Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology

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Material Information

Title:
Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
101 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Entomology   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by L.O. Howard.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029687040
oclc - 631044521
System ID:
AA00018954:00001

Full Text







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DIVISION OF ENTOZOL O .-.'
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S- tonologit: L.0. Howard. .. '-
AAssist. EntonwMf#sts: C.-L. Marlatt, Th. Pergaqil4_F. H. Ohittefldnaak
Investigators: E.A.SchwarzHG.-bbard.W.Coquillett..'.
Assistants: -R. S. Clifton, Nathan -Banks, F. C. Pratt, Aug^sck, O, o
ArtMist Miss L. Sullivan. .


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BULLETIN No. 18-NEW SERIES.


U. S. DEIPART'I'MENT OF AGRICULTU.JIE.
1)IVISIO)N (1IF N'11)M (1.lY.




S ( ) ~I [




MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS


OF TILE



WORK OF THE DIVISION OF ENTOMOLO(GY.



III.


PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
L. 0. HOWARD,
ENTOMOLOGIST.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1898.


I

























LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., November 1, 1898.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a
bulletin which contains matter similar to that published in Bulletins
Nos. 7 and 10 of the new series, namely, miscellaneous articles and
notes which are too short for separate )publication but which are of
such importance that they should be promptly printed. I recommend
the publication of this manuscript as Bulletin 18, new series, of this
Division.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Hon. JAMES WILSON, Entomologist.
Secretary of Agriculture.
















C (') N T N T S.


P'uge.
l. l~ J lt I N1i .... ...... ... ... ...... .... .... ... ... .... .. .... .... .... .... .... -
T i: S.,%AN Ii SC.M. )Ai ox D11 'l I'1: I .... ..... ... . H i. h 'i rd.. 7
A NrKW Co l i' tON illcti'l i ill'isitrattt.vil I If 1 hl;. I di ;hbb r l I',.nd. I',f rjandl.. 13
TitE P'I-EAC II iLECANIU' M I l. i 'a iuh fi i niqrot'a. itI tuin ii. -p. q ill iistratd i........
..................... .... .. .............. ..................... .. ".. / T I''rfland .. 261
THit \%'OI;K AI;AINST ItERYA Pt CI'll..ASI IN P Il;T';Al, I WITHIN AN Anj U'l'NT O1F
TIlE INTIII 'CIIOtN OF NOVIUS C.MltINALIS ................ I.. 1). lomrard.. 3})
TWIG PRUNEIS ANM) ALLIEI SI'C 'IIS (illustrated) ......... 1". /I. 'hittiiid(eln .. 35
A DESTitUTr1I: BOtE R EN:MY OF BI 'lcTl.:Es (illustrattedl .. I"*. II. 'hiltlid'n.. 44
A NE'W NOMENCLA'rRI.: OF THIE BR(OOI)S OF IIK PEICI()It-.M, CICADA .......
..'.... .....--------------------------------------------......................--. ........------- .C... L. Marlatt. 52
S A CONSIDERATION (I' TILE VALII)ITY ()1 Tille- Ol.D RE<'()Ii). I BEARING; (.; TIlE
DISTRIBUTION 1OF TIE K BR{OOI)S OF TIlE lEI II)IOD'AI. CICADIA, WITH P'ARTIC-
ULAR REF-ERENtCE T) TilE (OCUIRKENCE OF BROODS V' ANM) XXIII IN 18118
................................-----------.......................... -------------------------------------------. . Marlatl. 59
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CYCLE OF THilE SEXUL'AL ID\EI.OPMENT oF TilHE
"BLOOD LouSEi" (SchiZonertI lanigera Ilausi.)... ----------.... ..S. okr:lhetsi.. 78
A CECIDOMNIYIID IN.IJURIOUS TO SEEDS OF: SORHlU.M -------..-. 11D. l'. Coquillett.. X1
A LEAF-TYER OF (GIAPE AND ELDERBERRY ....--..........-. II. Chittendv n.. 82
A FLE.A-BEETLE LIVING ON I'SI.ANE .......---------------------...... ...... H1. Clihitlledrn.. 83
COTTON FELL) INSECTS ..............................................------------------------------------------------------...... 85
GENE cRAL NOTE-' ............................................................ 89
The Introduction of Beneficial Ladybirds froin Australia into India (p. 89);
The Sugar-cane Borers of the Mascarene Islinds (p. 90); Notes on Ticks
(p.90); An Invasion of the Larger Digger Wasp (p. 92); Recent Injury
by the Sugar-cane Beetle and related species (p. 92); A New Enemiy of
the Grapevine in Mexico (. 931; Westward Spread of the Common
Asparagus Beetle (p. 93); Biologic Note on Conofracheltis Olt/ans Say (p.
94); A New Sugar-beet Beetle (p. 95); A Leaf-beetle Injurious to Cutlti-
rated Sunflower (p. 96); Recent Injury by Bark-beetles: a correction
(p. 96); An interesting case of Myiasis (p. 97); The European Bat Bug
in America (p. 97); A Radical Novelty in Chinch Bug Work (p. 97);
Poisoned Potato Slices for Onisces (p. 98).
NOTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE .............................................. 99
For House Ants (p. 99); Injury by the Orange Leaf-roller (p. 991); Injury
by the Caterpillars of ScepNis filricolli.s Hbni. ()p. 99i; Poisoning forl the
Cotton Caterpillar (p.99); Insect injury to P'ecan buds (lp.99t): A late
Outbreak of the Army Worm (p. 99); Extraordinary abundance of Io
caterpillars (p. 99); Another very Beneficial Lady-birdl (p. 99); Leaf-
beetle Injury to Coffee 'Frees in (;uatemala (p. 100); The Giant Twig
Girdler (p. 100); Recent Injury by Blister Beetles of the Genus P'ompho-
pcra (p. 100); Swarming of Western Willow Flea-beetle (p. 100); New
food plants of the Oil Beetle, i.Mlof angul'ti,-ollifx (p. 100) ; The Flat-
headed Apple-tre. Borer I)amaging Qutilts (p. 100); Cosmiopel)ea carnifex
attacking Mustard (p. 100); The Big Bed-bug (if the Far West (p 101);
.Yysiun californicnFn injurious to lettuce (p. 101); Leaf-hopper injury to
Potatoes (p. 101); The Hawthorn Tingis injuring Quince (p. 101); The
Wheat Thrips injuring Plums in Florida (p. 101); The so-called '" Cotton
Flea" (p. 101). 3




-a y .uipqP.~i~~


ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
Fig. 1. Xylococcus betula': work on birch tree........ ........................ 14
2. Xylococcus betdla': larvic, male and female............................ 20
3. Xylococcus befuwh: end of body of female. -------..----------------------................. 21
4. Xylococcus betula: end of body of female, second stage.-----------------........... 21
5. Xylococcus betula': end of body of female, third and fourth stages.... 22
6. Xylococcus beiulhe: stages of female.................................-------------------------------... 22
7. Xylococcus betulah: adult female.............--------------.--...-.---..-----------------. ........ 23
8. Xylococcus betulnh: parts of male-...................................... 25
9. Lecaniunt nigrofasciatumn: adult female----------..------...-----...----.------ 27
10. Lecaniumn nigrofasciatuin: antenna and leg ----------..------------------.............. 28
11. Elaphidion villosuim: larva, beetle, pupa, etc---------------------------.... ...................... 36
12. Elaphidion inerme, enlarged .---....-..----...------------------....------.........--.------ 41
13. Work of Elaphidion subpubescens ...--..---------...------------................. 41
14. Elaphidion imucronatumn, enlarged...-------------....-------..---...----------........... 43
15. Work of Agrilus anxins on birch limb.....---------...---.---..---------...--------. 46
16. Work of Agrilus anxious on birch trunk ------------------....-------------................... 47
17. Jgrilus anxius: larva, pupa and adult-- ...--...------....-------..---......-----------... 45
4



















I NTR( OiD )LCTI( )N.



The present bulletin is the third of the new series of this 1)ivision to
contain miscellaneous short articles, andl notes. It lpresents a number
of articles of more than usual interest. The record of expelriients on
',ying fruit affected by the San Jose scale is of international impor-
tance in view of the recent legislation by foreign countries barring
American dried fruits from entrance. Tlhe ;iccounit of the work against
the fluted scale, Ice)ya purchase in Portugal contains another striking
example of the value of the study of natural einemies of injurious insects.
The articles by Mr. Chittenden on twig priwuers anid a new borer enemy
of the birch are of interest on account of the recent damage by these
destructive insects and of importance since they bring to notice some
species new to this form of damage. The peach Lecanium article by Mr.
Pergande will, it is hoped, settle the long-mooted question as to the
identity of the brown scale which so frequently damages peach trees,
and that upon a new Coccid on birch describes with great care the life
history of a remarkable insect which has ruined the bark of the beauti-
ful white birch over a large extent of the Lake Superior region. The
periodical Cicada articles by Mr. Marlatt are also of special interest,
the first one proposing for the first time a rational nomenclature for
the different broods of this unique insect.
L. H.
5




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SO( )M E311(SCLlANE(S HSL:LS ( I)F iFIE VW(FI)H{K K FTiI
1I)IVISION OF ENTOIOO(;Y.



THE SAN JOSE SCALE ON DRIED FRUIT.
]y L. (0. HOiWARD.
We have made little mention as yet in the l)ul)licatilins of the l)ivi-
sion of the recent actions b)y foreign governments in prolilbiting tlhe
importation of American plants and fruits on account 4f thle danger of
introducing tlhe San Jose scale. Iin ulletin 12, new series, we gave
the German edict of February 5, which prohibited living plants and
their packing as well as fresh fruit when examination of the latter
indicated the presence of tlhe scale. A later edict included fruit waste
(cores and skins), a by-product of evaporated apples. Still later, cus-
toms authorities were notified to allow the importation of whole unpeeled
dried fruit from the United States without previous examination for
the presence of the San Jose scale only when, without exception, it is
wholly dry, hard, and brittle, so that without difficulty it canl be rubbed
fine in the hand.
Measures adopted by the Austro-Hungarian Government in April
were prohibitive only in so far as related to the importation of living
plants, grafts, and layers, and also the packing and cover with which
they were shipped. Measures adopted about the same time by the
Canadian Government prohibited only nursery stock. A coml)rehen-
sive law adopted by the Government of the Netherlands did not take
action regarding dried fruit, the minister of the interior stating in the
discussion of the bill that he did not consider such a course necessary.
On the 14th of July the Federal Council of Switzerland promulgated
a decree which in effect prohibited the importation into that country of
all unpeeled American dried fruits. This decree, apparently working
a hardship upon American exporters, has been the subject of a some-
what extensive correspondence, in the course of which the United
States Department of State was appealed to by American exporters,
and in turn the United States Department of Agriculture was consulted
for expert information. The Divisions of Pomology and Entomology
were consulted by the honorable Secretary of Agriculture, and extracts
from the reports of these divisions follow.

FROM THE DIVISION OF POMOLOGY.
Under this enactment it would appear that all American unpeeled sun-dried or
evaporated fruits are denied entiance to Switzerland. This practically shuts out
all American suu-dried or evaporated plumns, prunes, apricots, nectarines, cherries,
7




I ... . . .


8

raisins, and berries, all of which fruits are commonly dried without being peeled, as
well as evaporated apple "chops" and "skins," which are largely exported to Euro-
pean countries. It also affects the trade in both sun-dried and evaporated peaches
and pears, of which only a part of the product consists of peeled fruit.
The avowed intention of the prohibition, according to the press reports, is to
prevent the introduction of San Jose scale on such fruits.
In the absence of any recorded instance where this scale has been introduced to
any fruit region through the agency of infested fresh fruit, the prohibition of the
importation of the dried product seems unnecessarily severe. All American sun-
dried fruits are subjected to a high temperature in the open air for several days dur-
ing the drying process, and it is very doubtful whether the scale could long survive
such treatment. If there is any doubt concerning such fruit it could easily be
removed by requiring that all sun-dried fruits should be sterilized before packing,
by being heated in a fruit evaporator, to a temperature to be agreed upon by test, for
such length of time as would be sufficient to destroy all living scale, if such were
present.
In so far as it relates to evaporated fruits the prohibition is entirely unnecessary.
In the evaporating process the fruit is subjected to a temperature of 150 to 200 F.
for several hours, usually twelve or more. In the case of apricots, peaches, and
pears, the fruit is subjected to the fumes of burning sulphur for from thirty to sixty
minutes before being placed in the evaporator. In California the same treatment is
applied to fruits that are afterwards dried in the sun, while in all prune-growing
districts of the United States the fruit is dipped in hot lye to check the skin and
hasten the drying process. This treatment undoubtedly destroys the life of any
scale that may be upon the fruit.
In view of these facts, which are capable of the most complete substantiation by
observation in the portions of the United States which produce the dried and evap-
orated fruits mentioned, it is my opinion that a strong protest should be made by
the Department of State against the continuance of the above-mentioned prohibitive
legislation.
As it now stands, it unnecessarily and unjustly restricts legitimate trade in an
important pomological product.
Very respectfully, WM. A. TAYLOR,
Acting Pomnologist.
FROM THE DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

From an intimate acquaintance with the habits and life history of the San Jose
scale, extending now over a period of nineteen years, or ever since it was first dis-
covered in the United States, I can, with confidence, state that, in my opinion, the
Swiss legislation works an entirely unnecessary hardship upon American exporters
of dried fruits. With regard to evaporated fruits, the prohibition is ludicrously
unnecessary. With regard to sun-dried fruits, it is my strong belief that it ig
equally unnecessary.
I have seen the newspaper statement to the effect that the San Jose scale in living
condition has been found upon the skin of American dried fruit imported into Ger-
many, but firmly believe that this is a misstatement, and am of the opinion that the
State Department would be perfectly justified in any endeavor to secure a modifica-
tion of the Swiss ruling, and would indorse the suggestion of the Acting Pomologist
that in case it should be found that it is impossible to secure the entire abolition of
the ruling, in all fairness efforts should be made to remove evaporated fruits from
the prohibited category and to secure the admission of sun-dried fruits which have
been sterilized before packing.
Respectfully yours, L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist.










Although the Acting Pomologist and the Entomologist were. so 'muti
dent of the correctness of their views, as expressed above, that explri-
mentation seemed hardly necessary, it was decided, in order to lend
force to subsequent expressions of opinion by the l)eljartnieltt, to un1ler-
take a series ot experiments with sulplihured andt uistliplilI.r.l slS and evaporated fruits of different kinds, inlt-(diig apples, pears, and1
peaches, all well infested with thle San .Iose scale. anli these were
carried out during the months of September and (htoher.
Through the kindness of Dr. J. B. Smith, of New llrunswick, N. I.;
Prof. G. II. P'owell, of Newark, I)el.; Prof. W. ;. .Jolilnsonl, of collegee
Station, Md., Prof. W. B. Alwood, of ltlacksburg, Va., and Mlr. E. l)ows,
of Riverside, Md., tlhe writer was Lable to secure the desired fruit, viz,
apples, pears, land( peaches, all bearing a greater or smaller number of
living specimens of the San Jose scale. Some of the fruit was badly
infested, while other specimens carried but a few scales. This fruit was
turpd over to Mr. Taylor, who sliced and dried it by both evaporating
andl sui:drying processes in accordance with the general custonis, having
dried a certain amount of each without previous sulphuring and sub-
mitting the rest to the ordinary sulphuring process. The lots of fruit
were kept distinct, and the dried product was returned by M3r. Taylor to
this Division. On receipt at this office the entire product was carefully
examined. Each section of dried fruit was examined with a hand lens
to locate the scales, and each scale found was examined under a com-
pound microscope in order to ascertain whether it was living or dead.
The examination was necessarily protracted and very tedious, but, in a
word, not a single scale was found which showed the slightest signs of
life.
We consider this test to have been conclusive and to have demon-
strated that prohibition of American dried fruit by foreign countries is
unnecessary in order to protect their fruit-growing interests, and that
the complaints of American exporters are fully justified. The details
of the experiments follow, the reports of the evaporation experiments
being signed by Mr. WV. A. Taylor, Acting Pomologist, who personally
conducted the work, assisted by Messrs. W. P. Corsa and W. N. Irving,
of the Division of Pomology, and the results of the entomological exam-
ination being signed by Mr. Nathan Banks, an expert assistant in the
Division of Entomology, who conducted the microscopic examination
of the scales. Mr. Banks's methods and results were tested by the
writer and found to be perfectly satisfactory.

EXPERIMENT I.-EVAPORATION OF ANGOULEME (DUCHESS) PEARS, SEPTEMBER
13, 14, 1898.
These pears were "shipping ripe," rather immature to evaporate to good advan-
tage. They were divided into two equal lots, A and B, by weight, and were then
quartered, cored, and placed on trays.
Lot A was spread upon two trays (1 and 2) and exposed to the fumes of 1 teaspoon-
ful of sulphur for fifteen minutes in the bleaching box, which has a capacity of four




r - ~:-


10

trays. They were then placed in the evaporator, No. 1 on the bottom ledge and No.
2 on the seventh ledge from the bottom.
Lot B was spread upon two trays (3 and 4) and immediately placed in the evapor-
ator, No. 3 on the fourth ledge and No. 4 on the top or tenth ledge.
Temperatures were observed continuously by means of mercurial thermometers
placed on bottom and top trays, with tubes extending out through small holes in
side and top of evaporator. Temperatures were recorded at intervals of fifteen min-
utes. The evaporator was opened at intervals of one hour to observe the condition
of the fruit. After five hours of continuous heat it was decided that it would be
necessary to divide the quarters into eighths, which was done to hasten completion
of the process. At the end of nine hours all but the largest pieces were pronounced
cured and were removed from the evaporator. The remainder were left in two hours
longer.
The temperature of the bottom tray during the process (with exception of short
periods after the opening of the evaporator for inspection) ranged from 73 C. to 100
C., the latter temperature continuing but for ai few moments on two occasions. It
was found necessary to check the fire frequently to prevent a higher temperature,
and as commonly operated the lower tray is undoubtedly subjected to a temperature
several degrees higher than it was during this test. A temperature of 90 to 98 C.
on the bottom tray was maintained during most of the period, 94 being the temper-
ature sought.
The temperature of the top tray under similar conditions ranged from 10 to 20"
C. lower than that of the bottom tray, the maximum temperature of the top tray
being 88.
The fruit on this tray cured much more slowly than on the bottom tray because of
the lower temperature.

Gross and net icei.qhts of fresh fruit and weights of cured fruit.

Weight. Cured in-
Total.
Gross. Net. a 9 hours. 11 hours.

Lot. A: Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Tray 1 ...................................... 12.20 11.69 1 0.16 1.16
Tray 2 .---...--.....-------..--..---------------..-----------..-...--------------- 1.19 0.34 1.53
Total cured fruit, lot A .......................................-.......... ......... 2.69
Lot B: -
Tray 3 ................................. ..... 12.20 11.72 0.93 0.34 1.27
Tray 4 ............... ............................... .........--. 0.78 0.76 1.54
Total cured fruit, lot B............................................................ 2.81

a After removal of cores and waste.
W. A. TAYLOR,
Acting Pontologist.
I harefound all the scales in this lot dead.
NATHAN BANKS.

EXPERIMENT II.-EVAPORATION AND SUN DRYING OF BEN DAVIS AND BALDWIN
APPLES.

On September 15,1898, a mixed lot of Ben Davis and Baldwin apples, infested with
San Jose scale, was divided into two equal parts, A and B, by weight. Each lot was
sliced iuto eighths, without paring, and spread upon trays.
Lot A was spread upon trays 5 and 6 and exposed to the fumes of one teaspoonful
of sulphur upon live coals for fifteen minutes in the bleaching box. After bleaching,
tray 5 was placed in the evaporator on ledge 9, while tray 6 was exposed to the sun
in the open air near the ground at the south side of the insectary.


.. . . ....... .. .... .... .... .









11

Lot B wan spread upon trays 7 and H. Tray 7 was played inii the evaplrator ,nr
ledge 4, while tray S wiLs e iromsd to tle miuII beside tray f$.
The teimpraturea of the liottni land top trays ,if tim, evaporator warti tiLki-n :it
intervals of tiftoeis mlimntem Ita bliefore, i tumaximmill tt'lliperatilreI If'!i; t 9m ('. beiiil
sought. For i few '"llilut'M at tlit it%%er ntI t11t-4 thie t<'eiipt r;itir-' ,f" ti, lI n 1(1111n
tray was above 1(X) C. Atrm'r sove\ lhotir oexpoiriq to nlit imarly tie'-hiall' of the
fruit was prtiioUitcetlred l ild u iwam rei'iovei tromi the tray,. tin'.a Itaile. lieiiig
taken out t\wo hlioiurs liater.1
The grios antd net wights of fr'shI fruit anmd the %-eight ol ure& .ruit ;iar, nhowii in
the following talie:

Grosa and net iLrid/ht of fremh fruit and wright of curedl fruit.

A I''LE.S.


We.ight.


Ciurl in-


Gross. Nrt. 7 hIurs.

Lot A (sulphured): P'<,und. 1'onil,. P,,iIl.q.
Trayv 5.......................................... 9.33 8.47 i.1)5
Tray 6.......................................... 9.33 8 .... .....
Total cured fruit, lot A................... ... .. ...... .....................


9 1io ilf.m

o injis.
I"',,iii s.
.77


Lot B (not sulphured):
Trav 7......................................... 9.33 8.75 .46 1.43
Tray 8.......................................... 9.33 8.83 ....................
Total cured fruit, lot B .......................................... ........................


Total.

uif #,,ds.
1. 12
1 74
3. 56

1. X9
1.79
:3. Gs


Trays 6 and S were exposed daily to the siun in dry weather from X a. in. to 5 p. In.,
and were pronounced cured after about ten days of such exposure. A small portion of
the fruit from these trays was destroyed by mice at night.
W. A. TAYLOR,
Acti ll Pomologi-.t.

I have examined all these and found the scales all dead.
NATHAN BANKS.

EVAPORATION AND SUN DRYING OF PEACHES.

A basket of white-fleshed, freestone peaches, probably Fox (Seedling), infested with
San Jose scale, was divided, by weight, into two equal lots, A and B. The fruit
was cut into halves, and after removal of stones was spread upon trays.
As in the case of apples, lot A (spread upon trays 1 and 2) was exposed to the
fumes of sulphur, while lot B (spread upon trays 3 and 4) was not. Tray, 1 and 3
were placed in the evaporator upon ledges 1 and 7, respectively, with the apples,
while trays 2 and 4 were dried in the sun, with the same exposure and for the saine
length of time as the apples. After seven hours of heat most of the fruit on tray 1
was pronounced cured, and at the end of ten hours all was removed from the evapo-
rator.


I




-. ----- - -.r.


12

The gross and net weights of fresh fruit and the weight of cured fruit are shown
by the following table:

Gross and net weights of fresh fruits and weight of cured fruit.

PEACHES.


Lot A (sulphured):.
Tray 1.........................................
Tray 2........................................
Total cured fruit, lot A .....................
Lot. B (not sulphured):
Tray 3.........................................
Tray 4..........................................
Total cured fruit, lot B .....................


Weight.

Gross. Net.a

Pounds. Pounds.
6.89 6.26
6.89 6.28


6.89
6.98


Cured in-

7 hours. 10 hours.

Pounds. Pounds.
1 25 0.04
.......... ..... .....


6. 27 0.37
6.28........
. . . . n. . . . ..-- -


1.27


a After removal of stones and waste.

A lot of infested peach twigs and leaves were exposed to heat on top tray, the
coolest portion of the evaporator, for five hours.
W. A. TAYLOR,
Acting Pomologist.
All the scales in this lot were dead.
NATHAN BANKS.

EXPERIMENT III.-EVAPORATION AND SUN DRYING OF VICAR PEARS AND BEN
DAVIS AND BALDWIN APPLES.

On September 30 a basket of Vicar pears, badly infested with San Jose scale, was
divided into two equal lots, A and B, by weight, as in Experiments I and II, and
after being sliced into eighths, was spread upon trays. Lot A was spread on trays
2 and 3 and sulphured. Lot B was spread upon trays 4 and 9 and was not exposed
to sulphur fumes. Trays III-A-2 and III-B-4 were placed in the evaporator. At
the end of six hours most of the fruit was found cured and was removed, the bal-
ance being left until completion at the end of ten hours. The temperatures were
practically identical with those of Experiment II. Trays III-A-3 and III-B-9 were
placed in the sun for about eight hours each day on clear days, being exposed in
this manner for about ten days, until sufficiently cured.
The gross and net weights of fresh fruit and weight of cured fruit are shown in the
following table:

Gross and net weights of fresh fruit and weight of dried fruit.

VICAR PEARS.


Lot A (sulphured):
T'rray III-A-2 evaporated ......................
Tra II1I-A-3 sun dried ........................
Lot B (not sulphured):
Tray II I-B-4 evaporated.......................
Tray IIl-B-9 sun dried ........................


Weight.

Gross. Net.
O n O t be 1 98 b u o e h lf b s e o 1n e io-e. D v s a d a d i


Pounds.
S10.14


Pounds.
9.59


After-

6 hours. 10 hours.

Pounds. Pounds.
S.0.75 0.25

S.0.63 0.20


Total.


Pounds.
1
1.02
0.83
1.03


On October 1, 1898, about one-half bushel of inferior Ben Davis and Baldwin
apples was divided into lots as in the former experiments and tested in the same


Total.


Pounds.
1.29
1.25
2.54

1.64
1.44
3.08


I -








13

way as tho Viucar j'iar. T1itliit3dN itititiilla i rt' tiiilnt a0 the tri.v1- iL Nli iWn lv)' tlihi
following table:

Gruns and nete 'idqhts o0fresh .f'uit and irriiht of cumird fr'uit.
lHEN DAVIS AND lIAL.IDWIN API'LES.

WVlglit. After-
T al.
I irimm. Net. 7 himilir. U ljnlirm.

Lot A: i 'ou d/. 'oi i m. 'oiundm. 'Piiid. 'uu nd .
Tray II I-A--5, e'vaporatedl. mul sulph ured ...... .kud9 o J: r I Iti.i ....... .. 0.79
Tr "y 111 -A ci, evalp ratr.d..AlIh d .II7ll l .......... I ..1.5 0.43 1.18
Lot s: ":
111- 1...................h r !.....
Trnt II -1t-7, iititIlri iml, mit lphiir& l ....... ... 12 11 .25 .... ..9
Traiv 111 B 8. ilt drivd, otI nlllm urltl ........ 1 .... ... ...........

\V. A. TAYLOR,
Acting Poniologint.
All the scales in this fruit wrerc found dead.
NATHAN BANKS.

A NEW COCCID ON BIRCH.

By H. G. HUBBARID and Tn. PERGANDE.

PART I-By HL. G. HUBBARD.

Froni my boyhood whenever I have visited the Lake Superior region
miy attention has been called to the general destruction of the bark of
birch trees. It is difficult to find near the lake a tree of any size with
smooth or natural bark, and I remember that in 1876, when Mr. Schwarz
and I visited the north shore of the lake, at Michipicoten River, we
were told that the Indians were obliged to go 60 miles back into the
interior in order to find sheets of bark of sufficient size for the con-
struction of canoes. During a visit to the south shore, not far from
Marquette, in September, 1896, I discovered that this widespread
destruction is due to the attacks of a coccid. The outer bark is rough-
ened, covered with curls and splits, blackened with sooty mold and in
bad cases entirely removed down to the last layer. Often the cambium
itself is invaded and the tree is killed or seriously injured. Figure 1, a
illustrates injury to a branch of birch caused by this insect.
The coccid introduces itself between the layers of the bark and by
its growth and the formation of thick masses of wax along its flanks
causes the bark to heave and the layers to separate in curls. On a
smooth surface the first attack is made by the young larvm- crawling
into the lenticels, or breathing pores of the bark, those little elongate
corky spots which give to birch bark its elegant ornamentation. After-
wards successive generations of the insect force their way into tlhe
crevices thus formed and cause extensive separations between the lay-
ers. (See fig. 1, b). The female insect during its growing period is a
memberless sac, as in the D'iaspina. Its color is orange red and when
compressed beneath layers of birch bark the form is flattened, broadly




*1










rounded anteriorily, pointed behind and about the size of a grain of
flaxseed. In young birch trees, the bark of which does not readily
separate in layers, the insect infests knots, accidental wounds, or the
vicinity of buds. In this case its form is not flattened but well-rounded
and pyriform, and it occupies a deep pit sunk vertically into the cam-
bium and even into the young wood. Occasionally in white birch, and
also in aspen, similar pits are formed, whenever all accidental wound
allows the insect to gain access to the succulent inner bark, in which
alone, by some obscure absorptive process, the formation of such a pit
is possible.















t IA
r Cj Yf -














___

aa6
FIG. 1.-Xylococcus betulce: a, branch of birch showing work; b, section of inner bark, showing cyst
occupied by the coccid: c, coccids in position, with layer of bark removed, showing waxy secretion,
surrounding them and rods of wax protruding from anal tube; d, section of rod of wax, showing its
compound nature-a, natural size; c, enlarged; b and d, greatly enlarged (original).
Small curls of wax are given off from pores thickly scattered over
the body of the coccid, but more copiously from the sides, where the
excretion becomes consolidated into thick laminae of white wax. The
anal extremity produces numerous stronger waxen curls, and in the
midst of these there issues, from the anus itself, a tubular bundle of
waxen rods condensed into an apparently solid thread, which does not
curl, but forces its way out of the nearest crevice in the bark into the
open air. (See fig. 1, c, showing coccids in natural position on bark;
and d, which shows section of waxy rod.) In fair weather these glassy
hairs may be seen issuing from every crevice in the bedeviled cortex,








15


often reaching a length of (,e or two incdies, and giving a hoary appear-
ance to certain sports on the trunk. Clinging to every lhair is a glittering
drop of honey dew. The bundle of" waxen bristles is in f tacwt a contriv-
ance admirably adapted to reir ove the copi)ous thflow of sacchtain.e exutre-
ment which Would otherwise condense about thle insect andi exc.lhide.
communication with them outer air.
Mr. Pergande has made rmay slide mounts of the coccid, all his
lpreparations, cleared with p )otashl, show tltat the long anal threlad is
produced by an internal chitinous tube, lIori'd by thie i nioi a; ,-ound
the end of the anal canal of numerous spitnnerets. These are the chiti-
nous terminations or formative tubes of major" wax glands, which open
into the intestine in two encircling ranks, one above the other. The
union of these spinneret tubes forms a rigid chitinous honey-dew organ,
which is capable of a forward and back minotioln and canl be protruded a
considerable distance out of the body. When withdrawn, tlhe opening
is closed by several ranks of stout converging spines. This internal
organ is in truth the ninth abdominal segment. The eight preceding
segments of the abdomen are marked by a pair of spiracles on either
side of each. The spiracles have large and simple openings, but within
the body form trumpet-shaped tubes, in the constricted necks of which
are seen large pores, the openings of lubricating wax glands. The
existence of one or of two rings of these spiracular pores is the most
marked distinction between the sac-like females before and after the
second molt. There are no spiracles anterior to the abdominal portion
of the body in the female, nor are any other organs visible upon the
exterior save the elevation of the clypeus, with its single-jointed lower
lip, or clasper, from which issue the mouth bristles. The internal frame-
work of the buccal organs is large and similar in appearance to that
seen in the Diaspina? and the Lecaninie. It does not appear to possess
the sucking apparatus of the former group, and is probably as simple
in structure as in the Lecanime. The eye spots seen under the skin in
living specimens disappear in cleared specimens and have no external
cornea. The sac-like females, when they have reached full size and have
cast off their mouth bristles, undergo still another metamorphosis, in
which they regain legs and antenme, but lose all the organs of nutri-
tion. The female in this ultimate stage has a well-segmented body,
rounded behind and sparsely clothed with hairs. The antenna& are long
and nine-jointed; the legs are large and strong and of the normal adult
type. There is no trace of mouth parts or of anal tube. The adult is
thus an ordinary monophlebid. It is capable of locomotion and does
occasionally wander about. But ordinarily it is unable to leave its cell
in the bark, and does not entirely free itself from the skin of the pre-
ceding stage, but merely ruptures the inclosing sac, shoves off tile
pygidial cap with its accumulations of wax, and presents the end of its
body at the crevice in the bark for the reception of the male. After
fecundation eggs are deposited and are collected beneath the body of







16


the mother in an external cavity formed by the collapse of the ventral
skin into the depleted abdomen. The larva in hatching leaves behind
both the eggshell and an embryonic pellicle (amnion ?). As the partu-
rient mother may be wholly inclosed within the inflated skin of the sec-
ond stage, the young frequently appear to issue from this form of the
female, and it is easy to understand that with scanty material and lim-
ited opportunity for observation the adult female might wholly escape
discovery and the sac-like female of the second stage be pronounced a
mature viviparous insect.
The newly-hatched larva is of a highly organized type. Its thoracic
segments are distinct, and the form of the body resembles a young
Cimex. The end of the abdomen is broadly rounded, without tubercles
or long trailing hairs, but with the anal tube projecting slightly beyond
the margin. The ventral surface of the abdomen shows a median row
of five large pores.
The young in both sexes form their waxen cells in a similar manner;
but the males never form pits, and are apt to assemble in the vicinity
of some older female and establish themselves under the protection of
her accumulations of wax. After the first molt the females lose their
legs and antennae and assume the sac-like form already described. The
female undergoes four molts and has five stages, of which the larva
and the adult are active and possess legs and antennae. The three
intermediate stages are stationary and differ from each other only in
minute details of internal structure.
The male undergoes five molts and has six stages, in all of which,
except in the third, it possesses legs and antennae. After the casting
of the first larval skin the young male lives and feeds like the female,
surrounded by a wall of wax. In this form it possesses well-formed
legs and antenname and has external eyes. It produces honey dew and
abundant wax, and forms a long waxen thread from a tubular anal
spinneret. With the second molt the legs and antennae disappear, and
the insect resembles a female of the second stage.
With the casting of the apodous skin at the third molt the coccid
regains both legs and antennae, but loses its rostrum. In this fourth
stage, which may be called the first nymph of the male, the animal
leaves its waxen cyst and wanders about. It is red in color and resem-
bles a young Dactylopius in general appearance. Little tesselations of
cottony wax soon arise all over the body, which becomes covered with a
loose flocculent follicle, in which the insect rests until ready for the
fourth molt. It then breaks out of its covering and casts its skin
under some sheltering fragments of bark. The new form which now
appears, the fifth, is a true nymph, with wing pads and a polygonal
protuberance at the end of the body inclosing the rudimentary geni-
tal organ. This second nymph, after wandering free for a time, in its
turn covers itself with a cottony follicle, out of which it breaks again
to cast the last skin and transform to the winged male. This last form








17


has been bred by Mr. Pergande and is a marvelously beautiful insect,
with two large abdominal brushes which it spreads like the tail of at
peacock. It has prominent faceted eyes, a long, slender plenis, anld four
hooks on the rudimentary hind wing. Its structure is that of a male
Celostoma. The transformiations to the adult stage in both sexes
probably take place in the spring aiId early summer. In tlhe winter
the only living forms to be found are in the encysted stages under the
bark. The insect has at this time a disagreeable odor o rancid lfat.
These remarkable transformations are not without parallel in the
Coccidae, although the full lite history has iiever, to ,N y knowledge,
been worked out in any allied form. In Porphyrophlori and Marga.-
rodes there is a similar retreat into an encysted stage, with reappear-
ance of the organs of locomotion in the adult female wlient it breaks
forth from its subterranean pearl. The transformations of the male in
these genera have never been made known and the winged male is
known in Porphyrophora only. In certain forms front New Zealand
and Australia, for which Maskell erected the genus ('hosttonoma, very
similar changes occur in the female series, although I am inot sure that
in any of the described species a complete absence of all legs and
antenna has been noted. In Calostoma ztaliandicumn, the type of the
genus, described in Trans. N. Zealand Institute for 1879 (Vol. XII, p.
294), and also in the samute Transactions for 1881 (p. 226) and 1883
(p. 141), Maskell describes the second stage of the female as having
partially atrophied feet and antenna'; and in his Coccidat of New Zea-
land (Plate XX) he figures a spiracle of the female with a constricted
neck and ring of pores, and also an anal honey-dew organ," which
evidently has a similar construction to that seen in our coccid from
birch. Again, in the New Zealand Transactions for 1889 (p. 153), Mas-
kell describes and figures (PI. IX, figs. 19-22) precisely similar internal
organs in C(elostomna assimile, and states that the female of the second
stage is globular, with conical four-jointed antennae and without feet.
The insect in this stage is covered with a hard waxy test, and is found
in the axils of twigs of Fagus. Finally. in 1882, F. Loew (Verhandl.
d. k. k. ZooL-Bot. Ges., Band XXXII, Taf. XVI) describes and figures
under the name Xylococcus filifer us a coccid which he found buried in
pits in the axils of twigs or buds of linden at Baden, Austria. His
figures indicate a form very closely allied and probably congeneric with
the birch coccid of which we have been treating. But in his descrip-
tion Loew considers as the mature stage wliat is evidently one of the
legless intermediate forms of the female, and details the issuing of
the young from this form as from a viviparous adult. The manner in
which this mistake may have been made and the true egg-producing
female overlooked has been sufficiently indicated above. Loew more-
over figures and describes as the second stage of the female a form
having antennae, but with legs represented by coxne and trochanters,
which corresponds in every respect to the encysted second larva of the
8193-No. 18- 2








18

male from which the legs have been lost in mounting the specimen, a
mutilation which our experience with the birch coccid shows is very
likely to take place.
In view of the close coincidence in such details as are given by Loew
between Xylococcus filiferus and the coccid described in these pages I
have no doubt whatever that the same transformations will be found to
occur in both, and that our coccid of the birch is a species of Xylococcus.
The remarkable tubular ninth segment, which in Crlostoma Maskell
calls a honey-dew organ, is a character which will probably unite those
coccids which are found to possess it in the same subfamily and indi-
cates an approach to the Lecanina, in which the ninth segment is also
internal and similarly modified. In the Lecaninme, however, the penulti-
mate segment is also modified and transformed into the two anal
valves, and the eighth abdominal segment terminates the body behind.
Many interesting suggestions arise as to the affinities between these
coccids and the lac insects (Carteria, etc.), which approach yet more
closely to the Lecanid type, and on the other hand as to their relation-
ship with the Monophlebids, which are supposed to have no modified
anal segment and the ninth segment terminal in all stages.
It is apparent, however, that in Xylococcus and Ccelostoma we have
to do with a subfamily of Coccid.T not hitherto recognized, and to which
no doubt will be added other genera at present included in the hetero-
geneous division Brachyscelidat and also in the Monophlebinoe. Our
knowledge of the metamorphoses in these exotic insects is in almost
every case quite incomplete. In many the intermediate stages remain
unknown.
Since the foregoing pages were written Mr. Pergande has continued
the observations which we began in common, and, with the acuteness of
research which characterizes him, has discovered an additional stage
in each sex, the most noteworthy being the legless third stage in the
male series. Through his courtesy I have been enabled to correct my
preliminary notice to correspond with his detailed descriptive paper
which follows.
PART II.-By TH. PERGAINDE.
(Xylococcus betula' Perg.)
After Mr. Hubbard and I had, as we supposed, concluded our obser-
vations upon the transformations of this very remarkable coccid, I was
enabled, by further study of the living material at hand, to recognize
an additional stage in each of the two sexes, raising those of the
female to five and those of the male to six stages.
In our preliminary studies some apparently slight differences had
been observed in what we considered to be the second and third stages,
but we supposed them to be simply due to a greater or less develop-
ment of individual specimens of the female series.
Remarkable as the changes of the female are, those of the male are
still more wonderful. Up to a short time ago I had been of the opinion










that the male during its successive transformationiiH retained both its
antenna' ald legs, but while happening ole day to exilmlre, in sMearch
I discovered two living mmlh larv,', ont)e of them in thle act of casting
its skin, and fiunld to my surprise, after thle insect hIail been extract'Adl,
that the cast skin slhowtd aall tie characters of :i youlig ftlnale in the
second stage, in which there are Mneitlher antenim, nor legs; whereas in
the form which hliad emerged from it these organs were highly devel-
oped. The rostrum, however, had been lost. This organl ill thle fleinale
is present in all stages except the last.
After examining and comparing the abundant material at hliand of
both sexes, I have arrived at thie conclusion that tils signal a ld apoIolois
form of thie male is the third stage, differing from tlhe second stage of
the female in its somewhat larger size, the darker brown color of the
posterior half of the body, and in minor characters.
1 append herewith a description of the different stages of the two
sexes, including the egg.

