Proceedings of the fifteenth annual meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists

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Title:
Proceedings of the fifteenth annual meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
124 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Association of Economic Entomologists -- Meeting, 1902
United States -- Division of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Societies, etc   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029638970
oclc - 22620181
Classification:
lcc - SB599 .A55 1903
bcl - 48.63
System ID:
AA00018931:00001

Full Text

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L..... S. DEPART N ... A iz ITR.
U. S. DEP:\, RI'AII-NTI OFI ,.\(;lCITllTlYlR.


DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY BULLETIN NO. -40, NEW SERIES.
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FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MIEETIN(O


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DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOG Y

L. 0. HOWARD, Enfomologist.

C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist ;0 charge of experimentalfield work.
F. H. CHITTENDEN, Entomologist in charge of breeding experiments.
A. D. HOPKINS, Eitomolnogist in charge qf forest insect investigations.
FRANK BENTON, iii charge of apiculture.
W. D. HUNTER, in ci.aIrge rf cotton-boll iceevil investigations.
D. W. COQUILLETT, Tn. PERGANDE, NATHAN BANKS, Assistant Entomologists.
E. A. SCHWARZ, C. B. SIMPSON, Irirestigatoirs.
AMiss H. A. KELLY, -.pel'hd argeilt in silk investigations.
R. S. CLIFTON, F. C. PRATT, AUGUUST BUISCK, OTTO HEIDEMANN, A. N. CAUDELL,
J. KOTINSKY, .!.s;.xat.o.
W. E. HINDS, G. H. HARRS., H. E. BURKE. Temporary field agents.
Miss L. SULLIVAN, AI artist.



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLO(G;Y,
11shiwto, D. C 1., ac2., 1.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the imanu-'cript of the
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Associ:ition of
Economic Entomologists, which wvas held at Washin e'ton, D. C., Decem-
ber 26 and 27, 1902. The papers pre-ented at this meeting are of an
unusually practical iiature, and the disetis-ions 1,ring out facts of con-
sideralb)le importance. I therefore recommend the pu blication of this
report of the Proceeding's as Bulletin No. 40 (new series).
The term "new serit..." applied to theso bulletins, will be omitted
after this nmniiber, as it is no longer neces-ary to distiiiuuish them
from the bulletins of the old .-eries. which included only 33 numbers.
Respectfully,
L. 0. HOWARD. nt,,'di,,t.
lion. JAIF:s WILSON.
S, (:,Ct', ,rof ACPCiclturP.












































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CONTENTS.

Cd! o '.x ,,
The Literature of A.ni rican l'rini, Ent llii'j-1 ---. .......----. J '.Fl .. 7
Economic Note, oi tn 1. FamLLily Coccinellild;.. .--....-.......- 1. 1F, B',',, ... 25
D)istriblution if tihe Chinch Biil in Minnt-It: ................- L. 2|((shb'r'.. \2
(Observat it ills III II ic (;r 11.\ ine 1w oot-w',In I ,II -- a E. 1'. F'H. 34
A MIethiod for .\oTITitiii-.I Dry Coe''id, for P,.riiitiim t ]Pe-.rvatiun

Restilts ( )btainitd1 with (Crtahi Iin-e.cticidl, a..................... E. P. Flt.. 36
Fuirtther Notes n the Lime, Sulphur, and 5:dlt W:-li in .\IIi:rvlanl
A l L Q i~ i; ,,l ,,, .. . ;; "
The Iliie, Stulplhur, and S.alt Mixture in ( ', iiu.,tirii-t.........I. -. EB--iti,.. - S
Nite. on IiijU'imis Tn -,i ets -- ....................................t 1--. 1,t.. -P45
Insect. (If the e-,i ill Ohio ...-------------.........---------------.IICrr O ,r-.. 45
Entoml,,.gical Nites f n-iii I.uiryland (ilti-tritl) --------.........-. L. (2_ uft,/,,.. 47
Notes fr mii N\ew Tta lire------------------------------- CiarCe I. 11 '.- 50
Appliedl E]ntumo1l,,.y in Japai ---------------------........................--...--------. ('. L. 5r(i!,t.. 56
ObsTe'rvatimi ill ii, ll the Lifte II -t, rv of the Oodli M, Ioth ..... C ; .. -.. 63
A Critici.Qm tioiio Certain (',liy.' MAoth 01,.,-,\:ioiii. ...... T1 L. Il',w ''-.. 65
Can the Pea Wcevi live Ext.riinat'....................... m ..-------------------- 19
A Note on the Ovipo-iti,,n if the S.vo-\iito.eei-ycar Locust (-( 'J.da -,'/i, l.
Iin. IB.. Al'o,. 75
Injuriwus I.nects of tin. Year in Caala------------------- ......................am. ,tc .. 7S
Notes on (California C, ,rid.r. -\l,. l i., a i .-,ly -i --,. ..... I" L. 1-oy -"
Plant En irii iit azild I -ct Dtlr latiii- ................ ----------------- F. I 1". I iue.. 84
Notes on i'liiipliij; ,i'ratis ---------------------------............................... L. 'l,/l,.-.. 87
On the Po.-itiii of the St.t of the S.ii Ji-,, Sr.ial in ITif-.ted Plaints"
T B. R ,,,,ms.. 88
)evelipmerit and flilirmatiim of M. ,,-,pito,-..JJ,. 1.. 1,,/i',/i, 1ii1, J. IV. Dj',, .. s-
.'i ell Ins.ect Itil uitiaitt- ,f the Sti, of l'IIIi.S ,.iii,',1 ,..; -... F. 1,. 1 f0 I-ter i12
.uie Iii.ec't Note- of lt \a .............................. i -- -----------------------------. '. .
siiit'ciile ................ -...............................-------------------------------------------J. B. NmI.. 1
i i-trililtiolln of tlihe Salt %Ia-:Il I,..-,'juit, in Ne\, Jr:, a......... B --------- io IIS
The le'.rioli al Ci,'IuIa ((';ii fi, .,,, I I ,,,, 1,*;m Linn.) a ........... 1. .L LJ. ,uit- I s
Vernacular Names. of T-t.'t-, .---------------- ---------------."1,, '' It fn.. l
Note, on tihe L.arrcr -ii ,'ar t l af-tr tetl (ill-tr:t(.,dl) -.... II K 1. ( tb,,,1,', .. ill
Some Intsects rect ijtly liijitri,- i-t,, "'rIi.k Crop1- (illii-tnrt.l -). F. II. Ch''t ,,,1 .. 7113
Report if th (',IIIIIuittt-t ',iI l co,,lv til, 1----------------------------------- 12
a\ro eit i, lr,,wn i.. .'t i ...... . ....... ,,elsewhe
1111' .[llCr 0'i 1 '111A i-ii L~ lin e s w e e





























ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.
Page.
PLATE I.-Japanese insect placard, showing enemy of rice plant ............ 58
II.-Japanese insect placard, showing enemy of mulberry ............ 60

TEXT FIGURES.

Fi;. 1. Map showing distribution of the chinch bug in Minnesota ---.....-.. 33
2. Map showing distribution of Broodl X of the periodical Cicada in
Marylani in 1902-------------------------------------------................................................ 48
3. Mono.i'ir jiunci clu//: adult, egis, an i larva --------------------------- 112
Vo ilMu o., t. lp.ict;r'olli.x. adult, e ,,,-; and larva11
4. S l'It,.'rlIIs lhrll. adult ..------...--- ----------..-----..------------... 116
5. Soider.cs'i.-.s eibbreritiu.: adult andl youllng.----.---------..---------.------ 117
6. Elu smoilpuji.. liiyotosc/lt.s: work on cowpea..-------------------...........--.------ 119
6














FIFtII1.IENTH ANNUAL MEEIII NG( OF il HE ASSO )CIATION( ) O (F
ECONOMIC ENIT(M L(GISTS.


.OILNOr[G Sl'sS'ON, FRIlDA I)1' ':.'.IER .';, l.o..

The Association met inii the natural history room, third floor, imtill
builhin g of the Columbian U niversityv Wazhi no-ton, I). C. at 10 a. m.
December 26, 1902.
The following were in attendai.ce:
W. B. A]wood, Blacks1i ir-,, Va.; W. H. .\ -l1, wd.l, Wa-.liii rton, I). C.; C. F. Al-tin,
Collegeplark, Md.; I1. A. Ballot, A nilivr-t, a--. ; Nathan Bnk. ` W.ilhiigton, 1). ( .;
if. Barlicr, Washlilnrton, 1). C.; Frank Benton, Wa-hington, I). C.; J. (Ci.-t.r
Bradleyv, Philadelphia, Pa.; A. F. Bnr ,.: Colulnmi-, Ohio; W. E. Burke, W;-h-
inltonl, D. C.; An.-ulstBii.i, Wal1iii iL'ton, 1). C.; A. N. Caudell, W-hiiijgton, I). C.;
D. WA. Coqillett, )Wa-l ton, ). C.; F.P. Felt, Al.,;my, N. Y.; II. T. Fernald,
Ainhlerst, Maass.; W. F. Fi:-ke, Atlanta, (Ga.; Jaiji.s Fletchrr, Ott;\i, Ca(iiila (. II.
Harris, Wa.-limnzton, D). C.; Otto Ihidliiiai. \V'at-lii.-ton, 1)D. C. J. S. IIii-, ( olI1,ii-
biui, Ohio; W. E. Hinds-. W\-'liii.ton. I). C.; A. I). hlopkins, \Vi-l1 ii,._.tm, l). C.;
L. (). Howard, W\1-liiirtc, 1). C.; V. L. Kelh,1, Sthilford Univir-ity, Cal.; J.
Kotinsky, Was-hi4iton, D. C.; (C. L. 1larl:tt, \Pa-liii.ton, I). C.; P. Pickman \IMann,
Wa.sliin-t,,n, D. C.; AN,,r-^' W. Mlairtin, Nni-liville, Tenn.; Herbert Osborn, Colmiin-
buii. Ohio; Tlheqdiore P,1,r_a ,, W:i-liiiiton, I). C.; J. L. Phillii-, BlVi.k-liir, Yi.;
F. C. Pratt, W .l.-liiiton, D. C.; A. L. Quaintance, Coll.;-.l)ark, AId.; F. \Villiziiln
Rane, Durlham, I. f.; P. H1. Rldf.-, iami, Fla.; W. E "
A\. Va.; I.. A. A Scliwarz, WaIhii._,toii, D). C.; C. B. '-i ,ip-,,n, W\ i-iii-t.on, I). C.;
11enry Skinner-, Plnilal.-lplhi:i, Pa.; T. B. 1jm ions, C 11l -. 1 1 M1 d.; Ir.. IInirietta
T. Walr.>tt, Bc'-tomi, a-.; F. L. Wa-liii iivri. St. Antl,,iV1y Ir.. Ani.; .1 J. L. LWel),
Washllingto), D. C.; W.-lcy Webb, Dov,.r, D)el.; C. M1. Weel, I)iurl,:iii, N. II. 1'. V.
Wilcox, Washin,,ton, D. C.
The meeting' was called to order )y the pr-,idoi,. I)r. E. 1). Felt,
who, after calling IMr. HIerbert )Oslborn to the chii Il. tlhe vice-pr,-ideiint
being al-seiit, delivered his anniiual a1

THE LITERATURE OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY.

Byv I. P" T, A_-,,,i, X. Y.

PlldicaItionm i- undoiilbtedily our v l i-4 iniportllit fuilctii., and whilee
di.-et:siols of iietliods and lin'- of r1,-,, l'h i1,v hiiilit'v t1i m:d(e public,. it e'eii toi the -l.w:ker iltlit :i coli-id.iirtion of the foi'i
1and letho(ld A, pilIlicat io(n ,a1y nmot 16 witiloit vThi1i. Ti 1 -tii)ject.
it is true. lias been mncitionied moe or l,-. b!y my )>redce'--,or-. anld






was (lis.cussed so';iiewhat in detail by Dr. Forbes in 1893 and by his
Suicc..essor, Dr. lLowavrd, in 18144. Thie address of the former consti-
tutes moie of the most critical analyses of a portion of our literature
and(I ()f inethodls of publication, while that of the latter is an exceed-
i'gly complete record of what had then been published in economic
nt'itLi(olot-y in this country and abroad. Dr. Forbes had occasion in
19'S9 to call attention to the fact that the literature of American eco-
notlic elt(olmology was increasing with great rapidity, and this has been
even io0re manifest in later years. Somewhat over 10,000 newspaper
articles about injurious insects have been published since 1860, while a
rou1'h estimate of the number of octavo pages devoted to the subject
gives us a total of nearly 50,o<.0, of which about one-quarter are found
in bulletins of the agricultural experiment stations, and were there-
fore published since 1888. It is impossible to discuss this literature
in detail within the time at our disposal, and only a few of its more
salient characteristics can be brought out. It seems to the speaker
that this is not the place for destructive criticism, and the following
is presented in hopes that it may suggest methods whereby we may
render our work of greater value to the general public. It is also
well known to the speaker that his hearers are undoubtedly obliged to
modify their publications, more or less, on account of conditions over
which they have comparatively little or no control.
Dr. Forbes, as a result of carefully examining over 115 articles in
1,.,3, came to the conclusion that economic entomologists were advanc-
iig more as a body of irregulars than an organized soldiery, and he
drew- from these publications the inference that we as a body were
fairly well satisfied with our present methods of investigations; or, if
not, at least were not in a condition to improve them at the time. He
also failed to find a record in those publications of any new method of
research, either adopted or proposed, in either field or laboratory; nor
did lie observe any noticeable departure from the stereotyped form
of presentation, and he concludes that our methods of report and pub-
lication of dissemination and enforcement were lagging far behind our
methods of research, and were receiving far too little attention. He
also calls attention to the fact that we are very likely to forget that
we are writing for the men to whom entomology is a perplexing,
obscure, and displeasing subject, of which they know little or nothing
good, while on the other hand they are frequently experts in crop
inlH(ection, and far quicker, as a rule, to observe injuries to their crops
than are we. and much more likely to discriminate between them. He
al'.,,',s froii this that crop injury and its characteristic appearance
.should( lead in our discussions of injurious species, closely followed by
revnedial and preventive measures, and that a description of the insect
and an account of its life history should be awarded a subordinate
place. especially in mnonographic accounts, and calls attention to the







comparative inefficiency of miscellaneous c(dlections of articl.s-. uch
as comprise the bulk of most reports and bulkctinr., so flar a- r,.ealigi-..
the public is concerned.
The economic entomollogist of Amierica can not N .cha'ged withI lack
of energy and thoruo ughnes-. particularly when a -peeies intlic ts eiior-
mous losses upo) stal)ple crop.-.
A brief resume of the literature reveals the somlewhm:at -,rz pri-iniL,
fact that over1,S- octavo pa l:- ave beenII oc.It pi4.d by vnriums wr iters
in discussing the Rocky Mountain loc'ust. Tlic i next ii-.,t to :ap Poah
in importance this very serious pest. so flar a:. the extent of tlie liter-
ature devoted to it is conctrned. is the comparatively \ eIY eitly e4tab-
lished San Jose scale, accounts of which already till 1,10 pa(.) Thi-
species is closely followed by the excellent reports and the vxlma;-tive
nonogralh on0 the Gy)Vpsy 1 totI. comprising, a total of 1.154 page-.. "'ee
chinch lug Collies n'xt inii importaifce, if we may judge of its illrank by
thile 1. 3_' pae. dev(\oted to a (1i-c.-ion of it b)v various w riter- and this
is closely followed by the cotton worm with 91 8 pa;-,e,-. which i. fiv-
.1b. -. bolwrm :-oflm he'
quently treated of with its ;--o'iate the bollworm, :o that the two
have monopolized 1,32-,_S octavo plm(',-. The codling moth i- one of our
older insects, and it i. perl-ap,- not surpri.in,' tliat S.<7 paL,'4 have 1>een
devoted to a divcu.sion of its lial]its and the methods of controlling'
it. while the Ie-.sian fly, also an easily importation, hi:- an exti ,-i\-e
literature of over (_. pay'_e.. The periodical cicadla h'as literature
extending, over 647 paL're-. while 100 bulletiis or separate. t.compri'-iii1'
1,624 pages. are largely devoted to di-'i-ions of i -eecticides and appa-
ratus for their application.
The e.tinates driven above aret,, only a pproximate, a.idl have e1,,e,1n
rigidly limited to articles appeal1 ingi tie more permanent riilletins
and reports. no account begin talken of new-Lpatper article,-. The entire
literature of any one of the.-e, in-,ect, mu-t be much miore, exte(i-ive
than indicated by the above fiurce-. It is prolbably imp ,-iblc to
avoid tlhe somewhat exten-ive duplication of work rep]i-',,ntcd by
these figures. because the ciitomiol,,)'ist of each State is oldied to, meet
the demands of his constitutent-, and it is therefore frequently nece-
sary to repulblish manvy well-known facts.
The monograplhic accounts of the-e species -t'rve a very u-eful pur-
pose in showing how much thee, is to be learned concerniiin,-, each
insect, and afford worthy models to in-pire the inve.ti;'ator en.at-ed inll
studying, the life histories and ha1)its of l1-s known form-.

NEWSPAPER ANI) MINO R A.ITICLE,.

An estimate laased(l on the bibliographies of American economic
entomology and a calculation of the num ,er of article. ptblli:hi.d
between January 1, l!00, and ID celbejr, 102" give-: tlie enormous





10


nunlmber of 12,163 articles issued since 1860. This estimate includes
not only newspaper articles, but also most, if not all, of the reports
and bulletins published by American entomologists, and at the same
time it probIably omits a number of articles worthy of enumeration in
this list: Undoubtedly some of the articles are practically duplications
of others, and yet, after making all due allowance, we can hardly
admit that less than 10,000 minor articles have been prepared for the
public press by American entomologists during the last forty-two
years. This is an enormous number, and despite the fact that some
consider newspaper entomology as of little importance, the speaker
can not help feeling that this mass of literature represents a very
important part of the work of the economic entomologist. Reports
are issued for the public, bulletins are prepared for the general dis-
semination of information, but the man who wishes to learn concern-
ing an insect pest is much more apt to read his agricultural or local
paper than to go to his bookshelves and search for some report or
bulletin which may contain the desired facts. In other words, the
speaker is inclined to believe that our newspaper and minor articles
are much more o'enerally read than the more detailed notices given in
reports and bulletins, and on this account he considers newspaper-
entomology a very important factor in developing our work, and
believes that all articles prepared for the press should receive careful
attention and be adapted to the readers of the l)eriodical. The atten-
tion of scientific men is not infrequently called to ridiculous state-
ments concerning scientific facts in daily or weekly papers. Such are
not calculated to inspire respect for the publication, and yet do they
not indicate an opportunity of which we may avail ourselves? They
show that the publishers recognize the demand for scientific informa-
tion. The paper attempl)ts to meet it in much the same way as it sup-
plies infor-inittion concerning' g'i, manlv more familiar things. The reporter,
who is of value in working up the account of a railway wreck, may
fail when he discusses the life history of an insect; and we, as eco-
nonlic entomologists, should undertake, so far as possible, to supply
this demand with concise popular accounts, giving the facts which the
people wish to know. WVe can never entirely suppress sensationalism,
but we can exert a strong influence toward moderation, and the
speaker is of the opinion that most agricultural journals of America
have alrcal ('y come under its influence, and as a rule apply to repu-
tailde parties for information, rather than rely upon unknown sources.
'Jlhe work b1e,'tun with the agricultural and horticultural press can be
graduallvly extended till most of the reputable weekly and daily publi-
cations of (lII, country recognize the necessity of securing accurate
in formation regarding' various phenomena in natural history, and insist
upon p)laciCg such before the public. This desirable end, however,
will hic brought about gradually, and will be hastened in proportion as







we appreciate the importance of the sutbject and give these popuai:r
articles the necessary attention. We .aI not expect the public to
appreciate the desirability of accurate infori';itionI on this tihbject if
those who pose as authorities ar, content to ,iver out ilaccur:Itt,
undigested, poorly worded articles in an-wer to querii.. The :glri-
cultural and daily prss of Ae ricia is worthy the bv-4 we ean give it,
and in proportion as we meet tli;it (leIland will we be iicceI'.-ful in
extending the influence of the work in which we are interested.

REPI'ORTS.

Aside from newspaper article, this form of publication has been
the first, emiployed in economic entomology. The earli (,t report is
that by Dr. Thaddeus Willianm Ilarlris, of N0,i 4aciusett. who.. cla-,.ic
writiigs form the ba1)-,is of all sulsequeut work in this branch of natu-
ral hliistory. There is no nec.ssitvy for -'he speaker describing or pr;i--
ing this work, since his hearers are all familiar with it, and it sufficies
to call attention to the fact that Dr. Harris's work is really i pract ical
systematic account of tli more inport;mit sl)ecie., known at that tine.
The adlinirabl)le srie. of reports prepared )by Dr. Asa Fitellh, ento-
mologist of the New York State Agriciiltiural'ociety. and practically
State entomologist of New York, are lequially well known and contain
a inass of information with which every worker in this branch imust
familiarize himself if he would succeed. The arrangement of the
reports by Dr. Fitch is very different from that obtaining in I )r.
Harris's treat e and cow-.its in a systematic grouping of the in,.rts
under ini)oritaint food planIt-. Dr. Fitch evidently believed in mkiig.,
his writings accessible to tlio.,M who were not entomiologi-.ts and who
had no special initer.est in tie subject. HIi> reports form the )be(2inili i i,"
of a series which in reality was continulle(d by Dr. Lintner, thou"('h in
different form, thle lattIers reports lein'", co(ilpo-edl very I'lrgelv of
detailed accounts of species which had come 1prollillentlyv to n1:i,
during tlie period the report covered. Tlie:,e individual .accounits .re
almost iiinvarially lgrouiiped systematically :id are, in milalv respe,,ti
models in their thorough, lucid, conci-e treatment of injurious sp'',i,-.
The series. of reports anlid other enltolol lo,'i(cal Ipubli.cations by the
Federal (Toveru'ilnent was. begun by TowneInd Glover in 1i4 anid lias
conitinuedl. with a few break'4, in ione form or another to the )Ipr,.-,iit
(lay'. The work of (Glover \\:L. :.,*rio usly *v hiampered anlld his rel)orti.
while coitaiiiinig a imass of valu;ihle information, 'were fa'r fronim wiat
he would have maide them hadli condition- beell more favorable. It
will be observed(. however, tlat li, e evil'itly 0laii, I] his work within tlie
intention of ultimately rea.hiiiln." the d i.i1d1 'in1l. io 1e-- tl:illn tha1t of
giving. popular economic acconlits of all of the of insects. For examplee, his re'tport for 1l,;7 i- concerns lagely





12

with the food habits of beetles, that of 1875 with the Heteroptera, that
of ls76 with the Homoptera, and of 1877 with the Hymenoptera.
Ils work was continued by the late Dr. C. V. Riley, of whom all of
us know, and to whose writings coming generations of economic ento-
mologists must constantly refer. Dr. Riley began his work in Mis-
souriaind'his nine reports issued there from 1869 to 1877 have been char-
acterized by Dr. Howard as forming "l the basis for the new economic
entomology of the world." These reports are original, practical, sci-
entific, and include a multitude of facts and intelligent deductions
which have had a potent effect upon the science. The work begun in
MissoLuri was ably continued in the United States Department of.Agri-
culture, with the exception of an unfortunate break of two years,
down to the untimely death of this gifted scientist. His work in the
Department of Agriculture was in many respects a continuation of
that begun in Missouri, and the large amount of information gathered
and published is most remarkable. The reports of this man are
largely composed of independent accounts of various species coming
prominently to notice from year to year. Dr. Riley's skill with the
pencil and his accurate dilineation of insect life has added very mate-
rially to his reputation.
The later work of the Division of Entomology has been continued
by one with whom we are well acquainted, and at present we will
leave his work and turn to a consideration of other reports.
The magnificent series of volumes on economic entomology prepared
by the State entomologists of Illinois contain an immense amount of
information and will ever remain enduring monuments to their writers.
There are special features in this series of reports which are worthy
of mention. Dr. Le Baron began in his third report his Outlines on
Entomology, which was continued in his fourth, and Dr. Thomas in
the sixth report began a series of papers designed to form a popular
account of the entomology of the State, particularly of those species
of economic importance. His successor, Dr. Forbes, has given us
several papers of noteworthy value. His twelfth report includes a
discussion of the food relations of predaceous beetles, and the appendix
to the fourteenth is an index to the twelve earlier reports. The fif-
teenth and sixteenth give much space to a detailed consideration of the
chinch buo, and( the seventeenth contains an analytical list of the ento-
molo,,ical writings of Le Baron, and renders his work more accessible
to other writers. The eighteenth report contains an admirable mono-
graph on insects injurious to Indian corn, and the nineteenth is devoted
largely to a monographic account of the work with chinch-bug fungus,
thel appendix comprising a detailed study of the Mediterranean flour
1110th1 by Professor Johnson.
The'l'l State entomologist of New Jersey has issued a series of reports
since 1S9O which contain a mass of original observations concerning







insects injurious dunrinlg the var 'io, yxear,-. TrriCe ,accottt.-s aet' 'lilo,'d
under important foo0 plants a;s ;a ile. Excelptioiial tt;tltll-. are' thali;t
his report for 1i832 contains s :i brief gtlerlial kic'oiiiil1t 4f till' Ilm in.ij(1i-
ous species belonging. to all orIder.-. ;M11 that I'mr 1 , ;Ill iiteri-.tinr.
and valuable paper omi tihe Relation ot IOfl,,ts to iriit-. Latt' ',.lirt-
give mucth sptce to 'crud(l' petilI'iIII :a a remIedyl f San "t .111:," -.(':1 S'
Thle ite State e01toii0ologist of Miliie'o)tl. 1D. ( )lto lii'.y'er. i..,ati
a series of reports which promi ist.d. whel, c(impletedI. tto 6m,1 a r malk-
able contril)utiol to thle elntololo,- o. Altfli(tL. 111 i. -,eco. report
treatsof parasites of a ,al:l tla(I l tic anim ,i l-. tile' third o(l tlhe ( )'rtl'p-
tera, the fourth of I Itvlilpttia. tlhe fifth ot f (',o pt11. th. -ixth (f
Lepidoptera, and it is stated that the Inl:,Il-ltcripjt trea;ttiln. of tlh I )ip-
terl:t" was nearly co1p'I le)Ite(I at tlhe tium. of hIis dl:ithI. It i-, certain that
had this series (of reports leenl carried( to ani e('ld. A Tmerica wuill l:have
been favored with one of tli b .-t gen,'t ral xI'work. on lpartic:l c. toi ol-
ogv which hias vet been; istld.
r[he repl r'ts of tlit EItIllto lmo 'oic l "c otci''t- of ()ntafio. 1,'rinnit" in
187() and textenlilig t t datl: e, i.t I ret a:til;li' -- 'i- f a1p llica,'tio,
replete with inteirestitlr a1d \ntaluable ol-.'r\ti'tol'.v lNv m:t rit'er-,
upon the ecoloilic in.,ects of that .etiton. 'I'h. ,'t'epot-. and, tlho.e
from 18,'4 to d(late. of D)r. ,Ial ., Fletclher. en tol(,)1Ol-ist ;LIl1 Ibt:tui-.t of
the Central Experimeintal Farm., i.il1clde o-t of mour e'.l-. (.on-
cerning' thle insects of tlhe ,ortliern lparlt of Amierica,. iand at' : co1 1 o-el
largely of original ,ol,.ervatio.s at(d exc.eeid 1inl, pactic:i rec2'lme'n-
dations and d(edctio0, l-s fwo o b..'rvt'(d facts.
It will 1)e seen from tlie )above that thle 1report- f :dvari)-. State
entomolog'i.,ts differ widely one from the other. anti that \\ itliil c'.-
tain limits at least a consid able cI1' ice is adli-.sitle'. T'iere' la;as
been of late years a miiarked tcride,.cv toward pecia izatlin. whiicli is
perhaps as well exhibited in the 1publica;ttio-, of thte Unite'l State-
Department of Agriculture as anywherer. 1i.( report of tl[i IKttool-
ogist, which was fo r-Ierlei t a colnt ri hutit o4f s-o! i >i 210 (' pa i lv:'.
has been cut down and compl)rises ri'latively f'ew palge- (l'evo tt' to
a general disctussitn (f colnditio() -. lhe tall tm Ol'ial matttter for-
merly appearing in tht report lhas been suldiviued ad i- z;tade. pullic
either ats special papers in the Yearilook m)1 a-t I11lletil.- treattLIi.,1' of
some special subject, which may b1e either' Lt.oln)omit' r ss-.-teh.ttit. It
seems to the speaker that gelerally spetakinlg tli- i-;t a -tepl) ill tie i'lit
direction. The general public is not illterestedl ill t itoll) olo- it-elf,
and will read 1)bulletins or r',ports on tlhe siblvectt ol) wi en -' wh li plratc-
tical end is served. It must. thlerefore, 1t a approachedd t'fmll tiii- poiht
of view. The speaker lihs been iml)ressed f ',r I--e' Ye'ar- with tlhe
aSinj e readlingU tlie a&i vt I',r',fe-',ir \W\ shil,'1irn lI;-S if,' iic''1 11-s liit hc l.1- failed
to find any such n ualuscript, anl if it evcr t.-xi.-t.'I it lI;ia prdu'hllv iet'ii l,-t.





