U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN NO. 34, NEW SERIES.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist
PRINCIPAL INSECTS LIABLE TO BE D)ISTRIBUTED
ON NURSERY STOCK.
PREPARED UNDER THE DI)IREC(TIO)N OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST,
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smrathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., April 29, 1902.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit for publication a manuscript pre-
pared by Mr. Nathan Banks, of this office, in which are considered the
principal insects liable to be distributed upon nursery stock. The
inspection of nursery stock under State laws has become so general
throughout the United States that the desirability of some publication
of this sort has become very evident. I had the matter in mind last
autumn, and at a conference of the official horticultural inspectors for
the United States, held at Washington October 11-13, 1901, a resolu-
tion was unanimously passed requesting this Department to prepare
and publish an article on those nursery pests of the country which
are capable of transmission on nursery stock to the injury of the pur-
chasers. Since it is desirable that this manuscript shall be put in
available shape for distribution to all horticultural inspectors and to
all nurserymen and others immediately interested, I recommend that
it be issued as Bulletin No. 34 new series, of this Division.
L. 0. HOWARD,
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary qf Agriicultuire.
Int rwniduction -.- -.. .. .- - .- - .- .- ..- - ---- - --- - --- - -
Tabular stateimnunt. of iIsects upon the tree in winter ---------
Tabular stateiiieiint of inserts feeding onil the buds and yoniig lgave- in early
pring ...-- .. --- --------.. .--.--------------------------------...-- -------.----------
Hletiiptera (butgs, scale isv'rts, plant-lice) .............------ ....----.--...
Famiily Coce"lae (scale ine t).......................................
Table of scale insects ............--- .--.-..............-- ..-- ....-
Thle peachl lec.aniiii .-.---..---.--........- ...- ..- ..--..........- --
The oyster-shell N rk-louse.......--......... ...- .....-----..- ---
The scurvy bark-louse ................- ....... ..- .....- ......--
Aspi4diotus (circular or round sl'-ales) -- ---------
Table of Aspidiotus ----- ----- ----------
The San Jose scale .....-- ....- ..---- .------------------ ----..
The European fruit scale.-..-.................- -----.................-
Putnam's scale ............
The cherry scale --.......- ..- ..- .....--.-....- ..... ......---
The walnut scale -------.................... .....--....---.........
The greedy scale ...--.......--........--...............---.....--
The grape scale ---....--........ ..- ...- ...-... ... ... .. .----
The peach scale ----.....-----..........................-----.....--
The rose scale---.......--......----..----...-......................--
Family Aphid.(- (plant-lice) ......---.-...............................------
Table of plant-lice................................................
The woolly apple aphis ..........---....-...--..................--
The black peach aphis ---..................-............-.........------
The plum plant-loiu.-e -.---
The cherry aphis.........
Family Psyllide ... ..........
The pear-tree psylla -......................... .... ..-... ..------
Famil v Meml)racidae. ----............................--
The buffalo tree-hopper... ... ....-----------
Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) ..----...-........----.....--...............--
The apple-tree tent caterpillar.------- ------- ----
The fall wel)worm . . .. .. . . . . . ..
The brown-tail moth ........-..... ....--------.........---- ....-
The leaf-crumpler........................- ............ .--.--....
The white-marked luttsock moth ......-.....- ...---................
The gipsy moth ....... ....................................... :
Cankerworm s ------... - -.....-.... .. ........ ..---- ------ ..--- .
The peach-tree borer ..........................-- .......-- .--- .
The peach twig-bore r.-..........--.--..--.....--.--..-...-......--..
The bagworm ....................................................
Other caterpillars ................................................
... -............ --.. ....-- ---- 19
Coleoptera (beetles, weevils) ---------------........-..----------..........-----------------... 38
The round-headed apple tree-borer ..----------..-------------------- 39
The flat-headed apple tree-borer---.----------------------------- 40
The sinuate pear-borer. --------------------------------------- 40
The fruit-tree bark-beetle. -----------------....--..---.-----..-......---.------ 42
The apple twig-borer ............................................ -----------------------------------------43
Acarina (mites) ...-..-------------------.---.............----------.-------..------------- 43
The pear-leaf blister-mite ......................................... 43
Insects infesting fruits ..------...-------------......---------------------------- 45
IL LI USTRATIONS.
Fi;. 1. Leeainimum nigrofam-iaitunm ---....--.- ..-----....- ..- ........--- ... 12
2. Mytilaspis pomorum ........----- ..- ..----..- .......- .......- .... 13
3. M ytilaspis pomorum ...-------.-----...------------------------------.. 13
4. Chionaspis furfurus ....----. --.....--.-------...........-----...- 14
5. Aspidiotus pernici(isiiS, on braIlch .---..----------------..---..-----------.. 16
6. Aspidiotus pernicious, female .................................... ------------------------------------17
7. Aqpidi, tus perniciosus, on fruit and branch .......--------------....----.------ 18
S. Aspidiotius ostre;fiormis ----------...........---..------------------------------ 19
9. Aspidiotus juglans-regi ------------------------------------------ .........................................- 20
10. Aspidiotus rapax..-----------------...........---..------.......-------------------. 21
11. Diaspis pentagona ....--------..-----....-------- ..----------...-------------.... 22
12. Aulacaspis rcis;v-..---------.------.....-....----.-------.------------------- 22
13. Eggs of plant louse------..-...-------..--------.---------------------.. 23
14. Schizoneura lanigera --------.......------...--------------------------- 24
15. Schizoneura lanigera, work on roots -------------.....--------..-------- 24
16. Aphis persicae-niger ......................---------------------------------------........................- 25
17. Psylla pyricola..--..-....------..----------.---------------------------.. 27
18. Ceresa bubalis ................................................... 28
19. Clisiocampa americana .-----------------.......-------...---------------- 29
20. Hyphantria cunea....-------------.........-------------------------------......... 30
21. Euprn)'tis chrysorrhea..........-------------....--------....------------------- 31
22. Orgyia leiicostigma ----------..--------.........--..-..--------..------------.....- 33
23. Porthetria dispar, moth ...------------.....---------....------------------..... 33
24. Portlietria dispar, larva .-----------............--.-------.-----------......-------- 34
25. Porthetria dispar, chrysalis ..................................... ----------------------34
26. Alsophila p)inetaria, moths---------...---------------... --.. ---------- 35
27. Alsophila pometaria, stages .-..----............................... -------------------------------35
28. Paleacrita vernata, mioths-...............................--------------------------------------........ 35
29. Paleacrita vermata, stages ---------------------..............-...-------.........---------- 35
30. Sanninoidea exitiosa -..........-------------------------------.............----------- 36
31. Anarsia lineatella ...........-----------------------------....--------------- 36
32. Thyridopteryx eplieiieer;-formis, cases.---......--..--------..-----..---------- 37
33. Thyridoliteryx ephemerwformis, insects -..--.----------------------- 37
34. Tmetocera ocellama, larva ----...-----..----..-----------.--------..--------- 38
35. Tmetocera ocellana, work of -----------------.......-....-..-----.------------- 38
36. Saperda candilda ---------------------------------------------39
37. Chrysobothris femorata .---------------------------------------......... 40
38. Agrilus sinmiatus, -tags .................------------------------............-------....-------- 40
39. Agrilus sinuatus, work of -----...--------..----------------..--------- 41
40. Scolytus rugiulosus ..------------...--.---------------.....------.-------- 42
41. Amphicerus bicaudatiia... ---..---.-----------...--------------..-------- 42
42. Rhagoletis pomoiella .----..------------..---------......-..-....---------------- 44
43. Rhagoletis cingulata--------------------------------------.............................................. 45
THE PRINCIPAL INSECTS LIABLE TO BE 1)ISTRIBUTED ON
In preparing this descriptive catalogue of the insects liable to be
transported upon nursery stock, it has appeared that there is a great
disparity of views as to what insects should be included. To include
only such as are known to be very destructive would exclude a great
many species that will be found by anyone who examines a tree in the
fall or early spring. To include all the species that are known to be
found in any stage upon fruit trees in winter would make the list too
bulky. Therefore, all species known to be of more than local interest
have been treated. Notes on the species infesting fruits are added at the
end. The insects have been arranged according to their natural orders,
and in the Hemiptera (bugs, scale insects, plant-lice) according to the
families. In the Coleoptera (beetles, weevils) and Lepidoptera (but-
terflies and moths), such an arrangement did .not seem desirable. No
account of the remedies to be recommended or used is given, as these
differ greatly, according to locality and conditions, and the various
State laws specify certain treatments.
It will be a great help to those interested in the growth and sale of
young fruit trees to be able to recognize the appearance of the various
insect pests during the winter; therefore, much attention has. been paid
to this phase of the subject.
