Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology

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Title:
Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

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Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029686657
oclc - 22631917
System ID:
AA00018950:00001

Full Text






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%&)Pp(w bMbeft-kW" to owur in tbe Upper
#
*r ;o*oy ym", but its appmrance i devastating,
oo*c Sta is of remnt date. In
6 on thiq cast side'of pin
iwd CAobo"mi jwwi, Plantations ba this
cm Riverside Division of the
..were ivun4stoi, and for -a fpw
W4, WIWI 'Judedruefmonume* "Lin-
MWood suffering the most.
wwllml or two 19W. and no urgent C'O'M ts
!'4 * # ph"
1' wiog *n oyarAqw of 1807 was attended
an iuvog6p-
*i& &ring 180 and 19M, are discuawd

lk**W Aho 6*00S Dwtom
'y p erty
"It, ootwn UnUktiolri m th-o''
711? 1 1, 44y
"A-Of thle it "00 6od Xle-#
tof Ooutt 30 x0rea 04W&I,
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Miss., which consists of about 19,000 acres of land, with between 9,000 and i
acres in cultivation, and which is the largest cotton plantation in the South. It 1..
this property that the grasshoppers are doing the greatest damage, and uniontl
ravages are terminated by some means at a very early date I am satisfied tiezz
entirely eat up the crops. ,....
The grasshoppers made their appearance on Dahomy early in the springJ1.
first on the vegetation along the sloughs, the edge of the timber, and on iu
banks. I was on this property about three weeks ago, and found that whfl I
were rapidly increasing in numbers they had done but little damage to tJlil
eating a little young cotton at the end of the rows along the ditch banks, a4ii
and there we saw where they had cut some of the stalks of corn at the en qri,0
.. .: .....:EE: .".: i
rows, and they were about that time beginning to feed on the oats. My .mn.q
have been reporting from time to time of their increase, but not until ten
did they report that they were going away from the ditch banks and c ..p..
covering the fields. ....
1 have just returned from this property, and beg to give ydu my observati :"JR
cerning the damage done to the various crops, as follows: :
Cotton.-They have totally destroyed 300 acres. What I mean by totally 4
ing this acreage is that they have eaten all of the foliage off of the stalks1 k
the stalk completely, and on a large part of this 300 acres-therb is not A.
stalk left, the ground being as bare as when it was first broken up for planting
-)i . ..... ,i
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41

6r go veil so tho tMuler
awWag -Aht limbo ind 4"a t6 WhAvel up, and
dayw knger they will- bAvc, pomp

vamogo t oDtb*, them being a totai of xmAethi no over 5,1000
JWI yot done any great damagv but it all bes wuttguo and them
A& evory swe of ik tbowh zmA in shfficient, quantities thus f" to do

me-10 -aerw, toodly dedroyed, by which I mmu to may that
bow toton the tpwd an& the mM from around the ear completely,
Ahe"a dre"Mobwx" the corn can not mature- They follow
IA#w *a 4mw andent out the tender cob; they halve alao eaten holes
%lost thwvtO, the conof com and in addition axe stril>-
In, riding, thwwh a patch of 100 affes I found the
7 all the way hum the giound to the top, as well as on the
-060mmanthetgaseliL I counted am-many as3O on the tasseU
I** blwkI4 Averoging probably 25 to 50 gnushoppera to -cwh

Ow, rua tb4- they have compleWy destroyed there are about 300
pa0agy &*yed, axxd there am some grawhoppers in smaller
t4o W", which balance has been dampgod but little thus far,
4mir ravages to ffie' extent at they have beenwork-
--*ftka they Will AWL
-beftom *e- cut them were damaged fully 50 per cent, The
'and then cut off the head, Iftving the ground perfectly

ljm'*pm- a with gnumhoppers, but as it is very thick the
0"', though if they continue their work they will

"#ooj hm am fitW with gmmhoppers I can not we
,,y W",,xwount of dn=%m; buly, her6 sond there we found

boyp tr W to VLve you a UwroogWy corrmt idea from iny own
dxw*W done on propeAy, As Ur as I have been
baw jPA dMe mueh damage aouth of the town
WWMNATFUW JAM!
10witt thou& in the northern paxt of the county I
up whole moW as Owy we now doing on Dahomy.
me Oat they are devourkg his crops as well
TJoy to* alao to bo found along the ditch banks
"WOOVAty, hey have thue W done


aoddevisesome, fOT
VA )w O put A AUP to akeir rsvft"
pouqgft ar abmeot one of tbM



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q n1-
hoppes ea themixtre vraciusly butit des-nt sw +,
v e r f e e d g a s o p r b t p a t c l y t e a i t r o w
havedustd te grm ad weds n th dicheswit theraw
whrete rssopesweeingea umesad pn s
wewul id ewda oe a h btomo hedtcbt w
onsfedn-o h ga s eoe esrike i ihHii gen
thatthi poion s no eficacous
feelthatthe atte ison of geat mpotanc to hecto
seton n Isncrl tut htyo il ed u neo yu es m


bugan il ae laur ngon it i t hs rprt-n
hi hieterredrngeer ailt frdstoin h pss
I m dvsd ha n 89 hefift ason f h gewopesi
an uattes ndta y=tej idbtlitedaaeetngsm
atte nsofterosaon h dthbak.In19te idnor

th ithbnk nthsprtclr rpetinuig rbblim'o v
acresof Lcottn. Hweve, thy di notdestoy ay ofit otrigt, wijo,
thyltrll oe h lre atoftepoery n n tefr mn
enevrdt gv orctetmt f h aaedoet ae
Iti ottesmeseis htwehv adwt s l lo&.n w am







Aoompozied witha
qttoolem wormi
W" onto advm' in tbe.
,trek '0
U4 the ww In rwoxkm 0 your
X. AC41 of Vicks-
wnd one of
a pownd invwfiw-u oJ the ow oad
W be deemod
wo&,a% in his l.ud
pr gment w
-,Mr. Irme win pr(weed to V'Jek-
L. 0. Ho*Avj),.

-Vw-kAuryl, Sim.
vt sa culy as Alne 2.5 izr the latitude
;y ill tif the vawhoppen had reached the
Eurjel *r1rived at t"oIny I and little if
Is&" to (*ref UUY investigate e. the-7con-
*ate suoh *in outbreak, "d to reeommend
t Ak A4,pptemi6n of tk- shytilar Qr evein more exten-
16CIWts the foltovd*-Year-
spreid- of this destructive






#
Him (Aft" xn6y)-
Wgua,,throukh the
of the Mississippi 371tua-
*at fmm Dahomy were plaoxd in breeding
6f Wo and the life his$ory
ovde were obt4efved. DuTing the win-
the ind-ructio,
follov* out 118
6--ve the 1nfosteA'JW&
Mol lo
sddW'oW qw were, seout6d" In,
ik




14







-7





Bggs.-Eggs are deposited in masses (oothecft), we figl -1
the-surface of the ground. They are arranged irrekulalif-
sac, are small, ]!Lrht colored, and contrast strongly with the
Apicuously red eggs of Sohi8toeema ob-ocura I so often found 7'
with those of the differential. The period of egg-laying
upon the time the females reach maturi ty; -even those hatchi*
same time may vary in maturing as much as twelve.: days or two
It was found that eggs may be deposited from July 20 to
and by stragglerb even later. The bulk of oviposition, howevert'
place between August 10 and September 15. Single females a
to determine the number of egg-pods deposited indicate in mog
that but a single batch of eggs is laid. The number. of eggs in
ra4ged from 103 to 132. Mating was observed to generally tak
twice at an interval of from ten to twelve days; the female 0
ing fromAree to five days after the second copulation.
Egg-laying area&-Plaoes selected for depositing eggs are m
less local, and a knowledge of them is interesting and impoTtant,
offer most excellent means of effecting
The account, given abovel of the basin
300 acres which had become hai-d aafter 4t
ing, and the spread of'the grasshoppers o
this region into cultivated fields suggests*
any such territory is perhaps the most N
able egg-ldyijig areai.' ?Ahek places were
equally attraktive duri 1899,. Ditch and ba
ou banks,'plantation roads, the railroad
of way, upon levees, Indian mounds (comaww
FiG. 2.-Ootheca or.egg ewe of in the -delta), around stumps and logs, and evft *
Melanoplu differentialis (origgi- in the logs, at the end of corn and. cotton ro"'-
(the turn rows), in lanes and B efmuda
were all found plugged with egg-pods. Just at the edges of slouo*
and on the turn rows are thought by the managers to be, the UUP=1.
common egg-laying places, but the opportunity for witnessing
females ovipositing eggs in these region's is much better th -an in
leiss-frequented waste and sodded areas, and thus we mayao6ount
the prevalence of th is belief. Some females were seen depositing
far out in cultivated fields, but such cases were not common and*
then the harder spots near the basis of a cotton plant were. selected.',,
was not unusual to find the egg-pods of three. or even four 'S'
grasshoppers side by side.. In fact, it was due to. the conspicuous,
onizing of the eggs of Schistocerea obs&ura that many of the egg-
areas of di ts
.ferentiaZ were discovered.
Young and adult&-Eggs remaining in the soil, over winter
hatching as early as ApriI 15, but the majority of -young
between May 1 and May 20. Eggs exposed upon the surface ot,





r b
f AM -
vi"%AL rnome
1214 St* sometillam
the W b tit"

ana socond


eM on April 1900, melted five
M-4rowu or adtdt condition. The &A
kwod -May 22, the third June t the
466, 27'. The first', inafing was observed
98;, tbe femics, deposited eggs August 3,
-17, The, entire period minu8 the time
tmdred and nineteen days. The
hom Ae, are sotdid white and after an,
11 em
vim ilmjroj, "or
-S notu jilike the dm*
Ibete are Chang" Of OGIOr
008) am-' but untfl the close
are not ieWyperceptible mi- the field
our thegteanish-yellow color
'ahd* stage five the greenish-
ob4oving,&. 71e vigorousfeeding
'fimr and five mid theprCmu-
AW #vej.asuw the graahopj*rs lim, these

4 knowlodge of some
After they
A-&~ to the I egg-pod frm
i*61 POW of ,,hdAVheartedhpm over
Yar&, ftch day into *e ft"M*4 'WOO&I
Vpon bom* 'diAur&A, they inva-
tu 44 *
their so-caRed nmL
i,A di4'bunk, -if fi"xA into tho
.:the, -,other bot, YM,
wbib0h' thoy


























well-exposed leaves of corn and other plants upon which they mI
feeding, though it is not uncommon for the grasshoppers to...
the ground during the maneuvers of the process. The reason::i......
selection of the more exposed places for the last molt is obviox4I0
bodies are large, and rapid drying protects them from fungous 4
which lurk in the more shaded and moist sections during themr*
of June and July. .
The last prominent habit to which we call attention is that::...
fdlly grown grasshoppers to seek the shade offered by the ..m
plants during the hottest part of the day. Upon Dahomy plant
they appeared in such numbers a little before sunset as to change
entire coloring of the fields. Instead of the rich green, a dishiar
ing glistening bronze prevailed., ,,
MEANS USED TO DESTROY THE BROOD OF 1900. .. .....
The serious loss of 1899, and the alarming increase in the n.....
grasshoppers over 1898, together with the startling number of.:g
widely distributed egg areas, caused no little uneasiness.. as to:
look for 1900. Preventives and remedial operations were .egwd
in the winter and were actively continued until it seemed theIA 51
ger of serious loss was past. These operations consisted in
winter cultivation, spraying the egg beds and young .grasshopnq
coal oil and coal-oil emulsions, covering the ditch water with .-..4
sions and driving the young into the trap thus prepared, lt Ji
improvised tarred sheets, and of different kinds of hoppekmi9
finally to disseminate among the developing grasshoPju.n..aA...
coimmonly known am "the South African fungus." .....S


... .......... .. PI J
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to
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pt.-when the result
j ag -4, may be rogarded a's

A5;*o,'WLdbwn brok-on,, as,
,.A, fr(*tj and ounahlitle
to-W, to ))a". We fid" to
itpm 4x,,p wd ogkis, but. yoqng
















. . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... .......



