Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides ..

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides ..
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
Govt. print. off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029642244
oclc - 28593170
System ID:
AA00018945:00001

Full Text









sukv OFi ~m10



AN INEIiDS
L IWW M N HOAB
Noi014F

A.040 0 "tA l
ARiO H18i PMWR
VOM 44iMAOOf OO wd 1 60
, llm( 0M l" 1M u
OV ,CLA[INRT]WPNSLAU
I-U MDI H 0M FTECMN
XMANiPO WI
1%4A M ft iCopq am
IA
%fW OOl "ILW lACRI
JW I MNU N H
Iw




V# #
ME OL











































DCmuous Furr INBsZECT INVEsTIGATIONS. ::

A. L. QuAmTAnrc, in charge.

FNED JOmiSON, E. L. Junx, P. R. JoNss, A. G. HTAMMA, R. A. OUsMM tt
GIL, R. L. NOUGARET, W. M. DAVnMsoN, L. L. SCOTT, F. E. Bxooxu, W. B. 4
E. B. BLA T.nzLh, B. H. SIEOLEt, A. C. BAKE, agents and experts.
E. W. Soon, F. L. SIMANrON, J. F. Zimmer, entomological assistant.
S. W. Font, W. H. Si, employed in enforcement of insecticide act, 1910.
S



/i
.... ............

S::I' 'ii~iiii~iiii*!!! ".:!!!!!

I"Hf
*: "T:;il
:..llll

:: i : :h ::iiii
Ii
Ii) i


..:p: . ==E : . : "E .E













LETRO RNMTA
Dg~rw vAamm


BUXA OFNOKW i
WmittjDC, omw2,91

Itbv h hnrt wtfrpbiaina
No.,80 o tpr eln ~ c
d yu ri net
T14fo ppemwbih *v~i muedsepratey drin
1900 na olwh Idn ohi h zrs
Jem 1 oB7 di
0 yA.G
ontelsaApeWm yS .Fs n
7% erTriomdIsCbt6 yDdlyMutn

XvoFe1gRbt fteCdigMtb .W ptr

































































































































/1


I


I













ii











P R E FAC E
esent series of articleeon deciduous fruit ingm.
ylhe" Pr to and insecti-
t#Aw, Parts I to VIH, compriAes BuRetin 80 . ....
lho first article, on the codling moth in thw Ozarlm, is a reporton.
JWo years' study of the life history of this insect, which is very
tructive in that locafity. For the first time three generations of
lar*ie have definitely been established.
IU cigar case-bearer, treated in tho second paper, t
*,*t petiodically attmets atteptioi! by reason ofits injuries. During
tbaoutbroak of this species in the general e f North East,, Pa.31
the season of 1908, exceptional 'opportunity.was presented for
*,*h* of itis life history and habits, as aetailed the paper in

The lesserapple worm was the subject of an article issued in 1908,
o 1Pw.rt V of Bulletin 68. At that time the egg had not been found,
t1we was question whether this species fed to any extentupon
twigs of apple. Further observiLtions on this i ortant apple
IMP described,
14re presented in Part M, in which the egg;1stage 1.8
'Previously noted by Mr. E. P. Taylor, and it was also iound
.*e boAng of apple twigs is due to the work of another species.
jaa, ont the pear thrips and its ntrol, comprises: the
Toport, upon, this speciies,, which is so destructive to deciduous
Wts inAW San repon MCalifornia. The first paper,
immed as Part I of etm 68 contained the p al facts In the
A*Wry of Aho inw, t wbich are ]-ep-eated and extended in the
t paper, vdth t-ba- additioji of many data resiilting from large-
'scale expemen. with remaiedies in orchards. Practicable control
41o are indicated.
gtulo loading of the codfing moth. upon nuta has been occasionally,
in. tho literature of this iDseet, although the evidence hs
Wosive 'and it was, the consensus of o ento-
PUIIOIDL SM009
*at the U*Wect never normwlyfed upon nuts. .'Part V of
'0 bulletin det*& definite extended, observations shoWM9
oftttin "tious in CaMornio iho oodling moth is a oeri-
ous work on or permAn
NAVI,- vWW eok wi* the 1ife history of thowdhug moth in
P016VO&W&I follov" ingeoOMI tho plan.,Of tMtment
Wktdaxo "d ao"tufAw the sownd w-tide
Y

































curculio are detailed min Fart VII. ::
... ... i i :+)';.:. .... :. :tttth

The final paper, Part VIII, reports on tests of spray s p i
the European fruit Lecanium and the European pear scale, akl.^^^^^^^^
serious scasle-insect enemies of deciduous fruits in California.
A. t. QUAINTANO3, .:

In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insect I I







:: ... .... ... ::i[~ffE


i :. ::.. : :.::m::i .
.* :... ;^ |::. ::

at":q."J.,~i~iiJiii
4 '"'9:: % :::+iii~ij++ ,
... P t "E"E.E.:.. :.
: +,Fm!,:,i,)mm,(; III:3 i(


:.:.ilit

: U .:
E :E'H:: "E
n. : fl ..:
SI . 'il:












C 0 N T E N T S



cwjbg moth iu am Owr1w ----------------
s"000a W*Ory -------------- ............ ........
trood of Pope- ------------
v $p6* brood of raottw----. -------------- 4
jf' The Ant goneratim--- --------- ----- -
e woond generation ------------------------------ -------- 11
tj,- Tholhird generation ------ ---------------------------- ...... 17
Wintering Ulrvm.----- 19
Porfkw of rearing work cd the awma ------ --------------- -20
ViM genomfion in 1907, --------------------- 22
observations- - ------- -------- ....... 23
------- --------------- 23
AeqPAm Of motbo ------------------------ 26
------------ ----- ... 27
7
jArv* in Pftchm ..... --------------------- 28-:h
04 Irf smomuff brvw in one apple. ........ ........... 28
Nu*jwt Of ulatf ------------------------------------ ...... 29
'44 11 Nau"Al Onemuo ------- ------------------------ 29
--------------
I>0w-Out*e d fm* Weded.,-... so
--------------------------------- 31
**w ftw-Ummr (Colwphom AtAmUa Fernd) .,.A G ..,Hanww. 33
--------------------- 33
-------------------------- 35
food pug* ud jAiwy-. ------------ -------- 36
------------- 37
------------------------------ 39
----------------------------------- 41
-Of COMUOL. -------------------- 41
---------------------------- 42
V-
u-, swumx ft aw itaw *PPIe wom (Enwvw%,fO pftlailxm W"),
---------- 45
TWO Ap*,O*XP*U* o*w OLso tboqodlUW motb ---------------------- 46
WSW aWe wOM =d codling Linoth. mi
----------------------- 46
4Dr yudhobj 47
'1^ cyck *ad dur *oft o 48
so
--------- 50
50
its e(*Uol (A4*ips pyvi DaOW)-.---.Dudiq AfmdAft, 51

J". A . . . 52
a4d Ubits. 55

66


low* IM (thi" ""mim ljj"





































Results of experiments with the one-spray method as compared with inuibt:
from the usual schedule of applications............................., 1 l
Experiment in Arkanas ...............................................
Experiment hVirginia ...............................................
W. S. Balard' orchard........................................ ..
Orchard of Strathmore Orchard Co .26A....-.3. 'r
Experiments in Michigan ............................................ .:.
Summary statement of resltt ........................................ Ai.:
Conclusions ............................................................ "
Tests of sprays against the European frit Lecaum and the European pe:.::::
scale....................................................... P. A. if .4 -r
The European fruit Lecanium (Lenium comi Bouch) ................ ;VAI
Appearance of the insect ........................................ ... .
Plan of work and method of ascertaining results .. ............... 4 I':'!
Application of sprys .............................. ........... i
Sprays used and methods of preparation............................. iii
Result ........................................................
The European pear scale (Rpifipa pyricoa Del (ur.) ...........-.. lui
Appearanceof the insect and extentofinjury....... ......... '
Spraying experiments in 1908....................-c.c...................
Spaying experiment in 1909............c c .e ..e. s...... .....*c .. ...
Eostof praying....................... ..............c..c...cc .. ..^
summary...........................................................cabeead.c c-I.*c0.4I*..... P
Icd *................................c.......... ..... ...c..c.... mW.:
.ll.















ILLUSTRATIONS


PLAT".
MV e4w case-heareir (CUmphom fidAffdJ*)- L-Apple led
with larvw at work- Mg. 2.-Int0sted apple twig, two weeks after
laryo ceased feeding. ft. 3.-YOUBg br=chea with puneWrelike
feediugmarksof the 36-
11. The cipt case-bewer. Fig. Lt-Apple leaf from which numerous
emes have been cowtructed. NA.--Over-winteringlarvae. Fig.
L-Apple leaf hvm which cigar-shaped cases have been, made; the
empty Spring caam sM adhering., ft_-LWewly emerged motba
JA tbew chwactieflatie pooe on tho ompty 4?Aes. --------- 39
JU. The Imw apple worra (Rawmonia pnwivo-p). L-PhartMir
crogol*ofen. Fig. 2--Workof Iwo ou fruit of CratiWw... 48
TY, 00wido, of bu& the fine when opraying for the pear thrips,
(Amtkip pyn) should be given. Fig I.-Bartlett pear. Fig. 2,
Omeh prune., ft. 3.-ImperW prune --------- ----------- 54
V. W** of, the pea flnipa on pear- Fig. I.-Destruction. of buds and
bllo Fik. 1--8mbbing of fruit ftom. feediag punctures by
aOuPs ou the opeamig buds in spriM. ----------------------- 54
j Wo* of the pear thripo on Fmch prune. Fig- I.-Shoot on which
datroyed tnbkwom stap. Vig. 2.-Young
p ho been Wgvl
Awalexe shmitg stabbing resultijDg from work of h"w.
W4 Aowingw4UbJng remilting in a Icrw
140 4fled f"It. ------ 54
A, 4 VM 0WHOrmth iftjutio PVWCh Walnuts. Flg. I.-Concord variety
91 sh", character of ipiury by larvae of the cod-
av 2 yvioty of Prench waJnut4 about
68
;OjVW. OodUsWmoth L-Coucord variety
V*awh wolauts ig
viag, 40044 tiWoue the 4alves,
2,,----Pouc"4 -"ozwt ,h wal-
=d "Apty pup"", y of Frox
U'ut, AWWing enuo", AP4 kxitbqlftof 68
POW00 Of 1DUtd(W *Otg V"d W MWAg t6 CWU0g MQth M. M9.,
00 1484 Pok 72
i.-Viaw in orchard of (m S. X. ,ftfty Spriuv*A&
OVCb*d AdW W Ila
d tbooowxm, 00*W, Ck XO"t

lu
oh* OMP *a vwwl.
EV 4A L J"Y&Mo*
148
4r


tx:
























served in 1908 at Siloam Springs, Ark ............................. ::-
9. The peculiar cases of the cigar case-bearer (Colwphora fletemhe )....- H
10. The cigar case-bearer: Adult female, egg, larva, pupa, details.--..-... ,
11. Life cycle of the cigar case-bearer .................................... ...........
12. Habrocytua op., a parasite of the cigar case-bearer -------------------.
13. The pear thrips (Euthrips pyri): Ovipositor and end of abdomen from
side----------------------------------------------- L------ A
14. Thepearthrips: Eggs ..............................................
15. The pear thrips: Larva....--.....--.........................-----.......... .,!
16. The pear thrips: Nymph or pupa ...................................
17. The pear thrips: Adult --------------------------------.......................................-.-.-'
18. Rearing device for pupal records--...-....---------------------------.... .
19. Emergence curve of spring-brood moths, 1909 ....--......-----........---...... i-
20. Emergence curve of first-brood moths, 1909 .....----...-----.. -------... ::::
21. Band-record curve of 1909-..........-----------------------.............------. U
22. Diagram showing the seasonal history of the codling moth in 1909 ...... :
23. Emergence curve of spring-brood moths, 1907 ........................
24. Emergence curve of first-brood moths, 1907 ........................... .---
25. Emergence curve of first-brood moths, 1908...........................
26. Band-record curve of 1907.---------------------------------------- 'Zl
27. Band-record curves of 1908- --............--............................
28. Maximum and minimum temperature curves, 1907 ................... ...
29. Maximum and minimum temperature curves, 1908 ...................
30. Maximum and minimum temperature curves, 1909............... ..-:':'I
31. Time of emergence of spring-brood and first-brood moths, and the 9hn !I
blossom periods of apple trees, during 1907, 1908, and l9- --.... .-... l-i'4::: :.. ...'..ii
32. Time of leaving the fruit of the first-brood and second-brood lau v : :i||||
during 1907, 1908, and 1909 ....................................... IS |||
33. The condition of the calyx cup of the apple in relation to praying for /
the codling moth .....................................* 4
34. Diagram of the Mrs. S. E. Jones orchard, Siloam Spring, Ark., showing
location of plate and trees used for making counts of fruit........ .I4
35. Diagram showing ar rangement of plate and trees in he W. S. Balluard I
orchard, near Crozet, V&. -. .... ----.--- ---- .----... ------ -.......... iiiiiiiiiiii
36. Diagram showing arrangement of plate and tree in the orchard of the ..
BStrathmore Orchard Co., near Momunt Jackso, YV ..... ....... ......,.
37. Diagram illustrating arrangement Of plate and position of tree. in the : i
E. H. House orchard, near Saugatuck, Mich....................... 3






D.A .R U %PatLD UII

4 A MDEMSIUfANISMMS


COLG OHIN OZ
ByXL nN
Rng~dinDwfto JW nsd Iva~sow
OV J7th ura o ntmloyunetoksoeexeim W
4eosrto "Yn o h mrlo h o gxtt t
Spf" Bmo onyAn okben agl
a fw otopltin t th lfe isor
01 fmtwr eue.7o oigwm e ieo
wok a cnuce a hemmpum ndte rset
of th olI ohi ta oclt ple anyt h




















larva. ins was eviaently aue to tme rtact tat some or m:n
scantlings were sapwood, which absorbs much moisture during I
At the time of examination they were damp and soggy, thoug k AJ;4
rain had fallen for several days. Under these the propoirtka4:';.Liii
pupae was much smaller than under dry scantlings adjoining. ..n.
No empty pupal cases were found March 31, although qon
moth, evidently just emerged, was captured while sunning
the bin. On April 21 the bin was again examined, and there. e
found 79 larvae, 114 pupae, and 64 empty cases. This showed "t.
about 70 per cent of the wintering larva had pupated up to ...4i:.ii
time. But even yet larva were in the majority in damp and sh:adi:S
parts. .
Nearly all of the larva collected on the above dates and kept
of doors in vials had pupated by May 12. Two belated indii dh a
pupated May 19 and 20. This gives a probable time of 2joI^
during which wintering larva transformed to ,pupam. Apple --0H
bloomed about the middle of this period. The majority of,::f
spring pupa had given out adults by May 27, the two elated'ii
viduals emerging June 6 and 8. Thus there is a period of abquA 3
1 1::i-L I n
'months during which spring pupa were present-from the .
March until June. .
Length of pring putpaZ astage.-Individual records were ob tainted 1
131 spring pupa, from larva collected at the out door apple "-ip
The material was kept out of doors in vials in a pasteboard tI>!.
under as nearly a normal temperature as possible. The length of i4
pupal stage steadily decreased with the advancmwnt of the ss
Doubtless a longer period would have been shown for the first pu
of the season if they could have been observed.
-The records of the spring pupal stages are given in Tables I m4'in
with a summary in Table MI.




A,










IOWMMMO MOAX


toO itr- mt
sa ugw
.... A 1 l
do 2
ra -o_ 2
15 o_.2


4IA 7.... ----- _o -d .2

....2
2Z -- ----2
!A
.....-o ...2
Ap.712
a!b 22
1-o-.JW2 6M&u2
-- - -. .. . .2
-&O!|92
..............d -M/22






4 DROMUOUS FRU INSW" AND 12 PWTWWWO

TABLE

Nunsbw
of Wt. Naito= Nubkon
S& Pupa ft,

Dep. Daj%
3EWrok 31 ................................................ 83 31 24
Apra 21 ................................................... 4B 26 13
DOW IOU .................................................. 131

SPP-TNG DFOOD OF MOTEMP

DUMN(M (!f mwgence.-Emergence begim out of doors Mar& 2,1
on which date we captured a moth while collecting 8:i:lltg
rial at the outdoor apple bin. As no empty pupal cams were founA'
this may be considered the beginning of emergence. Ben
apple trees were in full bloom at this time. From wintering =,
collected March 31, moths began emerging April 9. Some probe*,
would have issued earlier had not a large proportion of the pupw twp'0Z
injured in collecting. On again examining the apple bin, on April#'" *4
the nu rierous empty pupal cases indicated that about 25 per met 4A
the moths had issued, there being found 64 empty cases and,
larvie and pupm. By May 27 all moths had emerged from
wintering material except two belated 'individuals which
June 6 and S. The latter date coincides with the issuance of the
moth of the fast brood. Briefly, the spring brood of moths isauM
during a period of 2 months, beginning with the date of full-bloom
of apple trees (March 31).
The emergence of moths from collected wintering material is shown
in Table IV.
TABLE IV.-.Rwrgence Of Sm'"o, kud pf mo&-suavwy of emovam rear* fiva
wWeTing matirQ w&ded Mwd 24, Ha"A 31, wW Apra 01.

