The Natural History Of Barbados. In Ten Books

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Title:
The Natural History Of Barbados. In Ten Books
Physical Description:
4, vii, 13, 250, *251-*254, 251-314, 20 p., 1, 10, 1, 11-24, 24-29 leaves of plates (1 folded) : ill., map (engravings) ; 43 cm. (fol.)
Language:
English
Creator:
Hughes, Griffith
Publisher:
Printed for the author ; and sold by most booksellers in Great Britain and Ireland,
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Barbados
Botany -- Barbados
Zoology -- Barbados
Natural History -- Barbados
Botany.
Natural history.
Zoology.
Barbados.

Notes

Abstract:
The Natural History Of Barbados. In Ten Books (London, 1750),
Statement of Responsibility:
by the Reverend Mr. Griffith Hughes ...
General Note:
With a list of subscribers. A slip containing errata to the list of subscribers is pasted to the verso of p.vii. The final ten leaves contain 'Explanatory notes', addenda, and index. Without the final errata leaf found in the ordinary paper issue; the errata have not been corrected. Large paper issue. The plate following plate 10 is numbered 'X*'. Ornament on p.97 differs from that in ordinary paper issue. Cf. ESTC. Head- and tail-pieces; initials. NLM copy has no errata slip; errata printed on verso of p. vii. NLM copy lacking plate 26.
General Note:
Responsibility: by the Reverend Mr. Griffith Hughes ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
See: https://archive.org/details/mobot31753000322294
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 14335085
System ID:
AA00019784:00001


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THE (L.l t% NATURAL HISTORY \ O F yi A D I IN TEN BOOKS. i By the Re"werend i-iril HUGH \ ^rffHS'^ jBf"*^ j*%V^-V' '-.'Redtor of St. Luc y's Parifb, in the faid Ifland, and F. R. S X I ij LONDON: Printed for the AUTHOR 5 ^ ^^ And fold by moil Bookfelkrs in Great Britain and Ireland, MDCCL, r Missouri BoTANrcAfl

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^ ^ w^^ ^

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. L T H G R ACE } T H M ^ y BY DIVINE PERMISSION, Lord Archbifliop ofCANTERBURV ? THE FOLLOWING WORK IS 7 WITH THE GkEATEST D UTY AND RESPECT. INSCRIBED, BY I HIS GRACE'S MOST OBEDIENT AND HUMBLE SERVANT, G. Hughes.

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A T O F T H E u R V. l^hofe whofe Names r are marked thus ^y are Subfcribers fof large Paper. JLJI S Moji Chrijlian Majesty. ^ ^ His Royal Highnefs, the Prince of Wa Her Royal Highnefs the Princefs of Wales. His Royal Highnefs the Duke of Cumberla: His Mojl Sere7te Highnefs the Prince of H His Mojl Serene Highnefs the Prince of Sax His Mofi Serene Highnefs the Landgrave of His MoJi Serene Highnefs the Duke of Orli * * A. jrj^^ G'r^'^f tbe Duke of St. Albans. J^J^ His Grace the Archbi (hop of Avmd.^, Lord Primate of all Ireland. His Excellency the Right Hon. the Earl of Albemarle. Right Hon. the Earl of Ahingdion, Right Hon. the Earl c/Arran. Right Hon. the Earl of Ancvzm. Right Hon. Lord Anfon. Right Rev. the Lord Bi/lo&p Afaph. Hon. Sir Atwil Lake. ; All-Souls College, Oxford. Mr. Francis Abbyvan, Thomas Adams, Efq-y Mr. Jonathan Adams. Mr, James Adams, of St. Mr. James Adamfon. Jofeph Addifon. Andrew AfBick, Efq-, Ralph Allen, Efq; Dr. Reynold Alleyne, Reynold Alleyne, Efq; Mr. James Alport. Mr. John Alfop. Sir Stephen Anderfon, Bart, Heniy Anderfon, Efq-, Mr, Andrews, Apothecary. Hon. Thomas Applethwaite, two Books, Mrs. Archer. Mr. Edward Archer, jun, John Archer, jun, William Arderen, F.R.S, George Armftrong, Efq-y Mr, Samuel Armftrong. Mr,

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A Z 75 r 0/ S If B S C R I B E R S. Mr, William Atherly. ^ir John St, Aubyn, Bart. Rev. Dr. Ayifcough, Clerk of the Chfet to his Royal Highnefs the Frince of Wales. B. lih Grace the Duke o/" Bedford. Ri^ht Hon. the Earl of Burlington, two Books. r Right Hon. the Ear! Bi'ooke. Right Hm. the Earl ofButc. Right Hon. the Earl of BlcfCington. Right Hon. the Lord Vifcoiint Bolingbroke. Right Hon. the LordNviz. Beauclerc, Baron (f Hanworth. Right Rev. Lord Bijhop o/* Bangor. His Excellency the Chevalier Bathget, his lifiperial Majejlfs Refident at Venice. Right Rev. the Lord Bifiop of Briftol. Sir John Barnard, Knt. alderman, Mr, Robert Babb. Richard Lovel Badcock. Rev. Mr. Barnard, ReSior of Bridgetown in Barbados. Mr. Abraham Barnard. Edward Barry, M. D. James Barry, Efq; Mr. Richard Barton, B. D^ John Bartrum. Edward Bartrum, Hon. William Barwick, Efq; Mr. Samuel Barwick, Mrs. Sufanna Barwick, ReliB of the late Prefident Barwick. Mr. Samuel Barrow. Benjamin Bafwain, Efq-, Thomas Baxter, Efq-y Mr. John Bayly. Rev. Dr. Bearcroft, Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majefly. Henry Bellingham, Efq\ Mr. George Bell, Surgeox^^ F. R. S, Francis Bell, Efq; Mr. Robert Beckles. Samuel Bedford, John Beft, Efq; Mr, Robert Belgrave. William Belgrave. Slingfby Bethel, Efq; Alderman. Rev. Thomas Berdmore, D. D. Mr. Ambrofe Beurer, Apothecary at Nuremberg. Mr. John Berisford. Rev. Jofcph Bewflier, two Books, Mr. Bickham, Engraver Rev. Mr, Thomas Birch, A. M. F.R.S Henry Bifliop, Efq; Rowland Blackman, Efq; Trimmingham Blackwell, Efq; Mrs. Prifcilla Blackman. Jonathan Blenman, Efq; Attorney Ge7teral o/' Barbados, three Books. Mr. Robert Board. Mr. Robert Bend. r Charles Bolton. r John Bonnel, Efq; Mr. Booth. Benjamin Boflock. Hon, William Boverie, Efq; ;. Robert Bouchier, Efq; Mr, Thomas Bourne. Mr, Thomas Bowen. James Bowyer. John Brace, Efq; Edward Brace, Efq; Mr. Samuel Brace. John Brathwaite, Efq; Mr, Robert Brathwaite, jun, Mr. John Brewfler, Mr, Thomas Brewfler. Hon. George Bridges, Efq; Mr. Brindly, Bookfeller, The Rev. Mr. Philip Brown, B. D. Afr. Broome. John Brougham. Seigneur de Brummer. William Bryant, A. B. two Books. Hon. James Bruce, EJq; two Books. Henry Banbrigge Buckeridge, Efq; JZoK.^/r, Thomas Burnet, Ejit, two Books. Rev. Dr. Burton. Mr, Charles Barton. Charles Bufh, Efq; Mr. Edward Butcher. William Butcher. James Butcher. Mr. Butterfield. Rev. Mr. Byam, ReSior of St. JohnV, Antigua. C. His Grace thk Lord Archbifoop of Canterbury, two Books. Right Hon. the Lord High Chancellor. His Grace the Duke of Chaulnes, Ri'eftdent of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, Right Hon. the Earl of Chefterfield. Right Hon. the Lord Caftlemaine. Right Rev. the Lord Bijhop of Carliflc; Sir William Calvert, Knt, Alderman, Hon. John Campbell, EfqWalter Caddie, Efq; Thomas Cadogan, Efq; Mr. Jofeph Calendar, Mr. A -^. '.' y Y B ^ \ < .^* M ^ ..^'' r V * 4 ^ h 4 ^, ^ ^ I \ .:'

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^ A LIST of SUBSCRIBERS. \ Mr. Richard Calendar. Archibald Campbell, Efq\ John Campbell, Efq-y of Red-Lion-fireet ^ Holborn. Archibald Carmichael, Efq-, Mr. John Carmady, jun. Hon, James Carter, £/^; Mr, Fofler Carter. Rev Mr, John Carter, A. M, t'wo Bovks, Mr. William Carter. Mr. Chilcot, Organift at Bath. Codrington Carington, E/^j Mr, Paul Carington. John CaiTon. William Cattel, Surgeon^ two Booh, *^ Rev. Mr. Cauthorne, A. M. Rev, Mr, Chamberlainc. \ Sir Charles Bagot Chefler, Barf, Mr, Charles Child. Robert Cholmondeley, Efq; Mr. John Clark, Bookfeller. Dr. John Clark. Mr. Samuel Clark. Thomas Clark, Efq-j Monfieur Clement. Benjamin Clinket, E/^; Mr, Benjamin Cleeve, Merchant, Abraham Chovet, Surgeon. James Cockburne, Efq-^ John Cobham, Efq; il^. Thomas C.obham. Capt. William Cogan. Dr, Clow. Mr, Laurence Cole. *Hon. John Colleton/ E/^; James Edward Colleton, Efq', Rev, Mr. Collins. Riv. Mr, Giles Collins. Rev. Mr. William Collins. Mr. Peter Collinfon. Mr. Samuel Cooper. Rev, Dr, Conner, Fellow of St, John's College, Oxford. Mr. Samuel Cooper, •o/'NorwIc'h. Rev. Dr. Conybeare, Dean of ChrijiChurch, Oxford. John Conyers, Ejq-, of Corpus-Chrilii College, Oxon. Mr, Mendez de Cofla. Richard Cowl am. Rev. Mr, James Cox, Redlor of Suneam in Kent. Dr, William Cox. Mp, William Coxal. Mr. William Croft. Mr. John Crew, o/' Crew-Hall, Efq; Mr, Craten. ( David Crow, Efq-, Mr, Thomas Cruife. * * m % * D. His Grace the Duke o/"Dorfet. Mis Grace the Duke of Devoniliire, two Books, w Right Rev. the Lord Bifop of St. Davids. Right Rev. the Lord Bifop of Derry. James DawkinSj Efq; three Books, Mr. Michael Dale. Mr, John Dapwell. Sir James Dafhwood, Bart, Henry Dafliwood, Efq; Rev. Dr, Derham, Prefdenf of St. John's College, Oxford^ four Books, Rev. Dr. Dclany. Theophllus Defbrlfay, Mr. Andrew Derry. Ifajic Del-Peza. Daniel Devine. Richard Devency, .. Richard Dilling. Thomas Dipper. Hon. John Dottln, Efq; two Books, Z)r. John Douglas. Rev, Mr, Dowding, B. D, William Downes, Efq; Richard Downes, Efq; Mr. Purfer Downes. William Drake, Efq; Mrs, Elizabeth Drake, Thomas Drake, Efq; Mr. Andrew Derry. Henry Drax, Efq; Mr. Samuel Drayton. John Drayton, Francis Drayton. William Duffy, Efq; Thomas Duke, Efq; Mr, William Duke, two Books, John Dunbar. Michael Duncan. Capt. Dunn. Rev. Robert Dymond. Mr, Theophilus Dymond, Rev, Mr, Dyer. Robert Dynwiddie, Efq; * E. Right Rev. the Lord Bifop of Ely, Right Rev. the Lord, Btfiop oj Exeter, Mr, Richard Eaton. Mr.

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of SUBSCRIBERS. Mr. Eafton, Bookfeiier in Sallibury. Matthew Eber, £/?j Mr. Samuel Eburne. Mr. Simon Edwards, Richard Edwards, R/q-^ Mafler in Chancery, Philip Edwards, Efq^^ Mr, Edwards of the College of Phyficians, two Books. Rev. Mr. Edward Edwards, A. M, Philip Edwards, Efq-, Mr. Richard Edwards. Mr. Simon Edwards. Rfv, Mr. Robert Edwards, A. B. Mr. Robert Edwards. -* Mr. G. D. Ehret. Anthony Eiver, Efq; Richard Eftwick, Efq-, Mr. Richard Roufe Eflwick. Rev. Mr. Evans, A.M. Rev. Mr. Ewyn. F. Rev. Dr. Fanfliaw, Regws Pro/ejor of Divinity at Oxford. Mrs. Anne Farreli, Mn John Farr. Hon. Governor Fleming. Martin Folks, Efq-, P.R.S. Ho7i. John Fairchild, EJq-, Mr. Jofeph Farley, two Books. Robert Firchurfon, Efq-, t-wo Books, Francis Find, jmi. Ejq-^ Thomas Finlay, Efq-, Mr. Fitzherbert. Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, Efq-, Mr. Fletcher, William Fletcher. Thomas Forbes. Rev. Mr. Foote, L. L. B, Francis Ford, jun. Efqi Capt. William Fofter, two Books. Rev. Mr. Reynold Fofler, A.M-. two Books. Mr. Ingham Fofler. Mrs. Hannah Fofter. Rev. Mr. Fothergil, B. D. Fothergil, M. D. Rev. Mr. Fothergil, A.M. Chriftopher Freife, Efq; John French, Efq; Tobias Frere, Efq-^ Thom.asFox, Efh-, Jonathan Franklin, Efq-^ Mr. Michael Fortune, William Fuller. * G. His Grace the Duke of Grafton. Right Hon. the Lord Gowran. Right Ho7t. the Lady Betty Germaine.' Right Rev. the LordBiJloop o/"Gloucefter. His Excellency Henry Greenville, Governor of Barbados, &c./a: Books. Hon. John Gallop, Efq-^ Mr. Gammon. Chriftopher Gall, Efq-, Eftick Gall, Efq-, Mr. William Gall, Samuel Game. Dr. Jofeph Gamble. George Gafcoigne, Efq-, Mr. John Gafcoigne. Hon. John Gibbons, Efq-, two Books Hon William Gibbons, EfqSpeaker of the Apmbly at Barbados, two Booh • Hon. Philip Gibbs, Efq; Philip Gibbs, ;W. EfqWilliam Gibbs, Efq-, Dr. John Gibbs, . .. Mr. Jofeph Gibbs, Rowland Gibfon. >:-. ^ Rev. Charles GiiFord, A. M.Mr. Thomas Gilks. Edward Gore, Efq-, Mr. Henry Gorfely. . Richard Gofiing, Efq-, .f Dr. Charles Goudy, EfqM-. William G&ugh. .Samuel Gould, Bookfeiier. Capt. Samuel Goulding. / '* Mr. John Grant. Charles Gray, Efq-^ Gray's Inn Library. George Greamc, Efq-, Rev. Dr. Greene, Fellow of St. John's College^ Oxford. Mr. William Green. John Grey, Efq-^ Mrs. Elizabeth Grey. Mr. Edmund Grey. Mr. Edward Grey. Rev. Mr. Walter Griffith, A.M. four Books. ^ ~ Mr. Samuel Griffin. Robert Grifley, M.D. Edward Grove, Efq-^ two Books. William Gulfton, Efq-, % H. Right Hon. the Earl of Halifax. Right Hon. the Earl of Harcourt. Right

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-*. A ^ of BSCRI BERS. of at. Got* Right Hon. the Countefs of Huntington. Right Hon. the Lady Harcourt. Right Hon. the Lady Howe. Right Hon. Lord Effingham Howard, *• Right Hon. and Rev, the Lord Bifiop Hereford. Hon. Sir Edward Hawke, K\ B. Rev, Dr. Hales, Dr. Halliar, Ryofeffior of Botany tingen. — Hal fey, EJq; Hc;2. Charles Hamilton, E/^; ilfn Richard Hamilton, Surgeon. William Hamilton, Efq; Capt. Patrick Hamilton, o/" Jamaica: George Hannay, Efq-^ John Hannington, Efq-, Mrs. Hannington. Mr. William Hall. Richard Hall, Efi-, Mr. Hugh Hail.' • Mr, Barnard Hall. Rev. Mr. Hall, L. L. B. Mr. Richard Halfewood. Henry HalTcl, Efq; Rev. Mr. William Haggat. ' 'Mrs. Sufannah Haggat, Jl/r. Samuel Hallam. John Harrifon, Efq-, two Books. Cheney Hart, M. D. 'Mr. Edward Harrifon. John Hartford Ward Harris, EJq-, Mr. Thoniks Harris; v Mrj. Jane Harper. Mr. John Hartford. ^ George Hartle. Mr. Henry PlalTel. John Hotherfal, Efq-, John Hay, L. L.D. Fellow of St. John'i College, Oxford. Capt, Henry. Mr. William Henry* ^ Dr. John Heme. ; Sir William Heathcote* Benjamin Heath, Efq,, James Herbert, EJq; Thomas Hefketh, Efq; John Hill, Efq-, Secretary to the Board of Urade. Thomas Hill, Efp Mr. Benjamin Hinds. -•' Rev. Dr. Holden, Prefdent'_ of the Englifh Seminary at Paris. -. William Holder, E/y; Mr, Henry Evan Holder. John Allen Holder. Robert Holdford, Efq-, * h Capt. Thomas Holland, two B-odh. Mr. HoUioake, Surgeon. Thomas Home, Efq-, Robert Hooper, Efq\ • Mr. Thomas Hope. Rev, Dr. Horfeman. : John Hotherfal, E/^'i .; /. Rev. Mr. Richard Hotchkifs, A. M._ four Booh. Charles Grave Hudfon, Efq; Gentleman ^ Commoner of Edmund-JTis//, Oxon. Rev, Obadiah Hughes, D. D. two Books. Rev. Mr. Lewis Hughs, A. M. Mr. Richard Hughes, Piirfer of His Ma-Jeffs Ship the AlTurance, three Books. Mrs. Sufannah Hughes. Mr. John Hughs, Printer. ^ Hugo Phyfician in Ordinary to his * Majejiy at Hanover. Hugo, Phyfician to the Hotf^old. -i^ Mrs. Hulfton. Rev. Mr. Humphry Humphreys, A. B. Rev. Dr. Hunt, Prof (for oj Hebrew Oxford. Richard Hunt, Efq-y Rev. Mr. Hunter, J. M. Hon. Samuel Hufbands, Efq; Richard Plufbands, £/^; ; Mr, John HufTey. Robert Hutchinfon. tft -'jI. * St. John'i College Library, Oxford.
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JLlSfofSJJ *' Rev. Mr, Lewis jbnes^ J. M. Re^^ of Mowddwy. Rev. Mr. JoneSi Rev. Mr, Jones, jl. M. of Elflree. Rev. Mr. Jones of Jeftis Coh Oxford. A\ M. Mr. Jones of Hempftead, Joreph Jordan, fen. Efji Mr. Jofeph Jordan. JUH; Hurdefs Jordan^ EJq-^ SirWiiliatnlrby, BarK -JofHua Iremofiger, £/^j Edward Ifonfide, Efq^j n, r t ^0^, M.dmiral ICnovvles. -R^i;. Z)r. Kendrick. Mr. John Kendi-ick; Tames Keith. Mri. Kennons, /'iro Booh. Henry Peter Ring, i^/yi Rev. Mr. Arnold Kingi A. M Rev. Mr. Richard King, A. M. jac. Th'ebd. Klein, Reip. Ged. a fecrefh Regite Soviet at is Lmdin. & AaideMa Scieniiarum Sodfllh. Mr. Thomas, Knights. Samuel fenights. Francis KnowleSj Efq-, \ ^ > L. ^ * His Graae the Duke af Leeds. Right Hon. Earl of Leiceflcr. Right Hon. Lady Luxborough. Right Rev. Lord Bifiop o/" London. Right &ev. Lord Bijhop of Lincoln: Right Rev. the late Bijhop of Litchfield. Right Av. Lord Bijhop of Landa'S Mr. Lafartie. Sir Bibye Lake, Sart, Thomas Lake, fi/^j Mri Sartiuei Lake. Ho72. Lady Lambert; iVfr. Alexander Lamplcy^ John Lahe, Efq^ Rev. Mr. Langford, A, M. Rev. Mr, Larkham, Fellow of 'Corpus Chrifii College, Oxoni Mr. John Lawfon. Jofeph Laycocki Samufel Leach; '^ Leach Leach. . John Leary; Capti John Leatherheircl. Mr. Matthew Lee, James Lee. Henry Leflie, Efq\ Mr. Bowman Leflie.Thomas Leflie,jE/^> BSCRIBERS. George Levine, Efq\ Mr. William Levine. Ifaac Levine, Efq-y i^^u. Mr. James Lewis. John Lewis, Efq-, Agent Vidlmlier at Gibraltar. Mn Samuel Lewis. Temple Lewis, Efq^ John Liyte, Efq\, Mr. Thomas Light Anthony Linch, David Lifle, £/y; ^ Charles Long, Efq-, Mr. Charles Long. Philip Lovewel!. Herman Louis. Charles Lowth* Samuel Lloyd. Dr. Nathaniel Lloyd* Rev. Mr. Lloyd, B. D. ; Dr. Thomas Lycott. Rev. Dr. Charles LyttletoHj Dean of Extt^v* i?;^^^ i;/'oi George Lyttleton, Efq;' J ^ M.' Right Hon. ^ar I of Macclesfield. Right lion. Earl of Moreton. Right Hon. Lord Maynard, fwo Books. Right Hon. Lord Montfort. Right Hon. Lord James Manners* Right Rev. Lord Bifhnp of Meath. His Excellency '. Mathews, Efq-, Gtfvernor of Antigua, Aifiick Mackleur, Effy f^vo Books, ; Mancumara, A/. D* i?/ Barbadost A r-Magdalene College Library i Francis M'Mahon, Efq^, Samuel Mapp, Efq-, Thomas Mapp, Efq-y Dr. Martin, Dean of Worcefler. TWr. James MafcoL Benjamin Maflie. Mrs. Malfie. . Mr, John MafhaL William Maflline* M. Matty, M.D, Mri John MayhevV. Hon. William Maynardj S/^j tmo Bcoks, John -Maynard, Efq-y Jonas Maynard, Efq-, Mr. Mayntown, oj Gray'/^s. Richard Mead, M. JD, Benjamin Mellowes, Efq-y t^o BookSi Mofes Mendez, t^fyy Mr. William Meyer, -Bookfelkr,. Richard Meyrick, M. D. Owen Meyrick, Efqy

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tit tl, *^1 J LIST of S\ Humphrey Mildmay, Eff, John Millington, £^; Rev. Dr. Mills. Afr. John Middlcton. Francis Miller, Efq-, Mr, Joieph Mills, Timothy Miller. ^ Elias Miviellc, Efq; , Robert Mitchell, Efq; John Molefworth, E/^j Gentleman^Commoner of Baliol College, Oxon. iZtf-y, Mr, Moore, Cz^r^/tr o/'*S^ Sepulchre's. Daniel Moor, Efq-y Humphry Moftyn, Efq, William Moll, Efq; Mr. Jofeph Moll. John Monroe, Af. £)• Mr. John Mottley. Rev. Mr. Edward Morgan, A. M. Rev. Mr. Thomas Morgan, A. M. of Cheltenham, two Bopks. Samuel Morgan, Efq-, Mr. Lewis Morris. Jafper MorHs, Efq; R^v. Mn Kennet Mr. Mountfbrd, 'Bookfclkr at Worcefter. James Mount. U/i Gr^rf /^^ Dz^i^f of Norfolki His Grace the Duke of N-ewcaftle* Right Hon. the Earl of Nortlaampton. Right Hon, the Earl of Northumberland. Right Rev Lord Bijhof ^'MpJ:'wicht James Nafli, Efq; Hon. John N^dham, Effj Mr. Turbevil;le Ncedham. SamuelNewnawa. ;" New College Library, Rev, Dr. Newton. John Newton, Efq^ Mr. Nathaniel Newton. Mrs, Newton^ BookfiUer^ M Mancheftefi Afn William Nibs, jnn. Benjamin Nichoils. Rev. Dr. NichoUsj Chaplain io the Right Rev, Lord Bifiop of London. Mr, William NichollS; Mordecai Nunes^ William Nut, Samuel Nurfci ^' J r m Right Hon. Earl ofOtmf* \ BSCRIBERS. r Right Rev. Lord Bifiop o/ Oxford. HonLieutenant-General James Oglethorpe, Str Chaloner Ogle, K7if. Rgwland Oliver, Efq-, Oriel College Library. Robert Olborne, Efq; Samuel Ofborne, Efq-^ Mr, James Oflwrnc, of Alban-Hall. James Ofborne, Efq; * of Gray's^Inn^ScpiJ* * * * * * Mr. Thomas Ofborne, feller^ fix Books, John Oftraham* Corbet Owen, Efq; Hugh Owen, M. D, Richard Owen, Efq; Humphrey Owen, B. JD. of Jefus Colkge, Oxon. Rev. Mr. Owen Owen, A. M, Mr. John Oxley. Edward Oxnard. r , P. His Grace the Duke o/" Portland. Her Grace the Dutchefs of Portlarid. Right Hon. Countefs o/Pomfret. Right Rev. Lord Bifhop' of Petef borough. Right Hon. Henry Pelham^ Bfq; Francis Paddie, £/^; Mr. Samuel Palmer. Rev. Dr. Pardo, principal pf '^c^s Qolle^^^ Oxon. James Parfpns,' MDRichard Parrot, Ejq; Mr, Edward Clark Parilli', Merchant. • ^ Parrot, Surgeon, Samuel Parry, Attorney ttt l^aiv. William Paterfon, Efq; ' Thomas Patridge, Efq; ; ' Mr. Eyre Payne.. John Payne, two Books, Thomas Abel Payne. Thomas Payne. Mrs, Pearfon, John Pennant, Efq; Henry Pennant, Eff; Dr. John Penny. Rev Mr. Jonathan Pei^kirld. Rev. 'Mr. Richard Perry, A^M. Student of Chn^ Church, Oxon,^ Mr^ Samuel Perry. William Perry, Efq; William Peterfon, Mr. William Petersr S^ ^. L_ F y
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^ ^ -J 1 S T of % f "\ BSC^iBEltS. Ix.ri 7J.^. Dn Pickering, \?7a^^ 5A Sepul-. chre's. John Pickering, Efqy Jofeph Pickering, Efq; ^^ Rev, Mr. Pearce, ^. M.Tir^^ ?A Tillingham in Efifex., Mr. Thomas Pierce, jtin: William Pierce. ConradePile, Efq-, :Mr. Daniel Pindar. ; Philadelphia Library. .Mr. George Philips. John Philips. William Phelps, Efq-, Mt. Thomas Plumftead. Mrs-, Mary-Anne Popple. Mr. Powel, Jpotbecary. Mrs. Anne Poyer. John Poyer, Ejf, Henry Pratten, £/§<; Capt. John Prentice. Mr. William Prefcod. James Prideaux, Efq-j Mr. JohnPriilee. >Thomas Pridee. F^rancis ft.oines, Samuel Pyet, CkxCQXi's College Library, dxori. ./' R. His Gracethe Duke of Rutland. Right Hon. Earl of Radnor. Right Hon. Lord Romney. ' Right Reverend Lord Bifl^op df Rochefter;Br. John Raven* ThomasRevell, E/^j. Capi. James Rawlins. Thomas Reeve^ Efq, Mr. John Reeves. Rev. Mr. John Reynolds, A^ ^* Nicholas Rice, Efq, Mr. Jofeph Rider. George Rider. ^ Meffrs. John and James. Rivmgton. Sir Thomas Robinfon, Knt, James Rogers, M^ T>. Jofeph RoleAone, Efq-, • 1* Rev. Mr. Romaine, J. M. LeSlurer of St. Dunftan' Rev. Mr. Roman, B. D. Rev. M''. Patrick Rofe, A. M> Mr. William Rofs. Rev. Mr. Thomas Rotherham, J. M. two Books. Rev. Mr. John Rotherham, J. B. '^' H()n. Samuel Roufe, Efq-.four Boohs, *. Thomas Roufe, E/^; ,.*'v': Hillary Rowe. Efq; two Books, Mr, James Royftone, Merchant. Philip Rudder. David Rudder, Efq-, S. Right Hon, Earl of Sandwich. Right Hon. Countefs o/ Sandwich; Right Hon. Countefs o/ Sunderland; J?/p-^^How. E^Wo/'Shaftfbury; Right Rev. Lord Bifiop of Saliftury. Hon. Andrew Stone,_ Efq-, Commiftoner of Tirade and Plantations. Mr. John Salmon. William Salmon. Hon. Richard Salter, Efq; ,^ ^ Ho?i. William Sandiford, Efq-, two Books-. Mr. John Sandiford. William Sealy, Efq; Mr. James Scott. Z)r. James Sedgwick; Rev. A&-. Seers, A. AT; John Sericold, Efq-, John Sharp, Efq; , Rev. Dr. Shaw, Principal ^Edmund-hall • Oxon. James Sheppard, Efq; '. Rev. Mr. Shipley, A. M, Rev. Mr. Shive, A. M ^ Mr. Philip Simons. William Shurland. •* 'Charles Shurland. . Reynold Skeet, £/ys '. ,' Rev. Dr. Skerret. Sir Hans Sloane, Bart, *' Mr. Slaughtei-i of Newgatejl feet > ^ :-: Rev. Thomas Smith, D. D* Tennifon Smith, Efq-, Richard Smith, Merchant, Efq; two Books, Edward Smyth, M. D. Edward Smith, Efq; Mr. Samuel Smith. Henry Smith*. Henry Snock, Efq; Mr. John Southward. Mr. Thomas Speck. Jofeph Sponfhall. Thomas Stack, M. D. Thomas Stevenfon, Efqy Mr, Roger Stevens. Rev. Mr, Stennet, Mr. James Streaker. George Stretch. George Streate. Demmock Streate. Benjamin Stoute. William Sturge, Efq; lELei), 1

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A LIST of SUBSCRIBERS. Rev. Dr. Stukelcy. John Sutton, Efq, of Jamaica; Samuel Francis Swinden, Ef^-, Mr. Symons. T. Rigbf Hon. Earl of Tilney. His Excellency Edward Trelawneyj Governor of Jamaica. Mr. Fimington Tatem. James Taylor; Jofepll Taylor. Jofeph Terril, Efq; two Books*. Mr. William Terrih Douding ThornhilL William Thorne. Thomas Thorneton, Ef^i Mri Samuel Tavers. •^ Dr, Chrillopha-iis Jacobus Trew, at Nurenberg. • Mr. John Tucker. Rev. Mr. Jofiah Tuckcl", ^.M. Mr. John TuU. Thomas Tunckes, Ef^; t'm Booh; Mr. Nicholas Turner. Cholmondky Turner,E/^ ; T^^ Library of St.Thon\zs's Hofpital^ Mr. George Thomas. ; Mr. Thomas Thomfofi; Touchitt, MerckaiiL Edward Tymc well, Efy-^ * Right Son. the Ccimtefs of Uxfcridg William Vaughan, E^j Thomas Vaughan^ Ejq-^ ,. Mr, Stumford Vanhulfl.* Edward Vernon, Efq-, Mr. James Virtue. w. ^ Right Houi Lord Vifcouni Wlndfor. Right Rev. Lord Btfiop of Winchefter Right Rev. LordBifiop of Worcefler.Right Hon. Lord Chief Jiiftice Willes. Walter Wade of Llfbon, M. D. Robert Wadefon, Efqy tivo Books. John Waite, E/y; Eyre Walcott, Efq; Thomas Walcott, Efq; Mr. Samuel Walcott. Mr, Charles Waller. Antony Waldron. Abel Walker, Efg; two BookSi^ Hon. George Walker, Efq-^ Mr. Jofeph Walker. William Walker, Efqi iif *Merchant, ifi Tower Hill. Mr. Peter Walker, . Rev. Mr. William Warburton, Chaplaiti to His Royal Highnejs the Prince of Wales. Aflon Warner, Efq; ..,'., -• Mr. Richard Warner, of Lincoln'^ Inn. Thomas Warner, Efq; of Antigua. William Warren, Efq; Robert Warren, Efq-, Thomas Watermanj Efq$ -' Mr. William Wats-; Watfon. William Wayles; Thomas Weales. ^| Henry Webb, Efq-, Mr. Jofliua Webfter, Surgeon. Hon. Ralph Weeks, Efq; Roger Weeks, Efq; Mr. Nathaniel Weeks, Peter Wsfterri. Robert Wefton, Efq; Rev: Mr. Jofeph Wharton, ^.M. two Bobksi Mr. Dennis Wharton, John White, Eff, Mr. Samuel Whitemaii. F William Whitaker, Dolphin Court, Thomas Whitaker, E/yj Mr. William Whitehead. Wheeler. John Wheeler. Thomas Wheeled,. Rev. Mr. Whitford, Mr. John Wickham. Nicolas Wilco^, fen. Efq-, two UooRs. Mri Thomas Willbraham. Rev. Mr. James Williams, A.M. c/"Jefus College, Oxori. Rev. Mr. John Williams, M. A. of Twickenham. Mr. Richard Williams. Alexander Williams*E>avid Williams. Hugh Williams, £/^; Mr. Daniel Williams. Hugh Williams, William Windham, Efy; Rev.Fcter Wingfield, MA.' Edvvard Winflow, Efq; two Books. Thomas Withers, Efq-, Robert Wrightfon, Efq-, of Cufwork ifi Yorkihire. Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Wright, A. M. .. William Wollaflon, Efq; Rev. Mr. Dudley Woodidge, two Books. Mrs. Ruth Woodhidge. Mr. Thomas Woolford.-,

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A LIST of SUBSCRIBERS. u Hon, Philip York, Efq; Hon. Col. York. Hon. Charles York, Young, Efq; from Aritigiid. Rev. Mr. Richard Younger, A. M. Philip Yeoman, Efqi Mr. Thomas Yard. M. Yonflall, Efq-, of WyclifFe. p A< J Mr. John Worrel William Worrel. Francis Woodward, M. D, Richard Woodward^ L, B. Rev. Hugh Wyne, £>. D. Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majefly. Sir John Wynne, Barf^ Rev. Mr, William Wynne, A, M' Y. r His Grace the Lord ArchbiJIoop ofYaxk. SUBSCRIBERS i Ight Hon. Thoinas, Lord Fairfax. Hon. William Fairfax. Hon. John Robinfon, Efqy Prejident of the Cotincil. tlon. William iSlewton. Hon. and Rev. William Dawfon, D. D one of his Majeffs mofi Hon. Council^ and Prelident of the College of William and Mary. Col. Charles Carter. Col. Carter Burwell. Col. Preilley Thornton. Col. William Fitz-HugH. Col. Jofliua Fry. Col. William Beverley. Col. Lunden Carter. Col Richard Blund.. Col George Braxton. Col Lewis BurwelL E R R pAge I./.I2. forgreateft Breadth 13. 3-qrs read r4and 5Furlongs. Page S2fcrSwz\]owsuad3ii\lows.Uld. Ihe nfor •* Ycagh had YewPage 136. dele the Defcript'ton of Turk's Head. Page 139. line j8. /or-expLinds itfelf horioiital'y read expanding itfelf horizontally. Page 146. /ar Bee-wood Tree read Beef-wood Tree. Jhid. dele Fufiic Tree. Page 164. for Buo'mbo read^xxmho. Page 170. llneii. /^rreddifh, thick and fucculent. Page 183. lind 12. dele red before Veins. Page 182. line 22. for fort read fpecies. Page 186. dele Cochineal. Page 20§, line 20. for brownifh read brown. Page 209. line ii./orbrownifii read brown. 210 line o. for high read long. Ibid I. 33. /srhigh read'm height. Ibid, line 36, /or brownifh read hrovm. Page 216, line g./arroundilh Pods ?W round Pods. /^iV. //;;^ lo./ijr thoug hfomewhat r^fli/ though fomewhat. Ibid, line 18. after that Time add from their bein"plante;!. Page 220. far Antegoa read Antegua. Page 221. dele Wild Penny-royal. Ibid: line 15. dele the after by? Ibid, line 10. deleznH roundifli, Page%ii. line W. for are longilh read^^xz ab.:ut five Inches long, narrow and fliarp pointed. Ibid, line 23. ,rt//^r Colt's Foot add and the Colour. Page 2^3. line 23. (7/>/r leaves fl^c/fomewhat fimilar. Idid lines 33 and 34. for three Inches thick read two Inches thick near the Earth Page 224. line 8. for Abundance read a gieat Number.' Page 226. line 16. for many leaved Flowers read rofact;ous Floweis. Page 236. line 33. for Stalk r^^^main Stalk. Page. 237. line 8. for Skill r^^c^ Knowledge. Page 253. line 15. /or coral Sea-weed teadthe fUfFSea-weed. Ibid, line zo dele Head after Brown. Ibid. iiifeadofiAhtrSeed, r^a^ what are here called Seed ^^g^ 255, for purpHfli Sea Mofs, read purple Sea iMofs. Ibid, line 30./rpurpHih Colour read purple. Page 2';8 hne 3. after Refemblance to it add in Shape. Page 261. //^ 15. after reality ^/^ of. Page 262. /m^2. /ir it often read It lome Times. Ibid, line 14.. far about the Roots of .the great Feelers r^a^/ where the Feelers take their Rife lb line 2. ajler Sea. add this. Ibid, after Shoah add or (nch (haWow Phces. Ibid line 28. for which ihev cait 'read ^hich theydo. Page 266. line 8. /r but oftcner read and often Graneries near the Sea-fiJe. Uid line a for twenty Pounds read ten Pounds. Page 268. /;?:f 19. for P^ancifulnefs read Fancy. P^^^ 273, for Ver?il jv^tJ Virf^il • fir crcdlM.^ ead cr,dlh\^. Page 22^^ Page 278, /.'.. 5. /r blackifli r.^i Hack Spots. /W./r. 1 1. /r Concha Veneris Alba W/^.Pu^^ line ^2. Jele by which I fuppofe Nour.mment is convey d to the F,fn. Page 2gy.lme 39./r hngid read languid. Page 298 Plate 24 Jhoddbe marked Plate2h. Negroes, their Numbers, Index for Page 2. read Page 14. For Plate ir. -2^2. read Plat/11 1 co ADDENDA The mid Can^. <^ ^^15^T^n 'l?'T'.'5 about i^fteen Feet high. Its Flags refemble to thofe of the Reeds in England, and the fiody fs ^ene^ rally thicker than a Walkmg-cane and ftrong ; the young Canes at about two or three Inches growth^-, b Lde into PiGdes. Plate 10 *.betng the Defcnptim of the Bay Berry Tree, is to be placed oppofte to Page 14c Rose-Shells. T ^ ^J \ w. ""[ ^"^ • ^'''' '^^' ^^Sf'' ^"'^ ^'^^i^' ''"Sed with a Maiden's-blufh j the latter are very rare to be met A with, but the former are in great Plenty on moft of our fandy Bays. ^ -^'c very rare to oe met Thcfe^ with a Species of the fmall black Buccinum Kind, and another Species of verv fm^ll ^hMl. ^r i and often called Pea-fi.e]ls, are with great, Affiduitv, gathered and fent to EngTand Wth ^he ft t K n 1 f Vv ^'f "' a lively Reprefentation of Rofes j the fecond ferve to imitate the Seed aS WH v^V ? r^ r f w''^'" flowers, and the third are of no lefs Service to reprefent thofe fm.ll Granl^^^^^^ '"^ f"T^'u ^^^•'^'T" ^""fome, as well as the Summits of other apctalous Flovm" '-tabulations common to the thrummy Difcus of from r IRQ IN I A. Col. George Lee. Maj. William Dangerfield, Maj. Andrew Monroe. Maj. Peter Wayener. Thomas Nelfon, Eff, James Reid, Efq-^ Beverley Whiting, £/^j Mr. John Buflieron. George Webb. Stephen Dewey. Edward Pendleton. James Pomer. Lumford Lomax. r Techarner Degraffenreid. John Lee. Curtis, jtin, WiUiam Kennar. John Mercer. A T A.

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THE O N T N ^ u + ^ BOOK 1. Pagej. TREATS of the Air, Soil, and Glimate. the Refidence of Lidians formerly in the Ifland prov'd. The conftitutional DiiTerence of the Inhabitants of hot and cold Climates* examined after a new and phyficai Manner. Hurricanes, their Force and Effeas ; erpecially that in Barbados, m the Year 1665. compar'd with the moft remarkal3le Storms defcrib'd by antient Authors • and' probable Conjedures oifer'd, that all Hurricanes, if of long Continuance be^ln in variable Climates. >. a BOOK II. Page 31. Treats of the Caufe, Nature and Cure of the Difeafes peculiar to that, and the neidi^ bouring Weft-Indta Illands. The (Qualities of the Waters, whether of Springs, Rivers, Wells or Ponds. Foffils, and fubterraneous Caves. The unequal Force of *the Deluge near the Equator, and in variable Climates, prov'd, and accounted for. The Nature of bituminous Foffils examined, with a Confutation, from their Qualities and Situation of a late great Critic's Hypothefis ; viz. That the Deflrudion of Sodom and Gomorrah was not fupernatural, but otcafion'd in a natural Way by feveral Veins of Bitumen taking Fire.\ 1 BOOK III. Page 61. Treats of Land Animals, Quadrhpedes, Volatiles, Reptiles, and Infedls. B O O K iV. Page 97. Treats of Vegetables; and begins with a Botanical Defcriptloii, as well as aPhylic?! Inquiry into the Nature and Qu_alities of Tree?, Shrubs, and Plants, hitherto known in the Ifland,^ being about Four huiidred in Number; and concludes with thofe of the Nuciferous Kind, • . ,, BOOK :b o o K BOOK BOOK V. Page i2i. VL Page 167, Vil. Pasj;e 174. VIII. Page 188. Treats of theTrees, Shrubs, and Plants of the Pomiferous Bacciferous Pruniferous > Kind Siliquofe, and I Anomalous -^ i Among other remarkable Plants, that call'd the Jg?7us Scxthkus is particularly defcnbed : Likewife an Inquiry into the Qualities of the Cane-Plant, as well as a very eafy Method propos'd to prevent theMidakes frequently committed in fermcntin^Canc-Tuice (^c. for the Diflillation of Runi, by which beniis t vMl-prbportion'd il^/f^ will rel gularly ferment: An Inquiry into the Caufe of that DiHemper in Canes/ called the Blajl; with a probable and cheap Method of deftroying it propos'd. BOOK "IX. Page 251. Treats of the Shores of the Illand, with A'e Shells, particularly [he M//-^^together with a Defcription of fel^eral exanguidus Tr-ibcs of Animals found therfeon h^ciaHy the Animal-Flo wefs; the pale Yellow, tfce dark Purple fpotted with Black afifl the Green Thefe new-difcover'd futprifirfg Claifes of Beings, which appear in the" Shiipe of Flowers, were unknown to all former Authors of Natural liiftory. BOOK Page 299. ^ Treats of the Sea-Filhes ^ ^ & yy Veen at all, or imperfedt of the different Sea-Currents round this/ and'ih7TeighbouVing lila^nds^ M w w iv -
PAGE 16

A Riilotle Athenxus Boerhaave Julius Casfar Cicero Derham Diodorus Siculus Dr. Freind Glover Galen Dr. Halley Hoffman Herodotus Hippocrates Homer Horace AUTHORS ^ A. c. D. F. H. Page 27 1> 274 '291 e, /'note 6.) 69 26 36 (note 6) 24, 56 33 i 9: 5 46 32 2i 23, yi liy i8, (note 24.) 113, 276, 280, 310 Hunt 1 Ifidore Julius Pollux I. p^9 ('note i2) 17, (note 22*) 270 272 L. Le Clerc Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Lucretius Lucilius 51 275, tk G? 278 269 280 r \ F^^^ M. Manilius Maundrel Dr. Mead Milton Ovid Petivef Pindar Pifo Pliny Plautus Quintus Cui Ray ^ RondeletiuS Rohault Seneca Dr. Shaw Dr. Toune 276 32 19, 26, 76,86, 261, 300 .0. ^ P. 258 9 15, 25, 36 (note 37) 74, 92, 269, 270, 273, 274 16 (note 26) 76 R. 86, 291 26 S, T. V, Voffius Virgil II, 27, '(note 30.) 51 Polydore Virgil W. Dr. Warren Willoughby 27 ^? > 5^> 57> 273 34> 37 65) TEXTS o/^ScRiPTURE Q'ud or Illuflrated. r Pa^e f^ Enefis X. 26 Kj Gen. xiii. 8 2 16 Gen. xiii. 10 S^* SI Gen. xxvi. 20 46 Gen. xxix. 12 16 Deut. xi. 10, ir. 12 20 Numb. V. 1 8 ^5 Numb. xiii. 24 7. 2 Kings V. 27 40 Numb. xxi. 18 45 Job 1.19 Job viii. X 1 Job xxvi. 14 Pfalm xviii. 1 0, 1 1 Pfalm Ixviii. 13 Pfalm civ. Pfalm cxiv. 3 Ifaiah v. 3 o Ifaiah xl. 12, ij Page 28 SI 27 27

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\ *. THE A E. 1 J AT URAL Philofophy fiouriflied firft in the Eaft. It was in great FerfeSlion among the AffyriaiiSy Chaldaans, and Egyptians \ and, if their Knowlege of it had been faithfully conveyed to Pofterity, we might have expeficd, that the next Age of Learning in Greece would have been able to have made reater Progrefs in that noble Science. But, alas! here Philofophy was forced to put on a poetical Drefs, adorned by the Poets, its Patrons, with Fables, and enlivened with extravagant Fancies. Nor was Athens itfclf proof againft fo prevailing a Corruption, This was the State of every Branch of Philofophy in Greece \ nor did this Study meet with much better Succefs in the firft Part of the fucceedFor while this was in its Infancy, during the Three ^^tirft Ages, which were fpent in conquering Italy ; Stridnefs of Man" ners, and the Art of War, were their chief Study, and continued to be <^ fo, till they were Matters of the Eaft." Then Oratory became their Darling. Upon the Declenfion of the Roman Empire, the Darknefs of Ignorance, that enfued thro' many fucceffive Ages, fpread like Elijahs ^ Cloud, and, in a Darknefs, like that of Egyph enveloped the fmall Re*' mains of Learning in almoft a total Eclipfe.

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'l. 11 PRE A C E. hch It was about this Time that Natural Hiftory, as -'f ^ ^^ 7j|^^^„, of Experimental Philofophy, became the Study of great Men md tot Countries, in England efpeeially, and fome nme ^f^^-^^^^. ,^^™^£' under the Proteftion of that great Patron of Literature^Z..^ theXIVth. whofe Princely Favours fought for, and encouraged, Men of Learnm,, not in France only, but in the moft diftant Countries. But of late Years its greateft Promoters have been the Royal Society cc in England, and the Academy of Sciences in France : By thenmeans chiefly, has the World received more ufeful Difcoveries ai^d Improve ments in one Century, than i^had done for many Ages before. If they go on with the fame unwearied Diligence and Succefs for one Century more, what Depths of Nature will not be explored r^ W liat Treafures of Knowlege will not be difplayed ?" But mz tho' many Branches of this excellent Study have, of late Years, been fo laudably cultivated, to the Glory of God, and the Good ot Mankind ; yet we have Caufe to lament, that our Purfuits of this Nature are ftill deficient. \ ,-. *The feveral ingenious and learned Difcoveries oi Malpighi^ GreWy Ray, Derham, and Hales (among many others that might be added), tho' excellent in their Kind, are yet but fo many well-proportioned Lim'bs of an unfiniilied Piece. Other Sciences and Arts owe their Perfe6i:ion, not only to the Capacity of the great Men who ftudied them, but likewife to the confined Nature of the Subjeds treated of. . But as to Natural Hiftory, fo many are the Species of Animals^ Plants, and FofTils, which are yearly difcoyered, that we may juflly fay with Hie [is ejlat operis, multumq\ rejlabit ; nee ulli nato pojl ^e And tho' the Study of fo extenfivea Subjed be attended with fome Difficulty, yet will it prov no lefs pleafmg than ufeful. In other Hiflorics we meet with, at leafl-, a great Mixture of Pain ^ with our Pleafure. If in Biography we are firfl charmed with the great Talents and amiable Charader of Ca^far, whilfl in the true Intereft of his Country ; fliall we not be grieved to find, that his Ambition, at lafl, proved fatal to many Thou fands of his Fellow-Citizens and Countrymen ? If we are pleafed with the Life and Anions of Epaiitinojidas ; as, the fatal Cataflrophe of his. lafl unhappy Period draws on, can any Degree of Chearfulnefs check the rifmg Sigh, or ftop the falling Tear? ^ When from Biography we' purfue Mankind :..ftoryof Nations, we fhall be fhocked with monflrous Examples of Wickednefs, far overbalancing the few fuccefsful Inflances of difmterefled Virtue. ^ x lu through the general Pli-

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PREFACE. In one Age we fee EpiBettis baniflied, and the venerable Se?;eca doomed to Death, whilfl: Domitiaji and Nero are covered with Purple, In another Period, injured Majefty bows the Neck to relentlefs Tyranny. If, from this unamiable Stream of hiftoric Truth, we explore its branching Rivulets, and feek for Pleafure in our Refearches into the Anthis Study, tho' always harmlefs, and fometimes 111 tiquity of Nations 5 ufeful ; yet, after an irkfome and tedious Purfuit, thro' Paths rendered obfcure and dark by Length of Time, or Ignorance, or made almoft im' "^ ^''' ^' T T r r t T • • perhaps the les, pervious by Superllition, after a Life fpcnt in fuch Inquii ultim.ate Refult will be, how prccifely to determine the Day and Year, that memorable ^ra, which gav Nimrod.^ fmall Province, or built fome little City, and reigned its Tyrant ; or perhaps the Period of our Labours will clofe with the diminutive Difcovery how to fix the original Meaning of fome obfcure Sentence, or even an obfolete Word. X h Whereas, in purfuing the Study of Nature, and meditating upon the exaft Harmony fo vifible in the Works of the Creation, we are fure to ineet with untainted Pleafures ; not fuch as proceed from the Tranfports of an heated Imagination, or a violent Paffion, but Pleafures, like that of Health, ftill and ferene. f L The Accomplifliments we acquire by many other Studies, may, by foothing our Vanity, occafionally miflead us, and likewife byafs human Nature with a flrong Propenfity towards fome favourite Prepoffeffion of the Will. Thus the Oratory of CicerOy indued with every Power to pleafe -— .to raife or calm the various Paffions in the human Breaft ; ( a noble Endowment, when employed in the Caufe of Virtue !) But (fuch, alas is the Inftability and Imperfedion of human Nature) this very Talent, which gave him Pre-eminence above other Men, became fubfervient to indulge a Weaknefs, which we muft at once condemn and pity. To living C^far^ the Orator paid the pleafmg Tribute of Adulation and Praife: — But, when dead, loaded him with Reproaches. If we defcend to many other Branches of Study, and polite Literature (efpecially in the prefent Age), we fliall find, that thefe Embelliflinients too often tend only to infpire us with a fanfied Superiority over others, and ferve, at beft, but to fet forth and enliven fome particular Occafion or Period of Life. Their Amufements, to make ufe of a great Writer's Simile, ^are likeaFountain,which, on fome gaudy Days, fpouts forth a frothy Stream, but remains dry all the reft of the Year.'' But fuch are the Subjefts of our Inquiries in Natural Philofophy, that they are as large, and as lafting, as the Univerfe, fall of inexhauftible f Lord Vifcount Bolmghroh. ' Variety^ ^

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IV' P R E F A C E: ir>^ Variety, worthy (next tJie facred Oracles) of the Attention of him, whomGod hath placed at the Head of this lower World. By contemplating thefe Subjeds, ^ we are gradually led from Things vifible, to the Knowlege of him who is invifible. Here we fee innumerable Inftahces of Harmony, Beauty, and Order, not to be imitated by the moft laborious Endeavours of any human Art or Contrivance. Thofe delighted with the Vegetable Creation may, each returning Spring, not only be pleafcd with their Profuiion of Sweets, and of fuch beautiful Colours, as excel even a Solomon in all his Glory ; but likewife our Inquiries may now be as boundlefs as the Creation j no forbidden Tree checks our Curiofity ; but, with Solomon^ we may explore their Secrets, from the lofty Cedar to the humble Hyffop, ipringing from the Wall. t WJien by thefe, and fuch-like Inquiries, we find in every thing a wife, good, and ufeful Defign, it will afford us Pleafures, purer and fuperior to thofe which the fanguine Glory of Arms, boundlefs Ambition, or fatjated Avarice,, can give. It will infpire us with Sentiments moft pleafing, as mofl fuitable, to that divine Image the Almighty has pleafed to ftamp of himfclf upon the human Mind. + -^ WJiat room can tliere be for low litde Things in Minds fo ufefully. '^'^ and fo nobly employed ? What dark and melancholy PafTions can over" Aadow his Heart, whofe Senfes are conftantly entertained with" fo '^ many various Produdions ? The leaft good Effed attending thefe Joy r* -i "What Anger, Envy, Hatred, or Revenge, can long torment hisBreaft, whom not only the nobleft Objeds, but even every Infecft, every Blade of Grafs, or Grain of Sand, can divert ?" To. whom the Return of e very Seafon fuggefts a Circle of the moft innocent Amufements. ' From thefe Inquiries, he will learn the infinite Diftance between his great Creator and himfelf. This will teach him to worfl.ip that WifThere is not the fmalleft Part of this Globe left without evident Si^ patures of God's Goodnefs. If this httle Spot we are treatilgof Do" duces not the Sapphire, the Carbuncle, Topaz, or Ruby, we areC wammg, however, in the more truly valuable ProdudlioS "f Satire which are chiefly fubfervient to the Neceffities and Conveniencies of Life •' the Sprat's Hiftory of the Royal Society. '-.. P

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PREFACE. the latter Rain by Intercepting feveral Clouds, and watry Vapours, that would otherwife fly over us. y i laL It is from the Sides of thefeHills and Mountains that the living Streams defcend fo gratefol and refrefhing to Men and Eeafts in hot Climates It IS hkewife to their friendly Shades, that we owe the Growth of feveral valuable Plants, whofe delicate Texture could not bear the long-continued piercmg Rays of the Sun. ^ But, among other providential Bleffings, the Conftancy of the TradeWinds is not the leaft valuable : Without this, all other Conveniencies, fuch as Pleafantnefs of Situation, Richnefs of Soil, and feafonablc Weather would be of no Service ; fince the Return of each Day, now, by the Breezes of this Wind made cool and grateful, Would, Without this providential Allotment be infuiferable through Heat: The tender Plant would lofe its grateful Verdure, fade, wither, and die. It may perhaps be fald by fome Readers, that thefe, and fuch Refiedions, are too often interfperfed through the following Work : and rVV"^"^ 5u ,Tl^'?^>^ ' ''^"^ ^ "^^ Nature and Qiiahties of the Subjeas in a Philofophical Light, without drawing any CJIiclufions from them, though_ they evidently point out the Wifdom, Power, and Goodnefs of God, m the Make, Nature, and Ufe of each individual The Anfwer to fuch is eafy : That the original and true Ufe of Philofophy was to render Mankind good as well as learned; by raifing their Thoughts from Things vifible, to the invifible Author of all Perfedion. Shall Galen a Heathen Philofopher, break out into Raptures of Admiration, upon the Difcovery of fo many Marks of infinite Wifdom in the Formation of the Eye ? And, Aall Chrlftians be blamed for taking notice of fuch Inftances of God s Wifdom in other Parts of the Creation ? Philofophy, when rightly applied, is of great Ufe, even in a religious Sr of Life '''"^^' Pythagoras Integrity of Manners, and AnThis made Empedochs prefer a quiet private Life to the Splendor of a Crown, with all its lucrative Advantages. n This taught W.. to die as free from Haughtinefs as Weaknefs ; ' and the moft beautiful Lineaments, in the Charafier of Cato, are owing to' this excellent Science. ^ Here the great Bacon experienced more exalted Pleafures than in the Sunfliine of a Court. It was this that not only correfted the paft Inadvertencies of his Life unto which an infatuated Attachment to Grandeur had mifled him, but hkewife recalled his great Talents from meaner Purfults to their proper Objeds —To explore the hidden Secrets of Nature : And, by making Experience and Reafon go hand in hand, he not only ^ exploded V

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VI PRE ACE. e-tploded tiaofe groundlefs dogmatical Opinions which Length of Time had rendered venerable to Ages of Ignorance ; but hkewife, by number-lefs Experiments, both fought and difcovered feveral valuable Truths J which, like rich Ore, had been long hid under Rubbilh. Future Difcoverles will, no dotibt, in fo inquifitive an Age as this, bring likewife to Light many Secrets of Nature, which even ftill lie hid in Obfcurity : But, in order to be fuccefsful in fuch Attempts ; as the Harveft is large, and the Labourers few, every Affiftance ought to be embraced, even from Men of no extraordinary Talents : Thefe, like Hewers of Wood, and Drawers of Water, may be ferviceable. It may be, perhaps, neceffary to premife, that we are not to exped the moft exadi: Performance of this Kind to be in every Part equally engaging. The hiftorical Defcription of a Country, like its natural Appearance, muft needs be attended with Variety. And as, in travelling over it, we muft climb high rocky Hills, and pafs through dreary Defarts, as well as open Lawns, and flowery Meads ; fo the Reader muft not always" exped to be entertained with beautiful Images, and a Loftinefs of Style. In Variety of Subjeds, this muft alter with the Nature of theThings to bedefcribcd. I For Inftance : A pompous Stile and Language would ill fit a bare Narration of Fads, or the Defcription of a grovelling Plant. Upon the Whole, that Stile or Method of Writing (as a great Orator hath obferved) is beft, which reprefents the Subjed in Words moft expreillve of their Nature and Qualities. As I have been obliged, in the Courfe of the following Treatife, to differ in Opinion from feveral Authors, I have endeavoured to do it without fupercilioufly condemning them, or, I hope, even leflening that Benevolence which we owe to one another ; and which is the ftireft Foundation of focial Happinefi. / The Miftakes of many Authors, who have treated of Places not perfedly known to them, are almoft unavoidable ; and will be always fo, whilft they receive their Informations from Men, who have neither a Capacity to difcern, Judgment to reprefent Things in their proper Light ; iior are ingenuous enough to relate nothing but Truth. r The Miftakes, therefore, of fuch Authors, are by no means the Objed of Ridicule : Juftice, Good-nature, and Candour, ought to be always infeparable from human Kind ; efpecially when we prefume to fit as Judges upon other Mens Works ; left we fiiould raftily pronounce that a Crime, which, at moft, was but the Effed of too great a Share of Credulity : A Misfortune, which Men of the greateft Veracity themfelves have been often led into. Thus

PAGE 23

y^ rs t PREFACE. Thus the great Boerhaave^ depending upon the Information of cthe kath been induced to beheve the Barbados Green Tar (an evident bituminous Foffil) to be an Exfudation from a Vegetable. V No Faults, therefore, of this Kind, are, jiiftly fpeaking, proper Objeds of Cenfure, but thofe which Men wilfully commit, and, by pretended ufeful Difcoveries, impofe upon the Public : Thefe, like falfe Lif^hts, or erroneous Land-marks, are of an heinous Nature ; rife into Crimes ; and become gradually of a deeper Dye, as their Impofitions upon Mankind are more or lefs of ill Confequence, Nor are thofe Men excufable, who (tho' in Things indifferent) love to dwell upon the Marvelous ; and either furprifmgly aggrandize or diminifh the Subjeds they treat of, juft as it beft fuits with their Fancy. Here the Vanity of being thought fuperior to thofe who went before them, as well as more learned than their Neighbours, hath a great Share. But the fhort-lived Portion of all fuch, is a flafhy temporary Glare of Applaufe j which, like Lightning, whilft it fhines, deftroys. In purfuing Fame, they fly from Veracity, its beft and fureft Pillar ; ihd, without \^hich, no Charader can be tfuly Valuable, How far I have myfelf obferved thefe Rules, and avoided thefe Faults, muft be left to the Public to determine : as well as vvith What Succefs I have, upon the Whole, through tintroddefi Paths', purfued niySubjed. And, as this, in its different Branches, required Variety of Reading, as well ^^ Talents pecuUarly adapted to each, the learned and candid Reader will look upon any little Inaccuracy as almoft unavoidable, and therefore excufable. This I can with Truth fay, that I have not reprefented one Angle Fad, which I did not either fee myfelf, or had from Perfons of known Veracity. And, as to the Arguments offered to fupport any fpeculative Part of the Work, thefe muft ftand or fall by their own intrinfic Worth. * vu \ THE

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t ^ ERRATA. The following Names did not come in Time to be inferted in the General LIST Henry Bellingham, Efq; Large Paper ^dward Barry, M, D. Large Paper, Thomas Litton, Efq; Large Paper. Faithfuj^Fortefcue, Ef^-, Large Paper. I Edward Mears, -Merchant, Small Paper, Edward Meade, Efq^ Small Paper, Mr. Cooper, Small Paper. ^ /"

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*, iiMmiiii*finiMMfifiiiiMfnHfifiiJtiini: tivuuwwauHUinuuiniWfiwuutiwu i(u*Hrii>iifiiiiiiiiiiniiJi>riMmjfiiMffi>: tyuKJiiiiiiiJ-mtfUiHimmiitMniuitm itifiiiijii.iiiiiiiintiiiiiintriiiiiiiiiiiuil ^ni iwtotf £, M h X :/ ,4ia/t/cackJ JBttr/ '/.n ^ 1 nl dc fii^, 9' Witaker -' >* v^^ BTThof Jefferys Geo OBAP Pico T^fterijfz ys 7m. / L^^ Ttnct I Lyz4 7^ TerrUl. V Ten *• 4 V\ I BeUi ^fe^^^r ^tmri^ ./ f HoiinitA&ck / •tf .JlapertsFr TJ^i-^V o ^^ura fu ^/ \ / -fC is7/A/ **" w^ ./ /. '/i .\ ,*> ; V* ilervBa^ iHandr? .*v .dsi*t /a TtEiiHiSTOX. Oranjge or ^ Kennel r/ Via. <4 r-f ^0vm%0M V /, Is: ^ .-^ V ,^.m. estrs Hon Meanber Cotincil ffM k\ If I "aterma/n o SV 'f CocoaJiTuttrt /) Denmarlcrt =<^^f* "uliiva "^ ifiit Ma/rts ^ /ue lJ \. Miaroraretsl Clarendon. rvth ^ ^K^ ^y/it/ *7?/f tetf o SWO'Tt ^*#B Pfl IT* y ^7; ^1 jLmfdc....-j^ Scott t^Ji ^"^ Undrew ->> ^27jeM?n /ant '(771J \ and to flie te st of die -^^--v,-^ ^"^ wy^ -^-f/r*'^# > S .^ WtnfAitU fes-w*^ ^/-z ym/cM ^t A ^// ^^At^\Flate^ m/m ^^p ^/i?^ _* 2^/:^ >• fkyodman^< / ./ •l&Aa^ \\ *? / MaU^ Wlih ^ELirundSRock' M • '• liu w^v V, -. _.'_ J 1 1 fri^tz^i Clil^Y^t*^ s Jfa/ter .i^ s^ > *i^ ^Davu^ dl/MV 11 ue^ gf Jofi v/b/mA/ -^'^^^^^^^ JK /, f Jie^tvi^i Sol^r^ 1 ^^^/^ tAMhrm^S^ Haom r ^^-^. ^.^f'" Cku/rc/i Paint $fjaine^ ChixrcTi ,/ &ilr(^ '/ \y CAtit\ Ojlrh a/W' Tr^ntr "T; Bu/tern/a7*t/t or ih '^smp &im L F f l 'f/ ^ J.Sr i^ dt i i-' 'P£0yJui \\ Worret &ra/tvf-. Calp^*f* JV — -*.' -*^ PanJorU No/rntr^ y o ^^ Sum, y^/^^iUni^^ O^MfTi 7 Tmtetv Xia^mai fiiH^Af Jffirw. ^'Jhi/t Cm3C lyv*: "{tftdf^en/zf dndt ,'4 ^v/iSiy jv;/ ifimi/^^Tty jSoiniwtt/ k „v (:BnJtnumd ^.J arttft^ V A^eU^^ 3k2; r ^/OiJSSVt^ // $u^^ru J}annxJ Maep jSJi^y ilftmi%£e^^ V -4: I '^^Tv^ The So TarteJCH^ ^ '^J^Uy fc*\cn/fnA Caw^ IB^a JB/ite ^:P(rrp' O^Uopj BiUther 4'jl^nvnjl^'^'^''^ n^. V „*-' JVi/^ r^UflnnJ jTfr/ A au^it^ A 5? f^ ,<^ \ Odl^OTTU^ %Attinf^ ^\: f^^jg J,/?. S^rert. V 1 V '/mer yi^a^'ru ^Baaz jBay v^V^ dr .ZRz f*rvC9^d TVt' s Yatclitrort—x; T/urrtv Walker :eor:eV jerdan. ^;^\^^^ TlefUAS muker ^^u^''^ ^~ri^ J?//^/-/: >^ ^^, ''^> ^ fym^ 7 r//^ ^^^ X ^ "^ €fiexaiider ^ /?//fft ^d ^''^t 'Bre^nhy fP ^/i^<^ Tahner kPahnieta 'i V cn^ Ba/tf SarriJirrv ""Jhi i^TfaTl 5^,^^ .> r WarJ/mm^ xMarfyft IfaTtmnd o A'l^/' v^ -^TA sMdUoTi/y V (f ^Mti le^uf 'A .* Carrrnjft&n Gitt^nJ -^^ •yy 'o/rkj t'.i"-?'*' 4 •^>/| tTiy /tfa^^rj IbntabenePort/^Rivei JSUacct '^^rrt^'^ Tudffn 0! tfTJ" Bafyort r^rr. w > • JiarrtB^ Tayii or t— Teri*iiv '^ iir V tftW^''' irmdJor >}JJ X K Baaney wiih^nf r >^ /7M^ CTarnAf -Barry y' THE Bridge Towk CJTATOt TTildey Barrrj -r.' Xiio-e ^^-^-^yVXyJ? V Ormondsrort '*'/^?7t' -fWt: .^•' Bannst JCirtmt STr/Mndar /M^'c Brit^ cAa/^d^^ ^^tahtt^i ST' Com,^ J-' ^rmrJttK t\ *tf *• ..•c.^^ \ "i % ^ ^ jnnit'M iiitiitiiMi-iiMi'>iiiiiMMii iiil|lMlltlillMIMl|t||||lli*IMI>lflinil iMtMllflHIItlltllllttlllMIIUMIfirilft tfjiiiitiiirntiMtiiutimfnutiiittttniMiH' ritlllftlhllllllllflllUllllMlfinillfllllMil imiirnif rfij'ii iitirvii^iJiiuiiitiiiiMHMM frnMriiiMitiiiniiiiilMi'JfiililiiMfnif*t< • fl4lfMI'l'fll<" I tMr|t"'l'i \ •

PAGE 26

H 4 /' -"> b ^ ^ 1 '* -^ r 1 i

PAGE 27

V V-c> ^ T'^ HAT -'i \ J JtitU xy r riDHV. i A'\u3. VllfrVro:)S7/ 1T oi: i-"^ K>ii Jia t -" "x j:JJ ^ H n "' t I J'^ J'-' Hi yd YolL'i"'' # I III ' j 'l' J, H E greateft Extent of this Ifland is from Lat. ^ To Latitudew X Li.0 ^ -vLtwrw;'^ 15 : zj ^ DifFereilce 13 Min. Weft ^ To Longitude -"^^ ^ 59: 02t Difference of Longitude 60 : i 2 v Its greateft Length from Gouldings Green^ in St. '^^ -Lticfs Faviihy to Ananias Pointy in the Parifti' of 20 : Stat, Miles. The ofth ^ v' ^ :' Its greateft Breadth from Z/Wr;^/ji?o/;rf, in .fA Pi-Z^V Panfli to a 4 Stat. Miles. itromi. iiciii ivxx. ^ ^_/. o, ... ^.. _7ws/jParifh, is ^ 3 = Jo Th? .Circumference of the whole Ifland, from fome of the furroundmg principal Points, is --^ -54 : ^ Stat. Miles. Q, Its. firft Appearance from the Sea to the Eaftward, is fomewhat hilly to tbe South-weft, and North-weft more levelin Its Surface generally appears covered with a grateful Verdure, which, variegated with lofty (i) Trees, and lara-e Buildings, affords many different, and thofe very beauftful Pro&?, n.oM^ ;i..b boB ^^ ,ix._. >. .. .. Kj^jjon. Antehg /CsrBylofty'tre^s, we are tOMnderftand tliofexhiefly which are planted near Dwellmg-Tjomes generMy SiSrTSOri^ment than Ufe.,. As for large TW^?J:rees,fo,nese(rary to make ^".d;/ff"^*''.^"Ynand of and other larger Buildings,^
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^ 2 J^he Natural Hiflory. k I ifeong many uficertain Conjeftures, thofe wHd derive the Name given to this IHand, from the Portugtiefe Language, are moft properlv in the Right ; for, as they Were the firfl bifcoverers of the Jf^eJI-Bidia ISmis (if Iipt of^yw/-/'c in general), it is nof ilnteafonaBle to fuppofe, that they might give this, and the neig|iBourihg Tilands, a Name analogous to fomething remarkable in their firft Appearance j and, nothing of this Kind could be inore furprifmg to Munfeatti than to fee the Shores ihaded witJi a^ kind of Figttrees, diiferidg from all other Trees in the manner of their Growth • '' j,'™,^^f"'^'"^'^^^i'^= Hang innumerable finall Filaments growing downWards, till they touch the EartM, and then take Root.. Thefe Thread-like Refemblances Have been called; By; the'B^^/^/^, from thefirfl'Settl^n.-. Ic the Wand to this Time, the Beards of the Fig.trees : 4nd in all. ht>,fhe P./^^.]?mi.|h|ori|i|ally haf tie fame |{|ioi| of %ei • .,, r o 7 ^'^'^"'^^^a^e'a this,"^id' the neiPou^n/lliaAds'^ con IT t ,t,,^^^^^ EngUflr, ibetame4t|ie general .-Name ffIf^e>rLm.n cto theWhb% whilft m n^^bau^nl ^flLds, 4ce 11^ ^^ ,of Places the molt antient Hiftones,, divine pn humam we fhall find that tl^r^ v7 ti„„,N„,e. a relative Meaning, expreffive of their N.t„.. n,..l.v;.f „";'i>^ ; "^.g^^neral. Barbados. tion JflOrQi; W^^r^gotPoffeffibn _^ y uie yirabians ^^^^ Hadramaut^^^i, e. the Gate '6fEn.
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Book I. IJland 0/ BARBADOS. 3 I I Climates, either to the Southward, or to the Northward, of the Tropics. And fuch is the Serenity and Clearnefs of the Atmofphere, that the AirTheClearis, in general, very healthy: But what chiefly conduces to its Purity, isrjtyonhe the Regularity of theTradeWinds, which, feldom varying throughout the Ajr accountYear, further from the Eaft, than to the Eaft-north-eaft, and confequently paffing over a vaft TracS of Water of about 3127 Miles (for about that Diftance from us, is the neai'eft Point of (2) Land on the oppofite Shore), or were it only even what lies betwixt the Tropic and our Latitude, it muft neceflarily blow upon the Ifland in cool rcfrefhing Gales. It is likewife no fmall Advantage, or rather Happinefs, that we have neither Bogs nor Marfhes, to ftagnate our "Waters, which, being exhaled into Vapours, might be pernicious ; nor large Forefts of Trees, which not only prevent the Winds in their Paflage, but likewife generate moift Air, caufed by the great Quantity of Vapours which perfpire through their Leaves, as well as from the fhaded moifl Soil : By this means the Inhabitants are free from the Fever and Ague, fo common to the Inhabitants of uncultivated Iflands. ^ As it cannot be foreign to my Subject, I beg Leave to offer a few proArguments bable Conjediires, to prove that the Current of the Deluge, between the p^^^^^ X%t Tropics, ran from Eaft to Weft. One Argument that maybe offered to ^^^ *^"''''^"': prove this, is the ftiattered Condition of the Eaftward Side of that Chain luge, beef Hills andClifts, which are as Barriers to this Ifland, from Cuckold' s^r':^'^-J^t Pointy X.O a Place called ConfefsBay\ for, as they face the Eaft, their torn from Eaft to State, in that Part alone, and no-where elfe, flaews, that they not only, "By their Situation, firft ftemmed, but, as they were higher than any other Part of the Ifland, they wholly bore the repeated Percufllons of the Current in the gradual Afcent of the Deluge, as well as, during the Continuance thereof, the Force of the Tides, imtil they were intirely overwhelmed ; and even then, the higher they were, the nearer their Summits would be to the Surface ; therefore the greater Arch of a Circle they would defcribe ; and confequently, they would be more violently prefixed and torn by the Water, than Places nearer to the Centre, This is evidently feen from the boifterous Surface of the Sea in a Storm, whofe Violence often waflies, or rather tears off large Pieces of Rocks, whilft, at the fame time, the tendereft Sea Plant, at any conflderable Depth, is not difturbed. From hence we may obferve, that by how much the lower the level Landj and the Valleys were, than the Tops of the Hills, by fo much lefs they were difturbed j and confequently, upon the Decreafe of the Deluge, thefooner, and in greater Quantity, would the Dregs and Sediment (which trailed gently along an even Bottom) fubfide and fettle : And from hence, in part, proceed the different Degrees of Fertility in the Soils of Hills and Valleys (3). Another Argument, that the Current of the In4 undation, (2) "Portavtntura in Africa. (3) Th? very deep Soil of moft fertile low Countries, fugh as £Sjpt^ may be, in all Probability, primarily owing "to the fubfided Faces of the Deluge.

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4-: itural Hiftory of the Book I t f 1 ^ fe d 4 undation, in the Time of the Deltige, ran, as' above defcribed,is the copinor Fissure of the Ma nd/ from Eaft to Weft ; for, if we narrowly and attentively view thefeveral gradual Defcents of fo many continued Ridges of Rocks, like Cafcades, declining precipitately-to the Weftvvard (for Inftancej that long Chain of HiUs, from Mount Gilha^ in St. Lucia sY^xiOx^ to ^zBlack Rocky in St. MichaeFs Parifli), we cannot well otherwife con. elude, from the deep Soil, on the Eaftwai'd of tliefe, where the Land is level ; and from the ragged, and baxe-wafli'd Surface, to the Weft ; but that the latter was thus torn b j theViolence of the Waters falling over them' ; and the ipjcnier, the Effedl of the fubftded Sediment, upon the Decreafe of the Deluge, The Want of fuch a Bed of Rocks^ from Black Rock to St. Annes Cajlh^ caufed that Chafoi which opens to the Sea thro' Bridge7ow?^y oppofite to the Valley of St. Georges. What further confirms me in my Opinion, and, brings what I have iirft offer'd, as conje6iural, to a greater Degree of Certainty, is the Obfervation I made upon the ruinous Tops of moft of the lofty Mountains in JVorth America^ as well" as in England. .In thofe Northern variable Climates, Nature felt the univerfal Shock promifcuoufly. on every Pomt of the Compafs ; whereas our Hills and Chfts, which extend along the Eaft Side of the Ifland, difcover no Indications; on the Weftem Sides, of any Violence receiv'd, but what was naturally occafion'd, by the failing off of the Waters, upon the Decreafe of the Deluge. The Courfe of fo many deep Cliafms, or abrupt Fiflures in theEarth (calPd here Gullies) always running from Eaft to Weft, is likewife an additional, and even an unanfwerable Argument in favour, of what hath been urg d upon this Head : And, that thefe were orip-i-'"nally the Effea of the Deluge, tho' fince much inlargd by repeated .* Torrents, will evidently appear by viewing the oppofite Sides of thofe deep Chafms in the Earth, where are to be ^z^vl large Pieces of Rocks that appear to have been once intire, but afterwaids forcibly torn afunder : And as thefe divided Rocks are often to be found near the Heads or Beginnings of thefe Gullies, where the greateft Stream of colleaed Ram-water, even in the greateft Flood, is too fin all and weak to be the Caufe of fo violent a Separation ; therefore we may, with great Reafon conclude, that this Difunion, and torn State, was effected by the Current of the (4-) Deluge ; and that its regular Courfe, to the Weftward, between the Tropics, was but the natural Confequence of an (5) Eafterly Trade ^ Difco^V""^.' which guided and byafs'd its Courfe to that Point. Former ;ofthe^e^cr;P^ions o[ this Ifland begin with barely mentioninp; its Difco ^ 4 i The Difco-^ vcrj eft Iflands by t^ t -d-. the Portu^ the Rci^n of Kmp^ Ji iglijh r A ^ r. ^^ '^^^ ^^^ ^^"^) ^^ the Year i6z^, without Sf iSl, ^he leaft Inquiry whether it had been ever before inhabited S by th,B>„!iA whom. It IS, indeed, faid, that fome of the firft Difcoverers of this .,'•• Ifland (5) The Caufe and Nature of Trade-Winds are excellently explained by the great Dr. Halkj. a very ingenious 4 /

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* i 4 h 4 P< i Book I. IJland of BARBADOS.; •'• ' 5 1 w\ .t* k ^ ^ v.* • .. V t r . • (6) I am countenanced, in this feeming DIgreffion from the Subject, by many Gr^^?^ and i?ww Authors ; efpecialiy by the Example oi Julius Ceefar^ who, in his Commentaries, carefully traces the Origin, as well as defcribes the Manners and Cuftoms, of the different Nations whofe Countries he treats of. *• .• . y i rL * p 4 ,^ t i 4 •r .*.-'• 4 r ^ ^> *' / t r. Ifland, found no Inhabitants upon their Arrival. However," we ought '' ,inot to conclude too haftilj^, that there never were any, .until what is -offered to prove the contrary, be fully confidered. I was, indeed, once partly inclined to that Opinion, induced to it from the Remotenefs of th'is^ from the whole Clufter of Iflands, viz, St. Lucia^ Domi?nco^ MaryV galant'^ Guardaloup^ SuChriJlophers^ Antigua^ aiid St, Vincent j which / lafl, tho' neaj-eft, is about .one hundred Miles diftarit:' And as moft \ of thefe are in Sight of one another, they arc more convenient for mu-;•tual Commerce in Time of Peace,' and Embarkation in Time of War. ,' •. ; And what gives feveral of thefe the Advantage over this Ifland, with regard to an hidiaiz Settlement, fs their far greater Number, of open Bays / f'..and !R:ivers, ftored with Tortoifes, and alrnoll an incredible Plenty of ' • Fifh. But as we have late Inftances of their coming hither from ., St, Vihcenisj in their fmall Canoes, or Perriawgers, even for their Plea-. .' . fore, I concluded, that they might formerly, more probably, come for their Intereft ; efpecialiy at certain Seafons of the Year, when the Fifh' , .'ing, or Game, in the other Iflands, grew. either fcanty or fhy, by being too often difturbed. / Thefe probable Conjedures, upon a farther Inquiry, were corrobo' '. • -rated .by the Suffrage of many aged Perfons ^ feveral of whom were between eighty and ninety Years old, who, not only agreed in their re', • ceived Tradition, that there were Indians formerly in this Ifland, but like* wife fbme of them added farther, that their frequent Arrival to, or De: vparture from it, was always in the Wane of the Moon, for the Benefit of "light Nights; and that when a Difference arofe between them and the Englijh^ the L^dians' retired to their Faftneffes in the Woods ; and .; -that in their Way down to their Canoes, they would artfully hide them1" '• felves with Coverings of green Boughs, to eliTde the.Search of the Englijh*. :, :/, '." Now, fince the Parents of thefe aged Perfons, who give this Account, •.•:•' ••'* .might be old enough to be Eye-witneffes of thefe Things ; fuch, and fo '•" early a Teflimony,^here they, had no apparent Inducement to 'deviate > from the Truth, muft, at leaft, be allow'd to carry with it the ufual Weight and Credit in fuch Cafes, till thefe Conjedures, ftrengthened .by Tradition, and confirmed by apparent Fads, grow to fuch a Degree of Certainty, as to leave every Doubt inexcufable. .' The Method I.^fliall take to prove their former (6) Refidence in this Ifland (which to. Pdfterity may be ferviceable) will be to inake it appear, Firjiy That there are feveral Places, in this Ifland, called, to this Day, after their Names. Secondly^ That in thefe very Places, there are daily dug '^ iip. fuch. Marks of their former Refidence, as were peculiar to Indians. Thirdly y'l fhall compare thefe feveral Evidences w'ith thofe confeffedly fatisfadofy ones, in almofl: parallel Cafes, I fliall begin, by obferving, that :-' ..? • C .-^ ' . the 4 4 t4 \w ^ *_ * F T 4< > ^' ^^ ^^ 1 4 fp 4

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w • V • • ' -'.. • 1 • • :-•:.' : i >* *.— '. *. ^^**:' • \ t^*** . 't .••.. ;:.: •. \..\ '^' V. \-->t'fU"^^ ••i Book't-.; w .. .. ".'•-.-• •' • * b '•,-. the'Tmimns'^ Who mb,abited tillsliland, could, in'all Probability (by reafon* ^^' ; .. •'• •"• of the great DiftaneefroinWCon&ent)^^^ ,': ' • . feme of the 'Leew'arcl I/lands y: rfioft probably from St. Fincenfsy St. fu' *. .; •; cia,' ox Tobago. Fromeither.ofthefe;,-. according to "their Situation/ with V nV; '\ refpea: "to Barbados, as well as with regard, to : a fafe Harbour, th^y. muft ;' ;. L'fidenc?ofFobably fend to the Weft or Weft-foiith-weft^'.qf this Ifland. Accord-.. .^ \ ; ; indiam in ingly, as Carlifle (7) Bay is tfelargeft and moft" cbmmadious ^ Harbour, 'it • _^ ... .. -• p/Jved? is natural to fuppofe, that. they landed here, and'.niade the adjacent Part .• /-,, : ' \'. of the Ifland' thei'r Place, of Refideiice'r. ThisJ^s; evIdently^ confirmed by > '. .the Buttings and BoundinWs" of feveral Tenements near this Bay .which, \ .'< i + 4 • d. .. 'Town;'The abqye-mention'd Bridge was placed over that Part of the Creek, or narrow .Neck .of *the Bay, •< which divides Major Gidney ^ . ^-.^ . *' 'Clerk\ Hpufe from, CcJonel John Pairchild\.^ The, Neceffity that the ',"*'•/.'!:"; .' Indians^ refiding on the North.fid.e.of the Creek, were under to make* a.'."; .^-'i *•:,.'**'.' Bridge (which in all Lifchhood confifted of no more than a few "Tree's^ \ .-. ^i fell' d down, and laid acrofs this (Sfeek), will appear, when we C6ii(ider^ • \ I • that their beft, and almoft only Supply of frefli Water, was on the Soutl^... " •', '*' ;. fide of it, at a Place how call'd Hamtington s Springy^ '\ '\ '-" ]' ^•..^i ;! '.. '•' The'next fmall Rivijet runhihg tb" the' Sea to the' Leeward' of Bridp'e.' •• V-N". -. ,• :7own is atpreient, as well as in many old Deeds, cdlYdlmian River.-, It'*"/ /''*:>. ' was likewife at this Place that fome Indians^ from St, Vincent" Sy landed, in* ".'* \ ,-•'*' or about the Year 1738. And as /;^(a?/'.'•"'. • . be prefentfy fliewed) were buV ill provided, with. Tools to fell Timben' '^\" •'•''•' .'. ...^ This, join'd to their great Indolence, caufed them to feafch (elpecially in"'. '/ •;;/ • . • wet Seafpns) for their natural fheltering Place, the iirft convenient Cave ;' ." *''"." ;' • and, ^s.thei;e is a very commodious qi^e in the Side of a 'neighbouring:' -••;.*•' '' • : • Hill, called to this Day the Indian Caflk. ^nd almbft in a direct Line ". *••''''!' • ."The Refi, upon the Defertion of the reft of, the Indians^ lived and died in • ft* p ^ ^ •. • .tiiatPiacej and, about two -Mile* from hence, there is a Tradl of LandcaUed^^^^ *, V„. 4 r • r ^ 1 • ? • * ^ fc * ^ •• • • • • > T" • .* : t • /*• .-•.' 1 \ • V • • . # 4 ... .. '.••

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* 4 ^ % V • *^ M* J 4 % r i ^ fr 14 'L !^ r t + _.^ * •.' I t > • A *t ^ ^ h ^ J.' 4 4 < h r r > 4 4 t T ^, r ^ ^ H f '% r ^ • t r ^. t 4 4 It ^ ^ 4 'fc F ^ ,4 >' 4 P t 4 J ^ ft * •* *4*

PAGE 34

I' L N, .' '* *>! I* 4-.,, 9 4. ^ / I < tV fV ^L It ^r V^i ^ t fi/a/i /.A iV. *' I 10 *-' I i ^^fc r. f V if -at -i f t ^ 4 >4 i^ uU Vv., ^ .s ^ H ,4 -J It ^.* * 1 ^ ^^ .it vJ t ^ )• i* I V 1* ^ I Si #* 'if' ^ It' 'I i' J \ .-^ u /: • f. .. * j i -.t a;J 9 • I -* -• ^ TF jr ^/ ^ *** r f 4 jf .^ LJ ^ * V V f. '* .* 4 .* a '^ f * H tf ^ *t < ....-' =t ^ L f^ .* 'h. * -h* 1' r * ir* • / v^ / 1 w , ^ 1 # -J^ /.' V & A '• T *' .' ^. * A *-. % 4' I '/ T \ 4 f It iJ*< * 4 ft^ "r* if t ^ V ^ W V* ft 1. • m \ >i M > I' • 4 ^ < .^ ;t f. ^ - *^ t V 4 i t ^ V Jk r # ^ /A. f^ iV *•*' • ^ -^ y -^ t 1 H t; T . > * ^'^ *^i" ji f f f * • % f \ lar i ( tr ** .* t' f • 'J f •• .'. <* % 4 4 T • f / k Jl^U 4 f n ff 1h # • t 1 f> ^ • t ft -> # # ^ ^ *% 1 • # -• -IK A 4 ^J' • ' **!

PAGE 35

> 9 I V |r •'Book I. ;• Ifland of B ARB-A.D O S. "•', 7 '.*•,'••• -•.....•, '^ ,.".-•/••,,.*,' !' no other fo near, an(J fo gojivenient); that they fliould pitch upon this, • • being ,upqn feveral^ Accounts very commodious ;, forj.asthe'lVlouth^^f it; :. "* the WeftV"and, being imder the Shelter, of an Hill, was fecured f= Wind ' • • *• .-'•• • • ••,.•• -4 • • t 4 41 > •' • •••as'the' Entrance to it ikfq-fteep and narrow, that, upon Occafion/ond Man may defend himfelf.againft /an hundred, it may be-juftly called I :':' tliOT. Caftle..,^ But \\{hat^ made this Place more" complete, (and affords, I "'*'' -. ...'* "thihkj.an uhdqubted'Proof of their Relidence here), is an adjoining clayey •"• BottofnV where they duo; a Pond, or Refervoir to hold Rain-water • .' I" 'which'Place is,' and hath" been, fince the Memory of 'th"e--oldeftN*eio-h• } / •* '.bpurs alive, 'call'd the; Indim PoncL With Part of tli^/Clay (9)',' which '• X*, \ they 'dug" but, they made their Eartheri-ware, fuch as Pots ^" and Pans ; • "*•-. .and, like the Idolaters of old, out of the fame Materials they made to. ."1 • \ themfelves Gods, and worfhiped them. Among feyeral broken Ffao-' ' \ '.^^.inents of Idols, -faid to be dug up in this Place, I faw the "Head of one, ^a&;; idds V ". which alone, v^eighed above fixty Pounds Weight. This, before it was ^^^'^^^ered, ^ / ;" >."' broken 'off? flood upon an oval'Pedeftal above three Feet'in' Height ; and '^ ••''•' "^ \ •* • is defcrib'd in P/ajie i. .F/>. 1^: The Heads of all others that caitia. ''•*. within my Obfervation,_^ were very 'firiall:' One of thefe (which is defcribed ''/ :' X,,.'in Plate,!,^ Fig. a.) exceeds* riot in Weight fifteen Ounces j and all, that ^ ***4. t ^ V \%^ t ^ /'; W ;^\I have hitherto feen,' aire prclay burnt. Thefe leffer' Idols were, in all '. T>;^kok;i;^,. th^ir jP^;^^/^j^^;^^_-m^^ the Eafe ,and Conveniency ^ •• •; ,i •..->:-i^*^'^^^ j-iwk^i ^j. Liivii ivi^ij.u.^-,inwt HI LUi^ xjcicc, is agreat iNumoer of^ "...'• ,'*' '; .*;; their Stone Hatchets and Chiffels, that are here dug up : Thefe are re-.*! '' *-:' \i ^'^ pi^k^t:^d ih P/a^e j^^^ -?%• 34and; 5; TheUfe of thefe (16) Hatchets mJJh^^^^^^^^^ '' '^'v • and Chiffels' was in all Likelihood to cut down Tiiriber' to make Hiits, etsandcKif^. *"•• ;/;"^where they had not the Conveniency ot Caves ; as well as with* flie^Help vered. V>.:%pf. Fire to Tell fome of the largeft* Kind,, to make Canoes. Thefe^ l'^.:*/;•"•"' f. ifiiaglriej. after t*hey were roughly fquared, \yere half-burntwith liveCoals;'^ '•• : *•*-" •-, : >* 'n.^A t-I^^A* •v.Mfl^ i^h^;^ C^Ar^i\'.r^^' nU;fr^]. -t-U^.-r u,. rv^„^^^ ^„'j: ..i" „ "1. .1 t. •-'; /*./. •" Vv*^^ thofe, who know ; the roving Difpofition of Indians^ to find, that they ^\ ^ moved under the Shelter of tlie Plills, and" almoft always at 'equal' Di.'-:/ J^ftahce ffpfii thf^Seaj'till they'canieto a large convenient Cave, under an 'v 't^^]^ /-nft^rl Mn-fj-7^^ /^V/A^^ Tr^" +U^ T^a^i-^ Af r-^l ^1 '^.LA' Ti'L.,-:.^ • •• 4 * 4 ^ 4 m --9^ H ^ ^ i feveral ^ ^-v;?-;.'! *;%,*.^ "• '--.ft) By the great Nurrxber of the Remains of 7^^//^;/ ?ot-kIIns, in this Ifland, and the known Scarcity of • ^ ;'*-i Clay in many, if not in all of the Leeivard Ipnds^ I_ m^k^'no doujjt, but they were fupphed with \. '''*" ^ ,^ ; I. • ^ Earthen-ware from hencel /' ^^f\ / .\\ ''.'*•*'•.* % -.' ** \ • **• 1 "fio) Some of the Hatchets* and a ereat Number of theChlfiek. -f^rnprinllv ih^ fr-nnnmcr nn^c nr^ m-ii^^ '•*^

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* • •* (' 4 .. Tie Natural Hiflor^ of the v Book I. femal Reafons very convenient • yet thete was one eflential *Happinefs .'' wanting ;,for, upon very heavy Rains, tKe Water in-thefe artificial Ponds, •', being diftnrbed, became muddy: And, as their greateft native Luxury • (if it may now-a-days be fo' called) was to drink of the'pureft Streato/ it. was natural and ciiftoinary for tliem .to ramble in Search of SpringWater, which at a little Diftance from hence they found in 'the Eftate ...,, of Edward Bonnet^ Efq; Here they fettled, near a fmall perennial Spring, which is the only one for feveral Miles round it. ,The Situation of this Place afforded another additional Conveniency, being, by the Goodriefs of / the Soil, very proper to produce Tams\''Pla7Uamy and Bam;^a Trees'-^ but as there was no Cave to afford Shelter, they were obliged to cut down Timber to build Huts ; and from thence, in all Probability, 'it comes,-' that there are found, about this Place of their Refidence, fo many Fragments of broken Hatchets, Chiflels, and Pots. There are not only near .this Place, Kut likewife at Majcock's Bay {\i),,^Joans Hole, Guff's Bay,. ^ and near Scotland Church, ag well as in other Places, many Tokens of '' \ thei]:, former Abode. To this may be added, that there is a TraditioA .^ '. m a Family of Negroes,' belonging to fhomas Tunckes, Efq; the An" .... deftors of which Family c^tne over '"with the firfl: Negroes that ever ^ came hither from G2//;^g/, that before the Country' was cleared from An M.;; Woods, there w^s^n Indian Town near a Pond, in his Eftate, in the Parifh of i>. Michael V, v/hich Refervoir. to this Day is called the Indian Pond^' ; and, when thefe Indians could not for a long time be -. brought inta Subjeftion by the Whites, the laft Attempt was fo vigorous, that it obliged all the 7;^^/;^;^ Inhabitants of the Town to make tHeir Efcape in their * **_ s.a • '1 A % A -'t .". . t3 4 Canoes to the neighbouring Iflands; which, they all did; except one 7 Woman, and her Son a young 'Lad." The latter foon afterwards ijiaking. ,'• ^ J # f his Efcape alfo, his Mother,' iii a fhof t time, pined to Death. Several • Earthen Veffels, of different Sizes, have been dug up liear the "above"• ;. :. meritioned Pond,, within thefe thirty Years laft paft : Thefe were ge' '* •' • > nerally of a globular Figure, of a Slate Colour,--^: but very brittle other' • Sen' r^^' ^f '^^^Paffif g the Earthen-ware made here by Negroes, in Thinnefs, • • ware. Smoothnefs, and Beauty:. • ••'.• .• . '• ' Let us now fum up-thefe Teftimonies, and put the 'Certainty of what "•-' I have offered on this Head, upon the Authority of thefe Proofs As • '" for the firft. Proof, that there are feveral Places in this Ifland calledafter '' ' th^!^ Names J this, tho' the kaft carries wit^ .. ;. which cannot be well gainfaid ; for, who will" pretend to difpute '• •' ; ^ (without, being led into, the feveral Particulars of the IJiftory of the •• • Times) whether the C.//^; did not formerly poffefs and inhabit that Part-•... pi trance, called Armorica, when he finds the moft antient Churches and notable Places, retaintheir Celtic Names to this Day?. Or ^h^f * • • .. Sceptic ^ would be hardy enough to difpute,. whether the Urns du!? ^' •Hi hnQ-land were not orimnalKr r^p^r^l^t-*-^1 <-^^^ K,, ^.t. r .. P P '^ r ^ (II) There.is near this % 3 verv con v^enient. Cave for Shelter in ftormy VVeather. "' SucI? a moral I > • '' • ^ *• r • .' • kp 4 fr t ^ # • • -• t *

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^ '•-m >Book I. S, 9 1 ^ a moral Certainty commands the AfTent of every unprejudiced Perfon. The feveral Places in this Illand called and fuppofed to be Indian Settlements, confirmed by early Tradition, and further corroborated by the Difcovery of feveral rude Idols, Hatchets, and other Tools, dug up in thefe Places, different in Shape and Subftance from thofe ufed by every civilized Nation, and peculiar (after the Ufe of Iron was found by the more civilized) to Indians only ; thefe Things f I fay) : being confidered, and impartially fuffered to have their proper Weight ; ^ there will, I beUcve, be very little occafion to multiply or add any further Arguments, to prove that Indians formerly refided (for at .ieaft certain Seafons of the Year) in this Ifland. The Refidence of W//^;^^ being proved, it may be expeded, that we ; inquire into the Difpofition of the prefent Inhabitants. Of thefe it may The prefenf be juftly faid, that they are generous and hofpitable, firmly attached in^^'^D^'w^ t'-r*'1 1 ri -.-^rt ti.n^ •'^''^ 01 Barbados, their Principles to the prefent happy Eftablilhment, m Church and State. The Men have a natural, as well as^ by the frequent Ufe of Arms, acquired '^^^i^ ChaBravery ; with no fmal'l Share of ufeful Learning, and Knowlege in Trade/^'^'^*^" The \Vomen, in general, are very agreeable ; and feveral of them might any-where pafs for Beauties. There are many Inftances of their prudent Behaviour and Oeconomy, greatly afTifting to improve a moderate, and retrieve a broken Fortune. : I muft here beg leave to endeavour (a Thing hitherto uiiattempted) • to afcertain fome reafonable Caufe of that general Obfervation, that the Inhabitants of hot Countries are of a more volatile and hvely Difpofition, and more irafcible in general, than the Inhabitants of the Northern Part of the World. The former is evidently apparent from the rnore fublime Compofitions of almoft all Eaftern Authors, their lively Imaginations (as a learned (i 2) Critic hath obferved) tranfporting them, with incredible Warmth and Aaivity, from one Thing to another ; and thereby caufing them to / -overlook thofe Rules of Method and Connexion, that are obferved by Europeans of a cooler and more regular Fancy. Inftances of this we have in the Works of Pindar ^ and throughout tke whole Book of Job. Nor is it ^yith me a Doubt, whether different Climates may not caufe a conftitutional. Difference. Herodotus^ as well as Cicero^ was of this Opinion. The latter fays, Fidemus quajn varia funt t err arum genera > ... alw quce acuta ingenia glgnant^ all^e qu^ retufa : qu^e omnia *'fiunt ex cmli varietate^ &' ex difp'arlli adfpiratione terrarum, Cicero de Div, No. 79. ; ;m de Fato, No. 7*. Inter locorum naturas quantum interjit ejfe falubres^ alios peflilentes , , Athenis tenue cmlum^ ex quo auEiiore^ etiam putantur Attici : tThebis ; itaqzie pingues T'hebani^ # > Work, ajfo jurares ^ D HoR, Lib. II. Ep. 1. 244 (12) Fidt Do^Sor Hunt's Explanation of Joh, Chap. vii. Ver. 22. 23. But, J -[

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Id '^ ^he Natural Hifiory of L ^5"^ The conftia new ai phyfical Manner. But, without laying any Strefs iipon the above Inftances, it wHl not be very difficult to explain, in fome meafure, the Reafon of fo viiible a conffitutional DiiFerence in the Inhabitants of hot and cold Chmates. ^s (13) Heat in the former rarefies and increafes the Velocity of the feren.?r^"'f"luids, confequcntly the Particles of Blood, thus expanded, meeting in anl^oftot ^^^^^ Circulation (even in the inmuteft Veffels) no Obftacle from the afrnf"^ ^^^^^^1 Preffure of Cold, nor any Languidnefs by immoderate Heat, it exam1n?d in ^^0^5, that as Health confifts in ah equal Motion of the Fluids, and Reid fiftance of the Solids, fuch an even Temperament of the Air muft be more friendly to, and produdive of. Health and Chearfiilnefs, than in Climates where often, by fevere cold Weather, the Globules of Blood lofe m a great meafure their Motion, efpecially towards the Extremities of the Body, where at fuch times they cohere in Maffes too large to pafs freely through the minute capillaiy VelTek When this Harmony between the Solids and Fluids is difconcertedj then arifes, as Experiei^e teaches us, a fudden Senfe of Pain, which cannot Be removed till the Blood is, as it were, thawed by Heat, and fo recovers its uninterrupted Motion : And tho' we know not certainly how to define wliat the Animal Spirits are 5 yet, on Suppofitron that they are the moft refined and aaive Particles of the Blood, as they are with great Reafon thought to be, their pleafing, or painfiil, Imquence on the Body muft, in a great meafure, depend upon the regular or irregular Motion of their original conftituent Fluid, the Blood : Now, when this is checked in its CirculaW, either by a fudden Preffure of an heavy Atmofphere, or the Variablenefs of the Winds from warm to cold ; the Animal Spirits, which before were agreeably difilifed through the whole Body, by thefe fudden Interruptions m the Blood, their original Source, likewife become unable to perfoim their Fm^lions'; for, when Nature is impeded in anyof ha: Operauons jieceffary to our Wdl-bemg, whether natural, vital or a^mial that mutual and infeparable Connexion bet^veen the Mind 'and the Body wiU appear fo yifibly, that if the latter be aifefied widi Pain the neceffaiy Confequence of Obftmaions in the Fluids, the former fooa loles that Chearfhkefs which is naturally iefs interrupted, and may be better prefeiTed, m Climates obnoxious to no fudden ViciiTitudes of Weather from moift to dry, from hot to cold ; for an even Temperature of the Air IS beft adapted to fupport the (14) Body in that State which is requifite ^ or if it were, L -t 1 ^^^^^"dTrdlfy 'uf o"f f^^^ " '"V^^ kind, VIZ. Water, and weak Punch made verv acid wifh r ;n^f ^ ? ^^ <^antity of Diluters of ev^y wm be of Force, .ith regard to the TnhTbSs of anT^^^^^^^ '^^^ fame Argu.ea? (14) rhis IS evident y proved bv the m-^f Mt.mii. !!5j? T^ ""^"^ ^^"^^ ^'^cuma^ who, whiia expofed to The Studi offS dJff^^^^^ ^" ™ble Climates, rnaldng their eU; but, when oncrb?d H^^^^^^^^^ ""aI^/V' *^^''^ E/P-^^tio^f Liy^, under Providence, were not prolonged by ^inralwav? kent in i ""'".'^T "' H^ '^'' '^^^ Cold, m a ciofe Room, and a warm Bed ? However k muThP nwn^^ 1 ^"^"'^ ^^^ree of Fleat and We„.ena. : ..e, .e yer, i.p.ope. fo. rS'^^^l^^'^^ -™ '^^ .h^r it t

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n Book I IJland BAHBADO S. II requlfite to the due Exertion of the Animal Oeconomy, and confequentl)^5 in fome meafure, of the rational Faculty. Nor is the fudden Alteration, upon the Change of Wind and Weather • peculiar to the human Conftitution alone ; for other Animals feel the Viciffitudes of the Weather, efpecially invariable Climates. This is a Remark as early as the Time of Virgil^ which appears by the following -Lines : . Ubi tempejlas &^ cceli mohilis humor Mutavere vias^ &' Jupiter humidus Aufiris Denfaty erant qu^e rara inodo-y & quce denfa^ relaxat. Vertuntur f pedes a?thnorum^ &* peStora motus Nunc alios^ alios ^ dum nubila ventus agebaty Concipiunt. Hinc ilk avium concentus in a? ris. Geo. I. 416. 4 Rt liSta "pecudesy &^ ovantes gutture corvi. But with the changeful Temper of the Skies, As Rains condenfe, and Sunfhine rarefies ; So turns the Species of their alter'd Minds, Compos'd by Calms, and difcompos'd by Winds. From hence proceeds the Birds harmonious Voice ; From hence the Crow exults, and frisking Lambs rejoice. Thus fair have wel^riefly endeavoured to account, from the IsTature of the Climate, and the Mechanifm of the Tiuman Body, fdr that volatile Difpofition, fo peculiar to the Inhabitants of hot Climates : That Irafcibility of Temper, likewife, which isafcribed to them, is, in a great meafure, the natural Confequence of the above-mentioned Difpofition ; for, as Water that is already hot, will, with a little additional Heat, boil over J fo when the Animal Spirits are in a high Flow, and the Will, by the Propenfity of long-rooted Habits, unhappily afiifts, and is bent to gratify fome favourite Paffion, the Tranfition from a Degree of Sprightlinefs to Irafcibility is natural and eafy. If we purfue this Argument a little further, it will appear more conclufive by reafoning upon, and experimentally comparing the Correfpondency between artificial and natural Heat, and their fimilar EfFeds upon human Bodies. This will, in fome meafure, anflver to two different and oppofite Climates : For Inftance, If, in very cold Weather, the Inhabitants of jFar Northern Countries drink fuch a Quantity of ftrong fpirituous Liquors, as will caufe a free Circulation to the Blood, before almoft congealed with Cold, they will alfume a fudden lively Chearfulnefs : Should they ftill drink r r r It cannot be taken without Danger of being furfelted ; nor is it lefs improper to Perfons who labour under any Degree of Phrenfy or Madnefs, whofe periodical Fits, at the Full and Change of the Moon, return here with greater Violence than in a cold Climate : Yet, tho' we enjoy, or may enjoy here, in general, by a regular Condua:, a more chearfiil Scene of Life, free from the unequal Changes of Heat and Cold ; yet It muft be owned, that we are, in a great meafure, Strangers to thofe invigorating Starts of Livelinefs, which the Animal Spirits ditfufe thro' the whole Body in moderate frofty Weather, and a clear Air, in England, "' ' 4

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12 Natural Htfiory of the Book 1 drink on tliey then Kurry on the Blood, from a free to a rapid Motion : And if thefe are the natural EfFeds of fpirituons Liquors in a very cold Climate, what and how great muft they be in the oppofite Extreme ? For the Velocity of the Blood, occafioned by the Warmth of the Climate, Naturally attenuates and breaks the Cohefion of its Parts, hereby accelerating its Motion to fuch a Degree, as to raife a more than ordinary Flow of Animal Spirits : Thefe, in fuch Cafes (as Experience teaches us), are too often, in moflConftitutions, accompanied with an uncontroulable Flow of theirafcible Pafllons of Ue Soiil. ^ If we allow Horace to be a Judge of Natiife, fiich frequenf Obfervations upon the Effeca of ftrohg Drink might give him the Hiiat to caution us againfl the Excefs of it ; Tres prohibet fupm Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia. HoR. Lib. III. Ode 19. it might likewife give Birth to tkt frequent Cuftom of raifing Courage m common Soldiers, who often want nobler Motives to heroic Deeds bv givmg them ftrong Liquors to heat their Blood immediately before an Engagenient, that, by the Affiftance of fuch a borrowed Flow of Animal Spmts they maybe the more refolute, and thoughtlefly ruih into theHeat of Battle, and there aft with an Intrepidity fStabk to fuch dangerou Circumftances ; for, as the fame Author elfewhere obferves ? ^tspofl vina gravem mllltiam, aut pauparkm crepat f HoR. Lib. L Ode tS; Who in his Gups can feel the Weight Of Arms, or of a pinching State ?. 'Should the grave IBehaviour of the Spaniards, compared with the Spriaht ^ hnefs of the trench, who live in a colder Climate, \e brough asin Ar gument againft what I have faid, it is eafxly anfwered ; for^trlaps tfe too grave Behaviour of the one, and the too volatile bifpofEn of he other, may not be mtirely conftitutional to either • for thV^n u partly the Effeft of cultiVated Levity as the ric^id nl "^7 ^ other in Part the Improvement of an^'atod St ^^^'""^^ ' ^^ more liable' to be penfive, inelanLly, a„d Ivete^S ttfTh "' IS, that the fcotching Heat of the Sun i tC of W V > ""' And as Heat in gen^ produces that D f;:fitifn ^SlS7r ous. It increafes the oily Parts of the V.\c.r.A ^ a r ^^^^^^ ^'^'and more moveable, hj l^^l tlrT^n^^^^ ^ ''^'''''' tuent Parts become more piquant^ and he St/ J ''^ '^' "^'^^^ '''^^ aaive, in proportion as tL\lunti;" Oil': attuaS. "'^^" "^ "^^^ i The J.

