft. above the sea, which undoubtedly occupies an extinct volcanic crater. Grenada is abundantly watered, being intersected in every direction by streams of the purest description. The principal river, the Great River, rises near the Grand Etang, and takes a northeasterly course, entering the sea to the north of Grenville 245

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246. POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Bay. The island is divided into six parishes — St. George, St. David, St. Andrew, St. Patrick, St. Mark, and St. John. The town of St. George's, the capital, which has a population of 4916, is situated on a peninsula towards the southern end of the west coast, which shelters an almost land-locked harbour known as the Carenage. Grenville, the town next in size, is situated at the head of a bay of the same name in the middle of the windward coast ; Gouyave stands on the shore of an open roadstead on the west coast about twelve miles from St. George's ; and at the extreme north of the island is the small village of Sauteurs. The roads of the island, though good, are of course very hilly. Under the Government of Grenada are Carriacou and those of the Grenadines adjacent and to the south of it, which are administered by a resident Commissioner. Carriacou, twenty miles to the north of Grenada, is 8467 acres in extent. It is very mountainous, though its hills, which have been almost entirely deforested, are lower than those of Grenada. There are no streams in the island and the water-supply is derived from wells. High North, 980 ft., is the highest point, and Chapeau Carre, 960 ft., is the next highest. The extensive natural harbour called Grand Carenage is famed for its oysters which grow on the roots of the mangrove -trees. Grenada's other dependencies are Diamond Island, or Kick-em-Jenny," as it is popularly called, Islet Ronde, Les Tantes, Isle de Caille, and Levera, Green, Bird, Conference, Marquis, Bacolet, Adam, Caliviny, Hog and Glover islands ; while round Carriacou there are Petit Martinique — so called because the French found snakes there similar to those in its larger namesake — Petit Tobago and Saline, Frigate, Large, Mabouya, Sandy and Jack Adam islands. KickemJenny in particular is generally pointed out to visitors owing to its peculiar name, which is probably a corruption of Cay qui gene," the Cay or island which bothers one ; for the sea is often very rough in the neighbourhood. INDUSTRIES. Grenada is entirely dependent for its prosperity on agriculture. Barely enough sugar is produced to meet the requirements of the inhabitants, the principal article of export being cocoa, the cultivation of

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61'175'W.Gr CV** Cumberland B.& vL ^~§ Barrcmallie or Princes T?r ^^*??S^^ Juibaca Shutpi/uj George T.£G^, ?Sabl>-S.Ru£ ByertuXharib I > Colonarie dtp <£• Camacaribou B Massaricaw i? ^OT^ Setae A'S^JF^ St Ge or ae &>,..;? GRENADA ^|* The, Sisters jFl s l e Ronde O. "^ ""^i?* % •Zornion Mi-idi) ,J r . ~v „ S '-•* "/? ^ 'Bircf I. V AHiah Cliff Tl '^^TSHi'aUfei;! ""!/<'-'/'/>'•/ -en.ee T? *?. r --. / Conference I.

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GRENADA 247 which has largely increased in recent years. Except when the plants are young very little shade is used in Grenada, experience having shown that in this island cocoa does better when protected from the wind, but exposed to the full sunlight. Otherwise the methods of cultivation resemble those followed in Trinidad and elsewhere {see page 451). Spices come next in importance, the shipments of nutmegs and mace being so considerable in quantity and so excellent in quality that the island is often called the Spice Island of the West. ' Nutmeg cultivation was first started by the late Hon. Frank Gurney on Belvidere — the estate owned by the rebel Julien Fedon — in the early eighties, and rapidly spread. Coffee, coco-nuts, and kola are also exported, and rubber (Hevea) cultivation is steadily increasing. Cloves grow luxuriantly, but the knowledge of their preparation for market has not yet been imparted to the planter, and consequently they are not cultivated on a commercial scale. The few sugar-works still standing are mainly concerned with the manufacture of rum, the local consumption of which is about 60,000 gallons annually. Cattle, sheep, and horses are bred in the island with success. The soils of Grenada are rich, and have been compared with those of Java for fertility. In Carriacou the cultivation of cotton of the Marie Galante variety has never been abandoned. The principal exports in the year 19 12 were as follows : Cocoa Nutmegs. Mace Cotton Cwt. 101,843 12,21 5 2,283 3.395 Value. £225,317 21,738 15,041 9,019 The direction of trade in the same year was : United Kingdom British Possessions . Imports. £113.910 61,947 •• Exports. £169,762 12,421 Foreign Countries .. 104,018 .. 103,407 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table on next page giving its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years :

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248 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. i £ 1 i 1903-4 70,250 70,101 2 35,440 203,565 1904-5 68,993 69,509 256,269 321,766 1905-6 69,954 71,968 237,256 283,955 1906-7 71,786 70.379 223,448 210,149 1907-8 79-871 68,383 288,665 417,289 1908-9 73.182 72,661 303,783 359.245 1909-10 71,224 73.282 268,236 284,846 1910-11 81,413 75.561 279,236 291,760 1911-12 98,645 81,012 309,227 264,640 1912-13 86,393 84.093 279,875 285,590 CLIMATE. The climate of Grenada is equable and healthy. The heaviest rains fall in September and November, but the precipitations last on and off from May until the end of the year. The average annual rainfall is 80 inches, but in the interior it is nearly twice as much. The island is practically free from hurricanes, there having been four occasions only on which it is known to have been visited by gales of hurricane strength. Near the sea-level the maximum mean temperature is 90 Fahr., and the minimum 68 Fahr., but in the mountains it often falls below 6o Fahr. The average birth-rate is 41 and the death-rate only 21 per 1000. HISTORY. It is not known when Grenada received its present name, but it was first called Concepcion by Columbus, who discovered it in 1498 on his third journey. In 1609 an attempt was made by a company of London merchants to colonise the island, but in less than a year they were driven off by the Caribs. The island wasincluded in the possessions of the French Company of the Islands of America, and in 1650 Du Parquet, the Governor of Martinique, who was a nephew of D'Esnambuc, the first French coloniser in the West Indies, having purchased Grenada, started for it immediately with 200 men, and, having taken formal possession, built a fort there and founded the colony. The settlers, who were at first well received, soon quarrelled with the Caribs ; but with the aid of reinforcements from

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GRENADA 249 Martinique, the Indians were exterminated. On the northern coast the Morne des Sauteurs is still shown, where many of the Caribs leapt into the sea in order to escape from their enemies. Du Parquet, now in full possession of the island, did not find it profitable, and so in 1656 he sold it to Count de Cerillac for about ^1890. The latter appointed as Governor a man of brutal manners," who oppressed the colonists to such an extent that he was tried and condemned to be hanged. By pleading that he was of noble origin he managed, however, to get the sentence altered to one of beheadal, but no skilful executioner being available, he was at last shot at the summit of the hill on the Grand Etang road. De Cerillac sold the island in 1665 to the French West India Company, and on the dissolution of that organisation at the end of the year 1674 it passed to the French Crown. It remained in the possession of France until 1762, when it capitulated to Great Britain, to whom it was formally ceded in the following year. In 1779 it was recaptured by a French fleet under Count d'Estaing, Hospital Hill being stormed and captured by a strong force under Count Dillon, but it was restored to Great Britain by the Treaty of Versailles of 1783. The year 1795 was a critical one in the history of Grenada. In it began what was known as the Brigands' War, the notorious French republican, Victor Hugues, making a determined effort to regain possession of the island by bringing about an insurrection of the French inhabitants and the slaves. The outbreak began soon after midnight of March 2, when Julien Fedon, a coloured planter, entered Grenville with a party of rebels and massacred the inhabitants. The victims were dragged from their beds and shot in the streets, their bodies being mutilated in an atrocious manner. Stores were robbed and private dwellings pillaged. Simultaneously an attack was made on Charlotte Town or Gouyave by another party, which captured a large number of prisoners. The Lieutenant-Governor, Ninian Home, was at his estate, Paraclete in St. Andrew's, when news of the disaster reached him, and he decided at once to return to St. George's by way of Sauteurs. At La Fortune estate he went aboard a sloop : but unfortunately for him, on arriving off Charlotte

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2 so POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Town he was fired at from the fort, and seeing at the same time several vessels which he took for French privateers off Palmiste, as well as canoes at Maran Bay, he deemed it best to go ashore. No sooner had he landed than he was made a prisoner and marched off to Fedon's headquarters, though the captain of the sloop managed to reach St. George's in safety. Poor Home was treated with the utmost indignity until April 8, when his sufferings came to an end and he, with forty-seven other prisoners, was massacred while an attack was being made by the British on Fedon's camp, the Champ La Mort, Fedon, who was enraged at his brother having been killed, himself giving the order to fire in each case. It was not until June in the following year that the rising was suppressed by Sir Ralph Abercromby, who had in the meanwhile assumed the chief military command in the West Indies. The entire cost of the rebellion was £230,000, and the losses of the inhabitants were estimated at £2,500,000 CONSTITUTION. Grenada is the headquarters of the Government of the Windward Islands, which also include St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines. Each island retains its own institutions, and, when the Governor is absent, is presided over by a resident Administrator, who is also Colonial Secretary. There is no common legislature, and no general laws, revenue, or tariff. There is, however, a common Court of Appeal, which was constituted in 1859. and consists of the Chief Justices of the several islands and of Barbados. The colonies have united for sundry other common purposes. A common audit system was instituted in 1889. Grenada has an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council consisting of six official members, besides the Governor, and seven unofficial members nominated by the Crown. Governors of the Windward Islands since 1897 Sir C. A. Moloney, K.C.M.G. . 1897 Sir Robert Llewelyn, K.C.M.G.. Sir Ralph Williams, K.C.M.G. Sir James Hayes Sadler, K.C.M.G., C.B. 1900 1906 1909 1914

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GRENADA 251 HOTELS. St. George's. The Home Hotel in Young and Monckton Streets, within fifty yards of the wharf, is clean and comfortable. It is built in the Italian style, with rooms opening on to galleries overlooking a courtyard, and it has a ballroom and a billiard saloon. The tariff of charges is quite moderate — Rooms, light, and attendance 2s. 6d., board and lodging 85. <\d. per day. At the Douglas Hotel in Government Street, near the Anglican Church, the charges are about the same. At the Grand Etang there is a Government Rest House and a small Sanatorium conducted by the proprietors of the Home Hotel. The tariff of charges is the same as that at the hotel — Breakfast 2s. 6d., luncheon is. to 25. 6d., dinner 3s. The principal building at the Quarantine Station (twelve bedrooms and one sitting-room) can be rented by approved persons when not in use, — 65. for the first day and 3s. for each subsequent day not exceeding a fortnight. Grenville. The "Nest" is the only hotel in St. Andrew's Parish (charges as above). Gouyave. The Gouyave Hotel is well spoken of. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Grenada is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7, 13 and 14 {see pages 14 to 27). The steamers go alongside the wharf at St. George's. The Home Hotel has livery stables, where horses and carriages can be obtained. Tariff : Single-horse carriage to seat two persons, 25s. per day ; pair-horse carriage to seat three persons, 305. per day. For the trip to the Grand Etang the charge for a carriage is £1 os. lod. each person, or to boarders at the hotel, 125. od. The minimum charge for a single-horse carriage for one person is 4s. per hour, for two persons 6s. per hour, and for a pair-horse carriage for three persons 8s. per hour. Good saddle horses can be obtained for ,85. per day, or by boarders, 6s. per day. A mail coach plies regularly on week days between St. George's and Grenville via St. David's Court House. Fare, 55. each way. Under contract with the Government a coastal steamer of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (agents : Martin, Dean & Co., Young Street) plies daily between Sauteurs (7 a.m.), Victoria (7.45 a.m.), Gouyave (8.30 a.m.), and

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252 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES St. George's (10 a.m.), returning from St. George '-s at 1.30 p.m., except on Monday, when the hour is 4 a.m., on Thursday when it is 12 noon, and on Friday, when it leaves at 2.30 p.m. On Saturday the steamer returns from Sauteurs to St. George's, arriving there about 7 p.m. There is also a service twice weekly between St. George's, Requin Bay (St. David's), and Grenville by steamer leaving St. George's at 7.30 a.m. on Tuesday for Requin (9.30 a.m.) and Grenville (12 noon), and on Thursday at 8.30 a.m., calling at Gouyave, Victoria, and Sauteurs en route. The steamer leaves Grenville at 8 a.m. on Wednesday for Requin and St. George's (12.30 p.m.), and on Friday at 5.30 a.m., calling at Sauteurs, Victoria, and Gouyave. On Saturday a steamer leaves for Requin at 7 a.m., reaching there at 9.30 a.m. and returning at 12 noon. A steamer plies weekly between St. George's and Carriacou (6 p.m.), leaving St. George's on Thursday (12 noon) and calling at Gouyave, Victoria and Sauteurs en route, and returning from Carriacou on Friday. This steamer connects at Hillsborough with a mail boat from St. Vincent via the Grenadines. Time and fares : FROM ST. GEORGE'S To Hours. First Class. Second Class. Single. Return. Single. Return. Gouyave Victoria Sauteurs Carriacou Requin Grenville 3* 6 2* 5. d. 2 3 4 6 6 3 6 5. d. 3 4 6 6 10 4 6 9 5. d. 1 1 6 2 6 4 1 6 3 6 s. d. 1 6 2 6 3 6 6 2 6 5 3 SPORTS. The Grenada Cricket Club has a very picturesque ground a quarter of a mile from St. George's, where cricket and lawn-tennis are played. At Grande Ance Bay, which is reached by boat in fifteen minutes from the

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GRENADA *^l£f *&!Ai SAO* ^ sa
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254 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Carenage, there is a fine stretch of sandy beach, from which the bathing is perfect, while a delightful freshwater douche can be indulged in at the Spout in the Carenage. The roads are too hilly for cycling to any extent. Boats can be hired at the Carenage. The sea fishing is good, and the rivers can be fished for mullet, brochet, sard, and mudfish. The natives use avocado pears, green grasshoppers, red bananas, and sometimes worms and cockroaches as bait. The Grenada Race Club, founded in 1895, holds annual meetings on a course at Grande Ance, and the St. Andrew's Racing Club (1897) holds flat races periodically. Rifle shooting is encouraged by the St. George's Rifle Club, founded in 1907. SOCIAL CLUBS. The St. George's Club, which was opened in 1888 and faces the Carenage, is very hospitable to visitors. Close to it there is a Public Library and Reading-Room open from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. on week days and on Sunday from 2 to 6 p.m., where the latest periodicals can be seen and books can be borrowed on payment of a shilling per quarter. The Grenada Club, in premises adjoining the Home Hotel, is also very hospitable. At Grenville there is the St. Andrew's Club, which was opened in 1901. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The inner harbour of St. George's, which is called the Carenage from its having been in the old days a favourite place for careening ships, is exquisitely beautiful. Obviously of volcanic origin, it is almost surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills densely clothed with tropical vegetation. The entrance is exceedingly narrow and was formerly commanded by the guns of the Fort St. George at the south-western extremity of the promontory of the same name on the west, and Monckton's Redoubt on the east. Over the promontory straggles the picturesque town of St. George's, the red roofs of the houses forming an agreeable contrast to the rich green of the tropical foliage. On the eastern side of the Carenage is the Ballast Ground." It was on a strip of land at the foot of this cliff and extending across the mouth of a sheet of water known as the Lagoon, then a lake of brackish water but now an arm of the sea, that the original French settlement, Port Louis, stood (see page 253) On the lower hills round

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THE PROMONTORY OF ST. GEORGE S, GRENADA At the end of the promontory is the historic Fort George PART OF ST. GEORGE'S, GRENADA The picturesque and sun-flooded Bay Town

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GRENADA 255 the Carenage is a chain of frowning forts — dismantled, it is true, for many years, but looking all the same very menacing. Beyond them rise mountains to a height of from two to three thousand feet, while in the foreground the deep blue of the water, dotted with the trim little white sloops which ply to St. Vincent and the Grenadines, completes a charming picture. On November 18, 1867, a very remarkable occurrence took place in the Carenage. Between 5 and 5.20 p.m. the water suddenly subsided about 5 ft., exposing a reef, and the water over the Green Hole," a spot between the Spout, the old watering-place for ships, and the opposite place on the north began to bubble furiously and to emit sulphurous fumes. The sea then rose 4 ft. above its usual level and rushed up to the head of the Carenage. This was repeated several times, and the Green Hole, which was very deep, was completely filled up. The wave rushed up the northern coast as far as Gouyave, and at Dougaldston the bridge at the mouth of the river was covered and the canefields inundated. Seismic phenomena were witnessed at the same time in St. Thomas and Little Saba. The town of St. George's (population 4916) was established by the French during the governorship of M. de Bellair in 1705, when it was called Fort Royal. It received its present name during the administration of Governor Robert Melville (1764 to 1771), when an ordinance was passed which provided for the substitution of English for French names. St. George's is divided by a ridge or saddle of the hill crowned by three churches — Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Presbyterian ; but the two parts described by Bryan Edwards as Carenage Town and Bay Town are now connected by a tunnel pierced at the instance of the then Governor, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Walter Sendall, whose name it bears. Lady Sendall ignited the first charge for its excavation by electricity, and the tunnel was completed in 1895. The western approach is called Bruce Street after Sir Charles Bruce, Governor from 1893 to 1897. The Post Office, the Public Library (first opened in 1846) and the Government Buildings are situated on the wharf, adjacent to the public landing-place. At the Library

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256 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES an interesting old map by M. de Caillus, Engineer-General of the American Islands and Terra Firma," can be seen. It shows the position of the town and fort erected in 1705-6 and of the old capital Port Louis. The premises of the St. George's Club are also on the Carenage next to the Public Library and Government Offices. It was founded in 1888, and has at present a membership of about eighty. The chief local office of the Colonial Bank is in Government Street. The Royal Bank is in Young Street. The Parish Church of St. George's contains a wellexecuted marble monument by Westmacott with medallions on either side, which was erected in 1 799 by the Legislature of Grenada to the memory of Lieut. -Governor Ninian Home and the other inhabitants who were massacred during the insurrection on April 8, 1795, as well as to Captain Rogers and the officers and privates who lost their lives in the rebellion. It was in the rectory that Captain Marry at resided. Fort George, at the south-western extremity of the "promontory, was erected in 1705-6 from the designs and under the direction of M. de Caillus, and has long since been abandoned for military purposes. The view from it of the inner harbour or Carenage on the one side and the bluff leeward coast on the other, with part of the town of St. George's at the foot, renders it an excellent point of vantage for votaries of the sketch-book or camera. Since the withdrawal of the garrison the military barracks in the vicinity have been utilised as the Colony Hospital. The old Ordnance Store is now the Yaws Hospital, where patients suffering from the distressing complaint known as Yaws (Frambassia) — now curable by salvarsan — are treated. The St. George's Market, which is a few minutes' walk from the Carenage over the hill or through the Sendall Tunnel, is well worth a visit on Saturday during market hours. The Hamilton Almshouse, in Lucas Street, is a model of what such institutions should be. The Botanic Station, which owes its inception to Dr. (now Sir) Daniel Morris, is situated at the foot of Richmond Hill, only five minutes distant by boat from St. George's. They were established in 1886, since which

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GRENADA 257 year they have made rapid progress. Many valuable trees have been planted and the gardens have a nursery for the growth and distribution of plants. Beyond them is the Quarantine Station, a favourite resort for picnics. At Grand Ance Bay (a row of about 15 minutes from the wharf ; fare is. per person), to the south of St. George's, there is a stretch of sandy beach from which the most delightful sea-bathing can be enjoyed. The Government have provided a landing-stage, and the use of a bathing house can be had for a charge of \d. per head. A second bathing house is reserved for the use of members of a local bathing club. Another favourite bathing-place is at the Spout, where ships watered in the old days. Here a fresh water douche can also be enjoyed from the old pipe-line. Government House stands on the hillside overlooking the town and harbour. The view from the terrace is unsurpassed. On the Governor's reception day visitors are always made welcome. A road with an easy gradient leads to the Hospital Hill Forts on a plateau 400 ft. high adjoining the town on the north. Here the British under Sir George (afterwards Lord) Macartney made a brilliant stand against the French under Count d'Estaing in July 1779. The entire force of the island did not exceed 540 men, who, on the approach of the enemy, entrenched themselves at the summit of the hill. Here they were invested by d'Estaing at the head of no fewer than 3000 men who, however, only succeeded in carrying the lines after losing 300. The garrison retired to Fort St. George, where they were bombarded by the guns from Hospital Hill, which they unfortunately omitted to spike, and compelled to surrender. From Richmond Hill (20 minutes by carriage from St. George's along a good driving road), a long ridge 800 ft. high, on which was the headquarters of the troops when Grenada were garrisoned, a splendid view of the town and Carenage can be obtained. The hill, which was purchased by the local Government for £20,000 in the latter half of the eighteenth century, is studded with several forts which aire now used by Government institutions. The old military

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258 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES buildings in Fort Matthew have been converted into the lunatic asylum of Grenada and St. Vincent, while the adjacent barracks are now the Poor Asylum and Hospital for Incurables. The forts were begun by the French in 1780 on the land of Fort George estate, the property of Hon. William Lucas, and completed by the British, who compensated the former owner, in 1784. A favourite excursion from St. George's is that to the Grand Etang (Large Pond), a large circular freshwater lake 2.\ miles in circumference, 14 ft. deep, and 1740 ft. above the level of the sea (6| miles from St. George's). The road is good, and the drive through cocoa and provision grounds and a wealth of tropical vegetation is a pretty one. The lake undoubtedly occupies the crater of an extinct volcano, like the larger Lake Antoine in the north-east of the island. The Grand Etang is approached by a macadamised path from Government Rest House and a picturesque little Sanatorium near by. The latter, which is let to whoever cares to take it, is an ideal spot for a rest cure. It is connected with the telephone system of the colony. A river skiff can be hired on the lake for a moderate fee. By creeping through immense tree-ferns from 5 to 6 ft. high near the Rest House, one can see the spot where his Majesty King George V, then Prince George, and his brother Prince Albert Victor were entertained, on January 29, 1880, in a pretty sort of at fresco hall erected of bamboo and palm leaves," when they visited the West Indies in H.M.S. Bacchante. What was then a clearing is now densely overgrown with bush ; but a beautiful view can be had from it of Grenville Bay on the eastern or windward side of the island, whence much produce is shipped. Not far from the lake is the mountain known as the Morne Fedon, formerly called the Vauclain Mountain, where the Lieutenant-Governor Ninian Home and forty-seven other white persons were massacred by rebels led by Julien Fedon, a coloured planter, in 1795, during the insurrection stirred up by Victor Hugues. Fedon's camps were situated on three spurs of Mount St. Catherine, and were called Champ La Liberte, Champ L'Egalite, and Champ La Mort. The plateau, on which a commemorative pillar has been erected by the Government,

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GRENADA 259 can only be visited in the dry season, and is approached by a narrow winding path. The pillar is inscribed : SITE OF fedon's CAMP 1795 Mr. John Hay, who narrowly escaped sharing the fate of the Governor, gave in his Narrative of the Insurrection (1823) the following account of the closing scene in the tragedy : The prisoners, who had been let out of stocks, were immediately ordered in, the door locked, and the whole guard put under arms. Soon after the attack became more general, a voice was heard, saying, The prisoners are to be shot. ..." The guard was drawn up very near the prison, at the distance of not more than four or five paces. They appeared very much agitated, trembling with impatience, and some seemed to have their guns cocked. A few prisoners called out Mercy No reply was made. Others, who were not in stocks, were on their knees praying. Not a word was exchanged among us ; we all knew an attack from that quarter must fail of success,' which would not only prolong our misery, but endanger our lives. The door was opened ; two men appeared with hammers to take the prisoners out of stocks. Those who were not in confinement were ordered to go out. ... He [Fedon] began the bloody massacre in presence of his wife and daughters, who remained there, unfeeling spectators of his horrid barbarity. He gave the word Feu himself to every man as soon as he came out ; and, of fifty-one prisoners, only Parson M'Mahon, Mr. Kerr, and myself were saved. At Charlotte Town, or Gouyave (population 2332), on the leeward coast, about twelve miles to the north of St. George's by road, or a journey of 1^ hours by coastal steamer {see page 25 1 ), a nourishing system of peasant proprietorship can be seen in operation. Attempts have been made in the other islands to settle the people on the land, but nowhere have they proved so successful as in Grenada. The leeward coast is very beautiful, and recalls to mind the Italian Riviera. The land breaks off abruptly in bluff headlands which, however, unlike those on many parts of the Italian coast, are densely covered with verdure. Four miles to the north is Victoria, or Grand Pauvre (population 1591),

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2<5o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES in St. Mark's Parish, built on the shore of an open bay. Eight miles farther is Sauteurs (pron. Soteers ; population 1 1 88), reached by coastal steamer (see page 251) in three or four hours. It is of interest as being the scene of the massacre of Carib Indians, of whom a number, pursued by the French under Le Compte, rushed up a narrow and difficult path known to them alone, and threw themselves over the edge of a cliff (Le Morne des Sauteurs, or The Leapers' Hill) overlooking the bay, in 1650. The French, who only lost one man, then set fire to the cottages and rooted up the provisions of the Caribs, and, having destroyed or taken away everything belonging to them, returned, as Du Tertre naively describes it, bien joyeux." From Sauteurs Lakes Antoine and Levera, which occupy the craters of extinct volcanoes, can be visited. Those interested in antiquities can inspect stones sculptured by the Caribs at Mount Rich in St. Patrick's Parish, and near the town of Victoria. Grenville or La Baye standing on low-lying and swampy land near the beach of a large bay on the east of the island in St. Andrew's Parish is the town next in importance to St. George's. The town is to the north of the site of the older one of the same name, that was the scene of the outbreak of the rebellion of 1795 which is described above. Grenville Bay is protected on the north by Telescope Point, which forms part of Telescope estate. Overlooking the town is Pilot Hill, on the summit of which is a signal station and the residence of the port pilot. Post Royal, about two miles south of Grenville, was a rebel outpost during the Brigands War. Its stubborn defence was ended by a brilliant charge of the Buffs under BrigadierGeneral Campbell. At one time Post Royal was the leading shipping and trading point on the windward coast. At Marquis, near by, the ruins of the old Parish Church can be seen. At Point Salines, the south-western extremity of Grenada, is a lighthouse presented by the late Hon. C. Macaulay Browne and G. G. Browne, Esq., with the buildings and adjacent land, in memory of their late father, James Browne, Esq., a leading merchant.

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GRENADA 261 A visit to a Cocoa and a Spice Estate should on no account be omitted. If the visitor is not furnished with letters of introduction from England— which it is always desirable to have — he should seek the advice of the proprietor of the Home Hotel, who will always be found very willing to help. Some particulars regarding cocoa cultivation will be found in the chapter devoted to West Indian Industries. The nutmeg industry being principally identified with Grenada may be dealt with here. The nutmegs (Myristica fragrans) are sown 2 or 3 feet apart and the young trees begin to flower, or declare "as it is termed locally, in about four to six years. The trees are either male or female, the former declaring first. When the females declare," they are planted out at distances varying from 15 to 30 feet apart, the male trees being distributed evenly between them. In about fifteen years the trees are well established and require little attention, as weeds, &c, do not grow under nutmeg shade. When full sized the trees yield no fewer than 5000 nuts each per annum. When gathered the nutmegs are covered with a scarlet lace-like substance, which when dried in the sun becomes the mace of commerce. The nuts themselves are dried in a current of air and afterwards in the sun. The hard shell is then broken with a wooden mallet and the kernels are sorted according to size and packed in barrels for shipment. A visit to Hillsborough (population 238), the chief town in Carriacou, can easily be made in a day by the coasting steamer. In the Grand Carenage, next to Harvey Vale Bay at the south-west of the island, Carriacou has a fine natural harbour. The view of St. Vincent and the Grenadines from the new hospital, on the site of an old military station at Belle Vue, is very striking. A fine view can also be obtained from the Government Rest House on High North.

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262 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES ST. LUCIA Statio hand malefida cavinis The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. St. Lucia, which lies in latitude 1 3 50' N. and longitude 6o 58' W., about 20 miles to the south of Martinique and 30 miles to the north-east of St. Vincent, has a total area of 233 square miles, being rather smaller than Flintshire. Its greatest length is 42 miles, its greatest breadth 21 miles, and its population 49,205. St. Lucia is volcanic, and consequently very mountainous. The scenery throughout the island is truly magnificent. The main range of mountains, of an average height of 1500 feet, runs north and south nearly the whole length of the island, buttressed by numerous ridges branching off from it, gradually sloping down to the sea on either side, and leaving narrow fertile valleys between them. The flattest parts of the island are at Gros Islet, at the extreme northwest, and Vieux Fort, at the south-east, where the backbone ceases, giving place to a plain. The Canaries Mountain (3140 ft.), near the centre of the island, is the highest point, and the most mountainous part is on the leeward side of the island, in the neighbourhood of the Soufriere, a volcano the crater of which is about three acres in extent. Though this is now quiescent, there are still many traces of volcanic activity in the island, in the form of hot springs and sulphur. To the south of Soufriere Bay the two conical mountains known as the Pitons, or the Peaks, form prominent landmarks, the grandeur of which is unequalled throughout the West Indies. They rise to a considerable height, which is emphasised by their isolation, the Gros Piton being over 2619 feet high and the Petit Piton 2461 feet. St. Lucia has several rivers, including the Cul de Sac and Roseau rivers on the leeward side and the Dennery, Troumassee and Canelles on the windward side. Castries, the capital, is situated on the western coast about nine miles from the northern end of the island. It stands at the head of a sheltered bay rather more than a mile in length, which forms a safe and convenient harbour. Near the north of

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ST. LUCIA 263 the island, and also on the leeward side, is Gros Islet on a bay, over which, at a distance of half a mile, the small but historic Pigeon Island stands sentinel. The second town of the island in size is, however, Soufriere, situated on the bay of that name. INDUSTRIES. In spite of its great fertility, fully onethird of St. Lucia is still covered with forest, and, as an agricultural island, it requires development. The balance of uncultivated land is principally in the hands of the Government, who are anxious to dispose of it to settlers at from 105. to 20s. per acre, with very easy terms of payment. A few European settlers have in recent years been attracted to the island as cocoa and lime planters, and are already doing well. Sugar-canes, cocoa, coffee, nutmegs, limes and coco-nuts thrive in St. Lucia, and the appliances for the manufacture of sugar are modern, there being no fewer than four large central sugar factories there. In recent years limes {Citrus acida var. medico) have been extensively planted, and the local lime industry promises to prove one of great value and importance. At Castries a Government factory for crushing limes for small growers was erected in 191 3. Castries is an important mercantile coaling station, a fact to which St. Lucia owes its commercial importance, and a large section of the community makes its livelihood by coaling steamers. It is claimed that in consequence of this coaling business St. Lucia now occupies the thirteenth position among the ports of the Empire from the point of view of the extent of the shipping which visits it. With a view of retaining and improving this position new lights have been recently erected at the south of the island and at the entrance to the harbour. The principal agricultural exports in the year 1912-13 were as follows : Sugar Cocoa Rum Molasses Logwood Cotton Limes Value. i 4,407 tons 50,439 9,573 hags 43,99 39,109 gallons 2,607 12,545 „ 508 — 6,000 4,800 lbsj 109 — 1,025

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264POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The direction of trade of the colony in 191 2-1 3 was as follows : Imports. Exports. United Kingdom 24 per cent. 20 per cent. British Possessions 8 ,, 7 <••„ Foreign Countries 68 ,, 72 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the following comparative table of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports for the last ten years. From these figures it will be seen how largely St. Lucia is dependent upon its coaling industry : Exports. Year. Revenue Expenditure. Imports. General. Bunker Coal. Total. i £ £ £ £ £ 1903-4 66,009 70,692 351,086 105,983 63,506 169,489 1904-5 69,272 65,508 370,706 101,449 70,581 172,030 1905-6 61,877 62,521 285,986 109,027 102,626 211,653 1906-7 60,012 60,294 242,470 114,617 105,696 220,313 1907-8 67,351 64,840 310,309 122,021 142,381 264,402 1908-9 65,694 65,038 289,775 150,380 102,288 252,668 1909-10 65,740 64,446 266,228 134,920 115,754 250,674 1910-11 65,066 67,288 277,207 122,094 116,861 238,955 1911-12 71,979 69,329 318,590 120,150 152,951 273,101 1912-13 66,293 67,824 3*5,3 61 121,404 166,312 287,716 CLIMATE. The climate of St. Lucia though humid is quite suited for Europeans, and is at its best from December to May. The rainy season extends from June to November. Storms and hurricanes are of rare occurrence. The average temperature varies from 72 Fahr. to 90 Fahr., the coolest month being February, and the hottest July. The nights are always cool at elevations over 500 ft. The rainfall is between 80 and 100 inches per annum. The birth-rate is 34 and the death-rate 20 per 1000. HISTORY. St. Lucia, formerly called St. Alousie or St. Alouziel, derives its name from the fact that it was dis-

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ST. LUCIA 265 covered by Columbus on St. Lucy's Day, 1502. Its possession was a constant source of dispute between France and Great Britain, the former basing her claim to it on a grant by Richelieu to a French West India Company, and the latter on the grant of the Caribbee Islands made by Charles I to the Earl of Carlisle. Though the Dutch are said to have visited the island and built a fort there at an earlier date, the English undoubtedly formed the first settlement in St. Lucia. The crew of the Oliph Blossom e, after visiting Barbados, called there in 1605 ; and in 1638 settlers from Bermuda and St. Kitts, under the command of Captain Judlee, landed in the island ; but they had trouble with the natives, who killed their Governor and, smoking them out by burning red pepper, drove them from the island. In 1650 Houel and Du Parquet bought St. Lucia with Grenada and Martinique for ^1660, and sent forty settlers to it under Rousselan, who married a Carib woman, thereby establishing cordial relations with the natives. On his death, however, they murdered three of his successors before the treaty of 1660 was settled, securing the Caribs from interference in Dominica and St. Vincent on condition of their keeping the peace elsewhere. In 1664 Lord Willoughby sent 1000 Barbadians to the island, defraying their expenses out of the 4J per cent, export duty which for many years was a grievance in Barbados. The French were overpowered ; but, owing to sickness and native wars, the colonists had by 1666 evacuated the island. A new French West India Company took over the island, and in 1667 St. Lucia once again became a French colony. In 1 71 8 a grant of St. Lucia was made to Marshal d'Estrees, who sent out an expedition to colonise the island ; but the English remonstrated, and no effective settlement resulted. Four years later the island was granted by George I to the Duke of Montague, who also sent out a strong body of colonists, and an ineffective effort was made by Captain Uring to effect a settlement in the teeth of a French force from Martinique. It was agreed that both nations should evacuate the island, only visiting it for the purpose of securing wood and water until some definite decision was arrived at. In 1748 the island was declared by the Treaty

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266 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of Aix-la-Chapelle to be neutral. St. Lucia capitulated to the forces of Admiral Rodney and General Monckton in 1762, but it was restored to France in the following year by the Treaty of Paris. When war broke out with France in 1778, Rodney impressed upon the Government the necessity of taking St. Lucia, which he regarded as an ideal naval base, and a powerful body of troops was landed at Grand Cul de Sac Bay. Count d'Estaing, who opposed them with a strong force, was beaten off, and until the end of the war the island remained British, in spite of an attempt to recapture it in 1781 ; and it was from Gros Islet Bay, at the north-east of the island, that Rodney sailed with his fleet and inflicted a decisive defeat on Count de Grasse between Dominica and Guadeloupe on the memorable April 12, 1782, a description of which will be found on page 348. St. Lucia was restored to the French by the Treaty of Versailles which followed, and under Governor Laborie its agriculture and commerce underwent rapid development. During the French Revolution the Maroon negroes gave great trouble. The island was designated by the Convention The Faithful," but in 1794 Admiral Jervis, afterwards Lord St. Vincent, took it, the Morne Fortune being captured on April 4 in that year by the Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria ; it was, however, recovered by Victor Hugues, the French republican, who was a friend of Robespierre, in 1795. Abercromby and General, afterwards Sir John, Moore, the hero of Corunna, were sent out to subdue St. Lucia, and though the health of the General, who was appointed Governor, broke down, the work begun by him was successfully completed by Colonel Drummond. Once more, however, St. Lucia was restored to France at the Peace of Amiens in 1802 ; but when war broke out in the following year the Morne Fortune was again stormed, St. Lucia was taken, and in 1814 it was finally ceded to Great Britain. CONSTITUTION. The Government of St. Lucia, which forms part of the British Windward Islands colony, is now conducted by an Administrator (who is subordinate to the Governor of the Windward Islands), aided by the Executive Council. The Legislature consists of the Administrator and

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ST. LUCIA 267 a Council, composed as the King may direct. At present it consists of five official and five unofficial members. Administrators since 1900 Sir H. L. Thompson, K.C.M.G. 1900 Sir George Melville, K.C.M.G. 1902 P. C. Cork, C.M.G. 1905 E. J. Cameron, C.M.G. 1909 Douglas Young, C.M.G. 191 3 HOTELS. Castries. La Filiate, kept by Mrs. Myers, is the principal hotel, and Miss Dupigny and Mrs. Rogers keep select boarding-houses. Some very comfortable and healthily situated officers' quarters, vacated by the troops, in the suburbs of Castries, can be leased (unfurnished) at from ^3 to ^5 per month. The cost of living and servants' wages are decidedly low. Soufriere. The Star Hotel, kept by Mdlle. Asterie, is recommended. An excellent meal can be obtained at La Reine. If notice is given, modest sleeping accommodation can also be provided. At Choiseul, Laborie and Vieux Fort moderate accommodation can be secured on giving timely notice, and excellent meals can be obtained. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. St. Lucia is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7, 8, 10, 13 and 19 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Steamers go alongside the wharf and there is no landing charge. The principal roads of the island are fairly good and are quite suitable for light-wheeled traffic in the agricultural districts. In the interior, travelling is done on horseback. Carriages can be obtained at Kirton's livery stables in Castries. The tariff is moderate, being : for driving about Castries, 2s. per seat per hour ; out of Castries, 3s. ; Gros Islet (7 miles), 8s. per person ; the Morne and back, round drive, 5s. 6d. per person. As the resources of the establishment are limited, early application should be made. Riding-ponies may be hired at the same establishment and other places at reasonable rates. There are good driving roads from Castries to the Morne and to Gros Islet. The riding roads are numerous and quite good. In the Soufriere

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268 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES quarter the main driving road from Soufriere to Vieux Fort is in good order ; so too — -for light vehicles — is the road from Vieux Fort to Micoud. A coasting steamer of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company leaves Castries each day at i p.m., reaching Soufriere at 2.30 p.m., Choiseul at 3.30 p.m., Laborie at 4.30 p.m., and Vieux Fort at 5 p.m. It starts back at 6 a.m. next morning, reaching Laborie at 6.30 a.m., Choiseul at 7.30 a.m., Soufriere at 8 a.m., and Castries at 10 a.m. The hours, which are given to indicate the time required, should be verified locally, and tickets obtained from Messrs. Minvielle and Chastanet, the local agents. Fares : From Time from Castries. First Cabin. Second Cabin. Castries to Soufriere ,, Choiseul ,, Laborie Vieux Fort Hours. 3i 4 s. d. 2 3 3 6 4 s. d. 1 1 6 1 9 2 Sailing-boats may also be hired, with their crews, at reasonable rates. SPORTS. There is a good cricket ground at Victoria Park, a ten minutes' walk from Castries, with a cricket and lawn-tennis club, and there is also a good court at Government House. The St. Lucia Racing Association holds two meetings a year at Choc," about three miles from Castries, the principal races taking place early in March. Some fair sea fishing — including tarpon — can be obtained from boats and from rocks all round the coast ; this form of sport is more pleasant in the evening or night than during the day. A little river fishing is also obtainable with a light rod and ground-cockroaches for bait, the principal fish being small river mullet which weigh about half a pound. Cul de Sac and Soufriere rivers are the most easily accessible, the fishing being somewhat better in the latter. There is some pigeon and dove shooting to be had in the forests

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ST. LUCIA 269 and in the Vieux Fort swamps, but for the former sport it is necessary to sleep near the feeding-grounds of the birds, as they feed in the early morning and late afternoon. Permission from the riparian owners should always be obtained beforehand. Sea-bathing may be obtained from Castries by crossing the harbour in a boat to Vielle Ville, and then walking a hundred yards to Choc Bay. SOCIAL CLUB. The Castries Club, situated near the wharves, is well appointed and extends a welcome to visitors provided with proper introductions. Visitors may also become members of the public library and reading-room, at the corner of Bourbon and Micoud Streets facing Columbus Square, for a nominal subscription. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The harbour of Castries, which is almost land-locked, is one of the safest and prettiest in the West Indies. With an entrance scarcely more than a third of a mile across, it forms an admirably sheltered haven, and the visitor to it can at once appreciate why Rodney set such store by its capture before our wooden walls were replaced by steel. On entering, Tapion rock, on which is a battery and a light, with the breezy and romantic heights known as the Morne Fortune beyond (800 ft.), is seen on the right, while on the left is the promontory called the Vigie ("look-out") on which elaborate barracks had just been completed when the decision to withdraw the troops from the West Indies was arrived at in 1905. On a plateau, or terrace, at the west end of the Morne, 437 feet above the sea-level, the Union Jack floats over Government House, the residence of the Administrator. At the head of the harbour are the Botanical Gardens, which now adorn what was once a reeking swamp, and to the south of them can be seen the steeple of the Anglican Church. The town of Castries (population 6266), so called by Baron de Laborie, Governor in 1784, after Marshal de Castries, the French Colonial Minister of the day, stands at the top right-hand corner of the harbour. During the earlier days of English occupation it was known as Carenage, In the French islands and in those which have been French the hills are mostly called Monies."

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2 7 o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES and in 1 794 it was called the Faithful by the Revolutionaryparty for a short time. The port enjoys the advantage over most others in the West Indies of having modern wharves, so that steamers are able to come alongside and discharge passengers and cargo without the intervention of boats. Castries is an important coaling station. As at Nagasaki in Japan, the work of coaling is carried on almost entirely by women, and it is interesting to watch them swinging up the gangway with baskets of coal on their heads while keeping up an incessant fire of chaff and enlivening themselves by singing chanties. Castries presents no features of exceptional interest. The Post Office is in the Prince Alfred Building — so called after the late Duke of Edinburgh. A fine new Public Works Department Office has recently been erected in the old Army Commissariat Yard on the sea front. The Administrator's Office is opposite the police barracks at the beginning of the Morne Road. The Colonial Bank is at the far corner of the fourth block on the right in Bridge Street. The Cable Office is situated at the corner of High and Bridge Streets. The Roman Catholic Church in the middle of the town is worth inspection. It faces Columbus Square — a grass plot of over three acres in extent, surrounded by broad walks and shaded by trees, which was formerly the Place d'Armes. The church is constructed of stone and iron in pseudo-Romanesque style and can seat 3000 people. The architect was Father Ignatius Scoles, a priest from Demerara who is said to have been a pupil of Pugin. The Anglican Church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, stands at the north corner of the town adjoining the Botanical Gardens, which deserve a visit. It was built in 1832 and consecrated by Bishop Parry in 1843. The chancel was added in 1895. Protestantism was first set up in St. Lucia in 1 819, and the Protestants, some four hundred in number, were taxed to provide funds for the erection of the church. From 1824 to 1870 the church was endowed by the State to the extent of ^400 per annum. Government House, on a plateau at the west end of the Morne, is approached by a good driving road from

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ST. LUCIA 271 Castries. It is a handsome building erected in 1895 at a cost of ^8800, from the designs of Mr. C. Messervy, the then Colonial Engineer. The situation is now perfectlyhealthy ; but there was a time when yellow fever raged there, and Breen in his St. Lucia tells how during a period of little more than four years, from November 1829 to January 1834, no fewer than four Governors died in the Pavilion, as the Governor's residence on this spot was then called. He tells, too, how the parsimonious General Farquharson, the Governor in 1832, dislodged the Bishop of the diocese and his suite, whom he was not disposed to entertain. My lord," he said, perhaps this is the first time you have visited Government House : come with me and I'll show you the apartments. I suppose your lordship has heard of the insalubrity of this place : every room in the house has already witnessed the death of some Governor ; but none of them has had the honour of killing a Bishop : so my lord you have only to make your selection ; I leave you to the embarras de choix." It is hardly necessary to add that His Grace at once ordered his horse and left precipitately. By an irony of fate it was General Farquharson himself who died of fever in the house in 1834. The view from the terrace on which Government House stands, though not so extensive as that afforded by the Morne, which shuts out the mountains to the south, is quite enchanting. Far below lies Castries basking in the sun. To the north of the town is the harbour, on the far side of which is the Vigie and Vielle Ville. Beyond the promontory is Choc Bay and the much indented coastline with Pigeon Island in the distance at the entrance to Gros Islet Bay. To the eastward are the Paix Bouche ridge of mountains and the Sorciere, and to the west is Toe Bay. The road beyond Government House takes one to the summit of the Morne Fortune (20 minutes' ride from Castries). The expedition is well worth making, not only on account of the historic associations of the spot; but also because of the magnificent view. In the eighteenth century the Morne was the scene of much fighting, and it was upon it that Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and great-

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272 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES grandfather of King George V, hoisted the British Colours on April 4, 1794, when the island was captured from the French by ViceAdmiral Sir John Jervis and LieutenantGeneral Sir Charles Grey. It was, too, from its works that the French republicans were driven by BrigadierGeneral John Moore, afterwards Sir John Moore, the hero of Corunna, two years later. The Morne now looks peaceful enough ; but truth to tell it presents a most melancholy appearance. Its officers' quarters are deserted, its barracks empty, and even its former tennis courts are rapidly becoming overgrown with bush. But the glorious view still remains and well repays the ride. It is more extensive than that obtained from the terrace of Government House, including as it does the superb mountain ranges of the interior, a long stretch of the coast-line to the south, and the summits of the Pitons in the distance. The Vigie (i hour's drive from Castries or 5 minutes' row by boat across the harbour) is scarcely less full of historic associations than the Morne. Probably the most desperate righting which it witnessed was in 1778, when we captured St. Lucia from France. The lines of English, who, under General Meadows, had entrenched themselves there, were, on February 18 in that eventful year, stormed by 5000 men under d'Estaing, Lowendahl, and de Bouille. Says Breen : As the columns approached the position of General Meadows, they were enfiladed by the batteries on the other side of the Carenage, and suffered severely. They nevertheless rushed to the assault of the lines with impetuous bravery. The coolness and grimness of the defenders were, however, more than a match for the impetuosity of the assailants. Not a shot was fired by the British till the columns were at the foot of the entrenchments. One destructive volley was then poured in, and the French were received at the point of the bayonet. The struggle was long and terrible. At last the French were driven back with heavy slaughter : seventy of them are said to have fallen within the works at the very first onset. In spite of this fierce repulse they paused only to rally and recover breath ; and then hurried back with undiminished fury. The second conflict was no less violent than the first: it terminated in the same manner. Though their ranks were sorely thinned by this double discomfiture, they were induced to make a third charge ; but they had

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ST. LUCIA 273 no longer that ardour which originally inspired them. They were speedily broken, overwhelmed, and scattered in complete and irretrievable disorder. ... So great a slaughter has seldom taken place in so short a time. The Gun Pits on both sides of the harbour head may be visited. They embodied many modern improvements in this class of fortification, but are now overgrown by bush. Those on the Vigie are reached by a walk of half a mile from Vielle Ville, which is accessible by boat. Country Excursions The Cul de Sac Valley, with its central sugar factory, is about one hour's ride or drive from Castries. The route lies past the historic Morne Fortune (see page 271). It was^in Grand Cul de Sac Bay that BrigadierGenerals Meadows and Prescot landed on December 13, 1778, with 5000 men from twelve transports, and it was here that a desperate encounter took place a few days later between the English and French Fleets under Admiral Barrington and Count d'Estaing, which resulted in d'Estaing being driven back in confusion. The Cul de Sac sugar factory is especially well worth a visit in the months from January to April, when sugar and rum are being made. It is situated half a mile from the carriage road, but may be reached on horseback. The valley is accessible for some five miles inland by riders, but not by carriages, and it communicates with the Goldsworthy Road, which leads across the central ridge to Deunery, called after Count D'Ennery, Governor in 1768 and formerly known as L'Anse Canot, in the fertile Mabouya Valley and the eastern side of the island. The gradient of the Goldsworthy road is very slight, and where the Trace, as it is called, crossed the main ridge or Bar de l'isle it is very fine, though capable of considerable improvement. At present the road is not suited for wheeled traffic ; but it may be safely ridden. The Castries end of it begins at Trois Pitons, where it descends into the Cul de Sac Valley. It then follows the valley and crosses the main ridge near Piton Lacombe and descends into the Mabouya Valley, near the Pilet District. The distance from Castries to Dennery by the Trace is sixteen miles, and the ride takes

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274 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES four hours. A shorter route, effecting a saving of four miles, is by the Barabara, an extremely steep descent by zigzags between the main ridge and Mabouya Valley, which can be ridden in three hours. Dennery also has a central factory. The Roseau Valley and Sugar Factory are about three miles farther than the Cul de Sac factory, or seven miles from Castries (i J hours' ride). Perhaps the prettiest ride near Castries is that to Piton Flor, about five miles from the town along a steep road, (one to one and a half hours there and same time back) : the scenery in this direction is magnificent. This road also leads to Dennery. With a good pony it is possible to cross the main ridge by the Piton Flor Road, and return by the Golds worthy Road and Cul de Sac Valley (5 to 6 hours for the round trip) ; but the ride is a trying one of more than 20 miles, and there are no refreshment houses on the way A less fatiguing outing, but one through less picturesque scenery, is the drive past the racecourse to the little fishingvillage of Gros Islet, at the north of St. Lucia (3 hours there and back). It was here that d'Estaing anchored and landed his forces in 1778, after the defeat at Grand Cul de Sac. The historic Pigeon Island can be reached by canoe across a narrow strip of water from Gros Islet or direct from Castries by boat. The former is the preferable route and it takes about an hour, while by boat the journey is somewhat longer. Pigeon Island, which is about one and a half miles in length and about half that extent in breadth, consists of two hills, on the smaller of which Fort Rodney is situated. From the parapets of this fort, Rodney watched the movements of the French fleet off Martinique, prior to the great battle of April 12, 1782, in which he achieved his decisive victory over de Grasse {see page 348). When time allows, a trip to Souiriere by the coasting steamer is well worth taking, the scenery in this district being exquisite, and the sight of the sulphur springs, with their hissing and boiling cauldrons of black water, surrounded by a dangerous zone of heated ground on which sulphur and alum are being constantly deposited, is a unique experience for many travellers. Some of the cocoa estates

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ST. LUClA 275 at Soufriere are also interesting, and nutmegs, cloves, cinnamon, vanilla, oranges, coffee, and rubber may also be seen in cultivation there. The Ventine Sulphur Springs are half an hour's drive from Soufriere. This is a very charming and secluded spot, where invalids suffering from rheumatism and many other disorders have benefited greatly by the use of the warm sulphur baths. The several boiling springs are also well worth seeing. The hot springs and mineral waters were celebrated in former days for their medicinal properties, which resemble those of Aix-les-Bains. Baron de Laborie, the French Governor, had them analysed in 1784, and so favourable was the report upon them that Louis XVI granted a substantial sum of money for the construction of baths and the requisite buildings for the use of his Majesty's troops in the Windward Islands." In the subsequent wars, however, the thermal establishment was destroyed. An attempt was made by Governor Sir Dudley Hill to restore the baths in 1836 : but it failed as he was unable successfully to establish a claim to the land. From Soufriere, the small steamer proceeds to Choiseul (formerly L'Anse Citron, but since the Peace of 1763 called after the famous Minister, the Due de Choiseul, through whose efforts the island was secured to France). Laborie, the next port of call, is a charmingly picturesque village, which owes its name to Baron de Laborie, the very popular Governor in 1784. The steamer stays for the night at Vieux Fort, returning to Castries next morning. At Vieux Fort, where the first sugar works were established in the island in 1765, there is another spacious central factory, and the extension of the trip to this place gives the visitor an opportunity of passing round the base of the two conical mountains known as the Pitons, or the Peaks, which form prominent landmarks on the leeward coast. Some writers have stated that the Gros Piton resembles the main peak of the Canigou, near Aries in the Pyrenees ; but unlike the St. Lucia peaks, that mountain is quite destitute of verdure and rises to a far greater height. It is certainly not unlike the Pic du Midi. The Gros Piton is said to be 2619 feet high, the Petit Piton 2461 feet. The Gros Piton is comparatively easy to ascend, but, until

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276 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES 1878, the smaller Piton was unconquered by man. In that year, however, a Mr. Lompre succeeded in gaining its summit, and it was ascended in 1885 by Mr. Charles de Brettes, who two years later conducted the then Chief Justice, Dr. John W. Carrington, and a party to the summit. The start was made from the western extremity, which was reached by clambering over the rocks. The party began the ascent at 6.22 a.m. and at 7.15 reached the Grande Ravine, a deep gorge running into the mountain. Thence the line of march lay more along the side of the mountain, and they worked their way gradually round to the shoulder which stands out clearly on the north-western face. A deep ravine having been crossed, the projecting point of the shoulder was reached at 9.40 a.m. (1640 ft.), and a splendid view of Soufriere obtained. Shortly after traversing the shoulder, which runs nearly level for 200 or 300 feet, a perpendicular rock 20 feet high had to be scaled, and for some distance there was a stiff bit of climbing to be done. All obstacles were, however, surmounted, and at 11.40 a.m. the Union Jack floated on the summit, which was found to be a small oval plateau, 70 feet long by 40 wide. The return journey was begun an hour later, and the rocks again reached by 6.45 p.m. Local tradition relates that years ago four English sailors tried to climb the highest Piton. They were watched from below through a telescope, until one after the other disappeared. Half-way up one fell, a little higher another dropped, and then a third. It was supposed that they fell victims to the deadly Fer-delance snake, which once infested St. Lucia. At Vieux Fort a vehicle can be hired for the drive to Micoud by the high road, which runs in an easterly direction. The drive has now been rendered easy by the bridging of the rivers, the last bridge to be erected being one over the Troumassee River at the entrance to the village. Micoud, which is delightfully situated facing the Atlantic, owes its name to Baron de Micoud, Lieutenant-Governor on several occasions between 1769 and 1776. Between St. Lucia and Martinique there stands an isolated rock, which rises sheer out of the water off the south coast of the latter island. No Englishman can gaze upon it

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ST. LUCIA 277 without a feeling of pride, for it is the historic Diamond Bock which, during the war with France in 1803, was garrisoned by the crew of a British cruiser, who, by means of ropes, hauled their guns to its summit and defied thenadversaries. Hood, seeing that the French ships escaped him by running between this rock and the Pointe du Diamant, laid his seventy-four, the Centaur, close alongside the Diamond, made a hawser fast to the ship and to the top of the rock, which is accessible on the leeward side, and slung with a traveller three long 24's and two 18's to the summit, the sailors looking like mice hauling a little sausage. Scarcely could we hear the Governor on the top directing them with his trumpet ; the Centaur lying close under, like a coco-nut shell to which hawsers are affixed." Here Lieut. J. W. Maurice, with 120 men and boys, and ammunition, provisions, and water, remained for nearly eighteen months. From this commanding position they harassed the French fleet until June 1, 1805, when, through want of powder, they were compelled to surrender to a French squadron of two seventy-fours, a frigate, a corvette, a schooner, and eleven gunboats, upon which they inflicted severe loss, wounding seventy men and destroying three gunboats, while they themselves lost only two men killed and one wounded.* In spite of its size, great natural beauty and historical associations, less has been heard of St. Lucia than of many of the neighbouring islands ; but for those possessed of capital, youth and energy, it affords abundant openings. The withdrawal of the garrison in 1905 was a severe blow, but it may prove a blessing in disguise if it leads to the development of the agricultural resources of the island. In view especially of the rapid growth of the lime industry it is already probable that the name of St. Lucia will before long become more widely known in commercial circles. An account of the gallant defence of the Diamond Rock is given in West Indian Tales of Old." London : Duckworth and Co.

