The codling moth

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Material Information

Title:
The codling moth
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
105 p., 16 leaves of plates : ill., 1 col. map ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Simpson, C. B ( Charles Baird ), 1877-1907
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Codling moth   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 97-105).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the direction of the Entomologist by C.B. Simpson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029640210
oclc - 15495031
Classification:
bcl - 48.63
System ID:
AA00018936:00001

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Bul 41 New Series Div.of Entomology, U S Deptof Agriculture. PLATE I
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i 1u 11'


LoiTLectedI to December, 1897.


Boreal



Transition


Upper AstraJ



Lower AusLraJ



GuJlf Strip of
Lower Austral



Tropic al


The doauedparts of Ue AajtiL Zones cas e
of Ma 6.eadfxauU ,..dwave Me e&Wv arthIf
A......I d..UmOU OP1'alw Jow Abw~T mpre7f
r.~ % i {h aje Alegkyham.n .wv&,uman and Aus
ejwZWamvi Fauwas. The euxdvfii'/jiar Of Ue
sa~m Zan a0e Afw aa the Trlanit io.
Upper &,wsmn. and Loiw' Soysraw..


LIFE ZONES OF THE UNITED STATES
BY
C. HART MERRIAM


so, 7S' 70' 65" 60"


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C. L. MARLATT, in charge of ecpeimnental field work. ". .
F. I1. CHITmENDEN, in charge of breeding experiments. :..
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
FRA NK BENroN, in charge of apiculture. .a,,
W. D. HuNER, in charge of cotton-boll weevit investigations.
... ... ....
D. W. COQUILLETr, TH. PEGANDE, NATHAN BANKS, AssWitWt EntomMdit.
E. A. SCHWARZ, E. S. G. TiTus, Investigators.
Miss H. A. KELLY, Special agent in silk investigations.
R. 8. CLIITON, F. C. PAT, Auousr Buscs, OTTO HuImuAxn, A. N.:|
J. KOTINSKY, H. G. BARBER, A.siuatcnts.
W. E. HINDus, W. F. FImE, A. L. QUAINTANCE, G. H. HAnmxs, H. R. Bun|
MoRi LL, Temporary field agents. '*

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LMIER,;'nWIV TRANSM11TAL



U. DVxiRTMENT- or AGwcu-Lu!uRF
xoi -NTO
Divu v oF E moiLoGy,
WaAington.) A C. Jully 29, 1903.
41 hoiowlth the manuscript of a report on' the codling
#
"&r my direction by Mr. C. B. Simpson, field agent
-Uri,-Sim'psoit had, beeu charged with a special inve8-
codfing moth, more partic4larlyin the Northwest, in
a for such' study in the newly developing
-of, i6s -"9101k. The ',oodling moth -is undoubtedly the
4VI$6d' -of apple and pW, and is the occasion
'er insect- enemies of these fruits com-
of values exceeding $11,000,000.
"fi covered a period exceeding two years,
IN
a smQI preliminary bulletin and in a
V 9 c6ndwsed advice relative to the control of
x t-Ii n is the final an'd complete report,
-om-l im results of special investiga-
UWtUdmument for aH workers in applied
'tpow value for the fruit grower.
it am esmntial to the correct
d of the text. I recom-
n No. 41 of the Div'islon
4-tmmm4tal of bulletin No-.





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COTNS

rage
-- - - - - - - - - - - -
I / -- - - - - --- - - - - - - - 1
ofA In"" --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- --
-- - - - - ---i - - - - - - -
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---- -- - --- -- p - - -- - -! -- - - - -- -- -- ---1
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1
- - - - - - - - - - - - - L
r 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1
-- - - - - - - -- - - - - - 1
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -1
-- - - - - - - - - - -
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How to combat the insect. ............. .............. ....
Preventive measures.-------.----- --------- ---------------- -.:
Setting the trees --------------- -------..---.--- ---...---...--. .-
Pruning ..-------------.. -----.--------.------.... ---..-------------......... ..:
Irrigation -.......- ..-- .....--------------- --- -- -------......... --' !
Soil or cover crops ---------------------------.-.----------- ---...... -. :":..
Orchard in bearing -"--- --------------------------------------I
Preparing fruit for the market. ------------------------- ..--I
Preventive measures in old orchards----.....--------...----------.... ::I::.
Treatment of old orchards ------------------------------ ---!i
Remedial measures ----......-----...--------......---..------....-----------.---
Measures of little or no value ...-----..-------------........-----.--- I
Measures of value -----...---.------------------.-----.----------... :
Measures used against the larva ............................ i
Materials for spraying ..-...------------------.----...---------.....-.
Cost of spraying.---.......----..............-...................-----------------..-....
Time and frequency of application of spray ---.-----...---------....... .
How the poison kills the insect ------------..-----.......... ------------...,;I
The banding system----........---.-----.---------. ---- -----.----.-- "
Expense of banding......-----------.... ---.. --..... ---..-------.....--..........:i
When bands may be used ----.....---...--------....------------... -,..-..---'ii
Practical tests------------------------------------------------
Rum and conclusion .....................-- -- ..............................,:
Bibliography of the more important contributions to the litpaturo of the" d:;
I ing Imoth....tll-------- -- ---------- -----* .eee
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pom o oh o og ak M.2-nee
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lessor Slingerland granted permission to use many of his figures, i
his bibliography, with his notes, is used as a foundation for that6
tion of this bulletin. Prof. J. M. Aldrich, Prof. A. B. Cordley I
Prof. C. V. Piper have at all times given aid, counsel, and mdi
and granted permission to use their unpublished data.
The estimates of injuries inflicted by the codling moth given in 1
bulletin are based principally upon observations made upon c
trees in spraying experiments.


SYSTEMATIC POSITION.


The codling moth belongs to the order Lepidoptera, or scalesbe
ing insects, and has been assigned to the family Tortricids. T
description of the genus Carpocapa Treitschke, as given by Meyrc
is as follows:
Antennae in & simple. Palpi moderate, curved, ascending. Thorax smno
Fore wings with termen slightly sinuate. Hindwings in & with longitudinal gam,
below cell, including a hair pencil; 3 and 4 connate or stalked, 5 nearly parjmlh
4, 6 and 7 closely approximated toward base. A small but rather widely distri..
genus. * :*
The species pomoniela is distinguished from the other specie I
having the margin of the ocellus (or black spot on the wing):!"
coppery metallic color. (See PI. VII.) The description of pomwv
is given by Meyrick as follows:
14-19 mm. Forewings dark fuscous, -finely irrorated with whitish, with i
strrhe; basml patch sometimes darker; a large dark coppery brown termbviml ::
hardly reaching costa, anterior edge more blackish, ocelos within this edgwI
bright coppery metallic. Hindwings muCsoous, darker terminally. ::.:,


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UYrao o h ihte erspirt
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fully examinedit hem structurally in comparison with the common form of (V)S,11M1I
pomondlla Linnd. I do not think there can be any doubt about their being 6
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species; the oral parts, the venation, the secondary male sexual charac ter wof 1ului|
hind wing, and the external sexual organs of both sexes are identically as fount,! isi
the common dark form of the codling moth. The general pattern of ornam1..entaa ..i
is also the same, but the coloration is so strikingly different that the variety db iijW i
a special name, the 'more so as no intermediate forms seem to occur. I p'cpi* !1:
that it be known as Cydia (1) pomonella Linnd, var. saimpsonii. "''
Instead of the dark fuscous color of the common form, the variety is light .al.... ..i;:,
with slightly darker buff transverse striation. In the common form the forew*i tli1
are finely irrorated with white, each scale being slightly white tipped; in uipm(4^'i
the scales are not white tipped. The terminal patch, which in the common fo.mi .a.'.
....... .::m: ::.:.
dark coppery brown, nearly black, and with dark violaceous metallic streaks, .
simpsonii light fawn brown with pure golden metallic streaks. The extreme Ai".a|||,i|
edge before the cilia is in the common form black, in the variety reddish btowwe% ill
and the cilia in simpeonti are light golden ocherous instead of the dark fu.consof......
common form. The head, palpi, body, legs, and the tuft of hairs on the hind whip!!!i!!:
of the male are correspondingly light-buff colored in the variety instead of dait.|...|....
fuscous, as in the common'form.
iiTE:n i 'iiii
Besides Mr. Simpson's specimens, in which both sexes are equally repreentdi
there is in the United States National Museum a single female, labeled Cook, WOiS
fornia, July 30, 1883." .
Type: No. 6803, United States National Museum. .
The writer has never observed any gradations between this va iht;
and the common form. It is most probable that this variety ig V
tinctly western, as there are no records of its having been bred in t
East. No attempt was made to secure the earlier stages of the y*
and, as far as observations were made, its life history is similar t :o '4
of the normal form of the codling moth, as the larvae from which. .. ......
variety was bred were taken with the larvm of the normal form under|"iii
bands on apple trees. One might theorize on what conditions in th
West have given rise to this new variety, but to state with any dg i*.iiiii

a The generic name COydia used by Mr. Busck before his investigations, whibi ,i'!
resulted in the restoration of the old name Carpocaps. ....I,
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4t4 at b"
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orgial howo h oln oh10 ntdfntl m u
to be +tma x p$tehm fteap.I a
the ditiuino hapecosl ni ti oVee
fe//otos nal onre hr ape3-r It
Aped vrJgrjNadispeen sfa sth/plergo
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14

]OLATION OF DISTRIWTION TO LIFZ ZOMi'' *V'1-0-
Although the codling moth may be brought into a woddu
it may not be able to obtain a foothold on account of tb
mate. In mother regions it is never very in" rious, or it ma
Ju y
injurious one year and almost absent the next; but in wamer
it reaches the maximum of destruefivenese.
In order to study these conditions the writer has used the
of Dr. C. Hart Merriam (A I). Upon consulting this
finds that there are seven different zones in the United
the eastern portion they, in a general way, extend eut and
while in the western part they are broken into irregular areas. b:
mountain ranges. There are many important subdivisions of
zones, depending principally upon the amount of moisture and
milder and more temperate climate near the sescoasts.

BOREAL ZONE.
VV
The principal apple-growing regions of this zone are in Nova 80064,',
northern Maine, northern Michigan, and western O*egon.
for the Pacifi coast strip, only the more hardy varieties of apples
grown in this zone. There is a great lack of definite data in
to the exact amount of injury the insect causes in this zone. As
as the writer can learn the injury is never so great as it is in the
warmer zone. According to Cordley, the insect is present in
numbers in the Pacific coast strip and is doing but a comparati
small amount of injury.
TR&WSMON ZON196
The transition zone includes the greatest apple-prc4ucing
of the United States, the Alleghenian area comprising the zone in
eastern. mountain States, including the larger part of the apple
ing regions of Now York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan. Alth
the injury, which varies with the seasons, is greater in the
than in the boreal zone and less.than in the austrarl, no romm,
definite percentages has been found during the present study.
In the and area of the transition zone the lom is less than in
Alleghenian area. Various estimates of from 5 to 25 per
damage have been given. At Mos(*w, Idaho, w'hicb partakes
of the Pacific coast strip characteristics thsai of those of the and
Professor Aldrich records the amount of injury as 21 per cent
1899, 10 per cent for 19W, and 5 per cent for 1901. Profeswr
states that 'in 1898 the average damage about Pullman, Wash.,'wtw
per cent, andsome orchards were injured 25 per cent; in 19W,
5 per cent. Professor Gillette reports from M to 80 percent at
Collins, Colo., varying with the degree of infestation in the
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Alrc kwrI 'i1"a al nvhiadlwtm
at Mm~w Mah,4 gret mny o th larm. ler
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lcwAit*w tho low is almost total, Oircia rewwo,
in "praying experiments, that the 1088 vvwried fr(ft,_6718,
There are many localities in this zone in 4mth ead and'
apples can be grown, but on account of the injurwis dm td
moth other crope are grown imtead.

UZZ
In many regions of the Far West one often hears the
my that on account of, the peculiar climatic conditiow d6f
apple8 are free from injury and the codling raoth,(*U
Among these climatic conditions quoted are dense fop,
breezes, and comparatively high altitudes. Seven or eight it
was thought that the Hood River Valley was immune from
the same was thought of the Pajora Valley in Californisq,
developments have shown that immunity was due to the
insect had not been *Introduced into those localitie& It h"
said that there was no codling moth near the coast in.oyev* Wt
Professor Co'rdley finds that it is present in som'e 1004*6 *Dd
believes- that the former immunity was due to isolation.
441
In many restricted areas in the PaciAc Northwest M01% 4
isolated the codling moth is either absent or present m*
numbers that it has not been observed. From past eX__
examination of these localities it is evident that the insect
eral spread has not yet reached them. It i's a question w. -,or
not the insect will be injurious in these localities, but it is
it can be present. The writer has no hesitancy in co keJ
there is no region in the Pacific Northwest in which
grown -in which the codling moth can not exist
Many causes of immunity by isolation in river valleys
noted. The most marked case is at Mr. 1. B. Perrine7s
Blue Lake Idaho. -The nearest orchard i's 18 miles distukt
#
Snake River, while there are no orchards 'in the other di
of 75 to 80 miles. This orchard wa8 free.. from codling
three or four years ago, the 19xvw having undoubtedly
duced in old apple boxes about that time.

