Crucibles of liberation in Cuba

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Crucibles of liberation in Cuba Jose ́Marti, ́ conflicting nationalisms and the search for social unity
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Crucibles of liberation in Cuba : José Martí, conflicting nationalisms and the search for social unity
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Guerra, Lillian
University of Wisconsin-Madison
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Madison, WI
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Lillian Guerra. Under the supervision of Francisco Scarano; at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This dissertation explores the origins of Cubans' struggles to define a unified sense of their identity and a viable nation-state in the context of growing U.S. imperialism. Beginning with the last war for Cuban independence in 1895 and four subsequent revolutions that led to the collapse of the First Republic in 1933, it argues that Cubans espoused divergent visions of nation and expressed multiple forms of nationalism. After the inauguration of the Republic in 1902, Cubans confirmed and contested the legitimacy of these multiple visions of nation through different images of the same hero, Jose Marti, principal ideologue of the 1895 war for independence. Competing myths of Marti serve as touchstones for understanding conflicted nationalisms in the course of the Republic During the first two decades of the Republic, elites became convinced that conceding greater rights to the popular-classes jeopardized Cuba's stability and thereby, invited the United States to contest the elites' right to rule. As a result, political elites marginalized and repressed any attempts by the popular classes to gain access to the state in the pursuit of social change. By the late 1920s, an authoritarian state and its promotion of an increasingly exclusionary nation prompted vast sectors of Cuba's popular classes to join intellectuals and radical members of the middle class in opposing both the nature of the state and its version of the nation. This broad coalition proposed a socially democratic nation that decried both the traditional nature of the Cuban state and the economic underpinnings of Cuba's political economy, intimately, this coalition not only toppled the state in 1933, it also transformed what bad begun in 1895 as a struggle for nation into a struggle for national liberation. Both the political legacies of these struggles and the polarized nationalisms which fueled them endure among Cubans in Cuba and in the United States today.
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by Lillian Guerra
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This is an authorized facsimile, made from the microfilm master copy of the original dissertation or master thesis published by UMI. The bibliographic information for this thesis is contained in UMI' s Dissertation Abstracts database, the only central source for accessing almost every doctoral dissertation accepted in North America since 1861. UMI Dissertation Services A Bell & Howell Company 300 North Zeeb Road P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106-1346 1-800-521-0600 734-761-4700 http : //www bellhowell infoleaming .com Printed in 2001 by digital xerographic process on acid-free paper DPBT D191tized by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


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caucmi.a OF LIBBRA110N IN CUBA: JOU MAll11, Nl'UCl'ING NADONALISMS AND 1'llE SEARCH POil SOCIAL tJNITY by IJ)Jjan Guerta A diaerwion submitted in sadaJ tbe requirements for tbe degreed Ill tbe UNIVERSITY MADISON 2000 .. . : .. .. D1g1t1zed by Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


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i ii c .. ;. A dluertatlon entitled CndJles of Liballioll ia Olba: Jcl6 Mlrd, Canfticq Nllicwlipm 1111 lbe Salrch for Social Unity, 1895-1933. tubmilled ID lhe G'9dua:lt Schoot of the UrMnlly of Wilconlln-Madil In.,..,.. fulfillnwnt of the the dmgr9e of Oodor of PhilDlophy D tized by G Original from U NWfRS IT 't-nF WISCONSIN


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" ...... ...... ..., ii radical memben of die middle claa in oppoling both lhe ..... ort11e .... iCI venion or die nadon. 'Ibis braid COllidon propoeed a socially drmocrllic Dllioa lhll decried bodl 111e tndidoaal 111111re or 111e cw.n .. llld the ocoaomic underpinniDp ot Cuba' political economy. UltimltCly, Ibis coalition not only toppled the It.lie in 1933, it allo ll'llllformed what bid begun in 189' a SCNgle for Dllion into a suuggle for aalioaal libenlion. Boch the political lepciel Of tbae sttugla and lhe polmized Dlliomliam which fueled them cadare among Cub1n1 in Cuba 1111d in the Ullited Stllel today. . j


_.1,.-.,. iii ...................................................... i Tlble of Collllelltl ............................................................................... ill Acttlal>wteclp>ents . .-. iv lnttoduction. Multiple Nations, MuJliple MarUa: Canceiving Social Unity dllmp die Prism of Revolllt:ic>rl. l Chapter 1. R.evol111ioaizin1 0'6a Libre or CiviliDna die Mllllipa, 1895-1898 6S C.1pter 2. Cubo IJbre in Crisis. 1898-1902: Frapiendng N#iomtium Confront IDd Bagap U.S. hnperialilln .............. 147 Olapter 3. From Rewlutioo to lnvolUtion. 1902-1906: Torna Bllnda Palma llld die Social Policia of lhe Early Republic . 227 Cblpcer4. Political Violence. Revolution and U.S. lntenmlion. 1904-1906 ...... 31 l Olapler 5. Perceiving Populism ia a U.S. Imperial Contat. 1906-1909 ............ 399 a...-6. Tbe Rile llld Demile of Dqleodent 1909-1917 ... ..... 4'iO Cblpter' 7. Anti-Imperialilt AWlbnins IDd die Slnlgle for N8liolull Uberllioa. 1917-1933 ........................... .......... 545 ConcJuaion. Lepcia IDd Lea11a111 of die Ftnt Cuban Rcpablic ...... ... .. .. ........ 641 ... . .. -. ... t j I l : .. "14 I I . r : .. .._,: : ...; ...... .. . ... -:.. :, '.Ortgfrial UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ,,. ,J ... :" <. . og


iv TIU wort NpWllll die falfillmml ol a psomile lbat I IDlde ID mymlf wben I r ... leriOUlly COlllidaed dedimliq my life to Ille pursuit of ICbol.ty lamwlc:dp. Then a coUcp 11Udmt wbo bid been niled ia Kmas and bad come of aae in Mimni. Rorida. I bad DOC )'et vilifed Cuba. S1ill. I Wll defamiDed 1bat if I ever bad die cblncc IO conduct loaa ram l'fHmcb in Cuba. I MJUld ..a die opponuaity to lean much about my family and 1hc IClf that I might have become if my pmmll bad never left Cuba u I did about biswry itlelf. Now .Cter liviq in Cuba for over a )al' and .C&er bavina mdc teYcnll Uip1 b8ct lincc lbcn. I know cbal I have ICbicYed more rhan I ever lboupc pmsiblc. There, I dilcovaed over two hundred relatives who opened their doon and beans to me at if Ibey had always knowa me and if 1bey bad always expected dial I would me day "come blct." dapite lbc fact lbat I bad tecbnimlly never ldt and was experieac:ing bodl Cuba and an extended fllllily for lbc r ... time. Uviq in Cadro Habina. uaveliq to die proviaca ol Pillar del IUo IDd Cieof ucp to 1ee ielalives on a replm" bail, I felt far die fint time u if I belODpd. Tbe people of Cuba, apecially my family but allO 1bc dm.eal of in&eHcctuals, coUcaaua and frieadl I met while lbele. made k feclina ol hdmlina poaiblc. They never .-d me lite oeidcr. aeYer c:mlled a Americ:ln." Rllber dley called me cll1apwwtao 11111 fUlllly Nllllned IKae. ID Cuba. it-. I be:m11e wbole. Yet. evea I cmlnced a ,_ dm I bad me lbmecl IDd became pmt of a praeat more falled witll bope dm I ner mlicipmd. I left belUd my laalmad and a wide OCba' faly, my plNllll apec:ially. ID cmb.t GD a......._ dlll Clllllld Cima M muda ..xiety. D1g1tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


y pn md IOllOW il cau.d me joy. But Ibey !mew. u I did. dmt dime Wiii never my deciliaa ID be mde: Fial ID Cuba WU ........ I Md dmmed about since I WU tilde. Beiq ..._ w beael' dml anydliq I could ner have asiaed. Oapile 1be fllCt dial my >W-laaa ..., in Cuba DBY illlpimd Y ...... ID join Y llmtwnd, my .... my ............. and .evenl fricadl did Yilit -. 1'lleir AppDl'l funller coaae!iml the semc tml the two halves of my exilfeDCO-lhe we I bid li.-ed in lbe United SW llld die oae tbll I llld llwaya i""li"ed I mipt baYe lived if 11114 been bom ill Cuba-bemne oae. A1 the end of my a.,.cb 11ay cbew wr. men du oae penan IOld me .. Tli nu lfllls llqlll qw tllltl- oMtlu ao 11111:a" ('You are men of bae lban of lbere-don 't ever f cqet I feel ID my flmily, my friends ad my otr.a.a apcmora in Olla Uvina in Cuba nae only lllowed me to know die funily I bid tbeR. It allowed me to appnciafe lbe family dlat I ve here in nys cbal I aeYer bid Wen. In lllon. if lbe lllldy d hilb')' pve my life dUeclion. liviaa iD Oaba pve Iba& llUdy 111N11in1 In lbe ccmplexity d ill qumen11, lhe rextura d die iJU1e1 it wlyzea md lbe flida wida wbicb it reDden lbe multiple, iDten:oanectcd and llUlbl ol lbe pMI. I hope dm dlia cliaenllioa ldlecll lbe deplb d my commi._ ID bmariq lbe expaience and 1cruglel ol Cubuw At a lime wllaa moaia for n r 1 an:b projec:ll ia Oda MR llilJ blld tD c:mne by, die D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


Yi D. md Calbcrine T MacAr1bur Foadllicm PRJ'ided 1be fundl dull ambled me ID fac9 CID writin1I am .-Cul to Ill ol dlllle im1i1111Km. For nwlriq my y boda pmlible llld cxnordimrily produclivc, I am deeply indebled to all ol tbe d die IDlliW de HillDria de Cuba, especially Ampuo lfa'aMdez Daia IDd JoM Callldn NaYlllO, wlae pmcml Wllltb wt endlal patience with my need for ldvicc llld leam d iDlrOducQon can DCYcr be fully reciprocared. I 1m allo paleful to Marim, Luisa. Rmua. md Marprica for facililmiaa my 11CCe11 to 10U1ce1 in lbe lmcituto ' udlive md library well u pmridiq auppon anices dial emured the quality md ICC\ACY ol my relfmdL Similarly, I am inbfed ID lbe l1afl' ol Che Ardllvo NICiaall de CUba whom. after a ..,.au.a eipi moacbl d ramdl. I c:mne to comidcr much frieadt coUeques. apecillly Marlene Onep. Jcqe Made, Mayra Mena Mujica. label Mari&>. Mirta. Julito and "la Gallcp." I lllo tblnt Niurys d dte RllMlo de Librol RarOI 11 lbc lJriv cni&y ol ffayana; lbe llafl' ol the Callo de f.atudiol Martianal; ad lbc ll'Chiviltbiltoriw ol lbe Ardlivo Proviacial de Cieaf uep. apecillly Milli, May ad Bena who DOC Ollly pided me dll'Oup 1be dom_. collecti

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Yiii duoupour it .U. I allO lbmk my lillcc, Lucy ror bar llreDllh ill Uppity lhoulderina my pRDll' MJlliel about me wlile I w in CUba and ror pulling lban eo rmt once and ror ml by ...... (md oomina blct) ....... For my lluDad, Kavin A. Lewis, my plllic.le ii baunclea. Not oaly did be mm my dl'Oltl ID uaify lhe fmily and carry out my diaer111ion raemdl in Cuba pcmible, but he Im camilfmdy em\ftd Iba& our lia to CUba al to what 1111 become .. our" f.mily lhae will endure. Kevin ii, as always. my iDlelJeccul collabonfor, bat friend Md .....,. IOYe. FiMJly, I dlMk all ol my fllDily ill Cuba, IDOIC apecially lbe nine relatives wilb whom l lived iJI Celdro tw.a in dae bome ol Norm Scaoqo Bala and Don Lui Del Castillo Trujillo. TIU dlelil allDda a tallmftll to lbe power ol their love, lauab ad railiace. wblleYer dae dalllenlCI and bowever pm lbe hlrdabip1. Oeains ID know diem ll'Ulformed me. My caavellllioal wilb Norma. Don Luia. Tilico. Diego. Luiaito. Yaafael, Ncxmica. Paaicia. and Rlulito '*11inly DUMte rne info a bctrer ICholm', but more i1Dp0111Uldy, dley mlde me in1o a beaa' penon. Since lbe yar dlll I lpeDt in Cuba from 1996 to 1997, two al tllw wonderful people have ._. away: Radl Rodrfpez. who w himel.f a lliatoriaD and dae f am inlellectull ID ildlOduce me ID lbe rip ol amlyziq the c:anlndicsiom d lbe Republic; IDd Nor-. Sodcm,o BeUaa. my pwnclnMJdler' ram COUliJl, who bonunc: boda a leCCJlld r...trn.Jdm ID lllld my bat friend. I could never bave Unqined wt. I aw Nonna just a few .-.. .., IUI I woulcl be llCiq Iler for dae a.. lime. I have no& a.a able to cmaift ol llow I will aperima life in Oaba apin wilhoal Nonu' 1eMe ol humor, memolies wl DUltllriq prenace ID belp ...,_ iL I .at die men P*ful Mil. I feel dlll ._ ipirit ia wida ... just it .. nsy day nea I e11me lalle rrcm die G Original from D191tized by UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


----ix An:biYO NricmJ mad ffaYm llld ended memolia md llDriel lbout lbe pllC widl her in lbe tik:bm ewer caO'ec. lt ii ID Norma' own memory llld to ber ever-vibnnt apiri1 dlll I D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


::. : .:_-;ti.,: . : 1 . .1' . I ... t11e M11Wt' N"' t'1 ..... Mmdl: c.c .. .. Sect.I UllltJ ........... Prim.,.,,..... After times of faith come times or critic:iam. After ttm capricioul myndail come timea of ICIUpWous lulya The paler lbe failb, the more lbpcical lhe aoalyai1. 1'hD lbe degree ID wbic:b lellOll hll been lbmdoat.d, tbe more dlriDg llld wrpdc ii i1I aetrievlL -IM Mlrtf, Qbm Conrm XXD: 199 1 In early Aup11t of 1901, a acudal erupled in Havana llDOlll deleplel ID Cuba' Constitutional Conveadon. Convened by civilian llld military laden of the Revolution of 1895, Cuba' third and final w for indepeadence, lbe Conwatioll took place despite ehe llDbivaleace of Wllhingtoa offici9l1 llld the recalcilnDce 1be U.S. JDiliwy lbea in comrol of ehe iallnd.. Olban revoludonaries and NOlth American inlerveationilt alike recopized lbe impodance of die Convention: it npe nred ehe fint cooc1m 11ep toward comolidaling m illdefleDclcat and IOwreip Cuban II*. Curious u it may seem. revolucionary leaden had decided to write Cuba' tint national COlllUtutioa lblt summer in spite of lbe fact lhll U.S. officials hid effectively excluded them from lbe pac:e proceu widl SpUll in 1898 IDd lbereby lrllmfeued ialwl SOYereignty from SpliD to lbe United Stales. 1bm, deleptn ended lbe C.vendon wilb no suar-1hat Che Unilled S... WCMlld ever lie up to its pnmile eo support Caba' iadepcndeace or aw lbe bulinea die island to lbe Cubas chemldCI. lbe U.S. media, military and pablic'1 claims ID lbe c:onttuy, Cuba revolUliouriel clellly refued to coecede dalt lbe Ulliled 5'*' bad llDlen dleir vidDly owir SpaiD from lbcm.1 If die boldina of a C"GllimlioDll C.Wlllioa w not : Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


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--------------I ( ' ', ' ;-. : : . .. I ( f J l I I' f I l t l J 1 I f. . I 'r I I l l ( I f I I i !i .. !! .. t. ; R : t l i i : : ; : ; a -' ,, . A. I t g i i i I I l I I J i r --fi II 8 ,. i I: J& : l j 1 : ( f I i I If 1[ i 1 [ I f J 1,. i I f I a I t1' f J f '< ll =' -.. I: .. -: .. = 1i11 t 1 i ; i t I l 1 f I i f l I i ; ; ? I I Sl. l D , ._ i r f-i ! .g: t j . ) } I a f l I i ( I, I i f } 1 11 1 a;j .. r a. i r l .q I a. r 5 s 1 1 ., 1 i r r I 1 t ': l 1 15. i' 11 J.r '< '< ll if5' 8 I r I l I


I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 6 biemc:hy llld elia' lllMliUlllCe of people of color, badl alaft -he, pennelled all apecll of daily life llld c:abare.' Becwe of dUI. Cubw oxpedenced a prmacted prucea dull w c:rippJed by ememe racial CWiom al diYided polidcal vilioal of -.OW lbae llmliom mi&bt be beld in c:bect fmm the mn. Until 1be lite 1860&. white creole elites palllfully ended lbe benefits of polilbl mtDnomy for lbe cornforts of social c:oaarol that Spmilb coloaillilm provided over slaves. free blacks IOd the urt.n and rural poor, IDIDY of whom were of miJted me. Indeed. so impo1tant Ud social COIUrOl over anocber IDd in lbe lMOl IDd l8'0l 1Cciwly saupt anne11tion to die Uaired Stalel. Becllw of dlil biltary, Olblna of vmying social c:oadilioal who came to favor indepacle8ce in the 1860a and 1870s did IO for l'ldically different ICUOlll and often had bigbly dilliDct ends in mind. Begun in 1868 wilh lbe Ten Yan' War, die lllUgle for Cublll indepen&tencz and Dllional aovaeipty cams ll a lime when wry and supr ft!IMined lbe comen&ODeS of the iJland economy and its c:olor-cllsl bierm:hy. Pacing hip prices for wis camed by a redlPiced supply, increaing competitian oa 1he world supr market from Eumpeaa beet aupr ad lbe iaefficieacy of UDJDOdwnind mills, a 1111111 group of creole plllllerl cmne to c:amider ..,..cion flam Spain beaeficW in 1868 for specific set of bigbly penaul reuaoa: Ibey saw in their own expedeace of IDIDICina poverty lad leC:Uological narly every fomer coloay ol Splllilb America.1bele creole plmllell fieed their llaWI in order to fi&bt a mw>latioa lbat Ibey boped waakl priuwily beaefil lbe pllntien .. ; : !.' < .,, -:-... '; .. ... .. :-. . ... . . l-:,.. -,. .. .. ... 2''\: _ : , _ -: .. _,-., . ........ ... -.w r : ... : .. *r -v: : A ( ; 4'0 I "i. 1 _ ir.:Jr.iginal from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


' ....... J . : -7 llowewr, Ibey IOOR fomad lhlt CUba's slaves md flee people of color quickly lrWformed die scnute in pnctica1 IDd ideological 1am1. Curins abolilion a the twin &Oil of indepnldeace. die overwbelmiq aumben of bias and 11111.aoea who joined the war between 1868 and 1878 rmlicalimt ita IOCial visioo. ne 1UCC011 oftheiretrons played into white social fan of a nee-war l la Haiti. but they lllo forced Splin co be&in gndual process of reforming, and evea1ually lbolilbing alaw:ry lltopdlet. All along. Spain proved only too willina to exploit die ncill fan of wbita 11 a mans for dilClediting lbe movement. In the end, dlele cfforU when coupled wilb slaw defiance and the ldvancement of free blacb within the rebel army itlelf molt white revolutionaries to ruc:b a pm wilb Spain in 1878. In so doing, they bUMd their bKb on formercompllriots of color who were still committed to Ibo fiaht u u 1881. In may ways, creole leaden signed lbe Pact of 7.anjda in 1878 for Ibo Sib of resmining Ibo tide of IOCial c:hlllge that --to sweep over the color-clu1 pyramid of colonial society. Not only did creole lelderl fear the radical cnmaformalion of IOCiety, but nKR importandy Ibey feued lbat such I lrllllfonmtion would tab place a pace lhey could not conuol and from wbic:b they could not 8Ceordingly expect to benefit IO 'lbus, the ambivalence of while IDplnlilt lelden impeded die pnau of tnmforming the social coalndictions of die coloay into a more eplirarian Ulianal lllldlcape To a c:erWn exrmt. CUba' tint two w .. for iadependeace only deepened dlCle CODlrldic:tioaL On the one Und, the collaple of lbele militlly efforts left die proc:eu of aCbieving a IOCiaJ COGICDMll among ....... folca OD key questions of economic juldce. _,.,,.-ncfal equality IDCl fulme w support for badl opelHllded. Monowlr, lbe faikft al molaciamria 1D Ollll the Splllilb mppems to baw aUond Splin pmtillly IDd tempomily to .. c .. . .. Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


. .. 8 coopt the lplCll for palllr IDCial, political IDd economic pmtkq.don by rmqinalized sroape tbll the Wiii bid opened up. Indeed. Spain ndm lbu a Yictolioua aalional stile abolilbed slavery ill 1186. Spain ndmlblll a vic:iolious Dltiom1 .._ prondpted tbe tint ICriea of .ai-discrimimlion laws in favor of bl8Ck civil rialD in the Ille 1880l IDCI early 1890s. '' And s.,.m rldler lhlll a vk:biocas llltional w tolenred lbe fonmlion of a powaful IMldlisl labor DKWe!DBllt dull initially cbannelecl wortiq-d111 elements away from indqicDllencc a pl and toward enpgemeat wilh lbe colonial It* for lbe protection of worbn' ripu IDd improvemeata in lbeir IOCial condidon.12 The fact lhat Spain failed to reform the coloaial 1Y1fe1D. ...._. worbts' righll alfOplber and larply nealeCCed to eafoa:c laws which woUI haw provided stare protection for blKk c:oaccma only pushed Olbml who dmmnded nMtical social cblnge ID reconsider a a viable political llfalllliw. On lbe ocher hmd. a IUllllber of inlelledual, middle-cl111 pro(euiona11 and a 1111111 number of creole pllalen allo pew increuingly aliaWed from Spain during dlil period. Many of them emipmed abroml 11 a raull. F.ced infnlUucQare, daae poupl of creole elilel felt incleainsly mqiDllimd from die cenlal of c:oloaial power llid yuned for lhD c:bwe to modernize Cube. By forgiaa independence. ..._, Wlllled to rid Olba md lbellllelws of the kind of c..-..... ._ lbll COllli uecl to O a aDow pcmr ecaMllllic ldYlnlap to Spailb-bom immipmU over CleOlel. Fndand llld .. ift!IMed. lbe colony oeaed no pouibility of libendon or social powdl ......... of dac lfOUPI cWiM4 iL They lbenlan: bepa to loclle lbe IOUlte of llbenlion and._ IDllllina of lbeir ideulit7 ellcwbfn, in hmpl of m lllaudw polidclll . ';-. -. .. J :'. I' ---_. 1 ... .. .. ---'1..-r ... . t1ze

9 werm md privilepd Cleole leatal who jomed die new iadepeDdeace of the 1890I. worbn llld fonmr UWI who supponed i...,_lllle6ce CODtiaued to espouse and melt a ndica1 tee ol principles far c:blqing the polilical, IOCial lad economic lllDCllalpc Despite the OYel whelming palmlial Ibey repneentlDd IO any sacxeuful revolutiowy ltate thlt miabt have responded to dlan 11 a consthuency, their endlUlium for conlellina Ibo IUUCIUral D1rC01 of powr did not so macta sbarpen 11 blunt Ibo eadmiam of sepndlt leaden for doiq die 111De. Thia Wll the cue even 11 Jol6 Maid llld the new political netwcxt of uaociations ho din:clmd orpnbr4 support for a revolution in lhe early 1890s and even after die war itldf broke oat. Al a remit, nmldple Yiliom ol nalion emerged wi1biD lbe same clilcunive matrix of Che revolutiolllry acb COllllnlCllld in coanrer-pa1i1ion. if not opposition. to one IDOCber's aoaJs. Yet. 11 we will clbccMr, lhc by to fosteriaa mpport for lbe new nr wu emwing dial clilparlse visionlriel of the nllion did not have ID sunender diffaenca in lbeir c:oncepCioal of lbe llllioa. They simply bad ro tolenle cbele clift'ereacea. often silently, for lhe ab of fcqina a aUilnce. Conflicting n#jonaUlll Iller intap1eced this lellUOUI allilnce II evidcnc:e of having .:biewd social unity. Che eiemellts llld ideals lbat c:ombblled lbe polilical entity Olbllll hoped would relUk from the 1895 W1r emqed in die proceu ol prepsiq IDd apaienc:in1 the ww itlelf. Feetinp of mqiulity from colonial power allowed some ,. independean moles ol educ:llionaUy or economically privile&ed a.:tpoaDd ro idealify ia lbe SUUgle far indepcadeace wida IOCial paaps fir more iuqiDaliml dm Ibey. Odien. bowner, nvi-' a mudl me IOCillly caD1C:rvllbe view of' lheir rule cahural IDd ideoloP:al ._...vii a farmer Uvea. arri?ed WOlbn. mh*llecaa111 ot ca1or . ltevolalion' pdiwy foOowiDa. Aa a rault. lbe allian for wbicb acb '; . : .... . .... ..... . ; : : ... '( ... . ' . -: . . ... .. '-' -; Dig 4IZE r '"r '.:! ...,,,. g .. : Jri9inal .. f.rom : . . UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


........ -.. :-: -l !' . .. ... let of ICIOrl foqbt fnJm dae of oeben. a proc:ea tbll oaly imemificd when U.S. miJbly bllerYenlion in 1898 cut lllCXt Ibo proceu of inlanal aegodMion mons moluliomry fOltCI. nu procea miaht .. Ye llicl cbe poundwodt for a new. corponlist Dltjmtlw. ,.....-"-._ t*6.e Ital)' of bow rmkiple imlga or..-mrvivect exremal mt.1n1lemea11 in 1898 to become lbe principal means through which CUbln1 engqed with and combaced eac:b ocher for lbe parpoee of 1CCC1sing or maimaining their ICCell over Ill 10 independent nllionll W. Initially, dU wort tncea lbe emerpace of naltiple nlliooalisml in lbe 1895 W IDd sut.equently ploU their evolution lbrouab lbe iDllenccion and dilc:oune of their propoaellCI in the Pint Republic. This study culminllu widl the social ievoludon of 1933, when a lllljority of Cubw rejected earlier Dltiona1ilt projecll 11 untenlble lftd irrelevant in wUI tuid become by lbea, a aecM:Olonial c:oarext We begin lbe joumey towlld 1933 by oxplainin1 bow Cubml cune to orien1 their emersin1 nlliom lowmd ach olMr for lbe Ab of independence in the early 1890s, ewnblally allying lbeir viliom into a muki-layaed dim of identity The exiscence of dlis discoune and lbe mutuality of Ktion nercalr)' for c:myiDa out lbe mned movement llJlde lbe promile of if not after. Sipificlady, dlil study cnditl Joll! M.u for lblpina lbe pollelldal for social nm>lation md the Clellioll of IUCb a fulln win lbe -'Y 1890I by weavina IOptber a vat complex of civililn and milil.-y allimcw. To ICMeve lbelO allimc-, Mmd not only lelied oa a amlli-laycncl dilcaune of idlnlity lhlt raond widl lbe coaflictfq. emeqina mdcJuliPw of OdMm, batbe allo panaecl a delibemacouno of .:tiaa--tlD farce lbem I .. : ... .. ,.

' : .,": ... _, f f 1 'I I . 11 MOit impadlndy, lbi1 wort clemoallnla bow die procea of ltlle building unraveled al1imcel forged in lbC 1190I, evenlUally psomptina Cubw to rebaild IDCl reconceive lbe ltlle in a new way. Tnciq lbe pllll of c:oaftided memories of Jol6 Miit( and lbe Revolution of 1895 II evideac:e of multiple llld coaf1icled nationalisms, tb.ia ady lhows lhlt dae Dltionalilml informed and shaped political action duoulhout the coune of the Fint Republic. Ultimately, it argues lhat a new generllion of Cublns bom after 1895 renewed lhe pouibilidea for social nsvolution in lbe 19261 by reincmpretina cbe image of I Mart{ and die melUF of social aity 11 bolh had been inlcribed in dominat memories of the 1895 War. . \ In thil ICAIC, Cubllll' llppl'OpftlUOll medilalioaa wl implernenCllion of the meanin1 of Mane for tho dUec:lion of the Cuban stale and ill to IOCiety do not form die orpniational principles of tbil dilcu1sinn. Radler, they me the touchstones by which we come to undentllld the multiple lbe nldon dial Cubias developed and bow ble ...._pcelilioaa informed their lelldin1 of the .-, praent and fuaire of lbe Republic from the time of its iDceplion II a MJtepublic-in-Annl" in 1895 through the point of ill collapse in 1933. Conflicu between DldonalillDI II well 11 lbe IOCial and political c:onfliccl between mdoaalilll duit they provabd COllllicute lbe euendal building blocb of Cbia dilcaaion. Somcciam IC8lllaed md ICJllM!!fiow c:lulllped toplber lib a figure n:flec:ted in a let ol ldj-=eat mimJn, ilDlpl ol JoK Mmtf IPPA" evaywhele. Trafll:d in -.: !. .\ .... ... ,. .. Mrt .. "\'! ..... ._ ... .... UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


.. 12 met COllla1 of die billarical MlrU bimlelf u wilb Olbms' delper efforts to recapcure. re-member, llld ro-order Md within cbeir nmkiple uioalist Yilioal. .------::----.-. in life u diffaem dliDp to dimsre. Cubias. What lhey had in common wu lhe 1e111e tblt bccaule of Md Ibey hid once been uniled llld yet. despite Md, dley bad failed to unite again. Of coune. .... himlclf IOt only delivmd his maup of social unity, but lived up to itl teaetl. Obie-' with eumplifyina lhe basis for a fllblre "'c:onlial" Republic in his OlpDi7.llian of civil illltinations to ovenee lhe War, Mart! WU comumed with Ibo belief lbll lbe telf-mifice of lbe individual ensured the enliahteament and progress of society. In Ibo end. this belief led ro bis dadl and afW his dealb. to Martf 1 lpOCheolis u 111 uceptioaal cumple of lcadenbip llDOlll Cuba's revolutioury lelden. rllber than lbe typical example be hid wuad to be. In lhe Republic, political eliflll tended to rely on a muffled IDd increuiagly mute Mart{ in order to bllme lbeir critics radm tbln lhamelves for whit Ibey saw u a lack of IOCial llDity behind dleir own policiel. lraaically, chis muffled Manf issued a meaap of IOCial llDity dllt obscured Ill)' mentioa of Ibo mam by which Che hilfOrical Miid bid imilfed Cublm could ICbieW iL Tbele WI hid to do wiCh die negotialion of opposing clau in111atJ. a c:omnitment to equal opparbmity for all nca if not IO ncia1 equality illelf IDd Ibo williapeu to compmmile for lbe ab of u.m.i pace. By lpplOprildaa a muffled Md politicll eUeea nticuHzod lbe memory of tbe 1895 in ways lbll glorified dleir own lAdmbip IDd codifiNI my dilcuaian of lbeir llldKJrity in terml eqaally ..... 1'brau&h ... WGlda IDd ... af tbele political elita.. llllllDOlilll at lbe 1895 wr-...Mlld flinwlf c:... ID u..tY sabmiuioe ID lbeir Mlbaiity ,.. r. . ... .. .. .. : t !\ ., :-. r 'L .. . ,. 1,,. _;. 7:;..'t"-, : '"';! :: . . ' "" . I . <. Oriqini!ff from UNIVERSITY OF W ISCONSIN


.' 13 civil ridD ICdvilll. orpnimd wolbn well u IOlllO women. labverting die mtbenticity of dlil codified memory IDd l'llUllllCliaa a loqulciaal, polilically relev-. Maltf IOOll became crilical to coaUlllin& lbe mlbority of political elifa md renewing lbe promise of nwolution. The Dlltlllge of IOCial mity ..,, .... by .. allellllliw_ proflbetic Mmtf spoke loudly wl specifically to the changing realides tblt ill were living between 1898 lbmup 1933. This reality was lblped much by c:olonial lcpcia wl IUCboritariua policia imposed from within u by neo-c:oloaial demanda llnpJled from without. work lelll lbe ltory of how lbe bellm of lbe muftlcd Miid came to ./ do mnle, lbroup discoane and ICCioa. with dlOIC who saw dlelmelws u die protccron of a IOCially COlllCioul and polidcally criticll Marti'. For IDOlt of the arty Republic, lhe sites on which these blalcs l'lpd coaJd be found wilhin or in relalion to the lblfe. Indeed, for much of lbe time, the proc:ea of drawing lbe 1*tle lines wu not simple as dividing political elites from lbe popu1m' clulea. By lbe a. 1920s, worbrs, lbldeotl Ind inlelleduals bad broken rankl with lhe political Ind economic emblilbmeat altoplher in oppoling Che lndidoml polilical system md U.S. impcrimiam. In doing so, Ibey felt they were liberating Mmtf'1 memory u much u they were liberlled by iL Not only did the reuona for this haw: &o do wilb lbe praence cf U.S. imperialism. but frequendy, widl Cubas' divene uad often trajectory of lbe Republic from the stat, bat rlllber die flcilDlar of. procell of m.ate rooted in coafticdng idea of DllioD. Coblill capiblitt clevdopmar hued on die combiDllion of fon::ed IDd free labor formed the foandliioa of Cuban IOCicty in cbct CCllblly. 1'bil led to die forlllllion ; . . ... ' / ';1. r ... .... f ... ,4, :,;,.., i .,_ '. ; -:.:.I oog Onginarrrom UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN . :


. .... -:-:..#: ...... 14 of &complex lad multi-cienld elm hienft:hy. Elites were not oaly divided by edlBic lines bwcl OD amle venul penimullf delcmt, but lllo iR ller1DI of 1boir relalion to lbe colonial 1111e.. Politic:al proximity tow inlmeab or illlimlcy wi1b It* lpDtl conditioned IDlleria1 cin:maalmll"el For nucb of lbe leCCDI half of the rune.nib century, the condition of wlawment or f'reedom divided non-elitel M much 11 color, ICCell to ednc1tioa wt dqreea of incorpoalion of cultural elanenb differentilled individulll' 1f.1:1U1 within a panicular non-clile elm. However, 11 Jolll CMaovm convincingly argues, the fabric of social idealificllion among DOHlita Wll not U frayed U initial inspection of the distinpilbiq lines of color llld cuhlR misht imply lmportlntly, free Ind unfree worbn coexisted in all productiw sectors of the ecoaomy. Coloaial elita of all kinds idclin:d slavery and toCa1 IUblervience 11 labor models 1'bele cin:umst1aces favored a collective idenlificalion llDODI naa-elim wilb one another that reinforced lhe tendency of creole Ind peninll1r elifa to perceive IDd refer fiO Chem u a communal uniL nus, die cue can be mlde dW urbln IDd runl wortcen. ex-slaves, 111d lhe urban poor conaicuted a "populu clul" sedOr that perceived itlclf u such It die time. 0 __ .--.-...._ This work caateada lhlt Che proceu of socill upheaval chat llllocbed CUba'a politicll atrualel over DltiCJn in 1895 intemified lbe bonds llrudy linkin1 lbe identities Ind a.eats of mbln WOIDn of vMious ndel, nnJ lpicultunl llboms, WlfiDlm IOldiera, ... ncillly c:amcioa civil riatm popGOlllll. Mm the founding of lhe Repablic ia 1902. lbe proceaa of pol.ideal llnlgle llld cbe incraliq alieDllinll of cbele poup1 from politic:ll cblnmla of ICCelliq power mly ia1emified lbe infrmll c:o-m of .._ ..-.. araaad rellllDd idw.of wbll misbtcamtftute a lelpOllliw ltlle llld a . .;.. . Origin a Hmm UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


15 point of ldivism outlidB CbD c:onrrol of polidc:al l*'iel proYed c:ritical in lbia. Por lbele l'OllODI, I will rem to CbD lpOdrUm of a:illly ad ec01111omally IDll'ginalized poupl II popullr claues." except in cues where a ptJ'ticullr sublet of dHs teetor stepped forward and ICtcd oa ill own. although not neccallily for ill inllnlll alone. Noaelheleu. if CbD popua. claaa developed ane half of whll lppell'ed to be a clau binary that came to divide society from Che 1890I duougb the 1920s. Olbw who compriled die colonial elites before 1895 or compriaed the new political elitm 1hll reauhed from die 1895 War did not necea11rily folloW suit. Leu dependent oa ethnicity and somewhat open to l'ICially integrlled ldmiuion dependina oa one's proftnence in the 1895 W, elite staCUS after 1898 did not, ll leut for the fint decide mcl a half of lhe Repablic. necemrily rely on the po11e11ioa of area or ewn aabstantill IDllaial wealth. FUlt and fcnmost, elite IUllUI implied relllive prox.imity to the axil of power in lhe ltD llld dac proleCtion that acceu to stare power implied. Duriaa lhe fint fifteen years of the Rpblic, power wu not so much materially derived II relalioaally derived. Sbeef wealth liloae did not mike IDY poup polidcally powerful by defaulL Thia Wll apecially lnle wbcn the Republic Wll ltill youna IDd politicilm still took die ideoloaical diffemdilllion of lheir pldiel .riouly. Aft the inlupntion of lhe Republic ill 1 a nucleul of dviJilD IDd milimry leaden either aceaded to office in die state or formed the inner dn:lel of political pldia with dinict . . leaden of the Revolution bec1me membell of compdina ..,.,.ideal elieDI," liM* who MB ...... . . ... -i . . .. r 1' .. !l'" I ,": ::- , ,{ .. .a("';,:_. . 1 . :i.... : ?irigtriaY'ht -' .LlJo.-= .. :"..; .. UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN -i--l . . ..-f 11:-' , ... =- ........ ... . :c. :, ..... by ,


-.. ; '-j ; . .. ...,. 16 GllnCimd for dleir apoaall of IOCillly rdcal beliefs or dlOIO to oMncize tbemlelws in Older to pn..-e the .. farmed .......... elieel." Tbae mqinal elites oftea allied widl popalar-dau poupl IUCb .. orpnilll!d worbn, bllCk Wllel'IDI of lower-elm bacQrouncl .. p-111Dt1 in the panuil of mutually undentood goals of saciaJ c:blnge. In lbe beginning of the e:ea1DrJ. muginal elites inchlcW weerana of lhe 1895 w ... widl ties co lbe labor IDO\'elmllt and by the 1920I, lbc cbiJdren of either polieical leaden or wealthy Cublnl who rejecled the cumm polidcal aysaom and worbd to CMl1brow it. In lalle. then, dlis work does DCJt cut uide tnditional claa analysis enlirely. but pmpo1e1 dial lbe formllion of clute1 io WU rooted in tn onnltion of llldonalist ideologies. If lhe aocial DMure of ecaaomic relllionl Md conditioned the emerpnce of ptioulist imagininp in die niaeteeadl cenblry, dle ume did not always hold 11ae in lbe twallieda. la lllllyzing the CODtndiclioaa of cweadedH:enlmy lality, WC will conceM power II all '"idealionally" deri\'ed c:oacept lbll became propasi\'ely structured into Cius pmidom.14 By lbe tare 1920I, a biury belween lbe and popularclmes mdoabledly formed the bllia of Oaba'1 neo-cokmia1 aocicty. However, It no poinl did the omn cae reflect a cJelr.c:8t c1aa biury in lbe politicm IUUglcs lhat engulfed lbe 11a1e ....... 1902 llld 1933. Rllber. ll all m... -in all CllCI. dlere wu. mobiliDlion ICl'Oll c:lau llld nee lillel in favor of auppoiliDI political elites" effam to implemlnl lbeir projectl far Iba Dlliaa or Jllllliaal etilel' effOltl to coatat IDd dnnrt lbem. In aemnlt dlil atudy die .,..._of power dlll political eliml aclbliwhed. eapecially u it beceme imiDslY paaMocl la pddellCldm polidolll, do so. ln.dle .._Be of adl m mlysil. we .. ,: I . . . ... , .. .,,.,,,. ,,,.. .,' .. :.i" : ,/:. . ,-, .. :-: .. .-: -1.:_ ...... ... :. ; "' Origin3lfrcm .-:a... ? ,.... _., .i;.:. ... .. ,. .'r ...... . A. .. -' . ., Jj .,. { ':' _. ... ... ..-. ...... <:-. "'. ... -: " .. UNIV ERSITY O F W I S C O N SIN


... . ... fail to expllin either lbe caune of the Pint Republic or Mil blppeaod since. sc.dyiq cllll fonmlion fnm lbe aale of DldoD pmvidll a fint lflp towlld llCbieving bacb. 17 In u much a Ibis wort ii lbout competing Mlltfl IDd lbeir impliCMioal for blttlea over the lllle. it ii Ibo lbcJUt coafticdng vilioaa of mdaG IDd how dae vilioal pided political llCtion or lffectecl die formalion of Che ..._ Al. a time when U.S. imperialilm came ro link deep rooca in lbe ec:oaomy llld culturo of Cublll aociety, this ICady coataldl, inlemal atrugg)es llDOlll Cuban nalionalilU over the rigbl ID pllticiplle in or comrol the IClle were ultimawly u importmt u the Idiom of U.S. imperWilll in determining Che coune of the Fmt Republic. The periodic c:onflueace of U.S. imperialilt objecdYa wiCh the agendas of Cublll aldoaalisll, bodl wilbin the lllfe and mqiulized ftom it, laid the poundwort for what would become U.S. imperial beacmony in Cuba Ind not lbe beiemofty of my Uliooal w by the Cll'ly 1920s. P.lpecially duiag the tint two decides of the Republic. we wiJI dilccm:r dltt CublDI all levels of society soasbt ro use U.S. imperialism and panicu1arly, the threll of U.S. military inlaveation u Ievenae in their suugles with one another. While popullr-clau Cubml hoped to see their pllticum viliom of nation incorporaled into the 1111e. former often expected lbll tbe mm lhoald implement their own viliom of nltion to the debiment of all OCbcn. The rault wu lhll DOkher the srate nor my vision of Dltioa became begaaonic dariftl the Fmt Republic. Specifically, tbia study 6ndl lbat political eliCa failed ro rapoad ro lbe needs of popal-clw c:amdtuentl in die arty Republic. a vmiety ol wortms-clw and locill ICbieve limitl8d saccms in drmegding die Jepimllicln of certain upects of lbeir IOCial1y democradc viliml al Dllioa Imm .-of U.S. impelilllilm. As a n11U1t. polilical ... elites. bodl c:omemlivemt libenllY demoallic..came to.-"'1mlnds for IOCial c:bmae ... ... .. -i. : f .. .. ., 1 \ -. ?[:'' :.. _:' '!T.:. .:... .:. ..... :o._.... ... .: . -. -. .. ... .. : .. 4r 4. : :. ..... from IL u UNI V ERSITY O F W ISCONSI N


" ..: ... I 18 6oai below rib invi..-. for die Ua.d Stale& to undcnnile lbllle political elila" riabt to rule and k> rauiCt lbeir lbility to ldVIDCe lbeir own pmjecll for "nllion." In eacnce, then, du. ltUdy cballenpl _. .... lfiaaa lbcJUt tbe D111Ure, experience and impllct of U.S. imperialilm by aking lbe qaation of why Oabln rewlutiouries failed to confront and mject U.S. imperialism in die unified way dalt their own heroic dilcoune moat lbe put and celebntiom of Maatf indicllled they ahauld. By lftAlyzina lhe moment1 in which dli1 heroic dilcoune ml remembnncoa of Marti appeamd. dUI work does more tbM simply lnCe polidc:imm llld social acdvim' enppmeoa of U.S. imperialism. It tncea dae enpaementa in Older to decipher whit Ibey reveal lbout the willinpess or reluctance of such groupl to CICh odler. Natiotu, NlllionalUtft and U.S. lmperloU... in Cuba < Pmioully. biltariw_pf Ibo Finl Republic have answered lbe question of why '----------Cubla fliled to unify 1g1iaat U.S. imperialism and turned to using violence against each OCber in lbe fint Republic by lootiq ll lbe role of cl8111Dd incn:alingly, me to underltald Oabal' decisions, outlook IDd ideolasical positions. Tnditioul bilfOriam of Cuba tend to view U.S. imporialilm overwbolmiag farce tbll frqmeared IDd diluted the llllioftllilt llpinCioal of politically powerful Cubw who. locbd into lbcir elm palitioninc, simply decided to a:on11mw to c:haqillg ckanlltanc:el a best they could. IS Many bistorians priWep the 1959 Revoladon a die inmllble mmlt of a Iona-cam. teleolosical proceu towlld IOCialim dull besa in 1898mdfJOlnwbicb1bere WU no CUllliq Jn lbae : ; . .. -.. )-., . Ongif'la1 from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN I ,.,


'"" _. i'. ,. : 19 wlysiJ employed aeea boda phenomena falle forms of comcioumea tbM dilu.ct from Che ec:anomic Dlbll'e IDCl a.adal cllll bail of Oablm' bilforic magic for libentioft.1 revilionilt bilfOriw llldl 11 Aline Hela. Ada Ferrer and I complex political com::ioHmea of local ICtOn. Despite their diYeqCDCe in defining l"ICe and detenninina its role in Cuba. dlOIC warts have c:enain critical componenta in common. Fmt. rMba' Cbaa rely on U.S. archiVll IOUR:el or limit to economic and IDlferialilt analyses, Ibey c:omblne a variety of wlytic.I mdhoda and depend largely oa aources deriYed from Cuban and libraries. This element is c:rilical: by lookinc more deeply into the records left by C\lblns in Cuba, one aeea the put duough the complex prism of contmdidion Ind conflict that local imcitutiona. -=ton lllCI the DMional w produced Noc surprisingly, the ilDIPI we derive of CUbln society differ mutedly from dlOle produced II the 1e1e1copic cauer of U.S. imperial power that lbe U.S. Nllional An:hiYel (widl its tem of tbousanda of inrcUipnce ml consular reports on Cuba's vuious threall to U.S. nllional inlaau) inevitably n:prCICDU. Through such medlods, Belg, Ferrer and f&laias IUgest dwt dapite the impKt of U.S. impsrial1lm. Cublna exerciled a paler imply. ID plltica18r, Bela ad Fener aplcD lbe toaa-mndin& idea lhll r.:e did not play I ceatnl rule in Cuba's indepaadencc procca (especially in die post-lbolilion W of 1895), a view tlkllll most urjonaQ wri1len in Cuba IDd lbeir mlliimperialilt COUDlllrpmU in lbe Uailed Slllel from lbe Republic ID the praent. ID ldditioa. both IW& nl Ferrer explore lbe .t "" . . .. ,_,,. .. "original fro;rr. UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN . .. . . r ci'ig1li. :. c o g


20 of die ReOladoa of 1895 promilecl'co mdYma die iDlerelll of blllck met IDllaUD Cubias who formed die IDljority of lbe mbel lllDY. Helg conleadl lbM tbae mne leaden only betrayed their promilel laler. 1bus. Bel& poliCI dlll the Revollllioa of 1895 producecl a ""myth of mcial equality'' nlber dim ncUil eqaality illelf. By imiltiq lbat die inclulion of bllCks in die Revolution exemplCd whites from baviq to pay ratitation to chem for 1la'VU)' or promote swe policicl in their fawr, lfel& cooteads thll the myth of mcial equality npped Olbua of color into In impouible poliDcal pCllition in 1he Republic. If Ibey paotated COlllin1liq dilcriminllioo Oil lbe bail of mcB. whites ICCUled than of belraying nalional unity. Conversely, if Cubw of color conformed to the myth, Ibey boclme pllticiplllU in Oa the other bmd. Ferrer qualioal Helg'1...iylil of die role of nee in lhlpiDg die revobleiowy ltnlgle for independence IDCl atrapolala impanlnt inligbtl lbc Republic. Between 1868 md 1898, Fena'coneendl, lbeefflcin& of race identities and righls ndler'than die aaeltioo of flCial equality came to form die bedrock of politbl dim wl ideology B baCb Wiie pncticed durina the revoluliowy WllS, apecially chit of 1895. 1bUI, fener equality-comdlUted lbe cenlral leDlion within CllM' independence pnx:eu. 'Ibis temion WU not only respomible for lbe iadmioa IDd idVIDC:Clmll of bllClt ml nmJMto CUblDI in LD:nlin& Army, but for die lime poapl ID pmeiw lbeit-upaince ia die 1195 bYoludoa u bodl inclutift wl libea.m,. Tbit occuned despi COllCladicd'1111 in lbe . : , . .. :. :. ; . .., . ;." ;-. . ... i .... /. ; : : Qr1grnaJJrcm .. .. .. UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


. t ;.., ....... 21 cpliee diffelaldy lban lfelg. Helg pilca mall of die blame for tbe coune of the Republic vii a via OablDa of color finnly on lbe *"Iden of Cut.n political elita .S lbeir own .... giown IWOlll for c:anying out lhe IOCia1 policies they did. By connst. Ferrer iadiclla Iba lhe circumltanc:a of 1898 llld die raulting growth of U.S. influence prompted Cubln Ulioaalistl ""to leave uide for die momeat convic:doas -lbouafl cennl to their movement, would not serve tbe immedia pm pow of provia1 their wortbinca" by U.S. imperialiltl' srandardl. Thus. she 1rpe1 lbat .. American rule placed even pater c:oastninb on Cublll nltionaliltl" lhlll lhe comlrldicsory bail of Cuban Dldonalinn could ever have .. ----... '-.'[ o a certain diis wort Ilka a c:ontnry view IO bodJ Ferrer and Helg. 1bat ii. ---.. -it sects ro plot an IDalytical path between the poa.ritia of promile and betrayal that Aline Helg .in the Cubm polidcal pnx:aa of che arly Republic. met die ideological ambiguity IDd tensions lbat Ferrer perceives the oarcome of lbe indcpendence w.n. The way to plor dUl pmb. it 1ee111110 me. must come from a cloler inspection of ideal of llldoo lllCI bow compedaa or conflictiq nllionalim related to acb oeber by relaliq to U.S. imperialism. Msial lglaiM. a Cuban hiltoriln. bas begun to lb'ike lhis pldl by challenging mumptions about bow llld why Cubw ICtivety plfticiplled in die cultural lllCl symbolic .. Americmizllioo" of early republican society. In m impoc1llK lhbouab unpublilbcd wort. JalaiH demomtnlea lbll Cubw of die arty Republic perceived md med U.S. I ... _ .i,., \'1 :." .:'$; .... -" iz -UNIVERSITY O F W I S C O N SIN .


. .... .. . . 22 SimiJsly. tbi.l lbldy .... dull CUblll lllliCIDllilcl iafapaelld the inlnllioa of u .s. imperialism IDd itl eem in tera of lomg-nnge pll lblt were deeply rooted in preoxin11Dd quite c:oaflictiq idell idmlity IDd llldaa. It loab ll the role of ""ulion," ad more lbe c:oaflidl between pl-opoaentl of muJtiple viliou of nllioa in wbic:b imm of rm:e, clua IDd F* were deeply madded While equally ldiant on locally excavated IDlleriall. dUs malysil quadona lbe idea lbll rewlutionary leaden promiled IOCial cb-.c or nlCial equality ia 1895 llld bccrayed lblt pramile laler. Like Ferrer lllld ffel&'I worb, wbicb recopize ID iabnat pmdox in die dilcoune of nllional ideadty lbll lel:olml of the 1895 Wtr articulllDd, Ibis study coafirml Chit lhere wa no official COllMllUI on the role of race lllCl elm iuuel durina the 1895 Wtr llllOftl lelden or IUppOl1ln. Howewr, it Illa qua lhll Jof/6 Mlnf, the Revolution' spotesman and principl1 coonliDllorof milimy mdcivilian nociom of Ulioaaliam wilh lbe inrmt of forging uaity bebiDcl the Clllle of independence. 'J'bM is, in respooding ro llld engqing C.baa natioealilll who envisioned very different OUll'JDIDeS to their lllUgle, Mll1f doliberllely layered bil rmu1gc of social unity lbroush the of bil own pubtic penoaa with muhiple maninp. N. lbe by IR:bitDct of die civililD and miHury lllimce lbll brauallt mat die 1895 War, the CIDlnlity of die biltorical Mlftf to the arpairltim of lbe War expli Ibo ceanlity of mylbical Mlftfl to tbe c:oune of tbe rust Rcpablic. In eec:t. wlysil af bodl miabt well explain tbe cams of lbe Pint Replblic illelf. ,,. di.....m ..... two majarpoim iD dlil repnl. Pint. die cmco.r. of IOCial aility tbll .... iDcl ..... lbD. (llldice of die 1195 w. illllf dYnipNMd, allowed ( . .. : . . ... -,..c......_ . .... ... .. '" : .. i : ... . ..... r ., Oi19inal from .. : .. E UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


"' .l I .', # : ; '"f 1 .J :, : :tt.\ '. t a I 11 I f i 'i I: f 00 i I s J 8 e. f I f J '.. c_ J . . f I ir l t I i i : A'. 1 -l . ; j 'I, s 111 f:: =t f .. .. . ; :_ t : I I J l 1 f f a. t E: '< I a. l ... : ; : ; It J l !. l l l :I I f. g. I I l I [ I I . f I I a. f 1 i I r a. I j r R l f i I I ; & '. i Jl r i ; r f l i ; ,. 'r f J I l i I a. ; Ill'' .. [ 1 I r I l I : s l i s t i I i J I i. 11: .. f 5 ( ; 8 a. I f i f l i ; J i i I ii i i f f l t I ! f J i I -I I t j J i i I I .! P. ', i i i i 1111 I [ ; f f I I 1 i i I I ! i I I j J r ft ; J l iF 8 !t f. i g; '< ti


... his public ftrlUI priVlte c:orrapaedeDCe 'Ibis llUdy poinll out tblt DO sada flCnDI a "ncial equality" or even "locial eqaality" ever lppemd in Mmtr1 wrilinp. speechea or c:orrapondeace (wbedler pablic or privlte) IDCI Ibey never did ao with referaa to Maid until after bis dalb for a vmiety of rcuoa1. Tbe most imponmt of dlele had to do with lhe flCt 1hll an analyst of Cuba's previoua Wiii for independeoce, Martf rec:opized that drucic cliffercDcea mnong the revolutiowy leadenhip over issues of race and cllll produced llllbivaleace, encounpd diltrult and ultimafely, provoked faiJure. D M a pnpw1ic orpni2er of wtcran leaders and revoltionmy IAlppOltCrl ol all colors llld c1in lbe 1880s and early 1890s. Marti faced the IUk of allying groups which were ideologically divided and geopaphically scancred. Hi aim wu to convince them dall lhe llMiol. for which lbe new Revolution would be fought was pncilely lbe ution that each group imlcinod even u Ibey did so differady. Alter his deadl It lbe wry amt of lhe War in May of 1895. many Cubans continued to believe lhl& die Rewlutioo wu beiq fought or Ud been fought for their pnculm' view of nMion and expremd lbeir belief lbrough multiple Mmdl. This not only 1eltifiea to the efficlC)' of his multi-layered dilcoune -orpnP#ional ICnlqies. but in fact. to the emerpnce of nmltiplc Yiliona of nation amona b.-m. bloqbt divided llOllPI topdler and without m illdulive lmpap for libenlion lhll broqbt their Ulioal topdaer. pedu!pl lbe W of 1195 would not baw been foa&bl Mme to die point. mDlt molacioDlriel WCMlld not bave claimed lhlt it bid beea won. Bilaariw of CUb& have receady bepn to loot.more clolely ll lbe reYOlulionary dia:ocaaoflbe 1895 W in dfalt to clemydUfy wbll wu-by iU llllll'e. even ia lbe . .. .. -: i :'Origin UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


.... ... ; 0Jba revolutionary p91t IDllChed tllOle of ada while aepll'lllill wrilen: u a group. dme wrilen sloued 1lawry u a Ila for wbic:b white CUbw hid lkeldy been redeemed Ind wbme lepcy blldt Cublm Ud alrlldy cwercome .U beclUe of lbe fint ltnlgle for iwlepen.tefia, lbe Ten Yun War(ll68-1818).is Alon& dlele liw, Ferrer wens dull tewluliouries of 1895 broqbt to fndtiCll Ill "'In iclcology of rw:elm nationality" lhlt wa loq ia lhe miking. This ideology wu. in pllt. the product of eft'oru to comuuct a viable couater-dilcoune to Splllilb campliins lbll uploited ncial fem and dilCreditcd independeac:c u lading to a '"nee w." According to Ferrer, it wu also. in part, m explWion of whit she comiden MllU'1 mpcioaal penpecdw on ""rlcial equality" and bis cour-ae in fomendDg dlM view among supporten. 16 Ferrer coalaldl dllt the lanpage llld concept of .. nceless nadnnality" allowed white revolWiooariel to imilt lblt Che ll'mlCenCleace of rw:e b8d ahudy ocaaned even u blm:k revolutionsia insisted thll the c:oatnry wa llill true. Moreover, lbe ll8plp of ncdea C"""1Udad wu complemenled by lbe ambipous experience of guerrilla wll'fare. a pmc:ca dull medilted diffaenca of penpediw on blldt power IDd its ftlDing tbrougb lhe aec:euiliea and scnregies of war.25 lepl'Olen&Miolll of pieYioUI wan IDd undenrmdinp of ncial rr.em.ity retained strong elemenu of c:allural c:bmvinilln. rw:ill lftCI evolulionilm-apoially lbe belief 1hlt bllcta needed ID improve cbelnlelwa c:uhlnlly to be eqUll wilb wbita. Still, Belg Pmms aat tbll Mmd'I views llllde him m:epcioaal becwe be did lbe Dlrwiniln. t.ecl 1'9Ci11D lhlt molt ocbereducllled om. cspauled a Yet Bela, like Fem:c, explain bow it Wll lbll Mldf'I dilcoune fomd IO wicb Olbml of. Ill --. of IOCiecy lncllldia& wldee ncilll mdbllCt dvil rial* ldiYilll at wby bis . . t ,., ; ...... : '-,,. 0rigin31 re' -UN I VERS ITV O F W I S C O N stN


... .:T._ \ ;-' ...... . .. ': 1 -, o I t ,it .'.> 11( II l f l l J a:(l I: l '. 1 l s l i I .. i j i 11. I s r l 1 i t i -11. /. . . 1.. i t 1 l [ I Ii i I s ;: f I I: I 8 I J J 1 .a r a 1 a !. 8 I B: I !! 4 I i !!. l ; s 8 & Q. i I t I s I I If I I 1 I f I J f s I t l 1 f f I . . I f sa. :: (. :. Ir l r l Ir t 1 .- 11 J r 1 l 1 l l l r I i 1 J 1 t I I ; ;: l I I i i l J f f If I J r 8 h .. A. 1 I i f I 'I I J i f i I g I I i . f I J 11. J .f I i f m ; ' I I' II' I !'!. q f a, ii J 3 g. I I Ii' I r f I I I I. l i i i i i : [ I i l I I I i I ( j 11 I : f 1 i I i J I i I i s I I f i J l f. i ! f


. I ., .... .,. I,' . -nltion IDd ultimately, to the kind of 118 lbal would pve aucb deblllea credibility IDd power. n In may rapedl. my own 11p111at elm CUbmls pMticiplled in and eapoUled multiple Mticwliama from Iba 1890s lbrougb tile early 1930& auanpcs to mike scme of what ocherwise appears to be, from the aqle of eidler race or elm, a fngmented period of history Wbilo my own arpmeat would not have evolved wilbout them. I find it curious and umealing tbal the exciting contribudonl of Helg and Ferrer avoid the coacept wl discusaion of "ftllionalian" almolt entirely, sabldcuting instead such notions 11 the '"myth of racial equality," .. lnti-ncilm" and die "ideoloaY of racelell nalionality." Yet. focusing on l'1ICO--like focusing on elm may telescope our his1Drical view of Cuban society and limit oar undcntanding of the complex proc:c11C11 by which Cubllls sttugled O\'CI' the claiming llld leaitimation of lheir identities Ind interests However challenging the tut, this work strives ro see OlbMI lllCl Cuban politics at the intencdion of nee, cl111 md at some points, padcr, with the formatioa of imapa of "'nmon." Thus. it tocUlcs on tbc development of the ICllC and different Cubmla' to both the stlle IDd the ideas of nation lbac the state did or did not espouse. 1bis study claims 1hat Cuban supponen. puticipmts and aden of the 1895 Revolwion wae Dllionalilll, each operaling under I ICC of lllUIDptiom about the Revolution. dldr pmce within it IDd lbe right they earned for Cbeir support of it to build I new IOCiety an lbeir own terms lfterwll'd. 'Ibele uaampcioms lbclUt the put, pcaent IDd fta& 11111 liDked individuall and pqsof Cubans iDlo .. mned social IDd political movementfonmd tbe nam of ditrereai Dlticwlmm duriq the 1195 War. The pl of . .. 1gma-I from UNIVERSITY-eFVllSCONSIN


< 28 caafmal ad au.ct the c:olanial --. 'ff oar mysil of the 1195 Revoludon reveals bow mt wily tbele viliom coalcl come toptber, our analysis of the early Republic reYUll bow llld wily lbe linb between Chem fell lpld. As we au -. tbe coune of history after lbe 1895 War in lhe Pini Republic does not break down danly Ilona 111y clear sectoral lill111 not dMJle of nee nor thole of elm. WberB it does brelt down more cleanly ii Ilona Oliai"ed in the years prerecling the 1895 War Md ml of chem fued topeher in the dilc:oune of lhe llevolutioa u typified by Jol6 lllCI Ibo tlCdom of Che pmty be founded ID support it during the arty 1890s, die Panillo RnolMcionari uballo (CUblll Rewlatioury Party, or PRC) If Mtimeli111111Dd Dllionl 1re topics which most hilrorilDI of Cuba m ID avoid. it ii cay IO see wby. Even debar.ea over what cbey n and why Ibey mwr crou Cuba IOCi1lilt sblle wm seluccut ID enpp them. In my expaienco oblerving bolb, it often med to me thlt neilher the U.S. ldminillnlioa of Bill Clinton nor Cuba's Council of S-umler' Fidel ClltrO ii willing to ldmit dial Ibo conmpt of .......,ism" miaht ipply to lbe coalempOlay U.S. or c.t.n CODIUl. GiWlll lbe United Stalea' lelldcncy to see its billory aa '"m:eplion" IDd Cuba' lon&-tmn ollleaion with its owa political dillincdvenea c,....,;na met macb Clltier .... 1959), dlil ii not mpriliaa. Wllll ia more difrlCUlt to aplin ii die leceat demcwindnn of nllioal IDd uticmli in '"die West." As Plnba Cblamjee poillCI out, tlUa ii ilOnic aiwm 1bo flea cbll ance apoa a time not lio IDlllY ycan .. .,. IOC:ill lblarim IDd palidcal eUlllS of Burape md 1bo UllilDd ._ beld ap Dldam IDd : ....... lbe .............. of ... triampll o1.-u.. wl'IDOdem IOCiety. Now . ,:: . '!!.--,:!. ... ,. .. ; .. :. .. ... .. ..... I 1 .c..'.' :,.f ... ;.;}.r.1gn . ., UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


-. : : . .... ... ; .. ; -. ,..: .. that the Cold Wf/f bu left Wellml politicims nowbem eo bide the economic matiw:s tbM from .. good" to ...-" in a fU' a its lllelt llllftifell.aio in lbe Third Wodcl IDd Batem Barope me coacemed. Therefore. wbcdler pod. bid or "ugly" (a some might call media depictiom of events in Rwmda Sabia in rocent limes). popalar llld scbolmty undmtandinp of Dldons IDd owe ma to diet.ct lbat Europeans Ind N011b Americana have been lbe lelf-proclaimed winnen of bilCory in die Wt IWO hundred yan. Al such, they have raerved the right to lell lbe Italy. 1bia story hll llrgely been one which focma OD bow "we" bcame powaful only to find lhll our benevolent effcxu to help others follow the aame plCb led to unexpected couequencea beyond our control and in conflict wilh our inlerestl. Having shed lbe c:hmlcterilticl of 8Cldemic mych, dais story hll now begun to take OD me. of polieical folklore. Accordin& co Eric Hobsbawm md P.mat Oellner, teholm who have since become ince1Jec:n11l icons of the sabject, naticm llld naliooalilms bridpd lbe ideological chasm of industry, mecblDical communictioo and notions of modernity in lbe nineleenlh century. Tiiting a IDllerialilt and funrtioaalilt view respectively, Hoblbawm and Gellner localed lbe orisim of cbele caeceptl iJl lbe imtiCUliona and political Idiom of political elites wi1bin die 11811 wbale power IDd clul hlleratl depeaded on Clelliq a mew plelllile for lqililm:y,,. Refinina these emtier pamidl. 8eaedicl AndalOD mbleqamdy ldicullled a key concept which few ICbolan, if my, hid bea willina to recopb& andl lllCll: lbll ii. die lOCltion of 1be oriaim of um-ad n#ianHm ill the 1unnm Mmaflllljcw,11 By -=lmowledpls Ibis. AnderlOll fieed IOCial Cbecxim from che IDDOlinp of abjecdilm md ICt maay. ClpCCiaDy ..


' I..,? : '"' "' .. . : ( I r ... .... . .... t I I l. i l l I l i 111 I I I I t i 1 I i. J 111 J & 1. t l r _ J! ff J.1111111 i ( ... I i l I A. I I I c 11 ll I -< i I : I I , < . . A. I r I J f I s f s . t l J f I f I i : ;.> i I f I t ll J f = I l j i I I I 't I i I Y; : / . I I i I I t i f l f I I I i' I f I 8. I J i f 8" i 11 l I I ( ; g\;l I l r I r s R I -a I i t 1 I J f It I !: '< a l a .. I s a ... 1 J .. 11t1r11 I 111pl.1 i 1 1 1 I r 1 t 'f: 1 8 I!!


I . .. !I ,J. t . 't .. .. . r I I f 1 1 g i f ;: l B. I f f I I 1 l. i : !' l s I i : 8. I I J . I: I l .. s I 'C l t I R i :. f s r. i f I ! i i I 11 I !ii: r f. ! 1' !I. Ii' I . tit g l. I. I .. i ... i ] g l r l I j l I J s l l 1: I f r 1 11. t l i:o: I ( 5 I t t f t f i ; : r I I I f f r I I ; t f l l I I 1 i I f f .. J r . t I ,-i i i 1 f t l i: i r l 1 I s A. rT1 r I I -a i i l f l i I i J i i I I i 1 i ; l 1 J i J s3 '< I I f f l s I I &' r 1 I l I ; r f I i I t 1 'C I 1 i l 1 6(!if(.l sii


'": . .. . ---.--. -32 In prcpsiq lbil work, I coaceiwcl of the alliolt mach my IR:hiVll soan:a Chey bid conceived it. That ii, Cbe ....a w nodliq more Ind aCJdaing lea Iha Cbe menial loadion of liberadoa in the form of a political encity lllCI a COIDllllDity to be ICbiewd. Al oae lnel, Ibis wt dlll while the llllian wu a pl dlat ill propoaen11 cm a eminently ICbiewble, it Wll alJo a project comtlDtly under c:oamuc:tion Ind depending OD c:in:ummaca and the taCtioal of ocben. mbject ID modificllion. ,.,.ied in lbae projecll were locally derived, bilCOrically contingent llld penoaally specific: definitiom of b'benlion. For IOllle, liberltion implied lhe right to be free of Cbe influcncea of the oounda in which they bid lived in exile between indefendeoc:c wan. For others, liberation meant lbe rigbl to decide bow bat ID remedy hilforical inequalides Ind redilUibule rewards in Oabm IOCiety without recoune eo any llllhority but their own. 11lil fcxm of libendon ea&ailed .. well lbe ri&ht to be honored llld rapecred by social inferion who guarmateod their loyalty in n:cum for comidenlion. OYCr time, proponen11 of boda lbe former llld die 1aaer lllldcnWldiap of b'bendon would come to see it die separadan of their riabb ( elCh defined diem) from social a.l politiclll ICCOUDClbiUty to ocben whom Chey b8d once counted a lboir followen wt aupportaa. Yet. for lbe llaer plqlOllCllll, libendoa Wll compaliwly flexible. Al dma, it iadiclled die ri&bl to equal pNIDCcion by lbe ....... of power wt ID lbe fair disaribatiGll of mwanls for merill ICbieYed or m +icel readend. IDcrealiqly, sucb cxpec:llllionl pmYed Ulltallble. IOlllO papoae ndicalimd lbeir definldan of .. .... . . . . ..... :" ,. .. "' ..


. ,; . ...-. ' . . --' -' . l3 fulfillmeat of lime vlliecl definiliGDI of liberation in Yilioal of Dltion they lb'Ugled with Ind .... acb Giber to ICbiove. Betweea 1898 llld 1933, Qabas blaled acb Giber for canlml in lbe .. wilh dne llltioaalilt vi1ions a lbeir pidea. I!IM!Wl!fi#ety followins lbe deltb of Mani only a few months inlO the 1895 W, multiple imaaa of Manf terwd u a leaitimizing fon:e for proponeall of lhele lhlee Dllionalilml. Tbouah we will study lheir aripm and evolution in ..-. delail llrer, a brief IUl1ll'Dllion lbould be giwn here of wbM ideals defined tbae altioalli1m1 and how acb interpnUd its own. rei.rect Man(. The fint of lhese.. imperialist, WU cbampioned by emipa wbo left Cuba in die 1870. llld arty l UOI, eilher became Ibey bid IUppaded previous independcnc:e Win or hid suffered from lheir economic RllUlll. Havin1 spent IDOll of lbeir lda1t liCa in lbe Uniled Swea 8ftd Europe before supponiDs die 1895 Wac and retumin& 10 Cuba lhcxtly afterwll'Cls, imperialist ftllionalilll hoped to brin& the physical leebnolOI)' and culcural fablrel of modemily to Cuban society. They enYilioned a DldoD lblped by foreign invemnent. qriculcure and wspomored KCUllunlioa of the maaea to European Ind American .-ct.nla of "civiliZltion lmperillill Mtjmllilll ldVOCllCd and meaured ocben by cultunl ltandlrdl Chit Ibey beliewd cbey bid ahady ldaieved. Larply cilizens of the Uniled SUia tbemlel\lel, lbe United Stma a _..wy or ewn delinble, cb8y propUild lhM bacb CUba llld lbe UabDcl Stlla could benefit from Ill intjawle ecD110111ic and cukDnl relldombip dlat COlllCricted tbe bouDdlriea of Cuba's potitical scwemipty. In 8dditioa, dlCle mne groups . : ;t: > wi:.-:... . : .. %."i ...... ... ..;:: I,' ... ngina.J.from ..... UNIVERSli:.-OF WISCONSIN


. : .... ' r -..-. .. ., belieWld in U.S. beaevoleace IDdoqiecled lbll U.S. iaftaence, wbdberdiplomllic. ec:oaamic or polilicll, could oDly benefit Cuba's dcwlopmellt by improviq i1I cbwea at allioaalisu, lbele was no concradiction between the emiar' mcl Cablll halves of their idenUty IDd tilele Wll DO conlrldictioll in seeing CUba'I M'ioaal libendon unfold through a cbe bonding with U.S. power ml culbft. For example. in 1895 when imperialist M'ionalim took over lhe nmning of the PRC after Manf left for die Wll' in CUba, Ibey reflected their undenllndin1 of Dllion in the reports md prioricia of lhe PRC orpn, Palria. /u editor, Mart ... P\'ell profi1ea of womng-clua or largely black orpnindoas equal weigbC wilh repom on the activism of elite professional revo1ution1ria. 35 Mane's Ptllri4 also mqiu.lized diacuuion of the United Stares and North Americms in ics p1p1, prderring to focu exclusively on the social c:oaditions of Cubans al lbe talk of brinainl diem roplber. By conlrllt, imperialist Dllioulist ed.ilan of Patria published article after mticle OD North Americans' support for lbc War. their tics to eliteclul Cuban revolutionary clubs and euays which drew hiltorical lllalopes between the Unilcd Sc.ta md Cuba's llnlglea for liberty. 'Ibis new Patria included alnlOlt DO reports ("If any) OD La U,o Altlillalto. the black mulUal licl IDd imlrudioaa1 IOCiecy Mlltf hlld helped to foaad. llld no menliaa of Hlici. Sipificandy, die imperialilt nadoollilt' Potria did not waera a Mart{ wbo IOUPt to medille IOCil1 dift'orllllcel ma Olbma. but one who Jordlll" of pmiodc llClf-UneplioL In Ibis way, be lll8da Chem. "'wardly of 1bc redealpcive tllt"-daal is, worday of iDclasioe in lbe Revolution. 17 Buoyed by tboir own Wi.t u 6 ginal fro.rn UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


. 1 . . r l.. ialerpnaling Che 1895 W md memalia of Midi i tmm of 1elf-relimce wl aelr-lbnepliaa. Tbele were the ideals tbll imperialist Dllionaliltl wd to guide policies of the mre beclu1e they were the ideals they bid l8pPOl1ed during lbe Ww. 35 On die ocher hind. wteran laden. balb while llld of color, rooted lbeir rwolMtianary llGllonalUln in Che milltlry uperie11c:e of me previous independence wan of 1868-1878 llld 1879-1880. They conceived of a Dllionalilm that called for IOc:ial change lhrough a top-down. ltlle eqiaeered appOKh Revolutionary nationaliltl envilioned a nalion that lraalfened plllrOD

. . ' ::. .... : ,, . pick ap a ICODC IDCl lay it. cm by one. It the foot of tbe croa. Re lben spoke to them, bis voice reportedly c:nctina with tbe weiabl of bis emodms. After G6mez bid finished speekina. one his ... ;.,,.., (who w also a childhood friend of Mlrtra) Aid, "dUI madelt 1DCJ111uneat (lboald] be ID air.on wbidl we all may came to liDI cbe hymn of( ... ] viclory, -" ( ... ) IO glorify Mmlf. dOld., who WU tbe Revolution, lftd 06mez, c:oaqueror, who WIS cbe W1r.... As this example demonsntes, molutioouy llllioaalil1I were committed to a nalion in wbich the majority of CublDI could be included. However, Ibis Dllion depmdcd on the andenuadina lhlt ultiw 1111hority and ultimlle legitimlcy reseed not with the m, but By coacrat, """"" nalionalt... IOOlcd ibelf in 111 ideological amalgam of dcaila wl models of democ:ncy deri\'ed from various hiltorical uperieoces of marginalization. At first. popular natioaaliltl conceived of the naaioa in terms of a comfortable, secure COllllllUllity in wbic:h their Aeedl were met and their Idiom rewarded in fair if not IUictly eplimilD tams. Laret, during lbe first years of lbe Republic, popular nalioaalilts propoled a horizontal vision of nation in which tbe awe prioritized the needs of ill citbena and rcwsded dlOIC who bad not only suffered lhe most in war for its uiatencc, but who bid mffaecl the IDOlt under Spmilb colonialism. At both momenta in their evolution, however, papal llllionaJias saw Mud 11 a spiritual mcailb who promised lft ideal but achievlble society on eardL Apprecilliw of Martr1 effons to show bow class and rlCial prejudices c:oald be overcome by common morality, kindnea llMl bolpiWity, wortia1-clua emipa from Florida llDODI die fint papnlw natjontli.,. to appmpria Md in this way. By the. end of the 1895 W1r,. however, awn aoldien who bad praallllbly ver met Md foUowecl suit by atOUing bis virlDel tbroUp cmnp IOllp lhlt also celebnled beloved p11enla. bada trviq llld deeeae d . ". F .. :' : : .; . .... ' \ .. . -. _.-:,ffi. -UNIVERSlTv' .. ,.. ..


:! 37 Durin& the 1895 Wu, many if not IDOlt popalar nationaliscl tended to foreground notions of paternal, reciprocal and eoftltllll procection in lbe imap of nation to which they ucribecl lbeir liberltion. Undentuding dUa Dltion u a hishly penoulistic political entity. populu nalionalim in Florida its mMDing in their devotion to the figure of Martt. In 1897. Weacealao Oalwz delcribed lbe depee to which the historical, livin& Mlftf inspired popular nationalim to believe that the symbolic, mythical Mart( represented a proccctivist, pUemal and just nation in Ibis way: Where is he? In all plKeS Pedulpl he is God? Who knows! What is certain is dlll he everywhere, in bomea, on lhe street. in lhe coancils, [Revoluitomry] Clubs, newspapen, in short. everywhere. [ ... ] His podl'ait is in all Cuban homes, in all lbe establishments[ ]. In the home of 1be most powerful and dial of Che most bumble, he is there, sometimes in his full person. soraedmes only u a bust and of him the white and the bbick speak with carilfo. ( ]TM only gtu1 "'"who i.r nor couuml by IM 1t11all! [ .. ] 'Ob, if only he lived!' is heard in moments of 111pish, because if be lived there would be no obstacles or anything in lbe way. Oh, if only he lived! His sbldow protects us, his shadow extends itself over all lhinp. md Chere is no CUblD oa lbe &ce of the eanh to whom be doea not ippear Ill the hour of sleep, who bas him It the bud of bis bed, wl it is bec1111e be is lbe Cubln IOUI, be is the soul of rbe After Manrs dealh. many emigr6s of the Florida communily bad pat difficulty adlptina to 1be political 1tyJe of the PRC' 1 new ldministntan. Juclainl from complaincs. Ibey .. appear to have perceived coaflict between own coacepl of wl ill I ... i .... -.... . -. ;.;:L : ; .. __ -, .'-_, .!o"':!.r t.._ "'..J. .. , ..::.. L I ( : '... . .. Orrgrfral frernY-.. :-:. ..: -UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ... ..


I f ... . 38 conespolldin1 notion of bow leadan Ind luppocten abould intenct widl the behavior of PRC leaden and lbe contrary ideolop:al lpada for 1be ulioa dull it implied. Horrified that PRC leaden could disdain the worken aad lower-middle-clua imellec:mal1 whom Martf bad seen u central to the came, popular nalionalilt Nestor CllboaeU complained to Toma Ellrlda Palma, the new praident of dle PRC. in 1enn1 of dle nMioa diet be thouJht Eltnda Palma, like Miid, underaood. In tbe following letter, Clrbone1I decried Ibo flCt Chat n:ccnt PRC deleples from New York ignored lhe working-. cllll emip6 COIDlllUllity of Tampa. preferring instad to comaune with wealthier, whiter and more Americanized Cuban emig1a of West Tampa: I come to speak to you about Tampa [ ... ] llld I declaie for me llld for dW majority [of compllriOCI) bu relCbecl .m.tthood, tbaa it hal a polidcal personality in the legal seme; and merits eaou&h-u well u fall cap9City in all the IDIDifeatationa of life. [ ... Yet.] when we are visited by our dildnguilbed Oabans since Mlrtf died to lhe dale, they all 10 to stay in West Tampa. a thins which nobody would otherwise mind: but Ibey-the viliton-forpt mat in Tampa there 11e CUbanl 1bat clelervc their affeclioa [ .... ]When Mart( would llrive fmm his long lripl from dle Norah and from lbe Soudl, die home in wbich he would stay WU that of lhe bUck woman Paulina in Tampa. Without wailina eaoup time for ayoae to filld pvanda for complaint," woalct tlb lbe co.m wl alone ao to visit dlOIC bomel wbOle be could be wa by Cubas who migM not be-able to visit bim [ .. ]. Whal polilicia ever IDOl'Ceumpl.y'P [ ... ]If ca day, in.fulfilling lbe l'CIC(llCitof . . . :i. / :::. ... :, ; .. . . .. I .. i, : -. ':(: = .: : r -' -UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


I; .,J .: 39 Martf .. I lboold uc:md to tho Ooveming Council [of die PRC], then I shall make aood oa my criticiama in tho way I bave delc:ribed. 41 Sach dllcunlve ex..,.,._ mgat bow popular aatioDllilU named libenlioa ICCOnling to a diffetent set of principles that Ibey ftllly expected to m.aaeriali:r.e in the nation. As c.rbonell'a leuer shows, popua. Dllionalilb were willing to believe dm lbe curreat lltituda of PRC leaden were somehow divorced from lbe ideal of allioo chat togedlcr with popular ulioaaliltl, Ibey wre canying out Thus. Carbonell spoke put lbe ideolosical impliclcions of lbeir 8Ctiona toward lbe truth of a lladoa that be IDd OChcrl desperaaely wanted to Khieve. AdVOCllcd especially by working-clua emipa, ex-slaves, labor ICliviltl and veterans who bepn to forepound the mcial dimensions of their oppreuioa owr time, popul.-nationalism eventually chw on memories of put oppession and injustice more than any ocher poup in lbe Republic. Their purpote wu to evaluate the extent of lhe 1t11e'1 political stagnllioa ia their hiatorical present and advance programs of social cbmp in the here-and-now, not the dil&anl fulute. In MUD, Ibis wort defina nllions and nationalism ill tern of die rei.aional idcaddes they invoked and lbe mdme of the mtc that they posiled. Beainnin& in Cuba's lut aati colonial WU' in 1895, nationaliata conceived projecta for die IClle u extensions of their "'uliou." By piniq ltalC power in the Republic, nllioaaliltl believed they coukl ensure not oaly the implemencldoa of their viaiom. but allo lhe lesidmacY of their own nodooa of identity via a via dlOle of odlen. Ub Pruenjit Dun's llUdy of natioul wntives in Olina. dais study arpes for a non-linear inlerpretalioa of history and sees history u prodllced by .. complex ll'Wletioaa between the put llld the pracat. However, UDlike Dutra' wCllt. dU llUdy doa not privileae clilCmlive lllllyU ar lllmli\'e soun:es to brina lbe coanecliml betweea conflidecl wia and the hillDrical pl'OCCll to 1iJbt. Rather, Ibis lludy la macb abaat Cveall IDCI people. it ii .. pen:cpdaaa of eWlllS and people. The ; .,.. -. ; t . . -.. ..... I 'IM ,.., .''o,ol' ... : \:. _,,.:._.. ,. . Original fro::n ":_ (>'.-. OF WISCONSIN ... :...t. ,":: -;L ,, ,, ,. =.. ..


> lheorotica1 principle llDderlyina its method ii lhll if peope "i""cined" lllliona, lhey also w" widl lheir idcall llld tam in mind, to implement Ibo llllion-project in pmcdce. At we shall ICC, Cubias coatinuoualy invobd memories of lhe put and l'DCOllfigured lbem u lbe projects of foreip imperialilta and nationalilta periodically conncc:red and dilconaec1ed. they Md in 1898, daroupout the COllrle of die P'Ult Republic. Sometimes tbeae connections occuned because ot ideolopcal 1imilaritiel mat brought one pvup of nllionalilll to enpp lhe neo-c:olonial metropole ll a particular moment for particular reuons. Sometimes enppmenu occurred bec1111e of the political needs of one group of nationalists vis a vis ocben. Sipificantly, not only powerful revolutionlr)' and imperialist nllionaJiltl became involved in chis proceu of engaging U.S. imperialism at a cost to Cuba' mte IOwteipty, but working-clas IDd ncially conscioul popular nalionalists did a well. Convinced that their social subordinates ad former c:omradel durin& war were not trustwonby enoush to be incorporarcd into the ltllC in pclCC, political elites drove popular Dalioaaliltl to lat the limits of U.S imperialiltl' tacit commitmeat to "democncy." In Ibis way, popular Dldoaalila aousht conccuioas from foreigners diat their own native leaders would not give. Preferrin1 to alienlle ralher chm incorporab: lbe socially radical views of popular nlliooaliltl, political elites bepn lbe FUil Republic oppOICd to each Olber because lheir vilioal of Diilon .ad memories coaflidecl too much However, lbe same political elita en4cd up accommodalin1 one wilb lbe other by Ibo arty 1910I. Tbe result Ibis llUdy clemomcrarea is a pandox: 11eo-col011ial he1emony radler than nation-state be1emony prevailed. yet this did not imply that nationaliams were inconsequential to the development oflbeFintltepablic. On lbecoatnry, Ibey wcneaealial. By way of UUUdaa our jaamey into Ibo political C1llture md Dllioaal c:omciomneu of Cubw dariJll lbe P"nt Republic, die final ICCSioa ol dais dalpCllr IUIDI ID lbe queltiaa of bow lbae duee nalioaaliam became emaaled in the praceu of orpniziq lbe 1895 . : .l.0ohldoa. wl wily. k eumiaea Jllocell baildina and fuins llMlhiplc. emcrpat . from UNIVERSITY OFWISCON.SIN .. .


. . 41 vilioal of nation into the final movement for independDnce lbrougb the dilcounc and Ktiolll of JOl6 Mutr. Here we lddlaa two by illaea: tint, the role of JOl6 Mud in the proceu of cntMgling lbele emerpat aadom iDID a diKaane wl a prlCCice ol soci&I unity; and second. the impticmom lhll this entanglement held for lhe way in wbic:h Cubas bepn to we&Ye mmembnncea of history into lbe procea of hilrory iaetf. IM Rno"""1n. EntatU., Diwriw N""""""'1u: 77M Hurorlcal and My#lcal Mani, JBM>-1895 1920s wl relepted it ro lhe activities of a few inlellttt111Js, dlis lbldy finds thal not only political elita but diverse social poups of Cuba's popuJarclmcs coasilrendy appropriated the image of Man from lbe time of Madf'1 dellh in l89S through lhe course of die Fant Republic." While the rest of this wort explains the reuoas for why Ibey did so, dlil section fOCUlel on the reaom for why they aM/tl do so. Thal ia, whit was it lboul the llllUle of Mldf s meuap, bis life and bis own efforts ro eUmplify that message that made their infetpmdon so inherently flexible over time? Given lbll Mard has now become the icon of choice for e\'a)' possible ideological position on the spectnnn of Cubm politics since 1895, it ii almost impo1111>le ro 1ee tbrouab lbe layers of polt-1895 inraprdalioaa of Mart( ro arpnizin1 Cuba's last wv. If we are IO udenland the come wbicb a.bin toot ftl' 1895 IDCI lbe meaninp oldie MlaUa cbll aep a tlbid them. it teelDI eueatial dam W tab Oil die tut of undentwlin& who be WU md bow people llDdentood bis life and maaaae tiefCR be died. Oddly enougb. dlcreuan dYll ofMard'1 . ', ... '. : -. .,; ... :: .. 'A.T"".:, ''\ I ,,,,,.. ff" I ..... '.. ....... ... .__ .... ... ,_,.,. . ... ....... Orlginalf : UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


_ .... -. . _....... __ . c been tblt lheir m11u1 fanmladoa at (llDctioa wae.biltarically coatinpnt on a ipedJic lime-tbmt ii. on die eaaditioal ia wbich Mlltl md lbe prOlpllCb far indepeltdela found ...... ,w:a between 1880 .. 1895 ......,... a poet. a trwl"' .Sa the caaml for Arpnlina and,...._,_. pOlt be raiped in 1889 after SP"'Wi diplomlll bis revolutiomry IClivilm for CUbL ._ Mlnf"s paaim to pmticil* in die llbenliaa of bis coumy bepn arty IDd it mped the coune oftMI life. la 1869, coloaial ll11boritiea in CUbajailed lbe young Mani for disloyalty to Ille Spmilb st& Alrady ICCODlplisbed writer who Ud publilbed political eaaya. poam wl a play before lbe incidear. Mani WM only sixteen years old when be ISWld pm m bis _,.rce in a coloaial prilon. Two yan larer, Mam ratified IO how this experience helped form lbe convicdoo lbll later cmne to dominlle bis life. In an 1871 punphtcl delcribing tbe aad pbyDcal lrm be bad endured to I Spuilb IUdenbip. Mard depicted lbe lbulel, abneplion a.d minculoal resilicace of bis fcUow piloaerl forlbe suft'erina of die OablD people. bqina in age from 11 to 76, lbll 118d &OlleD tbemjliled in cbe tint p.:e. MOIC ............ of all WU a young black slaw wbo Mdjult llliwcl fJom Africa. Manf'l llOly soagbt IO comnce raden lbat it W llCJt ......... lbll Oaba needed IDOll from Spmn. bat '"monlily.""' By the middle m the Tlllll Miid imilled.......,...... far lbe fldlerlllld ii God hjnel( [ .. ]. I feel lbll God wilbin me, I haw lblt Ood widmum; for daia Ood widdD n. ym [the SP"'ilnk] lbaukl 111111 bmlarcrcleclein ... .. . . : ..... ... Orig_inat from . "23." "'\. .. -... UN I VERS ITY O F W I S C ONSIN


. _,. . -..... i' . 43 Beclu1e of bia f....-1 tire1eu Jobbyina eft'odl lhroqb his polidoa a bureaucrat in lbe colonial aownnnent. Manl was OWllblally relwed into exile ia Spain. where he ICUdied law. In Cuba, while lbe Tea Yan' W1r rapd. MllU ..,.._. IDCI 1nwlod to Mexico in 1875. tt.e time of Parfirio Dfa'a coup d'elll. Ma1f mmried into a pcadpoua and weallhy family of Cubln exilca However, once lbe war in Olba ended in the truce of 1878 dal gnnted amnesty to ic1 supponcn. Md recumcd to Cuba in the company of his young wife, Carmen 7.ay11 BUU. In small apamnenc in <:enual Havana. Mmtr liwd modady, became friends with Juan Oualbeno G6mez. an upiring IDllatto lawyer, and with G6mez. quiddy resumed cllndl!nne revolutionary activities. 47 Anead and returned to exile. Mud traveled to New York where his commitment to playin& a by role in the shaping of a new revolution soon COil him the loyalty of his wife and lbeir child. boch of whom returned to Cuba shortly lhaafter. Al limes, Mud expreaed fruantion with die sacrificea dm bis miaaion on behalf of Cuba demanded md 111pr cwct lbe alow prop-ea of bia effons. A few mondla after resigning hia lucnlive post u foreip consul to Aqentina IDd Paraguay, Md Wl'Ole to a clolc friend who lived ia the emipS community of Key West .. Not even to you-who means ao much to rnc-an I fell of my continuoua ucrificea, of my home lost to the affairs of the falberland [ .. ). I have alrudy uid more than I abould l am wilbout 1Ueft81b, ltill wry Nd. My cma, when lhall it finlUy lllive'1"4' Only one of tboumda of emip wbo left d9e iallnd ia lbe ll70a and 1880s for the United Siiia ml odlel' commies. Miid lpelll lbe ... fifteen yan of bia Ute n\'dag extemively in Europe. Cemral Anierica, die evenlUally, between Che florida IDCl New Yen commanitiel of-.-iD lbe Uded SC... In lbe arty 1890I MMtf Mliped hirmelf die menct. Gf bringiDa _....die divene may of emip6 COIDlllllllilie . .. . ... "' r . ""'"-i .... ..:. i .. -.. ., lrtginal I rem ... '\.. ,, . u 1tize u UNIVERmY OF WISCONSIN


emnrpwwwa. pmfeaioall, and inlDHecnls. more criticllly, and mm1DIDy rmewed ties between mickOe.clw emipa and IOCWly ndical wterw of bmba plblicly wilb Man{ Oer bis failme to support a nmewed l'OYOlation in 1884-85, 06mez bid denounced emign lelden IUCb u Mart! for fonnina pllt of tbe .. arilaocntic" rllbcr' lbln tbe .. democndc" c:omaicueacy of die ltewlaeion. CUncterizing lbe fint group unreliable in its IUppot\. G6mez iNilled that lhe Revolution would have to come from "The poor clas. the people, and always the people. They n the ones who will give us powder and balleU IO we Qn tlb to the field. tdD His ICDmentl lalifiecl to die oripna of the reYOlationary nMjc>nalism for which be IDd other military veterw would soon be fighting. Indeed, Md hid fliled to sapport G6mez IDd Mm:co'1 efforu in the mid-1880I despite the fact that Ibey hid pmerecS lbe full blckina of emipa in the cipr'"*in1 COIDllllmitivof Tampa md Key West. Rldk'l'lind by tbeir own labor strugles. first in Cuba and in exile, ciprmlken ClpOUIOd a combimlian of mll'Cbilt wl socialist beliefl amt guided lboir underltafl&tinp of Miit an ideal future IOcicty in Cuba might look like." Altbou&h lbeir coaaicu with md support far pmvioul illdepellMleace movements hlld been cipnnlkln' l'OC(Wll to have llbor dispua witll their Olbln emip6 ..,aoyen nwli.S by leVOlutiOwy leldas hlld coasillendy fliled to work ro their ldvutlge. Morecnter, mmy cipnmbn were lffilillDCl with the KDilla of Llbor IDd bid. ' :.,. .. ,.:;... : D1g1tized by ... > ...... . Orig1,rn,Hro . _. UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN


. .. , .. .... :... : '', 8 f { f f l f s 11 i I J l ( l f I .: .. '. 1 f I I I ; l t i I B' l f t 8 I i , i i I I & -p I r a ", : .... . 1. 1 a 1 1 l 1 -r 1 1 1 I 1-r 11 -1. i" r i r 1 !i''I ii s 11 f 1 -.. .. ... f ii -l ii' ,,, f 11 I I n-I. I t J l r i l r I I i l I l l I I ! I i i I i ! i i I f I I i I f I I l 1 I I I I i I f


: ; \l' 't.,.' 1 I l t l I t t a. g r i J r s r I r I I 8 I I I : Ii} r. t i &: F f i II. l I "'. , t. e: 11 ' 11 l r :.. ir. &' l r l r I. & J } I f l f 1 I il I ... : a. r s i i i l i I i: I i r t t t r I i I: r 1 m: I ( I l .. I I . .. lf.filf(ll. 0 A. .. .. l I ._ a: s: s ? t ""' a :s s l .: I i j f i i r II. 1 I s l I i. i :' . .. if i l f J t if i l II. ? I If. fa l I I c [ l i i r & 1 r. r 1 1 l 1 l I i t" l J: I I I 1 ; 11 l l i I i i f l a. a B I s I l I rf a. .. r I: I I s 8 l s I l a. I ii E l s-(I" I (a. z r r t: l l w ( l J i t I l l r r .. 8 ; !!! I a 3 S I a_ I ... ; g: Ii i t


'' :' .... 47 society then re1po11dDd, --Well, we llpOlosia. Sir, dYll we cannot help you. Hen all of u an wlrla" Md foUowecl dU say with m euay ill wllic:b be celebnl.el lbe decision of a teem African society of ba.:t CublDI ill Key West to racind their 111e of drwm in rituals IDd to lllopt lillll'llC)' IUDdmds a requirmmnll for ldvlacing to biper mt1ll wilhin the lamed. to read because of tbil, seponed Mlnf, but be wa inspired to demand lhal his three IOftl mike his enmp1e die foundllion for a new Cuba by apeing to fiabt in 1he next independence war. In tbele ltoriea. Maid clearly Ulelfed a SClle of edmiuion to lbe nnb of equality widt educated Cubms (who were IDOltly white) tbll wa hued on 11CCUlturacion. Carefully, dw:n, M.arU both con(armed 1he continuing superiority of educared white Cubans and invited bl8ck Oabanl to feel inclMded in a nmlti-layered vision of nation thal could 8':COl11IDOdate and nartwe lbe virtues of bodl. When spa1kinl to an exclusively bllCk IUdieace in La Up. Miid reilenled lbe ame fdeu. ..Wyzing ""the unfonumre IOCial gndllion of the nca [lo.r 1"""'6 60ClaJ.el '/llM#M de las nwu]; die IOWcel of blame or l'UIOlll for lhia level or WJdler; lbe CWI of culture md lbe ialaff'ICienciea of a merely literary culture, U well U die invillbility of a llllural poUdcs in ICCOld wilb die cooditions of lbe couacry [ ], informed by primitive or leaaed mpr, of one or the oda [nee]."" Mcardina to Manf, clilonledinea. aaopnce llld far W cmmed previous rewlmioaary lllaglal for iaclqeDdaa to fail. 11lat such probleml were born ol r.cial llld clw dift'ereiica .... obvicNI. ConlC quendy, Miid caasidered lbe vilbility of lbe Reoluiiaa wt 1118 vilbiUly of ay fatare Republic ID depend at 1be deliare btelencina of oppc:uaa in badl Che dilcomlD llld lbe pncliicc of w. '11m. ,..;. I -. . ;' .-. . ..,.. -. .. ... .. . i ... : Vnyin31 from -" --"''!'" UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


. ._ . . "t't, f ..... . ; . l . . '.!:; . I I I i i I i I ( I l f j 11 I ; I l (l I f f s s . I if a] i Ii' 1,-< J 8 t i j ! 1. i a. Ii , ;\!?-" :. \ = ' c: z < SEo ......,.. ..... -I ..a -<::I 0 DI '"T'1 -:s-0 V'I 3 .. 8 z Vi z f : I I ! f i [ 11 t I i ( i l 1r I: f 1 a i: I i 8 q l '< i i I: r. J i I l I f ! I I 1 I 11 .. I I 'I g. .; 2. 1 .. :l2 4" i I i: If 1 1: ... I l I 11 .. J rJ f R I}> s l l i ( l i l i l f A \_;, ..


... ',l< : ,. .. ... .... fouad IDd ptOIDOIEd La Lip AntW-. a radift& and study aroup for .tvancina lhe educalion of blKk emipa, Manf 11n1gled to Mlltlin mcial fari mnong whita and 49 frequently warned his blm:t collcapea in La Up not ID make too aucb of their activities IO not to give too nmc.l an impreaion of lbe PRC." Co1111nenlin& on lhe virulent c:ampaian of racial fear Spmn Md launched to dilcledil indepeadence in Cuba, M.u noted. .. Alreldy it ii pouiblc to see how here u well dlCle aeplive pauions lrile, and it ii being said lhll blKb arc liale men than beuts.'c Judpaa from lhe views expreucd by men who would become clolely afrdilled wiCh die PRC. it is not surprising Chat Mart devoted 10 much eDef1Y ID glouin1 1he implic:.aicJlll dllt bllcb' inclusion in lbe Revolution held for lhe future Republic. Enrique Trujillo, publilher of the emip6 newspipcr wida the widest wl lonpstlmm cin:uladoo in New Yort. provides a cue in point. In 1889, Trujillo openly appealed to white racism in order ID justify why independence and aot U.S .-ution provided a beUer means for conUOWna bl1eb in the Republic. In bis view of lbe ideal fubn "nllion." blKb would be a1imil_. by wbifel and ewntually elbnin-9 from lbe populalioa lbe mte pevellled lbeir populllioa from powins duough ptabibitkm on bllCk immisnlioa.u As we lball see, Mmf 1riabt-blad1111D on die PRC staff Bltnda Palma. not only lblred Ibis view but ICtiwly punaed it in bocb lbe 1195 W llld lbe emty yan of tbe Repablic: it formed aae oflbe bwl for bil. TrujilJo'1 modial1 de'Veloping imperWilt llltjonalism . . . .. \ I' .... -"i. J ... : I fro, r .. -UN I VERS ITV O F W ISCONSIN .. -.. ., . .. !t-?.i:.:. ,,


, .:c .'> :-Oiwa tbil realilj, Mldf's --., of layerina idw of libenlion wilb idea of balance_. nmninl in bis public dilcaurl8 wl coe1espaadence took compliclled farms, especially u bia relldonsbip wilb Florida lild New York's cipnillbn illfallified lfter 1892. Hopia1 to medille lbe iDOll exaeme of rlCill re.. by modenlina the principal llrlet of lbem, MarU wrole leven1 eaays on key bllClt Ind mullllliO fipra of the revoludowy IDOYelllellL Unden:uaing prejudiced fan that lbe well..tuclfed and patipoua npdatto Antonio Mm:eo, would one day aspire to a role in the future swe beyond 11111 of a milimy IDID. Mart( depiceed Maceo u a farmer who hid spent years coafeilledly ti11ina 1be soil widl bis own blndl ... Similuty, M.u llUded the llllCb darter Raflel Serra u an u.ceptioa to his mce and bis cJau lftd example of Che kind or ideal worker dlll ICCell to education and a "11igber'" cubure c:ould brin&.8 In this way, Martr silenced lbe question of nlCial equlily lllCl promoted rights of equal 1CCe11 inltad. On the ocher hand. Md Wll COiivinced .... differences between wbita and people of color cbll most ucribed ID rw:c wem more due to differences of culture. Haviq come to dais coaclaaion. Maatf pushed billllelf to ill ideoloP:aJ limiel by privalely mecfitllhta oa the laypocbelical propolition of an in1er-ncia1 murilac between bis own ....,._ IDd a bllct IDID. ll>Ok Ms convicliom to die point of endoning this llltimllle tlboo. but pectic.Ubly, .-tec1 lhll --me black C-rror in questioa bid to live up to bis iMellec:cual llld penonal oxpecllliaal Md newr pahlilbed dlae lboapra md it is likely M be aewr illle8dod to do IO. Wriam in. lbart. emotive plnw md peppeaed wilb doodJcd imapa (iaclacliq oae of New York's St11Ue of 1be mipt pws die impnlllioll lbll Miid W111bhlki1t1dll'DU&b ... pm....a i ........ of lbe pablic Josic be


, tipbOpe between lbe expectlliGm of cc.nicting mlioaalilt groap1. bopina not to -=-e off IOCial penaaal imerelt ia pmervina die privilepl Ibey already enjoyed bid to be medi11Dd deliclrely: ., ... ] flWlftjruta crwnt6 oflbe .tvllllapl .s l emmnlllled in the exploifatioa of llawry." Martf "will make reJations 11D011g lhe Oablnl more firm mad generous in the Republic.... lmponandy, IOCially COllWVlllive imperialist DltioDalisu and llllllY revolutiionlry UlionalilU would continue to lad the lilcacea and subdetiea on mce and clus lbrough which Mlltf rached out to critics before 1895 evidence of his support for a nllioa hued on exiremely limiled or w:ry gndual IOCill cbanp. On Ibo odMlr hand. popua. nationaliltJ and IOCially nldical rwolutionary Dltionalisll would choole to inhabit Mlrtf'11ilences and dilcretioa, tnnsfonning them into evideaco ofMllU'1 ldvoczy oftoeal liberllion from injultice and inequality. That propoaenu of multiple nadollalilma interp"eted Manf in nulliple ways became apparent. not IO much in his life, IS immedillely after bia deadl. Multiple momoriel of Miid oriaimtcd in the mulliplo visions logitimlled by Mmd. During bis years IS Ill indcpeodence accivilt. Mard never lost sight of the put oven IS be aloued it in certain ways so a ID beaer aa:ommodale fie needs of lhe prem11 llld lllldiorale fan of die tubae. Allhousb Martf drew cumram between Cuba' colonial lilUllion and the '"redemplioa" lhll Rnolutioa otfored. Miit( also policed remembnnca of die put.IDd wonied lbc>Ut 1be implicariiam lhll conflided meaaiea would hold in the lteYolutioo and Ibo Republic. In a leafllr hi which be nsfuted one wrielr'1 specific memacy of wUt be bid Aid IDd wby, Md DOied. "I ay dlil beclam nocadoal cf lbe put-, madl in lbe military lmle II in die palilbl, psecilely one of the pH9Ht dmpn of liWI& polidca m OallL .... ()a iau:' of pldicullr lllllitivily wbOle dlfl'?"W. oaly led CablDI ID ..... ; ... .:."=:. . ,... :, ... : ....... ; ... .-: ... ;_ ... : .: : .. ..... ..... .... --. Jtized by -' 01iginaUrom .. LIN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN :.. r-.


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-emi.&ds wbo bldoaco mno1edon of Cuba ID die Unilecl Stllel IDCl leCOlld, Martr1 inteu:a1ioa in 1194 oa behalf of Florida c:ipnDlkml who lamcbed a violent sttib die inrellectula and profeaioaals who bad ldwcad U.S. amelllion in the 1880s nadliJI& men Ind nodliq lea dula proponeatl of a coabldic:IDly yet equ.Uy puaioaalle form of nadoaalilm dull wu a product of lbeir own immignat experiellce. M earty 1889. Manf oblened cbli there wu an impomnt differmce in lbe motiws behind Nonb American 111DeXllioailm and emipd aanexllioaism. In Ibis reprd. Martr eqnued sympllhy for the liner. a poup lhlt "loves &heir fadlerlllld with u much fervor anyone and serves it .:conliq co dleirundentmdina of it[ ... )."" While be did not tbMe lbe "logic" of iheir belicft. Martr worked bard co intqnle Ibis poup ialo die PRC. eventually lllllkin1 mch men as Fidel Pima and Ellnda Palma magic players within iL Ewin more criOcally, perblpl. cipnlllbn in Key West lll'UCk in l>Kembet of 1893 only co Wltdl their cmployen conspire wilh local North American officials co conb'llet SplDiah 11rikebreaken from Havana. When dleir lmioD ubd lhlt die PRC send lqal help, Mart( dilpWbed Honlio Rubens, wbo would remain chief lep1 coumel for die PRC lbroqbout die 1895 War. Amazinpy. Rubens used U.S. immignlion law co c:rmh die defeue: for the fint time in lbe bilfQry of lbeir labor attuglel. lbe cipnlllba caaJd declme lbeir lllib a raouading victaly.71 The victory wa as much dlein as it wu M..ra, '&sffth IDd Si-Uh. F"mally, be 111 = rted,. lbe laypoc:rily of lk Uniled SCam' commilmeDt CO clcDlCdC)' ..t civil risbla IUld .... fally loapr c:oald my Caba dclly lbc U.S. btrsbs ilDlatl wbicb.lbe could if . .....