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Book I. JJland BARBADOS. ^3 The greater the Heat, the longer it is continued, the more obvious will its EfFefts be ; Livelinefs and Adlivity will be remarkable where this Difpofition is moderate, as it is in the Wejl-India Iflands, which enjoy the Benefit of the TradeWinds, and moift Vapours \ but where fuch Breezes are wanting, long-continued Heat, fuch as they feel in Spaiit^ is capable of abforbing every thin Fluid ; and, confequently, fuch a Difpofition of the Juices inclines to Penfivenefs, Referve, and often deliberate Revenge. Add to this what I before hinted at, with regard to the Weft-Indies^ that Habits, efpecially fuch as have been early indulged to our depraved Nature, have a great Share in forming our future Conduft in Life. This leads me to obferve, that Children, in thefe Wejl-hidia Iflands, are, from their Infancy, waited upon by Numbers of Slaves, who, in their moft unwarrantable Condud: (unhappy for both ), are obliged to pay them unlimited Obedience ; and as, in thefe tender Years, their natural Appetites are ftronger than their Reafon, when they have thus their favourite Pafllons nourifiied with fuch indulgent Care, it is no Wonder, that by Degrees they acquire (unlefs happily prevented, or correded, by the good Examples of Parents, or Education) an overfond and felf-fufficient Opinion of their ov^n Abilities, and fo become impatient, as well as reg-ardlefs, of the Advice of others. And, as this is a Matter of Faft, unhappily verified by numberlels Inftances, it is not furprifing, if, in Minds thus early indulged in the Gra~ tification of their Appetites, and too often undifciplined by the Reftraints of Education, we fometimes find the irafcible Paffion domineering, and infolently triumphing, over Reafon : Nor can fuch an Influence be worthy of Surprize, when we confider, that Habits and Cuftoms leave deep Traces, and lafting Imprefiions, upon the more folid Strufture of the human Frame. . A notorious Inftance of this kind is mentioned by Herodotus^ who fays, that, pafiing by Pelujium^ where there had been fought, many Years paft, a bloody Battle between the Perjians and the Egyptians^ the Skulls of the Slain, on each Side, being ftill in different Heaps ; he found, upon Trial, that a ftrong Blow could not eafily break thofe of the Egyptians^ whereas thofe of the Perjians^ by the conftant Warmth of their Turbants, fcarce ever feeling the Variety of the Seafons, were fo very tender, that they did not refift the leaft Blow. From haxcQ Herodotus (15) juftly attributes the Hardnefs of the Egyp^ tians Skulls to the Habit of that Nation, whofe Cuftom it was to fliave E their i^f' ^ ' A Tyro mh^i Ticlfu^ Tfi ipcf4oi9sfHerod, Thalia, Cap. XIL Edit. Gale,

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' 4 * 4 ha 4T'/^^ Natural Hiftory of Book I. .\ ber of Negroes in the Ifland. tries. • tteir Heads often ; and, by expofmg them to the different Viciffitudes of Wmd and Weather, their Skulls grew to an extreme Hardnefs. ^ The former Indians, and the prefent Englijh Inhabitants, bemg coniidered, it will not te here improper to take fome Notice of the Nature and Difpofition of our Negroes, or black Inhabitants, employed in cultiThe Num. vating our Land : Thefe are between Sixty-five and Seventy thoufand, tho "" ^' ^' formerly we had a greater Number : Yet we are obliged, in order to keep up a neceffary Number, to have a yearly Supply from Africa, The hard Labour, and often the Want of Neceffaries, which thele unhappy Creatures are obliged to undergo, deftroy a greater Number than are bred up here : Thefe new Slaves are chiefly brought from the ™t nf -kingdoms of ( 1 6) Coromantee, Angola, (17) Whiddaw, Ebo, and Jnamabw, tive CounThe firft of thefe, in general, are looked upon to be the beft for Labour, being, in fome meafure, inured to it in their own Country. We have had likewife formerly fome Slaves brought hither from the Ifland of Madagafcar : Thefe differ fomething from the Africans in ^ the Colour of their Skins, being not of a Coal-black, but fomewhat inclined to the Tawny ; yet ftill a Degree blacker than the Indians, It hath perplexed the Learned to find out fome natural Caufe of the Negroes Complexion, fo remarkably differing from the reft of Mankind. Some have endeavoured to account for it, from the intenfe Heat of Negroes the Sun in thefe and fuch-Hke hot Climates : But this is fo far from being pioved to tj-ue, that I have always obferved, that the Hair of thofe who are exowing to the pofed to the Sun's Heat, turns from a true black, to a brown reddifli Heat of the {^qJq^j.^ ^g ^q l-}^e Blacknefs of the Negroes Skin, this reaches no deeper than the outward Cutis ; for, when this peels off by being fcalded, or by any other Accident, the Part ever after remains white. Neither can the extraordinary Curling of their Hair be owing to the • Heat of the Sun; for the (18) Indians have always lank Hair, tho' generally expofed to its Heat. As to the Stature and Make of Negroes, excepting that a greater Number of them have their Nofes fhorter, and Lips thicker, than the Whites,^ I never could find out any extraordinary Difference : They are generally ftrait-limb'd, wJiich is occafioned, in fome meafure, by their not lacing with Bandages their Children when young, according to the i The black Colour of Shape and Stature of Negroes. ^fr too f i6)This Nation of Negroes, above all others, deprecate the divine Vengeance when it thunders, (17) The ^^/-/(/(i/tfw and ^^
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^ ^ *. Book I. IJland B A R B A D 5 i too ufiial Cuftom of a few of the white Inhabitants here, as well as the almoft univerfal Cuftom in moft Northern Countries, which not only prevents the free Circulation of the Blood, but is often the Caufe of unnatural Diftortions of the Body. The Negroes in general are very tenacioully addided to the Rites, Negroes Ceremonies, and Superftitions of their own Countries, particularly in 1}'"^'^^^their Plays, Dances, Mufic, Marriages, and Burials (19). And eventh^RitTs fuch as are born and bred up here, cannot be intirely weaned from thefe mlStf Cuftoms : They ftand much in Awe of fuch as pafs for0^^^y5(2o)Nearoes "^"^'^ "^^^^^ thefe being a fort of Phyficians and" Conjurers, who. can, as they believe^ '^'""'"''' not {19) There are but few Negroes ^^'ho believe that they die a natural Death, but rather that thev ire fafcinated, or bewitched The Bearers, in carrying the Corpfe of fuch a one to the Grave, whL^thev come cppofite to, or m Sight of the Houfe of the Perfon who is fuppofed to have bewitched he De?cafJ7 pretend to ftagger and fay, that the Corpfe is unwilling, and will not permit them to carryTt to the •" Grave, until it is futfered to flop near, or oppofite to, that Houfe : After' this is complied with for a few Minutes, the Corpfe IS as they think, appeafed, and then the Bearers, without Diffic^ulty, carry it to thi Grave. If likewife, m digging a Grave, they find a Stone which they cannot eafily get out, thev imrSdiately conclude, that the Deceafed is unwilling to be buried there ; therefore they dig elf^wherV until they find a Place more propitious to the fuppofed Inclination of the Dead. Moft young People W and dance, and make a loud No.fe with Rattles, as they attend the Corpfe to its Interrment :^ome^ Days\f?er efpecially on their Feafts, they ftrew at Night fome of the dreffed Viauals upon the Graves o^f the ? r''ft 11 A"t' ^51^^^"^' i 5?endsSomething like this Cuftom was obferved by the Roman^ir, he r Feafts called 5;/;..r.j^ at which Times there was a Repaft prepared for the Dead, at leaft irHonour of ^em, and laid on their Graves. This appears from the following Words of Oviide Faftis, Lib II 533, h ^fi ^omr £3* tumuUs. Jnimas placate paternaSy Parvaq-y in extin£fas mumra ferte pyras. Parva petunt manes. Pittas pro divite grata eji ..'.'. Munere. Non avidos Styx habet ima Deos, , tegula projeais fatis eft velata coronis ; '"'. E't fparfea fruges^ parcaq\ mica fiilis, r . .._: Tombs have their Honours too ; our Parents crave .* Some flender Prefent to adorn the Grave. Slender the Prefent, which to Ghofts we owe : Thefe PowVs obferve not what we give, but how : > No greedy Souls difturb the Seats below. • They only ask a Tile with Garlands crown'd, And Fruit, and Salt to fprinkle on the Ground. t T 1^*^ J J'"''''^ ?*""^ ^?T'' ^" ^ 1^*^ Livelihood by the Folly and Ignorance of the reft of the Negroes S Z^r '"'^" ™^ Inftf ce of their pretended Method of curing the Sick, which was performed unon a Negro Woman ; who, bemg troubled with Rheumatic Pains, was perfuaded by one of t™fe £" Doflors, that fte was bewitched, and that thefe Pains were owing to feveral Pieces of Glafs, rufty Naifs and Splinters of ftarp Stones, that were lodged in the different Parts of her Body ; adding that it was m his Power ,f paid for It, to cure her, by extrafling thefe from her through her Navel. Upon 7he Payment of the ftipulated Prajmmm, he produced his Magical Apparatus, being two Farthen Rafnn, Handful of different Kinds of Leaves and a Piece of Soap' In IL of thefe lifrhe made a ftrong L,t ;j! ^Vu^'t.^^ P"' *' ^'f"^ ^."^i • "''^" '='=PP'"S 'hefe with one Hand to the Navel, and pouring the Suds by Degrees upon them, he ftroked the Parts moft affefled with the other Hand, always ending towards the Navel : In a (Irort time atter, thrufting his Finger and Thumb into the Cataplafm of Help, he produced feveral Pieces of broken Glafs, Nails, and Splinters of Stones (which he hadTfore artfully conveyed among the bruifed Herbs) As fuch a great Number extracted, was looked upon as an extraordinary Inftance of the Dodtor's great Skill, he unluckily demanded a farther Reward than what was ft pulated : But as the Woman's Husband was one of thofe very few, who had no Faith in fuch pTe tenS Cures being accidentally knowing in fome of their Secrets, inftead of an additional Reward, ^he made ^^k\ r''/'^""^ "'' Money he had already received, bidding him, if he was a Conjurer find out by his Art fome Means of getting It again reftored to him. onjurei, nna Their Method of clearing themfelves from imputed Crimes hath a near Affinity to the bitter Water fed among the /c;. In the latter Cafe, the Prieft took fome of the Duft of the Lot of the Tabcrna cle ; and, mixing it with Water, he gave it to the Woman fufpeded of defiling her Husband's Bed favrnl T ''"r' ? '^^. ^fS™^ ^'^'^^ Uncieannefs with another, inftead of thy Husband then this Wa^r^ that caufeth the Curfe, ftiall go into thy Bowels to make thy Bellyto fvvell, Jnd tl y Thi^h to ro^And the' Woman ftial fay. Amen, Amm. In like manner, the Negroes take a Piece of EarthVom the Grave of their neareft Relations, or Parents, if it cat, be had ; if not, from any other Grave Th^beh^^n^led with . Water, F

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/ t6 Natural Hiftory of the Book I. Their Cuftom of wearing not only fafcinate them, but cure them when they are bewitched by others. Jcrftuion ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^g^^ believes, that he is bewitched, the Notion is fo ftrongly riveted in his Mind, that, Medicines feldom availing, he ufually lingers till (ii) Death puts an End to his Fears. The Capacities of their Minds in the comnion Affairs of Life are but little inferior, if at all, to thofe of the Europeans. If they fail in fome Arts, it may be owing more to their Want of Education, and the Depreffion of their Spirits by Slavery, than to any Want of natural Abilities ; for an higher Degree of improved Knowlege in any Occupation would not much alter their Condition for the better. That Slavery not only deprefles, but almoft brutalizes human Nature, is evident from the low and abjed State of the prefent Grecians^ when compared with their learned and glorious Anceftors. Our Slaves, in their Mirth and Diverfions, differ according to the feveral Cuftoms of fo many Nations intermixed : However, all agree in this one univerfal Cuftom of adorning their Bodies, by wearing Strings of ,^ Beads of various Colours, intermixed fometimes by the richer fort of Kcadf round ^^"^^ Negfocs with Picccs of Money. Thefe Beads are in great Numtheir Leg" Ucrs twincd round their Arms, Necks, and Legs. This Cuftom is not andArms. peculiar to the Inhabitants oi Africa ; for we find itby themoft antient Account to be common in all Eaftern Nations, efpecially among the Jewijh Women, as early as the Patriarchal Age : And their Fondnefs for thefe Ornaments came at laft to fo great Excefs, that we find it amon^ the Crimes reproved by the Prophet Ifaiah, That they were likewife in Ufe among the Greeh, is evident from a Piece of Painting of above Seventeen hundred Years old, now in the curious CoUedion of Dr. Mead^ where the Graces are reprefented in a Dance, having their Legs adorned with Bracelets. Thefe "Slaves, in fome of their rude Dances to {^^) Mufic ftiU ruder ufe Gefticulations very unfeemly and wanton ^ at other times, they have a fort Water, they drink it, imprecating the divine Vengenace to inflia an Immediate Funiihment uoon th.m but in particular, that the Water and mingled Grave-duft which thev have drank f?J,? '^ ""^ the Crime) may caufe them to fwell, and their Bellies to burft. Moft of hem are fo fi m !? ? 1"!^ V^ U will have this Effedt upon the Guilty, that few, if any (providS IT^tto^il^^T^^^^^^ '^'i Crime), will put the Proof of their Innocfency upon the Experiment. ScuLm wT Hp TT .T"'''* lets, and the Circumcifion of fome Nations if Negroes, are the almoft onlvlScrn^^ v^ f ?'"""I find that thefe Inhabitants of Jfrica agree with the former iZ e^ceo^ thL t^^^^^ ''V"?' '^^^'^''' Friends and Acquaintance, oftti call them by the Name of Stherf TOs feems^ n hf '1 ^''"'^"^ ^^^'' Cuftom of theantient Jews, who included Confanguinity, as w^as Fra]ernitv Tn h.r LTf ^"'..'? '^^" Brethren, fays Mraham to Let ; whereas he was only his^Nephew So S ?olH%w f f "u ^^ '^^ Father's Brcther. The wearing of Ear-rings among the rkheft of rh. T^^l^^^^^ ^^^ *^^^ to the Cuftoms of fome of thi antient jL and Car^lghSansThXmlF^X'L^'^T^' f ^'"^^^^^ rings to make the molten Calf: and Plautus, in his Play called Panulum tl^.t ^ '"'"I l^^' ^'''thaginlcn Slaves, fays, that their Hands ftiould be without Rnge s onewoSd thinl ^h T ^^ ^"^^ ^^'' Rings, in their Ears ^^ngers, one would thmk, becaufe they wore their (21) When thefe Negroes die a natural Death, or efpecially when thev Ae^rc^.r th.^r i that they ftiall return to their own Country. It would be too Lft to b^Lfrl7.^^^'^^f' '^"^ ^^'^^v* and to hve there in their mortal Bodies : therefore we muft^cond^^^^^^ theyexpea to be reftored Immortality of the Soul ; and what they mean by their own Countrv^^^^^^^^^ ^'^" ^ '^^ enjoy the Company of their Friends and Relations in another World ^ ^'"' ^*^^' ^^ (22) The Inftruments they generally make ufe of in their Dances arp ^ R,^ Drum, which they likewife call a Pump. The latter is made of an Mow TrS'".' ^ ^ambay, and a Feet hjgh, and about a Foot in Diameter, the Dimenfions of the Wiiole more or l^r ^ -^t^' -^^"' ^^^ > -, ,.? Uriels. itiAS is covered this Life. over

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# t. ^ Book I. IJland BARBADOS. n a fort of Pyrrhic^ or a Martial Dance, in which their Bodies are ftrongly agitated by skipping, leaping, and turning round, Since I have made this Digreffion to treat of the Manners and Cuftoms of thefe Negroes, it may perhaps be expefted, that I fliould confider the feveral Arguments for and againft making our Fellowcreatures Slaves. But, without engaging In a Controverfy foreign to my Defign ; If we a (Tree with the Civilians of the moft polifhed and learned Nations, slavery conthey are ofOpinion, that the Power of making .Slaves is, and hath ''^^^'^^*^' been, a natural Confequence of Captivity in War. As to the Slavery of thefe ylfrican Negroes, this Hardfhip is not fo unfupportable to them ; for they are very little better than Slaves in their own Country. However, I will not prefume to determine how defenfible this Cuftom may be under a Chriftian Difpenfation ; but thus far may be faid, in favour of it, that by the beft Accounts we have from the Coaft of Guimy^ antecedent to our purchafing any Slaves, the feveral different Nations were fo very favage and barbarous, that they were at continual Wars with one another, and the greatefl Mercy that was fhewn to the Conquered was to be put to fudden Death. Hence the Trees along the Sea-Coafts were daily to be feen horribly adorned with the Limbs and Heads of their vanquiflied Enemies. Upon the Truth of this Suppofition, proved by repeated credible Atteftations, that ^ti^ African Nations were, and are, fo inexorable to their Captives taken in War, will it not, with the fevereft Cafulft againft the Purchafe of Slaves, be of fome Weight to confider, that if they are bought, and tranfported Into Chriftian Settlements (without laying anyStrefs upon taking away by this Means the Guilt of Murder from their Conquerors, or the Benefit that aiifes to Mankind from their Labour), at leaft a few, among many Thoufands imported, may probably come to a better Knowlege of their Duty to God and Man. I barely mention this Argurnent, and leave It to ftand or fall by Its own Weight : Though to bring thefe in general to the Knowlege of the Chriftian Religion, is undoubtedly a great and good Defign, in Intention laudable, and in Speculation eafy ; yet I believe, for Reafons too tedious to be mentioned, that the Difficulties attending It are, and I am afraid ever will be, unfurmountable. The only Happinefs, even in Temporals, that thefe poor Creatures meet With, is when they fall into the Hands of Mafters influenced by the Principles of Humanity, and the Fear of God : By thefe they are treated (though often their ill Behaviour deferves the contrary) with great Lenity., 50 true Is the Saying of the Poet, In the moft literal Senfe : S F — In^e?mas r over witfi a Goat's or Sheep's Skin. Ifidare^ in his Origines^ defcribes the lymphoma to be hollow like a Drum, and covered with Leather, which was beaten, or played upon, with a Stick or Qiiill. From hence we may conclude, that the laft-mentioned Inftrument, in Ufe among our Negroes, hath a great Rcfemblancc, if it is not the fame, with the lymphoma of the Antients ; for tiiis Wejl-lndia Inftrument is always played upon with a Stick, or the Fingers. ^ ^

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l8 Natural Hiflory of Book L 'ijfe fdeliter an nee Jink ejfe fe Ovid. dePonto,II. 9.47 Their Ignorance in Religion compared with fome other Nations. T' imbibe foft Arts, and yield to Learning's Sway, Soon wears the Edge of Savagenefs away. I 4 On the other hand, when they are fo unfortunate as to have Owners unpoHfhed in their Manners, and infatiable of Riches (who, hke the Egyptian Tyrants, require Brick without Straw, or, more literally, exadt fevere Labour from an hungry Belly, or a naked Back), they have fcarce a Gleam of Reft from hard Toils, and heavy Stripes, but whilft Sleep, with its fhort Interval, eludes the painful Scene, which muft again be renewed with the returning Dawn. Such Task-mafters (23) confider not, that CompalTxon to the Miferable is a juft Debt ; and that this humane Difpofitiori, as Cicero juftly obferves, is not the Inftitution of worldly Policy, is not the bare EfFed of any particular Cuftom, but the univerfal Voice of Nature, whofe Dilates the Brave, the Generous, and the Good, in every Age, and in every Nation, hear and obey ; For, although God fufFered the Children of Jfrael to be made Slaves in Egypt ^ till fuch wholfome Severity recalled them to their Duty ; yet he brought Plagues upon the Egyptians for their Cruelty and Inhumanity towards them. The obvious and natural Inference that we may and ought to draw from fo many complicated Scenes of Mifery, in the Condition of fo many Thoufands of our Fellowcreatures (who are continually liable to the Infults of the Imperious, and the Lufts of the Debauched, and whofe own and their Childrens Childrens inceflant Labour will never be at an End, but with their Lives), is gratefully to acknowlege the Happinefs of living where neither our Lives nor Fortunes are at the Mercy of anytyrannical OpprelTor, How happy, I fay, are we, when compared with the feveral Nations above-mentioned, whofe Ignorance in all Knowlege about Religion is fo great, that, in their original native Country, their Adoration is often paid to Crocodiles, Rivers, Snakes, and certain coloured Fowls \ Howfoever ridiculous the Cuftom of the Egyptians may appear in worfhiping Beetles and Crocodiles, yet there is fome Shadow of Reafon at leaft of Excufe, to be given for this their Extravagancy ; for, as the Paffion of Fear is almoft univerfally predominant, as thefe Beetles came •eat and numerous Swarms from jljyria into Egypt ^ and almoft ri ^ (23) It feems by the following PafTage from Horace, that the Treatment of the Romam of th.W c;i was not lefs levere, than that of the prefent Age ;' for the Poet, puttina Mena P^IT^ I ^"^ ^^^^^^ mind of his former Slavery, defcribes him thus : ^ ^ ^'^"^'^ ^ Freed-man, in Ibericis perufle funibus latus, Et crura dura compede. HoR. Epode 4,

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Book I. Ipnd of B ARBAD O S. iP r of the Soil. almoft covered the Face of the whole Land, and, like their kindred Locufts, devoured every green Thing ; and as the Crocodiles proved often very deftrudive to their Herds ; the Egyptiai-is therefore built Temples and Altars to thefe, and woriliiped them, in Hopes, that either they, or the fuppofed Deity, who prefided over them, would be more propitious, and lefs hurtful, to them for the future. It was upon the fame Principle that the polite Ro7na7ts deified Fevers, and dedicated Temples to them. But it is hard to conceive, that there was any Good to be hoped, or Evil be dreaded, from an harmlefs black Snake, which was one of the Objects of Worfhip among thefe Slaves, or from a parti-coloured Fowl, which was never thought by any other Nation to be even ominous, much lefs to have Qualities that would render it, to a reafonable Creature, the Obje6l of divine Worfhip. Here we fee the Effedl of unafTifted Reafon ; and that it cannot, to the Bulk of Mankind, under fuch Circumftances, be a fuiEcient Guide to a reafonable Service towards God^ Indeed, fuch a Religion is fo void of improved Reafon, and fpeculative Tliinking, that it furpaffeth the groifeft Apoftafies of the Jews^ in their Imitation of the Egyptians, Syrians, and (24) Phoenicians,' io much complained of by the Prophets Ifaiah and EzekieL From the Difpofition and Manners of the Inhabitants, the next Thing The Nature that will naturally fall under our Confideration, will be the Nature of the '^^''^'^ ''"" Soil. This chiefly is black, in low deep Lands, in ftiallower Parts fomewhat reddifh, on the Hills frequently of a whitiih chalky marly Nature, and, near the Sea, generally fandy. By fuch Variety, Providence hath wifely adapted different Soils to the different Nature of the feveral Kinds of Trees, Shrubs, and Plants. Where (24) Thefe, among the many Apoftafies of the IfraeUtes, mentioned by the Prophets, are elegantly defcnbed by the great and ingenious Mr. Milton, who, fpeaking of the Egyptian and Syrwji Idols, fays. For thofe the Race of IfracI oft forfook "^^M:^.' Their living Strength, and unfrequented left His righteous Altar, bowing lowly down To bejiial Gods ; for which their Heads as low Bow'd down in Battle, funk before the Spear Of defpicabJe Foes. With thefe in Troop Came Alhtoreth, zuhom the Phoenicians call'd Aftarte, ^een of Heav'n, tvith crefcent Horns ; To whofe bright Image nightly by the Moon Sidonian Virgins paid their Vows and Songs : In Sion, alfo, not unjung, where flood Her Temple on th'offenfive Mountain built By that uxorious King, whofe Heart, thd' large, Beguil'd by fair Idolatreffes, fell To Idols foul. Thammuz came next behind : TVhofe annual Wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian Damfels to lament his Fate In ain^rous Ditties all a Summefs Day ; ... While fmooth Adonis from his native Rock Ran purple to the Sea, fuppos'd with Blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded : The Love-Tale Infe^ed Sion*s Daughters with like Heat; TVhofe wanton Paffions in the facred Porch Ezekiel fazv, when, by the Vifon led. His Eyes furvefd the dark Idolatries Of alienated Judah. — Paradife Loftj Lib. L Vcr. 432. r I

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20T'he Natural Hiflory of the Book I. Where the Soil is black, as it imbibes the Rays of the Sun, and refleds few or none, there the circumambient Air is not near fo hot as where the Soil is fandy, or gravelly ; for moft, if not all Bodies, relied; the folar Rays, in proportion to their refpedive Denfity ai:id Smoothnefs; fo that by how much the more folid and poliflied the Particles of a fandy or gravelly Soil are, than black Mould, by fo much the more intenfe will the Heat of their Reflexion be. It is owing to thefe refleded Rays, and the Want of Moifture, that the Blades of Canes, as well as other Plants, are more apt to fcorch in fandy, or gravelly, than in a black Soil : And, as the Fertility of this, as well as others of the WeftIndia Iflands, depends upon feafonable Rains, the long Chains of (25) Hills, interfperfed with deep Valleys, are therefore providentially fituated to the Eaftward of fome Parts of the Ifland, to intercept the Clouds and Vapours : For, if the Wind, at Eafl, drives before it even a thin fcattered Cloud towards the Wefl, this, as long as it is not augmented by adventitious Exhalations, will hover in the Air ; but as foon as it comes oppoflte to, and as low as thefe Hills, the impelling Force of the Wind at Eaft, and the Refiftance of the now clofe oppolite Hills will compel thefe thin watry Veficles to coalefce and afTociate into Drops ; by which means this thick CoUedion of Water becomes fo denle, that its Gravity is greater than the Strength of the Air in that Situation can uphold, and it defcends therefore in refrefhing Rain ; but, when the CoUedion of Vapours is not fo great as to form Cloihds, and if thele are not raifed before the Cold of the Evening above the Height of the Hills and Clifts, being then deftitute of their chiefeft Caufe of Expanfion, I mean the Heat of the Sun, they then are comprefTed, and defcend in foft Mifts upon the Earth ; yet in far greater Quantity, for the Reafons abovementioned, upon the Sides of thefe relifting Hills to the Eaftward. It is partly from hence, and not intirely, as fome imagine, from the fuperior Excellency of the^ Soil, that particular Parts of St, Jofeph's and St. Jlndrems Parilhes yield a more certain, and often better Increafe, than raoft other Parts of the Ifland. r This is fo remarkably true in general, that it hath been obferved, that as long as the Wind blows oppofite to one Side of the high Mountains near the 'Ganges^ they have no Rain on the other Side, the Clouds being intirely broken by the Refiftance of thofe very high Hills. And, as the Winds in and near 'England blow near half the Year from the Weftward Points, it muft follow, that the Clouds and Vapours are, in a great meafure, carried that Way : If thefe, as in England^ are in their Courfe intercepted (25) That a long Chain of Hills is very ferviceable to intercept the Clouds and Vapours was known . early as the Time of Mojes ; for, in his Defcription of the Land of Cama,, he fays ^o the Chnd^en nf J/ra^l, The Land whither thou goeji in to pofefs it, is not as the Land of £gvpt, from whence ve cmm cuf l.u thouwateredji thy Seed zvith thy Lt, as a Garden of Herbs i.e. In^/fasthe leaS Dr Lf ZZ Travels, obferves) the Egyptians, for want of feafonable Rains, were obliged to water their Gronndi k re is

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"> r ADO 21 f ccptcd by high Hills, they become more denfe, and confequently break into Rain or Mift. If they meet with little or no Refiftance, many of thefc thin fcattcring Clouds pafs over an open champaign Country. It is, I believe,* owing to this chiefly, xh^it Pkarily in France is lefs fupplied with Moifture, and confequently wants that grateful Verdure fo remarkable in England: That thefe Hills are ferviceable in flopping the flying Clouds from High Lands palling over the Ifland, is what is daily confirmed by Experience ; for [o7me?cipt that Part of the Ifland called The Thickets, in 6V. PM/x Parifli, being Clouds, low Land, and having no Hills, nor high Clifts to the Eaftward, to make any Refiftance to thefe Clouds, is often fcorched with great Drought, when the middle and more hilly Parts of the Ifland are repleniftied with Rain, It muft not from hence be concluded, that fuch Countries are intirely deftitute of Rain, becaufe they have no Hills or Clifts to the Eaftward, I mention thefe only as Helps, to prevent fome low Clouds and Vapours from pafllng over them 5 for, if the general Caufe of the Defcent of Rain was the Refiftance made by the Hills and Mountains, there would be little or no Rain at a great Diftance from Land, which we are fure there is. It will Hkewife perhaps be furpriflng to thofe unacquainted with the Nature of the Soil of fome Parts of this Ifland, to hear, that in the mofl: hilly, which is called Scotland, confiderable Quantities of Land fliould run away (as it is here termed), and become Part of a neighbouring Eftate. Sometimes large Pieces of Ground planted with Canes, and even The Soil in Land with Plantain and Banana Trees growing upon it, have flid down [^'"5^^^^" to the Valleys from the Sides of the Hills. This happens in very rainy Aid es from Seafons ; for, as the Soil upon thefe Hills is commonly not above Eight Ihe ilm' tf or Nine Inches deep, and of an oozy and foapy Nature underneath, it ^^^^ ^^"^ys pery Chalk, flat Stones, or loofe Gravel. Subji: When the Soil flides in large Pieces, its Motion is lefs violent, than when it is confined in narrow Chafms in the Meeting of two Hills, elpecially if the Situation be very fteep ; for there the CoUedion of Water being confiderable and heavy, inftead of gliding foftly between the two Strata, it breaks out in different Places at once, and then runs down the Precipice a mingled Torrent of Earth and Water. A remarkable Inftance of this kind happened fome Years ago in St. Aitdrms Parifli, where a large Garden, the Soil of a Potato-Garden, with its growing Produce, flid from the Side of a neighbouring Hill, and richly covered the next Neighbour's Land, fituated in the Vale below.' Another Inftance, fimilar to this, happened at an Eftate, now in the PoiTeflion of the Reverend Mr. Reynold Fojler, where the greateft Part of a poor Tenant's Land, with all its Produce growing upon it, firft cracked, and then flid over the Clifts into the Sea ; but during the long Continuance of the fame Rain, in a few Hours afterwards, the adjoining Land of G Mr.

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22 The Natural Hiftory of tie Book I. Mr. Fofler, being then planted with Canes, came tumbHng down, and richly fupplied the Place of the Soil fo lately walhed ofF, and there remained. u r The Violence with which the Land moves at fuch times, may be guelfed at likewife from the following Inftance : A Cabbage-tree, of about Thirty Feet high, moved Roots, Soil, and all, feveral Feet from the Place where it grew ; it moved in an upright Pofture, and remained fo upon the Settlement of the Soil, and continues to this Day to grow and flounfh. This Tree is to be feen at Banana Hole, an Eftate in St. JofepVs Parilh, belonging to Mrs. Warren, at the Black Roch However fertile thefe hot Climates are, if refrefhed with feafonable Dews and Rains, and with the warm enlivening Rays of the Sun j yet it will fcarce appear credible, at leaft to the Northern Inhabitants of the World (where the Vegetable Creation languifhes for near half the Year ; and, when the Sun fheds its benign Influence, is comparatively weak and faint), that in an Ifland, containing not above 106470 Acres of Land, there fliould ever have been near 70,000 black, and 30,000 white Inhabitants ; though at this Time, indeed, as I have obferved before, the Number is not quite fo confiderable. The great What I fliall add will ftill appear more incredible (though upon good the tSd? Grounds I affirm it) ; That it all the Valleys, and other Places fliaded from the Wind, were to be planted with Plantain, Banana, and Caflado Trees, and the open level Land with Yams, Potatoes, Eddoes, Corn and Pulfe (efpecially Pigeon-peas), and a fufficient Number of Cattle was kept to provide Manure, this fmall Ifland alone, without any foreign Affifl:ance, would, in feafonable Years, produce a Sufficiency of fuch Food to maintain more than the (26) Number of its prefent Inhabitants.' The mimeFrom hence we may learn not to wonder at, nor disbelieve what is faid of the chiiin Scripturc of the Fertility of the Holy Land^ and the numerous Armies nSTncff brought into the Field by the Children oUfraeL Though their fettled bie. Kingdom from Dan to Kadep, upon the Northern Boundaries of Arabia Petraa, was not above One hundred and Twenty Miles long, and in Breadth irom (26) Romuhs allowed evety Roman but Two Acres of Land (which were much lefs than the Eriglijh Meafure) in even a Winter Country. How much more fruitful an Acre in this Ifland is, than Two about Rcme will appear by the following Calculation : An Acre of Land defigned for Yams hath generally three thoufand one hundred Holes dug in it. This planted in the Beginning of July, with Five hundred Weight of fmall Yams, will come to their Maturity, and be fit to be dug up the latter End of December or the Beginning of January, and will yield Two Pounds and Three Quarters Weight of Yams from every Hole This is a Computation fo very fmall, that the Inhabitants often dig Four, Five, or Six Pounds, more than what I have mentioned : However, by this very low Calculation, an Acre thus planted (befides the fmall Yams or Seedlings, equalling the Weight of what was planted) will produce a Sufficiency for Five Men a whole Year, allowing each Man Four Pounds of this kind of Food a Day ; fo that Twenty-feven thoufand Acrp^ of the prefent beft Cane Land, planted in Yams, would produce yearly a Sufficiency of this kind at rh above Allowance, for One hundred and Thirty thoufand Men, which is above the Number of its nre^e^Z Inhabitants. After the above-mentioned Quantity is fubtraded from the Whole, there will remain Sev7 r nine thoufand Four hundred Acres, which (except what the Buildings, Orchards, and other Convenipn'^' take up) may be planted, fome in Corn and Pulfe, and the reft left for Fafturage, which Quantify will T* more than fufficient to raife Cattle for Manure, and other Ufes : Befides, there might be raifed iinn h moft barren Part a great Number of Sheep and Goats ; and the whole Land, that was nlanted in V would be open for other Provifions, fuch as Potatoes and Pulfe, for above Six Months in the Y ^^^^

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Book I. IJland BARBADOS. 4 I from the Mediterranean Sea to the Defart on the Eaft, about Eighty ; yet, "Joab numbered the Children of Ifrael Women The great Fertility, and prodigious Growth, of Vegetables in warm World IS almoft incredible ; at leaft, it will appear to be fo to thofe who are unacquainted with the Nature of Vegetation. This will be made more evident, when we come to defcribe the Plantain-tree, and the great Ajnerican Aloe ; nor will it be lefs agreeably furpriiing to find, that thefe hot Climates are far from being uninhabitable ; for the Heat is daily cooled by the conftant Breezes of Wind, which at the Sun's firft Rifing gently fan the Air, and increafe in Strength in proportion to the adive Influence of the Sun's Heat, till towards Evening, when the folarHeat is abated, thefe refrefhing Gales, generally {peaking, die away. The Conftancy, Regularity, and Gentlenefs of the Wind, efpecially in what we call the Winter Months, the Serenity and Clearnefs of the Air, the continued Verdure of Trees, diverfified with Variety of Objedls of Art and Nature, all terminating in and flirrounded with the Sea, may be compared, with fome fmall Allowance, to Homer\ beautiful Defcription of the Plains of Memphis^ near the Acherujtan Lake, Ov yKpBlos,. yV dp ^sifjicov ^oAuV, kt£ ttoT ofji^p^* AaA cciet 'Zetpbpoio ^uvTATveiovlcts avTcci Stern Winter fmtles on that aufpicious Clime : The Fields are Jiorid with unfading Prime,' From the bleak Pole no Winds inclement blow ; Mold the round Hail^ nor fake thejleecy Snow : But from the breezy Deep the Bleji ijthale The fragrant Murmurs of the We Bern Gale, Pope. The beautiful Profpefts from feveral Hills to the Vales below, eipecially from the Top of a fmall Hill, near the Honourable John Dotting Eftate, from another in Batten % Eftate, and from Brigs\ Hill, are not Ffdraelony and the Medi i Mount Tabor Hackletons Clift where Nature at one View difplays a great Variety of furprifing Profpeds. Here the high impending Rocks yield a dreary rueful Appearance : The feveral deep Chafms below, over which they projeft, are imbrowned with the thick Foliage of lofty Trees. The adjacent fteep Declivity is crouded with irregular Precipices, and broken Rocks ; the whole View terminating in the tempeftuous Sea, over whofe craggy Shores the foaming Waves inceflantly break. — All folemnly awful, if not horrifying Scenes except when the Eye is relieved by a Glimpfe, or fometimes a full Sight, of the neighbouring 23

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24'The Natural Hiftory of the Book I. neighbouring Plantations. To complete this uncommon Contraft, a deep rapid River runs through the Valleys at the Bottom of thefe Precipices ; which, tho' in the dry Seafons it is almoft without Water ; j^X. in the rainy Months of JunB^ July^ land Auguji^ it often overflows its higheft Banks ; and its then irrefiftible Courfe may juftly be faid to anfwer Horaces Defcriotion of the UiVi-r T"?'^^*m a fifnrm. detera Flumtnis Ritu feruntury nunc ri Cum pace delabentts Etrufcum In mare ; nunc lapides adefoSy Stirpefq\ raptaSy &' pecusy ^ domos Volventis una, non Jtne montium ClamorCy vicinaq'y JthiBy Cum fera diluvies quietos Irritat amnes* Like Tiber s fmooth and glai^ Face, When gently rolling to the Main ; Life fometimes glides with a foft Pace, Unvanquifli'd with the Edge of Pain. Like Tibery oft 'tis in a Roar, When his rough Billows lafli the Shore ; Rocks, Trees, and Cattle, down are borne, And Domes from their Foundation torn ; Huge Mountains found, as well as Woods ; And all around the Plains are Floods. As the above-mentioned ftupendous Clifts are intirely impaflable for many Miles, except by Three narrow Chafms hewed through the Rocks, where Ten Men can refift a Hundred ; this, with their Vicinity to the Sea, reminds me of Mr. G/m;ers beautiful Defcription of the Streights of Thermopylie. There the lofty Clift Of woody Oeta overlook the Pafs ; And fat beyondy der half the Surge bel
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PAGE 54

^ / '> / / / riate 2 Ta:'Z4* ^ 1 • > ^ • \ k t V '^k > * • k > ^ ~ ^ H '. •• >: • • • 4 .^v -i ,v ^^€Ut4^^^ /i>^ M ^ ^ *--** i./ iN?^ J^ e^^i^m^T^e*^ ftt^cAiy a • -^> H -vv-A ^^ ^A I Si rf > /^y '-^^^ n 1' A.' r^g^ i\ •-ITlSi ,j --^, > ^: ^ " • < • i>^>i.v • i#V'V < -V 1 • • k > • t > > > • 4 /Jf '^^^>--;^ X. i, '\^b < fc • t > t 5v; ( < ''^ V, '^''Ift* '^-r:::^-^ ^ '. • -'r 1 A > 1 1 B — v*-^<. ** J* • >n' F 4 > i ^ • .? '*>•' > < "^ *--t..^-: V-_.'. •— i. .• * -^v'> 'V-*, ''WJI ''*rf.^V;v^ ^^^;/-^ ;PQ\ • • ,•-/ '^i* jV *>JJ -;^r'^^;^^^ -"^r^ ^^--^-r^ r^-. .* J^x-'V ^•^'^^^ -J^'Z. T^ 'i. -. '' rf >f J J'. '-.. '-i" -.'*f"i,. %• *i .i-Ji F It *.ll *•>! ^ • *^-*. :S89h" '^M I -M r k r;;^-^-^^^^^-. .^-/^— '••^'" '^'V" .,,,^>M-^^ ""*t. ** "Z^' '^*. ^'j' '-*F b I q J >A -. k I ^ .

4 [^^ ,** rf. I J fivly. J 1 r. V*'^ *' ,*^' > I J**^ i-f^ j*^j ^, ^ /i*v p >-,* : • I *^ ''^ '"".'-*, -„^,^ -^'" ^ Jjz^h ^)>-'. * f r /'".• >,^'--'. J t.^K^' J I' 11 V* fM^ P> < > t I ^\' \ ;>VV ft I ,^,.rf*i'*.j' 'MJ r J '* '\ /> :\^^> \ .-• f 0>^.r' aVaV tV> f^ ii s X \\ y •-V > .-^'^^^ '--^ -/i.. V . ' "•.-.,. V J _V J "'* • -J -x^/ -"./ '-' J4J^ -"'t * ^^-^ -' *ti^\y 1. **; *vl -^'->*'> -, '•"* '"' wri-' ^ ^/ < - ^ ^ *v ^*i/ # ^ Pi4ri III'' "' S'>. ..>ki>):^ . ,. _; -**/.' ' r ij>*i' *i.''"'. ' i *j 'S->*'>' \ 1 I -' ^ 1 1' *: b i I x --'J'' *;,.' y. ./> • --vn ^ >v\v \^' '* -A^ it I' ( J ^ ^t l.'gr -* A" ,\\\Vv .. r -^ / I t i ^ J -^ / # # ^ 1 r .,.*-* 1 I r .i >!)• •*<, l^ # i -.* •'' ^ '* J,, '*'-.. ^ .,.....Ji" ,^^., Ir^'C .i' *y ff.z '*' t /_J V'' '\ .--..tt t.^ ,. -..,v tJ/^ _. ^ -' f ^j,*' >^1* J/ j> I J ', ^, > ^ r' y I lit'' -' ^ Jit **'', tl" ^ # J f'z f ^ /' .1 I -.>_ *'. ^-t'' "...' 1 ^^ * It,,' I J Y F„i'>'">' ^^ ' '-'1' ' .\ r w* ' y ^ J -* I I k i ^ '1 4 yj J .*/ < tl >' '''<_ ^ f^".-,. r y y > -^ J rf -y v-^ HF <1I 'I ^ 'iV'* I F* ^' I F <1I ^JJ *.i^ U'lJTiJ^ j> ' I . "•**,* 'tjr. '* i J .***J|J' J f^ / ^-' J ^ •'a'' I '• • '' ,\ 14' \ 1 -fcf I' < ,, '-i' f m I f M .ijY J/>'^ •""*''"j, '''' ^'''" 'l-C-^ t> -^AS**-'J/>**' > -: "" .fj ,''" /^ ,• -wt • ' t .*"'*' ''''i *-";.''', •*''./ ^r ' t F "o,,. ''it J "',* > *-* I i " *'tt -. -" '' ,*-' J I ' 4 ttr I '* r *'-* ' f" fp,t .<^iOH' .r^ t. • ,' i ".' ,• J ./* t..-*rfj i "V--**,.^ ^.-,.if ''''^*',,*'/ -..•*'' J -/ ' F r ** ^_l1^^^ii4^i^ > i*k i^i'if v/ '• * / /^ """ >, i ^ ''" i.^v"/ '"" \>y z ft l\.'VV( b*/* %.T1< lo* -??r^^r....'J^„.. ,,, -V r"J" '^/ f J t — ^ z '• # -'^ (lb" """ ^i'-:.'. ^>'''"-'>-^ ^ f'^tfit^-" (' y -, .l^ # t-f *ii/, 'it^ 'VV' ,1 t /• -J 'V .*'"f^ '^V. ir, ^ f iW^t -*^ •^#y y' 'tt*^i ^^'' \ — 1-^ I *y I ,>*!' ^j ' I ^ I' t I ..^* ^t, ^^ v/^ ^9 f* * -'-^/J'# ' r> w J -, ,1^^ '* -Mt***isA% '" '""^'*''*Mk^ ""^" V ,. I ** O' „ n' '"-.* J* "^•>a I tf J , J w I tt. '\ "; ^ f -'""'r ^ 'i'/Tl M O, ' I (f -*t't t 1 ti -.', 1•iJJ '-11 *#^-V ,-"-"1 '>".,,# J' Jif # J • •'f .1 f* '>Jtlp>,' 1' f-1 >*'*!' '.J !•' ^ ."^ • J V> f 'AV^f >*>fir\M .-^>...>.-....-.^^„ "*--;"•• ^ > .' -t ' ft' f: \U i "-'" "///" ,i**"' '' '1*1"-".-.-,, I i-> t \; V ^ r/ ^ M, J • '**' "'%'>"^/'A i ^^ :.3^ • ^ y*r^' *' '".^ #J'#' -'^^ t i-^n '' f -i '-'-1 > a' *^\, **** f ^ I I v#< IP i': ^io*'*-"Wi^' ^-;% %tii \< T\' I *> ^S* "' -' M'-^i*^ '. Kf^im^ f r t TV"r^**'' 'Mill/ ^c^^^f'^-^*:: -. 'i*'l* %r*:-v^w Au; r.i, # '"'•>'*>•.^^.>^ 'T *ll r*i Hi^'^IJIW "II, .iJTlVj^ 4 1 1 I cf^ .NNv c^ OO, I f •t -#A*f/ ^.*^* '*''> \wirt^ ^ n > '.--I,, I -p .*> 'J ^tw 'J i''' I .• Mb.^V'V V 'I. ,!>*',>( V ^\^'^^l -„ji, T'-ri--,'"' ,ii** -• 0^ir*A '"^iJ. x^i' rv. 11 ,i>'^ .*' > . jXh' cC^ f*. ^ I cf ^^> i\ nrs r • .^?£r' :r^ \^ x; rtrs ->^ ^^Vi ^'^r ^^. sS^vKiiVS 'i^*^ ^AJM^Sft^^,-'V ^'^Ta r^^fS^' -.:-. •:GiL V-j -,An --->:> ,-:•* K^ '^ #.V 1 • rO^ rW r^ -. I' ,1 *' f I ^ '^^^^l^5Sv',S^^G^ -s>hJ^:^. rr/0' ^ tysi rcnjv V ;m ^ T^*-i j^'-n '^ \ /' •, ; [ ^ >/ ffc. ^o F-', t ft >j' rat > J t • Vj ^/* tlf J' v^' me. • I J* '. t* i"^ # tf H *' v%W**\f/'f\ .v I' / '"^ir.'wy iV ^Uitem.: n 'h *f> vnT / ** iv. III ( ,1 ^'^S. JVi^, ihy wiXf .0 >' '". t > '' I s

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Book I ipnd of BARB AD OS. 25 and Weather, and the quick Return of Night, with its moift Vapours, we cannot be at a Lofs to conceive how thefe otherwife hot and fultry Regions, near the Equator, are by this Means rendered not only habitable, but pleafant ; and, as the Inhabitants are not liable to fuddcn The iiiand Changes from Heat to Cold, they not only enjoy a great Share of Health, ^^^j.^^^^f^jj^ but likewife live to an advanced old Age. Health) within Three Miles round, in a Country-place, Part in St, Lucy s from the There are now alive (and moft of them in a tolerable good State ofof fcmJ of the Inhabit2nts Parilh, and Part in St. Peter s^ Eleven Women, and One Man, whofe Age, added together, make a Thoufand and Five Years. We have likewife, in the Ifland, Three Perfons, whofe Ages, being added together, amount^ by the beft Computation that can be made, to near Three hundred Years. Pifo^ in his Account of Brajil^ fays, that feveral of the Natives there live, fome to an Hundred, others to an Hundred and Fifty Years ;. Yet I beg Leave to diffent, with regard to the Certainty of it, from that great Man, however a Man of Veracity in other relpefts \ for neither, the Jitdians upon the Continent of America (at leaft the different. Nations that I knew), nor the native Negroes of Africa (as far as I could learn by the moft ftrid Inquiry from fuch of them as have been naturaUzed in thefe Colonies), have any certain Method of reckoning their Years ; nor of the latter is there one of an Hundred that can give you any tolerable room to guefs at their Age, unlcfs fomething very remarkable happened when they were young, to leave a lafting Impreffion upon their Minds. When I examined a very old Perfon about her Age, all that fhe could remember was, that fhe was a very lufty Girl when the great Hurricane happened. for of all Storms called Hurricanes, Hurricanes, which, in Truth, are inexpreffibly violent (though not fo freand Effea? quent in their Returns here, as it is imagined in Europe)^ that which happened in Barbados^ on the 31ft o{ Augufi 1675. was not inferior, in its deplorable Confequence, to the Earthquake which happened at yamaica (27) ; for it left neither Houfe nor Tree ftanding, except the few that were fheltered by fome neighbouring Hill or Clift. Some Hours before the Storm began, the Heaven was overcaft with thick Clouds, of a black reddifh Flue ; the Air calm, but fultry ; and the more it loft its expanfive Force (which before buoyed up the watry Particles in a difperfed State), the clofcr the Clouds condenfed^ and the blacker they appeared, This indeed was an ^ra remarkable enougl H Tl le (27) In the terrible Earthquake at Jarnaica^ which happened on the 7th of "June 1692. the Sand in the Streets moved in Heaps, like the Waves of the Sea ; then on a fudden the Earth opened in fevcral Places, and fwallowed in whole Rows of Houfes with their Inhabitants. The remaining few knew not whither to fly ; for Deftrut5tion was on every Side. As the Earth opened and clofed with a very quick Motion, feveral Hundreds of the Inhabitants were abforbed alive -, others jammed in the clofe FiflTures, fome up to their Necks, fome to their Waifts j and others had their Legs and Thighs broken in thefe Yawnings of the Earth, which were fo numerous, that a Gentleman reckoned above Two hundred cpen in a very fhort time. The Sea was in fuchftrong convulfive Motions, that in almofl an Inftant it receded back hear a Mile, and as quick returned to its former Bounds. A large Mountain, not far from Port Morant, was quite fwallowed up, and the Place where it ftood is now become a large Lake oi about Four Leagues over. Vide Phil. Tranf. Vol. IL p. 411.

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26 T/je Natural Hijlory of the Book I. r the Wind The Afternoon, when the Violence of the Storm began, was high and varying, almoft in an Inftant, to every (2 8 J Point ot the Compafs ; but fettled chiefly at North, being attended with dreadtul Rain, Thunder, and Lightning. < The Sea, where not guarded with high CUfts, overflowed its Banks, in fome Places, above an Hundred Yards. The Day-light, while it lafl:ed, as Milton expreiies it, 4 w > F Servd only to difcover Sights of Woe ; V^^i for there was nothing to be feen but one rueful Spedtacle of almoft univerfal Ruin. If one looked in to the Land, Behold^ Darknefsy and Sorrow^ and the Light was darkened i?t the Heavens thereof. The Night, as it came on, was uftiered in with an almofl: continued rumbling Noife in the Air, with the Increafe of Wind, Rain, Thunder, and Lightning ; efpecially the latter, which now with redoubled Force, darted not with its ufual fhort-lived Flaflies, but in rapid Flames, skimming over the Surface of the Earth, as well as mounting to t^e upper Regions. /' The next (29) Morning, when the Storm was abated, the whole Ifland afforded a lively, but terrible, Idea of the Tenth Egyptian Plague of old ; for there was fcarce a Houfe but lamented one dead in it, or in general fomething equal, or worfe. Several Families were intirely buried in the Ruins of their Houfes ; and there were few that efcaped, but with the Lofs either of fome Relation, Friend, or Acquaintance. Thefe, (28) There was not an Houfe left in Speights Town, wliofe Roof was not blown off. Major Streaie lived off, the Violence of the Wmd was fo great, that he and his Bride, up one Pair of Stairs fbeins married but that Evemng), were earned from their Bed by the Force of the Wind, and thrown into a ^icklv Pimploe^fledge ; m which uncomfortable Situation, they were both found next Morning, unable to affift themfelves. Likewife one Humphry Waterman, then an Infant, was found as foon as rhp ^fnrr! v ^ ^""^ witl. his Arm broken and in that Condition fucking his dead Mother? kmedb^ the LghJror^^^^^ There are many Inftances that might be g ven of the great and defl-niffUvP /J^J *;^y"""ns or ibcorm. that which happe^led in the Reign of Canlyfes, which w^sovtlenfthrit rS 't^'^'^ fart between Egypt and EtUopia, fo as to ^over and deftroy a whole Arm/ cofc of Hftv^.h'^'r^'; Men, which were mtended againft t\x^ Ethiopians. ^' connmng ot bifty thoufand In the above-mentioned Hurricane in this Ifland, there were Seventeen Pprfnn^ nn.^ rt that Part of the Ifland called Scotland. I have thefe Informations frorcr^^^^^^^^ ^^ Ifland, and who were, at the time of the Hurricane, of fufficienC Age both to rei^/mh "^/''^f ^" ^he Remarks on, the Violence of the Storm, and the Occurrences "LuLXpened'' '"^ "^^'^^ '^^^'' (29} It IS here reported, that, during this Hurricane one Mr^ r.^FJ^ l\^'A -c Panlh, living upon the Eftate of 'Mr. rLas HaX?. ^kcZ^ri^ to ^o fTom he^ n:'ll'" ^'^ ^^^'^^'^ houfe, was fnatched up by a XVhirlwind, and carried through the^Iir^to HreafD^^^^^^^^^^^ ^J,"^"^" where ftie was found matiy Hours afterwards grafping the Roots of a large Tree nevdv Kl ^^ ""^"' Thofe here, who believe this Relation, urge, in favour of their Relief .N.^r^ ^ ^""^"^ "P* Inftances of as great Storms, which have been frequent at" afc^L^f^ /''''' "^'"^ ^vell-attefted Places of Italy. See Diodorm Siculus, Vol. III. Lib. XII ^ ^ Lavwmm, and fevera! other However, I leave the Reader at Liberty to judge for himfclf wh^tTiPr c, k t a ^

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Book I. IJland of B AREA D C Thefe, and fuch-like Storms, when compared with the moft remarkable ones, defcribed by Heathen Authors, either in Profe or Verfe (30), are infinitely more furprifmg and dreadful ; for, when the Almighty, in thefe terrible Vifitations, rideth upon the JVmgs of the Wijids^ when he mahth the Darhnefs his Pavilion^ then it may be faid without a Figure, that he taketh up the Mountains in a Balance^ a7id the great Deep as the Drops of a Bucket : Not the Tops of Rhodope, or the Ceraunian Hills, alone are torn ; it is not thefe alone that skip like Lambs, nor is it the River Jordan only that flies back, but Hills upon Hills fink into Valleys, and the Bottom of the great Deep uncovers, and ftarts into Land, at his angry Nod, The Foundations of the Earth fhake, and the Pillars of Heaven are aftonilhed, at his Rebuke. Lo / thefe are but Part of his Ways. How little a Portion is heard of him .The fudden fliifting of the Wind, in thefe and fuch-like Hurricanes, to the feveral Points of the Compafs, may be juftly compared to Viro-ir% beautiful Defcription of a Storm, in the following Words : t ^ jJc
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28 Natural Hiftory of the Book I. ^_ They roufe the loweft Waves, that flept before, And heave huge Billows tow'rds the lab'ring Shore. 1 As thefe quick Tranfitions of the Wind to the feveral cardinal Points, is a notorious Matter of Faft, with refped to Hurricanes, how inexcufe,able muft thofe be, who, without any Inquiry, ridicule the Defcnption of a Storm in the Book oi Job ; becaufe the Author makes the Storm to affed: the Four Corners of the Houfe, as if it were at once which indeed is no lefs a true, than an elegant Defcription, of fuch a Storm. It is obferved, that the Glare of Lightnings is, in general, more expanded, ill thefe hot, than in Northern Climates. This is undoubtedly occafioned by the greater Rarefadion of the Air near the Equator. However, in Times of violent Hurricanes (if of any long Continuance), the Rapidity of the Wind and Rain preffes on, and forces a prodigious Quantity of heavy Air in the room of the more rarefied, which is obliged to fly upwards, and to give way : Then the Atmofphere becomes as much condenfed, during the Storm, as in any Northern Climate : And therefore the Lightning, being more clofely prelTed by fo thick a Medium, would appear, and in reality be, more compad, than when lefs refifted by the common more rarefied Air. It is chiefly owing to this, with a fmall Allowance for the Confternatlon and Fear that the Inhabitants were then poflefl'ed with, that we can in fome meafure reafonably account for their defcribing the then Lightnings to be fo very uncommon to them, as to appear like fo many Wedges or Bolts of Fire in the Air. I am of Opinion, that all Hurricanes begin in variable Climates ; otherwife we fliould not in all Frobabihty have here any fuch Storms at all ; for as the Air is very much rarefied near the Equator, its Particles are at a great Diftance from one another, and confequcntly ad with a lefs Force and Struggle, than when nearly compreffed between a thicker Medium. This (ceteris paribus) may 'be evidently feen by the great Power of Air pent up in a Wind-GunVwhich will force Leaden Bullets through an Halfinch Deal-toard ; fo that where-ever the Particles of Air are moflicompreflid together, there the greater will their Struggle be to expand, or dilate. Hence all fuch variable CHmates will be more liable to Storms. We may likewife add, that the nearer any of our Weft-India Iflands is to the main Land, whofe Mountains near the Shore are very high if th^ Storm blows upon the Ifland from the oppofite Point ; for Inflance If it comes from the North-eaft ; and the adjacent Continent, oppofite to that Point, rifes with very high Lands (the Storm meeting with this Refiftance, and being ftill violently prefixed againft the Sides of thefe Hills); the remaining Particles of rarefied Air will, according to their Nature, mount upward, leaving the lowermoft ftill more condenfed and as every Particle of Air hath an elaftic Quality, the greater th' Number is of thefe that are compreflbd together, their united Force will

PAGE 59

Book I. IJland BARBADOS. will with greater Power recoil ; fo that the Storm, being thus flopped in its Courfe, will more violently blow, as well as laft longer. Some flight Earthquakes have been likewife felt in this Ifland : but probably not fo much here as in the neighbouring Iflands of St. Vincent's and St, Lucysy where there are burning Mountains, that have at times vomited Fire (tho' not of late Years) ; and where there is a great Quantity of crude Brimftone to be found in the Neighbourhood of their Volcano's. The Hurricanes are much lefs frequent of late Years ; nor hath there appeared any thing like one in this Ifland, fince the Year (31) 173 1, which blew from the E aft and North-eaft. All the Ships were driven out of the Harbour ; but there was not much Damage received, except on Shore, where feveral Houfes were thrown down, and fome large Trees torn up by the Roots. From thefe loud ones, let us take a View of the more filent Strokes of the Almighty's Hand, whereby he neverthelefs aflerts his Kingdom over all the World, I mean the Difeafes peculiar to this and fome neighbouring Iflands. (3r) The Violence of this Storm was fuch, that it covered, near Bridge Town^ a Shoal at a fniall Diftance from the Land, oppofite to Colonel Hilary Rowe's and Mr. Waldron's Houfes, of near Two hundred Yards long. Twenty broad, with a Bank of Stones Four Feet thick: Thcfe adventitious Stones have been fince partly waihed off by high Tides, and partly carried away for Ballaft, or to be burnt into Lime by the Inhabitants. *I'he End of the First Book. 2() I THE

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I\ I r, 'F^ t> *^r^ -I ^ I^ J # ^ f h ^ ^

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AProip€ct of Jiridtro-Town in the lOand of 3Jnrbado^5. T 1 T H E NATURAL HISTORY O F T H E fland of BARBADOS. BOOK II r" J Of the Difeafes peculiar to this and the neighbouring IJlands. T -T is the Opinion of many great Men, that the Almighty never fhews his Power by infliiSiing Difeafes, or even great Inconveniencles, pecuHar to^ any certain Part of the World, but at the fame time he difplays forth his Goodnefs, in providing fome extraordinary Remedies. li Egypt is often denied refrefhing ( i ) Rains, its Dews delcend not only, like thofe oi Hermoit^ upon the thirfty Plains, but the wide-extended Nile alfo is commanded more plenteoufly to fopply that Bleffing from his copious Urn. When he hath thus fertilized the Earth, his Waters recede within their former Bounds, and return not again till the ftated Periods, to cover the Land ; fo that if this Part of the World is fometimes vifited with Fevers far more acute than any known in the Northern Parts (the Plague excepted}, I make no doubt but indulgent Providence (i) This mufl be underflood chiefly of Upper Egypt.

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32 ^ 4 The Natural Hiflory of the Book IL fublimates the Juices of Plants. Providence hath provided Plants, Minerals, ^c. in the fame Climate, which, upon a thorough Search into their Qualities, are capable of affording not (5iil7 great Rehef, but alfo moft effedtual and fpeciiic Remedies. That they are not already found, is rather an Argument, that we have ftbt, been fufficiently inquilitive, than that there are no fuch Plants endued with thefe Virtues. •The Heat of The fcvcral Difcoveries that have' enriched the Materia Medica plainly fuMima^e^s^^A^w, that the Virtues of Plants and Minerals are inexhauftible. And .K. T..;.„„ ^^ ^^^ likewife obferve, that the Heat of the Sun in thefe hot CHmates is fo intenfe (efpecially upon thofe Plants which grow fheltered from the \VindJ, that it fublimates their Juices, Salts, and Spirits, to a far greater. Degree of Perfedion, than a chemical Fire, by its inconftant Heat, can poffibly effed. Hence it is, that the moft valuable Gums andBalfams are brought from hot Climates. Witnefs that of Gilead and Peru. It is obferved by the ableft Praditioners in Phyfic of this liland, that Peripneu monies and Pleurifies are almoft the conftant Attendants of the Change of Wind, if of any Continuance, from the true TradeWind, efpecially to a fultry South-weft Wind. The Difference of Purity between this and our TradeWind, is eafily difcovered ; for the South-weft V/ind blows from a very hot moift Part of the Continent oi America, which is not above 254 Miles diftant from this Ifland ; And as this is by far hotter than our ufual Air, it adds too great a Relaxation to the Animal Syftem. . wrnl'ot ™^' S^^ *^ ^iff^^^^*^ Degrees of Circulation in all the Juices (which ftitutionai luch a Difference m the Air muft caufe), gives Birth to various Difeafes • to the inhaWhereas the TradeWind, by its Frequency, or rather by its Conftancy IS not only conftitutional tq the Inhabitants, but it is in itfelf purer than the other, becaufe it blows upon the Ifland at Eaft-north-eaft • and as the neareft Part of the Continent, upon that Point, is ^127 Miles from us, the Air muft be far colder by paffing over fo much more Water than the South-weft Wind, and confequently more wholfome The learned Dr. M^^, in his Treatife ^. P.>, obferves, that it was the Opmion oiHtppocrates, that the Conftitution of the Air that nrece ded peftilential Fevers, was mixed with great Heats, much Rains .n^ Southerly Winds. And G^/.;. takes notice, that no oTerthanT^ Air brings the Plague." Lucretius is of the fame Opb'^ ^ hi^ le Defcription of the Plague o^AtLens. Thefe m.Z^^^^^^^ come from the Air, or rife from the Earth." ^ ^^ ipejiivis pluviifQy ^ foUb. eft: LucRET. Lib. VI. Ver. 1098. In

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Book II. IJland Probable ; for even Nature, in Inftances not intirely diffimdar, points out fomcthing like this : Thus, when the Stomach IS overloaded, it generally makes many Efforts to relieve itfelf by Vomits which, when afTifted by Art, prove often an effectual Remedy : And as we find, that the miferable Patient, when afBided with this Diforder hath an ardent Defire of Water, though the Nature of the Diftemper is fuch that It will not permit him to drink ; therefore, if, in this Cafe, a confiderable Quantity of Water were forcibly poured down his Throat, perhaps it would be of great Service ; for as the Poifon is of a very hot Nature which appears by the violent Thirft it caufes, it is more than probable! hat fuch a Quantity of cold Water, mixing with the Virus, would, a leaft abate Its Force, rill Sudorifics, or other Medicines, had time to expel and throw off the Poifon by Perfpiration, or otherwife : That fome Poifons, of an hot Nature, ad lefs vigoroufly in Cold, than when affifted with Heat, IS evident, from the more dangerous Confequence of the Bite of Scorpions and Vipers in /./,, and elfewhere, in an hot Summer Seafon, than in moderate cold Weather. rh.f VJ^fl ^I f 1 ^^^^'"'''"'? " ''^^ '-emarkable for their Humanity, than Skill and Judgment, it is to be wifhed, that thefe ingenious Gentlemen would (m Pity even to the dumb Creation, as well as to their FellowmiSH? 7 f J^^P^™^'^^ &ft on Beafts ; which if fuccefsful, it might l^kewife be of Service to the human Species, under fuch deplorable 33 K From

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-^r^^. L ^ 34 T'he Natural Hiftory of the Book II. The Bellyach, its Tk From this feeming Digreffion, let us return to obferve, that the Dry Bellyach (fo called from its afFeding that Part of the Body with great Coltivenefs and Pain) was formerly much more frequent and fatal, than it hath been of late. DiftiUers of Rum, and Boilers of Sugar, and Overfeers, were chiefly fubjed to it ; the firft (who are generally of the poorer Sort), from immoderately drinking new hot Rum ; the fecond and third, from taking Cold, after fweating in hot Boiling-houfes, and drinking very ftrong Punch, or almoft as ftrong (2) Cowow, or (5) Mobby. This Diftemper is likewife faid to arife from Grief and Trouble of Mind \ and fometimes it hath been thought to be epidemical. After it hath for fome Days afflided the Patient with intolerable Pains Symptoms, in the Belly, Coftivenefs, with voiding little Urine, and that like Mumi, the Breath ftinking very offenfively, the Pains are frequently tranllated to the Limbs, attended fometimes with an intolerable Pricking and Burning in the Feet ; at other times, great Pains in the Stomach arife ; and then the Patient hath Epileptic Fits, which often relieve the Pains, but weaken and impair the Ufe of the Limbs. When the Difeafe becomes inveterate, the Patients grow hoarfe, and lofe their Voice, coveting Anodynes, and ftrong Drink, to that Degree, that the common Rum is much too weak; and they drink even Hungary Water, or put red Pepper into Rum, to augment its Heat. When they lofe the Ufe of their Limbs, they commonly have profufe Sweats. Method of ^^^ Method of Cure formerly was to purge the Patients both with Cure. Cathartics and Clyfters : From this Pradice the unhappy Creatures were fubjed to lofe the Ufe of their Limbs. However, this prevailed until about the Year 1700, or fomewhat before, when the Phyficiaris began to make ufe of Anodynes with better Succefs ; which hath been their Way of proceeding ever fince. Theprefent Their prcfeut Method of Cure is univerfally followed, being both fafe and eafy, and the Patients run no Danger of either Life or Limbs ; For as foon as Dr. Warren found, that it was a convulfive Conftridiion chiefly in the Ilion, he judged that Purges and fliarp Clyfters muft' be attended with bad Succefs, and Emetics, at leaft,' ufelefs, if not hurtful ; from whence he concluded, that Anodynes mixed with Antihyfterics would be the likeheft Means of Relief : He therefore purfued that Method, as neceffary to be followed, for a few Days till the Pains of the Belly intirely ceafed for the Space of Twenty-four Hours • Then he concluded, that the fpafmodic Conftriftions were over • at which time he ordered fome emollient Clyfter, and then gave a gentle Pur ^ of fome of the bitter Pills, which generally perfected the Cure on hr ^o^.• fome Anodyne for a few Nights fucceffively afterwards ^ ""^ The bitter Pills are thougk becaufe the Bile in this Diftemper fhews itfelf to be deficient m its due Secretion, or its Quality ThetL thin^dtaJ'r' "^'^ ""' *'^ '^"'""^"^^ ^'''^^^^'^'^ ^-J"-' --d with Water, and fermented and (3} Mobby IS a Drink made with pounded Potatoes, and Water fermented win, c icrmented with Sugar or Molafles. Method of Cure. Dr. TFarren's Method of Cure. .^ *TJ

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Book II. I/land of o 35 There are other Kinds of Colics, which often afflift the Inhabitants ; Hkewife the YellowJaundice, and Hyfteric Diforders : But as thefe are not peculiar to this Climate alone, it cannot be expedled^ that Ifhould enter fo far into the Province of the Phyfician, as to treat medicinally of them. As Diarrhoeas, however, and Dyfenteries, make no fmall Havock among the poorer Inhabitants of the Ifland ; and as the Caufe and Me: thod of Curej in fbme meaflire, differ from the fame Diftemper in Northern Climates, being partly conftitutional ; they deferve to be mentioned : Nor can this be better done, than In the Words of Dr. Towne, Fluxes are very common in the. WeftIndies^ but more efpecially in Fluxes very common m rainy Seafons ; and may be imputed chiefly to the Negligence of tliofe rainy Sea.who either too unwarily or unavoidably expofe themfelves to the Injuries ^"^* of the wet Weather ; by which means Perfpiration being interrupted, the 'thin Part of the Blood, which fhoiild have been exhaled through the Pores of the Skin, is thrown upon the Bowels, and thence difcharged in loofe Stools. This plainly appears from the great Number of Negroes, and the poorer Sort of White People, who In thefe Seafons are much more afflidled with this DIflemper, than fuch whofe Condud of Life does not fubjedt them to the like Inconveniencies. Befides catching Cold, there are other antecedent Caufes of a Diarrhoea; .'the principal of which are, An immoderate Ufe of crude fugacious Fruits, unwholfome Food, and Meats of difficult Digeflion j all which, byftimu;" lating the Guts, will Hkewife occafion a Diarrhoea. *' When thefe lafl-mentioned Caufes occur, with a damp rainy Seafon, ^^ the Bowels will not only be loaded with the thin Juices, which ought ** to pafs off by Perfpiration, but they will alfo^ by reafon of the Stimulus lodged in them, be continually foHcited to expel their Contents more frequently, and or a thinner Confiflence, than ufual. A diminifhing u Perfpiration will Hkewife contribute towards Inlarging the Orifices of the • Hepatic and Pancreatic Duds ; and, on this Account, the Secretions of *' their refpedlve Juices will be more plentifully made into the Inteftines: And hence we have an additional Caufe of Loofenefs.". Thefe Circumftances, I think, are fufficient to account for every Species of the Diarrhoea ; and, when we are once fully afcertained of the Caufe, we need not be much at a Lofs what Method of Cure ought to be purfued in each Species. Fluxes have been here very often negleded in the Beginning, from an Opinion, that they are falubrious, and of Service to the Conftitution, by affording an Outlet to fome ofTendlng Matter, which, if retained, would have proved prejudicial. This^Remark may In fome Cafes be very true ; but it Is not to be confided in without great Caution In the Weft-Indies^ where a fimple Flux frequently rifes up into an obftinate Dyfentery In Three or Four Days ; and, when the Diarrhoea Is fuffered to continue anytiirie, It too commonly tcFmlnates

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56 rhe Natural Hiftory of the Book IL termhiates in a Leucophlematia; or Dropfy ;^ to which Difeafes People in thcfe Parts of the World are exceedingly difpofed. But as a Diarrhcea is fometimes truly critical, and contributes a great deal towards the Cure of other Diftempers, fuch a Diarrhoea ought by no means to be flopped, fo long as the Strength of the Patient can fupport him under it. the Matter of a Diarrhcea in thefe Parts is frequently fo iharp and corrofive, as not only to carry o£F the mucous Subftance of the Inteftines, but alfo in a few Days to abrade and tear away their villous Coat, and excoriate the Mouths of the BloodvefTels. The ftimulating Matter ftill remaining, the Flux is continued ; and, the Orifices of the Blood-veflels being opened at the fame time, the Flux muft unavoidably become a Bloody one. Likewife fultry Weather, and hot fpirituous Liquors, as well as acrid pungent Food, are capable of producing a Diarrhoea ; and as they greatly 'rarefy the Blood, this Rarefadion, fuperadded to the Loofenefs, gives us a fatisfaftory Idea of their being the Caufe of a Dyfentery. This is confirmed, by obferving how much this Difeafe rages among the White Servants, as well as Negroes, in our Plantations ; which fort of People are much addicted to debauch in Spirits, and Punch made exceedingly ftrong with new Rum, very acid with the Juice of Limes, fermented with coarfe Sugar. The almoft unanimous Confent of Phyficians, as well as Proofs drawn from Pradice, have fo fully demonflrated the Benefit received from Bipod-letting, that it is fufficient only to mention it, to remind Practitioners of the Neceffity there is not to omit it in the Beginning of a Dyfentery. The Indian Root, or (4) Ipecacuanha, hath juftly eflablifhed its Reputation in the Cure of this Diftemper, both in thofe Part.s of the World from whence it was originally brought, where Fluxes are (5) endemic and in all other Places where it hath been ufed on thofe Occafions. But perhaps the Reafon why it is found to be fisperior to the refl of the Emetic Tribe, was not at all confidered before the learned and judicious Dr. Freind (6) gave us an Infight into that Matter, unlefs we except one Paflage in Pifo (7). ^ If the Ipecacuanha does not only exert its emetic Faculty, but likewife palTeth through the Bowels in fuch manner as to promote a Stool or two, (4) Siquando cvacuatiombus locus, radicem vomitivam Ipecacuanha, exquifitimmum n^f.,™ .•ceteris remedns prsferre conducit. Pifo, p. -m, x^iuummmum naturae munus. pi^ibid^^'^"' dyfentericas ntmirum his terris eft femillaris, ita ut perpetuo nobis fporadica, & popularis (7) Ad radicem Ipecacuanha confugiendum, tanquam ad facram ancoram, nna'nullnm nr^rt • tutius, turn in hoc, turn in plerifqj aliis, cum vel fme fanguine, fluxibus coZ^rPn"?. il^^'"'* vit remedium. Qu fepiffime autem per Pifo. c, turn m plerifq; aliis, cum vel fme fanguine, Auxibus compefc n^^^^^^ ?"t [uippe, prsterquam quod tuto & efficaciter tenaciffimos quofqhnmnrS n? • ? ^^cogitaer vomuum ejiciat, & a parte affefta derivet. vim ^^^o^U^^k^Z^ll^^,^^^^ i

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Book II. Ifland 0/ B A R B A D O S. 37 two, which often happens, it will be fufficieut that Night to give the Patient aBolus made with Rhubarb and Diafcordium ; but if the Phyfician obfcrves no fuch EfPeca from the Vomit, then he generally gives half a Dram of Rhubarb in any convenient Vehicle, in order to carry oiT any Remains of the ftimulating Matter which may adhere to the Guts ; for many arc the Occafions which confirm the ill Confequences of giving aftringent Medicines in the Infancy of this Difcafe, when the Flux of Blood hath not been immoderate. After the Bowels have been prepared in this manner, the Phyficians have recourfe to Balfamics, Agglutinants, Aftringents, and Opiates, which muft be contrived in proportion to the Neceffity of the Patient, the Violence of the Flux, and the Length of its Duration. If the Sick be much debilitated by the Continuance of the Diftemper, and the great Effufion of Blood, a Cordial Draught is generally allowed him to fupport and invigorate the languid Spirits, fuch as* Claret, or Madera Wine, burnt with Spices, or ftrong CinnamonWater, diluted with the white Decodlion. The Food in this Cafe muft be cooling, mucilaginous, and aftringent. Panada, made with Cafada Bread, is with very good Reafon commended hj Pifo^ who advifeth it not only as a cooling heaHng Diet, but as an ufeful Ingredient in the Compofttion of Clyfters. The fame Author recommends the Jelly of white and red Guavas, Granadilla, Hog-plumb, &c, as proper Nouriftiment. Thefe .are mentioned, becaufe they are always at hand in Barbados, Unripe Plantains and Bananaes, roafted, are alfo proper for thefe Patients ; but, above all, a Milk Diet. ' This Ifland is likewife fubje^l to a very malignant Fever (though TJ**^'^^"^^ believe in common with other Countries between the Tropics) now called the Yellow Fever. '" Dr. Warren^ in his ingenious Treatife upon this Diftemper, concludes it to be a Species of the Plague, and that the Infedion was unhappily brought X.oMartinko'm. Bales of Goods from Marfeilles in the Year 172,1. tliough others, who have refided much longer in the Ifland, are of a different Opinion, efpecially Dr. Gamble, who remembers that it was very fatal here in the Year 1691. and that it was then called the New Diftemper, and afterwards Kendal's Fever, the Peftilential Fever, and the Bilious Fever. The fame Symptoms did not always appear in all Patients, nor alike in every Year when it viflted us. It is moft commonly rife and fatal in May, June, July, and Atcguji -^ and then moftly among Strangers, though a great many of the Inhabitants, in the Year 1696. died of it, and a great many at different Periods fmce. L The

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3^ "The Natural Hiflory of the Book II. oHheTe The Patient Is commonly feized with a fhivering Fit, as in an Ague, ver. .which lafts an Hour or two, more or lefs ; and the Danger is guelled at, .according to the Severity and Continuance of the Ague. ^ After the fliivermg Fit, a violent Fever comes on, with excellive 1 ams in the Head, Back, and Limbs, Lofs of Strength and Spirits, with great Dejedlon of Mind, infatiable Thirft and Reftlefnefs, and fometimes too with a Vomiting, attended with Pains in the Head, the Eyes bemg red, and that Rednefs in a few Days turning to a Yellownefs. If the Patient turns yellow foon, he hath fcarce a Chance for Life ; and the fooner he does fo, the worfe. The Pain in the Head is often very great, when firft feized with this Fever. ,. After Tome Days are paft, this Pain abates, as well as the Fever ; and the Patient falls into a breathing Sweat, and a temperate Heat, fo that he appears to be better \ but, on a narrow View, a Yellownefs appears in his Eyes and Skin, and he is vifibly worfe. neflappeTrAbout this Time he fometimes fplts Blood, and that byMouthfuls; ing in the as thls contjnucs, he grows cold, and his Pulfe abates, till at laft it is quite s/mptom^ gone ; and the Patient becomes almoft as cold as a Stone, and continues in that State with a compofed fedate Mind. In this Condition he may perhaps live Twelve Hours without any fenfible Pulfe or Heat^ and then expire. Such were the Symptoms and Progrefs of this Fever in theYear 1715. Sometimes likewifc the Patients burft out with bleeding at the Anus^ and foon after die ; and fometimes likewife at the Nofe, by which means they have been relieved ; but when the Blood iffues from thence but in few Drops, it is a bad Prognofllc, and is generally the Harbinger of Death. tlireoTthe ^^ "^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ Cafes, the Patients are generally hot and dry ; the Blood. Blood taken from them very red, and fcarce will coagulate \ the Grume fwimming upon the Surface of the Serum in a thin Leaf, havinofcarce any Confiftence. ' The Patients have likewife often intolerable Pains in and about the Stomach ; Sometimes with thofe Pains they fhall have a LIvor and the plain Marks of a Sphacelus fhall poffefs the greateft Part of the Abdomen before they die, particularly the Region of the Stomach and Liver. It often alfo happens, that the fick Perfon fhall lie almofl ftupid • and being asked how he does, fay, He is very well ; at other times he labours under the greateft Agonies, and Fits of Groanings. A loofe Tootli being drawn from a Perfon who had the Fever very feverely, there ifTued out from the Hole a great Quantity of black ftink ing Blood, which ftill kept oozing till the third Day, on which the Patient died in great Agonies and Convulfions. After Death the Corps of fuch appear livid in fome Parts or other • gr elfe marked with peflilential Spot^, Carbuncles, or Buboes. I am

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Book II. IJlan^ A / 3P I am of Opinion, that the Blood is from the Beginning full of putrid Alcaline Salts. If this be the Cafe, I leave it (with Submifllon) to the Learned in Phyiic to confider, whether diluting Acids would not be of oreat Ser^ vice (efpecially in the Beginning of this Diforder) to raife a Conflid:, by their mingling with the Alcaline Salts ; by which means a Stagnation in the Fluids would be, in a great meafure, prevented, until Nature, witli other feafonable AfTiftances, might have time to try her Efforts, and fo recover at laft-. Without this, or fome Help like this, from the Phyficiaa the Patient often dies in three Days time. . Such are the Symptoms, Progrefs, and Conclufion of this malio-nant Diftemper : And though Dr. Warren, in his learned Treatife, is of "^Opinion, diat it can be cured by Diaphoretics and Sudorifics ; yet, as this Difeafe appears in fo many vaiious Shapes, thefe have very often failed. The next Difeafe worthy our Notice is the Small-pox \ for we are fel-Thisifland dom free from it in fome Pait of the Ifland or other : However, fmce from"^he''' Inoculation hath been Introduced among us, our Lofs by that Diftemper ^'^^^^'^^', hath hitherto been very fmall. It hath been obferved, that this Diftemper proves, In general, very fatal to fuch of the Inhabitants of the Weft-Indies as receive the Infedion in Engla7id^ or in any other Northern Climate, efpecially if they are taken ill foon after their Arrival at it. This, I believe, will not be difficult to be accounted for, when we This Difconfider, that the Inhabitants of warm Climates do almoft continually oTcn'ktai ftrongly perfpire, by which means their Pores are more relaxed and^? ^^^-^dilated ; and confequently, if this Infedlon (as furely it may) can be comtaken ill in municated by the Pores, the more open thefe are, the more capable they are of receiving a deeper Degree of Infedion, than thofe Perfons, who every Winter have their external Veffels comprefled and contradted by. the cold Air, However, we are not from hence to conclude, that the Pores of fuch are never to be reconciled to cold Climates ; for thofe of the Skin, as well as the Juices of the Body, will in time become adapted to the different Climates we are in. It is remarkable, that the Chicken-pox vifits this Ifland at fet periodl-The Meacal Times; for it hath been obferved hy T>x. Ga7nble, a very old and dkai r)ii^' ingenious Phyfician, as well as a Perfon of undoubted Veracity, that^^^P^^"* the following were its periodical Returns within his Obfervation ; vi:^. in the Year 1692-:;. 1711. 1728. 1746-7. which is at the Diftance of about Eio;hteen Years. The Leprofyis another Diftemper, which fome unhappy Perfons areTheLeproafflifted with ; nor is it lefs furprifing to Strangers, than a Concern to the ^^'' moft thinking Part of the Inhabitants, that public Care hath nbt htbn cold Cli* mates.. taken to keep the Clean from the Unclean. Among

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j^O Natural Hifiory of the Book 11. the Male Line Among the Jews^ the Law concerning Leprofy was fo ftric^ly obfcrved, that they depofed Uzziah, tho' a Prince, and thruft him out of the Temple, and confined him to a feparate Apartment during Life. We cannot trace this Diftemper up to its Origin, as far as it relates to the Wejl-India Iflands ; but its firft Appearance here was about Sixty Years ago. It hath fpread very much within thefe Twenty Years, and more lately among White Inhabitants, as well as Black. Children have been often feized with it, without any known Caufe, either in themfelves, or their Parents : However, it is, in general, thought to be hereditary, at ..leaft, in the Male Line \ which the following Inftance will, in fome meafure, evince. fypropa-atA Certain Negro Woman, in St. James sYdsx^^ cohabiting with a the^M^r'^^^i'^^s Negro Man, had Two Children by him, both leprous, though flie herfelf did not receive the Infedion. After fome Years flie turned him off, and cohabited with another Black, who was free from this Diforder ; by him likewife fhe had Children, but neither of them in the leaft infedled with the Leprofy. After a Quarrel with this laft pretended Husband, ilie returned to her former leprous Husband, and had this Second time by him feveral Children ; who, as they grew up, proved leprous alfo, tho' fhe herfelf received not the Infedion this time. ^ From hence we may perhaps learn to know how emphatically, and with what great Propriety of Expreffion, the infpired Prophet pafled Sentence upon Gehazi, faying. The Leprofy of Naaman >>^^ Syrian fiall cleava to thee^ and thy Seed for ever. The firft Symptom of this loathfome Difeafe, in this Part of the World IS a permanent Swelling on the Tips of the Ears, and the FalHng off of the Hairs of the Eye-brows ; then the Face appears unfluous, fLining and full of protuberant fuperficial Spots of a brown Copper Colour • the Lips and Nofe generally much fwelled, the Fingers and Toes diftorted and at laft u cerated ; the Infedion creeping from Joint to Joint, till it hath corroded all the Fingers and Toes. Thefe Ulcers never kiudlv digelt ; however, there iifues from them a thin corroding Ichor Many are the miferable Objeds, that are daily feen affli&d with and labouring under, this great Misfortune. The Seat of this Diftemper is the Legs and Feet It U. co„™o„Iy ,fter long IllneL, efpecially' fe„„ !" Fe e^o^TLTf In the Beginning the Patient appears cacheainl ^^A ^ • i •foon after the vitiated Humours fubSe, g.ZXnon^tTr'"^' '"'^ both Legs and Feet : Thefe become tLc&JarSthlfVrT' with varieofe Swellings, which are very apparer:t Trom th!^' ^^^'"^f ^ Extremities of the Toes ; then the^ffn b^ginfr Xr^^ll unequal ; Its Symptoms. The E!ephiintiafis. Its Symptoms. •

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Book II. m e/' B A R B A DO S 4 cc cc ii unequal ; its vafcular and glandulous Compages is ialarged; and a fcaly Subftance, with a fort of Chaps and FifTures in the Interftices, appears upon its Surface. Thefe feeming Scales do not dry up and fall off ; but are daily protruded forward, and ftretched in their Dimenfions, ti'll the Leg is inlarged to an enormous Bulk ; fo that in the Size, Shape, and all other external Appearance, it minutely reprefents the Leg of an Elephant, fsom whence the Difeafe receives its Denomination But notwithftanding that this fcaly Coat appears to be hard, callous, and mfenfible ; yet if it be touched ever fo fuperficially with a Lancet the Blood will freely ouze out ; and, if the Epidermis, which affords this monitrous Appearance, be pared off to the Thickncfs of the Scarf-skin in thofe Parts, an Infinity of Orifices of the Blood-veffels will prefent themfelves to the Eye, when affifted with a MIcrofcope. Though the Limb continues to proceed to this inordinate Magnitude "yet the Appetite of the Negro remains good, his Digeftion ftrong, and his Secretions regular ; nor is he fenfible of any other Inconveniency than the Burden of carrying fuch a Load of a Leg along with him," ; In this Condition, feveral have been known to live Twenty Years and have performed chearfully all the Duties of their Servitude, which 'were confiftent with fuch difproportionate Limbs. Amputation of the difeafed Leg hath been performed many times, but has always failed of a Cure j for the Diftemper conftantly takes Poffefiion of the remaining Leg. As for other cutaneous Diforders, we are not more afflldted with them The c.^ than huropeans, unlefs fuch as are occafioned by the Guiney Worms and ^™'Ciegoes, called here Chiggers. The former are feldom or never known among the White Inhabitants • nor often among our native Slaves ; but chiefly among new Negroes brought hither from the Coafts of Guiney. ~ Thefe Worms are generally bred in Ponds of ftagnant frefli Waters • and It isfuppofed, that they enter oftener in by the Pores of the Skin, than by drinking the Water : For thofe who moft frequently bathe in fuch Ponds are ofteneft troubled with them. They are exceeding long, in refned to their great Exility and Thinnefs ; and are eafily. obferved, when fome of that Water is mmgled in a Glafs with fome other more tranfparent Water. .1. w ?^7 T ^r *^y '^^''"* ^^ ^^^^"^^y ^^^"' being as pellucid as the Water itfelf 5 but foon afterwards they grow fo opaque as to be difcernible, even by the naked Eye. Dr. Gami/e had one of thefe, which meafured an Ell long ; it exadllvrh • ^u refembled a waxed white Thread. ^ ^''''"v ^''^'^Shape. ^They move very quick under the Skin, along theMemiram adipofa ; and 'What IS one Day feen in the Breaft, or Belly, fliall often, in a Day or two, be found in a diftant Part of the Body, perhaps the Thiah, the Lerr or under the Ham. '^ ^' M However, • i^

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2 ^ Natural Hift* Sec. f^, *-. Book 1 1. them. Ciegoes how difcovered. ^> Howev^cr, thefe are eafily cured, by a Method fometime fince found out, The MeTake, for Example, one Ounce of Garlick, one of Black Pepper pulft'^yinl'" verized, and one Ounce of the Flour of Brimftone ; mix thefe well to^ gether in a Quart of Rum ; and for three or four Mornmgs fuccelhveljr give a Wine-Glafsful of this Infufion to the Perfon afflided ; ^^^ il he hath a Thoufand about him, each will contrad itfelf in a Coil, and die, ,and then fall off in the Form of a Boil from the Surface of the Skm. As to Ciegoes, they will appear to the naked Eye like a fniall Flea : ; Thefe are the continual Companions of Filth and Lazinefs, troublefome chiefly to Negroes, and particularly to fuch new Negroes as are brought hither from Gumej, whofe Defpondency, and carelefs Regard for Life, from the Uncertainty, or rather Certainty of what they are to undergo, makes Life, at that Junfture, irkfome to them ; though a few Years Experience convinces them, that if there can be a Degree of Happinefs without Liberty, they enjoy a more certain Tenure, and a better Condition of Life, here, than in their native Africa, This Httle Animal, vexatiouily teazing, unlefs foon eradicated, generally faftens and fettles on the Toes, or fome Part of the Feet. It is iirft discovered by a moderate Itching in the Part affeded, afterwards with a throbbing itching Pain ; and if not foon carefully picked out with a Pin br Needle, it will, in time, burrow or neflle one Eighth of an Inch into the Flefh, and there lay innumerable Quantities of Nits or Eggs, which, ;-, ^ when hatched, become equally voracious, and eat the Feet into lb many little Cells, like Honeycombs. It is not likewife uncommon for thefe little Vermin to get into the Feet of People of the beft Condition ; but as they are foon taken out by their Slaves, it feldom proves to be of bad Confequence : Tho' Strangers, not being fenfible what occafions the Itching, will fometimes let them remain, till they become very (8) troublefome, and perhaps require the Hand of the Surgeon, Likewife the BodyYaws, and the Running-Yaws, fo common here, are Diforders unknown in Northern Climates. The BodyThe Body-Yaws appear in many protuberant flejQiy Knobs, every way as large as a fmall Thimble, emboffing the Face, Breafts, Arms, and other Parts of the Body. Thefe, in time, by the Ufe of Simples hereafter tx) be mentioned, dry and fall off, The Running or the Wet, Yaws affeft chiefly the loi'nts, efpecially . '^%^""!!.^'^ ^^^^^' from whence continually diftils a fanious Humour: This Difteniper is thought to be tranfmitted in an hereditary Way from Parents, who have had the Venereal Difeafe, to their unhappy Children It IS obfervable, that no fmaU Care. Skill, and Time, ar^requiSc cure It. ^uiiiLc \xj OF (8) Cq/IiU Soy and Lamp-Oil, boiled to a Confiftency, and applied hot to th^ V..^ Methods of deftroying the Ciegoee. ^* ^^ '^^ ^^^ ^^et. is oiie of the beft 1 ^^ A'

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y. ** ^V4 Waters, Fossils, and Minerals. %' m^^^^^m^m •^ fj^'ci^ §^^^ ^^% ^ 0/ W AT E R S. r T being unneceflary to inquire into the conftituent Parts of Water in general, in a Treatife of this kind, I fhall proceed to confider only the Nature and Qualities of that which we are furnifhed with in this IJland, from Springs, Rivers, Wells, and Ponds. ^ The moft remarkable Springs of Water are the following : Coles Cave Spring, Mr. Colliton^ Mr. EJiwick\j Mr. Brathwah\^ the Reverend Mr. Fojler^ Mr. Whitahr\ Pory Spring, and that at Coclringto-n s College, The fpecific Gravity of Fifteen cubical Inches of thefe refpedive Wa-Thefpecific ters, as well as compared together with that of the moft remarkable slrUi;*^ Spaws, is inferted in the annexed Table. ^ ^reTwr* As Coles Cave Water hath been generally efteemcd (tho' not fo in Fafl:, fome rethe beft Water in the Ifland, I have been very careful in the Examination ^p^^wl "^ of it. The Spring which iffues fo plentifully from the Side of the Cave, affords very tranfparent Water, having fomething of a ftyptic Quality ; and it hath been obferved, that bathing in it is of great Service in cutaneous Diforders. Among the above-mentioned Springs, that in the Eftate of the Reverend Mr. Fofter^ called Belly-ach Hole^ affords excellent Water. This Spring rifing, as moft of the reft do, out of the Side of an Hill feeing the Eaft, hath a fine marly Bottom, mixed with Sand: The Water is very light, foft, and pure. There r

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^a^ H Natural Hiftory of kM The chief Rivers in the Itland. Wells and Ponds. There is Ilkewife on the fame Eftate, near the l^anfion-houfe, another Spring, whofe Water is heavier, and fomewhat purgative. i'cry Spring, in ^/. r&;;^^/j Pariflij and another at Ux.EJlwkk\\ in Su Johns, as well as Mr. 1$^hitahr's Spring, iii St. Michael's Pari/K, affota good light Water : The latter, by its Vicinitj. to the Sea, is 0!" great Sfctvice to fupply the Navy, a^ well as other Veffelsj in the adjacent Bay. -The chief Rivers are J/. J'^/,&'s River, another running thr^^^ Parifli of St, Andrews, ^ Third taking its Rife from Mr. Brathwait\ Spring, and the Fourth near Codrington sjCollege, All the above-mentioned Streams, vrith feme others of lefler Note, oh this Side of the Ifland, f^Jl into the Sea to the Eaftward. Our Springs and Rivers of any Note being thus taken briefly nbtice of ; let u^ nb\v proceed to conlidef our other Supplies, our Wells and Ponds, The former are diig with great Experice througti, generally,' a foft marly Rock, intermixt fometimes with Veins of an harder Nature. Theft Wells are commonly in Depth from Fifteen to Fifty (9) Fathoms, and their refpedive Water (efpecially if the lower Strata^ from whence it guflies, be Clay, Gravel, or Rock) is preferable, as to its Purity,' to RiverWater, the latter having generally feveral Impurities blown into it by the Wind, as well as contraded from the different Soils it paffes through, whereas the WellWaters are very limpid and light. Among the Waters of many ;of thefi that I have examined, that ^ rom Mr, Osborne Sy in St, Peters Parilh, excels every other, whether of Wells, Springs, Rivers, or Ponds, in this Ifland, It is lighter by one Mr.Oshrne'& WellWater f proved to excel all other. Cirain, in fo fmall a Qu German Spaw Water. The Deptli of this Well is not above Fifteen fathoms, thro' a fomewhat foft rocky Stratum^ teraiinating in an hard firm Rock : An Hole being made in this, the Water gufhes out from beneath and the &nc being again flopped with a Plug, and the remaining Water drawn out the Bottom of the Well may be, and often is, clean wafhed • and then the Water is permitted to gufh out afrefh. I am of Opinion, that the Purity of this Water, above all other in the Ifland, IS owing partly to the Situation of the Place : For as the Well is dug thro; feveral rocky Strata, b^inning in fo very high Ground, that its Bottom IS higher than the adjacent Plain ; confequently it can receive no other Supply but Ram-Water which (Snow-Water excepted) is the Lft fimple of all others. And when this gradually penetrates thro' ^Z thick Lamn^ of porous Rocks, by this natural DiftiUation, as it runs k refines ; that which is pureft pervading the clofeft Strata by the Minutenefl tides, bemg arretted in their Paffage, fubfide, and cleave to the Rocks. Another *_^ (-9) \t is not always that they come to Water, tho' thev dia a tr*-..^ r\ i. five Fathoms, they found little or no Water. t^^'-^-CW^; where, after digging Thir'y! V