T wbon subjected



i t 't
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Tion. .. .
The use of kerosene upon eag-& d at the time of hatchi.-Ou.
two seasons' experience with grassh'ogpets greatly quickens t-he
ers of observation, and. egg-beds not disciovntdain the fall anfdt.
may be detected the first week in May b' th& :presence of thf,: l
grasshoppers. Upon Dahomy spray pumps were kept actively infl
upon egg areas, spraying each with 12 per cent cbal-oil emU.i*
least once a day. It often happened that as many young grasih*
were. in evidence the day following each application, but careful t:
ovation soon revealed the fact that only th6se hatching after the.i
sion had been applied survived, and those were killed by tiwi
spraying. While the emulsion spray was found expensive winiwi
pared with that of cultivation; yet in the face of such coanditLo
prevailed in the Mississippi Delta its effectiveness many times
weighed the expense. Applications of coal tar were not m:e 4
egg-beds, but there is every reason to believe that this substance.t
also have proven useful. The use of coal tar in the hopperdozn.f
upon the drag sheets certainly warrant a trial of it upon egg &CM
Spraying ditches.-The experience in spraying ditch ...k. I
developed the cheaper and perhaps more effective method of
ing young grasshoppers, that of damming water in the .dit MOi
covering the surface with coal oil or coal-oil emulsion., Bea
after rains the ditches were dammed and the water covered
per cent coal-oil emulsion. The young grasshoppers were their|
into the ditches, with the result that very few, if any, esca
this way a single application of oil would last several days, a:l
millions may easily float upon the water of a ditch not more:
feet wide. Unless the grasshoppers are scattered too far ::' 4
ditch banks no difficulty is experienced in getting them to miof
A i, ',i"i:







XW4 tdom tha
'V'Ummed by the plan"=
d show an aggra-'-
iiqediin driving them
N of the egg-beds and the
'_01 mothod be Pivaiced_
iopa 4 Ahes are indis'pensa-ble, and
MW or partly -filled with water
io the deAtruction of young gram-
'of 19W _over 2% barrels
spd not a little of this quantity
ches, of -the plantation in the form
dt the-, Oe"On as xnany as 50 miles of,
ber of yoftg grasshoppers killed may
we state that the surfao-e of the water for
wverod After th'e water 'evapora.ted
gm"oppem wu very pereeptible, and had
Ott -of, knowi UhAf inilltons haA been slain

-Mowbe, r of, t1w e'xperiment statiion staff of
ks* m the fialdiin charge of the grasshopper
Mr H Irdiog, dited May 31, 1900, says:
Ila Mvy rain And filled mmy of the di"es with
*'Oa&4* of the w#ter and made a combined #tUwk
in their wWeWe destruedon. We am u9ng
dfive to th6 ditche&
no i 01* Oftho'eiWsion., J d-riviog the tank
bOwne so thq64ghly churned
top 11is condition, however,
the Vtay,. The use'of the
Q ind water, should. obv-late this

iti of the ordinar
watter in, medqws "tu ,.a
one as to, A_
W-41
at'thi''o
0






that illustmted in fig. 4. It consikeof six
4 feet long, with light poles attached to the ends., Tbo
moist with coal tar and was dragged by &.-mule gdongtO
banks and even down in the ditches where thiswas posdbk.",,
of these sheeta were made and kept actively at work whilo,
hoppers -were young, and great. numberg' of the insect*j
collected. While these sheets pdsses8 the merit of not
young corn andcotton and of catching myriads of the
.it is to be regretted that they soon wore. out when dragged
-tivated areas.
The hopperdozer, which was finally constructed and whieh













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FIG. C-Patterson tarred shee: a, s.trip of wood supporting sheet; b, strip of osnaburg; C,
d, hitch rope (origlnal).
much merit when run diagonally over the rows of cotton Ran.,
consisted of three runners 3 inches high and 2: feet long, a P"
rugated or sheet iron, and a back of osnaburg. (See fig. 5.) 41
Two more contrivances for catching youngaTasshoppers a"
recommended. These are of value during dr eather w
impossible to hold the rain water in the dithhe"S:, or to fill theM
the river or neighboring bayous by i i iifig pam s. One is 6"
Mga P
perdozer safficiently narrow to ran in plantation ditches. and
enough to be handled by a man upon the sloping ditch bank&
will prove serviceable, too, upon' limited egg areas when the
are emerging. The other is a tarred strip of *A so




ir


lot 4m ditehm A"$--'--Unp
tI W*- Ii 9UMIteWin the bottoro
*M, veo;from the sheet j ast as they
mi6pn m the distame of the, length
Js 6uled fokwad ihe
46'dlb'dWh bank may be &4 effeetively cleined
us "Whm- 4ho di me, Mled with'Water.
'i4e i ce of Mr.
r1o" -Harding, in 1899
$W) r"h#r dfmxed' an extended effort with




-7-, 7,












Omm"* UWJK; A vim-, C. WOWOU ends Of__pwrt; D, rmners; A'v, 0,

'44011K., ovfever, ventuied a number'qf triallm with the
hot-
U mW plao6w with moderate Fonnd a few
ind'VuUnd the rn The U, however, mter-

biiWl upon 46vere outbreaksl'su,,h as occurred
Iqowd lulfiWW stbOw w4ere the area affected

y the followingletter iw
-Ioi absing Mr. BffingtoWs dirotdom
7 V ."41 w
Willeft are be.reia gifeii:

'Wyour let I am aendb4gyou six of tbo
*Wz d pUo*UVt' a le -W-




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m ....................................................................... m
[n mue.
1A Ur ISAS FNGTS
13W ue enann tb ug aepeaeda hsinttt X
al pliat, h a'as bti hm yaplcto truh h i
sioerofthirdiison
Th ehosmntoe elwsoudb floein hersl
a n d .................
Highy stisactry esuls hve ithrtobeenobtine, ad i s
requste tht al peson usig te fnguswil reort he esut o
mentsto ths insitute

Duig r eahr ti dficl o e tedses t peaan e m
abe o s i i oit r e wate, ndtomke tefif~lo f hea

beor snst
DIETIN ORPEARN HEFNGSP/VOSTOUX
Ope atue ndtae ot hecotetsentre ad o t wonfu
an ubtewhl ogterwt ason rfatkifs a obrauL~mpt
and ix t toroghl. Ten isslvethi inthre-furts o a um lmierf n
whchha pevoulyben oiedan aloedtocol.Flatinths wv
cok hihhvebe reiulysepe nbiln atrad old
No oe h ublrwt ic f a~,adltitsaddrn 1
wamcrnro hehueorutl h ugu ssent e r ron h






*0* iOWWWO
NPAOth
The hhOjed
44* im the,- r6WIU Whicl,

thnii $It 19W.9 M rv 010ikk SbUeS
4kio vben you wexe here- I made An
I*P for ceepiqg an even temperalure.
I dimolvied the nutrient apx-
v*Ji it th4i mW "ufion7 added the
*W j the iWirdion Upon the
fiond in both of myinfedion bexts
"bm "xOYW from Dr. Howard and utade up
out a dillute wdution of the fungus over
grw3shopoeys, Wid the leaves of

V, VY PrOp Ou$for the spread of a3mwe
ior p&A of May, and duri
bepa the latt ng
Mims,, 40 miles, a6uth of Dithomy,
re'wrds are kept,
Wr remived thd ftwin from Mr. C. A

am Se04*01-9 U jn to-day mme deed
fita A OuNd bayou bank&, -We
ft-of MAW
smog place) tefls me
ldftd 'p*bo *p 6pon am s4A of cotton. The
gO*PA 4Q*
04&, to DahM j_*10i Ai view' of
of lun'guA, sod it was found
eefion *w sprftd b-v Mr. Glenk
many as a dozendead grwOop-
-sie Vliml,- and some upon nearly- every
were numerous. From the
`h'inoculated opreading even
WWC a local fungus (Xmpusa
K INo'delta, the geuerzl sp of the
Si 6prough Weetiov Of
Thespreadof thedimAse
in


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22
JRe&~ememm-Tehbt fteditrnio
aln loge 4thbaket. ugetd|h
acdpopatkii, n te ubtne o hc W
th rasopes u nt tecrp; uas.on f hs
prvd fay aue oniuainoftisln o wrk-
abandoned
We oundit adisabe notto dstroycockebur
vicinityof the eg arm, a this pant-'I'sthefavoite.foo
grshopr adsrvstocnreaethmwhc ot/l'"
I Y


moeaa fal efciv eeie u as rsevsth tn

an otni hs lclte.W eei i osbe e9w

men dlaingth cttng utofthecrpstoa sap 'ntl tb$," -







J41



abOu 0 eve W, -6161; ,PU4
toth lgh; O
jltedftv o, elta
t e oeere, fee
v~g osrvdbr/in
01.-t6oabek
U/














































in her charge we might assist and encourage her with leIt4:"'
and more profit than carry out our own. ,,i
From time to time hundreds of grasshoppers were colect$a
fined to cages where each day quantities of fresh food were 51
As the later stages of the grasshoppers were reached .g
noticed emerging from the conjunctive (sutures) of thoe a:
rax and head. None, however, appeared until after the specim
died, either from the conditions of confinement or from the st:
the parasites. As the collections were made after the. "Son.h A
fungus" had been spread, many of the specimens we]. .t..
.t ... .. ::::: ::....... ::.....
the parasitic flies and the fungus as well. Just to: :
attack of the fungus encouraged the attack of the fliWes .we S
to determine. .... : "::

: 4 i'g
.... .. .' ..... .. ..
.... .. .. .. iii
.... ... .. ....... ... .... ::. .. : i ii :: it




tr!



tm,
4* wli 'h do"
foo-Swiaam-
r0lAl_._ W*er(i- oS.-p naincr


'Jjf dUj ido.wt b nen;larawt
-(kom Ilowwd)





Irv 0























/ .. ...- "-.- ... ..... _ :_^ ,"+++:+,-
/ \Little information could be, :.|
FIG. 12.-Luaciia cmsar-enlarged (from from examination of the de.dii
Howard). hoppers in the field as nmetoi
soon deprived the hoppers of viscera or parts of viscera leftY
maggots.'
From the puparia of Heicobia hAdicis two secondary paru.s ..U
reared. One of these, Aphkrreta pallipe Say, was bred Aup4
the other, Perilampus cyaneus Brulle. .. .......
The young of the locust mite was found to do effective $$.
parasites upon the wing pads and wings of grasshoppers.U 1":'




'~ ~ ';. TU,:!