Number Numbw Number Nuniber
Date. d natbB Date. d moft DaU. of motba Date. of m2oths Daft. dz_;;
emwging. amming. emwging. emwitmi. :
*moo"'
Apr. 9... 1 A '20.. 1 May 1... 3 16 a..
Apr. 10.. 2 Apr.21.. a WAY 2. 9 .13. 22 W.
Apr. 11 - 0 Apr.22.. 4 may a... 10 may 14.. 26..
Apr. 12.. 0 Apr. 23.. 11 M--W 4. 13 1L. U 26..
Apr. 13.. 1 Apr.104.. 2 may 22 n ff..
Apr. 1C. 0 Apr 25.. 4 may 6... 2 Ifty 17.. a -TUIU.. I
Apr. IS.. 2 Apr.26.. 0 Nair 7... 0 may Is-.t 7 JuWS...
Apr. W. I Apr.27.. 0 USY-S... 3 3 ft- 19- 5
Apr. 17.. 2 Apr.28.. I XMF 9... 0 9" .. 10
AI:2e.. 2 1 -W 10.. 27 Us, X-
A is.. 4 A X


The d at& given in Table IV are shown graphically M* the acCOMPAM I PIIII
ing curve, figure 1. -_ -1
The above record is from 320 larva and 232 pups collected Map&
24p March 31, and April 21 froin the outdoor &We bin. Ilm U2




--ftm XIt O T OAX
.] p Irdm ,sut. m agrnme fPP
!-aywwr ~~e f olcin n ildt ieotmtp
wih -c htI ftettlnme olce
taenate moom a bguwol trw h
ll*soncnkxal ae hm i hudb-A

sttd jpt2 e eto temtshdeegAi h
&O 000aoegonb pI24
n,10 r ulyMutnrorsteUigo |eu
whl olcig itrni a pnp
-2.Ti a 5dy fe h pl lsoshdWn





fan llna.13=x






6 DZCMUOUS FRUrr WOW= A" in' WMWB&

T"LX V.-Lve V "M' W bVa Of

MoW =nWd and put Into KeftdIML "M (A
CW-

DM& Number. D86L D4W
IL
APM n.... I AprII 19 ........... 1 AM[ to.
Aprg 15 ............ 2 Ain* 20 .......... I Ajxffi 24 .......
Aims 16 ........ *,-, I Aj)zff 22 ........... 1 JDW2..: .......... s"
AW 17 ............ 2 AW 24 ........... 4
Ma 18 ............ 4 AW 28 ...........
4*W- 19 ............ I AW 20 ........... 3
............
AbM 21 ............
AW 28 ............ 15 May 2 ............. I
may 3 ............. 2
3
Total ........ 3D WAY 4 .........
May 5
MAY 2
Zo6q)ed .......... 2


TAims VI.-I#e of W*W &oa of nwa&--C* H.

X"M wmerpd and put InIn MOft ffied. 1II:;W IW (14
A"T

DM& Number. Date. Number. Mob& DOW

Aprg 2s. .......... 4 may 2 ............. 2 4 ...... ......
4*9 28 ............ I may 4 ------------- I May 8 .............
Agff 29 ............ 2 M&* 5 ------------- 1 MOY U ............
JMY 1 -------------- 2 X&Y 6 ------------- a
Ifty 2 .............. 9 'Eay 7 ............ I
I" a .............. 12 may 9 ------------- 2
MU* 4 .............. 10 10 ------------ 5 -9.1 days.
11 ............ 4
Total ........ 4D 12 ------------- 3
13 ............ 2
14 ------------ 4
May 15 ............ 3 4 414
Kay Is ------------ 2
2 44
..........


FMOT GENMAnON.

WMT-BROOD EGGS.

PerW of ovipmltion.-F&gs wen Dot laid in the rearmig
early as in the field, because of the lack of a nUm
earliest motba. Egge collected in the Ud bW= to hatch ApdI, Ut
which, from the earliest observed periods of incubation, would in4a0o,
that oviposition had commenced as early an April 7. Apple
had nearly all fallen by April 7. F4gs weWe Abundant in the
on April 27, 67 eW being collected from the lower bbreanches of 2
in the space of half an hour. Of these, 6 wen empty Wbw&, 2 A
the black head of the larva and the own d&Y, 36
red ring, and 23 were undeveloped. EW continued
the orchard during the early part, of May.




Ar




df tho brood fomd My 27.
am were in, the ofthwil at -that time,, but only 3
egp vare found, all of In the"black-spot" dage.
Aste seem to b new tho and of the firs brwd of emm, and
vrith, the imuing recorils df moths from collected w
pnadcaU all moths having emerged by this tim&
14 1907 tba, I" of the firs rood- iwem obtained Jum 21
been Wd in a eW by the I" to emerge from CORMW
kept in the laborstory
ovipmWoit.-Of 67 eggs cobwteid in the orchard APR 27,
on the upper side of kaveo, 13 on the back of leaves, and
twig. While -to"1131.2 Wt on May 6 a carefid examination
wae nude on all the leaves, twigs, and fi-nit to bo In
There w 78 or empty Aas found, of wMdh 76
an tbo upper owlimce of "ves, I on a twig, and 1 on the side
0 *Ok. Since but tw -apples became wormy after MW bagpd,
I PO Fj_ the wbole D"
Mady Privent on the parts
Some of eggs were at a hom
ax rule the moths seemed to have salected. the ftuit
pomRdy ont lho fohw them Via: 0 denw than on
Aloot
mqWw iddy, on aft parts of twigs,
*ak Zraute- wom of cage, and on the glass panes, alwa
on tbo side of the cage from which most I*ht cam. Twigs
the midd6 or on the darker side of the cap were disreg=AM,,
depo4tbc thtir egp on the side or bottom of the cave
Awft out toward the light.
eggs oborved. wero fertile, wh"ff laid

Alm Wm proper bVin. When qW
iiiijim" lib, rs it V't" an fat&.
AWN&SO w gm&JJY
AIL
1004klw am jwt to OCCIW M eady Wing.

Aw RIF7 10 ____,ivdud*w., had, wid Cm
'.S' *. _t'-ft '_ -A
19.6 &Y& F9P
JE MAIMI, Of the SOM ape of
17 dw"
1911 Of $o
-AL
4%ff Ob" W =@Mft
M 45
4IL_
A 441hk
Ibr






8 DECIDUOUS FRUTr INSECTS AWD rMSECTWIDES

TABLIN VIL-P*W-brood rawrib *Legg$ Win o" I d"d
in TOW Vand VJ),,
A. 21 ZGG8 LAID IN CAGE 11

Wben BMUlwk
Number laid Redrft Wban 1A.Whot
111"P. (night). &P liabWbid. Pustw

2 Apr. 19 Apr. 27 May 4 6 1
11 _do ..... ... ..... May 99 20
3 Nair 10 21

B. 46 EGGS LAID IN CAGE 1.

1 Apr. 24 May 2 May 10 may 11 16
2 ...do..... -..do..... Mair 9 M r 13 17
do ..... ... do....- May 10 -To..... 17
-.do ..... ... do.. May 11 _do..... 17
4 ...do-.... May T _do ..... ... do._. 17
...do-. May 2 _do..... May 13
...do..::,. I May 3 .......... may 14 10

C. 16 EGGS LAID IN CAGE Il.

16 May ...... )xay 17 &5
81 ---------- I I t IL M.
D. 45 EGGS LAID IN CAGE Il.

May 17
46 May 10 .......... ..... P. m. 7.5
]fity 18


YrROT-BROOD LARVM.

PerW of hakhing.-The date of the earliest hatching
can be put fairly accurately at about April 27 (3 weeks after 4_3
had fallen), as on that day out of 67 eggs collected in:theorobOP4
only 6 were empty shells and 2 in the black-spot stage,
the same day. No wormy apples were found until'May 4, tb*VWV!x
lobes probably concealing their work for several day& lAwm a
tinued to enter the fruit M' numbers during nearlythe whok Ow 'Tww.
The last of the brood probably entered during the fiM:v
which is allowing 10 days from the time of the. last, observed
egg in the orchard. The great majority of the first brood o6 1w**
entered the fruit du May.
Thus it will be seen that up to this time the different 9
the 'insect, 'instead of showing an incremang tendency to ocioupIt g
':L'"
longer time, have actually become more compact. While it&zKTWqqPRA
about 21 months for the wintering larvw to pupate, the. sprig iW66
issued within a space of 2 months and the first brood of larv* Ibb4oUd
in scarcely more then 45 days. This is readily explainable *
influence of temperature on the different stages. The earliest --domm ,








WA 10 Y-to is g
20dy o 0,adW ltol hrnn y4nte
ofteeii um i tofii ro flim nee
.10 h ttlrvw /n nteorhr a 8 el
-#a inteato ttrn h ay.Ti a ek




W nel nee.Oe Wwryape eewle
th w lc4bu olrwjs m i g wr fud
I=-v haigbrm oth oe
ofkwnINtefrtcoo ,a on ne

27 Ad oJndanwyepp sf n



























me cocoon stage."
shown in Table VIII.


inaiviwus records or


-Drooa pupa r
**.T ii


TABLE VIII.-Pupal periods and cocoon stages of flirt ger .


Individual No. larva Larl Mothm Lsi.

fruit. "mj '


1..................................................
2.........................................-----
8...................................................
4...................................................
5...................................................
6.......................................... -
7 ............................................
8 ..................................
9.....................................--.-- -
10...................................................
11...................................................
12...................................................
13...................................................
14...................................................
15..................................................
16...................................................
17........................................... ........
is ..................................................
19..................................................
20...................................................
21...................................................
22...................................................
23..................................................
24...................................................
25...................................................
26...................................................
27................................................
28................................................
29...................................................
30...................................................
31...................................................
32...................................................
33.................................................
34.................................................
3 ...................................................
36...................................................
37...................................................
38...................................................
3* ...................................................
40 ...................................................
41...................................................
42...................................................


May 29
S..do.



May 31
SJune 2
...do.....
...do.....
June 3
June 4
June 6
...do.....
...do-....
June 6
...do.....
June 2
...do .....
June 9
Jone 11
IJune 15
June 16
June 21
June 23



July 24
...do.....
,June 24


..do...
Jtay 37
June 28
Jane 30
July 1
July 2
...do.....
...do.....
July 3
July 7
July 8f
July 0
.".do.."


June 2
...do__
June 4
...June 5do-...
June 6
June 7
June 6
June 9
June 7
June 6
June 21
June 11
June 13
June 21
June 11

June 13
...do.._.

June 16
June 19
June 23
June 24
June 29
July 7
July 2
July 5
July 7
July 63
July 7




July 5
Juy 8s
Jl '11


J i s
Juy


June 12
...do.....
...do.....
... do.....
June 13
June 18
June 15
June 16
...do----
June 18
June 16
June 21
June 19
June 23
July 3
Junme 22
June 24
...do.....
June 26
June 28
June 26
June 30
July 5
... do .....
July 11
July 17
July 12
July 16
July 17
July 18
July 18
July 30
July 27
July 18
Aug. 1
Aug. 7
Aug.
JAuy 5
Aug. 4


10
10
DOW& :"

IS


II
10
13
11
11
10
11
10
12
11
it

13
11
11
11
10
12
0
11
12
11
13
10
10
11

n
19
a
3


12
13

10
I


11"
it
0
13
13
10
11
11
10


i ii




;A.











. .q. .:. ...
V1
3X


FIRST-BROOD MOTMS. .. :

The earliest first-brood moth emerged June 8,. on which date te
last belated moth of the spring brood also issued. Sixteen of the ,
earliest moths, caged June 8-15, showed an average life of 6.2 day.
Oviposition began 5 days after the first moth was caged. In 1907,.
,,,, *i,'*"'*'*""'*'*'*""'!!


.. i. .!" :





'Iwg ubro ois*m- do h aedtepwr


on h ilrI .*rffis-ro oh omdi
.ivni li
off*Wdmt O 70rre in i"o rmfi
II nflo aug wzrn nbge
WIwIil wmdmr
IIbaMe

till- ... .
Muft.
DR mw.IDW NM"



---- -- 1----2
21
IWn no oh o bane ni ue2.]n10
ta mrd'h famt nJn.1:hm "e











larva or tne second Drooa woula nave natcne& June is. Thie"yNin-1P1
hatching in numbers in the cages June 21. Reared larvm eiliS'i
fruit as late as August 3 were undoubtedly of the second bro6,A0 m
they pupated on reaching full growth. Some of the brood pbibh
hatched later still, making a total period of entrance to the .*0:
perhaps 55 days for such larvae of this brood as pupated..::'
Maokring of larw.-The band record (p. 24) indicates that se..* ,
brood larva began to leave the fruit by July 15. The first ofb :'A'!!
reared larva left July 13, and were from eggs laid 4 days later Ait h :!
the earliest, so mature second-brood larva may have appeared ::
July 10. The band records of both 1907 (p. 23) and 1908 (p. 2*4)
indicate that the last of the second brood left the fruit early in ep
tember.
Period infruit.-A large number of second-brood larva hatchi ,
during the night of June 22 were transferred to bagged fruit June :L::
Seventeen of these reached maturity after an average time in thae fqi
of 24.6 days, the time ranging from 21 to 31 days. The individual
records are given in Table XI.

TABLz XI.-Lfe of seond-brood larva, reared in bagged fruit on Lree (8egg. nIoNW
Table X).


... . ....

..., ::' :, .. : :
". .. :ET ": ":1::
:. i 'i i : .. .


Several of the same lot of larva were put on picked fruit and'O:'
in jars out of doors. Most of these spun cocoons in the fruit, l
pupated before the fact was noticed. Three of them, however,
the fruit after periods of 21 and 22 days. The fact that these larvm
had been kept in jars instead of on bagged fruit seems toal6ii::
hastened development, as the average time from oviposition to em4il::!,]
gence of adult of 11 individuals of this lot was 42.3 days, as .agaif'i ...!....
49.5 days for the 17 individuals on bagged fruit. Nine second i:
larva hatching July 28 to August 8 were reared in picked fruit in ..4
and reached maturity in from 16 to 20 days, the average being I : ;
days. Individual records of this lot are given in Table XII. '
: IIiiiiii
.:: 1iiiiiii


Number When Date of Time In
of larva. hatched. "avs fruit.
fruit.

Night.
1 June 22 July 13 2r
4 ...do..... July 14 2
1 ...do..... July 15 23
4 ...do..... July16 24
1 ..dos. July17 26
2 ...do. July 18 26
2 ...do July19 27
1 .. do.:: July20 28
1 ...do ..... July23 31






1111 ,,IUCIVMAXIOO XOM XX 1 OZ""6 IS

=.-L* of m"W*ood low, r4wed in pi&aft," in on o" of *ws.

Date 0


D
2 Inly, 28 Aug. 15 IT'
I Aug. 14 17
V XWY 31 Aug. 17 17
I Aug. 2 AU& 20 is
I A 3 A 22 19
AZ 23 20
is 16
16

M7 the, period in the fruit was determined for 33 second-broodk
Vich 4tched July 104 5. All were rewed pikod fruit..
io the laboratory. The shortest time was 15 daysy longest 22
48.1 days,, Tho 1907 are tabulated in Table XIIIW
XW.-Li# qf$OcMU,(_4Vx4 Of laivMV rawod'in pic.Wfruit,, in -kborafory-19M
t
# Date of
fruit.