. ;.. ..... I :; .. .... ; 55 uncbocked-co111promile kl principlM in punait of prafil "We'-'' Cublm, no c:ounuy but lbe one we 1111111 fi&bt for," be declmd.,. Jn dlil coamt al divided perc:eFtiW ud outtomel, Mll1f'I dilcoune IDCI pncdcc emerpd a a product of speciflC needs. ID pncticm terms, Madf m:eded ID bria& lbe 1boaun* al emipa who bid left CUba for economic or ideolopcal reasons to ICClle in lbe Unired SW toplber under lbe leadenbip at a liagle party And he needed to link lhe IDO\'CIDellt ID Che militmy cn&aprile al IOCially ndical and pratipom aenerala IUdl a Anronio w.:eo, Enrique Collao, IDd MUilno 06mez wbo liYed in exile ellewhae. Yet, in ideological terms, Mlrd hid to make lhe Revolutioa ICCeptable to both lhe popullr-dus groups wbo would do die bulk of Che fapting in Cuba Ind to the professional llld intellec:cual elires who would govern iCs finances ud represent lhe w Dold. For Mlltf, the question of bow ro lllr8Ct IDd keep lhe support of all poups wa just importlnt for the lbon..-m for orpnization of lhe Revolatioa--ea for die lon&-tam for lhe orpniDlioa of a Republic '"wkh all wl for lhe good of all." Mlltf recognized how euily die scale of social forces could be tipped out of IMlace in boch the Revolution IDd the Republic, and warned bia laden, comrades IDCl IUdienca of die need to bep dlele forces in balance. If did not do so, the Revolution would collape a it hid done befom. Or, wane ycr. nepcting the sacial Mlw:e in the R8pablic would lad to IUlboritlrim ., U.S. dominarion or the killd of social chlol Mlltf pen:eiwd a dktl'inr die biltoly of Cuba' liller replblics in LlliD America. In rapome ro dlae lbort-tam IDCI loft1-eenn meda. dewlaped a meaimic di -.W. whL.1---' --CDlllCiou ........... ....... -L.!-_IC(Ww----,---......--" -.1--"-Ul llD own :r.. ' I .... .... .. ... .,,.?: .. 1 .,. ... ....... "'"',.... '.-


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OemO. lleYolaffeed.. CU. Uin or CIYlllllma tM lll1u, 1"5 Tho IDOll gme. ud md PlhdUl news lblt mceiwd IO fir llM been ... of the dada or Md. c J Wbo .... c1oae whit be hll dam? ( ... ]I would baw pn:fmed tblt be bid aewrcame [ID lbe w float]. -And if k is lrue dllt be ii dad. it ii m iouwwe for him IDd for lbe CUbw; bat I don't dUat it will grady jeClplldile die the Revolu1ioa from Rewluliom ll'e bom lbe liballOD, lbe vars. -Genenl JOl6 Mn Apilre. 18951 On the aftemooa of May 19th. 189S, a cohunn of SplDilb uoops under the COlllllllDd ol JoR Xim6nez de Sanckml appta.:hed the Cubm rebel camp aw Doi Rial, OrieDlle. Earlier thlt day, Gcnenl-in-'Colonel Anad de la Owdia at bis side (a ume iroaicaUy menirw "Oulntia Angel"), be qaiddy plid lbe u1timlle price. Wilbin aeconda ol his fint encounter widl Spmilb ClocJFI, Major Oeaenl Ind President ol the Republic-in-Anni JOl6 Mmd fell from his bone. mortally wounded under a bail of enemy gunfire. Exultant Spmilb fan:m reccwaed the body, cmied it oe lbe blck of a borle to the IDWn of Ranlnpmguas where Ibey buried it in a comnMJll pave. ewa a simple c:otrm. Splllisb llltbolitiel ia Bavm. bowewr, wilbed ID . exploit their victiory ID the fullcl&: Ibey ordered XimMez de SIDdonl ID edmme lbe body IDd brin1 it ID S'Dlia&o de Oaba wllere, surrounded by Spmnilb IOldien. be lbaald pRllide Oftl' a paper tbrilCian burill. Applrendy mowd ID pity, X'amWz de Smdaval exbodDd bis tlOGpl DOt ID lie befma lhem ID enemy oldie Crown, bat lbe body ol a Dml wbmn poUliall circwwtm."'CI Ud pllcecl in dlCir pllll IDd whme lpilit bid lincc rilm ID a mmdful Goel far wbmn all 1111111. .ttec dealb. Ml'C oqua1a.> Mmldll lllS, )Jtximo Gdmlrz waald m:al1 die incidei ...... ap ID Miiii's clellh : .. widuemur-. plia.11111 pilL To llim. Mmtf b.tdiecl ., ,...._., _.., w._ pwy ... .. 1 :' . : ; ... .. .._ -L -. ...:... .... ... :: ... . .. i .I : ; .. ,. .. from -< UNIV ERSITY O F W ISCON S I N J -. .,. _ Li_


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. : ::.c .. =:'' . -' I \"". }(. '::.... 67 Whit do you mike cl lblt? Tiie only tiling left to ay ii tblt lbe Revolution ii OWtr (_.] ..a ADOlber pilriot pn:dicfed tblt Ill Cubw would rejoice once Spmilb reports ol Mint's dCllh proved apecioul. but lhen. leemed to saip himMf to km. "I would giYO my lllll IO cbll thia ll8WI mipt be fabe. My wa hu been weepiaa. I CID tcmlely sleep. lhinmg nigM llld day of IUCh a terrible paaibility," be wmce.' omen, from lebel Cm1lpl in on.. md exile COllUlllDiciea in Sanlo Domingo. wrote leaen in which they pailed Mmtr a "redeemer" who luid found bis eaivmy and promiled to hold memo1ia1 scrvicel for him llld erect monumenta to bis maD01y: "-Oar beloved Mmt hu fallen and ha fallen forever, only his memory will exist [now] u long u we shall in our memory and in our bemU newr sball be erased the affection. die love lhll we profeSled [to him] to a brocher, Ill dlOle of this home [ ... ]. "11 Wathin a month of his delda, Olbln worbn in the cipr-IDIDUf-=curing commmity of Key West lriuqNndy prophesied a ICCODd a millenlrilnist belief CbM led IDIRY to daim Iona after die end of die .. -WW lblt Mart( WU in r.ct, ltilJ aJive.11 One pllriot. Manuel de la Cruz. oblened thll a visitor pllliq lhrouah my one of lbc Florida cilia became immcdi.iy awn of "bow die lo\le of lbelc people has 1Dlde 1" Mmtf into an idol. [ . J When Mmt went oa his pilpilmges to \\ dacse llnda, be went from lrimnph to ICClaimed lib. Prophet. "12 .. ----In New York. even profeuioml emipa who rec:opiad the llnlegic upects of Manf'1 self-CODltnlc:lian before bis cleldl DOW IDlrWlled bis efbu. AJlboup be recopilfld dill Md w not lbe .. demi-god" lhll ewa ed11clled people lib bimlelf miabl ba"Ve t*al him to be in cewies,.., LiDcolD 7.aya1 sdll drdlred me pop111r .. Ap1Cbeolil or Mint" to be ineviUlble since Mam. lib Jems, bid newir doubled bis C1111e. Mmirtedly, 2.ayu-lb many IOCiaJ1y eollmflliYO ............. hem

' '; ,, f. .. . J t l .. ( .. I i ( Si If r ( I a r. 1 ; ' I I f i i ( l ; I l ! J" .! I ft J J J It I i l r l f l I f. t I .. l r f J i 11\ : < . . l t J I f i i t f f i r. l i j. I f 1 \ -! 1 rl) (ll 111. if t 1 .. l I Si 1 l a Jl J lj 1 llih j r i I i [ 9: I i .. : l J .. c: . c .. .. f SI a. oa IC GI!. 1 -. -,. J : f I g l l '< 1 1 J 1 I l t r I f .. K ] 4 J l : i 11: 1 s I I if a t l J I &: I B f l f a i l I I R, ft i 11 er i: i l i l ft :. I

. --'t-.! 69 ultimlllely rapDDlible farlhe derilioal which Cublal made to lffiu.e mm.tws with the cime CX' to dccllle .... unity bdUnd it. Tbe modVldom undcrlyina IUCb decilioal IDd lbe mew cbrouah which dift'm:nt Cubw conlUUded ol lbe aldoa far which dley wete fiptin& are the iauea which c:oncem UI here. Tbil c:blpmr arpel dull Cubas who \\ 111pported. led and fought lhe 1895 Wlr for indcpcadence not of "'nlran," but Ibey expeaed nulliple forms ol nalioulillll lbll often confticled openly in lhe midst ol che nr. 1'hlt ii. Cubln revolationlria on the illand IDd mg emiar6 communities lbra.d did not limply cat aside IOCial IDd political ditrem1ee1 in che percepdon and lhe definitioa of lhe natiou fCX' they foucbl; ncher, Cubas mediMed, llCgOCillcd Ind \.\ wened IUCh ditrerences Cbrou&h tbe wry pnctiCe Of reVOlution itlelf. They did IO on two floats: I) a diplomltic front OYerWll by the PRC in New York and ill suppolting civilian networt of emip clubl lbrold; Md 2) a military front in Cuba owneen by army officers and memben of the Go'Vellllllllll.oflheRepublic-in-Annl. Ill eleceed lllelllbly .... WYed u. Jeplalive body and go-between for die PRC and rebel army in lhe liberlled 10ne1 of the i1land. \ . .. Cuba's indepeadencc forces were compriled ol group1 u diverse in oripn, interest and penpoctive from one lftOlber lbamelves. Specifically, dlil chlpfer will foc:ua on lhe followin1 poup1 raiding aldlide of Cuba: die c:omervllive PRC lcldenbip and ndica1 bllClt cmipm in New York u well u lhe ciprworbn of T1111pa 1Dd Key West. Florida. Wilhin Cuba. we will cOlllider die i.-acdon mid role of Cuba'1 lrilt0Crllic pllnren. 111111y of whom bec1me lhe Rewlutioa' reluc:llnt finlacicni the milbry leldenbipi lbe mbm revoluciooary mdeqnxmd; the prcwilioM1 Ooveramat of lbe Replblic-ia-Anm; Coba'1 DOIHOlllbllant pe P1"Mioo ..t ol c:oane. die """"6Ua. male and fllMle n:bel-tOldicn. ---moll ol wbom Md once beeD ....... worten. ,...._.,or bllldill In lbe conleJtt ol iweocill diwnily, ........... dillPtW 8l tipdy Nllricted--ol :" COINaWllioa, die ID'd"'kj'ot ... Wll ... W-,t ewa ..-. cw* ID lbe I ., -. ..!


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. 71 llld redillribule leMIUl'Cel ID dae pmviaully c:omaniDed by lbe lepciel of alawlry Ind moaocultunl Clpitalilm. lmpoltandy. lbele officen baped ID build a pllallalilt Cublft W that would rewlld appadmitiel ID lbOl8 iiCiifiCc;I during lbe Wllr md c:ommiancat ID c:blllp in Cima of pace would mlb them especially WOl1hy citixns. However, a we shall see. revolutioally nioMlism did not so much emphuize lbe dewlopmeat of democnitic pllticipmxy cbmnela or imtibltioas u it championod Che role of pmicillH:ludillol wbo could lead. evalUlle Ind cany out policies for lbe aood of lbeir popular-c:lau COllllicuenlL la dds seme. ievohlliamry Dltionllim clwnpioned a top-down concept of how lbe tucme Cublll 1111e would re1111: ID ill people IOd room Ibis concept in die bierarc:hical model of discipline Ind cultunl codes of honor lhll c:hlnderized Che Libenlina Army For Toma P.IUlda Palma. die PRC support mtf, llld while profaaioaall of lbe Cuban exile CCJllllllUlity, lbe ltevolulion W meant ID bring about ...-...Oal political chaage. llld thereby the mew by which to move Cuba down lhe l'Old to parer social pqraa. Driven into exile for lbeir views or by reason of ec:onomic neccuity (or bolb). 111111y had built new lives for themlelves u lawyen. small bulinessmcn. physicimas and joumalisel in New YOik. Key West Ind TlllJllL Slrelling foreign iRwstment Ind conlinued relilnce on lbe model for Oaba'1 msar-ccnllnd economy, lbele Cublna apreued a unique wt CCllllndiclDry brlnd of "imperialist Dlliouliam" wbole vision of Ill idell future society in Oaba deplllded on llliafyiq lbe lllndmll of civiliratiM Ibey uw refW in U.S. IOCiety end in pruerving aa lllldl u paail* lbe 10Cia1 order lhml bml formed lhe ._.of Spanish coloaiaJ society. All in all..._ dne ....,Ji""' repraent only lbe more obvious poials CJD a l(AllWU of penpectiWll widaiD Ibo ltewlutiaa. Ow:r' lhD c:oune of dbl cblpear. _we will Wllllde widl lbeeapewiou. illlenc:don of dlele dne forms of Olbm lbeCOlllUt of lbe War of 1895. /w w lhall tee, lbe lteYOlaCion did not liqtly . Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


.. .. ':.:,. ...... 72 clear lbc way form 1C0011modation of llllhiple viliom inlD a mu1Ullly apa:lbk project lbll IMer fell 111*1. billariw have often c:labned, lfter or becauao of the U.S. milic.y inlerwntioa of 1898. Nor ii it the Clle lhlt lbe wpemu of the nsvolalionlry plOjea-a suppmedly typified in Maltf 1 dilcoune of IOCial unity-powid to be its Adlille's heel lblber, the lt.evoludon which WU forpcl behind nm1tiplc, often conll'lldicfory lllaetl WU funded. foqbt and liYCd in lhe same maner. On two fronts. home and abromi. ltnlegiel of warfare. fiDlnc:c. recruibnent and retention of IOldien md supporten stnddlcd. oblcured 111d often cballengcd the boundlries betMen elile Ind mt.hem undmcandinp of protat. rebellion at soci8I order. At tint. the liw:d process of armed muggle. lben:fore. effectively allowed oam on Ill poinll of lbe sociOOllOllli and political specaum ICCell to and inclusion wilhin the ievoluciowy project thlt encomplllOd m111y diffaalt poten1ia1 'nllionl'. This oc:cuned despite lhe very limitations thll some viliom of llllion held for 1fOUP1 IUCh a lhe black """"'1Ua. While imperialist Dllionalilll llld some revolutionlr)' llllionllilCI may ha\'e deemed them IOCially expendlble to lhe fu111re Republic. Ibey remained militlrily critical to lhc cause IDd lberefore. lcpiW coatenden in the scrugle to see lhe pl of independence dlrough. AJlbou&b for lbe IDOll pllt popular llllionalila bUlfed revolutionlry nllioMlisr leldal to ldc>pt pOliliom which would ensure lhe formllion of a civil llbeftlrim, social democncy, Ibey did not necculrily shB lheir laden' belief in lbe need for Yeltical chunels of IUlbority or a clienlelill cullure. >.. a rault, popular DllioaalitU frequently KCed on their own. At limes. their .:licm lpsned the ldvmc:emeat of lbeir C1U1C of a democrltic Dllion by pushin& military IDd dvilim laden to capp their views. But often, popular Dlfic>nali lded ID lbe decrimeat of lbeir llliw:e wilb rewlutimlly nHt a fact wbicb in itlelf, jeoplrdiJ.lld Ibo c:encnlity of lbair 'bldoa." M caaditicm t.nw: more crilbl aad Olbm civiliw inclaliD&IY bl ,.m.ce wilh lbe .... orpapaa.mdonalilm fram 111e c:cn1en o1 power in . . ... . ... ,: .. .. .:. ,, .Orlo."hal from J .. UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN


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' .._. 1 p (. A. e-t i I I. f m 1 f f t s f a j?;-' '. r I: j ii I 11i j r 9 l l j 1 t l t I i ... e. j ... t 8. 0 2. e. s & i ::s fa 8-1.C" .-=-; iJ IC i ,ml if-< I' r ( a s 1 g-I J 15 I!: 1 1. ;;1 -. .. r r l r s st. 1 s-1 1 -< i J. f. l r l .. 11 r . .. t f ... D i "' -c'-A. l t l llJ11 ilg.laf111[1 Rois .. II 1111 & a. I ( If II' ... li'6UJ g: I le: :[-f -.. "" s 8 f 'is-1 !It I i I' 1:1 l11t 11 ;.Bf I : 1 A. 1 J t I : r 1 r t 1 r 1 I 1 i 1 t I r j l f l a I I

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. 76 ora 111111&-. cllriDc from tbe War of 1895 ndlects tbe pmicmle idelllifinllion wilh in .. role. blindit .... taJow .... of limillr runl, pe.bapuld felt. Delcribina Olrda. a simple. bowl day llbarer no. mortal c:oaflicl widl a palODll ldwy toad bim ID flee police pet.:ution, die d6cima recouldl lhe proceu by wbicb bD nllde tbe lap fmm tbe '18111)' of petty Ibid' ID dllt" a a DllUrl1 one: '"Pue robldo, el primer dfa I Una pUina y un [ .. )Mu cMle rob6 un lecb6o I Y ICab6 par uo c:m.uo.11PalllndodeCUIDa'O/Iba11111 la sicuci6nJ Di6 un lllltllo de tap6n I Alcadiendo a blDdolero. Tbe sinpn hid no WUliom lbc>Ut Glrcfa'1 motives-va llmldido. lo primero I Que pcm6 fuc b8cene ric:o." Yet, they Illa appropri-.1 bis triumphs their own. Bragging lbl& lince bis arty days a "an bononble bmdil" in which he kidnll'fCd llld nmomed individuala known for their pomposity r blaialld'). lhe d6:ima Olrda's bumingdownoflhe mprmill owned by Manuel Calw a 111 ect carried out in lhe coneext of lhe 1895 War. The news of such a fcal by now, rhe d6cima predicted. must have rachcd everyone-including Spain. Jqxxundy, lhe cMcima also implies Garcfa'1 polelllial willingnea ro give up die fiaht if Spain were to offer penoaal llnllClt)' from peneculion for bis former bandit activities: "Si al pobre Mnael Oll'C{a. / A quicn boy tlllto Dlrte libenad le ofnan I Sepro ea qae aceptll(a. /As! se le llamlria I Al ver que tic:ne dincro I GllUdo de bmdolero, / Honndo y bombre docenee, /Pua en Cuba ea may corricnlD I TJPO cal de cabaDero,"" Money, die sinpr implied. lllowed many a former criminal ID cblap bib IDd social roles: Giida. if giwa half lhe dMrn.. misbt have been no diffens Ihm J11111Y adlllr walchy m COlllidmd "lelitimlle" by coloaill socicty. Tbe feet lhll he was ncilber pm dlil c:blDce nor would ewr be coa1idaed JepiDJle in cbll IOCiety IDlde bis mmiua mcl mvice ID tbe Rewlulioa udertiehkl h misbt allo have mlde bis ltary of ........ md mplln from c:alanW IOCiely boda ........ llld pilpUle ID IDldial who ....._. tbe penaml mmws rl wmldlillr aftima. Thu. cwn if Mlionalilt IOldias al J 1 -=naill did-in a.:iasapelimc:e of alicmioa fralll a>kclill IOCiely my . '.. . .; . .. "'.r 7 I ,..,-4.. ... ,._ . ..... by.. -og riginarfrom UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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;:1o ..:.. -. :.'o . . ... 77 IUict pmUeJa with cbeirown. Olrda'a eumple might* a model for undencmdiq llld eqa'biziq wilb mom powaful mw>lulioalry laden who enjoyed paler weallb thin their IUbordimla bm no 1111*' IClllO of lelf-nss-:L SipificMly, 1bc inclulionofbllldib wl bcm:ingofblDditladen wilh milillry cnmmand was not IDOllllloal to the pnen1 militlry m.,. ldopfed by lhe revolutionary leadmbip nor to the amme mat predominat.ed in me campgrounds of me manigua. Ralber. me pnnncc of mm c:omidcml criminals by lhe SP"'ilh meshed easily with lhe protocOl of iDlurgent llllCb that under other circumlUnca. mi&ht baYe been conaideled criminat by the imurgency'a elilD ladersbip wl ill supporters. M Ada Ferrer dilCo\leled, the social wl polidcal c:oau:nt of the wortd-tumed-upl ICela .... c:Unclmized rebel invuiona of plmtations or toWU could DOI have been loll on non-
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"fl. 78 born oat by the urbln mcl nnl CWI Femr highlipu. Wbile .._ worbrl or poor raidem of..,._ wded Ulde piOIDIQlg fra:n die rebela ID amt the oockm for fr.dina. driatiq mt lhlrin& of luxary ..... a lbeir own. loyalilt a.loolren. ........ fonnm bid liltle ll'OUble defining who the ldlell were or bow ID lllbel lbeir ldom: to lhem. lctl of w carried out by soldien wcre plain eumplel of bmdila canyiaa out 11e11 of blllditry .u Yer. delpicc Spmilb lben'l8 to dilcledit the molutiomria a binds of common 1hieYa mt plunderers, poplllr-clw pmticipms leimd such opponunities ID decllle their penonal honor ml dignity in ways mea to engage lhe nlues of opprcaon who considered lbellllelva IOCill Iden." Ferm' cifa a pllticuJa1y poip11n ample of dUa in deacribing lbe .na of m elderly Afn>.Cublll aeat who *>le a Id of cudery on a pllntllion raid: "Wlm a fellow soldier llked him why be bid bothered raking the ailftrWll'e, the tergant nllpOGlied lbll he had spent a lot of time 8lling with his hMda wl that he wlllled to give bhmelf 1be plealan of adng with a knife IDd fort, '.just lib the rich people. .. 26 Such m..-were fOUIDinbeadl for lbe recruilment of new soldiers md IWlilimy forca from llDOOl lbe men IDCl women inspired by lbe symbolic empowerment of aucrrilla raids. For dae whale lint gUmpw of the RevolUlion came on the occaion of such nida, 1be complicity of IOIDe ecoaomicllly privilepd ofticen wilb the expoprillion of penonal goods by poor IOldiea'a amt have c:onbibumd pally ID lbe 1e111e that dUa w-llld lbelefore. die nltion lhll ii fouotlod-were auly lbcJUt menhlg mlterial iaecpaitia and ripaing social wronp. Redilldbulion. mmy RICNitl may haw ..a.I. wu a fundllnental pat of the popullr ulion dui tbeir ICdolll in the Wlr ..... to build. Dqmdins on wbeCber or not lbe rebels a dil9Ct rauk of perri1la tacticl, mmy IOldien' iDilill experieace in lbe ReOludon may nat only haw c:onfirmed a popular ...._.ian they lln:ldy felt, but Wllllibllecl 10 lbe pmmlioa of aucb feeliap ll a penonal md sraup ID daclibin& lbe brillid milltlry invaion of 'WUleid Olba ID . Sllftdar a..m Beeearanrt. PraiM of lbe Repabtic-ill-Anm, Senftn 8'Dcbez .-ifitd ID . .. ..: . . ... '!? ; ... :;:-4 . '' . 4 .. :;: < : l,..;?!;.:.'. : .. - ::-.:';:;. ... :: "'. ... ; ..

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,, '1 ... '...,_ . < rn .. :D'll -<-:;:---....... DI "T'1 .. 0 ; 1 Z" VI .: ' l t \ ., ... I -' .. ',

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....... r .-,. ,_ 80 popua. Mioa1km of IOldiea end Iba band of ns\'Oludanery nMjcwljpn lblt pmic:iu oftic:en like Senfin S4nchez IDd bis j1111wdi mperior, Oealnl AnlDaio Macao. espouled. Eftft m indi\lidul otran wbo CCllllidered lbamehel am IOCillly ndinecl end lhc:refiR. men 1llltailDy deprived by tbe uigmcia IDd dilcamfcm of life on tbe fronr deedy Jeaicim u II die oppodUDitiel for expopri11ion ead alaalliYe imapc-iiool M poor aoldien pYe diem. AdYoc:mling a socillly COWl'YlliYe nllionalilm lbM may haYe combined :! of...._...__.....__,_ ... ... .. -.u..-..-:__..;...I .a. C!llJCIJ UUUI awua-,. u uooa--.. .--,._ Wlua, jullified end unclioaed tbe fice.u>.tice requests Iha poor IOldien often made of wealthier pldlicos Ibey encounfDR:d. Jn doing IO, dlele otfic:en comcioully ruprmed lhe boundary between lbe "pnrlemll\'1 Wlr" they saw lhellllelYeS to bo fipdng end die war of social protest Ibey vined IOkliers of die llborin1 clala u fighting. The medical doctor Eugenio SUchcz A&ramonle. wbo paued bis free lllCJmelU in the IDlnigua rcadina Vietor Hugo's La Jlwrabla. provides a cue in point.JO Combining a dilcoune cf eriarocndc disdain for the iablbitlntl of a small town in Mallnm. S6ndleZ nonedielea found die complainCI of its middJo.clau citizens epinlt poor soldieli repcebensiblc: We paaecl through the main snet of lhe Town ofT..,.ae (2.000 souls). Ugly end IOllY place. lls inblbitanb -quite insipid Ind uncultured (incllllo.r). only lbc pdcman priest ... is worthy of special aaention. The wife of Dr. Oowley went u far u to kneel befcn me beclUle lhcy had .-en her bone named Guajlm6a. And she ldUally celled benelf a Paaiot! The Pbarmlcilt D .... mmplained to me Ma soldier bad aated him for his oYenlls ... be aays lhat be aufl'en from a allergy to pllllll md brUlh (NMIOpli.rU) ... And the soldier wbo pa bis blood 10 fall of bakh ID redeem lbe Pllberllnd of all .. ? Ay, human eaoiam! whit depded beillp. Whit fruits CM luch beiap produce (for liberty]?" : . OriJinal from ""' ... _:. . ._:. l:jNIVERSllY OF WISCONSIN

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81 At times. S6odm Apmnoale ldmialecl 1hlt the LibaatiJt& Anny reliDd Oil amed iDtimiNtion to secnait p1Cr&ol for IUCb undcainble lllb u CID)'iDg tbe wounded on a IDllCb. Y ct. dUa wu a IKtic be ll(JPIR!lltly ADCtioned wilh the lllllD conviction a be clcl the aproprillioa of penona1 itema.J2 Thus. in taking lbe lidc of rcbel IOldien apinlC indiviGllll who misht odawile haw been bis clus allies. S4acbez Agnmmlfe cootributed IO the perciepcioD lhlt lbe Revolution was lbout tuming lhe wortd upside down by livins OUI, 11 lalt occaioully. thll ideal. However, lbe importance of the rd>el1' qimenled lifmtyle and of the milicarily c:oncrolJed cin:wnlancel in which eYellll such u dliJ occ11rred should not be underatimlled. A5 usued below. officers who did not ldvoca a rldical. redillributiw vision of the fuQue OJbln llldon hoped ltwl by maintaining conuol over cbe &equency 11111 dhec:tion of guerrilla tllCticl. they could beaer llllD8p their ideological implicadonl. la short, such examples of oftic:en reining in lhe radicll pncticel of IUbordinatea repraent mamea11 in which lbe guidin1 principles of revohdioury Ulionalism conflicted wi1b dac of popular Mtjom,liw. While IO a c:enain extent. more powerful rewlutioury nalioaalist officers were willing to enpae wilh, confinn and inc:orpontc lhe demlDds and inlerelts of popular nltionalists info their magics of wlrfare, they often worried lhll thele demands and inlel'elCI were pining too much pound wilbin lbe Revolution. Thu, Ibey worked to remen lbe parer-dilcunive legilimlcy of lbeir own social va1ue1 by repalalins lhe influence 111c1 ldioal of popular DMionalilt ldOn. Given lhe need to monitor soldier behavior ia line wi1h their own undentandinp of ctbica IDd honor, rebel aderl felt lhey needed to rely on strict....._. far enforcina dilcipline llDOll& lhe aoopa. at lhe objectives of lbe cmnplip11 became confuled and lheir "CllDivalelque" 11pect1 pt out ofbmd. This was apecially uue wilh repnl flO lbe supplies akudy cbe w cffod IDd Cbe lllocalioa of mppliel dllou&h coorcli..-d nids lbe poperty IDd domain cl plllllDll or lbe Crown. Not mrprilinaly. perblpl. blDditwe1e ftequml 11rp11 of mililay NpDIMla llld tblll one '-tit-' ./ 1 Original from ; :;; -=-! uNIVERSITVOFWISCONSlrif': : : : .

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t .. ( : '. J t I : I 1' t II I j l f I I l : I i 11 I ; t f t .. ... .. It ... .. II. l I a. 8 I g .. f .. i !I. : i I f .. If I: R II l >. f n I f I f f I i j l 1 i f i i J 11 r .... . [ I J J !. 1 1 s 1 1 1 i. 1 1 i 1. r II' s & .;;i'::s "I I!. ft s p I I i I -. .. [ I l [ > i i g !-j I ; I I 11 1 t !' l I J :t : i t J 11. 1 i J r i !. l i l ( r J f I J f. ( B. : : -111 .: I I J a f ( I -< It It II. a. If f & of J I : l J. a. I s 1 j. I J I f : I J I I t . &' I 1 i I It I t i ... l .. ii I I if l ! J I i I I ... s I J I j. J J f I j. if If =Ea f r f I ?: I I f s f f -< ,. 11 I i 11. if I J. 3 i l I f t I i. f II l It I f i f I I I I I I i 1: i .. I i I I i i I I ,. I I t f I l f Ii' tt i J t Cl Er :I

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. --, . -' . I . ... 13 time CCJIDrldHn.lnm and Sewlino Riclldo. who hid .... wilb bim in Mnn7M, Dapile the flCt cbll more evidmce uisted ep lbe wbim ofticen Ind tblt lialc more tbm rumor of MlllgU' bequat to Gdmez existed. lbe court aolved lbe whites of the crime while RDcmcing R.ic:ardo ID execution by firina lqllld. Rado BmeU. a bl.ct veteran who publilhed bis ICCOUDt of lbe war in 1912 in order IO demyddfy 1bc l'OllllDlic images chat had lince prolifermi. taCifiecl thlt SeftriJlo WIS uajuldy killed for bis color. "And being die only Clid of color wilh c:omnwnding rink in die province. die majority of them having died [while) envy IDCI llllllli-democrali spirit C01Mili1wi to exist in lbe revolutionll)' camp due to the zeal for glory. the dealh of 1hac unfonuaare [mm) was wilb few exceptions. deeply felt by all." Widl a ttue flair for lhe dramllic. Severino met lhe firina squad's shower of bulleu while smoking a cigar. Military otrlCials then orden:d lhll bis body be displayed IS 111 example to all soldien (especially bllck onca. ICCOfdin& to Bllrell) who W1R nUldc to pande before it.JS Smely, tbe confluence of me llld bandit oriaim in Sowrino Ricardo's cae mlde the message of SUllllDlrY comcqucnces for violMions of revolutionary order exceptionally clear. But Che fam of the case suggest lhal more wa going on in the minds of Ricardo"11eeusen than limply the desire to dilc:ipline a fellow off"acer who bad let a bml euqle to rebel ttoops. Whal mldc Ricardo seem a worse or more dlllprous example du lhll of bis white ICCCJlllPlica? Wu it nice alone? Or men likely. wa it die maal liak lblt his 1mm:11 aaum:d between bis ICtioas, bis l'llCe IDd the appment 1111onomy lblt bolb implied from lbe c:IWn of commad? Aft all, lbe ori&inal "owner" of die gold we in question w a bandit himtd Joll! Mgfs. Yet, with no dilect evidence of whit he hid intended to do wilb lhe WllCb. M-.a' wbifalell ad p:ncml affilillion ro MUilno CJ6nr.. chief rebel fon:a. officials ID usume be hid ICqUiled lbe wlldl oat of nalicwc madwa. ndler lhlll lelfilll OD111. la lbeir miDdl, Ricardo may baw lppal'Od ID by-pus lbe cha of ... . -::: .. Qriginal fr"?m UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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: .. : J r-. a 1 ... . : . ' t 1 J r. J t i t f i 11 f 1 11 t t . iJf ,:" l t f J : l 1 l l 1 1 r. i I i f !'. l i I I r 1 1 '" rs l_ .. a it .. 1 f'il''!l.11 ..... 1 .. !f ( J r s rQ If --'"'. II l5 If-'< ( I " 8 S r l & K f t I Q_ I 1 I Cl J IL ip-c fl R. Ito< .. f. I l j 1 r i I r I I I l ; t l a_4. n"' II f!l I J t I l l l I r & i I r i f I -, r 1 J I I I I f i .t J I f I I I: l t ,. I It I l -f a I I I I .f 1 -f i lf i WI i ,. i I f i 1 I I t I I I I z [ J If ... [ c.i.r 1.-a a! ai a i II f li.J r ... J ..

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,. : 85 aeca1ary for lhe tublilteDcc of rebel troop1. 1'hul, lbeft w11 clef'med 11 mcb oa1y when committed "wilh the imemian of bewfiaiua wlrily [eo1 """' llomi m:i more impoctaly, when IUCh Kii were canied aut with violence or iJldmWatioa of lhe penont [robbed] or by lhe ue of fon:e on lbe objeccl (llDlm] Other typa ol dleft which did not directly employ violence on ownm ol lhe property IOiJJed. or display lhe emnarb of undue ranunentioa to the thief, fell outside ol the criminal CllqOly ot fObo IDd Mn RO( punilhed. On the ocher bmd. tbieWI whole ldl hid led to the dellbs or mutilalion of the penom robbed (or those who came to lbeir lid) were punilhlblc by execution. Indeed, die description ol ldl of thievery molt resembling blDdilry were llllCtioned just u hmhly, ever1 if no de8lbt or nmtilalion oc:cumd. 1'bele included cases in wbic:h lhe victim ol a robbery wu dettined for more dwl twenty-four hours (arpably, a lilUlion too clole to 1be kidnlp-andnmom blclics of bandits to be accomodlled within lhe Revollllion) and. my robbay commiaed ,,. cvadrllla." The laaer occurred "wbcnevcr line or men ll1lled scommlt coopente" for such ends.,. In Splllilh. the WOid "CUlldrilla" ii most commonly med in relationship to bud.its, meaning 'png' or 'band.o>1 lntaalingly, the Code's toqheat mcuura to lhe coun-llllltialing of IOlclierl for se.x crimel, labeled .. Crimes apinlt Honesty." RepnliDa lhe social ComlnlCdon of man.lily, lbere WU litde room for neaotiDJo of bounda'ies. for example, the code meted out pinimmem nngiq fJOm summary execulion for gpe ..s rap1a, to mat wt confinement for dx. committiag bipllly. Rape WIS defined by die code quite propcaively II the violalioa of a woam l) using "fon:e. fiolela, or lpplOpria inlimidlllioa;" 1) 1lllder conditiou in which she wu depriwd of bermearal fm:ultiel becluw the Wll "UDCCJlllCioal or wi1bout her-... reuaa:" or 3) if the wa twelve,_.. old or lea. repnOea of lhe ci!WHMfWiioel Rapm. a culluraUy spedfic: llll'm implYinc 1be kidmlRIDI llld ew:naaal IUUll of a WG1111D a a wpmislwl* by._.. tf coanined apimt the will oldie wamm, ol her la aa in wbicb die wommdlimedito hue joined me . ,.. -, I if. ]' . ' ,.: . : 1:.-.l. . . .. ::: -. .. .. : _. : ..... ,.,_\,: :"',;+ .. -1 !:. .. f I t . 1 :: ., -;;_. ,: Ori g inal . ,,. ..... .. CffllVERStlY OF'WrstokSIN .,. ..: -

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; .. . . 11 I i J f f 1 11 1. I I I i J I f t ; I I I ' ..:, : :. : . 1 I I 1 a I .. 1 J! i t J. f i f f 1 I ; :: ' I I j J I f "< I.. $l I I a 1 a I JI .. R. j n fl r . :,, f ;J .::: I I [ I i I I t { l I P. .. 11 r I 8 n 8 f f I l I I I I B [ r I I I I I .Js f -&ll s: f( .. t It -fl a Ii" -I . I I sJ g. II II" B. 15. I 1 .. l t. r P = a. a I 1 r t 1 i i 1 i I r I 1 f [ t , 1 1 1 b -!.. JI I I I l I s I t J. I I H" .! i ,. I ,--y. I z s-I s w I .I I 11 &: a 9. t s I .( 8 a i 1 r a I -a '?: . .. I I I I & ,-1 r f. l I r l I II .. t ! I

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. t .. ;, .. I I I : I I t I i 11 t J I l I : r I r 'R !. I f : I J : I i r. r 1 -I 0 r z a t 1 s.1:lllil l( .... I i I i a I ,.' l l [ a. 1 I 61 -I-1 ! t Iii R --I aa s -f A l e: I i D. ,. 0 t It a . "" II l ii Ir 1 i Ii' l :iC. .... I t 11 J s._ l I '. lif ii!'f !. l }fJr-,Jf a.al1f rf I ,; l i. j f I Ii l f I l i I I i 9 t I 1 I I l"' J-. I ii. .. S'gj. a; I 11 i i 1 [ I i : i. ! : 11 i l i r ( r I 2. 1 ... -:, ii Ir-s Ii I I !I I . I i 1 i 1 I [ I l 1 J 8 t t I I I I S" I I I !!

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W;.t .... ..... . . i .. . ,, . . iii<'.:i-' :' f .... .... ,_. 111 J t I j ! j I f l I l I I i I I I f I ti' ., J i I 1' i a t I j' ': 11 II I I I II l .. I : l I a. f l I ; .. ". 1i a_ ;' I I J f I j !f I I l f 1= i t t I i I a 'l'i.8 s.[fra. o
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. (. d. : f J f 1 J r f I J. f J I ( J j I !. i 11 f f J . as. r t 'i: ,: R g. f J I II f ; -f i I I i ; t l I I I= l I J w 1 g i 1 I-1 1 I p i a 1 i 1 f I l J I ! a II 0 i f I ii i' f i II. I .t s 83 I J J J l r I I e: I I i I .. f rll ll!.if rlis I'< f J Ai t i s I Q. f ii If i J 0 I I I f j. ... If i f s a

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91 c:amou08p ll nlabl. lbe hmling pncticea of CIOWldirrm, or limply die lndilions of llDly-elliag ad music cbll pnMded die lrOapL Tbae ame group1 might haw conlribmed lelVic:e ID die ewe in ways cantinucJas wilb pre-existing IOCial rolcl-helling IDd Q)Oldng in die cw of womea or WllDn& c:locbes md ICling u niabt Wllduncn in lhe cac of die elderly. ffowcw:r, dleir conlml and dilllDCe in time from slavery ma mcb ICU new meaning. .. Mcnover, male mmnbilca caaec llfed explicit and implicit gendeaed chqea of dishonor by immpndng their own expecicncca wl the imlrumenla of warfare evidence of their IDIKllliDC dipity. Aftl:l all, to be blldt in Cuba oullidD of die Revolution WU c:atainly to be withoul or of limited honor, at least iDlofar blaclmcu met bollor MR meaured with refcaaa to c:imle wbita IDCI s.,.wi colonial nodom or identity. The norms of conduct in llaw society luld pennitled Afro-Oabma. wbelber 1lae or free, blD or lhe right to c:o-cxilt wilb whica only in recum for rendering wvice to whita llld lhmby Jeaitimltin1 tbc mperiority of wbireneu. Cuba during the lut war for indepeadenc:e wu lcaa dlan fifteen yan removed from alawry. The War of l89S provided former 1lava and their dcscendlnts the opportunity to explode tbae b'ldilional in lbe mlftigua and in blftle by dint of the Revolution' contndictmy and frldioua, lived reality. 1bus. some mmnbilcl auccincdy dermed cbcir motiVllionl for joillin& tbc cmnpmp u lhe risbt it pw lbem to cmy a gun, a ri&ht pacrally iacrved for wbila and off-Umics to llavel bcfcxe lhe Ten Yan' War. Bcce the ri&bt to carry a sun was paeralizDd ID all IOldien Ind some unill eYeD paticiP*d in die cmyina IDd firins of larp 111111cry mcb M ClllDOlll, it ii eay to lee bow IUCb MlpCJlll could become. oace ia the bands of munbim, die aymbola of their ncw-fouad power. pn!llip llld mucutine leallincy. OlbenjoinecUecflllD cbey c:Wnwl lbll die wt the '"to do wblt me WllllL'"" Ohen lbD invaion r.dica dllcribed artier, die prapwtia of af6cen wbo knew dut IDldias often bid to fend for tbnmelws, IDd lbe hiablY : . . . . : . "Original 'from :: , ... .s:.. :.iJ ..... UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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. .. '\. It 1-. -:i:d, 1 t 11 1 1 1 1 i 1 i 1-11 1 11 er (Irr l t-'f. ta fl a J A-11 i= f (Jli I l t f [ I I :.. A-I . c: i l I . : 11 . 'l t ii I! ts' i 0 ( s l r I r ( 'C l I I t l I 1 - '< a t J 9 l t J 8 I l t : l I l J l I k I If f l : -o ... I 1-_ B l a: 1 !I It It. If !f. i I ;;J s.f l' I ... If -r 1 f 1. 8 ;: 1: i: f ;. s 'C l --J :s I .:... ol .?' ... ;

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l ... O <5' .. N J ,, C : :,, -,. 1 -R ... 1.1 >-I_ i '< A. i s .. .: < -I .... \ I ........ .., --1 1()',. -< ::I 0 DI .,., a ........ 3 8 I :Z Vi :z = 1 0 11 .. I i n. r ii i l I i t I I I 1'"aif1-ii? .. Ills i t 8 [ i I J I I f If. .. f Ip j l s : : ,.: .!. ,, ..

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... {t.. r. . ] F ... i i i 11 f I t I l f i 1 111 f I I i 11 I Jll 11. 1-f!11., ra r; . r l f 1 I l [ 1r I:. :: r J I 11 t f i I r lf 1 t f I : l 1 I 8. 11 r M t I r I l r I &... 11 fa-;;fl,. ifta!l f 8 f iJirl. i' (1r1jl9 sl 1 -ti z .. a. B a l1 tli s:f l\ = . I ll j I II' i : f s J i ? I a I I t if i i l : I I I I i I l I I i I l I I I f 2-_ ... 0 '.:I .. z I I .-j I i i !. i .. II. i !I j l I ... I J 1 : I a.-if 11 l I s i . "' ,.. I

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. ;,-. to dleir ICl'Vice. One IUCb cme ii dm oflbe poor bla:k WOIDlll Mmfa Hidalgo $lntana from MM!mM who spAll ramly rillmd her life It lbe bad of lhe iafllllry to cmy the om.. flag dter its belrer' fell ID Spmilb balletl. Ahboqb lhcll leWln limes a a n:mlc. Hidllgo s-,.,. survived to 1te eiabl more blnlea IDd to ldaieYe lbe nnk of Clpcain.' However, brallte of her social rllllt a a farnm llbcnr of color llld her presumed illiteracy, much lea ii known about Hidalgo Smtlna Ihm about Pdlrredoada. One can only wonder bow many mcR women ade simUlr ucrifas thll went unrecopized by lhe l..Jbendq Army. For example. it ii well known lhll mtllltbiMU typically aervcd u mascngen lllCI Cllricd official lcttm or n:podl tbrouall enemy lmricory. Legend ha it dlll 111111y hid sc:rolled mcmga in lbe deep hflrt of lhe ...uipo.M, che fngnnt lily-lib flower dlll ii considered a Dllional symbol. which they then wore in lbeir hair or behind lheir ean.61 Men such u Raflld Rodriguez Sllllm (my 81'*-annd fllher) received die rd of Clpcain ror lbe similar laVice of cmyiDs PRC cu1eapu11dence lrriving from New Y orlt Ind comaniqu& from lhe maigua in La ViDll province. After Weyler illllitutcd policies of 'reconceamling' rural populations in cidel wl inawed patrols in lbe counllylide in 1896, bis wife, Taua Roudo SIDtm. and OCber women bepn to C111Y out these duties. Ye1, they wae not &imilarly leWllded. Ramer, mililmy off".a.11 saw women like Teresa supplemendng men's roles or 11 .W.111 men's IUbllicura. Whenever it seemed lell libly tblt a femlle traveler would 110U1e 1Uipicion. it was only Dllurll--cbey IUl'liUlecl--dl lbe wife of a molutionary M>Uld 111U1De her mspoalibilida to ber bulbmcl by Wt"!ring her hulblnd11 respoasibililia to cbe ReYolutiaa. 12 Naaelheleu. women lelVing iD fon:el under lbe cmnnwl of Olber women undouberdly piaecl 11eamldaus caeem fmm IUCb an experience.jut u Afio.Cubw of boda pnderl wuuJdhave fram lelVic:e under plellisioul ofticrn of lbeir own edmil:ity. The williwll"" ol woaa llD perfmn duliel fat lhe bvolulim IDd often. wiaboutrecapilDa olmy tindanly deanomu-. bow aa:la cbDy pen:ehed Ille allioa cbDy COllllnld8d a lheir OWL : _:.i . Original from ,. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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; . : 96 Al!bauah .U IDO brief, lbe lepcy of ctilcunive evidmce lhlt litlnle women pllrioD left bdliDcl apeab to lhe deplb of comciomnea lblt IDlllUIM felt. A 110W110, or Cadaotic prayer. 1e111 to Banda Palma in NoYember of 1897 by a wmnm mmed Taaa do deeply pndmd spiriluality. ntlcd "Novena ID the MOil Holy Vqin of a.ity of Coble. inm:alor llld prolleCtOr of Cubllll." the prayer is, in its raw aimplicity, a powerful swement of bow clClldy the concept of Dltioft could cut to the core of one'1 ideality IDd beliefs: .. I coauneod my IOOI to you n.t today lhe Fllhertand labs from me Beclu it needs them To mab its freedom. Pmrec1.. my Madler And lhc whole Olban people well Permit lbll Ibey might ttiuniph OYel' lhe tynnl Ob, Mocher of Charity. [ .. ] Te m:omiendo a mir hijtM qw #toy la palrl4 me lo8 qui/a porq de elJas necuita ptllO,...,, .. Ubmod. protljelos Matin mfa ya todo el paeblo cubano flat triwrfm ., tirano =ta Caridad.[-] You who R also a molher, The wic:e of. mocber you bar Your pmn WU allo pat the puaion of Jesua. Jn every molution R llllltyn of m idea Lib he wbo died in Judea On COlllempCUOUI croa; For die -=red memory of the lllllt)'n of Cuba My voice riles to heaven In fCMIDl prayer; Ill pc.:e their IOu1I fmd repose On die breast of slory. Wbilo your DllDD bisaory PlaaWI with bonor. .. . . .... ; 1 Original from '\]) .. .... ... .... uNIVfRSl"fY OF w1si::ONSIN

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' ,,, 1f l I f ft. i i 11. '1 I I l I J r. r f r a. 2. J ... s l r i ii I f I i if f & i 1. J l A. 1 l J a. J i I l i I. i f I J. I j t I i iHUUt .. 3 1 t ! 1" J f I 1 t i i I la' i I I -g' s 1-:: a If\ .. a R .. i { i J J f i ,Er : r I f I A. I i 8 I J A. f I J f s f I i f. I , f I g r i I A.of' if Jr.'1 ,, i II.... :{gt a la. ( r 1 i 1 ; i J l r 1 11 i l l 1 I IS I Si i' Ji p. i II a. I; I I f -lM I a.ri;1f's f M-. . '

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r f\,. .. . .. >'. r 1 ... h .. ... ,,,, . . l f l t 1 l 1 "' i. f l j i i I l J l : If f f 4l. I I r 1 I 1 1 1 I i J Q 1 i I { I 1 f i. I l t J ( t } i .: l Q,9.. t i I I 8 I & f It &' i I : g j(. 1Ja-,isl1 r iisli-111! i I i [ J i I I I J t I I 11. r I I ( 11 I r C' I s r. 15' I I I r l f I I i f I I I i I r J r I :;1 l a I l I i s .! 1 I t l '' fllsJrf! fj I I r I I l i t f r I r I

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99 helps. That one ICDdl mm. KIDI. muaitiou Ind diil one employs chem. [ .But] owe ii pace, over bele. nr. 64 Indeed. lbe ndically clif&awt c:onrutl fnm which lbe civilia IDd military winp of the Revolution nae only expedenced thew bat fonnu1*d ill objecliwa would prove critical co ill dindion in lbe yan ID come. Afr Mart(' I dellb, however, PRC leaden in New Y ode quickly comolidllal their power u Che ID1horitative voice of die Revolution befole die world. Adina independertdy of many emip clubs and increuingly, of umy ofl"llCCl'I in Cuba, PRC laden ldively suppreued lbe more radical, socially lnnlfonmbve Nlliamlilm espoused by IOp rebel oflicen, lbe mus of poplllr'
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,. ; . .,, ,. ' .. ::1 t ... : .,.. J' ,, : .. . M ... a-II: 11lr.s ll1rl11 .. l 1' I J I : : 1 t i I l .,. 3 l l I f , l f ft f .. I &' a. n i I l s i1 t 1.c:: I. ; :.' . l"l i. ... fll ,. . li".lft i 111 .irij! iii l,tilr({-.: J11 pl j.rf 'if 51,1 . R a. f rrlia.lif t-11 f l J a: 1.1 l I r ;t l t a .. ( ( = I 11 < I a_I c::J Ia.Pt fl.. II "' -f .ii !I. II 9. I If I 1 I -15. g Iii f{!r0 tit z t i '1 I II I I ,,. I J l l I I II i I I t .. a.1 I .&:A.( l,Er.!,CI.: c::E.1 '1. r. i's !l 1 t-8

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. > -101 Uke dUa men:bant. Eltnda Pllma'a coafidDnce in 1be beneWJlence of U.S. ialleaDoas mcl influence wa melrhed by his CClGfidence in lhe lbility of Olbml like himlelf ID lead Cu llOWlrd the brighter, fulurc of modemily lllCl IOCill prosreu he imagined .. bis nllion. In December of 1895, one ofBablda Palma' fint ofticill .:1111 Martf'a mcceaor in die PRC WU lO ... hil CISe for U.S. tecopition of Cublll belliaeacncy rigbb ID lbe U S Depldmeal of SUie. To do so, &nda Pllma aelied on lbe logic of his own nllionllilt vilion: his leaec lO U.S. Secmary of Sta Richll'd Olney is punc1'11ted with pll'8llcls between lbe c:u1tunl values. polilical beliefs lftd CWll the biarory of Cublll revoluliomriea and the people of lbe United Stllel. In lhia reprd. EattG Palma's official comnuUqu6 repwnll a study in COllb'ldicCioa II one level llld a well-polished rdlec:Qon of unified c:onvidiona at IDOCher. In one moment. Eslnlda Plhm seemed to ala' ro U.S. l'llCism by iMiltjng lblt the 1895 Revolution was not. u lhe '"Spaniards charge, [ .. ] a movement of negroes" and by clmifyina that there wae only tine generals of color. Ill of them "mul.tttoes "'' y ec. in 8llOlber momenc, be pridefully insisted lbll Dea of lrUSt not only unifed blKk lllCl white Cubans bul chit the ame b'Ult had mellred away clas diltinctions among rebel aupponen of die War. '1l is not denied bl a large number of what the Spllliards tam lbe lower cllues are in be wroce, "'but this is only a proof of how deep inco die mas of lbe people haft t.11 impllnlled 1he seeds of dilcallleat and republicmilm. This is a not lib our last rauJt of die apmon of the wealthy and die which is die OUIL"OIDe of die popul lelltimmt of Ill claDea .... In l(Jpelliq for die support of U.S. officials, Ealnlda Palma ftl:lpaed bis c:ounlrymm'S rellily dlrouab die 111111 of a lire expaience be hid pined llqcly as a ci1izm of die Uniled Swea. 1bu1. be cast die ideological inpa. behind cbe a:lioas of Oaba's w dUe& in be wilb me modwa of u.s. oftidall in lbe ..-U.S. aw w.. Referriaa ID Oabln rebels' dmbacdon of the pmpaty of .... pllalm. Blcnda Palma sloaecl dlCir 1C110U as "the same:wbidl Clllled tbkcaaa11y to c1emoy die COllml aop IDd die blled caaaa . . ,.,. .. ..... .,. ;-.;,., 1': .,,_.... ... ;..., ... .. 1C"i9:.:.,:ar: - <... .ed I ...... . Qng1f\al from OF VllStONSIN f -

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, 102 in Ille Soudl daring tbe Wll' of n.. is. be ..... Cabm perrillal' -.:b Oil priVllle PRJPllltY a if lbeir c.clicl wen modelled on tbe Union Army' filey ..._.. ID die -" cblt succadully bmb tbe political will of Soutbernal by rmeHq the symbola Ind raourcel of ecaoomic power." Sbowina bis '"impsrillilt" ltripel. F.llrmda Pllma provided U.S. Sllle Dqmtmem nftjc:jal1 with a ttwc1ip of a leDm-be Ud wrialll IO CublD rebel commnden in die field. Asking chem to exaciie ratraint when daling with lhe pcoperty of U.S. citizens. F.llnda Palma' lcaer conveyed bi coafideoce in U.S. benevolence lllCI in die willingeu of the U.S to recognize the jultnea of lhe Cubm Wll'. "11111 sure,'' lhe leam-ltaled. '"dllt ll least after the granting of belliprency, yau will do your UbDOlt ID gun lhe intcrall of lhe cilizma of a coun1ry which warmly sylDplllbilm wiCh us in our praent mugle."10 And yec, Blttlda Pllma's lppC&l to U.S. ofticilla CXJUld not be .. imperilllilt" wilhoat being 'nllionalilt" II bad to be bodt bec1111e Ellrlda Palma undentood whit he wu doing 11 bodl. He ended hi comnmniqu6 wi1b the ICltCmaK. In view of lhe hillOr)' of dUa revolution u baein llaled. in view of lhe cmses which led ID it, its rapid growth., ill IUCCel in anns, lhe establilhment. openllion. and reaoun:cs of lhe Government of lhe Cublll Republic, [ . ] mid die dllmge to lhe inlerelts of lhe c:ilima of dlil counay under lbe pn:sent conditions, I, in arms [of COllll*ri<>llJ who have foulht singly IDd llone ...-lhe IDORlldry of Spain ror nearly a yar. [ . )in lhe D11DD of justice. in lhe mma of bumlllity, in lhe IW of liberty, pedtioa you, ad lhlOUlh yau the Oowmmeat of lhe United S... of Amica. ID &'COid lhe rilbls of beUipeacy ID a peapm fiabdnl for lbeir .,,.,.. indepnlence..'' Clclrly, ill &ulda Palma' words Iii .,.._. die lleds of a viliaa of Dlliaa tblt fiom die besinWC. iavifed the U.S. to nurtUle IDd IUppOlt it. ffowewr, Bllrlda Palma'I l*pole WU natlOWlllpRllDile Olba'1 dec:es ....... bat IO eaae dmL . ... ..._ : i f ... .. "' ,. -. ;. "!' Original from UNIVERSITY orv -...

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..:. _, ... 103 Yd. malt billDriana wbo haw. mllyml Ille figure and 8Clionl of Eltn&ta Nana haw tmded to a a limplc mnulldcW or puppet of U.S. inlRltl from ebe bcafnning. Seki"' to aplllin wby mm whom Marl( could have lppDinled II bis IUCCellOll in Che PRC (Jib Ellrlda Palma) laleremerpd 11 my flci1blDn of U.S. imperillillll .aa-1898, biJtorillll have laded ro bepa lbeir IDllysa with dlCle leaden' 1pp1obldon of lbe Pllll Amendm&D iD Cuba's 1901 Constitution, which panted lhe Unlaecl Slala lbe right to intenmc mililmily Ii will. Viewing previou actions from Che vmage point of hindsight. hiltoriw have hinged their argumeatl on depicdona of key figwea in Che PRC II tnill1n to lhe rlllianalilt cause. In doilas so, lhae historians fail to cxpllin bow mllly of the 1m1e men whom Miid lwd himlclf once condemned u "'anncutionists" in the Ille 1880s could ao quietly have become his clolelt mocilleapriortothe war IDd his sublequent dellh in 1895.72 Still oCbcn contend thlt PRC laden rNicinusly disguised their '"lal" infentions the bcginllina of the w1r in the shadow of Mane llld llfm behind die lcpcy of bia rhdoric. Further, Ibey argue, Tom'5 Bllrada Palma neftl' eeled from a course toward U.S. mneHlion IDd saw his dram only pani.ay fulfilled in 1898.13 1bia dilCUSlioll argues for a mare compliclled intcrplaalioo, one which begins by recopizina what Mlrtf himself may ha\'D reaJimt namety, Chit thew cmipa w11o1e plllioa for linking Cub9 destiny with die United 51*1 he once andcntood 11 .. annexadonist" were. in &cc, opcrllina oat af whit lhey felt wa pauine nltionaliam. 'lbil more lbln mytbing lmde them vilble pmnct'I iD the battle for indellftldence from Spain. not just in Martrs eyes. bUI mans imponmdy, in Cheir own. Specifk:llly, dlil tection COOlmda tblt the ICtioDs Ind expmliom of PRC a unique vision of nllion lhll was not "lnnexllioaiat," but u uplained above, '"impcrialilt udoalliat." StnsiaiDa foreign in\felbnall llld reliance OD a more ilMlultrial, coapmlle plaaration model for Oaba's m11rcentaecl. OCOllDllly, dae Cublfts die le\'Olulicm meded to be b111ded OD die lelldl of LlliD Amaicaa LbnlimL Qtn\l'kJDed ia die IS. by politicll elila ia oog .: ; Original from -. ''UNIVERSITY OF WISCONS.IN

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.. ... t 1 i f 1< I 1: l j f J 11 I I i I f I l I 1. [ f i f I I : :,:;: a. if f J t .. I i l l I f t a. I ..... if f ;: J i 1' 1. I f t i l J ;. i i 1 I l "( . 15: s. I It I J i I : I A I I-;J '' . I I t f l I !: 1 J .--IJli f J l -I I 'C I I l i 1 . I r . l .. I r i J i I i I i I i i t j 1 r r . ., f 11.l trlt i

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. :.105 Benjmnfn Guerra lllCI olher top PRC helds who hid become U.S. citiaas during lbeir exile did not expect to make CUba a pm of die United 81*1 na:h a they expected to recast Qaba a a llD&ller wnion of tbe United SCllla. Thi .. Amcric:mi?tJd" CUba would noaecbeleu, win eminendy Cubm- lellt. 'Cubln" they were. Focused outwll'Clly, on the b"bcnlion of a society they Md DOC 1ee11 in yeara, they viewed thll sociely duougb the prism of dK own immipmt apaicoce in lllOda, ndically diffacnl society. In olher words. PRC &e.lm wl dM>Se generally weallhy emigr6I who IUppOl1ed lbcm refJecfed an infernally coatndictory 11111e of identity Expreaiom of dlil experience sought to counw Amedcm cultunl prejudices and rm:ial fan toward Cubw llld Cuban independence by ICtively eapging U.S. models of culture and c:onduc:t. 1bat mmy prominent military officers IUCh a Antonio Maceo or MUimo 06mez-did not hold Che same v.lues or compulsion to follow a U.S.-designed Liberal l'Old-map to modernity a a means of self-and ""nllioaal" validllion did not ll1llter' to these emip-&. Steeped in Che urban milieu of bourpoil New York IOCicty, their own senac of C""'1nidad wa an amalpm of nostalgia, ambidon, Ubenl ideology, Md lllllhllrable fa.ilh in the United S.... For Chem, die nation not only extended fonh from an imperialist nllionalilt identity; its fulUre depended on it In the followina pqes. we will finl explore the process by which PRC &e.lm soqht to centnlia conCIOl OWi' the imaga Ind ideological orimW'-oa of the ltewlution. Ra:alting lhc orpniprion's fuction widrin a fnmewort of ldion md diacoune lhll would appeal to die U.S. public. PRC lelden increasingly dilmiued the dmna:11ds of black and wortins-clm emigra and denied Ibo aeecl of revolutionlriel in Olba to use guerilla tlctics in order ID about a IUCllful eoaclulion ID the w1r. We begin by exmmng bow PRC ladas infapieted 1be orpntgcjon'1 functioa llld ellbanled Ibo imperialist Ntiouli .... of nation within. c1i1coane of cMliDtioD llld modaDity wt to ippell Dn ID lbs U.S. public cban to the mmed re\IOlatjanlrW iD Oda dlllwlwa. As we-....U-. dm PRC did natbaw iD mind a '' ; ,.: ....... .. ;,. .;i_,... T" :: from ; '1..-, .-_ ,u.1 =, ... .UNIVERSITY OFWfSOONSIN

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4 r \ .' \ I f I 11 } l 1 1 i 1 I J. t .I: f f J 11 f I t ;' <.: 18 A-E f I fEr ... ilA.8 l i o i' a s la. : 15. s> --< i J' -. :;., irlfEill'_f!f .1.:111t!! l I a a i I l l t B t. i 1 i i I'. f P. I 11... 1 1 r I r r ! r 1 r I l f [ I w f 15. 8 l [ & > i f 1 2,i -:.'.. It I J I I i l If I I l f t i t .. I r I = ( I 1 -1 [ 1 a 2 i i Iii I (If j; I J I I 1Jlll1i t!tlt11 I l If I I I I 1 I 8 ; I I I l I P. i r l s l f 83 : I f I i "i P. i i i J ( I 11 e. 1 J J 11 1 11 ; r i I t I I r i J 1 1 ,r.!l r[I Ji -&'s( I il'i j . ..

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t. 107 penonal trips to hotbeds al dilrmlmt in order to .w pc:Ke111hr--Glde bim a llUltWoltby pmon in die eyes of Plorida mcl New Yodc's worting-dua emigla. By contrut, under lbe leldenhip of Toma Eanda Pliml. Ille PRC becane increainalY oriented to the clas inrereltl and needs al emipa wilh ties to ila-t pWaten or U.S.-bMed busineaa that bad openly apomorcd projects for U.S. mncxllion in die put. Blll'lda Palma' amembility ro elire intcreaca, while complllble ro Malll'a, wu not balanced by aeaaitivity lo popullr-c:laa needs or opinioos. As we aball dilcoYer, pmt of the 1aao11 lay in lbe flct lbM lbe PRC comedy perceived wealthy CUbln cmipa u having pater influeac:e wilh lbe U.S. congreuional and eucwive bnnchel. Ellnda Palma'a PRC saw U.S. support vital to the came of independence wbaw Manf's PRC bad seen it u dangerous. The dift'aence would prove critical in more ways th8n one. After the PRC formally RICOpized Martf's dellh in J.iy of 1895, the Revolution as the PRC perceived and presented it IOOk a decidedly c:omervative un. Fonner foes of Martr like Enrique Trujillo who had considaed lhe ReYolutiao IDO nidical under and the influence of Florida's 11mili1lnll" would sublequendy decJam lheir solidarity with Che PRCs new leldenbip.77 Formally known under Manfs editorial Wiich for ill dilCUSlions of race. clua md Cuban identity, Patria quietly dilpeaed wilb IOCial themes akoptha' under the new editorial dRction of Vm excep. al couno. whenever lbe opponunity to bl.:t pllticipllion in the Rewlution prclellled illelf.71 AJ if impirecl by the new, poll-Mdjoumalildc dim#, die oacc lldca Autaacmilt Rimmdo Cllnra bepn publilhina bis mapzine Oeba y A#Wrloi in New York. From ill s-ga. Cabrera and ocben pi.led lbe billDry al wortin1-c:lm moNlntion ror lbe Re\'Ohadoo in Florida the wort al Splllilb boacl Ind owncn of varicm cipr flctodea in Key West llld Tampa. SUcncing lbe cadlality al W01bc1 in famealin1 finerill IDd moral iUppOll far lbe PRC in ill arty days. c.IM y Alltlrlm depicmcl lbeir employea IDd explaifln u die pauiDe haoel iiwlerellew c:map ............................ U'NIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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... .. _, IOI In lelpOnlC IO 1hclle dcvelopmaata. mlcal black emiP lib ltaflol Sena wbo Md wolbd clOlely wilb Maid in La Up. a niabt ICbool llld iedna cirdc for moldy Afro.Cublft warUn, founded a nDWIPIPCf fully foamd CID lbe rDl llld IOCially arienllDd apectl of lbe jndrpodan project dill Manf hid lp>l*1led ml tblt lbe lteolulian aftici1JJy endOllOd. E.dieed by Sara. La Doclrlna de Marti recniited llld received 1be public auppoct of such popeaive middJo.clau md working
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.. 109 Yet, bow\W 'PP"'ina lbe tDndency ID view Bltnda Palma a a lell-out ID conmvldwa bat and 111 mneutioo.ilt wont, mcb a view lmdl llO oblcure wbll wae odlerwile imponant idaologicll diffennces betwem the pmt-MaU PRC adetlhip Ind the arillDcntic propouellb of llllODOm)' or U.S. mneuliaa with whom Che PRC now contended allies .. in Che ltnlglB. nae llaer, led by Enrique Trajillo. Hec:cor de Suwdra Ind F.mique Jme Vmona, were by .t lllp orpninct into lbe SiWI de Enldiol IM la Jlllflli&4 y &:a1tatnla [Society of Lepl Sludiel md F.conomy; helafter, SEIB], emip6 version of Havma'1 influendal SMdad &:on6mica de AMip Ml Poh (Ec:o111omic Socicly of Friends of the Country). Ahhougb the diappeannce of Maid's popalism llld the rile cf even mose "ccnttist" elemencs in lbe PRC bloqht about a thawing of aea.tiom llld pllrioCic: of PRC "rldicalilm" continued unoog members cf the SEJE. In lhe winter of 1896-97, 1UCb feelinp exploded onto 1be public arena in New York when de Savedra toe:* it upon himself co denounce Che PRC1 leadenbip bef
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. 110 ttw:plained die 1011R:C of his Ind oeben' flUltldoal 11 lying wiCh lbe PRC1 longstanding wiD.ingneu co coun black IDd wortdng-dw intaelll. Ahbaup Maid, the primary rinalnder of such mtegiea. hid vailhed, c:uneat PRC leaden wae mlumnt ID do away wilh die c:omections bid eltlbliabod to meae ndic:a1 and mppmeatly uppity groups: [ ) There ii tremendous inranal llnlgle here. 1be Sociely of Lepl Scudies had to dilblnd out of pllriotilm. for not providing fodder IO the cblaerinp of. CCl1ain clemocnllic bllck" elemem lhll bae C8lla us t11e intellccn1ls." 'Ibey are mKina a lremendoul nr on VllOlla ID llrip him of hil position .r Patria to wbich your friend Yero apila. In 1bort. there is ID Advisory Council, doged by two bllcb. Sena and Fipero. and vlrioal cipr-worbn wilb Yero in die lad lhlt domilllle (Bltnda] Palma through terror IDd mike or pelllnd to emblilh the doctrine dill they, thoe of Che nbble, 1re die only ona wilb the ri&bt to dimct lhinp in Cuba. Wida irmptc what future end!15 Jn light of such ncist and elitilt lltibJC\w, Escrlda Palma' pedigree u a middle-clall reformer emerges in sblrpa' relief. CIClrly. bis commitment ro a heavily Liberal. marbt-driw:n and foreip mblidized fucure for Caba Dllde bis inclulioa of llllr8iml eleme1111 into the PRC u pnpnadc and patemalillic in impilllion 11 limillr Ktioa cmied out by MmU' miaht have beea. However, if by compmilon. Martf wu a popalilt wbo entertained a more socially IDd IDli-imperialilt nadonali vision Ilona die lines of Gdmez .t Ma:eo, f.mada Palma W11 a model wbcm CClllrilm CIB oaly be lpplllCillled in full view of weabhy ......... nbid c:omervmlivilm. lboqh. &Inda Palma defined his 1emn M lhc PRC helm in .-maJ nl lldboritlrim ller1lll pmibly a way of oft..ailts bil more comervadve u Blttlda Pllma Yiewed die PRC'I primlry objecd\'e to be U.S. \. '. Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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.+. . -111 recopition of Cubm belliprency riabla (a fat 11111 would haw flcilitllled lhe lhippns of 1n111 ao the field and inc:ceued lhe Revohltion'a JepUmcy lbrolad), it is impottllllt eo no11e lblt die PRC never manqed to away New Y ort"a Conpaaioml or Scnalorial delcpla in favor of eilher. This may well ap:ak to lbc pow of New Yorta emip-6 comemliw:a and the SEJE: many members held property ml commercial intmata in Cuba. or u lawyers. repracnced U.S.s who did. As a result, Ibey praled fnt cbe Clewlmd. IDd Chea 1bc McKinley ldminillnliona for l'OICnint. Only ill lhe context of a fullICale U.S. military ll8nendon were Nonheastem corpc>r* iJllel'eltS and their represenr.dw:a in Coagrea pcepued to consicka" terioualy my ahemaliw to Spmtilh nale." However. if thOle in the SEJE aunp viewed &Inda Palma too rwticm. workingclau emip6a and their suppoden in New York and Florida saw him u not ndical enough. Thus, on the heels of die OowmmentinArma' confirmation of Eatnda Palma u President of the diplomatic lepdon following Manta dadl. Florida's revolutiomry community expressed discomfort wkh the reorpniZllion of PRC ltablres. The new ltllUta allowed Eauada Palma to bold bodl lbe Presidency of lhe PRC and the office of Supreme Delepte for lhe clubs in bis hinds. Not rwprisiogly. ill March of 1896 lhey appealed ro the man known u bein1 Mril closat fiiend. Gcmalo de C)....d. u a poaible altemlliw c:andidae. Ahhouah de C)aeudl dlrat not openly 8'x:epl lhe nominllion of the clubl ID nan lpinlt Eltnda Palma after having tumed down cbe position ol PRC Secretmy. be did ldmit lblt Banda Palma w well awue of the support de Que19d1 Ud among puHOOta aupponm for the position of De ...... He also iaaimetecf dm if &lrlda Palma wmounced his own cmdidlcy. it would be ID squelcb lhe advlllCC of my polClltial rival.11 Only one month 1*r. de Qunida11 belief wu confirmed: die Oovamna-in-Arml and PRC ladenbip rewac& lbe l1aflel of lhe PRC IO dial wbomewr was appointed Plaident of die diplmudc ..... by dlo Ocwamneat-ia-Annl woald tc lflllimlly bocome die Sllfl'IDe J>e"'c* lhe lllltWOlt of revolulioary dubs. No VOie by lbe cluba m lhe m111er .. ,. Ll:, ...... .. .. .. --:,.\ J1't / .._ """ I 0 ,;,,,,. = T _-r .. .. i '!'I. from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN I

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-. .r ..... ,. . 'J : i\' .. :, . 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 i 1 r 111 ( 1 :: f I' i g 1 a J I s l : : t l I l!' I 11 J i : :-' 1:11 ( i i . -f p a 111 =l i s r I t r r l i f : I & J i I & t f a l'.J!aJilJ ff "jl!rJ-1 I t : t i i I I J 1 l I 1 A. f s I I a: l f t I l . i r. i i I i I: l a.Jr ;a. I .,..,.. I .. f 1 J =

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. . ;. . -1 : lll 11m a..m llhao' om co curb 111e "infillnlioa" of suc:b ideolopea ICJCitliw llld ..-c:bilm into dilcuniw mlliea. For lbcir ,.n. lbe cipr-worken. wbo bid loyally coacnw one day's minp per Yt'fK IO PRC c:oft'en lilace lbe -.t al Che war, brilded their iacreuing llllqiaalizalion. Their seme of injUllice w only beigbllelled u economic conditions in Florida wonened. lhe nr reduced the supply of Cuban leaf llllJln:o, lftd indmtry llllDlpDllt med various tilabor techniqua in order to cut their 1oac1. Yet. u arty die of l89S, cipr-worbn vocifaoaaly protated Che fawritism Bllrlda Palma dilpJayed IOWlld pllriob whose socially CODlel'Yllive views on cace. elm and Che fulure nalioa be sblred. For instance. oae point the PRC COeltly fimnced the room IDd bolld of a pvup of rccnli11 from the upper-crust of IOCiety for Enrique Collu.o'1 expedition. from Florida. Meanwhile. poorer recruies, aliaoed in lborCity, had to depend on 1be rmapr support Cheircon111dea lbe ciprworbn' union could supply. Usina the official lcalllrbad of tbe Ulli4n Tabaqra Cbe c:iprworkm of lbor City lff"armed their commicment to lbe RewlUlion but insisted that Elnda Palma. "without distinclion of rank or color[ ... ] bat the Ame all members of the upediliomry forces of lbor City UMl Wat T....,.. of Ocala and JICksonville. became we do not undelad [the ways] ol but of (Nllriocic ones... Funber. tbe ciprimkas demurred PRC pMemalism in seading eloquent emiamiea to mlly the suppott of wOltal inlfrJ8d of eending nqotialDn who could c:oUec:t and ICrioully comider cbeir needs: "[ ... ] we do not dean lbll dley (lhe rcpn1en111Civea up lheae [itl New YodtD giw ma cbaia of pn:ll)' IDd we1J.cbom1 words. but nlber lblt dley .. to UI sincerely IDd cle8dy. for die quadon is, to be or not to be. llld lbe Americana thelDlelves woald say, leu llWng and IDDl9 bmiMll."" Over lime. lbe PRC caqwlan for support in lbe U.S. QJapeas w incralinslY obmuclDd by die Clewllnd Ille New Yadt lcadalbip C11DC ID COillider tbD ':'!"""' . -.\. : .: ; .. .... ,o,na1 from .. ...

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I : .!. f. : 4 : . i. ' I r r i i 1 l I t. i ,...I I f. I f r I I 11 fl af .1. l J r ::;. : f I I 1 1 s I .. r I l : i I ( ;:. f j i' f I f I a I j l J ii" I l i 11 l ( I I I I I 1 I tr ' if ,, 1 I i t l i I I i r i 'r i i .! t -1 11 1 11: l 1_ q 1 s i n. s I 1 I I I f f st. f s l ] 1 1 i I a f I g . s Ir t t l I st. 1 i w f 22 J l 1 r r. I f'-! a. I J I J. st. '< j I f J : i a S .. s I '8 f f 1 -If ; B I J J I I I ti = 1 J I 1 I .. 1 a: 1 f. 11 11 l 11 I f J 1 Jl t r I r J r I :s.. ii f .! ii I l i f 1 t 1 r '< J-tg. [ 1 1 i l z J I 1! I-;6 l:t til _ ;r&_!I s s I! .:_ '. B B 8 f s Ii -a S s . ....... .... ,:

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. us IDd wbicb killa. Such a ty-.n Wll llDlllnOUllt to Jesitirmtiai cbe polt-bnjcm. Spmilb wnion of electiom in which poll IUCI were charged. Pudber, be dedlred. The decree ii a political crime. a lepl one IDd in all -, IOd i its 11tiad8'ion it ii lbe myltificllioa of Lalwnlilm IDd danocmcy lbcmt wbicb IO much ii in its peamblc. A pt11W SptlllUh ,,.,.. ( ) ANJ ii will Ml Old t#wn: ( . ) The Revolution bu not been mD IO lhat yone can lranlform himlclf into Romero Robledo with hil COlllOlt of lackeys 10 be lellCd in iU Congreuioaal Clmlbrn. I rebel agaimt IUCb undcrhladal 1CUnt1 puOcd by pigmy buleaucnlll who ca't ICC pat their noses [ .... ] M for me. I will say 111111 these llld odler thinp lhlt hlppcning in Cuba fill me widl forebodina and Ibey &iw me cbe impulse ID fall upon dae who think dlermelva liaJc idols. in order to reduce them to wts.l Ibey 1r1: in reality, only clay. lncledibly it seems, such expressions of llltborimrianiam were lbe products of men who considmd themselves lcMn of liberty and democracy. The pro(essionals at the bad of lbe PRC did not w 1ny coacndiction between their brmd of nationalism and revolutionary practice in their own elitist policy-mating. M discussed below, really was noac: lbe nacure of the imperialilt form of Dllioaalilm they espoused wu inextriclbly wedded to lhe ideall md stlndlrdl of"modcmciviliution," a condition to which Cubalnd lllOll Allliniq it would mquire of cbe Rewllllion llld Che emerpng llllioa. plCience. unswaving confidence in PRC lelden. IDd iapect for social (and economic) order Clellfed along die Una of 1he U.S. model of "civilizltion." For PRC lelden. incubling lbe values ud CUllOml modern civiJiz#jan iaro lbe Cubm Diiiion bepn with lbe w effort ibelf. Tiiey did dlil prindpllly in two ways: fint. by canyins out a publicity mnpaip in lbe Uniled Scalel -: . _,t : t'!...'\.- "".. ... -t _ii.;. d"' .. .= -..: . y og Origin.alf;pm UNIVERSITY aF WISCONSIN

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: :: :: 1 I f i I j i 11. 1 I J l 1: J. l I I i I I t g I I r 1 s I t I f f s s. . Jl I I a. i r 1 I l f If I I. a I I '<. I t I "' t l f 1-1 ... l J ,1 .'I .. .._ _, i I !i' I ( 1 ,,,-ii l c: I I f l II 1 I I: i. j l !: B; a I a_ y, '< .. l&iJ Jr l'!-a;lr ilif (" n.r. ,.. 8 I' il f C: C: r 'B Q. -. A. 11-r.1 a t1" J.f .. l a 11 r I . 1 1 s I a J r I r; QC i e r t I t ll 11 I 1 tJ S! R -' ..-J It i 8 ,. I f1 i !' ;i i I i ii' I i i t I f1 l'l ... t i I I i l ; a R. 1 a w f 1 j f s ( r f l ( c: I. .f 1:1 tt I 8 '< i. I f s t I t ... a. '< 0

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' 117 fierce weather) reflected die extent ID wbic:b U.S.1 of various claaes felt Ill affinity for die Cabin cw., a cw Pierra worbd ID MIDCiale with hil audience's own Dldoaa1 mylha of social propaa IDd Ill inclusive democmcy. For inmnce, in Cleveland. Ohio, over 3,000 people tumed out ID hear Piena's addrea extolling lbe ucrifacea ud suffering of Oaba's virtuoua ariltoCrllic men cbe hwla of greedy md cruel Spmiarda; 10,000 ribbons lldw:niaing die ewnt hid been sold in lllvlnce. The Cuban American League of Ceveland. formed immedillely lherelfter, promised to pera more proplllnda INllaials. .U proceeds ID go IO PRC headqunm in New y ark. Pierra also rmdc nre ID meet widl reporters of all lhe local newsp11pC11 IDd lfllefully ID nam down offers by local men who promised ID mile lllDed volunteer militias put than ll the disposal of lbe Liberating Army 111 Piena'1 succes1 in pneralin1 solidarity forOaba amoaa Northern vetenns of die U.S. Civil Wtr Ind. pcma'bly former abolitionilrs, only undencorea die Dalin of PRC effona IO lppUI ro Ainericw paceptiona of dlemael'lel a models of social and political propas. '0 For eumple, in November of 1895, die Pbiledelpbia Bripde A.uocillion, a 01pnization mobimed a c:o.aition of Prolesunt llUl Cadaolic minims who joined diem in signing a petition to Coagrea lhat demmded immedir recognition of the Cuben Republic. The next day, Gow:rnor Clmde Maabews of Indiana. toptber' with Eslnda Palma. presided over a mlly on behllf ol CUblll independmcc.1112 While Pima undoubledly hoped to appeal to mo.d and diverse a U.S. public 11 paaible. be never aestec:fed to pay special 11tention to thole wbo could not aaly 1llllre a poltical diffelence in WubinpJll, but m economic one in OD once independence na m:hiewd. nm. delpite hil own ldmowledpncar lhll die majority of the oao cbouund IUppodell who cuned out ID t... him in Providmce vn:re middle-llld woddna-dm c:ilil&, Pierra empbMiml in reports ID cbe PRC dlOle he m:opi1.ed helonaiDl ID cbe beaer toeil:ty," includin& the mayor -1 aepewncwtivea of lhe local Dlllll11 ldalctic dub.1 Tbe PRC welcomed IDd courled the support of all U.S.1 but i . . Orioinal from :UNIVERSifVOF WISCONSIN.

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:n-' : ) . : . . .. fr !(::. 11.iJi"J.llJf t .i :rr 11 ':'DI.. .s..f i1 I w. [ic 1 i . : t I i I f t i t I f 1 .. I I .: : : : I I l J fl f I I l I I I l I I I t I l [. If-l J l I i I .J a. I If '" } I .. 3..; !2 [&>ltf.I f':" g ... r-wli1 . 'i J i f f a I J ( t i I l S i i f l n i -1 .. i". !!rt s1!f 11 t I I .. t I n = l I w l 8 i I i I i I i ; I i I l I l! I i t I f I t t f :. r r-I s s: a l 1 I f J. I r f r = i 1 r .. .... 1:.1' rn-z ... 11 !if i.g> . I'I! f ,.1 f it&r :!I' a: tit.I 1 .. [ a l J e = M ff -.

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' 119 By way of c:ootn1t. Rllbem DOied tblt Alberdni's good w mwcl to ecliple tb1t of his lea worldly lboup equally pompous PRC coDeape in Wubinston, Oonzalo de ()JCMdl whom be DOied. '"wore remoYlble cuffs." Aa Pima -.I in in Wllhinp>n. 1be objoc:t of such efforts wu ID c:oalelt SpMilh llllftlentEOlll of die revoludowy fon:a u consistina of oa1y some ignonot Nepoes, a few white people of the lowest daa of IOdety, IOlbe blDdits and a few foreip ldvencuren. "1' Thlouah mm RCb 11 Albatini, die embodiment of European etiqueue. and Piorra, of U.S. sensibilities, lbe PRC showed the Cubln came for whit it "really" wu: a llnlgle to p1omoe a civiljprim led by white. elite Oablns in bartmicalJy ro lcd llld savaae land. Accordinpy, Pietra Md Olher PRC publicity "c:omrnillionm" 1e11t a glamomla IDd lppCaling meuaae to economically privilepd ICCflOrl of U.S. society, miking wbll Teddy RacMewlt would lalllr call a "splendid little._.. 1ee111 lb the llfelt philnhropic: C1U1e ol cboice. Thus, between 2! and 30 May, 1896, Pierra held a lavish "Cuban-Amcdcan Fair" for lbc win Mldilon Square a.den. Adwniled under the mono WCuba aympllhy -the must haft Maistance' nlOI the fair collecced $ 19,000 for lhe 'Wm' effort but COit & whopping $14,000 in cxpemn. '' Indeed, lbc holding of celcbnlary dlnca, IMlls lnCl otber such eYeDll by affiliated emi8" clubs projecled a sopbilticMed. iJD11C of Oaba's society mcl cukunl prolllOCtl lbat wens ia bepin1 with 1be Libcn.I philOlopbia ol PRC laden. Often, the lelf-m'ificin1 wllite hen> of Cubm c:eneerap in the form of Jo9' Mlrd. Piie, meticulously (If ltaltly) drund IDd dlin enough tblt bis rabull intellect cumiiided wilh die ippCatmlCC of physical fnilty, Md Md darift& bis llfaime ftdfilled the lllftCllld of V'ICtOriln-IF mucullaity IO llarif'lecl iD lbe romnic ...-.are of lhe time. Sublequcm ID bil dcldh, Cubln cmipa cua to recopiJJe dlil 11 bodl illspilina lftd powafuUy d-valid .... of lbeir own wanb 11 non-oambe Folaemn& dllt Mlld's delile ID embody dta ialllD p-oblbly COit bim bm life. imperialilt ............. polUayed lbebehel 11 lbe '"minds" behind die Revolutioa. ill caebral llld culbnl IOUI. 11m. die ... . .a l ... .. ,... J' 01g1t1. -. C r1gmal from '!".'!;: :. L I .. .. :. UNlVERSlfY

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120 PRC club Jol6 Madi" mpniml m ewminaof lllUlic llld lbelfllr for a U.S. llldieace. plOIDiliq tbll one of lbe aw of lbe dnrDldc productioa would include a bull of JGl6 Miid an the mp.111 Not supriliqly, educated m Mildly aniar' women played a c:rkical role in the comttuction of an hmge of Cuba Libm fomded on imperialilt n#ioaaltlt principlea. Usina die sacrifice of lbeir own pcnonal weabb m lllllogoua !ymbol to lbe property llMI weal1b mif'ICed by white, ecanomically privileged IOldiea., rich a.dies in West T .... were mowd ID send a c:ollection of diamond and Olber' pracious gem-encrusted jewcky ID New York II a donation to PRC coffen.111 Similarly, lbe ... Itel of the 111-fenWe club "Dilciplea of Mll1I" recalled lbe heroic principle of ldf-dcnill typified by lbe ideal Victorim male by requirin1 Ill ill female members to be UDIDll'ried. Further, they probibilied memben from-dw:iftl at the vay pll1ies. the dub mmpd to raile fuDds Ulllil it w ICbieved.112 Celdnting lbe mr-qulity or ill c:mcn1 bao. lbe a..tad of the club CID'ied a lbfdt of the r-of Jol6 Mani heralded by lbe club's mme md a halo of tiny, boldly prinlled bealu.1 u Moreover, mapzinea like Cabnn'a CN6o y Alftbic:G fiequendy caaied dlllcriptiom of such ICCivitia pbotognphl of women's c:lubl on their society paga," ac:oluma redefmed to include only social enpgcmmts llricdy coonectDd to the came of Cuba Uln.11 Elite women supponen ol lbe RewlDlion ia exile also COlllribu1ed to lhe PRC1 civilizin1 mia.ian lbroup 1be D11Ure of their fmld.niaiaa ICCividel and lbe itelDI Ibey c:bOle ID tend ID lbe nwaipa. 'l'lllal. Cll1Dell MwtOJa. now widely Cftllidr:llDCI ID bo Mlld'a COllllllOia-law wife duriq bis aile in New Y odt, rcpaded in April of 1895 11111 Im OWD dab. Hl,JIO tM Ol&a, woald be holdina bolh I lmw llld a pmty _...tbe ,_...of New Yoltemis" IOCillill Emilio Apmoale. Al ....a. lbe b.&s of the eWlall ol lbc ewm1 waald So ID PRC c:oen. Demcmcnliqjlllt baw ilAdM a:beffilltl coUl be. mpadlll lbll moada lloae. Hijls de Olba b14 caUectled Sl,000.11' :._. r.. .._... -.;.:it .r-: _:: .. :.::_, -'-. -..... -.: O_riginal from '--UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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121 Of coune, the friYOtity alOCi.ct wkb such eWllll may bllYO been a rigldul byproduct of the opdmilm 1e1aaled in die emty pblle of die war, especially among emiwomen not pmp.bly aware of the hmllbipl cxperiencecl by reYOlutioDldel in lhe field. apccially foot IOldicn. Noaetbem, emi&ft women wbo held up die -.. of civilizalioa tbrou&b dilplayl of sclf-mifa n1 pndend hoaar found 1heir -1opo amona female supporten of the Revolution in CubL The 1eaet PRC..rftlilled club .. La Olblnita" of CienfuegOI often a cue in point. Compoied of entirely female membenbip. La CUblniaa sempll:bga so rebel units in the llllllipafrom 1897-1898. Whileoeberclubl in Tmnpland underground trafficken in Havana c:Nnled hundreds of bundles of clothes lllCI shoes for pnaa1 dilttibulion to lbe lllOlt needy of ftlbel ll'Oopl, 111 La directed by Ritica suni c1e1 Villlr y Su6rez del vu1ar. specialized in shippias hi&h-qullit)' aoods anc1 personal luxury illmll to ec:onomically privileged officen. 1bul. typical entry in her secret log of "Wlr suppHca from November of 1897 fallued four pounda of cbocollle, a do1.eo cans of milk. a box of aweeu and a jiger of" BH/ &tltlk Saa. 111 Alberto Abreu. member of lhe fabulously wealthy (and Parisian-baled) Abn:u fllnily, rec:eiwd nmltiple woolen shirts llld calbmere p1nlaloons along with cigmellDI. cau of Spanish samapa and lbe occasional woman's dral ("llatido.r de .rdo111"), pouibly to outfit a needy lover. Colonel Bnvo receiwd llllllY a linen baadkelchief, Undenbirt lnCl Wlllll scarf. Celtainly, La Oablaita did send periodic lhipnenll ol anall llDUUlltl of quinine. c:oaon, .......... llld mcdicinea It pat panona1 expcase and dlnpr to its members. Yet. 1be clab'a log of lhipnltltltl ia ow:rwhefminaly ctominmd by enlria ol laXllly goods mant to amn 1be penoml comfon of individllal, apper-dw mm wboe iltilb:amc win doCbes ad foods enmetimes nn f lfieldollbc pncdcal ornmada In dlil way. La Cublnita funcliaml eo apbold lbe code o1 me ...,,ti ftllPICtlbilily by pmvidiDa womea wlcbildren of ofticell wiCb die pmper IM:COUllW ofbanor, ll:llUI IDd cullme IMID when lbdr mo.....-::.of lbDir-dadel ID lbe w-cauld not. 111111, Rilica ,_ : -."". -. . -..\. . .. ..... u 1t1zed

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. ... 122 eman:d mat Coloaol Elquerra'1 wife wa always well-dnlwd, Mndina ber many dmwl. men11111 of clacb and ewn drm pldlml. Sbe did tbe w for Dr. Cadol Trujlllo. mpplyina him wilb children' clocbel, coys. mmy aweeceNd candeDIOd milk. cinDa1DL111. cboc:olale (bodl solid and powderecl) 11111 one poid. pllon of lberry r-1al4n de W.O de Jenz1. ieems wbicb he appmeady tbea forwmdecl &om Ibo field to bis fmnily.111 Only once in La Cublaita'I aWyleWlll paae. doublNided nsgilfer does Rilica specify a qw1a1t 11 dalined for the l'lllk-md-ftl8 IOldien: in lbe IUllllllel' of 1898 (after U.S. ll'OOpl bid lmded), she ... so bundla of cloChcl. shoes IDCl bllS ro lhe fm:a" of General Moalagudo.1 Tbae efforts on the part of elite women revolutiomriel. reprdlea of their senden' good inlmcionl. could not help but uphold the llwtardl of civility and lndidonal clal chat lbe PRC1 New Yark office and fellow imperialist Dllioaaliltl on die island saw as p1111nount to lbeir CIUIC. Bat 1bc PRC did not lelbict ill ldividea in pramodoa of a "'civilimd Revolution" ID che spcmonbip of propeaive women. lbe infCXlllldooll e\'ellllo or pl& l*tiel held to raiJe fands. Consi"mdy, it relied on theenpaementof sympalbetic lpab unon1 the U.S. pea md OD occasion. ewo metboda of direct manipalllion in the leelcing or aepodiDa of war news. The PRC llllo rucbed beyond dlCle infomlMioul speeches, fain and pla plltics ro nile funds llld drum up mppolt for IClf-styled. impcrilllilt aati..uat imqes of Cuba La1're. O>atillemly, PRC laden relied on lbe eappment of aymptdW'dc IPDCI llDOftl the U.S. psaa and OD occllian. evca memoda of diftlCt IDlllipulllioa in lbe lelkina of w aewa. TrMitionally, die proceu of "prbaiq the Oabla of 1895 for U.S. camu11ipioa t.s bccD -11 Ole lided, domillllDd by lbe baapcwiq U.S. media iadmuy lblt not only IOld Dn'1p1pC11 but allo Cllemd IO crowd ml williq imperillilt paticy-IDllaen. In tbauab. ddl plOClll Wll quite dil'ec:riAI, inwlvin& die c:cmcioal eada of PRC i.dms ID llllpe IDll Np> rent Ibo Rewladaa al 1895 in ... me-inafUI bodl . . .:.. . "'-." .. r 1. ftg:: al from .:.. . lJNIVl:RSIT'r-OF v 1sCONS'IN

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.... ........ .. ........ 1 ;;;. 't;. ; ,; ........ __ . . .,. __ 123 : '., to lhem u imperilllilt Mtiamlim, IDd to 1be wiry -*"' wlae ocmomic illlaeltl md palilicll conncc:lioal they iauaht to uploit. Applrendy, PRC comting lllCl l9lilaco on U.S. aepoma IO eell the Rewlution's llDly fiom lbcir side W well-known Ind QllDMwiaJy KC.'Jl44Dd, eell by ieClet revolalioury .. opendna in 11av1na.1 For uwple, lbe PRC pmoniad 1he trip of New Yort war conespoudeat Fnnc R.B. Woodward to met MD!o's llOopl in Cuba by providinc bim with lcael'I of inlroduccion for Ma1f. 06mez nl Maceo aloa& wiCb the commillioaed rank of ClpCain in die Ubendng Anny.121 Mr. Syl'Veller Scoval, of 1he World, llCCOIDpllliecl an expedition of Cuban emipa flOln Key Wat wilh m for tbe Revolution in die sprins of 1896.122 So tnllting wu the relllionlhip between PRC laden and the pras dm U.S. reporem were called ap to scout out Spanish spies among fellow media c:onespondenll on the Wlf front ft to Wlm lbe leldenhip or their ideftlicies.12> F less commonly known mnoaa u.s. eo1lllDmpOrlrica (and historiw or the period alike) was lbe flCl dlll Fidel Pima secretly penned dozens of anicles on Cuba' s society, bisrory, economic c:andition, w nl polilicll fu1Ule u a republic for such influedial newspapen u New Yort's TM Jowrtal, 7'M New /Wpublic, Alarazilv. 7M S1111, 7Jw Sltippinf fllfll. C--rdal U6f .ct lbe Bo#0tt M Pierra .tmiaed, molt of die articles wme not liped by bim "becmse it wu pcefmble dYlt Chey be pftlCnted u if they were the product of U.S. pens to. a ID inspire peMa' confidence" llDOftl readers. So successful ... ?iara ll lbia politic:al IDd discaniYe muquende .... be braged ... front-pip piece lie Wla4le on Splllilb 0owrnor Valeriano Weylen IDti-iBqent policies for 11w JOfll'lllll ID the PRCs 1olqufn del Catillo. Aa:antina ID Pima. the llticle Md been lad 11 tadmony of U.S. public opinion before the U.S. Scolfe the request ol Seallor' Sbenllln in arty 1196.124 . 1'1lele andman die ideolopal odl!lioa of PRC laidas fOWlld the pndic'el, wl illltillltiaU of die '"modem" 1eCt1a1S of U.S. IDCiety. M'8 impomndy, .. .:: ...: .... '!. ' ,lo _. ;-.... .. : ; ;i, t : . .' I . . . . ... . ; :,"": ,.;.., .: -.... r-i : .-.. ,. -3-4 ...... ...... ...f. .;,;.. .... .... ... .. _, 'rom .. : -lJNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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, i; . I t ' : :,: 1 I I I I f I : If I f I i f I I 1 11 l l. f t :: . t: 1 : 1 .. 1 04 l s J J. : e. 1. r 1 Gr . 1 I ; i '1 '1 j i 1: I I l : f. .. l. :_ J ; l f r J i r s I If I l i t I f I l f f j I e. 3 [ I t ,, .1Jirtj .. 11111 . 11Jlfiiii .fJ.!iii' :ri a 1 I 1 I 11. I I t l 11 1 I J. I f 1 It < i. A.Q. 11 I l ... Ii' !i!I 'I '1l. o : J l e. r . .t I If. I t l f I l ii' If I -t 1 e.lli .l l I . JI I 1 I I i 8 f 1 Is J I i i J I f f f lii't: a ,_ l i I s J 1 J

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.. . .. ; : : ... i 1'1.?ltlil. i j. tf .. i 1 b r :1. II. !I ir 1 J i I f f J J J I a f I & 1 i l I s t I. ." I ii r a. i .. i I t l i i I J i ( 1 I 11 I i I f 1 I a ii' i .: i t !1 s: ""-t i f 1 I r 1 A. i!. r r I c;; l f .( f. "' i (aJ [Jis-' tl'tri"rl s i f t f a-i ii 1 Ii I j it i I I ifJ jiflt!!lil 1 1 I i 1 r ( 1 l ; I I I i J t j J I 1 118 I s I l s-' I I i I I I l l 1 r I I 11 1 t ; l 1 r i l f I l I i i '< r s l t tt ft! .I e I >

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. 126 ucbmge Car die Ubenling Anny'a paledion, sucb cab payaaa wc:ns c:aUed a nM>hatiollmy --.U." Lib plllDdon and am raids by rebel ton:ea. tbil IUldon *IY beceme a mainltay dlCir a:dvitiea. Of cour-. muy .,...... felt baiepd on Ill sides ml only nsluctmdy apeed to fill the Libenton' w cbcm.125 MWmo G6mez dacribcd a typical mc:ou111er with IUCb a pllDta' in lhil way: "Do not order lbe deSlnlCtion of die ..... mill, becMJse 11111 ii YIF the landowner bepn to lhouC. and I answeaed him: sure. lbea why don't you pc dK>IC litde Spllliah IOldien out of your house (Pua....,,_ Ud. ID1 M>ldadito1 upalfola a"' ca.ra] Ind pay for your reucmble lhlle to the revolution, or ao with your mpr mill bllClt to Spain What is in CUba belongs to the Cubas. And the landowner then began to deal with the revolution. and she. being honorable. shall know how to rapect and fulfdl her concracts . Alamtin& IUbtlc IDd diRJCt means of c:oerc: revolUlionaica in the field found the policy ex1remely effective in genenting funds and often, lwellin& cbcir ranks with recruits. Jud&in& from the fmancial repona of the PRC cbina the b two years of the war, 1be Revolulion could not have survh wilbout the collec:tioo of plllller lribule. Topcher with limiJlr '"lua" lcvicd Cll Cbe ....... colJClctDd in CUba and fuanelcd to cbc PRC tmled nearly million dolllll.121 However, MUimo 06mez, a sapeme eomlDIDdcr oftbe Libealing Amly, md Aalmio MKeo, a leCOlld-in-c:onunmd. anderllDOd die purpme of sach Cldk:I to mend beyond ... of merely finwiaa the .... For diem. the......, win bepiDf with the pramilel G6mez -a MMd w ma bcfa1e l...mina in 111e......, Moalecrilti. As a farlll lbe Iida to benefit of the poor, moladoally rewes aencrMDll the from ... .. . : -:. ._ . ;; --...;. g T ... .r ; ( j . . ,.. ., Original from U tttVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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127 pledged. IDldien of the Libcnling Army would be compalllted with land IDd nlllOUl'Cel.121 Thus, reYOJutiOlllr)' tullioa aved to inllNct planters ad rebel soldien aJib OD bow differeody society would be llnldUled lftcr indepcodeace. To officas lib G6mez, lbe money coUccfed in ll'IDure meant nolhing if lbe IOCiaJ cUncfer cf the Rewlution WU walr.ened or its p>al of demolilhing lhe foandaliona of colonial society Wll compromiled in the procea.121 Thus, G6mez chectcd on the tlCticl or Antonio M.:eo wboec suc:ceuful invasion of westan CUba he lllribueed to Mlcco's ldlmant refuall to ICCCpt my bn1from weahhy creoles. a poup he cut u "the powerful ones. partial to the [Spmilb] tyranL" In raponse to such offers. Macco had ordered his lroopl to bum every propeaty in sight. .. destroyin1 and purifying lbe origins of IUCb peel" Thele origins were hiltorical Ind deeply rooced in lbe ndionale of cl-color diltinctioo thlt formed the logic of exploilltioo to which colonial elites hid appealed in order to 111bjcct leu powerful CUbmls for gcnentionl. .. Everythina ii collapsing. and the little that is left standing. Spain benelf is oc:cupied with destroyin1-All the beaa'." concluded 06mcz.1 For hil pmt. MKeO declaled himself little inlel'elled in emnnc into any compR>lllise with eidler colonial mistocnlll or the Unhed St-. for any reuon. m If the Uniled Stasa wu genuinely concerned wi1h ending lhe w for he cballenged. then let her mike possible lbe shipment of eaougb m and munitions to equip properly the CUbm rebels. tJi Otberwile. his 11er1e wonll imply. no willl of lhe Revolutioft should ln< the U.S. govemmenl or ldiftly court U.S. inlelall. Through Che lens of imperialist Qldoaalin, TOIDM Ellnda Palma. topda wt1b the fint Preaideal of lbe Republic-in-Anni during lbe 1195 .... SaMdor Cilnerol Bemcourt. were aalUrllly limited in lbeir eadRninm for such meaurea. Aldlaaab Ibey tppftlCilflld 06mez' new-found rapccl for and inclmion of civitim leml lae tbemlOIVCI in bis pl-. dley allq recopi'Oll dllC aeidlCr dude implied pelllll' ftmdbility ..-diaa a-niDa 11ntegies .,, &nda Palma difreled more lbllply in bis iaferplCWion of die depe to wbic:h lbe CU:-adGd lllPcocb to finndn& 1114ipRiidinatbe ...... beCOllll'alled-1 I : '\I f J : r .. .. ... --.. ... . -' : ,,.I i\r.... "' : .. . g . A : OriginaHro n 6 ::. ;-UNIVERSITY \ iS-CONSilf --'

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.. 128 acleclflDad by b>IO whole illtmelll W91111Cbd. To dUa end. be f'requendy met and rapaaded to tho coacerm of U.S. iaWllDll. ewn writina leama to lbe Oownuneat-in-Annl Oil. behalf ol specific illYellDn to requat ......... for lbe paa4Dctioa of lbeir propediel wt 1beir ri&bt to mike Unpow=mcnb OD diam. He did Ibis in pm!. becll be hoped to make iDWlfAXI symplllbedc to Cubm indeflatdma for lbeir influence in Wuhin&fon. But he also did this becm11e be Wiided diem to feel c:omfomble with the idea of camimaing rbeir la a leaer to one expllining lhe need for such measma, Ellnda Palma nDonaliml them 11 lea t.rblric ad more bumw lhlll blocklding a town or fortifying ill c:enlnl plaza. normally lhe ICll of colonial govemmmt. Further dacribed the future free Cuba IS "the home ol CublDI end Spmiards, who, a members of tho ame funily, will live in pea::e and harmony. members of lbe same nation. ( .. ]We desire tha, once the war enda, dlOIC dipiflCd Spaniards should concinuc living in Cuba. because they, a (social] element of bani wort and order, should serve ( ... ] to &iw impecus (and] lhe right dilection to the young Republic. "us At one point in the summer ol 1896, &tnda Palma popaeod having Ill paymenll ol taus go dilecdy to lhe PRC chroup lhe planlal' lt'COUlltmll abady in New Ycxk. a mow be felt miam inspire more confidence lhan baving lbem deal with rebels in the field. He allo propoeed orpnizing a pllneen' lllOCillioa to defend lheir interelll and nlllm the Wt colleccioa men efliciem ,,. Tbele ldivilia md propUs. impinJd by lhe liDMll ol impcria1ilt n._.iAn. iDftlrilleCl more mdical, ftNOlutionlly Ndmalist the Cubm milmry. Undentllldably, combltlall l'elt lheireffortl to dahhlli plaaa.ian IOCiety 1D11 punilh mbaMI elita for lbeir llldt support of Spain were beiJta llAllamined by the wry people die RavobDJn bid Ct.pd widl defeadia& lbeir lldioal *-I. In Sepeember of 1196. 06mez rapaaded ID Bllnd&Pllma'1 propo1 in DO..-w. if alllilillly ....... bid .,.... eamp between rebels and IVJllilll. it Wll die fmdtof PIC '' . .. f : V "Origir:ialfrom ... 1 .. _..

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:..;.. .. .: . . :{ .. ... . ( .. r,.: I I . .. .. .l'!.i. .:.v : i : r 11 l , R &' .. .. 1 .. I. .a l ,: -. I f ( i w A-J m !: r f al .J II '8. I i .: I ff I ( .; J i i i ,-. i I .. lf ilf t r ,. i : I i i : I I t o:: o .. I .. _.. f iF I t r -f : f. I J 'ii i s i -< l I !: I i r. J I i i i i i I lfi l .f1ailf trt' .1 ii'.! lt8 8 l:ts: 'a It I I 11 J r > !l E;'t)ti ,, a f.j} 11 t w I I . If 1:( z..-S lA, irll ll SI 11.1' Iii' l1ai l f .. :.:Jffs iii 11.1 f t s I t .f I i l };1:}ril fj f1. f ffa. it f

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it -.... . .. I .. f. I ( I i 8 i z .. -11 l 1 .s i J :r & :.. t f .. I I I l i' 0 : I t l [ 1 : ... ., f J l I !. [ tn f 11. I= J r J 8 r -t .. o : i "' j#i. a: .s:1 l r [ 1 .. l s :t r s: ... .... ,.. I K Ir f i -. J : I I f. I I .. :. : 1 i i ( i i t l f. a. t 11 : fi'il r I!.:. I l t i if .. r a l 1 f I l s I J I I l I f I f : i 1 .r I, a a. .rirA-f f!' .. I r I ; I 8 f ( a. r i I j f l I t l i f.Jr :1 ; A t t I ! r t i f 1 s f J s r .. I .. i i .. i I l. I' l I I. l rs I f a. I i R I f I I I J f f j -t .. f: .

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131 1897, &Dia Palma was lll8ldy nr:aotiadnl IDOCber deal, tbia time with a syndicale of Wall Sbeet brobn led by Samuel L Juney. Acc:ording to lbe oripul tam1 of the coocnct and amodiDlrion acbane signed by bodl plltiel on OcuJber I, 1897, lhe Replblic of Cuba lpeed to pay Janney llld his CIOllia the mm of $150 million doUlll in.,. gold bonds of the Republic of CUba (paynmt to begin JlllUll)' 1, 1903 md end in 1953). In retum, Janney would convince the Spmish Crown within line months from die dire of die contnct to sen die island of Cuba to lhe Cublll revolutioolries 14> The money WU to be l\llflllteed by custom m:dpu under trust to die U.S. Department oflhe Treasury. U.S. treMUry to aw 11 indq)endcnt inspectors insuring payment Ind intemll graft-a former maimtay of die Splllish colonia1 gowmmeot.144 Alcbou&b Ellnda Nim ldmiaed that the Jmney group bid nal let him in on lbeir precise plw, he nemwd dllt Ibey planned to woo Spain wilh $100 million. while keepina $50 million for lbrmlelvea.1u In bis repon to the Govemmeat-in-Anns, &lnlda Palma explained his 1a10111 for seeking out such alremaliws. Otief 11DOft1 lhele. be dcdmd. WIS bis contendon Chat Spain could never defeat the Cubam duoup force of anm. However, be also doubeed the CublDs could defal the Spmilh qWctly enoup ID la'VC Che IUlerial t'oundltionl of productioo lhat a new Dllion would need to pow. In lddition, he admiaed ID having repelledly r.iled to obtain U.S. goyenuncntal support for indeamificllion plan with Spmio in exc:Naae for lhlolute indcpendmc:e.1 .. Citing ieduc:ed su..-pmdndioa (and the PRC1 1-pat revenue bae), declining vohuary c:oncribatians, IDd whit be pedic:ted a the ewntual demonliuaion of the Libending Army, Bltrlda Palma envilapd DO odler option but to halt the blaodsbcd llld the "final dellruc:lioD of the aritorial wallh of die illlDd. ., PoUowiq die coatndic:tory top: of nlfionahm. &Inda Palma aided lbll relying on U.S. inapec:tioa of the Cubm castoma boue c1oea not infriltla in die rDOlt minor way on die IDWl ... J of the Republic of CUba. but nlb'er lball 1me [ ... to ellablilb] from 1be bail of our Republic. morality !a lbll deplltmeato wbic:h ID ftDICll depends cm die boaor its mplo)ees.l4I Sdy, .,' .' -'... -." .: .... Original frcm .

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' 'r , 132 Barada Palma Wiied pelllll' fmdl in tt.. who rejected the talCt ol lblolllle CUbml IOWftipay lblll in 1be honor of c:aaaplllioel who were willins to pve lbeir lives for it Becllase lbe Oo\'emment-in-Arms ullimllely lppRMd bis ICdom, one cm only ll"me lhll tbere were many powerful mea-..S who lll'eed with bim. Such otfidala-emip! wl ocberwile rejeded lhe IOCially revolucionlly principles dlll infCJllDlld lbe nllionalillm of many rebel offlCal. popullr-claa soldien and their worting
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' . 133 M we ba\le wn. lbe procea of w lllCl the implemeion of molution in pncdcc freqaendy llllllY lc\lela of CODblltidiom c:onndidinn of oftic:ial di8caune Yel1UI liwd reality; of andards of honor recognimd by popular-clasa lloopl YerlUI pllriciln oflicen; of guerrilla ..... disciptiDlly coda; IDCl of h"bcdlriln lifestyles w:nus modernist social pbilolopbiel of eliqaeae Ind clal-nce hieran:by. Ultimllely, dlele coattadidions would provide the balil ror complicity with changes in PRC poiiciea. Thae chlnps way to the gradual magiuHptjon of IOCially ndical emip61Dd illlmpnt coastilllenlS from the c:enfel' of lhe Rewlution' I ideological llld p11Ctical goals. With lbe military lllJenwe in Cuba cleepeaing, pramra for a diplomatic tolulion l'OIC in the opening monlhs of 1898: rebels held Che counnyside llld the SP91lilh held lhe towns. Morco\ler, u lhe nwnberofpaciflCOI ucriticed to Splin'1 reconcentrltion policy increwd. support among U.S.1 for ID end to the bumanillrian crisis rme to a mer pitch. Even che moll committed revolutionary llllionalists on Ille illlnd could not deny dlll Splin's appmait enttenchment made die Olblll war effort take a tum for lhe wont. Ever amenlble to U.S. public opinion llld irnpalia to stop Che dawction of Cuba'1 ltlUCIUnl wealth. PRC officials leaned eqerly into the political winds lhll 111pued a U.S. militmy imcnention. In short. by 1898, conditions for coUlboration Wllhilta'Dn policy-IDllcerl IDd Cuba's rewlutiOOll)' leaden of bocb imperialist and revoluticmmy plrionalist c:unadl improwd mbltlDtially. In the end. it would be Ille decision of lbe McKillley ldminiMrllion 10 inta vene militarily md Che PRC1 milcllaitaaioa of wbll IUCb ID ildel melllt thll inlenupled lbe Dlblnl c:oune of revotUlioL u.s. inta"Ycntion sealed off the poaibilitiel for makina popa1ar nF-onaH"' equl pm111m in lbe milillry-1cMlianprojectofCODICIDClinga1111e oa the lmil ot allied visiom of "mdon." However, the nextcb..,.-maem.111e lealODI bebind 111e .. inMmll political limjtllicw of Iba wty lllpabtic llftmr die fint U.S. (1898-1902) -. . bid II macb if Dot mom to do widl lbe lllllD of Cuba's Rewludan for indepeadence D m _..J .19;

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' :";"--: CU. UIN la Crllll, 1191-1"2: Pr..-tl N8f&epel' c..rr..t ......... U.S. ......... To be an. it may be llid wi1b much plllllibility lbll if a vaee were tllcal tomom>w. the people of Cuba would by a lmF majority request us ro lea the island[ .. .] If we theoda Iii*, Ind loot lhe li1ulllion squaidy. it becomes evideat dlll (our p1aeace or cleplrbn] will not be deCormined by my logical or a priori comidenliona. [ . ] With life Ind eveiy dollar we ICll1d to Cuba our bold on Che illmd ii being IUeqlbened. We Dll Y to llb c:me of our owa, llld thus, by imperceptible stages, lhe pacot siculdon will glide into pennanenl conttol. Prwllltle to hrlerwntioft 147 On lbe night of February IS, 1898, "Mm'io," a le(:ret lgent in Havma'a revolutionary underground. rushed home to write hil prinicipll 11111alin1 pidllel' on tbe Olher aide of lbe Florida miu. RoArio Siprroa. Lea lhlll m bow before. die heavily armed U.S. blltlesbip Mlim bid exploded in tbe midst of Havma harbor, sending narly all on bmrd-264 sailon llld two officen co their dealha. M Mmio llld dwpnds of OCbas warched helplealy from shore. the lbip' CIDDOlll IDCI ammunition c:onlinued co explode lbe ship itlelf ant. Wilbin minu1e1. only the madad, wilb lbe t1ag of lbe United Siiia still ftyiag, remained vimble. '1t wu a bom'ble thing, and a llllme to sec aucb a new ship disappev in this way," Mmio lellllfbd. Being a muailiom specialist hinwolf, be coakl not raill specalllin1 on lbe ewe mt ultirnetely concluded lhlt a file in lbe lhip'1 coal bunbn pecipllled die uplolion. AlmOlt eiabty years biter, m llllhoritllliw seport iaucd by tbe U.S. Navy would...._ 2 Yet. in die midlt of die cbw lhll 11ippod Havma lllOllllllll lftar lbe tnaedY. cnoaeoualy pedicled lbllt ib ..wts would favonble to Splin: '1 cm't llell JC* bawmucb joy dlil diapmce t. brousbt to oureaaniel. cwm c:blllCe ii on dJeir aide.'., On lhlt ICOle, M billoOw 1ell UI, Mlrio could lllDt haw been IDCR mi........ Indeed, -' . -:. ..-. .. .,. ... .. . . -. --' .,._ ' a "'/> -_ : : : -': nglnal:from : .. .. .:.T UNIVERSITY OFVjlSCONSIN" L

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, ,. . ,. ... ,., .. : : i'Jl .. f.i ;,: l I I ( 1 J l l I f j I I i l : . It I b l I I 1 I J s J l I s I I i 1 I i l I I f f I l J J I ! ! J J I ii' i I i I 1 f i !n J 1 i I I f l f I ... 'I -!i .f ... t . B 1. 1 f II. "I t ": [ I J I i" ,,,, ..... I ".,;. ... iJ. f 1 9' B' !t :11 I l f i !l I J l&: lni. l:!'P . -Ir.-' i i J i I g ; i I 1 i -<3: 1 I I 1. 1 I i l ,... f I f I f .e f : [ It J s f r I i. 1 t I s I if i: if I [ f. _;i ii ll I ... l I ir i i t I I ... 0 z II I i ii i .. ; I i .. l f P. I i I q I .. a: J Jn t i .. ..