14

idea that extended reports on entomology, while they contain a great
deal of very valtual)e and useful matter, do not appeal to the public
mind, and he is therefore inclined to think that wherever conditions
will admit our publications should be of a special rather than of a
general character. The annual report on entomology, wherever it is
possible to have one, is a very convenient method of publishing
observations and other records which could not be properly included
in a bulletin, and such reports should have a limited circulation. They
are more for the economic entomologist, the one who wishes to go
back to original sources of information, and do not appeal to the
general public.
There are, however, special reports on well-defined economic groups,
which are of greatest value to the general public and of utmost utility
to the nation. I refer in particular to such works as Hubbard's Orange
Insects, Comstock's Cotton Insects, the reports of the United States
Entomological Commission on Rocky Mountain Locusts, and Dr. Pack-
ard's report on Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees, and to the
monographic report on the Gipsy Moth, by Messrs. Forbush and Fer-
nald. These are the highest form of report, and, when properly pre-
pared, constitute an exceedingly valuable record concerning species of
great economic importance. Such works as these appeal not only to
the practical or economic entomologist and the systematic worker,
but also to every man interested in the crops or products affected by
the insects treated. Such work as this adds very materially to the
prestige of economic entomology in America, and will continue to do
so just as long as the parties engaged in such efforts are well qualified
and possess the high ideals governing those who have gone before.

BULLETINS.

Next to newspaper articles, bulletins appear best to reach the popu-
lar mind. The first important bulletin on economic entomology, so
far as known to the speaker, is No. 1 by the United States Entomologi-
cal Commission, which was issued in 1877, and which was followed by
six others, five being devoted to popular accounts of specially injuri-
ous insects or groups of insects, and the other. No. 6, being a detailed
index and supplement to the classic Missouri reports previously men-
tioned. This latter, therefore, in reality helped to render more acces-
sible a mass of earlier published observations. This series of bulletins
was closely followed and overlapped by a series begun under the
authority of Dr. Riley, then chief of the Division of Entomology,
United States Department of Agriculture, and continued through 33
numbers. This earlier series has been followed by a second series,
which already includes 3S popular and 9) technical bulletins.
About 400() entomological bulletins have been issued in America by
various State experiment stations and other public officials charged







with the study of entomology, and the limited time prevent,- their dis-
cussion in detail. These publications, however. i :iy be grouped ais
follows:
1. Popular brief accounts of individual insetcts or groups of ill--e't-
of economic importance.
2. Monograp)hic accounts of individual insects or grou'tps of injcts
of economic importance.
3. Technical bulletins.
There are a number of advantage,, and -)me (li-ladvantag('' in the use
of bulletins as a medium for rendering information avail;ible. The-,.
publications are not so) permanent in character and unlt'--, carefully
bound LT by the recipient are liable to be lost or even worn out by con-
stant use. On the other lianid, the bulletin tisiially permits a miuch
more prompt publication than is possible with the annual report and
in addition allows a much more elastic gruping of matter. This of
itself is of considerable value, particularly when publications are -,,,l.
as nimany of us do use them, to answer queries in regard to this or that
insect. If we have a bulletin treating only of the species involved, it
will usually answer every question, while if we send a report, which
may include accounts of a number of other insects, the treatment of
the one under consideration may or may not be full enough to atiiNver
the requirements of the case; and an additional di-advanta,,e in send-
ing reports is that we mnay be obligrdrl to traLinsit a mass of matter
which has comparatively little or no interest to the recipient. The
bulletin is therefore desirable whenever we wish to publi- l promptly
and econoi call.
It is very difficult to define the scope and character of the popular
bulletin. Generally speaking, it should be brief, concise, and contain
very little io)re information than is necea,,ry for the practical fruit
grower or horticulturi-t who wishes to control the species in que-tion
in an intelligeent manner. This means thflit inany details, which are of
considerable value to the syste inatic student and tlhe biol,,,i+4t. must be
rigidly excluded. The-e brief popular bulletins tmay, as previously
mentioned, treat not only of one in-,ect but of an economic group, and
it seems to the speaker tliat the latter in the long run :ar'e bound to 1)be
more successful and beneficial. He has 1hoen informed, for example,
that the excellent publication on IHott-ehold In:ects, Bulletin No. 4
(new series), Division of Entomology, U united States I Departmnent of
Agricuiltiiure, is very popular and that the dei:mid for it is simply
enormous.
There is another form of the brief popular bulletin which i, exceed-
ingly well rel)resented in the circulars issued by the Division of Biito-
mology. These, as. we all know, are very brief accounts of inil ividual
species and are exceedinglvy uis.eful in answerint4, queries from, tile to
time. Such circulars are abridged firozm fuller account-. and this
nj





16


forim of publication has been used by a number of entomologists with
aL gralt deal of sLucces's.
Another device for the popularization of scientific matter has been
adopted by the New York State agricultural experiment station at
Geneva and consists il pirefal-cing every bulletin by a very brief synop-
tic account of its contents, and, in not a few instances, there is a popu-
lar edition of the bulletin as well as an extended one. This popular
edition is very little different from a circular treating of an individual
.l)ecies except, that the popularr bulletin includes the same field as the
more extended publication, whether that treats of a single insect or a
group of insects.
Monographic economic accounts of insects are exceedingly valuable,
and are absolutely necessary to the advancement of the science.
Recent years have witnessed the issuing- of a number of noteworthy
publications of this character, among which may be mentioned Slinger-
hland's account of the codling moth, Card and Gillette's studies of the
.same insect and other bulletins of a similar character. In such pub-
lications as these, we should have a summary of all that is known,
together with a mass of original information. This work is absolutely
neces-sary, and probably the best method of making it public in the
majority of cases is by the iuse of the bulletin. These bulletins, how-
ever, must of necessity be published at irregular intervals, and there-
fore can have little connection one with the other.
This scattered method of publication has serious disadvantages and
the monographic accounts of economic groups are designed to remedy
this evil. We have a number of noteworthy publications illustrating
this line of effort, among which may be mentioned Forbes's excellent
account of insects injurious to indian corn, Forbes and Hart's economic
entomology of the sugar beet, Slingerland's climbing cutworms, and
others of like character. Such publications appeal to the popular
mind because, as a general rule, they approach the subject from the
aspect of the practical grower, and are of more general service than
the detailed monographic accounts of individual insects.
The technical bulletin is a publication of entirely different character
and is, or should be, designed almost solely for the use of the eco-
1nomlic worker and not for the general public. These bulletins are
usually issued in limited editions and sent only to those who can use
tlhe i to advantage. They may be and frequently are largely system-
atic in character andl should include monographic accounts of consid-
erable economic importance on such subjects as parasites, leaf feeders,
borers, etc. Excellent representatives of these are seen in Howard's
Study of Insect Parasitism, Marlatt's account of Nematine of North
Aineri.ca, Coquillett's Revision of the Tachinide, and Hunter's Aphi-
did(a1 of North America. Such works as these, though frequently
enl(odying much systematic and biologic work which apparently has





17


no direct hearing upon the practical aspect of economic entomology,
are absolutely necessary as a basis for further work. The. ;e morre
technical studies are in reality of equal if not greater value in devel-
oping economic entomology than the more popular practical account
which are prepared for the general public. It is true that they are
accessible to and read by fewer individuals, but these individual are
the parties who prepare the popular accounts and iliake free i-e of
the more technical matter wherever it c(;il be employed to advanta ,:1,.
so that in reality the public receives full benefit from any such pub-
lication.
JOU FINALS.

The various entomological journals published from time to time
contain more or less economic entomology, only one of which canl be
mentioned at this time. The economic department in Entomological
News. conducted by Dr. J. B. Smith, was instituted a number of years
ago by Dr. Skinner, and affords an opportunity for the prompt pulbli-
cation of shorter articles and is a valuable feature of the periodical.
There are three journals which have been devoted entirely to economic
entomology. The Practical Entomologist, which ran through two
volumes, and the American Entomologist, which completed three, are
the only instances of publications supported in part at least by sub-
scriptions which have been devoted very largely to economic ento-
mology. The shortness of their lives is eloquent of their lack of
support. A unique .,erial, devoted entirely to economic entomology
and independent of subscribers, was issued by the Department of
Agriculture under the joint editorship of the late Dr. Riley andDr. L. 0.
Howard and is well known to every worker in the science as 'Insect
Life." There is perhaps no other publication which contains so much
original information concerning entomology within so limited a space
as these seven volumes. The numbers were issued approximately
monthly. The editor was the Chief of the Division of Entomnology,
and as lie was supported by an able staff of assist:ants, not to mention
the entomologists of the entire country, there was nothing in the
publication which was not reliable, and the effect upon the develop-
ment of the science was extremely beneficial. It :atforded a ready
medium for the announcement of interestiingo and valuablee discoveries
and received the hearty supl)port of every worker in the science. TIie
monthly issue of the numbers kept every entomologist informed
regarding the doings of his as-ociates and st.rved as a general stiinulti-
to all. We (can buit regret that it Was nece:ssary to discontinue such
an admirable publication, and while its hlss is in Iart made .4-,,d by
the most excellent series of bulletins issued by thle Division (,f Ento-
mology, still tlere are feature--s in the periodical which. ha vi not b1eei
and probably can never be, na(l'de by tl'e i:.-IaInce of bulletins at
22170-03--2





18

irregular intervals. This series of bulletins can never command such
a general support of working entomologists as a publication issued at
regular intervals, and consequently, with the discontinuance of Insect
Life, economic entomologists lost a ready means of communicating
one with the other, and the speaker feels that the development of the
science has been hindered by its suppression. A publication depend-
ent upon subscription can never fill the place occupied by Insect Life,
since it must cater to its readers and give considerable space to well-
known facts, whereas a publication independent of subscribers can
follow a definite plan and restrict its matter to that which is original
or of great value on other accounts.
GENERAL WORKS.

There are several general works on economic entomology which have
been published, aside from reports and other official publications by
State or station entomologists. One of the earliest and the best in a
great many respects is Saunders's Insects Injurious to Fruits. The
injurious species are grouped, according to the part injured, under
important food plants. Each account, while brief, gives a resume of
the more important facts concerning the species.
The early edition of Professor Saunders's work was closely followed
by Cooke's Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard, etc., a work
which covers the entire field of economic entomology in less than 500
pages. The treatment of each species is necessarily brief, and while
the accounts are grouped according to food plants the systematic posi-
tion of a species and its synonymy are indicated. The work was pre-
pared particularly for the use of fruit growers and vineyardists in
California, where it appears to have found its principal sale.
Dr. Weed's Insects and Insecticides (1891) treats of the more impor-
tant injurious insects and methods of controlling them in a volume of
less than 300 pages. The limited space made a rigid selection impera-
tive, and the account of each species is brief. It is an exceedingly
valuable work, and the following year was followed by Kellogg's
Common Injurious Insects of Kansas, which covered the same field as
the preceding work. The treatment is a little different, and a feature
worthy of special mention is the brief diagnosis preceding the account
of each species. Dr. Smith's Economic entomology (1896) is a work
prepared along very different lines from the preceding, and gives brief
l)practical accounts of all the more important injurious insects within
the limits of 466 octavo pages. The various accounts are necessarily
limited and the arrangement is systemniatic, a discussion of the injurious
or beneficial species of the different orders being preceded by a brief
account of ordinal and family characteristics.
'"he same year The Spraying of Plants, by Lodeman, appeared, and
while the scope of the work is greater than that of entomology, much






19


of the latter is included. The most prominent characteristi. of the
volume is its great condensation, more facts being included within its
400 pages than perhaps in any other volume of its size.
The present year has been marked by the appearance of Fumhigation
Methods, by Professor Job hson, a mnonog'ral)h of the :1)application and
uses of hydrocyanic acid gas. and by the publication of Sai derisn'sn
Insects Injurious to Staple Crops, which latter is prepared on some-
what similar lines to Saunders's Insects Injurious to Fruits and covers
its field more fully than has hitherto be1en done.
INDEX Es.
The literature of American economic entomology lhaas become so
extended that detailed indexes are an absolute necessity; otherwise
many valuable records are lost, so far as the busy worker is concerned.
The first general index published was that to Riley's nine Missouri
reports, and in many respects it is a model publication. It is not only
very detailed, but every insect is indexed by its specific as well as its
generic name, something which the speaker is inclined to think of great
importance. The many changes in nomenclature make it very difficult
for a person to keep up with them, and the index which lists a species
by its specific as well as generic name aids materially in this respect.
This publication is perhaps open to one criticism, in its having separate
indexes for plants and insects. This is to some extent a matter of
taste, and yet the speaker is inclined to believe that the general index,
including all references, is superior, since no question can arise as to
which index is before the seeker for information. This is something
which used to trouble my distinguished predecessor not a little and my
hearers are probably aware that all the later indexes prepared under
his direction have included every reference.
The next general index to appear was that by Professor IForb}es of
the first twelve reports of the State entomologists of Illinois. This is
prepared on very nearly tlhe same lines as that to Riley's Missouri
reports, and is also open to the criticism of having -pa rate indexes
for plants and inhects. It i., however, :admirably gotten up and has
proven of great valiue to working entomologists, since it renders more
accessible the vast amount of information recorded in the-e reports.
Neither of these general index ,. or thle later one pr,,pared by D)r.
Lintner, have aided in i.liakin accessi ble the vast amount of inform1a-
tion annually published in newspapers, bulletins. report: or other
publications by the economic entomolo,,its of America. Ti6-s litera-
ture is widely scattered. and the preparation by Mr. Ieii-lhi.w of a
bibliography of the more imll)ortant writings of Me-rs. Wal-h: a1d
Riley made way for general indelxxe, to the publications of other A. mer-
ican writers on economic entomolocev. IMv hearers are all faimiliar
with the admirable series of 1biblio"raphiis 1pepared under the an-4ici-e






20

of the United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomol-
ogy, which have rendered this vast literature accessible to economic
workers. It is only a question now of consulting a few indexes, and
the average worker, if he has an adequate library at his command, can
easily learn what has been recorded concerning injurious species under
consideration. If one were to criticise these publications at all, it
might be allowable to suggest that the indexes be made a little more
detailed, particularly in the later publications. The addition of refer-
ences to specific as well as generic names and to food-habit records
would materially increase the value of the volume without greatly
extending its limits.
The general index to that magnificent series of volumes known as
"insect Life" has proven an invaluable publication to almost every
economic worker, and our hope is that in the future we will see more
such aids to research.
Indexing is to some extent a thankless task, and yet a very necessary
one if we would keep abreast of the times. The value of the index
lies not in its length, but in its usefulness, and the speaker has always
felt that it was by all means advisable to index all important references,
at least, under several names, wherever that could be done with pro-
priety. No two men think alike, and an index should be made for the
use of all. Some approach a subject from one side, others from
another, and unless the index is general enough to include all it is
liable to be comparatively useless to a great many. The speaker is of
the opinion that the general index should include, as previously stated,
references to generic, to specific and common names, to food plants;
and every index of a series of volumes should also include illustra-
tions, preferably under a general title, such as figures, because it
sometimes occurs that a worker is searching for a good illustration,
and if by turning to a few general indexes and looking under figures
he can find where all such have been published it is an immense aid.
It is impossible to lay down any fixed rule as to what references
shall and what shall not be included in an index. This depends some-
what upon the character of the work. In general, the speaker
believes that every isolated fact not specifically included in the title
of the pul)blicattion should appear in sonicme form in the index, if the
object of the index is to make accessible the contents of the volume.
The speaker is gratified to observe that some of our more recent bul-
letins ar being indexed, and while there are undoubtedly publications
of this character where an index is superfluous, in a great many
instances it is of decided value and should be incorporated wherever
cir culstanices permit.
A. table of contents is also of much value and adds considerably to
the completeness of any publlication. It need not be an extended one
unless the work requires it, because a very brief summary may







include everything that is desirable. It is not necessary to devote an
entire page to the table of contents and the speaker canl not but (.com-
mend to his hearers the plan of the university of the State of New
York of placing on the cover page of its bulletiln- a brief -uim11ar:1yv of
the contents. It requires little Space, is conspii ous, and usually
meets every requirement.
The above discussion of the various forniis of publications and the
purposes which they serve has been entered into because the subject is
one of prime importance, and while undoubtedly ,ach of us lhas given
the matter consideration before, it may be that a joint discussion will
bring out facts of value. The speaker recognizes tlhe limitation
imposed upon various entomologists and is well aware that it is not
always practicable to choose between different forms of publication.
Each institution usually hIas certain methods which have become estab-
lished through years of usage and there isn more or less difficulty in
securing( a change. The advantage of discussing the matter on this
occasion is that whenever a change is possible we may know how to
use it to the best ad-vantage. The ideal scheme of publication, it seems
to the speaker is about as follows:
1. Newspaper articles.
2. Brief popular circulars.
3. A little more extended but brief popular bulletins., treating of
economic insects or groups of insects.
4. Monographic popular accounts of economic insects or groups of
the same.
It seems to the speaker that if the science is to be advanced in the
future more attention should be paid to monographic accounts of
economic groups. These should be extended enough to include most
of the forms of importance, and at the same time give references to
more detailed accounts of each species or group of species, so that the
student more deeply interested in the subject can continue his studies
further.
5. Reports containing records of activity and such other matter as
can not be conveniently grouped in a bulletin or special treatise.
6. Technical bulletins or systematic accounts of natural groilp.- of
greater or less importance.
We all recognize the fact that systematic and econo,,ic eItommology
can not be separated one from the other. They are joined together
by bonds which no man can sever. Many of the trroi ps of insects are
of consideral)le economnitc importance, and the speaker is of the opillion
that he who will work out a syviiopsis of :aiyv such group is doing much
to advance the science of ecominiiii, entomlology. We are to-dlay
hampered by the fact that it is extremely difficult for tlhe begininer to
recognize injurious species, or for the one more ;dva:iiv(edl totletvirmihie
many forms which may be broiight to his notice on account of unii-uial





22


depredations. This difficulty can not be overcome till every group
having any economic importance has been carefully treated in a sys-
teimatic way, and if this account also includes a brief general discussion
of the economic importance of the groups, subgroups, and possibly
even genera and species, together with references to the more impor-
tant literature treating of each, we have at our command a series of
works which would be of the greatest value to all subsequent students
of economic entomology. Such works as these would necessarily be
very concise, and yet, if properly arranged and with well-selected
references, would prove of utmost value not only to systematic, but to
economic workers, and would also be exceedingly helpful to all having
even a general interest in the groups treated. Dr. Lugger's reports
are an approach to this ideal, but it seems to the speaker that such
accounts might well be more detailed and should include, as nearly as
possible, every species in the fauna; and that the value of such treat-
ment would be immensely increased by the addition of bibliographic
references as mentioned above.
Reference has been made to the close analytical study of our eco-
nomic publications .by Dr. Forbes, and the speaker can do no better
than bring his remarks to a close by quoting this talented scientist, as
follows:
It is not the wealth one gathers, but that which hlie puts to use, which makes him
rich. It is not the knowledge we acquire, but what we succeed in making applica-
tion of, which makes us wise. It is not the facts of entomology we discover, but
those which we persuade the farmer, the gardener, or the fruit-grower to use
diligently for the protection or the preservation of his crops, which make our ento-
miology economic. To discover without publishing effectually is to waste our time
as servants of the public. To publish valuable results without making sure of their
appreciation and appropriation by our constituents, is to fail of real usefulness and
the reward of usefulness. To bring a result to bear on the practice of one man only
when a thousand are suffering for the want of it, is to fail in 99.9 per cent of our
proper undertaking. We must first, do exact, exhaustive, conclusive, practical
economic work, and then we must find means to get that work utilized or it is an
economic dead loss.


The address was listened to with much, interest, and, on motion of
Dr. Howard, a vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. Felt. The discus-
sion of the address was postponed until the afternoon session, but is
here inserted in connection with the address.
Mr. Washburn called attention to the fact that Mr. Felt had referred
to so ne notes on Diptera, which he thought possibly were left in Pro-
fe(,ss(or Lugger's possession. A careful search for these notes had been
iiade( bVy Mr. Washburn, but none were found. A year had elapsed
between Dr. Lugger's death and the time of his taking charge of the
work in Minnesota, and during that period things were in a rather
chaotic condition.





23


Mr. Banks remarked that he would like the members to express
their opinion as to what they considered (desirlablle in the way of iildices.
He stated that it was difficult to obtain all thle references in news-
papers, and thought that those published 1by agricultural weeklies were
hardly worth the trouble of indexing.
Mr. Osborn stated that lie thought this to be a very important part
of entomological literature for the practical farmer and horticulturist.
Many of these men do not get the publications from the experiment
stations and they depend upon these agricultural article,,. While it
seemed a very thankless sort of task, he thought that an entomologi't
should be willing to attend to this feature of the work for the benit
of the classof persons mentioned. Mr. Osborn further reimialrked that
he had sometimes found himself looking in a plant index for an insect's
name, but had usually discovered his error in a very short time.
Mr. Felt spoke of the annoyance which he experienced in referring
to separate indices, such as is found in the Entomologists' Monthly
Magazine, which has a number of special indices; and, while he did
not know the experience of other entomologists in regard to this
point, in his own experience he had found the food-plant index inval-
uable.
Mr. Banks stated that at the present time a great many genera had
been duplicated in botany and zoology, and it was sometimes difficult
to tell whether a plant or an insect was referred to.
Mr. Felt replied that he thought the nane of the plant in connec-
tion with the insect afflecting it is very easily indicated and he thought
there was very little reason for separating the plant and insect indices.
Mr. Hopkins stated that his experience ihad been similar to Mr.
Felt's in looking up references. It is somewhat confusing to turn to
two indices, and he thought the suggestion by the president was in
harmony with progress in this line. In his opinion, the host-plant
index should be included with the other, and he urged the importance
of both the common and the scientific names of host plants in tihe index.
The trouble suggested by Mr. Banks could be avoided by using com-
mon names. By using the most popular communion name, followed by
the scientific name, it would be at once apparent which speci,-, was
referred to.
Mr. Hopkins further remarked that in reference to indexing news-
paper articles it seemed a waste of tiimwe. If it is some well-klnown
agricultural journal, like the Counti-try Gentlemaii or some of those
papers of which permanent tiles are kept and good indices miade. it
might be worth while; but many of our agricultural papr.-:, as well
as newspapers, have no index, and a file of the paper is not kept. lie
did not consider it of much use to refer to these, fronim the fact that
the reference could not be looked up. Furthermore, nio4t of these
newspaper articles are simply suimmiaries of what has already been
published elsewhere.





24

Mr. Kotinsky thought that the only objection thus far made to the
separation of the plant index from that of the insect index is that one
constantly discovers himself looking in the wrong place. He thought
that use might be made of Mr. Felt's suggestion of heading the respec-
tive pages with the words "plant index" or "insect index" as the
case might be. He thought the plant index should be made particu-
larly with reference to the idea of indicating the food plants of the
insects and thought use should be made of Mr. Schwarz's suggestion
of not making an index simply of names, but an index of information
that would be found in the publications cited. If the plant index be
used to indicate the food plants of insects and at the same time
measures be taken to avoid confusing plant and insect names as Mr.
Banks had found himself doing, he thought a considerable advance
would have been made.
Mr. Felt remarked that in making an index the work should be con-
sidered not only from the standpoint of the specialist, who is looking
perhaps for some particular record, but from the standpoint of all
who may have occasion to use that index. Generally speaking, he was
inclined to think that an entomologist would hardly use and incor-
porate the name of an insect in his report without accompanying it
with some fact which would probably be useful to some person, and
while Mr. Schwarz's criticism of indices of Dr. Lintner's report might
be true, he did not think that it would apply in all cases. Mr. Felt
stated that he had modified the method of making indices somewhat in
later years, and had omitted indexing some matter which Mr. Schwarz
would probably be very glad to have left out; and yet, as a matter of
fact, he thought these minor references might have been of some
service to others. Mr. Felt spoke further on a little device which he
had used in his indices, namely, the inclusive reference. He con-
sidered it a serious mistake to index a name, say of the Hessian Fly,
wherever it occurred in a publication without giving any idea what-
ever as to the character of the reference, particularly where there
was a detailed account. He thought that if the inclusive reference
was used, giving a little synopsis, a much more serviceable index was
secured, and then it was easy to distinguish between extended notices
and mere references.
Mir. Howard referred to the indices of the Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington, prepared by Mr. Schwarz, and
considered them perfect models of short indices.
Mr. Banks queried whether" recent nomenclature should be used in
index work or the nomenclature well known to entomologists.
Mr. Felt remarked that he had considered incorporating something
about this matter in his address, but thought it might prolong it
unduly.





25


The report of the secretary and treasurer was read and referred to
an auditing committee appointed by the Chair, a- follows: Dr. Henry
Skinner and Mr. E. A. Schwarz.
The following names were proposed for membership by Mr. How-
ard: August Busek, J. Kotinsky, Otto Heidenian, R. P. Currie, 11. G.
Dyar, W. E. Hinds, G. H. Harris, H. G. Barber, H. E. Burke, and
J. L. Webb. Mr. Quaintance proposed for active mmnilbers4iip Messrs.
R. I. Smith and T. B. Symons, of the Maryland Agricultural College.
Professor Webster proposed for foreign membership the nanme of
Mr. Joseph Jablonowski, of the Entomological Station, Budapest,.
Hungary.
Mr. Marlatt inquired if election was necessary in the case of those-,
qualified by their official position.
Mr. Felt thought that according to the constitution it was not, and
that the only question %was should a committee determine whether
their positions qualified them for membership.
On motion of Mr. Osborn, a committee consisting of Messrs. Osborn,
Quaintance, and Banks was appointed by the chair to consider the
names which had been presented for membership and any others that
might be proposed during the sessions.
Mr. Marlatt moved that the chair appoint a programme committee
to arrange a programme for succeeding meetings, which was duly
carried. The chair named Messrs. Marlatt. Fernald, and Burgess.
Mr. Howard moved that a committee of three be appointed on
resolutions, which was carried, and Messrs. Washburn, Busck, and
Rumsey were named by the chair.
A paper was next presented by Mr. A. F. Burgess, as follows:


ECONOMIC NOTES ON THE FAMILY COCCINELLIDIE.

By A. F. BuR(;ES, (001/hl,.1s, ( iu.
Several years ago while located at Maiden, Mas.., I became inter-
ested in the study of the food habits of this family of beetle. Con-
siderable data was collected at that time, and since some additional
notes have been obtained; and it seems (desirable to place the facts on
record, as they may serve as an aid to some future inve-tig'ator of this
subject.
'Many of these beetles hibernatei during the winter in the adult
stage. In Massachusetts it often happens that tlhe lmst conlmion
ladybird, Adiliai bipI,-ftfat hibernates in dwellings, and sNetillme
appears during midwinter in rooms which are heated. i l-ti aly to tlhe
disgust of the housewife, who, not recognizing, t}e friendly character
of her guest, immediately wages a war of extermination.





26


The following species have been captured on dates which indicate
that they hibernate as adults:
JMeilla maculdfi Def(;.-Several hundred examples taken March 31, 1900, at
Urbana, ll. It is a common species in that locality.
IHiqppodmi glfwitlis Fab.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., November 4, 1897.
Hipipol;nia pIirentt, e. 's. Say.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., November 4, 1897. Taken
at Urbana, 111., April 5, 1900.
('ocri,,'lh trif .w.lat Linn.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., April 13, 1898.
Coc;.nella 9-no fa IWh.qt.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., April 12, 1898.
(occin el, swrng/ inea Lhnn.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., May 1,1898. Taken at Urbana,
Ill., April 15, 1900.
A.ladia Lipinclaita Linn.-The most common species in eastern Massachusetts occurs
under loose bark of trees and in sheltered places during the winter.
Iftrinona picjfit Rand.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., May 1, 1898.
3,flsiu pullata Say.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., May 2, 1898.
.1natis 15-pnctata Olir.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., January 12 and April 10, 1898.
Ctiilocorus bivulnerus rul.q.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., April 13, 1898. Taken at
Urbana, Ill., April 26, 1900.
Petilia n m'isella Lec.-Taken at Lakeside, Ohio, October 27, 1900. Large colonies
were found under cloth bands, which had been tied around the trunks of plum
trees infested with San Jose scale. There were thousands of beetles in this orchard.
Brachyacra n(i.{ ursi a Fab.-Taken at, Maiden, Mass., May 5, 1898.
fHyperasi)Is signata Oliv.-Taken at Maiden, Mass., May 1, 1898.
Of the 14 species above listed, Megilla maculata and Adalia bipunc-
tata were the only ones which were found during the winter in colo-
nies. In most cases isolated beetles remain during the winter under
the loose bark of trees or under leaves or rubbish, and come forth on
the first warm days in spring to search for food.
Early in the spring of 1898 they were first found feeding upon
plant-lice eggs. These eggs do not hatch until several days after the
beetles appear; hence this habit of the beetles serves to reduce the
number of lice considerably.
April 13, 1898, many specimens of Adcalia bipunctata were found
feeding on the eggs of an aphid, which was particularly abundant on
the white birch at Malden. A few days later Anatis 15-punctata,
Coceinella sangguinea, C. 9-notata, and Chilocorus bivulnerus, as well as
Adalia bnj)unctata and its variety, ltuneralis, were found busily engaged
in feeding on the aphid eggs. Thousands of specimens of Adalia were
present, and large numbers of Anatis, the other species occurring in
moderate quantities. Three days later both Adalia and Anatis were
found mating, and an egg-cluster of the former species was also
discovered.
The aphid eggs were found hatching April 18, the young lice at
once proceeding to the leaf buds, which were just beginning to burst
open. The development of foliage was considerably retarded by the
cold and wet weather which characterized the spring of 1898.
Larvae of Adalia were found May 1. At this time an excellent
opportunity was offered to observe the interrelations between several








27



species of insects. The ladybirds. in both ad(lult and larval stage, fed

greedily on the eggs of the plant-lice and the youtllng. lire as >oofr as the1

hatched. Accompanying the 1bvetles wa.- also Iloted '-tera!.l .'cit.' of

predaceous bugs, the iitost c ninon llll e el ing I ,/ .. ..' ',.' fs,/ ''..

Although this species was occasionially found feeding oil thle p;ltt-li.e,

it was continually observeId )preyill ng 11pol)l tlhe ladybird, ill all their

stages. The particular species upo'i which it waI taken in ti t arct of

feeding were Al/iiu t ipi ./-,fvifv in thle .egg.. larval. anld adult 't"-:

vc invwll/ /t ';fux.fclfvif, alId ('/ //,u','., i,',/,n, is, Follur .l'pcitii't of

odids'u. &sef/,trO //.,'_ wertv (ontce ob,'ervedl feeding olt a sit i'gle a dutlt v//,

bpiuncfatat.