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278 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES ST. VINCENT Pax et justitia The Colony's Motto GENERAL ASPECT. St. Vincent, which lies in latitude 13 io' N. and longitude 6o 57' W., 30 miles to the southwest of St. Lucia, and 97 miles west of Barbados, is 18 miles in length and 1 1 in width at its broadest part, and comprises an area of 140 square miles, being, as Grenada is, about half the size of Middlesex. Its estimated population is 52,592, while those of the Grenadines which are its dependencies have a population of 3901. The whole of the island is of volcanic origin, and, like St. Lucia and Grenada, it has a backbone of thickly wooded mountains running from north to south. At the northern end of the range is Soufriere, a volcano 3500 ft. high, the eruption of which in May 1902 devastated nearly one-third of the island and caused a terrible loss of life, 2000 persons being killed. The southernmost point is Mount St. Andrew, 2600 ft. high, which dominates the Kingstown valley. Spurs branch off from this range on each side, breaking the island up into a series of valleys. On the north-east side there is a more level tract of land called the Carib country, which formed part of the lands reserved to the Caribs by the treaty of 1773. This was formerly quite the most fertile sugarproducing district in St. Vincent. All cultivation on it was, however, destroyed by the volcanic eruption, and the freshwater "Carib" canal was filled up, and it is only recently that the canal has been restored and agricultural operations resumed. The streams in the island are numerous though small, the principal being the Union or Argyle River on the windward side, and the Warrawarou at the south. On the eastern side of the island is the Rabacca or dry river, which except in flood time is of very small volume, having been choked by the volcanic eruption of 1812. The island is divided into five parishes : St. George, Charlotte, St. Andrew, St. David, and St. Patrick. Kingstown (population 4547), the capital of the island, stands in Charlotte Parish at the head of Kingstown Bay, an in-

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ST. VINCENT 279 dentation of about three-quarters of a mile deep on the south-west coast. It was formerly protected by a formidable battery on the South or Cane Garden Point, and the imposing Fort Charlotte on the north-west. Most of the Grenadines, a chain of islands lying between St. Vincent and Grenada, are dependencies of St. Vincent, the largest which fall under this category being Bequia, 9 miles from Kingstown (4422 acres), Mustique, 18 miles from Kingstown (1257 acres), with Balliceaux — a corruption of belles oiseaux — and Battowia near by ; Canouan, 25 miles from Kingstown (1694 acres) ; Mayreau, 37 miles from Kingstown (600 acres), and Union Island, 40 miles from Kingstown (2600 acres). It was to Balliceaux that the Caribs were removed prior to their deportation to Ruatan. INDUSTRIES. For many years St. Vincent was one of the least prosperous of the British West Indian colonies, owing to the lack of an industry to take the place of sugar cultivation, which was ruined by the foreign sugar bounties. Arrowroot is now the staple of the island, and this industry is supplemented by the cultivation of Sea Island cotton, for the growth of which St. Vincent is particularly well suited. Sugar, rum, molasses, cocoa, and spices are also produced on a small scale 5 The principal exports in the year 191 2 were as follows : Value. Arrowroot 3,948,681 lbs. i 48,854 Cotton 4Si.95o 34,024 Cotton Seed 1,285,200 ,, 3,363 Sugar 398,419 j. 2,647 Cocoa 224,535 .. 4,366 Live Stock 3,586 The direction of trade in : [912 was : Imports. Exports. 1 i United Kingdom 54,895 76,874 British Colonies 42,180 31,469 Foreign Countries 32,067 3.341 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table overleaf of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years :

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280 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. % % i 1 1903-4 26,516 28,115 77.853 38,174 1904-5 28,266 26,515 74.238 51,902 1905-6 26,900 25,911 69,097 53.078 1906-7 26,031 24,650 78,008 83,755 1907-8 28,456 24,653 96,554 94,265 1908-9 3*,395 27,200 113,713* 94.739* 1909-10 28,440 31.331 87,810 88,698 1910-11 30.125 3.343 97.737 101,180 1911-12 34,852 33.735 110,926 118,625 1912-13 38,088 33.993 129,142 111,684 CLIMATE. The climate of St. Vincent is healthy and particularly enjoyable in the winter months. The wet season lasts from August to November, when the weather is hot and damp, though not necessarily unhealthy. The average rainfall amounts to 100 inches. The temperature varies from 6o Fahr. to 88 Fahr., the nights being always cool. The island is sometimes visited by hurricanes, but warning of their probable approach is always given. The Soufriere volcano is, happily, now quiescent. The birth-rate is 33, and the death-rate of the island as low as 18 per 1000, a figure which speaks volumes for the healthiness of St. Vincent. HISTORY. St. Vincent was discovered by Columbus on St. Vincent's Day in the Spanish Calendar, January 22, 1498, and to this fact it owes its name. At the time of its discovery it was inhabited by the warlike Caribs, in whose hands it remained until 1627, when a grant of the island was made to Lord Carlisle. In 1660 St. Vincent was declared neutral, but eight years later Lord Willoughby arranged a treaty by which the Caribs acknowledged themselves to be subjects of the King of England. No definite colonisation was, however, effected, and St. Vincent subsequently became a refuge for Caribs from the neighbouring islands. At the end of the seventeenth century there were two distinct races of these Indians in the island, the yellow

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ST. VINCENT 281 and the black Caribs, the former being of the original stock and the latter largely of West African origin, being the descendants of shipwrecked slaves who fled to the forests and married Caribs. These black Caribs became eventually the predominant race. In 1722 St. Vincent was granted by George I to the Dnke of Montague, who sent out a strong body of colonists, but the French demanded that the island should remain neutral, and their protests were recognised by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. St. Vincent was captured by Monckton in 1762, and British colonisation proceeded, the General obtaining a grant of 4000 acres in Charlotte Parish, which he subsequently sold for ^30,000. The division of lands gave rise to many disputes, and the Caribs refused allegiance to the King. Consequently, troops were introduced from North America, and after some desultory fighting a treaty was concluded through the exertions of Major-General Dalrymple in 1773, by which the Caribs acknowledged the supremacy of the British, being granted in return the large tract of land referred to above in the north of the island. It extended, according to the terms of the treaty, from the River Byera to point Espagnole on the one side, and from the River Auilabou (Wallibou) to Espagnole on the other side. In 1779, during the course of the war between France and England, which had begun in the preceding year, St. Vincent was surrendered to the French, but it was restored to Great Britain in 1783 by the Treaty of Versailles. During the French Revolution in 1795 the island was overrun by the Caribs under Chatoyer and Duvalle, who were assisted by the French in what was called the Brigands War. They burnt the cane-fields, plundered the houses, and murdered many of the colonists, who were confined to Kingstown. This state of affairs continued until June 1796, when Sir Ralph Abercromby suppressed the rising, and the bulk of the Caribs were deported to the island of Ruatan, in the bay of Honduras. Their lands were revested in the Crown by an Act of 1804, two years prior to which year occupancies during his Majesty's pleasure of 5262 acres had been granted to different persons actually engaged in the war as a reward for their services.

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282 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES CONSTITUTION. St. Vincent, one of the group of Crown Colonies known as the Windward Islands, has an Executive Council and a Legislative Council. The latter consists of official and unofficial members nominated and appointed by the Crown. In the absence of the Governor of the Windward Islands, the Administrator presides over the two Councils. Administrators since 1889 Captain I. C Maling, C.M.G. 1889 Colonel J. H. Sandwith, C.B. 1893 H. L. Thompson, C.M.G. 1895 Edward J. Cameron, C.M.G. 1901 The Hon. C. Gideon Murray 1909 HOTELS, Kingstown. Linley Hotel and Crichton Hotel, both in Bay Street — Rooms, light, and attendance, 6s. 6d. and 85. <\d. per day, or £6 5s. and £8 6s. 8d. per month. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. St. Vincent is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7, 13 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The boat fare from the steamer to shore, and vice versa, is 6d. each way. Baggage, 3d. per package. There are three livery stables — Alex. Fraser's (Bay Street), G. P. Bullock's (Grenville Street), and W. Grant's (Middle Street) — and an order by telephone from the police barracks, opposite the landing-stage, brings riding-horses or single or double buggies in a few minutes. Riding animals can be had from 4s. 2d. upwards, and buggies from 65., according to time and distance. Rowing-boats to visit the leeward parts of the island, or for sea-fishing excursions, can always be obtained at reasonable rates at the landing-stage. SPORTS. Cricket is played in the Victoria Park, and a game can generally be enjoyed by visitors. There is a lawntennis club with courts in the Government Office grounds, to which visitors are admitted. The St. Vincent Golf Club has a nine-hole course on the Carenage 3 J miles from Kingstown, which can be reached by a good driving road or by boat. Visitors are admitted on payment of is. per day. Sea bathing can be indulged in at several spots,

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ST. VINCENT 283 notably off the Villa estate, about two miles from Kingstown. Good deep-sea fishing is obtainable off Kingstown and other places near by, and suitable tackle can easily be hired. SOCIAL CLUBS. The Kingstown Club founded in 1891, with premises in James and Middle Streets, welcomes visitors who are introduced by members. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Kingstown, which nestles at the foot of the mountains at the head of a magnificent bay on the south-west of St. Vincent, is one of the most picturesque spots in the West Indies. Froude likened it to a Norwegian town, with its houses along the shore painted in the same tints of blue or yellow or pink as those in Norway, with the same red-tiled roofs, the trees coming down the hill-sides to the water's edge, villas of modest pretensions shining through the foliage, with the patches of cane-fields, the equivalent in the landscape of the brilliant Norwegian grass. The Government Offices, the Post Office (Egmont Street), and the Colonial Bank (Halifax Street) are within a stone's throw of each other near the centre of the town, and Government House (built in 1886), the residence of the Administrator, is at the back of the town above the Botanic Garden, on the left-hand side looking from the harbour. It is a tradition — and probably nothing more — that the mango tree in Government Office yard is one of the original trees brought to St. Vincent by Captain Bligh in 1793 (see page 285). The Kingstown Free Library in Halifax Street has an interesting collection of Carib stones, the implements and weapons used by the early inhabitants. The building was the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and was opened in 1909. Those interested in the Carib relics should inspect the Carib Altars, of which there are six or more in the island,' including those on Villa Estate, and at Barouallie, Layou, Iambou, and Petit Bordel. St. George's, the Cathedral Church of the united Parishes of St. George and St. Andrew, and until 1881 the Parish Church of these two parishes, which are divided in Kingstown by the North River, is reached by a walk of almond-trees, many of which are eighty years old. There are three fine lancet windows in the chancel presented by the widow of Lieut.-Governor Dundas, d. 1880, and sup-

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284 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES posed to have been the work of Kempe. The remains of the Governor lie under the chancel floor. The Bronze Chandelier hanging in the nave is said to have been presented by George III. The nave has many interesting tablets, some on the walls and others on the floor. Among the latter, is one to Sir John Campbell, of Adnamurchan, Lieut.-Governor 1845, dated 1853 ; while on the north wall, the memory of Sir Charles Brisbane, Rear-Admiral of the Red, the victor of Curacao in 1807, who was Governor from 1808 until his death in 1829, is perpetuated. Other tablets perpetuate the memory of Peter Beckett (1789), Major Champion, of the 2 1 st Royal Scots Fusiliers, who was assassinated at Fort Charlotte in 1824, and Alexander Leith, who killed the Carib Chief on Dorsetshire Hill in 1795 during the Brigands War. In the cemetery surrounding the Cathedral is a monument to the memory of his late Excellency William Leyborne Leyborne, Captain-General, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of H.M. Southern Caribbean Islands, Chancellor and ViceAdmiral of the same," who died April 16, 1775, aged thirty -one. Several monuments are erected to men of the 70th, now the 2nd Bn. East Surrey Regt., who died of yellow fever at Fort Charlotte. The church, which is open from 6a.m. to 6 p.m., was rebuilt in 1820, at a cost of ^47,000, towards which ^5000 was contributed by the Government out of the proceeds of the sale of the Carib lands. The Thompson Home. The Thompson Home, a few minutes' walk from the landing-stage, was established by Lady Thompson, the wife of the then Administrator, after the hurricane of 1898, for the relief of destitute ladies. A visit should certainly be paid to the well-kept Botanic Garden, which is prettily situated in a small valley just below Government House and adjoining Montrose Estate. It is less than a mile distant from the landing-stage, and is approached by a good driving road, which passes the Colonial Hospital, a well-appointed building with three blocks, and, higher up, arrowroot and Sea Island cotton plantations. An arrowroot mill is also to be seen, which, when working, is of great interest. Here the roots of the plant known to scientists as Maranta arundinacea are

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ST. VINCENT 28$ reduced to a fine pulp, which is washed — an essential being the use of extremely pure water — and then strained. The water with the arrowroot in suspension is then allowed to flow slowly along flat and shallow troughs, and the starch — as it is now called — settles at the bottom. At the close of the day's work the arrowroot is dug out and dried. It is then packed in barrels and tins for export. The Botanic Garden, which was established as far back as 1763, when it was, curiously enough, under the control of the Secretary for War, is the oldest institution of its kind in the West Indies, and probably in any part of the New World. It was in order to supply it with specimens of the bread-fruit tree (Artocarpus incisa) that the Bounty sailed to the South Seas under Captain William Bligh in 1787, when the crew mutinied, many eventually settling on Pitcairn Island. However, owing largely to the exertions of Sir Joseph Banks, the President of the Royal Society, supported by the representations of the West India Committee, who offered a substantial reward, a second ship, the Providence, was fitted out, and in January 1793, Captain William Bligh, accompanied by Captain Nathaniel Portlock, of H.M. brig Assistant, arrived, and landed a large portion of his valuable cargo from Otaheite in the South Seas at St. Vincent, including 530 choice and curious plants of various kinds in a most flourishing condition. The mango and cinnamon were forwarded to the garden from Jamaica, into which island they were introduced by Lord Rodney in 1782, the clove was brought from Martinique in the year 1787, and the nutmegtrees from Cayenne in 1809. In 1820 the Government decided to give up the garden, and in 1822 it was transferred to the local Government, which for a time ceased to cultivate it in 1849. Very many of the old and rarest trees were destroyed by a cyclone on August 6, 1886, and a severe hurricane in 1898 did still further damage ; but sufficient beautiful trees and plants remain to render the garden exceedingly attractive. It also contains a large collection of plants of economic interest, besides those of an ornamental nature. It is one of the institutions under the control of the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies, and it serves as an

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286 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES efficient centre for the propagation and distribution of important industrial and other plants to local planters. To visitors from temperate climes, trees and plants, such as arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), banana (Musa sapientum), cannon-ball (Couroupita guianensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), cocoa (Theobroma Cacao), clove {Eugenia caryophyllata), black pepper (Piper nigrum), bread-fruit (Artocarpus incisa), india-rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis, Ceara, Castilloa, &c.), mango (Mangifera indica), mahogany (Swietenia Mahagoni), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), pine-apple (Ananas sativus), teak (Tectona grandis), traveller's tree (Ravenala madagascariensis), vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), and various palms and ferns, can scarcely fail to be of interest. One old tree (Spachea perforata) is the only specimen of its kind at present known to botanists. A mahogany tree planted by Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, who visited the island in 1 91 3 as guest of the Administrator, is also pointed out. Victoria Park. Victoria Park is an extensive open space surrounded by private residences at the west end of the town, where cricket and football are played and athletic sports are held periodically. The Government Central Sea Island Cotton Ginnery is situated within five minutes' walk of the landing-stage, and should certainly be visited. It is one of the best of its kind in the West Indies, being capable of ginning and baling upwards of 4000 lb. of cotton lint per working day of nine hours. The rate charged to planters for ginning and baling is id. per lb. Large quantities of seed cotton are also purchased on a profit-sharing basis from the peasantry. On application to the manager of the ginnery, visitors can always obtain permission to be shown over the building. Work is usually in progress from December to May. St. Vincent grows the finest Sea Island cotton in the world, and shipments have realised as much as 2s. Sd. per lb. of lint ; there is, therefore, an additional interest attached to this ginnery, which deals with nearly two-thirds of the island's crop. Adjoining is the Grammar School in the grounds of the Agricultural Experiment Station, with extensive and well-laid-out grounds and experimental plots.

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ST. VINCENT 28/ There is aiso a small Stock Farm attached to it, where pedigree animals are kept. At this station pupils of the Grammar School and special agricultural pupils receive instruction in practical agriculture and applied sciences. Visitors can inspect it on application to the headmaster and the Assistant Agricultural Superintendent. The Market is amusing during the busy hours in the early morning. An extremely comprehensive view of a large part of the island, with its picturesque mountains and valleys covered with rich tropical vegetation, can be obtained from Mount St. Andrew (2600 ft.), the mountain which dominates Kingstown, and is the final elevation of the backbone of mountains which traverses the island from north to south. An early start should be made, and the best plan for visitors to adopt is to obtain horses, and ride as far as a place called Cavalries (about 1000 ft. high), proceeding thence on foot. Guides can be readily had for a small sum either in Kingstown or Lowman's village (2 miles), which is passed on the way ; the time usually taken to reach the summit is two hours. In the neighbourhood of Cavalries the unique Soufriere fern, which resembles the British stag-horn moss (Lye op odium clavatum), is found. At Edinboro Bay (half a mile from Kingstown) the remains of some old barracks are to be seen ; from there to Low Point is a charming lane known as the Lovers' Walk, which extends to a distance of half a mile. At the extremity of the Point are the ruins of the old military hospital. Calliaqua, four miles from Kingstown on the windward side, has a population of 800. Almost 200 yards from the mainland to the south-west of it is Young's Island (called after Sir William Young, Bart.), now used as a quarantine station. It is reached by boat in one hour, or by road (2% miles), and then by ferry across the narrow strait which divides it from the mainland. In a commanding position on a rock 260 ft. above sealevel, and fifty yards from Young's Island, Fort Duvernette is a conspicuous object. The old guns, dating from the days of George II and III, are still in their places, and on the summit are the remains of the old barracks,

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1 2£8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES tank, and magazine, which are reached by steps partly cut in the rock and partly made of masonry. Fort Charlotte (600 ft.), upon Berkshire Hill, on the west side of Kingstown Bay, is interesting. There is a good riding and driving road all the way to it, and the fort can be reached in about half an hour. An object of interest by the wayside is the boundary stone between Otley Hall Estate and the Ordnance Lands, which is inscribed to the memory of our soldiers who fell in the Brigands War of 1795-96. The inscription runs : To The Memory of Many Brave SOLDIERS Particularly of the 46th & 69th Reg. and of the Island Militia and Rangers who fell in defending this Colony in the Years 1795 & 1796 This Pillar is Erected on the Boundary of Ottley Hall Estate and the Garrison of Fort Charlotte by W. L. Uebuury B.O. /I\ The 46th Regt. is now the 2nd Bn. Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, and the 69th the 2nd Bn. Welsh Regt. The fort was formerly the chief defence of the island, and was very strongly fortified. It contained barracks for six hundred men, and had thirty-four pieces of artillery, and several outworks. Some of the old military buildings are now used to house the colony's paupers. In 1854 the garrison was withdrawn, though one company of the 16th Bedfordshire Regt. returned in 1867 and remained for six years. Of the five guns now left in the fort, one is fired to indicate the arrival of the mail steamer, and at 8 p.m. every day. The fort is approached by a narrow archway which gives access to a spacious parade ground. On the right, an incline leads to the ramparts, which mounted eleven 32pounders and two 10-in. mortars. At the rear of the parade are two powder magazines and a guard-house. Farther still and a little lower down are the barracks.

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FORT DUVERNETTE, ST. VINCENT An historic island fort. (Bequia in the distance) LABORIE, ST. LUCIA The graceful trees are coco-nut palms

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ST. VINCENT 289 cook-house, &c, and the large tanks which hold a supply of 50,000 gallons of water. At the extremity of the promontory there is a small bomb-proof building and a reserve tank to hold 10,500 gallons of water. A splendid view of Kingstown, the southern part of the island, and several of the islets in the Grenadines can be obtained from the citadel. At Low Point, about 400 ft. below the fort and to seaward of the citadel, stands the military hospital, now used for patients suffering from yaws. A ride to a high ridge called Vigie," or "look-out," about 6 miles in a north-easterly direction, is also worth taking. This place was once a fortified post, and it is of interest as having been the scene of several sharp engagements between the English and French, with their Carib allies, in the war of 1795-96. The different ridges are concentrated into one elevation with three conical hills where the Caribs fixed their camp, which they protected with sugar hogsheads filled with earth. A good idea is obtained during the ride of the southern part of the island from this point, and of the different crops which it produces, such as arrowroot, cotton, and sugar-cane. The expedition takes about i£ hours each way. The Soufriere. If time permits, an expedition should be made to the Soufriere, the volcano (3500 ft. high) situated at the northern end of the island which suddenly burst into violent eruption on May 7, 1902, a day in advance of La Montagne Pelee in Martinique, after being quiescent since 1 81 2, and continued in a state of activity until March 1903. The following account of the eruption, which resulted in the loss of 2000 lives, was given by the Rev. J. H. Darrell, of Kingstown, who was an eye-witness of this appalling event : At 7 a.m. on Wednesday, the 7th instant, there was another sudden and violent escape of pent-up steam, which continued ascending till 10 a.m., when other material began to be ejected. It would seem that this was the time when the enormous mass of water in the lake of the old crater was emitted in gaseous condition. . The mountain heaved and laboured to rid itself of the burning mass of lava heaving and tossing below. By 12.30 p.m. it was evident that it had begun to disengage itself

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2 9 o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of its burden by the appearance as of fire flashing now and then around the edge of the crater. There was, however, no visible ascension of flame. These flame-like appearances were, I think, occasioned by the molten lava rising to the neck of the volcano. Being quite luminous, the light emitted was reflected from the banks of steam above, giving them the appearance of flames. From the time the volcano became fully active, tremendous detonations followed one another so rapidly that they seemed to merge into a continuous roar, which lasted all through Wednesday night, yesterday (Thursday, the 8th), and up to 6.30 a.m. this morning, the 9th instant. These detonations and thunderings were heard as far as Barbados, one hundred miles distant, as well as in Grenada, Trinidad, and the south end of St. Lucia. At 12.10 p.m. on Wednesday, I left in company with several gentlemen in a small row-boat to go to Chateaubelair, where we hoped to get a better view of the eruption. As we passed Layou, the first town on the leeward coast, the smell of sulphuretted hydrogen was very perceptible. Before we got half-way on our journey, a vast column of steam, smoke, and ashes ascended to a prodigious elevation. The majestic body of curling vapour was sublime beyond imagination. We were about eight miles from the crater as the crow flies, and the top of the enormous column, eight miles off, reached higher than one-fourth of the segment of the circle. I judged that the awful pillar was fully eight miles in height. We were rapidly proceeding to our point of observation, when an immense cloud, dark, dense, and apparently thick with volcanic material, descended over our pathway, impeding our progress and warning us to proceed no farther. This mighty bank of sulphurous vapour and smoke assumed at one time the shape of a gigantic promontory, then of a collection of twirling, revolving cloud -whorls, turning with rapid velocity, now assuming the shape of gigantic cauliflowers, then efflorescing into beautiful flower-shapes, some dark, some effulgent, others pearly white, and all brilliantly illuminated by electric flashes. Darkness, however, soon fell upon us. The sulphurous air was laden with fine dust that fell thickly upon and around us, discolouring the sea ; a black rain began to fall, followed by another rain of favilla, lapilli, and scoriae. The electric flashes were marvellously rapid in their motions and numerous beyond all computation. These, with the thundering noise of the mountain, mingled with the dismal roar of the lava, the shocks of earthquake, the falling of stones, the enormous quantity of material ejected from the belching craters, producing a darkness as dense as a starless midnight, the plutonic energy of the mountain growing greater and greater every moment, combined to make up a scene of horrors. It was after five o'clock when we returned to Kingstown, cowed and impressed by the weirdness of the scene we had witnessed, and covered with the still thickly falling grey dust. . The awful scene was again renewed yesterday (Thursday, the 8th) and again

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ST. VINCENT 291 to-day. At about 8 a.m. the volcano shot out an immense volume of material which was carried in a cloud over Georgetown and its neighbourhood, causing not only great alarm, but compelling the people by families to seek shelter in other districts. The ashes from the volcano were carried by an upper current of air for over a hundred miles and fell profusely over Barbados, where they caused much astonishment. A similar phenomenon was witnessed during the former great eruption in May 181 2, and the ashes were called by the Barbadians May Dust." The earliest recorded eruption was in 171 5. For the relief of the sufferers, in 1902 a Mansion House Fund was opened and ^65,769 105. zod. collected, which was supplemented by contributions from the neighbouring colonies and other parts of the Empire. The usual plan adopted by visitors who wish to see the crater is to leave Kingstown by the mail canoe which starts each day at 2 p.m. for Chateaubelair (22 miles), calling en route at the small leeward towns of Layou (8 miles) and Barrouallie (12 miles), the principal town of the first French planters, which suffered severely from the eruption of 1902, and arriving at 6 p.m., after giving the passengers an admirable view of the forest-clad hills of the island and the narrow valleys which run down to the sea. Previous to starting, however, the permission of the chief of police should be obtained for the use of the Government Rest Room at the police barracks in Chateaubelair, a former stronghold of the Caribs, where there is usually accommodation for two or three persons, for which a nominal charge is made. On arrival at Chateaubelair, a guide and boys to carry baggage should be secured, and arrangements made for a boat to row as far as the Wallibou River (25 miles), from which point the ascent is begun. Starting at sunrise on the following morning from the Rest Room, the crater can be reached within three hours. On the way, the ruined buildings of Richmond and Wallibou estates can be seen, and also the former site of Richmond village (24 miles), which was completely effaced and was the scene of the loss of many lives. On reaching the lower lip of the crater, one has a fine view of the devastated area and also of other parts of the island; besides the: large crater lake. The

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292 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES return journey from Chateau belair can be made by mail canoe, which leaves each morning at 6 a.m. and reaches Kingstown at 10 a.m. The cost of this excursion should not exceed ^i. By those who do not care for a long day in an open boat at sea, the Soufriere can be approached by road on horseback ; but four or five days must be allowed for this. All round the southern end of the island, down the Palm Avenue, across Arno's Vale (i mile), and through the little town of Calliaqua (4 miles), winds the great road to Georgetown (22 miles) on the eastern or windward coast, by which the prosperous planters of the fertile Carib country used to communicate with Kingstown. With an early start, a riding-horse, or carriage with a pair of ponies, can easily cover the distance of twenty-six miles within the compass of a tropical day. After rounding the southern corner of the island the road passes the ruins of the old French sugar works on what was once Prince Polignac's estate of Argyle (9 miles), and all along the windward coast are seen the ruins of the once famous plantations, which owed their fertility to the outbreaks of the Soufriere in previous centuries, and as Georgetown is approached the luxuriant vegetation is to be seen already bursting through the thick mantle of grey dust ejected from the volcano in 1902. For the expedition by this route also, arrangements can be made by telephone. The Falls of Baleine, an attractive cascade at the extreme north of the island near the foot of the Soufriere, can be reached by canoe in just over an hour from Chateau belair. Other excursions of a pleasant description are evening rides or walks to Dorsetshire Hill, on which there used to be barracks for the troops, on the north-east of Kingstown and to the head of the Kingstown waterworks below Mount St. Andrew, from which the view is superb. The route lies along the lane running past the west end of the cathedral. The reservoir, 1500 feet above Kingstown, which is supplied from Mount St. Andrew, has a capacity for 600,000 gallons. Dorsetshire Hill was the scene of much fighting during

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ST. VINCENT 293 the wars with the French and the Caribs. The fortifications, which consisted only of earthworks, have long since disappeared. To the north on Miller's Ridge guns still lie dismounted on the ground. An attractive drive is that along the Leeward Road to the Buccament Valley (6 miles) and the Mesopotamia Valley (8 miles) along the windward coast. St. Vincent has two mineral springs at Belair and Marriaqua. The former is 2 to 3 miles from Kingstown, and is easily reached by the public road which runs through the centre of the island. The latter is about 9 miles distant in the valley of the same name. In the middle of the pass leading to the valley a sculptured stone of great antiquity is shown. The rude chisellings — believed to have been the work of the aboriginal Carib inhabitants — represent four heads with strange head-dresses. Below one is a tridentshaped symbol. There are also strangely sculptured stones at the Villa, Buccament Valley, Barronallie, and Petit Bordel Estates.

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CHAPTER XI THE LEEWARD ISLANDS ANTIGUA Where Nelson refitted in 1805 GENERAL ASPECT. Antigua — pronounced "Anteega" — which is situated in latitude 17 6' N. and longitude 61 45' W., about 40 miles east of Nevis, the same distance north of Guadeloupe, and 27 miles north-east of Montserrat, has an area of 108 square miles and a population of 31,394. The island, which is the seat of Government of the Leeward Islands, is oval in shape, and has three distinct characteristics. In the south and south-west it is volcanic and mountainous ; in the north and north-east it is of coral formation, the soil being composed of calcareous marls and coarse sandstone, while the central part is flat and of clayey formation. Unfortunately for the planters, the island has properly speaking no rivers, but Bendal's Stream supplies a sufficiency of water for the sugar factory of the same name. The shores are lined with coral reefs, but the island has many natural harbours, the most notable of which are St. John's Harbour on the north-west, which is fully two miles long by three-quarters of a mile broad, the historic English Harbour, formerly the port of call of the mail steamers at the south, with the still more capacious Falmouth Harbour next to it, Willoughby Bay at the south-east, and Parham Harbour on the north coast. St. John's, the capital (population about 9000), stands on gently sloping ground at the head of the harbour of the same name. The island is divided into six parishes, St. John, St. Peter, St. Philip, St. Mary, St. Paul, and St. George. The islands of Barbuda, formerly called by the pretty name of Dulcina, which lies 294

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ANTIGUA 295 25 miles to the north, and Redonda, between Montserrat and Nevis, and 25 miles to the south-west of the main island, are dependencies of Antigua. INDUSTRIES. Sugar is the mainstay of Antigua. Sea Island cotton is also produced to some extent. Pineapples, for which Antigua has a good name, are grown in the south of the island ; but the export trade in them is languishing owing to the lack of adequate shipping facilities. The principal exports in 191 213 were as follows : Value. Sugar, tons . 11,639 • • 133,778 Molasses, puns. . 5,244 . 18,353 Sea Island cotton, lbs. 80,910 . 5,099 The direction of trade in 191 2 was : Imports. United Kingdom . 69,098 British Colonies Foreign Countries 25,907 73.278 Exports. 29,214 126,193 9,56l FINANCIAL POSITION. The comparative table given below shows the revenue and expenditure and the imports and exports of the colony of Antigua for the last ten years. Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ 1 £ £ 1903-4 43,8ii 50,209 131,365 101,147 1904-5 44,294 48,670 139,641 115,322 1905-6 48,798 54,383 132,973 99,862 1906-7 44,175 45,206 125,754 93,842 1907-8 50,619 46,967 164,587 172,410 1908-9 5i,502 49,964 175,587 179,106 1909-10 48,583 49,204 139,496 114,122 1910-11 52,326 53,495 170,033 196,184 1911-12 52,292 53,652 181,331 161,064 1912-13 53,489 53,193 168,274 164,968 CLIMATE. Antigua is subject to severe droughts, and the average annual rainfall is as low as 46 inohes. The soil is, however, very retentive and the crops thrive well, in spite of the small rainfall. It is recorded that in 1731 the

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296 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES scarcity of water was so great that a pailful of that precious liquid was sold for three shillings Bendal's Stream has recently been dammed in two places and much rain-water which used to run out to sea is thus conserved. The wells or springs in the central plain from St. John's to Willoughby Bay being brackish, the only water available in the locality is that which is collected in ponds and pools. Wells in the limestone region on the north-east of this central plain yield good water, and there are also a few wells lying to the west and south of the plain. In some parts of the island the people are dependent on water collected in ponds, and in times of drought they surfer considerable hardships. St. John's has now an excellent water supply derived from a reservoir at the Body Ponds, and Wallings Reservoir, a large tank in the hills which was completed seventeen years ago at a cost, with its pipe service, of over /40,00c). It furnishes a valuable subsidiary supply for fifteen of the principal villages, which are supplied with water from it through pipes. In the winter months the climate is healthy, except in the neighbourhood of swamps and marshes. The birthrate is 35.13 and the death-rate is 36.65 per 1000, but this figure cannot be taken as any criterion, for, as in so many West Indian colonies, infant mortality is, owing to neglect, very high. HISTORY. Columbus discovered Antigua on his second voyage in 1493, and christened it after Sta Maria la Antigua, a church in Seville. It was visited by some Spaniards under Don Antonio Serrano in 1520, and in 1629 D'Esnambuc, the captain of a French privateer, made an abortive attempt to settle the island, but was driven away by want of water, and it was not colonised until 1632, when some English from St. Kitts under Edward, son of Sir Thomas Warner, established themselves there. During the Commonwealth it remained Royalist, and was included with Virginia, Barbados, and Bermuda in the Imperial Act of 1650, which prohibited trade with those dependencies on account of their rebellious attitude towards the Home Government. Lord Francis Willoughby, lessee of the patent left by Lord Carlisle to his son, visited the Leeward Islands from Barbados in 1650, and encouraged the inhabitants to resist

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Tbiiceay B. Douglas B.& Ft ^EupertS^t Indian^ ; -" V >„.<& RJlacTiouch%y t^' o _(!?' e #^?*g jWi a KymJTiye Sitters R.S.a-oi.v i. -fe 1 -*-!-; !*: ";J^SB)Wan

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4. ANTIGUA •^m%^ ,.&Maiami.jL4 k ^ip^fn^vf ~.j$§£%Lje*> *i%D &e-ogrhi.cal Es-tah"

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ANTIGUA 297 the Commonwealth. He was compelled to relinquish the government of the islands in 1652, but he returned in 1663 after the Restoration, and governed until 1666, when he was lost at sea. In 1666 French troops, reinforced by Irish malcontents and Caribs, landed at Five Islands Bay and took possession of the island ; but in the following year it was ceded to England by the Treaty of Breda, and the Government was entrusted to Lord Francis Willoughby's brother, Lord William Willoughby of Parham. The subsequent history of Antigua has been, on the whole, uneventful. A few years after the cession of the island there were only rive hundred black people in it, while a hundred years later the population included 37,808 slaves, 1230 free people of colour, and 2590 whites. In 1689 the inhabitants of Anguilla sought refuge in Antigua, which was defended from the incursions of the French and Indians by Sir Timothy Thornhill and a body of troops. The notorious Mr. Parke became Governor in 1706. Violent dissensions arose between him and the populace, but he refused to resign and was at length killed by a riotous mob on December 7, 1710.* Antigua has been visited on several occasions by hurricanes of great severity — notably in 1681, 1740, 1792, 1849 an d 1899. CONSTITUTION. By an Act of 187 1, one Executive and one Legislative Council, under one Governor, were constituted for the six (now five) Presidencies of the Leeward Islands. As reconstituted by the Federal Act No. 1 of 1899, the Legislative Council now consists of eight official and eight elective members. Three elective members are chosen by the elective members of the Island Council of Antigua, two by those of the Legislative Council of Dominica, and three by the unofficial members of the Legislative Council of St. Kitts and Nevis. They must be, and continue to be, members of their respective Island Councils. The official members are the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Auditor-General, the Administrators of St. Kitts-Nevis and Dominica, and the A chapter is devoted to the misdeeds and fate of Governor Parke in West Indian Tales of Old." London : Duckworth and Co.

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298 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Commissioners of Montserrat and the Virgin Islands. The Legislative Council has concurrent legislative powers with the local legislatures on certain subjects specified in the Act, such as matters of property, mercantile and criminal law, the law relating to status, the maintenance of a general police force and a common convict establishment, quarantine, postal and telegraph affairs, currency, audit, weights and measures, education, and the care of lunatics, all matters relating to immigration, copyright and patents, and its own constitution and procedure. Any island Legislature is, in addition, competent to declare other matters to be within the competency of the general Legislature. Any island enactment on such subjects is void if repugnant to an enactment of the general Legislature, or may at any time be repealed or altered by one. The Council meets once a year, at a place notified by proclamation (usually at St. John's, Antigua), and no Council lasts more than three years. The session usually extends from one to three weeks. The expenses of the federal establishments are voted by the Council, and apportioned among the Presidencies. The Council has power to alter its constitution by an ordinary Act, to be reserved for the King's pleasure, and the King has power at any time to include any other West Indian island in the federation, upon joint addresses from both Councils. On March 22, 1898, the Legislative Council of Antigua, which was previously partly elected and partly nominated by the Governor, passed an Act abrogating itself, and the Crown Colony system was substituted. The new Council consists of sixteen members, eight official and eight unofficial, all nominated by the Governor under Royal letters patent. The Governor presides. Governors of the Leeward Islands since 1901 Sir Henry Moore Jackson, K.C.M.G. 1901 Sir Gerald Strickland, K.C.M.G. 1902 Sir Courtenay C. Knollys, K.C.M.G. 1904 Sir Bickham Sweet-Escott, K.C.M.G. 1906 Sir Henry Hesketh Bell, K.C.M.G. 1912 HOTELS. St. John's. The Globe Hotel, in St. Mary's and Thames Streets, which is owned by Mr. T. E. Walter

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ANTIGUA 299 and conducted by him personally, is recommended — Pension 8s. 4^. per day, or £8 6s. 8d. per month. There is also a good boarding-house at the head of the town, kept by Miss Jones ; and Esperanza House in Redcliffe Street, kept by Mrs. Yearwood, can also be recommended. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. The island is served by the steamship companies 1, 7, 8, 13 and 19 {see pages 14 to 27). The Government launch carries passengers between steamer and the shore at a cost of 2s. 6d. per passenger, which is paid in most cases by the steamship companies. Carriages are obtainable at Robinson's, Langley's, Buckley's, or Doig's livery stables. Tariff— Botanic Gardens and Cotton Factory, buggy for two, 25. 6d. ; buggy for three, 45. ; Gunthorpe's Central Factory, 45. and 6s. ; Wallings Reservoir, 105. and 14s. ; Fig Tree Hill, 125. and 1 6s. ; English Harbour, 14s and 20s. SPORTS. Cricket, lawn-tennis, rifle-shooting, golf, and croquet are the chief amusements. There is a nine-hole golf course in the Victoria Park, and well-kept links at Cassada Garden. There is a good lawn-tennis club in St. John's, with excellent courts and croquet lawns, which are the rendezvous of local society. The town can also boast an admirable amateur dramatic society, and dances are frequent. Good boating can be had in St. John's and Parham Harbours, while capital bathing can be indulged in near St. John's, and, indeed, all round the coast. Good sport with deer, wild duck, guinea-birds, and pigeons is to be had in Barbuda {see page 309), while tarpon fishing also gives good sport in the lagoon and round the shores. Deer, wild goats, rabbits, wild duck and pigeon are found in Long and Guana Islands. • SOCIAL CLUB. The New Club, near Government House, is noted for its hospitality, and the principal London papers and magazines can be seen at the Public Library, which is situated in High Street, near the landing-place. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The town of St. John's, at the head of the spacious though shallow harbour of the same name, used to be defended by Goat Hill Fort on the south, and on the north by Fort James ; while Rat Island, which is connected with Antigua by a narrow isthmus, was also

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300 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES fortified. Goat Hill is historically interesting as being the scene of one of the exploits of Prince Rupert, the third son of Elizabeth, daughter of James I, and of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine. The Prince, who was described by Governor Searle, of Barbados, as a grand pirate — in his West Indian Adventures — arrived at Antigua with Sir Robert Holmes in 1652. Here they found two of the Parliament's ships in Deep Bay, which is only divided from St. John's Harbour by a narrow strip of land ending in Goat Hill and Ship's Stern Point. Sir Robert Holmes landed at night with a party on the St. John's side and scaling Goat Hill took the Fort and trained the guns on to Deep Bay. In the morning Prince Rupert appeared at the entrance of the Bay and they sank one ship in the harbour and took the other at Montserrat. It was at Goat Hill that the French landed when they reduced the island in 1666. The fortifications — Fort Barrington — were completed in 1779. The fort is now used as a signal station. Fort James, erected on a piece of land given to Charles II by Colonel Vaughan and fortified in 1704-5, commands an extensive view. It is chiefly worthy of notice for its foundation-stone, which was laid with full masonic honours, a most unusual proceeding in the case of a purely military building. The inscription on the stone can still be traced, though it was nearly obliterated by some mischievous treasure-hunters, who hoped to find coin of the realm beneath it. The inscription runs : This [first stone] was Laid by [I]saac Mathew The Right Worshipfull [The] Provincial] Grand Master With his [Gra]nd Officers And The Right W[or]shipfull the Masters And The Wardens [and] Brothers of The Three Lodges [of F]ree and accepted Masons of Antigua. November 15TH, 1739.

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A STREET IN ST. JOHN S, ANTIGUA This picture shows buggies, a popular form of conveyance in the West Indies THE DOCKYARD, ENGLISH HARBOUR, ANTIGUA Where Nelson refitted his ships when pursuing Villeneuve in 1805

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ANTIGUA 301 The three Lodges referred to were the Parham Lodge, constituted January 31, 1737, Bakers Lodge, March 14, 1738, and the Court House Lodge, November 22, 1738. The last-named was afterwards called the Great Lodge at St. John's in Antigua." The Fort is now used as a quarantine station. The buildings on Rat Island, which is connected with the mainland by a causeway, are now used as a signal station and leper asylum. They were erected in 1741, on land purchased by the Government, as barracks for the infantry stationed in the island. The streets of St. John's are very clean and the houses are nearly all made of wood painted a dazzling white. The rather commonplace monument on the wharf was erected by the people of Antigua to the memory of the late Bishop Westerby, who died in 1888, aged 75. The Post Office is on the left-hand side of the High Street, near the wharf, and the office of the Colonial Bank is in Newgate Street at the end of Market Street. The Anglican Cathedral stands on rising ground at the head of the town. It is a handsome stone fabric, with a facade terminating at either end in octagonal domed towers, and replaces an inferior building wrecked by the earthquake which took place immediately after morning service on Sunday, February 8, 1843. The cathedral occupies the very spot where the militia were stationed in 1710, when the mob attacked Governor Daniel Parke, whose tyranny and arbitrary conduct made him detested in the island. The corner-stone was laid in 1845. The cathedral was opened on October 10, 1847, and completed in the following year, its total cost being ^40,000. It is solidly built, and cruciform in shape, while its length is 130 feet and its breadth 50 feet. The interior, which is fitted with galleries, is lined with stout pitch pine as a precaution against earthquakes. The building contains very few monuments. Among them the principal is a large brass dedicated to the memory of Bishop Jackson, the third Bishop of the See (1860-1895). In the churchyard, which is on a gentle slope, many notable inhabitants found their last resting-place, including Otto

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302 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Baijer, Ashton Warner, Major-General George W. Ramsay, and Patrick Kirvan, the perpetrator of many amusing bulls," whose gravestone was inscribed By his discretion this tomb was erected." The churchyard is entered by iron gates, those at the south being flanked by pillars on which are metal figures representing St. John the Baptist and his namesake the Evangelist. They were intended for Dominica, but the French vessel in which they were being conveyed to that island was captured by a British man-ofwar, which brought them to Antigua, where they have since remained. They are now known to the negroes as Adam and Eve. The roof of the cathedral is partly maintained at the expense of the Government, who use it to collect rain-water, which is stored in a large cistern. The cathedral possesses some interesting and valuable plate, notable among which are two massive silver candlesticks over two hundred years old. They were the gift of one Peter Lee in 1704, and bear the inscription : Donum domini Petri Lee ad Templum Divi Johannis in Antigua." The monuments in the old church were many, and the inscriptions upon them were exceedingly interesting, the oldest being a stone slab in the chancel to the memory of Mrs. Gilbert, the wife of the Mr. Gilbert who introduced Methodism into Antigua, and who died in 1747. In the south aisle were monuments to Mrs. Elizabeth Odley, a descendant of Sir Thomas Warner, who possessed a graceful figure, an excellent understanding, and a sweetness of disposition that engaged the esteem of all who knew her ; a tablet to the memory of her son, Otto Baijer, a descendant of Bastien Baijer, who signed the capitulation in 1666 ; a pyramidal monument to the memory of George Atkinson, the blooming prop of the declining age of his parents ; and in the north aisle a fine monument to the Rev. C. T. Bernard, a former curate of St. John's, a white marble cenotaph to the memory of the Hon. William Warner, a descendant of Sir Thomas, and an elaborate monument to Ralph, Lord Lavington, which were of exceptional interest. In the latter his lordship was represented in a sitting posture in court dress, with his plumed hat lying at his

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ANTIGUA 303 feet, and two female figures reclining on either side of a small sarcophagus, the one on the left representing Astrea, with her scales by her side, and the other the genius of the island mourning the loss of a favourite governor. On the base of the monument was a brief biographical inscription. Lord Lavington was buried on Carlisle's Estate, now the property of the Hon. J. J. Camacho, where his tomb can still be seen in the middle of a field of sugar-canes and beneath a very old sapodilla-tree. Some vandal stole the slab bearing the inscription, and for many years the tomb was in a very dilapidated state, but it has now been neatly bricked in. Then again there was a remarkable monument to the memory of Mrs. Musgrave, who was thrown out of her carriage in St. John's and killed on the spot. A representation of the event was sculptured in bas-relief on the cenotaph, which was of white marble. Government House is an unpretentious building beyond the cathedral, not far from the hospitable New Club. Opposite to it is the Prison, which occupies a building erected in 1735 for the troops. It is one of the most commodious in the West Indies and is a model of cleanliness. The inmates comprise long-term prisoners from all the islands of the federation. The St. John's Training School for boys, which has replaced Skerret's Reformatory, does a good work, and deserves a visit. Many of the lads are now being apprenticed to various mastercraftsmen in the town. The Lunatic Asylum, which stands to the east of the Training School, accommodates patients from all the various Presidencies. The gardens are noted for the extraordinary luxuriance of the bougainvillea, and are worth a visit. The Cotton Factory is a drive of ten or fifteen minutes from St. John's. Antigua is one of the centres of the revived cotton industry in the West Indies, and a visit to the factory during crop time, which extends from January to April or May, when the Sea Island cotton is being ginned, is worth making. The Central Sugar Factory at Gunthorpe's is about 3^ miles from St. John's. Wallings Reservoir (4 hours there and back) is reached by carriage. It is the main source of the island's water-supply and was

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30 4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES opened in 1901 Fig Tree Hill (6 hours by way of Wallings, Claremont, and St. Mary's) commands an extensive view of Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts on a fine day. The drive to English Harbour (8 hours for the excursion) and the old Naval Dockyard, where Nelson refitted his ships during his memorable pursuit of Villeneuve to the West Indies and back in 1805, is an expedition which every visitor staying more than one day in Antigua should make. The first part of the drive is not particularly interesting, but on reaching the volcanic district of the island, which has to be traversed, it becomes much more attractive. The harbour which, like so many in the West Indies, is an extinct volcanic crater, is very tortuous, with a very small entrance protected by a narrow promontory running across it, and guarded in the old days by a chain boom. It is divided from Falmouth Harbour, which is next to it, by a narrow isthmus, and with very little trouble the two might be made one magnificent harbour, which could easily be defended by forts on the high hills surrounding it. On the summit of Monks Hill which overlooks Falmouth, stand the remains of Great George Fort, which covered ten acres and mounted, according to Luffman, forty-eight pounders, said to be the identical guns taken out of the Fourdriaunt man-of-war, taken some years since in these seas." It was erected as a place of refuge for women and children in case of siege. The works were begun in 1689 and completed in 1705. The military cemetery is overgrown with bush — a disgrace to the local Government. This fort is now used as a signal station. Only occasionally do ships now visit English Harbour ; and the dockyard, with its group of yellow barracks and stores with red roofs, though trim and tidy, is deserted. For many years even the mail steamers have forsaken the harbour for St. John's on the leeward side of the island. To the right of the entrance are the Shirley heights, once strongly fortified, and to the left of it Middle Ground on a peninsula and Dow's Hill, where the general officer commanding the troops resided. It was fortified in 1791, and the Governor's country residence was for many years there. To the Luffman no doubt meant the Foudroyant.

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ANTIGUA 305 east of Shirley heights is the Ridge, which was abandoned when the last regiment left in 1855. The walls of large buildings remain ; some are in good order, but the woodwork has rotted and been removed. The large Block House was built in 1787 by order of Governor Matthew, as recorded on a memorial stone. The only habitable buildings are the artillery barracks, which were last used as a convalescent lunatic asylum. An obelisk in the cemetery on the Ridge bears the names of officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the 54th Regiment, (now the 2nd Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment), who died in Antigua, St. Kitts, Dominica, and St. Lucia, March 1848 to June 1 851 The best point from which to see the harbour is near Clarence House, a building on a side of the hill opposite the dockyard, which was erected in 1787 by English stone-masons for Prince William Henry, Duke of Clarence — afterwards William IV — when he was attached to the West Indies Station. The Prince arrived in Antigua at the end of 1786 in the Pegasus frigate, and we read that his appearance put this little community into a ferment." Mr. John Burke, Solicitor-General, was so overcome with emotion that in presenting the address of the Legislature to His Royal Highness, notwithstanding this gentleman has been for years hackneyed at the bar, and is a bold orator, yet, on this occasion, to the astonishment of every bystander, he was nearly bereft of the power of utterance." The Prince's chief attendant was Captain Nelson, of the Boreas. In descending from Clarence House to the harbour the manchineel trees should be treated with respect. The milky juice, which exudes from their leaves and stems when broken, burns whatever it touches, and any one who takes shelter under this poison-tree," as it is called, during a shower of rain has good reason to remember it. A large anchor in front of the barracks marks the spot where a tragedy occurred in 1798. Lord Camelford, th^n acting as commander of H.M. sloop Favourite, had a private quarrel with Lieutenant Peterson of H.M.S. Perdrix. Soon after, Lord Camelford gave Peterson an order which he refused to obey, and the consequence was that Lord Camelford shot him dead on this very spot. The following

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306 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES account of the episode is given in Antigua and the Antiguans : Lord Camelford commanded the Favourite sloop of war and Commodore Fahie the ship Perdrix, Mr. Peterson holding the rank of first lieutenant on board the last-named. Commodore Fahie had left Antigua a short time before, to take temporary command of the fleet, then anchored before St. Kitts.-f and during his absence Lieutenant Peterson was, of course, left in command of the Perdrix. It was the custom, in those troubled days of warfare, for boats to row backwards and forwards across the harbour during the hours of night, the sailors of the different ships in the dock, headed by one of their officers, taking it by turns to keep this watch ; and the sleeper might often be roused from his dreams as the deep-toned All's well resounded through the still night air. Lord Camelford and Lieutenant Peterson were, unhappily, at variance ; and, perhaps to mortify his rival, Lord Camelford ordered Mr. Peterson to take the watch upon the very evening that a gay ball was to be given at Black's Point to the naval officers. Unfortunately Lieutenant Peterson entertained the idea that, as he was in command of the ship Perdrix, in the absence of Commodore Fahie, he was superior officer to Lord Camelford, who only commanded a sloop ; and, in consequence of this false impression, he positively refused to obey his lordship's orders. The disastrous evening approached, and the Lieutenant retired to his quarters above the capstan-house in order to dress for the festive party. Arming himself with a pair of loaded pistols, and telling his boat's crew to attend him, Lord Camelford quitted his retirement and stationed himself directly between the capstan-house and the guard-house (now called the Commissioner's house), and there waited the approach of Mr. Peterson, whom he had already summoned to attend him. Upon the unfortunate young officer making his appearance, accompanied by some of his friends, his lordship again commanded him to take charge of the watch for the evening — the command was again refused — when, taking one of his pistols from his bosom, Lord Camelford immediately fired, and the ball passing through the breast of the brave but inconsiderate lieutenant, he fell a corpse upon the ground, the deadly stream welling from the wound, and staining, as it flowed, the gay ball-dress which he wore. No sooner did the wellaimed weapon do its work than, drawing the other from its resting-place, his lordship turned to the second lieutenant of the Perdrix, and, pointing it at him, asked if he would obey his orders or meet the same punishment as Mr. Peterson. Life is sweet The second in command saw his friend stretched at The affair is also described in "West Indian Tales of Old." London : Duckworth and Co. \ Of which island he was a native.