In using this bulletin one should remember that, besides the insects
here treated, there may be upon a tree other insects of less importance.
TABULAR STATEMENT OF INSECTS UPON THE TREE IN WINTER.
Insects upon the roots:
Forming swellings on apple roots -----..---..-------.....-----------. Woolly aphis.
On peach and plum roots .................................----------------------------Black peach aphis.
Insects upon the bark of trunk or branches:
Plant-lice or aphids --.......-------------------------------------............................. Woolly aphis.
Small brown clear-winged insect in the crevice. of bark.---....-------.. Pear psylla.
Scale insects or bark-lice ----.....----------------........--------------. See Coccidle.
Caterpillars in cases or cocoons-------------............... Fall webworm, bud moth, apple
Bucculatrix, codling moth, pistol-case and cigar-case bearers.
In nests or bunches of shriveled leaves attached to branches.-..- -Lea f-crumpler,
and brown-tail moth.
Insects upon the bark of trunk or branches-Continued.
In a case or bag hanging from twigs -...-...-------------------.......---- Bagworm.
Clusters of eggs on bark -------- Cankerworms, tussock moth, arid gipsy moth.
A belt of eggs around twigs ---...------....----.------- Apple-tree tent caterpillar.
Single small blackish eggs often in groups on twigs or branches ----- Plant-lice.
Smaller reddish eggs ----------...-...--------...-----------.--.----- Clover mite.
Insects beneath the bark:
Tiny holes usually near a crotch, each covered by a bit, of frass -------.-Peach
Small brown beetle within the twig---.......------....------------ Apple twig-borer.
Small holes in bark of trunk or larger branches- ------- Fruit-tree bark-beetle.
A gummy exudation of sap at base of tree ----------.------... Peach tree-borer.
Discolored spots or cracks ,iid evidences of frass----------.......... Round-headed arind
flat-headed apple tree-borers, and sinuate pear borer.
TABULAR STATEMENT OF INSECTS FEEDING ON THE BUDS AND
YOUNG LEAVES IN EARLY SPRING.
Feeding on the buds or young shoots ---.. Bud worm, peach twig-l)orer, leaf-crumpler,
brown-tail moth, pistol-case and cigar-case bearers.
Feeding upon the leaves:
Plant-lice --------------...... Apple plant-lice, plum plant-louse, and cherry aphis.
Caterpillars in tents ------------------.......---....-----.. Apple-tree tent caterpillar.
Hairy caterpillars..------.-------. Tussock moth, brown-tail moth, gipsy moth.
Bare caterpillars ---....--------....-----.---------------...-----. Canker worms.
A blister or gall upon leaves ------------------------ Pear-leaf blister-mite.
Small caterl)illars within little cases------- .Pistol-case bearer, cigar-case bearer,
leaf-crumpl)ler, a-nrd bagworm.
HEMIPTERA (BUGS, SCALE INSECTS, AND PLANT-LICE).
The members of this order obtain their food (which is liquid) by
sucking it up a slender tube into the mouth cavity. This tube or
beak is composed of several needle-like pieces so shaped and arranged
that they inclose a minute channel up which the liquid food is drawn.
The beak is inserted in the plant often to some distance beneath the
surface. The members of this order do not pass through a pupal or
chrysalis stage like the butterflies and moths, but there is an approach
to it in the males of the scale insects. The insects of this order to be
treated are arranged in four families, which may be separated, for
our purposes, as follows:
The insect from above apparently without legs, antenna?, or wings, and fixed to the
host plant; the adult male (not often seen) usually has two wings------Coccidse.
The insect shows distinct legs and antennae, and often four wings.
Most of the specimens wingless, and l)rovided with two small tubes or cornicles
(see fig. 16) near tip of body; not hopping when disturbed -------.-Aphididse
Adult always winged, without the cornicles; hopping when disturbed.
The prothorax not enlarged, with hyaline wings ------------ Psyllide.
The prothorax greatly enlarged; wings obscured -------.-- Membracidue.
FAMILY COCCIDa (SCALE INSECTS).
The scale insects, or bark-lice, are readily known from mo t4 insects
in that the stages commonly seen are immovably fixed to the bhark or
leaf, and show no outward sign of legs or other structures. For a
short time after birth they are active, crawling creatures, and distribute
themselves over the surface of the plant. Having selected a location,
they push their long and thread-like beaks deep into the tree and pro-
ceed to suck up the sap. As they grow the protected or covered bark-
lice secrete a waxy substance that hardens and forms the .ca1e. When
the insect molts the old skin or exuvium remains attached to the scale.
The shape, color, and position of this exuviumi is of great value in
identifying the species.
Their small size and similarity of appearance nake. their determina-
tion difficult, and it is rarely safe to determine the species by a few
individuals, but on a moderately infested branch one is apt to find
some specimens that are quite characteristic of the species.
The unprotected bark-lice, such as the Lecaniums, secrete no cover-
TABLE OF SCALE INSECTS.
1. soft scales, without a shield-like covering, vcry convex, on peach or plum.
Lecaniwum nigrof(i.';, tuim.
2. Armored scales, with a shield-like covering anid showing an exivial spot, much
less convex than L.ecaaidin .-------------------------------...............--....---------....... 3.
3. The exuviuini shows as a circular spot -itimteld near the center or at lea-t rni-iote
from the edge of the scalc; the adult female scale more or le-." circular, rarely
w hitish ii color -----------------------------------I----------. Aspidiotvs.
4. The exuviinn showing as a more or less riblied, elliptical spot at the end or cl,' e
to one edge of the -.cale; scales usually whitish in color; if not, tlheii of an oyster-
shell shape ------ --------------------------------------------------- .5.
5. Scale l)rownish; the female of an ioyster-shell shape, male ovate.
Mlglilaspis porn ri,, il.
6. The scale whitish, female not oyster-shell slimaped, male sale elongate --..-----. 7.
7. The female scale plainly ovate, much longer than bruaui; the miale -.ale having
three longitudiiial keels (see fig. 4, d) ------------------....................- Chio,,,.. ffurii.
8. Tihe female.-scale is irregularly circular, but little lw,,ier than broad; the male
scale with one median keel ---------------...--.....--...----...-----...------------- ......9.
9. Exuviumt orange or bright yellowish; on fruit trees; m:iale with keel rather indis-
tinct ..................................................----------------------------------------- Diaspis prt'datiaMe.
10. Exuvium pale or dull yellowish; on raspberry and blackberry; male with distinct
keel -.---------------------------.-.-..-------------..--------. law;ii.p' ri'i.;.
THE PEACH LECANIUM.
( Le,'i di', uii/rifvs'hiluui Perg.- fig,,. 1.)
This insect, formerly known as L.p, r.';cde, is one of the largest of the
scale insects, being about one-fifth of an inch long and two thirds as
wide. It is elliptical in outline and strongly convex. It is usually of
a dull greenish-brown color, sometimes distinctly marked with darker
bands. It is found upon the branches of peach and plum, more rarely
on apple, and commonly occurs on the under side of the branch, the
upper side of which is covered with a black fungus that grows on the
honey-dew dropped by the Lecaniunms from the branch above. The
females pass the winter in the adult condition. The eggs are developed
by the latter part of May. The young hatch early in June and con-
tinue for fully a month (June 10 to July 15). The young larvae are
flat, uniformly pale yellow, and with a thin marginal rim. They become
stationary in a few weeks. By the middle of July the male pupee are
developed, and by the 22d the first winged males appear. There is but
one brood a year, and the best time for treatment will-be during July.
FIG. l.-Lcitmliali. it'grv' fs('i(utufm Perg.: adults at left, young at right. (Howard).
There is another species of Lecanium (L. prunastri), less commonly
found on plum. The female is much like that of the peach Lecanium,
but the insect passes the winter in the larval state, not maturing till
May. The young hatch in July, migrate to the leaves, and in the
early fall return to the branches, where they pass the winter. It has
rarely been found in this country outside of New York State.
THE OYSTER-SHELL BARK-LOUSE.
(MyIhidspis pomorum Linn.-figs. 2 and 3.)
The oyster-shell bark-louse is one of the best known enemies of the
orchardist. It is a (lark, slightly convex scale, elongate and usually
curved in outline, much resemblingo- a miniature oyster shell. When
crowded upon the tree they are apt to be less curved and often quite
straight. The elongate exuvium is situated at the small end. Its
elongate shape and dark color at once separate it from all other com-
mon orchard scales. The eggs, which are whitish in color, are deposited
in late summer, and occupy the posterior two-thirds-of the scale. The
female d(lies, but the scale remains to protect the eggs during the
winter. The young hatch in May or early June, crawl out upon the
FIG. 2.--f,/tifaspis pomorumn: a, b, females; c, scales on twig; d, male scale. (Howard.)