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. I -: ; : . :-;: 149 dapalldy. Yet. WhilD Home otficiala recopized lhll IUdl a nne would baw jeopmdiZICd jusdficlDoa IDd pncdcalily of my dilect Uni1llCI StMes domjnq. owr lbe illaad, whllever ill form. Tim. in the fint week following 1be Y1i111 oxplolion. MclCinley by-puled die PRC leadalbip as be would c:cmlinue to do in fllbare IDOlllbs. He offered Spain's Queen Rqeat a lump paymeat of three hundred million doUln for Cuba lbrouab privlle cbannell, of which six million would be dinctly .-yable ID Spmillb madion. AppMaly finding the terms of die offer Vlldy superiar to the deal pmpoeed by the PRC's bmdng lyndicare only months before (McKinley doubled the price),' Mn Cristina deemed it -.;na enoup to invile the c:ountel oi any Spuilh political party willing to intaade in favor of peace. However, gieD die fmle ad increain&IY precarious polidcal scene in Spain lhe lime, she did not find any tabn.7 Buentially, then. the coune for Wll' w11 tet IDd McKinley, ew=r supicioul of pllCiq the fale of Cuba in Cuban hands, lllticq,.d die possibility of having to fiaht lhe Cuba rebels once Spiin hid beeo defelled. AppetHng to lbe Clairinm of the House Appropmlions Committee for Wll' funds on Mm:b 6lh. 1898. be laid, '"Cameron, I must haw the money to get rudy for Wit. [._] It may be more ""'1a a war with Spain [ . ]"' On April l 3dl, scan:eJy a monda following the loll of die Mlill. lbe Senlle Foreign Relliliaal Commka relci:d addiniliYe n:pon OD lffain in Cuba al aec:omnmded die mlopcioo of the famed .. joint raoluliaa" of bodl Caapuioaal bawl in fawr of foR:in& a Spanish wicbdrawal from CUba. Four dillendna members of tbe C".omadaee demlDded ""the immrdili&e recopkioa of die ltcpubUc of OD. as orpnized in lhll illmcl. a flee. independent, al mw:reip power llDODI the nalions of die world." The lddidon diplomldcally gmawatDed the milicmy ... civililll winp of b CUba' f'OICel equal ubority in the procea' llowewr, Ullder pman fMm MdCinlay, die reaolatioo wa April 19111 itbld been dnfted by die 5.-while holding 1lp die riabt of u-m idell far Cabe. it mde no promilel adla' dim to force die CY8Cl1mc. .; . v .>;., ;.: ; .. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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-' .. rt1.111: r1 :: ... I J t .e I i f "t c: c r '< . I 1 : I I l . f r r ' i .rf \ I f I l t -x 1 J i l t J) l i I 1 I r z. . I "I I I =-l _I = .. < , f s 1 t ,. rn o M """ I I s l . B. It l I f I i [ i I 1 f f r s I 8 I 2. . 1 s I 11 1 i-l J I .I r la 'fir t I i I I if :""ti !I i,1 il 'l i1 .. 1l}1rliti" t i r I i I f I I ( l I I I s-J I f 2 I r i 2. l i 1 1 J Js-f J11ti 111 I g j M It l It A.g.a;e.11 f s tf : i f i I l i I I i I i I I I i I l f I 1 J:. 2. J 1 I l 1 f s1r a, 1.s r I'. i : I a Ei' s I lJ6

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r 154 cmma.a CW ID lbe CORIWUI dlll Ibey could loot with pride upon their recent i-tCukurally, lbolaandl of U.S. citizem aeodllled honmF llD their Kbievemmcs by buying waran dime novels Iba touted the mwadiae viduel of tioalienmen or lbe moce canttl. malti-wlame ln:llill oa lbe ....... nmcb of propm by force of m lhll 1beodore RoaleYdt slortfied in Wipnin1 Ibo W On a peatier a:ale dlan ever before. Americw bepn to lnleplle their politicll values into every llpeCl of their liws. "Buffalo Bill's Wald Wat' show a mulli-miJlion 000.. indmUy dllt glllDoriml violence and rqwNlilled iDdiacnous llld bllCk Obas all for lhe Sib of a few lmgbl or flushes of pllriotilm.15 Howewr, while U S. officiala. in1eHeccu1l1 Md lheeaeern public may haw happily inleqnled lbe bilCory of westward exp1111ion u evidence of lbe triumph of 1n .. An&k>-Suon civiJimm" modeled on the ideal of life in lhe But. Olberl saw lhe West in diltincdy diffaalt terms. 1'hll is., IDIRY Americw lllCI mmy recent immignnts to lhe United Stalel underaood the c:onqaell of die West u libcrltion from lhe confines of life in the Eut. They perceived moving West u lbe chlllc:e ID C5CIP" or be b"bcnled from &be c:onattaincs imposed by the estlblilhed economic ltnlCtUrel. rdiaions. or cultual mores of a dominlllt while society lhll did not ICCCllDQll'ltre their own ide11itia, IClivities or beliefs. Thus. for instance. Mormons lived free of penecuticm in the W!!ll. joining a halt of utopiHeeking pioneen who hid similsly IOUllll refup lhae. Al '1luffalo Soldien." Africlm Americanl llCqtlircd depes of pacip and a 1e111e of belongins by fllhdng the U.S. Amy lpinll indigenous pap .... ml rqi lding. COlpOrlle llrike brelbas ..... orpnind mine worbn.11 Women infdlecnth nat only found IDlf-WOltb. but m m.tiencc for their wriling. Some women nbuined lbe oppodUDity ID lher lheir pnder ideaCity by c:rou-dnlaing ll1d "1ivilll ua mea" wkb limiled ineDdenmce. l' 11owew1r. lbe pllticipllMJll ot such P'OUpl in lbe Uailed Stal' mlitlly-leclCGDq1 of wwa bllf of.._ C1J1diw11 did a.II moce lbln limply Vlllids lbe project of eqwwtiPa im> lllldl lbe U.S. paw hid decreed -..wwe1p" Mcxic:ID or lndilD no I** ipmon or 11oup1 dllt -. -."_(: ; . :":.. : .. Original frc m UNIVERSlTY ONSl'N :. . -.

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. . . -: r J 156 die ltndaiil rile of .. America's pat cities." lnderd, much of lbe U.S. media and polilical Jl'"4P"'ti alike Mm hippy to allow .... cut by ukra-model1I mctmiea, lkyscnpen md ...... bridges to oblC\n lbe slums, conuption IDd tepepdon dwl lDlll'Od Che udllll llDdlClpJI Bclief lhlt lbe Uniled Siila hid m:bie\'ed the bell '"denlDCl'IC)"' in Che world nn high. Oivea lhe flct m.r w of Bmope IDd America was then governed by IDOOll'Chia and dictalonbips. it is euy to see why. In 1898, Cubans were extttt1m11y divided in lheir evalulllionl of Che United StMel. a Ibey were in their views of Cuba's potential as an indepe114eat Bllion. The pmcea by which U.S. Intervention wu set in motion and its propas to 1902 dOICly Che two would be linked. Undoubtedly, pe-cxisting impralions Oabllll had with respect to !he U.S.--wbedler emipa or ialanden. rebels or loyalim-influeaced lheir peKeplion of its policies, presence and prospedl. If something unified Cubma in their actiona. it WU Che coavictioa lhat cbcy nccdcd to cling to their rapecb\'C inla'pl'ellticm of Cuba LJhn as defined in war in order to know bow to cape with chlnging cin:umllmlces As we have seen. dlClc intero retlliona diffaed in lbe import and role each pve to lbe U.S. In 1898, lhe crust which imperialist natioulim vellld in the United Stlllel IDd each olhcr would bo put to 1be test. For lbeir pm. PRC leaden in New York IUgured Che new year of 1898 with opcimilm. Tomas Bllnda Palma's own latitude wecb prior to lbe crisis of the MliK speab to dU llld may well provide lbe beat evidence thll McKinley w lleering a coune for inlllvealioa long befom lbe "1irndeat scandal pve him the poliliclll IDDIDel!Cnm to ICL Jn m ofticill report to lbe Cubm Secaelmy of Foleip Rdllions fifteen days befole lhe Ma diswr, EIUlda Palma elmclJy rcpodlDd lbla bis wkly leaen to lhe U.S. Prnident were aviDg lbeir puapme: The ClalC of alba ID this COUllll'y ... rwtaed lb8 moll crilical ...,...._ C-1 I have reuoa to bow tblt Mr. MclCialey bu a complete IDd p ror fnla:wmtioa. AD the.........,. dUlt belona ID whit is i ' 1 I .. -. ... Qrigtnal ... I Dig :frz;;.; . oog e UNIVERSITY C)F WISCONSIN

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known II tho '9Not1bem Sqaadnla" ha'fe met eiahtY miles from ffa& IDCf cbe Mlilll ii in lhll very city linc:e lMt week. ( ... ] Pemlpa in die coune of dlia moalb die Pnllidmt will have die cblnce be delirel to wdfy in fa an imaneadon on die bllis al illdepaMlence. which be knows welJ ii cbe only way to alablilh in Cuba. penmneal peKe. 157 Conailtmt with die COlllradictory 1111me ol bis own imperialist bnnd of nlfionalian Ind Mpil'ltioas to Ubcral nocions of modernity, Estnda Palma ldmiaed, .. [All my lcaers to McKinley] me writral in lbe of demonstnling 11111. if che Oiban people do not well desire mnexation to die United Starca 11 dlis time, which Ibey alao do not need [fM llllllpOCO la ua.rila], they 1te desirous Chit die American Oovamncnt in some way or modWlr come to .ne u a panntor of intcmal pe1ee in our councry [-.]." In Ibis way, the Republic of Cuba misht inspire IUfficient c:oafidence Oil die put ol foreip ""bl Ibey lhouJd feel disposed toward inWlldng pea sums in our (lovemmenc] bonds wt promoling wi1ll their money lbe development ol our indullriel Ind the busineaea of public utility ..n By the end of die mondt, & Palma wu ever mcxe convinced elm a U.S. inta vention WU not only inevitable but enlirely compltible wiCh independence. "Whatever lhe solution dw ii achieed with rapec:t to lbe Maine'," '"the CublD nuacr ha been planced in Wubingroo ow=r finn pound( . ]." Within die month. McKinley would amoanc:c, or 10 P.IUllda Palma pn:dicled, eilber cbe recopitioa ol Cublll independence or inlea:vencian to lbat end. MWe ae ll a critical jmc:Que IDd it ii neca11ry dYll we bep WllCh both here .ad caohadon ol our llbon, [we fiad ounelws] ll the point of onlering the pmmjted land [.-J ..u for exbibiaing IUCb opdmilm IDd openly prc>-il.-vmtionilt beliefs u this, &uada Palma bll been romuDY ICCllled of lleMOll to lbe Cabm alliaG md wane lti1l, of babuiil& a nnDilina commitment ID ammltion be CODCN"d forJ'Clll, only displayinrbil llUC calan . r, . '*:'me adefinhe pouibility.2' Mareowr, ......_ bavaupllined die : --;; :. . . . .; . .;.t .. "'-....V: ..... : :-, ' l .... r 0 If. rq, .: _ UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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, ..... 158 wilffngneu of MUimo Odmez and odler molutionlries to neaod* wiCb U.S. ofticiall only a few IDDlllbl i.r (l'llbar Ihm GUil the foreign invwlm lhroqb armed reWtnc:e) a Ill expreaian of a11emc miwd ll bat. or tniroroua ldf-inlerelt ll wont. 25 While lbe following lllllysis does not deny Estnda Palma' firmly held belief tblt CUba could cmly be governed wftb a S110n1 hind pref'erably sapportDd by 1bat of 1be Unired St11e1. it seeks to andenllnd Ibis polition-bdd by odler PRC leader& and dJdr allies in me t'uuue 01ban RepubUc-u evidence of a c:oalrldidory identity. This identity undapinned a Dllional vision for Cuba which was inherently in c:onfUct wilh ielelf. and yet, wu still eminently and pmblpl unfonunately. llllioaalilL Evidence for dlil coma &om Ellnda Palma' ICCaliw lllanpCI to fcxce the United SW ID rec:ogniD Oabans like himself u equal in die diplomMic pmcea llld ro lbe eventual dep'eC of inYOlvemellt by U.S. milltlry penonnel-Che Libcnling Army a forerunnen in Cuba's sttugle for ilWepcodence. Naaecbelea, the toae and cbancler of Eacnda Palma's c:orrapondcnce from tbe momenll lading up to U.S. milillry inlaVelllioo me llrilcing. Al times. his repealed insistence dill U.S. inlentions favored nothing lea lblll support for independence seem conttived. Tqeted a nu:b toward lbe United Sraaa u towud ccmpllriotl whole suspicions of lhe United StlleS and biJ own lcadenbip he hoped IO MP"F Eanda Palma'1 mmap of Cubm capay belied cbe depee to which bis own etfOIU on bebllf of Cuba in cbe c:oacept of U.S. benevolence. JU lhe llClions of tbe oftic:iall to wham Elllda Palma lppellcd bepn ro beUay or ignore biJ eqiectllioas, &Inda Palma a med to question the strenslh of bis convictioal sepnting U.S. benevolence even a be embmideaed 1111emea11 ol lllXiety or doubt c:oac:emins U.S. IClionl wilh lllUrllM:el ID the COilllal). Comequendy, bB mppemed impcrYioul to the idea lbat lhe United 8-1 woald or coalcl do laythiag chit miaht jeopudiJJe lbe Olbw' dpt to filbt far IDd dlk mine die lllnDI of their c:oantty'1 indepeledence. Yet. be allo opealy expa 11ell sarprile. 1111W mclfnlllllion wilb die len&dll to wldch U.S. aftidlll wmld 10 ID limit die Olbln . .:, '"i.. '1":ze ... _. Q.ngm_al fr_d0' .. :.UNIVERStTY"OF WISCONSIN . J"i : .: ..... tf!J..l.I

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.;, I 159 mny' power IDd dismjp lbe .... ldaal be nude. die CUblll imuaaenta' higbelt civilim In April. ll lbe 1ilm when Coapea and die McKinley edmjniM111ion were ironing out the U.S. declandon of won Spain. Elcnda Palma wa in Wllbiqton 11:tempein1 to bleat down MdCinley's ra;.....,.. to a cliplcwmric ruopkiOll of die Cubm Republic. To compMriOCI whole confideace in his own viaiolt of how to ICbicvc a Cuba Dltioo be wanted to inspire. Bllnda Palma played up the U.S. offers of clodiing. food IDd nwnitiom for die Cut.I tlOOpl Ind predicled dlll U.S. rocogni1ion of their dfcxts would be forthcoming.36 Al. "the lllDe time. Eatnda Palma insisled to Plaident McKinley hiJmelf lbal die lJbenang Anny should be given a key role under U.S. command once die Americm fleet landed. 11 In dlis way, be acemcd to wmt to convince hirnself and ochers that what wa Slill a rmuous lib,... best hid all die cannmb of a definite aDilnce llDOlll equals for lbc common pl or a CUbln nation modeled on Ind after me U.S. example. That more radical nationaUm diapeed wida him on Ill c:ount1 was perhlpl inevillble. 1'1111. BIU1lda Palma lll'Ove to quiet by direcdy lddreaing die peaal of lbele. On April 20, he issued ID official pmclllmlian to emisr' commanida in Florida declaring dlll U.S. policy Md '"nodlin1 ID do widl mne11tion, or die UIUlpllion by rorc:e of our falberlmd. 1131 But by the summer of 1898, with die naval lllCI lll1d Wll' in full swiq. Ealnda Palma could DO longer deny die fllCt lbM die Republic of Cuba, II comdMecl Oft the il1mld by i11 whg aovemment IDd abrOld by lbe PRC. wa beinc mnwily llld ltnlqically ipored. PriYlllely ldlcaina oa lbe failure of die U.S. property to eqaip Olbm troopl in the inlerior of lbe island a be lmd ldviled. be expnmed av..-.._ of bewildmmat. In bis letter to U.S. Aaomey Ocncnl Jolm W. Origa. wbo bid been meetiq widl lbe Vice Praidcnt of die Govanmmt-in-Arml. Domingo Minda c...,... be arped 11.a IOCial Cuba. in 1be pacat IDCl falure, de('enlled on die Ullilld S...' ldiolll IDWlld its ptovisioall resire mnllliwl now .. ApperaGy .._ dlll U.S. sdom bll fir iqltied aditdtin ml deanie + ....

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.... ;l ".if p )' I t r J N ' I I : I f a: : l I I l i I i I I Sl A B.".;: I J I I i t Sl l I ... I i: I R i q I f 0 R r l l 8 t s 1 9 a I 1 1 r I -1111 r( 1 f) i c: a. J J ( I i i t I I a 1': i l I r I j J [I 11" f1 J 1 t 11 1 r --1 1 = ii 11 i l I i ? t 11-I I ; 1 I r r 1 Ill Ji J) f Ji!.) i;;ll.!f i i t 1 .. :r. t & = c::: I Cl =o r f I ; ( I r I I c l I I I l 1 J. 1 .a i i l f l r 1 s 1 11 B ;:.I>" 'If"' I" ,. I f ... i g: f A-'<. '< I i .. '<. s J1 11; 1l11Slil; f i 8 .. Ii I "] s!" f ll 11 : f li1 i r.r..

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.. .. ".!. 16l would-wl did-hlippell to CICb w ol spain coloniel. The United Sa.a would lab po1ioa of thae. be Aid. '"IDd keep ewry one. a:ept Cuba" under a fonn ol lllfOllOlllOUI cnloniI gowawem. Sbling lbM cbc U.S. bid Wiled ib llllianal honor in fulfilling lhe promile of Cabin iadepmdeace a pramile blCked by a majority of cidaeal who did not dlint Cuba .. delerwd" ldmiaioD to die Union. Morpn flldy Siited dlll in his opiniao. Ibo U.S. "'will always maintain a more or lcll fuU profedOl'lle owr Cuba. .. At paaat. fll' Wubingtoa was coacened. lheR WM DO Spanish or CUbu aovemment in Cuba. only a U.S. one.32 Although MOlpD declmd a c:oudbitment to allowing Cublnl to decide lbeir fulure mt die ballot box (pol' nwdio de lal IU7IGI). Morgan' I advice on what lhc CUblns could do IO .. cam" lbe Uaitod Stales' '"lapect'' wu lelling. Aside from pltienl raipMioo. be mgeed givin1 annaty ro lbe enemy, nnsformiq die ""irreplm' pen;na mny into a qular. pmfeuiona1 aae" and mM1'.ainin1 orderundl U.S forces could do 10 island-wide. But Mmlez Capote WU not to be fooled: for him. die die had akeldy been call. In IUllUDlrizing his imprcuiom for hil repon to lbe Oownment-in-Annl. he cmamenred die reasou for why the U.S. had failed to ra:ognia its 111thority. FOftllllDlt among thclc wu fear owr what Ibo Cublll rewlutiolllria miPt do once lhc Splllilb were sone and the knowledge lhll iec:opmng lbeir legilimlcy 111y Jew! adc lbe U.S. ICCOUDlable to an oullide puty for ill ICliona. Critically, bowewlr, M6ndez Capoee did not cxpraa my amprile ovw lbe .uilude of U.S. offic:iall. Rllber, he found r.att with 1be lalitiel oflbe Cublft revolutioamy movement ibelf: not oaly did .. pmnment not c:omlilllfe in., --....... effilclM wl pm....n" one, but Amedcw hid uadentDod lbll lbe om.a Revolution illelf Npaemd only 111D impmiooed. llnlglia& lllCI lmbaieDt miDCxity" OD wbicb it could not depend for order.14 on dlele poinll. M6lde& CapalD w inclined to freely admiaed lhll lbe p11 obit diAdvmrap be hml flCed in clnlina wilb U.S. ofticiall w die c:riaia in lbe . U.of llllbority IO miJiclry e>owd bl bid amqed in CUba'1 '-'elWd1 M . I . J "" H :: . I 1 .... . +-= _j.. '* ""9 :t:,i 0 ... ... ,. _," .. Original from".. ,=.UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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. .. 162 mnaw. Beclllr it *>wed lhlt die Gcwemment-in-Annl oxm::ird no &al IUlbcwity OYer lhc Libentiq AllDJ', his recepdon by U.S. offidals aftaWlnl bid bean ""ice cold. "3J Whit Wadez ClpOfe biaerly n:famced ill bis lepolt WU Ibo recak:ilnnt-ailUde taken by revolulioalry nmcXMdilt General Cllixto Gm:fa. bad al die Cubm forml in Orienre Pmvim:e. IDll lbe derp:aia1 ICl'Ugle far bepmoay between lllliona1ilt rc:rars of 1he R.evolulion it reveaJed. 1be crisis came wilh Garcfa'a ceapoi* to lhe t!.S. Anny' camp9ip to mqinalil.e bis troops from lhlring in the final victary over Spain. Akbough Ouda hid reF cared clMhea O\'a' IUllC&Y wich Oeaera1 Willilln R. Sc:hafter. chief of the U.S. expedilioary ron:a .., Slnda&o. hid left the 11Der feclina die neec1 .., defend his poor pelformlDce befole his IUboldinafa llld superiors. J6 When Scbafter summarily refmed to lllow Glrcfa ar his troopl to pllticiplle in eicbcr die negodalian of SJ19in'1 surrender ar even die entnnce of U.S. fon:a into Sllllil&o on July 17, 1898, Olrda promptly sent his iamlri* superior, Mmmo G6mez. a leaer of reaignalioa. In llddilion ID informing 06mez dill he no longer recopized U.S. Olden, he took die lipifacmt llep of tending Sc:bafta a laeer of praat while""' comnanicDt& wilb the civililll wiag of the Revolution 11111. Mmm c..,. ICCina on bebalf of lbe Ocwemmmt-in-Arml in camulbllion wi1h lhe PRC in New Ycxt. laceed by officially dismociMing die civililll win& from Olrda'1 Kdonl a deemillg lhan repectlblo. In doing IO, M6ldez C.-mlde die diau betweea lbe Oabln milmry IDd lbe civilia pwnment ID which it suppmedly owed ubarity .0 1he mare be 1*r dime to forpt. lraaically, lbe U.S. public sided wkb Giida. llllkins boda Scbaft8r and bis lppll'lllt PRC I Oovernnat-in-Annl suppadel'l loolt bld..17 la flCt. II thD time Wadez Opole subaiiaed bia report ill die a. IUIDIDCC' of 1198, lhe GowmmentiD-Anm in lhe pucm ol ll'llllformina belf iDID a bra.der orpaiacion al civililnl llMl IOIDD.militmy oftk:erl lmaMl die .. Awmbly olltqii I CJ.-iWI ollbe cw.a lavolltiml" wbicb waald meet--Oceaber24, 1191.IDd April 4, 1199. At die w .. : .. ., ::: .... Qrtg1n:al from
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I ,' ... ;.. . 4 .,. II \ 0 f \ ., I ;: :;,: .. / 1 --.1. i I i I f t I 111 j f t f J f 1. 11 i I . ; .. , t a. II 8 J i a. B: I R ( '< ;I I i f l g it : ... .. : [ I 1 r r Ai r a r -a i 1 . . "' n I-} f 'i I c a. !l 11 .., ,. I i D= l .& f r 11 i 1 l l I i l i I i ;.1 1 t I J i I i I 1 >.. I t l I 1 i i 11 i I i i ( 1 1 l t la. i I f I { ; ; l J I J JI i I i 1 ; i 1 1' J: [ l [ f I J. ... i f .., A. I [ s I J I r I I s a e ... . i i "= l i 2 g g f f [ ft l '. <; I '3 I 1il! a. . t i 1 i c1-. I i t r t 1 ! i t i 1 s t i -n i .-i t I -I i .. s e : r r f l H IJ 111i1 '1 -' 3 ri:.!J f-i. fe I Er z . . 1 1 J I s l If .. !I & 1 It l 11 i !: a. q i l : . r 'i-I Sit P i tt j. r .. !. I '< r m: 1 [ : r 8 ( 8 i

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i .. I r l 11 I i I. f i I J ]. I ; .: l I, J i 1 . I i f l I i r 1 l l i s. 1 u 1 -9 I -I f &. r f f .. i I I i .i .. 1 w t I f i i I l J f, 1 f I t .t .t [ 5' r ir ;: l l s I i i i t 1 q. iJ 11.!tf : ... 1 f J It r r 1 11 J 1 I. : i lo. l f i I J . If : t I' t I .. M t -. I 'l ... t II f f i M 't l : .s-f I: r i i l r I l f l r s i c: Q. I t &: I J g: f. s n rn 1 J :I J a. i l 8 c l f I t If i; J' J J R j 1 1 1. r ; I l I i f I. l rr I r r. I l. f f r .. 'B r ( I I 5r l I l. r I f ::E'if o !! ,,' R t. l ii "' [ i I a-l I' : .II. ( ( J. I I I I l r r r 1 i I i r 1 j l.-i! ff I

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167 U.S .. policy To haw llChieYed dJis m:ognitioft would have demllldcd Che leada'tbip of "Giber men."" Privately, however, Pierra minced no words in apportioning blame in what would become for many imperilllilt nationalilll in the next several yan. a pUlful muglo apimt former compmiotl who wele letting dleir own uropnce about what Wll best for Cuba diem from the consequeoces of their actionl Ai early as April of 1898, Pierra wrote: Humble Ind lelllitive in ippe11111CC. [Eattlda Pllma] la pompous. tene Ind vain: before confeuing bis ignorance ad seeking ldvice, he prefers to utter m aurdity Ind he hu said them in abundance. In Washington we have needed, least. rwo expa ienced and CIUdoua men, wl we have had [Gonzalo de Quesada) prideful llllCl swollen youlb c ... lrindradlJ y], who does not know CUba because he left there 11 the age of 11eve11 years and Im not reaamed since; who knows no CICber biltory of [Cuba] Ihm what he has picked up in here here and dim; who hll not even general notions of Spain; who is ID American lawyer by the grace of God, divine mercy md the pune of bis fmber; [ ] who lhinb biimelf a gnnd ltalelmln IOd pretends to raolve diplomlllic iuuel with flourilbel of rhetoric;[ ... ] and who 11 of lale is and bu been die laighiq-stock [el /lazJwrreir] of sensible people in WahJnglall. They call him The Jumping Jack (...nta en pallto), md Ealnda Nma. 1be Wooden i1D1F (l Salo Palo). W'db tbae specimml before 1bem [ ) whit opinion coalcl the Americln f'onn oldie peaunem of Cuba? 'l1lll which it bll fOlllliDCt dllt lbc &OWJlmmnl ii *''npdelll and inept. lbll in DO way repaem or cau1c1 represent lbe people of Cuba. : ,....,,.,. tbat 1be U.S. would occupy Che island mllitlrily undl it saw fit. Pima iaramd lbll . Clbinl fa:ecl a paw dlnpr, lnd to lbll clap oar pmeudo-diplomm ba\'e expaeed us Db . . .. ' ; lba;r .Ja ordlrflD warn mmy Olbllll 11 pcmible, be seat 1.CJO copica of a ', :--; . .-. ; ,. . .. .. __,.J . . ; .. _, ... . .c. .r,. .. ,.... .. .. ,.,. .,, C1"1gm I from _.. -..rt' .. . -...:.. _.. ti ,... . r_,_,,,._ ' .... ,._. ""'.. '.r OF WISCONSIN

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' :: pnphlet be hid wriam to CYel)' Ilea of die ialmd. The pmnpblet qued for lhe need ID nwintain ormr .S tbereby avoid &iviDI lbe Americw m excue llO Dapie lhe public c:amplicity fnJm odler am... revobltioDlriea be pmphelied. ""The volcano sbodly."'2 168 In Cuba. political llmiorla Ind the fnpnention of the Mtionatim' alliance were illcreasina ap-=e widi cirmramm on lbe illlanalional a:ac and ICCOlllplllying incidenls ll home. In Psis dYlt fall. lbe U.S. cliplnmMic corpa ex.eluded Cuba and Ill ocher Spanilh co&oniel from lellding my repat:aedlliva to the negodmon of pelCC widl Spain. The Pbilippinel. having already declared lbeir iadependence in the flee of a after enduring a similar process ol armed llrugle apinlt Spain. lent a delcplr: myway; lbe United sea.a. howewr, summmily ignored his Wlminp lbat ID)' belly which compromilcd Philippine ICMRignty would be invalid Ind auongly milted.n Thus. just u the United Sllta' policies were bringing it to lbe brink of all-cut war rib former .. allies" in the Pbilippinea. U.S. policy-makm were coasidering the potential for lllOtber war in Cuba and ..ting to avoid iL The best way to ensure Ibis wu to dilbmd the Libenling Anny. For clffereat l'CMOlll, Ibis pl equally concerned Cublll Jllliooalilll. Al first. Che newly formed revolutiooa'y Awmbly and lbe Liberalin& Anny were at of !llllllbiw, the upmoll c:oocera for boda lbe Aaembly IDd G6mez soon became die U-of how, wben IDd under wbll condiCioas the Ubcntiq Army lhould be diltlmded Bee r die U.S. relied on st-iab tlOOpl to .cl u a buffer apinlt die mixed nee Olblll rebels whole polallW for lebeUioa they faued. it delayed Cbo Spmailb ewCnaion Ulllil January 1199 wl lbmby, cut-off the Libemiq Army fiom occupying Spmilb pniloal al ......... a..dHleeded l'elOUl'Clel." Mdjtjonelly, lincD 1bD U.S. milillly hid taken full camol of all C81Dm reu a1111 _. ... info-CUba ID me u it aw fit. Dlililbw lbe A11e111Ny nor die u.-.. Am1y bid.., dilpOlll." Jndeed, lbe CCDtita'D of lbe ......... . : :-. ... : .:: ( .... -\ I o o I .: o ::.;::. .. bye: .-j : ... -"-

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... . ,.1 .. t . . . f s l 1 11 l f l I t 11 f l 3 I 11111 I -'_ , t .I J I t l i ( J t. I 1 J. i f I 1. i i I 11. a If 1 l R I f '< J { f j L Ja. i ( . I 1' I I I i i I i f l i t I i i J 1f Sil. i l i t f 1 i I I I . 1 I 11. i Sil & Iii il' 'a !-t .. f t 11 I A. t I I l i t I I j I 11 li 1!. t1I. ;rf.[f i!.(1118 i" sra-'I ""ft_ 1 a :I I I i I r. I r r I J ci,-=' . J 11 f I i J I r t f i I I t .fl a s_ a e :..11 s l ... a IJ-a.t IRJ a 1: I i i J I J i I i i i I I l .. ; I J 111 : ital I 1!1, 111 1 '<'< i

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. Revolalion" in 1783," die Almnbly'1 raoluCioa decllled the lblolulo coopecltion of the commilkJn ieprdJal of the outane of its efforts. (b]eclme this mocildoa ii posrellivc. eminemty dmnocrllic IDd republiclll: bat it ii lbe ume lime a l*ific lllOCildon., of order IDd of labor, wllkla lwu """ Na mrolldionary "'/Ddlll s,-Ltll ""8iaalion. llld which ha not consideted nor CODliders 11 enemies any ooe w:cpt Ibale who oppoted or oppose the indapalldeace of Ibis i-. wldda by /""'1M /vu already ,,_,, adriewd""" .roan will be t:t1ll.fOlitlau 170 But the ume time. it ubd. '"Will lbe doon of lbe Secretlrills of the Swe Ind House be cked to us? [_.) So also were Che doon of lhe Chanc:elleria of London and Plris closed to lbe wise man Benjamin Franklin, IDd bis glory has not dimmed for having suffered with pilience bis rtjection ll being lbe R.epaenlltive of milenble jmynrsiqwja .... 2 lmponandy, the resolution would have been approved Mnmimoualy except for the one dillenCio& voe of SalvadorCimerOI Bdlncoun. Ub Fidel Pierra who rqardcd the PRC ladcnbip'a .oopcioa of similar fonm for repraencing Cuba's cause in WIShington, Cisemol was horrified by ill oblcquious tone. Aa a result. in lbe flCC of whll leemed a climate of incrwin& ICCOll1IDodlbon to externally impaled needs llld objeccivea among bis former peen, Cisneros put aide bis well-known IUlpicionl of lbe wbolC ndical deauudion of propetty during lhe w he hid once despited lmlad of aupponina the Auembly'1 raolUlion. CilDCrOI propoeed that negocillionl for the aoldien proceed through ocher' cbannels IUCh u lbe IDOlt obvious one. Ocneral MUimo G6mez. u His diuent would prove propbccic. Once ill WlllaingllOD, the c:ommiaion Wll 8CJC lejecred, but neilher Wll it cmbnlced. In bepiq wilh lbe atyle of tho McKinley mlminillnlion, ill members wer. receiYed cmaofticillly lbe WI* Bame, much. Bllrllda Palma and de Queadl bid been of ... For lbe McKinley AdminilmlioD. lbe quellion w wbecber or not wiq of lbe Rm>lutioB comolliq wW Ibey pen:eiwd 11 (llMl qialbly w) a mare rdcal mili1my ..: -.. ; ..... . . t.: n' ir I from .,.. !. . ....' .. : I e . . : u N OF-WI S CONS IN

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' . 171 wing wilb a llr'Onpr' pop bue of iiippGlt. As Pierra rtpdy conjoined, McKinley and his ldvilm hlld Jong lhlCC decided thll Cuba's civililn wme comminal tom Din:e with milillry leldal only beclllle they hoped ID main 1118 milbry's alfbatic project one emigr6 lelclen in pldicular c:omidaed far fDO IOCillly ndicaL Hence, when lbe Aaembly formed ila commiaioa under tbD adenbip of the ndical prodipl son, Omda. U.S. policy-makers had IDOlber opponunity to SbJdy -coocruu among Cuban natioaalis&s. Yet. lbe options 1be U.S. would exploit came from lbe Cubas lhemlel\'el, not Wuhington imperialisll. Applrently in order to maximi%.e its flcxJDility in bcpin& with lhe Allembly's anilllde, lbe commisaion propmed two distinct solUlions to the mambises' crisis: one wu a loan to be made by lhc U.S. directly ID the A.aanbly u a formally mcopiDld provilional govemmenc and lhe other, favored by Glrcfa, of a lump comp:1audon or cash "gift" for the relief of soldiers. In lbe end. the OJmmission'I only ICbicvement WIS to instill in lhe minds of McKinley's advison an inadequate sum for the diJNncting of lbe mmy Chit mekenly, Giida bid c:onlrived in a m.d exchange wich McKinley bilmelf. The amount Wll for $3 million, scam:ty enough to pay soldiers s 100 elCh Ind r .. from enough to C0\1er lbe promiled by lhe Revolution lhe time of their recnaiClnea 14 M*ins wane, Omda died of a hart lltlCk in Wuhington a rew days i.r, temn1 lbe Oxnmiaion demoralized aacl without kl lllOlt rec:alcilnM voice. Ullimlrely, lbe Awmbly ...-to consider lbe amount while wortin1 for lbe resolution of a Iola lbmu&b independent contac11 in die u.s. Nnldaa scicUJr (paumabty IDlde by Bstnda Nma' group, by now expem in dlCle IDlllal). In tbe mantime. MUilDo 06mez Wll .... ua:Md by lbe pelDlll McKinley, R.obat P. Foder, who oerecl to nsleMe 1be Libenlin& Army flam kl limbo for 1be pMfaed llDOUlltof $:3 million. 06mez waald llla'dllilndlll lie bid ..... ID 1be m bellevia& it to be die Allembly'1 OWD .. .,.al. llowewr, it ii clell'lbat be did IO in onler to : T .. : : .f>rL .al frc .... .. _:. ... : : ; : ------

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. -, _. '. f .... .. ,. 172 awid filmlr.ial rilt ID Cuba fllblle lblt the A111111bly plOllCll9d to like i""eld tblt is. 1CCJeptm or a$11.4 million from privm U.S. blDbn only to pay it hi lbe llDOUllt of S20 million plus inteaat. Suda UAriou1talDIwaeuw:cqubleto06mez. just a lbe oriaiml idea of ray km Ud been to fellow revolutiowy nllina.aiat Calixto Gard&. G6ma beliewd IUdl a lolll would prOYide COillCletie jUldficalion for the U.S. military ID coatimle oc:cupying die Wand. The fKt tbM d.e loan's broker, c.M. Coen. rcfuled to name his blcken IDd 11111 one of diem na aclolc friend of MclCinley pa lbe impeaion lhll nodUng could baw beea dam' to lbe lr1ldL.., For Odmaz, lbe $3 million doll put waa lbe only allmrnaliw ID -.tie med to mahain a ridiculous show of force before the powerful inteneniDa praence" which hid alrady announced its inlBadoo to let up a militmy govemmall myway."' 06mez'1 "pm:t" with Porter in excbmp for the clilblnding and, u it would cum out. diurming of the Libenling Army earned him the ICandaloua n=bub of lbe Auembly. On March 11, 1899. lbe Aaembly \IOled to dilchqe G6mez from bis nnk u Genenl-in..Qief al remove lbe imperialilt Dllionalilt and one-time rival of Bllnlda Palma. Gonzalo de Qtrsecl, for baviftl brobred the deal widl Polter, from his poll in Wllhinglon. Unfmd. de Quealdl pnnupdy flDOlt a job White Houle counsel oa Cuban lfflin for a whopping SS,000 in sallry per 111DU11L ,., 06mez. on lbe other band. w inle. In rapome, be cbarpd dlal the A.l_.'y hid --.ll ""to obliple our mny ID ramin in ill praall lilllllioa a lhreataing pmxt to pt more money (from lbe U.S.]," a policy be considaed DOI only bumilimling. bul manUy 1epela11111ible." Yet. while c:bqca or deceit IDd belrayal of lbe Dllion fell euily from lbe lipl or civilim anolulioalricl. lbe Olbln public dnw iUalf iBlo ovcrwbe1min& displays of aupport for G6am. 0a Pcbnlary 24dl, when G6awz ealeled ffaYlll& (or the first time ID meet with Militlly Oovemor Bloob. be wa DOt only aecehed witb ftall milDry bonon by die U.S faa:a. but by ndt ol Waviaa IDd daeaing wbo decanted dllirhomel IDd axe6'*' bim. .in MSc:b. lbe pllblk's mp-W11 elecbic. \ -- :-"" .;o < : . .. e .Orlginal from UNIVERSITY OF t1.:. .... ...

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, . 173 W-dhin a day. cki2a' corw-. arpailed llllldlel in fawr o1-. tmc defender of lbe pllria": DDWlplpCl'I dimibulllcl bmlbilll decllring their llDCOIMtiticlDI support ror 06mer.; die vetmw' dub "Emilio Nulez" prillled llllllifalDI lbal "Glory to MUhno Gdmez! Lona live lbe Lbnling Army! Humh for die Amaicln Anny!"' a.p, their ICtion '1may(ed] tbc It.evolution" and '"(pve] U1111 ID one IDIDiflllflo KCUled the Astembly of wnding ac:ommiaion to Wmhingtm t.:11. wilbout plln or 111eemmt. d la apdola.[ ... ] You 11e not the had of die Revolution wbicb ii only MUimo G6mez. You Wini llO put younelf before lbe American OoYemmcnt that most surely libs you a people iDcapmle of anything terioua. 1bc people do not know wbll to mike of you." c.pturing the dilillulionment end mtipllby lhat nay felt for lbe civililll revolutiouriel who appeared to do norhing but talk llld wmec1 to pin DOlbina by it. writers o1 the manifatoea coac1uc1ec1 with a Clll for the Allembly'I cliuolution.71 Not only did the delperlle soldiery flock to lhe predl:cermined ltllioas to rec:ciw their money, but in die CUC of Oumllnamo. tboullnds who were not regiltaed on the original lila praeested plCiflCally before the home of U.S. Colonel Howton for their shme.72 Wllhin a monlh of 06mez'1 lriumpbal madl to Havma. the Alanbly c:hole ro diuol"Ve illelf. Jn IO doin&. its members anded a lllmina-point. The fragmencadon of Oabm N'ioM'ilml in Che mce al neaotilDoas wilb U.S. impaialilm mJmineMd in Cbeir KICOllllDOdllio to die bepmanic project. In lbe c:ominc lllDRlhl. former revolutionlries would legidmlle the U.S. milieary gownmat IDd ID a pm emnt. play by ill rules. lib Dnminao Mmdez eapoee. too1c pmitiolll wilbin die local Dninilllllion of the miliClly aovemor. Olben. like s.lVlldor Cilnerol Bmncoun-cbe only Allembly member eo wee apintt die Allembly'1 diMOkation--beclllm Mmch cricica of U.S. policy llld pmlCllCC from widrln imtilulioM it Claled IUCb. the Caaltimlioul Cmvatioa. Eanlda Palma. far bis pill. nsraaiDed OJdinued ro llb relqe in hil home wr llblca. New Yark. ew:r man: . .. r 1.,-_"; .. : ... ... : .-Ori.ginat:ft.n _ : .. w..::-: .. .. IZt:d by UNIVERSITY ....

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Jt'I'. fl!,.. , I -, . . J'. ......... it.'. . . :::111 r r 1 t 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 .. .. -if '... ( i lr&:I 1 l:s'r I. 8-: J 8 t l . l !a I I w f I f ?':i'" P. I I I [ I f I I 5 f i f t J f .) r J ! i"I, l JI J l: 1, 1. -. . I i l I f 1 l J 1 P. l ( 1 I I f 111 : 1 ( 1 t IP B l i r i 1. r s 1 t 1 11 1 . . l t f I -l If s s l I I I I -a. t I 1 i I i 1 i l t 1 r i 1-l. i 1 o_. J I I 1 a. 9 I ] :1 a i f ] 1: s I f A. I I J 1 i .. l I r J t I . I i 1 I i s I I a i l I I i f 1-f If s I I I t t I. ;. 11 ? I 1 f 1 1 l i I r '"'. I P. l f i" I i. I i" if P. i go c:tl: 8 if .. '5 .. a tnl' f -<

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-175 of lbcir "utter ipcnac:e of die ........ c:muns. IDd lrdlion of lbe [Cubu] people."74 Indeed. it Wll the c:ombiDlllion of Cimerol Bccmcomt's effoda locally, m'ellliou in lbe U.S. prea wl the premue of lllli-imperillilt Democl'lll ll lbe time al McKinley's te-election c:aqmign that pushed Leoaanl Wood ID move up 1he tiJDMaNe of Cuba's .. demoa"atiurim. "75 A true po1i1ic11 demoall. CimenJI Bccw:.omt w illlCnunenCal ia prasuring die Wood Admlnlitnilion to allow all 8dult.. inme Cobia not just members of the ReYolulion. Wood pcoposed--co pllticiJ*e in the fint islud-wide elec:tioas of 1900 for the Consdtulional Coaventioa. 76 Ma deleple ro die Cisnerol Belw:ourt politically Labenl ideall u lbe complefe lepll'llion of Cun:h and Sllle including a non-dcilt Condutioo, unMnal male suft'rqe. the prohibidon of the cte.dt pemky under any cin:umstance. IDd of coune, bis fllncd opposition to the 8doption al the U.S.-brokered "Plitt Amendment.'' a dilcusled below." Significandy, Cisneros Berancourtdefinedbis ICtiom IS guided by the idea thll be w "ltill in the revolution." a phrw on which be 1e11 c Me illy llld perblpl. iJOnically relied. for arpain& ipinst militarism wilbin the ... In pncbca1 he IDlde two proposals for the ComDIUCioa to preftllt lhe rile of ltlfe mililarism. of which be ICbiewd only the fine a lepl exdusioa not only al my ICtiYO ICrVicemen from lbe blllot box. but of my ldiw or former ''Gela'al" from the presidency of the Republic." In sbon, a the second island-wide elections of 1901 drew nar-chis time for the fint gowmmeat c:ompriled entilely of Olbam, Cisnaous Bellncourt would mow away from Eanda Palma a a polmlial fu1111e leader of Cuba just a both men's former ideolop:al foe. MUbno 06mez. mowlCI closer. of OlblD Dlfionalian be iep If llle/1, MUiJno 06mez combined mt idDolagicll indiNlicla towlld llllhoritmillli wida Che pm(oandly tnummc expaieace of Che ... in bis wlysis of CublD politica. 79 After 1199, lie b"l:ne evcrnae firmly CCJllvimld dlll die lmd ID a truly ;....,,...,._ lepablc 111111t b8 bmcl an saona. Invatinc die idea 11e lmid ... .. : .. : .. : . .. . -_ .": -. : ..; -: : .. I _,,, ... rr ._ ,.:. .. (J;inif.."a .1...:,-:-,.\ .: ... .... -: -.-t.:;, .... .. r ;a I .UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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t 176 oat with MllU in 1be u.ifalD of MOllllDCiilti lb.It lbe PRC IDd 1be milbry hid i..m die at of die 1895 w ... his pl Wll to help cnllle .. '"iadepellllleat Oabln Republic. coalial wt wdl-ordRd. ... Yee, ho w.-cl to remai. u fir outside tbe .. c:omedy" of ill polilbl 1Y*m a poaible.11 ComcicJUI tllll civilia lelden bid ma mucb of hil llltborbrilll inldnc11 in ordlll' to justify their pelter lefitirmcy ftatme ac.derl of a democamic ltepublic, G6mez rebuked lbe selflstiaess of his cridcs even u be auund lhem lblt be would not contelil lheir polilical candidacy with his own. ""Do not far. no. dlOle who apire to po1hiom of power and honor," be wnu. "I do not diaturb you. for 1...-to nocbiaa. Tlte dk:talor u ii Im"""71w jWld ii now ckar ..a M paepmdons for tho 1eklction of c:andidltel wens ma in 1U111111er of 190 l, tbe c:on;.tcnce of llltHlcmocntic chm:ldeliltics in fAlnda Palma' imperialia llllionalilm IOd 06mcz'1 nllioaliam led IUppOdal of tbe llltl:r to conceiw Eanda Palma u a palm' impediment to U.S. imperialism dWl the mm who wa emeqins 11 bis rival, BldOlom6 Mll6. lraaically, dole idooloaical allies of G6mcz. IUCh a Jos6 Miro who bid been AJllOnio'1 second-ia-commmd throupout lbe Wll', aw Estnda Nina u lhe ideal c:mdjd Plectidins Ihm Che voters of malt small IOWDI would support P.atrlda Palma, Mir6 opined lbll if elccled, lhc lhamtiw c:andjdale, BllttDlam6 Ma6, would be nocbin& more thin a "'IUbbcr-mmp president"[ prufdotli .....,ula).11 At die mne time. a minority of lllljcJnaUg llld imperialist nadmalim wbo aJG118:d 1be COllli"rinl coopenlion of lbeir fanncr Illies wieb U.S. imperillilm rcjectecl Blttlda Pllma'1 cw.didlcy for lbe mnc --. Coordinltina a 'abidly And-Plmtt Amcndn plllfonn. dllDle 11oup1 orpnnm 1be camplip of BlltOlam4 Mll6. The lat pRllident of lbe Republic-in-Anni IDd a lllliw of MmmriJlo, Orienll, Mll6 joined fan:es with Cisnerol BelMiOOUil. cmdkl#e for vice pt'Pteell, in ICCUiq Em* Pllma of xldoailm llowvw, bec balb Clftdjd 2 I c:ivililD .... of tt. W1rwbme 11111 aatbeea UWIDd .-illtt.-way dlltdae of milillry ...._ bm1. it is ... ... . t .. :: . .. .:.... :-j ; . Or11'1mal fr'Um . .... '.. !:I. l -. i .. -U'NIVERSffY OF'\VIS"CONSIN

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! .:.. ... j 177 Ubly lblt mmy voten' iniUUy fawred one or lbe odm clepeMini on whom milbry leaders of lbe Wsrdecided to endora Undoubeedly, 11 the most presti&iau1 of these laden, MUimo 06mcz'1 endonemmt of &Inda Palma amt haw prowd a by factor.15 Yet it was not wilhout IOIDe reservMiom tbll MUimo G6mez IDd otben ..-to throw dlCir pablic support behind lbe of Bllrlda Palma. In penooal team to Odmm.. Es1nda Palma tougbeaed his language in criCiciziog lbc .. macbiaYdlim end"" oru.s. imperialist designs for Cuba. namely the Pie Amendment Howewz, in the ame brealb, be allo declmd the .mopboa of lhe Platt Amendment a dad iaue. one which should not occupy die win the flee of olber immedilfe political priorities." In flCt, a series of privare meetings of over twenty gencnls and civilian revolutionaries were held in the Havana home of vcter1n officer F.milio Nulez to detamim how they would iDfelpet Bscrada Pllma's apprOKh to the Platt Ameadment and whether or not they would support bim.17 ConYOked in response to Eauada Palma' pabliclrion on July 24. 1901. of an open leUm outlining the jpunaijlfr objediws or the CulMln st.lie 11 he saw lbem. lhe meeting produced a response to the letter. This respoue -a private on&-ICIWcl 1n ultimalum to &Inda hlma lhll be clllify bis views reprding Cuba's relalionship to the United Stafa. 0 This turned out to be a majority position among meecin& pllticipma. but Bllnda Palma' rapome to their mnlMr wa ultimlllely convincing enou&h to win most of chemOYer to bis side. Not surprisingly, Esnda Pllma inwbd the bannonioul vision of lllllliple nltionalisms lbat Mart( lmd tided, .... cantial Republic for all." in order to do IO. n Indeed, die claw penonal linb chit Eltnlda Palma mjoyed wilb Md and the clolcr dilcuniw pMCJDllW of BllrD Palma'I cmnpeip meaap may haw bid I pal deal to with of military IDldal incNdin1 ndica1 revolu1icJnsy mpport him cwer-Mal6. Fcmn die ... in&. Mu6 Cllllpliped openly for the Vala of blacb -_mallnaCs. pnxnisin& ID lllillaD'dleir a.111111 pioritiel for lhD new Odm w." Notooly did .. .: . . Mu6 vilic IOCiCba WCllbia .who Ml'e precbnjnmdy blict. sucb M die CCflfftJ .! ": I ........ ,. :\ .. l r > i, ... "'.; ,, . t r : -... . :'I ... : t "IT.' t l,. .. 1 J I ,'1 I w : ,-; ; I I : : .;_. ; ... : ..... : \. '. .. .::. .Ong-rnalf m ........ -" J -UNIVERSITY .,_

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.. . . . \ .. .,,, ; . t: !t!ifl a.J l.11t f a.,1 1=1-;g : l [ 1 i I r. I I J : I I ; : t l i i ; . ,f f-a.ll 1.-!f f !1 a. J 6 i I i I l J l s r.s" 11 f JI I (if :J If (a.,il ;'. i r a. 1 t f 1 f I t s I J. t i t 1' l-i :, "= I 1 l a. j l r i II i I : s I SI, f :\ i I . I a. i: I! f I 1: l ! i t 6 I ... I J f r , t t 1. 1 1 1 i f I J t I I f J r J l I I I ,.. J i I Ir I "' I Iii I l J I l t I i I . i .. i l I Jl i l s '<. I B If I ..

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t : '., ; /' 1. 11 r 1 1 i I f 1 r f I r 1 : i 1 f 1 .. i 1 i I s I I! i i ! I ii I I I t -o f I i I r I f I a t I r I I l I l I i 1 I I s I I I J g f 1 SI. f Ii tl! : I : i f f l t i 8 t I I t I I i i f 1 i 1 1 I ; Q l 1 1 :s .. r O -I I I l 1. g. -9 :;-I s f f s i . I a l I & c: 2-l f '< it t 1 i .i I i i ; i 't l i f i 1 i 1 J !: ( i J I: f J J S f f pa .

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181 When tbaawnp....., of Cubln biltoly reeds Weyler'1 leCDCICel'.lb:ation policy, alhe ii libly to think of die at ilDlpl of amcilled JOUDI women md cbildnm pholDplphed by dorms of foreign joumaliats and publiciml llOUDd lbe world. 1'bele imlgel of degmded youth IDCl viol*'1 belUly n powerful ones. Yet, the recoianbdo cxpedmce profoundly affecled cbe on1mpag Oabm IOCiety in ways most billoriw ba\'e leaded ID overlook. By imprintina a deep and llbidiag batted of Spmlilb nde upon dlOIC who llll'Yivcd it and dlOIC who found thm.-1\'el illClplble of cballenging it. die unique urbln uperiencc of w lcft 111111y kr:cnly cognizaM of how U.S. impcdalism differed from lbeirdeeply eccbed. recent memoria of lbe em=aw of Spllilh colonillilln. Indeed. cMcima dlli from che period ( 1898-1902) ue rife will\ !.dmrtldona that CUblnl not forget die evil of wbic:b both lhe Splllilb IDd Che Cuban YOlunlllen who aided them proved caplble." Odien defended Americms apimt "'1e falle propapada" being lplad lbout them lftCI their inlenlions. evidmtly by Splllilb loyalilla." Still ochers expressed gratitude ID the Uniled Stlla but deeded 111Dexllioa lllCl cbe proviliom of Che Pt.It Amendment 100 Thae divene, fngmmtlld rapoaw point to a aener-1 phenomenon dllt we shall explore in the following pqa. that ii. bow Cubans, u individuals or in orpniled groups. came to enpge lftcl resist Che agen11111d policia of imperialiam in Older to funhm' eadl they pm:eiwd a Dlljnnalilt. They did dlil by DIOlpcedng die udon locally md pcamally, dlrwgb the lens of popullr parjmaljam. M we will dilcover, cbe plfemllisc. inlermlly confticlCd DllUl'e of U.S. imperialilm itlelf provided Cublu wilb oppodUliliel for involvement and COl\lellltion. nm.. cbe fKl lhll Olblnl combined elemela or bodl aai"BIM'e eo IDd enaa..-. of U.S. iqJerialilln me111t tblt they did not wbolly aublllit nor 1*ct it, but lllber, becamD pmtidpal ill it. Tllil pmzu of plldcipllion c:m be mdentoodu awing tbe conditiom for U.S. impaialilt Wpualy wbiJe ll lbe-limc, demmwlq dllt dlil bcgmy ICCO"'"Orl* popui.r needs IDd iallmllL Sewn! PJUP1 wae pldica)ldy efrediw ia elllbUlbiDa aacb a mlllknllip wi1b cbe ..... policiea,of impcrilUiai: Olba' female plbioll. llSbel'l llld WOibal. Jn . .; . . ..... :; ... .:: ize11 ... : > Original from .. ;. IJNIVERSITY'OFWIS'cONSrN

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f 0 . : . . k .. . II1 . a r lf1 .! . f I r 1 1 I -.l 1 j I 1 a 1 ; > I l I: 1' 18 . I 'S 1-1 I t I P ;. BS: . P.t f ij' 11. n: r;; a.1 s C:8' -... A.. "' : r : a r 1 :. t I f I I a. I I I } I f i I I I f a \ i I I .. I I -I 2: I I! i I i I ( ... 2' ili I! il!(Jt1 r Iii":' >ll,() I J . I i J g. i I 2 1 a. II i I I ,., l i I t i JI [ I .t i l i i i [ t J i I if p J' s I B l f I f 8 t ; i 1 a J I J I a. l I 1

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. . 183 Cublll liluldoa OYel' wral .......... Ulipment be cmied out in die sprina .t lllllU1W!I' of 1897 ID her medial with Calhaun, Pdllledoada presented bim with a apect, wriam mcccxmt of the '"bomn of the recoacmllnllion"' lbe lllld wimelled Al1hoqh abe found bil auilada IOIDISWbat enigrmtic, lbe let her opdmism OYemJle my mislivinp lhe may haw bid llbcJUt lbe DllUJe of bis bdmtions.1' PwicJll.,.y, D impreaed Oft C..lboun dull amt rebels would never summder lW]e &bill all die before we luneoder to lhe inaisted.115 Calboun'1 IUblequent report to McKinley was grellly influenced by Peliamdoada and others limillr llalements. Finl, it cleldy coafinncd lhll the Ubenling Army would fight to the dealb ad, in lhe long nm, would problbly win. Second, it presented the revolutionaries II che enemies of llllCXltion and the s.-.m and wakby, loyalilt Cub111111 iu srauncbest supporters. In short. Calhoun's report. diftcdy suppon:ed by lbe teldmony of re'VOludonaria lite Pelanedoada, g&'1C McKinley the lllUranc& be needed to proceed IS he did, mqinalizing Cuban mtOlutionlrics, c:ourting Spaailb loyalists and justifying lhe lnta \'Clltion on humanitarian grounds.1' How lhalty mae poaads IC1llally were became incn:asingly obYioal to Pdlrrcdoada ad odlen from tho lllrt of the lnlenation. Thus, in its rust few moacbs. Clara Barton's Red Ooa found ib ships IOlded with food for starving reconcenttldial prabibifed from llndia& in Oaba by lhe U.S. milimy.117 Simillrly, che iDidll pnnrisioning of-. of lhouundt of daily ntion1 to the people of Sllltitgo by die U.S. Army came It tbe prim of Commandin& Oenenl Leonard Wood'1 llrict llltborillrimim llld bis re Je;kinwjon of lbe IUCbority of SplDisb ofticim. Fmb from fllhtia& Indians in die U.S Wat IDd iovi&onfed by bis own penonal CllpCUre of Ille Aplcbe 'blndit" Gcmaimo, Wood e\11111 bired a psea apnl ID publicia bis dicClllJlill mecbodl in Orieare home, 10111e of wbida becme the mdf of lepada.1 Dilplayl of brawra in Oricale coupled with Wood'a llrict COUdia& of lbe Spmilb cnlclai older IOOll eamec1 bim the pemonbip of the whole illllld.111 I r !J . I '-r. : J Ongmalfrom,. a: UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSlfif' ......

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,. 184 Indeed, to White HoUle poticy.mabn, lbe fira yarofU.S. lntervmtion illusttarcd lblt Cuba's ori&inal milbry govemor, Oeoenl John R. Brooke, waa IOO "soft" on mwlalionlria mcl too slow in putting U.S. imperial inlerelll into .:don. Thus, McKinley (under 'l'beodcft Roole\dt'1 ldvic:e) ordered Leourd Wood to replace him u of January 1900. In relpQI al to the delight of General Wood all cbe Olbas in Brooke's Cabinet aigned. Sublequemly, Wooclcompietely reocpniml all leYela of Cube's civil gowmmcnt, cbooliq cmdidlll:I forpom '"who 1re in sympMby with Amelicln ideals." Most of them, with a few excepcions. turned out ID be Sp111iards.110 Further, Governor Wood restored property in lilipbon since 1be t830s-to the Cllholic Oaun:h. Not only did Spllliardl dominare cbe Clurc:b's biermdly, but Spanish cleqymen bad openly mppomd WfJ'/ler during die ww llld ldiYdy ignored cbe plight of recoacenlndol. Thus. for many CUbas, non-native clergy repremited the bighelt leYel of colonial immonlity lllCI bypoc:rily. 111 However, it is not smprisiq that Wood openly courted tho SplDilh. reprdJas of lbeir activities. since topdm wilh tho Olbln '"propertied cl ... ," be DOI only conlidaled them the puine "people of Cuba" (lppllaldy seeing thole of mixed me u unwonby of the dtle), but be also lppft>Cill"d their opm anneulionism md the praise cbll the formerly loyalist press consistently Aveniae Olblnl unknown for lheir polhicll ICtivida. llbar ICdvists remming from Florida u well middlo-leYd mevoluliomriea ill the illlad mdcqlound \'OCifemusly procated the opee divuuioa ol IDDCXllionilt options. They also minc:ed no words in WDOIDOUlly "'erkina Wood ad odla' U.S. afficilll' quiet cheer.leeclin& of such pllns.111 As Protaf, Wood rude aatma towlld tbtCdlnUc bierlldly lhlt infurilred w omn wamen. indudin1 Pdlrredaada. Acculing Wood ol on:belUalins Rome's of a nan-Cubm. DonllO Sblnai. to lbe poll al Aldlbilhop of lfanna. lbelc wmnaledacmpp clepicliDa Sbmeai a a puppet of U.S. imperialima llld pwing bimto . fmMod the wbicb G .. lindit. MOit imaltiag ID -. . . . .. . : .. I .... :':. ..... . ; : .. ... :-\ ::. ... : ng1_a1 _.,.._. ,,,. .. I . flll..Cri() 'IJ.I -,.-. ,,,f _,._ . 0 ... : U'r.f -., '1 iT:JlJ 11

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. .. . -. 186 of win wbic:b lbe Dllioa IUld been barn wilb ml!iniM gealility. Having Cl&Miml .evolutionary dubl, IClwd a communQtiom opendva llld aura. or lived campDom eo Caba rebels in lhc w, lbae women ICJUaht out opportuailiel ID ellelld their role ID lbe coaeenipormy lilllllion of U.S. lnrerwlalioft. Some contiDDed lbe wart of .. civilizing die INlliam" from home llld oa lhc meet tllll Ibey hid done dariaa lbe Wll' by foundina faniniao IOCial clubl. Through eumplc. word wi deed. thele dubl sought ID geocaa a lme of popallr paame for Che Dolute iMcpeadence of lbe illlnd.117 Clearly, II'* number of women wbo hid undentood their contributioal to Che Rewlulion a promodna lbe moral principles md pnder ideals of a biglm, modem civilinim coadnoed ID view their llCdvities under U.S. occupltion in dlil way. M models of civility llMl bepen of revoludonlry memcxy. IDIDY such women heeded lbe call of Alexis Eftr'CU Frye. Che rmt Superinfmdent of Mlle Scboola under Governor Brooke, to ""uplift" Cuban children through education. One WOIDlll who channeled her perc:eplioo of the Wll'-timc expcricncc IDd pmonal undandiag of the nalioa into a new job 11 a acber of public ecb=8tioo wa Ritica Su4rez clel Vdllr y Sdrez del V.U.. In Seplemberof 1900. Ritica SUrez del Vin. y Su6rez dcl Vallar opened Public Scbool No. 16 on lbe corner of Cristina ad Sin Clrlos in downtown Cienfuegos. The dluabther of a local pllnta' whole family hid ldivdy supported lbe indq!eedence mugle (ml loll a peat deal ot wealth becll11t of it). Ri1ica hid reccmly become IOlnefbing of a celebrity Cor her work cluriac die lut war founder IDd president of lbe--moluciomry dub of WOlllCll. 1.a Cubmila Ill Wbca MUhno G6mez vililrd lbe cily a yar ...... be IDll lhe obr meraben of her dub, bal finctiq ill pnsideat miuing due ID ma-, be Ud Dllde a special visit ID lbe home of Rilica. wbae be held a priYlfe meccing wilb her. sr-1 oolonill coda of edqoeae! 1' Ridca w m ClCClllllric m l1llDUled ID bava ... -t a.._... by bavia& a lave afr*wilh berfintcamin.121 l :I': : .... N.,,,r : . . (. : ,- I = .._.... f _,. :. .l!Zed .. .: Original from; tJNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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. . ,.. t ,;.: . l 4 \ : f I :t" .. . .. : J r : 1 J 1 f I t 8 a: 8 i 1 1 r 1 1 1 .10 '.1 -f I s I a r r I i 1 t I l r : I I I i 1 I f f l i l I ( ( a &.r. Jli l a.J. lB s:f 11 I ,1J 1i -l.f 1J 1f . r 1 l 00 a &--. 1! ftt111tfat}rJtf11.llffi ... s [I I .a r1111 ; .. 11 .. ll!.r11. '. f j I i I 11 l i .. ,. I i i Is 1 JP. t I( J I J c: : I ( I I II. I I II I f s l J I i t t' a-:JI .... t R .. $ i l i f I -41t 8 s r I I l 1 j I t r i a t l f t i II. II. I I I II I l II. l r ( I t l a: i t f ". r z. fi i I l(Jr 18! J a.1 l a: .

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r -. ::.. -189 ldaool down. tint by rewjpiD, 111 ber lr:ICber'I to adlCr ICbooll, mcl lben, when Ritica condnled to bold clum, by aedaning the ICbool clillridl in IUCb away tbll Dica's ICbool WU left wilbout papila. Prantic to re-elllblilh her poliCion IDd IO confinn her good inllentiam. llitica IOlicited die support ol lbe pelt'Oenenl-in..Qief MUimo Odmez. But lavin& just neaotilled die $3 million payment to bis troopl, Odam Wll hinwlf under fire the time. lbua. General's rqiy to Rilic:a belied the inJGic qumdry in wbic:b Ibey bods found themlel.a: [ ... ] I don't know Mr. Yero, but I believe lhat I problbly wouldn't get along with him roo well, which lads me to believe dJat if I Mdlell mytelf to him on your behalf, I could jeoplrdize your case wcU u mine. for my recommendllion might well be toaed into the trub bin of..-P9P'll Don't dlinlc tblt everything lbat ii said with rapect ID my penon lllCI lppCSS to shine is gold abiak (I know the ways of 1be World). When Weyler wa in CUba it WIS different, but now he's pae llKI llrady nobody rememben any of iL I will do whll I can for you, by ocher mum. Thal ii bea.a'. Your loving Brolber, M. 06mez. '24 In 1bc end. Rilica dcfilndy lbe acbool in Sepfember of 1901, but upon receiving I plain DOCe lipecl by lbe praident oldie ICbool bomd asking her to reCllrn her keys. she sunend&ued them. doled die IChool llld never raughl lpin. Rilica aewr fully recoven:d frmn lbowed her on mahiple occkn dnupout her life. In die lllt .,..lmony published before her deldl. Ritica wouldconmnt ro a bioplpber, cAftawll'CI.] I f
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-------------------------.... .. > .. J it .,. ' .. r., c; ..... I 111 I r I s t I I a. i I I 1 Ii I 8 I r II .' i I !I "! 1 ! If J i l 't I I J f l I # }1 11-!J.I 1. lrlI! li g . t II f t 8. fi R 1 f I t s . 3" [-c ili. ZS. Ii l' a I r I 1 8 I-f I = R' I' a r . J :f i f. ; I i 1 r 11 i 1 i i ; i ; l JI l t I t I I t I I 11 i I : I t J ( 1 llil I i!.&n:A-'< I t i I a I r i I 15 I i f a ti .1 l i I J 1 l 1 1 I f 11 j 1 11 r J I -<'g. I a- i c:: D: l 5' f .. t I l If } f f t i i f i I i J l I i f I i : 9 I I a f f. A. I I If [ I I-a i -.-'I -,r1. '[!l .. I l 1 i I t 1 .. 1 r R '< I :: : Ji f t f ; i "( ( f -J J -I I

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1awre wmploymeDt w tbe ordllr of tbe day. n Mcnover, U.S. policy provided .U acbcn. ropdlas of their pndlr, equal pay for equal wort.1JJ 194 Fint biled ander tbe U.S. lmawadon a runl IChool lelleber in Pimr del Rfo--cbea Cuba's IDOll illilmlfe province1"-hiltorian Rlmiro Ouerra recalJcd how Ibis policy of pnder equity polidwly af&md lbe polidon of Youns women in lbeir bomel. 1111ny of whole families rec:eiwd no olber soun:e of mone111y income.'" Besides offering womea an altalllliYe to domcldc depelMiency, DOfCd Gucrn. lbe new imperialist empbuia on educllion rmde suppott for ill IU:ben llDOllg local elitea. Bncounpd by lbe modemizltion and fUrwe. oriented discoune of U.S. imperialism. many lawyers. doctors and scientists bepn to consider die social implications of lbeir work in relalion to pedlaogy for lbe fint time. Pmthec, the requirement lhll teachms ll1llDd normal IChools IDd lam co live in c:itia independent of cbeir families not only enhanced lbeir lelf-ateem. insisacd Ouem. The knowledge and sopbisticatior they KqUiled also aublequeatly fOMed para-social reprd for lbem in the local commuruDe.> where tttey tauabt and liwd.1.16 'lbll lbe emcllional aymn in CUba cried out far dorm in 1898 ii undeDiable. At the time of the Intervention, Cuba poeased only 312 ICbools with total enrollment of 34, m idmll. By 190'2, lbe U.S. military 1ow:mmeot hid maH111d the number of ICbools to 3, 628 with a tocal of 171. 273 pis and boys regislered. Of lhele, 62. 864 were eidler bllCk or mu&.ao. wilb 1liabdy men girls Ihm boys emolled.117 By coa1r11t, ia only 198 bl.:k or naJllltO Qlbw getjomDy Md naiYed IOllle level of bilMreducldaa a c:ompmed to 8,629 wbiteL Tim, by makiag tmcatioB broldly availlble ID dlOa whale pmm11 Md long cbamed 11111 propeaively-minded CublDI for wham Ibis w m impeaiw. oven mvolutioDlly lddevemmt.1ll AJtboup noteaoup ICbaoll were bmlt to meet die wda of Olba's ICbool pnpatmm, dl09cbildlal lllead 1Cbaalap1mecl dleir""""'"'" far._., by ...,.,,,..otlbe time ...... ty. Indeed, wlm CGllJmed ID lbedismal IOYell of . ., :,. ... -... . ?;: -llt> "ir' ; i l1gi.i e \ ..,.... .,. .... . f . ... t,.-; ;, : Original from '(JN I VERS fTY O F w1 S C ONS IN -

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197 world pop..,tty text md requiring ill me in Olba.141 Howewr, It last one Cuba aew1p1per reported tllll Frye bid "'not taken one cent of bis l8luy or em of bis royalliel for lbe pibticMioa of bia boob. diltribuling it all duoaab Ids of m.rity. In 111, lbe DISWlpmpel repol1IDd lbll Prye md doled oat $3.355 llKI lllld receiwd remunenliaa from the blla YeDlionilt penmmt for rravel CXpelllCI or cbc cast of food.141 The seleclion of boob, moll of diem publilhed by U.S. book companiea. by a pme1 of Cutia lppOinteea c:raled someching ol a scandal 1hll w dncmne11red in competin1 mapziaw of the pedagogical press. 1be Qlban.owned La & Modcma c:bllpd lhll SlllUel Sall, owner of its nval La EM:wla Olbana, was profiltiq enormously from a U.S. lpOlllDRd monopoly thll bis book compmy hid been able IO ICbieYe OWJr the lalbook rmrbt in Cuba. Mr. Small fired ha: dial no history ID1boob were available belidel dlOle printed for use in colon i al SpMilh ICbools llld poakin1 a diltincdy loyalilt view of dlinp. Which WM beaer, .he implied. A Splllish text or ID American one11 Some Cubm ICbool tachen : IDd Ricica Sunz del Villllr responded IO dlia pediclment by not using eilber. Radler, they relied oa lheir own memories of Spmilh colonWilm and the CUblll nm>ludoalry suugle far libcntion to iDllnlCt their lbldenll on cbc bilrory of Cuba. Ritica dlOle to ipcn lltoptber Cbe mend dllt she llWb her girls Y hilaory of die Uniled Scala. Still OCher Cubans raponded to Smlll's lllli-dcmac:nlic policies and biury vision of CUba'1 oplionl 11 Yaced ia eilher Spain or die Uniled S..... widt a 1antalizina critique. 'Ibis cridque cfisrina'ilbed between die pOliliYe impa Ibey saw Frye'...- t.vina an aai. pouillilities for independent, democ:alllic nllionbood m lbc implct lblt Small's ..,.. of c:orpcJr* IDlllipllltioR would Thus, El Vigllalw, lbe town newspmper of CXJDlin1+t the lltide. .._ lbe not Smlll. it's Flye. ISi Bowewr, efforts ID .. Americmlia" Oibm -=bas yielded CXllllndidlxy raulll. Oil Iba a bllld, IW:lm' wnu..,.nr eo .d CClllllblle to lbc fmperialilt project of . ... : .... .. -' 1 ->ize y . f ii = > . . .. .. . :.'" -.-.rrgnal ro .. -:. ' "1_1 .. .. .. UftrVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ...

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...... ... 1 .. j.' ,, . I r r 11 f t -I f l I I I t J .. I a. I I I l > .. : f s f ... ., f I J ;1 r .u: .t l t f J I J l p. la I 11.l 11rs Ii rtl JI.I it A !l ... e i .. Ii.,. Ii! i11,lif r I "" J .ia., 1-1 c pi 1 i t l f f. t. I: J 1 J f I ! J I i : t 9 : i l 'i Ii Si-f f. f f ! I I l i 1 I I l I J l r l I I i I i i 1 I i l i i i i 11 : r I J i 1,afiit .. I I Si-Si-. I f I .. s f f J I t s i "'

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We not 1be tracben to bralbe 1be 11mellpl'1lft of the gre11at sc:bool in America. We nnt them ID feel lbe biltory .S mocilliom. to enjoy lbe f.cilifel of libnriel llld labonloriel. [ ... ] We Wint dlelC telChea'I to have the cultme that comes t'mm tra\'el. we wmt lban fO cmy dlil culblle met inro their Cublll boma llld die Cubu ICbooll. We Wint lbele tachen to know oar country, to know our people. We want die ties between die two countries drawn closer, so thll all feeling of llllagOnilm may melt away, in order lhlt oar country may do a higher IDd better work for Cuba. 155 199 By exposin1 Cubm le8chen to die pedlgogical rigor and raom.:es of lhe United Siiia' oldest ad lllOlt pratigioul IClldelnic insdeutioo. Frye, Eliot and ocben hoped to impress Chem with lbe evidence m.t Americw' modernity IDCl democallic c:ulbft were wonhy of emulldan-even if aldmlldy such rnechods of penuuion were t.cbd by lhe force of arms. Broughton bolrd ateunen of lhe U .S. Navy,'" Cuban pllticipmcs in a.v.d's swnmer proaram 1eemed bealy awn of lhe irony thll dU presence in Cambridge, MasACbmeas repwneecl. Many acben evidendy ineelpeted their praence dme as a .,... ...... oflheirc:ommitlmot to Cuba'1 llllionll SOYCreipty and fOOk lbe opportunity to ... u much Some expreaed 111eh feelinp in a book of IUIOgl'lpbl praened Harvard. "We CUI>-. feel a deep 1e111e of andtude fO Americans, and it will be all lbe greala' lbe day cbll our Cu ii iDdependmt." w.-1 de C. Palomino of MllM!ZM "1be of alba will be one of die glories of lbe fllberlad of Wahington: die lllOlt liwly expreaioll of lhe pat vinaea of tbil generous people." n:mllbd Mipel lbn:el6 y Nia of $antitgo. Bnrique Rodr{pez Bllilla inailted. '"(As] a leleber of cbe ICbool of Pmlla Brava [cbe town in Pinar del Ito .... c:rownecl'1 triumphll Wellllm iaVllion). I daUe to tee IOOll poaiblc lbe .. of die IOlillly .... fly above in Havana."'" ; I < G .;1. ... i.; .. : ... '".: ... .. ; -. t '. . -;. . . : . ::.; .: UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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. . F 200 Ohm wae leu llcoaic in lbeir lppl'lilall. Bivins voice ID their bllltd of die Spmisb llld undencoriag Che poaithe cultmal impld thll U.S. imperialism they experienced it WU bavia& Oil Chem. and tblOagh Chem. odm Olbw. While. few YOiccd -uncomplicated mlminlioa for the United Stlll:S dllt bordeml on ldvoczy of anneutioaillD nlber thin my bnncl of Dllionalilm. such views decidedly in the minority. Mole COIDIDOft were expNlliona of lfllitude to Hanard UDivenity and Frye. 11 diltinct from the U.S. aowamueut. for bavin& povided IW:herl with dUs unique inside view of whit a modem, dtHOCIA IOCidy caald loot like. 1'bele lelCben cllrified the benefD reaped fnm such ID imidc view by staling Ible their pulpolC II CU.,_ WIS not to copy U.S. IOCicty euctly or to become a pat of it. but to creare lbeir own unique. independent demoalC)' in CubL Thus, a nm who wroee under rbe simple title of ... teacher from Oriente" lelnllbd, '"I am a wonhipper [Soy idolotro] of the Unieed Slllliel only for cbe facl of havina dupwp ops of Cuba lhe power of rbe Spmimls. If one day it should occur to die Americlns not to leaw one Spllliard in Cuba, dm day, I shall only lhoul. 'Long Uw Olba Ubre!' I beliew the United Slates should, nlher Iba educale, dchp;cpg CUbans, only in this way shall we be indcpendent."151 Alidc from tbele individual pronounc:emelll tbe Hamrd expaience provided tachen with mmy OCCllioas to cxpreu d1eir popular Dllionalilm ICdwly ad collectiftly. For nmnple, wbca Oeneral Wood came to vilit tbe tachcn HlrY8ld. bis plOpblb tbll lhe example of CUbln lelCba'l lllpred an imminat crlllidoa to iDdepeGdence elicited a furor of c:hecn from tbe alldience.18 One Cabin tacber who .wct 11 a ll'Wl.ror aeauembered lhe owrwMlmina inc::llNdm of Cub1D tacbers to intapret c:ommmonliom of U.S. hiltory throuP lbe prilm of dlCir own pm. Jn one iDICenr:e, toot a field lrip 10 Iba lite wbem on that ... day, l2S,_s befcn, 0eorp Wlllaingron lllld taken camo*MI of die rebel may apimt Bridlb nde undlr melm U.. .. Just 10 Gener.I 06mez, Oe1:efll Olrda. and Oeaeill widl oarCublll fon:ies W9 fisbdnc for Uwrty [lie] when die Americllll belp as," be wrc&-Aa Odm IW:bm nwc:bed fD Iba Wabinpm Elm ' . c . .!:.. _. . . , . ... '" Onomat f ro-n :-; ... c : ... 1 sl!,0NclN _, .?::." ,t: : ,..; ... .!... .:.:..L....:-r, .:. --:L... ,,. 4 .;" UN'l'V r;:Q'Jj ,..a JV.,. ..... __

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and plmced a waadl benealb it. "'Our bwtl wre full; llld thn wae newr-baltier cheers pwa thin dlOIC which we pve It that lime for all noble Amedcw ad Olbma [-.]"'" More often lhlll not, bowo\
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.. ,-:. 202 wbich we rlllher ew.ytbln1 ii beallbful. bypnic wt moral in processing llKI die protOcois of social lllCl penoaal life. My friend, I am not m 1DDOXllionilc(;] I canot be mlllDIWllionill; but I 1111 endw*d who could pw IOIDdhing like dlil to die Fllherlandl Endluaium IDCl clefaminllion we do not 1-=t.10 W-db his colorful images and words, Ftlas Torres brinp b8ck to life the intensity of the expmience dlll Frye's venioa of imperialilm llllde poaible for CUbm tachen. A"-years ol war ud a lifedme of fnucndon wich lbe rigidity of Spmilb colonial policy, lbe education sy111Dmel1ablisbed by Americana inlpired Cublll laeberl to believe dlll lbe rea1iDdon of lbeir own dreams of a prosperous. modem and intellectually f'Ublle for Cuba were genuinely pouible Perhaps dlere is no proof of this cha tbe fact lhll Alexia Evaett Frye wa evemually fnd by General Wood for not carrying out lbe goals of U.S. imperialism in ways Wood deemed appropriare!" But in leavifta bis post. Frye lllDOUnced bis upcoming marriage to a Cuban woman by disuibutift& 100,000 copies of the Hymn oflliyaino, the rebels' national anlbem. to the studencs of Cuba's public IChoola. In ----explaining hia gift, Frye exprcued hope chat his own bi-nlcial. future children lhould proudly sin& die IDlhem of their Cuban fom.aben. F.ncourasina readers to be prideful of their Latin berillF. Prye predicted that Cubans might one day domiw the world much as the Romw Crom whom they hlld IUppOICdly delccnded did.114 In effect. Frye's own fl:llimooy reflects bow deeply die implCt of omu enppneni and nllionalilt inm1aeradoa of u.s. imperialist policies could be felt by the autbon ol such policia theawelws. However, if die Cubua public ICbool aJuem demon111ared bow U.S. imperialism caald be boCb aenerom IDCl ldf-aving. libentinJ in some ways while confinina in Olben, die CllD olCubm worba il1lllUara all tbe more delrly the conlndictiODI of imperillilm by ,ec. we DD-. the feW aucces Mllbr1expedaw:edmaybPeallowed111111)' to --; ... .:. ; : :.) b :gmal from ., NlVERSlfV'OF WISCONSIN .. f .:._ i . t

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. ., ... J'. . ... .... 203 interpret tba U.S. u favonble to their intmelas, especi.Uy in die ..a of 1ewn Spmilb 1epRlllion of all forms of worker ICtivian. The following pllCI explcxe bow rKC CUI bloldly. Such IDlltal held iu!p(Wllt implbDons for future agillllion bodl on tba bail of nice and of clau in the emerging Republic. In Janury of 1899, only monlhs after the cesKinn of boltilitica on Cuban t.nlefields lllCl between die U S. and Spain. Cuba doctworbn in Ordenu. Sat.a Clara province and die city of Havana ltlgCd their fint stribs of the lnlllneDtian. Known u lbe amency Irie [la lwlga M la "80Mda] because doctworkas originally demanded payment in American dollmw not Spanish gold. the lttib wu iaolvcd peacefully in antenu widl wodcers n:ceiving Ill iotrew of 100 pen:ent in lheir dlily wages u a resull 1u Days laler, docltworbrs in Hav111a followed lbeir lead IDd held a ltrib demanding not only wage increalel. but omtime pay u well u double pay on holidays and ni&hllhifts. The raponse of rcc:enCly lppOinted local aulhoriliel was swift. Remarkably, however, it wa not a U.S. offlCial. but a Olbln war \'ela'lll who opeed to repnm die wolbn by fon:e. Oeaeral MMio Menocal, newly delipated u chief of Havma's police by Ocwemor Brooke. not only swung bia oftical inm Ktioll with bul a:tually recnaited woda:rs from me Cubln lloopl founedy wm bis CDllllDIDd for Che task of --brealciD1! Not mrprilinaly, cho eect w eleclric. Popdlr' lllOOftaljlb in FJorida orpnized a mm meedng to pmlDlt lbe incident. On Febraary 24lb, lbe lllDiYaWY of lbe OrilO de Baile. dac emip pllrioll d:llaled a le.-to MUimo Odna in wbicb dlcy were an=ely Ible ID eodain their lbodc lblt a fonmr nibel lellla'coald. ander dlemere laflucnce of iqniWitt omcma. "(m*r),bis soldiers cowrecl in pxy, (CD fiom their bip pedellal ID lbD laa lblll ,. . . . . -. : ... :; . Qr' in"-":. from .. (" : : : p : .. .... ,.,. ..,.,..;. ..... al: NIVERSITV OF WISCONSIN

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... ... '. .. t i . :r; t : . --, S 11 J ( I ( i t I r l l I I J I j [ i f J ( . t f I I i I I f !: I r s i r , . .. :;. I i I ;,, I 'II-Ii J g I .. -I i 1 I 1 f r J l t I t J &:' .1 I r 1 1 1 ] r .. : 1 ; I .. f : "" 1 . . .1 t I I t i 1 l l r I 11 i I i i f i ] l r, .: f i't II "1111 1." [ lt "'i -. . f .f J n. l f J t f I l I r. i I ( P. i i' ; If f . a.1tf. I 111 '. .. ti. "'i .I I 1 ... II If I I I i s I .. ,_ f i" .i t I 8 I I .. j O-' w l f .f 5 .. I 11 I .. I I a I f I f 1 J [ r l .. 83 J I 1 t I I f 1 f f &-1 J I I r 8 i I = I ,a. ir. a: l i 8 i !. a ... ': 1 2-... _,. r ..

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. I . .. I I I ) .t. i I r I ! 11111 I i f 1 l i i i f 11 i t 1 : : I l i I i I f i l I r B I i;f }rlf r . 1 : r l&11:1r1rr.11: 11i'f .f : 1-" f I il'5f"' Jlf .I Is I I I i Ji I I l w I r a J r A I I t I I : II. '5 f I f ! l I I i f I .. & In: '" i: 8 ... g i o I t 1 r i f r t I i ; I I r I . I .. a l i 1 s. l r i I f. i l l t I I I - I i i I f J i I l l f ; .. i .. I l J f l f I I 8 B I i l I i I J I ml i i I i : r f r I I i I J : IJ !. i: s tJtll

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Balllda Nma' s aovamneat in 1906 llld lad to lbe inalllliaa of a leCOlld u.s. military pemmeat; 1ben. be fomded 1be Plltido lndepntialle de Color (The lndependmt Pllty of Color) fCX' bllCk and mutauo civil rigllll in 1907 under the of U.S. Mlliary Ocwenor Clwtea Maaoon-17J At. the same time. we must recognize lblt u:h examples of U.S. tluibility on iauel of working-a.. politics and nee wac few llUl far between. That blKk md muUiao Cubms expaienced ID inlenlificmion in the public tolerance Ind official smctioft of flCism in Ibis period bu been welJ..documenfe m So well-known wa General Wood's rlCism md lbal of Americas ptenlly dw indivicbl white Cublns sought lbe protection of the lntervendonist aowmuncnt when sued by blade Cublns for diacriminlling lpinlt chem in public emblilbments. In May of 1901, for eumplc, Francilco Pifteim pmreated lbe. decision of ffavma's municipal 11&thoritia to fine him $50 ad clole bis bulinea for 30 days punishment for having lefuled to serve a bllClt man and a white COlllplllioo in the main room of tu& l'elCIUrallt. Justifyina his actions to Wood. Pilciro explained lhlt U.S. plll'Onl sealed in dllt room lhrea&ened to if he ldmiaed a black mm. Within a day of receiving Pifteiro's eomplaint. Wood inacructcd to usure bim tbll .. if Y llldl llCtioo ifidicmd herein ia takerl to let bim know. "175 Fudber, lbece ii evidence .... Wlllibly oppoaeall of CubMI indclJCftdence, lllmlpled to mmipaJlle lbe ncism of Amaicw in lbeir favor by lplUding false rumors lllCI IUbmia.ina equity falle n=porU ol a bllCk COlllpirlcy ID General Wood from lbe spring of 1900 to that of 1901. la die hopes of iacidng a U.S.-spoasored mpl'ellion of Cuban blKb well u cut suspiciaa oa iDdividUll molutioaaries llldl QuilldD Binder&. Carb Roloff, m Jun Oualbeno 06mez. Javier Udw BICllona WIOID llvnl nipom to U.S. milbry Rblddea decliUna bow bllcks--wilb lbelid of m wbitea ,...... ., emNilll mallblldt republic. To dlil ad. WnJte Medina. nauill &am,..,.,,,.._ Caymm islmdl at ew:n Bliti Wem depdly cwnina ID join lbe Wlr. peape Slid. Jmdl Rib( caald alaady '. Ir ; ;_ /_-: / <\.,:--:' ; .. .:; .l. :-. from OP WISCONSIN

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. 2<11 couat on a fOlt'e of l,000 Moleowr, Medina lepol1ed dill milb hid been eariing wrioul bamel in the Ceafuep ll'el. appaendy wilb the lppOVll of rebel of6cel'I DOW wcxtiDg u in amnidpll govemmem. Among Medina IDlde ID Wood w lhlt be mabilia fonlC:I inDedillely in order dis_..., md thlt be ... clan" the newly orpnin:d Rural Oulld of .. a c:erllin element" prediapoed ro committing ICU of viomc:e. 176 In reality, IUCb nunon and repom prowd ID be wild extgel'llioas. bom more of ncilt imeDdolll than of r.:ts. Of coune. Oeaenl Wood rook lbcm scrioully, dispatching Rural Gumd uniU under veteran Oencnl Joe6 de Jada Monagudo, lbe future nmtcnnind of 1be military rqnaion of Afro.Cubans in 1912, lO fiad ovidance of my such conspiracy. Monteagudo found none. save a few minor robberies d rovina bllldit1. '" Yet. one can only imagine how such nunon and U.S.-sponsored illlelligence millions ro decipber lbeir relevance neplively aff'eclal die plJCbe and penpec:Cive of Cubln bt.cb. ,. In voicing dleir prcxat to imperillia policies. 111111y bllCk w:111r1111 of the war undeai1DOd die racial dimensions of Olba's domiution by the U.S. militmy from the nmap point of the nation For exunple, in June of 1900. bla General Jea1s bbl wl W*rlm officer Slblmino Ln wroee Antonio Mm:eo's wbS illmt, Jol6 MinS, a Idler in wbich they = d pain over the bumiliMioo lbe Ubenbng Army hid suffered becllllC of chc United Stata. For Rahl. lbe pcMndal for coaflict ru hi&b. WWe would be extaeutely proud." be pOintedly ._., have you by our licle lhe day Chit we lhou1d need you. [gi\'ell our belief] tblt Ibis anival of dall day ii inevirlble. "171 Tbe flCt lllll Mild Wll a while mm who bad lerwd mare clcmly dum my odler' oftica' wldl the llllltyl'ed aad inllDnuDonlUy bown Genml Anlmio M**> out bave fipred paoniaeady in Rab( llld Lira's invilldon. Newrthelell, il is impodlDt IO WM well the depee ID wbidl bids !81 mllQDes llill felt it lay within lheirrialD IDd lb&:ir power ID .... O(mly U.S. imperialilt ofticilla. . .': ... ":-; ;; . UNIVERSITY OF"WISCONSIN

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die playillg,,, Africm dnum provides Qle in point Delpille lbe fa:t bl IUCb laws specifically "'rbd the iepimlcy al Mrican-derb'ai cullme, m bllcb nRled to beliew lblt dllllir iamntion implied oalriaht rqnuion. Thul, MUIUal Aid Society of African Lncum& ol as Molber of Cobre and Sailll Lml1ll requeseed a permit ill Older to play druml 11 lbeir Sunday meetinp one which municipal mayor and 'fWr'lll Oeaenl Alejlndro Rodrfpez prompdy denied.''" Some blacb. bom in Africa and broup u slaves to CUba long after sp.m banned che alave lnde. llked the u .s. govemmmc to inlervene Oil their behalf against lbe ICtioaa ,,, white Cubans. Gllhered under the leldenbip of Rewread William George Enmwl, dlele Africw bepn a campmgn in the winier of 1901 to pin U.S. spomonbip of a project to return them to Africa.111 i..r, the ume poup complUed to Wood of lllOCha' pieYWe. 1be oan Comlitutional Aaembly, Emmlllud charpd. bid decided to include diem citira of Cuba effectively nullifying choir African heritlp by dec:Re without coasulting tbem or giving lhcm a cllOicc on the maacr. By c:onttut. lbe pmposed constitution provided Spmilrds resident in Cuba die riahC to decide which ciri7ftllbip they would bold. Not aarprisingly, Emmanuel pined Che full 1'9ppOlt of Cube's molt comervalive pro-SputiJh aewsplpel', Diarlo de la Marina. which published a full page expal6 OR the noblenea of the Mricln colony's entcrpile.111 Amlzingly, so delperate were these ex-slaves to leave Cuba lbll It one point, Emmmud signed a pelition on behalf of 18,000 .cldleued to the aowmmeat oldie Ccnp flee State. The pelition lequested tb1t Ibey be allowed to ldde in Kin1 Leopold's Coqo II Belpn colonills.1n WMt dae eumpla demoalttlle is the cti.mty of lacOonl to U.S. imperialism chat Culw net Africam bid when it cmm to Judainl lbeir expaieace dnqh die lens of popul1r lllliollllilm or quite limply, CODICioulneu al race. Under the fint U.S. militlry a.nmdon. some CublDs found lbe way to aeaod* few lft*r riatm 11 worbrs. llld in mp coalr8ll lbeir IGCll rcpreuion yem by the Spmisb. Ibey l&Mnced dmcwc by Jlllkhl& die lllOll oat al aCOllfelt of f'nlmeminl Mljcwtipm md fareip illfaYelllion. Original from : -UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN:

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', \ . . 11 I I I ( i i r r I a' I. I.ii I r i J ... ..l 1 u, s c: l I C. 3 : . if f f Ii ( 1 l f 1 r 1 11 i .. .. ,. = . .. a ';<. J t t l I 11 . I I i t 7 : 1 l ll I r t I J i t-f ; If tti11 ii 11.1.f I c i f ... f 11 t 1111 ... I I i .. I i I . II a i I i-I l 1 I t I I I 1 i : I I l l t I I I ( f 1 t I f g l : II. II I i 1 J 1 I I 1 t I I f. f I f t l J. II. ; j!; I z i I r a. 1 r J I l J J ;: ll! f[ [l I If l rl8 f f t s f; 11 r 8 r f ii :'ii 1,rrl1ir. l211lf rl t .. 1 If. li 11111lr1 !tistili i. I i l i i' .I 1 .-r lt'ti-J r. t J i f 111.l-ia ( l < .. -:

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... 226 mn. crimieeli.._ oldlil pm1J GI Ndll ll'QID by a Olbla Libenl PG ma Iba Nonll Amicma left woald ......U, lelCltollll llWic m ra ol by Au. He11 ii "Qm ........ Shn .. ptUll& "' ...... ,,., Hels. 91-116. nss. PHleiro to Lmd Wood, W., 22. 1901. ia Ulited SW. Nllional An:hiwe leconl Onlup 140, File 2e9. 111 S..1avier Medina Bac:alw lo Leounl Wood. Pebl-:r II, 1901 ..S April lt5, 1901, ia USNA. RO 1'40, File 1116. m See_.. of 1elqraml sem from Mmluw ..t Salt Cllra proYiecel. clMed Ma:r 6. 1900 wl Mey 9, 1900 ia USHA. l.O 140, Pile 2651. See lllo 0Mdlq Officer Capcaia W J. Turner, Captaia W Wmlry, lo Mjuctml Ma:r 3, 1900 ia ibid. 111 .Jadl llbf IDll SllUlaiao lAra to Jot6 Mild, Me 21, 1900 iD ANC, P-so MUimo Odlna, Lepjo 21, e.,n-2125. "'Alejmldro llodrfpez 1o Ad,;.... Ocnenl, J__, 31, 1901, in USNA. RO 140. File 640. W'dlitm Oeorp Fame-I to IDu Roae. Felnsy 15, 1901, and Bmmno I to William McKhllcy, FebrUllJ 15. 1901, ia USNA. a.:a.'11 Graup 350. File 2499. 1 William Oeorp EauDMuel to Leounl Wood. J1111&1Y I I, 1902. ia USNA, RO 140, File llO. See mo "Mr. Wdlilm 0eo.. cr ..s .. A 1os 111an1 Di.,.,._. co......._ 1a eo.vend6l """''"Diorio de"' ltlllrilla.1-.y 26, 1901. NewlplpU dippina tided "&-SIPea in Culla Pts Amabn Rule. Pedlion Siped by 11,000 .ts Belpm die Ri ... IO Scale ia Coqo free Sette. BIUMls. Miida 20." See Sml fox IO,._ 0.lillcrtD Odmez. April l l, 1901, it ANC. AdquisicioMs. Caja 21, Siplbn 1423.