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CAMELFORD'S ANCHOR, ENGLISH HARBOUR, ANTIGUA The house on the hill was built for Prince William Henry, alterwards King William IV. BRIMSTONE HILL, ST. KITTS A now dismantled fortress (779 ft. high)

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ANTIGUA 307 his feet, with the red blood gurgling round him, and, fearing the same fate, he obeyed Lord Camelford and took the watch. Lord Camelford was tried by court-martial but honourably acquitted, only to fall in a duel by the hands of Captain Best, a native of Barbados. Like the students' prisons at Heidelberg University, the walls of the barracks at English Port bear many inscriptions written by former inmates and visitors, and among them is pointed out one painted by his Majesty King George V, when as Prince George of Wales he visited Antigua in H.M.S. Canada. It runs "A merry Xmas and happy New Year 2 You All." The first part of the dockyard — that known as St. Helena — was built in 1726, and in 1746 the wharves and buildings were erected by Captain Del Garno. The dockyard, with the lands, outbuildings, tanks, cemetery, and also Clarence House were transferred by the Admiralty to the Colonial Government in 1906. In the churchyard of St. Paul's Church are the tombstones and vaults of, among others, the Hon. Charles Pitt, son of the Earl of Chatham, and Commander of H.M.S. Hornet, who died at English Harbour on November 13, 1780, aged 20 ; Brigade-Major Vans Agnew, 1804 '> an d Brigadier-General Andrew Dunlop, 1804, descended from the family of Wallace, who lies in a vault within iron rails* In the church itself is a marble tablet inscribed to the memory of Lieutenant Chas. Montague Barrow, 1835, who commenced his military career at Waterloo and died at the Ridge." At Indian Warner on the Government lands at Piccadilly in the hilly district between Willoughby Bay and English Harbour, there is a vault in which Colonel Thomas Warner and others of the Warner family were buried. It is situated near the ruins of the old Great House. A variety of pleasant drives can be taken from St. John's, including those to (1) Parham, returning by way of Vernon's (2 hours) ; (2) by way of Weir's, St. George's Church, and Millar's (i£ hours) ; (3) to Gunthorpe's Central Sugar Factory, Weir's, St. George's and Millar's (if hours) ; (4) by the English Harbour road to Belle Vue, and thence by way of Vernon's to St. John's (2 hours) ; (5) via Marble

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3o8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Hill, Weatherill's, Langford's, and Friar's Hill (i-Jhours) ; (6) via Friar's Hill, Langford's, Thibou's, Judge's, and Cassada Garden, the estate of Major-General Poyntz, Governor from 1651 to 1663 (2 hours) ; and (7) to Devil's Bridge, on the extreme windward side of the island (6 hours) BARBUDA The Codrington Game Preserve GENERAL ASPECT. The island of Barbuda, lying about 25 miles due north of Antigua, of which it is a dependency, has an area of 62 square miles. It is of coral formation and is very flat, its highest point being only 205 feet above sea level. It is surrounded by reefs, and the strong currents which set in to the land prove a constant menace to sailing ships. The island has no streams, but there is a plentiful supply of water which is obtained from wells. INDUSTRIES. The staple industry of Barbuda is now the cultivation of Sea Island cotton, which is treated in a local ginnery. Indian and Guinea corn, beans, peas, cassava, potatoes, &c, are also raised by the natives, who do, too, a considerable trade with Antigua in live turtle, turtle-shell, dried fish, brooms, baskets, &c. The Government have established a stock farm to encourage the breeding of horses, mules, donkeys and sheep for export, and have also planted coco-nuts on a large scale. CLIMATE. The climate of Barbuda is equable and healthy. Being so flat the island enjoys the full benefit of the sea breezes which sweep across it. There is very little sickness, and if only a hotel were built Barbuda would certainly be more resorted to by sportsmen than it is at present. HISTORY. Barbuda was first settled by a party of colonists from St. Kitts under Sir Thomas Warner. The settlers were so harassed by the Caribs that they were compelled to desert the island, but when the strength of these savages had diminished they returned and were no longer molested. The island was granted to the Codrington

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BARBUDA 309 family in the eighteenth century, and was used by them as a stock farm from which their estates in Antigua were supplied with animals, and also as a shooting estate. In 1893 a company called "The Barbuda Island Company was registered to acquire a lease of the island for fifty years from Mr. Robert Dougal, who had obtained it from the Government. There was every prospect of success before it until 1898, when trouble arose through natives invading the Company's property. This was the beginning of differences with the Government which culminated in the Governor of the Leeward Islands seizing Barbuda and all the Company's property. Legal proceedings followed, but without success from the company's point of view. CONSTITUTION. Barbuda is a dependency of Antigua and is controlled by a staff comprising a manager, an assistant manager and an overseer. A magistrate visits the island two or three times during the year to settle any disputes which may arise among the members of the usually law-abiding community. Manager Mr. George Sutherland .... 1908 HOTELS. There are no hotels or boarding-houses; but arrangements can generally be made by the Manager to accommodate small parties of visitors. MEANS OP COMMUNICATION. Small sailing sloops ply between Antigua and Barbuda, the average duration of the voyage being from five to six hours. This time may, however, be greatly exceeded if conditions are unfavourable, and in any case it is desirable to take plenty of provisions in case of emergency. Small sailing boats can be hired from the villagers in Barbuda for fishing at moderate rates. SPORTS. Mr. George Sutherland, manager in 191 4, has described Barbuda to the writer as a perfect sportsman's paradise. It is well stocked with fallow deer, originally introduced by the Codringtons ; Guinea fowl, pigeon, doves, and wild duck (teal, widgeon, white throat, blue wing, pintail, whistlers and divers) all abound. Plover, curlew, snipe, &c, visit the island in August and September, and good sport can be obtained hunting the wild pig, which are

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310 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES plentiful in the swamps and can be easily tracked after heavy rains. Excellent fishing is obtainable all round the coast, the fish including tarpon, king-fish, barracouta, snapper, cavally, &c. The shooting seasons for deer are from January i to March 31, and from July 1 to September 30, and the season for duck, pigeon, &c., from July 15 to February 1. A licence to shoot deer and other game can be obtained from the manager for 20s., which entitles the holder to three buck and as much other game as he cares to shoot in season ; or a separate licence to shoot game other than deer can be obtained for 10s. No extra licence for fishing is required. The best pigeon-shooting is obtainable from the middle of August to the end of September, the birds flighting in large numbers at that time ; and the best tarpon fishing is obtainable between September and the end of February. A method of catching fish, lobsters, &c, peculiar to Barbuda, is practised in the lagoon near the village. Brushwood is piled in heaps at selected spots in the lagoon and allowed to remain undisturbed for two or three weeks ; these heaps attract lobsters and fish in great numbers. Whenever it is considered desirable to obtain fish, these heaps are encircled by nets. This having been done, the men dive overboard and remove all the brushwood. The nets are then gathered into a boat bringing large numbers of fish and lobsters with them, as many as 200 lobsters being sometimes taken from one heap of brushwood. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Barbuda has only one village — Codrington village — which is about three miles from the River Anchorage on the east side of a large lagoon. It has about 850 inhabitants, who are the descendants of the slaves introduced by Colonel Codrington. Most of their huts are of a primitive type, being built of wattle and plaster with thatched roofs. Each hut is enclosed within its own little stockade, and the whole appearance of the village is typically African. These conditions are, however, rapidly changing owing to the growing prosperity of the islanders, many of whom now emigrate to the United States of America and to Panama, and with the money made there return to their native island and build themselves substantial houses

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REDONDA 3" of stone and wood roofed with galvanised iron. The villagers are a fine upstanding body of people, the majority of the men being over six feet in height. They are renowned as fearless sailors, great swimmers and keen fishermen, they make good hunters, and stockand axe-men, but are no good as mechanics, taking little or no interest in such work. The women are in the majority, as the men leave the island in search of work in Antigua or elsewhere. They only have squatter rights on the island, but this entails no hardship upon them as they are not called upon to pay any rates or taxes, and are allowed to enclose as much land as they care to take up. It is chiefly with the object of enjoying the sport which it affords that visitors occasionally patronise Barbuda, but they are unlikely to leave its shores without inspecting the Cotton Ginnery, the Anglican Church, and the Government Stock Farm. There are also two old forts which command attention, one at the River Anchorage with a fine Martello tower, and the other at Spanish Point at the south-east extremity of the island. REDONDA The Round Island GENERAL ASPECT. Like Barbuda, Redonda, an isolated rock a mile long and a third of a mile broad, and rising to a height of iooo feet, is a dependency of Antigua. It is valuable on account of its deposits of phosphate of alumina, which were discovered in 1865 and are now being worked by the Redonda Phosphate Company under licence subject to the payment of 6d. per ton royalty. The exports now amount to nearly 7000 tons annually. This lonely rock," as Charles Kings ley described it in At Last," is rarely if ever visited by tourists, for whom it has little to recommend it.

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312 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES ST. CHRISTOPHER or ST. KITTS The Mother Colony of the British West Indies GENERAL ASPECT. St. Kitts, which forms one Presidency with Nevis and Anguilla under the Government of the Leeward Islands, lies in latitude 17 18' N. and longitude 62 48' W., 45 miles to the west of Antigua. It is about 23 miles long, and has a total area of 68 square miles. Its population is 26,283. The island is purelyvolcanic, and consequently very mountainous. The central part consists of a range of rugged mountains running southeast and north-west, which culminates in Mount Misery, 371 1 feet high. These mountains, which are clothed with bush and grass, run down to the coast, and their lower slopes are densely cultivated in sugar-canes. The main range at its south-east end breaks into a semicircle which encloses a fertile plain, at the south-west of which is Basseterre, the capital of the island, situated on the shore of an open roadstead. At the south-east corner there extends a narrow isthmus not more than a mile or a mile and a half wide, which expands into a knob of land containing salt ponds. A strait called the Narrows, scarcely two miles in width, separates St. Kitts from Nevis at this point, while in between them is a tiny islet called Booby Island. On the lower levels the soil of St. Kitts is naturally rich and highly fertile. The soil on the east is stronger than that on the west, owing, it is believed, to volcanic activity having occurred during the prevalence of the trade-winds and to the consequent deposit of volcanic matter. The island is well watered, and Richard Blome's description of it, written in 1672, still holds goods : The land lieth high and mountainous in the mid ft from which fpringeth feveral Rivers, which oft-times by reafon of the Raines that falleth down the mountaines, are overflown to the detriment of the inhabitants." During the heavy rains, washes sometimes occur which do much harm to cultivation. INDUSTRIES. Sugar is the chief industry of St. Kitts, where the old-fashioned muscovado variety is produced

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 313 to perfection on numerous small but very well-kept estates all round the island. A central Sugar Factory was opened near Basseterre on February 20, 19 12, by a company called the St. Kitts (Basseterre) Sugar Factory Limited ; and vacuum-pan sugar is also made on Brighton estate on the north coast of the island. Sea Island cotton is now successfully grown on several plantations, and it has been found that it can be used with advantage as an alternate or catch crop in rotation with sugar. Cocoa is also being grown in the more favoured and sheltered parts. The principal exports in the year 19 12 were as follows : Value. Sugar, tons . 11,130 • £111,679 Molasses, puns 2,339 • • 7 l8 Cotton, lbs. . 782,993 . 55,0*3 Of the exports £91,272 in value went to the United Kingdom, £75,429 to British Colonies, and £21,260 to Foreign Countries. FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the Presidency is shown by the following comparative table of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports.* Exports.* 1 i £ i 1903-4 39,126 44,782 137,074 121,888 1904-5 43,905 42,922 141,629 141,248 1905-6 • 48,330 45,234 162,950 215,227 1906-7 49.613 47,228 158,818 160,195 1907-8 50,35i 47,170 180,347 189,903 1908-9 47,913 46,443 184,002 180,539 1909-10 48,122 47,932 172,220 182,446 1910-11 52,748 49,872 195,277 205,693 1911-12 58,002 50,737 306,666 190,747 1912-13 57,228 53,5o8 252,637 187,961 Calendar years 1 903-1 91 2. CLIMATE. St. Kitts is decidedly healthy, malaria being almost unknown among the inhabitants. The temperature

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314 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES varies from 66 to 88 Fahr. The annual rainfall is 50 to 90 inches; the birth-rate is about 30, and the death-rate 29 per 1000. HISTORY. St. Kitts was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage in 1493, and was called by him St. Christopher, because, it is said, he saw in its configuration a resemblance to that saint carrying our Saviour. The Caribs used to call it Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. The island was also called Merwar's Hope, a name obviously compounded from the first syllables of the surnames of Ralph Merrifield, who arranged and fitted out the expedition to it, and of its coloniser, Thomas Warner. Though Barbados was nominally taken possession of in 1605, a permanent settlement of that island was not effected until twenty-one years later, and therefore St. Kitts, which was settled by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Thomas Warner at the suggestion of Captain Thomas Painton, a seaman as enthusiastic as he was experienced," in 1623, can claim the honour of being the mother colony of the British West Indies. Warner revisited England, and, on his return in 1625 with a number of settlers, he landed on the same day as D'Esnambuc, a privateering sailor from Dieppe, and in the face of a common foe, the Caribs, the English and French colonists settled down side by side, the former in the middle of the island and the latter at either end. A fierce battle was fought with the Caribs, who though numerous were eventually decimated, the survivors being chased into the sea. The Spaniards resented the French and English establishing themselves so strongly, and in 1629, with a fleet of thirty-eight ships, they nearly annihilated the growing colonies. The French left for Antigua and the English were deported. A few of the sturdy French settlers remained, however, and, when the Spanish fleet left, D'Esnambuc re-established his colony. During the war between France and England, the French attacked their neighbours and conquered the whole island, in spite of the assistance rendered to the Governor by Colonel Morgan, the uncle and father-in-law of the redoubtable buccaneer Sir Henry Morgan, afterwards LieutenantGovernor of Jamaica. The English part of the island was,

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 315 however, restored to its former owners by the Peace of Breda in 1667. In 1689 the English were again expelled, but a year later the Barbadian baronet, Sir Timothy Thornhill, took the whole of the island, and it remained in England's possession for seven years, when the French had the portion which they formerly owned restored to them by the Treaty of Ryswick, in 1697. England again became sole mistress of the island in 1702, when the French capitulated to General Hamilton ; and a French invasion four years later having proved futile, the whole of St. Kitts was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1 7 1 3 The French possessions in the island were publicly sold for the benefit of the English Government, and in 1733 ^80,000 of the money realised was appropriated as a marriage portion for Princess Anne, who was betrothed to the Prince of Orange. In 1782 the French laid siege to St. Kitts and captured it, notwithstanding Sir Samuel Hood's meeting with De Grasse in the Basseterre Roads on January 25, when the French admiral was completely outmanoeuvred, an event described by Captain Marian as one of the finest feats in the annals of naval warfare. Hood induced his opponent to leave his anchorage, and, cleverly tacking, brought his ships to anchor at the precise spot which the French had just quitted, a manoeuvre which was watched by a large number of onlookers from the slopes of Nevis. The island was, however, restored to England by the Treaty of Versailles in 1783, which followed Rodney's victory over De Grasse off Dominica on April 12, 1782. St. Kitts has been British ever since, although it was raided by Villeneuve in 1805, just before the battle of Trafalgar. CONSTITUTION. The Government of St. Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla is administered by an officer entitled the Administrator. There is one Executive Council for the Presidency, consisting of the Governor, the Administrator, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the AuditorGeneral, and such persons as his Majesty may from time to time appoint. The legislative body is styled the Legislative Council of St. Christopher and Nevis, and consists of six official and six nominated unofficial members, besides the Governor and the Administrator ; of the unofficials not

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3 i6 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES more than five may be appointed from among the people of St. Kitts and Anguilla and one at least is selected from Nevis. The Governor, or in his absence the Administrator, presides, and the President of the Council enjoys an original and also a casting vote. The Council meets in annual sessions at Basseterre in St. Kitts, and is convened at such times as the Governor or Administrator sees fit to appoint. Administrators since 1888 J. S. Churchill (commissioner) 1888 T. Risely Griffiths, C.M.G. 1895 Charles T. Cox, C.M.G. 1899 Sir Robert Bromley, Bart. 1904 T. L. Roxburgh, C.M.G. 1906 HOTELS. Basseterre. The Seaside Hotel, pleasantly situated on the beach near the Treasury and wharf. Board and lodging, 8s. <\d. per day for a stay of a week's duration ; for a longer visit special arrangements can be made. The Newstead Hotel, at which the terms are about the same, is situated in Church Street, about two minutes' walk from the wharf. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. St. Kitts is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7, 13, and 19 in the list given on pages 14 to 27. The boat fare from steamer to the shore is is. per passenger. Good carriages can be obtained from the stables of Mr. Seaton, near St. George's Church, in Basseterre. Tariff : Pair-horse Victoria to carry four persons, for the drive round the island, £2 ; to Brimstone Hill and back, £1 13s. 4^. Buggy to carry three persons : round the island, £1 13s. 4^. ; Brimstone Hill and back, £1 Buggy to seat two persons : round the island, £1 ; Brimstone Hill and back, 12s. 6d. Carriages can also be hired from Mr. D. Matheson. Tariff : Carriage with two ponies, to hold four, 2s. 6d. per mile, 8s. 4^. per hour, or £1 13s. 4^. per day ; or round the island to Brimstone Hill and back, £1 5s. A buggy to hold two persons can be hired at half of the above rates. The minimum charge for carriages is 8s. 4^., and for buggies

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 31; 55. Bicycles, for which the road round the island is well suited, can be obtained at a charge of 2s. per hour. A few motor-cars can also be hired. SPORTS. St. Kitts has a cricket and lawn-tennis club, to which visitors with a satisfactory introduction are welcome. It is possible to obtain a little shooting, and boating can always be had when the weather is fine. CLUBS. The St. Kitts Club in the Town Square is hospitable to visitors, and there is a Free Public Library near the Court-house at which the latest English papers and magazines are to be found. Visitors are also welcomed by the members of the newly formed Colonial Club. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Basseterre (population 9019), which was completely destroyed by fire in 1867, was rebuilt in a greatly improved style. The houses are mostly of wood, but many are constructed of a greyish stone or of a rough-hewed stone covered with plaster, with the upper parts of wood. The streets, which are lighted at night by oil-lamps, are wide and clean. There is a serviceable telephone round the island. Blome in 1672 described Basseterre, which was then the French capital, as : A Town of a good bignefs, whofe Houfes are well built, of Brick, Free/tone, and Timber : where the Merchants have their Storehoufes, and is well Inhabited by Trade/men, and are well ferved with fuch Commodities, both for the Back, and Belly, together with Utenfils for their Houfes, and Plantations, as they have occafion of, in exchange for fuch Commodities which are the product of the If land. Here is a fair, and large Church, as alfo a publique-Hall, for the adminiftration of Juftice ; Here is alfo a very fair Hofpital. Here is alfo a ftately Caftle, being the Ref idence of the Governor, moft plesfantly f eated, at the foot of a high Mountain, not far from the Sea, having fpacious Courts, delightful Walks, and Gardens, and enjoyeth a curious profpect. After landing at the pier one enters the town through an arch in the centre of the Treasury Building in which the Administrator's Office, the Custom House and Treasury, and the Post Office are located. The Town Square or Circus contains a memorial clock and fountain put up to the memory of the Hon. T. B. Berkeley, for many years a member of the Legislative Council of the colony, and a prominent citizen.

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318 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES It is surrounded by tall and graceful cabbage palms. It is inscribed : THIS DRINKING FOUNTAIN Has been erected by the countrymen and private friends of the late the Honourable Thomas Berkeley Hardtman Berkeley, Companion of the Most distinguished order of Saint Michael and St. George, and President of the General Legislative Council of the Leeward Islands, in recognition of the many valuable services he rendered this his native land as a planter, a Politician and a Citizen. His sterling qualities, his love for this island and his deep interest in the welfare of the community at large, entitle him to A Memorial, by which his Memory will be preserved and perpetuated. born, 14TH January 1824 died, 6th November 1881. The prettiest feature of the town is undoubtedly Pall Mall Square, with a cool garden in its centre, which is laid out with tropical trees of great beauty and has a fountain. On one side of the square is the Court-house, where the Legislature meets and justice is administered. Near by is a Free Library, in which there are several portraits and pictures of interest, including a signed engraving of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, which is justly prized, and a renovated picture of the meeting between Sir Samuel Hood and De Grasse in Basseterre Roads in 1782, to which reference is made above, from the description of an eye-witness on the slopes of the neighbouring island of Nevis.

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 319 Government House is a large rambling building in Basseterre ; but the Administrator usually resides at Springfield," a charming house on rising ground a mile or so beyond the town. The Church of St. George's stands at the back of the town. It was rebuilt after the fire of 1867. The original church was built by the French in 1670, and it came into Anglican possession in 171 3 at the Peace of Utrecht. Though a strong stone building, it succumbed to the hurricane in 1843. A new church was started on a different site, and its foundations may be seen in the churchyard. It was not, however, completed, and the present church is a restoration of one built in 1856, that was destroyed by the fire of 1867 which laid Basseterre in ashes. On the west wall there are the remains of what have been two handsome monumental tablets, and several very old tombstones in the floor of the south transept date from the beginning of the eighteenth century. One or two Governors lie buried in the churchyard, but some years ago a flood of rain swept over the mountains and washed a great deal of sand into the town, and many tombstones were thus covered up. The Botanic Station, to the west of Basseterre, and the Signalling Fort form a pleasant afternoon's drive along the Bay Road, which was constructed during the Governorship of Sir William Haynes-Smith. The Botanic Station was established in the latter part of 1899, on land which formed part of a sugar estate, La Guerite, purchased by the local Government. Brimstone Hill (779 ft.), a dismantled fortress ten miles from Basseterre, is deeply interesting. The hill is a mass of limestone overlying volcanic rock some 700 feet in height, which looks to the uninitiated as if it had been ejected en bloc from the craters of the central mountains of St. Kitts. Records in the island show that it was bought by the Government for ^500, and that the principal fortifications were built by slave labour, each estates proprietor furnishing one out of every eighty slaves he possessed, for the purpose of their erection. Guns were first planted on the Hill by Sir Timothy Thornhill in 1690, and at a later date it was fortified by fifty pieces of cannon.

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320 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Though the massive fortifications were not completed until twelve years later, Brimstone Hill was considered one of the strongest posts in the West India islands when the memorable attack was made upon it in 1782. On January 1 1 of that year the Marquis de Bouille, supported by De Grasse, landed 8000 men at St. Kitts. The garrison, under General Fraser, which did not exceed 600 men, at once retired to the hill, and was reinforced by Governor Thomas Shirley with 350 men of the Militia. In spite of Sir Samuel Hood's brilliant manoeuvre on January 25, when he attacked De Grasse and took the anchorage at Basseterre which that gallant admiral had just left, the hill was closely invested. The inhabitants of St. Kitts, who warmly sympathised with the revolted American colonists, showed a real or tacit and understood neutrality from the first arrival of the enemy." The French disembarked powerful artillery, which was destined for an attack on Barbados, at Sandy Point, but the ship containing the heaviest and most effective part of it struck the rocks and sank. They were lucky enough, however, to find eight brass twenty-four pounders, 6000 balls of that calibre, two 13 -in. brass mortars and 15,000 shells which had not been carried up to the works owing to carelessness on the part of the defenders, waiting for them at the foot of the hill. These proved a most seasonable and necessary supply to them in the prosecution of the siege." The French had their headquarters at Sandy Point, but the defenders plied their heavy cannon and mortars with such effect that the town was soon destroyed. Batteries were multiplied on batteries all round the hill ; by day and night they cannonaded and bombarded the garrison, and the fire of twenty-three pieces of heavy cannon and twenty-four large mortars was concentrated on a spot of ground not exceeding 200 yards in diameter. Small wonder that the garrison, who displayed the greatest fortitude and patience, and lost only one man through desertion, were compelled to capitulate, which they did on February 13. They were accorded honours of war in the fullest sense, and every condition proposed, whether in favour of the garrison or the island of St. Kitts, was agreed to. The men of the 1st Battalion of the Royal

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 321 Scots and the flank companies of the 15th Regiment were sent to England pending their exchange, and the Marquis de BouiUe with his wonted magnanimity absolved by a particular article, as an avowed acknowledgment of their gallantry," Governor Shirley and Brigadier-General Fraser from the condition of being considered prisoners of war Governor Shirley was allowed to return to Antigua, and General Fraser to continue in the service of his country The gates bear the dates 1793-1794— an anxious time m English history. The fortress was abandoned at the time of the Crimean War, just over half a century ago It is still possible to trace the ruins of the various buildings and among the people of St. Kitts there are several who recollect partaking of the garrison's hospitality on this spot, now deserted and overgrown in many places with bush in which fragrant-smelling myrrh is found in profusion' It is not advisable to leave the beaten paths, though a ramble to the reservoir is interesting. This reservoir which is built of solid masonry, provided an abundance of water for the garrison for many months. The local Government have of late devoted a small annual grant to the preservation of the fortress. When much of the bush and undergrowth was cleared away the ruins of many buildings the existence of which had been forgotten, were brought to light. Among others were a hospital and barracks, which it it said, had only just been completed when the hill was abandoned. A profitable lime-burning industry is carried on by the Government, under the charge of the Director of Public Works, at the foot of the hill. Monkey Hill (1319 ft.) is a small mountain a few miles from Basseterre. Sir Timothy's Hill repays a visit It is interesting, as having been the scene of a spirited action between the English and French when Major-General Sir Timothy Thornhill, who had landed at Frigate Bay captured the island in 1690. An excursion to Mount Misery (371 1 ft.), the extinct volcano which dominates St. Kitts, requires a day. The descent into the crater can riln A 5Wt Jth€ pliant defence of Brimstone Hill is and Co f lcL London > Duckworth

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322 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES be made without danger. At the Weir, a short distance from Basseterre, monkey shooting can be indulged in. The drive Round the Island is an expedition which every visitor to St. Kitts should make. The distance is 30 miles and the time required is from 4 to ^ hours. Crossing the plain of Basseterre to the north-east of the island, one passes the large Central Sugar Factory (1 mile), belonging to a company called the St. Kitts (Basseterre) Sugar Factory Limited, which was opened in 191 2. It is equipped with the most modern machinery and has about 19 miles of light railway for bringing the canes to the mill. The capacity of the factory is 8000 tons of sugar, and during crop time the buildings present a busy aspect. Permission to view the factory can be readily obtained by visitors with suitable introductions. Five miles farther are the Brighton Sugar Works, where vacuum-pan sugar is also made. The road from here onwards keeps quite near the coast. Several wellcultivated muscovado sugar estates are passed. At Molyneux an experiment with cocoa planting was made recently. Estridge estate buildings, about i£ miles farther, afford a notable example of the substantial work done with the help of slave labour by the old settlers. Below Bellevue estate a halt should be made at Black Rocks (12 miles from Basseterre). These rocks consist of huge masses of lava standing out in the sea, against which the deep blue water dashes itself into white foam. The rocks extend along the coast for a distance of about half a mile. Continuing the drive past the village of Dieppe or Deep Bay, two fine sugar estates, Willetts (right) and Belmont (left), are passed, and to the left one obtains a fine view of the central mountain to the edge of the crater, with a stretch of wellcultivated sugar lands on its lower slopes. At a distance of about 5 miles across the channel on the right is the little Dutch crater island of St. Eustatius. Proceeding, the rugged mass of Brimstone Hill (779 ft.) soon comes into sight, with its fortifications plainly visible, standing guard over the small town of Sandy Point (20 miles from Basseterre round the island). Sandy Point is now a town of small consequence, but St. Anne's Church deserves a visit, as it contains several

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ST. CHRISTOPHER OR ST. KITTS 323 interesting mural tablets to the memory of officers who died on Brimstone Hill. These and the tombstones on the hill itself remind the visitor what a scourge yellow fever was in the old days. The ruins of the dwellings of former merchants and of storehouses furnish evidence of the former prosperity of the town. The Leper Asylum is next reached. It occupies an old fort — one of the outworks of Brimstone Hill. The road skirts the foot of the hill quite close to the sea, and a smell of sulphur reminds one of the existence of a submerged crater near by. The next place which deserves a visit is St. Thomas' Church, at Middle Island (3 miles farther), in the churchyard of which — under a roof to protect it from the elements — is the tomb of Sir Thomas Warner, the founder of the colony. This great coloniser died at St. Kitts on March 10, 1648, universally respected. His tomb is inscribed : An Epitaph vpon The Noble & Mvch Lamented Gent' Sir Tho Warner K Lievtenant General of y e Carribee Ieland & Gover r of y e Ieland of S* Christ who departed this life the 10 of March 1648. First Read, then weepe when thou art hereby taught, That Warner lyes interr'd here, one that bought, With losse of Noble bloud the Illustrious Name, Of A Comander Greate in Acts of Fame. Trayn'd from his youth in Armes, his Courage bold Attempted braue Exploites, and Vncontrold By fortunes fiercest frownes, hee still gaue forth Large Narratiues of Military worth. Written with his sword's poynt but what is man midst of his glory and who can this Life A moment since that hee by Sea and Land so longe kept free mortal strokes at length did yeeld ace) to conquering Death the field, fine Coronat. The church is the parish church of Old Road, a place which derives its name from the involuntary exclamation of Columbus upon his second visit to St. Kitts, Ah we

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324 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES are at the old road again." In the course of the drive many ravines are crossed by winding roads made during the French occupation of the island. The protecting walls were so solidly built that they still remain practically intact. At West Farm estate and on the adjacent lands Sea Island cotton cultivation can be inspected. The island of Nevis can now be seen in the distance, and one gets a view of Basseterre and its historic roadstead as the drive draws to a close. NEVIS Nelson's Island GENERAL ASPECT. The island of Nevis (Nievis, or Mevis, as it used to be called in the old days) is separated from St. Kitts by a narrow strait only 2 miles wide, but from Basseterre, St. Kitts, to Charlestown, the capital of Nevis, the distance is 1 3 miles. The area of NeviSj which is situated between latitudes 17 05' and 17 13' N. and longitudes 62 31' and 62 37' W. is 38 square miles, and the population 1 2, 945 Like St. Kitts the island is volcanic, and the general characteristics of both the islands somewhat resemble one another, but Nevis is to a great extent covered with volcanic ashes from former eruptions, while St. Kitts is almost free from them. Nevis is practically one large mountain cone rising to a height of 3596 feet. INDUSTRIES. As in St. Kitts, sugar is the principal industry in Nevis, but of late years the exports of this commodity have been steadily declining in value. The cultivation of Sea Island cotton is, on the other hand, progressing. Yams, sweet potatoes, corn, &c, are also cultivated to a considerable extent. The trade statistics of the island are included with those of St. Kitts {see CLIMATE. The climate of Nevis is very similar to that of St. Kitts, though the rainfall is less, the average for thirty years being only 53 inches. The thermometer ranges between 70 and 85 Fahr. during the greater part of the year. There are practically no streams in the island, and

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NEVIS 325 the water-supply is derived from a catchment area of about 60 acres in extent high up on the mountain and stored in public reservoirs, which furnish Charlestown and some country districts with good water. HISTORY. Nevis was discovered by Columbus in 1493, on his second voyage, and was so called by him owing to the cloud-capped summit of its peak, which reminded him of snow. The island was included in the grant to the Earl of Carlisle in 1627, and colonised by the English from St. Kitts in the following year. In 1629 the settlement was nearly destroyed by the Spaniards, and in 1706 it was ravaged by the French, who destroyed property to the value of half a million, and carried off between three and four thousand slaves. The island was taken by the French under the Marquis de Bouille in 1782, but restored to Great Britain by the Treaty of Versailles in the following year. CONSTITUTION. Nevis forms part of the Presidency of St. Christopher and Nevis, which also includes the island of Anguilla. They were united by a Federal Act of the Leeward Islands Legislature in 1882. Magistrate Mr. Charles C. Greaves . .1911 HOTELS. Charlestown. The Bath House Hotel, recently reopened, is recommended. Board and lodging, 12s. 6d. per day, including use of the baths (see under Principal Sights). Special terms can be quoted for families or for a lengthened stay out of season. The hotels of Mrs. Davoren and Mrs. Daniell offer fair but limited accommodation. Board and lodging 65. per day, or £2 2s. per week. Special terms for families or for a lengthened visit. Visitors provided with good references can also obtain lodgings with private families and live en pension. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. The island is served by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company's inter-colonial steamers. It can also be reached from St. Kitts by sloop. The boat fare from steamer to the shore is is. per passenger. Several merchants in Charlestown have good buggies with one or two horses ; no fixed tariff is adhered

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326 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES to, but is. per mile is the usual fare. For the drive round the island, a distance of 20 miles, £1 os. lod. is the usual fare ; but for shorter distances a special agreement has to be made beforehand. Riding horses can be obtained for about is. per hour. Communication with St. Kitts was for a time effected by the subsidised motor-launch Windrush, but this service is, only temporarily it is hoped, suspended. SPORTS. Golf can be played on a nine-hole course laid out by the proprietors of the Bath House, who have also provided lawn-tennis courts for the amusement of their guests. Excellent boating is obtainable, and the rates for boat hire are low. Good fishing can also be had. There is not much shooting, but on occasions in the fall of the year nights of plover give fair sport, and in the high lands mountain doves, as well as blue and ramier pigeons, can be obtained. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Charlestown, the capital (population 1050), which lies on the shore of a wide-curving bay, calls for no particular remark, though the remains of the house in which Alexander Hamilton, the great American statesman who drafted the Constitution of the United States, was born on January 11, 1757, are pointed out. The ancestral estate, about \\ miles to the south-east of the town, is still called "Hamiltons." In St. Paul's Church there is a window to the memory of the Right Rev. Daniel Gateward Davis, the first Bishop of Antigua, who had been previously Rector of the parish. He was consecrated in 1842, when the diocese of Antigua was separated from that of Barbados, and he died in London in 1857. A tombstone marks the vault which is the last resting-place of John Huggins (1 763-1 821), the founder of the Bath House, to which reference is made on the next page. It is inscribed : Here lies the body of John Huggins, Esquire, who died on the 6th day of December, 1821, aged 58 years. He began a career of usefulness as a merchant in this town. In private life he was a firm friend, an affectionate husband, and a sincere Christian. In public life he gave universal satisfaction as Clerk of the Assembly and Deputy Treasurer of this island. Not many years before his death he became proprietor of the hot springs over which, out of good will towards his fellow creatures, he

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NEVIS 32; erected convenient baths, and, at a short distance a large and expensive stone edifice for the accommodation of invalids. This stone was put up by his widow. The old Bath House Hotel, a conspicuous building a little more than £ mile to the south west of Charlestown, should certainly be inspected. It serves as a link with the past, when Nevis was the most popular island in the Caribbean for white people and a fashionable health resort. It is here that the famous hot springs known as The Bath are situated, which have a temperature of 108 Fahr., and prove of undoubted efficacy in the treatment of gout, lumbago, sciatica, and kindred ills to which the flesh is heir. The Bath House was erected by John Huggins, a merchant of Charlestown, whose remains lie in a vault in St. Paul's Church {see previous page), late in the eighteenth century. The actual date of its construction is not known, but on a stone the numbers 17 — are still clearly decipherable, and the others might be 87 or 89. It is stated to have cost £40,000, and there is no reason to doubt this, for it is very solidly built of stone — so solidly, indeed, that it has withstood the earthquakes and hurricanes of over a century. The architect evidently sought to combine strength with coolness, for it has lofty vaulted roofs, stone corridors, and wide verandahs. The rooms too are exceedingly spacious and airy. For many years it was the fashionable health resort of the West Indies, but during the days of depression after the abolition of slavery it fell into disrepair and it was closed in 1870. Owing, however, to the enterprise of its present owners, Messrs. Gillespie Bros, and Co., of London and New York, it has reopened its doors and is again receiving the patronage of many visitors. The view from the verandahs over a wide expanse of sea, the town and the whole length of St. Kitts, with St. Eustatius beyond, is quite enchanting. "The Bath has also been restored and is now once more well patronised. Immediately above it a cooling lounge with open verandah is provided, which adds to the comfort of bathers. Mr. John C. Thresh, who recently analysed the water, reported that it closely resembled that from the Wild-

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328 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES bad Thermal Springs of Wurtemburg, which are extensively used for chronic rheumatism and gout ; and he added that it contained no constituent which would render it deleterious for drinking purposes, and that he found it free from any signs of pollution. The analysis of the thermal water gave the following results, expressed in parts per 100,000 : Calcium carbonate 14.0 Magnesium carbonate 15-7 Sodium carbonate 5-65 Potassium sulphate 3-i Sodium sulphate 3-55 Sodium chloride 13.55 Sodium nitrate 3-3 Silica with trace of sodium silicate • 4-85 Total solid constituents dried at 180 C. =63.0 63.7 The efficacy of the waters was recognised as far back as 1625 by Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt in the County of Oxford, Esquire," who in his Relation of the Voyage to Guiana," published in Purchas' Voyages, says of Meues (Nevis) : In this Island there is an hot Bath, which as well for the reports that I have heard, as also for that I have seene and found by experience, I doe hold for one of the best and most sovereigne in the World. I have heard that divers of our Nation have there been cured of the Leprosie, and that one of the same persons now, or lately dwelt at Woolwich neere the River of Thames, by whom the truth may be knowne, if any man desire to be further satisfied therein. As for my own experience, although it was not much, yet the effects that I found it work both in my selfe, and other of my company in two dayes space, doe cause me to conceive the best of it. For at my coming thither, I was grievously vexed with an extreme cough, which I much feared would turne me to great harme, but bathing in the Bath, and drinking the water, I was speedily cured ; and ever since that time I have found the state of my body (I give God thankes for it) farre exceeding what it was before, in strength and health. Again, in 1672 Richard Blome wrote of the springs as being much frequented for the curing of the several

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NEVIS 329 distempers of the Body of Man." The Rev. Mr. Smith, in his Natural History of Nevis," 1745, tells how it cured a negro boy of leprosy. Indeed all distempered People, both Whites and Blacks, find great benefit by it ; and he adds that after a bath and exposure to the tradewind, and after partaking of half a pint of Madeira wine, he was almost as nimble as Mountebank's Tumbler." Grainger in 1802 stated that the waters possessed all the properties of the Hot-well at Bristol. It was round the visitors to the Bath House, early in the nineteenth century, that the plot of The Gorgeous Isle was woven by Gertrude Atherton, who also deals at some length with Nevis in The Conqueror." It is in the country that the chief attractions of Nevis lie. Fig Tree Church (2 miles from pier), where the Register containing the entry of the certificate of Nelson's marriage to Mrs. Nisbet, a resident of Nevis, is kept, is 2 miles from Charlestown. The entry of the marriage certificate, which runs : 1787, March 11, Horatio Nelson, Esquire, Captain of his Majesty's ship the Boreas, to Frances Herbert Nisbet, widow," is shown to visitors. This historic register was brought to London at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886, where it attracted much attention. At the time of her wedding the bride was in her twenty-third year, and her late husband, a doctor, had been dead for eighteen months. Prince William Henry, afterwards King William IV, gave the bride away. The church also contains a mural tablet bearing the following inscription : "William Woolward, Esq., of this island, died February 18th, 1779. He married the daughter of Thomas Herbert, Esq., to whose joint memory this tablet is erected by their only daughter, Frances Herbert, who was first married to Josiah Nisbet, M.D., and since to Rear-Admiral Nelson who for his very distinguished services has been successively created a Knight of the Bath and a Peer of Great Britain by the title of Baron Nelson of the Nile." The ruins of Montpelier (2^miles from pier), where Nelson's wedding was conducted, are also pointed out. The few remaining walls and gate pillars of the house are on private land belonging to Mr. J. H. Sampson, who

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330 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES readily gave permission for the simple tablet to be erected which marks this historic spot. It bears the inscription : On this site stood Montpelier House, WHEREIN ON THE IITH DAY OF MARCH 1 787, Horatio Nelson, of immortal memory, then Captain of H.M.S. Boreas, was married to Frances Herbert Nisbet. The hero's memory is also perpetuated by Nelson's Watering-place, a creek about 3 miles to the north of Charlestown ; a local tradition states that the future victor of Trafalgar could daily be seen with his spyglass on Saddle Hill Peak and Battery (2^ miles by carriage, \ hour on foot) while he was in the island. About a quarter of a mile from Charlestown on rising ground is the old Queen's House, which is now the local hospital. The Jew's Burial Ground on the north of the Government road and to the south-west of Ramsbury estate, which has lately been cleared of bush by Mr. H. C. Huggins, has much historic interest. At St. Thomas', Lowland (about 3 miles from Charlestown), there is a curious old tombstone, rescued some years ago from an old Quaker burial ground at Pollards, by the late Hon. P. T. Huggins, on which is inscribed the following epitaph upon Captain Jacob Lake, who succeeded Sir Thomas Warner as Governor of Nevis : Here lyes the Mirour of each martiall mind Religion who confirmed and refind In all his actions who was fortunate An atlas to support the weight of state This ilands safgard and her foes decrease The flower of armes and the tower of peace Now Nevis mourne reading this epitaph Here Jacob resteth and here lyes your staffe. Here lyeth the Body of Captaine Jacob Lake Esquier late Governour of this Iland Nevis who departed this life in October 1649."

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ANGUILLA 331 By the side of this tombstone is another to the memory of Governor Lake's daughter. A drive Round the Island is to be recommended. The distance is 20 miles, and the time required from 3 to 4 hours. The road is excellent, and the views obtained en route surpassingly attractive. To Newcastle at the extreme north of the island the distance is 7-$miles. The ascent of Mount Nevis, or Nevis Peak (3596 ft.), though unattended with difficulty, should be undertaken by the able-bodied only. The view depends largely upon atmospheric conditions, there being frequently a cloud capping the summit. When the weather is favourable, Barbuda, Redonda, St. Kitts, St. Eustatius, and Saba can be distinctly seen. Time should be considered as being of no object, and refreshments should be taken to beguile the tedium of the journey ANGUILLA The snakeless Snake Island GENERAL ASPECT. Anguilla, the most northerly of the Leeward Islands, about sixty miles north-west of St. Kitts, has an area of thirty-five square miles. The Dogs and neighbouring islets are dependencies of it. It consists of coral lying on trap rock and covered at irregular intervals by a mixture of red or yellow clay with coralline debris. Over about one-third of its area the coral is seen jutting out in boulders of various sizes, or stretching in belts from one side of the island to the other, and over another third there is but a thin layer of soil which is not sufficiently deep for agricultural purposes. The remaining third is very fertile. INDUSTRIES. Cotton is now being successfully cultivated in the island, the chief industries of which have hitherto been the raising of live-stock and the production of salt and garden stock. CLIMATE. Anguilla, which has a population of 4400, is very healthy.

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332 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES HISTORY. The island, which derives its name from its resemblance to a snake, or possibly from its having been supposed to be infested with snakes, was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage in 1493. [It was colonised by the English in 1650. In 1689 the settlers, having been maltreated by the Irish and French, were transferred to Antigua. MONTSERRAT The Emerald Isle of the West GENERAL ASPECT. Montserrat, which lies in latitude 16 45' N. and longitude 6i W., 27 miles to the south-west of Antigua and 33 to 35 miles from Nevis, has an area of about 32^ square miles, and a population of 12,215. It is entirely volcanic, and has three groups of mountains, the highest elevation being the Soufriere (3002 ft.) in the southern part of the island. The hills rise in steady slopes from the sea, and are cultivated to a height of 1500 feet. The cultivated land is mainly on the western and southeastern sides. A natural forest clothes the summits of the two main ranges, and as a consequence streams are plentiful ; but the northern hills being almost denuded of trees, the land in that part of the island is for the most part dry and unprofitable. Plymouth, the chief town (population 1461), stands on the south-west coast, and has an open roadstead ; behind it is St. George's Hill, standing out by itself. A peculiarity about the island is that its inhabitants speak with a distinct Irish brogue, which is traceable to the fact that in the seventeenth century the island was almost entirely peopled by Irish. INDUSTRIES. Sugar is still produced in Montserrat, but only to a small extent, and it no longer ranks as the principal industry. The cultivation of Sea Island cotton has now taken its place and many acres are devoted to this crop. The cultivation of limes, originally begun by Mr. Burke in 1852, has since been carried on by the well-known Birmingham family of Sturge, and though the

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MONTSERRAT 333 plantations were devastated by a hurricane on August 7, 1899, they were with characteristic energy replanted, and the exports of limes and lime products have regained their former dimensions. Papain, the dried juice of the papaw, which is well known for its remarkable digestive qualities, is also being exported in considerable quantities. The principal exports in the year 19 14 (which went mainly to the United Kingdom) were as follows : Sea Island cotton, 289,234 lbs. . £19,356 Lime-juice and limes . 10,456 Sugar, 104 tons . . 1,913 Papain ...... 1 ,606 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the island is shown by the following comparative table of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ £ £ £ 1903-4 7.599 9,361 21,279 16,424 1904-5 7,^37 8,361 20,885 21,640 1905-6 7A33 7,107 18,053 22,209 1 906-7 S,73^ 6,578 22,507 22,486 1907-8 10,233 8,5i5 32,756 35,103 1908-9 10,950 8,796 4 ,i32 45,304 1909-10 10,612 7,807 3i,343 34,569 1910-11 12,262 11,365 38,106 34,393 1911-12 12,944 10,030 44,795 55,930 1912-13 n,93 2 10,556 40,526 42,053 CLIMATE. The climate of Montserrat is comparatively cool and very healthy, there being no indigenous malaria in the island, owing, probably, to the fact that it is so well drained. Though the southern part is rather dry as the result of deforestation, the north has an abundance of water. The mean annual temperature is 78 Fahr., the rainfall from 40 to 80 inches. The birth-rate is about 25 and the deathrate only 16 per 1000. HISTORY. Montserrat was discovered by Columbus in 1493, on his second voyage, and named by him after a

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334 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES mountain near Barcelona in Spain. It was first colonised by the English under Sir Thomas Warner in 1632, but was captured from them by the French in 1664. In 1668 it was restored to England, in whose possession it remained until 1782, when it capitulated to the French. It was again ceded to England in 1784, and since that date it has remained a British colony. CONSTITUTION. Montserrat, which is one of the islands of the British Leeward Islands colony, has an Executive and a Legislative Council over which the Commissioner presides in the absence of the Governor. The King may appoint to the Council such persons, not exceeding four in all, as he may think fit, every councillor holding office during his Majesty's pleasure. Commissioners since 1872 Neale Porter . 1872 John Spencer Churchill 1887 Edward Baynes ..... 1899 F. H. Watkins, I.S.O. 1900 Lt.-Col. W. B. Davidson Houston, C.M.G. 1906 HOTEL. Plymouth. Good accommodation can be got at Coco-nut Hill House, on a hill five minutes' walk from the town. Board and lodging, 8s. per day. Mr. Dudley Johnson, the proprietor, who is the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company's agent, meets the steamers as a rule and pays great attention to the comfort of his guests. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Montserrat is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7 and 13 (see pages 14 to 27). The boat fare from steamer to the shore is 15. per passenger. Weekly communication is maintained with Antigua and St. Kitts by a Government contract sloop. There are good driving roads through the island, but no livery stables ; carriages and ponies can, however, always be obtained. SPORTS. There is -a, lawn-tennis club and also a good cricket club, to both of which visitors are admitted. There are, too, a few private lawntennis courts. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Plymouth, the capital (population 1 461) has few attractions for visitors. The

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MONTSERRAT 335 churches, schools, and rectories in Montserrat all suffered very severely from the hurricane of 1899. Of the large school chapel of St. Mary's, situated in the town, only the chancel escaped destruction. The chapel was built in 1838 as a thank-offering for the emancipation of the slaves, and it was enlarged in 1885. In St. Anthony's Church, just outside the town, are tablets to the memory of the Laffoon family, 1772, and the Hon.Alex Gordon, President of the island, who died on June 16, 1790. The original church was rebuilt in 1730, enlarged in 1893, and restored in 1900, after being destroyed by the hurricane in the preceding year. The silver chalices which form part of the communion plate bear an inscription to the effect that they were presented by the freed slaves as a thank-offering. They are inscribed : "This Chalice was presented by the Free Labourers of this Island as a thank-offering to God for the Blessing of Freedom vouchsafed them on the 1st August 1838." In the south part of the island there is a school chapel built in 1 891 and dedicated to St. Patrick. Government House (5 minutes' walk from Plymouth) is an imposing-looking building of three stories surrounded by wide verandahs on the cliffs facing the sea. It stands on the site of a former Government House erected in 1750, and is surrounded by very beautiful grounds. Gage's Soufriere (J hour's ride) and South Soufriere (1 \ hour's ride) should both be seen. Gage's Soufriere is quite near Plymouth, and is easily accessible. It would be an ideal spot for the erection of a bathing establishment, as there are hot and cold springs near it, the former being impregnated with mineral matter, chiefly calcium chloride. South Soufriere is beautifully situated on the south side of Chances Mountain, which rises to a height of 3002 feet in the southern group. It has several boiling springs and vents which emit steam and sulphurous vapours. Around it there are deposits of gypsum and sulphur. A drive to Harris Village (about four miles from Plymouth) in the hills near the centre of the island is worth taking for the sake of the beautiful tropical scenery.

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33 6 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES The island was once strongly fortified, and the ruins of many forts and batteries, including Fort Harrington and Fort St. George, can be visited. From the position of these defences, which protected the various roads and passes, it is evident that the fortifications were very carefully planned. Fort St. George is on the summit of St. George's Hill (1200 ft.), a ride of about 20 minutes from Plymouth. It commands a fine view of the town and surrounding country. Fort Barrington is an easy walk of about 20 minutes from Plymouth. Visits may also be made to cotton, lime, and cocoa plantations. Few islands offer greater facilities for growing citrus fruits, spices, vanilla, and tropical produce generally. Though the island is, perhaps, less prosperous than some of its neighbours, the fortunes of Montserrat are in the ascendant. This is clearly shown by the rapid growth in the value of its exports in recent years, the figures of which are shown on page 333. For visitors in search of quiet Montserrat affords a delightful haven of rest, and when the island becomes better known it will certainly be more appreciated. DOMINICA Animis opibusque parati" The Island's Motto. GENERAL ASPECT. Dominica, which is the largest of the Leeward Islands, and the third in size of the British West Indian Islands, is 29 miles long by 16 miles broad, with a total area of 291 square miles, and a population of 31,943. It lies between latitudes 15 io' and 15 40" N. and longitudes 61 14' and 61 30' W., 85 miles south-east of Montserrat and half-way between the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, from each of which it is distant about 30 miles. The island is of volcanic formation and very mountainous, having a range of lofty hills running north and south, with spurs branching off to the sea. Its mountains tower above those of all the other Antilles, and Morne Diablotin (over 5000 ft.) is the culminating peak of the Caribbean Andes. Dominica is well watered, and is said

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DOMINICA m to have 365 rivers, or one for every day in the year, though new-comers are generally told that one or two more have just been discovered The rivers, which teem with fish, rise in the higher lands, and often form grand waterfalls in the course of their journey to the sea. The principal of them are the Layou and Pagoua, which nearly intersect the range of mountains in the middle of the island. At this part, the range resolves itself into undulating country of some 20,000 acres in extent, varying from 200 to 1500 feet in height, called the Layou Flats. This district, which is very fertile and admirably adapted for the cultivation of cocoa, coffee, limes, rubber, spices, oranges, and almost every kind of tropical produce, has undergone rapid development since it was rendered accessible by the Imperial Road, which is eighteen miles in length and extends to Bassinville. Roseau, the capital, on the leeward side of the island, has only an open roadstead, but Prince Rupert's Bay, on the west coast, near the north of the island, is a very fine natural harbour which would make a splendid coaling station if it were properly developed. It is protected by two hills — the Cabrits — at the end of a promontory on the north, which was once strongly fortified. William Gifford Palgrave, the great writer and traveller, considered that the natural beauty of Dominica surpassed that of any island in the eastern or western tropics. "In the wild grandeur of its towering mountains," he wrote, some of which rise to 5000 feet above the level of the sea ; in the majesty of its almost impenetrable forests ; in the gorgeousness of its vegetation ; the abruptness of its precipices, the calm of its lakes, the violence of its torrents, the sublimity of its waterfalls, it stands without a rival, not in the West Indies only, but, I should think, throughout the whole island catalogue of the Atlantic and Pacific combined." Twenty years ago the island was a veritable Sleepy Hollow of poverty and decadence, but now signs of progress and prosperity are in evidence on every side. INDUSTRIES. The early French settlers pinned their faith on coffee, and by the end of the eighteenth century the exports of this commodity were valued at no less than £6,000,000. Then the plantations were attacked by blight

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338 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES and, in the place of coffee, sugar was cultivated on tlic lower lands and about 6000 hogsheads were exported annually. Sugar has, however, for various reasons, long since ceased to be an important article of export from Dominica, and in many seasons only just enough is now manufactured in the island to satisfy local requirements. When the price of sugar fell to a point which made it no longer a remunerative crop, the planters, under the lead of Dr. John Imray, had the foresight to turn their attention to other industries, with the result that the products of the lime-tree (citrus acida var. medico) — under which are included fresh and pickled limes, raw and concentrated lime juice, citrate of lime, essential oil, and otto of limes — cocoa, and oranges are now the principal articles exported. As a limeproducing island Dominica is now far ahead of Montserrat, which received rather a severe setback from a hurricane in 1899, and as a cocoa-producing island more will be heard of Dominica in the near future when the numerous plantations established by enterprising young settlers from England come into full bearing. The island has a great variety of timber, the virgin forests containing lofty trees of fine woods for cabinet and building purposes, and sulphur must also be included among its products. Para rubber (Hevea bvasiliensis) is grown on several estates, and the quality produced has been favourably reported upon. Now that arrangements have been completed for insurance against damage and loss from hurricanes, Dominica offers as good security for the investment of capital as Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, and other places far more distant. The principal exports in the year 19 12 were as follows : Limes and lime products (Barrels of fruit) . 370,000 £96,673 Cocoa (lbs.) . 1,083,538 20,881 Essential oils (galls:) . 6436 5516 The direction of the trade of the colony in the same year was : Imports. Exports. £ £ United Kingdom . 65,436 ... 58,389 British Colonies . 45,253 ... 9,365 Foreign Countries . 50,412 ... 54,611

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DOMINICA 339 FINANCIAL POSITION. The following is a comparative table of the revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, of the colony for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports.* Exports.* £ i £ £ 1903-4 31,443 3C33I 95,419 69,384 1904-5 30,982 31,032 91,088 63,016 1905-6 32,499 33,874 95,358 78,035 1 906-7 34,149 31,055 103,224 106,246 1907-8 39,865 3L468 121,650 124,294 1908-9 40,500 36,541 I53,IH 112,013 1909-10 38,937 41,276 128,779 102,339 1910-11 4 J ,473 39,o5o 147,322 112,111 1911-12 43,7i8 38,399 164,695 124,678 1912-13 45,i85 40,123 J59-529 152,458 For calendar years 1903-12. CLIMATE. The climate of Dominica, which is always healthy, is at its best from the end of October until the beginning of June. The temperature on the sea-board varies from 70 Fahr. to 90 Fahr., but in the hills it frequently falls as low as 6o Fahr. The rainfall varies considerably, being about 80 inches in some parts and over 250 inches in others. During the winter months there is an almost constant sea-breeze blowing, and the nights are always cool. For over fifty years there has been no case of yellow fever in the island. The birth-rate is 24 and the death-rate only 22 per 1000. The climate is specially suited to people with a tendency to pulmonary complaints. Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls has certified that for over thirty years no cases of typhus, enteric, or scarlet fever have occurred, and that white residents enjoy remarkable longevity. HISTORY. Dominica derives its name from the fact that it was discovered by Columbus on a Sunday — the actual day being Sunday, November 3, 1493. The island was included in a grant with several others to the Earl of Carlisle ; but every attempt to subdue the original Carib inhabitants having failed, it was agreed by the Treaty of

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340 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, that Dominica, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Tobago should be considered neutral, and that the Caribs should be left in undisturbed possession of them. In spite of this arrangement, the French, attracted by its great fertility, settled in the island and established plantations, but Dominica was wrested from them by the English in 1759, and assigned to Great Britain by the Peace of Paris in 1763. The lands were surveyed and sold by Commissioners in London in lots for £312,092. In 1778 the island was invaded by a French force under the Marquis de Bouille, from Martinique, and the garrison capitulated on September 7, after a stubborn resistance. The French troops marched into Roseau, as we read in most regular and solemn order, the drums beating a slow march, and the French soldiers, with small boughs and flowers in their hats by way of laurels, with assumed fierce countenances as they came by our small force, seemed to threaten it with instant dissolution." Matters became critical for the English, and island after island fell into the hands of the French ; but Rodney saved the situation by inflicting a severe defeat on the French fleet under De Grasse in the memorable sea fight between Dominica and Guadeloupe on April 12, 1782, described on page 348, and Dominica, with all the other islands except Tobago, was restored to Great Britain by the Treaty of Versailles in the following year. The inhabitants were greatly elated at the restoration of British rule, and were so eager to assist in hoisting the standard of England on the flagstaff, that they nearly pulled the halliards to pieces and broke down the flagstaff by the force of their numbers. The French republican, Victor Hugues, invaded the island with a force from Guadeloupe in 1795, but he was beaten off, and the only other attempt to seize it was in 1805, when 4000 French soldiers under General La Grange landed, and, covered by an overwhelming fire from the ships, captured Roseau. The British Governor, Brigadier-General Prevost, effected a retreat to the fort at Prince Rupert's Bay at the north. But the task of reducing the colony proved too much for the invaders, and after burning Roseau — accidentally, it is stated — and exacting a payment of £12,000 from the inhabitants, they withdrew after five days, having

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DOMINICA 341 vainly summoned the Governor to surrender, and sailed to Guadeloupe. The House of Assembly voted General Prevost 1000 guineas for the purchase of a sword and a service of plate ; the Patriotic Fund voted him /ioo for a sword, and £200 for a piece of plate, and he was also presented by the West India Committee with a piece of plate of the value of three hundred guineas in recognition of the distinguished gallantry and high military talents which he displayed on this occasion." On his return to England he was created a baronet. The centenary of this period, which is still spoken of locally as La Grange," was celebrated in Dominica in 1905, when an exchange of courtesies by cable took place between the officers of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, which formed part of the defending force (the rest consisting of the Royal Artillery, the 1st West India Regiment, and the Colonial Militia), and the Administrator of the colony. A regimental dinner was held in honour of the occasion, at which plate presented to the regiment by the grateful colonists was used. CONSTITUTION. The local government in Dominica, which was incorporated with the Leeward Islands in 1833, is conducted by an Administrator, assisted by an Executive Council of ten members. In July 1898, the Legislative Assembly, which was previously partly elected and partly nominated, passed an Act abrogating itself, and substituting the Crown Colony system. The new Council consists of twelve members, six official and six unofficial, all nominated by the Government under Royal letters patent. The Administrator presides in the absence from the Presidency of the Governor of the Leeward Islands. Administrators since 1887 George R. Le Hunte .... 1887 P. A. Templer, C.M.G. . .1895 H. Hesketh Bell, C.M.G. . .1899 W. Douglas Young, C.M.G. . 1906 Edward Drayton, C.M.G. . 191 3 HOTELS. Roseau. Good accommodation can be had at Mrs. Musgrave's boarding-house, the terms for board and lodging being 8s. 4^. per day, or £8 6s. Sd. per month.

