Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology.

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Title:
Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology.
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Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
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Govt. Printing Office ( Washington, D.C. )
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BULLETIN No. 22, NEW SERIES.
U. S. D)EIPA TIiENT'


OF A(;RICULTIURE,


DIVISION 1" ENT ,MtI )(;V.




SO M[E
s 0o I .' [




MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS

4
6F TIMR


WORK OF THE DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


IV.



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
L. 0. HOWARD,
ENTOMOLOGIST.


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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1900.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


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4


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVIsjON OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., November 16, 1899.
Sin: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a
bulletin which contains matter similar to that published in Bulletins 7,
10, and 18 of the new series, namely, miscellaneous articles and notes
which are too short for separate publication, but which are of sufficient
importance to render prompt printing desirable. I recommend the
publication of this manuscript as Bulletin No. 22, new series, of this
Division.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
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CO NT E NTS.


Page.
Tux Two MOST ABUNDANT PULVINARIAS ON MAPLE (Pulvinaria innumerabilin
Rathv. and Pulrinaria acericola W. & R.) (illustrated).......L. 0. Howard.. 7
" THx INSECTS TO WHICH THE NAME "* KISSING BUG" BECAME APPLIED DURING
STHE SUMMER OF 1899 (illustrated) ......................... L. 0. Howard.. 24
-. AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE WIIETHER I Melanoplus apretus BREEIDS PER-
SMANENTLY IN THE TURTLE MOUNTAINS IN NORTH DAKOTA.. W. D. Hunter.. 30
;: TB BRONZE APPLE-TREE WEEVIL (Magdalis eneacens Lee.) (illustrated).
I F. H. Chiltenden.. 37
STwo NEW CECIDOMYIANS DESTRUCTIVE TO BUDS OF ROSES (illustrated).
SD. IW. Coquillett.. 44
SANNEW VIOLET PEST (Diploais riolicola n. sp.) (illustrated).. D. W. Coquilleit.. 48
H INSECTS AND THE WEATHER: OBSERVATIONS DURING THE SEASON OF 1899.
F. H. Chittenden.. 51
.'FOOD PLANTS AND INJURY OF NORTH -AMERICAN SPECIES OF AGRILUS.
F. H. Chittenden.. 64
EXPERIMENTS WITH HYDROCYANIC ACID-GAS AS A MEANS OF EXTERMINATING
MEALY BUGS AND OTHER INSECTS IN GREENHOUSES .... H. D. Hemenway.. 69
*BSALE INSECTS ON AMERICAN FRUIT IMPORTED INTO GERMANY.
Abstract of paper by Dr. L. RBeh.. 79
- IISECT CONTROL IN RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA .............. Felix G. Harens.. 83
- TES ON A BRIEF TRIP TO PUERTO RICO IN JANUARY AND FEBRUARY,
1899..........................................................A. Buack.. 88
GERERAL NOTES ............................................................ 93
A Dipterous Enemy of Cucurbits in the Hawaiian Islands (p. 93); A trouble-
some Twig Girdler of the Southwest (p. 94); Notes on Cockroaches
in South Australia (p. 95); Insectivorous Habits of Lizards (p. 96); On
I ..
the Recent Spread of the Mediterranean Flour Moth (p. 97); Note on Two
Species of "Lightning Hoppers" (p. 98); Cotton Insects in Egypt (p. 99);
i A Cotton Stainer in Peru (p. 100); Biologic Observations on Harpalus
S pemnsylvanicus DeG. (p. 100); A New Western Enemy of the Colorado
I Potato Beetle (p. 102); Notes on Miscellaneous Insects in Kansas (p. 103);
An Embarrassing Feature of Foreign Interdiction against American
( Plants and Fruits (p. 103); The Green June Beetle of the Southwest
:, (p. 104); A Note on the Cocklebur Bill-bug (p. 104); Reported Injury by
~ Giant Scarabreid Beetles (p. 105); Locusts in Argentina and Lourenvo
g, Marquez, Southeastern Africa (p. 105); A New Clothes Moth Remedy
i e(p. 106); Nocturnal Flight of Grasshoppers (p. 106.)
"OTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE ............................................. 107
Habits of Atta insularis Guerin in Cuba (p. 107); A New Naime for an Old
Insect (p. 107); Injury by Wingless May Beetles in Texas (p. 107); The
New York Weevil in Virginia (p. 107); Appearance of the Twelve-spotted
Asparagus Beetle near New York City (p. 107); Recent Injury by the
S Margined Vine chafer (p. 108); Food Plants of the Blister Beetle Henous
coufertus (p. 108); The Original Home and a New Food Plant of the
Harlequin Cabbage Bug (p. 108); Injury to Strawberries by Myodocka
serripes (p. 108); Hibernation of the Electric-light Bug (p. 108); The Pray-
ing Mantis as an Enemy to the Apiary (p. 108); Mayflies on Lake Erie
(p. 108); A Plant-bug Enemy of the Green Plant-bug (p.109).
3




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ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
Fio. 1. Pui'inaria innumeerabilis: newly-hatched young, third stage, male and
female ................-------------------....----.---.---------........-------....----------- 8
2. Pi'iniaria nimninerabilis: male larva, second stage-----.......----.......----------- 9
3. Pulrtinaria inn uicerabilis: female larva, third.stage.--................... 10
4. Pulriaria inunimerabilie: female larva, fourth stage ............---...... 11
5. Pulinaria inrinterabili8: young hibernating female .................. 12
6. Phlcinaria innunierabilis: gravid female ..--------........--.-----.--.----. 12
7. Pulcinaria innumerabilis: adult male, second stage of pupa, and true
pupa ....................- .......................................... -----13
8. Pulvinaria innumerabilis: adult females on twigs with egg sacs.---.-- 14
9. Pulvinaria innmirerabilis: female with fully extruded egg sac showing
waxy filaments and eggs after being touched .......-----...............---- -14
10. Ennolus liridus: adult parasite and parasitized scales ....-...------...-------- 15
11. Pulrinaria acericola: egg, male and female ]arv.e in different stages,
and adult male........................... -...- .............---- ...----. 17
12. Pulvinaria acericola: larva of third stage and early hibernating female. 18
13. Pulcrinaria aericola: male pupa ...----...-......-.........--................ 19
14. Pulcinaria acericola: late hibernating female-----.......--------......---------- 19
15. Pulvinaria acericola: full-grown fertilized female from above and from
side.............................................................------------------------------------------------.. 20
16. Pultinaria acericola: full-grown female from above and from side.... 20
17. Pulvinaria acericola: full-grown female on leaf; same with egg sac ---- 21
18. Reditrvis (Opsicawtes) personatus ........................................ 24
19. Melanolestes abdomninalis: male, female, and mouth parts .....--.......---. 26
20. Coriscus subcoleoptratus: short winged and fully winged female with
piercing rostrum .....-----.............................--------------------------............ 26
21. Rhasahiis biguttatts .................................................. 27
22. Cotiorblin1us sanguisuga: first and second pupal stages, and adult...... 28,
23. Conorhinns sanguisuga: newly hatched larva, larva in second stage,
and egg ................. ......................................... 29
24. Conorhinus sanguis8tga: different views of head, showing piercing beak
and set -e .......................................................... 30
25. Magdalis a'nescens: weevil, larva, and pupa-- ........--.........--...-...... 39
26. Work of Magdalis anesceis, showing adult, pupa, parasite, etc., in
situ, natural size .................................................. 40
27. Neoccrata rhodophaga : adult with enlarged antenna.------------------................ 45
28. Diplo8sis violicola: female fly with auntennal joints; male genitalia,
and larva ......................................................... 49




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PRF IAC I.



The present bulletin is the fourth of the new series of this l)ivision
containing miscellaneous short articles and notes. The article on the
two most abundant Pulvinarias on maple gives a summary account of
the life history and habits of, and remedies to be used against, the
common cottony maple scale, a species which occasionally does great
damage to shade trees in the Eastern United States and concerning
which the Division has had no printed matter for distribution for a
number of years, although a short account of the species was pub-
lished in the Annual Report of the Department for 1884. The second
part of this article brings together for the first time a full account of
the maple-leaf Pulvinaria, a species which, although it has been con-
sidered identical with the last-named form, was rehabilitated as a dis-
tinct species by the writer last year. The second article illustrates the
insects which, together with the newspapers, were responsible for the
remarkable so-called "kissing-bug scare" of the past summer, and it is
here published in response to an extraordinary demand for information
by correspondents as to the actual truth of the newspaper stories.
Reports on the destructive locusts in the West for the year 1899 are
at this time of unusual interest on account of undoubted flights of the
true Rocky Mountain locust, or "destructive grasshopper" (Melanoplus
spretus), in certain portions of the Northwest. Mr. Chittenden's arti-
cles on the bronze apple-tree weevil and the food plants and injury of
species of Agrilus are in continuation of his investigations on fruit and
garden insects and of an investigation begun in 1898 on the pernicious
bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxins), while his article on insects and
the weather is an interesting and suggestive consideration of the insect
conditions following the severe winter of 1898-99. Mr. Coquillett's two
articles and that of Mr. Hemenway will be of interest to florists and
greenhouse owners. The abstract of the paper by Dr. L. Reh on the
scale insects found on American fruit imported into Germany is a
summary of a somewhat extended series of observations, and is of
interest to exporters of American fruits as showing the importance of
sending abroad only perfectly clean fruit. The article by Mr. Felix G.
Havens is a careful account of the excellent work done against inju-
rious insects by the County Horticultural Commissioners of Riverside
County, Oal., and is published for the information of officers in other




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States engaged, or about to be engaged, in similar work. Mr. Buskgs
report on a brief trip to Puerto Rico is in line with other articles pre-
viously published. The trip was made at slight expense to the Divis-
ion, owing to the courtesy of the United States Commissioner, of Fish
and Fisheries, and was practically a reconnaissance expedition to gain a
preliminary idea of the abundance of destructive insects on the island
and the probability of the entrance of new injurious species into the
United States through increased commercial relations with the island.
The insects collected on the trip have been named, but only the list of
scale insects is published at this time.
Housekeepers will be interested in Mr. Topper's Australian remedy
for cockroaches and Dr. Fisher's clothes-moth remedy, while the infor-
mation given about the recent spread of the Mediterranean flour moth
will interest those connected with milling industries.
L. O. H.

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SOME MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS OF THE WORK OF
THE DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.
IV.



THE TWO MOST ABUNDANT PULVINARIAS ON MAPLE.
(Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathliv. and l'ulvinaria acericola W. & R.)
By L. 0. HOWARD.
The old and well-known cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumera-
bilis Rathv.) has been the subject of many published articles onl account
of its occasional extreme abundance and on account of the conspicu-
ous damage which it does to maple shade trees in cities. It is true
that the species of the genus Pulvinaria have not as yet been properly
and systematically studied in this country, although several investi-
gators are now engaged in such work, and it is altogether possible that
more than one species is even at this late date confused under Rathvon's
name.
This possibility is emphasized by the comparatively recent discovery
by the writer that a form occurring upon maple leaves, and which was
figured as long ago as 1868 by Walsh and Riley under the name Leca-
nium acericola, a name which was considered by J. Duncan Putnam
and subsequent writers as a synonym of Pulvinaria innumerabilis, is in
reality a perfectly distinct and thoroughly characteristic species, as will
be shown in the second section of this article. So also the closely
allied form occurring upon Osage orange to which the name Lecanium
maclurwce was given by Walsh and Riley in 1868, but which has since
been considered to be identical with Rathvou's species, is now consid-
ered by Professor Cockerell to be distinct.
These forms being thus separated from Pulvinaria innumerabilis,
there is reason to suppose that careful study may establish the occur-
rence of other species living upon maple and allied trees, and that in
consequence the true P. innumerabilis may have a more restricted geo-
graphic distribution than is here given it. It is worthy of remark,
moreover, that Professor Cockerell has described as at least a variety
the form occurring upon maple branches in the State of Washington.
This he calls P. innumerabilis var. occidentalis.
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I. THE COTTONY MAPLE SCALE.
(I'ulvinuria innumerabilis Rathlivon.)

Original home and present distribution.-This is a scale insect native
to the United States which was originally found by Dr. S. S. Rathvon
at Lancaster, Pa. Later it was found by Walsh and Riley and other
observers to be very abundant and occasionally very injurious in the
Mississippi Valley. It is frequently noticed in the Northeastern cities,
especially in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. It
has been sent to this office by correspondents in Massachusetts, Ver-
mont, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, Georgia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa,
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, and what is apparently the same
species has been received from Fort Worth, Tex., Omaha, Nebr., and
from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, as well as northern and southern
California.







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Fio. 1.-Pulvinaria inntimerabilis: a, newly-hatched young; b, female, third stage, from above; e,
same, from side; d, male, third stage; c, same, natural size, on leaf and petiole;f, same, enlarged.
on leaf petiole showing two specimens parasitized-all greatly enlarged except e (original).
t
Food plants.-As its popular name indicates, this ifisect is generally
found upon maple. It seems especially to thrive upon the so-called
silver-leaf maple (Acer saccharin-in), but it is also found upon Norway
maple and the sugar maple, as well as upon Acer dasycarpum. It
occurs abundantly upon the box-elder (Nemiundo negundo), and it or a
very closely allied species is found upon the Osage orange (Maclura
anrantiaca). During the summer of 1898 it was found at Washington'
by the writer occurring upon red mulberry (Miorncs rubra); and it has
been received from Prof. George C. Butz, of State College, Pa., upon
A ralia japonica. According to Prof. C. V. Piper, the Northwestern
form (occidentalUlis) affects apple, pear, alder willow, hawthorn, poplar,
currant, and lilac, which diversity of food offers strong argument for




MINNIMMEM


9

the specific distinctness of theim so-calle(l variety. Riley (Ann. Iltept.
U. S. D)ept. Agr., 1881, p. 352) gives as the food-plants of this species:
Maple, grapevine, Osage orange, oak, liilden, elm, hemackbierry, sycamore,
rose, currant, aind Euonyinus, Itud(l Putnam adds locust, sumach, wild
grape, box-elder, beech, and willow. Careful studies of the forms occur-
ring on all of these j)hlants are, however, liable to indicate sl)ecific
differences.
BabitR and life history.-This species is a large naked scale insect,
which is rendered conspl)icueous during the summer by a large white
cottony-like egg mass at the end of the body of the female insect.
Perhaps unnoticed previously, they suddenly attract almost everyone's
attention in the month of June, for the reason that, although prior to
that time they have been inconspicuous flat scales of much the same
coloration as the bark, in June tlhe brilliant egg mass is pushed out of
the body. These insects
appear frequently in enor ..-- s. .
mous numbers on maple .....
trees grown as shade trees,
sapping their vitality, and
thus becoming of much
economic importance.
The life history of this / \
species was worked out i" \
with elaborate care by J./
Duncan Putnam, of Dav- --
enport, Iowa. Mr. Put- i
name's paper was published
in the Proceedings of the / \i
Davenport Academy of
Natural Sciences (Volume '
II, December, 1879, pages Fi.2.-Pulrina.ia innuimerabilis: male larva, second stage,
293-347), and was illustra- greatly enlarged, wilh antenna and leg above, still more
enlarged (original).
ted by two carefully etched l
plates. His descriptions of the different stages were so carefully drawn
that descriptive details maybe omitted from this article. The account
of the life history which follows, however, is based upon observations
made at Washington and upon notes taken by Mr. T. Pergande, the
assistant in charge of the insectary at this office.
The young lice hatch early in the summer, usually in the month of
June, but occasionally at least as early as May 22. The hatching
period usually extends on into early July, but may last until August.
They soon settle upon the ribs of the leaves, very rarely upon the twigs.
They seem to prefer the lower surface of the leaves, but many settle
at a later date on the upper surface. It has been noticed that those
upon the lower surface seem to grow more rapidly than those upon the
upper surface. In the course of a month they undergo a molt and
begin to secrete a certain amount of wax from the dorsal surface of the





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4 body, which gradually spreads in a more or less homogeneous layt
,. over the surface. This first molt sometimes occurs at Washington by
June 10, and a second molt by June 22.
SFrom young larva3 which hatched on July 1, 1898, the first adut
' males issued on August 18, the full grown male scales being r A
distinguished from the partly grown females by their narrowed .:. i!i.
more convex form. On reaching full growth the male larva
the propupal form within its scaly covering, and therefore
strictly casting skin. In a few days the propupa casts off its skis '
Assumes the true pupa form, which during its earlier stage is of: a pt::,
| ~green color, becoming dark flesh color at a later date. The true .ipm4:
stage lasts only a few days, when the winged females appear, re
a day or two below the s 4.
before coming forth. TKI
molted skins of the propu'
and the pupa are seldom: 4
on the tree, as they are
"\/\ ^dislodged by the wind. :
S/ \ At the time when the TI.
.. / fi \emerge the females havIe.
1 Mdergone two molts and at1i(
aI pale green color, mased
I / with a brown dorsal stripe
for the whole length. of the
S.. .... ... body. The males copulate
| with the females late in Au-.
gust and early in September,
and early in October those
females which have esoapAt
the attacks of parasites..
other natural enemies beg
FIG. 3.-Pulvinaria innumcerabiliZ: female larva, third to take their station on tb:..*:.
stage, greatly enlarged, with leg below and antenna nearby twigs. A change ]iW
above, still more enlarged (original). color from green to buff i, :
t color from green to NOTf id.:
noted at this time and all are covered with a barely perceptible v-
Sing of waxy secretion. They are broadly oval and still quite
This condition the females remain through the winter, the males ha.
in the meantime died.
With the opening of spring, however, the females begin to wg
rapidly, the eggs developing in great numbers, and by May, or early R
as April 15 at Washington, the formation of the egg sac begins. tIB:eB
egg sac is composed of threads of fine wax, extruded from spinne"Bts
near the enid of the body. These threads become matted together 4i
gradually form a large cushion under and behind the body of theJ
Female. Into this mass as it grows are gradually extruded the oial
light-colored, slightly reddish-yellow eggs, which, as above stated, htA
during June and July and on into August. The growth of the.egg,.W


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pushes the hinder end of the body o" the female upwards until when
the sac is completed she is practically standing ou her head, the body
being at an angle from 45 degrees to nearly vertical.
The development of the insect during the summer of 1899 at Wash-
ington was more rapid than during 1898, and considerably more rapid
than as described by Putnam for his Iowa region. The eggs, as indi.
oated in a previous paragraph, commenced to hatch May 22; the young
larvae had begun to settle in numbers by May 26, the hatching contin-
uing, however, for many days; on June 10 the first larvaw were observed
. to cast their first skins, which for some time adhered to the end of the
body, resembling a small twisted string. By June 22 they commenced
to cast their second skin, still retaining the same general appearance
but having become
considerably larger. e r
The differentiation /
between males and -
females was plainly ob- /\\
servable at this time, .\
the males being nar-
rower and more elon- '
gated. The dorsal ,7
Secretion became no- TlI
ticeable at this time.- /
On July 7 they were -
still apparently in the --_
third stage, but some T -
of the females had be- y
come marked with the
peculiar purplish radi-/ A P
eating lines characteris- ,/ ..,
tic of this insect. (See \ "r \
figure 1.) By July 26
some of the males had
already cast a third
s1jnj, and were now in FiG. 4.-Pulkinaria innumerbilis: female larva, fourth stage,
tlh last or fo u r t h greatly enlarged, with leg at right and antenna at left, till more
stage The antene, enlarged (original).
stage. The antennae,
which up to this time were 7-jointed, had now become 8-jointed.
The male larvae at this time still resembled the females to some
degree, although they were smaller and narrower, and of a pale
yellowish or whitish color, covered with a glossy covering. There
seemed to be two propupa stages. After casting the second skin,
the male larva loses its rostrum and its anal cleft, although the wing
pads have not yet developed; the antennae are stout and laid back-
ward without perceptible points, and the end of the body is furn-
ished with two long conical tubercles. After the third skin is cast, an
apparent propupa stage is found which bears wing pads reaching to




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12
a
the abdomen; the claw of the tibia is lost, and between the posterior
tubercles has appeared the stout, rudimentary style. The true pupa,
specimens of which were also fouud as early as July 26, needs no
description. The adult males began to issue on the same date for cer-
tain specimens, and as early as August 6 females had begun to migrate
to the trunk; by August 21 all of the young
feinales had left the leaves and migrated to the
stem. It should be stated that these observa-
tions of 1899 were made upon a young potted
tree in the insectary. The temperature, how-
ever; was practically the same as out of doors.
...So great had been the parasitism of the insect
outside, that it was found necessary to make
observations on potted trees under glass both
in 1898 and 1899 in order to preserve the species
for observation.
Briefly then, there is one annual generation;
the young hatch in early summer and settle
.abils:yugibntn upon the tigs; the males appear at the end of
.bNi: oung hillcrnating -
Sfemale, from above-greatly August and early in September; they fertilize
Senlarged (original), the females, which migrate to the tigs, where
they remain unchanged through the winter, rapidly swelling in the
spring and forming the egg mass in early summer.
The insect is a notable one from its frequent sudden appearance in
great numbers. After being almost unnoticed for
a series of years it will appear in excessive num- I ,
bers, apparently injuring shade trees to a consider- |
able extent; then, without insecticide measures -
having been employed, it will as quickly disappear. i'
These sudden appearances and disappearances are ***
due very largely to fluctuation in numbers among /
natural enemies of the species, as will be shown 1r[
in the following paragraph. IA
Natural enemies.-Birds destroy the fiull-grown I .
scales, although one would hardly suppose a
mouthful of wax to be very palatable. The writer 'i
has often observed the English sparrow apparently I
feeding upon this species. '- -
The usual predatory insects which feed upon -
other scale insects seem equally fond of this species, FiG. 6.--Puivnar. innu-
and the twice-stabbed ladybird (Chilocorus bivul- nierabilis: gravid female,
nerus) is one of its especial enemies, as was lon greatly enlarged, before
Scommiencing to secrete
ago pointed out by Miss Emily A. Smith. Tihe egg sac in the spring.
little insignificant ladybird beetle, known as Hyper- (original).
aspis signata, is also a common predatory enemy of the species.
In 1879, in Washington, D. C., it was found that the most effective,
enemy of' the scale was a predatory caterpl)illar described at that time
by Professor Comstock as Dakruma coccid(irora. This caterpillar flour-










ished upon twigs uttoni which tihe scale's were closely massed together,
and ate its way through the mass froni one scale to another, spilnning a
close, rather dense web as it progressed. Each caterplillar ill this way
destroyed very inany scale insects. The writer ihas always thought that
it was due to this insect alone that tile cottony cushion scale almost
disappeared from the Washiington slhade trees in the close of IS79, and
was never seen here again in any great abundance until, in the summer
of 1898, nineteen years later, it became onle more rather conspicuous,
although by no means as abundant as in the former year. The D)akrumna
larva not only destroys the old and worn-out female Pulvinaria but
devours her eggs and young larva- with avidity. The caterpillars are
very active, moving about freely within their silken passages. They
were found to be full grown onil June 24, spun their cocoons within tlhe
silken tunnel, and remained ten days in the pupl)al state. Tlhe moths
issued from July 17 to Augnst 13, soon thereafter ovipositing and lay-







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d

FIu. 7.-P'ulvinaria innum' rutbits: (, adult male; b, autcnna of same; c, leg of same; d, second stage
of pupa; e, cast skin of samnl: f, true pupa; gi, cast skin of samrue-all greatly enlarged, b anwl c still
more enlarged (original).
ing their eggs, which hatched in six days. Whether another generation
of moths issues the same year has not been determined.
An even more important enemy of the cottony maple scale than the
Dakruma larva or the ladybirds just mentioned is a minute Chalcidid
Chy known as Coccophagigs lecanii (Fitch). This species, which has been
reared from a number of different scale insects of the Lecanine group,
is very widespread and appears frequently in astonishing numbers.
It was due to this parasite that it was found almost impossible to carry
the scale insects through the season at Washington in 1898; of the
many thousands of scale insect larvae which settled upon trees under
observation it is safe to say that much less than 1 per cent reached





I8

>*'\~ N'

















S**

I
I

j4


although the little trees
had been swarming with
these scales, and although
daily an assistant h a dI. :
picked off and crushed
those which, through a e
change in color, indicated
the presence of the para-
sitic egg or larva. It is .
this species probably more
than any other which is FIG. 9.-Pulvinaria innuinerabilis: adult female, with fully
responsible for the fluctu- extruded egg sac showing waxy filaments and eggsw1
ations in numbers of the appear after being touched-enlarged (original).
cottony maple scale. As the writer has elsewhere pointed out in speak-
ing of parasites of the grain plant-louse, it is probably only through jie
influence of a damp and rainy season, which prevents these active little
Chalcidids from flying about to any extent, that the scale is able to ove-r-:
come the effects of its attacks, enormously prolific as the Pulvinaria is.


:: ".: i: :



14

full growth. During the months of July, August, and September they
were stung by this little parasite, which laid its eggs in their bodies;
soon afterwards they turned black, the adult parasites issuing from
holes cut through the backs of their bodies. The development of the
parasite was plainly seen to be very rapid, occupying certainly not
more than two or three
weeks, and there was
therefore a succession of
generations, with an iu-
FIG.- .crease in numbers in
Sgeometrical progression,
l until really the wonder
k bis that a single scale
insect escaped.
% The writer had ner
close observation a branh
of a large Norway mqle
tree growing in the Smith-
-- sonian grounds, which in
June was fairly plastered
with the egg sacs of the
Pulvinaria, while in July
FIG. 8.-Pulvinaria tnnuinerabiliyn: adult females in position on its leaves were thickly
twigs, with egg sacs-natural size (original). speckled with newly set-

tled young; in August he spent an entire morning trying to find a
living scale insect, but without exception all which were found had been
killed by this important parasite. The little Coccophagus even gained
access to the Insectary. Potted maple trees stocked with the scale
insects were discovered by them, and the scale was exterminated,


4
I








'a




i.
4



L


I


Njj
. i.
.4i


9p
.T!









1.5


Other members of the same subfamily of parasites, the Aphelininie,
have also been reared from the cottony maple scale. The species known
as Coccophagus flavoscutellumi Ashin., a more southern species than
Cocecophagus lecanii, does almost equally effective work in the more
southern portion of the geographic range of the scale.
Another important parasite belongs to the subfamily Encyrtint., and
has recently been named by the writer Atropates collins in honor of
Mr. Lewis Collins, secretary of the Brooklyn Tree Planting and Foun-
tain Society, who has had to fight the cottony cushion scale and hlias
been greatly interested in its study. The Atropates was reared at
Washington in 1889 and 1891 from females of Pulvinaria innumerabilis
received from Mr. Collins and from L. H. West, of Roslyn, N. Y. All
of the parasites issued late in July.
Still another parasite is the Eunotus lividus Ashm., a single specimen
of which was reared March 4, 1899, from specimens of Pulvinaria
received from Mr. Collins. This insect belongs to a curious and dis-






i ------ -








'Pie. 10.-Runotus lividus, greatly enlarged, with male and female antenna above-still niurd enlarged,
iW and cocoons under old scale at left, also enlarged (original).

6 tinct group of the subfamily Pireninoe, all of the species of which,
From all of the specimens that the writer has been able to determine
from oriental forms, are parasitic upon the large scale insects. Other
specimens were reared April 12 and April 18 from old scales found
upon maples on the grounds of the Department of Agriculture, and
examination of the host insects showed a point of interest in the
...biology of the parasite. The early stages of Eunotus and its allies
have not hitherto been observed, but these specimens issued from a
small bunch of coarse but stout cocoons which had been spun under
S.tje body of the Pulvinaria.1 A characteristic bunch of these cocoons
; is shown at fig. 10.

Mr. Pergande has called the writer's attention to an interesting fact which showy
that Fitch just escaped rearing Eunotus many years ago. In his Third Report on the
Insects of New York, published in 1859 (p. 109), he describes Lecanium ribia, and states




-I
.;',? !:;;i

.. ** ,"




... ...... . ... : .






tK. 163
|ti
]A~ Other parasites of thlis scale are Aphycus ptulvinaricew How., described
from specimens reared by Mr. Putnam in Iowa, and Gomysfuseca How.,
I a common and widespread parasite of Lecaniine scales.
R1emedies.-In view of the statement already made that the insect is
v rarely injurious in two consecutive years, it might seem as though no
remedies were really necessary; but it has been found, in the experi-
ence of the city of Brooklyn, that the damage in a single season may
be so great as to render long rows of shade trees unsightly. It is at-
sidered, therefore, to be the best policy, when the insect appears iu great
numbers, to await the hatching of the young and shortly thereafter to
prune rather severely. In the case of especially valuable trees this
pruning should be followed with either a summer spraying with a dilute
kerosene soap emulsion or a winter spraying in the autumn with whale-
oil soap in the proportion of 1 pound to 2 gallons of water. It is not
difficult to determine whether the winter spraying is necessary by a
\ careful examination of specimen twigs from trees in different parts of
the city. Thus, in the winter of 1888-89, it was easy to see in Wash-
ington that the scale would be scarce the following summer, while in
Brooklyn Mr. Collins was able to determine the exact localities in the
city where insecticides would probably be necessary the following season
by estimating the proportion of living scales.