]MASS 07 $PBX
There are several ways in which the cod-ling moth ckn be
The most prolific source of distribution 6Dmes from the
fruit from an infested region. Fruit Which contains the larvail
may be shipped great distances, and when the larvw comoletA
growth they spin cocoons, and 'in due time the moths emerIM
with unerring instinct seek the nearest apple trees. Ma#y larvk")
found too have spun their cocoons in the angles and cracks of the



















































.! : FIG. 1.-APPLE LEAF INHABITED BY CODLING MOTH.
:. = = ...... ....
I .Poiniiiiit,:!: t where larva entered midrib, at junction with one of-the principal veins; b, portion of
":' *burrow exposed (photograph by Prof. A. B. Cordley).





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Bul. 41, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


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EGaS OF THE CODLING MOTH.
Natural size of eggs at a ansd b; e, showing red ring in egg; We. egg, showing the hole through
which the larva emerged; k, showing the egg enlarged, with the larva inside; o, the end of
the ovipositor of the female. (From Slingerland.)


;;;,;***;;;; ; .. ;;........ .. ,;;; ..... .... .... _ _ _


PLATE III.









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vi ,
hsbe 'n r t'mt 1m o
fo eilt ov i hcIuth
ha u Ii js juoui o

frM t~ hi~ ,ayiitnofcft6lr o hi
anW si'1 *fso tom n a e-are
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a"owoe uiarvdln,, ie ata
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ba iyBehwi 9cudoua
Ait ruduon h.teqo
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The loss in the country at large or any section of the country ii
vary with the size of the apple crop. In years of full crops thke.'
parative injury is not so great as in years when the crop is .sall1 S
the prices high.
.:r
FOOD HABITS. .-.
.:."",:: ; ,|l ,
This insect is essentially a feeder upon rosaceous fruits, and to i
all of the injury is done.
FRUITS INFESTED.
... .'* 'q=

The apple is by far the most infested fruit. It is the natural hI
of the codling moth, and under ordinary circumstances is the only' i.
injured, save pears. It is quite safe to assume that the larva 611
codling moth originally fed upon the leaves of the apple and .tha. d
habit of burrowing in the fruit is acquired. Much has been said ::
written as to the resistance by different varieties of apple to this ini.
In Bulletin 35, new series, Division of Entomology, the writer gae
list of varieties and indicated the resistance. It is a notable fact...i
:......:......
the summer varieties of apples are very attractive to the second,;
eration of insects. Varieties which are fragrant, as the Pewautkee
Ortley (Bellflower), are always badly infested. As a general ruler :,l
can say that the harder and less ripe late apples are not attake&..
the same extent as those which are Tripe and fragrant when the semo
generation enters. :S
It is impossible, from the nature of the case, to determine the un
ratio of resistance of the varieties. In one orchard one will find :
of the Ben Davis variety least infested, while in another it will I
the most infested. These differences are without doubt due to I::
conditions in the different orchards. ... ::.
Pears are next in order of infestation. Under ordinary ondif
they are not injured to any great extent. In the Pacific NorthwIW"I
badly infested localities the injury rarely reached a total of go perca
When remedial measures are used this is reduced to. from 5 to 1i*A
... .... ..... . . . . .............








4i
bwh were located in
0 to v o -fio uppim The second
J" Jxftw iWhedraetivenew on
br, po oe x9d in iwo ther about W per
in Texas, reports of 5o
Injury

infesttd but -blistaoma have
Y MU6"
prunw, plums e*Mve,
tW 6odHngr nuA]hL' but under
Awg H
'od- the infestagon is very
Pre Are reoor& of 40 per
am, quite near*a apple, house,




wwa inmet in walnuts and
`WUted thew reports, and
k t to definite prove th"
or m& giM; and it was
the, hLrvw of the mdfing
lop#
'po of-qgnniAg their cowons.
*NMM. of C. pomom4a whichww
&tos as to rearin-g
-*34480*-UP4 tfig'theOe nuts
or ip a nut foedor.
over many




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S
Al- N 0?v


























Te otner ieai, in wnicn jouna me iarva mai naa uisappeareu mnree =ayu up
likewise feeding in the interior of the midrib. The larvae were again tranafeIrei 1
fresh leaves, and by the following morning each had again disappeared within m
Both larvae continued to feed within the midribs until June 16, when one of JS
on being transferred to a fresh leaf, refused to eat and soon died. The otho*, .'.
occasional changes to new pastures, continued to thrive untmtil June 25, when it :
plump and active and apparently in the best of health and spirits. Unfortua..l
I was then absent from the laboratories for some days, and when I returned :
larva was dead. I believe that with careful attention it could have been broug& i
maturity on a diet of leaves alone. When one considers that it lived and grew A
more than three weeks upon leaves that had been severed from the tree so
for several days, and that it was apparently more thrifty between June 16 .4j
than in the earlier days of its existence, one must acknowledge that, while the
is by no means positive, the indications are that codling moth larvae may SO
develop on a diet of perfectly fresh apple leaves without ever having tasted fW
(See PI. II, fig. 1.) i
The writer has many times taken larvae from apples and plJt
them upon leaves in cages and bottles. It was found that the J
would fasten the leaves together with silk and eat holes in them;
on account of lack of attention no larve were bred to maturity. ... ....
writer believes, and agrees with Professor Cordley in believing 14
the larvae with proper care can be brought to maturity on tlh e
diet alone. .
This question of the leaf-feeding habit of the codling moth is
the most important questions in the life history of the insece
should especially commend itself to entomologists for future inv
gation, since not only will it give us a very important biological :
but it will also prove very definitely how spraying is effective agul
the insect. .::
It has often been recorded that larvae gnaw cavities in rough rote
wood, bark, cloth, paper, and other places where they spin ooooM
and the bits of these substances incorporated in the cocoons. 1r
,".. .. ". ..-: .:
E:. .'* .I.l
-.. .,, ..... a
-.~~ .*::-- !




5I
A, eiiothd hLlr o o a n fteesb

WhOOP u taa oe h bnsadomh
m t"Pcs b~mte nmAP, twgfunmhtnn
C" hn h ~t -hc tnut
1pij buiso
'd w a f] tbtnw
P 12ina oteprmfv odhbt
Th e1 h eu r u edr, n
! A 0O htO net asoi&~ymh n
todta h ne a rbbyala
tiiiilii
ox vmo rfso orlytive per
-Ono
WO O
a hriwowihfe o plswoewr a
tI ol~ 6aentfmla
Ofi!e~;bt nal'ntne
in"wr n aiso.teiscsb hc
-ii nm s ut nui
St n t oki hapei hrceie
HWIg
iwiIbt'~o'


























antu i ut isV eaovnaby 'oaanguzouv OLnj A JLLU Al* tug. pJ.
=":.
The apple fruit-miner (Argyresthia conjugdk4.-The laM 4.
insect has been found attacking apples in British Columbia, .A>..
which may have been caused by it have been noted in Wab
Idaho, and Montana. The larvae are about .....
one-fourth of an inch in length, are of a \ ... ...
dirty white color, tinged with reddish when
full grown, and taper at each end. The
tunnels made in the fruit are numerous, j ,....
and extend in all directions.
There are two species of Lepidoptera a.:
which do great damage to apples in Japan, ... .....
which may sooner or later succeed in en- I i,,
tering this country. :'i-
Apple frunit-borer (Laverna herdlera).-.
This insect is said to have gained a foot-.
hold in British Columbia. The larvae live .i.
only at the core of the fruit, injuring the "0
seeds. When full grown they make a pas- .,'
sage out, crawl or drop to the ground, and ... .. .. .
spin a white cocoon in the earth. They
hibernate as pupae, and there is only one Fa. miety ;in'
~b., tWme, rd&t view; & bu.i
generation each year. The species is eom; e, uujWund .p.-.I..
shown in fig. 3, which also illustrates its manner of work. (.nta t. m ...,n) .
Pear fruit-borer (NAephoptery rubiswnell)-It is satsWed-iJ :
.. "......i.r. :. : i
Japan the pear crop is injured td the extent of 80 to .50 pe..nfl:
year by this insect. The eggs are laid in clusters .:m thi wipR
.. . .':: : ... ::::
'.. .... ...:.
... ... .. .. .... ..
.. ....:....:..
.. ... : .... .. .. .... .i
... ".. "::: :~ !! !!.......... ......... .





[]V
tx, gm4
Wk otenryfutwihi

the

*064
immm#
"Ia
t1
WhI WO




mWe
"T*0 m .AetW"w!autaoe av
jp mwh =m o wi trgt aae
-ey I uaa etal saa ie(erw
fro mamim

A lfg.2.I
44to4t fabu n-orho
UAhho on-1 c.I
























to preventive or remedial measures. Without this knowledge eft.j,
are wasted and in some cases are a positive aid to the insects. litc %
not be too strongly urged that each fruit grower make himself fam iii *.,
with the life history of the codling moth from personal observa&ai#
for by doing so he is placed in a position to understand the reaso"n14
measures of control and to exercise his ingenuity in applying the::
... : .... ....... .,,,. ;, i ii
to his own orchard. .. .' ...
..~~~~. ...... .. ...::: ..:,i,
The ease with which collections can be made in the larval stage. .a.ii
.... ... .... ..... ,,,!
the accessibility of literature pertaining to it should specially CeOiN::"..2...
mend this insect to teachers as a subject for nature-study lessons. : -.
In the present studies upon this insect particular care has been tak- ....'
to keep the different stages under observation in exactly the same co:t:::
editions of temperature, moisture, and light as were present in ithe"ii
orchard in which the cages were located, and as a result the writer:" ^is^..
able to present some definite data in regard to the effect of temperatoi.
upon the length of the stages of the insect under normal conditions .V
As in other lepidopterous insects, the life of the codling moth i.i.....
divided into four distinct stages-egg, larva, pupa, and adult. In '...
winter and early spring the larvae may be found in their cocoons. t:::-:
various places, as in cracks and holes in the trees. Later the lara: ...
transforms into a pupa, and this in turn changes to a moth, whiheb.i::
.. . ... .. ....
turn lays eggs. 'H
THE EGG.
Since the time of Roesel many authors have mentioned the egg .
the codling moth and stated where it was laid, but it was as late l iil
1S93 that it was first accurately described and figured. In 1874 Mr
W. 11. Hurl but described the egg as being about one-eighth of an inf...i'..
in length and nearly white. Riley described it as being very a :..EI
and of a yellow color. Messrs. A. J. Cook, Koebele, Weir, and -othiesa
undoubtedly saw the eggs, but Cook in 1881 and Miss M. Waltou.
doubtless saw the eggs of some other insect.
it--


f,,,
,, : ":




M14



oflelliw* wiwm gure an accurate um eseription of the
--Ahe, first ftq, -*of- .,it' Ilis figure shows a well-formed
h the center is much too
but the n4work of ridgts near

ij. IM6 404f CIq, 'in, 1807 ditinguished the eggs and
*b, *Jdh aMod waterially'to our knowledge of
o serv ions,
MOO baRettoSfiverknd pnb#A" many excellent
iVO6,014 (*uwd the eggs to be familiar
44sod's wd Cwdlf; -,work Ald-rich Cord-
lioxr time to time41dded to the s am of
f '4hm atVeof the i"t. U if; remarkable that, ln
Wico OT, its life- hhito' the egg esmped notice
aeon was wt ascribedd and figured until a com-

k somew- IM* hapod qbject with a flange ar "d
iw fro% 01,96tot by 1.17 to 1.32 Tfim. Commonly
boa the Size of a pm head. The surface is covered
of ridgeswhich are, mucZoser, together toward the
*mund the edg!L Th6c color depends upon the
an when the egg is first laid it is of a pearly white
ided yellow-liah "' C.- late
th"A, &6% ttog r it is darker on
The Is are'always glued to the apple or
Rnda A ,,,vhieh remain, for some time-after the
refifttion of light, from the egg is of the
and they have often been despribed as



the the srly writers were fored to em
13 0-1,94tod ihat the Wgs were laid either in
or bO.4, ",4 ead of 'the apple. These views
th Otranee -of the larwe.
ioi$ft, a4it agalo forbiver a century, and
awi46M cqpIp4't bow, uaO'Ajout 1897, when, by a series of
0 wl"WL
4 Point upon theapple
00 *Y*x. Nashburn
Cod, 91, sides and the top
44bund gist
res *od
)Bid, OMOO exciu-
VW7 661y 9
Obrdly'
aumb6e wove





























on inclosed branches and fruit there were 71 eggs upon the :::::I
95 upon the fruit, and 9 upon the twigs. Very few eggs are lai &
the underside of the leaves, and it seems that the moth much pti
a smooth surface upon which to oviposit. *,
We may therefore conclude that the eggs of the first general
for the most part laid upon the leaves, while the majority of th'.
the second brood may be found upon the fruit. I
..::EEEE
WHEN THE EGGS ARE LAID. "i
Various writers have stated that the eggs were laid at.. .J
Cooley records that he observed a moth depositing eggs at abouVt
set. The writer's observations show that the oviposition for ti
part is accomplished in the late afternoon or early evening, wi
single observation shows an egg to have been laid sometime b
9 and 12 o'clock in the morning. j
* ".. ...: :"r W
THE NUMBER OF EGGS LAID BY Ofl FEMALE. ...i
There is probably less definite data on this point than on any i
in the life history of the insect. Many guesses have been 'entuMu
to the number of eggs that one female will lay, varying from I."
300 and over. LeBaron found from 40 to 60 eggs, with an ON.
of 50, in various stages of development, in the ovaries of the:a
the time of emergence. He adds that if all the unde-veltl
came to maturity this number must be increased. Mlattbe
said that he had a vial in his possession in which a codling minoth,
.. .... .. :. ::. :,;.i
............................................................................... i






WOwa. n nl
it ohenmbe
'O mtl wr
tobOWMg 2
Abo 'w a6 wsinc
*a-WbtAdepta n
4-wIv r we. nve
%|
t~, rfar ioolyvetrea
didb mmth s aou
v~th-i omprshe o dfi

Ofthft~ O hoodln |t
t.I i to oe
M ern -sk~gO mw ity
vg~a eio xmd






28

TABLit I. -Duration of egg Mar of codling mah-Contimm&

Pedod of ToUa a&
Number D&to Number f"d"
Date Wd. ba-
Wd. hawhed. bawhed. lntojoun. tempem-

1902. im. LkLyc
Aug. 27 .................................. 27 Sept. 6 8 9
Sept. 6 14 10
Sep a 2 12
Aug. 28 ............................ 61 Sep. 8 3 11
9 4 12
pt. V2 32 15
P6.0e 15 2
Pt-
DO ................................... 14 Sept. .9 12 2"
Sept. 6 11 9 20
SePL 15 1 18 428
&ug. 29 .................................. 40 Sept. 8 3 16 254
SejA. 12 14
187 .......... 164 243 .......... ...
--------------
CORDLICY.
May 7 .................................... 8 June 1 ........... 24 298
DO ................................... 15 May 12 .......... 6 2%
F

The results under normal orchard temperature glive the le
the stage from 9 to 18 clays, with a weighted average of 11 dayso
average is longer than has been given by other authors, which
be accounted for by the fact that it is the usual custom to keep
eggS in laboratories rather than*under normal orchard conditions,
that the times of the laying of the eggs were estimated.