FIG. 3.-Mytilaspis pouiruri,: a, male; c, larva; e, female; b and d, details. (Howard.)
twigs and small branches, and locate there permanently. In a day or
two they begin the formation of the scale. The male scale is much
smaller than the female, elongate, wider behind than in front, and
little, if any, curved. It is uncommon on apple, but often found on
other food plants. The winged male insect appears in midsummer.
There is but one brood a year in the North, but in parts of the South
there are apparently two broods; the second one hatching about Sep-
tember 1. The oyster-shell bark-louse is widely distributed and
attacks a great variety of trees, but is especially partial to apple.
THE SCURFY BARK-LOUSE.
(Ch ioiwspis fufufrus Fitch-fig. 4.)
This common orchard scale is readily known by its whitish color and
ovate form. The adult female scale is rather flat, irregularly ovate in
outline, with the yellowish exuivium at the apex. The life history is
similar to that of the oyster-shell
]f bark-louse. The eggs are laid in
l ,#/-- Bthe early fall and occupy the
,z j! greater part of the scale. The
Mother dies and the scale re-
.^^^ -mains on the tree during the
"^ - :r i ~winter to protect the eggs. The
..I :..l.s .:...... yo01111V hatch during the latter
:" '. '. .' ':
..part of Ma or early in June.
S H ^-The male scale, which is often
very abundant, is much smaller
than the female, snow-white in
S~~color, and fully twice as long as
,t- 3 broad, with nearly parallel sides
FIG.. 4.-Chiozna pis furfarus: a, b, infested twigs; c, and three keels or ridges. The
female; d, male. (Howard.)
male; male. (Hoard.) winged male insects issue in Sep-
tember. There is but one brood in the North, but probably two or
even three in the South. The scurfy bark-louse is widely distributed
and occurs on most orchard trees, but chiefly on apple and pear.
ASPIDIOTUS (CIRCULAR OR ROUND SCALES).
To this genus belongs the most destructive known species, the San
Jose scale. The other species, however, often cause much damage.
There is a considerable resemblance among the various species, so
that it is difficult for any inexperienced person to determine them.
The final characters that separate species are based on the structure of
the pygidial plate of the adult female scale. To observe this it is
necessary that a specimen be boiled in caustic potash and mounted in
balsam on a glass slide. When this is examined under a microscope
the lobes, spines, hairs, and situations of the margin of the plate
appear quite distinctly. Thus, the characters that may be used in the
field are not final and only comparative, and great care must be exer-
cised, especially when only a small amount of material is available,
and any doubt can be settled only by sending the material to some
competent authority who can mount and microscopically examine the
TABLE OF ASPIDIOTUS.
1. Scale of adult female circular, with exuvium central, dark-coliredl, tlie exuvium
pale yellowish when dark waxy outer covering is rubbed off; ..ale not very con-
vex, about 2mm in diameter; half-grown scales are nearly black and show a
central nipple surrounded by one or two depressed rings-.... -,,ii'iii'., C(ist.
Scale of adult female not circular, the exuvial spot at one side of the center; the
half-grown scales usually paler and without the ventral nipple surrounded b)y
2. Adult female scale dark-colored, about 2""" in diallmeter; exuvial spot orange
or reddish colored -------------------....................--. A. frnsi, i,,yil, and ostreaformis.
Adult female scale paler, or larger, or with white ceniter--------------------...................... 3.
3. Scale of adult female about 2mmn in diameter, yellowish or pale 1brovwnish, with a
white center, quite flat; on grape....-------.-------------....-------.. C iist.
Scale of the adult female very convex, about 21lnm in diai ieter, of a uniform (drabl)
or yellowish-brown color, the exuvial spot showing reldlishl, but not commonly
exposed ----------...............--.------------...----...-.----------------- 1........ipi i. Cost.
Scale of the adult female large, nearly 3mm in diameter, flat, and pale-grayish in
color; the exuvium reddish or orange ...................- ,jiii .1i-r, ji:i; Comst.
In identifying scale insects by means of the above table, .scales
should be examined from bark or fruit as clean as possible, and where
the scales are not crowded and have room to normally develop. When
thickly massed they lose their characteristic shape and appearance,
and on sooty or dirty bark they are discolored and abnormal.
THE SAN JOSE SCALE.
(A..pidio(1ii.' jicrniwo.wN. Cotustock-figs. 5, 6, a1d 7.)
The San Jose scale is known to every orchardist by hearsay, but
few, however, can distinguish it from allied scales, such as ancylo.,
forbresi, and o./'wt',forn'mi. On badly infested trees the scale presents
the appearance of (lark gray, scurfy patches. The individual -scale is
about 2""' in diameter, usually nearly circular in outline, of a grayish
color, with the central darker nipple surrounded by one or more quite
distinct yellowish or pale grayish rings. When the scales are crowded
the outline is more or less distorted. In none of the allied forms is
the adult female scale as nearly circular as in the San Jose scale.
When on fruit or young twigs there is often a reddish discoloration
around the scale. Putnam's scale and the cherry scale have a brighter
colored exuvium, situate one side of the center. The cherry scale is
often much paler than the San Jose scale. The European fruit scale
has an exuvium similar to the San Jose, but lacks the darker nipple;
moreover, the exuvium is plainly not at the center of the scale. The
male of the San Jose scale is about two times as long as broad; broader
at one end than at the other, with a large, dark exuvium, showing a
central nipple. It is situated toward the small end of the scale. The
male of the European fruit scale is not so elongate, and the exuvium
is but little darker than the scale and nearer to the small end than in
the San Jose scale. The male of Putnanm's scale is as elongate as that
of San Jose, but has an orange exuvium. The male of the cherry
scale is in shape much like that of the San Jose scale, but the exuvium
is of a brighter yellow, the scale usually being paler than the San Jose.
FIG. 5.-As pidiotws ptri-iiosats: ai, infested twig; b, view of infested bark magnified. (Howard and
In general the adult female of the San Jose scale may be distin-
guished from its allies by the more circular scale, with yellow exuvium,
when exposed, more centrally located, otherwise with dark nipple; the
male by similar characteristics of exuvium and nipple. But the San
Jose scale is most easily recognized by its immature scales, which are
almost black, circular, and with a central nipple surrounded by one or
two depressed circular rings. Such a character is not found in any
other of the allied scales.
The San Jose scale attacks all of our orchard trees, but appears to be
most destructive to pear and peach. The insect is represented in
winter by partly grown specimens whose development was stopped by
the cold weather. They resume growth in the early spring; the
males soon appear, mate with the females, and the latter give birth to
living young. At Washington, D. C., this time is about the middle
of May, and the young continue to appear for about six weeks. The
larva crawls off a little way, settles, and within two days begins the
FIG. 6.-Aspidiotisperniciosus: a, female; b, margin of pygidium magnified. (Howard and Marlatt.)
secretion of its scale. This young scale is at first white with a swell-
ing in the center. If it is situated on green tissue it is apt to pro-
duce a redness. In a few days the pale scale becomes nearly black,
with a central nipple surrounded by one or two depressed rings. This
form is very characteristic of the species. In about twenty-five days
another brood of males appears, and in thirty days the females become
adult. At about thirty-five or forty days of age the females begin to
give birth to living young. Since one of these mother scales may
have been born six weeks before another, it results that there is a
confusion of generations throughout the stunmmenr, breeding constantly
going on until late fall. The number of broods will thus depend upon
the length of the season.
FIG. 7.-Aspiliohts pcrniciosus: Infested fruit aud branch, and enlarged scales. (Howard.)
THE EUROPEAN FRUIT SCALE.
( .I sjidiotits ostre't-fifnn is Cn rtis- fig. 8.)
This species can usually be readily separated from the San Jose
scale by the characters mentioned under that species, but it is practi-
*cally impossible, without making a microscopic mount, to distinguish
it from Putnam's scale and the cherry scale. The cherry scale, espe-
cially when on cherry, is more shining and often shows a grayish
margin. The European fruit scale occurs on all orchard trees, but
only, so far as known, in certain Northern States. The winter is
passed by the partly grown specimens, which become mature toward
the last of June, and soon begin to give birth to living young. The
young continue to appear for several weeks. There appears to be but
one brood a year, at least in the Northern States.
PUTNAM S SCALE.
( .l,,li,,i,. ancylus Putimai.)
This scale is widely distributed and attacks all orchard trees. In
general appearance it is like the San Jose scale, but at once known by
the exposed orange exuvium, the less circular scale, and by the half-
growni young having no depressed ring around the nipple. It cani be
separated from the European fruit scale and from the cherry scale
only by a microscopic examination of mounted specimens. It is usu-
ally much darker than the cherry scale, the exuvium usually a brighter
orange, and the scale more conical than that species. Specimens vary,
however, a great deal in these points.