Xylococcus betulk n. sp.

Egg.-Length 0.6nmm by 0.3mm in diameter; regularly oval, highly
polished, and of a pale yellow color.
First larra, after hatching.-Length about 0.5""" by 0.3""" across the
broadest part of the abdomen. Color orange-red, the eyes purplish.
Shape cimiciform, the abdomen very broad and semicircular behind.
The thoracic and three or four anterior segments of the abdomen are
highly developed, whereas the remaining segments of the abdomen
form apparently a single piece. The anal or excretory tube is large,
chitinous, and partly projecting. Antenna- six-jointed, very short and
rather stout; joints one and six are somewhat the longest and subequal
in length; the intermediate joints are shorter and also suhequal in
length, or the second slightly longer. Thlie first is stoutest; all the
others diminish gradually in diameter; the last is bluntly rounded at
the apex. At the base of joint five externally will be noticed one long
and stout, blunt and curved, spine. There are two similar spines at
the base of the last joint, with four or more slender capitate hairs and
one or two small spines at its apex, two or three of these hairs being
at least as long as the antennae. Eyes large and placed close to the
antenne. Legs long and stout; the tarsi longer than the tibia'; digi-
tules capitate, those of the claw somewhat the longest, stoutest, and
curved upwards. Rostrum large, the sucking bristles extremely long.
Each abdominal segment is provided with a large and projecting spir-
acle and a pair of backward-directed spines each side, which grow
gradually longer toward the end of the body; in addition, a number of
stout spines surround the anal tube. There is also a rather long bristle
each side of the seventh segment. (See fig. 2, a.)
When the larvae are about to cast their first skin they measure nearly






i.--








20

0.9mn in length by 0.61mm in diameter, those of the male being slightly
smaller. Their shape has also considerably changed; they are now of
a regularly oval form, and are stoutest anteriorly.
The cast skins (fig. 2, d) are pale yellowish, with the last three seg-
ments yellowish-brown and the anal tube dark brown. They present
the following characters:
The rostrum is very large, distinctly two-jointed, and situated at
about the middle of the body. The orifices of the stigmata are very
large and circular, their internal prolongation about twice the length
of their diameter, with the external half cylindrical constricted at the
inner end, while that part beyond the constriction is obconic or funnel
shaped and connected with tracheae, running parallel with the sides of
the body. On the under side of the abdomen and in front of the anal
tube may be observed a median row of five large pores, and similar
pores, together with numerous smaller ones, on the upper side of the

b












a c
FIG. 2.-Xylococcus bctulce: a, first larva, male, female, ventral view; b, antenna; a, tarsus; d, cast
skin of first larva-a and d much enlarged, b and c, more enlarged (original).

two last segments and along the sides of the abdomen; there are also
numerous rows of minute sharp) points on the dorsum of the six anterior
segments of the abdomen, and in addition a row of sparsely set short
and backward directed spines, all of which arise trom small tubercles.
The cephalic and thoracic segments appear to be smooth and without
pores. There seems to be no appreciable difference between the sexes,
except that the male larvae are slightly smaller.
In fig. 3, a and b respectively, are shown enlarged ventral and
dorsal views of the end of the body of the female. At c, a stigma is
figured highly magnified.
Female, second stage (fig. 6, a).-Inl this, as well as in all the following
stages, except the last, the legs and antennae are completely lost. All
these stages are of an orange color, with the end of the body of a
lighter or darker brown ; the eyes are minute and blackish; their bodies
are ovoid, somewhat broadest anteriorly, quite fiat or slightly convex.,
smooth and shining, and without any apparent segmentation. The





*







21

fully grown larva- ol the second stage iiitai 'iire aboilit 1.-"'"'" ii. III n gtli
by 0.9"11" in diameter.
The CILast skin is almost colhless, .xcilt Oli lest tlhr. or 16lout seg
iments of the aludonen, which are pale yelhl isli -brown, tli' anal tuib)
being darkest. The sur
fare of the boidy is duensevly ,
and finely granulated, thew y ,
g ran ulation being s uin ne Ilk ^ 0 ;
what tcoirseF st arouiiiid tli t' 0" "" ''
tube. See fig. 4. There ?, il -^ /
are also small pores scat- N, A ,
tered over tlhe body, inter- O s./^, 0 >
mixed with a few larger ,) r A io"
ones on thle last four seg- ('r a
inents, which bear also a
f'e w backward directed
spines. The internal stig- p ? G&
matal tubes are now three ( /
times the length of those r r ? /
in the first stage: the out- ? e 6 /
er two-thirds or more is-'@ ( )
cylindrical and finely and 101 ,^ ,'
densely annulated; the ,
inner end of the tube is
bell.-shaped, and in the con-
striction or neck of the F11. 3-Xylococ, betulw: a, v'.entral view ot' cnd of body of
feinmale; 6, dorsal view of same; c, stiginma, all inmuch enlarged
tube may be observed a (oriiinl ).
transverse row of large
pores; the stigmatal tube is connected with the trachea' by a rather
long, annulated and bifurcate duct, of which one branch is longer than
the other.
Female, third stage (fig. 6, b).-The mature larva of this form meas-
ures about 0.21""" in length by 1.4""" in diameter,
S. and is very similar in appearance to the previ-
,..: oo oo ous stage.
% \. '/ The cast skin is also colorless, except thle two
0,o l ijflast segments, which are pale brownish-yellow.
2 00 The pores are of two sizes and very numerous
FT(4. .- XVylococcus bett l- Oil the al)domien and also around tlhe margins
dursal view of end of body ot of the cephalic and tlijoracic segments. The
secml)stage-muchenlarged surface appears to be smooth and without
originall).
granulations, except on tlhe last two segments,
which bear also a number of stout spines each side of the anal tube.
(See fig. 5.) The stigmatal tubes are similar to those in thle previous
stage, except that they are longer, and there are now two rows of pores
in the constriction or neck.







.








22

Female fourth stage (fig. 6, c).-Length 4mm to 5mm. by about 2mm in
diameter anteriorly. In the cast skin of this final larva the surface is
again densely and distinctly granulated, especially so on the last three
segments, which are now of a rather dark brownish-yellow color. The
pores have become still more numerous and are arranged in irregular


0.0 0
0-0 0
0 0
o; ;
"
A- o : o0
0: 0 00 0
Ja
ao o. o o

1 0


FIG. 5.-Xylococeus bethilce: a. Ventral view of end of body of third stage at left. b. Dorsal view of
end of body of fourth stage at right-both much enlarged (original).


bands across
irregular on
margin and (
pores being s


the abdominal
the three last
end of the body
surrounded by a


a


segments, becoming most dense and more
segments; some of the pores around the
are of complex structure; a pair of large
Spring composed of numerous minute pores.


I; C


FI,. 6.-Xylococcus behukl: a, female, second stage; b, female, third stage; c, female, fourth stage; d,
anal tube showing internal structure; e, compound and simple pores of end of body; .f, stigmatal
tubes and tracheae; g, bit of same more enlarged-a, b, c, greatly enlarged; d, f, more enlarged; e, g,
still more enlarged (original).

Similar compound pores were also observed in the second and third
stage. The stigmatal tubes are now about one-third longer than in
the third stage, while in the constriction there are from two to three
rows of pores. There now appears, placed medio-ventrally in the region








23

between thle fourth and fifth pdairs of stigmata, a brownish organ, Irob
ably the anus, represented by two backward-directed pointed pronlgs,
with an oval opening in front of them.
Adult [/mi' h (fig. 7).-Length 41'"" by 2'""' in diameter; color, when
living, bright orange; eyes niliute and purplish brown. llThe body is
elongated, elliptical, with both ends rounded; under siIde of tlit albdo-
men concave, its lateral margilis revoluIte; tliet dorsuit .on vex. All
the segments are well defined. Thle anll opening is simple, situated onil
the under side of the abdomen, close to tile conlcavity, and with ditli-
culty to be seen. The rostrum is wanting. Legs stout and rather
short; tarsi shorter than tibia'; the digituiles simple. Antenna. stout
and nine-jointed; the first joint is the longest and much the stoutest,
being nearly twice the diameter of the second joint; joint two is
slightly longer than the last one and cylindrical; joints three to eight
are subequal in length, of nearly the same
diameter and somewhat stoutest near the /
apex, where they bear a fringe of fine hairs, / t
which grows gradually longer toward the I 1',/
end of the antenna'; the last .joint is --
rounded at the apex and bears three or \ r
four fine hairs and the same number of '//
slender spines. The body is covered with r -. .
short and stiff brownish hairs, which .
aie stoutest and most dense at the end "
of the abdomen. The pores are small and -*
scattered. The stigmatal tubes are sim- -,.\
similar to those in the previous stages.
.(See figs. 7, a, adult female and b an- a
tenna of same.) Fio. 7.-Xylococcus betulce: a, adult
Male.-The young larvae of this sex re- female, seen from below, much tn-
semble those of the female ineveryrespect, large: b. antenna of same more tu-
larged (original).
except that they are a little smaller.
Male, second stage.-Length about l.9'"' by about 1"""u across the
thorax. Color quite dark orange. The thorax, as well as the abdomen,
is distinctly segmented; sides of the abdomen parallel, broadly
rounded behind; head and thorax combined about one-third longer
than the abdomen, the mesothorax being the largest. Antennme seven-
jointed, short, stout, and moderately tapering; first joint longest and
stoutest, the second joint shortest; three to six subequal in length and
somewhat longer than the second, the seventh about as long as the two
preceding united, and bluntly rounded at tip; all bear long and fine
hairs about the apex, and the seventh, in addition, a number of stout
spines. Legs long and stout, the tarsi shorter than the tibie. the digi-
tules fine and hair-like. There appear to be numerous hairs scattered
over the body, most dense around the end of the abdomen.
Male, third stage.-In changing to this form the larva loses both the







-. ....-.... . r. ...... ..... ...... ......
,.:: -' I,
ft. Al




.... .........




24

legs and antenna and assumes the apodous type of the female in its
second stage, differing, however, from the latter more particularly in
its more elongate form and in the much darker brown color of the end
of the body, which coloration here extends over the last six segments.
It measures now about 2d'" in length by 0.8mm in diameter at the
anterior end. The last six segments in the cast skin are yellowish-
brown, becoming darker toward the end, and all are densely covered
with small sharp points. Pores and stigmatal tubes similar to those
of the female in the second stage.
Male,fourth stage.-This stage, upon casting its apodous skin, which
act 1 fortunately observed, regains its legs and antennae, but loses
its rostrum. Its length is 2.6mm by 1mm1 in diameter. Color orange,
with legs and antenme somewhat paler. Eyes dark purplish, rather
large, and placed close to the antennae on the under side of the head.
Shape elliptical, rounded at both ends. All the segments are well
developed, and the combined head and thorax is longer than the
abdomen. The mesothorax now shows traces of the future wingpads.
In the recently emerged larva of this stage the front -of the head is
simply convex, but becomes more or less prominently conical with
advancing age. The legs are rather long and stout, with the digitules
fine and hair-like. The whole body is sparsely covered with brownish
hairs, which grow more numerous and longer around the end of the
body. Antennue nine-jointed, although in the recently emerged larva
the division between the second and third joint is not strongly marked.
Joint one is stoutest; all the others diminish gradually in diameter.
The three basal joints are longest, and nearly subequal in length; the
following five joints are shortest, subequal in length, and somewhat
stouter at the apex. The last joint is somewhat longer than the eighth,.
cylindrical, and rounded at the apex. All bear a few fine hairs, which
grow gradually longer toward the end; the last joint bears also a few
short spines at the apex.
Male, pupa, or fifth stage.-The cast skin only has thus far been
observed. It measured about 1.4mm in length. Its color is orange,
with antenna and legs dusky; the antennae annulated with white.
Antenuae nine-jointed, very long and stout, cylindrical and of equal
diameter, reaching to the abdomen; joint one is slightly stouter than
the rest, but all are subequal in length; the last is bluntly rounded at
the apex; all are destitute of hairs or spines. Wingpads very broad,
reaching beyond hind cox&e. Legs very long and stout; the tarsi about
one-third the length of the tibia, and apparently without a claw.
Male, imago (fig. 8).-Length about 2mmni length of wings 2.4mm by
0.8,"" broad; expanse 5mm. General color red, with the under side of
the abdomen brown; the two basal joints of the antenna reddisn, and
the last three or four joints yellow, the intermediate joints black.
Eyes, legs, mesothorax above, the mesosternal and metasternal plate, a
curved line each side of the prothorax, as also two converging lines in







-




mr


25


front of it, and a median line on under side, the borders of tihe sc1itlliim
and inedian line of the abdomen all black; median liie ofi thie head :.nd
eight transverse bands on dorsiun ofI' abidoinen dusky. Wings 'inller'.
ous, the costal space fuliginous, the veins blackish; :a streak near the
discoidal vein in front. and aI narrow oblique streak behind the vein
colorless. There appears to be several bl)raliIrhles to the disruuiilal vein,
which however gradually disappeiIll'ar in tlhe nouintili HlIinlliMs. Sir
face of the wings irregularly reticulated. Posteriior wings present,
though small, and broadly -shaped, bearing four stout looks att tihe
apex.
Antenna, ten-jointed, reaching to the middle of tie abdoiiei. .Joilnt
three is longest and somewhat stouter at the apex; the joints following




.* I /











to
------- ---------



di a

FiG. 8.-Xylococcua betul-e: a, antenna of male, second stage; b, male larva, fourth stage; c, antenna of
male, fourth utage; d. pupa skin;: e, male imago, dorsal view: f. male. sidt view; y., end of budy of
male, with sexual organ; A, hind-wing of mruale-all uich enlarged (original).

are cylindrical and diminish gradually in length; the first joint is
stoutest and shortest, the second joint somewhat longer; all are pro-
vided with rather long and fine, irregularly arraiinged hairs. Eyes
large, projecting, and quite coarsely facetted. Legs long and quite
stout; the tibiae hairy; tarsi two-jointed, thie first joint minute, though
distinct; digitules extremely fine. Style short, stout, conical. Tlhe
sexual organ is at least as long as the abdomen, stout, and densely
covered with forward-directed, lanceolate scales. The insect is cov-
ered above with a short and wool-like excretion, while the sixth and
seventh abdominal segments bear each a dense, transverse, dorsal
brush of delicate, white, and hair-like threads, exceeding the abdomen







._- -__ .-_--- -. -..








26

in length. These brushes are raised and spread out when the insect
is touched. (Fig. 8.)
In studying this remarkable insect and comparing its characters
with those of the various subfamilies hitherto described, I have been
greatly puzzled to refer it to its proper position. On the one hand, it
is closely related to the genus Coelostoma, though very different in all
its characters from other Monophlebinme, at least as far as the genera
Monophlebus and Icerya are concerned, while on the other hand there
appears to be also a relationship with certain genera of the Brachys-
celinie, and at the same time a wide divergence from the genus
Brachyscelis itself, the characters of which, as represented in Brachys-
cells conica, I have had the opportunity to examine in a female. These
considerations place it undoubtedly in the Acanthococcidae, somewhere
near the genus Eriococcus. These acanthococcid characters of Bra-
chyscelis conica are the large and distinct anal ring, surrounded by
numerous long and stout bristles, and the abnormally elongated and
slender anal tubercles.
Since tlhe characters of the two known species of Xylococcus and
those of the species of Ccelostoma are unique and unlike those of all
other subfamilies ofCoccidee, as far as known to me, I propose to erect
for the accommodation of these two genera the subfamily Xylococcinae,
which properly may be placed between the Monophlebinm and the
Acanthococcinm. They differ from the Monophlebin? in the absence
of legs and antennae in the intermediate stages of the female and partly
so in the male; the absence of a rostrum in the mature female; the
highly developed stigmata of the abdominal segments; the strongly
chitinous character of several of the terminal segments of the abdomen,
and the presence of a highly organized and chitinous anal tube, which
is capable of being projected out of and of being withdrawn into the
body.
In the true Monophlebine the legs and antennae, as well as the ros-
trum, are present in all stages; the abdominal stigmata are wanting
or not observable; the end of the body is not chitinous; the anal open-
ing simple and the anal tube absent.
From the CoccinT they differ not only in the characters mentioned
above, but also by the absence of anal tubercles, except minute ones in
the young larvae, and the absence of a true anal ring with its accom-
panying bristles.
THE PEACH LECANIUM.

(Lecanium nigrofasciatum n. sp.)
By THEO. PERGANDE.
Lecaniam persicap Mod.-Murtfeldt, Bull. 32, Div. of Ent. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1894,
p. 41.
Lecaniumpersicv Mod.-Howard, Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr. 1894 (1895), p. 270.
This handsome little species has been known to the writer since 1872,
when it was discovered upon peach trees at Hillsboro, Mo., and since






~~7t^








27


then increased steadily and has been sprwiading gradually over the inlacih
orchards of the Middle, kmuthernm, and Eantern States and apip-as to
be at present most abundlant aind monst widely distributed inll the Statte
of Maryland. Whether its origiiial IomI4e V11AS the i':ist or West is lif
tlcult to ssce'rt ii, tlinmligh its g'reatter ai)un daJ(ice il the tier of States
bordering the Atlantic seems to inliate that its ()iginaill hoie' was in
the region) smith of Now York 11 1nortil (if thile I'ot4t1ac liver anld that
from this region it Ihad been distributed with cuttings al young trees,
and to a lesser degree through the agency of birds and insects, over all
the infested regions.
Until recently this scale has been considered a specilic eneiiy o)f the
peach, but while stludying it in connection with the large aimolilit of
material of various species of Lecaniumi infesting our fruit trees ;is well
as those of our forest trees and shrubs, which lhad accumulated during
the last twenty years in the collection of tile departmentt of Agricul-
ture, I was struck by the great similiarity of certain small scales, dif-
fering from each other and from the peach scale but slightly inll size andl
general appearance, and found, after preparations and examinations of
scales from various plants and localities, that all of
them belong t) the same species and that the slight
and superficial differences appear to be due to the
difference in the food plant on which they were living |
and to a greater or less extent also to the age of the
specimens when found.
Food-plants: Most frequently, besides on the peach,
they were found on various kinds of plum. They were Fi,.. 9.-Lecaniiiu ,
found on cultivated plums at Kirkwood, Mo.; Chambers- ;igrofascia t 7,:
adult female--en-
burg, Pa.; Newark,) Del.; Harmons, Md., and Knoxville, I d origitifalej.
Tenn.; on a native plum at Ruma, Ill.; on damson
plum at Baltimore, Md.; Prunus simnonii at Waynesboro, Pa.; and on
wild goose plum at Augusta, Ga. They were also equally common on
Acer saccliarinum at Boston, Springfield, Holyoke, and Deerfield, Mass.;
at Poughkeepsie and Ithaca, N. Y.; Paterson, N. J.; Richmond, Ohio,
and western Ontario, Canada. At Reading, Mass., ou, Acer pseudo-
platanus, and at Pine City, Ga., on Acer rubrum-drumondi; at St.
Louis, Mo., on apple, and at Washington, D. C., on Crata.gus; on syc-
amore at Kirkwood, Mo.; on Bumelia and Lindera benzoin at Wash-
ington, D. C.; on olive at Crescent City, Fla.; and on Vaccinium at
Manatee, Fla.
Considering the various trees and shrubs on which this species has
been found, the indications seem to point strongly to our native plums
as original food plants.
Living specimens, when being crushed, emit a disagreeable odor.
As late as 1895 this species has been considered as being identical
with the European Lecanium persicw Modeer, but in order to settle this
important point definitely, specimens of it were transmitted through



\









28

the Division of Entomology of the Department of Agriculture to the
eminent and well-known English Coccidologist, Mr. J. W. Douglas, of
London, England, for his opinion. He kindly examined them and pro-
nouniced them to be very different from perstew and to form an undo-
scribed species.
The life history of this scale has to some extent been studied by Miss
Mary Murtfeldt, of Kirkwood, Mo., and is herewith reproduced from
Bull. No. 32, Div. of Entom. U. S. Dept. of Agr., 1894 (pages 42 and 43).
Ou May 2, my attention was called by a friend to a young Lombard plum in his
garden, which exhibited the worst case of attack yet seen-probably the unchecked
development of several seasons. The twigs and smaller branches were absolutely
incrusted on all sides with the Coccids, presenting to other than entomological eyes,
a repulsive spectacle. Even at this late date segregation had not taken place. By
the 20th of the month, however, the eggs were fully formed and every scale was
crowded with them. The egg is broad, oblong in form, 0.5mim in length, pale yellow
in color, and in the mass quite free and granular. Hatching began June 10 and con-
tinned for nearly a month. The young larvae were the largest species yet observed,
very flat, uniformly pale yellow, the carapace being
indicated by a very thin lateral rim. The legs were
rather long and well developed. Antennae five or six
(jointed, one-half the length of the body. By July 15
\ hatching was completed, and in the meantime, those
first hatched, of which a part were separated and kept
on fresh twigs in the rearing jar, had nearly all become
: stationary on the leaves and transformed to male pup2.
Twigs brought me from the tree at this date had the
foliage covered with the young in all stages, the ma-
jority being still in a state of great activity, resembling
S in general appearance and in the peculiar wavy motion
Fi. O.-Lecaniu nigrofas when crawling a myriad of small Tingitids. The sexes
Fig.lO.-1-Lecanium nigrofas.
ciatum.: antenna at left;leg were undistinguishable. The mature larval scale is
at right-much enlarged about 2n"m in length, slightly convex, of a translucent
(original), greenish-white color. Two converging carina, inclose a
narrow fiat dorsal space, from which a border, divided
into six or seven panes, by similar, though finer, opaque, white ridges, slopes
slightly on all sides. Under the scales, which were stationary, and which in no
respect differed from those that were still moving about over leaves and twigs, were
found male pupoe entirely detached and displaying wing pads and other members as
seen in nymphre of the higher Hemiptera.
On the 22d of July winged males appeared in the rearing jar, the pupal period
being abont one week. In this stage, also, the insect is beautiful, with filmy,
iridescent wings expanding 4mm; body rose red, with some dark brown shadings
about the head and tip of the abdomen, and an especially distinct, dark-brown,
transverse thoracic band. August 10 hundreds of winged males, fresh pupa, and
active larvwe were still found on the leaves. The act of copulation did not come
under my eye, although the winged forms continually fluttered over those that
were crawling. The life of the male seems to be of about a week's duration. My
observations on this insect were interrupted by absence from home from the middle
of the month until the 5th of September, when I found that the males had disap-
peared and that the females had attached themselves to the bark of such twigs as
still retained a measure of vigor. The scales were about one-half grown, had dark-
ened, thickened, and become centrally elevated. As in all scales, growth by the
exudation of waxy material around the margin was slowly progressing. At the








29)

present date (November 10) the Nralhs are inot more than two-tlhirlM the mI/e that
they were last year. anil not nearly so nimizermid, anti ilroi, .Msily Iromin the IwigM
upon which the black funtngIs IIAn apliiarool. Thini iN very likely dim n t li, ilbhlity
of the true, wlitlh will a'irceuly survived, the winter.
DEK.1'ItI'TION OF AD)'Li' FEMALE,.
The adult female (fig. 9)) is fromn 3""i to 411.1"" l1g li'v 21.611," in diameter,
and about 21"'"'11 high. It is slightly broadest piosteriiirly, heli.lisplierical,
highly polished, and itf not rIlihl)ed is seen to lIe co'e)tredl witli ;a very
delicate, traiisparen'it, and glossy. or waxy exe're'tii,. There are alipar-
ently twelve more or less distinct andt radiating ridges eachl side, which
are most noticeable around the margin of tlie 1ody and starting at
some distance from the disk of the scale, those of the tlioraciC segments
being generally more highly developed. The disk or Ithlio-dorsal stripe
is smooth or but faintly rugose. The general color is of a lighter or
darker red, with a l)roader or narrower blackish subdorsal hand sur-
rounding the disk compose(l of contluent spots, and a marginal row
of elongated squarish spots or bands between the ridges of the same
dark color, which frequently extend to the subdorsal band, which give
to them a peculiarly pretty apl)pearance. Frequently they may be
entirely black, with the exception of the median stripe, or they may
be entirely red, with but faint traces of darker shadings or markings,
while in dry specimens all the markings disappear entirely.
After boiling them in potash they become almost colorless or of a
pale brownish yellow, while the fluid turns to a pale purplish color.
The anal plates and a broad margin around the anal opening are darker
and of a yellowish-brown.
Owing to the extreme transparency of the derm after boiling, the
pores become invisible, except a medio-dorsal row of irregularly ar-
ranged pores, reaching from near the end of the body to or beyond the
region of the median pair of legs. The marginal spines are rather
small and sparsely set, with three longer ones, of which the median one
is much the longest in tlhe lateral angles of the thorax. The antenna-e
(see fig. 10) are six-Jointed and about 0.20 of a millimeter in length, the
third joint being much the longest and about as long as the last three
joints combined; the second Ibllows next in length, then the sixth and
first, while the fourth and fifth are shortest, subequal in length, and
together somewhat shorter than the sixth. All bear the usual com-
plement of hairs. The legs (see fig. 10) are rather long and slender
and about 0.32 of a millimeter in length and provided with the usual
hairs or bristles. Tlhe digitules of the tarsi are slender, finely knobbed,
and about three-fourths the length of the tarsi; those of the claw are
much shorter, curved upward, enlarged toward the end, and but
slightly longer than the claw.
There is generally more or less variation in the length of both the
antennae and legs of specimens taken from the same twig, and even in
the same individual; sometimes, though rarely, there appears to be a
faint trace of a division of the third antennal joint.








30

THE WORK AGAINST ICERYA PURCHASE IN PORTUGAL. WITH AN
ACCOUNT OF THE INTRODUCTION FROM AMERICA OF.
NOVIUS CARDINALIS.