HATCHING OF THE EGG.
A
Recent authors are quite well agreed as to how te larva break
eats its way out of the shell. Professor Slingerland was mostP,
bl the first to observe this operation. He states that the larva caqw 3
y
out of the egg near the edge at one end through an irregular
the shell. (Pl. IU, e8.) The writer has never observed this emel-
gence, but upon examining many egg shells an irregular crack
always found which was almost always at one end'of the shell. 4r

CHANGES DURING INCUBATION.

When. laid the egg is of a translucent pearly color, often with;r
yellowish tinge. Observations upon 88 evws show. that from 2 t4 to),
days with a weighted average of 3 days after being laid a red
r 4-
makes its appearance. This ring appears graduilly at first w'
then yellowish, and later quite a brilliant red. By observations
56 eggs it was found that in from 7 to 10 days, with a weighted a
age of 8.4 days after being laid, the egg loes the ring and in its
the larva can be seen, the 11 black spot," which consists of the
afid cervical shield, being the most conspicuous part.
Professor Gillette states that his assistant,' Mr. E. P. Taylor,, fo
the red ring to appear in from 2 to 3 days after laying andthe bU*--T'-





ard2 o .'lys ae; Tissote mrg,'a e
Pe o -t atta tee eg eekp tahgvtm
e hnnoml
XMO$Q BTIM GS
ar w asofotmn gs o td.Te is s t
he nte il n lc hm ne bevto"I CWs
isa|roi riein oti mtoa hr,'slo.Wyo
agtoaeo hmgs h ecn nto hto ofnn
soIioI h oh oemrei atoeWs
I -fhoo-oh r cd i aeoe ib-fi-te
abnac nadyo to ssmie
-to iidmtsi oua n n hteette
.4,ism ae dtriaino sxo h
ots me ioevlal!lakcnb'scrd aems
x oe-aeI i
may- egsaentli i si tee
W ]ke tuments
fmbaeb f ioqioietin o nr:ws
-ptig y hs-mto h evsadfri r
*a toeawae xcl h ae a nteocad
|UI I O THE.......OFTH.....STAG .
''oo sttdta/ ihrW pemtr asdteeg
ri fubtol eldfnt bevtoshv
tepftue nsd nte clcltosi h
wh- odbLAoi 3 rmth
AAt r
ime1d'rc h n"-Sae ete
A:i ln 11O hssag tat m
tiu nagenos
I *`teo & .y J Tb Itet6

















iLnra. lne eggs are not at tne same state o0 maturity, at tne tixS..
oviposition, as at 24 we have from 9 to 18 days as the length of '|
Fourth. Under normal field conditions a small difference in tep
nature causes but little change in the length of the stage.
MORTALITY AMONG THE EGGS. ;
.. . ti, ; .. :: . ....
Various observers, among them Washburn, Goethe, Card, Sligwt.
land, and Cordley, have found that many eggs of this insect did"e:
hatch. There is little doubt that at least one of these writers mikto"
eggs from which the larva had hatched for dead eggs. The ,wIll
has noted that many eggs became hard and dry, while in others C::
contents changed to a dark brown color. These changes may 1
been caused by infertility, parasites, or the excessively hot sun. 124
mortality as shown by our breeding-cage records is by no meaa:;
great as the writer had supposed. The eggs, however, were moIn:|
less protected. :
THE LARVAL STAGE. ..
,, .. ..+ ;.i:..'. "..
Considering the codling moth in its economic relations, it may be Ia
that the larval is the most important stage of the insect. Not onlyit
it distributed, and does all of its damage in this stage, but it is m
amenable to remedial measures.
At the time of hatching the young larva is from one-twentiea
one-sixteenth of an inch in length, of a semi-transparent whitiaibf
yellowish color, with large, shiny, black head, and dark cervic4a-l|U
anal shields. The body shows regularly arranged spots with b
hairs or sette. "H
If hatched upon the apple the young larva seeks a place to exb
which is in general some irregularity upon the apple or at the
Slingerland, Card, and Cordley have made many excellent obs*
tions upon the place of entrance. When hatched upon the leaves th
may not find an apple for some time, and subsist by eating small p:
tions of the leaves. In confinement this often occurs, but it haqaiA.
been determined accurately how often it takes place in the field. 2tI
writer has time and again noted these spots on the leaves in the i:.
and has noted also that larva hatched on leaves would haveto .otr4M

... .. A.. !
. ; : .. .I.....l
* ":* :.:. *:' '.:, "" .w~




ls
beooto Cr |e.ta
Scfte 0 9b|;Pettit'rm uhoerain

ftf rit h "u he-ureso nic in
an hi t .6 m cos h

ii
a| vtfo h mtm h edi rw
whl h evcladaa hed r
whc h 'uesothisaestae
th '-y abton eesl itnuse
C | oaeteio ntcalfaueo
6to-drU6 pileefo hc
-h-rsoRgs h

mfi
"ow7do tetoaan r he
pw4iedd net hfv ar
djipa ntepplsaeo
1*-aamdwihcrlso
*0PAt, Ueeld fte bd r
0 dgaetvso h
s"& semnso h oy
gixto s ywyo h
iw notecay ewe




'II








it 7%6 its repeated until it is entirely withiu
tut na around and ispins a silken net, over tlm
incorporated 8everal Pie(" of the fmit, (a
Slingerland, Card, and Cordley have Woo
and the observations made by the writer agrft,
One of the emential pointz noted is that whik
larm seem, to eat any of the fruit until well w
it most probably gets 8ome of the poison ipplw hit'
it attempts to pierce the skin. The writer th"as
larger larvee, and is quite positive that they do not eat
while they are entering.

m&cEs or FmTu"cm.

The places of eubmnce of the successive broods Me-
Various authors have stated that from 60 to 80 per
of the first generation enter the fruit by the mlyx
accounting gave an average of 83 per cent, with a
cent. In 19012 much more extensive countiags
98 per cent, a minimum of 50 per cent, andawn
(Table III.) Less than one-haH of 1 per--cent eftnt"
while the larger remaining percentage enter the
fruits touch,
The majority of the'mmnd generation euter
A few counts in 1901 showed that the greater part of
the side, and a few cases showed tbAt from 90 to, I
entered at that place. Countings on 1,478 apples M*
on both sprayed and unsptayed trees, are given in T"

TABLE HI--PerCMUW.Of fird gOnMJ9M V*Yi3W 0310*1
SPR&YRD TRM.

V&Aety. Date. SM. AWa*

....................... Jon&UMM July is 0
Do .......................... Ben DAYN July 22
M. Geekakr ............. ....... .... Ao ...... 19
TOW ...................... .............. RL 6

UNSPRAYED TRJM&',,

........ 17
Do ....... ............ July 21,
....................... ...... July 0
Dr. 0OUISOW ..................... we;Ithy.:: 0 4
xeaeufa ....................... ..............
TOW ...................... ................ .......... 2 M
.... . .......













































Fm,. 1 .-ENTRANCE HOLES OF LARVAE OF THE SECOND GENERATION.






...:::" :: ".E:" :::" E:::::::.E .:IE! .NORC..:D:.F':ON. .... ..AR E." .HWI..G :..ATION:OF EAPPLE


',i!!!!!ii !iiii!!::i .:!!+'::: i ... : ..: i i~i... ...
... .. :: ++:..,! ::::. ... ,.. {, iL:. .. ......;,:i .:: ..+ :


:!:.. ::::::*::-....-"- -"-..':"-:':- ...::. '::----:---" '....-.-..-"-" ....-.-"-... .:. ... ....-.---"-
.........~~~~~~~~~~ ". .... l.:..m .mi :'::.': ..:.: +." .... ......
:,.::..:t: '":.... : :i ii : '!..'. :':.:i... .......... .


....... .. .. ?. .
.. .... ...


::::. : ... .. . ...


::::: ... ....... ..



/ ^,......" !:^ ......







:.:i[ m .... .. ..,. ...

. .: ...: ... : .
















FmL 2.Vi^w I ORCHARD OF HON. EDGAR WILSON, SHOWING LOCATION O PL





























'y^'''''HOUSE IN^ REFERENCE TOORCHA RD. RD
..:::: ..:: .. ......
".: ...EE:':E ..EE ..E ...:.:E
















....i'i: ..!m ,i! .. ..
ii;;;;: iiiiEE~ EEE:iii .. ..i .: ..
.... .." ...




. . . ..... ... . . . .
::~~.. .......:::...:
iiiiiiii ii...i!! ..... .. .


i:""~~~~.. ..."... ... .::: i'




.:..:. ...












.. ..... ...
iii....:! ........ .. . ... ... .

ii~riE:" ..E .EE .. ......." i,2.- E I= MRH R OF ON FEGARWISO, SHOWING LOCATION O PL
.. .. ... ...........IO N ... O..A RD
.... .... ...
+P':,:,I,, :::. ii :',. ... .....+. + . .....
iL,:ii[ ,,,,,,, ,:, .' ...... ... .. ..... -. .. .. .






























... ... ....









. Bul. 41, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


FIG. 1.-CODLING MOTH LARVA (ENLARGED ABOUT 3 TIMES).


FiG. 2.-THE WORMHOLE OR EXIT HOLE OF THE APPLE (ENLARGED).


SFIG. 3.--A WORMY APPLE, SHOWING THE FAMILIAR MASS OF BROWN PARTICLES THROWN
OUT AT THE BLOSSOM END BY THE YOUNG LARVAE (FROM SLINGERLAND).


PLATE V.







ri 0-3
1U ofMW fte m"u"
Mq+A TR-s

Per cen
Ste Sie. Calx. oW Cayx

F 4 fs 57 -44.
6 74 1 It 2&|
12 6 12 9.
4 74 4 &
I0 lt 33 3.
6, 1 4 3 1-
21 a n 6

!RM
1 59 29 S5._
U] 2" 21 26 .
0' 373/7.4.
0 41 4 25.






84

out an irregular cavity about the core, and seems espWialj$
to the seeds.
The insects pass through five larval stages, and increase in simkt
shedding their Skins four times to allow for groyvth. The
the head of the larva in these Aifferent stages, averages as
First stage, 0.88 mm.; second stage, 0.55 nim.; third stage, 0.78
fourth stage, 1.12 mm.; fifth stage, 1.6 mm. When in the llk[atter
of the first stage and the second part of the third stage the larva
whitish in color, but with the cervical and anal shields AwI4,"J-
ith blackish spots around the setse. In the later stages the
become brown, and the spots around the hairs are usually ind"
especially in the pinkish larvae.
TIME SPENT IN THE FRUM
Very few definite observations have been made in regard to *6
time the larva spends inside the fruit. Le Baron gave the time oxi
four week,-.,,; Riley, 25 to 30 days; Slingerland, 20 to 30 days; C 14)
to 14 days; and Cordley, 16 to 24 days. From the nature. of the can*
it is inost difficult to get exact data on ihis point, as there-are mmw
accidents which may prove fatal to. the experiment. On only 5 larve
was the writer able to obtain results definite enough to use vithany
degree of confidence. One of these larvae remained in the apple, 14-*
days, two 18 days, one 21 days, and dnotber 26 &Lys- Professor Gfl
lette kindly f urnishes Some unpublished data on this point, in wlu*4*, -
be finds larvw to have stayed in the fruits 12, 18, 20, and 24 day#4 i"0
respectively, with an average of 1-9 days. The average of all the"
observations is about 20 dayq.

PREPARATIONS FOR LEAVING THE FRUIT.
Wheh about full grown the larva makes a passageway to the out
side of the fruit. This is usually made toward the side of the so04
in a different direction f rom. that from the entrance hole. Rai
does the exit passage follow along or consiA of the enlarged eutriaoi',
passage. Before the larva has passed outside the outer portion of
passage is filled with a block of fra ss (Pl. V, fig. 2, a), or a cap of silk U
spun over the hole.
LEAVING THE FRUIT.
When ready to leave the fruit the larva pushes out this block 6r,--
tears away the cap of silk, crawls out on the surface of the apple,
immediately seeks a place in which to spin a cocoon. (PI. V, fig. 2,
If the apple-is upon the tree the larvw will, in by far the greater nu=*;
ber of cases, crawl from the apple to the twig, from there to th's -7
branch, and thence down upon the trtink of the tree. Another methodl, i,
which is comparatively rare, is that in which the larva lets itself do4u

2.