MY 27
--- do,__ 29 19
___dtL..__ Ilwy 30 20
w !a --- ----- is
2 _do__ July 31 16
-..do--.- Auk. 1 17
7 --- do_'_ Aug. 2 18
4 --- do-.--. Ug 3 19
---do ----- Ang. 4 2D
Aug. 5 U
2 Aug. 6 22

Jife it: 7 larvie maturing from July 12 to Sep-
"n le*VU9 the fruit and pupation (in vials
days'with an average of 11.86 days
AUO, of the fnt-brood larvw woulct also apply
)6,4h4AV4*0* ire'shbwn in Table XIV.
t, R4 t*

,jixut f6rdko as late as September 14. These, how-
"4,r # i ,
wwe IA;*otU0eftttho fruit Septeraber 1 or before, and,
IArV*M :" 'W t later than August 20 transformedo
OrYIP "wou into No-voinber. In 1907 larwo.

Wi4wm appa eirly in 8apVw'dxtt*
Jim= lw*, ist-Uring, dter itayin M
17 dAp', shoftWV 8*

i Pv
4 Vw I idtis w t -"d Pupation WAN
A, &A
-4 th6 M
roow& a* given in Table X".


































































" ,...................................................
55........................................ ........
56 ..................................................
57 ..................................................
58 ..................................................
59 ..................................................
so0........................................ ..*1....-..
61 ........................................'...........
a2...................................................
61 ...................................

64 ........................................-.........
66 ..................................................
as6...................................................
a7................................................ ..
as8..................................................
6................................................
7TO..................................................
71...................................................
73 ...................................................
78 ...................................................
74 ...................................................
U ...................................................
76...................................................
T77..................................................
. ..................................................
U.li ~ t i I ii I l I l l I
68i.li~iJiJJl~l iIJOO ~i ~j
64.ileoieteooeoloJsselilllgi
65.eo~n~eeeeeeoge~ennneenoa~
U.og~gineooeeneeeineneiJ aa~
67.emmmomoomo mmmmmgii&mmno
U....
0..elooegm~ogigmiigi/tJi~mi
19..... 66eeeeei~o~ii~mn~iele
i 71. ..ii~/ii~mJli~i~JJJ~ii
7 2 . ..i.~e~ieii~~ible~i~i e

74 . ..enota~i~etJtJie~~iJ#~


... O .....
...do.....
Aug. 13
Aug. 14
Aug. 15
...do.....

..do....
...dot....





Aug.194
...do...




Aug.,25
...do...

Aug. 21
Aui.24
Aug.276
Aug. 37
Aug. 30
.ept I,


Aug. 18
Aug. 19
Aug. 21
Aug. 18
Aug. 21
Aug. 31
Aug. 19
Aug. 26
Aug. 24
Ag.2
...do.....
Aug.23
Aus. w20
Aug.10
Aug. 3"
Aug. 80

Aug.8

-an
Sept 1
Sept S
Sept 8
Spt. S
8Sep 13
a~t -

59t


Aug.30
Aug. 31
Aug. 27
ASp. 31
Sept. 12
Aug. 28
Sept. 6


Sept18
Sept. 8
Sept 1
Aug. 30
Bet8

Sept 10

Sept12
Septc11


Sept. 16
Sept 17
SpIO
Sept 12
Sept 20
Sept516
&914
sop2
25p 3


I i I* a a] I


.i T:it .
4! .E .[:

"I I<


H k . ...iH
.J'
i, piii',ii
'Ai:iiii iiiii




rfjlorw1

UoM
ofte won v~dwf"obane ro eae
mMots'i buidne uin ugs ndi dmn



thogot penbr 7e aton oeeg u
apemd-cobr1
moh fti bodwmnt bme in


togttefr osbetid-ro g&Oioiini
pao ugs b ohstefiso wihemre Jl 0
of hi cge1* gieninTaleXV
XV-I f wd~Www6 Cm .modfin m~ro km
Rio t Tl kX t


Do&Nn|-Dae 1W~w
5 ------ u m ------U n b
----6-----2 A g oo ----- ffn~ lI
8 -- ---- -- s n --- ---- --
---- --- --- --- --- ---- ad912---- --- --
Y * - - - - - - - -
. . . . . .






16 DIRCMUOUS PRITIT 11q8RCTS AND INOWTIOIDEOP

T"Lz XV1.-Rewrd8 ftm Miposigim to mur arew af adulk qf 19 indii"ude q/ #W
Amond rnaution fmm moMe rwmW in Talk IX-4mve r=d in big*
fruit on bm.


B laid h= AM Wt Larva Moth
Individual No. gealtm (at fruit. pupated. ewerzmL Ole
night). OMW



I ....................................... June 17 June 22 July 13 July 24 Aug. 2
2 ....................................... ... do..... do..... !ult.. 14 July 17 July 27
3 ....................................... ... do..... do ..... . d ... 1 29 Aug. 6
....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... ... do.... 0 ...... Aug. 7 at
5 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... ... CIO ------ Julv 31 Aug. 10
6 ....................................... ... do..... -do..... July 15 Julj 29 Aug. 7
....................................... ... do ..... ... do.. J y 25 A 3 47
8 ............................. ......... ... do..... _do ..... do ...
9 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... ... do ------ July 22 July 30 40
10 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... ... do ...... July 28 A ujol.- 19
11 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do-.... July 17 Aug. 2 Atig. I
12 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do....- J IS July 22 July 31
13 ........................................ ... do ..... ... do ..... .. lyo ...... J% ..26 Aug. 4. 41
14 ....................................... ... do ..... ... ..... July 19 0 _. Auk. 3 47
is ....................................... ... do ..... ... do..... July 20 Aug. 7 Aug. 18
16 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... July 23 Aug. 4 Aug. 16 00
17 ....................................... ... do ----- --- do ..... Transbm ed in fruit. Aug. 4
18 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... ..... do ...... do.....
19 ................... ................... ... do.--..: ... do ..... ..... do ...............

Eleven individuals from the same lot as the above were remd in,
picked fruit in jars out of doors, and s6w an average of 42.3 days
from o osition to emergence, which would indicate about 47 days
vip
as the length of the life cycle. The recordsare shown in Table XVIL

TABLE XVIL-Recordsftom avpo8ition to prVenff 9f adWt, gf 11 indivu-&%fAe
acond genff ation re(;ed from motb recorded in Tabk IX-Zvvje rwred in pVW'
fruito in jw8 ma of doors.

Thm
freva
B laid haM ed Larvaleft Larva moth
'Individual No. (at fruit. pupated.
night). It


1. ..................................... Tune 17 June 22 July 13 July 21 31
2 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do ..... July 14 July 17 Y 28 At
3 .......................................... do ..... ... do ..... ... do ......
4 .......................................... do..... duillfrl n25
5 .......................................... do..... do::::: do --------------- 26 W
6 ....................................... ... do ..... :::do ...do ............... JU 41
7 ....................................... ... do..... :---do ...... ........ J so .48
8 ....................................... ... do..... ::: 'd.::::: 1: ... do... ............ 31 44
9 ....................................... ... do ..... .. :do. J 26 1*
lo ....................................... ... do._. ...... 2 46
11 ....................................... ... do ..... ... do..... .


In 1907 records of 30 individuaJs reared in picked fruit in the
laboratory gave a i i time from oviposition to adult of 34
days, m 68, average 39.1 days. Allowing 5 days bet







Tim, 000uma. xam, IN OURS& 1.7 i

and iyoipogfimj *W10"Ot otlho, We eyels would be;
39; m 1 173; &v4W, 49 days. Thew indoor records
average life cyclo 5 days a1wrter than the outdoor records
buit) of 1908, T" Xvia gives a Tword of: the. 1907


X-VTH.-Rmarok ftom Ozipaawm to It, 6f so in, la of
wond Ommutw'n remed in 1907 from- IarvTTnmdOpjrUap&&& of Me fir8t penemdoit
froft kept -in M&mtory.


T
from OV1_
tion
b3dividual Wo. ha= Jlar" am



Days.
------------------ ........... ---------- I a Taly 14 27 Aug. 15 41
..... .............................. I .... ... ..... .. do ..... ... A 12 38
----------------- ............. 1 29 38
....... ....... ..- ........ ........ da .... .. do .... ... _. -do6..T. 38
uly Is July Aug. 15
-------- 0 ------- ................. 71 JWY 10 -T 16 36
------ .............. I ------------------- -- 1 21 Aug. 13 34
------------- Aug. 14 35
......................... ............ A". I _do_.. 35
......... ........ 35
................. ........... ..... ... do ----- -- 35
A- .. ft.*- -do.mm 35
......... .. .................. Au 16 37
...... ....... .4o ..... do._. _40 ----- --- ....
............. ...... ... do ..... .. -do ...... Aug. 26 46
................... ........... ^ .. ... doz._, _da..... Aug. Aug. 15 36
...... *._* ...... ......................... .... _do,.", ..do.._ 30
----------------------- --- 36
................ ........................... ... ft-.. -do_.. ...'do ..... Aug. 21 42
........ ................ .. ado ..... ... do._.... do,,...- Aug. 22 43
............ ................ ... Aug. 27 48
.......... ............. 0 ..... ... o ..... A 3 Aug. 15 35
....... 36
------ ............................ ... Aug.
...... ... ..... ... 37,
............. ... -do_ Sopt 16 as.
Aug. 4 A 17 30
Ad(o)-. Alir. 5 86;f 1 W
-do ..... .
J
ftwt


4

##1
vme;, -moured Augmt The
tbna, &r thtiij A _A iu the, *W& i& 10, 4sys,
IOUW*O #Wd: m *,iobo Ookibw 16 1W,
f i -q
'd b", 4Wora- AagoA, 2&

'd. Duripg,
VWO 1 lwtn
Ilk


It il iki #i 1 4 A f qrw )Y-+#,*,

















Records of other eggs, mostly of the third brood, laid througha:t:
the latter part of the season are given in Table XX.

TABLn XX.-Incubation period. of miscellaneous aeoond-brood and third-brood egp.


IE


THIED-BRaOOD LARVA.

In the cages the first hatching of third-brood larvae was on August .
14. Judging from the emergence of second-brood moths July 25,
third-brood larvae probably appeared in the field during the first week:
of August. Owing to the early dropping of the small crop of fruit bw
1908, field observations on larvae entering fruit could not be made
during September. In the cages larva continued to hatch in numIbs"
up to September 20, and the last on October 15. The last lot of eggs
developed as far as the black-spot stage on October 29, but failed tio
hatch.
As the harvesting of the apple crop in this region ordinarily begb:
early in September, considerable numbers of the third brood would
fail to mature before fruit picking. Reared larvae of this broyd
began to mature September 2, and the band record for 1907 (p. 23).
also shows an increase about this time. The calculated time of /
maturing of the earliest third-brood larve in 1908 is August 20.
Owing to the dropping of the fruit in 1908, the band record for tie
season (p. 24) does not include a normal number of the later lavp. :
In 1907 larvI spun cocoons under the bands as long as any appIs
were on the trees, and at harvest time many small worms were still
in the fruit.

:....::: :
** .. : 1..11..


Number Eggs laid (at Red ring BlaMk spot When hatched. LeIgth of
of eggs. night). appeared. appeared. When hated. egg stage.

94 July30 ......y ..0............ Aug. 4, evenImng 5
and night.
23 Aug. 12... Aug.14,p~m. Aug. 17, a. mi.... Aug. 17, night... 5
18 Aug. 13 ..................................... Aug. 18p p. m... 5
96 Aug.28.... Aug.30..... Sept. 2.......... Sept. 3, p.m.... 56
50 Aug.29 ..... Aug. 1 Sept.4 ......... Sept. 5.......... 6
46 Sept 7 ...... Sept.9...... Sept. 13, a.m... Sept. 13, p. m. 6
and night.
37 Sept. 11..... Sept. 13..... Sept.16 St17, m.. A*
3 Sept. 17................... Sept. 24, a. m... Sept. 25, p. m. a
and night.
34 Sept.23 ................... Oct.3........... Oct. a. m..... 11
16 Sept. 24-7 Oet. 9-15 ....... 14-18
4 Oct. 16.... Oct. 18-19.. 'Oct........ Dried up....... 13-+


N-






',OZABIK jm

thhArbewd horms, hatchilw August 14 and vowed in
bruit in Jam out of doms, required from 19 to 32 -d&yB to
W grown, the avorW bqbW fthtJy over 24 day& Them
an given in Table

= .-Woof Odng4roodlarvz ra"MUnpicW jm O"Ifobbrsy firm
cop in Thbk Vie.

Wumbff Ttme in
VVhM baw"L I=

Dap.
2 OWL
2 32 1290
%*L 4 21
SOPL
_.-do -------- SOPL .5
------ 88#L 7 24
3 ROOL 8 26
2 -_do -------- SCOL 9 26
1 M- U is
I __do -------- 12 29
iL 14 31
4 1 Aug. A Wsbt Now*- 19
2 ....... 4 20
2 ---.do ... $ 21
V 1 -_-do -------- BVIL 6 22
-----do -------- OOPL 7 23
2 ---..do -------- SMOL a 24
I --do -------- SOPIL 11 27
1 ....... SOPL 12 29
2 14 3D
is 31


4"Or"d Isivo of 4ho third brood were of the' IBM-

W] 1

the seawn failed to pupwg&
W ftj
t the seamn, apparmtly
Aue, is ant of thlem'loft the bruit
'WT
4 VIM 'trood. Two othtis
101 a 0 f fhA leaving
th*bzw& a" win
hmrVi hft the hidt My 1% two Jr*, 19,, and om Auguot 2.
fivit. 1 Among 2o
*wbsWW Ouit (Tsbk
ue*'Idt *51 UJWO; out, ct 44 *maid-
16 Oed lift, 'AN6 6A Aid
the f ruAl A
Ono U" "i*g
0i WOW AIM4PRW U, *190 Umm UP-
-04" 0 610"- in
Az"


Cg






20 DECIDUOU8 FRUrT INOWT8 AND WRECTIOME80

TAimm XXI

Namber 1-9-UN&M
bw
.July ...... .. ................................................................ U2 I
29--August5 ................................................................... 199 A
A 5-12 ......................................................................... 144 4
August 12-19 ........................ a ............................................... 121
August 19-0 ........................................................................ 0
August 2o-september 2 ............................................................. 8
8006ember 2-9 ...................................................................... 6

TABLE XXII I.- Transition to wintaing Imm in 1908.
[From rword made by Mr. S. W. Foster.)

Number Number
Larvie forming ooooons under bands. PXt- wtm

July 13-20 ....................... % ................................................... 15 1
July 20-27 ........................................................................... 25: 0
July 27-Au Ust 3 .................................................................... 27 1
August3-.lff ........................................................................ 63 6
August 10-17 ........................................................................ is 6
August 17-24 ............ ........................................................... it n
August24-si ........................................................................ I a
August x-geptember 7 ............................................................. 0 11

After September 1 all larvae appearing under bands were of the
winte brood. While some of the later second-brood larveD may
go over winter, there is evidence that most of them produce a second
brood of moths instead. The species is therefore dependent la*ely
upon the third-brood larvea to perpetuate itself from season to
season.
Conditions affecting wint larvm in the orchard were not
observed. Around the out door apple bin at a vinegar factory whom
large numbers of cocoons were examined in March and April' the
great m Jority of them contained live larv,% or pupm.

RZVIZV OF RzAanqG WORE OF THE 03MABON.

An effort was made to rear through the season a continuous live
of pedigreed stock from the earliest spring mothswith the principal
object of amertainlin the imum IIIIM of generations. With
the exception of one unimportant break early, in the sea-son, *his
program was successfully carried out.
The start w" made from a number of eggs collected in thefield
and May 4, several days before the of the Ant
eggs laid in c". The lwvie were reared in bagged fruit on treek
and developed into fint-brood adults as shown in Table XXWo






WWOOMAM MOTH IN THR GZARKS.