By L. 0. HOWARD.
In several of the previous bulletins of this Division mention has
been made of the occurrence of the white or fluted scale (Icerya pur-
chasi) in disastrous numbers in the orange and lemon groves along the
banks of the river Tagus in Portugal. This insect, which reached
/ Portugal some years ago probably from her colonies in the Azores, to
which point it was probably introduced many years previously from
Australia upon acacias grown as wind-breaks for the orange planta-
tions, has attracted the attention of the Portuguese Government by its
damage during the last two years. Senhor Alfredo Carlos Le Cocq, of
the department of agriculture of Portugal, has published a number of
Communications upon this insect in the "Archive Rural, Gazeta Dos
Lavradores," and i n the numbers of this journal for December 28,1897,
and June 28, 1898, gives excellent summaries of the spread of the
insect, the work which has been done against it, and especially of the
results of the attempts which have been made through the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, aided by the State Board of Horticulture
of California, to introduce and acclimatize the Australian predatory
enemies of the scale. In the article first mentioned is given an account
of the spread of the scale in the district of Lisbon. In and about the
city of Lisbon nearly all of the private and public gardens and nur-
; series are infested and the insect is found in thirty-two other localities.
Prior to the attempt to introduce natural enemies of the insect exten-
t sive experiments with washes were carried on under the direction of
the Chemical Agricultural Station of Lisbon. After much experimen-
tation it was determined that an emulsion of bisulphide of carbon with
soapsuds was the most rapid and effective of all. The formula used is
as follows:
Black potash soap .............----.........---.......----....--.........--...... kilograms.- 1.5
Warm water.----------------------------.......................--..--........---..-----..----.-------...liters.- 10
Bisulphide of carbon.......................----------------------..-----..---..-----.-....--------.do.. 3 to 4
Cold water........................................................----------------------------------------------------...do ..... 90
The soap is dissolved in the warm water and when the solution cools the bisul-
phide is gradually added, agitating it constantly to make the emulsion homogeneous,
the latter being finally diluted with the cold water, care being taken to stir well
before using.
It is reported that there is no inconvenience in preparing sufficient
quantities for one or two days' use, but it appears that the emulsion
prepared the evening before using is more energetic, from which we
judge that there is a gradual evaporation of the bisulphide from the.
emulsion. There is some danger of the pump rusting as the result of
the action of the bisulphide, and it should be washed out with water
several times after use and wiped dry. Moreover, only vulcanized rub-







I;"








31


ber should ie used for the hose, since the ordinary rubber hose is
attacked by the bisulphide. The Vermorell puilverisateur cai noit lie
used Ibor the reason that bimulphide attacks the vominpositiion ,'" the
diaphragmn and the sinall leather valves. 'lThis niixture !Iais also been
found effective against other scales. The Ipassage of ii law is urged
which shall enable the administration to take prompt inevasures in a
case of insect outbreak.
The writer's first knowledge of this outbreak was iil Septeiiiber, I 916;,
when he received a letter tfromn Senhor ArIIand(11o la Silva, Iaccomiiplaniied
by a copy of an article which lie had publislhe(l inll t lie ('o io da Noite
of September 10. Senhor da Silva wrote to ask tbr advice as to the
most eflicacious means of fighting the insect in America and for refer-
ences to the literature on the life history of the insect and its allies.
We replied under late of October 1, 1896, urging lhim to make an
effort to introduce Aorius (Vedalia) cardinalis. In Febiruary. lS97,
Senhor da Silva sent specimens of the Icerya, which we were able to
determine as undoubtedly I. purchase, and we addressed him again on
the subject of the importation of Novius cardinalis, ottering to secure
specimens for Portugal through the State Board of Horticulture of
California. While awaiting his reply we received a communication
from Senhor Le Cocq, with whom Senhor da Silva had been in com-
munication and with whom our subsequent correspondence was carried
on. In the meantime Senhor da Silva had published in tlhe last num-
ber of the volume tbfor 1896 of the "Annaes de Sciencias Naturaeas" an
extended article in which he gave an account of the work of Norius
cardinalis in this country and urged its introduction. Curiously
enough this publication, as we have recently learned from an editorial
in "O Jornal de Lisboa" for September 7, 1898, was considered by many
prominent persons as based upon untrustworthy evidence and American
brag reclamee], and it even seems that there were a few wlho insinuated
in an agricultural review that the whole article was simply an inter-
ested petition for a commission to be sent to Australia! Undatinred,
however, by this home opposition, Senhor Le Cocq took up his corre-
spondence with this office, and in October, 1897, tlhe writer was able to
secure, through the great kindness of the State Board of hlorticulture
of California, about sixty specimens of Norius cardinalis, in the adult
condition, and some larve, as well as a number of specimens of NoVrms
koebelei. These were sent by direct mail from Washiiiigton, packed in
moss, with a plentiful supply of Iceryas as food, just as they lhad been
received from Mr. Alexander Craw, of San Francisco. But five of tlhe
Vedalias reached Portugal alive. These issued from the moss as adults
and had quite certainly come from the specimens which left America
in the larval condition. All of those which started from here as adults
were dead. They were at once placed inl glass jars at the Chemical-
Agricultural Experiment Station at Lisbon, and were so successfully
cared for that at the date when Senhor Le Cocq wrote his December


I)