II. THE MAPLE LEAF PULVINARIA.
(Puivinaria acericola WV. & R.)

Original hoiome and present distribution.-This scale insect is also
apparently a native of the United States, and seems to have been also
originally found by the late Dr. S. S. Rathvon at Lancaster, Pa. He,
however, while calling attention to the fact that there are probably two
species of Pulvinaria to be found upon the maple tree, one of them
occasionally being found upon the leaves, did not decide to establish
) any specific distinction between them.
In Volume I of the American Entomologist, however, Riley and Walsh,
on page 14, figured a Pulvinaria upon a maple leaf received from B. W.
McLean, of Indiana, to which they gave the name Lecanium acericola.
This was considered by later writers, namely, J. Duncan Putnam and
Emily A. Smith, to be synonymous with the Pulvinaria innumerabilis
of Rathvon, and it was not until the writer in Bulletin No. 17, new
series, of this Division, pages 57-58, called attention to the excellence
of this figure and to the distinction between the insect represented and
that he reared from it several brilliant green parasites. Examining the type speci-
mens of Fitch's Lecanium ribis, now in the possession of the United States Department
I of Agriculture, Mr. Pergande found that the scales had disappeared, but that the
small bunch of Eunotus cocoons was attached to the twig in such a position that
they were under the original scale. The minute perforations in these cocoons
Showed that the parasite mentioned by Fitch was a secondary parasite, probably of
the genus Tetrastichus.


aS




19




17

the true Pulviniria innsumerabilis, that its validity is a species was
established. Although Walsh and Riley submitted io description, the
figure is so characteristic as, under the accepted rules of zoological
nomenclature, to carry the name.
The same insect is said by Walsh and Riley to occur at Davenport,
Iowa, on the authority of Mr. rinflay; and it has been received at this
office from Prof. Hunter Nicholson, of Knoxville, Te-un., Mr. Rt. I.
Pettit, of Michigan Agricultural College, who found it at Ithaca, N. Y.,
and from Mr. E. R. Malone, who found it abundant and injurious at


FIG. 11.-Puivinaria aeericola: a, egg; 6, newly-hatched larva; c, antenna of same: d. female larva,
early spring condition, from below; f, full-grown male larva; g, adult male: h, tarsus of same-all
greatly enlarged; c and A-etill more enlarged (original).
Dothan, Ala. The writer also has been told by Dr. J. B. Smith that
it occurs at New Brunswick, N. J. It also has been found in the east-
ern section of the city of Washington, D. C., by Mr. Busck, of this
office. The species, therefore, has rather a wide range in the United
States.
Food plants.-The only tree upon which the species has so far been
found is the common silver-leaf maple, now known as Acer saccharinum.
For purposes of study the insect was colonized in June, 1898, on some
foreign maples on the grounds of the Department of Agriculture, Acer
11608-Ne. 22- 2
l .


3f -*" ,. '* -4-i--- -
* .--- -.; * .


-.Ind








18


platanoides, A. pseudo-platanus, and A. palmatum. They developed
gradually upon these trees, but died out in the course of the year, which
would seem to indicate that under ordinary circumstances the species
will not thrive on any of these maples.
Habits and life history.-Occurring, as this insect does, exclusively
upon the leaves of the maple during the summer time,.it is necessary
for its existence that it should vary in its habits and life periods from
the species which we have just studied; in other words, there must be
a migration in the autumn from the leaves to the twigs before the leaves
fall, and there must be a return migration in the spring or early summer
from the twigs to the leaves. In the case of Pulvinaria innumerabilis,
only the oue migration seems to be necessary, and that is only a partial
migration, namely, from the leaves to the twigs in the autumn. It is
only partial for the fact that many of the y-ung settle and develop upon
young twigs of the present year's growth.
In his announcement of the validity of the Walsh-Riley species in




Ii"


fir



I,- \
b a
FIo. 12.-Pulrinaria acericola: a, larva of third stage-early hibernating female-with tarsus and
antenna at right; b, larvae of third stage on lower side of leaf, before migrating to twigs; b, enlarged;
a, greatly enlarged, with tarsus and antenna still more enlarged (original).
Bulletin No. 17, new series, of this Division, the writer announced that
he bad the species under daily observation at Washington, and expected
at an early date to publish its full life history. This statement was
made in August, 1898, and from that time down to October, 1899, the
species was under almost constant observation. Full notes on the life
history, including descriptions of the different stages, have been made
under the writer's direction largely by Mr. T. Pergande, and also by
Mr. D. W. Coquillett, with occasional assistance from Mr. A. Busck; and
from these notes and the writer's observations, the following summary
of the life history of the insect is drawn up:
Eggs from specimens received from Knoxville, Tenn., began to hatch
the end of June, 1898. Eggs from specimens received from Dothan,
Ala., in 1899 began to hatch May 27. Eggs received from Knoxville,
Tenn., Junie 6,1899, were still unhatched. In Washington the secretion
of the egg sac and the depositing of eggs in the mass of wax and fibers




oa
k ....,




Dr V


19

composing the sac began late in May and continued gradually until
nearly the middle of June. Ltarva began to hatch on .h ine 1:;.
The newly hatched larva' are of a very pale yellowish 'olor, with
median line slightly 13 brownish, and the eyes dark )Lrll'pe.
The antennai are six-jointed, joints 3 and i6 longest and
subequal in length, 4 and 5 also subeq(ItIal and together .
about as long as joint 3; the two basal joints are also .' "
subequal, each about as long as joints 4 and 5, the first -
joint being stoutest. There is a bristle near the apex 4; .
at the inner side of joints 3 to 5, and several at both |. j "
' sides and apex of the sixth joint. The digitules of the j?,
tarsi are extremely fine; those of the claws stouter andll
shorter; and all are capitate. Anal bristles are long ll
and curved. The surface of the body is densely rugose, -
especially toward the sides; and the edge of the body
is closely and sharply serrate.
On July 31 the larvia commenced to cast their first Fi. 13.-Iulinaa
"Fio 1.-l'.- ul, inaria
skin. They were still of a very pale yellowish white acericola: male
color and almost transparent, though at very few speci- pupa, greatly en-
larged (original).
means were marked near each end of the body with a
pale purplish spot. In other respects they resembled the larvae of the
first stage except that they were a little longer and broader. The
antennae were still six-jointed, though somewhat longer than before;
legs and their digitules as before; the bristles around the edge of the
body were somewhat longer than in
the first stage, but the anal ones
[were much shorter and but slightly
t longer than the others; all were
/^ situated on small cylindrical tuber-
Sdcles which, however, were slightly
S-l 4 enlarged at the apex.
The growth from this time was
N:t very slow, and not until October
T was the second skin cast in the
*year of 1899. In 1898, however, a
few larve of this third stage were
7 <: observed as early as July 26. In
U: 1899, many by October 15 had
already left the leaves and had set-
tled on the twigs. They were of a
pale brownish yellow color, some-
FIG. ].-Pulvinaria aceri.cola: late hibernating what darker along the medio-dorsal
female, greatly enlarged; natural size on twig ridge, and were characteristically
at. right (original). rige an weecaatrsial
at right (original). marked with a large reddish,almost
crimson, medio-dorsal spot on the prothoracic segment, and a similar
spot just in front of the anal cleft. The eyes were minute and black.
'They were nearly twice as large as before, and at this time the sexes




WW.
:.. "***' .: ^1?r"


20

could not be distinguished. As seen under the microscope the dorsal
surface was finely granulate, with numerous transparent spots around
the anal region and a row
of seven or eight spots
each side of the median
ridge between the two
reddish spots. The an-
tennFa were now seven-
jointed and gradually
e tapered toward the end,
the third joint being
somewhat the longest,
joints 4 and 7 next, and
subequal in length, and
a5 and 6 shortest, nearly
a of equal length a n d
together being a little
FIGr. 15.-Pulvi:aria acericola: a, a full-grown fertilized female, longer than the seventh.
seen from above, in May before the secretion of the egg sac; Joints 4 to 6, each had a
b. same from side-greatly enlarged (original).,istlbean oc
SDbristle-bearing notch,

and the seventh had apparently three such notches on each side. The
tarsal digitules were long, slender, and of equal length, while those
of the claws were of
unequal 'length; the s
shorter one was very
stout, curved upward,
and the other one was
fine, almost straight
and capitate, as were
those of the tarsus.
The hairs around the
margin of the body
seemed more numer-
ous. By October 21.
most of the larvwe had
settled on the trunk
and branches for hi-
bernation.
In October, 1898,
the distinctioA be-
tween the males and
females could be ob- a
served. The females FIG. 16.--rulvinaria acericola: a, full-grown female, from abovejust".
were mlore broadly beginning to secrete egg sac; b, same from side-greatly eiuwged.
oval than the males, (origixa.
though all were very similar in coloration, possessing the large reddish'.
spots just described. The anteuine of both were 7-jointed, though rela-

U 4'


.I
~a.. '- .-". -






71

21

tively much shorter than in P. innnmerabilis. About the time when
the migration to the twigs began, late in October, the great majority
of the larvw were found on the underside of leaves, mostly along the
ribs. A large number were also found on adjoining twigs, generally in
and around the forks, in excresences, or near buds or other projections.
At this time they run about quite actively in search of suitable places
for hibernation. At this time is noticeable the delicate layer of waxy
secretion which gives the insect a somewhat grayish appearance. This
secretion is more or less distinctly broken up so as to form a series of
waxy plates.
On November 1, 1898, practically all of the larva had settled for
hibernation. Upon one branch about 18 inches long 150 larva-e were
counted. They were most numerous on twigs and branches from one-
eighth to one-fourth of an inch in diameter. None had appreciably
increased in size, but their color was considerably darker and more












F 17-Pulinaria aericola: a, full-grown fmale, from above, on leaf, with 24 ours' ecrtio of





Iegg sac; b, same, with egg sac completed, from ride; c?, game. from above-enlarged (original).

dingy looking, harmonizing quite well within the coloration of the bark.
This change in color seems to be due to the waxy secretion, which
serves as a winter covering and also as a means of concealment. So
::close does this resemblance in color to the bark become that to the
naked eye a twig thickly covered with the insects seems simply blis-
,P t















:.tered or pustulate.
:'In December the conditions bad changed but slightly. The larv,-e
wro. 17.- Puldinariagy, yellowish groayn femaleor, om above, on leafss with 24 ou' cpurpletio f





-except the mediodorsal ridge, which was entirely yellowish. The whole
S g surface; b, same, wirath egg sac completed, from each samide with three nlarged ( o r iginal).ess
dingy looking, harmonizing quite well with the coloration of the bark.






This change in colf ror seems to be due to the waxy secretion, lookwhichng
serves as a winter covering and also as a means of concealment. So





closike tortoise shell. On March 31 there had bark become thateen practically no change.
naked eye a twig thickly covered with the insects seems simply blis-
S-tered or pustulate.
:.: In December the conditions had changed but slightly. The larvue
..were of' a dingy, yellowish gray color, more or less spotted with purple,
except the mediodorsal ridge, which was entirely yellowish. The whole
; surface was rather rough and covered each side with three more or less
distinct rows of round or squarish scales of waxy secretion, looking
like tortoise shell. On March 31 there had been practically no change.
. By the 8th of April, on potted trees, were found both males and
females. The largest females were about 3mm in length by 1.8nm in
' iameter. They were dark purple* in coloration, with the median



: .. f:.
. .... "L ... :

.14,:F. R '
*-':.:....",: . ..: ?
"E ":.: *' ::.








22

ridge yellow, and were still provided on each side of the ridge with
three to five rows of roundish, more or less projecting masses of white
waxy secretion. The male insect was about 2.4mm by 0.81mm in diameter,
and of the usual Lecanium shape. It was purplish brown and covered
with a transparent layer of waxy secretion which was divided into
three sections. The anterior and posterior sections were each about
one-fourth of the length of the body, and the median sections about one-
half of the length of the entire body. This median section was bordered
at each side by a row of more or less confluent, squarish, white, flat,
waxy scales. The general appearance is well indicated by fig. 11.
By April 22 the first male had transformed to a pupa, as shown in
fig. 13. The color of the pupa is reddish brown, darkest dorsally,
with the wing pads, legs, and antenna paler; the anterior legs are
directed forward and curved around the head; the others lie close to
the body and are directed backward; the median pair reach to the
fourth abdominal segment, and the posterior to near the end of the
body. The wing pads reached slightly beyond the posterior margin of
the second abdominal segment. The style is short and stout, and with
a pointed lobe on each side. There is a small patch of woolly secretion
externally near the coxpe of the anterior and median legs. The length of
the pupa is 1.6.."". By April 28 the anal filaments of the male had begun
to protrude, and by May I the adult had emerged. On May 18 large
females with swollen bodies, indicating that impregnation had taken
place, were found. They were 5.5nmu in length by 3.51m in diameter
and 21mm high. They were of a dark purplish color, with a brownish-
yellow mediodorsal stripe, ornamented on each side with three rows of
small waxy scales or points, presenting the appearance as indicated in
fig. 15.
On May 22, females began to move from the young branches out
upon the twigs, and on May 23 one had reached the under side of a
leaf and had commenced to form its ovisac. In the course of twenty-
four hours the extruded white wax, forming nearly a complete circle
about the insect, longer toward the anal end, had reached a width of
about 11"'"1. Forty-eight hours later it had reached a length of 5mm and
was distinctly divided from the first secretion by a deeply impressed
line. The first wax extruded contained no eggs, but the real ovisac,
comprising the last 4mnmm extruded, was full of eggs. The true ovisac
has numerous transverse ridges which are divided lengthwise by two
deep grooves. As the ovisac increased, the body of the female was
tilted up more and more and became more shrunken in size. At tlhe
end of the third day the body had shrunken to a size a little more than
half of its former dimensions, the abdomen having contracted into four
transverse folds; the color had become lighter than at the beginning
of tlhe migration, and the extreme margin was pale yellowish. After
two weeks the ovisac had become 10""111 long by nearly 5"nm broad,


F








28

tapering gradually toward tiht anterior end anlld presMenting the 'L)appear-
ence shown at fig. 17. it was composed or Four strongly r(IIndIi(ed
longitudinal ridges.
On June 13 the larva began to hatch, and t0hus we hIave the life roIlIId
complete(ld.
Summarized, then, the life history is ;Is follows: The. eggs haLth in
June from the ovisa, ot' thle females attached generally to thle uider
surface of the leaf. The larva- cast two skins, and in their autul'ln-late
in October-crawl to the twig's, where they hibernate. Ill the spring
they begin to grow. The males issue in May, fertilize tlhe females, which
toward theend of May migrate to the leaves, extrude their ovisac filled
with eggs, from which the young begin to hatch in June once more.
There is probably a spring moult of the larva,, lbut this was not observed.
In none of the occurrences which we have noted above, except in the
one at Dothan, Ala., has the insect been so numerous as to cause much
damage. Mr. Malone stated in his letter of May 25, 1899, that one of
his trees was in places literally covered with the insect, which had
caused a number of twigs and smaller side limbs to die.
Natural enemies.-The only enemy observed in Washington is one of
the ladybird beetles (Hyperaspis signata Oliv.), which was received in
the larval condition from Knoxville, Tenn., feeding on the scale.
From the specimens of this scale collected by Mr. Pettit at Ithaca,
N. Y., in 1893, he reared six parasites, which were sent to the writer for
determination. They proved to be Chalcidids (Aphiycus hederaceus
Westw., Aphycues flavus How., Coccophagusfiraternus How., Pachyneuron
altis8cuta How., and Chiloneuruzs albicornis How.) and a small fly (Leu-
copis nigricornis Egger). The same Coccinellid (Hyperaspis signata
Oliv.) was also reared by Mr. Pettit.
Remedies.-There is always a chance that it may be desirable to use
some remedial treatment against this insect, as at any time it is liable
to increase in numbers and become more or less-lestructive. A strong
whale-oil-soap wash during the winter will undoubtedly kill the hiber-
nating individuals, and any treatment which will cause a premature
Falling of the leaves will be efficient as greatly reducing the numbers of
the insect. The use of its leaves to a tree is practically completed
some little time before the leaves really fall, and therefore knocking
them off with a strong stream of water, or spraying with a strong
kerosene-soap emulsion which may even kill the leaves, will do no
harm at this time and will kill the insects.



6.







24

THE INSECTS TO WHICH THE NAME "KISSING-BUG" BECAf
APPLIED DURING THE SUMMER OF 1899. i
By L. 0. HOWARD.
In a paper read before the Zoological Section of the American fags
ciation for the Advancement of Science' the writer gave some aocoanlI
of the so called "kissing-bug" craze, which, originating in the it
of Washington, in June, 1899, spread over almost the entire Xntsj
States, and which, encouraged by the newspapers, resulted in one qj
the most interesting cases of widespread popular alarm arising froa|
comparatively insignificant cause which has occurred in the preaa
scientific and matter-of-fact century. .
While very many different insects have been brought to entom61&| :
gists as undoubted specimens of the kissing-bug, including a large
number of perfectly harmless forms, several species of heteropteroui
insects, each one of which is capable of inflicting
^ ^ a more or less severe wound with its beak, havq
helped to authenticate the scare, and it seems
true that two of them, namely, Melaolest
-S,, picipes and Reduvius personatus, have been more
abundant than usual this year, at least around
W1 Washington. They have been captured in a
Number of instances while biting people, and one
or the other of them is undoubtedly responsible
Si for the original cases in the Emergency Hospital
at Washington, which gave rise to the first
newspaper stories.
f The writer has thought it advisable to bring
FIG. 18.-Reduvius (Opicete4) together an account of six of the most prominent
perasonatu: Aboittwicenat- of these bugs, which with greater or less fre-
quency pierce the skin of human beings, and to
illustrate them, as a matter of record.
Opsicates personatus, also known as Reduvius personatus (fig. 18),
and which has been termed the "cannibal bug," is an European species
introduced into this country at some unknown date, but possibly follow-
ing close in the wake of the bedbug. In Europe this species haunts "
houses for the purpose of preying upon bedbugs. Riley in his well- -:
known article on "Poisonous insects," published in Wood's Reference
Handbook of the Medical Sciences, states that if a fly or another insect isu
offered to the cannibal bug it is first touched with the antenna, a sad-.
den spring follows, and at the same time the beak is thrust into the
prey. The young specimens are covered with a glutinous substance to7
which bits of dirt and dust adhere. They move deliberately, with a
long pause between each step, Lhe step being taken in a jerky manner.
The distribution of the species as given by Reuter in his Monograph
of the Genus Reduvius is: Europe to the middle of Sweden, Caucasia,.
'Published iu the Popular Science Monthly for November, 1899.




r..... .- ....-


25

Asia Minor, Algeria, Madeira; North America-Canada, New York,
Philadelphia, Indiana; Tasmania; Australia; from which it appears
that the insect is already practically cosmopolitan, and in fiwact may
almost be termed a household insect. The collections of the \J. S.
National Museum and of Messrs. HIeidemann and Chittenden, of
Washington, I). C., indicate the following localities for this species:
Locust Hill, Va.; Washington, D). C.; Baltimore, Md.; Ithaca, N. Y.;
Cleveland, Ohio; Keokuk, Iowa.
The bite of this species is said to be very painful, more so than the
sting of a bee, and to be followed by.numbness (Lintner). One of the
cases brought to the writer's attention this summer was that of a Swede
servant girl, in which the insect was caught, where the sting was upon
the neck and was followed by considerable swelling. LeConte, in
describing an insect of this species under the syrnonymical name
Reduvius pungens, gives Georgia as the locality, and makes the follow-
ing statement: This species is remarkable for the intense pain caused
by its bite. I do not know whether it ever willingly plunges its ros-
trum into any person, but when caught or unskillfully handled it
always stings. In this case the pain is almost equal to that of the
bite of a snake, and the swelling and irritation which result from it
will sometimes last for a week. In very weak and irritable constitu-
tions it may even prove fatal." (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Vol. VII,
p. 404, 1854-55.)
The second eastern species is Melanolestes picipes. This and the
closely allied and possibly identical M. abdominalis (fig. 19) are not rare
in the United States and have been found all through the Atlantic
SStates, in the West and South, and also in Mexico. They hide under-
neath stones and logs and run swiftly. Both sexes of M. picipes in the
adult are fully winged, but the female of M.. abdonminalis (fig. 19) is
usually found in the short-winged condition. Prof. P. R. Uhler writes
(in litt.): Melanolestes abdominalis is not rare in this section (Balti-
Smore), but the winged female is a great rarity. At the present time I
have not a specimen of the winged female in my collection. I have
seen specimens from the South, North Carolina and Florida, but I do
not remember one from Maryland. I am satisfied that M. picipes is
distinct from M. abdominalis. I have not known the two species to
unite sexually, but I have seen them both united to their proper con-
sorts. Both species are sometimes found under the same flat stone or
log aid they both hibernate in our valleys beneath stones and rubbish
in loamy soils." Specimens in Washington collections show the follow-
uing localities for M. abdomninalis: Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C.,
SWilmington,Del., New Jersey, Long Island, Fort Bliss, Tex., Louisiana,
and Keokuk, Iowa.; and for M. picipes: Washington, D. C., Rosslyn,
Va., Baltimore, Md., Derby, Conn., Long Island, a series labeled New
Jersey, Wilmington, Del., Keokuk, Iowa, Cleveland and Cincinnati,
Ohio, Louisiana, Jackson, Miss., Barton County, Mo., Fort Bliss, Tex.,
ean Antonio, Tex., Crescent City, Fla., and Holland, S. C.




:....
.:: ..i......:,








r 26
This insect has been mentioned several times in entomological litera-
ture. The first reference to its bite was probably made by Townend
Glover in the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for
181.5, page 130. In Maryland, lie states, lM. picipes is found under
stones, moss, logs of wood, etc., and is capable of inflicting a severe
wound with its rostrum or piercer. In 1888 Dr. Lintner, in his fourth
report as State entomologist of New
t 1 York, page 110, quotes from a corre-
spondent in Natchez, Miss., oncern-
fiing this insect: "I send a specimen
of a fly not known to us here. A few
(lays ago it punctured the finger of
SBivy wife, inflicting a painful sting.
r The swelling was rapid, and for
r X several days the wound was quite
annoying." Until comparatively
recently this insect has not been
d 6 known to the writer as occurring in
Fzo doi J, adt houses with any degree of frequency.
FIG. 19.--Mela nolestes abdomimalis: f, adult
iniale; ?, female ; head and piercing beak at In May, 1895, however, I received a
left of male above-about twice natural size specimen from an esteemed corre-
(original. spondent, Dr. J. M. Shaffer, of Keo-
kuk, Iowa, together with a letter written on May 7, in which the state-
ment was made that four specimens flew into his window the night
before. The insect, therefore, is attracted to light, or is becoming
attracted to light, is a night flyer, and enters houses through open
windows. Among the several cases of bites by this insect5 coming
under the writer's observation, one has been reported by the well-known
entomologist, Mr. ----
Charles Dury, of ('Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, in which I s
this species (3f. picipes)
bit a man on the back 1 5^[ ^ ^ 2
of the hand, making a /
bad sore. In another
case, where the insect
was brought for ourb J
determination and
proved to be this spe- FiG. 20.-Corisc-, subcoleoptrattus: a, slhort-winged female, adult
cies, the bite was Upon brachypterouss form): b, winged female; e, piercing rostrum,
the cheek anid the seen from side, twice natural size (original).
swelling was said to be great but with little pain. In the third case,
occurring at Holland, S. C., the symptoms were more serious. The
patient was bitten upon the end of the middle finger, and stated
that the first paroxysm of pain was about like that resulting from a
hornet or a bee sting, but almost immediately it grew ten times more
painful and a feeling of weakness followed with vomiting. The pain was








27

felt to shoot uip tile arm to the under jaw, and the sick.iess lasted for a
number of days. A fourth case, at IFort lMiss, 'rx., is interesting :Is
Shaving occurred in bed. The patient was bitten theim hialnd witii very
painful results and bad swelling.
The third of the eastern species, ('oriscus ubcoleoptrutux (fig. 20) is
said by Uhler to have a general distribution in the Northern States. and
is, like the species immediately preceding, a native insect. There. is nI
record of any bite by this species, and it is introduced here for the
reason that it attracted the writer's attention crawlinllg UIp))n the walls
of an earth closet, in Greene County, N. Y., where on one ,occasion it
bit him between the fingers. The paini was sharp, like thie prick of a
pin, but only a faint swelling followed and no further inconvenience.
The insect is mentioned, however, for tlhe reason that occurring ili such
situations it is one of the forms which are liable to carry patlhogenetic
bacteria.
There remain for consideration the South-
ern and Western formnis, Raslthtus it oracicus a
and R. biguttatus, and Conorhinus sangu-
isuga.
guttat US 21) tI.
The two-spotted corsair, as Rasahuis bi- ..
guttatus (fig. 21) is popularly termed, is
said by Riley to be found frequently in j
houses in the Southern States and to prey
upon bedbugs. Lintner, referring to the .
fact that it preys upon bedbugs, says: "lIt W..
evidently delights in human blood, but '
prefers taking it at second hand." Dr. A.
Davidson, formerly of Los Angeles, Cal., in
an important paper entitled "So-called
Spider Bites and their Treatment," pub- Fi' 10.-J-.asahu, tiguttaus: adult,
(,n'e enlarged (original).
listed in the Therapeutic Gazette of
February 15, 1897, arrives at the conclusion that almost all of the
so-called spider bites met with in southern California are produced by
no spider at all, but by Rasahus biguttatus. The symptoms which lihe
describes are as follows: "Next day the injured part shows a local
cellulitis with a central dark spot; around this spot there frequently
appears a bulbous vesicle about the size of a 10-cent piece and filled
with a dark gruinous fluid; a small ulcer forms underneath the vesicle,
the necrotic area being generally limited to the central part, while the
surrounding tissues are more or less swollen and somewhat painful.
In a few days with rest and proper care the swelling subsides, and in a
week all traces of the cellulitis are usually gone. In some of the cases
no vesicle forms at the point of injury, the formation probably depend-
ing on the constitutional vitality of the individual or the amount of
poison introduced." The explanation of the severity of the wound
suggested by Dr. Davidson, in which the writer fully concurs, is not
that the insect introduces any specific poison of its own, but that the


anal




:.. ".... "..
i: "":E : ..


28

poison introduced is probably accidental, and contains the ordinary
putrefactive germs which may adhere to its proboscis. Dr. Davidson's
treatment was corrosive sublimate-1 to 500 or 1 to 1,000 locally applied
to the wound, keeping the necrotic part bathed in the solution. The
results have in all cases been favorable. Uhler gives the distribution
of R?. biguttatus as Arizona, Texas, Panama, Para, Cuba, Louisiana,
West Virginia, and California. After a careful study of the material
in the United States National Museum, Mr. Heidemann has decided
that the specimens of Rasahus from the southeastern part of the coun-
try are in reality Say's R. biguttatus, while those from the Southwestern
States belong to a distinct species answering more fully (with slight
exceptions) to the description of StaI's Rasahus thoracicus. The writer
has recently received a large series of R. thoracicus from Mr. H. Brown, of
Tucson, Ariz., and
had a disagreeable
experience with the
same species in April,
1898, at San Jos6
de Guaymas, in the
State of Sonora,
Mexico.
Perhaps the best
known of all the
species mentioned in
our list is the blood-
sucking cone-nose
f (Conorhinus sangui-
Af saga) (figs. 22 and
23). This ferocious
.^ insect belongs to a
genus which has sev-
eral representatives
a in the United States,
FIG. 22.-C. norhinus sanguisuga: a, first pupal stagv; b, second all, however, con-
pupal sta-e; c, sdult bug; d, same, lateral view-all enlarged to fined to the South
same scale fromn Marlatt). or West. 0. rubro-,
fasciatus and Ci. variegatus, as well as C. sanguisuga, are given
the general geographical distribution of "Southern States." C. dimi-
diatus and C. maculipennis are Mexican forms, while 0. gerstwekeri
occurs in the Western States. The more recently described species,
C. protract us, Uhl., has been taken at Los Angeles, Cal., Dragoon,
Ariz., and Salt Lake City, Utah. All of these insects are bloodsuckers
and do not hesitate to attack mammals. LeConte, in his original
description of C. sanguisuga (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Vol. VII, p.
404, 1854-55), adds a most significant paragraph, which, as it has not
been quoted of late, will be especially appropriate here: "This insect,
equally with the former (see above), inflicts a most painful wound. It




:i







29


is remarkable also for sucking the blood of mammals, Iparticuilarly of
children. 1 have known its bite followed by very serious conlseqtiuellces,
the patient not recovering from its effects for nearly a year. The nmany
relations which we have of spider bites frequently proving fatal have
;no doubt arisen from the stings of these insects or others ,f the same
genera. When the disease called spider bite is not an anthrax or car-
buncle, it is undoubtedly occasioned by the bite of an insect, by no
means, however, of a spider. Among the many species of Araieid.e
which we have in the United States, I have never seen one capable of
inflicting the slightest wound. Ignorant persons may easily mistake a
Cimex for a spider. I have known a physician who sent to inme the
fragments of a large ant, which lie supposed was a spider, that came
out of his grand-
child's head."I The
fact that LeConte
was himself a physi-
cian, having g-tadu-
ated from the Col-
lege of Physicians
and Surgeons in
1846, thus having
been nine years a
doctor of medicine,
renders this state- a
menit all the more
significant. The life
history and habits
of u. sanguisuga 0
have been so well"
written up by Mr. i a b c
Marlatt, in Bulletin a
No. 4, New Series, FIG. 23.-Co-norhinus aanqi.snga: a, larva, second stage; b, newly
of this Division, that ltche larva: c. eg ilh sculpturing of surface shown at side-all






hofler thsDvspeimen, tha L. 11-) eeie nJuy 89,fo
eulargrd to same scale (from Marlatt).
it is not neces a
sary to enter upon them here. The point made by Marlatt that the
constant and uniform character of the symptoms in nearly all cases of
bites by this insect indicate that there is a specific poison connected
with the bite deserves consideration, but there can be no doubt that
the very serious results which sometimes follow the bite are due to the
introduction of extraneous poison germs. The late Mr. J. B. Lembert,
of Yosemite, Cal., noticed particularly that the species of Conorhinus,
occurring upon the Pacific coast, is attracted by carrion. Professor
Tourney, of Tucson, Ariz., shows how a woman broke out all over the
body and limbs with red blotches and welts from a single sting on the
shoulder. Specimens of C. sanguisutga received in July, 1899, from
Mayersville, Miss., were accompanied by the statement, which is appro-
priate iu view of the fact that the newspapers have insisted that the






_7.- -




~r~rr~


30

"kissing bug" prefers the lip, that a friend of the writer was bitten on
the lip and that the effect was a burning pain, intense itching, and much
swelling, lasting three or four days. The writer of the letter had been
bitten upon the leg and arm, and his brother had been bitten upon both
feet and legs and on the arm, the symptoms
......... being the same in all cases.
More need hardly be said specifically
concerning these biting bugs. Thewritert
conclusions are that the bite of any one of
them may be, and frequently has been,'
mistaken for a spider bite, and that nearly
S! all reported spider-bite cases have had in
reality this cause; that the so-called kiss-
^ ing-bug" scare has been based upon cer-
H tainn undoubted cases of the bite of one or
the other of them, but that other bites,
C 'including mosquitoes, with hysterical and
FI;. 24.-conor iti, sangui uga:,- nervous symptoms produced by the news-
bead, showing beak; b, same, from the paper accounts, have aided in the general
side, with piercing setwe removed from o i s w ie
sheatb and with tip of one of then alarm. The case of Miss Larson, who died
enlarged; c, same from below-much in August, 1898, as the result of a mos-
enlarged (from Marlatt). quito bite, at Mystic, Conn., is an instance
which goes to show that no mysterious new insect need be looked for
to explain occasional remarkable cases. One good result of the "kiss-
ing-bug" excitement may be in the end to relieve spiders from much
unnecessary discredit.

AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE WHETHER MELANOPLUS
SPRETUS BREEDS PERMANENTLY IN THE TURTLE MOUNTAINS
IN NORTH DAKOTA.
By W. D. HUNTER, Special Temporary Field Agent.
ITINERARY.
I left Lincoln August 9 and arrived ii St. Paul the next day. Here
Dr. Otto Lugger, of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station,
who shortly before this time had returned from.a trip to Manitoba, gave
me most valuable advice and information concerning the country, the
people, and the routes, most cheerfully assisting me in every way. The
same day I started for Winnipeg, whence the Turtle Mountain region
is more easily accessible than from the North Dakota side, and arrived
there on the 11th. A call was made upon the chief clerk of the depart.
meant of agriculture for Manitoba, Mr. Hugh McKellar, who accom-
panied me to the field the next day. Mr. McKellar, who had already
been over the ground in company with Dr. Lugger and Dr. Fletcher,
spent three days with me, and, being of an exceedingly energetic dis-
position and very well known in the province, his assistance removed
all the obstacles that harass a newcomer seeking information, and is
gratefully acknowledged. We arrived at Boissevain, a village about





-. -. .. -. .... : -:









9 miles north of the highest point of tie Turtle Mount:11tains, on the 12th,
and made a preliminary trip into the country. (On the 13th we drove
about 50 miles along the base of the mountains, visiting as many place.
as possible in order to gain an idea of the extent of the spread of
spretus; penetrated quite a distance into the mountains at one place,
and reached Deloraine in the evening. On the 11th we thoroughly
traversed the territory between I )eloraintie and the base of the moun)tai ns,
and on the 15th I started alone to travel across and explore the moun-
tains. One day was spent upon the mountains proper, and the nextday
I proceeded to Bottineau, in North Dakota. From this point I rode
about 30 miles westward, in search of a possible breeding ground for
spretus. My itinerary then took me along the south side of the moun-
tains, by way ofDunseith, Belcourt, Rolla, and St. Johns. From all of
'these points, as well as in many cases between them, I made incursions
as far into the mountains as the trails would permit. Return was made
by way of Wakepa and Boissevain (where the 20th was spent), through
Whitewater, to Deloraine. On the 22d Napinka was reached, and the
23d was occupied in an investigation of a sand-hill region on the north
side of the Souris River, between that point and the town of Souris.
This had frequently been spoken of by the residents as a probable
breeding ground for spretus. After one stop at Stockton, I proceeded
to Winnipeg, and conferred with Mr. McKellar and others regarding the
situation, and then took train for Fargo. From this point a side trip to
Miles City, in Montana, was taken, in order, if possible, to obtain infor-
mation regarding the place where a swarm of locusts which had been
observed in Manitoba had alighted. Upon returning, a stop was made
at Fargo and a day was occupied in conference with the officers of the
North Dakota Agricultural College. From this point I returned by
the shortest route, through St. Paul and Omaha, to Lincoln, arriving
on the 31st.
OBJECT.
For a long time it has been supposed by those who have been interested
that the Turtle Mountains, in Manitoba and North Dakota, furnished
a permanent breeding ground for the Rocky Mountain locust, and this
has taken form among other places in the report of the Canadian
Dominion entomologist, Dr. James Fletcher, for 1898, where it is stated:
"It is probable that this locust breeds regularly every year in parts of
the Turtle Mountains." It has been noticed that invariably the swarms
that in recent years have alighted in Minnesota come from the direc-
tion of these mountains. In fact the county in Minnesota, namely, Otter-
tail, that is always invaded whenever this locust reaches that State,
and which has figured prominently in the literature of this subject for the
last decade, is the nearest agricultural county in the State to the Turtle
Mountains, and is, moreover, in exactly the direction from them that
swarms of locusts, originating there, would naturally take. During the
past two years there has been a visitation ofspretus in the region directly





li t !" -. ...




7 d...... .. .........,.........
E -. :. : ..E k
"- .
32 -

north of the mountains, as well as in a similar region directly to the
south of them. Under these circumstances it will be seen that it was
very natural to suppose that this place was the source of the evil; the
evidence most certainly pointed in that direction.
If there were a locality in North Dakota where this dangerous'locust
was breeding every year there would be continual likelihood that swarms
would invade that State as well as Minnesota. Therefore the objectof
the trip was to ascertain whether the suppositions regarding this region
were correct, and in case they were found to be, to devise means of
removing the evil.

THE NATURE OF THE COUNTRY.
Turtle Mountain, as this region is called by residents, is a broken'
plateau of roughly elliptical outline, between 800 and 900 feet above the'
level of the surrounding plains, and reaching a height of not m :e than
2,500 feet above sea level. The total area is about 1,500 square miles;
the international boundary line passes through in such a inannnhat
two-thirds of this lies within North Dakota, in the counties of J"uwnau
and Rolette. The surface is covered with a dense and impenetrabl3e
growth of scrub oak, poplar, balm of gilead, choke cherry, dwarif .....,
and rose and raspberry bushes, intertwined in the- most benjIdrig
manner with vetch. There are no coniferous trees. The vegetatfIWt4
dense that there are no roads that penetrate far into the interior, s' tM
the inhabitants, except in the winter, when the snow makes it poebto
pass over the top of the tangle to reach the opposite side, pass entirly.
around it. The whole region is dotted with hundreds of smallalbeIf
and ponds, from which the seepage through the light, fertile soil make'
an almost tropical growth possible. The only open places are glades,'
where the grasses and sedges grow up in luxuriant abundance t6 a
height of 4 or 5 feet, and which often form a bed of standing water.i
From an extended and careful survey of the whole region I am able to!
state that there are absolutely no open places, even measurably free
from vegetation, which could be suitable lor the hatching of spretus,
From time to time forest fires have swept over the mountains. In!
1892 the whole territory was burned over, and the smoke was so great
that time that it darkened the sky at Winnipeg, over 200 miles away.
But within one season the humus formed, which is too light to be used
by locusts for the deposition of eggs, gave rise to a dense growth 6f
hawthorn and Solidago, the second season showing numerous shrubsi
and small trees covering the ground.
The country is unsettled, except for a colony of French half-breeds
near St. Johns and a small summer resort at Fish Lake, in Rolette
County. But wherever the farmers have taken up and cleared the
"bush," as the English people there call it, the result is seen in yields
of wheat, oats, and potatoes that are marvelous. The only tmle is
in the often excessive moisture in the soil, from seepage from .....i.
To gain an idea of the Turtle Mountains, imagine that followiutw|l
known laws and owing to its considerable elevation, a portion of tb


.*.







33

northern deciduous forest, which normally does not reach south of the
Assiniboine River, in an isolated case crops out again. Practically all
of that part within Manitoba has been made a forest reserve by tihe
Dominion government. We will thus see that a p)lac'e that is virtually
a transposed portion of the country north of the limit of thi prairie
region, far beyond the limit of spretus and totally unsuited for the con-
tinuation of that species, has been suspected, owingto a lack of definite
knowledge, of furnishing breeding grounds. It is the one part of the
country in which it may be positively stated that spretus does not breed.
There is along the escarpment of the Turtle Mountains, extending
from about the point where the international line crosses the western
limit of the hills along the southern slope to the vicinity of St. Johins,
an oftentimes broken and narrow outcropping of a sandy substratum.
This area is covered with a very sparse growth of grass and was often
referred to by the residents as a probable breeding ground for spretus.
In fact, I was informed by one observer that he had seen a species,
ppsumably spretus, breeding there for years before the cultivated
lands had been invaded. After determining definitely that the moun-
tain proper was in no sense the sought-for breeding ground, some
attention was -devoted to this formation. Although doubtless more or
less suited for the deposition of eggs by locusts, it was found to be of
very limited extent. There will be found a few square yards upon the
brow of a hill, and perhaps no more will be found exposed for several
sods., Below this the alluvial soil of the low land along the southern
slope becomes well marked, and in the western part below this sandy
Formation we find extensive fields of gumbo. Both of these are, of
course, quite impossible places for the permanent harboring of spret1us.
After a succession of favorable seasons the locust might breed in this
narrow strip in numbers to invade the cultivated parts and cause
' damage. But there were none here this year; the swarms doing dam-
age at this time did not originate there, and I am of the opinion that.
this place never will furnish any considerable number of locusts.
After I had arrived at the conclusion that it would be necessary to
look elsewhere for the origin of the swarms that from time to time have
come upon North Dakota and Minnesota than in or about the Turtle
Mountains, I received information regarding a swarm flying high on the
afternoon of the 17th of August over Whitewater Lake and in an
almost due southeasterly direction, far above the mountains, into North
Dakota. It was very remarkable that all the spretus along the northern
slope on the mountains had joined this swarm in motion. Where a week
before this species had been seen everywhere between Boissevain and
Deloraine, upon my return none were to be found. It had been expected
That swarms would pass over that region at about that time, since they
have always appeared by the 15th of August in Minnesota. On that
day, for the first time in a fortnight, the wind had changed from a
southerly direction and blew toward a point south of southeast,
11608-No. 22--3


a








34

I have been at considerable pains to locate this swarm in order to
warn those concerned of its presence. The day that it was observed I
made use of the telegraph to notify the authorities in Minnesota and
North Dakota of what might be expected. However, it has been
impossible at the present time to obtain trace of its whereabouts.
Owing to a speedy change of wind at sundown on the day of the flight,
I have surmised that it did not extend far into North Dakota, and judge
that a point somewhere between New Rockford and Fargo will be the
center of some destruction next year. It may be, however, that the
Red River Valley in Minnesota was reached.
While hastening to reach a point from which the swarm mentioned
might be traced in North Dakota, I continued my efforts while in Mani-
toba to find the actual breeding ground for spretus. It should be men-
tioned, however, that the season was now far advanced and the swarms
had left, so that the search was confronted with many obstacles. For
the purpose of working out this point a trip was made to a renge of
sand-hills and barren coulees on the north side of the Souris River,
between Napinka and the village of Souris. This was in exqetly t e
direction that the swarm had taken. I found here a sample of a M
peculiar formation that appears, as I am informed, at places through-
out Manitoba and the territory of Saskatchewan and toward the nouth-
ern limit of the prairies especially. There is exposed a ridge of red
sand which is of such fineness and lightness that it is continually
blown about by the wind. During many seasons the most labyrinthinA
hollows and knolls have been formed. Here and there scrub oak and
poplar have obtained a foothold, and a few specimens of Kuhnistera
villosa Nutt. and Solidago missouriensis Nutt. are seen in places where
an outcropping of rock makes the soil slightly more firm. But I am
convinced that this place, to which all persons familiar with the coun-
try with whom I consulted regarding suitable grounds for the habita-
tion of spretus referred me, can not be the source of swarms. The
loose and drifting soil is totally unsuited to their habits. Moreover I
received reliable information regarding flights, both this year and in
several preceding years, from the northwest of this point.
As accurately as may be stated from the data in hand, spretus origi-
nates in the territory lying northeast of Regina, toward the Big Touch-
wood Mountains and to the south of a line drawn between these points.
Here, along the Assiniboine River and its tributaries, is a region
covered with sparsely occurring grasses which is adapted for the
species. But a personal visit to this place at the proper time of the year
is necessary for the solution of the question.

THE PRESENT STATUS OF MELANOPLUS SPRETUS IN NORTH DAKOTA.
The three years preceding (1899), in Manitoba and North Dakota,
were unusually dry, and a climax was reached in 1898. Jun,
which is usually the wet month in that part, and the month when
the locusts hatch, had brought but little moisture. Accordingly, the

.:*

""
-a




p p g. .. ..... ..............




35

swarms of spretis which had entered in thle fall of 1897, supposedly
then from the Turtle Mountain region, had prospl)ered well. T'I'hle pres-
uent year, however, there was an unusually heavy precipitation in lunee,
but this came so late that, although it (lid not affect the earlier-hatching
apretus, still most of the late-hatching species were destroyed. It was
easily noticed that the ordinary species of the plains were remarkably
scarce and, until a colony or spret 1s or the form of ttlanis which
appears there was reached, grasshoppers of all kinds were almost
entirely absent. Melanoplus spretus, Ml. bivittatus, and Ml. packardi
were the only destructive species present in numbers sufficient to
attract attention.
In North Dakota, as was predicted last year, spretus occurred most
notably at New Rockford, where, approximately, the same area that
suffered then was affected. There is in force in NorthI Dakota an
excellent locust law. It provides that upon notification by the county
commissioners any farmer upon whose place grasshoppers have deposited
eggs shall plow all summer-fallow and open stubble fields within a cer-
tain time. If this is not done the plowing takes place at the expense
of the county and the charges are assessed against the property as
taxes. Working under this provision most of the young locusts in
the vicinity of New Rockford were plowed under, as many as twenty-
seven gang plows working together, and working on Sunday when the
need was urgent. It may be confidently stated that the trouble at that
place is almost passed.
Along the southeastern slopes of the Turtle Mountains, however, there
is a fresh invasion of considerably smaller extent but which, consider-
ing the territory affected, is rather serious. At several points between
Dunseith and Rolla some little damage was done by spretus, and at one
, point about 2 miles to the east of the last named place the situation
was indeed critical. In June a formidable number of locusts appeared
from eggs deposited in the fall by parents that had passed the year in
that same place. Several acres of wheat were destroyed; and in gen-
eral this swarm, which to all intents was simply a part of the swarm
that was divided in alighting by the Turtle Mountains in 1897, was more
destructive than in Manitoba. The total area affected might be
included in a quadrangle 10 miles long and 5 wide between Dunseith
and Rolla; but within this area only isolated fields, often at consider-
able distance from one another, were infested. The most damaged
field was one of about 10 acres, in which the locusts had begun to feed
only after the heads were quite well formed. These were quite dry
and consequently the insects fed upon the green part of the stalk just
Below, causing the heads to fall to the ground and the field was ruined.
i Invariably, when looking for locusts in that region, I would ask to
7 be shown where last year there was a field left in summer-fallow, and
very uniformly in that immediate vicinity the insects in greatest num-
bers would be found. By plowing or thoroughly cross-harrowing these
and the stubble fields in September, there is no reason why the pests,
k:"s ..


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I I

L a asU:!




r .Z7


36

even if they should recur for years, as they are not likely to do, could
not be entirely overcome. The county commissioners of the two coun-
ties affected were consulted. They understand the situation, and with
the aid of the admirable law on the subject, it is supposed that sys-
tematic warfare will be waged this fall and the locusts exterminated.

THE NATIVE SPECIES.
Associated with spretus in this region there was an unusually large
number of AM. atlanis (principally the large, very dark-colored form
mentioned by Scudder in his Melanopti, p. 183, from the Northwest Ter-
ritories) which the preceding dry seasons had caused to flourish. In
many places this form, which seems certainly worthy of nominal recog-
nition, has caused as much damage as spretus in others. M. bivittatus
was seen everywhere in a most flourishing condition, and was by all odds
the most common locust observed. By the 20th of August the females
of this species were depositing eggs, often for this purpose boring
down in the hard-beaten roadbed, where millions were destroyed by
the passing vehicles. The edges of grain fields and land under sum-
mer-fallow that was measurably firm from rains or otherwise were
generally selected. At one place about 10 miles northwest of Bot-
tineau and near the Dominion line, !. packardi was as numerous as
the other species were anywhere, and demonstrated that it should be
listed among the locusts capable of the greatest destruction. This
species prefers the roadsides for the deposition of eggs. As it evinces
an inclination to abandon wild grasses and to feed upon cultivated
grains it should be watched, for the rather disastrous results that have
followed a similar change of food habit by Dissosteira longipennis
might be repeated. It seems, however, that a peculiar succession of
favorable seasons has brought about results that may not become fixed
nor in any way normal, and that may not occur again for many years.
In general it may be stated that the parasites have not been suffi-
ciently numerous in the Turtle Mountain region to affect the situation
at all. Trombidiumi locustarum was often seen and was generally dis-
tributed. As a test, near Dunseith I captured 25 individuals of spretus,
and of these 18 had mites upon them. But in a slightly removed
locality only 2 or 3 out of the same number were found parasitized.
Some parasitic Diptera were seen, but the number was not large. All
in all, the locusts were remarkably healthy.

SUMMARY.
I. Melanoplus spretis does not breed permanently in the Turtle Mountains nor in
that immediate vicinity. The ground is totally unsuited to the purpose, and, more-
over, swarms descending upon North Dakota and Minnesota have been traced from
far to the northwest of that place. The probable permanent breeding ground is
upon the Assiniboine River, north and east of Regina in the Territory of Assiniboia.
II. There has been a visitation of Melanopl8s sprlct s in North Dakota, besides at
New Rockford, near Rolla. The county authorities will probably take the matter in,
hand and reduce the danger to a minimum.








37


III. The liativt, spbecieM (.1flr oplan hiriltti .11. atlaIuNi aimid 1. parkardi) h lve
attracted attntio u 16 t ,lc'u'-U t of dry year. .11.aflania ha1, betin dentruitive in
restricted areas ull through the Rtld liver Vailley.
IV. An outbreak tof 'prelu Mimilar to that which took plhic ait lolla will probably
occur next tsiBot iat 0st omo point betwevv 1)uvils Lake and Fargo. Thin swarm,
however, may have rtaclitd NiMinni.sota.

THE BRONZE APPLE-TREE WEEVIL.
( litidalis i nitfcCsi Lee.)
By F. II. CIIrTTNDI)EN.

REPORTED INJURY IN WASHINGTON STATE.

January 14, 1S99, Mr. S. Kerr, of Sunnydale, Wash., wrote this
Division that in the fall of the previous year his attention had been
called to a discoloration which appeared in spots upon apple trees in
his vicinity. In removing a piece of bark a small hole was disclosed,
and on following this up a specimen of a borer was found. Thirty-
eight such larvae were taken from a single two-year-old tree at that
time and several hundred were obtained in that orchard. On further
inquiry it was ascertained that most of the orchards in the vicinity
were affected similarly, and the owners were quite anxious to learn of
some easier way to rid themselves of the pest than by cutting them
out. Mr. Kerr's own trees, he wrote, were entirely free from attack, a
condition which he attributed chiefly to an annual wash of the trunk
and larger limbs with lye. One of the difficulties in combating insect
pests of this sort in that locality consists in the fact that about one-
half of the territory is planted in orchards, while the remaining half
is covered with timber and brush, the wild deciduous trees offering the
- best sort of shelter for pests which attack also orchard trees.
February 28 we received infested twigs from which we later suc-
ceeded in rearing the beetle, which is now identified as Magdalis
cenescens Lee. On the last-mentioned date our correspondent wrote
that the tunnels of this species, which are illustrated on a subsequent
page (fig. 26), seem to start in the majority of cases from the butt of a
tree and often continue up*5 feet from the ground; that while some-
times larve are found in the trunk most of them are in the larger limbs.
Larvae are sometimes found singly, and often from two to six occur
together. The trees that have thus far been found to be most subject
to attack are Baldwin and Ben Davis. King of Tompkins, Northern
Spy, and Bellflower occurring in the same orchard appeared to be free
from infestation.
In a letter dated March 3 our correspondent stated that a dead tree
which had recently been cut down was so full of borers that whenever
the wood was cut into borers would be disclosed. In the samples
which he sent at that time this was found to be the case. Every por-
tion of the twigs showed the borers or their galleries.

I

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... ".."i:"""..

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38

In a letter dated March 24 our correspondent wrote that he had since
visited several other orchards and was very much surprised to see the
extent of the damage done by this little pest. "There is hardly an
orchard in this vicinity," he wrote, "but has been injured more or less
by it. Two-year-old to 20-year-old trees appear to have been attacked
indiscriminately, and in many cases ruined. If anything, the borers
seem to have a preference for the north side of the trunk, but on the
limbs they occurr everywhere. It puzzles me somewhat that, though
I can hardly ever find any borers in the trunks and very seldom even
see galleries there, I invariably see the dark maroon blotches and dead
bark under these discolorations." There seemed to be a rather general
impression (which appears to have been proven to be a true one) that
the diseased condition of the trees was due to "canker" or "black
spot."
In the last specimens received there were numerous parasitic insects
present in the galleries, at least two of the parasites to one of the
borers. Specimens of wood kept in the insectary of this Department
disclosed the beetleb (luring March, but other specimens received later
did not develop during that month.
Writing April 17, Mr. Kerr stated that the local fruit inspector, a
Mr. Brown, had informed him that he had noticed the ravages of this
insect eight years before the present time, but had not regarded it as
a dangerous species, being much surprised to learn the extent of recent
injuries. Mr. Kerr's observations pointed to the borer as commencing
near the base of very young trees, but as soon as these grew larger,
ascending into the limbs, evidently preferring young and tender wood.

ATTACK BELIEVED TO BE SECONDARY TO THAT OF A FUNGUS.
April 27, 1899, Prof. C. V. Piper, Pullman, Wash., sent a specimen
beetle of this species, from Tracyton, Kitsap County. with the informa-
tion that the insect was reported to be doing serious damage to the
apple industry in that State, many complaints relative to it having
been received during the year.
Later, however, on the occasion of a visit to this office in the latter
days of September, the same gentleman stated that he had given the
subject of the attack of this species in his State considerable attention,
and his first suspicions in regard to the injurious character of the insect
had been much allayed by the discovery that insect injury was appar-
ently secondary to the fungus disease known as "canker" or "black
spot." The presence of this fungus causes large, more or less oval
blotches, and it is in these that the female selects, evidently by pref-
erence, a place for oviposition. Examination of twigs received from
Sunnydale shows on these cankerous spots, or, in some cases, t the
sides of them, the minute punctures made by the proboscis of the
female while depositing her eggs. Oviposition was noticed in the
orchard much later than in our rearing jars, continuing well on during
the summer season.





.... i8 .....




.. .... w...


39

OCCURRENCE IN OREGON.
On the occasion of a visit of i)r. A. 1). Hopkins to the Northwest,

in April, 1899, adults and pipaie were found on the 228th at Corvallis,
Oreg., in the bark ald outer wood of the branches of dead apple, and
Professor A. B. Cordley, of the State Experiment Station located in
that town, stated that it was of common occurrence ill such locations.
INJURY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There is one record of injury by this insect, by Dr. James Fletcher,
published in the Report of the Entomologist and Botanist for 1898
(1899), page 207. He mentions receipt of specimens of apple boughs
containing the larvae of this insect from Victoria and Nanaimo, British
Columbia, with report from Mr. R. M. Palmer, of the former locality, that
these bark-boring larvae did much harm, especially in young orchards
on dry lands of the island. Many young trees were described as being
killed outright or so badly injured that they would scarcely recover
where preventive measures were neglected. Attack was also men-
tioned, on the authority of the Rev. G. W. Taylor, on Gabriola Island,
by the beetles feeding upon the leaves of cherry. This was noticed
during two seasons, and hence may be considered a regular habit of
the beetles. Dr. Fletcher's name of bronze apple-tree weevil is adopted.
DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES.
The adult of this borer may be recognized by the accompanying
illustration (fig; 25a). It is rather remarkable in the structure of the
i prothorax, the posterior
Singles of which are promi- A
nent and produced over the .
base of the elytra, a char-
acter which it shares with
other species of the genus. A \j
The beak is of about the
Same length as the protho- r
rax and the femora are " 9"
acutely dentate. The color
alone, black bronzed, will c a b
distinguish the species from Fa. 25.-Magdalis wneacens: a, adult weevil dotted portion
:: others of the genus. of size line showing length of snout; b, larva; c, pupa-six
SLe~ontes description times natural size (original.)
; appeared in 1876 and was based upon material from Oregon (Proc. Am.
, Phil. Soc., Vol. XV, p. 192). It is quoted herewith:
j Elongate, black bronzed, slightly pubescent; head, beak and prothorax densely
L.: finely punctured, the last longer than wide, rounded on the sides, which are serrate
,I|n front; hind angles small, prominent, base bisinuate, disk subcarinate in front of
:Athe middle. Elytra obliquely impressed behind the base, and also behind the mid-
dile; stria composed of not very large punctures, interspaces finely rugose. Meso-
teniiimum not protuberant; thighs acutely toothed, claws distinctly toothed near the
'.li
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40

The length exclusive of the beak varies from a little Ais to a full
sixth of an inch (3 to 4mm); the width is less than half the length.
The species is limited in its distribution to the Pacific Coast, and it
apparently occurs throughout the States of Oregon and Washington,
where, according to Professor Piper, it is very abundant west of the Cas-
cade Mountains. The full list of known localities include: Sunnydale,
Puyallup, Tracyton, Vancouver, Sedro, and Woolley, Wash.; Salem,
Hood River, and Corvallis, Oreg.; Victoria, Nanaimo, and Gabriola
Islands, British Columbia.
LIFE HISTORY.
From the excellent lot of material received from Mr. Kerr a fair
idea of the insect's life stages may be
had.
j The larva, illustrated at b of figure
e 25, departs from the usual curcu-
lionid type in being rather larger in
the prothoracic portion, in which re-
spect it suggests the Bostrychinae. It
is, however, legless and less hairy than
b Bin that group. It is perfectly white
in color and the surface of the body is
1 %rather strongly wrinkled. The mouth-
J parts are small and dark brown at
SI Their sutures and tips only, the remain-
,, der of the head being nearly the same
1 color as the body. The length in
Sf curved position as figured is 4mm and
the greatest width nearly 2mm.
The pupa, figured at c, shows much
of the appearance of the future beetle.
c vi y- The head and snout are bentr down
upon the abdomen between the legs
FIG. 26.-Work of Magdalis wnescens: a, and the tips of the thorax or humeri
pupa in its cell; b, exterior of pupal cell; show the serrated points seen in the
c, empty cell; d, parasitic pupa in its cell;
r~t ^"?lt:^;"/t^' beetle. Itis of the same white color
e, two empty cells of parasite; f, beetle beetle. It is of the same white color
and holes made by beetles in their escape- as the larva and its length is a little
all natural size (original). less than that of the beetle.
A wild food plant of this weevil was observed by Mr. Schwarz on
the occasion of a visit to Oregon in May, 1892. It is a species of
thorn, presumably a Crataegus, upon which the beetles were found in
the vicinity of Hood River.
Judging from the condition of the insect at the time of the receipt of
seedings it makes its first appearance in a latitude like that of Sunny-
dale in the early part of April and continues, according to Professor
Piper, till at least the middle of August.
Soon after the appearance of the insects in April they copulate and
lay eggs for the next generation, as previously described.

*





y"E"'. ":" ..


41

The tunnels made by the larva' after haLtching imay branch off ini any
direction up or down a limb or at right angles to itRN iain axis. They
are not always so easily traceable as in the piece of apple twvig illus-
trated, being sometimes very irregular inl shape, running ill all direc-
tions, crossing and recrossing in hopeless con fusion. The average
length of the burrows is a matter of only 1 or 2 inches, the largest seen
measuring only 2. inches (47"""). At their beginning they measure
about half a millimeter in width, and at their end where the pupal cell
is formed 1j""" to a little more than 2""". The length of tie l)upal cells
is 5 or 6f"u. They are rather regular oblong oval in shape (see fig.
26, a and c.)
The larva completes its growth toward the end of the warm season
and with little doubt hibernates in this stage, undergoing transfibrmina-
tion to pupa and thence to imago in March and April respectively. The
beetle makes its escape through around hole which it cuts out through
the bark by means of the mandibles at the end of its rostrum or pro-
boscis. The diameter of these holes is from 1 to ai little more than 1mm.
These holes are figured natural size (fig. 26,f).
The native species of true weevils (Rhynchophora exclusive of Scoly-
tide) produce as a rule a single generation annually, and the present
species is probably no exception.
Professor Piper has kindly furnished for publication in this connec-
tion his notes bearing upon the biology of the species, which supplement
our own and render the account more complete. These notes include a
brief description of the egg, an account of oviposition, the supl)posed
correlation of fungous disease and insect attack, feeding habits of the
beetles, and observations which show quite conclusively that the spe-
cies is single brooded:

BIOLOGIC NOTES, BY C. V. PIPER.