XXIY'V'n 'i fivft hWA=q of W to enown"..41 a"; Of # *W%,&0h of
ae first qmiM". (Rowid fix= first eg fOU44 in..6raard.).:i,

U=d. I'afrrviadt'left tted. e= .
Ifty 4. May 26 1drAy 30 1
Do__ May 27 My 31 AM 9
Do-..-- may M 0 1 JUUG 13
Ifty 20 June 2 June 12
... .. .. ... .. ........ I .. .. ..........
Not enough adults were obtained in this rearing to mauve oviposi-
NOW for the second generation, so other: adults reared from the earliest
apples from the orchard were put into the cap. This is the


I ak Mi the: line of dawent, where outside material had to be
However, there ean he no doubt: that all these moths were
first brood. In Table XXV is given the record of oviposition
of the6o moths,
VABLOXXV.-Ne of moaw of find kwd, reaWfton fma-brood, 14arVZ frOM aWl'jeff t
uoomy appka coIv*,d in ordwrd, andfrom earimt lmvx rewed in baggedfruit.
and put Into cage. Eggs laid tonightt) moths dIS&
Date. Number. Date. Number. Dat& Nuinber.
----------------- 1 June 13 --------- 2 Jrune 16 ...............
----------- __ --- 1 June 14 ............... 16 June 18 ..............
----------------- I June 15 ............... 26 June 19 .............. 7
------- -------- 5 = 16 -------------- 18 June2l --_----------- 7
------- 2 17, -----_------- 11)4 xamped -------------- 5
a ----------------- 11 JUM Is ..............
14 ------- :
4jI
not the eaxliedt, the eggs laid on the nigfit of June 17 were
on account of their numbers, to start the S'econd generation.
of the larvw hate from these eggs were put on bagged fruit,
othm-wav-1band in picked fruit kept out of doors in jars.
t6m on baMd fruit Aeveloped as shown in Table XXVI.
TAMM Rmm* *position to C of adu.U,,: of 20 imfividimls of ae
smondgmvation, m fmm m6& in le YX V-kwvx rm-a in bagga
fru" on frm.

LWVRM Lu" Moth
Ist frult. pupated. emerge&

------------------------ I ........ Tuns 22 lutm 26 itay n Avg. 2
--------- Itty 14 JOY 27
------_--------------- J!01 A*,
- ----------------------------
--------------_------------ --------- --- do---...-.d _.do----- 31 Aug.
- - - - - - - --- - -- - - - - - 7-- -do ...49M It ft- 1156 "Jr 20 Aug. 7
................ ------- 26 4& 3
----------------- -------.......... ... ....
. . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . 16 Air 02 IWr 3D
7
MA
3MV j
P
3
AmilL 4 j L Iwo, IN
TOM All 4
A'FZZ':""W4 4..
109. 6
%
_MP 'A_
#













TABLE XXVII.--Life of moth of second brood, reared from material rerMm
Table XXVI.

Moths emerged and put Into cage. Ergs laid (at night). Moths die.

Date. Number. Date. Number. Date. Nam

July30............. .. August... .............. 2 Augu t ........... I.(f mae' .I
July31................. 1 August6............... 2 August10.........(tm i 1
August 2 ............... 1 August 8... August 11...........55 A 11.......
August 3............... 3 August 9.............. 54 Aut12........... (hfeMl I
August 4................ ... 2 0..............(u 1
August6............... 1 August 13........... I
August 7 ............... 3
August 11 .............. 1
Total ............. 13 Lost or escaped..... .


The eggs laid August 8 and 9 developed a third brood of larva a
shown in Table XXVIII.


TABL XXVIII.-Lfe of larva of third brood, reared from
Table XXVII.


egg. recorded in


The above larva were reared out of doors in picked fruit.. All of
them were of the wintering generation. 4


THiRD GENERATION IN 1907.


In 1907 all the rearing was done in the laboratory. The first larvaw
and pupa collected in taking the band record (first generation) vwS
used to begin rearing for a third generation. From this material
first-brood moths began to emerge June 25. Second-brood eggs wes
laid by them in large numbers July 6 to 20, from which 41 second-
brood larva developed as shown in Table XXIX.


.21


EBBSlai Tp-nh~h^ Number Larva left
Er( laid Eggs hatched. of mbera. fr
(at night). o av& hft

Aug.8... Aug.14,a.m... 2 Sept. 2
o... ..... do ........ 2 Sept. 3
Do... ..... do........ 1 Sept. 4
Do... .....do........ 3 Sept. 5
Do........do ........ 8 Sept. 7
Do........ do ........ 3 Sept. 8
Do........ do ........ 2 Sept. 9
Do........ do ........ Sept.11
Do... .... do ........ Sept.12
Do........ do ........ Sept. 14
Do... .....do.....do ... 1 Sept. 15
Aug.9... Aug. 14, night. 1 Sept. 3
Do.. .... do ........ 2 Sept. 4
Do... .... do ........ 2 Sept. 5
Do... .... do ........ 1 Sept. 6
Do....... do........ 3 Sept. 7
Do........do........ 2 Sept. 8
Do.......do ........ 1 Sept.11
Do.....do......... 1 Sept.12
Do.......do........ 2 Sept.14
Do... do... ........ 1 Sept. 15


I





I






$Ml"'G MOTR Xff 7917 OZAAKS. 23

6 "Ali*x* Of at sowd rmrtd in Me ZWWwa-
ix 94.9fivvi Usekd,4a wd Zw ae w aai


NOULUMo JWMWXi ewergo& ladftidusk, bstdUd. kfttmlt. ons


_xdj M 27 Au& 1& 2 Aug I&
rq J'Oly 29 1 _do ----- -- da.__._
July 30 Pape dhxL I _do ----- --- db -----
---do----- Auk. m I ...do----. 4 Aug. 17.
July 31 Aug, 1& 1 Ang. 16.
-40 --do-j- AV 4. I ----,do ----- Wintering.
I -------- --- & ----- Aug. M
e4 An& M 1 15 _T 5 Sept. 1.
Cb ----- De4 I ----- WM
--------- do---- Aug. M I --- do-..
do-__ Atlg 2 Aug. I& I _do--:-. DcL
c
--.do&---- -140 ----- &ur,, 21. 1 ---------- 7 A I&
_dcL.-.- Aft, 2& 1 ...... :.-- Aj 21
--- do- '&Ug. I wjA*Tt"& I ------ -.1"Aug. A U.
2 An& 21. jwy is to) air 19
--- do- Al*. 2 W L

a Pupaw in frUJIL

in C& Ub* S of thego 1",'vm li*ed over wlnt''r, whfle
davoloped to skon&-brood---I,&0s- No attempt was
third-brood egp from thme mis IL _,bdt from the time
we should expmt thiM-brood larvw to beOn
abotA AU9UOt. 20.

M IMIV'A"Ox

BAWD RROOWS.

M"d is impoitant aid m" tracing- ffie:wmona history
moth. The band record for 1907 is inTableXXX
4
il"PIncagy in figure 2.

rsoafd if .1w, *a* from 25 trM in an unsprVed ordkvd.

N*ubw Numbw
Dow.
I
I wwi f* bauda

................................
--_--------- ----_--------- 124 ------------------------------
-------- ---------------------- -------- 170
----------------------- ------------ m ------- : -------- is
---------------------------- 46
------------- --------- ----------
--------------------
-------------------- ............. .............
--------------






-A 4L
tbo
V4+





















It will be noticed in the curve (fig. 2) that the second brood wai-
times larger than the first. But the third brood, instead of showiw....
a further increase, is scarcely larger than the first. This is not toV..
taken as evidence of only a partial brood, but is due to the M HOP
that the fruit was harvested before the bulk of the third brood ."W


matured.


I- "w -- ..' ,. :i
.~ r s'~ .r r"wry. "*"-r ...

MIG. 2.-Curve showing record of larve and pupa of the codling moth taken from bands In i. 'i
..... .. .... .... ..
..:,: ... .. .. .. .....

The 1908 band record (Table XXXI and fig. 3) was influnsild t ^
the very smart size of the apple crop in that year. .. ...... ...

TABLE XXXI.-Band record of 1908, made from 18 trees in an orchard.prarWa -|
the clicesl had closed.

[Record by Mr. S. W. Foster.] :, H: .

Number
Of larva


badle.
ie I. 4 .Ei:..I
.. ... w.... .. .., II.':..:..:.:.:.....:.:::


*I.UUU -A .........................
June22 ......................
June 29.......... ..................
Jul y .......................
July ......................"
July 20.....................
July 27 ......... ..............


.....10 ........................
August 1...............................
August 24...............................
eptmbr 7 .............................
Betmber 14.............. .............


. . I ... ... .. ...:.. : .: .- .. "...

The trees from which this record was made had lost all thSii.
by September 7. .1


.. : : : 1
S .. : ..... ...
%..




V7
/25
iWfwo eto temm oda
!if h ot w httevw mRGPO
bwwOkfm- 4 ,h fo h tesbfr m
d h *km adnfrd o hemerao h





....... ...... ....
- - -
-i I i i i
'M wr a otb=i In
*A*i a egnIv
0* n Nh r .W.Fut(i.4ad5
d im|Srni neetn




E..XI.-A
ftMWb
0 T4
mk
//l&d Ij

Oftem
f!at h~ m '*th































Ms AVs
a to


a,


V


FIG. 5.-Curve showing band record fom 14 Gano and Isngburg aple tram,
.. . .~ ~.. .. ... .. . ... .. ...... .!ib!i in




All larva and pupa collected in taking the band. records .t...l..I'..
Springs were kept in muslin-covered jars, in order to record t .... .. ....
ing of adults. The material of 1907 was kept in the laborat .iory .:.: ..K....
EM ERGENCE OF M'OTHB. .'u,*i: .** .~~~~.. ...... 7 m!!ii ..iiiij':i ".*:mi!".i
Al lrve ndpueecolete i a indXXhe band. nfgursta....... !i!' :[:]',,iii


that of 1908 out of doors. Weekly summaries of the emerged o
moths are given in Tables XXXII and XXXI and in figures K ".. w .;
. .:" ":: : :........... iiiiiiiii
TABLE XXXII.-Laborato7y record of emergence of adult from material
taking band record in 1907. ...

Number ilS
Date. oftmoths Date.a
..... ...
L'I: E :."


June 28-July 4 ..........................
July 4-11...............................
July 11-18 ..............................
July 18-2. ..............................
July 2-A gt 1.......................
August 1-8...........................-
A..st 8-5............................


August 15-22.......................
August 22-29 ........ ............,.-...
August 29-Meptember &..............
September 5- ..:....................
September 2 ......-19............... ..,;
ofber O...............................


TAnS XXXIII.-Otdoor record o47ergnc of adlts fromu maild thUd "M
bn ordt 190. I ( i
[Records by Mr. S. W. Foster.] "
..... iii

Number a
Date. alma.6 Da.


jun S .......... ..................... t 3.... ......................... .
JuB 2 ly6.......................... A........................
JI l' y -1.. ......................... .......................... .. .. ..,
J iul a. .6........................ 3.a.. -- ................. .. ..... ... .. ...
J.l 3 -27. ......................... 4 IIgItiiiiSi II II I I I .... ...... ...!
Ju* A............. .......... U W|Ii.. .. .




MOM

nokd",4 -6 M teeoemrcr
thiotu t 6 adrmdcr"
"IAt ioAn th-sau rogwcocre.n thr
'0
wocum, o rpeetdi h eegnercrs
oft4"tidbodo 97(pigbodo
iogv opa ,fgM.






IVP
*Os*waW O*f h* AOomtdi tU w or n-~
suti inAim f ta wn~t r~md a aduts o te smnd roo
is ratcal tosaeasbtwmth irt broadlts
| d~ro lw ,soni h megneadtebn
-fpdiey -Tishwthtalag prptnfLfIe
sm hfrtbodlrw rnfomt dls W
t th s Il if hr ro.



fWat O
I dA 000dd f

























LARVA IN PEACHIES. "" lii"::::""!
^UJ Jw ^^H A S ..^ B~J~f - ..... "i:::^::,::":..::::: ::,:: :"!!^^ii~ ii ]i!:" iii' : b:
... .. "; i :!. ii.. ... .. .: i' iii i ii'. .,iii,
Two peaches containing codling-moth larvae were collected *d
orchard, on trees adjoining an apple orchard. Both peaches i ii'
several days before the larva left them. One larva issued July.i 4!,T
from a peach collected July 10. The adult emerged August ",1:!: 'l
Another peach collected July 29 gave out a larva on August 2,- Atn.
which the adult emerged August 16.
: .. .: Ji ... :. .. '.
NUMEROUS LARVAC IN ONE APPLE. .,......
: .. .... ..,: ......' iiii'

Throughout the season, and also in 1907, it was noticed that :#1,M
large numbers of young larvae were allowed to enter a single app:::::..i
at the same time, only a few survived. If larvam being reared t ::
eggs laid in cages were not transferred to separate fruits within Ui
to five days after hatching, or before their burrows reached the ......i
S "" ..... ".: .., :;..::...... i~:iiiiiii~
only a small proportion of the number entering could be :;
for.
Some third-brood larvsB entering fruit in cages were left uad4 S-,,i,,|,
turbed, the apples being kept in jars out of doors. The ::,b
given in Table XXXIV, show that more than one larva is n .
to reach maturity in a single fruit at the same time.
"" .. ":: ..::i : :.. ..... ... .. i ,.. ..
TABL XXXIV.-Record of maturing larva from 4 appls, eam Id .. .. ....ii
time .. numerouIWO larvonx. ::::'


::i::.::..: .Hi-

..; ': ....
di: i : .. .
.r :..i: :.:: i..H


Numbe r 0coooa Numbe
Em of InSiv .lhm
bitnceae. an m utzQ
enNtenmbg.

Aug. .. 18 S ept 1

I st. I ..




NVnnf1
I/
n#
|* "OARI,2
-ofNo"
nubro riiv ao fpm npe fap
thdsty atr _'te w=tasere t h
weeA!alo tlsteeyscn a.A

thc m|=dtf~ od
tb pidxbnc itelcif*pl ~si hi
'abvlp eyop adt omedafd
!a- ee-a uhunlyie,-n oeo h oh
IIonte e WMYlre~ha dlsO h
*OM(wwnaWl
[]m~ f-m~ sapnnl 7isastog
aita ~hdiile ie 8islr~l
16 o w t w s g ,mu ha d t e 1 vi
of-v
i~fdta oa egie st h oza
of th dOsiavpo ~eaiso h avi ai
"_ ii 1 4hf" rtrs(mttn es



Ame
L Li. .cam
V`A* 01.1 0* et -----CA
--iiiii-i "_A- aL1 eL2 -----Ol
As| ~-00 Asp1 eL 6fiL2 -----OLi



















i'wo specimens of a small tachina fly, IbcAMnopkyto sp. I (dceti
mined by Mr. C. H. T. Townsend), were reared in 1907. One lfudj
vidual issued from a larva which was brought into the laboratm *
while still in the apple, though nearly full grown. ::*
.... ........... ...........ii~i
PERCENTAGE OF flRUF INFESTED.
In 1908 the apple crop was so small that the growers did not ....i' cS|W
sider it worth protecting by spraying. On account of the amall aI" l spl
and the lack of preventive measures, practically every apple wasi M ;
wormy and the fruit fell from the trees before a large number of tb
later larvae had a chance to enter. In 1907, counts from 8 unsp.ys : d i.....
trees (4 Ben Davis and 4 Winesap) showed a percentage of wormy
fruit varying from 48.1 to 64.1, the average on the Winesaps being
50.7 and on the Ben Davis 60.4. A total of 20,890 apples were exam-
ined from the 8 trees, including all windfalls throughout the seas.oL I!
Apples infested with codling moth, Enamonia prunivora Walsh, ad ,
Epinotia pyricolana Murtfeldt were classed together as wormy" -'
fruit. Curculio injury was disregarded. .... ...
So small a percentage of infestation seems rather remarkable i . ...
locality such as this, where at least a majority of the insects p .i ".. i
through three generations, while in other fruit-growing districts with : ::i:
a shorter season an unprotected apple crop is completely destz-qiy S
by the codling moth. Perhaps the third generation may be as.,.;` .
advantage in the increase of the insect, as a considerable proporti
of this brood, being yet in the fruit when the crop is harvested, is i
removed from the orchard (see 1907 band record, p. 23). And, it
must be that many of the later larvae to hatch would even fail to,,,1l"
find any fruit to enter, as the apple harvest usually begins early Mis
September. :.'...'i..
." "~~Iiidi ..,ii iiii
Iii..Jiiiii