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........................... un.t: T ................. _.. ... ._... r ., ... Bm1J Ale In fenDI of conviction. there ii be wbo, deceived by [f.l1rlda Palma'] IWt CDllDl!enlna!, judpl him weak: Me ii (llllo) be who. OD die contmy. affinu dw tbit quiet liale man IDd pitiable all of a lale blft wbo before dime opiaiom llwaJI coma OUl widl bis own. [ .. ) I don't believe it CtbousbJ. just I doa 't believe dw be is weak; [ ... ] it might be lllbn a a pYen dial &&rlda Palma will not under my cirtUIDllUCel be wbll ii called an iDllnlDeDL [ ... la) Cact. one bM more l'C&IOll to far !Wlbgritarilojsm lban any penoml inaponlibility Oil the put d bis peramenL -Diqo Vicente Tejera. a ACJrida emiad and IOCiali llbcr IClivi-. Febly 23, 1902' In Fcbnllry of 1900, M.F. Viondi, a f onncr Splllilb loyllill. circul1red a curious leaer around Hav1DL Addreaed ID fellow membcn of a comminee dmpd widl crec:dng a rwional monument ID Jol6 Martt, Vioadi publilbed die lecler to procat die commiaee '1 cemariq of 1eYeral pqes ol a pmphlet meant ro top alllad public pmoaaae for the project. Incredibly, die commiuee bid objecled to the preamble lbll expllined die monument's meaina in fmnl of principles toa1 c:blmpioaed by MMtl ad the RaDt Revolution of 1895: lbal ii. llCbieviaa nalioml propea dlmup a commilmellt to IOcial llDlemnce and die inclusion of the popelv d.._ in die procea Eqlrllly inrspodieac to die cmuniaee w die pmamhle'1 NCOpilicm of bow m:e IDd elm iDlnlCI pmenred die unifrcalica of Cubw clurial .tier indepelldwe Wll'I. W'ICbout Mart(. IO die ....... ldmowledpd. u:ll IOC:ial unity would Ian beca impallible in W of 1895. memben al die commiltee bid decicled ID ltlike UI)' IUda mW Car two R.... m., Ibey femed die cawqm of offending die Mlldlier elw ol Havm IOCiely no. in dMlir vat .pity, bid ltOl mppaned die 11195 WllC bat llill rer 'd die ..... c:omo1 '1'er Olla' eranaic: ..,.__llllOUI'* dlll QJUlcl be IDCJbal;.t cm llllllllf al a rwe D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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;111 I a. r. i a: l r 1 .r i is. a I .1 f. o 9-b l 1; I i. t !l !J re II CJ !i!i.!il!lf l I -l I. I I I l I : I J l f I J 'Ii' ., a l1i1 i r I l" !s ... -i t I I l f I : I f ; I J l J.s I I f I : : f I I : I 1 1 f 1 r i l I 1 I l I = i 1 1 r 1 1 t i 11 1 1 1 : 1 1 r t 1l I l : I I 1 I I I 8 I I I i i 1 I (I I a I I i 8 r I 8 i i l I I f i "t a I s .f w I a. a f .I 11 l J l s Ii

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men Iba limply tlle fatme &o mat a unified politic:al viaiaa or memory. 1'hele laden bad repadi1ted lbe opponuaity IO um! lbe credibility of a l1ldal imqe of Marti. Tbeir repdlli
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g t;t j):l. 1 .. I .li.i. I=-. o i a. o. s ) a I n: a n l JS _, t f S '< a: i' f !a S I !l 1' li, If l ; I i i a l I i t 11 .. i i. I i. I t : () I l'l 11-1. !.-a ,s '11 : i I lit f I: Ii! Ii Iii!: i Iii f. l (\) af. J.f 1 ll', Ii' (l'g ... f I II i .11 11:; !r.12-< !.I l'if li ,lfli.n J 1 1 I 1 r. 11 I 1 l 1 1 i 1: I i 11 I i ; r l ::: I J 1 II D. I l I!, Ir "8 I i I' ... K Ji .. !-If J1 ,1 I i I i i if ! 1-I i : ; i ; I s 3 1 e 1 1 I 'B a a = 1 1 l !l I :z Vl .. ril: la. f l : :i I 5 i I l ( f f

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Cl <5 ::. N C" ""< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 .............. --t!(i' -<:::I 0 DI ., -:s-0 a z Vi :z i I I 1 ! 1 1 I t r J l I I t i I w r I 1 ( -t)f 1rt11 f trtfl ....... J lri I i i l i l i l I I I I i t J I I I I i I I I 11 I I f I I t I I I I fl a1 r i !I. ti; 1 -1 1 g 1 : I l 1 I a D I z i t s 1 1 I I I I J f I I l I f I I f 1 ,.11.11.11.f, &:11 1 r ,_ -: t 1 1 ( I l J I J ; I a J i r r l 11 1 I i t r 8 'i I f I r s I F I l I J 1 i l I I I : 1 i I l I f I 9 t 1 ( 8 l I & l I f I l I l =].[i!JJ-tl"-sJ-i i l r I 1 I f I I ll l I i I r l B t a. S' J .. I Ii I f i 8 l I t l I f I I 1 I f f f

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D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V I f I I I 1 f I : l SI r r I f I l i i I J I I I l ( I : f l I I I l s d1 : a Jil 11 .. .. ff. (iA!ilil -._ 1 '. ; i I i I f. l I. [ I t ;. I I i i. i i ! i c J 9 w & 0 t J i I I t I 8 I f n f -:z: .f l i 1 I; I 1 i :. i= f f f I t p I 1 l I: 1 1 1 .. r & II J : i n 1 1 i 1 r R 1 "T'1 -l J 1--. I-: t i i I f I t i t. l r I 1 i 1 f a. J -_ it g o 2: _. f I n z ... ""' -ti: i!il, illiifl r I 1 t. I ( 1 i a: t Q. 1 a 1 1 I I I i r 1 r l r I l i t i I t r r i r f

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..,,.ptld ID iJapme aftier 1905 did DOI ..S could not endure. Hiltorical c:immnra .... apa.Ulic.m ol Cuba citizenl would aat .now it. F.qet:tbli u..: 11lt Sattlajor dte Good COIMllllo Ila Ille E'M'1 "'""" o/dte pllblk lmpirat by memories of lhe n:c:cnt revoluciomry put. Cubw in the first years of lbc Rcpubtic demanded IDd indeed expcc1ed. tbe lqililllllion of altemalive Dllioaalimll and a pll1ial incorporation of altemalive national projecu iDID the esndilla aarionalilt llafe. >.. cli1CU11ed pmi<>Wlly. lhe KCOIDIDOdation of mulliple nalional projcc1I into one unified. inaemally dynamic 1eheme for m independent Cuba hid been a key component of boda JOl6 Manrs oripnal ICl'alCIY Cor recnailing support and of lhe Liberalin1 Anny in Clrl)'in1 out an effective war apinlt Spain. The experience of lbc war iuclf. f ougbl on distinct diplomalic and militmy f roo11, only 1e1Yed to bcighlen lbc need for a commillDCftt to aity, one wllic:b endured lbroup lbc counc of lbc war, evea when prwpali1111 bepn to oplimin a lbc main motivatina flldOr beltiDd iL Lookina met oa four yean ol U.S. lnlelvelllion in 1902. many Oabw decided lbll die polilical frqmen..aioa die)' bad willl r 11 d w a plOduct o( U.S. imperialilm IDd not die rault of their revobdioaary laden ldim or imction. ladeed.. by Cbe lprina of 1902. oplimilm and cwerwbdmina exprasioll ol cxmfldace in lbeir own dilCl'Cfe mliomli1ma seemed Cbe order of Ille day. TIU opimim. lblled by IDOll Cubw wbo hid npponed die war. 10 dominarcd the 'whalpe o( public diJCOUne ... even ronner oppa11ie1&1 cl iadependm'!Z lpplOprialed ill ..... u lbeir own. Suda apreaitm ol npriilm were aot end in dleluelves. but pamJ ml cdlemvc aprasiom ol how Cubm aw tbeir Cucure IDd w1111 fealllla die)' hip&ial*d ia Ille policiel of die Repubticu ...._ TllnJuab Ille r-. of expaeuicm bedded in ....... di o( nptii -111111ed Ille iDaupnlim o( dae we -die mul1iple c:unaCI of ww" in md coater'Plim k l.t Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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....... r c:mnpriled lbe Rovollllioa. We UC> bear popular ...... for a pcr-aly mpoasible, pmlenlllly just perameal lbll w ID def"aae b e111eDCe of a popular nericwlilt pie for tbe II* we Jailht ail! .. caWUi demcxncy." u cbcu1nd below. Appmallly c:onvim:ed ol Eland& Pllma '1 iDlmlion ro build IW be,emoay lbroulh b iDCOlpOl1lliClll m lbeir pll, pop.ur mliomliltl and 10111e rdcal revollllianary mlioaalilu acted on lbeir belief 1 by lddrasiq fMnda Palma if be blld already ..-ted hi rejection ol aulborilmian model1. Soon after taking EIUlda Palma ..aled to cuaobol dlae expectaliom by comciOUlly ccm1nlCUng a populilt imaF ol billlldf ia ways lbat muy inteqnfed. at leat inilially. u following in the fOOlllepl ol JOIC! Man(. or coune. die lips o1 indusioa on wbicb F.ltnda Palma n=lied ao win die bacltina m bllldt and lowcr-clul Cubias ullimardy proved to be nohing mare lban lbe FlbRI m a sblllow and ldf-lblcned pllilic:ian. Yet. dae lips tbamelva and the ways in wbicb cumn. UlraJnled lbem demoalllale two relllled ideal. Finl. by caafirmina die cxrmt to which Mid( hid biltorically ciltiquilbed billllelf from Elnda Palma. die lllter ' euple provides dues u to wby Mani' mytbical lepcy emerpd u early u it did and wby it endured. Secondly, while tbe emptinea ol Ellnda Palma' populist gatura gaerared immense boltility lllDCJDI die popul clwa, it bad die effect ol CODfirming lhe '"involulioamy" DllUre ol die Eltrada Palma pernment in lbe eyes ol former Spmilb loyalilll. Tbeir incnuiq IUppOlt for Ela* Palma' polic:iel evencually turned die IDljcJrity ol former moluliamria lpillll lbe mgime. u we will sut.equendy cliaxwer, and Ianni mmed moluaim u a vebide for dynp ODCe lpin. At r1111. moluaiomria ot lower-mc1 middle-clw mcqrouam lal &n1a Nm lbe full weisbt ol IUppOft and......... Some recuraiq emip ol modest ecanaic 1De11D1 aw &tmda Palma u a ...._ ol MlrU and a ful(allmeat oldie IOCially toleRal Republic MmU hid IUred with die AoridHllled emip cammUDity. For imt, die DIWlplpel1m8 lied dcmly ID Rorick '1 c:ipr warbm, Rmnda Riven>, pnri..t Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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I I i I j I Jt I f. I I J I I i l I r J i I I a J Z 8. I fi I f a sa. i I R i 6 ( f r I I t 1 r r sa. I r r l a i I ij' I 1 sa. . <, l I f 0 l If I I r: .j:j II !.f Wi; t O l_1i_ 'Sa sr a.Iii sa.ftn if.i1 I I 8 If I I l I ! I I J i II, I (. r IQ r .1; 11 c: I I' a i Q i i i' l I 1 i :. i. i I i i 1 i i 1 : i I r.I. I f I l 1 ; l I i 8 : l l i i: II .:;. R : . ( :I' 'I I: l 11 I !!I I = 1 e: sa. < I --( I Ir I ( Ii i! t I II, I I s !. r i! s I s i i l f I i sa. z II, I ; I I f I I l I 1 ; ! i Ir

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D ce -N !l CJ 0 & I n c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<"'T'1 -a '""" 3 8 z VI z ; f i I i i I i I Q i ; I B J I I l I l I I -I '< l . I I l f .. l &' f 1 f J l I 1 i J i r -1 -i i f Is [ I f I I =-i w a. f .. I s 1 I I I r .-:t l a: i I [ a. J I a I iJ 11 [Jf f w .. J1 .. 1l:t1 l -' a. I f a. i Si r .J a s .r I J r f f a fl I f :. i. a.= f r r l I I l I i 1 1 J s j r t i r r t 1 f .. If it "I. f! 111-5-l f i ( a. I I I I f I I ; I f ; f j a. i J I i a. f. . 6 . f I I a. I: f a J 1121 ill 1Jt ai:11 f l(lrJ rt.I 1 ) ls r 1 1 f. l I 111 :s ... l ( J f (w I i g(4 I I I J i J I t f l l r i I l I I I J I I !. 1 1 l w f l J J r I J I I I i .. a j '" it!l f 'si

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I I I i 1 I I i I I l f i I j ! I : I I g I g i r I r Q I I J i r l i J J i ( J : I I I f I f f I P, 1 I I i r l f f .. a r s & I l t I .. I J l i. s c- t i I c1 I. s 0 & I i e t I e I. : I f ; I ; ; 11 P, rs-r 1 If .. 1. r 1 i s a. 1 1: ij' 1 r 1 11 _ -, . l 1 t I t ( I s I i ! t 1 J I z ara.O'r -s---... 1rS (_. :f Qi1. :::co 1' J 1 ll I 1 i i ,1 i i l t i J i I -:s 3 .. i a. a: D Jf R .. UJ 1 a ... 8' f o. E!1 9 i i: -1 i.' n_ i :. SI a t .. I a: r IJ 1 a .. f .s f I "< If [ s f ; r g; f l ir i If Er g ,,. a I 8 I l

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241 widl Splllilb. loymlilt IDd rick emi-lelllibililiel. Ealrlda Palma IUld II ways beea Dealy aware ol Ille smpiciolll be ll'OUled in elite-dam CW..: dae men and wanm apecled a cenaia f1unboy-=e aad eloquence from Cheir laden u cvidonce ol m....Uy lhmed valua IDd dim iaterelCI. Tbul. when be D>k c:barp m the r111t Cuban Pemmelll. he Kfed mudl be bid when he IUld been praident of die PRC: IO pin lhe support ol lbe popul1r clasla. he mde pin lbe IUppOl1 of camenllive ud wallhy elita, oa die od9er' hand. he combined ,es1lnl ol reapect ror lbeir i-=rall widl ICtiom wt IO llllalpmate lbcir audlority with bis own. F.a1nda Palma Md c:bmen a lliPJy aris1ocnlic lawyer wbo wu also lbe '-bad ol lbe rabuloully wcallby Mana Ainu bil Vice PraidenL 11 Ellrlda Palma '1 choice IUde bim aoc:Wly and polilically more aaniccive ID lbe very poup dial had beaefiaed lbe moll from die lntaveDlioa and hoped to Mlltimae claiag 'from die new Cubla 11a11e: Splaiardl. cxloyalistl and the emerpng plO(caioaal elite tbal lelYiced 1be needs of U.S. capital. By coms-ri1C111. fAnda Palma did liale men f Cll' dae wbo hid benefiaed llw letut from lbe U.S. IDlen'enlioa lblll to mppropriare b symbols deuat 10 lbcir beans llld bold lban aloft U a felllment ol bit IOCill rolemnc:e and dedicalioa ID pmtici.,.aory clemoaacy. In dlil reprd. lbe appropialion of Mar1''1 name and imqe became a duouP wbicb alrldilca impcri.aist Mliomlina clMmcd rip11 to lbe ,.. _. 10 lbe diR:dioa of lbe Dllim. At a lime wllen only one ol Hav .. 'I two llraelt n&Yfiplpell dlOle ID nan die anaiYellal)' of MmU'I claab. 17 em.-Palma ICted in ways cwertly mimelic of Mmd'1 IOdal llabi11 and palilicll style. n.. __. minllinilla New Yort'1 bladt emi ... a polilicmlly llfe di111nee for )all. f.lhda Palma invited Cine of 1bem. incldq Raf'lel Sean. to eccmpaay Ilia ..,.. .-mp 11m mtllnled bim ., cw.. ne oddity of die api did IKJl die llllatim of HaHa ' mare IOCially propaive pew. Upm miviq iD on.., &II* Palma met wia .. epliom of tlldlen. visited Ille widow of OllillD D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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2A2 Gmda. IDd qreed to e11 die while chickem lbal imporcrilbed molutiowy maaroa oft'ered bim. Once he wu back in Havam, F.IUlda Palma continued to ICt lhe put ol Mart!. Mio llld been well-known for c:ouniDa bis want crilica, by pKioully meedq wilb pali1ical enaniel, wilbin ud omm ol die nwolulioauy IDOHllleat. However. while Manf t.d boped to bring bia crilicl to lbe lallle ol comprmilC, &nda Pllma appemed only to WMl IO brina bil critics ll'OUlld to bis way ol lbinkin.. In lhe c:oune ol lbil procea. ic quietly emalCCI dial tbole IDOll ID &nda Palma' plaD for pemment were die very seYoluriouriel wilb wbom be Md just led die 1895 War. Meerinp wilb former foes ol lbe R&vohnim went beaer tblD dae with ronncr colleapa. MM' Ealllda Palma rabid crilica. Prim.-amcma tbele wu Salvidor Ciaercl Bncourt. die imperialist 1111ionalisl wbale dediCllicJn IO die idealJ ol polilical democracy Md iapiml bim to c:ampmp apiDll f.lnta Palma and in faYor ol Banolom6 Miid dllrina die pmiclenlial elcc1iom ol 1901. '"Don TOIDM." llid CiJnaol Bctucoun. -..:ribed me a and aid. 'you are under a dDIUlim Mm-qui. llld I mllll (c:onect )Qll' impreaion] once: I am a comervaliYe."' To dlis. CilaDCJl petenmun replied dial be wu a con1ervllive too-imJCar "'comerving" lbc Revolution' pl ol ...wo&urc iadepcadcDce" was c:oacemed." Tbe above eumples illusua&e lbe multiple ways dial a polilic:ian ' acdons and words could be iara11elld in a cmtat of optimism and cbaqe. In lbc rant year ol lbe Rqubtic.. 1CJ1De cua.m expecm f.luwla Pllma to rapond to dleir needs in ways lbal Ibey hoped waulcl be an a1enlicm ol lhe tmaeaies ldopred by Joe Mlnf. For elite coa..valives iadlldina &Inda Pmlma ' own Vice Presidaat, lbil med forFUin1 coaflic& and doiq away wida tllt ol dMnp For lblm. wllal needed to be done in Cu._ w ro ranoe lhe mic, 1Ciaatif1e .a poaibly, cuhml bmrien lblt Spin bid let up to modemi&y. Meanwhile, odla' Olllw llld tpeeUIC ICJCio.palilicll ..... lbll Ibey ....... fulfalled wl deewtded U m.uda. As a nm P'l"'' ud ......... appropilled Marti for dUs D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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ad, die)' did not mean to pnwob die fcqeaiq of coaflic:l paemed by the war. but i l'ftNlllbering. This naanbaiq of the Wlf throup appmprialiml of Mlrd involved reallliq die ICX:ial qualiolll lbll the brOld pmnicipllicm of popular-dw elemearl Md plOIDplCd moluriowy lmden to comiclm'. During Cbe war, popul and molutionary mlioaali bid not c.Wy recopiml die depe to wllic:b tbe c:ame nquired nqoci11ioa of IOCil1 boundlriel, but Ibey Ud lllo inteaperrd dU reality to dleir ldYlllllp. After 1902. dae mne PIP' demndetd lblt RepublicmHra polilic::a be ccaducled in a limilar manner. >.. Ibey bid viewed lhe maure of the war eff on. to Ibey aune to view the CUbm llafe. Policy dUeclives Car the mlion depended on die nir:edl and williapca of the people to defcnnine dlCllt or ID ao aloa& wicb dme deeennined for lhem. A aood pmident lbould be like a .,.xt cadlUo. Meanin1 ""wlrtonS" or "military bol1" in die niael&mlb cenaury. lbe ram etymoloay belied a rida bitrory of popul-c:llll aqe liJICC meclicYll 1ima. In tbe Hilpaic wodd. .. c:audillo" CODYeyed a 1eD1e of reciprocity llld penoall obliplioa. A In CUba ll lbe turn of die tweaciedl c:eacury, bein1 a aood colld'Uo wt beiq rapomiblejar IDd rapmlive ID dlOlc wboaccepted llilcrmnwnd. Molt often. CUbw llticulaled lhele aailUdcl lbroup a aendend idiom dlat implied pencmlized 1aention to die mall d die lea powerful IDd a ccmmiament to rbe raol.-:ioa of cmflict lbmqh impanill mcdillioa. Ferlllpl the bipat cxpnmioa d popul aad 10111e rcYolaaic:mry naticmli111 lllempll ID cnpp the emeqiq w. mes of die idiom relied oa parlicullr ideolosicll uadenllndiap of die 1895 W 11 orpeized by c:audiUol. Acc:onliq ID IUCb illfaprealkm. molutiaalry Qlldil1m blld ..._.,,,. rapec:t Crom IUbonliW for ....,. llllllority but offlCillly mpclDd and occui..Uy coa('anned lbeir 1llKledyiJl8 ICX:ill eqmlity wiCb IUboldiw. EvmpW wllidl loamed larF iD lbe sqwlv "-liwioa iaduded lbe Ubmlina Army's nlimca ca lbe Wiil "l:iliml" 11 a meas of ...... wbida Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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5 l : I I i I f I : I i J. 1 I I o ( a a I a: I if i -. 1 r 1 f 1r 11 I J & f.ilrlJ, ji1il!.1 N r I J & I r 0 l -l I I I i i. .' i i i I i I I I a I t I 1 I I I f i t ; I i I i I t I I I I < K ( l\ ii f i 8 B ( rn 8. ti I 9' Ir !! O ft R : ... E & g Q. 1 .. ( tr 8. R. 1 C:: '$. c.. it t ;. ; t er f !1 i & & I I. 8 !. r r I I I l Q, I : 1 It J I t J i 9 I l ,. J : : f. !'. ;; I J I I IS l I l ii '1 Ii 8 It JI Q, q ft f;. !: I. z 1: ; 1 t I I 1' l I I :I I . f. g f !: Q, If-< I .. ''< s .. l I

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2446 lbat 11ate. Elnda Plilma. By joilliDI fOKlel in buildiftl lbe .-in WllYI thll included bodl teCI ol ICtoll -offac:illa in pwaa pmiticJlll ol power and unofracial cirizeHutbarilia wbo pve diem power and lbe pmtiF ID IUke power IDClllliqful-an iadmive. pll1ic:ipMOry Diiiion would be auured. The leaer ol a WOIDlll ldlool telCber oO'en one ol rbe bat testalDellll ol dlil idea. While die abcwe wriferl lblped die idiom in ways wbicb implied an impooant 1f*C for lhem IDier die cwenrcbing emtnce ol pllrimdly, olben relied on illlenlely aendered feelinp ol a tbe feminine expcrieac:e ol lbe w, apeci.aly 11111 ol modlen, a female tacber lelll him a medallion of lbe VilJin of Chlrity, Cuba's paaron. md ubd bim k> wear it wbeR no-one could see. In Ibis way, lbe tcacbcr hoped dial Ea1rlda Palma would carry a l}'lllbol of die buldell daal so many women .evoluaioaaria carried. hiddea aDd ipored by lbe rest of IOCiety. Tiie Virsin ' prE1eace, her lcaer implies, mipc belp diRCt his actiom in lbe bmeftt o1 die IDOll f cqoaen ad 1eut powerful o1 Cutia pllriols. i11 women. nae letrcn farm pmt ol a wider, populldy-t.ed. privare campmip to influence Che Dllian ' lmder'I iDro effecting diNCl chanp in individual lives duoqb die idiom w1 prKlice ol c:audillillno. Tbil Cllllplip w larply lbe donwi ol veterans ..t former support.en ol lbe RevollllioD. Tbole wbo worbd far tbe m1e may be YlldeillOOd nwolUlioaary mDlllim for def'eadiq die IWlity ol law and moral i&'onuplilility primlly ID llleir aalion md for Drmpaq ID eaf
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'ZA7 UDbebownl1 to lbele writm Wll die f-=t dmt &u'lda Pllma '1 own variety of na1ioalilt beliefs required bim ID illue DO ft'.lllCIW; 111111 lae been dhecdy iDTalYed widl die W llld ClpOUllld a ciffamt. mare _.tin of ..,_,.;.,, lbe l'llUll mi... bave been quite diff'crent. pally in amaber, tone md c:cntclll from die aatoailbiq avalm:be of penonal leuen Yetenal ICDl to MUimo Odam. aver die COIDO m lbe Rm Republic. Wilb oaly few excepciCllll, f.llrlda Pllma 'I an:biYe .Cter 1901 ii paclically devoid of dlil eilba' becaua it limply did not survive or, more likely, beamse be inc:rwinslY did not merit die role of "'caudillo" in may Cubias' qa." Veraam' leaa'l ID MUimo OdmC'Z on issues of policy, aped.Uy with repnt to lbeir own lrealmenl and pmipeca, were muclt men specUlC but ccpaUy pencml. Certainly, IDIDY Velel'llll wrote to Odmcz in die hopes m vetenn of tbe Splllilh, mlber' Iba Cubla 11111)'). Some. wrilen we not abcwe expeeaing a 1e111e of mlidemeat for baviq IKl'ifaced tbcir waltb. IOCial W.. or limbl in service to die Ubendq Anny Yea. Odmcz'1 lldaive ii Ibo peppemd wilb leam imploring bia llelp in ways elm .clmowledaed bia ..,,.. but.,. ... il in monl ... biatoric r.enm. ..... dm ---mes. Olle vcterm olfar, NCllllly plldcmd and mled from jml. beged Odalcz'a U.ceaioa Wme EtcnMte Pll ., dial lie mipt recover am p1q1111y, ad lbnby, bis bonor. The .....-of bia clipity befCR bil fmily ..a clefleallenll a Pftl"ider w IU fORlllOll cmc:an. T'hil camn. lie_.. ..... mmded ID Odmez'I an .awfia1 of llil w:rifa ID die lllliaa md IM nlidity m dlB Repblic MW its laulL Explailliq dial al1 D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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2A8 Ml 10111 Mn 11111111 llld UDlllle ID WOik ID proride far dMllllelva. be WIOCC. widl lbe bopo dlM my h/u wtma I COlllicler' my fllhen will do 1omedriq far me do I canrac1e in yaa ( .. ]. A8d 10 it ii Oeaenl 1bll you ue fOday my f9111cr Md (a member) al my fMlily and l bope cbat you will camider IDd nm me lbe 10D wbo .. ways wu IDd ia at your 111Yice (4111* Ud.] aotjUll in in deedl .... At times. Milell clemwdrd lbM Odmez redify specific policia al die w duough a dim al penaml couecrioa IDd a reciprocity 1111CJ111 equals. T1lil ditcoune repraellled lllle ar poliliclll pnx:ea. 1bae ICICtOn did not recopite lbe criac.l link between die pltlpell al die indiviclull wl lbe prop'Cll al IOCicty. a wbole dial-from lbele wnten poiac al riew at lcat-dle 1895 Ws bid been abouL Tb, a sroup ol IOldien still lmpillliDa in Spmrib cobli1I prilom on lbe cmst al Africa rebuked lbeir c:ompMriou far freein1 Cuba _. forpaina fiee 111em. By tltina c11qe ot lbeir plipt. Odmez would not only R!llCn rbeir bope in lbe Repablic, but raflDle lbe Ulldity al die Republic illelf . unilllll eatity dial Ille Md hmli"" it would be cluriaa lbe WK, but m inawillpy telfmviq, ... IOCilllly rr .. matled OM. Al lbe widow d a ... drlCel' wt member al a .,.._. family wbme fonuw bid been nliJled far........, lbe w, Mercedel Ocvmllez ccarhine4 vCJCifemully 1bll in die :lll1uce al Milda_. per...a iaf1uwe. lier _, ......... ffmaa IM..t dlll Ellmda Pllma 1 M4 ID dillribule (mdl ID 1111 mviYcn al otran killed ia 1111 W (a cm time pr" al SID> pam Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl <5 ::. N '< CJ 0 & l l s I t a ' f ( I l l i a a l I : I J B : 1 .5 If II I !. r. B. I I .. 1 a. .. If 8. i I f ( f I I I I I i I i I l I I I If i i I I p f I I r : l I f I I r r I I r I l 1 ( i II s l E I I I s a. a. A I I Ii .J ! I l i r 'i 1 '1 r I [ I. > J I]. ( f s 1 ff J f. l, I 1 fl 18 f t l ! i I : i I 1 I i I 1 1: i -5 I 1 I If ;; s-" r 1 !l I f f I I g Ji' r s ... f r I I I . 1 [ I '< I I I l I If I i t f [ I. a. l 8 I 8 i r f ::. r I a t I" l i i i' ' I I 1. I. 11 I t f a I J I a a J I I t [ t 1 : f p; r l ( 9 3 a 1 i r i ( I w t a 8 r i t a.11-1 ..! ; t ... 8 I .. 8 .-I t I t If I l .. I .. I t i f f rt '< ; i I ., i f I t l E r l I!. I II 1 f r r t r I s ;I f I l f I r l l i If I f ( l t r

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0 1&lf I f f i I s !-i' l f. l .. I jl

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251 ilS rdalim in 1118 oriJiml pmty pqnm ol 11111 PRC, ol wllidl Adida 4 and 6 Raabd i tide. 1'hele Anicla ll'C illlCluctin for 1bdr relcw-ID boda papal and nwoltdimmy on than. Adidc 4 declared dull die PRC did DOI intaKI ID perpemale in die Republic in MY new f onn .._ autboritlriaa lpirit Md bulaucrllic COllpQlidoa ol die colony" blll iadlcr. el1mbliD a new IOCiety on die "lqitimlre abililia ol acb mm" and dlrousb lbe '"Older m ral WOlt and die equilibrium ol IOCi-1 rorca." Ar1iclc 6 plectaed ro put the neMnel llaMllY al die lmYice ol lbe divene llCCivitiCI ol i citizens a.I in dli1 way, fouad "one flllhertud. Accmdiq IO El l'rolelllrlo, C9bu worbn inlel'pleted lbele promi9el a die riabd'ul lcpcy ol tbe ideal aood Cllldillo JoR Maret We lie in lbc midst ol lbe period [of] comliMinl tlae CUbln NaliOlllllity. For dml Nalionality ( ... ] lbe Cubm prolelarial ._ ltnlgled al .a1 times( .. ). Thme wllo incriminated die DiYine MMsao ol die Verb ol die Sublime Idea. Mint, [did IO] becmw from die bqimiq, lae loobd for lbe beaer _. die ....-...., m Ille suce11 ol bis wa ol redcmplim in tbe II-'* Oita ( ... ) if lie were .aivc, Ibey would DDI din, a Ibey 10 din IOday, wicb iDludible dfromery [ .. ) fO proclaim -ob pitiful OM8!-... die AIDericllll lnravcalion, (l.t --fO clo wilb leCUriq Cubm ;...tepclt"-'c] dim die d'f'Oltl llld-=rifica of lier Mm! ( ... ] No, die CUbm .....-caDOl an ill a.:t cm i WOlt. [ ... lD die wCJldl r:L MmdJ .,, ii my MJlt. I llmld llDl et.adoa iL Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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252 'Ille poblem with ... lleputllic. El ""*"""' c:llqed. .... dull cmdillimo ... been reptlad widl pbenneDoa it dwribed u llduic fmm ol rule lbll lllecliYdy .......... ripe. ol polilical dlrouala m.I .... llKi aot merill or need. Today' aw was aldqillJM JRCilely became Cublm bid never fdt more u if Chey wae ltill beiaa pemed by Splllilh ""'1nya [Yicaoys)," lllltiq wilb lbe f onner Pll..e ol die crimlial Oovemor-Oeaenl, now lbe Pr-i+ati" PUce.., Wbile tbe President did aot lltmlicm, "'be bis bad more lhlD eaoup time ID Rple m:bbilbopl llld foRip miDioaaiia wida bmquec. (._)."" Fm1bennore, wileaeY worbn haYe :!a OCCllioa ID proeal amr cmdiliom, --we have been lecand on tbe Traiy ol Plria, we me been llKJwn Iba& ia tbe Nardi lbens ii a formidable IWCJl'd railed ewer CUba. a awont lbat cannot nit so fall ud IMihil* [ ... ]."" To dlia lilUllioa, El Proldllno priap:imi, 1be1e could be only two IOlutiou: ro COlllinue die Wlor 11nagle. wans lies wilb u.s. labor cqaaiDlioal 1pim1 Cuba '1 dlmillllion by foRip c:apilal; ud ID pRll for a leaidmale place wilbin opposilioa pmty polilicl Iba could force refonm fnm wbll w amdel' EllrD Pllma ' warcb, limply D1llla' CllCiquim ..... OdlCls ICCIDll, once aimia.ty supportive ol &nda Pllma'1 caadidlcy, expened indipelinn widl die we oldie w ander lail mNDNMI nm coacerat. bowY, llld ., macb fO do widl die stale' palicia for nmedyiaa ...-imqullilia or radler. lbcir Libl ... WOlbn ... riewl PJ ,,,..lo lftio" ......... cue.. coaMenld IM._ a .-mm ol itl pellOllll bad. Tiiey deeended c:benp dlll would aot limply Ill ...,...,, but a policy rl oa 1llll M1'lkl cmldamly pmricle ideaqiml ..... ol ...... ID wllic:ll adllr ..... rl .,........ and dllnby, IOCiety would D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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m pa+ly coaform. Orienle Rcpn1ea.aive Allblio P6Yeda cle Fenec propoeed precilely Ibis wllm he dmancW dlll f.laada Palma no& only coafiDc llil mppoialmeDll ol ofra fD Cubal wbo bid favored independeace. but dlaaF die ,_,-re widl wbidl .U citimll MR mldrelled by aulboritia oldie llate: AJllClll Olbcr lhiDp lbele ii lbal ol llampiq in public dncumem in police reports, ..-Wly ill die watcrn pnwiacel, phrwl u lhocting as tbele: 'die white m111 Don WboeYer [Doftf""Mo tal); Che black ma [el ,.,,.._]or lbe mulatto wbalevcr-IU-name' [I Pllldo DllOllO lalJ. Thi mppean to pleue dae pROCCUpied [wilb lbemlelvea]; bul it deeply ditpll Md bumiliara die IOCia1 mm. wbo dacrYe ud have a perfect rigllt to demand dial Ibey be baled wida all due reapeca. We are liviq under die mmnd oi a demix:ralic ComtilU&ion dull does not atabtilb privileges d Ill)' kind among die divene memben oi Che CubM fmnily. Mr. Pmidcnt. in onler IO nppra1 Ibis qed ud undipif led pl'IClice, a boaomlcu IDUR:C d polieiCI. of mon1 Olda' IDd d pmD'iCJlic CDllYeaience dw doubdealy1 lbould be evident so a just .t aood -a u )Vin. Mr. Ptaidenl. Md in die mme ol dloe wbo proeeat .U very pncdce. I bea [ . that you] Oldain all ..,..._ documean public ml priHte, [ ... ) dlll mly one w lbollld be meaticmd [ .. ) widl exdmion, -:ury, lbe cliltim:lion ol lbe r.:e to wlidl one behlp. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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! I i D I I i I J 11 cg t J l! t If N II, I e:" i" .fl f i I .5 I "I 0 [ 11 I I i t I I i Ii 111,. 1' f I I f 1 1. I c: i g I r 1 sI 0 '!" "' I' 3 -<.. o:::::i :::E --0 8 z 1 ...... I z l i; I f.. j I I I l I I i J I l I > t I J If II, I i i J I I I I f l t p l I t I w "i = j1 ... I I I I i If [ f . I ( I .; I. s 1 1 t i-J f "!2. :I. -1:11 on I ; ; I I [ I 8 ! I!.! [ !,J !t]." 1 11 i' If. i Ji f. I f l .. a I r I J t : I i 11 ! II, r a. i r I t I 1 B r ; I f. If f l

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Cl <5 ::. N C" ""< CJ 0 & I c: z < 590 .............. --t!(i' -<:::I 0 DI ., -:s-0 a z Vi :z I l 8 -c r-j 1 j I l .. t ,. t f 11.i F (If f I' l r i. B. I I I i i I p. r I liii f 'f 1 ; z w s 1 t I 1 1 t l ::'.Is!' f 11 ( t ( f r ri. g; Ii.I '\ t l 11 l .. ,I .f a_ 1 I i l l 1 l i !: J .i I I f r < I f s i I I 1 l i I I I I I I l i 1. t g 1: a I 1J a. lr I. r J 1 Ii' I J I if g Ji nl !I II 1., I I if J l e. 11 f t i. f 11 f 11 l .. f = I r. I J 1 1 1 1 1 r : f f a lit .l -;j s ( i l f ;., l II -<

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Cl <5 ::. N C" ""< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 .............. --t!(i' -<:::I 0 DI ., -:s-0 a z Vi :z t I If l J: f i f JI 1 I r ( i 1 r l I I i 1: ' i I r r 1 111. I i > 1 a rf rt a r ... I J t i I 1 .a i I i :. !: 1 1 r JI 5. t f. i f Q. i i Q. 1: ,., I:": I ; ; i I i t ; I _. I "'1 I !-i i t I ,. 11 I ..
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'1S1 IUcb a dlim OD lllCial pouadl Wll IO belray die ncelem bllia Oil wbicb tbe Re9olutiCubw while it wuaed dleir CXllli..a dai.a of equal under diie law. D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl <5 ::. N C" ""< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ............ --t!(i' -<:::I 0 DI "T'1 -:s-0 a z Vi :z a 1 1 l I l I I f 1 I t f r I 1 I f I r t l "-_ a. o a. > s ;: _ 1 a s .. i' I ii 1J1; 11i1 I I ij' I I .. I J 9 .. I: I ii 8 I ... I f ( :; ( I I l l . I 1 ( f s I II-=-!' I_: !.1 r r -1 !i II 1 r r 11 i 1 I I I I I a I = ) I I I I J I i I 1 t l I I I I 1 t I J a. .. I I f 1 J 1 a. t i: I f i? t i I J : a t i > f f &. ro I r f rt a. I l ( 8 1. 8 t '< a. & 8 I f I I t I: a_ 8 I f!--!1 f i I I i l. i I I I : = I J I i f II. I 11 I 1 i I I J I I !_ I i [ ( l . I a I . I [ i. z I a II I : iii f I [ i I ; l if i !-i ,; .f I flj

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25') Tbele daima c:blrKferized die .,. DOCbiq lllCR dll8 llorifaed nice nr, maat to Cltllbtilb IDDCber HlitilD-ltyle '1Uct leplblic..,.., Just Manf Md yean befcn. Odlnez llllmilled dm boM:Yer pat die po1en.m for die m:a, becalm here there will never be C*lle ID produce one lilK:e eilher iadependcoc:e cannot exist or it will only exilt dwoup die commoa dl'on d white and bllCt brolhen in die bisllat mt to wbidl Ibey could upire u .-d Oat.. ... Molecwer, wbile he admiaed that wlaire Cubans bid radily collabon&ed widl U.S. offieialt duriq die IllferVclllioa to beiptcn l'ICial hol1ililia, be sped lhll my raidml f eelinp d ..aal prejudice were purely die fault m U.S. influence. rr one day,"he WM'lled, .. -may it never come-tbe blKk nice here needs to baale widl tbe white, whdber pnwobd or unprcwobd. you wiU have to loot for aDDtber man to ldYile you and guide you. Becaue I aepcCICllt die politiCI m aw:ial fmremity, and if Ibis were to fmt, die feetin1 m honor, tbe rapcct wbicb I owe my pat [ ... ) would oblip me to diuppar from die pali1ical 1ee11e, widl the failure d my opinions."" Aa mvolulimmy caudillol in lbeir on riPt, dlil "politiCI m racial frarcmity" for Odam wl Olber laden lib Mania WU not limply ID lbaegllioa m racW equality" lbll Aline He11 dacriba." Ralber, Odmez Md Mania pOliliml Oil die relllioalbip between mce wl urioa eXJeDded from lbeir experience a kJaa-1ime civil np. Klii under Sp-rilb c:okmial nde, ad bow acb mapee9Dd 1heir support for m-olueicmry optima ia lialll m dlll apedcnce. Uaclnubmly, Odlnez IDd Morda were CDllUlliaed ID ...-. t11e .... ..,.ormlim _. Ulificllim m11wir IOdet)' in 11:1m1 c1 nice. nar fllll .... __..._. -.r cl dlil. For to die ReYolutim Odmez ....... kid ..a.-lt. .......... ... Jllllpnor wWUI --,D191lized by G og e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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260 wida M.n( ID (CJIMlll IUppDll (or Ill imurrection die only IMUI d pininl m.I jallice ror AfJ'OoCabaa. "* ror wllic:b SpW orrlCUU impriloaed him oa mulliple oa:._ in Havm. Ccula. wl Mmlricl. FurthcnDcn. liDce 1879 wllen be founded 1be ..,.m. IOCicty ol color La FralenlicW. Odmez bid edited two nice-inucl newtp9pm that c:aUed ror eqUll Keell IO ecfenlioa and equal ll'Nlmenl o( blKb ud wbita under die law. n Al pnatea1 of die Directory of die Societia d Calor in die 1890I, an orpniDlian 06mez belped ID f ouad. lie pemlllded Af ro-Cubu mcmben ro IUppOrt indr.peadence, a ra1 wbidl AlllDllio MM:ec> bid attempted and been Mllllble fO do only a abort rime beCore." Morecwer, wbile be acver dropped lbe t.aner' ol i.nllepcadmce, Ilia lepl df ons in die arty l890I, 11JFCber wilb dame d farmer Spuli abalitioailt Rafld Mllia de Labra. won major lepl riclaria for Afro-Cubas in Sp.m ' Supreme Court.,. for bil pmt. Mania Md worbd for just ... y )all dlnJuall die venue of tbe Culm pral to ldlieYe ltX:ial comea.-Oii lbe riPt ol Afro-Cutlul ID equal ueallDcDI IDier die law. In die lllkll, be bad beea ailed ID Roricla for compiriq with MICe0'1 forms apiDlt die 1878 Pld d Zanjda llld for CCDCiauin1 lbe llnlgle in die Owna CliquitL HoweY. willl lbe momea1 o1 abolition w1 111e endina a llaYery, Mania ..,.. fer c:hyp IOCJk a clecidedly more comenllie 11111. ute Odmez. Mania believed .._ ""'r#iae ad lbe c:ahural IUpniDjoa of w wded before die)' could Odam w oa die illae ot ......_. ad ecllnricm w a prmqlilile ID piniq ..,.. 1p111cw .. ol lllC:la men a. or lilDFIY a pnmplilill to 6'1cb' lailmbility for equality. nu.. wllile Odmez w a cultural dll8rillilt wllo belined AfOlbw ' .._eriority deriYed rna IMir lilllilld w:aa ID ...... e.a,-cu1w. Mania w a bimapw ..-w11o D lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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261 aw bllldcl a 1Cf*ate mce from mulaaoa. Al Aline He11 poiDll au&. die "c:lw ol color," Mania bid aqued. clicl DOC exist bilflxially llDli1 wbitea cnallld die tenn in order IO bep down blldm ol .U colol' ........ cultural perlllllicml. Aay ICliou Clbll on beMlf ol arara-ciil ripu for C..._. of Ill coloa could not IDd llOt be uader1aJmn by Ill)' one group d Cubul: to do 10 would defeat tbdr very pmpme.,. It w on Ibis belief lbal Morda appcied die Vetera111 of Color mcwemeat in 1902. and it wu on dlil belief dial be MJUld CODlinue to CJPP01C any political orpnization wbich biPliabred racial dilCOUllC llld racialized idclllity II pimuy. Yet, in hil c:oacludiq remarks ro die v-... media& at lhe Ta1ro Albild. Odmcz eaenlially declmecl the same lhina. Thal ii, by rejecriq any ladenbip in f Ulllre Cllllp9ips of Af IO-Cubau wbicb a.eked Cubm wbites for mci1m. Odmcz rejected die leplimlC)' d l'Kill ciKOUl'le wilbin revoluticmry llllionalilm. In doiq ' be allo rejeclal lbe leaitimlcy o{ populll' nalimali1U' undei+ncti of die aaDoa II defined by opal. public dcbllc of IOCial maaen and mutually ICClpCable IOlutiolll. Prior to the Republic, Odmez and Mania Delpdo bid ... ideoqic:al CJFPOllellll; aflcr die Republic. Ibey .-ined lbeir ditlaDce from acll olber politically wllile oa a pnaic:ll level. operalDd on very much 11.e ame premise. nat ii. lib Joe Mlrtf Md done in the ll'JOI. bodl believed bl die call for ..__ fraremity" wu a mcxe prodac:live .._.. ol ne.,.UWna ...-ciil ri ..... for Ill CUbaDI In a MJdd cmtat ia wllicb biolosic:ally defined .-.. ol mce and racim were rapidly aceedin1 to 1be lalJll d unquatioaed lqitimsy. Ibey ..,. .. ,,., dial lbe call for '"hlcill Mfllllllt1"' wu limply too lbr..U11 ID ftitel. Uader lbe Republic. lbae men ......_ IUdl QIJs misbt ev be..._ to die caU1e d not oaly Afro-Olllmat, but dml of liberty .s 4kmwcncy .._ brody. Frmn 1bil wu ape;lly aue Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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1121i r l I 'C 1 &' s Ei r a. 1 f, llf rf fir I : t a. 1 !: .. 1 .. a 1 i 8 I I 1. Cl <5 ::. N CD c C" ""< CJ i a ,-. I r .. a-l t 5' 'C l i: ii I: o J i IC f l 6 r r I I l s & I ,. I .. i l f I I I. ,. 1 I a: j __ l 1 .. i 1 ... I 1 f 'C :t I s:: 8 I a. r I r I l 1 t I I f l r f i J l If t l 1 1 i i a. I [ B I f If i I i I 1 1 IJ i r .: 1 1 ':: 1 I 1 ,. [ i f 1 I f t I R j I i i I t K { f I f I 1. f 1 1 I S? t .f I r -i s r : f I l 9 st ll. I :i 1 J i I I 1 I l ii I Q St I. i I. 1 . I 1 : I ( I I j I I J Jl1 If! lliliirt I.ii M

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263 (ad pedllpl. mm.mi humility in cte.1in1 wida bim) lie lppl'CWed. bted by die nelled ID bis ronncr home in Oricate in Older ID ...a a mow ol biJ p>d will and onaoilll JdMiomlli .. widl bllClc Vetaw. There be acted out bil imerprecalim of what being a good caudiUo meat lblougb tymbolic plbnl and speeches mant to lllote die cp of local YelerW and lqitinulfe dilcunivcly their 1e1Yice to bis imperialill nalinnalilt nalion. Dwina lbe ilit. &cr.da Palma reWll'ded lelecl Af'ro-Cuban olrlClCn who Ud .,, pubtidy criKiad bil 8dmiailaalion wilb pemmeat jobl.,. lmponmdy, when prcaed by local vw ll public appeamaces, FMnlda Palma infonnalJy pledaed to support die indemnifimlima ol Yetennl promiled by lbe Libcnriq Army ..... rar wbicb Vetennl bad been Wliliq far over rour yean. Al die lime. lbe turYivon to dlim one dollar far CYcry day ol panicipalion in lbe Revohllion. However. wi1h &hda Palma bid rd'...S to sip lbe bill." Under pressure from 11111')' ve1aa111 md pomibly re..ru1 ol a reTolt. &cmda Pllma 'I ldmiDilllalioa Ceatually permitted dull Af n>Cublnl. WV cllimt be pmci, wl as Hell ..... IOIDdima overpaid. Not coinciclady, ll lall IWO of lbe pealat benertciKiel were loyllila wllo Iller fipred prominc:ndy in Eamda Pllma ' ModeralB Party, fcmded in 1904. The 1KJ1t ......._.Y plid bid .u refnillld rrom pmliciplllion in or open nppart ol lbe Afft>Cubma Veterau' IDOYClllelll in ffay-md lbaeby. emned em.da ,.._ ., pllilllde md llUlt UDl'onuwly, die indemnjtia w IOo liale IOO m. far die ...,_ .... ol vefaW RD bid a.orled ID lellinl lbeir dliml flD ........... 11111 .,. f-1 aceaive .... D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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..,.. w..- llriculbnl worbn lblt chey coald not even llTonl IO uavel flD Abmit lheir c:ia. IO aumici ....... of pemmenL a OiYCD dlil cmat,. tbe lcplMIMy CW of QuiDlfn Bandera KqUim p.nicul.-relevlDCe. A Velellll of all dne Wll'I for iadependeace, Bandam Ud been ICripped of bis mat ..,.. lbc end of lbc Wll' for .:cs of leX1lll licale, despite ccapmllble behavior on lbc pmt of wbite officen wbo were not limilmty llied. Poor, lwllca, UDemFioyed wl ..U-litcmc. Bwlenl bllDed to frimdl in Ccmpm for a jab but w olfam only die bumble polition of pllebeper at the How of Repraenlatives. Sublequeatly, Banderll lplaled to Emllda Palma for a moalbly pemioa dial allow billl IO mire witb banor. ID rapame. the Praident lent over a pawl domlioa of five cloUan wilb bil willanl Bwlera mde no wra of Ille dil ... t and bormr wi1b wbida be peeted lbi1 llCt. ID a cart leller IO &er.ta Palma, be wrorc. In reply to lbc piumce (""'""'] Iba& you ptelellded to pve me. IClldiq over wilb )IOlll' alilClllt a five dollar bill on die day I penollll1y ldicif.ed a deaiay from )Ql. in accardlDce wilb my apliauda. in Ille Republic over wbicb you preside aad to which I bave con.-ibuled in eRhlithina wilb die llCriftce of my whole life. (1111 a] wbicb I lball aeYer rep; I caclole a Clld wbic:b cqa(U1D1 the pro(alioa by wllim I proride brad for my family. pYCD IO me by a foreip COIDlllCR:ill Cl1lblilluneat Tbe ..... Clld ad Blllldem. Divilim Own( of Cbe L(ibaaliaaJ A(rmy]. Cllicf of die Pqepnde DepMtlDIDl of 1M Heme of Cr mlla Brm.. A Co. MMa1 of SOlp... Appllelldy, Bmdelll llld found WOik ia a S,.iillt-oned lwinea a D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl <5 ::. N !l CJ 0 & I l t l I I I l i I 1 I I I I I t f : I f ! I f f I I t I i l i i r ..... S t l 8 I i R f ;i; J f l !. J l I: I f f [ I s 5 l "R. B: f J 1 l 1s'talJi:}lJIJis ( .J' I I l i ; f I l f i ; : I t f I i r s 1 I 1 1 1 J z I 1 1 I I r. f II J t i I I i f : i ., 1 I I I f I l f = I I f I i i I I i l i I I f f f I I B. '11-It "& f 1f1 Ii' I i a i r t l t I I I l 1. 1 i I I 1 1 11 I 1 r s 1 l 5 R a p r l t < 1 I l t 1 f I I f f r I t I r 1 J r r I I

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266 Bind& Plllma w clme to ruirdliaa Min!' rule a FDuiae democrat Sid ns Serra' co..rac1we in EllrD Nma dial '-e 90cJk die liberty to ldvile IUl on popua.r Yiewl ol Giber Afro-Cubm laden and whelller or not be lboulcl rom m lllimce with tllan. the mcnl oollapw ill wllicb the rrisid indifference ol our illustrious friend Toma f.ltmda Palma Im plwapd ua. and ror wlloal, ill any case. l will always Clr1)' palitude in my ban [ ... ]. Addi dial ""IDaa docs DOC liYe on brad alone." Serra rmainded Estra Palma ol bil own power a poliriml client oa wbom &tnMM Palma bid depcllded to legilinaa1e bit imaae Mmnl'a aucctaar, a beaeYolau friend to bUcb and lbe _... ... AAd wbal do we Mk [in rean]? [ .. ) Well. very liale. Thal )'OU pant mlemibly lbe same defaacc u ia e>tMr lilllea llld mny bcndill dial you appanioned in favor ol the came ol jultice. [ ... J Your friptity bacbei'I U1 beclw you dlrow ii in our r... and )'OU pul us in die diffu:ull lituation ol mt beina able to deny it nor do bdle .P you.... Bua pubtic:ly, rrom hi1 fXJll edirar ol El N..a Crlollo ad .Ctmr 1904. a c:cman-IMI' elected by a caa1e1 valive rqioall 1*tJ rrma one. aOUimd wida die Modnlel. Serra could a Jeeal lhc deplb oI bi As a ..ult. El Nw CrloUo r'Mlhwl afflCially loyml to Ellr* Palma. HawcYer, dil -of loyally N MM i8clwiqly mdcKU by die ll&Wlfilll*'I biliaa c:ritiqw c# die CCR palic:ia of die wioeeli ...._ Most ollma., El Nw Oiolo voiced ill criliqw ..a wyoIMlnC. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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'1GI E.qullly s-iomte IDllDOriel ma clfl'.,.. bat n:1111ee1 kiad illlpired w Afro-CU'-to IUrD away flOID c:audillilla lllll'lllliVa m all types and iDWlld Oil tbeir OMI communities a margc ol 1uppan. ldf-improvement IDCI c ...... For i.nlcaace. m AfroCubul in ffaYW decided to found m aaocillion lhll would Kl u bodl a mun.I aid society and a union. Rd'mcaed lbroup lbe leas ol popalU' DIDnM'in, daeir taeiaay pmides a unique window into lbe political c:omcio11111eu, collective upiratiom and lhe dlaqina lladlcape ol billory tbll many revolulionaria carried wilh diem: AbMt-allld by lbe politiciw m [lbe Splllilb colonial] era and not havin1 men refuge dlln cbe tarecsory m 1he Socielia o1111e Race m Color, we pabcnd ounelva M'OUDd it a warcbed wilh sympmdly all 1he whita wbo helped U IO KqUil'e lbc right to frequent public emblilbmenll; but this did not lllilf'y our upimliom. which and ue dial ol complcte equality in public life. The WU' coma, WC baYiq llelped IO brin1 it aboul. pvin1 lbe pealCll mnouat ol [our] blood and lives, belieina lhll duoup lbe Scpmaliltl we would be beaer lelYed, IDCI durin1 lbe Mr, we believed lbe problem ol equllity bid been resolved; but 1hea came peaie, aad lbe molutiomria elllered i111o lbe corrupled IDd comapcina capi1811 IDCI bepn wilb lbe flaaay aad lbe pldia.11111 from lbll moment. we bepn to <*ave a c:lwnp in die mca 1Mt Md been our bmCMrl, wbo dillUced IMmldves flOlll dlllir Giber bMbeat no 111111 c:mied out lbe campmip ol ID mmy ..... and lllll'eriap. lToday, me ol m] ... ID die fa:laria. ID bis old pa.. ill lbe CDUllll)' _. 11e r ... Cerylbiaa lbe .... u fint day. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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268 rormulalD fllalfonm. and Ibey m.a pedliml aml w c:cm1nbure to diem. but we -nndUa for oune1.... n. Oemal Lape of Wodmn ..a rCubln rPolUlicaria crymllized. die political inmmipacc for which lhe imperialist aalioaalilt lllle of f.IUada Nma would become bat known. Haviq belieYed lbM lbe lqitilw:y of AfR>-Cubul pll'ticipalioD durina die war raecd OD bit IDd ocben tdauce ol i&. Eauada Nina conceded The veraw W lbll Ibey could nqoti lbe tcnDI of 1ta1e policy lhluqll impnwited ,.tilic fen w evidence anap of cm. By lileaciq ill\m of 11Ce .S pllll'OUlly lft'IRlina time vetaw wllo coqiiidro. widl ill m.l paliciel. die II* twnhd OD Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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269 c:lw aappomn dllllenpl Ibo 11111e to liYe up to lbe malalimmy prami1e1 dial lad bRJuPl it into ailllDDCC in die fllll pill:e. In mpme. lbe llale ........ ID -1 dKm prmUw in two ways: rust. by i.-... ............. ror c11e llllbility oi 111e Republic llld ICICCIDd, by a11empcin1 ID repnpd lbe illaad with a new met of loyll, pcUllll camlilllalll-wlife f.urapean immipaall. 71ir Rlla tllld Cllw ill IM Srni1le Berwen "Ntlllou. J902-190J By lbe fall of 1902. die jubilant opdmian which lmd infected nearly every ICCkJI' of Cuban IOCiety in lbe fint weeks of the Republic was all but fcqotlm. ln its place emanr'Cd die aare incnmiag IUlpicion of lbe popular dlllCI and coavencly. tbe popular dalm' ae.r.a &rib of 1902. Comina lbonly before lbe suprcaac blrYest bepn in December, IVibn COUdcd on the cycle of risiq poli1ical impalience llld economic mimy whicb 8CCOlllpmied die period between Urvelll to increMe l)'lllpldliCI AIDOlll fellow WOlbn. By all mcuara, Ibey c:ou1d not have dkJlen a more 1uspiciOU1 lime for pmerina support frca odla" leC:IDll of llbor-or for dUlt matta', a more inimic:al time for drawin& lbe wndl ol cmpia.l. Wilb m reciprocity ....,...... IO eDMR a U.S. lllllbt for CUbm ...-since 1894. pllDlm r..t lbe very -a pollibility of llabupqr. Hariq cwerprod.:ed mpr for a reduced ....-me before die ra ... of 1 parilla war, Cu' mliwe ...,.__ wae ct.qeroualy cwerexteDded la 1902. tbeir low came due. Simul...,...y, die puwlb of United S&lla capital ilmllmmt ia CUba w Uaaaina at a mwive Ille. u..p.clild by a lllle dmt favored powlb dlmqb fanip m---. Dllive pbDlen caWd D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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271 tlleir nde rrmn pnmaq iL o 'IWril1 jullifled bi decree wilb die coalelltim dlll lllMJe. ..... (may m wbom were miaon) I.a fMled to impnwe ...... wl 80Ciely by aa.eadi1111Cbool. '"( ... O]a lbe COllllU)'," lbe clec:ree oblerved. '"Ibey mue clanwp to lbe culGn m tbe CCMIDlly [ ] .... On die Ame day, lbe only blact member o( die Secret POiice pmdiaa tbe Praic1en1ia1 Palace received a 1eUer rmm &u'lda Nma '1 office. In lia ma nipt be a white penon." Tbe black deleclive. whale superian Md judpd bis job performance impece11ble until w undenlaadably OUbFCl Mcnoer, it wa dlis 11me praidenlill reception Chat mulatto Scnara Manfn Mania Delpdo declined ro allCDd since F.anda Palma Md neglecccd ro invite his wife and dlugbten." La pllblka o.batl. "II dais in accordance wi1b tbe doctrines ot Marte, wilh die creed d d9e Rnollllioalry Piny, widl lbe democ:ndc ideu for lbe lriumpb fOI' wbicb wbite and black heroes foupt lide by lide? [ ... ] We appeal ro all sincere and dispaaomre people. ls dU riabt? [ ... ] II it ripl tbal in die CublD palria which we Ill mD 'lf*r, colc:nd men may only cnrer lbe Palace ot lbe Plaidem ....... 1 la a fullll insult to ievolutioary llMI popI naliculilll wbo qreed with Odaaez. lbe receplioD illelf' culmilllled ill lbe bmaaly bellowa1 d Amrla aatioallity OD Elnda Pllma by a sroup o( Iii iDYiled pa11l F1alllapllCd. editon ror Ui Llldttl denounc:ed lbe "Gbermit" ot Ceanl Valley .t IU:llllicdy llliled bim, c ... J km& live lbe sraadime ball m Don Toms! And klaa liwe well lbe bamnly Amrilnt... ladled. belida die o1wa. lff'loal to die IUfreriaa md bmar d *-who W foupc in Oda 'I dlirty-yar llnigle D191lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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1 .1 f I I I I I I f t f I I : ! 1 i 1 i-J a.: D ce s i. l 1 r i 1;i1 -s, w 0 i Is!. I If!' i I: ... ir. g t t i Bl I I i l l i I l i i f I :ii l!i !ii I & ,. J r I i = I D , ' s. f ']" ti. f 11 c: a. t a, I j.]:. !. !! !f. i a! r 1 l 1 i ii_ l .r r t 1 I [ !. I 1. 1 111 Ii' 8 Ii' l I R i. S .._ & I. Ei '<" i, Ir 8 I ; I t I i ; i rr 1 t. 1 I a f j I ? I l J r I I l f s ; l IJ :E I 5. l I'< i'l ls z t' f. B 1 It t f ; I : I 8 1' I i' I I I -. I l l t : Q. --. t l f.

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would be rempiJl!d by meapmmL Beel Ibey Wiie paid by lbe piece ud bid I palll' bowleqe of die quality of IDlllriall wilb wbidl dley MJrted Iba lbeir emplO)'CD. cipr wait.en Ibo Wiided IO be incl.W ia die pricia1 proma for cipn. Moll importully, cipr 1"llUn waalled the HCC to parmtee dial Cubm c:bildrea walld be .mniued to mppreaticcabip propams ia lhe cipr lnde 11111 r.:rory leveta. witbout dislinclion of race or cdmicity. Tbe ranunce of mil claim wilb die IOCial idem of molutiowy and popular mticali w undeniable. Amona lllcJle on wboe support cipr-worbn counted at die OU11Ct of lbe llrike were Fermm ValcMI Domilpez. lbe c:bildbood friend ol MarU a.d ....... vctaa; doc:lors and pbumlcilll who offend lbeir servicel fO ICrilrm f n:c o{ cbqe; wt lbe wortdq-dm Cut.m of Tampa and Key WCll wllo 1C:nt dacm Sl,100 in of die 11riken' demand lbal Cuban children enjoy equal Kcea to appn:nlicabi.. wilb fonipen wu bird ro deay Al wat lbe c:ae wida lhe lnlenadoailt Oovemmaat, U.S. emplo)'en preferred to hire Spmiardl aitec eut.a, believin1 lbe Conner to be ol purer race IDd tbaef'orc. npMilc of IUpClior wort. In lbe c:ae of die cipr iadullry, mcially biring pnc1K-a clrcwc wllite worbn ID Clllf""rizc ad lbll'C ia lbe indipity of bllck wuta1 to a ....-depec dm in IDOll indullria. On die one bind. a pat numba' of Havam 'I cipr WOltel'I we. Rc:ada cmipa who Md lelUnled ID Cuba .rta' die w... Tlllle emip' cmll'llity ID MmU'I iailial arpnintiCJllll eff'adll al dleir ...., .. tile mppan for Ille Revollllioa '1 popalar MticwliC mil leal Nlp9'.1llbitity, dlrity md CDll('ldwe to die cipr wadlm' Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl <5 ::. N C" ""< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 .............. --t!(i' -<:::I 0 DI ., -:s-0 a z Vi :z I I I I I i 1 I t I l J I i I I J '-= .. r I s e: '=J f. I j f I I I l I I I I J J t i f r I t r f f 9 i I I I f f I 1 I I I (1 f ( J ( I ! I I f l '1 i 11 I f. I i J 1 I ( l IS 1:11f11ilfii .; 11f flJ 111 i n: H R Ii ; 1" 1. ii f. : I f. i a r l 8 ( I!. S .. 15t & f I 1 'i. 8 S I' I I &" '" I :ID. I l 1 i R 41:, i It l I t ::1J!lfi. 1111 ".11 IL I I a. i; f i . I 8 i !. : .f i: . t I: l I. i J I I : l I I r i J I I I l l J t I J

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D ce -N !l CJ 0 & 1 n c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<"'T'1 -a '""" 3 8 z VI z I I -I I I I I f I ; I I I ft I i 1 i l J. i f i I I !1 I i I 1 1a s ... i r .. f I f 1 i I : t : f [ i j 1 I I l I 1 l i t I I I f i I i i I t : ,. . .., f a e I a. I l I f I I m r I l J 1 I r I I t R, r l l j t i l I I I Bl I t r t ' 'f Ii "ir Ii a. Iii (i ft 11 a I : I I I I i I i I i l I J 1 J r i jjl I f i E f 8 na a ... I I J. J I I I l l t i I .. i R, I i 1 t1'r!i.!_1I I i I 1 a r s 1 I w I r 1 if P i r r r if i J r

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I j J 1 r 1 1 I I I 1 1 t l r r i i J i r 1 !. 1a o < I 0 i ! ; ! I i I t J <5 ::. N : J I J I i l i : I l i ( t l I I I l s ( j I 1 s f W c I a r J I r r J 1 :JJ 1 !. t o J 1 r-I "l '!1 l ij' s I !: 0 1 II, I f I [ I .I. ii" B !. I 1 f f p I n 1 5 t l itlit!" rn :::co t -II l I 1-.I 1' I I. I .. .. i;r. if I s 11 1: l I Ii ... s r : < '1 : 1r "T'1 r -= i i (. 0 l I I I. !. I .. 'R Ir :s -f f g. . I!: 15. 3 t 1 f I ;_ J I n. I r J a = e J I t J I V'ia r s : Q g. r J :1 1 r I cg. !. '" .s , s !. I i :a a I -2 K II' 1 Q. ff IF. r f J f I r s r t a I I l f i

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rn lbe tomcco induny ... aped. .... Kqllinld tbeir moaapoly duouP colonial priiJele. Today, tbey IOUpa ID mljngjn dial priYilep by ClllUriq dlal C-. cbildren will bec:ane IOOD lbe lllOlt iponator ID indlllay wbicb ii lllicwl. in lpite or mm livina on lbe ame soil dial pmduca lbe la( [ .... J lo oe1m words. die men and cbildrm who were born KIWI lbe -. in fomp and r1r dilllUll coualria have mere riabt to enjoy the benefits or dlia country. to develop ill weallb. IO tab put in all the 1111Difel1afioal or ill aocUI and polilical life, lban dime [.-] wbOle ..... conquered die libeny or dlil oppcmed to it; equity and science forbid iL IM SimulblfteDl.llly, despite bis mcmbenbip in lbe Republiaut pmty (1uppor1in of Ellnda Palma), Scmrar Morda preaeatcd lcp.laliaa requiriq tbal emplO)al live preference to Cubans who pbysic:ally qualified for lbe wort irrapective or lbeir mce. us But 11 usual, Coops was exceprionally llow to KL Just oulliclc ill balls. in die cea or Havm. tcDliom l'Ole by the minure. For havin& peawmlly "inlultecr' policc Ncwember 20lb. In 11n. Ma)'Or O'Fanill decreed 1be re1eae or lixleen llrikln malld oa limilar pounds lbe previous day. 111 The nm day, ll die Nalioul Uaivenity, c:oUep "'*'* joimd sumn in jecriq aml pelliaa DOIHlrikiq labcxm or die Depnneal or Public Warb with rocb. At die 111De lime. Ill muaiciplll potice capWm dedMlcl dllir ID a.... ad pledpd ID eoldiaue bi1 policies ol (dil)cncr. The llrest dlaadl ID die IUiD inclllded pildl d bUal ad cmpealln. but Illian boped ID tee die city'1 p8lllic Wiiie emplo)'ea Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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2'78 (oldcd Udo die 1DOemeat well.117 Indeed. die aun:llilt Wier pma, aever known ID be limid in Che me ol mn.mmarory ....... called Oil WCJlbr'l IO lee dae l1l'Ugle U ID aU.W pi c:mpic.I. Under die beedliw: "'War wilboul Qimner! To Blood IDd File!," El lbal bislDry hid not given dal die apponunity ID be before: Mfor' hanorl For dipityl Far lblmcl ( . J HcroCI die ID dd'end c:au1C1 wbicb are ideal Md mmy limes not well undcnlood; you lblU die IO ave your modwn, wiva and datapm from lbc addett and IDOll bumiliariq Tbe lwgle bclween c:apic.1 and labor i1 11 lllnd. "118 Another edition lddremd wortal wllo lllld )'Cl not joined lbe strike: -We believe in betrayal! We do DOt ICCepl .... lbere lllipc be cowudl! Away wida far! TO SEU. our WOUlD BE [AN ACT] OF11iE TRULY WRETCHED!"'" pranre ma policicll aucboritia ID CORIC recopilion ol IUiten' ....... and llldeme wida pwi..,:mea Tbis premn w bacb pnclica1 llld idecJlosical: Mayor O'Fllrill '1 .,....dlia for lbe cw oldie ICribll ad dleir ript flD ._..._ provida dear evidace ol i In lbe proce11 ol lbc mite, pined auaendoul coafidence in die democllllic pmcea dal cbnclerized IM aiabdy meecinp ll Taao CUba wl die public ia wllida ICribn wt lllbcr ._... joiDdy mppd Tbe mcra1 ol lbeir on local cte...xncy only WICNllpd a km ol fmidl in lbe -ave. UIUre ol lbll CICJllllill*Ci under die lllle. Funbamale. if unejmjty o( Yaice and aclion could be .-.ec1 -a wolba ol-=11 clvene cndel and imlall. wlly did Ibey need yoae to lbeir blala for diem? If polidcilm WIDIDd ID Wp dim. llley could fomJ _...,... ID dell diRcdy widl die ..... CDlrwl 0-i_. ma W ol eqmlity -a CXJldilllity. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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279 Thae eeatimeaM Wiil ID bave peady iaRue.-ed IU'ibn' lllicuda IDnld die patenaliltic. coadliq ltyle of Ma)'OI' O'Farrill, dlair lelf...,aialed pmm and medialor. Riling flUllnllrion among worbn may help O'FuriU' allrupt and sudden decilioa on die 22Dd of die moncb ID coqbtely wilbdraw rrom die llria proc:ea. In announcing bis polition at lbe time. O'Farrill ciled die fllCt tbll lbe Cealnl Ccmmitlee DO loqer wished to comider bit propcmll Appmmdy, die IUibn Ud ref'Uled to lllow O'Flrrill ID repraml them before pllnt owaen in their lfad; they wmllld plant ownen to meet direc:dy wilb the O>mmiuee and dlereby, it a duly comtituted authority of labor. Tbil die cmpilalistl raued to do. a .ama1 flCilitafed by Che illli1tence of Mayor O'Fanill thll lw and lfOI the wort.en aepraeolaliva cwencc the procea of exc:banp. .. O'Furill '1 withdrawal mmbd a turning point in lbe Adicalizalion of tbe llrib well lbe poaibililia for 11a1e illlen'enCioa at any level in suppcn of worbn' ripe.. From November 23rd ID die morning of die 26lb. Havcmne ro a complete siandstill, widl typoanpben guild would pa die ma. all major DeW1p1pC11 cewd publicalioa lild Havma ' lilenlfe public Wll depriYed of media ccwaa,e. w Lick ol accea llD infonnalioa only made maacn wane bodl die muncipll and praidealial of die joiMd forcca in aeprelliq lbe serilal. Pelblpl in panial defemnce IO &1rlda Palma fer qreeiq aat ID inlmfcn in die diniMal ol CbieC of Police c.dew. Ma)'QI' O'Fmill qn:cd eo inlrinp die very clemocmlic ri&b he blld ID naady c:blmpiaalld by bmmi111 .U opeHir. public I I I mblia. Tllirty "'o=nwl buUetl Ml'C imued IO city police. au.da Palma ordered Ilia oaly t'icwl amecl fcxaa. die RD o.d. oa ICWl-by ror ,._.., duty on die 1treet1 of ffaqa. Only daoap die ianmcm of SllYallar CilllllOI lles9e OUlt, KUa M Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 c N O' "< CJ 00 c: :z: < SEo V"I ... --t IC' -< :::J 0 tu :::E --0 V"I 3 8 z VI z I I I I i i I l I I I f t I I I t I f s l ; I I I I I I i I ; : .r Jiifr t. (a: it la. ll r. la -ti .f a a I t ;: [ { I ( &: -a, -I r I I I 1 1 f r 8 1 } i t J I 8 I ( I i I f 5 I I I i I J lff s. t.11s11 '1: I' I I. f s & r 1 a 1 1 1 -1 1 I I 1 i < .t 11-,. 1 r 1JI11: ls f r I t I ; ; i f r 1 I t a s i 1 i I I I f 1 l i f I t I I i 1 I r I 8 i ,g -< a I t f f f 9 I r I a, I I i I l t I 1 I r I f I I I s I f Q i t J i I i l 5 c f t c I i [ l f I :fill 1 I f I i I i r I J I !. 1 1 i I

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21U Coaviaced dial be could D0t aummtee cxder lbolt cl uUg .al411 Yioleace OD llrikln. alief cl Pdice Upne duatmed ID Rllip. In reply, boCb O'IWrill md tbe Miailllr o( Oovcmance ralicmlized dial the need ID emblilb public onlcr 1upeamded citmm' riabls to 111a11by llld free expreai
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I 1 r I 1 1 f : r f t 1 1 1 1 1 1 r a, .f a, t If It jl I I 1 'j Ii o r r rrr:f l Ji,a.rsl,-l! ... <5 R :g. 1 l-I B II l a, s. t f UJ I & t I I f .:[ i :I ti' D f !t f 0 i i I f I f I I I I f i ; I I I l i 8 I I f I I l I I 0 8 c: z < I : I ! I i I i : ; I i I 0 l If r Po a M a ; ii i5' I' f -, II '< i -
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}ll1jl'.JJ.I: ;:;a 1 ff i ij'I (.I I: I I I l 11. f OJ: r i i, a 0'" 1 11 -I JI 'f o ae.ll,ftif & r .. I 1: r t a. 1 t J l i J j t Q. I'. a i r. i a: l : I J i I I I f f I l I I i rn 0 i I I i 15 I! i 1 I f .. .. --I I ii P"' I 15 p i1 p I r s t I l l '" s I : f i l 1 P. i: t I t i I : I i ! t' I r 11 ( I ; f I i f I 2 .. "" P. f I a f a !. i I a l I I P. II I I i J t t P. I 1 i I I 1 1 l '< I R. t c i I I ( IL I i Sl I l r 1: i r 1 I r es i 1 J M

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284 lbe llldaity m lbe 1111e cmried lilde if ay weight wilb wortm. Raped for IUlbority IDCI cmwol ewer my procm m IOCW chln,e wae die defmiq fellllrel m dac f we llribn dleir liva: Tbe Velel'IDI have a ript to believe lbll lhe Reputilie rilb pave danpr. Ir ou11ic1e danaen were IO duaren her, dley would rile up in m; bal [lhe cllqen) me inremal, blood m our blood. and we come here to i111eqae ouadva in Older to ICClle lhe dlllser m lbe ,........._ We do far neilber lhe lbe Gcwemment. We n 1imp1e median. Aad if it ii llid dial the Fmlhertand ia leC(Wdery, lben ft bae DO role here."' The WCJlbrs' ID dlis appnsh w cwerwbebninaly pOlilive. Bua. ia die emf. lbe watas NDIDlllility to 111e ..... medialioe ... aot #died by t11e coopenDon m .,..,,.....t Indeed. despite llOUDd-cbe-doct wort cm die s-t m lbe vetmD1 w1 lbe Calnl Canmiaee m lbe ltrilrem, lbe ownm m die r.ctmia lpllCl ID none m die MJlbn ......, By November 29, 111e Cant cm11niaee ad.-Omni 1..eape m Wonen m. l.t illilillled lbe llrib declared it a calUllUpbic failm. Wamn wMCI ID dleir jobl. dcmcwliml .S ........ m dleirlllppOltetl ia Cmtaaw ID-* polilical lalillldca m Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I I f i I I I ! I l I I i I i f l t : I i 1 a i I I I ( ( f f 0 l -t I l l s I !. i f : i j. -i: i I 11 I 1 ::i r !=ii f Ii Ii 11 JI r 1 I J I I l l 1 ; f I z i J I I f I I ;; a t o. sr i I l i i l I t -f f I I et I J 8 f I 1 f i 9 I I f r I I A a-I: s f 0 I J > 1?111 ii J I I I I I I I f I I t l I Ii l 1 I a. B ::;! I "R If if I ti l l I 1 p I: i { t f Ii' f; f I I II j i I f i I f f &' i ( i t a. I!. l i I : f I Ir 11 I I l f g r 1 r t : I I I t 1: ; l 18 ; !11! 11111:1!8 l_. i f f f t t t t i ; I I I I H

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 f1tlli : ! i!fl!Jil'II1f ((lfil((J:.iif.sf i'1 I r 1 1 _ = : I i i f f i I J B f l l I I I I ? IQ i ( t 1: 1. rr11rt 1ifastj 111 c: I 't I a. t -a l :t(llt!w 11!,s;JJ j. 'li a i r II, [ I i s r 1 r a r t i !. r l a '< a. I I 3 I I I a s-f I SI r r 1. I l i I l r i 1 I r 1 :z 1 a. I .f ( z 11, & 1 I l i 11,l 1 f I: I f I t If f. I f i II, I 1: if }. I f .f I

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z &I: I 1 f i I J I i I i i I I J I l ; I l i J I I I I t p ( l l ( I I f 1 > I l f l I f I I I l 1 11 1 I t i I I f I l 1 i t I ii'. 111 f. sa_ 1 a f lJ. [I i J i l 1 I t i J I r I 1 IJ : 11 r1: jir'li r I l l a J l 1 a I i ( l I .c ;_ r I i .. j: B: l t i I I I I I I t '< f I I I f I I ll ll I I t l 1 I ; i l l i 1 &. 1 i 8 I II J I l It i I l I I I: f > I f r w l J 1 I a t i l l I I ] i J I I l r r I .t 1. 1 r r sa_ I. I r : J

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Cl ce -N I J I t' I I i r I I I f ; r I i 1 1 i f. i t I ir f ( i ; e. a f J. I l J 1 fl il'l 1111 l:tf .l a r: a. l 1 : r :. } J [ I' I :. 1 g f I. -. 8 f -1 I f f l i r I f r o (1r1rf I irtf .11.1.l o o al I S B. I 1 E P a. I I. J oo a -c I 1 r a: t I : r I l : I P. i l l ( ld r I i P. ll. I C" '< a I l J i a I i I a I l t s r r I 11 'I' I &"4: 8: ; I I!. t. ti' i r .. '-11; I e. i je. 1 f l f. I '!I. I i J i. 1: i r l 1 1 I er 9 8 ... i I i ii, B I I t I J If I i v:;O j .. I l I Q. .J er f' i I r [ t I .. p 3 J j s !I. f > I jjl r. t 5 t I I f I ! I t f. t I t f i f : ( I l l J f f I ; : '< f. If a. ;. J l 1 M

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z lilf'li t ; I! I i: 11ti I t If i t i i I I .t I: g r. t Q I ( J 1 t.: I r I I: a. f l 1r I I I f. J' ii l :J: I J r 1 l i I 1'-f l i t: i J J I. '11 l Ii, I i s !!';; r lir.tlgt l ! I ! s I i '" J I . f I I J 1 a a. I s a. Ill 11f I : I i I I ; I J l Ii, r sJ .-11 l s I s r i Ei t r : s I f l l . I ; I e Q t -s l e t I . JI. II i l I i. I i I t l I I t. ( r J 1 f t 1 i i I I l I l J l f I f f Si. 8 I I p I I r i-! i I D a I I Si. I: 1 .9 I f 1 i S l l l a 1 a. r .. 1 llr "i I I f J I & l f I! 1'1 r .. 1 }-_,} !11' t r r J 1 I r f f

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pnniMIM in die ReYolUlim for ...,.. .., clfl'enncea llDODI wiaUy divided C....._ TIU llralelY c:mlled for pmina one' .. ,.,,,,,,,,,.,,. flat -befcn or mm in die plw cl oae '1 mce-wilb die apeclllion, Mart! t.s llid, dlll jultice WOlllld follow. Far amnplc. in dcrawe cl its own lia ID die Modmte Party lblt l.t propmed die pig. El Nw Criollo, WMI Sena' .......-. benlDd 1be Josic cl 11a1e lpncnd immiplllion. Yet. becMR wrikn for El NllnO Crlollo promoted die rejectioll m Africaderied calcure coa1nry ID lbe laws cl civilialioa and modenlity. atidel criticiziq die purpmm m oam1 of immipalicm teaded fO invoke mce lblOqb 1M dilcoulle cl dMI Ollly. Suda ....-reU directly in line wilb Sena a:uer cu11m1 intepalion W die bat IMllDI cl danaalUaliDa Afro-Cubw' iabtHDl ncilll equality fO wbila-aml die lmt ny cl ClllUl'ina lbll lbe mre ' ldoplioa of policies to dial end. Acc:ordiqly. lltida oa die l1lbjed m cultunl iDfqrlliOD m lldicloee to sacial dilcrimimrioa were oRen n...._.. On lbe i11UC of iBUllipalion. El Nw Criollo' front .,.a declnd lbll for die w ID lpeDd money briqing DR llNt:am [am.amen] ID Cuba wllell its Dllive wodcf'GRIO W 10 Wipi<*IC:*ld ml undcrpmid W DOI "'p9lriolic. DOI' twen forwanl-lcx*iq." Rmlller, it IUll"recl, "Oivc fO die Qdm worbr, u. dllll money ro improve lbe cmdiliml cl._ mliYe baan>. llimullla llim in oae way or die olllS w .a.u w bow die amat fqlllletioa cl oa is MrlCimt to r.-a1111ae jobl dlll i iadulaia produce. .... Fna bil OWll ........ EJ """*"* --Mania ----YOCifermdy denomced D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce ..... N C" '< 0 r I I r i i t r ) l i a i i t l f I l i : I l Q I & 1 1 i I l I j. I 1 i I 1 1 1 1 r r l I J I: f i I 1 I 1 Q_ II I Q_ i1 I I . I I I Q B t. I s !. t. II J f 1 1 t I!! t If i I I 1 I f R, 1 I i 1 R, ;o i l i 1 I i I f a. ; i l l 1 I J l 1 l I ... I-I 1 ii I f I I I l l i l f . J I f . I !. '< I [ I f l I j I I I 1 J 11 I t r = :z I: '< s !: I 'tar I Et. tr I" I t I 1 11 .. a I 9 R, l t l I I. I I R, f 1: I s t '< 9 r J' s l r t l s t r r l i I I

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immi ... Oil cxplicidy mcill poundl. lesillttioa in CCJQllell and die Oeaaal Slrib oC IM rai of 19Cll. arty propcmentl of wbi1e immi ...... llrady IDUlecl IUdl project lhe oaly ulidofe to 1be dec:liac of white llllive cullln due to lhe eadariq dlnpl of an imicioul Af ric:MiDlica Plecilcly aa tlae pouadl. Robert. editor d the new...-I.ti T"'*. mmmenlllCI on '"the caaflict by the nee of color" in die unmer of 1902. Robert declared the problem cited by lbe Yeterul' movement MR ldllllly more ""pen:eivecl than lal." In lddilioa to sugaain1 IMl Elllada Palma pmvide Afro-CUblll leaden wilh enaup penoaal wcallb and COllf ort to lilmce lbem, be suualed. 'The leCOlld c:cmiltl in promotina and f ICiliwiaa f :nip immiprion, of individual llld of f amilia, pviq pniense to the Spmilb. Time will lab care of everylbina e .. e. .... Appuady, he Gpecled blacb would go extinct a By 1be time lbe project for immipalion IUde it to the floor of Coqrea in February of 1906, ill polirical propcaenll felt equally lilde need to dilpile lbeir own rlCial pe,;.tica or the rKilt rllioaale uaderpinnina dlCir plan... By Ihm. lbe ldminil1ralioa ad it1 policies were auirely in the haadl of Ellrllda Palma' dmat comula_. and fdlow imperialist MljoMlim, DOW orpniml M Modealta. Haviq dmpped Ill pr-.. d populist dae Modenllll actively IOUPl ad pr..a 1be IUppOlt ol former AllfODDmiltl llld Spmi* loyalim. Wida dlil cabinet al die helm, Mocknlel 111 ewer die illlwt orpeind a vut paliticlll nw:hine tbal favond IUlll IDd 1aror WI of piniq YOICI al die palb ud a D..,aiy cm local well lllicml power."' D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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I Cl ce ..... N C" '< (. j l [ n I l j 1 t R I 1 B. I. n. y. o I' .. II"" ii!! c. -Ii!: 5 a . r ii. -- -I: ff I 5 R w l 9 f i t ( I I f I I t I i i j I t l J o .r 'r 1:l. i .. [I (:If r I i1. i: 0 t I l I J = l 8: 28 I 0 l rr n = G,9.. a. a a J 1 n i 1 1 w I i. & .: 'r. 1: l i j I JI Jr I a. 3 I f !: l i I I 1 I w ( r r I l I f I: i r er J l !f 1'f' r a '!. &. f l I r a. I f I 5 i I f. i J i j l c: : [ ) sa_ i r ] 1 I 'I f f. :; I .I o;:o --1 f I I I J. e ;_ l I ,. ; I i! i 1 I i t i 8 i i i I I l ........ a f. I l I I l s-c-a. t --. i f e sa_ n i I o3 l Q. I r I 111 1 .. ---I 1 1 i 1 J 1 R -1 i 1 1 r 1 r J' If If "< f I I I l 1 i I t a: I. 1 i I l 1 .. l f s I

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294 imllilfllim. wbidl 1111 bepn ID lcue ill beMYolmt iaftuem:e ca lbe propea d 1IM.e peopla dour 1Ke [ ... ). Thae lie DO opimc-cmdra)' fD lbe idea d rcwnenti,. a n1e papulalim; .u ...-on die' of .amcina quickly a pmlible die pmte1t number of Emapcu r.utiel wbo may be leGled in our c:omdlylide, to C1D111ribule widl dleir number, lbeir eumple, tbcir ldivity and lbeir energy to develop productioD, belpins .. to comolideM die mw oa wbidl to ICt our CODfempX'M)' illllillltiom ... The fa1DI lbroqb wbicb 11*-spomored immipalion WU to IOlve lbe prolllam (King '1be nation U imperialist Mliomlia defiaed it, were M inlpin:d by lbe model of jdcaliztd ia lbe United Slala u Ibey were pided by lbe principles of Cuba '1 own bnDd d racillll and IOCial aduaicn. Moreover, u supporten of die law clcarty 111iadMed. their lim WU "' to .... Cuba ID "IV'"' ID 1be Uniled swes. bat l'llber, a lmder ma Lalin American peopla. a equally 1110D1. ecmomic:ally produdiYe., and -..cilUy" vibnnl a lbe Nol1b. The tavnt lepraeall one of lbe darat clefmiliona of lbe pcnpeaive of ---imperialist nMnaaliaca IRcr die war Sipifandy. however, die biU wllida Praidalr EIUD Pllma nen...Uy liped ialD law OD July 11. 1906, did D0t mlb lmGlim d .W admiom-a cmu--nce owed mlinly fD die efl'ana d Arro-Cullln coaarm-amlimed wilb lbe MaderMe Piny. Sena ia lbe Houle and Mania ia die Scmlie WOlbd ci:llC!i ly ID impede p I p of dae law widl luc:b pnwilica. NcJMdlcl .-n of Ille bill nled -aplic:t deC'lDieioa d wbich ll'OUfl die law ....... ,, ror --lpllCifac D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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29.S clef"milioll of wbidl poup1 it btclwlld or die one alillicwt doUan lbe law .-olillble ror lbe payment of immi...-' p to cum. smo,ooo were to ID to immi..-pnpondennce of '"Acyan .. feallnl in Cuba.. popd11ian, the law lppOltiaaed Ill rwwinia radr for the exdlllie recnilmClll of immipant ..... from Sweden. Norway, Dmnwtt ud DOl1bem lllly. lJI >J arty July 12, the day .rter die Praicleat liped lbe bill iMO law. die office ol lbe Sec:remy ol Apicullure, ladllllry md Canmerce WM enppl in llTIDlinl for the speedy importalion of such immipanas tbroup apnll in SfOckholm, Sweden. >J ol Agric:ulmre FruicilCO Y. de Vilddlola expllined in .-... conap..-.dcnce, lbe oaa aaee undentood we11 c1ae arat demand rcr Scandimrian immi..-(especillly Sweda and NCJrNeaiw) in Ill die counuiel die wodd. m 10 would be williq to bend lbe rules in order ID ecmmmodete tbcm: such immipmm could be ldmiued ID Cuba upon mcclina oo Olber condition lbM dlll of baviq previous expcricncc in qriculaure. 111 'lbUI, a new Cuba would emerge. ne immipMion poject .. a.caved ... undentood by imperialist Ulionmlilll Ml die ultiJmle expeuiou of lbeir OWD Yilim of ..rioa. Ramlly adUliolllly IDd pediclled cm lbe ideolCJlial -pmity" of objective ltic1 :e, immipUcm w meal ID be die duDc. ID Cuba'I mloejel., of r.a.I civiliml., labor iecpwlity, md ITl D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 rv

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Cl I ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < 580 -< .,.., -V'I 3 8 :z Vi :z t Ii I 1 I 1 1 I I ; I f I I i It-f I f I } I I 1 t I' i' f J .... t & l f. I : I a. a. .. r a. I f I J '". l l i f t l f l f l f II. I I f i f i I I J. I .. I f t I i J J i I l f i I IS I I g. l I I 1 Q. I f. 1 I 1 1 s a i I I 1 f ( p t f. a. t I i r r if s I t I I i t I ; i I [ I I I J 1 ( 1 i 1 I; lf I J. 1 "J. !. I '<: 6.11wrl!.t11-1 r' s I I's c I I l f f I i I s j o _. a f f J'Sl: I'. I I i 1 I 1: i a-1 i 1 1 t a '< I t J f J f I 1 -I if = 8 .I ;-

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298 Al di1a1111 II in lbe 11a1 c:hlpler, lbe re11n ro Cuba ol U.S. occllpYiq fon:a ii bat aplained by lbe 1eplalivc and Uboricaria iapme lbll imperialitt Mficwalilll pYC ID .atenadvc mtioaalilll' cblllapa. Tllil reapome may have effeclivdy rendered ineYillblc a brold-bued movcmmt ol oppOlitioa. But lbe revolutionary c:audillOI who M>Uld lad lbe mowanent lpimt die.._ in 1906 .nilled only in lbe l.aer IDOlldll ol F.l1llda Palma' tenure wbal Cuba 1 P'"1"'1' daaa llld raliDd in 1902. Al El PrtlMio IWed in ID ldide coamemoralin1 the fine Ulllivemry ol Havw ' failed Oenenl Sailm, "Let us abed a rear for 1111 dlOlc dad ones ol 1be 24lb ol November ol 1902. For lbe dad on lbe llnldl, for lbe dllld drama [buried] in die cbelcl ol lhe 1U1Yivon Md for lbe dead monle ol tbe -. ol Cubml politics, bealme Ibey lbemlldva, widl lbeir Idiom, have carved a leplldue in lbe opinion cl Ibale disinherited ol thil poor eanh. ""' Y ct, for every failure of lbe Ellrada Palma lldmiaianlion ro live up ID lbe plOlllila ol lbe Revollllioa or to recopi1.C tbe lqitimllcy ol daunds flOID below, there Md been molutiomly and popul1r nalioaali leaden willin1 ro 1tep forward ro remember die .-i in r...-IO tbe praenL In die ... yan ol lbe Finl Republic:. eadier momenll ol RI re..aipment llDOlll form. revolutimmia, YelaW IDd die popdv dwa provided lbe impctm for dac group1 to coaceive llld IO implcmcnc a diffaat. mol-..Y couae for lbe CW....._ Tbey boped dlll lbe new mte to which IUCla efforts pYe me would bria1 diem dOlel' ID dieviag lbeir arm lltemalive iclall ol Dllioa. The OmciCUIMwl RCYoludon ol 1906 aeprclCDled die fllll ill a lelia of moluac..y Md populu' ticwli' efl'ortl fOMld lhll end. D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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illft1 1J i i i i Ii ;; i tr!ll.I'-i !iii '1f.i i 1'1 J ff II j J ti J l} I Ji-J f & i 111, . ( 11 .'" i _;. ilhh,. a!h f I., 11111 i t i li !1 I 11 !!fiiii 'IJ !1 o 111lf f J 1 1-1!r1 1(. 11 i 1 0 Ji I 1 t I 2 J I r !!> IL 1 r J l .. t : P i le if 1 t!!jf 1 1(1 f i I i i I Ii I l]i1ll I c: ,..,. i ,.. r .-, I i1 I .. '1' I' JI r Q f I f i j !f : i J 1 ;. i l r i 11 ;; --1 1()' -< If pl JJI ifill! IJ ,e,u I ,. ,.. '1111ttl z! I 1z r t:-1 cs !!> I l 1 t -I s 1 IJ .. r r

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z i !I' !i ;Ji :1i l!Ji l if i !1t!j f J i[ i ... if-111.f .. l i il',.i J-r a Ii I l . ii 1'4 "I f "' 11 I I 11 !Oti I !" & I! I I Ji ,f .. f fJJftJ 1111 .J !J Jj .. i J 1 f .. I i -. J 111 f r r II 1 I i; la 1i iJjtl !i I II f !111lt.iltJ11 f l1r'1I I tPl' r( '" rr 1t .,.,., 1 I .. rt J . i a. . }I i It-a ... 1111 I :.. I r &a_ ii'! I ;.f ' 1 I ti IJJ-,-!! H !. ,,. w 0

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,,,.. ,_. I -Once ...... .,.,, Once .... """"'' And now iJlf'urillled, INocber apimt brodler? Tbal l .... ry lepcy wbic:b IO America WU broqbl Dicworabip above, rebellion below[ .. ] Unlil w11en. JUICicc? Until when. Uberty, shall die Lalin doYe Ry bleedina? II -UDlil Sam, lbe Oianl. who ii a stillful buala' In one sbol. Ilka ill life llld ill boaor. -Manuel s. Pichardo. 19061 Looldlaf badwa7d, NlfWlffberiltl dw flllrtn On February 24, 1905, dlizem of &be Cuban Republic celcbnred die fenlb 311 umivermy ol the Orito de Baile widl die loq-awaited unveiliq ol a new mamle 1lldlle of J* Mm1' in Hav't Calllal Part. M one of Iii lul public ac11 before meecing a aannl dc8lb dne mondll ._,., Ocnml Mmmo Odmez praided ewer die evCDl-dapile die flCl lblt doiq IO required lliln ID mad lboalderIO-lboulder wilb Praidcnt Toma Eau.ta PlllalL Always aaewlat rduelallt ill bit auppon ror F.lnda Pllma. Oeaeral 06ma Md '*ly puwn biaer.,... lbe Pmtdeaf BreatiDI widt lhe 11MCe ot pnrw lilence dull M llld .tipeed It die OUlletoldle Republic, O(nez DOW palllidy mdmiaed Im pro(ouad diJiJlwnmcac wida lbe IOCially f1RplOl IDd polilimlty ....-ve U1Ure ol El1nlda Pllma ' rule. y .. m die ... mmiYamy ol lbe lmwhj .. oldie Ul9S Mr, .. maaory ol Mmnf' illli-calla ror IOCial unity midll ideolQlical clirilim camlliaecl widl inepr r rible D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 i i f l : I t t i l l I I J f I I I I I t I I ( l I I I I f I J I i i g I & I ( f I : I f 1 i s I 1 I f I I l 1 a. i a 1 i a. i ? r if I l I a. = f I i I i I i I l i i I I i i i liiJt!l.if11 ilfa.i: JI 8 (I SI 1 ( 1r t ( 8 l} l i i [ iJ. r r a. I: f '< l ii r '< r n I I f ti a r a. I ia. a. ., r ia. ... --1 I I i l a. r I n ? I I It I 1 i a I I l 8 f l i l f II' I I :. t I II [ i 1' l i i ; I I I i i i i. I I I I :z al a.I J B I! 1 .F 1 r-(j l I r ;_ ;_ I: i la. I' l i l: ;_ f

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313 sa.dina Wen die w w of Mani ia Havw ' Cennl Plrt CNec ninety )all lall:r. I could ICJl llclft but wonder wlledler lbe apirit ot Mani, in Brina f.llnlda Palma '1 lbll lb'ID)' day in 190!, luld recoiled qrily at ill impliallioal Tllen apia. I IDld mylldf, M8rtl Md probMly j lllliled biaaty IO bimlelf Tllintiq blct Oii limim cxborlllioal Illa& be md MUimo OdalCZ bid llllde ID Spaniards in lbe 1895 MmifelfO of Moalec:rilli, I iluained MmU repeaina bit ilwir.Mioa ID SpMilh raidenll dial Ibey l'CIDliJa on lbe illaDd afler lbe Wll'. After Ill, Pllma Md Uled Manl'I words ID jlltify a policy dial llllOaDled ID lbe cultural wt ecmomic -silllllizalion ol Cubw by Spuilb immipucs. ladeed, MmU probably rqrded even more dml he lmd oac:c clecland Spmiank ID be moaa Cuba '1 parat Illies in lbe builidna ol an cqlipecned and culnnd IOCicty. Tbe more I dloqbl about it, die men it appared dial lbe lpirit ol MMU mUll bave felt pup lppOillled NOOr:ID ill lbe RevolUlioa. He must have felt quite piJly. I dlcM'lk for baviq mde bi me fcqiYiq ol lbe Revolulioa 'I roes in lbe W ol 1895 dial lbe w At die hie lbll I fllll pondered lbele 111111111 befcn a reticmt. ltmy-faced Man!, I WU lpllldiq lbe )'ml' iD Oabl. NeYer very f from Cemnl Plrt. ( liYed ill lbe Qn-d'-daecealUl)' Deiabborbood bown a -cmao HlbmL .. Ola Ille raidelllial meam c:boicc for s.. ... lllCl Caapeamea ol Ille Fiat Republic. iCI bmlctinp now l8IFI wida lbe burden of biaay llld lbe weilblol., mmy ........ dilillMiamMat. Twice a day, m my way ID D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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314 ..S from CD's N..n.I An:biq, I waJbd by DOloaly Mlnf'l W but lbe hew of ldl lirdl. Tiie apaicnce rddndled to lbe spirit wortd. llld samewbll rel-=-1)', lllllde me a belieer in lbe spirit of MuU. '11111 ii, lib mny C-.. Md clone bef'cn me and pombly, IDIDY still do today, I bepa to comider' how Mmtl would have laclCd ID evem ol tbe day md linaticm of die s-c. Coamalty, I wondaed whedler be woald have lived 11p to bil own myth a a compn:amr, radical lllliollllilt ad pJlilical taYior bid be in fllCI, liwtL EYay day. it cmed I bid a different wwer to dlil qualion. a billCxian who lllld al..ty lpeal )all pouriaa cw Mlnl'I wrilinp. I knew IUl MlrU'I m r IF c:oulcl be and w wa to be illfelpeled in mC:.C cmn aae way. For me. MlrU bid lbowa bil brillimce ia life lbroup bis ability to convince Cubw of oppnR11 ialaa11 dlll Ibey could fmd lbeir "lnle" .iva md wt their CDUDlr)' '1 bil&orical redemplion fnm a cololli.a. llave-boldiaa .-in die Qlm of ildefleadesc But in llUdyina tbc arty Repulllic. I abo becMIC equally coavinced lbM once Miid w dad. die lepcy of bis polilic:al brilliuce bid milcenly md almolt exdUlively, been lllribuled ID bil wonll mlber ..... bil lllCtiom Stripped of *ir biatorical ccm1e11,, mlde to BK1Ye dlrouP lime with lbe pwina of acb billOrical era by myopie palilic:iw. codirlled Wied ..t pRlflbnic llXll by ideolasw wllo demMdecl COllCormily in ncimp for IOCi.a dmlF-Mlnl'I MJldll no kmpr heblpd to Miid or even to lbe period of billDly in wbicb be lived. 09er lime, lbroup lelec:tive retrieYal md dilCmiYe maip"*-by dae in poMll' md dae seetiaa pDMr, die vi._.,........ of Iii m r of libendima W m&-xplaed U.O i Miid' C8ll ror m.a mily 1111 '""'MAina for die llb of 111 lald llawly ....rormc1samwhjna. IMilcmmdlllw---..yldn"_.aclemwlfor D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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f I I I f I i I I J J J s I i 1 I J"lffl<' Cl r t .. I 1 J I r. r r I I a. l (I. ; I' l ce ftlJlfi1:!s iii 11f a. -i 8 N i s l i I c C" l r l a. s i i n f '< I I I I j I I I r r I I r 0 1 f In ,,, l 'II, s, I I II, 0 1 f t II, 1 .. n -m I II, f; 00 .J. ii l f l ;: ; 1 l i ji-! I J i ,_ l I I II, I i t i i I f l l 1 I . o: I s s f f 8 a l &' 8 c: i r I z < t '< rn i t l :;;r;:;IQ 11:11 lt :Ir ........ .., --11() -< 0:::::1 I ( r a. l 1 i .,., ::::-J11l!f.s rlllla -0 l f c: ........ 3 8 s ( J i r 1 I f t f l f I I I J :z V'I :z i I I J I t s II, r r. Ii 1 ii f w 0\

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-N C" '< 0 I rv IC: z < ........ .., --11() -< :::I 0 DI .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 1l:i '1s a. a.1:;" I r ,; r l i I'< 1 -r r I r i s l 1 1 f r J I I I I j I f i : l I f i I I i I I I J I I 1 t 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r r. I Ir l -I I f I i I 'S I i I::: R i l J s. i l. .. -'It E; I I I Jl I { I! 1. I ! I J f I I I I : l '1 i t l ., l ( i I I I j ( i I I 1 1 J I t r r e- r 1 1 r s ; 1 I s f 11 s "' f i I i 8 f J I f I I J t I I l I l 1 r I a I I ,1 l l 1 t I .e it I Q. IS 8 f ;; f l J f . l 8 ...: I g l (I :11! j. a_ p r l i s

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 l f g f I I i r I i s I I r a 1 I l 1 1 1 1 r f r 1 I i f J 8 ,, 1 6' 1 ; i I I t" I l I l f I f I. I f I: I s I 1'< .. 1, 1 r 1 0 R l 1 8 i f i r l I r f I f(i i],,. t t 1 J: [ l '8-. i t. i !.f a.j' 111. P, l1 .t11r r g I : I I ; f l t a I 1. I i f 8!: . Ill I. f I!. g-., I i . f I. f I i I l I I ; i I I 11 .5,,, It 11 .. t1 I I Q I 1 < I !! ;p 1 .i = t g I io 5" I f I I f J 1 k I : J-1 : If I I f : .. I I s R. ,.. f l R t . .. t f z J : r f : I i i l r I P, I J r s s [ i. r 1 a .. I

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321 Ptwia1 dte Road ID Rnoblllaa: MobUlt.illl Oppolldolt ad IM PoUlla of Stale >.. we diacovcred in lbe preYioul cbapfer, once estradilla-impcrillilt llllionllilU IOOk cmcml oldie 11a1e in 1902. lbey pnneded ro c:onflare lbe .we '1 needs. policia and ideolcJsical eence wilb their ilup ol nalion. dilcunively idelllifyin1 .. eaemia" IO bc:Gl llCCORliq to depal ol suilabilil)' or mnenability to its pl. lncraainaly OYer die lemft d &Ullda Palma' mdmiDillralioD. lbe awe defined die ...aim in tams ol the promolion IDd Im. plOICCtioa ol .. civiliarion." a ca1c1HU concept implyiaa die white l'Kial 11lndanll. IDd level ol edlalian dial andillM aw in lbemlelvca IDd pwlually canfmed to a limited CRJIHeCCion ol CUbm IOCiety beyond lbamelvca. Pertlapl, Eanda Palma llaled bis pmidoa mosl clarty when he llid in 1905. .,n Cuba we have a Republic but no citizens. "1 Indeed. &ien dU view. it i1 eay IO tee wily Ethda Palma wu 10 mnesdy convinced d die need ro re-pnpd Cuba widl Splnilll immipan IDd lbcreby. improve future IOciety by it ol its lllOlt politically mebdioul IDd thelefore, IOCially undairable elemCDll. In lbe end, die It.ale 'I repeuim ol polallial CODltillleDll it pen:eived -Cnemiel" KCllllly emunpd lbw eaemia" ID def me cbamelv ia M:b terms: baYiaajUllifled ill "*-the blllil ol a..._ to die w .S lberdcn. ""die mlion 'I" aillence, Cllndilla imperilllilt DMimllilll r.a lilDllim by 1906 in wbidl bolb lbeir ... ..t lbeir Yiliaa of mlioa Ml'e --Yialenl 9111dt ad ill ..... of depr .......... die D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce ..... N C" '< 0 f i I I I f 1 i I J I l f f l t I f i l c: ifs. i' 1.' I 11. 'if f 1 I -r 1 1 a I I I 1 r .t I ;_ I l [ s ( '8. s f II, J 1 I l ft i t i f I l 1 ., I i f 1[ 1 !:.-II 1 Is fr I. l [I I' If. II, i I l i i i i I I f I f ; li f f i 1 I I; 1 i t if r g 1 1 II, r 1. I ; I I j l I i I I f I 0 D.1 .,., -l Ir f i t I i I ,-1 ; I I-I r I i r a t f t c: j l '< i I I. ;' s D l I-I : I. g' f '< I: I a. f l l A. z .. fr l . ".I r'< l I 1: I 1 !; i t i: 8 11, s

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I Cl ce -N C" '< 0 fV c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z I ( f I I I i I I i ! I I I f I a f !: Ii I i I i f f r I ( 1 f 1 : 1 I 8 r t f 1 j ; J z ; 1 I t t JI i I I I 't i 18 ; i r J l J I I I I i i J 1 t 1 1 l I I r 1. a. l I s: I I D. II I i s ii ] . J I I I r r .. J-f 1: f f l i : I j I I I i i'. J t J I I I I } l i I. ( 1 r 1 i ; 1 i 1 ; J 1 f 1 a j .s-I B ( l

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Cl ce ..... N C" '< 0 c: 1 1 ( 1 1 1 l I I r f t 1 r a 1 J f 1 1 r -:_ r I s ;-I ( f I t f I I J t j r i i i. t ii' I it r ; I > i { l t f [ ; I : r I I a t 1 If I Ir i I I i J : J i i 11 J i I -l J r, 1 it I f 11 1 a: r ... i Q I f ! ! l I i J I i i l I I I t i > I I f 1 I i I w 111 11 l ( 1. 1'8 V'I. -3 l I f l I 1;; ; '<. l l I I I 8 r !: .. r a I '<. = z -< f =i-i t I -I f l J l l f J i 1" 1 I B r 1 f Js 11 ... 8 I: ..

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I rv IC: z < ........ .., --11() -< :::I 0 DI .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z i i I I I I I I I I i I l I I [ I I I I l I r f I I I I I I a t 11 J It I I .. f S = . 1 r::; r. r Sil l .a I s ( a f I Q I .. I .-( 1 I I l 1 i i i i f a i t I I l I a I f a t I t .11 r}1!:1t!.I I i ; I t l I I t I I l 1 ,. l I { f. I l I I I t t a_ 8 f I: II I 3 'l a_ D I I i t. J 1 [ s ] 1 I s r II Ii II. t Ii' I r t JI' f (. J I f I 1 I 8 I! I t l 8' il l I r t i l t I f i a l 1 I l ( I r 1 t 1 J: l I ...

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326 IW"famc.. Dflz Ud been die bmh editor of La & Modmlll. a mapziae which f11q1ally f......S COft'llDadlriel criciall of u.s. policy rqaniJta public ICboclb. 11 More receady, Dfaz 111111 raiped m pmt .. &trD Nm&' Oeaen1 SUpaiDleDdeBl o1 Public Scboala in i. 1902. a public promt of die w '1 mepreaicm of wolbn in Novanbcr' Ocaenl Slrib, D In lbod. &tmnz mt Dfaz bocb cJwnponed the cmm of civil ripll reprdlea ol elbnicity or polilic:al w i:mcm ad did., in politically bade cmdiciom. From die paipeetiwe of popll-dw COllllibmll. their affilialian ID die Liberal Piny emunild ill c:mmilmeDI IO IOcial dwap. EYideace of dU C11DC only web before die Fcbnlly elecliaG of 1904. Eltac7Z and Dfaz teamed up widl ICYenl odlerl ID print a manif ato CKIOlliq lbe vinuel of four Libenll-aflilillled madidafa. two of wbom were white and two ol wbom were Afro-Cubu. Of lbele fa., one was an exlnmely pmninent AulODamill of die rdnniat era. wllile lbe odler dne were .U vw, (two pnerall and one civilian). CW.. lbe manifesto rad. .. cannot conaaue oa die palb cbolen [Our) qriculture rcquins die pRWlioD wbicb die SW ii oblipled IO aiYe it(.-]. The Wortiag dwl lbould .:Jl be llway1 etaully aploi&ed. nor 1ball cnmmen:e wl iDdullry live llappcd in a confined circle [ ... ]." .. But jun die Piny CODIOIMteted i pOlilioll a IOCially pqreuivc. apecilDy lbnJuill 1be eff'ons of lower-leYel IClirilll. die .._.. ... Repulllicul were abiftin1 lbeir pmilim Cider ID die rialll. ID die apriJll of 1904, Replblicaa Ciiis for a revilioa of die COlllliMi
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328 Radii, ewaa lbe dealb ol at lwt one IDCIDber. It w not die fint tUne. nor lbe lut. dmla pnmimmt Ubenl w wwimled publidy." Uber* in m 1Ulcted JoK Mipel Gdmez in the prea, ICCUlia1 him al lrWbely ia lbe Ten Yan' War and ol collusim wilb AllhDDim in die Wac of 1895. They dicl not. wbeChcr out ol far or lllatcsic thinking. 1-=t violeady. Nltioawide. die raulll ol Republican macbinaliom wae obvious: evca Orienle whole Ubcnl tickel fcallnd IUCb 11U1 11 Jua Oulbato Odmez IDd Fidel Pima. lhe former PRC........,, were dcdared to have been "defeated" by Republican-affiliared c.didlln In resp:me, lbe orinlal Libcrall ta lbe pr0Yinc1.! scnatiny board to coun in Orieale ' Cllpital city of Saotiaao. Havina proved dial Republicw bid ensed lhe wilmiq number ol Ubenl v<*I f ram lbe record, Sanliqo ' aupemc court found lbe .:rutiny bmnl pilty 11 cbarpd. But imedibly, delpite die fact lbal lhe cmvidat Republican qenll were all lellt ID jail for lbeir Idiom, Repulllicalll ia Havm impeded any c:blDp in the provillCial elec:lion ' raulta: illfad of eendina die lim of Piena and 06mez to Coopea, Oricnce ' Y<*ll were f on:ed ro send andilla loymlilll .._ polilicm view1 were far more diff ecult ID pia down. nae included --.time &nda Pllma auppona and fanner pope"v nalioaalilt baYe ipared die s.ntiaan court' Rlliq cmne 11 no M'priae: to have done Oricafe ' vocen jllllice. Repabliam would lave W to nwene die reaalta ol limilmty CCllllnled eleclions in Giiiy plUriace iD wllida 1be Ubealls wm lmldily n1 HaYa1. a rau1t dial Republicaa 1a.u.o1 ... 31-ialbea-ofltepi 1ralMiYMd46 D g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce ..... N C" '< 0 J I I 1 I f I i I I I I i J I J I I I I Ii' f l JI I I t Q. l i 1 J 1 r i 1 1 i 1 I i 1 1 ; I-& II a: &. r ( i l I. l I I!. I i I I c Ji --'1il .... I ( f r s j ,. u I ft. 1 i I I i t I l t l i I i j. = a I: r l Q. !!. J .. I JI fl j 1 !. '< I I !. &' I 1 --c .. :!ltf-. z i l J 1 r I 1 i l lo ,. I i r I I Q. J . t I : I ':c .; Q. i ,. I' l ( w f r J I r c. s. i r t z I J J ; 1' s IS ft t r t I i t c: J .. a j Q. I t i I i r ... I I f l 1 lf 'ift,111 rsl. r t s Q. r t

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I I I l t 1 I f I I f I I t f I I 1 I i I 1 > I IC l: l I J J a. r a .. a. a. i I I sf f r f I 1 .. I r : !. I ,. I 1. I I I J I I I & I t I f I 1 1 I I i i I: i f f I 1 r .. I f I ] I l f f e a t g a I 8 l I l f I i i a I I I I 1 J ( i i f I i l 1 I I I l i ; I I i i I I I t f I r t J I r J I I I ( a l .. i ] r t 1 t I l I I 1 l --i I r Ct It i. ( I R_ -<'e
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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 11 J a 1 f. . 'I r I 2 a_ t I a. a a I I r -1 1 . a = i f I I I I 1 ll I f J I I I I I l I I 1 I ; l I f r j i I 1 I t 1 f l I f 1 f if Ii' s ( r .fr t If JI I J I l J { I f 1 I J irl i ll I l if If l 1111 I t I r f 1r .i !-e r J i '<. a s a. I t i I { I i l I l I I f i I r-f } l 1 1 l ( Ii ( r '' sa. 8 8 11' c: .. sa. f I II I r J 1 r t f a ; I I fi' l l '< I E: 9t l. ! I a. < s I I f I : I i I l I i I f I K f J 11lfjll,il._l11 I f t g s I < I i I i 1 If t Ir : .. . l 1 I{ .f '< .. t 11 s r I

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332 popular cbqel ol w peed ud pmidealill av.nee. aaempliq ro prove wbedler or not die "CQPrjcw were u.doulltedly, popdlr pertepGODI of & milel'ly llale developed a sault ol lbe lllOCioul condilion in wbicb lbe majority ol participull in lbe wider Cublll ocmomy, imide and mllide lbe Rpl' leCUX', found tbemw:tva. Tbo IDOlt obvious problems bad ID do widl the ICa&e '1 courting ol foreign c:apical for lbe developmeal of inf l'llUUcbft lllCI me modenmlion o1 indualry-principal 11ep1 toWIJd lbe cnllion of an imperialist Dalicmlill Dllioa. Unfetlend u it wu by stare policies to protect vulnerable native c:apilllilll or foment campetition. foreign capical not only suppllDled local bUlinemen. it toot ewer and lllalfonned the llndlcape This often b'amformed IUbliltmcHwd peann11 inro i111poveri1bed dcpcadenll. One resident planter. co-owner d lbe mpr mill 'Oeraldo .complained of lbe role a U.S. lad campany played in impediaa Iii ability to rebuild die mill (delaoyed during the 189S W). and thereby rest.ore it lo full operaliq QPKity. Sayin1 that a local forte ol lbe Rural Guard was regularly clilpalcbed ro the area at lbe bebCll ol lbe Bibi& Hcnda Ltnd Company, Vic:ellte Cqipl claimed lbal bis mill could caaadled by die-. Armed mea in pmbllble collllion wida lbe Rural Omd (af not meaabell dal-'"'> fnqueady coamt lbe .,...,_. "1 lemllll inlo lumdi ater livatoc:t. tne BllMa Hmda Lmd eoa..-yJ ia:anecdy dedi?4e illdf ro lbe buyiaa ml 1tOiJ1a ollllldt, [lllmby] llltriq kal pmce ia collaaicm willl a Cubma D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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333 peupat)' lidel for baYiq kJlt lbe p1p1=n of &heir rapec:ciYe f 1111ilia in die bunliq ol .... Honda ia 1895 ..S lrii illllnlClian. well money, many aeigbbariq raicleaU -victiml ol lbe Compmy .. ol cu... which dcmlnds new c:apil.t paymmll (oa lmd alrady purdmed) ad lm1B oa lmdl dial ma CiJllC immannn.l Ibey baYe occupied. 0ae Rqle lawyer iD Havana Im al bis oommand lbe prmeculion ol 17 ll.WIUila, filed pi lbele immiserared ones, all popoiiid by die Bahia Honda Land Co. Sipiracandy, lbe planter noted daM DOC all famp c:ompania Uled IUcb llldica, a flCl for wbicb 1be local populalion w pald'ul. But without my cbmp in die be held little hope ol a brisJller future for bimelf, bi lemnll or bis worbrs.11 Appueady, knowledae d lbe tab-ewer d land ia cua. by u.s. capital wat IO widapreld tbal one U.S. citiz.ea from Da Moina, Iowa, toot it upon hjmlCJf to Wllll &nda Palma ol lbe dunp bil policies could caw lbe Republic ia lbe loq-na Sugacina lbal u ec:aaomy bued oa .....U fanm bid (uaril just recendy) secured palm' poli1ical dallocracy for lbe majority ol cieilml iD lbe Uaired s.ea. Brown wmee, .,, would be mucll beefer if lbe lmds ol CUba were owned by lbe people ia ....U fanm adler' lbln by foreip c:apitalim ia llrp plaalllicm. [ ... ) Lana live die Republic!" Still. wllencer &hda Pllma bard limilar mdvice fmm fellow citiam or foreip oblavcn, be dae to ipore iL Sudl plw did DOt lllllb widl lbe libml eccD mic IDlmoplly underpimliq imperillill ..... i Tllil pllilmopby IMiDMiMd dial lbe ...... ol IOCicty-wicle paperity would aw dlroup Clpil.t lllCQmulllicm, lhe aicbmeDl ol m elite dw and a D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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334 111111 dm ....-open mllbtl, not pro11e1in llriff bmrim. Criticl ol lbe policy went f ID dub it ID aWion of .,..,-at Datiny .... May C-.. DDl direcdy affedled by 1be W' policiel Wied dae powiq Ii .. ol U.S. influence OD lbeir culture a well cmliauiq Sfmlilh colonial impec'i!Mldl ID lbeir COUllll)'' pn..-:u rar ct-p. For Kfiely encaurqiq dU by not cnMemning ill lepcia or lillliliq new prolif---. Ibey hllmed Che ODD llate, not imperia1ima illdf. Far example, f.zequiel Oln:{a. a long-time crilic ol El1nda Palm. U.S. OllW MR leaYing oa Che liahll ud IOUlldl ol HaYw 'daily life. Obmving d'8l mmy ol tbe city' 111.:ct names continllCCI ro cammeman1e famous Spaniards (same d whom Md Klively rcpit IHd ...,.ast rebels), Oarda Uo ued Che acblDp d local Yaw:ular for atocillDI IUCll a "!kkdl," prmounced .. Iida." While the Cuban Senale buildiq and pcnunat plaza were still deanred widl symbols d die Spaaisb mourcby IUdl lions, lbopl lib .. llt Marquaita" Md 1'be Nalioml Bank d Cuba," were lllffed enmty by Americw. Bodl beaayed lbe notion d indcpaidence For Oan:fa. CUba was 1rapped in a llillDrical limbo (rom wbicb die lllle male no effort ID f me iL Even Cuba '1 Mlical pMMp (praumably not redeliped li8ce die..,.._ dlbe U.S military) did not c:my die faie ol Sold MllU or ADIDDio Mamo, be Dalal. but i...a, dial d 1'homll Jeff'-. Fwdm, Giida crileized die 11*11 la:t ol fmailb& mpntiq Che IOCial illlplCt d ill ecmrnic policia He finilbecl die lllidc wi .. die dllloric:ll qw1iml, .,. .. wbal do ludl delmll ....aa? Do Ibey impede a rile ia die price ol npr or 1llll one lbould al and live?"" a.ty, for bim ad odlerCU-.. die 11a1e'1 ecmmic prioliliel trmmllled ialD acullUllll ml IOCial c:rilil 11111 w pdiliClll in orip D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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335 One o( die leCIOrl o( society for wbicll Ibis liCUltion WM tM moll obriOUI WU dlll d public imlnlc8oa. For die larp number ol wan wllo would IMer Jmlicipare in die CCJmliftdioml l.CYCJlalion o( 19()6,D the cleCldence o( die W WU bat dmnoalaaled iJI tbe penlicioua dTec:cs lblt ill eco11omic policiel were llavma on lbe IDOlt vulnmblc llld crilical much ol bis pemmcat' commilmml 1o educalioa. promina 1o build caoup daurooms to educlle all Cut.a chilclren in bis fint mcaap lo CCJDIRll iD 190'2.,. Only a few monlbs laler, lbe praidmt ol Ha-'1 ldYimry baud for educalion piopoeed a budget ol one million pelOI for Ille conmactioa of ICbooll lo meet Ille wd:s ol lbe couauy ' Clpilal alone Bue 10 dais, die adminiSlnlion miked. c:hargi111 lhat the majority ol Cubans would be .. ......,lized" by such a lbought. In fllCt. la money wu spent by lbe Ellrlda Palma eclmini1naioa tban bad beaa under Ille U.S. IMerVanioa on supplies, buildin1 repair and tacben for public ICbooll. However, ....utie1 on die number of fal:llen employed in September, lbe 11an ol every ldlool year, from 1900-07 show dial lbe supply ol feldler1 from lbe time ol lbe fiat to lbe leccmd U.S iDlllYenlioa was rdalivcly able. (See Table 1) Even die number ol nae radlal OUdlled, tw:bea'I d CXJlor mlde continual, if minor advlllCel, increMin1 lbeir tlJlll from only 118 aatioawide to more 1b8ll twice dial number by 1907. Moreover, with tbe mmber ol famle lelCben ol color men dma daubl.ina between 1900 llld 1907. Rmu:1111 for dlil rile ramin undes. HowcYer, it 1ee1111 lbM Alail Evena Feye ' etrons to opm up d die 11:11oo1.,._ a lelililaale spmice forwoma to wort indepeadeady aad bonolably omliaued ID bear fnil. Delpite die bud..., lialill llld odler pm:liall D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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336 CIDllllninCI die pro(ellion flCCd in tbae )all, women jCJiMd die pm(eaion in ever paler llUIDben, pcmibly aupw:nriq lbeir potitic:iDDoa a P'IP Given die powing pp lbat fanned belweell Die prioritia and die public edllC8lion symm in lhclc yell'I. ID iDclwing leW of llllflimlity UDOD& women 1mC11a1 vii a vii lllliODll polisal elites may have idrecdy efl'ecled a nldicaliDliol\ of lbeir teecbjq atyle IDd influenced die emergence of bipay critical aliuuclel in lldvwiq aeaenDODI of llUdellll TeHe4.l YEAR Whites 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 190S 1,389 l,3S3 1,477 1,402 3,41S 3,179 3,502 3,324 Grand Tocal 3.613 3.533 3.300 3,661 3.486 1906 l,171 2,167 3,338 3.546 1907 1.194 83 3Sr/ 3,839 Noec: Sepe mtc1 wkcd tlac lllft of IM,,...... Qlcmlcr; Ill ...a.11 w for ScplClllbcrol yar. u l111ln:d411 PrilrNril : Rntn fl'btcatll pflbUad4por14 SrdlllflJ d6111Sf1'11Cd6 Pllbllca. Alo 1: No. 10 (De cc lbcr 15. 1902). u 11111n1cd611 Prilltlrii.. Alo 111: No. 10 (December ao. 1904), 279 L4 ..... wdifH ,.,.._._,Alo DI: No. II 10. 1905).341 C.. Ptia:wL, Alo V ; No. 17 & II (Afll 10 & 25.1907).GO. U l\:hYN_ Alo VD: No. 9 A 10 O)IC lt If 10& U, 19111). 426 Duriq dte w period. die fOllll number of dWdlaa public .... da:limed lldically, clroppiq by cw twelll)' tboullad dlildn:a between 1904 ad 1SJOC5 .._ Siwcnlmial times. IBllric:al.riJI c:bildren ill ldKxJl blld wt lbll lbeirfmliliel coald DO D1g1tized by ooge Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I 1111 ii Ii .fi(f I} a_ i ( 8 I!. l l 8 1 r l-1 a w a. J 2. a a s t r 1 a Ii a'< I! f 1"' ID f il 1:; II t I!: Ii". 1tlf il11 fil ii:.1r(ll If 1 t r a t i I I i i i I I f i J I 8 t t 8 l r i i s a 1 l r l c: I s 1 I l. .!: H. II 1 -I g 1: A ( s. I f .; I t f 1 1 l J' r I J l I i. 11 s . I r. A I I i 0 DI .,., -I 1 i I i P 1 i l i t a i i w s 83 I I J ( l 1 1 a I m ., s. 9 ti Ii f. n.1 ;-1 11 i I l I r I I !: 1 I 8 B. f r : l I 1 I B. [. '"" f { l 9 i i i a i 8 J .r I r a J i If ii 1 i t i ; !;!