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342 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES At the boarding-houses of Miss Shew and Miss Jolly the terms are 85. 4$. per day, with special rates for a prolonged stay. At the Hotel de Paz (Ferreira Co.) the terms for board and lodging are 12s. per day and upwards. Rooms 75. per day. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. The island is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 7, 8, 13 and 19 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The landing charge for steamer to the shore is 6d. The island being very mountainous and the rainfall heavy, it is difficult to keep the roads in good repair, and consequently carriages are not plentiful, and there are only one or two places where they are hired out as a business ; but though fifteen years ago there was only one buggy in the whole island there is now no great difficulty about obtaining one when required. As there is no fixed legal tariff, it is advisable to settle terms before hiring. Riding is the principal means of getting about. The local horses or ponies are small, but sturdy and sure-footed. They can be hired in Roseau at from 6s. to 85. 4^. for the day. On Sundays most people go out of Roseau into the country, and it is advisable to order horses a few days before, if they are required for that day. Coasting Steamer Sefvice Time taken from Roseau. Forward Aft or Stations from or Deck. Saloon. Roseau to : Hrs. s. d. 5. d. Mahaut . i 6 1 St. Joseph 1 6 1 6 Colihaut 2 1 2 6 Portsmouth 3* 1 4 Hampstead 3* 2 6 Marigot 5* 2 • 8 Pointe Michel i 4 9 Soufriere 6 1 6 Stowe *b 1 3 Point Mulatre 3 1 6 4 Rosalie 4hr. 40 m. 1 9 5 Saturday excursion to Portsmouth .... — — 4 6 Excursion round the island — — 10

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DOMINICA 343 The coasting steamer Yare of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, which leaves Roseau every few days — inquiries should be made of the local agents — gives visitors an opportunity of seeing many points of interest round the island. The ports and fares are given on the opposite page : The Yare also visits Martinique (6 hrs., 14s. ; return £1 is.) and St. Lucia (12 hrs., £1 ; return £1 10s.) weekly, leaving, at present, on Sunday and returning on Tuesday. SPORTS. Cricket, lawn-tennis, and croquet are the principal amusements, and there are clubs devoted to each, to which visitors are admitted if introduced by members. The lawn-tennis courts of the Dominica Recreation Club, which was founded in 191 1, are said to be among the best in the West Indies. Cycling is possible over a limited area. A certain amount of shooting can be had, but it is scarcely worth the import duty on guns and cartridges. Wild pig are occasionally found in the interior, also agouti and opossum. There is fair river and sea fishing, and excellent river bathing. SOCIAL CLUB. The Dominica Club is a flourishing institution, open to visitors upon introduction. The Free Library — the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie — opened in 1906, overlooks the sea and is also accessible to visitors. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Roseau (population 5764), the chief town of Dominica, has, beyond its historical associations and a certain picturesque appearance, very little to commend it, though the country round is unequalled for beauty. It was in Roseau that Pere Labat, at the close of the seventeenth century, met Madame Ouvernard, the pure-blooded Carib Queen of the island, who was at the time of his visit one hundred years of age, and presented to her a couple of bottles of "eau-de-vie de Cannes"! The streets are wide, and during the last few years all the principal thoroughfares have been macadamised by the Roseau Town Board which, by setting a standard for new buildings, has also greatly improved the appearance of the town. The old streets have a gutter running down the middle, which is practically impassable during a tropical downpour of rain. The houses are for the most part constructed of wood, but many stand upon a stone foundation,

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344 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES A terrace of better built houses faces the sea. Two fine iron jetties have been built for the convenience of passengers and trade. The town is connected with the telephone system, which extends all over the island, and it is lighted by electric light, the electricity being generated by waterpower from one of the rivers. The Post Office is situated almost opposite the new "Bell" jetty, and can be seen from the steamer. The Victoria Museum, in a building formerly occupied by the Victoria Memorial Library, was opened on October 23, 1 91 1. It contains an interesting entomological collection, Dominican and West Indian Carib stone implements, &c. The Protestant Church of St. George's was built in 1820 with money provided by a grant from the Legislature aided by public subscriptions, to replace one destroyed by a hurricane in 1 81 8. It is a substantial stone building of no particular architectural merit ; but the interior has a reverent and dignified aspect. The beautiful windows in the church were put in to the memory of various members of the Stedman family, which for nearly a century has been connected with the chief mercantile house in the island. The various mural tablets bear names of many who have been intimately connected with the government of Dominica, including the Hon. James Laidlaw, Deputy Commissary General Price, Lieut.-Col. Ernes, William Frederic Scott Nicolay, Major John Langley, &c. In the churchyard stands the Imray Memorial School, a handsome wooden structure built by local members of the Church of England in memory of Dr. John Imray, to whom Dominica owes much of its present prosperity through the introduction of lime cultivation. In the old Church of England cemetery there are many interesting ancient tombstones, some of which date back to 1780. The Roman Catholic Cathedral also merits inspection. By far the greater number of inhabitants are Roman Catholics. The Market, situated to the left of the Bell jetty and at the back of the Post Office, though less commodious than others in the West Indies, is well built, and amply serves its purpose. There is also a railed-off space forming an open market, for the use of which a small toll is exacted

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ROSEAU, DOMINICA, FROM THE SEA Where Pere Labat met the Carib Queen and gave her eau-de-vie A TYPICAL VALLEY IN DOMINICA The Island has many fertile spots like this awaiting development

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DOMINICA 345 from those having wares and produce to sell. Early in the morning, during market hours, the scene here is busy and exceedingly diverting. Near the mouth of the Roseau River there is also a fish market. The Public Garden was laid out under the care of Dr. John Imray, as a memorial of the federation of the Leeward Islands. Fort Young, built in 1775, is now used as a Police Station, and the Ordnance Stores, built in 1784, have been turned into a Boys' School. The Botanic Garden at the back of Roseau, about half a mile from the landing-place and on the right-hand side of the road which leads up the Roseau valley, is well laid out, and forms a neverfailing source of interest to visitors. It was started during the governorship of Sir William Haynes-Smith in 1891. Almost every variety of tropical plant known can be seen there, and the oranges, limes, cocoa, rubber, nutmegs, pine-apples, &c, which are cultivated in quarter-acre patches, serve to show at a glance the advantages of the soil and climate of Dominica. Immediately above the garden to the south-west, is the Morne Bruce, an elevated plateau about 500 feet above the level of the sea. In a military burial-ground behind the Morne many British soldiers were laid to rest in the days when Dominica was garrisoned. The conventional tomb surrounded by railings is the last resting-place of General Trotter. The cemetery has in recent years been cleared of bush and planted with palms in the form of a cross. The Morne enjoys the reputation of being haunted, and the black folk will tell you that on dark nights the tramp of phantom soldiers and the notes of the bugle can be heard there. On the edge of the Morne, overlooking the garden, are precipitous cliffs, having at the foot easy slopes suitable for cultivation. The land is undulating, with a| rich sheltered hollow immediately under the Morne. In other places the soil is somewhat stony, and not so suitable for the growth of plants. There is, however, no part of the land not adapted to some cultivation or other. The site is well sheltered from prevailing winds to the south and east. An abundant supply of water is available from the

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346 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES mains of the Roseau reservoir, which pass through the middle of the station. The Bar Gate oJ Loubiere, J mile south of Roseau, is a narrow pass which was the scene of the successful defence of the colony when it was attacked by General La Grange in 1805 (see page 340). The famous Sulphur Springs of Wotton Waven, which are said to afford a remarkable cure for rheumatism and aches and pains in general, are an hour's ride from Roseau. The excursion to the Waterfalls, a ride of 1 J hours, through the beautiful Roseau Valley, is deservedly popular. Another favourite expedition, and one which will give the visitor an insight into the glories of tropical scenery, is that to the Freshwater Lake in the interior of the island. The lake is situated at an altitude of 3000 feet, and can be reached on horse-back in from 2 J to 3 hours. The ride is a delightful one, not the least pleasing feature of it being the shrill note and incessant humming of the humming-birds, the sound of which is in marked contrast to the funereal tone of the "Simeur Montagne," a bird of brilliant red and blue plumage, only to be found at high altitudes in Dominica. The Freshwater Lake in itself presents no remarkable features ; but it is an object of awe and dread to the superstitious blacks, who associated it with all kinds of terrifying fables. Some believe it to be bottomless, and connected by an underground channel with a certain part of the sea between Pointe Michel and Soufriere called l'Abime or l'Abys. They aver that this theory must be correct, for a brave Carib chief once dived into the lake, and reappeared at L'Abime. Others allege that a mermaid lives in the water, and that she will assuredly drag them to her subaqueous home unless they devoutly cross themselves and utter certain incantations The origin of such tales is probably to be traced to the legend related by Oldmixon as far back as 1708. The natives, he said, tell all strangers "a ftrange Tale of a vaft monftrous Serpent, that had its Abode in the before-mentioned Bottom [an inaccessible Bottom among the high mountains]. They affirm' d, there was in the Head of it a very fparkling Stone, like a Carbuncle of ineftimable Price ; that the Monfter commonly veil'd

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DOMINICA 347 that rich Jewel with a thin moving skin, like that of a Man's Eyelid, and when it went to drink or f ported itself in the deep Bottom, it fully difcover'd it, and the Rocks all about receiv'd a wonderful Luftre from the Fire iiluing out of that precious Gem." There is a rude shelter by the side of the lake, where mules can be tied up while the visitor proceeds afoot to the famous Rosalie View. Here there is one of the most magnificent vistas in the West Indies. From a foreground of tall tree-ferns, rubber trees, and a wealth of tropical foliage, stretch eight or nine miles of densely wooded valley and mountain, ending in the dim and blue distance with the surf-fringed shore of Rosalie Bay on the windward coast. A visit to the Boiling Lake, which was rediscovered about twenty years ago by a party of three, headed by Dr. H. A. A. Nicholls, is a more serious undertaking altogether. The lake is really an active volcano, and may be described as a small geyser of boiling sulphur, about 300 feet long by 200 feet wide. The journey to it is arduous, and is not unattended with considerable risk. Visitors to the lake usually camp out in the woods or sleep at the village of Laudat overnight, in order to enable them to begin the more difficult part of their journey in the early morning. Two mountains, each about 3000 feet high, have to be traversed, and the descent of the second of these, the Morne Nicholls, is extremely dangerous, especially in wet weather, when the slightest slip may land one in a boiling spring at the bottom. Having safely negotiated these mountains, the Valley of Desolation is reached. Rightly has it received this appellation, for a more desolate locality it would be hard to find Its chief characteristic is a number of springs of a variety of colours — coffee-coloured, red, black, and ashy-grey. After an hour's steady walking and climbing over gargantuan boulders, the lake itself is reached. The sight is awe-inspiring indeed. Frequently a rumbling is heard, and a large column of water is ejected to a height of 10 feet, while periodically the whole of the lake is emptied by means, it is presumed, of some subterranean channel. Palgrave. who visited the lake in 1876, described the phenomenon in these terms in his essay West Indian Memories ;

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348 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Fenced in by steep, mostly indeed perpendicular banks, varying from sixty to a hundred feet high, cut out in ash and pumice, the lake rages and roars like a wild beast in its cage ; the surface, to which such measurements as we could make assigned about two hundred yards in length by more than half the same amount in breadth, is that of a gigantic seething cauldron covered with rapid steam, through which, when the veil is for a moment blown apart by the mountain breeze, appears a confused mass of tossing waves, crossing and clashing in every direction — a chaos of boiling waters. Towards the centre, where the ebullition is at its fiercest, geyser -like masses are being constantly thrown up to the height of several feet, not on one exact spot, but shifting from side to side, each fresh burst being preceded by a noise like that of cannon fired off at some great depth below • while lesser jets often suddenly make their appearance nearer the sides of the lake. A ride should be taken along the Imperial Road, so named because it was a gift to the island from the Mother Country in 1898. The road was begun in 1899, and the cost, which was ^15,000, was defrayed from Imperial funds. It is eighteen miles in length and extends to Bassinville. Unfortunately it has not been kept in as good a state of repair as is desirable, and it sadly needs metalling. The views from Sylvania of the mountains, and from Lancashire through the valley to the sea, seven miles distant, are indescribably beautiful. A few miles farther on is Riversdale, situated at the highest part of the Layou Flats. A ride or drive for a few miles along the Coast Road to the north or south of Roseau conveys to the European visitor a good idea of the dwellings and of the manners and customs of the West Indian peasantry, which are a neverending source of interest. About two miles to the south of the town is the fishing village of La Pointe Michel, which is fringed with graceful coco-nut palms. Many of the residents are refugees from the Martinique villages which were destroyed by the eruptions of Mont Pele. A trip Round the island in the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company's coasting steamer Yare is well worth taking, giving as it does an opportunity of seeing Prince Rupert's Bay and the scene of Rodney's victory over De Grasse in 1782. Island after island had fallen into the hands of the French, who were contemplating an immediate descent upon Jamaica, and the outlook was dark indeed when on February

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DOMINICA 349 19 Sir George Rodney arrived at Barbados. He proceeded to Gros Islet Bay, Saint Lucia, where he was kept informed by a chain of frigates and look-outs on Pigeon Island of the movements of De Grasse, who was lying in Fort Royal Bay, Martinique. On April 8 a preliminary engagement took place between Sir Samuel Hood and the French Admiral. Four days later, on the eventful April 12, one of De Grasse's vessels, which had lost her foremast and bowsprit, was being towed into Guadeloupe by a frigate when Rodney gave chase. De Grasse at once formed his line of battle. Rodney recalled his chasing ships and followed suit. An engagement soon became general. This was at 7 a.m., and at 11 the breeze freshened, and Rodney and Hood closed up with the enemy's van. The ships of the two fleets were in parallel line, and sailing in opposite directions, when Rodney, seizing his opportunity, executed the brilliant manoeuvre, ever after famous, of breaking the enemy's line. By thus dividing the enemy's fleet into two divisions he secured a complete and signal victory. In the Formidable (90 guns) he next endeavoured to engage the Ville de Paris, sinking on his way the Diademe with a single broadside. Though he failed at once to reach the flagship, she was compelled to yield to the Barfleur, De Grasse fighting gallantly to the last, until only he himself and two unwounded men remained on the upper deck. This was at 6.30 p.m. The English lost 261 killed and 837 wounded ; while of the French, no fewer than 14,000 were accounted for as being killed and wounded. In this memorable engagement, which secured to us our West Indian Colonies, the English fleet was slightly superior in numbers, consisting of 36 ships and 2640 guns, as compared with 34 ships and 2560 guns of the French, but the latter carried an extra complement of 5500 men and a complete train of battering guns and field pieces for the conquest of Jamaica. The Ville de Paris, a magnificent threedecker of 2300 tons and no guns, which was the gift of the City of Paris to Louis XV, and cost £176,000 — no small sum for a single ship in those days — was sent home by Rodney as a prize with five others, and with three of his own ships which had been seriously damaged, under the

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350 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES command of Admiral Graves, but unfortunately she and the Glorieux went down in a hurricane with all hands. A florid clock from the superb French vessel, the solitary hand of which was moved by the sentry on duty, can be seen at the Museum of the United Service Institution in Whitehall. Rodney reached England on September 21, 1782, and was at once raised to the peerage and granted a pension of £2000 a year in addition to the similar amount which he was receiving as a reward for defeating De Guichen off Martinique in 1780. He died on May 21, 1792, and a monument was erected to his memory at the Nation's expense in St. Paul's Cathedral. In the market-place at Portsmouth, at the head of the bay, is an old stone structure, about 4 feet square, in a fair state of preservation. It is commonly called Prince Rupert's tomb, but is said to be that of Lord Cathcart, who died at sea while on a military expedition, and is alleged to have been buried here. In 1887 it was opened by some enterprising young midshipmen in the presence of Sir Clements Markham, who was the guest of his cousin in the Active, but no vestige of any remains was found. On an old War Office plan dated 1771, by Robert George Bruce and Nathan Marshall, engineers, it is certainly marked as Lord Cathcart' s monument. On the Cabrits, the hills which form the north arms of the bay, are the old Governor's residence and the military buildings erected probably in 1770. Nelson, when on the West Indian station in the Boreas, frequently put into this harbour for wood and water. By those desirous of visiting the Carib Settlement, the coastal steamer should be taken to Marigot, whence it can be reached on foot or horse-back, the distance being 11 miles. Permission can readily be obtained to visit lime and cocoa estates, and many profitable days can be spent by the more enterprising visitors in exploring the virgin forests which still cover a great part of this beautiful island. It is estimated that the available Crown Lands in Dominica comprise about 100,000 acres. They are sold at an upset price of 10s. per acre, and payment for blocks exceeding

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THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 351 100 acres can be spread over three or four years if desired. There is abundant room for young and energetic white settlers with a capital of ^1500 and upwards, who can devote their attention to cocoa, lime, and rubber cultivation, while enjoying life amidst glorious scenery and healthy surroundings. THE VIRGIN ISLANDS St. Ursula's Archipelago GENERAL ASPECT. The Virgin Islands consist of a group which lies in latitude 18 27' N. and longitude 64 39/ W. about 60 miles to the eastward of Porto Rico. The British islands in this group include Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, Jost van Dyke, Peter's Island, and Salt Island, besides numerous small islets, and they have a total area of 58 square miles, and a population of 5562, or 95.9 to the square mile. Denmark owns St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix (see page 367), and America, Bieques or Crab Island and Culebra, the two islands nearest to Porto Rico ; but it is doubtful whether all of these can properly be included in the Virgin group. Tortola (population 4222) — the name is the Spanish for turtle dove — is hilly and rugged, Mount Sage rising to a height of 1780 feet. It is an irregularshaped island, 10 miles long by 3 J broad, and is divided from Virgin Gorda by a channel known as Sir Francis Drake's Channel, through which that great navigator took his ships on his way to attack Porto Rico in 1595. Roadtown, the chief town (population 410), is a port of registry, and Road Harbour, on which it stands, is about 1 mile long by £ mile wide. It faces southeast and has a safe approach and deep water. Jost Van Dyke (population 350) is a rugged and mountainous little island due west of Tortola. Its name indicates its probable Dutch discovery and colonisation. Virgin Gorda (population 417) lies to the north-east of Tortola. It is square in shape, with two arms extending to the north-east and south-west, and it is almost broken into two distinct parts.

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352 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the south-west peninsula being flat, while the rest is rugged and mountainous, Virgin Gorda Peak rising to a height of 1370 feet. On the north side is Gorda Sound, forming a capacious and well protected, though not very accessible, harbour, and the south-western end is strewn with huge masses of granite extending to the south in a series of islets, the most notable of which, from its likeness to a ruined city, is known as the Old or Fallen Jerusalem. Hakluyt thus described Virgin Gorda : "La Virgin Gorda is an high island and round, and seeing it you shall espie all the rest of the Virgines which lie east and west one from another and are bare, without any trees." Anegada (population 459), the "inundated" island, is the most northerly of the Lesser Antilles. It has an area of 13 square miles and a population of 300. Sombrero (population 5) — known to generations of sailors as Spanish Hat, owing to its peculiar shape — is a bare rock rising from the sea to a height of 40 feet in the broad channel dividing the Virgin Islands from the Leeward Islands, to neither of which it belongs at present, though it is British. An English manof-war's man named Jeffery was marooned on this island in 1807 by his commander as a punishment. He sustained life for eight days on a few limpets and rain-water, and was then saved by an American vessel on December 13, 1807. He received ^600 compensation from the British Government. Captain Lake, his commander, was courtmartialled and dismissed the service. Jeffery afterwards exhibited himself in London. Sombrero was once leased to a company which exported phosphates of lime, but the lease expired in 1893. O n August 10, 1904, an Order in Council was passed annexing the island to the Leeward Islands at a date to be appointed by the Governor by proclamation. The remaining English islands which are inhabited are Salt Island (population 52), Peter Island (population 42), and Thatch Island (population 15). INDUSTRIES. A small quantity of sugar is produced by peasants, who own and cultivate the land in the Virgin Islands. They also grow Sea Island cotton, raise cattle, and catch fish. They take their produce in small boats to St. Thomas, and this constant sailing among the reefs

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THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 353 and currents which surround the Virgin Islands makes them the finest seamen in the West Indies. They are a hardy, intelligent race, remarkably distinct from the inhabitants of the neighbouring islands. Their trade and intercourse is with the Danish islands, and to a smaller extent with Haiti and Santo Domingo. Fibrous plants, such as agaves and bromelias, grow wild in Tortola. The currency consists almost entirely of Danish silver and copper, which are not, however, legal tender. The native women are renowned for the Spanish drawn-thread work which they execute with great skill. The principal exports in the year 19 12-13 were as follows : Value. £ Cattle . 1,106 head 2,784 Charcoal . 4,325 barrels 30 Cotton . 49,483 lbs. 3,31 1 Limes ,1 ,000 barrels — FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the Virgin Islands is shown by the following comparative table of their revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ £ £ £ 1903-4 2166 2342 4631 5602 I904-5 2502 2431 5409 4556 1905-6 2477 2511 55" 5077 1906-7 2425 2032 6412 5760 1907-8 2335 2050 7009 5951 1908-9 2278 2251 8629 7150 1909-10 2371 2334 7579 7519 1910-n 6091 5964 8717 6684 1911-12 8200 6446 9570 8852 1912-13 4795 4980 10,323 7258 CLIMATE. The climate of the Virgin Islands is more healthy than that of many other West Indian islands, the heat being less great. The thermometer rarely rises over 90 Fahr., and at night often falls as low as 65 Fahr. The z

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354 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES average annual rainfall is about 55 inches. The islands are occasionally visited by hurricane 5. HISTORY. The Virgin Islands were discovered by CdHmbos :n his second voyage in 1493, and named by him in honour of St. Ursula and her fellow martyrs. Terrell if said e: have been rlrsr settled in 164S by Dutch buccaneers who were driven out by Englishmen of the same profession in 1666. The island and its dependencies —ere s::z afterwards annexed to the Leeward Islands dri --eminent in a :mmi:ss:m granted by Charles II to Sir Wflfiam Srapleton. CONSTITUTION. A civil government and courts of justice "ere established in the British Virgin Islands in :--:. In April 1S67, an ordinance was passed to amend the constitution of the colony. It was therein enacted that a Legislative Coancfl should be constituted, to consist of the Colonial Secretary, the Colonial Treasurer, and not more than three unofficial members to be nominated by the Administrator of the Government. This ordinance was repealed on May 1, 1902, and now the Governor of the Leeward Islands crdains the laws. There is also an Executive Counnl, C: :: : : ::'.:-: : : : 7 Mi Edward T. Cameron Mr. A. R_ Mackay Mr. X. G. Cookman Mr. R. S. Earl Mr. T. L. H. Jarvis :Sm 1894 1897 1903 1909 HOTELS. There ere a: hotels in the Virgin Islands. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. A "motor-launch frequently runs between Tortola and St. Thomas, which can be reached by the steamers of the companies numbered 3, 8, ijs and 19 in the list on pages :a te 2j. The ponies though small are very sure-footed. SPORTS. There is a Cricket Club in Tortola, and much enjoyment can be derived iron boating, shooting, and nshine. Tart : a : all e d loc ally ; Bas 5.. ' king-fish, cavally,

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THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 355 barracouta, &c, afford excellent sport for the rod, while pigeon, doves, and wild duck fall to the gun. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Many very pleasant rides can be enjoyed in Tortola, which has a coast road extending for a distance of 20 miles from the west to the east end, and also bridle-paths in the mountains. The views from the mountain tops are magnificent, and so rare is the atmosphere that islands fort}* miles distant can be seen from them on a clear day. Near Roadtown are the Botanical Gardens and the Experimental Station established under the Imperial Department of Agriculture in 1900. Beyond these, the principal sights are two old cemetries and Fort Charlotte, and an old Eort at Packwood Point. On Virgin Gorda are the natural baths formed of massive blocks of granite, said to have been used bv the Caribs, and the old copper-mine. On Salt Island the Salt Ponds are of interest, while on Norman Island the old Pirates' Caves should be visited. They can be reached in small boats. A few years ago an iron chest containing treasure was found in the caves.

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CHAPTER XII GUADELOUPE AND ITS DEPENDENCIES AND MARTINIQUE GUADELOUPE The Twin French Islands GENERAL ASPECT. Guadeloupe, which has an area of 619 square miles and a population of 190,273, lies between latitudes i559' and i62o' north and longitudes 6i3i / and 6i50 / west, between Montserrat and Dominica, and 79 miles north of Martinique. Properly speaking, it consists of two islands, Grande Terre (255 square miles) and Basse Terre (364 square miles) which are separated by the Riviere Salee, a salt river four miles long. The island is volcanic, and the highest peak, La Soufriere (4900 ft.), has numerous small craters, some of which still emit sulphurous fumes. At its side is the crater of l'Echelle, which has several active outlets. Grande Terre, the eastern portion of Guadeloupe, is flat, while the western division, Basse Terre, is very mountainous. The chief town is Pointe-a-Pitre (population 20,000) in Grande Terre, but Basse Terre (population 8626) is the seat of government. INDUSTRIES. Sugar, which is cultivated mainly in Grande Terre, is still the principal crop of Guadeloupe ; but cereals, cocoa, coffee, vanilla, cotton, cassava, yams, and potatoes are also produced. There is a heavy protective tariff against foreign goods, and the local love of politics has proved a serious hindrance to the development of the industries of the island. The principal exports in 191 2 were sugar, 42,441 tons ; coffee, 951,688 kilos ; and cocoa, 356

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GUADELOUPE 357 918,573 kilos. The trade of the island is mainly conducted with France. FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the Colony is shown by the following comparative table of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. Francs Francs Francs Francs 1903 5,290,928 5,263,415 16,359,061 17,812,489 1904 6,050,560 5,985,289 13,260,380 12,933,271 1 90S 4,862,21 1 4,812,137 13,438,419 15,637,471 1906 4,868,917 4,836,963 12,867,069 15,434,609 1907 4,780,813 4,690,620 13,425,655 16,268,946 1 908 5,708,447 5,619,409 15,076,507 17,360,443 1909 4,533.8i5 4,416,685 14,201,271 11,595,060 1910 4,663,667 4,663,667 16,804,237 24,053,098 191 1 4,559,583 4,559,583 19,383,258 20,245,486 1912 4,604,186 4,704,126 r9, 524,1 16 26,084,302 CLIMATE. The average temperature of Guadeloupe during the tourist months is 68 Fahr., and the climate is quite healthy. The rainy season extends from July to November, the cool season from December to March, and the dry season from April to June. The island has numerous thermal bath resorts, notably Eau de Dole, Sofaia, and Bains Jaunes. HISTORY. Guadeloupe was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and was so named by him as a compliment to the monks of the monastery of Guadeloupe in Estremadura. The island was first occupied by the French in 1635, and captured from them by the English in 1759. After that it constantly changed hands between the two ; but after its capture by the French in 18 10 it was handed to Sweden, by whom it was, however, relinquished in 18 14. In the next year it was again taken by the English, but restored to the French by the peace of 181 5. CONSTITUTION. The administration of Guadeloupe and its dependencies is vested in a Governor, who is assisted

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358 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES by a Privy Council and has under his order a Director of the Interior, a Procurator-General, and a Paymaster. There is also an elective General Council. The colony, which forms a department of France, is divided into three arrondissements, and comprises thirty-four communes with elective municipalities. HOTELS. The Hotel du Cours and the Anaida at Basse Terre, and the Hotel de Paris and the Hotel Moderne at Pointe-a-Pitre are recommended. The charges are moderate, board and lodging being 10 to 12 francs per day. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Guadeloupe is served by the steamship companies numbered 10 and 19 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The boat fare between the steamer and the shore is 1 franc. Horses and carriages are readily obtainable. Motors-cars leave Basse Terre for Pointe-aPitre and vice versa daily at 6 a.m. They call at various places en route and reach their destination between 10 and 10.30 a.m. A coastal steamer also leaves Pointe-a-Pitre for Basse Terre and the intermediate communes every Monday and Thursday at 8 a.m. and returns every Tuesday and Friday at the same hour. Other parts of the island can be reached by diligence and small steam and sailing craft. SPORTS. No outdoor games are played in Guadeloupe and the only sport to speak of is ramier (wild pigeon) shooting, which can be had in the mountains and forests. But the pursuit of the ramier necessitates a long journey and an absence of several days from town. SOCIAL CLUBS. There is only one club in Basse Terre, the Cercle de Commerce. It is run on different lines from those of clubs in the British and American islands and is poorly patronised. The members all belong to one political party. There is also a small club in Pointe-a-Pitre. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Guadeloupe is an extremely beautiful island richly endowed by nature, and its principal charm is its tropical scenery. The town of Basse Terre has few attractions for visitors beyond the novelty of the surroundings. It boasts a Botanical Garden, which has, however, been sadly neglected in recent years. In the

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N.Lab. OrseJTayureV-^' Manners JC. Solomon Gr^Ansed'ArL Pet.Anse d'Arlet ^d&TaPraii-ie '^PfkuVaucUf, Petite Anse duJ***"^ '. MARTINIQUE ( French ) % ^ DesTiaYe Ferry Ph PoznteJFoire P.* G&yavel. S Pige-onA Zezard P?\ BoviRa MarquLsP:\ JSaj-que Cov\ lesUabi Corps de Garde 1 man lei Basse iCALE OF ENGLISH MILES <><*, ':

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DEPENDENCIES OF GUADELOUPE 359 Basse Terre division of the island expeditions can be made to the Soufriere, passing the warm baths of Bains Jaunes en route, and to the baths of Dole (10 kil., i| hours from Basse Terre), and Sofaia. In Pointe-a-Pitre, the chief commercial centre of the island, the only sights are the Usine d'Arbaussier and the small Musee L'Herminier, which is devoted to natural history. LA DESIRADE, MARIE GALANTE, LES SAINTES, ST. MARTIN, ST. BARTHOLOMEW GENERAL ASPECT. Guadeloupe has several dependencies, namely, La Desirade, 6 miles to the east, with an area of 10 square miles; Marie Galante, 16 miles to the south-east ; Les Saintes, a former strategic position of great importance, which gave their name to the great sea fight between Rodney and de Grassein 1782 (see page 348), 7 miles to the south part of St. Martin (see page 375) ; and St. Bartholomew, a description of which is given below. Marie Galante was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and named by him after his ship. It was first settled by the French in 1647. The western coast is low, but the island rises gradually towards the north. Its population is about 14,000, and the soil is productive and yields the usual West Indian products abundantly. St. Bartholomew lies to the south of Anguilla, and about 108 miles to the north-west of Guadeloupe. Its eight square miles are very mountainous, and its soil, in spite of a scarcity of moisture, is not unfertile. Bananas, quassia, and tamarinds are exported. The chief town is Gustavia, near the port, which is not very accessible. The island, which was occupied by the French in 1648, was ceded to Sweden in 1784, but it was restored to France in 1877.

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360 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES MARTINIQUE The Home of the Empress Josephine GENERAL ASPECT. Martinique, which has a population of 185,385, lies in latitude 14 4c/ north and longitude 61 west, between Dominica and St. Lucia, and is of an elongated shape, its extreme length being 49 miles, and breath 13 miles. It is very mountainous, the highest elevation being Mont Pele, rising to a height of about 4500 feet. The other mountains of Martinique are the three Pitons of Carbet, the highest of which is about 3900 feet above the level of the sea, Mont Conil, la Balata, which is about 1900 feet, le Mont Vert, le Vespre, whence the view extends over the east and south of the island, and le Vauclin, on the slopes and summit of which is cultivated the finest coffee in the island. The island has many streams and rivers, of which about seventy-five are of considerable size. During the rainy season they are frequently in flood, becoming raging torrents. The town, of St. Pierre, which was the chief commercial centre of Martinique, having been completely effaced through the eruption of Mont Pele in the manner described on page 363, Fort de France, the capital, with a population of 29,029, is now the principal commercial town of the island. It has a magnificent harbour, which is protected by three forts. INDUSTRIES. Sugar is the principal industry of Martinique, and this crop suffered less from the eruptions of 1902 than cocoa, which is mainly grown in the north of the island. There are 35 sugarworks and 87 distilleries in the island, and it is estimated that 15,000 hectares of land are devoted to good producing crops. Coffee, indigo, mahogany and cinnamon also figure among the exports. Tobacco, too, is cultivated to some extent. The value of principal exports in 1912 were: Sugar, 13,752,450 frs., gum, 9,216,200 frs. ; and cocoa, 1,046,350 frs. FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the comparative table on next page of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years.

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MARTINIQUE 361 Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 Francs 5,637,000 5. 197.175 4.850,273 5,161,503 5,086,241 5.251.582 5,221,599 4.727,715 7,054,066* 5.326,390 Francs 5.453,742 5.095.713 4.59i,oo5 4,868,128 4,918,473 5,224,998 5,026,002 4.727.715 7,054,066 5.413.345 Francs 20,389,568 14,987,791 14.759,172 14,907,882 15,940,039 15.363.285 16,160,898 19.562,847 19,854,859 21,520,301 Francs 15,104,073 12,645,521 18,069,422 18,812,130 18,997,221 20,785,091 22,111,719 27,587,223 22,582,729 30,523,455 Part of a loan of 3,000,000 francs was credited to the revenue in this year. CLIMATE. During the months of November, December, January and February, the north-east trade wind prevails, and under its cooling influence the thermometer descends as low as 75 Fahr. in the towns and 66 Fahr. in the higher situations. The east wind blows from March to June, during which months the climate is delightful. HISTORY. The date of the discovery of Martinique, which derives its name from the native Mantinino, is uncertain, but it is believed that the event took place in either 1493 or 1 5 2 The island was settled by France in 1635, but was captured by the English in 1762, to be restored in the following year. Like Guadeloupe, it constantly changed hands between France and Great Britain, but from 1794 to 1800 it was the headquarters of the British forces in the West Indies. Martinique is historically interesting as having been the birthplace and early home of the Empress Josephine, and also the residence for some years of Francoise d'Aubigne, who married the dramatist Scarron, and was afterwards celebrated as Madame de Maintenon and as the wife of Louis XIV. The father of the Empress, M. de la Pagerie, was practically ruined by a terrible hurricane in 1767, in which 1600 persons perished. CONSTITUTION. Martinique is administered by a

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362 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Governor, assisted by a Privy Council, and controlled by an elective General Council of thirty-six members. The island is divided into two arrondissements — Fort de France and St. Pierre — 9 cantons and 32 communes, regulated by the French law of 1884. HOTELS. Fort de France. The Hotel de r Europe and the Grand Hotel, facing the Savannah, are both recommended — pension about 12 francs per day. There are also several boarding-houses. Those who wish to make a stay will always be able to find accommodation outside the hotels, either by taking a whole house, which may be hired at from 100 to 120 francs per month, according to size, or by taking furnished apartments at a charge of 2 or 3 francs per diem, according to size and position. Washing is cheap and good. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Martinique is served by the steamship companies numbered 1, 10, 19 and 27 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Landing at Fort de France is effected by shore boat. The roads are good, well cared for, and well suited for carriages, but the gradients are steep. The fare for carriages within the town limits is 5 francs per hour. The fare for the drive to the ruins of St. Pierre is : for a carriage for two 40 francs, and for a carriage for four 50 francs for the double journey. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Fort de France, formerly Fort Royal (population 29,019), which has succeeded St. Pierre as the capital of Martinique, is situated between two rivers, the Riviere Madame and the Riviere Monsieur. It was from the bay, on the shores of which it stands, that De Grasse sailed to meet defeat but not dishonour in the memorable battle of the Saints on April 12, 1782. A peerless white statue of the Empress Josephine on the Savannah is the chief object of interest in the town. Josephine was born on Plantation La Pagerie, near the village of Trois Ilets, across the bay. Places of interest which can be visited include the Military Hospital, Law Courts, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral. The Cable Office is at 17 Rue de la Liberte, and the Post Office at No. 1 1 in the same street. Whatever other points of interest the traveller may

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MARTINIQUE 363 find in the West Indies, a visit to the ruined town of St. Pierre and a sight of Mont Pele amply repay him for the voyage from England. The drive to the ruins of St. Pierre takes four hours each way. (For fares, see preceding page.) Before the disaster, as the writer can testify, St. Pierre, situated in a cup-like valley enclosed by well-defined spurs of hills running down to the sea, was one of the prettiest and brightest towns in the West Indies. It was for all the world like a small French provincial city, with its cabarets and cafes, at the tables of which the Martinicans passed their leisure hours. A long, well-paved street ran the whole length of the town, and the houses on either side, with red roofs and green jalousies, were far better built than those in the neighbouring islands. Near the centre of the town was the Roman Catholic Cathedral, and along the sea front a shady boulevard, much resorted to by the flaneurs of the doomed city, over which towered the majestic and solitary peak of Mont Pele, 4500 feet high. Eruption of Mont Pele. On the fateful May 8, 1902, after many premonitory symptoms, which were ignored by the majority of the people, a huge mass of fiery vapour burst from the side of Mont Pele and enveloped the town, including the Opera House, the Cathedral, and the residences of the principal inhabitants, bringing death and destruction in its track. Indeed, not a building escaped the ravaging flames, and it is computed that fully 40,000 persons instantaneously lost their lives through asphyxiation or burning. Such a sight as Pliny witnessed in 79 a.d. was to be observed again at St. Pierre, and visitors to the spot will realise that here only in the world is a modern repetition of the ancient catastrophe. The unfortunate town, which has rapidly become overgrown with bush, contains no treasures of ancient or modern art, and will probably never be considered worth the labour of clearing, but by the shore much digging has been undertaken with a view to the possible re-establishment of St. Pierre, and such articles as molten and flattened globes, door-handles of glass, and other interesting relics of the disaster, are still to be found. On the hill above, the residents point with pride to a shrine, the image and cross of which, while the Cathedral perished

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364 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES and with other large buildings is now only a mass of writhen and blistered iron girders, were untouched by fire or ash. Of all those actually in St. Pierre only one man escaped, a criminal in the condemned cell. This building was situated with its back to the volcano, and, being of massive stone with a grated window facing seaward, neither flame nor ash could enter. His escape was not for long, as the shock was so great that he died from it two days after he was rescued. The disaster has been graphically described by Mr. F. H. Watkins, I.S.O., then Commissioner of Montserrat. For three months prior to the great outburst signs of active disturbance were manifest, and on 25th April 1902, at 8 a.m., the neighbourhood was darkened as by a total eclipse of the sun. A shower of fine white ashes fell steadily for two hours, covering the district north of St. Pierre to the depth of nearly half an inch. When the fall of ashes ceased, the weather remained gloomy and calm, and the crater still continued to emit smoke. Excessive heat was experienced throughout the West Indies at this time. The volcano increased in activity until the 2nd and 3rd of May, when a tremendous outburst of fire and lava overwhelmed the large Guerin sugar estate, situated to the north of St. Pierre, burying, it is estimated, more than 150 persons. Although the fall of ashes did not cease, and some of the inhabitants left for St. Lucia, most persons in Martinique were in hopes that this was the culminating effort of Mont Pele ; and these hopes were heightened on Wednesday, 7th May, by the news that the St. Vincent Soufriere was in eruption, and by the thought that the Martinique volcano would thereby be relieved. After the destruction of the Guerin and other estates to the north, the terrified and destitute labourers crowded into St. Pierre, to the number of 5000, thus adding considerably to those destined to meet their fate in the crowning act of destruction. The morning of the 8th May dawned on St. Pierre with nothing to distinguish it from the others of the previous week. With the exception of smoke issuing from Mont Pele, no signs of impending disaster were apparent. Being a fete d'obligation, the stores and shops were closed. In the roadstead lay about seventeen vessels of different sizes, among them being the Roraima, a fine steamer of the Quebec Line. To the north, opposite what had been the Guerin estate, the cable-ship Grappler was busily restoring telegraphic communication with the northern islands. About seven o'clock the Scrutton steamer Roddam steamed up, but owing to some quarantine difficulties she was ordered to the place set apart for the ships in quarantine, and one anchor had been let go about eight o'clock. By being thus moored slightly

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MARTINIQUE 365 out of the full force of the eruption, the Roddam probably escaped the fate of the other vessels. In a moment, without warning, came the awful catastrophe. Those who survived stated that the whole side of the mountain seemed to gape open, and from the fissure belched a lurid whirlwind of fire, wreathing itself into vast masses of flame as it descended with terrible speed upon the doomed town. Before the true extent of their peril could be grasped, the fiery mass swept like a river over the town, and, pushing the very waters of the sea before it, set the ships ablaze. In a few seconds, when the flames of the volcano had spent themselves, molten masses of lava and ashes, accompanied by a dense sulphurous vapour, asphyxiated those who had escaped death by fire and shock. The sulphurous fumes hung over the town for some minutes before being dissipated by a faint breeze, and then succeeded utter darkness, illumined by the burning houses and ships from which proceeded the shrieks of the few survivors. The Grappler was the first vessel to catch fire, and was soon seen to turn over and disappear, capsized probably by a sort of tidal wave caused by the force of the explosion. Some of those down in the hold and in the forepart of the Roraima managed to escape, but the steamer was burned to a mere shell. The Roddam alone escaped. Soon after her anchoring in the quarantine grounds the eruption took place, and immediately afterwards molten lava fell on the ship. In a few minutes a second explosion took place, causing the sea to become a raging cauldron, and this appears to have parted her anchor and caused her to drift. On board were fifteen labourers from Grenada looking after the cargo, seven of whom were roasted alive on the deck, while eight jumped overboard. The chief engineer, the first and second officers, and the supercargo lost their lives. Of the forty persons who left St. Lucia, only ten or twelve returned alive after taking nine hours to steam forty miles. Severely burned on his hands and face, Captain Freeman managed to bring his vessel to port. The French cruiser Suchet landed search parties at 1 a.m. on the 9th, but they were unable to penetrate into the town, which was still in flames. Some of the streets were lined with corpses. The only person in the place reported to be saved was the criminal referred to previously, though many refugees reached Fort de France before the disaster. By an irony of fate, the Roddam, which, like H.M.S. Calliope at Samoa, was the only vessel saved from destruction, became a total wreck in the Yellow Sea on September 26, 1905. A word may be added with regard to the name of the mountain, which is often incorrectly given as Mont Pelee,

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366 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES while it is really Mont Pele or La Montagne Pelee, the bald mountain." To call it Mont Pelee is as ungrammatical as it would be to call the highest mountain in Europe Mont Blanche or La Montagne Blanc. It is a point of interest in connection with the name of the mountain that in Hawaii the goddess Pele is credited with a volcanic residence, and that at Kilauea the tassels of fused obsidian are known as Pele's hair Rocher du Diamant or Diamond Rock, an account of the gallant defence of which by English sailors in 1 804 is given on p. 277, lies off the south coast of Martinique.

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CHAPTER XIII ST. THOMAS, ST. JOHN, ST. CROIX, ST. MARTIN, ST. EUSTATIUS, SABA, AND CURACAO ST. THOMAS The Buccaneers' Retreat GENERAL ASPECT. St. Thomas lies in latitude i8 20' N. and longitude 64 55' W., 40 miles to the east of Porto Rico and 150 miles north-west of St. Kitts. Owing to its geographical position and fine harbour St. Thomas has long maintained an important position in the West Indies. It is well known as the headquarters of several lines of steamers, a coaling station, and a port of refuge. There is always a good stock of coal kept there, and the island is as unrivalled in the West Indies for the facilities which it affords for the expeditious coaling of steamers by day or night, as it is for its docking arrangements, shipyards, and repair shops. The island is the headquarters in the West Indies of the West India and Panama Telegraph Company, the HamburgAmerican Line, the vessels of which make nearly two hundred entries into the port in the course of a year, and the East Asiatic Company of Copenhagen. The population amounts to about 10,000 souls, but owing to emigration, principally to the neighbouring republics of Santo Domingo and Haiti and to the United States of America, it has been declining in recent years. The island, the area of which is 32 square miles, is of volcanic origin, and has a range of hills running east and west, which slope down to the sea. 367

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368 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Charlotte Amalia, the principal town, is built upon three spurs of a mountain, and it is easy to see that the harbour occupies the crater of an extinct volcano. INDUSTRIES. Sugar was once the principal industry of St. Thomas. Bay-rum, which is manufactured from leaves of the bay tree (Pimenta acris) grown in the neighbouring island of St. John, is now, however, practically the sole article of export. Tropical fruits and ground provisions are produced in considerable quantities for local consumption. St. Thomas was once the principal entrepot in the West Indies, and purchasers from the other islands and from Central and South America used to go to it for their supplies. Since the establishment of steamship lines and the telegraph system they have found it more convenient to deal direct with the merchants and manufacturers in Europe and America and to receive their goods direct. St. Thomas now only supplies some of the Virgin Islands and, occasionally, Haiti and Santo Domingo. FINANCIAL POSITION. The imports into the Danish West Indies (St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix) in 1 91 2 were valued at $1,394,760 and the exports at $482,192. CLIMATE. The climate of St. Thomas is healthy for Europeans, and particularly enjoyable during the winter months. The greatest heat is experienced in August, September and October, but the thermometer rarely rises above 91 Fahr., while it sometimes falls as low as 64 Fahr. in the months of January, February and March. HISTORY. Columbus found St. Thomas inhabited by Caribs and Arawaks when he discovered the island in 1493In 1657 it was colonised by the Dutch, but the colonists departed to what is now New York, giving place to the English twenty years later. It is the oldest of the three Danish colonies in the West Indies, having been taken possession of on behalf of the Danish Crown on March 30, 1666. In 1 671 the Danish West India and Guiana Company was formed in Copenhagen, and acquired the island. After

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ST. THOMAS 36a slavery was introduced in 1680 St. Thomas enjoyed great prosperity. The island was purchased from the company in 1755, and the King of Denmark took the government into his own hands, throwing open the port to all nations in 1764. The British held the island for ten months in 1801, and again from 1807 to 1815, when it was restored to Denmark, in whose hands it has since remained. Slavery was abolished in St. Thomas in 1848. In 1867 a proclama.tion was issued announcing the approaching cession of the island to the United States, but the Senate refused to ratify the Convention, and negotiations were broken off ; in the year 1901 negotiations were again opened for the purchase of the island by the Americans, and the Danish Folkething voted for the transfer, but the Landsthing in 1903 rejected the treaty by a tie vote ; so St. Thomas still owes its allegiance to Denmark. CONSTITUTION. The Governor resides in the island for six months of the year — from October 1 to March 31. During the other six months he resides in the sister colony of St. Croix. He is assisted by a Colonial Council, consisting of four members nominated by the Crown and eleven elected members. One half of the Council retires every second year. HOTELS. Charlotte Amalia. At the Grand Hotel, at Mrs. E. V. Taylor's establishment, called "1829," and at the Hotel Italia the terms for board and lodging are 85. 4^. per day. There are also several lodging houses. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. St. Thomas is served by the steamship companies numbered 3, 8, 15 and 19 (see pages 14 to 27). The steamers lie alongside the wharves and there is no landing fee. Carriages and horses can be obtained from one or two private individuals. SPORTS. There are two lawn-tennis clubs to which visitors are welcomed, and the boating and bathing to be enjoyed are above the average. Good sea-fishing can be had in all the bays. The roads are excellent for cycling. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. St. Thomas has a very pic-

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3/o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES turesque and at the same time exceedingly valuable harbour. It is almost completely land-locked, being surrounded on three sides by hills, and has a great depth of water. A floating dock owned by the St. Thomas Dock, Engineering and Coaling Company Ltd., which is capable of raising vessels of 3000 tons gross weight and 300 feet keel, is moored in a sheltered position. It began operations in 1875, since which year it has raised and lowered over a thousand vessels. A notable feature of the port is its wellappointed Quarantine Station, which has become quite a place of resort for visitors, especially during the warmer season, when it is not being used for its proper purpose. The town of Charlotte Amalia (population 8000), so called after the consort of King Christian V, which straggles over three spurs of the mountains down to the water's edge, is singularly beautiful when seen from the deck of the ship as one enters. The towers known as Blackbeard's and Bluebeard's castles are conspicuous on the hillside. Near the water's edge is the brilliantly red Danish fort. In 1 91 2 a West India Company was formed in Copenhagen for the purpose of dredging and improving the harbour and for providing docks, warehouses, &c. The streets of Charlotte Amalia are clean and the houses well-kept. The town is well policed, and the writer has met a visitor to it, who, after dining not wisely but too well, was compelled to expiate an overnight offence by sweeping the streets next morning. If the visitor is a good pedestrian, and desires to obtain a splendid bird's-eye view of the town, harbour and sea, with glimpses of St. Croix, and, if the day be clear, of Porto Rico and Bieques in the distance, he cannot do better than climb the hill to the north-east of the town, proceeding as far as Mafolie. If he desires a more extended view, he should choose the hill to the west end of the town, known as Frenchmen's Hill — which owes its name to French Huguenots who took refuge in the island, and once lived there in some numbers — continuing afoot as far as Solberg. An hour's walk in the first instance, and a somewhat longer one in the second, will give him as fine a view as can be seen in the West Indies, or, for that matter, in any part of the world. Either of

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ST. THOMAS 371 these trips can be made on horseback, but as the hills are very steep, and the roads sometimes rugged, it is well to make sure that the animal to be ridden is sure-footed. If the visitor be a cyclist, with only a short time at his disposal, he will find good roads to the east of the town as far as a sugar estate, whence he can return by a circuitous route, and, passing through to the west, proceed as far as Nisky; he will thus obtain a view of the suburbs and main street, but will miss the beautiful views which can be obtained from the hills. A few minutes' walk up the hills to Blackboard's or Bluebeard's Castle, in the neighbourhood of the town, will repay the pedestrian. These two castles are supposed to have been the headquarters of two celebrated buccaneers, and many romantic tales are told regarding them. Bluebeard's Castle was really built by the Government in 1689 and was called Frederiksfort. It was used as a fort until 1735, and was sold with the surrounding land to a private individual in 181 8. Blackbeard's castle on Government Hill dates from 1674, when it was built by one Carl Baggert. John Teach, or Blackbeard, who is said to have lived in it, was a scoundrel of the deepest dye. In Tom Cringle's Log he is described by Aaron Bang, Esquire as : The mildest manner'd man That ever scuttled ship or cut a throat ; With such true breeding of a gentleman, You never could discern his real thought. Pity he loved adventurous life's variety, He was so great a loss to good society. He had fourteen wives, and one of his favourite amusements was to take his comrades to the hold of his ship and half suffocate them by kindling brimstone matches. He would also blow out all the candles in his cabin and blaze away with his pistols right and left at random. He eventually died in a desperate encounter with the frigates Lime and Pearl. By visitors staying more than a day in St. Thomas many interesting excursions can be made, either on foot or on horseback. Among the expeditions recommended by

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372 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Mr. John N. Lightbourn, whose name is so well known in St. Thomas, are the following : (i) From Charlotte Amalia to the east end of the island, commonly known as Water Bay. For driving, a strong horse is needed, as there is a steep ascent, and the return journey must be over the same road. (2) From the main road to the east to Tetu estate, passing on the way Benders and Bovoni. By following this route the tourist is able to visit the Mangrove Lagoon, at Bovoni ; and if he procures a boat from the fishermen there, which, as a rule, he can easily do, and takes a row across the lagoon, he will have a unique experience, which will probably leave many pleasant recollections behind. He must not forget, however, to take provisions, as none can be obtained on the journey. (3) From the hamlet of Mafolie, round to St. Peter's, Brown's, Solberg, and down Frenchmen's Hill. This route is unsurpassed for the charming character of the scenery, and will give a good view of the most fertile part of the island. On Mafone Hill there is an obelisk known as the Venus Pillar," which was erected by the Brazilian astronomers in commemoration of their stay in St. Thomas to witness the transit of Venus. It is inscribed Passagem do Venus Dezembro 6 de 1882. (4) From Charlotte Amalia to the west past Nisky, MosMto Bay, John Brewer's Bay, and ascending the hill to Bonne Esperance, and round the north side of the island down Frenchmen's Hill. This route will give more varied scenery, a further view of the island, and, if the day is clear, an interesting panorama of the cays and islets to the north, and those to the east forming the Virgin Islands group. There are also numerous excursions which can be made by boat, notably across to the German Wharf, climbing thence up the hill to Co well's Battery — so named after Major Cowell of the British army, who was responsible for its erection during the few years of English occupancy — Frenchmen's Bay, &c. Another favourite expedition is from the harbour, through the Haul Over to Nisky Bay and Water Island and then on to Krum Bay.

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ST. JOHN 37S Not far from St. Thomas is a rock which closely resembles a ship and is consequently known as Sail Rock, though by some it is called Frenchman's Rock. During the American War it received a severe punishing from a French frigate. Taking it for a ship the captain hailed it. His hail was returned by an echo. The French captain then fired a broadside at the rock, the sound of which reverberated from it, some of the shot also ricochetting back. Believing that they had fallen in with a man-of-war, the Frenchmen kept up a heavy cannonade until the morning, when they discovered to their mortification the mistake which they had made. ST. JOHN A dependency of St. Thomas GENERAL ASPECT. The smaU island of St. John— situated about 3 miles east of St, Thomas — belongs to the municipality of that island. It has an area of 21 square miles, and a population of 918 only. The Danes took formal possession of it in 1684, but it was not properly settled with respect to population until 171 6, when permission was given to sixteen of the inhabitants of St. Thomas to cultivate the island. In the days when sugar was king it contained several very valuable estates, and naturally a much larger population. For instance, at the beginning of last century it had about 3000 whites and free coloured persons, besides 2500 slaves, and this was its condition up to the time of emancipation. The bay leaf tree (Pimenta acris), the leaves of which are used in the manufacture of that most agreeable toilet requisite known as bay-rum, of which there are several manufactories in St. Thomas, is a growth of the island. The leaves are conveyed to St. Thomas, where the bay-rum, which has become so popular throughout America, is distilled. Notwithstanding the unimportance of the place, those who have a day or two to spare, and can enjoy a little boating as well as roughing it in the matter of accom-

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374 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES modation, will find that a trip to it will fully repay them. There is much fine scenery about St. John, and the island has a romantic side to its history, having enjoyed its own little slave insurrection in the old days long gone by. ST. CROIX Denmark's largest West Indian Island GENERAL ASPECT. St. Croix or Santa Cruz lies 40 miles south-south-east of St. Thomas. Its total area is only 74 square miles, and its population 19,683. A range of hills runs parallel to the coast at the western end, the highest peak being Blue Mountain. The principal towns are Bassin or Christiansted on the north shore and West End or Frederiksted at the western end, which is commercially the more important place. INDUSTRIES. Sugar cultivation is the principal industry, and there are about one hundred sugar estates in the island. A central sugar factory was established by the Government in 1876, which still continues to work, and in the West End quarter of the island another, Le Grange, has been established by private enterprise. The breeding of cattle is carried on, but chiefly as an aid to sugar cultivation by providing the necessary stock of working cattle, oxen and mules, and manure. St. Croix produces all kinds of tropical fruits in abundance, and efforts have been made in recent years by one or two planters, not unsuccessfully, to cultivate such fruit as oranges and bananas systematically for local use and with a view of exporting them in the future. CLIMATE. The climate of Santa Cruz is very similar to, though rather hotter than, that of St. Thomas ; but it is well suited to Europeans. During the greater part of the year the fresh trade-wind blows from the north-east. The wettest season extends from August to December. HISTORY. The history of the island of St. Croix has been varied and eventful. It was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage, and in 1643 it was inhabited by two

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ST. MARTIN 375 distinct parties of English and Dutch. They quarrelled, however, and the Dutch were expelled. In 1650 the English were defeated by Spaniards, who in their turn yielded to one hundred and sixty Frenchmen from St. Kitts. France entrusted the island to the Knights of Malta in 1651, and in 1733 it was purchased by King Christian VI of Denmark. In 1801 it was taken by the English, but restored to the Danes after a few months. Captured again by the English under Sir Alexander Cochrane in 1807, it remained British until 181 4, when it was again handed to the Danes. HOTELS. In Christiansted, Mrs. Pentheney's hotel is recommended. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. There is regular semiweekly communication with St. Thomas by means of the Government packet motor schooner Dannebrog, sailing from Bassin. Steam communication between the islands has been a long-recognised need, but one which it has so far been found impossible to supply. The Quebec line of steamers, however, proceed as a rule from St. Thomas to West End or Frederiksted on their outward voyages. The roads of the island are good, and well suited for motorists and cyclists. ST. MARTIN The joint-owned Island GENERAL ASPECT. St. Martin, which lies between Anguilla and St. Bartholomew, is partly French and partly Dutch. Twenty square miles of the island belong to France, and form a dependency of Guadeloupe, and 18 square miles belong to Holland, and form with St. Eustatius and Saba a dependency of Curacao. It rises to a height of 1236 feet above the sea, and it has only a small cultivable area. INDUSTRIES. Salt is the principal industry of both colonies, but cotton and live-stock are also exported. The chief settlement in the French portion is Marigot, and in

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376 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the Dutch, Philippsburg. The population of the French part is 3200 and of the Dutch 3500. Most of the inhabitants are English-speaking negroes. FINANCIAL POSITION. The table given below shows the revenue and expenditure, and the imports and exports, of the Dutch West India Islands — namely, part of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, Saba, Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire — for the last ten years : \ Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. £ k £ £ 1902-3 44,634 60,416 195,888 26,033 1903-4 48,866 64,583 247,353 26,461 1904-5 46,314 66,171 224,953 40,652 1905-6 47,446 70,054 319,330 78,389 1 906-7 48,188 58,657 301,704 86,168 1907-8 49,150 76,702 338,585 108,916 1 908-9 500,346 89,685 260,908 100,450 1909-10 51,304 84,145 292,411 140,833 1910-11 55,986 100,436 296,333 143,083 1911-12 360,468 162,700 HISTORY. St. Martin was occupied by the French freebooters, and by the Spaniards between 1640 and 1648, in which year it was divided between the French and the Dutch. Regarding the origin of its joint ownership, the story is told that a Dutchman and a Frenchman visited it simultaneously and started to walk round it from a certain point on the coast, agreeing to divide the island between them by a line drawn from the point whence they started to that at which they met. The astute Dutchman was a slower walker than the Frenchman, but he started off towards the more valuable end of the island — that in which salt-ponds are situated. Thus, while the larger portion fell to France, Holland secured the richer part of St. Martin. The island is quite off the V beaten track and is rarely visited by steamers, access to it being gained by schooners and sloops which do not, as a rule, commend themselves to tourists.

