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The Development and Spread of Gender Quotas in Western Europe Christine Csencsitz University of Florida firstname.lastname@example.org Paper prepared as a 2013 honors thesis in the Department of Political Science Thesis A dvisor: Dr. Dietmar Schirmer University of Florida Gainesville, Florida
Csencsitz 1 Table of Contents: Abstrac t Page 2 Introduction Page 2 Country Analyses Page 8 Norway Page 8 Sweden Page 13 Germany Page 17 France Page 24 United Kingdom Page 29 Transnational Analysis Page 35 Proportional Representation versus Plurality Systems Page 35 Role of Party Family Page 38 Tempo ral Page 42 Conclusion Page 45 References Page 47
Csencsitz 2 Abstract This paper aims to develop a thorough picture of quota development in Western Europe over the past 40 years, from the early stages of q uota implementation in the early 1970s in the Nordic region to the new developments being made in the Mediterranean countries as recently as 2009 The primary focus of this thesis will be on five individual country analyses each chosen as exemplars of som e aspect of gender quota development Through the analyses of Norway, Sweden, Germany, F rance, and the United Kingdom, this paper will provide examples of multiple types of quotas and illustrate how differences in electoral systems, constitutions, and cult ure s play a role in quota development and implementation. Introduction Gender quotas policies adopted at either the national level or by political parties, themselves, in order to bolster women' s representation in government are largely a new phenomenon in Western Europe. Appearing first in the early 1970s in the Nordic region, an area renowned for its social equality, these affirmative action policies have been responsible for a widespread increase in women's representation at the national level over th e past few decades After their appearance in this region, quotas seem to have spread transnationally in the ensuing years To date, they have been adopted, in some form or another, in over thirty European countries. Gender quota s are as diverse as the co untries that adopt them and a great deal of political science and gender studies research has been conducted regarding these policies It follows, then, that there is great debate about what prompts gender quotas to succeed in one country and fail in anoth er. As wi ll be discussed later, there is consensus within scholarly literature of the benefits of a proportional representation system over that of a
Csencsitz 3 plurality system in regards to quotas (Krook 2006, 113; Nanivadekar 2006, 119; Dahlerup and Friedenvall 20 05, 36). Electoral system is, therefore, considered to be a strong influence over the success of a quota campaign. The type of quota plays a role, as well. Generally speaking there are three types of quotas, with a fourth caveat: reserved seats, legislati ve quotas, party quotas, and soft quotas. Each has unique benefits and draw backs, as has been noted extensively by Krook (2009). Reserved seats, which designate certain legislative seats or districts for specifically female candidates, have yet to be adopted in Europe and are currently favored by African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries (Krook, 6). Legislative quotas have emer ged in a handful of European countries primarily in the Mediterranean region the most remarkable case being that of France but are certainly not the norm. Legislative quo t as are a newer type of quota, only reaching Europe in the 1990s, roughly two decades after party quotas first appeared. According to Krook, legislative quotas are far more popular in Latin America and "post conflict societies" (8). These quotas call for a constitutional amendment or a statutory law requiring parties to adopt a certain aff irmative action measure; they often come with penalties for noncompliance. Party quotas, the most widely seen quota in Western Europe, are measures passed specifically by the political parties themselves, often after pressure from women's groups or female constituents. These policies create targets in the number of female candidates that parties will run for parliamentary positions. T hese targets and goals (along with the targets and goals of legislative quotas) do not actually apply to the number of women
Csencsitz 4 elected, and, thus, a disparity often exists between the quota and the number of women actually within parliament. Beneath the umbrella of what are often referred to as hard party quotas are soft quotas the caveat mentioned above. Soft party quotas which are rarely even referred to as quotas at all are generally seen as targets or goals made by parties that are not specifically a quota policy; they set "informal targets and recommendations in relation to party candidate selection" as well as create a new criterion for internal party leadership and membership (Krook, Lovenduski, and Squires, 2009, 784). For example, many conservative parties throughout Europe oppose quotas, claiming that candidates ought to be selected on merit alone; however, some will ado pt soft quotas sometimes called "quorums" or simply targets, because they find them to be "less o bjectionable" (Krook, Lovenduski and Squires 2009, 797). Some countries have seen greater successes with gender quotas than others. Where Sweden has seen a n increase in the number of women in parliament of nearly 31 percent in the past 30 years, placing the current percentage of women in the national legislature near parity at 45 percent, Germany has increased the percentage of women in the Bundestag by about 18 percent since the adoption of quotas, for a total of 26 percent women in the legislature today. While both instances represent apparent successes for quota policies, scholars debate what causes such divergent achievements. In all, these variations large ly seem to be the result of country specific details, such as timeline in quota implementation, as well as cultural influences. A great deal of literature deals with the notion of "fast track" solutions versu s "incremental track" policies to explain quota successes and shortcomings. Dahlerup and
Csencsitz 5 Freidenvall distinguish between these two tracks by explaining how each tackles the problem of low female representation. The incremental track focuses on addressing equality of candidate's opportunity to run for o ffice by tackling inequalities within party and electoral structures, whereas the fast track addresses the equality of outcome by identifying and working with party gatekeepers "as key actors in the process of controlling women's access to politics" (Murray 2012 b 345). Sweden, for example, is considered an incremental track country, since the nation has been slowly developing its sense of parliamentary equality over many years, focusing more so on the sense of societal equality than any statutory ruling. Co mparatively, then, France could be considered a fast track country, since the nation adopted a legislative parity law, thus focusing its attention on an outcome of equality. This notion of a type of path either the fast track path or the incremental that countries take in implementing quotas is interesting and speaks to a larger idea of transnational spreading of quotas and trends seen spreading from country to country Previously, little research has dealt with a transnational aspect of quota diffusion. M any countries have been analyzed singularly especially countries such as Sweden and Norway, where women have made extensive electoral gains and compared to other neighboring countries, but little has been written about how quotas, which started as a Scandi navian phenomenon, spread throughout Western Europe. In general, leftist parties are more sympathetic to the idea of quotas and are typically the first parties to adopt such policies. Of such liberal parties, the Greens have been found to be most often th e policy entrepreneurs of party quotas. In many cases the Greens enter the political stage with a goal of equality already built within the party
Csencsitz 6 hierarchy as was the case in Germany, where, in 1986, the Greens adopted the country's first hard party quot a, calling for a gender neutral 50 percent policy This goal was achieved within two elections of their entrance into the Bundestag in 1983. If a Green party does not exist within a country, the role of policy entrepreneur usually falls to a Socialist par ty, as was the case in Norway, or another liberal party, such as the Liberal party in Sweden or the Labour party in the United Kingdom. After this, conservative parties within a country are typically forced to confront the quota issue; few adopt quotas. Ho wever, or, if a conservative party takes on any policy at all, they generally rely on soft quotas. The development of quotas in the early 1970s and their relatively rapid diffusion throughout the 1980s and 1990s speaks to this idea of transnational shari ng especially when one considers the order in which parties typically adopted quotas within countries In order to decipher what accounts for this diffusion of quotas, one must turn next, to the international stage. Diffusion of gender quotas was propell ed by international acts such as the United Nation's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the UN's Commission on the Status of Women's world conferences in particular, the 1995 Beijing Women's conference C EDAW, held in 1979, may account for some of the growth in quota use in the 1980s. The Beijing Conference, on the other hand, reaffirmed much of what CEDAW stood for and highlighted programs that lessened violence against women and increased general equalit y. The Beijing Conference Declaration speaks of taking "all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against womenand [removing] all obstacles of gender equality" so as to advance and empower women ("Beijing Declaration").