I
~~~ \ ..

ii








"32

article there was already a numerous progeny. All of the specimens
of Novirs koebelei were dead on receipt.
On the 22d of November a second colony of the two species of pred-
atory beetles was received from California. Inasmuch as the mail
packet before had gone in a somewhat roundabout way, an attempt
was made this time to hasten the journey. The writer took the packet
personally to New York and placed it on cold storage awaiting the
arrival of the direct steamer to Lisbon. Unfortunately the arrival of
the steamer in New York was very considerably delayed, and upon its
arrival in Lisbon it left for Porto immediately after the disembarkation
of its passengers, and only on its return to Lisbon, December 19, was
the packet containing the insects delivered to Senhor Le Cocq. The
packet had left California on the 5th of November, so that it had been
forty-four days on the journey. There were still alive, however, one
male and five females of N. cardinalis, and owing to the great care
which was taken of them they survived and multiplied. All specimens
of N. koebelei, as before, were dead, from which it seems that the former
resists these long voyages in hermetically sealed boxes better than the
latter.
As to the further results of the experiment we can do no better than
to quote the words of Senhor Le Cocq in the "Archivo Rural" of June
28. The article has been translated from the Portuguese by Mr. Frank
Benton, of this office.
In No. 24 of the "Archivo Rural," published in December, 1897, we told ourreaders
what we had done to introduce into Portugal redalia cardinalis, which is the most
voracious enemy of Icerya piirchasi, and what we had obtained and hoped to obtain
up to spring in order then to commence its reproduction and breeding in the open
air. Now we see that we were then very modest in our calculation, because four
mouths later, in place of hundreds of Vedalias that we counted on having, we pos-
sessed already many thousands of the insects, and we were able to think of entering
simultaneously upon its lireeding on a large scale in the open air and its distribution
in the localities invaded by Icerya.
In order that our readers may form an idea as to the fecundity of Vedalia cardinali8,
it will suffice to state that our entire breeding were all descendants of the six insects
received on the 19th of December-that is, from the second sending that Mr. L. 0.
Howard made me.
During this new apprenticeship we had occasion to try various modes of breeding
the Vedulias in glass jars, and that which gave us the best result-the only one which
we still follow to-day and that has also been adopted in the chemical-agricultural
station of Lisbon, is the following: Small tables (tablets) of pasteboard are made,
which, flat side up, pass into glass jars, leaving some space around them, the jars
i)Cing cylindrical and tall; to each of the tablets there are glued four legs made of
the same material, 2 to 3cm. high and triangular. To give sufficient firmness to these
legs each one is folded from the top to the middle of the base in the form of a piece
of guttering, and is glued by the base to the lower side of the tablet near the cor-
ners, with the vertex down. On these tablets, which are flat, there is glued an
octave-shaped piece of paper whose edges, extending the breadth and length of the
cardboard, are folded up so as to form sides around the tablets.
It is on these small tables that, once or twice a week, a fresh repast of Iceryas is
furnished to the Vedalias contained in each jar, the new tablets being placed above




: . ....... ... .


333





thise already in lpoMition Tih' viii ,isit Luimsjhbl cMl preld Nitmrenoively reinalin l thin h'rin-
ing withill the jar it ki and of trent'riO f I'ielidvlrM, or il, 1:1iq gire iit whom, 1l rhv'l'M tiq m it. -
cemsivt generation.- of Veduliam go vi 'trepr(odiucing, feCrding, and distri iluting thein-
wel ,.s.
The Ieeryn lt-ft Cr, in the earlier' ledintgs s h,1 ilt resiivciltd from itillc ,jam, i in oriltr
net tto lo e thile eggOs llat tlih' V dlaliM l|ll '' iiilc i' i liz'' ii\ ifeicli L li i il' tlilt'- fo' lne'r,
nor thte small larva' taint bai e alrettdy ihatiihedl thlie,, or which ai r o 'r''inl in n.'irn'h
or lterya seggs imolig tlzt' IatI toh n)i\.leltionel li i v.
Two or three tablets with feh Irryz sl ;Imy i h'e illte'ineitl ,ach1l tillii a'ccardinig tco
the lutnib'-r of Vedialius which exist in eachli jar aid til' larger ar -miall ,r iicllllr it'
Ie'eryii larvia' th ti s 1 that i sn iht' oi calls of th'li j'r on til- m idi- tow;ir1 li,. light.
I'atsteotoard tabllc'ts its thi forn m;iy he minadci il up util thi- jar is im I td ioi tlie top.
Having reached this point and four to eight (:days having )p;Imsedl--th:it is. wh,.t, it
has become necessary to furnish new f'ood--the tldtts arc' disrrilalitt.'l ill r,.w iars,
placing one or two in each one and leaving one or twwo ii tihe IirsJt Jir to i continue
and develop the broods: or the tabllets stoc'ked with larva] and winged Veciliais arc.
utilized to establish colonies of the precious coccinellids ill orchardis. groves, ;and
gardens invaded by Icerya.
In the first case the same system is followed with earh noew jar until it is fill]] of
tablets.
SIn the second ease the jar with the material is taken where the colonis ol' Vedla-
lHas are to lie established, and at each point the gauze which covers thie tnimith ot" the
jar is loosened. )One or more of the tablets is removed with thlir Icery;is and Vedai
lines. Each one is placed in a sniall box niade of wood. of' palsteboard, 01 of' 1i"hvt'es
of appropriate size (collar boxes serve every purpose), and these boxes art bound or
nailed in an upright position to the trees or plants where it is desired to start the
colony of Vedalias.
As the larval and also the winged Vedalias are very delicate and the lightest pres-
sure crushes them, we should therefore always avoid touching them, in order to
preserve the largest number possible in the broods. It is for this reason that we
have contrived the simple process which we have described and whichli with gtaod
results is being followed in the chemical-agricultural station of Lisbon, hoth in lthe
breeding and distribution of Vedalias.
In order to favor the breeding of Vedalias his excellence, counsellor Elvino doe
Brito, director-general of agriculture, ordered the construction at the chemi'cal-agri-
cultural station of a tent of wire-cloth over a wooden frame. 'ihis tent covers. ;,i
orange tree infested with /cer/a purchase, and c;in be easily taken down an1dl I st up
when necessary to change its place, and is operated in manner similar to tiht e nio
which was established for the same purpose in the' United States of America under
the name of U. S. Propagating Station for Parasites of Scale Insects.
Within the tent is found, beside thle orange tree infested with Ieerya, a shelf on
which are placed tablets, according to our system, with Iceryas, not only to furnish
eggs and larvae for the sustenance of the Vedalias because in a -hort time' the I'er-
yas of the orange tree would lie insufficient, but also for the purpose of utilizing
these tablets, after stocking with coccinellids, to continue their colonization in
localities or estates invaded by scales.
To stock this tent or station we presented to them early in May several large.jars
where we had made the first breeding, which contained about a thousand Vc.lali.is
in various stages. At the same time we furnished to the chemical-agricultural sta-
tion, to serve in the distribution of Vedalia colonies, two large jars containing 12
tablets stocked with some thousands of the larvam and winged forms of the voracious
coccinellid.
With the breeding obtained in the chemical-agricultural station of Lisbon (Belem)
and those that we had furnished to theti, the station was advised to establish thirty-
eight centers or colonies of Vedalias, tited out so as to be able to continue, each time
8193-No. 18--3









34

with more intensity and rapidity, these colonizations in the orchards, gardens, parks,
and country places of Lisbon and its environs. Proprietors who had plants infested
with Iceryas and wished to utilize this convenient and economical means of combat-
ing them were to inform the director of the chemical-agricultural station, or the
agriculturist of the district of Lisbon, or the director-general of agriculture.
It should ble known that Vedalia cardinalis attacks only the larva3 and eggs of
Icerya, and that one must not decide that it is not an active destroyer of this scale
because we continue to see for some time adult Iceryas that were already on tilhe
trees when the colonies or centers of Vedalias were established there. The adult
Iceryas continue, then, to live, and, until they die, to place eggs in their sacs, but the
eggs and young larvae of the Iceryas are the ones which are destroyed until a point is
reached when none arrive at the adult stage. From this moment the white egg sacs
of the Iceryas are left empty in the branches and leaves, and the invasion of the
injurious scale has been overcome.
After the colonies of Vedalias are established in any locality or estate, it is advis-
able not to make treatments there nor in their proximity, in order not to destroy the
young of the beneficial parasite of Icerya, which soon develop, because the adults
spread about and lay their eggs, sometimes near at hand and sometimes at a distance,
on the infested branches just below the colonies of Iceryas. For some time the
larva, of Vedalia are not strikingly apparent, except they are quite numerous, well
developed, and fat. At first they live somewhat concealed, among the Iceryas or
within the oviferous sacs of the latter, next to the eggs and tender larvwe just issued
from the egg.
With the rapid development which the broods of Vedalia cardinalis have, and in
view of the large number of colonies already established, of the many more numer-
ous ones which will be established still during the summer and autumn, and in view
of its wide distribution, it is to be believed that even in the coming year it will be
difficult to find a tree with Icerya, in Lisbon or its environs, without finding there
likewise its terrible enemy, Norhis or Vedalia cardinalis. The treatment with insec-
ticides, which has produced meanwhile good results, will become from that moment
absolutely unnecessary, if it is not so already.
In the meantime, not being aware of the remarkable success in
rearing the Vedalia from the six specimens remaining alive of our last
shipment, the writer sent on June 29, by direct mail, a consignment of
about 5 dozen larvae of Novins koebelei and N. cardinalis which had
been received in Washington that day through the courtesy of the
State Board of Horticulture of California. On August 10 word was
received from Senhor Le Cocq to the effect that the shipment reached
him on the 13th of July, thus making the time from San Francisco to
Lisbon only twenty days-less than one-half the time occupied by the
preceding sending. It resulted from this short journey that adults of
Normis 1oebelei reached Portugal in safety. There were twelve beetles
of this species living on receipt, two of N. cardinalis, and some few
larvw.
In the same communication Senhor Le Cocq wrote as follows:
The propagation of the Vedalia received from you in November and December,
1897. has been wonderful, particularly that of the second package, which reached
Lisbon December 19. The chemical-agricultural station of Lisbon, to which I
committed the first package which you sent me and many thousands of those
I bred at home, has already established several colonies in about ninety farms,
orchards, parks, and gardens in Lisbon and in the country around Lisbon. In the
orange orchard around the propagating station [described in the preceding quota-








35


tion fromi titv ''Archio I-olurai "I t1i ,lw I oat isiis aitrv m ,,f 'V,., i h i i w1 hirli l'h vtI, MI i.tlr L
oul iipon th Fli oFaiigt tl.si, liol thle iia lii asnll ( iaI, Iip'isi graiKs, J1111iL Ipo)(lli ti is lll ltil
n tlll i 1. reckcoiiel Iy the milli,124. It '\ dsire or hope for. Tim ri'is, ie. ,,f .Vt I] li FaO Ihi tii iil i tli trljite.,l prj ,i11 .l*
every daly to iii:-iy farmers al nd l gilrlsnr wiho lLk fmr- thrlin, i11l y un iminy in-li,'i,-
that we juistly rtiiuiler )bow gro;ieat hl as .,i ti invliivail ,, hl'n\ i'r a nld u ui l it z ui
did to Port 1gaiso iagris It tise ansd li, irtiiIt tirv.
Later intoirnationI has .come to us iIn tiat ruliaiinmllns of () .iorna.l (ie 14s-
boa of September 7. 18198, in a iquot;ation fronm Novid:ll,'s of tl before, froin which we extract tihe following: "C'olonies or stock's of
Vedalias were established on not Iess thin l .S7 estates, when. uiatinally
many others were fotbrmed by radiation. gardenss andt orchards tllLhat
were completely infested andi nearly ruined are to-day entirely clean, or
well on the way toward becoming so."
It would thus seem as though the wonderful little NoriusA- cardinalis
has fully sustained in Portugal the great reputation which it hIad pre-
viously gained iin the United States. The writer would not have Iheel
able to assist the Portuguese Government to this admirable result had
it not been for the enlightened policy of the State Board of liorticul-
ture of California in continuing the breeding in confinement of these
predaceous beetles long alter the apparent great necessity fior such
work had disappeared in Calitfornia. and had it not been for the cour-
tesy of the board in promptly placing material at the disposal of this
office.

TWIG PRUNERS AND ALLIED SPECIES.

By F. HI. CHIT'TENIEN.

THE OAK PRUNER.

The attention of the curious is often attracted by numbers of twigs
and small branches which sometimes strew the ground under trees of
various kinds, particularly oak and hickory, and the observer is usually
at a loss to account for their presence. The severed limbs vary ii length
from a few inches to two or three feet, and one cut limb is mentioned
by Dr. Fitch in his article on this species (5th N. Y. Eept., pp. 797-604)
that measured ten feet, and another that was 11 inches in thickness.
He further remarks that young trees are sometimes felled by this
insect. An examination of one, and sometimes of both end(ls o'f a sev-
ered limb will show a smoothly cut surface, near the center of which will
be seen a more or less oval opening plugged Ul) with a wad of a material
composed of fine shavings and sawdust (see fig. 11, e, f). IIt onem of
these limbs be split open, a soft-bodied larva or pupa will be found
resembling that shown in fig. 11, a. This is the larva of a Ceram-
bycid or long-horned beetle, Elaphidion rillosiumn Fab., generally known
in literature as tlie oak prIuner. This larva is sul)cylindrical, soft and
fleshy, and of a whitish or light-yellowish color. It is provided with







.J








36

legs (see g), which are, however, somewhat rudimentary and of little
service to the creature as organs of locomotion.
The beetle is slender and cylindrical in form, dark brown in color,
and clothed with grayish, somewhat mottled, pubescence. The antennae
of the female are shorter, those of the male (illustrated at b) longer,
than the body; the proximal joints are armed with small spines. Each
elytron terminates in two small spines and the femora are unarmed.
The length varies from about a half to three-quarters of an inch.
The pruning process is not always in itself especially injurious, but
the ultimate effects are apt to be more serious. The fallen twigs serve
as a breeding place for hosts of other wood borers, many of which are





aS
*

















Fiu. 11.-Elaphidion villosum: a, larva; b, beetle; c, pupa; d, end of twig excised by larva from tree;
e, reverse end containing insect; f, same from side, split to show pupa within; g, leg of larva;
a, b, c, about twice natural size; d, e,f, natural size; g, greatly enlarged (original).

injurious to timber. Among these are some which do not hesitate, in
default of an abundance of dead wood, to attack and injure living trees.

LITERATURE OF THE OAK PRUNER.

Early in the present century an account of this species was given by
Prof. William D. Peck in an article published in the Massachusetts
Agricultural Repository and Journal, of January, 1819 (Vol. V, pp.
307-313). In this article Professor Peck gave the main facts in the
insect's life history, bestowing upon it the popular name of oak pruner
and describing the species as Stenocorus putator. In later times this
species, together with E. parallelum, which is considered to be merely
a synonym, has received treatment at the hands of most writers on
economic entomology. Fitch, in his Fifth Report on the Insects of New
York (pp. 17-24), furnishes an exhaustive article on the subject, dwell-
ing at length upon the supposed marvelous intelligence of the insect.
it is not within the province of the present article to discuss this latter








37

subject in detail, since it has been ably treated by Mr. FlreIleri'k ('lark-
sou and the late 1)r. .oln I lamiltonii, and tihe reader is tlner'loirt referred
to their articles in the Canadian Enitonmologist (Vol. X V III, pp. 1.S- lk)
and 141-144) and to the Fifth Remport of the I. S. E'ntoiiiol igicaIl (Ciil-
mission (pp. 83-90), where the major portion olf tihe t''cuiunts olf lF'itch-
and Hamilton alre reproduced.

FOOD) PLANTS AN! IN.JI'R.

The list of known ood pllants of this sl)pe'ies, as record lby the
writer and others, includes: Oak, hickory, chestnut, iiiaple, Abies
(Haldemau, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., Vol. X, p. 34-1), alijile, il)hum, peach,
grape, quince, locust, redbud (Cercis canadensis), sumach, orange, and
Osage orange (Machira auranitiaca). In past years the writer Ihas seen
pear trees very extensively pruned by this insect; also the cli ibingM
bitter-sweet (Celastrus scanidens). More recently ti is or allied species
have been ascertained to attack almost every woody plant that grows.
In the vicinity of Washington the genus Elaphidion is not so abiuhldant
as in many northern localities, but pruned twigs of various trees and
shrubs are of frequent occurrence, among which have been nolte(d
spicebush (Lindera benzoin), sassafras, sumnach (I.'ius f/1ibrai ad (i
typhina). Walsh mentions the occurrence of pruned twigs mon English
or white walnut and Fitch mentions beecli* and birch.
An unpublished divisional note which adds a new food plant to this
species should be inserted. In October of 1882 we received from Mr.
M. C. Read, of Hudson, Ohio, specimens of twigs of Chinese Wistaria,
which had been pruned by the larvae which they contained. Adult
beetles began issuing (in confinement) January 6, 1883.
Of reported injuries by this species 1'rof. A.J. Cook says (Entouit.
Amer., Vol. 111, p. 59) that in 1886 "peach trees in portions of Michigan
were seriously injured. The twigs were cut off so as to nearly destroy
some of the trees." In Volume V of Insect Litfe (p. 50() mention is made
of the extraordinary abundance of this pruner in Bucks County, Pa.,
and it is there stated, on the authority of Mr. J. B. VWatso-i, that car-
loads of the branches could be gathered up from the ground through
the oak forests.
In the writer's experience the oak pruner was extremely abundant ill
the early 80's in the neighborhood of Ithaca, Tompkins County, N. Y.,
and later near South Woodstock, Windliamin County, Comi., on tlhe
shagbark hickory, the severed twigs and branches occurring by the
barrel-full under a single tree. In one instance pear trees in an orchard
at Ithaca, N. Y., had been very extensively pruned by it. It had appar-
eiitly attacked healthy living twigs, and several trees had every appear-
ance of having been killed outright.
'The beech species is evidently, judging by Fitch's twig girdler, Oncideres cinyulata Say.








38

Under the caption Elaphidion injury," and evidently referring to the
present species, Prof. J. B. Smith wrote in 1892 (Ent. News, Vol. 111, p.
261): "One of the striking features noticeable now in riding through
New Jersey is the unusual amount of Elaphidion injury on oaks. In
some localities every tree has several-dead or dying twigs, and the
ground beneath is strewn with branches broken off by recent high
winds."
A similar condition was observed and commented upon by Dr. Riley
at about the same time in the country lying between Washington and
New York City, and noticeable from the railway cars in traveling
between those cities.
LIFE HISTORY.
From our present knowledge of this species the following brief
account ot its lifehistory may be given :
The mother beetle inserts an egg, usually in one of the smaller twigs
of a living tree. The young larva hatching therefrom first attacks the
wood under the bark, following the grain of the wood and packing its
burrow with its sawdust-like castings. The larva as it grows bores
toward the base, often consuming the wood entirely around the limb
and ejecting its castings through holes which it makes in the bark.
Later it follows the axis of the twig, boring through the center and
excavating a more or less oval channel, sometimes for a distance of
several inches. Dr. Fitch has said that the larva is only about half
grown when it severs the limb in which it is working, but it has more
probably attained its full growth at this time. He described this
operation, recounting at length how, witli "consummate skill and seem-
ingly superterrestrial intelligence, he varies his proceedings to meet the
circumstances of his situation in each particular case."
From Dr. Fitch's account it would seem that he imputed to this insect
a reasoning power, which enables it to modify its operations according
to the conditions, and to judge just how far the limb should be cut off
to insure its ultimate amputation by the wind, without endangering its
own safety. Whether guided by reason or by blind instinct, the insect
is actually enabled to accomplish this purpose.
After cutting away the wood in such manner that the winds will in
time bring the limb to the ground, the contained larva retreats into its
burrow and plugs up the severed end with castings. Here it trans-
forms to pupa (fig. 11, c,f), sometimes late in the autumn and often not
until early spring, assuming the adult stage as early as November and
appearing abroad in June and throughout the summer until September.
A larva received through the kindness of Dr. A. E. Brunn, from
South Woodstock, Conn., transformed to pupa May 3, and to adult May
21, having thus passed the pupal stage in eighteen days, the average
temperature having been about 740 F.
Although this species normally completes its transformations in ampu-
tated or fallen limbs, it occasionally breeds in limbs that have not been








39

severed. It does not ;lway cut offt lie twigs ill wliirla it lives, andl the
larva sometimes Ireverlses the tnrder ot l-proceednlgs .114il directs its bur-
row toward the distal end of tile Ml)rach, which it ruts 411T at the end of
its burrow and rem InsuS in the brancli attached to tihe trre.
Fronm thlie earlier accounts t Fitch anld otliers it would lb inlferred
that the insect ret-iiires a single year toily ftor tih coitpletion of its life
cycle. I)Dr. h amilton. however, states that a longer period is required,
three years being the usual time, in individual cases Ifotir or iniore years
being consumed. The writer is strongly inclined t believe such excep-
tionally long periods. even three years, to be the result (f undtie dry-
ness caused by indoor breeding.

WHY TUE LARVA AMPIUTA'TES A LIMB.

The purpose of the larva in cutting away the wood furnishes an
interesting topic for speculation. The object attained is its ultimate
fall to the ground.
Peck thought that the limb, if permitted to remain attached to tlhe
tree, would become too dry and that a certain degree oft moisture was
required for the development of the insect, and that tlhe limb was
accordingly partially severed that it might eventually fall, and that
then, lying on the ground amid the autumn leaves and beneath the
winter's snow, the requisite degree of moisture was insured. In this
belief Dr. Fitch concurred. Mr. Clarkson, however, takes issue with
Fitch and believes that the main object of the larva is to obtain dead
wood and to prevent the flow of sap. Here we have two contrary
views expressed, one that tile object is to obtain moisture, the other to
prevent it.
Such an excess of moisture, as is obtained ou the ground under the
melting snow and the pools of water that collect in winter under tlhe
infested trees, could hardly be a necessity in the life history of any
terrestrial animal. The ease with which these insects may be reared
from dry twigs indoors is conclusive proof to the contrary. Why they
should require more moisture than fifty or a hundred others that could
be named that have similar food habits and do not breed exclusiv-ly
in fallen limbs, it would be difficult to explain. Again, that the small
flow of sap of oak or hickory could seriously interfere with develop-
ment would seem unreasonable when we consider that these insects are
able to survive tile immersion to which they are sometimes subjected
for days together during thaws and rainy spells in the winter.
Another explanation of the limb's amputation occurs to the writer.
Those who have reared beetles from hard wood cannot have failed to
observe that the larva before transforming cuts through tlhe wood
until. it reaches the bark, which is left untouched and serves to protect
the insect from marauding birds or other enemies. When the beetle
develops it has only to gnaw its way through this thin layer of bark to
effect its exit. There are undoubtedly some wood borers which are





4


. .... .0, :.... ..








40


provided in the beetle state with mandibles sufficiently powerful to
enable them to penetrate hard wood (Monohammus, for example), but
the majority, among them Elaphidion, are not thus favored, and would
be utterly unable with their weaker boring organs to escape, and would
perish in their burrows had they not, while larvae, excavated the neces-
sary channel for their exit. These exit channels usually run at an
angle to the axis of the wood. Now, in the case of our Elaphidion,
which usually lives in a slender limb which it bores longitudinally,
there is no room to place a branching, transverse channel; accordingly
the larva severs the twig and when it becomes a beetle it cuts its way
through the plug of castings.
As to the larva apparently varying its operations to suit the different
sizes of limbs, the average infested twig is of about the thickness of
one's finger, and it is probable that the larva commences proceedings
late in the season with the approach of cold weather when it is about
full grown and ready for hibernation. To cut off the limb is a labor of
some magnitude for so small a creature and may require several days
for completion. It has a limited amount of energy, being now toward
the end of its active existence as a borer, and the cooler weather serves
to repress this energy, which is sufficient for cutting away all the wood
in a small twig, but is inadequate tbfor a larger one. The wood of a large
branch is harder, and the insect ceases work, perhaps from exhaustion
or from cold, or because its instinct impels it to cut a certain amount,
and when that is accomplished to cease, its work being ended. At the
close of his narrative Dr. Fitch says, in spite of a previous assertion
that the insect never miscalculates, that-
in at least three-fourths of the fallen limbs no worm is to be found; and an exam-
ination of them shows that the insect perished at the time the limb was severed
and before it had excavated any burrow upward in its center, no perforation being
present except that leading into the lateral twig. It is probable that in many
instances the limb broke when the insect was in the act of gnawing it asunder,
either from its own weight or from a wind arising whilst the work was in progress.
As might be inferred from the manner of life of this insect, it enjoys
as nearly perfect exemption from predaceous or parasitic attack as
falls to the lot of any wood borer. Fitch, however, has stated that
some of our insect-eating birds destroy the larwe, and the writer has
reared the parasite Bracon eurygaster Brull6 from twigs inhabited by
the species.
REMEDIES.

In case this species becomes injuriously abundant, it may be readily
controlled by gathering the infested twigs during the winter and burn-
ing them before the following spring.
The following summary of the known food and other habits of other
species of Elaphidiou is appended:








4 1

THE ORANGE SAWYER.

Of this species, Eilaphidion inntr Newit., the late 1tr. Riley has
stattM (American Eiltoniologist, Vol. i iI. pj. 23,) thlaIt tlh- pertet.I iII;,e't
was (cut .by Mr. E. A. Srliwirz. f'rom dry twigs of Q(/rrru rrcix at
Enterprise. ila. In li illetin,
No. 1, first series, of this l)ivi-
sion (p. 911), Mr. 11. G. II ubbaird,!
gave a few notes onl this spe /
cies, and ini his special divi-
sional bulletin "InsectsAflfect-
ing the Orange" (pp. 125-1276)
presented a few additional
facts, proposing for the insect.
the name of orange sawyer.
The injuries caused by this
Elap)hidion to orange trees
result from careless pruning,
from failure to properly trim
the dead end of the stock Fi, 12.-Elaphidion i berme: ilrgd 2 li,,it. fr'ni
Ilubhimrdj.
above the insertion of the bud.
These ends attract the female beetle, which deposits one or two eggs
in each. ThIe larva' hatching from these confine their work to the d(lead
ends until they are completely hollowed out and reduced to mere shells
packed with castings. When the supply of dead wood
becomes exhausted, thle larve d(lescend into the living wood
and thus weaken the bud, if they do not kill it outright by
undermining the tissues which suliport it. One of the
twigs sent by Mr. Hubbard to this office has every apl)pear-
ance of having been pruned, but not in the usual smooth
manner as performed by the oak pruner.
The adult beetle is shown at figure 12. It is of much tlhe
same appearance as rilosum; the antenna' are coml)ara-
S lively shorter, never longer than the body, the spines small.
AP The femora are not sp)inose. The thorax lias a small median
smooth spot and no dorsal callosities. Thie tilps of the
"| elytra are truncate and do not bear spines. In well-marked
specimens the pubescence is arranged in a large white
o. 13-Work patch on the hlumerus and another across the middle of each
Flo. 13.--Work
of Elaphidion elytron.
*
subpubece-nsa: ELAPHIDION SUBPUBESCENS Lev.
natural s i z e
(original).
On July 15, 1.894, Mr. Th. Pergande found larva' boring
in shoots of white oak (Quercus alba) which were growing about the base
of oak stumps, from which the perfect insect was reared June 15, of the
following year. According to Mr. Pergande. who has kindly furnished
me with his notes onl the subject, the larva selects, by preference, shoots








42

which are not above a quarter of an inch in diameter, although some-
times they are found to attack shoots of double this size. As a rule,
the larvae bore nearer to one side than the other, though often but
little more than the thin bark is left in the smaller shoots. There is
evidence that the species is a perfect pruner, and appears to confine its
attack to upright shoots when these are obtainable. A remarkable
feature of the work of this larva, and one apparently peculiar to it in
its regularity, is its habit of forming on the underside of the twig
which it infests a more or less continuous and regular row of circular
holes. These are evidently for the purpose of expelling the excrement
of the insect as fast as it forms, since no pellets are to be found in the
burrows, while numerous bits of excrement may be seen scattered
about underneath infested shoots. In a small shoot that has been pre-
served (illustrated herewith) in a space just 2 inches in length, an even
twenty of these little holes have been formed at very regular intervals
and in a nearly straight line, and several other small twigs present a
similar appearance. In larger twigs the holes are less regularly placed,
are larger, less numerous, and more widely separated. The holes in
the smaller twigs measure from 0.6 to 0.8 of a millimeter in diameter,
and those in the larger twigs are fully twice as large An approach to
this habit is observable in the common oak pruner.
The larva begins operations very near the tip of a shoot, bores some-
times also for some distance into the side shoots, and afterward pene-
trates the entire length of the main shoot, making its way into the
stump itself where it forms its pupa in the more solid wood. The larva
resembles that of other species of Elaphidion, having distinct thoracic
legs. It has unusually long hairs at each side of the mouth.
Fortunately this species is a very rare one, as it would be quite capa-
ble, Mr. Pergande believes, of serious injury, should it ever be suffi-
ciently numerous in nurseries.
The beetle is of about the same size as villosum, but is much nar-
rower. The entire surface is very coarsely punctured, and sparsely
and uniformly pubescent. It has previously been recorded from New
Jersey and Texas.

ELAPHIDION MUCRONATUM Fab.

Elaphidion mucronatum Fab. has been found in dry twigs of live oak
(Quercus virens) and in the dry leaf-stems of the cabbage palmetto
(Chamawrops palmetto) in Florida, in healthy hackberry trees in Texas,
and in large limbs of wild grapevine (Am. Ent., Vol. III, p. 239). Prof.
J. B. Smith writes that he has reared it from the stems of young trees
or from larger branches of oak which had been girdled, and that it
bores "clear down to the roots." The writer has reared it from large
branches and trunks of redbud (Cerecis canadensis and japonica) and
Dr. A. D. Hopkins (Bull. 212, W. Va. Agl. Ex. St., p. 193) states that it
"infests dead bark and wood of beech," the "green wood of living




I



439

sugar maple andl bark of" black oak." This sp least a's f" as lobseirvuttisi gi's. There is a dlivis'minal ,,it,. 1111 its hIav
ing bred "February' 1,S.SI, frlim a pie(e of dogwood (Cor.n ixs which had
been stored in ILa lnl 'lenltri sh,1p somlo ye{(ars to bI, lused lfor 1 ialiNliMer
handles. The larv' liadI worked principally Uiiller the bark where
they produced large anLl irr1gular ch-aliiels, eniitring. whenll ilarly full
grown, the solid wood in whic'i they tralnsfi)rmdl..
The adult insect, Irrepesenited at tiglire 1t. is siii. liar in ftrin, size,
color, and pubesnce to riliosuin. The aiiteinii;i aldi lytra ,iniftr in
being armnedl witli mutch longer spines; tlhe fet(ra aire :ailso spiiOse.
The antennae of tlie male are longer
than the body. This is our comilimonest I
northern Ilaphldinm, next to rillosuim.

HABITS OF OTHER SPECIES OF
ELAPHIDION.

E. tectum Lee. (.) The stems of f
Yucca are sometimes attacked by what
Mr. A. Bolter supposed was perhaps
this species. (Trans. Acad. Sciences 4
St. Louis, Vol. Ill, p. 568).
E. einereum 01, is an inhabitant of
thie West Indies, but is also very abnid-
ant at Key West, Fla. Mr. Schwarz has
discovered that this species develops in
the branches of the buttonwood, ('Cono-
carpus erceta. (Pr. Ent. Soc. Wash.,
TT T t.> FQ.14.- Ea lahidivn imn ur'ni' wti: tn-
V ol. I, p. 93.) Fio. r r.- ap ,2 tii .l,,ir?,riri' ,,iu ,:l,.
E. irroratim Fab. inhabits the trunk
of the black mangrove (A vezinnia nitida) in Floridai (iHnbbard, Am.
Ent., Vol. 111, p). 239), and the white mangrove ( LIm.inilariw racemosa),
(Sehwarz, Proc Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. I, p1). 93).
E. unicolor Rand.-Dr. Leconte has recorded this species as occur-
ring in the Judas tree or redbud (Cercis) (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol.
IX, p. iii).
A twig of plum was found by thle writer at Colonial Beaclh, Va., July
13, 1897, that showed castings of a larva )on the amputated end remain-
ing upon the tree. When this was cut open, a living beetle was found
within.
E. imbelle Lee. has been reared from o;ik in California (J.. .1. Rivers,
Bul. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 11, p1). 70, etc.).








44

A DESTRUCTIVE BORER ENEMY OF BIRCH TREES, WITH NOTES
ON RELATED SPECIES.
By F. H. CHITTENDEN.

INJURY AT BUFFALO, N. Y.
Serious injury to birch trees in the city of Buffalo, N. Y., has been
reported the past fall, due to the ravages of the larvae of a buprestid
beetle hitherto practically unknown as a destructive enemy to this
genus of trees.
In a letter dated October 13, 1898, Mr. M. F. Adams, of Buffalo,
wrote that an insect, which was afterwards identified as Agrilus anxius
Gory, was doing great damage to birch trees fn that city. Specimens
of infested European white birch, Betula alba, showing the mines of the
larvaT under the bark, were received, and later specimens of the beetles
and larvm. A few years ago our correspondent noticed this same
borer destroying a common white birch, Betila papyrifera. At that
time the cut-leaf weeping birches, with the exception of a few trees in
close proximity to the infested ones, were not infested, and he was of
opinion that these trees had not been attacked until recently. White
birches of every description in the city have since been destroyed, and
not many trees that remain standing are entirely free from infestation.
Through the medium of the daily press of Buffalo the matter has
aroused widespread attention in that city.
So much of value was obtained from Mr. Adams, through constant
correspondence during the months of October and November, that it was
not considered necessary at this time for aniiyone connected with this
Division to make a personal inspection of the premises, particularly
since little of value is to be accomplished in the.line of an investigation
of the life history of the species until the springtime, when the larve
complete their growth and their transformation to pupae and adult
beetles.
Our correspondent has expressed the belief that if radical measures
are not adopted the loss of every birch in the city of Buffalo in the near
future is imminent. This insect has already destroyed the common
white birch and, as previously remarked, many of the cut-leaf and
European white birches. It even attacks trees planted but a year
before.
That this opinion is justified we have only to cite similar instances of
recent injury by this same insect at Detroit, Mich., which will be men-
tioned farther on, and by the related species, Agrilus bilineatus, the
two-lined chestnut borer, to chestnut and oak in various parts of our
country, and by the sinuate pear borer to pear in New Jersey.
That injury was due to a species of Agrilus could readily be made
out from the larvae and from the appearance of the burrows under
the birch bark. At our request Mr. Adams made diligent search for
the parent beetles, which often die in their burrows in the wood, with


. . .. ....a.... a....







-15

Sthe result that on November 10 somu fragnientar.y lc1eiineIM were
i secured, among which was fortunately a anic, which proved tie species
? to be Agrilutx ufnrins Gory.
The notes whicln follow concerning tinhe' ocnerlienict of this insect onI
birch at lBuflalo have been brought together front
data kindly furnished by Mr. Adams, to whom great f --j
credit is due for hIis zeal in the inmatter.
Injury can ie detected in the trunk by a reddish ',-
discoloration front one-quarter to one inch in width,
this being caused by the exudation of sapl and the- iK
ejectment of excrement. Another indication of tlie i -
insect's presence is the dying of the trees at their"',
tops. The insect appears to attack the tree at first
among the larger branches at a considerable height, -
causing the tree to die at the top while the remaining
lower branches keep green. Its presence is also
manifested by the uneven, wavy appearance of the
bark, which shows more or less regular spiral ridges
on the smaller branches. (See fig. 15.) The borer
larva makes an opening through the outer bark of a
size a little larger than a pin head. It then mTines
farther on beneath the bark, and there rests in a cav-
ity which it prepares for its transformation not far -
from this discoloration. In cases where the inner bark
is not thick enough, or where it happens to be dead,
the larva enters the wood instead of making, as be-
fore, its cavity for pupation in the bark, being inclined
apparently to avoid dead tissue, either wood or bark.
In the samples of work received the galleries of
this borer larva run so closely together, often cross- -
ing and recrossing in such endless confusion that it
is impossible to trace any individual burrow. A '
sample of the work is illustrated at figure 16. The -"
galleries made by the mature larva measure about
an eighth of an inch in width (3 mm.). It is the nor-
mal habit of the larva to leave its castings in the '
galleries as it works, as shown in the illustration.
The larva, as a rule, enters the wood in the fall and (
there constructs a cavity, which probably serves the ,,,. 15.-,Vurk of Ay-
purpose of a pupal cell, in which it passes its ulti- rilus anxius on iiini, or
i A ," i .* white liirch--s-ni-wiat
mate transformations in late spring or early summer. "reduii, (original).