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Book II. IJland B 45 i L Another Reafon why SpringWaters, at their Fountain-Heads, as well as Wells, are purer (efpecially in hot Climates) than the Waters of Rivers or Ponds, is, becaufe the latter, whether in its current Stream, or in Refervoirs, is expofed to the Heat of the Sun, whofe exhaling Power is here fo great, that it raifes up the lighteft and fimpleft, that is, the beft Parts of it in Vapours, leaving the Remainder lefs pure. What is here called PondWater, is RainWater fettled in artificial or natural Bafms, which, in a Country fo fparingly furniihed with Sprin<^s, or Rivers, are of great Service to Man and Beaft. ^ Thefe Refervoirs are generally dug near a Defcent, that they may be fupplied with Water as often as it rains, which it generally does in greater Quantity, in the Months of June^ July, and Auguji ; but tho' we call this Time of the Year the Rainy Seafon, yet the periodical Return of wet Weather in thofe Months is not near fo certain here, as it is in fome Parts of Africa. The Rains likewife in thofe hot Months, when they are moft wanted to cool the Atmofphere, fall at fuch times, by reafon of the Rarefadionof the Air, in very large Drops, like thofe fudden Summer. Showers In E;^^/^^. We find the above-mentioned Conveniencies of Refervoirs made ufe of in Paleftim, as early as the Patriarchal Age. The Inhabitants of St. Ajtdrews, and fome Part of St.JofepIjs Parifh, Ponds or are plentifully fupplied with frefh Water, by digging Holes in the Sand' fn'ufr''' from Ten Inches to Three Feet deep : Thefe are almoft inftantaneoufly ^"'^"^ ^^ fiUed with frefli Water percolated thro' the Sand. ^ '^"'^'"''' Some Parts of Barbary are in the like manner fupplied ; And Cafar^ being befieged in ^/^j^r^Wr/^^ when the Enemy, by turning the SeaWater into his Springs, rendered them ufelefs, faved himfelf, and his Army, by digging fuch Pits or Holes in the Sand, from whence he had a conftant Supply of frefli Water. Tho' thefe and fuch Supplies of Water proceed partly from the Sea ; yet I am of Opinion, that the above-mentioned Supply, in this Ifiand, is greatly, if not chiefly, owing to the RainWater that dcfcends from the adjacent Hills, and then fettles in the Sand. This is evident from the greater Plenty that is to be found, and that nearer the Surface, after great Rains : Its Purity likewife may, in fome meafure, be owing to the Place where it is found; for Sand hath a great deal lefs of Matter capable of Solution in it than Earth. As any artificial Refervoir of Water is often, in Scripture, called a Well, when the Station of the Ifraelites, in their Way to Canaan, was upon the Borders of the Red Sea, the Waters there mentioned to be in fuch Plenty, that the Princes digged a Well with their Staves, muft probably (fince they digged with thefe Infl:ruments) be in fuch a fandy Situation 'as the above-mentioned ; otherwife Staves would not, in Places lefs foft and porous, be proper to dig Holes fuflicient for that Purpofe. The digging thefe, or almoil any other Bafln, for the fame Ufe in any other kind of Soil, mufli^ in all Probability, be attended with Art, and N great \

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^he Natural Hijiory of the Book n. Mineral "Water. great Labour, fince we find, that It caufed a Contention between ^^^r^hmn and Abimelech, f Manyj I believcj are the Places In the Old Tefiameni^ where, with gresit Submiffion to our learned Commentators, from their Want of fufficiently confidering the Situation of Palejline^ the Nature of the Climate, and its Produdlions, the real Meaning of feveral Texts is either very imperfeftly or often not at all, underftood. Of all the Waters we have treated of, that of Mr. Osborne z Well, as I before obferved, is the lighten: and beft; and it hath been proved of great Service in Nephritic Cafes. The Water of Belly-ach Hole^ in the Eftate of the Reverend Mr. Fojier^ is next in Goodnefs, being a foft limpid Water. Each of thefe, by their great Lightnefs and Purity, enter the .finefl: Veffels, where they diflblve, and wafh away, the llagnant Humours, take off the Sharpnefs of the Juices, and break the Coagulations and Acidity of the Blood, J X Pure Water likewife dilutes, prepares, and correds the crude and illconcodted Juices, diffolves their Salts, and blunts their Force : And as the Decay of human Nature is owing to Obftrudions \ and Wrinklesj 6ld Age, and even the Diffolution of the human Frame, are. In general, chiefly owing to the Want of fufficieiit Motion In the Fluids ; it is highly probable, that Water (how little foever efleemed by the Generality of Mankind) more excellently divides the Blood and Juices, than any other Liquid whatfocver j and therefore is of the greateft Service to preferve Health and Life. • Whoever would be curious enough to inquire into its various efficacious Excellencies, either in Scorbutic, or Hypochondriacal Difeafes, and and Dr. Shaw\ Experiments upon different kinds of Water.Horn After the ftrifteft Liquiry, I found in the whole Ifland butTwo Springs, that had any Appearance of a Mineral Principle 5 the one in the Eftate of Mr. Richard Richards, in the Parifti of St. Andrews ; the other at Mr. Perry\ Eftate, in St. JofepUs Parifh : The former turns of a faint Purple with the Pov/der of Galls ; the latter inftantly of a deep Purple ; and, like the Pyrmont^ refumes its firft Colour, upon dropping into it a few Drops of the Spirit of Vitriol. The Difcovery of this Water liiay, and I hope will, be of great Service in all Cafes where Chalybeats are required. m^icui 's'^'''" ^ ^'^^^ conclude my Obfervations upon thefe Heads with a curfory Defcription of the feveral aquatic Animalcules, which I have obferved, more or lefs, to inhabit every Refervoir of Water, efpecially Ponds. The Sides of thefe are often covered with a greenifti Incruftation in Appearance, as if there were many coarfe Grains of Sand cemented to their ftony or rocky Sides : Thefe, even to the naked Eye, upon a narrow Infpeaion, feem to be alive ; and the Quantity of a Pin's Head being diluted ^ \

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\ > • 1 Book IL J/Ia^/d of BARBADOS. diluted In Water, and viewed through a Microfcope, there appear about Eight or Nine little Animals, moving, or rather darting from Place to Place, with a very quick irregular Motion : Their whole Bodies are pellucid, and look in the Water like fo many Drops of Quickfilver, their Legs being Four of a Side, moving with great Rapidity. I What is called a Water-Bug, is about an Inch long, and Three-quarters broad : This is to be found In mofl Ponds "In the Ifland ; but feldom or nbver In WellWater. The Origin of this Bn^I'c n Vr.r^AJKKJ r^.-^ ^f ok — an Inch and a Quarter long, the Body jointed^ z Forceps: The whole Worm, as moft Aquatics are, Is of^he Shrimpkind. This, a Kttle before its Transformation, inwraps Itfelf in an hollow Lump of Clay in the Bottom of the Pond : Some time afterwards it cafts off both its Shape r^xii^Exuvw, and becomes a Bug : In this laft Stage, by the Armour upon its Back, and the Fins it paddles with in fwimming, and its frequent Recourfe to the Surface for Air, it fomewhat refembles a Tortoife in Miniature. The Water of a great many of thefe Ponds, at different Times of the Year, efpecially in a dry Seafon, when the Water is low, and the Weather fomewhat calm, throws up a greenifli Scum to the Surface : This is fo ftrong a Poifon, that, If fwallowed with the Water by Poultry, fuch as Turkies, or even by Black Cattle, they in half an Hour's r time expire Having examined this Scum with a Microfcope, on the fame Day that . Two-years old Bull had been poifoned by drinking in the fame Pond, I obferved, that a Drop of it contained feveral very compaft Fafces, or fmall Fagot-hke Bundles ; the Extremities of their conftituent Parts being, m Appearance, fo many cryftalHzed Spicula. I likewife difco vered, in the fame Drop of this Scum, which was diluted m fair Water, feveral Annulets, each Link of the Chain being of an orbicular Form, barely touching one another. ^ It is faid, that this Scum is at times full of fmall Animalcules : HowM ever affirm ^ A PF^ A TABLE

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^he Natural Hijlory, &c. vjBook II. r -TABLE of the Specific Weight of Fifteen cubical Inches of the Waters of the principal Springs, Wells, &c. in the If and of Barbados, as well as Weight of thefe Tome other Mineral Waters i Weighed-^^Oufices. Drams. Grains, \ .•;•' o o yix. Robert Osborne: %y^€iV^2X^r, in 5;. P^/^r'j Parifh Co/^'!r to^ Water The Spring at Codrington's College Belly-ach Hole — Tory Spring Water Pond-Water 4 -1JC PondWater filtrated thro' a Water-ftone RainWater, received from the Eaves, after long Ram Pyrmont-Watev • — /%Water, by Percolation thro* the Sand A weak chalybeat Water, in the Eftate of Mr. Richard -i Richards — T 7T \ The fame Qu_antity of Barbados Proof Rum weighed [ Seven Ounces and an half. Two Drachms, Twelve Grams I and an half. • ^ 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 12 14T 14T 14 .-'^•y.I recommend to the Inhabitants of the Sugar-Colonies this Method of proving their Rum : Which would prevent the many Differences that arife between the Planters and the Merchants ; for, by this means,' if dijs general Standard were fixed in fome Office, recourfe might be had to it, to determine any Difpute of this Nature. .^ ,^ '"' The prefent Method of proving Rum in Barbados Is liable to many Inconveniencies ; for now the fame Rum that is not, in reality, faleable, whilft in the Store-houfe, may, by being expofed to the Heat of the Sun, as is often done, be made to appear far better than it really is ; and, by this means, the unwary Purchafer is not only impofed upon, but theCre. dit of the Ifland, as to good Rum, is leffened in foreign Markets. It is by fuch wife Regulations that the Jamaica Rum is every-where preferred to ours : And, indeed, it is far preferable to our Market Rum ; tho' not to be compared with the CaneJuice-Spirit made m Barbados by the Planters for their own Ufe, tho' feldom or never exported for Sale. Je Of

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Book II. IJland (/'BARBADOS 49 W^'^^^f .^.f F O O F S S L '
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.50 T'he Natural Hiflory of the Book IL meat of Water muft (ceteris paribus) have the fame Effed; as it hath now,; that is, in fome Northern Countries, the AttraQ-ion of the Moon, upon the Surface of the Water, is fo great, that it rifes at high Tides, efpecially at the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes, to Forty Feet \ where,as in this and the adjacent Iflands, when the Moon defcribes its largeft Circle, it never rifes above Four Feet, and about Five Inches : Therefore, as the Force of Four is to Forty, fo much more ftrongly muft fuch Northern Climates feel thefe Percuffions. After repeated Searches into the Sides of broken Clifts, Caves, and deep Wells, I never found any Veins of uncommon Earth, fuch as Terra Le7nnia^ or Bolus Ar^noniacus^ or of any other worth mentioning, except Three Veins of coarfe red Oaker, Two in St. Lucys Parifh, and One near CcdrmgtG/is College^ in St. Johns Parifh : This, where better Paint is wanted, ferves tolerably well to daub over Wind-mill Vanes, or fuch rough Work. Green Tar As our moft remarkable Foffils are of the Bituminous Kind, I fhall nous Foffii. begin with the green J ar. Its mediciralQualities. This is an oily Bituminous Exudation, ifluing from fome Hills in St. Andren^s and St^'Jofeph's Parifhes, of a dirty Black, inclining to. a Greenl The Method of procuring it is, to dig an Hole or Trench in, or very near, the Place where it oufes out of the Earth : This by degrees fills with Water, haying a thick Film, or Cream, of this liquid Bitumen Jwimming upon the Surface ; from whence it is skimmed off, and preferved in earthen Jars, or other VefTels. The moft convenient Seafon for gathering it is in the Months of yanuarj/y February^ and March, . It is of fo inflammable a Nature, that it. ferves to burn in Lamps. As to its medicinal Qualities, it is chiefly made ufe of with great Succefs in paralytic and nervous Diforders, as well as in curing cutaneous Eruptions. It is of fo penetrating a Nature, that when an Horfe, that hath been dofed with it, begins to be warm upon his Journey, the Rider will fmell the Tar very ftrongly, This, and one of a blacker Colour, in St. yofeph^ s Parifli, are all the liquid Sorts found in this Ifland. Solid BituThere is likewife another Species of Bitumen, of a folid Subftance, hl'LrTi. called here M^<;;^y^6-L This is dug out of Beds, or Strata^ of Earth, at different Depths, in the Sides of Hills in St. John s and St. Andrew s Pariflies; and nearly anfwers the Defcription of that Bitumen, which the Reverend Mr. Mamtdrel found on the mountainous Sides of the Lacus Afphaltitesy or the Dead Sea^ where formerly ftood the Cities of Sodo7n and Gomorrah, This Sort, in a great meafure, anfwers the Ufe of Coals. Wren where Where the liquid Kinds are thrown up out of the Earth, the Surface of Bitumensarethe Ground is onc coutiuued Quagmire, bearing very little, if any Grafs ; ^^""^. and

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^ Book fl I/Iaf^d ^/ B A R B A DO S S and where the more folid is dug out, if the Veins are upon^ or very near the Surface, fcarce any Vegetable grows upon it. If by Accident any of thefe Veins take Fire, they continue to burn a long time, tho' in a dull flow manner : For, as the Veins are furrounded with Earth, this crumbles, and, falling into the Flame, ftifles it. There was an Inftance of tliis In St yohis Parifh, where a Slave roafting Potatoes upon the Side of an Hill, a fmall Vein of Bitumen, lying very near the Surface, took Fire, and continued flowly to burn, tho' fometimes fcarce perceptibly, for above Five Years, without the leaft Danger to the Neighbourhood. If the inquifitive Monf LeClerc had more narrowly inquired into \kQ;U.Le Chc^ Nature of Bituminous Foffils, and the Soils wherein they are always found, confuted, he would not, in all Probability, have been fo tenacious of his" favourite, tho' groundlefs Opinion ; viz. That the Deftrudion of Sodom and Gomoj^rah was not fupernatural ; but that the Plain, upon which they flood, was full of Bitumen, which, enkindled by Lightning, deftroyed the Cities and Plains thereof. Let us now examine this fine-fpun Conjedure : If this Defli-udion was .caufed in this natural Way^ the Suppojfition will require as much a Miracle to bring it about, as if he had fuffered Mofes\ Defcription to be true : For here muft be fuch Veins of Bitumen found, as will kindle in an Inftant* and the Lightning muft be, as it were, as extenfive as the whole Plain '; whereas the Bitumen, that is now in fmall Quantities found in the Sides of the adjoining Hills (and, in all Probability, ever was found there, and not in the Valley), is of a Coallike Subftaiice, like that found in Barbados ; and is far from being capable, in a natural Way, of caufing fo quick a Deftru6lion : For if thefe Plains and Cities were by this natural Means deftroyed, the Caufe muft be as extenfive as the Effeft : And, as thefe Plains were Seventy-four Miles long, and Eighteen broad, they muft be wholly, or in fuch a Part, impregnated with this imflammable Matter, as to be capable by its Quality, and fuiKcient by its Quantity, to caufe fo general a Deftrudion : But that thefe Plains were not wholly, nor in fo great a Part, fufficiently ftored with fuch combuftible Ingredients, will evidently appear, if we allow, as furely we muft, that Nature is as confiftent in her Produdions of this kind, as fhe is in other Minerals, FofTils, and Vegetables. Neither the Cedars of Lebanon^ nor the Mountain Oaks, are found in any Climate growing in wet Marfhes; nor Reeds nor Ruflies upon the Tops of dry Mountains. This is an Obfervation as early as the Time of Job : Can the Rufh grow without Mire^ a7id the Flag without Water ? Virgil likewife gives it in the following Lines : Nee vej'o terra ferre omnes omnia pojjunt. Fluminibus falites^ crajjtfq^ paludibus alni Nafcu7itur^ Jleriles faxojis mo?ttibus orni. Lit tor a ^' .-> ^* '*

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fr. 52 Ti)e Natural Hiftory of the. Book 11. H Littora 7nyrtetis IcettJJima : de7ttq\ apertos Bacchus amat colles ; Aquilonefn ^ frtgora taxi, ViRG. G. IL 109, Nor ev'ry Plant on ev'ry Soil will grow : The Swallow loves the watry Ground, and low ; The Marfhes, Alders : Nature feems t' ordain The rocky Clift for the wild Afh's Reign ; The baleful Yeugh to Northern Blafts affigns ; To Shores the Myrtles ; and to Mounts the Vines. *^ 4 From hence we may learn, that there are Soils particularly adapted to the different Kinds of Vegetables; and confequently conclude, that Foffils likewife, Minerals, &^c, will not thrive in an improper Soil. This leads us to conlider the Situation of thefe Plains : And when we find, that the Whple was an Inland Country, withoutTrade or Navigation, Jordan Inhabitant; lity of the Land, and not on foreign SuppHes : Therefore, how confiftent with that Prudence, Xvhich every Age of the World poffefTed, would it have been to fettle in fo barren a Spot, not capable of producing the common Neceflaries of Life Yet fo it muft have been, if the whole Plain was impregnated with this Bitumen : Or, if we fuppofe, that there were only Veins of it interfpcrfed through this fpacious Plain, how fierce and rapid foever the enkindled Flames of thefe Veins might be ; yet their deftrudlive Influence and Power would be confined almoft intirely within their own proper Chanels ; fo that the refl of the Country would be in no Danger of To quick and fo general a Calamity, as befel it in this fuppofed natural Way. We might purfue this Argument farther (if any additional Proofs were wanting) ; and obferve, that the prefent, and in all Probability, the former Veins of Bitumen were found, not in the Plain (which was very juftly compared V4\l\ithe Garden of the Lord for Fruitfulnefs), but in the Hills on the Eaft and Weft Sides of it : And, as the River Jordan^ at this time, fomewhat above the Lake, is almoft as wide as the Tha??tes at Chelfea^ and ran formerly from North to South thro' the Plain ; if we even fuppofe, that whole Torrents of this liquid Fire burft out from the Sides of either of thefe Hills, their deftruftive Courfe would be flopped, when it 'reached fuch a Body of Water as that River contained : So that, unlefs we extravagantly fuppofe, that the Mountains on the Eaft, and their op. pofite on the Weft, which were Eighteen Miles afunder, took Fire very critically at the fame time, the Country on one Side or other of the River muftj'in all ProbabiHty, have been fafe, by the Interpofition of fo great a Quantity of Water. Laftly,

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Book 11. IJland BARBAD > ^ Laftly, If we fuppofe, that the whole Plain was fufficiently ftored with Bitumen to caufe, in a natural Way, fuch a Defolatidn • then we muft neceffarily grant, that it muft be a very barren Spot, and improper to be iijhabited, contrary to its Situation, with regard to the Climate, and contrary to the Defcription which is given of it: For, When Lot lifted up his Eyes y he beheld all the Plain of jovdizxi^ that it was well watered every* where "y and therefore made Choice of it. I hope I have faid enough to fhew, from the" Nature of this Kind of Foffil, and the Barrennefs of the Place wherein it is always found, as well as from the great Extent and Suddennefs of the Deftrudion, that it could not proceed, as Monf. Le Clerc imagined, in a natural Way, from the Firing of thefe fuppofed Bituminous Veins, but from the mu-aculous Power of God. Vt ^ 53 Z' 4 *-* *^ ^ r. p Of

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\. H T 1 i^ ^he Natural Hiflory of the Book 11. ^p Of M IN E R A L S. *V TL^ ^C=e^^ev€*€^^#€*l^^#^€'€^C^€5t€5Ci€'€5€'§tt^t#-0#€<^t€i'^^^^ The Ufes of Minerals. Gold found in Barbados. E S I D E S the Ufe of Minerals In Phyfic, they are defigned for feveral other Ends, as vvellas for Ornament j but their chief Value Is in Money, which Is become the common and moft prudent Method of Exchange : Nor are their Advantages in Utenfils to be forgotten, whether they are defigned for the common Purpofes of Life, or made Into Inftruments neceflary for the Improveinents of Arts and Sciences. In the various and different Forms of Minerals, as well as their Qualities, we find fiach evident Footfteps of Divine Wifdom, as leave us no room to fufpedt, that they are the Effedl of blind Chance, tho' formed in the deep Receffes of the Earth. ^ ^ ' . • Men have unlverfally confented to flamp the greateft Value upon Gold: And tho' they have as unlverfally afligned the hotteft Climates, as the moft natural to ripen, and to give Colour to, this Illuftrious Ore ; yet, in this warm Ifland, neither the Soil upon the Surface, nor at any Depth In the Earth, at leaft in general, as far as Two (i) hundred Feet deep, give any promifing Indications of either Gold or Silver. However, we have fome Caufe to believe, that we are not intirely deftitute of the former ; for there was found In Colonel Abel Alkyni^ Eftate, on the Surface of the Earth, a Piece of Ore, which, upon Trial in Engla7idj proved very pregnant with Gold ; but, tho' diligent Search was made by digging and otherwife, there was no more difcovered. There Is but one other Inftance, that I can venture to mention with any Certainty ; and that is, a fmall Piece of Gold, now in the Poffeffioii of Jatnes Bruce^ Efq; which was extradted from fome Ore fent to E7igla7td' from hence by Dr. Bruce : But as that Gentleman died before the Experiment was made. It is not well known in what Part of the Ifland he found it. There (i)' There Is not a Parifh in the Ifland, nor fcarce a large Eflate, but hath a Well dug in it : And agreat many of thefe are very deep ; efpecially one in the Eftate of Francis M'Mahsn, Efqj which is above Two hundred Feet deep.

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Book II. IJland of BARBADOS. 55 Figures There is likewife a Species of Mineral found in St.Afidrews Parilli, in Scotland. This is as bright as pohflied Brafs, and generally of cubical : By its Weight and Colour it is apt to give Hopes of being rich in fome valuable Metal ; but, being with great Care tried in the Crucible, it produced no manner of Metal. I take this to be a fulphureous Marcafite, or t\i^ Pyrites flavtis '^ tho' it is feldom met with here in globular Figures, as it is moft commonly found in England, There are alfo Stones taken out of the Sea, that are very hard and ponderous, containing, by their dusky ferrugineous Colour, probably much. Iron, and by their Smell, when broken, much Sulphur. The fame are fometimes to be met with on Land, efpecially at the Eftate of the Ho-. nourable Samuel Roufe^ Efq; The Soil hkewife, in a great many barren and hilly Parts of Scotla?id^ is often mixed with fmall Flakes of Icinglafs, as well as Pieces of tranf-, parent Talc 3 the latter efpecially, in the Eftate of M7^j J-^;;/^, Efq; where are to be feen folid pellucid Pieces, weighing no lefs than Fourteen • or Fifteen Ounces. 4 And in St. Georges Parifh are often dug up Lumps of a tranfparent reftnous Subftance, at firft Sight exadly refembling Refin. What chiefly diftinguifhesit from Refln, is the Fragrancy of its Smell. Upon comparing it with the Gum of the Birch Gum-tree, I found it to be of. the fame Species, In fawing Stones for Building, there are often found, in the middle of folid Blocks of Stones, feveral kinds of Shells ; fome of them not to be found on our Shores, efpecially the long Mufcle-fhell. I have likewife a middle-fized petrified Echinlte, taken from the middle of a Piece of a fplit Rock. The Defcription of our Ores and Foffils being finifhed, it may not be Remarkaimproper, before we leave our fubterraneous Inquiries, to take notice oi^BMs}"" fome of our moft rem.arkable Caves; efpecially as thefe are many in Number, and fomxc of them not only curious in the various Appearances of their petrified Icicles (if I may fo call them), and other Conglaciations, but likewife, together with our deep Wells, very fervicekble to prevent Earthquakes, by giving at fo many Mouths Vent to thofe (2) Vapours, which would ptherwife be confined in the Bowels of the Earth. My Inquiries into thefe Caves were the moft laborious and dangerous ; they were alfo by far the leaft pleafing to myfelf ; and I fear the Defcription of them (Coles Cave excepted) will prove leaft inftrudive or amufing to my Readers^: But as common Report, long before my Intention of undertaking this Work, was ftrong in favour of feveral very extraordinary Reprefentations in fome Caves in my o^vn Parifli ; efpecially, that there was, m one. Woman Httle Thll^^ ^^J}^7'T^?1 ^'T ^'^-^u-''. 'Jf ^":,'^/^,o"ly very hot, but fometimes it fmells fulphureous : Inn J.T r f ^ fr^ T}^^^'l^ Day of ^^;./ 1747. Thefa fuIphureousVapours were diflipated as foon as the Chtts of the parched Earth were faturated with the Rain, which, about that Time, fell in great

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Coil's Cave. The Natural Hiftory of the Book II. little beyond it, a lively Reprefentation of a Lion ; and as it would ill become me to deliver fuch traditional Reports as true, without the utmoft Certainty ; I went down into feveral of thefe Caves, but not without Difficulty, and Danger of being fufFocated, being often taken with a violent Vomiting, when I came out into the open Air; with the additional Mortification of finding, that the petrified conglaciated Subftances, fo ftrongly affirmed to bear fuch Portraitures, might, without the Affiftance of any far-fetched Ideas, be as well faid to reprefent a Cock and a Bull, as a Woman and a LionThe Inadvertency and credulous Propenfity of the Vulgar, on one hand, to believe every Story, that hath fomething marvelous in it ; and, on the other hand, that infatuating Fondnefs and Pride fome Men have X.6 be. thought more knowing than their Neighbours ; together with lucrative Confiderations ; gave the crafty Part of Mankind an early Opportunity of ufhering into the Heathen World the Belief of Harpyes, Centaurs, and Satyrs, as well as, in a more enlightened Age, the lefs pernicious, tho' not lefs ridiculous, Exiftence of Unicorns, Griffins, aiid Flying Dragons, with a^ great many other fuch fenfelefs Chimera's, which ferve to aftonifh, and fet the weak and ignorant Part of Mankind a gaping. As Coles Cave is by far the largeft, and moil worthy our Notice, I lliall confine myfelf to the Defcription of that alone : Firft, obferving that I never took a Survey of it, but it ftrongly afFeded my Imagination, and recalled to my Mind that awful Defcription, which Virgil gives us of the firft Entrance into the Shades below : Spelunca aha fuit^ vaJloq\ iimnanis hiatu. A Its Situation is almoft In the Bottom of a melancholy hideous Gully (3), which is about an Hundred and Sixty-five Feet deep j where, above you, nothing is to be feen but the Tops of high Rocks, and impending Clifts, thro' the gloomy Branches of lofty Trees. .Such was the folem7t Silence^ which oerfpread The Shrine (?/" Ammon, or Dodona'j Shades ; When anxious Mortals from the Mouth of Jove Their Doom explord. Glover's Leonid. The Defcent, towards its Entrance, is by a fteep craggy Precipice of great Height, where your Security from a Fall depends much upon the good Hold you take of the Roots of Trees, and Branches of Underwood. : Having rather Aid than walked down in this manner a confiderable Way, you are, on a fudden, within an Inclofure of very high perpendicular Rocks, the Sky-light being admitted by two Holes in the Roof (3) A deep Chafm made between Hills, by repeated Torrents of Rain. of

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/ ^ rH y .. j-*\ Book IL IJland ^/BARBADOS of it. Tj( Mouth Cave, which is an Hole of a confiderable Bignefs. Upon our firft Entrance into" it, as we defcended, the Light of the Dav began to grow weak, and proved but a faint and uncertain Guide: Twenty Yards farther it appeared no ftronger nor brighter, than the GHmfnering of a Star in an hazy dull Niglit ; A few Steps moreinveloped us in a total Darknefs. ^ale per incertam lunam^ fuh luce maligna^ Efi iter infylvis^ ubi cmlum condidit umbra Jupiter ^ M rebus mx'abjlulit atra colorem: ViRG. Thus wander Travellers in Woods by Night, By the Moon's doubtful and malignant Light : When Jove in dusky Clouds ihvblvey tile Skies • And Colours fade before their darken'd Eyes. From hence, with the Affiftance of a Candle and Lantern, I began my fubterraneous Tour ; and foon after my Entrance I turned upon the Left Fland to take a View' of that Branch of it called thtDry Cave. The Top or Roof of this is crouded with innumerable petrefied (4) Icicles hanging downwards. The Sides of the Cave were likewife in feveral Places thick fet therewith', efpecially where there wasa Cavity : There they grew from the upper to the under Shelves of the Rock, like fo many Baluftrades, or Baluflers of a Staircafe, but more in Number, and irre'" gular, fometimes in tvi^o, fometimes in threefold Divifions. Upon breaking feveral of thefe Cones, which are of different Lengths and Magnitude, I found thofe hanging, from the Roof downwards, intirely perforated, and a fmall Quantity of the mofl tranfparent Water continually dropping through them. . The inner Circumference of thefe Floles was a pellucid ftony Body, from Top to Bottom ; and tho' it was far from having the Luftre of a Brijlol Stone, yet it appeared {Lining, tranfparent, and hard j and its Parts were projeded in form of Rays from the Centre to the Circumference. By comparing thefe Icicles with many that I have k^nm England Wales, and North America, as well as thofe defcribed by the Reverend Mr. Maundrel, found cleaving to the inner Sides of what are called King Solom.onV AqueduBs, near Tyre, I find, that thefe Petrefadions, or con. Q^ ^ glaciated t ^ w frit',/^'/-^';^^'.'"^*''^'!''^,'''''^^"'''''^"'-""' ^''I' "lied vifcM/ 5to%?, I obfervcd Icicles different from thofe ,n &/. j Cave ; the latter being very brge, and of a brown Colour on the Outfide, tile former theff ^n? "^ ''"^V-" n'^HJ? i"' ?'' ,?'A""^'""= ?"^ P^" f ^ middle-fized Goofe-quill. "• thefe Tubes is contmually diftilled a fmall Quantity of the moft tranfparent Water. Here likewife I faw Urops are v fible Th s refembles, m Mmiature, thofe largo petrefied Rocks of the fame Shape obferved XTiKtone '"'' ''^'''^' '"''"' '^' ^'"^^ ^'^'^'^ '^. b= fT'"y Tentfof theirSors. .57

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; 7^^ Natural Hiflory of the Book II. glaciated Subftances, are, in general, of the fame Make and Nature in every: Part of the World. The next thing remarkable in thefe fubterraneous Apartments is the Wet Cave* This, riear its firft Separation from the Dry, already defcribed, is very fpacious and lofty ; but its Bottom very much furrowed, and torn iip, by the repeated Torrents of Rain, which in wet SeafonS run through it. Soon after we entered this, we were agreeably furprifed with the Murmurs of a diftant Stream, which a little farther we found to be a confiderable Spring of the moft tranlparent Water, iffuing from a large projefted Rock^ or rather the impending Side of the Cave. ; Having drunk of this, we might here again juftly apply another Paffage in Virgil : Intus aqu^ dukes ^ vivoq\ fedilia faxo^ ^ Nym^harumq\ domus^ .-A Grot IS form'd beneath, with mofly Seats, Nereid: Down thro' the Crannies of the living Walls The cryftal Streams defcend in murm'ring Falls. Dryd. The Roof of the Cave, near this Place, is deeply and remarkably pitted with feveral Holes, reprefentihg fhallow Cones of Diameters, from Nine to Twenty Inches, whofe greateft Depth was not above Twentyfour Inches. I imagine that thefe Holes owe their Origin to large cavous Icicles which formerly hung down from them, but were broken off by fome Convulfions of the Earth. / ^ .The Spring here made a fmall Bafin, or Bathing-place ; and the Air is likewife there made pure and clear by the Coldnefs of the Water. Prom hence forwards, the Cave gradually lefTened in Height and Breadth ; and the Icicles hanging from the Top, and irregular Sides, were more in Number, but lefs in Magnitude. Here I began to want Air ; and at laft the Paflage became fo narrow and low, that I was obliged to ftoop much ; and the Icicles were fo fmall, that the longeft of them did not exceed my little Finger in Length, and in Diameter. ^ ._ m Qu that I durft hot, without Prefumption, proceed farther, I^ cannot help fanfying, that if this Cave had been fituated in antient Greece, or Italy, imbrowned with Shades of Cyprefs. Groves,' and melancholy Yew, it would, in all Probability, have been the Rendezvous of all the bufy and inquifitive World :" Here oracular Ph(sbus had fixed

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^^^ < Book II J/Ia^dof BARB AD OS fixed his facred Tripos : Here the Fate of Kingdoms, and of Empires, had been fondly confulted, and no lefs artfully determined : Here the Greedy and Ambitious, deluded by ambiguous Promifes of Succefs, would have grafped fantaftic Crowns and Sceptres at the Expence of real Treafures, Anxiety of Mind, and even of human Blood ; And from hence perhaps the crafty Statefman would have derived divine Authority to human Laws and Inftitutions : In fine, Cum^y and negledied De/ph) had never beea immortalized in Verfe or Profe. As Fraud and Impofture can never bear the Teftimony and Face of Day, the Heathen Priefts made Choice of fuch gloomy and difmal Receffes for the Execution of their diabolical Collufions, as might naturally affba the Imagination with an enthufiaftic Horror and Amazement ; and, at the fame time, conceal from Obfervation thofe Inftruments of Delufion, wherewith they were to impofe on the Weaknefs of their infatuated Querifts : And what Place could more effedually promote the Defign of thefe Sorcerers, than fuch a dreadful Den of Darknefs, as I have beea now defcribing ? Where, in the Words of Virgil^ r Horror ubiq-y animos^ fimul ipfa fjlentia terrenU 'a AH things were full of Horror and Affright, And dreadful ev n the Silence of the Nkht. \ 59 The End of the Second Book. THE h

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^ 'h' 1 4 -* t^ '^y f ^ .^ ^ -y ,/^ ^ b J b F ^ 4 ^ f. 1 h Id J ^ t : ^ fc >" t % T^ ^ /" I 1 ^F 1^" \ ^ 1 ^ -J ^J

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AjHv^ikecl^ai U^i-itig-e-ToAvii in the TfJ^H r^f H kr b a d oes, IJVT 11 E NAT i k AL HISTORY OF THE Ifland of BARBADOS. BOOK III. Of Land Animals. N I M A L S are fenfitive organic Bodies, endued with ipontaneous Motion. By Animals, in the following Book, I would be underftood to mean, without dcfcending to minuter' unnecefTarj Divifions, fuch only as are generally termed Quadrupeds, Volatiles, and Infeds. "" In each of thefe may be traced the Workmanfhip of a Dwine Architeflure, each formed in Number c a • n 1 r ^^ig^^' ™d Meafure ; without Defeft, without Superfluity, exadly fitted and enabled to anfwer the various Purpofes of their Creation to execute the Will of their Creator, to minilter to the Delight and Service of Man, and to contribute to the Beauty and Harmony of the univerfal Syftem. ^ a ?r ^7tf7 ^^c ^"^'"^ ""l ^^™g'^'^ P^^^' ^^d how wonderful For Tnft ^^f^''^'^^ ^%* b; f^^n in feme of the minuteft Animals \ Ifland^lT'l ^.^^'iPf -^^^-^T^f"'"'^ /"^^"^ ^'^^ "P" Vegetables in this Inland, which IS fo fmall, that it is fcarce difcernible by the naked Eye R Yet

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6i 'The Natural Hiflory of the Book III Yet this ise\^er)r ^ay as perfefit as an. Ox,: a JVli^e, of an.Eleplmnt. W|iat' lefs t!fian infinite Wifdom and Power, feiild' dilpofe a little 'Portion of flatter, almoft too Tmall to be viewed by the naked Eyej^iiito that infinite Variety of Parts that are^neceffary to form an_pi:ga^^^ ,; v Let us confider how inexprefi^bly fine^ flender, and deHcate'rnuft, Jhe., feveral Parts be^i that are neceffary to form the Organs, to proportion the Strufiure, to diredt the Machinery, and preferve and fupply the vital and animal Aclion, in.. one of thefe"'vxry fmalti^nimals :. "Y^t; every Part that is neceflary to animal 'Life is as truly found in one .pf them as in, Behe^mth and Leviathan, L very much doubt, "whether any Wifdom, but that which framed them, can fully comprehend the Strufture, the Symmetry, the Beauties, of fuch almoft imperceptible Generations : And I think it muft needs exceed any finite Underftanding to conceive, much lefs explain, how fuch an infinite Variety of Parts, and Exercife of Powers, could be contained or exerted within fo narrow a Space. Firft, The Heart, the Fountain of Life ; then the Mufcles, neceflary to produce Motion ; the Glands, for the Secretion of Juices ; the Ventricle and Inteflines, for digefting their Nourifhment ; and numberlefs other Parts which are neceffary to form an organic Body. — This Knowlege is too wonderful and excellent for any human Underftanding, when we confider, that each of thofe Members are themfelves alfo organical Bo" dies ; that they confift of Fibres, Membranes, Coats, Veins, Arteries, NerveSj and numberlefs Springs, Tubes, and PuUies, too fine for Fancy *' itfelf to conceive," Can we likewife form the leaft Guefs how infinitely fubtile and fine muft the Parts of thofe Fluids be, that circulate thro' thefe Tubes, '* as the Blood, the Lympha^ and Animal Spirits, which in the largeft Animals are fo exquifitely fine, that no Imagination can explain or conceive ? Can any Knowlege, any Power, lefs than infinite, produce or explain v fuch wonderful Effects and Appearances as thefe ? • We may conclude therefore, that infinite Wifdom is as truly and.won-derfully difplayed in thefmalleft as in the greateft Works of the Creation ; and nothing lefs than the fame Wifdom that formed the univerfal Syftem, could poffibly produce the fmalleft and moft contemptible Being in Nature. La treating of our Animals, I fhall begin with the dofneftic and laborious Kind Thefe are much the fame Breed with thofe of the fame Species in England^ tho' not quite fo large. ^ Among the Diftempers which infefi thefe, there is one of a very contagious and peftilcntial ( r ) Kind ; for a Beaft fhall feemingly, by his feeding j { I ) If the Planters would make a fmall continual fmothering Fire, with Pitch and Tar, and Vegetables of the Terebinthine Kind, to the Eaftward of the Pens or Places where their Cattle are tied, and fed upon, I am of Opinion, that it might be of great Service to prevent or leflen this Diftemper. The moft common, and I believe the moft fucccfsful Drench, given to thefe diftempered Cattle, is the following : ^oke the Quantity of an Egg tf/Caftile Soap, a Pint of Rum, half a Pint of Lime-Juicey a Pint of ArroW' Root-Juice, and a Pint and an hafof Vervain-Juice^ mixed and i?icorpcrated U^etber, and given in a Drench, ^ This hath often been of great Service. iV. B. The Soap muft be diftblved.

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Book III. IJland of BARBADO..S. / ing heartily, and in Appearance, be otherwife well ; yet in a few Hours time, without any Symptom of a previous Diforder, drop down and die. Thefe, when dead, are by the mofl judicious Planters immediately buried ; and often there is a Watchman appointed, to prevent the newbought Negroes, and others of the poorer fort, from digging up the Carcafes, and feeding upon them \ for v/hcn this happens, it generally cofts them their Lives ; efpecially if they eat the Liver, or any Part of the Entrails : In this Cafe the Diftemper breaks out in the Shape of Plagueboils, near the Arm-pits or Temples. I have known one very extraordinary Inftance of its Virulency : A Negro Woman carrying upon her Head, in a Wicker-basket, a Piece of this Flefli, that had been newly cut off from a dead diftempered Carcafe, a few bloody famous Drops fell through the Basket upon her Left Breaft.. In a few Hours flie was fwelled all over, and was not able to move a Limb ; and in about Two Days there appeared mortifying Ulcers on every Part where the Drops fell : And, tlio' fpeedy Methods were ufed, by Fomentations, and by feveral other means, to prevent its further Progrefs ; yet neither thefe Cautions, nor taking off the infeded Part, could put a Stop to it ; at laft, the whole Breaft, and adjacent infeded Part, were taken off clofe to the Bones. In this deplorable Condition the Surgeon gave her over. Her Miftrefs was one of thofe notable Women, who love to a£b out of their Sphere (which only an abfolute Neceffity can juftify) ; who, by fome accidental Succefs in the Ufe of Simples, called That Skill and Knowlege, which, with greater Propriety, might be attributed rather to good Luck : However, in this Cafe, where there were feeminglyno Hopes of faving the Patient, ftie very fortunately applied to her Breaft a CataChrijlmas-bup bujh wax and Hog's-lard; and, in a fhort time, intirely cured her. The Firft of thefe Plants is very detergent, and the Three laft very good Vulneraries. The Sheep that are natural to this Climate, and are chiefly bred here, are hairy like Goats. To be covered with Wool, w^ould be as prejudicial to them in thefe hot CUmates, as it is ufeful in Winter Countries for Shelter a;nd Warmth : Yet, as Cloathing is neceffary (efpecially in the wet Seafons) to the Inhabitants of the warmeft Climates, this intire Want of Wool upon all Sheep naturally bred here, is abundantly fupplied by the Cottontree, which yearly, and in great Quantity, produces the fineft Wool in the World. Among the Number of Animals, either peculiar to, or brought to this Ifland, we are happy, that there is not one that is mortally venomous ; whilft many of our neighbouring French Iflands are mifcrably infefted with Vipers, and other Snakes. ; There are here butThree Reptiles that can be properly called venomous ; the Black Spider, the Forty-leg, and the Surinam Scorpion, 63 ^x rhe

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6^ h ^' f* ^^ a -'^ <* V1. J h .^. r J r" J T^e JStatura/ Hiftory of the Book in T^he Scorpion of theluilLA^ii Kind. 'j^ "A Full-grown Scorpion is about Ten Inches long ; the Skin foft but ^ A fcaly, and of a dull Copper-colour. The very young ones are furprifingly preferved from Danger ; for, when this threatens, the Parent Scorpion opens her Mouth, and fwallows her Young, w^hich flie voids out again when the Danger is over. This is not pecuHar to this Animal alone ; for the Shark at Sea preferves its Young in the lame manner. ^ L The. Spotted Lizard; commonly called^ Th L f i HIS exceeds not Ten Inches in Length. Its Head is fomcwhat flatter than that of the green Lizard and the Eyes more prominent. The Back is very thickly fpeckled with RulTet and White. ^ Its Feet differ remarkably from other Lizards, being very finely crofs-, indented like a File, but infinitely more curioufly : By this means, as well as by a vifcous Matter ifTuing from thefe fpongy Indentures, theycan creep along a fmooth perpendicular, or even a projected Cieling. ,.; As the Appearance of thefe is more difagreeable and ugly than the common green Lizard, they are, IbeHeve, upon that account alone, called The Poifonous Lizard-, for, upon the ftriaeft Inquiry, I could never perceive, that they were really poifonous. t The Surinam ScoiIpion. A Full-grown Scorpion is Three Inches long from the Head to the Extremity of tlie Tail. From the Fore-part of the Neck, clofe to the Head, rife Two Claws of about Three Quarters of an Inch long, divided into Three Joints, each Claw near its Extremity ending in a long flender whitifh Forceps. ]t hath Two Eyes, black, fmall, and ihining ; Hkewife Four Pair of Legs, the hindermoft Pair being the longeft : Each Joint of the Legs, as \Yell as the Back, is marked with feveral faint whitiih Lifts, the intermeHinf^R ^l^nr^^ h\/-*1t^rv ^\-^ •^i-i/T!-,*. /^ „1 •-lll \ • ^ r^ diate Space being of a ruffet Colour, mixt with blackifli Spots, ' Li ^ tl Joints : At the Extremity of the laft — j^...i.o jii. Lil^a^Au>.iiiiL_y ui LUC, laii appear two Imall horny, foinewhat crooked, Stings or Darts, in form of a wide-extended Forfg/^, the upper being above double the Length of the owermoft : Nor are they fe.emingly jointed together.at the Root; for the., loneelt comes frmn thfnnri-r 9.\A^ ^f A.^ i„A t„:„*. „r ^i__ ^t^ -i • .t .i laft J from the lowermoft Part, the intermediate Space being fle% -^ When

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Book III. IJland of RBADO When a Surinam Scorpion walks or runs, fhe generally curls up her Tail in a Ring ; and, when provoked, fhe extends it to its full Length ; and then with a very quick Motion darts its Sting or Forceps into her Adverfary. Perfons who have the Misfortune to be ftung by them, endure very acute Pain for feveral Hours ; and the Flefh, near the Wound, turns generally Hvid : However, I have known no Inftance here of its proving mortal. Upon examining this horny Sting with a good Microfcope, I could not perceive either Hole or FifTure, by which the Poifon might be conveyed to the Wound : Yet, upon preffing very hard upon the Sting of an enraged Scorpion with the Blade of a Penknife, I plainly perceived a thin bluifli Liquid to iffue from the Extremity of the Sting, which, upon a greater Preffure, was followed by a whitifh Liquid, of a thicker Confiftency ; The former I take to be principally the Poifon that it injeifts into the Wound it makes, and the latter to be only the juices of the Body, It is the general Opinion here, as well as elfewhere, that if thefe Scorpions are furrounded, tho' at a Diftance, with Fire, or any other way greatly molefted, they will fling themfelves in the Head, and immediately expire. This IS attefted by a great many Perfons of undoubted Veracity : Yet as this Opinion contradids that Principle of Self-prefer vation, which appears to be fo natural, and fo general, ftrongly influencing the whole Brute Creation to preferve their Being, it may be juftly queftioned, whether the many Experiments made, in order to effablilh this Opinion, were attended to with that Accuracy which the Subjeft required. As for my own Part, I am apt to believe, that the Heat of the furroundmg Fire hath, at leaft fometimes, a Share in the Deftrudion of thefe Creatures upon fuch Experiments, Thefe Scorpions are chiefly to be feen among old Boards, old Books, or other loofe Papers. They never bear any Young ones but once : The She carries her Young upon her Back; and, as thefe grow in Strength, the Parent decays and dies Thefe Scorpions are but fmall in this Part of the World, when compared with thofe in the \ s the

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66 ne Natural Htflory of the Book III between in all Kinds of Lizards are very prominent. : ' The" Back is of a changeable fhining Green, imboffed with fmall pointed Rifmgs, like Shagreen : It changes towards the Belly into a pale Silver White. / ' ' As Lizards are very harmlefs Creatures, feveral Authors are of Opinion, that they are, in particular, great Lovers of Mankind And, to prove this, they affure us, that when Men in hot Countries fleep under the Shade of Trees, the Lizards will creep upon feveral Parts of dieir Bodies : Nay, fo fanciful are fome of thefe Writers, that they gravely affirm, that Lizards will leap upon a fleeping Perfon to awake him, if he fees a Snake approaching him; tho', upon a narrow Scrutiny, we fhall find, that this feeming Familiarity and Philanthropy are the Effeft of no other Principle, than that of Self-prefervation ; for, as thefe Lizards chiefly live upon FHes, their Familiarity in creeping, or Daringnefs in leaping, upon a, fleeping Perfon, is only in order to catch Flies ^ which they do by creeping near, and then leaping upon, their Prey, It is lilcewife iuppofed, that they are great Lovers of Mufic. ., This Opinion is fupported by feveral probable Circumftances ; for they will draw near to the Sound of any mufical Inftrunient. I have known one Inftancc myfelf of a Lizard drawing nearer and hearer by Degrees, and at lafl leaping upon the Spinet which a Lady was playmg upon. However, I would not, from this one, perhaps cafual, Inftance, be fuppofed to draw any certain regular Inference in favour of a general Certainty of the above-mentioned Opinion, T Monkeys. H E S E are not very numerous In this Ifland : They chiefly refide in inacceffible Gullies s efpecially where there are many Fruittrees. The greateft Mifchief they do to the neighbouring Planters is digging out of the Earth their Yams and Potatoes, and fometlmes breaking and carrying off a great many ripe Sugar-canes. As a Law of this Ifland provides a 'Premium for defl;roying thefe^ as well as Racoons, they yearly rather decreafe than multiply. Rats. H E S E are To very numerous, and fo very deflruftive to Sugarcanes, that the yearly Lofs to the Inhabitants of the Parlflaes of &. yofepFs and St. Andrew's alone, is computed to be no lefs than Two or Three thoufand Pounds. T *- That

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B JJlandofl^AK^Al>0 That they are in greater Numbers in thofe Parifhes than elfewhere may be attributed to their hilly Situation, interfperfed with high inacceffible Rocks, m whofe Cavities they Ihelter, and there breed. The Jessamin InfeB. T^ O this very curious Animal T am at a Lofs for a Name, having J_ neither feen it myfelf, nor ever heard it mentioned by any one all the tmie I was in that Ifland. I am obliged for the following Account of It fmce I came to England, to a (2) Gentleman, whofe Veracity may be rehed on and who took one of them from a JelTamin-tree, that was agamft Colonel MaynarcTs Houfe on his Eftate in St. Peters Parifh p ', ^i^ f^^ ''. "t"'. '^^^^^ I'^'^'^^^ l"g' and fo nearly refembles the Bark of a Jeffamm Twig, as not eafily to be diftinguifhed from it iniomuch that it may be fairly denominated from it. The Make of it is Jeffamin John CooKs Horfe the rhicknefs of a Horfe-hair, near Two Inches long, {landing (as far as it hath been yet obferved) always projeded out of its Mouth : For the Pre fervation of which moft extraordinary Member, as it is, on the one hand no doubt, greatly mftrumental in procuring Food for the Owner, and on the other from its delicate Texture, liable to frequent Accidents : Nature has moft kindly, and at the fame time moft wonderfully, formed a very curious Cafe or Scabbard for it out of its two Fore Feet, which were each oi them hollowed exadly for the Purpofe ; and which that Gentleman fays he faw it make ufe of feveral times, by lifting them up, extendins them, and clappmg them together to cover the Tongue. After obferving it for feveral Hours, in order to preferve it perfeft, it was ftuck to a Board with a Pin : The Pain (as it is fuppofedj occafioned its laying a very fmall beautiful fpeckled Egg. • ^ ^J or Hag's Horse. F H O this hath all its Limbs in Perfeftion ; yet it is fo fhapelefs an Anir nr' I without a narrow Infpedion, it can hardly be diftinguifhed at hrft from a dry half-rotten Piece of Straw of about Three Inches long. • Its Legs which are Four in Number, are very near as fine as thofe of a large Spider. It feems to be every way very inoffenfive j and it is generally to be found upon Shrubs and Bufhes. A great many Negroes' have a Notion, that, if they kiU one of thefe they will be very unlucky in breaking all Earthen Wares they handle • Of this they are fo ftrongly perfuaded, that I have feen a Negro Wench fuf.er a Whipping, rather than; when commanded to do it, kill one of them. 1 he whole Body and Legs are fpeckled alternately with a rulTet Brown and a dull White ; but not difoernible at any great Diftance.' (3) The Reverend Mr. Dowding, formerly Reaor of Si. Peter^s Parifii/in Barbades. From +

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68 >3 The Natural Hiflory of the Book III; From the Head rife Two haliy Feelers of about an Inch long: From the Neck likewife, clofe to the Head, come the Two foremoft Pair of Leers, which are about an Inch and a. half long;, and jointed in the Middie : At about an Inch farther Diftance frorii thefe come the Two hindermoft Legs. ^ ;•' -, The whole Body of this Animal, at about half an Inch Diftance from the hindermoft Legs, ends in a fomewhat forked TaiL "the Ca ve-Bat. S this hath nothing in common with Birds, but its Wings, and thefe differing from theirs by the Want of Plumage ; and as it likewife lays neither Eggs, nor hath a Bill, which are the chief Charadteriftics of Birds ; I have ventured to remove it from that Clafs, where many Writers A have given it a Place. r The gvQ.7iX. Bochart obferves, that its very Name in Hebrew is ^toyj^talleeph^ i. e, a Bird of Darknefs, This Bat hath its Name from its Place of Refidence (3). It is often as big as a young Pigeon. Its Body is covered with a Snuff. coloured foft Hair : Its Ears are more upright, and larger, in proportion, than thofe of a Rat ; ,and ,its whole Head, efpecially its Mouth and Nofe, fliorter and thicker. From the Extremity of one Wing to the other ex-\ tended, meafures Eighteen Inches : Its Feet are guarded with Six fharp Talons, each turning inwards like Fifh-hooks. Some of the common People are of Opinion, that as Bats are always awake at Night, therefore their Flefh dried to Powder, and given to Dogs, will, make them likewife watchful at Night : And this Powder is very often, by credulous People, mixed with their Food for that Purpofe. / L ^ > "The Mouse-Bat. THIS is of the fame Species with thofe in England, Their Wings, at the middle Joints, are provided with fharp Hooks, by whicji they cling to the Roof of Caves, or under the Eaves of Houfes. (•^) From hence that Phrafe in the Prophecy of Jfaiah.^ Chap. ii. 20. In that Day^ \. e. in the T>ijlrefs of^ the Ifraelites, Jhall a Man caji his Idols of Silver and Gold to the Bats and MsUs^ i, e. hide them in the Holes and Caverns of the Earth. i 1 > Of f^

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Book III;:? IJland of 69 O F B I R D S. H E S E are, in general, divided into Terreftrial and Aquatic. ^ "J --^.v.x^, cuiu Qualiues or every Species will convince us, that every Individual is ftamned with Marks of infinite Wifdom : And Experience teaches us, that the fame Power, which at firft created them hath and, I may venture to fay, ever will preferve, not only the ftronge'ft, but the feemingly weakeft, and moft helplefs, in a regular Succeffion, fill Time Inall be no more. Such is the exaa Symmetry, and juft Proportion, obfervable in the Body ot Animals, that every Part is fubfervient to the Whole. The carnivo rous and rapacious Kind, fuch as Eagles, Hawks, and Vulturs have ftrong crooked Bilk, and fharp Talons, to fecure and tear theiV Prey -But as thefe Birds are deftrudive to the more ufeful domeftic Kind, we find thatthey are by far lefs numerous than the latter. The melodious Notes, and the beautiful Plumage, of fome, are not lefs p leafing, the one to the Ear, and the other to the Eye, than the Fleih of ^ others is delicate to the Tafte. Aquatic Birds are Web-footed ; and it is obfervable, that thofe that are obliged to feek their Food at a great Diftance from Land, have Wbl remarkably large and ftrong, in proportion to. their Bodies, to enable theS to bear the Fatigue of a long Flight. Thofe which feed in the miry Skirts of muddy Ponds or Rivers are provided with long Bills, Necks, and Legs, each Ling neceffary el her to feairh for, or fecure, their Prey in fuch a Situation. / "^r to The Curious and Learned may find thefe Inquiries and Refledions car' Neither this, nor any of our neighbouring Iflands, is ftored with anv great Vanety of Birds ,^and the few that we have are not remarkable S their Notes, nor (the Humming-Bird excepted) for the Beauty of the' Feathers ; and our tame-bred Fowls, except the Gui„ej Fowls! MufZ Ducks, and rumplefs Fowls, are much the fame as thofe in En//aZ: TGuiNE y

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70 ^ ^K l^he Natural Hiflory of the Book IE Hr G U I N E Y Fowl. i 1 I-^HIS IS naturally a Wild-fowl, both In Tafte, Appearance, ana. Qualities. It is at prefent fo well known, that it Would be heedlefi to defcribe it. aeicnDe it. i i i /• All that I fhall therefore obferve is, that' .it is thought by lome to he the Tame Bird fo much prized by the Romans, aiid by them called Gallina Mauritana. ^^' H ^ The Dark-coloured Gav -La i-HG. TH E Bill of this Bird is about Three Inches long, blackifh, and fliarppointed. From the Extremity of this to the Feet, extended, are 1 Twenty-two Inches ; and the Wings, extended,^ meafure Two Feet. The Cock hath a blue-coloured Tuft upon the Head. The Neck Is of ,,. a very brownifti Red, fomewhat near a Snuff-colour, with a pale whitjll^. Lift downwards under the Throat. The Eyes are incircled with a.yellow ,,' Iris. The Feathers covering the Back are long and bluifh. .. _^ The whole Bird is of the Crane-kind, and generally found feeding-upon Worms about the Edges of Ponds, as well as upon Mice, I^izards, ^ and Scorpions. The Grey Gau q h T H I S Bird is feldom feen in this Ifland, tho' very frequently it Antigua. i1 r> y It differs from that already defcribed, chiefly In Its Bignefs and Colourj this being a great deal larger, and its Colour of a greyifh White. ^_ It feeds generally upon fmall Crabs and Shrimps in the Salt Marfhes ; but we have very few, if any, fuch Places in this Ifland. We are, I fuppofe, for this Reafon, feldorn vifited by thefe Birds. The Lesser Turtle-Dove.. T efpecially the Cock. The Hen is generally of a lighter Colour. This Bird, from the Tip of the Tail to the End of the. Bill, is SiX Inches and an half in Length, and Ten Inches to the Extremities of the Wings, extended. They are .ftl^ \. efteemed the moft deUcious of any Birds in this liland, as well as perhaps /. r -T • :^r _: n^^.^: _r .i.i._ TXT 1J i inferior to Few, if any, in other Parts of the World. They "feed chiefly upon Belly-ach Berries, •13)$ X i 4 1 f <• ^ \ _T

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Book IIL i^^//^(/B ARBADOS Ithe Large Turtle-Dove. 'TpHlS, by the regular Proportion of every Limb, completing the JHarmony of the Whole, juftly deferves to be reckoned among the moft beautiful Birds. The Plumage of the Neck, Back, and Wings, is of a dark Lead-colour, fpotted with Black ; the Bread and Belly fomewhat lighter. Thefe differ in nothing material from thofe of the fame Species in Pahjline, ufed among the Jews for Sacrifice (4), except in their Colour; for the Wings of the latter, as the Royal Pfalmift defcribes them, are like Silver, which, with very little Allowance, anfwers to the Colour of what we now call Arabimt or Barbary Dovesy fo common in all Paleftine, The Length of this Bird from the Bill to the Tail is Ten Inches, and :from Wing to Wing, extended, Fifteen Inches. CooTSj or Moor-Hens. T^H E SE Birds are to be chiefly feen about the Skirts of rufliy Ponds, -i^ feeding upon Pond-bugs, and fuch Worms ; and, when thei e IS a Scarcity of thefe, they alight upon, or moft commonly climb up, Plantain, Banana, or Guava Trees, and feed upon the ripe Fruit, as well as fometimes upon Pulfe and Potatoes. They are diftinguifhed into Three Kinds ; the White, the Red, and the Blue-pated. The Bill of each is ftrait and ftrong, and of a greenifli yellow Colour near the Point ; the other Part of a florid Red ; the Whole about an Inch long. The Crown of the Head, but efpecially near the fetting on of the Bill, inftead iglifh The Plumage under the Neck and Breaft is of a very deep Blue, inclineable to a Purple. The Feathers on the Back are of a greenifh Lead-colour. From the Extremity of one Wing to another, it meafures Eighteen Inches, and the Length from the Bill to the Feet, Fifteen. The under Feathers of the Tail. are Snow-white. Its Legs are yellow. It hath Three Toes before, and one behind, guarded with ftrong Claws. T h I'he Two-pENY Chick. T^ H I S Bird hath a ftrong yellowifli fliarp-pointed Bill, near an Inch long : Its Length from this to the Feet, extended, is Nine Inches ; and from the Extremity of the Wings, Eleven. The Head is marked from the Bill to the hinder Part of it, with .a black Lift. The Back and fmall Feathers upon the Wings with pale Rufis ivL^^fS"^--^'' '^^ ?''*T ^'5 -;f ;^",' ''l'^ ^K ^^^ P'""^"^ ^"Sli^ ^'^ b^ "'^'i i^ Sacrifice. TCs IS eviaent fvova Homer ; for, when Amiks fpeaks about the Sacrifice to j^pollo^ he fays, "*— — i^Sv KVimv euym t£ tsAm'wv. 71

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72 I ^^ ^he Natural Hiftory of the Book III; fet, or rather dark-coloured Olive, intermixed with black and white Lifts. The Breaft is of a pale Dove-colour, growing whitifh, and more fpeckled towards the Belly. Its Legs are long, in proportion to its Bulk ; and of a greenifli yellow Colour : It hath Three Toes before, and One behind, each bordered with a fcalloped lateral Membrane to affift in Swimming. This Bird dives with fuch Quicknefsj that it is very difficult to be Ihot. It is of the Bignefs, and much of the Colour, of the American Quail. ^he Thrush. r WE have Two Species of Thrufhes in this liland ^ the one much refembling in her Note the Englijh Thrufh. As foon as the Day appears, flie mounts up like a Lark into the Air, almoft out of Sight. The other is a folitary Bird, and is known by the Name of the faking Thrujh I'he Co ri 'His is a yellowifli Bird, about the Bignefs of a fmall Sparrow j and X is chiefly to be feen among Cotton-trees. "The Black-bird. w nn H E Plumage of this is of a glofly Black : Its Bill is Hkewife black long. near The Eyes are furrounded with a white Irlsy as well as provided with a white Membrane, which, at Will, covers the whole outward Superficies of the Eye, both to keep it from Harm, and perhaps to keep it moift in fo warm a Climate. Its Length, from the Extremity of the Bill to that of the Tail, is Seven Inches ; and from the Extremities of the Wings, extended, Eleven. Theie Birds are very numerous in this Ifland (tho' there are none at Antigua)^ and in fome other Leeward Iflands. They are ferviceable in deftroying Crickets, and otherVermin : Yet this fcarce compenfates for the Ravage they make in confuming our Indian and Gui7tej Corn ; the former chiefly when young ; the latter, foon after it is planted, as well as when ripe. "The Goldfinch. 'T^HIS beautiful Bird is fomewhat bigger than a large Sparrow ; and is and then generally in the moft woody and eafterly Part of the Ifland. The

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Book III. IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. 7 q The only one that I faw was in the Plantation oi Richard EJIwick^ Efq; The Head is of a fine Orange-colour, and the reft of the Body of a dark Colour, except upon the Pinions, where the Feathers are of a deep Red. A The Pi VET. r L r Ltho' this Bird feeds upon Fruit, its Bill is of the fame Make with thofe of the carnivorous Kind 5 and it intirely fubfifts by Berries, or fuchlike Fruit of Trees. It is no fmall Inftance of the Wifdom of Providence, that tliere is not a Month in the Year, but fome Trees, or Shrubs, bear ripe Fruit of one kind or other ; fo that thefe have literally their Food provided for them in due Seafon, A Pivet is about the Bignefs and Colour of our largeft Kind of Sparrows, and hath a wild chirping Note. They are chiefly to be feen where there is the moft Variety of ripe Fruit. The Wren. THIS, excepting its Note and Bill, differs very little from the Thrufh, as to its Plumage and Bignefs ; Its Bill is fomewhat more ftiarp-pointed and longer, than that of the Thrufli. It is moft commonly to be feen in the Wood near Hackletons Cliffy and feeds chiefly upon Oranges, and fuch ripe Fruit, as well as upon Lizards. X J The Spanish Lacker. L nn HIS differs very little, if any thing, from a Pivet, but by its Note. JIt feeds chiefly upon Poifon-tree Berries, and fuch wild Fruit. This Bird is moft commonly to be feen near Hackkwzs Clift. The Parakite. ...•: • ^ r THHIS is of the fruglvorous Kind, and about the Bignefs of a Thrufli, having a longer and more crooked Bill. It feeds upon almoft all manner of Berries, Popaws, and ripe Plantain, refiding chiefly in inacceflible GuUies. ,. The Bird borrows its Name from its Refcmblance in Make, but not in Plumage, to the fmall green Parakite. The Swallow. S the Make of this Bird every way anfwers the Defcrlption of thofe of the fame Species in £?;^/(3;W, it would be needlefs to defcribe it. The Gaufe of the Difappearance of the whole Species, during the Winter U Months, A

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^'' n Tk Natural Hiflory of the Book III Months, hath been varioufly reprefented by moft Authors of Natural Hiftory. .1 j i_ • n r Some have, with great feeming Probabihty, attributed their State rf Infenfibility, or at Icaft their Abfence at that time, to the wife Difpenfa^ tion of Providence, in making thefe Birds incapable of any of the Funaions of Life, at a Seafon of the Year when they could not be fupplied with their daily and proper Food, which confifts chiefly of Pond-flies, Butterflies, and Bees. r i This ingenious Hypothefls hath a great Appearance of Truth, and is indeed the^efl: that can be given in a Northern Climate, where it is evi-. dent that their Food can only be found in Summer Months : But this their reclufe Life, from OBokr to Mard, is no lefs evident, than it is almoft general in this Ifland ; in which Months their Prey is no lefs plentiful, and the Weather but very little colder, than in our Summer : Yet they retire to their Holes in the Rocks, and do not appear during thefe Months, except in very fmall Numbers. T'he Sugar-bird. THIS derives its Name from its frequenting and picking up the loofe Sugar about the Sugar-curing Houfes, and elfewhere, ^ w L Jj 7%e Sparrow, OU R largefl Sparrow differs very little from thofe in England, being of a pale reddifh Lead-colour, Four Inches long from the Bill to the Feet, extended ; and Seven Inches over the Wings, from the Extremity of one to the Extremity of the other. :. ^ Its Bill is very ftrong and fliarp-pointed ; its Legs blackifh ; audits Feet have Three Claws before, and One behind. T T'he Lesser Sparrow. HIS likewife, called the Tinker-Sparrow, differs very Httle from the former, except in Bignefs ; this now defcribed being lefs. r ^ T "The Humming-bird, HIS Bird derives its Name from tTie humming Noife it makes as ^^ it flies. Pliny juftly obferve^, Natura nufquam magis quam in minimis tota eft : This is fufficiently evinced in the Make anH Qualities of this, which is the fmallefl: of Birds ; for what it wants in Strength and Bignefs, is fufficiently made up in its Swiftnefs in Flying, and its Dexterity in making ufe of its fha.rp Bill ; by which fneans it is capable of overcoming the largefl: and ilronereft Bird that flies in thefe Parts of the World. This

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Book III Ipnd of BAR This Species of Birds ve, .diftinguiflied into the large and fmall So-t : One of the latter, which I have now before me, weio-hs but Fort eight Grains. From the Tip of one Wing to the oppofite, extended is i-ive Inches; and its Length, from the Tail to the Extremity of its Bill near Four : Its Feet vp cpmp.ofed of Three Claws before, and One be' hmd The Feathers under the Belly, the Tail, and the long Quill-feathers are of a footy Back : Thofe which cover the Back and Neck have a fine Mixture of Green : The Bill is about half an Inch loner, and black • The Tongue, which is about an Inch long, is forked. This, darted into the Blolloms, lucks up the Honey-dew from moll Flowers : There are a few Feathers, which jut out higher than the reft, a little above the Bill of an almoft inimitable fliining Green : A little higher up ftands ered another Feather of a flaming Purple : Thefe look very beautiful, efpecially when refleded to the Eye by the Rays of the Sun. ^ The other Sort have a longer BiU, and are every way confiderablv larger than this now defcribed. / Thefe Birds make their Nefts under the Eaves of Houfes thatched with Straw, or in the Boughs of Ihady Trees : Thefe Nefts are very artfully made, compofed of Straw, Hair, and Cotton, which laft covers the Inflde I have feen one of the Nefts, which was very extraordinary; for it was worked quite round the under Part of the Twig, to fecure the Neft which was above : Had it been tied round with a String of any fort, it' would not have been fo ftrong. What was very particular in it was, that the Neft was not built amongft fmall Twigs or Leaves, but upon the upper Part of a fingle Branch, perfeftly free from all Leaves or Twigs. ^ The Female lays Two fmall Eggs, fomewhat bigger than the largeft rea, and longer. I have taken feveral young ones when fledged, and endeavoured to raife them; but never could eff-ed it; for no Art can prepare a Liquid fo rk H I S is a very fmall Bird, whofe Plumage hath a beautiful Mixture of Yellow and Red, efpecially about the Head. B I R D S
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1_ \ The Natural Hifiory of the III, and np a prodigious Number of thefe Birds late on Saturday Nigh alighted on a fmall Spot of Pafture-Land: A neighbouring Conftable prevented their being difturbed on Sunday, during which time they were obferved to be almoft inceffantly treading. t, n r, • Their Fli'rht is always from the South-weft towards the Ealt : But what feems moft furprifmg is, that they dired their Courfe, "^varied, and unbyaffed either by contrary Winds or Storms, over wide-extended Oceans, reaching yearly to their refpedive Stations, with an Exadtnefs fcarce credible to an heedlefs Obferver ; tho', after the moft diligent Search into the anatomical Struaure of their Bodies, there can be found no Analogy between their feveral Organs, and thofe defigned in the human Species, tor thofe exalted Ends of Thinking, and providently Reafoning. ; Therefore the fubUmeft Genius muft, with Humility, own, that wz htcw but in Fart ; by fear ch ^ £^(1 out the farther to unveil his now fecret, tho' ahvays.wife Ends) Caufes and EfFefts of feveral Fhanomena, which future Ages may polTibly difcover. . Moft of thefe Birds of Paffage never fail to appear here between the; Nineteenth and the Twenty-feventh of Auguft, efpecially if it be therv wet Weather ^ but if about that time it is very dry, the greateft Part ot them are feen to fly very high, and to keep their direft Courfe towards the Eaft \ and, as Milton expreffes it, bi ^ )f Seafc 'Jet forth Way "Their airy Caravan^ high over Seas Flying., and over Lands ; ^ith mutt Eafing their Flight : So fleers the pr Her annual Voyage^ borne on Windi Floats as they pafs^ fanri d with unnu Wi T 7/6^ Wild Wood-Pigeon. r J* H I S is about the Bignefs of an Houfe-Pigeon. The Head is of a blackifli Colour ; and, from the under Bill to the Breaft, of a light Moufe -colour ; from thence to the Bellv and the under Part of the Tail, of an Afh-colour ; the upper Side of the Neck, Back, and Wings, of a dark Afh-colour, growing Hghter towards the Extremities of the Wings. \ c Thefe come hither, tho' in no great Number, about the latter End of July or Augufl^ always alighting upon Trees, and feeding upon the Berries of them. _„ "The i ^

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/ Book III; J/Iad 0/ BARBADOS. th Wild-Duck. L TH E very few that migrate to this Mand, of this Kind, are of the fame Make and Species with thofe in England. The Tea l. A S this differs Httle, or not at all, from thofe in England, it will not -t*be neceffary to give a particular Defcription of it. It will be fufficient to obferve, that in Englajjd they, are feen every Wniter, tho' hither they come but once a Year, and very few in Number ; and fome Years there are none at all. The Crooked-bill Curlieu. L THE Bills of every Species of Curlieus are fomewhat crooked j but of this more than any other : From thence therefore it derived Its Name. Its Bill is about Five Inches long ; the Head fmall, in proportion to the Body ; the Neck long and flender ; as are likewife the Legs. Its Feet have each Three Toes before, and One behind. r '^^'/''?f,' ta"^^ S'^'^' ^''^' ^^"^' ^""^ Wings, are thickly fpeckled with blackilh, ruffet, and white Spots. ^ The Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is Eleven Inches ; and from the Extremity of each Wing, extended. Fifteen Inches. more. Qu This, among the reft of the Birds of Paffage, vifits this Mand in the latter End of July and Auguft ; efpeclally if we have any Southerly Winds and ramy Weather, at that time, L / r The Shivering Curlieu. THESE, as well as moft other Curlieus, often come over In great r locks. ^ They are next in Bignefs to the Crooked-bill Curlieus, havin.r their ftlt; n tLr''' """ '^ ™, of a brownifl, Red, fliglrtly T'he Stone Curlieu. T^HIS is fomewhat fmaller than the laft defcribed, and marked with ^. larger and blacker Spots upon the Back, having likewife fome of the Pen-feathers m their Wings, as well as fome of the Tail-feathers white. Thele feed moft commonly on the Sea-lhore ; and therefore have a 1 alte fomewhat filhy. X Ths 77 H rt \ Pi

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{' Hhe ISfatural Hijiory of the L T'Ae Black-breast Plover. Book III r TH O' all the Species of Plovers, that make their periodical Vifits to this Ifland, are more or lefs fpeckled ; yet as this is more remarkably fo, and as they are by far more numerous than any other Species, I fhall begin with its Defcription. i-i • i r I The Length of this from the Tip of the Bill, which is about an Inch long, to the End of the Tail, is Nine Inches j and the Breadth over the Wings, extended, Eighteen. t, j The Head is fomewhat large, in proportion to its Body The whole Bird is fpeckled all over with white and black Spots. T'he Ring-necked Plover. T^HIS is much lefs than the Sandy-breaft ; and derives its Name from a *white Ring incircHng Its Neck. ^ r 1 1 j^ The Colour of the Feathers upon the Back is not fo much Ipeckled a? the large Plover already defcribed. This, as well as the other Plovers, has no hinder Claw ^ fo that thej cannot alight upon Trees. TBe Sandy-breast Plov •^T HIS differs chiefly from that aheady defcribed, by being fomewhat fmaller, and the Colour of its Breaft not fpeckled, as in the former, but of a pale White. The Head of this is fomewhat lefs than the other, and more proportionable to its Body. i i i Theylikewife come fomewhat later to the Ifland than the fpeckled Sort. This is about Eight Inches long from the BiU to the End of the Tail, and Sixteen over the Wings, extended. T Of the MopusEs. THERE are three Sorts of thefe, diftinguifl:ied into the Large and Small, and the Hiding Mopus. The latter, which is the biggeft, derives Its Name from its immediately concealing itfelf, as foon as it alights, in fwampy wet Places, amongft Ruflies or Sedge-grafs ; nor will they attempt to rife, till you come very near them. Their Bill is Two Inches long ; from this to the Extremity of the Tail is Ten Inches ; and over the Wings, extended. Fourteen. The Feathers upon the Back are of a reddifh Brown, marked lengthways with black Lifl;s. ^ The Two other Kinds of Mopufes are leflTer Aan this, differing not in Colour, or in fcarce any other Circumftance, except that thefe do not conceal themfelves, but alight often in open Grounds, and in Flocks.

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Book III. IJland 0/ BARBADOS, L 4 7he Long-Legs. np H E S E are diftinguiflied into the large and the fmall Kind, both dif-*fering from the Plover, in having a hind Claw. The largeft, vi^hich is called tlie Cackling Plover, weighs often near Seven OuncesThey derive their Name from the Length of their Le^rs. Nature hath given thefe, as well as all other Birds that feek their Food in muddy wet Skirts of Ponds, long Legs, Necks, and Bills, thefe being abfolutely neceffary m fuch a Situation ; their Legs to prevent their finking in the Mud 3 and the Length of their Bills enabling them to penetrate deep mto the Mire, m Search of Worms and Filh, which are their Food. I'he Great Snipe, HERE are feveral Species of Snipes, that come in the wet Seafons to this Mand. Thefe are diftinguiflied by many uncertain and different Names, as well as Marks ; tho' the real Difference between fo many is but fmaU. I fhall therefore reduce them Into the large and fmall Sort, T I'h Snipe. HP H I S is likewife called a Nit. -The Name was perhaps given them from their very diminutive Size when out of Feathers ; for they then feldom weigh above two Ounces each. A few of thefe are to be feen here in every Month of the Year, witliout any Regard to the periodical Seafon. They are of a greyifli Colour, fpeckled with Black upon the Back and Wings, and the Breaft and Belly of a whitifh Colour. Their Length from the Tip of the Bill to the Feet, extended, is Six Inches ; and, over the Wings, Nine. Thefe feed generally about the Skirts of Ponds. 79 OF

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* 8o T^he Natural Hiflory of the Book III %. .1-^ I ')) >.->£ £T "%! A-^\S ii ULtElilhLimiJ '^j^^'> s*.* *tia tiS~ ^^a*iUi *-3i -i^— r: ^^Sr t #-. i/^^^ >.-T-^; fcr^-^'^^ ^a ^=^ ^ .^ 'tHi '^:^J IHI V^^r^jJ ^ >. IIIJUfHriuilMj ft^^ ^\^ )^, .^^ I ^ ./T |&5 O F FLYING IN S E C T S. ^HO' -unthinking and incurious People may look upon thefe to be the nioft ufelefs Part of the Animal Creation ; yet, upon a narrow Infpeflion into the Ufe of every Species, we ^ find a providential Defign, in not only their Make and Qua, lities, but likewife in the Time and Seafon of their Appearance, which never happens till fo late in the Spring, that he, who jilleth every thing living with Ple?tteouf?7efsy hath provided them with Leaves of Trees, their proper Food, whilft in their reptile State. They likewife at that Seafon (except what Providence referves to continue and propagate the Species) become exceedingly ufeful, being then. the deftined neceffary Food of young Birds. But, when thefe crawling Worms come to their full Growth, they fpin; and, after a wonderful manner, inwrap themfelves in a Tomb of their. own making. Here they reft for a while ; and, in a fhort time after, they break thro' this temporary Prifon, and become Butterflies. In this State, decked in all the gaudy Pride of Colours, they wanton in the Air ; and, by their carelefs irregular Flights, feem to have fcarce any other Bufincfs in Life, but fportive Diverfions. This perhaps may be intended by Providence to make Amends for the fhort Duration of their Exiftence. Flies, Lkewife, efpecially thofe of the fmaller Kind, are a very ufeful Part of the Creation ; efpecially as they are in the Summer Seafon the moft common Food of Frefh-water Fifh, • 'The Large Black Bee. J np H I S is the largefl that we have here of the Bee-kind. The Head -* is large and flattifh. The lower Part of it, fomewhat about the Mouth, is provided with a ftrong Forceps : With this it makes deep Holes in feveral Kinds of dry foft -^

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Book III. -^^^^V BARB ADO S. Weather rath' ^hofc to depofit their Hbriey, and rear their Young in. In the upper Part of the Mouth there is a Dart, or pointing perpendicularly downwards : This is about a Quarter ot an Inch long, black and fhining ^ and, as the above-mentioned Nippers or Forcipes were defigned to bore Holes in Trees, fo this, by being divided, or capable of opening as a i^?rc£^j, may perhaps be defigned to take and kill its Prey ; for I always found their oppofite Sides to be hollow, capable of retaining the Juices of their Prey, with this additional Conveniency, that, from tjhe Centre between thefe Two Clafpers, darts out a bearded reddifh Tongue. Its Eyes, which are Two, are fmall, fliining, and hemifpherlcal, fituated near tlie upper Part of the Head, for the Conveniency of feeing before as well as behind. Below thefe ftand Two Horns, or Feelers, of about an Inch long. The Back is black and fliining, joined by a ftrong Ligament to the Ainen, which is made up of Six An7iuU, or Sections. The Rapidity of its Flight depends upon Four gloffy Wings. '^ The Body, Hkewife, when upon the Ground, is fupported by Eight jj^^ggy. o^ rather hairy Legs, each ending in a Claw or Fork. The Two hindermoft and oppofite Legs being the longeft, thefe about the Thighs are generally loaded with a .granulated yellow Subftance, like Bees-bread. The Extremity of the Abdo?nen is guarded with a black Bee-like Sting, This Bee makes an humming Noife as it flies. T The Mastt II 8 is about an Inch and a Qu Colour, inclinable to a Green. It hath Two Feelers, each Five Inches long. It derives its Name from the Tree it feeds upon. Th T^ H E Body of this Fly is near an Inch long, and fomewhat flattifti, -*• and of a very dark Snuff^-colour. It lays many fmall brownifli Eggs. it flies about in the Evenings, efpecially in wet Weather, and generally into the Houfes, where they breed, and are very troublefome, being voracious of moft kinds of drefled Viduals, as well as defi:ru
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^nr 8 / H Natural Hijiory of the Book III The beft Method of deftroying them Is to grind to Powder the Back-bone of a Gar-fifh, and then mix it with fomething that they Hke beft to feed upon : If they eat of this Mixture, they generally die. It is faid, that the Abdomen^ boiled in Oil, and poured into the Ear, cures the Patient of any aching or throbbing Pain. J I'he F1RE-FLY5 (?r Jack Lantern. THESE Flies, which are of the Glow-worm Kind, are m great Number in North-America upon the Continent ; but in the warmer Climates fo very rare, that I have never feen any in this Ifland j tho' I am credibly inforxned, that they are fometimes to be found here. ^ =. 7%e Knocker. T r P THIS Fly IS fomewhat larger and blacker than a Cock-Roch ; and derives its Name from the tinkling Noife it makes. The Head and Back are hard and Ihining ; the former divided from the latter by a broad clofe Joint. gul Spring into the Socket of the lower ; and, when it bows its Head forward, it /opens with a fharp tinkling Note, as the Spring of the outward Cafe of a Watch, when preiTed. 57ve H ARD-BACK. ^ H I S Fly is about half an Inch long, having a very fmall Head, provided with Two fmall Feelers. Its Eyes are round, black, and fliining ; the Neck thick, and fpeckled with White and Black : Its membranaceous Wings are defended with Sheaths, or Shellwings. . Without fuch a Covering, the exquifitely fine Texture of the Wings would continually be liable to be torn by the leaft Touch of an harder Subftance, fuch as the Blades of Canes, Corn, or the Branches of Trees. Its Body is fupported by Six Legs ; Each of thefe, near the Extremity, is divided into Three clofe Joints, white, and flat underneath : Thefe are very finely crofs-indented, like the Surface of a File. '" Befides, each Foot ends in a flaarp, fomewhat crooked Point; by which means it ftrongly grafps its Prey. Fiddlers. npHIS Fly, in Shape, Colour, and Number of Legs, much refemJ' bles a Cock-Roch, except that it is fmaller, and longer, in proportion t9 its Bulk. It ^ r ri •i

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.k III Ifland 0/ BARB ADO It is called a Fiddler from the fhrill Noife it makes, when held and fqueezed between the Fingers. It generally flies about in the Evening. I T'he Cuckold-fly. T H I S is of the Beetle-kind, of about half an Inch long, and of a dark-red Colour. The Back and Abdojjzen are covered with a Pair of hard Wings, or rather Covers for its membranaceous Wings, which are large, and of an elegant fine Texture. The Head, Neck, and Abdomen, are clofely ioined together. It is fupported hj Four Legs on each Side ; and flies chiefly in the Dusk of th^ Evening. "Th or Flesh-fly. :\t r THIS is the fame with the common Carrion-fly in England 5 at leaft^ it differs in no material Circumftance. 7y&^ Mason-fly, A \ ^ j'' r is called a Mafon, from the great Quantity of Mire and Morter which it carries into Houfes and elfewhere, wherewith to build its Nefts, which it generally does on the Cielings, or the Roofs. In thefe Nefl:s, which are above an Inch long, they lay Two or Three Eggs ; and then carry in a great Number of young' Spiders ; and afterwards clofe up the Entrance into the Nefl:s with Clay. From each Egg, thus depofited, there is in time hatched a fmall white Maggot, which feeds upon the Spiders, till it comes to its Aurelia-^zt^ : wrap they turn into young Mafons* Bag, or Web, till The Bat-fly, T Worm ; for thi after its ^^r^&-ftate, turns into this Fly, which is about an Inch and a Quarter long. < The Head is guarded with a Pair of Horns, or Feelers, finely indented ^bout Three Quarters of an Inch in Length; Its Two Eyes are large, fpherical, and black. ^ The Back, as well as the Abdomen, which is divided into Six Annuli, IS ot a reddifh-yellow Colour, covered with a foft whitifh Dbwn. It k /'

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* 'the Natural Hiflory of the Book III, *^ It iiatii Two Pair of membranaceous Wings, the upper by -far larger than the under. t,i. • r i From its Mouth it darts a twirling Probojas, with which it lucks the Honey-dew from'moft Flowers, but efpecially from Nightfhade-flowers. Its Legs are Four, Two on each Side. If kept confined in a Box, or otherwife, it turns from a Fly-bat into a long black Worm, fuch as is found in the Earth in Potato-ground. i >. i I'he BuoNAvisTA Chink. THIS is a fmall green fl; green Pods of Buonavijl It is very deftrudive to feveral Kinds of Pulfe. The Pond-fly., n^ H I S is an Inch and an half long, and of different Colours. -*The Head, near the Mouth, is of a light Sea-green. Mouth is provided with Two Pair of Nippers, or ForcipeSy with which it deflroys its Prey. The Eyes, being Two, are very large, prominent, and fhining j and of an oval Form. The Head is fixed to the Body by a, very flender Ligament.' Its Breaft is likewife very prominent, as well as the oppofite Part of the •Back high and convex j the upper Part of which l^Lipports Four narrow .membranaceous Wings. The whole Body is ftrait, about an Inch long, and ends in a forked Tail, which is alternately fpotted with Green and Black. ^ It hath Six Legs, the hindermoft by far the longeft ; the lower Part of each being thickly covered with ftiff Hairs, the Extremity of each Foot being forked, The Wings above-mentioned are narrow, and a full Inch long ; the Texture refembling a Sea-feather, but infinitely finer. ^The PoPE-FLY. T^HIS Infed is better known to the Inhabitants, by the great Deftruftion it caufes in almofl: every fort of Grain, than by its Shape ; for it fpares neither Pulfe nor Grain of any kind, if they have been for any confiderable time gathered in. However^ in general^ they refemble a Wevil in their Make. p 'The Locust, called her e^ the Alh-colouredGRASHOppER> TpHIS is about Two Inches long. Its Eyes are black and oval. The Head is provided with Two hairy Feelers, and is covered, as far as the Back, with an hard unpliable Cowl, ftreaked with Ruffet and Black. Its

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Book III. ipnd of 'B A R B A D O S. J Its Wings ^^re large, in proportion to die Body; and of a grey ifliruffe t Colour. The feody is fupported by Three Pair of Legs ; the hinder, with which he fprings or jumps, are about Two Inches and an half long. The Thighs, which are of a ruffet Colour, finely pohflaedj and ftained with black Lifts, extending lengthways, are of an hexagonal Form ; and the Legs are elegantly ftudded with a great many white fmall Prickles, fet on, like the Teeth of a Saw, alternately. "^This Kind of Graftiopper is generally to be k^n among the Blades of Sugar-canes ; and, when the Guiney Corn is ripe, they feed much upon it. The moft ignorant and fuperftitious of the Inhabitants are very appreheniive of fome approaching Illnefs to the Family, whenever they fly into their Houfes in the Evening, or in the Night. There were bred, or came to the liland, fuch vaft Swarms of thefe in the Year 1734-5. that they deftroyed almoft every green tender Plant. So great was the Deftrudlion that they caufed, efpecially among the PotatoVines, upon whofe Roots the poor People chiefly fubfift, and fuch the Scarcity of Food, occafioned thereby, efpecially in St. Philifs Parifli, that there was a Collection made for the Sufferers thro' the reft of the Ifland. Thefe differ not in their Make from the Locufts that are to be feen in the Repofitories of the Curious. T Ty6^ Green Grashopper. w HIS is fomewhat lefs than the Afli-coloured Gra/hopper already defcribed ; but differs in no other material Circumftance. r • ^ I'he Black-spotted Butterfly. THIS is larger than any hereafter defcribed. Its Wings have a few pale-red and whitifti Spots intermixed with the Black. . • 'I'he Greenish-yellow Butterfly, nP HIS is about Three-quatters of an Inch long. The Back is covered with a foft greenifli Down. The jibdome?t is divided into feveral Annuity or Sedions, tho' fcarce perceivable. Its Ante72nce are about half an Inch long, and its Legs Six in Number. It hath Four very thin membranaceous Wings, covered with a fine yellow Mealinels. This mealy Duft, when viewed thro' a Microfcope, appears to be fo Qu Z The

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26 ^he Natural Hiflory of the Book IIL The Body of this, as well as of the following ones, is decked with a Profufion of Beauty : And all, in the Words of the great Milton^ 'wave their limber Fans -t For Wings^ and fmalleft Lineaments^ exaSi In all the Livries deck'd of Sunimer s Pride^ With Spots of Gold and Purple^ Azure and Green. Should any one impertinently ask, What Ufe thefe are of in the Crean ? it may be anfwered, in the Words of the ingenious Mr. Raj^ tha fiy W ut homimbus fpeBaculo fint '^ at Uhifiranda^ velut tot bracie^^ infe ^uis enim eximiam earum ^is tot coloru7n &" fche7natU7n elega7ttias naturce ipf affii ^/^ ificii penicillo depiSias^ curiofs oculis intuens^ divime artis vefl. "The White Butterfly. *.. L L HIS exaaly refembles the laft defcribed, in every Particular, except its Colour. i hefe are chiefly to be feen flying about Ponds of ftagnated Waters in the moft beaten Roads. r X * "The Dark-red black-spotted Butterfly, n^FIIS is about an Inch long, from the Head to the Tail. Its Antennae are Three-quarters of an Inch long j and its Two Eyes black, round, and flaining. The Wings are of a dirty Red, irregularly impanelled with black Lifts \ and the Margin or Border of each Wing much darker than the reft ; and here-and-there adorned with many white Spots, as well as the Head, Back, and Breaft, The Abdo7nen is of a dark ferrugineous Colour, and compofed of Seven A?2?mli^ 'STl^^ Clinker, or Gully-bellJ *' I HIS is of the Cricket-kind, and derives its Name from the tinkhng A Noife it makes at Night, which much refembles the fhrill Note ol" any mufical Inftmment. This Noife, which is repeated Three or Four times without ceafmg, may, m a ftill Evening, be heard above an Hundred Yards off. But as thefe Creatures live generally in inacceffible GulHes, they are very Mdom, if ever, caught ; and therefore their Shape is known but to verj tew, much lefs the Caufe of fo furprifmg and regular a Note.

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^ Book lit -^^;?^ 0/ BAR BAD OS. I L 7>&^ Long-spotted Fly or Lady-bird^ 'TPHIS Fly exceeds not half an Inch In Length. JL Its Back and Head are finely fpotted with Red : The intermediate Spaces are of a ruflet Colour. There is likewife a fmall red Lady-bird generally to be fccn upon Ochra-leaves. ''T/)e Golden Lady-bird* THIS very beautiful Infecft is very feldom feen. It is about the Bignefs of the laft defcribed, Its Head, Wings, and Feet are, as it were, covered with burnifhed Gold. 7'/)e Cane-fly. THI S is a fmall whitifh Fly, with Two membranaceous Winers. It is chiefly to be feen among thick-planted ripe Canes. I 7%e Corn-fly. npHlS is a fmaller Fly than the laft, and is to be feen hovering over -*Heaps of Guh2ey Corn, when in the Granaries. Its Colour is much the fame as that of the laft-mentioned. / T/)e Muschetto-fly. 'J' HIS derives its Name from M^^, a general Name in the Latm Language for a Fly. Perhaps the Name of Merrj-wmg, applied to another Fly, from the Noife it makes with its Wings, would be more properly apphed to this, if the Acceptation of the Word had not rendered it almoft univerfal, at leaft among EnglT/b Writers. Wevils. THIS is fo commonly found in decayed Corn and Flour in every Part of the World, that it fcarce deferves a particular Defcription. It IS a black fcaly Fly, of near a Quarter of an Inch long. T'he Merry-Wing. h ^ HIS Is a very minute Fly, very troublefome, efpecially in calm Mornings and Evenings, to thofe Inhabitants who live on a fandy Soil near the Sea. Thejr *t

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88 I'he Natural Hiflory of the Book III. They feem to be exadly of the fame Species with the Gnat in England, They fwarm upon the Face and Hands, as well as upon every other Part of the Skin expofed to the Air; and ahuoft in an Inftant dart a fmall Prcbofcis from their Mouths, and penetrate fo deep as to draw Blodd, leaving generally an angry little Tumor behind. As the Wind rifes, they are no more to be feen, except behind^ Doors of Window-fliutters, till the Return of the calm Mornings or Evenings, not being able to ftand againft the Wind that blows in the Day-time. T 0/ REPTILES and INSECTS. HE former are denominated from their creeping or crawling upon their Bellies, either with Feet, as the Caterpillers, or without Feet, as the Snakes and Earth-worms.<" The latter are likewife generally divided into Aquatic and Terreftrial. Thefe, tho' often vile in Appearance, yet all of them, in their feveral Ranks and Stations, proclaim aloud the Wifdom and Power .of their Creator. Their Variety, their Difpofitions, their Sagacity, their Policy, their Induftry, the wonderful Proportion of their Organs, the Delicacy of their Strudure, and a Thoufand other Curiofities, obfervable in every Species,^ are Matter of wonderful DeHght and Pleafure to a curious and inquifitive Genius : But, were we able to examine them in a nearer View ; could we be capable of knowing all the dircd Purpofes of infinite Wifdom in their Creation, in the Relation they bear, and the harmonious Proportion they ftand in, to the univerfal Syftem 3 it would afford us endlefs Matter of Aftonifhment and Surprize, as well as of religious Reverence and Adoration to their omnipotent Creator. Tho' fmall and contem.ptible they appear to us, they are really formed v/ith the moft exquifite Symmetry, the moft dehcate Proportion. An attentive Eye,, affifted with the Ufe of Microfcopes, difcovers in them aftonifhing Marks of Wifdom, arming, cloathing, and accommodating them with all the Inftruments and Faculties neceffary to their Condition. I'he Snake. E have but one Species of the Snake-kind in this Ifland, of which I have not feen above Seven in Seven Years, w F The largeft that I faw was not above Three Feet long. They are not at all hurtful, except to young Pigeons and Poultry, or fmall Birds, Mice, ^^. I cannot here omit a remarkable Inftance of Superftition of a Negro, with regard to one of thofe Snakes. A Man J

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* Book III. IJland ^/BARBADOS. A Man who had killed one of thefe, happened to be afflicted with the Rheumatifm foon after, efpecially in his Arm : Fie then immediately concludedj that it was a Puniftiment upon him for killing the Snake : He perfuaded himfelf, that the different Degrees of Intenfenefs of the Pain he felt in his Arms, were exaffly in proportion to the Pain he gave the Snake. It hath been his Cnftom ever fince, by way of Atonement to feed all the Snakes that come near his Hut, with fome Offals of his Repaft, and Water ; efpecially the latter, which he daily puts in the moft likely Place for them to find. 'The Forty-Legs. r TPH I S takes its Name from the Number of its Feet, being every way -*^ much of the fame Make with what we call in England Mukipes, or Centipes ; but thofe here are far larger, being fometimes Four Inches long. The Back is of a dark Copper^ fcaly and jointed, the feveral Annuli being equal in Number to the oppofite Feet. The Head is guarded with a Pair of hairy Feelers, and a ftrong Forceps : This they can open or extend above a Quarter of an Inch wide, and again clofe it very nimbly together, either to hold its Prey, or annoy its Enemy. The Forty-Legs often lay above an Hundred fmall white Eggs, which are depofited in an Hole in the Ground, generally under a loofe Stone : Round thefe the Female coils herfelf, until they are hatched : If at that time fhe is difturbed, fhe immediately fwallows her Young. The old ones, among other things, feed upon young Cock-Roches and Spiders. ^ The Bite of a Forty-Leg is very painful for at leafl: an Hour, or fometimes a great deal longer. There are fome of thefe Vermin that are flightly tinged with a bluifli Colour; Thefe are fmaller than the above-mentioned, and more poifonous. The Forty-Legs in Surinam are a great deal larger than what are bred in Barbados, Royal Society. T Of this we may fee an Inftance in the Repofitory of the "The Indian-root Caterpiller. HIS Worm feeds upon the Leaves of that Plant which we call here the Indian Root, A It is generally about Two Inches long. Its Head is guarded with Two black foft Horns or Feelers, of about a Quarter of an Inch long. The different Annuli^ or Joints of the Back, are flreaked with yellowifh and whitifh Lifts. The Tail-part hath likewife a black Pair of Feelers, or Horns. .s into a reddifli A a cr n.