FIG. 13.-&/itocerca americawa.k-Adult (from Howrd).
~:'' i' jifl:iii



majority of those collected in the fifth and last stages youni
were common guests. ii
Blackbirds and turkeys were observed to feed upon g...
in all stages, and upon some plantations turkeys were pa
liberated in infested fields. The exact information is not at.j'H
j"K





to the real merit of turkeys, but a common belief prevails

`: . ......

Ht h .
may, be maet ev eypatclp+ps l a ,+,,
breaks.+i~ip





N

MI
1-W And, LOC"OM jsck4ioc
OAOMM, Were the 140st MMMOU Of the

oo&vaw or bird r (see 13).-
bro6d4 deposits eggs in the spring, and
wn"on- Specimens collected early in May
16. lift the the gg-*,ying places.tre uswdlv














RAM"bus"h about June 15
(Jme!Oj infie 297 Judy 51 July ill July
Not Ow aduk condition. In the delta,
06Mtion owing to its size and
whou I*nAgI*(,y,4-i% bw never appmrod in threat-
D'. Patte *m''mwenti Upon the habita of
Airing the eJearing up 9f 'the waste, Ian& in
the ra
tall ireea, these large grwshoppe




0000


0" fl"W of SW*M-FM 4"" (Ortina).
0:0 Jim 14 in kO g OP06MC68 SHVIO Until AbtW-
few 8pedwena have been colleoted
)tky. gQk PWW"ties were bred fmm
OlprU- worledix
lorlt And io*,jtnd-
A4,




law
A
4j,











































Fio. 16.-The large blaek grashopper Dietyophorws reficulatus (original).

The egg beds of this species being similar in position to
the Melanoplus diferentialie the remedial measures recommnud4q
dferentialis will prove effectual for this.. .....
Dictyophworu reticuldtuw-(See fig. 16.) This large black.:,
is a short-winged form, is only locally distributed and may oeca'.
in spots, even upon a small plantation. It is a voracious feodwij
f erring the coarser grasses and sedges of swamp areas. 6 Ita
ing into cultivated crops is only occasional, and hence thisi loe
not attract much attention.
"i-ll












The eggs are deposited in sodded areas all during the
August (see fig. of egg pod; fig. 17)..
By September 15 females are rare, not more than 10 per qI
hundreds collected at this time were females. This is just t.
site of the observations upon diferentiali Males usually o1z4
.. ...:'E: E..:....














days in advance of females. Eggs of Dictyophoru.1 batch ^
.. .. .. ... i ~ di














as April 20. As is usual with most Acridids five molts
...... .. . ,. i .... .
.. . .. :.... .


... ... .. .
.. ....... .. :. "..




r

jtt


'08 *611 $8 its large- size, -
14OWrly mo emoau7no troubleIS expen-
farmoic inauh- had- been ussed upon
the eggs and expoiing thern by
n, verylocal outbreaks
,oq;1,04 Wth n s sirtd adult& A species
common -Paraffite of this gra8shopper.
locust eggs resemble very much
el*&Aw m o&cura after the coloring
#Wa4 by aJwhol. coloring of the
rowtioos, the color extrapt from the
Ttto- a4go are Wd in the,awe areas as difer-
p orre&food of the, young we were unable
Vvre aasupwwful -in theeffort
-of thislocust; Gnwshop-
AO rMt in d this
R- Ile ''YOU89 WOW Wfi-
J 't4e cage, and, would
',*dath.. -'CwW, burs, which
waft only cwwg.%Qn
uot Jj6ppear in destructive
046^604, Q61y, beaum the
-oonfoondod witb the
Ad4 observaUona the period
IM$i is about- equal to
ag 4a 9
)fto. 17. -'RW
spwie*s Is- WOCICI Didypphorwrfok-
U44" (or*hw).-
1*0iftboMs Ibr specieN the duug*
-Wr vrtwarowpw: 'ist
%od have been ftinuondy- no*
Tb "t'bioo4-
yOung of the fir




.. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .................................. ................... .m
L8




tebrad co er
th caseife nw*
of sampandast
the raspingsounds and
tinousbuz o--- fel
Not uch ttetionhas
FI. R--Fel ocd(Ocdiut gleiorgna)
totes am-ore
orlcss norixysaos hyaentprn owne
dic akbtwentedfeeta reallhyaef
th rp i erhoffo.In19in



1899consderale amag wasdone Th




f"' TN

73lw tile taFOP11
00ttaft Ono corn

00ou*40h, lostO of, lwokymenoptcrous
and 0acrotdoia w. near
*d% Oe Jattar appeared during the
whju lovicWtappmrM vA -ntiervrals from July 21
jos)o"tY,'_"evor, emerged between August 95
iftd *U'W fenitles. It,%* interestifig to note that
god reaches the adult stage at a time
freA, and, wore or less abundant.
g nwaboir of Sareophagid ffiea, ffelivobia helzm
maggots x" re d on Septeraber 15, pupated
Awtured Sopptember 24.

todWAOM, A" It AT NIVA-LL To THE "PFAM"CE AND
OF ORASSHOPPERS.
behind levees of the Mississippi River have,
One'a insect',outbreaks of -one kind or
In'many a6etions the, Southern gram orarmy
)wvk) makag its a"mnce'inda=zWng num-
grasshoppers and the army worm may
It hm beenIreqpently observe& that pre-
boefles of many, kinds are abundant on
Atpon the army warm and, easily keep them
Aho beW are either de4troyed or am
h6 Ilow and rush of the, crevasse water.
A- "Oodw an& ths land is put in cultivation the
as, this species
trops of the over-flo-wed a are soon infested
Usually % month, or more before the
*%Ao in 1mumberi sulfident to- check and

*0 p("tions' are somewhat differ-
Miy, lie thro-Vn out of I cultivwon
Should heavy

40 Ofw*_0hopp'"s)-,









































There were no crevasses in the Mississippi levees from 1.87 to 1890. :;
A small crevasse occurred at Greenville in 1891 that was closed before the 4'e0*W9
ciable.
All the breaks except those at Flower Lake, Austim, and Shipland are iocatdl 0
and Rolling Fork. :

Grasshopper outbreaks occurred in 1891 and 1892, ad
1898, 1899, and 1900. It is a significant fact that the rainfall
and June, 1893, and of the same months in 1900 had a dec
in suppressing the injurious numbers of grasshoppers, and c4
the dry summers immediately following the crevasses e.So
greatly their development. ::.
The following table of rainfall for Greenville, Miss. th#
meteorological station, furnished by Mr. W. S. Belden, acts
director, Vicksburg, Miss.. supports the above conclusions ...i:


Rainfall at Greenville, Miss, 1888-1900.


Year.

18 .............
1889 ............
1890............
1891............
1892............
1893 .............
1894............
1895............
1896............
1897............
1899 ..............
1900.............


Jan.

6.11
4.89
4.98
3.79
6.59
4.63
7.37
6.32
3.29
4.31
8.19
56.30
1.94


Feb.

2.41
2.71
6.80
8.38
3.60
5.27
8.19
6.24
5.24
4.06
2.89
4.,57
5.44


Mar.

9.88
1.85
6.63
4.43
3.91
2.70
9.48
7.98
21.48
2.94
5.21
5.64


Apr.

1.65
2.60
11.01
2.24
9.74
5.69
4.48
1.71
2.48
1.96
3.83
2.19
7.11


May. IJune.I July.


4.54
4.03
.4.67
8.42
2.93
7.39
0.61
1.32
1.09
2.19
3.16
4.67
4.02


3.95
7.09
2.31
3.02
2.54
6.59
0.80
11.5O
0.71
1.05
2.54
1.51
9.29


2.28
4.50
2.28
12.32
9.25.
2.38
5.09
4.30
0.85
&t85
1.57
2.10
6.11


Aug.

10.39
1.:866
2.09
2.44
3.50
2.87
7.28
1.84
2.24
7.a1
0.87
0,98


Sept.

2.60
4.06
4.94
1.64
2.67
1.17
0.87
0.74
T.
6.12
1.18
28


Oct.


0.40
2.'199

e,80
0.84
1.BB
1. 0
L20
2.20
LSO
1.11

t's
1.!*


LA


6. W
s.34


I For 10 months. .,



.... .. ":: :;


:*: %:






40 rag"* ;k
"*M du
t*kvnc pc*bUity of a rmur.
A044rOF09SUOU Of fungOtm
oA p oteat. WOMB

t W'dl depow gp W logs has
'e^""W Wat4er introduces tho
*00a of th del* however, which am
,idW*ed by tbeb*tk WAt48r Of the Misppi and
be oqvmon -inf"ng grounds were this
..oot e sufor excep wheo dry summers

I
PU PI Ay q
44
t
irO oeritain im"cido mbstances was made
r lm of IWO and are herewiffi re(vrded.
designated tD towt th'e bomt of VarIOU0.
used agWast the, Swjpoe scale, both as to
a8 dmtwyorsof the They
Aum; (2) te"ed kerosene; (3)'IM-01
W Sur; (5), Bordeoux wsoh and'ke-r*fte
irA lim, ewuMon. The emxm-M"S
wem madt at the suggesfion and with
01'Wjiment wu aW
,-,U.0. lffowwd, with a heavy lime wash
woWninilime the j)rfod'itn i-edi-
little ram
Or weeks. Io the usb of crude
4 ,U$r now is, to be noted except
#ot in, any way. inj'ured and 'tho
W 4imired, The lime, and salt
be a yery, efi
JL
R. Oweverthat the wexther
A"
400 flld ov, *0
Toil,
0,0 0
t th





hegtTe plctinwsmaeltel A
dr da.A h m ieaboko re m
see orrfndptoem.Tewahrcni
foi as. n hr un analo n
Afte th eoddytekrsn a oy
trete teesshwig nlya er lghidi 011
withcrud oi~on he oherhandwere stll V6,
The. ful-grwn emae sclesof w`4ym p- t*- ta
so~k d an we e pe man ntly pre erve u paxe # ,
scarely haned clor nd ere ot dyin up.--*
sligt cang inthe oloatin o thefemle bst
the olo, slghty aterig fo' lghtIog
obsered, n
in Aratin i a crtan inic~ion ftU
Thischane* 6
ual ryig upof caleinscts whih uuall chn-g
orane an finlly obron o blak inthe iffeent

afte beig klledby n inectcide Thoo well
thetrestratd~it te cud,-oi'wredifi~!

anceand lacenedby te ol. Tees praed it" n

gaveno ndictio ofhavig ben reatd 0tni
entielyevapratd. urioslyenog4, he'~wm

tree tratedWit thee ols s~me. tobe O'f
thanthe rudeoilbein somwhatyellwed-

sprye prtt heviy ithth oi t _80 ha
Twowekslatr-amlyfie eek ate~th af |
of te tees reaed wth~he cudeoil as tit ark Iud'
All he rees trate wit' 0*1 wre eafng ot ad'
















































ik,

























































































































































































































































































... ....
S :: .:: .:::