OfI3 O h AWgmfioe nteOkk
IIA
-1 " W temmosotb..wdgn
- *I !
*ro e ojII h ri, dtv oa
isSMU t utvdfono mux
*ISLJKIh w esosudrowvto b
sa mirj btentefigO
44 OMW-! th istW m
inovlbtee h itboo n h o
-O av ob ntefed otm ebv
*bUm hu mm'Abrmyb itnjs


am in ot o s
Ibi rcio WmCxmtts h mtrpr fte-itr
th rnplvitesO PISa'hmetdi
of* idbodo wo
Oflrio

ii






cc

........ .... j a i
A A w





00 00



OPP aft

.00
.100

t 40 id

00000
% >
01 0000
000. 00 00


ow
000 010 000



Irs r om
,ONO
00 00 00
or
0000

p ell 44 0) M
00 on VA44



El I LITTI I ll-' T I I U I ILI I Ll i
Ll
L J
Z" 41

ell, awn




|f

mv
4 t 4*II
4 t
wiIL loL )
iAMMT ,T% 0 90
J, -----









OIiL

a!aJil

vfis 3M" bM
44'
wwn o h
16i1j 1"Y futo peadpa

lud|ii*etoso h onr
toimssaUs= n 'te
|-
WI *rj9i mren besi is
I*r iv#i ue twiJ ieteisdi

i[]fle.IeI~a tefi
cae |ihi opsdo
11iacrti xetaie.i

iieePrtuig rmi
oftefm[ akso h
-oIrI on


if


cate ev

















insect attracted attention in orchards in Canada. Dr. James FIatteW i
in 1889 received some larva from Charlestown, Prince Edward i
Island, which were found feeding on plum trees. Soon aftt te jyr
were also found depredating upon apple and pear. In 1891 Dr.i ...fl
Young, of Adolphustown, Ontario, informed Doctor Fletchei i of
their abundance in orchards of that locality, and during the nM
year further reports of the insect came in from Port Williams, 7.4 -i
Scotia. At Adolphustown Doctor Young carried out extensive sp .. ...0
ing experiments with kerosene emulsion and Paris green. S: I
account of these and other experiments will be found in Flet i .
various publications from 1891 to 1894. Prof. C. H. Fernald, in 18121 *i1
described the new insect, naming it fietcherella in honor of Doctq:q?
Fletcher, who had submitted specimens for determination. He:alS .
mentions having received specimens from Lintner, who, in his ili
report (1893), showed that the case-bearer referred to in his ea i:.
reports was this same species. Further notes on the insect in Canad..., :ii.
were given by Fletcher in the Report of the Entomological SodS :::
of Ontario for 1894. .. ........
Prof. L. H. Bailey in 1895 reported that the failure of the afI ,:l I
crop in Wayne and Monroe counties, N. Y., was to a great et"iii
due to the damages caused by the cigar case-bearer. The same pe i
Professor Slingerland published a valuable account of the i.i:
giving a detailed description of it and of its life history, with" e!066..
lent photographic illustrations and a full bibliography.
Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell in 1896 reported its introduction at Sants0 H
Fe, N. Mex., the young larvae evidently having been brought in, ^T ot
infested nursery stock from the State of New York. ....
A hymenopterous parasite, Microdw laticinctus Ashm., was .4::
trained by Fletcher from cases from Port Hope, Ontario.* ....
In 1898 Faville reported the occurrence of the insect at ManhattiUitlj
Kans., where for several years it had caused much injury. ...^^...
Twenty-seventh Ann. Rep. Ent Soc. Ont, 1897, p. 67. ...
"m c, ~iiiii




Akw i
L-7
IM ]r
1L C
!At' C LI WO e
foto iii nw
rowtob .ith
d pLaw.Mr
b,,*Smc
Won toa!ifr

-- i |

itv Y ino,

41
m f isp ;
PIt




ii


i #





fro On*ow 1--cda rt~
if oum&I tefteo ewYrmi a
Lintnr, Slngw~ud, ad othrs; t Ma-as"-
atSnaF7 o8 yCokrl a ot sk t y
atN PotHp"Whb ett n tDuls ihb-
mW Pmr__IM JUT
Theinsct as raherIm~tedlis offoo plnts__r
prbby e n aie rbaplsan etaise ieso
Wihth xenieplnig fochrs i a fudin
perfaoie odplnsaditi arey otes w mfat
derdain hv ee ofie. ths lobenrcodd
dk1
upnqic adpus adwl ndutdybefudo
allid tothem
Liel! ote nuiu net, h oko h ia
whnteseisimrsn ndsrcienme oe u






.... P? ..... It Bur" f E to oloyU.S. ep- o Alicltr








A'

























TM blMCS-WA(DFOHAFEIH



































I










OWL
IVvisible to the
Sr is 4doodym"ked
it 0-31 by 0.25 nm and is-


I" IAJWA A" 1" 04M&-
0* hwft,,,:jo "i" the head *ud,
do lmiofo 03,; ro- # o m ftm-gro*u Urfit

it btad vw a*d -isf da*and stropey


tiAL




'ILI


ca at the Aw cmoL-
Ow fictcharm)
Uppm v*w of the cfWAdimped
Owwlag tbm aftooft "d Ow hmlry
*M*s wW'Me ftim-U&Bd hftd '
I t b*; k Wde Tkw of do the
am jo It appmm In the optbW,
20, *be tabolUm aMOM; `44 Me
1 -64,jo--Z ftt"L-

io AL Wm$Ao ]row. The- I 1
-Te th=ck le m kr
chiumus plate Ow




14 -A !i
iiiiiiIII

............ ...............i
ismdefo tesdno heupr n owr o
one~~~~~~~~~~ sie''-ar rvlelkwieteopst
Smood)
!Fi PPA
Thiaa(i.1,b asa vrg egho

Iti ih rw, ogadAne, emntn 0fiof

soehtderse re:itr wt w hotltm
sie h in hah renrowihfepIno
recigamott h ndo h od;tehn







doim
..O
NP O 1 h
rean
IfG O-TeO aebae OlkposlthU)TR3O1
aAttfml;b ieviwo uaaduprve
ofcrmtr fsa e q lra;deg tiiis anof'ei2
foreiiiiiiii an idwni uhelreL (r io.




















iaUts)Pr 1 ueuo nonloy .S et fArclue LT










"S
-e

i4U




iIit

|-





my: -:'


i































... .' mi




ar', r
,!Noel
!m X
tooe, h iut sm


,Trl
IL 4te 1u4*~ n it hsf ~w
Th lae ivbaIU kadpatcllya
t n "atvl edn
wt ftel|i nadto sbitt h mm h
41'Ti xed rmteaneiroeigo h oe
botsadenit f..Msflae n ik S
"1 ore htocaial avon eiigi h
le it l m n m anwoe uta uete
it ke efn lamn sue o o
a W Wi OS
vw,f*YOWlrok$aCa fa a,
lvn e e afiinl ag
,*;"OmV ,Aeodfswic sI o
th P i.3 "fo h pe n
lefmsojtmftr ssiA is hsi fa
mhme u msi eoe lndi~e
44ua mclnmlo ia6 om O
A ilb fudtm n keo h aei
#rcmtwgIte0 'oi moh hsi
j [4 s ]lcs iv h pe


"Wi Of$0 u i'rcxe
no oesoiota
we-U4edo

mA






40 DZCMU0jUjj.VR= iNSWTS AM- rNSBCTICID18o
toward the posterior and free end of the cam The openin at
end is closed by three lobes, which are readily pushed apart by this
emerging adult. A day or two after the fastening of the mm,"o"'
tion takes p1m, and from teii to twelve days 1tW the adWt 1v
At Worth East, Pa., the first adult emerged June 22 -7 the
emergence took place during the early part of July,'-While
25 no adults emerged. As a rule, the adults emerge in the a 1 111190
and for several hours remain motionless on the case n a charto6h*
tic pose, as shown in figure 4 of Plate II. Toward evening tbot
become restless and fly off. Moths even a few days old i U
seek their favorite resting place on the attached cams.
The eggs are generally laid along the midrib, on the underside* of
the leaves, where they are found inserted in the pubescence or down
of the leaf. A few eggs were similarly found on the ha=Ybranefies.
The egg period lasts from fifteen to sixteen days
The newly hatched larv* oft
JAM quite active, and wm: found,
moving about for severl hom
before eating their way into te
Larva leaves. During their: early fi%
they are true minexs and fftd
for about two weeks on the inb*
-------- tissues of the leaves. 11dr
t '01
mines take the formof
'&A elliptical, brown tches, and
are readily located by the pttip.
ence of the black powdery Ok-
crement which the l9rVW 0j"
from the mines,
Fin. Ild--Life cycle of the cigar case-bearer Toward the beginning
Adapted to a single insect under average AUgUSt tho larVW ConStft(* 4
,normal condition. (Original.) a I
minute case from the upper old
1 *1
lower skins of the mined area of the leaf. Plate II, figure 1, &o*o
single leaf from which numerous cases of this kind have been
Before the foliage is ready to drop, the ute case-bearers m*&W
to the branches, where they fasten their cases and seal themw1ves lap
for the winter. During the latter part of A4mst, and early *P-
tember they were found in great nt ibers, especially in the forks Wo
to some extent on the lower side of the branc&& (See Pl. III fig.s.)
For seven months the larvw remain thus concealed in a dormant Astot
and, as previously stated, do not become active until spring.
A general idea of the life cycle of the insect may be obtained fvo&
the diagram, figure 11. It shows the life cycle- of a single inswt tk6
dates and periods shown being averages for the insect as itves 6-
served in its various stages in the field.






CMG" CAM-DEARBIOL 41





in 1897' reported. a hymenopterous parasite of this insect,
kaiaindw Asbm., from Port Hope, Ontario.
At North East, Pa., at the time of the em'erging of the adults,
J
hymenopterous parmte, H4bropytu-& sp- (fig. 12), as deter-
pij'd by, W. J. C. Crawford, was reared in considerable numbem
"t 10 pe the transforming insects were parasitizadL

PR"ACNOUS 19WRNMS.

Us writer found that the eggs of the case-bearer were extensively
by k minute yeflow Unte, which during the egg period -was
abundant aU
fww_ the orel'ard*
Oe, hrvw of the
1, W"I 11g, Y
o&zZahz
umd various Zzi,
IF
0 ybird

4AW




igo
YvA4rif
sowUot
Of AW "Wift OP4 a Paradto of the elSar case-bemr.
tw Greatly enlarged. (OrIgiod.)
Aout* Canada by cliferent fruit growers wiH
It AW fbkdad WS report for 1894 A-s entomologist -and botanist for
201 to 206. It was well
that OwibL be held under control with either
1U4"NAkL0V*jr gnwa-spny applied in the early spring
tan*while the'letf bu&*jLIWF' V-r
regularly- &aited argediOal sprayr, for tbg L CoMing,
Sent; or&arq* w% wadoub" y

4,


*AW*4L4 J", ttj t'r" 'e' 4it 11
to $1 *Poo ir *rev
















4 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY. .' Jj'jj
-. .+. +++. : -..+.

1889. LINTNEn, J. A.-Coleophora sp.<5th Rep. Ins. N. Y., p. 324,
1890. LINTNNE, J. A.-Coleophora sp. A new pear lnsect. Hort. Soc., pp. 22-24.
First account of the insect's life history; refers to Injury and recom-
mends an arsenical spray.
INTNER, J. A.-Coleophora sp. A new pear insect. Buffalo, N. Y., 1890, p. 198.
Same as previous account.
1891. LINTNEB, J. A.-Coleophora sp. A new pear lnsect.<7th Rep. Ins. N. Y,
pp. 347, 361.
Same as above.
1892. FEMNALD, C. H.-Ooleophora fletcherella, n. sp. 122-123.
Original description of the species.
FLETCHER, J.-Coleophora sp. before the House of Commons, p. 9.
Brief account of its life history and results from spraying.
FLETCHEB, J.-Coleophora n. sp. The cigar case-bearer of the apple. Farms [Canada 1, Rep. Ent. and Bot. for 1891, pp. 196-198.
Further accounts of spraying experiments.
1893. FLBTCHEB, J.-Coleophora fletcherella Fernald. Rep. Ent and Bot. for 1892, p. 4.
Brief mention.
LINTNER, J. A.-Coleophora sp. on apple leaves.<8th Rep. Ins. N. Y. for
1891, pp. 264, 297.
LINTNER, J. A.-Coleophora sp.<9th Rep. Ins. N. Y., p. 374. m
Brief mention. ,
1894. FLETCHER, J.-Coleophora fletcherella Fernald. mologist and Botanist before the House of Commons, p. 19.
Brief mention.
FLETCHER, J:-Injurious insects of the year 1894.<25th Ann. BRep. 0.
Soc. Ont., pp. 79-80.
Short account of the life of C. fletcherella and its control.
FLEmCH, J.-The cigar case-bearer. Inquiry about the cigar case-bearer, with reply by Fletcher.
1895. FLETCHER. J.-Coleophora fletcherella Fernald. The cigar case-bearer of
the apple. 201-206.
Extensive account of spraying experiments.
BAuLmz, L. H.-The recent apple failures of western New York. Exp. Sta. Bull. 84.
SUNGELAND, M. V.-The cigar case-bearer. 8ta.
An extensive and good account of the insect, illustrated with pht-
graphic reproductions.
42 ..'.






v


P. Ig.--40W Panner,, Jfte 27 iww: P. mat 3 ft% .. .. ... .... .
A summiLrIzed account of the eigar cas-obsom with:: specW refftmee
to Cornell IftPerivIeut stxvan Bwtin 93.
'tWxnautw T. 1). A.-GoWphom fletoWel&: Fernal& Agr. Erp. StjLq p. 117.
Introduced Into.Aw ]KexU* on, We", nursery, stock from New York
state.
Pimemm, J.-hmoea Injuries of the year 1M.<2M Ann- Rep. Ent Soe.
00 P. 37.
Mention of 0. Peftherella FernaJdL
PLOwmm, J.-The dgar case-bearer of the appla f pp.
A brief account of the insect; reference to 811wrlanirs work.
ftmuEz, Xr-The c1gar case-bmrer (Coleophora fldchvreft Fernald).
Further spraying experiment&
IM. rLwonm "J.-The cigar case-bearer (C. fletchereUa Fernald). Farms tCanada], Rep. Rat and Bot for 1896j p. 252.
A brief note of reaWto of kerosene emulsion spray. -
PXXMHED6 J.-Coleophora fiWchoreUa Feraald.<27th Am. Rep. Ent. Soc.-
Ont, p* 67w
Paradte: AUvrodus IaUoifttua ... Aifim:-
UTnuN C. J. &-Notes on Insects of the year 189&<27th Ann. Rep.
Ebftt Soc. Ont, p. 57w
Mention af 0. fistohovua Fernal(L
lAnM V. ]EL-haspection of nurseries and treatmetit of hifested nurwry
xtoCX<8uU. 1Wq W. Y. Agr. Exp,. Sta, Gewva.
Mention of 0. AetahmUa Fernald
JPAVuU. R R-The cigar case-bearer. M 271--V5, 7 figL
An account of ttz occurrenm at Man- Kom, We htstory, mode
Of Control.
A" V. H. Jzwr., F. C. '8TzwAw--Cbmmon diseases and injuri-
Ous baNWto, fm1t&
RrW 4fteriptift of 0. fietehrervUa and life bUtory.
VVWWs6 WA.-- he, e-M*r mWbearei.<21st Rep. State But. 111.9 p. :146.
Not 0. PvtchavRa -rerwxK as reported.
VIAL't, A P--M$t;Mted descriPtIve catalogue of some of the more In-
JU64MM and befteficWl bUeCt&
a~ POW on 01. Afthwaud Arnam
UM F=Tq R P,-Tbe cigar case-bearer. 902.
902*
aBrw 4ftovmt of the IVOWL
J.-Cah"A" fte"W*& ftrnald. 700nW j
tftvrs4 Caniq p. 72.
aria mentwa.
W W-PriadVal 1U*CW liable to be distrOwWd on nurmoy
04 NY. ftt 11, & DOM Agr., p. 3&
A. 4
00 We-A kv to OM$OX4 b"8eft<3" Ann- Rep. I" &W. mtt
TON



















Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Brief note on 0. pletokelella Fernald.

"E.,:i



El
I.


