Csencsitz 7 CEDAW is her alded as international bill of rights for women and has been ratified by each European nation. By doing so, these UN member states have agreed to a series of anti discrimination measures put forward by the conference, such as embracing the principle of equality of men and women in their legal system" and "[abolishing] all discriminatory laws and [adopting] appropriate ones prohibiting discrimination against women" ("Convention on the Elimination of ") In relation to CEDAW, quotas are often discussed as acceptable temporary measures that should be adopted in order to bring about an increase in women's equality within, in this case, national legislatures. The approval, then, of quotas by this conference and the Beijing Declaration can be seen as a likely i nstigator of quota growth in the late 20 th century. As countries began to see quotas as a viable option through international law, they surely would have been more willing to adopt them for themselves. Bearing these fundamentals in mind, I turn now to five individual country analyses in order to illustrate the spread of quotas and hurdles that political parties have faced in their implementation. The countries included are: Norway, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. Norway and Sweden exemplify proportional representation countries, and Germany a personalized prop ortional representation system. Both t he United Kingdom, a first past the post system, and France, a two round system, illustrate cases of quotas in plurality states. Furthermore, both the United Kingdom and France have overcome legal battles in their use of quotas. Following these case analyses, I will discuss factors conductive to the transnational spread of quotas that have affected these policies spread.
Csencsitz 8 Country Analyses Norway When discussing gender quotas and their first appearances in Europe, Norway is undoubtedly considered a forerunner of these policies, having adopted their first party quota in 1975. Norway constitutes one of the first European countries with a hard quota that is, an officially implemented quota, as opposed to a target or recommendation and continues to be a leader in women's representation today. This unusual succ ess is perhaps what makes the case of Norway and its gender quotas so interesting. Despite not having actually met the quotas set out by the parties, Norway has continuously seen some of the highest levels of female representation in Europe, with women fil ling 39.6 percent of Parliament in 2009. Worldwide, Norway ranks 10 th in women's representation, behind Sweden which is ranked fourth ("Women in Parliaments"). The country has not adopted a legislative quota, as has been the case with countrie s such as F rance and Spain, and, instead, relies on the voluntary quotas implemented by parties in the system. Because of this, only some of the parties have quotas; others have kept their distance from such measures entirely. While "equality is not constitutionally entrenched," as it is in France and Spain, the country's positive action is anchored by the Gender Equality Act of 1979, which applies to society at large and, perhaps more importantly, "encourages the use of positive action" and calls for "equal opportuni ties" to be given to men and women in fields of "education, employment and cultural and professional advancement" (Russel and O'Cinneide 596; The Act Relating
Csencsitz 9 to Gender Equality" ). Much of this act is built around the understanding that the protocols set forth by the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) of December 18, 1979 are to be held as Norwegian law to include the Optional Protocol of October 6, 1999 a notion that speaks to the transnation al sharing of quota and equality policies. The Gender Equality Act permits, under Section 3, the use of "indirect differential treatmentif the action has an objective purpose that is independent of gender, and the means that is chosen is suitable, necess ary and is not a disproportionate intervention in relation to the said purpose" ( The A ct Relating to Gender Equality." ). At first glance, this seems to speak against the use of quotas. However, Section 3a speaks directly to the case of affirmative action and considers "different treatment that promotes gender equality" to not be in conflict with the aforementioned section. Later, in Section 21, the Act stipulates four explicit provisions that apply to elected and appointed governmental positions. The most pertinent to national legislative elections is Section 21.4, which calls for "at least" 40 per cent of each gender to be included. This 40:60 ratio is considered gender neutral and is seen quite a lot as a party level quota. Regardless, the Gender Equality Act is n ot, strictly speaking, a legislative quota and the nation continues to use only party level quotas. Overall, Norway, a proportional representation system that relies on party lists, has a political system where elections are, according to Matland "first and foremost competitions between parties and not between individuals" ( 1993, 745). Bearing this in mind, one can see how positioning on a party list is, therefore, important to a quota's success. If citizens are casting votes for parties, as oppo sed to specific people, it is easy to
Csencsitz 10 overlook female candidates, especially if they are placed lower on the lists. Women's success in elections over the course of the party quota's timeline therein lies in the position in party lists and their movement fr om positions of relative insignificance to positions that they have could potentially or reliably win that is, positions that have been historically saved for male candidates. These changes speak to societal changes at large, an d women's position within ev ery day life, but perhaps, more importantly, in women's rise within the political parties themselves. Turning now to the individual party quotas of Norway, one sees that change did not come all at once but, instead, the growth of the female presence in th e Norwegian parliament has been a multi decade process that continues to unfold today. By looking at growth ranging from the election of 1961, 14 years before the first official party quota was adopted, to the elections of 2009, one sees a general trend of growth. Where, in 1961, the legislature held 13 women members of parliament, accounting for 8.7 percent of the governing body, in 2009, 67 women were elected to this national office filling 39.6 percent of seats The Socialist Left a party that calls for "a society without class differences and social in justice," implemented this first quota, setting the bar at 40 per cent, and has retained this objective ever since ("English Sosialistisk Venstreparti"). In 1977, both the Liberal and Socialist Left par ties promoted plans to boost their rates of female candidateship to 50 percent; Matland cites this as the moment when women in parliament moved away from being tokens and moved towards critical mass and gender equality within the legislature (1993, 784).
Csencsitz 11 Besides the Socialist Left the Labour Party and the Center Party employed hard quotas in the 1980s and continue to use them to this day, wit h the former calling for 50 per cent women on their list, with one of the first two names being female, as well, and the latter simply a 40 per cent quota ("Norway"). The Labour Party adopted their quota in 1983 and the Center Party followed suit in 1989 The Christian Democrat Party a conservative group, employs more of a soft quota in the development of their part y lists, which calls for a "strong recommendation to ensure goo d representation" of gender (as well as notably, age), which "usually results in every second person on the list being of different genders" ( Gustafsson ). Meanw hile, the Conservative Party wh ich elected 9 women to parliament in 2009, has yet to adopt a quota, but applies, in principle, a 40 per cent quota (Russell and O'Cinneid 2003, 579). The percentages of women elected by party took off around 1977, arguably because of the quotas adopte d by the Liberal and Socialist Left, which would have
Csencsitz 12 prompted some kind of contagion amongst their peers who would now be competing for women's votes. The Socialist Left, from 1973 to 1977, saw a positive change of over 30 percent and has remained relativ ely stable since then, averaging roughly 43 percent women MPs per election. Interestingly, however, the Liberal party saw no change after the adoption of their quota and, in fact, did not elect another woman until the 1997 election, in which women constitu ted 16.67 percent of the party's MPs. However, in 2009, the Liberal party was the first party to elect only women to Parliament; the party elected two women in that election cycle. The Center party sees a jump in the percentage of women elected after thei r 1989 quota by 22.57 percentage points. The Labour party, which stipulated that one of the first two names on their candidate list had to be female, sees the most sustained growth, gradually increasing in the 1970s, electing, on average, 50 percent women throughout the 1990s and 2000s.