*ad


ju,4, wh#A,. features were,
,w;m4 shmild, bring out.
jfi,'L lfijwood.- of the
tw:WWHO tbief Chomw-)
_oA-**IuWe so 8howing
Iw *'Ary Mmate and.
*aio rospoctispsetically suh-

as Aesn*bed Ahove,,. lom
the San thwe -Scakv.
*ithAh6 mwo Som top to
IMP tho boW, upwFd throe or four
Olum treeslad



690 fr(im any 10"I_
4nd 1*404 treies, co*ermd, ,_rv
Yvm, IVS&r t at,
w4d wi r4,1
-*Ad" -:4,4e
*%wof the higbe
m. red
**Adw Tba d*


4
x to'At




'mhe f h brkad h sraig engveythr
"tneo 8 nhs s etdb pryn non'hn,'
apayws ael ar;ataditnc f 2inhsfirl hl,

hot t fom 4to inhes.Thebarkof he.tree spaye
thehan assoo asspryin stppe. Tis ot-ates,-.--
tobarcosl o hesal nscsi wsthuht old,
a l h u h i o u d o o r e b e i p a t c b lIom k
rane ppictin i gnealprctce.Onth cnIax


th cae emie i igrus eftycndto,!n
di o sfe i h latfrmte amdoce

Th eutthrfrgiedb h ieslhr n
may e popely acriedit i beievd, t a rue insctiida
the ubstncerathr tan t thetemeratre f th aplinekk~
tre8traedwihths ah emindnerl no -wie, ltl
oftemxur en aknofb telgtsnwadrin o







befori* the trees had
"Ofe Augvst the trom were still dis,
*4re having been norains in the
Under such. eireunistances it
th um chance of effective-
-_00ecUve under theBe conditions is beydnd
'Wr
040okbtmly, ,in the first insunce,
*A Chielfty
A" of the mixture; and Possifily,
by the limy and sulphurocw coating,
jnc,46jw4 -unilkmMedly diAmteful to the young
-,Od which may have esmped, and
W %44% UOU
1 Ioseetwiaidal value to destroy many of

-This mixture, suggested by
ampt,, to mulsify a smaU amount of k ro-
Ul." sma"t of Bordmux wash. The for-

--------------------------------
----------
- - - - - - - ----------
46offier until the oil is emuUifie(L Some pewh
pm, og w, were sprayed wi'th this mixture
vflho vPUjmtion,,* trees,,vvere just oom-
eather coaditionti immediately fol-
'UVIftblg, oo YMB Uffing on the 15th or
77_
*n, however, between April 11 and
o hS IWo efteci on t6lreeN'sad aUi)
t muA be remembered that
is therefore inore than.
immune from the action of
the preoe4lo ex -, the
g periment with
ie not, Wbim 50 per'. cent of thie
twVjkt4yexterm i nated'- the, San
JoixWM IMW _aot tho"fore, beien

'Worth While to -do Sovio PAPre

5-
_: J6
4j
Ww



44M
1W
44




SU4 th im


a cramy ~utin .. . n oro
1 galon f kroseteand hur untl e
Ths ~xur ws ppie prl 4 o pac te
D~wj4 petagna, nd t oferalpear quam, I*,
notinfke wih cal inecs, heappicaio toth
moe atiulry o eerin heefet f h~wh
kidso tes.Te pliaio wiendth res -o
ever obsurin thebark Thetreamentwu
ough It is pssile tat mre ime ouldhav
ing beter mulson ad asligtly eavor *sh-
was ade t th sam tim M te, lordlux
and xpeiencd te smewethe coditin&,Tb*
on teeswas ot nfaorabe, o inurybeig noe~l, nn
the ne calytre subject t thowas wee, fr .t*
or yin byth 17h o Ari4thewas hldi ;
th resunfrmy. hs ineeulini wrhy9
tral ad t s opd ha ohes hohae
on vriou scle isecs wil udertke xperent
Whitwh.-t te suoston o Dr.Hdwfd*!imA
deeri* h efcto teli' 'n tesee
god izdplm re hikl nfstdwih h
sujetdo hesmedtea te at w eprieit'
spraing ith:a stong whiewas, prpare by
stnelie n-' gllnofwxer heapli~idt t -
wbitwashon he tee ntirly bscuin' t~wbar
plat nowwhtekAt th 'tie o teaten th'!,i
Ths ie ah ed vrywllexet ht tcrwedi
litleiAsposdu t th atin ofth '~ind.Inth J
the ark f th tre reminedsnowwhiIllA'
thre or our eek, in fac, attheend f "te,-
adhredto omesliht xtet. e tee ameh,
late on ithut ay ceckig fom te aphcaom
scaes er no afecedaparetl, a al. y tis
toor iapontnn4bt t w ssil opdtb|
woul reainandpreent he oun ames ron
The oungof his peces, ow-verapparedv
an, nfrtnaelbeor tattie h
scle ffi sos ha itlbedt ~qgindlrt
th scodbrodatlas o hi sece as/.




N~ SreDv fEtmlg.U S -t fAiut'e LT 1












MEM
























































* I
*1








I


p












I


I





t

p













4.





-.


-A..
' ***-"' .*












itz' of, th "Ol
wooew vatoe of formi"', Y&
dio& little, Jf any, voln6
year opportunity waa offerd
-my- A patent genersAor
icidi
M-W M*aT- for gOrm-
kowe it MOO, she to deter-
Ifuder th wn,
VLW wait, i"Alam, AgablA insects
or
ptp? w in the


.imos wl"
wero nymg
buV, the "be"o
Ae itoot jy it and, agood in"Y
wbmqpentl
-L'ha -PW m4vma*-
*wtxw* vl '40AU In e0orakoxw,
4,1A
or,

B "removiedsod
4r
a4soweets were imumdistlWy
isvpOwt, q fl t4e de4 -
711
't-h' 4, tm "Y tave
gomara-Qft Of
4_
COWDAWMA




40D
Oveloke heMaaril rem astopa
tanmsutesbfr taiigishghs eeoM
liehstr.Sofrasw nw sytcrai oqito

sayseodryhss nte eelpet f himiel'g
malria grm s a aima oransm.It elngsto he
annas nwnasPotzo, n fomaalgyiti atoe
thttea ytudsovrdgr f elwfve ilas
belngtoth smeclsi o praitc rgni Mr.Th
cassTx evri ateisas nlgost h i
whichcauss maariai hman bings It.inhaitsthe lood
dostemlailprste n scnvydb itn net
.caetecttetcjsta h ome scneedb eti

tos ihdiesscusdb ateilognims(hc
.theplat kigdo andnotto te aimalkindom) a itin
not ecesar forther tanser fom sik iniviualto
oneinth mjoit o cses Schdieaesar nta lyyhi.mu
cholea, an pulonaryconsmptio. Wih thee dieaen4




II i-

........ .......- w e t f it e
b6rMi tdviet
oosp!a hkte ~sietw
......I,~aetW o nti lo o h ups
I~ ,htIio'~e nhmAeceeto r in
'IVOfh sltteaancnewyjutwa f8





of the iisbingon Acaemyioficiince
zei a oud-ta h
ofiet he re no rqethmnece

Armn ete 44seis n ar
noeo hshweea sein
Fle mteImotatcetrs n



t O Ih!m ~ aas&atna asadelre




































Fiu. 21.-Drosophila ampelophila: a, adult; b, antenna of same; e, base of tibia and fiMYlAw.-i0
same; d, puparium, side view; e, puparium from above; f, full-grown larva; g, amia qi
same (author's illustration).
towns where the box-privy nuisance is still in existence (am
applies to very many farmers' houses in the country) the IisM
a constant source of danger. Moreover, in the low quart*$
large city where there is lax sanitary supervision, in the'p
surrounded by an ignorant population, fwces are frequently: -.
in the open, sometimes in close proximity to kitchen; and tb4
become very dangerous.
The other species of flies which are of especial impoRfcaii|oWN
follows: The little fruit flies of the genus Drosophila, and
Droaophila. ampelopkila (fig. 21), which is so commonly ;!
houses in the autumn, attracted to overripe or partly decaying
and which sometimes swarm in great numbers about the fit mPW
markets, is also an excrement breeder, and at certain times t Nb
becomes an important form in the disease-transfer AeIaiiC
species known as the little house fly (ifomalomyi xafio010
.. .. .. .. ..
.. ... .. ..^^^ ^ ^ ^^




34.
tho
ag
*ehug -,tm 4 mbady





-MIS'

























j ported and aMt
but human excreg
FIG. 24.-ScatophGa furcoata (a common excrement fly): Male, '" .A
with closed wings-enlarged (author's illustration), much more dan..
than dead animals
(4) Every effort should be made by boards of health in cit."
by private persons in the country to limit the breeding of the .
house fly, and to accomplish this result a strict supervision of ii:
in which horses are kept :
should be carried on. As
stated above, the great ..
majority of house flies
breed in horse manure. '
The breeding is rapid, and ,
a small pile of horse man-
ure may be responsible for .BE
an enormous number of
flies. The writer has found ...
by careful experimental
work with many different
insecticidal substances that :: ..
chloride of lime is the mot I. 25.-MoreUia nioan (a common exeaoremeta
hlod of lime is the most puparium at righbt-earwd ogil.
efficient substance which I
can be applied to manure piles in order to destroy the m"H'.
house fly, but to treat an outdoor manure pile of large BiBe Wi
rid of lime would be an expensive matter. The writer lh :iim ''..
therefore, that some receptacle for the manure from -a. .hw.
.*^J.l




RAM
P
1- 4
r OPOAJO-g
b6 I*WO. 'The sUble, shouMI.
*o& owh, u*e tbut, a day,'a or two
in 6a clooet or pit it shovehW
AO'44- be tbtovn O"rit. When tho manure is
or Sw*ft Ma- just *W Conveniently be Aovejed
&e ootaido door of such a closet as described as
n4rough expenim-ents'were. carried m wtne
st*bk,, of the ID"rtment of Agriculture and it wu
careful, !nexWvwive work of this kind the num-
of the vhoJo neighborhood were rapJdly 'and enbr-

Vit GX' M CAVXRwoux



tho Distri ODIumbis is the
Urva'of *Mch, called the groen
i16n- porWplarly clover.
AIA& in IM., thio"larva ww frequently-
'"rvadons qn inswts attwipg beans



grP",-were observed on
oa aqy beam August 18, and
-4. During autunin
pf O*weed
401-,of "'officel brought specimew
IM in the city of Washington.
obsorved this spedes of larva on
plaw at
4M
a* *otvh #ad bmn nAtU June 2..
10
OL4 d duriog
IN

AA





























... ." i i.

a4

... ::L:: :0:p








for illustratoi border mtoho i tura mar wings f olde; b, .,fiane..
expanded; e, egg from above; d, egg from sie; e, penultimate stage of larva frot.
from side; g, head of )arva,--ll enlarged; c, d, g, greAtly enlarged (origin,). .e.
.0.





ing the ground color varied with black and gray, arranged
agespecimen in a pattern similar to that figured in the illus .
A rather unusually light-colored individual was selected ash.
for illustration in order to show the markings in full., sainme.:

specimens the pattern is often very obscure. A moth at rm-.::]'
at a. The mc, o is also variable as regards siee, the lva rs
being about an inch and a quarter, although a s(origi n)






Deltoid moths (Bulr U. S. Not. Museum, Nog 48, full, BinC11W4
before the writer shows a still greater expanse, and one i~i4
measures but five-eighths of an inch. :ii
A technical diagnosis of the genus, detailed specific desrnipt



'~ H
:-. ..... . ...X
S.. ::: .....i..
.. "......
S* ... ... ..
.. .: ... .....: ... ... .
IM .:.. ............