,..i




















*.






f ...-t





,,, f.. ,



I.J

%':' '
:r





roe








D. F. L L, Angad M 11ft
04 46. ix A., iL x ftL sk rw x1L
PMW ON DEMUOUS FRW MEM AN INSECUMM.
W, VATIONs ON LESSIKIL APPLit
)rriowAL owim-
W09M.


by S. W. Fbarim asid P. R. lommal
Ragaq Vd in Deddaws Pruit Innd

WXjW "
p"vakace of *a Imeer apple wom thmughout the 86pk-
A*snictso of UniW Statm o" of the ]Roc
out by this Bureau'in I W8, has awakened considerable
apple growers and others, and as the, insect haa become
6own its importance as a pest is more My realized. Bqw
io the late f&U jinjuty -caused by the later broods, some
of'winich work in the Avit for weeks after the crop IS:

of the present pxper is to rew-rd additional
lo,
tbo Wo hWmry and habits a of the insect, and to
give a downiption of the egg, which was first observed during the
mr of 19M, bdth at, Sikmw Spri A and in the insectary
'jt4VWj
U is aw = M =16 oi h6 poimiblej the Miurioua
the Ieew;&PPkwom,,Irq=, th2t of a hurva, of anothor sPodM
Wad oWW&I Uttler fee& on'thetwip, "Wou
I", certain
Atudiew MeWU, va4ce aamW,
"th6rq of W. JL Awfti
oI 'd
to,
AN d' 00 4 Photoo











closely that of Enarmonia prunivora, was feeding in the apples sd
plums around Siloam Springs, Ark. Later in the season, July and
August, adults were reared in numbers from larva found in young
vigorous growing shoots and water sprouts of apple trees. Motu of
the injury to the twigs, however, was done in June and July.
The many observations by the writers would indicate that a large
part of the first-brood larvw matures in the fruit; that the remainder
of the first brood and also the second brood mature in the young
twigs and water sprouts; and that the larger part of the later brood
goes back again to the fruit. Adults were secured from fruit from
June 5 to 20. After June 23 no more specimens were reared from
fruit until August 17, while during this period many adults were
reared from the twigs. After August 10 to 15 there was a marked
decrease in the twig injury and an increase in fruit infestation.
Beginning August 17, many adults were reared from apples throughout
the remainder of the season. Adults of this species were determined
by Mr. August Busck as Epinotia pyricolana Murtf., and its injumries
to fruit have not apparently been heretofore recorded. This specie
has been treated by Prof. E. D. Sanderson in the Twelfth Report of
the Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station (1900) pages
194-199.
During the season the writers were unable tp obtain a single speci-
men of Enarmonia prunivora from twigs of the apple, but all speci-
mens taken proved to belong to Epinotia pyrieolawna. In the Ozark
region and also in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., this species
is far less abundant than either the codling moth or the lesser apple
worm.
COMPARATIVE ABUNDANCE OF THE LESSER APPLE WORX AN,
THE CODLING MOTH IN APPLES.
The injury caused by the lesser apple worm early in the seaon is
not so pronounced, nor are the larva so abundant as those of the
codling moth, but by midsummer and fall there is a marked increase
in the number of larva of this species over that of the codling moth.
This increase is often sufficient to bring the total number of lesser
apple worms, in the fruit for the season, in excess of the codling-moth
larva.
Records were kept of the comparative abundance of the two spedci
by bringing in during the season infested fruit from unsprayed
orchards and keeping the infested fruit collected on different dates
in separate breeding cages. Each lot was examined daily fou fll-
grown larva and adults.






JIUM" WOMM".


1! gives tho reU*#* of the two species as obtained.
iy appIm pivW& hm the trew, each pie ineluding.
whi& voul& tend to Wightly in rAwe the percentage


1-7 saww"d *affmw of Rn6rmoWa pvrdvm ~ w0liiw w" IWO*
ift wkuVaUs and ihfii& picWfrom &ea in odmird 6f D. S. BaUot4 Silo= SpK"sp



f 14 Number
Number sM 19mr-
Dateec& -o t Ignar- sped MORIA
Quantity Otxm" looted. monia oi= ing an= i-

agusV

................. I ------ --------- ------------------ May 14 4 6 W
-- ----------- MLOY 26 11 M 3(L5
............ ------- June 8 21 fil 2566
.................. -------- me 30 15 22 MLS
---- lu"ily 16 94 24 77. W
----------------------------
Aug. 4 L% 53 SL3
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - Aug. 22 62 17
w -0
#
OWt*VWaWinTzbk*I=4IT asitwimnatpoodbletoreadUy
WOMYMY few 4=61" ; tal we tn tim WOMM.
I E*Inotfa
V 31 AMMOk Wd UM lift WmM nmmben WDL the number of Xnwmoab..

pr pared by M L. Jetmej is from wormy fruit picked
iro* ii intowyals A&W, no windfAlls being included.

0: --JW*m sapona 4wrow of Roomonia pmnimm owan. eoawg m9a
14 T Wh* pkWfivm fnw, Plkkenyff or4ard, SiZom. Sprinp, Art, 190'.

Ntmber.
WMUMM WUMbW W snor-
Date ool Emr- Spedmem monia,
-W& mania OfWdIft wd 19*
and EPI- moth. notle
notI&S IBM"

6 OD .7.4
----- Ja" 20 10 29 2&3
------------- JUM 30 17 22 4LG
jdr 16 17 27 3ILS
44 77 AK 4
...... -16 64
95 30 7& 0
.. .. ..... ... . ...... .. .


A **V+ AVb+ "Arm

114M U of
0 04 Og
VW'WU I% IWV*
gel
J and



gift


404
AIL

























follows: April 6, 1; April 24, 3; April 26, 6; April 29, 3;:.
May 1, 6; May 3, 6; May 4, 9; May 7, 14; May 10, 29; May ...
May 14, 7; May 17, 1; May 18, 3; May 22, 2; May 25, 3; M
and May 28, 1, which was the last individual to appear. V : r
in the Ozark region the first brood of larva matures 1M ,:i; 4
during the month of June; moths for the second-brood larva eN| l|||W..
in 1908 from June 20 to July 30. Eggs deposited in breed'!ing:
by these moths July 10 to 12 produced full-grown larva July:
August 10, the adults emerging August 14 to 26. Eggs fr m. '
latter gave another brood of full-grown larva September 19.JE-
Other adults, emerging later, deposited eggs as late as. Sep
to 14, the full-grown larvse leaving the fruit October 3 to i
6, when observations ceased, some larva being still at worki:... .. .
This is strong evidence of three full generations annually for tW. !
region. Since many moths had emerged from fitr oofi
before July 10 to 12, when the above individual-, records, ft
is possible that some of the earlier ones emerged in time to give
to a partial fourth brood of larvae. .
LifE CYOLU AND DURATION OF OTAUD.
... ...i .. ..... .. ......
THU 3GO. j
Individual records kept for 120 eggs during July, August,
tember gave the minimum time of incubation as four and
days and the maximum five and one-half days. Most.. ..
Moths =wsid a Jsau6 tm but sncoo ww. kept *.......
abt Sqpw abe 14.




4A
'Bt 0 atIl ueuo nx lo Dpo gium.PAEIl








Fr.I.PCFMCWW FEI FLWRAM OM(NWoi





PRNIOA) ORINA-





r








S




T_
tMMAPPZ Oio-4
- iimd' i n neadteq
dtrteaea en Ahl oeta i
tog goup ecors tam fi bathesifiii
(aii fbodn cgsado pl ila etisd
,vW-tOkt ieo iuain
AUXi
6tuaino mq hrosapuwmum maot
wn&Wo=, Mkmn Sprh ,iiiiiii9W
iiiiiiiiiiii===iiiX89=iiiii



-.MP
... ... ..--- --
12 LM
--------"LM---------
&Wtm. W1n--_-----



-- - - - M - - - -



.. . . .. F u - -- - -
II WIII-bK_ .xa---- --
-- - -I .*IfI- - - _
------- ;;j% f ----------
II~lLlMA.
4'ho IIvApro rm i f1 evn
PvTtitmt Mendy Wi*,fo A












after the larvwe left the fruit. .
Taking the normal or average figures for each stage, the copt
life cycle requires approximately six weeks, but many* individual
complete the life cycle in thirty days in early summer. During th
period from August to October some individuals required as high
as forty to fifty and a few to sixty days.

DESCRIPTION OF EGG.a
Egg: Size, 0.53 to 0.70 mm. long by 0.51 to 0.55 mm. wide; oval
in outline, varying to roundish, slightly convex, and covered with a
network of irregular ridges. At time of deposition it is pearly white,
and resembles very closely in general appearance the egg of the
codling moth, except for its smaller size, the ridges being somewhat
closer together and not so prominent as with the latter. (See PL M11
fig. 1.)
The eggs assume a yellowish cast one or two days after deposition,
shortly after which a red ring appears; the black head of the larva
usually appears in four days.
Moths confined in rearing cages deposited eggs on both sides of
the leaves, but mostly on the upper surface on the fruit, stems, and
on the glass door and wooden uprights of the rearing cage.
PARASITES.
Only one parasite is recorded in literature from this species, viz,
Mirax grapkolithse Ashm. During the past season a specimen war
reared from a larva infesting apple, which has been determined by
Mr. H. L. Viereck as Phanerotoma, n. sp.

CONTOL MEASBURES.
...: : i .*i*
The usual treatment practiced against the codling moth has so
far served to very effectively keep in check serious injury by this
species.
o Since this paper was submitted for publication the egg stage has been wEll
described by E. P. Taylor in Journ. Econ. Ent., June, 1909, p. 237.








j

A, D. IL BUL W, r**11r.' ID. F. L L, Sephobw 1, IML
POEM ON DEMMUS. FRUff INSEM AND 04=.. MM.


MAR TIERMS AND ffS CONTIROL.!m
(Aa*ips pyn DanieL)..
By DUDIMY MOUMM,,
xMMFd in DavWuow PhPU lkwd Invot4pWom.
0 F KIN
Oatomfion an4 spraymg, the principal tre4tme nts invohmd in the
of the pear thrips, Wg* suNeet to suitable weather con
"d each, to be eftmfive., inu V be accomplished at its proper
orchard work, suph as irrigation, cultivation, pruning,
*%ying f6r other itumt andfungous troubles, must therefore be
weH lioforehand and completed or so arranged that nothing
interfae with the Uvatment for the thrips. It is highly impor-
ihittfiein"* ual orchardist should hav6everything in readinew
-his own ordhard at exactly the right time. Preparedness for
in the work of spraying and in plowing, it will be
ithe most ioWrtant factors in the successW control of


kilown to occur Onl in the central part Of Cali
locWities in the general neighborhood of the
ts Of its rwages have been remived from
footh* near Wewpwtle and Auburn and from the
Of a* pew hm bon for s"asa yXMIAM, the prindpoa problem
the growVX6 V1 6,11% is I in Partims of e4ntml *F,
of ita UM40 of SmAek U416abits baw premanted unumal 4 -
U is befievedo howe*er, Oat the investig, of the Bureau of Rnto-
now determined 1"i'd effidmt Ineamm Whick if C"eftabr
IMM itff bekw injurium numbem rw
I" it"I'VW AL I OU, A -x&owA of &NOod 4udy,4f, the iaseeW bobwoUr
A-1 In the gwund and tbo tooft of ImMe seria of spray mixim M% 6116
AMC~ 169 'I
dwo _--d--4esijp4jpd
Ppill in, 66 1WMk
fit 100 *A""d a put (i the th" by *snow T Pai"Ma P. x
4-60*016 4 06"W, W" Cbmwed with the

'ewwvold "6
TM _W 4Oak-







Tulare and Fresno fruit districts, but it was found after i careM
investigation that none of these fruit areas was infested. In the m
case, at Newcastle, the injury was evidently that of the blossom peaos .ii!
blight and not a single pear thrips could be found in the whole m j
at a time when the insects should have been in evidence ineatest
numbers. A few thrips of another species (Eutkrips oduuiqalie
Pergande) were found in pear and cherry blossoms in this locality; O't
this insect is not injurious to fruits, and its presence in blossoms id.
no consequence. Thrips from pear blossoms at Visalia were found to
be of the species Euthrips tritid Fitch, which also is not usually injuri-
ous to fruit trees. The present infestation, then, is confined to the
region around and closely adjoining the San Francisco Bay. It
extends south through the Santa Clara Valley and into Hollister, San
Benito County, north through Alameda, Contra Costa, Solano, and
Yolo counties, and also occurs in some rather small areas along t-:he
Sacramento River. The area of deciduous fruits, about 60,000 M rts,
in the Santa Clara Valley, is practically all more or less infested by the :
thrips; and the other infested orchard sections, such as Holists,
Walnut Creek, and Concord, in Contra Costa County, and Suiun and
Vaca orchards and others along the Sacramento River, also include
many hundreds of acres.
The original home of this species is still in doubt. Several men
have expressed the opinion that it is of European origin, but, accord
ing to Doctor Buffa, the insect does not occur in Europe, and after
examining the species he believes it to be of eastern origin, suggesting
China as possibly its original home.
The various thrips which are seen in roses and in other flowers, and
which can be found at almost any time of the year, should not be
mistaken for the pear thrips, which is distinctly a fruit-tree pest mad
does not attack grass, weeds, or cultivated flowers. It has, one. r
twice, been collected from leaf clusters of rose bushes, but this is am
__ .: :' x
common. The name "pear thrips" was given because the insect was
first found in pear blossoms, but this does not indicate that it atts*s
pear trees only. The injury on prunes and other fruit trees is equally
as serious as that on pears. Thrips should not be confounded with the
vine hopper Typhlocyba comes Say, an insect which is wrongly called
"thrips," but is not a thrips at all. The term "thrip," so commonly
used, is also erroneous, as the word "thrips" is both singular and
plural. .
OHASAOTB OF mIU'Y.
FlEDING INJRY BT ADULTS.
Adult thrips appear on trees during late February and es.ty
March, when the buds are just beginning to open (PI. IV). Th.ey
remain on the tree until late in April and are thus feeding all through .

J!
+/:. ...J






TIM 1PYAR 22EMM, rJCS,',GOXTROU
tj
-opening, of buds,, of blow:
of the, early ommg and of tho
of Je&vesaad,,,thOs6tOng of fruit. .:. :They, cometo.. the tre"
hunwVOijw long 1ast of ton, or eleven months in thia
and they foomf m4mtranm as, soon as We into the first
buds. Thok Ubit of getting inside immediately:: haajod
lorchodis ito, believed that they in' some mysterious way gain
joto, tbAi buds biofore these we opened. This is not the e4w,
z~ enter until after tho buds are swollen and Partly
opened at the tips. They do not feed on the tough tissues
Or on the outer bud scales, but wait until they can: get
,Iftm thrips am very nu ierous thwe "ry buds either
open at all or, form mly'weak blossoms, which present the
of having been burned (PI. V, fig, 1) Thrips will. usuany
in seam, h of iavvfood plants after the blomoms are thus- com-
-Okr w yedl, Vibith. i3xPhdh m part at least, why the
isappw fkam a given orchard or part of an orchard,
ys previous t been A Use
SLOU umaro
&o endm a"p- Wbon thrips, are less IMUInf)TOUS the
is wumulative, but it may finally prove as as: when
thr4a ata, pzwmt,-,.' -. A few -individuals may.oontinue to
a, olaAm foedays or even we6. The growth of :,the tree.:
and'i blossoms and leaves become weak: and do.
s Tww -may- produce a heavy bloom, even where many tbxips
but; the, bkmoma and leaf stems will be sewred, weak-
ab ina-Hy ahort and the fruit does not set.::.:. This is
W 'Pr=m A few a"t individuals may feed in a
although the buds dzip with'exu
vav* if not all of thme pears may set and thwe
lw*wvy)mo of fivit, but always Mi such cases the ftuit
-st4bbed. The smbbibg on pean (PI. V)Js
_AMOT M" adults which feed Wli thin the clusters
I
riftift lit
,W..,"pr-u*ms ATL- VI) is done abnost eiftfirely by
4411 6" uodar Protection of the old calices

b* adAdts iii, bowo-1k. "aieo*, and peaches, is not $mom
_"M trew MOO ther
jn ra
cmaq -mpy in a bud, thm* is, offered
Ibrtha' &fi -g 'aide untO A
-ps, to 0 in -p
upolt the'thrip food Ww9yon the uoeUr
#
t,"& Part, 4 tim Uawom e4w accqimod4a

!&a 4',Pwfio# lie" f
114_ LV 4*

n I






U






But, 80, Part IV, Bureau of Entmology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE V.









_4
























4"i


kt
NO


4'_



FIG. I .-DESTRUCTION OF BUDS AND BLOSSOM& (ORIGINAL.)









































FIG. 2--SCABSING OF FRUIT FROM FEEDING PUNCTURES 13Y ADULTS ON THE OPENING
BUDS IN SPRING. (ORIGINAL.)

WORK OF PEAR THRIPS ON PEAR.






U







Past IV, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


RIF.
J
-A


WORK OF THE PEAR THRIPS ON FRENCH PRUNE.
; Fig. .--Shoot on which crop has been largely destroyed in blossom tage. Fig. 2.-Young fruit,
sr,:: tural du, showing stabbing. resulting from work of larvae. Mg. 3-Mature fruit showing
III!; stabbing injury, resulting in a low grade of dried fruit. (Original.)


PLATE Vl.