The egg.-Length, jmf; width, +,.m; ovoid, yellowish-white, smooth, shining.
Ovipositing habits.-The eggs are laid singly in horizontal holes burrowed in the
bark to the depth of about I11m. Usually from 12 to 25 of these holes are made in a
more or less circular area 6-10'm'- in diameter; but, in some cases at any rate, eggs are
not laid in all of them. The beetle usually requires half an hour or longer to burrow
each hole and two minutes in which to deposit the egg. In one case which was
watched the beetle burrowed first for twenty minutes, then turning around as if
on a pivot she tested the hole with her ovipositor. Apparently it proved too shallow
and she turned sharply about and burrowed for twenty-one minutes longer. At the
end of this time she turned about as before and immediately deposited an egg at
the mouth of the hole. Again turning she pushed the egg in with her beak, and
then flew away.
In another instance the beetle burrowed for thirty minutes and then laid her egg
in the burrow exactly in the same manner as above described.
Apparently the different egg cavities in each group are burrowed at different
times; at least in all the cases observed the beetle went away after digging one
cavity and laying her egg therein.
Mr. D. A. Brodie reports that he several times saw the beetles burrow holes and fly
away without depositing eggs therein. These observations, taken in connection with
I




Smmo


42 ':

the fact that commonly only one beetle emerges from each cluster of egg cavities, a.
proven by the single exit hole, indicates either that a large proportion of the eggs o:i
larvae are destroyed or else that but few eggs are laid. Probably both explanations.
are true in part.
In nearly all cases these egg cavities are burrowed in or immediately adjoining
bark attacked by the "black spot" or canker, a fungous disease caused by Maw.-
phomna mali Peck. In only a few instances did we observe egg burrows in healthy.:
bark, and in these cases the trees were much weakened by the attacks of the fungus.
We were quite unable after a careful search to find any trees unaffected by the
canker that were attacked by the weevil, and there can be no doubt that the dam-
age caused by the weevil is very insignificant compared to that caused by the
fungus. As the tissue invaded by the fungus always dies within a year, it follows
that the weevil does no damage in such spots; and as it attacks healthy bark so.
seldom it certainly does but little injury. It is possible, however, that if the canker
is held in check the beetles may attack healthy bark more frequently.
Feeding habits of the adsilI.-Our earliest record of the appearance of the adult is
April 15. From this time on, as late at least as the middle of August, the beetles are
abundant. Shortly after their first appearance they may be found laying eggs, and
as new adults are constantly emerging, this goes on through the whole season. The
adults are found only occasionally on the trunks of the trees, usually where they
are ovipositing or have just emerged. On the leaves of the trees, however, they are
aliundant, and are frequently found in coitu. They feed only on the pulp of the leaf,
biting out shallow holes usually to the lower epidermis of the leaf but sometimes :
quite through. Where very abundant many of the leaves come to be quite riddled
from their attacks, though ordinarily this injury is of slight consequence. The
beetles are not very quick nor easily alarmed, so that their actions may be watched
indefinitely, even with the use of a lens.
The species evidently single brooded.-From the egg to the adult occupies apparently
one year. This would seem clearly to be the case from.the relations of the insect
and the canker disease. The canker spots begin in the fall and reach their limit of
growth, which is sharply marked, either before or early in the next spring. In this
diseased tissue the eggs of the weevil are laid during the summer. By the follow-
ing summer the cankered bark is dead and nearly dry, and covered with the black
spore-containing pustules. It is always from bark of this kind that the adult
beetles emerge. We have never found them in older dead and diseased bark, which
indeed separates from the wood at this time, and only rarely does the larva burrow
beyond the limits of the diseased tissue. It necessarily follows that the larval and :
pupal stages do not occupy more than one year, and from the same facts they can
require little less time than that period.

FURTHER INVESTIGATION DESIRABLE.

The desirability of additional observations and investigations becomes
obvious to anyone who has perused the preceding paragraphs. It seems
not impossible, in the absence of positive proof to the contrary, that
certain canker-like spots or blotches on apple trees may in reality be
caused primarily by the attack of the borer and that parasitic fungous
attack is secondary. Professor Piper, however, writes that canker
spots are common without the presence of larvae and that young.
canker spots seldom show any egg punctures.
It is also possible, and even probable, that more than one fungus is
present in limbs affected by the weevil, and further study will be neces-
sary to establish the economic status of all the factors that contribute
to the premature demise of the trees in the affected region.




T!1

.. .i
i, I

. .......... .. .... ...- .J!' :^ ..'- ::: l







43

iA point that lends color to the hypothesis that the beetle is capable
being a primary enemy is that congeneric species are known to
attack healthy trees, and hitherto, sti far as the writer can learn, no :
ngous disease has ever been associated with any of thei,l the same
ing true of other species of beetles related zoologically or of similar
tbits. The beetles were found to continue living ii dead land dry
mbs nearly or quite a year old, and the presence of a fungous disease
euld not be detected in them when examined in thle D)ivision of Vege-
10ble Physiology and Pathology. There were also on the limbs exami-
Ined numerous holes from which the insects had issued and where the
fungus had not been present. The cankerous spots were almost inva-
riably attacked by the weevils, and we have the testimony of Professor
Piper that the "black spot"' was actually detected in these places.
It is hoped that another season may see these points made clear.

PARASITIC ENEMIES.
From the material in which the parasites were first detected thirty
specimens of Chalcidids and one beetle were reared during the week
ended April 12. Of this lot 17 were true parasites and 13 were hyper-
parasitic. The primary parasite of this lot was identified by Mr. Ash-
wead as an undescribed species of Dinotus, and of a subsequent
hearing as Chiropachys colon Linn., a well-known parasite and efficient
Destroyer of the fruit-tree bark-beetle (Scolytus rugulosus). The sec-
Ondary parasite is Asecodes albitarsis Ashm.
,METHODS OF CONTROL.
I This apple-tree borer may prove a difficult insect to successfully
combat unless future observation should show that its attack is mainly

econdary to at dependent upon that of the fungus. In case it is
shown that the insect is not dependent upon the fungus and that it
attacks vigorous, healthy growth, insecticides and other direct reme-
dies will be necessary.
From the general manner of the insect's work, it should prove ame-
nable to the same treatment as that outlined for the fruit-tree bark-
beetle in Circular No. 29 (2d ser., pp. 7,8) of this Division. Clean cul-
ture would, of course, be the first requisite. The use of mechanical
farriers and deterrent washes, employment of girdled trap-trees, and
he use of kerosene emulsion or creosote oil as insecticides are among
he remedies advised against the bark-beetle.
It will be noticed that Mr. Kerr ascribed the immunity of his trees
m attack to an annual wash of lye applied to the trunks and limbs.
Palmer states that a wash, composed of lime, soap, and carbolic acid
effective if applied early in spring (in British Columbia) and renewed
the end of May.
As this bulletin is going to press Professor Piper writes that the fungus in ques- *,
is Macrophoma curvispora, recently described by Dr. C. H. Peck, from British
gumbia (Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, Jan., 1900, p. 21).








44

There can be no doubt that the beetles could readily be reached b*
spraying the leaves, since observation has shown that they feed on thO
foliage of their host plants.
Should it be proven that the fungus is the primary cause of injury.
as is now apparently the case, all efforts should be directed toward the
suppression of this fungus; but, as the subject of fungous diseases and
their remedies does not come within the scope of this Division, it need
not be discussed here. It may be said, in any case, that when a tree
becomes badly infested by the insect it should be cut down and
destroyed by burning, and this should be done before the month of
April to prevent the development of the insect and its issuance from
the wood for the infestation of other trees.

TWO NEW CECIDOMYIANS DESTRUCTIVE TO BUDS OF ROSES.
By D. W. COQUILLETT.

At intervals during the past twelve years complaints have reached
this office in regard to certain kinds of insects which infest the buds of
roses grown under glass, causing them finally to wither and turn black.
The blossom buds as well as those for the production of wood and foli-
age are thus attacked, and in several instances during an entire season
not a single flower of certain varieties was produced in some of the
rose houses owing to the depredations of these pests. For some curi-
ous reason the only varieties of roses known to be subject to these
attacks are the Meteor, Wooton, La France, and a sport of the latter
known as the Duchess of Albany. No other variety of rose has been
known to be attacked, although frequently grown in the same house
side by side with plants of the kinds mentioned which had in some
cases lost all of their buds.
The pests in question are small legless larvae which are to be found
within the buds at the bases of the outer scales, or sepals, if a blossom
bud is examined. These larvae are of a white color when young, bat
become orange red in the latter part of their larval periods. Their
manner of transformation is at present not known to the writer, but it
is probable that they enter the earth and pass through their various
changes in a cell or cavity formed just beneath the surface. So far as
I am aware, they have never been known to attack roses grown in the
open air, and this would seem to indicate that they were originally
natives of some tropical region, from which they have been imported
into this country either upon plants, cuttings, or in the soil in which
the plants were imported.
The earliest record of the occurrence of these pests in this country
that has come to my notice is a letter dated September 29, 1886, accom-'
panied by specimens, addressed to this Department by Mr. Erns
Asmus, of West Hoboken, N. J. This letter has already been pub
wished on page 284 of Insect Life for March, 1889, and is followed by







~~.. ^s M








45

second letter under date of January 18, 18s.9, in which Mr. Asmus
records the discovery of this pest in two otI.hr lhrists' establishmentM
In his neighborhood.
SIn the same periodical for March, 1891 (p. 29.4), is a letter from Mr.
Benjamin Hammond, Fishkill, N. Y., under date of (O)ctober 25, 1890,
relating to the same or a similar pest which has destroyed many buds
'of the Wooton rose grown under glass in his locality.
SMore recently Mr. P. II. D)orsett, of this Department, has published
a short notice of an insect having the same habits, recording his obser-
vations of its attacks on the Meteor and La France roses grown under
glass in the vicinity of Washington, 1). C.
These are the only published references to Cecidomyian larvae attack-
ing buds of roses in this country that have come under my notice, but
the note-books of this Division indicate that they have been received
from several localities besides those recorded above.
June 2, 1891, Mr. A. B. Cordley, at that time in the employ of this
Division, detected larvae of this kind in
the buds of rose bushes in a florist's /
establishment in this city; they were \ /
under the sepals and usually occurred\ /
singly, but sometimes in clusters of five x
or six individuals. More of these larvae "
were obtained by him on the 5th of the
following September, and from these the
adult flies were bred on the 15th of the L
same month.
April 30, 1894, larve were received
from Mr. W. J. Stewart, Boston, Mass.
On October 22 of the same year Mr. I
Theodore Pergande,-of .his Division, Fio. 27.-PNeocerata rhodophaga: adult
investigated an outbreak of insects of much enlarged, antenna more enlarged
this kind in one of the rose houses in at left (orgina.
the vicinity of Washington, D. C., and reported that they were first
noticed by the owner three years previously, since which time they
had steadily increased in numbers. They confined their attacks to
the La France, Meteor, and Wooton roses, notwithstanding the fact
that other varieties were growing among them. The pests were the
U
most abundant during the latter half of the year, but became quite
scarce during the winter season.
October 15, 1897, larvae were received from Mr. Walter C. Wyman,
Chicago, Ill., who stated in an accompanying letter that they infested
the buds of the La France and Meteor roses in a rose house in that city,
'and that other varieties of roses were untouched. He was familiar
with the operation of this pest for the previous six years.
I In response to inquiry, Mr. L. E. Wood, Fishkill, N. Y., wrote that
this species, which was reported, as already stated, by Mr. Benjamin
S
:S .
4 il"'i
:I,.m








46

Hammond as injurious at Fishkill in 1890, had again made its appear
ance in the summer of 1898, this being the first time it had been noti
since the appearance above recorded.
In the autumn of 1896 Mr. Dorsett collected a number of infes'1
branches of roses from the same rose house as that in which MEW
Cordley had found this insect, and placed them in a jar of water und.
a bellglass for the purpose of breeding the adult flies, 12 of which wero
found beneath the bellglass November 4 of the same year. These were:!
placed in alcohol and recently presented to this Division. A compari-A
son of these specimens with those reared by Mr. Cordley reveals the;:
fact that two different species, even belonging to different genera, are
concerned in this destructive work. The single male and female spee-,1
mens bred by Mr. Cordley belong to the genus Diplosis, and judging.
from the description and figure of Riibsaamen, are closely related to his .
Diplosis rosiperda which in Germany has similar habits (Verhandlungena
der Kais.-Kin. zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien, 1892, p. 54, PI. II, figs. 7 and 8).
The larvae of the two species, however, are very distinct; ours entirely
lacks the so-called "breastbone"; the posterior end of the body is
rounded and bears several short tubercles, but there is no trace of a
pair of very long ones at the extreme apex of the body, nor of a pair
of very long bristles anterior to them; moreover, the surface of the
body in our larva is comparatively smooth, even under a very high
power, not showing a vestige of the minute tubercles wherewith the
body of the allied species is densely covered. In order that our species
may be recognized in the future, a description of it is given herewith:
Diplosis rosivora new species.
Female.-Antennae three-fourths as long as the head and body taken
together, subcylindrical, fifteen jointed (2+13), first two joints slightly:
broader than the others, the first slightly longer than wide, the second
as wide as long, the third about six times as long as its greatest width,:i
noticeably longer than any of the others, tapering at the base, the apexr
suddenly narrowed into a petiole one-fifth as long as the remainder of
the joint; other joints suddenly narrowed at the apex into a petiole, the
thickened portion expanding slightly at its apex, bearing near its base
a whorl of bristly hairs, its apical half sparsely covered with similar
hairs; some of the hairs in the basal whorl are slightly longer than the
entire joint from which they spring; last joint almost one-half as long:
as the thickened portion of the preceding joint. Wings hyaline, rather
densely covered with hairs, first vein reaching the costa slightly before
the middle of the latter; third vein terminates slightly below the
extreme wing-tip, the basal portion connecting it with the first veil
quite indistinct; fifth vein branching slightly beyond the middleof th
wing, the upper branch very indistinct toward its apex. Colors (
balsam), head black, antennm brown, palpi yellow, thorax dark brow
two subdorsal vitte, the metathorax and front part of the breast yel
low, scutellum and abdomen orange yellow, halteres yellow, an oran
yellow spot on each knob, legs yellow. Length 1.75mm.








47

iMale.-Both antennae in the only specimen atre broken off toward
eir apices, but were evidently almost twice as long a-s the ld iind
y taken together, al)parently fifteen -jointed (2 + 13); first joint
g htly longer than wide, the second as wide as long, each of the remain-
g joints suddenly contracted into a petiole before the middle and
ain at the apex of each, thle narrowed portions longer than the thiuk-
ed part at their bases, the latter at the base of catchi joint bears a
horl of bristly hairs, that near the middle of each joint bears two
horls, one with few hairs at its base, the other with many more hairs
at its apex; the last joint is nearly twice as long as those near tihe mid-
.dle of the antenna, and the second thickened portion is greatly con-
stricted at the middle, four times as long as the thickening at tlhe base
of the joint, terminating in a slender process which is almost one-half
as long as the thickened portion. The fifth vein at the point where it
forks is nearer to the hind margin of the wing than it is to the third
vein, and the latter opposite this point is much nearer to the costa than
to the fifth vein. Third tarsal joint slightly longer than the fourth and
fifth taken together. Colors as in the female. Length 1.51m.
The specimens bred by Mr. Dorsett belong to a new genus, differing
from all others by the much smaller numbers of antennal joints, and
both the genus and species are characterized herewith.

Neocerata rhodophaga new genus and species.

SAntennae in both sexes slightly shorter than the head and thorax
taken together, nine-jointed; joint 1 obconical, 2 globular, wider
than any of the others; joints 3 to 8 only slightly longer than wide,
subsessile, the hairs very sparse, not arranged in whorls; joint 9 almost
twice as long as 8, slightly constricted near the middle. Wings hyaline,
bare except along the hind margin ne4 the 'base and on the veins,
which are sparsely bristly, rather densely bristly along the first half of
the costa, interspersed with flattened bristles; the first vein lies very
Close to the costa, which it joins slightly before the middle of the wing;
third vein evenly arcuate, joining the costa far before the extreme
Sapex of the wing, this distance almost equaling one-half of the great-
est width of the wing, the extreme base of this vein, where it joins the
k.first vein, very indistinct; fifth vein indistinct toward its apex, forked
&at its last fourth, the anterior fork reaching the hind margin a short
distance basally of the tip of the third vein. First tarsal joint less
:han one-half as long as the second, claws of tarsi simple. Color of
alcoholic specimens yellow, the head and thorax tinged with brown.
ength, 1 to 1.25mm.
SNine males and three females, bred November 4, 1896, by Mr. P. H.
orsett.
This fly is shown in fig. 27 highly magnified, the antenna still more
large at the left. The hair lines below show the actual size of the

'The larva of this species is at present unknown to the writer.







48

1Some of the rose growers whom I have visited inform me that the
exterminated these pests in their rose houses by a continued and li'
eral use of Persian insect powder, and Mr. L. E. Wood writes that
has complete success in the use of California buhach, a very similar
product, which has been recommended by this Division against thi
pest for years past. One grower assures me that he accomplished thl
. same thing by a liberal use of refuse tobacco stems obtained from 4
cigar factory. These stems were placed beneath the benches on which
the infested roses were growing, and some were also placed on the
heating pipes. The stems were quite moist when obtained, and thS
heat of the rose house caused a constant evaporation, which was suf-
Sficiently deadly in its effects upon these fragile insects as to result in
their death, without at the same time producing a perceptible injury td
the rose bushes. The same grower also informed me that when these
pests first made their appearance in one of his rose houses he had all
of the rose bushes in that house cut off close to the ground, only to find
that when these bushes began to grow the pests were soon apparently
as abundant as before.

A NEW VIOLET PEST.
(Diplosis violicola n. sp.)
By D. W. COQUILLETT.
In Europe, two different species of Cecidomyia attack cultivated and
wild violets-the one, Cecidomyia violw of Franz Ldw, dwarfing the'
entire plant and causing it to assume the form of a rosette through the
working of the larvae at the bases of the short sessile leaves; the second
species, the Cecidomyia affinis of Kieffer, folds and distorts the youn-
leaves and unopened blossoms. It is somewhat curious that, although
sweet violets have been somewhat extensively cultivated in this country
for many years past, yet up to the year 1896 no complaint had bee:
made of any Cecidlomyian attacking either these or any of the man
wild species of violets which occur in almost every locality in thi
country.
On October 5 of the above mentioned year Mr. P. H. Dorsett, of thi
Department, brought to this office several leaves of sweet violets frod
the vicinity of Washington, D. C., each of which was folded up in suc:
a manner as to bring the upper surfaces together; the leaves were muc
wrinkled and distorted, and each contained from one to three whitis
or more or less yellow, legless larve. Thirty one adults were bre
from the* on the 23rd and 24th of the same month. Mr. Dorsett h
published a brief account of this pest, which is known among floris.
as the '"gall fly", together with figures of the distorted leaves. Mo.
recently Dr. Howard, by request of a correspondent, has published
brief account of this insect in a current publication.
Plants of violets infested with what is evidently this same pe
were received July 17, 1896, from Mr. WV. A. Hammond, of Richmon






I49
49

SVsa,, with the statement that these insects had been quite destructive
I to his violets during the months of iune and July for two years past.
rThe attack was principally directed against thle youngest leaves, which 4
Sin a short time turned brown and dropped from the plant. As many
as a dozen larvawe were sometimes found within a single folded leaf.
September 9 and 21, 1897, lirvae of this species were also received
at this office from Mr. W. D)avison, of 'Nya'k, N. Y.; and on August
31, 1898, others were received from Mrs. J. II. Marbacher, Tappan,
N. Y. The latter stated in an accompanying letter that her violet
plants were literally covered with these larvw in the folded and dis-
torted leaves. From those received, 3 adults issued on the 9th ot the
following month.







7













-d
I/ '-









FxG. 28.-Diplosis violicola: a, female fly; b, female antennal joints; c, male genitalia; d, larva;
e, breastbone of larva-a, b, much enlarged; c, d, e, more enlarged (original).

Under date of October 12, 1898, Mrs. J. Sampson, Gordonsville, Va.,
wrote that a gall fly," presumably this species, had been injurious to
violets grown in beds during the early spring of that year, but all the
infested leaves had been picked off and destroyed and no specimens
were available at the date of writing.
Writing under date of January 27, 1899, Mr. W. V. V. Powers,
Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y., stated that he had noticed this species
about three years previously, and had been troubled with it more or
less ever since. He was not certain that there was any connection
Between the appearance of this pest and the introduction of the so-
E. called California violet, but stated that they both appeared the same
Year in his vicinity.
11608-No. 22-- 4



Ma
^^^^ H^." vs ~



El::.- '.^ ~ a


T








50

In a letter published December 3,1898, Mr. Davison, mentioned above
as having sent specimens of this insect to us for identification, states
that his experience with this maggot convinces him that it is the worst
enemy the violet grower has to contend with, owing to the extreme
difficulty experienced in its destruction without injury to the plant.
He says:
It secretes itself in the crown of the plant; the leaves as they come up are tightly
curled, and when unfolded there will be found 6 to 8 small white maggots. On
some plants you can pick off the young leaves until the crown is bare. Loosing the
crown will cause the side crowns and runners to start; the latter must be taken off.
The maggot seldom appears on the side crowns, giving them a chance to make good
plants. The flowers will not be as large as crown flowers.
I find when the maggot leaves the plant it goes into the ground. As proof of this,
I placed 40 or 50 of the leaves containing maggots on a pot filled with soil, covering
the soil with glass, expecting in this way to see the maggot in the chrysalis state.
At the end of two weeks, wanting to send some specimens to the Division of Ento-
mology at Washington, I removed the glass, but the maggots were gone. I turned
the soil out of the pot and found maggots all through the soil in the same state in
which they left the leaves.
He also expressed the belief that the fly was introduced with manure
purchased from a person who collected garbage, as no flies were seen
in his greenhouse previous to the introduction of this manure, and the
maggots were observed only where it was used. Further experience
is necessary to confirm this opinion.
The subject of the so-called gall flies which affect violets has also
received mention by Mr. B. T. Galloway in his recently published hand-
book on violet culture under the heading "Gall Fly Maggots." The
nature of the injury is there described and remedies suggested. This
account also includes a half-tone illustration reproduced from a photo-
graph showing the twisted leaves of violets.
This insect, although belonging to the same family as the two spe-
cies already referred to as also attacking violets in Europe, pertains to
a different genus; and while its work is very similar to that produced
by the Cecidomyia affinis, yet a comparison of the adult gall-gnats with
the description of the last mentioned species reveals the fact that the
two are very distinct, not only differing in the venation but also in the
structures of the antenme. Following is a description of our species:

Diplosis violicola new species.

Antenna, in both sexes three-fifths as long as the body, 14-jointed
(2 x12), the first two joints subequal in length, each as broad as long;
third joint more than twice as long as the second and more slender,
other joints becoming successively slightly shorter except the last one;
joints 3 to 13 each slightly constricted near the middle, narrowed at
the apex into a petiole, which, on the thirteenth joint, is almost one-half
as long as the thickened portion of the joint; 2 whorls of bristly hairs
on each of the joints from 3 to 13 inclusive, one near the base, the
other 'near the apex of the thickened portion. Head and thorax










black, the hairs yellow; antenna iand legs Ibrown, ialteres yellowish,
scutellumin and abdomen bright yellow, tihe hairs 1l,1O yellow. Wings
gray, strongly iridescent, thickly covered with short hairs; first vein
extending rather close to thlte costa, terminating slightly 5befre tlhe
middle of the wing; third vein terminating distinctly below the
extreme tip of the wing, its basal portion, connlecting with the first
vein, imperceptible; tiflth vein forked near thie middle, the anLlterior
fork terminating midway between tihe ;apex of the posterior fork and
of the tip of the third vein. Length 1.25'""' to 1.50."".

The remedy generally employed against this pest consists in picking
off and destroying the infested leaves. It is also amenable to the
hydrocyanic-acid gas remedy, as detailed in Circular No. 37, 2d Ser.,
of this Division, and undoubtedly also to the buhach insect pow-
der, recommended as a specific against the "gall flies" on roses.
Tobacco, however, can not be safely used to any great extent on violets
grown under glass.

INSECTS AND THE WEATHER: OBSERVATIONS DURING THE
SEASON OF 1899.

By F. H. CHITTENDEN.
Every economic entomologist receives from" time to time complaints
regarding some insect which is stated to be new to the locality of the
sender, and, among other questions, it is often asked, will the insect prove
injurious and is it likely to reappear in future years? Such communi-
cations usually apply to insects which are periodical in their attacks,
common examples of which are to be found among the lbill-bugs, numer-
ous flea-beetles, cutworms, army worms, etc., and to introduced and
other insects which are extending their rang* In the case of many
species, such as certain forms of plant-lice, the imported cabbage
worm, tussock moth, etc., we know from years of experience that para-
sites or other enemies are almost sure to check the later appearifig
individuals or later broods of the insect (if there be more than one
generation annually), and we can usually predict a scarcity in numbers
for one or two years to come, although we know that eventually there
will probably be a repetition of the attack.
Very often it happens, when we are unable to account for a sudden
appearance or disappearance of an insect on the score orf the activity
of its natural enemies, parasitic, predaceous, fungous, or bacterial, that
we give expression to the opinion that some atmospheric condition, heat
or cold, dryness or moisture, is the principal element that has brought
about its reported abundance or scarcity, as the case may be; but if
asked to show in just what manner the weather has been responsible
we sometimes hesitate before offering the desired information.
Official entomologists report injury or scarcity of this or that insect


-








52

year by year in their annual reports, seldom giving the cause of rarity
or abundance a thought. During the season which has just passed
the writer has given some attention to this subject, particularly in its
bearing upon insects affecting garden crops; and it is the object of this
paper to explain certain of the apparent phenomena of sudden appear-
ances and disappearances, the notes which follow being directed toward
showing that certain southern, mostly Austroriparian, forms df insects
occurring in and near the District of Columbia have been destroyed or
lessened in numbers by recent severely cold weather (as well as by other
causes), while certain northern, or Transition, species owe an evident
very perceptible increase to the same cause.
As a preliminary it will be necessary to define briefly the location of
Washington as regards the life areas.

THE LIFE ZONES ABOUT THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Inquiry of those who have collected for years in Maryland and Vir-
ginia,within a radius of 100 miles of Washington, brings out the fact that
many animals belonging to the Lower Austral, or more strictly Austro-
riparian, life zone may be found within about 65 miles southward, while
a somewhat smaller number of Transition or Alleghanian forms occur
within the same distance northward.
At Piney Point, Md., zoologists, members of the Biological Survey
of this Department, and others, have found certain birds nesting which
are not known to breed farther north in this longitude. Mr. Schwarz,
who has done considerable collecting in this vicinity, particularly of
Coleoptera, informs me that many southern species occur there which
have never been taken farther north, and that many of these have found
their way up the Potomac into what is called the Eastern Branch, as
far north as Bladensburg, Md. (about 7 miles east and a little north of
Washington), that are identified with the Lower Austral life zone and
are seldom to be found much farther north.
Northward the exact southern limit of the Transition life zone does
not appear to be so well defined. Some Subboreal and many Transition
forms of Coleoptera, Mr. Schwarz has observed, are to be found on
some of the highest mountains near Harpers Ferry and between that
point and Penmar, in Pennsylvania, bordering the Maryland State line.
During the writer's first years in the city of Washington he was
impressed with the scarcity of individuals of many of the species
which were usually to be found in so much greater numbers farther
north, and was at first at a loss to account for the fact. Finally it was
surmised that the warmer weather of fall and winter interfered with
the proper hibernation of many species, the warm spells which are
usually experienced here during the winter inducing the hibernating"
insects to come forth from their retreats and the subsequent sudden
cold snaps, for which this district is noted, being responsible for their
decrease, many of the insects being killed or so injured that they were
unable to survive the winter.


F.--








53


Washington is situt'd well witlilln thie (':1r'liinial arii' of" tle R "Ofjr
Austral life zone, lit il l ctvoltr wloN l4ave givii thie sUtld) of' the (dis.
tribution of animals ainy attenltioln are aware that the insect faulna of
the northern portion of tihet Cairoliii ;in ad that of the southern portion
of the same life area differ to a very toinsideralile extent. Al though
many species are cominl0on to both regions, certa tin forms will lie much
more abundant either in thte northern or in the southern extremities.
In other words, there are present in the southern end many forms which
properly belong to the Austroriparian; section of the Lower Austral,
while the northern portion has a preponderance of Transition or Alle-
ghanian species.
The District of Columbia occupies a place in tie Carolinian faunal
area about midway between the two extremities. Many of the north-
ern or Alleghanian species are rarely met with in numbers save in
exceptionally favorable seasons, likethat of 1899, while the southern or
Austroriparian forms which inhabit this latitude are usually to be
found in all years.

SOUTHERN CHARACTER OF THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE DISTRICT
OF COLUMBIA.

In the Heteroptera we find perhaps the most noticeable examples
from the southern life zones. A very considerable number of large
conspicuous southern species' habitually occur here, and their usual
normal northern limit is not far north of here in Maryland, except near
the coast line, where many species of this, as well as of other orders,
go considerably farther north than they do inland, some extending into
southern New Jersey and parts of Pennsylvania, and a few following
the coast to the shores of Long Island.
A notable feature in connection with tile occurrence of the northern
species of Coleoptera in this vicinity is that they are mostly vernal,
appearing late in March or early in April if the season favors or in just
about the same temperature which induces them to issue from their
winter quarters a month and more later in their more northern habitat.2
Injurious species which appear at this time include the white-pine
weevil (Pissodes strobi), certain other weevils and Scolytids which infest

Among these species may be mentioned: Leptogloss18s corciilus. MetapodiIs termi-
nalis, Archimerus calcarator, Etithocfha galeator, Ectrichodia cruciata, Chariesterus an-
tennator, Stenopoda culiciformis, Varives8s carolinensis, Pnirontis infirma, Pygolainpis
pectoralis, and Largus cincts(8, many of which are usually abundant. Of rarer but
Conspicuous species occasionally taken here are Sirthenea carinata and Tetyra bi-
Spunctata. The former has been taken only at light; the latter on Pinus inops early
in spring.
2Many Lower Austral forms which have become injurious in this region are on
the other hand remarkably late in their occurrence in the field, some of them produc-
Sing an extra generation here after the native species have gone into hibernation.









54

conifers, Orsodachna atra, Crepidodera helxines, and other species which
are associated with willow.'
The other orders of insects doubtless present equally striking exam-
ples of the preponderance of southern forms here, but they have not
been very closely studied by the writer, and enough has been said to
show that the fauna is in the main southern.