-ucmont in hs
tospottesevs ti o
ie Ogt uI'O b we o re hc r al
wit th oammt.
GilteAdoIa 6prento h av ne h ad
th ih*dte'O1on 1 e etdrn tedy f
ObevftO- 6 ,tj rte hwta ntesm e h

te Uns rm6p|.toaot1 .ma





-f t rudtelavsipycwlsintoe
m 0
M4sm t ooo.Atilain h ri h


unrsaeifrug ak n.i





























which takes usually about one day, the larva straightens out and c-
tracts in length. While the exterior of the cocoon may be rough, it
interior is always smooth and oval in shape. At completion of 't :::1
spinning of the cocoon the alimentary canal, silk glands, and other
organs peculiar to the larva begin to disintegrate. '::::;
In from 1 to 19 days, with an average of bout 6 days, the larval
skin is shed and the insect becomes a pupa. The cast larval skin can
always be found at the caudal end of the body, shriveled into a rouandM i.-^^^^
... ,.. ",... .. ,,,,[ [,[ i[[
mass.
Various authors have noted that when the cocoon of the codling
moth is torn or cut open, it is immediately repaired by the la1n
Professor Slingerland states that the damage is repaired in winter4'u::":
He has also had a larva spin two or three complete cocoons after hay-
ing been removed very early in the spring from the one in whi : :t:.. !!
had hibernated. The writer had one spin two new cocoons duridq -.
the summer. Professor Gillette notes that in Colorado the larvaiUS'x'
. ........ EEE EEE: "
leaving the cocoons in the early spring ieave those in which they hm'4^. ...
hibernated and seek other places in which to spin new ones AM".:.M
pupate. He reports that under 10 bands placed on the trees in the .
early spring 6 larvt which were spinning new cocoons were taken. .:
Various reasons might be assigned for this habit of the insect. t1
might be that the cocoons are too deep in the wood of the trunk of.HN:
the tree for the moth to emerge without materially injuring itself o;
it may be that the larva on becoming active in the spring finds itselff.
in a wet place, and, for either of these or some other reason, migrates.ii.
to a better place and spins itself a new cocoon.






















cocoon stage, and especially the minimum time. The older writers
.iim~!+:+:~i...M 0 d e "
: l:..::gave.. estimates of this time with but little definite data. Riley gave

" o^m 15:..to 21 days; Washburn, 3 weeks; Slingerland, 2 to 3 weeks,
pid^ ~A. rich about 1 week. Professor Gillette gives records of com-
p'." experiments upon this point. In 1900 observations made for
;i;iM x upon 104 larvm gavi a minimum of 12 days, a maximum of 29
p with an average of 20 days. Other experiments directed by the
-j "h ewiPter in 1901 on 76 larvae resulted in finding the minimum to be
4 ai.S; maximum, 23 days, and average-16t days. In 1900 the
$r ~found that in 7 cages the shortest time varied between 12 and
ys, with an average minimum of about 14 days. In 1902 a large
g iof .breeding experiments were carried out, the results of which
... ......iM Worporated in the following table:

.; .; *.T ..... ... .A. IV.-Duration of lhfe of the cooling moth inside the cocoon.
...:..:.. :m:..... u:... ... ... ,
! .. .. :::";. ;]. "... .. :r
,.,:. : :.::.!..... ... ... ... T o a A v'
", .+E ip i..i:: ': : ... .. ..
:..: ...:.,i.... Number Date Total Average
ii:ii!ii!.!S,;'! '.. ............ Num er ime effective ef etv
.Deto; entrg band. of Number imneffective effective
11.:lmar emerged.. of moths. tempera- tempera-
....... ::..::: larvaw, emerged. ^ta .
:.. ......... ture. ture.

..... .. ..... ..l1902. Days. PF. oF.
S---..... .-.......... .. 16 July 19 2 20 433 21
." :. t July 21 2 22 505 23
S.3 .....: '. . July 22 2 23 543 24
ii. .... ....---------. 35 J 1 16 494 .1
i. ..:: .:.. .. .. .. Aul 1 17 528 31
A~gis 1 566 31
:g.:. : . I Aug. 6 1 23 722 31
Aug.11.... 1 *. 820 645 32
.i.......i .. I -Jl ljjji. ::: ::ii.... ." l A u g 1 1 d 1
:,r..,: ...... ...... Aug.4 ,9 1 38 1,116. 29
it* i.i... Sep~: .L .. 6' 41 1,170 29
Sept. 5 2 45 1,284 29
.. .l ii p ^:+!:-.. ... .; " *2. 9pt 9 .24 1: 3
MA~~*Sp. 9 aII 323
.* ... ...g..39
....... .. ..... . .. A ug. n I 2
..... ..... I
t.:t.."':t mA ug.... .. "12 a 14 4 2
- Aug.18 6. 15 4132
I-Aug. 15 S 17 641 32
"t tt+ :i+ ..i~t :: ":'. ": :'.....""" 1

..I A-ug.16 2 18 6
Au.1 S 218 6N 30
|++iH ;,!+ :'+i:;.:i:; .:.......'. ..... A M. U 5 W ON. .30 m
..+ .. .. .. ... ...
AU.1 2 21 29
.....+++ ++ ++ + + ++ i !+ !++ + +:: S i + :+ : ... .... ... ... ".. ::.. .. 91
+ :+ ... ...... +. -.. + : :+ .+ .....: ... ... : .... A 2... -. 2 6... 2 9
Au.2)I3 631 29
Ag21 5 24 IM1 29
H ... ..: .. .' .. .... .'
--A-g1 2 21 581 S9
9------2g1,171 28
:: ::":::;:. :. :: :.+ ....... ..... i .. ..... ,:: Mu 1. .... 3 D "f

.: ... ..;!!;;ii.. : : ':2..". ::;:."::; ".:.. i ..' :. " . .

............ . . "A i 1 1 9 5 5 0
i '~ i; i i iE ~ iiid~ ii!i',':' "::u;: ..... ....... .. . .. ..
:.. . .... ..... : E :; ; [ !:::E E:':.E ..:! "' ."E "' .. .. :. : !:7i ::ii:EE i:EiEK ::i : i::: :::: ..": "". .:"." "0 S 3 ""
.. ..n.... A"::" .1 32E 1:: .
..~~~~ug 1 .. ..... ....1............9:.. . .
... ~h .. .. ... .
..:.j t -: : ..:... ... . .. .






88

TAiijx M-Duratitm of life of the codUng moth ineide the

Number Date Number TOW
Date of entering band. 'Of moths df moths. Time. temperse,
larvie. emerged. tum

0
Aug. 8 ................................... .......... Aug. 25 10 19 M
Aug. 26 7 2D 415
Aug, 27 12 21 456
Aug. 28 11. 22, 485
Aug, 29 S. 23 me
Aug. 3D 3 24
Sept. 1 7 26
Aug. 13 ................................... ....do.-.I 1 19 40
Sept. S .3 26, W4
Aug. 15 ......... ....... ................. 26 9 24 Ok
Aug. 20 ............ ...................... IM &pt. 12 61 29 W7 4tv
Aug.22 ................... --------------- 25 ._.do... 2 21 W
Sept. 17 1 26 M


The number of larvue used was 170 and the stage varied from 11-
419 days, with a weighted average of 22.days. This average is
what longer than that secured by other observers, and may be
1 -A
accounted for by the lateness of the season.
The principal point to be clearly shown is -the length of the
mum stage, which these experiments show to be not less than 10 to
days.
The time spent in the cocoon b the hibernating larm varies Cow.,
siderably, but usually lasts about eight months. If the Inrv1e WAS'l-
taken inside and kept where the temperature is higher, motbs
sometimes emerge in January or February.,

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE UPON THE DURATION OF THE STAO)rw.

Various authors have stated at various times that this stage
be considerably lengthened or shortened by temperature. Table
shows a preceding table arran' d according to the effectlve.tewpiorW1,
ge
tures and the lengths of time.
A
TABLE V.-Efective temperature and length of cocoon stage of codling moth, 141;
.. ....... ....
Average Total Average Total Avers:ge Total
tempera- tempera- Days. tempera- tempers- Days. temt=,,a- 'tempera- Days.
ture. ture. ture. ture. ture.

0 F. 0 F. 0 F. 0 F. 0 F. 0 F.
17 209 12 26 804 24 29 1,284 45
224 18 26 547 21 so W5 is
18 270 15 607 23 6DO 20
19 $02 16 674 26 31 494 16
380 17 28 553 2D W8 17
21 392 19 681 21 566 18
425 2D 641 23
433 20 1,171 42 28
558 26 1,392 49 32 481 15
22 456 21 29 560 19 611 17
496 22 615 21 fin is
W8 28 633 22 6* 20
519 24 661 23 455 14-
28 605 22 698 24 38 8W U
24 543 28 788 27 424 is
6" 26 1,116 0
26 468 19 1,170 11




--,-F

lo
o'-'-A
tletbewfn httomnmmttltmeauei 00
Mu/132,/dteaeae 52.Teeiec ie y

//l sisfiin t-wrataydfniecnlsos ti
evidetta hr v te t hc aentbe ae
nt fwihmitr-#dueqa eeomn ftekv
th o.oo s"nr rbbyth otiprat
J/FMO r S,"UO IRFU
//eto h nuyb h oln ohupntefutvre
tb/ vra fteOi-n hewsno h eri hc h
or*om ,.,lqatAo h av ftefrtgn-ainuu
the"rit Wl e fte riso aladwitrvre
44 '*be Uesa ntetesfrtermidro
4,V -9 M
th al aite alqit ail n edl.I
ofte'tuT 6t as h ri otpnpea
Th muto heYnfl f telt aitisdpnsi
U"uo h mutad-voec ftewn.
upntevh|f h futivral.I
,m fth na
Lftefati ae ui svleea-xetfruea
Whntemqycnit fonyasaldfc n h
-o t~efu tmyb m sscnadi f cnie&

Wat fe ervr ml sosweetelIwhv
sk''htbv e obr it h ls fteape
mA
dontmtral nuete pladmn fte r
*Oa fri.I odsoaeape hc aebe
podin mohaeti eyfrt t ei o rt n m































dark-brown band across the wing, which is more or less triangular ..iJ:I
outline. The remainder of the wing is crossed by irregular dark anidI
white bands, an appearance caused by the white tips on the dark scale
In many specimens there is a distinct darker band across the .wi.g.
while in others this band is not apparent. The hind wings are:a
grayish-brown color, darker toward the margin, with a long black hlusK
at the base of the fringe. The underside of the hind wings bnii
dark, irregular, transverse markings. The underside of the fro*i|
wings is of a light-brown color, with opalescent reflection and with:::::
few markings except on the costa. The legs and head and patagiasi
covered with long, narrow, white-tipped scales, while the body:::.
covered with white-colored scales with opalescent reflections.T ,
large white scales on the caudal margin of the abdominal segmeul
are especially conspicuous. (PI. VII.) "iii
.. ... ... !; iiii!
HlOW TO DISTINGUISH THE SEXES.
There are many characteristics by which the males and females mat
be easily distinguished. As stated by Zeller, the males have penciedf
long, black hairs on the upper side of the hind wings. These hairs-4*
sometimes of a light color, which renders them difficult to distiigui4W
Slingerland discovered that the males could also be distinguished iWb!Y
the presence of a distinct elongate, blackish spot on the underside ",a,
the fore wings, which spot consists of a number of black scales. These:ii
.. ".",a s
a .>."'ai
S '! ** *'





-'41





ent adia ie
31BSO
ASgnrlysae ywiestatteaut ftecdigmt
'tbtreyse nocadI cssweetoifsaini o
F.
bi suufyte6s;btwhr h netto.ibdi
g ose h ohsi h o hr
vrom o hn itnvri
tubes ThyLpn us'fter iersigo h pe
of 'teIaeo ntetuk o h reweete r
byterreblhet h raW e itre