-C ra4
va*-w*Snu% u 410t b t
bo41
... .. .. ..
Vok|tn ~
Cu dlifk
of to whichi
deq i-Ustw ae
u* we wlld~vnino hetisue o te latsmotl
I~qa Yso ixuth e tsu, Hu
swa j;A" IM h r ,atew udso
'Ut th i y t m -o h los m r o e l etn
Wils p#6,a notmtoyr retAb h isc
|bt i"'osar fe u no
the rui
ioynolo
I o~h rme= cor
bt"CU fmjh
mA
ne e
tjxrlig" fo t
Ib y ai~ o ,a d VG,19-h ertd s( aap
W-, Ciodt r ndsad of kbd me
jo oU m h v-m l c"rp-(ub Ms
WreHy*hvei*







*I




























Number of thrips In four ages.


From
Lan-
don or-
chard


18
0
51
176
160
126
60
84
106
403
301
320
232
372
340
104
300
191
37
26
13
9
18
18


From
Bogn
or-
chard.


From
Bomb
or-
chard.


From
Hume
or-
chard.


Total.


Dat.


1 1 1 1 ........


18
0
52
192
192
169
75
119
L35
552
459
444
414
781
781
53W
1,299
714
WS
362
438
219
776
497


1909.
Mar. 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
26
so
27
N
29
30
31
Apr. 1
2
3


Numbarac th"ps .." in t ...i
-: -, -: *


From
Lan-
donor
chanrt.


From
Bogs
or-
chard.


cw.
ch-n'


128
31
70
76:
76
74
36
13
23
3
1
2
3
0
0
1
4
0
0
a
0
0
0
1


-
HW4~
~W. 4
*s41:'


131
41U

V7
us

12
.1T
it
6 .



El;;


The first adult thrips were collected on February 15, but af fl.
few individuals had been found in blossoms previous to t
On February 18 they were numerous in one of our
orchards, and by February 25 they were common in an 'k
Maximum emergence begins about February 19 and conati Nu:elt
about March 16, a period of three and one-haM weeks. A fewstomet
gling individuals continued to come out during all the latter part .
March and a very few even in April. Practically all thrips, howGeF,
are out of the ground by March 20. '
The emergence period for thrips in orchards in Contra Costa u:
Solano counties seems to be three or four days earlier and thbh
probably hold true also for orchards along the 8acsramento Ri I'


Date


M90.
Feb. 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Mar. 1
2
3
4
a
6
7
8
9
10


-I


ii,..I


I






THS PSA TMI" "D I" CONT301", 57

MIGRATION or* "ULT&

on of adult thrips'is as yetonly imperfectly understood.
winp and am free to fly if they choose, but weather condi-
food supply once verydeeide&y their inclination to move
The- tm&wy i for tho thrips to remain, quite closely, with
whorevvr thm, we only a firw individuals and where the
4 TA dant. 1hey then fly up during the warm,
T 6f tho dAyj but -do not travel far. It often happens that
we so numerous as to kill the early buds or to so mijure
throe become brown and dried and do not offer suitable
"ps then migme to other less:affected orchards. This
often oceurs bef6re the period:of oviposition begins, in
08,80, new brood i's started to infest such an orchard: during
m, yw. Thig ex*inswhy thrips
',*&v* g may mjum an orchard
mason and mem. to have almost entirely disappeared from
This ocourrence has led some orchard.
thut e*entually- the thrips may mQve
or die is
out. This su
d it will be, only a matter of a year
vatilthwe orchards will be attacked.
,t4en, occurs only during warm, clear
a" is bastened by a desire for better FW, 1L-Tbe pear uxdpr-
liti br for suftable con&tions for ovipmiting. *gw. ujgwy magni.
4ocally do not travel in any particular Ae& (Authcep MusU&
tun.)
i-soeh as south, or east, or, west but
wherever mnditions Am favorable for


I -Puro" Jo, ssasM of 190 ovipmition was not observed until
in amm.4 V*th: 5 say number
of individuals could be seen
-tWregga--,AAOWj"-,.. xho*ov-6r, were coilected from almond
POOM-9
"'.1 Fqbr"ry. 61,13 that+ a lior eggs had been plamd
pyjp" pn begins _about March 15, and
g+ egp after this+ date, for
i ueq caaiy An4 L."
,t about four wa4sL 6
&y and in all o"di#ow of + woathor.+

4; -4
ATTAIN r+a Wyjls aWiqs ftW*d,&d

*4 Aadpuohesout
Ao"- Ao
I Ak


TIT







THE LARVA.
The thrips larva (fig. 15) is white, with red eyes; it a move aIut a'1
slowly and does not jump, and, being without wings, it can nftrfli'
It does not spin a web, but seeks a sheltered place between ohoki
folded leaves or in blossoms, or it lies close along the veina on. mIO
of the larger leaves. It reaches full growth after two or threemuei
drops to the ground, and penetrates into it for several inches, '#4l
it incloses itself in a tiny cell and here remains during all ths res o%
the year. J.i: .Uj l
Larvae do not walk down the larger branches or tree trunks to :g-Gl
to the ground, but drop down or are card.
^ within the old falling calices, or are more
.^ usually thrown down by winds or rains. It
[ has been observed that a very large -petmena
l age of the thrips which are thus thrown mumh
the tree are not fully grown. Only ith i.t
i which are mature are able to penetrate ti
ground and form their cells; the others dii
Larva are scattered everywhere under tI
trees, and if the trees are large and have inter
mingling branches the thrips are distribdhd
Over nearly the whole surface of the soil.: ,H,,:r
The period during which larvae are entetia*
the ground begins about April 1, and is at its
maximum from about April 10 to 30, practi*
cally all thrips having entered by May. 166f
This period of entering the ground by Aarvt.
r in Contra Costa County corresponds very
closely to the San Jose record as given above.
It may be a few days earlier in the *t'mer
i" sections at Suisun, in the Vaca Valley, =d
Fo. 15.-The pear thrips: Lawva. along the Sacramento River. I
Much~ "nad (Athr MUD-
MXuhenrd. (Authos mu- Larvae penetrate the loose top soil R.
tratlO) usually remain in the 3 or 4 inches of h6Sl
ground immediately below the surface. They penetrate to a
much greater depth where the soil is loose, owing to shallow
spring cultivation, than where it is firmer. If the thrips are
disturbed during their first few weeks in the ground-for example,
by cultivation-and if not killed, they immediately go deeper and
make new cells. The larvae remain in a dormant condition, in
which no food is taken, and do not move from their cells, unBmG
1.. .:.
.I: i l l 1


E : J






_T MOXXM AIM, US CONTROU 59

tho yowjj *henthqy.: bhazW to.Pipwan&
to P. .. ...
depth to which these insects penetrate in well-cultivated or-
may be noted in the following
'00 n the entAblishment ottlum, roo-
bloeks 4 wA 6 by, fi. inch- eg squam by
*jjkhm dimp, vvjro. "moved gjwm:. U1161.4 K.

.... ..................
Jslbokto*Y2 and in la erlis
ik", *,.the thrips -iA, each is"r being
T6 'fgtm3a M' each case repre-
(60-11total Of all Of tho samples from.,.....
joiNalmird-6 frola the, Bcgen orchard,
10 Atkmt, the antt 4 ewh f rom
W =4 and Siarv* orchaird& The:
what ion
PPA
pa tare Mi the soil above ille
dopth after which the Per,-
All
all I figwm,4stand. The loose top soil.. Fw- 1" Pw ulrw WVnPh
t or pups. Ituch enhuVW_ (Au-
bwhes contained no thrips, thaft 11bodnboo,.)

*W q *9* in rwund at &Prmt 4pft rem*
&ft&tva Aft, CW&rxia.

4r D"Guot I=" iu seffi.

14t&w amhod' Ilummebud Saw* ardbLud
AN AIMM I (4mmpW). (4ftmp1w)_
400L-- I WMWW)_ (10 SaMPI-00-
No. df 1w NO. Of perl W6. of Per 2W. of rer
roc, can$4 thdm ewt. P: A!n1p& cent. thripiL emt.

------ .. .... lag ......
.......... 20 1.?$ 518 25- 277 71 14 n
;tji as 17,74 -M9 54 92 88 55
45 20 SM 38 94 25
#ILI 44W, j i !tjV 41M 3,qS M ..14 96 6'
AL 35 168 87 7 ... ......
M is m ........
L ......... it 87 2
-------- ------
2 -- ----
is to 76 -------- 3
OIL
'is to 16 .4 ........ 0 --------- 0
2"%q 627 --------- IM ........
W7 ------- ------
tit

tit
*Ad f MiWb* its, Mjaxt--
6&

010 Us o" W6,*ft'dl if fiO6 a the, side 4Df
t jq&'hwe been











Adult thrips (fig. 17) are common in the ground in OeS
and January, but all seem to await the proper time in .
before they come out. If they are prematurely broken ou
their cells during December or J f
...> they are active and can fly, but itbji
never seem to leave the ground at i:.iift
Syimea" of "'l
own1 accoi.-OAW
The tafrz.
tion from:..la ,
to pupa A".*T
Sthe adult is .
slo .w an" ..
ual on .at
Occupies a"dds
mouths.




FeayadMrh whe adulLts .. ar coim p.....
Many ideas have been advance regarintbe
value of plowing and cultivating atd
times of the year as remedial measures aga ::AT,
thrips; especially during April and May, whe. ",""
the larva) are just entering the ground; in s face, MAy
Fi. 7.-The per thrips.: June, and July, after they are all in; in the ......
Adlt MuIcAIO enlarged



Adult.Muc enllutarged. and early winter, to destroy pupa; and d~
(Auho'silusraio.) February and March, wh~n adults are WOmia
gout. It has now be en clearly demonstrated that much benefit on,,
derived in chec thae thrips by plowing and otherwise culfatine4 :,
the ground, if this is don e athe a proper ti rme and with cauresm.
Thrips lari penetrate until they can find a protected place whrei

partly covered with grass. They usually rest in the 3 or 4 inches of
ground immediately below the loose top soil in regularly cultivated
land, and since they are within 8 or 9 inches of the surface, they::an
thus largely within the reach of the plow. If, from previousimzs
cultivation, the ground is full of cracks and cavities from
weed stems or roots, or is full of wormholes, the larva come Jut:
these and may then penetrate many inches.
Cultivation during April and May, when the thrips larws a
entering the ground, will kill a few, but it also disturbs and agita..






THE FX" THRM AJM MR 00IFTROL. 61

w1ijeh. then go deeper- Condmaous cultivation am June
which evwl is not always p would also have
effect. It should be. embered that theseinsects we so
that they cau oamily renmun inside of very.small clods and be
and ovor bycultivation without
over r6=VM9 anYMJM7-
V Ito "ps am paming through their pupal developmeot in the
Ipse f4l and early winter, and they an then more susceptible to.
atanyothertime. They am only-slightly
sad can uot build other cells if onm they am forced from the
qom TWr now lep, antenum, and wings an sheathed in long,

aim, any one of which may esafly be broken or deformedby
disturbance.
$Mondexperixnents with M and winter plowing for thrips won
out in the fall of 1908, and the following records show what
have been obtained mi two of these orchards, where spedal
was given to securing data. Areas of 20 and 70 acres,
At I were plowed and harrowed i of the first, with 20
of the mwond, was cross plowed. This Plowing was done
during December, a lack of early rams having hindered from
the work sooner. In each cam several samples of soil, 17 by
It iftbm squam by, 20 inehes deep, were removed from the orchards,
IW* be&re and after treatment, brought to the laboratory yard,
4vwbadded to their natural depth in the ground. The cages
-01-4 oiftod open until a time when: the adult thrips beg= to 001 Mi out.
IMwt,,vm then covered over, and thereaf ter a daily record of the
1-1, a was made for ewJL 'The blockBof soil were selected
MA6
trees and under like conditiouss to Insure as far as pos-
r of thrips in each.
IU, and IV from the Undon orchard were takm from
land i WOMM& lw beeu Plowed and cross.plowed:in November and
V4,eagw V and VI, from the same orchard, were taken
from under to**w14m no winter plowing had been dona. Cages Vl
04' ftvwt, Uume orchaxd, we'ro taken from land which was
*wed aad crow,,plowed, and c" IEK and X from untreated soil.
M- *Mf&U and wktw dw paw drips in fto onAam*

XANIDOX OUMAIM.
Amwed SW now plowaL Not tMaU&
Coo L CoaWiL 0" UL cam ]IV. Cft" -v. low VL
------- ----- 44MOM 007 IM 4M 114M
2X7 IN JIS W W 739
------------

------------- 3W
............................ ....... 1--6 -------
----------------
-------------------- --------------------
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
k i" IIcMIbM Oftl In W I il 6 ------------ ae
............ F- -* ................... 4 ---------------












Plowed and o pwed. Nlow...
. ..:....... .. ....
Cage V. CageVm.U Cage IX ..



U ntrm ted .........................~ ~~~~~ ... . . . .. . . . .. ...... ..... ....... ; :h
Total number of thrips......................... 421 .3 2,18.. "



: ....... .. .
Total number ofitrpsnperuquars foot of lurfae. 210 321 1,09h

Average number of thrips per cage:ulianadpo
VI I angd V.t thei.. .. *. t.. ....
Average number of thrips per square foot of surface in each cage: h t':* ZiJ
nTreated ........................................... -.... .............. ...-....-..--...... ^8jl~
Untreated ..... ......... ........ ............. .t....... .
Percentage living In treated areas as against the numbers of thrips in untreated ground.....'...,,. f
Approximate percmftage killed .................................................... . l

Bearing in mind that the larvaw penetrate into the gr ound
after they leave the trees; that they remain usually below t.....
top soil, going deeper if disturbed, and also that they are amoat |'
ceptible to injury in the pupal stage, cultivating and plowing ojj
be so arranged as to take best advantage of their habits, to eo,
their locating near the surface, planning at the same time Oq epcI
them by late fall and early winter plowing. t ri So
The principle of fall plowing is to use a moldboard or dip lq i|
and by turning the land over to bring the thrips which rest p ioA:
lower strata of ground up to the surface. Tb. land should the
thoroughly harrowed or worked over with a disk cltivator. :Wi&
the present methods of plowing, a strip of 2 feet or more of usi it
turned ground is usually left in the tree row. It is necessary a.i t
plow to a less depth close under the trees than in the middle ofUb
rows. The land should therefore be plowed and cross plowedPrMi
insure breaking up all of the ground to a uniform depth, and hans ,rf
after each plowing, to make the treatment thorough. : H k
The Landon orchard was uniformly plowed to a depth of 0abo t ,'P
inches. It will be seen by referring to Table H that 81 per
all the thrips were above this depth and were therefore 4il^piS1
Table III shows that there were 70 per cent less live thrips in ground
which had been plowed and cultivated than in that which had
received no winter treatment. These thrips, about 89 per cent of
all which were disturbed, must therefore have been killed by tho...:I
.. ... .. .... W ;. ,
i t i ," "/ : . i .
cultivating. .,,:: i
The Hume orchard was plowed uniformly to & depth of 'bO |
inches. Table II shows that 88 per cent of the thrips were beti .:'%
the surface and this depth, and Table IH shows that about 7&,2.
cent of the total number of thrips in this orchard were Id jr
cultivation. .. "'.. ':. il






Pithn TURM A" CONVDOt#.

g"iffiwagrF 6brUar:P4D&NW!r &-hWK6kOr4dUItthn"Pff.. COM=9..k
.-4 th& boaWly heimy
an& bwaue the grou*&.braaks -up: int,6
ist thio time,
V xreaWft old are k&ed
thiig,.Vniosoemalo lAtIthe 1bhfi]*,out all: at:
UIV11W t0h.4m Ir ng t Jury* S"a-al Ordwuds
th" hWM 11[ 111;=t obewirvationj: which were: p6wed:.
*1114'* "FAMUSty aud iwIV Much, INV" T bq:: Muth,:: ]more Be:
AL_ VaAWT of fruit. -STGOLY
W10 rewb" WtBr(*AoVpI6wed atthis time.
JU benefits of plowimg and cross plowing ha" been so evident.
IwIF, IF tow 'one 6fltbo f**4BrajIdT tftAt4dlh" d the sprim
ebb OMM, tog shnost to a row, by the: hoklthful: ebuffition of :the treesy
Odw. it-tesagM4.
'44ho6 i9bil tmder Praw.
shoied, thALt ahn". no &rips: v a-v: presenti
bfto -atoompliokady,
Imt Below
4-opth, wm r~he& vhere::: th-
#slot the iwaid' OU"PS IWf*6:f0IIW4r