It is a well-known fact that nanv specie-, (of itl'ct- will Ibotllt' can-

nibals if kept in confinenenti with ilistfticivit ftood. h ut .I//het !j,'],,,.-

tati hlas been observed repltattedllv ill tlet woods ft'tediilg 11)pon tile etgs

of its own species when pllettv of other food wa- availa Ibl te d witlhiii

easy reach.

By the last part of July scarcely a pll:at-l uise( tr ; loadyvbird cot.1ld

be found in the locality wIlthere they liad both been .,so aIbu]tMIdat.

Several species of Coccitnellidah were bred in cotninetieient. ai tile

following table gives their eg'g,'-laing. records. A pair of beetl. was

placed in each jar with food. and the record was contitlled until tlie

female dlied:


[E gg-hf!is,/ ,i'< tiii'.- f .wv'i 'rI'1 I i ';,. If I Itl ,/.if,' i .

[The a'.ttvrisk 1* i iihul.:ia.- dl' hiiltr, lilt litel tili. i,_.\Xp.riii.f'ii \;i- 1nginit


Adalia biputii-
tatra.


A. hilplnt'lisa .
var. hlnitriliS.


*
*
...... 29 .........


.. . . . 15 ..

. ..... . ... ... .. .. ....


2 S.
S ........ .........

13... ...... ..........


. .. .. ... ...... ...'
.. . . . .. ...^ .


12

........ I20 .
........ .. '_.t .
.7 2
11I
....... ... .


2l .


. .. .. ... . .I. .
. .. ... ... .i


. . . . . I.





. . . . ... 1 1
. . . . . ..


. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
.. .. ..... ..
....... ...... ..
10 ........
P1,........


12
-17


*-. . . .


1 7 ... .. ..
i; 1
127 1
17 .......

2I-
-I
I lit


. .. .. .. . . .



. . . . . . ...
S.. ........




.1


Date.


April 6
8
11
13
17
19
19
20
*22
23
24
28
May 1
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
1I
19
20
21
22
23
24
27
28
29
30
June 2


*
" 'u ... '.. '.. ".'."
1.. .. ........



I '. . . . . ..
... 20.. ........


i. .. . . .

*
... ..... II


I 't 4 "i I"-
Ilt. 1. .-


...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........

...........
...........
...........
...........
. . . . . .
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........
...........


. I . "
















........ ..


I I li 4' i -
nll.i tri-
f1-li'iiL.





















. . . . . .




.*J


12'
. . . . . .1


A. ilti- ].-l11ptuint.li l.


o







28


Eg/g-lvting records of seceera species of ladybirds-Continued.


SAdailia bipuiic- A. bipiinctita,
ta. vr. hurte.lis.
ntra. %var. humeralis.


JuIII~ :f3
1
I

10
11
12
13
14
1-7)
16
17
19
21
'22
24
26
27
28
July 4
t;
8
13
1-4
15
21'
;27
28
30
31
Aug. 6
7
9


i.................

I......... ........

........ ........
........ ........



S........ I........

S........ ........
I. ..... ........










..I...........


... . . .




30.. ... 22..


Cocci-
Anatis 15-punctata. nellasan-
guinea.


........ ........
........ ........
.................


A pair of Ada/la bipunctata var. humneralis (see column 3) was placed

in a jar with food April 13, and eggs were deposited on April 20 and

23. On May 3 the female was isolated, but continued to deposit eggs

for three weeks. The eggs, 105 in number, laid from that date until

May 20, hatched, but 18 laid subsequent to the 20th did not hatch. in

this case the female continued to lay fertile eggs for sixteen days after

being isolated.

Several species of ladybirds were reared, and the number of days

spent in each stage is given below. In cases where more than one

individual of a species was reared the average number of days spent
in each stage is given in the table.


Nu mbir of di/s RIspent in different stages of development by several species of ladybirds.


Species. Egg. First Second Third Fourth Pupa. Adult to
pe s gg. larval, larval, larval, larval. Pu adult.

A:\ tlia bipuinctata ................. 6 6 5 5 7 9 38
,Alili lipunctata var. humeralis.. 5 6 5 6 7 9 38
Ai.\ i. I -'Im-victata ................ 8 6 6 5 12 9 46
( lilh 11 1'ri hivutlncrus ........... 13 .................. ........ ....... .. 8 ..........
MNI in j- 1 p llit. ....... .............. 7 .10 5 9 4 7 52
(''l.iiilln .ng1iiincag........ ............. 7 5 6 5 7 7 36
(,'orcii n llah 9-nntatin ................ 7 6 4 2 6 6 30
('octii i iln trifasciata .............. 5 5 6 4 6 8 36


Ii II
: : i...... ....1... ........ ..... .......... ....

1........ 2................................



............
::: : ::1.... .. ............ ....... ...........
........ 20 ... ............. ..................
20....................... ...........



........ ......... .... ... ........ ........ i ..........
... .. ... ...... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. I..... ... .. ..







.......2. 13 ...... .. ........ ...........
.'.....'... .5" 0 1\ '\ \.\ \\ \\\\ .\\ \\...''
I; .......... ....................



........... ......................






.........1 ......... 9....................................
. . .. .. .. .. .. W .. .. -. . '.. .. ... . . . .

........o ......... .......o. ........ ..... o o..... .....







: : ::::: :: :: :: : :::: : :::: : : : ::: ::: : :i:::: :: : :::::: :::: :
.. .. .. .... ... .. .. 3 .. .. .. . .. . .


Cocci-
nella 9-
notata.



1S
23
21
60
38
39
15
20
...........
2









251
.. .. 1.


Cocci-
nella tri-
fasciata.

28
...........

...........
15
..........




16
.... o ......
...........
..........i.



20
"" 25
10
...........
18




19
15
18
9
52
12
15

19
23
2
7
4

426





29


I did not succeed ir, rearing ( '/,'/,,/.,v., l,,/',ii/,.',.., bult seviured onlv
the data given in the table.
The length of tine s)penlt by these beetles inl thlleir ditI'r,'nt -t'U 1s
varies considerable v it is inflittenced ch(lietlv bY the, food -,lpply :iil
weather conditions.
If they are furnished with an alilndlallce of food. ,i is very warln. the length of tillie spl)elt il each .tage' i. I b I e .o.n-
siderablv reduced.
The next tablle gives a -onliviwihat inMconmplete record )of tihe averagee
amount of food consu ned daillv bv thle beetle., and tlie taiiioiit eaten
during each hlarval stagt'e while they were i Ivin rearc,!d in ca'])ti\it\.
The aphids which served as food were, of diflfereit .lp)eie-, and would
average about the size of half-grown apl)le aphidls. ''The biirl alphid
eggs were of the same forii and color. bIut slightly.v ,niallcr than the
eggs of the apple aphis.



Ara ~ hpint t..............................2:1 (IN II)II tjvs
N umber if aphidss rcimsum ',l ,!ilii l'// htuliif,/, is if s, ,, ,.,l .dl,, ri,'.s < ir;,, ,il['r,'') .fit ^.h.

Fir-- Scr,'ic .l.ir.i r Fi;i rtl .I 1
Species. lhirval lIh rvaIl la rval lir\-l
.tl i ln g v .1 ? [ ; .' S t ttR t l ; l t--' .
Adalln bipunetata .................................. 2'3 1o (1 1)
A nali, 15-piTn clata ................................. 1 51 .1). 107 "21: 90
M ysia pi illat ....................................................... . ....... .. .......... 5;
Coccinella s' inguino1ta ............................... .......... ..........
Cocein ella !1-notata ......................... ........ .......... .......... 101)
Coccinella trifstciata ............................... i ;...o 1.-55'.) 5j

An adult specimen of Aldala bipwnctata consumed 100 aphid eggs
daily, and an adult of Ch(il,,,.,rs bbu/,,1'-,, ate about one-half a.,
many of these ecggs during the same period.
The records given show in a general way something of the economic
value of the insects discussed, and gives. it is hoped, more definite
datR concerning some points in their life history than has been pub-
libihed heretofore.



Mr. Marlatt stated that he had been much interested in this paper,
and thought that it threw light on a number of matters about which
information was needed. He asked Mr. Kotmnsky to give a brief
statement on the a imonint of food which the Asiatic ladybird wotl(
eat, since Mr. Kotini-kv had b-cin looking after those details. He
further stated that tlie eg'g records which Mr. Burges li\tVl give were
interesting, hut he did( notcon-ider them of -siiicieint numnlewr to war-
rant definite conclusiont s as- to the nutiiber of eggs deposited by tlhe
insects. He thought M, r. S'hwarz could give -,(me information on that
point. He thought that plrolably all ladybirds would )e foutnl to live
for a considerable length of time, the iniported ('/,,'/,< vc;//', */u ;;./v suir-





30


giving nearly a year, and that egg laying normally extended over a
l)rotracted period.
iMr. Kotinsky stated that he had been charged by Mr. Marlatt with
the care of the imported Asiatic ladybird ever since it had reached this
country, a little over a year ago. He had had occasion to closely
watch its food habits until during .the summer, when large numbers
were 'Tavailable and could safely be confined for close observation. At
Mr. Marlatt's suggestion he had once placed three larvae, one each
of the first, second, and third stages, in a jar upon a peach twig
covered with young newly hatched peach scales (Diaspispentagona).
These had been kept for seventy-two hours, and after making very
liberal allowance it was calculated that they had eaten in the course of
those three days some 14,000 larvae, an average rate of 1,500 in the
course of twenty-four hours, or a little over one per minute for each
beetle larva. Upon a closer observation still he had found that a half-
grown larva about the second stage would eat a larva of the scale in
the course of about five or six seconds, and would consume about 5 or
6 per minute. He thought the larvte spent some time wandering
about, resting, etc., which accounted for the reduced average when
rates per day were considered. Only on one occasion, and that an
abnormal one, had he observed one of the larvte to eat another. This
occurred when two full-grown larwe were confined upon a stick which
had ho food upon it at all. He was rather surprised to find that the
smaller of them had been eaten into by the large fellow immediately back
of the head. The beetles themselves are equally voracious. He had
not had a chance to count, but they will eat the scale in all stages and
plenty of them. It is very interesting to watch them devour an old
scale. They do not bore underneath it, but gnaw a hole through the
scale close to the exuvium and presumably suck the juices of the scale
insect. Time and again he had found the mutilated skin of the adult
female adhering closely to the inside of a scale. Once in a while he had
seen the beetles chasing each other and enjoying themselves generally
upon the twigs. It was also very amusing to see a female sitting over
a scale, the ovipositor projected underneath, and herself engaged, in
many instances, in calmly devouring the host, which she had appar-
ently withdrawn from beneath its dome. He had never found an egg
beneath a scale when it was perforated. Normally the egg is depos-
ited underneath the scale, but he had seen some deposited on the bark,
but in no instance had he observed that under these conditions they
hatched into larv'c. He had also found some eggs among the bristles
of empty pupR, cases.
Mr. Kotinsky further remarked that he had been much interested
in the note made by Mr. Burgess on the failure of breeding Chilocorus
trui, /, ru.s. In spite of all his efforts for over a year now, he had failed
absolutely in obtaining the eggs from this species. Mr. Heideman







had once called his attention to a tree on the grounds of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture thickly covered with the Plutnani scale (,.,,'dw-
tmq aneyli.,), upon which were feedin,,g a num1elvri of thle twice--:ltalbbed
ladybird larvae. These were the first larva'e of thi4 specie- whilil lie
had noted last stiinmier, as they were tiuntusally v-ca re.. l'epeatied
attempts to obtain the eggs. from either the captured adult- or other
beetles reared in c()nfinemnient lihad resulted in disappointment. He
expressed a desire to compare eggs of this speviev with thse of
Chilocorus .8;mn1;.,. Ile \\was not aware that the egg of a iv ( 7';lir,,,,.;
had been previously described. which :acC ( unted for the difficulty
experienced in finding the eggs. There were only two 1el'tlv.s of the
Japanese ladybird left in the spring, and the absorbing prohleimi with
him had been to find the eggs. Some one had suggested that these
might be found in clusters on the surface of the bark, but this did not
prove to be the case. He had frequently turned tup the scales upon
traversed twigs to see whether the scale insects were edible, and in
the course of these examinations had discovered underneath the -cale
something which had at first been taken to be a parasite of the scale
insect, but which upon closer examination proved to be the ecgg of
Chiloeoru. s,,,,.u'.
Mr. Howard remarked that hlie was not aware of other careful obser-
vations upon the life history of Coccinellids in this country except the
series of Mr. Marlatt and Mr. Kotinsky, and those made by Mr.
Coquillet in California, and his recollection was that the total life from
egg to adult of l'l, n'1d;e,,,;, in California vwas much shorter tlhian
the life histories which Mr. Bur,-ess had followed in Mahsachtuse-tt.
Mr. Coquillet stated that his observations on those ladybirds in
California had been so long ago that the details had pas.-d from, his
mind.
Mr. Fiske stated in relation to the life hi.torv of Ch/;ocorw,,.. I,/,id, 1,,',4
in Georgia that he considered it a most valuable species from an eco-
nomic standpoint, and that he had had a good imany opport inities- to
observe its younger stag,-es and to o ,ser-ve it throughout the year. The
eggs had been for a long time unknown to him, but last spring lie lhad
found them in considerable quantities upon old peach tree infested
with the cherry scale, and thie egg', were sitHated under tlie -.tle, oni
the bark. At the time they were found they were brown in c',lort
instead of yellow, as he hal! expected. They were(, not r1,,i'1rd to full
maturity. He mentioned a very inter,,-ti ,,;, intaitcit wit.ich lhid
occurred in Georgia tlhe prevent year indicati '. tlie value of litlybirl(..
The season had been veiw lontg and unuuai ly dry and till plantt-li,.e
had had an unusually good opportunity for develop1imevnt': t-pl"ci:llv
was this true of the cotton adphis. Although thi i n,'rt ttiially di--
appears about the first or middle of up until the 1st of July adl threatened to do coniidera "l, tlianiage.





32


About the middle of July letters began to come in to the Department
(concerning a so-called new insect occurring on cotton. The prevalence
of the Colorado potato beetle in Georgia at the present time led many
of the cotton growers to think that this plant was being attacked by
the Colorado potato beetle. Upon receiving specimens of the insect
injuring cotton, it proved to be Hippo(ldam i convergens, the specimens
received being mostly in the larval and pupal conditions. For some
time something over twenty letters a day were received from cotton
growers concerning this insect. He had made two or three trips to
the cotton fields to .observe this species and found that it occurred in
very extraordinary numbers; thousands of them on the cotton plants.
There would be as many as a dozen or fifteen or even twenty larvae
and pupae of this ladybird on one tip of the plant, perhaps no more
than 3 inches long. There were also present larve of certain lace-
winged flies, but he considered this ladybird beetle the principal agent
in checking the outbreak of the cotton aphis.
Mr. Fiske further stated that both he and Mr. Scott had been giv-
ing considerable attention to the ladybirds as found in Georgia and
hoped soon to be able to publish a paper on them. One species, an
ecocomus, had been reported as feeding on scale insects, and he was
informed, he thought by lIr. Schwarz, that this genus was one that
fed almost exclusively on scale insects. He had observed this species
frequently, and so far it had occurred largely on plant-lice and only
occasionally on scale insects.
Mr. Burgess remarked in reference to Chilocorus bivulnerus that he
had attempted to rear it a number of times, but had been unable to do
so. This species appeared to feed on plant-lice, and when plant-lice
eggs were offered the beetles early in the spring they were devoured
quite greedily. In his own experiments he had been able to obtain
only two or three eggs of this species, and they had been deposited on
a twig placed in a jar. Only one of these eggs had hatched, and this
was how he had obtained the record indicated, of the length of the egg
stage.



The next paper, presented by Mr. F. L. Whshburn, was as follows:

DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHINCH BUG IN MINNESOTA.
By F. L. WASHBURN, S. Alnthon!/ Park, Vinn.
From observations made last summer, from reports of correspond-
ents, and from press articles it is evident that the chinch bug has
been this season confined to the southeastern, south central, and
southern portions of the State. Careful examination of Professor
Lugger's past reports indicates that this is not a condition of affairs







33

peculiar to this year. lint cani l DIe r e I,'(ei'.d L, till, periiiLI'iiiil 11141iiion
in Mlinnesota.
An iman ginarv linie draw l f i'oli NIM,'i. ill till'i. i-t l'l pati ot1 (f t is

State, southwest to ie'lisl. : a d H th.1 .,ollthI to Io wa \\oIIlI i\i\4iu ioll
its southern awl d eastern .-id' tid ;ii'mta ii'-t',I tli, \yeLvar. It i- llot to
he understood that aill of thi territory was o('cc'i dlilIY tiller (hij 'li


C-

Hil


I)LY~
zH
S.-.
I 1 I
I I


"3 :2


5__-<_ ONTARIO '
- ^ r -__-- _-% m ,. i i[ _ [







.. .... .... -* .. -
.._.__ I .L. .









_ *,- ... ,,---..... . . 1 i-
__ --, :-


- I. : -
-_ -- -
"-FL. --- -- --- _- i i .Z --- -- -g .. -.A' _


.. i~srer--,.-, ..-.

-,-


i-.-....... ( _
-#


Ia
C.
0
'I.


--- PINE
- -- 1887
1894-
1895
1902


C
1
"f


N
.1 Nh
*Ji I


Kb-.- ~
O~ '~V


F l,,. 1 ; LI m.11,, ,. ii ,l i-i i l, ,1ii i i. 11 ill, !,, .-, i!' ",I ;i ir,," ..I I

hIu.2, lut all the iuifecl.ted c ,( ,itI- h, eiara'i 'r i, \ ii, 1, h)1, ii1 I i i,, i'.lil 1 )\-
such ai lille. I lote tlha;it I )r. Lii.1.. r1r1)It 1or 1,,7',. aiil l4
('oincid quiiitc clo el'v witl t 'li l,' ili liI-. (f I' 11'.'. I'II la tl. I' i Ii- it.','
clear 1 have had ia mal) ( 1i\ I i (,.,e iId I m i(ii i f i lii. L' or '-, to \\ liili
I have added tlih line, I refer to i- a ',lrpre-e'nt iii, v liller ,'-. t lii-" \,L1".
In the years noted (1, 7. 1,94. :aiid l.D!.) I)ir. 1 l,' r L fouled tie -li ille

22170--11i i:3--:


pq


---------------- --


_c






34


coIunties infested which I have reported upon and in addition, as you
will iote fromn tilhe chart, a few counties to the north. He also refers
to one iolated example in 19.5 from the extreme northern part of the
State near Lake Vermilion. This latter reference, as far as I can
make out. is something in the nature of a rumor. I can find no speci-
Illenis in the collection substantiating the report. The chinch bug is
not known in the Red River Valley along the western border, nor is it
known north of the imaginary line shown in the map, with the possible
excel)tion above noted. It occurred to me that these conditions might
interest (ntomologists, particularly as maps have been published and
re1)ulblished indicating" in a general way that the chinch bug is found
over the entire State. It must be admitted that a few sections might
have chinch bugs which are not reported, nevertheless the close simi-
larity in the findings of the late Dr. Lugger and the present entomol-
)ogist would seem to place the matter of its distribution beyond ques-
tion. The year has been unfavorable for this pest, the summer having
been a decidedly wet one. I might say that much of the blame of
injury caused by the Hessian fly, a pest even now of almost universal
occurrence in Minnesota, has this summer been laid at the door of the
chinch bug, with which farmers are much more familiar than they are
with the former insect.


At the conclusion of this paper Mr. Burgess inquired of Mr. Wash-
burn if the chinch bug fungus was being used in Minnesota to any
extent at the present time.
Mr. Washburn replied that it had been almost entirely abandoned.
It had not been found practicable.
The meeting then adjourned, to reassemble at 2 p. m.

'FTERJVOOV SESSION, FRIDA 15, DECEMBER 26, 1902, 2 P. M.
The meeting was called to order by the president, who, after calling
AMr. Osborn to the chair, presented a paper on the following subject:

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GRAPEVINE ROOT-WORM.
By E. P. FELT, Albuni, N. 1.
[Withdrawn for publication elsewhere.]
Ir. Burgess .remarked that the life history of the grapevine root-
wormi had been worked out by Messrs. Webster and Mally several
yeaCvs ago, nd(1 that this had l)been published along with results of their
exlperi1e1lts in its control. A year ago he had carried on a few
eXpl)riments under Mr. Webster's direction for spraying for this
ins.cci with ar;senate of lead, and, although the results were not con






35


elusive, it appeared tlhat -lome consider0able b)enefit hald b),,en derived
from the sprayinlg. Hle .tated that the graipevi e ro(ot-worml (,o *ccre1d
in the grape districts in northeii Olhio, e.pecial nist (4f Cleveland.,
where in some localities it did a gre;,t deil of injury.


The next paper was pre.-nted !y Mr. ()shi rn,a;ts- follows:

A METHOD FOR MOUNTING DRY COCCIDJE FOR PERMANENT
PRESERVATION.
BV lIM:RHKK T -I{)n, Columbu.N f)I;,,.

Probably all who have lhL(l occasion to preer've sc.le ii .ects have
appreciated the desirability of oltainini a mor 1)prcticab:)le method
than those now in voglet. The writer Ila. tried the several mlL'tlhods in
use, such as pinning in i sect boxe.s, inchlo,-ing the speimoe,.- in 'la,
vials or tubes, placing them in folded paperi-:,. etc. Each l m-; it own
disadvantage, and one common to all is tli;at of the danger of the -cales
being scraped off or loosening in time so they fall off.
The plan now proposed is to put the speciimens, together with the
twig or leaf to which they are attached, between two slips of mica
which are the size of the -tand(lard 3 by 1 micro-cope slide, the two
slips being bound together by piece, of gummed paper. ;as in mounting
lantern slides. At one end a label may be placed. The whole fit- into
a mi(icro(scope-slide 1ox, and the mounts may thus be filed along with
balsam mounts. The advantage,' to be g, ained by the method are:
Preservation from moi-ture, fro)l inset p,-ts, and from iran\ags of
other character. Not the least of the advant:agil, are tho:i, of .torinc'
and facility of handling. Thus. the mounts may be tiled, a, d.:-.ribed
al:ove, in slide boxe-s, or they ma-y be pinned in i-.ect boxes or placed
under glass for exhibition purpo-.-, :n ld if dt,.i rd(l they c'I 1i e wrapped
in bundles and .Iarried in the pocket into the field. This latter .-,t-
gestion may meet with sy empathy from thiw-v field collector-;r or i peet-
ors who desire to take with them into thle fi.ld authentic l,,.e.ime-ii
for reference.
The method of moiuntino may N,, varield for tlw di flierent kinds i f
spl)ec;iens. Tihus. thin lea'v'- may 1)e simply 1)pr '-ed -l )et e t en the two
sheets of mica and tli ede, boundd. Fo)r pite- ()f hark aind tllicker
leaves or rind of fruits ;i cell about three-fiirtli of ;in imh by 2 in
may be mna(le from card),;ard, il which Ili,' '-]cit'eiiens 11'.y In, ltc'd.
the mica slips being bodmild over the cell. For -till thicker piee.,., -u c1
as small twigs, tlhe cell Imay 1e lmade t' dee'pe'r while e tlt. eii lIs of t1, moiunit
are left thin in order to tit into tle -rI"ovcv il tlhe slide lixI.-.
The specimens to lit motntid -hllld mld thIliro ,,-f ily dry. Il tlie
case of leaves. piece's of bark. or'.llge rild. or part- tlhatt t ond t curl,





36


in order that they may lie to the best advantage they should be dried,
as in the preparation of botanical specimens, between blotters. If
.lhsir-ed, glass slides mnay be used and mica used for covering. The
advantage of mlica over glass is (evident, as the mica is not subject to
breaking as readily as glass and is much lighter.
TI'lle expense for material is but little more than 1 cent per mount,
and the mounts can lie made in very short time by anyone neat at
pasting, so the cost of the method is certainly within reason.



The next paper was presented )by Mr. Felt. and was on the following
subject:

RESULTS OBTAINED WITH CERTAIN INSECTICIDES.
By E. P. FELT, Albeti!l AN. .
[Withdrawn for publication elsewhere.]

At the conclusion of this paper it was voted to defer discussion until
a series of papers of a similar character had been presented.



The next paper was presented b)y Mr. Quaintance.

FURTHER NOTES ON THE LIME, SULPHUR, AND SALT WASH IN
MARYLAND.
By A. L. QUAINTANCE, (College Park, Md.

At the Pittsburg meeting in June last I presented some notes on the
use of the lime, sulphur, and salt wash as a treatment for the San Jose
scale in Maryland. Further observations have been made on these
tests, and it appears desirable to briefly present the results, particu-
larly since the conclusions reached in June as to the lack of efficiency
of the wash now appear to have been premature.
'pe .?1,1'1.0t -Twenty baidly infested Japan plum trees were treated
at College Park, Md., on March 4. The last examination before the
Pitts]nilrg meetingg was made on June 2, practically three months later.
At this time the youiig live scales were very numerous, crawling
a round over the limbs and branches, and mlany had already settled.
Live adult females were also very abundant even where the wash was
still adhering to the trees. Scraping infested branches with a knife
blade flatwise pressed out an abundance of the oily fluid from the








bodies of the insvct't. I'The per cent of ,icale killed )by the tre:atm ein it
was car-efully est inmatled at from ';7-) to ;O.
Examimatiojis of t he-e t rn- i at di 'rent tim., during, July anld Anust
revealed that the scali, wr, grad:t I u lly becoming lesr and 1,-s ill-t.at!
of more nutmierouts. as. w, Uld have been expected from the large per
cent of adult iiisects that hadl .est.tcapedI treattl ent. Bythe first week in
Julv the over-winlteri,,, f(,let s wre practically ll d:II havinlr ("iven
birth to their young. 'T11. I unig Iaiva- to a consideiable extent failed
to permanllntlyV establish the,- .'lve,.. and priactically all of th,, .+ which
had settled so1on afterwahir ls died. Only here and there could a live
maturing insect. Ie fomid. i ,a l t liO,'se were 1m 'stly on the terminal
growth. By the midl(1le of Autgtit the old scales were peelinM flom
the trunks anid brl'ntches. ant(1d m Septembler 6, tlie date of last- exami-
nation. the trees were nioiticeahbly Ibrighter and smoother, owing to the
general falling of t tlhe l(da(l scales. But comparatively few live
scales could be foi nd. altlIhougilh these -.tine tee's,-, were alive with the
crawling larvae il .ltu.
,/i.r,'uf II.-This test ;wa- made at Annapolis Junction on 225
10-year-(old apple ttree., an(i atbMoIut 5) 2-yea.r-old peach tree-. The
wash was applied i lMarch 27 ard 2S. Ani examination on June 13,
about two and 110ne-half o11titl., later, showed young, crTwline) liiee in
great, a-lbindtance, an(d the ;matu r e 1,eeding fiIIales were so 1111numerous
that but little good appearlcd to have been accomplished by the treat-
merit. The percentaLge of sca'le- killed was placed at from 45 to 50).
This orchard was l(o)t examine led awaiii until September S. Instead
of findings these trees b1adIv iiifested with scale they were found to lie
remarkable clean. Li\ x s.ale, were r', allyv hard to find even this' lati,
in the season. Ti' l(t scal,'s hadl largely shelled off and the truiks
and limbls had takeii n o -, lick. healthy apptearan'ce. Even on tre'es-.
that had been enicristcd with scalt.e, the reutilts were apparently equally
gcood.
The final outcome of the-w tes-ts. of te \\-wal was quite a surpri-e.
It would appear thaMt rsuav-tlt tae e e1(1 expected too soo,,f after the
application of tlhe wash. andl it further appears. as l-t- i's reiently 1,i.n
shown hvy Mall'" il thi,' c';-, oft /)".";xO p. if"gowi-. tliat a sufficient
amoiunlt of the wash prI)al-(hi v remains oni the trunk-s and limb)s to
destroy thle larva' comi.iiltg fnmim thoe female-, which .es;ped the treatt-
menit. Tlie filial eiect (if the wa\\-a in the two cas-'e. cite]d and( in other
cases that have comle IndeIl.r it ovse'rtvati,,n lIa'ds- me to believe that
we have aL most valuable- treatmen'viit for tiliv Sa:tl Jo-.< -.ale in tlhe lime.
sulphur, and salt wash.
"Entoinolouiral NSu-. vol. 13, p. 22:3.





38


Following this paper the secretary read a communication from Mr.
WV. 1,. Britton, as follows:

THE LIME, SULPHUR, AND SALT MIXTURE IN CONNECTICUT.
By W.' E. BRITTON, Nt'w Hlaven, Conn.
In the spraying experiments conducted by the station during the
spring of 11. 12 the linime, sulphur, and salt mixture was given a trial
in three different localities in Connecticut. April 1 a pear tree near
New Haven was sprayed with a mixture containing 50 pounds of lime,
50 pounds of sulphur, and 50 pounds of salt to 150 gallons of water.
Another pear tree was sprayed on April 15 with a mixture made in
the same way. On MIay 23 a careful examination of these trees showed
that less than 1 per cent of the scales were alive. The same formula
was used on one peach tree and one cherry tree at Bridgeport April
16. No living insects could be found on these trees when examined
on June 23. The trees were very late about putting out their leaves,
and on April 18 six Japanese plum trees and one peach tree at Terry-
ville were sprayed with a mixture made of 30 pounds of lime, 20 pounds
of sulphur, 15 pounds of salt, and 61 gallons of water. On June 24 the
trees were examined and the percentages of living insects were found
to vary from 0 to 7, the average of the seven trees being 3.36 per cent.
In each case this insecticide was used in comparison with 25 per cent
crude oil mixed with water and several other mixtures. It proved to
be as effective in destroying the scale insect as any of the other prepa-
rations employed, and in no case did it injure the trees, while some
harm followed the application of crude oil, both undiluted and in the
25 per cent mixture, in several cases. The largest percentage of living
insects on the sprayed trees occurred on branches which were very
badly infested, being covered several layers in depth with the bodies
of the insects. The insecticide in some cases had not penetrated the
mass sufficiently to kill those at the bottom.
The line, sulphur, and salt mixture has also been used in several
large Connecticut orchards the past season, and has given satisfactory
re..'lts. It will be employed much more extensively the coming
season.