The insect winters in a nearly full- ,? "
grown condition. The males appear in II
April, soon pair with the females, and o^[ ,
the latter deposit eggs in the late spring i b '
or early summer. The young begin to .. '. ,.
hatch early in July and continue dur- d ..
ing the month. There is but one brood ,, +,
a year. C _
THE CHERRY SCALE. '\
1J :.--' -- ;.,'*'. ,,,.---
(-A diou.s ffJI.1',i Johnson.) Ia" .)%
This scale is similar to Putnam's and f v-:.* .--
to the European fruit scale, but some- -
Sel o c i i Fi\;. 8.-Aspidiohus i.,'lr, ;rfrm,: a, scales
times, especially on cherry, it is more on twig; b, natural size; c, immature
shining, and presents a gray rim around st;. c: d, fcnial,: c, male; f and g, in-
the scale, which is commonly flatter sideof scales. (MIarlatt.)
than the allied species. It attacks all orchard trees, but is rarely com-
mon. It winters partly grown, like its allies. The male issues in
April. The eggs are laid in April or early May, the young hatching
during May and part of June. There appears to be two broods a year,
the males of the second brood issuing during the latter part of July
and the young during August and September.
THE WALNUT SCALE.
(Aful.'llii,. jiijhui'-rrg;;,! Con.lsock-fig. 9.)
This insect is at once recognized by the large size of the adult female
scale, it being the largest of our species of the genus, the scale often
being 3n"'"1n in diameter (one-twelfth inch), while the San Jose scale is
scarcely 2mm"" in diameter. The adult female scale is irregularly circu-
lar in outline, quite flat, and of a pale grayish or dirty-white color.
The exuvial spot is reddish or orange and situated one side of the cen-
ter. The scale often appears to be less closely attached to the bark
than with the other species of this genus. The male scale is elliptical
and much smaller than the female. The adult female scale hibernates,
and deposits eggs in early spring. The males from them issue early
in June. Eggs are deposited again in June, so that there appears to
be two or possibly three broods in the South. This species is not
abundant, but liable to be found on almost any orchard tree.
'~llh/I, ,' ~ /
t :,,: ... ... ......
FIG. 9.-A dspiioliutsjiughts-r(gi: a, female; b, male; c, pupa; d, e, infested twigs. (Howard.)
THE GREEDY SCALE.
(Asp idiotus rapax Comstock-fig. 10.)
This is quite a large species, readily distinguished from the others
we have treated by its very convex scale and uniform drab or yellow-
ish-brown color, except for the dark brown exuvium which often shows
near the center. The adult female scale is less circular than most of
the other species, and does not always show the exuvial spot, which is
at one side and covered with a film of secretion. The male scale is much
smaller, and elliptical in outline. The young are nearly circular, with
a central nipple often surrounded by a pale gray ring. This scale
is very abundant in California and has spread somewhat eastward,
especially in the South. It attacks various orchard trees, but more
commonly the orange. It is a scale that is liable to be found more
commonly in the future, and orchardists should be on the lookout for
it. The greedy scale, in California, winters in all stages.
THE GRAPE SCALE.
(Aspidiotls u x Comstock.)
This is a more or less elliptical scale, with the exuvium rather nearer
one end. It has a yellowish or pale brownish color, with a whitish
center near the exuvium, the latter of a pale yellow. The scales, are
often found in a longitudinal row, and rarely infest both sides of the
isZ yeyaudn nClfri n a pedsmwa atad
same branch. It winters in the egg stage. The young hatolh in May;
the males issue in the summer. There is but one brood a year. It is
practically confined to the grape, but lhas been found on a few other
plants, and may spread to fruit trees.
Fi;. lO.-A.spidii, ..< quo,. Scales on tI wi.g-. and enlarged. (Howard.)
THE PEACH SCALE.
(Diaspis p,'iilt:,,oi Targ. Tr, zz.-fi. 11.)
The peach scale, sometimes known as the whitewash scale," is of a
grayish white color, rather flat and irregularly (eircuilar or slightly
Fra. ll.-Dica.+n.+u ) tviiiijui: a, iilft'.st'd irainch: b, r5i.iale: c, male: d, group ,if males. (Howard.)
ovate in outline, never as elongate as the sturfy bark-louse. The
exuvium is often a little way from the margin, and is yellowish or
orange in color. Its pale color and elongate exuvium will readily
separate it from all other scales on orchard trees. The insect passes
the winter with the mature females and the male scales. The males
hatch in early spring. The eggs are laid early in May, and the larve
hatch in about ten days. The males again commence to issue by
the middle of June, and the females begin egg-laying by the end of
June. The second generation is full grown by the middle of August,
and these in time soon begin to lay eggs for the brood that will winter
as mature females and undeveloped males.
FIG. 12.-Aidacaspis rosae; 1, infested branch; la, female; Ib, male. (Comstock.)
The male scale (fig. 11, c, d) is elongate, about three times as long
as broad, slightly wider behind than in front, with a median keel, and
snow white in color. The male scales appear to be most numerous on
the lower parts of the branches and near the base of the trunk and
often so matted as to make the trunk or lower branches absolutely
snow white. The peach scale is becoming common in many of the
Southern States and as far north as Pennsylvania. It infests plum,
cherry, and peach, and less commonly other plants.
THE ROSE SCALE.
(A nitc.sp;s. rosw 0and1er--fig. 12.)
This species is similar to the peach scale, and, indeed, the easiest
way to distinguish between them is by their host plants. The peach
scale does not affect the host plants of the rose scale, which are roses,
raspberry, and blackberry. The scale covering is much more thin and
delicate and the exuvium is usually of a paler or duller yellow than
in the case of the peach scale. The keel or ridge of the male is more
distinct. The life history of this species does not appear to be well
known in this country. It winters, as a rule, in the egg as far north
as New Jersey; but mature females and immature females and males
may be found in winter. In the early spring one
often finds the female scales surrounded by a radiate .,
row of male scales. It is probable that there is more ,. /
than one brood in a year, at least in the South. /
FAMILY APHID2E (PLANT-LICE).
The plant-lice are small, sluggish insects found on
the under surface of leaves or on the bark and roots.
Most of the individuals have no wings, but at times '<
one finds some specimens with delicate transparent S^
wings laid roof-like over the body. They all have "
distinct legs, a pair of moderately long antenna, and
usually quite prominent eyes. They occur in colo- i
nies, and by their numbers often do a considerable "
amount of damage. The eggs are found on trees in ;,
winter situated near the base of twigs and buds. (See
fig. 13.) They are minute, oval, or elliptical shining FIG. 13.-Eggs of a
black objects. During the warm part of the year the pantouseontig.
females produce living young, so that one individual
may, in a few months, be the parent of a large colony. Many of the
species secrete a sweetish liquid from two pre-apical tubes or cor-
nicles. This liquid is known as honey-dew, and attracts other insects,
TABLE OF PLANT-LICE.
A. Plant-lice on the bark or roots:
With a whitish, woolly, or cottony covering...------------...... .ci:m.,ur'it laliicra.
Without such covering ----------------------------....................................Apl iS pJers.f a- i'tr.
B. Plant-lice on the leaves:
With bluish-white mealy powder; on plum ..-------------......-..... I!yalopteri,. pruni.
Dark brown; on cherry------......--------..-----------..----------. Myzus c'ri4.
Green, or faintly reddish; on apple --------......---...---.- lpiis nid; and A. sorbi.
THE WOOLLY APPLE APHIS.
(Schiz-on iura lanigera Hausmann-figs. 14 and 15.)
One often notices on the trunk or larger branches of the apple
FIG. 14.-Schi:onewira lanigtra: a, agamic female; b, larva; c, pupa: d, winged female. (Marlatt.)
small, bluish-white, tiocculent patches of a woolly substance, which
indicate the presence of this insect.
This cottony substance is a wax-like
excretion clinging to the posterior
parts of a small, reddish-brown
^ wingless aphis. It is not, however,
i this form on the trunks that causes
injury. This aerial form is but the
S'It indication that there are other speci-
B mens, under the ground and feeding
^ on the roots of the tree. It is the
latter form that seriously affects the
.' L .vitality of the tree. Upon the trunk
Sthe lice often cause a roughening
^,- ^ ^of the bark, especially on the new
growth around scars made by prun-
^ing. On the roots the lice cause
hard and large knots, which eventu-
; B ally produce a "club-footed" con-
^& edition of the roots. Such trees
i iB' usually show their weakness by the
[ ^fewer and duller colored leaves.