EFFECT OF THE COLD WINTER OF 1898-99.
During the season of 1899 the writer was impressed quite early in
the year with the unusual scarcity of certain species which we know
are more abundant in the South, and which for the most part have
been introduced from warmer districts, and the corresponding abun-
dance of many species which, though not peculiar to the North, are
more thoroughly acclimated there, and are usually more abundant and
destructive in colder climates. This was particularly noticeable of the
species which affect garden crops, a group of insects which has
engaged the attention of the writer in recent years.
The cause of this was not far to seek. The blizzard which began
February 5 was one of the greatest severity, and the weather was the
coldest that has been experienced for more than twenty years.2
The winter as a whole was an unusually cold one, with few warm
spells, and it was a long time after the blizzard before warm weather
was experienced.3
These conditions would be conducive to the perfect hibernation of
Northern species, but would be destructive to Southern ones. A few of
the best observed examples of the effects of the cold winter weather of
1898-99 will be given, beginning with a consideration of Southern forms.4

SAmong conspicuous southern species of Coleoptera occurring near Washington
are: Hellonimorpha bicolor and nigripennis, Phileurus valgus, Hoplia trivialis, Canthon
cyanelIlls, Macrodaclylus anguslalus, (Eme rigida, Heterachthes ebenus, Curiu dentatus,
Liopl8s crassu1118, Sinoxylon texanam, Acanathocinu8, nodosi1s, Tetrop8 canescens, Hypor-
haguspuIclulat8us, Zabrotes obliteralis and subnitens, Bruchus obsoletus and Apion segnipes.
Among northern forms which are to be found in the boreal zone are: Phellopsis
obcordata, Einchoden sericea, Boros unnicolor, Laricobius erichsoni and Phyxelis rigidus.
2From notes made by Mr. Clifton, of this office, in his private diary, and which he
has kindly placed at my disposal, I am able to state that heavy snows ensued for the
three days following the 4th of February; on the 9th the thermometer sunk to several
degrees below zero, continuing below for the next two days; heavy snow fell on the
11th, and the blizzard came on the 12th and 13th, traffic being suspended on the latter
day and the day following; on the 16th there was heavy rain and freezing. On the
7th of March a smaller blizzard visited the neighborhood, following a warmer spell.
*'Very much the same conditions have been present over a wide extent of the
country east of the Mississippi Valley, as evidenced by correspondence from both
west and south. Certain of the correspondence from southern observers will be
quoted. Letters were also received from different portions of Indiana, Illinois, and
Michigan in regard to the winter weather conditions and its effects upon insects.
4It was not alone, perhaps, the severity of the winter of 1898-99 that brought
about these conditions as regards the scarcity or abundance of all the insects under
observation, since the previous winter was also colder than normal, and without
doubt had its effect on some of these species, although evidently not upon others.
The effects of the last cold spell were felt upon plants as well as insects, peach trees
particularly suffering, as well as certain exotic ornamental trees which were intro-
duced here several years previously.








5.5

SCARCITY OF SO)IT'JIEHN lHFORMS d INSECT' I,'E IN 19).
Prominent aniiuig the Southelrn Sleci s (oft ill sects whiic were notice-
able by their scarcity in 1.99 was t he harleqiuinll cabblage bug, .11a 'aituti
histrionica, which 11118s cont northward from warmer States ill recent
years. This bug lIas been tie most injurious of' all gardell iests for
several years past inl the l)istrict of Columbia anld ineiar-by points of.
Maryland and Virginia. The tirst generation of the blug was tound
this year only upon wild crucifers and Inot abundantly onl these, and
with moderate care on the part of the fainrmer in desLroying the first
brood practically no trouble would have been experienced with later
generations. Even as it is but trifling damage has been done by this
species, although in some small fields some injury has been committed,
especially late in the season.
The tobacco flea-beetle, Epitrix. parviha, which has been quite
injurious in the past, and was particularly numerous last year when
nearly every leaf of tobacco in many districts was peppered" with
holes, was rare the present season, comparatively speaking, its effects
being scarcely perceptible on most plants inspected.
The imbricated snout-beetle, Epiccrus imbricatts, though several
times observed, was rarer than in several years.
The green June beetle, Allorhina nitida, though locally not really
rare, was much less common than usual, and not nearly so abundant
as last year. Col. W. Rives reported it extremely scarce at Rives, Md.,
as did also Mr. A. T. Goldsborough at Wesley Heights, D. C.
The squash-vine borer, Melittia satyriniformis, appeared so late in
the season that large crops of cymblings were obtained without diffi-
culty, something that was an impossibility, owing to the numbers of
the insect, during the season of 1897 and 1898. Later in the season
the species showed its presence, but not-in such excessive numbers as
in former years.
The two Pyralid borers of cucurbit fruits, the so-called pickle worm,
Margaronia nitidalis, and melon caterpillar, Ml. hyalinata, were neither
of them to be found, though frequent search was made for them. The
former was observed in considerable abundance in 1897, doing appre-
ciable injury in this vicinity, but could not be found iu 1898. The lat-
ter was observed, although rarely, in 1898.
The cabbage Pionea, Pionea rimosalis, was not found at all in the
neighborhood during the season, although many cabbage patches were
visited in the course of investigation of insects affecting cruciferous
crops. Southward the species was present in some numbers and did
appreciable damage. Specimens received in the fall were parasitized.
The garden webworm, Loxostege similalis, was not noticed once the.
Past season, although search was made for it. Specimens, however,
were received from Georgia, and moths as well as larvae were numerous
during two years preceding. This is very obviously a Southern species,
Sas it extends its range into South America, from which it has spread
Northward.








56

The Northern leaf-footed plant-bug, Leptoglossug opposites, though
not a species of great importance, was rarely seen as compared with
the previous two years; and the same is true of a species of similar
habits aud economic status, the horned squash bug, Anasa armigera. .
Of the effect of the cold winter in the South, Mr. H. M. Simons,
Charleston, S. C., wrote in response to our suggestion concerning the
effect of the climatic conditions upon the imported cabbage webworm,
Hellula undalis, that the cold weather had probably caused the decrease
of this insect which he had noticed for the season of 1899. He wrote
July 22 that the previous winter had been unusually severe, being
marked with snaps of intense coldness. It is just such weather as
this, in the writer's opinion, that would destroy many individuals of an
insect which is not yet thoroughly acclimatized with us, since such
sudden changes and severely cold spells are practically never experi-
enced in the Old World regions to which this insect is native. Mr. N.
L. Willet reported a similar scarcity at Augusta, Ga., saying that it
was a difficult matter to obtain specimens until the last of August, when
practically the first evidence of attack became manifest. Both of these
gentlemen reported serious injury the previous year.
The larger corn stalk-borer, Diatrwa saccharalis, was also extremely
rare in those localities where it was found abundantly in 1898 and prior
to that time. Several fields were visited where individuals had been
observed in numbers previously and only a single chrysalis was found
after several hours' search.
At the same time that the stalk-borer was being observed a close
watch for the corn-ear worm, leliothis armiger, was made. This was
comparatively rare upon corn and other crops which it is known to
infest.' In one locality, however, it was reported troublesome and the
later generations did some injury, but sweet corn which it generally
injures seriously was very little affected. In Mississippi this species
did extensive damage the present year to beans by boring into the pods.
The American locust, Schistocerca americana, which is usually suffi-
ciently abundant a few miles south of Washington to attract attention,
was not noticed at all in 1899 in any of the frequent visits paid to the
localities where it has always abounded in previous years until Sep-
tember 23, when a single individual was seen, a few others being
observed later.

ABUNDANT NORTHERN FORMS OF INSECTS IN 1899.
One of the most noticeable of the Northern species which were
injurious the present season was the imported cabbage butterfly, Pieris
rapwce, the first generation of which destroyed many early cabbages.
The later individuals of this first generation, it was observed, were very
S The fall army worm, Laphygmafrugiperda, practically replaced the last two men-
* tioned insects, being often found, while in search for them, working on corn in a
somewhat similar manner.








57

extensively parasitized ill their larval condition by their two most
common parasitic enemies, and to these wve may astrilb the (o.iil).irative
immunity from later generations ol the pest.
The cabbage en rculio, (Ccittuhyel'h n ralp/', occnurre! i ii mnyriads early
in the season on wild cruciters, but did not attack cabbages at tin time
when they were planted in gardens. Time new generation of beetles
attacked cabbage and other crucit'ers, but these had made such good
growth that no trouble was experienced.
The clover-leaf weevil, Phytonomuni punctatun, was ol)served in the
Latter part of August by the writer, as well as by Messrs. Sclhwarz and
SPratt, in greater numbers than ever seen before in this locality.
The common rhubarb curculio, Lix18us coa Cf V17A, was similarly abundant
early in the season in most fields visited, attacking every plant of
rhubarb and dock and puncturing often every stalk and leaf-stalk.
The zebra caterpillar, Mamestra picta, though reported to occur con-
siderably farther south than the District of Columbia, had not been
observed by the writer here until the present year, when considerable
numbers were seen.
The plum moth, Grapholitha prunivora, which is somewhat of a pest
in Canada and some of our most northern States, was quite abundant
the past summer in some orchards, attacking and destroying both plums
and apples. a
The imported currant worm, Pteronus ribesii, was also among the
injurious species found the present year; but most noticeable of all was
the abundance of insects which affect strawberry, blackberry, and simi-
lar rosaceous crops. Among these were the oblique-banded leaf-roller
(Cacceia rosaceana); an allied species, Lozothnia clemensiana; the rasp-
berry sawfly (Monophadnus rubi); the raspberry leaf-roller (Exartenma
permundana); the common strawberry leaf-roller (Phoxopteris comptana),
and the raspberry cane-borer (Oberea biliaculata). Most of these were
exceedingly numerous and were equally scarce in former years. Some
were discovered for the first time the present year on rosaceous crop
plants in this vicinity.

ON SPECIES COMMON TO NORTH AND SOUTH.
Thus far we have considered insects which are for the most part
distinctly Southern, at least in their origin, or that are confined more
particularly to the North or are at least more injurious there than far
southward. Of the occurrence this year of species which are usually
about equally abundant and troublesome in most States of the North
and South, I am unable to draw any deduction. On the whole, how-
ever, many of these, which include a very considerable portion of our
injurious species, were locally scarce, more so than in previous years,
but the writer at present finds it impossible to account for this on the
'The reasons for the retention of the above name for the cabbage curculio will be
given in a forthcoming bulletin.




.... .. 58



58

Score of the weather. For example, the squash ladybird, Epilachna
S borealis, which is a thoroughly acclimated species coming originally,
Though a great many years ago, from the South, was unusually trouble-
some in some localities and scarce in others. The same is true of Dia-
4 brotica vittata, the striped cucumber beetle.
Of periodically injurious species that were troublesome the present
year about Washington, and that do not fall readily into either the
Northern or Southern group, are the fall army worm (Laphygmafrugi-
Sperda), grass bill-bug (Sphenophorus parrulits), pale-striped flea-beetle
(Systena blanda), bean leaf-beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata). and the destruc-
tive green pea louse (Nectarophora destructor Johns. MSS.).
The fall army worm and other cutworms are not apparently very
susceptible to changes of the weather. The bill-bugs hibernate in the
adult stage, and in this condition are among the most difficult insects
to destroy, being long lived and exceedingly tenacious of life. The
plant-lice, though delicate in structure, are really capable of enduring
a considerable variation of temperature, and are to be found in activity
after severe frosts and long after most insects have sought their win-
ter quarters. It is matter of common observation that they are less
affected by cold and by the sudden changes which destroy many insects
Sin winter than by heat and dryness, or by dampness or humidity.
Prolonged cloudy, wet, or humid weather favors their multiplication,
because it is practically only in sunny weather that the parasites of
plant-lice are active. The Chrysomelidae, which includes the leaf-beetles
and flea-beetles, with but few exceptions, hibernate as adults, and are
also unusually vigorous when in this stage, the tobacco flea-beetle
being apparently an exception.

COMPARISONS WITH OBSERVATIONS 3LADE IN OTHER STATES.

The observations conducted by the writer in Maryland, Virginia, and
the District of Columbia just mentioned, and the deductions drawn
therefrom, were independent of those reported by other economic
writers, and to bring out this fact more clearly and to show that the
conclusions were drawn from personal observation originally, the
reports of Messrs. Johnson, Webster, and Quaintance on the same and
effect of the recent weather on scale insects, are referred to in different

paragraphs. The manuscripts from which the notes which follow are
taken reached me about the middle of September, after most of my
observations had been written down, and as the papers in question
have already been published in a previous bulletin of this series (Bul.
SNo. 20, n. s.), where particulars are given, the different species will be
only briefly mentioned.
To begin with, the different species reported by Professor Johnson
as injurious during the season in Maryland, the currant worm, Pteronus
ribesii, was described as a serious pest throughout the State, and was








59


reported also to have done much injury at, I IendeltMrson, Ky. 'I'lhe grape-
vine flea-beetle, Ilaltica ch(7ly//a, wliicli may .be considered a Nortlern
species, was also very abundant in tihe nol'tlILem pIart of"N Marylandl adi
many complaints were inade of injury to grape leave's ;idtl unlthlding
buds. The harlequin (cablbage bug was so rare in the State as to have
been mentioned by Professor .lolhnsoln as hardly to have Ie.In .selen by
him during the season, only one complaint having been received at Iis
office, as compared with very serious injury inflicted thie previous
season. The imported cabbage wormn, liric rpar', 1 continued its
depredations without any lperceptible diminutionn"
Mr. Webster's experience with the harlequin cabbage bulg in Ohio was
similar. He says that it ," certainly sustained a severe repulse by the
low temperature of the last winter. * Its almostentire absence
has been reported in localities where last year it was disastrously
abundant." Exartemtn pernmudana was concerned in injury to black-
berry in Ohio, having been reported from Wayne County in May.
Finally, from Mr. Quaintance's very full report on insects injurious to
the trucking industry in Georgia during the year, it will be seen by
comparison with his paper that those Southern species which were rare
the present season about Washington were fully as abundant as in
previous years in the South, additional proof that tihe weather was the
responsible factor in reducing the numbers of these pests near Wash-
ington. Included in his list of troublesome species of the year are
Allorhina nitida, Heliothis armiiger, Diatraza saccharalis, Margaronia
nitidalis, Pionea rimosalis, and Murgantia histrionica.

SPECIES THAT WERE CONTROLLED BY PARASITES AND DISEASE.

Two species somewhat generally attributed to the South, but so well
distributed northward as hardly to be considered truly southern, were
also rare; but this rarity is evidently due in part to other causes besides
low temperature which, however, probably assisted in reducing the
numbers of these pests.
The cabbage looper, Plusia brassice, which has shared with the
harlequin cabbage bug the distinction of being the most troublesome
of our garden'pests in past years, and which was extremely abundant
in the season of 1898, was not to be found at all the present year until
about the middle of August, and then very rarely. The larve of the
last generation of 1898 were quite extensively parasitized, and this
undoubtedly served as a check on the species the past season.
Protoparce carolina was much less abundant the past year than the
northern P. celeus, except in one single locality, where only the former
was found. The previous year there was no such great disparity in
numbers, but it is by no means certain that the weather was the
important factor in the present case, as both species may be largely
influenced as regards abundance or rarity by their parasitic enemies
and diseases. All of the carolina observed were badly parasitized,








604

and it seems probable that we will have no such numbers the coming
season.
Both of the above species are quite subject to bacterial and other
diseases, and.diseased individuals of both were noticed, but the extent
of infection was not estimated.
No complaints of injury by either species in any portion of the
country have come to my knowledge, although a few specimens were
sent in by correspondents in the South. In this connection comparison
is made with the observations of Messrs. Johnson and Quaintance.
The former reported the cabbage looper as having ruined hundreds of
acres of cabbage in Maryland in 1898, but hardly a specimen was
obtained in the trucking areas the present year. In Georgia, according
to Mr. Quaintance, only a single larva was observed. The experience
of the latter gentleman as to the comparative abundance of the two
tobacco worms agrees with my own.
It would seem probable also that the pickle worm owes its destruc-
tion to other causes than temperature, since the same rarity has been
noticed in Georgia as about the District of Columbia. A bacterial
disease is suspected, as the related nitidalis has been observed by the
writer to die from this cause.
From the examples given it is reasonably plain that weather which is
unfavorable to insects properly belonging to the Lower Austral life
zone and which extend their range into the warmer portions of the
Upper Austral, as in and near the District of Columbia, may favor
the development of Transition forms, and vice versa. With our knowl-
edge of the effect of the latest cold spell we ought to be able to predict
with tolerable certainty, provided other forces with which we are unac-
quainted are not also at work, a similar result following the same
or similar conditions in future years.
As regards the immediate future, there is every probability that the
conditions in the region under consideration, as well perhaps as in
other regions having the same fauna, will not be materially changed
next year from what they have been the past season; and if the pre-
diction of some wiseacre whom the writer has seen quoted that the
winter 1899-1900 will be a severe one is verified, there is strong proba-
bility of a continuance of present conditions, leading perhaps to ai
even greater decrease in southern forms and to a corresponding increase
in northern species.1
PROBABLE DECREASE IN INJURY TO CUCURBIT AND CRUCIFEROUS
CROPS.
It will be noticed by anyone who is conversant with the habits of
the insects enumerated as being affected by atmospheric changes, para-
sites, and diseases, that it includes a considerable number of those
which attack squash, cucumber and other cucurbit crops; cabbage,
turnip and other cruciferous plants, and rosaceous and other small fruits.
'The writer does not desire to be understood as in any way forecasting the future,
but merely as expressing the belief that certain results would naturally follow
certain conditions.


.... ...........







61

In the case of the cueurlits these are of tropileal origin, and the Insects
which affect them are tor the most part to be tfinouind i t lite 'I'ropics, from
which region they have textetldtd in comparatively recent times north
of the Lower Austral lil'e Zonei. 'lTime sqlualsh vine borer will probably
not suffer any great diminution, but the pickle worm and the melon
caterpillar, being more truly southern and being apparently actually
absent from this region at the present time, will doubtless require sev-
eral years before they can regain it foothold here, such at least as the
former species 1had iii 1897 (See Bulletin No. 19., p. 4l1). The leaf-footed
Splant-bug and horned squash bug are somewhat better calculated to
SBsurvive a cold spell than many species so distinctly Lower Austral as
I these appear to be.
S The pests of cabbage and other cruciferous crops have been con-
trolled more particularly by parasites, although the weather doubtless
assisted greatly. If I may be understood as being more specific with-
out being subject to the charge of prognosticating, I would say that
the harlequin cabbage bug should be on tlhe whole rare next year at
the beginning of the season, though it may be fairly abundant in some
few limited localities, particularly late in the season and in the absence
of an attempt to control it. Even in the case of the last generation,
which appears to be the third, this was so small in individuals in 1899
that under any circumstances enough should not survive to work exten-
Ssive injury. Such specimens of the cabbage looper as were collected
here and received from the South were mostly parasitized, and this
species ought to be held in check by its parasites alone. The imported
cabbage butterfly, though numerous early in the season, was apparently
almost completely killed off by parasites. As the cabbage Pionea was
not once observed all season in 1899 further comment is superfluous.
Leaving out the insect enemies of cucurbits and cruciferous crops,
which have been largely reduced in this region by the cold spell or par-
asites, there remain for cucurbits a few species of importance. These
include the striped cucumber beetle, common squash bug, melon louse,
and squash ladybird. Parasitic and other natural enemies of the first
three were noticed to be unusually active throughout the season and
their services should have due effect in decreasing the pests for another
year, but in spite of these it may happen that any one or all four will
be troublesome, at least locally.
Of the principal specific cruciferous plant pests which have not been
mentioned, the cabbage louse, diamond-back moth, and flea-beetles,
Were all present during the year, but not in sufficient numbers to jus-
tify any fear that any of them will be especially and extensively trou-
blesome next season.

PROBABLE DECREASE IN OTHER INSECTS AFFECTED BY COLD.

Of other pests mentioned as rare during 1899 on account of the sever-
ity of the winter, the tobacco flea-beetle, imbricated snout-beetle, gar-
den webworm, and corn stalk-borer will probably not again resume





L 9
rBU jk:.*: :. . *...,J








62

their abundance of recent years for one or more seasons to come, unless
unknown influences are involved.
We can scarcely expect future scarcity of the corn-ear worm unless
another severe and blizzard-marked winter is in store, as this insect
increased in numbers with the advance of the season until, toward the
closing days of September, it was fairly abundant in corn fields, though
not injurious in gardens. The immediate future of the American
locust is also doubtful. Both of these species are strong fliers, and
favorable winds might bring either in considerable numbers and to a
great distance northward in a year or two and the two species again
be as common as ever.

NORTHERN SPECIES APPARENTLY BENEFITED BY COLD WINTERS.

This brings us to the subject of the species which are more at home
in colder regions, and which were apparently benefited by the cold
spell in their hibernation. A study of the insects affecting strawberry,
blackberry and other rosaceous garden crops in the vicinity of the Dis-
trict of Columbia goes to show that we have in this region only one
species which is really of prime importance in ordinary years, the straw-
berry weevil, which it might be mentioned was reported injurious
the past year as in nearly every year for the past decade and more.
The other insect enemies of these crops are, with scarcely an exception,
Northern species, and we may expect a continuance and possibly an
increase of these provided the cold weather prevails throughout the
winter 1899-1900. The same is true of the insects which affect the
currant and gooseberry, only one of which, the imported currant worm,
has been noticed injurious in this vicinity in recent years.

SOME GENERALIZATIONS.

Finally, I wish to emphasize a remark made by Dr. Howard in a
discussion of the geographical distribution within the United States of
certain insects injuring cultivated crops and brought out in referring to
the American locust (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. III, p. 225), which my
own observations substantiate. It is that in certain forms of insects
the winter temperature must have some effect in determining distribu-
tion. While admitting that the past winter was exceptional as regards
temperature, the writer feels confident in carrying conclusions still far-
ther in stating that in his opinion, based upon the study of the effect
of that winter on injurious Northern and Southern forms of insects
occurring in that portion of the Carolinian or humid life areas of the
Austro riparian and Alleghanian zones (a climate like that of the Dis-
trict of Columbia), mean winter temperature has more effect upon deter-
mining the rarity or abundance of these species than has the mean
summer temperature. These observations tend to show, also, what has





a
...i


j







C63


Been long known in regard to plant gro wth andi theoretictally of insmects,
that sudden changes inii the wi ter teii lrwatiirv, su'ch as "'' re/czn or
severe and pIotractell I cold snaps' which sometimes 1oIi(ow InIIea4,LIIahly
warm spells, are more ilinlical to insed.t liVt here (and particll 1: rly when
these occur after warni, sulltnty days in early spring 'or late winterr" when
many species are tempted to issue p)reInatturely froin their winter qituar-
ters) than are hot spells in s11umner or ant1 ii0iii and pajrigs f it lo[ng
drought.' In Kansas and other States of the middle West. and especially
southward in the arid region of the. IP1p'r and Lower Aust'ral (Sonor1; i)
areas, the contrary, according to Mr. Marlatt, is true owing to the greater
frequency and length otf droumghts inl that region.
During the entire season of 1899 not a single instance came under
notice of an insect which was lessened in numbers to any allppreciable
extent by atmospheric conditions existent during the summer. During
the season of 1896, on the other hand, it was noticed of two species,
the Colorado potato beetle and the common asparagus beetle,"' whose
larvae feed freely exposed upon their host plants, that the intense heat
of that summer had the effect of killing them off in a very marked
degree.
It also appears to me what has been observed by Mr. Marlatt in the
case of scale insects (Bul. No. 20, n. s., p. 73), is true in general, viz,
that favorable or unfavorable climatic conditions are of greater impl)or-
tance in determining the abundance or scarcity of insects as a whole
than are other natural checks such as parasitic and other enemies, or
even fungous or bacterial diseases.
The year that has just passed,with its blizzards and low temperatures,
was an exceptional one, and for that very reason had so striking an
effect as to have called forth general remark on the part of the botan-
ist, fruit grower, and in fact all others interested in plant life as well
as the entomologist, and it is in just such years that we are best able
to observe the effect of the weather and to draw conclusions as to
the particular factors which conduce toward the reservations of the
balance of nature.

'This subject is treated more fully by Dr. Howard in his article, entitled "Tem-
perature experiments as affecting received ideas ou the hibernation of injurious
insects," and in the discussion which followed the presentation of that paper befioree
the meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists in 1897 (Bnl. No. 9, n. s.,
pp. 18, 19). It was conclusively shown by Dr. Howard, through an experiment con-
ducted by Dr. A. M. Read, with larvae of Tineola biselliclla anud .Attagenu picens, that
a consistent temperature of 18 F. would not destroy these insects, but that an
alterDation of a low temperature with a comparatively high one invariably resulted
in the death of both.
2The latter species affords an excellent exampl)le of the effect of temperature in
limiting the distribution of an introduced insect northward and southward, the cold
"snaps" killing off the hibernating beetles in the northern limits of the species and
the hot dry spells of summer effecting a similar result in respect to the larvae in its
southern limit (see writer's remarks in Yearbook Dept. Agr. for 1896, p. 374).




* ::....N,:::..Y.::**.
, ,

64
The subject is one of considerable interest and promise, but fraught.
with difficulties. In the writer's opinion, several years of careful studyM
of different species, and particularly of most of those which have re-
t cently been under observation, together with all of the elements which'
tend to produce an increase or decrease in their numbers, would be
productive of definite conclusions as to the cause of these fluctuations.

FOOD PLANTS AND INJURY OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 0
AGRILUS. "
4
By F. H. CHITTENDKN. .
At the time of the publication of an article on the bronze birch borer,
3 Agrilus anxius Gory, in Bulletin No. 18 (n. s., pp. 44-51),which appeared
K in January, 1899, it was intended to include some observations on the
habits of other species of Agrilus, together with a summary of the
known host trees of other North American species, and the paper
Which is presented here was prepared with that intention. Lack of
space, however, prevented its publication at that time, and it is now
presented as a separate article, together with a few additions resulting
from observations during the past season.
The Buprestid genus Agrilus includes five species which have been
reported to be injurious to birch and poplar, chestnut and oak, Lombardy
poplar, raspberry and blackberry, and pear trees, respectively; and there
is strong likelihood that some others, which will receive mention in this
t article, may assume destructive habits at any time. In the notes which
follow special mention of injury by different species of Agrilus a sum-
Smary is given of all the North American species whose food habits are
known, together with their host plants, dates of appearances, and refer-
ences to published records of their habits.
In the preparation of this portion of the article the writer has made
free use of Divisional notes and is particularly indebted to Mr. E. A.
Schwarz for kindness in placing at his disposal many unpublished notes
based on the observations of the late H. G. Hubbard and himself on
the food plants of species mostly of the Southwestern States.

THE BRONZE BIRCH BORER.
As the subject of the biology and remedies to be applied to this
species has lately become a special study on the part of Prof. M.V. Slin-
gerland, of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, it
has not been given the same attention at this office since the publica-
tion of the writer's former article on this insect that would otherwise
have been given it. A few facts, however, have been reported by cor-
respondence and others have come under observation through office
hearings which are of interest and which may be appropriately recorded
here in connection with what will be said concerning other species of
the same genus.






I .
m-_ _-_-__ ..- ...FS t: A il









Further reports of conditions (it Bieftlo, N. Y.-In a letter dated
December 2, 1898, Mr. M. F. Adams stated that the trees ill I)elaware A:
SPark, Buflhalo, N. Y., were infested at a time prior to those ill which the
insect was first discovered and subsequently reported to this oitli was learned from some of the park employees that the liealth tf tlhe
birch trees there were impaired by a. little sapsucker presu mned to be
Picus (Dryobates) pitbesetns. This bird was believed to have seriously
A'tjured the trees, which brought the condition of the sapl to the liking
of the borer, and it multiplied so freely that it was afterwards driven to
attack and has been the primary cause of the death of many healthy
trees. This was effected through the carelessness of allowing tlhe first
trees attacked to remain standing, or in wood piles, all of which aided
in the accumulation of the pest.
On the other hand, our correspondent states that a tree which lie had
under observation during the past few years, and which is located on
the outskirts of the city, was until very recently in apparently vigorous
condition. It did not show the attack either by a plant-louse (presum-
ably a species of Callipterus), which was found in a central part of tihe
city, nor the sapsucker which injured the trees in Delaware Park. It
had plenty of fertilizer in the way of manure water, etc., and many A
remarked what a beautiful and healthy tree it was. Toward fall, how-
ever, it began to show signs of infestation by this insect and upon
examination it was found to be seriously affected in the larger limbs.
In the central part of the city our correspondent believes that this
plant-louse has brought the trees to a condition that has subjected them
to the attack of the birch borer.
Reported occurrence in the West.-June 11, 1899, Prof. F. C. Newcombe,
of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., wrote that what was
without doubt this species, and which he designated as the white-birch
borer, had been in that locality for two or three years and had killed
half the white birches in the city of Ann Arbor.
Recent office observations.-From samples of infested wood sent from
Buffalo by Mr. Adams the following spring and kept in a cool place ill
as near natural conditions as possible the beetles began issuing the
second week of May. Possibly in a more sunny exposure they might
Issue as early as the first week of May.
A single parasite was reared, the chalcidid Phasgonophora sulcata
Westw. which began issuing about two weeks after the adult beetles
and continued after they had all issued from the wood.
This parasite has other hosts as it has been reared by the writer from
Japanese redbud (Cercisjaponica) infested by Chrysobothrisfemnorata,
the most likely host. Adults issued July 8, Washington, D. C.