I- th neti
W0118 itbsbe'efntl eerie b
tm oW tlihsAeyfwreodofcpu es fcoln
lirt"Uulyp teacdna achn foeo:-w
,,a bre'pbihd
ZMTo OF0?3:4XM




lif
42

times as much damage as the first Pnerafion, and it, is*- u "'I
know whether a second genpration is present in order tW tho
measures of control may be employed. Great biological in
attaches to thisproblem, as it affords an exmllent opportual
study of the effects of different climates on one insect.
The term generation is used instead of 11 brood
describes more definitely the idea 'intended. A generation in th4
nection means a number of individuals which pass throngh
st4ges at about the same time, having begun in the same stage at
beginning of any given season. A. succeeding generation is J&e sgoil" '..
gate of all the different broods of the individuals of the ge
immediately preceding. A new generation is considered to begin
the egg stage, and continues through all the transformations of
insect until the moth dies. Many authors object to the term p&A'*-7t
generation," but as there is a condition in which this term can be a
with a definite meaning, it may be well to use it. For instame iw
some sections of the country all the insects pus through one geneew.
tion; a few, becoming more advanced than othem, may succeed",
passing thro- h the pupal and moth stages and lay,
ug eggs, from w
larvee hatch and enter the fruit, whereas the majority of the *1
hibernate as larvae and do not transform until the following j9print.n*,,
As those insects which enter the fruit in the fall -do not fbr the oxwt".
part complete their development, at least i the field, they are te
Z-11
a partial generation.
In tabulating the results of observations in regard to the -time of tha -
various stages we find that. at certain periods more individus,1840
generation are in certain stages than at other times and likewise
find periods when there are fewer insects of a bertain stage thm 4-
other times. These periods are designated respectively the waiiv*,
and minima of the different generations. It is always considered
the larvae, pupse, and moths found in the early spring belong to
last generation of the preceding season and may be termed the
natinLy Lreneration.
From the writings of European authors we find that there is bo*
one generation of the codling moth in northern Europe, ine
England (Westwood) and northern and central Germany, while,
evidence of Reaumur and Schmitberger shows that at Vienna, and
France there are two generations. American writers bave at
time8 recorded many observations of variations in the- n 7
generations in the United States. Fitch seems to indicate the
ence of but one generation, while Harris says a few 'may transform
enter the fruit in the fall, though the majority of the first ge
hibernate. Fletcher reports that careful observations extendiog'.
ten years convince him that near Ottawa, Canada, there'is but
regular neration of the insect, while in the fruit-growing ",It
ge




48
Onai w w ewaina h ecn en na
im or etvei e 17e aoemin o tis, M vy
I ,lh1h19
n ge "o'MTi.'-lpoln a8I
II e~osJmk-hti NwYr ag ubro
ofteIIo~f~_'eo it ohtepretg
I gdpnig'putewahr-odtoso h esn
Si tho osrain httelrmcl
|M ismo i otwdr ute htyabtbbr
LIr k 07 l w mrNwBusic ,.r



rt -ehstr


*m ha msom -ro id htteei
a iW swdgnito nDlwr.H
J&41~ f~dJ 1 bu 9tasomed-n
Iiiqts ~mrososrain n tb'"dt
1; o n eain e m s ocueta
too fe -ube n ono utf
bOoe e fteexln oha
ge to
A4ayo~res nwdeydffrn scinso h









































successfully done. Breeding the insect and harmonizing the result:!. c
the breeding by observations in the orchards has been the moOth
most used in working upon this question. By breeding the
through parts of its generations valuable data have been seue,4
which, if pieced together and corroborated by other methods. a.
almost as valuable as if the insect had been bred throughout the 0"e !
Many entomologists have neglected to increase the value ofvtI
breeding experiments by keeping the insects under conditions o.
perature and moisture different from those prevailing in the: Ov
and keeping no record or a very fragmentary record of the tempeti




IN% X,

1* I'M r recor

M"y othe ds are
thoj
he g-itporation, or the, nearnew
vog, 0',
- #
to, plamd, in the cage

of this insect the writer saw
'Of 00W a, 'b "which the numbers of indi-
4- _y
ted at c-ertain times. By
(!f I lumm (Aptured under bands,
3- OW -it -was nbW that at a certain
Mi so taugrht than at puiods
bg an, peg. By colleoting asmany
si Qt Ume, it w9a observed that, these
The porio& of the larger and smaller
the maximum and minimum of

,woris'in Idaho, v t 'tho request of the, writer,
of the hwvv464W under bands. Other
*i hoot ny idea of the future
It jwvp ware many source&
771 # 0urVtWWeYe drawn upon crosS,-sm-
LAL, fdotor'Md th6 number of larvw as the
lj]* op a6curaw Picture of the, course of the
t the season. Not all of the rep-ords,
0
t"fr causes gave
OUA0 Thweurve Show-liagr the effective, tem-
0' thw hwrvm were killed under the ban&
oj" aud gives quite, amurWy the effect
4%Mtof t4a inswt. A "nuraber of thew


W, UWM)O)&
#Uace p e records.
r Cy -in the$
*.ihe *eWdY. or biweekly
OU of M"y individual
"o thoo M min-
# 7
W in the season to
JSVM1 We late the
"T7
the
of vam dap,

'too I 044ft
bo


4







46
A,

I I I I I 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t I F bands. Wbeh
larvaB wom ki +
I L I I I
I I I t I I reduced the n
z lwvv of the Rn i P'N
I FA generation. If the-,
It from which the rword-,,,'
I lillif I I L J.- I It
taken should be O(We
with rough bark or
11 rill large n=])Pr of hoW,'
it I.. .
cracks in it,, the n
larvw enteiing the
I t l i l t
..... fill will not be so great go,
Illifl
the band were the
It I place in which they 06,4C
- - - - - hide to spin their
HII I I therefore Hing the
[ I I I I I I t
Fill I I .- IF
Illk I K -------- se-raping away tha-
It [[I[ Ta I..
rough bark would causo
CID
rise in the.carve.
11 I L I
I I
I I I I I In most cases the mn,-
pi t I I IV
Ch ditions which would ret-
I, If z der the records inaccui
were eliminated. when
was possible to do so.,
D 1 3 1 1 1 1
I I N
I I I ]A order to show the rebwWot
I I It I t i ll
L ti ll
It I between the daily and 4o,
It
w 40
It eekly band recordE4
weekly surnm ry (fig.
L T'?'444 was made of G ibson's
41*11#:
I I I
IL 1-14.
till band record. By
I I t I II I
I it ]III A III means it was shown
I I I [ I l l I l k
t I t i ll
I I It -It
> 11 1 the' weekly records
z
till[ 1. only app
]]111 11 If I r k I I roxim ate,
111176 1 fill III show the general tread
11 1 11 1 f i ll
I L kill
the insect in the orchwid,
rather than any dietsib, f.,
One writer has s
A- A-1. that the rise and fall
the Aemperature would.
C1, I T I I k I I 1 1 1 1
came a wrre"nding rim
I I I I I I I L
111111 1 ]lit I and fall in the number of
I I T ill i l I til l
Jill lit larvw
so as to obscure tNa
I I till lob
true position of the =Awo
mum. By -a Audy of the
record ma& by Mr. Gib-
son (fig. 5), in which tbo




-47,

totot meM
tmttetwe p ""Wsgto n gvndyi'nt-
byteIIprtmoftepeoUgdy a oto telr
bai tng4smi*Obfr ingt n htte
MU-dI one m'ie h floigmrig
jh bev!oj'acttr eetkna .m
L-,ete pr
SEPr
-- - - - - - -
---------I
-I I ------------
-
....-------I
-I I --- -----
-i
- - -I - - - I - - -
-i
-_ -,
- - - - - -
-i --------
-----1





















17

14
13 1 -- -- Ill ****
92 ... .. -
II


11 ... . :: !....
'3

7


FIm. 8.-Weekly band record made by Mr. Ayera *t Bokie, Ih

the same conditions, but not so clearly, bn asow
time between the observations.


'. :.." . ...* .!==
: .* :. .:..
... "";; ....; "!
:3':..:E


LENGTH OF THE LIFE CroLE.


In order to establish a correct basis for the
number of generations, it is essential that we d


JULY.


AUG.


- sip;


Fmo. 9.-Band record made by Mr. Aet .t : a ",
.. "E" "- .. ::::: i
..:::: .. ". .:.
possible the average number of days in which the ine
through one generation. Assuming a certain date, I
accuracy as possible, when the maxima occur in a .baw:: ::
taking into consideration all the imperfections of 4 BAe :....
should have approximately in the number of days betwme 1


,* ".!E


It-W111ii




























































FIG. 1 .-LARVE, PUPWE, AND MOTHS ON ROUGH BARK.


.:::: .. .. ..... ... .... ......: ....
." ""!. :"' :::ii"iE "E :" : . ... .
[::h..!!E ::":':': .:": ..: .. .."..
i .. i : ...,, .. .....


S ..... .... . ..:.' .: .. ..
' 1::.. ':'":::. ::: :E '" !
E: ^ iii EE::.:EE: .. .. E..-' :E:"'E:"- .. :*" *" .









... ... ....











































































"lt






























































FIG. 1.-CODLING MOTH (ENLARGED 4 TIMES).

Wing on the tight shows the reflections from the gold-colored scales in the ocellus.



























SFIG. 2.-CODLING MOTHS (ENLARGED TWICE).


: ". ": L '. . '" ".. :.i E

.F.m. ..... .7 S.-O LmNa MOTHS (NATURAL SIZE, FROM 8LINGERLAND).
'EEE.. : ........ ". " : : :
:EEEEE:EEE':E: a ::' .: .
EE'EEEEE:E .:. ".. .:.: .9 .


I"




I,.
El


"E:::...":"^



..!.





::EE::'*' "












;:.. ... "- .....:... ....

::" :,'. "
























"..:E: ::mE



": ,! *iiiii:
a!






-::::::::










J













































+" :':++: +


.. ":..iiiim i
















































































rS~d lkthSin.tnddaIS
...... . .:lH ~ :^'... . .... .. . .
:. .......:E : "..:.. "E
:::.:....... .... . .. . .. .. .: ."


s. a fllo : Fom egg to larva, 7
B ii.:,." ..:ii .. ....... .. ... .."..:!, . : ..; "." ... ,'",,.. ... ..:" "..L. ." . ..". "] """ "" "



;. r .. o.. . .... sg to. ener-

.... .. "E: : .." : ":E" EE.. ..:" ". .. :...... " .
:: ... :: .. ....: EE:: :. :. .. " " . -.
:!: E i":. :i:". I .... : '. ..'. ... .... : ..." : .. .. :. . :: .:. : " . :
& & mohtmddle of egg-

."... ......
:- ,'::":: F~il.".i! ;i:!;;i '.ii i .. : .:"? : :.a.:. k-. .. .... :" "a r


E:,,EE*E .:* .:::".. "..,,";*** E, ,,,;; ,,"": ,;^" : ." i,
.. ... "........

..",... .. ... .......

.. : ...., . .. i"! :E... ...


... .. .. ... .
::. .. .. ... ...
... ... . ...



EEEE. ......... ..... .....

..... .... ... . .




In
50

by Professor Gillette and that the egg stage averages aboat it
from tha hatching of larvw to leaving the fruit, 20 days,;
ing the bands to emergenoe of moth, 22 days; from emergenoe o(
to middle of egg laying (estimated), .5 days; maMng a total of 58,
or about 8 weeks. By adding. together the shortest times w4-
longest times, respectively, we find the minimum length 6f th'-
cycle to be 36 clays and the maximum. 100 days. This period Of.,
58 days having been obtained by these two widely different
they are probably not far from the correct average length of
cycle of the codling moth.

SEASONAL HISTORY.

By following the development of the codling moth through tho
son as caref ally as possible,. we are enabled to throw more light
the question of the number of generations. Those larvw whioh
,escaped their enemies during the Wlinter, if left in the fieldl

JUN tf' 3 -Je JULY 20 0 a
...... L L LA

. . . . .






......... ....... NUNN! MISI In
..........
Fia. 12.-Band record made by Prof. X. A. Popenoe, Manhattan, Kans., tu 1M. i In.

according to Slingerland, just prior to the time when the
pupoe to.,
trees are in bloom. He found the first pupee April 27, and by thi
of May about one-fourth had pupoted. In 1902 the writer found"
largest number of pupte about the time the apples were in T
Some were found in rotten wood as late as June 10. The
the larva has the greatestinfluence upon the period of pu
in warmer placies pupating more quickly than those in colder siustilow''*

031 OF XOTX

From the records of various writers, as cQmpiled by Gillettief
find that the first moths appeared from April 24, in New Mexi'00 t0m,
about May 16 at Corvallis. Oreg. Mr. McPher8on records that in I
he found a moth in the field in Idaho as early a8 April 23, and
the moths were most numerous about May I. Mr. Hitt in b
50 moths found that the first emerged May 5 and the last May #
1.962 the writer found that the majority of the moths emerged betwaft,"'




.. . ......
...... ... . ..... ............. ... ... H
..........
.... ....... .... ..........
..... ........... ......
... .... ......... .. ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
.. ........ I ... ........... .. .................... ..... .......... .....
. ..................
........ .. ....
.........
..........

........ ...



.... ..... .
.............
..............
...........


%:l. r 1.4 0 a fig I a 1, mmars,


4 x til 7 7 ii: 4 a i 4 9 sKlk
&B am a
W TO U,
6: VT ARBT44 a a -491 Big U1,7994 go IN I at I I A Evade A
ii 4i E 3 R K a 4 rl I R 9 :29 ki I F NN i a a at a 5 to also Age
it sonsms
sufflufffia:3111:11W toa
14 z i i it i E 12 A ig A i i i, R I I a a A a a 2 it 10 a I 15 a I a a 10 a a a -a j
Sao ans mamfieffals gas I'll
t qF & ffffivy T'A g ge E 11111 a : I a a IN a a % d it a a a IF a 8;ql a a I

:5 111 qfmgWFq 9" 9311111iffis t 901 rinalsaamERFLEEN its I mooffops R 0 go
No to
]CHH:
7 E 60V jragge r 4 AM E1.111.1-4,41 4 Wasom slag a is* is Implo
AR: V. fl.4101W%u T 11ANO tlmff a.snpo I a gig I 91141Ed two 11111111 Eggs
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0

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.... ... .. is r ll Oll ffA a R a E 1 11 11 B" i a
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'haul' r
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JU ULY
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. ... .. ...... ... ......... .. ....... .... ..... .... ..... ........ ..
^ ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. : .. .. .. . . . ,...
^ ... .... ... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .W - - - - - . . .
^ ... ... .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . ......
^ .. .. .. .. .. .^ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .



0600 IUL I
9W .... 11111 1 1 1 1 ...... ....... .......................... .. ...........
am I I I I I I : A I 1 :1 11 i : 1
I0 I L. I .. .11. I J .I ....\ . ..
60 11 1 L. I I I I I .I t . .. ...^ ... ........ .. .. .....
5W . I I I I I I I. I I I I I I I I . .... ....... .. ...
4W 11111: 1 1:: ::: ::: ::: ::: :1: ::1 ::1 ::: :::I'S:::
No '- .- 11. 1.1. 1 1.1 .1 1 .- .L I I I I I I I I
2M . . .. j . . . . .. . . .! . . . . . . .. .
100 1 ................ ^ .,...


FIo. 14.-Band record made by Prof. J. M. Aldrich, Juliaetta, JIdaho; on 40 trees, in 19M.., i:

it hatched having probably been deposited about June 21. This enttr
ing of the fruit took place about two months after the petals hat
fallen. The writer found that in southern Idaho in 1902 the appO
were in full bloom about May 13, and the first larv8 were note" to.
,' iiii;iii


.11U0 k


JULY
.Af


. AU&.


.AT?.


801'


1000


. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...:, : :"iiiii~
FzoI. 35.-One of the records made by H. E. Burke at Boise, Idaho, in 1909, to determine the aextafE:iii
of the second generation.
*" ... .; ;C ::::l:::: :"? % ii

have entered the fruit June 11, or about 25 days after the blo..oaa i
had fallen. bT
From these few observations we find that the moths may emerge ii
some time before the apples are in bloom, and, dependinglargely


I-"'"-"- "


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ii
loaiy h ay ei oetetefutfo ekt w
01 rth loom mhvefaln Fomte tadpit f h
thsi-ans mpratqusin ncnidrn heefc
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JUYAQS E
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HIEBERNATION.


... . "


The following table by Gillette shows the time at which puptlk
ceased and the larve began to hibernate at various places in Colorad.
It was found, as shown by the table, that pupation ceased betwep
August 10 and August 30, varying with the locality in which,. th
experiments were made. '"


TABLE VII.-Proportion of hibernating larve taken at different d


Locality.


Grand Junction, Colo ........
Do......................
Do......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Rockyford, Colo.............
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Do.......................
Canyon City, Colo...........
Do....................
Do.......................


Dates larvae were taken.


July 16-23, 1900.................
July 24-30, 1900.................
July 31-Aug. 6, 1900............
Aug. 6-13,1900..................
Aug. 13-20,1900 .................
Aug. 21-29,1900.................
Aug. 30-Sept. 4, 1900 ............
Aug. 1-6, 1900...................
Aug. 7-11,1900..................
Aug. 12-14,1900................
Aug. 1l-21,1900................
Aug. 22-28,1900.................
Aug. 29-Sept. 6,1900 ............
July 80,1899.............. .......
Aug. 1-13, .1899..................
Aug. 14-20,1899 .................
Aug. 21-28, 1899.................


Number
taken.


33
53
60
""79'
ISO
192
22
14
61
66
115
80
25
70
60
100


Number
hibernat-
ing.


I I


1
78
130
192
6
4
14
56
116
80
0
so
44
99


.. . r" ..: ...:: .============


:: l .EE" ::EEiE
. .. : ". :E..:. ... .

R e w 4 y; -:. .......= .....:.... ".. .. '
."ett"ee ..:"::'EEEE:::" .E:EEE.E

Rmrdby N;;::!;l!iiii:iiii


Salmon Smith.
Do. '
Do.ii
Do.

Do.
Do. .

Do.
Do. '
Do.
W 6. I. L. ...
DO.
DO.
Do.::..::


Cordley has for several years been unable to breed any moths afiterii|
September 15. In 1900 the writer found that pupation had Oeme$a
September 1, and in 1901 September 7. In 1902 more extensive breS-^:i
ing experiments were carried out, from which it was found that .p-.. PI;
tion began to grow less about August 1 and entirely ceased Ang".iu..t
22, and that no moths emerged after September 17. ,,iif


!! i!:iiii J






i ha niffc



9| onrto r~n;adnthvn
th U1 |0oyo h cdig-ntEay
'U oth ulie
'Vf ba(LM# -nooo isshv
!bpe oftentsfo hc tercn



*, NOIE re
6 n. ,PW orh.. infsbr ok
anoekdmosraion
'i owtsao heos rvtos
71 e9*A ,A traadatireua itr
Y "Oeu
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latter were of the very earliest of the second genxtDrtion, there is fl0
reason for assuming that the larvae which entered after this time iun
not larvae of the retarded portion of the second generation. By usm
the length of the life cycle with the data given it is obvious that these
larvae belong to the second generation instead of a third.

CONCLUSION...
By taking into consideration the evidence which has been derirdA
from the band records, from breeding experiments, and observatWf,
the writer has no hesitancy in concluding that there are but two
rations of the codling moth in the arid sections of the West, and.......
it remains to be proven that even a partial third generation of i .
insect is present in any part of the United States. The writer adud,
however, the possibility of a partial third generation in the West AilBk
.:.:.. : :.. :::::


South, and that careful, accurate work in the future will give us11 1.
ter evidence upon this point and settle the question beyond a d60W
By a careful study of the temperatures for several years in theoW 4
ties where observations have been made upon the number of Ae .:::i
tions of the insect, the writer hoped to be able to give e tot
temperature at which the different conditions in regard to th genWeii
tions might occur; but after a great amount of labor this was fM.:i
to be impracticable, principally on account of insufficient accurate"
. ....=.J.iH9' .. i


observation ns upon the insect, and it was decided to make use of
more general life zones in determining the distribution of geneMl-!
tions. It may be stated that the boundaries between these le urnS
are only approximate; that there are different gradations betwe'h'
them, and that as yet there are many inaccuracies in the map. Mr...
Marlatt, from personal experience and the observations of other .nto-il





J% hithu
.In t~OUWq*"sav e utaadtreI
&u~rL,, *'a jg, *"mlooom f "mt ymm te wite
th",* Ki oe it fe
mod two~w'n-h pe utaadtoi h
wit xIoO fi -tid
*ktC; iad a& _o #mPrtr sftlt
th poln oh..I N
imn. 6vmo
Prfeo lrc a ecre u nosrm
tIa4atm rns as ay ftepp


I M
I AI
0 Ih mayntrl h-nme
of oto-opotrosIrmi a






-A
spring the stab began to crack and decay and the bark to
Many codling-moth larvae crawled under the bark 'in the fall of-,
The woodpeckers found this stub in the following winter and
and not only probably secured all the larvm which -were under
bark, but enlarged one of the main cracks in order to get those
were hidden inside. In the fall- of 1902 all the bark had fallen
this stub and many more larvw took refuge in the cracks.
examination I in May, 1903, the writer found #at the crsk W
iwently enlarged, as is wellshown in the reproduction. This r wt
enlarging was probably done mostly by the. ileated w
(CoopAehm piMatw), as the chips broken out were quite lar
probably required more strength than other smaller wood
could muster. This stub was sawed from the tree and sent to th**-
writer and in the latter part of May the moths emerged, and 28 em
P W",
pupal skins were found on June 5. The writer estimates that
100 larvae hibernated in this stub.
It is highly probable that a] I woodpeckers feed on the oodling nio*,
larvae. Other birds, including the nuthatches, black-dapped, titmk',
wrens bluebirds crows blackbirds kingbirds, swallows, sparrovo"
chickadees, and jays, may also feed upon the dodling moth, esp"Ay
those birds which winter in the locality where the larvae are premaL*
Without doubt the bobwhite quail, which has been introduced into,,,
many sections of the West, also feeds upon this insect. At best our
knowledge of the food habits of mAny of these birds in regard to tho
codling moth is based upon but little direct evidence; but
from what we do know positively, there is, little doubt that codif"91,
moths form a part of the diet of at least some of these birds. Not
many years ago a movement was set on foot in the Pacific northweA,
to import the German kohlmeisen into this country as it was said
feed largely upon the larvae of the codling moth; but because the beaekl,
fits derived from the bird in its native home were not clearly prov*00,
and that it sometimes injured fruit, and also on account of many 4U4,,
astrous experiences in the importation of birds and hmunmals w"
have already been made, the majority of the 'authorities were OD*-'
vinced that it would be a dangerous experiment, and n6 further actifti
was taken. The expenditure of time and money necessary to cartt
out such a project would probably be more beneficial if applied to
protection of our native birds.
Koebele writes that in California he knows of many small bats JLy,4'_#
ing around the apple trees in the evening, taking moths on the wing,
and even darting down to take moths which were upon the leaves
writer has often noticed bats. flying about the apple trees, but was,
unable to obtain any evidence that the were catching codling.znotbs-




74 t
ip 3
Ji "eda ihsi e{
'iruwUbt-,y`nlrhr botos h
-," a ot -u3o wmitc


A 7I
__Oh h c(igjm-en

Cbrsop
Ppid
'i dobflhte


poio moh tI l eoddi ai

PI0
24'OrwihaeteM'ig
-L) anuhay
BOM p'

#..M. beI
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4,,4





60
%4k""WWX#11
NOW TO COMBAT TRZ 1=30TO
The codling moth seems to have been present and inj
orchards for centuries, but until about eighty years. ago no one'
to have made any suggestions as to how 'its ravages might be ch
It would require volumes to contain all that has been written aboui't
methods which have been used against this in'sect-most of them val[-,
less. Before considering methods of combating-the insect there a" 1 7
several points which must be discussed.
Many of the Western States have horticultural laws which aim, 94
extermination, and many of the corps of inspectors are working
that end in view; others however from recent experience have be
7 1 1 em-
led to change their views upon the subject. When one discusses the,''
extermination of an insect he ventures upon debatable ground. As jet
no insect has been exterminated through the agency of man, and judg-
ing f rom. past experiences the writer believes that it is impossible.to
exterminate the codling moth even in a single orchard. The control of
it, by means by which the damage it in-flicts is reduced to a minimum,
is the very best that we can expect to accomplish. It is a prime neces-
sity, in order to make recommendations of value, that the entomologmt
have an accurate knowledge of the life history of an insect. Not on'ly-
is this necessary for the entomologist, but it is essential for the frult
grower also to understand it in order that he may apply recommen-
dations intelligently and vary them to suit conditions. The erroneous
ideas some fruit growers have upon the life history of the codling moth
are sometimes startling, following recommendations simply bemuse
they are given to them, and having no idea of the reason therefore.
Often they obtain good results, but more often failures result; and as
they do not understand the reasons for the recommendations they axe
at a loss to know why they did not obtain good results. To combat,
the insect successfully the fruit grower must be familiar with a 4*
stages of the insect, the sequence of the stages, where found, and ho
its and variations. He should also be informed how the Preventive And
remedial measures act in reducing the numbers of the insects. Wi&
this knowledge he will be able to vary the iecornmended preventiveor
remedial measures to exactly fit his local conditions, and if any failuno
occur he will in a'measure be able to tell why they occur, and the A
lowing year the experience will aid him in changing his method* in'
order to obtain better results. He will also be protected agaitA
4
using methods which are of no value, and will thus avoid a large*"
unnecessary expense.
PBX TI V XEASUMM.
Preventive measures are those which not only aid in controlling tbo
codling moth, but aid the fruit grower in training trees so as to bmr
more fruit, support it while growing, and produce fruit of a better i #




H61

Ae, n oAtogmn fte4 usin r o
alidt h milo h olnmtte r fipr
mnytigwi uces h lgi'fpoi ad nscr
r eealrs(Isfoma rcad
arem an eh.6 rpeeto hc a eapidt
--h N w ouofascinoth ,utyiwhcitsnt
Bysuyo h en fit pedi ilb ere
mIq eetrdtecn~,adb lsn l osbeae
ofi!dcao iywyb eue o ay er;bt
t ulysipdit anwcutyfona
iti nyaqeto fa fwyaswe nsieo
:b,&w h netwl ui' otod hte t t
iomo h osi -oia i1dpnduo aycni
grhritwohv patdkugocad nif
I r e ut ei o f k p n h o l n o h o t o h i
asln sp!sbe u fter r netdocad erb
imoiiiy'I a esadta-oe n ao
kepn h netoto etin ra rhr ilacm
!o ie"twr tetd fbferocad-ehd
ofcnrlt htscto ftecuty
r6tebs aItsi h lntn fayug rhr na
thcfln ohsol ecniee rmtevr
ngta sdn hudb on nyati aigit
Uto o rbal reec o heisct fnoei tkn
thij h aefihul are uagetaon

i ilb f'e hn'h oeadi nbaig hr
4,|Ocnb eie o w oaiyol fe
W h fut rwrha ocnrl uha
teprtr|mt~n poiiyt ae.
660IM.Atog h qesino sisi ey '

to=*("te aaceo oes
























orusn or timoer, ana aimer clearing iL mte sou snowa D6 torowaiip
pulverized. If irrigation is intended, the ground should be lvieirp
and graded to facilitate irrigation. The courses of the ir1gi4..
ditches should be determined by the general contour of the lan4 ,;.. ....M!"
ing into consideration the future routes of the-spraying machine, wId
will draw upon these ditches for water for spraying. '
SETTING THE TREES.
.. .. ", F':Em ml

There are many methods which may be used for setting theitraO.=
the details depending on the size of the orchard and the means at
The essential feature of the operation is to make the holes t';'.:Jft
enough to receive the roots of the tree, so that they can still nb
their natural position. After filling and packing earth into the hat- 0
water should be allowed to run in, to aid in giving the trees a
start.
. ^. .x' ,,iiiill ::ii' iiiiiy ,iiiiiii:!