The woolly aphis is practically
FIG. 15.-Schizoneura lanigera; a, b, work on confined to the apple, but there are H
roots; c, a louse. (Marlatt.i a few varieties, such as the Northern
Spy, that appear to be immune against its attacks. The lice corn-
only found on the trunk and roots in summer are the wingless,
agamic females. They give birth to living young, and continue to do
so. possibly for several years. In spring some of the root-lice will
crawl up the trunk and continue to breed there till fall. The colonies
of lice on the trunk give rise to winged and migratory females. These,
when they locate, give birth to wingless male and female lice, and each
female deposits a single winter egg in a crevice of the bark. This eggo
will, in the spring, hatch into a female which will start a new colony
of wingless lice on the trunk. Some of these will, in the summer,
crawl down upon the roots and continue to breed there. In the north
the colonies on the trunk are apt to be killed out by the severe cold
weather, but in warmer latitudes many of them live through the winter,
particularly if they are protected by a piece of bark.
THE BLACK PEACH APHIS.
(Apid, ,'r.,:,'-,,ij!'r E. F. Smith-fig. 16.)
This insect, like the woolly apple aphis, does its great injury under-
ground. Its ravages on the roots of peach give a sickly appearance to
the foliage of the affected tree, the leaves often being light green or
FIG. 16.-Aphispersicr-,iigir; winged specimen. (J. B. Smith.)
yellowish in color, and their edges somewhat rolled. The wingless
lice on the roots are of a dark-brown color. They breed there con-
tinuously without producing males or eggs. Early in the spring some
of the root-lice crawl up the trunk of the tree and locate on the young
twigs. Here the winged form develops and migrates to other tree.4 to
found other colonies. The winged insect is of a shining black or very
dark brown color, the tibie of the legs being mostly yellowish.
Toward midsummer many of the lice on the twigs crawl down into the
ground and locate upon the roots.
The foliage of apple trees, particularly of young trees, often appears
curled, and sometimes discolored. This curling is produced by colo-
nies of plant-lice. These lice secrete a sticky liquid known as honey-
dew, which falls on the leaves below. A black fungus grows upon the
leaves covered by the honey-dew, and this checks their growth. There
are several of these plant-lice that attack the leaves of apple; two of
them are greenish in color, another has a reddish tinge.
The commoner of the two green species is known as Aphis mali
Fitch. (probably Aplhis a owx Oest). Its life history is about as fol-
lows: The eoggs are laid on the tree in the fall, partly hidden in crev-
ices of the bark; the young hatch from these eggs in early spring, and
grow into wingless and sexless lice, known as b stem-mothers," which
produce living young; these young become winged, and, in the early
summer, migrate to grasses, where they increase during the summer.
In the fall they develop a set of winged, sexless lice, which migrate
back to the apple and give birth to sexed individuals; these pair, and
the female lays her eggs.
The other green species is Aphis mali Koch. It passes its entire
life history upon the apple. The eggs are laid in the late fall. They
are black, and occur generally on the trunk and branches. In early
spring the young hatch from these and grow into stem-mothers. These
produce living young for a number of generations. Many of these of
the first two generations become winged, fly to other apple trees, and
there start colonies. In October sexed specimens are produced, and
the female lays the eggs that are destined to pass the winter.
The other apple plant-louse is A. sorbi Kalt. It is distinctly tinged
with red, and the wingless forms have a whitish powdering on the
body. This species has a life history similar to that of Aphis mali
Fitch., but it is not known what plants serve as its summer hosts.
THE PLUM PLANT-LOUSE.
(Hyalopterus pruni Fabr.)
This insect winters in the egg state. The young on hatching in
spring go to the under surface of the leaf and there multiply rapidly.
Their bodies are covered by a b)luish-white mealy powder. Winged
specimens are occasionally developed which migrate to other trees.
They feed on the plum all summer, but some specimens are said to
migrate to grass in early summer. In the fall the winter egg is
attached to a plum twig, usually at the base of a bud. At times they
do considerable damage to young plum stock, .
THE CHERRY APHIS.
(lf!/;:,.- ,., r,,.s; Fabr.)
This aphis often causes the leaves of the cherry to become crumpled
and rolled, and on young trees sometimes does serious damage. The
winged and wingless insects are both of a dark brown color, and look
much like the black peach aphis. The eggs are laid in the fall on
the branches at the base of buds ahd ill crevices of the bark. The
young hatch from them in the spring when the buds begin to swell,
crawl out upon the buds and growing leaves, and develop into stem-
mothers, which give birth to living young. This is kept up all sum-
mer until the fall, when the sexes appear and the female deposits her
eggs. A number of winged migrants are developed in the spring
generations, which serve to spread the species. The insects usually
become very abundant by June, but in midsuminmier they are not as
THE PEAR-TREE PSYLLA.
(Ps yi pqdr;,,,l,i Fwrster-fig. 17.)
This insect is closely related to the plant-lice, but readily known by
its longer antenna and its ability to hop. Its color is reddish, with
FIG. 17.-PsylUa pyricola; greatly enla rged]. (Marlatt.)
some black markings, and with clear wings laid roof-like overl the
body. When disturbed, it hops and flies away.
The insect is widely distributed in the East, hut usually is not abun-
dant enough to seriously injure the tree. When they become excess-
ively abundant they cause the leaves and fruit to dry and fall. The
adult insect hibernates in crevices of the bark. These overwinterincr
specimens are brownish-black in color, with bronzy eyes. They emerge
from their hiding places in the early spring, mate, and the female begins
to lay eggs, before the leaves are out. The eggs are placed singly or
in groups in crevices of the bark of the twigs or in old leaf scars, and,
when the leaves have unfolded, upon the leaves themselves. The larvae
hatch in about two weeks and begin to suck the juices from the leaves
and petioles. They at once commence to excrete honey-dew, and
when the insects are extremely numerous the amount of liquid secreted
is enormous and fairly rains from the
"'L Z tree. A black fungus grows on the
B honey-infested leaves and tree, so that
the whole soon has a smoked appear-
\ "^ /ance. In about thirty days the larva
--. 1 becomes adult. Development contin-
t ties all through the summer, and there
-, may be as many a five broods if the
-... F^ season be long enough. It is only
S.' known to attack the pear.
C/ ''"FAMILY MEMBRACID2E.
""THE BUFFALO TREE-HOPPER.
(Crew-i bhaluhs Say-fig. 18.)
Upon young fruit trees, particularly
Si? ,.the apple, one sometimes sees a series
1 *of oval or elliptical scars that disfigure
FIG. 18.-C'rr(sa bubalis: a, insect: b, recent and weaken the branches and render
puneture..; c,egg; e,oldcars. Narla tt.) them liable to other insect attack.
These scars are the results of the work of a curious insect, the buffalo
tree-Lopper. It is a grass-green, triangulir insect that hops and flies
away when disturbed. The pronotum of the thorax is enlarged, as
with others of this family, to cover the head and most of the abdomen.
The anterior corners of the pronotum project laterally into acute
angles. In August and Septemnber the adult insects may be found on
the trees engago-ed in oviposition. The female cuts the bark with
her ovipositor in two nearly opposite curved slits, so that the bark
between is cut loose. Beneath each slit she deposits a series of from
6 to 12 eggs. These eggs hatch in the spring. The dead piece of
bark falls out and leaves the elliptical scar, which enlarges with the
subsequent growth of the twigs and becomes an inviting point for
the attack of other insects. There is but one b)rood each year. fo
LEPIDOPTERA (BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS).
The 1'aterpi llar.s anld o (',onS of these insects are known to atll. The
caterpillars differ from,. the gru)s of beetles in tlit. they have on the
under side two rows of prolegs-fleshy,v wart-like structures i Ilat serve
to support the posterior partt of the body. The injuries caused by
these insects are ltmad( 1b the caterpillar. TlIhe-. have 1)itino iinouth-
parts that nip out tily pieces of the lI;af or wood(, which is then
chewed and swallowed. The more injurious forms thatt aro li:ablde
to 1)e transported on nursery stock imyl be arranged as follows:
1. Feeding within the trunk ...........................---------------------------------....... Peach-tree borer.
Feeding within th t wi-s ir li-af-shoots --------------------......................- Peach twig- o rer.
Feeding Iup)on the 1Iv( .. .........................................-----------------------------------------------...... ..
2. The insect covered 11y a ca-e.........a ,-\vo-rm, leaf-crumpler, pistol-case bearer,
The insect not covered I ase........................................... ----------------------------------------3.
3. Making tents or nests .......... Apple-tree tent caterpillar, fall webworm( bro\wI-
tail lmoth, leatf-crnmplher, :and bud moth.
W without. tents ......................................................------------------------------------------------..... 4.
4. Hairy caterpillars.------------ -------------------Tn--,,ick moth, gij,-y moth.
Bare caterpillars ......----------......----.--..-....--..---------....------. Cankerworis.