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WOlllm Ibey mcut to appoint iD die faeber'I pla:e WU Uo lllll'ricd. Anmiftlly, Ibey IDlYed the problem by amendina lbe lq\Ulioa Ibey bid jult pwed 10 for lbe lliriDa of married fCIDlle IW'bm, bUl cay on die coadilioa lbal dley be rcproduclively -.rile"! Undercandably, lbe writer mincrd DO WOids iD cxprelling ouuaae. 338 Widl time, die litualioa of conuplioa and pall'Olllp in lbe public IChool lystem oaly wonencd. In general, CUbal bepn to perceive lbe Deputmenc of Public IDIUUClion as a giant polilical machine, crealcd for die purpoee of dispensing raven, not improving IOCiety. Cubanl called sucb favors "bolella.r," litcnlly, boala. LOOK UP LOCKMILLER At a lime when brcut-feedia1 wa lbe only meu1 for nourilbina an iaflftt for lbe majority of Cubm women. die tam implied -politic:al "ballia" did beaer for lhamelva by findiq ICIDeOae with ICCICll IO "balded milk.... By 1904, polirical corruplion in die ICbool boudl bid ... IO bid CUI wont of it reached lbe .. of Alexi Everett Frye. primary founder of Cuba '1 modem public ICbool system under U.S. military rule. In Janwy of CUI )'al', Frye Wl"Ole a defailed, open leclcr to Juan R. Xiqua. a mdical Ubaal lben in cbarp of die Commillion oa Public IDlllUCcioa in die la. of Repraentalives. Hoping to inspire Conp:amen wlae .tmiralioa for die United SW pl""""'Ny outwciped lbeir lpllby on m.1 iaua, Frye waed Cuba c:onsre-cn ID pma for lesislalioa tbll would make IWbers c:oahCll lllCI dleirdini_. lal open to local jUlllU Oipll of polilica fw:y. SUcb a law ... -mark of a Indy modem society, be iuilled .. HoweYer. oaly a lbort rime Iller, Xiqua lolt bis -iJa Coapal to lbe polilic:al macmli
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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I c: z < ........ .., --11() -< :::I 0 DI .,., -........ 3 8 :z Vi :z r 1 i a_ .. J. ?. I I I 1 I 1 f 1 I r r I I I I i f I I I t I [ '1 t1 I i t t i J 1 I I i i I i I f i I I r . i l l [ l ( a '< .... I r4= . i f t 1 f I i I I i f ; I I s l I I l.f) .1lti 1J l,.:g:I lt"'!llli) I i. i f Ir R I a. r Er .5 P: '-Ii f ( I t .f i ; ';t: I l I' I I 1 sa. 1 l 1 1 s r 1 r I 1 I !1 J p I r l Ir l J I sa. i I 1 l B I l l i s ( I f I I .lii "' i l !I &. .. II, l !. J 11 r I l 1. l i l i i ! I I t' f I I I I I ; i i l f ! I I I l : I I: l I I I s i I (. "I & 1 J I i 9 I i s r I s I l l Q. I f o -I

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340 mnadM prior to eleclionl. NeYe1dt1le11, wllelber die llate or i .. oppoaeoll carried it out. Yioleace WU COlllil1Dady fltiomtized a the aaly WI by which soc:iml mlity, nllha' dllD diYilion, could be encourqed ml plOleCfed. BecllWO llJ sroupl Md undenfood IOCia1 uaity die ....... dalleqe poleCI ID orpnizcn o( lbe 1895 W111 for (ad MMU in pmtic:ullr), the Ame poupl-DOW Ktiq in oppmitioa IO acb odler-undenfood lbeir Ktioal the only way to napllll'C that unity. The poblem ns dat for IDOlt ol Cuba '1 IOCial coma valiva, die only way IOCial unity could be adliCYed wu duoup die 10Cal surrender d lbe CJPPDlina licle. Ia lbe IUllllner o( 1904. comervaliva aw lips of powing polilical divisiom in IOCiety die Libenll mobilized tkir campeip for lbe coming presidential decUom lea dlU a )al' away. Rempiziag lbat die R.cpublicu Puty'1 credibility lmd been lanlilbed by recent eledanl ........ Ibey wcnied about lbe dnal dial. LibenJ praidency would pOIC to lbeir IOCial and ecoaomic plw for lbe aalion one Ibey uncoadieiOllllly Wiided ID lhape Ilona impcrialill lionlli linel. In Mayol tbll )al', Ibey expreaed lbeir peaimian IDWlld die capmcity ol greala' Cubu IOCiety to delenniae ill f uaure by illlilling lbat Cubans wae DOI yet o( lbe 20dl o( May, lbe birth d lbe Republic. From their pmpecbYC, Mmtf' "tomb" w IM '"mdle oldie Republic" from wbida lllOlt Ud DOI yet emrged. The bat way for Cubml bmar die dealb ol Mani Wll llO mm lbemlelves '"Wonby" o( fmeiba, or ID COU11111led die couenaliYe new....-La DUaa1611. Olblal aMlld 9CCCJIDl!lilb dlil by olferia& .tne. mpport for.._. wbo rep-aeat lbe ldYucemenc of our culllll'e, lbe powda ol ad die pmlip ol our perameat. Of come. not Ill Cllbw ...-t: die Olma Warba Pllly iMillllCt lbll WOlbn were ahady wonby ol r,..,,., llld 11111 dley lllld lllla .-oaly die ""fllll ID lid" MmU in bis dfona to allllin it. but 11ways .._ r1111 to llrib m&" far die 111t. TbDy ll"'inchd z.. Disca1611'1 radal ol lbia by payiq to prill dleiron Z'1111111. dellM 10 MllU'I qed madler, a day .cter editon D1g1t1zed by G Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I c: z < ........ .., --11() -< :::I 0 DI .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z I I I II. 1J I I i ; I I I J J I I i I I &.ifs f 1f lt)}fj(}&.(1 t!I ti,l ! r I i I i 1 I l f 11 I I a 1 g I ; i i r I 1 l I 8 i l l J f I I i f I sj .J l i t I i !: I : l s i a. I' l l s i f I i a r s" w.. f Q.&. Q. s 3' I 2 Ii a I i_ > a i. i I. Ii f = I' ,., i I 1 i t l J I i t i I I I f t I i I i t f l i a r .. I -= r a; i -= I :I. a. !. I 1 g I i 1' I I I i I l f l I i I R t ::t It&! I -s-8 i f l a f ( 1: I ... J J I f a( I j-i 1 I l I i f Jc f l ( I J .. r l i 1 I i r .. I t' "& I A

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pelident. Odmez hid developed a npllllioa u a populilt no COlllbined llrODa-mned IKlicl wilb lldful llmlqiel d maaipulmoa. 41 Noneclwl. pvea bi may fmiled lltCmpll to influence El1nlda Palma '1 deciliaHnaldng (apecially wilb laped to die Rmal Ouani). it .... dial Odmez relaaiombip to rormer Republic:anl Wll lmed more on hi OW1l ambitioM aad lbeir med for lqioall aroapaen Ihm on IDY deep 1e1tal c:ommitmcnll llO the --ideok>P:al ...... W"dbin mcmdls ol hil brat wieb Moderara, Odmez hid fused his loyal forca in San1a Cara to 11ae d Alfredo 7.ayu 8Dd lbe Libenll: by May m 1905. Che Liberal Pmty. glally enlarpd by Odmez' def'ec:don from Che political rigbr. p1opmed Gdme'Z u i11 randidare ror praidenl IDd 7.ayu for vice-pnlidenL In doiq ao, the Liberal lcadenbip ol Havam hoped to draw Che support ol Gdmez 's pmina.l popdar-Oamm. Gdmez penamlly courted popW..claa YOWi, ponlayiq bimldr 11 a maa ol '"1be mwa" who contmstied lhlrply widl lbe stifr-lipped and stcic Palma. So commiaed to die cultiYltiOll d Cbil 0naae WU Odmc:z dlll be Weal U f But Libelall lllo wamed to aamct die buqeoaiDa prof'eaional elite. By balanc:iq Odmez 'a .,aff style wilb die ref med. intelleclual nwnner d Alf nm Zayu, Ibey counted on cbwiaa bodl die V
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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I tV \ c: z < ........ .., --11() -< :::I 0 DI .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 111 (llffifll. f l s 1 1 1 z ; I r J J a w r 1 w 1 1 11 r. 1-. ="J-J'fle:I 1 f i s I Is I J i I i p l { i j : f l [ I 11 'g a. 1 r 1 g 1 t s 1 .r I [ D .r 1 i I f i [ I i I 1 & ; I i I 1 I i 1 I i I I I t I r f I t f f f a i l -I B ft r ... s-_ 1 I s1.1 f fl li-: iilii!: H Ci J. 1!1 li I I I : I '1 i I I I I i I f i l l i I : 1 I r l s I J I r > = r I 1 t l f r a f i f s l I I [ !l a. l 8. II !: 1 c: a. l 's e: a ti .f a. & I 1 ''I f,f r ,,.1 ti l . r I i l I r i f I 1f s-l .1.! I I rli .f I i l I l .; J r i a

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ancftcnina lbe mw mat of Libenl olf'K:iall. They 111o iDirn;derrd lbe w officials IDd lbeir .uia iDID ll!lipiftl dlcir pcm in muaicipll pemmcnt duouP IOCial ws. for emnple, U 100D M lbe Moderale Party (ounded ill badqmltcn for the fOWll of Cl1ICel iD April of 1905, Modenla "bepn ID bamll tbo Libaal element of die fOWn. [ . ) ll)'ina lo displeac all of them. ao-ipina and lyin& lo lbe extent lbat it aff ec:eed die priYMC lives of mmy of lbe belt known people in IDWll." A elec:tiam ...-mdlcd for Ille local ICl'Uliny mat would OYenee paiclealiaJ electiom lbat November, lbe Modcralcs aked lbe mayor of Cruces for permillion to bold a oa bebl1f of &tnida Palma 's radidecy. The mayor then called on lbe. police force, mainly Libenlll, to rouow die mEben aloaa the pmde route in order to dilc:ourqe the Modaalea rrom provotin1 or .a.ctia1 Liberal by-ltllnden Local Libenl laden uked 111 lbe puty faitbf ul to remain i ndvon ..., .. not to aie lbe Oovcmmeat IDY petext fO commit Yiolea& KU ucb u MR cmamiaed [under similar circumllanca] iD Palmira and OCber places HoweYer, lbe rqioml CDlllinPt of Rini Ouardl Wll alJady on lbe alert. Al die COWlb)' ' only national mnecl lbe Rural Guard operared under Ille exdutive Olden of a centtal coau1wMi in Havm. Technically except in c:ws of DlticJMI emeraencY (such the Oeneral Strib of 1902), lbeir jurildiction ended at lbe bonlen of rowm wbae dull ol mlDlic:ipal police bepn. Bu& wilb lbe form.eioa of lbe Ollbincse de Cmnblle in arty um. Ibis did not -.111e Modenaes from rdyina on tbc lbnl Omni lbeir OWD politica mililia. nm, lbe lilUllimt in Cnca dial spriq yielded predictable n:sul. When .. -..eel at -wida Ille lqdy Uber.a aown police in tow. a loc:IJ dlua fued upcm lbem, lipallina lbe RUlll OUlnl to .a.ct IM police wilb dllir mrllea. Tiie followina day, a Modaate Judae llrived to Older of Ill Libenl atracilll iadwiq Ille ........ lbe cbie( of police. dne police m arer dliny town iaidenll Tbe olf'ac:iall and eiabl cidzem we1e held in lbe a.ruep jlil ror ...... a moadl before .... rel-i:d Oii blil. Tiie coadidon for lbe '*-of IDWD oft"ICilll w lllirllllipMiaa fnm df1Ce. D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Moderare manben of the police force oa lnUDped up dmqel of falsif yiq penmcal documeatl. Once the Ubcnl IUbmilled lbeir l'Clipaticm from office ud ModerU:I MR inmlled ia tbeir p.ce, all dmga were prompdy dropped. la IDOlba' town in PiDlr del Rfo. Oune. Che mayor ml various town councilmen were am:stcd in 190S on cbaqel of eJecklrll fraud *"'mini frmt the pmioul 1904 dectiom. Despite die rm 11..i tbey Udall been clared of any wrmadoiDI nearly a year artier, Ibey were not relealed or die cbqa dropped anlil Ibey Md qreed ID relip their pcm. Tbroup such mew, whole munici.,.Utia once dnmiuMd by Uberals sucb u that d San Juan y Manlnez were IUdc IO fall adirdy into Moderalc bandl. But municipal pemmenu were not lbe tole 11qe11 of Moderare lblqia; they allO included ICbool lardl, police depnnenll and public emplo)iea. By September d 1905, lbe Uben11 cbarpd lbll in lbe IOWD of Lajll. tine difTaall police cllieCa bid been lppOinllld in lea tblD two moacbl. Tbe reuon for dUs ns lbat all duee Ud been 1e111 ID jail nm Ibey lried ID eaf on:e die law or pro&ecl ofrlCials I liYCI ID lbe detrilDClll of Modenlc elecsonl CIClics. ID odm CUCI, police ofracen wcre limply arrested.jailed and relcuod oaly .rter elediom for ICnlliny bollda eartier dlll maadl were mer. Funber, tacbcn bid been llllDmmily famd in lbe weeks bd'om dlelc clecCicm ""for rdusina ID prOllilllle cbcir comcieDrel" in die fKe of Modaa BlllllipalllD ol ICNliny balld memben. In die pnwiacel of Orielllle-S S.. a.a. ICbool superintmdmCI were dismiswd for refusina IO IO *1aa wida Modelllle dauMt "'l'llcy even 10 M f a IO lbolitb a ICbool heo lbe D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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I I I 1 I l I 18 l i r. I 1 l t. Jif l If I c: 6 J It Q, 8 .... 1 f.i: 5 (IF. t I ;; I I I f l IT. I i l ( iS f 1 8 l = t r J l 1 1 1 i 1 1 r 1 1 i 1 1 1 .t 1 -I 1 t I a. 1 1 r 1 i i (!, 'C. Q. f I I : 1. -q i 11-J I J" l} l i'! i 111-1 !! c i l c I I t I ; R I i t f Q, J I 83 f It It I 5 I l 1 9 il t I i i I J +.-l l II I t. I !. A,.f !! I:"' I! r 111 SI, ;; a s-sr f 2. t

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lbe Modenle lbup oldie Plltida de la Pona enleml the town ol Lajll lliabl ia .. SeplelMel' 1905 ud manapd to leDd RepamllUYe Apt{D Cruz and hit family fleeiq from lbeir buUeHiddm home at dawn. The flCt lbll Moder1llel dared to IUcb llrlfeaiel ol coen:ion u a process ol ...,.,_.. .. [ modendina] local poliric:I ten'el to explain lbe clepee ID which Ibey believed tbe expectalioal ol CUblm weie ,ecaina out d band. For Estnda Palma and bis Gabinece de revolutionary elemenll ol lbe recent 11195 Rcvolulion ol wbic:h Ibey Ud once formed a pmt. A.I impcrililin lllllicmlim. lhey bMt etpOUll!d Ibis policy of revolutionary "containment" Ill Ilona but hid DOC needed to c:any it out lllllil lbe recent mobiliDlial of Ubaals jeopardized lbeir vilion far lbe fucure llld mllde real IOCi.a cb8qe a lal poaibility. But die overt political mnn ol Modenfe aa.cb l'ldicwliud ud unified citizcm wbo misbt Olbenrile have been templed to IUl1l a bliBd eye to aate-spomored repralioa. Far membcn of lbe popular d1aea, especially urban wortm, tbe situation wu pmticularty difracult limce Modaalel hoped to c:1a1e die illlllim of tuppxt by c:ocn:iq lbem into joillina lbe Moderale Party. Tbe effect. honYer, wa to plvame oppolicion ud inaeac die pambililia far c:nm-dm lllilncel. After all. u Salvidor Cilnerol Bdlncnurt ot.erved at lbe time. men Cubm blood bid been made to run in lbe 11n1e11 ol IOIDe provincial IDWDI over die lut few mandll 1Un dleir raidenll wiane11ed as my lime duriJta lbe Mn becweea eubmll a Spuimdl." In flCt. Moden&e llCt:icm may bave prod.:ed a sylllFldly IOhnl lbe populwc:lma dlll La"bend l'*9cn miptodlenrile not baYe felL Collvenely, by-ti victim out ol lbe "llip ml milblY" at a kal leYet. Modenfa lmmNed wmlday u... .... poarpeople lmcw pmoually. recmiDa diem in die rde ol D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSlN-

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fcUaw "c:iliJnl "nil w lbe lide by wbida IOl:illl iaCerion Mdn11 ed *-w dariq die preYioul Wll'I for ndepet*-'e Tbe eYealUll remll of dlia li&ullion w lllllw ........ .._may Mil me ... med lies of loyalty between wiUina PlllOM ad wmlci-be polilic:lll diadl by pYins diem pala' l'CUOll ID aymp#hize widl adl odm 111111 Ibey miP& adlenrile llavc felL o.e of die lml eumpa of dlil pllmomenoa occaned in Cllibuicn. CJD lbe aonhenl aml o( .... Qara prori8ce. 8ecMlle of die complicity o( lbe lllliODll penuncnt. DO eleclioal for municipml ofraca bid eYer been held in Cait.rien IDd lbe w mayor wbo bid ruled lbe 10Wa under Splin limply CCllllimled in office lfter' lbe iMupnlioD of lbe Republic. By 1905. dail mayor bid bdd his pcJll for twcnl)'-nine yan! Upoa joiniq lhe Piny. lbe ID&)U. "obeyiq die mono of lbe [amlnll) ao.enmeac." proceeded IO um 31 raideacl o( ... ma II a leCret police (ORZ. From cben on. lbe --police bepn ID IUbject 'die paw of wonb of die Ubenll Piny" ro roand-lbe-dodc 1urveill1nce ad 111 uaendina saam of ..,.ymcu ......_ Callequcndy. Lallenl1 in dae CUComl boule. telcpapb olf 1ea. and evea lbe muaicipll doc:klr' reliped tbeir po111. However. accanliq to Ubeml I.ten ia lbe Ilea. &be bnml of Moderate bulamcnt rc11 on die llWap pueblo. die pueblo Ible warb for i11 liriq." Ible is. lbe lfXJDll ...... r1111amca. woodcullal. IDIDnol cbarc:ml, -.ec1o1a. lli1en ..t c1ay Wxnn lbat ... up llOt Olly lbe majority o( die fOWll 'I pnpulllioa but .... of lbe polilial fOR:el faYcnble ID CleMall Odmez 'I pmidealill bid well. However. after die fCJUDdalicm of lbe Moder9le .-rt)' in a. 190t, dae aewly ............. C.... Houle bepa ID impme lllUI ml r ....... 11111 were IO bip. dley could .. lft'anl ID rllll; dae Ro cid bame nbject D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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3ofJ in the privately owned llilway indullly, f ouad bilmelf fcxad to dole down bil rlihmd. layiq olf acme eipty men ia die prcxw. Nol surpililllly. cuao topdla' widl llliny f ollowen (pmlibly bil on worbn) wa one oldie rant men to 1lb to die counlrylide iD armed iebeUion pint die 1Ca1e in 1906. Tbe lleedora "all ol wbom wme black [todol llllftlf ]" wme unable to oblain imm..UnDm papas fran die pon cloctar wilboul wbicll Ibey cc.Id not report for wort. At fiat. local Libelal laden rwoted to the iDtolerable c:oaditicm by puling a raolulion volUDllrily ID diaolvc dleir pmty. But lfler boldina a public meeling which 700 .aeaded. they decided to lake a blld mad apiut Moderate inlimidatioa. FKed widt mch defaminalion. the Moder.rel nritdllld IKdcl: for.,.... much llDlllcr dlM the law requilai, that die)' could f11b 1nywbae Ibey war.ed. ( ... ]die woodcuum could cue wood on my key owned by lhe Ocwemment and that lleYedcxa would obalin dleir immuniDCion .-pen. Bef'me IUCb ID olferiq, in a loWll where dlere me l, 200 wobn in IUCb Wbm lbc day ol the elecUoa for ICrUlilly lards mrived. die Libenl "* wat "drowned by lbe fog oldie ba)'OMll." Wida lbeir lalariel llld llaYd cxpc.:1 pmid by die ulicml pcnunat. lhe Rani Oaml. muaicipll police. 32 eec:nit p>lice ml 100 privmty mned militiamen joined in die...-... D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I I I I I 1' I J I l I i f I I I > I -0 A i I r I i -a f. I 8 ; I j f j I I I I t i i f l i I I I I k t J i I f I 1' I t i i I i f l ; i I I I 8 1 i t i I l l I i I 5 I: & .S l a J. i f I !. J J I I Jf : f I I J t f t f I I I l I I t i i c J f I I s 1 > g l r I 1 a i I t I: I l li a. tl I' I [ I J [ i J l l: I i 'I .. B a J> 8 1 l f J I r i l i I 1 I I t l r & 1 z l ( R-[ I & s I f I a ( i' a. s l sa_ > f 6. Ir < B. 1 f '! l 13 11 I !I l4

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351 bid deeply divided lbcm cluriq lbe nr. Supporting the lllle now, die IDlllifellD illlimd, lllowed Af ro-Cumm ID pm ewer lbcir cliffenmces oldie pat wl unite policic:ally in any Ibey nncr bid befcn. The cdy way to l&lyqe die work ol capeda. MlrU IDd Mlceo from fOCm1 dalnaclioa wa dllOqb support for lbe curmu Rate wbicb llldr revolaliaal bid pnxl11ced. On lbe Olbcr bMd. die way to cmure lbe dellnletion ol f Cuba political horima: (Blacb] l1KMd thallldva into dne revollllionl, broqlU fOl1b by die holy cry ol Ubertyl They came 110 dae nn under no ocber lide dMID dial ol "'Cubias." nae seYollllicm broupl u a n.ull tbe lriumph and stability oldie Rqublic and ill OcwenmenL (.-) Baicle wbidl political pu1y lbould lerious llMI pmlriolic C.._. ol tbe bid r.:e pl.:e lbemtelva? [ ... Tbe Moderale Piny] ii where Ill dae wbo do not want ID dellroy lbe labor ol capedes. MarU and MKeO lbould be ( ) Men ol lbe 'dlllel ol color. palrioCI ol all-rilne. i""W"llale Cubanl, IUnl your a.ct ca dae wbo pRfmd ID be )'OUf brolben 11111 brina [IDlfad] Ml America lntavelllion IO Cuba [ ). CUbw: wida die WOldl ol famer A ....... RafMI Mcmlmo. ""For new Sima. DCW mea. ... yet. wida die acepliOD ol 1e..t Afro-Culu ...... wbme toy.tty duriq Ille 1901 YC1te1W D1g1tized by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,.., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 1111111 : !ti 11:1 "It!. 1Is1. i I i I ; 1 I f I f i I i I I JI! I: I i r. llJ f I !i l i -I l I i I i ! t I I I I i i I a i I I 1 I I i 1 1 r I i i f ( 1 l i I I r l I 1 a i i I I i } [ t i ! I i 1 r f. i t i a I f. i I f l 11. i I i l f J e i rt Ii s a. i a.1.' >a.. i. =-1 r I i: t f f .E' i I !. : i i I I r s . I ] Ao I -I i8 a 1 1 i _I I a. l Ii I s r a -< I 'a f I I f. i .. Jt I f f 5 .. 2.. I -

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wbile ICill lbere, could coincide Qbly bebind die c;nnunm aue d wraciq CODllOI of die 11a1e rnn die ra1 06JudM" of wbiclt MlrU' Ud warned. Toma Eatnda Pllma. Undoubtedly, the role of die Picm1 permt in die '"lllodaalioa" pnx:m dial Jripped lbe coumry from 1904 k> 1906 w formidable In aeaenl. Secrecary of Oofcrmnce Freyre de Andmde toot relpDlllibility ror illfelf eriq in local penaenll on behllf ol the lldminilntioa aad in favor ol lbe Modcnle Party. Thia earailcd alJoc:Ming rewMdl to resioml lll'Oqmen wbo worbd for Modcnre ccmll'OI in lbeir areas well u autboriDng munici ... mayon to ipore Y iDlllUClioal dial cmemted from a noa-Modcnle provinml 1DUR1C. In recura for leCUriq Moderale control oldie Munici ... pcrnmeot in Squa la Orude, for iJlllW:e. Freyre mnapl for die public aaployment ol the IDlle heads cl Bripdier JoM Luis Robma '1 enlire family at exll'80dinarily hip naes d pay. But more often Ihm noc. Eanda Nma bilDICIC illued paidelllial deaw cwenumiq potilic:al decilioal IDd cbuaa in laidalllip mlde at die level ol muaic:ipal gcwcmmenlS wbicb misbl odaerwile bave hurt Modenle iDtaall." In all. Fniyre ordmd the dimiml ol 31 municipal m&)UI of lbe Uberll Piny cm c:baqel ol fraud or derelidioa ol duly, includiq Juu O'Rurill d Havam. He n1Mletodo10 with f.lnda Palma' fall comcnL la the pn>ee11. fmYR '1 lcafl' w caref'ul m leave an obriOUI pmper tnil lbal jUlif aed 1be crderina cl policy rev...a. by die llllicml pcmmeat oram:lioaed die remcwal ol Liberal from muaicipll o"ace. lmportan1ly, Ellnlda NJna tepim..a bis ICciODI OD the bail of Spmilb lepl cadll, aat die c..-ec..ti--On aay ericleace d clrnlidion o( dilly widlia Spei law, lbe cbief euculive IWIYed die ript k> remove IDll replllCe muaic:ipll air.a.II at will. D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I I [ i i I I I : I f f I I I 1 t I r { I l E I D i i K t f i 1 i i s 1 1 1 a f 1 r r 1 z I s t g s s; s I i i i I I : R I I I < J R s l r a I l t fif'81 f l":.!l11Jt fi!il I .. 1' I f ; j 1 I. J.. 1 I I It _. ; I ,,,. 1 I
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-N C" '< 0 I. c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 1! t I f f. I t I 11 1 i i f ; i [ i t I I 1 ( f. I f I I I a. I ca I I 2 J ii ( o. [ 8 tJ.itt;1 8. f 8 I I I a. i a. 6 t i i ] t I !. ,. g 11 -t. j i 1 i 1f1 l ti li I 1 I. 1 f 1 r t I !-! I 1 a. l ( J I I 1' i I I I I l I J I i I : I a. I e II f. II I!" I !. t . I n. I. I : f t r r I 1 --15. f .t s: t t r 8 i I: I I l r -= '< a I z-. f I iii ii!1: i a f ; r i 1 I I l t-! I l I l I !. I I a" J I I f a. . Q. Ii' I <. c. f IL '< o. 'l!I. I I a. r I l I I l IL f R. o w

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3.56 to be die c:iitia wiaa or mmec1 rebel in lbe r1e1c1. By 1111111. rebcll were orpaimt iDID bnJdy bued Comlihlliolllli Anny, complete with a fmdiq llMl pmpapncla bw in New Y ort." AcconiDI ID ill Ubml ......_p, lbe ReYolulioo or 1895 bad been reborn. Tbis revolUlion depended men OD lbe williapen ol the Uniled Stales to play imperialilt role in Cuba praent ..... future lfflin ...... ner before. How Cublal or difTerenl aalioulilt cuna11 viewed dlil role iD relation ID lbe '"Dllic>DI" Ibey defended chlnged fomer lbe naan o1 their nalicmli1m1 u well 1be deelopment oru.s. impa;.Jilm iClelf in Cuba. In somc ways, iolac:e in the early Republic could look very much like lbal which Md c:lm.-ized the llnlgle and 1be period belweea wan when bwtitty wl arbinry impec:tiam by 1be Spmilb Crowll llnmded But repnlea or wbo curied out llrlfqiel and coaneer-lll'llqia of parilla wuf me cluriq lbe 1biny )WW of lbe iadepaMlaa lnlU)e. aeulrll illlDd plll:if 1C01 endured 1be Mn& or lbe violcDce SeeiDa their boma invaded wl their popeaty riolated OD a n:pJar bail CR Med a lini*r dilaale or far in wbicb lbe dnll of wit could be .... lbe wll illelf. UndeailNy, die apaiem:c o( civil wuwfonned Qlbln IOCiety ... donned lbe perlpidive or ill membcll for lbe IMt lbree doc..._ in lbe Bin nm ullb mn1111y mudl a it would iD Ille D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 \ I r 1 -r I I I 1 l I l J 1 1 J ( i I I i i I: l 8 I '<. J l i I It J P. : i' a i 1" i r I i I i i 1 1 1 1 t i J. i n l i l a i I s It s t I l I l f I 1 1 I I f f l ( i t i f I i i ; I I l I J t t f tJ 1 i ( 1 Ji!. &; s a t i ( 1P.1 111if i f ij' ( :... B t J I g. 'ile i 1 F .. 1 lj 1(" l.'-1 f I = P. a J I I J J l I I i 1 I I ( f I I It I I I l J l I f 13 t I ] I I i f l I I I I i I I I ! ,., t l ;1 e i r. r I J 1 I t "I & r n: ii I f !: I ..... I Q f i II ( O' [ .. I : I

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z I i I I i I I t t 1 I I f I I t( I 1 j I [ 1 i r s l I i I 1 r I s I a I 1 r r-!. r r r . r '< j a I 11 i t ; I i J 1 t i i I i i I I I t I I f I I I -('ti riss I i t t ( I f 0 l f I I I f 1 i f f f I I I '1' r I; s '1. !. if I t : .. ; I [" 1 l 1' I i J I I t F JS I f I I --= t a 1a f i f !: if t r 11 :I 1 I : r 1 i ( 1 1 l I t r t t 1 I iF I I Ii i .. 1: 'g n I f _, i :io . I I 1 I! i ; 1 I 1 i f f i ; l r t a 1 < r I ., Ii f r a-r f. I s s r ... ;

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I f c 0 1 0 00 I rv I c: z < ....... .., --1 1()' -< :::0 ....... 3 8 :z Vi :z 11 J f I l I i I f I I I l f 1' t l . f I ft I IF ... ?: i' l 1 . I-8 J 6' I 8 ;. . f I. 1 !: ;i r. a. r. 1 i.f r 1. : _tr a ''if! f -f 8 i. I: f -1 1 r : i a r i 1 I 1 i i 1 i s a. I f :; c. . Q. I I ; f f f r I f I I ! f I 1 I i f I I i ) I Ji 1 I a 1 a. a. I > '< I ll 8 f I I I I I t I i j ; i i l I I I I s a. l 1 1 1 1 t 1 r ; 1 1 i i 11 i 1 1 lll1;r Ii I t I a I 1 l I f l i r l I l I r r 1 .s I 1 ll 1 1 I a 1 f er l a_ ij' I w '< '<

PAGE 384

Cl ce ..... N C" '< 0 ( l J I i 1 11 I s ( il i f i f l. i' l J W, 11i(Jri1 I f t t f. i l i I J } [ I I I ( ti : I ,, J Ii : i f I I I -C'< I' f I !: t 1 i I I l I '<. j i I I I I i I i I l f. 1 1 J1 fr i [Ifs ti! s 1 [ t fr If. f I s I I I I t I ( t J r f i I. Irr ... i A.! ii r R" "'1 q 11 I i f i -i, [ i i B t i J-I i I r t l r a f r l i s s I ( I I t 1 i I s :z r I I 1 1 .; r 1 J c B-r I. is"' t t ( l l" t l

PAGE 385

361 model ol pat SpMMh c:oloaia1 pemmtiall dlln., mylbiaa ranoldy raembliq a polilicll democncy. LllLMdla ecboed dlele Mnli...,., sayina dial yeaimday, under die Splailb, a rcpal6:en o-itulioe wu aood only for.._ deaning ol rifles; today, 9e Ccmci1UCion Ml aood only for beiq ipcnd. II If LibaaJI who ref'Uled to like up ll1DI Gpl'Cted dUI iDClipaliaa. dae who did a.a lban up fell utter ouaagc. In Nowembcr 19QS, cmly day. before lbe eledioat of December i-. orpaized poup1 of rebeil l'OIC in 111111 UDder lbe ladeudaip of Evarillo F.ltcnm: in die area belween Sm AnfOllio de IOI Bl6ol llld Alqufm', ffayw province. Mmy of lbae rebels. includiq Eltaaz, repracnlld die leC9DI' of the Ubclal Piny mm& commiaed to idaU m m.1 equality and politic:al democncy. Until now, hittariml bave ipcxed dlele rebellicm or judaed Ital to be d minor billOriall impanuce, cmpecillly liDce Chey Yt'el'e quickly repn=aed. Because lbc rebels c:apQacd a miniawl UICMI& of equipment from local fanm and mppd in oaly brief *irmilba with die Rn CJuud before beina 111atec1. 11 only a few biSIOriam have made 11e81ioa ot ..m appannce. let alone invacipled their molivcs. Yet. dOle impcctioa d die eweam immedi1lely preclin1 die upriliq well the evidence plelellted die rebelt lrial revmla a bip depe ol plwliq. c:oonlialliaa between urban and nnl panicipmlll as well .........W finciq for 1be mcwement. In rm. tbe ..-rat lipifase of daiJ ,,, mcwemeat miPt ICtllally lie in i&m fllibn: die flCt dlll IWe -=uri&y force1 were able to lbolt dil m-oludoa IU!I"" mucll men 1baa j a hip depee of vilillnce excrciel by die lllle; it ....... lbe pomibili&y dim foul play may baYe conlribured IO die revolueicm '1 18Ueliaa-foul play ori..-.1 Crea die apper llllb oldie Ubaal party illelf. D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z I I I t } t r f I l f j is I I i J I t I I I I I f I I I I J > I l I i ! r r r r ; ; ( t I t i 1 s s 1 n. I I t I I I =-t 1 l I' 1 'l ._ i i t 1 1 r lil I 1 1 J 1 1 i t 1 i 1 l e. I 1 r !i r i H rr 1 IF .1 .. a. r l I i I t i i i I i t I i i I i I ; l t ii Q. SI = lil ll' ... .. r I I I t I I i i i I i i i I I I t i i

PAGE 387

36l Tbe qeat fdina tbe mport aaribuled bil cwcrwbelmiq c:mrac1eace ia tbe illfommnl to die ra dmc ....._Y of tbe Lilllnl Pmty r.-him.'" Acconliq so die qeai. .n Ubenls blew the iaf'onuat well beclalle he WM. Uberll lader hi ..... f. EYideace apiDlt die compirarcn iacluded IWO ... CICllcl ol anm c:mfllCaled from .reboum by die leClet police almolt a moadl bd'me die uprising took place. Fon:iDg their way into bil hmDe, ageall Mpriled a twenty-two yar-old Havana medtic who bid "8lllrd lMaty-<* bow ol pa powder (one ol wbidl weiped 2S pounda). elcven mefal caw of fmely pulYerimd pm powder (nppOldy ror die makin1 of elf1lolives), two boxa of pmdet, fifteea to twenty dlOUnnd bulldl ror YariOUI lypCI of guM II well II ID&D)' bOla .. blp ol bulleu rcr Ule in dUrty.eipl Qtibre revolven and rony-f our calitn rif'a . Daya earlier, leClet police bid mided llDOCher luspedCd mebome where Ibey found dliny-oae f"'*ar of heavy plpll' (problbly ror malcjna dynmire). f ony-one brand new lapid rare rifla widl dleir rKIDly l**ina ltill in tact., tweaty-one tDccroltu .... for f uin1 OD bol1elw:k, a few pia&ois and approximalely five dlousand bullets. MOil incrimiaalin1 of Ill WM a lpeCillly oadiacd piMo-tllaped box lbll blld been Uled for 111111ponia1 lbe -wmponry to wl from die empty OM wilbmat mouing IUlpicioa. Fimlly, a few days f CJllowiq lbe rmmd-up of faf\y-five lebel1 fRJm lbe lite of lbeir cacounter widl Rani Ouanll IDd ca111p1 in die rac1c1. twos...-. r111amen ctilmrered a bomb bidden moq a pier of die Playa del Clliao." Eridendy, .aell caJnUMd dial die seaiq o( IUC:b bcmbl OD die OUlllcinl of tbe city flDlldlrr widl ..-... in lbe 'Woalcl draw lbe Rn Owdl, lbe majority of D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< I& r i -I i f r l r r i I I I r I l f I a I I 1 I t t II, P. t I I r i .. 11: 1 ilJ :1.r ( i I I: Ii 1 1 I i I ; i ! I f 1 l l e ! I ; 1 Q r i II, I r ( 1 t I 1 i : I 1 1 c J I fl I I t I f f I f I f I I I = 1 1 1 I II, 1 1 1 i i 1 e r i I ! I l I n a 0 J IL I 1 ! I Ir I f. r I I :I lo. I -I! 4 --f ; a. e = I' ;;o !L a i 1 J j f i i ( !. c -< I z IJ' I. B: I 1 -1 !ls ri l 1. f l i l 1 s ( I l 1: l -f

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Cl ce -N !l 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z I I I J t I r f I c I 1 r J J I l ) i .a. 1 r 11 f J =$ i. 11 1 r.;t.iial ill!f tlfl11 f I J 1 I 2 i e: B 2' 9. I Q 11 ft I 11 8 1. 8 s I ii ti ., Iii I l I I ii '< J '< I I i s i ; 1 i r r 1 l 1 r l 1 J ; 1 r r. & t . a 11 1 llfl i. il'ltl1 tr '< l (I 1: rs= 1 I i )l ' r i l 1 Q. ( .. r i i 1 I J I f l t I f Q. I 8 J f I Q. i If a. i 1:. ll.! l 11 f f 1 r 1 1 1 : 1 t 1 1 1 . ,. 1 1 J I i r '< r r I 1 a 1 1 r I 1 I 'fj:(r11!jf f!8l1iB 1 't. a ( 1 a. It Ir s f ti 11" I f r-f I I If i J l f i' Q. j. r s l

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AmuinalY. Elll1lda Pllma evClllUllty pllled lbelC sebell rull lllDWt)' "'for the en-or rebellioe. COlllpincy .--dilDl!edienm, c..ri palllic dilcurbwe.'" 111 cbalJa far wbicb Ibey luld been romc1pilayinDecemberor1905. 111e Plaident IOOk aucqe or bit npt annt die n:bell m1nc1ty on May 19, 1906. elevcatb ..mvermy or die clealb or Jc.s Manl. Symbolically. bil Idiom malled well wilb die imqe or Mmii tUI Modcra&a md been cullivllina for 1banlelves Of die a.. two )all: not only did it demoalUate &Cllda Pllma 'I audlority OY people's lives., it Ille> lbowed hit willinpea ID rcqive dMlee wbo becrayed bi.m, if only in ndwnp ror coaceding to llis audlOlity. But more lbln ID act or polilic:ll "'fcqivenm.'" lbe dl:aee or amnesty miabl allo bave been calculllled IO widen lbe icleok>siClll rift amon1 Ubml rcrca. By clilaeditina dac wbo dlDle anm ewer wmb to CXpR11 lbcir oppolilion 10 lbe ...., EaUllda Palma may mte hoped to inaeue lbeir n BhDcat or IDCft powedul Ubenlt whom Ibey 11...ty IUlpOCted or becrayiq lhem ID audaicies in die rust place. Bue judainl rrom lbe acticm or w or die rebels rdeued. &a.da Pllma '1 IUatelY did DOI JD u planned Allboqb llillariw have dcpic:led lbe --ea.ulUCimal Army" a lleldy orpnimd revolutiGmy movemeat under tbe direct oaaaad or tbe Ubaal Piny. IUCb a view docs not IDOll ma1.--.m oullide or 1111 Lani Party' inrr1dia ladenllip dd"aned tbeir p1a ia dillincdy ..... ,... ii, ... .,.; .. die lemJl'fKlic:s ... palilicml conupcioD or ... Madm" didaot....mty widala)tllr.y todle Lillml ....._,or D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I tV 1 J 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 i f l I i I s I I I t1iJ1l!t 8' i.. 1 i 11-1. r rQ_ 1t11 f 1. ''t 1 i ,. R. 1 Ii 52_ if 52_ f If B I I 1rl!! .. I I !i a Is 52-e.! I f J f I a.I [ 1 ::r fl i f "J z a. 11 : I. < f I I i ( .. t I ta_ J I I I i I &' t i t t I l I 1 -< :; r 1 1 ... I "' Ul i '< 1'I 0 DI t I 11 I f t I [ i I j I! i i i i i I t ! I i I I I I i i a. I f i ft; D l I i l B !. l'V Jc: I i .. J. I .f 1: 1 t a. r f I a- s l

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I i i I-I ; I f l l I l 6 I 1 l 1 I l 1: !I. ;;-"'. ... 1t 11 a ,..J,. !. JJ" Jl!Ji11 I il JI r 1. t I ,.. I a I s I 1 t. i I I r I. I --... JI: ( I I n. a '< r. I ., I f l D-I a_ 5" a ... g r e. If I i I & 'ti: i I I l I l t I i J I I I i f I I I J f I I t -=--.. t ij' 1 t I I l I J 1 J. Ji1 II n ;c, n J i If f l 1 I 1 i I f f 111. I l ft I I I I ; --i I j a I I I: l n f a_ I l 1' i I !( 1: [ I &' { B l. ll t J : l II I ft i I i fl l I t -a. ft a. f I i i i ; I a. f f f I a I f I I

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Cl 1 1 C" '< 0 I I J I I i l I I I 1 I i ( l j 1 a. 1 r I I .. 11. e: 1 I .. B. .. I -It i fL [ : i I I I f i I l 1 f I t' 11 1 I g I I f J . 1 I I r I ... ii r I -II' SI, I If..,= t.t 1 r 1 w.1 ' t I i I t I I I a. I t I i 8 r 11 f I I _a 11 11 f C-a -Q.t 8: Mo :;;r;:;IQ ........ .., --1 -<3 i. 8 "" g I .1 l rt i 11: 15... 'I 1 i it e. .. a t r i r r i I t 1 I I I I i 1 I I ! : = I t f. f Bi If If . I SI, I l f a 1 l 1. r I f ti; f 1 .11,1, il11:1.11l I I l I

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z 1 I I I I 1 Ji r l I f I f 1 ( I I I f r 1 I i a l f f 1 a r a: e. r: I t I r r r r [ s s s . I k J I I I i l 1 I I I J I t l I I I l I ! ( i I I i I I i '1 I f I I I I I r 1 [ I a r IJ I &J I 1 I i t I J t1 ii' l [ J 8 I II' I I I Q. R I f r r 1: .. r 11 ,. a. t J ! \ t I ; i t l i l ! t r I I r I i I I I i I I I B f a I !fl(1l!i(s t 11 .. I! ff! 9' 11 t I r J i r r 1 1 I i s i t ; r 1 t I i I I I I I i f I I I 4 f I l I ( i I l t I f i g a. '< r I r i r s a I I p 1 1 1 w r l I If 1 r a 1 o r B f-1 R' ij' f 1 R_q I ., Ii Q.

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I fV c: z < ........ .., --11() -< .,., -:::-0 ........ 3 8 :z Vi :z f I I i f I I l I 1 l i I I J i f I I f J I I J I [ l l J I J 1 i lre11J:? 'I I I' .-. li.f t 'a.. f c r [ r I I I 1 I f ; ( e t i I [ i t t I ( l t t I : f 1 i I I J I ';a, ii rt ii' t I 11' s 1: f I: i f I p f I I s I r I I 8 8 Q. Q. I l 1 r I i l J I I i I l i I Jn > f I ;_ i i !Ii t I I 11 i J r .. If 1 I r ;_ Ir [ t It c .-! ii' l. r 1 r Its: I I l l "-!!: I 1 f 4 ( f t I If J f ( [ I I I t J I i I l f l i i I I I 11 f I : i f t r t f r 1 8 r 1 t f 'a I I I I ! J : a t I J r -

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372 B if die rebe1a lmd laned from lbcirexpaience in nn. &tnlda Palma_. bit crcmia bid a.nec1 equally we11. 1tte1ina 11m lbe pnm.y cliffacutty oldie PRC lay in die ICqllilition Md lbipmeat ol mm from lhe United Siiia. tbe Praidenl ;mmediwly ftlCIUl*eCI IBd received die riibt ID purcbllle mm ud banes from U.S. ...... iD New Y art. To reinCon:e 1be 11D111 number ol Rmal Omrdl on wbicb ill ICICUrity relied, &IDdl Pllma 11 ldminiltnlioa ltilJ Ud ID JaOlt to tbc IWiq ol 10.000 men:ewia (IOIDe ol wbom were cnmmon crimiDll1) 11 exllortlilllll rara ol .-y. la die opinion m Alejandro Rodrfpez. lhe CXllDIDmdiq off'ec:er m l1lle forces, the milieu ""were wane dllD Ulden. .. .,, Yet. mdiq ro official IDlllifeltol put fOl1b by die revolutionary ladcnbip, any f.-lbll lbe dawccive metlM:ldl and rldal undapaninp of lbe Revolulim ol l89S could be rc11 r std wae wboUy uaf'ounded. >J arty July 21. 1906, lbe Revolucion ' ladenbip illued a llllDifalD Wl to clilCXMll KCalllicJal dial ill purpo1e1 were ia any way somlly mdical. Tbil llllftif'esto lbe objecciYa of lbe mcwaneat ro be dne..f old: firs. IO lalDl'e die power oldie Cuban Comaillllion; leCODd. IO expel memben of Coqrea elected lluouP illicit or fnuduleal mam: IDd cbird. ro emure lhe bnldia ol new electkm. Acldiloallly, die mmifaeo Mlumd citizem lbal ill purpme ns aot 'reYCDF" or even die inllllllllticm ol meleeled oft"acal in die pmideacy. Elec:flnl freedom, it iJlloned .... llricdy die Revollllim's bi ........ OD Sepcmber lll. lbe moluticmry ladenbip recaarmned i11 iallaricm ....., oa1y lllll 111 paliliml .. ilonen COODlt'tld widl die e1ec1ar11 aeplWiola of La1llnll be rclz:1.ct ., ... ] we ctemenct nodlina ....S nadliq lblll we demand II uidel 11111 nanricm ol leplity." W"ldml die YeD11D1icm oldie Republic 11 laws. it llaled. .._"C oldlc Repdllic ii DOl pmlible mris die dnelopmea& ollmdeimcr* illlliMkw We 111111 lllDe itlll for die Sri...._. oljmlicc mlclaaorwy. D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 I t 1 I I I I I [ l I 1 I I I i 1 t -I_ --i Ii.-J Rf l !!. 1 --::t i I I I I E I i I i i i I f !f I p I < ft i i I I: B I j '< i f I-i I 1 i l I l I 1' t r I I I i I l I [ et l c: a t.f If* f if P, l i 1 JI i; < 1 I i .. i 1: Q. r q J r i I I l f r I . f t I J i 1' I i .. ... l I 1 & ,. I I ... =; '! .. i 11 J 1 r I t z a a l 1 r i I =-r .. 1 r 11 !! i if 1. [

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374 Now, iD lisbl of a viol m'olulioa 111e111t ID topple lban rran power' ad delaoy lbe impaWill Mlicmlilt "'lmion" jmt a it Wll becomiq a reality, lbe Modenla perceived dleir OfPClaP a CIDllllllillina die ultimte benyll of the pill. a pm wlme IWglel Ibey perpelnled over lbe lut two yean apimc alllnlalive "'Daliam For the teYolutioaariea. on lbe ocber bmd. it WM fUlllly dear lbll lbc impaialill natiollllilt Illian could not 111Dd: lbe imperialilt Dllimalill Ulion beUayed die meYolUlionary llnlgles d die s-because it ref'Uled to nmpPe lbe nmlliplk:ity ol idea and divenity ol people which bad IDlde thole llnlgla pmlible. la lbort. ror cbe teYolucionaria of 1906, 11are Modemla were lbe IAieon: dley bellayed die collective memory ol &mity a revolutiomrics defined, inlapeted ml actiYely ranembaed it. Tbe bnallll _.nalion of QuiftU'n a--. and die public daecnalioa bis body proYided only 1be mall recent example ol lbil. For moll molutioaaria and. pabapl, lbe lbcMmnds d Cubw wbo filed pmed it, dlil collective memory of unity w embodied in Bwleras ' lif'clca cars-; ir Elnda Pllma limply waled to bury it, the Pino Ouerra '1 apltliCJlll for the mcwClllCDl 'a popnlll'ity conain Flllli dues for wily die kind d revoluaicmry wMmeli1111 lie and ocber Ubenl mnwnden espoused could lppell ID die pnpW
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dial nested widlia dleir laden pll ol polilieal mom Mft lbeir CJWD pll ol IOCial c:Mep. Al OUena llllfed al lbe lt:lrt ol lbe w. I declare dial I me DOl bea able to cioamll Uce die l9da ol Augmt lbal I sbould be tnmred like a lbinklml Cuba in my on f Mbedmd. in die mne way Cbal I could not c:oment to bein1 aaled like a leCOmk:laa Spmlimd ia Che oolmiel period. For dlil reaon. lince lbe dlae ol lbe 19da I have fell u much a reYoluDcmry U Miao, Mart{, Calixro Olrcfa and MmJDo Odmc'z wel'C.1 D Sianifaady, die raa o1mae111DC rour revolllliomry lllli
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376 in IOCiely: ,t ii 8Dt filin, it ii not ...a eqUllity, llO, it ii purely, die 1UfR1111CY ol die WCJmlD. ..... B wllile IUCb views may not have IJ'F e rled to Ill popular mticmlilll, some aw a ccmmilmmt 10 mcnlity in dleir ae.lel'I and die Rnolution "1 principla dial laomred widl dleir democnlic and more eplilaria imqe ol ""llllicJD." One P'l""'r mtjcwlilt wbo expreed thele feelinp ia 1906 w IWba' A ...... Mira ill ID open leaer to"" Lido. EiqMiniDg lail iailial ...... ror oppmin1 die .... Fidler' Miret said lbal lbe Moda1ltel bid 11>De ID tbe mrane ol preauring die ArdabiUop ol Hav-10 telieve bim d llil dUliel 11 lbe pmilh d Sm J._ y Manfnez. Pimr del Rfo. ffaviaa 9CClmd him ol IUbvcnive ldivilia. Miret fared lhll today, Modaalel mipt even Ir)' ro kill bim. However. on tbe 191b ol Aupst. be bid not oriaimlly infftideit to join tbe lebels. Radler, in far for llil life. be hid limply Ocd to lbe lane ol a f riead in Ouaae Once dlae. be aepaned 1blt within four boms. be w IUll'OUDded by one hundral ol '"lbe faitbf'ul WidliD a day, be MOie. die mnber bid n-10 dne bWldred: [ ... ] today I haYe a Meend, dilpOled to la1e dleir life before Ibey ameat to be IRmpled apiD. I -wida my flidllul DOI iD die c:banlder ol a penilla. but M a military pueor, CODliclerina it a duty to be widl diem, rather lban dlOle in town. becme 1hey me in dmaer Aad .._ Cllri couwikwl tbal Ille p>d aplaenl *3uld pve up hil lire IO belp Iii ipirilUI bmcbcn. My flilbful are Ulcorponled to Ille farces d die Piao Ouena. wllicla iD Ille amber ol mcn dllD dne d9mlld, me._ die.,... ol SID Lail llMI Siil Jaua md in a lbalt lime will ... [Ck City of) Pimr cld Rio. us D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Of apec:ial lipfance was lhe f.ct lbal 0..... '1 fORlel hid cMm lbele IDWDI wilb .a.olu&ely DO llloodlbed md liale reaillllDCe So cmficleal did kal pcmDll feel of revolutiOllllia i""'liml dal Ibey did not 11ap dleir wort or aw.don lhe rldck. delpi1e RCeDl lDY .... of neMby IDWJll. lM tfllld lbe ....... cmlimwt in such A f..maa. aucb tlW Ibey pimpled among the Coallitutioml Army. m By arty Sepfanba', even Semfor Adolfo Cabello, a iDllepmdml who bat bendiuecl from Modenre dedlenl r....t. wa lldmiaina publicly tlml lhe Modenre Puty bid no aectibility. Callins for lll'dil'iaa by llDll-putiaul ve&enm. Cabello expreaed confadcace lbal ID ead to lhe conflict Wll ll bind. The primary objective for Ill involved wu 1o prev a U.S. intervenlion. f.ICl'lda Palma. ror hi bialDry in pMl magtea and for Ilia long .... nding moao of craliq a IOCiety of ""more lmCba'I dllln wmrion. .. would not support uaiq ron:e over nep.lioa. he predicfed The only IOlution waa IO find a way for bim fO step down wilb Ilia "1looor" in raca. 117 Dapite lhe scare' awn inlnnlipace. lbae could be ao doubl of ill vulMAbiliay: in mty SeFtcmber. nsvolllliouria MR poiled at lhe pres of Hav-. nitiq only for lhe lemJr in f.a1mda Pll 01 c:alli (-ay Andplde), Mmocal W invitiq dia. llid die ver.m. Why lbould die lebelt pay ay 8llelllicm 1o mdiMtn wllo MR D1g1tized by oog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cl ce -N C" '< 0 1 t I l 1 j I 1 i 1 z r r 1 f r & J f l I I I .. J f I I. a & I I I I 1 l D 5 s f. j I [ l I' l r l 8 f 8 I I f I 0 ii' f i I t !. I s 1 1: I l i r 8 "' ,,. : J,, i = 1 JI_ 'l .( i 11 f f" If J l I 8 l l I ,g !. r II I 1, 11 f ( f j I I l i 1. i J i f i t 1'1 I c: 11. l 1 .. sa_. l r I:. l f 1 z B. s a 1 .. a I !i' t t 1 I 1 if 1 ; r t I i I I I I f f ; f l g i f j J 83 I l I l ii( f 1 1 t Ir l ; I f ( f I ( I i a a

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z I I I f I 1 I I l l 1 t I I l 5 f 8 : l l I i 8 f r i J. I r I l Sil II' e f I f a 1 r r I!: a i sa. ::i [ sa. f if I' g_ I I l f I f I I I I f I I l ( 1 f f, It. f J. t l. !l a f.I f J i I I r I ( I I I i I l K t l I I sa. I I I. I i g. I '< I. i 1 l. I I It r Ii 1 ; 9 1 I l J f I r f I I J J J i I f l l J i I r l f ,, I r. I i' I I i I 1: I r I J s 5 f tn l l It ,. "' 1 J a I I p r f I f i I i I l I t i i t f t I I f, .., i I I f l 5 t i i i 5 w I 8

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z f [ I I I I 1 I I I i p i 4 I t I I I i I i i I I -i l 1 f i I f l i I f .. I I Ir! a I 1 I. I: I I II I i' Ir Ir I J ( I I I : j' I [ i I l.ilJsf r f f J l 1 i f f 1 I Jir;fffs. .Jlf s]:i. 1 ltl(l I I 1 t IL. (11. ;!!' ... !!!'\ A 1r a I t i i I ( I e 1 I r ;pr Is a. t l rl. 1 I 1 s i t l l l Ii' J r r I r lfi11r llflsJ I if f t < a s t I I l i= I. !. j J a = 1 1 ;;-1 -r .. r 1 1 i 1 t i j I I I I 1 . I l i i w

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381 However, aD line U.S. temnm demonltraled a c:onapleee iponnce oldie lilUllioa in Cuba. Knowled oldie exuema m poliliall fmud and ioleDce wbicb die Moderata Ud cammiaed aver die pmiaul two ymw came to lbeir alleldioa (lppllftlly for the f ant time) oaly lbrouab lbe coune ol T.rt 'own invaliprioal for Romevelc, it w limply a quaUOD d f on:iag lbe Modemel fO ICClllpl a plu limilar IO dual propmed by Ydenlll. ea. However, Taft quietly dilcovend 11111 die Moderala, moll ol Ill f.l1mda Palma. bid oaly one IOlulioa in mind. Sayi dull ID)' conceaioaa on clecroral lllallel9 "\ivould be incomil1ent wieb bis dipity md boaar," Eamda Nma iaued Taft an ultimanan: "1fe and Ilia cabiaet ay dial the oaly c:oune open to the United &ala is war wilb lbe illlUl'pll ad fuue conlrOI. [ ] It ii qui1e evident lbal Palma, and I reu, lbe Moderare pmty, are ddermiDed to force anned iDferVenlion by UI. "m Roolevclt '1 n:1pome to dlil was a combimlion d fury, euspcmlion ud s-mc. He lellled Taft' olwious incliaalion to pul lbe molulion down by ron:e in order flD dmr lbe way ror m mema1ly impcwed illusiaa cl awe lllbility. Roolevelt lpenl lbe nm KYcnl ys onlerin1 Taft not to tlb m ldvenmial pOlitioa wida lbe rebeia. la an isoaic twill d r-. be alto pel'IODllUy 1iff1 e lied IO f.lnda Pllma '11e111e ol pllrioCilm. 111 But 1be ....-Taft' quiaceace IOWUd Uberll r ... m ..a mollllioury c1mp ID dllir poliliall .tv..._ >.. llllDModenla f...t moluli.-y cbanlC mucb if aot --.... the Amaicw. Pl\'.Jprlllllll of u idea ol --dll& llld booome hM:rcuiqly aiCWc:ll to MYollllicmly dwnp, Ibey WtR pm ...... ID alva what dley Md allady D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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382 built of tllal ....aon" 11111 CCIII. even iC it_. aivina up their riaht to diJeCt ill ....-eo a pcmmmt lllllfed by fcnipcn. In ways CDMilleDC wilb cbe inbelent dllir peculiK cmreat of mljwwlism. Moderata Ud few doubts -11 this poiM-dW tbele fomipen could do a beaer job of .. aalioa"-builcliag dm Ibey. For bis ... f.aUlda Palma could not f albam lbe idea dlll any odl:r ...... baidel that promored by Ilia own .miDilClalian lboulcl mve uy rips to exill As be 1 ed ia the first cxtnlOrdiwy of lbe Olba Coapal Oil September 14Ch. lbe pmsibility -armed iebel lllO\'emeDl caulcl ever have called iDro queaioa lbe credibilicy and 10aeipty of die Republic bid BCYer cnl II bis mind. Who would bave IUlpeCfed, ia lbe midst oldie panmtous proaperity of lbe c:ounciq on millicml man dollm in lbe Tlwuly, even afler baviq paid tbe Liberaliq Anny .ad let up a mullicude ol sdtic worb [ .. )wbo would have -.peeled[ ... ) dlll dlae could be CUblal wbo miPtccnpire amoq lbellllelva ID aaempt by fon:e ol anlll die sulwenioa ol a ccatituricml lqi-. subltitudq 1111 Law of fon:e .ad violellce, order for Miidiy, pelCC for nr? 111 &ada Palma' plniq wonts ID lbe Modcr*8 wmbled before him revealed men dm j bow out m IDUdl wilh die .-. of IOCicty dley His wORlt revaled lkM' ddifl'aml die)' Ill were to die lllclDllive. ..,uiaa "ntlicw" for wllida lbtwn+ of CubM molulicmricl bid foupt ad at been williq ID aie lbeir liva-jUll mudl dw11 u ... D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z !f ilfl:f f f 1, i "'"' .. 111 .wil Is-r' f Q C: a I' I l ., I .f I I Q. I t I ii. I I l f 11 ., SI, l I I I' I l I. i: I f [ i ff !. i f 11 s-ff: 1 I I i II I J I I f i 1g1 1.1., l l J JI I r Q. t ff a, I q = i a i ( j ( I z 1 R-J( i I. f f 1!8.:. i; f f s si. 1 j I ; I r r: J I j r &: i . J i I I !. j I l s f I PS I! .. g. IL '" r '" a. I I J. =' [ I s f f I s [ l I l f i I I I J 1 1 l J !. I i I I l 111-11111-1 i I. l ... l I l I f I" 1 f. l I l i 1 f c I i l I I I ! l I j l 1". I &" s= 1 r f ?-f.1 r. If a R i J : Si. T-l : l ( f I I f. .. l

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z lf{ll1lilJf: t'gl!Jil'J. i I 8 (1 i I I i f i I f I I f ; f I I I if. ') 8-1. r! I. r. l ta 1 t c I :11 I f 8 I. 1 8 It I J q c:" .. s-g it H.-: s.: ... :(}Jj r t I J .r 1 t 1 1 ii' f 1 I f I I I I i ; I ! i l i i I I I J s i f 1 111.l I I ; 1' I I I I I l I ; f I I t i J l .. I l H I: s f r f t I { J es I l r I J ;; j s f 1 i .! I i )I i I. ii s l If t I -1 i. sa. !; (I: i I I !l_ I l f. I J g I I t! i I f i 8 f J r I .1 r ( n !: I z 1 g f I I f 1 ( J i i t f i ; i s I f I Ji. I 11 J l I

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385 Howard Taft declmed llimelf Proriao.t Oovenu of CUbL m Symbolic of the of'fec:illl bidll ia Cuba. Taft brote witb rules pernina lbe fim u.s. lntaveation of lR by ordariq dial calm flap RIDlin flyin1 on .U government buildinp. m Olly one IDODlb iDID die ReYolulioa of 1906, Moderala' ianmi.-:e compired witb UbClll ladcn rear tblt CODlrol ewer lbe outcome of a populaty bued nr mipa slip (IOID their pup. ne result Wll a lnlllfonuliCJD oCU.S. impcMlilt policy. U.S. policymabn bid not iDtaded lo play lbe Platt Amendmeat card if it could be aYoided: in r.:i. ii ... lbe impen.lill Ulicmlilll I mwillinpea to concede any c:oacrol CJl/CI' -stale (at by lbe ""nation") to Olber Dllioaati111 that broqbt aboul a full military inllaYentian by die Uaited SCl&a, l'llher dlaa a diplolDllic mediarion. Esaada Palma '1 rdmal to compromile widl molUlioamia produced lbe spedre or a ravishina ciil wmr dial U.S. inYellon Md lbeir bKbn in Wlllliqa WIDred to avoid at all c:o111. Tbe rault of this audormation rrom mediarim to illfCIVenrion Wll dual Cubln illlerelll-polilical. IOCial and economic-became deeply l!!lllDl!!lbed in die ICCUll potm1ial role of lbe United Stara. lbe mkmill i-t Mll lbe mm paler' dlallen .. ludl a pat c:raled f tbem in die flllln. Lookin1 t.ctw..1 oa Manf a symbol of lbeirown memories of lbal pu&. illlperialilt Dllicwlim ia die Modmle Piny lllempeed to ftllMlllber it ill ways CCJGdacive to D191t1zed by oog Original from __LINIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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CJ ce -N C" '< 0 I I I i l I I l : I I I j f I I t I I t1111i18 8 .. -f ( q I g II .. !: I. I I 1 I c(. I: l J I f 1. : I r i l f I I: I 8 I t I l i I i If I I I I 1 1 I ; ! I i I : I I i 1 ft a t R. f > 1 I l & J a. 11 1 R f ti 1 f J .f D c: I. f. I a. 8 8 R. a. i i. i r I i t a '1: I I J i 1' r !I i R. I ..: c: r. i r i l If 8 c t I I a I ; 1. r i ir' f I l J I I s : iC sa_ l l 0 Q II I "' I r t I l r i j ( I 1. ?; f l I I: I l I i I i I I I I i ( J [ f I f D I I l I II i i I I l l I r I l r ., 1 I 8 3 a I. l ij' f S .( I S l ] . t !: I a 1: 1 I r J l r Q. a ,., I.ti t t f !! t J 1 .f l i' -

PAGE 411

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z llifiilflI I: 9 ii ;! : J. I [ fs : I. a J 1 l i ts. & :. s \ } I B rr 2. 1. I : 2 I i i l I I : I f ll. ll -< f ;; 1 r .. I i' 8 '<1 i 11 l I I' I I l.:. r11 '< I i f J I J f8 I J i f I I t f I i f J f, i la 11. lJ fj !I .,.. - } 1 a c: l r a r I f I I l I i i r I 1r a I i l J l 1 l l a. n: 1 !. f. s I r & f i &: a: I l r a r r r r i tA I r Q. I = s 1. 1. .t I w I f 1 1 i t l r I a J l 1 1 2 r i 1 Q. 1 l a. 1 8 J i i z i I r l 1 1 J ; i I t : } I t l 'i .1 Q. f 1 .. ii!= !i ..! j C f f l : g D ;. tn I I

PAGE 412

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & if Jtf llll!tl{ i i t 1' t i ( 1rlli ill1t.1.111 I i r I I' i f ..... Ifs .. f !J r --i'I I i i ff ii-9 i I. 1:111 r 111 1'1 I 1 "ii '1 I J l J' .. i < Ill J !' .. iiiUJ 1,. I ; l1}f r.-J'ii I F I 'lt ..... _t I !:: 3 flr'i i'll-, l! z r fir 1 li1 ' 'Ii J i I I I a: I i i ,. 1 f l i i I 8 J t [ .. 1 r 1 I l 1 e 1 i I 1 l r a l 1 e; j 1 I 1 f 1 I -

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z J 8 I J Ii II Ii j I a t 11 r' I i i 11 t i a B a J I I I I I g w I I If ti ti i I i =i i .. it1 .. i l I le Ii. !i!lf J1 .. I 1 'J ii I D it if itit' fJi' 1!111 ; if 1!1 '1il )flf I I I ,..... I .. ,, l Ill !'I ( f i r.t I f I 4 I wl 1 f l;t ; o 1 i !i i'i l '''( rf If 11 r ;;I ,. r II 1 : j i I' ilr I 11 1Jf 1JfEIJ lr,11 i ;: r1 l dr I .. i ii

PAGE 423

1'bole who baYe becmMe to COWlt oa the pcramcat d Wllbinp>n. lite a Melli1b, [-. : I would do wen. in my opimoa.. to comider die ro11owiq peel d lbe litulliaai. While ocben pan u. our proNrms, alrady dift"acult and complex. become llMR complicaled wl more diffJCUlt beoue Ibey mix widi otbm much mon: arduous and rompln. aad forably subord:inalc om ro dlein. It was for dis [n= ... J that the poet (JoK MmUJ aid be pldemd ro drink rrom bia own cup boweYer ...u. becaue a1 last it was bis. PntlllJ/1Ull tJw POl'fl/Jox o/ U.S. llrtpmlJrU.. -Emiqae V11ma November 7. 1906' In October d 1906, U.S. Presidm t Theodore RooleTelt appcinred Cblrla Mqoon IO replace U.S. Secretary d Waz Taft a Pn:llYilioDll Governor d CubL Mab from a ICint in Pllmna where be Md presided over lbe c:omolidalioa of U.S. coalrol over lbe newly Kqaired canal zone. Mqoon penanifl lhe objec:Uva of U.S. foreip policy in Lalin America u Roa.veil' 1 While Heme defiined ahem. Unlike previous Nol1b American pernon ol lbe first U.S. Inravenlion in Cuba ( 189Pr 1902). Mqoon was not a military Mqoon pve lbe imprmion ol benevolc:nt, politiclll i...,.u&ity coupled wilb a pmter'lllilt reluctlnce to ue force. M U.S. otrlCilb bid learned from lbe fant U.S. inlenemion, lbil ns pR!Cilely die combiurion of c:hlndlNlicl on wbidt die lqitimlcy of U.S. imperialilm iG Cuba n=lied. Mone Cuban wrirer IK*d, Mmaooa lmew how fO '"wilt IRMld u wan11 lbe Ullilld S1alel ro do ill die wilbout the 'bi1 llict' lbat [Wubiqtoa mpru inI,] '*I)' ia dlcir lllad [ ... ) modif)'iaa the l*if1e-.... ol lbeir CD1Wa1ace md ._ deliN for prolpelity, pw:e and die pJd of ell."' Since kerpiq up die D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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400 aood iallaliaal pnwed c:rilic:lll ID Rocmnlt'1 CMXJGraic and "'*lie abecliTca in Cuba wt till.-of Liiia America. be knew tbM Macom wu lbe rip& ..... ror die job of b djq lbe Uailld SW-1 .CC.S ialm111111icailt permL Accanliqly, Romevelt directed Mmpm aad IU repn:11almlivca in Cuba ro keep my canfliccl lbll miallt emerp ewer die couae of lbe :aiad U.S iunenb IUicdy ""'"' QDaa IDd not Ntwa Cutus and NOlih Americlma. While U.S. apnll would (onnally conad mililmly and pemmenlll atrlin in Cuba r1om Oclobel' 1906 tbrouah January of 190IJ, U.S. 11oop1 were IO be kepi ia 1he ID live coaf Mleace, not do fipaina" from die mrt. By llllkiq it lppCll' lbal U.S. iplllll in Cuba exen:iaed a ltricdy ldviloly .ad admiailttalive RJic on lbe illad. Roolevdt hoped e> ere.ale a litullioa in wbicb feUow Cublnl, ltOl lbe United Slala, remained die llrFl cl my local saemaen11 which mipt Ilise. For this rwon. 1be milicmy pernment dlll lbe Unired SW illllalled wilh lbe help cl 5.600 Nonb American IOldim md 1,000 llllrine1 IOOk lbe lide ol a .. Provilioaal Aclmillia&ralion" balded by a fedml judae salbel' lbaa a .-.a. U.S. MmY repneaca mlioDed in Cut. mumed lbe lide ol 1he .. U .S. A11111y of Cuba Plcifalion. "'la Wllldna Ille lipcmpe between penuaion and lbe dnat ol '4xce. U.S. off ICillll hoped to _,.qmnt U.S. allicml imaeltl by bcpina CUbaforU.S. bulli-IDflourilb. For Mqoon, paa iD Cuba meMI men llm1 merely bllMCiD1 politic:a forms lbaa bid recady been al nr wilb one IDOlber. It -1Umuriq IMl Cuba's P'l"il cluw and ...... elilel fl!!IDl!imd pllimdy quill !.'ml M dlcy aniled lbe ol objecliYCI of dallic IOCial dwlp Ibey -=nllld ID 1be 11195 Revclluliaa. Wilb Ibis ia adad, Cloemor a.tea ............ MllU"1 cmly ....... MllUyZ.,. ............... "'Ii-Giiiy a rcw dlJt .ner lie llliYed ia ca ia Oclallll' 1906. He dllm well, ror me D191tized by Goog e Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z J J I I I I f I I I i I I I ; t I f I if llt:i i rt ri i. l ( r 1 I f D Ei f f Q, A i [ l SL Q. I 1 I ,: 0 ;, I t. D. f Q. 9' I l i I I 8. l f JI' l I l f J' -ll i. 11 l 1jllao1 :Jf!a.!lf Is t I I 1 i H l I i I r t J J r s I I .f f f s 1' a a. . f t i: . i I: I f L. I' I. 5 ii' f I l Ir. I g (!J l I I f f l J I i I I j l I F i I f J I If l .J [I J H l i I!: .. j 5 i 5 I'll. B Qi, . lei ff i Ii' I 1 I 5 I I I f I I I l I i I l 1,. r I f I f I: s i l S. 1 l l f I t 1 l 1 l I i: I f. .f i Ill !. I if l s : I l [ l la. i g1. f I I r I 1 : 1 1 t l i 1 r I 1 1 I a. [ 'I a. l s 8 '< Q, -

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z I i't t I I 11 I 1: f i I t i t I i I ( 1' i I 8 1 i,, ij 1 1 -l f !'!f.iiii[1.a: f s l l!l1. 1 l 1 1 I 1 1 8 I J r 1 I I I i l j s 1 I&.] f J 'f B a. a. .. If I.a I r.: ;12(i i n I t J 8 I 1 f 8 -1111: s t 1 !I I 1: l]l l: a t 1: s1 l:; s &" I I r I I i [ i l I ( I I n I l r ij' 8: I g I t i' t .t f j I 1 I 1 t i i I -:ilt.f i i 11!.lJrl1] I t. : i i' i f l I j i l I B iii 1 t I t I .t f ."a. 1 -<. s r 1 I 1 f t lf l '" A

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CJ cg -N !l 0 1 0 Q.a c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z I i f I J t I I [ I 1 I 1 r. l I I t f l 'Isl t f l l!: s i. a r-1 i I I r I ! I a 1' 1' t I I I s i I 'r. r t I' t 11: 11B.I11 'f s l 1 I a J f is r 1 r f IR. I I J l J I s r t t t I ( i I l I I I r. f f i I I l 1 l l I I r c a i l } 1 s I l.1 tn l sa. i:i A. 9 5 .. l"ll 5 I. 'c: t .I s 1:1' f 1 f. I I r 1 :iii 1 1 f 1 1 -1 I f I r l f 1 a_ i: I I fi: I l I 1 f J. I I If i I l I .r: : e: \1 1 I If [ 1 : j I ji. _, l!: l a-J Jj I 1 l if .J a 1 1 [ I( ff i! ,, f 1 I i. l I i

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z I j I r I I i f I l l I I I r i I i I I l f I I l t i l f I I J i i 1 I I J i i I 1 1 1 I r I l I _' !1:!. !1.;ilJ.lri11 t1Jf !j iii t 1 i I I I t l I 1 I I I [ I i : f t i i I l Q_ g r. ;_ '< 1 i I i i l e: I I I I i I l 1 .. !: f I." i!. 11l1 &" If I l I i a s I i I f i r. i f. J I l f It' l a. r s a. Q. .. a-! r s : 1 i I r r1i: r i Jt. 1 1fi1 lli (it .f I .f i < .5 o . If a f a a_ a I l

PAGE 429

lncrqina oae poup'1 iaterall ewer anodler's. In sbort. lbe n:volalicmmy conr.ext in wbidl Maaoon' 1 edlninillnlicm ICled combined widl popalar peR:eplioal of ill dom 11> render a lclbal cbe of political dependency to Cubm aalicmlm.. Tbe r.ait would be a billOrial litullian of ever....-idecJloaical fmm wbic:h Cuba's dlRle natioulitt projecll would not easily or quietly secoer. By way of ialrodudion. I will ._ Mqoon' 1 policies of "neuaality" widl repnl to warriq political faom in Cuba and en11111e lbeir implicaliom for dmlgina lhe political aailUda of elites tanrd lbe Uniled Slates. Nexl. I will 111m to lbe ccaplex cblllcqel poeed by IKe -class illues to lhe M1gooa adminilhlion. ID IO doiftl. I will dilcover lbe oripm of tome popular mi
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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z 1i1l1 I t r : I ; I I I t I i I I II J I 2 I I I i I B I "j 11 r 1 1 s 1. .. I' 1J. il11llf 1i i !. ! I [ I i i i i I i l D: I .. t l i l .. i f ii I i I l I i I i I : ill f I l I f f J l I I I I l I i I i i I I i s 1 J -ii' .c 1 I r. I p. 1 r B t . Ii' I s ...... l l l f I I f I i t t -l I I l I I i I i & i ( I I t ( I I f g_ I n I I i I I I t t I I I l -I .,. f l 8 I 1 1 1 i 1 r r f I l & I f r r a l r f I I D I l i I f f f j (

PAGE 431

aft'eme_ lbe.......,....,.... .... ....,._ID pabtic Mminilhlioa" dial lbe publicity d a lrill would...-"'pmdy OUIWeiped my" ID lbe U.S. Keepq lhe affair quiet, Crowder intimated, w lbe bell way d Ucpiq wbal could have bllea illmd-wide sympmlby for lbe IClallCICI under wnip1. Tbi1 exampled dae public .. dclecnlion" d a U.S. f1q bclueifully iUUll:r*I how wy Cubml. apec:ially *-d die middle llld upper dames, iacreainafy came ro feel lbal nadonbood. Tiie incidcllt'1 lipif1Caee derives from lbe fact daal it Wll not exceptional. Oil occuiaDI IUdl. the f cudl d July I for iamnce. Cubans wl Spnienta llib kJOt dae opponunity to plmize their diSllnce frcm lbe Uri led Slala by prominendy ban1 die f1q d lbeir rapec:live nalioal. Unlib lbe fant U.S. llllaVealion wtlen Cuba flap bad lllways llppWCd in lbe ccmpmy o( ill Nartb Amcricu .. silW" mid lbe --d Min( 'CCCllDpUied ... o( Wasbinatm. IDOlt CUbw duriaa Map>n' I admiaillralion did not plltic:ipile in pllldel bonoriq Nm1b American indepelldeace and no loqer dlOe ldively ID appropriare ill l)'lllbols.' Sometimes, even the .-mad respect for die U.S. holiday which Cubul off am Ciqed by mcasm 11 they were by sincerity: when Cubm t.ldl played a July 4lb CODCll1 on Havw' Malccda. far iammce, lbe Oabaa coadudor played two d bil own compolilionl, lwo-tdep eadtled .. [YmbelNMl)" IDd a ...:h apparmlly inlpil9Ci by 1be 1 c:Menlb' Nordl Americanl atiO)Wl IO macb called .. a.a,.... CCabl-IJ .... Suell lubwlrm dilplay. ot ea111m ... ma* 1111t m DllllY manbcn m Cuba' 1 IOCial llld patiliml elif81 reval IM puMq llllllipity willl wllidl die)' CU1e ID view D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & I I I i I I' a 4 i r u f 1 1 t 1 I i 1 -i J I i i l f l r I I t I t f I I I I"'! I I: .... f. ; I ... Ii r 1 i i I B c t J I iii c _. _.. M: ... .. 11111!" ._.... z B.t-'I r i18.1JI11---- 1-r sr 1 1 r f 1 -; t f f. I f I t -< :; i. r l 1 s r I: &. '2 .. ., I i o.. f i !" i J. 1. I I i f f t 0 -! I ii I 1 i I f I I I I l i I i i I l [ t s Ii l i I '< '4! s-s A

PAGE 433

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & I IC: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z I 1 I I l i I I I I J t f l I I I f t f f i I i i l l J 11. I I t I f I 11} I 8 Ji. i l !It" II I I I f f I I I I I l o. < a, l I I l I i !i f. 2: s i q I i: .. I 1!:E11: i i r l l t I B i I ft i D> g. I: .. l !I .. I ; t I f i f I J 1 t I -t I ; & t 1 r J f 1 1 1 i f 1 11 1 I i J J a. I if I I I r: I I I f & e: o. a. l fi. &' I s 8 -:. I f

PAGE 434

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z .Ji JI :'fll!lfl rtt l!Jf1!j.!il .1i:1;J1!fff.!i I c f i f f l t 1 J I f l I I i i 8 i I 1Jf9 I a 1 s i I JD ! f s I ii I !' s Si. l I ft II I: I: It 1 I J t I r i l 1 I 1 t p 1 11 t' 1 1 I f ; i 1 1 I I 1 I f r i' t : s I 1 a I & l c 9. r l j I i !. 1 i I l f f I l '< flf 1f !1I sf I l i J I I I i f I [ I t' J I 1 : ( ( J i ps 1 2. t 1r a r 1 9 : a ;i 1-s 5

PAGE 435

411 1906 in Piw del Rfo. cbe CJl'iliml lile ol nwolldiamry rcnor lllM 1U111mcr. cbllpd dlM the Rural Oard w laking ldYanaqe ol lbe U.S. ,,,... .. to dimm members d the ColllliMioul Army. In dlae Oulldl -.U ronner Modenllel-blrwed. bell and nen bWlg innoceat cim.-wilboat trial (a& lalt one ol whom was blKt) on weapom cbarpl. "Do we live amoaa av ... [caft'u)? What ii tbe point bae? To force die people ID mate jultice by their own bllld? Tbe Libenll put dlae races [ ... ] a1 lbe cxmideralion d Mr. MalQOD. ad Mt for justice and nodlina more d181ljllltice [ . )if public pace ii to be a reality." die manifesto declared." Clearly. thae Libenls inlerpr'efed Nania American .. neullality" in dlae CllCI a llnlamOUDt to complicity with die terror lleliCI d ModenllaIUIDed-CamenaliYCI. la Olba' caa. provinml wiCBellel could not deem the .. innJltipliom" d Nonb Americm omcilll a guicW by 111ythina but OU1ripc partiality for Moderara. Reporu ol IUdt CWI only lelYed ID lfob the rua d Libaal raeacment." Y ec, however peailSCDt the complainll d dllir CODlliblellll. few Liberals in pmiticm d luderlbip in Havam were iaitially willina to IUa a f on:eful lllDd oa their behalf before Mqooa'1 pernmem. On cbe me bwl. lbe way Maaooa lllUclUred bis pemment ammlled lbe 1905 election rau111 in tbe fmt days ol the U.S. lnavearion. Magoon iaued 1 decree plOVidina dlll lbe Cabin Coapea remain in pcnnanent recea" dlroupout die coune d lbe U.S. lalaveation. Tbil eft'edively lnlllf'ared all Ieplalive powers to the ...,......, executive (Mqom) and wiClioaed lbat lie ndc pRYiOUI U.S. milia.ry pcnon Md clme: by decree. On lbe acba' bind. MlplD finencjllly neunliml may aMioml I.ten' inccalive ID complein Sewa 'Weeki after lie n11Nimed nlle by decne. D191t1zed by oog Original from _JJNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z r J f I } I I J R [ 1 I I I i t J I i }i.f !ji:rfilt''1 I. I I I I l J 8 t l I l : n f f f t. t. ;.11 I .. D 1 i' t 1 I 11 !. i I I Q. 8 I .. ff II D (!I. i. 'l i f 11'1 ) I 11 f. f -. I f f f I i l I i l l I i B :t f l t1. c: I 1 1 1:1. 1 i: f t i t 1 [ I I i t r "' i 1 a f I ... r l I r l J I I i I g I f i i I i i I If I t s Q. f I. j e. I i a 1 .. I 11 1 1 t I I I ( c i l I l i I I a. l i tn a l a N

PAGE 437

0 cO N a "< l o 00 c: z < 5!30 V"I .... -< ,., :::E --a """"3 8 :z VI z I I I I l ; f l l I l a l l f I i I I l I I t I l I l I i I f t j a i l I I a I I a i 1 Ei' ,. l 9 : r i: 1111, 11. 11, a 11 I 1 i I f I 1 I I 1 f r t I l f l I 1 I s t t ; t l i l l ! I I r c: I l a: f I t I s J' I. I a. .. R l r-i i I B I t f I f i ! i ! I I f f I I 1 I I I I i I I I 1 Ii [ l i i I i i 8 : l f f I I I f t I i J I I I i i : I rl g ... 11 r 1 Ii g f I l r I J i a l s i 8 '< Q Gr f 'l 5 '< w

PAGE 438

414 Hav-. Maaaon aaribulld .. ia lbc bowleqe ol lelfp...-.t ro m:identl ol biltory dlll bid alloc:lleii ID IM Ulliled SW lbe lldY ...... ol laundred )al'I ol educali lbe riaht al liberty, ii tbe bail ol Ill modem. aucceaful civilizllion, and until you haYc i1 ammunity ol political influence and CIOllllOl wbicb ii lfl'ec:ted by die cowrviq inllueac ol popeny Md property ownenbip, ..:r..rul popular permnent is impoaible." Mmjpm ended die ..-ell wida lhe cry, .. Viwl la lkpllbllt:a Cllb& (Lona Live lbe ca Republic)." His wonll, spoken in lbe Aula Mapa ol lbe Uaivcnity and widely publilbed in lbe Cuba presa. mUll mvc been mulic ao lbe em of Caa.rvlliYea. D Bui. 8':Una on lbe ec:oaomic PW!Kll'C' and political policies ICt fonb by lbc needl of Nonb Americ:m Qpilll llMI ilH Wllile HoUle, Map>a's Kliom IOOll proved lbeir inieial ractiolll wrong. Coaenrldiva bepn ro IUlpecl lbc cammilllnm ol Maaooa ID dw:ir icle.a. aace it Libeall. Accontiq to me Cownave, popuillfdw Libenla. wllml be clacribed -...... .U lllst." belieed dm lbe Ulliled Siila ,,.. oa dleir *le. Comeq11e11dy, be D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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IOCilll impopriely lbat mdermined die llllbility oi die IO&:ill llnlctlft .............. the maml fabric c# OlbM IOCiecy. Since die Nardl Americw Ud llrived. he bias lmd bepn on atreec comen. lhowiq off bona Ibey 1Cquired in lbe l'ecal rwolulion. imultiaa Spuilll lbopbeflen ror DOt Prins them credit in their srma, "n:bukfmaJ die wbitc mm. -S IUkiag m iDICJlenl c# lbemlclYel eYen wilb Sdoras problbly white. women]." Some bl8Cks even IDMlpd to commandeer rree FIB ... for lbeaRlves Oii aaiu. ....... dull lbe udlorities lmd sw:tioned IUdl a beaefia to an '"Libelal IOldien. Tbae-c# IOCial defimce on die .,.n oi u"benlll anpn=d Comervarives wbo intapefed mcial ....... d IOCial cWerence a aitic:al Evea pmla' probleml emqed wilb Maaoon' s policy reprdin1 immip'lllion. While Mqoaa I adminillnlion did lppl'OYC &nda Plfma' I IChcme (or promoDDI white immi..,._ the way in wbidl Mqoon implemenled it did not liYe up ID ill origiaaron' calcuUricm. For one lbiq. lhe nmnber oi immipanas rrom Spain IDCl lbe Cuary lllandl dlupped prec:ipilOUlly rl'Olll a hip d wrty S>.ooo '-/ott die leC:Olld U.S. intaYentioll in 1905 to ... Ihm 2().000 per )'ml' duriq Maaoon' I PloYilicJllll AdminisUation. In 8ddilicn, 1905, lea dllll 12.000 did 'in 1906111111 by um. cmly bill a may (appimerety 6. mce Ibey w made lbeir mmey. nae no IUde daeir maaey llduoUlly c:amiaa cue were aftea ... r ... eo me wllile dae wllo .......... femme in oommen:e )'Id. at Fmm lbe Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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416 IOCie&>" wu unaed jamr mn lbe pmcc11 m IClcial and cu11n1 ............ 1n oaler for dlil wart. wbile immi...-bid ID come rilb lbe purpme d emlllillliq fmilia-md d counie. ia oaler far dal to blppen. Ibey Md to stay. Mcnower, die pl ol improri.a1 CD' mcial lfOClt lbroup immiplian wmt bml-in-hand widl emblilbi a rady pool m chap labor for plamicm: om j...Uied lbe odler. Under Mqoon. lbele policy priorilia were not mly bMl ICaJl'di1111 to lbe Coaler'Yllives, dac poaibilitia m improriq Cuba' 1 --llOct'" were uadermined alqedler. Despite lbe illli-.c:c m Maaooa' Cownlllive .tYilorl lbal oaly immi ...... 11 o( lbe '"Cec:eli111" 1'11Ce no uaveled wilb tbeir families admitted ID CUba. 111c period from 1906-lQ saw a drl.-:ic rile ia lbe aumber ot people nviq from illaadl wida Ofenrbelmiqly popullliml sucll lbe Brililh We11 India and Hmti. Evea mare wcrrilome. a lll'F number ol lbem-rec::naired tealOllal laboren-did not lca9e lfter' lbcir CDldl'llCll expiJed. t.t 11a)'ed. 17 GiYc:a lbe ol U.S. supr corponliom far labor, especially in eutrm Cuba wbere Ibey were inY11din1 spmely pnplelDC.t, Yiqin land. Magoon' I cammillneal ID meeliq lbe labor ..... o( fonian QPilal lppllnlllly ovenodc 111y COllCCl1ll be mipc have blll wilb Cuba' .. IOCial propea. "But Maaooa' failure to lppl'OCiare bow Camavlliva ullldenlood immipalion u a medlod d -..-erina eumded be)'Olld die..-blaklllowa m ._ immipm11 hil policies la lipr d llil pala'caamilmeal IO .....,.lina Ibo ..... d U.S. QPilll Mer ._ m 1ca1 c.p..a. ..-ua1e .-. Ill Ibo Did d prioriliel 1c>C111 poliriciw, wllldler Libml or Cclarerv.1ive. for IHI. Tlil ltlidiaa principle ia Matocm' potic:yx Cuba ii bora out ROtcmly by Ille i....ralicm ia U.S. carpome D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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417 expoprialioD d ... Md ..pd expemiOll ia ..... Odla duriq du. period. but alJlo by Magoon' IDClle direct eft'om so racili .. lbe ICdvilia m Nonb Amcrialn c.pilll duoulb pemmenl clecna. For example, ia 191:17, ....... iDClccd lbe pcmibililia lbat Calm pr m would IOle .ccell IO land by decneiq lbe diYiliOll oi Mcf.t.Mrr aJllmlmlf. Tbae we plOll dlwl dat pemDM beld cmamumlly, eilber heel d ..-mMe by lbe Spenilh CrowD or limply after mny yairs cl .. 1qlllllin1 .. and mulUll cullivalicm by more dllD oae fmily over time. By llkin1 pmanll (IDDll ol whom were illite11m) ro court and clagncljng CYidence cl owaenbip lblt the majority could not provide. U.S. corpcnlicm llDOd to pin not only land. but a rady pool oi wCJlbn wllo would laeacef onb have IO depend oa n.-from planllllioa wed to survive. Over time, Magoon' 1 ecoDDlllic policia IDCI their IOCia1 implic:M
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wilh may clop. pmblins IDd poor mcaticm. MIFOD IUllled a blind eye ID an dne wida tbe raull M public "'immorlility" wl dilClle proliferllied. A Y ct. Oaba' 1 popular clwa did not necanrily pen:ieive or experieDcc Mqoon' 1 418 style of pcmi111 nor tbe effects of bis policia in die mne way 11 Liberal and Comervalie elita. For one dlin&. tbe impld of Maaoom' eca.aic polic:icl w uneven. biaiag tbe free peuanll of Orienre especially bard but leavina uas with toaa-tenn hilforia of planlalion apicullUl'e Im atrec:sed. Magoon I m.,..,,,,1 of lbe 0epmtmeat of Public Wodal provides nen more drlmalic cue ill poiJl1. Appnady. Mqooa wu unaware (or UDCODCemed) IUl lbe F.ICJWla Palma ldnainilnlioa' vas& approprialioal for plllnfom public worb projects were only inraded to buy vo1a for tbe mlicml eicdioas of 190.5-lbey were never ltqipmed ro be carried ou&. Reprdlea, Mqoon rook die implemenlalim of dae projects seriously ad in dne yean, ..ty lripled the amount of money appropriared for lbeir aJIDpletiOL It fmponandy, Mqoon jUICified recnailina die YMl majority of bisbJy pmd recbaic:al ldvilon and eaaincea from Che Ulliled sw on lhe premise tbal lbere were hardly But wbile educlled Odw bw:C'med liale f nm Mqoon' 1 projecll. the repmir of i-.s WllllUUc:IUle prorided much wded employW for die dK-mnde of unemployed . c-.. whom die left dclciue ror much of wh )al'. Id Mqoon llOlcd in bis 1907 lqMJlt ID lomeYelt, .. Praclic:llly Ill of die c:me (lllCI of mpicullllnl worbn] are wilboul employment lix IDcmllll ia lk yw.11111 by Aupll are wi*>ut wy or-m suppon f ..._., ...a fmtia [ ... J Uada' daec:ondiliml die proper mune for die
PAGE 443

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z 11 . ll ( J I (f 11a I' 0 I t ; I 1 I I I i I l 1 i f j i -1 m f f I I f i I { J I i 1 I f 1 f J c f i I I I J I I t f l I I I 1 t I i i f f t i I I t I I f I l f I I t l f j I I l I I i I l f i : I I t t I ; 1 ; I ; 1 I l i I I J l l I I 8 I I i I I f [ I i f J I I i i I ; l I I 1 r : J i f 1 1 I l i l I 1 f !f !s. I l I { l l l 1 i I i I I i I I J I Q i I 1 1 : I I : I ; 1 I i f Q. f -'i" ij' 8

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420 cxiohcemiaa to wbidl die U.S. milimry often subjec:fed daem. dae IDOll litely ID draw lbe ire ol lildea, frequeady baled may penoaael ,.,.. ollcn lbe ie.. c:mpable ol deCcndiq ........ CublD WOlllell ... lower-dw ... m.a pmilion limply did aot .UOW them ID comat u.s. IOldien ._ wida lhe w we 11bal poliliciam coadcm--wl Mqoon policies In dUs iepn1. lhe bcaefitt ol Mqoaa 1 priority ol toeial pwe KCNed llD lbcJle wbo CXJUld DOC or would not count an poliricll lmden to IDlke tbcir coatempt for lbe wider U.S. mililllry praence known. Wllile Mqoon did bis best to beleace lbe fon:ea d pe-ailting polilical disputa by playma lbe .. bilicm d loc:al elilel apimt adl odller. Nodb American IOklien o(fen jeoplniml IOCilll pace by ew:erlleliDI &ellliODI lllld crating c:oallict. for UlllDple die arrival in pan a( lbe U.S. taalelbip Mjdljpa unlashed a rampep ol ailon on Ranediol ml Caiblrica wbo then occupied tballlelves wida clrinting exceaivdy. rdusins to pay for their llcobol. v..,..lizina taverm. wl balina lbe k:al policamn Mio lried to stop diem. Al one point. a U.S IOldier oudiUed bimtelf in die full dlaa unifonn a( a Spanish anay IOldien iavaded die family bome ol rapecllble llllried women in Remedial. ......-ay ""mirWriq lbem for lleiDa bid WClllCll (prollillllll)... Widl lbe belp a( loclll. aalive police. die wama -rt to lbc IMCivioul toldiel11 uabllmed. Ac:liq OUl a( similar D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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421 for die lllb cl IMMMnicy [a.Id we apec:c]r" UMciaHorly, .._U.S. IOldierl md IClecl if dley owned .._. .. acabti..._.. IOldien IClll lhe 111C11aF lbll CUba W11 tlleir priva playpound; dial CubMI lbemlclYa were bisbly cxpnclablc; lhll 1lbeir pernment'1 IWCld policy, Nonb Americw off'-cMy IOldien llld Cutan citizem on d Amr def Rio CiCy, military die 1t1WJ111ookin1 laqb. Wida c.-. c,.,_iy lbauliq illlul IUch .. Prdo [pmp)" ll Cbaa, mmt IOldial felt lbe aeed to f'IU'e llMlir valor. Yet. Ibis olfacer'1' sympllby aaarilhmndiq. die Cbena' I olfa il..t lllic:l milillr)' orden ID Ill unill: "'If Uailed Siiia tlOOpl CMDOt lilllllila frtm fiabinll die Mliva, dleir ...raa-cm dais i.a.nd ii ended. [ ... ] Dilonkll will depmc lholdien fmvolved], im .._Md pil&y, cl dllir libeny.'" Fram local Oliml palim ad pYm c:ardl primlld ia Spmi .. willa die ...... d for police ......... ., lbllead.. D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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U.S. 11111)' ._Oil bil CJML By( Ille lllOlt exinne c:me d coallia betawtl native citiw ..t U.S. ddiea occmed in Maida ol 1901 wllea a U.S. caqxn1 and two priYMa tioned in Pimr del Rio birecl -dm tilled two Cabm filbennea rrom Coloma widl reYOIYen. After dumpiq Ila' bodies OYedKmd, d1e IDldien 1blllhwd die vasel. Judeed by a j\lly oi Nonb Amcricu oft'"IQlll llld lried in a 1apecill court ellablilbed ror precilely u:b ams in die .Sy daY1 oldie llllaYenlion. 1be IOldien were evenlUally ..:quimd IDd bimelf publicly diaeared rmm die rmdinp and 1r1sued cbll lbe prmecution bid allblilbed ... crime oi bomici& Noaelbele11. die tine IO&diln' only pmilblnenl ror munlerina die Cubml wa lbeir ditlloDable di9Cbs&e rrom 1be U.S. Amy ,. SUcb ldionl pve Mqooa a --ol credibility dial pmiOUI ldmiaillrllon ol the &era Palma pcmmem ealirely a.:ad. While cc Ille one llmd MqoDll was bimelf permlly relp*ible (or every IClicn '*-by UJS. (area Oil die island. he llso NNpd IO act in ways wbicb mde bis pro(med commia.. IO JeCUrina c ... civil rip11 and eqmlity bef'cn die law 11ppmr wben dulloidle United S... did DOl Thus. t.flFoD may lave iadvenady (ulfilled Ille sole ar Ille pxl c:audillo tlw popular llld mdiclll malllliaalry '"mlilll lad W8ldld to llllip dleir former presiderlt. In Ille next .... WC will explole die IWIB belUd die lqi11imKy M popUl' llld flldic:al mcluliowy MhnMI ._ Mqocn' l'llime. filldiaa dlll die.,. apirac.1 oi Mlfooa' plikMI in dais repn11ay ia die aa1m m m:e llld c1w. D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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For* Sake of Social Pma u. Ca: U.S. aia1U Poptdar NalloMU-. l._1908 Undoubledly, 1be renewed U.S. imperial pracnce iD CUba bnJu&bt lbe illuel of n...-e llld dUI inlC> simper n:lief. On the me Jud. Mqooa's faciliaarion of U.S. corporale dominance neca ily provoked an iarcmifac:alion ill clua temicns a a new business llld MJlt rqime ICIDded fO Slake only profill and not ponaaal relaDam or KCOUDlllbilily ill1D ICCCMIDl At the same time. the fact lbll Magoon' 1 admiailb'alion portrayed illelf 111 polilicllly ......i .a primarily iataated in lllliatainina order ullilDlfdy womd ID die ldvMCqe of lbe can working c1la. In a liblarioa wllae the imperialist stare could .,. afford IO sp:mor bloodshed in the 111ee&s or appear to concndict its own nwndale of IOCill ,.:e. Cuba wortm IUOpiz.ed lbll lhey bid more ao pin dllll IO lme by playi lbe au card and airina their grievances publicly. On die other band. with rapect to iaues d nice. lbe role of lbe North Amcric:ln prwnce in openina up 1paca for debate w11 more conflicted. In some ways, lbe aaitudes and dlily dilCOUl'IC of Nonb Americans lbemlelYa. apecillly U.S. IOldicn, bid lbe cff'ect of opeaina up deblfe Oil rKiaJ diYiliom and poaibly incrcued det.fe ewer lbe willinpea off ellaw C...._. ID pcrpelUalC tbae divisions despite mmy popular and r'ldica1 moluticmry Dllioallilll' expeclltiaat to the c:unamy In lbe followiq pqa, we 111111 explore bow Cubal rapcaded to dlit c:omplc=t ICt ol llMI bow, iD 111111. Mqoon'1 .ctmiaillnltion soqbl ID OOlllJlin lbe patmeial for Yiolela lbat ....... lluoqll lbe c:ruciblel of lace and dall DOCCFHrily entailed. Only a few moatb1 .,.... Maaom' iDl1lllalion a pm, IDbacco wc:xbn who bid a.aled die a.qo U.S.-owmd Havw Trmc Cmapeay in die vialclady repswal S1rib o( 1901 lllpd wlCber lllillle lpiDll a related U.S. compuy. Under 1be ladenllip of D191t1zed by oog Original from liNJYERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z J i t I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 f ( I I I 1' I I I r 1 l a I i l 1 > :I I 11 l I J J s I l i J J t I l t I i J 1!!:1 f P: I {fr tJ i ii' a. Ii l I f i f 1 f I t l k j I j '1-I t I r. l i s. ij' I r a J rn I r l l a_ I s r 8 t ( .. ( I i l I I f i f I I I l I I I I ii s s i 1i' B I I 5i> !_ 1. !. 8 a. : i J B f I g I l l & I r I 1 a t J r ::o I 1. 11 I I l I i. a. o 'I t n m El IS a ;-I f I '!. l I ; 1 I S I S l l B Ji r. ! t l 1 I r s s I l t s [ e

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & I c: z < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z l l I t I I I I I i I J I i I I IS I It&" ii... lJ 19: 'I"; It i I e I 1 1 l 1 -1 r i 8 I i 2 !! I J a. I! I l I !: I ( I: f t '< 1f11!1t.1iilf i i I I ( ! i I I -! ! I I I i I l I 1 I j J I I I f I l s t I I t I I l I l s ]. I l J. I J 1 I I 1 I r s l s a: 1 i 1 1: t f i' .. l -= r r 1 Jr fr I (ii 11 Ba. a: r I fl) J r1 I I II g !!. [ i I j a "I J J' I J I t i 8 1 I I l t l l l Q I J r ,. g 8 ;t s 8 l E s l I f J I t r 1 1 -e

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z 1 I ( i a 1 i r ( r f I r i ( f r ; I f l I I ; I l I t l 1 I I I I I I I t J I -I if I : i l I t I I I 1 I i:I f 8 If JI' II a r. B i l i I Jl If i f II SI 11 ': D ;1 I:. '< =; ;_ J: '!!II ... & l f. = . t ... t I I I I f I ii' I I 1 I 1 1 1 r r 1 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 i 1 1 If : J l I l I I I I p i H I I ( i I l l : I I & ( I I g I I l J l i 8 f ;_ .5 i I r I If I r : sr I e. i I i' 1 ;_ !. S1 r i E s 1 '< a t I 1 a r s;-! 1. !l J' 1 r I f l 8 i l I l I I I I I 3 f i I f ! l 8 I I I I f I I I I I I i i t r l l r t Q

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0 I <8 -N I C' '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -........ 3 8 z Vi :z I I I "1 t 1 w.I_. t i i t s 11 J I I i t 11 ii. i I: J !I [ I s. l 1 : ( 8 l I I 'i Ii J I f I i j : I c I f i f I I J I c l I f f I I I i I I I : i I f i t ; I r i 1 : I i : 1 I l f J J I : i I Jll t -11-. :a i;:::: .. ., BI .. ...... i I 8: a: r I : r 1. s r a. f I r i l If If fS 1 & r I l 1 f I i i l i '1 f ( r l f IF -D I B a II I l !: ir I a' s:. a 8. r l t I l t s I f 1 t s a J 1 I f 1 5 s j gt l f i' 1 ... s r f. a.1 rt rl a .. l B. f. g

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llld mbd bia to do 10. A few days laler, Mqooa wro1e lbe onen' l9'x:WlicG to explli men fully -views CJD lbe lll'ib; lbe deeilicm would bPe t.ling repercmsiom ror lbe ... ionali worbn, dllirviewl of U.S. imperialism. ml dldrmfelia fer COllleldq the power m. Cllpilllilt eli Hil leller to m_,,....,. rad: Tbe llribn decline to MR unlCll plid the prica fiud by lbem for lbcir labor. 11ail ii a ript wllicb every freeman poae11e1. Tbey offer no obmcles to lbe ...rK1Uren employina ocben; IDd Ibey bave not raorled ID violence or other wdawful means of coercm, die IWluf'aclllnl'I into camplimn wilb lbcir req.uanena.. Their refual ID MR may be ill advi*. or bMect upon imperfect uadentandia1, or milinfonnalion, buuo long u dlCy caaduct lbemYes in Wbdber' by llCCidmt orddibenre ldion, Mqoon's Idler wm band-delivered not only to lbe owaen' mocialion, bul to F.milio SMdlez., lbe president of lbe Cealral Canmiaee of llrikina wodtal! Maaoon ..... denied ... be bid mraDl to mKe lbe aea.'1 CODlalll Down to lbe llribn, cllalking up dlle delivery ID individual cweniabt in. "busy ofl"'ICIO. ". Biil amona llrikm, Masooe' fell cm deaf ma: lbe effect of bis wonll aMllcl DOl baYc been llMJle eledric. Once apin. lbe door WM apell for papMr llMitmlitla and lbeir nidic:al alJia fD perceive MaFon' 1 iJDperialim ill a populilt liabL To lllibn, Ml.,aa Md KtlDd Ille fs Md aocJd c:mdi1lo who an-dml llil IUbardiw' supponlDd quiell"ence depended on bit ""10piliaa of lblir clipity, ,.._ md-.... D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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c:apiwilll ... eYen more i.,..d wbea llribn prialed die lea Md a.keel its COlllCllll ID die illlamlioDal praa. n WOlbn, OD die odler bind, were jullil..r la an open le8a' ro Oovanor MapJn. me nibr expeewd feelinp d pride. joy and cxllillnlion cw die f ICl 11111dieCuban1111e-llbeit an imperialilc one-Md for die fint lime lince &be OoYenuncnt-in-Anns ol tbe initepaadcece magle, fillllly declared itldf in IDliduity wilb tbe human dipity ol Cuba' 1 popular cl111e1 Rlalliq die bloody acriflce o( 10 muy worbn to lbe ca111e d an impaillia lllliOllllilt pamnent lblt did DOI recopize wortins elm citiz.em as ill own, the wn t r ll'ticul1ted an unde..-.ading ol libaalioll which fully eappd lbe role llld leplimtey d die U.S. imperial praaa; I believe it a dcbl. DOI ol plitude but ya, d sympalby, ro lbe pemor who. knows how ro live up to Ill Ian declared before lbe civilized world, (ud] by ...., d a re.._ble doc:ument. canfll'IDI lbe ript oldie worbr ro at for die improvemena of bis clw. always c:mdemned by dlOle who live olf d him [ .. J Tlac momca [oC prorat] wbicll llite dtily in dliJ world o( exploited md exploifen. haYe been drowned OUl ia dlil unf'onumle COUllU)' IDUf rimes CW. Smndimes in blood, Reh as oc:curnd on lbe 24 d November ia 1902. when the worbn llbd for lbe free lheirlOlll. And Olber limes, ollbelOCial order.(.-] I coqrmulale my.If u M:ll, forhaYiag fOUlld [ )a 1.-(pedllpl lbe aaly ODe dllLn ii) who ..... ., riallt peminiq lo die luable ID c:laiaa aa lllcltioall pieced bl.a for llil dlilclleD. _.a liale bcaa' .-dlld olliriq for bil family. D191t1zed by oog Original from _UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Sipiq IM 1eaer a Dnmiao AnP. lbe wriw dacribed bilDldf ... humble IOll ol labor [INbfajo]" He Cllded bil leaer by c:on.-riq Freadl WOlbn' veneration ol F.lnile 1.ola's mmifalD. .. Accme," with die reverence dlll Cuba WOlbn would pllldic:lably feel ranrd Magoon'1 lcalr IO lbe factory ownas. >.. mty die nm day, rumon lbll lbc IUib would end 900ll surfaced in die Havana prem. Faced widl an impossible situation. 1MD1pnan for lbe Nortb Americaa-owned Havw Trust couenfed IO lbe IClibn' dcmandl, dlll is. a 1'1 nile for all worbn. payable ia U.S. dollars. Al expected, the independcDc factoria which hid cbolca IO lock-out their worbn did not inilially ocr any .ad promised IO caatinue .-ying wages in Spmilll currency ... COlllClll rated heavily Oil Mqoaa' I dilpOlilioa toward rbc worbn and rbc bcnefill be belieYed would ICCl'UC IO a CUblll economy bwd OD U.S. cwreacy. die polilical momea&wll built by 1be 1uilre could be not overcome. Oa die w day dial lbe ownm' ltl'CIDC"' w published, Jan Oualbeno Odmcz, lbe Liberal palilicim who lulcl prominendy in Yetaw' efforts IO raolve the Oeaaal Slrib ol 1902, lfepped fOIWlld to endone die role of die 1ta1e in .tvcalins for WOlbn' riabll. Acdaa ill ICCOld with .. modem principles" and '"libeny," be aid, Mqoon Md bem a .. faithful iDlapldet o( the Honorable Plaidenl Romevel1" who "'ill CDlllnll ID other leaden lbll Ulilia: power for harmful ends, wania about die lilUalioa oldie dililberirecl clams.,.. AJdaaqb Odmez c:h8rty WI to Clpi..aize OD lbe llrib rictory for bil own eadl, lUI tlt!llf!WIM held implicit critique ol lbe lKt ol m.a priorities mow. by .u 1ca1 poliliciw ia rec:eat CimeL ladeed. lbe ICrib hid 111e D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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431 principlcl-m lelll tmpcnrily. Wbea die llrike' Cealnl Cclllmiaec mec with repre1N11111iYe1 cX die 1l1llt oompay ID flDlliB die llrib. Ibey were ercnmpuied by Oeaeroeo Cwnpm Marqucai. 8llOdler Yela'lll who hid mrved a 1902. well as General Pino Ouara. prinici.,.a leader m die Comliuioul Revolulioa m 1906. The rdlowiDI day, two lllCft Victoria were ICOled: llOl only did the indptiendenl fKfOria couent ID l'liliDI wapa through .. ymen& in U.S. curmcy. bu& eveo lbe dapalilladoru were included ia die deal nqotialed by IU'ikm." Rac1ioa1 llDODI mimcaeau mohlliomry aaliomlilU teemed mixed: La LMcllo. a Ubcnl Party newtpapcr, priDred a canoan under die hradjaa "The Palron m Amcricm Oolcl." The Clltocm fealllled Uborio. a .,_..-cblnder' who repraenled die Cuban peaplc. kwlina before a Caabolic IDCJDlll'IDCe in wbicb die boly ew:hlrilric bcJll bid been replKed by a Nonb Americm pd CXJin. Noaelbelea, die eadnwimn m warkcn coukl not be tempmd. Widlin days, it bat mended well be)'Olld die coaf ma m former auibn IO infect lholmndl cX WOlbn in multiple ICICfQrl m lbe my from Havma to &be pnwinca. On July 22. IQ, &wenty lhnuand Olbm WOlbn and labordelcplioal from a fll' away u San1iqo de CUba, Smta Cllla. M-ru, Tampa. and Key Wat caaYerpd OD lbe capic.l for a IWI deanlllnllion celebraliaa die ltrib viclaly. OrpaiDd a a pllade lbll cxplicidy boacnd Ocwemor Mqooa. celelnlica bepn early lbll the morain1 ud aded at IDidaisbL ill Cuba (in 18518). Not even die depulule m CJennl Wood and the illlllllalioD m die D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z 1 I I I i I i I i I f I i i f I I l s f 1 f I I I I I 1 i I I I I I f i I f I I I I I f l r 12, '< i i t 12, I If t ( '< 2 i f I i l 8 s I f i r I R r a I [ r f I '< ltli! }1:11Dll I J I f I t i f I I I i I i I I I ! J i I !. ; I [ I i J f . i ii I -a = i I r i i I 1 ( I i ,, .. } f l I ( 1 [ I I 1 1 a. 1 1 1 1 g s I I l i l 1 I a f I f l t I i f l a .. I r II J r !: -i ( R_ f s I K i i f J i ft

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z i l I g l i I i I i ( I 1 I I., !ii l t. Jr I ... I 5 I I f. . t s l rr r t 1 I f a_ : s i I i: 1 j -;; t I i I ,-. ' R f g 1 s I f r I i i a_ l I f l I i l I I l f i I I i I t r i 5 l t i r l I l l 1 r I r [ 1 r ; ? B I 1 ; I -> f l I f I. f a_ f '< f .; it r R ; I I I l l f a_ J l. -< '< l a_ I I 11 l1t!.f}a::.!1111it i t I I f J f 1 R I -. i: I s I I l I i 'C s f r 1 f t I i ; g i I I' a_ l 111I1 l t l! If a_ t f j I J i i l 1' Ci

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0 cg N O" '<:: c: :z: < 590 """' ... --1 \0" -< =e:-0 """'3 8 :z V'I ::z f I i i I ): I r f f i ; & I I I I! .,, .fl: s 1 1 ! t r i i B. I: I l If f J .= f f i I I I f i r I s rr I !. J f f a. a. I R t I f If a. IS i lI: & ... r I . l a. 8 i I s t 11 'J: iJ. J"l r 11frt11. r 11 I a a.j 11 i :;11 .. a 1 f' r l ( 1lj11: Ii l t If f i J ir i 11 if I 1:' I I : f I f I i I I I l,. I 18 i i a. l I : I i J 1 I i' f i.11.J.12 l I If .f).. n ft JI '. I 1 1 i I l J 1 l I l !l I s a wl J 1 I I .f s rr J I !! I 1 I f f I t f I. i I t i i i l j If Ii f I j I 11 8 t t 1 l i i i i I i l i I t ll] lll J 2

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z j I l l I i 1 I l I l 1 I I i i I I I I i I I i f : i J f ; i t i . l i f I i 1 I ID i I I l I I I ( i i 5 j ""II f i 'i I l [ t. 'I I Je g: 1 s 1I s a: I f f l ( I lg R I i I I f = i l s a. &: l I c a. !-f g I l 1 g p I l I i I l i t i l i 1 la I r 1 f I 1 1 t I r 1 1 1 1 I ] I 1 a r i E } i 1 1 r 1 I l i 1 1f11 n? 1 1r11 i l a.t. 1 1 r f I! I. l t 1J I! Ii,. i;;I fl: Ii J If 11. l f E i J ll i : i Jil f if l .... 11 ( I I 1,i .. I : ij' r r 1 ,, s r ... 1 1 I a

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 I I I } I f J i I J f r ! J I l i f I 1 I I J 1 5 r f I s 1 } i r '! t 1 I t j i a! J t I 1: t1: i. II ii f. . !J"' I I I a P II o .. c: I I: ,. ; s c; i ; l Ir 1ia.l lrri!-[.lrfa I l i I i I l I I I I f J l I a. : ; I t I f i &" I I i" II. f l I I l r f f }. f I I l 11. a. r I i r i t I j: 5 I s f -t f I I ... I. l I I J j { I I I i I II. t 1 I I t t g. I I 1 !J 111. I J-,.