Csencsitz 13 An interesting find in the case of Norway, however, is seen when the total percentage of women elected to office throughout the 1961 2009 time period is plotted. The graph above reveals an unsurprising upward trend in the number of women elected each year, which dropped slightly in the early 1990s. What is noteworthy, however, is the slope at which women 's representation began to rise before quotas were adopted in the mid 1970s. The election of 1973 saw a jump by 10 for the number of women elected or an increasing of 6.2 percent which speaks to internal mechanisms enforced by parties to r un more female candidates, as well as the existence of soft quotas of targets and recommendations and of a larger societal shift towards equality. The sustained growth seen after the first quotas' implementation speaks to the country's overall success. Sin ce 1977, the Norwegian Parliament has contained, on average, 34.4 percent women, with its highest percent 39.6 percent having been elected in 2009. Overall, it appears as if Norway's upward trend will be maintained in upcoming elections and the country wil l continue to be an exemplar of women's representation. Sweden Sweden, a progressive Nordic country is renowned for it s social equality and "commitment to the principle of inclusionary and equal citizenship" (Lister 2009, 246). This principle of equal ity extends into the country's legislature. Sweden has often been used as an example of democratization and development in the battle against not only social inequality but also representative inequality (Lister 2009, 243). Based on their 2010 elections, Sweden is fourth in the world in regards to women's representation in
Csencsitz 14 national politics ("Women in Parliaments"). Of the 349 seats in the lower house in Sweden, 156 seats, or 44.7 percent, are held by wom en. Furthermore, Sweden is ahead of all other European countries on this list; the next European country to appear on the list is Norway in 11 th place. The question of Nordic success puzzles many gender quotas scholars. A great deal of political science research has focused on whether the case of Sweden can be replicated in other countries throughout Europe and elsewhere in the world, or if it is only able to flourish in Sweden and it's closest neighbors. If it is the latter, scholars debate what makes th is so. Some argue that Sweden's situation contains a certain path dependency, which makes the country into an ideal scenario for quota implementation that fits with the country's specific situation (Lister 2009, 246). Sweden's success with women's repr esentation starts, first and foremost, with the country's constitutional equality clause, which "explicitly allows for positive action, if part of a strategy in order to achieve equality between men and women" ( Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 595). Quotas fir st appeared here in 1972, in the form of internal quotas introduced by the Liberal party for boards and committees. This policy was later extended to general elections in 1984, serving as the nation's first electoral party quota. The Christian Democrats fo llowed suit in 1987, adopting a gender neutral 40 percent quota. In the 1990s, the Conservative party (1993) and the Central party (1996) took up "equal representation targets" but reserved final say of candidate lists to the nomination committees ("Sweden "). Specific party quotas aside, Sweden is well known for its varannan damernas system, a term that means "every other one for the ladies" (Krook, 121). This simply
Csencsitz 15 refers to the principle of alternation employed by party level quotas, which is similar t o the zippering policy employed by a number of other parties throughout Europe. This principle of electoral reform is the result of a lengthy period of women's mobilization, which began in the late 1960s and developed momentum in the late 20 th century (Kro ok 109). This early mobilization focused on securing seats within party committees in which "obligatory women" could be placed; they later evolved and developed a stronger focus on electoral representation itself in the 1980s and 1990s (Krook, Lovenduski, and Squires 2009, 800). In 1987, the Commission on the Representation of Women suggested that the government install targets for political party committees, in hopes that doing so would help bolster women's representation in elections. Furthermore, the com mission suggested that, if voluntary policies did not solve the problems at hand, then legal reform was recommended (Krook, 120). Ultimately, the legislative recommendation of varannan damernas was adopted by a number of parties in the form of party quota s, designed as the parties themselves saw fit. Party leaders tend to insist that this alternation principle, which, in practice, seems to result in a 50 percent quota, is not a quota,' but rather [a] principle," a naming nuance seen again in the case of France's parity law (Krook, Lovenduski, and Squires 2009, 800). This principle resulted in a number of policy changes for parties in the Swedish system. It was the recommendation of varannan damernas that prompted the Conservative party, for example to b egin to consider quotas after the 1991 election and ultimately adopt a 1993 target. The Center party, similarly, did not adopt varannan
Csencsitz 16 damernas as a whole, but, instead, began by agreeing to "insert women as substitutes" if cabinet members were forced to step down from their parliamentary seat (Krook, 125). Overall, Sweden has seen a trend of growth since the early era of quotas in the 1970s. In 1970, the Swedish parliament held 14 percent women, a number which, when compared to a peer in equality, Norway which held roughly 9 percent in 1969 depicts Sweden as a head of the curve. Despite some small drops in representation, which occurred in 1982, 1991, and 2010, the country has achieved previously unheard of success in comparison to its European peers. Toda y, Sweden's representation hovers near 45 percent. In many ways, the extraordinary success that Sweden has achieved, combined with the country's longstanding history of women's mobilization and cultural equality through establishments such as constituti onal rights and welfare statism, cannot be viewed as part of the norm. That is to say, the record of nearly 45 percent women's
Csencsitz 17 representation held by Sweden should not, in reality, diminish the United Kingdom and Germany's respective 22 and 26 percent. Swe den, as well as its Nordic neighbors, has relied on what many scholars call "the incremental track" of gender quotas, which "focuses on addressing structural inequalities" (Verge 2012, 411). The incremental process compares to the fast track solution, seen in both the United Kingdom and Germany, which aims to foster an equality of outcome by identifying "party gatekeepers as key actors in the process of controlling women's access to politics" (Murray 2012 b 345). These fundamental difference s in methods can help to explain some of the unusual success of Sweden and it's peer, Norway. Sweden's basis of success developed over time it took the country roughly 60 years to achieve a level of 20 percent women's representation and another 10 years af ter that to reach 30 percent. Dahlerup and Freidenvall argue that countries that are new to quotas are "unwilling to wait so long" (2005, 27). Germany Germany is an interesting case to study in regards to gender quotas for a number of reasons, but lar gely because of the evidence of contagion seen between parties in the late 1980s. Fundamentally, Germany is a personalized proportional representation system, in which a large portion of legislators are chosen by proportional representation with the rest r eceiving direct mandates; the country relies on party level quotas to bolster female representation. While Germany lacks a nationally implemented gender quota specifically, the Basic Law (Grundgestez), the nation's main constitutional document,