TMIE .\11'I,I-,-TRtE TENT CA'TERPIIAAR.
a e 'li..,,,.,,ipd *ei'fd Harr- tiH .I. 1 )
". ;" ,,
.~ . .. ,,, ,
FIG. 19.-Clisi'W11n: j 'tnil' riui:iti'u l, 1 i,;wrliil1;r'.. c, iiI*;i-. d lipa e, femal_. f, male. Rile.y.)
The webs or tents of this caterpillarare frequently found on orchard
and nursery trees in Ma- and June. The ca-,terpillar-s use this tent as
a common home, where they retire at night and remain during cloudy
days. Each clear morning, at about 8 o'clock, they go out along the
branches to the leaves for feeding. The amount of damage done will
depend a great deal upon the number of tents upon the tree. The
eggs are laid in masses of 200 or 31.0 arranged in a broad belt around
the twig. (See fig. 19, c.) Each end of this belt tapers off to the twig,
which character serves to distinguish it from similar egg-clusters of
certain other moths. Each mass is covered with a glistening sub-
stance that protects it from the rain. The young caterpillars hatch
during the. latter part of April or early in May, at about the time
when the leaves are expanding. They immediately begin to feed on
the leaves near by and to unite them into their tent, which is enlarged
as the caterpillars grow. The full-grown larva is nearly 2 inches long,
hairy and black, with a white stripe along the back. On each side of
this is a row of short, yel-
low streaks: there are also
o pale lines on the sides of the
body. The under side is
nearly i)lack. When ready
to tpupate the caterpillar
seeks: some protected spot
f and there spins its yellowish
cocoon, and soon changes
to a brown chrysalis. The
Smooth, which is brown, with
'o1w)liqie white bands across
the forewings, emerges in
V I a week or so and deposits
her egg--mass and dies.
There is but one brood a
THE FALL WEBWORM.
(Hylphaunih'i c tnev Dru.--fig. 20.)
During the summer and
early fall webs or tents sim-
FIG. 20.--Hyphantria enea: moths and cocoons. (Howard). ilar to those of theapple-
tree tent caterpillar are
often seen among the terminal branches of fruit trees. These are the
work of the fall webworm. The eggs of this moth, 300 to 500 in num-
ber, are laid in patches on either side of the leaves in June. The larvw
issue from -June to August, and at once begin their web. They eat
only the upper surface of the leaf, leaving the veins and the under
surface untouched. The young caterpillar is pale yellowish, with dark
spots along the sides and covered with scattered hairs. The full-grown
caterpillar is velvety black above, the sides have two yellow stripes,,
and between them are niany blackish patches and dots. Thle yellowish
or brownish hairs are mostly in tufts which arise from tub)ercles or
warts. Some specimens are quite pale; others very dark. In Septem-
ber or October the caterpillar is ready to pupate, and descends to the
main blanches or trunk of the tree. Here it ,mlakes a delicate cocoon,
within which it changes to a chrysalis. The insect passes the winter
in this stage, and the moth emerges the following" spring. The hitter
has white, sometimes spotted wings, and expands about an inch and a
half. There is but one brood each year in the North, but from New
York city south there are two broods, the catterpillars of the second
making their appearance in August.
THE BROWN-TAIL MOTH.
( Eupr,,,'. chri'y.eij,,rr Linn.- 11i,\. 21.)
This insect, at present confined to certain parts of vastern Massa-
chusetts, is such a dangerous pest that all interested in nur-ery t ra(le
I 1_ 1 MS .__ -
.. - ~ __ "
Fi;. 21.-Eii pri('t .s chrysorrhet. Moths, larvae, and cocoons. (Howard.)
should be able to recognize it. During winter their s iall but very
compact webs or nests attached to the terminal twigs are very promi-
nent objects and will aid in distinguishing the species. In midsummer
the eggs may be found in patches of two or three hundred attached
to the under side of a leaf near the tip of a branch. The egg mass is
covered by a dense layer of brown hairs from the tip of the abdomen
of the female. The young hatch in August and vat the surface of
the leaf. As soon as it is devoured they draw another leaf to it, until
in the fall they have quite a tent. On the approach of winter they
strengthen their tent and use it to shelter them during the winter.
In spring they come out, eat the unfolding buds and tender leaves,
and thus do great damage. The full-grown caterpillar is about 1L
inches long, dark brown, mottled, and spotted with orange, and clothed
with reddish-brown hairs and two rows of dense tufts of* white hair
along the upper side of the body. By the middle of June the cater-
pillars are ready to pupate, and each makes a cocoon attached to a
terminal branch, or sometimes elsewhere on the tree, or even on some
other object. These cocoons are often close to each other, so as to
form quite a mass. The moths emerge in a few weeks. They have
white wings, and the females a brown tip to the abdomen. There is
but one brood each year.
(Mineola indigirella Zell.)
The presence of this insect is easily recognized in winter by the
clusters of brown, shriveled, and partly eaten leaves fastened together
and to the twigs by silken threads. Within each cluster of leaves is
a curved tube, usually sinuate at the small end, and within this tube is
the small, brownish caterpillar of this moth. This caterpillar .is but
half grown. In early spring the larva cuts loose from its fastenings,
crawls with its case out upon the branches, and attacks the developing
buds and young leaves, thus causing a great deal of injury. The cat-
erpillar becomes full fed by the middle of May, and is then of a green-
ish color. It pupates in the larval nest, and the moths issue in June
or early July. The eggs are deposited in July, singly on the leaves.
The young larva, upon hatching, starts to make a little case for itself,
which it enlarges when necessary. They feed on all fruit trees, but
are partial to apple, and there is but one brood annually.
THE WHITE-MARKED TUSSOCK MOTH.
(Orgyia leucostigma S. & A.-ag, 22.
The caterpillar of this moth, which does great damage to shade trees
in cities, sometimes attacks apple and other fruit trees. The adult
insect is a light-grayish moth, the female wingless, the male with ash-
gray wings, expanding about 11 inches, and the antennae are feathered.
The eggs, 300 to 500 in number, are laid by the wingless female in the
fall within a frothy substance, which on drying becomes hard and
brittle. The whole is a very prominent whitish mass, often situated
partly or wholly upon the old cocoon. In May the young larve hatch
and begin eating the foliage. The larve are full-grown in July, and
spin their slight silken cocoons, attached to any convenient spot. The
full-grown caterpillar is a very handsome insect, about 1' inches in .:
length, yellowish, with three bla,.kish stripes along the body, and a
bright-red head. It is clothed with long, scatter(ed hairs, four white
' 1. e
FIG. 22.-Orgy/iv l i,,,.iiiiiiiit Various stages; c-gg- at h and k. (Howard.)
tufts on the anterior part of the body, and three long black plumes,
two in front and one at the tip of the body. In the North there is
but one brood a year,
but from New York city
-south there arie usually
two bri is, the (,ittepl
of hts i l s of the second appetr-
-. ing in early August.
THE GIPSY MOTH.
(Porl/hdri a dispar Linn-figs.
2:3, 24, and 25.)
FIG. 23.--Porthtria dispor: female moth. (Howard.) confined to cert:hii parts
of Massachusetts, this insect is quite liable to spread, and all interested
in orchards and nurseries should be able to recognize this caterpillar.
The eggs to the number of 400 to 500 are deposited in clusters attached
to trees, fences, etc. Each cluster is covered with yellow hairs from
the body of the female, which causes the mass to resemble a piece of
sponge. The caterpillars hatch from April to June, and feed vora-
ciously on the leaves, mostly at night. The full-grown caterpillar is
about 2 inches long, of a grayish, mottled appearance, with the tuber-
FIxC. 24.-Portheiria dispar. Larva. (Howard.)
cles on the anterior part of the body blue, and those on the hinder part
of the body red, all giving rise to long yellow and black hairs. When
the caterpillars are about half grown they begin to crawl down the tree
to the ground in early morning, and ascend again for feeding in the
evening. By July they are ready to pupate in a thin cocoon fastened
FIG. 25.-PortIhderhit di.spar. Chrysalis. (iHoward.)
to the trunk of the tree, to a fence, or other convenient object. The
pupal period is about ten days, and the moths issue in August.
The female moth has whitish wings with several black spots, notably
around the outer margin. The male is brownish, with darker undu-
late lines and spots. The gipsy moth attacks almost every sort of tree,
and there is but one brood a year.
(Figs. 26, 27, 28, and 211.)
These slender, hare caterpillars appear on apple and other fruit
trees in early spring and (ieat holes in the leaves. As they c-rawl they
loop uip the body, and are thus called "'measuring worms.' or "inch
worms1." Thereare two species of the caiikerwormins, their habits, how-
FIG. 26.-Al.sujuhiha ponetaria: a, male; b, female.
c, (1. details. (Riley.)