PAGE 461

welfare in mce tcrma bad u much to do wilh their owa rw:Uil prejucice a wicb lheir c:ommiement lo cnaliq lbe coadilioal for om. 10Vaeipty. Indeed. muy C.t.m IDOt Ille opponunity lbat U.S. llli...._ prOided to deny any similar ncUil llealionl mnang them. Duriq lbe fUIC U.S. lntenealion. mevolldionlry naiiomlilt aewlp8pa'l like poli&cd exmpln ol lyncliq or nci9I clilcrimiuaion api CUbw raidiq in lbe Uniled s... u 1alilbetical to 1be teaees ol CUbln civilization Md culcure. Oter time, cririciziaa lbe melbads and expeaioaa of U.S. mcillll dUll .,, an inlrintic pan ol bow white. reYolutiomry nalioaalilt Cubw lileac:ed paaible compuilOlll between U.S. melbodl of niml ialimidalion wt relaral pba_,_.. in Cuba. a Bu& Ille depmture of U.S. fCRCS in 1902 did ncl llOp revolutionary nalionalist Cubaal' denials of pcniltiq IOCial injustices baled on race. Nor did it diminish their commilnlelll to die idea lbll to dilCUll race was IO plot Ille deslructioa of Cuban natioulity and die ineplrable division of IOCicty alonl Iii similar to die United SWa. lncreaiqly ewer die lint few )'W'I ol lbe Republic. wtlile paliliciw ltOpped complriq Af ldivilll' "lllfi-pllriolic" c:ouciomwl ol mce ro lhe Idiom of Splailll loyali111 who hid played die mce cant ro div CUblm before lR 1...-d. Ibey bepn to Kalle blacks -S 1mu11oe1 ol jeapmlizing Cuba's cfwnon for full indepeDdencc by leplillllliDB die role lbe Uni&cd Slalel played in CUba' I inlaml polilical lfflin. 11Mll, it WM OD lbe bais of psaaviq lbe depee of iertepmdeace alrady ldlieYed in CUba by 1902 lblt revolUliOllll)' Mrimeli muJallo .... Jml
PAGE 462

idClll [al iniJt'Mence) llld in die mm mlime, a f,,..,....,. ol far and a ranpcja1 ldt'lllll,e" ID dime wbo wilhed IO dilcredit die Wll'I for independeace ... Far IOIDe vererw lib Oeneral A1ejlDdm Rodrfpez. die meme mealioa ol gee or die public ra:opitioa ol Afro-Cubln w heroes by a poli'licilB ol African dacent (even c:aulioul oars like Juan OUllbeno Odmez) daened ce.n for jeopudmq die llllbility al die Republic. Tbe polilical eclip1iq and mMiwJy deadl ol MUimo Odmm, one oldie few revolucamy Dllliomlilll williq IO ctilCWI na openly, only coaaibuled IO lbe f\ldber marpllllization ol na illuea from die polilic:al dilCOUl'le ol more rdc:ll c:uneau ol aaDcwli between 1902 IDd 1906. M Liberal Pmty Clldra, dlele poliliciw muted ao IKOpi2e lbal dleir crilique ol ...-t ol U.S. imperialilm for lbeir own leCIDnl purpma cut bodl waJS. la die loq nm. dlele poliliciMI' ....., ol lileacin1 local IKial lalliom duouab lbe clannniuhon ol Nonb American ma. Ollly bm:t-fued. F-=ed wilb a political cullure dd'med by tbe llllellce of debmle on nee, Afro-Cubm molUliomry llnlgle subject IO ridicule. Tiiey ., fCMld die c:enlnlity ol mcial eqality IO lbe levolurion'a c:mm aubject ID lebub-ollea CJD lbe pMlda 11111 clilc:uMiq na ..,. ... dm Afn>-Cubw found Nonb Almricw' preoca .. lion wida rKial idality wt flllk direaim ol gee polilica in boda U.S. illfaY.aiaal me mralliaa lblll dir allina. W., Ibey did.,_. Imai di&)'.,...., aploitNardl pnicxnlpl'ioa widl rw ii D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & b z < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z I I t 11 1 I 8 g I g l f i I I I I 1 1 f. 1. ( r .. 1 1 . l ... r 1 R, 1 1 1: 1 1 t .. 1 :e t If I J i I I I I I I I' I I i i J ti I r s r. I l i i I I l I !. I [ I l r 1 : f I: e i a. ij' t r s-; I. a. ; :s. I .fl a f f != c: c[s j i I J I I I i If l i ( I i f I i 1 S: ; i &-I l i f 1 a: 2. l ::s 8 r i I It ! I! Ji R, I I I. f i' f .a -I I I l i. I ( f I r I i f f l I I I i I I j I I I I f J i l 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 f I 1 t 1 If f .. 11 1. -I f 8 j. s a. t s I l a l a I I. [ I I f f l ; I 1 1 5 I I 1 1 ff

PAGE 464

imwdi ....._in prolpOCll ol blllct c:aadidlrel or tbe incllllion ol a mce-qeeda in pmty JUd'OllllL HPi11l&:IDCl111 a by llbor lader for Hanna' brickla)'m in dlcir IUCClllCul llrib for die eip&.baiur day under die r1111 u.s. lnlerY.mon in 1899, ElleDOZ mllll have felt aemmdoully banemd by lbe recent victmy ol lbe cipnDlbn' ltrib in 1907. Al experience cmecl fO llave -.gbl him. tbe Nonb Americ:am' plW8CC did noc just make tbe dmwMh1 ol lbe popua. clulel all lbe men .cure. bul if coadilioal were ript, it coulcl ll8o f on:c local elifa IO coacede lbem peala' rialm-8Ul Eateaaz'1 ol tbe c:adndiclory ol Nor1b American impeM1i1m did no1 just rely on implaliom forpd locally. In lbe IUllUlllCl' ol 1905, \e luld ramed up wilb lbe polilic:llly alien*" ad iaaeuiaaly rldiclliad Raf .. Sena Oil a vilil IO die United 8'ara. Despite appoliaa pMty affalialiom. ctJbae two p1111emen, 111e 1awmater and die wm1rer, visited New Y Olk in lbe summer ol 1905," l.,ned The Oi81. W.E.B. DuBoil' prominent ,; for people ol color. Their object Md been '"lro lcudy CIOlldilioal wilb die iew ao IUbmiaiq lbe result ol lbeir oblervllliom to lbeir a>m.,.arioel in Cuba and impnwiq 8llltcn ll bomc...,. Lib lbe cipr!Ubn wbo ....... plaaniD11bcir lllite in tbe fall ol 1907, Oaba lldivilll uader die ladenbip ol &tmarl 1mioully mewed IO leplimale lbeir ripa IO proeat in lbe p1aence ol U.S. offac:illl for wllom 1e1Cial pwe w a rop priority. far lbe pulpolel ol orpnizi paliliml IUppcxt ia WOUI tawDI ..S cilia'** ol Havm, &lam be1D by formina a faur-memb111r4U!!!miPioa ol Afro-Cubans in Serember ol 1907. ne cnnmil'ion included two 1ciprmbn mm Hav-. probable pm1idplms iD ae f-llria dial bepa tbll willllr. la die com. ol dleir initilll lnlYell llomd Sama a.apmriace. die llCCivi811 rmd _.1il!C'ed maifataa primed by odler clilillUlioDed in onlertonab ,.._ ewer wllllAfft>Culml miplclo D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 465

441 m lbeir own behllf. They .a.o cmnpaiped ia Roda for a Liberal..mlialed maycnl CIDdidw openly idenlified .. being d Afriicm m.:eaL" TbeirdTOdl .......-y met wilb Cara town d Roda md lhe IDWll of Otlims, ....... pnwince. elicited IClllldlloul rebuke .ad c:mracs d a politiCll compincy from 1..Uee DMionally. M La LMdta rcpo1trd. 1bit wa the cae despite Ille rm dial one miayor-dcct was a Ubcnl and die odler' a Comervllive." More likely, it w not dlil fa but becll111t d ii dal 10 may wbiee politic:iw pmcbd: M f.lfmal llld Olhen1 llllde dar, what malllnd ID lbem Wll DOI political diff'erw:a, but Ille common bi.lfolry, rKial idelllity, ad lhlled experieacc d injullice dial unif led Ill Cubmll d African daceaL M lbeir electoral dTona *1wed. u:h beblll." la lddilim to effona in SIDla C..1, Afro-Cuba IClivilll cmlled mulliple ineetinp, bodl public m IC!Clel. in Pimr de1 Rio wbl:re dilCOlllelll over die fmlure ol lhe Comtitulioul RevolUlim to nmder beaefill ID ill bbict .. 11icipmll nm especially llip." Tbe leccal deCeclioa d Pino Ouena. former chief' d dlie pbttlnlo fon:a, ID Alf redo 7.aya' wiq oldie Liberal Party IDped....,. Afn>Cutmi, IJUl not Dady much Ouena's ...- apedllim dlll former bl-* coalticueaa vould follow nit. Appmady, bl.:t Pimrclm llUllld Jcm Miguel Odmez' Riiiie, nnl 011iai over die ilfomlic deaanor ud lbllY ialelleccUll llyle d Alfledo Zayas, the Havaa-bwd laW)W who led Ouena' Liberal fsrim. M U.S. a.uiSWC leporll cblrillll. in PiDlr del Rfo 11 Died 0uena for larina .. ..__._ die Mp>" and ... lined aonbiJ1a [lie] for die mpo" wllile be bM ....-penmentpJlll formmyol.._ wllieec:anpMiw." Mcardiq ID ca..-, D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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442 piwelo bllCb ..-UOY daidlld Ouma'a wilb U.S. amcilll becatm ll9ey belieYed dial Ouena lmd boalDd of lbeir uacmdilimml nppmt for him in Older IO pl die Nodh Amcric:ml' llfmlion. The cay wllilll pnmll al a meetina cleMNN:in1
PAGE 467

This period ol initial mohjljzalicJll in um evmtullly raultal in die foundina m lbe Porddo 1-,,.,,._ Color r1ndependmi Paty ol Color." or convcnely. '"Piny 1-.-.. ol Colar"; benlitcr PIC] a well die publicllian ol ill bipty cbqed Dffilpllpel'. hnUl4fe. by lU. Over the 11a1 four )'an. me party llld i aewspmper would provide *>dciqly explicit IDIJytei of coalempCnly polilicl and Cuba' I malldioalry plll daroqb tbe lcm of rw:e. tbe nsulll of wbic:b me cxqnilitely detliled in Aline He11' 1 wort. OW Ri#ul Shag. In her boot. Helg attempCI to aplain die rmou for die Pie's arpniZMina in die penilteDl IWliaalir.alioa of Afso-Camm. elpec:ially Yefel'IDI. from die political projecll of white dita before and lfta' lbe a&ablilbmeat ol tbe Republic. Yet. He11'1 app10ICb does llOl enlirely answer a by question: dlal is. why ill orpnizen decided to forqround lbe nJdal dimeuicnl ol dleir identity .. cw.u and lbe racial illlplic:aDom ol cbe IOC:i8l dmnMch Ibey impmd OD lhe Cuban political lystan IO explicidy-wt IO Pmlible amwen to lbae quatiaas may be found in die timing of the PIC1 inilial mnbiliDlial Ccnin1 eucdy one year after die Ccmrillllional Reolulim ended in U.S. awdi11i
PAGE 468

CJ cg -N C" '< 0 & c: z: < 590 ........ -ti()' -< "'T'1 -a ........ 3 8 z V'I ::z .(I! J}llf II !II I I J f i f l 1 a. f tr. I I r r 1 -a.{ l 2 f I !I.-f I l c: a, if I l f-t 11 f I --tJ l ll: R' e: i I. a. I I E I : f I II i ; I i f i i' [ s. .. B 'II. I I l ;; J I n: I' .s I i. i t .. -I a. J :. I t a: P. I ( Ii' JI I l [ l r 11 f i I i r i1 i j n. J I I f I 1. l I J I i I S' l I SI' I 1 .f a. J : 1 r R." s .I_ ij' I' !l .. 8 t t. g. I r. r t I I a. s r I a. t t i I a. r i I I 1 ;; I i: J1 I nf !!I. f. l i l Q r ( l Pl I sf !if 1. a a.( .. JC s I :i I' a B J' f t

PAGE 469

I :::: N (t) 0. a ""<'. 0 P-.9 le: z < 5!30 V"I .... -< ::I 0 Ill ,., :::E --a """"3 8 :z VI z i I f I I i D I I I l I I I I I I J I f t I 1 1 J I I 1 I a i 1 6 i i i t t f a 8.1 r I ii ;. 1 f i t 5 :. 1: f. i f J I l I I I t t n i. t -' i J a. I I!. 1 f a. '"' ' I i r la i I I I I I f t I i ; I J i 8 J( ri Is : t '< 1 i; P.l .fl! 1 : a :tlil! J : 1 r t a. t I I r r ;: 1 r 1 e: l l l [ I I l I J f i I f I I I I f I l t i I (f 1 i e:f. 1IfI]. i8 11 ;. Si s .( s ; f I-s f I l I ( Q.1;. I n tl . f !f a. 1 f. r j i s e-a I i ( J .. 1 l a. I l I I i I r l I I I < a. I i r i '< i; f f r 1 f 11. -f H g

PAGE 470

z < """ ... --t IC' -< ,,_ ::E-0 IJ'I 3 8 :z Vi z J f t l i i I I J I I i t I I I i i If f. a' i If i tj. !i = f ;t I 11 ;-rt r.11 l .. 1 n i I ! : I i I l I I I I i !I i J j 1 : i i Ii: J i ff i I l I: I l .,. 1 .. r . 'R n 9: 1, f i ': i. 0: l t t I 3 f l t 1 fl t I I I f a l t I J 2 J ( l I I t I i I I i I i a ( 1 I i 1 I f ( l I f l i t I I I 1 I I I J i i I I I t' t I I! a : 1 ff I s 1ri.r1-r .. I f l f . I ): f. [ j t i I i r.1: f 1 I! 1 Ii. l r i '< s i 1 f I Ir i 8 J f : I: 11 Q. I fi: t .f J I: ': f l ii l 1 a i I. I i I I I ( l1 !..g. (41 n I I' i I I .. !: I Q. g I I Q. .. 8 s; O' & Ir I:!' E Q. Q. E. .. .. : w. '< s s

PAGE 471

Tiie eadl wlicb inlpiJe use tbme ol aril(yina lbe necelliiel ol llllU "nmnt "'..,,, ayslelDlricllly nduded fRJm Ill putic:ipllioa in lbe afJain ol oar caumy m who me .Jc:timind llld me aa.n by die w ol 'c:dcnd na'. Tbc benefill wbicb lbe Independent Aaocillion ol Color Y oblaia will llways be lcpl, lbe product ol a lqitimlle ript. enwwria from lllff'rqe ad KqUimd duoqb lbe lllDe lide ol cili2al wbicll all CubMt .. ,e. On eun:iliaa our riabll freely md 1epamely from Ill ocbcr potilical pm1ies. we do., C0111plyina with a duty llld out ol rapeca for dU d-. ridiculed on all aa:aiom in ill atpimioal apilllt every ript, fWlinaliDd from Ill The wrifm cadcd lbc lcacr by pledging "only to lbc .molute domain ol pubtic lff ain. while Cua. rauim a llllilllx llepublic." Tbil liml pbrue carried muy delibenlc, if as )'el undefined. implialticm for lbe f uan ol lbe restored Republic. Wilb it. PIC orpnizen unounced dleir camributim ID lbe aeries ol effortl launched by lbe popular daaes since 1902 ID claim Che validiay ol cbeir aalioa from die maqim ol lhcir IOC:iely. Lib lbc cipnnabn' unu., die cmlilioa ol populw llllioulilU IDd ndclll ICticm lbll aoc oaly limed m implemcac aa lllrmllivc mlioa ro 1111& impmcd by Eahda Palma. bul ID CDIUl'C m equitable clilUlllutioa oi iCI f naill. D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 472

0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z t r I I t r I J. I I l 1 I I t I J f" I. B -Ifft i J f t II.I. t I ; t J i 1 I f I I I I 1 i l I l l 1 I i I I I I i pl I I I I i t I I I I I I J i J i I J l a ...: I ; ( t 8 I 1 I f I 1 f f .., s o: r 1 ,. I I !!: f f 1 I: ( f ':. J 1. l. If I I: l l I = i J I I i ( i I l I I j I f I l l I I . f f f r Q, I s '< I I l j i a [ f( l i I f 0 l I Jt 1 I 8: 8 r :-1. Q, g,.f i r i l . Q, l I i i I J I I t J J f I f t f l 1 l r J f I f I l I t 1 i i I l l I I l I [ i i 1 I l i t i J 8 r I i l f f I I r n I I ; r i I J.1. l 1.fJ.f I a Ji f f j ( g, il Q. 0 i : iJ r a g Q. I t s i a

PAGE 484

01 NI ............. 0.--110.p .. Nmlla d' I I 1.,.1'17 C.... '1" ma lflllo, Ill,._ rlca '1 blactJ "" le lhldlabM COJnO dfa fW lo Mcfa I .-ricao .-liurti: aqlli, IC col1aball par lo.r bnw. [WbeD I Wll a boy, die ricb wbire people didn't lynch you lib Ibey llid die AlllericllD did in bil counuy: hem, Ibey buq )'OU up by your a.Ill.] -Conunenll o(. 98-yarold street vendor to die au1bor, Havana. May 20, 1997. After allDOll duee )al'I of U.S. military occupmlioa and ldminiaU'alion by Charles Mqoon. Ca c:c.lebrared lbe ratoralion of die Republic to local conaol in 1900. IDlleld c:I inaupnlins die Republic oa lhe day followina lbe anaivenary of Mani's dealb u they hMI in 1902. CUbw reclaimed mar independence on lbe IMinrsary of Marti's birth, Jammy 28. 1909. Holdiq lbe inaupralim on Mmtr birthday md been the idea ol Enrique l.oy1Ulz del Cascilto, Commandins Oenaal ot lbe 1906 Comlilllliaul Amy and Conner leader of Che Radical Caucus in lbe CublD Coqlaa. It HI die fint lime in lbe biscory ol lbe Republic 11..i Mani's binbday would be hcmoled wicb die w mereace u die day lllllttiag bil dadl. Di.mnguilbins lbe oc:casion. 1ymbol1 of libearion aad mamn o1 memory < leal 11 die Libetal leadenlip cmll1l1ICICd it) abounded W'acb Ilia aervice a palOllal aaia&ull ID Ocwemor Mqom ended, Jol6 MlrU y Zaya Bmn accompmiecl Joe Mipel 06me:z, ..-...-ca rllbe Republic, ID lli8 ........ U Odmez'I penODll ulisllnl. Forlbc D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 485

-461'lla and former pn:aidenl F.lllwtl Nma bid UL For die new Praicleat'1 official w.. a twelve-pound lilver dclk tet lmd been clesiped. lavilbly adorned wilh a .meJd baring 111e imaae or Odmez iCUll'ioully Jewtina bil ron:a into bia hometown of SwG SpirilUI duriq lhe W. Crowned with a Iii Yer plaled vi1qe of Cu .. Ubre cauah& in lbe .:t of breakiq ber chains, lbe delt let also fcalW'ed aa int well IDlde of IOlid 18 kasat aold.' lmpired by similar lbemel, El Fil"'O' 1 cover f aaured a IUD-dappled brook cmyin1 a flood of Pd coina.11 (n lddition to claiming ripll fO CUba' I ricba for dlamclYCI, Liberal laden were equally anxioUI to lllClt their diff ennces from lbe previous imperialist DMiamlist ldminilcnllioa of F.auada Pmma. After piniq a majority ol 1ea11 in bocb boUlel of Conpas. lbe Liberals elCCfed MstCa Mcrda Ddpdo. lhe black lemlDr whom Estrada Palma Md publicly rebuff ed. u majoricy leader of die Senile., Praidcm 06mez also chme to break witll &nda Palma' earlier ex81Dple by laking lli1 oalb of dfacc publicly, on die t.lcony of 1be Praidcolial Palace, mdler' dlan bebilld doled doors u Palma bad done. 4 By carryiq oal IUCb lpOClldel of Dllioaal raewal and political rebinh on Martr I binbday, Libeml laden hoped IO aipllft lbe bope and iDDDt'CDCe of ID earlier lime. Throup IUCb meas. they dedued tllamelva lbe riahlful bein of Martrt lepcy aad lbe puine repaaea..riva of lbe Cuba revdueicmry l*L Rooliq lbeir ladenbip in lbe ReYdlllion of 1895 and die more receat Revdutim of 1906. Ubenla llnlgled to delldl lbe new Republic from lbe pliaful memories of fmlure ..a beaayal wbidl bad duncterizat lbe f lllt. HoweYer, u eYeall quickly IDllde dar, lbe 1bae memories md lbe leacma Ibey lmllbl were IOpia m wMcb Cublnt CIDUlcl not..-. Over lhe nm ICVml )an, Cubul D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 486

t.aled ewer dae memoriel jull Ibey bladed aeb OCber for puticipalioa ill the ICalc. .t tllcnby tbe riabt ro desemline tbe flle of Cheir miadom From 1909-1917, raewed oppal1Unilia for building a llllion-mre and csl8bli1hin1 ill l9eF1ftODY once apia pve way fO elita' 1mbiliioa for power. f ant a Liberll and lhen a Comervllive pemment evcntllllly came to repnl popar-clw demandl in ways 1imia. IO lhole adopled by the IWC under Elu.da Palma. Lib lbe andiJau had. tbele elites cbaded lbe poaibility dml indcpendendy-miaded, vocal memben of the popular ctaues md lbeir lllidcle-dml allies might 1ucaed in ICCling dlls agenda. lroaically. while elites manipulaled Mant s image md muffled bis biJcoricll calls for racial IOlerance wt IOcial dluge, Mud's own IOll exanpliflod die iafaplay lbetween penoaal mnbilion and social pmmoia daal direded lbe acUons of palilical elira. Afler lbe Secoad U.S. llllen'cnlion, Mar1f y Z.ayu &mn' I public career lhifted inro hip par. Between 190'J and 1917, lhia career nllDCted the eampng aaicude of Cuba's political elites IDWlrd dae Unifed Slllel md 0.lbu prapmeDll of m'olUtiOMI)' change A pal deal caller du hi falber but pond of tllle ume picmna eyes, Mani's son was, at last in tbe pbysic:ml ICDle, a robust venion of bis f1dler ilarnlle. Mulcilinguml and aue.ty intdlipnt. bid joined tbe Lilbemdng Army in Man:b of um. quickly wortiq bit way IO lbe rank of Caf*in by ill wl A C1RCr IOldier after indcpeadem:e, MarU Older 1broqll force of m. if w-y. Finl. lie 1 def'adld &awla Palma' plaidCllcy pi Ubml mol11icmria. 1'11111. lfttlle lllCODd U.S. inraveatioa. be tw=amr a key D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 487

cu-. who pedlelled tbcir exdUlion rrom a Libenl 11a1e in 1912. IDd tcmen who.,...... 1beirexdulli4:JD rrom a ec-rvaawe llllle rnm 1916-1917 Th, MarU Zayu Badn' caRlel' defndi1111 die .waeipty ol lbe Oba mre from i*'1lll .. encmiel" aves a dart mdlpin for lbe Klicm -1 aaimda ol polilical elila once Ibey IDOt CODllOI aver lbe mre in dlil period. Wilb a dinct U.S. praeace out ol pic:lln between 1909 Md 1917. popdar" and ndical revollllimuy llllicnalilll' demadl1 for pRJ(ound IOCial cbmae emerpd ltl'Oiipl' rlml ever. Maawbile, polilical laden ol bolb be revolutionary llld impemlilt naliomlilt currents recalled lcaom laned from die
PAGE 488

mdaillll'iaa llletica meant fO cnfa1ee ralber' lbln en conditiom o( IOCi.i pace. Not lm)lrilially. lbae llCtic:s oaly llieured lqe numben ol ccmliw who became imwiDaly dilillulioned with lbe polilical l)'lfan. Ma raull. political elita' tum towanl Ml1horillliaailm vinulllly pmmleed tbat no aalioa :and iDdeed. no w would ever be poli&ally bqeaMJnic in CUba in Ibis period. By 1917. revolWiomry IDd imperialist visions ol nation from one anocba' becll lbcy. a .&u.da Pabna' Cipl cilde ol supponcn Ud oac:c done before them. DO lomger dillinpillled lbe Dalian a: aaydliq beyond lbemselvcs. Tbil cblpfa' arpea daal lib U S. iJDperia1i1t olfaciall. Cuba 11a1a1Den would wn lbe 11accea ol dlcir rule ia eenm of their abilicy ID bcp lbe appearance ol intcmal social peace. Howe\'er, lbeir medaadl for ldliniq it would differ fund!lnaenlly from dlCle ot Mapm: illllad of pmlUiaa die pm ol campmmile wi1h '*llioul -*X'S ol me popular dan1. CUbul 11a1a comilleldly c:Jae fon:e-a "'*IY dial. in Che end, only eacouraged lbeir popd-claa oppp. lbe Cublll w under JOl6 Mipel Odmez (1909-1912) -1 Mlrio Meaoca1 (19131921) rmllicfed prop:mllll ol mcial cblqe to av iticl beymd die poliliaal system. So limited Mre lbe poaibililics ol enpaiq lbe lllle dmt IDIDY OllJmll chme umed slnlgle a lbe mlly mew by wbidt dlcy could fa1ee it to eaaider lbeirdemudl. Bat if ca 1 polilical elillll felt 111ey lat lamed illlpJdlDt .__ from die Second U.S. llllBIYtalioa. CUba'1papalc:a-IDddllir111lics did a well. Wbile Oabm D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 489

0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z I I l I I i f I i1 I. I i 1. t I i i I i f I I f 8. m I n .. i 'I c: i 1 1 1 IS. i 1 ,, 1 1. 1 1 I w. 1. [ &. 1 1 l ::; .. a.I e fa.It i s I r l I 1 1 I l J i l : l I rl .. Ii J: l l ,i!. t 1 1 f l g_ l a. i i e f i i 1 ,-& ] < I J I J -.. : t i t w r w ; 1 t i r 1 I i 1 J. rt' 1, 111 R,11 R, E g. l g l g_ f I ; J t I I f [ l I I i t i i l i I a. a i f I ( fa. lj I \0 i 1 '< i' t f c: : : f a. t l s I l tn i &

PAGE 490

.,...... pmticipmlian in lbe ...... lbe rmD'k#im o1 popular n1ticmii ill pmena .. IMlforicM foumten ol lbe mae. In -aynq die v .... Movement of 1910.1911 ad die mobilinrim o( lbe PIC from 1SJ09.1912. dlil -=tioa ............ 11afc' I n:futal to ecmmmodete die clanenda IDd idellJ ol pop.aler IDd nidiCll n:volutiaaary DlliOlllli resulted in lbeir imlaDon from Cbe polilical 1yw. By repreuiq rMber lhM iDcorpolalina Yetenn and Afro-Cuban acciYilll wbo espoused altenllliYe, more democ:ralic "naliOlll," die IClle forced diem IO look autward. IOWlrd lbe United Slates, lllber' dUUl inWll'Cl for vehicles of dwnp. Next, we will ccmider lbc arty ye111 ol Mario Menocal' .tminilvar:ion u a period of lnllliCion in which popular nalioulim COlllidered 1llemmve dwnnd1 for palUrina Cbe ttate, apecially tbrouP 1he Wxw' movemeat. Specifically. we will examine 1he fliled Liberal ReYoluaion of Fcbnllly 1917 aad lbc maaive Supr Worten' S1rib d Ncwember. Tbae evcacs defined 1917 u a cumia1 paint in CUban bi-.y hccMlte tbrouP lbem, popLW Dllionalilcs put lbe vilblity ol 1n 1Hi1aa with any tepnenl d traditioaal polilical elifel ID die tat. la 1U1D, dlis cmpeer bep by ...ayzin& a period in wbicb die political llnlglc d Ulicmti for CODllOI ewer lbe m1e wmd at fins be def med by i pneral dcpeMenc:c on die role of Uniled S...._ ltadl wilb lbe Idiom ol a ....U number of popul1raad rdc:al moluticmmy MIMmli wllo came to reject a.dilicml -ol polilical IUUgle 11....-r. ia 1917, dlil poup d llltiomlim retqni71ld 1bat Cbe procea ol n:lealin1 Cuba faom ils DCICHlOloaill mooiDp would lme ID be dlle rmt-., IDWlrd cbmai"& die W. llld D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 491

Cladlbt1 "*""1rla, NalltHu, 1909-1912: MDNwlll Md llM Afro-Olba Rnobdioll Unlike f.llnlda N in um. Jm6 Mipel Odmez llepped into lbe praideocy ll a lime when ctilillUlioament wilb lbe pmpedl for rapid ticnl development had displaced optimi1111. Since 1902. 1..pcion of lbe coun11y'1 lmden bid increllinsfy replaced failh. Only days before 06mez took lbe first incliOliom appared of just bow much lbinp hlld c:blnpd. In mid-Janumy. 1909. two weeks before Magoon' deplrture, the U.S. Comul in Cicnfuep bepn preaiq local oCrlCiall to mist U.S. buliamcn in compleling a muaic:ip.t 1queduct. But lbe DllUre of bi.I requa11 w not a iaaocuous as it appcarm. Appuenlly. mobl of Ofer one hundred joblcll CubMI bid repe1teclly baited propea on lbe pojecl to dcmlnd lbll lbcy replace lbe immipmt wOlbn hired by U.S. CXllllrldOl'I..' Such lady fuliOlll of papalar' llllimali1111, xeeopbobia ud coaflicled aailUda tA:Mard imperialilm would pique die new Rapubtic dllring lbe Odmez ldminilllalion in ways Ibey Duriag die Odmez ..tmiailllalioD, lbe two IDOll promineat maremenll to challeate die Prelideat' I commiCmeal ID IOCial dllqe were c:blnd:rized by their adberence to similar. populm' llllioMli aad llldic:al nwolulicmry alional.ill pll. Tbae were lbe vw Miwemeat ad die PIC'a cwnpljp of polilical dofm. Brmdly def med. dMir' pis were .......... .., lbe repulllicm poli&icll l)'llelll Md reorpniziaa it IO D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 492

lbll lbeir riabl d ICCICll to lbe ........ llOl oaly COlllliMiaully .--leed. bat .... been Carpel in their owa blood. MelDaria oldie independwe-.sle wl lbe imqa ol ill llUlltyn formed die core dilcunive .._IY lbrouP 1Wbic:h puticipull ol bolb mcwemenu, lbe PlC ml die Vdlrairla, undwl their llllCb on lbe Libenl llate. Led by men who bid dcf"med their politic81 lesilinmcy in oppolilion to die. IUlbarklrian and uilfOcratic lepcia ol die pill. Ibo stare under Oeaenl Odmez was me dml by all indic:alims, lhouJd have harbored DO raervlllioal abcJUt CODliderina the needs of popul-dul eo1111ituen11. It should Illa have blrbored DO illuriou about wbll lbe c:omequeaccs '11''11d be if it did not do so. Y ct, the OdmR.admilisUalioo relied oa a ldeclive set ol memories IO guide tbe SlalC and legilimalc ill acuona. Wbar t.\s wt in pgclical terma pn:wed decrimenlal to popular and ndiclll revoluoOO&l) r.. D' ou (bodl ol wbom were atrdiared wilb lbe Pllty d Orimfe), lbe PIC drew IDOll o{ ill IUppDl1 fmn mnidll lbe popul-dw CIOllltilmcia ol lbe Ubml Piny, boda wbire and IUct,...,.. md nnl-a ra wllidl ...... die Lilllenl admiaila'llion under Praideal Odmez AldlouP mm i--......_. fOlmt in idle P1ae1 d l'rnU141t, 1be PIC orpa. PlC a--. ammi.S tbamelves ID a poliac.I Jlllllfon:n dlll priaritized a social .... ol 11 F _.......,. For die w .-rt. polhiall lllden ol ......_ pm1ia bid D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 493

-alwtcbled dae .....-. llld .a.afed dliem Cran public dim lincc lbe arty days of Republic. PIC pl1 mcluded die eipllour day for Ill M>lbas. prcfetmee for Cubmt Ofer fan:ip immipanll in Ill W cilaibulicm of mJimel IMdl to Cut.m Ofer ale fO foreip ccmrs1ia. m:ill oq\lity in penuncnt jobl, ud mend ID racial dilcriiM'iat in imnipilim policy. Adliliomlly, die PIC pmdimed ill oppmitiaa OCQl1'91iOlll. I In CDllb'llt to die ..aalpc diaDlrte aa Cuba' 1 molUliamry put which dominalrd the way lbal while polilici-. and lbe IDli11111am media dae to remember it. lbe PIC !!!18Ddy rejeded lnlditioaal imqa oI r1raranity lllDCJDl lllllllbilel in remcmberiaa lbe fllll a an amlytical window oato lbe praenL Cbqina dllll auch iJDllCI were med by wbite polilicianl to oblcure die dilproponiomlc aaif"ICel tb8I Ba.ct ud mulMlo veraw bad made. lbe PIC coaduded tbll polilicll ml soci.a elilDI relied aa die ume imqa to silence dilCUllion of ways in which white Yeter11111 llad been dilproponioaalely rewarded. Ollcc lbe w'1 polilical bmmmat cl PIC laden ud crimiul pemculiOD of die puty bepn in 1909, lbe PIC bloke even funbcr widl tbe cUaniYe ftelia manifelled in poll molulioury toc:iety, opcaly di1cnin1 t1rbite CUbmt' daily abme of blKt llava and releedat peneculiOD of bllCk rebels It di lfferenl Cima in die lat century. Al sped e.ticr D1g1tized by Goog ---Origina l from UN IVERS ITY OF WIS CON.51 N

PAGE 494

.._ Mlrt!t.d. Ralber, lbe PIC made effona fll1 inculclle pride ma BID Md mulaw in dleir macual llnlgle & non-white, oppnmed people widl & diltilld bistory .S relafed culbnl oripa Despite diffcrence1 d color and clall dllt bad nditkmlly lepll'lled blmcb from mulalllDel, 1be PIC called all Cubw d Alrican W'Clll)' ID a com1DDG ideality as "'bias" and a c.xnmm billtlJric:al memory a a '"clasl ol color." Tbc pl d racial equality whidl Md always been t:be bipe.t principle ol lbeir molu1iomry llnlgle. ..... lbe editon of Pnwlsldlt. Wll lllo primlly pl of not just bladt leader Anroaio MICeO but alto ol white lader JOl6 Mlrtf. Rebuking die critiques ol lbe mulamo crilic N"ICOIU ValYerde, a PIC manifes10 cbupd. '"So says Valverde dial Mace<> lib Marti wmfed lbe Republic ol Cuba (to be) ror all IDd for die good ol all; we know this [ ... J mid if Miller Valverde does not comply in all rapedl wiltb dlil muim. lben for boweYer much bi1 li .. may vilnle widl (lbe words), it all never be beard by men wbo think die)' ICCOIDplilh it to the leaer [limply by ayina it)." Moreover, dli1 IDllllif'esto argued, lbe audlority ol blacb' demands for racial equality did DOC anlMh' IDldy from eanhly sourc:a. Nat only bid MMe0 IDd Mani called blacb to equal f*'icilJllicm in bumlft IOCiely, it chlrpd. but IO bid t:be ...,..,inp ol JelUI CUil1 11 lmpanmdy, PIC laden wm to have dillillpitbed dlemtdva from contemporary wrilen llld politiciw' inrapecarioal ol Manf in a fundM...a way: they recopiml tM ocmex ... IDll lliltoric* objecdva ol Mint wriciap md qieec:ha for wbal tbey we.; dial it. propepndillic tatt ....c to cmarince Cuba ema wbo rad or lillened to diem in lbe ll!iJOl lbll dley bid DO lastll IO ftllr 1be R&Talllliol11-wllicll at lbe time, wal ltill apaieaciq labor...... Radler .............. t.t.lrd't wriliap --of polilic:al pqhnicl W IO lblpC lbe RepuWic- mliallrma political dlilmn did-PIC lean D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 495

. .l . .. hillorically foqcd for 1be ab ol IOCill Ullity durina war. The mne CODlnlcl. lbe)' lflUCd. aecdcd to be renep11ed iD pace. Tiie pmblem wilb Mlrtf"I coabCt WU dial 1be bMis tbroqb whicb Cubias were Cllled to put aide lbeir clifl'amca in order to in a eollectivc nation. a fraremal Cut.nidld, Ml dlrougb lilncc. la die 18'JOl. lilencing die exilreace ol IOCill differences for die ate ol unity Md allowed ol Yery diff ercnt intaau llld iJllllCI ol ulion to mucb aide by lide for 1be grearer pl ol defalia.g die Spmilb. Today. illlilted die PIC. open deblle ol lbele differeaca hid to replllCC silence if a new social c:onlrlel was to be deviled. iadqlendma achieved. ad paler democracy for Ill emblilbed The PIC' 1 wort wu not to f omen& band. but to endic:aae it by reminding . Cubans ol the ideall for wbicb all bid mpplldy fought in the 1895 War. Tbul. in IDOlha' refutation ol the critic Valverde. one PlC member wbo signed bis mmc only "'J.A.C." Wl'Ole. WJ'be Panido IptlllWlllC comcs to reclaim for )QI IDd for Ill Cublm. whal dac wbo joined Spailb ba)'Olldl lried to deluoy: Ubeny, Equality and Fralernity. [ ... ]This i1 wlull lbe [PIC) bu come ID do, Mr. Valvade: not to plant blbed between whita and blacb. pven 1bat blacks &Dd wbira ans alrady ICOlqed by die whip ol lbe <> Ariltocnlcy wbicb you def end. "11 For IDOll PIC ipJbmen,. lbe run lfep IOW&ld bn:Miq die silence bid ID be reliviq wbita for llariDa abaiilhed alavery. PIC le.den ccwllmlled M lbe oppolitc w erue. The Republic. die wbille Cut. elifc Md lbeir blm:k llCbyl (lib Mania Ddpdo IDd Jum ou.tbedo Odmez). dl9y cblqed. owed ma ID blllCb du bias owed lbcm. 11 Widal Bia and mulallo lllppQl1. Milber 1118 R.,...ic Dal' die power M C1lllln wllia. apecilllly D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 496

ex-nwollllimmy candillm, lllld vie been pmible. Wby 1houlcl dM:)' c::mljMe IOmUICe tbemlelYet mcl dleir OWD Uder1 in die W of Diiiion and n:ial mity? Ille PIC'1 cwnpeip D After.U. .. cy bad abady miraced enoup; now, wbita w.-1 diem to ccwHime to lllCriface wl be iplllialt with lheir lat in life, despite lbe fact dlill die mlion lbal bid been Cllahtilhed mquind nolbiag o( the IOlt from wbira. Such aailUdcl CODllituted a '"mcnl lyndling" ol bladt OJ._. and a .. moral infection" ol lhe minds of bllCb wbicb lbe PIC claimed Ibey could HO kmaer &olcrate. .. OiYca lbe revoluaicmry wl imperialilt aalM.ail& dermiliolll of nation which mo1t wllita held. lbc PIC' 1 critiques comCituled nodliq lbon of a betrayal, even a violalion o( the nation u Ibey undenlOOd iL WU& bepn a coacklmaalioa ol lbe PIC'1 polilical plad'onn IDd a c:oncened effon to dilcredit ill radical molusiolllly vision of nation u .. l'ICill" quickly spu.IJcd iaro a conccnecl palilical aaalt on die Plc:'1 lepl right to exist. Wilh die lole diaeat of eiablY-tWO-yes-
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ReYolutim pvc lban, ill principal a.Im, exdUliYc ri .... to IUCb power. ln lbe wl prapwric-fell m clcaf an. Prelidelll 06mez quiddy liped Che Ley Morda iaro law. Sumequendy, laden of bodl pmtia pRllDd 1111 Odmez ldminilblioa to IUppRll die PIC on comlilUtional pOUDdl ud in tbe name of preTenlinl a thild U.S. intervention. In rapcme, Che PlC actively IOUPt suppon for ill lepl ript to ailt duoup bolll illfa'llal ml extemal d1Mnd1. In Febnwy of 1910, Oeneral Pedro IY
PAGE 498

474 10.000 Olblae vored for the PIC delpile ill iubiliiy ID c:amplip freely. In 1be ead. lbe PIC found ill plllla to poliac.& participllion md iaRueace ewer ...,.ic deeply llnlegiziaa. lbele rem applOllCbed a kind of plllDOia dl8l _.all dilCUllion of lbe leptimate concems railed by die PIC laboo-evm dame evendina beyond tbe bounds of l"ICC into quatiam d economic and m.l policy. PIC calla for a lboroagb molulionizin1 of lbe Replblic roundly interpreted by dac.e who a.I flliled to do 10 (namely. mailllllam potiliciw) a mm..-e to lhc Republic' 1 mbiliiy llld wane. a call to elllblisb IDOlber .. Haili" or bl-* Republic. 21 Ironically, lbe c:llim 111&1 lbe state bad to rely Oil political ron:c ill Older to prevent mocber Haici-Spmn'. dilcunivc araregy of lllt resort in tbe 1880ll-now beclme ror 111111y Cubln revolutiomry and imperialist n1lionali111, an ideological weapon of cboic:e. Conflicsed biltorical memories of lbe manin1 of the independence suuglc bad u much to do wilb prompcina lbe reac0on of white Culul did toq.held racist paranoia. Patllpl die best evideDcc of mil wu pnwided in lbe counromn lalimoay of a cx-dlid' of police wllo repealed a du'at be believed to bave been lprad by supponen of lbe PIC in the IOwa of R.muelo. If blKb did not oblaiD nicopition of their ripll darouah paccf ul mam, he decllRid., Ibey Aid.._ Ibey wae acUa to ID ID die Pllace. p lbe President -.... bim rmm -of MllU" ia ffay-' Cenlrll Park. JI Tiie fact 11111 IUCh alimony could lave been ialeqnled by wlli Odul julDfiCllian for 11a1e repnaioa ..... bodl lbe ex.a of dleir rat re... nil bow diffamdy die fapre of Mlrtl a symbol d dleir llllial(1). Orer lime. for die wbiee Cubm elite IDd apecially forwllile Ubemll lib bi Millld ()Wn, die wcl ID aJwe Ille mcill D191t1zed by oog Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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dilDCDliom ol the rldiml nsvolUlioaary lllllkln wbidl PlC IDd many popular Mtionalitls eadoned increuiDllY neceailalld lileaciq my dilcullioa ol IDCUlly lnllllfOl'IDllive policia at Ill, repsdlea ol r.ce. Fiadiaa dleir YOWi ol lileace on race mmmon ro bocb lbeir vilioal ol llldion, revol&lliomry naliomli Liberal wl imperialist narioaalilt Co111ernliva dOled rub apimt aqocialiq on any level widl &be PIC. Prediclably, the raulll ror lbe PIC (and ror die pro1pec11 of .we begemony in the Iona-nm) wauld be dilUUOUI. racelea Cubmlidmd alone cannot explain lbe deplb ol the aepellion which lhey taler unlalbecl apiJllt die PIC in lbe summer ol 1912 or the l'llCi l'llionale Ibey employed. la (Kt, coaRidl ewer memories ol the R&YolUlion wl their implicalionl for die rwnina IDd direction or nalion in lbe Republic did not 8'ile in du. period simply became or die PIC. Radler, canflidl ume in a context mde pu1iculady coareacioul by die activilies ol a panUel movement ol v-... rl'OID 1910 rol91 l. la lbe prm and on lhc lll'eCCI, a cmlilioa ol Yetennl' mociadom uomd lbe illMd orpnized a campmip lbll llimed ro pea die Odmez aniniterafioa into ldvocaliq die primuy IUClity ol vetenn1' rip. before die scaee. In making ill cw. lbe mpaip pla)'ed Oil rilinl reprdiq lbe Rood ol Spulilla immipantl wbo c:oatiaued ID llrive Oil die illaad llld Oil die lubwum sympllbiea or die Odmez mlmiailbation town prof'ound IOCW cMnp. D Indeed, two )'DIS iato Ilia .... Odmez bad KCaDplilbed Hale IDOle ..... ID D191tized by G og Original from -UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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an ahermlive mm ltnlgle to lbll llunc:bed by lbe PIC c:llDplip. In conlnlll to die PIC' 1 dmp dlat lbe enldicllion d rKill prejudia= cmllitulal lbe fint 11ep ....Sa fRC llllion Md a democ:ntic w, vetermilt laden urpd Cubul d nidic:al revolu1ioaary llMI popular mlioaalilt views to find lbe flilinp in the Republic in lbe living lepciel d die put. Specif ally. the IDOYemnl demenchd lbM lbe Cubm penment bUl any Spanish raident or mlive CUbut who bore U1D1 apilllt rebel fon:a during lhe n.wolueiolll for iadqlcndence from bolctin1 naliODll or local public off a. Recalling lbe labels given to loyalilll cluriq die Ward 1895, lbe Yelennilea lllOYemeDl required dial lbe Splnisb "parillerol [JUmillas]" and cut. "uaidora [ll'lilDn)" be removed from any civil ICIYice or elected po111 tbey cunmdy a.dd. A one manifClfO cbmpd. Cubas in 1902 bid been wimna ro plber under lbe maao m ne Republic For All md For die Oood d All" penned by Mmtl; dial time. Ibey bid cloeed lbeir eya ro tbe evils coaun.iued by the enemiel m die ReYolUlion who hid Rddealy become t11eir fdlow citizcnl. But since lben. die vetenm c:blrpd, '"TbOle evil Cubans wbo railed tbeir blndl apimt cut.. no lonaer lll:iafied widl the pudoD <:L their crimes. llave dedicaled lbemlelYa lbroup divene means. Cubm people lower lheir bad in lbame ( . ).... lmponaady, Yefa'IDilla diKOUne implied dUll lbe Spmilb and lbeir .WC., DOI fellow molUlioalriel. were ro blmae for Cuba' 1 polilical illl; it w Ibey wlan dillanaled, mbiaaed md 11DC1DplO)led vefaW mould mqet widl dleir ri .......... Tbelacn,. a time wla die Uberal IW IO eompleldy idalifm illdf widl die milimy mdllOl .S ollliml <:L lbe s-t. vew laden (a.ay <:L wllom were Uberall or ..... m die W lblmleiYa) lbUre ID neullllia dilCllllioa m die key elew m Oat.n ideality wbidl diYided o.._ polilic:mlly and tlu-Mned ID D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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Splllilh offac:illl as tbe IOUl'CC oC polital c:onuplion llDCI 1llpalion. veleran laden aamif*'I to lbield not cmly 1be amity oC 1be memories oC die put but their own aulbealicity lmepen d dlOle memories. SpaalOled by a aoa-pmy coalition doff acen rrom lbc Nasional Council oC Veterw ud mpponed by dnnndl oC ex-IDldien. tbe 1DOcmcat leptimated many oC rbe PIC' 1 camphiall c:onceming die lllCk oC IOcial propea in die Republic and the lllCk oC prd'en:Dlial amcment or protecticm in lbe dale for popul1r-daa CubMl-dKlle who bid pven lbc lllOlt in tbe war. Criticllly, llowever, die velelanl' cnplip laum:hed lhcle criliqua wilbout IDCDlioning rKe. bmediag iaua oC wbite-apilllt-blact diJcrimillllioa. or CYCD elife..dw vemm pmjudice. Radler. ill laden reminded CUblm tbal lbeir origiml enemy bid been Spuilb calcaialin Thus, Ibey move to displace tbe blame for colaaialilm' CODlinuiq IOCial and political lepcia rrom amoaa lbe rants d former molUlioaary caudillm who bid lince beoome Cuba' 1 tafalnell. md OllfO lbe lhoulden of Ibale who embodied lbe SpMilb pat former Spanilll IO)'llilts. p1m:e in popular memory by lbe dilCOlllf on ud aaaer thll lbe PIC' 1 llrideal critiques m die .,._i in terms oC 1he pasc eliciled frma diem. Official publicalioal m die vcraam movement wese dar ia lbeir rqecsioa oC die kind d criliqua wbich &tcaaz md bis followen llMcMd apiall bods die molllliomry '*'die polilical praeat. lam anide wlae lide eclloed tbe a-. m Martt fllllOUI may ""Mi Raza".. Neither Wbilel. Nor D1g1tized by G og Original from bJ.N IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I I I t I c f l I J f I l 1 I 1 J I ; r "1.J! }1lf f R. l! I ir r 11ii Ii r' I -g -1 I f f f I I en 1 r t r 1--, I r I i J i r i : l I t s [ r r 1 1i 111II1 Bl Ji Jr. I JI f I l "- If !ii I I I!. I f II I t :I s 4 I r1Jlll.rfJ . ,!Ilf .. flll Q. If I r. f I B I I I 8 a I ; i 11 it. r I I J I :i i I i l f I -f 1 s ". , a: Q. 1 I :. s 1: 1 v .... r !' s-a

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Ncwembcr ol 1911 ud ..., of vw "D ed ia Hav-. elile-dm v-..n a--. IUcb as Manuel Saguily, Odlnez'1 Setnllry of Slafe. ud Sealtor Slllv.tor Cilnaol Belmcoun. Pftlideat d lbe Nllioul Veraw' Cowil, lmled apinlt lbc papular-dw Yetenull wbo damillllled iL Altboup Slllpily ad Ciwrol lleW?rwt Md bolb initilllly champiOMd lbe moYemcnt,. they lbudaned lbeir coattillleaU beclule Ibey raliad lbal die lbe 11reet1 ol HaYlna, collectively voic:iaa lbeir def mmce of Cuba' 1 new and survivia1 lrillocracy well their ounp ewer the paliliclll 1lapllian ol lbe Republic. M a whole, the etenm' coavicliom proved impermeable to Mllluel Sanpily' 1 blranpa aa lbe aeceaity for or*rty pmcedule" ud die bonon be painted '"in atowina colon" for them ol a i...ect lbe Libeml .tmiailtnlion m ullimasum. Ualell Ill the' smrillCIOI' wem dismiaed from ofrace by Ncwembcr 271b, Ibey woald '"take the law info lbcirown bwtl." Praidear omaez ftltlaled from bil oripml rebullD of lbe veterw' demgds llld appoi.-d a commiaee of lltlinlion. But Ii die cmnmiaee' 1 political cc impmition IDCI method ol I .,..ma1meat, die YetlaW would DDl ... Soaa .rtawaJd, lbc dd'eclioa of bipty iaRllmlial ndiQ(I such Cimerol fletaamwt frtm lbc popUr
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-Wml IO C. ID aapn diem ID die iafamoua. IU)'lllilt miliUI ol bllck olleerl Mo ......... die PllKio Aldlma in 1868 in order k: inlimjdete IUppORal ol CublD indcpaiilW:e. One ca only iJmaine wbat kind of rea:lim blact vc&erw ol lhe indepaldeacc llnlale mishl have Md in 1911 if lbe llllllifaeo Md been published: .ner-all, lhe rnolutioalry laldenbip ol CiwnJI 8ancoort' 1 ...-. bid once COllln*d lbe vit'luoul black 1111mlila with Spmn' 1111-bllck mililtial, ducribiq lbe laaer a u.vaae c:aloaial ,,..,.tons, Thal lbe imqe ol embilla'ed. 11nl')' veeerw ol lbe 1895 War cauld e twilted lbe memmy of IUCb a loq-cime ldvoalle ol civil ri ...... Cimerol Bccancoun only lbows how distant even die lllOll dcmocnlic wlbite rnolulionlria ... arown from their poom, darbr ex-coauadel. la die end. U.S. ctiapprovll oldie lilUl&ion pushed loc:al veteran leaden &o comply with lbe ctaundl ol lbe 06mez 1dmiailbalion No cbanga to lbe civil len'icc law Mn made wl die ex-loyalial .. awmia" ol Cubu independence remained where they stood. JI lbe ideality ol sudl .. enemies," it does ._clear lbl.i die C11Dpaip pve voice to cbe w kind ol fnllb'llion 11111 PIC a.dal wl syai.,...,.. exp 111 Nol only did cbe PIC qualicm Cbe sincerity ol while. elilKl .. ladel:s ID a.. lbe COUDll)' for die benefit of ... in lbe praea&. Ibey die bil1oric:.a evideace rc:ir wllite bypocrily in die pat. la lbe procea. lbe PIC IDOt lbe 1D01t bllloMd "lludl" ol U colleclive memoria ID lalk-dle .. ..,._ .. uaicy ol wbita with bllCb for lbe common end ol muaal libenlioa Md equillblc dilaibulioa o1 i rm-. Seen in lbia ligbt. lbe P1C'1 dlllleaF., .-w _. lbe palilim cs :.. Nitbmeat did llOl just elicit rlCi8l fmn odler llilbicll Ilda bave implied; it elicited --.... lelnrowet lbe pcmallility ...... o( CUla' polidcal -D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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IOCial etikW Ml iD jmmilWJDI dlnpr ol Colllp9e Not awprilialiy, Yetelan le.ien dlat in lbe milldl ol populmr-dall sympmlhizen ud IDIDY YefaW. die once rmdenw:nMI INlb ol lbe Republic could IUddenly be c....ronnect ialo a lie. TIU "'tnldl" w 1bll lbe 1895 R.eYolucion for indcpendence bad been a mnd CIUllde routbt rar lbe cqu.I bmdit ol all. lf popular-dw Cubml wen lllowed ID 111rive at die conclulion dml dlil was a lie. wbal would die fMe ol lbe Republic be? Hopiaa ID .,,aid die poling ol Ibis quation mtUely. veraan laden mewed lo channel die ..... olehlllif fellow Yetaw who -ualib lbe lwlen daamelva-Ud liUle or nodlm11 eo show in pace ror die mUICel Ibey bad ..... in war. la thew way Ibey bad rqnaed lbe PIC for orpnmag a political cmnpmp lbrouP lbe idiom ol race-cealeRd OlblJaidl&f. Ubenl laden in tbe Odmez adminillnlion lllC> rejected open demre arcr lbe aaailmg ol lbe .-among vetaW: Ibey did so in die mme ol prwrvia1 rw:elca and cllalat1 QahMjded In bodl cues. Cuba' 1 polilical elita, bodl Liberal lad Comervalive, aYoided pat by ICCUlin1 ndic:al m-olusiomry md popular nalionmilll oC pu11in1 lbe Republic in jooplldy Md apmina it to &be dual of a U.S. ialaYealion. Given die exrmt IO w'"2 dlle are COlllliued a dmed political alma in d9e mmer ol 1912. it cmld banlly bave bel111 surpriliq dial dae PIC would &um from 1Kticl d pmwsi-ID ll'IDed molUlion. Oalvllli2!11d by die belie( dwl aeilber of dlleir llllicJm could .nive IUdl a flOlllal -.ult on their lesitimlle:y. pllilical 1-*n ol bodl molutioalry and imperialilt -vmli cunellll l'elpODliedl in kind. Oii May 20, 1912. die 11811a llllliw ermy ol lbe fomba pranile o( Cullln iDllrpcadalrc, &lrillo ..... Reclleemero( ........ declared hjmelf and .-en1 ......._. follawen ia nlbellioll..-.. tMlbwl-. Tbeydid., frcm die__.,;. c1 D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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Orieale prorince. Ibo bdlorica1 point d oripn for all dne independence nn. iapmded ID lbe PIC'1 mbellioa by advoca'ina I W.U' d aaritim apimt PIC IUppOlllll ia town and f ldd. Public jUldflClllion dill ieprcaialll cm1e 80l only f mm large leCIOrl d lbe wbite """""'but from lbe CUbm IMdia wbicb die upriliq a an amhuhed c:aaqllip d violence impired by n.Jthiq mon: dllll racial balml. One eyewiama, 1 dark mulaao inleUeclual, IUllURed up IUblequent nen11 in tllil way. All &be bitternea. all lbe baUed. all die ancemal prejdca d die white rKC apinll lbe black. were let ioo.. While die llllldaime a-d lbe pcmmenl but lbe peaceful inllabilaatl d IOWlll and villqel in the Eutem Province d Cuba. in die larger cieia and nen in die C:apillll d die Repablic. wbire men mned to lbe tceda went about arderin1 ad every black man to wilbdraw rrom die lbeell IDd public places on p.m d dcalb. and lbe mere color d bil Yet. die rebell dlellllelva -wlllo prollmbly numbend only a few hundred-defied all prm "CCDUllll by ld'l'liniq from 1PIDCbiDI direc:t lllletl OD people; ....... die)' coafiaecl wUa few moludmmy Ktivitia they carried out ..ty ill lbe war ID will m propaty llllinly OMlld by Splnianll. To die wpn. d U.S. afl"alla and U.S. citiziem wbo demeded and mceiYed lbipmeall d U.S. mm.. ror dleir Jlft*Clim. DO U.S. property ... ever ....... orlpplNDdy,evendn1, it D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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In fllel. lbeir mcial prejlldice nocwi1Uladiq. mmt U.S. oblencn expn d bonar radler 111111 appnw.a al lbe lll'OCilie.1 CUbla f orcea openly commia.ed. Tlllll, die U.S. lqalim' miliwy -.:b6 lqJOl1ed lhlt der .....-1o ..Uy a bisb body COUlll. dran rL a blal Omni mit bid .. Dot down [ ... ] in 1:old blood'" a W. aumber al paaf'ul Afre> eumn.. includin1 mmy wamcn and cbildl111l. M OD June 14, o.c. f'elellaa...,.. ..... al Cbe .t Westan Rai1rOld O>., repaned wins Cbe caqma al two men '"wilh Cbcir badl *>t off, lyiq aloo1 licle the Inlet ID Illa& Cbe people o/ die pl-pr lrlin a.aid see diem." The main rmdl were Illa liaaed wilb bodies. be wit*. Cmn cUpmldled f l'Oll Ouanamamo to bury c:.daven did not do II) if Ibey curned out not k> be white. and so. '"1bcy were lef't until lbe buzmds finilhed them.,.,. Calliq llimlclf Cbe '"Oeaenl in Cllief' al die Vindicalina Army," &team rapnted ID Cbe .aocitia fcxccs pape1111fed apilllt black civililm wida repeated dempa to conllel the U .S. S1:ale Depanment. In die fant al Cbae. a leaer dllled June 6' 1912 Enmoz clarified die auidelina uader wbic:b die revolulioa bid bcell cmied ouL Addirioaally, be made refernce ID die aaliomlilt intentiom of die PIC, claimed die aunmee of blacb' civil ripu u ill primilrJ objectin, aad aplliaed bow popllar Afrc>Cubml idea ot 'nllion' hid inf armed lhlir :ICCiam: Under praent CODditiOlll, die black mn .._ no cblnce in Cuba ud we arc c:myiq on dU warfare in Older 1 m ICaft for him Cbe civic ripll ID wbicll be ii ealided in cam.,,. wilb oct. Cubw [,..] wl for wbicb he fmah& mmy yan. We 11e cmployins cirilizcd medlodl al makina nr, IObbiq mea mar mnlatiq wonen. neilber bave tl'e mllldered wllita 1a do we ildend cloiD110 u ii exwli!Wlly ltalDCI 10beour1purpme by lbe CublD penunelll. T1lil ww ii notcli.IKllld ..... fonipen d we llape lbll Ibey will refmin from CUiq lides. [.-]The Olbla paw& Im tried ID mlb people 1llilk lbll dlil ii a D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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mm iD our rmb ad baidel. a race w tllOUld be impmible iD Cuba, becl wida die aceplion oldie (onipen .U w.ould be on one tide. [ . ] All lbal we Ilk ii our rip11 a llld we hope ow polilicm will be mtentood by cbe America people ud 1hal Ibey will llUdy 11be c:andition carefully before In a leCXllld lctrer dared June l5cb, Elrenaz relayed 1be painful linaalion in which he and his fallowen found lbemllJva well u die ovenvbcl 1min1 danoralizalion dial lheir f cllow Cubw' r'llllClioal ro their movement had inspired. rn il. Eleam reminded Secrewy ol Swe Knox. -nae pcmmeat ol your a-1 nalion ii pafiecdy familiar widl all our abula. much 10 dual our pMty wu olf"lcially recopi7.ed by lbe support ol lbe Provisional Ocwermnent o( tbe U.S. in die Secaad lnfCl'Yenlicm iD tbe Republic.. Funber. ElleDCR poinled out lbll lbe U.S. prm bid printed bis IWllCllll caaming die ne nalUre ol the war and bow our ccaducl with ow enemies and dal: f ricndly clemenu ii complefdy difTcrent dim the methods employed by lhe Oovcrnmeot fon:a. On lbe subject ol lbe repression CDlllmiaed by the CUbm mili&ary fon:es, &lenorl W1role. Tiie a"ima ._.and Olba' man ICll pe:rpecraaed by lbe forces of Oenenl Moatagudo are alrady numerous, and a pmof of Ibis, I will cite mpidly due ahady perpeaaled iD lbe Pruriace 'Rmon de la YapM'. lst m ,._, WOIUll nwilbed. or Ill ol wbicb I lme lmowledie ud I mnmuaiclle dlllll ID you ia orderdmt you _,-a 111 .. 1mowa ID lbe Ocwemmenl wbidl D191tized by Goog Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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.-s )QI wortbily repru nt [ ... ] Rally tine dayt qo Chey e lied to lbe lllil ot a bone by die two U1DI aa elleemd and indUl1riOUI individull of dlit community, Md die two ... were left lmqiaa. rran die lmil (All) lbil Fiaally, Estenoz warned ol repxu dlll Oenera1 Mcateagudo planned ro auack U.S. property in order to IUl1l U.S. public opinion f unber apiDlt die rebela. Unable IO negocimfe wilb lbe Cublll pcmmcnt under paentcoadieiom, Eacenaz requeaaed die medillioa ol a U.S. in order lbal in lbe ery camp d die _,olUlioa be may c:oavince llimsclf ol lbe llUlh ot cverydliq I have Aid; aince if lbe OUlnlpl wilb repnt to our fmnilia c:antimue we will find ounelca under Che neceaicy d catabliabina rqxilals, a lbina dial will put an end to civilizalion and ro the wile CXJUWI which we received from you duriq die lime dial you pcned m. [ . )I desire in Ibis way, sir, to show the Oovcmmcnt ol )'OUI' Oreat nation and to the coeire world dm we ounelva are tM amt maliped. tbal we llave sacrif aced Che IDOll for the lndepatdaa ol tbia COUlllr)'; IDd to show CM necasicy d laring )'OW' Oovcmment ICDd ira army ID prOled lbe inlerats ot die subjecll ol Ibis c:ounuy." For &lam. Odlmz's impmilioa ol lllldial law llld ira ccmequencca for die ciU.. cionen. ......._. .. exrcat ID wbicll die cue.a paw Md i IUppDl1llD bid IOlt .al 1C111e ol wllll die Cubla 'a.Ilion' and beina Culm were ..Uy ....,._., IDCllL Tlaul. be loobd to lbe U.S. IKJl oaly ID pmride die rwolalicmlia wida a D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 ..... N C" '< CJ 0 & c: z < 590 ........ --llO' -<"'Tl -0 ........ 3 8 z Vi :z I t t !J r ,,1,1 l j I J J 1 j I ; c: "' I a. l l l 1 '< I l I I s ,Ji i{;Jf r 1 r l l r '< .. -.. a. Ii s s J r : I f r I J 1 J. I I I f I t i i 4 i I I I [ I I I I I i i i I 1 i f I I i I I I I r 1 1 I I: Q. 1 a.1 f l r 1 i 1 l 1 f J J I ( f '< i e f a r I f l a t I ( Q. l I I I r a r i I > I ; J I ltrisi;ll;f!t1J( J, I f. I i J l i I I t i I 11 I I I I Q. r f r i l i l J t I & i f Q. B .:1 r I t

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lacknllip. wbo .. supported limilar 1IK:dcl in die Ca.lilllliolllll R.eYoluliaa ol 1906. die PIC'1 lrmed aebellioD ror die mpa1 oldie Mania Law WU -iDIOlerable form ol potilic:al blllcknwil. Odmez allo did not appreciafe the pollUrins ol U.S. Millitler A.M. Beaupd in HaY-(ID wham lvoanet dlreacd hi.I leaen) in favor ol ialen'cnlion. la a lbmply worded leaer' which a.upn fcwnrdecl ID die Slale Depmtalent. Odmcz' I deauncialion al U.S. lllemp(I IO undcnniae bis authority WU c:alepic. SWiq -even DOW llil pemmeal bas .. lllown ill eff aciellcy by paeniq public pace Md hahb in rbe face ol rebellion. .. Odmez f on:ef ully c:IMified bis own intaprefaCion d &be Plaa Amendmcat IDd sulmqueat araty riJhll ellablilbed between lhe U.S. Ind CUbl: Thia elms not mdllaria or lipi(y medclin1 [ ... ) in inranal lffmn. subjecli .. c:euonbip would be dalruclive d die independence md dipity ol lbe Republic. whole rip I can not allow to be ratriCfed wilbout illCWl'ina IClioul aap:mibility. [.") Nor did die Ocwemment ol lbe United SCala help us IO Clalie tbc Republic in onmt' laler IO dapail it ol ill ICWereipty by l)"'mMic infaYenrioa in ill iatemll affairl [ ... ) ... In wrilina to his .uperion. BeausR apn 11ed OUlrip& lhoc:t over Odmez' 1 anpy. def"amt "tone." M Odmcz swely inleaded........., fOUDd bit ""ufilJlllndiq oblervalicm a ID our Ooemmeat'1 ripll in Cuba" 1lwdin .. Even IDDR llloc:kiftl. however, w lbe .. comp Odme:z'1 leaer. D191tized by G og Original from -UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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->.. a moluticmmy uli
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"jllltice" of videti .. Afro-Cubas' civil rial*. lllllDY atrldlls teemed oblirioul to die irony d lbeir ICCic:m. Comcicully or um=cmcioully. IDOi& found dlemlelves iaveniq cbeir own biltorica1 rola rebels in lbe pat i11 order ID iaf'cxm beaa' lbeir deciliam on bow to reprea lbe sebell Ibey canCrmred in lbe praenl For intllDCe. Sec:relary o( JU11ice 1-Menocal onlaed lbe dlie( prtllCCUIOr in Slllliqo to mat and impilon aay ciriliw apeaing l)'IDpalby for the PIC. In pm'lic:ular. Hocal worried orer lbe pomble emapace o( aecret "'rwolulicmry clubl" liJlbd ro a IJWIOOll espinnap network--cucdy die kind d pbc1111cnenoa which Md IDD 11U1111bi1e110 succeaf'ul during d9e 189S illdcpeadenc:c w. At die ame lime.. the PlC revolt proridcd SplniMdl widl a lon1-eWllited oppoltUDity to leek meap on blKb f bllriq rebelled apilllll them wl Sp.m duriq lbe indepeDltclft nn. CUblD ofran IDd Splllisb minillal llila: IUIDed a blind eye while laqe numbers ol blacb. especially i.a Orientc. Oenerally. however. avcmae cut.a citizcm merely found daanlelves reflecliq OD eventl lbloup oddly wuped lcm on lbe pm. in dleir mm. lilaatcomplicity. even dac Cumm wbo toot no direct aclim on blacb one way lbe odla' denied tbe llillaric crime thal n1 mppeaina to 11aem. Not all CUbla ofrlCiall derived lbe w lellolll from lbeir memories of lbe plll. Nor did Ibey immccti11ely jump ma lbe ... ol racilt byaeria to wbicb olber bnndlea d pcnmenl uned ID pvc full rein. Aldlioqb mlllt bavc cmed lau.,,.... by IUlllllaer'I end. die Oief Plwecuror fOI' die poviacial Supreme Comt o( Oriellfe municipm ma,an o( Orieale dial no ciliJm W IO be clebtined ma lbe mm pamdl ol"'llaviq belonged ID die lade ...... C Pllty ol Color. Tiie npt ol ( ... -.xi-. w beea .......,.s by ... Rl!Yallllica. bearped; Giiiy llllled ........ be D191tized by Goog e Original from UN IVERS ITY OF WISCONSIN

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.., ....... Similarly, mvma 11..ty witnued die toU dial wbille vipianle violence could c1ec1.m tbauelYa penomlly ...,amible for lbe ..,.ety m bl-* citimll IDCI illYited IMm to wk lbeir pl'CleCdon immedi11C1y in cae ol dual. liotireTer, wlailc ofraa.11 privarely nr ..--blacb. few were bmc enoup to do men dm aclmonilb wbira for lbeir **apecillly tbe vialencc and IOCial tasiom incraled. BUI if lbc few wllite ofl"IC'iab with a pilty comcie8Ce to act. one Cllll only imaaine bow much men renifled bllCb wae. .. ThOle who did speak out apiml acrocilia lbat IUllUllel' Ill invobd die fenel m revoluriomry llllioaali1111 which white ex1lalilll bid proclaimed invicUblc: racelea cublaidld From die indepcadmce-cra dilcoune wbidl silenced l'KC in favor m replacing mcill identily widl lnDICeDdenl. nalioall '* molucioaary utiomlilll bepn ro drmlnd iD 1912 dlal bllicb aunender Ill c:llim to lbcir rw:ial idenlity as prerequisite to anicy widl wbira. F
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0 <5 .... N CJ 0 c: z <" 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I I l I 1 -t I i-j t f I I l f n I: s Q. f n s I t f I J j i j I f f I 1 t t J I I I f i l f I l I l J i I J I I 1' j l I I I I "' t a-f i I .. i ll.111. I 1 '11 f Ii' ii I_" &>I l 1t-illl't1-f r r { E r r a _ 1 { If rl I i i i I i I I i 1 I J 1 i ft r s -l l 1 r -: s I r I i l f r i i I I I a I .. 1 I I = jl I ,., I 1 Er. i f [ Is l 16 'I ta. I Ii' I I I 1 l I ! I Ii' i I i I l 1 J I l .f "!, I I I f 11 i f f i i ... t &" Ii' i J 1 f 1 c . I!. Q. I l 1 f I l i' a. ( 8 II l f f

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Judainl from die of pnpll-dw blsb to die PIC nwolt llld ia aftenmdl. ltllle-lecl efl'cn ID fon:e CU-. to aMlane die IOCial ..._quo and .ccept Libc:ral laden u 1utheadc bepen of memory fell f .nt of lbeir mmt. Mucb of die evidence pmealed by audaitiCI 91 tbe time of lbe alnll of PIC npponen in 1912 reveals a bip depee of mobilizalion, apecillly in PlDlr del Rio, a area gcopapbimlydivorced from Chemin sires oldie PIC'sanned upriliDp in Orientc. la whit hid been lbe key arena of mppon for the revolu1iomry movement of 1906, raenrmcnt of the 1ublcquen( failure ol Libesal laden lite Pim>Ouern so live up so proa u ses bid made tbem especially mnemble to PIC aaaulll, armed and odlenvilc, on lhe Liberal 111ltc. In lbe prcwincial capilal of Pilllr. for eample. a aroup of blllCt women founded a dub with the litle of Propea" to belp supply rebels in die field. Beaimc of lbe leCre& DllWe of the orpaizalion. the WOlllCll lbmlelva do DOI..,._.. to ve wamen. oae of which stared, .. I iavire )'Oii [in the mme ol Ocilaal Eatmaz] llf:Yer apia ID feel weak ia Older so pursue lbe lfllld and_.. llbcw be Im bepn. for bis by may b1sb willa dipity and [-.) becauw: Ibey wdll-.1 dlat [lbe PIC) Im been bona ia a brilliant bour for every bllCk who. wilb reaa, belieYea m.-tr eqml ID lbe white. ... In COBlml to die white.._ of Sap la Onlllde, lhele bllldc women did not Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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ia cbe field freed cbelll fcnver ol tbi1 Mllm wt coafumed lbeir lll'ellllb ia a new popdar Mljnmlist "mliOIL" Uadnubfedly iDlpired by die j..._ ol PIC derntMI tM maffdimd wilb die pmty. IOlllC Afro-Cuba piDll'dol ll>Ot ID cbe field ia revolutionary lolidarity widl die buic ca.ol black libenlioa. Odien limply dedMed lheir lolidlrity publidy. Boda .....-. ol molt and railCIDce, orten md widl dire c:omcqueaca. For instance.. Rlix Oceguera from Oolpe, PiDlr del Rio, ns anated wilb ID incriminaliag leuer oa bi penoa. Aapily, its writer chided bim, "wbal i1 die maacr with you dial you have not complied wieb )'OU" promile (7 Tbe aaca on whom you cm coual] are all men who have no fear lad are rady when you pvc lbem die lipll[.]" Saying lbal O'iffl a lhoeepnd men under Armen&ero awailed their addilioaal force, cbe writer DOied lbll die men who bad already joined bim wen: Veler'llll ol previOUI wm. .. 771tr OM is Olin," he declared meaningfully. dnall in Sin AJ11011io de lol Balol. Nol aaly did be ay Oil Ylrioa on:uiom. '"we baYC ID set rid ol IM wllia" but. u two Rini o.m .--t duoup a lrliD llllion. he loudly or bl-* empoweaw Perbapi .. illmaalive ol 11* Wll cbe Uderprelalioa dial ol S.. AJllmio de IOI Bl&JI pve ill members. Dilinct fran die lllCft relipouly D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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by lbe ipirit ol Ocaeral IDd elm Rep .. ic oup& to be for IUcb, beiq lbe illllrumcn *'"lb wllidl Chit may be ldlieYed. Elfmaz md Yvoact [lie) ..., Exprcaina Havw. wro&e a cMci in pmeelically crude but lyriCllly beauliful Splnilr Cuba l freed )'OU Md my blood I have spilled Lia&e cam do you pve IO me The planlicm pounds were Wlitiaa qaiD. You know whal is becHx I feel die llMIX The blKb wilb .... will Foqbt IMCb in Cbe field Now you only love lbe whites And )'OU dapix Mamo. Ca yo le HllmL y llll ""'IN f"}e dar""""' SL llfi d4 poco addado d baM{y} ubnobG DIN W%. Si*s la raz41e Clllll u porfllL MlllO el atropeo lm pm COfl,,... Pelurolt ll9ltClto a el Ca#ff10 """"' fl*ru 4 "" blMco.r y tlbornc:a 4 Maao. Oood it would be if lbe Spanish lion Returned lo lbe Camll'y once apin Bec11111e ill cum no Unity llllOlll Cubas ii round I, Ii.ace I a Yeta'ID, Tm lbe oppodUDity so say Tbey p lbe From aad Ip lbe FIOlnrMllmlUl'e The wbila p lbe ... ol Fld The lbe .. o1 .... [ . J ... u fW el lM,.,,., S-llM tll hit DIN WZ ,.,,,,,_a Otb8., bi (lie) UllltM ._,,IM arbmw Y6c=-oMJ1 IM---Csic) ,. llupll..,.,., --.. ,. ,.,.,,. '10 d .,_, Original from D191tized by G og UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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l.M bltlllCOl 111 Uln& de MO LM pm utnlla tie,._,. [ ... J aear1y importMt i1 die r11Ct 1ba& bodl Soliz ad lbe upirlllsltu c1me to appropriale MKeO u tbe symbol d cbe pipdar aatkmlin wbida Ibey believed tbe PIC CIXpRllled and wbicb Ibey daimed to share. In cbooling the fipre of MKco mer tbe martyred pulbeon d w heroes laded by MmU dial tbe PIC Ud ICIUillly endoned, 1bae popular nariOllllilll dillinpilbed tbemtelva rrom &be mdiall moolUlionary lllli
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Liberals. could not.,,. Gdmez' pOlilim.., la run llllDelly did not come from eilba' Odmez or bi Coamvalive m:c e 11 or, Mlrio Menoc:al. Not unlil March ol 191.S when ... Cut.a Conpaa overrode Menoml' Yelo did tbe ....... or Afro-Cublm imprilOlled wilbout cbuJe. IDd moldy witboul llW, flllllly repin lbeir f reodom Indeed, lbe Odme'z ldminillralion augmed die ead of lbe "rKC wlr" not wilh diaplays al compntion but aelf-caqnbtlatim: on July 28, the government holccd a maa banquet in bonor ol lbe '"heroic" Mmed f on:es who bid risked dleir Uva for che sate of &be .. llllion." Accompulied by maic which included lbe new military man:h .. Oencral Montapdo" ad such favorilCI .... Par. Utdwrsar (Universal Peace), Maatcagudo himself llld Mane 2.ayu Bmn joined lbe emire ofrar corpa on the night oC July 271b, 1912 for a IUlllplUOUI, open-air meal f aauriq nmt port. ham, amn. COii pollo, wines, dClscr1I and cipn. Amona lbe non-active milimy official1 in aaendaan were prominent Liberal ,.._ sucb 11 Enrique Collazo and Mmuel Slnpily, Comervaliva like Menocal 11 well lbe entire Odmez adnliniJlralim. The only Afro-CubMI in 1a.endance wae Oeaen1 Jads beclmc a lilml')' icon al negriau& Molt lipiflCalll d all, lhougb. w not* bipll1ian aaca.n al lbe event or ill lavish quality. It wa lbe fact dll& die whole celelnlion DJk pgce around die llllUe al JoK Mmd in HaY-' Cami Put. Al lbe ...aiaa dlllt for die ne111 abowl, lbe fipre al k* Mmd aec>Od 11 die epcenter of eipt loq bmquet 111*' wbic:la radialed OUl lib a 1111' from bil pedalll. Toppiq off die celebnlim. ... llked IUClll ID rile ID dleir feet Md.-... a.:ae piedF bona oldie a..n Wen die -adle supreme cme (iadicaaa die ..... of MmU) wllo ii drie emblem of .... Ollm idall, ... dbl may be ... rant IDd Che D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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lltt pmiy widl wllicll we may be bamred. wl becat newer in Caba *-Id Cubm blood apin be lbed. .. an. ....... followed Ibis pledge.,. For 1be lllOIDelll al lcllt. it 1eemed lbll lbe veil ol rMel adluiclwJ lbal die PIC bid IO MMX:ellf ully lifllld from lbe counfalaDce ol Mint, llld fallen apia. lilmcina open mt.le on race IDd cwenUdowiJll lbe pcmibililiea ol rac:ial ecplity aace more. For lbe moment, revolUliomry md imperialist lllllionalilll could pul their partilln clilTermce1 mide fO celebnle lbe coming rogccber" of lbcir aapeclive polilical llld IOCial viliona for a raccleu .. Dllion." Fiaingly, Ibey did so under lbe ll8IUe of ill muflled founder, JoM Mini. Nonelbelea, blKb lmpilbiq i.n prison IOOlc lllOlber view. There, the survinl of lelf and COllUlluity i.a die fKC ol barrifacally amped Md munilary conditions quietly surpwed tblll ol idcat of Dllion in tbe miadl ol IOIDe. Accardinaly, many addrcaed lcaen ol peci1ion '> Odmez a prodipl 10D1 rmewia1 their pledaa of loyalty ro die '"aoad c:audillo. .. Oloain1 ewer &be circwmtaacel ol dleir OWD imprilOlllDelll, mac wnicn endoned veteranilla audrority u the cmly lcplimale dwtnel for promoeing IOCial dlange. 71 ln return for their freedam. one tbrM.mmd pn.onen nen pramilCld to vate for Odmez wl all Ubeal Puty c=edj+tes in &be Yp'Dllli"I praideaci81 e1ec1ion1." Bu& Olber writen were lea qui-=-r ia tbeir plOICICl, lell williq IO lpOkiF.c for Wl'Ollp Ibey did llOl ccamil or did DOI comider' unjullifaed criminal acll. One prilOlael', ccapkinina ol lbe depivalioa bil bleace Yililld upon bis fllDily, WR1lC, Mull we 11ay in prilon 10 lblt we may lole our Uva a well? [ ... ] WiU be who deslmys our inleiClll, proride our daily livclibood IDd .... for our .-.111e cbildren? mu ii a]ll be!:HM' we me IUcb, ud. Ad ml ( ... ) .. die Ymlic:l ol 1118 ffcay-Oil bchllf of die poor mm ..S .. e .... for the Cuba r .. iD ill jud ......... be terrible [ ... ] ... ,.Maile lbe dcr...a lllieude D191tized by G og Original from U NN ERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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-ol Ibis Miler wu die l'elittaooe which it implied w m. Cenainly. a areai 111111y more pdilioaen opled to lilence die role of nice IDd nici1111 in demcacy. HoweYer, Ibey CODla1ed lbe Liberall' rd'mal IO include them in dacir revolDmly mticwli nalicJa md comcioully railled their ideolopcal ex-communication from die inlide ol a jail cell." One writer, Raf'ld sun Ouerra. approprialed lbe fipue ol Martt u a meana of daimins bil innocence and rmdin1 a place. eYeD from an overcrowded jail cell. in the revoluaoaay nahouJill na&ion mandated by Odmez.,. Sipificandy, his words did nae imply an endonemcDl ol the leprimacy ol dais nalion illelf, but rather, a recopilion of die def cat lhal bil own poptJar Dllionalill vision bad IUffaed before lbe rdendea violence wbicb die tare bad spamared. Indeed. the tatimony or Ibis primr, wbo wrote a secaad leuer a week larer. sbows tbe exlenl to which aome Afro-Cublns bad decided lbat while Ibey mipt ue lbe vesauilta channel ol pmty polilicl in momen of perlOllll crisis. the vicfori
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Uadoubledly. 1912 marUd a biltorial Wlllenbed. Af ro-Cubml discxwmd dial they could neidler rely on die United bra nor on openly l'Kill diKX>UnC to ccnviace powerful wllilll of tbe lcgilimllcy of 1bair dmwls 11 By apmkiq llways in tams of memory and their own CIDlllribulicJDI to Oaba' I ieYolulioaaly experience. die PIC ladenbip propmed a libcnriq diJcoune of idcality tbal had appealed to tbe teae11 of radiCll revolulioauy and popular llMi. tbe PIC opened doon in the CIDlllCiOUDal of many Cublnl, not jmt blacks and mul11r.Oa. In die coming yan, lbae doon would remain open-dapitc the cfforu d W' rcprasion of lbe PIC ..S enewtiq mw:re of 1912 may have 1CC01Dplilhed man: dllD 1be PIC did in CORVincina p>pUl8r-dw CubMt IU& vefalnilta put)' poliliCI aepKKDted nNna men dlma a deMend on lbe pmh IO pafel' liberalion. A.a we 111111 w in Che fiaal ledila of Ila dmpeer. lbe fllll four yars of tbe McnocM ldm.iai1trllion cmliauecl tbe procaa of popular-clw dilftldalnw widl vetennilfa IUllqiel. By ex&eDlion. dais prcaa Ibo U..Uaed lbeir ideolop:al ancl lll*gic di.,.PP"'"" from Che molulimmry llld ilDperWilt netjcmelilt cunm11 of poliliml m IOCial clilel. A.a bc6 Ubelall ad funbercoarll'lllllld tbe .,_lilesy of dar D191tized by G og Original from -UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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neripH1m1 on the Uaited Siiia. popll md mdical reYolllliomry MricmJilll felled die validity ol lhil role for their DMI ab. and Ihm bepn lhe procea o( rejecting it ....... ,,_,,,,..,,,,,die of Vdrrfllrtmo, 1913-1911: liberal Rnollllio11 "' De,.,,.,.., In tbe mondll following the wv ol 1912. Colllervalive and Ubenl laden enraat a boneymoon o( pm:ef ul Dlliollll elec:dOlll llld cordial political rclalions." Appaaady, the opponunity IO come 10gelber' apiDlt die forces ol popullr-clm rebellion llMI lbe PIC' s armed def aance ol dleir supreme ubority ewer the nalion a.I len'ed them well. By the time Menocll' 1 cleclioD vidory over Zayas wu scand. bodl Mmml' 1 Comervalivc supporters and 7.ayu' Uberal denctGa claimed dial wicb their v
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dinlclly prejudicial ID supr iadulCrillilu (like bimlelf). DomiMled by aamdlilll wt iaftllCllCed by a powiag number o{ eoOtlM. die W. lllOY_. I dileourle_ Mmx2J llllepd. Ml pernicious ID die inlenlll lllllility oldie Republic. TbUI, wbile dockwolbrl, nilway WOlbn, bricklayers Ind oda'l lmled a leliel o/ llrib YiclariCI for lliper wapl ad tbe I-hour clay in 1916. orpnizen and wrilm for 1be labor preaa who espued llllfChilt or '0Ci1li1t views suffered ICYere perameat rqnaion. Menocal not only penoaally decreed lbe deponaliOD ol Yllioul awdlim of Spmilb and J.ailn en.ctioa_ bu& be ..,....Uy ordered die amaiuaion ol ll lalt oae labor Klivill for vindendy awking him in CUba' 1 lonpst-lived uan:bilt newspaper. Iiml. But perbap.1 IDOll illllllralive ol Mmoc:al' 1 lllllle ..aborilllim ltyle W bis aaicude rowani IUIYivon ol lbe PIC IDd ncill policic:I in geaeral. While Mmocal rd'Uled to IUppOd -""Y bills calliq ror lbe re1cue ot Ofer 5,000 Af ro-Olbam ltill impriloaed liJa 1912. be allowed IUIYiYon of tM PIC to orpnize a polilic:al orpninfion in Orieale lmown u '"Amip del Pueblo." Despite the fa dial memben who lllCDded i11 ID"erinp openly sbouted '"Viv11" to Eacaaz and lvoanet. l:>tenocal aci:cpeed die polirion ol baaormy prllidnl for tbe orpnintion. In .... ror ill ript 10 exill-IDd evca to prelml iadepeodeal r-lih for llllioBll off"ace in Oricnte in 1916, Amip del PUeblo" cmnpmped releadcllly 1pi Libm11 ad repearecly publi1bed 1111eaaea11 ol lbeir specific support for Mmacal. Wllca Mwx:al fmaUy propmed llil own elecioa in micl-1916. die beild ol his Cllllfllip badqmnm in Havm w bllct. lllbouab UDLYJ-clDd tbe PIC m palitially Ullmon. Not msaililtlly. Amip clll PUIWo" w quiet ID Wiii die .ailUde ol Mcnoall widl M ol Libenll: die Ubaal Party's DllioMI .a. for die t.lectiaa ol 1916 bmlled DOt a liqle lll-*crm"">........, llltoaly&womm wlae.W p' *JPemd r.m& D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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allepanrn, it daimed. were ambipou1 at bed." Still. odm Cubul d color did not rally to mppod Menocal (wbo Md cxpnized a force oC3.000 mea ID repaa blldm in 1912) but Ibey Ibo did not beed lbe belt efforts d Libenll lib JUlll Oualberto 06mez ID draw tllan blct under a Liberal f1aa. In lddilion ID pnlClicing policies d llftlelic ranint. Menocal allrmpfed ID tum Che biJlorical memoria dial evcntl o( 1912 bid awakmed in bil favor. During the rust yar'I o( bis 1erm. Menocal openly lppl'Opialiq die martyred figma o( revalutiaaary heroes bilbcrto dimaed by maimlram poliliciw. Fint. Menocal complefed a project abudoned by Che Libenll IO erect a nwaunc>m monmnent to lbe IUltynd black pnenl. ADIOllio Maceo. Uke EIUada Pal bid clone wilb the monument to Mmd in 1905, Menocal alleDded che l&able' 1 unvcilina mly monlbl before inilitatin& bis own waved polilicm repreaion meant to amn his re-elecliOll in 1916. In bepin1 with die new, poll-1912 Conservalive line thal Cuba could oaly be ruled by reYallllionlry c:audillOI wbo knew bcMt ID wciJd .. nwcbelel,,,. Meaoc:al SUOe to jUllif'y die SUODg-anned ladiCI d bis presidency by aoci11iq bimlelf wilb milillr)' laden of lbe 1195 War reputed to llave beca die mmt llridcnt and rccalc:ia._ MUimo Odmcz In fact. Menocal spoacxed a plan to build a $220,000 monument co MUimo Odmcz. lnlaic:llly, as Libenll later &qed Cuba ID nail, MWJBo Gdmez was lbe cmly mililmy Clllldillo ol lbe 1895 War opealy to n:Cme lbe plaidenUI c:Uir. 11 HoweTcr, lbe peltiel' irony coulcl be found in die Ccmerv.ava' upmcat dial Mcnocal was a prelideal wbo cou1c1 nlle by.....,.,,,_" After all, lllOll Comervaliva bid once been Modmra. Tea yam .tier, Ibey bM biDpd lheir suppart o( &lnlda Palma. a civililll ladercl lbe 1895 War. cm lbe f-=t dial be.,. pm:Uely dllr-1 cirilim- aat a miliwy ceKlilJo. ID dai .... lbat lbe cwmi CfttieeM Mm lbe only ones IUilmble for Ille D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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504 pRlidency by die 1916 elecliaa, QmcrvlliYCI not oaly lq1ed 10 dilllDCe Mcaocll from 119e laW)'a' Alfledo 1.ayu. die Libmll' praiclmlill c:edjd* i 1916. Tbey allo hoped to dimnre lbemNIY .s Mcaocal rrmn lbe dilarw:ed impcrialiat peMnaliat praident whole re elecli1>1l camplip Ibey h1ld lat IUppDlted-aamely, Ellrlda Pllma. Only two years U.O Meaocal' 1 term. c.on-v&va bepn to plat Maoc:al' 1 seturn to omce. lailially, part)' c.dra l'lll Mmoc:al' I le-Cicclioa quite diff erm&ly dllll dial 0( f.lnla Palma. opting ID buy peoplc' 1 Yafei rather Ihm fon:e diem inlD 1Ubmiuion a Modenlel bad in 1905. Tbul. Menoc:ll'1 ldmiailnlioa mare ..... doldlled lbe waaes ofHav-reet daDcn. pMdoned criminals fran whole political cadollaDellt it hoped to profit, md pnerally med fadl prnen:d cJuaaab lhe Dllioml loaery 10 finance lbe more illicit upecas ol Menocm' C11Dpaip, 1ucb u bribes. In fact. me elecliaal ol November l, 1917 were Clrl'ied OUl almolt wilbaul incidmt or any CCllllphlim ol ineplarity. After lbe lira Cbiny-lix houri ol VOie llllyiq (lbe raulll of wbicb lbe Sec:relmy ol Ocwenance pol&Cd on ID elecuic billbmrd in Havana), die prea. lbe public. f oleip olllerven lllld government inllilldiom UDlllimously reponed a Liberal vidory: only Piw del Rfo provi-=e and Lu ViUu -bodl pmriaca where Liberal h1ld fannerty enjoyed lqe blKk COllllitueaciel-rmdeRcl a majority ol eca.nalive vora. Takina 1.ayu' eadence ro die praidmcy liven. lbe IDOl1liq ediliou ol lhe Comemllive pas._.... Coernliva f dleir 0ter-coaftdencc llld MeDo&.W for bis '"J*riocic" leniency in --nq '"camplly rree elec1ionl. ... However, by ._ ol November 2ad. lbe Cealral EleclDnll Boat seponed a crisis: it llld llOppM naiviq telcsrw fan polliq--. in die pmvim.w and 11c,.,. receiving .._ dindy from M noc.!'1 Secaecuy of Ocwemmce. ApplreBlly, lbe 1e1u111 llllied fnm 105 telepaml ll'IBmDiaed '"clilecdy" ID die MIDlal ldlllillillnlli radler'dla ID lbe D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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S)S Ceatn1 Eleccicm Bmnl mealed a surpriliaa lbift ia lbe t.lw:e .. in 1906, Libenl mnaden mmed dleirfon:a lbc ArmY' wl aace apin. Alfredo Zayas ,... ... ill Ha1111 Li .... priacipll c:ivililD llpftMllllliYe. Boda Ubenls and Omervlliv qaiddy mealed die depelldaa of lbeir rim-tist pOliticm cm die Uailed Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Slllel. Adlmandy dmyiq dmt lbeir pl was to topple tbe Mmocal mlmimllalion. die molutiomry 1-lenbip dedlred ill IC>le paqme was ID fon:c die mre into holdina new, fme elediom-pldenbly under tbe supenmoa oldie United Stara. Libwi1e, Menoc:al did everydliq be could to cajole lbe U.S Miailler in Havw inlD phdng tu cue before die Wbile Houle by fele&lam. But in lbmp c:oa1n1t to &ada Palma. whit Meaoca1 ubd for wa llOt a military iDta'Yentim to save bi adminilll'llion from a revoluUomry army memciq Havana's door In fact. be mcut to CIUlb die Labenll' "lawla11ae11" outrilht tluoup evay mechani at bis dispmal: in lddition ID mabiliziag the armed forces under CbieC ol Scaff JoR Martt y 7.ayu BaDn. Meaoc:al Oldaed die .cret police to arrest scora ol ciiliw, including such prominent men Orella Femn. Speabr ol lhe Houle ol Repf c bdjva. After a brief ialpection ol San1a Oara' 1 milillrized pollin1 llatioal. Alfredo 7.ayu Weal into bidiJll. 111 Tbe f.:t dial Menocal ncilba' needed nor wanfed diftlCl U.S. iatcrYenlioa lllllde lbe liblalian ol 1917 inbelmdy difTaml from than dial ol 1906. Yel,, lbe very condiliom lbll lllllde it diff'amt Dal only reveal how cammiu.ed lbe Sfafc bad become to lbe 111e ol force, but bow tilde diffena:e my c:blnga in lbe IClfC ally meant to die promilel Oil which die Republic Wll fowdect When Ille Ubaal ReYolutiOll orisiully beam in Fcbnmyl917, Liberal laden COUDled OD tbe fmcl dat lbe llllioaal anny wbicla Ibey tbemtelYeS I.a founded under Odmez'1.m.iaillnlioo MJUld clemt die stale ad join diem in lbe field. Alfmio 7.ayu even bcmted to U.S. olfaciala 11..c ..,,,. ol lbe-y would come ID him Mica called." .. Bui. ia rm. cmly two full IMallicm ever defec:llld ID die Ubml Iida. Monicwer, die ..-.& llpriliDa m 11111 ol dlouwtd1 ol pnpel-dw O"-aa wllicb u1'ml laden Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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In die duce astem proviaal wheft tbe reYolUlion ns decl..a. support ns 11n>11p11 in ClmqUey, wlwft rebel laden were llble to nlly up ID 4,000 lrOOpl. Sipifw:andy, Camagtley wu die home proviace of ncll lepadlry fipra Salvidor Cimerol (recendy deceaKd) and faique l..oylllZ dcl c.tillo, lbe IDOlt comisteady and ovenly radical of the Liberal Pmty laderlbip. Moreover, CamqUey bad beell lbe lire of 1be least PIC accivity since its founding and. during cbe summer m 1912, bad experienced liale if any perament repression. In the province of Lat Villu, where recent mililllry intimictafoa by Menocal' 1 forces mipa lad one to expect similarly pal popular IUppOlt for tile Libenlls, JoM 'Mipel Odmez., die 1917 Revolution' supreme aalional army. Def eared almolt immedi1rely by 2,000 fatMnda Odmez was arrared Ilona with 229 oC bis men. Sipirlcudy, Ullllysil of die profealiona listed for 192 of die priloncn iadicalet a llrikiq preponderance oC middle-clus profeasioaala, farmer pemmclll oft"'ICilll. llld ex-policemen (prot.bly diniaecl in 1912 with the sunalder of die apoill ayar.em to Ccmervmve CODlld). or .. 192 rebels anated wilb Odmez for ledilion. cay 10 bulic f I JMll, laW)'Cn. propedy OW11a'1. politiciw and the lib. More complele prisoaerl' lilll for CwaUeY reval a limilady bip Blllllber oC miMlo-and upper-daa pnciplDll, mD)' cl wbam .re lilfed be'"liDl ID hip.placed families r,,,,,, ,,.,_..,.,.. GiY die ....Uy .....u moredlyelite-daa cbnclel'oClbe new ec.illllioul Army, itil ......... dial dleym emily clefealed: dley were -yof ....... D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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D willalt diellll. Fedaal ..,.. quickly llmered die IUITender miolUlioury fon:a iD bodl plOfiac. by eady Mlrcb. 1917, lalaiy a moaa after lbe revohllioa 8-1 mned. Indeed .ua 1906 wbca Liberal molutiowia mmdled fmm IDMl to IDWD. mpicly lakina at mmcipll penuneota. lbe revolutiouriel d 1917 were only mnful in cxecuain1 a "'coup cl'ecat' iD lbe prcwiacill Cllpilll tX Orienle. Smtiaao de Cuba. 8en Oricnle bid been lbe lite of CM bloodiaa iepieuioll cqiaecncl by Odmcz' I Libelal admiailnlion in 1912. ieMOlll for lbe rebels' 1uccea in SaniaF lallin unclear. lailial .-ch appcws ro inclicaJe lbal Ubenl laden in die city endarml llelics and objedives f lell radical dlln dime of iebel suppanen in die c:ounuylide. dm c:onccm tbemldv wida takina ater local 1a11 of pernaal, rebell toot lldYaarlF lbe oppodllllity ro wk lbeir revenae oa lbe oppreaon of 1912-aot lbe leut of which bid been Menocal bimlelf. While Libenll iD SMliqo aaempled to U.S. otraciall to lwi 11oop1 Md commit 1o lbe mpervilion of new decliom. rebels in lbe counllylide rcponedly ICted like .. delUuclive bwlill," evauu.Uy bumin1 tbiny-fin million mot. of 111pr al om of Praideal Meaoal' 1 .,. ... alllel.,., Pedlapl IOIDe lipificance. tbe Clllle whicll rebels dme lo burn w loc:lled at Palma Sorimo, oaly a few miles away from 1be dadl lite of k* Marti. A COlllbmat farce of U.S. IDlrina ..S pemmeal C1oop1 faully fcned die rebels' IUITCllder in lbe prcwinceoa Mucll30, 1917. 'ne IUllWDderw liped by RaClel MIDd*y, 1be pemor-clect d thD prcwise. and a priaciple Oftlinr d Libend w mprellim in 1912.i...-, lawlm llld depned d111 n d ow people. lbe lnollllicm d 1917 Wll oa lbe wtlole. a .-ih:i led moremmt dill u.pinld a timilld aumbcrd lbe Liberal Plrty'1 Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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tmditioml c:oallitueall IO lebel on lbeir belullf. Timi IDID)' ol CUba' popmr-dm. popular BllioGlliltl were unwillin1 IO Illy lbeir rilim ol aalion IO a lqe body of conupt. ldf-iar.crared e111dillol who bid shown litde commicmeat ID IOcUl cblllae lbould nae Mprile UL Wbat does leelll aurpriling ii lbe depee ol conf tdeace whicb Liberal laden displayed in 1e1tiag dleir ability ID ... uy lbe ....... to 1beir C1U1C. Equllly 1urprilin1 is die flCl Iba& die ame men revoluDouriel in 1912 on die pounds dial Ibey bid tedilioualy invited a U.S. intervenlion would efTeclively punue lbe mne auaregy ror a similar, .ceonl end. Yet the irony 1 e emed IOll on Liberal llKI ComaY&live leaden alike. In exptlinin1 bis r-. for refuaina Liberal aden a Faml amnesty, Mario Menocal KCUICld Liberals ol lbe same betrayal ol nllioa wilh which PIC rebels bid been charpd: '"ID proceediaa lbul dlCle men have lllriausly impaired die prealip ol Cuba and have aacmpled ID briag into dillepuae &be Clplday ol our people ror lelf-penuaent. "111 However, die point was tbal Mmocal was pilty ol preciJely die w offeme or wone: after all, bis ldmiaisnlioa hid openly and blatantly violaled the mmdare ol elcctml demoa1lcy gUllUleeCI in die Cuba Comlilldim. If lbe mlioaal pcrnmcat bid not commiaed mwive electorll fraud IDd MleDdered power peacefully, the Liberal leadenllip would 11ner have rented to arma. Tbae Liberals raoned IC> anm becllme Ibey were left widl no dwmell IO lbe 1111e mrc.p wllidl to DqOlilfe fair and equia.ble pll1icipllioa in the elecloral procaa. Of coune, wlleD lbe Liberals bad COllllOUed the .._ five yan artier, tbia w aacdy die rwoa dlal die PIC bid .-.ted to anm-undaubledly, me ol dae perted irony ol 111. Libenll bid pm aw ol dldr own medicine. The problem was dial it w fOO late ID IDlb my difl'erew. Radler' dma re....a. faida in die vadCll tina ol polital pdcipmm lhlt rmJlllliamy rjcwefj Ubenla offered worbr1. P"'"" aad Ktiriat-D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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510 inlelleco, Ille 1917 Revollllioa oaly coafll'llled ... mmy Cubans abady -peered: olfaed diem liale bope of profound IOCial or poliliall dllap. Al we 1baU lbe pra:ca oi iDcn ;DI ideolop:al sapetim dial bodl major politiall pmlia followed iD lbe ra .. decade wt a half ol lbe RepubUc evea11181ly culimted iD a f lllioa oi lbeir nationalist vilicm. After 1917. lllOll polilical ladels, wbedler Ibey MR ComelvaliYe or Liberal. wlkJUy fonook policiel of ICx:ial cleenp for die purpme of llllin11i a monopoly of power mer lbe 1t11te. In lbe lbe arasat wt only c:ompromile political elites would be willina fO mab wa wilb adl Olber. Tbe comemus of CODICiOUIMA lbll inCormed lbae developmeall ii perblpl bat rcflectcd in lhe manner by wbicb political elites cmne to sec Marte. rroaa 1902 to 1917. Unlil tbil point. we uve a.wetY traced lbe polilical procea of coaflicciaa uricwli11m bul bave aoc Cully explored die dilcunive procea it pmnllclecl. Al we beain to apkn bow pally circumstanca and the M&UR of political 8Cliaa chaqod in Cuba after' 1917, it ii nerary to CDlllOlidale our iatap'datioa o1 die paliCical muglc ma COllflictina Mtjmali of lbe Fint Republic. Tbe followiq .:tioD does this tbroulb .. explonlim ol CKll poup ol mliaaaliltl' infapaetalimi ad .niculalion of imqa of MlrU. """"" """"""' c,_,,,., a..,., Jlta1is, 1902-1911 la lbe .ty )'all ol lbe Republic, nwoluliowy mlicwH1t and imperialist nericwlitt laden idmlifled tbcmselva wida MmU ill Older ID ..i IMir ript lo implemcat llplC:ifac ideolopc.1 .,_,.. for saciety. Howeer. "9''1 nelimeli aad mdical Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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511 n:Yoluaioally DlliomlillS CXBiltudy ccmrated their exdUliOD from pll'lic:ipalioa ia die eun:i1e of dlil riPL Tb, lbe way in which palilic:m laden of boda Ulimalill cam .. comuucsed Mlrtf in order to idelllify cbemlelva wilb biln dllapd No lonaer imerelfed in julCifying their ri&bl ID power, polilical clita beane coaccmed Ollly wilb jllllif yiaa lbe atealiOD of their power. As auugla over lbe mane ud coune of the .._ ia the earty Republic llllvmced, Liberal and Comernlivc laden stopped iavokin1 MuU for lhe purpc1e of completing bil lepcy Uld bepn doing 10 for lbe purpme of coafarmiq iu f ulfillmcnl la Ibis reprd, cbanp in lbe ways in which puticular aaliomlilU COllllnlCfed Mani and how Ibey praeared dleir memories ol him u an imerpretivc symbol of lhe Ul9S War reflecl lbe The Republic bepn in 190l wilb duee co.ilidina imaga of MarU. CllCb IOOlcd in coaflicled imainiap of nalioa to wbida Cut.n pmnicipull in bodl lbe milillll)' and civilian froaca ol lbe 189S W acribed. By 1917. lbe needs of Ubcral and Comcrvalivc leaders ro mnbealicale lbemlelva u MMtr 1 bein iacreuinpy colJaplCCI lbeir undeneandinp of Manf. From multiple if muffled imps. lbe Min& promoled by revolucioaary Dllioaali and imperialist MliOllllilt eliflel iat.o a linale. muted and """'I imqe. Lib die n:Yolutioamy ulicmlilt Uld imperialist alimalill ...... in which acb of lbe two major political pldicl localed lbeir l'OOll. dlil muled imap of MMtf bore liale relevance to lbe daUa ud llpinlicm of P"F'lr aarionali wen u younaer pneration a( CUbal after 1917. As a sault, die c:bllr-=ler of lbe Mam popular .,Ii involmd allO evolved. 8clween 1902 wl 1911, mvolulicmry nati'i dilcurlively dillinpilbed lbeir MmU fiom dlatof imperialiltllllicli in, ........... ways. Neilber poup bipaipeed Martt dliakiq m aocial .._ exapc to cleaounce Pll'll m1icmH1t 11oap1 lib bllldt D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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512 veflnDl IDd ciprllllbn who cantinllllly tiroupt them up. However, revolutioaary llllionalia1I iniu.ily plOjected an imp d Mud dml W al fine, llrideady critical d ID intimlfe relllioalbip with 1be Ulliled S.... llld by atDa1ioa. 1be Unpen.lill naliomlilll wbo manured lbll relalioaship. In 1902. t--. lucb M JUID a..Jbato Odam denounced die complicity d imperialist nacimali lib Tamm EIUllda Nm& for .. devialing" from Martf' plan to eslablilh a RepHblic dial wu .. emiamtly Liiia, bom wilbout any obliplion to oar Suon neipbon and[ .. ] priaicipally [founded) in IOlidlrity witll Spailb America." If Cublnl did not penilt in demanding LWll.,....,. scwcnipty, be warned. .. if we do not renam to pnldicing lbe dodriw and oblavin1 lhe methods d lbe Apalde, bis project shall never be fulfilled" and upon the "apalhetic, cowards and Yilllim'" would fall die .. eternal dlmnllioa d biltory. "1aa At lbe beigbl of their t.ala wida Eltnlda Palma' 1 alllborilmian rule in 1906, OCber Uberal writen IUCll II Roque E. Oarri96 linked cliJe wuninp d Cuba' I imminent "'IDeUlion if the 1111e were to remain in die budl of imperialist mlioaalim with c:clebraliom d Manrs diwin for dae Unitld imperil& culture and economic ialcDliolll.10 Similarly, a pillphleljllltifyiq Ge Aupst RevolUlion of 1906 and ex.culina Ubcnls' complicity with i inten'enlioaill ouacw equaled cbe figure of Mi1uel
PAGE 537