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ST. EUSTAT1US AND SABA 377 ST. EUSTATIUS AND SABA An old volcanic crater — the Golden Rock GENERAL ASPECT. St. Eustatius, or Statia, a dependency of the Dutch island of Curacao, lies to the northwest of St. Kitts. It consists of two volcanic cones with an intervening valley, its total area being only 9 square miles. The town is Orange town, and it has two forts, Yams and cotton are the principal exports. The population of the island is 1500, and the language is English, only the employers speaking Dutch. At the landing-place in a small cove the remains of many warehouses, testify to the former importance of the islet. The tiny island of Saba, which has an area of 5 square miles, to the north-west of St. Eustatius, also belongs to Holland, having been occupied by the Dutch in 1632. Little more than a rock rising sheer out of the sea and very inaccessible, Saba was the last stronghold of the buccaneers. It has three small villages, the Bottom, where the Administrator resides, 900 feet above the sea, Windward Side, 1200 feet, and St. John's, 1900 to 2000 feet above sea-level. The male population almost without exception follow the sailor's profession, and they are great boat-builders. The boats are built in the high lands and shot over into the sea below when they are ready for launching. Next to boatbuilding the chief industry is potato-cultivation. The women also make beautiful lace-work. The landing-place consists of a small rocky spot some few yards only in extent. Landing is difficult, and can only be effected by the natives in their own boats. Access from here to the lower town is gained by a path cut out of the side of the hill in irregular steps, up which ponies take the traveller in perfect safety. On the leeward side of the island there is another landing-place from which the lower town is reached by a staircase cut in the rock and called The Ladder." The inhabitants have fair complexions and rosy cheeks, showing that they have not intermarried to any extent

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37 8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES with the blacks. English is spoken, though Dutch is taught in the schools. HISTORY. St. Eustatius was first colonised by the English and French in 1625 and was taken by the Dutch West India Company in 1632. After changing hands many times it has remained in the possession of the Dutch since 181 6. In 1780 the population was 2500 and the island was so wealthy that it was known as the Golden Rock." It was the chief mart of the West Indies, and sometimes no fewer than 700 vessels lay at anchor off its shores. At this period rows of large warehouses, the ruins of which are still to be seen, were erected along the shore. During the early part of the American War, Holland remained neutral, and being a free port St. Eustatius enjoyed a brisk trade with America. In 1781 England declared war against Holland, and Rodney seized the island on February 3 in that year when the inhabitants were unaware of the rupture of peace. He ordered the Dutch flag to remain flying for some time from the batteries, and by this means succeeded in capturing a large number of vessels which fell into the trap. Many stores were captured with merchandise which, when sold, realised no less than £3,000,000. Later in the year the island was recaptured by the Marquis de Bouille ; but it never regained its prosperity and by 181 8 the population had fallen to a low level. CURACAO The Island of the Liqueur GENERAL ASPECT. Curacao, which, with the small islands of Aruba (west) and Bonaire (east) adjoining, is Dutch, lies off the north coast of Venezuela. The island has a total area of 158 square miles, and a population of 34,000. It is hilly and the country in the interior is deficient in water, being entirely dependent upon rain for a supply of that necessary of life. The capital, however, has a salt water distillery which keeps the town well

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CURACAO 379 supplied with fresh water. The island looks barren and very rocky from the sea, but the capital, Willemstad, is quite picturesque, the houses, built in the old-fashioned Dutch style with seventeenth-century gables, being mostly painted with bright yellow colours. The exports include divi divi (the pods of the Ccesalpina cinaria), hides, phosphate of lime, straw hats and salt. A peculiar variety of orange, Citrus aurantium Carassuviensis, from which the well-known liqueur is made, grows in the island. The peel of these oranges is shipped to Hamburg and Amsterdam, where the Curacao is made. Some liqueur is also manufactured in the island by chemists. Curacao has several harbours, the principal of which is Santa Anna, on the south-west side, the port of Curacao, and Willemstad. Only the upper classes speak Dutch, and they also speak English, Spanish and French. The lower classes speak a patois called papiamento, which consists of a mixture of those languages with Dutch. HISTORY. The island was settled by the Spanish in 1527, and captured from them by the Dutch in 1634. The English took it in 1800 and again in 1807, but it was restored to the Dutch in 181 6, and has remained in their possession ever since. HOTELS. Curacao has two good hotels, the Hotel del Commercio in Willemstad and the Hotel Americano in Otrftbanda, on the western side of the harbour. The terms at both are moderate. MEANS OF CONVEYANCE. Curacao is served by the steamship companies numbered 3, 5, 11, 15 and 20 in the list on pages 14 to 27. Carriages and motor-cars can be hired. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The capital is divided by the harbour of Santa Anna into two parts, Willemstad and Otrabanda (other side). The entrance of the harbour, which is spanned by a pontoon bridge, is protected by Fort Amsterdam and two other forts. A drive round the Scholtgat, a deep lagoon connected with the harbour, and to an interesting grotto 6 miles to the north-north-west of Willemstad, is recommended. Some of the plantations and attractive country residences may also be visited,

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CHAPTER XIV CUBA AND PORTO RICO CUBA The Pearl of the Antilles GENERAL ASPECT. Cuba, the largest of the West Indian Islands, lies between 74 and 85 W. longitude and 1 9 and 23 N. latitude, 50 miles to the west of Haiti, from which it is separated by the Windward Passage. It has a total area of 44,178 square miles, and a population of 2,150,112. Its northern seaboard is on the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and its southern coast is washed by the Caribbean Sea. The eastern end of the island is mountainous ; the centre consists of gently sloping plains, which, being high above the sea, are well drained and densely cultivated with sugar-cane, and the western end of the island, which is essentially the tobacco-growing district, is broken by mountains slightly lower than those in the eastern part. The rockbound coasts have numerous indentations, many of which form admirable harbours. The general outline of the island has been likened to that of a bird's tongue ; but Mr. Robert T. Hill, of the American Geological Survey, compares it more appropriately to a hammer-headed shark, the head forming the straight south coast of the east end of the island, from which the sinuous body extends westward. This analogy is made more striking by the two long strings of cays, or islets, which extend backwards along the opposite coast, parallel to the main body of the island. Prominent among the islands off the coast, which number no fewer than 1300, is the Isle of Pines, a dependency of Cuba, to which reference is made 380

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CUBA 381 on page 399. The rivers are numerous, but none of them are of any consequence, except perhaps the Cauto in Oriente, which is navigable by small vessels for 75 miles. Cuba has six provinces : Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camaguey, and Oriente. The island is also popularly divided into the Vuelta Abajo (lower turn), west of Havana, the Vuelta Arriba (upper turn), east of Havana to Cienfuegos, las Cinco Villas between Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus, and the Tierra Adentro between Cienfuegos and Bayamo. INDUSTRIES. The staples are sugar and tobacco ; aided by the substantial preference given to it in the United States markets — which under the present tariff will cease in 1916 — the sugar industry has made rapid strides and there are upwards of two hundred factories in the island. The tobacco industry also continues to expand, and the famous Havana and Cuban cigars show no signs of losing their well-deserved popularity. The best tobacco is produced in the famous Vuelta Abajo region in Pinar del Rio, but good tobaccos are also exported from Trinidad, Cienfuegos, and Santiago. Fruit and other tropical produce is also exported, and stock-breeding gives employment to many people. The mineral resources of the island include iron-ore, manganese, copper, and salt. The latest available figures of the principal exports are : Sugar (191 3) . 2,429,240 tons Tobacco (191 1 ) . 308,497 bales of 120 lbs Cigars (1911) . 188,129,188 Pineapples (191 1 ) . 25,775 tons The direction of the trade of the island in the year 191 1 was as follows : Imports. Exports. United States . $65,416,000 $145,186,000 Rest of America 10,251,000 5,280,000 Great Britain . 15,398,000 11,446,000 Spain . 9,775,000 659,000 Germany . 8,431,000 6,199,000 France . 7,706,000 2,575,000 FINANCIAL POSITION. The revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, of Cuba for the past ten years, as far as they can be ascertained are given in the table on next page.

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382 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports.* Exports. $ $ $ $ 1903-4 — — 70,156,000 93,122,000 1904-5 18,899,500 17, ^.o^ 77,021,300! 89,012,800 1905-6 19,699,850 19,158,104 94,971,518 110,167,484 1 906-7 24,063,285 21,728,390 98,019,621 103,924,536 1907-8 24,447,657 22,377,168 104,460,933 104,172,967 1908-9 29,615,263 24,285,292 86,368,767 98,849,091 1909-10 33,824,746 31,070,409 83,856,835 H5.637,32i 1910-11 — — 98,239,539 144,036,697 1911-12 — — 102,692,888 128,114,937 1912-13 41,614,700 40,593,400 125,902,241 172,978,328 tov calendar years 1 904-1 91 2 CLIMATE. Cuba being only just within the tropics, its climate is not so hot as that of most other West Indian islands. The mean annual temperature at Havana is only yj Fahr., but inland and on the south coast it is greater. The rainy season is from May to October, the mean annual rainfall being 52 in. In the Sierra Maestra mountains the thermometer sometimes falls almost to freezing point. HISTORY. Cuba was discovered by Columbus during his first voyage, on October 28, 1492. He called it Juana, after Princess Juana, daughter of his patrons, Ferdinand and Isabella ; but after Ferdinand's death it was renamed Fernandina. It was subsequently called Santiago, in honour of the patron saint of Spain, and, later, Ave Maria, before it reverted to its native name, Cuba. In 1 5 1 1 Diego Velasquez formed several settlements, including that of Havana, which was established on its present site in 15 19. Slaves began to be introduced as early as 1523, and the cultivation of tobacco and sugar was successfully started. Havana was frequently attacked by pirates and buccaneers, and in 1762 it was captured by the English under Lord Albemarle and Admiral Sir George Pocock. In the following year the island was restored to Spain in exchange for the Floridas by the Treaty of Paris. The most brilliant period of Cuba's existence opened in 1 790 with the Governorship of Las Casas. In 1848 President Polk suggested the

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CUBA 383 transfer of the island to the United States for $1,000,000, and in the latter part of the nineteenth century constant efforts were made by the Cubans to shake off the tyrannical rule of Spain. In 1895 the final revolution broke out under Gomez, Maceo, Marti, Garcia, and others. The Spaniards, in their efforts to suppress it, adopted drastic measures, including the erection of block-houses and barbed wire entanglements, and the concentration of non-combatants in camps, a proceeding which led to much suffering, but without avail. The American people showed their sympathy with the reconcentrados by gifts of food, &c. ; but no official action was taken by the United States until their battleship Maine was blown up — by a Spanish mine it was alleged — in Havana Harbour in February 1898. They then, yielding to pressure of public opinion, intervened. On April 20 the withdrawal of the Spanish troops was demanded. Hostilities resulted, and on July 3 a Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera was destroyed ship by ship as it left Santiago Harbour, the entrance of which Lieut. Hobson, an American, had gallantly endeavoured to block by sinking the Merrimac in the fairway, and on July 1 5 the city capitulated. By the Treaty of Paris which followed the war, Cuba was surrendered to the United States in trust for the Cuban people. After a period of military rule, the Cuban Republic was established under the protection of the United States, which retained Guantanamo as a naval station. CONSTITUTION. Cuba is an independent republic under the protection of the United States. The constitution was framed during the American occupation and was adopted on February 21, 1901. The President is elected for four years by an electoral college. The Congress consists of two houses, a Senate comprising four members from each province chosen by a provincial electoral board and a House of Representatives whose members are elected by the people for four years, half retiring every two years. There is one representative for every 25,000 inhabitants. HOTELS. Most of the hot eis in Cuba are hotels, which is more than can be said of many of the houses passing as

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384 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES such in other parts of the West Indies. In Havana the Hotel Inglaterra, facing Central Park, is recommended ; also the Hotel Sevilla, which has a charming palm court, the Hotel Plaza, and the Pasage Hotel on the Prado. The Telegrafo Hotel, facing Central Park, and the Hotel Miramar are also very well spoken of. The rates at the best hotels run from $3.50 per day and upwards (American plan), meals being paid for when taken. Antilla. Hotel Antilla. Camagiiey. Hotel Camagiiey. Matanzas. Hotel Paris. Pinar del Rio. Hotel Ricardo. Santiago. Hotel Venus. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Cuba can be reached by the steamers of the companies numbered 1, 9, 10, 15, 21, 22, 23A, 24A and 27 in the list on pages 14 to 27. At Havana landing is effected from some steamers at the docks and from others by tender or shore boat, at Santiago at the wharf or by boat, and at Antilla by shore boat ($1.00 return). In Havana, harbour ferry steamers ply regularly between the railway wharf and Regla (5 cents) and Casa Blanca (5 cents). Electric cars run in connection with the Regla service to Guanabacoa. The cab and carriage fares in the inland cities of Cuba are fixed municipal rates, and, in case of doubt, passengers should request the driver to show the official printed schedule of charges. In every case where it is possible, the hiring of cabs, carriages, and other vehicles by the hour should be done through the hotel interpreters, who are charged with the special care of patrons. The rate for cab and carriage hire per hour varies from 7 5 cents, to $1.50 in the several cities. The first railway in Cuba was the line from Havana to Guines, which was opened as far back as 1837 and now forms part of the system of the United Railways of Havana and Regla Warehouses Limited. The island is covered with a network of lines of over 2200 miles in extent. The most important are those of the United Railways, the Cuban Railroad, Havana Central Railroad, Guantanamo Western Railroad, and Havana Terminal Railroad Companies. The table opposite gives the chief towns mentioned in the

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CUBA 385 following pages, their distance from Havana, and the time taken in reaching them, with the first-class fares : iVliles Approximate time taken. Fares. Single. Return. Miles hr. min. $ $ 517 Antilla 22 30 23.33 36 Batabano 1 55 2.12 3.00 340 Camagiiey 14 15 15-49 23.24 109 Cardenas 4 18 5-43 7-5o 195 Cienfuegos 8 35 8.69 31 Guana jay 1 30 o.55 . 5/8 Guantanamo 32 Giiines . -93 53 Madruga 2 17 3.01 4.00 10 Marianao 14 .10 .20 58 Matanzas 1 55 3.20 4.50 in 241 180 Pinar del Rio 4 45 5.54 7.76 Sancti Spiritus 10 25 n. 19 Santa Clara 7 23 8-53 538 Santiago de Cuba 23 30 24.11 36-17 Tourists wishing to see Havana and Cuba to advantage can not do better than pay a visit to Mr. Foster's Information Office, Prado and Central Park, where they will be able to obtain much valuable advice. Travellers by train will find the "folders of the various railroad companies useful sources of information. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Havana (population 353,509), capital of Cuba, the San Cristobal de la Habana of the Spaniards, stands on the shores of a magnificent landlocked harbour towards the eastern end of the north side of the island, 90 miles from Key West, the last of a chain of coral islets — now connected by railway — extending from the south of Florida. The chief settlement of Havana was first established by the Adelantado Don Diego Velasquez on July 25, 15 15, on the south coast near the mouth of the Giiines or Mayabeque River. From there it was transferred to a spot on the north coast which, on account of its exposed position and consequent liability to attack

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386 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES by pirates, was in turn abandoned in favour of the present site in 1519. By its founder it was proudly named Llave del Nuevo Mundo y Baluarte de las Indias Occidentales (" The Key of the New World and the Bulwark of the West Indies "). The approach to the city of Havana from the sea has been justly praised by many well-known writers. Beyond the surf-beaten coast the first conspicuous object to strike the eye is the historic Mono Castle, whose venerable fortifications command the narrow bottle-neck entrance to the harbour, and its tall lighthouse, erected in 1844 by Governor-General O'Donnell, whose name is inscribed upon it. It may be mentioned that the name Morro, which is also given to similarly placed fortresses at Santiago and at San Juan, Porto Rico, signifies "promontory." The castle, which was erected between the years 1589 and 1597, is partly hewn out of the rock and partly constructed of solid blocks of rock, and this gives it an irregular appearance. It is reached by an inclined road, the moat, which is about 70 feet deep, being crossed by a drawbridge. The Morro was captured by the English under Lord Albemarle and Admiral Sir George Pocock in 1762, and a battery to the east of the Castle perpetuates the memory of the gallant Captain Velasco, who preferred to die fighting rather than be taken prisoner. The first landing was effected on June 7 to the east of the harbour, and the Morro was closely invested by land and sea, the Spanish Fleet of twenty vessels remaining in the harbour just as Admiral Cervera's ships were to do one hundred find thirty-six years later at Santiago. The English having made a breach in the walls of the Morro mounted it, and then, to quote the Annual Register of 1762 : They entered the fort, and formed themselves with so much celerity, and with such spirited coolness of resolution, that the enemy, who were drawn up to receive them, and who might have made the assault an affair of great bloodshed, astonished at their countenance, fled on all hands. About four hundred were slaughtered on the spot, or ran to the water, where they perished. Four hundred more threw down their arms, and obtained quarter. The second in command, the Marquis de Gonsales (sic), fell whilst he was making brave but

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CUBA 387 ineffectual efforts to animate and rally his people. Don Lewis de Velasco, the Governor, who had hitherto defended the fort with such obstinate bravery, seemed resolved in this extremity to share the same fate with it. He collected an hundred men in an intrenchment he had made round his colours. But seeing that all his companies were fled from him, or slaughtered about him, disdaining to retire or call for quarter, he received a mortal wound, and fell, offering his sword to his conquerors. The English wept with pity and admiration. The plan of the siege on next page is reproduced from the Gentleman's Magazine for October 1762. The Spanish fleet is seen lying in the harbour, the mouth of which was protected by a chain boom. The steamer passes under the walls of the Morro by a narrow channel scarcely more than 1000 feet in width. On the right is another fort known as La Punta, and beyond it the city of Havana, round the seaward side of which is the magnificent driveway on a sea-wall called the Malecon, with its gardens and handsome bandstand. Beyond the Morro on the left are the heights, bristling with elaborate fortifications and barracks, known as the Cabanas, the erection of which was begun in 1763, the year after the capture of the Morro by the English, and completed in 1774. The fortress is entered by a massive gateway approached by a drawbridge. The chief point of interest is the Laurel Ditch, where many Cubans were shot by the Spanish soldiers during the revolution. For a distance of 85 feet along the wall the marks of the bullets can distinctly be traced. A bronze tablet let in commemorates this appalling sacrifice of life. From the ramparts a superb view of Havana can be obtained. On the parapet is a marble column erected in honour of the repulse of the expedition of Lopez and the American Colonel Crittenden in 1 85 1. This unfortunate colonel, who was a West Point graduate and came from Kentucky, was persuaded by Lopez to join an expedition to attempt to free Cuba. They landed about 35 miles from Havana, and were defeated by the Spanish forces. Crittenden and fifty of his men were captured and confined in the fort of Atares across the harbour, and were eventually placed in a row and shot down by the Spanish troops. Lopez, a Venezuelan

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POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES sTiiff. ^y^'d Him a". b6 % ^\ CO

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CUBA 389 by birth, was publicly garrotted at the foot of the Prado. A steam of just under a mile past the Morro and Cabanas brings the steamer into the spacious harbour of Havana, the extreme length of which is about 3 miles, and the maximum breadth i£ miles. The harbour once had the reputation of being one of the filthiest in the world. For nearly three centuries it received the sewage and refuse of the city which, in the absence of any streams or rivers to carry them out to sea, accumulated to such an extent as to prove a serious menace to health. So foul indeed was the mud that captains of vessels preferred to make fast to buoys instead of dropping their anchors into it. In recent years, however, some improvement has been effected by dredging, and the provision of a sewerage system and the adoption of sanitary improvements have rendered Havana quite healthy. It was in this harbour that the Spanish treasure fleets known as the Galleons and the Flota used to collect before their departure for Europe, and it was in this harbour, too, that the United States cruiser Maine (Captain Sigsbee) was blown up at 9.40 p.m. on February 15, 1898, an event which was the immediate cause of the outbreak of war between the United States and Spain. 270 men and 2 officers were killed, and it was claimed that the disaster was due to the explosion of a mine by the Spanish. Whether this was really the case or not has been the subject of much subsequent discussion ; but the cry which was raised, Remember the Maine," proved irresistible. For years after the war the wreck lay where she sank with the Stars and Stripes flying at half mast over her, but in 191 2 the vessel was raised and towed out to sea and buried. The following account of the ceremony was given by an American sailor, J. L. Fahy, in a letter to a comrade : Shortly after one o'clock the United States navy tug Osceola made fast to the Maine and, with the assistance of two other tugs, started to tow the remains of that ill-fated vessel to her final resting place. As they approached the entrance of the harbour the North Carolina got under way, followed by this vessel (Birmingham), and that was the start of the strangest funeral procession ever witnessed, for every vessel in the harbour, no matter of what description, got into line. As the Maine

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390 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES passed Morro, a salute of twenty-one guns was fired, and during all this time they had a band playing a Dead March." Slowly she was towed to sea, and at about five o'clock the three blasts from the whistle of the North Carolina informed us that the proper position outside the three-mile limit had been reached. It was then the men became eager and all eyes were centred on the decks of the Maine, and we could see the men on board, about half a dozen of them, moving about. Then they commenced to open up the sluices and sea-cocks, and after this was done, and they had gone over the side into a boat and then to a tug, and the lines from the tugs had been cast off, it was piteous to watch her drift and stagger about as the sea and current directed, unable to help herself, she who had once been the pride of our navy, now a poor helpless wreck. Like a poor doomed wretch about to be executed and who had lost his sight, she drifted about, rolling a little, and it seemed for a long time that she was not filling up at all, but after a time it became perceptible ; and she then seemed to go down little by little until she commenced to take the seas over her deck, and then she filled rapidly and finally went out of sight in one last long plunge. Believe me, I never want to see anything like it again. Landing is effected at Havana from some steamers at the wharf and from others by tender or shore boat. The Customs department has its headquarters in an old Church. The formalities where tourists are concerned are not very serious. The handsome new Railway station of the United Railways of Havana and Regla Warehouses Limited is situated near the south of the town where the arsenal stood. A short drive from the wharf takes one to Colon Park, comprising the small La India Park and the old Campo Marte, or parade ground, the first of a series of parks and avenues extending across Havana from south to north. They follow closely the direction of the old walls, the position of which is clearly shown on the old plan on page 388, and the terms intramural and extramural are still used to define the position of buildings. La India Park takes its name from a charming statue of an Indian maiden emblematic of Havana, which was the gift of Count de Villanueva, the former owner of the property. On the site of the old railway station near by is the new Presidential Palace. From Colon Park the Upper Prado leads to Central Park, from which the Prado, a leafy avenue of laurel trees, extends to the Malecon, or sea-wall. In Central Park there is a statue of Jose Martij(i853-i895),

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CUBA 391 one of the prime movers in the revolution of 1895, from the chisel of the Cuban sculptor of Villalta de Saavedra. The walls were begun in 1671 and completed in 1702 ; but after the successful attack by the English in 1762 the fortifications were greatly strengthened. The Abbe Raynal states in his history that between 1763 and 1777 £93 3.9 1 6 4 s n£d was spent on them. The walls were demolished between 1863 and 1880, and only fragments remain at the head of Teniente Street and behind the Church of the Angel. From Central Park, Pi y Margall (the name is that of a Cuban Patriot), or Obispo (Bishop), and O'Reilly streets run parallel in a north-easterly direction to the old President's Palace in the Plaza de Armas, a substantial building erected in 1834. These two streets, which are very narrow but extremely picturesque with their tinted awnings and quaint signs, form the chief shopping centre in Havana. O'Reilly Street owes its title to the Spanish General of that name, who entered the city by it while the English left by Obispo Street when Havana was restored to Spain in 1763. The Plaza de Armas is a centre of interest ; to the north of it is La Fuerza, said to be the oldest fortress in the New World. It was erected by Hernando de Soto in 15 19. The story goes that when that worthy set sail to conquer Florida he left his wife, Dona Isabella, behind. Here for four years she anxiously awaited the return of her husband, and here, when she heard of the failure of the expedition, she died broken-hearted. On the tower is the Habana, a figure emblematic of the city. Facing the President's Palace is El Templete, a small temple which was erected in 1828 and dedicated on March 9 in that year to mark the spot — originally identified by a huge silk-cotton tree — where the first Council met and the first Mass was sung when the city was established in 1519. It was here that the reputed remains of Columbus first rested when they were transferred fto Havana from Seville in 1795. Arrete records that in 1755 tne silk-cotton tree was still living. In 1747 Captain General F. Cagigar

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392 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES erected an obelisk of stone as a permanent memorial. A bronze tablet in the enclosure is inscribed : During the reign of his Majesty Don Fernando VII, under the Presidency and Governorship of Don Francisco Dionisio Vives, the most faithful, religious, and pacific Havana erected this simple monument, consecrating the place where, in the year 1 519, was celebrated the first mass and holy office, the Bishop Don Juan Jose Diaz de Espada solemnizing the Divine Sacrifice of the Mass on the 9th day of March, 1828. In the court there is a bust of Columbus which was studied by the American painter John Vanderlyn, for his painting of the landing of Columbus in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. The temple contains three commemorative paintings by Escobar of the installation of the first Council at Santiago, the celebration of Mass, and the inauguration of the monument. The temple is only opened to the public on November 16, the official birthday of Havana. Though the city was founded on St. Christopher's Day, the Pope gave permission for it to be celebrated on November 16 instead of that day so that the festivities might not clash with those in honour of St. James, whose date is the same as that of St. Christopher. Permission to visit the temple can, however, generally be obtained from the Mayor. The building at the seaward end of the Prado was formerly the Carcel or jail, which was erected in 1839 by convict labour. Just beyond it is the Students' Memorial, a simple piece of the wall of the old Commissary Building, a tablet let into which records that on November 27, 1871, eight young Cuban students were sacrificed on the spot by the Spanish volunteers. A more elaborate memorial stands in Colon Cemetery to the west of the city. Here burials still take place in niches or columbaria like those of the early Christians. During the ten years' war for freedom from 1868 to 1878, there was great animosity between the Spaniards and Cubans. Children born to Spanish parents in the island were considered Cubans, and many families were consequently divided among themselves. In 1871 a certain Gonzalo Castafion, in an ultraSpanish paper which he edited called The Voice of Cuba, made an attack on Cuban women, and was accordingly challenged

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CUBA 393 by a patriot to fight a duel at Key West. The challenge having been accepted, the fight took place and the Spaniard was killed. His body was brought to Havana and buried with much ceremony in one of the niches in the cemetery behind San Lazaro hospital. Some little time later, a party of students from Havana University were alleged to have spoken disrespectfully of Castafion and to have desecrated his tomb. This enraged the Spanish Volunteers, who demanded vengeance. It being impossible to ascertain which of the students were guilty, an entire class consisting of forty young men was arrested and tried by courtmartial. So great was the outcry that no lawyer could be found to defend their case, until a Spanish officer, whose name, Capedevilla, deserves to be remembered, offered to do so. This brave man conducted the defence with such ability that the Court could no nothing else but acquit the boys. This made the Volunteers still more angry, and they insisted that the young men should be tried by court martial, and that two-thirds of the judges should be officers of their force. The CaptainGeneral foolishly yielded to the request, and the unfortunate boys, not one of whom was over sixteen years of age, being again put on their trial, were found guilty, the sentence being that the forty should be ranged in a line and every fifth of them shot, the remaining thirty-two being condemned to be transported to Africa. The sentence was duly carried out and the lads were ranged against the Commissary building. When the Spanish sergeant ordered every fifth boy to step forward, they comported themselves like heroes, and it is said that one among them, making a rapid calculation and finding that his younger brother was the fifth and would consequently die, took his place. One prominent Havana merchant, seeing that his son was to be shot, fell on his knees and offered to pay as his ransom his weight in gold, but to no avail. The eight boys were then made to kneel before the part of the wall where the memorial tablet now is and were brutally murdered — for it was nothing else — by the Spanish Volunteers. When the news of this massacre reached Spain, the Cortes ordered an investigation to be made, and after" the inquiry the students were pronounced to be guiltless, those sentenced to transportation being pardoned." Many years afterwards, a son of Castafion visited the cemetery, and after examining the tomb in the presence of a Notary-Public, made a declaration that it had never been disturbed. The monument, which was erected by public subscription and executed by the Cuban sculptor Saavedra, consists of an elaborately carved pedestal supporting a shaft which is draped. At the base are two figures symbolical of Justice, with scales ill-balanced and broken sword, and History, upon whose scroll is inscribed the word Verd^p,

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394 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Truth. Emerging from an open door is the winged figure of Innocence, bearing a tablet inscribed Immunis, Guiltless. The Cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, stands near the junction of Empedrado and San Ignacio Streets. It was built in 1704 by the Jesuits in the style familiar in Spanish America with its twin towers and massive walls. When Santo Domingo was ceded to France remains believed to be those of Columbus were removed to this Cathedral with great ceremony, and here they remained until 1899, when, after the SpanishAmerican war, they were transferred to Seville. It is now generally believed that the remains in question were not those of the discoverer, but of a member of his family (see page 414). Other churches of note are those of Santo Domingo (begun in 1578), Santa Catalina (1700), and La Merced (1744), which has several oil paintings of merit. Permission to visit one or more of the numerous Tobacco factories can readily be obtained. Here, while the employees manufacture the cigars for which Havana is justly famous, an individual lightens the monotony of their labours by reading aloud some popular work or newspaper to them. Some Country Excursions Marianao Beach, on the Gulf of Mexico (10 miles west of Havana, by electric train every 1 5 minutes from Concha Station, Carlos III Street, or every few minutes via Vedado), is much resorted to on account of the delightful surf bathing to be enjoyed there. The train runs through some of the most attractive suburbs of Havana, including Puentes Grandes, Buena Vista, and Marianao town (population 9332 ; 9 miles). Near the beach the palatial Havana Country Club with an 18 -hole golf course is situated. The expedition to Matanzas (58 miles, 1 hour 55 minutes by train) and back can be made in a day, special personally conducted tours being arranged during the tourist season by the United Railways of Havana. The special fare, $8.50 (children under twelve $5.50), covers first-class railway fare, carriage to hotel, lunch, drive to the Hermitage o£ Mongerrate, the Yumuri Valley, and admission to the

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CUBA 395 Bellamar Caves. The line passes through extensive fields of sugar-cane, the section between Jaruco and Aguacate being one of the most productive in Cuba. At the latter place is the Rosario Central Factory. Between Empalme, (whence a branch runs through a hilly country to Madruga, population 2175), three hours from Havana, a typical Cuban village famous for its silver and iron springs, and Ceiba Mocha, is a deep cutting lined with maidenhair ferns and tropical foliage of great beauty. After passing the unpretentious village of Ceiba Mocha (left) and extensive orange groves (right), the train runs through the valley of the San Juan river, the great Pan of Matanzas (1000 feet) being the most prominent feature. Matanzas (population 36,000), the second city and seaport of Cuba, is situated on the south and east side of a spacious harbour. Its streets are well laid out and it has several handsome plazas and ornamental trees and flowers. A feature of the town is a leafy boulevard known as the Paseo. The valley of the Yumuri, which was praised by Humboldt, is best seen from the Hermitage of Monserrate and from the summit of the opposite hill, which is reached through a residential quarter known as Versailles. The Yumuri Valley is a vast natural amphitheatre five or six miles in diameter with precipitous sides except towards the sea, where the river finds an outlet through the vertical walls of a canon. It was the scene of a massacre of the Arawaks in 1 5 1 1 Hence the names Matanzas (slaughtering) and Yumuri, said to be a corruption of Io Mori, I die," the cry of the victims. Far down below our very feet, lay the lovely valley of the Yumuri, with its grounds now broken into sharp peaks, now gently undulating ; its cane-fields with their pea-green verdure, and the dark-green foliage of the tall palms scattered irregularly over them ; its golden orange -groves, and luxuriant plantains, with broad waving leaves ; its cocoas, its almonds, and its coffee, with here and there a gigantic Ceyba spreading out its massive arms high in air. Notes on Cuba. The caves of Bellamar are situated on a plateau about two miles beyond Matanzas. They are entered by a broad stairway cut out of the rock in a small house. The caves are lined on all sides with wonderful crystal stalactites, which are illuminated by electric light. The largest hall

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396 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES is the Gothic Temple, 250 feet long by 80. They were discovered quite by accident by a workman in 1861, who was quarrying limestone for a kiln. To the man's astonishment his crowbar, inserted in a crevice to dislodge a rock, slipped out of his hands right through the rock and disappeared. Among many interesting expeditions from Matanzas may be mentioned a trip on the San Juan and Canimar rivers, the latter winding between steep cliffs for a distance of about eight miles, and then entering an almost impenetrable tropical jungle. The town has several bathing establishments, and its water, known as Copey, is recommended for disorders of the digestive organs. Visitors — and especially those interested in the fragrant weed — should not fail to visit the famed Vuelta Aba jo (lower turn) district at the western end of the province of Pinar del Rio, which is reached by the Western Railway of Havana. The line passes Rancho Boyeros and Santiago de las Vegas, where much citrus fruit is cultivated. At Giiira (18 miles) tobacco cultivation begins. Artemisa is the junction for Guanajay (9 miles distant), whence Havana can be reached by electric line. Paso Real (84 miles from Havana) is the station for San Diego de los Banos, famed for its sulphur baths. Pinar del Rio (population 10,634 ; 1 1 1 miles from Havana), the chief town of the Vuelta Abajo district, has several excellent hotels. Cardenas, 109 miles east of Havana (4 hours 18 minutes by train), is an important city (population 24,280), situated on the north coast, much sugar being shipped from it. A few miles to the north is Varadero, which has one of the finest beaches in Cuba. It is reached either by steamboats across the bay or by motor-cars and coaches over the highway. CienfuegOS, 195 miles from Havana, on the shore of the Caribbean Sea, is a modern city (population 30,100) with picturesque plazas. Its magnificent bay, 11 miles long by 3 to 5 in width, is one of the finest natural harbours in this part of the world. The city has several delightful suburbs, including Punta Gorda, Cayo Carenas, and Castillo

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CUBA 39; Jagua. The latter is particularly interesting on account of its old castle, built in the time of Philip V of Spain to protect the harbour from pirates. It is now possible to visit Eastern Cuba in great comfort, thanks to the service provided by the Cuba Railroad Company. Two trains leave Havana daily, one in the early morning and the other at night, for Santiago. In the provinces of Santa Clara, Camagiiey, and Santiago, the road runs through rolling plains and mountainous regions. Camagiiey (population 29,616 ; 340 miles) has many old mediaeval buildings. The climate of the city, which lies on a plain 550 feet above sea-level, is particularly good. Among the attractions of the place are its weather-worn churches, the most interesting being those of La Merced and La Soledad. The former was built about the year 1628 by missionaries of Our Lady of Mercy. Its high altar is of silver and was fashioned from 40,000 Spanish dollars. The latter was a hermitage in 1697. The present building was begun in 1758. The frescoes date from about 1852. The picturesque Hotel Camagiiey occupies the old Spanish military barracks. Santa Clara (population 16,702 ; 180 miles) is the second inland town in importance. Santiago de Cuba (population 45,470 ; 538 miles), on the shores of the Caribbean Sea, nestles at the foot of lofty mountains. Its spacious harbour, like that of Havana, is almost land-locked, the promontory protecting it having also a Monro Castle, of great antiquity. It was in this harbour that Admiral Cervera lay from May 19 to July 3, 1898, when his vessels steamed out to destruction, and it was the bottle-necked entrance which Lieutenant Hobson courageously endeavoured to block by sinking the Merrimac. Santiago is an extremely picturesque town with its irregular streets of brightly coloured houses with red-tiled roofs, its plazas, and its many trees. The best shops are in Marina Street — which extends from the Plaza to the bay — and San Tomas Street. Along the bay is the Alameda, a charming drive-way. $? One of the favourite expeditions from Santiago is^ to the battle-field of San Juan and El Caney (4 miles), which

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398 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES now comprise a public park. A simple column surmounted by a shell on San Juan Hill is inscribed : IN MEMORY OF THE OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY, WHO WERE KILLED IN THE ASSAULT AND CAPTURE OF THIS RIDGE JULY I, 1 898, AND THE SIEGE OF SANTIAGO, JULY ISt TO JULY 1 6th, 1 898. WAR BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES. Near by is the Surrender Tree, a silk-cotton tree under which General Toral surrendered Santiago to General Shatter on July 17, 1898. Cobre (9 miles from Santiago), whose name is attributable to the existence of copper mines in the neighbourhood, is worth visiting on account of the famous shrine of Nuestra Sefiora de la caridad del Cobre (Our Lady of Charity of Cobre). Here, as at Boulogne in France, a miraculous image of the Virgin which was found floating out at sea and salved is enshrined. About 40 miles to the east of Santiago is the American naval station of Guantanamo. Historically the place is of interest by reason of the fact that it was here that the English under Admiral Vernon and General Wentworth landed in 1741 to attack Santiago. They called the harbour Cumberland Bay. Guantanamo is a shipping port of consequence. The harbour, which is 10 miles long by 4 wide in places, has an outer and inner basin, the latter being approached by an extremely narrow entrance. Guantanamo has two admirable shipping ports in Boqueron and Caimanera. To the north of Santiago is the port of AntiUa (population 1 100 ; 517 miles), on Nipe Bay, which is reached by a branch line from Alto Cedro. If the present rate of development is continued, this port will soon be one of the most prosperous in the island. Several shipping companies already include this town-in-the-making among their ports of call, and there is usually time to visit Preston, the immense sugar factory of the United Fruit Company, between the arrival and departure of steamers. The wooded hill beyond Antilla, which commands a fine view of the

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ISLE OF PINES, PORTO RICO 399 town and bay and the blue masses of the Mayari Mountains, will in time become a city park. A trip to Batabano, on the south coast ($6 miles from Havana ; 1 hour 55 mins. by train), and back can easily be made in an afternoon. The place is the scene of an interesting sponge fishery, and the port of departure of the steamer for the Isle of Pines. THE ISLE OP PINES The Isle of Pines, a dependency of Cuba, with an area of 840 square miles and a population of about 5000, of whom 2000 are Americans, can be reached either from Batabano or Santiago. Leaving Batabano overnight (Monday, Wednesday, or Friday), the steamer reaches the island early on the following morning. (Fares : Single $7.60, return $12.00.) The steamer returns to Batabano on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Nueva Gerona, the capital, on the Rio Casas, is almost surrounded by mountains, the Sierra de las Casas and the Sierra de Caballas. The island has become quite an American settlement, and at Santa Fe and Los Indios many prosperous citrus and pine-apple plantations can be seen. Other progressive centres are those of Santa Barbara and West McKinley. In the northern half of the island there are many groves of oranges, grape-fruit, limes and pine-apples, all of which fruits grow to perfection in this favoured climate. The Isle of Pines is dotted with the bungalows of the American settlers, many of which are quite artistic. In the winter months the American colony is swelled by many visitors from the United States, who amuse themselves by bathing off the delightful beaches of Nueva Gerona and Bibijagua, by motoring over the excellent roads, and by boating on the Casas river. PORTO RICO Borinquen : The Rich Port GENERAL ASPECT. Porto Rico, formerly and more correctly known as Puerto Rico, lies in latitude 1 8 1 5' N. and longitude 6o 30' W., 70 miles to the east of Haiti, from which it is separated by the Mona Passage, and an equal distance

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40O POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES west of St. Thomas and St. Kitts. The island is 108 miles long, and its total area is 3530 square miles, or rather smaller than that of Jamaica and somewhat less than half of that of the State of New Jersey. The population of the island, which has lately risen with great rapidity, is 1,118,000, or 325 to the square mile, of whom no fewer than two-thirds are classed as white, the remaining third being negroes. Porto Rico is mountainous, a low range of mountains extending through its greatest length. The highest peak, El Yunque — the Anvil — rises in the north-east corner to 3600 feet. The slopes of the mountains resolve themselves near the coast into plains of great beauty and fertility. The island is well watered, the chief rivers being the Rio Loiza, the Rio de la Plata, Rio Manati, and Rio Arecibo, which empty themselves on the north side. San Juan, the capital (population, 48,716), is situated on an island promontory which encloses an almost land-locked harbour on the north coast. Ponce (35,000), the second town in size, is situated on the south side, and Mayagiiez (population 16,563), another town of importance, is near the centre of the west coast overlooking Mona Passage. Porto Rico has three island dependencies, namely Mona, in the channel of the same name, and Vieques, or Crab Island, and Culebra, off the east coast. Vieques, which is 21 miles long and 6 wide, is extremely fertile and supports a population of some thousands. Culebra, on the other hand, is almost barren, the inhabitants being dependent on rain for their water supply. INDUSTRIES. Under the Spanish regime coffee was the principal industry of the island, but since the American occupation, sugar, which was so highly protected by the Payne Tariff, has taken first place among the exports of the island, with tobacco, its no less favoured neighbour, a good second. It remains to be seen how these industries will be affected by the Underwood Tariff, which provides for the free admission of sugar into the United States from 1916. Coffee, which was protected under Spanish rule, is one of the few products which is on America's free list," and this, combined with the partial destruction

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PORTO RICO 401 of the plantations by the severe cyclone of 1899, has done much to injure this one-time important industry. Porto Rico coffee, which is sold almost exclusively in Europe, only requires to be better known for it to rank with the finest produced in the world. In 19 13 the principal exports were : Sugar ..... $26,619,158 Tobacco .... $ 5,800,686 Coffee $ 8,511,316 FINANCIAL POSITION. The financial position of the colony is shown by the following comparative table of its revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports, for the last ten years : Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. $ $ 1904 13,169,029 16,265,903 1905 16,536,259 18,709,565 1906 21,827,665 23,257.530 1907 29,267,172 26,996,300 1908 Figures 1 9041 9 1 2 25,825,665 30,644,490 1909 not available. 26,554,326 30,391,225 1910 30,634,855 37,960,219 1911 38,786,997 39,918,367 1912 42,926,473 49,705,413 *9*3 $4,344,227 [$4,516,729 36,900,062 49,103,565 CLIMATE. Being but a few degrees within the tropics, Porto Rico enjoys exceptionally favourable climatic conditions. The weather is cool in the winter months, and there is always a marked difference between the night and day temperatures. From November to March the temperature rarely rises above 75 Fahr., while the thermometer often falls as low as from 50 Fahr. to 6o Fahr. The lowlands in the north have a superabundance of rain, but the south is subject to droughts. Since the occupation of the island by the United States, its sanitation has undergone marked improvement. HISTORY. Porto Rico, the ' rich port ' of the Spaniards and the Borinquen of the original Arawak inhabitants, was discovered by Columbus in 1495. In 1508 Juan 2C

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402 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Ponce de Leon, who had been one of the discoverer's companions on his first voyage, having received permission from Nicolas de Ovanda, Governor of Hispaniola, to explore the island, founded a settlement at Caparra, near the present capital. The settlement was ineffectually attacked by Drake in 1595, "with sixe of the Queene's shippes, and, twenty-one other shippes and barkes, containing 2500 men and boys." Sir John Hawkins, who accompanied the expedition, was extreme sicke ; which his sickness began upon the newes of the taking of the Francis." He died off the island on November 12, and was buried at sea. The ships anchored two miles to the east of the capital, and on the 13th they entered "the rode within the great castels one of which contained "thirty-five tunnes of silver." Three years later the Earl of Cumberland endeavoured to capture the island, but without success. The Dutch under Heinrich tried to reduce it, and in 1678 an attempt was made in the same direction by the English, but both proved unsuccessful. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Harvey made a further attack on the island in 1797, two months after the capture of Trinidad, but after four days' siege they were compelled to retire. The sloops Beaver and Fury with the lighter vessels entered a small bay a few miles to the east of the capital and disembarked the troops without meeting with much opposition Abercromby then advanced against the eastern side of the town and proceeded to bombard it. Owing, however, to the lagoon which separated it from the main island he could not get near enough, and after a few days he withdrew and reembarked his troops with the greatest order and regularity." In 1 820 a movement for independence was started, but Spanish supremacy was re-established in 1823. After remaining a Spanish possession for over four hundred years, the island was ceded to the United States after the SpanishAmerican War. On July 25, 1898, the United States fleet made a demonstration before San Juan. Meanwhile 3400 men under General Miles were landed at Guanica on the south coast, 15 miles to the west of Ponce. Three days later that town was surrendered, the. Spanish Governor,

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PORTO RICO 403 General Manuel Macias y Casado, falling back on the central ridge of mountains. The Americans then prepared to advance by separate routes across the island ; Guayama, Mayagiiez, and Comao were occupied, and part of the American army was within twenty miles of the north coast and the other had almost reached Aibonito along the Military Road, when news reached the island of the signature of the peace treaty of August 12, and hostilities were suspended. The island was finally ceded to the United States on December 10, 1898, by the treaty, which was signed on that date and ratified on February 6, 1899. CONSTITUTION. A Bill — commonly known as the Foraker Bill — providing for a civil government for Porto Rico was introduced into the fifty-sixth Congress of the United States and was passed and assented to by the President on April 12, 1900. Under this Act civil government was established and came into effect on May 1, 1900. The Governor is appointed by the President of the United States and holds office for four years. He and the six secretaries of departments are American. There are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or Upper House," composed of the Government Secretary, AttorneyGeneral, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of the Interior, and Commissioner of Education, and five citizens appointed by the President, and the House of Delegates, or Lower House," consisting of 35 members, elected by the people every two years. The island is represented in the Congress of the United States by a Resident Commissioner. President Roosevelt in 1906 recommended the grant of United States citizenship to all Porto Ricans, but his suggestion has not yet been adopted by Congress. An endeavour is being made by Porto Ricans to secure self-government, and there is a movement in favour of independence under American protection. HOTELS. San Juan. Hotels Inglaterra, Eureka, Ronia, and Mona. Rooms, $1.50 to $3.00 per day. For meals the Restaurant Filippi is recommended. Ponce, Hotels Francais and Melia Rooms, $1.50 to $3.00 per day Mayaguez. Flotels Palmer and Paris. Board and lodging, $1.50 to $2.50 per-day.

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404 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Porto Rico is served by the steamship companies numbered 10, 15, 17, 20 and 27 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The railway of the American Railroad Company of Porto Rico connects San Juan with Ponce and Carolina and Ponce with Guayama. The names of the principal stations are given below. SAN JUAN— PONCE Stations. Miles from Approx. San Juan. Time Taken. hr. min. San Juan City San Juan Station — 7 Talleres 3* 18 Santurce 3f 21 Martin P ena 5 30 Bayam6n 12* 52 Toa Baja I3l 1 16 Dorado 19* 1 19 San Vicente 27! 1 40 Vega Baja 29i 1 46 Manati 36 2 6 Barceloneta 40f 2 18 Cambalache 5i 2 49 Arrecibo 52| 2 56 Hatillo 57f 3 25 Camuy 62I 3 30 Quebradillas 69 5 53 Isabela X. 7^ 4 20 Aguadilla Puente 88i 5 23 Aguada 94i 5 43 Corcega 103I 6 49 Afiasco mi 6 31 Mayaguez Playa n6i 6 46 Mayaguez Ciudad H7i 6 58 Hormigueros 123 7 15 San German I28# 7 36 Lajas Ciudad i33i 7 53 Lajas Estacion i34l 7 58 Santa Rita 146! 8 33 Yauco 149I 8 44 Guayanilla I57i 9 6 Tallaboa 162^ 9 29 Ponce 171I 9 45

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PORTO RICO 4S SAN JUA^ -CAROLINA Stations. Miles. Approx. Time Taken. San Juan City San Juan Station Miramar Talleres Santurce Martin Peiia Rio Piedras City Rio Piedras Station Carolina 1* 3i 3l 5 6* 7i i3t hr. min. 15 19 25 28 35 44 4 s 1 12 PONCE-GUAYAMA Stations. Miles. Approx. Time Taken. hr. min. Ponce — — Cafio Verde i* 5 Porinna 6* 25 Potalo 8 34 Descalabrado 13 57 Santa Isabel ij* 1 6 Salinas 20^ 1 38 Aguirre 26* 2 Guayama 37i 2 37 Cabs and motor-cars can be hired in San Juan, Ponce, and Mayagiiez. Cabs, $1.50 and $2.00 per hour; motorcars, $5.00 per hour. A feature of the island is its fine system of macadamised roads, of which there are now fully 600 miles, the principal being the Military Road between San Juan and Ponce, which was constructed by the Spaniards over a century ago. There are several good garages in San Juan where motorcars can be hired for the round-trip between San Juan and Ponce, the charge for which is $40.00. San Juan has a service of electric cars which also run

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4 o6 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES to the suburbs of Santurce and Rio Piedras. Ponce also has an electric car service. %*§gs SPORTS. Since American occupation base-ball has been played ; but opportunities for visitors with athletic tastes are fewer than in most other West Indian islands. Devotees of Terpsichore will find dancing popular. Masquerade balls are held every year during the Carnival at the municipal theatres. SOCIAL CLUBS. The principal club in San Juan is the Spanish Club. There is also a Country Club near the Park and the Union Club pleasantly situated at a short distance out of the town. The Y.M.C.A. occupies a magnificent building in the outskirts of the town, and mention must also be made of the Casino of Porto Rico and the Ateneo de Puerto Rico (the Porto Rico Athenaeum) in the Plaza Principal. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. San Juan (population, 50,000), the old San Juan de Bautista de Puerto Rico, is situated on a promontory that is practically an island connected with the mainland by the bridge of San Antonio, which crosses a marshy lagoon. At the seaward extremity of this promontory, which encloses a magnificent and almost land-locked harbour, is the historic Mono Castle, which was erected between the years 1539 and 1584. San Juan was once strongly fortified, and it still forms a noble example of an old Spanish walled city ; and it is noteworthy that though the elaborate fortifications existing in 1 898 were obsolete they suffered no material damage when they were bombarded by the modern guns of the United States fleet. Not far from the Morro is the ancient Castle of Ponce de Leon, the founder of the city. The city, which is clean and well cared for, has several spacious plazas, in the principal of which are the municipal buildings. In the Plaza Cristobal there is a well-executed statue of Columbus, who stands on a column grasping the banner of Ferdinand and Isabella, as he did on setting foot for the first time on the New World. The old Intendeneia is now used by the Government departments. The favourite excursion from San Juan is the drive by

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PORTO RICO 407 the Military Road from San Juan to Ponce and from Cayey to Guayama, Ponce* which stands on a plain 2 miles from the seaport of Playa, was founded in 1752. Mayagiiez, the third town in importance, stands on the west coast overlooking the Mona passage. Porto Rico has not yet been developed as a tourist resort to the same extent as Cuba ; but this American island has far greater natural beauty than Cuba can boast. Its roads are superb, and the example of the Spanish, and later the American, engineers might with advantage be followed elsewhere in the West Indies.

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CHAPTER XV HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO The Black Republics GENERAL ASPECT. The highly fertile island of Haiti, or Hispaniola, is divided between the two independent Republics of Haiti, which occupies 9242 square miles at the western end, and Santo Domingo, with an area of 20,596 square miles at the eastern end. The former has, according to the estimates of the priests, a population of 1,600,000, and the latter 1,000,000. Next to Cuba, Haiti is the largest of the West Indian islands, its greatest length being 407 miles, its extreme breadth 160 miles, and its total area 29,838 square miles, or about the same as that of Ireland. It is one of the Greater Antilles and lies between Cuba and Porto Rico, being separated from Cuba by the Windward Passage, the width of which from Cape Maisi in Cuba to Mole St. Nicolas in Haiti is 130 miles, and from Porto Rico by the Mona Passage, 70 miles in width. In shape the island has been compared to a turtle, its eastern projection forming the head and the two western peninsulas the hinder limbs. The island is decidedly mountainous, but there are large and fertile plains between the several groups. There are three distinct ranges of mountains, all extending east and west. The scenery is grand beyond description, the mountains being covered by dense forests. The Dominican Republic may be roughly divided into two districts, one comprising the well-watered lands in the east and the other the very rich irrigated county in the west. Good roads are being made by degrees, and it is hoped that a railway will soon be constructed from the capital to Manzanillo Bay via Santiago and La Vega, thus affording 408

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HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO 409 unbroken railway communication between the capital and Manzanillo Bay, Puerto Plata and Sanchez. Other railways contemplated are from La Romano to Seybo and from Barahona to Lake Enriquillo. The existing railways, of which there are 175 miles in Haiti and 500 miles in Santo Domingo, are narrow-gauge and give very poor service. INDUSTRIES. In Haiti tobacco, coffee, cocoa, and sugar are cultivated, and the island is supposed to possess valuable deposits of coal, copper, and other minerals. Sugar is extensively cultivated in Santo Domingo, and tobacco, coffee, bananas, and cocoa are also exported, together with mahogany, lignum vitae, cedar, and satinwood. No attempt has as yet been made to develop the deposits of iron, gold, copper, and salt which are known to exist. The island has much savannah country suitable for cattle, but very little use has so far been made of it. The trade of Haiti and Santo Domingo is mainly with the United States, which supply 60 per cent, of the total imports of both republics. The chief exports from Santo Domingo in 191 2 were valued as under : Sugar $5,841,000 Cocoa 4,249,000 Tobacco 670,000 Coffee 566,000 Hides 235,000 FINANCIAL POSITION. The revenue and expenditure, and imports and exports of Haiti, and Santo Domingo for the five years are given, as far as obtainable, in the following tables : HAITI Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. 1 906-7 1 907-8 1 908-9 1909-10 1910-11 $ 3.375.612 2,760,888 2,700,000 3,280,000 $ 3.973. 8 99 2,777.^7 3,329,010 3,280,000 $ 5,881,000 6,100,000 7.153.467 $ 2,870,000 2,255,000 3,480,000 4,200,000

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410 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES SANTO DOMINGO Year. Revenue. Expenditure. Imports. Exports. 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 $ 3,984,300 4,520,120 4,700,000 4,860,000 5,809,785 3,990,000 4,530,000 4,650,000 4,806,000 5,845,994 $ 5,128,000 4,426,000 6,257,750 6,949,662 8,217,898 $ 9,490,000 8,134,700 10,850,000 11,004,906 12,385,245 In 1907 a treaty with the United States was ratified, under which the latter country now collects the Customs duties and acts as an intermediary between the Dominican Republic and its foreign creditors. The debt on January 1, 191 2, was $20,000,000. CLIMATE. The climate of Haiti and Santo Domingo is dry and extremely healthy, the thermometer rarely rising above 90 Fahr. The rainy seasons are in May and June and from July to September, in which month storms most frequently occur. The towns are reasonably clean. In Santo Domingo yellow fever is never heard of. The commonest form of fever is that known as Paludismo," which resembles a very mild type of malaria. HISTORY. Columbus visited Haiti from Cuba, landing at Mole St. Nicolas on December 6, 1492. He found the island inhabited by 2,000,000 aborigines, who called the island Haiti, the Mountainous Country,' 1 and Quisquica, the Vast Country ; but Columbus changed the name to Espagnola, or Little Spain, which was latinised to Hispaniola. Adventurers from Europe, attracted by the usual tales of gold, flocked to the island, and after thirty years the natives, whom they cruelly maltreated, were crushed out of existence. In 1505 negroes were first introduced into the island, and by royal edict, in the year 15 17, the importation of 4000 negroes a year was authorised. In 1630 a mixed colony of French and English, who were driven out of St. Kitts, and had established themselves at Tortuga, where they became formidable under the name of Buccaneers, settled in Haiti, and in 1697 the part

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Railways SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES

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Stan-ford's Geog'. Estab* London.