FIG. 27.-Alsophila pouiimtaria: , 1 ', ,".'.;;
f, larva; c, d, .-tcglunt.sl of giin.: q, pupa.
ever, being similar. The eggs are laid in clusters on the tree in the fall
and early winter, with the fall species (. l.fpila pjowiectr;,! Harr.); in
March or April with the spring species (l,,,Writa ,', rviata Peck).
The eggs of the former are flattened on top; those of the latter are
rounded. The larvae hatch in early spring and at once feed on the
d e a,'...,: I .,,.
^=^ '* 7"?"^-
FIG. ',.--iahu'ritiia vrnata: a, male; b, female,
., d(, e, details. (Riley.)
Fi .. 2.).-P" O'i i fd verl-(ita: (ia,( cater-
l'illir; b, egg; ec, d, segment of
leaves. When full grown they descend to the ground and ptpl)ate
therein, the moths issuing in late fall or very early spring. The
females are wingless, and obliged to crawl up the tree to deposit eggs.
The males have large, thin, gray wings. There is but one brood each
THE PEACH-TREE HB(OER.
(,S mniu ,',,.rilio ,Say--fig. 30O)
This destructive insect is readily discerned by the presence of a
gummy exudation mixed with frass and excrement at or near the base
of the tree. The parent moth lays the eggs singly (from May to July,
according to latitude) on the bark of the tree, usually near the base.
The young larva burrows into the bark and mines between it and the
sapwood during the summer and fall. It is quiescent during the
winter, but resumes feeding in the early spring, reaching full growth
by May or June. The caterpillar is then a little over 1 inch in
length, soft, and pale yellowish in color, with a shining, dark-brown
head. It transforms to a chrysalis within an elongate cocoon just
beneath or sometimes outside of the bark. The moths emerge in May
FIG. 30.-Su inoid-a cxitiosa: a, female; b, male; c, larva; d, e, female and male pupae; f, cocoon.
or June. The female has dark-blue fore-wings; the male has clear
ones. It primarily attacks peach, but sometimes cherry and plum.
There is but one brood each year.
THE PEACH TWIG-BORER.
(Anarsia linealella Zell.-fig 31.)
The presence of this insect in the winter is quite readily known by
bits of frass attached to the bark, often at the crotches of branches or
twigs. Each bit of frass covers
-- the entrance to a small burrow
lined with silk, within which the
young larva of this insect passes
*.the winter. It is now of a yellow-
S- .' ish color, with the head and thoracic
^ s" '" "segments, as well as the last seg-
h :---L ment, almost black. Early in
- ?J 1sp1ring, when the leaves are coming
~ !- ] ..- aout, the larvae abandon their bur-
"-. --? rows and attack the tender leaf
FroIG. 31.-Anair.sia lieatella: a, infested twig; shoots, boring into them from a
b, same enlarged: c, larva in case, d, larva en- point a little below the apex, and
when one shoot commences to dry
the larva leaves it and attacks another. In about two weeks the larva
is full grown, and pupates in a slight open cocoon attached to the
bark or among the shriveled leaves. The tiny, grayish moth issues
in May. Two broods follow this, the larvae boring in the young twigs
or sometimes in the immature fruit. The larva from the second brood
makes the little burrows in the bark in which the isect passes the
winter. The peach twig-borer feeds on all stone fruits.
(Thyridopleryix ,pJln,'r:afi',mni; Haw.-fig.i. 32 and 33.)
The winter cases or bags of this insect, 11 to 2 inches long, are often
seen hanging from the branches of shade trees, particularly arbor-
FIG. 32.- Tlii/fldiijuib ri.i'- iill uii in.;ir,,i.,. Cases; d, one cut open.
vitae, locust, and basswood, but are not so common
The adult insect is a moth; the female wingless; the
on fruit trees.
iuale with four
L ,."- I e
FIG. 33.-Thyridopteryx ephimoia'formis: a, larva; b, head of same; c, male pupa; d, female pupa,
e, adult female, f, adult maie-all enlIirgnul. (Howard.)
transparent wings and a black body. The female never leaves her
case alive, but in the fall deposits her eggs therein, drops out and dies,
the case remaining attached to the tree all winter. In May the young
hatch, and at once start to make little cases for themselves, which they
enlarge as they grow. When ready to pupate, the caterpillar fastens
its case to a twig and transforms to the chrysalis. The male moth
appears in August. There is but one brood a year.
On the apple tree in winter one may find several other caterpillars
in various stages of development. One of them, the pistol-case bearer
(Coleopho/ra malivorella Riley), is a small larva with a
I&A dark head. It carries with it a case the tip of- which is
curved over, the whole about one-eighth inch long. It
feeds on the buds and leaves in spring. In the fall it
fastens itself securely to the twig, and thus passes the
winter in an immature condition.
yAnother is the cigar-case bearer (Coleophora jIletcherella.
S. : Fern.). It has a life history similar to the preceding,
" but its case is straight, not curved.
Fiu. 34.-Larva Both feed on the pear and quince.
of bud-moth. Small, elongate, white, ribbed
cocoons, nearly one-fourth of an L
inch long, often in clusters, are sometimes
seen on apple bark in winter. They indicate
the presence of the apple-leaf bucculatrix
(B. pomfotbliella Clem.). In spring the tiny,
delicate moths issue from the cases. The larv, ,e
mine the leaves. There are two broods an-
Small, inconspicuous cases, covered with
particles of dirt and bark, are, at times, found
on the bark of the apple and pear. These con-
tain the half-grown larva of the bud-moth
(Tinetocera ocellana Schif., figs. 34 and 35).
In spring the larva feeds on the buds and FIG. 35.-Work of bud-moth
youngo- leaves, webbing the leaves in a bunch larve in opening twigs.
or nest. They pupate within this nest. The (Slingerland.)
moth issues in July, and is a grayish insect with a creamy white patch
on each fore-wing. During the summer the young larvae partially
skeletonize the leaves, feeding beneath a thin silken web. As winter
approaches they migrate to the twigs and form their hibernating cases.
There is but one brood a year.
COLEOPTERA (BEETLES, WEEVILS).
Beetles are easily known by the hard, coriaceous fore-wings that
cover and protect the back of the abdomen. Both in the larval and'::
the mature conditions they have biting mouth-parts, and ,mjuri
sometimes done by both the grub and the beetle. The grubs, to reach
the adult condition, pass through a complete change or metaiiiorphosis,
like caterpillars, but do not spin a silken cocoop. The grubs do not
have the prolegs that are found in caterpillars. The forIlls to be
noticed below nmay be arranged as follows:
1. Boring in the twigs ........................................ Apple twig-b),rer.
Boring in the trunk or larger ranches ---------------------------------...................................... 2.
2. Making tiny circulahir holes in the 1ark --------------.................. Fruit-tree bark-let If..
Making a sinuate crack or depression .---------------................. i------iat pear bi4rer.
)iscoloredl slpots oi the 1,ark ...... Round-h-ad, and flat-li.ad apple-tree borers.
THE ROUND-HEADEDI) APPLE-TREE BORER.
(Sapf,,'r nwiht .i,!, Fab.-fig. 36.)
Discolored places on the bark near the base of the trunk may indi-
cate the presence of this borer. Sometinmes the bark craks" over the
burrow and allows the frassor "sawdust" to drop out, and often there
a b c d.
SFIG. 36.-S. ptrida candida: a, b, larva; c, beetle; 4, pp t,. ciilargtd. ('hiiltrndeni.)
is some exudation of sap. Every unnatural-looking spot near the base
of the tree should be examined. The adult of this borer is a grayish,
long-horned beetle with two white stripes along its back. They appear
in June and July, and lay their egg.s in little slits in the bark made by
the beetle near the base of the trunk. The larvae or grubs soon hatch
and bore beneath the bark, feeding on the sapwood and inner bark,
and making flat, shallow cavities, partially filled with frass. The
grubs are nearly cylindrical, pale yellowish in color, and when full-
grown about an inch long. On the approach of winter they work
downward, often below the surface of the ground. In spring they
begin to feed again, boring upward. In this manner they feed all
summer until cold weather, when they again hibernate. In thespring
they resume work, but now they bore more irregularly and further
S into the tree. In early fall they bore close to the surface, work back
a little, and then pupate. Winter is passed in this condition, and in
June the beetles cut circular holes in the bark and escape. It thus
takes three years to reach maturity. This borer also infests pear and
quince, but not so frequently as the apple.
THE FLAT-HEADED APPLE-TREE BORER.
(Chrysobothris .femiorat Fab.-fig. 37.)
Discolored spots like those caused by the round-headed borer may
indicate the presence of this insect. They are, however, often found
farther up the trunk, and even on
the larger branches. The adult is
a dark, metallic beetle, rather flat,
and about one-half inch in length.