Csencsitz 18 states in A rticle 3 that, first, "all women are equal before the law" and, secondly, "men and women have equal rights Furthermore, it states that "the state shall seek to ensure equal treatment of men and women and to remove existing disadvantages" ("Basic rights") Besides the Basic Law, the Federal Law for Equal Rights of 1994 (Bundesgleichstellungsrecht) applies specifically to public servants and calls for women to be promoted in under represented areas through "binding quotas" in "accordance with the principles of aptitude, qualifications and professional ability" (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 598). In 1986, the Greens adopted their first formal quota the "women statute" which calls for an alternation between male and female candidates throughout the party list with a woman heading the list at the top slot (Russell 2003, 600 ; Davidson Schmich 2008, 6 ). This is, in effect, a 50 percent quota and reflects a fundamental tenant of Green party ideology, seen both in and outside of Germany women's equality. However, it should be noted that this is only the first time that the German Greens officially codified their equality measures; before this, the party had a soft quota calling for a 50 50 split of genders from the inception of the party at the end of the 1970s onward (Geissel and Hust 2005, 229). In the case of formal quotas, the Greens could be seen as "policy entrepreneurs," since they are a newer party with much less of an established electorate than their peers thus, they had less to lose than the mor e established parties and were the first to implement such a policy (Caul 2001, 1218). The case of the German Greens a party that, from its inception, worked to bolster women's representation both inside the party hierarchy and in its political presence illustrates that quotas have led to substantial increases in women's
Csencsitz 19 representation in certain cases Despite a drop in the number of MPs elected after the 11 th legislative period (1987 1990, in the years immediately following the first election in which the party employed a hard quota) in which the Greens elected nearly 60 percent women MPs the number of women elected by the party today rests at nearly 40 of 68 MPs, averaging around 57 percent women elected per election for the last few elections. This co ntrasts with the party's first mandate in 1983, which brought 37.03 percent female Greens into parliament. It was the Green party's actions as such policy entrepreneurs that prompted competitive quotas amongst other German parties. Quickly, more established parties began to lose a number of women voters to the Greens. This prompted quick action in the Social De mocrat Party (SDP); within two years, the Social Democrats introduced their first set of internal quotas (Russell 2003, 601). Caul notes that this quota adoption was the result of an electoral rivalry between the two parties; by adopting their first quota, the Social Democrats were implementing a "strategy to win back women's votes lost to the Greens" (2001, 1216). The Social Democrat's quota evolved throughout the 1990s, increasing the percentage of the quota every few years, until they reached a call for 40 percent of each gender to be included in all "boards and lists" ("Germany"). This 40 percent quota remains in place today. Besides the Greens and the Social Democra ts, the German Socialist Party calls for a 50 percent quota, which they implemented at t heir inception in 1990, while the Christian Democrats adopted a 30 percent soft quota, called a "women's quorum in 1996. As a conservative party, the Christian Democrat's, stance on quotas is interesting; though they have yet to wholeheartedly accept affi rmative action, they have
Csencsitz 20 made significant strides to bolster equal representation. In addition to their "women's quorum," they call for one third of their internal party positions to be filled by women, which speaks to the party's dedication towards furth ering women in the party (Dahlerup and Freidenvall 2013, 61 2). The "women's quorum" may be circumvented, however, in the event that the party, "after a concerted effort," does not find enough "qualified female candidates" to run (Davidson Schmich 2008, 6) Thus, the Christian Democrats are willing to further the cause of equality, though they are not willing to take on unqualified female candidates at the expense of qualified male candidates. This notion of the need for merit based candidacies ahead of qu otas seems to run through transnational conservative ideology and can explain some of the hesitancy that such right wing parties have in regards to quotas. With the Christian Democrats and their sister party, the Christian Social Union, it is of interest to distinguish between the candidates elected through proportionally representative manners as opposed to those with direct mandates, since the Christian Democrats generally have strong successes in regards to direct mandates. In the 17 th legislative perio d (2009 2013), the Christian Democrats, alone, earned a total of 180 direct mandates while the Christian Social Union, by itself, won 43. In all, the conservative parties of Germany won 223 out of the 299 directly mandated legislators in the 17 th Bundestag (" Abgeordnete Des 17") Of those 223 conservative legislators, a mere 40 were women, making for a breakdown of 17.93 percent women. The percentage of conservative women elected through proportional representation is slightly higher with 20.1 percent. The discrepancy is, perhaps, somewhat normal, since a similar disparity is seen with the Social Democrats (the party elected 38.35 percent female legislators
Csencsitz 21 through proportional representation as opposed to 30.64 percent through direct mandates). However, as the Christian Democrats and the Christian Social Union maintain such a strong combined presence in the direct mandate races, it would be of interest to see the parties push more actively to achieve their women's quorum of 30 percent. Based on the widespre ad use of quotas, it is clear that parties are finding use in affirmative action policies, which have been called for and accepted by the public; according to Russell and O'Cinneide, many parties are now viewing quotas as "a sign of modernity" (2003, 600). As quotas become more commonplace and accepted among party elite, the prospect for women in political office rises. Overall, there seems to be a general trend of growth in women's numbers in the Bundestag; the 1 st legislative period (19 49 1953) having ele cted 30 women, in total, while the latest has elected 164, resulting in a percentage differential of 18.57 percent between these legislative period. However, in recent years, there has been an overall dip in the number of women elected; the average is most likely the result of a rather dramatic fall in the number of
Csencsitz 22 Social Democratic women elected. The Social Democrats, around the 11 th and 12th legislative periods, had great electoral success and, because of this, brought larger numbers of Social Democratic women and Social Democratic MPs as a whole into parliament. In the 14 th legislative period (1998 2002), 10 years after the party im plemented their 40 percent quota, women accounted for 35.23 percent of the party's elected MPs. The party remains a forerunner in percentage of women elected to the Bundestag in more recent elections: since 1998, the Social Democrats have elected an averag e of 36.9 percent women MPs each election cycle. Interestingly, the Christian Democrats saw a large jump in the number of women elected immediate ly preceding their 1996 adoption of the "women's quorum." Since then, their numbers have continued to rise stea dily, peaking during the 15 th legislative period of 2002 2005. This case, perhaps, speaks to the power of soft quotas, as well as to the potential success for conservative parties that choose not to adopt the typical party quotas that we see most often in liberal parties.
Csencsitz 23 Overall, in Germany, there is a dramatic rise in both the number and percentage of women elected to office between the 10 th and 14 th legislative periods. The 10 th legislative period (1983 1987) coincides with the beginnings of hard p arty quotas in the country, as well as the first year that the Greens held seats in the Bundestag. This general trend speaks to the success of quotas in the country over the past thirty or so years. The drop that is seen after the 14 th period, however, wi ll be interesting to watch in the future. The decrease in the number of women elected by the Social Democrats affects the national average dramatically, even if the party's percentage of women elected remains roughly the same. This drop in the number of wo men elected should not be taken as indication that quotas are not effective, however; in the cases of the Greens and the Christian Democrats, the number of women elected to the Bundestag continues to rise and their percentage of women MPs remain fairly sta ble, despite some small fluctuations.