At the conclusion of this paper the subject was opened for discussion.
M1r. Alwood remarked that for some years he had been somewhat
of ;lin advocate of both refined and crude oil. In Virginia they had
sprayed thousands of trees with these forms of petroleum, and in the
111:11in "-od .results had followed. In some cases the results had been
remnarkably good. He desired to call attention to a case where the
u..c of oils had been very beneficial. This particular case was a young





39


orchard of about 500 wi nesap applel-. ScaIle inse.,ts were di-.,vered
on these trees, he thought in 1S.S, about three, yers after -.tting'.
The insects were dise.,overedi in the sume11ri, a1i1d five tr.e- out of the
500 or more were quite batily (()att d. TIhere had 1een, of curi.,.,
some spread to other tree,. 'in young on hard was in a very 1e:imti-
ftuil condition, avid the owner hlli :iappal,.ed to hint to do )ie('thintl' to
.top the spread of the insect. 11e, l:tad already been ak ing experi-
ments in the way of sutimmer work, and so he reeoIImended sprayin:"
these trees with ptre kero-.ene, 150 Uia-li test, and this lad eei.i dIo0ne.
Three of the trees li:ad died from the treatment. They were covered,
with the scale, and of course were weak front the effect of the insect.
Two of them ia(1d lived throut5h the application of pure kerosei, in
the stiniimer and are still living', and up to the pr,-eit time were f tree
from scale. He further -tat etd that he hiad applied ker,,,ene to some
thousands of trees in the summer timein, and in no cae:- had tre,, beh1en
killed by its use except where lie lhad killed( thel, purpo-,ely in order
to determine how much oil the tree.- could stand.
li the case of the 'young orchard cited, the iw,,ects had not all ,een
exterminated and the oil was again applied in the dormant :-,.on, and
this was repeated in 1900. In 190)1 the applircition had been ch : -edl
to crude petroleum late, in the winter s.a-,in or early in the spring.
.The scale was not eradicated y this- treatiiitment, anlld crule petrol(,um
was used again in 1902. He thought the la4t application lhad 1argelv
eradicated the scale; but he lhad visited the orchard the 1st of Septem-
Ier. 1') 2, and had found a very few Satn Jo-, .rale on five tr,.-.. The
infestation was chiefly at the 1a=-e of tlie trees in the ri,,i on where
the trunks of the trees and -oil come together. Some few had been
found il crevicev- of the 1ark. lie explained that this instance w a-
mientiOlie becat',(-e that orclhard to-day is a reimairkally fi e one, 8S
years 4 1d, apparently uninjured by the treattient. a-md the scale, while
not eradIicated. has 1been, ht thoroughly repressed that it hlad( a'cmti-
plished no liarm. The tree.- that were first so thorol-,hly tr.eate,,d with
the p11re kero-.ne tare aplparently freei from tie scale. ie rhe are a
few tree., in tlie or.ci ard whih were never ,ad lv infestel, pro) :ibly
six or eight, which are still slightly infe-ted. This is only one of a
"0o0d n ltv cases in Virg(inia which could be mention d. ut w:as to) 1e
co'nsideret-d ill itrative of the work where i itelli ,ntly done.
M r. lFiske stated that ilk (,e.r'i: tlhe S.a .ii -.i.:ile ladl .,e.n tlhe
chief featurre of tle work of the delprtment of entomlogi- y for a g'od
many I'elarls past. Thel',y l I),,ee.i o.1li,', to fiIht it with everyl known
lleans. iild for -.no veat'- oil lt ee recoimendid. Ii a \\;I v tle
oil treatmntllad hbeen siicce'-,fll where applied vo'retly. Still there,
had leen a gool dea:l of eompltiint fro'm .,rower- tliat 1l. tr1ee- biad
been killed lby the oil anid Ilat llthe fruit huads 6l 4 .1ee, injured. lel
had found in comiparingw tle publi.lhed(l re-nlits with ( oil in the dill e'e.nt
parts of the country that a c.,-id-ri:bl,, di iterence of opinion pre.vail-





40


as to its value. Last winter in order to straighten out certain vexed
points, ; series of (experimients had been instituted by the department.
Several different orchards hlad been used, embracing trees in different
stages of growth and in different conditions. These had been sprayed
with oil, with the lime; sulphur, and salt wash, and various other mix-
tures. A few points had been cleared up. but the results of these
exp)erimenlts had raised numerous other points, so that on the whole,
from his standpoint, he had not been much enlightened by the tests.
In Georgia at the present time the question is not what is the best
general treatment for the San Jose scale, but what is the best treat-
ment for any particular orchard, and the conditions in every orchard
are different. In the experiment work last winter two orchards had
been used, one of which was two years old, containing large trees for
their age, healthy and thoroughly infested with the scale. The other
was an orchard of 4-year-old trees, healthy, rather mature, and,
if anything, worse infested with scale than those of the younger
orchard. The experiments were duplicated on these two orchards,
which were situated about half a mile apart, the soil and weather con-
ditions being practically the same. Frequently the same insecticide
had been applied to the respective orchards on the same date and by
the same hands. *A treatment that had been perfectly successful in the
older orchard was anything but successful on the young trees. For
instance, 20 per cent petroleum in one application on the older trees
was very effective in killing the scale, and in August and September
there were practically no scales to be found on those trees. In the
younger orchard, however, while it killed probably as many of the
scale, yet, owing to the healthful condition of those trees, every young
scale that hatched and settled down seemed to be successful and in
due time gave birth to young. Thus in the fall in this orchard there
were trees practically dead with the scale where hardly a live scale
could be found in the spring, In the younger orchard there were
half a dozen different varieties of peaches. On some varieties the
s':ale was killed and in August they were practically free, while, with
the same treatment in every respect, other varieties were badly infested
with the scale. There were fully ten times as much scale on some
varieties as on others. He considered it important in treating the
Sanl Jose scale to get first of all a knowledge of the condition of the
tree as affecting the health of the scale. Ile considered it necessary
to know, when advice was asked concerning treatment for any given
orchard, what the condition of the orchard was. He considered that
perhaps 20 per cent oil would be satisfactory or not, depending on
the age and condition of the trees. In his opinion this was one reason
why the results with oil had varied so much.
The present winter the lime, sulphur, and salt wash had been recom-
mended largely, although with certain reservations, and he wanted to
know if any who had experimented with it had found it unsatisfactory.







Mr. Alwood d(-;ired that th(,:, who lhad wi..m1 the lime, ill)hllur, :wiid
salt wash would make their experielici known ea-, lie coidered
it a very important question. He stated tlj;l ht lie 11il not u-,o, the N\ash
enough to have comne to definite conclusions a!out it. Hle con.idred
that it was very' important to dic.o-ver :1 t I';tiea t llet hat would n()ot
prove injurious to trec ., for in his opinion the avera.(e workman would
often be likely to injure tree, by the oil tr'at ment.
Mr. Fiske remairked tliat i ) connection with their ,experieni .. wilthi
the wash as used la-t winter, the results were very much like thi-'e
already reported by Mr. Quaintance. The scale hail not been killed
at once, and notes made in May as to the efficiency of t1ie wa .1 indi-
cated that it was very unsatisfactory. It was e-ti hmtated thiat from 10)
to 25 per cent of the sca.les were alive on the trees at that time.
Examinations in August, however, showed that the p1,r cent of live
scales was very much less. He did not think that the ii-,.cts which
actually escaped treatment bred .,) fast on trees .-prayed with the linme,
sulphur, and salt mixturev as in the ca.e of those sprayed with oil.
Mr. Burgess stated that a gro at deal of spraying lid l)een done last
winter in Ohio with crude petroleum, especially in the peach district,
and a great deal of damage had been done. As a rule, crude pt roletium
had been used undiluted, lie considered that if a grower u,,,s a pump
designed to make the mechanical mixture of the oil with water and
sprays liberally, he may get as much oil on the tree as if he sprayed
sparingly with the undiluted crude oil. A good many of the growers-
a majority of them. in fact-used the pure crude oil. A I:lrge number
of trees had been killed and a large number li:ad been -,riously
injured. These were( mostly peach. He did not recall at that time
that apple trees had been (vriously hurt b)y the use of pure ('rude
petroleum, although a number of orchards had been treated with tlhi-
'suI)stance, and the owners were of the opinion that the -cale hl I) been
greatly re diced.
In reference to the liime. sulphur, and -alt \vali. Mr. Bur., -t-;ted
that a few experiments had been iiiade and a few growers had u-i.d the
mixture, and, from w iat lie had seen, the re-ults \\e(re good. Sme of
the growers from northern Ohio liatd, within the 1;l14t inth. vi-ited
sonme of the peach(l and apple orcha.]rds in ,)uthern Illinois that l;,1I
been treated 1)v the .-praying force employed )y I)r. Forl,. Th-
orchards had beeit treated the )pait winter with the lime. sulphur. and
salt wash. and had bee i visitedl by the growers in order to ,,,t an id(lea
of w'hat could lie done with this a--li. lhey applea'ed to Ie very well
satisfied with tlhe treatinent, and some vwere making.): arr:a iwe mients to
use it on their trees. Mlr. Ilur gis-s further Aa;itedl tl it in thec piach
district of northern Ohio he did i ,)t consiidIir it ad lvi-able 1, r) wm-
mend the use of crude oil in any form except to tlii,, (I1-crM% who
had been able to handle it succes'fully in tlhe pa)-t. \While -nI)ne had





42


been able to .sl)pray their orchards with this substance without injury,
InaLniv others had not. 'lThe reason for this difference was not plain to
hi, Ias in so0111C cases, at least, there was reason to believe that the
ineii were equally careful.
Mr. Webb stated that the results from spraying with the lime,
tulllphur,,and salt wash had varied d widely in Delaware. In some cases
the results had been excellent. Five hundred 3-year-old trees in fair
condition, only moderately infested with the scale, had been thor-
ouglIly sprayed with this wash, so that they were white from top to
bottom. Shortly afterwards the trees had been examined very care-
fully by Professor Sanderson, who thought that not 25 per cent of the
insects had been killed; but in August and September there were but
very few living scales to be found. Mr. Webb stated that he had
examined the apple trees.frequently himself, and was very soon struck
with the fact that no young scales could be found. On the other
hand, an orchard on the adjoining farm, a year or two older, sprayed
by the same men and under apparently similar conditions, showed
very poor results4 At no time during the season were the trees at all
free from the young, crawling scales, and )by the middle of the sum-
mer a great many of the trees had been ruined. On the whole, very
little benefit seems to have come from the treatment. Mr. Webb
thought there was undoubtedly an explanation of the difference in
results, but was not able to account for the difference himself. Mr.
Webb mentioned other cases where orchards of from 500 to 1,200
trees had been sprayed, though the work had not been done very
thoroughly, but he considered the results excellent in view of the fact
that the work had been done so poorly. Considerable crude oil and
some refined oil had been used in Delaware on peaches and plums as
well as on apples and pears, and there had been absolutely no injury,
unless, as mentioned by Mr. Aiwood, the attempt had been made to
kill the trees. With some pumps, making a mechanical mixture of
oil and water, the mixing had not been well done, some trees showing
just a trace of oil and others were covered with a thick coat. Yet no
injury had resulted from such treatment, so that the majority of fruit
growers are rather inclined to use the oil.
Good results had also been secured by the use of the soap emulsion,
which was used to a considerable extent, and, all things considered,
lfn. thought probably this had given best results. The refined kerosene
lhad been used almost exclusively in making this soap emulsion, but
very little of the crude oil being used. In one instance, where 25 per
cent emulsion hliad been sprayed on plum trees just before the buds
had opened. there had been no injury, and a fu!l crop of fruit had
been borne 1bv the trees the following year. This same orchard had
1eien treated in the spring of 1902 with approximately 33 per cent of
kerosene eimulsion with very excellent results, although the treatment





43


had been giv-en somewhat earlier tbiit that of the yva:r prev i,,. In
another case an orlchard of 3,000 trees hadl been spra-ved with .2'0 a1;id
25 per (cent kerosene-soap emulsion, using tw, ,,r three tini asii. mu in
soap as is ordinarily prescril(ed. al-o usillng (,q),I's polt) sh wia:le-oil
soap. This treatment lhad been given duriir the -pring of I01lo- and
up to Novembel)r, but very few live scales were to Im. found in the
orchard. It required very carefiil exatiiiiit io1i s tto till ( ay 1 :i1Ve- at
all on approximately 90 1per cent of the tree..
Mr. Alwood desired to know ex:ict.ly how the emulsion l1:i 1 ht.,n
prepared.
Mr. Webb stated that he had not done the work himself, sinmply
observing it, but it was his recol election tIl:it a pound of so;,i) w\\ -,.-rd
to a gallon of water and a gallon of oil to make the enulion, andI thel
2 gallons of water were added to make the 25 per cent mixture, and in
other cases 3 gallons of water to imake the 20 per cent mixture.
Mr. Fiske stated, in reference to the emulsion, that it L1.ad 4,4,,,n use-I
to some extent in Geo gia 1.ist winter. It had been experimented
with quite (exte,-ively, and the pre sent winter a l:trge number of
growers were discarding their kerowater pumps and makiuin,, the
emulsion. They are putting" it on at the ratet of 16 p)I'r cent, and in
general their -method of procedure is to make an emulsion of 2
p)Outnds of soap.
Mr. Fernald remarked that the San Jo-, .-.ale lhad 1en in MaIt---
chusetts for some years, but that there had not 1,e,. an opportunity
for experilienting upon it until the present year. Last year and the
year before the college orchard had been found to be quite )a(ldly
infested. This orchard consists of 600 trec-, ranging from (1 to 30
years old, and the infes.-tation by the scale was very general. The id,,a
in undertaking the tests was to determine the value of the dilffel'nt
substances employed under New Englad (conditions. *Different trees
were treated, the applications beiig made I-tht spring, about March 27
to April 14. At that tiie the weather qwas puite v: rialle, that there
was an oppl)ortunmity to test the effect of different kinds of weather 1l1)(um
spraying operations. In view of the faict t hat it had been s(,,1,1's tid
that temperature and weather condition: in general m.igzht affect the
results from spi'ayino,, full meteorological record- were kept for every
tree. This inchwidid a record of the temp rnitn re, force, ;mid dir.'ction
of the wind. humidity, etc. A ca ;reful study of the ri'eod', in liic: t,-
that 11no relation exist-, except possill\- in a slight iegree in t1 ;i appli-
cation of keros:eie. -Mr. Fermlldl did not colsi.der tlhat tle w\,:eatler
made ainy perceptible differei'ce i, except as t:mtt,.d. As to tlle' 1,i-t
method of determining g res-0uIlt-. tl e p-eLaker :tate ,l ta1 lit he soo,,, l,,,,: iin,
satisfied that early counting of tle peliret.'g of living- -,-;dI w 4: 11e
that could not be dlepedeld on, from the fact that at that time of tlie
year so many of the votin:: scale:i are killed by the weather. Tin-pe.-





44


tions were made every week over the whole orchard, and were con-
tinned until stopped by snow. Inspections were entirely in reference
to the abundance of living scale as compared with the original inspec-
tion. The trees have been classified according to the results. Results
were given as follows: Good's potash whale-oil soap No. 3, 2 pounds
to the gallon of water, was sprayed thoroughly over all kinds of trees,
including cherry, pear, apple, peach, plum, apricot, and nectarine. An
examination showed that 28.12 per cent have been freed from the
scale; the remaining 72 per cent are still infested. With the crude oil
one or two additional facts should be mentioned. In regard to the
unreliability of kerowater pumps, Mr. Fernald said that the one used
by him lihad recently been in the hands of the manufacturers, who said
that it was all right. Nevertheless, this pump often varied 20 per cent
within five minutes. Of the trees treated with crude oil 40 per cent
were freed from the scale, but many badly infested trees still remain.
Mr. Fernald questioned if entomologists could afford to recommend
to the fruit grower a pump which is likely to be as unreliable as was
the pump used in his experiments. Twenty per cent kerosene put on
in the same way gave a percentage of 44.44-1 of trees entirely freed
from the scale. Bowker's tree soap gave 52.68 per cent freedom from
scale, over half of the trees treated being cleared from the pest.
Bowker's soda whale-oil soap gave 40.44 per cent freed from scale.
Good's soap, 1 part, and lime, sulphur, and salt wash, 9 parts, was
tried and gave only 28.8 percent of freed trees. Lime, sulphur, and
salt wash cleared 66 per cent of all the trees to which it was applied,
and part of it was applied one evening just previous to a rain. This
application had been made on March 29 and was still perceptible on
the trees on June 10.
The conclusions reached by the speaker were that the lime, sulphur,
and salt wash is the best treatment for the average man to use who
has not had experience in spraying. Although the wash is hard
to make and disagreeable to apply, the speaker nevertheless thought
that in view of its low cost and the safety with which it might be
applied, and, further, on account of its apparently continuous action,
extending clear into the summer, that this wash would more nearly
meet conditions in New England than anything else tried. Mr. Fer-
nald considered it desirable that investigations should be made in
reference to the preparation of the wash to simplify this process as
much as possible.
Mr. Marlatt remarked that one interesting feature of the last two
years is that after a lot of experimentation we are coming to the
methods which have been followed in California for many years,
namely, the use of the lime, sulphur, and salt wash and kerosene
(m111u msion.
MIr. Fiskie desired to know if anyone )present knew anything about
the Texas crude oil. He stated that it was now very cheap in the






45


South, and that Imany were asking if the Texas (I'lide oil could hi uied
in place of the Pennsylvivani;i (crude oil. Ile lilt, u-,d( the Tex:;i-. crude
oil last suinmier as a su-Z1me1vri triI.atment, with no inju'i us effect.
Mr. Caud(ell re(ulark(ed timat he hi;id( used the Texas cridle oil while in
Texas to )keep ant, froiii his insect (co)lleeti)on. Ie itn(lir-to()d ti ;at
one defect was that it was of a very sticky natu ire. ;id if u-4.1 on
plants was likely to fill up the p)or1(. thus suffItt.ocat ig- them.
Mr. Marlatt stated in connectiectiin with the lim ne, suilphr., ;iild a-;[lt
wash that in his opinion a considerable part of the little C0o on10l v
used might just a., well be left out. Ile thought that the use(, of
kerosene emulsion would b)ecollme l()re ( 'enera:l from the f;ict thatl it
was possible to secure a definite strength, no imi.tter how the pump
might work. He 4ated(l that there was some difficulty inll prep:.rinil, it,
but if made as in (California the work was greatly simplified. It is-
made up and put on the market, so tliat anyone deirin, it in small
quantities can secure it a't no 'dVaet Zl(l:*ce in price.
Mr. HIlarris stated tliat he had u-ed "Cor-i'att" oil in cerlini
experiments again-t the cotton-boll weevil in Texas, and it w:i. his
experience that it had(l killed the plants.


The next. paper was prme-nted by Mr. Felt. and w:is on tlie following
subject:
NOTES ON INJURIOUS INSECTS.
By E. P. Fi:.r, Ali ,wri. X. V.
[With- raw ii for publi,.ition *i.s-where.]
The discussionn of this paper vwats deferre'il until several of a similar
character had been presente(l.
Mr. Osborn then prt-ented the following er:

INSECTS OF THE SEASON IN OHIO.
P~v Il)-:i:i: :; r ( -)a m y, H',1,,,,, .f>... lI,,,.
In a previous paler I Iavye noted(l sooU of the iii, ect 4)' i r 'ence" )f
the early part of tile sea-i:l; and as there lia bee1n o10 very exc,<-ive
abundance of aiy pei.t during the latter part ()f the ve':ir. ;i :il her bri.fj
review will siitlie,. to put on record .such -:I have ;itti:irted .ittenitin.
(6rapeviines have -utlered quite '-tverely fro',in: att:iks ()of the leaf-
hoppers (. T!/:q1 1/ ,,,i sp;p.), in -,i, e i.l-,e. the vi e- sho wmingl a ,lec' ( l,.,
wilting and till, crop being evidl,.ntly materi,)i.lly ite.ked in -jowth.
Leaf-hopper:. too, have been quite troiubll,-i. on ro-,-. :1(lId iitd'l (o)
many otlier plant.s. They are p), ,ibly only iln a11)ut tli, ;(V.r:i'1,.
abundance.





46


Grasshoppers have been plentiful, Afelanopil.9 differentials being
especially abundant in some localities, though I am not aware that it
has occasioned any unusual concern on the part of farmers. Chinch
bugs have been plenItif iul enough to be met with frequently in collect-
inM, but I have not learned of any extensive injuries except in one or
two instances in the early summer. Heavy rains and wet weather in
July probably served to check them. The Hessian fly has not been
attracting much attention, and there is apparently not much to fear
from it for the coming crop. The wheat-stem maggot (Mieronomyza
amelcaelna) was found in wheat fields hear Sandusky, but only occa-
sional stems were infested, and the loss from this species would not
average more than 1 to 3 per cent in the fields examined.
cG1t.MralpiN corn Cooley was found in a clump of Cornus asperifolii
about 3 miles from Sandusky in such quantities that several of the
shrubs were nearly dead and others so severely infested that they must
very likely succumb by another season. Were the dogwood planted
to any extent as an ornamental shrub, this might readily become a
serious pest.
An occurrence of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne) was
brought to my attention by one of the furniture firms of the city, who
reported the damage of certain plush upholstered furniture and desired
information as to the insect and especially in reference to the proba-
bility of its having gained entrance to the articles while in their pos-
session. An examination of the furniture showed the plush covering
to be penetrated at points and the insect to occur in considerable num-
bers in the cotton immediately beneath the plush and in many cases
fragments of the plush covering mingled with the cotton. Underneath
the cotton, in the filling, no specimens were observed. This evidence
seems to show conclusively that the insect had entered after the covering
had been put in place and was not due to the presence of the beetles or
their eggs or their larve in the material used for filling. It seems
that the furniture had been sent to this firm for re-covering; kept in
their shops but a few days and returned to the owner, and that the
injury had not been discovered until some eighteen months after being
in the shops. in the meantime the house had been closed and unused
for a period of some six weeks. The conclusion seems evident that
the attack originated in an infestation occurring very likely during
the time that the house remained unused, the beetles possibly gaining
access by means of cigarette packages or some infested articles of
furniture, and the fact that the articles were unused permitted the
insect to become fairly well established. The firm in question are to
be commended for their attitude in the matter, as they were anxious to
iaLke g)()ood any injury that could be traced to their own factories or
to ,negli&rence on their part. The fact that no other furniture in their
establishment has shown injury from this insect, along with the fact






47


that the furniture was in their possession for so short a timw. mak,-, it
very certain that the infection w;is not due to their roonlis or fictoiry
being infested. Specillniis have been received from Prof. J. C. 11iam-
bleton, who found them at West ,Jefflers(li.
Chrvs'aitbhemnums in Columbus were very %'riously infet'-d with
plant-lice ( 'bcttropl),ir, sp.), apparent ly und(lesribi,(l. Thliey were 1ii-rt
observed in a greenhouse in the (ealy fall clustered on stenis alid
leaves, and later they were found invading bud. ;iid blossoms to suich
an extent as to disflgure them very 'riilusly. The iiiti.,ier of the
greenhouse used( tobatcco-.st(i fumigation, but he did not succeed in
more than giving a temporary check to the specie".
The b)eech blighllt (ibS1hiv'uo .imrie 'Cl(ata) \'as quite abunlatt, pro-
ducing the usual whitened appearance of the beeche,.
It may be worth while here also to put on record the occurrence of
the white ant (T,.'/ue r.)e8f,,') in the vicinity of Satidusky. Speci-
mens were found there by Mr. 0. A. Swezy. Thzl specie., i, abun(dalit
in central Ohio, but I have not met with it so far north before.
The fall canker-worm las been quite abun(lant and depoiting
numerous clusters of eggs, so there is every probability of a continu-
ation of the ravages of this pest another year.


The following paper was presented by Mr. Quaintance:

ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM MARYLAND.
By A. L. QI.AINTANCE, (,1l', < Park, 31d.
The most noteworthy present year has bween the occu(rrence of the periodical cicada. About
the last of Mlay 500 return postal-s were sent out to eorrelT(' n,,idents in
various parts of the State to determine as accurately as po:-^ible the
distribution of the insect. By nicms of replies from corln' -poldent-.
and by personal o})bservation, the distribution of the ci,:1;dt li;is li'I,,
fairly well deterniined for Maryland. The aeei..puiv:ilyw.' malp will
indicate the occurrence of Brood X in Marylvand efor 190-22.
Considerable injury was o(ea;sioned by the cie.:id:s, pIaitieiilirly in
the more heavily wooded and the iintitaiii;oiis st-utions of tile St:itc.
Young orchards of bothI pe;iach ad apple were in Iml;itv in isttlcs.-,
seriously punctured that prolptand .-,vere pruning ;iappe ared ,nece-;i
to save the trees. Thie current friutit crop in -iveral 1,'a i o'ha ;ids
was (quite destroyed. Tlhe ci.caLd malde its ,plp)l ;1 ;t.iie. ,)I til. \\liole,
from about the middle of al;iy to lie l t of June, ;ind liiid 1;r''ely
disappeared 'by the fir-t week in July.
Injury from flea-beetl.s has beevi quite pron ounce, p1tr1ieiil;'r-lv ()o
tomatoes and ri-l:h potatoe.. Numerous coiiipLj i iiilt- 1i, i rwceivd.l.





48


iand the usual offender has been Epitri. c:ieuwneris. The injury by flea-
bcctles aroilund Easton seems to have been particularly severe, and one
trucker reported that hlie had been obliged to replant tomatoes a third
time to .Wt tir'e a:L stand.
S'e.l/,///I*// e ,o/.,-,XI was noted as quite injurious in a young cherry
orchlard near Coleman, Kent County, MId., July 15. At this time the
foliat,'e was larg-ely eaten from the trees and the orchard had a browned
and burnt appearance. This was the only notable instance of injury
from tiis pest in the State coming under my observation the present
year.
)Fpilfit lx,'eaiis was reported injuring- melons at Denton, Md.,
under date of August 24. This species has been noticed by the writer
both last year and this year in the vicinity of Denton, feeding princi-

0 60 7 30________ ,_________ "___ 7' "'0 7 00' 7? 30' 7'00' 75" 30' 7500
4O -. --.- : ': ...-
0 0 S1 0
oo, 1-1 : "0 i
I y _i *. '.. .-.. -" ^
0 < 0 a A
0 a
ii "-,-,." .'i . *

o. o.



NiARTLAND. 0 "
SCALE IN MILES A
o 5 10 15 30 iS 60 9
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS. 0 ^
OCCURRED IN GREAT NUMBERS, 0
OCCURRED IN SMALL NUMBERS. V _
o REPORTED ABSENT

FIGr. 2.-Occurrence of Brood X of the periodical cicada in Maryland in 1902.

pally o()n squash vines. It seems to be well established in this locality,
and is more injurious around Denton than any other location in the
State with which 1 am familiar.
''I'le rose-chafer (J[fcrod.,ctf/l. .,'b ljnostu<) was very abundant and
destructive in many parts of the State during the greater part of June.
Fruits seem to have suffered particularly, and complaints were made
il smiOI (cases that peaches, pllui)s, cherries, apricots, and pears were
largely d(estrroved. A correspl)ondent at Prince Fredericktown, Calvert
(o int v. sent samples of green peaches. the contents of which had
)(been qiite excavated 1)y the beetles.
Sweet, potalto slips were severely injured in the spring in the vicinity
(of C(ollege Park by the several species of Cassididte, which feed on this
pl itft. ( 'x,;, 1/t tt. ( '.'.,';ft h/' .,', and (C'ouptocycla bicolor were
observed attacking the 1)hplants. U. 6:itiata, however, was the most





49


abundant. Injury from stu.eeidinilL. broods waI not noti(ed, and ti1
damage apparently was occa's1ion (l by the over-wintering" adtt1ults.
The black peach aphis (Ap/' #. /o, i#,'.,-/,') wva- is noticeably injuri-
ous in certainly peach nttr-v.ri., oni the evastern shore. Injury wS-1
probably at its height by Mtay 1, a1d(i later repl)orts indi .:ltI d tlihat tlhe.
lice had largely disappiar-v'd from the nur-eries b.y tle middle of tlie
month. The aphiis was occasionally (oh.erved oln o)ld p:,n.i t re.;s helie
and there in the State throughout the lilimier. A i ,lly inf.t,"tedl
peach tree was ol(served in Frederick IDe,.mlber 22 witli ice of all
a(es. notwithstanding the fact that freezin. we.athler had 1 ( .en experi-
enced in this locality on several occasions previous to this ]:t(, mitd a
heavy snow had just disappeared from the ground.
The apple-leaf aphis (Apli,;. spp.) ,'era, to have been niore than
usually abundant in early spring', attacking the young' l fi tolding'
leaves. Many complaints were made of thi- pet. and it was neces'-:ary
to prescribe remedial measure,. In one i nta ice whale-oil soap at the
rate of 1 potund per gallon of water -as tied without injury to tlhe
young foliage. Injury from this insect, however, W.It niot particu-
larly noteworthy during the s-mim ner, and comnplaints largely cea:-ed
with the passing of the brood from the over-wintering eggs.
_l3a ,i,.,Ji/',, f/,;bl,., was abundant at Hancock and near Keedys-
ville. both in Washington County. In the former instance cons-ider-
able injury had been done to newly planted apple te. he clover
in an adjacent field had been cut, and the in-,ects turned their attention
to the apple trees, quite stripping -everal adjacent row, of foliage
and bark. The grasshoppers were full fledged by June 18, after
which (late injury soon ceased. Attempts to -ecure eggs, of thi: spe-
cies confined in large breeding cages failed utterly, although the
insects were given every attention which appeared nece.sary.
The green pea louse (AV /arop/wra p.i;) failed to put in its appear-
ance in time to injure early peas. Thi. ,eems to have been the case
during the last two or three year:. and the practice of planting early
peas is a method largely in vogutte among Marylaid grower, to avoid
injury from this pest. A correspondent from Middleburg :%eit potato
tips thickly infested with the Xi-fi'pluo sp. under date of JIune
24. He stated that tlie ie i.,.ts Ihad niatde their appela.ra;ice over night.
The onion maggot (1P/ir1,Vi r"'/rni") was' re.lported1 as ]lavim beenl
injurious to onions during the previous year by Mr. J. Kolb, of Royal
Oak, Md.. under (date of June 21, 1902. No report, were recived of
injury during the present year.
The strawberry weevil (At tIn l i,.'.. // txfu//)) has Ieen ,luite de.i-tiruc-
tive to the strawberry crop both on the 'a-tern -lhwre atdl in western
Maryland. The destrtictive work of the iii bet wasva \iri,-i-ly p)l:ledl
by different growers at fromi 2) to .0 per cent of the croqp. ('Certain


2217n-0-w-14





50

strawberry growers at Ridgely, Caroline County, have determined
that the planting of profuse blooming varieties is a satisfactory way
of escaping loss from this pest. It appears to be the concensusof
opinion that the following varieties, mentioned in order of maturity,
are most likely to answer the purposes: Rio, Superior, Tennessee
Prolific, and Gandy. While Gandy is not a profuse bloomer, it is
quite late, and seems to be the best variety of its season. With these
varieties, with the exception of Gandy, the work of the beetles proves
to be actually beneficial, by thinning out the bloom. The use of pis-
tillate sorts, as commonly recommended, has not been found satis-
factory, and has been largely abandoned.
Injury from the imported elm leaf-beetle (Galerucella luteolc) was
noted July 8 at Frederick, Md. At this time the foliage of certain
elms had been largely destroyed. This is the only instance where
injury from this species was noted by the writer the present year.
The rose sawfly (.1m ostegia ros&) became noticeably destructive to
roses about the middle of May quite generally over the State.
During July report was received from Mr. Richard Vincent, jr., of
Whitemarsh, to the effect that some insect had greatly injured his
young celery plants. A careful examination of the celery seed beds
was made July 28, and one immature individual of the negro bug
(Cuc,;nelena pedca rwda) was found on the plants, which Mr. Vincent
thought to be the same insect which hliad been so abundant and destruc-
tive a short while previously.
The unusual prevalence of the white-marked tussock moth (Orgyia
l'ucosteq/4ma) in 1901 led some to fear that the insect would again be
abundant in 1902. During late May and early June of the present
year larve of this species were observed in comparatively small num-
bers, but larvme of the August brood were exceedingly rare and
attracted no attention whatever.
Nests of the fall webworm (Ifyphantria cunea) were observed quite
generally over Maryland during late June and early July, but the
second brood failed to show up to any extent.