AGRILUS OTIOSUS SAY: A SPECIES LIKELY TO PROVE TROUBLESOME.
March 12,1887, pieces of bark of maple infested by the larva? of a
species of Agrilus were received from Mr. F. M. Webster, at that time
located at Lafayette, Ind. Mr. Webster stated in his accompanying
11608-No. 22- 5


... _j




S rY i.p. w3:


66

letter of March 10 that within a year a whole row of maple trees on a
street had died, one after another, and the trees were then being dug
up. An investigation of the trees disclosed the presence of numerous
larve of Agrilus, which our correspondent believed to be the cause of
the trouble. In our rearing cages the beetles began to issue April 18,
continuing until the 23d. The species concerned proved to be Agrilus
otiosus Say.
During the spring of 1893 all stages of this Agrilus were taken by the
writer in abundance on a dying tree of the flowering dogwood (Cornus
florida) growing gin the suburbs of Washington, in the District of Columbia.
Field observations began during the first week of May and continued
until the end of the month. May 18 the majority of the insects were
turning to images, some having developed at that time. Larvae taken
from the pupal chamber May 6 transformed to pupae on the 13th and to
images the 28th, the duration of the pupal stage having been fifteen days.
The pupal cells were constructed in the wood just beneath the bark and
at varying angles to the grain of the wood, seldom at right angles,
though often approaching it. The exact dimensions of the galleries
and their general character were not observed at this time further than
to note that iu these respects the work of this species resembled that of
the two-lined chestnut borer, A. bilineatus.
Dogwood appears to be the favorite food tree of this species, but it is
probably a somewhat general feeder. The writer has reared the beetles
from butternut and redbud (Cercis canadensis) in June, and has seen
individuals sunning themselves on dead box-elder under such circum-
stances as to lead to the belief that this was also a food plant; and
there is record in Packard's Fifth Report of the United States Entomo-
logical Commission (p. 376) of the beetles of this species feeding on
freshly formed foliage at the tips of new growths of locust. Dr. Blanch-
ard, in his list of Massachusetts Buprestida (loc. cit.), notes the common
occurrence of this species on oak shrubs in June and July, and the late
Dr. John Hamilton (Tr. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 364) adds that
it breeds in oak. Dr. A. D. Hopkins states that it "infests bark on
d(lead twigs and branches of hickory and black walnut," the adults being
found from April 14 toJuly25. (Bul.No.32,W.Va.Ag.Exp.Sta.,p.183.)
The same writer has mentioned the attack of some species of Agrilus,
perhaps the one under consideration, on Cornusflorida. (Insect Life, Vol.
VII, p. 198.)
In the writer's experience it infests particularly the larger limbs of
its host trees.

THE TWO-LINED CHESTNUT BORER.
July 8, 1899, Mr. C. G. Hatcher, Macon, Ga., sent specimens of the
larva of what is with little doubt Agrilus bilineatus Weber, with report
that it threatened the extermination of the wild chestnut trees on his
plantation in Crawford County, Ga. Fifty years ago, he writes, the,









67


chestnuts were abun(lant in that section, but ar inw n :a steady and
swift decline. The specimens sent were taken from a laIrge' tree about
half dead and very badly infested With thin borer, the leaves hlving
wilted at this time. The characteristic channels of this sHpecies of
Agrilus could be seen on the trunk to a distance of about 7 feet, run-
ning under the bark across the cambium. The insect appeared to kill
the trees about the month of May, the trees dying in a few weeks after
attack (presumably after the emergence of the adults), the leaves look-
ing as if they had been scorched.

LIST OF SPECIES AND THEIR FOOD) PLANTS.
A. abductus Horn.-Observed by the late H. G. HIubbard and by Mr. E. A. Schw;mrz
at Oracle, Ariz., on Quercus arizonica, July 7 (unpublished note).
A.4. abstertsus Horn.-lReared by Hubbard and Schwarz from twigs of A.4cacia yrrf.ii
at Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, in May (unpublished).
A. acutipenris Mann.-On foliage of oak shrubs, June, .IJuly, Mass.-Blanchard
(Ent. Aier., Vol. V, p. 32). A variety was taken by Dr. Blanchard on poplar sprouts
(Tr. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVIII, p. 308).
A. anxious Gory.-The bronze birch borer. Injurious to birch (Betula alba, papy-
rifera, etc.), and willow (Salix discolor) and probably to poplar, June, July, central
and western New York.-See writer's article in Bul. No. 18, n. s., Div. Ent., pp.
44-51.
A. arcuatus Say.-Beaten from oak, elm, and hazel.-Stromberg, Can. Ent., Vol.
XXVI, p. 36. Var.coryli "On the hazel" (Corylus americana), June, July, Mass.-
Blanch. (1. c.).
A. bilineatus Weber.-The two-lined chestnut borer. Injurious to living chestnut
(Castanea dentata) and oak of several species, May-July, D. C.-See articles by
writer in Bul. No. 7, n. s., Div. Ent., pp. 67-75; Circ. No. 24, 2d ser., pp. 1-8. Mr.
Harrington has taken it upon beech and believes it to infest that tree (Rept. Ent.
Soc. Ont. l196, p. 71).
A. couesii Lee.-" On Mentzelia nuda" Santa F6, N. Mex., Aug. 3.-T. D. A. Cock-
erell (Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., p. 150, Sept., 1897).
A. cuneus Lec.-Bred from Croton capitatunt; 'lso occurs on Croton eleagnifolium in
Texas.-Schwarz (unpublished note).
A. difficilis Gory. (occidentalis Uhler).-"Obtained from a species of willow,"
Indiana-TUhler (Proc. Ac. Phila., Vol. VII, p. 416,1855).
A. egenus Gory.-Infests locust (Robinia pseudacacia), mining under the bark and
twigs of the smaller branches, the beetles eating the leaves.-See notes by writer in
Entomologica Americana, Vol. V, p. 219; hickory (Hicoria alba).-Reared by the
writer and others. Reared from Robinia neomexicana in Arizona by Hubbard and
Schwarz.
A. fallax Say.-Habits similar to egenus. In the National collection is a series
from central Missouri labeled by Dr. 0. Lugger "on locust," and another series from
Iowa similarly labeled by the late Dr. C. V. Riley. Among Divisional notes is one
of 'the occurrence of what is stated to be this species under the bark of cottonwood
in July. "Infesting bark and wood of dying branches on living and dying hack-
berry." (Celtis occidentalis).-Hopkius (Bul. No. 32, W. Va. Ag. Expt. Sta., p. 184).
Beaten from oak-Stromberg (1. c.)
A. flix Horn.-Reared from "Palo verde" (Parkinsonia microphylla) at Catalina
SSprings, Ariz.-Hubbard and Schwarz (unpublished note).
A.floridanus Crotch.-Observed by Mr. Schwarz at Tampa, Fla., on Quercus.
A. granulatus Say.-The Lombardy poplar borer. Injurious.-T. J. Burrill (12th
Rept. St. Ent. Ills., pp. 121,122; Fifth Rept. U. S. Ent. Comn., pp. 443, 444). "Breeds




"-I': *:E ::" .. ;


68

in and frequents the stems of partly dead alders" (Alnus) June-July. Mass.-
Blanch. (1. c.).
A4. imbellis Crotch.-" Occurs on Helianthlemum canadense in June to August.
Mass."-Blanch. (1. c.). Common, according to Mr. Schwarz, near Washington,
D. C., in meadows.
A. impetus Horn.-" Occurs on the two locusts (Gleditechia triacanthoo and Rob-
iniapseudacacia), July and August." Galesburg, 111.-Stromberg (1. c.).
A. interruptue Lec.-Probably breeds in oak. June, July, Mass.-Blanch. (Ent. -
Amer., Vol. V, p. 32). Also taken by the writer on this tree. Found "upon beech,
birch, and hickory."-Harriugton (Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1896, p. 71). -
A. lateralis Say.-According to Dr. Horn, this is the species mentioned in Blanch-
ard's list under the name auxius as having been taken as adult upon foliage of pop-
lar sprouts. July, Mass. (1. c.).
A. le oontei Saund.-'"Not rare on hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), June and July."
Galesburg, 111.-Stromberg (1. c.). The writer has observed it upon the same tree
about Washington, D. C., in July, and Mr. Schwarz has observed this species on
Celtis from Michigan to Arizona, and believes it to live on that tree wherever the
latter occurs.
A. macer Lec.-Very injurious, according to Mr. Schwarz, to Celtis oocidnta in
Texas (unpublished note).
A. ?masculints Horn.-On box-elder (Negundo negundo). July, Galesburg, Ml.-
Stromberg (1. c.).
A.4. obsoletoguttatus Gory.-" Quite common on red and laurel oaks, June." Gales-
burg, 111.-Stromberg (1. c.).
SA. ornatulua Horn.-Breeds in huisache (Acacia farnesiana) in Texas.-Schwarz
(unpublished note).
A. otiosus Say.-Attacks and is likely to prove injurious to maple, dogwood (Cor-
n us florida), redbud (Cercis canadensis), hickory (Hicoria spp.), black walnut (JuglaRs
nigra), and probably also infests butternut, box-elder, oak, and perhaps locust.
May-July (ante).
A.palmacollis Horn.-Reared from twigs and branches of mesquite (Proaopis juli-
flora) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana) collected by Mr. Schwarz at San Diego and
Brownsville, Tex.
A. politis Say.-" Infests green bark on living willow trees. May be the primary
cause of death of young trees." June, W. Va.-Hopk. (1. c.). "Common, on Salix
obtusifolia, June," Pa.-Hamilton (1. c.). Also observed by Dr. Blanchard (1. c.) and
the writer on willow. On hazel.-Bruuer (unpublished note).
A.pulchellus Blanch.-Breeds in roots of Erigeron in Arizona.-Hubbard and
Schwarz (unpublished note).
A. ruficollis Fab.-The raspberry gouty-gall beetle; red-necked cane borer. Inju-
rious to raspberry, blackberry, and dewberry (Rubus spp.) June and July.-Various
writers.
A. scitulus Horn.-Reared by Mr. Schwarz from huisache (Acaciafarnesiana) at San
Diego, Tex.-Unpublished.
A sinuatus, 01.-The sinuate pear borer.-Injurious to pear trees in New Jersey.
May, June.-J. B. Smith (15th Rept. N. J. Agl. Expt. Sta. for 1894, pp. 550-561, etc.);
Riley and Howard (Insect Life, Vol. VII, pp. 258-260). In Europe attacks also white
thorn, medlar, and mountain ash (1. c., p. 556).
A. vittaticollis Rand.-" Taken occasionally in June feeding on the leaves of thorn
(Cratregus), shad bush (Amelanchier) and chokeberry (Pyrus arbutifolia). Mass."-
Blanch. (1. c.). "Seems to live on the shad berry (Amelanchier canadensis)."-E. P.
Austin (Pr. Bos. Soc. N. H., Vol. XVII, p. 276,1875). "Rare, on Kalmia and chest-
nut."-Hamilton (1. c.).
Agrilus sp.-Lives in stems of Jatropha multifida, Catalina Springs, Ariz.-Hubbard
and Schwarz (unpublished note).


* "*




wr r r -~


69

EXPERIMENTS WITH HYDROCYANIC-ACID GAS AS A MEANS OF
EXTERMINATING MEALY BUGS AND OTHER INSECT PESTS IN
GREENHOUSES.'
By 11. 1). 1K.MKNWAY, .Anherit, MamB.

THE USUAL IMETHOi).

Hydrocyanic-acid gas has been known and used in thle VWest for fumi-
gation of nursery stock and trees infested with scale since its introduce.
tion by the Division of Entomology of the united States l)epartmeint
of Agriculture in 1886. WVe have no record of its being used in green-
houses until 1895, when, under the direction of Messrs. Woods and
Dorsett, of the Department, it was used successfully on ferns, coleus,
and in violet houses fotbr thle destruction of scales, mealy bugs, and
aphides or plant-lice.2 It has been used to a limited extent since
that time, but not, as a rule, in fumigating greenhouse stock in general.
For many years in the large greenhouses connected with the Mas-
sachusetts Agricultural College, great expense has been incurred in
destroying mealy bugs and scale insects on the vines, palms, orange
trees, acacias, etc., and after a thorough trial of fir-tree oil, lemon oil,
and other insecticides, many of which proved of some value, but were
not wholly satisfactory, it was decided to try hydrocyanic-acid gas, the
most powerful insecticide known. As the common mealy bugs known
in every old greenhouse are very prolific breeders, each female averag-
ing 400 eggs, and with a prospect of a new generation every six weeks,
it became apparent that if we wished to keel) ) plants in good condition
we must exercise constant vigilance or occasionally resort to some
heroic measure.
After several preliminary experiments with some of the more (leli-
cate plants in a wooden box the stove and cactus rooms were fu nigated
at the same time, the connecting doors between thle two rooms having
been opened. Many of the cacti were infested with thle common cactus
scale (Diaspis cacti), while in the stove rooii all tlhrouglh the twining
vines was to be seen the flocculent network of white, waxy threads pro-
tecting the eggs and young mealy bugs.

'The manuscript of this paper was submitted to the Division of Vegetable lPhysi-
ology and Pathology of this Department and kindly examined by Messrs. Galloway,
Woods, and Dorsett, all practical violet growers .mil the )perfecters of the hydro(y-
attic-acid gas method as far as it relates to the treatment of insects in greenhouses.
They point out that while the resutilts obtained ly Mr. Hlemenway may hold good
for the conditions under which the trials were made, they will not necessarily do so
in a different environment, since it has been found in practice that a certain kind of
plant will be injured at one time in one section of the country andl will show no
signs of injury at another time in the same section or in some other locality. In
other words, it would not be safe to use the gas on the saime varieties of plants in
other sections on the evidence furnished by these experiments.-Eti.
Circular No. 37, Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.


- .:,ifl4* t.~ A








70

The materials used in fumigating were as follows:

TRIAL I.


Amount
Cubic feet potassium Water. Sulphuric Time. Result. Date.
space, cyanide acid.
used.
Oz. Oz. Oz. Min.
Cactus room.... 7,076.25 '40 40 70 30 No injury... Nov. 9,1897
Stove room..... 7,357.31 40 40 70 30 .....do ......

98 to 99 per cent pure.
Ordinary glazed earthen jars, holding 2 gallons each, were first
placed in position. The potassium cyanide (40 ozs.) for each room
was tied in double thickness of paper and suspended by means of a
string playing over a support directly over the jars. This string was
held by an attendant at the door. The water was put into the jars
and then the acid. The cyanide was then lowered into the jars, the
door being immediately closed. The room remained closed for thirty
minutes and then the ventilators, which had been previously prepared,
were opened from the outside. The temperature of the house was
about 60 F. The conditions of the weather were perfect for such a
test, as it was raining, the water filling the cracks in the house, and
thus preventing the escape of the gas. It was also warm outside, so
the house was not cooled too low while the ventilators were open, and
it was perfectly dark. The ventilators were left open for over an hour
and then closed for the night.
Results.-The room contained many different kinds of cacti, begonias
in variety, passifloras, allamandas, bananas in fruit, ferns, palms, and
a large variety of general stove plants. Not only were the mealy bugs,
scales, and aphides destroyed, but a large per cent of the sow-bugs
were found dead on the walks and under the moss which carpets the
floor of the solid bed in the stove room. Even the earthworms on the
surface of the soil under the moss were dead.
After this many experiments were made with different plants and
insects put in a glass box containing about 42 cu. ft. of space; also
several practical tests were made in the greenhouse' (see table).

TRIAL I.

This was in a house containing 22,729 cu. ft. of space, using 1 oz. potas-
sium cyanide to every 285 cu. ft., with 11 oz. sulphuric acid and 1 oz. of
water. This house contained carnations, smilax, violets, coleus, chrys-
anthemums, small lettuce, cuttings, and small plants of bedded stock.
It was infested with the common mealy bugs (Dactylopius destructor),
green fly, and the white-tailed mealy bugs (Orthezia insignia). It was
fumigated for 30 minutes upon a cloudy morning, yet in daylight. The

It is to be regretted that no notes were kept on the effect of this treatment on
the plants.-L. o. H.










insects were mostly killed, but some of I the plants were badly Injured.
This was especially true in case of the smilax, tile upper leaves of the
carnations, and the lettuce. MNuchli of the latter, which was very small
and in full light, was killed, while some that was shaded showed mnich
less injury. Tlie smilax and carnations recovered in time, but received
a severe check. As will be seen later, smnilax and more delicate plants
have been subjected to double the strength of gas in darknc.s without
injury.
EXI'PRIMENT I.
Conditions.--lade Nov. 27, 1897, in sunlight, in a glass box contain-
ing nearly 42 cu. ft. The following proportions were used: 2.1 grains
(I oz. cyanide of potassium to 570 ft.4 of potassium cyanide, liberated
with 2.1cc water and 2.1"0 sulphuric acid; temperature of box, 63. F.;
plants treated were Asparagus plumosts, veronicas, roses, ctinerarias,
begonias, and chrysanthemums; the insects upon these plants were
mealybug, "green fly," scale, and Fuller's rose beetle(A ran/ ?igus.l/fit ir );
there were 2 plants each of smilax and roses, one sprinkled with
water, the other dry. The box was closed for 30 minutes.
Results.-Some of the green flies commenced to drop in three minutes.
There was no apparent injury at close of fumigation, but December 2
nearly all plants showed some injury. Most of the insects were killed,
but the rose beetles were not much injured.
EXPERIMENT' II.
Conditions.-Made November 27, 1897, in same glass box; in dark-
ness; potassium cyanide used, 1 oz. to 285 cu. ft., with same proportions
of acid and water as before; temperature 550 F.; time fumigated,
25 minutes; plants used: 2 genistas, 2 cupheas, 2 veronicas, and 2
coleus; insects: mealy bug, green fly, white-tailed mealy bug, scales
(Aspidiotus rapax and A. ficus).
Results.-All insects dead; no injury to any of the l)laits. A com-
parison of these two experiments shows that the first lot treated in
sunlight were all injured while those treated in darkness with double
the strength of hydrocyanic acid gas were uninjured.
EXPERIMENT III.
Conditions.-Made November 28; glass box; dark; potassium cyan-
ide used, 1 oz. to 190 cu. ft., with 1 oz. water and 13 oz. sulplhuric acid
(see table); temperature, 47 F.; time fumigated, 20 minutes; p)lats:
calla, ferns, cineraria, genista, cuphea, camphor tree; insects: scale,
rose beetles, mealy bug, and aphis.
Results.-All insects excepting rose beetles killed; no plants injured.
EXPERIMENT IV.
S Conditimons.-Made November 29, 1897; glass box; darkness; potas-
sium cyanide and conditions same as in No. Ill (see table); time
fumigated, "0 minutes. In this experiment an attempt was made to
watch the effects on Fuller's rose beetle.








72


N
Results.-In 54 minutes after fumigation commenced beetles on the:.
plants dropped, and those on the surface rolled over and drew them-
selves together, apparently dead. About one hour after fumigation
they all recovered.
EXPERIMENT V.
Conditions.-Glass box; darkness; same as above except that time,-
of exposure was 25 minutes.
Results.-Same as in No. IV.
EXPERIMENT VI.
Conditions.-Made November 29, 1897; darkness; 1 oz. potassium
cyanide, 1 oz. water, 1- oz. acid to 142 cu. ft. (see table); plants: cine-
rarias (i sprinkled with water, 1 dry), smilax (1 sprinkled, 1 dry),
ferns; insects: rose beetles; time, 25 minutes.
Results.-Plants not at all injured; nearly all beetles killed.
To destroy the rose beetle it will probably be better to use less
strength of gas and place sheets of paper or canvas beneath the plant
infested, than to use the larger percentage of cyanide, as they are sure
to drop off when the house is fumigated with sufficient strength of the
gas to kill mealy bugs. They can then be gathered up and destroyed.

TRIAL III.
Conditions.-Date, November 27, 1897; place, rose room; 1 oz. potas-
sium cyanide, 11 oz. acid, and 1 oz. water to 570 cu. ft.; room contained
only roses, the new shoots being covered with green fly; length of time
fumigated 25 minutes (see table).
Results.-All aphides were killed, but the tender buds and leaves of
the plants were injured.
TRIAL IV. '
Conditions.-Time, November 29, 1897; place, octagon room; 1 oz.
potassium cyanide, 1 oz. water, 1 oz. sulphuric acid to 175 cu. ft.
(see table). In this room, containing 25,689 cu. ft. of space, three jars
were used with 49 oz. of cyanide to each jar. In this room was large
number of tropical plants, trees, and ferns. It was very badly infested
with mealy bugs and scale, beetles, and aphides.
ResUlts.-Very satisfactory; many of the beetles dropped on the
walk and died. The only injury noted on December 20 was on the
climbing Perle des Jardins rose, but this was not serious. The tree
fern, which was very badlyinfested with mealy bugs, has sent out several
new fronds. The manettia vine, which had its growth checked by mealy
bugs, now has long growing shoots and is covered with blossoms. In
fact, all the plants in this room have made new and decided growth.
TRIAL V.
Conditions.-Place, camellia room; 1 oz. potassium cyanide, 2 oz.
water, and 1 oz. sulphuric acid to 190 cu. ft. (see table); insects




Sm


73

present were aphis, iu'aly bug, white.tailedl mealy bulig, scale insects.
In this room wias a collectioInI of cool-house plants. A difference in the
proportions of water, acid, anld cyanide will here be noticed.
S Reaults.-In the previous experiments it was found that although
there was always an excess of acid present, some of the hydrocyanic
acid was not liberated, owing to the fact, probably, thlat potassiuml sHil-
phate was formed and became crystallized upon the surface before all
the potassium cyanide below was rearche(d by, the acid. For this reason
more water was added to hold the potassium sulphate in solution longer.
SIn this trial, however, there l)roveed to be too little sulphuric acid to gen-
erate heat enough to rapidly liberate the gas, and hence some of tihe
potassium cyaui(le was not decomposed at the end of the fumigation.
Under these circumstances this trial was not wholly successful, as only
the aphides were killed.
TRIAL VI.

Conditions.-Place, camellia room; 1 oz. potassium cyanide, 2 oz.
water, and 14 oz. sulphuric acid to 190 ft. of space (see table).
Results.-This trial was satisfactory, as no plants were injured and
all insects were killed with the exception of the rose beetle.

THE "DILUTE METHOD" OF USING HYDROCYANIC-ACID GAS FOR
FUMIGATING GREENHOUSES.'

Last year we worked with what I am going to call the concentrated
method of using hydrocyanic-acid gas with results as previously
shown-some satisfactory, some unsatisfactory.
The following will show the results of the "'dilute method" of using
the gas for fumigating greenhouses.

TRIAL I.

Conditions.-Date, January 17, 1899; place, camellia room; 1 oz.
potassium cyanide, 14 oz. sulphuric acid, and 2 oz. water to every 3,000
;cu. ft. In this room, containing 6,196 cu. ft. of space, 2.06 oz. cyanide
of potash, 4 oz. water, and 3 oz. sulphuric acid were used. It was
fumigated at night about 6 o'clock, the room remaining closed until
morning. The following insects were present: green fly, mealy bug,
Fuller's rose beetle. The plants in this room at the time of fumiga
tion were, coleus, azaleas in bloom, heliotrope, ferns, hoya, jasminums,
polygala, hibiscus, ericas, orange trees, camellias, cinerarias, oxalis.
The temperature went below 500 F.
Results.-Upon examination it was found that no plants were injured,
and none of the insects save a part of th lie green flies.

'See article by Dr. J. Fisher, Americau Gardening, October 29, 1898, and Circular
37, before cited.




..... L3 j,




r "" ". N ...


74

TRIAL II.
O Conditions.-Date, January 17, 18'9; place, stove room; 1 oz. potas-
sium cyanide to 3,000 cu. ft.; in this room, containing 7,357.31 cu. ft. of
4 space, 2.45 oz. potassium cyanide, 5 oz. water, and 31 oz. sulphuric acid
S, were used; the room fumigated after dark, remaining closed until morn-
jing; insects present were mealy bug, gyeen fly in abundance, and Fuller's
. rose beetle; plants present: Grevillias, ferns, dracaenas, palms, bananas,
pandanas, strelitzia, begonias in variety, mahernias, passifloras, Hoff-
mannias, allamanda, ivy, sansevieria, aristolochia, agaves, heliotrope,
cinerarias, callas, roses, etc.; temperature, about 500 F., or a little above.
Results.-Upon examination it was found no plants save the tender
leaves of the roses were injured, while the aphides on the Hoffmannia
and elsewhere were killed. The other insects were apparently uninjured.

TRIAL III.

Conditions.-Date, January 20, 1899; place, camellia room; all night;
1 oz. cyanide of potash to each 2,000 cu. ft.; 3.09 oz. potash cyanide,
6.2 oz. water, and 4.6 oz. sulphuric acid used; insectspresent: aphides,
mealy bugs, Fuller's rose beetle; plants same as in Trial I.
Results.-Aphides all killed and a part of the mealy bugs; none of
the older ones, however; no plants injured.

TRIAL IV.

Conditions.-Date, January 20, 1899; place, stove room; all night;
1 oz. potassium cyanide to each 2,000 cu. ft.; 3.7 oz. potash cyanide,
7.4 oz. water, and 5.5 oz. of sulphuric acid required; plants same as in
Trial II, except roses; insects: mealy bugs and Fuller's rose beetle.
Results.-Part of mealy bugs killed; old ones not killed; no plants
injured.
TRIAL V.

Conditions.-Date, January 23, 1899; place, camellia room; 1 oz.
potassium cyanide to 1,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 6.2 oz. potash
Cyanide, 12.5 oz. water, and 9.1 oz. sulphuric acid; the room was warmer
than at other times, the temperature being over 50 F.
Results.-In afternoon of January 24, 25 or more mealy bugs were
examined with a lens and all were dead. No injury to any of the
plants was seen. At this fumigation there was no heliotrope or coleus.
The other plants, including carnations, were the same as in Trial I.

TRIAL VI.

Conditions.-Date, January 23, 1899; place, lily room; 1 oz. potash
cyanide to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 1.76 oz. potash cyanide,
3.56 oz. water, and 2.64 oz. sulphuric acid required; temperature, 60 F.
or over; plants present, philodendrons, water lilies (Nymphteas), parrot's






L . ..c. .. -J








75


feather (Myriophyllum proserpinu(coaides), water hyacinth (Eichhornia
orassipes major), water poppy (Linmochctrin h mnboldti). (Cyprua ulterni-
folius, Papyruts antiquorumn, oxalis, orchids in variety, roem, callas,
ferns, New Zealand flax, cobatcas, cailadimns, etc.
Results.-Upon examination tile next day aplhides were found all
dead, although as yet not discolored, aind remaining in theii places.
Of 11 mealy bugs examined, 6 were dead and 5 alive. There was no
injury to any plant, except to the young foliage of the roses, which
was burned.
TRIAL VI.

Conditions.-Date, January 28, 1899; place, second octagon room; all
F night; 1 oz. of potash cyanide to each 3,000 en. ft.; 8.56 oz. o' potassium
cyanide, 17.12 oz. water, and 12.84 oz. sulphuric, cid required; insects:
aphides, mealy bugs, and beetles; plants present: ferns, callas, palms
in variety, agaves, aspidistras, mnarantas, guavas, ja.sminums, loquat,
durantas, ficus, manettias, pleromas, bananas, cordylines, yuccas,
Solanum jasminoides, Cherokee and climbing perle roses, bamboo,
abutilons, cytisus, etc.
Results.-Aphides were killed. On January 31, three days after
fumigating, the only injury to plants was the burning of the tender
leaves on the climbing perle rose, the tender leaves of tI he Solanuminjas-
minoides, which was just starting into growth, and the new fast-growing
shoots of Asparagus tenuissimus. The tender leaves of the Cherokee
rose were slightly burned. Almost none of the bugs (at least none of
the old ones) were killed; of 10 examined, at least 9 were alive; the
temperature was rather low, however.

TRIAL VIII.
Conditionts.-Date, January 28, 1899; place, first octagon room; all
night; 1 oz. potassium cyanide to each 3,000 cu. ft.; 9.44 oz. cyanide of
potash, 18.88 oz. water, and 14.16 oz. sulphuric acid used; insects: aphi-
des and mealy bugs; plants present: asparagus (plumos us, sprengeri,
and tenuissimus), palms, vincas,'ferns, mosses, dracaenas, eupatoriums,
ipomoeas, ficus elastica and religious), cytisus, begonias, marantas,
manettia, aspidistras, cyperus, etc.; the temperature was below 550 F.
Results.-Aphides were killed; but of 50 mealy bugs examined, "
mostly adults, however, only 8 were killed. No plants were injured,
with the exception of the asparagus, which was sending out new and
very tender growth.
TRIAL IX.
Conditions.-D ate, February 15, 16, and 17, 1899; place, second octa
,.gon room; left in all night 3 nights in succession; 1 oz. cyanide of potash
to each 3,000 cu. ft.; 8.5 oz. cyanide of potash, 17 oz. water, and 13 oz.
sulphuric acid used each night; temperature averaged about 56 F.;
the insects for which this trial was made were mealy bugs.







. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ........ .. .








76

Results.-On the morning of the 16th our eat was found dead u
the walk near the entrance. She had evidently walked in the op
door the night before, when 1 went in with the cyanide, and must ha
been killed in a short time. On the 18th 25 mealy bugs were examine
with a lens and 18 were found dead; but this is not a correct percent-!
age of those killed, for many of the dead ones on the plants we
washed off by syringing the house previous to examination. Th:b
climbing roses, the tender leaves of the Solanumn jasminoidesm, the noI
leaf buds of Pleroma mnacranthum, the new fronds of Pteris tremnsia
and the new shoots of Asparagus tenuissimus were all more or less
injured. The other plants showed no injury.

TRIAL X.

Conditions.-Date, February 15, 1899; place, stove room; left in all
night; 1 oz. potash cyanide to each 2,000 cu. ft.; 3.7 oz. potash cyanide,
7.4 oz. water, and 5.5 oz. sulphuric acid required; temperature, 550 to
600 F.; insects: mealy bugs and aphides.
Results.-In this room there was no injury to plants; all of the
aphides were killed, and all mealy bugs examined were dead. This
house was also fumigated with the same proportions on January 27.