Csencsitz 24 The Free Democratic party should be noted as an interesting case, as the party has never considered adopting quotas, and, yet, sees an influx of women being elected into office. Like the other parties mentioned, the F ree Democrats began to see growth in the 10 th legislative period and have, since then, maintained an upward trend of women MPs. Such developments by parties that lack formal quotas speak to a societal shift towards equality and, perhaps, a greater acceptan ce of women as political candidates. France France is a unique example in regards to gender quotas in that the country's call for equality is now constitutionally cemented. While other countries have equality clauses in laws that allow for the legal us e of quotas (for example, the United Kingdom and Norway ), constitutional amendments that mandate affirmative action policies are decidedly less common. Furthermore, France does not have a "gender quota" law, but, rather, a "parity law," which calls for a g ender neutral balance of men and women in Parliament. The stipulation in name is central to this case, since France, by constitutional law, does not allow for affirmative action in the form of quotas. However, this nuance boils down to a 50 50 quota, but the mentality behind it is important by creating a gender neutral policy, France created a policy that "distinguishes itself from quotas by its very philosophy" and contains an important symbolic aspect that seems to call more for societal chan ge than a typical quota would (Murray 2012 b 347). As was the case in the United Kingdom, France faces difficulties with quotas due to its plurality based electoral system. The French Senate, the upper house, is indirectly
Csencsitz 25 elected and the placement of men and women on the candidate lists is subject to the constitutional law of equality; men and women are alternated throughout the list. The National Assembly, the lower house, uses a two round system, which is fundamentally a plurality system with a run off in the event that no candidate or party earns an absolute majority in the original election. The National Assembly is generally the focus of quota studies and will be referred to throughout this analysis. For both houses, if the final candi date list is not made in accordance with the constitutional legislative quota policy, then the list will be invalidated ("France"). Quotas emerged in France in the early 1970s. The Socialist Party adopted a 10 percent quota in 1974 and slowly increased the percentage every few years so that, by 1990, the party called for a 30 percent quota ("France"). Though the party did not have a hard party quota, the Greens also called for more women to be elected and relied on their own foundation of equality to guide their candidate lists from their inception in 1984 onward ("France"). Legal questions arose, however, in the late 1990's, which prompted the constitutional and electoral law changes that produced the parity law in 1999 and 2000 (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003 588). The nature of parity the call for equal numbers of men and women in parliament circumvented the constitutional ban on favoritism for one gender in the form of quotas and was, thus, legal. There were a number of complaints against the Parity Law per haps most notably from certain feminist groups who claimed that the gender neutral policy was "essentialist, patronizing and a dangerous move away from formal equality to the legal recognition of gender differences" (Murray 2012 b 348). Reg ardless of such objections, the Parity Law was passed and remains in effect to this day.
Csencsitz 26 This was, however, not the first time that the question of quotas' legality had arisen in France. In 1982, the previous Socialist government had attempted to instituti onalize positive action towards women who run for public office, but the Counseil Constitutionnel condemned the legislation before it could be put into effect (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 602). This ruling did not affect voluntary party quotas, though, wh ich have been considered legal throughout this time. Thus, France's two fold experience with legality challenges illustrates the lengthy relationship the country has had with affirmative action for women in politics, even if only a few parties (the Social ist Party and, arguably, the Greens) have enacted party level quotas. Debatably, the French Parity system is "one of the most radical quota policies in Europe" since, comparatively, so few countries rely on legislative quotas and even fewer go so far as to call for parity (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 588). This history, the fact that there are sanctions for noncompliance (a typical problem for quotas), and the qualification of the parity laws as "radical," perhaps, makes it even more surprising that, despi te the enactment of the 2000 Parity Law, women comprises a meager 18.54 per cent of the 2007 National Assembly. There are a number of arguments for why this is so. Murray notes that, since zippering is not a possible tactic in this case since France's Nati onal Assembly elections deal with single member districts, women have tended to be placed in unwinnable seats thus, the number of women candidates seems to continuously and significantly exceed the actual number of women elected ( 2012 a 740) Another argument arises from access to positions in lower levels of government, since it seems that these positions often spearhead political careers; if the number of women in
Csencsitz 27 local office and lower levels of government do not rise, it seems to follow t hat the levels at the national level will stay similarly stagnant (Murray 2012 b 355). Arguably, however, since France relies on a plurality based system and, as such, lacks the cohesive proportional representation system, which has helped amplify the effects of quotas elsewhere in Europe the Parity Law may simply take longer to produce dramatic change. In all, the growth due to the Parity Law in France has been "incremental," and has slowly strengthened over the past 13 years; undoubtedly, this process will only continue in the future (Murray 2012 b 356). Though parity has not yet been reached, that is not to say that women's presence in French parliament is not markedly higher than in previous decades. In 1973, seven wo men were elected to the National Assembly. They amounted to 1.43 percent of the entire body of 490 legislators. This contrasts sharply with the results
Csencsitz 28 of the 2007 election, in which 107 women were elected of the 577 legislators, thus placing women as 18.5 4 percent of this governing body. As illustrated in the graph, despite a small drop in the 1988 election, amounting to a temporary loss of roughly three percent, the numbers of women in the National Assembly have continuously risen since 1973. In all, th e example of France illustrates the power of legislative affirmative action policy over a plurality system, which speaks to the prospective success of such policies in other first past the post systems. Like in the United Kingdom in the years following the implementation of the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act of 2002, France saw a jump in the number of women elected to the National Assembly in the years immediately following the enactment of the Parity Law in 2001, with the largest increase so far occurring in the 2007 election, when an additional 36 women were elected to the governing body, increasing the percentage of women in the National Assembly from 12.31 percent to 18.54 percent in one election cycle. Though the parity law has not yet ac hieved its intended goal, it has garnered other victories namely a normative shift in society in regards to gender relations and equality. In a system that was constitutionally opposed to quotas, the Parity Law has caused the percentage of women in the Nat ional Assembly to increase 7.62 percent. Such growth is unlikely to falter in the near future, but it will require some more time and patience.