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po l^he Natural Hiflory of the Book III. I'he Field Cricket. T^ HIS is about Three-quarters of an Inch long, and of a dark-brown Colour ; the Head and Body clofely joined together. Its Two Eyes are oval and prominent. From under thefe rife Two half-inch long hairy Feelers. The Abdome7t is divided into msiXij AnnuU ; and from its Extremity iffues a Spear of half an Inch long, and on each Side of it Two other fliorter Darts. Its Two upper brown fhining Wings, or rather Coverings, guard Two other membranaceous ones. Its Legs are Six in Number, Three on a Side ; the hinder Pair being ftrong, and of a great Length, in proportion to the reft : The fmaller Parts of this Pair are thickly and regularly ftudded with fmall fharp Teeth, like thofe of a Saw. The Breaft and Thighs are of a dark-yellowifh Colour. What is moft remarkable in this kind of Cricket is, that it not only produces its own Likenefs from Eggs ; but that it gives Birth alfo to another Animal, quite different in its Nature from the Cricket itfelf; For the fmall wriggling Worms, which are about Seven or Eight Inches long, and often to be feen in ftanding Water, and by the Vulgar fuppofed to be animated Horfehair, and therefore called Horfehair Snakes ; thefe are evidently propagated by Crickets ; fmce they are found in them, and have been often obferved to be voided by them (when fit to fhift for themfelves) thro' the Anus: Thefe afterwards are cherifhed by the Heat of the Sun and grow to the Length above-mentioned, and I fuppofe lay Eggs before they die, Thefe may be, and, in all Probability, are, picked up by the Crickets whofe Bodies prove a proper Nidus for them : By this very furprifing foftering Care is this Species preferved.' Thefe Crickets are generally to be met with under loofe Stones, and Clods of Earth ; and are much coveted by Poultry of every Kind. The Ash-coloured, or Sickly Cricket. F •y HIS is near One-third larger, cfpecially in the Length of its Legs, "^ than either the Field, or the Houfe-Cricket ; and, if purfued, fecures itlel t more by running, than by taking ftarting Leaps, which is always the Refuge of the Two other Sorts ; tho' this, if in Danger, faves itfelf at laft by the fame Method. This Kind makes a difagreeable fcreaking Noife ; and fome of the Inhabitants are fo weak as to believe, that, when their unwelcome Sound is Heard in their Houfes, it is an Omen of Death to fome of the Family. 2^3

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Book III. I/land of BARB AD OS, The House-Cricket. / ring nr HI S differs very little, if any thing, in Sliape, from the Field-Cricket ^ akeady defcnbed, except that the Noife it makes is loud and purWhen they make this Noife, I have obferved their Pofition to be ftandmg very upright upon their Legs, with their Wings extended archwife, the middle Part fwelling from their Bodies, and their Extremities touchmg them near the lower Part of the Abdomen. J 7^^ Fly-Catcher. T^ HIS is of the Spider-kind, differing from it chiefly by a Pair of i^^r.-*dpesy which rife from each Side of the Neck. It hath Four Legs on each Side. They jump or dart forward often full Ten Inches, to feizc the Flies which are their Prey. The Hou T HI S is a dark-brown hairy Spider, having a large Head joined to the Abdomen by a flender Ligament. The Body is fupported by Eight Legs j the Two foremoft extending above Two Inches alunder. Near the Mouth come out Two ftort, tho' ftrong. Feelers. It carries its Young in a white fmall Bag under its Belly Tho' the Sight of thefe Spiders is not agreeable ; yet are they ferviceable m Houfes, by deftroying Cock-Roches, which are both offenfive by their Smell, and deftruffive to Viduals, Cloaths, and Books. 'The Field-Spider. 'P H I S very much refembles thofe of the fame Species in E,igland. Th Spider. 'P H I S in the Number of its Legs, and the Make of its Forceps, re. fenibles the Italian Tarantula ; differing chiefly in the Number of its Eyes, which in the latter are Eight, in the former Two. The Bite of this is very near as painful as the Stinging of the Surinam Scorpion, caufmg an immediate Swelling, with acute throbbing Pain which continues for feveral Hours without Intermiffion, J The Golden Spider. 'J' H I S is called the Golden Spider, from the bright Gold-colour Lifts, with which its Legs, and fome Part of the Body, are marked. 5)1 It

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92 -f J The Natural Hiflory of the III It fplns its Web in the open Air, generally, among the Branches of the large American Torch-thiftle. l^he Slender-legg'd Spider. HIS fpins a Web, and very much refembles that fo often found T among Hay or Stubble-ground in England^ \n Harveft-time. T^he Potato-Louse. THIS is a fmall reddilh Infed, fcarce perceptible to the naked Eye: Yet, when viewed thro' a Microfcope, it is evident, that its external and internal Parts, whether we confider the Difpofition of its Limbs, or the curious inv/ard Fabric of its Heart, Lungs, Veins, and Arteries, are as regular, and as perfeft, as the largcft Elephant, or the huge Leviathan. ribtis facilis officina fequacl materia fuit : in pis tarn pan qtm ratio, quanta vis^ qimm inexplicabilis perfeStio (5) / /f J J CORN-WOR TH I S is a fhort thick Worm, preying upon the Pith in the Infide of the Stalk, and by this means rendering the Ear at the Top very imperfed, having fcarce any Grain on it. / X "The Earth-Worm. 'Y'HIS differs, at leaft to the naked Eye, in nothing from the EarthWorms in England. "The Ground-Ass, or the Lion-Pismire. :! I S is of the Colour of an Hog-Loufe ; in Length about a Quarter of an Inch. The Back is convex, not ill refembling the Back of a Tortoife in Miniature ; but fomewhat longer in proportion. The Head is fmall and long, when compared to the Bulk of the Body. This is fupported by Six Legs, the Pair next the Shoulder being the longeft. What is moft remarkable in this Animal, is Its Motion, which is always retrograde ; and this not by walking, but by quick Starts, Springing back. Thefe generally live in very loofe Duft or Sand, under Logs of Wood of fuch Coverings : In thefe Places they artfully make a circular Hole of (5) Pliny, Lib. XL Cap. 11. about

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'^ Book III IJland of BARBADOS. about an Inch Diameter, of a Funnel-fliape ; in the Centre of which this Creature lies unfeen, watchfully waiting for his Prey, As foon as an Ant, or fometimes a Fly, walks upon or near the cir cular Brink of this Hole, the Lion-Pifmire either fees his Prey or more probably hath Notice of it, by fome Grains of Duft falling to the Centre • He then, by a fudden Start, at the Bottom, undermines the dufty Sides of the whole Fabric : Then the Prey upon the Brink falls precipitately, with the falJmg Duft of this fheking Funnel, into the Centre : Whilft the Prey IS thus immerfed in Duft, he ceafes his Work, and devours it : and foon after repairs to his Cell, and lies concealed Hke a Spider in the Centre of It, till the next Prey calls him forth to repeat his unhofpitable Talents i his Animal is well defcribed in SpeSiack de la Nature. n V The Wood-Ants. H E WoodAnts are the moft pernicious of all others, being fo very deftruftive to Timber of moft forts, that, if not prevented they will m a kw Years time deftroy the whole Roof of an Houfe, efpecil ally if it be foft Timber. ., ^ They have likewife caufed great Loffes to Shopkeepers, by boring Holes thro whole Bales of Linen, as well as Woolen Cloths. r '^% ^e very expeditious in building their Nefts, which are long hollow Tubes, the Outfide being an Incruftation of a gritty clayey Matter. The Method of deftroying them is, to make a fmall Hole near the upper End of the Nefts, and pour into it a little Arfenic, which generally kills thofe_ that are prefent ; and the reft, that follow, eat up the Carcafes ot the llain, and almoft inftantly fweU, burft, and die. J. "The Great-headed Ant. "^p H E Head of this (which is joined to the Body by a fmall Ligature) is very large, m proportion to the Bulk of the Body. It no-way differs from the laft defcribed, but by theBignefs of its Head, Irom whence it derived its Name. "The Small Red Ant. T. H I S is a very fmall Ant : Yet the Part of the Skin it bites continues painful for near Four Hours afterwards. If thefe are likewife killed, and rubbed upon theSkin, they raife aBlifter. The Bodies of thefe Ants are thickly covered with fharp fine-pointed Briitles, imperceptible to the naked Eye. I'he Stinging Ant. 'T^H IS appears to be the fame with what is to be k^n in England in -^ the Summer Seafon in moft Pafture-Lands. Bb The

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/ H y The Natural Hijlory of the Book IE The Horse-Ant. 1 n T Ft IS is the largeft-fized Ant, and Is often to be met with both within and without Doors : and hath nothing peculiar in its Make J b Quahties The Ant \ "npHlS Is a fmall whltlfh Ant, very fond of Sugar, or any fweet and oily Liquids ; and confequently very troublefome to good HoufeWives, it being difficult to keep them from every kind of Viduals. The Winged Ant. L T^HO' there are fcarce any Nefts of Ants of any Kind but h^-ve fome SheAnts ; amom yet, when we fpeak of thefe as diftlndt from the feveral other already defcribed, we may obferve, that they generally live under-ground, and are Weather. Tthe Land-Snail. 'Tp H E S E are generally of an A£h-colour, or black : The latter is rather a Diftinftlon of Age than Species. Thefe are chiefly to be feen among gf^'eii Herbage, efpecially PotatoVines. "The Spiral Sn 'T^HESE are not above half an Inch long, very {lender, andihai|)pointed. The Colour of the Shell is of a rufTet Grey. They are often found cleaving to the Bark of large Cotton-trees. L The Dung-Snail. H E S E are very fmall, and refemble, in Appearance, a flat crafty Wart, or fome fuch Excrefcence. The fmall Part is very foft, when compared to any other of the Snailkind. ' The Infide likewlfe is of a tough, reddifh, Jelly-like Confiftence. They ftick to, feed upon, and thus deftroy, feveral Kinds of fucculeat Vines, efpecially the GranadilloVines. J. AV I N G now taken a View of the BruteAnimal Part of the Creation, let us turn our Thoughts to the great Author of all Beings ; and gratefully acknowlege his Bounty, In making Man the Lord over WIfdom one of them, fupports and governs them. And

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Book III. IJland of BARBADOS. And left, upon Comparifon with their fuppofed Meannefs, we fhould think too highly of our own Knowlege ; left our fcanty Portion of Wit. dom and Power make us vain ; let us make a Comparifon between ourfelves and our Creator. After this Survey we fliall find very Uttle Occafion of Boafting ; we fliall find, that our greateft Knowlege is but fplendid Ignorance ; and that we fee no farther than the Surface and the Outfide of Things, as direfted by the general Laws of Motion. All beyond this is mere Guefswork, Conjedure, and Uncertainty. Let the wifeft Man go out of himfelf, and furvey the immenfe Extent of Nature, the Variety of its Works, the Regularity of its Motions, and the Harmony of Providence j and let him ferioufly pronounce, how little is his real Knowlege, how great his Ignorance Let him take a Profpeft of the vaft Dimenfions of thofe aftonifhing Heaps of Matter, that lie within the Reach of his Senfes : Let him confider the ftupendous Motion that agitates the vaft Mafs of Matter, and whirls about the numberlefs Bodies, that take their Courfes thro' the unmeafurable Space ; and carry his Thoughts into that Immenfity, where Imagination itfelf can find no Limits : Let him confider that infinite Duration, which is before and after him ; and, finding his own Life included in it, let him obferve the Uttle Scantling of it, that falls to his Share. It is juft to acknowlege (what hath been undefignedly omitted), that fome of the above Rcfledions, as well as Part of thofe in Page 88. are owing to the learned Mr. Hildrop\ Works. \ I'he End of the Third Book P5 ^ THE

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f* \ <' 4 i J ^ F h ^ i ^ L if*. ^ ; '^ a *H *^ ^ Jt' r*'i*--

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NATURAL HISTORY Ifland O F T H E of BARBADOS. ._ *rBOOK IV. ** Of VEGETABLES. N treating of thefe ufeful and beautiful Parts of the Creation, I fliall take particular Notice of fuch as are curious in their Make, or ufeful in their Phyfical, or other remarkable Qualities: And when I am obliged to differ materially, or circumftantially, from other Writers, it is with no other View but that of difcovering the Truth ; and after the joint laborious Inquiries of the paft, as well as the prefent Age, into fo extenfive a Subjed, we may ftill lay with Seneca^ Multa venientis avi populus ignota nobis fciet. Multafeculis tunc^ cum memoria noflri exoleverity refervantur\ i, e, Many are thofe ** Secrets which are hid inObfcurity from the prefent Age, and are referred to blefs Pofterity with their Difcoveries." In our Inquiries into this Part of the Creation, we fliall be entertained ^ with an agreeable Mixture of Knowlege, Profit, and Pleafure. We fliall C c fi^id ^

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I,' The Natural Hiflory of the Defign Book IV, Elegancy, and Wiffind every Individual replete ..with unerrin^ donij each contributinp; ta. the Harmony of the Whole. The Eye is ravifhed with ^beholdte^ the majeftic HeiguL, huu agreeable Verdure, of fome ; whilft the Flowers of others delight us with their Pro^ fufion of Sweets, and varied Beauties : And, (6) could our Eyes attain to the Sight of the admirable Texture of the Parts, on which the fpe~ cific DliFerence in Plants depends, what an amazing and beautiful Scene of inimitable Embroidery fliould we behold! What Variety of mafterly' Strokes of Machinery! What evident Marks of confummate Wifdom fliould we be entertained with The little that we do know of their Make and Stnidure is furprifing !" (C C£ What Quali capable, by jbxpaniionj to give room to the excrementitious Juices to fly off, and by Contradion to force back their rernaining unconcofted Parts to be purified by a farther Circulation and Secretion How greatly are we at a Lofs, even to conjeflure, much more explain, how an Aloe-Plant, and a Sugar-Cane, tho' planted in the fame Tub of Earth, and abforbing the fame common Juices ; yet each fliall concofl: thefe Juices, fo as to render them fbitable to their reipedive Natures • the one producing a very fweet, the other the moft bitter of Juices If from the amazing StruSure, and inimitable Beauty, of Plants, we explore their other Ufes, we ihall find their great Author's Bounty, not, like the Patriarch's, confined to one Bleffing, but as boundlefs as the World ; Thefe are not only pleafant to the Eye, but good for Food. The Delicacy and Poignancy of their Fruits, the Fragrancy of their Gums, J Quali Wifdom ' IF As this Treatife, with regard to Vegetables, is confined within a narrow Sphere, it cannot be fuppofed to comprife Rules for at regular Syfteni of Botany ; nor doth it therefore require me to defcend tQ every ij^mute Clrcumftance neceffary, and expeded only to be expatiated upon jby thof^ who undertake to write Botanic Syftems. '-<::. The Method I have taken, in clafTing the Plants by their fruits, is, I hope, the fliorteft and plaineft, and confequently the eafieft to fee underftood by common Readers. It would perhaps feem an invidious Task every-where to particularize many of thofe leffer Circumftances, wherein I am obliged to differ from other Authors. Mr. Miller, of Chelfea, as far as he hath feen our Weh Weft. Judgmen Tuft choofe Specimens from perfedt Plants, growing In fuch a Situation as they naturally love : For the fame Species of Plants, which would flourifh, and (6) Vids Dr. Hak\ Veget. Stat. grow ^

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Book IV. ipnd
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I p \ n^ J^ 4 \ \ ^ j' IF T^ fb

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Book IV. ^he Natural Hifiory^ &c. ioi O/NuciFE ROUS TREES, SHRUBS, ^/^^ PLANTS. THO' thefe are not generally efteeraed among the moft delicious Fruits ; yet the Kernels of many of them are not only agreeable to the Tafte, but valuable alfo for the great Quantity of Oil they afford ; nor are they defigned for the Ufe of Mali only, but likewife to be the moft common, and almoft thepecuIiarFoodof a certain Species of(i) Animals. Thofe who think meanly of this, or any Part of the Creation, are generally Men of narrow Conceptions, and fcanty Knowlege, which barely skims over the Surface of Things Hence arifes that partial Judgment, which would confine the Good-nefs of God, as the '\2) Syrians of old would his Power, within narrow and local Bounds. Thefe (hort-fighted Obfervers confider not, that the Chain, of which^ they fee but a Part, reached to the Ends of the Earth. when we extend our Views, and give our Inquiries a greater Scope," the more will our Ideas be inlarged, when we find the common Father of All, every-where prefent, pouring forth his Bleffings with a bountiful Profufion ; then every diftinct Part, which we had before inadvertently looked upon as mean and trivial, will gradually rife in our Efteem^ and appear in its native Beauty* For Inftance ; Let an Inhabitant of a Northern Climate, where thefe Fruits we are treating of, ai'e not very inviting to the Palate, trace the different Species of this kind into other Regions, growing under the benign Influence of a warmer Sun ; let him examine the various Species which the lofty Palms alone produce, and he will find them no lefs numerous than ufeful, till he comes at laft to the moft remarkable and valuable of all others, the Coco-nut. When he fees and confiders the admirable Texture of the Whole of this furprifing Fruit, efpecially the thick husky Covering with which it is cafed, • to prevent the piercing Rays of the Sun from abforbing the limpid Water it contains, fo grateful to Man, and fo neceffary to give Rife and Nourilliment to its delicious Kernel ; This, and its Growth, will appear ftill more wonderful, as well as more replete with Wifdom and Goodnefs ; efpecially when he confiders the Situation of thofe Countries, and the Soil wherein they generally grow ; and how great will his Admiration be, when he finds, that Providence hath ordained thefe to thrive and flouriih in the moft barren and fandy Defarts of Ethiopia^ Jfrka, and Arabia^ where Nature denies almoft every other Herbage Let us likewife (at leaft in Imagination) follow our Fellow-Creatures the Inhabitants of thefe Climates ; let us fanfy we view the fainting Traveller paffmg thro' thefe inhofpitable Defarts, where neither a grateful Verdure chearsthe Eye, nor the Murmurs of even a diftant Stream the Ear; view him hungry and thirfty, doubting, murmuring, and almoft faying aloud with the Ifraelites, Can God fi7td Food in the Wilder7iefs f when, on a fudden, fome iiitervening Hillock is paft, which forbad the pleafing Profpeft ; a (i) Squirrels. {1)1 Kings xx. 23. P d thick

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ro2 ^e JStatural Hiflory Book I\ thick Gtove of thefe Trees appears. The Beauty of their gtateful Verdure, tlieir waving FoHage, and the cool Shade which they promife, infufe frefla Vio-our ; a few Moments more he is recHned under its welcome Shade, and there refrefhed with the moft delightful Viands thefe Nuts afford. Thus, as in the refpeftive Stages of human Life, Providence hath provided pieafures and Enjoyments fuitable to every diftinft Period of it; fo in every Climate the fame unerring Hand hath adapted to each, by Weight and Meafure, its proper pecuHar Advantages, generally far overbalancing its Inconv'enlencies. If Egypt is denied the refrefhing Rains ; the Nile fupplies that feeming Want: UPaUJlitte Is not bleffed with fuch a providential Alotment; yet its Hills and Valleys coploufly drink of the Dew of Heaven : The Hills, by their high Sum.mits, arreft the paffing Clouds, and caufe tliem to defcend on the Valleys in the former and the latter Rain. Where dreary Defarts deny Support to the generous Horfe, there the laborious Carnel, patient of great Labour, and long Thirft, is adapted by J Regions. In fliort, were we capable of taking a general Survey of the Face of Nature, we fliould find, that Providence hath enriched every Climate with Bleffings peculiar to itfelf, and adapted to the Neceffities of its Inhabitants; and for this Reafon we may conclude, that the Abundance of Coco Nuttrees found in this Illand, and fuch Places, was gracloufly calculated and intended for the Comfort and Refrefhment of thofe whom Providence hath there placed. "The Date-tree. THIS Tree grows to a confiderable Height, often Fifty Feet. Its Leaves much refemble thofe of the Cabbage-tree ; but their Pinn^ are harder, and aculeated. The Branches, as well as the Spines or middle Ribs of the Leaves, are guarded with Three-inch-long triangular Prickles, always chanelled on one Side. The ftraiteft and youngeft Branches which grow near the Summit of the Tree, are much ufed here by the Jcws^ upon their Feaft of the Tabernacles : Thefe they ufually gild, and adorn them with various Flowers, and then carry them in Proceffion to their Synagogue. Whether this is the fame kind of Palm that was ufed by ih.<^Ifraelites^ we know not, or whether it is not here fuccedaneoufly ufed as bearing the neareft Refemblance to it. The Branches are fet onfquammatim^ leaving, when they fall, very deep Impreffions upon the Trunk. The Dates grow in large fpiral Clufters, about the Bignefs and Shape of a middling Olive ; but never come to the Perfeftion here of being eatable; for they have a very auftere and acerb Tafte; yet the Swine feed upon them greedily : This crude rough Acidity of the Fruit fhews, that they have a great deal of effential Salts, THE

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Book IV. 'the Natural Hijlory of, &c. 103 ^s; :^L^*:5;^":^EGJ^i^r%^^* THE ^ F Coco Nut-tree ; Laf. Palma Nucifera. jB^j£) 1 u r 1 ^^^fl^B_jj* ^pjf j^£ f^JSj^^. ^^ iT^^^ L-.^^^ ^^ m IS 1 /^j^^ 5jOjE ?^F^&-C\ /^n !>%< b^^ to its Nature. HO' every Part of this Tree, either in its Make or Ufe, is ftamped with fo many evident Signatures of Divine Wifdom, as to make it juftly the Objeft of our Admiration ; yet, in defcribing it, we ought not to add to it (as mofl Writers litiesj and Excellencies foreign Qu For as the Light of the Sun cannot be heightened by that of a Candle, fo neither can the perfed: Works of God require the Aid of our weak, much lefs falfe Embellifhments, to fet them forth in a ftronger and more advantageous Light, left he fhould fay unto us, Who requireth this Thinoat your Hand ? As the ingenious Mr. Ray was one of the firft Perfons of Charader who was impofed upon, moft other Authors fmce his Time, depending upon his Defcription, have reprefented this Tree as adually capable of, and really producing, Bread, Water, Wine, Vinegar, Brandy, Oil, Honey, Cups, Spoons, Befoms, Mafts, Nails, Needles, and Covering for Houfes. But, fince many of thefe Qualities are merely chimerical, I fhall endea. vour to defcribe this Tree according to its outward Appearance, and real Properties. Its Roots are many, very much refembling, in Colour, Make, Texture, and Extent, thofe of the Cabbage-tree, being very fmall, and many in Number. The Trunk of this likewife fomewhat refembles the former, having near the Top, furrounding the Heart of the Tree, many Flakes of that eatable Cabbage-like Subftance. But the Body of this Tree hath no Claim to a juft Proportion in Growth, being often near as thick at Thirty Feet high, as it is within Three Feet from the Ground ; and it generally leans one Way or another, occafioned, in fome meafure, by the great Weight of Nuts it fuftains whilft young, which determines the bending of the Tree, which Side D d foever

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Ji^ 104"the Natural Hifiory of the Book IV. foever they projed ; and, if likewlfe they grow upon the Brink of a Pond, the Trunk of fuch Trees always bend towards the Water. Some of them grow to Sixty Feet high. . ; The Bark is more deeply pitted by the Feftigia of the fallen-oiF "Branches, than that of the Cabbage-tree. i' There is likewife this very remarkable Difference : That this keeps its /^fli-colour Bark to the very Place where the Branches begin ; the other, as hereafter defcribed, always difcovers the Space of near Five Feet, of a beautiful deep Green, between the Afh-coloured Bark, and the Part where the Branches begin : The lowermoft Branches likewife in a Cabbage-tree expand almoft horizontally ; whereas thofe of a Coco Nut-tree bend more wavingly and irregular. The Branches come to their full Growth in about Three Months, and are, in a flourifhing Tree, about Twenty-eight in Number. Every Branch hath a great Number of pennated Leaves : Thefe are of different Size, the largeft always near the Trunk, the reft growing lefs towards the Extremity of the Branches : The former are often near Three Feet long, and refemble, in their Make, thofe of the Cabbage-tree, except that they want thofe ftrong Thread-like Filaments, which the Cabbageleaves afford. And as the Branches of the Coco Nut-tree are often about Fifteen Feet long, they would be liable to be broken down by high Winds, efpecially thofe that are prefled upon by the Weight of the large Bunches of Coco Nuts. Indulgent Nature hath therefore fortified and wrapped the Footitalks of every Branch with a ftrong, clofe-woven, reticulated, web-like Subftance arifing: from the Tree. What far the r remar kabl This Subftance is of a reddifh Colour. e in this is, that it becomes pecuHarly adapted to the different Growth of the Branches ; for, as thefe increafe in their Growth, by eafy gentle Degrees, this Web, tho' of a very ftrong Conftftence, is yet fo elaftic and pliable, that, growing with the Branch, it never prevents its Growth by too clofe a Bandage, nor fuffers it to be liable to the Injuries of Storms by too lax a Stricture. \ This Contrivance of Nature {if I may ufe fo low an Expreffion) is not only curious in its web-like Make ; but, being often a Foot and an half long, may, where extreme Neceffity calls for fuch Shifts, be capable of being fewed together, and made into a kind of Garment, which would at leaft keep off the Heat of the Sun : And this is the moft probable Pretenfion the Writers of Wonders have, to fay that this Tree affords Cloaths. As to its being fit for Mafts of Veffels ; this is a moft prepofterous Sup^ pofition, or rather an Impofition upon Mankind ; for, without being well verfed in Sea Affkirs, every one is fenfible, that a Maft of any Veffel ought to be, and always is, made tapering from the Bottom to the Top ; whereas this Tree is, for the moft part, almoft as thick at the fetting on pf the Leaves, as it is near the Ground : And as the Infide is foft and • •-' ^ ,, pithy,

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Book IV. IJland c/ B A R B AD O S. 105 pithy, and Its whole Strength confifting in the outward ftrong ligneous Part, which is not above Two Inches thick ; this prevents the Poffibility of its being made tapering by the Ufe of Tools. as this. Quali 1 But to return to my Subjed : This Tree, if planted in a rich fandy Soil, will begin to bear Fruit in the Fourth or Fifth Year j fometiines not fo foon, if the Soil and Situation are not indulgent to it. Its firft Appearance of bearing Fruit is a ligneous, pod-like^ husky Spathuy of about Two Feet long, and about Three Inches broad, narrower towards its Footftalk than towards its Extremity. The, Whole is of a brownifli Green on the Outfide, and white within : It comes to its full Growth in Three Months from its firft AppearanceAs the Foot-ftalk is continued thro' tlais husky Spatha^ there it wreaths and twines itfelf, as well as its partitional furrounding Twigs, into many Bendings. When the J^^^;5^ comes to its Maturity, it burfts in the Middle on the upper Side ; and the inclofed Twigs appear thick-fet with palewhite Flowers, inclinable to a yellow Colour. Each of thefe are compofed of Three rigid fharp-pointed Leaves. From the Middle of thefe rife Six yellow Stamitia^ with a fhort whitifh Style, cleft at the Top into Three Parts : Thefe Flowers have a weak faint Smell ; and, in about Five Days from their firft Appearance, they fall to the Ground : Then the Nuts, by degrees^ are formed : Thefe, when young, are round, and their Shell of a foft Texture. The outward husky Covering is of a fomewhat reddifii Colour ; each Nut round the Foot-ftalk being clofely embraced with the Calyx^ which is compofed of many ftifF roundifh Leaves, which clofely ftick to the Nut, like fo many laminated Scales. The Cavity in the Nut, whilft thus young, is narrow and fmall, growing both larger and rounder with Age. i Each Nut, on the Part next the Stem, hath in it Three Holes clofely flopped J one of thefe being both wider, and more eafily penetrated, than the reft : From this, when the Nut is planted, rifes the Germen, or young Tree : Thro' thefe Holes likewife is the Water copioufly dlftilled into the Nut from the Roots of the Tree. This is evident from the Saltnefs of the Liquor in thefe Nuts, if the Tree grows near a brackifh Spring ; but, if they are planted in an agreeable Soil, the more fandy and loofe, the better. The Water in young Nuts, from fuch Trees, is very limpid, and extremely fweet, When the Kernel begins to grow, it incrufts the Infide of the Nut in a bluifh jelly-Hke Subftance : As this grows harder, the inclofed Liquid becomes fomewhat acid, but ftill of a fweetifti agreeable Tafte, and far more palatable than any Mixture of thefe Two Ingredients from the beft of Artifts. ^ .4 k t As

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io6 'the Natifral Hiftory of the Book IV. ^ As the Nut ripens, the Kernel becomes ftill more foHd ; and lines at laft the whole Infide of the Nut for above a Quarter of an Inch thick as white as Snow, and of the Flavour of an Almond. Thefe Nuts, when' at their full Growth, which they generally are in Six Months after their firft Appearance, contain from half a Pint to fometimes above a Pint of the above-mentioned Liquor. In about Three Months after the Kernel is in its full Perfeftion, the husky or outward Coat of the Nut, in a fliort time, begins to be fomewhat {hriveled ; and the Nut foon after falls from the Tree. This' happens in the Tenth Month from its firft Appearance. In this Stage the whole Fruit is of a blunt oblong Shape, near, and often above, a Foot in Length, and otherwife proportionable : I'he Outfide is likewife bluntly marked in a triangular manner : The husky Part, which covers the Nut, for near an Inch thick, is of a pale Brown on the Surface, and of a reddiOi Colour within. This confifts of fo, many ftrong ftringy Filaments running lengthwife, that it is not without Difficulty ieparated from the Nut ; but when taken off, and cleared of the intermixed pithy Subftance, It then refembles coarfe Oakum • and it is fo called by moft Avithors, and may perhaps, in Cafes of Neceffity, be ufed as fuch. The Nut likev/ife, when cleared of its husky Tegument, appears ilightly marked on the Outfide with Three Sutures^ the whole Nut being of a blackifh Colour. If thefe are planted, the Kernel will, fome time after, firft bud, and ramify, and fill the whole Cavity of the Nut ; and then flioot out at the above-mentioned Hole In the Top, and foon appear above-ground in Two narrow Leaves. As the Kernels of moft Nuts are more or lefs pregnant with Oil, it will perhaps be here worth obferving, that tho' Oils in general, when in the common Way extraded, are not mifcible with Water; yet they may be brought to mingle with it in the Form of Cream. For Inftance ; Let any Quantity of Coco Nut-kernel be pounded in a Mortar, with a Quantity of Water fufficient to penetrate into the broken Interftlces of the Kernel : This, being again mixed with a great Quantity of Water, and fuffered to fettle for a few Hours, will neceffary contract a white creamy Subftance upon the Surface, in which Form the Oil then appears. Its Parts, by being thus pounded, and abforbed In the branny Subftance of the Kernel, and mixt with Water, are rendered too fmall to cohere, and to form vifible Drops. On the other hand, if the Oil, drawn from the Kernel by Expreffion, be fliaken ever fo much In Water, it will almoft inftantaneoufty colled its Separated Parts, and form itfelf into Its genuine tenacious oily Drops : Which Oil, when firft exprefi'ed, is very mild, and of an infipid Tafte i but in a few Days, unlefs kept very cool, which Is fcarce pradicable In hot Climates, it will become rancid. The

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h ? r ^ ^' .^

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\ t / '' 9^mJ4: fJ^^: f> \ -"\ J^

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Book IV. Ijland of BARBADOS. i The great Bocrhaave obfcrves, that the frefh Oil of Sweet-Almoilds, taken in a Lin^iuSy proves an excellent Emollient, where the Fauces are grown rough with an Angiita : And yet, if the fame fhould be taken by a Perfon in Health, after it had flood in the Heat of a Summer's Day, it would corrode and inflame them. Add to this, that the fweeter thefe Oils are, when frefli, the more acrid they are, when they are old and rancid/ Hence the fame ingenious Author obfervesj how abominable are Almonds, Walnuts, and Piftach-nuts, when they once become rancid ; and how eafily they will caufe an A7tgma^ and raife a Fever, by inflameing the Throat, Oefophagus, Stomach, and Inteflines; :. How inexcufable therefore mufl thofe Pradlitioners in Phyflc here be^ who for the above Purpofes ufe the rancid Oil of Almonds, when they might every Day extrad: the beft and fweetefl of Oils from the Coco JSTut-kernel _\ . ^ . From this fceming Digreflion, concerning the Nature of Oils, we may proceed to obferve, that, if the Liqlior in the Nut be firfl fermented, I make no doubt of its producing, upon Diflillation, a ftrong Spirit ; anii Jikewife, if a confiderable. Quantity of it were boiled for a long time, it would probably yield a fmall Quantity of Sugan This Tree is delineated in Plate III. T'he Barren Coco Nut-tre£:. T^HIS differs very little, if any thing, in its Shape and Texture, jfroni -that already defcribed : However, this never bears any Nuts, but an husky Subftance only, refembling in Shape a common Coco Nut. Thefe are fo rare, that I never faw any'myfelf ; but had them defcribed by a Perfon of great Veracity. b ** .> '* Va 4 "Th M J n nr^HIS Tree is by fome Authors called ll^e Palmeto Royal. And well -*may it be called Royal from its great Height, majeftic Appearance, and Beauty of its waving Foliage : Neither the tall Ctd2.x^ oi Lebanon y nor any of the Trees of the Foreft, are equal to it in Height, Beauty, or Proportion ; fo that it claims among Vegetables that Superiority which Virgil gives to Rome^ among the Cities of Italy : Eel. L T Verm7t hac tantiim alias inter caput extulit urheSy Quantum lenta foleiit i?tter vibu7^na cuprejji, L 1. Imperial Rome o'er other Cities tow'rs, As lofty Cyprefs humble Shrubs o'erpow'rs^ ^ Its Roots are innumerable, refembling' fo many round Thongs, ot a regular determinate Bignefs, feldom exceeding the Size of the little Finger, E e but t

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io8 The Natural Hiflory of the Boot IV. but of a great Length, penetrating fome Yards Into tlie Earth, eipecially where the Soil is fandy, or otherwife porous : Thefe Roots are of a darkbrown Colour. .. '. The Trunk jets or bulges out a little near the Ground, by which means it hath the becoming Appearance of a fubftantial Bafls to fupport its towering Height. It is generally as ftrait as an Arrow ; and fcarce can a Pillar of the niceft Order in Architefture be more regular, Specially when it is of about Thirty Years Growth : And as there is a natural involuntary Pleafure arifmg from the Harmony of juft geometrical Proportions, ftrikeing the Eye of the moft unskilful and ignorant Beholder, it is not ftranj^-e that thefe Trees are univerfally admired. ^Writers of Wonders reprefent fome of them to be Three hundred Feet in Height : However, the higheft in this, where they are more numerous than in any of our neighbouring Illands, is but an Hundred and Thirty-fovir Feet. The Trunk of this, near the Earth, is about Seven Feet in Circumference, the whole Body growing tapering to the Top. The Subftance of the Tree, for about Two or Three Inches of the Outfide, but within the Bark, is of a blackifh Colour, and extremely hard and folid : This furrounds the inner Subftance, which is a whitifh Pith intermixt with fome fmall Veins of a more ligneous Texture. The Colour of the Bark much refembles that of an Afli-tree, and is Very faintly clouded, at about the Diftance of every Four or Five Inchesj with the Veftigia of the fallen-ofF Branches : This Colour of the Bark continues till within about Twenty-five or Thirty Feet of the Extremity of the Tree : There it alters at once from an Afh-colour to a beautiful deep Sea-green, and continues to be of that Colour to the Top. ^About Five Feet from the Beginning of the green Part upwards, the Trunk. IS flirrounded with its numerous Branches in acircular Manner • all the lowermoft fpreading horizontally with great Regularity and the Extremities of many of the higher Branches bend wavingly downwards, like io many Plumes of Feathers. Thefe Branches, when full-grown, are Twenty Feet long, more or lefs: and are thicldy fet on the Trunk alternately, rifing gradually fuperior one to another : Their broad curved Sockets fo furround the Trunk, that the Sight of It, whilft among thefe, is loft, which again appears among the very uppermoft Branches, and is there inveloped in an upright green conic bpire, which beautifully terminates its great Height ^ ^ ^ The above-xnentioned Branches are fomewhat round underneath, and nightly grooved on the upper Side : They are likewife decorated with a very great Number of green pennated Leaves: Some of thefe are near IhreeFeet long, and an Inch and an half broad, growing narrower towards S'Thc 111: "'"^"^ '-""'"^ '" Ungthiw.-ds th. Ex.e. b As

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Book IV. tjland V B A R B A D O S. f<5p As there are many Thoufand Leaves upon one Tree, every Branch bearing many Scores upon it, and every Leaf being fet at a fmall and equal Diftance from one another, the Beauty of fuch a regular lofty Group of waving Foliage, fufceptible of Motion by the moft gentle Gale of Wind is not to be defcribed. F The middle Rib, in each Leaf, is ftrong and prominent, fupporting \t on the under Side, the upper appearing fmooth and fhining. The pithy Part of the Leaf being fcraped off, the infide Texture appears to be fo many longitudinal thread-like Filaments. Thefe, being fpun in the fahie manner as they do Hemp, or Flax, ^re ufed in making Cordage of every Kind, as well as Fifliing-nets which are efteemed ftronger than thofe ufually made from any other Material of the like Nature. . It is obferved, thaf the loWermoft Branch, for the Time beings drops monthly from the Tree, carrying with it an exfoh'ated circular Lamm of the green Part of the Tree, from the Setting on of the Branches to the Afh-colour Part, which is about Five Feet in Length, and, in Breadth the Circumference of the Tree at that Part. This, and the Branch to which it is always fixed, fall together. When the Lofs of this lower Leaf happens, then the green conic Spire which iffues from among the Centre of the uppermoft Branches, and rifel fuperior to all, partially burfts, and thrufts from its Side a young Branch, which continues the uppermoft, till another of the lowermoft Branches drop off : Then the Spire, the common Parent of all the Branches, fends forth again another Branch, fuperior in Situation to the laft : So that the annual Lofs of the Branches below is providentially fupplied in this manner by thofe above. • The green-coloured Part of the Tree, already mentioned, diifers from the Afh-coloured Part no lefs in Subftance than Colour : The former, in^ ftead of being extremely hard on the Outfide, and pithy within, is compofed of fo many Coats, or feparate Lamina, of a tough bark-like Subftance of near a Quarter of an Inch thick, and fo very clofely wrapped together, that they jointly compofe and conftitute that green Part of the Tree. As the lowermoft, as well as each other higher Branch, when they fuccefllvely grow to be old, is joined by the broad Socket of its Foot-ftalk to this outward Coat, Lamen, or Folding, it is obfervable, that fome time before the lowermoft Branch is intirely withered, this green circular Coat, which to the Eye appeared fome Days before to be a folid Part of the Tree, flits open lengthwife, from the Setting on of the Branches to the Afhcoloured Part beneath, being about Five Feet in Length, and the Circumference of the Tree in Breadth ; and, peeling oif, it falls with the falling Branch to which it is joined by many ftrong Cartilages, leaving the next flicceeding Coat, to appear for a time as a conftituent Part of the Tree, till a fucceeding withered Branch carries this off likewife. Having -i

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no ^he Natural Hiftory of the :feook IV. r Having felled one of thefe ftately Trees, to examine its Make, Texture, ^c. I obferved, that the feveral Exfoliations of its green Part were equal in Number to the Branches. The Firft, Second, Third, and fometimes the Fourth of thefe Lamina are green on the Outfide, and perfedly white within : All the remaining inner Coats, or Foldings, are of a bright Lemon-colour without, and white within. When thefe very tough husky Exfoliations are taken off, what is called the Cabbage, lies in many thin, fnow-white, brittle Flakes; in Tafte fomething like the Kernel of an Almond, but fwceter : It is fo full of Oil, that a curious Obferver may fee feveral very fmall Cells abounding with it. Thefe Flakes are called, from fome Refemblance, when boiled, the Cabbage, which then eats fomewhat fweet and agreeable : Yet I have always tliought it the Height of Extravagancy and Luxury to fell fo ftately "a Tree, which would be an Ornament to the moft magnificent Palace in Europe^ to gratify the Tafte of any Epicure, eipecially as there is but a very fmall Part of it eatable. What is called the Cabbage-flower, grows from that Part of the Tree where the Afh-colourcd Trunk joins the green Part already defcribed. Its firft Appearance is a green husky Spatha^ growing to above Twenty Inches long, and about Four broad ; the Infide being full of foiall white ftringy Filaments, full of alternate protuberant Knobs, the fmallcft of thefe refcmbling a Fringe of coarfe white Thread knotted : Thefe are numerous, and take their Rife from lar^-cr Footftalks and thefe very Footftalks likewife are all united to different Parts of the larp-e Parentfialk of all. ^ ^ As this husky Spatha Is opened, while thus young, the farinaceous yellow Seed, in Embryo, refembling fine Saw-duft, is very plentifully difperfed among thefe ftringy Filaments, which anfwer the Ufe o{ Apices in other more regular Flowers : Thefe Filaments, being cleared of this Duft, are pickled, and efteemed among the beft Pickles, either ^icrope. : But if this Spat/ja is not cut down and opened, whilft thus youn It be fuffered to continue on the Tree till it grows ripe and burfts3 then the Inclofed Part, which, whilft young and tender. Is fit for pickling, will, by that time, have acquired an additional Hardnefs, become fo after hp-neous, '^ ^ '^ here or m g;if on ^row bufhy, confifting of very many fmall Leaves, and in time produce a great Number of fmall oval thin-fhelled Nuts, about the Bignefs of unhuskcd Coffee-berries : Thefe, being planted, produce young Cabbagetrees. "^ The greateft Number of thefe Trees uncultivated, are I Wood m that Part of the Iftand called Scotland', at Mr. Holders, and at Codrmgton s-College ; and by far the longeft planted Walk is at Mr. BalU^ Lltate, commonly called Farmer s Plantation in &. Thomass Pariili: aer in this Ifland, r In Mrs. Alkyni% But the moft regular in Growth, Proportion, and Beauty, eit] \ --

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= -J* ri ^' 'f .r > L C '. J\ J -^ ^*-,s^L ^ ^ 1 1 ^ i "^ J ^ > f J \^TV

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L \ :ft£ite.JS\ ^.t^. zr I Uk V ^ ^^v%^^/^/ ^. &. (^/i,ef>, ale^tn. S^-jiu^iy. J

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Book IV, tjlaiid BARBAD ni Illand, or perhaps in the World, is a fmall Walk at the Eftate of Mrs Warre Jofeph It is obferved, that when thefe ftately Trees are felled, either intentionally, or by the Violence of the Wind, there breeds in the Pith of the Trunk a kind of Worms, or Grubs, about the Size and Length of the firft Joints of the Thumbs : Thefe are eaten, and efteemed great Delicacies, by the French oi the neighbouring Iflands. Thefe Trees grow on the Tops of Hills, as well as in Valleys. hard outfide Part makes very durable Laths for Houfes. This. beautiful Tree is deHneated in Plate IV. , L / J "The fmall Cabbage-tree. Th^ ^ np H I S, even at its greateft Growth, is far lefs than the Cabbage-tree' already defcribed, having likewife the green Part, near the Top, much lefs m proportion to its Bulk, than the former; and the Statha likewife IS fomewhat redder. As the Trunks of thefe Trees are fo convenient to make long and durable Pipes, or Gutters, to convey Water, and other Liquids, from one' Building to another, there are fcarce any of them left grovvinff in the whole Ifland. ^ 7^^ Palm Oil-tree ; Z^/. Palm a Oleosa, / 'h nn HIS grows about Fifty Feet high. -*• Its Roots much refemble thofe of the Cabbage, or Coco Nut-tree. The Trunk is lefs tapering than the former, but generally ftraiter than the latter : It is likewife very deeply marked with the Fefiigia of the fallen-ofi Branches, tho' not fo fcaly and rough as that of the Date-tree. Its Branches fomewhat refemble thofe of the Cabbage, or Coco Nuttree ; but they are far more ragged, lefs uniform, fhorter, and lefs verdant, than either the Cabbage, or Coco Nut-leaves. ^ '^ The Spine or middle Rib of each Leaf is likewife thickly ftudded with lliarp-pomted Prickles, each Two Inches long. ^ The firft Appearance of the Fruit is an husky Spatha. When this opcns,it expofes to view a great many fmall Nuts : Thefe are covered with an husky Tegument of a yellowifli Colour, containing in its many InterfticeSj when ripe, a confiderable Quantity of fine fweet Oil, which the Slaves, after the whole Fruit is firft roafted in the Embers, greedily fuck. When this outward husky Covering is taken off, the Nut appears • This is of a fomewhat blunt conic Shape, the Infide being filled with a white Kernel, of the Nature of the Coco Nut-kind, but in Tafte not fo agreeable. The Nut, being bored and emptied of its Kernel, is much worn by feve-ral Nations of Negroes, by way of Ornament, about their Necks. F f •.... Itf

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I1'2 i "the Natural Htftory of th Book 1?. .k • tt Is evident from the Hiftory of Mofes, that this Tree was of great lvalue and Efteem among the Ifraelites. This appears from the feveral Portraitures of it m the Temple, even in the moftfacred Place. Several Cities in PaLeJiine were likewife called the Cmes of the Pahn^ irees, efpecially Jericho : And Deborah, when fhe judged IJrael, dwelt under the Palm-tree, between Ramah and Bethel, -^ ^ Thefe, and the Olive-trees, were of greatEfteem ; becauie they aliorded fucha Quantity of Oil, which was of fo much Service, both in facred and common Ufe. i As to the Firft, the Nature of my Subjeft will neither require, or even permit me to fearch into the Origin of that Cuftom. As to the latter, we have nuir.berlefs Inftances to prove, that thejmj mixed it with Flour, to make, at leaft, their unleavened Bread ; efpecially from the Anfvver of the Widow-woman of Sarepta to the Prophet Elijah, when he defired her, in the time of Famine, to fupply him with a Cake of Bread : Jnd Jhefaid, Js the Lord thy God liveth, I have not a Cake, hut an Handful of Meal in a Barrel, and a little Oil in a Crtfe : And, behold, I ajn gatherinz two Sticks, that I may go in and drefs it for me, and my Son, that w5 12. may eat it, and die, i Kings xvu. Neither was this the only domeftic Ufe of Oil among the antientj^m; for they made great Ufe of it to anoint their Bodies, which is plain from feveral Expreffions of the Royal Pfalmifl: ; efpecially when he fays. That he fiall be anointed njoith frefi Oil : And in another Place, after enumerating the feveral temporal Bleffings received from God, he mentions that of Oil to make his Face to pine. The Inhabitants of Jfrica, where Palm Oil-trees abundantly grow, are living Comments upon thefe Two Parts of Scripture \ for, to this bay, they mix Oil with their boiled Rice, and other Vidluals ; and anoint their Bodies with It, to fupple and relax their ftifFened Nerves^ as well as to prevent a too plentiful Perfpiratlon. This is fo univerfal a Cuftom, that all the Slaves, brou2;ht now from any Part oi Africa to this, or any of our neighbouring Iflands, are always, before they are brought to Market, anointed all over with Palm Oil, which, for that Purpofe, is brought from Guiney : Being thus anointed, their Skins appear fleek and fhining. This Cuftom, however, was not peculiar, even In the carlieft Ages, to the fews alone j for the Perfans, Greeks, and Romans, at certain Seafons, efpecially at their Feafts, anointed themfelves with Oil, which was mixed, with Spices. Alexander, when he took the Tent of Darius^ found there feveral Caskets of Ointments and Perfumes. 4 Many Inftances from Ho7ner make It evident, that It was then in Ufe : And the warlike Spartans, at the Streights of Thermopyl^, are reprefented combing their anointed Hair, in Sight of the numerous Army of Xerxes. And that it was a Cuftom among the Romans^ will appear from the following PafTages: Tyrrhma

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Book IV. IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. 113 Tyrrhena Regum progenies^ tihi Non ante ve ^ Cumfore^ M^cenaSy rofc PreJTa iuis balanus capillis Jamdudum apud me ejl, HoR. Carm. L. III. Oa. zg, Dum licet ^ JlJJyriaque nardo Potamus unSii* Hor. Carm. L, IL Od. 1 1. v Thefe are fome, out of the many Inftances, fuch as perfufus liquidh odoribus — nitidi capilli — with many others too tedious to be mentioned. Nor was this Cuftom intirely difufed, nor the Ointment thought of little Value, even fo late as the time of our Saviour : For, when a Woman in Bethany poured on his Head a Box full of precious Ointment, there were fome who had Indignation among themfelves, and faid, Why ^as this Wafie of the Ointme?tt made f for it might have been fold for more than Three hundred Pence, ^ From what hath been faid, with regard to the Cnftom of Anointln among the Jews^ I would not be underftood to mean, that Palm Oil alone was made ufe of 5 for the Oil of Olives is what is chiefly mentioned in Scripture : However, there are fome Circumflances, which may induce us to believe, that both thefe Oils were promifcuoufly made ufe of. This, I think, is very probable, from the feveral Places of Scripture, where the Growth of the Palm-trees is made a Part of the Bleflings of the Land of Canaan ; and the very natural, eafy Method of coming at their Oil makes it more than probable. Thefe Trees are very fcarce in this Ifland, except at Drax s-Hall^ the Ellate of Henry Drax^ Efq; and even there they exceed not Twelve in Number. ' Among thefe, there is one young Tree about Twenty-five Feet high, vt^hich is remarkably incorporated within a growing Fig-tree ; nor was the following manner of its being thus inveloped, lefs furprifing. About Nine Years ago, a ripe Fig, carried by Birds, or otherwife, was "dropped among the upper Branches of the Palm-tree : As thefe are large and fcooping near the Parent Trunk, and being fet on in Scales, they rentitv of Duft. and rotten Leaves, as well as Qu Jundtu ble of retaining both. The Fig, depofited in fuch an earthy moifl: Place, foon germinated, and took Root ; and, in a'fhort time, its new-produced Roots, which extended themfelves among the Sockets of the neighbouring Branches, meeting there with the like Nourifhment, vigoroufly grew, and furrounded the Top of the Trunk in feveral cartilaginous Thongs : From thence, growing downwards, thefe innumerable fibrous pliable Roots fwathed the Tree with many Bandages, which in time reached the Earth, and took frefh Roots: By this means their Growth was foon greatlj

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r\ 114. 7%e Natural Htftory of tie Book 1?. greatly advanced, by the Nourifhment tliey received from thence. This ntw Supply gave likewife Birth to many Branches of the Fig-tree, rifmg from the Top, and growing among the natural Branches of the Palmtree ; the Roots of the other, in the mean time, continuing daily to fur^ round the Trunk of the Palm,_ which, at prefent, being almoft .intirely cafed or covered by the Fig-tree, Is deprived of a great Part of its former Nourifhment ; arid the i^w remaining Branches are far from bein^ in' a tTifiving CondiSon^ ; •, ;. ... ^ „. T^ s,->'S(). oh [cur d •..„By creeping Ivy.^ -or by fordid Mofs^ ._ Some lordly Palace^ or ftupendous Fane^ Magnificent in Ruin lies. — ^ . GloverV Leonid, *^ / ^Hor f am s -Hilly Parifh of St, Peter\ 3 where, in like manner, a Fig, depofited among the Branches of a Cherry-tree, hath grown. aridVill, in a few Years, intirelr cafe, if not deftroy it? r ' ./-.-..^ 7 < A -w^ ir The Ma ^ 4 M > ^ nn H I S IS of the Palm-kind, having a great many ftrong Roots, like ,-^ thofe of the Cabbage-tree, or Coco Nut-tree. . •; The Trunk is very ftrait," round, and tapering ; This is almoft intirely covered with black Prickles, of about the LengtK, and very near as fine, as a large Stocking-needle. . ^ ' ^ The Leaves much refemble thofe of a Coco Nut, except that the middle Spine .of this is always thickly covered with Prickles, and the Branches always ending in a Square, rather than a fliarp Point, as if dieir Tops were fheared or clipped oiF. : The Infide of the Body of the Tree afFords what we have, m the Coco Nut-tree, called Cabbage. From among the Branches rifes up an hard falcated Spatha, or Sheath, much^ refembhng thut of a r^ri^ Scimlter : This is near Three Feet long ; and, when it opens, it difcovers a round cartilaginous ftronoTvvi^, which ruhs the^whole Length of the Pod, a great many thin-flielled Nuts, and iomewhat bigger than a Sloe. ^ -" r ^* K^ The Sand-box Tree; X^aHu *T^H IS grows to a large Tree, often to Forty Feet tighj yielding a .-^ bhade ot as many Feet Diameter. ' '^ n.n?ftTrt^ ^^f^ '' ^,^ ;#t-coloured Bark, is thickly befet with •^Ln no ^1 T '' '?'^ '^' ^'^^^h^^' ^l^*^d ^ith fbining-green £n?1nd tI T' Tt ^ "^^^™^^^ly •• Thefe are about Fom^Inches tjki^F We'r'^" ^'^ ^^ ^' ^^^ ^^^^ bears both Mai. The

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t A ^/a^^. 'J> y^.. //4 I ; f\ />Z7V3^f ^y^//, e/-\./i T o/'y 6ra/ter, wjerw ^ \ K

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) r J^/aJcS?y/^^ / / ^/?r^l~^/ ~^/^A/?a nt^/? J \ / ^.

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/ Book IV. JJland BARBADOS. b The former are of a blunt conic Shape, having their Surface thickly ftudded with reddifh Knobs, each incricled with Two Rows of farinaceous whitifh Duft ; The Female Flowers are funnel-like Tubes, of a red Colour, whofe thick Labia are much deflected back, and cut into Fifteen or Sixteen blunt Segments. This is fucceeded by a very flat round Fruit, deeply fegmented ihto^ ;eherally, as many regular Diviflons, or feparate Cells, each mclbfmg a .at Kernel. Thefe, if eaten, operate by way of Purge ; an Emetic. 1 tho' it fometimes proves This Tree is of vdry quick Growth, fefpecially if planted in a fliady Place, and near a Spring of Water. The Trunk of one of thefe, planted in fuch a Situation, may be now feen at the Eftate of Richard EJlwick^ Efq; and is not above Fifteen Years old, which girts round Nine Feet within Two Feet of the Earth • and its Top hath feveral Branches proportionably large. There is another at the Eftate of the Reverend Mr. Reynold FoJIer^ tlie Diameter of whofe Shade is above Sixty Feet. And, tho' I have taken the Dimenflons of thefe Trees myfelf 5 yet, as their Stature is fo very extraordinary even here, I thought it proper to mention the Place of their Growth, that the Curious may^ if they pleafe, be further fatisfied in this Particular :. And I am well affured, that, if any one takes the fame Trouble I have done, he will find their Dimenfions confiderably larger than I have reprefented them. There is another Tree of this kind, near the Manfion-houfe in the Leeward Eftate oi George Hannay^ Efq; in J/.L^c^'s Parifh, which is Httk inferior to the above-mentioned, in its great Growth. Thefe Trees are called Sand-boxes^ fromthe Ufe that is made of their Fruit to that Purpofe. This is delineated in Plate V. r 7y&^ Physic-nut-tree ; Z^/. Ricinoides. TH I S is generally a knotty fhrubby Tree, feldom growing atove Twelve Feet high. The Extremities of the Branches are covered with Leaves, fomewhat round, having their Edges waved, as well as flightly indented. The Flowers are of a green herbaceous Kind, and pentape talons, fet on in an Umbel-fafhion round the Extremities of the Branches, but efpe* cially the main Stalks. Thefe are fucceeded by as many Nuts, whofe outward Tegument is green and husky : This, being peeled off, difcovers the Nut, whofe Shell is black, and eafily cracked : This contains an Almond-like Kernel, divided into Two Parts : Between this Separation lie Two milk-white thin membranaceous Leaves, eafily feparable from each other : Thefe have not only G g a bare tl^ ,• t

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ii5 The Natural Hiflory of the Book If. i r , k'bare Refemblance of perfedl Leaves, but have, in particular, eveiyPart, the Stalk, the middle Rib, and tranfverfe ones, as vifible as any Leaf V/hatfoever. The Kernel is not only eatable, but hath a delicious Almond-tafte. ; It is the common Opinion, that the purgative or emetic Quality lies in theTwo membranaceous Leaves, that jfeparate the Kernel into Two Partitions : But this is a Miftake ; for I have, as well as others, tried it both ways 5 and its phyfical Effefts were, with or without thefe, always the 'fame. The Leaves, and tender Buds, emit a milky Juice, which either by Inflation, or being rubbed on the Palm of the Hand, turns to the Conliftence of a Salve, which is looked upon to be very good to heal any green Wound. The Nut likewife, when ripe, pounded and boiled, will yield a conu"derable Quantity of Oil : A Spoonful of this fwallowed, whilft frefh, is looked upon to be a good Purge, to abate Swellings in Dropfical Difbrders. / the French Physic-nut \ Lat. Ricinoides. T .^^^ i^^Axuiij wAn^ii ^luwo LU UC J.ClirCCL Ill^ll, ^ The^ main Stalk divides into very few Branches, and Is covered Mth a greyifti white Bark. The Leaves ftand upon Six-inch Footftalks, furrounding the main Stalk, generally near the Top, in an irregular Order : Thefe are very ^eeply digitated : Each Digit, by the feveral Subdivifions that grow from Its Sides, in Shape, much refembles a Branch of the palmed Hart's-horn. The Flowers ': grow In Bunches, Umbel-fafhion, upon the Extremities of each large Stalk, very much refembling, at their firft Appearance, a Bunch of red Coral : Thefe afterwards open Into fmall five-leaved purpie Flowers, and are fucceeded by Nuts, which refemble the common Phyhc-nuts m Shape and Qualities. j This is delineated in Plate VL rhe C L T~^HIS grows to be a large Tree, with a dark-coloured Bark. : -Its Leaves are of a pale Green, about Two Inches long, one broad -and fliarp-pointed ; their Edges being irregularly ferrated. The_ Flowers are fucceeded by a Fruit as big as a Damafcene : Thefe, "Jhi fla?SeeT ^ "'"'^ ^^^^ "'' ^""^^ ^'''^' difcovering a Wood. „,^,,. ^'^ n 0^ i-u

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Book IV. IJland BARBADOS. ii6 T Calabajh the one fmall and round, containing (when the pulpy Subftance, and numerous white flattifli Seeds, are fcooped out) from One to Four Pints 3 the oval Sort often containing Fifteen Pints. The Tree bearing the former is taller^ and hath a lefTer Leaf, aiid is alfo of a paler Colour, than the latter. The Bark of both Trees is rough and fhagged, if not fulcous in fome old Trees ; and what fome Authors call Capfular Leaves, are only a Separation in the green husky Part of the Calyx ; for this Tegument feems indeed to have been defigned by Nature only to protedl the Fruit, whilft tender, and in its infant State; and when that hath expanded itfelf ort the Infide, and is become ftrong enough to bear the Air, it then burfts its Way thro' the former Covering. ^ This Tree, when full-grown, is about Eighteen Laches Diameter ; and, in Height, from Fifteen to Twenty-five Feet ; dividing generally into many fpiral Branches, ending in a blunt Point. The Flower is a large yellow Cup, freckled with Red, a Piftil rifmg from the Middle. The &^;/?/W^ take their Rife from the Side of the Petals. The Fruit is often fo large as to contain (when cleared of its Seed, and white foft Pulp, with which it is filled) Two or Three Quarts, efpecially thofe which grow of a blunt oval Shape ; but the' found fort are much fmaller. Each make very convenient Drinking-cups, and are ferviceable to many other Ufes 7>6^ Gall-tree, iven A S there are very few, if any, of thefe Trees, left utideftroyed i J^^ Ifland, I am obliged to reprefent it from the Defcription of it me by a Perfon of equal Knowlege in Plants, and Integrity in defcribing them. •., This Tree feldom rifes above Twelve Feet high, covered with Leaves of the fame Make with, but fomewhat longer than, thofe of the baftard Lig?tum Vitie. The Trunk, which is covered with a whitifli Bark, foon divides into. very many bufliy Branches : The Extremities of thefe bear many fmall bluifh Flowers in Groups, which are fucceeded by numerous Berries, or Galls hanging on fhort Footftalks: Thefe are about the Bignefs of a Sloe/ of an Afli-colour on the Outfide, and' black within. This, with the Pods of Achafce, boiled together, makes good Ink. 7J&^ Negro Oil-bush L^/. Palm a Christi. M P T^HIS flirubby Plant is diftinguifhed into the red and white Sort. A The Oil, extracted from the Berries of the Red, is lefs rank than/ that of the other ; and is fometimes made ufe of by feveral Nations of. Negroes in their Soups. The k h

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ii8 I'he Natural Htftory of the Book IV. The Trunk of this Shrub, which often grows to above Five Feet high, is ftrong, and clofely jointed. The firft-mcntioned hath a reddifh, and the other a greenifh Stalk ; both o-enerally clouded over with a glaucous Mealinefs. The Leaves are many, furrounding the main Stalks, as well as the Branches (efpecially towards the Top) : Thefe are very large, often above Twenty Inches Diameter, being cut into feveral, feldom lefs than Eight, fliarp-pointed Divilions : They are fupported upon Footftalks of about Thirteen Inches long, centring in almoft the Middle of the Leaf, The Flowers, which furround the Summits of the main Stalks, for about Seven Inches in Length, firfl appear in the Form of fmall green Capful^^ of a blunt conic Shape, which foon divide into Five iharp^ pointed green Leaves ; and by defledling towards the Footftalk, difcover innumerable fmall, pale, yellow, ftamineous Flowers, tipped with Apices. Thefe Flowers, at firft, are fucceeded by greenlfh Berries, thick-fet with harmlefs Spimd^ : As they grow riper, thefe drop almoft intlrely ojfF, and the foft brownifh Husk of the Nut is difcovered. This is of a triangular Shape, divided into Three Parts, touching one another at Right Angles, and compofing one Body, flightly rimmed with a brownifh Fur, the Nut ftanding upon a pendulous bluifh Footftalk. When the outward Skin is taken oiF, it difcovers a fpotted Kernel. Thefe are fo oily, that Ten Pints of them, being bruifed, and then boiled, afford a Pint of Oil. ; This Plant, or rather Shrub, thrives beft In a fandy Soil, near the Sea ; and as the Heat in fuch Places is intenfe, from the very ftrong Reflexion of the Sun from the Sand, I am of Opinion, that Nature intended it fuch a Situation, to ferve (as it were) inftead of an Alembic, to force up to the Extremities of the Branches, where" the Berries are, fuch a -great Quantity of OIL The Black N T covered with a Bark 7 ,''* The fmaller Branches are thickly cloathed with feveral Pairs of pennated Leaves : Thefe are Four Inches long, and an Inch and an half broad, fmooth-edged and ftiarp-polnted. The Flowers are fucceeded by a round Snuff"-coloured Fruit, fomewhat bigger than a large Cherry, or rather of the Make of the fmall round white Plumb In England. The outward Subftance is tough, and very gummy : This, when ripe, feparates from the Nut within, which is black and round. When this dark-red flielly Covering is broken, It difcovers a white bitterifh Kernel. t .. If the outward Husk, which is no thicker than a Crown-piece, Is put m Water, it will raife a Lather much fooner and ftronger, than an equal Quantity of any Soap would do, j-fj^

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Book IV. ijland
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'^ .^ T. 1 A f! .? ^ J '^^ i r fcrf r^ a H A n--^ --t Fl :„i *: y n^^ *^K 'j^'Ai^-'jTtijj^ :\. I'" "i \ -' ^' V ^ y X hJV^ ^""^ ^ i^''^ ^r i -t r v ^^-^ ^ .'^^ ,„ rr f^ -n/ ** ;-^l*J,i. Jl Jit 4' 4 H ^* t ^ J

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L NATURAL HISTORY O F T H E Ifland — T5! of BARBADOS. ^ +!* BOOK V. 0/ TREES, SHRUB S,^;?^ PLANTS, of the YoiAi-e^^oyj^ Kind. r*-' Y Pomiferous Fmits, I would be underftood to mean all of the Apple-kindj Rich as have a thick fle£hy Subftance, inclofing many Seeds. It is obfervable, that where the Climates begin to be too hot for the Growth of fuch Apples as are produced in fome Northern, and all temperate Climates ; there the gradual Chain is progreflively carried on, and the delicious ^;^^i//V Fruits begin to take place, fuch as the Pine-apples, Shaddock s. Forbidden Fruits, and Oranges. It is alfo worthy our Notice, that mofl of our Summer Fruits, efpecially in hot Countries, tho' delicate in their Tafte, have a great Mixture of a latent Acid in them^ which is neceffary for the Prefcrvation of Health t^ *^ in

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-* ,f 4-^1 '-f T -w. T 122 ^e Natural Hiftory of the Book V. ih not Climates. And as moft kinds of fuch Fruits are belt adapted to qualify by their Coolnefs the Heat of the Body in Summer Seafons ^ fo we find, that they grow, and are in Plenty, in Winter Countries, only at fuch times as they are moft wanted : But as the Climates within the Tropics have, almoft without Exception, a continual Summer, fo the fame Divine Hand hath provided for the Wants of thofe Places, by bountifully fupplying them with a conftant Series of various frefh Fruits of this kind. ^j^sat^. 7y&
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r Book V. tjland of BARBADOS. 123 this Inftance, and the Rain very heavy, the formerj by violently tofling and beatinothe tendei* Buds and Leaves againfl one another, bruifed them ; by which means, the milky poifonous Juice iffucd out in great Plenty, and waflied off from the Leaves, with the Drops of Rain, upon the Perfon fheltering under the Shade. From thefe Remarks upon the Miftakes of others, I proceed to give the beft Defcription I am able of this Tree, both with regard to its outward Appearance, and its real Qualities. The firft thing that is to be obferved, is, that it is of a very quick Growth, and feldom or never found growing to any Perfedion, but in loofe fandy Soil, near the Sea, or other Water. Its Roots are ftrong and numerous. The Trunk of a full-grown Tree is, generally fpeaking, from Two Feet and an half to Three Feet Diameter, branching, moft commonly, from Three to Fifteen Feet high from the Ground. The Heart, which is very fmall, in ptroportion to the Bulk of the Tree, is very hard and folid, of a pale Yellow, with a greenifli Caft, interfperfed with fmall blackifh Veins, the Grain fmooth, and the Wood durable ; the Bark of a fleek whitifh Grey, the Branches many in Number, and full of thick, fmooth, fliining Leaves. There are here and there, among the Branches, long pendulous Katkins, which are produced at remote Diftances from the Embryo's. It bears a Fruit much of the fame Make as the round fort of Crabapples, which we have in England '-^ and both, when ripe, have the fame fragrant Smell. The Pulp of thefe Manchaneelapples exceeds not, in Breadth, one Seventh of an Inch, the Infide being an hard ftony Kernel, deeply and irregularly fulcated ; in which are included the Crab-like Seeds. The Juice of the Apple is of the fame Colour and Quality, as that of the Leaves. But however ftrong the Poifon really is at fome Seafons, and at certain Growths of thefe Apples ; yet I have known a Woman, big with Child, who longed for them, to have eaten of them, without any apparent bad Effed ; However, I cannot fay, that the Fragrancy of their Smell, or their tempting Looks, have induced others to try and follow her Example by fo dangerous an Experiment. If fome of this crude milky ]uice falls upon even an Horfe, the Hair, from the Part affeded, foon falls off, and the Skin rifes up in Blifters, which will require a long time to heal. One Inftance of its Malignancy happened about Two Years ago in Speights-Town : A certain Slave, conceiving herfelf injurioufly treated, poured into her Matter's Chocolate about a Spoonful of this Juice : Immediately after he had fwallowed it, he felt a violent Burning in his Throat I i and ^ •

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^ 12^ ^he Natural Hiflory of the Book V. and Stomack ; and, fufpeaing he was poifoned, he ftrove, and with good Succefs, to vomit; and, having taken after this feafonable Difcharge, a regular Emetic, his Stomach was, in a great meafure, fuddenly cleanfed of the Poifon, tho' it coft him a long time to perfedl the Cure. I am Hkewife of Opinion, that the Vehicle, in which it was conveyed, contributed not a little to prevent its otherwife very ill, if not fatal EfFefts; for, as moft Oils are Antidotes againft Poifon, the Chocolate, being rich of the Nut, might be fo very oily, that the poifonous Salts were fheathed or blunted in that Vehicle. It hath been alfo obferved, that Fifh, as the Barracuda^ and others, which eat thefe Apples, dropped caflially into the Sea, are often found dead in the WaQi of the Water ; and, if taken, whilfl: alive, and eaten, often prove poifonous ; and even the large white Crab, that burrows in the Sand, is not, if near thefe Trees, to be made ufe of for Food. I {hall conclude the Delcription of this Tree with a remarkable Obfervatlon, generally found to be true ; which is, that where-ever a Manchaneeltree grows, there is found a White-wood, or a Fig-tree, near it ; the Juice of either of the latter being an infallible Antidote againft the Poifon of the former. Salt Water is no lefs efficacious ; and as thefe always grow up by the Sea-fide, this Remedy is near at hand. .Formerly no one dared to cut down thefe Trees, without firft having made a large Fire round them, in order to burn the Bark, and dry up the Spry and Juices that fly from them in cutting : But now naked Negroes venture to cut them down green, only ufing the Caution of previoufly rubbing their whole Bodies with Lime-juice, which prevents the Juice from corroding or ulcerating their Skins. Bruifmg and maftiing the tender Leaves and Boughs, in Fifh-ponds, hath often been likewife a roguifli Pradice of taking and deftroying Fifh; for the Fifh very foon after will grow flupid, float, with their Bellies upwards, on the Top of the Water, and often die. 7^/6^ Shaddock-tree ; jL^A Aurantium Fructu Maximo Indi^ Orientalis. T^H E Tree, bearing the large white Shaddock, hath manyftrong Roots; -*• When full-grown, it is often above Sixteen Feet high, divided near the Top into many ftrong Branches, cloathed with numerous blunt.pomted Leaves, of about Four Inches long, and near Three in Breadth, of a deep Green above,, and pale underneath j refembling, in their Make, that of a four Orange. • '^ j"" ^^T^l'' ""'^ ^'^^ '^^ '^"g^' furrounding numerous Stamma, Jjpp ed with Apices. ' Thefe are fucceeded by the Fruit, fomewhat in the Shape of a Pear ; but tar larger, and fomewhat rounder. ~ The Gutfide Skin is yellowilh and fmooth, • This e

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Book \r jpn'd of B A R B A D S. 125 dock y from whom it derives its Name. ajl~lndies^ by Captairi ShudT T^he Lejfer Shaddock-tree. HIS is about the Bignefs of a China Orange-tree ; the Leaves dif-^ fering in this only, that they are not above Two Inches and an half long, and about an Inch and an half broad. The Flowers are monopetalous, deeply fegmented into Five feemin white Petals, furrounding a great many Stamina^ tipped with apices* The Fruit is diftinguifhcd into the red and white Sort, each larger than either an Orange, or a Forbidden Fruit j and is juftly efteemed to have a fine delicious Tafte. F 'The Wild Shaddock; commonly called^ The Large Lime-tree. nn HIS grows fomewhat larger than an Orange-tree ; tho' the Leaves *of this, as well as of all other Trees of this Clafs, differ very little in their Shape ; and the Difference in their Flowers is hardly perceptible. . This is by far the largeft Fruit in the Iflandj growing often to be Twenty Inches in Circumference. The feveral rough Indentings and Itnobs on Its Outlide, as well as the internal Make and Tafte of its Juice, determine it to be rather of the Lemon, than either of the Shaddock or Lime-kind. I have known near half a Pint of four Juice fqueezed out of one of thefe Fruits. This ferves to fupply the Want of Limes or Lemons in making Punch. T u The Sour Orange-tree ; Lat. Aurantium. r FIIS grows in a rich Soil, to the Height of about Seventeen Feet. Its Roots are ftrong, deeply penetrating into the Earth. Its Branches are numerous, efpecially towards the Extremity of the Tree ; and are cloathed with fharp-pointed fmooth Leaves, of a deep Green above, and fomewhat pale ;underneath. Thefe are about Three Inches long, and near Two broadj fupported -by an Heart-like Footftalk, an Inch in Length. The Bark of the Trunk is generally of a dirty-grey Colour, and of the fmalleft Branches, towards the Top, of a deep Green. Its numerous white Flowers are monapetalous, divided into Five Sections, fo deep, that they refemble pentapetalous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by the Fruit, which is too well known to require a Defcription. ^ If V

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126 i^he Natural Hiflo'ry of the Book V. If tliefe Fruits are not gathered when ripe, thofe which drop not ofF, will feemingly wither upon the Trees ; yet thefe will revive, flourifh,. and be again, as it were, ripe, at the ufual Seafon in the following Year. I have feen an Inftance of this kind in the Eftate of the Honourable Colonel yohn Maycocli^ in St. Lucys Parifh. '"^' ' The larger Branches of this Tree are, in common with all Orange, Lemon, Shaddock, Forbidden Fruit-trees, and Lime-trees, fl:udd.ed with many iharp ftrong Prickles. The China Orange-tree. jj ^HIS Tree, either in regard to its Roots or Size, Difpofitlon or Make Jof its Leaves, difFers very little, if any thing, from the four Orangetree dready defcribed, unlefs that its Leaves have an Heart-like Appendix joined to them, ferving as Footftalks : Thefe are fomewhat narrower, or fharper pointed, than in the former. The Flowers are of the fame kind as thofe of the four Orange already defcribed, except that thefe are alfo lefs, and the Petals not fo thick or flefhy. th T^ H I S Fruit, I think, ought rather to be called the Sour Forbidden - Fruit ', for in every Circumftance (except in the Sournefs of its Juice) it refembles that Fruit ^ but it is much lefs than the eatable Forbidden Fruit, The Golden Orange-tree. b h I npHIS Tree differs not in either its Trunk, Leaves, or Flowers, from -that already defcribed. It bears a large fine Orange, of a deep Yellow within ; from whence it derives the Name of a Golden Orano-e. This Fruit is neither of the Seville or China kind, the' it partakes of both, having the Sweetnefs of the China mixt with the agreeable Bitternels and Flavour of the Seville Orange. rhe^v T ( ^i^? ^l^^ ''^'"'^^'' *' Shaddock in every material Circumftance. The Fruit nearly reprefents, in its Make, that of the leffer Shadfam?afS"'/?. '?.'",'' ^^^^ ^"^^^d juicy F./a./^ being much the eiteemed a very defirable or delicious Repaft. Tie V*

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;;

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\ I -//^;7 P. /oy ,1 \ V / f -^^iretc^ -/-j^i \ I 1 ( \ I\ \

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BookV. Ifland
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12 e Natural Hiflory of the Book V. J Ithe St. Helena Lemon-tree* HIS rather a prickly branching Shrub, than Stand ar It branches very near the Ground 5 an in Number, they interfere with each other J an the Branche many their Tops, elpecially when loaded with Fruit, bend wavingly downwards, almoft to the Ground o The Leaves, which are fet alternately, are longer and paler than thofe the Orange-trees, and want likewife their Heart-like Footftalks. Its Bloffoms refemble thofe of the iuft-mentioned Tree: and the Fruit, when ripe is o a pal e yellow Colour, and oblong in Shape, end ing with a Nipple-like Protuberance Thefe are but very moderately four, and very grateful to the Stomach Theiefore it is much made ufe of in all Sawces, which require any Acid. grows beft in fhady Places. Gulielmus Pifo^ in his Natural Hifiory of the Weft-Indies, has been pro th e foil his Encomiums upon the Virtue of Lemons ; which appears from owing Words A \ Peritijtmi nonnulli Indiarum orient alium ^ Occident alium medic afiri ter vulgar es illas toto orbi c elebr atijjimas limonum &^ citreorum vires quoqr^ perpeim commendabiles halent^ plus pr^M us partihus (femine^ fcilicct fejlilentesfehres^ atq\ ipfa deniq Pifo i a duah lla) ponunt contra malig. venena^ quam in lapide hezoardi his morho quas tmo?ium s > 314 jlidiofa theriacce compojitione An/am mihi fuppeditari autumabam aliquid ad art is nofir^ difcendi ; tdque aliquot ie r M fa tncrementtim licet ^ intermittentihus^ tentanss non inf elicit er procefftt : in febribus^ fc initium paroxyfmi^ hauflu calido fucci limonum cumfacchari & aqu^ fontan^ tantillo, femel atq-, iter urn exhibito. y bationes vel in totum cejfdjfe exacer ) ve I fait em ind cum fti^ dejerbuijje^ &" intra paucos dies quente utiq-, mantfejlo affeBu urime^ f cilice} pro?not Ibid. p. 315 Vide 313 printer expeBationem^ fluijfey deprehendiy fubfe imprimis fudorum large The Spanish Lemon TREE ; Lat.hlMON roveling^flinibby Tree feldom grows to what we may properly .„^ -J for it generally divides near the Earth into many HIS call a Standard weak Branches, which rife about Ten Feet high loaden with Fruit, they bend downward y Ground often and then^ efp ally if low as to touch the \ of The Leaves are about Four Inches long, and about Two in Breadtl a tamt yellowifh-green Colour, and fet on the Branches alternately 1 he Flowers are the fame with the foregoin are fucceeded 77j oe f iW

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tt as Book V. IJland of BARBADOS. 129 T'he Lime-tree. nPHIS Tree, generally fpeaking, foon divides into many BrancHeSj and J' thefe into ftill lefTer ones, thickly cloathed with Prickles, as, well as deep-green fmooth fharp-pointed Leaves, which are near Two Inches long, and above an Inch broad. ^ It bears a very great Number of fmall white monopetalous Flowers^ divided into Five feeming Petals. ^ Thefe are fucceeded by the Limes, which are a round Fruit, about big as a Crab-apple. Thefe are yellow, when ripe ; and afford a great Quantity, confidering their Bulk, of a thin and very four Juice. This, or the Juice, or Lemon, is the chief Ligredient of the acid kind in both Sherbet and Punch. The Infide affords a great many fmall white Seeds of the Apple-kind. The Trees are propagated from thefe Seeds, planted about an Inch deep in the Earth. The Limes, when young, are preferved, and make a Part of our Barbados Sweet-meats. The Sugar-Apple-tree; Lat. Gu a nab anus. I HIS is of a middle-fized Growth, cloathed with weak pale thin JLeaves, of about Four Inches long, one in Breadth, and fmooth-edged Thefe are fet on the Branches alternately. The Flowers are compofed of Three thick narrow herbaceous Leaves, white within, and green on the Outfide. From the Centre of thefe grows the Fruit ; which at firft appears in a green Button ; but as it grows, enlarges, and becomes of a blunt conic Form ; the Outfi.de divided into feveral bluifh irregular fquamous Protuberances. r '' Thefe afford a foft, ftringy, fweet, pulpy Subftance, inclofing a blackiih oblong Stone or Kernel. The Fruit is looked upon to be wholfome. 7>6^ Monkey Apple-tree. i 'TP HIS grows to about Twenty Feet high. -A Its Branches are thickly covered with Leaves, much refembling thofe of a Sourfop-tree. It bears a large round Apple, the Infide refembling the Sourfop-fruit. The Tree, Leaves, and Fruit, emit a very offenfive Smell in rainy Weather. The Fruit hath its Name from its being eaten by Monkeys.

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iqo ^he Natural Hiflory of the V, "the k VIGA P T' ' HIS grows to be a large wide-extended Tree, wnofe Branches are cloathed with many large (l:iarp-pointed Leaves. The Flowers, which are hexapetalous, appear at the Extremities of the Branches, each fucceeded by a large Fruit of a Pear-fhape. Thefe are of Three Kinds ; the Red, the Purple^ and the Green fort : The laft is cftcemed the beft. M h The pulpy Part of this Fruit is foft, when ripe* It is looked upon to be very nourifhing. • The moft common Method of eating it is, to mix this Pulp with a little Sugar and Lime-juice. The Stone or Kernel is very large, and of a pale-ruffet Colour. 2^/6^ POMGR ANATE-TREE ; Z^/.PUNICA.. 'TpHIS is a fhrubby Tree, feldom arifing above Sixteen Feet high. -*Its Branches are very many and ilender. • Its Flower is of the brighteft Red, compofed of a blunt red conic husky (7^/|/x, divided, at the Margin, into Six iharp-pointed Sedions, incloling as many Rofe-like fcarlet Leaves. Thefe likewife furround a great many red fhort Stami?7a, tipped with The fucceeding Fruit is round, and as big as a large Apple, decorated at the Top with a Corona y as a Pear. The outfide Rind is ftrong and husky, and generally, when ripe, of a maiden-blufh Colour. The Infide is divided into feveral partitional Cells, inclofmg a Preat Number of granulated fmall Adm, tafting fomewhat like, but more delicious than, white Currans in England^ when not over-ripe The outward husky Peel of this Fruit, when dried and pulverized, is good lor Fluxes, and much ufed for that Purpofe. The Fruit of fome of thefe Trees is fo fharp, that they are not eatable. 1 \^^j are generally diftmguifhed into the white and red Sort There are of each fort fome particular Trees bearing fweet, others bearing four Fruits. . in Ittl'il ^""^ '" ^l^yj^rt of the Land of PaUfiine ; and were itSX r '""""^ *' ?"'' '^^' *^ ^^^Piters of the Pillars, in fsoTpZT """'" '^™''^ ^^'^' '^' Reprefentation of thefe, as ;ell The fmall P P ^T-HTQr „ ,^MERICANA. A Four'^Fe.^ K .^^^'^y P^^^'^'^ial Shrub, which feldom rifes above Gardens "^ '"^ '' ^^^^% P^^^^^d for Border-hedges in It

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Book V. IJland
PAGE 170

3>v 132 *fhe Natural Htjlory of the BookV JT ^A ^HE Fruit called the Guava Is diftinguifhed into Two forts ; the White and the Red ; and thefe, with regard to their Shape, into the round, and the Pear-fafhioned, or perfumed Guavas. The latteihave a thicker Rind, and are looked upon to he of a more delicate Tafte, than any other ; However, I think the Difference Is very fmalL J i 11 This Tree, if carefully fcultivated, and in a good Soil, will grow to about Eighteen Feet in Height. Its Bark is very fmooth, and of a reddlfh Grey. The Leaves are atoutThree Inches long, fharp-^polnted, and high-ribbed. The Flowers are white, and pentapetalous, guarded with Four capfular Leaves, green without, and w^hite within. The Petals furround a great many Ihort Stamina^ tipped with paleyellow Apices, Thefe inclofe the Stylus ^ which is tlie Rudiment of the Fruit ; which, excepting the perfumed Guava, is round, and about the BIgnefs of a large Tennis-ball ; the Rind, or Skin, generally of a RufTet, ftained with Red; the Top adorned "with a Coro7ta^ as a Pear. The Skinj or Rind, is lined with an Apple-like Subftance, as thick as a Crown-piece. The Infide of this is full of an agreeable Pulp, mixed with innumerable fmall white Acini or Seeds. The Rind-part of the Guava, when ftewed, is eaten with Milk, and juftly looked upon to be preferable to any other ftew'd Fruit. From the fame Part is made Marmalade ; and from the whole Fruitj the fineft jelly perhaps in the World. Thefe Trees grow in moft Parts of the Illand. The Fruit is ripe about O^iober, The Sappadill A-TREE ; Lat. Cainito. L H I \ THE Roots of this Tree are confiderably large. The Bark Is very much furrowed, and of a greyifli-whlte Colouri The Branches are very many, and ipreading. Thefe are thickly covered with very fmooth fharp-polnted flilnlnggreen Leaves, of about Three Inches long, and an Inch and an half broad. It bears many fmall monopetalous Flowers, of a pale White, deeply laciniated, at their Tops, into many Divifions, refembling diftind Petals furrounding a green PIftll. ^ From the Sides of thefe feeming Petals rife many fliort Stamina^ tipped \vith yellow Apices, Thefe Petals are guarded with Two Sets of capfular Leaves ; one of ^ browns and the other of a pale White. r" The ^ ..-f

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t % t \ J I I 7

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r -J -. ^ ) I -I i

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t Book V. j$an(l c/ BARBADOS. ^33 The Piftil becomes the Rudiment of the Fruit ; which, when full-ripe^ hath a ruffet rough Coat, with a Corona upon the Top of it. This, in Shape, Bignefs, and Tafte, doth not ill refemble a Burgamc! Pear, except that it is fweeter arid fofter \ the Pulp of it inclofinofeveral lonp-ifh black Seeds. The Leaves, as well as their Footftalk, alid tender Buds, emit, when broken, a white clammy Milk. I'he Mammee-tree. THIS grows to be a large fhady Tree. The Bark of the Trunk, as well as of the main Branches, is lomewhat fulcated. The Leaves, which are very thickly fet on in an alternate Order, are round-pointed, and fmooth, of a very deep Green, about Five Inches long, and near Three broad. The Flowers are white, and pentapetalous, fomewhat larger than Orangeflowers. Thefe are fucceeded by a round ruffet Fruit, full as big as the largeli Ruffet-apple. The outward Coat is ratlier an husky, than a skinny Tegument. This peels off as the Rind of a Tree in the Spring does, and difcovers the eatable Part df the Fruitj which is of a pretty folid Subftance, of a fine yellow Colour. This is about half ah Inch thick, furrounding Two or Three large "Stones, fo joined together, that the Whole makes a circular Figure. The eatable Part is well tailed, and hath an agreeable Flavour. "The French Willow. TH I S is a flirubby Tree, feldom growing above Sixteen Feet high. Its Branches are very numerouSj and very thickly cloathed with Leaves of Six Inches long^ and a Quarter of an Inch broad. Thefe, as well as the tender Stalks, when broken, emit a confiderable Quantity of thick milky Juice. The Extremities of thefe Branches fupport feveral yellow Flowers^ compofed of Five Leaves. Thefe are fo clbfely jditied together, that the Flower exadlly refembles the Bell-falhion kind ; and are fucceeded by an Apple of about the Bigheis of a large Crab-apple; ; The Pulp of this furrounds a flattifh Kernel, which is white and foft 5 tad the Top of it inarked with Two unindented Seams croffing one another at Right Angles. This is delineated in Plate VIIL

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t m T'he Natural Hifiory of the Book V. The Garlic K Pear-tree. His is a middle-fized Tree. The Colour of the Bark, efpecially on the upper Branches, is of a Dark-grey, interfperfed with whitifh Specks* The Leaves are of a fine clear Green, of about Four Inches long, and fharp-pointed. Thefe are fet upon long Footftalks, in a tripartite Order. The Flower is compofed of Five fmall Spoonlike Petals, growing very {lender, and fmall at the Bottom. . From the Infide of thefe rife about Fifteen purple Stamina^ tipped with yellowifh-grecn Apices, From the Centre rifes the Stylus^ which bears upon its Top the Rudiftient of the Fruit. I As this grows in Bignefs, the Stylus grows in proportion • and at lalt becomes ligneous, able to fupport the Fruit, which in time grows to be. as big as a large Guava ; the Infide being full of an agreeable Pulp, interfperfed with fmall granulated Seeds. ' The tender Buds, from the young Branches, being bruifed, and applied as a Cataplafm to any Part of the Body, will in time raife a regular Blifler. It would perhaps be beneficial, if fome of the Learned in Phyfic would inquire, whether it would intirely anfwer the End of the Cantharides ; efpecially as it may not affed the urinary Veflels, and confequently not caufe a Strangury. . ; ... Whilft this Tree is in Flower, it is much frequented by HummingBlrds, which come to fuck the Honey-dew from the Bloflims ; and Butterflies lay their Eggs in great Abundance upon the Leaves of this Tree. + F "The Dunk-tree, ^r Mangustine. TpHIS is a middle-fized Tree. ' The Branches are numerous ; and, after growing to about Fifteen Feet high, they bend wavingly downward, with a confiderable Sweep, till they nearly touch the Ground, leaving a circular fine Area between that, and the Body of the Tree. The Bark is of a reddifh Grey. The Flowers, which are many and fmall, are white ; each confifting of one ftellated Leaf, whofe Difcus is furrounded with Four fhort white Stamina. . The fucceeding Fruit is, in Shape and Colour, Hke a fmall Crabapple, except that both Ends are fomewhat more deprcffed. Its Tafte is very agreeable ; and therefore efteemed by moft People. The Tree, when in Bloflbm, emits a verv fetid ofFenfivp fimpll ^ • rh. r-

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Book V. Ijland of BAR BAD OS. m' 7J6^Cashw-tree; Z/^/, Anacardium. r T~^HIS is a low wide-lpreading Tree. A Its Branches are generally crooked and ftraggling, cloathed with oval Leaves, whofe middle Ribs are ftrong and prominent ; the tranf. verfe ones running almoft diredly crofs the Lea£ It bears fmall white five-leaved Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by the Fruit, which is diftinguiflied into Three Sorts ; the Large White, the Large Red, and the Red-and-white. Thefe are not unlike, in Shape, to an Apple, called in E7tgla7id, the Pearmain, The Infide is very ftringy, full of rough, aftringent, yet pleafant Juice. Upon the Top of each ftands a Nut, inclofing a Kernel. This Fruit is the Anacardium of the Antients. Its Shape is like an Hare's Kidney, affording a great Quantity of cauftic Oil 3 and the infide white Kernel is roafted and eaten. ' "The CoCHENEEL Shrub. ; T^HIS very much refembles the Pimploe Shrub already defcribed ; JL and differs chiefly from it by its greater Height, which is ofteil Twelve Feet. Its Leaves likewife are very prickly. It bears upon conic Footftalks, fuch as the prickly Pear Footftalks, feveral rofaceous Flowers, of a deep Scarlet^ furrounding a Tuft of purple Sta7mna^ tipped with whitifh Jpkes, ^ In the Middle ftands the Piftil, divided at the Top into Six Starlike Divifions. The Flowers are fucceeded by a Fig-Hke Fruit ; which, when ripe, is full of a deep-purple Pulp, as v/ell as Juice. It is to be wiflied, that thefine Colour it ftains Linen with, could be fixed. MUS. ^>6^ American Torch; L^A CereusMaxi L I ^ H E Roots of this are fibrous and many. f. The reticulated Body of the main Stem, as well as the outward Lamina, covering the Whole, exadly refembles the Texture and Colour of Pmiploes, already defcribed. The Body of this, near the Ground, rifes mto feveral upright leffer Stalks, from whofe Top rife others, till by fucla a Multiplication theWhole grows often to Eighteen or Nineteen Feet high. Each of thefe are nearly of a Bignefs, being about Eight Inches in Circumference ; and, from Joint to Joint, about Three Feet in Leno-th. Thefe are regularly chanelled from Top to Bottom into about Ten deep-gouged Furrows.' M m Th

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fQ,6 The Natural Hiflory of the V: 1:^he Edcres or Eminences of each Furrow are thickly befet, at the Diftance of half an Inch, with Star-like Tufts of whitifh Hender Pnckles, from an Inch to an Inch and an half long. • i Thefe, while young, are nurfed and guarded at the Bottom with a Cotton-like woolly Subftance, which flies off when thefe are fufficiently ftrong to endure the Viciffitudes of the Weather. From near the Top of fome of the largeft Stalks rifes a longifh fcaly green Pod-like Subftance, here-and-there marked with white Spots 3 from which grov/ many yellowifh fharp flender Prickles. The Flower, which is at the End of this Pod-like Subftance, is compofed of a great many round-pointed Petals, of a yellowifh-red Colour. The Piftil and Stamma are tipped with yellow Apices. When thefe Flowers drop, the above-mentioned green Calyx becomes the Rudiment of the Fruit ; which, when ripe, is full of fmall Acmi, affording a purplifh Juice. 4 T'/^^Turk'sHead;!.^?. Melocactus Americanus. TH I S, I fuppofe, derives its Name from its diftant Refemblance to a high-raifed Turbant. Its outward Texture is a very green skinny Tegument ; its Shape of a very blunt Cone, whofe Sides are deeply ftriated ; each intermediate Rifeing thickly ftudded with long fharp-pointed Prickles. Near the Summit appear very many red rofaceous fmall Flowers.' Thefe are fucceeded by fmall oval red Berries, full of an agreeable Pulp, interfperfed with fmall Acini, The Root of thefe Flowers and Fruit is guarded with a foft Cottonlike Subftance. 5Zy6^MusKMELON Vine; Z.^/. Melo. L L "* H I S Fruit is diftinguiflied, by the Colour of its Pulp, into thewhite and red Sort ; each deriving its Name from the Fragrancy of its^ Smell. As this Fruit is fo well known, both here, and in Englaitd^ a particular befcription of it would be fuperfluous. I fliall therefore only obferve, that the Vine is rough, almoft to a 'Pricklincfs, bearing fmall yellow monopetalous Flowers. Each of thefe divides into Five Sedions, fo deep, that they refemble pentapetalous Flowers. The Water'-Melons. THESE,, as well as the former, are diftinguiflied, by the Colour of their Pulp, into the White and Red ; each deriving its Name of a Water-Melon from the great Quantity of that Liquid they contain. 4^ IBy

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Book V, IJland of BARBADOS. B F By their cooling and diuretic Quality, they are fo ferviceable in hot Climates, that the poorer Sort in Perjia and Turky^ elpecially in the Levant^ for the Summer Months, live almoft folely upon the Musk and Water-Melon, Cucumbers, and Milk. The Vine producing the Water-Melon is long and trailing. 3 T PuMK I Ns ; Lat. P e p o, HE different Species of thefe are generally diftinguifhed by the Names of the White, the Blue, the Marbled, and the Garden Pumkin. The latter differs from all the reft, by having no Seed ; but is propa;ated by Slips. Thefe are all eafily produced, and of a very quick Growth. They make a great Part of the Food of the poorer Sort, in the Summer-time, as well in Afta and Africa^ as in America. The Vines, bearing thefe different Sorts, are each rough and hairy, both Stalks and Leaves ; and the Flowers are yellow, monopetalous, and very large, divided at the Top into Five deep Sedlions. The Piftil is furrounded with yellow farinaceous Duft, which, byThree open Slits at the Bottom, drops into the Ovary. The fucceeding Fruit is generally, whilft young, of a Mixture between a deep Blue, and a pale White. They are boiled and eaten with Flefh-meat. I have feen a Species of thefe Fruit at Paris ^ which exceeds any in the Wejl-Indies in Bignefs. It is much ufed by the poorer Sort in Soups, Squasshes; L^/. Melopepo T H E Squafh-vine is long and trailing, the main Stalk multangular and hairy. It fupports itfelf by its numerous Clafpers and Tendrils. The Leaves are large, and very rough. • Their Edges are irregularly ferrated, as well as the Leaves in general^ fomewhat fcalloped. From the Bloilbm of the Leaves rife feveral Pedicles, fupporting the Fruit in Miniature ; whofe Top is decorated with a large reddifh-yellow Bloffom, which continues on the Fruit, till it is eatable ; which it generally is, when as big as a Walnut. When boiled, they are by moft People efteemed to be very delicate eatino;. Thefe are of Two forts ; the Lona and the Round. F

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r ^he Natural Hiflory of tU r ,^ -. T'he large Gourd Vine : LaU Cu V, i. T 'HIS Vine is long and trailing, of a multangular Shape, and very, hairy. . The Leaves, which are large, and almoft circular, are covered with foft Fillip or Hairs. Thefe Leaves fmell ftrongly of Musk. The Flowers, which ftand upon Footftalks Six Inches in Length, are monopetalous, divided into Five deep Seftions, and of a dirtywhite Colour. Thefe are inclofed in a fmall hairy Calyx^ divided alfo into Five Sedions \ and are fo tender, that they are clofed up as foon as the Sun fhines upon them. When thefe Flowers drop, they are fucceeded by the Fruit, which grows fomething Pear-like in Shape. The outfide Tegument, as it ripens, grows hard, fomething refembling a Nut-fhell, but fofter. The Infide is of a foft white Subftance^ intermixed with flattifli Seeds, like thofe of Melons. Some of the largeft Species of thefe Gourds are capable, when cleared of their Pith, to contain Twenty-two Gallons : However, fuch kre very uncommon. i9i of thefe that I faw, was at Mr. Richard Jackman^ in /SV,Peter s Parifh. TAe fma// Gov RD ; Z.^/. Colocynthis. THIS Vine is round, foft, and hairy, provided with numerous Clafpers. With thefe they cling to the neighbouring Bufhes. The Leaves are large, and of almoft a circular round Shape, ftanding upon Footftalks, Four Inches in Length. Thefe are fet on alternately ; the Flowers, which are white, and compofed of Five white Petals, furrounding feveral Stamina, Thefe are fucceeded by the Gourd, which is yellow, when ripe. 'The fhelly or husky Outftde inclofes a white bitter Pulp^ interfoerfe'd with whitifli flat SeedsAn Hole being made in one of thefe ripe Gourds, if a Glafs of Rum be poured in, and fuffered to remain there for Twenty-four Hours, and then drunk, it proves a fuccefsful Purge ; buj: is fo bitter, and leaves fuch a Naufea behind, that it is feldom ufed. t i 7%e Sweet Gourd. 1' / T^H IS Gourd differs from the laft defcribed, by its very great Length' •A and Narrownefs ^ being often above Two Feet long, and about Six Inches in Circumference. ,^ It differs likewife from all others, by its Pulp being rather fweet than bitter. Y/hxn.