Mr. Weed presented the following paper:

NOTES FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE.
B3V CLARENCE M. WEED), Durham, N. H.

During recent years New Hampshire has been fortunate in escaping
the attacks of several lately introduced insect pests of first importance
that have ravaged other States. The most notable of these are the
elf leaf-beetle, the San Jose scale, the gypsy moth, the brown-tail
moth, and the pear-tree psylla. The last two seasons have shown,

Vix






51


however, that our good fortune was only temporary, for four of these
five pests have gained a foothold within our border'.
For several years there hasl b(in reason to expect tli;at tlihe imported
elm leaf-beetle, which lha-: bveei so trouble.snme in other Statev,. wolild
attack the elmi trees along our southern borders. althio-tih there
seemed to be some reason to hope that it would not flouri-li in tile
central and northern partik of the State. It was smlethlli" of a :,Ir-
prise, therefore, to receive from Conw:Ly Center l:rva* of tlii. p.st.
with the report that they had bee ,i at work upon an elmii tree for at
least two seasons. To make -ure of the id(lentifiation, thle -pecimens
were sent to Dr. L. 0. Howard, who ,aid that they were undoubtedlly
the imported elin leaf-beetle. If this insect caii suc,'-fu tlly v'.tadili
itself in the White Mountain region I can -ee o n 'o soll whyv it should
not become a pest in all parts of the State to the southward.
For years I have )bechn (expecting the advent of tlhe S-n JO,,e :cale
into our State. ]but have 1beeni ui+able to find any trace of it until tliis
season. The very fact that there are practically no nurseries iii the
State not only rendered the finding of the pest iore difficult, but
made it more probable that it would be intlroduce(l without our
knowledge. At present two infested localities are knowii. though it
is l)robabl)le that others exist. In tihe one first discovered the insect
apparently was introduced on a tree set nearly eioht years ago, the
tree having been purchased from tlie nursery near Boston which
appears to have been largely in4trunintal in -sprea dig- this .cale
through Massachusett-. In the -aine ne i gl )borhood the pe.t appears to
have been reintroduced last spring on trees bougcrht of a local agent,
who had purchased them outside the State. The other infe-4itation,
which is at Dover Point, originated from peach trees bought of a local
greenhouse man who imports tree., from outt-ide the State.
We have as yet no nursery-inspectiou law in our State, and the
scarcity of nurseries would rev(ler a law ,( name,( something of a mis-
nomnier. We need, however, and shall probably get this winter, -,onime
law that will be helpful in thle matter.
Another pest which appears to have beit added to ur lists com-
paratively recently is the pear-tree psylla. which lha- been lde., -truicti\ ely
abundant during the season at least in Concord and Newna:rket. Very
likely we shall hear of it in many other localities in the near futtuire.
The brown-tail moth seenis to have been firt introduced into New
Hampshire in the suminier of 1.9., prolaly by a ,severe gale that
blew the adults along the coast northeast fr'oni Bosto1,. A wi Iter
nest of this insect was found in Decemnlherl, 1I. at Seahrook, the
southeastern town of the Granite State, by Mr. F. C. Moulito,. of tlhe
Gypsy Moth Conimmnission. and in the sunimner of 190l an adult moth wa
taken at light in Hampton, the town directly north of Sealbrook. No
damage from the pest has been reported, but doubtle-s its general
presence in our southeastern region is only a question of a few years.





52


We have not yet, so far as I know, any evidence of the presence of
the gv psy moth within our borders. But now that the State of Mas-
-a;1c11,5stt. has practically abandoned its heroic fight against this pest,
it seenis to be only a question of time when it will spread over our
fores.ts. Prolbabl)ly our people will then get a new idea of the possi-
b)ilities of the damage that may be caused by insect pests.
Canker-wormns have been very destructive in southern New Hamp-
shire this year. Our observations show that the spring species is the
one chiefly destructive. A comparative test of banding with bodlime
and spraying with arsenicals showed that the latter was much the
most satisfactory remedy.
On the whole the most puzzling recent entomological event in our
region has been the sudden extinction of the hordes of squash bugs
that overwhelmed cucurbitaceous plants last year. It does not seem
to me possible to attribute this to natural enemies, and unless it was
due to the open winter I am at a loss to account for it. It has long
seemed to me that this subject of the sudden disappearance of insect
pests was one needing careful and continuous investigation by many
entomologists working in conjunction, and I venture to suggest that
a permanent committee of this association might well be appointed to
follow up the subject from year to year.
In New England there has been of late considerable discussion re-
garding the free use of arsenical preparations as insecticides. While
much of the adverse criticism is of course uncalled for and absurd, it
seems to me that entomologists should be careful about recommending
arsenicals for such crops as cabbages and currants. While there is no
doubt that arsenicals can be used safely on these crops, if used intelli-
gently, there seems to be unusual danger that ignorant people will
use them too late. Consequently it seems safer to recommend for
insects affecting such plants the less dangerous insecticides.
We have found this season that the use of a 5 per cent kero-water
spray is entirely efficient against the cabbage worm, and have again
demonstrated the effectiveness of insect powder against the same pest.
I believe that for our New England conditions these are the most sat-
isfactory remedies.


Mr. Burgess called attention to the reference in Mr. Felt's paper to
the willow curculio, and stated that during September of last year he
has found specimens of this insect at Ashtabula, Ohio, which is in the
northeastern corner of the State. This year it has been found in Lake
County, at a point 30 or 40 miles west of Ashtabula. Referring to
Mr. Osborn's remarks concerning the chinch bug in Ohio, he stated
that early the present spring the prospects for a severe outbreak of
the chinch bug in Ohio were very good. A large number of com-






53


plaints has come to the experiment station durinMg thle early -vring iII
regard to this inl-ect, pa.rtiu.aiirly fromll the -,,uthervi. central. .ai1
southwestern sections of the Statet-: hut a little later in the :,:-min,
probably in June, the weather became wvet, and, pro1,ably owing to the
increase of the fungus dieaseI, the (da1 l:ae( decre.as-ed to a grealt ext int.
lie asked if the lilppea tra ice of the squ(ai-4h b1t. ]Iil b,.en quite -',n-
eral the present yvar. He thought that pro1it)a1>l man1Iy entoyml,,_ists
in the northeastern United States had lha(l a g, m)( aniy reports of its
extreme destructivenes-, and he had been ctiiuch puzzled over the coim-
plete disappearance of the insect.
Mr. Felt stated in reference to the willow 'curculio tlhat hle Iatd
located it last summer at a point in Chatitauqiua County. \\here it
could hardly have been carried on stock. In reference to the ,quatth
hug', it had not been quite so bad in New York state the prrS,.nt ,:iton
as last year.
Mr. Fernald stated that the squash bug lhaad not been iparticulm;ly
prevalent in Massachusetts the present yea r, while it had been
unusually so in 19 1. He was, therefore, of the opinion that the te(-
timlony from Massachus;etts would go to sustain MAr. Weed's estimate
for New Hampshire. He referred to an interesting Gerinan publica-
tion by Bachmetjew on the "Temperature relations, of insert-." which
had appeared last stnumner, which had a bearing on the question of the,
relative abundance of insects during different viyars. He considered
this a very important paper as relating to the so-called "critical
point," and thought the ento(iologists of the northern United States
would do well to test his conclusions.
Mr. Weed remarked that the lack of prec(ie knowledge concerningcr
fluctuations in the abundance of insects had led him to state that he
considered this one of the most important economic subjects., to he coi-
sidered at present. These fluctuations have generally been attriluteItd
to weather or natural enemies, and he considered that we knew very
little in regard to the precise r6le which natural enemies play in regard
to our injurious insects. This w.as .trongly brought out i)y a seies
of observations by Mr. Fiske and described in a tpal)er w ichi he -tati.(d
would be published .hortly. In tiis paper Mr. Fiske liad detailed
his observations on the parasites and(1 hylperparasite- of the Amierican
tent caterl)illar for a period of several year-. antd his ci.clusion- were.
as he reinemnbered the iiiatter, that the parasite,- lial very little to do
with the fluctuations of the America t tent catterpillar. Very often
these fluctuations could be traced to the weather, but on thle w \II)]h
very little was knowii as to the exact cas'et which enter'Il iitio tlieti-
variations. He thought it safe to conclude that tith (lie ; daea;tranre of
the tent caterpillarI two years ato was due to tlhe ext ra:i rd tinary \ weather
conditions just after tlhe hatchingo of the young larv a, but he thoi htt
it important that definite observations shittld b, it ade along this line
to determine as accurately as po,.ible the 'eal factors cimcer'nTiel.





54


Mr. Hopkins stated that there was a possibility of variation in a
species having something to do with its change in habit from an enemy
of secondary to one of primary importance. Referring again to the
species D,-d'droctowts frontalis, he had concluded, after a study of
many hundreds specimens, that it was a variety of this which was so
destructive to the pine forests in West Virginia, and that it had appar-
ently varied from the typical species in a way to enable it to become
more destructive. He thought that if it is possible for it to vary in
that direction it is also possible for it to vary in another direction, and
thus become more sensitive to climatic and other conditions which
would exterminate it, as it was exterminated by the severe cold of 1893.
Mr. Felt called attention again to the forest tent caterpillar and stated
that in New York State at least the evidence was very largely in favor
of the insect being controlled by its natural enemies, for the simple
reason that, in looking ov-r the infested areas, it is found that the
places where it is most abundant move gradually away from the locality
where the original outbreak occurred. These localities of severe infes-
tation have been moving eastward in New York State, and he could
readily see how parasites or natural enemies might become locally
abundant on account of the numbers of the caterpillars.
Mr. Weed agreed with the opinion held by Mr. Felt, and mentioned
one or two localities in New Hampshire which supported this view.
He spoke of one region where the Dipterous enemies were very
abundant.
Mr. Felt remarked that in regard to the tussock moth in Washing-
ton, he believed it to be held that this insect had been largely checked
by its parasites.
Mr. Skinner stated that he recalled Mr. Howard's statement in ref-
erence to this point, and said that the same condition was true in Phila-
delphia. It had been his observation that parasites increased largely
during the abundance of their hosts.
Mr. Osborn stated that from his point of view it was evident that
there was some general influence affecting the abundance of insects,
and that there must be some widespread condition also affecting para-
sites. The squash bug had been present in Ohio, but not so abundant
as last year. He had observed that a considerable number hibernated
during the past winter. The chinch bug hibernated last year in large
numbers and promised to do a great deal of damage the present sea-
son, but early summer rains came in such quantities that the insects
were destroyed. They practically disappeared in injurious numbers
after the first of July. The cankerworm had been very abundant in
Ohio, and the fall cankerworn had appeared in considerable numbers,
and lie thought it likely that it would prove quite abundant in the
spring.
Referring again to the forest tent caterpillar, Mr. Weed stated that
in New Hamnpshire, to which State his remarks referred, the facts






55


appeared to be that the caterpillairs hatcheld and died (it ithe tille of a
very severe frost in the middle of May. Mr. Fiske had, visited t lhe
infested regions and saw the, caterpillars after leaving hatch]d(l from the
eggs, and later they had disappeared. Hle thou liht there %e'-e no
parasites that could have been at work during the brief interval
between their appearance and di4alpp'earance.
Mr. Alwood observed that miany of the entomologists wer,, oblig.ed
to give practically all their attention, to a few practical prollemns. lie
had heard some mention concerning the leaf aphids, of the apple. Tili-
pest had become more and more troublesoe in Virginia and it had
been his custom to destroy tlhe erggs in winter by sprayingg with lye.
He had felt quite sure that a great many were destroyed in tin- way.
Yet last winter, although the lye treatment had been given, tlhe apple-
leaf aphids had developed enormously and threatened to do( great
harm. It was therefore necessary to spray them with a oap wl s
as the buds opened. It was his idea that this insect should be treated
in winter by destroying the egg's. and the question vwas brought up to
draw out the experience of others in reference to winter treatment of
this pest.
Referring to the woolly aphis of the apple, Mr. Alwood stated that
it had become exceedingly injurious in Virginia. Its occurrence in
nurseries was the source of considerable concern, and he had not been
able to find a practical method of helping the nurserymen. Something
was needed that was entirely practical and that could be easily applied
to the young growing plants, and not too expensive. He dIteired to
know if anyone had had experience in tre-ating thi-s in-ect on a large
scale. Mr. Alwood also inquired if anyone had actually and positively
determined where the female insect iiaturally deposits her egg. lie
referred to the considerable literature, on this subject., and h liehad hii-
self found eggs. which hlie supposed to be tho-, of this insect, but
when hatched they were not Sc/i.;iu'wla lanif./ ,'. He had been able
to secure large numbers of eggs in confinement and a few of tle.e had
hatched, but he had never succeeded in rai-inig a stem mother to
maturity, lie ihad spent considerable time on the life history of this
species, but had never quite completed the life cycle. Ile d1,eired
information on this species, and :talso., why it i.s this pest devel ops- on
new land in such enormious numbers inl tlhe cotur-e of a year or" two,
thus ruining sometimes as mu.h as 75 per cent of tlhe nur-ery tre','.
Mr. Marlatt said that Dr. Howard had Iuade ilme carefil stldl ie of
Schizonei'ra ltni,('..., in 1878-79 (recorded in the Ania:l lleport of the
Department of Agriculture, 1879, p. 29.). These included the di:.,v-
ery of the true sexed generation and tlie wintiter egg, tlle latter attached
within crevices of the bark.
Mr. Hopkins called attention to tlhe fact that Mr. Rulise.y, of the
West Virginia Experiment Station. had prepared a Mlthei- on l ,/,,-






56


, ///'i,, (7T/Df/wV,'I/fl) ,,nt ,r, while at Cornell University. He consid-
ered it a m1iost excellent pi,.ce of work, which as yet was unpublished.
Mr. Hopkins desired to know the present status of the gypsy moth.
Mr. Fernald replied that he had been all over the gypsy moth terri-
tory several titles (luring the past suninimer. At the time when work
with this insect ceased, owing to cessation of support from the legisla-
ture. the gyl), v moth territory had been exceedingly reduced, and in
the( greater part of that territory the moth could not be found at all,
except a strangler here and there, but it would take days of hunting
to find it. In the original centers of infestation, namely, Medford,
Maiden, and Belmont, the nioth was still in fair abundance. The
work during the later years had been to drive the insect toward the
center from the outside. It is not three years since the work stop-
ped, and the moth is as yet scarcely anywhere as abundant as it was
when at its worst. So far as he was able to judge, the moth had
nowhliere spread to its original outside bounds, but it was very bad in a
number of places.
The meeting then adjourned, to reassemble on the following day at
10 a. m.

MORNING SES'ION-SA I T1'RDA DE(C'EMBER 27, 190:?.

Mr. Marlatt gave an illustrated lecture on applied entomology in
Japan, covering the subject of entomological schools and establish-
ments and the practical workers in the science, and also a general
account of the principal insect enemies of the more important fruits
and field crops. The lecture was illustrated by lantern slides of ento-
mological establishments, charts of important insects, and nearly a
hundred views of agricultural and horticultural scenes. The follow-
ing paper is an abstract by the author:

APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY IN JAPAN.

By (C. L. M ARLATT.

OFFICIAL ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY.

The study of insects injurious to agriculture and horticulture has
an official status in Japan in connection with the department of agri-
culture and commerce, and with agricultural colleges and experiment
stations very much as in this country. At the central experiment sta-
tion at Nishigahara, near Tokyo, is a well-equipped entomological
laboratory and experimental greenhouse and gardens, looked after by
four or five capable entomologists under the direction of the chief
entomologist,. Mr. S. Onuki. This is the central and chief entomo-
logical bureau of the Empire. Some rather bulky monographs, giv-






57


ing evidence of being valuable )production, on rice i-e, ts aid inect
pests of other crops, have been recently issIed tr fiiio tlii laboatortty.
The entomologists cn nectd v with it also imia k1e I'( l(quet nt t ri-f Inpec-
tion throughout Japani and give lectur'-e awld talks 1,,fore ;Ia'riciiltur al
societies and bodies of farnimers, (catrryin instruction in this \\:ty iit,
the very homes of the people. Popular r publications and pl:aards are
also issued. Tluhere are line branchells of this celitral exlprimni't -ta-
tion and(, in addition, aLlny provinicial tLtio,,-. S,,r;al of the-e halve
entomologists. a-id in sonme ,-,.-, ( very c(reditalble la-l)o't.ri,... for
example, at Kumanmoto, in the island of Kyu,-hu, where Mr. K. S.
Slioshima is doing m)-.t excellent work.
The important agricultural collegv'e- as, for exam:lple, the one.- at
Komaba, Sap)poro, and Kliimamiioto give inStrIuction in applied ento-
miology. and have capable men in chairgt'. Many of us are familiar
with the excellent work done by Prof. AI Maltsumura. of the agricul-
tural college at Sapporo, and of the work of Prof. S. Sa.aki. of the
agricultural school at Konimlba. a branch of the Imperial University at
Tokyo. In the regular istriction in zoology, also at the Imperial
University in Tokyo, Prof. S. Watase is giving sp c,.ial prominence to
svystematic entomology.

EAIIY NATIVE WORK IN ENTOMOLOGY.
Anyv review of the work in economic entomology in Japan must
include anll account of her pioneer and forenmo-t entomologist. MIr.
Yasuchi Nawa. of Gifu. Among- the p1eaantet.t featiires, of the
writer's trip in Japan were two visits paid to Mr. Nawa's ,-talishment
in the inland city of Gifu, lyiiig in the great interior \valley of the mai
island of Hondo. Mr. Nawa's interest in the subject developed at ani
early age, and has been actively proscuted for the last twenty-five or
thirty years with the greatest enth.-i:ia-,i in his establishment, a -ort
of entomological academy or school housed in a consider:ablde series of
buildings. His own work :and that of his -tttdents and :ivtants in
systematic and applied entomology is of a moit excellent clMarcte-'r,
and compares favorably with tlhat of outr own :agicultuiral colleges and
experiment stations. It will lie renlilenibereil tli:t amo,)ig tlhe 1bet of
the collections of foreign in-ects exhibiited at the World's Fair in (Clii-
cago in 1893 was one made by MIr. Nawa. a-id this co ll'ection \wa afte'tr-
wards most generously donated to the National MMii-,,i.
Mr. Nawa,'s ,academy is attended( by advl- ice-1 stililelt, :% :l-,o Ivby
teachers and instructors from various edticattional in-tittion,,. college.
and universities of tlhe Emnipire. MI .t of the-, Itudents are n111111 of
mature years who are attracted by the flamIe of Mr. Naw-a ad; 'ili hi work
and wish to fit, themselves for teaching eiitoinmol'gy or for -iail work
in the field of applied entoiology. Mr. Nawa is It()\\ .' yealr- old.






58







TRANSLATION OIF PL.ATE T.,

Trri.F: ILLUSTRATIONS OF INJURIOUS INSECTS.

No. 12, TOumaguro yokobai. Food plant, rice.

[Translation.] No. 12, T.urniugqro yokobai (Selenocephalus cincticeps); food plant, Ine
(Oryza sath'a).

DESCRIPTION OF INSECT AND ILLUSTRATION.

The Tinmaguro yokobai belongs to the half-winged class of insects, and is the kind
known as a leaf-hopping insect. It has four or five broods a year, and is especially
an enemy of the rice fields, where it extracts the juices from this plant, killing it or
greatly lessening the yield. The male of this insect has the tips of the wings black,
but the tips of the wings of the female are uncolored. The eggs are placed beneath
or inside the sheath of the leaves of rice, from 10 to 20 together, and that part of the
leaf covering the eggs generally changes later to brown. The young insect appears
in two colors, one yellow and the other grayish black. When the rice comes into
head, these insects gather on the ripening grain and extract the juices to such an
extent that the seeds become a mere shell. During the winter this insect inhabits
grassy strips along the roads and paths, and is especially found on the grass Astra-
flabuRs hlatoides. To control this insect the rice seed-beds should be carefully planted
in narrow rectangles instead of in a solid mass, and all farmers should cooperate in
this respect. To collect and destroy the insects these beds may be gone over with
special collecting machines or by sprinkling the water covering the seed beds with
kerosene oil and brushing the insects into it. It is desirable to protect the parasitic
enemies of this pest.
EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATION.-a, eggs, enlarged; 6, single egg, still more enlarged;
C, young insect after the second molt; d, after the third molt; e, pupal stage; f, male
insect; g, female insect; h, insects injuring the rice plant, natural size; i, discolora-
tion of leaves and stem of rice as resultrof work of this insect; j, bee parasite of egg,
greatly enlarged. [Japanese lettering rendered in English.]

LETTERING OF RIGHT SIDE.

Copyrighted. Printed 33d year Meiji, November 26; issued same year, December 2.
Price 15 cents. Illustration by Shichiro Ito.

LETTERING OF LEFT SIDE.

Author and publisher, Yasuchi Nawa, prefecture of Gifu, Gifu City. Printer,
Matsutaro Okuma. Place of publication, The Nawa Insect Laboratory, Gifu, Kyo-
machi.

"The translation of Plates I and II was very kindly made for the writer by Mr. Masanao Hanihara,
third secretary of the Japanese Legation, Washington.






Bul. 40, Div. of Enton'-orlgv, U. S. Dept. of A1ri.:ultur-.


"A.
-4
'A
-4:
-6
*2
'4


#1




11





it j
^ 4
r' fl
4',. J
F ^


JAPANESE INSECT PLACARD, SHOWING ENEMY OF RICE PLANT.


PLATE I.








4 59

and has devoted his life to this work from pure love of the subjectt and
pith very little aid other than th1 l:aboratrvy f.ee-;. :ii(l the r'e.l t wiii.ll
have followed from his indtustry and enthi.-ia.-,i a, tri' ly '11v.elak:able.
In recent years the Government ., lii.( ()eogniz(edI the extr'm'llee :tlue of
his work in education and the study of economic probl,.ms in e.ntomoil-
ogy, and there is a proposition now on fo)(t to give him ai regnhLr sub-
sidy, small in amount but stiufficienit to enati)le him to) continue Ii-. work
with greater confidence.
At the time of my first visit to (Trifu an annual provincial faiir wa.
in progress, and Mr. Nawa wa-s al:o() giving an entoniological exp)()i-
tion for which lie had been p re.p:i ring for a numbiir of 'years. This
exhibit was open to the Jal)panese public, and strea:ma. of \ i-itor, were
going through the gates and pamNyi-ig the ,:mall fee to study it. It
comprised very much such an exhibit a- would ie made :at oIe, of
our general expositions, filled -,everal large rooms, atnd included ca-w.,es
illustrating the life, habits, and i eans of control of injurioui, insects,
many illuminated charts and photogral)phs repre ,i-nting in-,'ct work,
life-history studies, and classic ficat ion, also models of machineryr v for
the collection and destr.iiction of insects, and. in fact, a v.,mpledI te
exhibit of a most creditable order.
The work of Mr. Nawa and his scho fo1 finds its popular exploitation
through a monthly magazine edited by Mr. Nawa entitled "Th Iiivet
'World." Mr. Nawa also prepares, and pu1bldishes large cha rt,. e:ach
representing one of the more important of the i1 jurious inic(t l),,ts
of rice, mulberry, or other crop or fruit. Tliese chlarts illhutirati in
color the damage to the plant and the insect in all stages, give a com-
plete record of the insect's habits for tlihe year, and detail ensluaI of
control, and are designed to be posted in ptiblic 1)place, and office, for
the benefit and instruction of the rural .lase,. (See Pis. I and II.)
A great many such charts have already )ee.n publislie.d, copies of mo.-t
of which were given to me. They are examples of tie practical aoti IIre
of the work which this school is putting forthi. In technical ,ntoniol-
ogy some 'very important monogra( ihs have 14een 1)ublil.(1 ed which.l
unfortunately, are sealed work-. so far as the western reade'r is con,-
cerned.
.Mr. Nawva is very inaterially a:-sis-ted )V Ii (1:1i 2la-hter, Mi-- Taka:t
Nawa, an only' child, who hlas inherited her fathers l)ve for the ntidy
of insects and is endowed with very deci(led arti-tic talent, a:td is tI
be credited with many of the 1beautifuil ill utratio-, of i-,.ects wli.ll
appeal in the magazine referred to aiid in thie e imomic. circul:ar, a il
other publications.
If space permitted, nmentinm should 1i 11ad:u1e of .ever:al of tlie ; --i-t-
ants and associates who are most efficieVitly aidi ng in M1r. Nawa's -clii )l
and economic work.






60
*I


1



TRANSI.ATION OF PLATE If.
Tn-I.E: IlLUl'STRATI()NS OF INJURIOUS INSECTS.

I. Elii ,h/i/,-ifri--Food-plant, Mulberry.

[Translation.] 1. EFit hitkfttor; ( llemi roph iln atrdiuleata); food-plant-Kuwa (MAlorw
alba).

DESCRIPTION OF INSECT AND ILLUSTRATION.
The Edi, islitiliri belongs to the scalIe-win ei l class of insects or moths, and causes
great injury to mulberry trees. It occurs throughout Japan, but is not always recog
nizedl, because in the larval stage it mimics a dead branch and is with difficultyseen.
There are numerous methods of getting rid of this insect, but the best one consists ii
collecting the caterpillars in early spring about the time when the leaves are coming
out. In doing this the specimens which have been killed by the parasitic bee should
not be destroyed.
EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATION.-(I, eggs of this insect on the lower surface of-th<
leaf; b, egg, much enlarged; c, larva after second resting stage, as it appears in earl
spring about the time the buds are coming out; d, larva after third stage, illustrating
manner of traveling by looping its body; e, larva in resting position, resembling q
(lead branch attached or steadied by a line or thread running from the head to twig
, cocoon secreted in decayed hollow of tree; g, chrysalis; /, male moth; i, female
moth; j, larva killed by parasitic wasp and inflated with cocoons of latter; k, mali
and female parasites; 1, calendar showing yearly cycle of this insect [outer figure
representing the months, counting from the top of the calendar from right to left
inner figures, counting again from right to left, representing (1) egg stage, (2) larva
stage, (3) pupal stage, and (4) adult stage; in other words, representing the wine
in the larval stage; May and June, pupa stage; July, adult stage; July and August
egg; August and September, larva; September and first of October, pupa; Octobel
adult and egg stage, and winter, larval stage again]. [Japanese lettering rendered i
English.]
LETTERING OF RIGHT SIDE.
Third edition. Copyrighted. Printed Meiji, year 31, February 25, issued Fed
ruary 28. Second edition same year, printed December 10, issued the same dat
Third edition, Meiji, 33d year, October 10. Price, 15 cents. Illustration b
Shichiro Ito.
LETTERING OF LEFT SIDE.

Author and publisher, Yasuchi Nawa, Prefecture of Gifu, Gifu City. Printed
Matsutaro Okumnia. Place of publication, the Nawa Insect Laboratory, Gir
1K yoiiiali'i.









Bul 40, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of -,'r .... ...


.4,


A. I
*( I
-fr
. .






* .1


JAPANESE INSECT PLACARD, SHOWING ENEMY OF MULBERRY.