It has been found that it is a very injurious practice to pla ::: Y
manure in the holes when the tree is planted. If manure is,
applied in the new orchard, the best method is to scatter it ever HJ
surface of the ground. h :
Care should be taken to cause the trees to lean toward the wj sm .
west, from which the hottest rays of the sun come. By doing
scald will in a great measure be avoided. After sun-scald th
breaks, and the wood is exposed and becomes cracked tand deaiyi4
It has often been found that trees thus affected always bear a. larIIl
percentage of wormy apples than trees on which fhe bark is unbrokei.it.*
This is accounted for by the fact that the codling moth larvasBgO l
into the cracks to spin their cocoons and are there secure from tb.*
surface of the ground .... .:.,. ,, .. .....




enemies.
It is a common sight in all sections of the country to see t.
planted from 16 to 18 feet apart, with the upper branches interaifr


I,..





so a ofr e o mhswihcnntb pae
anm4r'* - w qwnterw o 'gn rcli
" it 8.sr _gy7rp btto esAntcoe hn3

86tlyrls bb&fi rn o con ftefc
eveym, o,#A4WI Paki a, 1vr niiulpeet
mm uir'9WM 4teei n da hc'h rnrsol
Inm~y ein f h etta h
ot'ksta hr r w rtremi
mhayco hs rnhshv pi
thmremt eti hebace
rUM
mmO )c n edb ots ieo oe, rc
W! a ne n i hc oln
"rcco&Scm ra hudb rse
or ah0 vn ,idtebanhsfsee lsl
Prprmaowe ha-ftete en
' Wdo w rtremi
mmn e vidd ne
h-00 ofthe tre shuld e s fored s t hav for t
-'t m eg adpeetiebekg ne
"mm*UehaedterUsto ihfrbs
40&4Ue ofti pto r hti sdfiutt
foig ihsradmuhmr ifcl-n
Jm ri te swr hv edd-hi re
SPma tw vo ota he ncoet h
thmi ev opo ri hs





64

HMGAnON.
Proper irrigation of the orchard depends entire1mv,
tions. There areseveral. methd& of employing water
by flooding, by a system of checks, or by fur,-ows6
probably the most efficient, but care should be takm 64
the tree receive an equal supply of water.
8011. OR 00VRI& CWPs-
The soil of different localities varies, and the t
with the conditions. In irrigated sections the soil is
in humus, and is often packed so closely together that A4
to water. By proper tillage this is corrected to ame e
greatestsuccess has been attained by growing cover cropo;
is successfully used for this purpose, and is advan
ways. The roots penetrate deeply into the soil, thus
for water; by keeping a cover of clover over the soil,
the soil is retardedand the irrigation need not be so
water is retained for a longer time; the clover can be ald'
hay; and about every third year the practice of plowing,
followed, so that in addition to the fixing of nitrogen by,
the clover, the decaying vegetation adds needed hu'thu's to
ORCHARD, IN BEARING.
A very serious error is made by.many fruit growers to
the first crop of fruit. Reasoning that the firA crop 18,4**th
trying to save f rom the codling moth, the grower allows to
infest most of it, intending the following',year to aWy
and remedial measures and put it under control. Thhe
is that the following year he has anabuddance of inwets,"
will be considerable. If, when the larvix Were all in thiis
apples had been destroyed by being picked and buried,
had been used late in the summer, a large percentage of
the second vear could have been prevented.
It is often the case that on account of some anjp
such as a f reeze or a f rost, the fruit crop is reduced to
Under such conditions each grower must decide for.
methods be will pursue. Usually in such yeors the
very high, tempting the grower to produce all the fruk
if infested. The writer recommends that when the crop-
that each tree will produce only aboutone 1)6x orless of
the fruit should be picked and destroyed, not earlier than
of July nor later than the middle of August, and other w
as handing should be used to destroy as many of the remainij**1
as possible. Various instances have been under the Nerv&W&
wiriter in which these suggestions were followed with great. 8000"L"




41 i.o f noooy .S et fArclue LT il



















llo





l 7-

A s u ,l c F- o a H W I N O K O C D I G M T














(L






"r


































VIEW IN ORCHARD OF HON. FAEMONT WOOD,, NF-AR, BOISE7 IDAHO.
Showing 8-year-old imathan tree heavily loaded with ftft. (Pr
oM photograpb-)









#
W1 a m m_Lyr, b e 4t wp I I e d t o LL 10L 0
t
?nAL_ "'t
whioh produces a Moderate
tban onewhich producm an
U, a very moaff one the next. By
*Wy be prewated to some e4ent
I apinion that if thinninir is done
are InAbe fruit.5 and the fruit
thereby gained are sufficient to
"uing.
i 4PF
Aesku'(60ri of part -Qf the firA generation
jury ne the sooond generafion, whic
bjUt 6rA generation. It is difficult for the
by- observing the entrance holes about what
Who fruw in thinning, all terminal Clusters
d nort6 should be allowed to grow
;from 4 to 41 in&m Mring the procem of thin-
1_ ,UW, o UWreaimA' eipoadiUwa- of time or money, the

OW'U, rmovred afid the perfed left-on the tree.
Urge number of fruits will drop from the
Anination it will be foujud that under
06 lawr perpmftp of them are the result of the
The poreentsp vanes, however, with
4 trw to hmvily loaded, a I*rge num r of good
pt thow adjoining, and wind will cause
'.4"al(Ay" of wkcl&Us increws throughout the

Aft, 11rvw to' be found it nside the wormy f ruit
14C, -in the Pwific Northwest the
"A 4,'July and the. Wer part of
-UxgO*,nujAber of Im-vw am found
-4 :AwI*Wqveh" bew windfalls Can
Apr, -in the onlard mid ftt

large Onamwraw
Vot $b6 t4piwpe, of k6opwi g- *0
b&-,pdUfia` be



into 000 is ib


tJhMA
-graded and paa"(] and









the ull ar let i pils In te ochad. Te avanage,10







danger~ii ofbra inihesiiiibusig isrdu eii i iii i iiiiiiii"


Theipickingiandiiackingicrewsialsoiworkiasiiiiieiiunitsiind



more easily irected anddo far bettr work. Thecodling mot



in the cullsiafieicoipleiingitheirdevelopmentiwilliifiallowedit6 ii



so, spin their cocoons among the apples in the piles. (See PL X iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iL
Fruit may be well grown, well colored,- and of proper varieties, bdi
if not ell pakedithie condtiinsireinulified.ippleiiiiiiii
the Far Wst are cnfrontedwithiraterispeciliprobles.iiyiiiiiiiiij-
ofter itnc rm h aremrkt fih nie tae,



prc hywudrciefrscndqaiyfut-ol adyb

sufcett a heepneo rwng aknadsippn, ad




41 4
I67
i ono -io-m, awihsl o shg s2 et
On we faP aefrm2 o0 uln'o
mesc i Pe u ytegwln nieue

no osbet Iweo h ul terie hysol
i nhlsiteocadadcoeeovrwt6to8ice
P"derh P 1 i.2)Ocsosmyaiewe
neesr osoeteefrsm ie lhuhtesoigo
frit holdb avode f osibe
it hudb oe i os nwihteea ohlso
inO ofo a.Whntelra, nsd h futhv
'terdvlpette pn oon n rnfomit
in un rmsomit mts hs oh mre
Ahr r rcsohlsi hehuete ilecp n l
th olwn pig t4hoeetehuei ih
,bIuise;obte I.scen a epae vrte

aa stemtscletuo hs cente.myb
N r hywl i f eta-e ro o
vmrsuidtoce nIah nwihape eesoe
*noead P.Ifg.2ad3)Teefc u ht
ft.anm ertepr fte rhr ers.h pl os
yvms netd n nsie fa h eeilmaue
mawsagetaon f aae nClfri:i a
`bj' oLn ht-nahus nwihape eesoe
01"Y mre ndwn otewndw.Rcrswr
1461fmk n Jtwsfud ht1 94mtswr.kle
16 oAgs 2, n a iyiagn htdsre























past ave or six years. in iwuu, yuw1, ana nsuz me wru erO
carefully for uninfested fruit, and each time found on the trea-
trunk only a dozen or so small stunted apples which had .eas
codling moth. Other insect pests are present in this .rehart..
requiring special treatment. . ..... 4 i
The eastern orchard is situated in a good horticultural.regio',|i||
trees number about 300, and are probably about twenty-five .y .
Y ...'" i......
They are placed 40 feet apart, and have made a good gro'4iii
trees have received some pruning, but as in the western orheat4 i:i
are many stubs left, and there are numerous. decayed holess::8::'
trunks and branches. In many trees the branches are mated Old
and shade the fruit. The soil is in fairly good condition anid 'i
sodded. Until the past two or three years the orchard -hSij||
remarkable for its productiveness, but a large percentage of thai
was small and much the larger part of it was infested with the Ij
of the codling moth. 3
The treatment that these orchards should receive to bring PJ.
ling moth under control is about the same. It may be stated dj,
the preventive measures advised for a young orchard had beAeij
fully and intelligently "carried out many of- the existing conij
would not have been present. .,

TREATMENT OF OLD ORCHARDS. ..
"* .' .. ..* E ::": ,'l
The first thing to be done to old orchards is to prune th1e 6kr
such a manner that the sunlight, and spraying solutions will'ha11iv
access to the foliage and fruit. Every other tree in the Ai.
orchard should be cut down. The stubs of branches should.si",i
off close to the trunks and burned in order to destroy the h
larvme contained in them, and the cut ends remaining on the 0,
ered with shellac varnish or grafting wax. The hole in" th .40
:::":. ii
. ... .... '. "
C ."*salffl








orIli re
An htoh lam
to#mt!oam *
I7.
|Li--b u eor md a ~ n
ofK IM ~ h 0pce
on!h lbv~thm P
ft]
4m#eIi ot ne h
m!bdrifse rhr
Ae ww|ieoewHfn
I3L b f-ttesoigt
I*odo 'Mpacsi hc i







should do, a number of the more prominent of thse inelcien't
are briefly discussed.
It has often been recommended that moth balls be hung in tho*
in order to keep the moths away. If there were any virtue in.
remedy, so many of the moth balls would have to be hung on,
tree, to do the work, that the expense would render:it valuelem
Smudging the orchard, or burning ill-smelling ootnpoum$a_ so
the fumes will paw through the trees, has been pnwtioed toebii
extent. The theory is that the moths will be kept away by the ttma4-
and- go to other orchards to deposit their eggs. It is quite evhio"
that as soon as these fumes are blown out of the oro'hard the
will return if they have left, and in order to produce any resulU
ill be necessary that the smudge be continued practically througho4t -J,
the season.
Plugging trees with sulphur or other compounds and plagging &e
roots with calomel have been practiced to some extent, on the theory
that the sulphur or calomel. will be taken up by the sap, distributed
through the tree, and prove distasteful or poisonous to the inseet
Trustworthy scientific experiments have been carried on which Aw.
that it is absolutely impossible for the tree to take up any amotint, of
these substances, and little or no effect upon the insects results.
The writer has found several orchards in which the trees wem
banded with tarred paper, the evident intention being to keep the larvie,
from getting up into the trees. Knowing the habits of the inso&
when in its larval form, we can see that this method is ridiculous, 8"
instead of being a detriment -it is a positive aid to the insect; in mamy
cases larvea were found which had spun cocoons under the ban&,
wb ich formed 'a place in which they were comparatively free from the"
attacks of their enemies.
There seems to be a popular idea among many farmers and frnA#
growers that all insects are attracted to light. Based upon this it,
there have been many recommendations to keep fires burning
orchards, or to arrange some sort of a trap lantern by which the inseek
are to be attracted to the lights and fall into water on which is a On 'i
of kerosene and thus be killeA. This scheme of trap lanterns W"
exploded many years ago, but it seems that at intervals somoody
revives it, and its fallacy must be exposed afresh. By carefu#y
experimenting with trap lanterns and determining the cateb as RO*-
rately as possible it is found that the majority of the insects caught
are either decidedly beneficial varieties, or are males, or &males whith
have already deposited their eggs, and that but. few in"urious in$6*1
are cau,,crht, and none in any great number. Probably the most exteam
sive experiments with trap lanterns were those conducted by Profewor,
11 -
Slingerland. Among 13,000 insects he was. not able to, rwognw's
single codling moth. This is the usual result Of all thm experimient%, ;11





ca a ihu n eiac waee httefre h

"eet plnen rtis-t, xeietwt hm:ssml
'hstmead ', tenehdhsbethruhypon
alsotepatc osm xettoptcn rbtlscnan
es ielvngr rsm tersbtneo ii/ ntr
orhraduo idn ta iscsaeatatdb hs
n.sadklemn ri rwes hn hsi odrmd
"tecdig oh ersls fmn crfleprmnsso
catueso te odig ot remae. it bt
II e-hti rplnersadbiigtemts
sttobehs"entattefutgo .es r o cuite
|ohn ohi t al tge.Ayfutgoe a re



zv reiffo h tak.o h o ln oh
1, lyi h re eekp na pa l h ie h ri
bolm f hisc;bti hswr oo h rbblte
0 ro 6dstadi n hol e twudntr1e
tre hnmle ol roal i.Teepneo
6h Wol emn ie ratrta to pa ing