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Book V. IJland (/BARBADOS. 13 When thefe are ripe, the infide foft waterifh Pulp and Seed are fcooped out : Then there remains, next to the husky or fhelly outward Part, a Pulp of a more folid Subftance, than what is Icooped out. This, being hkewife taken out in Slices, and fomewhat dried of its natural Juice, is put into feveral Syrups ; and at laft, candied or frofted over, becomes an agreeable Sweetmeat. L ~r \ Batchelor's Pears;X^?. SoLANUMfrudu pyriformi inverfo. THESE are of Two forts ; the one almoft fpherical \ the other hatk the Refemblance of a Nipple upon the Top. The Plant that bears thefe, grows to about Three Feet in Heightj fup* ported by very few Roots. It hath many Side-Branches, which are very prickly. Thefe are cloathed with deep fegmented rough Leaves, which are about Six Inches long, and Three broad. Their middle Ribs, as well as the tranfverfe, are guarded with a great many fharp-pointed Prickles. The Flower, which is compofed of one fingle Leaf of a whitifh Blue, expands itfelf horizontally. This is fupported by Five fmall fharp-pointed capfular Leaves. From the Centre rife Five yellow deep-chanelled Stamina^ Thefe are fucceeded by the Fruit above-mentioned ; which, when ripe, is of a golden Colour, and about the Bignefs of a Tennis-ball 3 the Infide being full of fmall Seed. This Plant grows chiefly in very rich Ground, elpecially upon Dunghils. Bread and Cheese; ^/-.Sucking-Bottle, TH I S is a ligneous Wyth, with dark Iron-coloured Leaves, each like thofe of an Orange, having a longifh Heart-like Stalk. Thefe are about Three Inches long, fharp-pointed, and here-andthere fnipped on the Edges. The Stalk of the Vine, as well as the middle Ribs of the Leaves, is of a purple Colour, The Flowers are fucceeded by yellow conic capfular Pods, fomewhat in Shape like a Bottle, each dividing into Three Partitions, having one Seed, which, at one End, is covered with a whitifh rough Pith, which is fometimes eaten. The Root of this Vine, mixed and boiled with Lime-juice, and the Rufl: of Iron, by way of Plaifter, cures the BodyYaws. N n Custard-

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l^O Tie Natural Hijiory, &:c. r Custaud-Appt.e : Z.^/. Guana BAN us frudlu Book V. moUiter aculeato. P/um. -L T HIS Tree Is about the Bignefs of the lafl-delcrlbed. It bears a Fruit nearly round, and of a yellow Colour,, when ripe. The Infide is full of a foft white pulpy Subftance, from whence it derives its Name. V -.un ,Jf *. i Th End of the Fifth Book. *v "^^^-^ I*-THE \ r\ \

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Natural history OF. THE liland of BARBAB O S. B O O K VI. rj 0/ TREES, SHRUBS, and PLANTS, of the Bac CI FERGUS Kind. Y Berries we are to underftand thole kinds of Fruits, wliofe outward Texture is generally of a thin flexible Make, and whofe Infides are full of Pulp, mixed with fmall ^cini. Several of thefe, by their grateful Tafte, and dcli^ cate Flavour, are not only very acceptable to Man ; but Providence intended many Species of them to be a proper Food for feveral kinds of (i) Birds, which could not fubfift, efpeclally in the Winter Months, without, them. (i) Quifts and PivetSj ^V, Tie

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^ 142 A Natural Hiftory of the Book VI. i^-P : ^' r 7^/6^ Lignum ViT^, or Guaiacum. THIS.very ufeful Tree grows here in Plenty, but not to any great Bignefs. Its medicinal Virtues, either by way of Docoftion, or the Ufe of its GiuTi, are fufficiently defcribed by feveral Authors. I fl^all therefore only obferve, that the Berries, which are of a tefticulated Form, and of a yellow Colour, inclinable to a Red, make an excellent Diet-drinl<, greatly affifthig to purify the Blood. The upper Branches are many, cloathed with, feveral Pairs of fmall roundifli pcnnated Leaves, never having an odd one at the End. The. Flowers are pentapetalous, and of the fineftvioletColour that can be imagined \ ana the Tree is fcarce ever to be found without Flowers or Berries. This is delineated in Plate IX. That called'the White Ligyjum Vitce fcarce differs from this in any other Particular, but that it bears white BlofToms,^V' -' I'he Bastard Lignum Vit^. \. -u. HIS grows to above Twenty-five Feet high, covered with a rough brownifli Bark. : ^ The Heart of this Tree is almoft as hard, and as durable, as Ironwood. It is fometimes beautifully clouded with Veins of Yellow, and a dark Red. The Flowers are fucceeded by Berries, each near as big as a fmall Cherry : Thefe are of a purple Colour, when ripe ; and tafte very agreeably, ., They are much coveted by wild Pigeons, Sparrows, and other Birds. V Iron-Wood. I ''HE largeft of .thefe in this Ifland grow not abov^ Thirty Feet high, -^ and the Trunk in proportion fomewhat flender. This is covered with a whitifh Bark, whofe Surface often flightly peels b5...The Bark upon the upper Branches is of a reddifh Grey. The Leaves, which are fmooth, and of a yellowifh Green,are Two Inches and an half long, and above an Inch broad, narrow near the Footftalks. '\ ui nThe Flowers are many and white : Thefe rife in Groups upon one common. Pedicle, and are fucceeded by fmall Berries, whofe outward Tegument, as well as inward Pulp, is of the fineft Red, interfperfed with finall Seeds. _Tt hath the Name of IronWood from its great Weight, Its Hardnefs, and the Clofenefs of its Grain ; for it is proof againft all Weather, and is fcarce known to fuffer any Decay in feveral Ages : It is fo heavy, that it Will fink in Water. -The

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L / \ ^ ' \ J^^tc g ^.M2 / / ii^A^ Au^rnyC' Vyricfc/^i ) J^7^t'e^
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/ ^^j;e ./^^ J J \, t' \ J\ -^ -. [ #> •

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Book Vli IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. 14 \ T I'he Red-Wood, n HIS grows, efpecially if flieltered from the Wind, to be a very large Tree, affording Boards of a clofe fine Grain, of a reddifh Colour, remarkably and beautifully clouded with black Veins. The Trunk is cloathed with a dark-grey Bark, which is fomewhat fulcated. The Leaves on the upper Side are of a deep Green, and paler on the under : Thefe are fmooth-edged, and fharp-pointed, generally about Six Inches long, and Three broad. The upper Branches bear many red Flowers, which are fucceeded by middlc-fized Berries, of a dark-purple Colour, when ripe, containing many reddifh fmall Seeds. Thefe Berries are eatable, and looked upon neither unpleafant nor unwholfome. It is faid, that the young Leaves, applied to the Temples, give great Relief in the moft violent Head-ach. f r 5^^ Wild Cinnamon-tree; Lat. Cinnamomum Sylvestre. -' -^ "^ ^ HIS Tree grows to a confiderable Height. The Trunk is cloathed with a brown rough fulcated Bark, which taftes hot and biting \ and hath fomething of the Fragrancy of the true Cinnamon. Its Leaves are of the Laurel-kind, fniooth, green, and fharp-pointed : Thefe are about Four Inches long, and one and an half broad j and^ when bruifed, yield an agreeable aromatic Smell. It bears fmall yellow Flowers : Thefe are fucceeded by fmall red Berries. Ithe LoBLOLLY-TREE. ''in HIS is a middle-fized Tree, whofe Leaves, which are about Three -JL Inches long, are generally in Tufts upon the Extremity of the Branches. Among thefe rife a great many Bunches of white Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall white Berries. They ferve as Food for feveral Species of Birds.. • ^ T "The Slirub -*high, and its Leaves finely ferrated. ' A fubtile refinous Juice perfpires thro' the Leaves, and their fmall Footftalks ; which, by the Heat of the Sun, is granated, and intirely incrufts them. O o This

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44 + ^he Natural Hiflbry of th \ Thislncruftation, as well as the tranfparent Liquid, which inftantaneoufly iffucs from the broken Footftalks, of the Leaves, hath a fine aromatic Smell ^. A few Drops of this, rubbed with the Finger on the Palm of the Hand, foon thicken to the Confiftency of a Salve, tafting hot and bitter : This is excellently good to cure green Wounds. This is delineated in Plate X. T 7l6^PoisoN-TB.EE Lat. Toxicodendron. HIS is diftinguifhed intoTwo forts ^ the one bearing a fmall fmoothedgcd narrow Leaf. The Trunk of this is very folid, and good Timber for Building. The other bears a large green fmooth-edged fharp-pointed Leaf. The Timber of the latter is very foft and perifhing. From each of thefe Trees iffues, when v/ounded, a great Quantity of milky corrofive poifonous Juice.. This, when expofed to the Heat of the Sun, turns fo very clammy, that it proves a good Bird-lime, and is with great Succefs made ufe of to that Purpofe. Each of thefe Trees have their Branches nearupright and fpiral, cloathed w^ith a whitifli grey Bark. The Plowers are fucceeded by a greenifh-purple Berry, marked with flight indented Seams into Three Parts, A Cataplafm of the new-extraded Juic Service to kill the Vermin called Chigers. applied to the Feet, is of "The Rod-Wood. ^ I ''HIS grows to be a large Timbertree. -The Bark on the lefTer Branches is of a light whitifh Grey. The Leaves, which are fet on alternately, are of a yellowifh Green, eipecially the middle Rib. The Footftalks of thefe Leaves, at their fetting off from thefe Branches, are remarkably welted with a ftrong greenifti husky Subftance, which furrounds the Footftalk, as well as the Branch. I take It that this Bandage is intended to fecure and ftrengthen the Leaves ; for, as the leaft of thefe are about Ten Inches long, and Five broad their otherwife be too heavy for tlie fmaller Limbs to bear. This Tree bears round white Berries. Weight J T:he Birch-Gum-tree. H L T^ H I S grows to be a middle-fized Tree. A • Its Bark Is of a reddifti Colour, and fmooth, fomewhat refsmbllng that of a Birch-tree. From

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^ f^

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f \ X ^^ ^ J^/a/^:K ^ • \ • • '^/4S' \ C J '. / / I \ \ '-'* MrstZord L b b w

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Book VI; IJland of B AREA D, O S. i From thence, and from the great Quantity of tranfparent Gum that its wounded Trunk and Branches afford, it derives its Name. Its upper Branches fuftain a great many fmall apetalous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by feveral red Berries, near as big as fmall Cherries: The Gum is looked upon to be very ferviceable in all inward Bruifes, or Strains, of what kind foever. The Branches of this Tree, being flaked into the Earth, will grow ; and I have known a Branch of it, tho' ftripped of its Leaves, and expofed to Wind and Weather fas Part of an Arbour for a Grape-vine), which, in this Situation, budded, and put forth young Shoots and Leaves. It grows in moft Parts of 'the Hand. w L T'/^^Bay-berry-tree ; l,^i?. MYRTUsaiboreaaromatica. \ T^HIS is a^ beautiful upright Tree, its Trunk often of near Two Feet, -*Diameter. Its Bark, until the Seafon of its peeling off, is very fmooth, and fomewhat reddifh. ,. The Trunk divides into numerous Branches, the lower always the iongeft ; fo that towards the Summit it ends pyramidically, being very thickly cloathed with middle-fized fharp-pointed fmooth very green Leaves. / This continual Verdure, added to its mariner of growing, makes it appear very beautiful. Its Berries are well known by the Name of Jamaica Pepper. There is another of the fame Species called the Black Bay-tree. This differs from the other, chiefly by having its Bark and Leaves of fomcwhat a darker Colour than the above-defcribed. 4 T I'he WildBay-berry-tree; Lat. Myrtus. L r HIS is a far lefs Tree than that laft-defcribed. Its Bark is as fmooth as, and much redder than, the former. Its Leaves and Berries are of the fanie Make and Texture with the true Bay-berry-trees. However, the Berries want the Virtue, as well as the fragrant Smell, of ^ r the former. T Black-berry-hunters. HIS Shrub hath a great many ftrong Roots. Its Trunk is covered with a dark-greyifli Bark. The Leaves are fharp-pointed, and in Length above an Inch and an half, and about an Inch in Breadth. It bears white fmall Flowers, fucceeded by fmall black Berries. ft Fiddle-

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!-. ^he Natural of the Book VI. IDDLE-WOOD-TREE HESE are common in thi IS liland J and row to a confiderable e Th The with. Height are difting-uifhed into the White, the Red^ and the Black fort. latt er IS the moft durable Timber, and not often to be met In The Body of the Trunk is covered with a light-brown Bark. Its upper Branches are thickly cloathed with Leaves of above Three cnes ion ) an an Inch and an half broad. The Extremities of the Branches end in feveral flender pendulous green Strin s or Ligul^^ which are almoft furrounded with fmall white penta petalous fweet-fcented Flowers, each fkanding in a fmall green Calyx, Thefe are fucceeded fmall reen Colour ; afterwards red ulpy Berries, which are at firft of a > and, when ripe, black. I'he Bee-Wood-tree. H I nr^ HIS is a large fhady Tree, cloathed with numerous Th fino o reen Leaves, of Four Inches long, and Three broad. e have a great many round Excrefcengies growing on them in the Shape of Galls, tho' not much larger than a Grain of black Pepper. Thefe are Nefts of fome fmall Infeds, which make an Hole in each of lem 5 and then either creep, or fly away. wh The Top-Branches bear feveral Bunches of fmalf white Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by ffnall Berries, whofe Pulp is of a purple Colour > en ri pe "^.\ T'h e Fu STIC-TREE 3 Lat Mo RUS HIS TI le Bark is It bears Katkins rows to be a large Tree ) of having ene rally ftrait Trunk yifli Brown, flightly furrowed / and the Fruit hath many Aciitt as a large Strawberry, green within and without > which are as larg Th Heart of this Tree iity in Dyeingvery yellow, and is well known for its Qu Ye LLow Hercules HIS grows to a middle-fized Tree, having a great many Root wnef hiefly diftinguiflied from the White Hercules, by the Yel which wh en properly prepared affi > lownels ot the niner Bark, which, when properly prepared, affor excellent yellow Dye : Perhaps it might be very ufeful in that Way, the Hands of skilful Dy The outward Bark is of a reddifl bed Prickles, Grey, thickly covered with Ihort ftub The \ #

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BookVi: ipnd 0/ BARBADOS. 14. The Leaves, which are fet on alternately, are about Four Inches long, .and Two broad, having their middle Ribs ftrong and prominent. Its numerous fmall herbaceous Flowers grow in Cluftera at the Extre^ mities of their Stalks ; and are fucceeded by fmall round Berries* The inner yellow Bark of the Root, bruifed, and fteeped in boilin Water, tinges it with a yellow Colour. Wafhing fore Eyes with this Water hath of late been difcovered to be a fovereign Remedy in moft Diforders of the Eyes. T'he Pye-crusT, THIS is a middle-fized Tree, having many ftrong Roots. The Bark of the main Body is of a dark Grey. The Leaves are very many, thick, fmooth, and round-pointed, but very narrow towards their Stalks* Thefe are of a deep fmutty Green on the vipper Sides and fomewhat lighter on the under, and fet on the Branches in an irregular manner. They bear fcveral apetalous Flowers, v/hich are fucceeded by yellow Berries, of the Bignefs of a middle-fized Olive, whofe yellowifli bitter Pulp inclofes Three whitiih Seeds. The Texture of the Tree is very brittle, from whence it derived the 9^ ufi "the Dwarf M THIS Shrub grows by the Sea or Pond-fides in wet Places. The Trunk and numerous Branches are cloathed with fliining green Leaves, Two Inches and an half long, and ari Inch and. an half broad. Among the upper Branches are many fmall tubular Flowers, filled with yellow Stamina^ fucceeded by fmall Berries. M0NTABBA5 ^//^jTrubba. \ T :i, divided into many Branches ; the outey, covered with an hoary Mealinefs. The Infide is of a ligneous Subftance, which furrounds a greenifti Pith. The Roots are many and white. The Leaves are' fet on alternately ; and thefe are of a green Colour above, and whitifh underneath ; their Length about Five Inches, and above Three in Breadth, eipecially at llich Places where they are bluntly and irregularly fcalloped about their Edges. The Flowers are monopetalous, and of a reddl{h White, expanding, in the Heat of the Day, almoft horizontally flat ; their One being flightly fegmented, and divided into Six Iharp-pointed Angles. From the Centre of the Flower rifes a white Piftil, furrounded by Six yellow thick triangular Stamina, ^ ^ P p The / \

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H8 l^he Natural Hiflbry of the Book VI The Flowers are fucceeded by a Pumkin-like Fruit, of a fine deep Purple on the Outfide, and whitifh within \ the Pulp interfperfed with white flattifh Seeds. This Fruit is boiled and eaten as a Pumkin. I 'I'he fmall Red Trubba. FIIS Plant grows to about Four Feet high. Its Branches, as well as the Leaves, are few and haggling ; the latter about an Inch and an half long, and an Inch broad. Its Flowers are compofed of Five' white Petals, iurrounding feveral Stamina. Thefe are fucceeded by a fcarlet Button, whofe Infide is full of Juice,' and fmall whitifh Jicini or Seeds. This Fruit is chiefly ufed by Negroes, in their Soups. It hath, when boiled, a bitterifh Tafte 3 and is by them looked upon as ufeful to alleviate any colicky Diforder of the Stomach. #h Ly THIS is likewife a fhrubby Plant, much refembhng, in its Make, that which produces the Bachelor's Pear j with this Difference, that the Prickles on this are not fo ftiff. L The Fruit is about as big as an Hen's Egg, red when ripe. They are generally made ufe of, boiled in Broth. Portugal, Worjley "The M HP FIE fbrubby Vine, bearing this Fruit, grows very bufliy, and about ^ Three Feet high ; its Bark bearing a red Fruit, but not eatable. f I* The Bully-be R RY-TRE E ; Lat. Cainito. I I THIS grows to be a very large Tree, branching chiefly towards the-, Top. It bears a round Fruit, of a ruflet-yellow Colour, {landing upon an Inch and a Quarter Footftalk. The infide Pulp of the Fruit is milky, and of a foft fweet Tafte, not unlike a Sappadillo. It is about the Bignefs of a very large Cherry, but not deprefled at each End. The Pulp inclofes a very fharp-pointed oval Seed, Soap/

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Book VI. IRand of 'E k t \9 Soap-berry-bush, or Fire-burn-leaf j Lat. Sap INDUS. rH IS is a fcandent ligneous jointed Vine^ whofe Heart-like Leaves are thin, and fliarppointed. Thefe are, in general, of about Four Inches long, Two and an half broadj and high-ribbed. Almoft every Leaf is fupported by a crooked Tendril, vv^hich takes hold of the neighbouring Trees or Shrubs. The Leaves, when bruifed, and agitated in Water, will caufe as flrong" a Lather as an equal Quantity of Soap, The Juice is likewife very much efteemed to heal and cure Fire-burns^ Scalds, or fiich-like Sores. T ^he Bastard LogusTj or Forest-tree. HIS grows to be a large Tree, cloathed with a whitifh Bark, red within. Its Leaves are of a dark Green, about an Inch and an half long, fmooth, and very blunt-pointed. The Bark is ufed as an Aftringent. L L L I 7>6^ Vervain; Lat. ShErardia Spicata. r i ^HE Roots of this fhrubby Plant are very numerous, and white, penetrating not deep into the Earth. The main Stalk, when full-grown, is as thick as one's Finger, woody, and brittle; foon dividing into many leffer Branches. Thefe are jointed, putting forth, at every Joint, Duplicates of winged Leaves within one another ; whofe Edges are regularly ferrated, and of a middle Size, ending very narrow towards the Stalks ; the Stalks themfelves terminating in long fcaly Spikes. Round the Middle of thefe rife feveral fmall naked tubular monopetalous Flowers, of a fine blue Colour ; whofe Edges are divided into Five Segments, having likewife a whitifh Spot in the Middle. The Seeds, which are longifli, and fmall, are included in the feveral Lami7t^^ or Foldings, of thefe Spikes. The Juice of this Plant is fo great a Deobftruent, that a large Spoonful taken inwardly, for Three or Four Mornings fucceffively, hath been more powerful to bring down the Catamenia^ than either the Ufe of Chalybeats, or any other Method. This Plant grows in moft Parts of the Ifland. "The Mastich-tree -j.Lat. Calaba. HIS often grows to a great Height. The Colour of its Bark is brownifh. The T

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4 ^ r^o T'Jje Natural Hiftory of the Book VI. The larger Branches divide into a great many lefs ones ; and are thickly cloathed with deep-green fhining Leaves, vt^hofe middle Ribs arc tinged with Yellow. . Thcfe are about Three Inches long, and near Two broad. 'Their Edges are neatly lablated into feveral eafy Sh2us\^ and fet on the Branches alternately, fupported by Footftalks of about an Inch long. The Flowers are yellow, and fucceeded by a Fruit, which hath a diftant Refemblance to a Shrub. This Tree is of a very clofe Grain, hard and durable ; therefore much made ufe of in Mill and Houfe-building. ^ 7>6^ Cassado-tree : M J 'k THE Caffado-trees, or rather Shrubs, are pithy on the Infide j and feirlnm crrnvv hiaher fhan Fivf Feet*. feldom grow higher than Five Feet. They are diftinguifhed into the White, and Old Sort the former being ready to be rooted up, and ufed, in about Four Months after it is planted ; anditsjuiceis not fo ftrong a Poifon as the other old Sort. The Root, which is the Part ufed in both, is large and white, and fo foft, that it may be eafily grated. Thefe Shrubs have a few weak Branches. Thcfe, as well as the main Trunk, towards their Extremities, are cloathed with many large digitated Leaves upon reddifh Footftalks, of about Six Inches long. ^ The Flowers are deeply divided into Five Sedions, whofe Edges are tinged with a pale Purple. Out of the Centre rife Eight Stamina^ tipped with yellow farinaceous Apices. \v^ of thefe Stamina fall back, and lean againft the different Sedions. The Flowers are fucceeded by many fmall round green Berries, whofe Outfide is divided into Five felvaged Seams, the Infide containing Three blackifh Seeds. . The Method of making Bread from the Roots is, firft, to grate them very fine, and prefs out the Juice, and dry the mealy Part in the Sun; and then make it into thin Loaves, like thofe made with Oatmeal in many of the Country Parts of E?tgland, Scotlaitd^ and Wales. This Bread is well tafted, and nourifhing ; and, by Its abforbent Quaity, it is highly ferviceable to Pcrfons of a plethoric Habit, or inclinable to Dropfies. l^he Juice is a quick mortal Poifon to every Animal. Having tried an Experiment upon Two half-grown Fowls, by pourintr down their Throats Two Tea-fpoonfuls of this Juice, newly expreffed, i^ foon threw them into Convulfions ; and they both died in about half an Hour s time. *, Leather1 y

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Book VI. IJland y B A R B A P O S. EATHER -Goat-tree. 151 HIS grows to a confiderable Height* The Bark is of a darkifh Colour. T r : The Branches are many and ftraggling, their Tops generally bending' downwards. The younger Twigs are feemingly jointed. ^ Thefe are cloathed with broad Leaves, reddifli when young, whofe Stalks, as well as their Ribs, are then thickly covered with a pale-yellow Pile, or foft-pointed Setie, The Leaves, as they grow old, turn green, being then in Length about Ten Liches, and Twelve in Breadth, having their middle, as well as their tranfverfe Ribs prominent and jftrong. From the Bofoms of the Leaves rife many Six-inch long Spikes, fuir.rounded with fmall Berries, red when ripe ; the Infide being likewife full of reddifhPulp, inclofmg feveral fmall darkifli Seeds. • . . B F Clammy Cherry-tree ; Lat. Malpighia. HIS Tree grows to a confiderable Bignefs, covered with a greyifli' Bark.' ' = The Leaves are in Bunches from Three to Five, upon the Tops of the leffer Twio-s. Thefe are about Five Inches long, fharp-pointed, and near Two Inches and an half broad. • The Flowers are of a pale-yellow Colour ; and the fucceeding Fruit when ripe, as big as a middling Cherry. Thefe grow in Clufters, of a fine red Colour. The Pulp is very clammy^ and furrounds a great many fmall Seeds. A^ I'h. y V T^ HIS very much refembles the red Cherry-tree, except that the -A Leaves of the black Cherry-tree are fomewhat larger, fmoother, and thicker, than the four Cherry. The Leaves often grow clofe to the Branches ; and, when upon the leffer Twigs, they are pennated. From among thefe rife the Flowers, which (except in Colour, which is red) very much refemble thofe of the Coffeetree. ;, Thefe are fucceeded by fmall blackifh Berries. V : 7^^ Red Cherry-tree. ^ I 'HIS Tree feldom grows above Eighteen Feet high. -" Its Branches are numerous, but fmall, and cloathed with a great many deep-green round-pointed Leaves, ^q From

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^2 T^he Natural tiiflory of the Book VI, From the Bofom of thefe rife many Footftalks, fupporting fmall Fiveleaved Flowers. Their Petals furround feveral green Stamina^ ^^PP^^ wixh. yellow Sum. mits. The whole Flower isfupported by feveral fmall capfular Leaves, and fucceedcd by the Fruit, which is red, when ripe ; of about the Bignefs of a fmall Cherry, but more compreffed at both Ends. Thefe are of an agreeable fweet, mixed with an acid Tafte. 'The Infide is full of fniall whitifli Seeds. T'he Belly-Ach, THE Roots of this Shrub are few in Number, and white, penetratinodeep into the Earth. The main Stalk, which is covered with a light greyifh Bark, grows to about Three or Four Feet high, foon dividing into feveral wide-extended Branches. The Body of the Shrub, within Three Inches of the Ground, fwells, or bulges out. From this Swelling, by Incifion, is taken out, when ripe, a rough granated Core or Kernel, of a pale Red, and fometimes near as larire as a Pullet's Egg. ^ This is extraneous to the Nature of the Shrub, and as diftindly fepafable from it, tho' in clofe Contad; with it, as a Peach-ftone is from the pulpy Part thereof. It is alfo of the fame Nature and QuaHty as Hellebore j and anfwers, to all Intents and Purpofes, the Ufe of it. The Branches of the Shrub are neither decorated with Leaves nor Flowers, till near the Top : There the former, which are deeply fegmented into Three or Four Divifions, furround it. Thefe, including the Sedions, are aboiit Five Inches long, and near as broad. Their Footftalks,as well as the young Buds, on the Extremity of the Branches, are guarded round with ftiff hairy Briftles, which are always tipped with glutinous hquid Drops. ^'^^^^^-^ongt^^^^ deep-red pentapetalous Flowers ; the Pifti of each bemg thick-fet at the Top with yellow farinaceous Dult, which blows off when ripe. Ju'^' ^^'''^•'' "-'^ fucceeded by hexagonal husky blackilh Berries ; I A \^^^^^P^>,^Fn, V the Heat of the Sun s emitting a great many fmdl dark-coloured Seeds, which ferve as Food for Ground-do'ves. 1 he Leaves of this Shrub are few, and feldom or never drop off, nor are torn or eaten by Vermin of the 'Eruca, or any other kind. ^ damm^rr-r 1 r T^'^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ conjeaure, that this clammy Liquid, like Bird-lime, with which each of the above-mentioned J

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F r ^^ ^ '\ ji. .fl""--

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J '_ \ h' -* *' J-^/rcC&M.^a 7^2. a^e. t \ % jy^/t^Ilate, At J/ -\r \

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K'* Book VI. ip;^^ 0/ B A R B A D O S, 15 Set^ or Briftles are tipped, is defigned to intangle and prevent Caterpillers, or otlicr Vermin, from climbing up to deftroy t]he few Leaves, with which Nature hath fo fparingly fupplied this Plant. As for other Plants, which are not thus guarded, as their Leaves are generally very numerous, if fome of thefe are deftroyed by Worms, they foon, in fo warm a Climate, recover this Lofs, and the Plant renews its wonted Verdure Perhaps, likewife, this gluey Sub ftance maybe of furtherUfe, if gathered by Butterflies, or other flying Infeds (efpecially the former, which are often feen hovering about the Flowers), to glutinize their Bags or Webs, before they enter into their ^^i^r^//^-ftate. The Seeds dropping from the ripe Berries are fo great a Specific againft Melancholy, that even Doves, that have ufed to feed on them, will not, when confined to a Cage, whoot, if deprived of thefe, and Bird-pepper. It is faid, that Fifteen of the Berries, pulverized, and taken inwardly, prove a good Purge. It grows in every Part of the Ifiand, but m.oft luxuriant in a fandy loofe Soil. This is delineated in Plate XL Fig. i. r ^ r T'he Prickly Hoop, or the White Thorn. THIS derives its Name from the Ufe that is fometimes made of it to hoop VejTels. The main Stalk, when full-grown, is generally bigger than one's Arm, dividing, near the Ground, into many prickly Branches. Thefe grow, efpecially if fupported by low Underwood, to fometimes near Thirty Feet in Length. , The Bark is of a whitifh Grey. The fmall Side-branches, as well as the Leaves, are fet on alternately.' The latter are, near the Stalk, about Two Inches in Breadth, and Two Inches and an half in Length, ending in a long fharp Point. Their Edges are fiightly fnipped, and the Colour of the Leaf of a faint Green, inclined to a Yellow. The middle Rib is ftrengthened, befides the tranfverfe ones, with Two, or fometimes more, longitudinal ftrong Veins, or Ribs., The Flowers are fucceeded by middle-fized Berries, red when ripe. Thefe are fometimes eaten by Men, but chiefly by Birds. — I T'he Aloes Plant ; Lat. Aloe vulgaris. s T^ His very fucculent Plant hath one large Root, with a great many '^ other fmall ftringy Roots growing from it. The Number of Leaves are generally about Twenty. Thefe,

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V^s fV 54T/je Natural Hijlory o BookVX • Thefe, near the Roots, are Two Inches broad, and near one thick, gorwing to Eighteen or Twenty Inches high, ending in a fliarp Point. Each Side of the Leaf is guarded, at every Half-inch Diftance, with a ftrohg fmiiU Prickle. Out of the Middle of thefe Leaves rifes a llender conic Stalk, fome^times divided into Two Forks, at uncertain Diftance from the Root. This rifcs about Eighteen Inches above the Top of the Leaves, bearing, near the Summits, feveral pendulous yellow monopetalous Flowers, whofe Or^ are divided into Six Segments ; thefe furrounding the Stalk for near Four Inches downwards from the Top, making a very agreeable Appearance. Each Flower hath a fmall Aperture at the End ; thro' which a great Number of fmall blackilli Seeds drop out, when ripe. It will not, I hope, be improper, in this Place, to obferve the Method of planting, cutting, and boiling of Aloes, fince there are many Parts of his Majefty's Plantations, befides thefe Summer-Iflands, that would pro^duce this Plant, with proper Care and Nourifliment. The Land deligned for Aloes muft be firfl: weeded clean, and then holed Three Inches deep, at about Six Inches Diftance. Then the Suckers from the old Plants, or thofe produced from the Seeds, are planted in thefe Holes. The Land, for the firft Year, muft be kept clean' from Weeds ; afterwards, the Shade of the Leaves of the Plant will keep the Weeds under." Being thus planted, there will be no Occafton to replant it for Seven lYears. It comes to its Perfeflion In a Year's time. H The Month of Marc/j is the propereft Seafon to make the Aloes i which is done in the following manner : Every Slave hath by him Three or Four portable Tubs. The Leaves, being cut near' the Roots, are thrown into thefe, with their broken Ends downwards ; and as the Leaves are full of large longitudinal Veins or Veffels, they yield an eafy Paflage to the Juice (which is of a greenifli-yellow Colour) to drip out. This being boiled for about Five Hours in a Copper, or Kettle, the .watry Particles evaporate; and the Remainder comes to a Confiftency, and thickens, as Sugar doth when fufhciently boiled. ^ The way to know when it is enough boiled is, to dip a Stick in the Liquor, and obferve whether the Aloe, fticking to it when cold, breaks fliort : If .it doth, then it is boiled to Perfection, and fit to be poured into Gourds or Calabafhes, or other Veffels, for Ufe. Aloe is much made ufe of in Purges, and juftly efteemed of great Ser^vice In many Cafes.. However, Dr. James, in his Medicinal Dictionary, not to be given to Women with Child^ nor to Perfons fubjeft to the '^ Piles ; for it rarefies the Blood too much, and caufes Hemorrhoids. Hen•r .^-fays ) It ought

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^ 4 Book VI. ipnd THIS is a thick bufliy Shrub, growing to about Two Feet high.. Its Leaves are fmall and rough, of a whitifh Grey, and thickfet, generally Three together round the Stalk, in a triangular manner ; their Edges being bluntly ferrated. The Flowers are of the galeated, monopetalous kind, divided at their Extremities into Four unequal Segments, of a pale Red, altering generally at the Difcus to a bright-yellow Colour. Thefe Flowers are many in Number, fupported upon Stalks rifing from the Bofom of the Leaves ; the tubulous Part ferving for Seed-velTels. Each Flower is fucceeded by a fmall purpHfh Berry. Thefe ferve for Food to Sparrows, and other Birds ; and the Leaves of the Shrub, being either boiled into a Decodion, or made into Tea, are an excellent Sudorific and Peftoral. It grows chiefly in dry Places, and flouriflies all the Year round. L. ^ R r He

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r k ri 7^6 e Iflory of the BookVt 4 r ^ 7^/6^ MisLEToE, or Bird's Turd. "'HE Origin of this Shrub is a fmall white Berry, containing a very dutlnous mi J uice. ; Thefe, when ripe, are eaten by Birds ; and by them often voided upon other Trees, where they ftick very faft, and foon after germinate, I am apt to believe, that this brownifh Juice hath likewife a "corrofive Quahty, which frets and wears away the outward Bark of the Tree on which it flicks; by this means opening a Paffage for the new tubular jRoots. of the Berry, to penetrate among thofe larger Veffcls of the Tree, thro' which the nutritious Juices are conveyed. .Thefe Roots being thus able to fuck Nourifhment, the young Sprout foon grows generally at firfl: in Two or Three fpiral Convolutions or Twiftings round the Branch : By thus grafping, it not only ftrengthehs its weak Roots, and takes a firmer hold of the Tree 3 but fuch a Ligature, as it grows, finks deep into the Bark, and prevents, in a great meafure, the further progrefilve Motion of the Juices 3 fo that thefe, receding but a little Way back towards the Root, are abforbed, and fucked up, by the numerous Mouths in the Roots of this foftering Shrub, which daily penetrate more and more into the Tree. What confirms me in this Opinion, is, that the Branch, from the Place where the Mifletoe takes Root, to the Top, is generally in a very decaying. Condition. The Leaves of this parafitical Shrub are of a dark Green, fet on In a pennated manner, never terminated by an odd one. This grows to about Three Feet high, and btifhy, bearing a fmall white Flower, fucceeded by a Berry, as above defcribed. The milky Juice, being fqueezed out, is made ufe of to cure Fluxes and Lasks. It grows chiefly upon Orange-trees. The Narrow-leav'd Missletoe. L 'ft / I ^H IS grows in Tufts, confifting of Six or Seven narrow Leaves, of ~ -about Six Inches long. They are generally to be found in the Clefts of the Bark of Cedartrees. it ^ <^ I ri X T'/^^ Spirit Weed. r ri THIS is a ftrong Shrub, having many fubfiantial Roots. 1 1~0 I /nOTr/^n rt-r-."* A ] _1_ ^ T^l_ ._^ T. _.!.__ .1 p.oin ted. Its Leaves are pennated about Three Inches long, and fharpThe // I

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"^ ^y. Book VI. IJIad of BARB AD OS. 157 The Flowers are yellow, ftanding upon long Footftalks, rifing generally from the Bofom of the Leaves, and of the tetrapetalous Kind. Thefe are fucceeded by a fmall Berry, of a dark-red^ when ripe ; containing fometimes Two or more blackifh Seeds. A Decodlion of this Wood is efteemed to be a ftrong Diuretic. T m, T'he Pigeon-Wood. 4 HIS is a fhrubby Tree, feldom growing to above Six Feet high. The Wood is very folid ; and the Bark whitifh. T.* Its numerous fmall Branches are thickly cloathed with fmall roundpointed winged Leaves. The fmall white BlofToms it bears are fucceeded by a great many white Berries. L J 7%e Sweet Wood-tree. '' I ^ H IS is of Two forts ; the one bearing a Berry li 'JThat which bears the white Bark is the beft anc like a Damalcen. and moft folid Tim^ / ber.'^^ That with the green Bark, and white within, is of lefs Value, The Leaves of the former refemble thofe of the Bay-tree. Thefe are fet on alternately. The Berries are fupported by fmall Pedicles, rifing from the Bofom of the Leaves. Thefe, when ripe, are eaten by Pivets, and Ground-doves, &^c. T Th Balsam-tree. HIS is a middle-fized Tree, growing generally in Gullies, and fhady Places. Its Roots are few, but flrong. The Colour of the Bark is of a reddifh Grey. Its Branches are many and fpiral, thickly cloathed with very fmooth fhining fucculent Leaves, pale underneath, and green above. Thefe are narrow at the Stalk, but broad and round-pointed at their Extremities. Their Edges are fmooth, and tinged with a pale Yellow. The Flowers confift of Six ftrong white Leaves, furrounding a yellowifh Thrum, and fupported by Four white capfiilar Leaves, The Stalks bearing the Flowers are long, white, and brittle. The fucceeding Benies are of an oblong Shape^ about the Bignefs of a Nutmeg, and of a deep Red, when ripe. Thefe are' decorated with a Corona at the Top. The

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158 I'h'e Natural Hiflory of' the Book VI. The Berry Is likewife marked with Six unlnclented Seams of a blackifh Colour, feemingly dividing it into fo many Partitions. ^ % 'The Leaves, Stalk, and Fruit, when broken, emit a white glutinous Liquid, whicli will harden by the Heat of the Sun. -V T'he Lignum Rorum. L T^HE Bark of this fhrubby Tree is of a dark Green, ftreaked with -*White, efpecially on the younger Branches. -' Thefe are covered with fmooth deep-green round-pointed Leaves, Five Inches long, and near Three broad. ;. The fmaller Twigs fuftain Bunches of white Flowers, each compofed of Six Petals furrounding Six flender pale yellowlfh Stajjiina, Thefe inclofe a whitifh PIftil, which is fucceeded by a fmall Berry of a purple Red, when ripe. ^ The younger Branches are feemingly jointed. "Thefe, and every other Part of this Tree, have fo much of a terebinQual Quality it derives the Name of Jack f beins tied intoTagots, and lighted, It ferves the Fifliermen inftead of Torches, to fifh In the Night-time for Crabs and Lobfters. It grows generally In fhady Places. The CoFFEE-TREE \ Lat, JasmixVum Arabic UM. T H E Coffee-tree, If iheltered, grows to be about Fifteen Feet hiah tho' Its common Growth feldom exceeds Twelve. ^ It divides Into feveral flender Branches, generally fpiral. The Bark likewife Is of a fmooth reddifh-grey Colour. The Branches are cloathed with Four-Inch long fharp-pointed darkgreen Leaves, their Edges being waved or fmuated in an elegant regular manner.. ^ Among thefe Leaves rife a great many Five-leaved white Flowers, each Petal hemg round-pomted ; the Whole furrounding feveral fhort white Mamma, loaded with yipices. Thefe likewife furround the'Piftll, which is the Rudiment of the fuc'ceeding Berry. Capfula when Mcie„.ly dried' in ehe Sun, eaffl^ cik;' aTd dV;:S .heZ; 'Which IS too well known to want a further Defcription. K m. Sj Box-

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v_ Book VI. ^^;^/^ 0/ BARB AD OS. 159 ^_J T Box-Wood. HIS Shrub is covered with a whitifh-grey Bark. .. Its Leaves are about Two Inches long, and One broad ; and are generally fliarp-pointed. Thefe are fet on the Branches alternately. The Flowers are of the tubular ftellated Kind, fuccee'ded by fmall Berries, which are eaten by Birds of different kinds. This Shrub generally grows in the Shade Several of thefe are to be found on the Eftate of yoin CoUitony Efq; in St, Lucy\ Parifh. ^he Wild Honey-tree* HIS Tree grows to a confiderable Bignefs. The Bark is fomewhat fulcated, and of a reddifli-grey Colour. T The Leaves are of a deep Green, fmooth, and winged, exaftly refeni-6 bling Ivy-Leaves. Its white Flowers are fucceeded by Berries, fomewhat round, as big as a Cherry. ^ Thefe are of a fnowy' White without ; and the Pulp within (which is -as fweet as Honey, and as yellow as Gold) is divided into Partitions, including many fmall Seeds. jun. in St, Lucys Parifh. Jofeph Jc T'he Black Cherry-tree. I w TPHIS Tree feldom rifes above Eighteen or Twenty Feet high* *The Bark is of a rufTet Grey, and the Branches thickly cloathed with dark-green Leaves of about Two Inches long, and one and an haljf broad. The Flov/ers are \vhite, and of the rofaceous Kind* Thefe are fucceeded by fmall black Cherries, fomewhat larger, and more comprefTed at both Ends, than the E?tglijh Black-cherry. Their fweetifh Pulp furrounds a foft Kernel. They are generally ripe in Augujl and Septe^nber.^ and are eaten by Men as well as Birds. This grows in almofl every Parifh in the Ifland. J 7>6^ Black Sage-bush His hath a great many flrong Roots. The main Stalk is cloathed with a blackifh Bark* T /The Leaves, which are high-ribbed, and corrugated, are about Two Inches and an half long, and above One broad, S f Thefe -{

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i6& t The Natural Hiflory of the Book VI Thefe are fct on alternately, The Top-branches fuftain a Spike, thickly fludded with very fmatl ftellated Flowers, which are fucceeded by as many fmall fharp-polnted Berries, red when ripe The Leaves, as well as the whole Shrub, liaV-e a ftrong Sage-like SmelL A Deco6lion of thcfc is juftly looked upgn to be an excellent Sudorific^ It grows in moft Part? of the Ifland. Tthe Ink-Vine. TH I S is a creeping weak Vine, fupported by the neighbouring Rocks, or Underwood, ^c. Its Leaves are of a middle Size, divided into Three deep Seftions. It bears many blue Flowers, Thefe are fucceeded by fmall Berries, very black within. This Vine grows in dry fhady Places. .. J. it derives its Name. Chi GERY-BUSH. 'TP HERE is fcarce any Difference between this and what we have -*' already called Soldier-bujh, And, as the latter, in fome Parts of the Ifland, go under the Name of the former, I take the only Diftindlon between thefe feemingly difFerent Plants to be more owing to either the Male or Female kind, or to the more luxuriant Growth of this fame Plant in various Soils, than to any other real DifFerence. It grows generally in fliady Places. "The Vi^iLD Calabash. I H I S is a Shrub, growing about Ten Feet high, the Branches being -*generally very flralt, thickly covered with long green Leaves ; in Shape not ill refembHng thofe of a Laurel. From the Bofom of the Leaves, on fliort Footftalks, arife a great Number of fmall Berries, black when ripe,. Thefe are eaten by Pivets, and other Birds. Cat's-Blood. T Grey, The leffer Branches are genlculated. Th&

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Book VI. Jjland of BARBADOS. i^i Qu ter long, and about half an Inch broadj and fliarp-po:ntedj beariao-^ flender Spikes, feveral very fniall Four-leav'd Flowers. The Piftil, which grows from the Centre of each, is tipped with an Ape":^^ and fucceeded by a fmall red Beny. A Cataplafm of this Plant, bruifed, is very juftly looked unon to be a good Vulnerary. It grows chiefly in fhidy Places ; and blooms in June and July, I have found this Plant in great Plenty in the Parifhes of St Peter and St, Lucy. I'he So ldierVbush. THIS Plant is jointed, at different Diftances, from Three to Eight Inches afunder. Its Roots are ftrong and fibrous ; the main Stalk, and its divided Branches, growing often above Four Feet high. The Leaves arc near Six Inches long, and Four broad. Its upper Side is thinly befet with very fhort hairy Briftles. From the Top of the Branches rife fmall white Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall white Berries, fpotted with Black. There often grows at the Root of this Plant a fungous Excrefcence, which anfwers the End of Touchwood. It is juftly eftecmed an excellent Vulnerary, and wdth great Succefsj made a Part of mofl kinds of healing Salves. T Pops; Lat, Alkekengi Indicum majus. HIS Plant hath a fiftular quadrangular Stalk, growing to about Two Feet high, cloathed with thin flender Leaves, Four Inches long, and Two broad, having their Edges, at uncertain Diftances, neatly fnipped. Upon the Top of the Stalks appear feveral yellow apetalous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by thin bluifh capfular Pods, which inclofe a round green Fruit of about the Bignefs of a fmall Cherry. As this ripens, and turns yellow, the outward Pod, or Coverings which is of a blunt conic Form, withers, and drops off. The Fruit is full of fmall Seeds, not difagreeable to the Tafte. They are juftly looked upon to be very diuretic. There is another Plant, which bears the fame kind of Fruit. This differs from that already defcribed, by being a creeping fcandent Plant, and its Leaves fliorter and thicker than the former. This is called the Pop-Fine^ and grows in moft Parts of the Ifland ; elpecially under the Shelter of Hills. S' \C-

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t62 4 t 'f/)e Natural Hiftory of the w "The Berry-bush, or HedgeBook VI. T IIS often grows to abour cjeveniccu rccL m^u, v^iu^uicia w preen Leaves, Six Inches long, and an Inch and an half ^ broad. ^ green i-cLivc:., ui^ x..^..-. .^"^, i i • ^r • -iii r.-i Thefe are fet on the Branches alternately, havnig their middle Ribs thickly guarded vi^ith fharp reddifh Prickles. The Ends of the leffer Branches fuftain a great Number of white Five-leaved Flowers. ^ Thefe Petals furround a yellow PIftil, divided at the Top. This is fucceeded by a fmall red Berry, which is looked upon to be very wholfome : However, its Tafte is not very agreeable, and therefore feldom eaten by Men. r r l' H :' 7^/6^ Wild Pepper-grass. TH I S hath a great many ftrong ftringy Roots, penetrating about Five Inches into the Earth, The Bark of the main Stalk is greyilh, foon dividing into numerous fmall Branches, thickly covered with very fmall fharp-pointed Leaves. From among thefe rife very many Pedicles, fupporting feveral fmall Star-like Flowers, fucceeded by very many capfular round Pods, inclofing a great many very minute ruffet Seeds. The whole Plant feldom grows above Two Feet high. It is to be found in almoft every Part of the Ifland. f l^he Fire-burn Weed. "^HE main Stalk of this Plant grows to be about Three Feet high.' -^ It is generally of a green Colour, chanelled and pithy. The Leaves are about Three Inches long, and Two in Breadth, having their middle, as well as their tranfverfe Ribs ftrong and prominent. From among thefe rife a great many Footftalks, or Pedicles, of a pale 'Red, fupporting, upon a Spire, a great many fmall white-leaved Flowers, each confifting of Four Petals, furrounding a white Piftil. Thefe are fucceeded by many fmall Berrries, red when ripe ; whofe Pulp (which inclofe a great many blackifti Seeds) is Hkcwife as red as Blood. • Gooseberry Shrub. The main Stalk of this fcandent Shrub divides near the Earth into many Icffer ones. ^^ The Bark of thefe is of a dark-yellowifti Green. The Leaves which grow in Pairs upon one common Footftalk, are fmall, fmooth, and fucculent, having their Edges fomewhat tinged with '-Yellow. The *-.

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i __ Book VI. ipnd of BARBADOS. i^ : The Flowers are fucceeded by Berries about as big as a rniddlin'^ Goofeberry. • Thefe are coronated at the Top ; the Infide containing, in an agreeable fweetifh Pulp, feveral fmal] Adm\ like thofe of Goofeberries; This Berry is, above all others, remarkable, by a great many fmall Leaves, which grow upon the Oytfidc of iti The feveral Branches of this Shrub are likewife guarded with very fharp-pointed Prickles. I found this growing in great Plenty on the Eftate of the Honourable yohn Majcosky Efq; in Sf. Lticfs Parifh. T'he Wild Caterpiller; i<3'/. Blitum Americanum fpinofum. THIS chiefly differs from the eatable Sort, by the Smallnefs of its Leaves, as well as that the feveral Tufts of Leaves are guarded near the main Stalks with Two or Three fharp-pointed Prickles. Thefe are Hkewife of the red and white Sort, differing fcarce in any thing but Colour. They grow chiefly in open Fields ; efpecially at the Plantation of the Honourable William Maynard^ Elq; in St, T^ho7nass Parifh* ^Zi^ Milk-Weed. THIS kiftefcent Plant is difl:inguifhed into the red and white Sort,. Thefe feldom rile above Fifteen Inches high. The main Stalk, with its flender Side-branches, is thickly covered with feveral Pairs of fmall pennated Leaves, fomething incHnable to an oval Shape, having their Edges finely ferrated. From the Bofoms of the Leaves rife a great many finall Pedicles, fuftaining on their Summits a Group of very fmall, fcarce perceivable, white tubular Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall Berries The Roots or the Stalks of this Plant, when wounded, emit a milky Juice. It grows in mofl Parts of the Ifland, and is made ufe of as Part of the Ingredients in Diet-drinks, to cleanfe the Blood. Dove-WeedTHIS fmall Plant feldom rifes above a Foot high. Its Roots are fibrous and many. Its main Stalk divides into feveral Side-branches* • T t Thefe

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'fH ^e Natural Hiflony of the Book VI. / Thefe are very thickly cloathed in an alternate Order, with fmall oval Leaves, not ill refembling thofe of Tamarinds, Its Flovi^ersj which are monopetalousj whofe One ai*e divided into Five Seflions, are fucceeded by fmall Capfule^ fomewhat refembling Berries. ... The fmall Doves feed on thefe j and from thence this Plant derives its Name. This Plant, reduced to Powder, is a great Drier-up of old Sores. The milky Juice, which iffues out of the Stalky is looked upon to be good to deftroy Warts. . It grows in moft Parts of the Ifland, efpecially in rocky or gravelly Soil. % GuM^tA-BirsH. T t HIS grows to be about Eighteen Inches high, the Stalk very green and fucculent. The Leaves are about Two Inches long, and above an Inch broad ; their Edges being irregularly and deeply ferrated. .From among the Leaves arife a great many white finall Five-leaved Flowers, inclofing broad clofe yellow l^tmmta^ furrounding a green Stylus, __ The Flowers are fucceeded by very round fmall Berries, black when rip e. •^ H The Leaves of the Plant are made ufe of by the Negroes, as boiled Sallad; but feldom, if ever, made ufe of by the White Inhabitants. b l^he White Hercules THIS differs chiefly from the other by the Colour of its inner ^ Bark, which is white. The Flowers are very fmall, and of the herbaceous Kind. Thefe are fucceeded by a capfular Bunch, full of fmall black oval Seeds. The Buds of this Tree, boiled into a Decoaion, are very good to Water This grows beft under the Shade of an Hill. L L L BouMBo Bush. y ^ F y '^ HIS Bufh hath a very offenfive ftrong Smell. It grows to about Two Feet high, thickly cloathed with Leaves. It grows in moft Parts of the Ifland. PURSLAIN^ :i

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Book VI. Ifland 0/ B A R B A D S. PuRSLAiN, White ^/?^Red. THESE difFer very little, if any thing, from thofe In England^ except in the Ranknefs of their Growth here. They are generally boiled and ufed, when more Valuable Greens are not in Plenty. L '" ^ 7y&^ Arabian Jessammy; Z.^s'/. Jasminum five Sam bac Arabum. r THIS is a woody creeping Vine, cloathed with dark-green fharppointed Leaves, of about Two Inches long, arid one broad, bearing Seven-leaved white fragrant Flowers. Thefe are fupported by Seven very fharp-pointed graminous Leaves. This is planted chiefly in Gardens, 6x near Dwelling-houfes* It yields a very agreeable fragrant Smell, and keeps its Verdure all the '^H Year. ^ TithyMaloides. THE Roots of this are very numerous and flrong. The main Stalk branches near the Earth, into many fpiral ftrong Twigs. The Bark of the Trunk, near the Roots, is fmooth and whitifh ; but all its Branches of a deep fhining Green, keeping their grateful Verdure undiminiflied thro' every Seafon of the Year. Thefe are cloathed with thick fucculent green round-pointed Leaves, of about Four Inches long, and Two in Breadth, having their fmooth Edges a little tinged with Yellow. Thefe are likewife fet on the Branches alternately. The Flower, which is of a fine deep Red, cannot be reduced to any Clafs that hath hitherto been defcribed by any Botanical Writer, it being a triangular fharp-pointed fmall horizontal Sheath ; the Top of the Piftil jutting out, making the Extremity of the longefl Angle : This, on the Infide of the Flower, is covered with a yellow farinaceous Duft. From the fame narrow Aperture appear feveral fmall Stamina^ tipped with green ^^/'/c^j'. Thefe Flowers are fucceeded by triangular fmall Berries, of a dark Red when ripe. Each of thefe inclofes Three angular Seeds. The Berries, Branches, and Leaves, are full of a thick glutinous milky Juice. The only Place that I have feen this was at Cluff's Bay^ in St. Lucys Parifh. This very feldom grows in any other Part of the Ifland. Tk

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J 66 \ "The Natural Htftory of the Book VI ^he fmall Wild Cucumber. THIS is a fmall Vine, creeping generally along old Walls. Its Leaves are thin, and fliarp-pointed, of about an Inch and an Jialf long, and as broad near the Stalk, where they grow out, as it were, into Ears. . The Flowers are fucceeded by a fmall fmooth Fruit, of about the Bignefs and Form of a Thimble. . Thefe, when ripe, are of a bluifh black Colour, and are eatable* \ 1H T'he Poison-Wyth, THIS is a large fcandent ligneous fhrubby Vine, whofe Roots are very many, and ftrong ; and the main Body of the Wyth, near the Ground, as large as one's Arm, and fomewhat flattifli,. This climbs to a great Height, and is cloathed with iliarp-pointed green Leaves of above Three Inches long, and near Two broad. If the main Stalk is cut off near the Ground, or at any Height, the upper Part, covering the Trees or Rocks, will ftill furvive, and in a fhort time fend down, from feveral Parts, long ftringy Filaments ; which, growing downward, take Root, and fupply the Place of the broken-off Stalk. ^ The Flowers are, in Appearance, like a Bunch of red Coral, fucceeded by fmall Berries, black when ripe. -i *^h 7 ^^

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TREES, SHRUBS, and PLANTS, 167 O F T H E Capjuk-h earing R U T S. BOOK VI. Prickle-Yellow-Wood 5 Lat. Xanthoxylum. HIS is a TimberTree, growing large enough to be faw'd into Planks, or Boards, for Tables, and other Ufes. Its Roots are many and ftrong. The Wood is of a very fine clofe Grain, ponderous, and of a yellow Colour ; and the Bark of a reddifli Grey. The main Branches are many, fhooting out into a great Number of leffer ones.: Thefe are beautifully decorated with a great many winged Leaves* The Edges of thefe are regularly indented ;' and between each Segment the Leaf is generally waved, or labiated. Its' Length is about two, and its Breadth about one Inch. The whole Tree, palrticularly when young, is ;uarded with fhort Prickles. The Flowers are fucceeded by a Group of Capfu Qu Wild Hemp. J ri TH E R E are two Sorts of this Plant, the White and Red : The latter never grows above two Feet high : The other, which is moft ufeful, to above five Feet. The outward Coat of this, when ripe, affords Uu numerous /

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* # i68 The f of Book Vl numerous ftrong Filaments, fomewhat coarfer than what is peeled off f our Englijh Hemp-plant : This ferves to make Ropes, and fuch Uf The Flowers are yellow, fucceeded by fmall Capfulcey inclofing a gr > Number of fmall black Seeds. The Stalks and Leaves are thickly cov ed with ftiff Hairsj fharp even to a Pricklinefs. The Leaf is bluntl" ferrated, ^nd high-rib'd ; in Length about two Inches, and in Breadth about an Inch and an half. The Barbados Pink. 'T^ H I S is a very flender, ^ branches. bufhy, creeping Vine, full of fmall Sidecloathed with numerous very narrow grafly Leaves generally fet on alternately. The Flowers, which are tubular and monopetalous, are of a deep Scarlet. Their Ora are divided into five Segments the intermediate Spaces forming as many fharp-pointed Angles. The Infide of the tubular Part of the Flower appears whitift. From this Part rife feveral Stamina, tipped with whitifli Apices. The Flowers are fucceedCapfulce #' r The Hop-Shrub: ? Mel lobula na. np HIS shrub grows to be about five Feet high. The Leaves are fmooth, and round-pointed, and of about three Inches long, and above one broad. Thefe are fet on the Branches in an alternate Order. The Flowers, which ftand on long ligneous Pedicles, are each fucceeded by very thin brownifh C^/y^/^, refembling at a Diftance Hops, and of a triangular Shape. This is blown out like a Bladder between each Angle, as well as every Angle terminating in a thin Border, or Ala. T Monkey-Vine. H I S is a long creeping Vine, of a dark-reddifh Colour, and hairy. The Leaves are of an Heart-fafhion, but fomewhat auriculated near the Stalk. From the Bottom of the Leaves rife many long tubular white From Flowers, whofe Ora are much expanded, and ting'd with Purple, ^l.u. the Centre of the Flower rife feveral white Stamina, tipp'd with long white Apices. The Flowers are fucceeded by a fmall round whitifh CabJula, each \pr-\,^C-^r, c^ ui — i. 1 r, i , ,.; Onionfeeds. Plantain-Shotj Z^/.Cannacorus. 'Tn HI S Plant grows generally in fliady Places, and often to five Feet high. Its main Stalk is tubular, cloathed at different Diftances with very imooth green Leaves, in Make and Subftance very much refembling a 1 iantain-Leaf. Thefe are about nine Inches long, and five broad. The • Flowers I I / ^ ^V

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Bjck VI. IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. Flowers ftand upon ftrong Footftalks, each having at firfl: the Appearance of a fcarlet Pod of an Inch and an half long : When this opens, it difcovers three fcarlet fpoon-hke Leaves. The Infide of one of thefe, when it defleds back, appears ftained vv^ith Yellow and Red. From the Centre of the Leaves rifes a reddifh flat Pointal, incircled by another reddifli Leaf, fpotted with Yellow ; to whofe Edge, near the Top, flicks a long whitifh ApP'^* The Flowers are fucceeded by fmall Capfulce^ each inclofing a round black hard Seed, as big as Swan-fhot: From thefe, and the Make of its Leaves, they derive the Name of Plantain-fhot. Logwood 5 Lat. Campechiana. HAT is called here the Logwood-tree hath a dark-coloured 160 Bark, the Branches fpreading open and wide : Thefe are here-andthere guarded with Prickles. The Leaves are many, and very fmall. Wild Clary 5 Lat. Heliotropium Americanum. HIS Plant grows to about eighteen Inches high ; the Stalk green and hairy. The Leaves are feton alternately, furrounding the Stalk: Thefe are of a middle Size, rough and crumpled, having their Edges much finuated. From the Top rifes a long gramineous Spike, ftudded with very fmall monopetalous whitifli Flowers: Thefe are fucceeded by many fmall Seeds. T' Hop-Weed. ^ H E R E are two Species of this Plant, diftinguifhed by the Name of White^and Red: TheRed grows to about eighteen Inches high. T he Leaves are rough, and about two Inches long, and above an Inch broad; their Edges being irregularly ferrated. From the Bofom of the Leaves rife many Footftalks, thick-fet with blue tubular Flowers, fucceeded by fmall Seeds. A Decodtion of this Plant is made ufe of, as a gentle Gargle, to cure fore Mouths. MusKETo-BusH, or theWuiTE HopWeed. THIS derives its Name from its either real or pretended Service in driving away, by its Smell, Mufketoes from Bed-chambers, or elfewhere, by having a Bu(h or Bough of it hanging in the Room. Its Roots are many ; and the Stalk is four-fquare, and every Square chanelled. It grows in rich Land, to often above four Feet high. This is furrounded by two-inch long (harp-pointed Leaves, whofe Edges are irregularly ferrated. The Top of the Stalk fupports a blunt-pointed conic plufliy Tuft, difcovering feveral fmall tubular blue Flowers, fucceeded by many fmall Seeds.

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* 170 'The Natural Hiflory of the Book Vi. ^he Wild Peny-Royal. ^ H THIS is of two Sorts, the Red, and the White, diftinguiflied by the Colour of the Stalks. It is, in general, a low groveling Plant, jointed at every Inch and an half Diftance: From thefe Joints iffue a Pair of winged Leaves. From the Bofom of the Leaves rife feveral fmall Tufts of whitifh ftamineous Flowers, fucceeded by a Pair of winged Leaves, extending each fide the Stalk: Thefe are fomewhat ftiarp-pointed, of about an Inch W and their Edges fomewhat finuated. From the middle of thefe Bunches of Flowers rife feveral leffer Leaves, The Capful It divides near the Ground into feveral long green Leaves. Thefe are kept very upright by many longitudinal ftiffRibs. Among the Leaves rifes a flender Stalk, which, near the Summit, bears a fmall tubular white Flower, which is fucceeded by a fmall conic CapfuU^ containing feveral fmall Seeds. The Root of this Plant, pounded, is an excellent Antidote againftPoifon. I "th^ ^

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Eoc-k^VI. I/Iandof^ A R B A DOS. lyi 7he Wild-Marigold; Lat. Afterlfcus frutefens. THIS grows to about two iFeet high, tlie main Stalk is fquare, and the Leaves broad, and rough; the Top, of the Stalks fupport yeliov<^ Flowers Hke thofe of Marigold; the Petals are fucceeded by a hard ButConCapfi ^ PondWeed. TFI I S Plant grows beft in wet moift Laild, wher6 it often rifes three Feet high ; its Roots are many and fibrous ; the main Stem and Branches are of a dark Green, and hairy, cloathed with Leaves four Inches long, and one broad; thefe are likewife high-ribbed, and have their Edges finely denticulated. From the Bofom of the Leaves rife many long Spikes thickly covered on the upper Side with very fmall, white, pentapetalous Flowers, and fucceeded by feveral minute Capfulcz^ inclofed in a green Calyx \ the former are fucceeded by feveral fmall black Seeds. 7>55 Hog-Slip. TH IS is a trailing herbaceous Vine, cloathed with fharp-pointed Leaves ; from the Bofom of the Leaves rife feveral two-inch Footftalks, fupporting an umbilical Group of monopetalous yellow Flowers, whofe Edges are flightly fegmented. From the Centre of the Flower rife feveral broad Ihort Stamina^ furrounding a Piftiltipp'd with bluifli J^pices\ thefe are fucceeded by feveral Capfulcey inclofing, when ripe, feveral black Seeds. The Vine is of the herbaceous K.ind, and much coveted by Hogs. From thence it derives this Name. 7y6^ BroomWE ED. 'T^HE Species of this Plant is divided into three Sorts, the White, -* the Red, and the large crurtiple-Ieaved Broom-weed ; a Decodion of each Kind proves to be a ftrong Diuretic; the Leaf of the white fort exadlly refembles that of the Green-Tea. Tobacco 5 Z^/. Nicotiaha. ^T^ HIS Plant hath been fo often and fo well defcribed, that I need only obferve, that it is here planted but very fparingly, and that chiefly by the Slaves, and the poorer Sort of White Inhabitants, but none for Exportatioh. It is very liable to be deftroyed at the Roots by a Grub, or large Worm, called by the common People Kitifonia ; the Leaves are likewife often deftroyed by a fmall green Worm of the ErucaKind. Xx JT^tf

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1.7^ 'T'he Natural Hiflorj of the The Thistle, or Rabbit-Weed. Book vr, ^ L np HIS hath its prickly Leaves in common with mofl: other Thiftle From the Centre of thefe Leaves rifes a green Spire, whofe Extremir fupports a Flower fpmething like a .Marigold, whofe whitifli Petals furround a yellow Thrum. 4 l; Tuberose; Lat. Hyacinthus Indicus Tuberofus. n^ H I S is fo well known here, and in England^ that it would be Lofs of Time to afford it a particular Defqription. , T \ -* 1 I 7>&^ Wild-Slip. HIS Vine is generally fupported by the neighbouring low Shrubsits Leaves are of a middle Size, and of a flender Texture, and are fet on alternately ; from among thefe rife on fhortFootftalks feveral Bdl-^ fafliion Flowers, of a pale White, on the Outfideand the Infide, beautifully ftained with a fine purple Colour. Bachelor Button, or Everlasting j Z.^/. Amaranthoides Lichnidis. n^ H I S Plant hath many white Roots, the Stalk fucculent, large and jointed, of a fine deep fcarlet Colour ; from each Joint rife two oppofite Footftalks, of about an Inch long, fomewhat hairy like the main Stalk: Thefe fupport Leaves of four Inches long, and an Inch and an half broad," roundpointed and fmooth edged • the Infide of the middle Rib fomewhat reddifii j the Flower fomewhat refembles that of Clover. 7J&^ Fire-Burn Bush r ^ H I S is a fcandent Shrub, having a middle-fized {Larp-pointed Leaf, bluntlyjaggedabout the Edges; the Middle, as well as the tranfverfe Ribs, are prominent, and very neatly difpofed': The Seed-veffels are of a triangular Shape, and are fet, many in Number, round lo ng flender Stalks, rifing from the Bofom of the Leaves ; the Juice of thefe boiled, and brought to a Confiftency with Hog's Lard, and other Ingredients, are faid to be of great Service to cure a Fire-burn. rh Lat. Abutilon Indicum. 'J^ HE Roots of this Plant are few, penetrating not deep into the Ground; the Stalk, which grows to three Feet high, is woody and brittle, divide'"L^/v^"^ ^""^"^ ''^''''^ Branches: The Bark of a full-grown Plant is of a reddilh Brown, the Leaves, which are about two Inches long, one broaa, ,' and f

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Book V f IJlandof BARBADOS. 173 and blunt pointed, are foft, and downy, and of a hoary Green, having their Edges irregularly ferrated ; their middle Ribs and tranfverfe ones are ftrong and prominent. They are fet on the Stalk alternately, and from the fetting on of thefe iffues a Group of very fmall, fiftular, one-leaved, yellow Flowers, whofe Edges are divided into five Segments; thefe are fucceeded by fmall black Seeds in form of fhort blunt Cones, every Capfula havinffone. -^ : A Cataplafm of the pounded Leaves of this Plant is looked upon as an excellent Vulnerary. It grows generally in dry Places. ^ b TREES,

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< f 174 ^ 0/ TREES, SHRUBS, ^W PLANTS, O F T H E Pruniferous K N D. J,, BOOK VII 13 "Jhe Bearded Fi,g-Tree, Ficus Bengalienfis. r H E Miftakes of many Authors, in their Defcription of thi Tree, are fomany, that it would be endlefs to particularize them; at leaft, it would be an ungrateful Taflc to one who wifhes they had left no Room for Correftion, The Roots of it are many and large: The Body of the Tree, when old, is rather a Compofition of many joined irregularly together, than one undivided Trunk. This is occafioncd by the furprifing Manner that this Tree is naturally propagated ; for from its Branches iffue, at unequal Diftances, feveral Tufts of ftringy Filaments, each in Subftancc and Make about as thick as the Bafe-ftring of a Violin. Thefe grow always downwards, perpendicular to the Earth, and when they are fome Feet in Length, the Part next the Branch confolidates into firm Wood, whilft the lower Parts hang wavingly downwards in fo many loofe-twifted Shreds or Filaments ; but when thefe grow to reach the Ground, they take Root, unite into firm Wood as the upper Part; and in a fhort time grow to a confiderable Bulk, affording great Increale of Nourifliment to its once ParentBranch ; by which means this grows large, and produces other progrefTive, lateral, as well as many uprignt Branches thefe, in like manner, cfpecially, the progreffive Branches, by 2 their .^ N? T'

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Book VII. T:he IJland of BARBADOS. 175 their defcending Filaments produce new Trunks, and fo on fucceffively. When thcfe Filaments grow from Branches near tOj and take Root within a fmall Diftance from the original Parent Tree, many of them by theii* quick Growth are joined fometimes partially, fometimes totally to it, and fo in time form one irregular enormous Trunk. I am of Opinion, that if one of thefe Trees was carefully and properly cultivated by Art, and Cattle of all kind kept from browfing upon it ; if the bearded Filaments were fuffered to infinuate themfelves, especially thofe from near the Extremities of its longeft lowermofl: Branches, or were they guided to take Root in the Earth, one fingle Tree might be brought to make a confiderable Grove. Its Leaves are of a fmooth fhining Green, in length about five Inches, and above two broad, fmoothedged, and {harppointed. The Flowers, as in others of the like Kind, are contained in the Embryo Figs ; thefe latter ftand upon fliort Footftalks, and are about the Bignefs of fmall Cherries, the infide full of fmall Acini refembling eatable Figs ; which are Food only for Birds, efpecially Pivets, which come in great Number to feed upon them when ripe. The tender Buds and Leaves of this Tree afford, when bruifed, a milky Juice very much refembling in Colour and Confiftence that which iifues from the Manchaneel Tree, but differing in its Quality, the former being, as it is faid, a fovcT reign Remedy againft the Poifon of the latter. The moft remarkable of thefe Trees for Bignefs grows near Codrington College. This, about fix Feet from the Ground, divides into five Branches, each equal to a large Tree, fome of them girting round about eight Feet. The moft lofty of thefe Branches is by moderate Computation above forty Feet high. But as there is nothing that can be called great or little but by Comparifon ; let us examine, as far as any credible Hiftory hath informed us, whether any Part of the World affords of this, or any other kind of Tree, a larger. What bid faireft for Superiority are the Cedars of Libanus^ which they will always deferve in regard to the Goodnefs and Solidity of their Timber, but not in Bulk ; for, according to the Reverend, Mr. Maundreh Account, the utmoft Extent of the Branches of the largcft Cedar upon Mount Libanus^ from one Side of the Tree to the other, did not fpread above a hundred and eleven Feet ; whereas the Branches of this reaches above an hundred and twenty-feven ; the Circumference of the Body of the former was but twelve Yards, of this eighteen; therefore we may pronounce it to be the largeft Tree that hath been taken notice of in any well attefted Hiftory. The next to this in Bignefs in this Ifland, is in St. Ja?nes\ ChurchYard, which fpreads a Shade (very near circular) of eightyfive Feet in Diameter ; and its Height, by Computation, is at leaft feventy Feet. The great Mr. Milton was of Opinion, that this was the Tree with whofe Leaves our firft Parents made to themfelves Aprons : for in defcribeing their Fall he fays ; + Y y And

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176 Book VII. \n The Natural Hifiory of the And both together went Into the thickeft Wood: There foon they chofe The Fig-tree, not that Kind for Fruit renown'd; But fuch as at this Day to Indians known In Malabar or Decan^ fpreads her Ariiis Branching fo broad and long, that in the Ground The bearded Twigs take Root, and Daughters grow About the Mother Tree ^ a pillar 'd Shade ^ High over-arch 'd, and echoing Walks between : There oft the Indian Herdfman, fhunning Heat, Shelters iri cdol, and tends his pafturing Herds, At Loopholes cut through thickeft Shade. Thefe Leaves ^ They gathered broad as Amazonian Targe; And, with what Skill they had, togethet* few'd To gird their Waift. However noble this poetical Defcriptioh ife ; j^et; as to the Matter of Fad;, it wants even ProbabiUty to countenance Itfor the Leaves of this Tree are fo far from being of the Bignefs of an Ama:^chian Target, that they feldonl or never exceed five Inches long, and not quite three broad • therefore we muft look for another of the FigTree kind, that better anfwefs the CharaSer given of this Tree by Mofes: And ds the Fruit of the Banana-tree is often by the moft antient Authors called a Fig, I rnay, I hope, without Prefumption add my own to the alrfeady riuiilberlefs Conjedures of others, and look upon the Fig-tree in Paradife to be fto other than the Banana-tree; for when Pliny defcribes the Afan Fig-trfefe, he fays its Leaf is ?naximum mnbrojijftmumque ; and as the Leaves of thefe are three Feet long, and about two broad, they may be deemed more proper th any for a Covering; efpecially fince they might be eafily joined together, with the numerous thread-like Filaments, which may without Labour be peeled from the Body of this Tree. Thefe Fig-trees groVv in th well as the ^^y?-/Wz>j. ^intus Curtius, in his Kccdunt oi Alexanden Expedition to the Indies^ excellently defcribes it. Had both ti\t Ind'm been fo well known fome Centuries ago as they are now, that AiitHdr would not have been (at leaft in this Inftance) thought fabulous. His Words are thefe : Sylv£ erant prope immenfum fpatium diffufce^ pfoteftfque & in ex'mim altitudinem editis arbor ibus umbrofce, Plerique rami injlar ingentium fiipitum flexi in humum^ rurfus^ qua fe curvaverant^ erigebafttur, adeo ut /pedes effet ?2on rami refurgeittis^ fed arbor is exfua radice generateQuint. Curt. Lib. K. The Stopper-Berry 7;r£? 5 Lat, MALPiGifiA. 'J^HIS grows to be a confiderable large Tree. Its Bark is pfa whitifhred, and fcaly, often dropping off in Flakes ; the upper IBranches are thickly cloathcd with deepgreen fmooth fining Leaves, of about three ^ Inches an £^/as

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Book VIL IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. Indies long, and near two broad ; thefe are generally fct on in Pairs. From the Bofoms of the Leaves rife a great many Pedicles fuppprting fmall white Flowers ; thefe are fucceeded by Berries black when ripe ; of about the Bignefs of a black Cherry, or rather larger and flatter ; the Pulp is of a fweetifh Tafte ; this furrounds a greenifli foft Kernel* the Fruit is eaten by Men as well as by feveral Kinds of Birds. : ; T 7^^ Bully-Berry 7r^^. THIS is a very durable Timber-tree, growing fo large as often to exceed feverity Feet in Height ; the Bark is of a rough rugofe Texture j the Leaves are fmooth, thick, and of a (hining-dark Green. The Fruit, which fucceeds a fmall white Flower, is round, and of a golden Colour, having a fmall Corona at the Top : The Infide is of a milky, clammy Subftance, and very fweet. This thick Pulp furrounds two dark, reddifh, flat Stones, very much refembling the Seed of a Sappadillo ; the greatefl: Number of thefe Trees are in Scotland^ at the Eftate of Thomas Alleyne^ Efq; The Eaft-India Mango Ttree. T H I S Tree J' roy and grows only at the G^Z/z^^JPlantation, belonging to Edward row and fliarppointed, being at leafl: feven Inches long, and one and an half broad : The middle Rib ftrong and prominent. Thefe are fet on the Branches in an alternate Order. Tho' this is called the Mango Tree, yet the Leaves do not anfwer the Defcription given by others of the real EajlIndia Mango Tree, . I r The Olive-Tree, ^ Have feen feveral of what are here called the true OliveTrees ; but j^_ as they never bore any Fruit, we have only a traditional Certainty of their being the real Trees, which, in other Parts, bear Olives ; however, I fliall infert its Charafter. The Trunk is confiderably large, cloathed with a whitifh-grey Bark ; the Height of the whole Tree is often above 'twenty-five Feet ; its Leaves, which are many, are fet on in an alternate Order. Thefe are about two Inches long, half an Inch broad, and fliarppointed ; the upper Side green, and the under covered with a hoary Meahnefs. m'/d TpHIS grows to the Height of a common Willow. The Bark of "*" the main Trunk is much fulcated, and of a dark Colour ; its Top, by its many fmall Branches, and numerous Oiarp-pointed Leaves, is very bufhy ; thefe Leaves are generally four Inches long, and one broad, fet 177 tf

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178 ^fi r The JNatural Hiftory e on the Branches in an alternate Order. The r Flower is a Tube o Book Vli. Appearance of the a brownifliwhite Colour, about the Thicknefs Quill and in Length three-quarters of an Inch j thisi near the T a op, firft bulges out, and then fplits into two Parts ; the upper, which I call the being excavated Spoon-like ; the under Lip defleds very much ending in three difl:in6t Divifions, each Point curling inward: the Greft back middlemoft having from the Socket of the Flower, to its Extremi narrow Lift of fine purple Fur, or foft Villi. As the Flower comes its Perfeftion, the Creft, or the upper Part, deflefts back from the } a to intermediate Space; between the upper and the lower Lip rife four a5V ami tipp'd with Apices^ furrounding a naked Piftil which when na^ tipp a wun j^pices^ mrrounamg a naKea rniu, wnicn, wnen the Flower drops, becomes the Rudiment of the Fruit, which is a fmall Olive, Yellow when ripe. Thefe Trees are valued for their quick Growth, and Shelter, and they are chiefly planted near the Sea-fide, to fhelter the neighbouring Fields of Corn and Cotton rom being blafted fait Spry of the Sea, which too often, after all Precaution > is the very de ftrudive to thofe Plantations that adjoin to the Sea to theEaft and NorthEaft of the Ifland. This is delineated in Plate XIL I'he Fustic-Tree ; Lat. Morus, 5 HERE are two low: of Fuftic-Trees, the Green and the Yel the former is very fcarce in this Ifland \ the latter is fl:inguiflied into the Male and Femal ) n Spike 5 or Katk r J the Female Male bearing a twoinch on the under Part of the J on the middle Rib, feveral fquammous fweetifli Berries, much Leaves refembling Mulber much coveted this J thefe Dog are eaten by Birds whilft upon the Tree, wh en ripe 3 and fallen off. The Heart Tree is very yellow, and much made ufe of by the Dy 3 It IS likewife very folid urable Timbe w hich makes it ufeful to make Cart wheel J c. as are fliaded from the Wind Thefe Trees grow beft in Gullie 3 an uch Places I The Gt. Plum-Tree 5 Lat Mombin 1 r is of J H I S Tree, efpecially bly large. fliad e from the Wind, grows confidera both Bulk e nerally very dark Grey, fulcous, and very Height 3 the Bark pon croo ked its Branches the Trunk many, and The Lobes are about three Inches long Thefe are cloathed with unequally pennated Leaves 3 an fomewhat above an in Breadth : the Leaf fitting generally of four Pair o Lob 3 Inch with an odd one at the End. The upper Twigs Support pyramidal Cluf ters of fmall granulated herbaceous Flowers Plums of 3 which are followed blon Nutmegs o Shap thefe e 3 in yello w w hen ipe large inchlong Footftalks. Their pulpy Partis of r fomewhat bigger Bunches hang downward an agr s, fupp ted than twoeabl Tafte 3 I not \ \ % )

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"^11 Book VII. IJland o/BARBADOS. not above one feventh of an Inch thick, covering a rough, fulcous ftonv Kernel. This is delineated in Plate XIII, ^ The White Plum-Tree. npH I S is a middlefized Tree, the Body of it cover'd with a whitift ^ Bark ; the Branches are cloath'd with Leaves of about four Inches long, and two broad, ending in a round Point ; the flender top Branches fuftain Groups of white fmall Flowers, which are fucceeded by a great Number of fmall Plums, green even when ripe ; thefe by the Heat of the Sun open into three thick Partitions, emitting a great many fcarlet Itringy Seeds. -' The Jamaica Plum-Tree. nn H I S grows to a confiderable Bignefs ; the Branches are cloathed with pennated Leaves ; the Flowers are fucceeded by oval Plums fomewhat depreffed at both Ends, having their Surface here-and there indented. ^^c ^ t able Tafte. Thefe are of a purple Colour when ripe, and of a /harp agreeThe Damascen, or the Callimato-Tree ; Lat. Icaco The Leaves are long, 'p H I S Tree grows to about twenty Feet high. -„. ^..,.. „,^ ^^,^„ fharp-pointed, and fmooth-edged ; very green on the upper, and pale on the under-fide ; they are fet on the Branches alternately. It bears about April a great many Flowers, very much refembling thofe of a Sugarapple ; thefe are fucceeded by black, longi/h, very clammy Plums having one, fometimes two Stones or Kernels in them, the pulpy Part being very fweet, and agreeable. The great Turtle-Doves, Pivets, and IhruQies, feed greedily upon them. The Chigery-Grape-Tree. r HIS IS a middle-fized Tree, having flrong numerous Roots ; the Bark of the Trunk is of a dark Grey ; the Branches are thickly covered with Leaves ; thefe are about five Inches in Length, and two m Breadth. The Flowers, which are fmall, five-leaved, and brownifh Colour in great Number furround feveral ruffet ftrong Spikes, of about two Inches long ; thefe Flowers are fucceeded by Bernes fomewhat fmaller than white Currans, each compofed of feveral thick juicy LamincB, inclofing a blackifh fharp-pointed Stone or Kernel ; thefe are red when half-ripe, and white when full-ripe : They have an acid, fweet, agreeable Tafte, like white Currans ; but if eaten to Excefs they caufe a tingling Itching in the Skin. Auguft and September. of a They are generally ripe in 179 Zz ^ Z5^ ^

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\ h 280 l^he Natural Hijlory of the Book VI I, "Jhe Bay-Grape-Tree. THE Body of this Tree is confiderably large, thougli feldom growin to any great Height, unlefs fhelter'd from the Wind; the Branche^ are many, but crooked and ftraggling: The Bark is of a vvhitifli Grey • from the Extremities of the Branches hang pendulous Spikes, thickly covered with very fmall BloffomSj which are fucceeded by a great Number of Grapes in Clufters : Thefe are round, and fmaller than the leaft red Cherry and of a ruffet Purple when ripe; they have an agreeable Mixture in their Tafte of both fweet and poignant Acid ; their Pulp, which is but fmall in Proportion to their Bignefs, furrounds a Stone or Kernel; thefe^ if bruifed and fteeped in Wine, are looked upon to be a good Reftringent. The Tree grows beft in a loofe fandy Soil ; their Leaves are very broad and fleek, clofely embracing the Stalks, and neatly ftrewed with purple or red Veins; andevea the whole Leaf, whilft young. Is red. The Grapes fteeped in Water and worked up with Sugar, make a very agreeable Wine. l^e Fat Pork-Tree. ?I I S chiefly grows near the Sea-fide, in the Parifhes of St. Jofeph and St. Andrew. The Fruit is diftinguifhed into the white and red Sort. The Trees bearing each diiFer very little, if any thing, in their Texture, Leaves, or Flowers; the main Body of the largeft exceeds not five or fix Inches in Circumference; the Leaves are of a middle Size, roundpointed, and fet on the Branches alternately; the Flowers are white, and very fmall ; the Petals are furrounded with a green ftiff Calyx : Thefe are fucceeded by Plums called here Fat PorL The outfide Skin of one Sort is, when ripe, of a fine fcarlet Colour, faintly clouded over with a purplifh glaucous Mealinefs, like that which covers Plums in England. The white Sort differs only in Colour ; for the pulpy Part of each cuts ftringy, or rather wooly, and is of a white Colour, not ill refembling, though lefs firm than, the Fat of Pork whilft warm. This Pulp hath a fweetifh Tafte, but to a great many difagreeable ; this eatable Part covers a pretty large Stone, which inclofes a white Kernel, no-way difagreeable to the Tafte; the whole is full as large as our common black Plums in England. + The Black Wood. THIS grows to be a large Tree, of an hard folid Texture; :t derives its Name from the blackifh Colour of its Bark and Leaves; it fheds yearly its Bark, which is very bitter; its Flowers are fucceeded by fmall Plums ; the pulpy Part furrounding a Stone or Kernel, or fometimes W. ^t ,4

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i. Book VII. IJland of Ma Trunk A to the Male and Femaleas well as the Fruit into the long Mango Popo^ and the round Sort. , It's Roots are many and ftrong, penetrating not deep into the Earth, but extending feveral Yards in a circular Compafs. The Bark, which is of a whitifli Colour, is marked with the Fejligia of the fallen oif large Footftalks of the Leaves. The Body of the Tree grows tapering to, the Top ; It is often at the Root of about a Foot Diameter, and generally from fifteen to twenty ^ Feet high. The moft fubftantial Part of the Tree is a thick reticulated Web compofed of feveral complicated Divifions, fomethmg like the Tunica reticularis in the Skins of Animals; it is in this that the Strength of it confifts. The Infide of all the young, efpecially towards the Top, as well as moft old Trees, are hollow: by this we hierographically reprefent a Perfon of no Sincerity, and from hence in thefe Parts comes that Proverb to that Purpofe, As hollow as a Popo. ; Within three Feet to the Top, the Leaves begin to furround the Tree in a circular and regular Manner, and confequently very beautiful Thefe Leaves, efpecially the lowermoft, which are the largeft, being often above a Foot and an half long, are neatly divided into eight or nine large Seaions, each again fubdivided into lefTer ones, and ending in a Point ; the middle Ribs are ftrong and prominent; the whole Leaf appears 'very beautiful, being on the upper Side of a deep Green, and beneath covered with a very vifible, yet .very fhortloary Down. The largeft Leaves, which are lowermoft, ftand upon green hollow Footftalks, often two Feet long; however thefe, as well as the Leaves, gradually grow lefs toward the Extremity of the Tree. The Stalks, when bruifed, yield a difagreable Hemlock-like Smell. The Male Tree bears feveral fmall pentapetalous white Flowers upon pendulous Stalks of near a Foot and an half long, but was never here known to produce Fruit. This Tree is delineated in Plate XIV. The Female bears fomewhat finiilar, but larger Flowers, of a yellowifli Colour, growing on very ftiort Footftalks, arifing from, and furrounding the Tree among the lower Leaves chiefly ; thefe in ftill Evenings and Mornings afford a very fragrant and grateful Smell. The Female Flowers and tender Buds of thefe are preferved into Sweetmeats, and the long Mango Popo into Pickles, the latter being very httle inferior to an Eajl India ManBorii thefe Fruits, efpecially the round Sort, are likewife, when near npe, boiled and eaten with any kind of Flefli-meat and efteemed wholfome. if rhpv ar^ rlpanff^rl r.(^ flnf-milU-tr ^^t-f^Htr^ t;,;™ 4-U^,. ^-* ___ J 6^^.J Juice is of fo penetrating a T" np eiSr K

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i8i Hifloiy of th \ > Book vir. > ripe Fruit, when unpeeled, is boiled with the tougheft old fait Meat will foon make it foft and tender 3 and if Hogs are for It Time fed with it, efpecially raw, it is faid that it will wear ofF all the mu ecus flimy Matter, which covers the Infide of the Guts, and would i' time, if not prevented by a Change of Food, intirely lacerate them I know of no phyfical Virtue in any Part of this Tree, unlefs that 'th milky Juice of the Popo is fometimes madeufe of to cure Ring-worms and fuch cutaneous Eruptions. It growls beft in ftady Places. This Tree is delineated in Plate XV. T'he Plantain-Tree. T is the Opinion of many Writers, that this Tree was formerly; pe^ culiar to Ethiopia only, though now very common in all the hot Parts 'o{ AJia^ Africa^ ^rA America-^ efpecially in G^m^, '^^^^^Wejl Indm, Its Height, great Bulk, and large Leaves, claim a Place amonoTrees* but its foft bulbous Roots, the pulpy Texture of the Trunk, which is fo herbaceous, that it is often fliced and given by way of Fodder to Cattle feem to partake of a liliaceous Plant, more than a Tree : but as it hath generally been clalTed among the latter, I fhall treat of it in the fame Lio-ht Its Roots are numerous, white, and Ipongy; the Trunk near the Earth is about thirty Inches in Circumference, round, tapering, and undivided, till about nine or ten Feet high, at which Height it puts forth feveral lar^^e reen Leaves in an alternate Order : Thefe are often five Feet in Length, and near two and an half in Breadth, of a delightful fhining Sea-green Colour, and of a long oval Shape ; thefe ftand upon long tapering Footftalks, the middle Rib in each Leaf is very prominent, and deeply chanelled on the upper Side. This ferves as a Gutter to convey the Water that falls upon the Leaf, to the.main Trunk, where it is foon abforbed by fo foft and porous a Body ; for the Trunk of the Tree is compofed of feveral Lamina upon Lamince of large longitudinal Veins, or Veffels horizontally croffed at about one tenth of an Inch Diftance, with very thin membranaceous Filaments. Thefe laft prevent both the copious Juices from the Roots, or the Dew and Rain defcending from the Leaves, to penetrate through the other perpendicular Veffels, till each Part is faturated with its proper nutricious Juice. .From the quick Growth, and great Bulk, of fuch fucculent Plants, fpongy Shrubs, and Trees which have their Veffels fo much diftended, we may perhaps account for the far flower Growth of more durable Timber, both here and elfewhere : For the Clofencfs of the Grain of the latter having their Veffels very fine in clofe Contad:, the annual Lamm -.of thefe, when fucceeded by exterior new ones, clofe and confolidate Xq-gether, and fo add to the Bulk of the Tree: Yet fuch an Addition will be Qu Plants, fpongy Shrubs or Trees, than fo many Layers of Muflin compared in

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>* ..r'' Book VII. I/land of BARBADOS. j g in Bulk to an equal Number of coarfe Bays. But to return to my Subjedl: From the Top of this Tree (iffuing from among the upper Leaves) at about ten Months Growth, rifes a tough ligneous Stalk, about three Feet long, bending downwards, and bearing on its Extremity a conic purple Spatha. The Flowers (which furround this in three or four Rows) are monopetalous, irregular, incomplete, and Hermaphrodite, comvide pu. pofed of a Tube which fills the O vaiy and a Pavilion divided into four ^^fj: Lobes, and forming a kind of a Mouth. The Ovary, which adheres ftrongly to the Tube, is triangular, and crowned with five Chives, which ^'1 grow from the Side of the Flower. The Style, which is alfo terminated by a little Head, afterwards becomes a foft fomewhat angular Fruit, whofe outward huiky Tegument is very fmooth, and yellow when ripe."' This is from five to nine Inches long, and near an Inch Diameter, growing fmaller, and by Degrees a little crooked, at each End : The outward Coat or Rind eafily peels off when ripe. The infide eatable Part is of a gold Colour, and of a fweetifh Tafte. The whole Bunch, which generally contains fome Scores of thefe Plantains, often weighs forty, fifty or fixty Pounds Weight. The moft common Method of ufing this Fruit, when defigned to fupply the Place of Bread, is, to take them when green, though-full grown, and bake them in the Embers, or boil them In a fhort time after the Plantain-Tree hath borne its Bunch, it decays near the Root, and falls proftrate to the Ground, and periflieth • Hovvever, the Planter's Hope periiheth not with it ; for long before the Mother Tree decays, two or three large Suckers or young Trees grow up from the Root of the old one. The largeft of thefe, in about a Twelvemonth's Time, bears fuch another Bunch of Plantains as tlie above defcrib'd • and as this Tree Hkewife dies, after it hath produced Fruit, there fpring up from the Root frefii young Shoots ; fo that there is an annual Succeffion of Trees without any Trouble to the Planter. However, it is thought the moft prudent Method is to replant them once in feven or eight Years ; in doing this to the greateft Advantage, the Situation muft be rich, and fheltered from the Wind ; and the Land intended for this Purpofe muft be dug in Holes two Feet deep, one and an half broad, and twelve Feet afunder • Thefe being well manur'd, large Roots of fuperfluous Plantain-Trees are cut through in two or three Pieces ; one of thefe put in every Hole, flightly covering it with Earth, in a fliort time fprings up. Another common Way of propagating thefe Trees is, to dig up other young ones, which in great Number are to be found growing about the Roots of old decaying Trees, and cutting off the Top of thefe within three Feet to the Root, and fo tranfplant them into Holes prepared for that Purpofe. Having cut one of thefe young Trees horizontally in the middle, the remaining btump vegetated fo ftrongfrom the Centre, thatitthruft out a fmall flender Iinoot near a Quarter, or above an Inch long in feven Hours time. HOU: ^farfoXaS''"^ '^'' """^ '^^'''' '' "' niore extraordinary than the qaick Growth of Afp.ragas m EngU^, Aaa r^'

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w 4 184 Natural Hijlory of the .iBook Vlf The Wild ;.„npH I S hath a great Refemblance, in its Trunk and Leaves with tl Plantain-Tree already defcrib'd, differing chiefly,, that' thoueh it bloiloms, It never bears any Fruit, ^ /-+ J .7y&^ Banana-Tree. 1. rp ^ ? S. '^iffe" in Its general Makqfrom tHe Plantain-Tree, only by th greater Height of its Trunk, which is likewife here-and-there fpotted with Black; the Leaves, as well as the Fruit, are fomewhat fmaller than thof o^/he Plantain-Tree, the.Fruit being not above five Inches long, of afin^ yellow Colour when ripe, and of a fragraht Smell, and fweet Tafle Thefe •are eaten raw by way of Deffert. The learned Poftor Derham obferm that the fineft Needle, the Work of Art, appears,; M.hen viewed throuS a Microlcope, rough and unhewn, when compa'red to 'the Sting of a Rfp or even the meaneft Blade of Grafs, the Work of Nature : fo there is no left diftinguifhing Dehcacy in the Tafte of thofe large Drops of natural Hone ^ found m the Bloffoms of this Tree, when ^compared with what our Hive produces ; th? former intirely void of that Harlhnefs jn the Throat from which the beft of the latter, by its effentialSalts; is not free. Thi; waH Ofi, Egyp. '^\ Bi ^^l^^ r^'""^' '^^^^ ""^^'' '^^ S^^^lter of a Hill, or fome fuch that Ma produces, LuMpius, in his EtLiopIc Hiftory, conjedures that Aefe Fruits were the Mandrakes which J^.A Wiv^es contended for This Tree is defcnbed in Plate XVI. '^'HcnuLa lor. ^ r '~ ~ m I 7/6^ Water Lemom-Vtmt. liJit^ ^eligpeous Vine, creeping, if fhpported by neighand fliarp-pointed. The Flowers vcvv much ^Tf^Xr Tr"' "r'^'f )^'''''' ^///^ Vide rtliefe are fucceeded bv a^S K^' '^'^' ^''^' ^'''"'' of an irreVular ronnHir^ S ^ I ^^ ^^' ^'^ ^^ -^"i ""^^'ed V/alnut, ot an irregular round (h Shape, the Outfide of a yellowifh fkinnv Subftance, the Infide much refembling that of -1 Poor K u • f 11 f a fweet o-flTv r;tp c!„Kn..„ • P .:, ^ ^ ^jooleberry, being full of Th W,LD Water Lemon-Vine, or Love ,n a Mist. which

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Tlai^ 7S ^a^^y 1S4 ^.0,cA^ret^, de/i^?u L. ^, ^

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i i A, ^ h J

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Book VI r IJJand of ^ K -*< BA \ % OS which twift round the neighbouring Trees itfelf from the Ground. an The Leaves or Buflies and fupports Footflalk cut into two fliallow Sediofi 5 I rife Stalk about two Inches afund which are likewife fomewhat hairy are fet upon the Vine upon > s o Flowers about In ch From the Bofoms of the ) compofed of fiftui .an Inch long, fupporting manv beautiful round each Border, rhefe are aim oft inlaid pu the Bottom, and whitifli at the Tod into five deep Seftion rifes from the Bottom doubl \.ht Ovary, which is the Rudiment Perianthium divided come of the Flow Siimmits Ihort Chives, ^ bending downward from the middl e o f the Fruit which h Between this and whofe Top come th bend downwards forming a Styl Top and tipp'd with larg the Fruit feen in Miniat tipp'd with round Buttons Thei; Ovary e oval from outward Ski Seams. As the Flower decays, the Perianthium clofes fomewhat conic Fruit, about the Bignefs being feemingjy divided, or n of -t> The Fruit, when ripe. ther mark'd with fi e iikewifc together, Cherry • mg a great many very agreeable pulpy Seed as the Water-lemon a]] yellow on the Outfid e, incl Fruit IS ) that It eady described. What d Juice, of the fame Tafie in this reticulated Web moft remarkabl th w intirely covered or furrouniled ....„ „ „,.,,,, ^,, compofed of innumerable ilnall Strings, and foft Brift] white hofe Tops are tipp'd with a glutinous Subftance J ^, Both this Web, and this gned by Nature to preferye the inclofed Fruit from mmy Matter, being deftroyed by Vermfn, fucVas^Anb and others PiMPLOES J J.. HESE many 3 likewife called the wild Lat. Opuntia tending feveral Feet prickly Pear / " 3 the Roots are ";""-^' v-.wiuiu^ icvcrai reec round: It hath fcarce the Appearanc the App Leaves of a round oval Shape : Thefe are about about feven broad contains a great Quantity of mucilag thef( them are thickly Wet vvTth Tuft gg and three-quarters of an Inch thick o J ^ of four of thefe Prickles. |ne green outward Lamina is fcrap'd ofF, whitifh Prickl --} The Body eac o ten Inches long, The Infide of the Surfaces o Tuft confiftafter this Bufli wreathed in feveral Fold IS a reticulated Subfta Cli LCI ftrongof the Side s o thefe Leav^es, among another. The Flowers come out pointed Petals of a yellowift Red yellowifli Summits are compos'd of great many round The Pift is red ^hefe Leaves are fupported and fpring' [ly Subftan Wack Seeds 7 The Chives are very many, tipp'd with and furrounded with thefe Chives. hufky Pod-like I is full of fmall from and are fucceeded by a Fruit whofe Infid I \ The I

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1 85 The Natural Hijlory of the Book VI I. 'T:he Cochineal. TH I S hath at a Diftance the Refemblance of the Pimploe ; but it generally grows higher; and the Leaves are fmooth, bearing many rofaceous red Flowers, which are fucceeded by fomewhat round fcaly Fruit, whofe Infide is full of fmall Acini, and purple Juice. I The Prickly Pear-Vine j Lat. Cereus fcandens minor. THIS like wife is of the fame Texture as the three laft already defcribed, each of them, in my Opinion, being a ftrange Mixture between a Plant and a Shrub. This, if fupported by a Wall, will grow above fifteen Feet high, compofed of feveral thickifh Leaves of a triangular Form, almoft as deeply indented between every Angle as the Blade of a three-edged Sword. Thefe Leaves are of a ftrong ligneous Subflance, of about two Feet long, the Extremity of one giving Birth to another. The Edges of every Angle are, at certain Diftances, thickly covered with Tufts of very fharp-pointed Prickles. From thefe Eminences likewife proceed the Flowers : Thefe are of the rofaceous Kind, ftanding upon longifli green bulbous Stalks. The Petals of each Flower are fixteen in Number, two Inches long, and bluntpointed ; thefe are fo very thin, that when laid over the fmalleft Print, it may be feen and read through the Leaves. Thefe membranaceous Petals are fupported by other green capfular Leaves \ the Style is large and ftrong, furrounded by numerous white Chives, tipp'd with whitifh Summits. The F'ruit, when ripe, is of an oval Form, and often as large as a Turkey-egg : The outfide Skin or Rind is, when full-ripe, of a dark-purple Colour, and fcaly at about every Half-inch Diftance, each Scale being of a triangular Shape, and fharp-pointed. The whole Rind is likewife here-and-there ftudded with Tufts of very fmall iharp Prickles ; the Infide is full of purplifli folid Pulp, intermixed with fmall whitifh Specks 3 the whole fomewhat juicj, and well tarfed. 'w llat. Angaria. T is called by Father Plumier, Anguria fruElu echinato edull This quadrangular rough hairy Vine hath a long Tap-root, very little divided, even at its Extremity ; it creeps generally upon the Ground, and by its numerous twifting Clafpers takes hold on every Side of tn^ neighbouring Bufhes : Its Leaves, which ftand upon two-inch long Footftalks, are deeply divided into three, fometimes more, round-pointed Sedtions ; its Flower, which is yellow, is fucceeded by a fmall Cucumber| whofe Surface is covered with many foft-pointed Prickles ; they are foretimes eaten, but are efteemed to be of too cold a Nature to be wholfome. ^k .,, r*

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Book VII. IJland of A 187 The Granadilla-Vine. ^ I ^ HIS is the Granadilla latifoUa fruBu maliformi oi Father Plus quadrangular, bordered upon every which it fupports itfelf, are very nufix Inches long, and five in MIER The Stalk of this Vine Angle : Its Clafpers, or Tendril merous, as well as the Leaves many Breadth, (landing upon 5 thefi e d Footflalk s. The Flowers are of The Fruit is of a long oval the fame Make with the Paffion-Flower. Shape, of a yellowiflh Green when ripe ; containing a great Number of fmall Seeds or Acinic covered with a gelly-Hke Juice, or fweetifli Pulp. This Vine grows beft in fhady Places, and muft be fupported with an Arbour. ^•' a •. I li'he Fig-Tree. neither this Tree, nor its Fruit the eatable Fig, diflFer from that the fame Species \xx England i3indL elfewhere, it will be needlefs to give it a particular Defcription. Here ends the Pruniferous Kind of Fruit \ I > .---\ I I ^ .* •,, ( '1 Bbb r

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i88 tt > ATrorvect oiliriA^-e-'l'own luthe Itlaud of -Bbado<-.. \ O F m\ TREES, SHRUBS, ^/?^ P L A N T S L OF THE *" H Q^U O N BOOK VIII. Y Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, of the fihquofe Kind, are to be underftood all thofe whofe Fruits are inclofed in Pods. It is obferyable, that very few Trees bear Pods in cold Climates, in Comparifon to the great Number which warm Countries abound with. And as moft of the filiquofe herbaceous Plants are fcandent, it is remarkable, that as they are yeak, and, as it were, helplefs of themfelves ; therefore mdulgent Nature hath provided them with either Tendrils or Clafpers to mtwme about others, and be fupported by them : and often with even fharp-pomted Hooks at their Extremities to fallen upon the neighbourmg Trees or Rocks : And thus, hke helplefs Orphans, by diis foftenng Affiftance, they not only fubfift, climb up, and flourifh ; but alfo help to adorn the Face of Nature with their varied Beauties. It IS hkewife worthy our Notice to obferve, that thefe are not only m greater Plenty, but that there is hkewife a greater Variety of them, in warm Climates : And mdeed they are, by their Qualities, better adapted for ': ^^ i^ the ^(k

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^^ / \ T/a/B^ // J^i^i^^ ^S g A WialVaM ^J AumMt ^. X^^^ ^^^>^ ^^/^^ v \ < • ^ B

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f 1 v_ t

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Book VIII. rk Hiflory of me^onmmuon ot mionsm hot Countries; for, by the fmall Quantity of Oil and Salts they contain, they are lefs liable to produce grbfs Humours than animal Food. i The Tamarind-Trees ; Lat. Tamarindus. HE S E are of two Sorts ; at leaft difFerent in the Tafte of their Fi uit Jeone bearing a four Fruit, the other of a Mixture of afweet and r The Trees though they thus differ in their Fruit, are howevef of the fame Bulk • Make and Texture. Each having numerous large Roots and Branches the latter by their many Subdivifions, and being thickk .cloathed with very many pennated Leaves, afford an agreeabk Shade The Flowers are yellow, fomewhat fpeckled with Purple : and of the papilionaceous Kind. Thefe are fucceeded by falcated Pods, confifting of four or five Cells each mcludmg a flattilh oval Stone inclofed in a Snuff-coloured Pulp This Pod IS of a browniih grey Colour ; when ripe, eafily broken, and ieparated from the Pulp, This, and the inclofed Stones, are fattened together by a great many fmall flender Fibres from the woody Stalk, which run through the Pod This Pulp is preferved in Sugar, and fent to England, or elfewhere • r^'^f i "P"' ^^^^"^ inwardly, to be a good Cooler in Fevers. 1 hele Trees are not peculiar to our Climates ; for they thrive not '" ^"^ '-'-ewife in the Land of Palcsjline, in Arabia, and Afic J ^HiS grows to be a confiderably large ftraggling Tree, cloathed with many Leaves generally, fet in Groups on the blunt Extremities of the Branches. The Flowers are pentapetalous, and are fucceeded by lon^ Pods. This Tree is defcribed in Plate XVIL "^ T/pe Spanish Ash. np H I S Tree hath an Afh-coloured Bark : the Trunk of it, in rich fhady Land, grows to fo great a Bulk, that the Heart alone is of a coniiderable Bignefs. Its Branches, which are clothed with oblong, pointed Leaves, placed in Pairs, each Leaf about three Inches long, and one broad, grow generally very upright, till near their Extremities, where they are fubdivided into many ^iier ; and then bend wavingly downwards, clothed witli many pendulous tjroups of papilionaceous Flowers, of a fine violet Colour. 189 Thefe

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^w%. 190 HiHory of Book VIII. or Thefe are fucceeded by broad flattifli Pods ; each mclofing tv/o three Seeds, fomewhat refcmbling, but flatter than, a Kidney-Bean. Each Seed hath its partitlonai Cell, in which, when the Seed is ripe, is always found a fmall Quantity of a glutinous Subftance, of the Confift. ence of a very foft Gum. I The White Spanish Ash. THIS difFers chiefly from the Spanifi h{k, already defcribed, by the Colour of its Flowers; thofe of the former being of a beautiful Purple mixt with White, of the latter intirely white, and fucceeded by a flattifh fmall Pod, containing three flattifli Seeds or Beans. + F "The Silk-Cotton-Tree; Lat. Ceiba. ^HE Roots of this Tree are very numerous jutting out above-ground like fo many Buttrefl^es, fupporting the Trunk ; which, when fullgrown, is often fixty Feet high before it branches, and, near the Ground, from three to four Yards in Circumference. The whole main Body of the Tree is almofl: intirely covered with fliort flubbed Prickles. At the above-mentioned Height it divides into fevcral Branches, cloathed with long narrow Leaves fet orbicularly on their Extremities. They are fo neatly joined to one another, that the whole Group, conflfting of feven Leaves, have the Appearance of one digitated Leaf Handing upon one common Footfl:alk of about four Inches long. The Extremities of thefe Branches fufl:ain likewife femicircular Bunches of rofaceous Flowers ; each Flower conflfting of five middle-fized Petals of a Cream-colour. Thefe are placed in a circular Order, inclofing the Pointal, which is likewife fur rounded with five Stamina tipp'd with .apices of a yellowreddifli Colour. The Whole is incircled with the Calyx^ or a green hufky Cup, refcmbling that of a Pomgranate-Flower, but lefs regularly fegmentcd about the Edge, The Petals have a weak faint Smell. The Pointal' becomes the Rudiment of the Pod, which is of a blunt conic Form of about four tiches long. The Infide is full of a greyifli filky Down, intermixt with fmall blackifli Seeds.. When this Pod is ripe, it opens ; and the Down and Seed are carried off by the Wind to the adjacent Parts. This Tree feldom bears more than once in three Years. 1 Tie

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Book VIII. IJlandof BARBADOS; ipt T:he Small Cotton Tree; Lat. Xylon. q^ H O U G H the Cotton-Wool is diftinguiflied into the great, the Ila^ vellin, the Vine and Flying-fifh Sort ; yet the Trees, bearing this Va^ riety of Wool, differ very little from one another. The Leaves of each are fcalloped, of thofe bearing the great Sort, very deeply, not ill refembling a Curran-Tree-Leaf in England. Thofe of the Flying-fifh Cotton-Tree are likewife deeply fegmented ; having their middle and tranfverfe Ribs of a reddifh Colour. The Leaves of the Ravellin and the Vine are lefs fcalloped, and more blunt-pointed. Moft of thefe Trees, or rather Shrubs, if permitted to grow to their own natural Height, would rife to about fifteen Feet high ; but, as fuch a luxuriant Growth would prevent their bearing the Number of Pods, they would otherwife do, as well as fhade the Corn and Pulfe planted generally among them, the main Branches are therefore yearly lopp'd off. The Flowers are compofed of five large yellow Leaves, each ftained at the Bottom with a purple Spot. The Piftil is ftrong and large, furrounded at, and near, the Top with a yellow farinaceous Duft, which when ripe falls into the Matrix of the Piftil. This is likewife furrounded^ when the Petals of the Flowers drop, with a capfular Pod, fupported by three almoft triangular green Leaves deeply jagged at their Ends. The inclofed Pod, which is rather of a conic than a round Shape, opens, when ripe, into three or four Partitions, difcovering the Cotton in as many white Locks, as there are Partitions in the Pod* In thefe Locks are interfperfed the Seeds, which are blackilh and fmall. The CottonWool (of which in the Eafi Indies they make their fineft CaUico) is too well known to want a farther Defcription ; Yet it would not be amifs here to obferve, that, as the Inhabitants of the warmeft Climates want cloathing, efpecially in the wet Seafons of the Year, indulgent Providence hath fufficiently fupplied the want of Wool, here denied to Sheep, by caufing a Vegetable to bear the fineft Wool in the World. However the Certainty of gathering a good Crop of this Kind is very precarious; fince we may almoft literally fay of this Shrub, that in the Morning it is green and flourifheth, and almoft in the fame Evening it decays and withers : For when the Worms begin to prey upon a whole Field of CottonTrees, though they ai*e at firft fcarce perceptible to the naked Eye ; yet m three Days they will grow to a confiderable Bignefs, and fo devouring ili that fhort time, that they will reduce the moft verdant Field, thickly and beautifully cloathed with Leaves and Flowers, into almoft as defolate and naked a Condition as Trees are in the Month of December in England ; leaving often nota whole Leaf remaining; by this means, efpecially if they C c c come

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102. h Natural Hiflory of th Book Vlll. come late the Year, they greatly prejudice, if not intirely deftroy, the enfuing Crop ; and fometimes the very young Trees are by this means Thefe Worms are of three Sorts, all of the Caterpiller Kind, and diftingui&ed by the Names of the Black-Backs, the Streaked-Back, and the FireWorm. The laft is of a ruffet Colour, and the leaft; but yet the g r moil: deftrudive. ^ j. When thefe grow to their deftined Bulk, they fpin and inwrap themfelves in a Bag or Web, like Silkworms, in the few remaining Leaves, or any other Covering;, after a few Days Reft in this their Aurelia-ftate, they turn into dark-coloured Moths, and fly away. Thefe Worms are obferved moft generally to make their Appearance after fultry Weather, efpecially if it thunders and lightens, and as the Weather is then more than ordinary fultry. F T Ty6^ White-Wood-Tree. M HIS Tree grows to a confiderable Bulks its Branches are numerous, and thickly cloathed with Leaves. Thefe in Make, Bignefs, and Colour, very much refemble thofe of a Laurel. The Flowers are of the tubular Kind, of a pale White without, and yellowifla within. Their Extremities are much expanded and crumpled, and generally divided into five Seftions. Thefe are fucceeded by long greenifli Pods, containing a great Number of long flattiflh Seeds. r "The Locust-Treej Z^A Siliqua edulis. T^ HIS grows to be a large Timber-Tree, very full of Branches. Thefe are thickly cloathed with Leaves of about three Inches long, of a deep-green Colour, and fmooth-edged ; and always fet on in Pairs upon one common Footftalk; differing from all other Leaves, by having always one Part of the Leaf divided by the middle Rib far larger than the other. The Extremities of the upper Branches have many papilionaceous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by a lightfnuff-coloured rough Pod, of about three Inches long, and near two broad ; inclofing a whitifh fpongy Pith j which covers two or three hard blackifli Kernels or Stones. The pithy Part hath a fweetifh Tafte, and is fometimes eaten j but the Whole hath a very difagreeable ftinking Smell. 1 The Cassia-Fistula-Tree. ws in the Eaji and Weft Indies, as well as in Egypt, ^"^ of JJta. Its Height, when full-grown, is often no kfs than -'-i.