Within this cell the larva passes tlie winter. In those
Individuals before the writer the caudal extremity of the larva is pointed
downward, and the head and thoracic and first abdominal segments are
doubled back upon the other segments in a position which he has not
observed in any other larva, buL this is probably the normal habit of








46

the genus and perhaps of allied genera. So nearly torpid were the
larva- when received and taken from their burrows, even in a well
warmed atmosphere, that they appeared as if dead, some of them
remaining motionless for a long time.
In many instances it was noticed in the larger branches, which were
perhaps from II to 13 inches inl diameter, that the mines had pene-


FIG. 16.-Work of Agrilusanxius on trunk of white birch, bark removed
to show larval galleries-somewhat reduced (original).


treated to the center
of these branches,
and in some cases
went through
them. In no in-
stance was it found
that the parent in-
sect deposited her
eggs in branches
smaller than one-
half to three-
fourths of an inch
in diameter.
During Novem-
ber no larvae could
be discovered in
dry wood, but were
found in wood
which retained
moisture, even
when it had been
cut down for nearly
a year.
Writing Novem-
ber 14, Mr. Adams
stated that he had
just learned that


the Forest Lawn Cemetery at that city had been badly infested by this
species, and that about fifty of the birch trees had been removed during
the past two years, the cause of the injury not having been known until
the attention of the authorities was called to it by our correspondent.
Mr. Adams's observations lead him to the belief that the beetles
issue in greatest numbers from the trees, beginning in the last week of
June; but as several other species of Agrilus, as well as many other
borers which inhabit the same latitude, issue from two to four weeks
earlier, it seems probable that the earliest date of issuance remains to
be observed.
It was noticed that one of our common woodpeckers, undoubtedly
the hairy woodpecker, Picus (Dryobates) rillosus Linn., as well as could
be ascertained without capturing or shooting a specimen, fed quite








47

Extensively upon tihe larva' otf this birch-tree insect. ''i.s biird .slects
a place on tlie trunk of the tree inl which thie larva- are .conealed atnd
makes an incisimon inl tie bark which resemible's that nalle by aL pen-l-
knife it' stuck into tlie bark in thle same manner. This it die's initil it
locates the borer, w'hel it. p)roceds to pick open t he bairk amnd remove
thie insect.
As in the caLise of injury ascribed to tlie two-lillnd clitstlitt borel'r,
there is still a certain degree of doubt as to wi1'ther or niot this bi-irah
borer is really thlie primIary cause of the death ifl the trues. ( hIr c4irre-
spl)ondent is ()f the opinion that injury iin luflalo is due ptrinaarily to the
attack of this b(irer, sitne it has been observed attacking viigoiroius trees.
That carelessness is one of the ltintcipal causes that. has Ied t4 its
undue multiplication is evidenced Iby iii torn imiation f'urislied ,by Mr.
Adams. lie states that the upper part of the tree in which it was first
noticed at work had been removed, but that about six feet of tlie trunk
was permitted to remain for use as a support for flower vases "or for-
some similar purpose. A surface as large as this would furnish oppor-
tunity for the development of perhaps many hundreds of this insect.
The material from which the identification of tlie species was made was
obtained by searching among wood piles which had been permitted to
accumulate.
It is not improbable that woodpeckers and other birds would keep
this borer in check if unmolested by sparrows, and this invasion may
be accounted for, in a measure at least, by the absence of the insect's
natural enemies.
A very singular thing in connection with the occurrence of this borer
in birch is that in spite of frequent search, extending over a period of
two years, our correspondent has been unable to find this insect attack-
ing any other tree than birch-a remarkable condition of affairs when
we consider the numerous observations by careful observers of its occur-
rence on poplar and willow.

DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION.
Agrilus auxius is shown in the accompanying illustration (fig. 17, a).
It is a rather large species of its genus, measuring between three-tenths
and nearly half an inch in length (7.5-11.5 mm.). It is of moderately
robust form, subopaque, olivaceous bronze in color. The last ventral
segment is oval at the apex; the punctuation of the prothorax is trans-
versely strigoso-punctate and its posterior angles are carinate in both
sexes; the first ventral segment in thie male is broadly grooved; the
second more deeply, the groove being narrow and smooth (see b). The
serration of the antennal joints begins with tine fourth joint. The elytra
bear each a rather vague longitudinal costa and the scutellum is trans-
versely carinate.
As no common name seems to have been applied to this insect, it may
be called the bronze birch borer.








48

The accredited distribution of Agrilus anxius as redescribed by Horn
(Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVIII, p. 306) is "Massachusetts and
New Hampshire; westward to Colorado."
In the collection of the National Museum and that of Messrs. Hub-
bard and Schwarz and of the writer the following localities for this
species are taken, with addition of some that have already been
recorded: Mount Washington, N. H.; Boston and Plainfield (1), Mass.;
Bufflalo, Ithaca, "Adirondacks," Elk Lake, and elsewhere in New
York; Allegheny, Pa. (Hamilton); Lake Superior, Marquette, Detroit,
Agricultural College, and Port Huron, Mich.; Stone Creek, Va.; Prov-
ince of Quebec, near Ottawa (Harrington).
The larva.-The larva (fig. 17, c) resembles that of other species of
its genus, being elongate, flattened, the first
.^ thoracicc segment--which is apt to be mis-
taken for the head, the latter being retrac-
44^ .l f .tile within it-rather prominent, and the
9 anal segment terminating in a pair of slen-
S \ der corneous forceps-like processes. The
color is creamy white, the mouth parts dark
brown, nearly black, the remaining portion
of the head, the first thoracic, and the anal
a segments being darker yellow. Being foot-
4 ; less, the dorsal and ventral surfaces do not
'differ so noticeably as in many larvae.
In the absence of a large series of the larva
of other species of Agrilus, a specific descrip-
b tion need not be attempted at the present
time, particularly since all of the examples
c of this species which we have are freshly
killed, and the material in other species is
Fm. 17.--Agrie a2xu8: a. alcoholic and has, for the most part, been
female beetle; b, first abdominal
segments of male from below; preserved for several years.
c, larva from above-all enlarged The larve at hand appear to be unusually
about 3,i times (original). .,..
about 3 times (original)stout, but it is possible that this may be
accounted for by the fact that they had gone into hibernation and are
unable to recover from their torpor. They are between five and six
times as long as wide at the widest abdominal segment.
The first thoracic is of about equal width with the widest abdominal
segments; the second and third thoracic are a little narrower; all of the
abdominal segments are subequal except the last two, the penultimate
being about the same width as the second and third thoracic. The anal
segment does not appear to differ from that of other species, the fork
being of the same shape and bidentate on the inner surface.
The length is a little less than three-fourths of an inch (17-18 mm.)
and the width is a trifle less than an eighth inch (2-7 mm.).







Ii
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. ... ... ^" "**^ -* -- .- ^ ^ i


:: " ": ... .....








49

PUBLISHED CIIEI E'ORlDS.
The identification of this species as an enemy (of t lIplar, and what
appears to be thle first record of its lbod haliits, wais made bIy t1e late
Dr. Lintner in his report aIs State entomologist of N-tw Y)ork I'i)r 1.S
(p. 50), the observation having been made at lIk Lake, Essex (,iunty,
N. Y. It is as follows:
Upon some rut poiliarK {[Polol,, Iremiauluidcs) piled by the' wayNMill ia lIrg. ii nmliber
of a wood-boring beetle, .Igyrlin turpiahnx ( I c.), which I haid never litt "' it\ I efore,
were observed alighting frusin their light in tli brighlit miinhiin iand running in jirk-
ing motions actively over thie bairk. It.- larva in t(lgiiltlle-s a lior-r in tlit jiipl:ar.
Sixty-two examples of it were taken.
Practically the samein statement is repeated iii the sanme writer's fifth
report (p. 2S:1). Again, in his tenth report (p. 407), this s.nII oc(cur-
rence is referred to, the original idenItificationl of the species as lorpidun
being altered to ia'.ins, as the latter is now known to b. a synonym.
Mere mention is made of what is l)robal)bly this slpec(ies by Mr. NV. II.
Harrington, who includes Jyrilis torpidtns (?) in his list of insects taken
on willow, published in the Canadian Entomologist for .June, 18S4 (Vol.
XVI, p). 101).
In the list of the Buprestida- of Massachusetts comnpihled by Dr.
Frederick Blanchliard and published in EUitoniologica Americana (Vol.
V., p. 32, Feb. 1889) appl)l)ears tihe following concerning this species,
also mentioned as torpidus Lee.: "A few specimens were taken on the
summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, \hither they lhad
flown from below. Thie form described as graris occurs in Massachu-
setts on poplar sprouts and trunks."
In Inseci, Life for October, 1891 (Vol. IV, p1. 66), Mr. (. C. D)avis con-
siders this species in its aspect as ai enemy of willow growing at
Agricultural College, Michigan, as follows:
Galls made on branches of the willow, Salir discolor, by Avrilus torpidus have
been found quite common in certaLin districts near here, :ind in other districts was
found Saperda concolor in galls equally as miitmrou.. In no c;ise yet noticeil have
the two been found in close proximity. The galls ium:de by tlhe 1iiprestid are an
oval swelling of the live branch very similar to thei one made by Sapcrda. Inside
there is a difference in the architecture of the liomIe. While the Saperdat remains
mostly within the swelling and makes its exit through it, the Agrilits bomres an oval
gallery downward from the gall, sometimes in the pith, but oftenh'r indiscriminately
through the wood, and makes its exit often ;an inch :nd a half below. ''lThe imago
issued about a month later than the Saperd;i.
Our first positive notice of attack ul)oii birch appears to be that of
SMr. E. A. Schwarz, of this D)ivision, who nmettions this species in con-
1 nection with injury ascribed to the scolytid, .y/hterirs polituN (Proc.
|Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. II, p. 78). 11 the case mentioned, trees of silver
|birch, Bet tla alba, were destroyed at )Detroit, Michi. Mr. Schwarz is
tnow of the opinion that this Agrilus was probably thie insect responsible
%ifor the subsequent destruction of all the trees of this species known to
'Ibe growing at Detroit.
8193-No. 18-4








50

In 1896 Mr. J. G. Jack published in Garden and Forest (July 1, 1896,
p. 269) a short account of injury to birch trees in the Arnold Arboretum
at Plainfield, Mass., from which the following, having reference probably
to this species, is copied:
Some of the foreign birches in the arboretum and other localities about Boston
have been killed by the attacks of boring larva?, of a beetle belonging to the gemnu
Agrilus, and probably an introduction from Europe. The insect bores into the trunk
and limbs, ultimately killing the tree. Its presence is often indicated by a slight.
swelling of the bark.
Among the writer's collecting notes, made previous to his connection
with the Department, is one of the capture of this species July 20, 1884,
on willow, associated with A. politus Say, the latter a well-known wil-
low borer, being observed in greater abundance. This is briefly men-
tioned as a willow species in Entomologica Americana (Vol. V, p. 220,
Dec., 1889).
To this must be added reference to a note which appeared in letter
form under various titles over Mr. Adams's signature in the Buffalo
(N. Y.) daily journals of October 9 and 10, 1898. In this letter Mr.
Adams called particular attention to the value of the early destruction
by burning of all dying or injured birch trees in the infested locality.
The identification of the depredator as a species of Agrilus was first
made public through a short letter addressed to Mr. Adams by Mr. C. L.
Marlatt, of this Division, and l)ublished in the proceedings of the board
of park commissioners of the city of Buffalo. (Buffalo News, Nov. 7,
1898.)*
METHODS OF CONTROL.

From our present knowledge of the life habits of this insect there
are only two methods of control indicated. These are clean cultural
practice and the employment of preautionary measures which will
serve the purpose of deterring the insects from depositing their eggs
upon the trees and from effecting their egress through the bark of in-
fested trees.
It is not probable that the trees can be saved after the borers have
once taken possession of them, and the only thing to do is to cut down
and destroy them by burning before the following May or in time to
prevent the issuance of the adult beetles in June. It is of prime impor-
tance that the utmost care be observed to effect the destruction of all
dead and dying trees before the time for the beetles to issue for the
deposition of their eggs in the early summer, and this applies to every
bit of wood of birch, poplar, and willow that may be infested or that
may harbor this insect and thus prove a center of infestation to healthy
or uninfested growth.
Some species of Agrilus have been observed to feed freely upon the
upper surface of the leaves of their host trees, and it will be worth


SSince the present article went to press a few similar letters have appeared.








51

while t4) ascertain to what extent tih Ie etles of t ins lirch Iborer eIed
111po011 the foliagIc of birthil, wili-i, and l poiilar, as it maiy ltb le ssible
to reach many in this way by )spraying freely ithl a soulutiin af I';riii
green, applied at the rate cit" a oIImulnd to I (fi O gr l-.114 galloin of w0ate'r.
Uninfested trees ni may bV le protected ly 1;'vaioumls nixtunres, a rather fill
list of which lIas been lptIblished 11 il'iru.lar No. 2 1, set'cmidl series, of
this D)ivisioin, copies ,if wlicrli will wIh sIult to ioanyo lne desiring I hetm.
In addition t to th, JeLv',tives ether'e Ildesc'iRd l, it miay hli statel.dl tltl
Mr. Adanms is adv'isisg a inixtt1re 1of resini and unbol leid linse.ed oil.
This he uses at tlhe' rate of 4- pounds of resin to 1 iuart fi' oil, Ilie resin
melted and the oil poured in while hot. lThe res in( ca lhe obitainel in
lots of 4 pounds or.more at 2 cents a poundtl, :L,, l tlie oil it i single gallon
lots at 40 cents a gallon. It may be applied to thle trintk andtl branches
with a paint brush.
Dendrolene, raupenleiin, and similar dlark-colored mnixturnes. although
of value against related borers, as, for exaIIplejt, the silnUate pel.ar b)rer.
are hardly to be recommended for birch trees with white bark, as they
mar the beauty of the trunks. Light-colored minxtures are preferable,
and it is possible that a considerable measure of protec'tio n wo %)uld I be
afforded by a thick whitewash poisoned with a small quantity o"f sOu111
arsenite, such as arsenate of lead. There is danger in the alplic.ationi
of a strong arsenical to young trees, but it will not iharm trees .f o'ulder
growth.
In some instances it might pay, for tlhe protection of valuable trees
in private grounds, and for paper birch and trees with similar rough,
papery bark, to cover the trunks thoroughly within paper wrappings aI.Id
whitewash or otherwise treat the branches.
A mixture of hydraulic cement and skin milk of the consistency of
thick paint is worth the experiment against this insect, as it has been
tound of value against the peach-tree borer.
The preventive used should be applied to the trees just before the
issuance of the beetles, which may be, in some localities at least, as
early as the latter days of May. If paper wvrapl)ings are used they
can be removed as soon as the danger season is passed., which will be
within two or three months of the time of first alpp)earance o(f tilhe
beetles. If cement be the remedy employed it should be broken Ul)up
with a broom or stiff brush as soon as tie danger time is over: it is
imperative that the cement be not left on the bark of young, growing
trees longer than is necessary, as its presence might interfere with the
tree's growth.
A measure of utmost value for the protection of trees from the
attacks of borers consists in keeping them in the best possible con-
dition, free from fungi, moss, or abnormal growth, from loose bark,
and, in short, keeping the trunks as clean as possible. It some cases
the use of a fertilizer might assist the trees to withstand borer attack.


-.-








52

A NEW NOMENCLATURE FOR THE BROODS OF THE PERIODICAL
CICADA.
By C. L. MARLATT.

The writer reviewed the different nomenclatures suggested by various
authors for the broods of the periodical Cicada in Bulletin No. 14, new
series, of the Division of Entomology, and therefore a brief summary
of the old systems is all that nee(l be given here.
It will be remembered that the earlier writers, viz, Prof. Nat. Potter,
Dr. William T. Harris, and Dr. G. B. Smith, classified the broods solely
according to the years of their appearance. The unpublished register
left by Dr. Smith includes every brood now known classified according
tQ race, and gives the localities for one additional brood, the existence
of which seems not to have been confirmed. Though lacking any spe-
cial designation for the broods, Dr. Smith's classification is as complete
and accurate as that published by Dr. Riley and since followed by all
later writers. Dr. Asa Fitch was the first to introduce a numbering
system for the different broods, enumerating nine altogether, but his
data was very limited and he was not aware of the 13-year southern
period, and there necessarily resulted no little confusion of the broods
of the two races. The Walsh-Riley enumeration of 1868 gave the
records for sixteen broods, which were designated by roman numerals
from I to XVI, the enumeration being based on the sequence of the
different broods after 1868. In 1869, in his First Missouri Report, Dr.
Riley, having in the meantime secured the manuscript paper of Dr.
Smith, added the six broods Irom this paper not represented in the
Walsh-Riley enumeration, increasing the number of the broods to XXII,
and reniumbered them again in accordance with their sequence, begin-
ning with 1869. Several of these broods are rather unimportant, or
lack confirmation, and one of them, Brood I II, was founded on an erro-
neous record and has been dropped.
In the enumeration of the broodsby Walsh-Riley, and later by Riley, the
two races are mixed together and a sequence of numbers given, which,
after the first thirteen years, lost all significance as a record of the order
of the broods in time of appearance, and from the first obscured the true
kinship of the broods in each race. If, on the other hand, each race be
considered separately and its broods be arranged in a series in accord-
ance with their sequence in time, an important natural relationship in
point of origin and distribution is plainly indicated.
Taking first the broods of the 17-year race, it will be seen from the
subjoined table that if the enumeration begin with Brood XI, the
17-year broods follow each other in regular succession for eleven con-
secutive years; then after a break of one year follows Broods V and
VIII, and after another break of one year, Brood IX; another break
*


7:.7.1.:;...i;i









I 53

of one year precedes tio next reiurrenvce I'I IIro4lI X I. witII wI iil tI le
series starts:
Chro-tologitul ordI r of tIhe. briodoi ,l ir 'ada rum .t"P'.7 int /.,#n .

Y r. 17 itvar 11 I.-ar I .-ar 1.1 %vir
riti't'. I rl ran i- rill -

1 8 ...................... X X\ V I Iw) .. ....................... X X II
1 894 ...................... ... X 1 I \ V I I ;I ...... ................. I .....
189 .......................... X i II II 1904 . .. ...... .....
1S 6 ......... ... ........ .. X V II lV'I .... ........ ..... .... V ....I
18f7 .......................... X V V I 19 t ....... ............ \ I I I X V I
189 ....................... . X V Ii V II limit ..................... ... ..... X V I I I
1899 .......................... X IX ......... I9t ........ .......... X II
I900 .......................... .. X X .. ...... liMl ....................... .... I V
1901 .......................... XXI X 11110 ...................... .. I V I

Taking up the 13-year broods in tihe saine way. it will Iln steel that
if the enumeration start with Brood XVI, a 1.t-year brool foilh)ws in
regular succession for six years. With the exception of the very dubt-
fill Brood X, which is separated front tinh' last 13-year brood by three
years, there follows seven successive years in which no 13-year lbroods
occur.
Under the supposition that the different broods of the 17-year and
13-year races sprang in the remote past fromni an original brood of each,
it would naturally follow that the broods most closely related in time
would also present a closer relationship in their range, and this. in fiict,
proves to be generally true.
To show this relationship and to indicate the natural order of their
occurrence, I have to suggest a new enumeration of the broods in which
the two races are separated-the 17-year broods coming first, followed,
for c-bnvenience merely, by the 13-year broods. Thus Brood X I of tihe
17-year race becomes Brood I, and the others are numbered in tihe reg-
ular order of their occurrence, except that I have assigned a brood
number to each of the seventeen years. This leaves Broods XII, XV,
and XVII, as newly numbered, without any definite colonies, so far
accepted, as representatives of established broods. As will be shown
later, however, there are records which indicate the existence of small
or scattering broods filling the three gaps mentioned in the 17-year
series.
In the renumbering the broods of the 13-year race I have continued
for convenience from the end of tlhe series of thie 17-year race, the first
13-year brood becoming Brood XVIII, and I have assigned brood i0um.
bears to each year of the 13-year period, making a. total enumeration of
the broods of both races of XXX. As already indicated, six of tlhe
numbers given to the 13-year race have had nto brood assigned to them,
although records have been secured which seen to indicate thie exist-
ence of scattering broods tilling some of the gaps. as will be noted in
| the records given further on.
| It does not necessarily follow, in faict it is quite unlikely, that Blrood






. ...........









54

I, as here designated, is the original or oldest brood of the 17-year
race. Undoubtedly some of the 17-year broods, perhaps half or more
of them, originated by retardation of individuals, and perhaps half by
acceleration of individuals; so that the original brood, if it still exists,
is more likely to be one of the intermediate ones. Brood X, being the
largest of the 17-year broods, perhaps has best claim to this distinction.
For the same reasons an intermediate brood in the 13-year series is
doubtless the original brood of the 13-year race, and this title may pos-
sibly belong to Brood XIX which has the widest range of all the broods
of the 13-year race. The fewer number of broods in this race would
seem to indicate that it is of later origin than the 17-year race, and
this belief is further justified by the fact of its occupying, in the main,
a territory of later geological formation.
The following table, beginning with 1893, when the initial broods of
both the 17-year and the 13-year series appeared in conjunction, illus-
trates the new nomenclature suggested, and in parallel columns also
are given the corresponding nomenclatures proposed by Professor
Riley, by Walsh and Riley, by Fitch, and the year records in Dr.
Smith's register:

Nomenclature of the broods of the periodical Cicada.

Broods of the 17-year race. Broods of the 13-year race.

Year. Proposed Riley Walsh- Fitch Proposed Riley Walsh- Fitch Smith
eunmer- num- Riley numn- enumer- num- Rileynum-
ation. bersn. r- bers. register. action. bers. um- register.
action. .bess. bears.

1893 -....-- I I XI ........ ........ 1842 XVIII XVI -........ ........ 1854
1891 ..---.. II XII VIII 1 1843 XIX XVIII XITI 3 182-1855
1895 ....... II XIII IX ........ 1844 XX II ........ ........ 1843
1896....... IV XIV X ........ 1845 XXI IV ................ 1844
1897.....- VV X XI ........ 1846 XXII VI IV ....... 1845
188 ....... VI XVII XII 7 1847 XXIII VII V 5 1846-1859
1899 ....... VII XIX ........ ........ 1848 XXJ1V ........ ........ ........ ..........
1899 ....... VII XIX 1848 XXIV-------- ------------------
1900....... VIII XX -XV X -2-8 1849 XXV .........................
1901...--.- IX XXI XV 5 1850 XXVI X ................ 1849
1902....... X XXII XVI 4 1851 XXVII ....................... ..........
1903....... XI I I 9 1852 XXVIII ........ ........ ..................
1904 ....... XII .18531 XXIX............... 1853 XXX ...........
1905 ....... XIII V III 6 185 4 XXX ..................................
1906....... XIV VIII VI 3 1855 XVIII XVI ........ ........ 1854
1907 ....... XV .........-----------. .................------------------.. XIX XVIII XIII 3 1842-1855
1908 ....... XVI IX VII .................. XX II ........ ........ 1843
1909 ....... XVIi .... I. .. -------------------------- XXI IV ................ 1844


THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIFFERENT BROODS.

As a rule the relationship of the broods in point of distribution
agrees with their kinship as indicated by their sequence in time of
appearance. The relationship indicated by the latter, viz, their
sequence in time, is doubtless untrustworthy as indicating origin, in
some instances, on account of the uncertainty arising from the action
of the principle of retardation on the one hand and acceleration on the
other in the forming of new broods.
In the case of a widely scattered brood, like Brood VI it is quite


,. .. .. .i* :i








55

Possible that certain swarms originatedl from it a later.-alpp';arinig hi-i
by retardation fi" illdividiials, inil 'i tliii s l r1s tiii ui n 11 umirli." bhrim' d
1by aceeleratim )in ii time (W aJIlj'aii'talv of ildlividtiuals.
7. This same condition limy V1 t l'u 4 t iie I it'r 44flit tinl- 11 s41.itt.id
broolds, but withi th', bNrods JpreS'illting i ; miii ,1 1,14- 1'111 ii a il .14 Ileit'- osf
origin is evident.
Examination ol f tlue distribution i fi the' 11o I' s inn ll, niitrti,,n witl
their sequence in timil o)[' alplwaranct'e inldicates, lIo Pvr., a ('ce'tainl
relationship between the different liroods in oinll t of origin. whi1i1 uiiy
be indicated ias tiollows:

TIHE IIELATIONSIII' ()F' iTHK 17-YE AR BltRWiDS.

From the standpoint oft' distiibuti(ion tilt- broid s of tihe 17 -ye;r rice
may be grouped ;is follows: (I) IlnoodIs I and I I; (2') lIto ss I I I and
IV; (3) Brood V ; (I) Iloodl V'I; k-5) lroods VII. VIII IX 1. 1 X. anid XI;
(6) Broods XI, XI 11. XIV. a;nd XV; (7) lroods XVI and XV'II. tlie
last connecting again with lrood I.
Taking up these broods in reguilai order:
The main body of Brood I occupies territiy imIiediately west of
the more impoi-tant Brood II, and also presents ta numliber (if colonies.
extending westward to Colorado. Broods I a ld II seem, therefore,
closely allied in point of origin.
Brood III presents little, if aty, relationship to Brood II in, poi t of
location and distribution, but is closely allied to the fiollowilig brood,
IV. and tie latter is evidently a western and soutthern extension of III.
Brood V presents little. relationship with Broodl IV in point of (dis-
tribution and covers a very compact territory.
Brood VI, being a widely scattered one, andl occurring usually in
small numbers, does not seem to present any particular relationship
with any of tlhe preceding or following broods.
Brood VII is local in distribution and not very important, and is
divided into two sections by the territory occul)ied by thle following
Brood VIII, with which it thus seems to be closely allied. Brood IX
is very distinctly a southern extension of Broods VII and VIII. These
three broods seem, therefore, to be closely allied in their origin, and,
curiously enough, occupy territory which divides tile two main sections
of the great 17-year Brood X, which next follows in regular succession.
Brood XI, following X, is evidently an extreme nortlieastern extension
of the latter.
Brood XII, immediately preceding XIII, is rel)reselted 1y a series
of colonies connecting the western Brood X III with group 5. Brood
XIII is thle principal representative of group 6 and represents a large
western group of the 17-year race of group 6(, which compl)rises thle maiti
western branch of the 17-year race, as group 5 clustered about X is the
principal representative of the eastern branch of thle samle race. Brood
XIV has a very wide range to the eastward of XIII, and connects with






.... '
a-




* *. *. 'r *~!!ii.1~ nfl
lb


56 1

the latter through the colonies in northern Illinois and Indiana. Brood
XV, following XIV, is limited to the Atlantic seaboard with the excep-
tion of one doubtful colony in Indian Territory, and connects directly
with the eastern colonies of XIV.
Brood XVI is based on somewhat doubtful records, the Colorado
locality perhaps being due to confusion with some other species, and
the other records needing confirmation. Brood XVII is intermediate
between Brood XVI and Brood I, its western colonies connected with
the former and the eastern colonies with the latter.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE 13-YEAR BROODS.

The broods of the 13-year race break up into the following natural
groups: (1) Related closely to Brood XIX, and comprising Broods XVIII,
XIX, and XX; and (2) related to Brood XXIII, and comprising Broods
XXI, XXII, XXIII, and our new Brood XXIV.
The first of these broods, Brood XVIII, is a rather insignificant one
and is undoubtedly an eastern extension or offshoot of the great 13-year
Brood XIX, which succeeds it. Brood XX is undoubtedly a section of
Brood XIX retarded one year, just as Brood XVI is an accelerated
swarm of the same. Both represent eastern extensions of the parent
brood.
Brood XXI, separated from Brood XIX by two years, seems to bear
little relationship to the latter, and a more logical arrangement consists
in connecting it with Brood XXIII through Brood XXII, of which last
it may be considered as an eastern and northern extension. Brood
XXII is a very marked instance of the formation of a new brood by an
acceleration in time of the appearance of a portion of a larger and
older brood. Its relationship with Brood XXIII is very marked and
can not be questioned. Brood XXIII, the main representative of this
group, is followed by the new Brood XXIV, which is evidently a-
retarded swarm of the preceding brood.
Of the new Broods XXIX and XXX, both of which need verification,
no significant relationship can be pointed out.
Brood XXIX is very doubtful, and the records are possibly based on
confusion with the 17-year race.

NEW BROODS, 17-YEAR RACE.

Brood XII, 1904.-If his records are correct, this brood is the one
referred to by Dr. G. B. Smith as occurring in 1853 in Vinton County,
Ohio, and Jo Daviess County, Ill. Its recurrence seems not to have
been recorded either in 1870 or 1887, and Smith's records are therefore
open to question.
Mr. J. R. Burke, Milton, Cabell County, W. Va., writing under date
of May 22, 1897, says: "The Cicada is not due here until 1904; its last
visit was in 1887."








57

Mr. \V. S. Ilerrit-kk, Thuirmian, Alien Chou lty, lii., i ,writeis i n ld date
of TJune 10. 181)8, that e \'e hlad the 17 year locust in 1887, it I ie'menilier
correctly." rriiis is also a doubtful record, aind it i s ipssible that he
referred either to llirol XNX II. occ'urrinIg in IM5.o ir- Itrood V. (PeAIrriiig
in 1888.
That all these records are oltiIn to soinI dotilit, is aIpparenit, Int they
are of sutiici4ent iinpiilortaiice to warrant investigation iln 190-i.
Browod VI', I97.-Tiis broold is Iepreselltedl by t ie colony appearing
at Tivoli, Duchess (" countyy. antl (;alwaiy,i- Sarat.gi (inlty, N. Y., ill
June, 1890, as 9'0c,'ordelt'l l" I'lto. ,I. A. Liniitle.r il liis Sev' enth tepj rt,
pages '!)7-30(1. Mr. lDavis recolrds tile ccurrecleit' ol scattering inli-
viduals thle sailne year onil Staten Island. Iln a letter of.I ie L' 2, 1-491,
Pro, .1. B. Smith, New rilltr swick, N. .1., relmrtsl tlihat tlhe ieri'iolial
Cicada had been taken by several Newark col lectors. and lllist )lo been
observed at Anlesea, Capei Miay ('oullty.
Another record which perhaps applies to this brood is given by Mr.
I. N. Smith, Scotland Neck, ltalifaix County, N. C., in letter (o Jiine ''22,
1885. lie reports that his First recollection ot the locust was about tlie
year 1839 or 1840, when the whole of tile whiite-oak lands were tilled
with them. * In 1855 or 1851; they appeared again, but nothing
to compare with the period first stated. The locusts were. all on tie
white-oak land and on tihe Roanoke River and not o tinte pine lainds."
Assuming the dates 1839 and 1856 to be thle correct ones. this would
throw this swarm of Cicadas into Brood XV, aind if there ;are any repre-
sentatives left they should reaplpear in 1907.
The late Mr. W. S. Robertson, of Muscogee, Ind. T., ill letter of Juxne
17, 1879, incidentally mentioned also the occurrence of a brood of (Cica-
das in 1839. This record could niot fall in any one of tine d broodils,
and if it belongs to the 17-year race it would be an extreme western
outpost of XV.
Brood XVITIT, 1909.-A very definite record which may coincide with
this brood is furnished by Mr. Thleodore Perganlde. of thiis D)ivision,
who states that Mr. Rosseau. of Charlottesville, Albemarle C'mounty, Va.,
informed him that the Cicada was very numnerous in that place' in 1875.
His informant was positive as to time year from its being tihe one in
which he made a trip to Europe.
Another record is given by Mr. Join D. Macpherson, Manassas,
Prince William County, Va., in letter of July 3. 1895. He writes:
" I came here onl the 23d of ,June, leaving tlhe Cicada in full song inl
Washington (Brood X). Finding none here, I made inquiry and was
informed that they appeared in full force in this county (Prince Will
iam) in the year 1875. This information I regard as reliable, time date
being fixed as tlhe year following the marriage and arrival if my
informant in this county." These Virginia swarms are evidently pre-
cursors of Brood I, with which they are therefore closely allied.
A western extension of this brood seentms to be indicated ill tine
record furnished by H. .1. (Giddings, Sabula, Jackson County, Iowa.




Pr -


58

He writes, "during last June (1892) the periodical Cicada was quite
common here. * I thought it was unusual to find.them in such
numbers four years after their regular appearance. The last regular
year was 1888." (See Insect Life, Vol. V, page 200.)
If belonging to the 17-year race, the two records following should also
be assigned to this brood. Mr. A. J. Julian, Woolleys Ford, Hall County,
Ga., reports under date of June 14, 1898, that the Cicada was present
there in 1892. Mr. J. W. Seaton, Strasburg, Cass County, Mo., writes
under date of June 9 that the Cicada last appeared in that county in
the summer of 1892 and in the summer of 1896, being numerous both
years. The 1896 record refers to the 17-year Brood IV, and hence the
record of 1892 is probably also of the 17-year race occurring in the
same district.
The scattering specimens recorded by Mr. Davis as occurring on
Staten Island in 1892 may also be assigned to this brood.

NEW BROODS, 13-YEAR RACE.

Brood XXIV, 1899.-Mr. P. Lynch, Commerce, Scott County, Mo.,
under (late of ) December 27, 1874, reports that the Cicada appeared in
the summer of 1873 in considerable numbers, coming in June and
remaining about two months. "-Their eastern limit in this county
(Scott) was the Mississippi River, but they were as numerous on the
opposite side of the river in Alexander County, Ill."
Mr. W. S. Campere, Pickens Station, Holmes County, Miss., writes
under date of February 27, 1875, that the Cicadas appeared in great
numbers in April, 1873. These two records would indicate a brood
originating doubtless by retardation of individuals of Brood XXIII.
Brood XXIX, 1904.-It is possible that the following ,records apply
to a 13-year race, and in that case should be assigned to our Brood
No. XXIX.
Mr. C. J. Wellborn, Blairsville, Union County, Ga., writes under
date of June 12, 1885, that "'in May, 1878, locusts appeared south of
this place and the northern limit then was the present southern limit
of the territory covered now (by Brood X, 1885)."
Mr. James Pagon, Winnsboro, Fairfield County, S. C., writes that
locusts appeared in South Carolina in 1878, but does not give definite
localities. Both these records need confirmation.
Brood XXX, 1905.-Mr. B. H. Brodnax, Brodnax, Morehouse Parish,
La., writes under date May 13, 1892, that Cicadas are scatteringly
present, and in a later letter he asserts that the insect in question is
the periodical Cicada, with which he is familiar.
The records given above of new broods of the 13-year race are rather
unsatisfactory, and it may be true that the 13-year race has not by
any means distributed itself over its entire period, and the broods still
cluster about the two main representatives of the race, namely Broods
XIX and XXIII.








59

A CONSIDERATION OF THE VALIDITY OF THE OLD RECORDS BEAR-
ING ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE BROODS OF THE PERIODICAL
CICADA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE OCCURRENCE
OF BROODS VI AND XXIII IN 1898.

1y t I., M r I.M i,

SOIT 1(I.:"S IF-' ER iSF.1I IN 'I N T I:E 1.J1)I ilf 'i O tl 'S.

Ill etxallmininlg the records Iof' tihe distribtit ion ,of tiei ttweit ly-i ll' l)r1-I4oisS
of the Periodical ('Ciada liitlherto acelpted, it. is seen t liit c,',i sidel.rabli
uncertainty attaches to tlie data "of certain irii n!ot ,ly froIi tflihe
fact of their covering in greater ,or less degree territoriy occupiedll by
both races, but more particularly because the rico.,rils are firciluently
based on years in, which broods so overlapping have appeared in con-
junction. Examining the 21 broods hitherto studlied, it will ibe seen
that in each period of 17 years between six and nine years. are signal-
ized by the joint occurrence of a 17 and 13 year brood. Owing to tile
difference in the periods between the recurrences of t lie southern race
and northern race, ditlnerent broods of both races are being constantly
brought into relationship with each other, and in tact tile same two
broods can come together only once in 221 years. For example, tie
broods which unite in appearance tlhe present year were, last in conjki c-
tion in 1697 and will not come together again until the year 211'!.
The overlapping of broods thus appearing in conjunction, including
some of the more important ones of both races, hias given muich uncer-
tainty to some of the records. In the case of thie broods of thle 17-year
race, the following extend on their southern bounilaries into thle terri-
tory of the 13-year race, and hence the records of tlhe southern localities
are open to some question: Broods VI, X, XIV, X \VI, I, IV, to a slight
extent also in the case of Broods II and III, and doubtfully in thie case
of Brood IX, the possibility of confusion in this last brood depentlinlg
on the accuracy of the extreme northeastern extension or tlie 13-year
Brood XIX.*
The following broods of the 13-year race extend northward into tlhe
territory occupied by the 17-year race, and are hence open to some
question: Broods XXIII, XVIII, XIX, and XX.
The records canl not be questioned of the 17-year Broods VII, VIII,
XI, XIII, and V, and of the 13-year Broods XXIV, XXI, andl XXII,
because these broods are limited in distributionn to tlhe territory of a
single race.
The most notable instance of the overlapping and conseiuenlt prob-
able confusion of tlhe records is seen in the cast of Brood X of tlhe
17-year race with Broods XXIII and XIX of the 13-year race. The
Remarkable feature in" the distribution of the broods named is the not-

See map of races and liroolis given in Bull. -14, new ser., 1'. S. ])ept. Agric., figs.
2-19 (pp. 25-49).




... ... ... ... .. ..
...... ...i



wer"^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ w-a - v .
60

able extension northward in Illinois and Missouri of the 13-year Broods
XXIII rand XIX, which fill almost exactly a district which would nat-
urally be supposed to belong to the 17-year race and probably to
Brood X. As pointed out elsewhere,t this circumstance has special
significance when it is remembered that the northward extension of the
13-year race is based on Broods XIX and XXIII, and that records of