TRIAL XI.
Conditions.-Date, February 16, 1899; place, vegetable house, west;
1 oz. potash cyanide to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; temperature,
560 F.; 2 oz. cyanide of potash, 4 oz. water, and 3 oz. sulphuric acid
required; insects: an abundance of "green fly"; plants present: let-
tuce, radishes, papyrus, smilax, cinerarias, kale. The lettuce and cin-
erarias were badly covered with "green fly."
Results.-Ail or nearly all "green fly" killed, even under the lower
leaves of the lettuce, which had commence to head. There was no
injury to plants.
TRIAL XII.

Conditions.-Date, February 23, 1899; place, the pit; 1 oz. cyanide
of potash to each 3,000 cu. It.; left in all night; 3 oz. cyanide of potash, 6
oz. water, 4J oz. sulphuric acid required; temperature, 47 F.; insects
present: mealy bugs and "green fly"; plants: cinerarias, calceolarias,
pelargoniums, geraniums, muehlenbergia, eupatoriums, nasturtiums,
clemnatis, etc.
Results.-The aphides were nearly all killed, while the mealy bugs,
the older ones at least, were not injured. There was no injury to plants.

TRIAL XIII.
Conditions.-Date, February 28, 1899; place, camellia room; 1 oz.
cyanide of potash to each 1,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; temperature,500
F.; 6 oz. cyanide of potash, 12 oz. water, 9 oz. sulphuric acid used; plants






it




". .. .. .... ..




77

present: carnations, figs, poinegratliat's, ouriiniig, siimnelliiis, lizallas,
chrysanthemums, 'Sarijfray/a trirmentouna, liolygiilda, Iiird1y clit tiii gs, itc.;
insects: several hundred nimaly brugs from vilirI viili's wrV picked,
placed in a shoe box cover, and put in this rooii just. be lin- filiinigiat-
ing it.
Results.-Over SO of thlie mnealy luligs ill tlie lbox cover weli ixiiitid
with a lens, bitt none of then were alive. No li<,- oiiems \vi' fiiiilnd
anywhere in the room. 'Tilh leaves of tihe figs andI poniegriiiateN, wlihichli
werejust beginning to come out, werl injurel. Somie or tli ig le, I.ves
That were partly formed dropped. The other plants were uiiiinjured,
excepting the tender veronicas.
TRIAL XIV.

S Conditions.-Date, February 28 and Mlarch 2, 1899); plahcc, the pit; I
oz. cyanide of potash to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; ;i oz. cyanide
of potash, 6 oz. water, and 44 oz. sulphuric acid required; tenipera-
ture, 540 F.
Results.-At the first fumigation, February 28, most of the "green fly"
were killed, but not all, owing to the fact that the jar used iii fumigating
was toolarge, and the cyanide was not all immersed. On March 2 a
smaller dish was used. There was no injury to plants in either case.
The "green fly" were all killed the second time.

TRIAL XV.

Conditions.-Date, March 1, 1899; place, vegetable house, complete;
1 oz. cyanide to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 4 oz. cyanide, 8 oz.
water, 6 oz. sulphuric acid required; temperature average, 450 F.;
insects: greenflyy"; plants: headed to heading lettuce and small let-
tuce, small cabbages, parsley, old smilax, papyrus, hibiscus, strawber-
ries, radishes, kale, and Bellis perennis.
Results.-In this trial the jar was too large and the liquid did not
cover the cyanide, some remaining undecomposed until morning. The
"green fly" were, however, nearly all killed. There was no injury to
any plant.
TRIAL XVI.
Conditions.-Date, March 2, 1899; place, cactus room; 1 oz. cyanide
to each 2,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 3.5 oz. of cyanide, 7 oz. water,5.3 oz.
sulphuric acid required; temperature, 58 F.; insects: mealy bugs,
"green fly"; plants: agaves, cacti, cinerarias, I)ereskia, begonias,
mahernias, asparagus, vincas, calceolarias, doryanthcs, ferns, oxalis,
acacias, cyclamen, clematis, etc.
Results.-In the morning there was a stronger odor than usual in the
house. The "green fly" were killed. Of 10 mealy bugs examined
6 were dead, the larger ones being the ones alive, as a rule. The only
injury to plants was on the marguerites: a part of the blossom buds
Were burned just below the bud, causing the buds to droop.







o :U:


78 I


TRIAL XVII.

Conditions.-Date, March 2, 1899; place, second octagon room; 1 oz.
cyanide to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 8.5 oz. cyanide, 17 oz. water,
and 13 oz. sulphuric acid used; temperature, 570 F.; insects: "green
fly" and mealy bug. It was found that a large number of mealy bugs
had been destroyed by the fumigation of February 15, 16, and 17, but
some remained.
Results.-" Green fly" all killed. Of 10 mealy bugs examined 7 were

dead. It is possible that a part of this number remained on the plant,

dead from the previous fumigation. The younger ones were the ones
generally killed. The roses and solanum were injured as usual.


TRIAL XVIII.


Conditions.-Date, March 2, 1899; place, first octagon; 1 oz. cyanide
to each 3,000 cu. ft.; left in all night; 9.5 oz. cyanide, 19 oz. water, and
14.2 oz. sulphuric acid required; temperature, 530 F.; insects: mealy

bugs; plants: palms, veronicas, cytisus in bloom, oxalis, asparagus,
cyperus, ficus, oranges, mahernia, vincas, cupheas, Spirwcea japonica,
marantas, etc.


Number.


Trial I .......-....

Trial II............
Experiment 1.
Experiment 2.
Experiment 3.
Experiment 4..
Experiment 5..
Experiment 6..
Experiment 7..
Trial III..........
Trial IV...........
Trial V............
Trial VI...........


Number.


Trial I .............

Trial II...........

Experiment 1.
Experiment 2.
Experiment 3.

Experiment 4.
Experiment 5.
Experiment 6.

Experiment 7..

Trial IITI...........
Trial IV..........
Trial V...........
Trial VI..........


House.


Cactus room............
Stove room .............
Propagating greenhouse.
Glass box................
.....do ...................
. .. do ...............
do ..................
. ..do ..................
...do ..................
....do ................
Rose room..............
Octagon ................
Camellia.................
.....do ..................


Potash Water.
cyanide.

Ounces. Ounces.
'40 40
40 40
810) 80
Gramins. C. c.
2.1 2.1
4.2 4.2
6.3 6.3


6.3
6.3
8.4

6.3
Ounces.
86.3
147
34
37


6.3
6.3
8.4

12.6
Ounces.
86.3
147
68
68


Date.


Nov. 9

Nov. 1'i6
Nov. 27
....- do ---
Nov. 28
Nov. 29
.... do -..
N...do ..

Nov. 27
Nov. 29
Dec. 4
.... do ...


Acid.


Ounces.
70
70
120
.c.
2.1
4.2
6.3

6.3
6.3
8.4

9.45
Ounces.
152
147
34
51


Temper- Condition.
Time. ature. Condition.


Min. 0 F.
30 60 Raining ....
30 60 .....do ......
30 .......... Daylight ...
30 63 Sunlight.-
25 55 Darkness ...
20 47 .....do ......
9n 1f


-'U
25
25
30
25
30
30
30


47
45

63
60


do..... U ......
.....do .
..do .....

Darkness..-.
....do .-----


55 0..... do ......
55-0 ...do ...


Space.


Oubie feet.
7,076.25
7,357.31
22,729
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
4,894.37
25,689
6,196
6,196


Results.


Insects killed; no injury to plants.
Do.
Plants injured; insects killed.

Insects mostly dead; all plants injured.
Insects killed; no injury to plants.
All but beetles killed; no injury to
plants.
Do.
Du.
All insects and some beetles killed;
plants uninjured.

Tender buds injured; insects killed.
Satisfactory.
Not wholly satisfactory.
Satisfactory.


'98 to 99 per ceut pure.


grer .0


II








S79

SCALE INSECTS ON AMERICAN FRUIT IMPORTED INTO GERMANY.

[A Istraht of a pR |i6 r liy |Ir I I.. it :ii.']
I N'I{()I)i I('T1(N.

Extensive scientific investigations could ni Ii h liuade during the first
winter of the existence of the station, and thi prnm'iit plblivatilii is
confined to some statitiical notes based U11po01 a c, ireflul ( n4)llt of the
scale insects found on American fruits. As a matter of course, o0ly ;a
small fraction of the inspected fruits could be m1at e1 tinl basis of the
following enumeration:
I. INVESTI1JIATIONS.
DISTRIIHUTION OF COCC[IDS ON TilE SIURFACE1 (OF' FRI'ITS.
As a general rule Coccids are found on the protected places (i" tlhe
surface of fruits; in stone fruits, therefore, in the stem cavity, but also
on the stem; in pears and apples the flower cavity and the calyx cavity
are favorite living places; in apples, in addition, the deep stem cavity.
Aspidiotus perniciosus alone occurs frequently oni the unprotected sur-
face of pears.
I have counted on pears:

Male.' Female.

Chionaspisfurfurus Fitch:
In the calyx cavity ..................................... ..................... ......I
In the flower cavity................................................................. 1 16
Near the flower cavity --............................................................ ...... 30
On the side ..................... ................................................... ...... I
Around the stem ...................................................... ............ 10 13
On the stem ........................................................................ 1 4
Total ............................................................................. 12 65

Similar tables follow regarding 6 othtr species, which it is not neces-
sary to print in detail, but which may be summarized as follows:
Aspidiotus ancylus Putn., 259 specimens.
Aspidiotusforbesi Johns., 17 specimens, all in the cavity of the flower.
Aspidiotus perniciosuts Comist., 757 specimens.
Aspidiotus cantelliat Signoret, 115 specimens.
Chionaapis furfiurts Fitch, 52 specimens.
Mytilas8pis pomnorum Bouche, 59 specimens.
This last-mentioned species proved to be quite aberrant. On the free
surface there were 20.34 per cent of the specimens and none whatever
in the flower cavity, which is so favored by the other Coccids.

SThis paper of Dr. Reh's, entitled "Untersuchungen an Amerikanischen Obst-
Schildlansen," was published recently in the Mittheilungen 1,us dem Naturhis-
toriscben Museum," Volume XVI, and as it summarizes a lengthy series of careful
observations, points a moral to American exporters of fruit, and shows plainly the
importance to our entire fruit industry of sending abroad only perfectly clean fruit,
this abstract in English has been drawn up at my request by Mr. E. A. Schwarz.-
L. 0. H.





:'. ..ii, : .
.:....
... *. ...


80 -i

In the following table are summarized the data concerning place .
surface of fruits where the specimens were found:

Above. On side. Below. -

Per cent. Per eeL Per eML
Aepidiotue ancylu ................. ...... ............ a.. .. .. 7.33 0.38 U.828:.
forbesi.................................. .......... .......... 100
pernicioua..................................... 34.75 3.56 6L.BU
camelUice ................... ....... ............... 78.26 .......... 21.74 .:
Chionaspisfurfuru.............................. ...................... 13.80 8.62 77.58
MytilaspispoioruMO ................................................... 71.18 20.34 ) e48

From a consideration of these figures I am inclined to assert thalit
the distribution of scale insects on the surface of fruits depends on.the
sensitiveness of the insects to meteorological influences. Those not
sensitive are Aspidiotus camellia, and especially Mytilaspis pomorum;
those very sensitive are Aspidiotus ancylus and A. forbesi; Aspidiotw
perniciosus is comparatively not sensitive.

STAGE AND SEX OF THE SCALE INSECTS (COUNTED ON FRUIT).

Free living larva have never been found, and the specimens desig-
nated as larva are specimens already fixed.
A. ancylus.-Among 262 specimens were 250 immature females, 12
larvae. There is therefore hardly any danger that this species could..
be imported, although it is by far the most common species.
A. forbesi.-Of the 17 specimens all were immature females,but in a
few instances (not enumerated here) a few male larvae were seen. Om
account of the rarity and sensitiveness of this species there seems tj
be no danger of its being imported. d2.
A. perniciosus.-I counted 82 males, 354 females, 259 larva.. The
specimens designated as males were, almost without exception, male
larve or male pupae. Most of the females were almost mature and
many had eggs, but only 2 had mature embryos. The danger of impor-
tation of this species is therefore very great. In sending of apples
(pears are sent to Germany only in a dried condition) which arrive in
the late fall of the year this danger is reduced to a minimum, but it
increases with the beginning of spring, reaching its maximum from
March to May.
A. camelliwe.-Of 33 specimens 1 was a male (dead), 10 females with
mature embryos, 12 females mature but without embryos, 9 young
females, and 1 larva. There is danger in its importation, since it
occurs only in warmer countries and since its home is southern Europe.
Chionaspis frj'ururus.-Of 133 specimens 115 were females, 17 more or
less developed males, and 1 larva. Of the females 94 were filled with
eggs. The danger of the importation of this species appears to be
quite considerable, but is reduced by the facts that the species is con-:
fined to warmer countries and that it is everywhere driven out by f.
pomorumn, which is so common in Germany.


*. ..... ...








Sl

MyliaispiM poniruhim. -( )f I;:i speiiens a il were teinmals. )I" thlies
14 were exitaiiinedl, attind 1 1 of this n1111111er h ',nih ttail'(d 'ggs. Silltn' tiis
species is at niti\ye o( Europe, tlite iiitstioii of inlmjnrtatilcln ';i iird1-ily
be considered.
lin stumi ning u]), a danger of iii ntil)rt'iti ii) i'(lli.M ilto' ci) sidcer:it iII[
only with thlie Sanll Jose svlle', and tilt' recent ed icts of tih' I Gove nieniit
are therefore justly contined to this species.

LIVING ANI I)A1) SI'FCIM.,INS AMIO)Ni IMI'IUTICI) AI.I:-PAICAI iIT.}:.
For dried fruits of all sorts it nmuist be accepted as an invari:ible rim,
that no living scale has ever been found thereon. rl1ile following ttable,.s
refer to fresh fruit, and while, as Professor Kraepelin says, tlhe colii-
zation of such fruit by scales must be considered asn an atlnormial lphe-
nomenon or an aberration, there is no reason to doubt tlhat such scales
as have settled on fruit will develop and propagate.
Aspidiotus ancylu..-Or 250 females 232 were alive; of 12 larvi', 11
were alive; total, 92.75 per cent alive, 7.25 per cent dead. Of the 19
dead scales 4 had been killed by hymenopterous parasites and 2 were
infested by fungi.
A.forbesi.-Of 17 females 1 was dead.
A. perniciosus.-T here was considerable difference in the various lots
Sand the following tables are taken at random firot those I have exam-
ined, in some of them the scales being greatly and in others poorly
infested by parasites.
Here follow six tables which it will not be necessary to print in full,
the summary of which is as follows: Two hundred and fourteen (33.49
per cent) living and 425 (66.51 per cent) dead specimens of A. periici-
osus were found. Of the dead specimens 63 were "eaten out" (killed
by insect enemies), equal to 9.06 per cent of all specimens, aind 156
(equal to 22.44 per cent of all specimens) were infected by fungi.
More than 30 per cent'of all imported San Jose scales arrive infested
*by parasites (insects and fungi). The experiments regarding tlhe accli-
matization of hymenopterous parasites seem to blie beset with great
difficulty. That, of the fungi would be easier, and it would be quite
important to ascertain whether the fungus found by us is really Splah'-
rostilbe coccophila. This question must be left to thle botanists.

COMMON OCCURRENCE OF SEVERAl. SPECIES OF1 CICCID.:.
1. Common occurrence on different appj)les of the same sending.-.. ancylus, .1. fo.l'hei,
and M. pomnorum on Russets (November 21, 18981.
A. ancylus and M. pomorunt on Baldwins three times (Novembrr 25, 1898, )ecerimler
14, 1898, Decenmber 27, 1898); on Canada Red (November 2,. l 98), on Rock Russct
(December 14, 1898). and on Spy (November 25, 1898).
A-4. ancyius and Ch. frfu rus on Fallawater (November 22, 1898).
A. camelli(' and M. jpomorum on Newtown Pippins (December 29. 1898).
A. perniciosUs, A. camenlir, and M. po-orum on Newtown Pippius (November 14,
1898).
L 11608-No. 22 - 6




*r..* .: *...


43
82

A. pernicio8u8, A. forbesi, and Ch. fnrfurns on Ben Davis, from Virginia (December
6, 1898).
2. Common occurrence on one apple.-A. ancyluts and A. forbesi on one English Ruaset
(November 29, 1898)..
A. camellia, and M. pomorum on one Newtown Pippin (February 14, 1899).
A. pernicious and A. camellia on two Newtown Pippins (February 14, 1899).
A. perniciou88 and M. pomorumn on one Newtown Pippin (February 14, 1899).
The result of the investigation is rather negative. The various spe-7
cies of Coccids occur in company in all sorts of combinations, but it
seems that the occurrence of A. ancylus excludes that of A. camellia
and A. perniciosus.
EXPERIMENTS.

No experiments to imitate the American methods of drying fruit
were made for various reasons, but more especially because we rely
implicitly upon the results of the experiments made in the laboratories
of the United States Department of Agriculture, under the direction of
L. 0. Howard, by the pomologist, William A. Taylor, and the ento-
mologist, Nathan Banks.
Only the two following experiments appeared to me important in rela-
tion to the importation of fruit:
1. The non-importation edict is also directed against the wrappings
and packing of the invoices. Many wrapping papers were examified
by us, but always with negative result. In this connection experi-
ments were made to ascertain how long a Coccid would live when
removed from its place and transported to another place on-the apple.
The result was that, under the most favorable circumstances, the Coc-
cid lives about three months; under ordinary circumstances, about one
week.
The result is that the various packings-barrels, boxes, paper-do
not appear to present any danger as to the transportation of the San
Jose scale.
2. The non-importation edict refers also to dried-apple peelings:.
Upon such peelings no living Coccids have ever been found, as far as I
know, but I made experiments to ascertain the vitality of A.perniciosua
on fresh peelings. Result: The scales on the thickest peelings lived
longest, not quite twenty days; on ordinary peelings they died in from
eight to fourteen days. But in all cases these peelings were fresher
than those arriving from America.
A few other experiments may be briefly mentioned here.
3. Re-formation of the scale, and vitality without the scale.-The scale
was carefully removed from the Coccids without touching the latter,
but a re-formation of the scale never took place. If the scale was only
slightly lifted it was slowly but firmly drawn back again by the insect.
The vitality without scale was a very long one, extending over more
tlian three months.
4. The behavior of Coccids on rotten apples appears to me of impor-
tance, because such apples are of course thrown away. My experiments


.. .. ::..::::




- r -.


83

gave the result that C(e'ids aire able to retain their vitality on rotten
apples for about three weeks.
5. Vitality of (bocids imenernvd in trater.-The few experiments meem
to show that Coccids can live several hours under wetter.
6. Experiments tcith gnsex.-Cold vapor of alcohol does not kill; willi
S vapor of alcohol kills pretty quickly. Vapors, cold and warn, of
formalin do not kill. Sulphur vapors seem to kill scales on apple.
Common chloroform gas easily kills the lice, but the apples turn quite
brown. To gas of cyanicalium the lice proved to be quite indillerejit.
7. Fluids that penetrate the scale.-Quickly evaporating tui(i-such as
alcohol, tbrmalin, chloroform, eau de Javelle-do not seem to have any
effect, whereas a painting of the scale with sulphuric acid, toluol, and
heavy oil (Riibdl) surely killed the lice.
8. Temperature experimnents.-One apple was immersed for twenty
minutes in water of 500 C.; the lice were not killed.
Without microscopic examination of the cells it is extremely difficult
to decide whether a Coccid is dead or alive.

INSECT CONTROL IN RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA.
By FELIX G. HAVENS, Riverside, Cal.

The work of insect pest control naturally divides itself into three
parts, viz, inspection, eradication, and quarantine.

INSPECTION.
In Riverside County the work of inspection is organized as follows:
The county board of horticultural commissioners, consisting of three
members, has divided the county into three divisions, each division
being in charge of one commissioner. The orange-growing section,
known as Riverside, and comprising 12,500 acres of citrus orchards,
is one of these divisions. Riverside division is subdivided into six
districts, and a local inspector is in charge of each district.
All of the work of inspecting done in each district is reported by the
inspector in charge, and these reports give in detail the names of the
inspectors employed, owners of property inspected, acres examined,
pests found, date of plat or report, amount of time occupied in inspect-
ing each ranch, and how divided as between the inspectors employed.
Each orchard is examined tree by tree and row by row, together with
all of the shrubbery, rosebushes, etc., on the place. Whenever infested
trees are found in an orchard they are marked around the trunk or in
some equally permanent manner, and the inspector in charge notes their
location in the orchard, and when the orchard is finished, he makes a
plat or diagram showing the location of all the infested trees in the
orchard, in relation to each other and to the boundaries of the orchard.
The orchards are so set out and arranged that a sheet crosslined with
35 lines each way can be used to correctly designate the location of each




r .'. _l .


84

tree on any given 10 acre orchard in the county. Where orchards are
less than 10 acres the diagram is cut down, and where more than 1Q
acres it is platted in 10-acre sections. Three copies of all plats are
made, and used as follows: One is given to the foreman of the eradica-
tion work and is used in locating the trees in the orchard when that
work is done, one copy is filed in the office of the horticultural commis-
sioner, and one is given to the owner of the orchard.
The inspector keeps the notes taken at the time the infested tree was
found and thus has a permanent record. By these means the identifi-
cation of all infested trees is made absolutely correct. The plats of
each orchard for the consecutive years or inspections are kept together
and present in each case a full brief of the course of the insects in each
orchard. The work of inspection is at present being fully cared for in
the entire 12,500 acres by six inspectors. The older part of the orchards,
comprising about 5,000 acres, is inspected as near as may be once a
year. It is in these orchards that the pests were established when the
inspection began, and as most of the trees are large seedling orange
trees, from twenty to twenty-five years old and 30 feet high by 20 feet
in spread of branches, it can be seen that an inspector must needs be
expert to safely inspect from 2 to 3 acres of such trees per day. The
younger part of the orchards comprises about 7,500 acres, and contains
mostly navel orange trees. These trees have all been set out since
the horticultural commission was established, and as every tree was
inspected and none allowed set out unless it was clean of insect pests
these orchards have grown up under good care and not to exceed
20 trees infested with pests have ever been found in the whole 7,500
acres. An attempt is made to inspect this part of the orchards once
in two years. The work has always been such that the efficiency of
the inspection was of the highest importance. In case of such pests
as the red scale, for instance, if an inspector should fail to find it on a
tree, before the routine brought the inspector around to the orchard
again not only would that tree be badly infested, but a dozen trees or
more perhaps in its immediate vicinity would be affected also. The
policy has been to use every endeavor to stamp the pests out, and to
that end every tree found infected has been treated. If the infection
was slight and only on a few leaves or one or two twigs, the branches
were cut out liberally and burned. This was found to be quite suffi-
cient in almost all of such cases, and thousands of trees have been
cleaned in this way by the inspectors, and have never since shown
infestation. By this system of reports, records, plats, etc., it is pos-
sible to keep track of every tree in all this 12,500 acres and find all of
tlhe data in our office, and all arranged in very simple ma6ner. A tree
selected at random anywhere in this valley can be taken, and the
records of the commission will show whether it was ever found infested
with pests, and what kind, also how many times, and the dates when
it was inspected, name of the inspector who examined it each time,
and if it has been found affected with pests when it was treated and
what with, also what variety of fruit the tree is.











85


This does not involve a nmmilu.x .systuIa ait all, I1i ai fi'w very Hiliple
reports a iind plats furnish it all. The' r .ist Wti" tis systtini ofi iasimcrtioii
since April, 18 ')5, anI tle a'res c xaiLiiitAd, niiiiiilr (if tre-Ms found
infested eachl year to dateo in Riversile tdiv'isionI, ha Mbeenli as iIllows:


S'OI'ri|.


1895,9 months, April to I)eenilnbr :11 .... ...........................
1896 ......................................... ........ ................
189 1 ........................................ ........................
\ .... ............. .......................I..................... ...
1809,.11 mon01ths, 141 DUcumlber I1........................................


'R l I N I i II I l l r i l J l .
.i.. 1 llN,. I..|,. 1 . Ul.NA
*f 'lrH |j l.


114. 143 97
ltl'. 19.U
: 1, l:ll. 19
:[, :){. ;1l
l, (HL.,, i4
3, 7;14. tid


I. ','.I
4, il7/
4,925
4. Gnu
4, 9mU


n, :175
7. im
6, (b
5, KMH
1, 63:17


lu this State fruit trees over 4 years old are taxed(. In this .county
an agreement has been made whereby th. e money raised(l from this tax
is available for the work of the horticultural commission. It is divided
between the three divisions, each division receiving tlie money raised
by the tax on the trees within its limits.
Under this arrangement Riverside has never used her full share of
the money in any year since 1894.
The expense given in the above table covers also the cost of the
quarantine work; in fact, all of tlie expense of the Riverside division
except the work of eradication.
The following is the form of report each inspector makes covering
operations in his district:

Report of fruit pest inspecting done and time of each inspector working in
division district during --


--, Inspector in Charge.


Assistants.


c* Q
o 0
oJ C)
a

Days. Days.
I *


o 0 0
.bS 4.> -
C. *-i U
-, -



Days. Days. IDays.


a? be
2.2
E-4






--I
E O


-a

0 .

S I Remarks.
i5-


ERADICATION.

Efficient methods for destroying insect, pests are fully as important
as careful work in inspection. The pest which has given the most
trouble is the red scale; other scale i)ests have either never gotten a
foothold or else have been checked by )parasites or natural causes. The
hydrocyanic-acid gas treatment is the one that has been generally used
on citrus trees, and it has been almost uniformly successful.


Name of
owner.


Kind of
trees,



02

C 0
ro
M z,


Kind of
pests.


..........





..: dI


86 ..

Previous to June, 1897, the work of eradication was under the con-
trol of persons not connected with the horticultural commission, and,
consequently, there was not the system and promptness so essential in
work of this kind. The new horticultural law, which took effect April,
1897, provided that owners or agents of pest-infested trees or premises
be given notice as follows:
NOTICE.
No.
To residence
You are hereby notified that the undersigned, horticultural commissioner of the
county of Riverside, State of California, has caused an inspection to be made of your
orchard and the trees thereon, located at in said county.
* That said examination was made on the day of- ,189-, and that upon said
examination of your said orchard -- trees we'-e found to be infested with- .
injurious to fruit and fruit trees. You are therefore notified that your said orchard
and trees are infested with said injurious to fruit and fruit trees, and you are
hereby required to eradicate or destroy the said scale insects and other pests and
their eggs and larvae, within days of the time of the service on you of this
notice.
Dated this day of 189-.

Horticultural commissioner as aforesaid, quarantine guardian in and for the county of
Rirerside at large.
Notice served by -- horticultural inspector.
The law further provides that in case said owners, etc., do not eradi-
cate the pests, it is the duty of the horticultural commissioners to at
once proceed to abate and eradicate said pests. This made it necessary
for the horticultural commissioners to be provided with the required
outfit for the business. The commissioners therefore had the following
form of contract prepared, secured the signature of the owners of
infested property, and went into the fumigating business.

FORM OF CONTRACT.
STATE OF CALIFORNIA, County of Riverside, ss:
I hereby waive the within notice, and all notice and service thereof, and consent
that the horticultural commissioner may proceed at once without further notice or
any notice and eradicate and destroy the scale insects and other pests and their eggs
and larvae with which my orchard and trees are infested, at my expense.

189-.
The work is done at actual cost, but 10 per cent is added to cover
repairs and to replace the outfit when it wears out.
Below is given the cost and number of trees fumigated since June
7, 1897:


Year. Number Total cost.
of trees.

1897................................ 4,720 $4,153.60
1898................................ 5,888 5,299.20
1899................................ 1,637 1,474.87






i s
87

S An examination f"ta th lie llove iil'urts dis ieloge.4 a jihenomenal decrease
in the number of pests since 1898. A < 28 orchards of ai total acreage of 315 ai'res liil 1,609 trees f(Jund
infested with red scale and fuiinigated in I SiS. The siilie iorchairdx at
the 1899 inspection tirnied out only 433I inestedl trees. Almso N
orchards, containing 460 acres, 11l41 2,1l31l infested trees in 18l4 Sand 633
in 1899. In all of these 3,734 trees ftliimigaited in these 66 oirchliards Con-l
taining 805 acres, not a single one but was cleaned and the plests
destroyed by the fumigation of 18.8. Every one of the l,(i0 trees found
this year were new Ones that had never shown infection before.
These orchards referred to are in the oldest section of the River-
side orange district, and the trees, which are seedlings, are mostly over
twenty-five years old, and the red scale was established in them wlien
the horticultural commission was established in 18S9. The records of
the commission show this to be the smallest number of infested trees
ever found at any inspection of these groves since the records began,
which was April, 1895.
QUARANTINE.
The quarantine work is regarded as the most efficient part of the
service. The pests kept out do no harm. In this part of the work is
included the inspection of all nursery stock grown in the district and
the inspection and treatment of all nursery stock and fruit brought in;
also the inspection of fruit-packing houses, and attention to all of the
methods whereby pests might be carried from one locality to another
orchard or locality. So efficient has this work been that no insect
pests have been brought into Riverside and become established since
the horticultural commission was established; and this, too, in the face
of the fact that in 1890, 1891, and 1892 more than 200 carloads of orange
nursery stock was brought to this place from Florida and set out.
A very large proportion of the navel orange orchards was planted
with this stock. There was hardly a tree among all of tihe hundreds of
thousands that was not infested with dangerous pests, and many of
them were covered with purple scale. The worst infested trees were
burned, aud the rest dipped in a strong whale-oil soap and kerosene
solution and the insects scrubbed off with stiff bristle brushes.
A tree was never allowed to be taken away as long as there was any
possibility of there being pests on it. Similar vigilance hias been
observed ever since, and the results have more than justitied the care-
fulness of the commission. The law requires all persons bringing in or
receiving nursery stock to notify the horticultural commissioner or local
inspector within twenty-four hours of the time of their arrival.
The railway and express agents also refuse to deliver such goods
except to the horticultural officers.
All shipments of nursery goods are inspected before delivery to the
owners, no matter whose certificate accompanies then, for experience
has amply convinced the commission that it can not affolbrd to take any



i:







88

chances whatever, but must be governed by the condition of the nursery
stock in every case. In innumerable cases the accompanying certificate
gave the stock a clean bill of health, when a careful examination would
reveal the presence of dangerous pests. Sometimes it would be'root
borers, as in the case of Japanese orange stock, which passed the
State quarantine officer's hands. The commission regards it as a mat-
ter of the utmost importance that the inspection of nursery stock
should by all means be done at destination of goods, no matter where
else they may have been'examined. In no other way can the matter
be brought home to every community and made a local one, which itis
in a very large measure.
In addition to the nursery stock work, both that coming in and that
being shipped out, the fruit-packing houses are watched and all infested
fruit condemned and destroyed; also the orchard it came from is traced
and inspected and the infested trees fumigated as soon as possible.
The fruit packers are not allowed to take boxes, ladders, etc., from
infested groves to those known to be free of pests. In these matters
the commission has the hearty cooperation of both packers and growers.
I
CONCLUSION.
The system has grown up with the magnitude of the work. Changes
and improvements have been made by each of the commissioners who
have had it in charge. The law has been changed in some respects;
public opinion, which has always been strongly in favor of the work,
is now unanimously for it; the courts have lately upheld the law, and
the commission looks forward in expectation that Riverside will con- i
tinue to be, as it now is, not only the largest compact area of citrus
groves in the world, but the cleanest of insect pests as well.