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Book IJland of than forty Feet. The Bark, efpecially upon the Yrunk, is very much fulcated and cracked ; it generally branches pretty near the Top, bearing feve ral middle-fized Iharp-pointed green Leaves. The Flowers, which are pentapetalous and many, are of a yellow Colour, hangmg in Clufters upon feveral fmall Twigs. Thefe are fucceeded by blackifh Pods, from ten to twenty Inches long and about three-quarters of an Inch Diameter" ^ the whole Length on the one fide; other.^' ^n having a Seam running and another lefs vifible on the The Infide is divided into a great many Cells, feparated from each other by tbn brittle Plates or Partitions covered with a black fweet Pulp. Between thefe are the Seeds which are fmall, flat, and fmooth. The Pulp, taken by way of a Purge, is too well known to want farther Explanation. This Tree grows generally in a dry rich Soil. ^ i:he MoABiTE J alias, the Mangrove-Beard-Tree. T7 H I S Tree never grows to be fit for Timber. Its Branches are very thick, covered with fmall roundifli green Leaves, fet on alternately. The Flowers are tetrapetalous and white. Thefe are fucceeded by long falcated twifting Pods, containing eight or nme ihining-black flattifii Seeds ; which are half-fheathed in a pulpy Snow-white, and fometimes fcarlet, Pith. Thefe Pods open, when ripe; the mner as well as the outward Side being then of a fine Maidens-blufh; which Diverfity of Colours in the Seeds, Leaves, and Pods, makes it then appear very agreeable. The white Pith is fometimes eaten; but looked upon to be very unwholfome. The Seeds are ftrung upon Silk, and made ufe of by the Negro Wornen for Bracelets. This Tree is more planted for its thick Shade, to keep off the fait Spry of the Sea from Corn or Cotton, than any other Ufe. The Garden Mangrove.' 'pniS is perhaps, above all Vegetables, the moft beautiful Evergreen; keeping, without the leail Decay, or Withering, it's grateful Verdure all the Year round. The Roots of this Tree are ftrong and many, penetrating deep into the Earth. If fuffered to grow to its natural Height, it often rifes above forty Feet high, branching very thick on every Side, and confequently affording a delieht'ui Shade. The Leaves are many, very thick, and of a deep-green Colour, £harpPomted, and fmooth-edged ; in Length about two Inches, and the larseft about an Inch broad. ^ The a

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^ V 194 \ Natural Hiftory of Book VIII. The moft common Method of propagatmg this Iree is by laying the fmall'lower Branches inBa&etsof Mould, or Earth, till they take Root; but the moft natural Way, as this is of the Fig-tree kind, is to fufo the feveral flender fmall Filaments, which iffue from the mam Branches, to take Root in the Earth. The Red M and often feveral TH I S generally grows about the Edges of Ponds, ._ Feet in Water. Its Roots divide into feveral Branches, and join together above the Surface of the Water, where each ftraggling Divifion meets, uniting into, and forming the Body of the Tree; which, from that Place to the Water, feems to be fupported by numerous Stilts. What Pliny, fpeaking of the Palm-tree, fays, Gaudet rigms, & Mo anno bibere amat, may be literally faid of this, which very feldom grows, except in, or very near, the Water. The firft Appearance of the Flower is a fmall conic hufky Calyx: This opens into four downy whitifli-brown Petals, furrounding the Piftil. When the Petals drop, the Piftil becomes the Rudiment of the Fruit. The Flower-Cup, or Calyx, opens, and expands horizontally into four Parts, T/j^ Holy-Thorn, orRoYAL-CASHiAw. THE Trunk of a grown Tree of this Kind is above eight or nine Inches Diameter ; and grows to above twenty Feet high. The Bark is rough, fomewhat fulcated, and of a dark-brown Colour. The Branches are numerous, and very prickly, efpecially towards the Top. From thefe extend very long flat flender gramineous Twigs ; having on each flde a great Number of very fmall Leaves, fet on alternately. From the Tops of the woody Branches, upon long green Footftalks, rife many yellow pentapetalous Flowers, out of whofe Difcus come feveral fliort Stamina^ whofe Apices are of a dark Brown. The Leaves in general are fomewhat wrinkled 5 and one above the reft is much deflefled, black, and appears ftained with red Spots, From ftrong Footftalks hang a great many Pods, black when ripe, including four, five, or fix blackifla oval Seeds, feparated from each other by long Partitions. It is the Opinion of fome Roman Catholics, that our Saviour's Crown of Thorns was made with the Branches of this Tree. I'loe Bean-Tree, or the Shrove-Tuesday ; Corallioden' dron. 'T^ H I S Tree is generally larger than moft AppleTrees 5 widely fpre^^' i ing its Branches on every Hand, Thefe

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1: h

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^ 1J'Lile JS p. ^^5 \ V N *f I £r/'et^ c:)^ ^yc^ \

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Book VIII. Ijland "^'

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> / tflk I The Natural Hiflory the 4 Book VIII Spanish Oak. -' r h J. r HIS grows to be a large Tree ed with fmooth reyifli Barl< ^ grows LO UC cl lai^^ j-n^^j v.v^rv.xw^ o^ J-"^' From the upper Branches rife many long Pedicles or Footftalk 1 ~ Thefe fuftain fometimes one y fmooth Leaves four Inches Ion but oftener two Pair of fKarp-pointed and two and an half broad. From different Parts of the Branches rife many purple white paplli bur-inch-long falcated Pods Flower Thefe are fucceeded in covered with a fine white clofmg feveral oblongdark-colour'd Seeds,. foft fweet Subftance ; which by a great many People is eaten t. Th e Red Willow. HIS, as well a:s every other Sp of Will this liland ) grow I to be large and very fhady Trees • for which Purpofe they are gerierally planted near Dwelling and Out-houfes The main Trunk hath a blackifh fmooth Bark Th e are long and flendef ; Thofe efpecially m with Leaves of above three Inches long at both Ends, and of a greenifh Yellow Weight of the Top r upper Branches thickly cloathed and one broad Iharp-pointed When at full Growth ) e many Leaves upon the Tops (chiefly) of fuch a great Num ber of flender long Branches makes them bow wavingly downward means each Tree affords an agreeable imbrowned Shade. By this / The White Willow. f'Tp H E Bark of this Tree is of a whitifli-gfey Th e Leaves JL y whi ic are four Inches long, and one and an half broad, are of the fame Colour. Tl le upper Thefe are fet on the Branches alternately, white Bloffoms. Thefe are fucceeded by feven-inch-lon reat many greenifh Seeds. Twigs Pods y bear many containing a n e Black Willow. HIS Tree grows to a con many fid er able Height y foon Branches. The Subdivifion of thefe into leffer dividing into ones IS * thickly covered with Leaves Inch and an half broad o Dark .*•>y y fmooth-edp-ed alwa/s about three Inches long, and above their under Sides of a Palewhite, and the upper Thef( e 3 and fharp-pointed > The re is fomethi D .' at their very remarkable in the Make of thefe Leaves, when young ; i^i, -. — firft Appearance, they are clofely folded, of doubled together lengthway from the Stalk to the Point, fo that they appear like Half-leaves divided along > th ddl Ribs When they grow near their deftined Bignef feeming Half-leaves unfold into perfeft reptilar whole Leaves. y Flowei y which are of two Sorts, both purple and whit y ftand pon thefe The ftrong , Pedicles >

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Book VIII. JJland of ^A'Si^AiyOS. Pedicles, and are compofed of four capfularLeaves. When thefe open, they difcover feveral Stamina tipp'd with white Apices, furrounding a fnuif-coloured Piftil, which is fucceeded by a round long Pod, red within, containing feveral black Seeds in partitional Cells ; thefe are no bigger than Grains of black Pepper. The Pods are about three Inches long, and of a ruffet Colour. This Tree, by its numerous waving Branches, affords a delightful Shade. & j The Down-Tree. r 1"^HIS grows to a confiderable Height, cloathed with large, roundifh, fcalloped Leaves. The Extremities of the Branches fuftain a great many Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by feven-inch-long blackifli Pods, which" are length., ways neatly gouged into kvcn regular Chanels. The Infide confifts of a greyifh fine filky Down, much refembling that of the Silk-cotton-tree-down. The only one that I know of in this liland, is at the Eftate of Evans^ Efq; in St. Jofeph'^ Pariih. w The FiNGRiGo; or the Savine-Tree. THIS fhrubby Tree feldom grows above twelve Feet high, being very bufhy, efpecially towards the Top, Its numerous Branches are thickly guarded with fmall crooked Prickles ; and cloathedVith very fmall Leaves of a furprifing Make, being rather a Contmuation of many Leaves, than diftind ones ; for what in other Trees and Plants we call Footftalks, or Pedicles, are in this but fo many narrow Leaves, fupporting others fomewhat broader. They bear almoft an innumerable Quantity of fmall Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by as many brownifli very fmall Capful ^ They have likewife this additional Virtue ; that if dried and powdered, and mixed with Corn, and given to Horfes, it frees their Maw from the Bots, as well as all other Worms. 197 1 i' I'he Papaw-Ockroe. np H I S Plant grows about a Foot high, having one ftrong Taproot, befides feveral fmall Side-ones. The Leaves furround the Stalks and are very neatly ferrated, very much refembling thofe of Nettles. The Tops of the main Branches or Stalks fupport each a pentapeta7' y^lJQ^ Flower ; the Petals fmall, and fpoon-like : Thefe are fupported by five capfular fiiarp-pointed Leaves, yellow above, and of a ruffet Colour underneath; 2 The \

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198 fhe Natural Hiflory of The Petals furround a great many yellow Stamina. Book VIII. Each Flower is fucceeded by a fmall ftiarppointed Pod, inclofing a great many fmall Seeds. •.. • u -i j r> ,, The only Ufe that I know of this Plant is, that it is boiled as Sallad, and eaten by moft Negroes. 1:10 Largest Sensible Plant. The Branches are thickly cioathed with a great Number of oval fmall pennated Leaves. THIS grows to be about four Feet high. From among thefe rife feveral three-inch-long Stalks, bearing each of them, on their Extremities, an uncommon ftamineous Flower. The greateft Part of this is yellow ; but on one Side of it appears a Tuft of palewhite Stamina, tipp'd with brownifli Apices. When thefe Sta7nina, as well as the yellow Part of the Flower, drop off, there appears an horizontal Group of fmall Pods of about an Inch and a quarter long, when ripe, and of a blackiOi-brown Colour, inclofing feveral fmall flattifh black Seeds. H \ Crabs-Eye-Vine. THIS is a long fcandent Vine, cioathed with fmall pennated Leaves, each confifting of eleven Pair, with an odd one at the End. The Flowers, being papilionaceous, fmall, and white, are fucceeded by Pods, each inclofing two or three fcarlet Peas. Every one of thefe, at its Extremity, has a very black Spot, which makes it much refemble the Eye of a Crab. From thence it derives its Name. T^he Least Wild Pea-Vine. TH I S is a flender reddifh hairy Vine j cioathed at uncertain Diftances with fmall green Leaves, generally three in Number, upon one common Footftalk. # From the Bofom of the Leaves rife many yellow papilionaceous Flowers, each fucceeded by half-inch-long Pods, containing two fmall Peas. r L l^he Wild Potato-Vine. HIS is a weak ilender Vine, creeping upon the next Supporter it meets with \ but moft commonly it twines itfelf about GutnejCorn-ftalks, and bloflbms about Chrifimas. Thefe -are of the papilionaceous Kind, and of a beautiful Mixture of the moft fnowy-white ana deepfcarlet Colours.

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> F '^ ^ \

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• Plate jy I I /^^// } / I. \

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Book VIII. IJland tf/ BARBADOS. 199 The Rope-Mangrove. L npHIS is a groveling Tree, feldom rifing above eighteen Feet high i The Bark is of a light-ruffet Colour ; the Leaves are high-ribbed ; their Length about feven, and their Breadth near fix Inches, fupported each by a fix-inch-long Footftalk. The Extremities of the Branches are beautifully decorated with large yellow Flowers, very much refembling thofe of the Cotton-Flower, except that they want the purple Spot at the Bottom. The Petals of this Flower, which are five in Number, are fupported by a double Row of green capfular Leaves neatly jagged. The Piftil is ftrong, and divides into four knobbed Divifions : From the Side of it rife many yellow Stamina^ tipped with the fame colour'd farinaceous Apices. I^he Flower is fucceeded by a roundifh fharp-pointed Pod, divided into five Partitions, inclofing each a black kidney-like Seed.' The moft common Method of cultivating thefe Trees is by cutting 'the younger Branches into many Pieces, and flicking them in the Ground in wet Weather. It is called the Rope-Mangrove, from the Ufe that is made of the Bark of it to make Ropes or Halters for Cattle. Thefe Trees grow moft commonly in low moift Land, near the Water : They flower about Ju?te or July,' -' ,-,••• ^ Tie Junction-Vine* npH I Sis a long trailing Vine, bearing a fliarp-pointed heart-like Leaf. • The Flower is monopetalous, very much reprefenting, in its whole Shape, the Placenta Uteri. The Labia of the Flower are freckled with purple and white Spots. The Root of the Vine is exceeding bitter, and very ufeful to make bitter Diet-Drink. The Flowers are fucceeded by a conic blackifh Pod, which is very much fulcated on the Outfide, and the Infide divided into partitional Cells, inclofing feveral fmall black Seeds, The Cytifus. ^ H nPHIS grows to about nine Feet high : Its Roots are few, penetrating not deep into the Earth. Its main Stalk, or Stem, at about three Years Growth, is commonly near as big as a Man's Wrift. I know of no Part of this Shrub but what is of fome Ufe. The Wood is good for Fuel; and by the often falling of its numerous Leaves, the Land it grows upon is very much enriched ; and its Fruit is of great Service, by affording hearty nourifliing Food to Man and Beaft. The main Stalk is generally divided into feveral buffiy Branches : Thefe are cloathed with long fliarp-pointed fmooth Leaves, green above, and covered with an hoary Mealinefs underneath : It bears, upon two-inchlong Spikes, very many yellow papilionaceous Flowers, ray 'd with purple Veins. Thefe are fucceeded by Pods of a ruffet Colour, when ripe ; conE ee taining

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^^ /, J' ^DO ^^ Hiftory of Book VlII. taininc. three, four, or five, fomewhat flat roundifh Peas, feparated from one another by a flender Partition. Thefe Peas, green or dry, are boiled and eaten, and efteemed very wholfome, efpecially if ufed in the wet time of the Year ; for, being of a binding Quality, they prevent Diarrhceas and Dyfenteries, fo common In wet Seafons. I attribute their Reftringency nee rous 0;; . generally found, more or lefs, in each Pod. Thefe Trees are produced from the dry Peas, planted about an Inch ileep. They grow to a confiderable Bignefs even the firft Year, each bearing fome Hundreds of Pods ; the fecond and third ftill more nume, ^ ^the fourth and fifth they bear but very fparingly ; in two Years more the Tree gradually decays and dies. They thrive beft in a dry Soil^ ^nd foon perifh in a wet one. Thus is much Moifture hurtful to fome, whilft kindly to others; ^^ thus fome Plants require a flrong and rich, others a poor and fandy Soil ; fome do beft in the Shade, others in the Sun.*' This is delineated in Plate XIX. Nemnem, or ToothAch-Tree. THIS Tree was firft brought hither by a Portuguefe^ about fifteen Years ago ; it takes its Name of the Tooth-ach-Tree fiom its rather fuppofed, than real Quality of curing the Tooth-ach. It differs very little, if any thing, except in. its greater Bulk, the Length of its Prickles,' and the more Aafe already defcribed. o w Hhe Akasee or Sweet-Brier.^ THIS Shrub Is of the thorny Kind, growing to about ten Feet high: Its Roots are ftrong and many, and penetrate very deep into the Earth. The main Stem, as well as the whole Shrub, is cloathed with a reddifii-grey Barkj the Branches are fomewhat geniculated backward and forward, alternately. From each of thefe grow feveral Side-twigs; oa thefe are feveral Pair of very fmall oval pennated Leaves. The Flowers, which are of a globofe Form, yellow, and of the ftamineous Kind, rife from the Bofom of the Leaves on Stalks, or Pedicles, of about an Inch long, guarded at the Bottom with two (harp Prickles : If hefe Flowers are fucceeded by Pods of about four Inches long, black when ripe, containing eight or nine oval Seeds, feparated from each other by fungous Parti; tions. The Roots, when bruifed, yield an offenfive Smell ; and, if boiled to a Deco6tion, and drunk, prove mortally poifonous to Man, or Beaft. The Pod, when half-ripe, affords fo glutinous a Jelly, that it is made ufe of, inftead of Cement, to join together broken China Ware. If the main Stem is wounded, there oufes out, in few Days, a tranfparent Gum like Gum-Arabic. The Defcrlption which Mr. Lemery gives of the ' 2' Shrub

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^ Book VIII. IJlandof BARBADOS. Shrub which produces GumArabic, anfwers very near to this. This is delineated in Plate XL Fig. 2. -^ ^ r "The Flower-Fence, or Spanish Carnation 5 Laf. Penciana. ^ H I S Shrub is diftlngulflied into two Sorts, the one bearing a yellow. Flower, the other a red and yellow mixt ; the former is very feldom to be met with. The Shrub bearing both is of the fame Species, and grows to be about fix Feet high, fending out near the Top feveral flender" Branches on every Side. Thefe are thickly cloathed with many Penn^ of fmall oblong winged Leaves ; the main Stalk is covered with a whitiOi grey Bark, the upper Branches ending in green long Spikes. Thefe are fpirally furrounded. upon long green Footilalks, with very beautiful Flowers, each compofed of five Petals, which are generally red near the Bottom of the Leaves ; and their Edges, which are finely waved, or finuated, are deeply bordered and tinged with Yellow ; and, where the Yellow predominates, it is generally rayed with fine Streaks of Red. Thefe Petals are fupported by five undercapfular, reddifh, fpoon-like Leaves. From the Centre of the Flower rife nine two-inch-long Stamina, of a flaming Purple, tipp'd with reddifli-brown Apices, furrounding a reddilli Style, which is the Rudiment of the Pod. This, when ripe, IS about five Inches long, flattifli and of i purple Black, divided into feveral partitional Cells j each Cell including a flat blackifli Seed, not ill-refembling the Kernel of an Apple. Lyewater, made from the Aflies of the Roots of this Shrub, is looked upon to be good to bring down the Catamenia ; and one of the Flowers, bruifed and fteeped in Breaft-milk, is a gentle Anodyne ; for which Purpofe it is often given to quiet very young Children. Thefe flourifh all the Year round. 2,01 Wl Bloody-Bones., H I S is a fcandent Shrub, cloathed vv^ith green fmoothedged and an Inch roundpointed Leaves of about two Inches long, ana an broad. Thefe are fet on the Branches alternately. From the Extremity of the latter grow feveral roundifh Pods, compofed of four fpoon-like Leaves, fupported near the Stalk witli four fmaller capfular Leaves. When thefe Pods open, they difcover a Taffel of long white Stamina, tipp'd with Apices i from the Middle of thefe rifes the Piftil, which is near three Inches long, bearing upon its Top the Rudiment of the Fruit, This Piftil foon grows ligneous^ and, at its full Growth, produces a fiveinch-long Pod of a whitiili-ycUow Colour, ftreaked with two oppofite fcarlet Seams. The Infide is full of Cells, containing feveral fmall green Seeds. This Shrub grows chiefly upon rocky Places. ^ VV, ^^

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aoa T'he Natural Hiftory ofth ^ Book VII[, Tthe French Guava. 4 TH I S is a flimbby Plant, whofe main Stalk hath a ftrong lignec Texture. Its Side-branches are cloathed with feveral Pair of lai-, oval winged Leaves, the upper Stalks ending in upright Spikes, which are covered for three Inches in Length with pendulous yellow Flowers, not ill-refembling thofe of the Aloe Plant. Thefe are fucceeded by feveral blackifhlong Pods, whofe feveral partitional Cells inclofe a great many round blackifh Seeds. ADecoftion of this Plant, or an Ointment made of a Mixture of its Juice, is looked upon to be of great Ufe to cure and dry up any cutaneous Eruptions. This flourifhes about ChriJlmaSy and loves a rich Soil, as well as a fhady Place to grow in. I'he Wild French Guava, or Stinking-Bush. nnHE main Stalk of this Plant rifes above four Feet high, bearing on its Side-branches feveral Pair of fharp-pointed winged Leaves. TheFlow,ers, which are yellow, and much refembling thofe of the Tamarinds, are fucceeded by five-inch-long blackifh Pods, containing many fmall blackifli Seeds. This derives its Name from the Likenefs it hath to the French Guava Shrub, and from its {linking Smell. % rhe Shrub. twelve Trunk, where largeft, above three Inches in Diameter. It branches T pretty much towards the Top, and is cloathed with middle-fized Iharppointed green Leaves, vvhpfe middle and tranfverfe Ribs are fomewhat reddifh. Thefe are difpofed on the Branches alternately. The Flower is pentapetalous, and of a bluifli Yellow, compofed of fpoon-Iike Petals. The inclofed yellowifli Stamina are tipped with purplifh Apices. The Style, which rifes from the Centre, proves the Rudiment of the fucceeding echinated Pod, which is of a conic Shape. Its Infide is divided into feveral partitional Cells, inclofmg a great many fmall Seeds, covered on the Surface^ with a red Subftance ; which the Indians on the Main dye their Bodies with. As the Method of preparing this Dye is not well known here, I fhall not attempt to give any Account of it.t The LucERN. \ J np H I S Kind of Grafs hath been but very lately cultivated in this Ifland, ^ and even now but by fome curious Perfons. It is of a very quick Growth in wet Weather ; but fo foon dies in dry Seafons, that it is not worth cultivating here, however valuable it may be where there fall more conftant Rains. ' m i t\ \ \ \ 1 > "fbi

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Book Vlli iJlandof^AK^At^OS 2.03 The Wood-Sorrel. q^HIS difFers very little, if any thing, from the fame Species thaf ^ grows in England: And its Virtue in Ptifans or Sallad is equally the fame. 7y&^ Jallop, or the Four-o^Clocr-F'lower; Lai. Jallapa. HIS fhrubby Plant grows to be about four Feet high, and is divided into numerous Branches, as well as by the different Colours of its Flowers diftinguiflied into feveral Sorts. However, the Root of diat, which bears a brown yellowifh Flower, comes neareft in phyfical Goodnefs td the true Jallop. Its Leaves are winged, and the Flowers of the tubular monopetalous Kind, whofe Or^ are divided into five Sedtions. The SdiminU are tipped with five Apices of a fcarlet Colour. Thefe Flowers, though diftinguifhed into the Purple, the Red, and the Yellow already defcribed, have all their Footftalks covered over with foft Ftlli or Hair ; and the Bioifoms of each Kind are fucceeded by fmall Capful^^ containing in each a fmall black, hufky Seed, inclofing a white Kernel. I fhould have added before, that the Leaves are fliarp^poiiited, and above two Inches long, and an Inch and an half brbad. The Flower ex^ pands early in the Morning, and generally continues open till Eight o'clock ; and then fhuts, and feems dmoft withered, till about Four in the Afternoon 3 at which Time it blows anev^, and continues open till Night. The Crab-Tree. r nn H I S tall Shrub hath a dark-colour'd reddifh Bark. The Branches are many and crooked. The Leaves, which are generally in Pairs^ are likewife uneqiial and ragged ; the largeft not exceeding two Inches long, and the fmalleft not an Inch. The Branches are guarded with very fmall fcarce-perceptible Prickles. The Flowers are of the papilionaceous Kind, and fucceeded by many fmall Pods. I The Indigo-WeeO. F T N the Infancy of Trade in this Ifland, Indigo, which is produced *from this Weed, was one of its ftaple Commodities : But as the Improvement of Sugar became more beneficial, or rather, when our Neighhours the French^ by their feveral Indulgences in Trade, as well as the cheap Purchafe of their Land, were able to underfell us at foreignMarkets, this Branch of Trade was fo intirely fwallowed up by them,that we have had no Indigo manufadlured here for above forty Years paft.Therefore it would be needlefs in me either to defcribe the Plant, if I Fff eoulJ

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2,04 "The Natural Hijlory of Book VIII. could Hieet with any in the Ifland, or to • trouble my Reader with the Method of making Indigo from it. ^h '6 all6p-Vine. J J, uife, Efq; Its St Juice, it belrs^ an heaxt-like Leaf, and a Bell-flower. Sorrel. **^ The Flower corififts of five paleXIlTE haveliefe, befides the Wood and, the^^c^rarden-borrel, another W 'tall .fhrubby Sort, diftmgmOied by "tKeir Colour into the White, anH the Red. Thefe grow ftrong, aiid are feemingly ligneous, though they are of an annual Growth, produceil Tr6m the Seed. Their Roots are m&y and fibrous. ^ ^ ^. tt *i.i, j i Themiin Stalk grows often to be above three Feet high, red and Wlow. The Leaves, which ale ^deeply dictated, and their middle Ribs •WStalks reddifti, aYe fet on alternately. ^ ^ white Leaves, gyrally incircling one another, and each deeply Itam d with a purple Spot at the Bottom, and inclofmg a 'flioit Tlrong PiftU furrounded .with farinaceous Duft. ,._ i V t t The Petals are lik^ewife incircled with five fharp-pomted capiular Leaves, which, when the Petals 'drop ofF, clofe together into a conic-fhap'd Pod. This, when ripe, opens into five Sedions, difcovering a rufiet Berry, which likewife, when ripe, opens Into five Seftions, and difcovers a great many blackifh Seeds. i n r j Thefe Leaves, as well as the Berry, are decorated as well as lupported by a ftrong Calyx, which on the Outfide is divided into nme fharppointed Seftions. ~ ^ ^ ^ : The red Leaves, and Flower-cup, being thick and very juicy, are \yhen ripe, feethed in boiling Water, which in a few Hours extrafts both their Colour and Strength. This Decoftibh, work'd with Sugar, makes a very ftrong reddifti heady Wine ; and as thefe Plants are of two Kinds, the Red and the White, their refpeftive Wines will be of thefe different Colours, but of the fame Tafte. The red capfular Leaves, when young (firft ftew'd,) make excellent Tarts. The Fruit is generally ripe about November and Dece77iher* I < \ Wild Sena, or the Wi Colutea. \ ,™^ H I S buftiy Shrub groHvs to about four Feet high ; the main Stalk pithy and brittle ; the Branches thickly cloathed with round deeporeen

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N -K -C \ X

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J / .^ -zc ^y^ ^as I I 1 1 I 1 1 / V \ J \ y-" /'

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Book VIIL IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. w green winged Leaves, fet upon the Twigs in three or four Pair. The Flowers are yellow and pentapetalous. Thefe are followed by five-inch-long brownifla round Pods, fomewhat falcated when ripe. The Infides of thefe are divided, Hke the large Cajfta-Fifluluy into Very many fmall Cells, feparated from one another by thin pulpy Partitions of a fweetifh Tafte, including, in the intermediate Spaces, fmafl blackiOi flat Seeds. This is delineated in Plate XX. ^ The Christmas-Bush.
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206 1-he Natural Hiflory of the Book Vlll. Pops. TH I S is a fucculent perennial Plant, having many fibrous Roots. The main Stalk is hollow, and the Outfide divided into many irregular Angles. It widely branches towards the Top, and is thickly covered with thin fliarp-pointed Leaves, of about three Inches and an half long, and about two Inches broad. The Edges of thefe are widely and irregularly ferrated • the whole Plant growing to be about two Feet and an half high. The Flowers, which are monopetalous and yellow, are divided into five Angles in a Star-fafhion. The Infidc of each Angle, near the Difcus, or Bottom of the Flower, is ftained with a brownifli purple Spot. The whole Flower furrounds five Sta^niiia^ tipped with pale bluifh ^/c^j. Thefe likewife furround a whitifh Piftil. The Flowers are fuccceded by fnuU round bluifli Berries, full of an agreeable Pulp, mixed with many whitifh Seeds. , '\ Thefe are looked upon to be good Diuretics : The Berries, till ripe, are furrounded with a thin green Capfula^ fomewhat of a conic Shape ; which is of a very flender Texture, and divided principally into five high convex purple Veins, interfperfed with a great many lefTer longitudinal as well as tranfverfe Ribs or Veins. When the inclofed Fruit is ripe, this Capftda opens, and withers away. \ are ftrong, penetrating deep into the Earth. Foster's Plant. AS this Shrub hath been hitherto namelefs, I have prefumed to call it after the Perfon s Name who difcovered to me, not only this, but feveral others. This ihrubby Plant grows to about four Feet high. Its Roots The infide Bark of thefe, as well as the Hth in the main Stalk, is of a yellowifh Colour ; the latter fomewhat inclinable to a red. Its flender Side-branches are cloathed with five Pair of pmnated Leaves without, an odd one at the End j thefe are about an Inch and an half long, and near an Inch broad. From among thefe rife a great many papilionaceous Flowers j which are fucceeded by long flattifli Pods, inclofing a great Number of flat Seeds of a ruflet Colour. The Leaves of this Plant, if bruifed, yield a very offenfive Smell. It grows chiefly in rich Land, and blooms in yune and July. r "^he Cow-Itch Vine. 'T^ HIS is a long fcandent Vine, creeping often to above twenty Feet "* high, if fupported by neighbouring Trees or Rocks. Its Leaves are of a middle Size, fharp-pointed, and very thin, covered with foft Villi or Down, and fet on the Vine in a Triparture-order. The Flowers of this Vine grow in Bunches. The

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i Book VIII. Ipndof BARBADOS. The Appearance of each, at firft, is an inchlong purple petaJous Pod which, when it blows, divides into two narrow purple Petals difcovering in the Middle, between both, a white long Pointal, hooked even to a Pricklinefs at its Extremity. This is likewife ftieath'd with a thin white Membrane. When this, as the Flower grows, fplits open, it difcovers the Pointal to be fringed or divided near the Top into {zv&x^X Stamina tipp'd with Apices. The two above-mentioned Petals are, near the Bottom in circled with another purple Petal, not ill refembling the Carina of a papi honaceous Flower. The Whole is fucceeded by a Pod near of the Shape and Size of a Pod of a full-grown Englijh Field-Pea. This inclofes feveral blackiQi fmall Beans. The Outfides of thefe Pods are thickly covered with very fine fliort Seta, or ftiff Hairs. If thefe, either blown by the Wind, or by any other means, touch the Skin, they will inflame the Part far worfe than if touched with Nettles. The Italian Sena. HAT is called here \!ix& Italian Sena, hath many white flringy . Roots fpreading onevery Hand. Its main Stalk foon divides into leiTer Branches ; thefe are cloathed with feveral Pair of winged pale-green Leaves of an oblong Shape. The Branches likewife fuftain.^on two-inchlong Footftalks, feveral five-leaved yellow Flowers ; thefe are fucceeded by falcated broad Pods, divided by feveral Indentings into many Partitions, which inclofe dark-colour'd Seeds. This, with a great many other curious medicinal Plants, is to be found "John Douglafs 7 M npHIS bufliy Plant bears many fmall Branches, cloath'dwith very hairy Leaves, divided into three deep Sedions, forming as many partitional fharp-pointed Angles. The Ribs on the upper Side are fomewhat reddifh, on the under green. The Edges of thefe partitional Sedlions are irregularly indented : The upper Branches fuftain a beautiful yellow Flower, compofed of five round-pointed large Petals, each Petal above two Inches long, and ftained at the Bottom with a purple Spot. Thefe furround a large Piftil cover'd with yellow farinaceous Duft. The Top of this is almoft furrounded, on fhort Footftalks, with blackifh-purple Apices. The Flower is fucceeded by a multangular flefhy Pod, every way refembling that of an Ockro. They are fometimes eaten, efpecially when very young ; otherwife they tafte mufl^y. G 2 2 TZ y^ "^7

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ao8 The Natural Hi ft ory of the Book Vlll. 77j^ Horse-Vine. THIS Vine is fmall and creeping; taken notice of chiefly becaufe k is looked upon to be good Feeding for Horfes.: Its green roundpointed Leaves are fet on an inch Footftalk in a Triparture-order. The Flowers are fucceeded by fmall Pods, inclofing a great many Seeds, or Peas, feparated from each other by partitional Cells. It grows chiefly in fhady Places. T/6^ Wild-Basil 5 Lat, Acinus. THIS hath very fmall fibrous Roots : Its Stalk and Branches are fquare and deeply chanelPd. The Leaf is about an Inch and an half long, fharp-pointed, and fomewhat indented about the Edges. ^ It bears fmall fiftular blue ftar-hke Flowers, ftanding in Groups upon conic Tufts, whofe Apertures are guarded with ftiort hairy Spikes. In thefe are included the Seeds, which are very fmall, and of a blackifh Colour. This Plant is juftly look'd upon to be an excellent Vulnerary. F T^he Holly-Hock ; Lat. Malva Arborea. HIS Plant much refembles the Gundelia Orujitalis^ Acanthi aculmti Folio^ Capita glabro^ growing in the Levant^ and defcribed by Tournefort. Its Leaves are very deeply laciniated, as all of the Thiftlekind are. The middle as well as the lefler Ribs are ftain'd with blue milky Veins. The Stalks, near or at the Top, bear many yellow ftamineous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by echinated brownifh Pods, inclofing a great Number of brownifli fmall Seeds : A Thimble-full of thefe, taken inwardly, proves an excellent Purge ; and the yellow Juice, that, when broken, plentifully diftils from the Stalk, is a fovereign Remedy to cure old Ulcers. L The Coney-Flower-Vine. T^HIS Vine creeps upon and fupports itfelf by its numerous Clafpers, "*" twining round the Branches of neighbouring Trees. It bears a great many fmall heart-like Leaves ; and at different Diftances is decorated with large papilionaceous Flowers, the Extremities of whofe Al(^ are white, terminating near the Cariita in a moft deep beautiful Purple. The Carina itfelf is white, and its Orifice cover'd with two fniall membranaceous Petals, having their Rife from the Footftalk-Part of the Carina \ and, meeting on each fide at the Orifice, they clofely join together to T Thefe Leaves have their Parts, which thus join together, beauThe Piftil takes its Rife at the Bottom of cover It. tifully ftain'd with Purple, the Carina and, as it grows ftronger and larger, its Point becomes divided into feveral Stamina^ tipp'd with Apices^ which, when ripe, fall into

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Book VIII. IJland / B A R B A D O S. 209 into the Ovary ; and then the Piftil, which becomes the Rudiment of the future Pod, pufhes open the Orifice of the Carina^ as well as burfts through the two membranaceous Leaves, that covered it. Soon after the Expanfion of thefe the Flower withers, and drops off; and is fucceeded by a four-inch long Pod, chanelled in the middle on each Side with a deep Furrow. The Pod contains feveral fmall Peas or Seeds. "The Sensitive Plant j Lat, Mimofa. np H I S is diftinguifhed into the large and fmall Sort, the main Stalks fomewhat hairy ; each bearing proportionable fmall longifli ovalwinged Leaves. The Flowers, which ftand upon three-inch-long Footftalks, are ftamineous. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall brownifli Pods of an oblong Shape, and of about an Inch long. The Edges of thefe Pods are thin, and through their Middle, on each Side, rifes a Ridge, which, on the Infide, contains a great Number of blackifli fmall Seeds. The winged Leaves upon this Plant fhrink very much upon the leaft Touch. The Pedicles, which fupport the Flowers, and the fucceeding Pod, are, near their Setting off from the main Stalks, embraced with two heart-like ftiarp-pointed Leaves, of near half an Inch long. Thefe intirely differ from all the reft. T I X The Rabbet-Weed, np H I S is of the Thiftle-kind. Its main Stalk grows to be three Feet high, and hollow like a Pawpaw-Shank. It is thinly covered with fmall narrow Leaves, which are prickly about their Edges. The upper Branches fuftain a great many Flowers compofed of a Border of pale-white fmall Petals, furrounding a yellowifh long Thrum, which, when ripe, proves pappous, and flies away into whitifh Down. This Plant derives its Name from the Ufe that is made of it to feed Rabbets with. The Indian Root. TE Seed of this, fome few Years ago, was fent hither from Jamaicay as a very valuable Plant. If the chimerical Gentleman, who fent if, had but had Coolnefs of Thought enough firft, fully to difcover its pretended Virtues, before he had recommended it, the Planters of this Ifland would have been much happier without it ; for, as its Seeds are of the pappous Kind, they were foon carried over all the Ifland ; and it too unluckily flouriflies in every Soil, though ufeful to neither Man nor Beaft. Its Roots are white, fibrous, and many. The main Stalk rifes about eighteen Inches high. % r Tk

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2IO T:h£ Natural Hijlory of the Book VIII. r I'he OcKRA } Ockro. /T^HIS excellent flirubby Plant is plainly a Species of Mallows. The Stalk is like that of a Mallow, and rifes to about four or five Feet high, bearing, on and near the Summit, many large yellow Flowers fucceeded by green conic flefliy Pods chanelled into feveral Grooves. Each Pod, when ripe, is from an Inch to two Inches and an half long full of as many longitudinal Cells, as tliere are Chanels of fmall round bla^' Seeds. The long Ockro differs from that already defcribed, chiefly by having its Stalk twice as high as the other, and its Fruit often four Inches w" and the Pod fmaller. This likewife, with Care, may be brought to b^ all the Year round. The Fruit is taken, when young and tender, and boiled and eaten witli Butter. They are of a very mucilaginous Nature ; a great Reftorative, very wholfome, and extremely lubricative. Thefe are undoubtedly the Plants which the Ro7nans fo much valued, and which Horace fo well defcribes by calling them kves malv(B. -' ^ CoYERS. J 'pHlS flirubby Plant hath feveral whitlfh Roots, fmellmg not unlike a Radilh. The main Stalk, which is of a purplifh Colour, branches very much near the Ground : From the feveral Side-branches iffue a great many Footftalks, whofe refpedive Tops from one common Centre fuftain ftven fharp-pomted Leaves, being almoft equally fharp near their common Footltalk, where they all join ; at which Junfture there is a yellowifh Spot The Flower very much refembles that of a Garlick-'Pear-tree, confifting of tour Imall Spoon-hke Petals. • ^ r F^7 f,^Centre of thefe rifes a dark-coloured Piffil, from whofe Sides, fr p'Sm higher iffue fix purphfh Stamina, tipped with brownilh Apices unon^t;l\ .'•^^''^^?r'™g ^^^'^'^^^ '"--Stamina, be^Sg upon It the Rudzmentofthe future Pod, which, when ripe, isof aflattilh Tuii''nfl pT ; i^&/nclofing a great many fmall Seeds. The Juice of this Plant mixed with fweet Oil, is looked upon to be a fovereign Remedy againft the Pain in the Ear, if poured into it warm ^ Man \ T^l!.t??/lf™'^^^^^^^ great Number of its Roots. The icveral Stalks, which grow up from thefe, are about feventeen Inches 1 heir Leaves, which are crumpled, and have very turgid 3ur Inche, lonn. a„^ .T,...u.„_j Pj.^^ ^^^ Bofom of high, and hairy. Veins, are about four Inches long, and three broad. From the ] t Weded ^ ""^ ?'t^ '""r '^g ^^^g^ d-^-l^lFlowers are lucceeded by very fmall brownifh Pods. Thefe k ADey fr

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Book VIIL IJland
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212 '^he Natural Hiftory of the Book VI I L Many-Seed. HAVE given this Plant a Name from its many Seeds; which, from j^ reckoning the Number in one fmall capfular Pod, and multiplying that one by the Number of remaining fmall round capfular Pods, the -whole Plant, wbi^h Xpruijg from oijje Seed, contained twelve thoufand .eight hundred and eighty Seeds. j[t feldpm grows above three Feet high, and is forked. Coot-Weed. IF THIS, whilft young, very much refembles Aftragalus Orientalise mentioned by T'ournefort as growing in the Levant ; with this only Difference, that the Flowers of the Eaftern Plant are white, and of this yellow. It affords, when broken, a rank fetid Smell : which Ihews that jhe Oil and Salts are in a vpl^jile State^. ^ J Rattle-Bush, gr Shake-Shake. THIS plant hath a great many white matted ftrlngy Roots; the main Stalk dividing, almoft as foon as it comes out of the Ground, into rnany green fucculent Branches ; thefe different Stalks, at different Diftances, bearing, on Pedicles of about two Inches long, three bluntpointed Inch-long green Leaves. Thefe arc fet on at the End of every Stalk in a Triparture-order. The Flower, which is of the papilionaceous Kind, is fucceeded by a fmall Pod. The inclofed Peas, when ripe, make a rattling Noife when fhaken by the Wind : From hence they derive the Name of Rattle-Bujh^ or Shake-Shake, They grow chiefly, or at leaft beft, under the Shelter of an Hill. 1 "^'he Red Dialth^a. ^ H I S is a low fhrubby Plant ; its Bark of a reddifh Grey. The *Branches are thickly covcr'd with fharp-pointed Leaves. Thefe are about two Inches and an half long, and near two broad. Their Edges are finely ferrated : The Flowers, which are of the herbaceous Kind, almoft furround the Stalk in feveral Bunches. Thefe, when ripe, are fucceeded by feveral very fmall Hufks or Capful^y inclofing feveral brownifh triangular Seeds. They grow chiefly in fliady Places. Wild-Parsley. npHIS derives Its Name from the great Refemblance its Leaf hath to that of Parfley. The Flowers are fucceeded by a fmall triangular Capfula^ each Angle containing, in its Partition, one round fmooth Seed, of 4 i \

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Book Vlir. ipnd c/ BARBADOS. r of about the Bignefs of large black Pepper. This, when ripe, is neatly marbled with black and white Spots. The only Ufe that I know is made of this Plant, is, that the good Houfewives make the Nefts of their fetting Hens of the Leaves and Branches of this, in order to deftroy the Lice upon the Hens. The Seeds likewife are made ufe of, being ftrung upon Silk, injftead of rnorc valuable Beads, for Bracelets. It flouriflies about Jum^ J'^b> ^^^ Augujl. Pepper, J S the Species of thefe are many, I fhall firfl: give a Lift of their Names ; and then proceed to a particular Defcription of fuch as are any-ways remarkable : Bonnetpepper, ribb'd. Bonnet-pepper, plain. Negro-pepper. Bird-pepper. Cherry-pepper. Long-pepper. Whitepepper. Olive-pepper. Spur-pepper. Rofe-pepper. Ifaac-Cape-pepper. Bell-pepper, and Turbilo-Pepper. The Pepper moft commonly ufed, and moft approved of, is what is called Negro-pepper. The Shrub that bears this feldom rifes to above three Feet. It is very thickly cloathed with fmall green (harp-pointed Leaves, of about an Inch and an half long, and about one broad. It$ Flowers, which are white, and i^veleav'd, are likewife very numerous. It is obferved, that, even before they blow, each of thefe hath a fmall wriggling Worm in its Difcus or Socket. The fucceeding Fruit is ofa fmall oblong fliarp-pointed Pepper, red when ripe, of near one third of an Inch long. This hath a very hot poignant Tafte, attended with an agreeable Flavour, %\% A T Sv^eet-Heart. H E Roots of this fmall Plant are many, penetrating deep into the Earth. The main Stalks are jointed, and are no thicker than Packthread. Thefe rife feparately from the Root, four or five in Number, growing to about fifteen Inches high. From each Joint of thefe main Stems, rifes a flender Footftalk of an Inch long, fupporting three fmall Leaves, fet on in a triangular manner ; the Top of ekch Stalk ending in a gramineous Spike, furrounded with many purple papilionaceous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall Pods of about two Thirds of an Inch long, including five fmall Peas, or flattifti Seeds, Thefe are feparated from each other by Partitions ; and the Outfide of the Pod is divided or fegmented into fo many femicircular Sedions as there are Peas. The Pod is intirely incrufted with fmall Seta, or hooked Briftles, imperceptible to the naked Eye ; by which means they tenacipufly ftick to the Cloaths of thofe who walk among them. A Decodion of the Roots, boiled in Milk with the Bark of a Guava Tree, is look'd upon to be good to cure Fluxes. J

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2,14:: The Natural Hiflory of the Book VIII. -T \ The Spanish-Needle, r HIS under flirubby Plant grows in moft Parts of the Ifland. It has many fmall fibrous Roots. On every Footftalk ftand three fharp£ointed ferrated Leaves, fet on In a triangular manner, the oppofite to the Stalt being the longeft.' The Flowers are compofed of a fiftular yellow Thrum, partly furrounded with three white Petals. Thefe are divided at the Top into two deep narrow Sedtions, which gives each Leaf the Appearance of three. The Seedveflels are very fmall long blackifh Spikes, furrounding the Top in a Whorl-fafhion, having their Ends very much bearded and jagged, inclofmg very fmall longifti black Seeds. : : ^ This Plant is looked upon to be a good Vulnerary. ''. Iron-Vine. npHIS is a fmall creeping Vine, deriving its Name from the ferrugl-^ neous Colour of its Stalk and Leaves. The Roots penetrate deep into the Earth: The flender Side-branches bear upon half-inch Footllalks three flaarp-pointed Leaves ; the oppofite to the Centre being the longeft. This is about an Inch and an half long, and an Inch broad ; the two other Leaves fomewhat lefs. The Flower is very fmall, of a bluifh Colour, and of J:he papilionaceous Kind. The whole Plant, when briiifed, yields a reddifh rough Juice; which, if boiled into a Deco£lion, and drunk, is looked upon to be of great Service in Diarrhceas and Dyfenteries. This Plant flouriihes in moft Places, efpecially in the Summer Months, when thefe are moft common. Down-Vine. 4 j "^ H I S is a creeping Vine, bearing a great many heart-like Leaves J. as well as feveral Flowers, which are fucceeded by fmall Pods, filled with Down intermixed with fmall Seeds ; the former ferving as Wings to convey the latter over the adjacent Places. This Vine grows chiefly in Gulhes, and fuch fhady Places. , r 7"/?'^ Wild Dolly. n HIS Plant rifes about twenty Inches.' Its Roots are fmall and fibrous TX.-c -^^^L^^^e^ ^^e fet three upon a Footftalk in Triparture-difpofition. 1 hele are of a very deep-green Colour, and moderately fliarp-pointed. Vrom the Bofom of the Leaves rife many fix-inch-long Spikes or Footllalks : Thefe are refpedively, decorated at the Top with a beautiful pmple papilionaceous FloWer, and fucceeded by a tlrree-inch-long narrow Pod, mclofing m feveral partitional Cells fmall blackifii Seeds, or rather Peas. • The 1^

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t Book VIII. JJland of The Wild-Tamarinds. THIS very fmall woody perennial Plant refembles in Miniature, efpecially in its Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit, the large Tamarind-Tree already defcribedi , The Horse-Eye-Bean Vine. 'T^HIS, if fupported by any tall Tree or Rock, will grow to above •* fifty Feet high. Its Leaves are large, and fet on five-inch Stalks, three in Number, in a triangular Manner. Its Bloflbms are of the papihona^ ceous Kind ; which are fucceeded by a large downy Pod, inclofing from one to three Beans, called Horfe-Eyes, This Name is given to them from their Likenefs to the Eye of an Horfe in Shape and Colour. The Horse-Bean, y^ THIS is a long trailing Vine, with large beautiful green Leaves. Its Flowers, which are of the papilionaceous Kind, are fucceeded by Pods often ten Inches or a Foot in Length, which inclofe from nine to one-and-twenty large Beans^ The Bean-Vine. 'T^HE many different Sorts of eatable Beans, planted in this Ifland, are -* generally diftinguifhed by the Names of Arbour-Beans, ipeckled Beans, Carolina Beans, the Sugar Bean, and the fmall Sixweeks Beans. The Arbour-Bean, wloich is by far the largeft, takes its Name fi*om its being often planted near Arbours ; on which, if guided, it will creep, and afford an agreeable Shade. This Vine bears a Pod near fix Inches Ion 215 "\ The Wild-Pea. HIS is a fmall Weak creeping Vine, which by its numerous Ten__ drils climbs up the neighbouring Trees, Shrubs, or Rocks. It is thinly cloathed with fmall fharp-pointed Leaves ; each Pedicle fuftaining three, fet on in a Trip artureorder. The Flowers are of the papilionaceous Kind, and white, except that near the Centre. They are very flightly ftained with red. Thefe are fucceeded by a three-inch-long Pod, containing in partitional Cells about fifteen fmall Peas. This Vine grows chiefly in fhady Places* lii rh& *i

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V 2,l6 Ihe Natural Hiflory of the ^f Book VIII. ^ \ The Eatable Wild-Pea. It THIS Is a flender Vine, Supported by any neighbouring Buflies. bears on every Footftalk three Leaves, fet on in a Triparture-order ; as well as, upon two-inch-long Pedicles, yellow papilionaceous Flowers. Thefe are fucceeded by near three-inch-long Pods, mclofmg feveral green Peas, which are often made ufe of by the poorer Sort. L J T ^he Cuckolds Increase. ^ t r H E S E grow upon fliort upright Stalks ; and axe diftinguiflied into the large and fmall Sort. The Leaves are fharp-polnted. The Flowers are likewife of the papilionaceous Kind, and fucceeded by eight-inch-long roundifh Pods. Thefe, in their feveral partitional Cells, contain nine, ten, or eleven longifti Peas, which, thoug hfomev/hat windy, are generally liked. 7y6^ BuoNA Vista, (:6';;?;;?o>^^r^//?^Bonny-vis. THE Species of thefe are diftinguiflied into the Moonftiine, the Green, the White, the Red-and-black, and the Small Sort. The Vines and Leaves of thefe are of a greyifh Green, round-pointed and broad, and the Flowers papihonaceous and white ; except the black Sort, which have purWhat are moft commonly planted are the Six-weeks BonnyPods in about that time : Thefe pie Bloffoms. vis. Thefe are fo called from their bearin^ Pods are fomewhat flat, of about two Inches long, inclofmg three, four, or five Peas or Beans in partitional Cells. Thefe are univerfally made ufe of, either green or dry ; being looked upon (though fomewhat windy, yet) a wholfome Grain. The old Sort generally bears about Chriftmas ; and if the Vine is fufFered to
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17 vO F TREES, SHRUBS, a^d PLANTS, O F T H E N O M O U S I N D BOOK VIIL Grapple-Wood. Its numerous a reddifli-grey Back. Its Leaves are fmooth and HIS fhrubby Tree hath Branches are Ipindling and weak. fomewhat above an Inch long, and three-quarters of an I have never known this teen Inch broad, fmooth-edg'd and blunt-pointed. Tree to bear either Flowers or Fruit. Tbe Five-Sprig-Tree. TP HIS Tree derives its Name from the general Number of BrancheSj ^ which horizontally furround the Stalk at feeming Joints, from one to three Inches afunder ; the main Stem ftill growing ftrait upwards, furrounded at fuch Diftances with the above-defcrib'd circular Branches. The Wood, as well as the Leaves, have an agreeable Smell ; The latter are roundpointed y and what is moft remarkable in thefe Leaves, is, that when upon the Tree, they are very green ; but when dry, inftead of turning to a ruffet Colour, they bleach into an almoft perfed White. n e

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^is' niS li The Natural Hiftory of the Book VIIL / The Corn-Tree. THE Tree call'd by this Name was brought hither about twelve Years ago from Guiney^ and now grows at the Eftate of Mrs. JVm^ren at the Black-Rock Plantation. It is faid, that it bears^ in its native Soil feveral long cylindrical Ears, not ill refembling a large Mold-candle round which Stalk the Grains are difpofed ; but as this never bore any and as we have no authentic Writers mentioning the Growth of fuch a Tree in any Part of Jfrica^ I much doubt of the real Exiflenceof fuch an one : However, it may not be amifs to defcribe it. Its prefent Growth is about fixteen Feet high, branching chiefly towards the Top ; the Bark is of a greyifh White • and its lefTer Branches at the Top cloath'd with five green Leaves, furrounding one common Centre; thefe are two Inches and an half long, and an Inch and an half broad. The South-Sea-Rose : Nerium Indicum. 'T^HIS is a very tall Shrub, whofe Branches are many and flender, generally bending wavingly downwards ; thefe are cloath'd, efpecially near their Extremities, with a great many fharp-pointed yellowifh-green Leaves, near fix Inches long, and half an Inch broad, fet on three in Number round the Stalk ; this Difpofitlon is preferved at irregular Diftances to the Tops of the Branches, which fuftain, upon longifli Footftalks, feveral five-Ieav*d red Rofes. From the Centre of thefe firft Border of Leaves rife three or four lefler red Leaves fl:reak*d with White. The Colour of the Bark is of a darkifti Red :' The Roots, boil'd to a Decodtion, prove a ftrong Poifon, if drunk by Man or Beaft. It grows chiefly in fhady Places. Sober's-Plant. nPHIS is a fmall ftraggling Shrub, divided in many Branches, cloathed -^with many fmall round-pointed Leaves of a Liver-colour. 'The Footftalks and middle Spine of each Leaf are prickly, and the Leaves, when bruifed, fmell very ftrong and difagreeable. The French Rose-Tree. r 'T^ H I S flirubby Tree grows to about twelve Feet high, difcoverlng in moft Seafons of the Year, upon the Extremity of the Branches, feveral beautiful Rofes, each confifting of five large white Leaves, whofe bottom Farts are llightly ting'd with Red : By Noon thefe Leaves are of a blufhing tiorid Red, retainmg fome fmall Appearance of their morning Whitenefs ; at Night, which is its laft Stage, its Colour is of deep putrid Purple ; then It withers, and its Leaves fhrivel up. The Stylus, which thefe Leaves mcJoie IS divided at the Top into three fornicated Branches, and is furlounded from Top to Bottom with much yellow farinaceous Duft: ^ From

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Book VIII. IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. 210 y. from thefe, in time, come a great many fmall blackifli Seeds, which are lodged in a pappous Down, in thefe crumpled Leaves. 4 r "The Plant called Patience. H I S is a low creeping Plant, whofe Leaves very much refembl^ thofe of the Plant called Bachelors Breeches^ A Decodion made from this Plant is looked upop to he of great Service to alleviate the Pain in the Stomach. l^he TuRKY-AyEEI>. rp HIS Plant grows to about two Feet high ; it bears, at about two -* Inches Diftance from each other, feveral Pair of fharp-polnted winged Leaves, in Length near three Inches, and half an Inch broad ; the Tops of the Branches fuftain feveral fmall round capfular Seed-veflels. This Plant derives its Name from the Ufe that is made of it to feed Turkeys. It grows almofl: in any Soil. K J Goats-Rue. L I npHIS is a dark mofs-like Plant, growing on the Infide of old Wells and Walls, from whofe compad: Bottom rife feveral plufhy Villi or fmall brown ftifF Hairs, of about an Inch long ; thefe are tipp'd with ^^xi^^x Apices y affording numerous fmall Seeds; i "The Wild Basil. T^ HIS woody Plant grows to the Height of about three Feet ; its "*" Bark of a black Ruffet : The Branches are cloathed with Leaves of a Silverwhite beneath, and green above. Thefe are high-ribb'd, and fharppointed. At every Inch Diftance rifes a ftiff Footftalk, furrounded at the Top with a burry-ruffet Button, whofe numerous Villi or Seta are prickly. From among thefe are feen fmall tubular Flowers. The whole Plant is of a detergent Quality, and therefore often made ufe of to cure old Ulcers. Rock-Bush. npHIS plant hath many ftringy white Roots. The main Stalk is ^ of a dark Green, growing often to be four Feet high, and jointed at about every fix Inches Diftance. The Leaves are large and fharppointed, being about five Inches long, and three Inches in Breadth, and of a dark-green Colour. This Plant grows in great Plenty at CluffsBayy in St. Lucy\ Parifh. Kkk Nettles.'

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2,2,0 Tihe Natural Hiflory of Book VI 1 1. T Nettles. HE S E are of three Sorts, the White, the Red, and the Vine-nettle: The two former grow into upright Stalks, the latter a creeping Vine. The Red, whofe Leaves are elegantly ferrated, referable the Roman Nettle, with this Difference, that the Pedicles of thefe, as well as the middle and tranfverfe Ribs of the Leaves, are of a fine purpliih Red. The Stalks and Leaves of each Sort are thickly covered with flinging hairy Down. From the Bofoms of fome of the upper Leaves rife fmall Pedicles, fupporting an horizontal Group of very fmall gramineous Flowers, fucceeded by very many fmall flattiih Seeds. I I'he Wild Lavender. THIS is a flirubby perennial Plant, growing in fandy Places near the Sea; and hath in general (except that it wants its fragrant Smell) a great Refemblance to the Garden Lavender : It bears upon the Summit of its Branches many white fmall monopetalous Flowers, whofe Orce are divided into five Segments. 'The Antegoa Rose-Tree. np HIS grows to about fifteen Feet high. Its Branches are cloathed with many Leaves, of about two Inches long, and fomewhat above an Inch broadw From among thefe, efpecially at the Extremity of the Branches, rife a great many pale-white monopetalous Flowers, whofe Orce are divided into five deep blunt Segments. Thefe Flowers have a >^ J Th THIS is a very fiicculent Plant, Englijh phire by the left Number of its digitated Seftions, as well as by its y 4 and grafly Banks near the Sea. Way two the Green and the Red. TheBloffoms of each are compofed of five pale-red Petals, fopported by an equal Number of green capfular Leaves 5 the Petals furround the Stamina^ which are of a pale Purple. i •Hi 1

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Book VIIL IJland of The Wild Peny-royal. npHESE are of three Sorts: The largeft hath a whitlfli green oblong •*• Leaf; thefecond offomewhat a deeper Green, with a lefs and rounder Leaf; the third hath likewife very fmall Leaves, which, as well as the Stalks, are of a dull Purple. As the Roots, the Leaves, and Flowers of all thefe have a great Refemblance of Peny-Royal, it is from hence that they derive their Name, though they want intirely the ftrong Smell of that Plant. Indian Cale, or Seven Years Cabbage. Tp H I S is fo called from the Term of Years that its Stalks will remain iri -*the Ground, not only unperifhed, but will yearly produce very finall Heads of Cabbage, befides leffer Sprouts ; though the former are not near as clofe, nor fo large, as our annual Garden-Cabbage, The Wild Clove. np HIS Plant hath many white fibrous Roots: The main Stalk rifes to -*• about two Feet high, being cloathed with a great Number of nar^ row long fliarp-pointed Leaves. The Flowers are fmall and white, fucceeded by the blackifh fliarp-pointed Pods, which exadly refemble Cloves, from whence it derives its Name, Thefe Plants grow chiefly in wet fwampy Land* The KocK Balsam, H I S is diftinguiflied into two Sorts, differing only in Colour, the White and the Red, each having thick fucculent Leaves and Stalks. They grow chiefly upon Rocks, and old Walls; the Leaves are fleek, blunt-pointed, and roundifli. From the Bofom of the Leaves rife long conic rough dentated Spikes, very much refembling finall round fteel Files ; in the feveral LamifKB or Foldings of thefe are contained the Seeds. The Juice of this Plant is very mucilaginous, and looked upon as an excellent Vulnerary. The Arrow-Root ; LatMarant^. r TLI I S is a very ufeful Plant, both phyflcally and otherwife. Its Root is long, white, jointed, and mealy : The Juice of this is exceeding cold, and, being mixed with Water, and drunk, is looked upon to be a Prefervative againft any Poifon of an hot Nature. Out of this Root is made likewife the fineft Starch, far excelling any made with Wheat, The main Stalk rifes about two Feet and an half high, furrounded at unequal Diftances with fmooth fhining deep-green Leaves of about ten Inches long, T and 2,21

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ia 2 ^ The Natural Hiftory and five broad ; thefe fomewhat refemble the Leaves of Plantain-fhot, The Flowers, which are white and monopetalous, and of the labiated Kind, fland upon long Footftalks. v It is generally dug up for Ufe m the xMonth of February.' Of this there are two Sorts, the long and the fhort-jointed. I' + "ithe LoNG-Leav'd Misletoe. L i TH E S'E; grow in Bunches, containing feven or eight Leaves ; eacli' Leaf being {harp-pointed, five Inches long, and near half an Inch broad. They are generally to be found growing in the Clefts of the Bark of Cedar-Trees. Antegoa Balsam. T HIS IS a low groveling Plant, growing very thick, and clofe to the Earth. The Leaves are longifh and ftiarp-pointed. The Flowers are white, and very fmall. A Decodlion made of this is looked upon to be an excellent Healer of all inward Bruifes, as well as a good Vulnerary and Styptic in external Wounds. ^1, E^r. 7^he Silver-LeAv'd Plant, or Piss-A-Bed. HE Leaves of this Plant fpread near the Earth hke the Leaves of young Lettuce, the upper Side green, and the under of a white hoary Mealinefs, and feels plufliy. From the Centre of thefe Leaves rifes a Stalk of about two Feet long, whofe Top fupports a white downy Flower, fomewhat like a Sun-Flower, which, when ripe, is carried about by the Wind. L 7^^ Broad Pond Duck-Weed 5 Lat. Nymphasa Indica. HE Leaf of this exafily refembles the white Water-lily, defcrihd in Gerard'^ Herbal. Its Form is that of a Colt's-foot, green above, and whitifli underneath. The Flower confifts of five Leaves, and every way anfwers the Make of the fame Species in England \ but more efpecially their Roots, which are of a brownifh-red Colour, and fomewhat hollow within., Thefe Roots are always fix'd in the Bottom of the Pond. The Black-Thorn ; Pifonia. A -. . THI S is what Sir Hans Shane calls the Fingrigo^ and under that Name he hath juftly defcribed it, excepting that the Colour of the Bark is always rather of a leaden Dark than a light Brown. The Trunk of a full-grown Tree is about fix Inches Diameter: The Tops, -by the Weight of its numerous Branches, foon inclines downwards; and if fupported by neighbouring Underwood, or even upon the Ground, they v

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tlicy are by their at right Book VIII. Ifiandof V> AVi^ ABOS. They wiil grow, trailing along the Surface of the Earth, to often above twenty Feet in Length. The main Branches are thickly cover'd with two regular Sets of leffer Sideones : Thefe, as well as the Prickles guarded with, grow always oppofite one to another, and contrary Pofition cutting, as it were, the larger Branches Angles ; by which means, look which way you will, thefe leffer Branches make the Appearance of a Crofs. Its Leaves are very {lender, arifing in Tufts three, four, or five, in Number ; thefe are generally much torn and eaten by Vermin. It bears upon fhort Footftalks Groups of very fmall monopetalous bell-fafhion'd Flowers, whofe Sta^nina are tipp'd with Apices ; Thefe, which are of a dark-yellow Colour, have a faint weak Smell and are fucceeded by burry roundifh Katkins, which are fo very clammy, and full of very fmall fharp-hooked Prickles, that if a Bird alights upon them, they fo entangle in its Feathers, that it will not be able to fly away. b The Snake-Wood. THO' this is but a flender Tree, feldom above fix Inches Diameter, even near the Ground; yet it fometimes grows to be above forty Feet high. It hath no Leaves, nor feldom Branches, till near the Top : There it is furrounded with Leaves fimilar to thofe of the Popo-Tree. The Trunk appears very knotty, if not jointed. Thelnfide is hollow, and the Whole fo light, that a weak Man may eafily brandifli a Piece as big as GoUah\ Beam, or Hercuks\ Club. I have never known it to 'produce either Seed, Flowers, or Fruit. This is delineated in Plate X. Fig. 2. The May-Pole 5 Lat. Aloe Americana muricata. THIS very remarkable Tree hath a great many ftrong firingy Roots. The Trunk, which is very ftrait and tapering, is always green j its Bark, very neatly divided into feveral clofe alternate Scales, or LamincSy of a triangular Shape, fharp-pointed at their Extremities. Each of thefe, as well as the Branches of the Flovi^ers, leffen in Bulk, as they draw near to the Summit of the Tree, which is often above thirty-five Feet high, and three Feet in Circumference near the Ground ; yet this furprifing Magnitude is but the Growth of three Months time. The green woody Leaves, which furround it at the Bottom, are many in Number, each being from three to four Feet long, about feven Inches broad, and three thick, ending always in a black horny Point : One of thefe Leaves often weighs fix Pounds. The Trunk of the Tree, about twelve Feet from its Summit, thrufls out a great Number of ftrong green fliort Branches in an alternate Order: Thefe different Branches, with their refpedive Flowers, have been always thought (and not unjuftly) to refemble the Branches of the Candleftick in the Ttm^h' oi Solomon :'E2Lch. Candleftick or Branch fuftains an horizontal Group of Flowers near twenty-five Inches in CircumL 1 1 ference ; 123

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^ Tie Natural Hiftory of the Book vni. the Whole, which at a Diftance feems to be but one, is gpompofcd Scores of fingle yellow Flowers, each of thefe ftanding upon a d-like Stalk of a yeilowifti Green, terminating in fix fiiarp-pointed ference ; cf fcveral fengifli podthick yellow Petals. From the Centre of thefe rifes the Piftil, which is ftrong and blunt-pointed • the Petals furround fix Stajnina of about two Inches lono; thefe are tipped with large f ilcated Apices^ which, when ripe, are covered with yellow farinaceous Duft. The Socket of the Flower is thickly befprinkled with a very fweet Honey-dew : This draws to it Abundance of Humming-birds and Bees. The Infide of the Trunk is a fnow-white Pith fpongy and porous : When the Bloffoms are dropped, their hufky long Pedicles ihoot out into many fharp-pointed Leaves of about two Inches long, and near as broad : Thefe, growing clofe upon one another, are fomewhat, at their Extremities, expanded, and form a Sucker not very unlike a Pine-fucker, When thefe grow ripe, they fall down to the Ground, and take Root. In a fhort time after it hath produced Flowers, the Body of the Tree, which fo late was tall and flourifhing, falls proftrate to the Earth, and perlfn•eth; and the very large Leaves, which furrounded it at the Bottom, in like manner wither and die. Having cut down one of thefe at the End, as I was informed, of three Months Growth, however furprifmg it may appear to fome, yet it meafured full nine-and-twenty Feet in Height, and very near three Feet in Circumference near the Earth ; and, having carefully weighed it. Its Weight amounted to two Hundred and ten Pounds ; fo that its additional Weight each Day was far above two Pounds : Or if we confider its Height, and its Number of Days in growing, we fhall find, that it grew three Inches and about three Quarters of an Inch in every fourandtwenty Hours. This very extraordinary Growth far furpailes any other Computation hitherto taken notice of, being far fuperior to the Remarks of the In-^enious Mr. Hehnont upon the Willow he planted, after five Years Growth of which, the Leaves, Roots, main Stalk, and Branches did not exceed five hundredweight. . . Forest-Bark, (?r Bastard Locust. HIS grows to be a large Tree cloathed with longlfii green Leaves 5 the Bark is much fulcated, and made ufe of as a good Reftrino-ent. The Gum-Elemi Tree. I nnHIS grows to be a large Tree, from whofe Trunk, when the Bark is -" wounded, flows the Gum called the Gum Ekmu d \ T/6£f Silk-Grass ; Z^/. Aloe Barbadienfis. r F T^ H E feveral faponaceous green Leaves, furrounding this Tree near the Earth, and taking their Rife without any Footftalks from its Trunk, are about two Feet and an half long, feven Inches broad near the Middle, and about i ^1 ,*

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B ./ about one thick, endii:sgin a Aarp Point. Their Edges are guarded with iharp crooked Prickles. The Trunk of the Tree is green, and crouded, at feveral regular Diftances, with numerous fcaly prickly La7?2ince^ which in general much reiemble thofe of the American Aloes already defcribed ; except that this Tree is much lefs in Bulk and Height, as well as that the Spire or upper Part of the Trunk is fo weak, that it bends wavingly downwards, partly by its own Weaknefs, and partly by the Weight of Suckers which grow upon it, efpecially near the Top. Thefc are compofed of fevcrai complicated Rows of green thick Leaves ; From the Centre of thefe rife feveral fmgle Flowers ftanding upon a pod-like Footflialks : Each of thefe are made up of fix blunt-pointed Petals, green on the Outfide, and wliite within. Thefe inclofe fix Stamma tipped Wvda Apices furrounding a Piftil, which fwells in an angular manner near the Middle. The above-mentioned Leaves, which encompafs this Tree near the Earth, are made up of very many fine longitudinal white La7ni7t
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2.a6 Natural Hiftory of Book VIII. The beft Method of preparing it is, to fcrape a Handful of the Baric from the Root, and make a Decoftion of it. 'The Turk's Head j M T rence. ^ I S is called by the Antients Mehcarduus echinatus^ and hath a great many ftrong fibrous Roots. Its main Body, which grows :-2;round, is about a^oot long, and about two Feet in CirciimfeThe Infide is a ftringy pulpy reticulated Subftance. The Outfide of this is green, andchanell'd into feveraldeep Furrows, whofe Eminencies are thickly cover'd, at certain Diftances, with Tufts of Prickles, of about an Inch long ; the reft of the main Stem being green and fmooth, ending, as it were, in a round fomewhat flattifti Top ; from whofe Centre rifes another lefs Body or Stem of cylindrical Form, of about eight Inches This is thickly covered with very fharp The Outfide of this Fart of the long, and three in Diameter. long fine Prickles, of a Snuff-colour. Stem or Stalk is of a fpongy foft pappoiis Nature, efpccially near the Top, from which Place rife feveral many-leav'd Flowers, of a Maiden sblufh. Each of thefe is fucceeded by a fmall fcarlet Berry, inclofing feveral fmall flat brovvnifh Seeds, > Yams; Laf. Ricophera. h THIS very ferviceable Root was formerly the peculiar Growth of Africay and the moft common Food of its Inhabitants. In all Probability, it derives it's Name from the Verb Tamy to eat ; which is a Word made ufe of, and equally underftood, by moft, if not all the feveral Nations upon the Coaft of Gumey-^ though differing otherwife in their Language, Cuftoms, and Manners. They are planted at about three Feet afunder, in fmall Hillocks, fuch as are prepar'd to plant Hop-roots in England y the Ground being firft hol'd about fix Inches deep. The Method of doing it is, by putting about three very fmall Yams in each May or J Thefe fprout out foon after with the firft Rain, and grow into a long trailing angular Vine, bearing a very handfome heart-like Leaf. This Root or Yam much refembles, at firft Sight, by its blackifti ftringy Skin or Tegument, the Root of a fmall Tree. They are dug up of different Shape, as well as Weight ; the latter from twenty to half a Pound. However, the moft common Weight is about two or three Pounds : Thefe are fomewhat of the fame Nature as Potatoes, mealy and white within, but generally of a clofer Texture than the former. They are juftly efteem'd to be very hearty nourifhing Food, and are generally preferr'd to Bread by the Inhabitants of the Ifland. When firft dug out of the Ground, they are either put in Sand, or kept in a Garret, where they are well cur'd, by admitting the dry" Air to them. The Method of making ufe of them is, either by roaftat I mg

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Book VIII. ijland 0/ B A R fi A D O S. ing or boiling them ; if the latter, they ought to be firft peeFd. It is thought in Englandy that they muft be firft foak'd in Water before they are ufed, to draw out their fharp biting Tafte ; but this Opinion is intirely groundlefs. Great Care ought to be had in digging them frorri the Ground without being bruifed, for thofe that arc will foon afterward decay. The beft Method that is yet found to preferve fuch, ?s to fprinkle the bruifed or broken Part over with Lime. However, after all prefervative Means, fuch muft be us'd firft s the others will keep fit for Ufe for near a Twelvemonth. in? 2.2,7 r "The Prickly Yam-Vine* i I covered with fharp-pointed Heart-like At the Root of this Vine grows a Yam, nuarv. What n^ H I S is a flender Vine, •* Leaves, fet on alternately. in Tafte exadly the fame with thofe dug up yearly in J is moft remarkable in this is, that it bears all the Year round ; and when a Yam is dug up, a fmall Slice of the upper Part of it, in which the Roots of the Vine are fixed, muft be ftill left in the Ground, which will grow downwards to the Bulk of that already cut off. This Amputation may be made for feveral Years, and perform'd feveral Times in the fame Year, the Vine and its Leaves ftill flourifliing, r 7;^^ Wild Yam-Vine, L TH I S is a quadrangular Vine bordered or fkirted at each Angle, with a high green thin Lift 5 the Leaf is umbilicated and haftated, of a deep-green Colour. Eddas; Arum maximum -^gyptiacurri, % n^ H E different Species of Eddas are diftinguifhed into the blue EddaS^ *the fcratching Eddas^ and the roafting Eddas ; the Leaves of each being haftated, and of a blunt Arrow-head Shapes That of the blue Edda is very large and green on the upper Side ; the under is covered over with a glaucous Mealinefs. The moft common that are planted are the roafting Eddas ; thefe yield a great Increafe, and are a very nouriftiing and healthy Food, efpecially if ftew'd. The fpiral gramineous fucculent Stalks that fupport the Edda-bloffoms, as well as the young tender Leaves, are ufed by Negroes by way of Sallad. A Field of Edday when in Bloffom> affords, in a calm Morning or Evening, a very fragrant odoriferous Smell. Thefe are of a round conic Shape ; the outfide Skin being of a dark-brown Colour, the Infide very white, and fomething of the Artichoke-kind. The moft common roafting Kind are dug up and gathered in at one Time ; but fome of the Eddas may be taken from the Root of the large Sort, and if the Earth is clofed up again, the Plant continuing to thrive, will ftill produce more. Mmm Potatoes-

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228 '7he Natural Hiftory of the Book VIII Potatoes. i HE SE very ufeful Roots are diftiwguiflied In this lHand from one another into at leaft thirteen Sorts ; but as this great Variety hath but very fmall real DifFerence, t fhall therefore pafs by thcfe ai:d lefs neceffary Diftindions,' and" divide them into the white and red, the long and the round Sort. Each of thefe differs from the EnglipV oX.zX.0, by being propagated by a SUp or Vine, whieh they produce inftead of upright Stalks, Another remarkable Difference is, that the Wejl-hidia Potatoes have all a fweetifh Tafte ; they are here look'd upon fo beneficial, that there is fcarce an Eftate, where there is not a confiderable Quantity of Land planted with them ; for thefe with Yams and Plantain ferve Infljead of Bread to moft of the midllng, and almoft intlrely to the poorer Sort 5 tho' they are not quite deftitute of a kind of Bread, made with thefe Roots : For the Potatoes being firft grated, and the Juice preffed out, the flowery or mealy Part is mix'd with Sugar and Spice, and made into Pafte, ^hich being baked in the Oven, in the Form of a Plum-cake, its Tafte is far from being difagreeable j this they call Pone, With the exprefs'd Liquor of either the red or the white Potato is made what we here call Mofy^ or a Sort of cool Drink, anfwering to fmall Beer In England, The Method of making this, is to mix the raw exprefs'd Juice of the Potatoes with a certain Quantity of Water j this in a feafoned Veffel will foon ferment, and in about four and twenty Hours be ready for Ufe ; it taftes cool and fharp, and it is generally efteem'd a healthy Liquor. The Juice likewife of Potatoes, if fermented, will, by Diftillation, yield good Spirit. The Vine producing each Sort is long, and trailing clofe to the Earth, taking Roots with its numerous Joints in wet Weather ; thefe burrowing into the Ground bear a great Number of Potatoes : Tho' the Leaves upon thefe different Vines vary fomewhat in Shape, yet in general they are all fcollop'd, and bear bell-fafhion'd monopetalous Flowers, whitifli without, and of a deep Purple within, each Flower being flightly fegiiiented about the Edges. Thefe are fucceeded by fmall capfular Seed-veffe!s, inclofingfeveral blackifla fmall Seeds. The White-Lily 5 Lat. Pancratium Amencanum. TPHE main Root of the white, as well as all other Lilies, are bulbous and -^ round Uke an Onion, fattened to the Earth by feveral fmall white fibrous Strings or leffer Roots, the former being fquamofe, or compos'd of feveral Coats one over another. The Leaves are many and fharp-pointed, being about ten Inches long, and near three In breadth. From the middle of thefe rifes a green flattifh hollow Stalk, this near the Topis furrounded Hke the Ribs of an Umbrella, with fix fourinch-long Stalks, the Flowers confifting of a double Border of five Snow-white Petals four Inches long, and about a quarter of an Inch broad, bending downwards in a very 1 beautiful I Pi .1 \ I ^

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Book VJII. /JIaffd of BARBADOS. beautiful Manner ; above thefe, from the Centre of the fame Parentftalk, rife fix fmall Spikes in a circular Manner ; thefe near their Tops are green, each as well as one other &,, which rifes from the middle • thefe are tipp d with falcated brownifh Afkes. The Bottom of thefe Spikes or Ribs are white, join'd together within half an Inch to the Footftalk with a very fine white Membrane, forming an agreeable of whofe Di/cus rifes the above-mentioned 4 A m ^ out pyramidical Flower, _, .„, Smmen.^ The bulbous Root of this, aswdfas'lhe drLeToThTs^^^^^^ of Lihes here are made ufe of by way of Decoftion, and look'd upoa as a good diuretic Drench for Horfes. r \ The Red-Lily. As the pale red, and the red and white Lily, differ from this only m Colour, I ILall include them under the fame Defcription. Their Roots are of the fame Make and Texture as the white Lily already defcnbd. The Stalk of the red Sort, ^0. is about eighteen Inches long. Ihe tJoweris compos'd of fix Leaves, fomewhat fharp-pointed at their Extremities, as well as near the Stalk ; their Outfides are almoil intirely red, as well as the Infide, except near the Socket. There their Colour alters from a flaming Red to a greenifli White ; out of the DifcUs rife fix purphfli Stamina tipp'd with yellowifli Apices. The Wild-Lily. + nn HI S hath a bulbous fcaly Root. ^ _^ and fmooth, are of about ten Inches long and ILarp-pointed/ fet on round t\i^ ^X.'^Wl fquamatim \ from the middle of thefe the Stalk extends higher than the Leaves, ending in a ruffet Spike full of fmall Seeds. The Leaves, which are thick, green i:he WiLD-TuLip. ^ H I S hath a bulbous fcaly Root, from M^hich rifes a green upright hollow Stalk of about fifteen Inches high, fupporting, upon feparate Pedicles, feveral large beautiful Flowers, compos'd of fix Petals ; each Petal about three Inches long, fomewhat fharp-pointed at both Ends. The middle^ Part of every Flower-Ieaf is of a fine deep Red and White ; on each Side thefe furround fix white Stamina tipp'd with Apices, They are in Bloom every Evening about five a Clock, and likewife in the Morning till about Eight. Th We T^HIS is a fmall Plant, feldom rifing above fix Inches high. The. main btalk, as well as tne bide ones, are jointed ; at each Joint they are furrounded with feveral fmall Leaves, each deeply fegmented, dividing aao the \

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\ 2,30 The Natural Hiflory of the Book Vllt J the Extremity of the Leaf into three fliarp prickly Points : From among thefe Leaves rifes a fmall conie fquamofe Spike not ill refembling a Pme m Miniature, in whofe different Lamince are contained the Seed : A Decoftioa froni this Plant is looked upon to be very efficacious to cure Fits fo often incident, to young Children. ^ Ir LoGERHEAD WeED, ^ T^HIS fmall Plant hath a great many fibrous whitifh Roots, the main Stalk, which is hollow, feldom rifes above fix Inches high, this is of a purplifb Colour j and from it rife three Pair of Footftalks or Pedicles oppofite to one another, each fuftaining on its Extremity four fharp-pointed narrow Leaves deeply chanelled in the middle, as well as the tranfverfe Ribs. From among the upper Leaves rifes a fliort flender Spike decorated with a fmall whitifh red tubular Flower divided at the Top into five Parts ; thefe inclofe a great many yellowifli Stamina : A handful of the Leaves boiled in a Gallon of Water till reduced to half that Quantity, and that Decoition being made palatable with Molaffes and a fmall Quantity of Limejuice, is very efficacious toJbring away and deftroy the Worms in Children. The common Method of ufing this Decodlion is to give the Patient (if a Child of about feven or eight Years old) about the Quantity of two Spoonfulls cold, upon an empty Stomach at Night, by the next Morning it will have its defired Effect ; if not, let the Dofe be repeated for three Nights fucceffively. It muft be ufed whilft frefli, otherwife by its great narcotic and Quali T^he Pine Apple 5 Lat, Ananad F the general, or at leaft if the Judgment of the moft numerous Part of Mankind, who have tafted of this Fruit, may be reHed upon, it deferves the Preference of all other Fruits • the agreeable Variety,and the delicate quick Poignancy of its Juice is juftly efteemed to excel every other. The Roots of this Plant are many, fpreading in a circular manner. From the Centre rifes a hard ftrong Stalk furrounded near the Earth, and for a confiderable Way up the Stalk with long green Leaves, whofe Edges are finely ferrated. Thefe Leaves are fet on alternately ; the Top of the Stalk fuftains the Fruit which is called the Pine^ from fome Refemblance it hath on the Outfide to the Cone the Pihe-tree bears. The Top of the Fruit is beautifully decorated with a Corona of fine green fharp-pointed Leaves, whofe Edges, as thofe below on the Stalk, are finely ferrated. When the Fruit is young, of about four Inches long, it is furrounded, efpecially near the Top, with fine blue Flowers, each confifting of one Leaf, which is divided into three Parts, and is funnel-fliaped. The Embryos are produced in the Tubercles: Thefe afterwards become a flefhy Fruit full of Juice. The Seeds, which are lodged in thefe Tubercles, are very fmall, and almoft kidneyfhaped. Some time before the Fruit is ripe, two, three, or four Suckers grow from the I Stalk

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I> ft

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/ • ^ ^" / (/rai^'^y e 2^/ I 'lii 'J '^1 r I' J] :w • •a X £j 1, !; ; arf^^ / DtrXE. li Eisr o X Sd Attb I a isr X and AT A^ s ta ^/
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Book VIII. IJIandofEA^^ATfOS. Stalk below, yet clofe to the Fruit : Tliefe Shoots are taken off, arid planted 5 and will in about fourteen Months time produce a ripe Pine. Thofe who cannot procure thefe Suckers, fometimes plant the Top or Corona, This, though intended by Nature chiefly as an Ornament to the Fruit,yet will grow, and in time bear a Fruit, not fo foon, nor fo good, as that produced by thofe Suckers, which Nature intended to be the Means of propagating this Fruiti The three beft Sorts of Pines are the Surinam^ the Sugar-loaf, and QueenFine. The Fruit ought to be eaten foon after it is cut, nor ought it to be kept upon the Stalk in the Garden, as the Cuftom too often is, till it be very foft on the Outfide. This is delineated in Plate XXL 231 T>6^ Wild Pike. ifl'ers in Tafte from the Pine already defcribed, as much as a Crabapple doth from the beft RufTet or Golden-pippin. Its Leaves are very large, in proportion to the Bulk of the Fruit, which is but fmall. L F b ^ The Large Wild Barren Pine; Lat. Carapuata. '^HIS, in Propriety of Language, ought to be looked upon as an aquatic Plant, though fufpended in the Air ^mong the Branches of lofty Trees, to whofe Boughs it is fattened by its numerous Roots, which ferve not to fuck, or draw from them any nutficious Juices to further its Growth, as the Mijlefoe doth from the Orange-tree, &€. but only to be its Supporter j provident Nature having in a very extraordinary Manner fupplied this with other Means to preferve its Species ; for the Leaves, which much refemble thofe of Pine, but only larger, furroundthis Plant in a circular manner, each Leaf near tlie Stalk terminating in an hollow Bucket, which contains about half a Pint of Water. It is by thefe numerous fmall Refer voir s of Water that the Roots, as well as every other Part of this Plant, are fupplied with Nourifhinent without the Help of any Earth. The flourifhing Condition of this, as well as the great Growth of Fig-trees upon barren Rocks, fhews that Wat-er is of greater Ufe to Vegetation than Earth. Tbe Button-Pine. HIS chiefly differs from the common Pines by its Smalnefs, as well as by its four Tafte : Therefore it is never cultivated. Its outward Coat is likewife redder, when ripe, than any other. J r ^ T/je Small Barren Pine. THE Leaves of this very much refemble a Pine. From the Middle of thefe, inftead of a Pine-apple, grows a woody Stalk riflng to about diree Feet high, and divided into many Branches, Thefe are almoft intirely N n n covered

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1 f* 232 'i 7he Natural Hijlory of the Book VII L r covered with fmall red fliarp-pointed Berries, each guarded at tlie Stalk with a fine fliarp Prickle, and at the Top with two fomewhat lefs. ^ r "The Pen-gwyn; Lat. Karatas, I-I E Word Pen-gwyn Is evidently a Celtic Word, componnded oiPe?2 au Head, and Gwy?i white; but how this Fruit came originally to have a "Celtic Name, is foreign to my prefent Purpofe to inquire into. The Outfide of this Plant is compofed of fome Scores of hard ftifF green Leaves growing to about nine Feet high, and two Inches in Breadth, having their Sides or Edges guarded, at every Inch and an half Diftance, with fliarp-hooked Prickles. Thcfe Leaves turn very fcoopingly inward on the upper Side, by which means they fave and convey the Dew, and the Rain, that fall upon them, to the Roots. They grow likewife almoft impenetrably thick near the Earth, furrounding and guarding a circular Corona^ or Bottom, of about a Foot Diameter. From this grows a Clufter of Fruits, each of about four Inches long, and one in Breadth, both Ends being fharp-pointed, and the Middle of a quadrangvilar Form ; by which means they are fo clofely joined, that they cannot well, until very ripe, be taken afunder. The outward Covering of tliis Fruit is a fmooth whitifli yellow gramineous Hufk ; this covers and peels off from a white pulpy Subftance, wherein are innumerable fmall flattifti black Seeds. This, being the eatable Part, hath fome fmall 'Refemblance, in its Flavour, of the Pine ; and is looked upon to be cooling andwholfome. If any of thefe, when near ripe, are gnawed by Rats or other Vermin, the' wounded Part will emit Drops of the moft tranlparent Gum. This Coagulation fliews, that its Juices are much impregnated with volatile Oil. Dr. Towne very juftly recommends the Ufe of this Fruit in Fevers, provided it be ufed very moderately • for by Its grate through the moft ful and aftive Sharpnefs it is capable of penetratin^ tough and tenacious Scurf, by that means uncovering the Orifices of the SaHval Du£ts, and enabling the Glands of the Mouth and Throat to difcharge the Contents, which could not be done before tlie Impediment was removed. The Ground-Nutj Lat. Arachldna. npFIIS differs very little from that called in Engla?td by the fane -Name. The Nut, which is the Root of the Grafs, lies three Inches deep in the Eartla. This is no bigger than a black Cherry covered over with a ruffet Skin, or tender Bark, the Infide being as folid as the Kernel of a Hafel-nut, and welLtafted. ^ /^ 1 th e

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^ hI a ^

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/ J^la.. 2^' /y^^ \l i g a 1 H I I k '*Z J/Vrun*U Jo^, / ^ *. _J \

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B IJland of The Ginger j Lat. Zinziber. GINGER is rather of the Reed-kind, than of the Iris, as Morrijon ^ and others would have it. Its Stalk feldom exceeds eighteen Inches ia Height, from whofe Side grow, in an alternate Order, four or five narrow iharp-pointed gramineous Leaves, of about five Inches long, the Extremity of the Stalk ending in a foft-pointed Spire. When the Plant is dug up, its Roots are thofe flattifti digitated Races called Ginger : Thefe Races are fcraped clean, and Sun-dried. It would be needlefs to defcribe the Qualities of a Root fo well known : I fliall therefore conclude the Defcription of it with ohferving, that the ufual time of planting it is in May and Jum-, and of digging it up, in February and March. What is moft remarkable in this Plant is, that the fmall or Seed-Ginger, when planted, doth not decay in the Ground, as almoft all other Seeds or Plants do : For though it produces the Plant, and the feveral Races at its Root, the firft Year ; yet it remains itfelf uncorruptible, and may the next Year be planted again as a Mother-plant, and fo on the fucceeding Year. However, after fuch a time, it becomes fo far exhaufted of its prolific Virtue, that it bears but a poor Crop : Therefore the moft general Cuftom is to plant yearly with frefh Suckers^ or the fmalleft Races of Ginger. The Land intended for this Plant muft be very richly manured. ^he Sea-Side Laurel. THIS beautiful Shrub grows generally near the Sea-fide, cloathed with numerous Leaves. The Edges of thefe are remarkably indented. This is delineated in Plate XXIL T The Large Duck-Weed. HIS always grows in Pond's of ftanding Water, and generally covers their Surface with its broad Leaves, and much refembles in Shape and Texture thofe of the Water-Lily in England. Their upper Side is of a fmooth fhining yellowifh Green, the under Side of a very dark Purple : Their Veins and high Ribs are tinged with Yellow ; and their Footftalks are round, finooth, and of the fame Colour. The Infide of this is perforated into many longitudinal Pipes, and its Length is in proportion to the Depth of the Pond ; for it always grows till its Roots penetrate the Mud, or other Sediment, in the Bottom. The Flower likewife, which is fimilar to thofe of the fame Kind in England^ always opens at Break of Day, and clofes as foon as the Sun appears. ^33 the

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234 The Natural Hiftory of the Sec Book VIII The Small Duck-Weed FI I S hath many long flxingy moflj green Roots. The Plant, fpreading itfelf upon the Surface of the Water, Is compofed of feveral i-ound-pointed IncJi-long Leaves, of a greenifliwhite Colour, and regularly veined towards their Extremities. The Stalk, as well as above the fiill half of the Leaf joining to it, is bagged or fiuiFed in the Infide of near one iifdi Pait of an Indi thick : Tliisj when cut through, is full of fmali lonitudinal "^^eins that Leaf affumes its thin proper Texture f ^ T, it i ^ F '"1 ?? CAPIL\ % #

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Book VIII. IJland 0/ BARBADOS. 235 CAPILLARY AND PARASITICAL PLANTS w The Agnus Scythicus, w E are now come to treat of a Plant of the parafitical Clafs, tHo' dignified with the Name and Quality of an Animal, which (if we believe many Writers of Wonders) hath not only the Shape of a Lamb, and is woolly, but likewife feeds upon the adjacent Plants. To increafe the Wonder, it is faid, that, if thefe are removed, the Lamb foon after dies. This, and many other furprifing Qualities, are attributed to this fuppofed Animal, which the Tartars ftrongly affirm to exift ; yet conceal the Place where it is found. However chimerical this may appear, and in reality is, yet the otherwife judicious Kempfer was fo credulous, as to fpend a great Part of his Life in Search after it ; tho' a moderate Attention to the Motives of his Credibility would have fpared him his laborious Search : For there is not a more fufpicious, or even a furer Sign of Craft, or Cunning, and of an intended Impofition upon the Credulity of Mankind, than a fedulous Endeavour to keep any pretended Difcovery of this Kind from the Infpedlion of the Public. What byaffed human Nature to embrace low Art and Cunning, in Exchange for that true Wifdom, and beft of Policy, undifguifed Truth, was, and ftill continues to be, that groveling and fordid, yet almofi; univerfal Paffion, the Love of Gain. In the following Inftance we fhallfind, this Vice is not only the Attendant of luxurious ^Jia^ or the effeminate Part oi Europe^ but that it reigns even among the rude unpolifhed Tartars^ whom Luxury, one would have imagined, had not made Slaves to its unneceflary Wants. However, we find that thefe, like the Ephefian Copperfmith, are artful enough to fecure their own Gain ; for, as Furs are in great Efteem, and in high Value, among the Nobility of Tartary^ and the neighbouring Turhy the near Refemblance of the Down growing upon this Plant, to the Wool of a very young Lamb, afforded the cunning Tartars room to impofe upon the World, and gave Rife to that barbarous Piece of Cruelty of privately ripping up the Ewes, as foon as the Lambs had attained to the Maturity O o o of

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£36rhi mturat Hifl^ of rk BgoIc f hi: of having any Wool upon them ; the Skins of which, being then ddicately foft, thefe cunning Dealers fubftituCe in the room of, and call them, the Skins of this fuppofed Scythian Lamb. But, to return to my Subjcd ; to prove that moft of, if not all, the pretended Qualities attributed to this Lamb, how fpecioufiy foever they are applied to it, as a ftrange Mixture of a' real animal Exiftence, and vegetable Appearance, are really and truly the infeparable Properties of this, as well as many other parafitical Plants. Hov/ever^it muft be owned, that thi^' is the moft furprifirfg of any of this CTafs,^ ancf i's as rare as it is curidufe. As to the Proof of its fuppofed animal Life from its dying, as they term It, if the adjacent Vegetables are taken away ; this is literally true of its Decay as a Vegetable, as all other parafitical Plants will do,, when deprived of that foftering Nourifliment, which they draw from the Trees they prey upon. For Inftance, if a Branch of an Oak, which hath the Mifletoe growing upon it, decays, the latter, which before lived and flouriflied by J if th Tree, of even the Branch of it, from wfiich the Agnus Scythicus receives its Nourifhment, is cut down, it mtiff alfo perifli with it. The Body of this Plant is about the Ttictnefs of one's Finger, and many Feet in Length ; the infi'de of a white clbfe Sobftailce, fomewhat juicy, and eafily cut thro vCith a Knife. The oiitfide Rind is tough, and deeply covered with a fine filky Down, fomewhat refembling /ool ; and the Body of the Plant is here-and-there irregularly geniculated, having, among fo many Bendings, fome, which diftantly refemble, in Make and '^ignefs, the Legs of a young Lamb ; efpecially as it is covered over with a fine filky Down, orHdir, fomewhat curled. This accidental Likenefs of Shape tod Covering it was, that gave Rife to the Notion of its being a Lamb ; and lucrative Reafons may have help'd to keep it up. The Body of this plant wreaths itfelf in feveral Ibofe irregular Foldings about the Body of a Tree, arid with its feveral flendef ligneous Roots penetrates thro' the Bark, aiid frdrri thence fuckS' thofe Juices, which ought to nourifh the Tree. From the Extremity of the Stalk rifes a Footft'alk of about twenty Inches long, fupporting a fingle cylindrical Leaf, very near of the fame Length. The Back of the Leaf, on each fide the middle Rib, is flightly and regularly pitted into a great Number of deprefied Spots ; In thefe are kzn a great many very fmall yellovi^ Seeds, which, when ripe, are carried off" by the Wind J and if they fall upon any neighbouring Tree, as fome, among fuch a Number, unavoidably muft, they then, efpecially if the Bark of it proves fulcated, take Root, and are thus propagated. to <0 7Z 02

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Book VIII. IJland 0/ B A R B A D O S. The Fern-like Plant. ^ H I S grows to about fifteen Inches high, and is by far the moft ^ beautiful of the Fern-kind ; its many Side-branches jutting out alternately in a very elegant Manner. I found this Plant growing in the Eflate of Mr. Strahan^ in St, Andrews Parifh. The Mountain-Fern. T^ H I S grows to often twelve or fifteen Feet high, very much, in its ^ Shape and Texture, refembling a Fern ; its Root cover'd with a reddia-i Down. I found this near the Eftate of Benjamin Mellowes, Efq; to whofe Skill, and communicative Temper, I owe the Difcovery of many Tie Black Maiden-Hair. Found this beautiful Plant growing upon the Wall of St. Lucy'% Church, "^ K Maiden-Hair. T rp H I S is generally found growing on the Side of fliady Cliffs, Sides of Wells, and other old Walls : It is thought to be a good Peroral, hs moft capillary Plants are ; and therefore it is gathered, and, with Sugar, boiled into Syrup, and made ufe of. ^^7 GRA/

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238 Hiflory of Book Vlir. GRASSES, REEDS, < AND ^ GRAMINEOUS PLANTS Wf ^ T • (y Grasses. T is no fmall Inftance of God*s Wifdom and Goodnefs, that the Face of the Earth is covered with Grafs, for the Ufeof Cattle; and that its Verdure fhould, above all other Colours, be moft grateful to the human Eye. The Variety likewife that is obferved in their different Species, affords infinite Ufe and Amufement. Reeds and Ruffies cover with a beautiful Green the otherwife difagreeable Surface of a miry wet Soil, and, by their numerous Roots, prevent its being waflied off by Floods. It is in thefe, that feveral Kinds of Birds, fuch as Coots, make their Nefts • and among thefe likewife they find their Food, and are, whilft feeding, fhelter'd from the Sight of their Enemies. If we afcend up the Hills and Mountains, there the Carpet-Downs open to our View, and, with their wide Extent and Verdure, yield an innocent Delight ; and if the fteep Sides of Hills were not cloathed with Grafs, the narrow intermediate Valleys would be fcorched up with the refleding Rays from their oppofite ftony Surface. The Star-Grass. TH I S is the moft remarkable of any of the Grafs-kind, Its Roots are many and fibrous. The feveral Stalks join there together, as in a Bunch of Scallions. The main Stalk rifes about fourteen Inches high. This is fmall, round, and folid ; furrounded, within two Inches to the Ground, with feveral flender narrow gramineous Leaves. From thence upward the Stalk rifes in' an upright Spire, which, at the Top, fpreads into feven other graffy Leaves, ftanding almoft horizontally round a Tuft of fmall whitifh Seed-veffels, containing a great many fmall black Seeds. Thefe Leaves are remarkably ftained, or, as it were, enamel'd on the Infide with a clear White for near an Inch long ; the Remainder of the Leaf is perfeftly Green. They are in their Bloom in ^une and Jufy-, but this white Part is not a tranfitory Embelli(hment, but is as permanent as the Leaf. Dutch ill io :'j'J i M ior

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Book IJland of ^39 DuTcii Grass ; Gram'eh da6lylon prdcuhibens. it IS THIS hath but few Roots at its Appearance from the Ground. divided into many low Branches, each thickly cloath'd with narrow {harp-pointed Leaves, each main Stalk ending in two or three angular almoft horizontal Spears, bearded on one Side with fharp-pointed fmall capfular Seed-veffels. Kind. This Grafs is much coveted by Cattle of every Pond-Grass, Wee t^^-t-^t h H I S is a fucculent jointed Grafsj with Iharp-pomted grammeous Leaves. The main Stalk is jointed at every Foiir bf five Inches, and as it creeps along the Ground, there fprout, from each Joint, two white ftrong Roots, which foon penetrate into the Earth \ and by this means it is too fuccefsfuUy propagated, to the great Prejudice of the Planter. It is faid to Be of fo corf ofive a Nature, that a Cataplafm of this bruifed Plant, fteeped in Urine, will eat down any Malander^ or fuch-like fungous Excrefcencei It is further fuppofed, or rather believed, that, if the Juice be givefi t6 a breedirig Sow, it will make her abfolutely barreri; This Plant grows beft in wet marfliy LSnd. J Savanna{I-Grass. J T' H I S is a long creeping Grafs, full of Joints. From each rifes a graffy fharp-pointed Leaf, and, as it creep's along the Groilnd^ it {hoots Roots from each Joint, and fo projpagates. It grows to a great Lengthv -. Rice-Grass. HIS Grafs srows to about two Feet high. Its Roots are many out from t; its Sides Its Inches Ion and white, leveral The main Stalk is fomewKat flat, fending Thefe are praffv. and about five Leaves alternately : Thefe are graffy, The rtiaiii Stalk ends in two oppofite Leaves. Centre oflhefc rifes a two-inch-long Spear, on whofe Side rife feveral triangular Races, compofed of feveral Seeds* Th coveted by Cattle of every Kind. From the alternately is is much The Plush-Grass* r '^Tp H I S Grafs feldom grows above~ a Foot liigh, decorated neaV .\£ the Root with many narrow fpoon-like Blunt pointed Leaves ; the Spear continuing naked^ from t&fe Leaves fof feveral Inches; but .decorated at the Top witli^ feveral fmall Pannicles, fet round the Stalk umbilical Form ; each Divifion of thisPanniP p p ^Is circularly, ending in an

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40 ; The Natural Hiflory of the Bcok vr 11. cle being bearded with a fine white Down, at whofe Root lie the fmali capfular Seed-veffels. The green Leaves near the Ground are ilightly covered with a very foft light-colour'd Pile. 1 + I __ I Flag-Grass. r f w I ^ H I S hath but few Roots, The main Stalk is jointed near the 1^ '-' As thefe grow no Stalk, which is generally two Feet more in Height, continues unGround at every two or three Inches afunder. The grafly Sideblades are fharp-pbinted, and near eight Inches long. higher round the Stalk than about eighteen Inches, the remaining Part of the "''••"' jointed 5 its Extremity ending in a five-inch-long white Pannicle, whofe numerous fmall capfular Veffels are thickly ftudded with very -fine white Down. T Scotch Grass 5 Lat. Gramen panicum. b 1 F r nr^ HIS very ufeful Grafs grows in fwampy wet Places. Its Roots are -" fibrous and many. The main Stalk grows in Joints, at three or four Inches afunder, rifing often to five Feet in Height. Its Side-leaves are many and graffy. Its quick Growth, and always thriving in fuch wet Places, makes it very valuable in the dry Time of the Year, when other green Fodder is fcarce. Cattle of every Kind prefer this and Rice-Grafs to any other. The Method of producing it is to cut it in fmall Pieces leaving always a Joint to every Piece. —^ ^ Inches diflant, round the Sides of Ponds, or other, wet marfhy Landand will not only foon grow up themfelves, but propagate others, and confequently grow prodigious thick. This may be feveral times cut down, and another renewed Crop be in a i^vf Weeks reaped again. 'i \ DwRAH^ or Ammadwrah. Thefe are ftuck in, at eight TT H I S is of the Rufh-kind. Its Root, which hath a very ftronoJ the Mufk-bufh. With this the Coramatttee Negroes anoint their Skin by way of Perfume, efpecially when they are to go to their Merry-meetin
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(( a (C Book VIII. IJIand of BARBADOS. Dog's-Grass. HI S derives its Name from common Obfervation, that Dogs when fick, often eat of this Grafs, which foon after clears their Stomachs oy us emetic Quahty. This Grafs is fo well defcribed by Mr Miller in his Botankum Officinale, that it would fliew more Impertinence than Judgment to give it the Reader in any other Words. Dog's-Grafs hath <' many long flender creeping Roots, white and jointed, fpreading much in the Earth, with fmall Fibres at every Joint ; from which arife feveral tall Stalks not fo thick as the Stalk of Wheat, having two or three Joints, and as many long fomewhat broad Leaves, one at each Knot or Joint : On the Top of each Stalk grows one long fpiked Head, in Shape Jike an Ear of Wheat, but fomewhat flatter, confiding of two Rows of chaffy Glumes." It grows in moft Parts of the Wand : And a Decoftion of it is looked upon to be good againft the Gravel. The WiLD-DwRAH. -y HIS hath an hard bulbous Root, its graffy Stalk, which is green and triangular, feldom rifing above feventeen Inches high. It regularly branches near the Top into a Star-falhion, generally into three or four graffy Leaves ; from the Centre of thefe rife two or three Spikes cover'd at the Top with a coarfe Flag, like that of a Reed. The Nut-Grass. T~^HIS is of two Sorts, the one intirely propagating its Species by its -^ Seed, the other by its numerous Nuts or Roots. The former is lefs prejudicial to the Planter, tho', both by its very quick Growth and Increafe, it is of great Differvice, by preventing, or, at leaft, by fucking up the Nouriihment of the Manure from the planted Canes, or Corn, as well as, by its thick Growth, choaking them with their numerous wreathing Roots. This was firft brought here in a Pot of Flowers fent from England to Mr. Lillington in St. Thomas^ Parifli : From thence it hath been more or lefs unluckily propagated throughout the whole Ifland. Red-Flag, or Plush-Grass. 'T^HIS grows to the Height of the laft-defcrib'd, and every way re^ fembJes it j except that its Pannicle is longer, and of a deep-red Colour, furrounding the Extremity of the Stalk in a circular Manner •' each capfular Seed-veffel guarded with half an Inch long foft pointed Bnftle. Neither this nor the former is eaten by Cattle, unlefs in areat Want. ^ T'he Ginger-Grass. w h 'T^HIS is called Ginger-Grafs, from the great Refemblance there is •^ between the Leaves of this, and the Flags, or fpire-like Leaves, of '^^tl t Gin ger, WYTHS