the former were collected for the most part in 1868, when this brood
was in conjunction with Brood X, and of the latter in 1885, when Brood
XXIII was also in conjunction with Brood X, the limits of which curi-
ously enough stop rather suddenly at or near the eastern State line of
Illinois. A possibility is immediately suggested that the northern
localities assigned to Broods XIX and XXIII properly belong to Brood
X. It is true, however, that records obtained the present year in the
Main seem to sustain the accuracy of the older records, but thee is
still sufficient doubt to warrant the taking of considerable pains in
future to obtain accurate and full records of the distribution on the
occasions of the recurrences of the several broods mentioned. Forta-
Snately, in 1902, the date of the next appearance of Brood X, there is no
13-year brood to confuse the records which may then be made.
Many of the other scattering records of 13-year broods northward,
or of 17-year broods southward, may possibly be based on similar con-
fusions, arising from the overlapping of broods of the two races.
The only way to accurately define the rage of the different broods
is to undertake with each recurrence a t liorough and systematic investi-
gation of all the territory open to the least doubt. Such work has been
repeatedly instituted, and particularly since 1868, and many of the more
strictly limited broods have been very carefully recorded and their dis-
tribution has been satisfactorily defined. Work of this kind has been
done for Brood III in Iowa by Professor Bessey, and for Brood V in
Ohio and West Virginia by Professors Webster and Hopkins. Similar
work has been done for Brood II in New York and New Jersey by Drs.
Lintner and Smith, and for X and XXIII by Riley in 1885, and Brood
XIX by Walsh and Riley in 1868.
The value of a thorough and systematic canvass of the territory sup-
posed to be covered by any brood is exhibited in much of the work
Referred to above, and notably in the case of Brood V studied by Pro-
fessors Webster and Hopkins in Ohio and West Virginia. In the case
of this brood, however, there was no difficulty from an association with
any 13-year brood.

WORK UNDERTAKEN FOR BROODS XXIII AND VI IN 1898.

The present year a very careful investigation was undertaken by the
I writer of the important 13-year Brood XXIII andthe widely distributed
but less important 17-year Brood VI. By calling into requisition the
Bull. 14, etc., p. 26.







j








G; 1

very numerous tvitunty 'orrtesioitlentsM of t lie Statisticil 1i \ i.)sou of' tlII!
Department. of Agriculture, anild also of' tlhe Weather Servic, iIIn .'Idi-
tion to the regular correispoident.s or) the Divisioi, of i'ioipniPloyv, a
much more careful and tlioroiigli caiivass was possible 1 t al1a1. hI' 'ver"
before been made. The re.,sult lhas I0eena iimn1t satisfa.ct, v, tlhe ,iin.c ol
these two broods being much nIIre a'curatlvy dlinid t iai e.ver iefo'e.
Several thousatl replies were received i, iillrespollsei ts viil'''lA. l .t snt
out, many of which were nemgative-tlie investigti, iein1ig .\t.t1nil.,il
throughout all States iil wliicli there wams mny likilihuoodif o e tlea jppe.'r-
ance of the Cicada, and necessarily covl'ring nii1%ny coIunti's. ani dli(
tricts where thie ('icada was iiot expected. Te results of t'tiis 'anmva.s
up to June 20 were recorded in Bulletin No. 14, niew series.. Io"0 tle I )ivi-
sion of lrnatoinmology. A large number (of replies were eciveidv subse-
quently to that date, anL thie corrected list if(I liocalities is ailliet-(lded,
together with a list of thie persons reporting anlld a britefi nldicatiil(n of
the nature of' the record.
With the exception of tihe soutleasternm aindi noithwestern ralig(i' of
Brood VI, most of the records lor this brood were of' s-cattering n-111di-
viduals, in many localities only a few sl)ecienlis Ibeing criser'ved. It is
quite possible also that the records for Ohio, \Vest Virginia. an,, \ Virginida
in some cases are based on stragglers from Brood V, whiichi octcurred in
1897. Dense swarms of Brood VI were, however, reported fromn tlhe
mountain counties of North Carolina, South Carolina, andi ('eigi;i, al '
the limits of the brood, in this portion of its range, are now dieternuined
with fair accuracy for the first time. The reports from tlie mounttain
counties of Tennessee and Kentucky belong undoubtedly also to
Brood VI. A number of strong swarms of this brood are reported in
Wisconsin and several in 'Illinois. Some of their latter assignedl to
Brood VI may, however, belong to Brood XXIII. The reports it' they
may be relied upon from northern Michigan (Chippewa atidl Iloghton
counties) and from northern Wisconsin (Burnett, Sawyer, nmid \ash-
ington counties) carry the range of the Cicada farther north than atny
of the old records.
The reports of Brood XXIII nearly all indicate the occurrence of the
insect in enormous numbers. Unfortunately, however, there enters
again with this brood some doubt as to the correct.reference of some of
the localities in Illinois, Indiana, and perhaps northern Missouri, or. in
other words, where the territory occupied by the two races overlaps.
In most of the records assigned to this brood, however, in thie States
mentioned the evidence points l)retty strongly to the accuracy of ithe
reference. Where there is uncertainty a query follows the conmity.
The records assigned to Brood VI. in North Carolina, South Carolina,
and Georgia, and in western Kentucky and Tennessee, can not be
questioned. The counties represented are in the main in an elevated
mountainous district, and the fact that thie Cicada is of thie 17-year
race is established by the elevation or by the earlier records.








62

Local investigations have also been undertaken by entomologists in
several States. A report from Illinois has been received from Pro-
lessor Forbes, adding four or five counties to the records obtained for
that State. Prof. J. B. Smith has reported from New Jersey, adding
live counties to the records previously obtained. Professor Garman
has added six counties from Kentucky not previously reported, all in
the eastern end of the State, and belonging to Brood XXIII. Professor
Stedman sends an extended record of Missouri counties visited by the
Cicada this year, one of which is new to our records.
The detailed reports from the parties named and a few records from
other sources are incorporated in the records given below.
The records are summarized by States and cou .ties for each brood.
The counties marked with a star (*) indicate those in which the Cicada
occurred in one or more dense swarms, in many cases several reports
being received from the same county. In the unstarred counties the
Cicada was reported in few or scattering numbers, or at least as not
abundant. The counties in italics duplicate old records; the counties
lacking confirmation by the records of this year are inclosed in paren-
theses and incorporated with tlhe others.

COMPLETE RECORD, BY STATES AND COUNTIES, OF BROOD VI.

Dela ware.-Newcastle.
District of Columbia.-Several localities.
Georgia.--Dade,4 Elbert, Floyd, Habersham," Hall," Paulding, Rabun,* Spalding,
White.
lllinois.-Dewitt,* Doutglas, Knox, McLean, Montgomery, Scott. Shelby," Vermilion.
Indiana.-Booue, Brown, Carroll, Grant, Johnson, Laporte, Wells.
Ken tncky.-Letcher. -
Maryland.-Carroll, Cecil, Montgomery, Prince George, Washington.
Michigan.-Barry, (Cass?), Chippewa, Genesee,' Houghton,u Kent (?), Macomb (1),
New:iygo k ?), Ogemaw (?), Otsego,* Shiawassee, Washtenaw.
Montana.'-Choteau, Flathead, Gallatin, Missoula.
NVew Jersey.-Bergen, Cumberland, Essex, Hudson, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex,
Morris, Passaic, Somerset.
Xewt York.-Greene, New York, Richmond, Schenectady, (WVestchester).
North Carolina.-Alexander,* Bladen, Burke,- Buncombe, Cabarrus, Caldwell,*
Catawba," Henderson," Iredell, Lincoln,k Macon, McDowell,* Montgomery,
Moore, Pender)-, Polk," Randolph (?), Rutherford, Swain,- Transylvania,*
Union,- Wilkes,. Washington (f?).
Ohio.-i Ashtabula), Carroll, Champaign, Columbiana, Delaware, Madison, Mahon-
ing, Montgomery, Morrow, Pickaway, Shelby, (Sumimit?), Union, (Vintou?).
I'ia nisylran isi.--Bucks, iDauphin), (Lancaster), Montgomery, (Northampton and
adjoining counties), (Philadelphia, Germantown), Westmoreland.
Sonth Carolina.-Oconee.'
Tennessee.-Bradley, Greene, Hamilton, Jefferson, Knox, Meigs, Polk, Sullivan.

'No authenticated repo ts of the occurrence of the Periodical Cicada in Montana
have hitherto been obtained. It is interesting to note that Mr. E. V. Wilcox, under
date of July 14, 1898, reports that this insect was noticed in small numbers in the
counties mentioned from June 15 to July 10, and that in Missoula County some
damage was done to young apple trees.









?63

Virginia.--Charlotte, ('h.usterlielid, laiirt'ax, P'mlwatani, I'lin-' I:wlllwail,. iSvth .l
W'eat I'lrgoiut.- lterkelhy. Iluinjmbh are. .li'1.-tmill. '.% iral, i i)ii, i, \Vi,,<. Ing ; 'in tii,
We titer
'iscoNait. -I Ia r tIu t, it, lumbiui Crtwf'llrd, lI 1lin," F mi- l 'lit I Al.i f.ria /I /,Af', l\.a
('rome. .Miarinetti', as ,", -Sawy er, \ %illabiirin, Vuiimhriiir

('IMPI I IrI Rl:COi- iD' IIY .IATr:'- ANIN' 4ii 'II I. I IlilJim l, \\iI.

.4 rka iss.- t'. rk nas,, Ash lt'y. < 'zi ll,,un, ('1rroll, C'hirul.t 'IH k. ,itlumbian, 'iaig-
headl.' t'rawlford, ('tritteiulen, <'rmn,' lienni ,a ([ 'rink li i1, Fllton, ;iarlannl,
I lot Spring. l owaird. ( I/rd .1 a'-kson i, .Iff'rr in, I -i.l I4 tt',\ I'.ru I.i,,ol nII.
l.ogian, onoke, f .llaraon, ..i isinppi." M inrn,' N wt. i, wl, Ii. I i'jl, n., I'i'k,. I"',ii.
Nett,' Prairie," l'ntlanAi, Rindol]lh, St. I'rmii.is,- .ali,.,' (s-i,' c-\ ), Smi.astiam ,
Sharp, I'nion, Van Biuren," W.'i.,lintoia. \\ oodriill.'
(ie, ryia.-(Colb, ('iw.ta, Ih)kalli. 4; % innett. M.-riwe-th--.,, Na.wilim. I
Illinoi..--.Aleja-itir, ('rawford,"' Edgar. dwtiar(m," (:illiatin, Il irdin," .in-u,
.lJmaper,*Jefferson, ,Johll8son, La w relice, .lIr-uopin, .Mi(ldon. .1 it iollo, i'I,'lrr, I'dl,
Pulaski.' Ranedoliph, ielicl:ind.. Sci't, St. ('lair. nun, \\sl;tilml,, a'nashlnqit,,n,
Wayne," Williamnlson.
Indiana.-Bartholomew, Da'viess. Fayettc, Floyd, (hlirn." .J;t ,'k .I' ni',
Knox," Montgomery, Owen, I'oscy/,- I'ait nan, Itiley. Slr-'i. ', Silliviri. \':;n-
derbnrg,' Vigo, WVarrick.-
Kentucky.-BallarI ,' i tBarren?), lBut ler, Caildwell, Callowvay, ('air]islc,, 'lil,ti. i:,
Clinton, Critteudeu, DIaviess, Fui lton, (i rant, rnra'en,, ; rt-lu, II:inicuo.k, h Ir lin,
hlickman,' Hopkins, Livingston, Lyon, McCracken, MairslIhll. Mcl.ean. Mulla-ni-
berg, Ohio, Trigg9,' Union, Webster. WVolfe.'
Louisiana.-Bienville,* (Bossier), Caldw'ell,* ('l;ii borne, C'utioi-diai," Easti Carroll,"
East Feliciana, Franklin,- Madion, Moreh/, u(e, 4 )tichitta,' P'iiit, ('iiip,.e.
(Red River), Richland," St. Helena, Tallilah,''angiilphoa, Tesisas.' \ ermili ioni ?,
(Washington), JVent Carroll.*
Mississ8ippi.-Adams, Ahcor,," Amiitt'," Attala," Bentmon, liolirar," CUalh,,is,' I'rrull,
Claiborne, Coahoma, Copiah,' D-I Soto,- Flranklin, Grnuada,I Hinds,' Holmies,"
(Issaqueua), Itawamba, (Jasper), .Jefferson, Lafa'yette.' Lawrenct, L.eak., I.eet,"
Leflore," Lincoln," Lowndes, Madisoi," Marion, Marshall,' Montiyocry." N.--
shoba, XNewton, Oktibbeha.,- I'nola, likee' l'ontotoc, P'rentiss,"* Iitmit,
Rankin,* (Scott), Simpson, Smith, 'TI'allIhLat.-hi.," Tat(,,' Ti"')pb, TI'l'isbh migi.,
Tunica, Union," Warren, WVashington. li ter,- YaloIusha,* Y "aoo.
MAissouri.-A drain, Barry, Btenton, JBoom', C'illaway, Caiatleni, tape Girard-anu,
Cedar, Christian, Clark ( ?., (Clinton, Cole. Cooper, Ihde, lillsm, Ilent, lDonu!jilanx,
Gasconade, Greene, Hickory. Howell, Iron. Jefferson, Johnsoni, Kinox, ( .Iawrenu'e i,
Liun, Maries, Miller, Morgan, -New Madrid,- Petis, Phelps, Polk, Pulaski, Reynolds S?), .'Sott, St. Charles.' St. (C'la.-iir. St.
Francois, St. Louis, Taney, Ttxax, 'arren, Wa'shington," l'ebster.
Tennessee.-Benton, Carroll,- Chester,- Crockctt, (I)avidsown), h-ulatnr," Ii,.-son.*
Dyer," Fayette,* Giblson,- Hardemn,t" llardin," lihuywood, lie-'dirtsp,- I Ienry,
Humphreys," LaA',- Liauderdale,- 1L-wis. Madt-.on,- MrAairy,- t M;irya iMont-
gomery, Obion,"* l'erry,* (lRoblrtson), Rutherford, Shclbq,- Stewart, 'ipti,'
Wayne,* Weakley,' WVilli:nsou.

SNone of these localities, all of whitlh were queried, were -onfirined inl 19I8, and
the record of this brood in (Georgia is undoubtedly erroneous.












I


v




i ::. U :


64

LIST OF PERSONS REPORTING THE PERIODICAL CICADA, 1898, WITH
BRIEF INDICATION OF THE NATURE OF THE RECORD.

The exact records obtained by this Division relative 'to the occur-
rence of Broods VI and XXIII in the early summer of 1898 are given
below, arranged under each brood by States and counties. Upwards of
2,000 additional reports were received of a negative character from the
States listed below and others, and of these no record need be made;
these reports, however, are of considerable value as showing the reg-
ions in the States listed and adjoining States in which presumably the
Cicada did not occur.

RECORDS FOR BROOD XXIII.
Arkansas:
Arkansas.-J. C. Wilcox, Stuttgart; June 8; plenty; no damage thus far. C. P.
Hinman, Arkansas Post; appeared between middle and last of May. S. D.
Jester, Wiggs; June 11; appeared near Gillett.
Ashley.-Dr. Ben. H. Brodnax, Brodnax, La.; extending south from Matoka,
Ashley County, into Morehouse Parish, La., to Mer Rouge.
('alhonn.-H. L. Lyon, Woodberry; very few; appeared last of April.
Carroll.-J. W. Ash, Carrollton; June 11; few this year.
Chicot.-William B. Street, Lake Village; June 26; no general appearance; in
spots quite numerous; no special damage to vegetation. W. R. Wallace, Car-
mel; June; have come; also in West Carroll County, La. W. H. Mathis, Grand
Lake; June 17; appeared May 1, remained thirty days; no damage. C. F.
Wells, Dermott; June 9; numerous, but mostly in patches.
Clark.-L. L. Mock, Smithton; June 13; not so numerous as in 1881, though more
than in 1888.
Columbia.-F. M3I. Strange, Buckner; June 13; few; no damage.
Craighead.-J. C. Broudaway, sr., Jonesboro; June 14; very few; we look for
them next year. G. F. Gibson, Gilkeson; June 13; few, hardly worth noticing.
J. S. De Jarnette, Mammoth Spring; August 16; numerous in this aud other
counties along the Mississippi River.
Crawford.-L. B. Byars, Alma; June 9; few.
Crittenden.-W. F. Madding; appeared here between 1st and 15th of May, increas-
ing in numbers until about June 1; now decreasing. J. S. De Jarnette, Mam-
moth Spring; August 16; numerous.
Cross.-J. Q. Thomas, Vanndale; appeared in great numbers about May 10. Carl
Beard, Vanndale; June 18; large numbers; very little damage. J. W. Halk,
Cherry Valley; June 10; present throughout the county. W. P. Brown,
Wynne; June 10; present, but no damage noticed.
Desha.-W. H. Gontt, Rotan; June 10; few. G. Waterman, Dumas; June 8; full
force; came out of ground.
Fulton.-J. S. De Jarnette, Mammoth Spring; August 16; few.
Garland.-S. D. Jester, Wiggs; June 11; reports appearance in 1893 in this section,
and says Some have appeared near Gillett."
Hot Springs.-J. D. Prince, Sanders; June 13; heard a few but none seen. D.I.
Hendrix, Ops; June 11; no regular brood; heard three or four only.
Howard.-T. G. Kennedy, Picayune; very few in May.
Jefferson.-N. T. Roberts, Pine Bluff; here by the million; the earth in the timber
perforated by them; June 10. A. F. McNeill. Redfield; here in superlative de-
gree; June 8. R.D. McGaughy, Altheimer; May 10; small quantities.
Lafayette. -J. J. Stubbs, Mot, La.;: reports occurrence 20 miles north in Lafayette
County, Ark; June 14.



ii









65

Arkansas-Continu.d.
Lee.- W. 0. Ilopkins, Vin'pard ; .11 no 13; large iiiatilitirlm; fir,-,I i1,, ,iin-t! 1 I. .
Moses Iturke, lIagraiigoe .; 1 i 1 i11 ; ti ll ili' ii llt h;1 1 iit I1n0 itht i; ,ii'i ilkr .iI il-l-
ing. G. 0. lruitt, Sylars.vill; .miII ll; aipprarei hmrm ailibot Maiy 1.. T1. S.
Thiorn, I Ia, ines ; Jiut !9; IIIppelireLd abit i1 Mii y i ii iiniimmii'. I.('. lI.mttw ihI.
Phillips; .Ji1n1 I11 ; great al iiiliid iim'er.
LincolnL.-R. I1. loyd, I'ornier ilI ; .;Inly Iv12; il-w diliuri:ng MIavy.
Logau.- Fred.o N. Ca'rtr. IlIl iirt ; .l1iin l-.E h;lw iiI one or tlilm I i i t liilt liiia v ie ji II''l ijt
yet. .1. A. .liirriard, M. ilrrimo Ilil -: .1iiiue II ; onily ain loi hcaniiiiii i'or ius li.aril.
Lonoke.-S. %'. alls. ('llb.s; .liN e, -l'F ; glre it imiila rs ;ail'oat iilildll ofll M1ia .
W. 11. Pyliurn, l.onuoke; .lint S; ]ires-iet.
Marion.--1). WViekershliaii, YcllvillI i; .ilntu I11; iinal ii iililiers.
M ississippi.- A. Tillitiit, A htlitlstiani .; i.m 1i ; liiS; liirl inai .rs ; gg1 1 Ifilii-'l1.. W 1i).
Henley, postmatister, I'hickasi4vab.ia .LIl. 11ill; 1reatuit iili hrn.
Monroe.-T. I'. I a\vson. Hoe; .Jhit' 11; Iiupliirii iabolit Maiy 1 ; Iw-ci \ .ry iiii4r-
ois; no ainange; all goeti- now. T. I). ('hlainn, 1lcllygi'ov,; ; jiiep:areml iliolit
May 23; not so nuinerolus.
Newton.-A. F. Casey, Boxley ; .Jtiuno 11; very lfew; not worth attention.
Phillips.-A. M. Scott, Nortlicreek ; Jiie i9; aippeaitml. 1 ). ( C ir4loAi, Ilel'lin;i
June 10; appeared May 23; here now.
Pikt'e.-)D. L. Bevis, Murfreeslboro; .Jineu- 1.7; sit:ill brood ;apliiarcd bilount Maay 20.
Poinsett.-W. (,. (;io(Ibey, Ilimirislhurg; .Inne X; presIent, 1iost1ly on lill lands;
woodpeckers pounce on then; C('icadLa oion1d 17 feet iinltrr gr 'uid hliiie dig-
gingwell; line fishli bait. Iradlird & E'rchison, Weiner; .Ilii. 1'2; nint, here,
but said to be thick 6 miles east ofi us. L,. Cow.an, Illarrisbiuirg;; hJint ;
large numbers.
Prairie.-A. J. Bassett. & Co., laizen; Juine 8; been here two weeks. C'. I.. low-
man, Hazen; June 9; here this season, but seen slmiialler thliai in 1.SS1 and does
not make snich a lond noise; ilon't ieiemniber :% thirteen' years ag-o, iLt. 4i1 illi
1881. R. H. Toll, Devalls liilff; JJune 10; here last week iii May alid tirst iii
June.
Pulaski.-W. A. Galloway, Jacksonville; .June 10; few.
Randolph.-John Antry, postmaster, Alberta ; .1 uIell 11; none seei ; few hulitls found.
Saline.-C. D. Harris, Hensley; June;li here in great iiliibers.
Sebastian.-J. C. Galloway, ILaraca ; June 15; only :1 c)fevw Seen.
Sharp.-W. F. Stuart, Center; .J une; lew.
St. Francis.-H. W. Payne, Wheatlevy ; .Jiiu 9; great tn ibers. M1. N. G(aines,
Forrest City; June 8; great nunmbers.
Union.-R. T. Nabors, New London; June 15,; only a few.
Van Buren.-J. W. hBeavers, Sang; iunie 10; very saerce.
Washington.-W. B. Fraker, WVestfork; few ; diozin to thle s iar't mile.
Woodruff.-John Shearer, MeCrotry; ,Jine 9; abinildant li; hadl them tlwo weeks.
W. B. Battle, lBeebe; .June 8; none lhero illn Whitte 'ati uty; plentiful ,east in
WNoodruff'Couinty. WV. Movninai ltunter; .June 13; appeared List nioi.nth ; very
numerous, but less than in 185..
Illinois:
Alexander.-Prof. S. A. Forbes, in letters of Juine 23 and Juily 2. reports gro;at
numbers. S. H. Yate, Willard; .June 8; appeared aboltt 1May.
Crawford.-M. L. Caywolod, Odlong; .iune 8; nuierois inll timlbered seLtion.
Edgar.-G. W. Legg, Scottl:and; Jinie 18; few covering lou lind; o110 live ones.
Edwards.-F. Wick, Albion,; .June I 18; 3 miiilts ast there is a full iroodl. .1. B.
Jolly, Grayville; .1une 21); numerous; knew them h lere sixty years or soC ago.
Gallatin.-M. Doherty, Shawneetown: .June 201; few ill tiliil'er.
Hardin.-W. J. Banks, Karlbers lidge: .June S; heard a fei-w since May I1), biit
none since storm.
8193-No. 18-5





.. .. ..



66:i

Illinois-Continued.
Jackson.-G. H. French, Carbondale; July 11; have been here in considerable
numbers. Edw. Davis, Elkville; June 18; plenty this season; a few for four
years past. Prof. S. A. Forbes reports great numbers.
Jasper.-J. Michels, Bogota; June 13; appeared about fifteen days ago.
Jefferson.-O. P. Nesmith, Buinford; June 11; very limited numbers about May 15.
Johnson.-Prof. S. A. Forbes reports great numbers.
Lawrenee.-D. Hornier, Olney; June 7; timber is full.
Maconpin.-G. W. Bohannan, Chesterfield; few; not so many as in 1881 or 1894.
(Forbes.) Recorded in Bloomington Pantagraph, June 21; remarkable
amount.
Madison, Marion.-Prof. S. A. Forbes reports great numbers. Recorded in
Bloomington Pantagraph, June 21.
Perry.-J. B. Ervin, Swanwick; June 13; appeared May 21.
Pike.-Recorded in Bloomington Pantagraph, June 21. Dr. R. H. Main, Barry;
July 18; heard them three or four weeks ago in west side of county. (Forbes.)
Pulaski.-W. R. Crain, Villaridge; June 8; appeared about May 20 and are yet
in full force, doing much damage to young orchards. J. W. Gaunt, New Grand
Chain; great numbers from latter part of May until June 10. J. S. Morris,
Ullin; great numbers; came about May 25. Prof. S. A. Forbes reports great
numbers. M. N. McCartney, superintendent of city schools; common at
Grand Chain, near Johnson County line; said to be numerous across Ohio in
Kentucky. (Forbes.)
Randolph.-Recorded in Bloomington Pantagraph, June 21. Prof. S. A. Forbes
reports no great numbers.
Richland.-John C'amp, Berryville; June 18; heard one or two; no damage.
Scott.-Prof. S. A. Forbes reports no great numbers.
St. Clair.-F. Helms, Bellerville; June 8; heard few in timber; found remains of
a few last year. William Galle, Marissa; June 8; not such numbers as four
years ago. Otto P. Klopsch, superintendent schools, Mascoutah; heard it
early in .June; since then but rarely; secured no specimens. (Forbes.)
Union.-J. R. Jarvis, Cobden; June 10; small numbers middle of April; large
numbers middle May. Prof. S. A. Forbes reports "large numbers."
Wabash.-A. B. Denham, Cowling; June 9; great numbers; remember them in
1860,1872 or 1873, and 1885 or 1886.
Washington.-W\V. L. Kugler, Okawville; not such numbers as heretofore. A. A.-
Hinkley, Dubois; few; only seen the "casts;" very scattering. (Forbes.)
Wayne.-C. 0. Truscott, Cisne; June 6 :good many in timber lands.
Williamsou.-Prof S. A. Forbes reports "great numbers."
Indiana:
Bartholomew.-Amos W. Butler. Indianapolis; July 27; heard at Columbus
July 24.
Daviess.-W. M. A. Kirby, Bloomington; June 12; none here; but read that they
are plentiful in Daviess County.
Fayette.-Jonas Scholl, Lyons Station; June 11; few stragglers.
Floyd.-G. E. Smith. Floyd Knobs; June 6; one here and there.
Gibson.-Anton Zeitz, Haubstadt: June 7; great numbers. J. B. Jolly, Gray-
ville, Ill.: June 9: numerous. Ed. R. Wahnsiedler, Oakland City; June; very
numerous; considerable damage. John W. Johnson, Princeton; great num
bers about May 25. C. F. Garrison, Fort Branch; June 8; vast numbers in
forests; ground perforated with holes.
Jackson.-O. M. Foster, Seymour; June 17; few; not so abundant as in 1885.
Jennings.-H. R. Weeks, North Vernon; June 8; moderate numbers.
Knox.-James W. Emison, Vincennes; June 6: woods are full. R. M. Robinson,
Wheatlaud; J.une 9; not very numerous. J. B. Jolly, Grayville, Ill.; June 9;
numerous. Amos W. Butler, Indianapolis; heard several at Vincennes July 8.




- ,










67
I
Indiana--Con ti In at. .
Montgomery.-M. It. Watigh, ( 'raLwf,rdv illt; .l ainn I I; in r thii rt1 u% '-LI,, V;
few this spring. .I.S. Funlhr wi d,,r. II iA"w st V-4IV ,.y ; ,.Ir t ft. %% :iIl it .it i, I I
Owen.-J.. W. Hart, (iinicy ; Join'Iiy; VvIy f1 .
P'oaey.-J.IB. Elliott, New Ilarmunny : MaIy 1; iappi:nruml .MI 2'2; iruL2i;.dI tn li,
very ntifl' 1roi s. .1. t'rop, l fayv tt, ; rii' ,nit,! t t wee% k .11 ,m ;aiIIriaI i1g
near New larinto iny; iinnu 2. .l:i<. 1d I|ik'r. X\% :idI- ill. : .ipl.irii .I a 2 _' ii
enurmotiu nitnbt'irs. \\illi:nn .1. ('fx, Ni.iminit \'friii, ; .1 intu ; plihitil .. :ili i)41
two-thirds of co Unt \, nortlcrnm i p rint, itti,.'td. .1. '..IhplI\. % 4;:ly ill,. 111.;
iniuerouis.
Putuam.-J. W. Holmo. (4rein,'tilstIl; .lie!nin ; \ 'e'ry f'w.
Ripley.-.JIlohn Itlinnlett. Siniinsn ; .1I1tni ,;; few.
Spenctr.-.lJnines Romnine. (i'iitryvillie ; .1lit,, 7: very fIvw.
Sullivan.-(Ieorgov (oodwNin. Sillivaln; .Immite; :t uliizial:nnt. ID. E'. I:vriliarl, ia.r;
June 11II; uiineroiis.
Vanderburg.-W. Knerr. Armstrong; .1 ine 7 ; l:,rge 'itii inity ; "orhrliil.s" -tilrr-
ing. John Fridy, Zipp; J1un, 8; appeared. .nios \V. hller, Iilliinii:lpuli.;
July 27; heard a fi'w at Evansville .inly 22.'
Vigo.-Williain Lowe, jr.. Terr Hliiute ; .Jtin' 11; li'i-ri fit' t 1ini,.
Warrick.-Jacob Martel. Chandler; June X; large n ilnlitrs. \V. It. Saiiolvris,
Newbnrg; June 9; few.
Kentucky:
Ballard.-J. E. Jones. Oscar; June 9: plenty. W.W. v)wen. Ilitiklevillt; .IJinet7;
abundant. A. M. Shellby. B:nimdan:; .IJuly 23:; pretty gn.eri1, in Inii.ilv.
(Garman.) J. G. Clark, Lovelacevillt; July 2Sw; were liere 1,y tihe tlnii.;,;il.s;
stayed but a short time. (Garinian.) .1. '. P'iyne, M. I).. ()gden; l:ihitilill in
river bottoms, etc.; same variety as in lIXI or liSl ; young 'rinit tiers dani-
aged. (Garman.)
Bntler.-A. A. Chaddock, lBerry's I.ick; .Inno 13; very few. A. Tihat.-hier, MNir-
gantown; July 22; heard of some. ((iarman.) .1. It. Ellis, W\\dlntrmy : .Inly
IS; have seen some. (G(arnian.)
Caldwell.-.J. H. Neel, Kelsey: .tune 7; sminall numbers; also in ( iniltrni.n ;aud
Lyon counties. A. B. ('oleman, P'rinceton ; .inllyv 1i.: v.rny li. i (arininai.)
Calloway.-Sam. B. Watson, lBackusliiiurg ; August 3.: ap ireil in great ii innliers
May 1; disappeared by third week i ii June. i(;:ri 11:a1.) A. K. ('Craw Ilord. l:liIt
August 7; very few in this part, but great many iin sontlnwes.t part or' (oiity.
(Garman.)
Carlisle.-O. A. Glass, Arlington; June 12; imnnense numbers. \W. Z. T. Sniith,
Bardwell; June 7; appeared about Maay 1F; very in n imncerons. oliet t L. 1('ook,
Arlington; July 18; great lutanttity. (;arman. (I. k. (lass.. Arlington : .Iily
17; were very numerous. $Garman.) T. IT Hall. Milbitrin;: .Ilnlv 17: vcnvy plen-
tiful six weeks ago. ((;arman.) I. 11. Smnither. (;rahain\illc : izcud i :ln];
understand they were very numerous in 'arlisle ('Ctinty. karrmnii. i
Christian.-J. T. Ford, Croftmin; .June 21; 'few. F. B. Hancoek, (..;isky: .1nnie i;
very few. (Garman.)
Clintou.-L. P. Duvall, Savage; June 11;: heard ni on' or t\wo in thle tintlinr on
mountains; sonic apple twigs killed.
Crittenden.-J. H. Neel, Kelsey; .June 7; small numbers. .1. N. X ',,stin, Ly vi.iis;
July 21; heard a few. (Garman.)
Daviess.-S. H. Jesse, Ensor; June 21; very few. 1). W. Hloward. Utica: Jline 1.;
few; no damage. C. H. hlaynes, Ensnr;: July 17; :a few. Oirinan.)
Fulton.-James H. Salnders, IlickIan -: .Iine 11: Ipr.snt aIlso t iirten alud
twenty-six years ago. D. W. D)ickinson. Hlicknmai: millions; immense idainmage
to young trees. (Garman.)
Grant.-J. T. Points, Sherman; Jmune 6; very tew.







t-




w .. ... .


68

Ken tucky-Contin ned.
Graves.-Moses Connor, Mayfield; large numbers; June 10. J. P. Morrill, Lowes;
June 9; plentiful. T. J. Cross, Pritchard; July 20; no damage; considerable
noise. (Garman.) N.S.Allison, P. M., Pryorsburg; July 16; plenty; counted
16 holes in a foot square of ground. (Garman')
Green.-R. I. Taylor, Thurlow; June 7; few.
Hancock.-John Friel, Victoria; July 1; very few; very abundant thirteen
years ago. C. E. Friel, Patesville; "heard them singing;" June 15.
Hardin.-G. K. Tichenor, Sonora; June 11; extremely limited; mere usual yearly
quantity.
Hickmian.-James W. Blair, Moscow; June 23; appeared about May 1. J. M.
Samuels, Clinton; June 13; not very many. (Garman.)
Hopkins.-W. D. Crow, Madisonville; June 10; heard a few. Robt. Almon, Nor-
tonsville; August 8; few; same as last year (annual ?). (Garman.)
Livingston.-J. R. Summers, Salem; June 10; few; here in 1894 in full force.
T. H. Robertson, Lola; July 17; few. (Garman.)
Lyon.-J. H. Neel, Kelsey; June 7; small numbers. Essex Spurrier, Star Lime-
works; not more than every year (annual ?). (Garman.)
Marshall.-J. B. Wyatt, Briensburg; July 1; considerable numbers in May.
(Garman.) W.E. Downing, Sharpe; July 26; a few. (Garman.)
McCrackeu.-W. N. Bryan, Lamont; July 16; few. (Garman.) B. H. Smither,
Grahamiville; good many. (Garman.)
McLean.-R. N. Brown. Congleton; few. (Garman.)
Muhleuberg.-Henry Tinsley, Central City; June 25; very few. J. M. Silvey,
Dunmor; June 11; very few.
Ohio.-P. L. Wood, Ceralvo; June 13; few. P. L. Wood, Ceralvo; July 19; not
numerous. (Garman.) D. B. London, Rosine; July 16; inconsiderable.
(Garman.)
Trigg.-G. T. Wallace, Canton; June 8; appeared first week in May. H. C.
Vincent. Cadiz; .July 18; very few. (Garman.)
Union.-Geo. H. Drury, St. Vincent; July 19; very few. (Garman.)
Webster.-T. A. Stewart, Sebree; July 18; small number; nothing to compare
with five years ago (Brood I ?). (Garman.) Thos. A. Vaughn, Golds; very
few. (Garman.)
Wolfe.-J. L. Center, Campton; "does appear this season;" June 7.
Louisiana:
Bienville.-C. E. Whitley, Liberty; "they have;" June 7.
('aldwell.-J. S. Chick, Columbia; June 12; great numbers. J. A. Humphries,
Kelly; June 21; appeared. Hattie Hough, postmaster, Columbia; appeared
about May 15; great many.
Claiborue.-J. W. McFarland, Homer; June 10; few. M. E. Price, postmaster,
Homer; June 3; very few; no damage.
Concordia.-B. J. Wade, Frogmore; appeared about May 17.
East Carroll.-James Beard, Lake Providence; June 10; "millions; nodamage."
C. A. Voelker, Panola; June 9; numerous in East Carroll and West Carroll '
parishes, and more abundant in Madison and Tensas parishes. Edw. Constant,
Atherton; June 8; "greater numbers than I have ever seen before." N. H.
Benjamin, Atherton; June 7; large numbers in and adjoining the forests.
East Feliciana.-Joseph A. Stott, Olive Branch; July 1; heard two, seen none.
Franklin.-A. McD. Baskin, Baskinton; present. G. W. Hodge, Crowville; June
11; abundant. J. B. Garcin, Liddieville; vast numbers in May and early part
of .June.
Madison.-J. T. W. Clellan, Tallulah; June 10; great numbers, kept to the forests.
J. M. Herbert, postmaster, Tallulah; May 27; large numbers in forests. C.A.
Voelker, Panola; very abundant.








f

Louisiana Contin 118d.
Morehmis..--W. A. Collisn, Iaiitr-Cp; .insir 111; lnitid aI 1:11111wrI in M1Iy % 16 i i I4w
days. .1. M Staimlper. itmizila; .lu11, 17; 1p1 .-:1nr.Il ii4 .is Apiril 1':. ir Iki',. I.
Brodilax, ltrod:iuax; ;May 9' iil '23; .\tenuliiisg .-t ijli, .\-l l. (',,i'inl A.Ik.
Onichl iti.--11. W M. lia'-ry. M, inltei ; .liils, |; 'irsi iIiv. '. .'. (9raIs1|,'i'n ,
Bosco; May 2'7; great iiiiib.r'n.
Itinti ('oi ptl i'.--(- I.. Anidrr,.w Fordhali. ; .lin, 9; gri-,.il i,, ll.
Iichl ,.l.--I- II. lirnwn, (;to liash i; mla 'gi, imi iiliern; .liw ,, I. A. (II 4,I||'I i-
)bald; .IiUi 8; ii)]('irjd( MayI 17, i lili;ii|)r ,.l .r ii .
St. lelelnia.- 11. ('. NewmlnllI, 'l'i uii.; .l1i,,e IS; v,., f,.'.
Tallulah.- A. E. AdIais. T'IallIilIlh ; .I ,in' ; alipp :ir 11 (I u Mt 1vg .N,
Tangi ):dhia .-- H1. M iller. I'urnclin ,lo i ; .l*I I l i ; lI;,\, hail tiw .; isli,-. lim si. tl
every y-ear; lilt unmiige.
Tcnsas.- B. F, lhtniiiy, ,t. .lsr lh i; lNSt. lul itnhr.s in: \ otins j1,I'Mr. IiI, 1 .1.
Stewart, St..Josphli; Ju.l nie 2 ; inumeromis in fIrt'st. ; ,li, ,l:,in:agt, ti t I'ip ('- .
Voelker, Panola; numerouns.
Vermilion.-W. W. 'Edwards, Alihovillh_; .JIuly 6 ; Iw this year ; d(l lint tliink tlii'y
are the 17-year rac'.
West ('arrll.-S. T. .Jackson, Forest; i, ppa' redl Apiril 10, cu .'sil thlei r lhiins-
drum" June 10. W. R. Wallait.. ('armui], Ark.; reported il I his i'ard. '. A.
Voelker, Panola; nnumnerons.
Mississippi:
Adams.-D. G. Ashley, Ashley, Coplili Comnty; .liTte 23; va.st imnilabes.
Alcorn.-J. M. Walker, Kossutl ; .Jtine 7; great numiiil'-s. .1. N. Ily"nini. Ii.iizi
June 20; large nimiibers; now disap)ear;r'd.
Amite.-F. W. Stratton, Liberty; .Jline 8; :ipp;eared about M:iv 1; now gone.
C. H. Bates, Bates Mill; .Inne 9; great ilinititi.es last oif April; still lihre. I).
G. Ashley, Ashley, Copiah countyty; June 23; v'ist nnimlbers.
Attala.-D. J. Ellington, Sallis; present.
Benton.-C. F. Blakeslee, Hickory Flat;it; .1uie 5:; a])ear'd aiou)izt May 20.
Bolivar.-Y. E. Howell, Hosedaile: .IJne 6; very numerous in soum- loi-aliii .is.
Calhouu.-C. G. Bentley, ,Iently; June 12; millions. (,. I.. Fo\. State Sj.iigg;
June 15; very iinnierous. Sam Cooke, WaItliall; abundant.
Carroll.-S.C. Bains, Vaideun ; .linte 6; appeiared ai)out May 11); all gon. Jliun,. 1;
quite numerous tint no damage. \V. A. Reid. Money: .lime 11: present: ;also
in Holines and Leflore counties.
Claiborne.-.Jiames B.Alien, Port (-isson,; .Juine 7; not s.o iii,,v as list year.
1). G. Ashley. Ashley. Copiali Comnty.; vas{ inuiliirs.
Coahozna.-M. B. Collins, .lionstown:; .111ne .S; ippear-ed alioit May 12 inl _-iat
abundance. .1. \V. Stovall, Stovall; .July 6; in fo-rce about May.
Copiah.-R. E. Ainswortli. Hazlehur-st; .JiIe lil; large iiiiilsifrs II'olint M.a *N 1.
.1. C. Snmylie, Wesson; .Juine i; tleacii uig ioi..e in w,,ods. 1). (. Aslhly. As.ihley:
May 16 and 23; great nuimlers.
De Soto.-.Jo1e liarral. Eudora; .June 7; been here t wvo Weeks; nol t(,1:.am'e.
.1. 1). Baker, Olive Brancli; .Inii ; 6.ilit' iniiersiis in forests; ,i11 laamago
apparently. T. C. Dockery, Love Stationi: great iniiiilers Maiy 15.
Franklin.-1). G. Ashley. Ashley; .J uine 23; va;ist numbers. (;eo. II. Kiant. Mead-
ville; June 10; letter.
Grenada.-O. L. Kinbrough, Grenada: plentiful ailout May 15.
Hinds.-W. A. Cook. Utica; June 7; here this year; last yeair 2 milts west.
J. A. Newman, Newman; small numbers about, middle of April. (;. I). Csssi y,
Terry; June 9: appeared about May 1. Walter Virden. Cynthia: May 22:-
more numerous than ever known; also in M1:adisou Coiunty. ID. (;. AhlIle;
vast numbnlers.









" :i: .....::
.:!.aI









70

Mississippi-Continued.
Holmes.-F.A. Howell, Bowling Green; June 7; large numbers; almost gone .:
now. W. Bridgforth, Pickens; June 16; very numerous; now gone. W,A.
Reid, Money, Carroll County; present.
Itawamba.-J. H. M. Harrison, Tilden; June 15; not so numerous as formerly.
Jefferson.-D. G. Ashley, Ashley; June 23; vast numbers.
Lafayette.-J. F. Brown, Oxford; June 7; present. G. H, Turner, Burgess; su-
perabundance.
Lawrence.-D. A. Dawson, Saulsbury; June 11; small numbers. D.G. Ashley;
vast numbers.
Leake.-J. R. Lowry, Hopoca; June 15; few in May; great many in 1881 and
1894.
Lee.-J. W. Burness, Baldwin; June 14; here for a month, in Union County
four years ago.
Leflore.-W. A. Reid, Money; present.
Lincoln.-G. R. Robertson, Fair River; June 6; present. D. G Ashley, Ashley;
vast numbers. G. H. Kant, Meadville; June 10; letter.
Lowndes.-J. B. Brooks. Crawford; May 1; limited number; large numbers in
1891.
Madison.-W. B. Stinson, Canton; June 11; numbers. Walter Virden, Cynthia,
Hinds County; more numerous than ever known.
Marion.-J. M. Foxworth, Pickwick; June 18; reported.
Marshall.-Geo. J. Finley, Holly Springs; June 8; very numerous.
Montgomery.-J. E. Flowers, Kilmichael; June 13; great numbers. J.A.Lane,
Huntsville; June 20; very numerous. J. B. Simpson, Poplar Creek; great
numbers in May.
Neshoba.-D. H. Thaggard, Philadelphia; very few; very numerous in 1881.
Newton-Eugene Carleton, Decatur; June; not numerous.
Oktibbeha.-O. B. Cooke, M. D., Maben; June 6; large numbers now.
Panola.-T. J. Hunter, Sardis; June 9; singing for two weeks; no damage.
R.T. Hunter, Sardis; appeared May 15; disappeared June 6. G.W.Dyer,jr.,
Batvsville; here 1st of April; first I remember. M. T. Wright, Batesville,
lJune 13; here April 10 to June 7. J. F. Williamson, Pleasant Grove; June 6;
great numbers.
Pike.-Mrs. L. H. Palmer, McComb; June 6; great numbers; letter of details.
Pontotoc.-J. D. Phifen, Ecru ; June 8; very numerous.
Prentiss.-L. M. Burge, Wheeler; June 10; appeared last of April. B.A.P. Sel-
man, Booneville; June 7; some think them not as numerous as former years.
Quitmnian.-J. A. Cooper, Belen; June 7; very numerous; clipping from "The
Quitman Quill," woods alive; June 3.
Rankin.-W.E.Johuson, Chapman; June 20; great numbers in forests during
May. J. NM. Palmer, Lynwood; immense quantities in some places, in May.
Simpson.-W. G. Ashley, Ashley; June 23; vast numbers.
Smithli.--W. G. Ashley, Ashley; June 23; vast numbers.
Tallahatchie.-J. 1). Arnold, Rosebloom; June 17; present; no damage.
Tate.-William Scott, Senatobia; June 13; large numbers in timber in May.
W. R1. Eason, Arkabutla; June 8; good supply.
Tippahli.-W\V. G. Rutledge, Ripley; June 8; here now; no damage. M.T. Gardner,
Blue Mountain; appeared about May 20.
TTunica.-Thomas Byrn, Wanamaker; June 8; large numbers. R.C. Kyle, 0. K.;
has been very numerous.
Union.-R. J. Alexander, Etta; woods alive with them in May. F. W. Cullins,
Wallerville; June 17; appeared May 1; disappeared to-day. James H. Hevey,
Ingomar; August 22; vast numbers; remained forty-five days.
Warren.-John D. Watts, Redwood; June 7; appeared in the eastern part of
county. I.V. Welch, Redwood; June 8; yes.
L .. 'J








71

Mississippi-Continued.
Wahiungtou.-\. W St4,eo,, (;rt1tnville; Junii,. !"; lr,' riuiualM.rn4; iii daai.gi,.
George Read, (iren% illte; .1uii. 12; plrreiet I'. M1. Alexaaider. lliilIandale I; ,ery
nunmerins during ,May.
WVebster.-Saimuel C'ooke, W\althzll; iMay 13 ; groataliubilndtlar lrre awd in ('al-
lionui ( County.
Yalobishaa.-.1. I". Proving, u'Juf.eevill,; J.iii .'; large i nli| rI ii Ajiril Ianl IMay.
J. N. I elk. ( 'offl'v ille ; .-IIta 11; lireisent. T.. \ lV. tlertn.s. C Ilff.villu; .1,111e 10;
appeared i11 April; few st till.
Yazoo.-R. V. Powers. I'ailmnetto I cume; .in i, !1; large, niiiaialnt.
All of State from south linie to WVasiiaiinigti ('oiutKy re.,irl*d< n ple.,tiful lby
C. A. Voelker, l'aiit0la, La...Junlie 9. tN. BI.--'lThis itimi lut 125 1i inile ;% I'cg I'a nt
hIank ol" Misi.ssiIppi River.
Missouri:
Audrain.-.1. F. Llowellyn, Mexico.,Ni. ; .I;niLe 2$; Inuid iione, buit ..unils 'li pimigs
reporting plenty in woods. iusIh Hill (Steiliia.in).
Barry.-Pa'tcr McNa.illy. ('assvill; .iinie li; p,'esiv.ii.
Benton.-Jlanims Butcher. Zor;a; few abot:t May 15-.
Boone. -'uoluminbia (Steditan u).
Callaway.-L. D. Thmipson. New Illoomlitlil ; June 22 ; very few.
Camdeu.-J. R. Mloss, Purvia; heard ni,.. Mary J. Ragg, Nousz.hb; .Jun-. 24);
very few.
Cape Girarldeau.-J. J. Sawyer, Fruitlanil; Junre !0; ailiearil May I; disaip-
peared June 10. IL. M. Bean, Gordonville; .1 iune 9; numlrius. C:jie (i;ir:rU'ilean
(Stedman)
Cedar.-W. T. Bayless. Stockton; JuneI 13; few.
Christian.-Sparta ( Stedniman ).
Clarl-.-James Boley, Ashton; June 15; very few.
Clinton.- W. R. Walkup. (,owtr; .Jutine 26; fv~v.
Cole.-A. J. Davis, Jeffersoni City; Juze 14; few.
Cooper.-A. I. Ziegle, New P'alestine; Juane; few. A. (. T. Thomas, New Luian oui;
June: have seen two or three.
Dade.-Greenfield (Stelman).
Dallas.-Spring Grove (Stediniani.
Dent.--William Barksdale. (iladden ; not very numero|,s.
Douglas.-John Souder, Denlow; June 15; none, only two (r three. (C'old Spring
(Stedman).
Gasconade.-Charle., F. Pope, Bland; June 13; nt in great nninber. E. J.
Alberswerth, Stony Hlill; June 10; very scarce. Bay (Stedinan).
Greene.-H. D. Fulbright, Wiillard: June Ili; few. Nichil.s tSt-diaana).
Hickory.-Elkton (Stedinan).
Howell.--West lPlains (Steliuan).
Iron.-T. P. Russell, Ironton ; June 11; very few.
Jefferson.-De Soto (Stedmaun).
Johnson.-Holdh.n (Stedmnian).
Knox.-Novelty (Stedman).
Linn.-C. U. Bigger, Marceline; June 11; one now and again.
Maries.-G. P. Skaggs, Van Clere; June 16; present.
Miller.-H. C. Jackson, Ulmanu; June 12: limited numbers.
Morgan.-C. N. Mitchell, Gladstone;: June 10); small numbers.
New Madrid.-R. S. Mott, Point Pleasant: appeared about May 1. W. 11. Mar-
shall, Morehouse; June 9; not in this imnmediate vicinity, but ne.ir. Ristine
(Stedman).
Osage.-W. F. McDaniel, Linn; June II ; plenty. Chamois (St.dman 1.
Ozark.-L. E. Brown, Igo; June 11; few.


ai








72


Missouri-Continued.
Pemiscot.-J. M. Bullard, Cooter; June 11; large numbers.
Pettis.-Green Ridge (Stedman).
Perry.-A. H. Cashion, Derryville; June 11; present. Claryville (Stedman).
Phelps.-J. M. Fleming, St. James; June 18; few; numerous in 1892.
Polk.-Aldrich (Stedman).
Pulaski.-J. K. Giddens, Big Piney; June 11; few. T.T. O'Halloran, Riohland;
June 28; few. W. H11. Goodman, Hancock; June 11; very few.
Reynolds.-J. E. Heatoun; July 6; few.
Scott.-G. B. Greer, Sikeston; June 8; appeared. Commerce (Stedman).
St. Charles.-R. B. Bradshaw, West Alton; June 13; appeared. Gilmore
(Stedman).
St. Clair.-J. S. Mannering, Lowry City; June 17; very few.
St. Francis.-R. S. Banks, Bismarck; June 11; few. J. A. Shultz, Farmington;
June; few.
St. Louis.-Creve Cceur (Stedman).
Taney.-Cedar Creek (Stedman).
Texas.-Stanford (Stedman).
Warren.-G. H. Martin, Tuque; June 14; few in timber. Holstein (Stedman).
Washington.-J. G. Barlow, Cadet; May 27; plentiful in woods; saplings
injured. William Coulding, Hulsey; not many. Summit (Stedman).
Webster.-T. G. Cardwell, Seymour; June; not as many as usual. Niangua
(Stedman).
Tennessee:
Benton.-R. B. White, Big Sandy; June 8; "bulk came about June 1." W. H.
Evans, Camden; June 17; great numbers; now gone.
Carroll.-E. G. Butler, Westport; June 8; numerous. J. W. McMillin (corre-
spondent Statistical Division), Post; letter of May 23; plentiful.
Chester.-J. C. Mininghliam, Henderson; June 7; abundant. J. A. Miller, Sweet-
lips; June 6; appeared May 10; plentiful yet.
Crockett.--W. B. York, M. D., Chestnutblufft; present, but rapidly disappearing.
Decatur.-C. F. Abston, Parsons; June 6; abundant. M. P. Haynes, Oakview;
June 15; great numbers.