Csencsitz 29 United Kingdom In Europe, few examples exist of nations that have attempted to implement quotas in a plur ality system. The vast majority of quotas are adopted in proportional representation systems, and a number of scholarly articles discuss the advantages of such systems when it comes to bolstering representation of a single group. Proportional representatio n systems prove beneficial and conductive to quotas primarily because they lack the definitive winner take all aspect of plurality systems. In a first past the post country, for a woman to win an election, a man must lose. This is not the case in proportio nal representation systems, in which a woman may be elected alongside a man in multimember districts, thus making quotas seem less threatening to the status quo. Typically, then, plurality systems are seen as a hindrance to quotas. The case of the United K ingdom offers insight into this relationship. The United Kingdom, functioning under a first past the post system, offers an interesting look into the case of quotas in a plurality system that has developed in the fairly recent past over the past thirty yea rs or so. This case is also of interest in that the nation experienced battles over the legality of gender quota practices. The United Kingdom's lack of a written constitution combined with its absence of any kind of legally binding guarantee of equality a nd a lack of governmental control over the ac tions of the political parties creates a larger threat of legal difficulties with quotas than is seen in their continental neighbors (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 589). Quotas first emerged in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, when both the Labour party and the Liberal Democrats adopted internal quotas that would apply for "party
Csencsitz 30 committees, conferences, and offi ces, but not for public office" (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 590). T he Conservative party was, at the time, and remains today, largely uninterested in adopting formal quotas, which is unsurprising based on their ideology, although they do attempt to run at least 10 p ercent women in each election ( Krook 135). These internal quotas were not what caused legal trouble for the country, however, and thus these quotas remained unchallenged. The controversial quota policy of the Labour party called all women shortlists,' or AWS, adopted in 1993, are what would go on to become legally objectionable. AWS required local Labour parties in half of the winnable constituencies that did not have an incumbent Labour MP to offer candidate lists that were constructed entirely of women (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 590). This system produced a strong growth in t he number of women elected by the Labour party in the mid 1990s; AWS was directly responsible for the election of thirty three women to "key target seats" and two women who replaced outgoing Labour MPs (Krook 139). In 1992, one year before the implementati on of AWS, the Labour party elected 37 women, 13.65 percent of their total 271 candidates, to Parliament. I n 1997, they elected 101 women, 24.16 percent of their total 418 MPs. This roughly 10.5 percentage point increase registers rather dramatically when plotted, with the divergence between the percentages of women elected by party taking off after 1997. Perhaps unsurprisingly, however, the dramatic changes prompted backlash that erupted less than five years after the policy was adopted.
Csencsitz 31 In 1997, the AWS system was officially challenged in the courts in the case of Jepson and Dyas Elliott v. The Labour Party and Others Jepson and Dyas Elliot, Labour party members, brought the case forward after having been left out of the nomination process by their p arty in favor of women candidates (Krook 139). The case primarily cited the Section 13 of the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975, which speaks of the illegality of discrimination in professional settings (Krook 139; Sex Discrimination Act 1975") Ultimately, after dispute over whether a candidate for political office could be considered a profession under the Sex Discrimination Act, the Tribunal found that AWS violated the Act's employment clause, regardless, since it prevented men from being considered for ca ndidateship in AWS designated districts (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 591; Krook 140). The Labour party came to power in 1997 and quietly let go of the AWS policy. They turned, instead, to a unique twinning policy. Twinning in the United Kingdom
Csencsitz 32 differed from proportional representation systems since the United Kingdom has single member districts. Here, Labour called upon neighboring constituencies to choose candidates together and to ensure that one was a man and one was a woman. The effects of this twinn ing system were largely the same as those of AWS, since women were effectively placed as candidates in half of the seats available to the party, but Labour had minimized the chances of legality questions, since men were no longer completely overlooked for women ( Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 593). After the legal battle over AWS, questions continued to be posited about the place of the government in the affairs of political parties, especially in regards to quotas. This led to the proposal of the Sex Discri mination (Election Candidates) Act in 2001 and it's ultimate passage in 2002. This act provides for a statutory basis for quotas for the parties that chose to adopt them and has a fundamentally "permissive nature," which permits "but does not oblige" parti es to adopt quotas (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 611). Thus, though the United Kingdom does not have a legislative quota, they now provide for the legally protect right to adopt party level quotas. According to the law, quotas may be adopted "for the purpo se of reducing inequality in the numbers of men and women elected, as candidates of the party, to be members of the body concerned" ("Sex Discrimination"). It is interesting to note that the Act contains a sunset clause, which is set to expire in 2015. T hus, in 2015, the act may or may not be renewed. If it is not renewed, it will be interesting to see how the numbers of women elected to Parliament react. To date, little research has been conducted on what happens after a quota is removed; this would sure ly be an interesting case in that regard. McHarg argues that it is unlikely that the Act will
Csencsitz 33 not be renewed, however, since it is very doubtful that equal representation of the sexes will be achieved in the next two years (2002, 158). In the 2010 election of the 650 MPs elected, only 143 were women; thus, women accounted for 22 percent of Parliament. Although is shows great growth for women, especially when compared to the election immediately prior to the AWS adoption, in which 60 women were elected, it is hardly equal. In general, though fluctuations have occurred in the election of women to Parliament, the percentage of women in Parliament has grown rather rapidly since the mid to late 1 980s. When looking at number of women elected by party alone, it would appear as if the Conservatives elected fewer women in the late 1990s and early 2000s. This decrease is deceiving, however, since the Conservatives, withstood a loss of 171 parliamentary seats; despite this drop, their percentage of women in proporti on to their total MPs continued to rise.
Csencsitz 34 Overall, the proportion of women in parliament has continued to rise throughout the post AWS era. In 1964, women constituted 4.6 percent of Parliament; in 2010, they held 22 percent of seats. While there is still a large divergence from current levels and the sought after equality, the trend is positive. The growth since 1992 speaks to the success of the Labour party's quota policies, as well as a societal shift towards gender equality in politics. Despite these suc cesses, though, questions arise regarding the possible renewal of the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act in 2015. With so much ground left to cover, and the apparent lack of conflict caused by the Act, it seems reasonable to suppose that it will be renewed in two years. If this is the case, hopefully it will continue to bolster women's representation in the manner it has done since its implementation.