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HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO 411 of the island which they held was ceded by the Treaty of Ryswick to France. After 1722 jthe colony, which was called Saint Dominigue, flourished, and it continued to prosper until the French Revolution of 1789, when the free people of colour demanded that the principles of the Revolution should be extended to them. This was opposed by the whites, and the two classes were at enmity. In 1 791 a decree was passed giving mulattoes all the rights of French citizens, but in the same year the decree was reversed, and the mulattoes fought with the blacks against the whites in a war which began with an insurrection of the slaves. In 1793 the abolition of slavery was proclaimed, and the English invaded the island. Toussaint l'Ouverture, the leader of the blacks, helped the French, and was made Commander-in-Chief of the French army. The English were driven out in 1 798, and the French became masters of the whole island, which had been ceded to them by the Treaty of Basle three years previously. Toussaint in 1801 adopted a constitutional form of government, in which he was to be President for life ; but Bonaparte, then First Consul, determined to reduce the colony and restore slavery, sent out 25,000 troops under General Leclerc. The blacks retired to the mountains, but a desultory war was kept up until Leclerc cajoled the native chiefs into a suspension of hostilities, and, having invited Toussaint to an interview, seized him and sent him to France, where he died in prison in 1803. The blacks were infuriated, and renewed the struggle under General Dessalines. In 1803, on the approach of an English fleet, the French agreed to evacuate the island, and in 1804 independence was declared, and the aboriginal name of Haiti revived. Dessalines was made Governor for life, but later in the year he proclaimed himself Emperor. He was assassinated in 1806, and two rival chiefs, Cristophe and Petion, established themselves in the north and south respectively ; while the Spaniards retook the eastern part Of the island, which they called Santo Domingo. Petion died in 181 8, and, Cristophe having committed suicide in 1820, General Boyer became master of the whole of the western end of the island, and in 1822, taking advantage

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412 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES of dissensions in the Spanish part, he invaded it and captured the whole of it. The entire island was then called Haiti, but in 1843 he was driven out by a revolution, and in 1844 the people in the eastern end established the Dominican Republic, and from that date the two political divisions have been maintained. CONSTITUTION. The Government of Haiti is administered by a President and two Chambers, the members of which hold office according to a constitution which dates from 1889. In the case of Santo Domingo, the Government is in the hands of a National Congress of twenty-four deputies, a President with executive power, elected by an electoral college, and an Administrative Ministry, appointed by the President. Haiti has an army of 7000 men and three gunboats, and Santo Domingo has also a small army and a few gunboats. HOTELS. The hotel accommodation both in Haiti and Santo Domingo is extremely poor even in the larger towns, and visitors to the smaller towns must be prepared to rough it considerably. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Haiti is served by the steamship companies numbered 10, 11 and 15, and Santo Domingo by those numbered 10, 15, and 16 in the list on pages 14 to 27. In Haiti there are a few short lines of railway in operation Stations. Miles. Approx. Time Taken. hr. min. Puerto Plata — — La Sabana 5 55 Barrabas 8 1 25 Bajabonico 11 1 45 Altamira 18 2 42 La Cumbre 22 3 5 Navarrete 29 4 22 Las Lagunas 34 4 50 Santiago 42 5 30 Pena . 5o 6 35 San Victor f 55 7 12 Moca' ...',.. 60 7 55

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HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO 413 and a more elaborate railway system connecting the chief business centres is in course of construction. The public railroads in Santo Domingo are (1) the Central Dominican (belonging to the Government) between Puerto Plata and Moca, and (2) the Samana and Santiago (a British Company) between Sanchez (on the Bay of Samana) and La Vega, with branches to San Francisco de Macoris and Salcedo. From the latter station an extension is (1914) being made to Moca where the two railroads will join. A list of the principal stations on the Central Dominican Railroad is given on the opposite page. The chief stations on the Samana and Santiago Railroad are as under : Stations. Miles from Sanchez. Time Taken. Sanchez Almacen (Villa Riva) La Ceiba Barbero (Pimentel) Baird (La Jina) Macoris (San Francisco) Las Cabullas La Vega La Jagua Salcedo Moca .... 21 28 33 45 52 55 62 61 66 73 hr. min. 1 25 1 55 2 30 3 15 3 45 4 45 5 10 6 13 6 30 On both lines the trains also stop at a number of smaller stations on signal. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. The absence of roads and hotel accommodation makes travelling in Haiti difficult. No whites live anywhere except in the seaside towns, and the interior is still to a great extent unexplored. Beyond the beauties of nature there is little to attract visitors, though the ruins of the old Palace at Milo, near Cape Haitien, and the citadel above, both built for President Cristophe, are well worth seeing. The capital of Santo Domingo is the city of the same

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4 i4 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES name (population 22,000) which is situated on the sou coast. The town contains many buildings and ruins of historical interest, most of them being associated with the family of Columbus. In the Cathedral, which was completed in 1540, the ornate tomb of Columbus is an object of interest. It contains what are believed to be the genuine bones of the great discoverer, which lie in a battered leaden casket roughly inscribed with his name and titles. They were found about thirty years ago, while some repairs were being executed, in the spot indicated in the archives as the burialplace of Columbus and next to the vault from which the supposed bones of the discoverer were exhumed. Columbus died at Valladolid on May 20, 1506, and was buried there. In 1542, however, his remains were exhumed and, in accordance with a wish which he had expressed before his death, they were taken to Santo Domingo and placed in a vault in the cathedral. In 1795, when the island was ceded to France, remains believed to be those of Columbus were removed to Havana, and in 1899, after the SpanishAmerican War, these were transferred to Seville and buried with great pomp in a stately tomb in the Cathedral there. It now appears to be generally believed that the remains in Spain are those of some other member of the Columbus family, and that the true bones of the great discoverer lie in the Cathedral of Santo Domingo. Other towns of consequence are Santiago (population 12,000), San Pedro de Mncoris (8000), and Puerta Plata (8000). The chief districts of cultivation are at present the Cibao district, which extends from Santiago to Sanchez and offers a suitable soil for the cultivation of cacao, coffee and tobacco, and the sugar-lands along the South coast between Santo Domingo and La Romana. The principal physical features which appeal to visitors are the salt Lake Enriquillo, whose surface is about 100 feet below sea-level, Monte Tina (over 10,000 feet high), the Constanza Valley, the Falls at Jarabacoa, and Samana Bay. Interesting Indian remains are to be found, especially near San Juan in the West and Higuey in the East.

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CHAPTER XVI THE SPANISH MAIN South America's Historic Northern Littoral GENERAL ASPECT. The Spanish Main is the name given in the days of the buccaneers to the north-east coast of South America between the delta of the Orinoco and the Isthmus of Panama. Once a Spanish possession, it is now shared by the republics of Venezuela, Colombia and Panama. The countries, generally speaking, are mountainous, while the front lands are sandy. Next to the Orinoco, the chief river is the Magdalena, which empties itself by a wide delta to the west of Savanilla. The principal ports are La Guaira and Puerto Cabello in Venezuela, both of which are connected with Caracas, the capital of that country, by railway, and Santa Marta, Savanilla and Cartagena in Colombia. The mail steamers call at one or more of these ports in the course of the voyage between Trinidad and Colon ; but passengers desirous of going ashore at any of them as well as at Colon are advised to visit them after the latter place, for the Isthmian Canal authorities subject arrivals from Venezuelan and Colombian ports to rigid quarantine. The mail steamer coasts along the Spanish Main, taking eight days on the voyage from Colon to Trinidad. HISTORY. The Spanish Main was discovered by Columbus, who crossed over to what is now Venezuela, after setting foot on Trinidad for the first time, in 1498. Alonso de Ojeda coasted along it in the following year and, having obtained a grant of the district from Cape Vela to the Gulf of Darien in 1508, founded the colony of Nueva Andalucia 415

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416 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES there. Some years later Diego de Nicuesa established the settlement of Castilla del Oro farther to the west, and in 1 5 14 the two colonies were united under the name of Tierra Firme. Meanwhile Vasco Nunez de Balboa had, in 1 5 13, discovered the Pacific, an event which proved the beginning of a period of immense prosperity for the country. Gold and silver were transported across the Isthmus of Panama and the Spanish galleons gathered in the harbours of Porto Bello and Cartagena, whence they carried the treasure of the New World to Cadiz. For years Spain monopolised the trade in spite of the constant raids by the buccaneers and pirates. In 1564 the country was formed into a Spanish Presidency called New Granada, and in 17 18 it was raised to the position of a Viceroyalty ; only to be reduced to a Presidency again in the following year. The Viceroyalty was revived in 1740 and extended to include Venezuela, a Spanish settlement at the eastern end of the Main which was making rapid growth. The attacks against the supremacy of Spain now became more frequent. In 1572 Sir Francis Drake, who had been furnished with letters of marque by Queen Elizabeth, raided Nombre de Dios, a strongly fortified town of great wealth and consequence, and in 1585 he captured Cartagena and exacted a ransom of 1 10,000 ducats from the inhabitants. In 1679 the town was again raided by de Ponti, a Frenchman, assisted by the buccaneers, and in 1740 it was attacked unsuccessfully by Admiral Vernon, who in the previous year had justified his boast that he could capture Porto Bello with six ships only. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, Spain's power began to wane, and in 1 8 1 1 the struggle for independence began under the leadership of Simon Bolivar, the Liberator. In 181 1 Venezuela declared her independence, and from that year until 1824 there was constant war between the colonics on the Main and their mother country. In 18 19 Bolivar effected the union of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador under the title of the Republic of Colombia, whose independence was recognised in 1825. The yoke of Spain having thus been removed, a long series of civil wars and dissensions commenced. In 1829 Venezuela seceded from

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THE SPANISH MAIN 417 Colombia. Bolivar died in 1830, and in the year after his death the Republic of New Granada was founded. In 1843 the provinces of Cartagena, Veragua and Panama withdrew from the federation, but they were brought back within twelve months. In 1861 the Republic of Colombia was re-established. HOTELS. Barranquilla. Pension Inglesa, Calle de San Bias, board and lodging $3 (125. 6d.) per day and upwards. Table d'hote lunch or dinner 80 cents (3s. 4^.). Caracas. Grand Hotel Klindt, Gran Hotel and Hotel Saint Armand, luncheon or dinner, 4 bolivars (3s. 2d.). Cartagena. Walter's Hotel, Calle de San Augustin, and Mariani's Hotel, Calle de Cuartel. Board and lodging $2.50 (105. $d.) per day. Table d'hote lunch or dinner $1 (4s. 2d.). Puerto Cabello. Hotel de los Banos. Meals at moderate prices. At Puerto Colombia there are no hotels or accommodation of any kind. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. The steamers of the companies numbered 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 15, 20 and 21 on pages 14 to 27 visit the principal ports on the Spanish Main. Barranquilla can be reached by railway from Savanilla or by railway and steamer from Santa Marta {see next page) Carriages 80 cents (3s. 4d.) per hour for two persons and $1.20 (5s.) for three. Caracas. Carriages de luxe can be hired on Sundays and fete days, when they are in great request, from 4.30 to 7 p.m. for 32 bolivars (£1 5s. 4^.) with American horses, and bs. 26 (£1 05. yd.) with native horses; per hour bs. 10 {js. nd.) American; bs. 8 (6s. 4^.) native. On week-days the tariff is bs. 8 (6s. 4^.) American ; bs. 6 (4s. gd.) native. Numbered cabs, bs. 1 .50 (is. 2d.) per course, bs. 2 (is. yd.) between 10 and 1 p.m. and bs. 4 (3s. 2d.) between 1 p.m. and 6 a.m. Motor-cars can be hired for bs. 1 2 (9s. 6d.) per hour on weekdays and bs. 16 {12s. Sd.) per hour on Sundays. Cartagena. Steamers go alongside a wharf on Drake's Spit, from which the city is reached by a light railway. Fare 5 cents (2\d) Carriages 80 cents, (3s. 4d.) per hour for one or two persons, $1 (4s. 2d.) for three, and $1.20 (5s.) for four. The city is connected with Calamar on the Magdalena river (36 miles) by the Cartagena (Colombia) Railway, Fare, $2.50, La Guaira.

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4i 8 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Landing charge from steamers to the wharf 42 cents (is.gd.). The port is connected with Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, by the line of the La Guaira and Caracas Railway Company Limited (23 miles). A list of stations on the line and their height and distance from La Guaira is given below. The fares are : first-class single, bs. 7 ; return, bs. 10.50 ; second class single, bs. 5 ; return, bs. 7.50. Stations. Miles. Height in feet. Time Taken. Hours. La Guaira 0.00 6 — Maiquetia 1.30 5o 0.08 El Rincon 2.46 300 0.15 Curucuti 6.97 1078 0.40 Zig-Zag 9.89 1533 1. 00 Boqueron 11.80 1955 1. 10 Pena de Mora 14.00 2295 1.27 Cantinas 18.00 2903 1.46 Caracas 23.00 2984 2.08 Puerto Colombia. The pier is owned by the Barranquilla Railway and Pier Company Limited, whose line goes to Barranquilla (17 miles, about 40 minutes each way). Santa Marta is connected with the interior of Colombia by means of the Santa Marta Railway to Cienaga Grande (24 miles), whence passengers and mails are conveyed by a small river steamboat every sixth day to Barranquilla. Fare, $3.80. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Some five or six hours after leaving Colon, steamers coasting along the Spanish Main pass the site of Nombre de Dios and Porto Bello. It was off Nombre de Dios that the remains of the redoubtable Drake were committed to the deep in 1 595. The final expedition of the great Elizabethan seafarer proved unfortunate from the start. His kinsman and trusted friend Sir John Hawkins, who accompanied him, died off Porto Rico. Nombre de Dios was found to be deserted, and an attempted march on Panama failed. Eventually Drake succumbed to an attack of dysentery on board his ship the Defiance off Porto Bello, January 28, 1595-6. Next day his body,

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THE SPANISH MAIN 4 i 9 enclosed in a leaden coffin, was consigned to the waters of the Caribbean. As an anonymous poem quoted by Prince in Worthies of Devon says : The waves became his winding-sheet ; the waters were his tomb ; But for his fame, the ocean sea was not sufficient room. Porto Bello was peopled with the inhabitants of Nombre de Dios in 1584, when that city was virtually abandoned after being repeatedly raided by the Indians. As the Atlantic entrepot of the trade of Peru it attained to a position of great wealth and affluence, and was very strongly fortified. Owing to the excessive cost of living at Porto Bello, the Spanish galleons used to lie in the harbour of Cartagena until the news reached them of the arrival of the treasure ships from Peru at Panama. Then they would drop down to Porto Bello to await the mules which arrived in trains of about a hundred each, loaded with gold and silver. To receive this treasure a large tent made of sails was erected in the principal square by the sailors, and fairs, of what in those days was considered great magnificence, were held periodically. Porto Bello was sacked by Drake in 1 572, by Morgan in 1668, and by John Spring in 1680. The place was also captured by Admiral Vernon, who justified his boast that he could take it with six ships, in 1739. The victory was followed by great rejoicings in England, which are recalled by the names Portobello road and junction, and by numerous public-houses dedicated to Admiral Vernon. A large rock quarry at Porto Bello supplied the stone used for the Colon breakwater and in the construction of the locks and dam at Gatun on the Panama Canal. Long before Cartagena itself is seen, an almost isolated hill which dominates it comes into sight. This is the historic Popa — so called from the resemblance of its shape to that of the poop (popa) of a ship — to which in the old days sailors made obeisance when they first picked it up." As the steamer draws nearer, the buildings of the old Augustinian monastery, Nuestra Senora de la Popa, which are perched on the summit, can be distinguished. Cartagena, which was founded by Pedro de Heredia in

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420 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES 1533, stands at the foot of this hill on a sandy peninsular connected with the continent by a narrow neck of land. From the distance the white houses of the city appear to rise out of the sea, just as the palaces and towers of Venice seem to do as one approaches the Italian city from Mestre across the lagoon. At first sight Cartagena looks as if it had been placed in a singularly exposed position ; but it must be remembered that in the days of its greatness there were no long-distance guns. Besides, nature has protected it by reefs and the formidable Salmedina sandbank, which has taken its full toll of shipping and compels vessels on the western voyage to approach the city by a circuitous channel along and round the islands which help to form its secure harbour. The harbour was once gained by two bocas or mouths, the Boca Grande (the Big Mouth), quite near the town, and the Boca Chica (the Narrow Mouth), many miles farther south ; but after an attack by Admiral Vernon in 1740 the Spaniards closed the Boca Grande by sinking old ships in the fairway. Round these sand has collected, thus effectively blocking the entrance. Now, therefore, only the Boca Chica is available for navigation. As we enter the harbour by this narrow strait, scarcely a pistol shot across, we pass Fort San Jose on the right, and on the left the once formidable but now derelict Fort San Fernando on Tierra Bomba Island. After negotiating the entrance, the steamer makes her way for some six or seven miles along a tortuous passage past the mangrove-covered shores of Tierra Bomba, and is warped alongside a wharf on the historic Drake's Spit. It was along this neck of land that Sir Francis Drake and his troops marched when they attacked Cartagena in 1585. At that time it was defended by a ditch and a stone wall with a single opening for the cavalry to pass through, which was protected with a barricade of wine butts standing one upon another. The road, too, was commanded by six pieces of ordnance, demiculverins and sakers, and was flanked by two great galleons with their bows towards the shore mounting eleven guns. Under cover of the dark, the Englishmen crept silently along the seashore, and on reaching the wall they formed

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THE SPANISH MAIN 42 1 up with pikes roundly together and rushed the opening at daybreak. The butts were overthrown, and the Englishmen, favoured by having better armour and longer pikes, drove back their adversaries to the market-place and captured the town. Visitors are recommended to take the light railway which now runs along this spit of land to the terminus just outside the massive city walls. At the far side of the open space outside the main gateway is the terminus of the Cartagena (Colombia) Railway Company Ltd., whose line runs to Calamar, a port on the Magdalena River (fare $2.50). Cartagena itself was once called by the Indians Calamari or the land of the craw-fish, owing to the abundance of those crustaceans found there. Immediately opposite the gateway is a Plaza decorated with busts of the heroes of the revolution. On entering the city the visitor finds himself in a town of old Spain set down in the tropics. All the houses — most of which are well and solidly built — have balconies, while the lower windows are barred in the characteristic Spanish fashion and all have their cool-looking patios. If he would avoid being importuned by small boys eager to act as his guide, the visitor is recommended to proceed immediately to Walter's Hotel, where he can obtain advice as to how best to fill in the time at his disposal. A feature of interest is the quaint memorial of the centenary of the liberation of the country, which consists of a tall shaft at the base of which are numerous cannons peeping from circular orifices in the concrete base. The Cable Office is in the Plaza Cristobal Colon. The Market in the Paseo de la Independenza is open from 4 a.m. to 5 p.m. Among the churches which can be visited are the Cathedral and San Pedro Claver. Both are in a sad state of disrepair ; but it is possible to gauge from the fabric how handsome these churches must have been. The House of the Inquisition near the principal square is now the residence of a merchant who courteously permits visitors to inspect it. Cartagena was one of the headquarters of the Inquisition in the New World, the others being at Lima and in Mexico. It is said that the cruel

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422 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES apparatus of torture is buried in the patio, where several tall and graceful palms now grow which it would be a pity to displace. In one room an old and worn railing is pointed out, behind which the victims are said to have stood when they received their sentence ; from there they were removed to a windowless chamber beyond, where the punishment known as auto-da-fe was inflicted. The following drive is recommended ; To the Fortress of San Felipe, and the foot of La Popa Hill, across the bridge to Manga Island, through Calle Central and Calle Royal, across the Roman Bridge, through Calle Aguada and Calle Larga, and to the market and Independence Square. A drive to the Muralla de las Bovedas, the substantially built wall beyond the city, reveals the elaborate nature of the fortifications which defended the city. A walk to the summit of La Popa is an arduous undertaking, and most visitors will be content with a drive to the Fortress of San Felipe at its foot. The drive can be continued to Manga Island. At the same time it should be mentioned that the view from the summit is, to quote Flumboldt, very extensive and varied, and the windings and rents of the coast give it a peculiar character." I was assured," he adds, that sometimes from the window of the convent, and even in the open sea, before the Fort of Boca Chica, the snowy tops of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta are discernible." The writer can testify that Humboldt was well informed as far as the view of the Sierra Nevada from the open sea is concerned, for he has seen it himself, and will not easily forget the surprise which this noble range of snow mountains with their mighty glaciers caused to him and his fellow passengers on a voyage along the Spanish Main a few years ago. Horqueta, the highest peak, is 1 7,600 feet. Still dealing with the Popa, Humboldt in his personal Narrative of Travels writes : A gloomy vegetation of cactus, Jatropha gossypifolia, croton and mimosa, covers the barren declivity of Cerro de la Popa. In herbalising in those wild spots, our guides showed us a thick bush of Acacia cornigera, which had become celebrated by a deplorable event. Of all the species of mimosa the acacia is that which is armed with the sharpest thorns ; they are sometimes

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THE SPANISH MAIN 423 two inches long ; and being hollow, serve for the habitation of ants of an extraordinary size. A woman, annoyed by the jealousy and well-founded reproaches of her husband, conceived a project of the most barbarous vengeance. With the assistance of her lover she bound her husband with cords, and threw him, at night, into a bush of Mimosa cornigera. The more violently he struggled, the more the sharp woody thorns of the tree tore his skin. His cries were heard by persons who were passing, and he was found after several hours of suffering, covered with blood and dreadfully stung by the ants. From Cartagena the mail steamers proceed to Puerto Colombia, taking about^seven hours for the voyage. Puerto Colombia or Sa vanilla/ which lies at the head of a large bay, has little to commend it to visitors. It is simply a collection of squalid huts and shanties huddled together on a sandy shore. The only feature of interest is the great steel railway pier of the Barranquilla Railway and Pier Company Limited, which is no less than 4000 feet long and can accommodate five large steamers at the same time. Trains run along this pier to Barranquilla, a distance of 17 miles, at fairly frequent intervals. The expedition to this city would be well worth making if it were only to avoid the tedium of lying for any length of time off such a desolate spot as Savanilla — though for fishermen the pier has its charms; but the visitor who does not wish to be marooned should make full inquiries of the purser as to the time available, &c. The journey takes about 40 minutes. Various villages are passed en route ; but the country is, generally speaking, flat and uninteresting. Barranquilla is a busy city of some 70,000 inhabitants, on the left bank of the Magdalena River, from the mouth of which it is distant about 7 miles. It owes its importance to the fact that in consequence of the difficulty of navigating the delta of the Magdalena it is the northern terminus of river traffic with the interior of Colombia. It now boasts two flour mills, three weaving factories, a brewery, a cotton factory and an ice factory. In the population there is a large proportion of white inhabitants. They are descended from the old Spanish colonists, who brought the manners and customs of their country with them. Their costumes, their quaint old houses with their balconies, patios and brightly

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424 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES painted window shutters, vividly recall sunny Spain. The city has a handsome cathedral, in front of which is a small but attractive garden square. In the principal thoroughfare there is a statue of Columbus; to whom Colombia owes its name. A visit should be paid to the market and the wharves on the riverside, between which and the upper reaches of the Magdalena steam-wheel steamers like those on the Mississippi ply. One hundred and eighteen miles to the north-east of Savanilla is the prosperous little city of Santa Marta (population 6000) The West Indian mail steamers do not call there ; but the port is frequently visited by the vessels of Messrs. Elders and Fyffes and the United Fruit Company, who own extensive banana plantations in the neighbourhood. The city stands on the shore of a small land-locked ba}^ at the entrance to which is a high, conical rock called the Morro, surmounted by some ancient fortifications and a lighthouse. This quaint old Spanish town is one of the earliest settlements on the continent of South America, and the foundations of what are claimed to be the first Christian church to be erected in the Western hemisphere are pointed out to the visitor. Founded by Rodrigo Bastidas about the year 1520, Santa Marta was sacked by the pirate Robert Baal in 1543, and again in 1555 by the French buccaneer Pedro Brasques. In 1 576 it was burned to the ground by Coropomeina, chief of the Tupes Indians of Valledupar. Sir Francis Drake captured it in 1596, and in 1629 the Dutch freebooter Pater landed and carried off the artillery of the Castle of San Juan, and the treasure of the church. In 1655 the city was again sacked by William Ganson, and finally it was looted by buccaneers, an Englishman and a Frenchman, who carried off the Bishop and landed him on the coast of Panama. Charles Kingsley refers to this incident in "Westward Ho!" in which he describes with surprising accuracy — considering that he never saw it — the beautiful bay of Santa Marta, and the exciting episode of the capture of the rich galleon Santa Maria," and the carrying off of the Bishop by Amyas Leigh and his companions. About 4 miles from the city, on the San Pedro

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TH£ SPANISH MAIN 425 Alejandrino estate, a marble statue has been erected to mark the spot where Simon Bolivar, the Liberator, died alone and in poverty, in 1830. The interesting Indian villages of Mamatoco and Bonda are within an easy morning's ride, and a trip can be made to one of the coffee plantations in the vicinity. This involves from 4 to 6 hours' riding on mules or hardy ponies, over more or less difficult bridle roads, but the magnificent views well repay the discomfort. An excursion can be made by the railway through the extensive banana plantations of the United Fruit Company to Rio Frio. This can be arranged at any time when there are sufficient passengers to warrant running a special train. From Savanilla the mail steamers proceed at present direct to Trinidad. From there one of the intercolonial steamers proceeds fortnightly to La Guaira and back, calling en route at Pampatar, the principal port of the small Venezuelan island of Margarita, and Carupano. Margarita, once famed for its pearl fisheries, was granted to Marceto Villalobas by Charles V of Spain in 1 524. Its merchants and sailors took a prominent part in the War of Independence, and it now belongs to Venezuela, forming with the neighbouring islets of Tortuga, Cubagua and Coche, a division of the Eastern Federal District. The area of the island, which is mountainous and almost divided into two parts by the Laguna Grande, is 400 square miles, and though the soil is fertile the only industries are fishing and salt-making. Pampatar was raided by the Dutch in 1662. Carupano (population 9250) is situated on the coast at the opening of two valleys in the Venezuelan State of Bermudez. It is a port of shipment for cocoa, coffee, sugar, rum and timber, much of which is transhipped at Port of Spain, Trinidad. Puerto Cabello (population 14,000), a port of entry of Venezuela, lies at the head of a great bay protected by forts on the hillside. The place affords a marked contrast to Savanilla, having ample wharf accommodation. The railway, which is connected with the wharves, runs to Valencia (2 J hours), where connection is made with the railway to Caracas. The appearance of the city from the

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426 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES sea is quite picturesque, a notable feature being the orientallooking hotel and bathing establishment, and neat little plaza with its tall palm trees. The sights of the place are not many. They include, of course, a monument to commemorate the liberation from Spain, and a theatre. La Guaira, the chief port of Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, stands in a romantic position on a deep indentation of the coast and at the foot of precipitous mountains. The harbour, which is formed by a concrete breakwater, encloses an area of about 76 acres. The town, which was founded in 1588, was destroyed by earthquake on March 26, 1 8 12, and was the scene of much fighting during the War of Independence. Though Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, is only 6\ miles south of La Guaira, the distance by rail is 23 miles. The city stands at the western extremity of an elevated valley at a height of from 2887 to 3442 feet above the sea-level. Caracas was founded in 1567 by Diego de Losada, under the title Santiago de Leon de Caracas. Like La Guaira it was destroyed by earthquake in 18 12, and it is now a handsome city with many public squares and gardens bright with tropical palms and flowers. The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, in the centre of which there is a bronze equestrian statue of Simon Bolivar the Liberator, who was born in Caracas. Round the square are grouped the Cathedral and Archbishop's Palace, the National Library, General Post OlSce, &c. The public buildings which may be visited include the Palacio Federal, the Concejo Municipal, the Fine Arts Academy — which has a fair collection of pictures — the Panteon Nacional, and the Museo Boliviano. Particulars regarding the hours of opening, &c, can be obtained at the hotels. Caracas has three theatres : the Opera House, the Nacional and the Caracas, and there is a Bull Ring where bull-fighting can be witnessed on Sundays (admission from bs. 2 [is. yd.] ).

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CHAPTER XVII THE PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA The land divided. The world united" Motto of the Isthmian Canal Commission GENERAL ASPECT. No visitor to the West Indies should miss the opportunity of inspecting the Panama Canal, which now links the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. It is a marvel of ingenuity, perseverance, and organisation. The canal, which, when in full working order will, to quote Captain Mahan, change the Caribbean Sea from a terminus and place of local traffic, or at the best a broken and imperfect line of travel as it is now, into one of the great highways of the world," has been constructed in what used to be the Province of Panama in the Republic of Colombia, but is now the Republic of Panama. In the centre of that Republic there is a strip of territory ten miles wide and about 436 acres in extent, which is leased in perpetuity to the United States. This is known as the Canal Zone, and over it the United States have absolute control. Included in the Zone are the islands in the Bay of Panama called Perico, Naos, Culebra, and Flamenco. Colon, the northern, and Panama, the southern or Pacific terminal of the canal, are nominally outside the Zone, but the United States is supreme in the all-important matter of sanitation, and has the right to maintain order in the event of the Republic of Panama being unable to do so. The French contemplated making a sea-level canal ; the Americans, on the other hand, decided in favour of a highlevel one involving locks at either end. So the Chagres River has been dammed at Gatun and vessels will be raised 427

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428 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES through a series of three locks, and will traverse a great lake thus formed for a distance of 24 miles until the backbone oi the Isthmus is reached at Bas Obispo. Here they will pass through an immense cutting — the famous Culebra cut, and on emerging they will descend to the Pacific by three locks, one at Pedro Miguel and two at Miraflores. So many people imagine that the Canal runs east and west, that it may not be amiss to state that this is not the case. From Colon it runs due south as far as Gatun, and thence in a south-westerly direction. Not a little surprise is experienced by some visitors to Panama, when they see the sun rise from the Pacific Ocean. The total length of the Canal from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is 50 J miles, or from coast to coast 41 miles. Below is a comparison between the Panama and Suez Canals : Panama Suez Length (miles) 5o* 104 Depth (feet) 41 33* Least bottom width (feet) 300 ioof Excavation (cubic yards) 232,000,000 80,000,000 1 Cost (dollars) 375,000,000 127,000,000 (estimate ) (to date) Being increased to 36. f Being increased to 137. X Original canal 25 feet deep. HISTORY. It is believed that the Isthmus of Panama was first visited in 1499 by Alonso de Ojeda, who established a colony, which he called Nueva Andalucia, near Cartagena. Two years later Rodrigo Bastidas coasted along the Spanish Main as far as what is now Porto Bello, and in 1502 Columbus, coasting from Almirante Bay, founded the colony of Nombre de Dios in Porto Bello Bay. The settlement was destroyed by Indians, but re-established in 15 10 by Diego de Nicuesa, Governor of the Spanish Province of Castilla del Oro, which included the countries which are now Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. In the same year Martin Fernandez de Enciso, with the survivors of Nueva Andalucia, founded the colony of Darien. After an insurrection he was succeeded in command by Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who had accompanied Bastidas on his voyage in 1 501. In 15 13 Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 429 discovered the Pacific Ocean. He was succeeded by Pedro Arias de Avila who, in 1514, amalgamated the several colonies under the name of Tierra Firme, and five years later founded Panama City. When the wealth of the newly discovered countries on the Pacific began to be developed, the route across the Isthmus became immense^ important, and much treasure was transported over the Gold Road, as it was called, on mules. Panama was included in the Viceroyalty of New Granada, which was established in 17 18, and in 18 19 it became part of the independent nation of Gran Colombia, and in 1831 of that of New Granada. In 1841 the provinces of Panama and Veragua seceded and formed themselves into the State of Panama, but they rejoined later. In 1857 Panama again withdrew, but soon returned to the Granadine Confederation, which in 1861 became the Republic of Colombia. The subsequent history of the country is closely wrapped up with that of the Panama Canal. The idea of piercing the Isthmus is not by any means one of recent birth. It was talked of even in the days of Spain's greatness, when she was anxious to find a short trade route to the East Indies, though she subsequently found that the Isthmus helped her to protect her possessions in Peru. Porto Bello and Panama were strongly fortified, and treasure was, as we have seen, carried across the Isthmus — a hazardous journey — to be shipped to Spain. It was not until the nineteenth century, when the United States began to feel the need for communication between their eastern and western seaboards, that the question of a canal came within the region of practical politics. Some favoured a Nicaraguan Canal. The Atlantic terminal of this would have been in a country over which Great Britain had long exercised control, and in 1850 the famous Bulwer-Clayton Treaty was signed by Great Britain and the United States, which provided that neither Government should ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive control of any canal connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific, or erect fortifications protecting it. The rush of gold-seekers to California in 1849 led to the construction by W, H. Aspinwall, H. Chauncey, and

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430 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES J. L. Stevens of the railway across the Isthmus of Panama. Stevens secured a concession from the Government of New Granada in 1850, and five years later the first train crossed from ocean to ocean. Various canal schemes were now discussed, but it was not until the completion of the Suez Canal that they assumed definite shape. Then it was that Ferdinand de Lesseps came on the scene. He summoned a Congress in Paris in 1879, and two years later the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique de Panama was floated. The railway was purchased for $25,500,000, and work was begun in 1 88 1 on a sea-level canal. An immense quantity of valuable machinery was -sent out, and the French engineers set about their task with the wonderful skill and perseverance to which their successors have since borne testimony. Owing, however, to the magnitude of the task and to peculation and fraud, the company was unable to stand the strain, and after spending $300,000,000 it went into liquidation in 1889. The New Panama Company was formed to take over the assets, including the railway, which they continued to work ; they also proceeded with the excavation to some extent. The war with Spain in 1898 gave the United States a further object-lesson of the need for a canal, one of their vessels, the Oregon, having to make a perilous voyage of 13,000 miles from the Pacific to the Atlantic, where the main fleet lay. A Commission was appointed to consider what would be the best route for a canal under the control, management, and ownership of the United States." They favoured a Nicaraguan Canal, considering that the price demanded by the New Panama Canal Company, whose works, including the railway, they valued at $40,000,000, was excessive. Realising how futile it would be to compete against a Government canal, the New Panama Company immediately offered to sell at that price, and the purchase was duly authorised by the Spooner Act of 1902. By the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1 90 1, Great Britain waived the right of joint control, it being agreed that the canal should be free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations ... on terms of entire equality," and all that remained was for the United States to make a satisfactory arrangement with Colombia.

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 431 A treaty was then negotiated whereby the United States was to pay $10,000,000, and an annual rent of $100,000 after nine years for a strip of land. Colombia refused to ratify, and a few days later Panama declared her independence, which was at once recognised by the United States, and within a few months a treaty was negotiated with the new-born republic and ratified, by which the Canal Zone was leased to the United States for $10,000,000, and an annual payment of $250,000 after nine years. Since then work has steadily proceeded, and on October 10, 191 3, the final obstruction in the canal was blown up by President WoodrowWilson, who, by pressing an electric button at Washington, closed a circuit of over 4000 miles of telegraph line and cable and ignited an immense charge of dynamite, which destroyed the last dam across the Culebra Cut. HOTELS. Colon. The Washington Hotel, owned by the Panama Rail Road Company, is by far the best. It was opened in 191 3 and has accommodation for 180 guests. Rooms from $2 per day, from June to December, and $3 in the season. The Imperial Hotel and the Miramar Hotel are both recommended. Board and lodging, from $4 gold per day and upwards. Culebra. The Isthmian Canal Commission's hotel is open to visitors (terms as above). Panama. The Tivoli Hotel at Ancon, conducted on strictly temperance lines, is excellent (terms as above). Fair accommodation can also be obtained at the Hotel Central in Panama, and the Hotel International, near the railway station. Board and lodging from $3 Taboga Island. Hotel AspinwalL Board and lodging, $3. The Y.M.C.A. is well represented throughout the Canal Zone. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Colon is now visited by steamers of many lines, among them being those numbered 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 15, 18 and 21 in the list on pages 14 to 27. The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company have their own wharf at Colon. Other vessels calling there go alongside one of the wharves of the Panama Rail Road Company. Carriages are easily obtainable. The fares in Colon and Panama are 10 cents gold per journey for each person within the city limits, and 20 cents outside. The rate per hour in Colon is : For one person, 7 5 cents gold ; for two

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432 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES persons $i gold, and for three persons $1.25 gold. The fare to the Gatun Dam is $5 gold for the round trip. The fares by hour in Panama are each 25 cents more than those in Colon. The Panama Rail Road affords opportunities for reaching various points of interest on the route of the canal. The fare to Panama or back is $2.50 gold. The principal stations on the line and their distances are Miles Station. from ApproxiColon. mate time. Colon .... 5 mins. Mount Hope i-57 15 „ Gatun 6.79 1 S >> Monte Lirio 14.48 28 „ Frijoles 20.92 40 „ Caimito 26.13 49 >> Gamboa 30.26 57 . New Culebra 35-19 1 .08 hrs. Pedro Miguel jc. 40.23 1.20 ,, Miraflores 41.74 1.26 „ Corozal 44.24 1.26 „ j Panama 47.11 i-45 „ A service (2nd class) is also maintained between Pedro Miguel Junction and Bas Obispo, calling at Paraiso Culebra, Empire and Las Cascadas. (Time, 35 minutes.) A shuttle train plies at regular intervals between Third Street, Colon, and Gatun, calling at the following stations : Fifth Street, Passenger Station (Colon), Commissary (Cristobal), Shops (Cristobal), Mount Hope, Mindi. New Gatun, and Gatun. (Time, 25 minutes.) CLUBS. The Strangers' Club at Colon welcomes visitors At Cristobal, the American settlement, there is a Y.M.C.A which also shows hospitality to visitors. PRINCIPAL SIGHTS. Colon, formerly called Aspin wall after the name of one of the founders of the Panama Rail Road (see page 429), stands on Manzanillo Island, whicr is only separated from the mainland by dismal mangrovt

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 433 swamps. Formerly a hot-bed of yellow fever, it has now been improved by the Americans out of all recognition ; the streets have been paved, and the breeding-places of mosquitoes filled in, with the result that the place is now comparatively healthy. As the steamer approaches the shore, the great breakwater which extends from Toro Point and protects the Atlantic entrance to the Panama Canal is seen on the right. This breakwater is 11,700 feet long and cost $5,500,000 ; 2,840,000 cubic feet of rock were used in its construction. The large and substantial Washington Hotel (bear to the left and beyond the gardens on leaving the wharf), indicates the confidence of the Americans that the town will be largely patronised when the Panama Canal is in full working order. In front of the entrance in Bolivar Street stands the monument to the pioneers of the Panama Rail Road. It consists of an ornate column with medallions on a triangular base bearing sculptured portraits of Aspinwall, Chauncey, and Stevens. Turning to the right on leaving the wharf one comes to Front Street, a row of two-storied wooden houses, shops, and numerous American bars of the most elaborate description After nightfall they are brilliantly lighted and resound with the music of many orchestras. This street leads to the substantial Railway station of the Panama Rail Road. The Cable Office is also in Front Street. Away to the right again is the American suburb of Cristobal, which is within the Canal Zone and consequently far more dignified and orderly than its cosmopolitan neighbour. The sea-wall is fringed with graceful coco-nut palms ; behind them are rows of mosquito-proof houses, screened with copper gauze and looking like glorified meat safes, in which the gold employees on the canal reside. The employees, it should be explained, are divided into two classes, "gold employees" and "silver employees." The former are the officials, clerks, and skilled white men who are paid in United States currency, whilst the latter are the labourers who receive their pay in the silver Panamanian currency.

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434 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Passing along the sea-wall one reaches the house once occupied by Ferdinand de Lesseps. This, too, is now mosquito-proof. It is used as the offices of the Isthmian Canal Commission, whose cypher, I.C.C., becomes so familiar when one crosses the Isthmus. The statue of Columbus protecting an Indian maiden (to be moved to a new site) was the gift of the Empress Eugenie. From the sea-wall, many new wharves jut out into the sea and those of the railroad are near-by. For the rest only the elaborate cold-storage plant, the electric laundry, and the wireless station — each in its way a triumph of American ingenuity — remain to be seen. The Panama Canal. Part of the programme of the Isthmian Canal Commission has been to do all that they can for the comfort and convenience of visitors. Special trains are provided for them on the railroad and special sightseeing vessels on the Gatun Lake. As, however, the time-table is subject to considerable variation from time to time the tourist should enquire at the railway station or Commission's offices, where he can obtain information as to the arrangements in force. The construction of the Panama Canal involved the relocation of the greater part of the Panama railroad, and the new line, which cost $8,866,392.02, is 47.11 miles long, or 739 feet longer than the old. The old line is still used from Colon to Mindi (4.17 miles) and from Corozal to Panama ; but the remainder is all new. Shortly after leaving Colon, Mount Hope is passed on the left. Here in the days of the French regime, when it was called Monkey Hill, many thousands of victims of yellow fever and disease were buried. From Mindi to Gatun the line runs parallel with the Canal. Gatun (6.79 miles) is reached in fifteen minutes. Here is situated the great dam which holds back the Chagres River, forming an immense lake 164 square miles in extent, or approximately the size of the Lake of Geneva. To reach this lake, steamers will pass through a series of three locks which will lift them to a height of 85 feet. Some idea of the colossal size of these locks may be realised when it is said that they are each 1000 ft. long by 1 10 ft. wide, while their gates are steel structures 7 ft. thick,

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 435 6$ ft. long, from 47 to 82 ft. high, and weighing from. 390 to 730 tons each. Ships will not pass through the locks under their own power, but will be towed by powerful electric locomotives running on tracks along the lock walls. To avoid risks of vessels running amok and ramming the lock gates, fender chains are placed on the up-stream side of the guard gates, besides intermediate and safety gates. These chains are lowered into grooves in the lock floor to enable vessels to pass, and are then raised again by machinery. Special emergency dams of an elaborate nature are also provided. The entire lock machinery is operated by electricity generated by the overflow from the Gatun Lake. The operation of opening the lock gates, filling and emptying the lock chambers (each containing from 3J to 5 million cubic feet of water), and raising and lowering the fender chains, weighing 24,098 lbs., can be controlled by one man at each group of locks. The Gatun Dam, which unites the hills on either side of the lower end of the Chagres valley, is nearly if miles long and \ mile wide at the base, 400 feet wide at the water surface and 100 feet wide at the top. It is formed of a mixture of sand and clay dredged by hydraulic process and placed between two large masses of rock, &c, obtained by steamshovel excavation at various points along the canal. In all about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material were used in its construction. In the centre of the Dam is the Spillway, a concrete-lined channel nearly 1200 feet long and 285 feet wide, which carries off the surplus waters of the lake and regulates its depth. To the north of this spillway is the electric generating station which provides the Canal Zone with light and power. At Gatun the line leaves the Canal and turns east along Gatun Ridge, and then south again, crossing the Gatun valley by several embankments and a steel girder bridge with a movable span, to Monte Lirio (1448 miles), after which it skirts the east shore of the Gatun Lake past Frijoles (20.92 miles) and Caimito (26.13 miles) to the Culebra Cut, which begins at Bas Obispo. The great Culebra Cut is the most striking feature of the entire canal. It is no fewer than 9 miles long, and the total

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436 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES excavation which it involved was over 230,000,000 cubic yards, of which 20,419,720 were removed by the French. This great cutting, affectionately known to the Canal employees as the Big Ditch," is the wonder of the Canal. So immense is it, that during the construction period, one had, from above, to gaze at it for some minutes before the thousands of workers, the dirt trains and the steam shovels could be distinguished. To quote Mr. John Foster Fraser : The Culebra Cut is within the range of the comprehension of the ordinary person. To delve through hills for nine miles ; cut a channel with an average depth of 1 20 feet, with a minimum width of 300 feet ; to slice through the continental divide, Gold Hill and Contractors' Hill separating the watersheds toward the Pacific and Atlantic ; remove a clear depth of 375 feet of hill ; haul away about 100 million cubic yards of rock and earth — nearly half the total excavations in the Canal construction — have the work constantly checked by thousands of tons of the hill-sides sliding into the Canal, bringing into the Cut streams which had been diverted, and threatening to flood the workers out ; there is something dramatic, majestic and occasionally terrible in it all. Leaving the Canal again at Bas Obispo, the line cuts through a ridge of solid rock behind Gold Hill, and eventually runs down the Pedro Miguel Valley to Paraiso. Here is the Pedro Miguel (popularly known as Peter McGill "J lock, similar in construction to those at Gatun, which will lower vessels 30^ feet to the Mirarlores Lake. This lake is formed by dams connecting the walls of the Miraflores Locks with the high ground on either side. The dam to the west is of earth, and is about 2700 feet long, with a crest 1 5 feet above the level of the lake, while that to the east is formed of concrete (about 75,000 cubic yards) and is about 500 feet long. The Mirarlores locks, two in number (and both duplicated), will lower vessels 54! feet to the level of the Pacific. The dam which kept the waters of the Pacific from these locks during the construction period was successfully blown up by dynamite in the presence of a large crowd of spectators on August 31, 191 3. About 37,000 lbs. of 45 and 60 per cent, dynamite were used, the charge being placed in 541 holes at an average depth of 30 feet. Said the Canal Record :

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 437 At the time of the explosion the water in the channel, south of the barrier, was nearly at low tide. The dynamite tore a gap in the dyke about 100 feet wide, but as the bottom of the gap was still at some height above the existing tide level, no water passed through. An 18-ft. tide was predicted for Sunday, with its maximum at 3.12 p.m., so that before high tide water was expected to flow over the gap in the dyke. This expectation was fulfilled a little earlier than was anticipated, for at 1.35 p.m. the water in the sea-level channel was nearly even with the top of the gap. At this moment a man with a shovel made a small trench across the dyke through which a small stream of water began to flow. This rapidly increased in size until forty minutes later an opening 30 feet wide had been made, through which a torrent of water poured in a 30 or 3 5 -ft. fall. The rush of water ate away the sides of the opening steadily, carrying large sections of the dyke, including trestle bents and other debris, into the pit. The increasing volume of water filled the pit rapidly, and at 3 o'clock, one hour and twentyfive minutes after the water first began to flow over, the level in the inside channel was that of the outside channel, while the gap had been widened to 400 feet or more. From Paraiso the railway runs practically parallel to the canal to the terminals at Panama and Balboa. Panama (population about 45,000), the capital of the Republic of Panama, was built during the governorship of Fernandez de Cordova after the destruction of the earlier city of the same name, which stood four miles to the west and was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer, in 1 67 1. It stands on a rocky peninsula at the foot of the Ancon Hill (560 feet), which is recognised by geologists as being the cone of an extinct volcano. Since Panama gained her freedom from Colombia, the city has undergone many notable improvements, and the $10,000,000 paid by the United States for the lease of the Canal Zone has enabled the Government to erect several handsome buildings which give the city a very different appearance to that which it latterly presented under the old regime. The United States, who have control on sanitary matters, paved the streets and provided the city with a modern system of sanitation and water supply which is now maintained by and at the expense of the local Government. The houses, which are built of stone and roofed with red tiles, rarely exceed two or three storeys in height, and

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438 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the balconies with which they are provided emphasise the narrowness of the streets, which are remarkably picturesque. Opposite the railway station is the Ameiican suburb of Ancon, straggling round Ancon Hill, on which stands the immense mosquito-screened Tivoli Hotel, and other buildings similarly protected. It is here that the hospital established by the French in De Lesseps' time is situated, amid avenues of cabbage palms and grassy lawns a feature of which is the abundance of a species of sensitive plant. The main thoroughfare of Panama is the Avenida Central, which, starting in a curve, leads to the Plaza de la Independencia, as the old Cathedral Plaza is now called, and to the Malecon, or sea wall, beyond. A stroll down this street reveals the cosmopolitan nature of the city. The retail trade is seen to be largely in the hands of Chinamen. Tempted by the improved condition of affairs in the country, celestials began to arrive in such numbers that it was deemed necessary to impose a head tax of $250 on those arriving since 1904. This the newcomers pay willingly for the privilege of residing and carrying on trade in Panama. Here the West meets the East, and Spaniards, Italians, Frenchmen, and, indeed, representatives of every European country, and negroes, rub shoulders with Indians and Chinese. The Avenida Central is now traversed by electric cars, which take one in a few minutes to the Cathedral. The chief features of its weather-worn fabric are the two twin towers, the domes of which are encased in mother-ofpearl, said to have been brought across the Isthmus from the pearl fisheries of Margarita. The Cathedral was built at the expense of a negro who was the son of a poor charcoal burner and rose to the position of Bishop of Panama. The building took eighty-eight years to complete. Other churches worthy of inspection are those of San Felipe Neri, which has an arch dated 1688, and stands near the Plaza Bolivar; San Francisco, in that Plaza, completed in 1740 ; San Jose, and Santa Ana, which has a handsome altar service of hammered silver. A visit should also be paid to the historic "flat arch" of Santo Domingo, a church which was destroyed by fire in 1737.

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 439 Only part of the walls and the arch now remain. This church was built by the Dominican Monks, who experienced great difficulty in designing and building a suitable support for the organ loft. Arch after arch was built ; but each one collapsed. Then one of the monks happened to have a dream in which a perfect arch was revealed to him. On awakening next morning, he at once made a plan of this arch, which was duly constructed by the worthy monks. When the supports were about to be withdrawn, the monk, with folded arms, stood below the arch to show his confidence in its stability, and from that day to this it has remained in position, and has braved earthquakes, fire, and the scepticism of architects. This story recalls the courage of Sir Christopher Wren, who, yielding to the importunities of the Town Councillors of Windsor, added extra columns to their Town Hall at Windsor, which he had designed. They declared that otherwise the floor would collapse ; so Wren erected the columns. But he purposely made them too short, and to this day the floor stands as he made it, and there is a space between it and the columns. Facing the Cathedral are several public buildings, and the Episcopal Palace and old Government Palace. Among the new buildings one of the most noteworthy in the neighbourhood is the handsome Palacio Municipal or City Hall. At the lower end of the Avenida is a substantial group of Government Buildings, at the back of which is the handsome Teatro Nacional. This is certainly one of the finest buildings of the kind in this part of the world. The Malecon or sea wall is a popular and fashionable promenade. To the west of it is another Malecon — that of Las Bovedas, under which are the old prisons. The view from these sea walls of the Pacific — which, strange as it may seem to some expectant tourists, does not differ in appearance from the Atlantic — is very attractive. The islands in the bay are those of Naos, Flamenco and Culebra, which have now been fortified by the United States, and Perico and the larger island of Taboga, which can^be visited. These islands are believed to have been the outlets of the prehistoric volcano whose principal cone was Ancon HilL

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440 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES Those interested in educational matters should not fail to inspect the Institute* National, Panama's University, which was opened in 191 1 It occupies a palatial group of buildings at the foot of Ancon Hill. Among the excursions which can be made from Panama is the drive to Old Panama, which can be reached by motorcar (enquiries should be made at the hotel) by a fair driving road in about half an hour. In recent years the local Government have cleared the ruins to some extent, and the tower of the church and other remains can be seen without discomfort. The city was founded in 15 19 by Pedro Arias de Avila, and was granted a charter two years later. Being the entrepot of the trade with Peru, it soon became very wealthy. Here the treasure was transferred to muleback, to be carried across the Isthmus to Cruces, whence it was conveyed to the fortified port of Chagres by boat or to Porto Bello by the high road The town was frequently attacked by pirates and buccaneers, and in 15 19 it was sacked and completely destroyed by Henry Morgan. Morgan, after capturing the castle of Chagres, marched across the Isthmus with a force of 1200 men. After nine days of intense suffering through want of food, they sighted the Pacific Ocean and the object of their walk. Then, to quote Esquemeling : A little while after they came the first time within sight of the highest steeple of Panama. This steeple they no sooner had discovered than they began to show signs of extreme joy, casting up their hats into the air, leaping for mirth, and shouting, even just as if they had already obtained the victory and entire accomplishment of their designs. All their trumpets were sounded and every drum beaten, in token of this universal acclamation and huge alacrity of their minds. Fifty Spanish horsemen soon came out of the city preceded by a trumpet that sounded marvellously well," and threatened the buccaneers, saying Perros / nos veremos (Ye dogs, we shall meet thee), and immediately afterwards the city opened fire. On the following day the Governor of Panama extended in battle array his forces, which consisted of two squadrons, four regiments of foot, and a huge number of wild bulls, which were driven by a great number of Indians with some negroes and others

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PANAMA CANAL, COLON, AND PANAMA 441 to help them." Fortunately the wild bulls were scared by the noise and did little harm. At the end of two hours, most of the Spanish horsemen were killed and the remainder fled. The Spanish losses comprised no fewer than six hundred dead besides wounded and prisoners. After resting awhile, the buccaneers marched courageously towards the city, which the Spaniards stubbornly defended with their ' great guns, at several quarters thereof, some of which were charged with small pieces of iron, and others with musket -bullets," and after three hours combat they were compelled to deliver up the city, which was set on fire and destroyed. The city had at this period eight monasteries, two stately churches, and a hospital. "The churches and monasteries were all richly adorned with altarpieces and paintings, huge quantity (sic) of gold and silver, with other precious things." The houses, which were built of cedar, numbered 2000. The fire lasted for four weeks, but before it was extinguished the pirates decamped. If time permits, a visit may be made to the wharves at Balboa, the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal, which lies behind Ancon Hill, two miles to the west of Panama. Formerly known as La Boca, the place was renamed in honour of Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the discoverer of the Pacific. Here have been constructed dry docks, repair shops, &c, for vessels using the canal.