Sl3 leCoad book, for wbicb Ulxnl Praident Jod Mipel Odmez awuded bim a prize in political 1CWcreipcy were to ftM"all tho promilel oldie 1895 War. Daina whll lbcy Wle tllrNdJ daiq unowated ID ID Id wbidl .. CMt paler akxY" Oil MmU'I '"mmtyrdom" lban my tan or bymm mipt bave done. 111 In c:anllUt, imperialist nalicmliltl inaugurated die Republic by comtrudiq a MlrU wbo supported lbeir views bl die ldoplion ol U.S. culuanl CUIDlll and U.S.-led economic deYelopmeal would lead to lbe modemizalioa ol Cuba w1 die IOCill propea ol iCs people. f.xbalely lipif aant in du. repnl MR die 8Ctionl ol Oom.llo de Quesada. the man ro whom Mani left bia nnb ol maaUICrip11 and die IDlll who continued u Cuba' chief dipbnalic repruelllllive in Wubinpm 1on1 Uler TO.U. f.l1rlda Palma lppOinted bim to dlil role in 1896. Al ID Dilor in Wubiqtm under die employ of lbe U S. mililary Crom llljJ8 to 1902 wt Iller, 11 Cuba' Ambuador under Estrada Palma' .tminilnlioa. Ooullo de Qiseudl publi1bed volume af'ter volwne ol Manrs '"comple1e" warb. HoweYer, lhae voluma did DOI include my o( Mlltr I IOC:Ully critical -YI IUCb II rm.a. .. .. Pobla y ricc:JI," '"Loi cubanol de JmmiA y IOI revoluciolllriOI de Hait(," or even '"Nuesua AIMrica." Sucb worb wen: DOI published in)' volume of die fint edition of Mlnf 1 complete wam llltil die arty 1920I when de Queada' widow pubtilbed diem. Rdlcaiag ... aeed to jalify lbe Tiewpoila ..t policiee ol Dllionllilt poliliciw, de Q111 :'-'1 voluma. publilbed belMen 1901 wl 1915, COCUled lllDOlt exclusively on MmU'1 adicll apeecllel Craa lbe llllll, bil poetry, d9e Ht ol uafllliMed play ..t la"'*cy Mllb cm mt or die de mlllic paliciel oldie u.illCI SW. Duriq 119e leCCJDd U.S. ialervaalim.. puNi ..... lWO Yolumm ol Mid eaaJI Oii lbe United SW. .. D191tized_byG og Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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D !llf !IJ:_. !I-I I I I l i j t "' t I g JI 1 i l l : i. J'"' !. l: n r i 11 s I e. s !l I ._ I "' I t I ll ll ce -N ct> c o J f "' 11 l ;. I .. s o r . I 8 n f i a. f I i I('< '!!'I f if If. t I r.i 1 i' !: i l I "' I 1 Ii. I I _I I ... -
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l o <8 .... CJ 0 0 c: z --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI i t z VI :z If f J if I I f.[l.Jil.llf I 11; !'II, [ s.I 1:1, 1 t t t & s-J 1--1 J i i I 1 t 11 [ 1 I r 1 1 i 1 ; i r l I I I f f 11, 1 f i J I s r I r I 0 :s: i J a ir i i ... f u ... a II R I I I l r r l f I r s. r <. l I J I ""'I I I' ; I : l 8 f I i I I' !f '1!1j'lf f il 1 l \ I t l B I l I = f f i l I I I f I I I l . 1' [ t i I R 9' -IL ; J i ., 1 R. f i I-!: I a I '! I 1 f (J t l R. r I. i .. !J. f s l. f s R. R.j i; a '< 'i"' If l 1 a. r i p a =; .1 11 r i 1 "'

PAGE 540

D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V I I 1 ( i l t I i J I t r s f 1 f t f ij' I i" f ;. e_ 1 l I I I ( r I rr r .1:; r l I i J: 1 a. l : f ;; I .1 l I i r : 1 1 I i I 1 f I f l ;. l I< 0 : i J g I I ( l I l I Q, . 1.fa_ ([fl I l I I I J i i 1 ( I I l I 't i t 1 I 1 I l r l R a a. l s f 1 l 31 1 8 1. Ir I !. I l &" : i !: n i I ; t ' l :. ;. I !: a a , I' f a_ ]" ; I I = a a. I I R, I i i I f I I I p -I'. I I I I I i l : i i l i t l t ! i l l [r q o n : l l r a -. tr 5 a .. ;;

PAGE 541

517 lbe binds of lbeir crilica. Aepjn .. y, be iJDpliecl dial poliliml le8delw ol lbe day were llRlnpr lbla Manf md pr4eDlillly IDCft lelf--=rifaci81 Uce Ibey bid liYed to endure lbe belrayals ol lbeir followen. So weDlreMd Wll MlrU' by nalVcte, proaounced fleyre de Aadnlde, lblt llld be liYed, be would pmblhly UH fallen -Vic:lim fO lbe calumny ol bis OML" Dead IDd buried, Muii W11 beaer olf limcc -=cordiq to Freyre de Anebdc_ Tbe nocion dial Mmtf1 utility &o lbe Republic bid derived from bis dalb ia lbe RevolUlicm w a critical one. Tbraqb it. poliliml elites aniculllled lbe leDIC dull lbe llCrif ace ol lbe good white cauailo bid alrmdy .... pl.ce -lbal lbe unity that sail Ud yet ro be -=bieved w not political but social. n., even a Ibey insisted dial MuU" 1 lepcy bad beell fulfalled, Ibey implied lbal lbe blame for uy pmt dial remained ...ruJfilled Mould D0t rat widl tblm. la fs&. al Freyre de Andrlde' I mpeecb belied, perbapl dU P9ft ol Mmtf I plan W8I not wor1b fldfillliq. While dUs wt suti.quenl COllUllelDOrlli caalribuled to the lpOGealil of Manf u a -.i-pt who required the aamal wonbip of nen lbe moll powerful ol Olla' I c:ifiw. lbe divinity -poliliciw' dilCCM'le ..nbcd ID MlrU IDllde bim Olher-wonlly aa11n wl dea.cbed bil lilfmicll IC1iom from die cballenFI ol CU' pn 1mt reality. If MlrU wme not pR*Cfed by deda from dlis rality, Fmyre de Andrlde oblened, be would baYe belll Ulelty DJCbd by it. Bcame lbe PIC lebelled belweea die mUYam)' ol MllU' deada cm May 19 md die lllllivmuy of me......-. oldie Rcpubtic cm May 20, 1912. die ccm........Uoa led by Andmde ia 1911 lllllbd lbe IMl lime IUl..,, political le8delw collec:lively D191tized by <;; Og! Original from lJ N IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 542

518 ComenlDve Rep111mllive pit it, cmai-propcmd 11111 no w1ion be held .mt day or m my fUDn May 1'J'i11.U. Tbe sole voice o( dimal cme from a Ubnl wllo supporlDd theeaw1Pa Wxrmowementwl was we11-1mowa-. repm.ral Rorida emigNI Md YelaW faraponlina propeaive pOlilioal oa illUCI o( IOCial dwnp hoak:ally, ii was dais ume Liberal, SalUmiao EICdo Omidn, wllo would lave given Che llddral lbal day. WJaca fMX*) Clanidn protaCed boCb Iii own lilencia1 IDd dial o( my f uaure dilCUlliom o( Che memory o( Mmtl in Caapea, bit di..a pmnpled a furioul debafe la fapollle. lupportell of a .. mute" Kl o( COllHMlll'll.aicJn c:luqed dlal far leaer JalOlll, die wort m Coapea w of ta 1t'lpCDded. Indeed, one rcpaeacative cUqed. j1111 lhe omer day a c:onamiic:mt ICUion bid been c:w:elled merely to die uaiveawy o( die bowD IO bave been a pmoml friend o( MlrU, thll fon:ed a ....UIDOUI voee for a ...... c:cm memonlion. .. [ ... ]And when ia the Cublll Home [d Repraenlaliva] die memory oi Jol6 Mint i1 iavobd. [ ... ] evaycne. time o( die Ripe IDd *-o( die LGft. ausbt IO bow don in rwaace [ ... ). .. be cballiled. To lboull of "'Well uid!", Odmez replied, In dleead. we me all livma tbroup [ ... )a lnlly crilical period in lbe billOry ol die fllllatud. The memory o( die p.-deedl o( OS llilfary ii bciJll ebmlbled tow extaa&. [a flCt] dlll ii ID IUme for dlil lilmlian. We me ICJllina Ille nlilion cX memory, wc ue llniDa our lllcb a bit cm our .-i. [ ... ] Let, dam. [ ]tit""" llM .._ llCOtlrrl dM ,...,._ o/IMI .,,_a _,.,.,lat,._ act of,,,_,. [ .. .J 1o *old w.1.r of m a tlllll o/tMll llwltwe *-"' 1o tmdW' Mriofdwfomdln of* Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 543

519 Jlllblk. """"' """ .... Rl11a1""" ufl. -1 Ubawl.r .., 1"'1w """ we au,,,,. ( .... 1 And IO, Odmez who iaauguraled lbe Republic by claampianiq die imqe of an lllea'lllliYe. anli-imperialilt Martt wllo wu firmly rooeed in tbe specific evenrs of lbe put. IW:pped into 1 new pbue of polilical ltnlgle in the Republic by ldYoe:atin1 ror ill oppmile: Ill inaudible Mlrtf Wbo would ralber rcqet tbe pul dllD dilCUll ii. DO maatcr how many ielDll it held for die pmenL In dlil way, Odmez convinced nalionalilts and aali0mli1 dial Ibey could commit to a singular imqc ol Man by c:omlnlding bis imqc in IUCh a way dial it reproduced and lberd'cn jultified die ideal condilionl U8da' wbicb lbeir Afler lbe pivocal yarol 1916, norurtbercongrcaional KUCOllUllCIDOlaling lbe dealb ol Mani took place. Between 1917 ad the arty 1920s. during tbe mne yan in wbicb Uberal1 and Comcrva&ivcs bepn IO rme lheir nationl for lbe Ab of mainin1 power CN lbe lllle, dley Ibo colleclively IOqbt to codiry die imqe oldie muted Marte and bis lilea& memory wilb a mew law. Unlike die 1903 law requiring commemorative public IClioa from polilical eli-. the 1921 .. Law dial Olorifia the Apmde" pl-=ed die burdaa of cmamemoraliall ....-y aa dlc lbotllden of averqe cilimll. No loqer raxarec1 oa lbe day of Mlrtr ..... lbe law recopiad Jmy r. Cbe day of Mud' birth, mlioaal boliday. Appmprimliq die dale Martt Wll born over die dale of IUI deadl signalled IM r ... of a .-of.._....,. to cooptad ncunliZie die emeqent imap of a lelUlnCtDd Mll'd .... Md been c:allCl'UCled by popmMIQelilt iadeclall ud ldivilt critics aiDce 1be .tiat ye111 of Ille Repulllic. Tbe Law of 1921 allo replllld die.._ far rd'eniq to D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 544

Mud -n. Apmde" cr-rbe Miiier" and dictated die..,.. by wbicb die youqer ...... ol ODm, apecillly IClaoal cbildlm. .-aid banor lim. w In lbon, Che timiq ol imaae ol Miii{ rran a mafl'led ad dlln lllllled IYIDllOl iDlo .. olflCial, lilen& md silencing Mini. HoweYer, if Che civiail)' lbll poli1ic:al elira -=Obed ID lbeir Mint depended OD bis dealb 11 a julCifacariOD ol CUba' 1 polilic:al ralil)', Che divinity lbal popul wl ndlc:al rwoluliomry smionllma ucribed ro Mud ad its mmiaa derived rram precilely Che oppmi1c idea. Tbla ii. dlele poup1 .a .... 1y ,......,. die r.ct lblt MarU was dad to lbe policies ol political elira and imieted lbat Mutf was act mlJly dead. but alive in lheir own bdicl1 Md bopa rcr die emblilbment ol a DlliOD lbll rqn1ealed dleir inrerelb. Thul, u ..ty 1902. mqiDlli1ied ..riomlilll COUlllel'ed palilic:al elita' ledjnp ol a dead Mani widl medi1a1iom OD a liviq, WllfdlCul er raurrec:ted Mlnl wbDle llCCiom held meuina rcr die praenl Y Accontinpy, a (8mOUI cMrima oldie filll yean ol lhe Republic lellifaed: .. Si MmU' DO bubicn muato I oao pUo c:aDllria /lap.aria le alvma / y Cuba -a (eliz. "121 Alld moeher d6:ima imilled. "Jif ".., wno Mtlnt, en la meate/ del cublno 111 imaam ca I y auaque pwa IOI lisb CD CUba I Veaamdo bl nmabre led. .om Tbal populm Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 545

0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z .. J 1 I 1 1 l r 1 1 1 1 r { 1 !l--1.-! 12 I l JI ; f l 1 J I t ! r r i I. f: j i !t 1I1 ;I.e f ii f I t t I s I I f f l I 4 f J 1 I w I i I ; la I i t r t I I : I I: es Ct 111 I l 11. i Ji i ii. Si I r l Ir. If J.1it i If fa(!!. I r r i I t 1 I-r i ( r s I t r r J l. I I ( ir : I I I t l f I' f . i ig f -< Q. l 1 1l11 J I I i : ., 111 l t f i i I J r. .! I r. : i i 1. i i. 1 1. I l f. I I l. t I f l r I = I r. I I 1-l I l f .=. I: [ II!. 1 i: I J I J f. .. I l I t I i I i I i I i i I ; J 1f. J1 !. l I i i I !. ( i J { I f r a. 1 Q I l 8 I

PAGE 546

m bmy die priacipla oldie um Revolutima by eDlmDbina die billDric:al .cticm ol MMd in die ... and wlriaa die wiaa ol bil dalb QI' llil .... -ralber dllll m life-die focalpaint ol "lalicm. On die odler lmd. IOCially ndica1 crieicl of die ... -Pl to drla livina llDd !elev MmtC from die IDlllb daa& polilic:al clita' polidel and dilcoulle ol IOCill unity pmmile ol a pell mulfalled llld welcomed a future cbal Ibey. rdla' dllD lllditioaal political laden. miPt detenniae. nil pmcea bepa in 1917, Ollly a few moalbl .tier electoral fraud coauniued by lbe CamernliYe ldlniDilllalioa o( Mario Menoc:lll failed ID spult die fury ol lbe public or pltllDpl lbe Ubcral' 1 former CIOllltitueadl illfO maa revollllioaary lldioo. The emerpace ol 1be Stapr Wodren' Strite ia N' ... r .. la lipt dOJwmlivel' Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 547

0 <8 .... !l \CJ c: 11 ,,_ -0 \.A3 8 z VI F 1.1 11"'1 i Q. l l [ l [ t [ 5 ( l l ,, 1 I f j. ; 8 t r t l 1 & ... ;; . E: r a 8 J-I -'1 I ( Ji a f. A, '1 rt J a 1fli11 i' f I Ii I f I I r I f t j l f i I i la l a 1 i l 1. f l 1 l [.i: If I::: l_l c: A, t. B; i' I Ii ( ... I a i I l 1 e, 1r11.fr1111 f 1 l Si.-a 1: f ft = I i. :I 1 B. s-I 1 i I: -;; ; i I i i i I I i I t I 1 l .. I II J f I 'g ;;I t. I i II, Ii I I I I f t I t I. g I i 1 a n I f : I 1 &! i' i f .. I "' I f .;, t f ; l o .{ a: 1 l l Q. i i I I :i. (IJ = I I . a I' Q. I I I i : g. a. l Q. I i 1 & ft 8 f !J :I f !l i l II} t I 5' '< II f I I !. I t f I .. a s i r i n: 1 .. : a1:1

PAGE 548

pcmibility lbal 111e ..,..,, of power c:au1c1 be lllifted. neillllr ca .... illla'elll nor cbeir impelialill bac:brl ia Walliqtm felt Ibey Md muc:b came fOI' caacen. ButjUlt die United S... prepll1ld to_. dlle E.uropma won lbe Allies' behalf, lbe actions of CUba's popul m.. dwnpd everytbiq. In Oclober of 1917, at the critic.a pbue oi plant repair fOI' the upcomiq bmvest, mpr mill mechenjcs ia Lu Villa suuct ror biper ftFS. die cipt-llour day IDd over-lime .. y. LllCiq leYen weeks IDd pualyziq produclian in one q\lll1a' oi lbe COWltry'a mila in tbn:e provinces, lbe llrike eventullly Ultimaldy, lbe strike held vat implic:alioaa for the way in wbicb labor met lbe wider Cuban public would perceive U.S. imperialism IDd ill rel.sicmbip to the Cublll w. 18 At lbe time oi die llrib, Cula' 1 p1an1en Cwbidl i8duded Mario Menoc:al bilD'df) were alrady briltlina over the U.S. Sc.le Deplnmcnt 1 efl'0111 to diclale lbe muimmn price dull Cula' 1 aupr bm'ea would fetch lbe folJOWina yar. Morecwer, Meaocal lmd j nmrowty fended o1T a piltial U.S. mililuy occup.aicJD of the island artier lllM aununer-Ollelllibly, ro paid piml Ocrman mcbimdonl in lbe maion. 111 Boda expaieacel imiclrect a rapid and profound c:blnae ia die way dlll1 Wllbiqlon policy-llllken llld bqUD ID peaive Cuba. Ahady commiaed ID a loa1-1e11D. fon:iblc occupllion of Hllili, Woodlow W'lllm's eJq!Mdina die inllnaealllity wllidl bis pc.tecc.r1 .. Dollar Diploalcy" llClibed to CUba wl CJdlCr nomirwlly ICWereip lelrilCJriel of lbe Caribbem ud WOlbt" ..aMiel widml a regopilioll of die ciabl-llos day would act tn.t die llribn' ...,.., plten aml palilidm .... imwiaaly IUiom. Ill halimlly, dleir Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 549

jllltifacar:ioa for iqnaiq womn-namcly. dial jeoplrdiDna u.s. ecanonaic iafa'elll would IPll' a U.S. milia.y ialavllllioa-w ewtdenly ad overdy recopized 11 legilimale by lbe Ulliled Slala. la flCI. U.S. Stlle DepnDml officiall ........,,. ID end to lbe ltrib u a direct and deliberlle mtwenion o( lbe United Slalel' aatiom1 ICCUrity infaall abrmd. Some even went f u ID 8Cam CublD llribn o( sympllhy or campincy with Oenuny. m Wilb lbe MaMal ldminiltralion inaeuiagly reluccant IO diJape wilb such an useameat, Cuba' 1 WOiters llld planlen f-=ed die ft extent o( lbeir vulnembility IO impcrialilt objedives for ealirdy coaflictin& reatODI. Boda plmtcn and mikas raliDd lbal die oaly player who could call the United s-. bluff w die Cuban w. At lbe same time. dlOle in conll'Ol of lbe mae rempiml lbal rimes bad dwnpd IO a depee DOI fully lppll'e8l bef
PAGE 550

0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z j I f I I 1 I I i l I I l f f 1 I 1 i 1 i!: ) f' 1: I f i I f I I ; t f I f f l s J : f i t I l 1. 1' t f i i l i I i i I J I i I I i [ ; t l I J I I I J t l f t i I I I i f f 1 0 1 -. I i l f I I t I & I i l ( I t i [ i i l I i f ! I I I I l i f I i i i I i I i !I l SI I. I a [1 I t:: '< c: I 11 IS 1 iii If J!'i f I i-J e: .. 1t 1 ... t.111 I I D :S ( .,,. a t i i i f. r s l i r l t i i "I St.... f I: [! ti

PAGE 551

violeat, nan-dilluplive melbodl Indeed. middle-clul IUppOlt, apecillly lbat of l)'IDpftdic joumlliltl. prcwed illlUUlllelllll in paina ICrib laden lite MMtfnez ... Oem freed from jail ID did Ibey ccJllld opealy nepaae m wortren beblllf. Some middle-dul suppar1m went a far u ro orpaia a benefit for IClibn in Cieafuep' opulcat Tcaao Terry wbae Ibey collecled do=nd of dollm wonb of 1C1ike funds for llribn' fmiilies. 111 la amml. wolbn ployed &wo lhlqiel apimt die Cublll mrc which diffaed nwbdly from uy of dae which worbn in previous IUikn bid lllCd bcf ore. As die dual of U.S. illlelYentiaa loomed larp IDd repana of the lwlin1 of U.S. marina, IClikcn tumed fD infmllllioaal Ciel wilb die polieically COlllCIVlliYe and wcll-cmnected wing of lbc labor lllO\'anent in die United Siiia. die Americm Federation of Labor [AFL] Through Carlol Lcweira. a Cubu railway worbr who bid jUlt f ouaded die Panamcrican Warkm' Ccdederation in WMbiqlOll. llrib laden conlacfed Simuel Oompen, praidcnt of the AR.. Alertiq him ol lbe Cut.n 1111e 1 inf rinpmcnt ol lbeir civil ripll, Ibey allO n:poned dlat local olf aciab juaif aed dleir repreaive policies under preaun: from die United s .... Oompen immectilldy MOie fD Praident Wilton. expressing lbe bope dial he could do M.We'bing fD "comatenlel lbe imprmioB dial die United Slala MlppodS Kil of tyrwly in Cuba." Tbe psture mipt bave llelped dillUlde Wbite Holm offimls from urpng funber milia.ry K1ioa from U.S. forcm my lime IDOll. 111 At dae w lime, llribn ............ acolleclive belief in die idea 11111 worten llnlgle misbt form die f,,..,...,. of a new kiad of pcmmeat wbic:b would free cua. from imperialim"1 pmp. Anivina 91 lniD ..._by die llP ..... worltm ICdfed 11 lbe ....-z of lllllld potice. *1uliq "Dowa wilb lbe
PAGE 552

m lbe llarvat if Ibey did llOl come ID ID llleemeDl IOOll. llrillm Rllponded widl pee. They plurms wllo were .. dilloyal" to lbe perwnt. Mcnover, if lhe w would qree ro nal:icmliz.e lbe IUpr milll, llribn to wade for lbe pemment under IDY condiliolll. Al ICJDI U Ibey DO lonlel' Ud ID IUbmit fO lbe llUtbority of capital, Ibey would aJ-ly support a , venioll of mte ...... Of coune. lbe llriten' eadaasiam for stare-nm. nationalized enrerpia cane far ahead of ill lime. ac In lbe end, Menocal nepaaecl in the place of recak:ilrlnt planlen but approved only a 20-l()CI, mile in worbn' wqa. He allo allowed no recopition of die eight-hour day delrimental ro the ability of planlllliom ID keep worten tied to lbeir ma during 1.llfra .. 141 Nonechelea, die 1917 Supr Worten' Slrike marked a bll'lling-p>illl in lhe a.story of lbe Republic. Not only did wcxbn 1Hcceaf ully canan.dict lbe teamliom lhal their slrib wa die produce off oreipen' infllhlioa, Ibey alJo clemcJallnlred lbal lbeir Kliem were entirely independent of maiDlcrcmn polilical ..,Ues, both Uberal and Comervalive. The Diiiion for wbicb dlelC 1aikas were fiabrina wa one eacirely diltind from Ibale of lbe pat. In dllllelllinl Mc:nocal, ID arc:betypic:al aepeanlllive of vetcruista DlliOllllillDI, ICribn dared lbe ltale to implement their vision of a new, IOCially-orienled naliOG lbroup ,.._ .,..ared cmpilllillll or IOCialillll. Funber, llribn eaUed Oil CUbw OUlsicle their elm nDb to joia diem ill die c:blqe of comc:iau1nesa Ibey were expaiencina lllCl lbe cblnae of llllion wbic:b Ibey were amllUCCiaa. Undoubtedly, die coimdence of lbe inmdiblc cwedbluw oldie Carilt resim in Rlmia llld lbe 'lllhlilhmen of lbe rm IOc:ili .. at D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 553

cbmin ol lbe popular dma Alrady commiaed to laden whole-.. ol radical IOCial justice Ibey lmed.. CUbln lllibn found in lbe R-. eumple reuon ID believe dlll poaiblc. bul Indy promble Manifest in dlele wartm' IUafegies was the kind ol comciOUIDNI ud praput1ic polilical audoot on wbich DOI just worbrl but a variety of social srouPI wmkl my ia die yean to come. From 1909 to 1917, no loaaer would imperialist mliomli be die only aroup to depend ldively and copieively on die United S... for die ICbievement of lbeir vision ol Palma who eodolsed U.S. prOfeCtion wt blfclaae for tbeir nalion beCcn die RCYohlCion ol 1906, rd<:al revohlliomry and papul llllionalilll in Ibis period aaanpted to use die coandiCfOI')' mmre of U.S. imperialist policies wl dim ID their ldvantqe. Their came Wll llOI lbe eoulnletion ol a IOCicty cultually llld eccnomically imitalivc ol lhe Unir.ed Sfala, buc lbe kind ol ltale dial would cbampioD civil ripes for Cuba's popular-daa majoril)' llld bring Moul a flir ralillribulion of weallb llld oppommil)' in lbcir coumy. In ways cxwillmt with madenlandinp ol tbe mliOD developed during die War ol 1895 IDd put ID die tat in tbe early )'mW ol lbc Republic. revolueiolllry aaliODllisll llld popular mlffmli lllld never delmed lbeir pit with ld'amce ID tbe Uailed s.ra a a model ol culbnl val--. erioaomy ud prosrea. Tbey did aot do' before 1906 ad dley did aot do 10 aflDIWmlL Radler, Ibey held fMt ID aapecaum ol idmll dlll rupd fnm a D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 554

belief' ia diftlCt delDoc:ncy md monlly llDCCiCJned priacipla of IOCill equality on lbe more rrdic:al lide. ro pllerUlilt naeiaas of IDlfCrim equity 1114 electanl political s-tic:ipation on die more COlllCIYaliYc lide. HoMYer, bolb lldiclll m'olutionlry llld popular nationalists did come ro me die polilial dual of U.S. illfel'YClllion a ma1egy for negolialing with ordilaediling thciroppoaenll, imide llld outlide lbe ll:lfe. Ironically, Ibey did this a means of lelililDllina dleir pmter ript ro pan or to baYe their interats repracnted in pernment By lcpcimaling a polirical role for lbe Unifed Slata, boweYcr, the discoune and Idiom o( lheee Dl&inulim deepened die rd*-hip between their own political CXllllciOUlllCll llld the cultural, ideological dimcmiaas o( U S. imperialism. More broadly, Ibey Clllmed lbe developmau of neo-c:olnnjalian in Cuba by matins their naliom.lisms, their Dllicm depend in important ways on the dual of a United &ala intervenCioa. In the end. however, lbe efforts of popular narionalilCI IDd more radical revolutionary Dlllionalilll ro bypas political elira for their own aeclOral pin coafinned lbe coune elires were already II.kins-one which lllered the Slate away from the ideal of popular-dul policical pmnicip.aon alroptbcr. 1917, imperialist lllticmlilt CanlerYlliva IDd revolulionary mlipUr ct.. IM of lbe United Slala' palellCial fO llldelmine elite audlority-lllld prcwea ID be .-ell alablilbed. Ncmchd. becl_.oflbena111d 1912m 1917, it wu bew:omiDB iacr1 aqly erideal ID a powiq llUlllber of Cublm tbal lbe nec>coloDia1 1111U1e of Ill C\alm aic=i-bid not mly domed IMal ID fail, butlUde bod! ........ political...-D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 555

531 popular ticwlilln M polilic:lll dCIHndL Once CODlidered practical padal ID liberalioa. dlCle Dlliomlilmt bad promiled Cula a brilliant. modem md democlalic fuaare. Y CC. over lime, lbele ume c:urnn11 bad .,, led Cublll aociety out of the mae dill colonial pall. but nidler, IDCR deeply ink> iL For the llllill CUll'elltl o( Cuban lllllioulilm and rcr former revolutionary caudillOI who espcMned lbem, dae period between 19()1) and 1917 a politic:al and IOCial lrial by fire from wbidl Ibey emcqed lea willing lO deal widl Cuba's pat and of cbanpng Cuba's fucure. For a younger pneralion of born durin1 or after die 1895 Wu for ildependeace, Ibis period repraenlr:d a lime in which lbe pOllibililia for fomenliq change dllougb lbe exiAaa tystem became illC!alinalY limi&ed. Al the events of 1917 poinred out, Che matepea for coarating lbat syaem would ._ve fO bcalDe incrasiqly varied if tbe pl d social change at any level wu ro succeed. For a )'OUDI piup of o.._ and a older paq> d social l'ldicals who bid lamed rrom Che arty Republican aperieace lbe decade d lbe 1920ll promised ro meal new mec:Mnj11n1 for self di1COYery, llalioaal recovery and and-imperialist awabning. 1T_..M..,...._, "Cls-A1G1&8-lllidliaao1ss" .. IM9. u. 2 S.. cower far III Ffloro, Alo 25. ND. 4 0-, 21. 1909). ......... 4Ntc.a,6106ml ........ ID ... .,..willl .. tl tlll," ...... tlfl j (ara ...... 11"9 .,, .. ., ................. ....,. ................ .,,jllllim ................... ... ... .,, all .. Matk o. IJ; Ibo 92-94. 0191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 565

541 .. ACO-oCIMD it sc.-n. t 4.1917(Wrt' ars.D.C.:Gour tfn.lila
PAGE 569

Ottlnw ............................ tlllltrualefNMI _............, 1'17"3 [Wriaen] in lcaen o( liaM, it oupa k> be rad lhll we do DOC leek cbanae o( lt)'le or pemmadl naa by ... o( die counlly, who rq>IM:e dame o( die colony. wilb Cbeir ddu Ind--.. nor a colony dil9uiled by lbe novelty of a y.akee uniform. but a republic of our own. wilh free ICboall. widl cllurcbel, widt worbbopl. wilboul IOldien. widlout a bulaucncy, wilb a free psaa and jail Uibmlll, and citizem who rapecc 1hc law IDd rapect adl ocber. wicboul ditlindion of rwie, color, mctpound or IOCial polilioa. -Jo16 Mane, lpCMiq k> lbe a.. ciprwarbn of Key Wea. 18911 In politiQ, you will always be a slave. In die labor llnlgle, you can become a free mo. But if you do aat ICbieYe this. you will aat be a e cidler. He who rebels c:m lle\'cr be a slave. -Jullda, a DeWlplpel' JIUl*bed by lbe ciprwolbn' union of Havana. 1924' la baaorof MuU'1 ..._die May '1/.'J'l, 1917 edilion of Orio, a lilel'My mapzi p11blimed in MMZanillo. Oriare. ref1ecled lbe divene imaaea of MlrU Iba& bid lakat ape in die rust clocadel o( die Culu Republic. Tbe mqazi'I editon dedicated a pqe IO dacribiq die may Mdl whom IDOi& Cublll ialellem"'1 and politiaiw bid inawiqly bepn ID collllplt inlo die ambipo1111 if ubiqllilOUI cxa:cpl of .. Apallle." Sepmaliq dlae MmUs inlo row dillinc1 '*Flies--J1le Mm. .. -rbe Poet." "Tiie Pllriot" wt "Tiie (of Idell]," Pedro AJejlmdlo Ldpez. a IOClll lltilln and Mita', ievmled how MmUI D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 570

Imel once been a ........... brief. ad imperfect life. From llis bilearial YmllF pUt in 1917. Ldpez evaluated tbe nails d dlil life. Pbysically. be obmYed. Manl"'Tbe Mm" ... liabt u lir. bis lliabt rnmc Dltdy Ap'Ne m bariaa die Miallt m bis eaormoua. lad llld die rrmric eneqiel it CC.Uned. ...a1y. Marti Ud nat beeD d oae mind. but d two: split between die paicc-loviq poet ad lbe iadipan&. nr-BllkiDa pMriot. Yet die dlll ...aered the mo1t to Ldpez wu a11e ronnrd-lookiq Mani w11o bid 1pea1 1DCJ1t m bis ti plalina ... ab ideal" in lbe renile IDil m cumm mlioaal ccmcioulDea Admiaina 11.a be bid planned co weave a crowa m '"lyricll pro1e" to pba aa Mani' ""beaulif ul" lad. Ldpcz ended Iii mtbeapymtbe praent lims? 1 claa'tlmow. Tada: be plclled with dlCle 11emu1ous cvalallica."' Clarly. it rmed. Ille rnacs d Mmd' spirilUll labor bid )'et ro bloom. Allboulb be rempiud a cenaia affinity witb the divene Mm1fl be dacribcd. die lipif ac:w:e m 1..6pe&'1 tati1amJ liel ia bi1 ldminion lbal tbe Mutt with whom lie 1D01t i*nrif aed wat die Man! yet ID C10111C. Tbis MlrU wat cliffeRlll fnm the inllqibic. compl9Celll Mmi!IO wbom CUba'1 lelf'...a.xbed poliliciw typally poinlftl in lelfcmpallercxy pnUe. Ldpez invabd a ipirilUllly vim.. waldlCul MuU. TIU MuU. Ldpez obm'ed. K r:med deliberalely ID lave bellind lnal m rnallllicmmy idalin in die aUd m iD tbil liabl. LdpR' MmU mmi me snct a deep cbonl ia bia rmderl m 1917. Pwi8a llDCldlUlly .i a rmtia die lms. difl"ICUlt ad mnetjcwl libenlimt.. wy Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 571

dimemicml Mlnfl in die dim of mai ... eam polilic:iw. They wae .a' aware ol lbe effor11 of a.qinllized in1eHem11h, democa'all and civil ripaa ldirilll ID mim. over lbe )all. a pl8Ce at lbe cenfel' of die Dllioaal llaF for lheir dneodilllllllimal Mart&. Ukc lbe Kliviltl wbo claimed lbeir Manfl' right to IUCb a plKc. lbese MarUI Ud lhemlelva 110od for a vlricly ol mablliawy naticwliat llDd popular Dlticmlill principles iDCl'alingly .wlwDlblod since lbe 189S W. These principles included pernmenl prolDCtian ol civil libenia for blKb a well labor righll IDd pater pldicipmian ol Klivim and inrclh:tnal1 OUllide ol lnldiliaml potinc:.I elita in the llale. After lhe failure ol the Liberall' lecmd mahllian artier in 1917, lhe nacian dial lhe 11a1e could not be ld'onncd. IDd in flCl needed to be enlirely toot bold. The imqe and more du eYcr before. lbe wonll of J Mani were inlimarely cannected wi1b dcMlel over the propoeed nature ol such a .... ad lbe meam by wbicb to aJUUucl iL OYer die next fifteen yan, IOIYiag die enigma ol wbo Mmtt wand bow be mwred to tbe f onnalion of die Republic would became IC>meOiq of a Dllional oblalion. Tbe muffled imqes of Mani dial political elita Md roraeit in lbe previcMI rtf'1ecn yemw ol ol lbe Republic could no longer wilbsland the burden Repc1enliaa die leallllive IOCi.a unity dial blld once exilfed among Ille dne cmapecin1 llllioal of die 1895 War, daae Mm"8 blld lleclome-mucb lib die Cut.DI wbo appropriMed lbem-iDcrelliqly rai1tanl to dae idea ol a IOCially ...Uaed Republic. Pledaa of alieplDce ID lucb a Republic. often IDlde in die name ol lucb Mlnfa, DOW alrried liale Mlip& far a pa11-RevalUlion pnenlim ol )'OUlll 0....,. who aWllaed 10 ldul*>od 'MG a new __ fl_.... idmlity llld a new Ullib lheirf*all IDCI D191tized by G og Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCQNSIN

PAGE 572

I r f J t f I I J I j J I I I I I 0 _.J!1.l!JJ"!lttl!l1"Jls 1 1 r i t" I "' I Jli. s l l . l .f Q_ I ff r 1 1. t r r r Q_ r11 r CJ I II i, ii' i, :i ( 8 l a: -= g a.JJ11l1 1 I l g t I 1 ( r s 1 1 I 1 t rs-.. r 1: I" J f. I 9 1 l 5: tr rt f I 'B: lllf.1 l ... sl( c I i 1 1 i l l I 3 16 f I f I t = 1 1 1 i 1 & 1 1 a i I f I I ; I i j I I i, I I f I t I 1 : I 1. I f J l 1 I } i i l i i I I ] -. 83 I !. g I i 1' ( ir if B. i, I I i .f f i I' l s I I a. 1 r r r ; r "" 41 J i a "' .f f I I a. { i a, d l l' r"' I l .;: n-1

PAGE 573

0 <8 .... N !l CJ 0 I c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 1 8 z VI :z I r i = 1 I I 1 I t f 1 I r i J J i 1 0 . I I x: ( i !! Ii i . I l s !!: f C .f A. ::t I 8 s e S f l I l t. I J I i ] t l f l I f 1 I i j ,_MI 1fII1 R, I .!! !ff 1 s r 1 1 r I I g I 1 J 1 l -1a i1i1lrit11111t!1Jt I i I D 1 ,,. g i f 1 1. i r 1 a. 1 a : 1 1 1 t 't 1 f a.1i t-< f 111}. f ( .f I ' l I. Q. I!: 't i If i. a I l 1' r 1 "' i I t: i l f f '< s-I

PAGE 574

I l J l l j I I i I I 1 J I I i .r 1 ( .t t Ii .s JI t iJ-1 i I I ., l I t i :. i I i I I i I ft J. I i' .i l. 9 B I i c l ct> 1 i: J: J. I t 1 1 i 1 1 1 i I 1 I r J. r f. s i f f .. I f l .s. i' .!I ij' I I l i I c 1 I i i l I I I c 1 l i l f i i [ a ij' I r I ; c: .. I i 8 t l I t a l II i ! r 8-I r :z: f f i I I 1 t I I i i i f : ( r I I I I 8 I l I l I I F t I J 8 a 8 I f I 1 5 r ... I: . i. I f r a I I. P. l l 1 I I t ? : i I! If 1 It t I i} 11 f

PAGE 575

551 CUba'1 IUUQleu putol akJbal llnlgleof colmlp.t COUDlria apiall cmpilmlilm, IOlllO anli-imperialiall aw c:.pilalia u die IOOC ol Ill Cuba' problems wida die Uailed SCllel IDd ldYocaled ... m"i a die idal allalllliYC. Tiiey therefare romec1 ID inremalicmlilt Ylrilal widliD tbe Cmnnl of MWllllQll beliefl lbat (mmed die IDli impen.liltl. boweer, belieYed 1bM U.S. polilic:al imperialism could be caalllllined by lillliliq U.S. cmpilalilm '1 ability to 1DW11Yer widlin cut& By defending die iDlaall of Cuban worbn IDd llDlll-Cilne Clpitalilcs ...... doe of (oreip carporaliom. die --coalcl notoaly erode die ........ ol ...... of ecxmamic impen.lilm, but bul..t apiall any polirical Violation of Olba'I IOYereipty lbal mipt rauiL Pal1ly a rdcelizaricm of lbe vision of popul8r Dllioulilll wl pmtly expreaiGl ol a aew aenaalioa 'own ideals, me IDCi-imperialilt movement lbat anicullfed lbe8e principles cMnpl 1be caune of Cuban biltory iD lbe twealiedl cen&ury by c:baqi111be YCf'J coocepl of 'molution" U Cubw undcnlDOd it. Lib llldilioaal Cubm ,.;on.tism1, Olbu ami-imperialilt aaDomlillll and mli-imperialilt would be symboliml by a DeW, expreaiYC and laqulcicwn MllU. TIU dllpler explola 1be 111e1111 by which Ibis new ol Dllioul libealicm _. dlil lllllmlive. wboliaic imqe of MMt mne abmt. lt explliu bow die rUlion of malulicmm)' llMI imperali Mlinulimll W118CCOmpmniecl by lbe cmeqeace ol u IDli imperialilt ...,...i 11111 drew mudl of ill IClalda rrom nniYiaa claw:41 ol popua. ""k-tin Topdler, 1be pmpooea11 oldU mm-imperi.u.l rilim rwwed 1be plOlllilc of ,_...., (1925-33), dle..-ay CCllllciom ............. ol9c a-imperialill ..,.rrrn' D191tized by G 0 Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 576

opened lbc door to IOCill reYolutioa ia lm. Yet. die my ways of fbinkin1 and coaceivq Mlion dial freed die Republic from ideolop:al mooriap allO rmalld coaditiolll for die perpecuMioa of iDIClllll coaOictl. Mmy of lbae c:oafliCll t..s plaped Caba liace lbe bqimiq of lbc ceacury. Once apiD. for im11Dce, lbc deciaon ID lileace c:mftiCll ill onler to Clmle the coadilic:m for IOCial unity rebllbilillled old probkml while coalributiq to die f onnalioa of mew ones. However, lbe anli-impcriali llllln of the 1111e ID wbicb Ibis new pneraliOll of Cubml llpisal allowed diem ro pwsue and expmnd muhiple aram of ltnlgle u aeYer before. It allo FaenfCd new ways of conceiving and defmin1 liberalicm in inll:nlalioml ndlCI' lhlD Mlicml faml. Nt loqer muffled or mbtimely complicit. lbe lborousbly l'ldkalized wl vocal Mm1' wbo IUl'flCCd from lhe rubble of die Republic in die 1920s cpt.ommd dlia new clcfUliliaa of liberalion -1 CIWC.'efidDd die limill of Cubu IOCie&y. By 111 llCOOUDll, lbe dealdc' of die 1920l mprni:ared a lime wbca J" Mm1r1 IDOlt cmcnwenial, polidcal wrilinp not only became more widely available, bat more commonly rad. Wida Ille dada of Gonzalo de Qteepl, Manrs lilml)' heir, die lat volwaa of an i8COlllphle ICl of Manr1 "'complete works" were publilhecl. For the final volume of 1921, de Que t'1 widow wJecfed pnlCilely die llMft cmllOYenilll writitlp -IUCb "'Mi Rm" and "'Pobrel y Ricol"-wbich her lwthend bid delibmfcly lllld,...... lllafqically, Wl OllL Ccrtaialy, dac availallility of prial media md die prolif'enllion ol woddq-das lllldi*-1 ICCtCll. Yet. dlil ale. c:mlCJt npWD die infUll'llion of die rm.I voice of Mlnf S die clilO'MIC of 111 In of Odm IOCiely iD dil period. 1 Radm, ia a tamulW aa of 11Yme.,.amic crilil md prd'OUDd IDCial a.moil. llf.-ro MarUmt memoria of Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 577

D I cg .... N I !l CJ 0 & I rv 1 a_ r 1 c n I 1 l I I e. r I l 1. ;: .. :i Jf.J: t 1 r I 1 s f 1 i 1 I 1 I i I f 1 . I II a r r [ I . I I I . i ; t i I I I I f I t. I t I f r i I t s r 11 1 l r l I l I I i i i i I I I l I l t f t 1 I ( i I r I I I J sa I 1 J 9 i a I [ = l iSE t i -f i l l -t q .. l 1 I l ,. I I i" a. a r "' I 1 1 1 t 1 a . f J f f ;; ri. l i r !. !; .f 1. '< I 1. 1 r s 1 1 1 1 l _ 1 j I g I .. I r ir:. &. e I I I ; rf: l I r .!= r j Ii: i I 11 1 l l I J > t

PAGE 578

never been befam, lbele ciYeliq MlltCI eXleDlted OUl'Wlnl f ran dllliact, if' illfmlllly ditene. anti-imperilUlt uticHtt vi1ion ol 011m IOCicty. No kJDFr did Cubw ol oppoli11 vilicm limply compete wilb er coaeat eadl oeber's legilimacy u they bad duriq the revollllioMry movemenll of the JlllL Wbedler popular-. middle--, or upper
PAGE 579

impedillM!llll IO libcnliaa at .al leYela ol socicly. Tllil mcwaDea& w "'m1iom1i1t" bece it nwilited Cuba' &mt 11n1g1e ror iDdepe11 .._,,,Md_.. to r&Dd ia die Midi oC ill .... repraeliYe, Jolc5 Miid, a IOlulion to CW.'1 neo-caloaill ..-, Tiie objeclie ol lbil movement w to araYel die liafdrope between die prollUe ol IOcilll dluae and die -date ol pnwtiaa mtioaa1 1CWcnipty lbll lbe CUbla .-wt potiac.1 elilll llld Wllbd (or yean. Accontially, in a dlird 10CCicJa. we will at to undmtaDd die clilemive t.ales between polilical elilll ud die IDli-imperialilt movement by exploriaa die emer.-:c and iarcncQom ol two, mdiallly oppcmd Mlnfl. Tbe dilcuniYC f ruicion of lbese two nm,es ol w.nt in &be public imaimry cnncided wilb lbe ealnD .. ,_. ol ,.....-rona the bail by wbicb not Ollly "* ron:a replwed lbeir enemies. but dlrougll wbicb nwoluliolllriel I08pc to demolish die IClle wt edlblilh a lllel"DlliYe one. lroaically, we will rmd .... bolb limilar dilc:ounes for lqilillllliq dleir ldiam Md die viliam ol Dllioa Ibey were wt to plOBIOle-a ra=r wbicb bid lban-wl tc:.a-1a111 illlfllaDOlll ror die cour. of IOCial moludoa in 1933. saur """Soddy 111 a of S1o1_.. """Du.d#fM, 1917-1921 By IM .ty 1920l, lbe pip ol U S. c:api ... OD Cuba' colllpliq nMime ecoaamy w Ii"*' Ihm From a llip of 22.5 cem nlCXJlded OD die Maiv_,. of JcS MllUI' ....... May 19*, 1920. ... price per pDlllld ol eat. ... dlupped pNCipilOUlly -llal lleYml moadli IO a d-Cime low of 3.75 cm11 by CllrillmM: Ille,_.... price bid dropped lower' ... dleCIOll m pmduc:lim.. Followed llmall iemedj ... y by a crilil ia ... G _og Original from UN IVERS ITV OE WIS fO NS IN

PAGE 580

....., .,._am& Md cweamende
PAGE 581

D ce C" "< I CJ 0 0 a.a I rv c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' I -<"'T'1 -a a z VI I z J I I! t I I ] Is J I i I m J. I I l I . I 1 I .f J I 1 Q. I '! I l f l 8: t f f .. f f I I l I i J i I I I ft I I i I I 1' 1 i i i i ; I t I i i I J f .s-I I I l I I z s ( I i ll!i I I I I t i l t l w I -I I I I c B. . I I .. 1 I ,. .. ls I i t l I s I I ( f I I I i ! ; i I r I l I l l -1 i i t f Jr if Ir I; I c: 1 i '!!'I I l I I I t [ f l J I I I 1 J. a l a. l S' ( I f 1 I I w f l l i l I I l g. 1 9 I! I a r s Si_ f I. l

PAGE 582

ne a.. of Alfredo 7.aym1. cllilf' of lbe Ubenl Pldy. may repraeat lbe belt tbe ample of lbi1 .,.._,_ .. In 19.20 .1ol4 Miguel Odmez llllidc it dear that be would not cede lbe ......... C'Wlichcy an dae Libaal ticbt ID Alfnldo 7.ayu U be Ud done in lbe lat eloctiml Radler dlan Call llide bil own .. biciom for tbe ab of .-ny llllity. 2.ayu wl bil suppalWI IOUpt out a .-i wida lbe Hl'Y potiticll eaaniel wbo bid 11D1en bis lftlidealie' viclory fmm bim in 1916: Menocml Camervaliva. Breakina wilh tbe more popatilt-amcioul Odmcrz.1.aya fOQMled bil new s-t)'. lbe '"Nlllioaal Lape" fRD palilical orpninn dial c:oulcl emure bil victory tbroup brute ron:c. Zayu lbea um eucdy lbe same leCbnique lbal Colllervaliva blld med apiDll Liberall in tbe pm1ial elec.1ic:m to detamine tbe praideDcy in 1916: ielying on Mcnocal'1 ldminilU'llion lo issue tbe ordcn co C\lla mmed forces. 7.1.ym counted an mililll'y .. supenrilon" wbom tbe lllllioml llllle appinred ID OYCIW polliq llatioal. 9 Mcnov. wllile Miguelilla Libenls mainrained the coct. lbe plow, and the bul11 of revolllliomry heroes u symbols of lbeir mppaed commilmeDt to die Cubln people, 7.ayat puty raunected lbe Cuban vcnion of tbe sa.a. of LaDclty dial bid plaided OY fcllirieia in 1902 for die imuauratian of lbe Repablic ill emblem. 11 In die 11pp11en1 belicf' dlat Oda' populU'-dm voten wae ccmiaced of tbe need to coopecm wida the United wi11a u be. Zaym openly cmapli.-a for Yafei an die pnaia dlll U.S. off"ICUll clillpproved of bis Liberal oppoiaent. Jol6 Mipcl Odmez 11 In bis dTans IO put ..,... before ideall. 7.ayu quickly f<*Dd dml be Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 583

0 <8 .... N C" "< 'CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I I I I I I t I J I i t I l i I I ( l ! '1 f I t J I ; I l I I I J f I I w I i ( I I l I I t I B 1"' l if j I 1 5 i.[ g l Ii.,. t IS 1r rl g rs t f .. f 1-11 1 Ei I . l l r r a a .. I 1 ft I!, t la, a,J llt1.1 if' I I t I i i I I I t : f : 1 I i I I J I If I IS l l t i I i I I IS [ i i f i I t I }. I l ( f f D I I i l [ I I 1 l l l I t i I J I l ( J r I 1r r l I }

PAGE 584

0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z t: 1 l Si. 11 i l l I f if s-I a l I .:1 .. r l I I I 1; i : ;11.11 ":f II fl! i f I j I I . I I j 1 I l I r I [ r I i f J l .. la, 1 r 1 .. . (-< o i " II i ii it If;_ i1:11I r. !ii t r 1 a. 1 r r I J r J 1;-JI 1 r 1 r t a I l 1 I l !r f f I i ( ;r

PAGE 585

D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ,I I i I i I I i I t r t' I l r 11 I l D I I I I I f 1 l I f : f 1 n 1 8 I i f f f l l 8 51 & &. f s ll !. I: I j ;i I s ( r 1 I. I Q. I I 5 & I I. i rr a r c' f I I I J I 1 I 1 l I l & 8 1 l "I 11, I f. 11, l. ii1 f 111 1 i 1 s i J i s 1 1. r 4 e; !J. I J I t f I 8 I I l 9: JI i I: I I I Ii' r a 8 s I I f I: i (. f. l Ii fl f I g a 1 I a: II J a: a l I ::t 1 I a I & .. I it I I 1. 1 ; ! -! i i I If t i i i 1 I J I I l 1 !: I !-i s ('"V R ( I Si a I !. f l J r 8 j 3 1' I 111 t 1 ' !II r 11 i -P B z 1 .I. ll. l 11 !l I 1 g i i . rt : I I :I a .. f a .. -< -< .... "' i w I 8 11 1 I i 1 ; I J I j i i i B l r B :. 1 s '< R -

PAGE 586

1 J I i a. a. l ( s i I J 1 r l J j I r I [ a l ]'< 1' 1 l t I. I r a. ( j a E r c r ! a Y' i l i : I l f I I If I a. I r a. [ le i i' i l I. It H I f I 0. t J I & t J B ; .. .a I '<. l a. b .llj -i i'-1 :1lilJ.1lii .. ; I I I I i I : I i t I i ! s l t' 8 a. r l o a. B :-r. 1: r '< JS I.! I t pr l 1 i .. -t Ir t i 't 1 i 1 1 # .. 1.: l a l ; I f I I If. 'I < 1. l f .. I! I a. I I I I I I l I I I ( f f I I < s i s a l r i i l I. I. . l SE a. I r 1 rr rr r f I f I J n I ;; I i i ll ii' l I I I i I i t i I. i i 1 1 I I r ;f I I 1 : I I t i } r I I I I I 1 I f1f( .. I I 9 I a. ss '< I a a I l a1 Ii ..... ,a w1

PAGE 587

0 I . I I I i IL D 1 I f P' I t I <8 .... J 1 J f P. I I I I f I t l i f !. i 1 : l N I I I C" '< .. 1: : I J. I i I f 1 '<0 i i !l . l I I i g B f l i l I i I J I [ I I i I I I I I I c: Q. z a < rn I. I :;;c 0 V"I .., r [ 1 l 1 t --1 ie -<0:::::1 l I I 1 l I f t i 1 I Tl Q. f -0 '1 f II 1ltI1ll111 SI.:;; f. I V"I 3 !i 11f11 :11ilII I !! l i l I I P. i P. ;; ii. P. ;; ll ji. . 11 f f 11 B 8 ( . I! l f g I l a.

PAGE 588

dlildl m fedmled ciprmabn in Havw .. Pimr del Ri> wmaployed. wrilen for Judt:M ..,"O'd their criaqw m lbe exploie 11111n m UlranMimal c:apilllilm wilh deeewillicm of die piYOCIJ role m YCIClallilca poliiciw in depriviq CUba of die briPt (tare imaained by Mmtl IDd die Revolutioa of 1895. A1 J&dldll pointed OUC. lbe same poti'iciNM wbo bid fought to will freedom ad equ.aiay for .U citimas in Cuba' indera&dence wan were aow lbe ery p>litic:iw who deNed IUCb ripm to .a1 CUblnl bul tbemldvca. Today u )'Clllelday, Judda arped, 1aewed proliferalioa of banditry in die couatrylide oaly lipalled die flibn m die ltale 'live up fO ics mndlle of supplying. IOCial afety net for all cilium. Hiid Cuba' popular dasw m..d of "'lftlllJd for apeccing stare profeCdoa of 1bcir f reecbnt. includina die ript to wost. to llrib, ad to IUblill wicbout fear, Cubul miabt bave ll lbeir dispmal lea cxw IOlurioal ID Cbeir problems lblD dame wbidl 80Ci.a revolUlion-llDd IOCiali1111 illelf-now offend. economy ill ferllll beneficial to Olbml radlcr dllll foreipcn w no loqer die wwer: WCJlbn' mcwement of die early Replblic. Jadt:ill becNne a bolbed of commuaill tacbinp mt avim between 19.20 IDd 1924. a lalpilal by lbe inlelmrqwlian u lbe caeqiq WOlbra.,.'ity. lparilla IM ..-1a11D111 of a...a m.ary. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 589

S65 Jradd4 followed dle MamltLmiM lille in dmina dial mcilm w a producl ol dw clef'W riliJta uaopbobia m& alliYC workm in lbe IUpl' iDdumy wbo I I lfed &be UIC ol cbeap. UDDrpiliDd immi..-labar f rcm Hmli or Jmuiic:a. They argued dlll foreip capical ubiquitoul juscific:Coa for lbe 111e ol immipani labor-lbll is. Cuba '1 frequendy cited labor lhcJnap-wu a mydl pmpwpred by capilal. a. Accordinaly, Jatkl4 c:onitaded dial immipmt workm could DOC be blamed for die na&ural flilinp ol Cuba depende8t capilllilm Co provide full llld l1ady employanmL Rllber. Ille labor movement lbould put aide differences ol maicmlity ID repraeaa cbe intcrall ol Ill wortas, repnllea ol lbeir c:ounuy ol oriain or etlmic idemity, in order to Diab lllbor prorats effective. la dlil Male, federaled ciprmabn pioneered a mivCl'lllilt lare 1920s. u A,_ lbe a&lblilllmmt ol lhe Commuai Pli'ty in 1925, commuaidl KUYilll in die nnl labor movement u.d limilar arpmen11 to bring nllive and immip'lllt supr mtCJl.moaa la die IUllHIW o/ 1933. M latJUsway. Cbecipnuten' union ldvoc:areda brand olKlivilm dlalcomnnt wbM it called "aeformilt" IKlicl ..a IOCially mmelionlive meaMes ol any kind. r1 Wriem fclr .hutlt:M camilemdy eacamqed wolbra to abMdoa Ill .... ol Pr""" with tile exidna political l)'llaD, iadudina lbe farmatioa ol a Wolbn' Piny. a milpidld lldaprile IMt could oaly bldWldc lbe MC>Coloay. Tluoqla die new leal ol IOCial mvollllioa. .lllltldlJ c:imlllUCllld a Mlioa in wllidl emaaial r...;.; oaacema widl ...a,.. dmitllllo ...... --.......... olfonli8D aml l'lllilioa Md.,,._.. la D191tized by G Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 590

li'I l'-1 :0 t1-t:f ff I 'I :i.ill" I l I I I I. B. i f l i. I I s a B I I 1 I Q. -I II a. p Ei' It I IL ---0. a. I a. 1:1 !I .. I e: & lrf r = ... I I J I i I t i i f j I i .I i J i. I I j f ('"V i I 1 i af i 1 I f. i i I i i I =1 }. I t l ; f I-J I i !! I" l s l r sa. 1 l r I. s a: 1 8 &r 1. < 1 a l I .. s If r J i I a I i [ i l i J j ( i 1 t J. J I !I 1-s t 1 r I 'C a I 1 1 8 3 I B' J !. 1 f l I I r a 9 a. .1 .f i = I J rr sa. I I s. f I. .. I a. l i : l "" ; Ii>: 1: i a.JR. JI l 1! l l l. Ii .f I r -< j J i

PAGE 591

enjoy die fruill cl one' labor in cam1111mian wida ablrl wlM> COlllribuled in eqllll wa,1-dlele nre die bipeat llpiralicm cl the lllllHmperillia llllioa 11 J&rdt:M penzived i&. Sulpriainpy. pvea 1beir COlllCioul dilcunive iali.-cr an tM fUlility cl Rlipan md more lpirilUll dimension ID lbeir "nllion." Tiiey did IO lbroup. lbe fil'ft IDd lbe voice cl I new ..U-imperillil& Mani. became cl dlil. lbe cmn--. cl apirimal Md maaerial dilDClllli
PAGE 592

D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V ( I i 1: r i I I I 0 ; l r .. i r. r -> I tt s i' = r 1 J l J t l I I I f i . r r i I I .f I ( i' r 1 1: r . l f a. I f. SE &' l if i: I .. I f f f t J i J 1 I 1 r a. r I i I I . s. l = I s p I r. l 1 : i I r i i 8 f J "' l A I 11 i r f : f l i I i l J f Ir Ji Jf -" ( s 1 I t i i i t I t s 1 f l"}f il I t I I g J I I l Q 5 S 8 I t f. J f f r l r t i i r J l I J r I ( II I 8 J f I f f B f If r I 1 J. I I I t I -8 s 8 a. i I t r S r r r f I. 1 I l f. r ; I I J s J a. l r ( i f I f Si. If'

PAGE 593

569 round coatempt ror u.s. c.a11n wl apecillly, for i11111Ci1Uy ac:IUliomuy saw.tewits ,. Ciprmabn DOI cllly IMlblleecl ......._ poliliciml M lllliton ID Manr1 ... of lk Republic. Ibey openly ideatiraed dal'Clva wida MlllU bit de. miquely lqi._ veteralUta political cin:lel to do 10. l Mani lllld been FJ D*I""." lbe biP. towns swolutioaary bcroel who critical .mtudel warbr" l1nlgle. No lonpr limited to due Yetcnull wbo were llill liviq. 1arpC1 of die cipnmbn' invective bepn to include even commaaly recopized war heroes who Md died many )all bef'o1e ud whole memory ,.,.. ... above rebuke. Thul, cipnnaken' recoliection d MUimo Odmez' ...... .._of woibn for pr5 mvnlulicmlry project. ci ......... 111111 expeaed dleir' loyalty ID die project by ............ code of loylllty IDWaRI .... wbtm Ibey COlllidend ill IDOlldeYoled clmapiaa Carly tima bid chmpd, IDd widl diem ., 11111 die cipnmbr1' ... d Mmnf. imqe dley DOW elenled llbore Ill odlen. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 594

570 Wllile lbele warten did no1 ewe repelliq Manr1 moao ol "CUba wida all ml far Ille pld ol all" delpite ill .._ lmOCiatioa wida tbe diKoune ol pm1illn elifel, die pbme ICquired new manina a die imap ol narim it Wl IO iavob W nail ill lallll ol a *-lly libcrUld IOCiely. onm redDl:ed witll .u ad ror an c OrN a. ltldtu y ,,.,,, IMm]," die mo11o now lipalled a Clll ro ltnlgle which all Cam Mn inviflld ID lbll lbe 1923 edition or Jllldcla proclaimed "Yes. our pwblo ii deceiYed; but. rortunldely, it ii deceiYed oaly by ill laden, not by itl ideals; tmt ii lbe Uy, becaule today, lftcr twenty (ave )all, II WOflld IM lltlfllllfor a W Mani IO, a new apollle ol lbe ll'Ue liberty, SO .... c-=e .... pllut llld virile, be misbt lldaim rrom tbae puppell oldie political ran:e what )'llla'day be demended ol olber acJlcl-bnided puppell: .. ,,.llZIJ [llulaae) ..,, Sipificmdy, boCb dae saidmcy ol cbi1 image ol Mani md die polilical coalellt it implied nae mred deeply widl limilu' venioal ol Mll1f dial )'OUDI urbul illlellcctual1 u well wmta1 CJUllide cl die tlC>bu:o -=rm-were imqiaiq. Fablpl men lban any ocher CICI, dais ...-a between imapa ol Mint led ID lbe formalioa ol pa soul lints amcJlll labor ... ltmleal movements. Followiq Ibo victory ol pr wort.en ia a llrib dial pined c:mpcnre RC:Opilioa ol lbeir union ia 1924, fedcnled cipnnlbn md odler' urb1D wodmn Connally fUled lbeir ClrMlos, or tile Jlilllicml Qlbml Wollaen' Caaf'edmlioa [CNOC). Aldloup m"i md ow...., ...._a.t willl U. me powaf'al __... farccmtld ar lbe orpei"'im, CNOC r 111d anew cmlilicm olnal M!ll a mtm ,...._. .. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 595

iatdlseull1. Tbc clcpec ID wllic:b Olber uaicm .,.... ..... lad ...rrllidDd wilb Ille CNOC. llleed wilb die writen ol hlllt:M on lbe mallina ol lbe WxJr llrugle tamim 571 "....-... .. puppet" IUinp. apmbd tbe lltmlion of Hawm'1mliYenity11Udm11. Tie rauttiq i.-.ctioa ol cipnnaten and ltudenll between 1923 lllld 1925. bolb aa lbe level m idea and ol pndicc. lay lbe poundwork for flllln ati-impaialilt llnlgle ud IOCial ....,.ormarioa in Cuba. Allboup DDl all 11Udeat -=Uviltl (or even lllOIC) sb8'Cd die axnmicmem or ldmiralion for IOCiali1111 tbll fedenlled cipnmlrm and prominml llUdall lelldal lhowed. die amdent movement leftl lhe uli-impaialilt atrugle ill own Dllliple voices ol popular Dllioaalilm. Bom ol a ameraDoa '1 dililJUliomnenl. f ruaraDoa Ind IDF' widl lbeir puenll and pandpueall' empey promilel llld failed allempU IO build a IOCillly illlql'lled. IOcillly united naaioa. die popular aalicnimn CJ( die 1920I m.lcnt movmeac mofCd illelf in die lellOlll ol bilfory. Not IUlpilinsJy, a core poup ol 1111dea11 a..d beoome illfClaled in lhe question m bow poliliciw' infera11 in untajmaa lbeirpower bid bemec:mfl.eed widl cums clepcadeat. neo
PAGE 596

(Federalioa ol UDinl'lity Sludeall, or FElJ] iD Jmy ol 1923. laitially, fellliou ran bip DODI 1he fbousmds ol IClldeall ad po-refonn pro(eaon wbo plCked tbe Uaivenity'1 Aul& Mapa ID cmlltillde FEU lhll lllmlb However. lbe intelleclUll cmlilion be&weea .mi-imperillilt lludeat laden. idealillic popular natiollllilCI md a 1111111 numberol mollllionary aarioul.iltl wlme ndiallia IUl'YiHd IDd manned in lbe aae of 1he cady Republic ullimalely proved IUCCellful. Widlin days ol ill COUlilUtion, FEU and a poup ol prominent pro(eaon 1Ubraiaed a lilt ol demgdl lesililDllina ........ compllin abc.c lbe ntrary dbicl and quationable pedlaoliCll merit ol cenaia pro(aMJn (whom die llUdenll called oM11ero.r;. Witbin days ol cbc mediaa. ltUdea11 orpaized IUib al lbe Univenicy in order ID fon:e die Zayu pemment fO aapoad. Dnmllically, llUdcnll aebuffed tbe poaibiJity ol a police nicl on the univenity by 11111ioniq slUdenl gumdl al ill eatra.:e Md draping a prpatmn Cublil flaa down i11 enonnom nipt ol 11ep1. near ICCiolll earllCd them lbe brOld IUpport ol aniddle-dw poup1 a divene as lbe newly orprimd Cblb FartniltO [Feminine Cub) llld die AllOCillion ol Reponen... Under inawina premue, Za)'ll nenlmlly c:omented ro die f armlion ol a peraiq body with llUdenl replWDIMioa to inveltiprc cb11Ja apinll fllCUlty. Allbougb die llUdea' nccupllion ol lbe campu1 ended, tMir llrike cqljmecd llld cmivenity Mlbarilia IClalbled ID comply wilb llUdeal .. _.. By ..ty Februmy. however, 1he pro-reform c:bM*lor'1 efl'Olll ID dilmia aiae easeP-otreaden r1a111 lbe r.:uaiy bid rmlld in Iii on ron:ec1 ....,.. ; Zayas lpl0.-1 dlle .. rapomillle for llil an ol nin IU pllce. la dlle end. FEU'1 c.:b11lnlima ma bo)Q)llollbe wllidl edmiai..._. latlllied in a ...s. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 597

S73 die uaivcnity -Ubaaled" llld mmiq lbe O.boyml law lllldcDl IDd OIUDI'. Julio Antonio Mella. lbeir dwsdor. Farina .U-out Albellioll-m Rldeatl Md llbady dnalaed a bcmbiaa.-7.aya t.:ted clDwa. By praidrnilil clecne. 7.ayu nmpizecl FEU a aepaaalalie llUdent coum:il, wbd dubiOUlly tided proreaan, md IUlboliml lbe Cl'Cllion cX a democnlically orpai-' peraing body known U die UaiYenity AllCIDbly. Not only wcdd chlncellon be eleclrlCI to otr1c:e rrom lben on. ID 7.ayu decreed. but ICUdeDcl wt flCUlty elected to die Auembly would enjoy equal vota. Allboqb amt uniYCllity IUldmll t.:kecl die FEU'a ldioaa, 111 important ICCfm' d tbem, indudina Julio AlllODio Mella and Ruben ManCnez Villena. riCMd student ldivilm ia liabt d brmder, reolucioaary .... ror alldically llanlf'orming dleir IOCiety wt linking it to ocbcr exploited CCMUl'ia in ID infla'llalimal c:mnpmip apiDll lbe forte cX aipilal. Sbonly befcn mobilima llUden1a ., form FEU in um, Mella and Manfnez Villena founded a ltUdeDMmed orpnizatioD called .. ReaoYICidn" in 1922. Soon Ibey .,.gbt IO influence lbeir popular nalioaaliat llUdeat Illies u edifOll llld CODlribulcn to FEU'1 official newspaper JtlWllllML ftoliilldt in die efT0111 d RmJvlCidn WM die need to DJW M lbe UlliYenil)''I cmupliaD WM only lbe tip d die icebeq; not only could a new paa1lliaa d actars put a -. 'die powina de:"*'n m lbe Rcpulllic, bat Ibey could uwf'onn -.e borim d Culm IOCiety .. topdler. Fii' from lka in dMir feeliap, ..._. pr-... coincided wilb lbe emeqmce d a papullr-dw wt elite y..,_..t of awlicllized YlllrW and ialelJecnwls Indeed. in 1923, ...... wi..,m a erilableapmica in .-. imperieli criliqw u1 ,....,.., tiaml dlDticm. Duriq lbe lleilbtrL 111edear 1Ctirim Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 598

D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<"'T'1 -a '""" 3 8 z VI z i r 1 1 f i 11 ; 1 r 1 ; r 1 ! 1 J f r 1 1. .. = & I i. = l .a ,.. -f I' I J If ., m ... i .. a s I = 1 Q. If Cl i l ii !: II I - - ;o II ll s1 i =8 t J & f I -i I l,. i 1 [ ; I j I ( I I : j i 11 I It ... "' .. g. It "' l t f i I 1 I' I I; i I t I I i I t i J1 '!. 1 I I i r I I g I: Q. .. n. f I ii Q. g "' i f < l t t j I I f. I ( I I "'[ 1 : I l t I I I l I t I ; I I I 1 c i l l I I i 1 f i 1 I I 1 I ; ; I 1 I i i J I I I t r r a s s Q_ 1

PAGE 599

I 0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z i I l t I I I I l r f I I 1 f. 1: r 11 r '11 ri.1; 1111 . s I I 1 = .. rf f1(!I e. J f I I i t f I I l I I I t I l I I I It I I ! I j I t I l 1 I I J(. f 1 I E! l St n: *! 1 lj J r. alf Jrr(fs f . 1 l 1l1 ii If,;! Is 1 J l: l I ; 1 f l i 1 I l I i [ 1 t I t I I Ii It i : I ri.J t I & !I I I I 1f at f I ( I l l I $ i I i i I 8 J '1 l I t i" 1 It I; l l i I i:f l t J 1: ... 111 ri. i f i s 1 i 1 i r I r J t 1 ll

PAGE 600

tii!tii!]i.jl 1 0 [ f J If I.'.!{. B. l I 11.I (It n I r i S2. f r. f [ I a 'I t! I a. l f : t t I t i I I I I f c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<,,_ a '""" 3 8 z VI z 1 IL i r -11 a i a.-< 1 r a. r I 2, Ii 8 t I n' I ? J 11 I l. I r t J a. 1 If = 1 I r c: l I i .. f 1 1 I 9 -1 1 R. "' 'I i' a I ( it I l i I i o. I I f !: i I 1: j f 1 j9 : ... i111I I .. 2, 1 .g 1 2, 1 1 ?: r ,.. ia

PAGE 601

sn UIMloubtedly, lbe ldivilia cldle UPJM clecbifled may womn and blbor avilll wbo bepn ro perceive -=II cnm dm COBllCll .....,.y rewmdiq experiences and po&enlially powerful nwoluliaaly IClaaqiel for promoling dllaae Not only did lbe cipnllllllbr fedenlion' Aulk:M be&in to pall regular Dc:a cl UPJM ldiviliel and reprinll cl lecllnl. b111 Jswlltlld. FEU'1 orpa. a11o bepn ro publilb 1tarcmea11 cl loliduity with llribn." By 19.M, laudalll mid worbn lmd joiDed fon:es in demomllaliom cl Uli impeMlill lolidlrity dial included a mua l'llly dcnounciq lbe Yilit ol Muaolini ' reprwalaliYe1 10 Cuba llld dl&lir napciaa by one ol Hav-' moll promiaenr cipr facrorics. P,,,.,.. In Ii-. UPJM apudcd ill Klivitiel, boldiq meetinp ll lhe Wortcn' Cilde ol Siil Anlaaio de IOI Bab. near Pinar del Rlo. HoweYer, relariona bclween worbn IDd lbeir m:eady awakaed bourgeois c:omradcl ol lbe l1Udent movement were not alwaya bumoaioua. Some tacbels certainly butxnd elitist lllillldcl fOWlldl worUrl lbll Ibey deri'Hd Crom bodl lbcir own clan bllcqround ud \PIUl Ibey dacribed lbc crudity ol prolecllria political COlllCioulaell-as coaqmed. lpllm'aldy, wilb lbeir own. .. Same .... leaden IUCb. Mella and ManfMz Villeaa iamaliqly cmnmia.t tbcmldva IO orpni7.ecl communimn, first lhroup I Havpaup founded ill 1924, IDd ev...aly, lbmulh lhe Commuaist Piny. alablilbed ill Aquil o1 um. Wbile embraced by die wins cl lbe urt.n labor movement. Ibey fomd fon:ed Mella fmn lbe ac.dermp ol IM IMlelll mavemeac for impowjng lli1 M.aill bdicfs ca odlen. Nmllnlty lbe i9ollllima ol IUdl iDdiYidulll from die..-..... pallled dliall '*-r' ID wCllbn aad fellow ...... l'ldicall wbo may DOl laave llund lbeir enci'i idmla. llllldid me unonpc++jW .. cnntnittm ID mri-imperilllial IDll 10 ill mc:mdy D191tized by G og Original from _l......_.INIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 602

:llilll.fl f lf _11 1 ti l:lf t I 5 l 4 l D 1 g B. i I p :lf1t .f!: N .. 1 1 r l 1 11 1 i 1 -I t II .-r 12. t tii:(; 11. o I r 1. i t r s 0 0 i I -. g .. I I I ft < i I J [ ! i i = I I I I l I i I i I 1 i Ii' a 11 i 1: !. a s J f!! I I i 8 s c: . .r m r 1 ;i !IC 1. i 1 ; r j. I I f. 1 i : J : I I J J ! ; r J ] I I [ I i I I j l I t i l I l I a 1 .r '8 1 =: r 1. 1 ll 1: 1 .. 1 1 g 3 i I I I I l1. ft I l l I i H z i I a: r I i B. I *. i I. ; i 5 5 !. I. . a. I f i JA [ : t' f I l t

PAGE 603

rr I f I 0 i J D ce -N 0 II I J j: I f f I .. ij' r l I I 8 't f ft i t; g 3 ., .. z I i J _: I 1 l 1 r 1 1 1 1 I 11 t 1 1 i 1 1. I l.r! ( ... g.. 1 ., II, f 11 1 I II, ij' II, I . i iii i f I 1 : .} "I"' n &> 11, r r rf al 1 tt fl. i i 1f1 s Ii II, !I Ii I (!I ii' i Ii l a I f; I ; ( I a. 1 I I } i I IJ -g. II RI I J _! I l 1 l I I : I I I f i l I i I I f !. I I I f. j l t 1. t H I J.f m .. 1i111 i & 4 JI I 1 1 I r 1 i 1 I 1 1 I '< f. II IJ ii. I f t I J f I a. l ft I 5 11 8 [ f

PAGE 604

.,..aed to P'1"d-lllld lllidcle-dm voeen ia a way dial bit 9llillocnlic ORJCJMlll. Mario Mmoall, .-er c:oulcl. Y ec. it wa UDlbllltedly bil llaled canmillnllll to a variety ol IOCial refonm, iadudina womcn'1 luffrqe, and bil polifioal on iallDl ol Cuba mrereipty that pmeRd bim lbe 1D01t suppmt." By joiniq ICllClenl activilll melt u Mella ia prelliag U.S. ralificalion oldie 1904 llal)' rebniq die Ille ol Piae1 to CUblD CODllOI, cullival&ld bil public imap u a biltorically COllliltmt propaoeal ol Cuba IOVereipty duriq die electoral cmn .. ip ol 192.4. 71 Nol only dicl MIM:ild> c:MJ f DI' an end ID llriff reducliou and a ddinilive abroplioa ol lhe 11Pamanent Traty, .. DI' Plan Amendment. but lie p.ed tour ol lhe u.ited Siiia' cut CCllll in 1925 u a lpinpoud IO nepialiom widl Wubiqtm. 11 lroaiQUy, Ma:Mdo 1C1Cmed ol iafanirely parer liDcerity before bil U.S. halls (llqely repn;ICO'.lliYCI of bmkia1 wt buliDCll illlelall) lhaa wida bil own Cubm CXJM1iw. 7J Mlcbado' Dal eipt yem in off' ace proved bil ndelity ID dlil vilicJa jutt u Ibey unmahd Che iP""'ft of bil 11anti-imperillilt" praideDlial cmpmip. Alrady by 1925, Unpor.-mmben of die midlle-and upper de H bid bep to recomicler die meri of tndrional vellnailta aalicmlia. A men rwliall, Liberal lffw.d i!Wjlerfwl1 lib fcnullldo 0rUz and tt.miro Quern (DOW Macbadn'1 Millillerol 61l11cllicm) w to adYcare ..aHmperialilt pOlilionl u put ol m orenll awelDelll fm "Cubaaidlicl"-a ei-.,. One of.... 1I1 W &Ill ID dU W die tnlllfCJllDlliaa ol Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 605

Sodld mehW" 1..,_. from tbe frivolous. ..,alilic:al dilUKtiaD fer Ille lhat it hid a-ia lhe 1910. tom IOCially critical l'Nnding bcmd d political dilroiwt between 1923 ll8d 19'25. Indeed. RDi1 conf'umed die 1eed fer dlia delibeme 1ea-cbanse fto111 Sodal' edilOlial pllC. Times lllld c:lllllFd, be llOICd. and the pickled mcmoriel d a alarifaed. Ullf'.'iaected J*l lbal lhe maianeam meciJL hid loaa lll'Yed up for aenenl camumplioa could DO loqer laliJCy CUba'I educ..t elites. Tiuoup excapll d MllU'I worb. open support for prominent inteUedual d Latin America IDd tbe edi10r'1 own political i8llnmeDlal to tbe pramftlion m Cubam dilciKlivema vis a Yi.I die machinalioa m ..,.fo Sam."" Not IUl'priliqly. an impadllll campoaeat to dU mcwancat wu a bourpoil infclleccual veniaa d lbe unmuffied. lldi-imperialilt MllrU lbll 1tudeDt md lllbor Klivilll ll8d coalribufed &he moa to found. Evealllllly, die Mltboritmilnilm d the madwli11a w would rault in the ccWaciq d this inleli.:aual Mmtl wilb lbe mdiall firebrand lbM leltilt IQ ..... and wodmn i..,..uw..t. The fllliag d dlele Unlpl ancl die awmecl DlljonaJ pmjecll to wbida dacy -.a.cbed wouldl remit from mlllUll f aver d an lllli-imperilllill criliqae d lbe Republic IDd IDUllUal oppolilioa to Medwk>. Lnmna die way for die ccmtnlclian d 1bil fllled inllUecmll ad ..tiCll Klivill MmUwae FJUP d u1i-. and iHrdtll baed in Manzmillo. Orialll:. Tbey documt;a d lbeir a1iviliel w1 dleir cfemai pen.iepricm dlroaP the lilnly pziw: Ono. By 1925, dl8y Udcalleclively 1D119 GpCewicw d._ ewer die 11111e d die R.cpublic, an.. mc.,'ecl ia Ille plllw *1uld DOl llaYe died! ia wbicll m Dig 1zedbyG Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCQNSIN

PAGE 606

m mmy m.a c:rilica W found Nfi ill yars puL" Conviaced dmt puaina dlcir fellow Culiul. writen for ono compmd Mllrd' millim to c:reare m ideal. --. bumuialic ....s IOCially just mecy ill Cbrilt" rn pmticuJar. Ibey -aued dmt Martr1 ..... of libenrim nllCellded Clu'ilt' by dint of 1he former" rempizc Martr1 complete. if mytliQI hulllmity venua .1aUI Chri1t'1 semi-divinity. Manl'1 millicm wu to bepn die IOCilll lrWl'Ollllllion of die world duougb die mlional liberabon d CUba. Cc:mequeady, Mmrtr1 million implied a parer potential for complelion lbln Chrilt'1. To cu.._, tben. Martr1 mcmp *>aid be coaidered boCh -=red and Uleful. Curioualy, may of 0t1o c:oalributon (i111duding Nalionll University 1tudeals Radl Roa IDd 1-Marinello. rucure intelledull iccm 1959 Revolucion) were avowed atbcilll of Marxist orieldalion; ill wortina
PAGE 607

Tbae writen initialed lbeir own pCllWID by .aempi11 ID supplant wbal they comidad die bipe.t expn:aim ol elite lbe tmdiliclllll celelnlioD ol Jam's birdlday an Cbrillml Eve [known in CUb1 .. II* Buena." or "Oood Niabt"J wilb m lllanllive baliday. They mmed Ibis balicjlay .. 1.4 Nodw Bw JllrnlMa ... a celctnlioa <:I Manr1 binbday an ill eve. TIM: bniadlikl ol Jam Frm:iax> Sariol, 1he fint Nocbc Buaa Mmtiw WU held at Orlo'1 offices in Mmmnillo on Jammy 'n, 1926. AltbouaJa lhe mill number ol panicipall (clelcribed ""ialllllUml and womn; Ile IDd drank in wbat Ibey moopizcd as a "pacbal rile" modeled .Cr.i:r tbat ol Clariltilnity. lhe celebratioa wu punmllled M it would be in sublecpml )"CIUS by readings fl Manf'I work. Each reading lben proobd iareqncalive dilcuaicm ojf ill ft!leticwhjp ID CODlempnry social and polilical ilMaes. lmponandy, Chae pmriJICial iDlelleclUll viewed lbeir efforu a bumble offcriq to a Man! wbom die)' bid only iecendy SCJCICll IO bow. Tbroup their ldivalicm and raunection ol dae ""teKIUtp" ol lbi1 Mani. Ibey brealbed life ink> a project f cr Dllioul libenlion lbal bid bepn in 1895 lbmqb daoupss aad mclioal ol ics founder. Jol6 Mmtf. la ccalriburiq ID die fannman ol a new rwolulion. lbae iarelleclllllll hoped 10 purp Cuba ol lbe aeo-coloaial conlminll llMl Spuim coloaial lepcia dual bid plagued lbe Republic md lbeir own minds ia die pllL AwMaina an lllli-imperiali cxmciOUIDal ill llleir own miadl llMl dae ol odla'I caaie fant; IOCill rwol.aon, IOCial nmf cnmliOll llld. for IOlllC if ao1.a1 ol Dno'6 writm. 1oc:ialim would come eva1111ally. 11lil dymmic pq> ol in1cH"'1Hh1 at lbe _,... ol lbe Republic bid itl CADplemenl ia Havm. MaliTll&ed by lillillr belicf1, dlCir ICCiri1ia were 1pelllbaded by Al1lllO Cmiemle, dRctal' oldie,.... J,.,,,,.,..., a mpzine ....,.illwd in 19%1.S admively cledW 'D1I ID Ille ph'inllicm ol' ablcme wriliap mMllU well aews ol Miid D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V i r J. .. f. r I i I: ' I I u I r 1 I J K f I 1. l I I i I : J l I f i I j f 1 I ( f I: t I f :; -"t . ,-1. l = a. a. p I ; B f l J i -: '< R :. . rl,!1,rf11:1itlJ1jf ... f11i R. P. a 1 "' Q_ I .. a. a a .. i a -; i f t 8 I: i: ij' f 11 f I f I I I ff I f 5 I t I .. I & l a. f f. i I }. i J I I f l i I l 1 f I I f 1 --1 I a i 1 Q. l g, a. 1 [ 1 1 -t I f I 1 l I et r i t t ; i 1 I l 1 I al P. i J "' s a I!' I!, 1 s 11 ii. ni I 1 r g 1 [ 1 a & 1 1 1 l I I r a. ( r l I l I p' -I g i f I I ; '"' I !. I 8 f I f i P. :I ( ; ii I l l a q I f

PAGE 609

marty111Dd ill "'founder," Joe6 Maid. Far nample. Rlllliro Ouena. SUperinlmdeat of Public Scbool1 fer Mllc:Mdo, dedic8led oaily a ant lWelll)' s-aes of a oae-hundnd-twcnlypqe boat ID lbe Republic. Nolllbly, Ouer1ra'1 punmMia of ads preaidencial period anplmized impnwemenll in infllll1nldure IDd public worb while erasing .U but the lllOlt dramalic IOCial md political upbeaYall from memory. Tbme wbicb be did mention (such u d9e upriliap of 1906, 1912 lad 1917) were depided a aocbing mare dl8n illlipifam divenioaa on lbe Republic' 1mrc:ll eo propaa-a dynunic cpitcmized in bis IUbvenion ol IM Ccmlitulion in 1927 ancl IUblequmt lelf-appointment ea a new lix-yar praidenlial tenn were depicted a democnllic advances. Mm!, Oucna ended hil book with lbe -.ilina mertim lbat lbe "'ideal ol lndcpe11dmce [ ... ] bM been realized in lbe foundina of a rree. 10Vereip and demcicraaic fllbertand, cordial and generous to all its ... [ ... ] .... Odaer tall. allo daiped fer *-mllll ICbool cbildrm. toot rbe rapomibili&y of .. pidina" &heir laden' moupn in llnDI !favorable to die velelalli11a vision of mlion one llep furlber. For a.maple, Max Tmqaella lupplicd "'darifyiq" naeea to lbe llWCriplioa of lbe Culm Cmlliaatioa wbicll be iaduded in a new 192.S edition ol a billory boat med much .tier in Cubm acbcd1. Tmqaella'1 D01e11 redcf'IMCI Ille Ccmtitulion'1 ........... ol cilimll' fill* in N,,,.,,y coandictDly M!lllll. 'l'bul, ARide 25 JIUDnl Cubw faadom o( .-ll Wll followecl by lbe npa..non ""l-ilo aae ii llllllOliml ID lpak er write ia IUdl a way dlll miP' alter die pwe ol dae Repulblic [ ]. hx-diAnide28 oa Ille fiPl of D191tized by G og Original from ---!JN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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u.mbly w the WllDiq citiam who cane ---to ccmpile pllllic' well-beiq or mpilllt die mbility oldie Nlllioaal Powal will be teYerely lmponaady, IUCb hilkXy boob clillinpilbed tbemlelva CIOlllCienliouty political lml. meant to anbn teldler'I to die obliption ol .. loriq lldeally their counay" and re.:biq billOry a "an eminendy naliomlilt talk" dial could mm or brat die fuan llllbility oldie Republic. Their publiclllion w KCOmplllied by die proliferation ol were devoted ro 1Nebia1 cbildra how Ibey lbould paaive IOCial unity in die fadlertud dapile dlle ildemifyiq IOCia1 diff aeac:a wbicb MIOUDded lban. For example, OM manual combined leacm on bow to ueat die Oas and sing lbe aalional IDCbem wilb explam&iaas on bow dlilcbea lhould deal widl IUCb ICX:ill infericn a die delivery boy, lhe postmaa. die shop aacndem. and tbe t.1a:r. proudly pmuive oae wllo eened bit COUDll)' beaer clelMt dm alive: "He na a crazy IUD [u loco] ya; but a subtim crazy man. lib Boll, lib Wllbiqton. lib Arti .. ; crazy men capeble ol lllllkiq popapbicll chMP' and ol redeUDUas wlaYed peopla."" One rat 1111md pllticullrty coacemed wida die need ID nmder hcaap ID Cuba's IDlrtyl'Cd demd wbile ..r...-111 die Republic fmm any overly itnnt mmoriel dMlt Ibey could iapire. Aaxxdiqly. it pve-=--spec:ifac ialncciom .. ..,. to depict oan berocl. ....... tM IUuical role ol wh., aot ID 11ome uay cbdlll orerlbe v.aidity ol IOCial illllillllicm md palilica1 biemdlia ia die Repab'ic. Wlmw wllite elitM:la8 be10e1 lib Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 611

MllU were pnliled fordlllir .. y lkilll in ..vice to Cuba (Marl{...,_ a laW)W. m OIUOr, a poet. a jourmlilt. ID iatellec:Qlll, : a ldlclu' ad a diplcmalj, bllct heroes m popular-elm wae dilliapidied for wUt 1hcy lllcbd: OuiUcr1llo Mowada ""Ud no c:ulQR"; JoM Mlceo .._ d pocir originl; he received no educalion" wbile bis bradler Anfmio. .. received DO cullUre in biil f Ult ya11 but laler, rady a man. culdnaed bil intellip:e and illllnlded bimelf quit.ea bit[ hulnqd bG.rlallle) .... lrcaically-pvcn Qabac:blrpdhistoryd111f1Clled elecall fiaud-lhe w manual recommeoded lbe illllallalioe d ID .. um." or blllol box. nex1: to die Cuba Ria in every daa room llld a daily alu&llion to be n=quind d evay individulll child. On Fridays. children were IUppolCd ro liag lbe ulion mlbcm and swear a pledge d failb to lbe um itself Oda ciic raden were lea in l1aling their objedivea. bowevcr. o.e lades' illllnlCled cbilcha on bow to dUl'aenciale 1n1e 'palriclCI" md f cllow ciliDm from lbe IUD)' llailOrl hartina MICJlll lhan. Tbe laaa' were dacribed u dkJe Cubam wbo eilber '"dllceive lbe populU' c:omcieDce" or exalt foreign aalture a superior ID Cuba's "without maki111 lbe lall elf on to modify die defect" 1My (ripltfully?) saw in die Falbedud. Supeaf acially lhe cUcoune if not Ille critiqjW d IDli-imperialilm, lbe succeediD& cbapca' Oil .. exterul dlqm" to die FatbcdaDd cldi:d 11aood fon=ipen bwllOlf' a lbc.e who "wilb dleir wcxt. tbeir ldivity, lbeir illfellieence. lbeir moeey. and lbeir pcnd1ence. lpiculun llld even [ . our) fmilia" lbrollsh i.alermalriqe. .. Biid foreipen." on lbe c*r Mad. Mll'C dime who MDled ID .. caaqua" CUlla militlrily. ae.ty, die bcdt'1 .... W ID i.malallr lbe primary-fl VelelraiJla ricwH in )'OUlll 9 ..... Anerall, ill D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 612

D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<"'T'1 -a '""" 3 8 z VI z r1rIf111-1 n. r n.1 a_ I (I iii f fit t1f a1st.i.I! . -I 1: t i : t i f l I I A. ; f : I a r I [ r l f ( f. t I 1 .. r a i l 5 f l n t -f r a_ r J r { I s r t r f I I 1 1 t r a 11. (l 11 ti: I"' t -I l I i J I 1 I ( ; l J I v i r i i I r JS I r = I I r "' I i i I f I [ = I I i I l f sa. l 1 I l i t 1 .. t ; r. ( 1 s r. : i I 1 "' .f. i B i g '1 I I I t : ii li .i i I ...1 J s a ., I 11 I I I a i l I 1 I i k ; r r l -! I I l lf j. I{ 2 f I l J i I l 5: I f a -'< r I s &: a m: a: t t. I I I" f I I I I f I I I

PAGE 613

D cO I i J a K j l i II, I I I I j a f I t i J I I f 1 I 1 t I J I-la : l I < a_ f g 8 i '< ;a f i:: a . t < r a. ili r .1 r 3Z5 (I. l II, I f .. I: t II, 11' I 1 I I J. I n i I I 3 l ID: t i,1 I i r 1 i:: I a. s I f II, j II, J 1 8 : f i: I i J I: I l l 6 I i i : 1 l I f. 1 I 1 1 l r 11 1 -1 1 I t I I. l f Ii l 'tl r. l-1 ss .. II,

PAGE 614

poved resiliem _... powiaa lllllaarillrill lllllqia of caallOI. ADI')' al illdiput. dU imap oCMmU drew its kleoloaU:al """"me much from die belief oC a new .... oC IOCial avuu who apDUllld dlc tmdl cl IOCillilt infiernaliomlism u from popular md radical sevolationuy aalioallilcl, bolh youna IDd olcl PivoClll to dli1 Mani's wu ibe suppan oC a powina mmber oC elite-den Cubml wbo rejected Mtdwln's dic1aloMI state and 1mldoned lheir vetmaiMa .0-illaliou for tbe ab oC a bripla' fUIUle. Tbae older poup1' cmbiaaed manoriel wt willinpeu ID abandoa die utM-lilt visiom ol tbe pat pve leplimsy -1 credibility to die idealislic visioas ol lbe llUdenc acaviltl, iICCIUlll md worbn who pioMend the Ii-imperialist movement In the ume way dial imperialist. wt popularmlionali11n1 bid once repaumted an umbrella ol ideal articulaled 11 a common front ol OflPO'ilion to Spanith rule. ID die lllli-impcrialill mcwemeac for nacioaal libmlion cmae to embnce a bolt oC idecJlosically divene ideM wbich together anic:ulMed a common purpme: die cc:mplele IUtwenion oldie neo-o>lonial nare ud i111.,...c, corrupt polilical system. De Foras o/Sodlll Rooldon CollftrMl """Ca.bat SlllM Tmw, 192$-1933 Social turmoil ud violm1 coaflict cblnc:terized Oermdo Macbldo ' tenure ac lbe bdm oC tbe Cuban llale from die very 111n. Yet. the mixed pot cl Cubla IOCiely proved slow ID boil: only afta' yan of iateme polilical RplalioD. wbea lhe llalle bepll to teeser lkJaa die precipice oC fieendel blnlaupcy. clicl crilicl 11111 awom appamnC1 fiully succeed ia fCJllDina a united fmat cl armed wl llll8llDed IWolulicmricl ID toppe lbe llllC in ID apmive. if lholt-lived. IOCial rwalulioa. Prmcipll ..._ for dllil bid ID do wilb Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 615

0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z f 1: l I i f I I J l I I I I ( I ; I I I I t I A. I ; I f l j l I i I I i = I A. ( I i l f t I B p I ( l I I 11 .-a. a. l s I m r I n f 14 I J I f l I II. l I f l I l l I 1". I ii ( 11. I 11 1 .. I! i If n i : 1 1 i 1 1 t r 1 l 1 I 1 I I i i r f i 1 !. I i I ... I ... 1 I 1f r !-.: .. l i '5 D. 8: I ;;-I ... "' I t ill Do I 8 I ii I Sf s. i D. t ' -. f Q. I. t a I I 1 i i I 11. { i g l A. e 11 I 1 I i 1 i u i i : i I l l i i l i 8 f i A. i B" r.1 1 "I. t I I a. I. .. l If ( I s f r JI 1t -

PAGE 616

0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I t I i i l I I t I f I f 1 I f i f I I I .g. ;. s s I S1 I e. t c:. I f J. l i B i 0 I I i J l : i: t l I 1 i i I i i l l 1r1=.f"8 II, It EI t}'I" 111, I I a [ } ( ( I J l I f J i J f I I I f t l I I r n f 1 1 1 t I 1 I r r I r t 1 1 I 1 I t' i r [ 11 i a l i r J I 1 f J t & J s t r i t I 1-1J. t i 1 I 1 i: I i t I I i a Ii If .. Ir. J, 1.1 11 r ( i !l I' I .r l I J 11. l 11,i I 1, Ii r 1$ I 8 s I I r i r s 11, J i f r l r t I. r11-i it 1-i. i, 11; t 111 i I i : 1 1 i I i i l 1 : 11 1 a: 1 I . l a r r r 11 I J I I

PAGE 617

i J I I t J t I 1 j: r f I-J I t r i f J- i 1 a 1: 11.1 fl--= I J I f i I I I t l I I I 1 I I I l e 8 f 1[-'f fili;r.11 if tll i I I f. j I I I. ll ,. j. I! I I I i I I I n r a_l l. s. ta z i 1-: a_ l a_ ( t cl"' I It a r.: l 1 r r l I I I l I a_ I i c '< I i s p t t I : I I 1 i 1 r t i I I r 11 I l I 1 1 a. I l '< l 1 I '< I ; '< 9 11 .f I a_ f j 6 I I 1 z A. I 6 f I I I Ir I I 5 II, I s f f I t I '< ('! f I f 3 l I I f i j I .11 If rr I: l I. f l Q 1 .& a 11

PAGE 618

t 1: I : I I J I 1 I t i I I f I i i I I I s i I a f s f l . I I l r t I 9. 11 . ff !'1411 r I: In ( 1 ;. !J. S co J CJ 1.J ii s11}f1. 0 [ & r s f 1 a: R. l !. f . a. o If It a i. & 111 r. .. l!a: r''tl! II1.!ltil 11 c f i I : i I I I :z: < t i ; I ?. '1 i I I i i f f i I I i I i 1 r I Q, ,. ( r r I l 1 J I 3 I Q, I I I I. I i I I 1 : t Q, 1 i I ;:' : I Q, J I I i [ 8 I s I f l f I j Q, I t I Ii' 8 s I 8 I

PAGE 619

'15 owaed plncaricw in Oriade uld SIDla a.a to lbe llnlqic plna ol bombl by ....... ud inlellem11 ia die cilia. For tbe rant lime perlmpl. cadier fean of polilical nidicali1111 ud popular protclt held iaaallinllY liale sway. Oivm Ille Medwk> ldmiailhlioa '1 l"C"'iag ol wbll bid bean a nnmiaal democncy inlo a blmat dic:lalDnhip, IDOll Cubas cmne ID feel lbal a republic: I bid caled ID exilt anymore. All dl&t was left-MtdYdn' U.S.-blcbd not wonh ..tvqiq in any form. In lbe spring of 1925, l1Udeall of 1t11e National Univcnity in Havm renewed lbeir ar1iculatioa ol an IDli-imperi .. ill nation prosadna tbe 1en111 ol die rec:cndy ratified HayQf!ellde Trcaiy. Finllly pmed by tbe U.. S. Coqiaa. the trea1y puted full .waeipty over tbe I* ol Pina ID CUba bul implied lbal Cuba bid no lpfJCial riplS to die island and hid only received Cbem u a favor from dlic United Slafa. Already incalOd by the uaty's wordiaa. Idem were doubly in..ited b:r dllC plw oldie ouc,oing 7.aya and cbe incomiq MKMM orpaize a delDODl1rllion dial would lbow CUba'1 .. gralitude" toward the United SWa. lmpormdy. 7.ayas IDd counted on public employees fiD r.u dllC mm o( delDoalualon. mMin1 a 1inoctmy o( dllC idea lbll cidm adminislnlioa cnjo)ied bnJld public appon. Tbe U.S. Ammsm .. ID CUba. Eaocla Crowder. w ilwited man __ to lbe medic.I audeall ......... by dllC Splllilb Cmn, lbe amivcnity' Aalilmperimill Conuniaee IDd amnben ol FlEU were rady. ShDMriaa lbe IUl'dlen widl Pallce. .. We pMllOCl in fmal oldie 1111Ue MlrU [in Hav-' Ccalra1 Pllt), wbae my cam.....-. pve a few mn.m.xy 1peedlel," npleined Jalio AlllOllio Mella IO a lepuiW a few..._. la:r. -We wUlied ID mb dte Mwllo a willllll ID IUl:la f.,,,..iay. W... die)' D1g1t1zed by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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miYed at the lawn or lbe Nice. apia the ..... plbemd mound a lllQle. It WU the ...._dial Alfredo 7.aym Md mc:11e1 or billllelf befcn bmldiq lbe pruidency ro Mlcbldo. Tbe l&Udelll mocbd it. oaly ID fmd ........ under lllllCt by die Dliioml police, IOIDC o( wbom fnd OD lbe crowd. Dama d edcall were iajlnd md olber1 fined ror illepl lllCIDbly. -BqiaaiJla wilb fary denuncialicm fran lbe Fedaalion ol'Worbn in Havana. ... lbe public raponded IWifdy and l)"Dp'llrdcelly to Ibis md mblcqueal pemment measures Ilka apina lbe 1111denll wu nrifL CrimiDllly chaqed wida cahmmy lpillll the AnllmDdnr or die United Slates, Julio ADfmio Mella ud various olbm faced trial that 111mrner. B with Ruben Manlaez Villena mt Juan Marinello u die ltUdenll' lawyers, lbe judp WU per1Ulded to mete out $200 f IDll to each. dapile lbe proleCUIOl''I demand for jail time. Welcomed by a CIOWd or fifteen bwbecl 1Upp01tCn when be and lbe OCher students left die court boule, Mella inspired lban ID llllldl oa lbe Praideatial Palace once apin, Ibis Hie wilb lbe inrmlioa or feppling AlfNdo ?.aym' aw once ud f all. Allbough coanicll wilb police apia aaued (leaviq boda Mella and IU brocber with injuries to lhc bead), Ibey wae DOI Uied apin. Once Mac:bld-> wu firmly inllalled in die preaidcnlial cblir, however, lbe new lllmiailUalioa dicl DOI lllaw lbe CXMU nor lbe police IO Cllily ID dii tbe ldiviliel tbll -...WeniYa" lib Mella, ocber Clldenl leMen, lllCl laboractivilfl M1e iDlent OD carl)'iDI oa F llllir put. bodl ....... md womn bid._...' adopt a specific mcoune or crilicillD repntiaa die billericll lcaitilucy or palilical elia aad. men IUideal inlernll c:rilique d lbe beliw medllodl Clpamed by n'lanaen in lbcir micllt. McUa. f inllwe. iMned die .. MPlbeDticily"" d aDy palilidw' cammitmeat IO hllaalioa., despite wlulleYcr Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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,,., pa...a bi.ay in rbe wan die)' may lave Md. ArJ one who remained in form. it never would. .. implCl it could bave on odlCI' leCIDll im::l\Klina lbe ltale-c:une wbm blllCb and mul..,.., in Slnla Cllra iniliated a mies cl pofe1111 api camlinuing die de fldD 1egreptioa of public pub. fMticr dial year, die forty atlldenll oC c:olorcmolled at lbe university bid orpnind lbaudvea in unanimous oppo11ition ID vetcraailca lllllicmlilt laden, members of di'P'* Not IUlpriliqly, the .. IOIWion" c>f Cub Atmll deleplel (including Juan Oullberto Odmez) Ud been ro endone local "Uadiciom" a pledee or dlcir commi1ment to rbe ideal racial fRlallity. Despite &heir privilepd :11a1111 a elite intellecblall who might have tam. tbe w a.ct tbat lbeir predecalOl'I did. bid and mul.a.o univenity ICUdcnlS felt odlawile. Rejec:tiq older, Af'R>-Cubln poliic:al leaden ... not ausbariDd" to rqn l?Dl die illlelaCI oC rbe mce oC color in alba. lbae medeala oC c:olor expn:ued die ame degree of pmiclll in i1111ing lbeir billOrical IDd pmlioall criliques FEU. Anic:alated ia die pqea d ./rweufll. FEU'1 off.a.I orpn. Mella's poeitiaa on lbe maacr Wll unequivOCIL Tbe incideia paved. lie WIOle, dial Mane IDd M.alo bid Md ., IUIXHMJll (m leall d dleir OWll ID dleil' lepcy. ID flet, Mella cmteDCled. .. ., a,. bilb)' or lcpad-we do ac>t bow 'nidl.." MICOO Md llDl bcaa 1bac iD t.ale. but wwiM"d by rcUow an-ac:cn. MmU ._. tilled by 111e lljdiocy c1 pmlriaCI." 1a 11m. die 111e1 clllenJillll IDld by Iba v-wbo t.l now be..u mere tymll D191tized by G og Original from ----UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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were simple lies. Tbe fact dlaa white men in SIDla a.. Md shot bllCt demomlnlon
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0 <8 .... N C" '< I c: 580 V"I .., 1--1 ie -<"Tl --0 V"I 3 8 lz VI :z I i i. I i ! f i 11 t i J f t 11 f i i 1 i ,. 1 i 1 , r 1 1 I! 1 1 1 1 I I I i '1 I i l l : f I I l t f t i I & ll l I ,. i t I I J l f "' "' f f f s. I I t t i s t I i g I J I l J l i t I t t i f I f f I f s l. 11 [ l !l I" fi' Ii:!. f !-1 Ii. I I l i I i { l f f ! l: l i i i t t : R, 1. I l } l l l t J I I R, i J f I r ( I I r f r Ii' i : : I I i i r ; i I a I J I I i I i I l I a c a m g I i i t i J t J i I i I I f tl 1' i . l r "' !I