.... .. ... .
fig An" has jAwired-,- -wftd&fuRy.
hA," 4am umd ,"d &fta wM
IV -ime
t3L spra":

pressuiv,,-125 kW M p*=da,-imd: rIL&W,

W#qop lbu&,,,.:, And-:.:not- Nthrown.: at, thm from
t** sidos.' i&ouM I* "aneftbend ffPr&yMgM,
8VMy
blut, to Uwnw.inswis which: are ackudly.
t on the treei. It may not be pos4ble to nwm3h all of,
i& the lmde Vi th: m2ost exrduI.
of them. am 1: be kWewL-:..:. 11$Onying
VWF WOW OMMtWe
Al Ik vpdf #btWs, and bloss6nai tha6retimny Sao=% H-UP00W.
4wfopzikimtirely pracfiaMe when, a wazw, forceful
Ahe tip& A tower platform i&onld,
tkw VraF, wagami, so that tke topsof krge tmw om U,


hizvok Ak"m Mw bodies at
4_ 'kand
Mi 'I -war
dw fa, YVI" t"sosfie oa&yr bw
4MO their
flu 1;









supnur sprays win no apparent inconvenience, ury sprays areaMs
absolutely ineffective. Emulsions of oil combined with crude Ga-
bolic acid or crude creosote are extremely penetrating, in reality, kI-
ing almost every thrips that they touch, even when applied in *
weak form; but these combinations are just as violently injurious ::*
blossoms and leaves as to thrips, consequently they can not *::
considered. Poisonous sprays are ineffective because the thrips feed
from the inner parts of the plant and not from the outer layers, where
the poison would be placed.
Black-leaf tobacco extract diluted to proportions of 1 part extract
to 50 of water has been very successful, but this spray seems to
demand a somewhat heavier and more penetrating liquid than water
alone as a carrying agent. The distillate oil emulsion in 6 per cat
dilution is almost as deadly as the black-leaf extract, but there wil
follow some injury from the spray unless conditions are altogether
favorable. The oil spray has the advantage of being heavier, of-
being forced more easily into the buds, and of penetrating the oily
coating offered by the thrips. This emulsion, however, reduced to a
14 or 2 per cent solution, can be applied with safety to all trees, and
when combined with black-leaf extract, diluted at the rate of 1 part:
of extract to 60 or 70 parts of water, furnishes a spray having all the
required carrying, penetrating, and killing qualities desired. This
is the spray which is now recommended. It can be applied with
safety to opening buds, but should not be used on trees in full bloom.
Blossom petals are more sensitive to injury from spraying than any::
other parts of a tree; but, since they soon fall, the damage, although
noticeable, is not often serious. This spray can be applied to tne
immediately after the blossoms have fallen, and later to the foliage
for adults and larvae.
The first application should properly be made when the thrip. ame
coming from the ground in large numbers and before the cluster bwh
are too far advanced. (See PI. IV,. showing stage of development i
buds when first application should be made.) This period for the
San Jose district of California is early in March, but it differs, of
course, for the several varieties of fruits, as stated on page 54..
Where the thrips are very numerous it may be necessary to immea.
diately follow this first application with a second. Another applica-
tion can be made immediately after the blossom petals fall, to kSl
the remaining adults, but more especially to kill the larvae. Tbe
adults should by all means be attacked first. The spraying for larivw:
is merely to alleviate the minor injury of scabbing on fruits, and to
protect the trees for the following year by killing the larva before ..
they get into the ground.
'I






PJUR THF"S A" rXS CONTROU 65
dults: in an orchaird
should be made to JdU M a befow
15, when practicsHy all thripEl. SM: Out of the ground and when
begins.
no black-leaf tobacco extract may be purchased from local agents.
distillato oil emuWon cm:dw:bo purchased from local dealers
sU sprayingsup'plies, but is propmed after the following formula:
04 water ------------------ 4 ------ ................ pUom-. 12
Whlo-Wl or foh-oil soap- .......................... .. -pounds_ so
DV-*410a oil (2r Baummh) ................................ gaUons.. 20
map I's fast dimalved in a kettle of boiling water and then
Moved to the spray tanl, where the oil is added. This should be
AgiUW violently and spmyed out under pressure of from 125 to 150
"ap& into other bamls. This stock solution contains about 55
Pw ftt of oil, and should be: diluted at the rate of about 2 gallons of
41q-exauWon to 48 gallons of water for a 2 per cent off solution.
ret of M a thoroughly-Apol-stock emulsion lies In
the soap and water boffing hot, in add;ing tha oil to this solu-
=4 under no eire-UMAunces in adding the soap and water to
1-0 thorough and -violent aetation, and, fiaally, mi passi-ing it-
Ahrough the spray nozzles under Mgh pressure. It has been found
experanonts that th imp
pressure is e most ortant
%okw,, saO an emulsion passed once....throughthe pumps and nozzles
liodor prowure of from 150 to 160 Pounds can not. be improved by
op"Atioll.
wep, may be made as foHows:
--------------------------- 0-ft ------------ IgIlLHOW .. 6
----------------------------------------------------- pounds- 2
'1 .......... PRO=~
X .. ----------------------------
IN" tu W&W io a Caldron) add the lye; and then the fish oil,
s4d hftjjA' ly &r a'Ojftt two hoUrS. This Win make about 40 Pounds
about a &gaUou mbdure.
1.4,

numemus ferWimrs and soil f=igants tested have proved
io fing th in the ground, even when applied in pro-
I*r $qond vht could be used in ordinary practice. It is
that most ofthards need fortflimrs to strengthen
to bam a more regular settimg of fruit. It has been
to vith other crops Mist soil awn detatiorates
o! crops or umlow !6ttaffizets are ad"


g 111o tWO 4 aft-V time of tho Year is ihately ineffeo-
ia lavugjj Juistant to water that while in
js,,not pnaW" to submerge them long enough to








submerged as long as seventy-two hours, and when a1mied ft
days later all thrips were alive and active. irni-uiw;
S..... : i: I f l .
SUMMARY. *jrj
The pear thrips has been found only in localities in the geineW i4...
of San Francisco Bay. Its presence in other countries is not bm6u.:
The adults accomplish their feeding injury by rasping the issun
and sucking out the plant juices in the early buds and blooms.
Larvae feed more especially on the larger leaves and on fruits. -Aits
cause the scabbing on pears, while larvae produce the scabbing f
prunes. .. '.
Adults emerge from the ground in late February and early Mae
just when most trees are spreading their buds and opening into hloai
Eggs are placed mostly in the blossom and fruit stems and 'rlll
petioles. The larvae hatching therefrom feed for two or three wnb ,
then drop to the ground, where they form a tiny protecting' 'd
within which they remain during the rest of the year. The pm:
changes take place within this cell in the ground during OVoM
November, and December. k.:" ".i
To gain complete control of the pear thrips, both plowing lo'
spraying should be adopted as remedial. Land should be plowed i
soon as possible after the early rains in October, November,. au::
December, to a depth of from 7 to 10 inches, harrowed or diskiA
and then cross plowed, the second plowing to be followed also "by
harrowing. The pupae are by this means broken from their prow
tecting cells and most of them either injured or killed.
A combination spray of black-leaf tobacco extract in the propor-
tion of 1 part of extract to 60 parts of water and 2 per cent diS-
late-oil emulsion, or a spray of black-leaf extract alone, should Jli
used against the adults during early March, just when the cSutA
buds begin to open, and against the larvae in April, after the bloss
petals fall. The thrips must be killed bIy contact insecticides, 0.
not by internal poisons. ii
Fertilizers and irrigation do not kill the thrips in the gr:nmd.
They act against them only indirectly, by placing the soil in better
condition for cultivation and by strengthening the trees. :

I:.:.


I;
I I'










t i,
'At IV- A K j"L rut V. A-L
1,,-Sept=ber.20,IW_

PARI& OiW-iwan' m' FRurt INSECtS AN6 IMO

AVER ING

dio A M OF T=,CODLtffG MOTEL
-BY S. W. reg"M
04040dllft Dtdduotis Fftis Ingeet Isves"go

*ter
oeam P~ neua to,): h" up..:::. to th
UWIVJ Ueen d orbd -as a serious-enmy only pome: fruiU.
Koiwover, f"uqu been found in peeches iiid plujp& There
European records of walnut infwtation by this qw-jes,
Wy sifted by Die. 0. Howard iii:1887
Ad, iWS66AUevidenee to deWtely prove:. that th
M14 -upon nuts or 6ak galls.:., CO'B-R Simp-
'Adki7 in 1895 and iii'189` eiffilbite, d: Pwitn
to* the ra of this t trom chestnut& Tji
ring Insec
Springs, A&, tho writot found a M-growm
partially mAde'cooon ij4&. a 'hic ory
no signs of feedmg on the kernel it 'Is'probable
in only'for the purpose of hibeihation:gjl
Wjlj
Xpflv,! Wo 10 -AV -WAXJMT, INFWWAMION.,
lx* tak Vtl ang, ilie r a Of Air. g whit
to the writer that
the lawxof t cowilig moth were d9ing
J t t
of h6 Muge
px one 0 trm A, ]*Mr,
1, *v 41
Awmea arka founi t64 ",hA'VIC 64i

Y, grown
100jid ou out4de of the hoR of fli'iiW Iz n
*___ 11 , 1, IL-- -1
All.
Malt TMRCft,
A _41 4 4 -j
)tll rpm MW4
A.44?10 "i W
AT 0"dowmijP. )-to tuqit i W fto 41





68 D11CMU07US FRUIT INSECTS AND INSICT1011000
NATURE OF IN3VRY.
The larvie upon hatching soon bore into the fle6by hull
the walnut proper. Some individual larvae onefourth gmwo
found feeding in this hull, some burrowing: around h,
fleshy part, and others tunneling back and fofth on the
next to the walnut shell, producing many little narrow
this inner surface. The majority ofthe larvae, however, go
into the nut, entering always through the fibrous tissue
the halves of the shell at the base or the stem end. The
bore into the lobes of the kernel or feed on its surface. Some'
a large portion next to the shell, some follow along the centr*1
while others may spend all the time near the entrance, eating
a larger portion of the kernel at this place. In any case the entire
nel is rendered rancid and unsuited for human consmptioa. ftwg& -
:EA-
VII, figure 1, shows characteristic injury to the walnuts an
VII, figure 2, a larva at work in the kernel, the litter twice
3EXTENT OF INMOTATION.
Extended search throughout the central part of Contis
County, Cal., showed the infestation to be general, but ligh4
where trees were near packing sheds, drying grounds, or adi
badly infested pear orchard. Many trees were found in such
ties showing from 5 to 25 per cent of the nuts infested. DurW.
winter of 1909-10 small quantities of walnuts were frequentlybouOt
in the local markets and twice from stands in San Francisco 9'
which codling moth larvw were secured and which showed tho
acteristic injury to the kernel. The writer has also had the,.
experience with walnuts served on hotel and dining-car tab1ft A '00
E. J. Hoddy, of the Bureau of Entomology, has frequently,
the past winter, brought in walnuts from various parts of th9.Opos#"','
showing the injury and presence of these larvae.
VAMMMS AT A. WIM.
All of the soft-shelled French varieties of walnuts aumme to
infestation, and in fact any of the soft-shelled sorts havm*g a, fibr6s*
tissue connecting the halves of the shell at base. Moths were
the past season from the Mayette, Concord, Framquette, ad
sienne varieties.
OZAWNAL XWTORY OF OOIDLMG NO= ON WAZXV*jt,
So far all observations indicate that only the later broods of
attack the walnuts. No walnuts could be found showing early
that is, before the shell hardened. that the larval life
walnuts is the same in length asin apples and pears, the earliest
of infestation would be late August or early Sep"ber. The








































: .... .... .. .
1.-CO.7 NCOD VARIETY OF FRENCH WALNUT, SHOWING CHARACTER OF INJURY BY
::: LARVAE OF CODLING MOTH. (ORIGINAL.)


.'!iji: ....! ::..:!... .... ..:..:. i!. : ..:..i:.: i
.!N .. ... .. U 8z=
.......lW UVA60 T "TC NATURAL SIZE,
As a m WOR. (ORIGINAL)
....... .. WAL T
.... ......::: j : .: :: : .:: .. ... : .....
U-8 . .. ...........FRENCH W;ALN UTa,
.. =... = ... .....:.. .... ...








ou,8,Pr ,Bra fEtmlgU.S et fArclue LT il







Fj.I .-OCR AIT[FFRNHW LUSOIG IRU ISECN
NETNIH AVS N mT UA KN OIIA.





Fi.2 -OIMCODV REY O lmm W LUOS O IG NRN EA DE
ImsFL~A.(RGNL
COIGMTINUYT RNHWLUS







b69
u4 -odiCL Spcedpirt hstm n
0oo|r~ Moh have.......ed....is.....l
i~~ul see the....al.nut.........
pln utbefroioiin hruhsac
an ux 90 aldt hwtepeec faylrm
ibtw[bal w U an
-iiand,-I pt fth xrm itreso h
p= tum-hiewl hmfratm eoeetrn
0 mvrlSeieso elh cieLrxoefut
weefudi h ul.Hwvr l ae
thiav ettehl ndetrdtekre e
Il maoiyo h rwbio iret
u6fboktmecnetn h avso h hl.Sm
Wod th eest fbroigtruhtehI stis
,0.pnd6 nettoi ieigo ayo-h al
", Ao h atngo h oe he=l av a
tbog h hnfbos oncin ocs a
*!waetrdthog h hl
ded|wn-N indvidalrecrdswee...t
shwta-h av eelp srpdyo h
asi osi plsa ti esno h er
lot'nawe l olce nwlusO!e
iMdeomn n eesmnnrccosb h
S1me.Ohrhwvr oniudt omr rls
L4kaw an i o pnccosutl!nay

I afo fifse ant eta h






























































.. . ... .. .


." ii~" ........ '.. ... iii'iii
. ... ......




.. ...=... ... .




.. .. ........... h ii
..." '.: i:.q... ..i~ {ii... .. .. ..............
1 inotit



I. i "t. ...............







.... .. ...







"t7
.. ,,......, ....
... .. . .
.. .. .. i .@ .....




'H






it t / o rt/D F oebr2,W
PAMOEIUU Rf ISU N NEICDS
OFImCDIGMTHI OTWET
ER ENSLVRA
ByA G A"a
Innc lwhatos
RBqs *VBu PutI
|NI" ILX
//o ofo fdciuu ri netinetgtoso h
Nooooyetbihda orhEsP. eprx
fo th netgto fcranocadadvnyr
ise te;digmt Croas ooe L.) a
-o /h he osctv erso 97 98 n 99
vol uigtefrttosesn oee nytemr
fqu M"tedvlpeto h net hl n10




T.
72 DECIDUOUS FRUrT INSECTS AND IMSECTIGIDPA.
BEABONAL-HISTORY 5TUD3338 OF IW9.
SOURCE OF REARIWG MATERIAL.
The main portion of the rearing material used in the spring.41,
was collected during the previous summer and fall from haa&d
trees; the rest-a small fraction-constituted rearedspew
experiments of the previous year. The larvm intended
records were allowed to make their cocoons between nawrTrolvw
wood (fig. 18), where their transformation could be readily o
without greatly altering their conditions, while those for emergvo*
records of the moths cocooned in masses of old bark of applo
ads"
During the winter the material was kept in a medium-sized jar#
covered with thin cloth, and was' thus left undisturbed in saopm
shelter (see Plate IX) until the following spring.















Mo. 18.-Device consisting of strips of wood held together by rubber bands used In obtalving
records of the codling moth ( Carpocapm pomondk). Reduced. (OrlghW.)

The rearing material for the following emergence of mothi or
first-brood moths, was mainly from that used in taking the W14
records of 1909, and, to a small extent, from reared specimens.
is a special value in the use of band-collected larv2e in the Mvi* a
the codling moth, 'in that these have up to the time of trandormiag
developed normally in the field and the resulting adults show thus
both the normal time of emergence and the relative occurrence n tbp
field.
OVERWINTERING LARVA.
The overwintering larvw of the codling moth the vicinity of
North East, Pa.,are partly of the first and partly of the second brooo*
As is more fully considered on page 84, a portion of the firs"rooA
larvie, unlike the rest, hibernate-as do normally all larvsB of A6
secand brood-and complete their life cyd[e the followmg spring*,


























ul

E
w



LI

























.: .:. :::i:::



".a .: E: F;








*. ":I




Full Text
xml version 1.0 standalone yes
Volume_Errors
Errors
PageID P131
ErrorID 4
P215
3
P296
4
P311
4
P380
4
P398
4
P401
4
P404
4
P560
4