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CHAPTER XVIII SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES Sugar : Rum : Cocoa : Bananas : Cotton : Rubber : Balata THE SUGAR INDUSTRY. In spite of many vicissitudes, sugar is still the leading industry of the British West Indies, though, if British Guiana be excluded, it is run very close by cocoa. The sugar-cane, which was well known to the ancients in the East, was first introduced into the West Indies by the Spaniards, who were made acquainted with it through the Moors. As far back as 1578 there were no fewer than twentyeight sugar works in operation in Cuba, and the cultivation of the sugar-cane spread rapidly to the other islands as soon as they were settled. The Abolition o£ Slavery. The first of the serious troubles which the industry had to face was the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, which was followed by that of slavery in 1834. The value of the estates and slaves was then estimated at ^219,000,000 ; and though compensation to the extent of ^16,640,000 was granted to slave owners, this sum proved quite inadequate to make good the loss suffered. Slavery continued in Cuba and other foreign possessions for many years later, but a prohibitive tariff was imposed in the United Kingdom against slave-grown sugar, and thus for a time planters were enabled to strengthen their position. In 1846, however, the differential duty was lowered ; and a few years later, the sugar duties being equalised, slave-grown sugar was admitted into the United Kingdom on the same terms as free-grown sugar, with results which were disastrous to our planters. The Sugar Bounties. No sooner was slavery abolished 442

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 443 in Cuba in 1886, than another serious trouble had to be faced. The beetroot sugar industry on the Continent, encouraged by Napoleon Buonaparte, was increasing by rapid strides under a pernicious system of bounties which enabled the foreigner to undersell the British producer in our own markets. These bounties varied from about £1 to nearly ^5 per ton, and exercised a blighting effect on the West Indian sugar industry, many planters being unable, in consequence of them, to raise the necessary capital to permit them to keep pace with the times and improve their appliances. In 1897-98 these bounties were supplemented by cartel bounties in Germany and Austria, which drove the price of sugar in Great Britain far below the cost of production. Owing to the existence of protective tariffs, cartels or trusts, which consisted of sugar producers and manufacturers, were able to charge the home consumer such a high price for his sugar that they were able to export or dump the balance of their output at a loss and yet realise a substantial profit from the transaction as a whole. The Brussels Convention. For over a quarter of a century an active campaign was carried on against bounties. They were condemned by statesmen of every shade of political opinion, but no British Ministry had the courage to stamp them out by imposing a countervailing duty on bounty-fed sugar entering our markets, or by prohibiting it. Several international conferences were held, but each one proved abortive until 1902. On March 5 in that year, at a conference at Brussels, a Convention was signed by the principal sugar-producing States, and subsequently ratified by them, by which they agreed to abolish bounties from September 1, 1903, and to render the existence of cartels impossible by limiting the difference between the customs duties and excise duties. A penal clause in this Convention provided that the High Contracting States should impose a countervailing duty on, or prohibit the importation into their territories of, sugars from countries which granted bounties either on production or export. Equality of opportunity in British markets was thus once more restored, and as a result considerable developments took place in the West Indian sugar industry. It was

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444 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES agreed that the Convention should remain in force for five years and thenceforward from year to year, but the right was reserved to each of the Contracting States of withdrawing on notifying such intention twelve months before the expiration of the Convention. It was generally believed that in view of pre-election pledges the Liberal Government which came into power in 1906 would denounce the agreement, and on June 6, 1907, Sir Edward Grey announced that he had intimated to the Contracting States that prohibition or the imposition of countervailing duties was inconsistent with the declared policy of the British Government, and that they could not therefore continue to give effect to the provisions requiring them to penalise bounty-fed sugar. He added that they had no desire to give sugar bounties or to see the revival of such bounties, and should the governments of the Contracting States consider that these views could only be met by the complete withdrawal of Great Britain from the Convention they would be prepared to give the necessary notice on the first possible date. He intimated, however, that if the other Contracting States preferred to exempt the United Kingdom by Supplementary Protocol from the obligation to enforce the penal provisions of the Convention, this would render it unnecessary to give notice of withdrawal. Thenceforward the attention of the sugar-producing world was concentrated upon Brussels, where the Permanent International Sugar Commission, established under the Convention, sat to consider this proposition. Inasmuch as Russia was the only bounty-giving Power of any consequence outside the Convention, it became apparent from the first that the solution of the difficulty would lie in the adhesion of Russia, and in the direction of securing this the negotiations proceeded. Before the close of the year it was announced that Russia had agreed to adhere to the Convention, subject to the understanding that she might maintain her fiscal and customs system, but should not increase the advantage to the producers in the maximum price fixed for sale on the home market. She engaged, moreover, not to export more than one million tons of sugar during the six years 1 907-191 3. An Additional Act to the

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 445 Convention releasing Great Britain from the obligations under the penal clause, and a Protocol dealing with the adhesion of Russia, were signed by all the Contracting States and a menace to our colonies was thus averted. In 191 1 there occurred a rise in price of sugar owing to a shortage of 1,700,000 tons in the beet crop in Europe, and on November 21 Sir Edward Grey intimated that unless Russia were allowed to export at least 500,000 tons of su£ar (bounty fed) westward during the season then current, His Majesty's Government would withdraw from the Convention in September 191 3. The International Sugar Commission met at Brussels, and after negotiations a Protocol was signed on March 17, 191 2, by all the High Contracting States with the exception of Great Britain, providing for the prolongation of the Convention to 191 8, subject to Russia being permitted to export 250,000 tons more sugar between 1911-12 and 1913-14. Under this Protocol, which was subsequently ratified, the High Contracting States undertook not to exercise the right granted to them by the Convention of 1902 of denouncing that agreement by giving notice before September 1, 191 3. On August 1, 1 91 2, Mr. Sydney Buxton announced in the House of Commons that the Government had decided to withdraw from the Sugar Convention as from September 1, 1 91 3. This announcement gave rise to a good deal of misapprehension until the West India Committee pointed out that in view of the decision of the principal Powers to continue the Convention themselves, the only results of the Government's action would be that (1) Great Britain would lose her right to be represented on the International Sugar Commission at Brussels, and that (2) she would regain the right, which was taken from her by the final Protocol of the Convention of 1902, to grant a preference in the United Kingdom to British colonial sugar as against sugar from the contracting States. Reciprocity with Canada. By the Dominion Tariff Act of 1897, which came into force on August 1 of the following year, a preference of 25 per cent, was given to raw sugar from the British West Indies and to certain other British produce entering Canada. From July 1, 1900, this was

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446 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES increased to 33J per cent, and extended to refined sugar of British growth and manufacture, and on April 1, 1907, by the Tariff Act of the preceding year, changes were made which had the effect of raising the preference to 37-! per cent. Until the bounties were abolished West Indian sugar found a better market in the United States, whose Government imposed a countervailing duty on bounty-fed sugar, but after the abolition of bounties and consequent upon the United States giving a preference to Cuban sugar and becoming more and more self-supporting in regard to sugar supplies, West Indian sugar began to go to Canada in increasing quantities. The value of the preference was, however, reduced by the permission given to the refiners in 1907, of importing at the British preferential rates for a certain period two tons of beet sugar for every ton of Canadian beet which they refined, and the further privilege given them in 1909 of importing foreign sugar to the extent of 20 per cent, of their requirements at British preferential rates, it being alleged that West Indian producers were combining to raise prices to the refiners. Since 1904 British-produced molasses entering Canada has been duty free. In 1909 a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the question of closer trade between Canada and the West Indies, and as the outcome of its report a conference between representatives of each of the West Indian colonies (Bermuda, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Jamaica, and Grenada excepted) and the Dominion of Canada met in Ottawa, on March 29, 191 2, under the chairmanship of the Hon. (now Sir) George E. Foster, Minister of Trade and Commerce of the Dominion, and on Aprils an agreement was signed, providing for the establishment of a reciprocal trade arrangement between the British West Indies and Canada for a period of ten years. The basis of this arrangement is a mutual preference of 20 per cent, on the chief products of the countries concerned, with a minimum preference on flour in favour of Canada of 12 cents per 100 lb,, and the following preference on sugar in favour of the West Indies : on raw sugar not above No. 16 Dutch standard in colour, and molasses setting over

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 447 56 degrees and not over 75 degrees by the polariscope, not at any time less than 4^ cents per 100 lb., and for each additional degree over 75 degrees not less than -|cent per 100 lb. By the terms of the agreement it was further provided that the privilege given to the Canadian sugar refiners of importing 20 per cent, of their requirements from foreign sources on the terms of the British preferential tariff should be repealed, and that of importing on preferential terms an equal quantity of sugar to that produced by Canadian beetroot should not be renewed when it expired in 191 4. Grenada joined the agreement in 191 3. West Indian Sugar Crops. The annual output of sugar from British Guiana is 100,000 tons, and from the British West India islands it is approximately as follows : Trinidad, 35,000 tons ; Barbados, 40,000 tons ; Jamaica, 16,000 tons; Antigua, 14,000 tons; St. Kitts, 10,000 tons; St. Lucia, 8,000 tons ; and from Martinique, 40,000 tons ; Guadeloupe, 39,000 tons ; St. Croix, 12,000, and Haiti and Santo Domingo, 4800 tons ; while Cuba produces 2,500,000 tons, and Porto Rico 300,000 tons per annum. Sugar Manufacture. There are two principal forms of sugar manufacture in the West Indies — the antiquated muscovado process, which yields the old-fashioned brown sugars of childhood's days ; and the vacuum-pan process, which turns out the familiar yellow Demerara crystals," or else grey sugar for refining purposes. As every tourist will doubtless visit one or more sugar factories during his stay in the West Indies, the following brief outline of these two methods of manufacture may be of interest. To begin with, the sugar-canes are grown from cuttings of the mature canes. These take from twelve to eighteen months to reach maturity. They are then cut down by field labourers with cutlasses, trimmed, and conveyed to the mill, which consists, in the case of the small muscovado factories, of three rollers, the power being supplied either by windmill, the old-fashioned beam-engine, or a horizontal steamengine. The dirty, greenishcoloured juice which is then expressed is heated up to the desired temperature, and passes into a tank called a clarifier, where it is mixed with a certain amount of lime. By this, means the impurities

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44§ POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES are separated from it. The clarified juice then flows down to the copper wall," which consists of a series of three or more large open copper tanks, called "tayches," in which the process of evaporating the liquor takes place, the juice being boiled in these tayches, by a fire which is kindled under them and kept going with the megass or crushed cane, which is dried in the sun and used as fuel. The juice is ladled by dippers from the first tayche to the second, and so on to the third, in which the process of evaporation is generally concluded, though in some cases an extra pan heated by steam, known as the Aspinall pan, is used for completing the process. When the juice reaches a sufficient density it is ladled out and poured into large square boxes called coolers, in which it is allowed to crystallise. As soon as it becomes sufficiently solid it is dug out and put into large wooden casks called hogsheads, with perforated bottoms, which are placed on rangers or rafters, on the floor of what is known as the stanchion-room. Here it is left for two or three weeks and allowed to drain, the uncrystallised sugar or molasses running out through holes guarded with plantain stalks into the tank below. After this period the cask is headed up, and the sugar is then ready for shipment. There are many different qualities of this muscovado sugar, the best being the lighter kinds, while the sugar from the bottom of the casks commands a lower price, and is termed foots." The vacuum-pan process of sugar manufacture, which can be seen in British Guiana, Jamaica, Trinidad, Antigua, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, and Barbados, is altogether more elaborate. Without entering too closely into technical details which might confuse the reader, its main characteristics may be described as follows : As soon as the canes are cut they are conveyed to the factory, in punts in British Guiana, where the conditions of the front lands closely resemble those of the Netherlands, and by light railways or carts in the islands. They are then weighed, lifted out by machinery, and placed on the cane-carrier, an endless belt which conveys them direct to the mill. Here they are crushed by means of a succession of rollers, in some cases there being as many as four sets, which form

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 449 with crushers a fourteen-roller mill. The megass or crushed cane is removed on another carrier direct to the furnaces for which it is used as fuel, the furnaces being specially made to burn green megass, thus obviating the necessity of drying it in the sun. The juice is then pumped up into clarifying tanks, in which it is treated in the same manner as is described above. The pure liquor is next drawn through pipes into the triple effect, an apparatus for economical evaporation consisting of a series of three closed vessels, in which the juice is boiled to concentrate or thicken it. The object of the triple is to save steam, and consequently fuel. By producing successively lower boiling-points in the several vessels through reducing the air pressure in them, the vapour from the juice in the first when heated by steam is made to boil the juice in the second, and that from the second the juice in the third, to which a vacuum pump is attached. The syrup, as the juice is now called, is then transferred to the vacuum pan, in which it is boiled at a low temperature until granulation sets in, this process being watched through a small glass window, and the progress of crystallisation being tested by a proof stick," which is inserted into the pan through valves and withdraws a sample of the liquor. The vacuum pan is then struck or tapped at the bottom, the contents, now called massecuite," being transferred to the centrifugals, large drums with, perforated or mesh sides, which are made to revolve some 1200 times to the minute. The result of this operation is that the molasses is driven out of the drums by centrifugal force, leaving the sugar behind, which is mixed to secure uniformity of grade and colour, packed in bags, and is then ready for shipment. The molasses, which is not such a valuable commodity as muscovado molasses, is then reboiled, and made into inferior grades of sugar, callecr second and third sugars, or, if prices favour it, is used to make rum in the manner described below or a cattle-food known as Molascuit. This commodity, patented by Mr. George Hughes, consists of the interior or cellulose fibre of the sugar-cane finely screened and then blended with cane molasses. In most parts of the West Indies rum is a secondary product to sugar, but on some estates in Jamaica

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4 so POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES the sugar-canes are grown principally for the purpose of making that spirit. THE BUM INDUSTRY. The term rum is said to be derived from Saccharum." In the old days before it received its present designation it was styled Kill-devil." About the middle of the seventeenth century it was first called Rumbullion," an old Devonshire term for uproar or rumpus. An old West Indian work says, The chief e fudling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias, killdevil, and this is made of suggar -canes distilled, a hott, hellish, and terrible liquor." The method of manufacture is roughly as follows. Molasses, skimmings, &c, are mixed with water, sulphuric acid, and in British Guiana ammonia also, and this wash," as it is then called, is allowed to stand in large wooden vats, in which it ferments. In British Guiana this process requires about two days, and in Jamaica a week and upwards. When the fermentation ceases and the wash has settled, it is transferred to the still," a copper vessel preferably heated by fire underneath. The spirit is boiled off from the wash, and after being rectified in a vessel containing vertical tubes surrounded with water, is condensed in a spiral tube cooled with running water. In some cases a Coffey still is used. This is a vertical still consisting of two columns of considerable height, with an internal arrangement of alternate shelves. The wash is introduced at the top of the first, and drops from shelf to shelf until it reaches the bottom, meeting on its way doVn a current of steam, while the vapour from it passes to the bottom of the second column, where it is rectified by the cold wash passing through it in tubes, and condensed in the upper part. The process is continuous, and the separation is so complete that the hot spirit constantly passes off to the cooler from near the top of the second, while the waste liquor runs off at the bottom of the first. As it comes from the still the spirit is colourless, but prior to shipment it is coloured to meet the market requirements with burnt sugar or molasses. The finest rum in the world is produced in Jamaica. Its dietetic value, especially when mixed with milk, is so well known that it needs no special encomium in these pages. The average annual export of

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 451 rum from Jamaica is 1,300,000 gallons ; from the other West Indian islands, 200,000 gallons ; and from British Guiana, 2,500,000 gallons. THE COCOA INDUSTRY. The Spaniards were not onlyresponsible for introducing sugar into the West Indies, but also cocoa, or cacao to give the product its strictly correct name. The original home of this plant was probably in South America, and cacao is even now found in its wild state on the banks of the upper Amazon and in the interior of Ecuador. The Spaniards left behind them well-established cacao plantations — or cacao walks, as they were then called — in Jamaica, and the cultivation of the plant spread rapidly to the other islands. At the present time the cacao industry has reached such dimensions in Trinidad that it is more important in that island than sugar, while in Grenada it has ousted sugar almost entirely, only sufficient of the latter commodity being now grown there to meet local requirements. In Jamaica, St. Lucia, and Tobago its cultivation is extending very rapidly. The average annual exports of cacao from the West Indies are now approximately as follows : Trinidad 26,000 tons, Santo Domingo 21,000 tons, Grenada 6,000 tons, Haiti 3,500 tons, Jamaica 3,500 tons, Cuba 1,600 tons, St. Lucia 1,000 tons, and Dominica 600 tons. The cacao plant (called by Linnaeus Theobroma, the food of the gods) is an evergreen which grows to the height of 15 to 30 feet, with bright-pointed leaves from 8 to 20 inches long. The flowers and fruit, which it bears at all seasons of the year, grow off the trunk and the thickest part of the branches with stalks only an inch in length. The fruit is a large five-celled pod from 7 to q£ inches in length and 3 to 4 in breadth, the colour varying from bright yellow to red and purple. Cacao plants in suitable positions begin to bear fruit in about the third or fourth year after they are planted ; but to strengthen the tree the flowers are cut off for the first few years, and as a general rule a cacao plantation does not begin to bear to any appreciable extent until its fifth year, the yield increasing gradually until its twelfth year. On some estates there are trees a hundred years old still producing, though on a reduced scale, the finest cacao. The principal crop begins in October and November, and

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452 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES continues till the end of April, while there is a smaller crop in June. The ripe pods are gathered with cutlasses and piled in heaps. These pods, which contain about i£ oz. of dried beans, are then broken and the beans are collected in baskets and removed to the sweating house, where the pulp which surrounds them is removed by the process of sweating or fermentation. The beans are packed closely together in boxes and covered with plantain leaves, and left for four days or a week, being, however, occasionally turned over during that time. Fermentation takes place, and the beans are then spread out on large flat trays called barbecues or boucans." On these trays they are danced," that is to say, the black labourers dance or trample on them in order to remove the dry pulp, and the beans are then dried in the sun. The boucans have sliding roofs, which are closed over them when, as is often the case in the middle of the day, the sun is too powerful, or when it comes on to rain. In some cases artificial drying apparatus is used. When the cacao is quite dry or cured," it is shipped in bags, each bag containing roughly i£ cwt. THE BANANA INDUSTRY. The only British West Indian colonies from which bananas are now exported on a commercial scale are Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados. In Jamaica the industry has assumed enormous proportions, no fewer than 20,000,000 bunches being exported every year. The bulk of them go to the United States, and the development of the trade has been almost entirely due to American enterprise and capital. Many years ago the late Captain Baker, commander of a schooner trading between Jamaica and America, was in the habit of taking back to his native town a few bunches of bananas. He found that they stood the journey so well, and were so much appreciated by his friends, that he decided to extend a business in this direction ; and from such small beginnings has arisen the United Fruit Company, with its large fleet of steamers, one or more of which sail from Jamaica nearly every day to American ports with a full complement of bananas. The industry received an impetus in 1900, when the Imperial Direct West India Mail Service Company was formed and granted a subsidy of £40,000 per annum for

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 453 ten years to buy and carry 20,000 bunches of bananas every week from Jamaica to the United Kingdom. At first grave doubts were expressed as to whether it would be possible to bring the fruit successfully and in good condition to Avonmouth, Bristol, the terminal port, but with their characteristic enterprise Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., the owners of the line above referred to, overcame all difficulties, and installed Messrs. J. and E. Hall's cool-air system in each of their ships, with the result that the quantity of fruit lost on each voyage was infinitesimal. An increasing demandfor Jamaica bananas in the mother country has developed with surprising rapidity, and a company known as Messrs. Elders and Fyffes now have no fewer than thirteen vessels bringing fruit to England from Jamaica and Central and South America as fast as it can be carried. The Jamaica banana, which is the variety known as the Gros Michel, is cut when it is about three-quarters full, and consequently tourists must not expect to see the fruit growing on the trees in Jamaica of the familiar yellow colour, but quite green. In the United States the Jamaica banana is preferred to the smaller dwarf banana, commonly known as the Canary banana (Musa Cavendishii), which is grown in Barbados, though the latter is, perhaps, more popular in England, the reason probably being that the British public have become accustomed to the fruit from the Canary Islands, which had been imported for many years before the Jamaica variety was introduced. The two kinds of bananas were existing in the West Indies when Pere Labat visited the islands in 1696. The larger species was known as the bananier and the small as the figuier." He tasted both, but preferred the latter, which he described as amie de la poitrine." Unlike the Jamaica variety, which grows to a height of 20 feet, the Barbados banana-tree does not exceed 10 or 12 feet. From Trinidad the principal kind of banana exported is the red or claret banana, which is every year becoming better known in this country. Bananas require great heat, moisture, and a rich soil, with good drainage and high tillage. The cost of planting an acre in this fruit on land which, without high cultiva-

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454 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES tion, would have otherwise produced nothing, has been given by Mr. William Cradwick as follows : i s. d. per acre i s. d. Forking first time 3 o Suckers 14 Draining S Forking second time 2 Weeding twice 1 £11 14 o The banana-tree, it may be explained, is cultivated from suckers which spring from the root when the tree is cut down and the fruit gathered. The tree, which only carries one bunch, takes about twelve months to reach the stage at which the fruit is fit to be gathered for markets across the sea. The bunches before they are shipped are checked as to size, a full-sized or straight bunch having at least nine hands, or groups of from fifteen to twenty fingers each, on it, and these of course fetch the highest price. Bunches of bananas, when mature, weigh 40 to 60 lb. each, and it is surprising to see how easily the black women pick them up and carry them on board ship on their heads, though it must be admitted that after earning a living wage the labourers appear to find their task irksome and require a considerable amount of encouragement. THE COTTON INDUSTRY. About a century ago the West Indies were the chief source of Great Britain's cotton supply ; but cultivation extended rapidly in America, and prices fell to such a low level that the West Indian planters found it more profitable to turn their attention to sugar and other crops, and Carriacou, a dependency of Grenada, was the only island which continued to produce it. In 1 90 1 a serious shortage in the American cotton crop was followed by wild speculation, and prices rose very rapidly. There was a serious cotton famine in Lancashire, and the British Cotton Growing Association was formed in Manchester to promote the growth of cotton in British dominions and consequently to render Great Britain less dependent on foreign countries for its cotton supply. To the credit of the West Indian planters be it said, they very readily experimented with cotton seed imported from the United

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 455 States, and, with the help of the Imperial Department of Agriculture, the cotton industry has been successfully reestablished in Barbados, St. Vincent, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat, to the soil and climate of which the Sea Island variety — a native of the first-mentioned island; as its name, Gossypium barbadense, implies — seems to be particularly well adapted. This cotton differs from the upland cotton, which forms the bulk of the crop produced in America, in that it has a longer fibre or staple and is used for a different purpose, such as making Brussels lace, chiffon, and other delicate fabrics, as well as fine gloves, handkerchiefs, and sewing-cotton. Moreover, it commands a much higher price, namely, i2d. to 40^. per lb., as compared with $d. to 6d. for ordinary cotton. While it is not possible that the West Indian cotton industry can prove the salvation of Lancashire, which must depend on a steady supply of cheaper cotton, the West Indies should at least be able to supply as much Sea Island cotton — for which the demand is somewhat limited — as may be required. It is hoped that some day a cheaper variety may be found suitable for British Guiana, and that some of the undeveloped 99,000 square miles of the Magnificent Province may help to supply the raw material for the Lancashire looms. It is estimated that in 19 1 3 there were 15,500 acres under cotton cultivation in the West Indies, the quantity of lint exported being approximately 6000 bales annually. There is still, however, room for a considerable extension of production. Cotton is planted in August and September, just before the rains, in order thatxiry weather may be obtained during the period in which the crop is picked. It is best planted 20 inches apart, in rows which are 5 feet apart, four seeds being planted in each hole, 6 lb. of seed per acre being thus used. As soon as the plants are a fortnight old, the weakest ones are pulled out, leaving the two strongest in each hole, and a fortnight later the weaker of the two remaining plants is removed. This is the critical period, as heavy rains or high winds may damage, if not ruin, the crop. The picking is conducted by men, women, and children, and expert labourers are able to pick about 100 lb. of seed -cotton per

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456 POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES day. They hold the boll firmly with the left hand and remove the seed-cotton with the right, the price usually paid for this operation being ^d. to \&. per lb. gathered. The cotton is then sunned until it is thoroughly dry, any that is stained and immature bolls being removed, and any cotton which has fallen to the ground and got mixed with earth or sand is "whipped," a process which consists in striking handfuls of seed-cotton with a whipping motion on wire netting. The seed-cotton is then conveyed to the ginnery. The first ginnery to be erected since the reintroduction of the cotton industry was established in St. Lucia in iqoi, and now there are ginneries in each of the principal cottongrowing islands. The ginning factories usually contain three storeys. On entering the factory the cotton is weighed and hoisted to the top floor or cotton loft. In this the cotton is temporarily stored and spread out to dry ; it is then passed to the gins in the second storey by means of shoots passing through the floor, directly over the gins. The labourers at work in the loft, filling the shoots, have also to pick out any motes or discoloured cotton that may have escaped the pickers and assorters. As soon as the gins are started, the feeders take the cotton from the shoots through a small hinged door, which can easily be shut in case of fire. On the seed-cotton being fed to the gins, the lint is separated from the seed. The former passes over a leather roller and drops on to an endless conveyor, while the seed falls through the grids on to an inclined plane, and passes through the floor to the lowest storey. While the lint is on the conveyor, any motes or other impurities are watched for and picked out. From the conveyor the lint is taken to the baling-room, where it is baled under pressure. It is then ready for shipment. In the lowest room the seed is stored for planting the next season's crop, for feeding the animals, or for making manure. THE RUBBER AND BALATA INDUSTRIES. The rubber industry is still in its infancy in the British West Indies, which suffered in company with other parts of the world from the attentions of the unscrupulous company promoter during the rubber boom of 1910. Much steady development work has, however, been proceeding, and the

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SOME WEST INDIAN INDUSTRIES 457 visitor can now inspect thriving rubber plantations in Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, and British Guiana. In the last named colony a nourishing balata industry exists. Balata is a gutta-percha-like substance which is tapped from a forest tree known as the Bullet tree or Mimusops globosa. It is used for insulating purposes, and also in the manufacture of belting and boots and shoes. Expeditions start periodically to the interior to collect the substance. The tapping of balata trees is done with the cutlass, incisions being made not more than 1 \ inches wide, about 10 inches apart, in a feather-stitch pattern up the trunks of the trees. The latex runs in zigzags from cut to cut into a calabash at the base of the tree. The latex is collected from the calabashes into gourds (goobees) and then it is taken to the camp, where it is poured into shallow trays (dabrees) that hold from 5 to 30 gallons. The latex coagulates in these trays and the balata is taken off in sheets, dried and despatched to town for transhipment. The labourers are paid by results according to the amount of balata collected.

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CHAPTER XIX CONCLUDING REMARKS Agriculture and Commerce : News and the Press : The Homeward Voyage Visitors who decide to settle or to take up land in the West Indies have the advantage of being able to obtain advice from the official Agricultural Departments which exist in British Guiana and all the islands of consequence. There is unfortunately a lack of uniformity and cohesion about these organisations. Thus the active operations of the Imperial Department of Agriculture, founded in 1 898 as the outcome of the recommendations of the Royal Commission of the preceding year, are at present confined to the Windward and Leeward Islands. British Guiana has its own Board of Agriculture, Barbados and Jamaica Departments of Agriculture, Trinidad its Board of Agriculture and Agricultural Society, and Grenada its Agricultural Board, which works in close co-operation with the Imperial Department of Agriculture. Each colony has besides the above-named organistations, agricultural and commercial bodies which are always glad to afford information to prospective settlers and to visitors and capitalists desirous of becoming acquainted with its agricultural and industrial prospects. In addition, each colony has a Permanent Exhibition Committee, as the outcome of a suggestion made by the writer subsequent to the Colonial Exhibition of 1905. These Committees make arrangements for the representation of the colonies at various exhibitions in different parts of the world. In dealing with the agricultural and commercial bodies, mention must be made of the West India Committee (15 Seething Lane, London, E.C.), which is the doyen of 458 ..

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CONCLUDING REMARKS 459 such institutions, having been founded early in the eighteenth century. The West India Committee, which was granted a Charter of Incorporation by his late Majesty King Edward VII on August 4, 1904, has correspondents in British Guiana, British Honduras, and in each of the islands. Its objects are by united action to promote the interest of the industries and trade, and thus increase the general welfare of the British West Indies, British Guiana, and British Honduras There are also West India Associations in Liverpool (3 Cook Street) and Glasgow (134 Wellington Street). Among other West Indian institutions must be mentioned the West Indian Club, established in 1898, with premises at 4 Whitehall Court, and the West Indian Produce Association (i4CreechurchLane, London, E.C.), where every kind of West Indian produce can be obtained. It should interest American visitors to know that the last named organisation, which enjoys Royal patronage, is incorporated with Davison, Newman and Co., a firm established as far back as 1650, which according to tradition supplied some of the tea for the Boston Tea Party." Visitors to the British West Indies and British Guiana, and most other places mentioned in these pages, are kept informed as to events in the outside world by the cabled bulletins of general news which are issued every evening by the cable companies. In the larger colonies these are published in the daily papers, and they also appear in such newspapers as are available in the smaller islands. The Imperial Department of Agriculture, of which the headquarters are at Bridgetown, Barbados, issues the Agricultural News, a fortnightly journal devoted to agriculture, and a quarterly Bulletin. The Botanical Departments of Jamaica and Trinidad also issue agricultural and scientific Bulletins periodically, and for those interested in West Indian affairs generally there is the fortnightly West India Committee Circular, the official organ of the West India Committee. The patient reader of this Pocket Guide having now been taken through the Bermudas, British Guiana and British Honduras, and the West Indian islands, and introduced to their industries, nothing remains to be

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4<3o POCKET GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES added except, perhaps, a few words regarding the homeward voyage. Though Home," as the West Indian always calls the Mother Country, whether he has visited it or not, has its magic attraction for Creole, colonist, and tourist alike, the return voyage, which might be expected to be fraught with more enjoyment than the outward, is not to be compared with it for conviviality. The spirits of those on board the homeward steamer fall with the thermometer, the result being that, as the ship nears port, dances, sports, and kindred amusements are less freely resorted to. In an earlier chapter a note of warning was sounded as to the necessity of keeping in reserve an adequate supply of warm clothing and wraps for the homeward journey, and this it is very desirable to reiterate. When he is in the West Indies, the tales of their climate in the old days lose their terror for the tourist. The case is altered, and it is upon the dear old mother country that he begins to look with suspicion, a suspicion which is fostered by the reports of influenza and sickness which reach him during his travels. Let him then wrap up well, and remember that what he could do in the tropics he cannot do coming up the Channel in the teeth of a north-easterly gale. The tourist will doubtless bring back with him many souvenirs of places visited, such as lace-bark d'oyleys, stuffed flying-fish, sugar-canes, pottery, bitter cups (made of quassia wood, which instantly renders water put in them as bitter as can be) from Barbados ; cleverly stuffed alligators, Indians' bead aprons and brilliantly plumed head-dresses from British Guiana ; lace-bark whips, walking-sticks, pottery, and a hundred and one fairings from Jamaica ; delicately woven Arima baskets and fans, Indian coolie jewellery, balata models and calabashes from Trinidad ; liquorice seed purses and bags from Antigua ; stuffed crapauds or frogs and sawyer beetles from Dominica ; and possibly a bottled Fer-de-lance snake from St. Lucia, to mention only a few of the articles more commonly purchased. But he will not require the help of these to remind him of his visit to the exquisitely beautiful Islands of the West, the impression of which will never fade from his memory.

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INDEX Abaco, 74, 76 Abbot's Bay, 65 Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 215, 232, 250, 266, 281, 402 Abergavenny, H.M.S. 177 Aboukir, H.M.S., 182 Accompong, 197 Ackawois Indians, 42 Acklin Island, 74 Adam Island, 246 Agar's Island, 66 Agatash, 127 Aguacate, 395 Agualta Vale, 176 Aibonito, 403 Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of, 43, 240, 266, 281, 339 Akyma, 143 Alarm, the, 215 Albany, 166 Albemarle, Duke of, 78 Albemarle, Lord, 382, 386 Albert of Wales, Prince, 228 Albert Victor, Prince, 62, 232,234, 258 Alleyne, the late Hon. F. M., 112 Alligator Pond, 167 All Souls, Oxford, 108 Allspice, or pimento, 158 Almond Walk, the, 223 Amatuk, 146 Amazon, The, 128 Amerigo Vespucci, 128 Ames, Place des, 223 Amiens, Peace of, 130, 215, 240, 266, Amity Hall, 201 Amsterdam, New, 141 Anchovy, 165 Ancon, 438 Andros Island, 74, 75, 76 Anegada, 351, 352 Angostura Bitters, 212 Anguilla, 331-332 Animal Flower Cave, the, 123 Anne, Princess, 315 Annotto Bay, 191 Anopheles Mosquito, 6 Anstey, Rev. A. H., 107 Antiglia, 1 Antigua, 294-308 Climate, 295 Clubs, 299 Communication, Means of, 299 Constitution, 297 Financial Position, 295 General Aspect, 294 History, 296 Hotels, 298 Industries of, 295 Parishes of, 294 Principal Sights ,299 Sports, 299 Antilla, 1 Antilla, Cuba, 385, 398 Antilles, 1 Antoine Lake, 260 Apodaca, Admiral, 215 Apostles battery, 168 Appleton, 165 Aquarium, Bermuda, 65 Arakaka, 144 Arawaks, 42, 195, 368 Arecibo River, 400 Arecunas, 42 Argyle Estate, 292 Argyle River, 278 Arima, 212, 2x9, 234 Arms of Jamaica, 189 Arno's Vale, 292 Arouca, 219 461

PAGE 578

462 INDEX Arrete, 391 Arrow" of Sugar Canes, 140 Arrowroot Mill, 284 Artemisia, 396 Aruba, 378 Asphalt Co. the NewTrindad Lake, 2 34 Aspinall pan, the, 448 Aspinwall, W. H., 429, 433 Assiento," the, 43 Assistant, H.M. Brig, 283 Atares, 387 Atherton, Gertrude, 329 Atkinson, George, 302 Atlantis, 32 Auilabou River, 281 Austin, Bishop, 138, 139 Ave Maria," see Cuba Ayscue, Sir G. 90 Azores, the, 31-33 Baal, Robert, 424 Bacchante, the, 62, 232, 234, 238 Bacolet I, 246 Bacon, sculptor, 187, 189, 196 Bahamas, the, 74-85 Climate, tj Clubs, 80 Communication, Means of, 79 Constitution, 78 Financial Position, 76 General Aspect, 74 History, 77 Hotels, 79 Industries, 75 Sights, 80 Sports, 80 Baijer, Bastien, 302 Baijer, Otto, 302 Bailey's Bay, 69 Baily, E. H., 170 Bains Jaunes, 359 Baker, Captain, 4^2 Bakers Masonic Lodge, 301 Balaclava, Jamaica, 162, 164, 165 Balata industry, 127, 456 Balata, La, 360 Balboa, 441 Balboa, V. N. de, 416, 428, 441 Baleine, Falls of, 292 Ballast Ground," the, 254 Balliceaux, 279 Banana industry, 452 Bande de l'Est, 236 *' Bang, Aaron," 174, 371 Banks : Colonial Bank, 11, 222 Nova Scotia, 11, 171 Royal Bank of Canada, 11, 12, 222 Banks, Sir Joseph, 285 Bannister, Major-Gen. James, 189 Barabara, the, 274 Barbados, 86-124 Climate, 88 Clubs, 95 Colleges and Schools, 101 Communication, Means of, 92 Constitution, 91 Financial Position, 88 General Aspect of, 86 Government House, 101 History of, 89 Hotels, 91 Industries, 87 Parishes, 87 Principal Sights, 95 Railway, 93 Sports, 94 Barbados Mutual Bidg., 96 Barbecues, 452 Barbuda, 294, 308-311 Bar de l'isle, 273 Barfleur, the, 349 Barima River, 144 Barlovento, Islas de, 1 Barouallie, 283, 291, 293 Barranquilla, 423 Barrett, Lucas, 180 Barrington, Admiral, 273 Barrington Brown, 144 Barrington Fort, 336 Barrow, Lieut. Charles M. 307 Bartica, 127, 144 Basle, Treaty of, 411 Bas Obispo, 428, 435 Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, 356. 358 Basseterre Roads, 315, 318 Basseterre, St. Kitts, 312, 317 Bassin, 374 Bassinville, 337, 348 Bastidas, Rodrigo, 424, 428 Bastien, Dr., 195 Batabano, 385, 399 Bath House, Nevis, 326, 327 Bath of St. Thomas, 162, 200 Bathsheba, 109 Bath Station, Barbados, 107 Battowia, 279 Bay leaf, the, 368

PAGE 579

INDEX 463 Bayly, Zachary, 180 Baynes, Edward, 334 Bay Town, 255 Beckett, Peter, 284 Beckford, Peter, 189 Beckwith, Lieut. -Gen, Sir G., 98 Beckwith Place, 96 Beeston, Sir William, 169, 180 Belair, 293 Belize, 153 Bellamar Caves, 395 Belle Vue. 307 Bell of Port Royal, the, 76 Bell, Sir H. Hesketh, 290, 348 Belvidere Estate, Grenada, 247 Benab, the, in Barbados, no Benbow, Admiral, 173, 180 Bendal's Stream, 294, 296 Benders, 372 Ben Lomond, 154 Bennett, George, 180 Bently, Adjutant, 231 Bequia, 279 Berbice, Colony of, 129 Berbice River, the, 126 Berkeley, Memorial, 317 Berkshire Hill, 288 Bermoothes," the, 55, 59 Bermudas, 55-73 Climate, 58 Communication, Means of, 60 Constitution, 59 Financial Position, 57 General Aspect, 55 History, 58 Hotels, 60 Industries, 56 Island Steam Service, 61 Parishes, 56 Principal Sights, 62 Sports, 61 Bermudez, 58 Bernard, Rev. T. C, 302 Berry Islands, the, 74 Beverages, 8 Bieques Island, see Vieques Big River Falls, 243 Biminis, the, 74 Bindley, Archdeacon T. H. 107 Bird Island, 246 Bishop, Hon. W., 99 Bitter wood, 158 Blackbeard's Castle, 370, 371 Blackbeard's Well, 81 97. Black River, 157, 162, 164, 167 Black Rocks, 322 Black's Point, 306 Black Virgin, the, 232 Blake, James, 193 Blake, Sir Henry, 161 Blanchisseuse, 220 Bligh, Captain William, 285 Blome, Richard, 120, 312, 317, 028 Blomfield, Sir A., 138 Blue Basin, the, 228 Bluebeard's Castle, 370, 371 Blue Hills, 202 Blue Hole 70, 191 Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica, 184 Blue Mountains, Jamaica, the, 168 Blue Mountain, St. Croix, 374 Boaz Island, 56, 63, 66 Boca Chica, 420 Boca del Sierpe, 211, 214 Boca Grande, 420 Bocas del Dragone, 211 Bodden, Capt. S. E., 209 Boddentown, 207, 209 Body Ponds, The, 296 Boers in Bermuda, 67 Bogue Islands, the, 197 Bog Walk, 166, 190 Boiling Lake, the, 347 Bois Immortel, the, 232 Bolivar Plaza, 426 Bolivar, Simon, 416, 426 Bonaire, 378 Bonaparte, 411, 443 Bonda, 425 Bonne Esp6rance, 372 Booby Island, 312 Books on West Indies, 4954 Boqueron, 398 Borde, Mr. Hippolite, 223 Boreas, the 305, 329, 350 Borinquen, 401 Botanical Gardens : British Guiana, 139 Dominica, 345 Grenada, 256 Guadeloupe, 358 St. Kitts, 319 St. Lucia, 269 St. Vincent, 226, 284, 285 Tobago, 243 Trinidad, 226 Virgin Islands, 355 Botanical Station, Tobago, 243 Botanic Station, Grenada, 256

PAGE 580

464 INDEX Bottom, 377 Boucans, 452 Bounties, Sugar, 442 Bounty, the, 285 Bowerbank, Dr., 175 Bovianders," 143 Bovoni, 372 Bowmanston Waterworks, 105 Boyce, Sir Rubert, 212 Boyer, General, 411 Brasso Caparo, 219 Brea, La, 218, 234 Brea," Tierra de, 214 Breda, Peace of, 314 Breda, the, 173 Brettes, Mr. Charles de, 276 Brickdam, 141 Bridges, Sir Tobias, 240 Bridgetown, Barbados, 96 Brigands' War, 249, 281 Briggs, Sir Graham, 123 Briggs, Thomas, 177 Brighton Estate, St. Kitts, 313, 322 Brighton Pier, Trinidad, 234, 235 Brighton, Trinidad, 234 Brimstone Hill, 319 Brisbane, Sir Charles, 284 Bristol, the, 174 British Cotton Growing Assn. 454 British Guiana, 125-148 Climate, 128 Clubs, 135 Communication, Means of, 131 Constitution, 130 Financial Position, 127 General Aspect, 125 History, 128 Hotels, 130 Industries, 126 Principal Sights, 135 Sports, 135 British Honduras, 148-155 Climate, 150 Communication, Means of, 151 Constitution, 151 Financial Position, 149 General Aspect, 148 History, 150 Hotels, 151 Industries, 149 Principal Sights, 153 Sports, 152 Broadway, Trinidad, 223 Brodbelt, Dr. 189 Broke, Capt. P. V., 67 Broken Ridge, 149 Broome, Sir Napier, 216 Bromley, Sir Robert, Bart., 316 Brothers Road, 219 Browne, G. G., 260 Browne, Hon. C. M., 260 Browne, James, 260 Brown's, St. Thomas, 372 Brown's Town, 162, 192 Bruce, Morne, 345 Bruce, Robert George, 350 Bruce, Sir Charles, 250, 255 Brunswick Square, 223 Brussels Convention, the, 443 Bryan Castle, 192 Buccament Valley, 293 Buccaneers, 78, 160, 236, 410, 416, 424 Buccoo Reef, 243 Buckingham, Marchioness of, 183 Bucks," 143 Buena Vista, 394 Buff Bay, 166, 184 Buff River, 184 Bulkeley Estate, 94 Bull Bay, 200 Bull, John, 176 Bull Ring, 426 Burnaby's Laws, 151 Bush, the, British Guiana, 142 Bushy Park, 165 Buxton, 132, 141 Byera River, 281 Cabanas, 387 Cabbage Palms, 7, 108, 140, 317 Cabildo, the, 215 Cable Companies, 39 Cable Office, Barbados, 97 Cartagena, 421 Castries, 237 Fort de France, 362 Kingston, 170 Cabrits, the, 337 Cacao, see Cocoa Cagigar, Capt.-Gen., 391 Caicos Island, see Turk and Caicos Caimanera, 398 Calamar, 421 Caldecott, Rev. A., 107 California, Trinidad, 219 Caliviny Island, 246 Calliaqua, 287, 292 Calliope, H.M.S., 365 Camacho, Hon. J. }., 303

PAGE 581

INDEX 465 Camagiiey, 385, 397 Camaria Falls, 144 Camber, the, Bermuda, 66 Cambridge, Jamaica, 165, 195 Camelford, Lord, 305 Camelo, Ferdinando, 58, 73 Cameron, His Honour E. J., 206, 267, 282, 354 Campbell, Brig.-Gen., 260 Campbell, Sir John, 284 Campo Marte, 390 Canada, H.M.S. 307 Canada, Reciprocity with, 445 Canal Zone, the Panama, 427, 431 Canaries Mountain, the, 262 Cane Farmers, 233 Cane Garden Point, 279 Canigou, 275 Canimar River, 396 Canisters," 28 Canje Creek, 141 Canouan, 279 Caparo, 219 Capedevilla, 393 Capoey Lake, 142 Caracas, 415, 426 Caracas, L. de, 426 Carapichaima, 219 Carbet, Pitons of, 360 Carcel, Havana, 392 Cardenas, 385, 396 Carenage, Grand, Carriacou, 261 Carenage, Grenada, the, 254 Carenage, Grenada, Plan of, 253 Carenage, St. Lucia, 269 Carenage Town, Grenada, 255 Carenage, Trinidad, 228 Carib Canal, the, 278 Country, 278, 281 Settlement, Dominica, 350 Stones, 293 Caribs, 239, 248, 265, 279, 280, 289, 291, 308,314, 340, 368 Black, 280 Massacre of, 260 Yellow, 280 Carlisle Bay, 34 Carlisle's Estate, 303 Carlisle, the Earl of, 89, 265, 280, 296, 325, 339 Carmichael Smith, Sir J. 83 Carnegie, Mr. Andrew, 137, 283, 343 Carolina, 404 Caroni, 219 Caroni River, 212 Carriacou, 246, 252, 261 Carrick, the Earl of, 150 Carrington, Barbados, 94 Carrington, Dr. John W., 276 Cartabu, 144 Cartagena, 415, 416, 419-423 Carter, Lady, 99 Carter, Sir Gilbert, 79, 91 Carupano, 425 Cascadura Fish, 6 Cassada Garden, 299, 308 Cassareep, 8 Casselberry, Dr., 80 Castle Grotto, 76 Castafion, G. 392 Castellani, C, 59 Castilla de Oro, 416, 428 Castillo de Jagua, 396 Castleton Cottages, 162, 184 Castleton Gardens, 183 Castries, St. Lucia, 262, 269 Castries, Marshal de, 269 Catadupa, 165 Cathcait's tomb, Lord, 350 Catherine Fort, Bermuda, 62 Catherine Hall, 197 Catherine's Peak, 184, 185 Cat Island, 74 Causeway, the, 70 Cavalries, 287 Cave Earth, 75 Cave, Mr. C. J. P., 123 Cayey, 407 Cayman Islands, 206-209 Climate, 208 Communication, Means of, 209 Constitution, 208 Financial Position, 207 General Aspect, 206 History, 208 Industries, 207 Principal Sights, 209 Cayo Carenas, 396 Cedar Avenue, Bermuda, 65 Cedros, 218 Ceiba Mocha, 395 Centaury H.M.S. 277 Centrifugals, 450 Cerro de Aripo, 212 Cervera, Admiral, 383, 386, 397 Chacachacare, 211, 218, 236 Chacon, Don Josef M., 215, 232 Chagres, 440 Chagres River, 427 Chaguanas, 219

PAGE 582

466 INDEX Chaguaramas Bay, 215, 236 Chalky Mount, 109 Challenger, H.M.S., Voyage q£, 55 Chamberlain, M.P., Rt. Hon. J., 318 Champion, Major, 284 Chances Mountain, 335 Chantrey, 224 Chapeau Carr6, 246 Charaibes, see Caribs Charles Fort, Jamaica, 182 Charles I, King, 89, 239, 265 Charles II, King, 183, 300 Charles V, 425 Charles Square, 197 Charlestown, 326 Charlotte Amalia, 367, 370 Charlotte Fort, 82, 85 Charlotte Town, 249, 259 Charlotteville, 241 Chase Vault, the, 112 Chateaubelair, 291, 292 Chatoyer, 281 Chauncey, H., 429, 433 Cheere, John, 180 Cheere, Sir Henry, 108, 180 Cherry Tree Hill, 123 Chesapeake and Shannon, 67 Chicle, 149 Chinese Immigration, 45 Chinese Quarter, Georgetown, 140 Choiseul, Due de, 275 Choiseul, St. Lucia, 268, 275 Christ Church, Barbados, 99, 112 Christian V, 370 Christiansted, 374 Churches : All Saints, Barbados, 122 All Saints, Berbice, 141 Calabar, Kingston, 175 Cathedral, Antigua, 301 Cathedral, Barbados, 99, 112 Cathedral, Bermuda, 64 Cathedral, B. Guiana, 138 Cathedral, Cartagena, 421 Cathedral, Catholic, Dominica, 345 Cathedral, Havana, 394 Cathedral, Panama, 438 Cathedral, Santo Domingo, 414 Cathedral, Spanish Town, Jamaica, 188 Christ Church, Barbados, 100, 112 Coke Chapel, 175 Fig Tree, Nevis, 329 Churches — continued Greyfriars Presbyterian, Trinidad, 224 Holy Trinity Cathedral, Trinidad, 224 Holy Trinity, St. Lucia, 270 La Merced, Camaguey, 397 La Merced, Havana, 394 La Soled ad, 397 Middle Island, St. Kitts, 323 Parish Church, Falmouth, 193 Parish Church, Kingston, 172 Parish Church, Sav.-la-Mar, 195 R. Catholic Cathedral, B. Guiana, [39 MarR. Catholic Cathedral, tinique, 362 R. Catholic Cathedral, Roseau, 344 R. Catholic, St. Lucia, 270 R. Catholic Cathedral, Trinidad, 222 St. Andrew, Halfway Tree, 179 St. Andrew's, B. Guiana, 139 St. Anne's, St. Kitts, 322 St. Anthony's, Montserrat, 335 St. George's, Antigua, 307 St. George's, Barbados, 118 St. George's, B. Guiana, 138 St. George's, Dominica, 344 St. George's, Grenada, 256 St. George's, Kingstown, 175, 283 St. George's, Roseau, 344 St. George's, St. Kitts, 319 St. George's, St. Vincent, 283 St. James', Barbados, 121 St. James', Montego Bay, 195 St. John's, Barbados, 104 St. Mary's, Barbados, 97 St. Mary's, Montserrat, 335 St. Michael's, Jamaica, 175 St. Patrick, Montserrat, 335 St. Paul's, Antigua, 307 St. Paul's, Nevis, 326 St. Peter's, Bermuda, 73 St. Peter's, Jamaica, 183 St. Thomas', Nevis, 330 St. Thomas', St. Kitts, 323 San Felipe Neri, Panama, 438 San Jose", Panama, 438 San Pedro Claver, Cartagena, 421 Santa Ana, Panama, 438 Santa Catalina, Havana, 394 Santo Domingo, Havana, 394 Santo Domingo, Panama, 438

PAGE 583

INDEX 467 Churches — continued Scotch Kirk, Kingston, 175 Synagogue, Kingston, 175 Wesley, Kingston, 178 Churchill, J. S. 316, 334 Cibao, Santo Domingo, 414 Cienfuegos, 385, 396 Cinchona, 185 Circus, the, 317 City Commissioners' Offices, Trinidad, 224 Ciudad Bolivar, 221 Clarence Cove, 65 Clarence, Duke of, 305 Clarence Hill, 65 Clarence House, 305, 307 Clarendon Park, 165 Clarke, Mr. C. P., 101 Clarke, Sir Robert B., 112 Clarke, Sir Simon, 200 Claxton Bay, 219 Clifton, New Providence, 83 Climate (see under different places) Climate of West Indies, 4 Cobblers, the, in Cobre, Cuba, 398 Cobre, Rio, 157, 185 Cocal, the, 235 Coche, 425 Cochrane, Sir Alexander, 375 Cockburn Harbour, 205 Cockburn, SirF., 83 Cockburn, Sir J., 65 Cockpit Country, 197, 198 Cockpit River, 194 Cocktails, Recipe for, 9 Cocoa Industry, 451 Cocorico, 242 Cocorite, 228 Codrington, Christopher, 106 Codrington College, 106 Codrington Estate, 106 Codrington Family, 308 Codrington Village, 310 Coffee, Blue Mountain, 158 Coffey" rum still, 450 Coffin, Edward, 230 Coffin Mystery, Barbados, 112117 Cohune Ridges, 149 Colbeck Castle, 194 Colbeck, Colonel John, 189 Coleridge, Bishop, 107, 141 Cole's Cave, 1 19, 120 Cole, Tennyson, 175 College Estate, Barbados, 106 College, Jamaica, The, 183 Collet, W., 151 Colleton, Sir Peter, 104 Collings, Mr. Jesse, 169 Collins, Rev. William, 173 Colombia, Republic of, 429 Colomer, Mr. Joaquim, 232 Colon, 427, 432-434 Colon Breakwater, 419 Colon Cemetery, Cuba, 392 Colon Park, Cuba, 390 Colonial Hospital, St. Vincent, 284 Colonial Hospital, Trinidad, 228 Columbus, 77, 128, 150, 156, 159, 208, 214, 223, 248, 265, 270, 280, 29 6 > 3 J 43 2 5333. 339357. 3 68 3743 82 39i. 401, 410, 413, 424 bones of, 391, 394, 414 Diego, 160, 382 Square, St. Lucia, 270 Square, Trinidad, 222 Statues of, 83, 223, 424, 434 Comao, 402 Combermere, Lord, 113 Comins, Surgeon-Major, D.W.D., 45 Commerce Bight, 154 Committee, The West India, 107, 169, 285, 341, 458 Commonwealth and Antigua, 297 and Barbados, 90 Compagnie du Canal de Panama, ^ 43 Conceijo Municipal, 426 Conception, 248 Conchs, 7, 203 Conference, Brussels, 443 Conference Island, 246 Congress, Canal, Paris, 430 Conil, Mont, 360 Conquerabia, 222 Consett's Estate, 106 Constanza Valley, 414 Content Gap, 185 Contract System, Cocoa, 238 Convention, Brussels, 443 Cookman, Mr. N. G., 354 Cooper's Island, 56 "Copey,"396 Copper Wall, the 448 Corentyn River, the, 126 Corinth, Trinidad, 219 Cork, P. C, 267 Coropomeina, 424 Corvo, 33

PAGE 584

468 INDEX Cottage, Kingsley's, 226 Cottley, C. T. 99 Cotton Factory, Antigua, 303 Cotton Factory, Barbados, 100 Cotton Ginnery, St. Vincent, 286 Cotton Industry, 454 Cotton Tower, Barbados, 104 Country Club, Havana, 394 Courland, James, Duke of, 237, 240 Courlanders, 240 Courteen, Sir William, 89, 121 ' Court House Masonic Lodge, 301 Court House, St. Kitts, 318 Couva, 219 Couva River, 212 Cove, Don Christopher's, 192 Cowell's Battery, 372 Cox, Hon. Charles T., 316 Cracroft, Commodore Peter, 180 Cradwick, Mr. William, 454 Craig, Mr. Cunningham, 87, 237 Crane, the, no Crapaud, the, 8 Craskell, 185 Crawls," Turtle, 207 Creole," the term, 46 Cricket, see Sports "Cringle's Log, Tom," 174, 183, 185, 371 Cristobal, 433 Cristophe, 411,413 Crittenden, Col., 387 Cromwell, Oliver, 45, 160, 190 Crooked Island, 74 Crooked Island Passage, 74 Croquet, see Sports Cross, the Southern, 4 Cruces, 440 Cuba, 380-399 Climate, 382 Communication, Means of, 384 Constitution, 383 Financial Position, 381 General Aspect 380 History, 382 Hotels, 383 Industries of, 381 Principal Sights, 385 Provinces, 381 Cubagua, 425 Cul de Sac Bay, 266, 274 Cul de Sac River, 262 Cul de Sac Valley, 273, 274 Culebra Cut, 428, 435 Culebra Island, 427 Culebra, Porto Rico, 400 Culpepper's Island, 112 Cumberland Bay, 398 Cumberland, Earl of, 402 Cumuto, 219 Cuna-Cuna Road, 201 Cundall, Mr. Frank, 177, 192, 198 Cunningham, Craig, Mr., 87, 237 Cunupia, 219 Curacao, 378-379 Curios, 460 Customs, the, 39 Cuyuni River, the, 126 Da AG A, 230 Dabadie, 219 Dalling, Elizabeth, 180 Dalrymple, Major-General, 281 Danish W. I. and Guiana Co. 369 Darell, Rev. J. H., 289 Darien, 415, 428 d'Aubignd, Francoise, 361 D'Aumale, Due, 188 Dauntless Island, 143 Davers, Admiral, 180 Davidson-Houston, Lt. -Col. W.B. 334 Davis, C.M.G., Mr. N. Darnell, 101 Davison, Newman & Co., 459 Davis, Rt. Rev. Daniel G. 326 Davson, the late Sir Henry K., 142 Dawlish Bounce, no Deane, Richard, 121 de Avila, P. A. 429 D6be\ 219 de Bellair, M. 255 de Bouille\ Marquis, 240, 272, 320, 3 2I > 3 2 S> 34. 378 de Caillus, M. 256 de Cerillac, Count, 249 Deck Chairs, 30 De Crespigny, Augustus J., 183 Deep Bay, Antigua, 300 St. Kitts, 322 de Espade, Don, J. J. D. 392 Defoe, 237 De Grasse, Count, 187, 266, 315, 318, 320, 340, 348, 359 De Guichen, 350 De Lesseps, 430 Del Garno, Captain, 307 Deliverance, 62 Demerara, Colony of, 129 Demerara Railway Co., the, 131 Demerara River, the, 126, 143