72
It has been suggested that the codling moth might be oontroP
bacterial and fungus diseases.: From the facts that the4n
such a protected life and that fungi 'and bicteria have
few positive results in tiis'connection 'it is almost useless, wiW
present knowledge, to even theorize upon the value of thew a
In general it may be stated that entomologists have at all
tried experiments with these diterent plans and are unsninmmaAk;
their conclusions. If anything new and efficient 'is ever perfeete4d-
+
which this insect may be more easily controlled, no doubt entop'okofq,
gists will be its first advocates.
MEASURES OF VALUE.
By taking into consideration all the habits and variations of bibo
of the codling moth in its different stages we find thatl like Wv*
insects there are certain stiges in its life history in which it is
y mom"
amenable to remedial measures than at others. We find that it Mn 4
best attacked in the larval stage, although some experiments indicsM
that something can be done when it is in the egg stage. Cook found,.
that by spraying an apple tree weekly from-May 15 until the end, of
June with a strong soapsolution he succeeded in preventing the iikfeW-
tion of a single apple by the larvoe. In laboratory experiments witk,
kerosene emulsion Card secured good results against the eggs. Gillette,
also obtained good results with kerosene emulsion. The results of
these experiments have never been put to practical use for many, rea-, (701
ulsion would probably be so strong, in
sons. The kerosene em or&t,
to have any effect on the egg that it Might injure' the tree. 1Ub
keroseife would evaporate quickly, and thus itseffect would be Aw,
but a short time. The expansiveness of kerosene in the.West ax4
the number of times the spraying would have to be made to be
efficientwould prohibit the adoption of this method. The insect ewt-
be more easily attacked, at less expense and with greater effective
6. e M "W1
in the larval stage.
MEASURES USED AGAINST THE LARVA.
The remedial measures used against the larva vary according ta-, J# 4 44 t 0-1
whether they are used after it has been hatched and before or while
is entering the apple or after it has completed its growth and left
fruit. The greater effectiveness is secured by the use of araenicA
sprays before the larva has entered the fruit. The effectivenew ot
these arsenical sprays against the codling moth Was di5covered
accident in 1872. Lie Baron. recommended the spraying of treei
Paris green to check the mvages of the cankerworm, which raooli-
mendation was adopted in many orchards with great success. Profee
sor Slingerland states that the credit of this discovery belongs to Mrl. 111Z,
A
E. P. Haynes and Mr. J. S. Woodward-, who found that spmying wi&





.:o OO Mtoocado oewr ,btta h
s|qApr eeinc ewafce yte-cd]
|j e mp ,q ~ .P rs g, e o a k r o m

bu kotA 6iojU Sta hywr lv oteIw
tIot btigte o~gmt.P~.
meinr
jg4,o&u h daadb eiso aeu
61ml.|6e W h rann asvr fetv
1 h Collup of n u eosohr.hv
M 1t ihasn~lwt
t[ 6tonw lotieadcepArmd
tua bedfndaiutn oto n
0.o, h oL*-n ti fatre ota h
'trro'0e thupei hy a o'm ftispio
ndr ie.Sic hleinigo h
il&$n b ehv on ayipratipoeet
%a spaigsltoswihhvrn
tha whn rmiiemtodeei

spwigMmnr s hr r od-
Thre ar etinsryn

iu rhr ok, vn-fo h iwmm
pop d ~ahier divn y uslie
-iio ora rhado tosn




t4a


74

the nozzles, and should be used both as the water is put into the
and as it is pumped out. It is highly essential that some
device be used to keep the liquid in agitation so that the coar
ticles will not settle to the bottom of the tank and render the m
of variable strength, especially if Paris green is used. The bof3e
be any of the types 'in use, and a hose extension of some light
covered preferabl with bamboo, should be used in order that the
6f the tall trees may be easily reached. A sopeock at the junWw* V1,
the hose and extension can be used to great advantage.,
The nozzles most used in spraying orchards are of two types-thio",
which throw a fan-shaped spray, which are used for long-rang)BW410jjrj
#
Y #
and those which throw a cone-shaped spray, which are used for clo6e
work. Several of these nozzles may be placed on one bamboo extenoo
Sion, and thus the amount of liquid thrown increased. Four lines 91! 1 d
hose may run from one pump, but it is found that so large a nunit"
causes confusion and that more work can be done with -two lines if
hose. The usual number of nozzles upon each extension or lifie of
hose is two. The nozzles can be set at an angle to the axis of exten
Sion, and then by turning the, extension the stream can be var"Iy
directed. If the spraying outfit is small, consisting of a barrel with, s #
pump, it can easily be hauled through theorchard on a sled; but it the
outfit is larger it is usually drawn upon an ordinary wagon. Dewls
of the mounting on the wagon and the position of the pump and tanks
will depend a great deal upon the facilities which the grower hu at
hand. Many have the tanks and pumps mounted upon a frame, which
they can put up-on the wagons and remove when the spraying is co'M-"-
pleted. If it is desired to spray very tall trees, it. has been found thAt
spraying can be done more rapidly and thoroughly if there are JO
platforms built upon the wagons upon which the operators can stai.'
(fig. 17). The capacity of these band-power sprayingoutfits depewli.
J -
upon many factors, such as the number of men employed, size 44
pump, number of nozzles, capacity of tank, distance from water SIV_-
ply, and size of trees. It has been found that three men, using a 2W
gallon tank and two lines of hose, each fitted with two nozzles, can
spray about 250 average-slized trees per day, These hand-power sPOLY,
ing outtits can be purchased and put in workiDgorderforfrom Ur> W
$75. A pump, if used for arsenicals alone and given good Car%
should last for five or six years with but few repairs. But if t*
same pump is used for spraying with the lime, sulphur, and salt co Jlf
pound, and the compound allowed to corrode the pump, it will
necessary to purchase a new pump oftener. (See Pls. XI and X1
GADOWNWIPOWM SMAYING OUMM
If an orchard consists of more thin a thousand tree, it Will be found'
expedient to use a gasoline-power spraying outfit. If the orchard'





offv otntosn reit*1 efudta h xes
7~ewt hsoti solaotbl fwa twud ewt
We sryes
delrIaepadsryn acieo h akti hc
|ri eie.fo aoieegie.Te oss agl o





lt vI #!




,Jl




m Ilk

m g o w T m r a y m k s o
~i workmm






716 10F

may be more than is required at ordinary times, but
arise when more power wotdd be desired.
There are many methods by which gasoline is fed into tho
of these engines. The better engines have a pump by which*
oline is forced into the cylinder. The ligmtion is Recompliawl
of two methods,-either by an ignition burner on the outoide
cyloider which communicates heat to a platinum point whi&
thevuoline vapor, or by an electric ispark. from an ind
which is connected with numerous dry batteries. The
used with thea6 engines for the purpose of keeping the, cylinder
and cool is usually from 12 to 14 inches in diameter. This
intended for stationary engines, where the waterean not be
frequently. In spraying, however, the water can. be renewed
few hours if necessary; and therefore the tank.9 can be built as
Aftom.,
as 6 inches in diameter, which will m e a. considerable reductliow,
the weight of the machinery.
Purchasers are always given full instructions in regard to the
and running of these en ines, so that one with comparafively
mechanical ingenuity has' very little trouble. The greatest sourowot-' `4'
difficulty is with the electric current. The inSUI&tione Often
imperfect or the sparking points become dirty and fail to prodtt6ii',
spark. B carefully testing the current and keepig these pofi4-1
y
clean practically all of the trouble is avoided.
It is preferable to place the engine at the rear end of the frame 414.
the pump, as near the engine as possible. There are two types of
ing pumps which may be useA for this parpose--the triplex
which consists of three vertical plangers,7and the straight
double-acting force pump. Either of these pumps *ill be found
answer to the conditions required for these outtits, but the ho
pump is more commonly used. The pumps should be so man
that all of the parts are accessible and the brass Imiling easily re
The working parts should be made of brass or bronw. A larp,
chamber is essential, as well. -as a pressure gauge. It is
necessary that a relief valve be attached to the pump, so that
the stopcocks on the bamboo extension are closed the- en ine, *W
have to be stopped, but it a certain prewure the spraying liquia-
be returned to the tank.
In sections of the country where irrigation is practiced if has bo
found that the most effective method of filling the tank is to
another pump which can be attached to the engine, hy'which w 'gr
can be pumped from an irrigating ditch into the tank. Thai
should belong to the type known as low-down putnpoilt
deliver large quantities of water at low pressum The, suction
should be 2 or 3 inches in diameter and the end which is put into 60
iirrigating diteh should be w 1 ecreened. Then *19 UWWJY




I#

Lm
wt W is m w a f ri "
|-badt'fbvigafligpm
w rgnbdtdcrie u-se
-o|6 ao
to hgRoe utis tisfudmc
ti h fhsTm egho hshs
*m sdi payn h re.Bmo
tga stog te npoe uft
vm fmirgtndthe otisacnieal
tfdotesn n helm ntesrvn
th ito m ul obmebal on e
fmue ieosxdys oniuu paig
tot oomnfcuescll-

6*j*IoM% ht--i teefwswr adndo
Wol A uh ogradi a eta
411 j ooe mrvd oze ntemre
SPWwOtit a emdeo odo
wodb rfrbe nacuto t
bdsvne ubcumi ol e oe
iL Tb Ik sol othv
shudb lcdonte rn n






















familiar cost $320, which included a $40 wagon and. filling punfp ::"4
attachments at $20. With good care and proper repairs these macbu..I
can be made to last for several years. In a working day of ten M-tqll
it was found that a 1*-horsepower engine consumed about 1 ido:.:i
gasoline. Although the initial expense of this outfit is greater fh-an:i
that of the hand-power outfit, it will be found to be much cheaperirs::,
the end, as the engine can be made to more than pay for itself 1.i
other uses when spraying is not in progress, such as running the cid::fer':
press, feed cutter, and cream separator, sawing wood, turning t::b!!.!
grindstone, and numerous other tasks about a farm for which p .w..
is desired. The machinery can also be removed from the wagon s4....
stored in an outhouse and the wagon used for other purposes. .;, .
WATER SUPPLY.
The distance of the water supply from the orchard is one of &ALA
greatest factors in determining the rapidity with which spraying Y#bE
be done. With the water supply some distance away much vrib
time is lost in going to and fro to fill the tank. In the smAiDw i
orchards, where but little spraying is done, the usual custom isAp.:
drive the wagon to a ditch, pool, or well, where the water is troaa.i
ferred into the spraying tank with buckets. Many fruit growq':,
have found it advantageous to draw their supply of water from an-O
vated tank into which water is pumped by a windmill or piped froiim
some spring or stream. For irrigated orchards the water is usuallyH.
taken direct from the irrigating ditches, sometimes from the wm -
ditch and sometimes from the lateral ditches running through':M
orchard. By taking the water from these lateral in the orchard 664
routes of the spraying apparatus in operation can be largely idet L,.
mined, the foreman trying at all times to be near one of them when:::..




At 7
beoe mtB mn fth iln upo h ao

r uft uhvlal ieca esvdi h prto
th//ak s'~prdwt te ehdo aiga xr
toIu oe otesryn oti oeie mlyd h
folwdb/h/payn ahn nte rhr eeduo
fwos uhwsuc fwtr upy oiino il n
-addrcin fwid ahocadi apolmb tef
,x einewll h w w ihr uesc nb .flo ed wt h es
Oftme
-Ap=WW FSRY
IweaenI fsryn h re. nflom h
N4

rout thoug th orcardsom us for lies f hsecom
1pyn forrw ftes--atm;btithsbe on
PTUP ha n coutofte og oe n tegra ds
th me aet *B -te ehd r mr datgos
48 w ie fhsadmnA dn ntegon ocm
arun th/eltu pryn w osonalsds te
wesdiedw nerwa&s hl ftete nete
rm iu bako h te ieo herwte pa h te







la applied with great force, tho strmm is brokeoi-
which, if well directed, 'I's evenly distribnWl ovvt'
and upon drying leaves a more or lea uaiform WI&L-,.
held close to the folis the force causes it to
coiating is not so uniform (W that which is derived,
spraying one-half Qf a tree the mist drifts through
side which is being sprayed,,and in that way the
having received- practically two incomplete
allowed to grow in clusters it i's necessary tD apply '44
great force 'in order to secure gbod results.

FOR SPIU MG.
CONTACT IMWTICMM
Contact insecticides are those which kill the inmets
them. Kerosene emulsion and solutions of whale-oil
stances that have been most used for this purpose; `bdt-
the expense, the necessity of frequent application,
the insect can be more easily and effectively reae.64 ifi
those kinds of solutions
other insecticides. .8praying
but little against the insect..
AIMENICAL SPRAYS.
The arse nical sprays contain arsenic as their eawn
Other chemicals are mixed 'With the aMDiC for the
venting it from burning the foliage or are products
numerous compounds of arsenic which were used, for
than spraying. There are manyspraying compounds of
is the base on the market, but there are many othe
grower can make for himself by -combining. the n
Pari8 green is probably the beat known of these
been used for many years with success, and is a definite
pound of airsenic, copper, and acetic acid. The
quite uniform, but many instances have been found in,'
adulterated or the percentage of soluble amnic w"
As indicated by its name, it is a substance green in
rather c',oarse powder which has the fault, of settling
spraying tank. Itis quite necestary to us6
Drder to counteract the burning effecto of the fm
green is comparatively expensive; 'in the FAst it costs
pound and in the West 25 cents.
Paris green may be prepared fop spraying ams
Paris green ............ .......
U ne ............................................
Water .......................................