The female deposits her eggs in
crevices of the bark on the south
S\side of the tree, usually during
d June and July, but. sometimes
later. They apparently prefer
( trees that are weak or dying, but
'FIG. 37.--Ch,!.obrlh,-isf,orata: a, larva; b, beetle; also attack healthy ones. The
c, head of male; d, pupa, enlarged. iChitten- young larva upon hatching eats
den.) through the bark and bores be-
neath the surface, leaving a flattened burrow filled with its frass.
Sometimes, when more mature, they bore deeper into the sapwood.
The full-grown larva is nearly an inch in length, pale yellowish in
color, with the segment next to the head greatly enlarged and flattened.
In the spring it bores out nearly through
the bark, then moves hack a little and "T
pupates.- In about three weeks the beetle X: _
cuts an elliptical hole in the bark and
escapes. There is one brood each year.
It attacks apple, pear, cherry, plum, and
THE SINUATE PEAKR BORER.
(Agrilus sinuatus Oliv.-figs. 38 and 39.)
a ~ -
The larva of this insect bores long, sinu- -B
ate galleries beneath the bark and sapwood FIG. 38.-Agr'ius sin-uatus: a, larva,;
p i*ir ^.uj j* 41, b, beetle; c, pupa, enlarged. (Origik-
of pear, killing the wood and causing the b, beetlepupaelarge. (Ogi-
bark above to crack. The elongate bronzy
beetle makes its appearance in May or early June, and lays its eggs
in crevices of the bark. The slender, whitish larva burrows beneath .'
the bark, always downward. In the fall the larva becomes dormant,.'
and is then about 1 inch long, quite flat, whitish or yellowish in color
'" '. .. '*^ .!]
with a brown head, and the segment next to the head much enlarged.
In spring the larva resumes feeding and makes broader burrows than
in the first year. In late summer or early fall, when full fed. it
bores about one-fourth inch into the wood, and there forms an elon-
FIG. 39.-Work of AJr'ldu sinuatus, reduced. (Smith.)
gate cell parallel with the bark and connected to the outside by an
exit hole. Within this cell it winters, pupates in April, and the
beetle issues in May or June. It thus takes about two years to reach
THE FRUIT-TREE BARK-BEETLE.
(Scolytus rugulosus Ratz.-fig. 40.)
Small circular holes in the bark of fruit trees indicate this insect,
known also as the "peach bark-borer" or "shot-hole borer." The
a b e d
FIG. 40.-S colytus rgulosius.: a, b, beetle; c, pupa; d, larva; all enlarged. (Chittenden.f
adult insect, a tiny black beetle, appears in the latter partof March to
the middle of May, and burrows through the bark. Between the bark
and sapwood the female makes a burrow and lays her eggs along each
FI(. 41.-Amphicerus bicaudatus: a, beetle; b, pupa; c, larva; d(, winter burrow; e,-larval gallery;.f,
work in grape. (Marlatt.) .,
side. The young upon hatching bore away from the parental burro;J
and in about three weeks are ready to pupate at the end of the.gal.9 r.
.. o....... 4.
::.* : ':, J1i7
o?: ... .*
In about a week the beetles bore out from their burrows. The result
is that the bark is loosened and sometimes the tree girdled. When
they attack peach there is a great exudlation of sap and a consequent
weakening of the tree. There are two and probably three broods a
year, but as they start at different times the broods become mixed. It
attacks all kinds of fruit trees, and prefers trees that are dying,
diseased, or weakened by other insects, but healthy tree., are not
THE APPLE TWIG-BORER.
(Amph /h'eri. bic(,l/lfi//.s SHay-lig. 41.)
In the fall and winter the adults of this insect bore into twigs of
apple and other fruits, as indicated in fig. 41, d. Cutting back from
this hole one will find this borer in the adult state-a cylindrical brown
beetle about one-third of an inch long. These holes are their hiber-
nating quarters. In the spring the insect works in grape caaues, caus-
ing the withering of new shoots, as indicated at fig. 41, f. In the
spring the beetles emnierge and insert their eggs in diseased or dying
twigs of grape, maple, or other plants; the larva bores through the
center of the twig until fall, when it pupates. The beetlh(issues in late.
fall, and there is but one brood a year. It attacks chiefly appie, pear,
peach, plumn, and grape.
The mites are not insects, although related to them. They are rec-
ognized by lacking the distinction between the head and thorax and
by the absence of antennae. There are usually four pairs of legs,
but in the pear-leaf blister-mite and its allies there are but two pairs.
Besides the pear-leaf blister-mite, which is treated below, there are
often found upon fruit trees in winter numbers of tiny, roundish, red
eggs. These belong to a mite kfiown as the clover mite (Br/yobiaj pra-
ten.si's Gar.). They rarely do damage to fruit trees in the East, but
feed on clover and similar plants.
THE PEAR-LEAF BLISTER-MITE.
(Eroph1/.es p!ui Scheut.)
This is a microscopic mite about one one-hundred and fiftieth of an
inch long, with a slender body provided with two pairs of legs near
the head end. Although each mite is so small as to do little damage
of itself, it may become the parent of a vast assem iilage capable of
doing a great amount, of injury. During the winter the mites remain
hidden between the bud scales. Early in spring the mites move to
the young unfolding leaves, eat through the under surface, and feed
on the interior substance of the leaf. Here the mites increase a thou-
sandfold. Some of these mites move out to form new galls, until a
FIG. 42.-Rhagoletis pomonella: a, oviposition pu
of larvae in apple; e,f,
ncture in apple skin; b, exit hole of larva; c, d, work8
g, details; egg. (Harvey.)
ncture in apple skin; b, exit hole of larva; c, di, work-'.:i:.
gj, details; h, egg. (Harvey.). ..-
leaf becomes thickly spotted with them. Their feeding causes a
thickening of the leaf at that spot, commonly called a blister or gall.
This blister is at first of a reddish color, but it gradually turns brown,
and finally black. In early fall. when the leaves ripen, the mites
leave their galls and take refuge in the buds for the winter.
INSECTS INFESTING FRUITS.
Although few of the insects infesting fruit are liable to be trans-
ported upon nursery stock, several of them are such destructive pests
as to merit the attention of all interested in horticulture.
The codling moth ((3'pocaj. 1fwomow,.ht, Linn.) pIses the winter
as a caterpillar in a cocoon in crevices or under loose pieces of the
bark. However, they are not apt to occur on nursery trees. The
cocoon is made of whitish silk
and partially covered with bits -
of bark so that it is not easily 7 "
seen. In early spring they '
pupate, and the moths issue to W'
lay their eggs on young apples.
The larva bores into the apple, Ith
usually from the blossom end, op
wines to the core, and then, l-
when about full-fed, bores to
the surface. It leaves the
apple to pupate on the trunk e
or larger branches of the tree. '! -4
Some issue in late June or July
and again lay eggs on theo
apple, making a second brood. FIG :.i-Rhwt.' ,ialad e I.isr a lrd).
In the Northeastern States there
is but one brood a year. The codling moth also attacks pear- and
The apple maggot (R1haqoltL.i j'inmonelia Walsh, fig. 42) is a two-
winged fly that appears in June and lays its eggs, just beneath the -skin
of apples. The white maggots, upon hatching, burrow throughout the
apple in various directions. When full-fed the nIaggot drops to the
ground, under which it pupates and emerges as a fly the next spring.
The cherry fruit-fly (Rhagoleix c0i plata Loew, fig. 43) infests
cherry in much the same manner as the apple maggot infests apples,
and has a similar life history.
The plum curculio (Condroc/hlo.? nen qthar Herbst.) is a small,
grayish weevil that passes the winter under the bark of a tree or
among rubbish. In spring it deposits eggs within the plum (peach
or cherry) and then cuts a crescentic slit in the skin near by. The
larva or grub soon hatches and feeds in the fruit., causing it to ripen
prematurely and fall. The grub, when full-grown, passes into the
ground and there pupates, the beetle issuing in the fall. The beetle
has a peculiar habit of dropping from the tree when disturbed.
The quince curculio (Conotrachelus cratcegi Walsh.) is a very similar
insect to the plum curculio. It is the cause of knotty or wormy
quinces. The weevil lays her eggs in little pits of the quince eaten by
the parent for that purpose. The grubs feed in the quince till the
early fall, when they leave it and burrow beneath the ground. Here
they pass the winter, pupating in early spring.
The pear midge (Diplos.is pyrivora Riley) is a tiny, two-winged fly
much like the Hessian fly, that appears in the spring and lays its eggs
in young pears. The larve feed near the core, causing the fruit to
shrivel and drop. When full-fed they leave the fruit and pupate
about an inch or so beneath the surface of the ground. The winter is
passed in this condition, and the flies emerge the following spring;
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 09216 4424
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