Dickson.-J. E. Manson, Murfreesboro; June 11; much damage.
Dyer.-W. J. Flatt, Templeton; June 15; million-,. J. W. Ledbetter, Finley;
June 15; considerable numbers; here thirteen years ago. Louis M. Williams,
Newbern; June 7; great numbers. J. N. Parker, Dyersburg; June 6; quite
numerous. L. M. Michett, Heloise; June 11; apparently "more than
usual."
Fayette.-.James H. Cocke, Lambert; June 7; "very thick." J. W. Dongan,
Williston (2 cards); were very numerous in May; very few now; June 18.
WV. A. Douglass, Lambert; June 16; appeared about May 1. J. M. Jones,
Somerville; June 7; large quantities.
Gibson.-G. W. Terrill, Nebo; June 10; appeared about May 6. J. H. Koffman,
Fruitland; June 11; great numbers.
Hardeman.-A. Fitz, Whiteville; June 9; large numbers about May 10. E. B.
Stewart, Newcastle; appeared last of May; stayed two weeks. J. L. Gibson,
Whiteville; appeared about second week in June.
Hardin.-E. T. Croniu, Saltillo; June; great numbers. J. T. Martin, Nixon;
June 14; very numerous.
Haywood.-F. B. Ganse, Nutbush; June 13; appeared May 15; were here iu
1885. F. E. Hunt, Stanton Depot; June 11; very numerous.
Hlenderson.-T. C. Moore, Luray; June 14; present; here in 1885. Nathan Wal-
ter, M. D., Atkins; appeared about May 20.
Henry.-J. D. Poyner, Northfork; great quantities from May 15 until June.
V









73

'T'ennessmee-Contin uetd.
Hum Iphreys.-(it'orgt M. i'i' li,, \V';,il\; .hlim. ,s; im ,^i vtIIIT I ,' IIIIIl, rI i,
o1110I li'alitiL'es ; itn itl lI -ii,.
Lake.-IL. 1 11o31m1on(1I', Iiiitoivills;ll1: J1vI In 11; ;i3ar. imil rfi "11al Api1.
LiAtud rirdiilI. C. 0. Siu'). i 4 ri;,. -. ; .Iin,,. s; qi it,. 1111111i?'11,4. .Iulsis t''Isil Kl ip
ivy; ,J1itle V8; .ist iltlt il't'I r ; atItppu.Iu't'i.s vly iv llt%'I \ ItriHn .iiit u lM.ilt.
Lew IH.- To li Izille, Naistp ,'; lillm I:; tn ll mitnliS-.il.
M adlison.- .Iolih 11. l.ai 'ir. .I t ; .1.l. is4' lI; I sll Nlllslla \ l .llr i' iiiihlii. \V. II.
l ulcst Iie, Medo ; M. :i 31 ; g'rea't iiImliri, \V. I1liwiis. M -.alr si. ; .l4un 13
quite iltuiersns.
ilcNairy.- (I. I. \V Isoi .AdiLInmisvillI ; .linn. 13; \.i-3y ,aitiirroisi ins MIy v; if I11i

M.ontgoinery.- ]. .. 1 'osIu'ih ('tnrl;in:ilsb; .11ii' 23' ; \, r\ ) '-w.
Obiou.- J..1. Bittler, D'A. il'inld ; .li 0 11i ; :s1uisi ts .u il (ilimI '',unt1 : ,ii,' iii
Roane C('o ity. \V. II. Niclsils, KI tils ,i tt; .1itne 1:3; "':iilul m." I. II lol-.
man, li.rris; une .1,; pres ei t.
Perry.- \'. 11. l.ai-iiC ti-r. Lilhelville: ; .lIsn, -10; ''eat 1,IiinmIlIe-1. l'Iji:il1 l1%1i iiiVy,
Lolielville; .Iilic 10; ian \v diM:a pejre,;3I'.1.. 31. II. Kilir1ll, I.t ie .Ii :'. ill': : gr,.-t
numbt hers.
Ruthertfrdl.--.1. E. M:.ansmin, Miirtfreesboroi; .itnI 11; It; w lit this county; iiiil,
damage' iu I)i-Lkmin ('uminty.
Shelby.-R. S. Owen, l iexter; ijpe:sred ; ine. Fri. l.,uttl-. Arlingt,:n .1sie
25; plentitfil. R. F. M1ilne, ('apleville; Jinn e' S; grat iizuili.s; nvw :alinosLt
gone. i.cbhrd D'Aily, 36; l',litaii- liBuilding. M,.nplnhii: l4tter51 May 31;
plentiful; sparrows destroyitig them.
Stewart.-J. 11. lulifordi, 31. I)., L.slWia: .Itiei S; c'\%. t;. W. lart,jir., Bh.ir-
spring: .lne 16(; few.
Tiptou.-S. W. Beddingfli.ld, G;tinsville; .li;nc : Igieat isIinlimlir.s M:IV 10. \\'. 1'.
Billings. Tipton; .Iuinr- 11; rucime and gone. 11. .1. l"'i ghlit, .1r.. t'o inh-tni;
June 10; appeared; liirst time sin-e 18?5.
Wayne.-W. ). McAn:uily. (.'lift'in: .Inm,' 13;i; appmeLtr-d.
Weakley.-W. W. Fuller, Dresdin: .1111 V8: l:tr.e iiantiti.s. W. 1. _',ppN,
Peck; June 11; uiiumerous; dying fa-t.
Williiunsou.-J. F. Buttrey, Niaomii; .I1iii'S 8; very fh-w.

RE('ORDS) F)I{ IlitOhOi) N..
Delaware
Newcastle.-Fr.mnk M. Jones, 1114 ,Vest stret, \\'ilininigtoin, ii letter of May 0:,
few specimens found.
District of Columbia:
Duringthe last ten ldaya ofM:y anli tsi ol'.Tine striattering sie, incns wet're foIundi
within thle limits of th 1) Distrirt, cliCelly iv tise griundls of the I i-partnitiit a i
Agriculture and of thle I'nited Stites Naitioi:il .Ml ,etizu. Just btyontid the
District limits, near ( abin John Ilridge. qulite : 1n numlb-r aipp;arud. B1 2'lueienit
to allow soini" 110oys to cIllect :I li:ialf lepuk I)f psipal Tehell.I.. The sp.irn'o\%s
snapped tiu the lcusts, however, .so prompltly tlis.t they wie not 1i e\' idei'e
more than I few days.
Georgia:
Dade.-G. B. Austin, Trenton. D)ade County: :;ileirdal :lmbout list of April; ill
gone at present date t.June 13).
Elbert.-J. F. Scarborough, Elberton ; June 7; heieaid 3 or I :Ihmott Ma;y 1(.
Floyd.-Isaac D. Gaillard, box 24. Rome; June 30; limited d nitlmbers on i1tth and
20th of May.
Habersham.-IP. W. Green. Tiurnerville; some: plentiful ill Raliun County.. J. P.
Wilson, Clarkeaville; June 7; appeared in some parts of county.









74

Georgia-Continued.
Hall.-B. Niblack, Virgil; June 22, 1898.
Paulding.-J. S. Watson, Brownsville; June 30; few about first days of :i
May.
Rabun.-See report of P. W. Green under Habersham County; see report of B. C.
Hawkins under Macon County, N. C.
Spalding.-H. N. Starnes, Experiment; "advance guard" first heard in Spalding
County June 10.
White.-A. WV. Smith. Tesnatee; none seen, but few heard recently. P. S.
Dorsey, Mossycreek; June 20; very few.
Illinois:
Dewitt.-John I. Barnett, Hallsville; great numbers about middle of May.
W. R. Carle, Wapella; millions about first of June.
Douglas.-Recorded in Bloomington Pantagraph, June 21, 1898.
Knox.-Joseph W. Miles, Appleton; heard few June 10.
McLean.-C. N. Vandervoort, Randolph; few this year.
Montgomery.-E. H. Donaldson, Nokomis; very few.
Scott.-John C. Andras, Manchester; sporadic (XVIII, June 2, 1).
Shelby.-Bernhard Manufacturing Company, Strasburg; plentiful in eastern
part of county.
Vermilion.-J. G. Baird, Indianola; few.
Indiana:
Boone.-T. R. Caldwell, Lebanon; limited numbers; June 10. J. C. Jaques,
Thorntown; reported; June.
Brown.-Thomas J. Cornelius, Cornelius; limited numbers; June 11.
Carroll.-W. B. Ray, postmaster, Rockfield; heard them just lately; June.
Grant.-J. M. Miller, U'pland; scattering in the timber; June 8.
Johnson.-.Johu B. Miner, Edinburg; few as yet; June 7.
Laporte.-N. W. Garman, Rolling Prairie; several in the timber; June 13.
Wells.-E. Y. Sturgis, Bluffton; very limited; June 9.
Kentucky:
Letcher.-W. B. Webb, Sergent; present; June-.
Mlaryland:
Cecil.-Frank W. Sempers. Blythedale; two specimens observed May 25;
a year ago larvw found when excavating at depths of 2, 4, and 6 feet from
surface.
Montgomery.-August Busck, Cabin John Bridge.
Prince George.-Frank Bedton, Berwyn.
Washington.-H. B. Hawkins, Hagerstown; July 22; saw one specimen; June 1.
Michigan:
Barry.-A. C. Boyes, Hastings; mostly on the forest trees; June 17.
Chippewa.-William P. McDonald, Pickford; plentiful; June 15.
Genesee.-S. W. Pierson, Linden; plentiful; June 6. 9
Houghton.-John Holle, Jacobsville; very many; arrived in the middle of May;
June 11. Also in letter of June 25 John Holle reports great damage, but
unable to send specimens.
Kent.-C. L. Barrett, Kent City; appeared in this and adjoining counties, doing
great damage; June 10; appeared May 15.
Macoimb.-D. H. Miller, Macomb; appeared; July 11.
Newaygo.-W. E. Gould, Fremont; sparingly; few last year; June 16.
Ogemaw.-Malcolm McLean, Prescott; August 29; very small numbers from
middle of June to July 30.
Otsego.-H. L. Bonner, Vanderbilt; great numbers, forests nearly denuded;
June 8.
Shiawassee.-C. M. Kellogg, Perry; appeared; June 5.


Lam~









75


Michigan-Continue4l..
WVaahlenaw.-\\ A. Easton, Di xter,; it iiXi itiiri n r I ,,i ,iii, \ r;%i li i'r.;
June 29.
Montanta:
Choteait, Flatheail, (1allatin. .Mi,-1M lliI.- E. V. \\W ic,\. li,,/ ii.nal .1.Ily I I : "i.ll
numbers; some t ziliati i to rtlilg alIla' [ itoct iX M i-.."'II'.. ,l;it i |'" II II N. N i'Itis 4
from Juno 15) to .lJuy i] (F it l ;xiitli aitic';tit I,']3il I '1 it Iiriatai.. i
New Jersey:
Bergen.-William Ioutitnmitillihr, Ainiri-ati Musemn40' Nitur.il hI i.t,'r\, 4 ',il :il
Park, New York (ity; rather 'oaltohti tin JniXl-e 7'i tt Forl t l.,t'. N. .1.; JI tt-r
dated June 8.
Cumberland.-Edwin VW. Stairn, Iiiidlgut.ii; I'rt,; adjuidatitt il1 ,,IS:; .1liune 1.
Report by Prof. .1. It. Sminithi, .tly ;, at 'inI.,il..
Ess8'x.-l{ep Hudson.-Report ]I, I'rotf. .1. I. Sinitli, .ily:" 5., at A.lingtjtIu.
Mercer.-Report by I'rof. .1. It.. Siitli. July .5, t ''liliivilli, l iil! -.ias ,111 r'I lils,
line between Hiunterdon aindu Mitrt'r.
Middlesex.-Gtorgi- V. Phillips, F'ri;klin : swarriM In t ii:bured ,listrivis; iin,
June 15. (Also by l'rofesstr Smith.)
Morris.-Peport by Protf. .J1. B. Smiithi, .July "I, at I [Imov,;-.
Passaic.-J. 3. Smith, letter of July 9., aIt ('IiharlottbIIIg.
Somerset.-Swarms in timbered disAtrLicts. (;eorg V. Phillips, Eratik ir n I 'ark;
June 15.
New York:
Greene.-Hiram Van Slyke, New Baltimore; in limited quantities.
New York City.-Woodlawn .'Cemetery, James Anguis, 122S l'lo\ er street, \\Vst
Farms; few pupae cases found; letter dated .June 15..
Richmond.-William T. Davis, New Brighbtin, St:iten Island;l ; (litr .enerallk 1i'i
east half of island (west half not examined); .luuc l21.
Schenectady.-A. F. Vedder, East Gleuville; few seveinte.n years ago; : ono
here yet; June 10.
North Carolina:
Alexander.-R. Don Laws, Moraviau Falls; May 28; extelnds froin ltrtshy Moun-
tain (see Wilkes County). W. F. Patterson, Mount I'isg..i;l: tl1i.ik in s.i'nm
places. J. P. Matheson, Taylorsville; not. in every neighloilir 'd; .linit. 7.
A. P. Matheson, Taylorsville; abundant in some .ertious tt 'oilcity. ill 'tliwrs
only a few; May 28.
Bladen.-Charles T. Davis, Populi; many; June 13.
Buncoombe.-P. M. Westfeldlt, Rugliy (;raigiF, Fletcher; ,IIjnIidiit ill ij:irri of
Buncombe and Henderson counties; letter dlated .1uine 11.
Burke.-W. C. Er'in, Morganton ; abundant ; May 26;. Also in Mci o\\'ll
Cotmty. Herbert 0. Honk, Moirganlttti ; appeart-d ;il)t t: May 1.
Cabarrus.-D). W. Turner, Smiths Ford; few; J ine. 1s.
Caldwell.-H. G. Powell, Hibuttnn; very ncrimr''us; .inI l';. .. M. Sp:iiijiour.
Lenoir; at Glenburnie; pli.ntil'ul; letter datedl Jun. 8. l ain lestr,,v,.I titoo-
sands. W. J. Harringtin,, Hilackdale; i: .i"ne : sime smuth )t this pJli:-e.
John M. Houck, Lenoir; in letter of tJune 13;; inltiury I-s- thaiin te.r k ii\,in
before. Frank A. Clin:ard, Hirkory : Junei : $pie.,ent.
Catawba.--Frank A. Clinard, lirklry; .luin1 t, .S: present. Initil.'W \V. ll,,h.
Newton; June 27; appeared in purticans of ctitliity ;llilt Miny 1. Ik. M. Mor-
row, Claremont; June 8; noat very unii'ero)s, except in 'ceitraill -ctit)Tis. .1
W. Killiani, Maiden; appeared in pint wood'ls..
Henderson.-W. D. Miller, Rugby; Juine I: present in thik tawnsliip. 1'. M.
Westfeldt, Rugby Grange; June 11: alundlanit in liart, of count y. A. ('a1nnon.
Horse Shoe; appeared about May 25; the woods are full; Julne 8. N. 11. lill,
Columbus; June 8; numerous.









76

North Carolina-Continted.
Iredell.-G. H. Shepherd, Elmwood; very limited; appeared May 25, but soon
disappeared.
Lincoln.-J. H. Reinhardt, Reinhardt; appeared about May 1, and left about
June 1. J. D. Mundy, M. D., Denver; June 11; only a few. R. M. Rumon,
Lincolnton; June 6; plentiful, but no damage.
Macon.-Joseph Morgan, Etna; June 13; great quantities. B. C. Hawkins,
Highlands; May 21; numerous in the mountains about 2,800 feet elevation;
also in Rabun County, Ga., and Oconee County, S. C. C. W. Slagle, Nonab;
July 8; present in May.
McDowell.-L. W. Williams, Greenlees; appeared about May 15. S. L. Ballew,
South Toe, Yancey County; June; "This year east of Catawba River, next year
reach to Blue Ridge, and following year to here."
Moore.-S. B. Worthy, Jonesboro; June 14; very few.
Montgomery.-John F. Cotton, Pontop; June 16; very few.
Piedmont section.-George S. Powell, Asheville; May 23; "Understand it is now
appearing in Piedmont section, and is expected in the mountain counties."
Pender.-.J. E. Henry, Long Creek; June 6; appeared.
Polk.-C. W. Pearson, Saluda; June 7; appeared about May 1. T. F. Thorne,
Mill Spring; June7; vast amount. N. H. Hill, Columbus; June8; numerous
here, also in Henderson, Transylvania, anti Rutherford counties.
Rabun.-B. C. Hawkins, Highlands; in letter Juno 3; in mountains at eleva-
tion of 1,500-3,000 feet.
Randolph.-D. G. McMasters, farmer; few.
Rutherford.-N. H. Hill, Columbus; June 8; numerous.
Swain.-P. P. McLean, Whittier; June 7; present in parts.
Transylvania.-J. M. Thrash, Calhoun; large numbers in May. N.H. Hill, Colum-
bus; June 8; numerous.
Union.-S. J. Richardson, Waxhaw; June 11; some in woods.
Washington.-James A. Chesse, Roper; June 13; "insect in apple trees."
Wilkes.-J.. J. Spicer, Joynes; June 9; not here, but in other parts of county.
R. Don Laws, Moravian Falls; May 28; "column extending front Brushy Moun-
tains southwest some 28 miles." Calvin J. Cowles, Wilkesboro; July26; gives
boundaries of brood.
Ohio:
Carroll.-Jos. McGregor, Carrollton; very scarce; June 10.
Champaign.-Dr. David O'Brien, Urbana; few; no damage; May 9.
Columbiana.-J. M. Dickinson, Lisbon; none except a few in one locality;
July 11.
Delaware.-H. A. Davis, (Constantia; June 22; very few.
Mahoning.-L. A. Wagner, Berlin Center; June 9; very few yet.
Madison.-James S. Hine, 248 West Fourth street, Columbus; few.
Montgomery.-James S. Hine, 248 WVest. Fourth street, Columbus; few.
Morrow.-R. A. Beatty, Cardington; June 10; saw two shells.
Pickaway.-Ezra Hill, Darbyville; June 1; few in northern part of county.
Shelby.-J. F. Ernest, Dawson; saw three, May 29; none now, June 9.
Union.-J. P. Martin, Milford Center; limited numbers in particular localities;
June 15.
Pennsylvania:
Bucks, Montgomery.-Robert Blight, Green Lane; June 17; great numbers at
Durham, Bucks .County, and few at Green Lane, Montgomery County.
Westmoreland.-P. Jerome Schmidt, St. Vincent College, Beatty; June 27; seen
none; had expected them. Robert Ellis, Youngwood; June 8; few; little
early yet.


La-,_









77
Por -V


South Carolina:
Ocomn'e.- IB. (C. lla kilns, llighlaiidi...Iic, ion eomnty. ,N. '. ; k ouwi l t ,, ,n 4, r, ii.,i ;
Julie :. E'rne' st W ailker.C ( lein' iie o (',I'Ifgo.; li.. I hI'I d nIitI I i k ..l ,- i (, ,I
nee Co'ui ily) C)O(ii Tr" 44" -lttleO II, l I M, Io' 'loI1In,1 g ,illilli.l'il i1 ll i1111111.4'lM o
(Cicada onl Stump hollll 0i8t MNoit:lin iN. ('.'
Tennesmee:
Bradley.-I.1. i Humphry. (Chleveland ; .1 uioi, 1:13 ; fi'\ thiaNs e4;r ; gi.l at II li,.% iill
1W14.
(Ureenu.-W. MN. Lyle, Iteulah ; .1 unte 7; \ .i ) .\.
Hlamilton.-A. W. Iiuniieai, Tyner; .Iiiir ; fte w til im y.v r: uI'tir y ;aira go1 '. ,iril]A
of themn"
Jefferson.-George A. Z/inkle, iMouit lorire b; .lit,, I:;; hl ;i, -Il iil. ; ihoil
a few.
Knox.-R. P. ltudeler. Knoxv'ill'l; .)lmn' 15.; 'cry l;,.
Meigs.-W. C. Godsey, Malony ; .Iinmo 29; ,i lya tfew. ]olort.Spialdintg., I e aiiir;
June 6; very few.
Polk -N. S. Price, (Chesint Mills; .)Jiin; few.
Sullivan.-E. 11. Barhian. ('lover Ihottoinm; .Jun. '23: i soinc- ])ortion- ,f, oqiintlv.
Virginia:
Charlotte.-I. W. Elain, Terryville; .Junet 8; heard tw o i)r tlir.r.
Chestertield.-Peter Traser. ;ranite.; .1 lin 11; not il large nuniliers.
Fairfax.-Theo. Pergande, opposite C'alii John Bridge.
Powhatan.-C. B. Chilton. .Joeffecrsonton ; Jitne 10; few.
Prince Edward.-I. 11. Booker, Briery; June 10; heard two or three: not ,expoetcd.
West Virginia:
Berkeley.-G. W. Van Metre, Martinsburg; .Junc I; noticed alioit two,; anot
expected.
Hampshire.-J. F. Gardner, M. I)., Capon Brid.e ; few; .JIune 7.
Jefferson.-Joseph 1). Smith, Middleway; Jim]e 6; founid i liell of ei,. .1. W.
Rider, Halltown; June 7; noticed few stragjlers.
Mineral.-J. W. Rjnehart, Foote; June 7; few; 17-year hirioi lhie iln 1 $5.
Preston.-J. S. Brown, Kingwood; June 7; few: nothing like. last year.
Webster.-J. W. Bonner, Camden on Ganley ; .June 7 ; heard a few.
Wisconsin:
Burnett.-WV. Busch, Spooner; June 10; reported 41) miles firt lil5ere at (;rants-
burg, Bnrnett County.
Columbia.-Prof. E. S. Gof,; Agriicultural ex)erimienit station, .Madison; appeared
at certain places mentioned.
Crawford.-W. C. Warren, Towerville; .Juiuno 17; reports of its co.'inig oult of
ground. "Not at this place. They eein to, follow the .Missi.-N.ilpi and can Ihe
found within 8 milesoftit. This place is about 13 mniles from river." Williain
D. Merrell, Prairie du Chien; few about May 2'5.
Dane.-George .J. Kellogg.. 1anesville : .Inly "2; very nimeroiUs andi injuring tihe
cane fruits; 75 iiio.s of here in PDane. County lie idls: "-Write Mrs. F.
Johnson, Baraboo, Wis., whlo is iaa;king ihuliiiryx tlhronlghi or State hortieil-
turist, George J. King." (See StuS k (aCointv. Prof. E. S. ;otl reports no indica-
tion of them at Madison June 6.
Fond du Lac.-T. F. Mc('onnell. ipon: .June 114; great nimuliers.
Green Lake.-Samuel Owens, iDart ford:; .1utine 7; present, but lan damage so far.
Prof. E. S. Goff states that lie is informed bh I. (;. K.llogg. Hip;iit. Wis., that
they appeared in the town of(;ree I.ake arid ,i'casionallv elsewhere ii, State;
June 23.
Marquette.-Joseph Whitimore, lar1risville: .linie 21; here in full force.
Sauk.-Mrs. Franklin Johnson. iBaral.oo; .ine I. lonimi liiimidre.olsjist einergedl
beneath large oak tree; ground in bhula-k berry lield thickly ipi.rf',ratedl with




A ...



78

Wisconsin-Continued.
.. Sauk-Continued.:
holes. In the woods near by their noise resembles the distant roar of the :
sea. Chicago Times-Herald clipping, June 25, states that they appeared at :
'Baraboo a month ago; much more numerous than seventeen years ago.
I Sawyer.-William Powers, Hayward; June 8; few in certain places.
Washburn.-Andrew Ryan, Shell Lake; June 15; not to any extent.
) Waushara.-H. 0. Kruschk, Auroraville; June 17; some in western partof county,
According to report.

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CYCLE OF THE SEXUAL DEVELOP-
MENT OF THE "BLOOD LOUSE."
(Schizoneura lanigera Hansmni.)

\ By S. MOKRZHETSKI.*

Notwithstanding the fact that Schizoneura lanigera Hausm. was the
/ subject of numerous observations in various countries, some stages of
its post-embryonic development are still insufficiently investigated and
S their role in the life of the insect is not cleared up. The appearance
of the "blood louse" in great numbers in the Crimea gave me an oppor-
tunity last summer to turn my attention to those uncleared-np points
in the development of the insect and I shall endeavor to lay down
/ briefly my observations.
,' It is well known that in the blood louse a double cycle of develop-
ment is observed, one with a sexual generation and the other without
it, and that after a number of broods of this insect which are born par-
thenogenetically from wingless viviparous females-nurses-toward
the fall among the wingless male nurses there appear individuals with
rudimentary wings, so-called nymphs.
In the past fall in the Crimea I did not find nymphs before Septem-
ber; on the 12th of September (old style) I found in one garden (on
the Kacha) nymphs entirely ready to assume the winged state, and on
the 14th of September I observed the flying of the winged blood louse.
The ability of the winged insect to fly was a matter of doubt in our
science. While some investigators (Kessler)t asserted that the winged
blood lice move about little and are not capable of spreading the infec-
tion on other unaffected apple trees since they are unable to fly over
to them, other investigators, among them R. Goethe, ascribed to the
winged insect the ability to fly well and to spread the pest to new
Places.
My observations show that the winged blood louse flies well, but is a
bad conveyer of the infection to new places.
/ Translated from the Russian by Prof. P. Fireman, Columbian University, Wash-
Y ington, D. C.
( t Dr. H. F. Kessler, "Die Entwickelungs und Lebensgeschichte der Blutlaus."
Cassel, 1885. By the same author: "Die Ungefihrlichkeit und kostenlose Vertil-
/ gung der Blutlaus" in the Bericht fiir Naturkunde zu Cassel," 1889,








79

The period of flight of the winged insets in the present year wasM
very long, liavinilg cOltinl ;I fill IontI tl tIf o',n S i-ul'ilht. II toP (Pt,
ber 15. After the uidd(I le of (Ortotcr 1 i,1inl1 Ii wilnl'.el in's'ts ail| 11iii)
IIyinp)lis. All tliit. tillite tin' w'atlil.r \;as warmlll, anl iI tili i uniy liy.s
it wits easy to ghserve tie conlvey.ers 1l4 1lhie Ie-ht 1i pisslssinig ,ell
developed wiincgs antid IlyinJg over tin 1thwigs tf n.eal ltiy ;as wail :- s iilifi'stea..I
apple trees; onil the latter I found the wingedl Iomie als, sittlnlg aIt tIlIi
injured places amonll c'loloies otf silk ing wilil.e-ss lire. ninll ;i]so ,I1 the
lower side of the leaves of the apple tre'' ('l 4 ini hin tile winrllgi. 1 (n11se
feeds by makii liholes ill tliein anld slucking tlieim.
Oni the 14th oif September, while rilding from Slbmstop. l t i SniL])in(-
ropol, I caught some wvingded lice onl the window pIi's of tilIe (' ar.
Another time, on Seprteniber 28. while loking over aipihle ta',s on
which no wingless blood lice were fioulnd, in on0e 0oreinardl na'ar tihe vil-
lage Biel, on the Alma, I observed niany livitig awld dead wingedl lice
hung up in thie web woven by a spider on tlhe twigs ,of tlhe trees at
the height of 7 feet. The nearest infested orchard was situated somnie
850 feet (about 0.165 of a mile) from the place mentioonedl, amd tln
winged louse flew over that distance. Later I repeatedly founl winged
blood lice entangled ill webs on such trees where I could not discover
any infection by the wingless lice.
In observing the flight of thie blood louse in tile room under a glass
bell jar I had frequent occasion to convince myself that tie louse uses
well its organs of flying, and is especially lively at noon in the stuln.
Notwithstanding the ability of the winged louse to make comparatively
long flights, it appears, however, a bad conveyer of its oflspriing to iew
places. This will be understood from the following observations:
On the 19th of September I cut off some shoots of an apple tree which
were strongly infested by the blood louse, placed then in a vessel with
water, and covered them within a glass bell jar. After three days I
noticed two winged lice, which I placed on a cover glass. (. ?) Oin the
following day they gave birth to eleven sexual individuals, among
which one was a male, while the others were females.
After that. on every flbilowing day to tlie end of September, more
and more lice assumed the winged state udler tine bell jar. I trans-
ferred them to the cover glass ( ?), and on a small 'IAppl)e trte planted
into a flower pot and covered by a bell jar. On the lower side of the
the leaves tlhe winged females gave birth (the embryos camine in the
world with the posterior elid of the body forward), usually on tine sec-
ond or third day, to seven sexual individuals, on the average. Tihe
winged individuals live as much as a week. but the bringing forth
of sexual ones stops on the third or fourth day after the assumption of
the .winged state.
Of the great number of the sexual individuals seen by me tlie greatest
majority were females; to five, sometimes even to ten, fI'(nales there is
only one male.


a




!2,j


i 80

SWith such a correlation of the sexes, in freedom, by far not all the
females can become fertilized (although one male usually fertilizes two
females), and consequently the greater part of them lay their eggs non-
fertilized.
SI Nature having provided the blood louse with a powerful means of
preservation of its species, namely, with parthenogenetic multiplica-
S) tion, left the sexual mode of multiplication, as it were, in reserve only
,j (as auxiliary), not having perfected it to the necessary degree.
SThus, although the winged blood lice are capable of flying over to
V uninfested trees, the sexual females produced by them, owing to a lack
; of males and the difficulty of finding the females by the latter, lay, in
the majority of cases, unfertilized eggs.
The males and females of the blood louse, as is well known, save no
. proboscis and digestive organs and do not take food during the whole
of their life, which lasts, according to my observations, fifteen to
eighteen days. In the course of that.time the sexual individuals grow,
moult several times, and are in constant motion.
( The adult female is of a convex, ovate form, yellow red in color, with
dark eyes. The antennae are rather short, five-jointed; the first two
joints are the shortest ones; the following three are longer and nearly
equal to one another; the last joint is somewhat pointed. The adult
female is twice as large as the male; she is 1.1 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide.
SThe male is better shaped and quicker in the movements than the
S
female; five-jointed antenna', about half as long as the body; the third
and fifth joints are of about the same size; the fifth one has a hollow
and is pointed. The color of the body is olive yellow. On the last seg-
ment of the abdomen there are two pointed sexual stripes. The length
of the adult male is 0.5 to 0.7 imm., the width, 0.2 mm. Both sexes are
covered with a slender white down.
About twelve days after birth the females become slow in their move-
inents. When not at freedom (as in experiments), they gather at the
lower surface of the leaves and into depressions of the latter. Through
the integument of the adult female begins to shine through a large,
long, oval egg, constantly increasing and filling the whole cavity of the
female.
/ About this time the mobile males hunt up the females for pairing;
the male gets upon the back of the female, and in this position the in-
sects remain more than an hour. One male fertilizes two, but some-
) times more females. Two days after the pairing the female lays its only
egg, performing this act slowly during fifteen or more minutes, owing
i to the enormous size of the egg as compared with the insect itself. The
laying of the egg appears as the last act in the life of the sexual female,
from which there remains almost nothing more than the shriveled skin,
of an olive yellow color, which continues to move for some time.
IThe egg of the blood louse recalls to one that of the phylloxera. It
is oblong, cylindrical, rounded at the ends; freshly laid it is smooth,


61m,










shinlling, 3yellowish; later on it It-omes (lark 6.insiiana1s (fig. :), andl at
it the white down with which tlhi female covers it egg bltcoimIPS In11)l'
marked. The length of thit egg is 0.5 to (0.7 min., the width, 41.2 n111.'
The tirst egg was laid, iin cotilenie'ilnt, by one of thle t'111ial,'s o(n I tle
8th of (ctoeer, at. thet lower side l' o a Ilaf iII i t ainglle ,f, tfli iiblr.s it'
the latter. The other females laidi their eggs in til, I,,liwt ns of I.afvn.
In the orchard 1 investigated tlhe apple tres iltf'i.st,,l l'v t lie blid
lice, and oil one of tihe trees Iutid till October lI, aninong wingless
nurses after they have been caretlIly removed fIroin tilt twig. tw, .',gs
of the blood louse as described above; in otl"her il;i leaves or in the bosoms of the latter, or iil the depl)ressions of the 1,ark,
etc., I did not succeed in tin(ling eggs.
From thle eggs laid by tlhe sexual females ill a heated roomlL yo)lIng
nurses hatched two months later. It is possible that ix Inature, i- longg
continued warm weather, nurses are hatched still in the aiuttimnl, bit
the other eggs hibernate until the spring.
Thus, the egg of the blood louse may, with equal accuracy, be char-
acterized as a fall one, as Kessler and Keller (1o, or as a winter one, as
is done by R. Goethe.

A CECIDOMYIID INJURIOUS TO SEEDS OF SORGHUM.

By D. W. ('OQUILLETT.

In many portions of the Mississippi Valley the growing of sorghum
is quite an important industry; and even when not grown for comnier-
cial purposes many farmers raise a sufficient quantity fbr the require-
ments of their several households. The plants are raised from seed,
and are treated like indian corn, and, although commonly known by the
name of sugar cane, are very different from the true sugar cane, the cul-
ture of which is confined to the more Southern portion of this country,
where the plants are commonly obtained by layering.
On the 2d of October, 1895, two seed-heads of sorghum were received
at this office from Mr. C. C. L. Dill, of Dillburg, Ala., and one from
Thomas J. Key, of Montgomery, Ala. An examination of these revealed
the fact that many of the seeds had been destroyed by the larvr, of
some species of Cecidomyiid;i, which had already completed their

'Dr. H. F. Kessler, in his extensive work on the biology oft the bIloodi loii.-e, "1)ie
Entwickelung und Lebensgescbihelite der 3Blutla1s," 1885, gives, in a: a)ppenddl ta.ble
of drawings of the various stages of its developltIent, some drawings which do not
at all conform with the reality. Thus, in fig. 6 of the table, is r-presetiteil a nurse
giving birth to a young louse, which makes its exit with the hcail i'orwarl, while th(
young lice produced by thie wingless, ai well :is by the winged ilnects, ,ine into the
world always with the posterior end of the body forward. Further, the drawinIgs
of the sexual individuals (of the male aid female, figs. 12-13) are entirely incorrect.
The egg is represented only diagraumlatically (sehexuatisih). In view of what has
just been said, we give as accurate a drawing as possible of the egg-female and
male-of this plant louse.-S. M.
8193-No. 18- 6




~I" .-... .... .- iiT --,. .


82

transformations and escaped, leaving behind them nothing but their
cast-off skins to indicate their former presence. With these were several :
Chalcis flies belonging to the genus Apostrocetrus, which had evidently
preyed upon the Cecidomyians.
No complaint of these insects again reached this office until nearly
three years later. On September 26,1898, a second sending of infested
sorghum seed was received from R. H. Price, of College Station, Tex.
This contained quite a large number of the adult flies in addition to
the empty pupa cases out of which they had issued. In several instances
these empty cases were projecting out of the tops of the seed-husks,
the larvam having evidently lived in these husks next to the seeds, which
they had caused to shrivel up by depriving them of their juices. A
large number of the seeds had thus been destroyed by these pests.
An extensive examination of the literature bearing on this subject
has failed to reveal a single reference to a Cecidomyian that attacks
the seeds of sorghum or of any closely related plant in any part of the
world. There is every reason, therefore, for believing that this pest is
as yet undescribed, and a detailed description of the adults is given
herewith:
Diplosis sorghicola new species.-Antenn r of the male as long as, of the female
almost ond-half as long as, the body, in both sexes composed of fourteen joints; joints
three to fourteen in the female each slightly constricted in the middle, each except
the last one greatly constricted at the apex into a short petiole, a few bristly hairs
not arranged in whorls scattered over each joint; in the male, joints three to four-
teen are each greatly constricted, slightly before the middle, and again at the apex,
except in the case of the last joint, the constricted portions are as long as the thick-
ening at the base of each joint; each of the thickened portions bears a whorl of
bristly hairs. In the living insect the head, including the palpi, is yellow, antennae
and legs brown, thorax orange red, the center of the mesonotum and a spot crossing
the pleura and enlarging on the sternum black, abdomen orange red, wings grayish
hyaline. The first vein reaches the costa noticeably before the middle of the wing;
third vein nearly straight, ending slightly below the extreme tip of the wing, the
basal portion of this vein, where it joins the first vein, distinct; fifth vein forked
slightly before the middle of the wing, its anterior fork ending nearly midway
between the tip of the posterior fork and the apex of the third vein. Length nearly
2 mm.
Owing to the fact that this insect passes through all of its stages
within the seed-husks, there is no chance of destroying it by the use
of any known insecticide such as could be used against it with reason-
able expense and labor.

A LEAF-TYER OF GRAPE AND ELDERBERRY.

By F. H. CHITTENDEN.
In the summer of 1897, during the first weeks of July, the larvae of a
pyralid moth were observed by the writer at Colonial Beach, Va., on
the foliage of cultivated grapevine, occurring in considerable numbers
in leaves which they fold together near the middle and join with their
rather scanty web. The moth was reared and proved to be Phlyctwenia
tertialis Gn. The short study that was given to this species at the ,
time was incited from its occurrence on grape. Subsequently the
larva was found at the same place and in greater abundance upon a |





r


R3

cultivated ornamental plant. of the genus Miiabu1iricts1. ac,'11- I -Ie,,Nrg
elderberry, and it is obviiis that the pjresi nice ead" the insect Ip)i4, tlhie
vine was ldue inll part to the pri'oxiiity (of the latter jlailtl.
I know of n) record tol ti't s sspec iers ;\'ieg priig vioisly I e INe1 t-n fo1nid
upon grape. lit our mosti recent lists tws o synlio,.yiiis %,e given., i;zi:ilvnI,
Boris plectilis (i. & I. t'ind t/si x e/ri nic/',Ila ';ick. iaiii, Spe1" .
General I)elt. 1 r)il., VolI. VIll, p. ;i ) giVeS ';Ia'i111n11 :us a I ;aI
plant, and 1;'aekaiir (New or Iittl,'-kiiww ,n Iuji i,,iis l s states tlnhat the larva w:ts 'om d i ln tlthe steli lilat li'ii,. t1 lie ii.ir
syringicola bestowed ilpnl it at that t.ille. It wiold .p -Ph 1:n lwah.1l.|c
from what we now know tlihat this was a very uiintusual, iI'il" int ;Icidriit;i1l,
occurrence, as it does not seem likely tliat this l:;'rv a is niattirally Iiitli
a leaf-tyer and a stem-borer of woody j-plants.
The larva is of a delicate lighlt-green cdl11r, within tw% rio, d whliti.
longitudinal bands extending along thle lorsum. \W 'ii lull gio'wi ', it
measures about three fourths of an inchl in length. .1 iust bi.Tu a I ta iiI-
ing maturity the ground color is light greenislh, ut witlhinii a l'I w da!iLs
of pupation this turns to pinkislh or tlesli colored, lparticIIliarly I al
the dorsum-a phenomenon of common occurrence in this genus.
Such larva' as were collected began to mature ,July 12. (hicN which
pupated on the 15th issued as a moth (on tihe 26ti, having remitainvil iin
the pupa state 11 days. A second was noticed to form its )ipupal case
July 26 and to transform three days later, tlhe imago appjeariig
August 9. Other divisional records show that the nioth issued )Iarchi
9, 1881, and July 22, 1876, localities unknown.
Comparison of the series recently reared, together with All the
material preserved in the National MuIseutm, within a small series af t1.
sambucalis Schiff. from France, in tlhe same collection, slow these two)
species to be so closely related that one might be very rcatlily per
suaded to believe in their specific identity. ThIe Americ;n sipecimi)ens
are identical with others determined by Professor Fernald as BhUOtx
plectilis. The European specimens were received from tlhe late 1M.
Ragonot.
The species is recorded or is represented in thie national collection
and in our Divisional notes from tlhe following loyalties in this co.i)ut*y :
Maine; New Hampshire; Massachlusetts; Kendall. New Yolk 'ityv,
and elsewhere in New York; Pennsyllvania (G'rote): New ,Jersey (.1. II.
Smith); Onaga, Kans. (Crevecacur); C('olonial lBeachl, Va.: northern
Illinois (probably in the vicinity of Chicago,). and O(hio.

A FLEA-BEETLE LIVING ON PURSLANE.
By F. I[. CIiITTINn)EN.
July 30, 1898, while examining thle fruit of imelons at Marshall Hall.
Md, for evidences of insect attack, aii egg inass was ol)bservedi which
from the general appearance of the eggs, was believed to be that of a
species of Disonycha. The following day the eggs had all hatched.




~wr. .


84

In the jar in which they were placed, leaves of Chenopodium, Amaran-
thus and wild purslane (Portulaca oleracea) were placed, as these three
plants were known to be affected by insects of the genus and were at
hand for the purpose. The Chenopodium and Amaranthus were rejected,
but the larvie fed with avidity upon the Portulaca, and in due time
transformed to pupa and adult, thle species proving to be Disonycha
caroliniana Fab.*
By the 9th of August the largest larvae had attained full growth,
and on the following day had entered the earth. On the 11th the
remainder had buried themselves in the sand with which their rearing
jar had been supplied. On the morning of August 17 all but one of
these larva had transformed to the pulpal condition. One imago fully
colored and one nearly so, were found on the morning of August 25,
having remained in the pupal condition about nine days. The remainder
passed the same time as pupr. The quiescent stage of the larva was
six days for the same temperature. The active stage was seventeen to
eighteen days, which gives about thirty-seven or thirty-eight days, a
figure that represents, in all probability, the minimum period, as the
weather averaged about 85 F.
On a previous occasion, July 17, eggs were obtained, which hatched
July 22, or in five days.
The egg (lid not present any character noticeably different from that
of xanthomel(hia, which will be described in a forthcoming bulletin.
The larva and pupa, owing to their conspicuous coloration, were strik-
ingly distinct.
The laria.-The larva when full grown is subcylindrical in form,
abdominal segments 2 to 7 subequal in width, the others gradually
narrowing toward the extremities. Ground color either olive or green,
variegated with red forming with a dark-green medio-dorsal and two
submedial stripes, seven longitudinal stripes of alternate green and
red. Sometimes red and sometimes green is the prevailing tint.
Surface finely granulate, feebly shining. Aside from color the general
characters are much the same as in xanthomela'na, which has been
described in Bulletin No. 22, first series, p. 77. Each segment is pro-
duced into a transverse row of ten papille, each surmounted by a
small black piliferous wart, and terminating in a fine bristle. The
first thoracic segment has an additional row of papilla, and each spira-
cle is surrounded by a ring of black. Head small, nearly circular,
color shining black or very dark brown, triangular space in middle and
clyl)eus brown. The posterior end of the body terminates in a proleg
which is concolorous with the surrounding portions of the terminal
segment. This is surrounded with two rows of black bristles, omie
above and the other below. Legs considerably darker than the neigh-
boring portions; sutures and some other portions marked with black,
last joint nearly black. Length, 10 mm.; width, 3 mm.
SMt. F. M. Webster has recorded Portulaca as a food plant of this flea-beetle (Ent.
News, Vol. V., p. 41, May, 1894).








\ 85

Pupa.-From the variablility il color it' the larva we wi,,ulli ,Xltet :a
similar variation ill tim pi ljia. As will the lanrva tlivr t i-r- two piv\il
lent ground tinLts; ill oine, rose is thie prevaiiii )g (.4111r: ill tll- oItii,,.
somewhat greenish orange. IPruia1blyv these vot.lo.n Irs rulire-.tll tile si11i.
lar colors ill the larva, rose coirrspndintlillg tl r''d ii il i rl'ig to 1liiie
2ii)(t green. Aside froutn tolor 1tie pupl. iof this jpecie.s hlosily 's'i i] i's
thalit of ). ranttathoinchl't. T'lie ipiik ior" Iose-rc lireil I 'il-i 01 I ti lh' 13,11.
has pearly ianteaiiii1, elytra, ;altI legs, Iwl il t1iu' oIra [Iie ty il l;i.s (i ni;gI
yellow as the color of tlie saint' parts. Ieii t li. 1-1;.5 niiii.: wi Itl i,
3-3.2d mm.
COTTON FIELD INSECTS.

An esteemed correspondent. Ilon. .1. 1). Mitchliell, of' \Victoria,. T'\v., in
October 1,1897, set out tliree trap lanterns ill a cottor lield iitair V'icttia;
for one night aid sent us the insects so captured. T'I'hl(e bj'c t I' t ilie
experiment was to see whether the Mexican cotton-boll weevil (. int,,-
nomus grandixs), which was inijurious il, tlie vicinity, cmlii ld e captltu-'e!
in this way. The results of tlre catch are interesting and worthy of
record, but it must be premised that not a single specimen of .A itf,-
nomus gralndis was found il, the material received.
In all, the catch contained 24,492 specimens, representing approxi-
mately 328 species, divided according to groups as follows:

Groulji. S rli,' iiI l, S]n-ci" s.

Lrpidoptera .................................................................... 7. -5- -
H em iptera ................... ........................ .......................... 6.;71 7
Coleoptera........................... ....................... ................... 7. i7-9 127
N euruptera .....................................................................7"
D iptera ........................ ................................................. i',
H ymv enoptera ................................................................... 1-2 1-
Orthoptera ..................................................................... 6.1 7
T total ..................................................................... '_4. 4 11. .:2S
Spiders-------------------------------------
S i e s ...... ..... ........................................... .................... ..........
2 41, 4'J-' ..........


Divided according to habits, whether injurious or beneficial, tlhe
result was: Injurious species. 13,113 speciIrenIs; 1enelicial species.