NOTES ON A BRIEF TRIP TO PUERTO RICO IN JANUARY AND
FEBRUARY, 1899.
By A. BUSCK, A8ssistant.
SIR: December 11, 1898, in accordance with your instructions of
December 10, 1898, I proceeded to Norfolk, Va., and joined the United
SStates Fish Commission expedition on the U. S. S. Fish Hawk for Puerto
Rico. My instructions read as follows: (1) "Make as complete a col-
lection as possible of the scale insects of the island, making an especial
eflbrt to secure their parasites; (2) to collect and learn as much as
possible about other insects in all orders, especially those injurious to
agriculture."
The results of the trip were the collection of between 800 and 900
species of insects, together with many spiders and myriapods, most of
which have already been determined. It is the object of the writer,
however, in this brief report to give simply a summary account of the
journey, with mention of such injurious insects as he could collect or
learn about. He has appended a list of Coccidw which he collected
and which have been named by Messrs. Pergande and Cockerell.
L








89


Stopin ig oni I t Ill- way ait ( 'liarlestal ni, S. ( ., T hyle* Isliaiil. (; i'4rgiia,and *l
Nassau, i -t..a LniL Islands, 1 taseel tiu lie mited time at 'avl pl Irec to ol.
lect. I arrived at. Sailn .Juanu, 1'. It., .lanuary 2, 2. .S9, aiel worked Ironi
there onl the nortnt htrofn i1t of tihet islainidl as fl'n inlaunil as., C4'agnas a1 1,n,
Bayamon. January 17 tli- nlish Haw irk twok inc to Agiina'illa. on tle-
northwest toi'n1r 1" tit' is1 l ind, anl letiving the steaiin'r 1 workeId oil
foot and by rail south to 31May aguez and, after a few days, nortil and
west inland on horseback over Anasra, Saln Sebastiani, ILares, I't nado,
and south to Adjunu'tas and Ponce, stopli)inIg at each 1l4 ace a feiw da1iys.
Front Ponce I again took the Fish lairk, I'ebruary 2, to Arroyo, in tle.
southeast corner of the island. After a few days' work fro mn this point
inland as far as (iCayama I remained on the steamer on its coaling trip
to Saint Thomas, Danish WVest Indies, and stopped on the way back sev-
eral days onl tlihe two American islands, V'iegues and Culebra. 1 landed
February 13 oni the east coast of Puerto Rico and worked over Iluinacao,
Fajardo, El Yunque, and Carolina back to San Juan and *joined the
steamer there for the home trip, February 22, via Key West, reaching
Norfolk, Va., March 8, and Washington, D. C., the next morning.
Of insects injurious to the sugar cane in the field were especially
noted the common lepidopterous borer in the stalk, Diatrwa seccharalis;
Sphenophorus seCXguttatus Drury, also boring in the stalks; a lamellicorn
larva common and destructive to the roots, and a mealy bug, Dactylo-
pins sacchari Ckll. The first of these was in some localities quite bad,
nearly every cane containing several specimens, but no intentional
remedy is undertaken. The annual cutting and crushing the cane
with all living larvae and pupa naturally keeps the pest in check, but
the remaining roots and single canes always contain enough individ-
uals to infest the next year's growth.
The coffee plantations seemed remarkably free from serious insect
pests. Of scale insects only Lecaniumi hemisphwricum was found, antd
that very sparingly, and mostly killed by a parasitic fungus. The
coffee leaf-miner, Leucoptera (Cemiostoma) coffeelta, was very abundant,
the empty larval mines being often found three or four on nearly every
leaf, giving the trees a brown, withered aspect; but this did not seem
to injure the trees seriously, at least no attention was paid to the insects
by the growers. I was told several times about depredations of a.
snout beetle, which at times does so much damage to the leaves,
young shoots, flowers, and berries" as to kill the trees, and estate
holders pay a premium for each bushel collected and destroyed, bur
during the dry season, when I was there, neither beetle nor damage
was visible.
In the tobacco fields, among other insects met with, were the tobacco
Sphinx, Protoparee carolina, both in larval and adult stage, and the
tobacco ",split worm," Gelechia solanella,L which are also tobacco enemies
in the United States.
SNot hitherto recorded from the West Indies.




7 Ca n*...iii: .
:. .: ... .. ;;: ..B
... ..* ... ::. ', .' ...;
.. ": d::l ... ...: .
.... ~~ ~~ ........ .':"..... :i. :i... ....:i
90.... ::' ..:.l|:
,i ,,: ...
90

. Here I met with the only trace of applied economic entomology t
I found on the island; it was directed against the very abundant
[ very destructive "t shanga," a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa hexada'tp,
S(named for me by Dr. Stahl in Bayamon, who told me that it is a to4
dl paratively new insect in Puerto Rico, having been introduced within
his recollection). This insect is one of the first which draws the atten-l
tion of an entomologist, first, on account of its size and abundance, ain.t
because it flies to light, and becomes a nuisance in houses, second, '
because it seems to be the only insect known to be injurious, in the
minds of most people in Puerto Rico. When asked about insectos,"
they may mention "Mariposas" and "esperanza," but first and last "el
change," which is invariably pronounced mucho malo" (colloquial for
Smuy malo, very bad). The protection against this insect consistsin the
use of the large, smooth leaves of mammee" (M. americana?), which are:
placed one around each plant edgewise, like a cylinder, down about au
inch in the ground. I have seen thousands of young plants of tobacco
or vegetables thus protected, the leaves being placed around the plants
when they are set out in the field from the seed bed. It is a tedious
way, but seems to give good results, probably merely as a mechanical
fence, which the mole cricket does not dig under or through; in which
case cheap tin cylinders 5 inches high and 3J inches in diameter, made
wholesale, would be a practical substitute; it is possible, though, that
the mnamromee leaves may be disagreeable to the insects.
SAmong the insects injurious to small vegetables Spartocerafusca was
especially abundant and noxious, sucking the stems of Malangal and
"Yauchia."
Of shade tree enemies the showy larva of Pseudosphinx tetrio waS
found in all stages, during my visit, on the ornamental "AleliHa" (Plumi-
eria rubra). _
One striking feature in the insect fauna is the abundance of honey
bees and no beehives; at least I neither saw nor heard of any, and they
must be a rarity. Still the honfey harvest is quite important, although
the figures given in the last Estadistica General del Comercio Exte-
rior, of Puerto Rico ($517,746), of the exportation thereof surely must
be wrong, unless they possibly include molasses. Very large colonies
of a dark variety of Apis mellifica were abundant in hollow trees afd
especially in caves, sometimes also in outhouses. These are annually
smoked out and furnish large quantities of honey.
I was in all fifty days on the island, several of.which were neces-
sarily lost in traveling about in order to keep connection with the
steamer. Naturally such a short trip in the dry (winter) season, when
the real characteristic fauna is dormant, and handicapped by the limited-
knowledge of the language, customs, roads, and way of traveling, could
only result in a mere skimming of information concerning the fauna of
the island.
An expedition undertaken in the summer season and with more time,
so as to give opportunity for breeding insects, would be very interesting








91
and would undoubtedly result in tiMe diwovery of many new and char-
acteristic species. On such an expedition thlu investigator sli uldi
not try to cover the whole island, as was necessary iii iny ca.se, iut
should settle down for a month at a time in two or three ilca'liti-s iund
explore them thoroughly. ltayamon with its very varied snIrroumidingM,
and near which are Iound( some extensive and interesting caves, would
be one profitable st)opping place, Mad 1 s1118 tilt advantage that tolerable
food and quarters can be obtained, and Cnatiiinia,'Liition with thlt outside
world is easy by rail to San Juan. Adijuintas, on tlie south side of the
mountain range, is another place with tihe same advantages. The south
side of the island is rather more interesting tijan the north, where the
dry and rainy seasons are not so sharply defillned.
Very interesting are the two small islands, ('ulebra and Vieques, and
both would give good returns under a prolonged stay.
The only large tract of virgin laud is the mounttnous northeastern
part centering in the almost inaccessible mountain top, El Yunqe.
To explore the fauna of this unique locality one sliould be provided
with food supply and tent, and making one of the coffee estates nearby
headquarters, should take trips for a few days at a time. Horses are
out of the question on such a trip, and guides as such are useless, as
none of them have ever been through there; still a native is very help-
ful to have along, as he will cut you through the thorny luxuriant trop-
ical underbrush with his machete, where you would be absolutely
barred without him, or at least his machete.
I found a strong beating net with plenty of extra netting very use-
ful in collecting. Sifting can not be practiced easily because of the
extreme humidity of the soil.
During my stay in Puerto Rico I met the most courteous reception
from everybody, and my friendly intercourse with many natives of dif-
ferent stations in life was a help to me while there, and a happy recol-
lection now. Particularly am I indebted for identification of plants,
and much other valuable information, to the learned Dr. Agustin Stahl,
of Bayamon, who is a close observer of nature and has made large
collections and very fine colored drawings of life histories of many
insects. For most hospitable reception and readily given explanations
About agricultural matters, I wish especially to thank Seflior Manuel
Gonzales, of Hacienda "Casualidad," near Aguadilla; Sefior G. Bianchi,
"Central Pagua," Anasco; Sefior Santiago Pietri, "Esperauza," Ad-
juntas, and the Mulero family, on Culebra Island.
From the alcaldes in all the towns 1 visited, as from the American
officers stationed there, I received helpful courtesies. But perhaps
most highly of all receptions did I prize the unmistakable glad wel-
come extended to me as an American citizen all over the island by the
poorest class of native laborers. They had nothing to give, and it was
only meager information of any kind I was able to wrestle from them
with my very limited Spanish; but the eagerness to please, the activity
with which an entire family would turn out to dig in the ground, turn


-A




r- - -------


92

1 stones and logs to procure insectso" (which mostly showed up to
large spiders and myriapods), or climb the tall trunk of a cocoa pal
to offer me a refreshing drink of cocoa milk, made oue feel well and
home.
; Needless to say that I never carried any weapon for defense, an
never had the slightest use for one.
Thanks are due to the U. S. Fish Commission, through whose invite
tion the trip was made, as well as to the entire expedition under Profesa
sor Everman and to the officers and crew of the U. S. S. Fish Hawk fo
the very pleasant and profitable sojourn among them.
All identifications of insects are made through the Division o
Entomology.

LIST OF COCCIDtE COLLECTED BY MR. A. BUSCK IN PUERTO RICO, 1899.

By T. Pergande and T. D. A. Cockerell.
Only one Coccid (Aspidiotus destructor) has been recorded in print from Puerto Rico.,
(Canad.Entom., 1895,p.261.) It was collected by Mr.J.D. Hall at San Juan.
Iceria montserratensis Riley and Howard.
On orange, Mayaguez, .January 20.
On orange, Bayamon, January 10.
Pheitacoccus gossypii Twns. Ckll.
On cotton, Humaqao, February 15. New to the West Indies.
DactlIop is sacc/ari Ckll.
On sugar cane, Bayamon, January.
On sugar cane, Mayaguez, January.
On sugar cane, Humavao, February.
Asterolecaninit ptistulans Ckll.
On some leguminous plant, Guayama, February 4.
On Anona reticulata, San Juan, February 21.
Aslerolccaniumn aurentn Boisd.
On a fiber plant, San Juan, January 17. Occurs on the leaves.
Asierolecanium bambusw Boisd.
On bamboo, Bayamon, January 12.
On bamboo. Utuado, January 28.
Piiluinaria sp. on undetermined weed.
Viegues Isle, February 7.
Lecaniunm oleo' Bern.
On Calabassa tree, Lares, January 25.
On honey-locust, Adjuntas, January 30.
On ,uaznuma ulmnifolia, Guayarnma, February 4.
On Terminalia catappa, Mayaguez, January 20. (Brown variety.)
Lec ni un nigrum Nietn.
On Termninalia catappa, San Juan, January 5.
On cotton, San Juan, January 5 (var. depressum Targ.).
Lecaniiitm hicminspha'ricum Targ.
On eggplant, Catana, January 17.
On guambana, San Juan, January 5.
On coffee, Caguas, January 10.
Ceroplastes floridensis Comst.
On Anona reticulata.
Viinsonia stellifera Westw.
On cocoanut palm, Catana, January 16.
On cocoanut palm, Bayamon, January 16.
On cocoanut palm, Arroyo, February 3.









93

Diaapis pentagon a rg. iiin itta /. Tin o.
Onl castor-oil plaint, it l'ulrdi,, .laniitary 17.
(On unknown tr'e, lI.y'iiiaLl, .1;liiI;rly i;.
Onil peach, Adjuictas, aii'innr 21.
On ]lolnly-lottust, .itliiar' :;I).
On mahaglina, FILiiarit, I't' brimriy 17.
Diaepis calyptroidcn ('osta, \vr ,p unfitr, ('kll.
Ponce, F-ebruary 1.
Chionaspin vitri ('Coinst.
On line, Annisco, .T11intLrry 20.
Chionaspis (Ileinichionaspi min mior NM sk.
On eggplant, 4 'at;an .1:11,1a1ry 17.
On Gana:nma uhiniifolia, ;ii:tyaznli, ]l'sli'ii:ry 1.
lschnaspis loniiroftri Sign.
On1OC 111tt Pl1111, 011111.1-, ;1111-1 4Ut1:iisia, :.I1iriar-V 12.
On coeoantnlt palin, t'agi.i.ts, .l;iniaary 11; "it:tli;I, .lllaI- 1"2; M;iy:irir/, .I:11i-
uary 20; Arroyo, Feolbruary 3.
Howardia biclaris (Coiiast.
On Bira orellana, San Selisti;aln, .J-i :uary 21; Ajia'sco, .1;1ita1Lry 21)
This and the following live spccies \\ere stludliel ail.si by Mr. C. I,. Marlatt.
Chrysomniphalus aonidhm Linn. --iirtn Asliisn.
On Termninalia calappa, Sain JI an, .Januiary 5.
On Anona mnuricata, S:i .Jitn, .J anaryv 5.
On oleander, Ponce, February 1.
On AfMsa,Caguas. (Somueof this lotli had theioexiiuvi' very dark, black or nearly so.)
AspidiotN8 aurantii Mask.
On Anona muricata, San Juan, ,Janunary 5.
S On Anona muricata, Ponce, February 3.
Aspidiotis. articuilatas MIraau.
On orange leaves. El Yuinlue, February 18; abont,2,000 feet altitude.
SAspidiotus personatns Conist.
S On plantain leaves, Cagnas, Janiuary 11.
S On Anona muricata, San Juan, .January 5.
S On banana leaves, Catana, Februaryv 21.
S On cocoanut palm, Mayagnez, Jamuary 20; Caguas, January 11.
SAspidiotus destructor Sign.
S On banana leaves, Catana, February 21.
On banana leaves, San Juan, January 5.
iOn banana leaves, Arroyo, February 3.

GENERAL NOTES.

A DIPTEROUTS ENEMY OF CUCURBITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANI)S.

i March 13, 1899, we received from Mr. George Compeire, llouidllui,
SHawaiian Islands, specimens of what is locally knowii as the melion or
Cucumber fly. Our correspondent, writing under date of Febr u)ry 1a 1,
; 1899, states that this is a very serious pest witli vegetable growers. as it
destroys more than 75 per cent of the watermelons, cantaloupes, ;11(l
cucumbers grown in those islands. lie writes, in substaiice, that tli,
parent flies are to be found at all seasons of tlie year, and that they
puncture the cucumber, which is the only plant on which our ('corre-
spondent has observed the species, on the upper side, and generally
near the stem end, this operation taking place when the cviu'uber is
abouthalfor two-thirds grown i. In the punctures thus made they deposit







94

] their eggs, which soon hatch into minute footless white maggots.
presence in the cucumber is manifested by a small yellow spot where:

puncturewas made. Twenty-seven minute maggots were counted
one of these punctures. In one cucumber that had been punctured th
times in different places 116 of these maggots were counted. Thb
n maggots eat out the entire inner substance of the fruit with the exteH
Stion of the seeds, leaving only the outer skin, which turns yellow a
decays, when a slight touch or a few drops of rain will cause it
collapse. By that time the maggots have all attained their growth
and if any of them become exposed to the sunlight they immediately
draw themselves together and, after the manner of the cheese maggot
and other species that might be mentioned, spring in all directions,
jumping as high as 3 feet. If the skin of the cucumber be left intact.
they will emerge from the decayed pulp on the underside and burrow
at once into the earth for pupation. Fourteen days after placing
maggots in a breeding jar, with soil kept constantly moist, Mr. Compere
succeeded in obtaining the adult flies.
In the conclusion of this letter our correspondent adds, as a warning,
that watermelons, canteloupes, and cucumbers should never be allowed
to be shipped from the Hawaiian Islands into the United States. It is
quite probable that this insect could be introduced into several of our
Southern States or recently acquired insular possessions, and it is one
of those species for which quarantine inspectors should be on the look-
out. No class of vegetables, if we except cabbages and botanically
related plants, are so ba(fly infested with insects as are the cucurbitst
and the introduction of another new pest is most undesirable.
The insects were referred to Mr. Coquillett, of this office, who after
careful examination pronounced the species an undescribed Trypetid.
He has accordingly given it the name of Dacus cucurbitce, and has
published a description of it in Entomological News .for May, 1899,
under the title "A New Trypetid from Hawaii."

A TROUBLESOME TWIG GIRDLER OF THE SOUTHWEST.
October 23,1899, we received from Mr. Morgan R. Wise, Calabasas,
Ariz., specimens of the twigs of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) girdled by
the long-horned beetle (Oncideres putator), together with the statement
that this very valuable tree is much injured by the girdler. The pre-
vious year the beetles had done much injury, so that this year the
girdled twigs snapped off dead. Our correspondent was of the opinion.
that if this condition of affairs continued that ultimately the mesquite
tree would be exterminated by being so badly crippled as to preclude
the possibility of its bearing fruit.
Mr. Schwarz, of this division, who has traveled very extensively3
through that portion of the Southwest, states that this beetle i
extremely injurious to the mesquite, particularly in western Texa
southern New Mexico, and in Arizona. In certain localities which h
visited all of the young shoots of bushes were girdled, which has tQ'








95

ultimate effect of amputation; but old trees never suffer much. The
'trouble he believes to be due to the frequent cutting down of old trees,
as this in a measure compels the beetles to attack the young growth
for food for their young.
This species, as its scientific namine indicates, is a near relative of tlme
common hickory twig girdler (Oncideren cingulata Say) of the iasterml
States, accounts of which have been published in most text-books on
economic entomology and which is treated in thie Fifth Report of the
United States Entomological Cuommission, on pages 28,-290. The mian-
ner of working of the two species is probably very similar. The beetles
of both occur in August and until October. Ift' the injured branches
were systematically collected and burned in the winter or before the
; appearance of the adults in August, future damage could be greatly
lessened, particularly if these measures were practiced over a consider-
able territory.

NOTES ON COCKROACHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
In regard to Mr. Marlatt's chapter on cockroaches, I beg to remark
that my observations on our native ones lead me to slightly different
views as to their general habits. Thus, I have never yet seen a Blat-
tarian eat a living plant in nature, but frequently found them devouring
caterpillars, other soft-bodied insects, etc. Plants injured where they
abound I have always found to have been attacked by snails, caterpil-
lars, etc. In my garden Epilampra notabilis occurs in numbers at cer-
tain times, and with its multiplication the herbivorous larvwe disappear
rapidly, and I have always spared the lives of such forms as species of
Polyrasteria and Platyrasteria which might be t-aken home alive with
firewood and placed among the boxes, timber, etc., of my outhouse, yet
have never observed anry increased nay, they remain very few. Still, I
suffer very much less than others from depredations of the notorious
household insects. Even centipedes and spiders are protected without
the slightest bad results, but instead there is freedom from any excessive
insect injuries. I regard the Blattarie as eminently carnivorous, of
which a few species (the domestic ones) have developed a capacity for
amylacious food assimilation. Although Periplaneta oriental is and
americana were very troublesome some years ago, there are scarcely
any complaints received now, though they are by no means extinct;
and this, I think, is in consequence of the al)plication of a very simple
remedy which I have recommended in every case, viz, a mixture of
plaster of paris (I part) and flour (3 to 4 parts) in a saucer, and near by
another flat plate with pure water, both supplied with several bridges
to give easy access, and one or two thin boards floating on the water,
touching the margin. The insects readily eat the mixture, become
Thirsty and drink, when the plaster sets and clogs the intestines. Tihe
insects disappear in a few weeks, the bodies no doubt eaten by the sur-
vivors. Where a few of the large kinds occur, the small ones disappear
quickly, and it took a long time before I could secure a sample of








96

SPihyllodromia germanica (last year only). I have seen and captured.-
large and small kinds in my own house, but they never increase beyond .:
a few stray ones and give me trouble. The only kind of pyrethrum .
powder I found effective is Keating's; the others only seem to intoxi-
cate, but not to kill. Neither fleas, bedbugs, ants, nor moquitoes appear
Sto be proof against its effects nor the minute pests infesting dried
plants.-J. G. 0. TEPPER, Adelaide, South Australia.

INSECTIVOROUS HABITS OF LIZARDS.
Our prettiest lizards are the most useful ones. Our three kinds of
horned toads are great eaters. I have never known one to eat anything
but live, moving insects.
While the garden toad feeds mostly by night, the lizards feed by day
and bury themselves at night, both as a protection from nocturnal
enemies and to absorb moisture from the earth. Contrary to general
report, they do sometimes drink. I have seen pet lizards do so. A
large horned toad will kill a small snake, probably because the snake
would eatits young ones. The young-sometimes more than a dozen-
are born, each inclosed in a skin covering (some call it an egg). In an
hour or so this skin cracks and the young emerge lookingjust like their
mother and begin at once to eat minute insects that are so small that
they would not be noticed if one were not looking for them. I have
Seen them eat bedbugs when a few weeks old. Our several kinds of
blue-tailed lizards eat the most minute insects as well as worms so large
that they have to bite them off in mouthfuls. They dig about the roots
of plants with their tiny hand-like forefeet and bring out something
that makes a noise when they crush it, whether eggs of insects or hard-
shelled insects I could not tell. Like the horned toad, they are fly-
catchers, ant-eaters, and worm-eaters. It is often said that "blue-
tailed lizards are spitters and ought to be killed;" that "horned toads
are as poisonous as rattlesnakes;" that "the bite of a horned toad makes
a sore that will not heal." When I see the persecution that these harm-
less animals suffer, I wish that they could bite. Unlike birds, they
can not fly away, and they never meddle with fruit or grain. The pretty
leopard-like Holbrookia eats some herbage as well as insects. A baby
Holbrookia an inch long will eat an apple worm half an inch long.
When put in the flytrap cage these lizards first pick out the very large,
black, and bright-colored flies before eating the house flies.
Dipsosaurus dorsalis eats herbage only.
Crotaphytus is a cannibal, eating the young of the horned toads and
all kinds of insectivorous lizards. It eats herbage and some insects,
but no doubt does more harm than good. The blue-tailed lizards are
Cnemidophorus and Utas. Natural enemies are cats, dogs, ground
squirrels, and chickens. Rats and snakes are very destructive to the
young. These lizards could be shipped to any part of the United
States except during the breeding season-the middle of summer-and
I think could stand the cold and other climatic conditions.




UI


97
Little girls andl lailie.s mvn pet lizards; boys and gardeners kill them.
Next In ll I xpe'ct to lie able to report oil other grotips of lizards. My
efforts to intIIrodIlme them tas insect destroyers Ihave failed leca.use tOwnsi
have not been willing to protect tleiem anl destroy their 'etieies, wlilc
private il(ndividiuials coutild not potrtect tlhei.-WINNIE lIAl\,AltR),
Alb(qiterqrij, N. Mr.r.

ON TIlE RECENT SP AI) AD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN I-'LOU M'Tj .
Since thie first rep)ortedI invasion of flour mills by E'phlstia kulvhai.lla
in Ontario, Canada, in the year 1889, the spread oft this species in North
America has been fortunately comparatively slow. ''There is no doubt
that its further (lissemination has been prevented largely through tlhe
many notices of its injuriousness and of the precautions to be1 used
against it that have been l)ublished in scientific periodicals and other
publications, and the progress that has been made in method(ls for tihe
insect's supl)pression. It is equally positive that the insect lhadI been
present in this country, and in each of tlhe several localities where it
was first reported as injurious, some years l)previou.s to the dates spec-
ified, as it requires usually several years for almost any species of in-
sect to become seriously injurious in a new locality. As an example of
this it is only necessary to cite the observation of Danysz, who traced
the occurrence of this flour moth in America back to tlhe year 1880,
nine years before its reported occurrence in injurious abundance here.
The recorded spread of this species after the first Canadian invasion
mentioned is, in brief, as follows: In 1892 it first became destructive
about San Francisco, Cal., and is very troublesome there and elsewhere
in that State even at the present time, in spite of the most approved
methods that have been devised and put in use for its destruction.
In 1893 its occurrence was noticed, though not in flouring mills, at
Loveland, Colo., on honeycomb, the larvae seeming to feed on pollen in
the cells (C. P. Gillette, Bul. No. 47, Colo. Agl. Expt. Sta., Plp. 50, 51).
In May, 1895, its appearance was noted in mills in southwestern New
York State, l)resumably near the Pennsylvania State line. Although
the locality has not, to my knowledge, been published, correspondence
between the miller and Prof. W. G. Johnson, who first reported this
outbreak in a milling journal in May, 1895, elicited the information
that the species had been present in that locality at least since 1893.
Later the species occurred in Pennsylvania. In both these localities it
was injurious in flouring mills.
Very recently the pest has been discovered in Ohio, in Stark County,
as well as in various new localities in States where the species has been
previously observed. These localities have been given by Professor
Johnson in recent publications.
We have now to record the occurrence and probable establishment of
this pest in Minnesota, in the very center of the most extensive milling
plants in this or any country.
11608-No. 22-- 7








98


October 12, 1898, Prof. H. L. Osborn, Hamline University, St. Pau4 ij:
Minn., sent to the United States Department of Agriculture larva of..,'
this species, from which the imago was subsequently reared, taken in
flour. It came to a laboratory at Hamline University in a sack, and was::-i
transferred to an empty barrel, where it had remained since the preced-
ing Juniie. The previous history of the barrel was not known, and could i
not be traced. Professor Osborn, however, wrote us, under date of"i
October 19, that the flour was purchased in St. Paul in April of that
year, and was not opened until fall, as the house was closed during the
summer, while the owner was absent. About the middle of September
the servant began to use the flour, and from what our correspondent
writes, it seems probable that there was every chance that some of
the larvae made their escape. As soon as Professor Osborn became
acquainted with the identity of the insect he killed all of the larvae that
could be found, so that there could be no possibility of their escap-
ing and developing; but it is possible that some of them had already
made their escape before this time.
Nothing further has been learned concerning this occurrence, but it
is believed best to bring the matter to public notice, so that milleis in
the vicinity of St. Paul and Minneapolis may be forewarned, and hence
the better able to cope with this insect should it make its appearance
in their mills and warehouses. The fact that it is the most pernicious
of all mill insects is well established, as well as that it is capable of
developing upon all sorts of ground cereals.
In addition to the localities mentioned above, this species has been
recorded from North Carolina, Alabama, and New Mexico, but evidence
is wanting to show that its occurrence in these States is in mills, or that
it is established there otherwise than in the open. It is known to live in
the nests of wild bees, and in the three States last mentioned it may not
even occur in the vicinity of mills or storehouses.-F. H. CHITTENDEN."

NOTE ON TWO SPECIES OF "LIGHTNING HOPPERS."
During the past two years two species of hoppers of the family Ful-
goridae have been noticed in considerable numbers on useful plants in
the District of Columbia and near-by points of Maryland and Virginia.
One of these, Ormenis (Pceciloptera) pruinosa, or the frosted lightning
hopper, as it has been called, is new to the list of apple insects as
recently revised by the late Dr. Lintner, while Chlorochroa (Flata)
conica has not been mentioned in the list of grape insects published by
Prof. Lawrence Bruner (Rept. Nebr. State Hort. Soc. for 1895, pp. 69-72).
Both species are reputed to weaken and distort the young and tender
shlioots and other growth of their food plants by the innumerable minute
punctures which they make for the deposition of their eggs and for
food, and both have the singular habit of congregating in rows or ranks
of half a dozen or more on the vines or tree twigs which they infest.
When disturbed all the individuals retreat to the opposite side of the
vine or twig in almost as complete unison as a squad of soldiery.