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The Natural Hi ft ory of the Book VIII. \ w T H S and '^ N V The Black Basket-WythT, r 1 '^'pHIS Is perhaps the ftrongeft of all other Wyths, or of any Vegetable of equal Bulk : It is of a blackifh Colour, feldom growing thicker than one's Finger. Ii derives its Name from its Ufe in making Baikets; fot which Purpofe its great Strength renders it very ferviceable. If thefe greW ./ Samfc of fufEcient Strength to be worthy of an Experiment of that Nature. The Cow-Gut-Wyth. V*^ THIS Is a fcandent Vine, bearing Yam-like Leaves ; the Flowers are of the Bell-fafhion, and yellow. I never could obferve,that the Flowers were fucceeded by either Pods, or Berries. The Wyth itfelf is very ftrong and pliable ; therefore made ufe of to tie the Blade of Canes, whef^with Negroes thatch their Houfes. ^ / Ty6 e Wyth Wyth from Its fweet fragrant Smell, or rather from the great Refort of Bees to its FloWef. '' "^hc Pudding-Wyth. 'T^HIS much refembles,in Its Leaves, thofe of Yams : They are chiefly made -*ufe of as Bandages to tie Bundles of Straw or Rumes, with which the poorer Sort of People thatch their Houfes. The Wild Yam-Vine, M^ H 'T^ HIS hath its Name from the great Refemblance its Leaves have to Yam-vine-leaves. As it is tough and Hgneous, it is made ufe of to make Bafkets, V TSe Wild Ymt. ftwo •^ horizontally^ one of a pale White, the other equally chequered with a fky-coloured Blue : Thefe are fmall tralHng Vines, creeping over fhrubby Trees, having heart-like Leaves. n oe c v. 'I s in % V 4 .^ L ri

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Book VIII. Ifmid e/" BARBADOS H3 5"/)^ Hog-Vine J Z^/. Convolvulus. rpmS is a creeping Vine, with a green hairy 'Stalk. Wm each Side of this Stalk rife a great many Pedicles, of above an Inch and an half long ; lupporting, on their refpedive Summits, four or five fharp-pointed Leaves, about an Inch and an half long, and an Inch broad. Thefe fprea^ horizontally regular round the Tops of the Footftalks. The Flowers in renera are four m Number, yellow, and of the Bell-falLion, whofe bra, are incloUng fmall Seeds. Capfu Ihe Sweet Vine. TH I S Vine, at fome Diftance from It, perfumes tke Air with a very fragrant Smell ; but the nearer you come to it, the lefs aareeable, it being then faint, if not offenfive. The Stalk affords a great (luantity oF milky clammy Juice. The Leaves are fmall and blunt-pointed, and the Flowers fmall and white, \ F The Sea-Side Vine j Lat. Convolvulus marinus. TH I S is a luxuriant trailing Virie, creeping along the fahdy Sanks hear the Sea-fide. Its Stalk is long and fucculefit, cltiathed with niiddleized fmooth fhining-green Leaves. Intermixt with thefe appear femal large bell-mouthed Flowers, of a pale White without, and a deep Purple withm. As it grows chiefly upon the Sand, its' Continued Verdure is very agreeable, and covers it ; and by fo doing prevents the Reflexion of the Sun from the hot Sand, which would otherwife be very prejudicial to the Eyes of thofe Travellers, whofe Bufinefs requires them to ufe fuch Roads. r T'he SiLVEP. Vine. TH I S is a weak creeping Vine, valued chiefly for being very good to feed Horfes with. It derives its Name from a fliining whitifli Hoarinefs upon the upper Side of its Leaves. Its Roots are many and' fibrous. It grows chiefly in Gullies, and other fuch fliady Places. The Wild Purslain. 'T^HIS is of two Sorts, the Red and White, each being a creeping fmalf^ jointed Plant : They emit from each Joint many fmall fibrous Roots; the fmall upright Branches bearing narrow green Leaves of a loiig oval Shape. Each Sort bears a fcaly conic clover-like Flower, differing only in their re>fpeftive Colours, which are red and white: The white Sort, boiled; tb'aD^cocr tion, makes a good Gargle for fore Mouths. It grows chiefly by the Sea-fide. Q^q q the

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244 I'he Natural Hijlory of the The Poison-Wyth. ^^ ^ Book VIIL Nature. The Leaves are about two Inches long, and at the Stem nearuii xnvu ciuu c. v 1 Grounds A i n y \ $1'Circ i ,(UI Iti Tl iicl V iva Fi plic \

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Book VIII. Ipnd (?/ B A R B A D O S. Grounds in £^^7/3^;?^/ or elfewhere ; however, with this general DifFerence^ that the Sugar-Canes are every Way far larger ; and the Infide, inftead of being hollow, is full of white Pith, containing a very fweet Liquid. The intermediate Diftance between each Joint of a Cane is of different Lengths, according to the Nature of the Soil, Richnefs of the Manure, and feafonable Weather during their Growth ; but in general from one to four Inches long, and from half an Inch to an Inch Diameter, feldom more. The Length of the whole Cane likewile depends upon the above Circumftances. It generally grows to Perfedion in about fourteen Months^ its then Height (the top Flagpart excluded) is from three and an half to feven Feet, a Medium between both being the moft common Length, even in £l very good Soil, and feafonable Years. The Body of the Cane is ftrong, but brittle, of a fine Straw-colour, inclinable to a Yellow. The Extremity of each, for a confiderable Length, is cloathed with many long reed-like Leaves, or Blades, whofe Edges are very finely and fharply ferrated : And the middle longitudinal Rib in each is high and prominent. F. Labaty in his Hiftory, fays, that there were Canes in the Ifland of T!obago^ of twenty-four Feet in Length : If he meant this in general, his Affertion is a ftrong Specimen of that Vanity, to fay no worfe, which influences many Writers to be fond of Relations of the marvelous Kind. But whoever judges of the Length of Sugar-Canes, in general, from thefe Inftances, if there were any fuch, may as reafonably conclude from the Height of one Goliab^ that the Philtjlines were in general of a gigantic Stature. Whatfoever Difference fome Soils, and very feafonable Weather, may occafion in the Growth of this Plant; yet in this all Writers agree, that it is (unhappily for the Planter) liable to one Difordcr hitherto incurable, that is, the Yellow Blaft. This, among Difeafes peculiar to Canes, as the Plague among thofe which happen to Men, too juftly claims the horrible Precedence. And as the Ingenious in this Part of the World have not as yet agreed in their Opinions about the Caufe of this deftrudive Blaft, I may without any Apology (L hope) offer my own 5 /. ^. That it proceeds from Swarms of little Infeds, at firft invifible to the naked Eye ; and as the Juice of the Cane is their proper Food, they, in Search of it, wound the tender Blades of the Cane, and confequently deftroy theVeffels, Hence the Circulation being impeded, the Growth of the Plant is checked; and foon after it withers, decays, or diesj in proportion to their Degree of Ravage. From this Suppofition we may eafily account for the various Phsenomena, which attend the Blaft, whether in its firft Appearance, or its further Pror grefs. It is difficult to diftinguifti the Blaft in its Infancy, from the Efted of dry Weather ; the Appearance in fome Inftances feems to be alike : However, the firft feafonable Rain manifefts the Difference; the uninfedted Plant reaps the Benefit of it, thrives and flourifhes with great Vigour; whilft ^45 t^

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S4^ Ihe Natural Hijiory of the Book VIII. VV hilft tlie infeded. .being made more foft and tender by the Rain, becomes eafier to be pierced by the devouring .WoTvms. At iuch and ojKer times, there are ofteij ieen, on the Blades of fucii fickly -C^ncs^ .many fmair protuberant Knobs, of a foft downy Subftance, often containing in them fmall white Maggots, which, I believe, turn afterwards into fmall browni/hi Moths, which are to be fcen in great Multitudes amon^ the Blades of infeded Canes. It is likewife obfervable, that fuch Blades will be full of brownifli decaying Spots : Thefe are fo many Places, vvhicb have been deeper pierced by the Worms. Multitudes of Ants are likewife feen on the blafted Canes ; thefe are invited hither to fuck the Juice that oufes out of the wounded Leaves, efpeci^lly when the Plant l^ath attained any Degree of ^ Sw.eetnefs. This appears by the Clamminefs, that, at fuch times, covers the Leaves, preventing all Perfpiration. In this lacerated Condition of the Plant, the Juices want their natural free progrefTive Motion upwards ; the moft fubtile and iineft Part burfling through the wounded Leaves, whilft the mors grofs returns back unfecreted to the radical Vpffels. By this means they kre overloaded, and, burfting, fupply the Ants at the Roots with anouri(hing Liquid. In this injured Condition the Roots become incapable of fupplying the Stalk or Leaves with Nourifhment from the Earth, if the latter ftiould ever recover. . The Blaft is obferved to be moft frequent in very dry Years, thefe having been but little of it when feafonable Rains have begun early, and continued till the Canes were ripe. In fuch Years, a great many of thefe Veri^in are perhaps 'drowned by the heavy Rains, as, well made lefs prolific. It is obfervable, that the Blaft ufually appears fucceffively in the fanie Fields, and often in the very fame Spot of Land : It is therefore very likely, that thefe are but the fucceflive Offspring of Parent-Ego-s, from time to time depofited there by the fmall brown Moths above-meationed. -And when the Blaft is found in Fields of Canes, far from' infeded Places, we may, in all Probability, conclude, that the Eo-gs were conveyed thither by the Wind. What makes this more evident is, that the Infedlion always fpreads fafter to the Leeward, or with the Wind. It is remarkable, that if Can^s have been once infedled with the •Blaft, although they afterwards, to all Appearance, feem to recover; yet the Juice of fuch Canes will neither afford fo much Suo-ar, nor fo oood of ita Kind, as if obtained from Canes that were never infefted. I conceive that, in this Cafe, the delicate Strainers, adapted to fecrete the Particles, whichconftitute the Sugar, have been fo much injured, as not to be in a Condition to perform their Offices to Perfedion, fufficient to fuftain the Plant alive, and in a feeming Vigour. I^erhap? the Attendance of the Ants may proceed from two Caufes : They may be Invited, as aboveas th'elr Eggs although mentioned when the Canes have attained fome Degree of Maturity by the fweet Juice, wliich oufes out ^h.n ,1, W /' '' ™>' ''" perceived by the Clamminefs of the Blades; or, If this is not the Cafe, I^^^^^^UX"^!^P^'^^e^ ^'^"^^ ' Erey upon the dead, and living Bodies of a 1^ le ItUi bit € ill "/ k Its % Should

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Book VI I r. IJIa^d of Should it be afked, If this Blaft is occafioned by Worms, how comes it to pafs, that the adjoining, and often the intermixt Corn and Pulfe fhould be free from it ? it may be eafily accounted for from fmiilar Inftances in Engla7td, where the fmall Worms, caufmg the Bhght or Blaft, which deftroys the tender Buds of Apple-trees, never affedts the Pear or Cherry-trees thorn the fame Orchard ; for, in all Probability, neither of thefe affords a proper JSfourilhment for them. Having thus, till better Reafons are offered, fhewed the Nature of the Difeafe, the next Thing neceffary will be to look for a Cure. Hoc OpuSy hie Labor eft. Various are the laudable Endeavours to this End, which the Inquifitive in this and the neighbouring Iflands have made 3 but, alas made in vain : Therefore, as this Difeafe hath been hitherto of the Number of thofe which are incurable, and almoft literally as deftrudive to us, and our neighbouring Iflands, as the Locufts were to the Egyptians ; a ftudious Attempt to remove fo^ great an Evil, will, I dare fay, meet with the Approbation of every Wellv/ifher to our Weft-India Iflands ; efpecially llnce what I have to offer upon this Subjecl: is attended with the ftrongeft ProbabiUty of Succefs : And as it requires very little Expence, and lefs Labour, I may with more Confidence venture to recommend it to the Public. When the Canes appear to be firft infeded, which happens generally when they are young, take an equal Quantity of Brimftone, Aloes, and the Bark of bitter Wood ; let thefe be put in the Middle of a Bundle of wet Straw ; the Whole muft be put in a Cradle of Wire as large or larger than the Crown of an Hat, made Lattice or Net-fafliion ; this is to be faftened to a wooden Handle of convenient Length, and kept to the Windward of the infeded Bunch of Cane, having firft fet theinclofed Combuftibles on Fire; and holding it there till the thick Smoke hath for fome time penetrated among all the infeded Bbdes, and fo on to the reft, for a {^v^ Mornings and Evenings : This by its very Nature cannot fail of killing thofe minute Animalcules, as well as deftroying thofe that are in Embryo in thofe downy Nidus s already mentioned. Experience, which is the n:ioft convincing of Proofs, gives a ftroncr Sandion to this Method ; for we find, that the Smoke of Brimftone, in an inclofed Room full of Flour, peftered with Wevils, will, in a k^ Minutes, intirely deftroy them. If then Wevils, which have a ftrong fcaly Covering, and are grown to their full Strength, can be thus deftroyed; how much more probable is it, that fuch tender fmall Animalcules may likewj^e, in the fame manner, be deftroyed? If it be faid, that in the forrner the Smoke is more confined, it muft likewife be confidered, that a far weaker Degree of this fulphureous Smoke will deftroy Animals of a far weaker Texture, and perhaps of but a {^v^ Days old. The Neceffity and Ufe of the other Inp-redieuts of the fame Nature are too evident to be further explained. The Cane-plaht being defcribed, and the Difeafes of it confidered, and a more than probable Remedy propofed, I fhall proceed barelyto touch on the Method of making Sugar. 47 R r r Th .\

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2kt.8 p 'The Natural Hijhry the Book VIII. The ^ Canes, wher a re fqueezed between the iron-cafed Rollers of The Juice thus prcffed out is boiled firft in mixed with a very fmall Quantity of a little LinieLi ripe, Wind-millsj or Cattle-mills. a very large Copper or Chaldron, Lime. When this is ufed in too fmall a Proportion at firft, water maybe afterwards poared into the Chaldron. A ftrong Lixivmm of Aflies will perform the Office of white Lime, and may be fubftituted in the room of it ; and was originally ufed, tho' the latter is generally thought to be more efficacious. It is probable, that the Benefits arifing from either are, in a great meafure, owing to their alcahne Qualities. The Sugar-cane, when ripe, is of all other Plants the fweeteft ; however, there is a latent Acid ftill lurking in the Juice ; this is apparent by its turning four, if fuffered to remain unboiled any confiderable Time after Expreffion. The Addition therefore oi Temper^ as the Planters call it, being a certain Quantity of white Lime, Is neceffary to dcftroy, In a great meafure, the remaining Acid, and to form a neutral Salt, That this is one Ufe of T'emper^ Is plain from the different Quantities of that which are ufed according to the different Qualities of the Cane-juice : That' from unripe Canes, as more abounding with Acids, requires a larger Quantity, as doth that alfo from Canes too ripe, and tainted : For in the latter the acid Salts, that before were neutralized, feem to be again difengaged, and fet at Liberty, as may be difcovered by its acid Tafte. And indeed many Inftances occur In making Sugar, which demand an extraordinary Proportion of Lime ; all thefe betray a Tendency to an Acidity in the Juice : But, when the Canes grow kindly ripe, the acid Particles In their Juice are few ; and as the Poignancy of thefe is Inconfiderable, the Juice will confequently require a lefs Quantity of Lime. There is a further Ufe in Lime, befides the foregoing ; for it fuits greatly in cleanfing the Liquor. Wheii the Quantity of Lime is duly proportioned, if the Liquor is put into a Glafs, an immediate Separation will follow, the Impurities fettling at the Bottom, leaving the clear Juice at the Top : But if there is a Deficiency of Temper^ the Separation will be imperfed: If it too rnuch abounds, there will be little or no. Separation at all. When the Lime is mixed with the Juice in the Copper or Chaldron, the Sordes or Impurities, being no longer intimately united with the boiling Liquor, and being forced about with the Heat of the Fire, are eafily entangled in a vifcous Subftance that is naturally in the Cane-juice ; and then rife withit to thciiTop of the Copper, forming a thick tough Scum. J f If, when Canes are ripe, the Weather fhould prove very rainy, their Juice, if at that time exprefTed, will require a far longer Boiling, before it comes to the Confiftency of Sugar, than if it had been extracted in Weather moderately dry. However, this Difference in the Qiiality of the Juice doth not intirely proceed, as it is generally fuppofed, from the greater Quantity of Water at that time in the Plant, but from the greater Number of newly fprung up Particles, occafioned by the late Rain. Thcfc, if foon afterwards exprefied, having not had fufficient time to ripen j the Make of their Particles is, as in all Acids, angular, and Iharp -pointed, and therefore diffi-. milar to thofe ripe ones : They will therefore rcfift the Heat longer before they are broken, and brought to fuch a -Confiftency as to incorporate v/ith the others that are already ripe. From fuch a Mixture of ripe and unripe Juices, it naturally follows, that the Sugar then made will be neither of equal Confiftency nor Gooduefs v/ith that made in •feafonable Weather, and from Canes grown kindly ripe. ^ \ "H f i \ ^ This F.

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Book VI I L IJJand of This Vifcidity is very apparently difcovered on the leaden Beds of the Millsj as well as on the wooden Gutters, where the JmVp in \t^ Pa/To^^ a^ it ; and its {annnnrpmi^ polits Quali Cloths that have been any ways ufed in cleaning the Beds of the Mills or hath any other way been foaked in the Cane-juice. The Clarification of the Liquor, as far as it is done in the firft Copper IS perfe&d after the more grofs Scum is taken off ; the remaining Impurity, as the Liquor boils, is ikimmed off from the four or five remaining Coppers or Taches, into which the Liquor is fucceffively poured ; each of thefe bemcT crrndn.lly lefs, as they are to contain a Quantity of Liquor ftill wafting as it boils. In conveying this to the fourth Copper, it is in its Paffage ftrained thro a thick Woolen Cloth, where it leaves all the Remainder of its Impurities, that had efcaped the Scummer. After this a light white Scum is taken off; and, when this ceafes to arife m any confiderable Quantity, and the Liquor, by long boiling, becomes more of a Syrup than a thin Liquid,^ it is then poured into the firft Tache, and from this to a leffer, till it is conveyed to the laft. When it hath here attained the due Confiftence neceffary to become Sugar ; it may be afferted in general, that no more than a feventh Part of the Whole remains; which Diminution is occafioned by the Impurities being fcummed off, and the watery Particles evaporated. From this laft Stage, whilft of the Confiftency of a thick granulated Syrup, it is conveyed into a large Brafs Cooler, where it begins, as it cools, to fhoot into Cryftals, which are the genuine and effential Salts of the Plant. Thefe are forwarded and helped to flioot, by gently ftirring the whole Mafs ; by which means the Air is admitted to every Part, and the Particles of Sugar difengage themfelves from the clammy Subftance of the Melaffes. ... ..... If the Syrup be continued longer on the Fire, than is neceffary to bring it to a proper Thicknefs, ^ the Particles of Sugar cannot grain, or cryftallize, when afterwards in the Cooler, for want of a fufiicient intermediate Fluid; the whole Mafs in fuch a Cafe being too well united, to fuffer the Melaffes to feparate from it. On the other hand, if the Syrup hath not undergone a fufiicient Evaporation, the Grains or Salts will be larger indeed, but clofe to each other ; Hence feveral of them being too much feparated from their neighbouring Particles, they become too weak to refift fingly, and are therefore drained away in the intermediate Fluid, the Melaffes. Upon this Principle we may account for the Make of Sugarcandy, whofe large Cryftals are V This faponaceous Quality in the Cane-juice is capable of refolving vifcid Concretions : It is to this, chiefly that we may attribute the furprifing quick Recovery of thofe fickly Negroes, who are permitted to drink freely or this Cane-juicc when iiitircly ripe. It is likewife fo nourlfhing, that Slaves have fubfifted upon this alone luicc for a whole Week. Repeated Draughts of it are very efficacious, to remove the Effea of the poifonous CafTado-iuice i-rom this Juice likewife, when mixed with Water, and fermented, is made a Drink, called the Sugar-Drink, i JUS, tho It appears muddy, yet is very wholfome and diuretic. \ obtained 49 \ ^

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250 Hiflory of BookVIIL obtained from a Syrup too thin to fhoot into Salts capable of uniting clofe together. The proper Time to remove it from the Cooler to the Pots or Mould?, is when it hath grained or cryftallized \ the better the Sugar is, thefooner Kence fhat juft, but ill-e'xpreffed Notion,., that good' The Pots or Moulds made ufe of t in this is completed .Suga'r may be potted fooner than bad. are earthen, and of a pyramidal Form, containing from eight to thirteen Gallons. About twenty-four Houfs after the Sugar is potted, the fmall round' Hole iti the Bottom of each Pot is unftopped, and the Pots put upori^ earthen Jars containing about four Gallons, into whicK Veffels the Melaffes drain from the Sugar, the latter becoming fit for Exportation in about a Month's time, and fometimes fooner. The Sugar in this Degree of Perfedlion is called Mufcovado^ which is a Term too well known to want any further Explanation. What is called here clayed Sugar, is brought to that Degree of Whitenefsj by making a Batter of the fofteft fineft white Claymixed with. Water: And after the upper Part of the Mufcovado Sugar in the above-mentioned earthen Pots is dug up, and clofely laid on again a level Manfie'f, or rather fomewhat fhelving towards the Middle, a fufficient Layer of this Batter is poured upon the Top of the Sugar in the Pot, The Water from this by Degrees gently oufes from the Clay, thro* the Sugar ; and when all the Moifture from the Clay is abforbed by it, which is generally done in about a Month's time, another Layer of frefh Putty is laid on, the former old one being firft taken away. In about five Weeks after the latter is put on, this becomes dry, and is taken off 3 and the Water waflies the Particles of Sugar clean, and carries away with it thofe left feculent Impurities. This completes the Work, as far as it is manufadured here • tho' this is brought to a far greater Degree of Whitenefs and Perfedion in "England. Out of the above-mentioned Skimmings, when mixed with a certain Quantity of Water and Melaffes, and fermented, is extraded that fpirituous Liquor called Rum, And from the great Quantity of Oil in the Canejuice, which is confiderably trahfmitted to the Rum, proceeds the Excellency of this Spirit, when compared with Brandy : The latter, wanting this Oilinefs, ftimulates and lacerates the Coats of the Stomach \ whereas the former^ if firft meliorated by Age, and made into weak Punch, and drank moderately, by its Oilinefs preferves the Bowels. Moft of our Planters are yearly great Sufferers (efpecially when they firft begin to diftil) for want of proper Knowlegehow to raife and continue a regular Fermentation in the Mulfa intended for Diftillation : Yet I imagine, that their want of Succels may not only be accounted for, but likewife remedied. \ In order to do this with Certainty, we muft obferve, that no Fermentation can be raifed under thirty-fix Degrees of Heat, or kept up after ' ninety ; K \ \ i \ ri ^

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%. Book VIII. ^7^;?^^/ BARBADOS. \ ninety ; a leffer than the former will not be fufficiently warm to raife ah Ebullition, and a greater than the latter diffipat'es the fpirituous Particles too much. Therefore if Experiments were made with a Thermometer iii every Diftil-houfe, to fix the certain Degree of Heat, that a well-proportioned Mtilfa would ferment in, it would be eafy, by the Help of thisInT ftrument, always afterwards to afcertain this neceffary Degree of Heat, let the Change of Weather be ever fo fudden or confiderabJe. For if the Heat proved fo great as to exceed "that Degree, in which fuch a wellproportioned Mulfa was ufed in Time paft to ferment beft, then the Windows towards the Eaft ought to be opened fo as to admit fuch a Quantity of cold Air as would reduce the Heat to a proper Standard. • On the contrary, if the Spirit in the Thermometer finks below the neceiTary Degree of Heat, then thefe Windows ought to be intirely or partially fliiit up, in order to procure a fufficient Degree of Heat. By this means the Diftiller may come to a Certainty, and proceed by Rule, and not by Chance. If after fuch Rules, and necefiary Cautions, the Mulfa doth not ferment, if this happens in the Beginning of the Crop ; fuch a Failure ought to be attributed to the then, comparatively fpeaking, four and unripe Juiced of the Canes : For the Juices of thefe, as well as moft, if not all other unripe Fruits, witnefs that of the Grape, feldom or never ferment well J becaufe their Particles, in that unripe State, are not fufficiently meliorated by the Heat of the Sun. In fuch a Cafe, I am apt to believe, that a greater Proportion of Sweetening, than when the Canes are ripe, fiiould be added to the Mulfa. . ^ • On the other hand, a difproportionate Quantity of Sweets, as they are oily, will prove too inactive, and will incline the Liquor more to a Rancidity, than Fermentation : Therefore a greater Quantity of Water, and thin returned Liquor, which hath a great deal of Acidity in it, fhouldbe added to the Skimmings of Canes that are full-ripe, and confequently^ very fweet. ^'\. As to thofe who keep their fermenting Veflels in the open Air, or illcovered under Sheds, their bad Succefs may be evidently accounted for^ by the Inequality of the Heat and Cold they are expofed to. I cannot conclude the Defcription of this very ufeful Plant, without taking. Notice of a moil furprifing Inftance of the Effe6t of fome Ef-fluvia, or Vapours that arofe from the Mudgeon or Dregs of the Liquor tecurned from the Still, and which for fome time had been referved in a Ciftern. • ^ , . 'in the Month of April ^74.3. Abel Alley ne, Efq; the then Manager at the Eftate of the Honourable and Reverend" Society for propagating the Gofpel in foreign Parts, ordered one of the Cifterns, which the returned Liquor was kept in, to be cleanfed : The Quantity of this thick Sediment in it was not above feven Inches deep. The firft Negro Slave who attempted to clean it, was no fooner at the Bottom, than dead ; the s f f fecond ?sf ^ ^ rf \ 4 n ^**

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* ^s^ 1 l^he -Natural Hijlory of the \ Book VI I L fecond and third met with the ffame Fate inftantly. /A white Perfon, who was a Workman on the Eftate, being near at hand, determined, if poffible, to bring them up, imagining they were only in a fwooning Fit. To this Purpofe he went down to the Bottom of the Ciftern, which was about nine 'Feet deep, and found the Negroes dead : He went down a fecond time with a Rope, in order to fling it found them, and to bring them up ; but he had no fooner reached the Bottom, but a fulphureoiis fuffocating warm Blaft took away his Senfes, and he was taken up for dead ; however, being blooded, though he was for a long time afterwards very fickly, yet he at laft recovered. The beft Method of diffi^ patmg thefe noxious Vapours is to admit into therti 'a free Circulation of the Air, as well as to pour in, by Gutters, a confiderable Quantity of Water. This Plant fs delineated ih Plate XXIII, Fig. i. ?y5^ DuMB-CAlsrfe. qn HI S Plant grows to four Feet high, having, at the Top, two green flunmg Leaves, about jiine Inches long ; between thefe rifes up a foiall Spire : The Body of the Plant hath fome Refemblance of a SugarCane. From hence, and from the Effefts it hath upon Perfons who ignorantly tafte it, it derives the Name of Dumb-dam ; for as foon as any of the Juice is fwallowed, the Tongue, Fauces, and Oefophagus, immediately fwell fo prodigioufly, that the Perfon afflifted cannot fpeak It fo affeds the falival Glands, that it caufes an immediate Salivation' It what is thus difcharged, hath the fame Quality as that occafioned by Mercury, and if the narcotic Qyality could be correfted, it might per haps be_ of great Ufe in Phy He j for it hath been experienced that feveral poifonous Plants, whofe Juices were properly correfted and exadly dos'd, have been fuccefsful Remedies. ' ^A Phyfician, who accompanied the Duke of A3emark formerly to Jamatca, {zp, that the Juice of the Dumb-Cane, mixed with a cfertain Portion of frefli Fat, is a fovereign Remedy in Dropfies, externally ufed by rubbing the Part afFeded with this Ointment. ^ b J The Reed, HI S is a flender long graffy Stalk, creeping upon the adjoinin r 11 ^?\j^"?'i at every fix Inches: Froril thefe Joints iffuefeveral fmaller Side-branches, cloathed alternately with long fharp-pointed gramineous Leaves. The main Stalk is hollow; the Sideones folid. The Flowers are fucceeded by feveral fmall grifly-grey Colour Grains, like Kjuiney Corn. jari Fro] t^\ >-. O F %

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Book VIII. I/land of BARBADOS. f' ^S?> O F GRAMINEOUS PLANTS J r MR. Ray, in treating of the Wifdom of God in the Creation, iuflly obferves, that it is no finall Inftance of his Goodnefs, that Wheat, and we may add Rye, the moft common Corn ufed for Food, Ihiould he the Growth of moft Parts of Europe and ylfta, Tt Is likewife' no lefs worthy our Notice to obferve, that where the Soil under the Torrid Zones Ts too hot to produce fuch, the fame divine Wifdom hath appointed other Kinds of Corn to grow and ripen there in great Plenty. Thus in Africa, and the Wefl-Indies, the Want of Wheat is fupplied by Indian and 'GUiney Corn. And m fonie Places, where the exceffive Heat of the Climate fenders Labour and the Cultivation of Corn, painful, there bountiful Providence, with art uiifparing Hand, ordains Food without Labour, by caufmg Plantain and Banana Trees to grow in great Plenty ; whofe Fruit is, by many Perfons, preferred to any Kind of Bread whatfoever. It was under the Shade of thefe that many harmlefs Nations of Indians lived fecure, until Luxury taught their more artful Neighbours unnecefTary Wants : And fuccefsful Tyrann/ called that a glorious Conqueft^ which was the Effed of Fraud and Oppreffi^" • ;. ion. J The Indian Corn 5 Z^'/. Mays. npHE Roots of this Plant are many : Its Stalk, which is jointed at uncertain Diftances, and within pithy, is ftrong, and of a Reed-like Subftance : It hath likewife feveral long Reed-like Leaves. The Extremity of the Stalk is decorated with a Tuft of waving chaffy Glumes, which are called the Male-flowers. From the Side of the Stalk, generally near the Summit, appear the Ears, which are fometimes three in Number : Thefe ftand upon fhort Footftalks, and are inwrapped in fometimes ten or eleven green hufky Leaves, the Whole having the Appearance of a long Cone, from whofe Summit ap-, pears a Taffel of long filky Filaments, each having its Rife from one of the Grains : Thefe are looked upon to be the Female Flowers. The clofe-folded Leaves prevent the inclofed Grains from the Injury of Weather whilft young, and from Vermin and Birds when ripe ; and anfwer every Intention of a Pod in leguminous Plants. The Ear, which is generally from five to eight Inches long, contains often three hundred Grains, which clofely, and in perpendicular Rows, regularly furround a ftrong chaffy Hufk, whofe Infide is pithy. This is delineated in Plate XXIIL Fig. 2. -% Joe's \ ^

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*^sr The 'Natural Hiftory of the Book VIIL Job's Tears; Lat. Lacryma^ Jobi. TH E Stalk and Pannicle of this Plant niucli refemble that of the Guimy 'M Ci^^j^ Thefe are ftmng. upon Silk, and nfed inftead of Bracelets by fome of the poorer Sort, but e^ecially by the Negroes. L GuiNEY Corn; Lat. Milium Indicum arundinaceum. n ^pHE different Sorts of this Corn are generally diftinguifhed into that of ^^ the Loofe-ear Guimy Wheat, the White, and the Red, the Loaf, or the Clove-corn. The Stalk of each is a Reed or Cane-like Subftance, joiiited. at about nine or ten .Inches afunder, more or lefs : Its Roots are many andlong, clofely matted together, and to be feen, fome Parts of them, above-, ground: The Stalk often grows to eight Feet high, fometimes higher, ac-' cording to the Richnefs of the Soil it is planted in. It bears long Reed-like Leaves, gently waving into feveral Bendings, ending in a'fliarp Point. The. Top of the Stdk terminates in a fpicated Tuft, compofed of numberlefs Fibres,^ each fupporting many fmall Grains of about the Bignefs of a Coriander-feedv" 1; have reckoned on one large Ear near four thoufand Grains. There is like-wife fometimes one, if not two other fmall Ears upon the Stalks, fomewhat below tlie large one, which terminates the Stalks; however, where thefe Side-. the main one is generally lefs. This Grain made into Bread, or] I ufed, isjuft'ly efteemed very wholfome. It is with this that the' ears are, apiece every Day. This is delineated in Plate XXIII. Fig. 3. Qu ry 'II r 3_ i. * H : wi H,^ f 4 ' Ai\ k V r^ r ^ t # > O F V r^

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B J xr OOK A^v, of BARBAD 251 A^rVoTpect on^dg-e-^fQ\yii ititlie iOanci oi'-Harbadoeg. BOOK IX. FIE federal foregoing Books being taken up in conlidering the Nature of our LandAnimals, Vegetables and Minerals, I fliall proceed to make fome Remarks on the Shores and its Inhabitants ; firft curforily obferving, that thofe are (a few Bays excepted) intirely invironed with high Chffs, from three to fixty Feet high ; which, under Providence, are in a great meafure, our Bulwarks againft our Enemies, as well as fix d Boundaries to the raging of the Sea in the Time of Flurricanes. As far as the Sea in moderate Weather waflies them, they are almoft one continued Rock from thence upwards ; they are in fome Places (efpecially at the North End of the Parifh of St. Luc/s) fomewhat fliattercd and divided, by Veins of gritty Marl, Earth and loomy Chalk; likewife all the Stones found on the Shores fexcept a few Flints on a Place called the Green-Shoal) are of the ArteritesKind ; and the Sand (except in a few deep Bays) feems, "in a great meafure, to be only Fragments of Starftones and Corals. The feveral Cavities in the Cliffs facing the Sea, are proper Dens for Racoons, and fuch like wild Beafts. They are likewife a Place of They are Safety for feveral Sea-birds to breed in, efpecially, at a Place called the Bird-rock ; where are to be feen, at moft Times of the Year, a great many of their Nefls and Eggs: The young ones are fliarp-biJl'd, webfooted, and very fat, but tafte fifhy. The old ones are feldom or ever feen in the Day-time; for they are obliged to range to fo great a Diftance from the Shore for Food, that they have been feen Scores of Miles from Land ; yet they dire^i: their Courfe, in the darkeft Night, with a furprizing Exadlnefs, to their refpedive Nefts. Sff The

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1^1 s? ^ m ri f"i6^ Natural Hiftory of the Book IX, The Sea V/eeds. which grow in Plenty near the Shores of this Ifland, are no lefs beautiful to the Eye than they are ufeful ; aifbrding Food for feveral Kinds, of F*ifh, fuch as the Tortoife, Chubbs, Mullets, Bluefifli, and the Mofs-grooper, ^t-. And as in Northern Climates they prove a Shelter from the Inclemency of the cold Weather, to fuch Fifli as are obliged to feek their Food in fhallow Watery fo likewife, in hot Countries, they equally fhelter them from the intcnfe Heat of the Sun. Nor are the large Beds of SeaWeeds, which are feen floating in the Ocean, without their peculiar Ufes ; amonoothers, in thefe feveral Kinds of the lefTer and moft helplefs Species of Fifh, depofit their Spawn ; and here likewife they are proteded whilfl: young from their Enemies. ^a. The Variety of thefe Weeds, elpecially the foft Fuci^ growing on the Rocks and Stones near the Shore, are not only curious in their \ Mai Ke but they are likewife, in all Probability, (were we to know all the and Intentions of Providence valuabl m creating them,) as ufeful, ., as many, as the terreftial Vegetables we are better acquainted with. Some of them, like Groves in Miniature, extend their numerous Branches to a confiderable Diftance : Others, Hke weak creeping Vines, are of fo fmall, foft and delicate a Texture, that they may be intended for Food, to the fmalleft Animalcules. So that upon the whole, from the little that we do know of fubmarine Produdions, we may juftly conclude^ that as the Earth is full of God's Goodnefs, fo is the great and wide Sea/ The Black-fringed Sea-Weed. TH I S is very finely fringed, and very bufhy, Top. Numbers of fhort, hairy, foft pointed Briftles! lower Branches are thickly ftudded with feveral fmall Berries. n I r r \ Ty^^' Fringe SeaWeed. I fc -' TH E Colour of this is generally White, and exadly refembles the Fnnge or Border of Cufhions : It is found upon almoft' every fandy Bay. -^ , efpecially near the Its feveral Subdivifions are neatly bearded with infinite Its moft fubftantial i:he White, Narrow-leafed Sea-Weed; TH E Roots of this are clofely matted together, fet, capillarious, fringv Branches, arc divi'rlpH ones o Its feveral, thicklet capillarious, fnngy Branches, are divided into lateral, fmaller and thefe again, elegantly fubdivided into others, ftill lefs • each generally ending in a triparture Divifion, and fometimes, tho' rarely in a white, leafy, broad Point. ^ f % 71 J I ^1 -4 4 oe J-

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b •

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\ H r t P 1 1 n ,H h ^ aai n'l ,t i. > 11 F ^ \ -^ V + r. r* I ';/ '^ V ^ ^ri M^ If H rf tS V ^ ^ ^-|#^ tl^P* fx wt ^ rf Vr 4 k ^ J -t ^.. F • 1 i

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Book IX. ^^;^^o/ BARBADOS ^53 The Long Brown Sea-weed. THIS Mofs is the longeft of all others, being often above twelve Inches in Length ^ the main Branches are feldom fubdivided into leffer ones ; each being thickly cloathed with fmall oval Leaves, intermixed with brownifh Berries. This chiefly grows upon Jlocks, it fome Ciftance from the Shore. w I'he White Broad-leaf'd Sea-Weed. TH E Leaves of this fomewhat refemble thofe of a fmall curled Lettuce, but far more membranoufly thin ; and the Leaves more finuated and involved in the Foldings of each other. ^ The Pale-Green Sea-Weed. THIS grows into a Clufter of thin, flat, pale-green Leaves, divided fldeways into many Branches, each terminating in a blunt, forked Point. The Coral Sea-Weed. THIS extends itfelf from the Rocks, in a long, naked Stem, of" a brown yellowi/h Colour, in Subftance near as thick a as Raven's Quill ; each, at its Extremity, divided into a Group of many bluntpointed Divifions. The Brown Head-leafed Sea-Weed. THIS grows in a thick Bunch ; the Leaves, as they grow, widen ; and, towards the Top, divide into five or fix deep round-pointed Seftions. The Fine, White Sea-Weed. ^ L TH E Branches of this are very fmall, and all over hairy : I have found this Sort growing upon the Sea-Cliffs, near a Place called the Spout^ in St. Lucy% Parifh : There is likewife a black Sort, which differs from this only in Colour, as vvell as a dark green fimilar to it. This, as it grows, becomes a ftronger Plant, and expands into Branches, refembling, in Miniature, a Deer's Horn. .^ 7H

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< 254 The Natural Hiftory of the 00k IX:. The New-England, or Ribband Sea-Weed. THIS refembles a Half-inch-wide green Ribband, and is about two Foot long ; it is generally to be found in deep Water. K L 2^/6^ Russet Narrow-Leaf'd Sea-Weed.'. THIS grows in Bunches, upon one common Foot-ftalk ; its Branches, which are about two Inches long, are flat, and laterally divided into many others, ending generally in a blunt, forked Point. n The Feather Sea-Weed. f I If TH E Roots of this are long, and creeping, having feveral upright, fingle Stalks ; thefe are about four Inches high, each exadly refembling a fmall blunt-pointed Pen-feather, whofe Plumes are wet, and feparated : Thefe are in general, of a dark Colour. T The SeaJews-Ears. HESE are thin and pellucid of a femioval Form, growing upon loofe Stones and Rocks, The Orange-Colour Sea-Weed. THIS feldom grows above four Inches high, is of a fine bright Orange-colour, and very much refembles a fmall, thick-branch'd Tree, in Miniature. T 1 The Black Branching Sea-Weed. HIS divides into many upright flreight Branches, each forked at the Top. The Knoted Sea-Grass. THIS is by far lefs pHable than the laft defcribed, and about as flender as a ftrong Horfe-hair, the whole being feemingly knotedj the intermediate Space being very fmall. rp The Pale-Yellow Sea-Grass. HIS is of a fine, foft, filky Texture, growing upon old Logs of Wood under Water, and hanging wavingly in it. "The f tl Teg a( ur; alk Mo] I itii I 'pon I Jl. .^ir

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Book IX. ^^^W ,9/B A RBADOS. T&e Short Purplish Sea-Moss. THIS is mom above aa Inch long, and generally grov^-s upon f^t Extremity of a pendent Rock or Stone. ^ 7"/^^ Pale Purple Sea-Weed. r rpHIS very beautiful Weed grows like a Tree in Miniature; it is ^ very full of Branches, and the Whole tranfparent. r T&e Carbuncle, rj^ H IS is a ftony or fhelly Excrefcence, growing hollow upon Rocks, and lometimes even upon the Back of a Tortoife-Hiell : When upon the latter, they are generally of a Limpet-lhape, the former, of many irregular Shapes : Each Sort is inhabited by a Shell-fifh peculiarly. TI)e Tufted PennatedSea-We ED. rp H E Roots of this are fmall and long ; the main Stem is generally ^-^ Imgle, each Side elegantly adorned with fmall oval Leaves, growing oppofite to one another, and, when dried, of a tranfparent yellow Goc "u yi 1, ^^^^ '" ^''^^'''^ ^'''''' ^""^ *^^" difcontinue ; fo that the Stalk fliall appear naked for about a Quarter of an Inch in Length • and then another Tuft rifes ; and fo on alternately to the Top. This' Plant feldom grows above four Inches hio-h. T/je Pennated Sea-Weed. '-pHIS feldom grows above three Inches high, and exadly refemblcs d ^-^ very fmall Pen-feather. It generally grows upon old Logs of Wood in the Sea, and mofl: commonly not far from Shore. r The Green Broad-Leaf'd Sea-Weed. npHIS differs not materially, in its Make, from the White-lettuce SeaWeed, already defcribed. It is obferved, that Tortoifes feed more upon this, than any other Kind of SeaWeed. T/je Red-Leaf'd Sea-Weed. 4 'jpHESE grow in many oblong Leaves, about three Quarters of aii Inch long, and of a light-purpliiL Colour 3 generally between high and low Water-mark. ^55 T t t ne

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2s6 The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. The Sea-Grass, THIS is pf a green Colour, hanging in many very fine long filky Shreds ; growing generally upon the Rocks, between high and low Water-mark. I The Thick Plushy Sea-Moss. r r 'T^ H I S is generally of a green Colour, of a foft plujfhy Texture ; -" growing upon Stones and Rocks in the Sea. r H r The Grape-Sea-Weed. T HI S is of a dark Amber-colour. Its leveral Branches are fo many hollow Xubes, the Extremity of each generally ending in a fmall, round Berry, about ,as big as a Grain of Pepper. The Green Silky Sea-Moss. THIS grows generally between high and low Water-mark; and very much refembles, in its Texture and Appearance, a confufed fcattered Clufter of raw Silk, ^ ^if*V^ / I Ar 1 m n 1 Fc O F i %T: J_ J 4

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Book IX IJland
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a ^5 The Natural Hijlory of the Book IX The Sea-Leech. "F^HE common People call tHis the Sea, or the Black-pudding: J[ However, I iliall call it, tlie Sea-leech; It hath the Name of Black-pudding from its great Refemblance to it. Its ordinary Bulk is about five Inches long, and two in Breadth • yet I have known it to extend itfelf above eight Inches in LengthThey are generally found clinging to the lower Sides of Rocks or Stones, between high and low Water-mark. They have no Appearance of Eyes, Legs, or Feet; at leaft, to the naked Eye. .. ^ Their Motion is very flow, and of the mufcular Kind. When the Tide of Flood begins to wafli the Holes they are in, they extend from what we muft now call the Head-Part, in a Bunch, ten or twelve Snouts like the Horns of a Snail, all coming from one common Root, like a Bunch of Coral ; the Top of each being far wider than the Shank. r I ani confident, that thefe (if I may be allowed to compare fmall Things with great) are defigned, as Trunks are to Elephants, to be the Inftruments of receiving their Nourifliment thro' them. ^ Having exaniined the Infide of this, it is one continued Circumvolu-^ tion of white Guts, not bigger than the bafe String of a Fiddle. The Water that it emits, when fqueez'd, is of fo corrofive a Nature that it fmarts very miich, and raifes Bliflers upon that Part of the Skin' upon which it falls. V The Naked Sea-Snail. 'T^HIS is generally of about an Inch and an half long ; but, as it is A capable of greatly contradiing or expanding itfelfj it appears of various Bulk, according to its different Motions; flender when it extends itfelf, and thick almoft to a Roundnefs, when it is contrafied. It is found under the Rocks and Stones near the Shore. ^he Sea-Scorpion. F \\T HAT we call here the Scorpion, is by Petiver called Stella V V marina Scolopendr aides. Its five Rays might perhaps properly caufe it to be called the Stella Manna, I k rh&

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Book IX. IJland 0/ BARBADOS. 2 59 The SEA-FoRTr-LEG. /Tp H I S is about two Inches and a quarter long ; the Back jointed ; A and divided into feveral A7muli, thick-fet, with ftiff fliort white Briftles. Thefe, when they are all eredt, exadly refemble Plufh. The Head is guarded with a Forceps, refembling that of a Land Forty Legs i and is found under Stones and Rocks near the Shore. l^he Sea-Sucker. I ^HIS almoft fhapelefs Animal is of a brown fungous tough Jel-l ly-like Gubftance, flicking to the RxDck always under Water: At a Diftance, it hath the Appearance of a Sponge. It is generaiiy of an irregular roundifli Shape, of about an Inch and an half in Diameter. In the Centre of it appears a round Hole, about a quarter of an Inch broad : lliis I take to be its Mouth ; for when this is touched, it clofes its Sides together, SHALL finifli this Clafs of Exangulous Animals, by defcribing one of a furprifing Make, fixed to the Rocks and Stones, without any flielly Covering. '" Its Length, is about an Inch, and three Quarters ; and is an Inch in Diameter • the Outfide granated, very much refembling the Roe of a Fifli, interfperfed with Veins of a Snuff-colour, and pale-red, mixed with very pale green Lifts: When it is feeding, both Ends are flat, the one cleaving to the Rock, the other expofed to the Flux and Reflux of the In the Centre of the latter is its Mouth : In this, when it opens, or gapes to receive what Nourifliment the Sea, by the dafhing of its Waves, throws in its Way, are {^^n innumerable fmall blunt fpiral Feelers, of about a quarter of an Inch long ; interwoven within one another : Thefe are all in Motion, as well as the Mouth open, when the Waves dafla againft the Rocks they are upon, as if they were, at that Inftant, in Search of Food. In the Intermiflion of the Waves, the Mouth clofes ; and thefc Feelers, which are very many, and much refembling, in Shape, the fmall Fejiculce, which conftitutes the pulpy Part of Oranges or Lemons) are contraded, and with a ftrong, but flow mufcular Motion clofe together, and are, as it were, fucked back into the Body of the Animal : Waves Yet they immediately dart out upon the Return of the Waves ; but when the Whole is intircly left dry, by the Abfence of the Water, this flat circular End, in which the Mouth and Feelers appeared, and (Juu w hid:

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i6o The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. which, juft before, when feeding, were of an Inch Diameter, is in an Inftant contraded, Hke the Mouth of a Purfe drawn together ; and becomes of a blunt conic Form, the Bafe being the Part fixed or chnging to the Rock. Its Appearance, in this its quiefcent State, is reprefented in Plate X. There is Hkewife a lefs Sort, of the fame Species with the above defcribed, differing chiefly in Colour, which of the fnmller Kind is black. t ^ i r^ ^ *^r r" s i i O fe

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Book IX. IJland of "£> AK'S, A T> O S 261 O F CRUSTACEOUS ANIMALS AS thofe Kinds of Fifh, whofe Safety depends upon their Swiftnefs in Swimming, have not only their Tails and Fins properly adapted for that Purpofe, but their Eyes like wife (witnefs the Dolphin) never jutting^ out above the Surface of the Head, left they fhould retard their Motion thro' fo thick a Medium ; fb, on the other hand, as the Safety of Crabs and Lobfters, gfc. depends not upon their Celerity, and as thefe inhabit the Cavities of fubmarine Rocks and Cliifs, where their Enemies often lurk under the fame Shelter ; to prevent therefore a fudden Surprize from any of thefe. Providence hath not only guarded them with a ftrong fhelly Covering, and often Prickles ; but hath fo commodioully formed the Eyes of thefe Creatures, that by their great Prominency, and jutting out, fometimes above half an Inch, they can, without moving their Bodies, take at once a circular View all around them. The Weft-India Lobfters, or what are fo c fame Make in this Part of America^ differ in general, in Reality the EngUJh Kind, by their Want of Claws, and being guarded with many Prickles. prefles it, Miho. Within their pearly Shells at Eafe attend Moijl Nouripment^ or under Rocks their Food In jointed Armour waichs 7?^

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26l The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX / T r The DOMINICO-LOBSTER, ^ J -r HIS Lobfter feldom weighs more than about two Pounds. 75^^ Red Lobster. THIS is the largeft Lobfter that we have in this Sea; for it often weighs twenty Pounds • its Colour as above ; but the larger it is in Bulk, the lefs delicious it is. L The Green Lobster. I THIS derives its Name partly from its Colour ; and generally weighs, when full-grown, between three and four Pounds. Its two largeft Horns, or Feelers, are about eighteen Inches long : From between thefe come two lefler ones, forked or divided near their "Extremities. • The Eyes are guarded by two fharp-pointed crooked Horns. The Extremities of the Feet are hairy; and the Shell upon the Back, Specially about the Roots of the great Feelers, is very thickly ftudded with fharp Prickles. .. v .. The Queen or /.^^ Bonne-GpvAce Lobster. ^ J rf J THE largeft of this Sort never weigh above tvvo Pounds. This is juflly efteemed one of the beft of the Lobfter Kind; 4' *\ > The Lazy Crab. ^^ dly fmall Knobs of a pale-fcarlet CoTHIS is a very L The Back is dour;guarded here and there, but efpecially" about the Edges of the '^Back-Shell, with fliort fharp Prickles. It hath four ftrong Legs on a Side ; thefe are covered over with a fhort brownifti Hair or Pile, and are likewife, in the Male Crab, defended with Prickles, the laft Joint of each Leg ending in a fharp Point. Its two great Claws, from the Setting-on to the Body to their Extremities, are often ten Inches long. The very Tips of the two meeting Claws, with v/hich it holds its Prey, remarkably differ from all other Crabs, by their great Breadth, as well as by their feveral regular Indentings, which, when they clofe together, fall as regularly into their Sockets as. the oppofite Sides of a Pair of Nippers. A Claw of one of thefe uncommon Crabs may be feen in the Colledion of Mr. Peter Co/Im/on, ^ The Whole is delineated in Plate "XXV. Fig. I. n 4 I 1 e /

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2S S& 2 i OJRiFOZK. ijjP/a^ u Aa^m/^j t f^hkmJA J^J^furtt/e t/t, V \ / /

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.^ ^ s^r ^\, h rJ^ S' '^ J ^ /' V*V ^ H ^ h W ^ r .3''Uv-r'' ^ > r i .M4 J 1 ^J *^^. ^ 'W* ^ ; Xr'

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^ BooklX. IJland 0/ BARBADOS. I r The Horsman-Crab or Ben-Trotters. q-^HIS fmall whitift Crab, which is generally to be found between X high and_ low Water-Mark, and is called Horfeman from its great Speed in fecuring itfelf, either bj running into its Hole, or the Sea, is far lefs than the white Land-Crab : Its Number of Feet are equal. r The Club-Men. + THESE are very fmall Crabs, near as foiall as thofe called the SheBiters. They are to be feen near the Edges of falt-water Marfhes • they burrow in thefe landy and clayey Places. Their Claws are very large, in proportion to their Bodies: From hence it IS laid that they derive their Name. The She-Biters. T P n^HESE are very finall Cr-abs, inhabiting the Shoals. A Their Backs are not wider than an Englijh Shillino-. Their Claws, in proportion, are very large. ^ 263 V Whi I EngltJJj Its very flender Legs are at leaft a Foot and an half long, and refemble knotted Thread. ^ L This Species of Crabs are fo feldom to be met with, that I never faw but one, and that dead, which was in the Colleflion of my learned Friend Dr. Warren, deceafed. jT/j^ Scuttle-Crab, THIS is a fmall brownifh Crab, marbled on the Back with darkift Lines. ^ It feeds generally upon the Mofs that grows upon the Rocks, between high and low Water-Mark, Their Armour, when caft, which they caft once a Year, looks very beautiful. This Crab will creep up and down the moft fteep perpendicular, or even a projected Rock. Xx X Tie ^ .f

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* V fe 2^4 The Natural Hiftory of tie Book IX \ m *-x The Red Sea-Crab. r THIS differs very little, if any tiling, from the fame Species in ii;^^la7uly except in the Colour, which is of a fine Scarlet ; and thereRed. "igUP'-' They grow here to a great Size ; but are not, however, fo large as thofe of the fame Kind in England^ but better tailed. T The Sir-Eager Crab. r H E Back-Shell of moft Crabs is fomevi^hat roundifh ; but of this 'tis near four Inches long, and not full two broad, the oppofite Parts in Length ending in a fhafp ftrong Prickle. From each of thefe Points to the other the Shape of the Shell coriies neareft to that of a Semicircle. n This is regularly and deeply indented like the Teeth of a Saw, each ending in a fharp Point. The Colour of the upper Shell is blackifli, clouded or ftained with fome fcattered Spots of Pale-white, J Cla>v itfelf, guarded with three or four Prickles or Teeth. The upper Part of the laft Joint is irregularly fquared, and of a brownifliColouri the Part underneath fomewhat rounder, and of a bluifh Colour, Their Legs are equal in Kumber to thofe of the Crabs already defcribed ; and they are chiefly caught in faitwater Ponds near the Sea. Th'ey ^fe juftly efteeiiled good Eating. The Large White Land-Crab. THE Claws of this are very long and large, in proportion to the refl;ofthe Body, = Thefe always burrow in a fandy Soil, near the Sea ; and corne chiefly out at Nights, to feed upon the green Grafs, and tender Vines, growing iipon fuch Places. They often likewife feed upon Manchaneel Apples, as well as upon the Leaves or Berries of Poifo'n-ffees. At fuch times they are dangerous to be eaten, unlefs very great Care be taken to wafh the )Fat, as well as the other Meat on the Infide, with a fufliJ 1 Ihe ^ 4 \ % \ J \ '*

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H-*-^ BooklX. ^W^/BARBADOS. 26*5 "The Mulatto Crab. THIS differs from the white, already defcribed, chiefly in the Colour of its Shell, which is yellowifh, and its Refidence, which is often up in the Country, above two or three Miles diftant from the Sea. They generally burrow about the Edges of frefh-water Ponds, the Bottom of their Holes being always fo deep as to reach the Water. Thefe feed in the Night upon the green tender Grafs about the Sides of the Ponds, and are in general efteemed as good Eating as the white Crabs ; but prove equally as poifonous, if eaten foon after they have fed upon the Berries of Poifon-trees ; unlcfs, as before, the Fat and the Infide Meat is firfl: wafhed in Lime-juice \ which either correds or waflies off the venomous Quality, r T^he Blacic Land-Crab. THIS fmall Crab, though I have never fcen it, yet, as I am credibly informed, is generally an Inhabitant of old Timber-Houfes, and fuch Ruins 3 and it is very fat and delicious, but rare and uncommon. i:he Red Land-Crab: F THIS is but a fmall Crab ; the Back feldom above tvvo Inches long^ its Colour of a blackifli Red. It hath two Claws, and four Legs, on a Side. Thefe Crabs, after a heavy Shower of Rain in the Months of March^ Aprils and May^ are to be feen in great Numbers, loaden with Spawn, going down to the Sea-Side to depofit it in the Sand, near the Wafli of the Water ; and foon afterwards to return into the Country, but generally not very far from the Sea ; though I have often feen them at above two Miles Diftance from the fait Water. As thefe are very fat, they are efteemed good Eating. The common Method of dreffing them among the Negroes is, to rbaft them. This Species of Crabs were perhaps very plentiful in Italy in the Time of Virgil \ for, in his fourth Georgia^ he forbids roafting of red Crabs near an Apiary, the Smell of them being difagreeable to the Bees. r b The Soldier-Crab. THIS is amphibious. Sometimes it is caught upon the Rocks at a confiderable Diftance from the Land ; but they are moft commonly feen upon the Shore. It

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4 ^ 166 The Natural Hijlory of the Book IX. It IS thought to have derived its Name from Its frequent Change of its Quarters J for its firft Appear ance is generally in a very fmall Periwinkle-fliell ; as it grows too big for this, it looks out for another empty Shell, agreeable to its prefentBuIk ; foon after, it takes up its Abode in a large Wilk-fhell. It hath two Claws, refembling thofe of a Crab. The Tail-Part affords a great Quantity of Oil, which is looked upon to be of great Service to lubricate fwoln or ftiff Joints. Thefe are often found cleaving to Rocks in the Sea, but oftener in Granaries on Shore, where they deftroy much Corn. The Tail, or the hinder Part, is covered with a thin Skin. This is delineated in Plate XXV. Fig. 2, J The Horned Crab. I* THIS Crab is of a middle Size. The Shell upon the Back, in fome Places, is much elevated, and again indented. Its Head is guarded with two Pair of Horns, both very flrong, and fharppointed ; the one Pair about an Inch and an half long, the other not above half an Inch. Each Side of the Trunk or Body is likewife armed with four fharp Prickles, refembling a Cock's Spur. The Body is fupported by four Legs on a Side, befides two long feeding Claws, each ending in a Forceps. The whole Crab is covered with brownifli plufhy Hairs. As to the reft of its Make, it differs from other Crabs, in that its Shell is longer in proportion than moft other Crabs, th^ Sir-Eager excepted, and more fharp-pointed than any towards the Head. This is delineated in Plate XXV. Fig. 3. . The Sea Cock Roch.ft" TH I S is of the Crab-Kind, and about an Inch long. Its upper Shell, which is of a brownifli White, freckled with Black, much refembles, in its Make, that of a Tortoife. The Head is provided with two hairy Feelers, like the Land-CockRoch. It hath likewife near the Mouth two long Legs, or Providers, one confiderably longer than the other. ,^ The Body is likewife fupported by fix other fhorter hairy ftrong Legs. The Tail-Part ends in a fharp-pointed Flap, which covers Part of the Belly, and in the Females is the Repofitory of the Spawn. Wafla They are fometimes eaten y and have a Crab-like Tafte. i A 1 SHELLS

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Book IX. IJlandof BARBADOS, A 267 S H E L L S, .7;?^ SHELL-FISH. J THESE are alfo of the exanguious Tribe ; and differ from the cruftaceous Kind, by having their Organs lefs perfect ; for, as the admirable Mr. Loch obferves, an Oyfter or Muffel hath n6t as many nor as quick Senfes as a Man, or feveral other Animals : Nor, if it had', would It, in that State, and Incapacity of transferring itfelf from one Place to another, be bettered by them. What Good would Sight and Hearing do to a Creature that cannot move itfelf to or from an Obje6t wherein at a Diftance it perceived Good or Evil? And would not Quicknefs of Scnfation be an Inconvenience to an Animal, that muft beftill where Chance hath once placed it, and there receive the Afflux of colder or warmer clean or foul Water, as it happens to come to it ? It may be expeded, that I fhould here confider thefe beautiful Produftions in a phyfical Light, and as they are a Curiofity belonging to the Cabinets of the Firtuoft : Yet I fhall beg leave to fpeak of them, lis they contribute to the Amufement of the Ladies. And this I am the rather induced to do, as I have heard feveral of the Fair Sex, who are fond of Shell-work, frequently ridiculed, as wafting their Time in a trifling and ufelefs Manner 3 and this not without a very confiderable Expence. That this Employment is by no means trifling or ufelefs, is eafily proved, as it is abfolutely grounded on the noble and elegant Art of Defigning, and as its End is equally that of Imitation. What the Painter performs by an Afl^emblage of various Colours properly diftributed, is here produced by a Difpofition of Shells, as their different Tindures, Shapes, or Sizes, happen to dircd the Fancy : Add to this, that the Reprefentation is by far more ftriking in Shell-work, than on the Canvas, I have feen a Rofe in Shells, glowing with as exquifite a Red, as that which it received from the Spring. And hence it appears, that Shellwork partakes of the Nature of Painting, if not of Statuary j imitating not only by Colours, but a full Relievo, In fhbrt, nothing can be more properly termed a new Creation, than a well-executed Syftem of Shellwork. Yyy What t -ii

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^*r^ 68 The Natural Hiftory of the. Book IX; V/hatcan be more delightful to the Imagination, than a Grotto completely embelliilied with this Kind of Imagery ? With what truly romantic Ideas muft it infpire one, to fit in a Room furnifhed with the Riches of the moft diftant Shores and Oceans! And thefe not confufedly throwa together, but judicioufly difpofed into regular Reprefentatiops of natural Objeds We are ftruck with Aftonifliment Nor can we determine, whether we fliould moft admire the Sun, which gave to each particular Shell its delicate Hue, or the Hand of the fair Artift, which ranged them with fo much Skill. It will be needlcfs perhaps to add in this Place, that one of Mr. Ad^ difon\ Sources of the Pleafures of Imagination may be found in a Work of this Sort, in its higheft Perfeftion ; namely, The Beautiful. Thus I have obviated the Objedion, that this Amufement (or rather Art) is ufelefs and trifling. And here it will be proper to take Notice, that the Genius of Women is much better fitted for this Employmentthan that of Men. For as Shell-work confifts in forming pleafant Pictures, and agreeable Reprefcntations, and as thefe are effeaed by the means of Shape and Colour artificially put together, a certain Facility and Fancifulnefs is required, which our Sex is an intire Stranger to. But, allowing this Diverfion to be trifling and ufelefs, the moft illnatured Caviller cannot deny, but that it is innocent. How many Ladies do we fee fafliionably murdering their Time in Gaming A Diverfion attended with fome of the moft abjeft Vices, and fliocking Confequences : Vices, which one would think inconfiftent with the Softnefs of the Sex^ and Confequences, which, I am fure, that Softnefs can but ill fuftain! A Praftice this, which ruins their Honour, their Families, and Fortunes ; and (what one would think the Ladies would take more to Heart)— their Faces. Whereas the Joys of this our Purfuit are pure, and intirely founded on a contemplative Turn of Mind ; efpecially, if we fuppofe, that one of our modern Calypfo\, after having thus adorned her Grot' would no doubt chufe to reap the Fruit of her Labours, by making it a Place to cultivate her Mind in by Mufing. Some Diverfions muft indifputably be indulged the Fair Sex; and this, I think, Is not only as becoming, but as proper, as any. We cannot fuppofe, that our Cynthia\ and Flavian can leap a five-barr'd Gate, or Walk half a Day with a Gun in queft of a Wood-cock ; Sports, which are better fuited to the Strength and Roughnefs of the oppofite Sex. But It may be obje&d, that there are other Diverfions equally adapted to the Delicacy of Women ; for Inftance, the Cultivation of Flowers, In the firft Place, I fliall remark, that the Study of the Florift is not fo pleafing ; whofe chief Pride confifts in a Variety and Beauty of Colours. Now I appeal to the moft experienced Naturahft, Whether the moft choice Colleftion of Tulips, can vie in beautiful Colours with the Pamana, or Sun-fliell, the Ear-fhell, and the Murex, which afl^ords the enuine Tyrian Purple ? And now I am particularly infifting on the Beauty I \ \

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BooklX. IJlandof'&AR'&ABOS.' Beauty of Shells, I cannot but obferve, that no antient Author, befides Lucretius^ has taken notice of them in that View. His Lines are thefe : Concharumq-y genus ^ par ill r attorn^ vide??2us Pingere telluris gremium^ qua mollibus undis Lktoris incurvi bibulam lavit cequor arenam, L. II, v. 374. The Race of Shells, with ever-varying Birth, So paint the Bofom of the bounteous Earth • Where the calm Sea the concave Margin laves. And bathes the thirfty Beach with gentle Waves. In the next Place, the Study of Flowers is more expenfive. I confefs indeed, that a CoUedion of Shells cannot be prepared without fome confiderable Charge. But do not we daily fee large Sums thrown away on a fingle Tulip-root, the Succefs of whofe future Beauty is intirely precarious ? And are not the Hopes and Fears of its Matter determined by Showers and Sun-fliine ? Befides, after much Pains and Solicitude, when the Flower is arrived at its utmoft Luflre, how foon does it fade Where^ as the Strength and Beauty of the Shell is fixed, and will ftand through many Ages. Indeed, the only Argument that the Study of Flowers has to recommend itfelf to the Ladies, is, that it will admirably teach them how frail and fugitive is Beauty : ^ I fliall only add, that I hope the following Book, from what has been faid, will be confidered as not only written to gratify the Curiofity of the inquifitive Philofopher^ but to improve the Imagination of the Female Artificer, Of the MuREX; t 1 U T of all the Shell-fifh, which are picked up on the Shores of this __ Ifland, the Purple-Fifii is the moft curious and valuable, and deferves a diftindt and a more accurate Defcription. • We make no Scruple to aflert, that this Purple-FifL is the fo much celebrated Murex of the Antients ; fince it fo well agrees with the Account which Pli7iy and other Naturalijls have tranfmitted to us of the latter ; as we fhall endeavour to evince in the following Remarks. And that we may proceed with as much Clearnefs and Perfpicuity as we can ; it may not be amifs to enumerate the feveral Appellations with which this particular Species or Sort of the Purple-Fifh was diftinguifhed from the reft, and to account for each as well as we may, I. It is too notorious, that claffical Authors, and more efpecially the ^(^M^^^^ Poets, have mdifcriminately ufed the Words Purpura^ and Murex and ^'"'^''' have given the general Name, Purple^ to the feveral particular TtnBures of thefe different Shell-Fifb, as if the Dye of the one did not differ from the \

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270 K^fv^p and Buccinuni< Murex, The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. L the Dye of the other ; and the Purpura and Murex were om and the fame Fifh. But let us, if it be poffible, be more exad:, and diftinguifli them as well as we can.; which we fhall attempt to do, by giving the Reader as clear and precife a Defcription of the Murex [for to that more elpecially fhall we confine our Inquiries] as we are able to colled from antient Authors. 1. "Vix^ Murex is often called by Gr^^/J Authors, K?pu|, and Buccinum by the L,atins \ both which Appellations are evidently beftowed upon it, becaufe it belongs to the Tribe of thofe Shell-fifh which are ftiled Buccinator es ; or, as Horace names them, fofiantes Conchcz^ fovinding Conchs ; whofe Shells, being twilled, hollow, and fit for the Retention of the Air, refemble, in an imperfeft Degree, that Shell, which the Antients ufed ia giving their Alarms and Summons, both at Sea, and on Land j and which fome of the Moderns at this Day carry and ufe in their Ships. 2. And as thefe Names are attributed to the Mtcrex from the Fo7'mov Make of its Shell ; fo we are Induced to believe, that the Appellation Murex owes its Rife to the Roughnefs of it. For its Shell is ftudded with Prickles^ ranged in regular Rows, as is the Purpura alfo, and many other Shells of this Clafs : So that the Name Murex is by no means proper to the Purple Conch we are {peaking of; but belongs to a large Tribe, whofe particular Families are varioufly diftinguifhed. It is confefled, that Pliny [a) [if we underftand him, and the Copy be clear of Errors] afferts, that the Buccinum hath no Prickles^ as hath the Purpura ; and 'V that In the Shells of both there Is a Number of circular Rows, or Ribs, *^ correlpondlng to the Number of their Years." But we prefume this laborious Naturalift either means, that the Prickles of the Buccinum are not fo prominent or large as thofe of the Purpura ; or herein has forgotten himfelf. For if the Buccinum and Murex are th^fame Fiflb, and allowed by him (^) to be fo ; it follows, that the Buccinum m\x?i have x}iit Aculeos ^ as well as the Purpura^ fince the Name Murex was evidently beftowed upon it, becaufe its Shell is pointed or prickled [c). This is the proper Senfe of the 'SRoiA Murex \ which is therefore applied to G^^/z^cr/'j, or Chauffe-trappes^ warlike Engines, which are armed with Iron Teeth, or Spikes ; and its Derivative Muricatus^ to every thing that is fliarpened and pointed. From thefe two Appellations, taken together, we may form a juft Defcription of the Murex^ and define it to be ^ Conchy Jludded on its ( ij ) Alterum \y'i'z. Purpura\ clavatum ejl ad tiirhinejn ufq\ aciilels in orbem feptenis fere ; qui non Junt Biccdno ; fed utrifq-, orbcs totidem, quot haheant annos. Nat. Hifl, L. ix, c. 36. {b) See Notes, ibid. And Fofjius in his Ety?no!ogtcon fhewF, that the Murex anfwers to AriflotU% K?pu^ [i. e. the Biicci?ium]y and is fuppofed by fome to be derived from it. InVoceMuTQx. / • ^ ( c ) So Ifidorus fays, Murex efi: Cochlea Maris, diSIa ab Acuminc & Afperltatey Lib. ii. c. 6. Originum, Here Ifidorus'^ Acumen fignifies jufl the fame Thing, as Plinf% Aculei, '^ "I *^ outer f '^

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Book IX IJland 0/ BARBADOS c outer S/Mhfiarp and regular Pcims\ and twifled or wreathed in the a 71 ^^^;^^ of the Blowmg-JI. lajl diflinguifted from the other PurpJe-Fift, which i; '^^.^H'^ "S die Purpm^a, Mur ^rum alio : For from on rum. th. Name we jLall .™ no farther I^fo^.^^^Snt hS;:! unlefs It be that as th. Word means really no more than the SlJUv fo we may from henee eonelude, that the Antients beftowed this Appel' ktion upon rt, by way of Eminence; to teflify, as it were, the uft Senfe they had of its fuperior Exeellence to all other Shell. ^ U. Thus far then as to the dVatnes attributed by the Antients to the Murex; v.keh have enabled us to difcover the Form and Fajiion of its Shell ; which the curious Reader will find to correfpond Xvith the annexed Di^ught [PiateXXIV. Fig. 2.], which is taken from a Shellnow W before nie. The Murex is a fmall FifL'; the beft and largeft Sori of them If we believe ^tAen^us {e), not exceeding one Pound in Weiaht rhofe we met wida on the Shore of this Ifland (as far we could difcover) are much lefs, falling very ftort, even the greateft of them of a "'"' Pound ; and moft of them being little more than half as heavy! The Dimenfions of the Shell before us, which is one of the common Size of thofe that are here found, will juftify this Account : For on the flat Side or Mouth, It meafures no more than three Inches and an half in Length' and two in Breadth ; and on the Curve, or outward Shell, four Inches and an half in Length ; and over the thickefl Part, three Inches and an half in l-!fj^oHfh • A ^^^ 4X.l^ \ir C. ,1 7 ,* -. Truth. f't*. than falls fi^ ^ The Colour of the outward Shell is a dark Grey, fometlmes faintly tinged With a Yellow. ^ -'•^ (d) Oy?;y;z IS derived from the Gr^.^aV^^^^^ a Name, which the Grm^;,, beftow ort c fiZ% c ^^^f'^' ^' "^'^ ^^^^ ^^^"^ Conchylium, for the fame Rcafon, /. .. the Ujell-i^tjh, from the fame Greek Origin, Koy^^Xm. But neither this nor that Appellation was pecuhar to the Murex, properly fo called ; but attributed alfo to the Furpura. {e) r.W7i ^ aW; T^. i^tydXcv ^ lA^vaic^Tocr L. iii. C. II. There are fome of the ^r^^? one?, and thofe of a Pound Weight." He calls them indeed Xloap^guu. the Furple-FiHi i but I make no Doubt this Word muft be taken for the feveral Species for the ikf//r^;c as well as for the Purpura, But if this be not granted, it will follow, that it the largeft Purpura do not weigh more than a Pound, the largeft Murex will not weigh fomuch : For Phny affures us, that the Purpura is larger th^n the Murex, Baccinum minor Concha, L. ix. C. 36. And though Rondeletim here correds the prefent Reading, and changes minor into wyV; yet this Liberty with the Text is not to be allowed. Kn^Athen(zm\ Authority in another Place, Z,. iii. C. 11. is againft it, who fays, that xhtfmaller Purpurea are bred on the Shores and Sea-coa/i [the ufual Haunts of the Murexy as we ILall fee hereafter] ; and that their Flos is red-, whereas that of the larger Purpura is moftly black, and lometimes, l^u^^v p>ipo\, a Httle red, i. e. of the ^W^f Colour. Thefe two Circumftances convince us^ that by the fmaller Purpura Athenceits means the Murex. ... r > ... Zzz The f.

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72 The Natural Hi ftory of il lf^\r*l 9 .A> fou7id. But the The Inhabitant of fo fmall a Shell cannot re^fqji^ably be expefted to abound with a large Quantity of fo valuable a Liquor ; and indeed an hundred of them are fcarcely fuiEcient to wet and difcqlour a Cambrick or Lawn Handkerchief of an ordinary Size. Ill As the Shell of the Murex differs from that of tl)c Purpura fo the Places^ j-hch each more particularly delights to frequent and inhabit, are alfo different. P% in recounting the various Kinds or Sorts of the F^r/^r^ diftmguifhesth^W very circumftantially (whether juftly or no, let the Reader determine) by th.ePlac.es of their Abode j ftiling fome Pelag,^ ffj, that love and haunt the deej, Wajer ; and are thofe of which he fpeaks, when he fays, that fome are caught with fmall Nets, caft into the Deep : Otl^ers again he calls Lmoraks fgj, fuch as frequent the Shore ; others Iz^e^^s, Ayjiich delight in Mud and Slime ; and other., ^/^en/es, which Ihroud or hide tl^ejpfelves in the Sea-Weed Bucctnum or what is the fame the %rej,, .fticks and faftens, oe lays, only on Rods, and .there or thereabouts is gathered or picked up ^. And m this Sit^ion I frft difcovered it. For, walking on^ Day A ihe Shore, on the North Side qf the Wand, and feeing a Shell-Fifh, fixed to the Rock before me, I ordered ^ Slayp to fe^ch it. The Lad, advancing towards It with too much Hurry and Impeteq&y, grafped it with fa much Rpughneft th,t hi? Hand was immediatdy ftained with a florid and moft delightful CrTOfoQ, V^This Accident, the Reader ^nj fbppol^, awakened my Curiofity ia no lefi a Degree than one of mpc^.thp like Nature did that of the IS^mm Uer,fs^-,W^ony t^^^^^ ^^knowlege to' have been the firft Difcoverer of the Mure., and Inventor of the P^ple! Ae Sea-coaft and perceiving the Hair of his Dog's Lips to be tinged }a% "' ^1' T '^"'^'^ ' ^^^"^^'^^ "^^^ "^^^V into the Caul ?uit Xrlr"^ O^^"^^'^^ ^--^4 ^^^Purpurlor Purple-Fiih (ij. Or rather thus j as thp Story is raated by Po^or^,^ (j') The Scholiaft on Apolhnius'^ Argonauts, commentino: on the Wor,1 ^ ^' of ^" f 1^^ ^ZZWt" ^ocks.An, then the P,^,^.&S Siores and sJcoa^^^ ' ^ ^ ^"'^'"^ ^ ^'^"^.% ^feish. ate bred on the Names are att ibuted 3 2^Lt^// f I [ what hath been before pbferyed, that thefe... in the Citation Zm^t^ o^ ^ t ^ t^^'"^' ^**' ^^-^^^'^^'^^ Vergilj :f : i[ f le Hk

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nous. But to return : 2 Book IX. IJIa^d ^/BARBADOS. Fergj/ (/), who hath given it a more fprightly and gallant Turn cc tr cues was in Love with a young Lady, a NativVof that citv v7 : 'Name was Tyres. A Dog that Sfed aLys to attend h r ^'"^^ Day among the Rocks, found a PurplSit tft^lTCT^ T Shell, and eaten the Meat, returned to hif Miflre With S^ ? '\ <' with ^ purple ox fcarkt^L TheLadv delth S "^^^^ ^^ '"^"^ and befutiful Tindure declared to ^t^' f ^ T* '^' ""^-on^mon c< ^wr. fL , *^' aeciarea to Hercules, when he was pavinpher fUc her 7r' r"-!'^ r ^""r ^^'^^^^^ ^'^ A^dreffes, till he^^hrproe" S •' Dog's lT This nl" "h ""'f ^"? ^P^^"'^''' ^^ -^^^ ^^ ^Se i^og s j^ips. 1 ins full and pofitive In undion forced th^ Pr.r^ ^ in queft of the ShelJ-Fifh f whieh bdnXnl he not W fF ;; brought the Lady the Prefent fhe had regSred i tan the! S' r ?r f '^^ ^-^?^-^y^-\ Th^TyriansS, is evident, gav^ fo M Credit to the moft particular Circumftanee belonging'to this Tradkion vjz |. Manner thereby the Purpk-KJh ^as firjl dlfcLred, as to prirve the Remembrance of it ]ong after on their Coins j fome of which may be now feen, with the Dog and Purple^Fip, in the Cabinets of the Cu! w w fT,.r.cj, • K / ^-^\^'''^ ^^7 I^emarks on the feveral Particulars of thefe Stones hereafter, m the Procefs of this DifTertation, and as they occur And in this Place only take notice, that though thefe Authors differ ver^ inuch in other Circumftances ; yet they agree in tlfis, that the Dog, both that belonging to Hermles, and that of the young Lady, found the Shell among the i?..^., which P^^_, fays is the .// h! bitation Tltuu^t and the P/... where I firft difcovered the ^..^.^^ Shell • which we rfs ti^ of rtSiS ^^""^ '' "^^ "^--'^ ^-^ • IV. The i^/.. oxpnaure of the Barbados Conch ftained, as we before or,^, pbferved, theHand of the Slave, with 2. florid^ and hright Red. '' 73 ik iptle [m\ in defcribing the 4-,.^,r /. g.' the Mur iNOW Tiiiaure. i,„ A u r r 1 ? --•'--r-'"") '• >• '-"'iviurites (lor or tnem only hemuftbe fuppofed to fpeak), ufes alpioft the very fame Words, faying; The Juice or Liquor, being either fqueezed or pmjtted, dyes the Hand "with a florid Colour."And P% (.), after him, afTures-us, that ffie I infture of the Buccinum, mixed with that of the Purpura PelaHa, gives the l^lj, aufleritate,n illam, mtore^nijice ilium, qui quceritur, cocci, tha Fuhejsand^ Bnghtnefs of Scarlet. Laftly, we obferVe, that the Shell which Tyros s Dog picked up, emitted a Liquor, which tinged his Chaps with a Scarlet-Dye (o). This Co/our, then, we fuppofe to be, among (/) De Rerum Invent Lib. iii. C 6. (m) Xhe Wprds are infert'^^ Ifitq Afhenam, L. iii. C. i r. from Anflotk, by his Latm T^VJ ni 'z/] Tx c ?''^^' '^^'J'''''' ^^'^^^^ tin^t jioH^ colour ^ .. ; (?) §^i^^f^ia ^}j,nkto colore infectt:' P. Vergil, ibid. • other *r •

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,^74 f The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX; a diflinguiJJjing Note and Sign of the Murex^ properly fo For Pli72y [p] affures us, there are only two Kinds or Genus's of Mark. other called. Juices of eachj the various Sorts of Purple v/ere made. '" The Colour therefore of the Flos or Tindlure is another favourable Citcumftanccj which ftrengthens our Comparilon, and renders it probable, that the Bai'lados Conchy we are now treating of, is the Mu7-ex of the An^ tients. And here we defire the Reader to recoiled ai^other Particular in the forementioned Story, which muft not be omitted : It is this ; TheLady required, that Hercules fhould prefent her with a Veft or Garment of as beautiful and lively a Colour, as that, which he then faw on the Dog's Lips {q\ .-hJ This PurpleJuice is repofited in a fmall tranfparent Bag, or rather Vein, on the Back of the FijQi, not far from the Plead. And when it is taken with a Pencil or otherwife from the Vein, the Shell being broken, it is of the Confiftence of a thin Cream, of a yellow-greenifh Colour ; fmelling raw, and very difagreeably ; and the Wool, Cotton^ or Linen, that hath been foaked in this Liquor a/^zy HourSy afterwards affumes a .deep fcarlet Hue. But what fliall we fay is the Reafon, why this fame Liquor, when transfufed or ejeded through the Mouth of the living Fifli, dyes the Hand of him who plucks it from the Rock, immediately ? Is itbecaufe, when the Juice is percolated or ftrained through the Vein by the lining Fifh, it is mixed with fome other Liquor, that accelerates this Alteration of Colours ? Or becaufe, when the Fifli is dead^ the Flos is itfelf debilitated \ becaufe lefs vigorous and able to exert its extraordinary Virtue? Whatever be the Caufe, the Fad is certain : For the Liquor, when emitted by the Fifh, immediately ftains the Hand ; but when taken out of the Vein of -the dead Fifh, it is fojm time before the Wool receives the Tindture. J But though we are not able to account for this fudden Tranf7nutation of Colour; yet the £7/2 of it arifmg to the Fifh itfelf we think is evident ;^ and alFords us a frefh Inflance of the Wifdom and Contrivance cf the great Creator: who hath hereby furnifhed the Murex with the Me^ns of % I • (/) Concharumy ad purpuras & conchylia, eadem qmdem eft materia ; fed dijlat temperament o. Duo funt genera, Buccinum Tuinor Concha alterum Vuxpm^^^ocatur, Lib. k. C. 36. {q\ Cams illius Idbris fplendidiorem, fays P. Vergil ibid. L {r) Buccinum perfe damnatur, quiafucum remittit. Plinii L. Ix. C. 38. {s) Athen^us, from Ariftotk, fays, dv^ ^/s^ov ts ^yiytc^vog y^ tS r^otx^Xa auSog Bx^tnv • ni. C. II. M-iiKwy, or Papaver^ is to h^og tS Ix^vog, internum, feu iritefimmn pifcis, as he acquaints us from E/^w/j, ibid, Pliny f^^ys, the Flos lies inmediisfaucibus -, which his Annotiubr correfts, and fays, inter h^c W\z, cervicem & pc^paver] fupra ventrem flos Mtuseji, L.ix. C. 36. ^. ^ 1 fecuring *** I J

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t'* r Book IX. Ijlandof BARBADOS. fecuring itfelf from Danger ; which, as the luk-Fifli, is direded, at the Approach of its Enemy, to emit this purple Liquor, which, being 7iau~ Jeous and offenjive^ annoys and beats off its Affailant. r The Large Conch. Buccmum maximum^ 'labromaxime patente purpureo^ davkula murkatak ' Lift. Hift. Conch}], THIS kind of Fifhisof two Sorts, diftinguiflied by the Thicknefs or Thinnefs of their Shell. That with the thinneft Shell is generally the largcft, and the other the moft ponderous. The Outfide is of a brownifh White, ftuddcd at uncertain Diftances with blunt-knobbed Protuberances. The Infide is finely pohfhed \ and its Colourj near the Extremity, of a pale Red; farther in, of a deep Maiden'sblufli. The Head of the Fifh is guarded with a black horny Beak^ or Tongue. This, being extended out of the Shell, and fixed in the Sand, by a ftrong mufcular Motion, drags the Fifh with its cumberous Weight of Shell after it. Arijlotk and Pliny afe'of Opinion, ^that the Ufe'of this Beak, in fomg of the Conch Kind, isto pierce thro' other lefler Shell-Fifh, which they prey upon. Though this may be one of their Ways of Feeding, yet they aire fcl^ dom deftitute of Food at lefs Trouble ; for there grows upon the Outfide of their Shells a fine whitifii Mofs. This, in all Probability, is no lefs agreeable to them, than the green broad-leaved Mofs is to the Tortoife \ for the whole Fifh (except the Tail, which remains in the Shellj is feen to come out of it to feed upon this Mofs, which it licks very clean from the Shell; fo that they always carry Tome' Part' of their Food along with them. They are likewife to be met with feeding, after great Floods, in the Sea, oppofite to deep Gullies, or Rivers ; for as thefe Torrents generally carry a great Quantity of Land-Fruit, Leaves, and fuch F^ceSj into the Sea ; the Cojichs are often feen to feed upon them. They are evidently Male and Female. The Penis of the Male is above two Liches long. The horny Beak above-mentioned is near two Inches in Length, and three Quarters of an Inch broad, fharp-pointed, and fomewhat crooked. This is fortified with a ftrong middle Rib, and faftened to a tough cartilaginous Neck, as thick as one's Thumb. ' The upper Part of this, by feveral crofs Indentlngs, is made as 'rough as a Rafp : It is with this Part that it licks, or rather fcrapes oft', the Mofs that grows upon its own Shell. A a a a About r 7 t \ ^^ ri

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'.V % t-i_ r The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX.About two Inches lower appear three cartiliiginous Protuberances of _a blunt conic Form, Two of thefe are about an Inch and an half long, on whofe Extremities appear the Eyes, furrounded by two bluifh Circles, The Third, which ftands between thefe, is near as thick as a large Swan's Quill, and two Inches long ; the Extremity of it ending in a Mouth, which, when the Fifh doth not feed, is ftrongly contradted. Somewhat below thefe, in the Male, appears the Perns. When the Tail-part, which is gvitty, and fomewhat fandy, is takea away, the reft of the Fifli, being fry'd, eats like Tripe, but fliorter, fweeter, and more lufcious. The empty Shell, efpecially thofe that are thin, is made ufe of, inftead of Sounding-Horns or Bells, to call out the Slaves to their Work in the Morning ; for the Tip-end of the Shell being broken off, till the Cavity appears of about the Bignefs of a Mouth-Piece to a French-Horn, they blow into it, and it founds fo loud, that it may be heard in a calm Morning, above a Mile ofF. It feems that thefe were made ufe of as early as. the Time of the Romans ; for Perftus fays, Buccina jam prifcos cogebat ad arma ^uirites. rk Neither was the Ufe of the Fifh unknown to the Romans ', which appears by the following Lines, Lubrica nafcentes hnplent conchylia lun^, Sed non omne mare ejl generof^ fertile teji^e, Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris. HoR. viJes pellent objlantia conchce. HoR. ^, "" r Manilius likewife very w^ defcribes their burying themfelves in the Sand 5 which they do during the Winter Months, V Sicfubmerfa fretis concharum^ &^ carcere claufa. Thefe are found in great Plenty at the Bottom of the Sea, in about five or fix Fathom Water, in moft of our Bays ; but chiefly to the Leeward of the Ifland, efpecially in the Summer-Months. ^ If the Day is windy, the Divers cannot well fee them from their Boats. upon the Surface of it. Water This I L i I hcc a) ] fpecl Li: I ^ 'our c Spots N^

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Book IX. IJland (?/ B A R B A D O S. This for a fliort time unites the broken Surface of the Water; by which means the Divers can clearly perceive any Objed at the Bottom: When the Conchs are thus feen, they cUve, and bring them up. L The Cow-Heel Conch, or Helmet-Shell. h m rojlratum graiide^ raris lineis circtmtdatumy lavey m7'te ctijufqiie 07-bis Jlriata. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 91 iji np HIS is often five Inches long; the Outfide of a dirty White, and -clouded at uncertain Diftances with brownifh Spots : The firft Circumvolution takes up the greateft Part of the Shell : The Lip is not expanded, as in the large grey Conch ; but is thickly welted, turning out-, wards : The inclofed Fifh is eatable, as in the former. + "^ l^he Small broad-lipped Conch: r Buccinum hrevirojlrmn lahrofum crajfum nodofum^ columella late plana^ Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 989. npHIS Shell is about three Inches long; its Mouth very 'wide, and -*its Lips much expanded : The firft Circumvolution of this takes up the greateft Part of the Shell. 1 \ 1 h ^^he Small Conch. Bucctnmn mlnimwn ohlongum IcBve^ e cinereo & fufco variegatum^ riSiu angujlo. J J npHIS is about an Inch long : The Aperture for the Mouth Is long, *• and narrow ; the whole Shell fmooth and fliining, more or lefs Ipeckled with greyifh-white and brownifti Spots. 77 .tThe Large brown Concha Veneris, \ L h Co?tcha Veneris major fufca^ cut maculte fufc
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27^ The Natural Hipry of the Book IX The Brown Black-spotted Small Conch. Concha Veneris parva fuhfufca Icsvis nigrh maculh donata. THIS is a very fmall well-poliflhed Shell, not much exceeding a Quarter of an Inch. Its Back is high-raifed, and variegated with blackifti Spots. The Small dark-coloured Conch. fuhfufca lavih elato dorfo bifafc Lift. Hift. Conchy 1. Tab. 670. TH I S is from an Inch to two Inches long, of a dark-reddilh Brown: In every thing elfe it refembles the laft-defcribed. The Small White Concha Veneris. Concha Veneris alba. ^ A an Inch long: Thefc often go here by tl and at a Diftance very much refemble that Grain O, -fi i f I 4 ai CI a an mi faa defc Par; he Music-Shell. TlJs is what DoEior Lifter calls Buccinum muficum grave, faciatum ex iineis quibufdam interfeftis, et maculatum, clavicula leniter muricata. THIS Shell is about two Inches long, and near an Inch broad towards the Clavicle : Its Mouth is large : The Circumvolutions are fcarce perceivable, feveral longitudinal Rifmgs fupplying feemingly their Places : The Shell is thick and ponderous, and of a Flefh-colour, reguterl^ marked with blackifti ftrait Lines and fceming Notes, as if drawn for Muftc : Thefe are as regularly crofted with other lefier Lines : It is from thefe that it derives the Name of Mtifc-fmlL The eatal ina itsiV Siirfi The of at ttel Teet Pricl Pricl

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Book IX. IJland of "& A R B A D O S. The Beef-Shell. r Patella oblonga, artkulata artkuUs Jlriatts, extus fubfufcis, intus e viridi cceruleis, TH I S is from one to two Inches long : The Shell, which is of a blackilh-grey Colour, is divided into eight Joints laid over one another :B7 theHelp of thefe the inclofed Fifh can either bend inwardly, or expand and ftreighten its Shell at Pleafiire. The Edges of the Shell are covered over with a greenifla arong bearded thread-like Subftance : The Fifh, which IS of a pale-reddlfh Colour, is very firm eating, fliort, and well-tafted. Thefe Beeves are likewife diftinguillied into the Day and NightBeeves. 2 79 -• The CoRNUA Ammonis. H E S E are properly called TubuU vermium albidU vel e rubra „ >/a; and are generally of a dull-white Colour, incurvated in many Revolutions like a Ram's Horn^ but far clofer together; the fmall gyral Extremity ending in a Point, the other being fealed or glazed oven There are fome to be met with by far lefs curvated than the abovedefcribed. They are often found upon a Place called Long Baj, in the Parifhes of St. Andrew^ and St. JoJei)h, The Sea-Egg, ^ H E S E are diftinguifhed into three Sorts ; the black, the grey, and the fhooting Sea-Egg. The two former are chiefly the eatable Kind : Their Appearance very much refembles an Hedge-hog in a defenfive Poflure : It is of a globular Form, deprefled at both Ends; its Mouth being a fmall round Hole in the Middle of one of the deprefled Surfaces, having five Teeth, the Points of all meeting in the Centre : The whole Shell is very thickly ftudded round with fliarp-pointed Prickles of about an Inch long. Thefe ferve as oifenflve and defenfive Weapons, the latter to guard it againft the white Gavally, a Fifli, which, inftead of Teeth, hath fl:rong bony Mandibles, and preys upon ShellFifli. Thefe Prickles ferve alfo infl:ead of Feet; for, by moving thefe, it can roll on in an orbicular manner to find out its Prey, or to avoid Danger. Thefe Prickles are jointed to the Shells by a Socket, which exa^Iy fits a protuberant Knob arifing from the Surface of the Shell. From the Socket of thefe Prickles arife likewife many fmall cartilaginous Sinews, which terminate in the innumerable fmall Holes, which in a very beautiful Manner perforate the Shell. It is by the Flelp of thefe that the Prickles are capable • Bb bb of

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The Natural Hiftory of ih Book IX. of Motion. When it moves, which it does but ilowly, itfeemsasifa Grove of Spears was in Motion. The Infide of the Shell is lined with about five Lobes of a granulated yellow Subflance, refembling the Roe of a^ifh: Thcfe Lobes are iii Length about three Inches, and in Breadth near an Inch : However, their Bulk depends much upon the Time of their being taken ; for thefe Lobes are larger, and even better tailed, in the [.a] Full than in the Wane of the Moon; but if not quickly eaten, or put into ftrong Vinegar to harden, they .very .foon diffolve into a rich reddifli Liquid; A full-grown Shell is, about fourteen Inches in Circumference. The' Difference between the black, the grey, and' the whitifli Sort, is not worth mentioning : However, the black fhooting Sea-Egg dif-r .. fers from all the reft by the extraordinary Length of its Prickles, and its great Force in darting them to annoy its Enemy; which it does with, that Violence, that I have known them to ftrike or dart them thro' the thick flefhy Part of the Toe-nail of a Fifherman. The Sea-Eggs were He ^-^Mifeno oriU7iUcr echinie ^ ^ F r Horret xctpllUs'i ut mar inns ^ afperisy Echinus, Epod. V. 27. well i(i appears from. a Paffage in Z/^c/fej-, that the Antients were .acquainted with the proper Seafon for taking this. Fifh, as being largec .and more delicate in the Full of the Moon. ^ I J — TLiUna alit ojlrea-i et implet echinos^ L H III, Thefe Sed-E^^s are to,.b.e found in the Bottom of fine fandy Bays, ia This is delineated in Plate XX VL 6i. about feven or : eight Feet Water. Fio-; i.'Fi^. 2i t ^ ^ J'he Plate-Fispi, or the^hkr Sea-Egg. I I HE Plate-Ftp hath a flat Shell fomewhat difliing inwards on one Side : It is generally from two to three Inches Diameter. The upper and the under Shell are fo thin, and fo clofe together, that the inclofedFifh is very fmall. The feveral thoufand little Holes in thefe SheUs, by which, I fuppofe, Nourifhment is conveyed to the Fifh, are no lels remarkable .fpr their Number, than their Regularity and Beauty. This r I ^ 1 ( a ) This evidently confutes Mr. Rohault^ who fays, that the Moon Iiath no Influence in repleniOiing at the Full^ or IciTening at the Wane, the Meat that is in do fed in thcfe and fuch4ike ShellF:fli. Shell-.