Csencsitz 35 Transnational Analysis Overall, though quota policies differ from country to country, they seem to follow some similar trends in their adoption at the national level. For example, as we have seen with each of the cases discussed so far, quotas have begun in parties of the left p rimarily the Socialists, Social Democrats, or Greens and shifted towards the right in their dispersal. Despite the fact that there are countless cultural and constitutional aspects affect the spread of quotas both within and outside of state borders, some of the primary influences can, in fact, be isolated for analysis; three such influences will be discussed here. First, as mentioned earlier, the influence of electoral system cannot be overlooked. The use of quotas in a first past the post system differs greatly from quotas in proportional representation systems, as made apparent by the country case analyses above. Secondly, a discussion of party family categorization reveals patterns of quota implementation that suits different parties' ideologies. Thirdl y and lastly, a temporal aspect plays a role. Quotas do not evolve in the same way in each country, and, in some cases, time seems to contribute to these distinctions. Proportional Representation versus Plurality Systems In scholarly quota research, there seems to be a reliance on viewing quotas in proportional representation systems as more typical than those found in plurality systems. This, perhaps, has to do with the successes seen in proportional representation countr ies
Csencsitz 36 with quotas thus far, such as the cases of Norway and Sweden. Cases such as the United Kingdom and France in which quotas battle the plurality systems in which they function are generally seen as exceptions to the European norm. Quotas are seen as m ore "compatible" with proportional representation systems and are often considered to be better able to ensure women's representation than their plurality counterparts (Dahlerup and Friedenvall 2005, 36). This view has held primarily because of the multi m ember districts of proportional representation systems, in which parties compete for a percentage of seats, as opposed to a single seat. When parties are competing for a single seat, a man must lose in order for a woman to win. In multi member districts, h owever, women may be elected alongside male counterparts, thus making the quota more palatable. Looking back at the previous country analyses, one notices that the plurality systems have dealt with more legal battles to quotas than the proportional repres entation systems. One could argue that, though this is a small sample, such disparities might have to do with popular sentiment towards quotas. In the case of the United Kingdom, for example, legal trouble brewed over the use of AWS, which all but eliminat ed the role of men on certain party candidate lists. In this case, the extreme affirmative action campaign in favor of women had the result of all but barring men from running as candidates for certain seats. Looking at the case this way, it is perhaps uns urprising that claims were made against this early British quota system. Though AWS was a successful strategy in that it facilitated the election of more women rather quickly (results were seen in one election cycle, as opposed to three, the number of elec tion cycles some scholars consider to be necessary to fully implement a new quota), the manner in which it achieved success
Csencsitz 37 was rather alienating (Verge 2012, 405). It represents a method adopted within a system new to the use of quotas; as a first try, AW S was successful. However, it required some alterations. Ultimately, the United Kingdom has come to a legal understanding on the use of quotas. Currently, the Liberal party and the Labour party employ quotas, with the Liberal party putting female candida tes in "40 percent of the winnable seats'" and the Labour party using a limited number of AWS in certain districts ("United Kingdom"). These less inflammatory methods have made for more prolonged success. Now, compare the United Kingdom to Norway, for ex ample. One sees that Norway developed quotas earlier, which speaks to the temporal aspect and will be covered momentarily, but, also, to the methods used by the parties adopting quotas. Labour in the United Kingdom was forced to maneuver around the single member districts with novel methods, thus leaving room for a question of legality, while Norwegian parties and especially other proportional representation systems that came later and used methods similar to those in Norway were able to seek to balance the number of male versus female MPs. Herein lies the fundamental difference that seems to differentiate proportional representation and plurality system quotas: where proportional representation systems are working to balance and achieve parity, plurality sy stems seem, in some ways, to force party level quotas to give what may be considered unfair attention to women at the consequence of men. Some may argue that, as a temporary matter, a quota that works as such is suitable; however, there is a fundamental pr oblem, it seems, with an affirmative action policy that would work so harshly against another group in
Csencsitz 38 order to benefit a minority. Therefore, we see the call for parity within France and the condemnation of the AWS system in the United Kingdom. Ultimatel y, the typical methods used in proportional representation systems namely, zippering have become tried and true measures throughout Europe. Though they may have been novel in Sweden and Norway, the trailblazers of quotas, zippering is now a common method. Thus, such methods are widely accepted and generally not seen as being in conflict with most countries' laws. Plurality systems, faced with a fundamental hardship in regards to quotas, must start from scratch when it comes to quotas. Because of this, it wi ll take time to catch up to their proportionally representative counterparts. The Role of Party Family Perhaps unsurprisingly, party ideology plays an important role in gender quota development. Fundamentally, leftist parties are most conductive to quo tas simply due to their liberal bases. Meanwhile, conservative parties are standoffish and relatively disinterested in giving one group such affirmative advantages over another, preferring to run candidates on the basis of merit (Verge 2012, 400). Certainl y, each case may be argued for. What are of importance to this analysis, however, are the similarities that permeate in party families across national borders. In each country that adopts quotas, there exists some form of entrepreneurial party the first party to adopt quotas in that particular nation. In Norway, it was the Socialist Left, in Germany the Greens, and, in the United Kingdom, Labour. Policy
Csencsitz 39 entrepreneurs are oftentimes newer parties, since newer parties have less to lose electorally, than th eir established counterparts (Caul 2001, 1218). Another factor that may contribute to this is simply the reluctance of in place party leaders or sitting MPs to give up their posts in order to create space for women. Scholars argue that the Greens, as a who le, are "policy entrepreneurs," in that, in many cases, they herald the cause of quotas first and most strongly in a particular country. The Green party movement, in general, bases its party on a platform of equality. Many individual Green parties employ s oft quotas within their party structure before turning to hard quotas for their electorate, as was the case in Germany. What makes the Greens policy entrepreneurs, so to speak, lies in their ability to test out hard quotas without fear of electoral backla sh (Caul 2001, 1218). As a whole, Green parties are fairly young having developed largely in the 1970s and 1980s; at the time of the first rounds of gender quota implementation just years after many of these parties formed the Greens did not have to fea r voter backlash in the same way that the more established parties did. If, for example, the Conservatives adopted a quota before having been pressured into it by contagion an unlikely scenario, but an illustrative one nonetheless then they would have had more to lose if the application went sour; if their party members did not like the quota implemented, many might turn away from the party and align themselves with another party of comparable ideology, thus lessening the electoral support for the conservat ive party by measurable amounts. For the Greens, however, it was the opposite that worked in their favor: oftentimes, voters particularly, women from other leftist parties in a certain country would align themselves with the Greens after quota implementat ion, thus detracting from
Csencsitz 40 the electoral success of other leftist parties, like the Socialists, Social Democrats or Liberals. This movement of voters has been seen as a cause of contagion within particular countries; the loss of female voters is often what prompts parties to adopt quotas. Besides this electoral competition, one might assume that more established parties were hesitant to adopt quotas because it meant current party elites and legislators would have to lose their positions in order for women to be brought into the party. Even if party ideology did not conflict with quotas, personal motive might have. In reality, it was probably a combination of this and electoral competition that prompted more established parties to eventually take on gender q uotas, following the lead of the Greens in these cases. In some cases, however, Greens were not the first to adopt quotas. In the cases discussed above, only in Germany did the Greens first adopt quotas. In Norway, for example, gender quotas appeared over a decade before the Green Party formed in the late 1980s In the absence of a Green party catalyst, another leftist party typically of the Socialist family, as seen in Norway and France prompts quota adoption Accordingly, the instigation of quotas by the United Kingdom's Labour party suits their particular par ty alignment system. An interesting aspect of contagion theory lies in the relationship of quotas and conservative parties, the last link in the timeline of quotas within countries. Many parties of the right throughout Europe have been prompted to react to quotas. Some respond in kind, with soft quotas or targets, while others condemn quotas entirely. The 33 percent "quorum" adopted by the Christian Democrats in Germany represents one of the more interesting responses of a conservative party to gender quo tas, since it shows an element
Csencsitz 41 of dedication and individualization to the quota process (Krook, Lovenduski, and Squires 2009, 797). Both the Norwegian Conservative party and the Swedish Conservative party's outright rejection of hard quotas is, perhaps, mo re typical; instead, the Norwegian Conservatives use "in practicethe same principle" of a 40 percent quota, though the policy is arguably a soft quota while the Swedish Conservatives take on "equal representation targets" though final say in candidate lis ts rests with nomination committees (Russell and O'Cinneide 2003, 597; "Sweden"). In relation to conservative party quotas, in the cases that do employ hard quotas, more instances of female candidates being run in unwinnable seats seem to appear. McHarg a rgues that this is the case in the United Kingdom, despite the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act's efforts. However disappointing this may be, it is still, in some ways, a positive, since the advancement of more conservative women into parliamen tary races seems to speak to the notion of contagion ( McHarg 2006, 147). In time, it seems, these token candidates and, in some cases, MPs, may reach a critical mass, thus ensuring stronger and more equal female representation from conservative parties. I n all, while each country, individually, must craft a quota policy that suits its own standards, so, too, must party families. As discussed, leftist parties are given a certain priority over these operations and, as the instigators of quota policies, have the chance to shape quotas within their country as a whole. Green parties, Social Democrats, and Socialist parties seem to hold special places in this particular grouping as they, most often, serve as the policy entrepreneur. Conservative parties, on the o ther hand, are left to play catch up, however they so choose.