1111ZO New York, 1q. T.'j P"MIOUt
DbAta Hall, Cabin John, 31d.; Wash-

_Om*#4 Mocd,, Nam.; Macm, f3s. Alubma-,
Autbony Pwlk,, Minn. (Lugger). Alm

moth is one of our- latest ais well
oommonly in the writees
bnWingo throughout'themonth of
*01 IDewmber, and as early as March
Aying on the lut-mentioned date 'in
jobat_ the _Iowegt temperature in

*e ho -Vinesnout, moth, HYPena
,",JAhctl confused at an

imulch ention On awou]A
f JV hove boon givea 'by Prof J. H.
Do"AtWeitt for 1879 (p. 262)5
_8,8,(v XMI pp
Ot this Divisioo.


Alm-
,bs&hed before
Do rml aud 44e Iviewflof the
44N 77
'he 20, vtd),j
4
Wit looks under the micro-
the eM

13L_
-aAdof", A-Mt
StAP -
f4-
10*0 11bawo

k,



























stripes on mte ooay wmcn alternate wnn me general green. I -g
dorsal line is a little darker than the general color of the body. I-::.
is a rather wide white stripe each side, a latero-dorsal narrow i
.* '' *i ":'i : ; .
stripe, and a broader irregular lateral stripe.; The prothouac I
are strongly pronounced, particularly in the region of the legs; .l
inal folds also pronounced. Length in this stage, 20-24"' i
2.4-2.6rm. m ,i
Last larval stage.-After the final molt the larva usually los
great extent its striated appearance and becomes nearly Unifot*4
green in color as well as stouter. The head is sometimes soS
yellowish, as is also the first thoracic segment. The ocelli an 4
in number, arranged at the sides of the head in three pairs", a"4
in the figure at g.
In alcohol the larva loses its color, being apt to be turini
unless first boiled in water, when the color becomes milk white::.
at maturity, 25-29mm; width, 2.8-3.0 .
The penultimate stage is figured because, as previously reammj
more characteristic of the species than the final stage before ,:
THE PUPA AND COCOON, i
':". ::: *.. ":iii,. pll
The pupa.-The pupa is dark brown and presents rather g
acters for description, but as this stage has previously been Vi!
characterized by Professor Comstock, in the report of this1:)4
ment for 1879, his description is transcribed:
i: -i, : ,ii 1 5117 11 ii! ii
Rather stout, dark mahogany-brown. Wing sheaths and carur 1ekis4)0
prderd; the fo per obtusely rounded and extending to the end of Mae d
''e te di 'to''*''' ,,^^^^


..................................................... ...........













f A




lift 1
:Jovm ulna Bai*""
I I I I I
Ilia
41




oja W"
umbio duj-


9f

one, or 00TO lif:


# 40m*, ut two- -




oo windoft


cot il


























have been found much earlier than in June and as late as the tij
of December, at the latter time on several occasions, 00
thermometer registered 54 F.
E "-EE .EE ..:Ei
NATURAL ENEMIES.
... ..:::.. :::lll
A single parasite was reared from the pupa of this moth Si
7, 1899, and on being referred to Mr. Coquillett was identiad
the Tachinid fly, zomrisla blanda O.-S. This is the second I
enemy that has. been observed for the green clover wOm4
writer's knowledge, the other being a chalcis fly, i/plecarfw
pence How. The latter was reared at this office July 11, 14
material from the District of Columbia. (Bul. 5, o..s., Div. Zimti

REMEDIAL TREATMENT. .

Ordinarily the injuries effected by this clover worm are "aIi
erable as not to necessitate any special line of treitnient. Ir
...............
several common insects that live habitually on clover an4 4
their combined effort devour a certain proportion of the .
over considerable territory. Poisons are, of course, out ofI:
tion in pasture land and in clover fields, and on lawns Abt
little doubt that frequent mowing with a lawn mower i S0H
necessary, since the insects live freely exposed upon: their f
during the day and do not resort to the plans of conntefl |
to by cutworms. !
. .... ..'.... ...t1
. ... : : "7 :
,, ';* ^ ...*,*''*** ,:N :
iE. .. ..........
S:. ,. ;:; .: ::.. .. ; .* :i!
"*. '. .......
...:.: I: .
,,,,..". "Sii .
., . '':,;i ~i.1 4'!ii
.:t :E E ::E::...:Z





34


W 1W
theC~e o. te'DW!
Pid ~xpdidon aorcar&In
DO& 44nst66 cdll|
Umros(*"weestredfr h

*ic 4y rilsuonteisc
44oa-Ta~str,4wer cvedb
Agv on wornp wt Poemo
,o 49oi rgrdt hecdingmt









































,J ~ k Jr,; ,lI.,, JL V ,L J % ~ i;, JI Jl,.al. JAd W ,AM%[ i l. 'T'lJB....L
"I i ., l:,.ii~i
The life history, as usually given, applies to the mIset; It1
far different from that of Idaho. On this account I sfpe:t,.::
in studying the variations in the life history. S|

THE EGG.
... '.. "5|E

The eggs can be found at any time during the summer, e
the fruit or upon the upper surface of the leaves. In e4i
the eggs were almost entirely upon the fruits; in orchami
they were nearly all upon the leaves. Where apples w...
dance there were but few eggs upon the leaves, and where :I
scarce but few eggs were upon them. Apparently the .I
to lay its eggs upon the fruits. ::*
The eggs have been described as whitish, ilk-liHk 4
adhere closely to the fruit or leaf, and evep. after Jhateii
remain for a long time.. When the egg is ai fewday.ii #
horseshoe-shaped band appears indicating the embryonic lw
.. ... .....
THE LAVA. '' :'
.. .. ...." A:
In from about six to eight days the larva Is MyftAFotu4
":" ":" ." : El .. :....... .
its way out of the shell Most of them a out .........
.I
... ...,
N: jo': : .:E"
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~. ..... .d........... ::i~iE::iiEi! Ei~ ......

..... .... . .
". ... ... ...... ... ........... .
... .... .. .... .. . .
.....1~ i
., .,.. : ,:,i:,,::,.:;: i! r~i, i






wAoinhin nt n
r akspt ppx ron h
Ah ppe ak s hllon
tovboa& oogied_ tejihe
i~hi~iz u.Th av wkmne
owmal t-tesrfc insdeth






op'am s totunn ltoardm
itcomece
































uUW UJ .uVY l fjS JA ,y t ,,AJ t u& ,Vj J,.. .. .1' : :*vl
THE PUPA. .*S*
In from three to five days in the summer tha larva .sh! I
and becomes a pupa. In the last brood the larval stage lat I
spring. The pupa is at first of a yellowish color, Wlater N
brown and then bronze in color. When the-moth is readyit's
the pupa, aided by the spines on the abdominal segmenti,:j
itself out of the cocoon. I have seen empty cases that had ...
through heavy muslin which was. used as a band. .
These empty pupal skins are familiar objects upon infteu
I once counted 50 of them protruding from under pieces ...
space of about a square foot. During the warmer seasM4
spent in the cocoon is from seven to eleven days. May
longer, but very few a shorter time.. The h.t brod4 i
cocoon about eight months. .- : i ,
THE xOT. H. '"'
The moth is a beautiful insect whose front wings have t O
brown watered silk, and are crossed by lines o.f.. .b.i.
scales. Near the tip of the wing is a large bron mofe- loi
"": ... ....
.. .... ; : :/ : :"





APc idldir,*duo h
thM a4 0V j& pt h
ofv~l fo Ua// qt&
'1 y umr' epeine t
4hr ~en~po h uprsufc/o h
li~r aerbanhs.I wmevnm
a ojjyng~otte re.
kfqntbtt6Mohj ot&taee o g/
(ac)lihtglb tatwa na
a, W-gle odhiin
----- 'C3 g moth










J u l 2 .... ".:.. ..:.

July I................................... 704 July1 ....
July 9 ................................ 704 July 28........................:..: S
SJuly 1...................... ........1 July 20........ .....
Ju 70 July2 .......................
An t2 ..................... 60 ..,"a 8...........-..... ,... ,.++ :: *
Augut Auguut8......... .g..ff.
Au uti .......................... .... 20 August 10........................... .
A gM I ......................... Auut .................... .. : .w.
Augut25..................................... 64 Agust24................... :
September ..........................m. 1,5M6 Aug us t3t.......................
September 10 ............................ 1,227 September 7 ...... ...........
eptber2l. ...... ............... 1,340 September
O tober ............................... 1,642 September 22 ....... .....
Aulust~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~e 22 ................. u 0................. .....':+]+ : +


Oc trber 1............................ t 1...... 778 0..... .............,,
October 10 ............. ...... ..:.v


From the preceding record, from that of Professor ANA
at Juliaetta for 1899, and my own I have compiled th&6iM

.. .. .... .; :
"'". . ,,-,* i '.i.:.:J.. -'

First brood: .
Maximum ....................... ...........................July 16: July 13 Uf:
Minimum............................................ Aug. 9 Aug. 1..
Second brood:
Maximum ................................................. Sept. 2 Aug .41 1Mi
Minimum.................................. .. .............. Sept. 1 8 pt. I
Third brood: .
Maximum ............................................... Oct. 4 Sept. Sept.
Minimum............................................. ... ........ ..
*: + .: ... ... .": .:::. E .i

From these records, supplemented by observation, 1 wB
nitely that there are three broods in the vicinity of $c ii
greater part of the Snake River Valley. "
As to the fourth brood I have no definite infom atio
Several growers have told me that such a brood exists
certain periods it is impossible to say to what brood an iact
For instance, in 1900, if a half-grown larva was found Cu
would be impossible to know whether it was the last of 0I
the first of the fourth. When cold weather comes, therp
interesting things apparent. If young larva are left in.tvi
the ground, they evidently perish. However, if taken isl..
apples they complete their development, and if not deatrg'
a crop otjmoths for the following spring. About :.Septe$4
noticed that the larvae that had spun cocoons were not .u
but were still in the larval state, while those tht had nn H
state were developing slowly and the moths. were ..W f
evident that it takes a higher temperature for the inseot":Oh
larva to pupa than from pupa to adult .....

MOITURE AND HEAT. ..: ... .. ....
E*: E ..*: EEEE": ": ":fl i~ iiE~

There is great mortality among the eggs of t Ade .
.. ....'.."...:

rays of the hot sun causing many to die. .. '


a.
..... .. .. ....i,,,p~ l; iiiii a l
, , ~ ~~.. ... ..";~ ~iiiiii .. .... .