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\ Plate 24ibnq .^ 2^^ F^ r / '' V '/" • M^.J I y / : t/r^TheDUKE of B:E D I' O RD \

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^5 ^' ^ f 4 tF ;i n l4 r l7 ^'^^i \ / b

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Book IJlan^ of V^ AR'B. A OS. Shell Fifli IS generally found (lightly covered with Sand Crabs take to be their Security from being perceived other Animals, which prey upon them : Their Surfa ) ^ whic Conchs or with thick fetaceous Ftlli ; and the Middle ces are covered o the Shell is Punctures divided into the Appearance of five narrow rofaceous Leav as well as four oblong Holes of near half an Inch fmall \^ ,9 y ong, and a quarter wide. Perhaps Nature, intended thefe, that the Fifh might faften itfclf by left e Current them to the Points of Stones or Rocks in the Bottom, .^.l ..i^ ^ua^m fliould drive them away from their Feeding-place, or Place of Safety. Plate XXVIIL Fig. Fig. iS w The Mussel-Shell ', H I S IS not ab 4 Inch and an half long at moft A A u ic> iiuL li^ic auuvc ciu *ucn ana an nair long at molt; and the inclofed Fifh is proportionably fmaller, a dozen of them not weighing an of the Illand E?2glijh Thefe I have found in Beds to the Leeward the Parifb of St, Lucy H' -• 2^/6^. Large White Cockle. H E S E are found near Needhams Fort lar than that of the Englip Cockle, and flatter The Shell is a great deal / The Ribbed Limpet. H E S E are called here the Nipph-ShelL Some are of a Colour, others brownifli, and fome fpotted : There are likewife of thefe Species fome that are fmcJoth. % I n he Thimbl H I S is fmaller % f\ mpet. I more comprefled, than the laft-defcribcd rh e Rock-Oyster .* H I S is a rocky rather than a fhelly Subflance. It grows to the Side of mofly Shoals and Rocks at different Diftances from the Shore, fide. When opened, they have the Refemblance of a Shell on the In and contain a flefliy Subflance, in Tafte very much refembling an Oyfter, differing very little > any thing, from the Mangrove-Oyfiers

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8 The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. fo commonly growing to the Roots of thofe Trees, in fcveral of our WeJ-India la^nds. L The Red speckled Wilk-Shell. \ H E S E Shells are beautifully ftreaked with fmall broken Veins of Red upon a white Ground : They are to be found in Plenty clinging to the Rocks on the Leeward-fide of the Ifland, efpecially in St* Luc/s Parifh. The Blue a;/^ white-marbled Wilk-Shell, THI S is of the Make and Bignefs of the laftmentioned, and differs only in this, that the white Ground of this is finely fpeckled with blue broken Streaks : Thefe are likewife found chiefly in the Leewardpart of the Ifland. T with Age, The Blackish Wilk-Shells. HESE are of the Bignefs of the lafl defcribed; and I take them to be the fame Species, but that the Shells of thefe are turned black Punches. T Worms are innumerable Cluflers of wreathed vermicular open-mouthed Tubes, cemented together into irregular Lumps, and fometimes into large Beds many Feet in Circumference: Thefe Tubes differ in Colour, being fbme of an Amber-colour, fome black, and others of a dirty White. The Aperture, by which the Worm enters, is round and open, of the Bignefs of a Raven*s Quill. The Edges of thefe Tubes are fo fharp, that they will, if trod upon, cut a circular Incifion in the Flefh, leaving the middle Space of their Diameters untouched : This Pundure exaftly relembles the Impreffion made upon Leather by an Inftrument, which the Shoemakers call a Punch. Thefe are generally found between high and low Water-Mark. ne

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Bd5k IX. % BARBADOS; 282 The Prickly Ham-Mussel. HIS Shell -^ without o ften 4 ght Inches long, Ihiooth within J being fludded without jutting feldom found with Fifh in them on our Shores a nd Tubes, This is Th e Large Thread-girded LE. H I S is a large flat Cockle, generally found in the Sand neir Needham^ Fort. Grater Scallop. HESE here but finall > and very feldom found on our Shores \ Curl-girded Needle 1 H 1 HIS IS vety fliarp-pointed, of about two Inches long and wreath ed From the Ufe made of it, it is often called t e Tobacco Stopper I have found thefe upon the green Shoal near aSVa? Mens Fort in t^t. Feter\ Parifh. The Fifh inhabiting this Shell, when it movcs^ carries it upright : When Numbers of thefe are together, and in Mothey refemble a Grove of Spears, tion 3 \Triton's Trumpet. I r H I S is the largeft, as well as the moft beautiful of the Turbinate and very feldom to be met with upon our Shores : Thefe Kind are beautifully ftained with black and white Spots, and the Shell is often nine Inches long. k*.' C c c c rh A "i^ t -r/

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4^4 The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. The Smooth Grey Casket. x>^ A Small Species of tlicfe are often found on our Stores, but feldoni any of the large Sort ; What are here found are generally of a yellowifh dirty-white Colour. ^ \ > The Spire-Shell. F ~" I t 'TpHESEare generally fmall, and very fmooth, of a reddifli BrowUj X fpotted with Black. There are others of a Pale White, fpotted with Black 5 both Sorts generally well polifiied. Thefe are very common upon almofl: all our Shores. / The Welted Casket. r npHIS is generally of a brown Colour, and furrowed length-ways : It **• is of a far ftronger Confiftence than the laft-defcribed. The, Grey Casket, THIS is generally of. a grey Coloui'; and fometlmes they are found of a brownifh Grey. Their Texture is generally very thin. F r > The Whirligig. T Hf 4 J IIS is generally of a bluifh veral Shores of the Ifland. J The Knobbed Trumpet. nr His Shell is of a dirty White, as well as fome of a brown Colour ; i and found in many of our Bays, but not in great Plenty. The Smooth-lipped Casket. JParifh of St. Lucy. Maycock Bla. 1 i H Ag ATEI I

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Boc 1 w^ it% ef BARBADOS i8 Agate ' 1 of HIS Shell rom half ah Inch to two Inches a palewhite as well ddifli Brown fpotted with Black gth, m Shores f this Ifland as bluifh Goloun and '1 They are likewife found of .very common upon th^ \^ Th Royal Staircase. ^ \ T Mis IS a imall white fpiral Shell from the Top to the Bottom in the Form of a wreathed belted with a fliarp rifing Ridge Staireafe 9 TAe Spotted Cylinder-Shell.^ Tl4 I S is about two Inches long fometimes black. o fometimes brown S a dirty Colour^ white ipeckled with pots n •e Brown Cylinder^Shell. h''"nnig ^^^^^^^H IS th J m J and well polifhed and of a reddifli-brown Coloun > feldom longer than two Inches^ yp The Mole Cowzy. 1 Black very feldom found on the Shores of this Jlland • What I faw His is was three Inches Ion > of a brown Colour, .and faintly fpotted with ^ 1h ^Triangular Striated Bucginum* T^ HIS is a middle-fized Shell pointed; the feveral StriiBy ) tranfverfly and deep + y labiated, and pretty fharpon the Back-part elpeeially, runnin J > ine \

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% 86 the Natural Hiftory of the BookiX -Jii l"he Top-Shell." TH I S is a large Shell, fpotted moft commonly with Blue and White, ibmetimes with Red and White : When this rough outfide Coat is taicenofF, the inner Part confifts of fineMother of Pearl. The Mouth-piece, or Cover of the Mouth, is of an horny Subftance, of a brownilh-black Colour, inclrcled with feveral Ringlets of a Gold-colour. Thefe generally found in deep Water, and in great Plenty in the Sea, opp to St. Lucy 5 Parifli. The laft Stage of zxiHermii-Crab or Soldter i inhabit one of thefe empty Shells. are 1 i I * r V J r Si I m H bl an ve ra Se abi wi till lin _.^. ^^^ri f f ^ THE * "> f* V tap Eb, the and Foe I

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IX. ^^W^/ BARBADOS 28 7 TH E Dcfcrlption of our feveral exanguious Tribes of Animals being completed ; our next Inquiry will naturally fall upon our Submarine Plants. I fliall divide tliefe into three Claffes : The Firft and moft perfedl is the large black SeaRod, which often grows to the Height of a fmall Tree ; this, as well as each of this Species, is fmooth, black and Pmnmg, of a very tough Subftance, fomewhat between Horn and Wood, fmelhng ftrongly of the latter when burnt. The Second is very bufhy, leldom exceeding four Feet in Height ; its very numerous Branches anfe almoft together from' very riear the Root, and are in general of an equal Hciglit and Bignefs : This differs from the naked black fcea-Rod, by havmg their Surface covered with a calcareous Cruft (o£ about the Thicknefs of an £^///6 Shilling), and here and there marked with Alterisks ; the innner Texture of the Plant being of the fame Nature as the above defcribed. The Third and laft are all Kinds of Coralline Bodies. ne Large Black Sea-Rod. THIS often grows to about fifteen Feet high, and always in a confiderable Depth of Water ; its Branches are few, but flrong and tapering ; the Outfide appearing almoft as fmooth, black, and fliining, as Ebony ; and if firft boiled in frefli Water, and afterwards often oiled, they will be very pHable and tough, and make very beautiful Switches. T/je Lesser Sea-Rod. ^ I HIS is a flender fmall black Rod, having a great many very fmall A weak undivided Side-branches. This Species grows between high and low Water-Mark in the Clefts of Rocks, feldom rifmg above five Foot high. Dddd ne \, ^r-

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2 88 The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. The Sea-Feathers. r ^ r THESE feldom grow, on the Shores of this Illand, above two Feet and an half high; they Hkewife feldom or never differ in their Make or Texture, being each compofed of a ligneous horny Subftance, and beautifully reticulated. Some are of a darkifh Colour, and others of a'-lightGrey : I obferved fome of the latter to have their Edges bordered with a faint Yellow, flightly tinged with Green. The Incrusted Sea-Rods. -w f 1^ i'The Small Incrusted Sea-Rod. > r V 1 ^ H *' ^^ THESE are always in Bunches, feldom growing above four Feet high ; their many Branches fpring from one common Stalk, very near the Root : Thefe are almoft all of a Size, in Length and Thicknefs ; and the^ Outfide covered with a calcareous Cruft, of about the ib -^ 2gM The Surface of this is pitted with many very fmall Star-like Holes. This is delineated in Plate XXVII. Fig. I. ^ THIS feldom grows above a Foot and an half high; and its Surface, inftead of beinffj as the laft-defcribed, covered all over with a thin pliable calcareous Cruft, is here-and-there annulated with irregular knotty Bandages, of a white coralline Subftance, refembling the fmall Star-Coral. This Kind of SeaRod branches very little, and its Branches are but very flender. 4 *, / i \ \ # ^ O F V 4 A ^':

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t ri ^ r / ^. 2 ; 'I^a^ e .S &d % \ / -K.^^-^ c^. ^ I

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\ y \ B # -J F > -^ a L r ^j ^ rH ^^ f -J \ ri ".V-r w rr 1 I /iftei 4 Hov nor veri the 1 ^ d. Gro dow whk are : and abov I 'lorn L V ittal the I Ilk an Tl ^ 'J _^ '\ 1 v

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Book IX. IJlandof BARBADOa 289 .* O F O R A *iTHOUGH thefe, in general, are Vegetables ; yet we are not to look upon them among the loweft Clafs of this Kind, becaufe they bear^ at leaft here, neither Leaves, Flowers, nor Fruit, having likewife their ConLliltences fo brittle, that they are neither malleable, nor any ways* pliable : However, their innumerable Shoots and Branches are not void of Beauty, norufelefs in medicinal Preparations; the white Sort being, when pull verized, efteemed good to free the Stomach from acid four Juices ; ahd the red Coral is not lefs efhcacious' in flopping Fluxes: From the Growth of thefe, we may likewife obferve, that Providence is not tied down in its Operations to mechanical Rules : For among Vegetables, which flourifh upon the theSurfaceof the Earth, all our Art and Contrivance are in vain, unlefs we can procure them either natural or artificial Heatj and a Communication of Air ; whereas thefe grow to a great Length in above forty Fathom Water, where the Heat of the Sun cannot penetrate. -. I fnall begin the Defcription of Corals with that called the Harts^ horn Coral, The Sea-Ginger, orthe?k-Lu%^ Hz^rts-horn. np H I S is a digitated Sea-Coral, and is called Ginger from its very A hot Quality 3 for if a Piece, newly broken, be apply *d to the Tongue, it taftes exceffively hot. It is found in great Plenty upon the Shores in the Ifland o{ A?ttiguay as Well as among many other Places upon the Pa-Ikanjhoalm this Ifland. This is delineated in Plate XXVII. Fig. 2; 1h

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29 o The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX li T The HartVhorn Coral. *f ^ J -** HIS takes its Name from the great Refemblance its wide-extended Branches have to an Hart's-horn, both in Colour and Shape :, They grow upon Rocks, at different Depths under Water : The Branches are of a brownifh White, but always at the Top fharp-polnted, and tipped with a clear White: They are of fo clofe a Texture, that, when ftruck by any Piece of hard Wood or Iron, they afford a metallic vibrating Sound : This Sort grows to be often above five Feet in Length. I have likewife feen a leffer Sort, refembling the palmed Hart's-horn. The Pan Shoal^ or Honeycomb Stones. J^ TH E S E are to be found under Water at different Depths, from two to twenty Feet : Their Shape generally refembles a Honeycomb, ^nd that not only as they are broad with a fimilar Thinnefs, but like\yife as they are full of Holes: Several of thefe, efpecially near the thickeft Edge, are cemented, or, a§ it were, waxed over, exadly refembling that Part of 'an Honeycomb which is filled with Honey. From the Stone when broken, drops a li(juid Subflance of the Confiflence of thin Oil, Thefe in few Years grow to a confiderable Bignefs, and are to be found upon almofl all the Shores, more particularly at a Place in St, Lucys Parifh, called Fryer s WelL • The White Coral. [ I 'HIS Coral is found upon the Shores of mofl Bays in the Ifland : JThe Stars are compofed of fo many thin Partitions ; the intermediate Space, between each Line, hollow ; and the folid waved Interflices of the Coral-fmooth, hard and well-polifhed : Thefe intervening Ribs rife higher than the Star-like Refemblances. This is delineated in Plate XVII. Fig. 7. T/'^MiLLipoRA Perforata. '^'T^ H I S is all over perforated into innumerable fmall Holes, gene-^ rally of an equal Size: I am of Opinion, that thefe Holes were formerly filled with ftar-like Subflances j but, as the Rays which compofe thefe, are from their fofter Texture, as well as their hollow Interfliices, lefs able to bear the violent Toffings of the Waves againft the fliarp-pointed Rocks, that thefe Stars, in time, were fo intirely broken, iXQthmg now remains, but the Holes which they once occupied, among the ftony Ribs. 'Th^ I* of a ft I ^ ^ Tun A com Mac hn I terlti ^ \

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w h Book IX. IJIani.pf BARBADOS, 7"/^^ Large WHITE FINE-RAYED. Star-Coral J TH I S is very often of a confiderable Bulk, and its Surface thiekly crouded with very fmall Stars, whofe Rays are fcarce perceptible to the naked Eye, ^ ^ I r^ J % ^ The Knotty Star-beamed Cor AL. TH I S is to be found on all our Shores, and very much refembles that of the fame Clafs found in the Mediurranea^i by Dr. ^haw. With this Difference only, that the Extremities of this are of a blunt conic Shape. 9* I The Tubular Coral. 'Y^ H I S fpreads into feveral thick fliort Branches fludded all over with innumerable fmall open-mouthed Tubes, the Whole generally of a browniih Colour without, and white within. •-1 The Common Brain-Stone Coral; ^ V Fungus coralloides encephaloides, gyrh in \nedio fulcatis, lamellatis^ ferratis. Boerh. Ind. Plant, p. i. Lapis fungites cerebr if ormis. RayV Hift. App.-p. 1850. rV" HIS, as do many others of the fame Species, derives its Name from •^ its Refemblance to the human Brain, the waving white Ribs rifihg higher than the intermediate Spaces : Thefe Stones are to be feen very common on all our Sea-/hores, as well as on the Land, efpecially about Black Rock^ in St. James\ Parifh, and generally near the Sea. The Large-rayed Brain-Stone. ^^^^^ r Fungus coralloides^ laminis magis undulatis, Boerh. Ind. Plant, p. 2. + 'T^HIS hath its feveral Unuated Rifings and 'Depreffions intirely ibH^ rayed, whereas thefe Rifings in all other Kinds of B?'ain-Jiones are fo many folid Veins dividing the porous Part ijito many finuated Interftices, What is called here the fine ribbed Brain-Jlone differs from the above by having many hard finuatcd Veins running through it, and rifing higher than its porous Inierftices. * E e e e The \

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/ ^9 ^v^ .The Natural Hiftor^ oftU Bbok IX. • The Small Star-Coral. 1 F np HIS diiFers from the laft defcribed, b/ having its Stars even with the Superficies of the intervening Ribs. The Very small Star-Coral. } Fungus coralloidesy jiellis mtnoribus^ rupibus coralUnu accrefcens. Boerh, Ind. Plant, p. 2. '^ -'T^HE Surface of this is almoft intirely covered with the Appearance *•. of very fmall Indentings like Stars. I'he Large Star-Coral^ 'T^ H E Surface of this is indented with the Appearance of Stars, far ^ larger than thofe already defcribed* The Wire-Sponge. ^ L I k T-^ ^ HIS is of the Sponge-kind, though it hath no Elaftielty : Its Subftance is far more reticulated than any other Sponge: It grows chiefly upon the broken Stumps of Sea-Rods : It generally grows of a cyHndrical Form, and hollow in the Middle : It is of the Colour of a common Sponge, and its Parts are as ftiff as if they were compofed of very fine Wire. 4 7";^^ Soft Sponge. r L np HIS Clafs cleave to the Rocks, or rather grow from them, as Jews^ Eurs do from Trees. The Beamed Coral. \ r Madrepora ramofipma fufca^ halcyonih et ofireis accreth injlgniu Boerh. Ind. Plant, p. 5. 'T^ H E Specimen I faw here has no Oyfters or Halcyonia on it j but -* it hath a fine brown Tubulus Marinus. J L Shall conclude this Book with the Defcription of that furprifing Crca_ ture xh^AnmalFl(mer-,^x^ obferving thatthe remarkable Place called the i^pouty\nSt.Lticy\'?2ir)S^^ is a large Hollow under a rocky Cliff impending over the Sea : As the Waves continually rufh with a violent Force into this hollow confined Part, it throws upwards, through an Hole in the Surface of the Rock, a confiderable Body of Water, from fifteen to fifty Feet high, containing feveral Hogfheads. It may be feen at feveral Miles Diftance. THE i I "^ <

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\ '" — V r-/ y ' I .• J v--' n r L B 1' t /i ; ..>-.. / *^ -. -' A. •• ^' LORD CETAlSrCELLOjEl OF OBMAT BRITAI2^; L '^n^ J J^c, *•
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Book IX 1 ^-s'/zio/' BARBADOS ^93 THE j^' 4 AN MA O W r-H 4 ^ / AS in Man, the moft perfeft Part of the fubhuiary Creation, there A m^'a "PPT"^ feen fbveral different Degrees of Perfeftion of Body and Mmd ; and in Animals the Sagacity of fome is evidently fuperior to that of others ; fo ikewife m this feemingly confufed Species of animal Life, and vegetable Appearance, the Chain gradually dcfcends with a furprifmg Mixture and Connexion. Whoever hath Leifure and Abilities to purfue a general Inquiry of thi^ Nature will foon find, that this progreffive Seriei runs through the whole Creation — From the moft exalted Genius to the almoft fenfer ru r/'/r"" ?' ™f ^"2^"^"' ^'"^^"^'^ Creature to the almolt mfenfible Muffel-From the towering Cedar to the Plyffop friringinc. from the Wall, or the humble Mofs. •' r j b a Such is that univerfal Harmony and Connexion, that runs throueh the numberlefs Ranks and Orders of Beings, till we come at laft to inanimate Matter. This furprifmg Creature, that I am to treat of, hath, for a lonotime been the Objed of my own filent Admiration ; arid it would even now be thought chimerical to mention, much more defcribe, the QuaItes of fo ftrange a Phenomenon, if the Pofypt^s of late Years had not afforded a furprifing Inftance of Almighty Power. The Cave that contains this Animal, is near the Bottom of an hio-h rocky Cliff facing the Sea, in the North Part of the Ifland, in the Parflh oiSt. Lucy : The Defcent to it is very fteep and dangerous, being in fome Places

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9^ fh NaturdtitfiGry of tl mer. .4-* V ? Book iX.^ Maces almoft perpendicular; and what adds an Horror to this dreadful sSon, is, that^ the Waves from below almoft mceffantly break upon the Cliff, and fometimes reach its higheft Summit. 'As foon as you are freed from this complicated Apprehenfion of Dan. ger (A your Way down) you enter a Cave fpacious enough to contain five hundred People. The Roof of this is in fome Places imboffcd vvidi condaciated Incruftations intermixed with fmall Tubes through wnqfe Exttemities a fmall Quantity of the moft limpid Water drops. •From this yotl enter another Cave, fmall in Companfon of tlie lorThe Bottom of this is a natural Bafon of Water of about fixteen Feet lona, and twelve in Breadth.* This, at low Water, is about eleven Feet perpendicular Height from the Sea, which, when the Wind is high on that Point, dafhes into it ; fo that the V/ater In it is intirely fait, except a fmall Mixture of frefh, which oufes and drops through the Roof of the Cave. t, i / t /t, n In the Middle of this Bafon there is a flxt Stone, or Rock (as I ihall call it^, which is always under Water. Round its Sides, at different Depths (feldom exceeding eighteen Inches) are feen at all Times. of the Year feveral feemingly fine radiated Flowers of a pale Yellow, or a bright Straw-colour flightly tinged with Green; Thefe have in Appearance a circular Border of thick-fet ( i ) Petals, about the Size of, and much refembling, thofe ofafingle Garden, xMarigold, except that the Whole of this feeming Flower is narrower at the 'hifcus, or Setting on of the Leaves, than any Flower of that Kind. '. I have often attempted to pluck one of thefe from the Reck to which they are always fixt; but could never effeft it. For as foon as my Fingers came within two or three Inches of it, it would immediately contrail, and clofe together its yellow Border, and fhrink back into the Hole in the Rock ; but, if left undifturbed for the Space of about four Minutes, it would come gradually in Sight, expanding, though at firfl very cautioufly, its feeming Leaves, till at lafl: it appeared in its former Bloom : However, it would again recoil with a furprifing Quicknefs, when my Hand came within a fmall Diftance of it. Having tried the fame Experiment by attempting to touch it with my 'Cane, and a fmall {lender Rod, the Efl'ea was the fame. Thefe were ftrong Appearances of Animal Life ; yet, as its Shape, and want of local Motion, clafTed it among Vegetables, I was for -fome time in Sufpenfe, and imagined it might be an aquatic Senfitive Plant : And though its Contradlion to avoid the Touch vs'as quicker than any Plant of that Kind ; yet, as its feeming Leaves might be, and in reality L r : ( I ) Petals are the fine coloured Leaves, which compofe In a Marigold, and fuch-like Plowers, the yellow circular Border. r i, -ni They are called Petals to diilinguia:! them from the green Leaves ot the 1 lant. • .were, \ \ \

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^ Book IX. ^/W(/ BARBADOS. 195 were, of a flir thinner and more delicate (i) Texture tlian tliole o( any Plant ; and as Water is eight hundred times heavier than Air, the fud-^ den Weight of fo thick a Medium, by its Undulation caufcd by the Preffure of my Hand or Stick, might Very well account for its fudden Contraftion. ' : This was my Opinion, till a fubfequent Vifit cleared my Doubts 3 for I plainly faw four dark-coloured Refemblances of Threads fomcthing like the Legs of a Spider, rifing out of the Centre of what I have termed a Flower. Their quick fpontaneous Motion from one Side to the other of this circular yellow Border of feen"iing Leaves (which in reality were fo many Arms or Feelers), and their clofing together in Imitation of a For^ €0pSy as if they had hemmed in their Prey (which the yellow Border likewife foon furrounded and clofcd tofecure), fully convinced me, that it was a living Creature^ Its Body at a Diflance appears to be about as big as a Raven's Quill, and of a blackifh Colour ; the one End flicking to the Rock, the other extending a very fmall Diftance from it ; and incircled round with a yel^ low Border, as above defcribed. Thus what in its firft Appearance feems to be of the vegetative Kind, by its Motion, and quick Senfe of Self-prefervation, proves an Animal. Now, fincc the fame Wifdom and Goodnefs, which give Being to Creatures, often preferve them in that Exiftence by Ways and Means as wonderful as their Creation was before; this leads me to offer a probable Conjefture, why God's amazing Providence (which doth nothing in vain) eiidued the Arms or Feelers of this Animal with a fine yellow Colour, and hath ordained it to differ in this Particular from the feveral Tribes of w fungous Animals, that are always found cleaving to the Recks in the Sea. As thefe latter may be fed with Spawn, or fome Animalcules, which the Flux or Reflux of the Waves may throw in their Way, there was no Need of any uncommon Means to intice their Prey (if Animals) within their Reach ; whereas the Water in the Cave is, for the moft part, void of any Motion that can convey Food for thefe Animals. Therefore there was a Neceffity of fome extraordinary Temptation to allure their Prey within their Power, to feize it ; Dtherwife they might ft arve in the midft of Plenty, To this End, that Divine Goodnefs, which filleth every thing living with Plenteoufnefs, hath finely devifed this providential Stratagem (if I may (i) Tho' I could not by any means contrive to take or pluck from the Rock one of thefe Animals intire ; yet T once cut JfF(with a^Knlfe which I had for a long time held out of Sight near the Mouth of an Hole, out of which one of thefe Animals appeared) two of thefe feeming Leaves. ^ Thefe, when out of the Water, retained their Shape and Colour; but, being compofed of a Membrane^like "Subftance, furprifingly thln^ it foon fliriveled up, and decayed, F f ff be r

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9 6 The Natural Hijfory of 'he Book IX. I be allowed the Expreffionj, and given thefe Animals that fine tranljiarent Colour, to be a Means to provide for them their daily Food ; For as bright Rays of L:ght (or fomething fimilar in its Effeft) are very inviteing to feveral Animals, efpccially thofe of the aquatic Kind, the beautiful Colour of this circular Border may ferve as a Decoy for very youncr Fifli, or other Animalcules, to divert, themfelves (as Flies about the Flame of a Candle) in fwimming about the Verge of this feemingly harmlefs Flower, until they come within the Circle ; then thefe bright Leaves in Appearance prove, in Reality, fo many Arms or Feelers, that with a quick Motion clofe together, and furround the Prey ; which, being thus fecured, is conveyed to the Mouth, as above-mentioned. There are likevvife on the uppermoft Part of the Rock, in the abovedefcribed Bafin, innumerable Clufters of (what are here called) WaterBottles, very much refembling fcattered Cluflcrs of unripe Grapes 5 the Outfide confifting of a bluifli fkinny Tegument, like that of a Grape ; the Iniide full of Water fomewhat turbid* Among thefe alfo are a great Number of Animal Flowers of the iame Species with the yellow large ones. Thefe now to be defcribed are likewife fixt to the Rock, not in Holes, as the above-mentioned, but flicking to the Surface among thefe Water-Bottles, and generally not above nine Inches under Water. The Leaves, or rather Feelers, of thefe are of a greyi/L-purple Colour variegated with black Spots. Their Motion likewife to avoid the Touch is not fo quick. Having plucked one of thefe from the Rock, I perceived the Body, which was about an Inch long, to have, whilft between my Finger and Thumb, a fenfible vermicular Motion. The Feelers likewife, which decorated one End of it, wben expofedto the Air, fhrunk up, and remained as lifelefs : But as foon as the Whole was dipped in their proper Element the Water,^ they would immediately, as it were, affume a new Life, and appear again in their full Vigour. Soon after the Difcovery of thefe furprfing Animals, a great Number of People came to view them : But as this was attended with fome fmall Inconveniency to a Perfon, thro' whofe Land they were obliged to pafs ; he therefore, to get rid of the Company, refolved to deftroy the Objedi of their Curiofity : In order to do fo effedually, he took a Piece of Iron prepared for that Purpofe j and then carefully bored and drilled every Part of the Holes where thefe feeming Flowers were bredbut, to his great Surprize, they in a few Weeks appeared again ilTuing from the fame Holes. Let us here, for awhile, flop, and fee whether our much boafted Reafon can find out how even a latent Principle of Life can be preferved, after the whole organic Body is torn in Pieces. ^ When we fee this Animal, in a fhort time after, refufcitate, and appear m Its former Proportion, Beauty, and Life, can we, after fuch an ocuL W lar 1 I .

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ooklX. IJiand BARBADOS this Life onl^, and rexnoved (in alf Anpcanfce k^ ^""^ the .egetable Creation an, Lge. enErDlbt^ab^r ^^n^ of another Doftnae of a & greater Confequence? And a emy p ft S hatfa been, fo undoubtedly every future will be, bleffed wilh W fc pnfing new Drfcovery of God's unfearchable Poler and Wdo m Our own hath produced a wonderful Inftance of this fo Xt Seen tic, fome Years ago, would have believed the Poffibility of fo extratl nary a Prodr^^on as the Polyp.s f Who would not hJve fa d w Irle rS r;!/r '% the WiMemefs, Can God do this ? And t we find, tha ttbs furpnfing Generation is now a known Matter of Fad That the above-mendoned Conjcdure about the Ufe and Efficacy of .ts Colour IS not groundlefs, n.ay be n.ade ftill more ..i^tftyl.Z analogous ftriking Inftances. ^ ^ For thofc ingenious Gentlemen, Mr. Turkrville Needham, and Mr Tremhley, obferve, that Polyps, and aquatic Infccfts, kept in Glafs Vef: fds, by excluding the Light from every Part, except one little OpenW after fome tm.e all affembled at this Opening; and yet thefe PoWs 1 ave If Light is therefore fo attraftive to thefe Animals which are vifible why may it not be likewife fo to other Animalcules to us imperceptible ? And may we not further fuppofe, that the Appearance of the former tol wards the Light may be m Search of thefe Animalcules, their deftined But in what manner the Rays of Light affed thefe Animals, whether by Its Motion ading upon their whole exceedingly delicate nervous SyftemV which, like the Reuna ef the human Eye, is in every Part fenfitive, is I believe, inexplicable. Where Sight is apparently wanting, as in Polyps, a Delicacy of Touch may, for ought we know, and indeed in all Probability doth, take uo the gradual Chain, and, in a furprifing manner, fupply its Place Such is the infenfible Gradation, which is progreffively continued by imperceptible Degrees thro' the whole Creation, from animate to inanimate, rational to irrational, that we know not where precifely to determine their refpedive Boundaries. In like manner. Light and Darknefs Motion and Reft, we fpeak of as Things very different and oppofite • Yet no one will prefume to fay, what is the precife and abfolute Boundary between langid Motion, and abfolute Reft; or determine the Period where the laft dying Sound expires in dead Silence. And perhaps this gradual Chain and Connexion terminates not with fublunary Things; but may be progreflively continued far above the Ken of the moft exalted Genius, or even the Comprehenfion of perhaps celeftial Beings, till all created Perfcaion is loft in him, who is Perfedion itfelf. n This 1 97 <\-

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^ ^98 The Natural Hiftory of the Book IX. This Animal, and the Cave containing it, are delineated in Plate XXIV. Fig. L r T J 4V -K ^ J A I n J J^ H -. \ J-f ^ mf q r I ,---.1 ^ ' ' \ • THESE grow m Clufters upon the Rocks between High and Lowwater Mark. The Edges of each are compofed of a circular Border of fmall fiftular thread-like brown Petals (if I may fo call them) furrounding a fungous Subftance, of about the Breadth of an EngliJJj Silver Two-pence, and of a bluilh-green Colour. This Species is by &r lefs quick in avoiding approaching Dafiger than'thofe already defcribcd; confequently their Organs of Senfation are lefs perfeft 5 for they will fufFer thcmfelves to be touched, before their guardian Petals or Arms clofe together to defend or preferve the Whole. I have obferved a larger Sort of the fame Species, having 'their brown Petals or Arms longer than the above-defcribed, as well as of an irregular unequal Length: Thefe likewife gradually leffen in their fenfitive Perfedion, and are generally found at fome Biftance under Water, whereas the former, in Neap Tides, are often for a fhort time expofed to the Air, and that feemingly without any Prejudice. L K'* -# f i *^ \ 'Hflf n.

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-\ If ^ i ^* VtV THE / i y-^ ff\ \, NATURAL HISTORY 4*, OF THE ^ t^ Ira ^ r^i ^^ _t Ifla n d of B^ R BA D ^ -r P'-lr ^__,.^ /-f ^.^ -v BOOK X. 0//;^^ SEA and />j INHABITANTS. r S the Earth is full of God's Riches, fo is the great and wide Sea, wherein are Things creeping innumerable, both finall and great. We are no fooner advanced to the Shore, at leaft a few Yards farther upon the fmooth Surface of the Water, on the Weft Side of this Ifland, but we are, efpecially in calm Mornings and Evenings, pleafed with the Sight of feveral Groves of Coral, Sea-Feathers, and Sea-Rods ; the former grow in thick Cluftcrs, yielding an imbrowned Shade, and remain as fturdy Oaks unmoved ; 'the latter, with their numerous, pliant Branches, wavingly bend with the undulating, flow Motion of the Water, The interfperfed, vacant, fendy Spaces refemble io many bright Lawns which pleafe with a Kind of regular Confufion. G g g g The

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> .^ t ^n 300 JVatural Hiftory of the BooIc-CX k r V -fr The Whole is made more grateful ftill by the Sight of numerous .Tribes of Fifhes, vVhich either feed upon, or wantonly fkim the Surface of th£ deep Water, or lie groveling at the Bottom. There 'the bulky Conch, as it moves, is feentb,furro\V the glittering Sand ; and the WarHke Sea-Egg flowly waves its thoufand Spears. A Scene of tliis Natufe cannot bfe better reprefented than in the Words of Mikon : : : -" .^ji .t Jz Thefi -jS J ^V X J" ^ i^'" _+ With their ';Pim\ and ft. 1 1 ^\'. Waves in Sculls that oft Bank th MiP^f^Pai'i^^ngle.-jor with Mate Graze 'the SeaXmU.^ theirPaJltcre, or thro Of Coral firay^ or fporting with quick Glance §he%v to the Sun their waved Qodtl dropfd with Gold. -' "f its "the Inc|uirfe we have made in the foregoing Books have^fufEcientiy convinced us, that Nature hath provided, terreftrial Ammalsyfome with Strength, others with Swiftnefs, and even the weakefl and feebleft of the exanguious Tribes (feemingly the niofl helplefs and imp€rfe
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Book X Ijland of Part, is occafioncd by the Nearnefs of the South^Well Continent of America to this Ifland, and the Remotenefs of the Continent on the North-Eaft, or oppollte Part from it, .\. For, when the Waters at thefe Spring-Tides are elevated and depreffed, by Turns, by the Influence of the Moon, they will naturally recede towards that Point where they meet with the leaft Refinance • therefore, tho' the Cqurfe of the Current may, and often doth, run towards the South-Weft ; yet, as foon as it is reflfted by the Continent of -America^ on that Point, which is not quite three liundred Miles diftant from this Ifland, it recoils back with redoubled Force towards the oppollte Point, which is the North-Eaft ; and, as it meets there with no Refiftance, 'till it comes to the Continent of Africa^ whicli is about two thoufand Miles diftant from this Iftand, it is no Wonder that the Current, efpecially in the Decreafe of the Moon, is more inclined that Way ; and, when it varies from thefe Courfes, it may be attributed chiefly to the Change of the Wind from the true Trade Eafterly Winds to the SouthWeft ; or perhaps to the great and violent Landt'loods from the many and large Rivers from the neighbouring SouthWeft Continent of America^ which may fometimes byafs thefe Currents. It hath been obferved by many Writers, that the Sea-water is falter in thefe hot Climates than in other Northern Seas. This Diifcrence the ingenious Mr, Rohatdt fays^ arifes from hence, viz, That the Sun's Heat, being more intenfe near the Equator than in thofe Seas which: are at a grcater Diftance from it, a much greater Quantity of frefli Water muft continually afcend up in Vapours, than elfewhere ; which do not often defcend again in Rain,' 'till they ai'e carried to a great Diftance from thence : fo that there being a lefs Qiiantity of that which temperates the Salt to be found in thofc Seas which are between the tvVo Tropics, than in thofe Seas which are in the frigid it is no Wonder if their Waters are falter:":) OI cc U tc ,* c tc '^ and temperate Zones ; And he Ukewife adds, That the Ocean is of much larger Extent be** tween the Tropics than any where elfe, and yet there are fewer Ri" vers that difcharge themfelves into it." The Caufe of the Water's greater Degree of Saltnefs in thefe Parts,^ beintr thus explained, the Wifdom of fuch Allotments of Providence will foon appear, when we farther confider, that as the calm Latitudes are within the Tropics, therefore if the Sea was not much impregnated with Salt, its Surfece in thofc Parts, called the calm Latitudes, would in all likelihood ftagnate, and fend up fo many impure and ftinking Vapours, that it would infcd: not only thofe but the adjacent Climates with Diftempers, perhaps very little lefs pernicious than the Plague itfelf. Of alltheFifti caught in our adjoining Sea, I fhall take notice of fuch only, as have been either infufticiently defcribed, or whofe Dcfcriptions havQ been totally neglcded by other Authors. Among the former is the following."' .. .. .^

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'%-QZ ^he Natural Hiftory of the Book X. ' I \ -rV -li' fc. "s '*; ^ 4 / "^he ToAD-FisH.' ^^ S t. ^HIS Fifli, which is the Dread and Terror of Flfliermen, is no lefs ugly in its Shape, than mifchievous by its Prickles ; its Length in general, is from Eight to Eleven Inches \ the Colour of the Skin, is of a browniih-red, intermix'd with blackifh Spots ; the Head is very large, in Proportion to the reft of the Body, and almoft intirely cover'd With iharp Prickles ; the Eyes are pretty large, incircled with a white Iris J its Back is teinarkably arm'd with a Row of very fharp Prickles ; thefe, when the Fifli is neither in an offenfive nor defenlive Pofture, are almoft couchant ; and, to prevent their Points being by any Accident blunted, they are fheath^d in a ftrong mufcular Membrane, or Web, dividing each Prickle. When the Filli is difturb'd, this Skin or Membrane is immediately contracted, and lies in Folds clofe to the Back^ fo that almoft the whole Length of thefe Spears are then unfheath'd, and better fitted to make deeper Wounds, than if the Web had been immoveable, as it is in almoft every other Fifh, guarded for common Defence with Prickles. When thefe Spears are ereft, if the unwary Fifherman treads upon it, (for it will not attempt to get out. of his V/ay,) gives a ftrong Flutter with its Fins, and ftrikes or darts them into his Foot : the Pain that immediately enfues, is not to be defcribed, be-, ing fo very violent for the Time it lafts, (which is generally 'till the fame time of the next returning Tide) that the Agonies they endure are inexpreffible : And as few, (if anyj that have been once wounded, will be fo hardy as to venture a jfecond Time to the Sea, without being firft uarded • perhaps the Proverb, lEius Pifcator fapit^ might have its Rife from hence i Shores. efpecially if thefe Fifh are in Plenty upon the Italian It is obferv'd that the Part affedted near the Wound turns livid; but, if the Liver of the Fifh be immediately applied to it, it gives Eafe in fome fmall Degree. This I take to be owing to the Oylinefs of the Liver; which blunts the Spicula of the poifonous Particles ; for I am very confident, that this fevere Pain doth not proceed from, or is occafion'd by the Wounds, or Punctures made in the Feet, however fenfible that mufcular and nervous Part may be, but from fome liquid Poifon injeded into the Wounds, thro' thefe Prickles. A O Of Flying-Fish in general. r r F this Clafs there are no lefs tJian Five Sorts, in this Part of the Wejl-htdies ; tho* there hath been I believe, as yet, but one of them taken Notice of, or defcribed by the Writers of Natural Hiftory ; which, by way of Eminency and Diftindtion, is called the Flying-Fifi: the reft, no lefs deferving of that Name, are the FlyingGar-Fijh^ the Sea-Bat^ the Guinea-Men^ and the Ballahws, ;'" Tie }.

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Ecok X. ^/BARBADOS '7/je Flying-Fish. HIS Fifli IS prepoftemufly defcri&ed by moft Travellers, who often take more Picafure in fctting Men a flaring at Rcprefentations in themfelves incredible, than in candidly aiid hoiicflly relating fiich Matters of Fadt, as come within the Sphere of their Knowledge, Thus, when this Fifh is made the furprizing Topic of Wonder, as the Generality of Mankind know no other Method of flying but with Wings, they dre immediately induced to believe, that this 1?i(li hath, "according to the real Acceptation of the Word, Wings to fly with ; whereas what are fo called, are only Fins common in their Make witl^ the Fins of feveral other I ifli, difFering only in Bignefs, which in Proportion to the Size of this Fifli, are indeed far larger than any other, the Flying-Gar~Fifi excepted. This, that we are now defcribing, is not, at its utmoft Growth, more than Nine Inches long, flattifli on thifc Back, and growing broader towards' the Head ; the Back and Head are of a dark Blue, and whitifli under the Belly • they have two large Fins, fituated poji Bronchia 3 thefe in a full-grown Fifli are fix Inches long ; and each in Breadth at their greateft Expanfion, about three Inches : When purfued by a Dolphin:^ as their Swiftnefs in fwimming is far inferior to that Fifb, to avoid him they give a Spring out of the Water, and immediately (if I may be allowed the Expreflion) unfurl or expand their FinSj not with a tremulous, but a fteady^ quick, gliding Motion 5 which they do with great Swiftnefs ; but, if the Day be hot, or the Weather fultry^ their Flight is fliort; forj as foon as the Heat of the Sun dries up the Moifture upoh their Fins, which made th&m pliable, they inuft dip into the Water to receive a frefli Supply; By the beft Guefs that I could make, I never perceived any of then:i to fly above leventy bi* eighty Yards, tho' oftener but forty or fifty at a Time. Their Increafe is prodigioufly great ; otherwife the whole Species mufl have long ago beeri deflroycd 5 for tjiey are a.Prfey to Men, Fifli, and Birds 5 having no certain Tenuire of Life, either in Air or Water: for, when purfued by Dolphins^ or other voracious Fifli, if, to avoid thefe, they feek Refuge iii the, Air, a Bird called the 'Cobier^ among a great many others^ darts with the Sw;iftnefs of an Eagle to deftroy them. I cannot help obferving here, that there is fomething very peculiar in the Make of the Wing5 bf this Bifd ; for, as it feeks its Prey at a great Diftance from Land, and being obliged to be long upon the Wing, often at the Diftance of a hundred Miles ofi*, to be able therefore to endure fo great a Flight, the Wing's are not only large in Proportion to the Body, the better to enable them to bear its Weight ; but the Tip-end alfo of the Pinion, inftead of having one, the coriimoii Make of moft Birds Wings, it hath two ftrong Bones ; by v/hich means the Vibraliion of the Wino;s is ftronger and more fteadv. Hhhh tM

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X' ^^ .304 Tj^e Natural Htfl or y of the 00k X 7h Flying-Gar-Fish. ^y HIS IS a far larger Fifli than that properly called the Flyinz-Fill \t ^ hath along Duck-like Nofe; and its Fins are fo large, that it t:an raile itfelf out of the Water but its Fliaht is fhort I'he Flying-Sea-Bat. 'J-HIS is of difFerent Size, from fix to fifteen Inches long • tanerina 1 fron. the Head to the Tail ; the Mouth is clofe to th'e ioS 1 .J'art of the Head ; he lower Jaws are expanded, and terminate in two ongPricklesm Length an Inch ; the Eyes are large ; between thefe thp Head finks in or is much indented ; this, as weU^^as the SS IS cover d over with a hard Scarf, or thick Coat of Mail, which termi' Jmte m two long fliarp-peinted Lobes in each fide of the Back • the reft of the Body o the Fill., which is of a dark Grey above, aid under the Belly, is cover'd over with hard finall Scales • frnn. C\^ A the Gills .. the Belly-fide rife tvvo Fins ; thefe arettngttw to thirds of, the Length of the Fifli; with thefe it flies ; for, when ex^' panded, tney are from the Extremity of the one, to the Extremityof the other Fm, full as broad as the Fifli is long • thefe Fii^. nr^ nn ^ and ftrong when clofe to the Body but towai^'s thei^ ^S^^^^^:, membranaceous, thin, and of a black Colour ; the Back is fuppli4 wi'h two fmall Fins ; the Belly likewife under the Win^s 2!rA.A 1 ^ two Inch-long, foft pointed Horns, the whole fTai ^end nf S '' f dle-fized forked Tail thefe when caught with a h"1 C br t ,ath.e Surface, will fly a confiderable 4y, .niefs ched^f^ p Sf" met wfth '' ^'" ^'^ '" ^""^"S' -^ -y feldJi/ to bf M I ilb IS confiderably larger than the FlyingFifh and Iw th a r what D^t Hte H^i, a„d Fi,s fo krglXTe ct tife'Z' t of the Water, aid fly a fmall Diftancl, tho' not fo £ •ftjb. ^ as the T^y^^ BaLLAHW. T™ i PM "f";?^t^r"""= •""" "gh' l-hes long; the Fijh. finall r/j )€ i

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i Beck X. J/Iaj/dof BAKE ADO S. Tie Ink-Fish. L r TH I S Is of the cartikglnoiis Kind, and hath teen by feveral Authors fo well, and h often defcribed, that I have nothing to add nnlefs that tne Curious hitherto have in their Accounts look'd upon this to be tlie only one that emits a black Liquid ; whereas the two following are provided with fuch, which they fpirt out to difcolour the Water when m Danger of being caught. By this Means tliey efcape the Ken o. their Enemies ; for, as they are not provided with defenfive or • ottcnfive \\ capons, this Liquid, which is as black as Ink, is as iieceffary for their Prefervation, as Swiftnefs is to a DoMi„, or their large Fms to any of the Flying-Fijh Kind. The blackeft Liquid lies in the Tail of this Fifh-, • Ihe CAT OF Nine TaIls. ^. . X r LL HIS cartilaginous Fifli, notwithftanding Its Name, Iiatli but five Inftead of nine Tails ; which in general are not above ten Inches long, tapering to the Point ; and, tho' they are but flender, yet their Strength and elaftick Power is almoft inconceivable. The largeft of thefe feldom weighs above a Pound, yet it is found to be a difficult Tafk for a very able Mail to uhcling one of them from the Rocks to which they are fix'd. Ag cartilaginous Fifhes in general have no Air Bladders, it is no Wonder that hone of this Clafs are'found in deep Waters, their Refiderlce being chiefly among Shoals and Rocks between one and fix Foot deep. They feed chiefly upon Wilh;^ young CoTichs^ and Crabs ; the latter it breaks to Pieces, and the former 'it fucks out of their very Shells. 'Ths Scuttle Fish. '' THIS hath eight tallsj arid often weighs near two Pounds ; ^ every Part of this Fifli is full of ftrong elaftick Mufcles, efpe' daily its numerous Tails3 which are often fifteen Inches long, tapering to the Point* This, as well as the Ini-Fi/B^ is provided with a black Liquid, to difcolour the Water, whilft it makes its Efcape from its Enemy, with this fmall Difference, that the Liquid is lodged in th^ Head of this, whereas that of the Ink-Fip lies in its Tail. The Triangular Fish. r L J E THIS often grows to be hear fifteen Inches long, weighing iJx^ leven or eight Pclinds ; the Mouth is fmall, and pouched and tinged with a blackifli Hue for near an Inch round ; the Teeth are many^ 3^5 / if

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CO / HiJJor^ of th Book IL many, loilg '^tid blunt-pointedthe Body of the whole Fifli is a triangular Trunk, the Belly-part making the Bafe of thefmalleft Angle ; the Skin is blackj hard and rough ; beirlg raifed into innumerable fmall Angles fcp'-efcn ting FretWork ; the Mouth Jies level with the Bafe Df the Angle v/hich conftitu'tes the Belly-Part ; its Eyes are large, and the upper Part of tlie Head much indented between them ^; the "Back is very crooked and fliarp-edged, being almoft of the Confiftence of a Horn ; it hath two fmall Fins fofi Bronchia one upon the Back near the Tail, and one nearly oppofiite to it under the Belly 3 each Side of the loweft Angle being the Belly-Part is, near the Tail, guarded with a fliort horny Prickle ; the whole Fifh ending in a forked Tail This is delineated in Plate XXVIIL ihe Horned Coney FisH. r r L H I S chiefly dlfFers from that already defcribed, by havinoIts __ Head guarded by a Pair of fliatp-pbinted Horns of, fometimes near an Inch long, bending fomewhat downwards. There is another femafkable Difference, which is peculiar to this Fifli alone ; for if eaten cfpecially the Lirer and the Head, the Perfon feeding on it will in a few Minutes after, be as' drunk as if he had drank ftrong Liquor to Excefs : For his Reafon and his Limbs will fail him, until reftored to „ both by a found Sleep/ . J >. Ihe Soap Fish. THIS is a fmall Fifli, not above fix Inches long ; it is pf fo foapy a Nature, that when caught and ftrongly agitated in Water It will caufe alnioft as ftrong a Lather as an equal Quantity of the belt Soap. I am of Opinion that Nature i'ntended it this Qualitr (lince It 13 incapable of every other Defence) to be as much a MJns of avoiding Its Enemy, as the Swiftnefs of fwimming is to fome or their Prickles^ to others : But as the extraordinary Slippinefs of this Fifli can be no Defence agamft an Antagonift provided with Teeth therefore I beg Leave to conjeaure that its natural Enemy is among the cartikf.! nous C afs of Fifti (efpecially as it is alway 'found fefding ne fhe Fill, ofm ft ong a mufcular Force, grafp and hug their Prey to Death, xinlefs by Its Shppinefs It can difentangle itfelf from them : The Strength of the above-mention'd Tails is otherwife fo great, that by fixing their Heads wlr'Tt'h '"" ' *^^^ ^^!,\" ^ ^ock in^he Cm undt; Water, and the reraaming round the Arm of the Perfon diving for them,there hath been one Inftance of the Diver not being able either I \ to

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J ^ %8 p an rio S • f / I ' I.. -> .' ^,7Sf€/tha.?7t
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*:* ^ ^ n V / .( "^

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feook X. fjland o/, B A R B A DO S. -'\ to pluck up the Fifli clinging to the Rock, nor to extflc^.te himfclf from it, and eonfec[uently^ pcrifhing in the Attempt. 3c>7 Toe OLe)" Man. THIS Fifh is about eleven Inches loiig froni tlie Head to thfc Tail, and about feven in Breadth ; the Head and Mouth are fmall ; the Teeth many and fharp; the whole Skin is black and rough : It hath two very remarkable Prickles upon the JBack, not far from the Tail \ thefc, when the Fiih feeds', arc couchaut clofe to the Back ; but, when annoy'd, are ered; and prove offeidfive or defenfive Weapons ; but as they have no membranaceous Web to fiipport them by its Elafticity, as moft other Fifh (which Nature hath enduedwith. Prickles) have, to fupply this feeming Want^ this Fifh can^ by the Plelp of very ftrong Mufcles, join'd to the Root of thefe Prickles, raife them in an inftant upright, ready to guard himfelf or annoy his Enemy ; and^ even when the Fifh is dead, if both thefe Prickles (the uppermoft being above an Inch and a 'Quarter long) are lifted up into an upright Pofition, the lar2;eft falls into a Socket in the Back-Bone ; where it will remain unmoveable, and will fooner break than bend. But as a fmall Touch upon the Trigger of a Gun's Lock will bring down the Cock from its full Bent, fo the leaft Motion or Touch upon the lower Prickle will, in an inftant, britig down the upper clofe to the Back, f ^ ^hc OlB Wife. THIS dl^ets very little front the lafl defcribed ; each having their two Fins fofi Bronchia ; orie on the Back, and ofte under the Belly, of equal Size and Pofitioiij as Well as the Make of theit forked Tail alike : However there is this material DifTerfencCj that as the former hath Its Prickles upon the Back near the Tail, this hath them near the Head, with this additional Circum fiance, that, Inftead of twOj it hath three Prickles, but equally intended to be its Safe-guard; T IChe Jack; HIS Fifh is about fix Inches long, arid ricattwo broad froni the Back to the lower Part of the Belly ; the Eyes very large in Proportion to the Bignefs of the Fifh, and is furrounded with a yellow Iris ; it hath two narrow^ fharp-pointed Fins fojl Bronchia ; [one flreightj one under the Belly, and another upon the Back as fat us the Navel ;] likcwife a Pair of fmall ones under the upper Part of the Belly : Oppofite to thefe on the Back are likewlfe two fmall, prickly Fins ; the Back from Head to Tail is blackifh, and the Belly of a Silver-white : Thefe are often caught in very great Numbers in Nets; i i i i They ..

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-5oB Hiftory ofih Book Ephrahn vide Chamhsrs'^s Dic>me Seafons of the Year, efpecially, when caught in Chrijl-Church Parifh 6r thereabouts, very poifonous ; at fuch Times there are generally in their Gills two fmall red Lumps ; and when they are lufpedted to be poifonous, jthey try the Experiment upon a Duck by giving her one of thefe to fwallow ; and if at that Seafon It IS two J q B •T/^^ Dolphin. ' ^ T .'-4 • ^ ^ f ^ \ \ '^ H E ridiculous Reprefehtatlon of. this Fifh by niofl Painters and Engravers (even after its true Shapes being fo well known) is a ftrong Inilance that vulgar Errors are but with great Difficulty got over. It is fo far from having a large Head and Gills, a crooked, thorny Back, &cvas^^ generally reprefented, that it is one of the ftreighteft Fifli that fwims. i This is delineated in Plate XXIX. 3 > h -^I'he Sea' Tortoise: y ^ ^ O S T, if not all Authors, who ha\?e treated of this fcarce-^ to-be-calleS amphibious Animal, have inadvertently rank'd it among the teftaceous Kind ; tho' it 'is apprently otherwife by its numerous ilrong Ribs and Back-Bone-;^ -The feveral Lamina, which adorn and fortify its Back, are To far,, from being of the Shell-Kind that they are rather an elaftick, tranfparent, horny Subftance. A late ingenious ahd very ufeful. Author hath been much impofed upon by a pretended Defcription of this Animal ; efpecially whcfe he afferts that the Under-Shell is .'what alone is made Ufe of; an,d that to feparate this from the upper. Fire,is made underneath ; and that as foon as it is heated, the Shell becomes eafily feparable, and fo taken oH with the Point of a Knife, and that with fo Httle Prejudice that nfe Armour or Shell foon renpwpfl Thus that induftrious, and learned Gentleman, whilft laudably defirous to give Man^ kind as true a Defcription of this, as he does of almofl every Thins he treats of, wag much impofed upon by his Informer. ThisMisfortune will lometimes happen, when our Informations come from Perfons, who are tond of aggrandizing, or leffening what is, or is not, agreeable to their own favourite Opmions, or groundlefs Imaginations. The Defcription pt t\,i: Tmoife -yx^t now meritioned, is fo far from being true, that the louver ^Shell, or what is fo called, is of no Manner of Ufe, the upper alpne being, of Service ; nor can this he come at 'till the Tormre is not only dead, but all the Flefh likewife taken from the Ribs and Back • it IS not till then that a Fire is made imder the infide of the Upper-SheU {as_ 1 .Ihail in Conformity to the received Opinion call it; though Jt is mamfeft, it i^aot a Shell from its elaftiek Quality.) And when

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J y \ J'^f^/re, ^(^. r ) t y^J 'iO-' k f ^ ^ ^! : > :"V -> ^j lb tlie Eidit Hev'! EitJier in God, ^i / 7 Tins' PX. ATE is in in iMv iiifcrib'd ^o vj'./dth'AA a ryi' e/c./c'.

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h ^ ix f

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Book X. if wh^^is Hcaj hath penetrated thro' the. Ribs, and 4 cru% haxd about the sfl5' ^" """f '^i'. '?^g"^ ^ •^^f^i^^'= -^ the outfidc': fhof; about the Shoulders are the thickeft and beft. The Back of a Torfn^£ J3 convex, and the Belly-part flat ; it is cover'd all o. e ,txcept near the SvSuhV ""' "? "^'^" "^^ ^^"^' -Mr what ^4 l3 calTei, J.f ft ^."^^^^^ the. upper and the under Parts bcin<. both of them dofely join d together, by this ftrong Armour. The P^nifof a Male Tc^jfe of a::y confide.able Bignefs,Ss full twdve InchcT n^ ; Jit Jnf F r '' '^''"^ ""' *'^^ ^ L^'^'^^ = J'^ Cooting-time" he Ma e and Female remam m Coition, eight or nine Days, foiL fay more 1? the Expn-ation of which Time the Male is fo reduc d, that heTfcarce Wn^S hft^' '^^ ^f,^Pf ("S ''^ B%-Frt) becomes from aha d horny Subftance, as foft almoft as a Jelly. The Penis dryed and given Of the three difereiit Sorts that frequent, or ai-e brfed iaedr thefe TFefiInAa Iflands th. Hani's Ml alone affords what is commonly call^ Ac Iruft^l^^r ''^^^^ ^^^^ ^"''--^ the Green and the Yellow or Mulatto rorio./e, have each of them fuch Shells, divided into as ma ^ regular Lamma, but they are fo very thin as not to be fit for ufe. I r.r..iA. hath four Fms with which it paddles whilft in the Water, not hiuch different from the Strokes of Oars; and it is likewife by the Help Of there that the Femak glides along the Sand, when fhe combs oh Shore S layherEggs The commonMethod of taking them, is to pitch Nets with very la ge Mefl.es, iii the Bays where they frequent, to feed upoh the green ^ broadleaPd Mofs that grows at different Depths in the bottom of the Sea •" when taken entangled in thefe Nets alive, they may be brought afhore' and kept fome Weeks alive without any Suftenahce; fdr feveral Day 5 after they are taken, they figh heavily ; if they die in the Net, they' ftmk in lefs than an Hour's time; but if killed, which is done by cut^'g/';"/^^"^!^to give vent to the. Blood which is always as cJld as Water) the Flefti will keep not only Uncdrrupted, but tho' cut in Pieces = the fore Quarter and Callapee will continue to have a ftrong, lively, mu'^ cular, copvulfire Motion, for fourteen, or even eighteen Hours • for if ^r irVTl™"^ 't js pricked with a Pin or Fork, it will move and contract itfelf vifibly. Some Part of the Plefh cuts rfeddifli, refembling coarfe so 9 the Fat a.bout the Fins4 Beef; another Part as whitfe ak a Chicken ..c ... ^uou. mc rinsand the Guts, is fomewhat Yellowlfli, but the far greater Part, clofe td j'?^ "PPcr and under Shell, li as green as a Leek; they are caught ofdifferent Sizes ; the largeft that hath been taken in this Iflarid, vwthin did not exceed four hundred Weight. They ar often ignorantly reprefented to have three Hearts ; this" Miftake ariies • from their having two large Auricles, oiie on ekch Side of it ; the Blood in this Animal is very grols, cold and vifcid ; and as the Heart hath but one

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-5 1 o m :e Hiftory of the Book X cue Ventricle, 'its Circiilation is performed after the fame Manner as m a Froo; in whicli, not above one third pafles through the Lungs ; it is Jikevvffe owing to the Coldnefs of the Blood, its flow Motion, and thick Armour with \vhich the Tm^totfe is furrounded, that it is at a very little Expenc€ of Spirits by tranfpiration ; tad confequently hath lefs Need ,<}f a frelL Recruit ": line Liver is large, and of a dark Green, and the great 'Gut or Colon, on the outfide full of feeming Prickles; however thek Points are foft and pliable, theFlefh when baked or ftewed, is a moft delicious and nourifliinoDiet 5 the young Ones are often caught with a Hook and Line: the propereft Bait for this Purpofe is a Sea-Bladder; and they are likev^afe fomctimcs drawn afliore in Nets. There is another Method of takinothe larger Sort, efepecially the Females, by watching their tomincT afhore in the Night, upon the dry, fandy Bays, in the Months o f *v J tme. yuly^ Augujl hey have crawled above High-Water-Mark, they dig with their Fins (which are ftrong, nervous, and flefhy) a Hole ot about two Feet deep, in the loofe Sand, in v/hich the Female lays fometimes an hundred or more Eggs ; the outward Tegument of thefe is rather fkinny than fhelly, its Shape Is round, of about an Inch and a Quarter Diameter : the in^ Talle After thefe Eggs are thus depofited in the Sand, the Tortoife fills up the Hole in fo nice a Manner, that it will be fcarce perceivable that the Sand had been difturb'd ; and the Eggs, by the Heat of the Sun, will, in nine Weeks, be hatched, and the vouns Tortoifes immediately crawl into the cea^ Before wo. conclude this DefcriptioUj It will not be impertinent to pbferve, that the Ancients knew the Value of the TortoifeFlefli in Phyiick, as well as of its Shell for making the Lyre. The former appears from Nicander^ in his Poem call'd Alexipharjua \ and Hoi'ace fjpeaking of the Lyre made of the Tortoife-fhell, fiyg, ejlu quoqiie fife ft Ubeat^ fo; ^ By the 'W ora pifdbus^ it Is evident, that the Lyre mentioijed by Ho-^ race was made with the Shell of the Sea-Tortoife, which makethUfe of Fins to fwim with as a Fifli ; whereas the Land-Tortoife (tho' the Shell of this hath been often us'd in Greece to the fame Purpofe) is arm'd with Claws, and is at moft but barely an amphibious Animal ; Aquatic. Horace^ is almoft intirely an ^ ^ y' n$

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Bo6k X. ijlctnd cf BARBADOS. "11 7:5^ Sea-Horse:r AS I n^ver W this Animal 'till.it was fLrivel'd and clry'd bp, I will not pretend to defcribe it ; any farther, than that^ by lis Trunk It feems to be a Filli which Tucks in its Nourifliment. + 0/" FrespI Water Fish. F this Kind we have very few iHtirely peculiar to tlae freiL Water • that IS, Which breed in it; the greateft Part beinfr generally! wiicn very young, the Iiihabitarits of the Sea ; when the great Curreiit ot our Land-Floods breaks thro' the Banks of oiir frefli Water Fdiids, caufing by this Means a Communication for fome Time with the Sea' feveral Sorts of young Fifll fwim from the fait into the frefh V/ater ; and from thefe Ponds they are caught, and carried into others fc, Miles up m the Gountryl '. 1 ^ Caffum. '"pHlS is a I r' arge, ^d^^^% FifL, often weighing fifteen Pounds 5 and meafunng about three Feet in length: ThfeHcad Is fmall ill Proportion to the reft of the Body ; the under Jaw is lonp-er than the upper ; Its Eyes are large, incircled with a broad, golden Iris. Thc^ Back IS of a dark blue, and the Sides and Belly of a fliining Silver-Colour it hath one Fin upon the Back, two pofl Broftchia, two tinder th-Belly, and one near theTail, which ends forked. ^ This Fiili is generally very poor whilft in the Sea, but foon gi-ows very fat in Lan„ Ponds, where they are fed with the Guts of Fowls, fmall Fifh, or upon Pond-Bugs, their moft natural Food in this Situatiohi b b I'he MuLLEt. F ^ np H E S E are of twd Sorts, the Sea and tjie frefli Water Mullet 5 -i the former is of a light-grey upon the Back* and Sides ; the latter of an iron-grey, and the Scales very remarkably divided in regular Rows upon their Sides and Backs. 7ke Carmow-Mullet. r .' I ^ HIS differs from the former by the Greatnefs of its Bulk, A ^ elpecially its Head, which is remarkably large and flat ; thefe often weigh above two Pounds, being Very fat ^nd delicious Eating. >•" *.,>.-../* , Kkkk lb.

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.} 312 T^e Natural Htjlory of the Book X. I'he Mud-Fish. 'T^H E R E are three Sorts of Mud-Fifi-, the firft and fmalleft fomeJwhat refemblmg Smelts in its Make ; the fecond is the Mangrove Mud-Fifi ; this is thicker and larger, and hath often laro-e Roes in it • the third and largeft is the Logger-Head-Mud^Fifi y this^^hath a large Head and Eyes, the former fomewhat flattifh ; and are often a Foot long • every Species of thefe are juftly efteemed to be very deUcate Eating, The two firfi Fins appear poji Bronchia^ with two fmaller in a direct Line under the Gullet ; it hath likewife one continued membranaceous Fin from the Navel to near the Tail, with another oppofite of equal Length upon the Back. The whole Fifh is covered with many fmall Scales, and ends with a round pointed Tail. T T r 7be Star-Fish. HJS is here likewife call'd the Five-Finger d-FiJhy and but very feldom taken. I'he Shark. ,% li SHALL take mj Leave of the Deep and Its Inliabrtants with i Defcnption^ or rather curfory Obfervation, oi t\-\& Sharl a Fifh tvell known both in the Northern and Southern Seas for its ravenous Nature i 7 Way. The young Sharks^ upon Sight of Danger, flip in through the Mouth of of the Parent Shark^ and, when the Danger is over, iffue forth to their proper Element again. Thefe Creatures are fometimes feen very numerous among the Ships Carlijli Wretches — — ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ A ^m' '^^i ^ 1 AX-H CJ 1. J \—m Lit \-r ft J I J I — 1 r crouded together in one Bottom, a great many of them die with various Dileafes ; and being thrown overboard, bring together fo great a Multitude of thefe voracious Animals, that it is not fafe at fuch Times for the fatigued Sailors to refrefh themfelves by bathing in the Bay. And here let me take Occafion to teftify my Efteem of thefe dar^ mg and profitable Adventurers of the Deep, by refcuing from ObHvion a memorable Atchievement of a common Sailor in the Deftrudlion of a bhark : And when the Principle which prompted him to fo very unequal and hazardous a Combat, and the Intrepidity of the Adlion it^ felf are confidered, abftradedly from the low and iiean Circumftance. ot the I'erfon, It will perhaps appear to be as heroic an Inftance of difmterefted Bi-iendihip and perfonal Bravery Fliftory. •" as any recorded in Ah I ) ouE

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Book X. Ifland of and gave them IS er. About the latter End of Queen Anm s Wars, Captain Joh7i Beams Commander of the York Merchant^ arrived at Barbados from England. Having difembark'd the lafl: Part of his Loading, which was Coals, the Sailors, who had been employed in that dirty Work, ventured into the Sea. to wafli themfelves j there they had not been long, before a Perfbn on Board Tpyed a large Shark making towards them, Notice of their Danger ; upon which they fwam back and reach 'd the Boat, all but one ; him the Monfter overtook almoft within Reach of the Oars, and griping him by the Small of the Back, his devouring. Jaws foon cut afunder, and as foon fwallow'd the lower Part of his Body ; the remaining Part was taken up and carried on Board, where hi Comrade was. His Friendfhip with the deceafed had been lona diftinguifiiedby a reciprocal Difcharge of all fuch endearing OiSces, as im-; ply'd an Union and Sympathy of Souls. When he faw the fever'd Trunk of his Friend, it was with an Horror and Emotion too great for Words to paint. During this affeding Scene, tlie infatiable Slmrk was feen traverfing the bloody Surface in Search after the Remainder of liis Prey ; the reft of the Crew thought themfelves happy in being on Board, he alone unhappy, that he was not within Reach of the DeftroyFired at t;he Sight, and vowing that he would make the Devcurer difgorge, or be fwallowed himfelf into the fame Grave, — He plunges into the Deep, arm'd with a large fliarp-pointed Knife. The Shark no fooner faw him, but he made furioufly towards him, — both equally eager, the one of his Prey, the other of Revenge. The Moment the Sha-rk open'd his rapacious Jaws, his Adverfary dextroufly diving, and grafping him with his left Hand fomewhat below the upper Fins, fuccefsfully employs his Knife in his right Hand, g^iving him repeating Stabs in the Belly : the enraged Sharks after many unavailing Efforts, finding himfelf overmatch'd in his own Element, endeavours to difengage himfelf, fometimes plunging to the Bottom, then mad with Pain, rearing his uncouth Form (now ftain'd with his own ftreaming Blood)' above the foaming Waves. The Crews of the furrounding Veffels faw the unequal Combat, uncertain from which of the Combatants the Streams of Blood liTued; till at length, the Sharky much.weaken'd by the Lofs of Blood, made towards the Shore, and with him his Conqueror ; who, fluih'd with an Affurance of Vidory, pufbes his Foe with redoubled Ardour, and, by the Help of an ebbing Tide, dragging him on Shore, rips up his Bowels • and unites and buries the fever'd Carcafe of his Friend in one hofpitable Grave. The Story, I confefs, is of fo extraordinary a Nature, that I would not have dared to give it my Reader, had T not been authorifed thereto 3^3 tleman by Oath, the Truth of what is here related. This Adi it is^ will unqueftionably fall under the Cenfure of thofe, Adion, intrepid as who are ac-i cuftom^d (i) Lieut. Col. Hilhty Rotve, of St. Luf/i Parilh, who was not far from the Plice when this hafper.ed.

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3H ISfatiirat Hift 4 &C. X cufton^edto judge by the Rules /of moral or politkal Fitnefs; it not being prudent in any Man to expofe himfelf to Danger^ from which he muft owe his Efcape as much to Chance as Valour, nor confifterit with the Value which ought to be fet oh the great Gift.of Life, to rifque it upon fmall and inadequate Occafioi][s ; the Exploit therefore had been more truly heroic, had it been performed for the Prefervation of his Friend's Life, rather than the Recovery of his Body. But fuch Reflexions are not the Sentiments of Sailors, a Clafs of Men to whom Courage is a Virtue, however madly or unfeafonably exerted. And yet if fuch an Aftion had been recorded of Scipto or Alexander in the Defence of LcbUus or Heph^Jlmt^ whether it would not have been celebrated by their Admirers, among the moft fhlning and mag^ nanimous Atchievements of thofe renowned Heroes and Friends^ ( F J N I $. \ W F i> T H E A y

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EXP LANATORY ^, V ri. t)F ALL r 1 *^ Botanical aiid +-^ T -t-^ made ufe of in the foregoing W O R K. ^ ^ . .. .r..-^ ^^^.^-^yv:^ V 'r;:*^; ^.^\ ;' \7:. V;^J .." "'S: -'^^ ; ^\. ^' '*^ r">;--^V\' '' T ^ JA .^ ,Ih i V V, f C I N ly are fmall Grains growing iii BuncHes, after the nian-^ ner of Elder-tree Berries ia Englandy and yellow Hercules Berries in this lilahd, apices ov Summit Sy arc thofe Bodies which contain the Farina fcecun-' dans* They generallyhang upon flenderTiireads called Chives. ^Aromatic Plants, are thofe whofe LeaVes or Branches have an odoriferous Scent^ as Rofemary, Lavender, &^c'. M ^fs" \ h V _> 'k A Berry is p. BAcciferhUs Trees, are thofe Vvhich beat Berries, flefhy Fruit inclofihg feveral Seeds. Buliaus-rootsd Plants, are of two Sorts, viz* tuhicated or coated Roots, which confift of feveral Coats involving each other, as the Onion, Tulip, &^c. The other fguammofe or fcaly, which confifts f feveral Scales lying over each other, as the Lily, &'c. rf r Llll C. CJP\

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Explanatory Notes c^ \c. C y/^/^//^, is the dry Hulk or Veflel of Plants, in which the Seeds are contamed, "Calyx^ Is the Flower-cup, or thofe green Leaves which cover and embrace the Flower. Thofe Plants wKofe Flowers haVe no Petals fo inclofed, are Thefe in fome Plants afterward inclofe the Seeds. termed apetalotis. This is by fome called the Empalement of the Flower. 'Catkiii or lulus^ is an Aggregate of Summits, collected into a long Body in form of a Rope. Thefe are the Male Flowers of Trees. Chives, are thofe flender Bodies which furround the Ovarimn in the Centre of Flowers, and fupport the Summits. Clavicle or Tend7'H (Capreoliis) is a Part of a Stalk curling and laying hold on any adjacent Body. As in the Vine, Briony, Sfc. Clavicles^ Clafpers^ or Teiidrih^ are the young Shoots of creeping fcandent Plants ; it is by thefe that they take hold oPthe neighbouring Trees or Rocks ; and fometimes, if thus fupported, they grow to a greater Height : Of this kind are the Clafpers of the Grape, Vine, and moft others of that Tribe. Coagulation^ is the condenfmg or thickening the Juices of any Tree 1^^ -Ml taj^ or Plant, by the Heat of the Sun. Coronated or umbilicated Fruits, are thofe which have their Calyx or Empalement of the Flower growing on their Top, as the Medlar, Pear, Apple, ^c. Corrugated^ or wrinkled, as the Leaves of Bauni, Mint, Wc, Crenated^ or notch'd Leaves, are thofe, whofe Edges are put into feveral obtufe Angles. Corymhiferous Plants, are fuch as have a compound or difcous Flower ; the Seeds having no Down flicking to them. ) f t r). D Entated Leaves, are fuch as have their Edges notch'd, fomewhat like the Teeth of a Saw. Digitated or finger'd Leaves, are thofe which are divided into feveral Parts, which are connected together at the Tail, fo as in fome meafure to refemble a Hand, as in the Cinquefoil, Lupine, &'c. E. Lh ^ -m ^^ f Chinated Pods, or Leaves, are thofe that are fet round with Prickles, fuch as the Pods of Horfe-nickers in this Ifland, and Holly-leaves in England. Fijiular ^ i %

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Explanatory Note s. c. F. Ijlular Flowers, are fuch as are compounded of many long hollow finall Flowers like PipeSj all divided into many Jags at the End. Falcated Pods, are thpfe which bend iri like an Hook or Semicircle. Foliohy are thofe fmall Leaves which grow^ along the. Mid-rib of the Leaf, in compound Leaves. h V H G. GLaucous Leaves Dr Stalks, are of a whitifli-green Colour, fomewhat of a bluifli Call; fuch are the Leaves of the French Sorrel in England^ and of the blue Edda in thefe Parts. Galeated or hooded Flowers, are fuch, whofe upper Part refembles a kind of Helmet or Hood, as in the Flower of Sage. ^ Gramtedy or that Fruit which is compos' d of many Grains or Kernels* I ^ H r Erbaceous Leaves, ate fuch long fmall Leaves as come nearefl; in Shape and Colour to that of common Grafs ; fuch ^e the Leaves of Reeds, 4 X / IU L ly are Catkins, being Bunches of fmall dufty Flowers growing upon feveral Trees and Shrubs, fuch as Haffels and Walnuts. Indented Leaves, are fuch as are flightly indented on their Edges. L. AUated Flowers, are diflfotm monopetalous Flowers, divided ^ ^ ufually into two Lips, as in Sage and Rofemary* Laciniated Lwrts, are thofe which are naturally jagg'd or noteh'd to the Mid-rib by Vermin^ Ligulce^ or fmall Strings. M. Mem^

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J "khlantittry ISf o T E s, \ y JM. t Emhranaceous^ when taken in a Botanical Senfe, is generally apf^ plied to the feveral thin Filainents, which diftinguilh feme partitional Cells from each other, as in the Pomegranate Fruit. Monopeialous Flowers, are thofe which have biit brie Leaf, orPdtiL.which, tho' it is feemmgly cut into Four of Five fmall Petals, oi* Flower-leaves, yet they are all one Piece. Murkated< pricklv Leaves* f R '^ -rti ^ > r IT E'rvOus LM'oes, arfe thbfe which confift of many Ribs or Fibres. T^uciferms Trees^ or Shrubs, lare fuch which bear Nuts. ^^ Ik t)v *f" ^ M ^ r p. 4. ^Anicle^ IS a Stalk diffufed into feveral Pedicles, fuftaining the Flowers of Fruits, as in Oats, c. are thofe which derive their Nourifh^ Papilionaceous Flowers^ are thofe which refemble a Butterfly with the --.^^^^S^ extended, as in Peas and Bc^ns in Englandy as well as in the Pigeon-Pea-i'i^e Bloiioms in this Iflahd. Pappofe Seeds y^ are luch as have a downy Subftance iittin'g'bh i\it Tqp oi each Seed, as the Dandelion, Scbrzonera, Parafttical Shrubs or Pla?JtSy ment from other Plants ; thus the Mifletoe from the Oak in Eng^ andy and from the Orange Tree here. Pennuted 6v Winged Leczvesy -are fuch Is are compotinded of many fmall Leaves or L'obes, placed along the middle Rib, either altef^^ nately,or by Pairs. When the middle Rib is terminated by an b'dd Lobe, it is faid to be unequally pennated^ and ^qusilly .pennatedy when it is not terminated by an odd Lobe. • : Petals, are the fine-colour'd Leaves of the Flowers, to diftinguilh them from the Leaves of the Plant. P-edkleSyh\ the Foot-ftalks of any Leaf, Fruit, or Flowen Peni i i i

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EicpIa!:atory Notes ^'fW^^''''"' ''' '^^' ^^"""^ ^'"S downwards j fuch as tk Alofe i'e^^ is that Body which arifes in the Centre of Flowers, and gene^ rally fupports the Ovary. ^ Pinnce The Number of thefe are reckoned from the Number of the feveral Pairs of wmged Leaves upon a Branch Pcniferous Trees or Shrul^s, are thofe which bear Apples, or fome Frmt of the Apple-kind, fuch as Oranges and Lemon.^ Fruniterous Trees, &>€. are thofe which hp=,r Pl„rv,o r ^ h ^-1 R. ^ Utkulated Bark or Subfiance, is that which is compofed of a ftrong. Net-like Strudure : Such is the moft fubftantial Part of the Body of a Popais-tree. ^^^?^. This is a Term chiefly made ufe of with regard to the B.ark of fuch Trees as are wrinkled, or furrowed. V S. H ri £/^, are thofe ftiff fmall Hairs v/hich often cover the Leaves, or the Stalks, of Plants ; fuch as Nettles, and the Foot-ftalks of • Belly-achs. Scandent Plants^ are thofe whole Stalks are too weak to fupport them upright ; therefore by their Clafpers or Tendrils they fallen unto, or climb up, the neighbouring Trees ; by which means they often grow to a great Height ; fuch is the Ivy in England, and all man-ner of wild Wyths in this Ifland. Serrated, or f awed Leaves, are fuch as have acute Isfotches in their Edges, refembling the Teeth of a Saw. Stellated Plants, are thofe whofe Leaves grow round the Stalks at certain Intervals in the Form of a Star with Beams -, as Croflvvort in England, and Star-gi afs in this Ifland. Siliquofe, All Trees, Shrubs, and Plants which bear Pods, are of this Kind. Spatha, \% that Part of a Plant v/hich inclofes the Flowers of the .. Palms/ ^c. Stamina (are the fame as Chives) are thofe fine Threads, Capillaments, ^r Haiis, growing out of the Bottom of the Flower, as from Tulips \n England, and from the Flowers of the Flower-fence in this Ifland. Thefe Stamina are generally tip'd with Afices, or fmall Knobs, at their Points. M m m m Squammatim^

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; iplanatory N ^c. S^uammatimy m Scales. '• Stamineous Flowers^ are thofe imperfe£t ones which want the fine coloured Leaves called Petala^ and confiil only .of the Stylus ^Vi^ St a; fuch as the Flowers of Ackatee. 7mna T. TUrnm^ are thofe fciall fetaceous VilU^ or ftiff Hairs, rifing and forming an equal, even, plufhy Bed, in the broad Bottom of a Flower^ as in theMarygold and the Sunflower. Tranfverfe Ribs^ are thofe fmaller Ribs or Veins, which crofs the middle Spine, or Ribs which run from the Stalk to the Extremity of the Leaf. Tubular Shanks or Stalks^ are thofe that are hollow like a Pipe ; fuch as Popais-fhanks in this Ifland, and the Stalks of Hemlock, in England, ' Tetrafetalous Flowers^ are thofe that confift but of four fingle-coloured Leaves called Petals^ fet round the Stylus to compofe the Flower, r^ ^ ^ ^& 4 -,* '*^' ^' *^ n rr — — — ^ ^— ^ Frticillate Plants, are fuch as have their Flowers interniix^d with fmall Leaves, growing in a Kind of Whorles about the joints of the Stalk, as Peny-royal and Harehound in England^ -imd. the fmall white Sage in this Ifland, Vulnerary, All Plants that have a healii otherwife, are called Vulnerary Plaitts. jf Quality In their J 4 i V. _t i MbelliferouSy fignlfies a Plant that bears many Flowers difcompos'd, -fomewhat like an Umbrella, growing upon many Footftalks, like Fennel Angelica, in England^ Umbel, is the Extremity of the Stalk and Branches divided Into feveral Pedicles, or Rays, beginning from the fame Point, and opening in fuch a manner, as to form a kind of Inverted Cone, as In a • Parfnep. When thefe Pedicles, which furround the Stalks, are again divided 4 4 i I

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/ Explanatory N c. divided into others of the fame Form, upon which the Flowers are dilpoled, the firft are called Rays, and the fecond Pedicles. r w. Winged Leaves, are thofe that are fet oppofite to one another 7 _/ T ^'^^"'^hes ; fuch are the Walnut-tree-leaves in England, and the Leaves of the yellow Sanders, with a great many others, m this Illand. & / N. \ oB of Mr. Miller of f^-i r'.-*

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^y *i -* % 4 ^\ \ B h #A '^. r ?.*\ w

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THE A f ACkafee, or Sweet-Briar • • African Negroes, their Gruelty to their CaptiVes in War Agate Stamper, a Shell ^ Agnus Scythicus -, Its Make, and its Pretenfions to animal Life examined and confuted Air, its Clearnefs and Serenity (in Barbados) accounted for Aloe Plant American Torch Animal Flower Anchovy Apple Tree Angola. Vide Negroes Animals, what they are —^ — —their Divine Architedurc, and Ufcs Domeilic and laborious Animals much the fame in Barbados as in England Animalcules, aquatic, aDefcription ofthem Anomalous Trees, Shrubs, and Plants The red Ant Page 200 • 17 285 236 3 294 131 61 ib. The Hinging Ant The Horfe Ant The Sugar Ant The winged Ant The Wood Ant Antigua Balfam •— Rofe Tree Arabian Jefiamin Arnotta Arrow Root Avigato Pear Tree 62 46 217 93 ib. 94 ib. ib. 93 222 220 202 221 130 B. BAcciferous Trees, Shrubs, and Plants Ballahw, a Fifh Balfam Tree Rock Balfam Banana Tree Barbados, its Extent why (o called 141 304 157 221 184 I 2 The Serenity and Clearnefs of the Air ac-. counted for — .— ., Difcoveredby the Portugiiefej and inhabited by theEngHlh . Indians formerly refided here — Proved Its chief Towns -jThe Charafter of its prefent Inhabitants Why more volatile and irafcible — — Number of Negroes In the Ifiand The Nature of its Soil The Sea Bat Barbados Pihk Barbary ftipplied with Water by Ponds and Rcfervoirs Wild BM A Fly Bat A Cave Bat A Moufe Bafi Batchelor*s Button Batchelor's Pear The Bay Berry Tree — — The wild Bay Berry Tree Bay Grape Tree — • — Bead.% Strings of them wore by Negroes round their Legs and Arms Horfe Bean Vine — Bean Tree ^ 4 5 6 ib. 9 14 19 30+ 1 63 \ ^ The black Bee Beef, aShellFiOi Beef Wood Tree Beetles, why wotlhipoed by the Egyptians The Belly Ach — Berry Bufii Black Berry Hunters Black Wood Birch Gum Tree Birds of Pafiage — -^ Black Bird — Bitumen, folid, found in Barbados Liquid Bitumen Black Colour of the Negroes, not owin Heat of the Sun Black Wood Bloodworth N n n n 45 2 4 63 ib. 172 H5 ib. 180 21.4 194 80 279 146' 18 152 162 145 iSo 144 75 72 50 ib. to the 14 iSo 170 Li.n-!''

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I N D E X. Bonnyvis Eonnivis Chink, an Infetft Boxwood Tree Brain Stone Brain Stone, large Bread and Cheefe, a Plant Bridge-Town, why fo called Briny Root — Broom Weed Bug, a Water Infcd: Bu:iy Berry Tree Bumbo Bafh Butterfly Bur^atnot Burial, Manner of it among the Negroes Page 216 84 291 ib. 139 6 225 171 47 164 127 -15 C. CAbbage Tree moved by the Violence of a Storm Cabbagcj Tree defcribed Cabbage Tree, (mall > C?Efar, how he fupplied himfelf with Water when befieged in Alexandria Caffum, a Pilli Indian Cale Calaballi, a Tree Calabafli, wild Sugar Cane Dumb Cane 22 107 III Trees, Shrubs, and Plants of the Capfulebearing Kind Carbuncle ^ • Carrion Fly ^ CaiTIido Tree Tlie grey Cafket, a Shell — — Caf]
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^. IN D E X. Crab Bulh Crab Tree AHi coloured Cricket Horfe Cricket Field Cricket Cruftaceous Animals Small wild Cucumber Vine Wild Cucumber Cuckold's Increafe, a Pea Cuckold Fly Shivering Curlieu Crooked Bill Curlieu Stone Curlieu Cuftard Apple Tree Cylinder Shell — ( Page ^55 203 .90 ib. ib. 261 166 1S6 216 77 ib. ib. ib. 285 D D. Amafcen Tree Dancing of the Negroes 179 16 3 49 Deluge, its Current between the Tropics The Veftigia of it at Barbados — ^^ Why the Force of it was lefs between the Tropics, -. than in northera Climates, proved — 49 Dialtbea, a Plane 1^2 Dialthea, red 212 Pifeafes peculiar to Barbadoes, and the neighbouring Iflands Acute Fevers — — 31 Peripneumonies and Plcurifies Peililentral Fevers Dry Belly Ach Cholics, yellow Jaundice, and Hyftcrics -Diarrheas and Dyfenteries Fluxes Leucophlegmatia, or Dropfy Yellow Fever Small Pox *— Chicken Pox Leprofy Elephantiafis Guiney Worms Running Yaws : Wild Dolly, a Pea Dolphin Fifli, defcribed Dove Weed — Down Tree Down Vine Drum of the Negroes defcribed Wild Duck — Large Duck Weed • — Duck Weed Dunck Tree Dwarf Mangrove Dwrah Wild Dwrah ih. 32 ib. 34 35 ib. ib. 36 37 29 ib. ib. 40 41 42 214 308 163 2 14 ib. 17 77 ^33 222 134 147 240 241 E. ^ AR-rings, in ufe among the Negroes EarthWorms Page 92 Earthquakes in Barbados very feldom and flight 29 Eaftern Compofitions, why fubllme Echinite petrified Eddas, an eatable Fruit Gum Eiemi Tree • Elder Bufh '9 55 227 224 fb. 31 Egypt, its Fertility owing to the Nile 3 Egyptians worfliipped Beetles, and Crocodiles 18 Efhcol, why fo called 2 Exanguous Animals — 257 Ezek, why {o called — 2 F. FAT Pork Tree Sea Feather — Mountain Fern — Fern-like Plant The great Fertility of Barbados The numerous Armies of the Children in the Holy Land, not incredible Fevers deified by the Romans, why Fiddle Wood Tree Fidler, a Fly < • Fig Tree, bearing; the eatable Fip; in general The bearded Fig Tree Fingrigo, or Savine Tree Fire Fly Fireburn Buili Fit Weed Five Sprig Tree — Flying Infedts Of fiying FiHi, The flying Fifh Fly Catcher Flower Fence Forbidden FruLt Sea Forty Leg Forty Lt'g, a Worm Foreft Bark, a IVee FoITils Fotter*s Plant The Fuflic Tree • — : — Guiney Fowl Fruit ripe in Barbados cvcfy Month in 180 288 ^i' 22 of Ifrael, ib. 19 1415 82 187 174 197 82 172 229 217 80 .302 3^3 91 201 I2y 299 259 224 ib. 206 178 70 the Year 73 G. ALL Tree \J The flying Gar Fifh Gaulding, a Bird Grey Gaulding Garjick Pear Tree Jl6 3x3-4. 70 ib. Girgcr

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I N D E X. Ginger Goats Rue Gold found In Barbados Gold-iinch — Gomorrah. Vide Sodom Goodnefs of God in affording Remedies for Difeafes Goofeberry Bufh Small Gourd Large Gourd Sweet Gourd Graminous Plants Granadilla Vine Grapple Wood Of GrafTes Dog Grafs Dutch Grafs Ginger Grafs Fiag Grafs Red Flag Grafs, or Pllifh Grafs Nut Grafs Plulh Grafs Silk Grafs Pond Grafs Knotted Sea Grafs VVild Pepper Grafs Rice Grafs Pale yellow Sea Grafs Star Grafs • Scotch Grafs Ground Afs Savannah Grafs Wild French Guava French Guava Guava Tree Guiney Worms Guiney-Man, aFifh Gully, what Gully Root Gumma Bulh Gum Elemi Hop Shrub Honey Tree Hop Weed Horfe Bean Vine Sea Horfe, a Fifli Haw Nicker Humming Bird Hurricanes hS Page 1 59 169 74 25 J. 119 507 2 2 179 ib. Adramaut, why fo called ^ ..._ ^ Hag's Horfe, or John Cook*s Horfe —5; Hair, the curling of it in Negroes, not owins to 82 7 2 167 the Heat of the Sun Hard-Back, a Fly Indian Hatchets — Hatzamarvethj why fo called .Heat of Barbados cooled by conftant Breezes Wild Hemp — Moor Hen. See Coot Hen Turd, a Shrub ^^o Yellow Hercules _ ^^i White Hercules __ l^^ Hills, a long Chain of them ferviceable to inter^ cept the Clouds and Vapours 20, 21 Hog Slip ^ •HoU)Thorn '/l Honey Wood — — ^^^ JACK in a Box Jack, a Fifli Jallop Vine, or 4 o' Clock Flower Jamaica Plum Arabian Jelfamin Jeflamin Tree Jeflamin Vine Jefiamin Infe(5l ^t?:rac?'^""' -^nyof_them in ufe among t£ &nToof^^''^="'''""A^^^S.-oes Ink Vine Ink Fifh Job's Tears Iron Vine Iron Wood Iron Vine Jundion Vine ^5i iS IS 36 160 305 254and ^2 16^0 142 214 159 K. Nocker, an Infecl; S.2 t. 73 220 233 258 ib. LAckerj a Bird Lady Bird Lady Bird fpotted Wild Lavender Sea-fide Laurel Leathercoat Tree Sea Leach Naked Sea Leach ^ dSfand r^'"""' u^'' ^'" i^ellru6lion of st dj)m and Gomorrah wa^t fupcrnatural, conSt. Helena Lemon ^_ ^^ Spanifh Lemon ^2S Water Lemon — -__ Wild Water Lemon Vine, or Love in a Mift 'fh Leprofy m Barbados . ' Lignum Rorum -^ 39 Baftard Lignum Vit^ ^ ^^ Lignum Vits _^ ^j:^ Red Lilly 1^. ^ 288 Wild V i

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I N D E X. Wiia Lilly White Lilly Lime Tree Limpec Ribbed Limpet Green Lizard Spotted Lizard Dominico Lobfter Ballard Locuft — Locufl Tree — Loblolly Tree — Logwood Tree — — Loggerhead Weed • — Longevity of fome of the Inhabitants Lucern Lqbfter Red Lobfter Green Lobfter Bongrace Lobfler Page 229 228 129 28r ib. 65 262 149 102 H3 169 230 of Barbados 25 r— 202 262 ib... ib. ib. M. M Ackaw Tree A Mad Cow cured Maidenhead, a Plane Maiden Hair — • Rope Mangrove Garden Mangrove Red Mangrove — Dwarf Mangrove Mango Tree Mancheneel Tree — — Its Apples, and EffeiH: of their Poifon Mammee Tree — <: Manny Seed Marcafite Mafon Fly Maftick Tree Maftick Fly Mar/-gold May-pole Muk Melon Water Melon Merrywing, a Fly — Milk Weed — — Mineral Waters in Barba(k)S Mineroe Narrow leavM Mifletoe — Moabire, alias Mangrove Bead Tree Mobby, a Drink in Barbados Mole Cowry, a Shell Monkey Apple Tree Monkies Monkey Vine Montabba Mopufles, Birds Thick pluihy SeaMofs Purple Sea Mofs Great filky SeaMofs Mud Fifh Mulattos: 5 1T4 ib. 148 237 ^93 19,4 U7 122 123 212 55 83 149 223 136 ib. 87 163 46 156 ib. 19^ 34 285 129 66 16S H7 7 25^ 2S6 14 Mullet FiHi Carmow Mullet Munjack, or folid Bitumen Murex Shell Differently called Mufk Mellon Vine Mufick Shell Why fo called Mufketto Fly Mufketto Bulh Mufk Bufh, or wild Ockroc MulTcl Page ib. 87, 169, 207 281 N. THE original Names of Places exprelTive of their Situation, Nature, or Quality Negroes, their Number, their Nature — NegroeOilBulh Nemnem, a Tree Nettles Night-ihade Black Nicker Tree Horfe Nicker Ground Nut Phyfick Nut French Phyfick Nut Nuciferous Trees, &c. 14 2 116 J 220 211 iia 232 \9l O. RED Oaker Obeah Negroes Spanifh Oak Ockroe Papaw Ockroe Olive Tree Wild Olive Tree Old Wife, aFiOi Old Man, a FiQi Orange Tree, four China Orange Tree Guiney Orange Tree Golden Orange Tree Rock Oyfter ) 5 ^5 199 ib. 3<^7 ib 12^ ib. ib; 28t P. PALM Oil Tree — Papaw Tree, Male -— i'apaw Tree, Female -^ Parakite — — Parafitical Plants — — Wild ParHey — — Birds of Paiiage — ~" Their Sagacity in knowing the ftated Seafons of • Migration — i^* The Time of their Appearance in Barbados ib. Patience, a Plant — 2^9 Pea Vine — 198 O o o o Smailcfl: lit 181 ib, 73 ^35 212 75 1*"

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INDEX. Smalleft wild Pea Vine — Eatable wild Pea '— Pengwiii — Wild Penny-Royal — Pepper — Picardy in France, why leFs verdant land — Pigeon Wood Wild Piseon — Pigeon Pea Shrub Pimploes Barbados Pink Pine Apple Button Pine Surinam Wild Pine Small barren wild Pine Plate Filh Plantain Tree — PJaintain wild Plantain Shrub The whiftlinp; plover Sandy Breall Plover Ring-necked Plover Gully Plum Tree White Plum Tree Jamaica Plum Tree Poifon Tree Pomiferous Trees, Shrubs and Plants Pomegranate Pomegranate, fmall Pond Fly — Pops Potatoes Potato Bufh Pa^e 215 216 23^2 170 213 than Eng21 y6 192 185 168 230 231 231 ib. 28c 184 168 \ Wild Potato Vine Prickly Pear Vine Prickle yellow Wood — Pruniferous Trees, Shrubs, and Plants Pumkins — Pumple Rofe Tree Punches — PurPiaine — W^Hd Purfiatne Py.e Cruft, a Tree R. Abbit Weed Racoons Rainy Seafon in Barbados Rats Rattle Bufii Ratta Pepper Red Wood Tree Reed — Reptiles and Infcifts — Reftrvoirs very ufeful in Barbados Rights and Ceremonies of Negroes Riveis, the chitf in Barbados French Rofe Tree — 178 179 ib. 144 121 130 ib. 84 161 228 198 186 i6y 137 126 282 243 H7 172 66 45 66 212 211 ^43 88 45 15 44 21S Rock Bufh Rock Balfam ^ Rod Wood Large black Sea Rod Lefler Sea Rod Incruftated Sea Rod P S-. EA Egg Seafide Sao-e Black Sage White Sage Samphire Sand Box Tree Sappadilla Tree Scallop Shell Scorpion of the Lizard Kind Scuttle Fifli Surinam Scorpion Sea Scorpion . Wild Senna, or, the wild Cafiia Fiftula Senfible Plant Shooting Sea EgoShaddock Tree ^ Shaddock Tree, the lefTer Wild Shaddock Tree Shark, aFifli . Shells, and Shell Fifli ^ ._ Siliquofe Trees, Shrubs, and Plants Silver leav'd Plant Wild Slip Snakes Snake Wood Snail Soap Berry Bufh Soap Fifh Sober's Plant Sodom and Gomorrah, their DeRrudion culous ; Nature of the Soil in Barbados • Soldier Bufh Sour Sop Tree South Sea Rofe Sorrel Wood Sorrel White Spanifh Aai Spanifh Afh Spanifh NeedleSparrow Sparrow, the lefTer Floufe Spider Black SpiderField Spider Spirit Weed Spire Shell Springs, the chief in Barbados Squafhes Star Fifh Stature of the Negroes age 219 221 2S7 ib. 28S 279 220 114132 283 305 25S 204 198 2S0 324 ib. 312' 16'j 181 222 37288 223 257 149 306 218 mira^9 i6r 218 204 203 191 189 214 74 ib. 9^ 284 43 ^?7 i> copper 4 \

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INDEX. Stopper Berry Tree Siorm, a remarkable one Defcription of a Storm in Job defended Sea. Sucker '• Sugar Apple Tree Superftition of Negroes Sweet-Heart — Sweet Wood Tree Page 176 28 129 16 • ^57 T. T^ALE, often found mix'd in the Barbados Tammattas Tammarind Tree "Wild Tammarind • Green Tar in Barbados, and how gathered Its medicinal Quahtics Teal, a wild Bird — Texts, many in the Old Tcftament, not flood, thro* the Ignorance of the Land lefline Thillle, or Rabbit Weed Black Thorn — — Holy Thorn • — • — White Thotn _ Thermopyls, its Streights defcribed Thrufh, two Species ot them in Barbados Tides in Barbados — Top Shell — — Toad Filh — — i,— Tobacco — Tortoife — Chief Towns Indian Towns difcovered In Barbados American Torch — Trade Winds Triangular Buccinum — • Triangular Fifli — Triton*s Trumpets — — Red Trubba — — Tubee Rofe AVild Tulip Hen Turd • Turky Weed Turk's Head Turtle Dove Large Turtle Dove Two Penny Chick Soil of 55 148 215 50 ib. 77 underofPa46 172 222 194 24 72 50 286 302 171 308 6 7 3 285 305 283 148 172 229 ^55 219 226 70 ib. 71 V. VErvaine Sea-fide Vine Silver Vine Flog Vine Wild Vine 149 243 ib. ib. 242 \v. WAtcr in Barbados (various) The fpecilic Gravity of it with fome remarkable Spaws A Table of the fpecific W^eight of Inches of this Water compared W^ell, what in Scripture Wells in Barbados — 4.^ compared ib. 15 cubical 45 44 The Water in Mr. Osborne's W^ell proved to excel all other The Water of Springs and ver Water W"eeds Narrow leav'd Sea Weed Pond Weed — Black fringed Sea Weed Fringe Sea Weed White narrow leav'd Sea Weed Long brown Sea Weed White broad leav'd Sea Weed Pale green Sea Weed Brown leav'd Sea W^eed WMiite ?ea Weed New-England Sea Weed RuITet narrow leav'd Sea Weed Feather Sea Weed — Sea Jew's-Ears — Orange Colour Sea V/eed Black branching Sea Weed Pennated Sea Weed Green broad leav'd Sea Weed Red leav'd Sea Weed Grape Sea Weed Wilk Shell Blue and White White Wood Tree French Willow Red Willow White Willow Black Willow Dog's Willow, or Rat's Bane Wyths and Vines — Poifon Wyth Black Bafkec Wyth Cow Gut Wyth Honey Wyth Pudding Wyth Poifon Wyth Y. YAMS, an eatable Root Prickly Yams Wild Yams Yellow Bird — Wild Yam Vine — ib. Wells purer than Ri45 252 i7r 252 ib. ib, 253 ib. ib. ib. ib. 254 ib. ib. ib. "ib. ib. ^55 ib. ib. 256 2S2 ib. J92 -133 196 ib. ib. 201 242 J 66 242 ib. ib. ib. 244 226 227 ib. t. ^ 75 24.12 FINIS.

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L T L 4 -4 ^ X p^ I t-r r^ ^ *^ t ^ n ^ < \ 1 Ti

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'^ A D D E N D A; L -/ To tJoe Account of the Murex, ending in Page 275, add^ TH E feveral Author^ \vlib Have treated of the Shell-fifli which produces the Purple, have, in defcribing it, promifcuoufly made ufe of the Words Conchylium^ Purpura^ Murex^ and OJlru77i: All thefe arc here convertible Terms, or figuratively applied to exthe Tindure it emits, or the and prefs either the Shell or Shelf fifh. The Greeh call'd all Shells Conchs Purple or Crimfon itfelf. that which afforded the Purple was, by way of Eminence, called the Co7tch. From hence Plautus calls purple Tapeftry conchyiiata tapetia. Juvenal and Martial have follow'd the Greeks in calling this the Conch, Horiun ego non fug^a'm tonchyUa, JUVEN. ill. 81^ n w Ebria Sidonice cuM fint def anguine concha. Mart; There are two Sorts of Shells that are fo term d : The molt generally fo called, is that defcribed and delineated by Rondeletius and others; this is ftudded with feveral long Prickles, forhe of them chanell'dj and open on one Side. Thro' thefe Fiffures it is faid that the Tongue of the Murex darts into the other leffer Shell-fifh, which thefe Prickles had before perforated, and thus feed upon them. The other is of the Buccinum Kind we have already defcribed and deliheated. . The learned Fahius Golumna^ as well as many antient Authors fay, that this is the peculiar Charaderiftic of the true tyrian Purple, and that the other Conchy or MureXy emits a Liquid which dyes a fine Violet Colour. That there were two Sorts of what is commonly called the Purple, is evident" from a PafTage m Pliny (i), where a Perfon is reprefented faying, Me juvene violacea purpura vigebat^ cujus libra (2) denartis centum venibat^ nee multo pofi rubra Tarentina. By r (i) Lib. 9. Cap. 29; t TIT '(2) Denarius was a Roman Peny, very near the Weigfit of the Attic Drachm, m our Money of the Value of Eight-pence Halfpeny Farthing -, feven ot them being made out of art Ounce Troy Weight in the Time of 'Tiberius. And we read of no higher Value cither btfore or after that Time ; which alfo continued legal Weight in the Time of Vefpaftan. After this they weigh'd lefs ; eight of them being made out of an Ounces which reduced them to Sevenpence Halfpeny of our Money; For whereas their Libra before contained but eighty-four, \t now contained ninety-fix of them. In the lower Empire they fcarce weigh'd halt fo much m pure Silver. Tho^ this was the Price of this Kind of Purple : Yet the lo-much valuable Tjn^;^ Srarlet was often fold for One thoufand Roman Denarii a Pound fo that it was ten timei as ''dear as the common Purple. 1, i f?

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N J I By the Help of this Diftindion between thefe two Colours, we (hall te able to throw Light upon feveral Paflages in the Claflic Authors, otherwife obfcure; among thefe that of Horace : Murke 7e bis Afro % 1 I Vejliu7it la?ia; Lib. IL Od. r 1 6. The lis ttJiBa hath been generally underftood by Critics of Cloth double-dy'd in the fame Materials, to give it a deeper Dye ; but may not we be of Opinion, that this fo much valued Tyrian Purple receiv'd firft the Tincture of the Violet Colour mentioned as above ? This being afterwards dyed in the deep Tyrian Red, the fecond Dying added a Rednefs to it, which could not have been done by being double-dyed in the Violet Colour, That there was one Kind of the Purple of the Antients of a deep Red hke Blood, is evident from that beautiful Allufion of Hoimr • TQV t^e I;Aabe 'TTOo^v^iog ^uvarQi xy.aca. icpccrcci-ij. '.'.' From the above-mentioned Mixture of the Violet Colour and the deep Tynan^ Red, arofe the moft beautiful, and fo valuabre flaming Purple, varying m Degrees, as the Violet, or the TjrianR^d, prevail'd. Thefe tvvo Colours feem to be hinted at by Catullus, who, fpeakin^ of the Marriage of Peleus and Thtis, fays, ^ w r n , TinBa tegit rofeo cG?7chjHs purpura fuco. r And that the latter of thefe was more valuable, appears from its far S dift^' Z ^t 'f ^'TJ'' •?""§ ™^^ ^^^1"^^% d^f-"b'd as the molt diftmguifhing Mark of Royalty. • Thus Firgil, ejlem prcstexiik oil, He I Amplexu caleat purpura reo-jo Et veftes Tyrio fangui7t& fit hid Alter virgineus 7tobilitet cruor. Lib. 5. V. 114 Many likewife are the Inftances in Claffic Authors, to prove that ^^ IS Ae^peeuhar Property of the Tyrian Mure, to dye red, or of a crimfon Colour. Ovrd

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. : Ovid fays, A DDEN D A. r ^^^ i^^ ^^ "fy^io 97turke laiia rubet. And Virgil^ F Ijr toque ar deb at murke ttena. ^f;u! IV. 26;3. r The fame Author elfewhere calls it the Purple of Sarra f. T C/if gemma hibaty et Sarrano dormiat ojiro, h r* From hence M//.?;? takes occasion to defcribe the Drefs of the Archangel defcending to the Earth. O'er his lucid Arms A 7mlitarj; Vejl of Purple Jlowd^ Livelier than Melibean, or the Grain Of Sarra, worn by Kings and Heroes old* r I Tarentum feems to be one of thole Places for preparing the Purple Dye, efpecially, as Pliny obferves, In the Time of Augujlus ; and the Ruins of the Buildings, as well as Heaps of broken Shells, remain'd there for feveral Ages after. As thefc Shells producing the Purple were found in the Mediterraiteaii^ this will perhaps help us to underftand the Force of that Line of Virgil^ '1 V nfii Georg. IV. v. 373. 1 Virgil likewife alludes to this, when he fays, i, LumenquS jtlventc^ Purpureum^ &^ Iceios oculis affldrat honor es. *^ J # ^L \ The fame Poet, defcribing the Funeral of Pallas, gives us to under ftand that this Colour was of great Efteem : J J L 7unc 'geminas vejles auroque ojlroque rigentes Extulit ^neas : quas illi Iceta laborum Jpfa fids quo7tda7?t manibus Sidonia Dido Pecerat, &* tenui telas difcreverat auro, Kn, XL yS. In *{ %ar was the Name of a Phxnkian City, afterwards called ^yrs.

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ADDENDA. In After-ages it became the diftingulfliing Mark of Royalty, and made no fmall Part of the Trcafures of the Eaftcrn Monarchs. For when Alexa7ider the Great had defeated Darius^ and taken the City of Sufa.h^ found among other Spoils to the Value of five thoufand Talents of Hermoiik Purple, that had been laid up in Store for near two hundred Years. In Procefs of Time it became (as we have faid) the Mark of Grandeur and Dignity : Hence to put on the Purple, was to affume the Government : And fometimes of Pride ; thus the rich Man is rcprcfented in Scripture to be cloathed in fine Linen, and Purple. And as the Roma7is had a Law forbidding all private Perfons the Ufe of purple Gar' ments, fo likewife none but Emperors, or fupreme Magiftrates^ were allow'd the Ufe of Purple, inftead of Ink : Hence many of tlic Royal Grants and Laws were fign'd with Purple ; and Pa7nphilus^ Apelles\ Mafter, made ufe of this Liquid in painting or enamelling upon Ivory, which was done by heating the Ivory to a great Degree, and then pouring into the engraved Lines this liquid Purple, Hence that Epigram of Martialy E7icaujles Phaeton tabula tibi piEl'us in hac ejl. ^uid tibi vis J Dipyron qui Phaetonta Jam f This Colour was fo admir'd by the Antients, that the Poets added the Epithet Purple to every thing that was rare, bright, or valuable. Hence, by a furprifing poetic Licence, Horace^ fpeaking of a Swan, fays that he was Purpureis ales olortbus% / T^AGE 195, Line x^y add^ The Flowers are fucc coloured Pods, thefe are deeply channeU'd, |fi| thin flielled Nuts.