PLATE It.










.,A OTIiI" ]IiIVATE l.,TAII.Il-IM I N'.-

i.There are a few other private esta )li-h incuts- fi1r ti, studI of t'nto-
mology in Japan; for example. ihmit o(f Biriln iL:,hilio, il teli is1:i n.l
d Kyushu. Here in a well-equippl 'l e1 itoiii) oi, il l! ,,0ii*,h1 (rtor C,.1-l
int work is being done 1)y the baron :I'-i, :i-ist(d by an (it iliiisi:l tt I I- 1)
of workers. and including M r. S. I. Kitwiiiii. \\l .,i pl) iihli c;ilii l
Coccida? are well knownii on this side.

ACONlL dF I< INO-.IRT

Applied eiitomoili)gy in Jaip)a reT'i;vedl a g'ii ilii 'ts ;i f\\ )'.i -
ago from the eliormoni.-s (14,-truetion o(.cV;lioII(id to li(,e fields t*v bcert:iIii
species of .lJassids. Til 14<.- in a '-.inlie v':iir fromi ilie-, ii-r, t \:,<
estimated at 21 0000OOI yen (en 0.l 0.o. (i)!0). Tli, -ult.. of tli. tli.-
which followed this grel't loss have been Illw de,'i.i ," of ii,'tlilk o
effectively preventin' sutich occurrenit, in the fuitUtre. T"'ln,-,.J -.sid,
do their greatest hdailnia'e to the (4cd xlu--little lo(,l,4-il a'1;>:i. thickly
planted with rice, which, after having iii;ide a it ,wli if (; o i. S li,-.
is transplanted to the fields. It is found 1p brood of these iii-nects in thle edl beds )by the imeth,, \\lhic1i w,
employ to destroy iios(uit 'water with keroeiie. l nimediathly lifter t1ioilinL,' wit ili a fili f oil
'the rice is brushed in .iich a way that th'(a1sid 1 r. kiii-k4d iito in i
water. The oil is tlihen wavahed off lby :a11win. Nw:iter to i'1n fil,.,lv
through the beds. In reply to tquetions as to the pos-ibilit\ of usiil_."
this oil to destroy m.osquitov,,. which reed in nulbtrs in rici. ti.i 1 .iot
in rice fields, it was .hiowl tlihat this was inipria tic;i.l,., l,,ii:i- Ill, ,il
could not be left on the rice fields for any lenLrth of til-n, withimit
injury to the plants.
In the trip through the island of Shikoku durlin tivh- mintli o()f ,11ie
the system of Government rice inspection ai(d thc. enf Iirliint if the1
kerosene treatieiit w\as obl),rved in operniti in. Silprv i-4 iy :indi
police regulations have been enacted, colmpelliig" thie genl'rral ant ,l1 i,-i
of this means of controlling' the-e pt,-t. This \work is ilidilr till
general supervision of thle ciniitral experiment i..itioi n) of tlie ment of agriculture in Toklio, but is carlriTl oiiut by provi-ilil ;:i autlir-
ities. Rice inspectors. or ior', 1)roixrly, ri., -cl -i i-ii,,tr-.
are sent out from the provinciial experiilliit stationl-. ()f whi.i ti l- ir
are now some 32 in a.. ianv province-, in :dditi, n to tlier h! It .ln,-
of the central experiiielit station oif Tokio. T"lie iil ner of it,-,,i,-rtlms
for each province rlianges frl111 .5 to I1., :idl it is 1tli-ir diuty ito vi-it
every one of the innuiliierable little farm lioldin,, ;id, -,', l thit till,
plantings for the rice set,(ed b(,(l- h lave beet' lill' i,.'r iL t,, rm il *1l, :il1d
be operations against the in,.ect- have I6.1i 1 l)r)l'ily c; ,rii,'l oit.
fines for improperly p)laiting, or for o4iii-:ioi of iIittldi:tl t,:iLtlllliit
Is





62

range from 50 sen (25 cents) for the first offense to 5. yen ($2.50) o
,more for the second or later cases of neglect. The regulations are
plant these seed beds in patches 4 feet in width with a small path
between, and to attend at the proper season to the kerosene treatment.
The planting in 4-foot strips instead of in a broad bed, as was formerly!
the custom, is to facilitate the going through the beds and knocking the
rice and jarring the insects into the kerosene-covered water. These
Jassids are the most important insect enemies of the rice in Japan,
but many other rice insects have been studied and the information
gained has been exploited by means of popular circulars. One of
these placards or circulars is illustrated in Plate I.
ANCIENT METHODS OF INSECT CONTROL.

Prior to the enormous development of applied entomology in Japan
practically on the lines followed in the United States there were
undoubtedly certain native methods of controlling insect pests. These
for the most part were purely hand methods, which were especially
applicable on account of the tiny areas under the supervision of indi-
vidual cultivators, the rice fields often being only a few yards square,
and the orchards and gardens covering only very small fractions of an
acre, and perhaps rarely two or three acres. Mr. Hagino, secretary
of the local agricultural society of Okayamna, in the province of Bizen,
informed the writer that (during winter as a means of eradicating scale
insects, principally the Diaspis on the peach and the Leucaspis on
pear, he had all of his trees given a thorough scraping with a little
oval knife or blade made from bamboo, and washed the trunks and
limbs at the same time with salt water of about the strength of ocean
water. The low pruning of these trees and the growing of most of
them on trellises, after the fashion of grapevines, rendered it compara-
tively easy to go over the trunk and branches very thoroughly. The
work was done by women, who were able to clean about 30 trees a day.
With labor as cheap as it is in Japan this system is undoubtedly inex-
pensive and fairly effective.
In the adjoining province of Bitchu a proprietor of a considerable
orchard, Mr. Watanabe, the pioneer of the fruit industry in that region,
in his work against insects employs a lot of boys to beat his trees
(peach and plum) and collect and kill curculios and case-bearers, the
latter being picked off by hand. The curculio is jarred to the ground
by a quick stroke given to the trunk of the tree, and is readily
detected )by the sharp-eyed boys and promptly crushed. By the same
hand methods peach curl and blight are removed from trees.
In northern Japan a primitive method of insect control was wit-i
messed in a vineyard. A patriarchal Japanese gentleman, clad in"
nothing but his loin cloth, the season being in August and very hot,
was ol)served going slowly about underneath the trellises of a vine-






:yard of an acre or more in ext-nt, evidently ci,-;i,,ld il co(.llI..t in"-
insects. 11v carried a stick or wand ill (Jl, ;i Id aln' I jl" shij:,ir- ill
tthe other. The eld of the "stick hdl ,1,en dip)p,(e iin -.,11, -,rt o(f
insect lime, and it proved thl:t lie \\;>s collectiiti'_' 11(rnets ,l wt-p-.
which were )resl( inllI.; ly injurill' the rilpililr .-l' l,.i-. Illis lhvli, ,I
consisted in deftly touching 11 th1e was)p witli his \;i' d :i1 1I ;itclhirl,' it
upon the lime, and then plrom)tlV cv utting- it ilt two \\ith lii- s1I...-.
He was so inteisely initerete(dt in this O( CUp'-imtl i 11ii:lt Ill, l,:141 11,,
attention to my prv-.ii.e.

.SILK INI)1-' 1I'.
The imporl)tai(e of the silk crop (of J.i|) ;i Iim:i- Irl t( a '.,4,1l (d.-;l (f
experimental work in (connection \\ ith 'Iline of tihet ;,Ii-icult ill1 srIt 1ti,.1s,
looking to improvement of nmiethods of silk culture. T1i in-it <1-
mies of the mulberrv l,;ve also heeii \erv .rycarfullv -lii'li.,d. A c,,II-
sideration of the silk ildutstrv as whole, in Jap.., N\ould In,. ,it ,,f
place in this co iection. It is .: inidil-try w\liclh (extel lp:iti.;Illv
throughout the Eninpirc. the m,-4t iniio)rtalit district, ple;riua,-. I, iiiL
in north central Japai, ,'-p.'cially a o)()ut Fli kl(,ka, wlhir1 tiht, iul-
berry is 'rown in great (qIl|atiti(,- and iln or.haIr(ds of cwil.,si'd(l:li:le
extent. Elsewhere is ;i rule, it is 1- IIwN as a hld1, pil:it Wor il litth
garden patches. ', The tr, -i' are cut I,:i.,k r,.1h y,:i so that tl v oft'len
have the appearaniwi of <.ier willow stum p-. Soilttimlles ile V, ).UIL
leafy b)ranche- are tied up in (-r';itt })I'lles :ii1d :;irrii1 to tl,, vill:;i,'-
to be sold to local silk rai-.r,,. a faiirly fixed price 1)einl- rPc4'CiI fir
these mulberry shIioots, l which iI;iy l)e kept for -'yveril i,.ys if stored
in a cool, dark place. There is, therefore a r11,4"'ulr I i.., 11f -up1-
plying and selling leave,. as well as of rai-iit'_ s.iiall 11;Itclie'. ,f wo(ifi.
The silk outputof J;tl-Lm is the a(culllalllltioltl of the1 simill pr1iditltions
of millions of people r:atlier than of 1:1rF-' 4.,,perative or ill-ivi(Ii;il
operation-.

Following tlils picture Mr. Sim1)-Oii rIt;il thl( fo(ll() ill- 1,iLi1er. ;(l-o
illustrated with lantern slidel,:

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE CODLING
MOTH.
By ('. B. Sic.'-,\, I(W, /,'. (
During the p1a-t three .-itioii-. tuie writer lia 1, Scii tIuviiL"t tli- cod-
ling moth in the Pacific Norlthwe,-t under directionn ot r. ow)id.
The insect in some localities of tla:tt reclim, wN\- int ijuriiL.u p" ic:tiilly :tll
of the apples, and unless soeit, ileai,- welr' foliild o(f co(i itr ollin ,1 it.
abandonment o0 apple culture on com 4 melrlcial -.ale w i- leinL" :,,ri-
ously considered by many groweWr-.

/





64

A complete report of this investigation is now in course of prepara-
tio,, 'Mid( at this tine it is thought appropriate to give some of the'i
il(ore interesting and important results obtained by a study of the life
his.tory..
In ls!17 Professor Card noticed that the larvae which hatched from
eg,'s laid upon the leaves would eat out considerable portions of the
leaves before enfterinig the fruit. This was stated to occur more fre-
(1uently in cages than in the field.
In Farmers' Bulletin No. 127 of the Department of Agriculture, Mr.
Marlatt notes these observations and suggests that the larvae are killed
by eating the leaves.
Professor Cordley found the past season that two young larvae just
hatched tunneled into the midrib of the leaves, and one of these fed
until it was about full grown. In a letter to the writer, he concludes
as follows:
I believe that with careful attention it could have been brought to maturity on a
diet of leaves alone. When one considers that it lived and grew for more than three
weeks upon leaves that had been severed fromn the tree, sometimes for several days,
and that it was apparently more thrifty between June 16 and 25 than in the earlier
days of its existence, one must acknowledge that, while the proof is by no means
positive, the indications are that codling moth ]arve may fully develop on a diet of
perfectly fresh apple leaves without ever having tasted fruit.
The writer has many times taken both young and old larvae and fed
them for some time upon leaves, and they seemed to thrive upon this
diet, but on account of lack of care and attention I never brought any
to maturity. The older larvT eat the leaves by folding them together
and eating out irregular holes. Many observers have noted that the
larvae feed for several days in the calyx when they enter at that place.
On examination of the tissue of the calyx one can see that its struc-
ture is much like that of leaves. General results obtained by spray-
ing were very satisfactory, and the efficiency of the spraying can not
be accounted for by the entrance holes in the fruit in which the larve
are found to have died. In the spring a great majority of the eggs
are laid upon the leaves. In one instance one female moth in confine-
ment laid 20 eggs upon the leaves and 1 upon the fruit, while another
laid 22 eggs upon leaves and 2 upon the fruit. Professor Cordley
writes that he has no record of a single egg being deposited upon the
fruit until after it has lost its pubescence. Later in the season, par-
ticularly with eggs of the second generation, the proportion of eggs
upon fruit and leaves are found to vary greatly. Some counting
made in August, 1902, gave an average of 50 per cent on fruit.
Taking all the data into consideration, the writer believes it safe to
conclude that the larva? of the codling moth can reach maturity on a
diet of leaves alone. To what extent this occurs under normal field
conditions yet remains to be determined, but the writer believes that





.* -


the greater amount of effectivei-,'-s of arseili,;il \p-rays u4,ed :i:-;iinst
this insect is due to the l-af- feeding 1i:thits of the larv;,.
The question of the nullher f o.i'iie'atioiis was ;i';in coiieiditr,.,l.
and all the data secured -,how that there .re two ,'ne:ietiois :at A ,i- ,
Idaho, and the pos..il)ilitvy of even a l,;t rtial thil .,de'atie n is vOry
meager. Professor Aldrich e states that he ha's (ditintuisrd ;i p:rti.: il
third generation at Lewiston, Idlaho, this ,past seasoti. I \ijsi to -,.:II
attention to a mislquotation occurring iii ll 1y 1901 repo ,rt i iil'tr, to
Professor Gillette's views as t(o) the )possibility of a their( ,rl-,'.,rallt it i,
as I find that the definite statement that a third : ,,nea r.tti c .,l not
occur was not miade by Prof,,--or (Gillette.
Mr. Marlatt in 189.., gave a relation t wetwen the numiiber of tr>ie.r,:-
tions of this in.sect and Dr. Merriaim's life zoii,,,. in which he stati,
that there is one generation in the transition, two in tlie icppi.r Auis-
tral, and three in the Lower Au,-tral. In ener:Il. I tind this to I,,
correct, but in view of new data relating to sul)zones ;Lad ,(partial ,-,i -
erations some exceptions must Ibe recognized. I have a, i iniii-0
amount of data on all of thee points that i. not ni yet fully worked
over.
In conclusion, I would -ay that we ,anl COlH'r.T.tlIate ,,ii-,,lv4, s tliat
the codling moth can be controlled in the Pacitic Northwest by tquitt'
inexpensive methods.


At the conclusion of this paper Mr. Sinmp-,n -]howed lantern alidi ,
illustrating the life history and numerous methods of control of ti-s
insect.
Mr. Washburn next presented the following. paper:

A CRITICISM UPON CERTAIN CODLING MOTH OBSERVATIONS.
By F. L. W A-nIIB N., St. .AIfi.,,,i ',,'1', St[ii,.
It is with a feeling of diffidence tlhtat I addr,-, ytmu on a topic which h
is worn so th readblare and hlas bhin so well thr -led out as tliatt of tti,
codling moth, and I feel that I am probably takin-r mnore of tlr, tiln'
of the association thiian is riallv miyv due.
Although educated in the East at livingl i1n p -at ,:rs il Mi -t.
I have spent the last thirt.rn years on the Pacitli, ,,a14-t, andi liri.
come among you a.- ,,()ilitliinlr of 1a telil,'rfot. thioiihl. :1i tiildr1rf,,t
from the We.t and not from the l.i-t.
While at the CaliforIia exlerillient -tation 1a-t -plrili'' i'',.,iv.,!
bulletin No. 69 from the Or,0'.on station in w hi<-h Mr. ('ordlly, \. I,, i-.
my successor there. critici,. yiv work dm1,,, upon t(i, life hii-try ,f
the codling moth in lI'2. I later noted ;a criti,-i i iirli to ti,, -:,iiw1
effect from Mr. C. P. Gillette in thie Entoitll,1,',gi,' l News ftr Jii N of


22170-03-5






66

the current year. The work was done so long ago it had become as a
closed book to me, and it required considerable effort to take up the
old thread and recollect just what I had in mind when the bulletin was
published.
lMr. Cordley says that I worked out the length of time required in1
the different stages of the life history of the first brood and then
claimed four broods for the Willamette Valley in Oregon upon the
mathematical calculation as to the time required. His criticism is a
just one, for that is exactly what I did do, the very nature of the case
making it impossible to observe the sequence of broods with anything
like exactne-ss. He might have gone further in his criticism, for in
the bulletin referred to, after making with some emphasis the state-
ment that the moth is four-brooded, I inserted the accompanying table
as proof of this, which table really disproves rather than proves it:

A. B. C. D. E.

Moths emerge from cocoons........................ June 1 June 20 Aug. 9 Aug. 28 Oct. 17
Egg laying (when moths are about 10 days old)... June 11 June 30 Aug. 19 Sept. 7 Oct. 27
Hatching of eggs (5 to 10 days) .................... June 21 July 10 Aug. 29 Sept. 17 Nov. 6
Life of larvw in apple (4 weeks) ................... July 19 Aug. 7 Sept. 26 Oct. 15 Dec. 4
End of larval and pupal stages in cocoon (3 weeks), Aug. 9 Aug. 28 Oct. 17 Nov. 5 Emerged
and emergence of moths. or fol- the fol-
lowing lowing
spring, spring.


Mr. Cordley in his critical discussion goes on to say that he has
never been able to get a moth to mature as late as October 15. In
fact, he writes to Mr. Gillette that he has never been able to rear a
moth later than September 15. One at once draws the inference that
October 15 or before, in his estimation, marks the last appearance of
the imago, and Mr. Gillette, referring to Mr. Cordley's statement
that he has never been able to rear a moth later than September 15,
cites it as proof that the larva of the codling moth begin to hibernate
in Oregon as early as the first week in August, which fact he says
almost certainly cuts the number of broods to two. Mr. Cordley
further says that in column D" of my table there is an implied infer-
ence that at least a partial brood of moths would appear November 5.
A glance at the table will show that that matter is left in doubt. I
note, too, that Mr. (Cordley says my statement regarding a third or
fourth brood at Corvallis is without any foundation of fact. What
answer would he make then to the fact that I found a moth out of
doors as late as November 15? This moth must have originated in an
egg laid somewhere between September 15 and September 25, which|
I believe, though I may be wrong in my assumption, either points tol.!
a third brood or to such extreme irregularity in the life history of the
moth In western Oregon as to preclude a successful study of th
number of broods.







Turning to Mr. (Gillette's criticism ill the EniitoiiiollL,'ri-.l Ne\\s for
June, 1D02. page 194. I lind this st:-tetemnt:
In M r. W aslhburn's table, lie pl1i.- the 1 _ii, ,f -._._ l.itcliii._, f,,r Iluj irIst
brood of nioths June 21, f)r the ,.,,iii, r)o(il :!!i'.:It 29, at i fr ti 1 1, N -\r -
ber 6, and the f mrt hlie d,.- not iv, blint fiL. I I like the I tlrt it -url 1 i1i*
January 15, and the lr\o,,; wouhl not maturitre bef,,' ir tie iir-i week in F' erl ary. A-
these dates are to mark the apli.arance of thle hr .d, the last bhr',id w\\u'ld c, 1 iii I,
later.
This statement is either very ambiguous, or Mr. (illettr qtu1ite mni--
understands the table, for I nicllit to convey tihe iiiforirition tli:it thei
first brood of moths appea;rcd ,iJuie 1 or .:irlicr.
Referring to the table under di..mion, it i- to 6,. .ot,,l tli;itl 1nitll
brought me froin the apple room o JullE,, 2') and rfrr to in
column "B" as brood No. 2 were undoubtedly the l:ittrr p;irt of
brood No. 1, thi.- first b)rood runinino, from M:iy 1; (since ,i:rlT
moths appeared May 16) to June 2;' ) hence coliiiiis -*A" a d -"B"
represent the first brood only, and they are intit rally followed )by
"C" and "D." In this way the table work.- out all right, b)ut for
two complete broods and a po.-ible third, not for tlhe fourth.
Mr. Cordley's conclusions in I1-,. regarding the efi(.cacv of sprI.Iying
before June 11 tallies exactly with mine, as well :;i hi, ol,,c.n-ation- a-
to the extreme injury caused later in the sea on. IHis note,- ;l-, a.
to egg hatching and larvae atlffecting the apple- (rarely before June 2.,)
are practically identical with mine.
In conclusion I will say that thi. short paper is not, a, is very evi-
dent, an attempt to jiiutify my reports in the Oregon bulletin. No. 25,
nor is it in any way a critici-in upon the most thorough work iloni- by
Mr. Cordley. I have ventured to precnt it with the intention of
publicly placing the correct interpretation upon the table publi.shlld in
1893 and wrongfully interpreted at that time. It -ecni, to ne tliit
the number of broods of the codlintr moth in weotern Orl'Lro, i- still
to be regarded as a matter of -ome doubt.



A discussion of Mr. Siml)oimis paper followed.
Mr. Wa-,hburn inquired of Mr. Sin p-n if tli,,ri were but t\vw
broods of the codling moth in we-tern O )reo'r,. mn, I also Il.-irrl tq)
know the significance of findii g a moth as l:ite :1- Novembeilr 1.
Mr. Siimp.son replied that thle collins," moth varied ;ic iuci.h :i- five
weeks in coming out in the :-pring. He thouE :_Lrht the linklinir (if :;i 111th
as late as November 15 would not indicate a third b1, ,1. 'l\o g'oii-
ations could be accounted for, but the 1motih, of a .)iven ,,eu,.:,itin ldo
not all come out at the same time. Some mav <'oyi' out five wNck-
earlier than others in the spring.





68
Mr. W,-,:shburn thougo-ht it difficult to accurately count the number
of broods in a climate like that of Oregon, with which statement Mr.
Simpson fully concurred.
Mr. Alwood, referring to the statement made by Mr. Simpson of
the cost of 1 cent per tree for spray, desired to know the size of the
trees.
Mr. Simpson explained that the trees were 8 years old and much
larger than trees of this age in the East. These trees produced from
6 to 20 boxes of apples, with a very good average of 10, a box equal-
ing approximately a bushel. The soda-lime arsenite was used.
Mr. Burgess desired to know the cost and weight of the gasoline
sprayer tried by Mr. Simpson.
Mr. Simpson stated that the cost was $32o0. The weight had never
been accurately taken so far as he knew.
Mr. Fletcher stated that he had been much interested in Mr. Simp-
son's observations in Montana. He considered the duration of the
different broods a very interesting subject and thought that the fact
was established that there might be a considerable variation. He
questioned the possibility of drawing conclusions from orchard obser-
vations alone. Attention was called to the commonly noted occurrence,
by anyone who had bred insects, that as large a proportion as half of
a brood might go over for a whole period, until the next time of the
regular occurrence of the species, and if such observations were made
in the orchard, wrong conclusions might be drawn. He did not con-
sider it desirable that entomologists should speak of a partial brood.
Mr. Osborn stated that in determining the number of broods he
considered that if the average time of appearance in greatest abun-
dance were taken, results would be much more reliable as a basis for
determining the number of broods. He mentioned a case where the
codling moth appeared as late as the latter part of June from apples
stored in a cellar where it was rather cool and development was
retarded.
Mr. Marlatt said that he was very much interested in Mr. Simpson's
confirmation of the feeding of the larvae on the leaves, and not only had
this been confirmed, but our knowledge of the extent of such feeding
had been much increased. The work of some earlier experimenters
and observers had demonstrated that codling moth larvae would feed
on leaves, but that they did it normally and to a considerable extent
in nature had not previously been so fully demonstrated. He thought
this was a very interesting feature of Mr. Simpson's work. It indi-
cated that the poison catches the caterpillar very frequently on the
leaves, especially as it has been shown that a considerable percentage
of the eggs are placed on the leaves. When one comes to think of the
matter it is not at all surprising that the young larvae will feed on the
leaves. Before entering the fruit they normally work two or three







days in the blossom end on the calyx. ;iid the -i-pals :a1 partial v
leaf tissue; they are gr in and are 'overe(l with the l,.:if :1 i 11, ir.,l
are to all intents and pltrpoe,- little leav,-.



Mr. Fletcher pre.,,nt,,t1 the foll(owilln,.i 1per:

CAN THE PEA WEEVIL BE EXTERMINATED?
B yV 1)r.. ,J \.,i:,; FIETCHi- EHi j (ff!t t i e ', i a(I t i ,
My object in bringing, the sub)jec(t of the lit wV(evil lrom)liiitentiv
before this association is to make :l appeal for ,,op)eralti)n to li,-ii
of our members who hold officintl 1,,,-itioii- inl th,,-, Statri- of t4 11,' 'i,,
where peas are grown for -ied. I am led to do( this :t tIli. 1'.-,nt
juncture for two reasons. In t lie first place. the I1 froll t1h1 insert
is now very great, amounting annull:Iy ill tlCe (':tadlia.i Province of
Ontario alone to upward of 1.0(I lYO: in tnll -riiond place. l.,;,i, I
believe that from certaini exceptiona:l feature'- of this attack. exti.nsive
as it is, there is more reatonable hope that it might be entirely put a
stop to, than is often the ca-e with tan iw-eut injury of :inytliiiiL-' like
the same magnitude; aAnd. further thnI, this. btea- the 1)tl,.-'lt tiie.
is most opportune for makig ita spe(.ial effort. Owing to the extent
of this injury, many grower, of peas have relimqui-se6,il ifi cutlti 'tti(on
of this important Cliop over large areas where, but for the delp,.,d-
tions of the pea weevil, it would b)e one of the m,,-t reinunieraive (.rop-
they could grow.
The life history and habits of the pea weevil are uproli:bly %\ell
known to everyone here pre-ent. I shall therefor(e merely re* n diDl
you in the briefest way possible of the leading_ fa<,ts \\ hiili el,.r up11II
its possible extermination. The pea weevil is an exotic ii-irt wllichl
feeds entirely upon an exotic plant. It h:is iio (otlhr knwvni fon, pllint
than the cultivated pea. and this is a annually, which in (C'a:0,1':i i,.ver
survives the winter or produce- a volunteer crop the -r wind v:-;ir f< 'in
seeds left on the land the previous year, whirh l:ave faili1ii t, .2,iii i-
nate. The pea weevil noriallly pasl,-- the winter i,-idh tIe -1w ., p1a:
and emerges the following spring before, ,r at til. tilie tl e -.,,i- :, 'r
sown. A proportion, however, the number of which N:iri,- x\ ith dlif-
ferent seasons, emerge during thn l ai e autumn tliat tl! -, .11 Hiip,,.
leave the peas. and hibernate in tlhi perfect -t:ite. lhlis autumn 1nr'ITr-
gence furnishes one of tlie g':att,-t dilticultie- iin i-lcur,. .ti\ ',
remedy. The weevil.- which pat- the winttr in-idt e tine l< dt :111 1,,
destroyed by the treatment of the -,id at any tinmi, !,,fre -owi,.-': o,
the other hand. those which leave the pl'a- iin ailltulili Ii'l"i,, ill i.-,s
shelters during the winter and .can not I, li,':lied. I-it ty t., tl, ti 10d1l






70

and. together with those which were contained in untreated seed, attack
thle growing' crop. As soon as the new pea pods are formed the
fenmales lay their eggs upon them. The larva on hatching eats its way
through the pod and enters one of the forming peas. Here it remains
until full grown and before emergence has destroyed a large propor-|
tion of'the contents of the seed it infests. This diminution of the food:
contents of the grain amounts to over one-sixth of the whole of the
large peas and nearly half of the small varieties, but when the grain is
required for seed the loss is greater than this. From several experi-
ments I have found that only about 12 per cent of small seeds and 18
per cent of those of the large varieties will produce plants, which are
later in developing, and most of them diminished seriously in vigor
and crop-producing power.
I have carried on an extensive correspondence with pea growers,
grain merchants, and seedsmen with the object of discovering their
views a to the most practical method of controlling the pea weevil,
and find that all are agreed that the loss is excessive and that some
definite action is urgently needed if the paying production of peas
for home consumption and export is to be preserved. The pea crop
is one of special value to Canadian farmers, not only because no others
feed fully takes its place as food for stock and in connection with dai,
trying and hog raising, but on account of the high reputation of Cana-
dian and Northern-grown peas on the European markets. It is als
highly advantageous from the farmer's standpoint. The pea being a
legume, the soil is enriched in nitrogen by its culture and at the same
time the land is left in the best tilth for fall wheat and other crops.
It is generally acknowledged that peas are an advantageous an
desirable crop to grow, but it is now a fact that, owing -to the pe
weevil, they are not being cultivated over a large area where formerly
peas of the very first quality were produced and could be again pro
duced if the pea weevil could be controlled. The vital question is, then
Can this be done? I feel confident that it can, but it will require con
certed action and cooperation. What, then, is the best and quickes
way to reach this end, and what difficulties shall we have to contend
with? To begin with, I must acknowledge that, almost with one voice
those I have consulted have expressed the opinion that the only wa
is to give up growing peas entirely for one or two years, so as to starv
the insect out, and to enforce the measure with legislation.
Theoretically, at first sight, this seems to be a perfect remedy, an(
if a complete cessation of the cultivation of peas were possible n.
doubt it would be a solution of the difficulty. But after considering
this matter very carefully I can come to no other conclusion than th
it would lbe. an absolute impossibility to prevent some sowing pe
-vithin the breeding range of the insect. For this measure of starv
tion to be successful, not only would every large pea grower an







farmer within this ae,'i both in ( 'an'a.dia ;iild the 'InitetIl St:It'-, II:Lve
to desist froin sowing 1,as entirely, but :1l-, every pliv:te i,,iviilLi
wvho wishes to grow ;a few ,,ren ptas for tlie table. If I;aw we',
enacted looking' to this end it would be quite illpi--.ih.le to enfo,1e.,
them. A.imontg garldeite'rs -mid the general public there i-. I opi,
neither informnition nor iu-.elfislhness enolll.,l to i1d1lice., themi to ienV
themselves to sicli ; n extent as to give up thi is favorite veut:itde f,,r
the benefit of other people or of any branch of trd:(le. Eve' :11ii,,1,."j
those who grow and lhatndle p1as in large .,iqaititi'- for tle i:;ir'ket
there is ; great lack of knowledtel with rlu'.r, l to the p,.; weevil ;ind
its habits. Some do not know for certain which of te, .-:cver'l n.-
mies that attack the pea actually is the pea weevil. ( )win., t, the t pre.
talent i "naccuracv" ith which popl 1r atles are appli1 ,I to ini-,
nearly everything in the sliape of an i -v spicuously is for the time being styled "'the bug." The pva; w.,.vil is
known gene, 1ally as "the p ;t buig," but nevertlhlo-,- is often con-
founded with uLlch different in-ects as the pi'a inoth aIid thi, dr,-triu-tive
pea aphis.
It therefore appears that what is now most fitting and nicE.-:rv,
as looking to ulti late victory against this enemy, is a vigorous ,a.-
paign of education through the ready meai at our disp,,-ilI. viz,
official reports and bulletins and the agricultural pi'--. All n,-.r-
taintv should first be done away with and accurate definite kn,'wledL',,
distributed as to the habits of the i-ect, the blest renedi,,- to apply,
and when and how to apply them. There are effective -.ire re ,ilie-,
for the pea weevil: and grower- must be made to understand tlii-,
and to see that by adopting them. even at some -1'uall trouble, they
.will greatly benefit themselves. while by neglecting tiei they % ill
injure themselves their nei ghbors, and the whole cintrv. I ,tave
confidence enough in the comilon sense of Canadian andl Ameriu-i
farmers to believe tlihat they will adopt them.
In conjunction with Prfe-.s-or Lochhi .ead. the Onta:rio p1i,,vii ,ial
entomologist, and Profe-,-or Zavitz, the experim.entali t ,f the (t0. ri,
agricultural college, at (iuelph. this calnpaign. has,, al..ready leiil b,'ili
by us in Canada. hImportant ti-g of falmiers have ,ie.n addi r-.,I.
including' an a-embl)ly of all thle fariet'rs" ini-titute workers of tlie
Province of Ontario. During, tile c' mring winter the -.iihjert w*li Ie,
birou.,',ht prol;i fetltly before every fatrme's ietttut, nieetiliL-' h11l.d iM
the Province. Timnely article.- will b. is-uicd :Lllvisi.ll., i,:i -,1 -o'w,.rs Il it
to sow a -ingle g'atint which lha-s no,,t l.,een first treated. nor' t,, :Il -ee'l
tierchlants to oell them pe.a- which i have ,ot 1been f tiii'"L,'it'd ,r otl.ilr-
wvise treated to d,:-tir'v the weevil. Tlit-,. iie;i-,Ii-. lioevi '.r. \% ill
only reach a :iiall numlber of th,,-,, \ re 1) .,, ,..v ',,.,1. -'I l'l"
tunitv wil 1lie lo-t of brinl,,ing the imillrta1I',' of tli, -tIbjee.t lie.fre
the country. The public p',,-s in t ls lias alre.tadly ,do11e' ael l ;Iil





72

will doubtless do more. In my official capacity I shall do my utmost
to bring atout what I believe is possible-the extermination of the pea
weevil in Canada-and I now make an earnest appeal to the members
of this association to cooperate with me in the same direction. If all
who sow peas in Canada and the United States will adopt any one of
the remedies and carry out the suggestions made below, 1 am confident
that a tremendous advance will be made in a single year, and that as
early as the second year extermination might be looked for.