Csencsitz 42 Temporal Besides electoral system and party family ideology, timing seems to play a key role in gender quota policies. It is no coincidence that some of the most successful cases have had ge nder quota policies implemented for over forty years now. Looking past the foundational basis of equality in the Swedish government and society, the country's first quotas were implemented in 1972. The sheer age of the quotas means that these policies in p articular have had much more time to mature and develop than policies seen in the United Kingdom, for example. The notion of timeline in regards to these policies speaks to the scholarly debate regarding fast track quotas and incremental track quotas. The incremental track that of Sweden, for example by its very nature takes more time than the fast track; it calls for a gradual development of women's representation, a tactic that seems to result in a slow growing, but more robust, slope over a longer perio d of time (Dahlerup and Friedenvall 2005, 30). Fast track countries, such as the United Kingdom, take a fundamentally different approach to quotas th an incremental track countries. The distinction seems to result in fast track countries trying to make up f or lost time. The British Labour party's use of AWS was meant to rectify a problem that Sweden has tackled over a span of no less than fifty years. As Russell and O'Cinneide write, the United Kingdom was "relatively late, in European terms, in adopting pos itive action measures for women" and, thus, their timeline differs greatly from those countries who adopted quotas in the 1970s and even 1980s (2003, 590). Though fast track countries have been successful in developing female representation, as of yet, non e have reached parity within their legislatures. Sweden is the closest to that goal, but still off by a handful of points.
Csencsitz 43 By turning to the Mediterranean countries, one sees the temporal effect of gender quotas compounded. Of this group, Spain has the hig hest percentage of women in parliament, with a respectable 36 percent; the country ranks 20th in the world for women's representation in parliament ("Women in Parliament"). Besides Spain, Italy, and Slovenia, each of which breaks the top 30, the Mediterran ean countries are decidedly behind in women's representation. Interestingly enough, the Mediterranean countries favor legislative quotas; this could be viewed as a sign of a fast track solution to the problem of women's underrepresentation. Of the 11 coun tries analyzed, seven have legislative quotas; only Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, and Malta rely on party quotas. Most of these legislative quotas, however, have been adopted in the past decade. Greece, for example, adopted a legislative quota in 2009 which call s for "at least one third of the total number of a political party's candidates in an electoral district" to be of each sex ("Greece"). Currently, Greece ranks 65 th in the world for women's representation with a parliament made up of 21 percent women. Con trast Greece, now, with Italy, a country that relies on party level quotas and, interestingly enough, only has one party using quotas currently. As a whole, Italy is a complicated, though interesting, case in regards to their relationship with quotas. Like France and the United Kingdom, Italy has dealt with constitutional challenges to affirmative action and, similarly, developed new ways of handling quotas. Italy's electoral system was changed in 1993 from a pure ly proportional representation system to som ething more akin to what we see in Germany today a personalized proportional representation system that, in this case, called for 75 percent of parliamentary seats to be
Csencsitz 44 elected in a plurality manner and 25 percent proportionally. Between 1993 and the most recent revision of the electoral system in 2005, laws were introduced to "ensure more gender balance, at least for the seats elected according to [proportional representation]," which were ultimately judged unconstitutional in 1995 (Palici di Suni 2012, 383). In 2003, looking to France's parity laws as an example, Italy amended their constitution to allow affirmative action; this alteration serves as the basis of the country's party quotas today. In 2005, Italy returned to a purely proportional representation sys tem with party lists. In the current legislature, only the Democratic Party employed a quota a gender neutral policy that uses zippering. Overall, the Mediterranean countries represent newcomers to quota policies and, by virtue of this, will be interestin g cases to study in the future. At the moment, however, the region lags behind their Nordic and Scandinavian neighbors. As a whole, these countries, especially when compared to the lengthy histories of other European countries, illustrate fast track soluti ons for women's underrepresentation. Country Percentage of Women in Parliament Ranking Current Quota Type Electoral System Spain 36 20 Legislative List PR Slovenia 32.3 26 Legislative List PR Italy 31.4 29 Party List PR France 26.9 39 Legislative (Constitutional) TRS Croatia 23.8 53 Party List PR Bosnia and Herzegovina 21.4 64 Legislative List PR Greece 21 65 Legislative (Constitutional) List PR Albania 17.9 79 Legislative List PR Montenegro 17.3 82 Legislative List PR Malta 14.3 93 Party STV Cyprus 10.7 112 Party List PR
Csencsitz 45 Conclusion Gender quotas have developed steadily since their first appearances in the early 1970s. While these policies began as largely a Scandinavian and Nordic phenomenon, quotas have spread throughout continental Europe at a steady pace. As apparent in Sweden an d Norway, the positive results of these policies have been seen for some time now, though they continue to develop with each new election cycle; it is important to remember that even these exemplars of equality have not reached the sought after parity. In other areas of Europe, the positive results of gender quotas are only beginning to emerge, such as in France and, even more recently, many of the Mediterranean countries, such as Greece and Italy, where the first strides towards equal representation have been made. The continued development of such quotas in new countries and regions speaks to a sense of transnational sharing, which has, undoubtedly, been furthered by conventions such as CEDAW and the UN Women's Conferences. As explained above, the Mediter ranean countries seem to be taking largely different tracks to quota implementation, primarily through the use of legislative quotas. The divergence of these countries, in particular, from the typical party quota policies of their northern neighbors will make them particularly interesting cases for scholarly research in the future. Overall, quotas, though often discussed as temporary policies, seem to be here to stay, at least for the time being. Questions arise about the removal of quotas, a discussion t hat requires more research. Would removing a quota diminish the advancements made by female candidates? One would hope that the trends of women in parliaments would continue to rise, as they have been over the past decades, but concerns exist over whether
Csencsitz 46 this is truly plausible or not. Ideally, gender quotas are temporary measures and will eventually be proven unnecessary, but scholars and lawmakers alike must be realistic in order to maintain the developments made in the past 40 or so years. 2015 will und oubtedly be a remarkable year for quota research as the United Kingdom's Sex Discrimination (Election Candidate) Act comes up for review. However the United Kingdom chooses to handle this situation surely will set some precedent or, in the very least, help to develop scholarly understanding of gender quotas in new ways.
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