....... ..... .............. . ........
SON



to$ poir mn& of t1w Jarvm dmd
I* WTvW to &C aftter Of the IT*
W 00" -am Very &W dmths due to'
'-- W rog*m, ]*man har4 in. which
Y, -T ore
46,wed to stavid around t)ie tr'em, the
j e&Y lem than in those orchards
bvbm Moo, ow does not, as a general rtde
It" ow tiv- w which bave, moist wAl around
the mou either qawes-- the
or to seek- other Pk"& This
# # avom water Oowed--tu
ror *ter ill the trem


to -paxWi* but-vithk a pups -1
Pwtr he-possite did not emerge, It
N
44pMor, I found usiv PUPW of a
AW oft %wowing adults. Under
Owytfi probably of a Micro-
A lk cocoons
Wt*r6d armay fMM the Oxuing moth.)
loom NOM," inlw
tor*n fluir poodonsin the &y,
Mr& --Odekdas silldwed in an
Tbw", obierved -Wea MJI the birk
one e*16g several
sod'Protablyfwding' upoo.


4;




creu Infnotngifse futadt
wathizhi ochadRnd f he ot isfond 1
noepes hol e pre oapl hepoprrmeis
On ouc f ruleta cnb eiy rvntd

apls r toe helreeegefo tefuis in,
an po megn a otsintespig fti m
orcar. sudedtw wlln~rkd ass f tis.A
Kiisspae plswr toe nbxsinaola n
weeopnvntltrs fudmayod ooosi ada
boes he eaindth rcarJuy9,Ifon tt
ners tecllrpapialyalofteaplsweeifetd : *
from~~~ ~ ~ ~ thelrantcal er-aewsoBre~n nd
partof te orhardthe injry vriedfrom5to30 er en

In te wel-kpt ochad ofHon Edgr Wlson-a imia
noted.

Ths eapesso tefuiiy frmeil-/Iluuw
moh a sc asar.BohMr ilo adMr igin

awr o heaoe odiin, n wl tk'ar ha h
no epaed ite o hrecoresmy efolwe:T
wihhd~yncai 'swie h ave ~ nthWooN





A-'

A"'

AM ring-
4* 66 4 i &Orek combwwg both
A Ono growor, asod this immWasOon?
Tbmb46" jaavmmy applw to be emu (in his
i4wh by A sourow amounted, to only

44k gv* -, tbwo diffmVilt, ingrc&efits to ndx WCJL
VwCia- combh"on- with other sprays., but I (vuld
'10 r" .Ofits--Use.
vI 4w*r -oUgiowe" um the arsenites xloue., -Of
i*i d 'on of I pound',
AW '101 a looA uso in the Propdrta
I tw 2, poumis of freshly Awked

PQVP ad 0010M S"Using, a 00mbination
*m usino the Umie armmite
W*cow W,Jwy of theaq Rracnite& an
growem are. Preju
14MMMItt of PDA 02w6ence&
omA'W -Ow, Hum, and, in both o"m
4,1- N,
40 *W, t6, Uwe 4hat it makes, but fiWc
U4'" i #* iavo& appliedL
10"4VOa tondidcws. Aftny were using
Mik tj*t wu vshudom Th6 time :fOr
sd I wish that this, hLd
the Idsho growem One (an reWfly-
W when -we mom c if A
when the ugptj.
T
t 0 Socaft iewi,44

44 i *42il
.1 Olt




































empirical times, without regard to the stage of the insect, and o
a consequence, poor results.
It has been clearly demonstrated that these few spraying .
not always sufficient to control the insect. If the spraying W.
every week, the insect could be controlled, but this is too 0"
The spray is effective only for a short time, and must be supply
by something to take the insects which enter the fruit btw
sprayings. Banding has been found to be the most effiiaei
connection. .
Many people object to the use of arsenites for later spray.
account of the liability of poisoning those who eat the |::
believe this objection is not well taken, since one would havetq
enormous quantity of apples to be affected. If a large ama
poison remained in the hollow around the stem of an appI
might be some danger. I have eaten many apples upon ,i,
spray still remained and experienced no evil effects. :: ;:. ii...
During the growing period of the larvae the infested apph'u
*. .... ... ..
.. .... ....
| ..;* .:;o .l" .......... i. N







Ah

,pest
t Sat
o, j;W* Uns InWL -
4,p* -R -^Ify oovor the giound. C4re-
UINt"ibogt 50, per-i*nt of thege Men
aliabO& may -be tuged in tho destructio-h
st Aod appliod is to allow hogs- or
04, Aew aoinmb Poon beoome, very elcieut
U doing this, the grower -not only
,0* Wa stmk fed, upon food that would
wilea thewindfalls at, stated
At, teA; destruWion of the wind-
'futally'to other
Wt'119 a methods.
o4ving e apples are
-so khor PW t of attack is o ed.
for tho insmt larva to
-6f-lay, br p"r., which arci after-
Many'kinds of permsr,
M kvet been deviood, but. a piece
gthwise 'once- and PlacM
-ii vzonowical., These bands-
Ao&,, au(& as pie(ws of old
'brownmntou
hut ski*, of' white mus-
A*r'tho lumot,,, and thus the-

.18 -P ptaqk*
"ug* bsrk AOUN







-gel

Stat whee exerimnts ave een o e
cagh s oe~ms ey age roeso li
hihs ume efuno n re nawekws10

son hvefondfrm 0 o 90 n egecedtres IMo
unde a eglcte bad ad acloh i th, cotc ofa lrg-.--
1898Mr. yresobtaned rom to .5 wrms er_____t
seso.I temxmm nSpebe aeobando
" ay s20t 0 alyfra e dy, nawHete
fesrAlrc rcrs htinhsbadn eprinnshe
womspe teefo heseonof189
Th om wihhv be olctdudianssol









-33'a 7

04"WAb only, 0A, per, oant

while in a negloctod-
LA.' ber.$J) I figUnd,94 ILrvw on 10 trem
thovorchardswere sprayed from four to Ax
P
wiWf$Le -krvfe under the bm& by onish-
`Okat-",is the only Oraeficable imy

*e!adabs fa, a Aorchoum mv*Y be
Wd me that -they cmght, numerous
ta "A.41, II.W&te work upon'"
k *M^Oadto HgK the noctictids'
"bion codFuw motho.
,tdr,,Ah4jp inbuc*ets inwhich
Ois"'Itak rMwer, is a manvell
v xpe- mir qat,*#hhisreme4I,



"M
40 A&Aw"J," In tho FA"k o'n 4000"t of

pw* whWh ove4


,*toy $RAW bqwjury juay beltduideAi

jWW_ 400,




# "vP
L4 64




duin th w esn h rtrfesjgfo _
em cocuios oe ftes!eegie x
aril o aes0-4 fBlltnNo 2ofteprsn
Itmybermmerdta tewitrhzrdd"o
prbbiiis htceti Nrhrnfrs ol cniuet
inresiapnmbrsasa eul o potate colwitra
wol tn t ailtteprec ibratowhl cr a
spces hchwr aprntyneryexemnae n nd

Disric o Coumba s aconeqenc ofth cod interof,
wol otiu ben rmthsnihbrod o tla
old~mm
crp aital ttce y hmwul oematra
duigte esno 10.Tispeitonhsbe
fld uhNotensece scmeudr bsraina
thi njros bnacei 89 otnudt b nuiom,
jugdte wud u erano h Suhr om
onyoe ftes a audnteryinhil
numeros. TreI "
bu te eaidealhoghetrmeyrae urn te 0
th eabeae ufiinlynmeos oatrc
atenio at i hesesn.Prmnet mngthilwu r
bag Ponath sigl seceswhch ccrrd er i n m
ealyi te er;te abae ope, hchwsmmmesat
some o lae cabageand thercrucierdu cros, %d th bo -





MI E I 'ilI


JJ!
nu p.._fs f ~hr
so u
-,s[wiII]A Oft l
A*,i omts l alqm ab o



A" II8~tzTL.
tI w-ahra itra eid fteya a


Po" ipr tpenmnso ld be O'n
tha iiv---- bemd.pn h fet
66nis O "ere o t!!''ct
-OI# iwhjc it wwO*tmgtafc




anthr tom eti, hetepeatr
day, ut wrmin theday fterthat
Mac 5 9tr e n bu .wt o

moto hc rmie pn h rs orfv rW
prtctdlcaiie at s h 4t.Mac 5 tL

ocured drngth nghwih lghe fllofsow,
fie. n cere eahrbeiinionte 7h

Afe hefrt fAri wntrwate adcemse
begun
It oud e mttr f om dffcutytodein tiemle
canc, tobe atachd totheterm Norhernform an
usd nth peen adaloth erie atcl o hewiter
jetude icuso. hsmatrca ebetepliBLm
repatig wat asbee sad i th frstartclemenioe:4lmmm
the istictof Clumia ccupes Zoloj',i~lly
th Croiia funlara erl mdwybewenits tw
atpesn dfne;an h Nrhenfom aethmwI*,
moefel nrho hs ie hl teSuhr atl hk
inraesot ftisln.T b oeexlct owvar
besadtht h ijuiusspceswhc wllb primimrl
as outer ar blieedto e rul Aisto-ipaia, wil
ern pecis blongrighfuly tothe llehanin a m of the
zoeadtemstnrhr otin fteCroiino p




iqw
rsi n KO
bee the-'--t--06
Wi M%
sesNw perdW Agettuba n inme
Ao14crtmtes n iia rp
!U-,&oirtre oti iiiy n
.*yj h om, ow qietobeoet ae
prbbetU tJm edincek tlatprily
by7xio n te aua nASta
tbltehreuncbag u. Yratahs
an bevsl xetadti a on


i ~oo IiM__


bu in19 hywrexrml a.I
irilgu i a e


M.ra ubr t t F
I. 'h ootdteocrecas e

ovrmwtem~tbniteey
eqa on 71
m ---u---
barI")'ghot *w
% l+!a!ilw




of Sotenseis si s fcmaaieyei
an apar o i otfrm er oyerinis o
It ws detrucive in sinle lcaliy, he Dstrit ofC --
theseaon bu ws'nt epotedbyanyof ou nmerus
ent i sit ofou iqury

Of oherSouternform th gren une eete,

imbrcute-snot betle Epiww mbrit~wo sq

ffltta8ayirfrmg ndAercn ousA
shoeda ereptbl icrsseinnubes, hie hetowacc
Epitr*0 prvulawas ot s abunant.The-lrger----
Diatra~qacharligwas ot sen a all
Th ppruit stae o beveta te ggln
Epirifwcla a ouher frm -ws xtrmey'aanan
yer bu la-etes ste rtr a adocsint i



earlier rticle sem to.belittle.afected..........in.....
Inerirmnto ftewete nrliintted
pea ouse ffetarphor dmtucto, ad it abudane um

wrtrwa nbl ospcf s owete t eoge oA






I kT j
i 44
Rua
hoeerh
"A* *qfjr nIu oh-eentcn
I my 6 am ui asmr bnatta
!bws i grg n .I-ueaa ee
Jono ohv caioe oeijri
81,bttehtseloIuyadAgs rc






. ~er ini--

q***m~~~- '-- ---w" d---tv6 ---- 100
4foa ddmoeham inth st-
MO'jl'IA IM i e of he s inah"m