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600 dilCipliaed; to llim. die pOUDdl for IU dilllli1al bid bea delibcnlely l&apd ID 1hM die ldmiailtrllioa could fiad a way to aet rid ol bim. Tlllll lbe expUioD .,.. cay die fint of teYml *"' plMMd by Medtwk> to Wl'llll ccmd of die miYCllity bid: into penunent hands w c1ar. Widlin days. Mrilm ._. ablolufe" praidmtial c1eaea ratorina all prolClllOl'S previoully diaimed .. a ..Wt of lllldall daunds for umvenity rd'onn in 1923. ladipant lbK lbe ripas for wbida they lllld foupt ID vlliandy could be ..en away by die llrOke of a pen. FEU arpnir.ed a bo)4COll of d rew Two thcMmnd studenll Mlmlblcd in lbe university' cen&er c:ourtymd (llCiq tbe Law Sc:bool and feaiund Mella as mar principal speaker. lauaedialdy, M8Cbldo called an emerpacy meeana or hi Sccresary of Public JnslnlClion Ramiro OUara mi Uaivenity Qancdlor de Cueto. Sublequendy, Mw:fwlo ordered Mclla's ln'elt Tbe nalioml police piclmd up Mella while he prepared &o enter lbe Ccnuo Obrao. lire of afor lhe Uaivenidmd PopuW .I<* MarU. But Macbadn could DOI lave picbd a more explorive dire on which 10 carry out lbe mat Novemba' 'r1. 1925 wu lbe lllllivemry of a biltcric iacident that university scudenll lllld come &o bold penoaally med. On dlll clay in 1871, lbe Spuilla hid aeaud eigbt lbe idenliflCllioa of Mella wida die penecured llUdeDl-beloa ol tbe SplniM coloaial era. Ibey were even lea prcpllRd ror n.t Mella did aat md lbe 1-=dm it..,_.. in lbe .-.a pablic. Tiie mobilizalioa o1-...---. of die pulllic cm bcbllf of Mella pnwecl 019 by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I 1 11 1 f f 1 r t f I I t I 1 t I I IS If IQ. [ i 8.. R f 1 ,.: 1!:1111 l!J1i&:.!i;iti i .. .P I I j: II Ii i 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 r l 1 l i i J ;; I 1 t f ) I i: i I ( i r I I I I I E i 1 I I J I If I r-1 ii Ii 1i I & t: i l-a r,f r ills> "t'"r" ; 1 1 f 1 r 1 1 ; I 1 1 1 1 llt t Ii! j.i 8 I 1 l J l 1 I : : = I I I i f i t i f f a Q. J: r g I i. ij' 5. f I I a 8 i. i 11 fl ' l 1' i

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....-in faYof viol moludoury iuec:tive. Openly, C9 of diem c:aUed oa WOlkal ID clelll'Oy lbe .... for Oil dlll dlly "wortm=rt will .. Ye lbeir own leC:ret police ud lbeirowa Red Army" ID defend...._... ud dmon kind.,., Only wllen CNOC dnalaled a ,...a lllrike Ind Mella's cca..,.ai rqime UDliJ be wu-llimaed by .Mlw:llMo' benchmcn in l9l9. '" More paenUy, boweYer, MIClwfo' ca1a11ioa to Mella wauld be bis last The 11CW )'arof 1926 hDrllded a p.tual lbif't in Ml&' pcniq style from lbc medlodl of llllective llldaillliama cm wllicJl y.,..; iricwlilt poliliciw hid relied for )'WI to -policies of amrialll dic111Dnbip. D191tized by G 0 Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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Aller Mella' relew, Mac:blck>'1 lrint .we w ro abut down 111 lepl chaael for m'Clenr activism. With one sweep ol ltie pen in Janwy 1926, Macbldc> decreed die abroption ol all die pim Iba& lbe ltUdeat movement lmd mlde ill die prerioul two yan: not only did Macbtdo compleldy suppre11 cbe Uaivawity Ammbly wt llbolilb all did not apouae saicdy cul1Ural or etblelic cndl. Specifacally, Maclwk> wilbdrew die lepl llalldiq or FElJ ad crimimlized 1be OIJlmiution m my ltudeal mociation. Mmn1 lllellUl'el by visi1iq lhe campus \nd lddrlminl a llllall group d lbldent supponcn in die Aula Map. former domain d FEU ldiYiltl and f.culty ref'onaen. la bis 1peccb. ralioulized bis policies u comilfent with bi commi1me11t ro mainllinina the IDVeteiply ol the Republic cm die f>UftCWion d a '"wise danocracy u In addilion. Mlchado coupled bis aaault an ltUdenll widt a puallel c:nckdown on worbn. For him. dleR w liale or DO difference between them: a !al or poem1rial wn:bias, IOcialilU. llMI communis11, Ibey were all j .. t.d pmiau. nll7 Widt M\ldent acivillD tanponrily quelled. wolbn and labor orpllizen becNne die priDCip.t llrpll d 11a1e violence ewer the mm two years. Accanliq to aaents d die Americm Fedm&ian d Labor ia Cuba. bc:tween 1925 and 1927. DO fewer lban 147 dime d fem-a& lbe lime, it ii likely 1Ml 1llle r...-were much hiper. Mucb evidrace ailll ID dU effect Far example, afla' onieriDl lbe bnllml 1qnaion d a 9'lpl' 11rib an a s.maa.. plmlllioD. 11111\Med10 lbe ....-ma ma ..... planla'by a poup dO.. wmbn. Ill imi__.. fnn lbe c._,. ..... daat IDOt pllm a few weeb a.r iD . D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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Cieao de J..Yila. HopiDa fO brat WOlbn o( lbeir rebellicunea, Mldpclo onlered die '"Uele of .U lllbar orpnizen and ampecsed aympedlizen from die Cllllr)' lllwll in dlll 11ea of SIDla a.a. In .u. between forty IDd me llllDdred Yt'Olbn, including tbe kidnappen, lyacllecl. lbot or Uf1byxialed by memben of die Rnl OUard md leC:Rl police For die murden, It least one Runll a....... wu pmmoeed to officer mat. u Indeed. Macbedo'a anned fORa abowed a kind of sllea' bmldo in exec:uliq l*>r a:livills lbal Ud been unknown or ai leua muda lell oommon Ulllil dW lime. Unlike the c:mnpmip of tenor luncbed by &Inda Palma' repme. MlcUdn' c:enlnl victims were not poliac.t OflPCJl!all who could be inlimidllled into mbmlicm. but worbn who were NlaClr.ed in lishl or shot in front of lbeir loved<.for maximum effecL For inmncc, F.arique Varona. a key leader cl Che milway workas' UlliCJa. wu *>tin 1926 by two unifai-med. anay IOldien while nlking fO a nacwie tbcalre wilh bil wife IDd child. Tbe IOldlerl D.cray drore olf in their vehicle after complccing lbeir mipment. Addilionally, illllad oe mere1y 1mwm1 and deponing rorap-bom '"aaitmon" Menoca1 mt 7.aym bid done, Mw:Mdo' apecial fan:ea, known u die "Expcrll Sedioa" of die IKrel police, pefened more.,....._, melbodl o1....-In i;;z.s. Nolte Yalob. an Eufera Eurapem. _.Claudio BIOUlda. a Spuimd. wae arrelled IDl1Ul'ed md evca...Uy duowa inlo die -rmn milicary a.dquuten 11 lbe Mono fonn:a Days a.r. die arm ol Brouzdn-defamdy railiDI a aymbolic r .. wu found in die belly ot a lllllk by local rllhermea and idmlifled by bil wife. Soon Che bloodied CCJIJlle olYllob lllo ..ra.t in HaYW bldq, it Md bem lied ID ID iloa iqot. A Wlivenity CINWtbeld ia dllwcell M tbem-lalerbam n.a ID lbebomn lie Md teelL But Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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sacll Alfredo L6pez. die typop .... and COllUllmisl who llld lelYed. praideo 10 bodl die Worbn Fedmlioa ol Hum llld CNOC. Win jult cmunmdy .. cilappared." lheir bodia ICYer found. .. Mcncwer. Mlt'lmdn saw -dilliquilbed by lbeir bip dqree ol labor ICliYity U llot beds ol llllwenion IDd IDUght ID n=pre11 rban by decreeing inro muaicip-1 otracc individuU wtae aldboritmian capmcity 8lld palDllll loyalty be lnllted. Tiie i.....,..aica of IUCb M.mdo appoilllllel ofllell Clllle KCOIDplDied by Violence. lo Febnllry ol 1927, one IUCb otracial, whom MacMdo decreed the new mayor of the city of Morda, arrived 11 die main 1nlin l1alioa umder' a bail ol bullccl. Yet. the pnfire cmemtrct from the off ICial ' owa cin:le of .. fllDily IDd f ricndl" wbo llld aaembled at die nin llalion to meet biln. Nat surpriliqly,-. ol dae of lbot were lldally Mlcbadn supponen but imtad, a tupr pUnt medwni<: md. Jwicln immipllll wamr. Altboqla lbe media depicted die ewcat u nodliag more 111111 mMJCher eumple ol political infip0ag. ii ii libly tbal dme Wll mucll men eo die at.ory. Oivea Morda 11 recent bilfory of supr llrita -1 lbe mny'1 weaimDon of lbcir' key leader, f.nrique Vll'Olla, it wu a.y to rad a mcnqe of Mlicmlil1I. Tllll ii. ram. die w coafiDDd i11 tmpta ID wartrm .s a few CJYerty zakJll jomlalilCI and_..,..... edilDn. m Al*1qll lpecill 1U1Yeillance 1eaml Upl dme ID m indiriclml adiftlll 11111 i.rd....S FEtJ, die ldmiai-nim w mlillly cmccned wida ........ tiea IO wcxbn.and ,...ay limilllCI ill llC8'::s .......... ., Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Cmvinced cbll bepiq U.S. bUliae-. wl tbeir in Wllhinpm bappy wu die "*' bigbat priority, MICbadn mde it ilM:realiqly dear lbll no effcn ll deseabili7.arion by worbn were allowed. OiYa lbe ldmiailnli01111 neo-c:o&oaial pmpective. ecanomic anempm to rorce die mte or die capilllill .,_.. to fulfill objediva ocher lban tbole Ibey let for lbemlelva MR inhmadly polilim: IUCb adl consticutcd IUbYenion and a betrayal of die Dllion for which Ibey stood. Glorifying lbe '"five hundred million dollus wardl of foreign c:apiaal" dial mill entaect Cuba ma independence, Machado claimed that the comfort off oreignen "amoaa us" IDd tbeir cnricbmeot of 06our land" tatificd to bow c:omilat the 11a1e ' palicia Md been in keeping lbe promiles of the 1895 Revolution. Appropriarin1 lbe dilCOU1'le of rauneccioll dial anti-imperialist critics Uled to define lheir project for cbanlina lbe .we. and lbereby cradng die bai1 for utjcwl liberarion, Maduldo c:ouataed. "If Mani lived, if Maceo. MUimo Odmez llld alba' pall of lbe falhatand were raumctcd. Ibey would be plewd wilb bow I pcm and bow I 1.Wn die Republic's rights a member of that wbicb wu our ReYolucioa. "iae Wortm IDd l1Udent aclivi111 bad loq come to pateive their own 11n1gla and interelll ia political rams 1bal encampmed tbe dale of society. Tbe difference now lay in die CX1eDl to wbicb cut.'1 middle dulCI wesecommiued to doing lbe ume A naming 1927. In Jmmry of dial )'al' .Mslwlo mcillded bit eder polilion .... die right of pmidelltial re-electian IDd .... a bill IO Ccmare-cllllipcd ID cm:a.Yent die electonl pna11 ealilely. KDown ... ?l'anola de "*all" rExtwim of PoMn"J die bill Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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llld vice praideal willlolll due eleclDlal Moreover, once dleir mended la1DI wen over, bodt pmlidcnt md vice praidelll iaened Ille ripa to appaill dlelmelva ....,,. Car ID lldditionll lix yan. The bill .UOW.I for dlae dwnp llO 80 into effect bcf cn ID)' w held (teatalivdy planned for Mmda of 1928), delepta ID die Convention MrC suppcmd IO be lelected by tbe provincial appmalUI a{ all line potiliall putiCI. Ille Liberal, lbe Ccmern&ive and ill affaliarc, Alfredo Zayl11' Popular Piny. knew be COllld COUil m tbae men to do bis biddiq linc:e be oqllllized a "coopenlive" piCl with lbem llfXJll raking office in 1925. In f-=t. all dUa pRplnlioa paid off: on Mmdl 29, 1927, Mmcfwlo'1 bill pmed Ille Home; in .June, it pUled lbe Scaare. By Ille following )'ell', Madlldo' anoci1ta iD Ille Colll1iaatioml CoalJal bid not mty given him lbe loaaer tcnn be required, but hid doac away with Ille vice llleliclenclr alfO&Clber. Wilb bis dram of ablolute aucbority liped into law, Macbldo happily coaferroll m bimelf lbe lelf-Ayled tide ol .. Jllm1riouund Bxaaplary Citizen. "w Fimlly, die transformalion of lbe Republic from a nominal More dm any Ciba' am ro dMe. Mldwk>' nmpliq ol lbe Cublll Conlfiaalioll Md the effect of relealina middle-clen Culblm from die condirioa ol lbocbd compl...,.,,,=y ia wbic:b Ibey bad been lodpd Oddly enoqb, MllCJDI lbe rant IO pm1e1t MrC a poup of vetauilta Mljcwlilfl for wbam Mldlldo'1 der11111Ce ol tbe lepl lmil of the Republic proved the Im& maw. Led by .wa ol lbe 11Dti-impemlill movement l1ICb a f.nrique .le* Vanaaad F.milio Roil Uucblcmiaa.11....,ol Uberal md ConlelYllive velCIW wlae Mljcwli .... 11111mcd ID laYe ICllta.., ....... iDIO cndonemmlof Yetenailla .D191tized by G og Original from __JJN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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illdaded IUda lminlriea JOl6 Mini. Jr .t JUlll Ou.lbeno Odmez) derided any CXll:iUU ol powers die 1DC1C powerful *'1111 duat to rock die Republic Illa mocialion they nentually formed did DOt Det:H ily llDClioa lbe incralinlly rldical dvitiea ol anci-imperialilt aatiODllilll ill die mniq yean. 117 However, lbe fa lbal Ibey stepped fCJIWlld al dlit jUDCIUre W critical: M peacipoua Yetennl of lbe their lejedim ol Mac:hadn' aeo-c:oloaill ud openly aulborilllrian Dlllian served IO lqitilufc orpnized oppmirioa ro 1be l&lle. By lllDCtioaing llld encouraging sympa&by f more radical eiemelMI in lbe anO-imperillilt 1110Hmen&. it helped make die laaer'1 ldivilia pmsible Md aupaented lbeir effedl. Afler Mldlldo'1 bill plWd the floor ol the Home, univenity ltlldeall rallied IO lileace, lbat lbe mutyn of lbe Falberlmld would arile f IOID lbeir tombl to condemn before die world die pueblo wbicb did not know bow ID dd'ead ill libaty, bought al lhe COit of IO much blood." .. Havina n:comtiblt.ed a ltlldent-nm Univenity Aaembly, lbe scudeall aaempeed fO coavote a ""diq on the moniq ol M..m 30, 1927 llld called off claaes for lbat day. Reminded cl die illcplity of ID'dia for polilical purpma, the aaldeall dlCll cmvcmd ll the c:ampus 1dlletic lllldimn. UDr "'Don wida lbe PnJno,.-ud "Dalb fblilic8l Maaipullllion [Mllml 111 Mdraar lbll ..,. wrote on a dw'ttwwd. Jcm Vmoaa for IU eadarMlftCGt Applnlldy, V11ma11 ccmilleal IOlidarity wida lcudaall lila 1923 llld belped erw fna 1blirmat'Y *' fst d bis 1e1Vice Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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Minillerof Public lmlnlCCion toOenenl W 1 ood. Now.only Van.a'1 n:pnl for Man! IDd the boaor bil receal ldiaal maaered. Willi bil boUle only idel away, tille .....,. embubd on a much down die neipmbood'1 wide. tne-llllded lll'edl to Cbe venerable patriot' door. After bciq wmmty received by Varom. llUdml laden of die Dira:torio pmed for a f'bc*>lnpb widl bim al die enttance to bil houle. IDlllife111D ia blDd... Suddenly. out of nowbae. armed c:ootiqenll d die lllaioaal police ron:c arrived. Demmdiiaa dlal die lllldentl dilpene ror lactiag a liceme to demomtrale, die police aa.cktd lhe 1tud._, bealiq diem with dleir clubs, provoking 101DC ID pelt lbem with rocb and forcina otbm to aeek refuge in lbe inrerior d Varona' house. Above die p1ote111 of ill owner. die police followed them ill. caming serioUI damage to die bowie a opulent furniture and decor. lgven&ully. die llUdellll Oed die KeDe, only to auugles, die uaivenicy'a Aula Mqna. When llllioml police, baMW by Pablo Mendie1a., attempled 10 f exte lheir way iDID die meelinig bill, die recendy mppointed cbanccllor pmvenled them from enrering. Mare violellice erupted ........ new to defend die smctity of die univenicy. noliq dial it was die fint lime lbal mmed lloopl bid ever entered campus poundl. Then. a )'GUiii ex-IOldier. aeeppec!I fonnrd. ... of die bruit moluti
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610 or ill ay way pided by Mella. Iba commUllilll, or womn. fonml repana IUllDiaed to lbe leCl9l police echmendy ..... mt)' bail for IUda upic:ioal. IJI The IWdeall' lbe fact tbll IO mmy ol lbem wtn die cbildrm of Cuba's political lllld IOCial aane de la cnme-wonied Mw:fwlo. Morecwer, lbeir mlhum ror ndical mcdlodl ol prolelt llld 111111 ......... w ....-...: .... ICbool saudenll ia PiDlr cle1 Rfo ud Camqlley bid limuhaneoully orpeized a llrib and were prinq Dllllifatot dial banbly condemned Mlcbado'1 amccmeilUtional civilian coup. m Nervous, Mldwdo did nocbiaa. al leatl nae al fi11L ll quickly hecame dear to uniYenily ICUdeacl lbll lbeir ldminilllalion ldUled to proeal lbe armed iavaioa ol campus pounds. Tbe ICUdcnll decided lbe lime bid come direcdy IO c:oafl'Olll lbe 11ate. FJectiq lbe rllll DinclOrlo nwliaJdU UlllHnhario [Ullivcnity SWdenl Directonre. baafler, DElJ] under die leidcnbip ol law llUdents Eddy CUbM md Aureliano SUcbez Aranao. m llUdeall boyeoaed Ill clma en mme foUowiag Euler brat..,. lporin1 Madwk>' 1925 decrees. dne lbolmnd llUdentl nllied in lbe dmlccllor ror failina to cleDCMmce police .a.:b. Sludcnll lben ... cmunillion to meel widl lbe clmcellor. CQmin1 oa lbe llUdeall' DllVele ID taYe a np. die chuladlor requested dial Ibey put dm...,... ia wriliq: once lbe cbuv:eJb niceived lbe wrium Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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uaivenily doled indefiaicely -S aubmilled Ill die lipalDriel d lbe lllldent pelilioa IUbjec:t ID dilciplimry review. 111 Newenbeleu, IOldent laden were 1mrelenli111 in lbeir com.milmellt to w cbeir 611 lll1lglc duoup. Forced off campus pounill, Cbe Student DiJeCb'ISe held a-=-meeliag in tbe privarc bmnling boUle d a l)'ID.,..=tic propricaaa. But die bolclaea d MM:Udo' 111lioml leCUrity f orcc1 mardwd Cheirs: on lbe nisbt d April 19dl, die woman who owned die tmntina hcMlle found her Vedlldo home innded by police. despise bcr efToru to penuMle lbem lbll upalli.rllU radler dlM 11Uden11 111e1e mectina thin. Tllll night, teYenteen sllldenu (who were not lucky enough IO elClpC throup windows) were analed, all of than belweal die ages d 19 llld 23. a. In tbe wt, bowev cr, die MIM:Mdo admillillntioa rapmdo;t to die snldenll' n=lcndea defiance d ICale authority by duowing down die pundet. On December 1, 1927, membm specially ........ by Macudo to the univcnity'1 "Di1Ciplim.ry Council" llDIDilllOUlly VOied to expel all twelll)' d die oripnal SIUdent Directorale M well M 1be odm twenty altermlel thal bid been ellecfed by lbldmll IO replace diem in cue d ma&. Tbme comidered lllOll lwlic:ll were pven 1ren.yar mend1rory cxpullioas bd'ore die uaivcnity would COlllider IHldmillion. m Dapile dae sepeaiYe IDIUW'el llk:en by MllcMM'I political and -=urity manes, die OVeall d lbe lpring d 1927 dtenpd Yt---mrioulilll' OlllkJot mMf lbe llMIR d die polilicml pme. Oa lbe one hlad., lbe 11111e'1 llClica brousb& ..... a llO"P d .._ .. wilb ......... For ... rant lime, ladlen d tbe Univenidld Popullr Jol6 Mar1ijm.t llllir.._ ia Ill'*" willl dlDle m ..... miDorilcM lib Rois c1e Leucbwwiaa lld Alejo c.penricr. Men Uapanallldy, aecrlll police iaftllliplicm iDID dl81111ilUdel d die D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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612 pop1a.r daau (off'.a.Dy labeled tbe "pof/flltldfo, or rabble) pve MadlD even parer came for caacem. While inlelli,.ce lleDll believed dial tbe only truly molCionuy MJlbn were l*x' ldiria111Dd dlDle wbo faacied dlanlelva .. BobllnlqflU," Ibey warm:d ti.a Cubw of "die most illidioul IDCial clMa" bad begun to lalk of rebellion. Aqry at tbe meuura eaten by tbe MlcbMlo adminiatnlioa to dear Cuba '1 meets d illepl cncouragia1 Madwtn'1 Ubenl rival, Clrlol Mcadeca. ID lad a revolutionary movement apiDll lbe w. 111 la lbort. MldMldo dilcovcred tbll lie w not only aoilll to have ro coatend with a popular nuionalill alliMce o( worbn IDCI anci-imperillia ladcn. lacrasiqly. it seemed dual be mipt alto bavc to fa:e a c:mlition between tbe lllOll IOCially ..... iad populU' nuicmalilll and old-pard Ubenla wbo1e democlalic CIOlllCicnce bis own llCliolll luld rec:endy aMbned. Not IUIJX'ililllly, from tm on, tbe Ktivitia d Mec:lmdo' security network lldiCI in tbe fipl apiDll "Bollllevillll" tblt Ibey ucribed to all of Macfwdo11 Uliiapaialill crilics. Sludent ldivilla. w llill ia tbeir emty 1ee111; Libaal members d lbc leplillic Asmciatioa of NalioaaJilt Union; men formally cmlidered unlDUCbablc for their cme U.S citizen Ill ._ ame-... d Madado11 -mm. .. Mldl&ldo'1 ldmiaiaualioa evea ICMJt IO spyiq on ill OM1 memben. iaalliq wire 111p1 IUld reviewing lralllcriptiom of lbe pri9* pbme COBYCllllima of pnnineal Ll'bemll. Ml Between 19.JO ad 1932 especially, ._.....ota..... eidlerrorlldicm or,...i..-. lbew. or illcniM ... y for Ibo IDlft .,..., of ideokJp:ally clivene. mtHaperillia beliefs. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 cO I C" '< b < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<"Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I t It I J I I l i f i t I f I I f i I i' i I !11t 'J. i-if l f. l j : i l .f l : l J l 1. 1 ii f. i i Lt J-J I I f I ( c i f f f f. 1 I f = I iltll!fl 11.fli ll 11: i i JS t i i f i i J [1 .,. f i I I I .r f 'I s I t I 1 &' l i > la. l i ll I l I i I l t i ? J .: f J 11e,J I! (11lsf11 l J I i: I l f s i a t ll f J l a i 1 I r I 1 I -1' I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 f i f l i f J J I I } a l s 1 11 1! 111-rt i

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614 In time. die lengdw to Qich Medltdn IDd *-....... mlioalli111 who re-incd bit loyll RppCXten would ao f11W" lbeir COllll'OI Mer die .-cmed to know no boundl. When CNOC unooacod a pwal IUilr.e in 19JO, Mlchwlo dcaeed all major wcxter orpnmtians illcpl ... Dclpiae die r.ct dml mmy d die w aew1p1Pe11 lllld "volun&lrily" c:cmealed to CClllOlllUp at lbe limed die 19JO c:oapwioaal electiana while odla'I preferred to ccue public:alion entirely, Mldled<> Dea1belell demed cbe suppreuion d nine Havm-baed new1p1pn ud mepzine1 u well oae iadependem cllily in Sanliqo..., But tbCle lactia cmly mdic!llimd lbe care oppolilion and lldded to ics numbers, bocb within IDd oullide d Cuba's prim. W'I luempb to prael'"fC iL By 1930, bolb lides bad come to UIC fCmJr .. a meaDI d cw police violence dial lef't numeroua ....... delld. lllldeat ICCivilll taOlted to new ....._ A piYOlll momcat in lbil repnl cmne wbm. the eannce to lbe university, a pdjccmn bat and lbell rua1 upon adelemel 11Udeat no t.d lkady IUfTend a brotm mm from police llllleb. Known CCJI' Iii modenle poliliall belief's, IW.el Tnjo'a de.ah ia Sepeemberd ISOO awea.d die 11Udcnt maremeal ID die w tMI ill membcn pc 1 e11ed a aew leVdUliowy d.aiay. Opmly, Ibey bepD ID call ror die r.a1 af Medmdo, cin:WM ---.: .. __ -.a.-:1-..1 ...._ poli..:-1 __... __. ____ _,_ ._.._ UI ___ ... Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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D <8 .... N Ct a. C" '< c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z ill t fifJf i(i. !li s r .... 11 .. I 1 r 1 2. I .;fit .. tir li f I I : I I f J t i t 1: i I l a J a !'!'II I l I l I I J J I f I I I e: r Ir. 1 f 1 I r i.-" !: i a. f I -< f l s I I f 'i I 1 ( I I l. I g_ i i" I -! l D0 I -8 { I i Ii f i I la I i i i l I i J I { s 1 1 I 6 I f f 8 i. f i I I l 1 r I f i 1 l 1 i f J r ( t R. i Jj ir.1 i J f. .; 1 i 1.11 'Q a l I i f f J fl l i r & i I i rr g 1"' l I i I ll I I I .. g. & 1 Q. I Si. I "5 '-f.I r r f g \Ill

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MfjomJjty ... die ABC redlad ill icleoloo to die fallowiag: .. New Ma. New Plocedures lllCl Idea. Tbe Recoaquat ol Lad. Polilicll Freedom. Social JUltice. .. The moaym llDod for .. Aclion. Bravery llld Civic Honar [CIWIMo]. 111 616 Cri1ic:al to f cqiq lbe mctiall rellliombi .. llld -of talidllity amoGl die YariOUI arpniDlicm IDd IOCia1 ICdOl'S Cbll cxmpriled die IC>Cilll twolllliomry IDOYemmt apiut Mlclt ... a ccmmon. Uliimperialilt undermndina ol Mart(. So forcefully cid MacMdo come to see the leduclive power ol dlil i1111F lbat be hgnect deDJnllraliom wbic:h IDOt .... Mmtl ... principll symbol. After bil blmder widl Me1Ja anal in 1925, MrMdo blld fiaally dilcovcred dlllaJtanlliYe biJIDric:al memoriel mal1eleCi. Accordinsly, Mw:twk> probibieect ........ from CDDlllCIDOl'lti lbe nrty-aindl mnivermy of die aeculioG ol medical llUdenu by Spain on NOYember27, 1930. Appmendy. offaciala in hi llllmiJlilhfim f meci dud IDti-imperialilt memories mipt sapplant dlOle of Yetennil1a mMmli .. in lbe public mind. But increuinlly. it mod. die aepreaive actiom ol lbe lfare were too late lo airer die tide of riling public opiJlicJn in favor ol lbe anli-imperiali recollection d history Akady a1Udeall blld equaled MelJaamillllian Ille )GI' befcn widl dae aawilllliom of 1871. In Scplember of 1930. die delllb of upper-dw llUdeDI avilt RIC.a Tlejo lldded him ID lbe powiq lilt of llUdeat mutyn..,. For lbem. lbe November commemcnlion wu an ofreriq to "oar bnJdlen of yataday and fOday-of lbe coloay llld die Republic-Yicliml o1..-... mmtyrl o( liberty md of jUllice. .. Seeiq ....... ,. M faidlf'ul to tbe "adrice dial MllU pYe to Ille )'OUlb. we uve wanled ID be Jamablc by lkJl alll'ormiq oanelv., obeyiq a Imp.....-ad 1aj111t laM: Uld we laft MJlbd. M Miid llbd, widl wcJRI ad deed, ID dial ... IDCll wbo ill llal UI do lkJl o.;me ID tnmple m our coumy." .. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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617 1eecmded lbae views. pniteel llbe new vilion ol nation aprl'llld by lbe lllliimperialilt movement wilb a mnitiq ol ltae Cubm Dlllicml them. IUDI to lbe IUae ol lbe aripml ... La Bayaw" Ud fiM been CC1aived durina lbe rant w ror indcpe.......,, by CariOI Manuel de capeda: To amt once apin. CUbMI, We n called by tbe bumilialed Calberland. To blat Crom lbe miw &yn11111 OUr blood-mined A las t1T111aS tJe un.11, Cllbtutos, llOS la ptllril lullrtllloda. a roJlll/IB lo.s IWl\'W ""'1tol 14 cadatl tJe M111fn INaCIMada. Tbe mui ... pve ui1 libcnia, But only Crom die SJ.Uh yob, The Imel ii being IOlt, Cubas, And we have a new :>ppralOJ. La "'"'I llO$ tll6 1 1lbenada, pno s6lo ., ,.' IJrpollol. """"' liDra 11t pVrlM, Cllbtl#tos, ........ .,,,,uor. ne baoic l'lllb beina rormec1 Rapaad to lbe Cllll c{ boaorf WlloeYcr remliDI mllm in dleir home 11 inracu, cowlldlly and a lnitor. Ya fonrm "'1 fl'w lta6lau. 1t1C1111111 .. "' cilG ''tolltw! q.W11,,_.aaura1r..,11o u ,,,,... c:o6INe' ll'tlllltw. / ... J .. Not aurpriliDaly, lbe nNDple ol tbe ABC 1IRllllY ctilubed inlelDllioml and loall ot.ncn wllom iWW lay wilb Tbe CIC:t lbltnm lbe IDOlllOCially coamYaliYe leCb'I cl calm IOCiety coulcl ........... aclrwdc lrlDlformalian mdleir Dllicwli D191tized by G og Original from _ _LINIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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By lbe a.rt of U83, die days of tbe Madlfdo mpme were. by .U llCCQUllts. numbend. Wilb a palbetiCllly poor ..... blrvat in lbe WOlb. conlinued labor unrest expeded, md riling .m of fCmJI' in lbe cilia, Clllll for Macblck>' raiplllion bepn IO 618 reverbenre acrcm tbe Clribbean, IDd down lbe balll ol buildinp in WubiaBfOll dial bid 10 recmdy hoUled bil imperi.ailt supponen. In a dima&e increuingly warmed by lbe public' suppon for fO)'ed wilb lbe poaibility of def111in1 die power-bg of C\abu IOCicty with a wcll-cimed U.S. intavenCioa. In tbe end. however, it would be the actions of local lllliimperialilt f ORa dial let Cuba oa lbe pmlb fO IOCial revolucion and Dllioaal libcnlion from U.S. imperialism. When worta' invm0111 of supr plmQom (may ol them admimrcct inaaencral 11rike in Auaust 1933, Madwk>'1 muadleltdcfcnden ro tbe IDli-impcrialiat side. On Aupst 11, 1933, tbe elite anillcry COipi of lbe CUblD Army took aver mililar)' hadqmnm ID demMd die raipalioa of lbe President of 1bc Republic. A sbort lime llrer, 1bc avialion c:orp1, ICYCD miliamy resimaa. die marines, and even die forces boUled a Morro-MKhlldo' inflW ramn cbamber-fallowecl IUiL"' By 111e aeu IDOl1liag. Medl9do blld Rliped 11111. in a c:blqed ....., pheie. lllllde bil way ro lbe airport. Leaina bis f.mly ID fmd lbcir way out of die COWlb)' by bmt.. Mldlm took wilb IWn five rea1Yen, ICYCD .... of Fld.-' tiYe frielldl in lbeir ""''"" .. So dCYcid ol merit did bis ------...... w ..... imperilllill lpalS felt Ibey could llO loaacr Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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619 imperillilt ..- aaJy be could 111*9 Ollla rram a IOCial apcaln-. But me Am ......... niuled diem Nf'UF, leaYiq CRJDia ID fend for lbemldYea. UI When Mwillldo left the iUad. bil awbd die first time in yan dlM mmt CW.. bid more .... to celdnle lbe lban lhey lad to rear lbe rucure or lament the f*l revolutiomry movement fimlly broupt lbe. decaying Republic co ias knca. O.abered under. tbe umbrella of dU moemcnt were um:biilt and mcialilt worbrl, cammunist orpnizcra. ref'orm-minded intdecUllll, llld cvea middfe.d-lemlrilu who bid once formed tbe mm of maiDlllam political parties. Yet divenity did llOt prove u much a liability to lbil mohltioa it bid in tbe PMI-Ullliu 11be revolUlioaary IUUgle apimt the Spuilb cokxlial mre elm Md lalled lbirty yan. lbiil one w only a few years old when it llimnphed 'er MKbado'1 neo
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ladjq ap to dlil critical bilrmic:al Wll <1'11d new pilbl IDWal'd die pl ol clilpl.cina die United Simes' imperillilt role in Cuba penDMClllly. By Cmteria1 new ....... ol rebdlioll IDd f orc:iq crilicml rec:omiclaadaM ol Oda' utiou' put. local ICfOIS in tbe 19209 apmoded cbe ICCJPO ol dleir vilicm be)Qld die limi oldie mlioa and concluded that lbcir own SUUUla ror libmlion were linked to dime ol oCber peoples wbo were similarly oppeaed by an imperialist aipiclli system. Over lime. die Kliom ol veea-... political elira bid trwformed what llliabl have been a republican Dalian-awe into noebing more and DOlbing lea 1hlD a acapnt The mti
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Cubml die.._.. ID lnllt each Olbcr, to rapeci mi adler' enoup to railt .. t.alfmg] -=ta Olbcr lib beW. -=ll for die puqae. ol hil Trudl. wilbout compreh&wtiaa dial che Truda bebp to all." -OdllD Christ who U1 in Cbritl i1 everywhere, m:ept in ....._____ your idolalroUI Cuba. Mm an erron and lelUICitaae. ak lhe Ood ol your ICalOl'I, alt )'OUI' own Ood. bul relUICilllle. [ .. ] We do not look for a solution lbat can ave die ltUdadl, die dllien, etc., ao, [ J we look for a IOlution dial c:aa ave CUba that ii....-dlaa 1 everything and lllndl abcwe evaydUng. [ . J We pUice all our c:ned on lbc alllr oldie f adledand, iavotiq the memory ol our apolCle, MarU. and we 1we1r 110 live free roday, if we are ro be slaves tiaalOliOW. 6'21 History, it seems. bad impriarecl ill leaom deeply an lhil CUban. Al 1he comina moalhl aad even years lbowed. die lepcy oldie 1933 Revolution wu ultimarely measured lea by bow it c:hanpd political 1cruccura cban by bow it cbanaed die c:omcioasaea and upiradom ol Cubms Perblpl Ibis wu tnaly the mOll ""revolulioaary" ol its rauha. na...-.-pmW'rt Raww u ,,.,aa. _.,.,. ...... c .. ,.,JlllfXM.llC .nil:illw llfllflllllll..._...._,......_1il:ltlft& llllDa ... wlllclOOMitialllll ...... .._,,, ......... Am a c:Hw-= &1111111 a.cill locillll, m1>. s..,., 1a raeil .. awlillllllll .. PID1 tHdd....._ .. a..taartia. D191tized by G Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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1-C-PclWl_,..._ l..ol 01 .. C 2 W." .lldl:M.,,.. Ma: Nia. 1 (.\91111116. 19M). I. Pe*u Alljft IApa. .. Allal l'lticftl ....._,"Orio: lii.w.r. IMNnlll,....., 6: II..., 20. 191"7). M .. -....., ....... -nrnlrr.lll ,olilicll II-. 'Illa, ia blpi-a ... llil ... *nle1.o1 r ... U.S. I t lllile -eftwHM 1111 I .,. "* .,,,1-.tJ1e....F11m'1 --..a.o.c..Q11111i11.......,1 *'1i11...-fllWJ1 ""f1m "J Martf oa liliJ ill .. UliPli1111111. ,.... .... wail-c&I la fr*' I bWpr fll 19051111 NF j !ollt09)c 4i'ld .. llllttJ/Mlltr1-ecdl...,wrililpoa .... lifc. ....... ,..... ... ........ illll Uliltll-1. &. ... oMJ.dlQlleada_...IWO ...._.., .......... illtll ... ,..._. ... ,.,..P n -'Jplayfllerlm llllllfCJMMlldW ... 111_.,_. ial9U..._..Jlllf .. ...._Mlrer1 ........ fll8-flllea a.."1 widlly ....... ti 1 d ..._ c:1p1M17 1IOWI ii Ill....-, ca111111 llni1D1Y af' Cllif'.._ ..... ...-..., ... r .. ._ QlrllliCI' a.. c r's Mii lri "'*"'' n..1...._ (1921).-Clrlol M. Trda. .. .,.,.. Z' Ml xx ().Wrw. ..,._.. Quilodl ., ......... 1914). 1Altk rrdia,..,..._clllpllr,"Rt t1 Tm,Ma11e111_.MJ*ill&rtyRlfllltir c.a.," 0.. S.. pr*' 1111 COlll".-llis *"ill '81liMMll A,..,. 819 mo'W "=ria ..... mrni61 ... ,., o1..,,.. ,, ....... o1111111.,....,...,...., ..... ........ -- ........ ctic:....-.wililClllll .... ..._11111....._ n..e.....-llil....,.. ........ I pdae flltllS "nll?M __,.. flltllS 1111 ...... liPle tD-............ 1111 l'llCqldoa fllMlltf'1 wmallll ftpls0111...,.aw.-..., palilial :r.-.cW plw. See Ella'llldae flllMI Mw,fllPl lJ.l4:tlillMIJlit_. ca1d11kmrcpt H11llll: .. lllpit('fllMMU'1fiplellll-...63-1'7 .......,,..._ ............. 111cw ... lllwfllM1Jtr1impiat11epo11-1m,..., ..nicl .... Ii 11 I'll ..... fll [ lllllPQ am1 mcia. iaQllla, E'121'1plcdoe ollll ipfJDpli1Pio91 af'Mmd-"' 1m ......,........_ .. ..._ ... 1., .. ,._111 ..,,__..... 'Jolllcill wen1ea 1'11is. ..... ,, .......... ar.. .... s I 1. llli ........ 1121 ............ MllUWM.a,r.IJ ........... all IOCllMCia-111 ..... iactilMMc ..... fli ............. . Diii 1fP1llll U.S. mll efwtDCtdlt ii 19%1 ti...a, ..,._. _. ......,, ,,..;ruflliualc, a-.r ...... .., p lnu .. Mllnacll Hri t nt'polid1r-..-. ..... u.s.M ....... 1rCJ.hlallb"1illlillllli .... illt .. Pr c 11n1 flllw. II IM W8J ia Mliaa-.r"I rr112t11r, willa ... pt II 11 is ff P 6 .... ill l'llElfll'CIJ ......... omc:w--laa111a. ... 11i..-1111 ..................... ........... .....,ol-n1 811 S.'llllmEl.SM.\U:Jin-56:.-.:;IM,.....'1 .... 1 e11111-afJ/Clowdlr'1_..., ... _.., ..... ....._r ... 1'20'-Acea.., N11111,...._. ....... .,_. ...... ,..._,..,0DirMlr...._ .. ....._...,llllle tllCSI m .... _,_,"*Ille u.all WDll1W wiL S. Lida N In, o+ti? 9 l!lf.1922 ,, el,"'' M I ml zau, emw Bl .. P.a ... w (Jlcw.a: <Dltll La. 19.U). I0-11; 21-36; m.M5. 'Htv._.._ ,1c11)1'fllr1 ....... n rl ,.... ...... .,...llllJllMit W cllllJ ill OM w finllJ h I w ia ... "2GL 1'n _. C-IL.._ ii prulctlj .. ......,,ca u ., ....... o1Lt1F1itlllb.Qld: NvAt bkr
PAGE 665

'p ... L1 flltlllnn.:c.... ..... 641 In die openin1 scene of Cllba raJJn direcror TOIDM Oulimez Ala's 1966 smrie. "Dealh of a Bmeaucral." IDOUl"ICll lland lbe pave of ID "exempl.ry worbr," FrlDCilo J. 1959 RC9ohllion. Standin1 _.,.a blazitlia IUll in Havana's Cemday of Columbus, once lhe burial lite of praidcnll. supr barons imd IOCialifel, his eulogizer nanues scenes from P*ez'1 life. "Paco," u bis frid'.da called lbim, bid been a long-time 1upponer of labor ml aalioaal liberalion lioce lbe da)'I of Machado. The owner of a marble-waiting shop prior ID lbe 19S RC9olulion, Paco bec11ne tlae princi ... ICUlpkll' of bulcl of Jol6 Mani. whicb (in bolb lbe movie IDd n:alily) auddcnly protifer.-d all OYCI' the iaJand. Wortina lirelally ID IUlplll l1ale-ordered production pb. Plc:o aculpled bUlt lfter bull wilb bis own bands ID u to fill shrine lflcr 1brine. Evealllllly, bet becalne .. oble11ed wilh lbe idea dial for lbe next )'elr, lbe production pis 1bould lllow fo1 evay Odu family to have a pmlliotic lbriDe in dial could 111111 produce bulls of JoM Manf with "pa& speed." Sdy, boweYcr, jmt a Paco's mane wa rapicly produciq bula of Martt it aot llUct. floPina ID fix it, PKO climbed to lbe "JP of lbe llllldaiae' mixias. v of morw. Rnchiq iDlide with a fool in llil had. Pico suddenly fell belplally iDID IM mriiae! Witin ....ti, die _.Jaiw bid nmfonned Paco frmn a vilnnt ad euimp.ry W01bi" inlo llOlbi111 more Illa a llMJIW IR.c of billllelf BclieriDI llim to llave t .. die ""Midldmpln of die poor," Ilia fellow Di91t1zed by og Original from _JJNIV ERSITY O F W ISCON SIN

PAGE 666

642 From dlil poiat oa. auama Alea' morie facum cm die cblia oC WKty and ilJosiml inlenlClioal between Pim' IUIVivina rellliYll 11111 lhe IDlllll!MO b.rcaucncy oC lbe Cubm molutioamy lllle. Nevatbelell, ill npeein1 w brillillldy revcall a peal cbl about bow r .. lbe C)da m violent revolUliaa ad delwla cwcc ... manin1 o( Mutt Md come liace the First Cubm Republic. M in lbe put. the new molUlioaary atare tt.l took power in 1959 under Fidel C..UO IDd the '1JIA o( July Movement appropriared die imp o( of the le&ilimacy of its leaden, of wbicll .-wu paler dlln Fidel Catto hiluelf. Yet. as .. Dealb of 1be Burmat" allepically iUlllll'llel, the revollllioauy 11111e u Cuba' popds daD expcrienc:ed it in die arty 1960a hi fu...,,.lllly different Ihm 111y wbidl bad come before. On lbe one band, its laden tbel all Cubma po11e11ed lbe risht fO a private Mini o( Cbeir own. On lbe other bad. Ibey delpaaldy wMled IO ceacralize lbe process by which Cubias arrived at tbll riabt 11 Mil monitor ill 181Uhs. lbpicly firiq off policy after policy meant to equalize 1be lives m CUbw 1brouP ralioas. llale-din:cted production, and a vut. reauJaled ICbool syttm opea to all lbe 11ate IOUibl to bomoleniD Che comciomnetl o( ill citiw in ways dial ... feed llability, IOciml hlnnony and Cbeir belief in a f .abertand wida all llld for die aood oC Ill. from lbe early 19Sll to die 19?0i, lbe ltnolulicm brcuPt lbe Yoicle of Mll1f to die Cubm public lbrouP mulliple new edilicm o( die IDOll c:anplefe MRI o( Mm1' CYCC published. At lbe same Ii, Fml C-.0cleclueddie1t111'1 actioal a biltmial fulfallmt of lbe 1 89 5 project o( Mini. Tiie Revollllicm' ..... iallllec:'lllll fOlllled die idea dial Mmtf'1 lpirit rmt ia tbe life ml.._ ia die dada oC tbe RaYoludm' lllDlt rmous mmiyr, Erweo MQc" a..... 1'11111. t1nua1a die .-of RobedD Nm4fi+z 019 tized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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66 Rnwr Md Leomrdo MmU ndl.S Ilia lilt bow lie wl bid wool IUil for die olive ll'llCll f ariqua, bbldt belet IDd IUbmllCbine ... ol m Che. .lull Mutf bid llaYeled widely to lplad die aooct news ol llemilpiberic IOtidlrity ipimt u.s. imperimun and ta111 indcpendeace for Qa ... 10 B Cbe reaew.r:d MmU"I eff'ortl by leaviq Cuba ID sprad die gmpel ol penilJa Wllfme for IOCia1 cbut.IJe to Boliria IDd beyond.' lroaicaUy, it was from Simdn Bolivar, the Soulb Americm indep1Mleace bao wbole name Bolivia bean. dial Jed Mart! bad drawn muc:b ol bis orisinal ideoilop:.I illlpilalion. For die lftOlllCllt. it seemed lbat at leat on one level, die biltlorical cirele ol CUlla' mission in die wadd wa complete. And )'et. El Che' cleada in 1967 llt cbe ..._., ol Bolivian may qcntl and the U.S. Ceocnl Intelligence Agw:y draaoMlraredl dial pedlapl aniD mstcrical cildcs arc DCYcr doeed or c:ompleled. Al lbe yan since Eta Che' death haYe lbown. not even the circle ol IOCial, polilical wl ecoDOlllic libenlioo ii: fully ccmplete in Cuba illelf. Part ol the reason fer dlis bu to do widl lbe DeCHloloaial lep:ica o1 cw. n=publaa pmt and pm o1 die raat bu (0 do widl lbe falure ol Cuba'll leadenbip. ia power-lincel9S9, ID recopize what ill polilical lalOm mipt b=. TIU work mgalS 111111y 8--fior llcMt ID UldenllDd lbe coune d CubM llistory in die twentiecb c:enlla')' IDd lbe direcrion dial it ii 1akiag rodlly. Al we learned from our journey iato die politic.a wodd o1.-Fin& Republic. one ol lbe pmrat and fepciel ol Cuba's put ii die IClle' reliance on lllllbarillrilnilm, Ollealibly a a bulwt ID U.S. imperialim but alao u a foil ID ill lean' OMI niluc:smrc ID .._. power. Siace Ille 1195 w ... die--. betw-1111 ol rewollliomay a.lell ID implr IDCilll D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN ---

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644 chlqe from lbe boaam-up bal alwayl pla)lCld a lmy tole. la tbe CODlal ol cxtaml dnal from eut.'1 imperialist aeiahbor ID die Im been a tendency to wbicb nen llldic:al molutiomry llllimalita 1Unlld ID plot.ect lbeir pww=r and ltalC IO\'ereipty, nen u die policy clecilioaa Ibey ma eroded lbat IOVCRipty from widlin. Bqinniq wilb EauD Palm and laier Jol6 Mipel Odmez. aua:alive Cubu pcmmenas justified lbeir 111m1 roward llltbarilllriaailm under lbe dual ol a U.S. bollow CXCUICI, especially U poliliClll elila bypocrilic:mlly reYealed tbal Ibey could muipulllfe U.S. imperialism 10 further 1beir OMl pis. Tbe pivalal dec:ilion ol Ubenls and Moderata to invite and not conlal U.S. milillr)' illlerYCDlion in 1906 provided lbe fint example of Ibis. Fearful lbll popul-dal veterw -S worbrl' danandl oa lhe slafC elita prefernd ID invite tbe United Stalel to ... in. In doing IO, political elites wanted tbe Uai States to do ill dirty work for tbem: f onip ialel'Yention. lhey lbouabt. would cut off lbe procca of applyin1 direct pmaure ID die w md ..ualiu lbc cmdibility ol &bole who IUppOl'led sudl a procea by diaplllcil1 lbe DllioDal 11a1e wilb a foreip one. And yet. under die rule of Pnwiliooal Ocwernor Cllldcl Mqooa, YelerW ol c:dar and m orpnized wodQq-cl8ll proved lbll Ibey could mo ....,.... lbe objectives ol U.S. imperialiltl IO dleir ...... Between 1906 .. 1909. cxbn pilled NCOpilioa ol lbeir rip& to IUib llld Kliviall ol color pined the npa ID orplliJJe paliliallly ia ways lllll f cnpwaded race. Bwd on Ibis apaimce. paliliall elilel collld aeYcr view lbeir liblllion iD quire lbe .... way apin. From 1909 to 1933, die qulldon mcrrrr'qly beli3me one ol IKM' ID domiM'C Dig lized by Goog e' Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 669

645 la the procea. pllilic.l elita nnpd pllilical IDd IOCial ICCOUDllbility ID dlCir c:icizem for diplomllic ad eeoamaic acccJUDlability &o foreipen. The rault w lblt a begemcaic U.S. aet>CX>laay came to ditiplace wllal might odlerwite have beccae a besemonic llllion-l1ale. Oripmlly meant ID prevent the Ul'llllion ol penunmc coaln>I by U.S. iD&erveationitt fon:es, lbe evolvina Uberal..C:::omervarive alliance apimt diaent from below bid nonelbeleu come ID undermine die veey losic dial pve it meanin1 by the early 1920s. By IDll)iDlliziq IDd repreaiq altemalie :Dlliamlilt apadu ChM prioritized policies ol IDCial chaqe and political inclUlioa, molUlliOlllf)' and imperialist ulioaalisu: mlde lbeir own f ean ol permanent extanal manipularicia ol policical and economic affain a selffulfalliag prophecy. In 1921, lbe end ol lbe 1A1pr boom and the collaple ol the -..e's fimnQll MfODOmy from foreign leaden andl their bM:ken in Wahington ICaled CUba 's 1ta1111 u a U.S. neo-colony. Yet. u dU .Uly bu sbown. lbe linb between CUba'1 eeoaomically dependent deYetas-cnc Uld dlie f ormalioa ol a politically autharilllrian 1111e were llOl forged by U.S. capillllim or U.S. irnperialilu alone. Tbae lints were boned and cut by lbe deciaiom ol revolUliolmy ad imperialilt Dlliomlia wbo cbole to ndude radla' lbln &o include. ID repaa ra&ber dllll &o rapect. ud to deny ralber lban to compromile. In mmna dlClc cleciJioal, polilical etieea c:oafaoed dlie rormaac. ol lbe 1111e to lbeir own imqiw blueprinll for a "rMal" mt rejectad lbe opening 1p ol 1111e llnldUrel llld polic:ica ID lbe viliom ol odlen. By lbe 1920s, acoum bepa ID c-. llJlOlll Cuba's )'OUDlel' ol iaren.:111111, profaliawl IDd Klivilll oldlie llbcrmorCllDllll lbal D191t1zed by og Original from -UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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646 IOCiety a a whale. Mmmrcr. Ille mwillinp ol political elila '> brc.tea lll'1IClllla ol power inlo ll'CW for debate wl madend die palilical elita' codified memoria ol for wbich Ibey llnlgled in wa,s dlll poliac.I elita not only amed to ignore but ldively ben)'lld. By 1933. die pp between the biltoriClll promile oldie um War and lbe ideolop:al decrepilllde ol Cuba pwnt bid pawn into a cbaml. It became impouiblc to been f ulfalled IDd lbe reality tbal nowbere did Mlrtrs wonll 111Dd in evidence ol this. The more autboriauim political elites became. die men muffled ..t mllfed lbeir Manis bcclme. Recoveriq lbe bilforical Mmtf 1 cririqua ol imperialist c:apilllillD and applyina lbem to political clifa' rllllplDl coUaboratiooilm, IUldenl9, iDleUecallll and workcn formed ID anti imperialist movement dW resunected a bil1orically RdCd and ideolqpc:ally mevant Martf. Their purpme wu to Cl'Clfe a new 1&11e. a new IOCiety and a new vision ol Diiiion in which IOCial chap ad populU' panicipalion WU DOl only poaiblc In libaalin& MMl. a youqer tned d lldi-imperialilt molldioury DlliODlliltl joined IOCillilt and In 1933 lbe IDlll wbam revolldioalry fon:acolleclivelyc:Mrpd widl lhe presidency ol a new 1111& was lbe priDCipll c:llicC ol a poliliAI plrty dml f orduipdy appropri.aed the mme ol Mmtr1 own pmty ..s lepcy ol Mmnf llimldf. Callins illelf die Pflrllllo Ot6uo ..U""*a ('"Alllbentic CUblD R&Yoladcmry Piny"). tbe Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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bec:llne die leader cl a lbolt-lived seYoluticlmry ltlle. Seein& bim a ymP'theric c:audillo whole aridocntic bmcqrou.d mipt molliJry die IOCill IDPl cl lbe middle daael. rwlical IDCi-impcrialilt ....... from the lJlliYCl'lity'1 SQldenl DiRICtOl'lle and ill IOCialilt Left Waag. lent OrlU llleir suppon llld served m1 bi1 ldvi1011. Yet. delpire (or pertllpl becaUlr al) Che incaat 11ream d decrees iauing t rrom lbe praideatial of'face lhal mandated CYerydling from women '1 suffrap to labor rip.a, Onu'1 ldminilnlioa failed to alisfy. Receody aWlbned to lbc piaciplel ol revolutionary lllltiollltism, lbe Revolution's middle elm supponen encourqed Ora&& i1aeuingly to foeu1 hi enerpes on winning U.S. puCin& an end ID Pianist inlnlliom inlo Cullu'1 iafemal alflin. Meanwhile. o ... s efTans to do IO oaly raulfed in lbe incn:ain& alieill&lion ol Cuba '1 new senaaDOD ol intanatiomlilCI in tbe labor mcwement and l ill ielaled lllli-impcrialilt cirda ol inlcllectuall. Aside from tbe fllCt lhll few ol ill dec:rees could be implemented in lbe four tbalt llKllllbs lbll Orllll '1 peamnent 1urviYed. Chau crippled ill lqicimcy amoq die very -=tori dial llld bnJuabt it power. Having iailially radled out ID lbe rub ci the labor movement lbll bid taken over U.S.-owncd supr plllllaliau, Grau 1ucceaively cmdemaed umelealiq cl lldwtilla imperilllii1t nalicmlilll who bad Oed to Miami llld now enjo)'ed lbe and w...,._., policy-mllbn ud cacponre lobbyim. Gnu ipored die parmlill for bdrayml tbM odlas recopizec!L 1'11111.,...a.I Jmided laCJDl lbe mnb d lbe Odm Army.' tbe llllYice cl _..llladcn, Ona clae aot to belieTe dlll lbe D191t1zed by og Original from _--UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z 1 ; t 1 I r 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s J r J a r s 1 1 Q I I r 1 1 1 I [ 1 l 1 i I i I I i J P. f 1 I 1;. I I I 9 ;. ;. I t t Q_ :; t J r" r i' i f r r a Q l i r l .. r i i ;: I 8 a.: e: Ii -r I f I i i i I : i I i: ( I l i i i J i J &. i l f 1 ( of I I 8 I I l I i t I I l !. I II I l ( i I I If : l : j I I I-: i l l I i i I i i i 8 I ( ? i! I a ,-! D I l l I g f a i J { & I I I l i I i I i i I i f f I i i t I 1 l i I I i i I i ; I 1 P. P. i f : I t r i l r a ;

PAGE 673

0 <8 .... CJ c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z J t I 1 .e: f .ft 5' r. i.if i It SI 8 I l i. i. i I If !. i . I 1 I l I I i i l ii 1 . s: !. ;_ r I l n. r =: ": J' r I :t ;_ 8 ll i r i 2P i a I 1. "1 i f 9 a. m -c I: I-i. I f I J i f f I i I I-J l I f l I i I I l 1I I'1 I: If I if 1J1! I.If i s-1 1tg.s0 f I!: I 1 I F f J i I = f i I I I s i t I I l I I l I J I i I 1 f r I I i 1 I 1 i I J I 1 I = t : 1 r l t I I f I J. 8. 8 l } a f J f a t 8 If i J I f I 1: f. l 11 i i I a [ l J i ; { I I l i l f f J f I I 1 t t -5 er i t J I i ] i 1I f l l I I l ;.. I ( I , : I

PAGE 674

aot survive in a polilicmlly llllllorillriln ronn. la Barilla mqniml dat bis politiall saninl w at .a a lbmrdly bepa 10 ..,a11e ror die iDleplioa of bis 1D01t nmc.1 oppoae widliD die orpninlicml .... lbal iUppUieed hil pencmlill, CDlllerYariYe c:urrmt ol ieYoluliawy Ulimali. 1'hlt yar, 8llilla lipcd die .. Miami Pact" with laden of the CUblll Commaailt Piny,..,..; .. them die ripl ID orpniD worbn wilbout mililmy iepraaion. In exchnp, the ConmuniCI qreed ro leave die nalUle of die 11a1e ow of the imrnecfi11e objectives of dleir ICl'Ugle.11 leut for the lime beiq. With political laden of die illCftllinaly powerful labor movement otr his blct IDd putially dependeat on bim for lbeir c:cm1i.._..' proteclioa. 8ltim the precedent for rearieatllion ot Uniled SClta' forap pclicy cmcerm to Emope in die 1are 1930s and 1940s f unber faciliwed dlil pmceu. Tbe yan 19J8 to 1952 coincided wilb the 1cueochmeat of BID '1 lllili11ri1m, die openina up ol the political tylCelD ID broad pdcipllion in elecroral clemoaacy, the wriling of die propalive 1940 Constitution, and tbe iacnmina norwlimion ol ICtivitiel by llll ever-railiat. c:ommuailt-led labor movemeaL Allboup Valen in Caba' fll'lt general cledioa of 1940 rewanlecl die c:aaciliarm, ml ""'"''"' Batilla wilb die presidency, 1hey lldllequeady and cawcutively elecled Onu de Saa MldtD md c.dol Prfo de SoconU. moluriaamy naMmlilll of die Audaealic Piny .a llel'oea of 19.53, to die w ofrace. Mrncwer, conuplim IDd die umeliability ol tbe Aulllaria' commillDellt to IOCial c:blqe Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

PAGE 675

I ;;::-. 'N C" '< CJ c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z i J i -1J I I I 1 f i I i 11 I l ll r I I I 1 i l ;_ t Ir J f 8 I &' J ;_ [ I l ( I i I -! 111 l i r 11. 1 f r t a .... I J I J r I I t f i l i I i i I I 1 ir I J. J J J i8 I : a. f : ft -: r :o t l 1 J I r J I I i a R I : i l i ,.",.ii l if ,.:1 !! ,,. i Iii l I .. i I l -. = i 1 ii i I l J f i I I I I t I ft I I J ,. I f ( : i I I ( ;. f J t-i 1 f &' j If I fJ 1It1 fl I r!!t-f! :!{if li!i i = 11": I' Ii I'!' f. .. Ji !i. f Q. I. 1 I I j 1 i 0 1 ft I" i J a 1 [ I J . I e= Gt i r r ;_ IF > ;_ r r s s -

PAGE 676

Cubas pla)led ID CYCD men pmmilWlt role dam Ibey bid in die movement oC lbe 1920L Tbil IUde ... liven tbe rsa dial it wu potilical dnnocncy and top-down IOC:ial c:hanp dal mmy, if DDl lllCll oC lbem. csed about. 1'bele wese die principlcl oC dleir mliOllllim dial a.till&' .mom molt immediefely jcopudized. In lbe urtlln area1, a llUdeat-led urt.n guenilla rrmc md civil dilObedieace camplip quiddy emcqed. At thew lime. a ..U aroup oC yom1 and biably edalelled nldical revolutionary Dllimllists led by Fidel C..w inilialed m armed penilla mcwement in Orienre's mountains to di8pl.:e Balisla's army Despite lifer claims dial lbe '1fl' of July Mcwanat delerved die lllOlt cn:dit for tcppling die dictalonbip. contelllpOl'Uy aa:oun11 of Ille lime reveal dial tbe audent movement. ID mt.a ciYil disobedience campaign and armed gucnillu oC. the 211' of July Movement played eqUllly sipific:ant roles Still, wha& uncb.abledly pve Fidel Cuero' '11/i oC July Movement the edp over the odler' winp oC the IDD-Balim mobilizalion was ill brolder' IDCial bue. carried out by men and WOIDCll who rejccfed the IOCia1 oudook and polilical modeli of dleir mocben and falben, tbe perrilla fipten o( the '1fl' of Jiily depended on the sympdly and practical support o( Cuba's mOlt mqinaliml 8l'CJUpl ror 1be RCCell o( their mililaly caraprile in Oricnre and their 1Ublequent marcb wellWald. Their iavllioa o( Hav-oa New Y can' Eve fmlly IWCpl guerrilla laden to 1be pi1Mde o( Sllle power in the arty moatba d 1959. At dlil point. lbae w laden realized dllt lbe moapat poaitiliaes for die SU1Yival ol tbeir power and the fulfillDlf!!'l o( a IDp-dowa plu d Ddiclll IOCial 1rWf'Ollllllioa could oaly be aued if Ibey rmWned failb(ul ID die leMDM o( boda dllir i'"'Mdilfe and dillllll .,..i. Radla' dalll llled die burden o( tbeir O!l-Clicm ID CUba'1 popd.-IDd woddq ciMa or Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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653 lllliOllllilll hid done ia 1898. 1906. 1912. 1933, 1be new nwoluliomry cadre led by Fidel embaced lbele very sroup1. Doing IO meant dial 1be reollllicnmy lllle wbicb raulfed praened 1be f ea&un:I ol lbe llliance amoaa llllioml and ali-imperillliilt riliam ol lbe fUIUre dlll hid brouabt the perriU. ol the "'* ol July Movement to "''er ia lbe ftnt pl11ee. Thul, fer lbe fint lime lince lbe 1895 War. a poup ol revoluliaaary 1 Ulicnalim from ec:oacmically privilqed blcqround broke ranb wilh lbe bulk ol lheir idealogical COllllibleDll, including many ol lheir fellow auenilla c:ommandera. to elevate 1popular aacionaliltl ud IDli-imperialistl to die ccnlm ol IClle power and Bcaue 11181Jiulizing the popular c:IUICI in Older to COlllOtidlle middle-dall luppod wmilld me jeopudized lbe areaiat al che Revolution' pls-teVcriq lbe lies 1bM bldl conlinued to bind die Cubm stare and ill policies to lbe fCRel ol U.S. oriainal ruling COllilion IDlde dlil clloice long beCcn 1961. In April ol 1961, lbe Revolurioll1'1 defea ol a CJ.A.-cnlinceRd invaion al die Bay ol Pip prompted Fidel to drop lbe .. bmmmilt" pmition bis govenunent hlld. adoped in favor ol an ovatly socialist model ol democnicy. Tbil fll&eful dedlim did 110t lomea populm' f CJ'U"Wims ol support for tbc aew pemment, bowever. By driving info exile ewer a miDim middle
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6S4 l.ootiq met CJD die ranc dne decldm in wbic:b lbe ReYolulioa survived delpite lbe bollility of a bemilplleric community. it clear dm Cuba ldlieved a raull of tbe 1959 Revollllian WI.a it would not IDd C:Oldd DOl have ICbieved in 19J3: llllioml 10ereipty. lbe bcmany of tbe and. widl the ICCellibility of .we-provided social servic:el. app"eCiable depee of IOCial democ:ncy.' Undoubledly. the CCllllmianent of ill ladenhip to adlievina 1bae pb all c:om made a key diff amce in their ralizalioa. How they did 10 bu a areat delal to do wilh lbeir succea. Alcboup the revolUlioaary aalioaaliltl wbo led the mre af&etr 1959 craaed bodia for the incoqxnlion of lllOll previously IWlinaliDd poups info lbe 11a1e (worbn. pcasams and WOID;eft). they 1895 War origi.aarecl mety. a boaom-line aimmitmcat to social cbmge but oaly through llrict ldbereDce IO venical dwnnels c:L a:ca1 to lbe 11a1ie IDd 1he top-down f onnulalioa of pol1C1CS. ADli-imperialilt IOCialilll aDd l4oag-time CCJllllllunills hccNne .,.n ol tbe revolutiowy w u ill leaden adopled the pcillitioa daal they bid always been Mllxill and would IO Ulllil Ibey died. Yet al DO poillll did lbae poupl supalede the aulbority ol l'lldic:al revollllimmy mtioaalial lite Fidel in deflel'llliaina die direction ol 1111e policy. Tbil ns ll'Ue to -=la m exrmt despite lbeir lll'Olall. formal lllle IOCWilm on lbe Sovie& modet would a be iDCroducod Ulllil 1972.. nm a collapliaa eco.ay pvc /flle/Jna aaa DO odler cboice. Indeed, lim:e die late 19tiOI. wlMlll tile llll indef'endeat 1111811 buinc n e 1 wae c:ri9iMljnd llMI illdividual manbenbip in orpNDliam Wll required. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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6S5 Conltillltioa dm 1111J1ii 11ed indiridual libcdie1 for lbe _. ol pill1IDleeing coUective npca ol lllllerilll ICCell. Thal ludl piM IO llale poM1' c:amc al lbe CCI& ol ill leplimlcy llDOlll a number ol loq-timc int&Uecllml 111ipparten oi lbe RevolUlion. IDd iDClaling laden. For Cban. Ille c:mf"mina ol polilicll debmle ro orpm under die party' coaaol wmed only ID ex,.nd upon Mlrd'1 dmic nation ol IOCial unity. Given Che boltility of U.S. fmip policy fOWll'd any mcwement follleriag lhe poeenlial for IOCial c:banae in Lalin America. and especially in CClllral America durinl lbe 19?0I. puty milillnll argued lbll IOCial Wlity could only be lmintained dllOup ideolOlial unanimity. Critiques of Che policies ol tbe Revolution. apecially wilb repnl fO U'lldilional DOlicm of civil liberty (fladom of explalicm. fniedom ol moverneat, freedom of aaembly) became ac11 of ideolQlic:al indilcipiine, rmcamount to f omea1in1 a Nonecbelm. die Revolution survived. Undoabledly, it did so beclule, in part. ill ladmbip wu riabL Any looeeaiq up ol lbe boundaries of coall'OI over infonnalioo and die circulalian of criac.l ideal miabt well have alllowed for U.S-diftCled aaea11 to sneak in and aploit cxiltiq diYilicm and dilalilf.clim ia CUblD IOCiety. Judsing from lbe aadt nlCDld ol die Rapa and BUib mdminilUaliom in mpponing didalonhi .. delpiee lbe level of bum1D .aociliel -,. commiuecl in IU&:ll ccMmlriel Chile, Araemiaa. El Salvador, ffliri. llld ()Iatan.tie, Olbla ASYoluticmries could -sue widl IDllle reMOll dllt permiains ciriJ liberlies would not bave ldYMCed my form ajf democncy in CUbL Radler. it would have led fO a levd ol audlOlitarianim QI miidensd oplillllll for tbe panail ol U.S. palilic8l power ml ill fiw.mubt. corpa1 aipitmlia ..... Oat lhe ocber bud. mo1.-..,. Mljnmlias who cadmlled die .._ baldited faaa relllidiatr ol odla' people' libenia. ADd for a while. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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656 wt.t Ud beell lbe poor majority ol Clbul benefited from dleir leaden' convictiou lhal Ibey lepll!Mlfed lbe Yoicel ol lbe people. >.. Ima lbe voica ldiculled ID lbe w MR voic:a dW cid not ucribe any major pavity to lbe policy milllta or point lollg-eena aeplive consequences ID lbe 11111e'1 coauaiame.t to cenml p..niaa. n:YolUlioaary leaden could not affix an autooomCJUS lpnda to people' camplainll. ney lberejrore cicl not aeClClllrily w c:omplaints u daqaoul, llld o(1en (apecially in lbe c:aae of women) responded favorably, if not always IUCCell(ully. fO demandl that die 1ta1e recopizle c:oalinuiag inequalilica with lepl and IOCial However, by lbe mid-l980a. coadiciom def llliag die politica1 m,aning of complaints cbutpd. At lbe lime. die w "recrifac:aDan" plm for gelling in IOUCb wilh people' coaceru n:Yea&ed the deplb a( many Cubul' idimliaf'ICCion with die rigidity a( the l)'ltelll and wblt dlcy idenlifled ill insularity from lbeir needs. lmpired by the opening of lbe political procea in lbe Soviet Ullim and lbe i1111 prorement a( relaliona with the United SWa Cbal it illlfllied. Cublm bailed Mikhail Oort.cine 11 vilit to 1be island lbe l1al't of a awe reorpnizatian lbat aeer came. lmtad. lbe aiMI ol lbe dcalde marbd a collaple of Soviet nDidia and lbe mre-nm ecx8Jmy, producing mucialin1 clefcriorarion in Cublm' ......a ol liYina-Tbe lboct leCl many eubml1 wanderina wbdller dley lbould beliCYe their leaden' daima dW U.S. imperillillll wa n to blame for Oda' coadilioD du Ibey were. Radler 111aa ciDm 111e poaibilicy o1 are11er iDla1lll deblre dllOuab 111e &ibaalima o1 polilic:al ... civil IUUCIUn:I oallide a( lbe -Plaideal Cuero reitenlled wbal be llld a1_,. cbi..,t dial if die RnolalicD. oi' Md qaly one pmiy, dlen RevolUlioa oi IOday could llaYe Y oae p111y. >.. IUclll. Fidel followed in die roaarq. of ... D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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\ 0 <8 .... C" '< CJ 0 0 00 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z ' Q, J 1 I I .. i ( R g f I I 1 t 8 I I 11: I J 1 1tmr:_1' ii s It I I r i i It I j a i ( I l J 1f: i I i t l I I I 11 f i r J a Is t t 12'1 (. i -f l i' i s I j. J. 1. J i-I : I l i i 1' I : (.-; IA. ( I 2 r i . s a f r 8 8 ; I I i !. f I f .J J 1 a f I I r I I I r I f a t t l : l I I i 1-i I i I i I i I I i f ; I : t 8 I Q, I R IS I ; 1 I f : If f i .8: !!. R i .! R--0 I r l J I i l I i i : I J f I. a. l g !:."I ... I !-cs s !' f c:.-1 ; I f J ! I I& t i I I l I I f l I I I ... R. a I I I : r i .. I 1 1 t -a l : I I& f i i 1 1 i o i. l D i r '< I I of i. I I i I r -= l i : 1 8 r s I "' Q, r s Q, s l 1 11 Ji

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658 Commuailt pmty memben whole loyalty lbe nwoluliolllry ._.._., mUlt coalinue ro reward, lhe laDer iadulUia are cloiDs coalidalbly well. Qlce apiD in Cuba 't biltoly, die symbols m die pat cmllict widl tbe ramty m tbe praeat iD icleolosicml ud padiclll ways. Af leplmna and eacouraaina lbe powt1t m small-time capilalilt butiDeaet nm by Cubml. lbe 111te llas pown ilK:ratiftlly mxiout that its own c:apillllist businesses caD8DI compete wilb the allive privalc leCIOI'. Radler du see dlil ledol' u the buit for c:realiq in new kind m saare-proteeted. small-ale capaalitm lbal could provide CUba with a uniquely democ:ralic ecaaamy in a world domimted by lmp-lcale, coqxnre capilal, lbc Slate CODlinua ro OllaCi7.e i&1 own c:ilizem u inrerml eacmicL Tui11 tbcm ro no end or lic:emina them fO IUdl a 1lm cbeir buliaeaa are unprofitable. CUbaa otrlCials jultif y lbeir policia u dimillitbiag d8ll diffcrcnca in line wilb lbe IOCialitt power Ibey far or it it lbe potilic:al power dial ermomic power c:an provide? I don't know wl9y Ibey lbink I have 10 mucb power. I'm jutl old man wbo faxes lhoet." When I raniwled bim lbal he bid lllO once been a yams ma whole tuppxt for the 26 m July '"So wllll are you sayina? l'bal wiCbout me lbe pemmm& won't tunive? Ob. plale ... lbey doa't lhi* Ibey need me aymare and it' auel Tiiey baYe lbe mmey. dlley lave lbe police, they lme die power. If 1111)' IOIMlbi11o llley'se lilble ID ICQa me m sympecbizjq with In llliDa lbe word '"worm ID W QOUllle'-moluliowy. cobbler rd'cmd ID Mlnr .._ for a nilDI' ID wllicll llld laDa .., emaect lbe m Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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65') poll-1959 C-.. to mer ID Cubm exiJea. '"Blt Ibey me mil1abn," be coacluded. '"I am DO worm bec:lu1t I live berc and bae lbcre DO DKR wonm left, only dill ud bup." Al p.y new holds for foreip IOurilll md m elile patilical daa d wodlm cmtjmae to 1prina up in CUba, die dilapdtMtri llld eollapRna raidences d averqe Cubw lllDd OUI like sullen remindcn dUll they live i in a panKbt. Even lbe RevolUliaa mmisteat biJIOly ol defending IDli-imperialillll IDd Ille mte'I own depictim ol ill grearat lllliimperialilt 1" Mutf, are in queltim. UDlil recendy in the biltory ol Cuba. only lbe jfMlisM It.lie Im CXJDliltady been Ible to claim to have Hved up ID die ideals d lbe anci-wbo 11CC1pllld boeb die 11111e'1 claim ta Martr11 lepcy and its offlall imaging ol MarU. Yet, lbe Revolution' '"offlCial" MarU' bu DOC aaly replic:ared lbe biltOrical dimemioas d die lllti-imperialilt MmU' d die put, but. lau lllo come to c:Umpioa ideals derived from die aeedl and convmieDCel ol <:ut. '1 intemariaaally-focused praenl Even u Marti' imaae wa1 mde rdevana for CUba'1 :IOliduity with anli-imperialist llnlgla lbmld in Vieumn, Nic:arapa or Aqala in die 19flOl1 IDd 19'70I the Mane wbo emeqcd wu a Mard whole war-. and beliefs wae opea to impec:lioa. 1'1le Cubln 11a1e publilbed die first, mc.c camp6ete worb d Miid in dU period aad C:ubua iallec:Qlll1 f orepounded tile llpecll of Mmd'1 dilCOUne dlll lpD ID die link ._._. coalinuina the wort d libemlion in Cuba D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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D ce -N C" "< CJ 0 & ('"V c: :z: < SEo """"' ..... --t l(i' -<"'T'1 -a '""" 3 8 z VI z ( i I I I I t I i 1 l I t I 11Q,!I If II. 8 If t [1. t I If i f g i I .1 l I ; t j r sa_ i sa_ l -r' ii' 1 r Q,, a&. I ., i I I l [ B. J ... I a. .... I ti 1-: -1.1 ':=ii r.:. r J Ir l I f I i I I I i I t I i r a i 1 I Q, .. l s & f s f It l [ J l f r I I i 1 J f I J f I f l i r sa_ I I f 1 I I I = i l : i l I If i I Q, I f IR I f I I l I l t IJ =1!fi f I I I : I : I I t I I t f J m I s I if 1 1:. i er i I i 1' I I f i ii l s I 1 'ij' Q, f n:l l l '" 8 s

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0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I i J I J f ( l J i. i t l f 1 1 8 I I l f J l l i 8 i i I I I I i t I 2-r f ri. il::: a II'.. ir f. If I & s I e t 2 I i 1 i a I B a;,a11rls:1111i 1' I I: ] -<. l. I 8 I r r l 1rl 1 t r1l11 1 ... r 1 i I,! i I 8 I g 1 1 l i l I j [I t i f i I 1 a a I t r r 1 11 B g. I ;; I Cl I I I .. 1 ;:. lf.! ii Ir. J s f l a I : J il r I. l s .. 1 -1 1-. ,. ... r I 1 t f l f s f I a r i I f -i :I. i'' !f i I! B: fl ;; 8 S. s l B I l I ii I i. s '< f r ( r ra i 11 1 l s i a. (I) 1. 1 r 1 I t t ! 1 1 I 1 I i l 1 r 1 f

PAGE 686

ny IO may proved wiJliaa ID pur up widl lie wllile [ dsHHively die miaiag Min&. If, ia flCt, die pal ii my imdicMan. 1llllermliYe Mmtil dull vc ,..,mned loq bidden ill die Ddow of offic:W imapl, or aublumed wilbin die iJD11C of poll-1959 revolutionary heroes dwmw:tves may soon *I? forward. The cue ot EJiU Gncadltt ii inCormariYC in dlis rqmd. Elian. Wbme madler died in her lllempt ID flee to lbe United SW by ball in November 1999, Im beat left 11drift bclwcen die ideoloaic:al currenll ot two Dlliup of cxllaDe impcrialill mliomlil1I, die only way to be a lnlC PllrioC of CUba ii llOl ID live in Cuba It Ill. but in die United Slafa. la Havm. by CIOldlUl. Elia faica an old pmd of molulioaary ftllicwli leaden wbo reprd bi re1eue rrom die Miami .. _,.. .. lbll Im been bepin1 bim balllae. m bil mum bome. an llteaorY for 11111 lcsi ililucy of lllli-imperillilt rilioa lbal ., ._.., lddl lhc rclnance to Cublal' evCl')'day tiva dial it once did. W1liJe '""Mina a clemcmnDm orpai:r.ed by w worlqlllcel in Jumry 2000, I w llnlet by bow mucll lhe ofrlCial dim ae bodl lidel of ti.I w 111 embled D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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0 <8 .... N C" '< CJ 0 c: z < 580 V"I .., --1 ie -<:::I 0 DI "Tl --0 V"I 3 8 z VI :z I I I 1 I i 1 I I I i ] t I I ! I l : J t I l r I f a l I I ( f f I If i f I 1 t.I} I j I 11 i t t f l f i I i K I I f f I Ii t i s j i 8 I ( I I itJir .. '!r; I !' > t I l II I a -. sr .. 1. f If i r i l r l I I i I t i i ll I 1 I r I .1: t .-t I i s .. I i : 1 8 8 . T D 8 I I I I I I I i ! i I i B i I I i I i ! f I t i I I ; I l i !. I I 1 1 I I I r 1 l 1 J a 1 [ I r J ( I l 1 1 ..;l I (l r; '< s;. a 1 r s i: .. sa_""l 11:1 r--r .JI 1 B= I: I l r l rt s r ';f I : l l r ..

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NOTE TO USERS Page() mining In nu11nber only; text follows. Microfilmed received. 685-883 Thia reproduction la the bnt copy available. UMI Dig 1zedbyG Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSLN

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.....,..._ An:hivo Nacicml de Cuba Fonda Ac.demi de fillDria Fonda Adquisicioaa Foado Audiw::i1 de la fflbaa foDdo DoaatiVOI y Fonda Elpecial ..... Foado Oobierno de la RCYolucidn de UP.5 Faado MUimo Odmcz Foado Panido Revolucioaario Cublno Secretada de la Prelidenc:il Foado Conapcadencia de la Scicretarfa de 1a PraideDcia A rchivo del lml:ilUtO de HillOria Foado Eqeaio sacla de ApllDCJDfe Foado Rubm Mlntnez Villea Aicbivo dd MUleO de la Cuidld de la Habina Coleccidn An:bivo Hilldrico Municipal de la HlblDa Foado Penoaalidldel de la Ouena de la lndcpendencil An:bivo Provincial de Ciellfuep "Rilica Sumlz del Villar y Smrez del Villar" Foado Rilica SUn:z del ViUar y sumz del Villlr FondoV--. Prinre ulnry of lbe Clbrera Family. Propel1y lalaias Pllnpblet Collecfion u .......... Uniled SCllea Nlliml A n:bive Oeaenl Recuds o( lbe Deplnmenl of Record Oroup 59. Recoldl of._ Military Ooveramealof Ollla Record Group ll Recanlt of die Plorilicml of CUbL Record Omup 199. Recanll o( the Bunu of lmullr Afflin. '.Record Oroup Hmvard Univenity An:bive ffmvmd ,..,_,.SclMd rorama Tad_.. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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Ge1w SPMa tr u..... ..... Mqcon. Chmta. ---Ripon of* PrtWlriowll Gtwaw of QIN. ""' Oc:loba lJ, 1906 ro Dlatr*r J, Jt)(JT. Havm: Rllllllla y Boua. 10. Alla Sen* l)P"#lz rd Consraa. 1 Sellion. Documenl No. 155. ----. NtltMl Rqon o/dw ProvilioMJ GoNnlOr of Olbcl. FJ'Ollt i. 1907 IO l, 190&. Havma: Rmabla y BouD. ta. Abo HoUle Documml No. 14'7. ----. pan o/Cllba. U,,., tlw PrtwUloml of dw Ulliled Sraln, Dna. 1906-19(}1). Havana: Rambla y Bouza.. 1911. Taft. William Howard ad Roben e.coa, ar6a Ptlt:lJt:tlliol: barpt fir. Ille Rlport of dtt S:nltlry of WOT, 1906. Wahiqfon. D.C.: Ocwernmcat Printina Offw:e, 1907. Odg PsplaCigL HillpQ' "'" BpPlljCI. 1907. D.C.: United 8'ala B-c:l tbe CGllUI, 1909. porr o/IM eo...ian "Fore,,,. R.dallolu, Und SllllU Saau, "61111iw IO AJltdn bl Carba. 556 eoa,ra., '1.9 Seuioa. JloctlDftll No. 885. Wubinglon. D.C.: Ocweumaaat Priming Oflicle, ll!ill. Plpcn MMiDI 1p die Fgn;jp Rclaligm ct Ille Uojlld 'W= wilb die Add!m ct 1111; Psaidcot 1p Qmpw Dpmbcc4. 1912 Wllbinafoa, D.C: Oovemmeat Printing omce, 1926. PIP'!' 'd;n11p die &nip B+ejcw gC die UDiM4 &em 0917-1911>. Watbiqtoa. D.C.: Oovcnuneat Prinlin& Offace, 1930. c. Apwjg cadflljm dr; la B ... iA de Qd!I r,.,,,., grigsjll",.. qm drn ftcjljtestge p IM ofiqw dcl tjcmo o qypMp D mehfierif'n g('Hial. f.d. Qralel FClum. Cl ... Hav..: .... El Silk> xx. 191.5. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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NI rrnnc,... Miia Cladtu llltl/au, FCdt:ta y N"""'*' lo ""'1aa. 1904-l'XlT. Car6a 1 Allllrfm. New Yort. 1-.1&. DOlllOC:nda. Ham. 1899-1901. Dlarlo. Hanna. 1901. El &OllOlftlsla: "6tVlrl Flwlml y Ca.ndlll. Hanna. 1906. I.II Doctrlaa tk Mani. New Yort, t&g6.1898. I.II ffaym. 1899-1901. El Ffl"' Havana. Jll.flida. Havam, 19'20-1924, J11t1elfltld. Havana. 1921-1925. I.II Lllcllo. ffaVI& lR-1911. 17w LMcllo. Hav-. 1SJ06.1909. l.11 Alrljn. ffaym. 1929. I.a Nad6& Buena1 Aira. 1895. 17w New fort T-.r. New Yort. 1912. El NllnO criollo. H&YlllL 1904-1906. Orto. Havana. 1917-1925. '"""' New Yort. Ufn-11518. El ""*io. Havm. 190'l-19m ,,,.. Sodol. 1915-1925. Dig 1zedbyG O r iginal from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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bptlllla arMM Paris. llll8. RewirM ,.,,.,_,,_ ffaVIBL 1921-1922. atba& ffayw. 1900-19110. SocltlL Havma. 1923-1925. El Ve.-...o. 1910-1911. El V11U... OUMljay. Pimr deJ Rio. 1900. Amdemia de Hisroria. CplpjOp de dop,,,,,..w. A de IM Apmblcu de Bgrwncanrp y dcl C'.qMejo de Qobjemo dwwm la Qwm c1c; la nrr!flmri TSlllQ v. n&1199>. Ed. JCJIMlU{a Uavcrfal y E.mefcrio S Sanfaveaia. Hnvaa: lmpreala El Siato XX. 1932. Barbaraa. Enricple. fl Pumo de la rrpl!liA WliR de; la ljgw;ido pgltic:a y Cl!MDA c1c c bU> cl aoticmo ll"i"mi' Tgm.t1f.sJqdaPtlmay1w Mia QdmciHavana: Imp. Mililllr, 1911. Balrcl1 Oviedo. Ric:Ro. P. la bjllqjl: _.,.. IObis'fM:m. Havana: Seoae y Alvarez. 1912. Ball, Caddm. De Oig o( Cylp Pbiladelptaia. PA: J.B Lippincoll Co 1933. B.u.d. R.L. -rbe Cubm Nepo. .. Ntlf1A Mlmica RI*-184 (Man:b lS. 1907). 623--630. Cilaerol 8e-=oun. Salvador. Apf#41 IO tlw Alricu Plf* 1#""1/ of Cllbtl. Aupll 24. 1900. <=diam, Enrique. rm iM&"'Pm*-Havm:: lmpreala y Ubrerfa 'La Modena Poala.' 1900. ----.bu JMCaOf. CJafwp. Haww: Imp. c. Manfnez y Ca., 1905. tM AlorlD 1906. Havm: Imp. C. MmUcz y Ca., 1907. Cadle, RICael llld .b6 M. C..,.ay, 0wra de' Bmg Ncpw Om Bleome On Havm: Imp. Mill. 1912. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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688 Codilla.., Mmlel. Apoloi(o. Jo# JIM(. ()NdM pNmNC'kis por d Dr. Jo.Ii Alllwl 111 HllJ,__, c.-lladw> Ill ccldlNdtla Ill ..... 'Nocltl ...... Mani'"'-* tMl 2:1 ..,., 1929. Hanna: 1930. De cp-te, Oamlo. Eng Oak ttcr Qpwi1r;m, sm.1ak Cqr YbcQy. Hjatgy 1D4 Pm=' CqMljtjqa wilb die rw 1114 Jmtjfigrjm d be prrws War Coe lpdcjgndc!em Ed. Jolla Ouirau. New York: Publilben' Uaicm. 1897. De VdMco, Cartol. &gwlt palg; Pmi"'ri41 hill4riq. 2ad. Edilioa. HaYm: lmprenta y Papeleria 'La Universal', 1911. Dclpdo. Mlleul Pllrido. '"Marti en Cayo tt.lo." o.bua. llotrwrtO}e a.Ioli Mtlrtl 11 cclllatlrlo n llllldlrrlollo: l..o6 qw CCNIOCimM o '1ltlrli. (July 1951-Deccmber 1952), 73-71. Dom'8pcz Navarro, Ofelia. De 6 a 6: la yjda cm1 IM ll'itia-CMbepp, Mexico, D.F: 1937. F.dmda Pllma, TOlllM. Ocrlc cl Ce$1lo de B11m: de TqrW fAlgda Palm Eel CartOI de VciaKo. ffayma: Scx:iedld Edilmial die CUba CmfempDnea. 1918. Frye, A1ail Evaea. Mugal I*' =mma Hanna: 1900. o.aa Oil&. a.briel. """"""' Pdanwtlotl/J'tl: "' Dek.... 'hGbajo por" kllllhlko CarrapotW& 111 GMMIMcoa Dr Gtlbrlel Gard4 Galtbe 111 #n6fl ptiblico, 11 "'4 14 dldMltln 19'1. Havana: AmdemilL de Hillllria de c-. 1951. Oarri&d, Roque E. IA qmvlmp qelae. Hav11r1a: Imprenra 'La Rada.' 1906. ----. AJD*k& lcW Min(. liavw: a-bla y 8oU1.a, 1911. Odmcz, Jm OUllberto. "Mani y yo." la /WtlUi.1 C,,,,._, Hotrtaa}e o Jo$/ Manf 111 11 allllMrio. lllldmlalo: .os .. ""1nl. .(July 1951-December 1952), 64-71. ----.Canu 1nra1PTidp de Wgjm OOnrcc I Bi &!'nz dcl vn1ar. E.d. Daril Eva (kwz@ez md ,,_ Dflz Raque. Ciearuep: Ediciaaa Mlc!ml, 1992. 0omJn I NllD, Jcm. n;rp= y nu 1 dell !)En: la Nnw!dc Rep r ... IPrfih pm.....,._ ffam: lmprenla y Plpelcdade RNa. Boua y Ca., 1921. a-.. y Macbez, RmDUo. Nrrisne w** ""_..,a. =ud ll'imeriM 'rr _.. '!!'ed. HanM: Culllllll. S.A., 1931l. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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l111li1, Wllliam. -r'be Fubn ia om.." 7k Ntll1A ...,._ llnilw lit 3 (Ncwcmber 16, 1906), 1038-1040. ,.,,.., J.M. Pm Qdp El Mum Qpml JoM Mj ... Qoomcz la gglci'iA de Eltgda Pal )'kw idrelg mdw;jqwjm. Plppmt do Gnmo dc;l 11 ... Oppl JoM Mipl 00nw Havana: lmpeata y Plpelerfa Rmbla y Bouza. 1907. Mllllidl y Cllltal, Rmin>. La CM"ri"M cfyiq, y cl cjrde1er cl Ulm de la ptMia. Havw: Montalvo ya.dew. 1926. Mmd, Jo& -a paicio polaic:o en Cuba." In Obqt emplcM1. Havw: Edirorial de aeaa.. Sociala, 1991, 1: ----... A loscubaol." lnObqagmdcMlJfavm: Editorial de Cicaciu Socikl. 1991,262. ----. "Raolucioaes tomadl1 por la anipm:idn cubm1a de Tampa el dia 28 de aoviembre de 1891." In Qiu qg ..... Havana: f.clitcrial de Cimiu Soc:iales, 1991,. 1: 271-274. ----. "Bua del Pllnido Revoluci
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----. S..., a la lfhmwle Vol. 1. Slllla C-= UaiYlll'lidlld Cenlrm de 111 Villll, 1964.. Rubeal, Horacio S. Ybc!Qx: Ibo $PQ cl Qebp New Yortc &reww. W1m111 A Pucmm. Jnc.. 1. Rufz Sdla, Berwclo. The Color QMP'ion i111s Ttm A=jpr. Trw. Jolla Crolby Oonlaa. New Yort: The Hsmt Nlti .... Co.. 1922. Salmr. Salvidor. JMt Mtni. Colljaaldl Wlla d de la Hobaa cl JO de lflllT%D de 1911. HaY-= lmpreata Sisk> xx. 1918. 1'relJa. CmfOI M. FJ Pmlft'D Clgm I 1905) )'cl lllrttp> 09()6 I 1922) dc la n;plbliq de Qalla. Havw: lmplalC& el Score. 19.23. Trujillo, Enrique ApmlM bitt"rime Pngpg y mqyilnicnrql mdysigprige cuhepgt en llO Elg"ne Ugjdne dcrlc nm de IS be rcbgro de l119S. New y art: Tipoanfla Et Porvcnir,' 1896. Valdes Domlnpc'Z. Fennfn. Djario do &#rip 4 Voll. at. Hima Dupocney Fideaux. Havm: Univenidld de la Habina. CeDll'o de lnfon-ridn Ciend'"ac:a y Taica. 1972. Vicente Tejera. Diqo. Omf'm;nsjy Dilce y pgl'i'r drln Cl CUP Hnnp, Havm: lmpreata 'fJ Rpm,' 1899. ----. DieF Yiccntciem.1 ... 1g. Palri gmy P"IM'kYcubpo. Enaw bioJdfim penjcal do obg die y polftjca. Madrid: f.dmrdo J. 1981. W"allimm, Habert Pelblm. -rbe OUdook in CUba." 71w Adodc """"1 83 (Jame 1899), 826-838. Woodwd, Fmac R.E. Willa Mpg jn Qp Aclmlm cl Minwr1! Bqy. Minneapolis, MN: The Scadect Prialiq CGnplay, 1896. A....._. dcl MMf!m lgol. ffaYUa: Ubrcrfa e lmpieala ""La Plnplp!Mim." 1901. Mcpqia do la Mniiiaw;jM *1 PnwidcnM do la 'llPB"ie do Odp Ma)a' Qwg.I JoB Miauc' Q6mcz Mm d pgi, '''DP"rfido mP! cl 10. do cwn y cl 11 do diAcmlR l21Q. Hav..: Ramblay BouD.1911. la Nym liq qiqlla, Oyeprbe r-if!P Ms:j-A'M'MW! do la pma ggr UD rllrribm>. fA ec1. Havm: Modena Paella. nm. Dig lized by Goog e Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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----. SiJwe "IWiom." ID .fClll! MIW-.a Nlli
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696 ----. 'Q!n Ri#ul milD;iIM M&Q*m $'Nllc Cor Eplil)'. lptl912. Cllapel Hill. NC: UaavinitylJ( Nonb Cllolina Prell. 1 995. HeYia Llaier, Oilda. E Dimclmio """de" rmn. ..,.. de on 1w.111M. Havw: EdilDrill de Cieaciu Snam. 1996. Bobbi. Willimn flelbel1. I MNft1 WnO't Admijni ..... Sqldjcr, est Qlj1:CD. New Y ode O.P> AllUln '1 Som, 1920. Hobsbawm, Eric J. Na1ioM and Naifqllljan .UR llZO: PmJpnum. M)'lb MM1 Raljl)'. New Y art: Cambridae Uaivenity Plal. 1990. ----. Bendjta. Weideafcld .t NK:ollan. 19619 .. Hillg)'! ACrp:Cubln Nildpe ..a SnAclin d Cglgr jn tbc Ni,,,,c,;,,lh CmtllQj Baron RcJuie. Lk Louililaa Sia Uaivcnity Plea, 1998. -cJbarra. Jorp. Culll;: 185!8-1921. Mme IJQIRM:m y dew Piela Havm: Edirorial de CiCDc:ias Socillet, 1992. ----. Pmlopc IQ RcyQlution: Cyb&. 119!1:12S Boulder, CO: Lynne Ricnner Pubtilberl, 1998. I..-., Marial ... JOl6 Madi: Mito. lqitim11Ci6D y sfmbolo. La .... del milD m.niMo y la emerpacia del wioaalino repubiiamo (189.S.1920)." Piper praeated at Che Ccderence d die Ullin Americ:aa Sludiel Aaocialicm. W11biqtoa. D.C. Marcia 19516. ----. "'l.111 mmfcns del cmibio: lrUlformadones limbdlical en cl llUlilD del eaae imperiOI' (1898-1902)." Ph.D. diaenalioD. Uaivcnity d ffavm, in proare11. Jmaaoa, Elizabedl and S&mll Annicaae, eds. ]Vritina die Baa; Rn Om wt CUIDpg in die Wqmn'a WMJ. Normon., OK: University ci{ Oldebcwu Plal, 19!17. Jcaks. UflDCI Our CylM A Slud)t jg :su., New Yadc Vmpud Plaa. 1928 JOlepll. Oilbert. "On die TfliJ d Lalin Amcrialm B..u11: A .. wninuim Rai....,."Ldla Nmrialll lllWlw (1990): 8-52. Kaip&. Fruldin. Slue Saim in cw dmiQI Ille Ni ; nib r.-gy. Madi-= Ullivenity o(W'!ICXWja Prea. 19'10. LaFeber, Walla'. Die Anwjm AF U.S. Fcm;jp PqljQ' Hgv wt Al!md 17S> ro die D 'Z" ed. New Yark: W W Nortan A Co-, 1994. D191t1zed by og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN

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l> ----. Mapm ii o,.1p. A Hi9Q g(IM !lcppl l11eryeacjqa. IS!lftlgog. Chlpel Hill. NC: University ol Neda Carolia Prell. 1938. Ldpa Rodrftuez. Oam md Aida Mora1ea Tejeda. Piedql jmprm ""'cnl: Lang Cymqrja de .JgK Mini. Saali de ca: E.ditarial Orimle. 1999. lApez Sepen. Ftaaci1CO, '"lmperialilmo y cmmllimo ( 1902-1933)." In u n;Jldb'ica qmmlmje: amwjo de,.... .. eebeme Vol. 1. f.d. JU111 fmz de la Riva. ct al. Havw: Editorial de Cicnc:ial Socilla, um. 130-144. t.Wloa. Rorencia E. Pne IOd Na1jop: De MMiDI ol f'neplmjal Mgim RMI Pl!na. Bcrkdcy, CA: Uaivcnity ol California Plat. 1995. / '-.. An .J NM-' ldcpdLY= The Ympnlia Ptjntm. t927-19'Q. oaaemncUiiiYenity Plea o1 Rorida. 1994. Mm Mipd. Mlnuel P. fJ dcm Pahem )' la illfkpcr+rtja: IM iamtip;jqw de fgg;jpp Omzfcr dcl Valle C1Rl-1M2>. Compdia de Jads en las Anlilla. 1996. Moreno N. F.mique H. "Dala Lemoren la eailipcidn." Alllrario """""1to 1 (1969), 229-237. C>niz. Femando. Min( y IM qzp. Havw: 1953. ./ Onan, TbomU '"Polilicl ol Coler. The Racilll Dimemion ol a.a.a Foliticl During Republican Ycan.1900-1912." PU>. dillenlrion. New Yark Uaivcnity, 1975. Padilla. Hebefto. flm .. ,._,. Pfwio "1i*J dcl Cmf. lM f4jp0a qmmmm&jYL tft:JRL Milllli: Edic:ioaes Uniellll, 1998. ---.. .. -. Rober1 Ip W Mede M Bknt Tbc C9P11i!IQ' ell.a fplaa llMI die pmruq ....... F.mlli arc Slamy in Qdw. Middleton. CT: Waleyean University Preis, 1918. Pam. Fermm. a;wiar'fa ..,... um .. 1m. Havw: O.Ulidn N.cioaal OqaiDdora de lol ACIOI y Edicima del Celllewio y del Moawn-.o de MmU, 1954. Ma. Louil A. Dam llcnrw f.'lli ... 1878:1902. Pilllbuqll. PA: Uaivcnicy ol Pilllbursb Pnla.1Sl8J. ------.on U'*' 111c PLm A....,,.. um-tm PialbuaP, PA: Uaivenityol Piflitilqla ...... 1916. D iJ tized by G Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCON5JN

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----. l4dag(lhcMmein; Snsi' BeedilQ'llld?r mtP'!*!'inQdw 1871-1918. Pilllburp. PA: UlliYeni&y of Pilllbursb Prell, 1. ----. C11be Bcnvw RcCgm 114 Bcroluli1ia. 2-' ed. New York: Oxd'oni University Prea.1995. ----... Appmdlina Mlrtf: Tm and Context." ID lmaliniDI a Free CUbl; CadOI Maaycl ca.,,.-ud .kM Man(. F.d. JcM Amery VUquez. Prtwideace. RI: Thomas J. WlllOD Jr. lmci&ule for lldaDl.lioall Studies, 13-23. ----. Ibc Wv oC IM: The UnilC!d Satn1 & cy1a in Hjltqy & Hi ...... y. Cblpel Hill, NC: Uaiveni&y of Nonb Carolina 1998. Niu Carb6, Federico ... JoM MllU -f.Drique In El ARjbjyo Nacimal en la OWncnnw;jdo dcl Cptpperio dcl Nebt;cio cl!; .1al6 Min()' Pmz. 1853-um. Havana: Aldlivo Nlcioaal de Cuba. 1953, 613-6'76. Nrez-Slable. Marifeli. Ibc CuW RcyglUlion; IOrisim. Cgyae pd Lepe)'. New Y ode 'oxrorct Univeni&y Prea. 1993. Saaffn. Hiltqja dc;I Panidg1 llMlcp;Nj=tc cl!; Color. Havlna: Editorial Libreria Sdecra. 19S> Poyo. Gerald A ... JoM Mani: Aldlitect of Unity in lbe &nip Com.muniliel of die UnilC!d Stara." ID JgR Min(; RcyglllljQMQ' DCllOqll. F.d. Cllriltopber Abel and Nim Torren. DurUm. NC: Dub University Praa. 1Sl86. 16-31. ----. '"Wida All Md for Ille Qml d All": De mncr. ..... of,.... Na&jmelilm ig die C11ben Qnpnmjdca ct die Unil!!d S!e 11 .. lR. Durtulm, NC: Dub Univenity Plea..1989. PrilDella, Leon. QOnjq pehem 1915-1911: LI RccfcmM1: Mpql )'la 8nglw;i6n de 1917. La Oma cl!; lot Millgap, La e;lllCA OulCQI MpMjel. Hana: f.ditorill Lex. 1955.. ----. Ofmie mbev 1919-1922: Mcnosnl y la Up N'Siawl. ZQM y Opwdcr. Bo cl!; la Oma cl!; kw Mmmn Havw: Eclilon.l ILcx. 1955. Rm. Julio. D Pf"IC"IP' de la ptlsmjded ,. A'lti;a 'line; u,,,.n )' CD d RF XIX. Maico. D.F: Fe-*> de Culllnl &:c:iadmic:a, 1989. D191tized by G og Original from UN IVERS ITV OF WISCONSIN /

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Rodrfpez. Radl. E Ci Si's Qatp HaYw: Ecitarill 1.chl Cuhen. 1991. RomCllo Alfau. Fenllfa Trw MMI(. De .....,.,. cl "'-r.g.t. Ed. Pablo cle la Tonieare Bra Havma: 1995. Ruiz. Rmadn Edmrdo. Qh Tbc Mekin1 st Rcygl'lk-. Ambcnc. Mk UaiYCl'lity m MuacbllMUI Pim. 19til. Savala. Iris. Q>lgpjalilm NMI Cullllg ffi-js; Mpkrnirm NM1 the SOP" InliDMJ. Bloomiqton. IN: !Mi Ullivcnity. 1992. .-............ RebecD. 311ve jn Culp Tbc Dwjlic:m IA fme I n 15)..lM. Priacetoa, NJ: Princetoa Univenity Prat. 15185. --"Cubm? Spaiard? Anucbilt'l Almcbilt IDlenlllicmlilm C.oafron11 lbe NatiONliaa. 18!ll&-1925." Paper prz1 ml 11 cbe Ccarenncc oldie American HillOrical Aaoci1tion. Scaalc, W1mqrcm December 1997. Schwanz, Roalie. Lawtca Uhmtm!; Pgliljql Bepcljgy !!Ml Cnhep fwlcl""e:tc:rz Durbam. NC: Dub Univenity Aas. 1989. SkJCtin, Ricbard. '"Buffalo Bill '1 'W'ald wm. IDd lbe MylbolopZllion of die American Empile. .. In Culpm gC Unill!d Sbtn lml1C'i'li EAL Amy Kaplm IDd Doalld E. Pa& Dudllm. NC: Duke Uaivcnity Prma. 1993. Smidl, Carol A. "Orip m lbe Nalioul Qmllion in Ot-..11 A HypcGais" In P.eM"M ldn ""' llM; Slllc,; ISl>-1918. Ed. Carol A. Smidl widl Marilyn A. Moon. AUltia. TX: UaivcnityolTexaaPral.1990).83-90. Solo, f.icm. i. Rcyolw;jdo c1c1 n. 3 Vols. Havw: &lim.l Pueblo y EducKida. 15185. $1oiir. Lynn. frgm die th= IP lbc 8"'rs Tbc P.W WC1DCQ Mmmwng CCI' I cp' Rcfgnn 1891-1940. Durt1m. NC: Dub Uaiveaity Plea. 1997. Taylar, Quilllald. In Scerp gC die !eiel Bmtjcr; Mrigp Amjpne iD cbe Amnjqp W 1$11.1Sl9Q. New York: W.W. Nortma.1990. T'baalll, ffuP. on nc Ptmi' ct fl=t. 7" New v mt: o. c.ipo Pim. 19!ill. Trellel, Cadol M. BUliopffa Cpbw dcl go XX. Teng Pri.,,,., OSQ>-1916\. .,.,...,_: llllplalla cle la VclL de Qui* y &nda. 1916. D1g1tized by ooge Original from UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

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'700 Vioai da COiia, Emilia. 1'llc Brw.jliM fm11hs t.b1IM 1114 tfj.,,;,,, CllicaF Uninnity of ClicaF Prem. 1915. W-allillDI. Wablr L "Ullieed Sllfa Indian PcJlicy l8d dae Dale 011 Pbilippille Anneurioa: lmptic:llioal of die Orip of Americ:m lmperialilm." 1111 lotntll llbloty.
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