REMEDIES.

Frmiqation.-Fumigation with bisulphid of carbon is a sure rem-
edy. When properly done. either in specially constructed buildings
known as "bug houses" or in any tight bin, every weevil is surely
killed if the seed containing them is fumigated for forty-eight hours
with this chemical, using 1 pouL)d by weight to every 100 bushels of
seed, or, in smaller quantities, 1 ounce to every 100 pounds of seed.
For the treatment of small quantities of seed, particularly by farmers,
I have found that an ordinary coal-oil barrel is very convenient.
This will hold about 5 bushels, or 300 pounds, of seed, which may be
treated with 3 ounces of bisuiphid of carbon. Care must be taken
to close up the top tightly. This is best done with a cap made spe-
cially for the purpose, but fine sacks laid smoothly on the top, over
which boards are placed with a weight on them to hold the covering
down closely, will answer. Fumigation with bisulphid of carbon is,
I believe, the remedy most to be relied on in this campaign. It is
perfectly effective, is now regularly used by the large seed merchants,
and in future will be much more generally used.
Holding over seed.-Where only a few peas are used, a most reliable
remedy is the holding over of seed until the second year. Peas should
always be bagged up and the sacks tied at once after threshing.
T'uating with coal oil.-A remedy which has been used by many
farmers with satisfaction is to drench the seed with coal oil, using
about half a gallon to a barrel, or 5 bushels, of peas. While applying
the coal oil the seed should be placed on a floor where it can be shov-
eled over constantly to insure the treatment of all the grain.
Scalding seed.-When peas are found at the time of sowing to con-
tain living weevils, these may be destroyed by simply pouring them
into a pot of scalding water. The water should be drained off at once
or the seed cooled by turning in cold water.
RECOMMENDATIONS.

1. Everyone, when purchasing seed peas, should refuse determinedly
to buy any without the assurance that they have been treated; and,
further, even after this, he should examine for himself and see that





73


any contained weevils are 'e;t(llv d(,ail. It insist be rl'ei *nHl,brl.I' til:it
of weevil-injured seed only about onle-q [a rtt,1r w il I Ire 'Illill:mte id ) ]Pr(-
duce plants; consequently much iiiore -ecd mii-t .( s ioi \.
To secure a supply of -ed pias f ri frll weevil iijury it \ ill Il-
necessary for growers to lbundle their crop --mewliat dilerently v fi,,i
what has been the ustiiil practice. This injury is ()w o(f Ill e\(,p-
tional nature; therefore exception;ilt] ii-a s,- intst 11111- taken t< :1\void
loss.
2. Pea growers :liould harvest their p)eL- s.ooiner than is 1i-iall
done-as much on the gren side as is -:ife-thr,-li 4lii0,, as .011 ;
dry enough, and fumigiati, them at once or -.elI to !,r'1iii lbuyer-. \\ l,
for their own inter e-t will do so. This treatment h-as manv advan-
tages. Not only is one of the very _,,re:itest difflculti- in providin ;
practical remedy-the shelling out of peas in the field in a lar, i ,i-
sure avoided by harvesting flier. but the straw is of :i very ittucli
higher quality for feed :nd th se,.d is h:ivier and better for eve v pur-
pose-for export, for feed, and al-.o for -eed. )ec'Luse it is of a higher
germinating power. In addition to thi-.. the weevil at tha1t time is much
less advanced in growth, and consequently lma- deotrovel, a much si:nill.r
proportion of the bulk of the seed. The average da;tie for ,,.a lhar-
vesting is between July 2'0 and Augi,'t 2o. I hiave no record of the
pea weevil becoming mature and leaving' the -eed before August 15,
and it is usually later than this. Experimnent has shown that the
weevils at all stages mav be killed inside the pl,-a by fliin,'atintr tlhem
with bisulphid of carbon as soon as they are hard enouiiLi to 1(iindle.
When peas are required for feeding they l-hould bei ground as-,; )
as dry enough, and to prevent the mea:l from b-,colimi.,' nti-t oil,
old dry peas should be mixed with the new ones. The great ,-t difli-
culty of all is with regard to the p:eas which shell out in the field at
the time of harvesting. This. however, will he to a Iar1,,e i,.e:sure
obviated by reaping early, when the -eed will not shell out s-o much
as when left till the regular time. The cli,:niiig up) of 1";' tel(,l,- ly
turning in hogs is a generally recogniized l)pratctie, and til- work i-
done very thoroughly by the-, animals. \Where hlogs are i',t ;,\:il-
t ", "t e f t , .;
able poultry will do the samte work. ;id \\w mhere neither of tli-'r cal
be used the land should be plowe(ld so deeply tlit tlie \\i-rvils can i,1t
work their way out when they leave t lle ,eas.
In the discussion of this llpaper MIr. Felt rei tirked thait ti,- ,iUe-tion
was a very intere-tin',v one. and Spl1\:Jkin12 ;-s one 4f the Notlu.rii,
entomologis-ts he de-i,,red to :u--re Mr. Fletel.ir of his e. ,, rat i n -
far as possible. He did not con-iler that the pi. wee(,vil u\\. :;- i, i lr-
tant in New York State as it was farther 1n1rth. lie 11:11 loked ,,ver
the office records extending, hack :i- far :-4 eilutern y,.:ir- :itl 1,itI
only two complaint- regarding this- specie-. It ;:t- his li.lii.f 1ii:tt
New York parties bought their -eedo from l more iortlhelrn ,-r'rwer-.




eI

74

He suggo-ested that seedsmen be induced to advertise the fact that:
their, seed peas had been fumigated and thought that this would give
them an advantage, in a business way, over those firms who would not
take the trouble to do this work. He stated that a number of New
York nurserymen had been induced to advertise the fact that their
stock had been fumigated, and did not see why this arrangement could
not be made with dealers in seeds.
Mr. Weed remarked that it appeared to him that a little pressure
might be brought on the seedsmen by having each official entomolo-
gist write to the seed growers in his State and ask if the peas being
sold by him had been properly fumigated. It was his idea that a list
of seedsminen should be published, indicating those who fumigated and
those who did not.
Mr. Felt read a notice from Dr. Howard to the effect that ento-
mologists who wished to visit the National Museum collections during
Sunday would be admitted on presentation of Dr. Howard's card.
This courtesy had been extended by Director Rathbun.
Mr. Marlatt announced that the Entomological Society of Washing-
ton, through the courtesy of Mr. W. H. Ashmead, would entertain the
visiting entomologists that evening, and extended a warm invitation
to all to meet the society at Mr. Ashmead's residence at 8 o'clock p. m.
The meeting then adjourned, to reassemble at 2 p. m.

AFTERNOON SESSION, SA TURDA Y, DECEMBER 27, 1902.
The meeting was called to order by the president.
Mr. Schwarz announced that there were still a few sets of the pub-.
lications of the late Dr. Riley which Mrs. Riley had kindly placed at
the disposal of the members of the association free of charge. He
invited anyone desirous of securing sets of these separates to make
this fact known to him.
Mr. Ashmead moved that Mr. Nawa, of whom Mr. Marlatt had
spoken during his address in the morning, be made a foreign member
of the association. He thought that Mr. Nawa had been doing a good
deal for economic entomology in Japan, and that the Association
should recognize him for this work. This motion was duly seconded
and, at the suggestion of the president, his name was referred to the
committee oh membership.
The report of the committee on membership was next called for and
is as follows:
The committee on membership recommends for active membership:
F. C. Pratt, Washington, D. C.; J. Kotinsky, Washington, D. C.;
Otto Heideman, Washington, D. C.; W. E. Hinds, Washington, D. C.,
and H. (G. Dyar, Washington, D. C.
For associate members: H. S. Barber, Washington, D. C.; R. P.
C(rrie, Washington, D. C.; G. H. Harris, Washington, D. C.; W. E.





75


Burke, Washington, D. C.; J.. L. Welbb), Walhinjton. I). ('.: T. B.
Syuons, Collegepark, Md.; R. I. 'Smith. C(dclle('lpark. Md.: G. W.
Martin, Nashville, Tenn.,: A. C(oinirdi, Ii)urli:,a N. .II. ;,l II. L.
Price, Black -Jburg, Va.
For foreigOn i e'llmber-hlip: ,Jo-c'f Jsibonow i.ki. ul:tii,.-t. Illl:uiii
and Yasushi Nawva. Gifu, Ja;pain.
I ( )-I;,OKlN.
A. Ij. QuxAINTAN(CE,
NATIIAN BAMNJ'.%
( ;'m/ /, .
Upon motion of Mr. A_-llhil,'a,. the report vwas tIccepti,.i altI 1I11'
secretary w:as instructed to east an a tlri iitive 1,:1llot fIr tlie A-,,'i:t-
tion.
The progriinme \tas then i '-iumledl. the first plp il 'j,' IIw, bv Mr.
Alwood. as follows:

A NOTE ON THE OVIPOSITION OF THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST
(CICADA SEPTENDECIM).
By WILLIAMr B. AL\V,,")I, Blifi'&sryl/, I',.

In presenting this note I wish first to mention a rather curiol(i-
observation made by me last vyar at the Virgiti a A<.rrivultural Ex.irri-
ment Station at Blacksburg. WVe were expectitig the lohits ..d liid
designed, if occasion warranted, t) experiment upon -0wie spr:iys with
a view of preventing ovipo-ition by the female in the fruit tri'-. if
the experimnent-station orchard-. At the proper -',; -,n the in-,ft-
appeared in great numbers, :,o abundantly, in fact, that one could
gather up a quart in a few minute,,- at the time they w\er' i..iii,' fr'm
the earth. The young orchards at the -tation were tliii in thle inai
12 ears old and fine vigor rous .vii,"g tt',-., but there \wen, il- t ,',-
ranging" down to. 2-years set. (, that the ii-ects 1i;l1 every ,1>iportimity
to select suitablee branche- for oviposition ift' they were iluli,.d, to
do se.
Careful observation from day to d(lay revI;led tit,' f:Lt tli:utt l1,'y
seemed to 1he making no efforts whatever to o)viposit in til. trri-., of
our test orchards, but after lin(r'cring for somi, dlavys iii fli, tr, ,- t1.-v
flew away. Thus by tlhe time the l (1-'t -t-a-,n w\:- aIo0ilt li1:If l;t--,d
our orchards were pract ically cla ,r 4f the in-e, ts. Iln n,, iist: i,-,. ,lidt
we d(letect them ovilp)-itin.,_, in the twigs or m iancfil,- (f our tr', '-.
However, the pa-t s1i1,uvi'r we have 'ioti,, i'lrlp j;'hl)hlf :i *l'/,.n
instances where oviposit ion ,iuirrc',l.
Why they did not chooe to ovipolit in tlhe b4:,nil,- f iti,. *irrialI
trees at the experiment -tatimi lIm- ,cii rather :ai ,i//l, to iil-. I
have only one sioggestion to mike, amtd tl;:t i- tli:t ;i we ?,r- ,ur
orchards very thoroughly with B,,rdleaux mixt uiv'. :iml th', limt,- :;i'd






76


twigs were quite covered with a thin coating of the fungicide, this
inay have in some measure acted asa deterrent to the locusts. I would
not like to make the assertion that Bordeaux mixture will deter this
insect from oviposition, but the fact observed warrants one in suggest-
ing that it will be an interesting experiment to make when opportunity
again presents itself. Other orchards near us were very badly
punctured by the female insects.
It occurred to me that it would be an interesting matter to collect
data on the various plants chosen by the female insects for deposition
of their eggs, consequently I had one of my students follow this
matter up quite closely, and he collected the following list of plants,
all of which showed the characteristic oviposition of this cicada:

LIST OF PLANTS PUNCTURED BY THE CICADA (CICADA SEPTENDECIM).
1. CONIFER.E-Pine Family.-Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana).
2. CORNACE.E-Dogwood Family.-Dogwood (Cornus Florida).
3. CUPULIFER&E-Oak Family.-Alder (Alinus vridis); Beech (Fagus ferruginwus);
Birch (Betula spp.); Chestnut (Castanea aimericana); Red Oak ( Quercus rubrum);
White Oak (Q. alba).
4. EBENACE.E-Ebony Family.-Persimmon (Diospyrus virginianma).
5. ERICACEJE-Heath Family.-Blueblerry ( Vaccinium spp.); Huckleberry (Gay-
lussacia spp.); Laurel (Rhododendron maximumn.
6. HTA IAM ELIDI.E-Witchhazel Family.--Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua).
7. JUGLANDACE.E-Walnut Family.-Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) ; Hickory (Carya
alba).
8. LEG UM ,I NOS.E-Pulse Family.-Locust (Robin ia pseudacacia).
9. OLEACE--Olive Family.-Ash (Fraximus americana); Lilac (Syringa vulgaris).
10. PLATA NACE.E-Plane Tree Family. -Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis).
11. ROSACE.E-Rose Family.-Apple (Pyrus malus); Blackberry (Rubus occidentalis);
Hawthorn (Cra,'vgus spp.); Peach (Prumnus persica); Plum (Prunus spp.);
Quince (Pyrus cydonia); Raspberry, red (Rubus strigosus); Raspberry, black
(R. occidentals); Wild Cherry (Prnus serotina).
12. SALICACE.E-Willow Family.-Poplar (Populhs spp.); Willow (Salix spp.).
13. SAPINDAC.E-Soapberry Family.-Maple (Acer rubrum); Sycamore maple (Acer
pReutdo-pl)ataCnfs).
14. TILIACE.-E-Linden Family.-Basswood (Tilia americana); European Linden
( T. eutropa'a).
This list shows that 14 botanical families, comprising 30 genera and
33 species of plants, were used by the female cicadas as a nidus for
their eggs at our place.
In the discussion of this paper Mr. Schwarz stated that he consid-
ered the seventeen-year locust to be one of the most interesting insects
we had in this country, and desired that the economic entomologists
should bear this in mind in their recommendations for the destruction
of the insect. He did not consider the injury done by this species of
any particular significance. He thought it to be the duty of economic j
entomologists to carefully map out the extent and number of broods






of this species, so that it would be lp,,-sible to :,.iiral'lv indiiit,, to
orchardists the time when tc''.-, could b)e mo-t -:fely pl)Ialtrt,.d. 11,.
full distribution of miaiiy of the b)roods !i;LId never I' 1.,I, t1ciriiin,,
and he considered it very desira-ble that this should h loiir.
Mr. Alwood renitarked that in his eXlperi-eice injury frioni til,
seventeen-year locust had frequently been quite -,,' ere. lie Il.,en-
tioned an in.4tance where 400) or 500 5-v-:ta'-old tri*,. il all orc.i:ir ,f
5,000) had been so injured by the cic(:,l;a tI hat they ha1 il.,n plull,.i out.
Mr. Marlatt spoke in b)ehatlf of the sentimeniit expr,...l y Mr.
Schwarz, and emphasized the fact th;it the periodi:lral 'iaLl:1l i" our
most interesting inst-ct, and thought it would hi unfortun:it, if it
were extermi nated. He consider d tlhat the dam1,age 1 ,sio ( i,,.1l v1 it,
on the whole, was slight, but that in individual instances considlral.
injury had been done. He referred to an orchar(1d belonglitng. to Mr.
M. B. Waite, near Washington City, where the ('cicadasI had cote out
from the edge of a woods and had punetiird a few of the ;adj;, 'int
rows quite badly, so that one year's growth \vwas lo-4t. Properly it
back, no lasting injury would be sustained.
Mr. Hopkins agreed with Mr. Slhwairz a- to tlie inter,'t suirrounld-
ing this species, and remarked in regard to the broods thiat li was
beginning to be somewhat skeptical as to the propriety of usil ,, til,,
term brood with its pre.-eit signifianct'c. He thought lthlt as the
knowledge of this species increa'td it would be found tl:Lt then' was ;
great deal of intergrading', and also that repre-,ntattivt, of -o-c;tlled
broods were likely to appeal every year, even in the :alame State. Ile
had evidence from West Virginia thatt the periodical ciada ap mvr d
annually in certain localities. He thought it would he very difliciilt,
except where the intervals were iiarked, to desi:"ii:ate th or to refer each to a recognized brood.
Mr. Marlatt called attention to the work of ID)r. Giideon B. SI' it.
who lived in the first half of the last centuryv and who il tulii
the cicada very extensively between 1>25 and 1850, or theli ,:iots.
Dr. Smith had prepared a very important aperr, which lie, 1.:iit ver,
published. An abstract of Dr. Sinith's record of ,ri,,l I,:d it,-en
published in the speaker's paper on the cicada ( bulletin 14. "ttitcI
States Division of Entomoloi'v). Dr. Smith 1,1ad ra:lll Attti'ti P, to
the idea just advainced by MIt. Hopkins. .naiely: 'Till' ft:I't of till,'
gradual breaking up of old Ibroods, which in till cotur-,, of time nilit
cause the cicada to appear in every eiala-h-boodl rV gion every yI', -.
This did not mean that the sevente.n-vai'r p-,ro( would )w, )st ,ut
that there would be such a splitting" up of the bnol- by :'ce'l':ition
and retardation that the marked period-, of apperaracetlc illn t i,-i' ler: 1iliP
numbers would cease.





78


INJURIOUS INSECTS OF THE YEAR IN CANADA.
By JAMES FLETCHER, Ottawa, Canada.
The season of 19.2 in Canada has been a remarkable one, being of
an unusually damp and cool nature. This has had an effect not only
upon the development and yields of many of our staple crops, but also
upon the prevalence of some of the important crop pests. There was
a noticeable absence of injury by some of the best-known insect ene- I
miies of cereal and orchard crops, such as the Hessian fly, the wheat-
stem maggot, the codling moth, the plum curculio, the cankerworms,
and the tent caterpillars. Peas, formerly such an important crop in
Ontario, were little sown this year, from fear of the depredations of
the pea weevil, and some substitute crops, such as the grass pea, soja
beans, emmer, and clovers, were cultivated in their place. The season,
however, was inauspicious, and these crops were not grown with satis-
faction. The season, although favorable for most fodder crops, was
adverse to corn, the most important of all, over large areas.

INSECTS AFFECTING CEREAL CROPS.

Grain crops were little injured by insects during 1902 and yielded
unprecedented returns. There was an almost phenomenal disappear-
ance of the Hessian fly in western Ontario. No injury appears to have
been done, although during the season of 1901 both the occurrence of
the insect and its injuries were excessive. A serious outbreak of the
Hessian fly, however, occurred in Manitoba, and the losses were
doubtless far more extensive than was recognized, owing to the enor-
mous crop. In Manitoba there is only one brood of this insect, the
flies of which appear in spring at the time wheat is just sending up its
stems. Larvae from eggs laid upon the young leaves and hatching
before the stems shoot up, attack the root shoots and do much harm,
although this is seldom noticed by farmers. Those larvae which hatch
later locate at the bases of the leaves of the lowest joints of the stem.
The "flax-seeds" are formed by the end of June, but the flies do not
emerge till the following spring. Cutting high and the burning over
of stubble are recommended as remedies.
ii
LOCUSTS.

A considerable amount of injury was done in Manitoba during the
past season by the Rocky Mountain locust, the lesser migratory, Pack-
ard's, and the two-striped locusts. My object in mentioning this now
is to draw the attention of entomologists to the Criddle mixture of
horse droppings poisoned with Paris green or some other convenient
insecticide. Full details of this method have been given in my later
annual reports which, according to the constitution of this association,





79


are regularly sent to every nmeiier. I e t e t therefore, 1:ie 11
Stimne now in repeating these fuirtlir than to -ay tlvit ti,. iiixtuir. ]i:i[
Been improved during the 1,att year by Mr. ( ri-lle Ia.111 tli:it it li:i4
been eminently satisfactory in contro(lliig loiusts. The mixture ir<\\
consists of 1 pound )f Paris green miixed with i;l (of fri, h ljii,,-, r il'p-
pings. To this i, added 2 pounds of -;ilt ;i'I the mi\(iitr' is tnln
scattered round the ,edge',of fields which it i- thIi, ui,(it 111:N v 11. iMvaiI'Il.
by a swvarm of locu.ts. This remnely, of cour-,. is also nv;:Iil:ilIe f'(Ir
grasshoppers in aIll Jprtof the country. The 1,4-0t c(Mnveuient r.,-
tacle for mixing this and ca.rryiw. the material to the iild is li;i:lf (4f
coal-oil barrel mounted on a cart. A piece of shintle ;mnwer- well :il
a paddle to distribute the mixture with.
The injuries by the pea: weevil and thie )('ssibility of vra:li':;itin it
I have already laid before the meting in a i.lrxtrate paper. i) I is
perhaps the entomological problem of most imlp,)rt:Mnce in (Clana'1;
to-day. -
INSECTS AI-FE(TIN( (OOT <1.4 I'S.

Root crops throughout the D)ominion have .been exceptio:illyv thie
and there was little complaint of injury by i-iiets. Tle (ol ora ,o
potato beetle was complained of in the new Mormon di.-tri,.i if
Alberta. flying in the foothills of the Rocky Mounttains. I]-.- in llMa i-
toba in a few localities, but was not a .cat-e of imuclh loss. In Priire
Edward Island. on the other hand, it Nas extremely :tbuntd:imt :iii,
destructive, owin.r, perhaps, to an unii-uially hot and d( v )erioi whi,.h
prevailed during July.
Some injury was complained of to potatoo(, in Manitiolm: by blis.ter
beetles. This was to be expected ;a- a ci,'-equenc,. (f tlih abunilawr.
of grasshoppers during tihe last four or five e-,-ns.
The turnip aphis (A l/,/ 4,,',..,,. L.). which for imanyV V";iL- 1i1
been very troul)lesomne in Canadat. wa. abuid tian tliii y<-;V only ,r
the Pacific coast andI in Newfoumindland. It- attack- were chiNfly oM
cabbages.
INsECTs AFFECTING FRUIT -('0)1'.-.

The ey/e--,pottvJ7 ll-i,,,t/i,.- Fruit crops l .11.1ve ()In tlir \l,1, i,.
very satisfactory. In the apple orchard], (if Noa; SrOtdia tlienr' w.a
great irregularity of production, -,tiii. orciari,- l.iii ,2 ll.eavily v .l' l'I
while others close to them h1ad very poor r ol-.. This -1 ;till rit.
largely to the temporary aliindiance in til. imi:iitiiii, pivi lr i- of tie.
eye-spotted bud-moth (7,,m ,,,, li, ri t//,,,,,), which I ilte.t.d thlre la-t
winter on the trees in the larval condition, an din rinara1.1;I. 1 l, iiirir,.
It can not be denied, however, that Can'adian fruit far mv rs I rv pnr-
gressed enormously (luring the la-t half dec.adle, a i, te-titi,-l ,y tl)I
eiieral adoption of spraying and other cominii--,,-,e tiitlid, 4f





80


advanced horticulture. The self-styled '' practical man of experience,"
who wants no science, as he calls it, but does everything in a rule-of-
thunmb manner, comes to grief and loses money every time he comes
in contact with the really practical man, who does not brag about
being one, but who wants always to obtain from specialists the best
and latest information on all branches of his work.
TPie San Jose scale.-Introduced into Ontario in 1897, this most
pernicious enemy of the fruit grower has spread through that part of
Ontario lying between Niagara and Hamilton, and west of that line
to the Detroit River. In fact, it now occurs throughout the peach-
growing districts which lie to the west of Lake Ontario and to the north
of Lake Erie. This small area is the only part of Canada infested by the
scale; but splendid work has been done by the provincial government
through its officer, Mr. George E. Fisher, the inspector of San Jose
scale, who has been constantly at work since 1898, and his results have
been such that they seem worth bringing before the Association. I
think it may now be claimed that with the lime-sulphur-and-salt wash,
or with a modification of this in which the salt is omitted, as a winter
wash, followed in summer by the ordinary kerosene emulsion, -ve have
a practical remedy by which the San Jose scale can be controlled.
The Federal Government is enforcing strictly the San Jose scale act,
which is practically the one that was agreed upon at the Washington
conference held in January, 1898. It is unfortunate that the United
States Congress did not simultaneously put through the similar act
which was agreed upon at that time, but which it will be remem-
bered was neglected owing to the outbreak of the Cuban war. Had
this bill become a law the two countries could have worked together
to prevent the transshipment of infested nursery stock from one to the
other. By the Canadian San Jose scale act all nursery stock imported
from countries where the scale is known to exist is fumigated entirely
at the expense of the government. There are six ports of entry
where fumigating hou.,ses are located, and these have worked admira-
bly. The San Jose scale act has been rigidly enforced, and with excel-
lent results, for there has not been a single well-founded complaint of
injury to stock, of undue delay chargeable to the fumigation, or of
living scales having been found on any trees in the large number
of consignments of nursery stock which have been imported into
Canada through the fumigation stations.
The attention to fruit pests, especially to all kinds of scale insects,
which has been evoked by the advent of the San Jose scale in Canada,
has had a good effect by teaching our fruit growers and farmers the
importance of knowing more about the insect enemies of their crops
and the necessity of careful definite work in all branches of their
business.







.Yq.-' f-'u;f pxf.'.-Some ,Iew (11enemie cs of fruit.-, i,,rlul of ,lv
minor importance, but worth Of1 meliition lIre, al '. tl1 fwllw in:
The blackbl eriry oft scale (1:'1 ,f, 1i" t;" 1 , Si'.) 11d1. ;,l-l it .
scale I(u a, ,. i... I y,,, Pou 1h() app, iret. it) injilo'ii. I Iu), r-V-i v-
eral localities in western On()itario in blackIerrN jl1:liIt;i:Ltio11s.
A noctt id i(,etiiD,><,Y,,h lU',(,,f; fK /.',f,/i ,, ( r 4)t al : ..'t,14 II' If ,,i, ,, <,
trol t,., t,/ iifn.) vwere .it in fromil Vaii.,livel.r 1-a1:11d :1, l: i\ Il;-. ,ir,,-
harm in .-trawb)errv ,ied.
A .ing-le .-pvci i ien (the tirst r,,.,r .1) of tt l .ro I\ -(:,il ili I II )
(A"/y/',q ,,. ,,/ ,,.//*..,,u,./,,iriJvf I,.) wus c'ill:_,lit ait lIt/lit inl St..IJothn. N,'w l'nniso
wick. I do not think thlit tiis means that tile il,-,.'t l,.is sI':1a t, N,,u
Brunswick from Mabuali-,tts. Init radtlir that :a 1i11ih Wi i1, lti):p
was biroight direct from Iqton ()n oi,, ,Of till, 111:111V ssniijr ships
plying reiT(iarlyV from that port to St. Jolh1n. It iIIli.:tlms. how14ver.
how easily this or -mny other iil-, .et mi tlit In. sp),.:t;l toi V t ia \\ l, :ilit .
Of rather miorte iiport:iiice tia:i the ao1ve-nientio ind i's :; n'w ijuliry
reported this t-i), fri'ii -',veral 14l1-., inll westren ( )ntario :,i
observed ini a fewv ca-e,. lait vyear at Oltaiwa. lV tb a lrv:,' of tle -;I\ llv
iT1., .'r,,. ,,/ /'/;., x- nf Nort). hi,-,, lar'vl, al', fr(i<' q ntlvoy f1%111 inI alit I IInI
on different kinds of Rminex and IPoly, niium, of w\lhil thwv im1lu',
the leaves to a skelt,,n. The injury to apples is done IvY tin' v,,.,n
larva- boring into the fruit in autumn. Frmi the appa,,t1ra4. (if t i.
burrows, which run in for about Ihalf an inch into tlie l,.-,i of tie
apple and which cmitainli no lblak ex1(remn it. I :1i 11 to li,1, t,,lit
this is merely an accidental injury, tile l:rvai merely (,l'iil,2 il1to(
apples as thivy niiiht into any (ft, titnil subst:al,.e, in I liih tiIi 4,xI--
vate their winter quarters. Ti1,. is ual habit is for the 0lara 1t, ,,r'.
into the pithy stewi, of herl'l,;,,us plants. I have n) re('I, 1f tli,
larvI +ittackiing' the leave. of apple tri.,-, 1)t1t Pr)fes- 4r 1oli,.d ,,,,. oif
Guelph..-aw the-e lar'vak, clinmbing u1) thie truilks ()f :ippl1i t,-.- in
October. Tle iilnjlury to fruit ai,. !how% ev4er, of rahther a -,i,,ios i:tiilin,
tne apples bvint,' macl disig'ur,. and in 1may instri,- they wet,.
rendered unfit for market :an(d lia, to I,- e(|d to i,-.i Suild thi-
saw"fly larva )co 'a H ,'uhthar en'lil4y (4f t1w plpe-). ;I ref'ill,.,\ -Iiih
suggests itself is the de-t rucition of all w (.d- rowin' ni,-ir itill, tr,.,t-
which belong to the dock or -illit-w faiilv.