PUSSI~~~~~~~tic~ ~ ort nuiu secewfefigu
are ribablyaffctedby stil diferet cnditons
Prdaeoslisets s rle remoe eisan t
peaue ryes rhmiiyta llo h terisc,,
isms wich poducediseaed coditios of nsecU
Paaitcinetswremreaudatduig h ieso f
duig 89,Nt hs os o ppytoal fth onMn



commonpests
Th iprtdcabgebutrfy Pem apwa ueo
wih hchepeiensweemae Lrwwre btie4,
avilbl suce fomte isrit fCoumia irgni,
lan, ndket ude te estposileconiton dring
190 it h esl ht o inlprsiewsreid
pcisaper o eafete b nydsesea titie
al f h lrw ue i xermnt hihwrepppoeing
whnplcd.i' u rain ar rou~dpps ndee
terflies
Whl nte ujc f h aaitsadohe atm

thscabgeps i hol b tte ha teloldw





4ob
4.T



.Y.i
cef tin
iniDt4
eteWA fieA h
4%
1 1 4 -eWwt oanme
potd'abf fetdWihbt
*hl teswr eta hc o
ibonymd ome~ ftert

6 o heds&w o~to flave
8 4ob tei&ntb entm h
iiiiiiiiiiafectiiyimnne



.*A~t wigmito uid
Poto fte umeti vee
-es-~ drn r
a*hoee iotesao fIO
th IYt itwano.rpreathis

00 lo!it i Nbaka- taei
dwmae thn ay, oherin l our
speeagVr dsrc iv iIni the i
_7 yvai n




II72'
nMD]N~rrOF MOIDVM FRM T PROUCE "14
INAOTD OTFNHAUT. J
Euopa inrdcin.i h niettsfeunl
ormr gnrtin n xes fte ubr htha n
an eore n h orhr cutie fEuoewhri
haebe md n ee teptgnrtin aein h

ar ftnat opeihbybin vrtkn rsti!f",
fomto a b copihe rsialepae ogi

hibernation.lll


Sotenfrm htmgrt otwrdi ieapert.,



perfctlyat ome in nrthrn lcalties'in actIthooug ly, I
tedbutthisis pparnt nly as her is ver reaon o b
manyspeies ttept he podutio of ne r mre gner,
thansimlarnorhernspeieshav; or inothr w rds
norml geeratonswhic the hadin he suthwhicae ap
cut hor by ntevenig cld wathr beorethei copleion
Examles f boh foms ae aparetly oreIrequnt

fedn adblaepriuarytelro o eeoeao
IVI,






ote ine't O IR

"in teooi v&b f-rhij
thyhventkatdtose
iot iOeo mtdfim o




'Mawimte whlIhs -hc rduoascn
tA ifpigo acsoswihhv pedIrmte
an aentyt eoeacsoedt h ifr
in th oh adi heSuh
oftognrton'yMlti ndohrsuhr
Dir fClmi -n lcshvn simia
U no omc eedeto h ete
4f-iscstofn h proraefo o
'#


.mme asy o e i 4g

'11 1 *n copswb umru UPMA




"qvir OFiUANSUTR'0MO
OF THMNTRLL"I mi
Inte1cemo heam cuidyt
naualipls o mgaioan r eietl agJy*
thewin, ad tis s prtiulaly he wewit mohs
Utte ou., ls, tatinect itrducd nt thlNr*ab'
9othadae ginbouh nrtwrdb wns/rm/h
fat tee is itl taiit n h lcliisI/pidb
wind, fost, poloned eatandconsquet drouhte
inucn anrmlmoiur f h isctsfodpb*
naua neisbin mn teeeenswih rdc
in lutato i umes ntiso ta. oalt' e
yer nda icras hee nohr/ea.
SPCESITRDCE N H ORHFRMriiBOT
EUOP RMAN &T 1, HEFlbr).A
Soter r oerAsta seiepatcualytos/
inuios hihhaecmeu t hs eio rm h Suh
paaieyreetyasar aeyfon al intesao
aftr evrewitesbu icrmetoar te ndofth
ofe, fno sal~, curi herlavl tgsbsiyfedn
th onh f coeradNoebr,-ve ft fot, B
noie frsvra er, n ariualydrn teto
pasd he-aei tu, o, oeraon fsey
wiendthirrng. noterdretin, ndprtCUA 6,I,
whchh-,ebeninrouedfomEroe








found
A.IL

low A
MOM the motba were
Piwipol ffu"Ws bf the eity.
I)INge buttierffy
144 *6 k, *othl" 1%4d& both
fbimd Aurij* the winter of
,of-Xovomber freely feeding a r several
1*,J& ]jk;jWjije mblmgo b jtue
ugly
irt k4ow to -have ftm- ntly spread northward
And, **e, A*btage looper, Omia
P11
northward, though not in very



Awd brWly., to foHmis:
introduced in the
006 MO" m excem
tono pAive to the region of this
W7 -, 7LL
***-Mmk'bAer in the -field than do

bo"'and other habits, in addi-
thaiwsouthern intro-
year in largre numbers, their
Wmg 06refom not Arimy per-
during the winter are, ac-
rian actors thedir destruction.
4
.,A 31*VATA.
7



OIRL
man r


her
pon, the, in

Was notItlotedt,
in
Wid
bm," overcmt


vw




ou n etebr .Sufowrleve nese b hi,
th hl patlos si ochd bu toieJ
in h avs otfrte is ie Drn hi
Rie noicd, lmot ver coon wa gurdd b o e o
Whnsh ase h.,la t xaieclsrIteatsgv
bi hrfigr.Whnsh emve heatsth itl
bohlrwadiaos cttrdwt soihn eeit






Jill




yong
i~00

netiff0 ntesti
lofb iih e we Vrlpm
[]hpes lstrda is na h idi
-fi h natfg 7 h
-'w I-~e h







it "


i%1 0 goon htista
Olt" Psupll__r, r
PAU't
/"d

th
'-in ru
' by thIa
lea --h,
leavell




J %T
injrios saei toeu1*&W
thm ak go (rooftemon-'1
antstheselvs bcomethu indrec
A ersneeulin pryiso cue''
1 1 1k
FOUGTIONWE
By W. HUM4
U.8.Dw~xm r Eaa
Wa~nqo, ,'I'
SM: subit erewth rpor upo th use of arbn erelp ido
tionof laie woleale nd etai toacc estblihmen i- W
togeherwit som &1ilsof cutin i itsuseanda fe ob~rvdo |
efetso ti iscicd uo teusr hihI ae o fun
Respecfully
Dr. L 0. Hw~im
Chif f ivs" f ntvw~y
On te 13h ofJuly in ccorancewithyourinstiietonx
thsesalihen ndmdeageeali~etgrton h

conind t wat s racicllyon lae oom h
sqar fetonth gondfloran acuial- onen Iofa
fet A Mgtofaou 2feta iegalryrn
.sde o herom.Tisgaley ai el s hemanflor
toaco f aios raesad tyesofMnuacuradin'
pakgs.Atgehrthsoc oslae apoimtl
cias,40,0 cgretsad3700 ond f oia o
tobcc. Olya vrysmal ortonof hestok howd oy
infsttio, nd hi: ws tord arty n te allryinsa





fie
jmlm"" the Who
quA fteimf
xkT~deme t ds

toU a xewv aon
torp4 h retot.Aod

pon o xdaotM"o i
1W1f*wd nd1i&de., ttewiel
paw wa bied

*'I mm r-e p do tpo h
IUadelvtraatlead
A*vmdadi6wrtif~e tc
upptelwr-lo.Te
vA ipeym oet wits
ut lihswh4i
10" e t bii
of, Aqid tW ly on
!H~i~~iiiiiiiiomwetodi ... the u mR ofi c m




considered ~~ ~ ~ ~ more~i indti taote iiki
of ~g adbee eposdoccpyng ro fiten' 10
thefuesha bcom s dns tst e er Iirod
Th bilin ws he creuly ocedan lftfo t
Peope pssin onthestret a thetim th eipgur VW
andthoe hvig bsinss inadjinig rons cmpline o
ingl diagreabl odo, bt a a vsitto te pemis's ate
th rie ouddtetbt eyslgttrcsofteodro
evncls t h do. ogar emie na.Ih

the day.i
On Mnda moning A .45 thestoe ws opnedfor
Tb~est f h ue adgetydmiihd 1u
ket o e tatnooe asedcos t tedor it

unti th fums hd motlydisppeaedIn frtyfiv
str wss wl ard- htbu itl f h I Iame

reanetouhfr eealdyssihttaeso ieIdr






to rtm


410NO -

roomo of mo,
$1 to fir4o
hi rMard,
esfAbfiAmen An additional
on the prmism till the
tho bporstor msJdng, the expoaure
"d effects of -ffie gas.- As soolim
'Asid getting dixzy, he should-at onm


"OAS-M01* V" OPft&TOIL
4, -4
OW serm of *elt Atfirst the
11 O'do-c- Wt, *0 940ir soon Heom
",tha-mon strongly (IoabWl
Tbis
"hebAer seas
00 the operstor does
-'Uk*- pIW*Jxi-h* Butthe,
mpptv 04WO in
j* very, much weakened
04 of way. HesAng and
iO bmag graduWly
basgone far enough to be
fools riMer ".queer '17 mi -the
4#
!Owm m nopun or dimgmeable
_jt, ood no wnw of auffocation.
is b*h time to get out
shotdd tho
this, wodifiom
i6 #4i*,b- x
#7
MVI NOW



ng
Of
-and th,6 J,.
re-po
to th6-
believels
01-NO.




trubl rwans bu h eraantth im
&lcto ofcro islhce
Inve o h icesigue fC, sa isefii*
teedcodtin f uh bsrvton a hv benp
to t tewitrrspcfll aget hedsm|~yo
prhesvereot hn ha etbenmae pblsedi
fo m a t er ad l vilb etoalt os ea in m t
tin po tissujet
GENEAL NTES
ICHNUXOND PAASITS OFTHE UGARCANI BOERSI
0-i
or REUNION
Unerths iteM.Edon Brdg, irctr f h
Naurl itoy fRenin hs ulihe bie moun
muriii Sussre ad o 0. ntanarmSausure whihre
in Runin o th lavw f Datragtiatli8andSesmtomm
tw dsrutvesga-an orrso ta ilndad fMa
thins tat hey re espnsile fr te mrkedredctin i
ber o te orrs
The ccopaningfigres re romdraing byM.m


rr mm

W3|
Fx.2.Wns fO~o nanau-,upr ig I owrwn.Telag el(4
wighstrespt frdih ryloihcoowihae ie ndti ae






bb & ld]
to *'e o m
o f O e o f & e a y t m
l j e e ) f b s i a e a i e o m t
-d n o a p c e f p i d a
wi adieffe a ryovr ry
"1k F b nd G a v w & n r f r i
'$ i f w o h b o e f t e l t n m d w e
0 0 0 t O 0 n n dIi u U a e f u d e m

t o I t t o s m ei h c h
U =nyelw
,mmn fth ht nt emwv
** t e y W M U i l l z '