8,262 specimens; of a negative character. 3.117.
The condition of the material was very poor, since the insects were
caught in kerosene oil, and it was difficult, therefotbre, to deternijne with
accuracy many of tlhe species.
In the Coleoptera the occurrence of 3iulaninits obfut s in great num.
bers (1.129 individuals) strikes us as very unusual. Over a large part
of southern Texas this acorn weevil was very abundant during Sell-
tember. It was frequently attracted to light, anid was generally mis-
taken in Texas for the cotton-boll weevil. Tlhe cause for its remarkalde
abundance can not be surmised.
Most of the moths, as might be expected, were not in condition for
specific determination; two formins, however, were readily recognized









86

and counted; these were the cotton moth, Aletia argillcea, of which
there were captured 446 individuals and species of Anaphora, mostly
popeanella, of which there were 1,759. This latter species sometimes
injures corn. The remaining species that will be mentioned in the list
it was impossible to count.
Among the Heteroptera the false chinch bug, Nysius angustatus (103
specimens), and Calocoris rapidus (165 specimens) were noticeably
abundant.
In the Hymenoptera the number'of individuals of each species was
not counted and the Diptera were not in proper condition for identi-
fication.
COLEOPTERA.


Cicindela punctulata Fab.........
Calosoma sayi Dej ................
Dysclirius abbreviatus Putz......
Clivina imnpressifrons Lee.........
Bembidium intermedium Kby....
Bembidiumn versicolor Lee .......
Tachys pumilus Dej------------ ..............
Loxandrus lucens Chd...........
Badister elegans Lee..............
Platynus texanus Lee.............
Platynus puuctiformis Say........
Casnonia pennsylvanica Lin .....
Galerita atripes Lee...............
Pinacodera platycollis Say--.......
Zuphium longicolle Lee..........
Thalpius rufulus Lee..............
Axinopalpus fusiceps Lee ........
Brachinus phweoceriis Chd.........
Brachinus mniedius Horn...........
Stenomorphus rufipes Lee.........
Discoderus impotens Lee..........
Harpalus caliginosuis Fab.........
Harpalus pennsylvanicus DeG --....-
Harpalus gravis Lee ..............
Selenophorits fatuus Lee .........
Selenophorus opalinus Lee ........
Selenophoruis subtinctus Lee .....
Stenolophus dissimnilis Dej ........
Bradycellus rupestris Say.........
Anisodactylus ,uaculicornis Chd...-
Anisodactylus agilis Dej ..........
Haliplus lewisii Cr. ..............
Laccophilus 4-lineatus Horn ......
Bidessus pulls Lee...............
Gyrinus parcus Say...............
Hydrochus vagus Lee---....-...-----.---
Tropisternus nimbatus Say .......
Berosus immaculatus Z..........
Berosus exiguus Say..............
Berosus striatus Say ..............
Philhydrus nebulosus Say.........


3
1
1
7
58
3
8
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
3
108
2
1
89
5200
1
1
2
5
23
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
6


Philhydrus perplexes Lee.........
Bryaxis illinoiensis Brend. ?. --.....
Decarthron sp....................
Myrmedonia n. sp..............----
Philonthus alumnus Er .........
Cryptobium texanus Lee..........
Lathrohium longiusculum Gr....
Lathrobium collar Er.............
Dacnochilus angularis Er.........
Paederus floridanus Aust..........
Erchomus lievis Lee..... ----...--...
Bledius semiferrugiueus Lee. ....
Bledius nitidicollis Lee ...........
Oyxtelus sculptus Gr ..---.....--...
Trogophlheus texanus Casey-.....
Trogophleus bilineatus St. .......
Phalacrus simplex Lee.----------........
Acylomus calcaratus Casey........
Synchita fuliginosa Melsh ........
Cathartus gemiuellatus Duv ........
Tomarus acutus Reit--------..............
Typhaea fumata Linn ..----...---.....-
Conotelus stenoides Murr........
Corticaria simplex Lee------............
Pelonomus oblscurus Lee -..........----
Elmis ferrugineus Horn...........
Heterocerus gemmatus Horn......
Anelastes drurii Eby..............
Agrypnus schottii Leo ............
Monocrepidius vespertinus Fab....
Drasterius amabilis Lee...........
Isehiodontus soleatus Say-------.........
Ludius hepaticus Germ ...........
Melanotus fissilis Say.............
Pyractomena borealis Rand-...----
Photinus linellus Lee .............
Lobetus abdominalis Lee........
Orthopleura texana Lee...........
Hemiptychus punctulatus Lee. I .-
Hemiptychus gravis Lee. ?II........
Sinoxylon texanum Horn .........


1
5
. 1
21
54
2
4
18
1
3
9
2
1
1
2
3
7
2
1
32
2
8
7
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
6
3
1
1
9
47
1
1
1
1
1










87

c'l I.:l I' FIlA- cootiii t l.


Ata'niuN abdLitus i ald ............
Atianiii 11igm utatr liar............
Ata'niiusi coignatii /.c. ............
Aphodiiin !i. ......................
Aplhu ldius ]ividius Ill...............
Obchodal'us froita.lis tc .... . ...
( 1) (.' Clorepliala sp ..............
Ligyruns rugictps L- ............
Leptostylits biistium .rc. .........
P'achybraarhys itliumihniiiiiois .ni....
Myol hrous dihnticollis Say .......
DIiahroti'a l12-iiucatat W/ ........
1Diial'rot'ii bialtrval a .trI. ..........
IDiabroti:'Li vittatai I'i,............
Hlaltia ignitai Ill................
Systena t;imniata Say...........
(ilyptina atriveutris Hlorn.........
Ulus limbriatiis 'Cay ..............
Blapstinns pratensis Lee-......----
Triholimn ferrumigineuni Fab.......
Menereus texanus Champ .........
Oxsacis anai Le ...............
Auaspis rufa SaI ................


I
I i

11


!l
*1


I
II
1


!

19
1

1
19
1
7
19
1


7


M iirdirllit'ti ia l iin Lii i/.,, .. .....

Morile likti.zi ai cim .-ulalt .11, .. ...
.M lrtihl-listonii imilvic illl'M/ll I.. .. .. .


M ;ica rati'ii in1i ll f l. lh .. .
NutiiiHl r,.i](,iir.itlii ll. .. ...
Note'Ils I\ e|sin lIt I I. . .
N itu l, Illliiliiz Fabi .....
A. ithiius IlIralis I. ........
Anlliicii v icill uls I.af . .
A nt hili i pi ................
A. itliei'us sj ............ ...
Aitlii Antliic'ir Ifulvip's Laif. ...
1'I*o1 t; tirini iti.ti n .e . .....
iiraiin a |lciliii <':iti-' '/al ...


M:acro s s u cliri llii. 1 Dieit. ........
MaIrois liuumilis GiYlllh....... ...
PIacliJ)lphal.Wc Iludalus scutosus /.Le .............
EInldusi ;irtsL. /.s .e..............
Conotraiichelis a.iu Lec...........
Balaiiiuis il)tinslis Blan'-h.........
'I'omuicuis pini Say................


LEPIDOI'TEIIA.


Aletia argillacca .................
Anaphora spp. (mostly plpcauellai)
Hypoprepia luscosa Hbn .........
Cisthene unifasria (Sr. & R.......
Eucha-tes miurina Stretch .........
Oeta area Fitch..................
Hyphantriacunra Dry............
Eubaphe brevicornis Wlalk........
Eublaphe firrugiuosa Walk........
Exyra semicrocea Gn .............
Matigraimma lena Hart .........
S Drasteria erechli tea Cram..........
Prothymia orgyi GrtO............
Spragueia guttata Grt ............
Acontia lactipennis Ilarr .......
Acontia aprica H bit............
Schinia regia Strk ................
Schinia chrysellus Grt ............


Cisius stigmaticus Say ...........
Oliarius sp .......................
Fulgorid (gen. ?)-....---- ..........
Delphax sp........---......---..---...
Delphacid (gen.) ..............
Delphacid (gen.) ................
Delphacid (gen.)........ ........
Diedrocephala mollipes Say......


446
1759


92
11
299
21
195
2

10


I'la.gioiiuiiens lpitvoclironuiis Grt. .
asilodiCs chrysopis ,rt-...........
Ch'lytoryza orbica Mort...........
Lenucini-in ;idonea.( Grt. (?) ... -....
Noropsis hiernglyphica II Hi ......
Monodes nuulicolora (Gn .........
Laphygma frugi ierda N. A& .1 ....
Caradrina flaivimaculata lIarr....
Hanmatopsis gritaria lFab........
Ferinaldella finetaria G. & .....
'Tornis scolopaciniria; n .S.......
Macaria s-siguata 'arI ..........
Stenaispilates ieskearia liUt.....
Hynuenia perspcctailis l-i-........
I Loxosteg lielvialWi'a IIlk. .........
T'italin nlicliali" firt..............
iItehrouiii 11 mclc i 11usf la ..... ...
Argnri.i inivali. Ii ..............


Gypona sp .......................
(;Gyl na .sp .......................
D)ird ricephal-Iu sp.................
'Tettigonia sp ----...-...............
Plaitymetopius sp .................
Eutettix sp ......................
Deltocephalus harribii I'Fitch......
Idiocerub sp.....................


.5
I








7,
1








1
1
Si

1
11
I
II

7
1
I

4
1
1

1


4
,)
1.700
1
1
3
29
9


0,MOi'TERA.









88

HOMOPTERA-continued.


Phlepsius excultus Uhl...........
Phlepsius spatulatus Van D.......
Scaphoideus sp...................
Chlorotettix sp...................


3 Limotettix exitiosa Uhl .........
12 Typhlocyba sp ...................
7 Cicadula sp .....................
18 Undetermined (10 species).......


HETEROPTERA.


Cyrtomenus mirabilis Perty.......
Cydnus obliquus Uhl.............
Amuestes pusillus Uhl............
Thyantha custator Fabr ..........
Hannrmostes reflexulus Slalt.........
Corizus sp----------.........--............
Nysius angustatus Uhl............
Nysius pravidus Uihl..............
Myodocha serripes Olir...........
Pamera bilobata Say..............
Pamera basalis Dall.............
Pamera curvipes Stalat.............
Camera sp ---------...---.---.-----.
Hermus plebejus Stalat.............
Ptochiomera formosa Dist ........
Mlicrotoma (?) sp ................
Dolichmerus sp...................
Anthocorid (Brachysteles?)......
Anthocorid (Lasiochilus?)........
Anthocorid (gen. ?).............
Coriscus sp --------..------.......------
Trigonotylus ruficornis Fall ......


Megachile exilis Cr...............
Photopsis belfragei Blake.........
Labidus harrisii Hald ............
Sysphincta melina Rog--------- ...........
Isobrachium rufiventris Ashm.....
Porizon facialis Cr................
Paniscus geminatus Say ..........
Paniscus texanus Ashm ...........
Ophiou bilineatus Say ............


Leptoceridm or caddice-flies (sev-
eral species) -.- .-- ......-.....
Ephemeridre or May-flies (two spe-
cies) ...........................


Oryllus sp-........................
Nemobius sp ........---------...---------...
CEcanthus sp .....................
Xiphidium sp .................


4
1
138
4
5
9
103
1
2
185
4
3
1
6
1,108
7
38
907
1
1
2
7


Resthenia rubrovittata Stalt.......
Calocoris rapidus Say.............
Megacaelum catulum Uhl .........
Megacolum ()) sp................
Lygussp.....----......--...........
Lygussp.........................
Pcecilocapsus intermedius Uhl ....
Pecilocyrtus (?) sp...............
Camptobrochis sp... -----...--........
Capsus sp........................
Psallus sp........................
Episcopus ornatus Uhl............
Episcopus (1) sp................
Melinna sp.--...--...--..........
Melinna (?) sp....................
Capsid (gen.?) ......-----........
Spilalonius geniculatus Stal ......
Puirontis iirnirma Stal ............
Pnirontis sp....-------------------................
Oncerotrachelus acuminatus Say.-
Corisa sp..........................
Corisa sp..----.........----...........


6
165
1
1
127
1
25
4
1
14
30
12
2
464
1
8
10
2
7
6
7
148


HYMENOPTERA.
Enicospelus purgatus Say........
Rhogas parasiticus Say ...........
Rhogas graphics Cr .............
Rhogas atricornis Cr .............
Opius sp .--.....--................
Blacus sp ---.......--..............
Chelonus sp ......................
Zele melleus Cr ..................
Meteorus vulgaris Cr ............

NEUROPTERA.
SChrysopa spp----- .......--..---.----..----
658 Myrineleonidive -........----.........
Termite...--.......--..--..-....
57

ORTHOPTERA.
37 Spharagemon sp...----.........----....
15 Oligonyx sp......................
1 Undetermined cricket..........
1


ARACHNIDA.
Plectana stellata Hlz .....-----.......-.......--.......--------....--.........--....-...




i


595
220
237
604


- *;:3




r -r -q


89

GENERAL NOTES.

TIHE INTROI)DIUTION 'F BIENEI:I''AIA. LA .. 1lllBRDS FlIOM AI'STTRALIA
IN'ri INDIA.

1Encoutraged by tli& it\ivorable 'es.tilts wieloch have followedl thlie int ii
duction ofr certain l nn eticial lai dlIii. U s I'lfr'om Auist.alia; ianto (i'alalfoinia
aniud later into lli;waivi, the I'-iit'.1 Pl:inters' Association of, Southernl
India, an organization cmnposeld ciiielly of tea andl cofee gri-oWers,
raised a fund l;ite illn 189i7, ;itan )ntitillng to somnethiinig over 7,5(00 r1 lees
(approximately $34.l00t), fot ttlhe i purpose, of making a-t enlbit to) introdlutie
beneficial insects froin A nstralia wlnhichl silmd ;advantage their plan)ta-
tions.
Mr. Howard 0. Newport, himself ai pla:iittr, was tcoiminmissioned by
the secretary of the association early ill .1:niutary, 1SS, to 1)roc(eed to
Australia and to place limself' in relations with the ID)epartmnent of
Agriculture of Queensland and to make every efl'ort to bring over to
India living specimens ot'f desirablle species. Mr. Newlirt, sailedtl on the
30th of January and returned on the '20th of June. Ills report, which
is published in a journal called 1Planting Op)inion of the 16th of July,
indicates that he went about his %work in a very intelligent and pains-
taking manner, that lie had thle hearty cooperation of tlhe authorities
of the department of agriculture at Brisbane, and especially the expl)ert
advice and assistance of the well-known entomologist, Mr. Henry Tiyot.
He collected 2,540 specimens of Orens australasiw, 1,500 Cryptoln'mus
montroiuzieri, and 246 fehi:obins rcntrdlis: in all, some 4,300 (odd insects.
A special ice box was constructed and thie journey was male without
mishap, 30 days elapsing from the day the last insects were placed in
the box until the time of opening. The insects were kept at a reason-
ably uniform temperature of about 250 F., but when the box was opened
the insects, although appearing fresh, were without excepl)tion dead.
The expenses of the trip amounted to abowt $1,600.
Not discouraged by this unfortunate result, thle association at latest
advices intends to try it again. They have not, we understand, met
with encouragement at the hands of tlhe Indian government, and the
venture is purely a private one. It would not be at all surprising if
the effort should eventually succeed.
Theoretically, Australian ladybirds should flourish better in Southern
India than in California, and it is very probable tliat Khi:tNobis rintralis
will feed with avidity upon thie Lecainium scales which affect thle coffee
and tea plants. Thle writer is inclined to believe that it will not be
found necessary to go to the expense of keeping the insects otl ice for
a thirty days' journey, even in a tropical region. With plenty of food
and a comparatively small number of ladybirds in all stages of exist-
ence there is no reason why the insect should not breed (luring the
entire journey. They have been sent ii this way successfully inl mid-







"7
i 90
'1 summer on a twenty-five days' journey from Sail Francisco to Portugal,
c; and should certainly survive the trip from Sydney to Colombo in the
same way.
I.
4 THE SUGAR-CANE BORERS OF THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.
M. Edmond Bordage, director of the museum of the island Of R6-
union, has recently published in the Revue Agricole, Saint-Denis, April,
1897, and in the Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des
f Sciences for December, 1897, important papers upon the sugar-cane
Scorers of R6union and Mauritius. In his last paper he shows that
Diatraa striatalis was introduced from Ceylon into Mauritius in 1848 in
cane imported by Sir William Gomm. The cane was known to be
infested and was destroyed shortly after being taken from the vessel,
/ but the insects escaped. In 1862 it was again imported in cane brought
in from Java. Sesamia nonagrioides var. albiciliata, a species which
lives ordinarily in young sugar cane and which occurs also in Algeria
in sorghum and in maize, was introduced into the Mascarenes at some
period between 1858 and 1861 from Java and was afterwards carried to
Madagascar. He shows that Guenee's Borer saccharellus is not the
.Pyralis sacchiaralis of Fabricius, but must be considered as a synonym
of Proceras sacchariphagfts Bojer. Diatrcea striatalis Snellen is another
synonym of the same insect. He further shows that Proceras sacchari-
phagus is an oriental species, being found in India, Ceylon, Java,
Sumatra, in the Mascarenes (Bourbon and Mauritius) and in Mada-
gascar; while Diatrwa saccharalis is a neotropical form occurring in
Guiana, the West Indies, and tropical America generally, having also
extended its range northward into the United States.

NOTES ON TICKS.
The following account of observations on the effects of the bite of
Ornithodorus americana ? seems to me to throw some light on the con-
flicting statements regarding the bite of the reputed Argas persicus.
From the observations of my correspondent, Mr. R. A. Plaskett, who
resides in the Sauta Lucia Mountains, in a district infested by this very
local Arachnid, it appears that horses, which are generally bitten just
above the hoof, seem not to suffer. The Argas drinks only from three
to five minutes and then drops without leaving a swelling. This is
unlike the habit of the Ixodes and Trombidium, which will suck for a
day or two, frequently causing swelling and suppuration. Generally
these are supposed to be the effect of methods used to extract the
insect, but occasionally they occur after the insect has left of its own
free will, having satisfied its appetite.
Another distinguishing characteristic in the habits of this insect is
its dislike of green vegetation. It is always found on the top of dry,
leafless twigs or in dust, never amidst foliage as are Trombidium and
Ixodes; but this part of my friend's observations has to be taken cum

t

*5~


0 . ..- ..










grano salit, as lieo is naot ti e jxperiiatneil j it t 11oinhlagist, q.1111l U iimi' t 11i411
foliage it is not so easy to discover a; da ist 'tolerd.,I il.srt wlNt i-.I i. N If-
lated on the ttop (it aI dry twvig, w tlitiice it lets it.slit i lid w, fil tlie
passer-by.
AN to tinhe effect of thie white of this specie s n4)11 ]l[1nuli l I'ings. tllie syMn3p
toms vary; also tihe tillt ofit sit!ion tIolllwitig the lilt.. Tli' elect'
seems to delpelid elcielly (on thle peculiar tempera-i'aeiit ol the itim.
This seems to be tlie case also ;iheni we take iintt coIlsideration tilt A.m.-
parative imnllmunities aind rectlptivities iIIn 'rlgiar to li' bilt' of .Ia t/inthti
( Cimee}) h'cttthtriia, Redutvius, and of tilt' different Cilhicil.e. Mr. U. A
Plaskett lihas been bitten tlitrice, :a( i t'eacli ease twestv fiiaur Ini,,1ug
intervened before fever andt swelling 'set iln. Tlilte 1111nillt'ess (& tlit lbilt
ten parts, which is a clnarcteiistic lfollo)wing tile lite ot Arn'ltid and
Myriopod, and also of some llynmeniopter(Is stings, was not notice a single instance.
These observations agree very well with ti facts that are inll our pos-
session relative to tie symptoms attendanit ul )on tile bite of the Arga.s;
at the same time they explain the discrepancies in statements of t lhe
effect of the bite of the dreaded Aryas pcrsicuis, which seems to 1.0 as
local as our California insect.
The fatal cases of the A rgas persicus bite, mentioned by old I lerodoltus
and by Pallas in modern times, may have their origin il malal1rious
fevers which were very conimmion in that district of the Persian projviince
Ghilan, between the (Caspian Sea and the Elbruz Mountain, where tlec
Argas is found. Thile bite of the insect is probably only a coiniectleiice,
of course not favorable to the condition of a patient already weakened
by malaria. Here in California we have bad to face an anah)logous error
in regard to the fatal effects of Rhits dir'eriloba. All the fatal cases
were malaria patients who bad been sick for a considerable time before
they came in contact with the Rhus.
As to the Argas persicus, even if its bite is not fatal, the conseliieences
in some cases must be serious enough to induce the inhabitants of
Persian villages to change the location of their settlements, as is men-l
tioned in Kotzebue's report of his travels through Glilaii:. At tlhe
same time this change of location is another proof of tlhe very local (lis-
tribution of Argas persitcu.ts. Ari/as column/' of E'urop)e anlld tlie species
of our own Santa Lucia Mountains are likewise restricted to limited
areas.
Our Santa Lucia species seems to lie both dliurnal a-(d octulirnal.
The Argas columbw of EulroI)e is nocturnal, a nld its habits closely
resemble tlhe common bedbug. The local naine of ouir Cal '!iin lia species
is "Pajaronela," a word evidently derived from tlhe Spaniiislh Pa 1' );q'
a bird, and it would indicate to me a similar in(od(le tf lifite to that of
Argas columbw, were not the statements of Mr. Plaskett, fin)udi(le(l i
repeated observations of this locally very common insect, diametrically
opposed to such a supposition.








.......................,____imm








92


'U I hope that the publication of these statements will excite some inter-
{ est among practical students of entomology and lead to a closer study I
of those species which interfere with the well-being of our own kind.
I' It may be that a closer study of the facts will furnish data that will
j explain why the sting of an insect which in some instances is followed I
by serious consequences, is in others perfectly harmless.
Such data might throw some light on the mysterious play of idiosyn-
crasies.-H. H. BEHR, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco,
Cal.
AN INVASION OF THE LARGER DIGGER WASP.

August 8, 1898, Messrs. Gudewill & Bucknall, of New York City,
sent specimens of the so-called larger digger wasp (Megastizus specio-
A sus), the well-known enemy of the dog-day harvest fly or cicada, with
the accompanying report that this insect had appeared at Tarrytown-
on-the-Hudson a few weeks previously and had taken complete posses-
sion of a large croquet lawn, a bank alongside of it, and a long piece
of gravel path. They had become a nuisance through their habit of
excavating their burrows and throwing loose earth into large piles,
described as being the size of a soupl) plate. Inquiry was made as to
whether the sting of the insect was dangerous, and instructions were
sought for the extermination of the insect in the places which it had
invaded.
This wasp had never been observed in that vicinity prior to this year.
It would be interesting to learn if it will obtain permanent lodgment in
( a locality so much farther north than is usually inhabited by the spe-
cies. It is a well-known insect in certain of the public parks of New
York City, and it is common also in some places on Long Island, but
we have no available records of its common occurrence farther north
than this.

RECENT INJURY BY THE SUGAR-CANE BEETLE AND RELATED
SPECIES.
During the last two years, and particularly during the year 1898,
extensive injury has been reported to the corn and rice fields of the
South by the sugar-cane beetle, Ligyrus rugiceps Lec., and the related
species, L. gibbosus DeG.
May 18,1897, Mr. G. G. Gray sent specimens of the sugar-cane beetle
from Poolville, Union County, Miss., with the accompanying informa-
tion that this insect was rooting up and destroying the corn in that
vicinity.
June 23 of the same year Mr. John Duncan, Louisville, Ky., wrote
that this species, specimens of which accompanied his letter, and which
were received by him from Arkansas, exact locality not stated, "cuts
the corn off just below the top of the ground and is very destructive to
young corn from the time it comes up until it is knee-high."
/

V



:i 'i
0ii~




.. .. . .. ... ... .




93

May 20, 1898, word was reciveld rom N Mr. Ilarold \V. 1'riang, II.stvr,
La., that this species witas doing eisidleralble dlamnage I stubble iattio
in that vicinity.
A similar letter was received from Mr. K M. M. Richlarilson, Milliiven,
Ouachita P:rish, La., with coimnlaiint ot the dltestructiiln to corn 0111 tliat
parish, the letter being dated May 22.
November 4, 1818, Mr. ene LI,. eroumeli, Ville I'latt., 1a., aseitt S(l'e meus of this species, with report that it wtas very lT.structiVye to riie
and corn crops of that vicinity, attacking tihe plants when very yinniig.
The species has been treated somewhat fully ill tihe lRtpoi't of the
Entomologist of this I departmentt for tliet year 1881 (ipp. 12S. 1211), andll
in Volume I of Insect Iiie (pp. 11, 12).
The related species, L. gibbon as, was received May 97, SLS8, ftroi I Mr.
Joe Davenport, who wrote that it was playing great havoc with stands
of corn in the vicinity of Merrouge, La. The beetles were stated by
our correspondent to go down under tine surface of tine earth anild coi-
pletely shred the cornstalks between the surface and the roots.
A singular instance of injury by this latter species was reported Sep-
tembel 23 of the same year by Mr. B. M. Vaughan, Grand tlipiils, \Wis.
The beetles were stated to be working into carrot roots and also into
the tubers of dahlias.

A NEW ENEMY TO THE GRAPEVINE IN M3EXICO.

Under date of July 1, 1898, Mr. L. de Balestrier, of the editorial
corps of the Progreso de Mexico, published at Mexico City, sent
specimens of the long-horned beetle, Heterachthes aneolun Bates, in its
various stages, with report that the species is causing dainage to the
vineyards of San Luis de la Paz, in the State of (huanajuato. )Dr.
Larragosa, who sent the specimens to Mr. de Balestrier, wrote of the
species as follows:
The perfect insect, and also the pupa, are generally found lodgedl in the woolly
portions or in the inedullar canal. It appears that the female dliposits lher eggs
beneath the bark, and the larva, bavinii once forced ;aid gi;lined souni size. opelnls a
gallery at the expense of the internal layers of the bark and the external layers (t'
wood, reaching the center of the grape shout, where it reiiainst until it teriiiinitta.
its metamorphoses. All of the plants attacked perish. The rapidity %%itlh which
the larvae bore the wood is remarkable, for one that I observed adva.ircd in twui
hours one centimeter.

WESTWARD SPREAD OF TIHE COMMON ASPAlA(;W'S BEETLE.

April 23, 1898, Mr. L. It. Taft, horticulturist of the Michigan Agri
cultural College Experiment Station, wrote that hlie had received from
Benton Harbor, Berrien County, that State, the asparagus beetle,
Crioceris asparag/i. In response to request, specimens of thie insect
were sent to this office with the additional information that they were
receivedfrom Mr.A.J. Kniseley. and that it was a matter of considerable
importance, as Benton Harbor and her sister city St. Joseph grow large




. . ..
.. . .. .. "


94

quantities of asparagus for the Chicago market. In Bulletin No. 160 1'
of the Michigan Experiment Station, published June, 1898 (page 428), 3
Mr. R. H. Pettit, Assistant Entomologist, records the appearance of 1
f this insect in Berrien County, stating, that several complaints of its
( presence and injury were received from that district.
This is the first instance of the occurrence of this insect in Michigan,
and, in fact, of its occurrence west of the vicinity of Cleveland, Ohio, if -
we except its reported occurrence in Chicago many years ago. It was
anticipated that this insect would spread by natural means through
SUpper Austral territory in Ohio and Indiana, and it was something of
a surprise to learn that it had reached Berrien County, which is located
in what has been considered the Transition life zone. This county is in
reality upon the border line of what we know to be Upper Austral
/ territory.
It is somewhat surprising that the species has not been reported as
injurious at points intermediate between the vicinity of Cleveland and
Berrien County, Mich.
It would now seem but a matter of a few years before this species
will be well distributed throughout the neighboring Western States
east of the Rocky Mouhtains, at least in such States as include in their
territory part of the Upper Austral life zone.

BIOLOGIC NOTE ON CONOTRACHELUS ELEGANS SAY.
During August, 1897, Mr. F. C. Pratt and the writer, while digging
/ about the roots of certain cultivated and allied plants for different
" species of injurious root-feeding larvae, had occasion to pull up several
plants of the rough pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus, and in the first of
these found numerous larve and pupte of the above-mentioned species
in the earth about the sterns. The larvme live upon the underground
stemins, and in two localities in Maryland that were visited a large pro-
portion of the Amaranthus examined was infested. Larvae were most
numerous on mature plants within an inch or two of the surface, and
the stems were considerably eroded where the larve were at work.
About a dozen or so individuals usually comprised the colony about
each plant.
The first larve transformed to pupae August 11 and the first imago
appeared on the 18th, having passed six and one-half days in the pupal
condition. Larvae and pupae, as would naturally be inferred, very closely
resemble those of our common Conoiraecheluts nenuphar. A cell is formed
for the pupa, but this was of such rude construction that it was not
often noticed.
In Bulletin No. 7, United States Entomological Commission (p. 83),
Dr. A. S. Packard writes of C. eleganus, which he calls the pig-nut leaf-
weevil: We have observed this weevil at Providence (R. I.) busily
engaged the last of May laying its eggs in the partly rolled-up leaves




JJ
C" "




.. ... ... ... .. .....------. ....




95

of the pig-nut hickory (('/a /,, pipr,.i, and, I ri H g th e plro1)n'..sq., 'ut ti, g
off thie leaves, which Ihang ,1mi1\i. vitlher, aiid t1,i, lIblack." 'Ti',i pia
graph is cIl)ied suibstantially in tlie 1il th re'Pol t )o lII it. ('1iI1,,JIIKsi,,I.
'The late Dr. IJihlii I1a;iiltoiin hias also illauce lhikor'y ,In rlo ,rl as a
food plant (it this .pecie.s. lie say.s: "''4oI ,ii 1111 on hickory, gin tiln
leaves o which tlit l';arva- I i \e." 'lr. Ain. Entill. Sic., 'Vol. X X II. p,. ;7;.
The writer hIas leateni tlins species froi-m hiikiikry at Itihava, N. Y.. iII
July. ''The beethes lihavi' be'in ci'ollectel alnint Wash.iigton late ini May
and early in .tune.-l'. 11. CTr,"rENIEN.

A NEW %tmA1l-]i3.T L tEETIJ:.
Under date of .January 1, IS. S, Mr. llenry ('. Il'rrion, 41I laig .ii:iin,
N. Mex., SPlient S)Peciienl s oIf tint' litt le eaf1-betlet, .1lii, Iiti plufi'l, lis S.ay,
with the statement that it wa.s dIilJg serious i.iujjury too tlie s.gar li<-i't
-crop) in his locality. Its pi'esIence was 114)t noticed uitil tlie Ye'ar I 8 7.
A few of the beetles, locally known as the French l' ig, were ,f iiiid iloi
the date given by digging inl tlie earth by thlt side of a beet to tlie depthl
of about six inches. Neither egcrgs nor larva' were to be I'bind at this.
time. Our correslponldent states that tlhe beetles lay their e.s on tile
underside of a least that they hatch in about six days, and that tlhe
young larva' commence feeding at once and( coitintlUe ftor 'lile oi' ten
days, when they dig their way into the ground, and, a few days later,
come forth as beetles.
The principal damage is by the larva-, hundreds being f(3iund 0o1 at
single small plant, which is either consumed or is appl)larenltly so injured
that it shrivels and dies. This beetle is a maritime species, occurring
near the seashore and iv saline localities. It is known from Massachu-
setts to Florida on the Atlantic coast, as well as in California. ColoraI4do.
Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. Until the appearance of D)r. Horn's
Synopsis of the Galerucini, published in 1893., this species was repre-
sented in collections under the name of Galeruca mnr1fimm. Aceordincr
to Horn, Morosxa Lee. and crosa Lee. are synonyms of tlhe same species,
and tlhe first description of this insect was publislied by Say in 1824
(Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. IIl., p. 458; Lee., ed. II. p. '2'22). as (;l-
leruca punrticolhis, from Mississippi and Arkansas.
This is the first instance of this insect having been found i)upon allny
cultivated plant, and, so ifar as at present known, inothing lias yet been
published concerning its larval food plant. M1r. Schliwarz. ofit' tis )-Divj-
sion, has found it living in its larval stage ipotn tlie sea blitct. SCni,
linearisa maritime species, like the insect, and Ia imeniCer' of" tlie family
Phytolaccaceat. A congeneric species. Mouin..in gltlilal.,. lwasi reported
injuirious to thile sugar beet in Oregon inll 1890. and was made tle subject
of a special note by Mr. F. L. Washburn, in liulletiin No. 14 of tlhe
Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station-F. li. ('.






ViL ....








96

A LEAF-BEETLE INJURIOUS TO CULTIVATED SUNFLOWER.

August 14, 1898, Mr. M. J. Furlong sent to this office specimens of
larve and adults of the leaf-beetle, Chrysomela (Zygogramma) exclama-
tionis Fab., with information that it was doing injury to cultivated
sunflower at Fisher, Minn.
August 25, our correspondent, in response to request, made another
sending of the insect, with the statement that it was also found on sun-
flower at the Minnesota Subexperiment Station at Crookston about two
weeks previous to this writing. At this place it was controlled by hand-
picking. It was anticipated that it would be necessary to "fight" the
insect at Fisher early next year if it should reappear at that place.
The beetles went into the earth as soon as received, although larvae
were still living at the time.
I am unable to find any reference to the habits of this species in any
of the literature which I have consulted. Among the notes of the late
Dr. Riley, however, I find that it was taken commonly inll the larval and
adult conditions on wild sunflower all through Texas, Indian Territory,
Kansas, and Colorado. Larvae of all stages were observed during
August, 1873, always crowding head downward between the leaves
when at rest, while the beetles were just coming out of the ground at
this time. Dr. Riley also took larvae and beetles at Greeley, Colo, min
July, 1877.
In the writer's collection, this species is represented also from Mon-
tana and New Mexico, and it is recorded from Arizona.-F. H. C.

RECENT INJURY BY BARK-BEETLES-A CORRECTION.

During the past two years much injury has been reported by bark-
beetles of the genus Dendroctonus to pine and other coniferous forest
trees in different parts of the Northern States, from New England to
Montana. Notice ot injury by Dendroctonus rufipennis in New Hamp-
shire was published in Bulletin 10, n. s., of this Division (p, 98), and
was again referred to in Bulletin 17 (pp. I67-69), the identification of
D. rufipennis having been attributed to the writer.
On looking through our Division records, I find that this is an error,
as the bark-beetles seen by mle from the infestedl locality were of a dif-
ferent species. This species was received from West Stewartstown, N.
H., July 28, 1897; while that identified as rufipennis was from Cole.
grove, N. H., June 5, of the same year. The question of the identity
of the species of Dendroctonus concerned in this damage is now receiv-
ing attention at the hands of Dr. A. D. Hopkins, and until further
study is made of the matter it will be premature to write concerning
the species at work in the different localities. It is apparent that
several undescribed forms are present in the infested region, either as
secondary or primary enemies.-F. H. C.


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I


97

\N I NrIC I 'l'NO(; 'ASE' (O MU SIMS.

There was received i l,'ebruary, throigili the SmnitlhsoniaI listiutz
tioi, at speciteIl'11l olt a largo iiiaggot trnom D r. II. II. 1Tli-i. l p t, ,i 11i .riy
Hill, Tex. This MUiaggot. according to )r. D'l'hoTnpe, ullt its \iAy thr' oigli
and came Mit of the scal i o(t a cihid albmit vciglit years (ol)l. 4 ein-, 'rill
smaller, cut its way out. at thy hilp several weeks privioumsly. A
dest'il)ed lhv Dr. T'hlirpe. there waits tirst a swelling fail the side it' til.hr
neck and high fever. Tlie swelling gr;adually i;aitscd ili) tilie side 31 tlte
head, disappearing below, until it reached ti' top ()I'tlII liIe ill. W\lIevi
the magigot cut through thle seal and was taken ouit ti swelling at
once subsided.
Similar cases have been brought to thie atttltioIl of this ,,'li.t. oI t wo
fotbrmer occasions. 1)r. J. M. Shaffer, of Keokuink, Iowa. wrote uv. uiideir
date of Marchi 17, 1S86, sending just such a larva, which was taken froil
the back of a b)oy and exhibited at a meeting of the local nmedlical society.
There were said to have been a number of curious spots or sinaill
abcesses in the boy's back, and in each of these was found such a mnag
got. In January, 1893, another similar mag-got was received fr tin .
T. B. Richardson, of Oroville, Cal.. which had been squeezed froll tlhe
scalp of a child.
The larva from Dr. Thorpe is a trifle over half an inch ini length, and
closely resembles the third stage of thle larva of Iypodetrm in haffa, the
common "ox bot" of this country, known locally in Texas as the '- heel
worm." This insect, although occurring so commonly in cattle, attacks
human beings very rarely. The oily recorded instance known to uts is
recorded in Insect Life, Vol. II, p). 238-239, aInd Vol. 1 V. pl). 309)-3 10.
The latter reference calls attention to an article by WV. M. Schoyeu, the
Government entomologist of Norway, who states that such cases are
occasionally known in Sweden. and are there referable to /lypodcrma
boris.
THE EUROPEAN BAT BU( IN AMERICA.
There is in Europe a close ally of the doi estic bedbug known as
SAcanthia pipistrelli, which occurs upon bats. It lias been sup)pose(d
that this insect might occur in this country, but it lhas never before
been recorded, so far as we know. In July, however, a specimen was
received from Mr. J. S. Holmes, of Bowman's Bluff, N. C'., which lie
took from the common bat known as Xyrticejns (r',,pscula'.i, which
agrees perfectly with the description of the European .Ac((thia
pipistrelli.
A RADICAL NOVELTY IN CHINCIH IlIT_(; WORK.
In the latter part of July, 1898, in several beautiful lawns in tlie city
of Brooklyn the grass was observed to turn brown in large patches.
Close examination showed that a small bug was present in numbers,
specimens of which were sent to this office by Mr. Lewis Collins, the
secretary of the Tree Planting amid. Fountain Society of Brooklyn. A
8193-No. 18-7'








98

glance showed that the insect was the true chinch bug (Blissus leueop-
terus). That this species should suddenly appear in injurious numbers
in the midst of a densely populated city at a point hundreds of miles
] away from the region of any previous outbreak, and in a summer
{ marked by an unusual rainfall, and upon lawns kept closely cropped
and frequently watered, was a phenomenon of striking interest which
completely upset all preconceived ideas of what this destructive species
is liable to do.
The writer visited Brooklyn early in August, collected specimens,
I studied the conditions, and returned to Washington strongly impressed
with the unusualness of the phenomenon. No specimens of the insect
could be collected by industrious sweeping or careful exploration at any
l point except in the immediate vicinity of the brown patches of lawn
I grass. On August 5 the insects had begun to migrate, and kerosene
emulsion was so effectively applied that within a few days there was no
further damage. The bugs were present in enormous numbers, all full
grown, about one-third being of the long-winged form, and two thirds
of the short-winged. No signs of disease were noticed, in spite of the
unusual moisture conditions, which, when we consider the abundant
rains of the summer and the frequent waterings of the lawns, is proba-
bly unprecedented in the history of the species.
The only previous destructive chinch bug outbreak in the State ot
New York of which there is record is that of 1882, in fields of timothy
grass in St. Lawrence and adjoining counties in the far northern part
of the State. The Brooklyn occurrence is to be attributed either to an
accidental introduction into the heart of the city from the seacoast, or
to an unusual multiplication of a species always present in small num-
bers; but why should this unusual multiplication have taken place
in the face of conditions which, in the West, have always proven
destructive to the species?

POISONED POTATO SLICES FOR ONISCUS.

A most admirable result of the use of slices of potato poisoned with
Paris green in greenhouses to destroy the sow-bugs, or pill-bugs, which
are frequently brought in with soil and damage tender plants, has
recently come to our notice. An extensive lettuce grower in Michigan
(Mr. A. Loeffler) applied to us for a remedy against these creatures,
Which he said had already damaged his crop under glass to the extent
of $400, and we advised the use of the potato trap. He had four
houses, each 20 by 100 feet. He sliced good, juicy potatoes, and his
men placed a slice to about every other lettuce plant. He followed
with a small blower loaded with Paris green and pulled it on the slices
while they were in place. It took two days to make arrangements.
As night came on, the sow-bugs emerged from their hiding places, but
instead of going to the lettuce as usual, they all made for the sliced
potatoes. He returned about midnight and found from six to eight
sow-bugs upon each slice of potato. In the morning, as he expressed





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