PAGE 585

INDEX 469 Denmark Fort, 122 Denmark, King of, 369 Dennery, 273 Dennery Factory, the, 274 D'Ennery, Governor, 273 de Ojeda, A. 428 de Oruna, St. Josef, 214 de Orufia, Don Jose\ 230 de Ponti, 416 Department of Agriculture, the Imperial* 285, 458 de Pass, E. A., 168 Degrade, la, 359 D'Esnambuc, 248, 272, 296, 314 Desolation," Valley of, 347 Dessalines, General, 411 d'Estaing, Count, 249, 257, 266, 272, 273. 274 D'Estrees, Count, 265 Deveaux, Colonel, 78, 84 Devil's Bridge, 308 Devil's Hole, 69 Devil's Woodyard," the, 234 Diablo Mount, 193 Diablotin, Morne, 336 Diademe, the, 349 Diamant, Pointe du, 277 Diamond Rock, the, 277, 366 Diego Columbus, 160, 382 Diego Velasquez, 382 Diego Martin, 228 Dieppe Bay, 322 Dillon, Count, 249 Direct W. I. Cable Co., 40 Distances, tables of, 38, 39 Doctor's Cave, 196 Doctor," the, 170 Dod's Reformatory, 112 Dog hutch," 13 Dogs, the, 331 Dollars and Sterling Tables, end of book Dome, the, Montego Bay, 197 Dominica, 336-351 Climate, 339 Club, 343 Communication, Means of, 342 Constitution, 341 Financial Position, 339 General Aspect, 336 History, 339 Hotels, 341 Industries, 337 Principal Sights, 343 Sports, 343 Don Christopher's Cove, 192 Dorsetshire Hill, 292 Doubloons, 10 Dougaldston, 255 Dougal, Mr. R. 309 Dow's Hill, 304 Doyley, Colonel, 190, 192 Dragon's Mouths, 211 Drake, Sir Francis, 42,351, 402,416, 418, 420, 424 Drake's Channel, Sir Francis, 35i Drake's Spit, 420 Drayton, Edward, 341 Drip Stone, Barbados, 8 Drummer, 168 Drummond, Colonel, 266 Dry Harbour, 167, 192 du Casse, Monsieur, 173 Ducking Stool, 68 Dudley, Lord, 169 Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 34i Dulcina, 294 Dundas, Governor, 283 Dunlop, Brigadier-General, 307 Dunmore, Lord, 8a, 84 Dunscombe Gully, 123 Du Parquet, 248, 249 D' Urban, Sir B., 135 Durham, Dean of, 100 "Dust," May, 86,291 Du Tertre, 260 Duvalle\ 281 D'Warris, Dr., 174 Eagle House, 190 Earl, Mr. R. S., 354 Earthquake, Jamaica, 1907, 169, Port Royal, 1692, 180 East Coast, Trinidad, 235 East Indian Immigration, 44 Eau de Dole, 359 Edinboro' Bay, 287 Edinburgh, Duke of, 63, 82, 123, 228, 270 Edward, King, 179, 225, 226 Edwards, Bryan, 180, 192, 255 Effingham, Earl and Countess of, 189 Egerton, Lady, 139 Egerton, Sir W., 130 Eight, Pieces of, 10 El Caney, 397 El Cayo, 153

PAGE 586

47 INDEX El Dorado, the, 129 Electric Co., the Trinidad, 217 Electric Co., Ltd., the W. I., 164 Eleuthera, 74, 84 Elgin, Lady, 189 Elizabeth, Queen, 416 Elliot, Capt. Charles, 64 El Templete, 391 El Tucuche,2i2 El Yunque, 400 Ernes, Lt. -Col., 344 English Caye, 154 English Harbour, 294, 304-307 Enriquillo Lake, 414 Episcopal Palace, Panama, 439 Erin, 220 Espagnola, see Haiti Espagnole Point, 281 Esquemeling, 440 Esquimel, 160 Essequibo, Colony of, 129 Essequibo River, the, 126, 143 Essex Regt.'s Mount, 66 Estremadura, 35', Estridge Estate, 322 Etaballi Falls, 143 Etang, the Grand, 245, 258 Eugenie, Empress, 434 Everard, Mount, 144 Ewarton, 166, 192, 193 Exhibition Committees, Permanent, 458 Expenses, 10 Express Letters, 41 Exuma, 74 Exuma Cays, the, 85 Fahie, Commodore, 306 Falernum, 9 Fallen Jerusalem, 352 Falmouth, 167, 193, 200 Falmouth Harbour, 294, 304 Farfan Tomb, 231 Farley Hill, 123 Farquharson, General, 271 Favourite, H.M.S., 305 Fayal, 33 F6don, Julien, 247, 249, 258 F6don, Morne, 258 F&don's Camp, 259 Fer-de-Lance," the, 276, 460 Ferdinand and Isabella, 382, 406 Ferguson, Mr., 226 Fergusson, Sir James, 180 Fernando VII, 392 Fern Caves, 70 Fern Gully, 192, 193 Ferret, the, 178 Ferry Boats in B. Guiana, 133 Ferry, Iron, the, 185 Field, Bishop, 65 Fig Tree Hill, 304 Fincastle Fort, 84 Fitton, Lieut. Michael, 177 Five Islands Bay, Antigua, 297 Five Islands, Trinidad, 218, 228, 236 Flamenco Island, 427 Flatt's Village, 63, 68 Flaxman, 170, 200 Flibustiers, 160 Floating Dock, Bermuda, 66 Floating Dock, the Trinidad, 236 Floating Dock, St. Thomas, 370 Flores, 33 Florida, 1, 385 Flushing, Zeelanders from, 239 Flying Fish, 6, 34, 109 Flying Fish Fleet, 109 Fogo, Lake, 33 Folly, the, 228 Food, 6 Foraker Bill, 403 Formidable, the, 188, 349 Fort de France, 360, 362 Fort Royal, 362 Fort Royal Bay, 349 Fort Royal, Grenada, 255 Forts : Amsterdam, Curacao, 379 Augusta, Jamaica, 168 Bairington, Antigua, 300 Barrington, Montserrat, 336 Catherine, Bermuda, 62 Charles, Jamaica, 182 Charlotte, Bahamas, 82, 85 Charlotte, St. Vincent, 279, 288 Charlotte, Virgin Islands, 355 Cunningham, Bermuda, 71 Denmark, Barbados, 122 Dundas, Jamaica, 192 Duvernette, St. Vincent, 287 Fincastle, Bahamas, 84 Fuerza, La, Cuba, 391 George, Grenada, 254, 256 George, Trinidad, 229 Goat Hill, Antigua, 299 Great George, Antigua, 304 Henderson, Jamaica, 168 James, Antigua, 300

PAGE 587

INDEX 47i Forts — continued Kendal, Barbados, 117 King George, Tobago, 242 Matthew, Grenada, 258 Maycock's Barbados, 124 Morro, Havana, 386 Porto Rico, 406 Santiago, 397 Santa Marta, 424 Old, Bahamas, 83 Punta, la, Cuba, 387 Rock, Jamaica, 200 Saint George, Montserrat, 336 San Fernando, Cartagena, 420 San Jose\ Cartagena, 420 William, Frederick, B. Guiana, 136, 139 Windsor, Jamaica, 192 Young, Dominica, 345 Forties," the Roaring," 33 Fortune, Morne, 266, 269, 271 Foster, Mr. of Cuba, 385 Foudroyant, 304 Fountain Garden, Barbados, 99 Four Paths, 165 Fowle, Dr. W. 196 Fraser, General, 320, 321 Fraser, John, 178 Fraser, John Foster, 436 Fredericksted, 374 Freeman, Captain, 365 Freeman, Humphrey, 189 Freemasonry, 47 French W. L Company, 249, 265 Frenchmen's Hill, 370 Freshwater Bay, 87 Freshwater Lake, 346 Friar's Hill, 308 Friendly Hall Estate, 100 Frigate Bay, 321 Frigate Island, 246 Frijoles, 435 Froude, J. A. 283 Fruits, W.I., 7 Fuerza, La, 391 Furnas, 33 Gage's Soufriere, 335 Galdy, Lewis, 182 Galeota Cape, 214 Galera, la, 214 Gallows Island, 68 Gallow's Point, 183 Ganson, W. 424 Garcia, 383 Gaspar Grande, 220, 236 Gasparee, 218, 236 Gatun, 434 Gatun Dam, 432, 435 Geary, Sir H. L. 60 Geflowski, 175 Geology, 2 George I, King, 265,281 II, King, 287 III, King, 82, 284, 287 V, King, 84, 108, 232, 234, 285, 272, 307 Georgetown, British Guiana, 136 Cayman, 207 St. Vincent, 292 Gibbs Hill, 68 Gibraltar Rock, 190 Gilbert, Mr. and Mrs., 302 Gillespie Bros, and Co., 327 Gill, Thomas, 99 Glasgow Sailings, 18 Glorieux, the, 350 Glover Island, 246 Goat Hill, 300 Goat Hill Fort, 299 Goat Island, 243 Godets, 56 Goff s Cayo, 154 Gold, 127 Golden Grove, 201 Golden Rock, 378 Goldsworthy Road, 273, 274 Golf," Court," 80 Gomez, 383 Goodsonn, Vice-Admiral, 190 Gorda Sound, 352 Gordon Gordon, W., 226 Gordon, Hon. Alex., 335 Gordon, Sir Arthur, 226 Gordon Town, 184 Gouyave, 246, 252, 255, 259 Government Buildings, Grenada, 255 Kingston, Jamaica, 172 Panama, 439 Spanish Town, Jamaica, 185 Government House : Antigua, 303 Barbados, 101 Belize, 153 British Guiana, 1:38 Grenada, 257 Nassau, 83 St. Kitts, 318 St. Lucia, 270

PAGE 588

472 INDEX Government House — continued St. Vincent, 283 Tobago, 243 Trinidad, 226 Government Offices, St. Vincent, 283 Graciosa, 33 Granada, New, 416, 429 Grand Ance Bay, 257 Grand Bahama, 76 Grand Carenage, 261 Grand Etang, the, 245, 258 Grand Pauvre, 259 Grande Riviere, 220 Grande Terre, Guadeloupe, 356 Grange Lane, 165 Grant, Sir John P. 169, 177 Grappler, 365 Grassy Bay, 56, 63 Graves, Admiral, 350 Greater Antilles, 1 Great George Fort, 304 Great Lodge of St. John's," 301 Great River, 197 Green Bay, 182 Greenheart Camp, 143 Green Hole, the, 255 Green Island, 246 Greenvale, 165 Greenwood, Capt. J., 210 Gregory Park, 165 Grenada, 245-261 Climate, 248 Clubs, 254 Communication, Means of, 251 Constitution, 250 Financial Position, 247 General Aspect, 245 History, 248 Hotels, 251 Industries, 246 Parishes, 246 Post Office, 255 Principal Sights, 254 Sports, 252 Grenade Hall, 123 Grenadines, the, 246, 279, 289 Grenville, 246, 249, 252, 260 Grenville Biy, 246, 260 Grenville, Lord, 43 Grenville, Sir Richard, 33 Grey, Sir Charles, 272 Grey, Sir Edward, 444 GreyWilson, Sir W., 79, 81 Griffiths, T. Risely, 316 Groo-groo worms, 8 Gros Islet, 262, 274 Gros Islet Bay, 266, 274 Gros Piton, the, 262, 275 Grouper, 6, 242 Groupers Grotto, 69 Guadeloupe, 356-359 Climate, 357 Clubs, 358 Communication, Means of, 358 Constitution, 357 Financial Position, 357 General Aspect, 356 History, 357 Hotels, 358 Industries, 356 Principal Sights, 358 Sports, 358 Guaico, ^219 Guanajay, 385 Guanapo, 219 Guantanamo, 385, 398 Guava ridge, 184 Guayaguayare, 220, 235 Guayaguayare Oil Fields, 235 Guayama, 403, 404, 405 Gu6rin Estate, 364 Guiana," Discoverie of," 129 Guines, 385 Gui'nes River, 385 Guira, 396 Gulf weed, 34 Gullies, Barbados, 118 Gully, Dunscombe, 123 Gully, Fern, 192, 193 Gully, Porey Spring, 123 Gun Hill, 118 Gun-pits, St. Lucia, the, 273 Gunthorpe's factory, 303, 307 Gurney, Hon. F., 247 Gustavia, 359 Habana, la, 391 Hackleton's Cliff, 105 Haddon Smith, G. B., 79 Haenke, 136 Haiti, 408-414 Climate, 410 Communication, Means of, 412 Constitution, 412 Financial Position, 409 General Aspect, 408 History, 410 Hotels, 412 Industries, 409

PAGE 589

INDEX 473 Haiti — continued Principal Sights, 413 Haitien, Cape, 413 Hakewill, 196, 199 Hakluyt, 352 Halfway Tree, 179 Halkett, Governor, 83 Hamilton, Alexander, 326 Hamilton Almshouse, 256 Hamilton, Bermuda, 63 Hamilton, General, 315 Hamilton, Gov. H., 63 Hampstead, Dominica, 342 Hangman's Bay, 124 Harbour Head, 200 Harbour Island, 74, 84 Harcourt, Robert, 328 Hardwar Gap, 184 Harewood, the Earl of, 99 Harrington Sound, 69 Harrison College, 101 Harris village, 335 Hartlands, 165 Harvey, Admiral, 215, 402 Hastings Rocks, 103 Havana, 382, 385 Havana Harbour, 383, 385 Hawkins, Sir John, 42, 402, 418 Hay, Sir James S., 91 Haynes, Mr. Robert T., 105 Haynes-Smith, Sir William, 79, 319, 345 Headquarters House, 175 Health, 5 Healthshire Hills, 168 Heath, Josiah, 104 Heinrich, 402 Hemming, Sir A. W. L. 130, 161 Henriques, R. 175 Heredia, P. de, 419 Herschel, A. E. 176 Hibbert, Thos. 176 High North, 246, 261 Higuey, 414 Hillaby, Mount, 86 Hill, Robert T., 380 Hill, Sir Dudley, 275 Hillsborough, 261 Hime, Lt., 70 Hirst, Dr. G. B., 208 Hislop, Gov. 229 Hispaniola, 410 Hobson, Lieut., 383, 397 Hodges, John, 193 Hodgson, Sir F. M., 91, 130, 142 Hog Island, 246 Hog Island, Bahamas, 80, 81, 85 Holetown, 89, 121 Holland Bay, 201 Holly mount House, 162, 193 Holmes, RearAdmiral C, 180 Holmes, Sir Robert, 300 Home, Ninian, 249, 258 Homeward Voyage, the, 460 Hood, Commodore, 277 Hood, Sir Samuel, 240, 315, 318, 3 2 > 349 Hope Bay, 166 Hope Gardens, 183 Hope River, 200 Hospital Hill, 249, 257 Houel, 265 Houston Avenue, 140 Howard, W. M., 99 Huevos, 211 Huggins, H. C. 330 Huggins, Hon. P. T., 326, 327, 330 Hugues, Victor, 249, 258, 266 Humboldt, 395, 422 Hurricanes, 4, 5 IAMBOU, 283 Icacos, 218 Iguana, the, 8 Immigration, East India, 44 Imperial Department of Agriculture, 285, 458 Imperial Road, the, 337, 348 Imray, Dr. John, 338, 344, 345 Imray Memorial School, 344 im Thurn, Sir Ed., 144, 145, 146 Inagua, 74 Inchiquin, Earl of, 189, 190 Indentured Immigration, 44 Indian Warner, 307 India Park, la, Cuba, 390 Industries, 442-457 Balata, 127, 456 Banana, 452 Cocoa, 451 Cotton, 454 Gold, 127 Nutmeg, 247, 261 Pen-keeping, 158 Rubber, 456 Rum, 449 Salt, 202 Sponge, 75, 202 Spice, 247, 261 Sugar, 442

PAGE 590

474 INDEX Ingram, Sir William, 243 Inquisition, House of the, 421 Institute of Jamaica, the, 176 Instituto, Nacional, 440 Intendencia," the, 406 Ipswich, 164, 165, 195 Ireland Island, 55, 66 Ireng River, 126 Isabella, Queen, 156, 382, 406 Isle de Caille, 246 Islet Ronde, 246 Ituribsce Lake, 142 Jack Adam Island, 246 Jackson, Bishop, 301 Jackson, Colonel, 160 Jackson, Sir H. M., 216, 298 Jacques, John, 174 Jamaica, 156-201 Arms of, 189 Climate, 159 Club, 168, 178 Communication, Means of, 163 Constitution, 161 Counties of, 157 Financial Position, 158 General Aspect, 156 History, 159 Hotels, 161 Industries, 157 Principal Sights, 168 Sports, 167 Jamaica College, 183 Jamaica Institute, 176 Jamaica Tourists Assn., 172 James I, King, 89, 99, 121 Jamestown, 89, 121 Jarabacoa, 414 Jaruco, 395 Jarvis, T. L. H., 354 Jasper Hall, 176 Jenman, Mr. G. S. 140 Jerningham, Sir H. E. H., 216 Jerningham Junction, 219 Jervis, Admiral, 266, 272 Jews' Burial Ground, 330 John Brewer's Bay, 372 John's Hall Dam, 197 Jones, Bishop, 64 Jones, Mrs. Woodgate, 138 Jones, Sir Alfred, 169 Jordan, Edward, 175 Joseph, Mr. E. L., 215, 230 Josephine, Empress, 361, 362 jost van Dyke, 351 Joyce's Caves, 69 Juana," or Cuba, 382 Judge's, 308 Judlee, Captain, 265 Kaieteur Fall, 144-147 Kangaruma, 146 Kartabo, 144 Keane, Sir John, 193 Keith, Sir Basil, 189 Kempe, 284 Kendal, 165 Kendal Fort, 117 Kent, Duke of, 266, 271 Kerr, John E., 197 Kerr, Mrs. S. N., 196 Kick-em-Jenny," 246 Kill-devil, 450 King's House, Jamaica, 180 King's House, Spanish Town, 185 Kingsley, Charles, 31, 108, 215, 226, 424 Kingston Harbour, 157, 168 Kingston, Jamaica, 157, 165, 166, 167, 168-179 Kingstown, St. Vincent, 283 Kingstown Waterworks, 292 King Street, 170 Kirvan, Patrick, 302 Kitchener, Gen. F. W., 6o, 72 Kitchin, G. H., 100 Kitty Plantation, 139 Knollys, Sir C. C, 298 Knowles, Admiral Charles, 197 Koriabo, 144 Krum Bay, 372 Kuribrong river, 126 Kyk-over-al," 129, 144 Labat, Pere, 343 La Baye, see Grenville Labba, 8 Laborie, 268, 275 Laborie, Baron de, 266, 275 La Brea, 214, 218, 234 L'Abys, 346 Lacombe Piton, 273 La De'sirade, 359 Laffan, Sir R.,65 Laffoon Family, the, 335 La Fortune Estate, 249 La Fortunee Estate, 233 La Fuerza, 391 La Galera, 214 La Garza, 58

PAGE 591

INDEX 475 Lagoon," the, 254 Lagoons, Curacao, 379 La Grange," 341 La Grange, General, 340 La Guaira, 415, 426 La Guerite Estate, 319 Laguna Grande, 425 Laidlaw, Hon. James, 344 Laing, Malcolm, 174 Lake, Captain, 352 Lake, Captain Jacob, 330 Lamaha Canal, 136 Lampsius, Cornelius, 240 Lancashire Estate, 348 Langford's, 308 Langley, Major John, 344 Language, 49 L'Anse Citron, 275 Large Island, 246 La Romana, 414 Las Casas, 382 Laudat, 347 Laundry, 49 Laurel Ditch, the, 387 Lavington, Ralph, Lord, 302, 303 Law Courts, Victoria, 138 Lawes, Hon. James, 180 Lawn-Tennis, see Sports Lawrence, Capt. 67 Lawrence, James, 197 Lawrence, W. F,, 196 Layou, St. Vincent, 283 Flats, Dominica, 337 River, 337 L'Echelle, 356 Leclerc, General, 411 Le Compte, 260 Leeward Islands, 1, 2, 294-351 Leguan, 142, 143 Le Hunte, Sir George R., 216, 341 Leigh, Amy as, 424 Leigh, Sir Oliph, 89 Leper Asylum, St. Kitts, 323 Lesser Antilles, 1 Les Tantes, 246 Levera Island, 246, 260 Lewis, Galdy, 182 Lewis Gully, 119 Lewis, Monk, 35 Leyborne, Governor, 284 Liamuiga or St. Kitts, 314 Library, Free, Barbados, 100 Dominica, 343 Public, Bahamas, 82 Public, Bermuda, 64 Libraries — continued Public, B. Guiana, 137 Public, Grenada, 255 Public, Trinidad; 224 St. Kitts, 318 St. Vincent, 283 Lightbourn, Mr. John N., 372 Lignum Vitae, 158 Liguanea, 169 Lilly, Col. Christian, 172 Lily, Victoria Regia, 136 Lime, the, 371 Limes, 126, 263, 332, 338 Linstead, 164 Lion, Col. Wilkinson's, 118 Lipscomb, Bishop Christopher, 180 Liverpool, Sailings from, 16 Llewelyn, Sir Robert, 250 Lloyd, Mr. C. A., 148 Lockhart. Mr. David, 226 Log," "Tom Cringle's," 174, 183, Logwood, 149, 158 Loiza, R., 400 Lombadas, 33 Lompre", Mr., 276 London, Sailings from, 17 Long Bay Castle, no Long Bird Island, 70 Long Cay, 74 Long (Historian), 186 Long Island, 74 Long, see Main Island Long Mountain, the, 168 Long, Samuel, 189 Longdenville, 219 Lopez, 387 Lord's Castle, no Loubiere, Bar gate of, 346 Louis XIV, 361 XV, 188, 349 XVI, 275 L'Ouverture Toussaint, 411 Lovers' Walk, the, 287 Lowendahl, 272 Low Point, 287, 289 Lowman's Village, 287 Lubbock, Sir Nevile, 233 Lucas, Hon. Nathan, 113 Hon. William, 258 Lucayans. the, tj Lucea, 164, 167, 200 Lynch, Hon. J. B. A., 99 Sir Thomas, 189 Lyon, Sir James, 99, 102

PAGE 592

476 INDEX Lyttelton, Governor William H., 186 Lyttelton, Sir Charles, 190 Mabpuya Island, 246 Mabouya Valley, 273, 274 Macartney, Sir George, 257 Maces, 383 Maces, Jamaica, 176 Macfarquhar, Dr. George, 196 Mackay, Mr. A. R. Macqueripe Bay, 226 Macusis, 42 ' Madre de Cacao," 232 Madrid, Treaty of, 160 Madraga, 385, 395 Mafolie, 370 ' Magnificent Province," the, 148, Mahaica, 132 Mahan, Captain, 3x5, 427 Mahaut, 342 Mahogany Camps, 153 Maine, the, 383, 389 Maintenon, Madame de, 361 Main Island, 55, 58 Maisi, Cape, 408 Malaria, 6 Malecon de las Bovedas, 439 Malecon, the Havana, 387 Malecon, the Panama, 439 Maling, Captain I. C, 282 Mallali, 143 Malta, Knights of, 375 Malvern, 162,194 Mamatoco, 425 Manatee, 154 Manati River, 400 Manchioneal, 201 Manchineel trees, 305 Mandeville, 162, 194 Mangoes, 7 Mangrove Bay, 66 Mangrove Lagoon, 372 Manjak Mines, 235 Manning, Edward, 174 Manning, Sir W., 161 179 Manoa, 129 Man-o'-War Bay, 241 Manteca" Bay, 195 Manzanilla, 220 Manzanillo Bay, 408 Manzanillo Island, 432 Maracas Fall, the, 230 Maran Bay, 250 Maraval, 228 Marble Hill, 307 Margarita, 425 Marianao, 385, 394 Marie Galante, 359 Marigot, Dominica, 342, 350 Marigot, St. Martin, 375 Marine Square, 222 Maritz, Jean, 188 Market, Barbados, 97 Dominica, 344 Stabroek, 131 St. George's, 256 St. Vincent, 287 Markham, Sir Clements, 350 Marlborough, the Earl of, 89 Marley Castle, 197 Maroons, 160, 197, 198 Maroon Town, 197 Marquis Island, 246 Marriaqua, 293 Marr, Sir H., 83 Marryat, Captain, 256 Marshall, Nathan, 350 Martha Brae River, 157 Marti, Jose" 383, 390 Martinique 360-386 Climate, 361 Communication, Means of, 362 Constitution, 361 Financial Position, 360 General Aspect, 360 History, 361 Hotels, 362 Industries, 360 Principal Sights, 362 Martinique, Petit, 246 Mason Hall, 243 Masonic Hall, Bermuda, 64 Masonic Temple, Kingston, 178 Massecuite, 449 Matanzas, 385, 394 Matelot, 220 Mat ope Falls, 144 Mathew, Governor, 300 Matthew, Governor, 305 Maurice, Lieut. J. W., 277 Mavis Bank, 184 M-iyabeque River, 385 Mayaguana, 74 Mayagiiez, 400, 403 Mayaro, 220 May Dust," 86, 291 May, Henry, 58 May Pen, 165, 193 May, Rev. William, 174

PAGE 593

INDEX 477 Maycock's Fort, 12 Mayreau, 279 Mazan, Don Jose\ 232 Mazaruni River, the, 126, 129, 139 McConnell, Mr. F. V., 148 Meadows, General, 272, 273 Meals, 9 Mechanics' Hall, Bermuda, 65 Medical Service, 5 Megass, 449 Melville, Governor Robert, 255 Melville, Sir George, 267 Merchants' Exchange, 171 Merri field, Ralph, 314 Merrimac, 383, 397 Merwar's Hope, 314 Mesopotamia Valley, 293 Messervy, C. 271 Meues, see Nevis Metcalfe, Sir C. 170, 184, 193 Michael Scott, 176 Mico College, 179 Mico College, Old, 169 Micoud, 276 Micoud, Baron de, 276 Middle Ground, 304 Middle Island, St. Kitts, 323 Middle Road, Bermuda, 69 ' Midge," "Cruise of the," 176 Miles, General, 402 Military Road, Porto Rico, 403, 407 Militiamen, "White, 45 Milk River, 162, 194 Millar's, 307 Milo, 413 Mineral Springs : Guadeloupe, 359 Jamaica, 194, 200 Nevis, 327 Miraflores, 428, 436 Misery, Mount, 312, 321 Mission, the, 234 Modeste," le, 188 Modyford, Sir Thomas, 189 Molascuit, 126 Mole, St. Nicholas, 408 Mole, the, Barbados, 87 Molyneux Estate, 322 Moloney, Sir C. A., 216, 226, 250 Monckton, General, 266, 281 Mona Passage, 399, 400, 408 Moneague, 163, 192, 193 Money.. 10 Money Orders, 41 Monkey Hill, 321, 434 Monk's Hill, 304 Monos, 211, 218, 236 Montague, Duke of, 84, 265, 281 Montagu Fort, 184 Montego Bay, 163, 164, 165, 167, 191, 195 Monte Lirio, 435 Montgomery, Earl of, 239 Montpelier, Jamaica, 163, 164, 165, I95> J 97 Montpelier, Nevis, 329 Montserrat, 332-338 Climate, 333 Communication, Means of, 334 Constitution, 334 Financial Position, 333 General Aspect, 332 History, 333 Hotels, 334 Industries, 332 Principal Sights, 334 Sports, 334 Montserrate, Hermitage of, 394 Montserrat, Notre Dame de, 232 Montserrat, Trinidad, 232 Moore, Governor, 72 Moore, Lt.-Gov. Henry, 185 Moore, Sir John, 266, 272 Moore Town, Bermuda, 70 Moore Town, Jamaica, 191, 201 Morant Bay, 167, 200 Morant Cays, 156, 209 Morant Point, 201 Morawhanna, 144 Morawhanna Passage, 144 Morgan, Colonel, 314 Morgan, Sir H., 314, 419, 437, 440 Moriah, 238 Morne, Bruce, 345 Morne," Meaning of, 269 Morne, Nicholls, 347 Morris, Sir Daniel, 256 Morro Castle, the, Havana, 386 Morro Castle, San Juan, 406 Morro Castle, the, Santiago, 397 Morro, Santa Marta, 424 Moruga, 214, 220 Moskito Bay, 372 Mosquito, Anopheles, 6 Mosquito, Stegomyia, 6 Motoring, 12 Mount Diablo, 193 Mount Everard, 144 Mount Hillaby, 87 Mount Hope, 434

PAGE 594

478 INDEX Mount Langton, 63, 65 Mount Rich, 260 Mount Sage, 351 Mud Volcanoes, the, 233 Mulberry Garden, the, 190 Muralla de les Bovedas, 422 Murray Anchorage, 62 Murray, Hon. C. Gideon, 282 Murray, John, see Dunmore, Earl of Muscovado Sugar Manufacture, 447 Museo Boliviano, 426 Museum, Bermuda, 65 Museum, B. Guiana, 137 Museum, United Service, 178, 350 Musgrave, Mrs., 303 Mustique, 279 Mutiny at St. Joseph, 230 Myranda Hill, 195 Nancy, the brig, 177 Naos Island, 427 Naparima, 233 Napoleon Bonaparte, 411, 443 Narrows, the Bermuda, 56, 62 Narrows, the, St. Kitts, 312 Nassau, Bahamas, 80 Nassau, Berbice, 141 Navy Island, 191 Needham's Point, 96 Nelson, Lord, 97, 100, 182, 183, 304 30S. 329. 33o Nelson's Marriage, 329 Nelson's Quarter Deck, 182 Nelson's Watering-place, 330 Neptune's Grotto, 69 Nevis, 324-331 Climate, 324 Communication, Means of, 325 Constitution, 325 General Aspect, 324 History, 325 Hotels, 325 Industries, 324 Principal Sights, 326 Sports, 326 Nevis, Mount, 331 New Amsterdam, 141 Newcastle, 184 New Culebra, 435 New Granada, 416, 429 New Providence, 74, 75, 80 New York, Sailings from, 21 Nicaraguan Canal, 429, .430 Nicholls, Dr. H. A. A, 339, 347 Nicholson, Sir C, 172, 180 Nicolay, William F. S., 344 Nicuessa, D. de, 416, 428 Nipe Bay, 398 Nisbet, Mrs. F. H., 329 Nisky, 371, 372 Nombre de dios, 416, 418 Nonsuch Island, 56 Norman Island, 355 North Rock, 62 North Shore Road, 68 NorthWest District, the, 144 Nova Scotia, Bank of, n Nova Scotia, Maroons in, 160 Nueva Andalucia, 415, 428 Nueva Gerona, 399 Nugent, Lady, 185 Obispo Street, Havana, 391 Ocho Rios, 167, 192 Odley, Mrs. Elizabeth, 302 O'Donnell Lighthouse, 386 Ogston, Maurice, 230 Oilfields, Guayaguayare, 235 Oistin's Town, 117 Old Fort, 83 Old Harbour, 165, 194 Old Jerusalem, 352 Oldmixon, 346 Old Road, 323 Oliph Blossome, the, 89, 121, 265 Olivier, Sir Sydney, 161, 172 Qmai, 144 O'Neil, General, 151 Oracabessa, 192 Orange Bay, 166 Orange, Prince of, 315 Oranges, 7 Orange Town, 377 Ordnance Island, 71 Oregon, the, 430 O'Reilly, General, 391 O'Reilly Street, Havana, 391 Orinoco, the, 128, 220 Oropouche River, 212 Ortoire River, 212 Otaheite, 285 Otley Hall Estate, 288 Otrabanda, 379 Outfit, 28 Ouvernard, Madame, 343 Ovanda, N. de, 402 Oxford Caves, the, 194 Oxford Point, 66 Oysters, Tree, 7

PAGE 595

INDEX Pacific, Discovery of the, 429 Pagerie, la, Estate, 362 Pagerie, M. de la, 361 Paget's Island, 71 Pagoua River, 337 Painton, Captain Thomas, 314 Pakatuk Falls, 126 Palacio Federal, 426 Palacio Municipal, Panama, 439 Paleologus, Ferdinando, 105 Palgrave, William Gifford, 337, 347 Palisadoes, the, 157, 168, 183 Pall Mall Square, 318 Palmer, Hon. John, 196, 199 Palmer, Mrs. Rosa, 196, 199 Palmiste, Grenada, 250 Palmyra, 199 Panama, 427-441 Canal, the, 427, 430, 434-437 City of, 437-441 Co. the New, 430 Communication, Means of, 431 History of, 428 Hotels, 431 Old City of, the, 440 Principal Sights, 432 Province of, 427 Railroad, 431 Republic of, 427 Panteon National, 426 Papain, 333 Papiamento," 379 Paraclete Estate, 249 Parade Garden, 175 Parade, the, Montego Bay, 197 Paradise, Birds of, 243 Parcel Post, 41 Parham, 307 Parham Harbour, 294 Parham Masonic Lodge, 301 Paria, Gulf of, 211, 214 Parika, 131, 132 Paris, Treaty of, 266, 340, 382, 383 Parke, Colonel, 297, 301 Par la ville, 65 Parry, Bishop, 270 Paso Real, 396 Passports, 30 Patience, 62 Paynter's Hill, 70 Paynter's Vale, 70 Pearl, the, 371 Pedro Cays, 156, 209 Pedro Miguel, 428, 436 Peere, Van, 129 479 Pegasus, the, 305 Pele\ Eruption of, 363 Pele\ Mont, 5, 289, 360, 363 Pelican Island, 96 Peniston's Pond, 72 Pen-keeping, 158 Penn, Admiral, 160, 192 Pepper pot," 7, 8 Perdrix, H.M.S., 305, 306 Pere Labat, 344 Perico Island, 427 Permanent Exhibition Committees, „ 458 Peru, Trinidad, 229 Peschier Cemetery, the, 225 Peten, 153 Peter's Island, 351 Peter's Mine, 144 Peterson, Lieutenant, 305 Potion, 411 Petit Bordel, 283, 293 Petit Martinique, 246 Petit Piton, the, 262, 275 Petit Tobago, 246 Petit Trous Beach, 243 Philippsburg, 376 Phillipps, Captain Samuel, 174 Photography, 30 Physicians, 5 Piccadilly, 307 PicheV' 214 Pico, 33 Pico do Lima, 33 Pico do Salomao, 33 Picton, 215 Pieces of Eight, 10 Pigeon Hill, 237 Pigeon Island, 263, 274, 349 Pile, Hon. A. J. 99 Pilet District, St. Lucia, 273 Pilgrim, Dr. Graham, 122 Pilot Hill, 260 Pimento, or Allspice, 158 Pimento dram, 9 Pinar del Rio, 385, 396 Pinder, Rev. J. H., 107 Pineapples, 7 Pine, R. E., 188 Pine Ridge, 149 Pines, Isle of, 382, 399 Pinzon, 129 Pitcairn Island, 285 Pitch Lake, the, 214, 218, 234 Piton Flor, 274 Piton Lacombe 273,

PAGE 596

480 INDEX Pitons, the, 198, 262, 275 Pitons, Trois, 273 Pitt, Hon. Charles, 307 Pi y Margall Street, Havana, 391 Placer" washing, 127 Plaisance, 141 Plantain Garden River, 157 Plata, de la, R., 400 Play a, 407 Plaza, Cristobal, 406 Plaza de Armas, 391 Plaza de la Independencia, 438 Plum Point, 35 Plymouth, Montserrat, 334 Plymouth, Tobago, 238 Po'cock, Sir George, 382, 386 Pointe a Pierre, 219 Pointe a Pitre, 356 Pointe Michel, 342, 348 Point Galera, 237 Point Mulatre, 342 Point Petit, 237 Point Salines, 260 Police Barracks, Trinidad, 224 Polignac, Prince, 292 Polk, President, 382 Pollards, 330 Polo, 95, 102, 167 Pomeroon, the, 142 Ponce, 400, 403, 404, 407 Ponce de Leon, 402, 406 Ponce de Leon, Castle of, 406 Ponta Delgada, 33 Popa, the, 419, 422 Population, 42 Porey Spring, 123 Port Antonio, 163, 166 167, 191, 201 Port Kingston, R.M.S., 169 Port Louis, 254 Port Maria, 167, 192 Port Morant, 167 Port of Spain, 212, 222 Porter, Neale, 334 Porter's Wood, 121 Portland Cave, 194 Portland, Duke of, 191 Portland Ridge, 194 Portlock, Capt. Nathaniel, 285 Porto Bello, 416, 418, 419, 428 Porto Rico : 399-407 Climate, 401 Clubs, 406 Communication, Means of, 403 Constitution, 402 Porto Rico — continuea Financial Position, 401 General Aspect, 399 History, 401 Hotels, 403 Industries, 400 Principal Sights, 406 Sports, 406 Port Royal, 169, 180 Port Royal Mts., 163 Ports Island ,56 Portsmouth, 350 Porus, 165 Post Offices : Basseterre, St. Kitts, 317 Bermuda, 64 Bridgetown, 99 Castries, 270 Fort de France, 362 Georgetown, 137 Kingston, 172 Kingstown, 283 Nassau, 82 Port of Spain, 223 Roseau, 344 St. George's, Bermuda, 70 St. George's, Grenada, 255 St. John's, 301 Postal facilities, 40 Postal orders, 41 Post Royal, 260 Potaro River, the, 144, 146 Potteries, the, 109 Povocao, 33 Powell, Lt. -Gov. J. E.,83 Poyntz, Captain John, 244 Poyntz, Major-Gen., 308 Prado, Cuba, 390 Precipice" gun, le, 188 Prescot, Brig. -Gen., 273 Presidential Palace, Cuba, 390 Preston, 398 Previte\ Mr. H. F., 234 Prevost, Brigadier-General, 340 Price, General, 344 Priestman's River, 201 Prince Rupert's Bay, 337 Prince Rupert's tomb, 350 Princes Buillding, 228 Princes Town, 219, 233 Pringle, Hon. Sir John, 176, 193 Prison, Antigua, 303 Probyn, Sir Leslie, 91 Promenade Gardens, X39 Prospect Hill, 69

PAGE 597

INDEX 481 Providence, the, 285 Providenciales, 202 Public Buildings, Barbados, 98 Bermuda, 64 B. Guiana, 137 Kingston, 172 Nassau, 81 Port of Spain, 223 Puentes Grandes, 394 Puerto Bueno, 192 Puerto Cabello, 415, 425 Puerto Colombia, 423 Puerto Plata, 414 Pugin, 270 Punta Gorda, Cuba, 396 Punta, la, 387 Quarantine Station, Grenada, 257 Queen's House, Nevis, 330 Queen's Park, Barbados, 100 Queen's Park, Trinidad, 225 Queen's Royal College, 225 Queen's Staircase, 84 Quelch, Mr. J. J. 148 Quisquica, 410 Rabacca River, 278 Racecourse, Berbice, 142 Racker, Mr. E. T., 113 Ragged Island, 74 Ragged Point, 34, in Railways : Barbados Light, 93 Barranquilla, 418, 423 British Honduras, 154-5 Cartagena, 417, 421 Cuban, 384, 390 Demerara, 131 Jamaica Govt. 164, 172 La Guaira-Caracas, 418 Panama, 429 Porto Rico, 404 Santo Domingo, 408, 412 Trinidad Govt., 214, 217, 223 Ralegh, Sir Walter, 129, 214, 232 Ramsay, MajorGeneral George W. 302 Rancho Boyeros, 396 Rat Island, 299, 301 Rawle, Bishop, see Rev. Richard Rawle, Rev. Richard, 107, 224 Rawson, Governor W. R., 74, 81 Rawson Square, 81 Raymond, Tyson, 190 Raynal, Abbe\ 391 Reading Stream, 197 Red House, the, 223 Redonda, 311 Regiments : Buffs, the, 260 15th, 321 16th, 288 21st, 204 38th, 199 46th, 288 47th, 84 54th, 305 56th, 60 68th, 198 69th, 288 70th, 284 101st, 198 Duke of Cornwall's, 341 Essex, 66 Royal Artillery, 341 Royal York Rangers, 103 Royal Scots, 284, 320 West India, 230, 341 Reece, Mr. Robert, 112 Reeves, Sir Conrad, 99 Reid, Governor, 64 Reinagle, Mr. Philip, 222, 224 Religion, 46 Requin, 252 Richmond, 166 Richmond Estate, 291 Richmond Hill, 257 Richmond Village, 291 Ridge, the, 305 Rio Bueno, 192 Rio Claro, 219 Rio Cobre, 157, 190 Rio Grande, 157, 201 Rio Minho, 193 River Estate, 229 R.iversdale, 166 Rivers Island, 56 Riviere Madame, 362 Monsieur, 362 Salee, 356 Roadtown, 351, 355 Roaring Forties,'' the, 33 Roaring River, 157 Roaring River Falls, 157, 192, 193 Robespierre 266 Robinson Crusoe, 237 Robinson Crusoe's Cave, 243 Rock Fort, 200 2H

PAGE 598

4S2 INDEX Rockly Bay, 242 Rockstone, 143, 146 Roddam, the, 364 Rodney, Admiral, 266, 274, 285, 340, 348, 359, 378 Rodney, Fort, St. Lucia, 274 Rodney's "look-out," 168 Rodney Statue, 170, 1S7 Rod way, J., 143 Rogers, Capt., 256 Rogers, Capt. Woodes, 78 Roosevelt, President, 403 Roraima, Mount, 147, 148 Roraima, the, 365 Rosalie. 343 Rosalie Bay, 347 Rosalie View, 347 Rosario Central, 395 Rose Hall, 197, 199 Roseau, Dominica, 343-346 Roseau Factory, St. Lucia, 274 Roseau River, St. Lucia, 262 Roseau Valley, Dominica, 345 Roseau Valley, St. Lucia, 274 Roubiliac, 183 Rousselan, 265 Routes to the West Indies, 13 Rowley, Vice-Admiral B., 175 Roxburgh, 238 Roxburgh, His Honour T. L. 316 Royal Artillery, the, 341 Royal Commission of 1897, 458 Royal Scots Regiment, 320 Royal York Rangers Monument, Barbados, 103 Ruatan, 281 Rubber, 456 Rumbullion, 450 Rum Cay, 74 Rum, W.I. exports of, 450 Runaway Bay, 192 Rupert, Prince, 300 Rupununi River, the, 126 Rutter, Plasterer, in Ryswick, Treaty of, 410 Saavedea, Villalta de, 391, 393^ Saba, 377 Saddle Hill Peak, 330 Saddle, the, 229 Sage Mount, 351 Sail Rock, 373 St. Alousie, 264 St. Alouziel, 264 St. Andrew, Mount, 278, 287 St. Anne's Castle, Barbados, 103 St. Ann's Bay, 163, 167, 192 St. Ann's, Trinidad, 226 St. Augustine Estate, 232 St. Bartholomew, 359 St. Catherine, Mount, 245 St. Christopher, see St. Kitts St. Clair Experiment Station, 226, 227 St. Croix, 374, 375 St. David's Island, 56, 62, 70 St. Eustatius, 377 St. George's Cay, 151. 154 St. George's, Grenada, 246, 254, 255 St. George's Island, 55, 59, 62, 70-73 St. Helena, English harbour, 307 St. Jago, 159 St. Jago de la Vega, 160, 185 St. John, 373, 374 St. John's, Antigua, 294, 299-303 St. John's Harbour, 294, 299 St. Jose" de Orufia, 214, 230 St. Joseph, 214, 219, 230 St. Toseph, Dominica, 342 St. Kitts, 312-324 Climate, 313 Clubs, 317 Communication, Means of, 316 Constitution, 315 Financial Position, 313 General Aspect, 312 History, 314 Hotels, 316 Industries, 312 Principal Sights, 317 Sports, 317 St. Laurent, M., 215 St. Lucia, 262-277 Climate, 264 Club, 269 Communication, Means of, 267 Constitution, 266 Financial Position, 264 General Aspect, 262 History, 264 Hotels, 267 Industries, 263 Principal Sights, 269 Sports, 268 St. Margaret's Bav. 166 St. Martin, 359, 375 376 St. Martin's Road, 174 St. Michael's, 33

PAGE 599

INDEX 483 St. Michael's Town, 90 St. Nicholas Abbey, 122 St. Pierre, 362, 363 St. Thomas, 367-373 Climate, 368 Communication, Means of, 369 Constitution, 369 Financial Position, 368 General Aspect, 367 History, 368 Hotels, 369 Industries, 368 Principal Sights, 370 Sports, 369 St. Vincent, 278-293 Climate, 280 Clubs, 283 Communication, Means of, 282 Constitution, 282 Financial Position, 279 General Aspect, 278 History, 280 Hotels, 282 Industries, 279 Parishes, 278 Post Office, 283 Principal Sights, 283 Sports, 282 Saintes, Les, 359 Saints, the Battle of the, 348 Saline Island, 246 Salines Point, 260 Salmadina Bank, 420 Salt Island, 351, 352, 355 Salt Kettle, 68 Salt-raking, 202 Salt River, 194 Samana Bay, 414 Sampson, Mr. J. H., 329 San Antonio, Porto Rico, 406 San Cristobal de la Havana, 385 Sancti Spiritus, 385 Sanderson, Lord, 45 Sandwith, Colonel, 282 Sandy Island, 246 Sandy Point, 320 San Fernando, 219, 232 Sangaree, recipe for, 9 Sangre Grande, 219 San Juan, Cuba, 398 San Juan, Porto Rico, 400, 403, 404, 406 San Juan River, Cuba, 395, 396 San Juan, Santo Dominigo, 414 San Juan, Trinidad, 219 4i4 San Pedro de Macoris, San Pedro Trace, 219 San Salvador, 74 Sans Souci, 220 Santa Anna Harbour, 379 Santa Barbara, 399 Santa Clara, 385, 397 Santa Cruz, Jamaica, 164 Santa Cruz Mountains, 195 Santa Cruz Valley, 229 Santa F£, 399 Santa Gloria, 192 Santa Marta, 415, 424 Santa Marta, Sierra Nevada de, 422 Santiago de Cuba, 385, 397 Santiago de las Vegas, 396 Santiago, Santo Domingo, 408,414 Santo Domingo, 408-414 Climate, 410 Communication, Means of, 412 Constitution, 412 Financial Position, 409 General Aspect, 408 History, 410 Hotels, 412 Industries, 409 Principal Sights, 413 Santurce, 406 Sao Jorge, 33 Sapodilla Gum, 149 Sargasso Sea, the, 34 Sasi, 192 Sauteurs, 246, 252 Sauteurs, Morne des, 249, 260 Savanilla, see Puerto Colombia Savannah, the, Barbados, 102 Savannah, the, Trinidad, 225 Savanna la Mar, 164, 167, 195 Scarborough, 220, 237, 242 Scarron, 361 Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Marie Louise of, 225, 228, 286 Scholtgat, 379 Schomburgk, Sir Robert, 112 Scoles, Father Ignatius, 138, 270 Scotland district, Barbados, 86, 123 Scott, Michael, 174 Sea Gardens, 85 Sea Venture, 58, 62 Sea Venture Flat, 62 Sea Wall, British Guiana, 139 Sealy, George, 105 Sealy, Sir J. 99 Searle, Governor, 300 Sedefio, Don Antonio, 214

PAGE 600

484 INDEX Seedling Canes, 140 Self Help," the, Barbados, 100 "Self Help," the, B. Guiana, 139 Selwyn, Colonel William, 189 Sendall, Sir Walter J., 91, 130, 255 Sendall Tunnel, the, 255 Sergeant's Caye, 154 Serpent's Mouth, 211, 214 Servants and wages, 10 Sessions House, Bermuda, 64 Sete Cidades, 33 Seven Rivers Cave, 197 Sewall, Arthur, 234 Shafter, Gen., 398 Shannon, Bell of, 67 Shark Papers," 176, 177 Shark's Hole, 70 Sharpe, Colonel W., 99 Shea, Sir Ambrose, 79 Shelly Bay, 69 Ship's Stern Point, 300 Shirley, Governor, 320, 321 Shirley Heights, 304 Shirley, Sir A., 160 Siccama, Baron, 138 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 422 "Sifneur Montagne," the, 346 Silk Cotton Tree, Nassau, 82 Sinai, Mount, 245 Sion Hall, 119 Siparia, 219 Sir Timothy's Hill, 321 Skeldon, 133 Skerrets Reformatory, 303 Slave trade, 42 Slavery, abolition of, 43, 442 Smith, Jane Anne, 49 Smith, Rev. Mr. 329 Smith's Island, 56 Society Chapel, 107 Society Estate, 106 Sofaia, 359 Solberg, 370 Solebay, H.M.S., 174 Sombrero, 352 Somerset Island, 56, 63, 66 Somers Islands, the, see Bermuda Somers, Sir George, 58, 62, 70 Sotavento, Islas de, 2 Soufriere Bay, St. Lucia, 262 Soufriere, Dominica, 342, 346 Soufriere fern, the, 287 Soufriere, Gage's, Montserrat, 335 Soufriere, la, Guadeloupe, 359 Soufriere, St. Lucia, 262, 268, 274 Soufriere, St. Vincent, 278, 289 Soufriere, South, Montserrat, 335 Southern Cross, the, 4 South Point, Barbados, 118 SouthWest Bay, 83 Spanish Hat, 352 Spanish Main, the, 415-426 Spanish Point, Barbuda, 311 Spanish Town, 163, 165, 169, 185 Sparrow, H.M.S., 177 Speightstown, 122 Spice Estates, Grenada, 261 "Spice Island of the West," the, 247 Spikestown," see Speightstown Sponge Market, Nassau, 83 Sponges, 75, 202 Spooner Act, the, 430 Spout, the, 257 "Springfield," 319 Spring, John, 419 Sproston's, 133, 142, 146 Spur Tree Hill, 194 Stabroek, 130, 137 Stags Channel, 63 Stanchion-room, 448 Stanmore, Lord, 226 Stann Creek, 154 Stapleton, Lieut. William, 183 Statia, 377 Steamship services, 13-27 Booker Line, the, 17 Booth Steamship Co. Ltd. 26 Compagnie G6n6rale Transatlantique, 18 Demerara and Berbice Steamship Co., the, 17 Direct Line of Steamers, the, 17-18 East Asiatic Co. the, 18 Elders and Fyffes, 16 Frederick Leyland and Co. Ltd., 17 HamburgAmerican Line, 21 Harrison Line, the, 17 Houston Line, 26 Koninklijke West Indische Mail Dienst, 19 Lamport and Holt, 26 La Veloce, 20 Lloyd Brazileiro, 26 New York and Porto Rico Steamship Co., 23 Nourse Line, 27 Orinoco Steamship Co. the, 220

PAGE 601

INDEX 48: Steamship Services — continued Panama Railroad ss. line, 24 Peninsular and Occidental Steamship Co., 26 Prince Line, 27 Quebec Steamship Co., 23 Red "D" Line, the, 24 Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., 14, 20 Trinidad Line of Steamers,the, 21 United Fruit Co., the, 24 Ward Line, the, 25 Stedman Family, the, 344 Stegomyia mosquito, 6 Stephens, B. H., 225 Stephens, J., 225 Sterling and dollars tables, end of book Stevens, J. L.,430, 433 Stewart, Donald, 230 Stewart, Sir R. 60 Stock Farm, St. Vincent, 287 Stock Farm, Tobago, 243 Stock Farm, Trinidad, 231 Stowe, 342 Strickland, Sir Gerald, 298 Students' Memorial, Havana, 392 Sturge Family, the, 332 Suchet, the, 365 Suddie, 142 Sugar bounties, 442 Sugar Commission, Iternational, 445 Sugar Crops, W. I., 447 Sugar duties, equalisation of, 442 Sugar Manufacture, 447 Sugar, W.I. exports of, 447 Sulphur Springs, Dominica, 346 Sunstroke, 5 Sutherland, Mr. George, 309 Sutton, 166 Swaby, Bishop, 138 Swayne, SirE. 151 Sweet-Escott, Sir Bickham, 151, 298 Swettenham, Sir J. A., 161, 169 Swizzle, recipe for a, 9 Sylvania Estate, 348 Syrians in W. I., 46 Tabaquite, 219 Tacarigua, 219 Tapion Rock, 269 Tarpon, 167, 221 Tayches, 448 Teach, John, 371 Teatro Nacional, Panama, 439 Telegrams, 39 Telescope Point, 260 Temple Lady, 183 Templer, P. A., 341 Templete, el, 391 Tennis, lawn, see Sports Terceira, 33 Tercentenary Monument, Barbados, 121 Tetu, 372 Thatch Island, 352 Thibou's, 308 Thirty-sixth Regiment Monument, Barbados, 102 Thompson Home, 284 Thompson, Sir H. L., 267, 282 Thornhill, Sir Timothy, 297, [314, 3*9. 3 21 Three Houses Estate, n 1 Three Sisters, the, 214 Tierra Bomba, 420 Tierra Firme, 416, 429 Time, the, 37 Timehri Rock, 126 Timothy Hill, 321 Tina, Monte, 414 Tinker, Governor John, 83 Tips, 10 Titchfield Hotel, 191 Tobacco Caye, 154 Tobacco Factories, 394 Tobago, 237-244 Climate, 239 Club, 242 Communication, Means of, 241 Constitution, 240 General Aspect, 237 History, 239 Hotels, 241 Industries, 238 Principal Sights, 242 Sports, 242 Tobago and Trinidad, union of, 240 Tobago, Baron of, 240 Tobago, Little, 243 Toco, 220 Todd's Road, 219 Tom Cringle's Cotton Tree," 185 "Tom Cringle's Log," 174. 183, 185, 37i Tongue of the Ocean, the, 75 Toral, General, 398 Tortoiseshell, 207 Tortola, 351, 355

PAGE 602

486 INDEX Tortuga, 410 Tortuga, Trinidad, 232 Toussaint L'Ouverture, 411 Town Hall, Barbados, 100 Town Hall, Georgetown, 138 Town Square, St, Kitts, 317 Trace, the, 273 Trade winds, 4 Trafalgar, Battle of, 97, 315 Trafalgar Square, Barbados, 97 Training School, St. John's, 303 Treaties : Aix-la-Chapelle, 43, 240, 266, 281, 339 Amiens, 130 Basle, 411 Breda, 297 Bulwer-Clayton, 429 Hay-Pauncefote, 430 Madrid, 160 Paris, 150, 266, 340, 382 Ryswick, 315, 411 Utrecht, 315 Versailles, 249, 266, 281, 315, 325, 34o Tree oysters, 7 Trevi, fountain of, 6 Trinidad, 211-236 Climate, 214 Clubs, 221 Communication, Means of, 216 Constitution, 215 Financial Position, 213 General Aspect, 211 History, 214 Hotels, 216 Industries, 212 Principal Sights, 212 Sports, 221 Trinidad and Tobago, union of, 240 Trois Islets, 362 Troja, 166 Trollope, Anthony, 141 Trollope, W. H., 11 1 Trotter, Gen., 345 Tucker, Governor, 71 Tukait, 146 Tumatumari, 126, 143, 146 Tunapuna, 219 Turks and Caicos Islands, 201206 Climate, 203 Communication, Means of, 206 Constitution, 205 TurksandCaicosIslands — continued Financial Position, 203 General Aspect, 201 History, 204 Industries, 202 Principal Sights, 206 Turnbull, Mr. Gregor, 223 Turner's Hall Wood, 123 Turtle crawls," 207 Turtle-fishing, 207 Two Rock Channel, 63 Underwood Tariff, 400 Union Island, 279 Union River, 278 Union, Trinidad, 219 United Fruit Company, 191, 398, 424 United Service Institution, 178 United States Weather Bureau, 4 Urgent, H.M.S., 183 Uring, Captain, 265 Usine, d'Arbaussier, 359 Usine, St. Madeleine, 233 Utrecht, Treaty of, 315 Vacuum pan sugar manufacture, 448 Valsayn, 232 Vanderlyn J. 392 Van Peere, 129 Vans Agnew, Brig. -Major, 307 Varadero, 396 Vauclain, the, 258 Vauclin, Le, 360 Vaughan, Captain, 215 Vaughan, Colonel, 300 Velasco, Don L., 387 Velasquez, Don D., 385 Venables, General, 160, 180, 192 Venezuela, 1, 229, 415, 425, 426 Ventine Sul