WRfi410 rminifi
mtic
lSf "-P
# t ov wi& h sea




MMM111-AN10ors ~~ 14MrXWANAI

Mr F rvecur naaKnsanetooogs
abeeprinead -audcorsodeto hi fie
th eslsofsm itrstn bsraiosmdeb im
putseso (90) om o tes aeinbref a fllws
Nooecaunuta neo tocomns-cmd ak
wa beve edn uo eatdseis,1iVp
one f or lrges spcie of oria, nd o th Dyisci waer,

C0t~0U~nerg'Is
Mac 1 seie f pdeXy9cwqZ~, ws //i4

onteugbete podu'nt'8,udra.,a nte'
C~pdoea ~lps tere-egtd la etlujn
whc wspulshdsoeyer ao'i olm Vo
(pp 34), asstaed o b vry bU~ant i th Site f aummw&,mmm
a desructie enmy ofyoun peah, cerryand.otherfrui
Ma 0 apOynr igi8 'a osredbaing

flig bu apsti br loig o abl i hiht











-h 413-
bjaro&hy ant$L

0 AN" IN *r"A$.
_7 Tex.
"o tw % +
VS of very ipja by ouding
UPW -40A''r js+ of inteiVA, -we oopy it


A*"oo+16 Teprd to the night. aats as you dadg-
aa Omni Ahe tufting ants. Inthelot
OWAMU the woll to the city w1oolhoum,
11 *mm Of myorchar(L
o, ojmhwland ownty authorltim wat
pvc the taum of these
wbw this man em

avoo Uorw wail fwjiag if
th
V rlet*rtod
mioOwfiad knovii to+ I* doO"td
Vii *toa &OP, iA Iny *em,
Oi; tadct U& britk honao. Ie
oq 606vm + or, rou. iwij-by wosm, +

w fioloot the "ta Vaimid-
IkJU ibe Of $MpL Aw ftt-*
1 -I
UP t6 2M y*rAo.
'm putp
w on the Landqi
ooo-w' tooj,




Wl




44
mrmmumaw and Csrabidie,,were found lyAr,441 #
as also numerous gnats of no known important
wise. Outside of the Lepidoptera *e only iase4A 000113MO tj
a ohrysopa fly, (Chry8opa oculata), a well-knovm
The temperature at the time of collecting was %b6ut,65P.oti
but the official reported temperature was 60".
The list which follows of the species captured, and the'
of their occurrence, both on the date of capture and an estiraite
occurrence during the week ending September 23, may be
interest not only as showi g the value of lights in attrae
forms 'in autumn', but also for comparison with the list of
tured in a cotton field near Victoria, Tex., October'l 1897,
Published in Bulletin No. 18 (n. a., pAges 85-88). FulihaJf
cies listed are Southern, i. e0, forms more frequently 40
South than in & Northern States.. Anyone who bm APY11 A'
tion to the species of insects attracted :to lights in sprigg andd
can not have failed to have, been struck- with the fact that b
forms are frequently so abundant as toshow in many ca-gos
lights are of practically no value whatever in reducing, the n
of destructive insects. Although the noxious f6rms outnutd,
others, it must always be remembered. that eachindividual of a
ceous or parasitic species during a lifetitac' is c"ble of d
many individuals of the 1i jurious species.
Te following is the list of captures:

Win name. Common name,
t a2 3,
per OW4
Aletia, argillacea ............................. Cotton worm ........................
Heliothis armaJger ........................... corn ear worm, tKM worm.. .......
Leucania unipunfta ..................... Army worm, .......
IAphVma frugiperda. ................... Fall army worm .......... ........
Cram us vulvivagellus..... .......... Va=boud cr&mbus ......... .......
11 na, ambra ............... ---- Gr clover worm .................. 4
Pj=.a bmsslew ............... ..... Cabbage looper ------------------ 6
g cutworm..
Feltia subgothica, ........ ___ ........ Djg -------------
Agrotis ypsilon _------_---_-_-_ cutworift -------------
toperce c ina ............... .1 ...... Toinato worm ........... t ....... 1
Protqparce celeus ............................ Tobacco wonn _-------
Pyralis costalis .............................. Clover hay worm ................. I
Thyridopte rx ephemexwformis ........... Bagworm -----------------_-_----- I
Pluota pree7tionis ........... ....... A cabbage looper ................... I
Loxodege jumilalis ........................ Garden webworm ------------- 2
Prodenta ornithogalli ............ ...... Cotton cutwom ----_-_-_-__-- I
Miscellan us in ecies ......... ... ..... ......... ..... ..........
Innoxious 9peciejsuor110Mu0$t5hPs4 ..............

-7
THE ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH'IN PENNSYLVANU.

It might be remembered by- some of our' correspondents
made mention of the fact that the Ang(jumoi -gralin moth,
cerealeUa 01.) is known to occur in the field as far north as
phia, Pa. From accounts which have reached us M 0 )









W
m1wiall A. Ito -writes
WI 6r hijwrecl keftel and the
tan
J, SO* *01ght. One InSI cc
7 W 14ve the bsxn- at various
to ir theiri throats and
iaqoots, wlnih came In clouds, both
Alhis, ts Te re"ce of the insect in the
041411 thmhj,g, conmeumd in Noveifiber.
*,*OUY vw'*mhed mi July and sold or
'4 I*Vo bma gWeviii.
-V*,#tq mmn"aadeot mtoW that after,
wnshosseertaintl
Ao P.Omprise a digbiet'radiating

a 01) the
We
Ot Oro WILI pat
-`tbi
(164 0
*h* to
loss=$ t4t the iofoi-
i0or6"with the m% of Aheir
q*mdon to oudeavor to -per
hatW.boen, thrfthed..,
the grain m4fit;' bring, "-d ft,
#444octortiV27, Somo-inter"
119
A MIwkeoited. one pmforl, owning
41"
4WOW,_ PWI JL MOw shippo&
00
001W ene next 4y
lw 04 W * a it Nim-
who threAed,
-wo, of,*dt
LA





,whichl
time
Teb
f Ne
I e
nnay

I #

,;-it "4-1 4k!A




































Perk.), in "Notes on insects affecting the koa trees atFhi*|'
Maui," specimens were given to me at San Franciso by MiA
Fuchs, who claims that they were common in gardens f
Mr. E. A. Schwarz, to whom we showed specimens, prQn- oa
the well-known "Fuller's rose beetle" (Arawmigusfuller7
insect has been figured in the Report of the Entomoil
Department of Agriculture for 1879.1 Dr. Riley states that :
as 1875 specimens were sent to him by Mr. A. S. Fuller,
it in greenhouses somewhat injurious to camellias. In his mgu
Riley stated that "it seems to be quite widespread, ocurrmitah
Atlantic at least as far west as Montana, and its habit ofi j
affecting roses and other greenhouse plants must be looked:,
.. . *,: i i ..
comparatively recent acquirement." ....
The so-called "Olinda bug" is found on Oahu, and lat|*a1ys
in destructive numbers at Kohala and Kau, on Hawaii. The.Fa
this beetle to trees is in reality not as serious as :it wouM. ...
its presence upon older trees is barely noticed, wile, upo tf
trees growing among the Hilo grass its preened is more J
.-K. .... ... ..... . ... ... .. .
More recently Mr. Chittenden has given ..an accot of M:.i ." .i
h. 5., pp. 88- ........

*
..... .. .. ... ... .;. ......1fliji ....
.:::, .' .. .... .. ..... ;':"': .:!: ir" ....
... ....4 @ .: ::i:.:::::i. :i ii .. .. ,. ....
'~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ..." ....::,: .:::i: ,; !i' ~'i . ...ii
. .. ..
...... 4;






i A
n 0 c"Sud et,




w Ofin to dpth ofgever
onteWnsingbfr txmo
Irm n(!proabl

1ii"y
0- iiie~ykon.Fu
'~~n ic, ......
trl feein 11nt ==




consou o inmts, meke
an, ro eamnaio mde h S fed uo
A ciy oma
UNGLA' I~rCM F MOKOWU=meB
Fm ie otm w r n eepto pcieso
Derl vey urtr fth goe it eprtIR h
ha aue nnync yatakngmn.I reiu
thsDprtetw hv a ocso t etonmr rle
the ttaks nd alegd atack oftheSo-clle kisin
qute, la, ebgs n arosote nscswhc r
atakmnhbiull.Etrm ass hwvrae osanl.
reotean om f hs mybeo itret Drn


190 e eeve omuiaio fomM. F rigr I

Unitd Sate Cost ad Godeic ~urey, hiscit,, ith

in pciesoftegrudbete(aramemtc)
speces In th Wes, whch bd ben taen i Sepembr o h
on hefr o r Wlia oda agNer r.Lr

ha ee oiedteiscsbf~eta er bu eakdt&
weeit aag ier. M.Gane tae taIIroa







11
d("no=014
. td ana ti
U|o4a y3fe nfm










"_7


A.A FtnRvr~e Clin ww
349 ]ClU bedeli' a am~d, pdMe os
xfy-A ube o hebefl!
4-01 boxand-sentto u by r. Irdyandearl
tw 1.




Fa-ub ai ms _
in~~~~~ ~ ~ th nuyaogthmAki
year ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~[ afe h brr _- ea wr t
marrd b theexi hols wich re eft inthe'arl
May 3,101, e rceivd iformtio fro Dr
toeterwihacomanin peiten, ht yitrp
the cuse f cosideabletroube inthe edar____isU
madether apeaan' inin/
30 hebetls CI n se
weevrypetiu ntlte ide fAriwe
Dr ~to ondi bsmnta'leo edr'
th nscs a Mred hesicsweebal
acontdfo henmbrofte etls
Thr eest b opacclreeywencdrlod
oudo rnmna proe.Ifiwr kp noosfrs
moe n strae i Arl id a wthgsoieo /1
prpaaio, tmih b kp fe fomifettin n -i
wod oldb s rythtth orr wul otatakit-
INFFCTVNES F EOSNElMUSIN GINT H
On o te emdis~ih asben re-!enl










898!p w4w
fm insect he
to, a aw, iit,4
v4HOUS
-1 w1k
Men
ced attw
Thloy


xv















rib"






AjL

jT_ W_




ONTH NSIV0RUSHMSO
Inwitn f h atrlenme o aocl ~woa
whchwreobeve o e nurngte oiae fpea
Mis.,Mr JmesBrdi mkesstteen unerdae f
sqiretdetoytes nscs.Jne28,e as i
caldbyhslitegilt surel ain hsectrirs

hedubebu achdad a ha twa sthcild
On o te qurrlswa prtaly am ad oo ntsfrm is
A aeplarwshnedt hssuirladitwae.In
ing catrpilar te sqirre woud tae itin is PSSDU
head nd thow itawaywhil the iscer wereexpeled o
an eeteol tesi bigete.M.Brdeas
the quirel wer fod o funi. he quirelsobsrve
insctQ. er te cmmn raysqirel ndth 11in Nirra.
wa beve eorigalre ogcrnbel, hc v

near it for the purpose.ii
INETINUYT ]IDNGTIE
Wehv eeie svrl cmlitso nuy bycikt


grshpes obnig rbne ~wnwih w r n
usdfo tckn malgai n tefela rmd o rvetv