FORIF'XT IN'-':('TS.

R ic l/'v'1, ,s'k, A f'///,;'' / (Biwvu/af i''i'iiqniI, ii Il/1 (hl'hi~icnb. /. 1 ll.
birches, particularly tlie white bir'ches, thriollhot tl,. :rt' :tr (:1rt o)f
Canada east of the pri'rie provilir1.,- 1,have b,,. jvi alI isli 1.,11
during the past two seamonls 1by the -imall :1irv:, of tlilts tili' idI. t ), iI,-
to the cool, damnip easmn of 1902, thle att:a.k\ 114 :ipfl1:i'r't util a
fortnight later than in 1.ilol, and it is hoped 'lmit tir, ultiil;i(: 't,',i !


22170--03-6






82


the trees will be less severe. Birches, however, were in many places
entirelydefoliated( by the middle of September. The destructive work
of these caterpillars was also considerably added to by a large aphid
(C'l11l+yft,., ,in //,".;.) and by a green leaf-hopper (Empoasca smarag-
(7ah1t Fall.).


Mr. Washburn in discussing this paper stated that the locust
trouble was a very interesting one in Minnesota, and also a very
serious one. He stated that the farmers were very slow in using
poison bait, such as bran and horse droppings, because poultry roam
over the wheat fields, and in scratching over the poisoned droppings
would suffer. For this reason it was almost impossible to use the
poison bait in Minnesota.
Mr. Alwood inquired if anyone had ever poisoned chickens with an
arsenite.
Mr. Fletcher stated that he had been investigating this point for
some years, but had never heard of a single instance.
Mr. Marlatt made the suggestion that ordinary white arsenate be
used instead of Paris green, the former being very much cheaper.
He said that Paris green is the most expensive of all arsenicals, cost-
ing 20 to 25 cents per pound, whereas arsenic could be purchased at a
few cents at the most. He said that the simple arsenite of copper was
as effective as Paris green, and could be purchased for about one-
half the cost of the latter. Difficulty was experienced, however, in
procuring the arsenite of copper in sufficient quantities to supply
the present demand; hence he thought Paris green (the aceto-arsenite)
would no doubt be largely used for some time to come. As relating
to this particular case, he was inclined to recommend simply poisoning
the bait material with white arsenic. He suggested that an enormous
quantity of poisoned material would be necessary to insure the destruc-
tion of the locusts in their widespread outbreaks.
Mr. Fletcher explained that it was not necessary to cover an entire
field, but that the poison should be placed around the edges. With
regard to the use of arsenic as a substitute for Paris green he consid-
ered this very undesirable, from the great danger of poisoning from
its accidental or careless use. He thought arsenic resembled flour,
sugar, and some other household stuffs too much to allow of its gen-
eral prescription. The reason that he had continued to recommend
Paris green was that it is well known, and could not on account of its
warning color be mistaken for anything else. He would. have no
hesitancy in using arsenic himself or advising its use by specialists,
but would not dare recommend it for everybody, and particularly if it
were likely to be kept about dwelling houses in the country, as a
result from having some of the poison left over. Fruit growers living





83


at a distance from towns, or for the -.:Ike of eoo(4my. 'iiitel:,1v Jiiy
more materials at once l:thaii they require to u.I at thi, timll. N m at-
ter how great the dl:,imger Iim;l, b, p1'ep.e -, gt I:,rlesl.
Mr. Marlatt desired to know wli:t I(objectiols there \\ould ) .t I til,
use of the simple copper ar-eiiite as a -ubl-titute ,ir IP:ts it'n.
Mr. Fletcher stated tliat he preferr, d the former to P'iris r,.n il
some ways, not only oni account of its being cheapv.r, hut frI'm til-
fact that it was ti.ceptille of munich more .even (listributiion i ll(h.
water, but it seemed al-, more likely to injul., foli;iL.e-.. Ile ]i:11 11-1.1l
disparene with grvat :at tifac.tion.
Referring to the (lanIoIer of p)oionint fowl, y l)Pi-,n l):tit -ratte eI
in the field, Mr. Wilcox t:ited I h;it alb)out a vear ( :to he l tI i. Iad occ.-
sion to read an extended article ).:tlring directly uv 1p)n tlhis point.
Several formn.- of arsenical poisons hbad Ieen tried (. )n chick( ns :11 1
pigeons, and also, as he remeiimbered it, oiln d(uck:-. Tlhe ,lt:tils of tle.
test had passed froin his mind. but he was ,g;i',tly in)pr---.idl with tlhe.
very large quantity of poion which fowl, could e;at before they were.
affected by it.
Mr. Fernald called attention to an interp-tin i, ob1erv:tion wliieh le
had made in the course of his nur-.ry-in-pl.'ection work in M:l;i.-:iehu-
setts, namely, that he had found the Saii J4 :. -catie .ccnTrnri.L 4 on tle.
arbor vitae and also on the white spruce. While li, lImrdly tholl--Lht
that the insects would be able to per maiiently e-.tablish tlit,-.lvt. on
these plants, yet he desired to call attention to the mmatte.r.
Mr. Kellogg then presented the following" Ipa ir:

NOTES ON CALIFORNIA COCCIDIE, ALEURODIDE, AND SCOLYTIDE.
By V. L. KK:I.I.,,GG, I',f" .lIto, Cal.
Mr. Kellog'g- made a 1,rief report on the work lbeing- done at Lleiuid
Stanford Junior University on the Coccid;e. .\leunr ,lild. :t11 it idl.
of California. A collectiu... trip) wa matlI in tile s1mnin,.mer of 1,!41. 1by
foot and horseback. for a thoti-and miles tihrouu'h tli, ger.i(at ,ciinifer ii,-
forests of northern Califorinia for the 1mtl)rp-e, of collection _,e liecinm,.ir,-
and notes for a study of the conifi-r-infi-tini.r -ele. in-,ets. 5Mr. (',le-
man, the assistant who u nllertook this triple, bru, ht ;iek 22 -l4,.i,.f
Coccidae from 21' .-)e'ie' of ,ouifer-. 10 of tliet ii-i-et sp.ei-,. ing
de.crihed as new. Of tlieeet 10 the immatm:tre tn't-,.- of 4 ire 1,--.ril,.l
and a comn)ilete life history of 1. A gr-idlutate studt1nt. Mrs. F. E".
Dorsev, has descri1d W siweie- of A le ](I Ii Drw f nil inn (;:iliforii.
thus increasing the number of known North Ainetri,-tin -Drci.- ii tli.-
family from 40 to ;io. In the ca-e of every one' (f tli.-t *" ii., --l2,iit.s
the immature stages have l.een :-tidied Iny MIrs. bI),'-,v :;nl ,de-,.i1il,.
Experiments have been carried on n ,.iibit inf,'. iP,,,l,,, 1- 1',
in Monterey pines in the arlort'ettlli of Staltn',,Ul UiiNi. -ity. in tlive






84


grounds of Mr. Timlothy Hopkins at Menlo Park, and in the grounds
of the Hotel del Monte, on the Bay of Monterey. Small, close canvas
tent.s have beenI put around the trunks of the trees, and in these tents
hydrocyanic; acid has been used. This gas readily penetrates the bur-
rows of Dendrw.ton ,. and kills practically all of the larvae and adults
in the butirrows. As many as 30"0 larv-e have been found in a vertical
length of 3 feet of trunk, and all of these larvff have been killed by
the gas. Such a procedure is, of course, not at all practicable in fight-
ing Dl.)n(1'ootoc ws in forests, but seems to offer a means of killing the
pest when attacking a few choice trees, as is the condition in the parks
and grounds in the neighborhood of the university.

PLANT ENVIRONMENT AND INSECT DEPREDATIONS.

By F. WVILLI.AM R.iNE, DAir/am, N. H.

We are constantly learning something new about the relationship
between insect and plant life. A new species hitherto unknown is
discovered, and shortly it may be this insect lays claim to some of our
domesticated plants, and thereafter continues to menace or prey upon
it as commonly as though this had ever been its custom. Again, spe-
cies that we have long known for some reason change their appetites,
or rather enlarge upon their food supply, so as to include in their
menu plants heretofore not cared for. Such events are constantly
taking place, and entomologists are ever ready to make new observa-
tions. To find an old friend taking a meal on a heretofore strange
plant is noted with interest. Although experience has shown that
these simple observations may not indicate much, yet they are impor-
taut, for as time goes on conditions may arise wherein this indicated
outbreak may occur.
Economic entomology has come to be a great factor in America, and,
with an ever-increasing number of keen observers everywhere through-
out our broad land, little happens that is not soon brought to the
notice of someone.
The gardener, fruit grower, or farmer that is awake to his calling
has a remedy or suggestion at his bidding for most of his insect foes.
These remedies are generally looked to by him as cure-alls, and if the
insects are only destroyed everything is lovely.
The point that I desire to emphasize in this paper is that simple
remedies for insect depredations in many cases are not after all what
really is needed. It was not many years ago that everyone had his
own remedy for certain insect depredations, and each man that made
a success attributed it to his particular treatment. Modern investiga-
tion, however, exposes many of these practices as absolutely imprac-






85


tical. The reason for their succ.--s, in other oirds, \:is dule toI t her
conditions entirely. I remenmber 'arr-vil iot tan1 exl-milliit to protect
cucurbits from the I)Dialrticas. 1 1" .,e) tiierall ii'_'jes1ed rein' j-p
and tabllating them, o-vet 50 \were oltt'erfeld. TW0-, were .teste and.
st~ran<'e to -ay, none ,,f themll were etti.:fc.aiouis as re-t-commende.11(hd.
We a'&re yet ill the ta Insitorv sta'e as re,,'i arts tI. ise of i -.e.l iri(1.
fromn the practical ma,'s staltndpoint. lHe liars so- mu aot111li sph.iV-
ing that he thinks if he spivays 1is i crp)s 1e is pr:t.t iallv assrII d V I f t
harwv:,st. I feel that, in re(!4Iard( to till,' ise ot iselcticid s, w ,e li\-v1ely
to duplicate the experience of a promilinetit celim-ist with the c)IIW'iIr-
cial-fertilizer problem. \\When comlmlm'Ie'riai fertilizel.rs tir-t cae into
use he most heait'ily chanllpione(d thevi,. a ld tried in every \,:I \ 1, to -iw
wherein they were of value, but farmer- ',''ner:tlly tlimIiirt tili,'m a:
mvth and didn't want to la:ive an\vthinig to (i) withl theillil. N\\ t11-
sam 111 n s11 ys tlie I('pendullum li11;- swvu g' to the farther .xtrIt,'.
Public ,entiment, throiil!'h the press, bulletins, 'fertilizer coI. Ip;[,i,.-`
publications, etc., i:iake a per-mi feel tlit to !) N witlhmut comill uerci:al
fertilizer is courting failure. In othelIr words, this -:111' Ilmi: n1ow
feels it his duty to ctition against the idli.isrelillimi,:te I]-, f th,'-,
goods. which are without doubt as great draw:iek to fliiii t'otl -i.i.-s
in some section as anything'.
Our position a- re.ga'Urds in-,',t depircdations in some Sthtes- I atil
ilclil'edl to think aLa;tlogous to thle colmI1l'rercial fertilizer lprobdle'. I
do not desire to be consideredd as throwiti' aiNv cold water ,, the
progress of economic entomlolo'v, in which field I ail ever read y ti
thankfully accept everytl iL ()f usefulnt-.-. B it mlfl 4 the st:adpinit
of the farmers, fruit ,:' owers, L)r ,''irdeners 11uc11h l1phals"is soldmll)l be
laid onl tlte fact that though, the in-.,ts themselves emv H 1,, ,.trovOtld,
this does not n'co.--arilv inisue the com(itionis doeired.
Is it not a fact lltht those men whoo aedi, thei1 ost i ,-.,.i_'1i''lt aO 01t
their general kiiowle.dge of plant culture have tiv r,1.att'.-t tro uIl.
from ins-et depredtions. I believe tIhat our est eiet' il mIi 1)istt will
bear mle out iln ,:vingr tiit wherever we fiid prl:ictical su'..,4-fl h111s-
bandm-lenl we :il:o find the lminimumil trouble, frolmi i,-,.' ,Ioe 1:11 i,,'r..
It is not all e:asy a:1tter to lavy down a1Vy spcii :tll 1d\%iit 1;i\,
but that tlt',-e conditions doI) exist there is little lue-stion. Many i,,-'r*t
ra'ages are dolubtless the re.I-ltant ,f tati ui ,':ieltliv 'o111 liti (o of tliel
plant, dtie to imlnprper culture or ;aC'cidient i;Itlier tha:tn to t1 ,:ltut1;:iI
devouriig iiin tict- of tlie i n-i t. Tfl', tl it ar, ,,'i lrd,1 o),r Tit do\\ 1,
are sl-hortly prey d polln by a irv:lt v;iri.ety of i,-.,ets- tit;it ,,AIIi,- e vi-
dently cons.ider"s bneficial. altliu h they :1re. un,1111 .r so1 I , ,o, ltit -.
detrimental. Where cultivated plaits tlhat f:tally Ii'' I W-litY 4
availal)le plant fiold for their d(evelolme)1a'el, t ; q, -,t o tt in dI1,1j1,ii. 1 -,1il.
from the very fact of their prievioii- hi'ih deree 4f cultuii, :i,,1 l1,,.,-






86

ing they begin to decline, and plant-lice and other insects assist in
their extermination. 1 had three vines (Lonicera) running over my
porch. All grew well for a couple of years, when one became badly
affected by plant lice, while the others were comparatively free.
Upon examination I found that the label wire that had been left on
the infected plant was checking its development, and the vine was
thereby weakened. Upon removal, new shoots rallied to the support
of the plant, but the insects were too numerous and the plant became
disCouraged, although it never thought of giving up life. The next
year I noticed that this same plant was again affected with the aphides,
also one of the others, but the third seemed healthy as ever. Upon
diagnosing their cases I found the healthy one stood alongside a
shrubby border, and its roots had ready access to rich cultivated soil,
while the others were in sod ground. Thinking the poverty of their
food supply perhaps accountable for their condition, they were ferti-
lized, with the result that, although the insects did not leave the plants
entirely, the plants themselves overcame their previous debilitated
condition and, as far as the casual observer could tell, were perfectly
healthy. Many other facts have come to my notice that also point to
the conclusion that, if we understood what the proper culture of the
plant should be, many insect troubles could be avoided. I have taken
much interest in getting the practical man's views of plant culture, and
many object lessons are gained therefrom. Insects and fungous dis-
eases are by no means as troublesome to the man who knows how to
get best results from plants themselves as they are to another who
knows everything about insects and their control and but little about
plant culture.
I have had college graduates who could identify insects and recite
on insecticides perfectly, but who found it practically impossible to
combat red spider and the like without practically destroying the
value of the plants themselves. Another man with little knowledge
of entomology or insects, but thoroughly understanding plant culture,
has grown the same plants under exactly similar conditions, and I
have failed to even find red spider present. If plants are allowed to
suffer from crowding, over or under watering, too much or too little
ventilation, extremes of temperature, insufficient plant food, neglected
breeding, etc., of course one will have trouble, and simple remedies,
although under other conditions they might be efficacious, here are
utterly useless. I might enumerate further examples, but hope I
have sufficiently emphasized the idea that entomologists can not know
too much about plant culture, and were it possible I should like to
see every economic entomologist as far as possible a practical grower.







The next paper was by Mr. lPillipt:

NOTES ON MELANOPLUS FEMORATUS.
B v J. L. Pli PiSl I 1;, I; 1-,'l i,,, *" *',l.


This locuS.-t wwas tir-t obl.,rved in (om-siderable ltiiii t1r1 s by tilln rit,,r,
in Roanoke County, June 17, 1S!99. It was ill tlhis iiist:1i4,' ,*1,iII,,- .,l,-
siderable injury to it siill tiield of timolliy, ltit was t plnt- il iful
enoug'hl ill tlhe vicilnitv to attr':it ,-,ileril attei tioi i. W Ih ie tlii- ini-,.t
occuire'd in l'i(. hihI'able nill ,i'hr-. t ,i' as thev cut offt or di,,-tr v) ed aill tile b,1;,d -, iiil i ii:i,,v oI ti,-ili'I.al.
leaving olily the st:ilk\-. iT is sl.w iv'i \\; i foui(ld tio he pitI ifiil ili til-
fields iear Black)',,l later the saile silnln'r. I it it ,\\;i lnot ipr -ftit
in sufficient nuimiler, to d(o) -.rio's har1i.
The ol-e rva:t ioIi- \\ere ilot O Sr ried ol svst*eillatiall, v ey I little,
attention being paid to it in litio alnd liul, biut i .ion Jlnit'; 1'."', w1,
learned that tli- iii-,'-,t was doi( oiiMsid i'a1l(e d:Iile l:,i,, iln -slll' p' t iI lil-.
of W tlihe and Snyvth counties, alotiolt 5i Piil<-i w,-t of ltl:mkslirr.
This outbreak wali- invest 1 ':ati'd 'lIt One., alld prOvr', 't t I- ti' i, ,-t
serious oemi kinowni to us.
Tihe ow'iier of the property wli.r. this olitkii,;ik ,1 i,'ll'rred liuii' I
that the louii-st- \\"ei. tirst ,.rv\',, on1 the western 11orf ler of : ',:i1tUr(
field of :-l aci'T-. At the time this in vesti,_l't ioll wa- iide ti, I1iil-
itv of the ill-,ct- were loILtdl iii a l', hild ,f w li:It. ;i'1,lj I oiliii"
the patiiure field. Thley lihad tioned pa-tuire. leiaviig thie groind b,:ire., hImt tile ',,,s wei'' still :'live
iand liad o1e'uii to :eid up a stlin' new wth. T \1 .t
alle'oldy c('o -idetiNii i liyiiiiL',.2l. Nirlv all ir,,' bl1 :i1'1 111-d IW'tIl rtii
off. and liainlv of the he a:., of wl A,:;t ;il.-o. andi t i(v 11e10\ still K,,.1liT..
The gir'at l;ijor'itV of tilt I,( usts \\el', :Ldlll t It ti-s tille.
iMr. Bro\\'.inlL-', the o\\ tier, claiims thi:it ol ftor'lr r r a-uii-- lie ,.l
known the'iii to dt'-t'tr nv l uch of the wlvi:it alter it ', t: h f-likt ,. even
cuttiiu. tlie twine ,bands, -, thint ilrtre was o;I e los-- i !:liii
Thi'se l tields IIa e lo,.iti'd on the e;-steri tlink otf i -() ill s1 ,:i ;n1 ,. '- lich
appear., to lihave acted to -(1i1e extnt ta- 1, I';!l i 'er, pl ve. ti'ii' .. 6;. ir'
enitrailce to thy fields on the w.-i side inll :illy v ,ior:l,.iir-.
Later oll)ti'er toll ns this -'7 isol si, )W,.l thlis ii- 't t0o ,, )iselt in ttilou
ler's ;ll tliioiil~i tihe V.dlehy of Vir,,inia. from u Silthli (oliit\ oi t!.
southwe.-t to e''lerick on tle north. ,uly *U, :i hi:ill atopl o(',...l
near Winclister, :01out thi', v,;irs -',t. wv;i, f,,itiu t o be :dlo-It lrioli-
ated, and investigation p i)roved that ili. iii'.'t wtas r-l,,nsin-,. foir t1;,'
dia in age.





88


.Mr. Symons next presented a paper on the following subject:

ON THE POSITION OF THE SET1E OF THE SAN JOSE SCALE IN II
INFESTED PLANTS.
By T. B. SY VINS, C-'nllegep!irk, Md.
[Withdrawn for publication elsewhere.]
Mr. Hopkins stated that in his opinion the subject of Mr. Rane's
paper was worthy of careful consideration, as it had to do with quite
an important subject. In his own official work in West Virginia he
had frequently urged the importance of good culture and good farm-
ing in the control of injurious insects, and thought that farmerswho
gave proper attention to these points would succeed where careless
farmers would often suffer severely from insect depredation. This
statement did not refer to all insects, but he thought there were many
species which are attracted to the less vigorous plants and that such
plants succumb while more vigorous ones would repel themni or recover
the injury.
Mr. Rane stated that the idea of presenting this paper had come to
him from observations on men go-raduating from our educational insti-
tutions, especially those going out into economic scientific work. He
thought men preparing themselves for work in entomology should be i
given a considerable amount of work in horticulture and agriculture.
If they did not understand these subjects, particularly from the prac-
tical standpoint, they were greatly handicapped. He stated that he
had had an opportunity of observing the work of a number of young
men who had made a study of entomology, and he thought them to be
incapable of successfully handling their work in relation to crops.
A man might be well fitted for entomological investigation, but would :
nevertheless not be practical in his recommendations for farmers and !
fruit growers. He thought the same held true of l)lant pathologists.
A knowledge of entomology, botany, plant pathology, etc., is always
to be recommended, but equally so, for the benefit of the results to be
derived from plants is a knowledge of ideal plant environment, which
is none other than culture.
The following papers, which lihad been handed to the secretary, were
read by title and were accepted for publ)lication in the proceedings of
the association.

DEVELOPMENT AND HIBERNATION OF MOSQUITOES.
By H. A. %IORI.AN and J. W. DUITPREE, Baton Ronge, La.
Data in connection with the development and hibernation of mos-
quitoes is of the greatest interest in determining rational remedial
measures. As nmost of the investigations up to the present time have







been inspired by a desire to reduce tihe nimewrs of th'-'e 4,,sts t,
make habitable at certain .s-;.ions of tlhe year lar' :tr,.;:i tli:it 1m:av 1
devoted to a variety of enterpri-rs, :;ind to c.leck tlle1 s-,;,i of (lis-
eases, our studies were bemiun witi tie idh':i of a;tisti as ia a1,-
sil)le ill this latudable c,.use, a ld we trust tli.,t sme ()1' 11te f:t,.ts as -.-t
forth in thi-, piper imay prove of value in flitul' l, work u1poI tliis
suliject.
Then .o-quito generia that htve conme 1iider our obsen;i'tio- a:1n.
ASt<'(jf)fin1j ( 11 t' J, 0itt'A 1f!/eift s, P^ //o /jpllo 'lf ;11(d 1 l/1( -/^ rs' n ;1-
inany as 24 -pecies ]live 1,en studied ore ov r lss. VWe rlad AxP.,t.t.,
to discuss our obh-ervations ul)on aill tIe spelcies col ilomi to) 1aI)t)
Roug'e and vicinity, but it would take niorie tne than t hlat s .iallv
allotted to the discussion of a sing-le topic on occasions like tlhis. \WeV
have. therefore, thought t,-4 to d iscl.ss in a \'\iefl way thlle problemlsl
associated with the hiber:nation ndl develolpmenilt of imosquii.i'es :I- :;
Whole and to dis.cus., in detail, thougl i brieilyv. tle lif' cycle of l-v.' -
phora.
The time required for thle traiisfo' ;itio on f iosqtitoes,h ;I..; % ith
most insects, is decidledlly a var'iale quantity, depelident u11p)n fl,.
and temperature condition,. a1nd thus statelmlnts of so-falle, I niioiil
life of Ioq1(juitoe,- aue miisl,.Utlin, ulehs, accol lnl,:ied I," t1)\ 1e X:it 1
condition- under which this information was prcure(l. While \ itli
most students of i-.se.t development, a knowled.,1r of cm(1d(itins is
assunied, yet public -entiment, upon which s dependent for the operation of rm4 iiinai mets. is .il1m conver-
sant with details of conditions, and if remiiidies fail much time is 1,--t
in explaining the reasons why failure occiur'i,..

.EU.LTS OF O1;--I.l;VATIO(NS N MO)SNl'I1')I:.

From our studie- of ni,-.iitws in i'eneral we 1i:ve ,o4' ..r\41d t1he
following:
F',.... That local pools aei, com)on n r,,,,iiLr' !'r1'O1Il- for no1st 1 l" -
cies of ilio sqjnitoe,-. Of the 24 .spec.ie- fo)udl here every mi 11:( ls. in
some stage of its development. een t:iken fiomi i siitll Pi,)1,1 Ill ft.' t
long, 4 feet wide, and of thi:t depth tli:t two weeks* dr1ii,.-'tit \was I-,ii-
cient to evaporate tll the w;tter it contain,'4l. "1I'" lat'k 14 e-i'-11 .,f
mosquitoes in ,iIch place,'- lI:Vy lar'I ('lv be re-l)4)nsilh, for t l(e p1le'uv :lal. ,'e
of such a variety of forms of \ i:1ri;ible life' Iiitory.
S,.,, Jl. T hiat ill()-(t n -, ito ,,l ,,,-it e,,s -inu'ly PIN ,) tie 1 st:-rf:p ,
of the water exceptionss ai'e (',Ii. *,' ii, .1 '1/., ri'7 ,. 1, jUoIi-
bly oine or two other sp)ecie-) :;ml, exc,'pt in tlie :-,'- of A\n pj)ele'1'- :A114
those placed in boa,:t ta s'-,- the majority will sink ti, tl,, 1,,'tho,>m ,,f
ponds or breeding w ve-.els.
T/;/'(L. That the sinking of '.-:', a' nd low te'ilrit: r'. 1- well :t-. i,.
rapid evaporation of the waIter of pools ,)I 'I I ich ,. _"s :ire l';i!<. 1 .hu,','





90

in a marked degree variations in the time of hatching. Eggs of Ste-
gomyia fase;ata, Conw/lyliates nusicus, Psorophora ciliata, and P.
howi-,dii have been influenced to the extent of months in the time of
hatching by one or other of the above conditions. This point should
not be lost sight of in devising plans for the extermination of mos-
quitoes, and emphasizes the possible variability of life cycles utinder
such conditions.
FoirthI. That the hatching of eggs of many species is in some way
associated with agitation. In 1)ponds that dried up and remained so
for months very small larvae of (C'onehyliates, Psoroj)phora, and a few
species of Cdle.c could be found in a few hours after sufficient rain
fell to produce currents and a shifting of the eggs. In the laboratory
eggs were hatched by agitation, while members of the same batch left
undisturbed remained unhatched for months. Seasons of occasional
showers may be responsible for the prevalence of mosquitoes in more
ways than one.
Fitth. That ordinary transient ponds and pools furnish sufficient
food for the rapid development of larv'te to make the presence of water
only necessary for a period of six or eight days to insure the perpet-
uation of many species of mosquitoes. On the other hand, water con-
taining but little food that is not subject to complete evaporation may
prolong the larval life for months. We have observed the life of
Slegouty;a larve prolonged under such conditions two months and
eleven days.
Si.cth. That the larv'e of mosquitoes are not so fastidious in their
food habits as they are reputed to be, but that water saturated with
fecal matter will shorten the larval period of many species. Steg-
omyli under such conditions completed the life cycle in from six to
eight days.
Seen lt. That water is not essential to the life of pupe of many
species, so long as the ground upon which they rest is moist. Under
the latter condition the pupal period is frequently shortened. This is
of importance in connection with the proposed remedy of sweeping
gutters in which mosquitoes breed. It also has a bearing upon the
transient pools as breeding places for most species. In our experi-
ments pupae were kept as long as three days upon moist cotton before
emerging.
Ekgihth. That most larvF and pupae can remain under water a suffi-
cient length of time to be able to survive in cisterns full of water, and
that the habit of larvae, some at least, of bringing to the surface more
food than can be devoured at once assists a colony of specimens to
procure food without having to go to the bottom for individual feed-
ings. The data associated with the cisterns as chief factors in
mosquito production is not sufficient to draw permanent conclusions.
One thing is certain, that water blocked in gutters of buildings by







eaves and other materi:iL. as well as (Ief',.tive radial of ,,utter-. p1i.
uces conditions simIilar to thio-e of the tr;:iisiriit pi.ols,) ili)prt:iiit
the present mode of life of nooito'.-.
Autbd. That tlhe hibera:tito, (i. e." whIeNrre lolsquito). hibilerria' mr
inter in a specific stage of their develhopIlent) t:,l,(,s ld:i., it tlhe SP1-
ies we have studied in the c,_,*_ a'1dI adult com'litionls. Dr. Jo!l 1 It.
61ith calls attention to the hilerfl'.tion of t\\() ,rms in ti :,. lir\:d
stage, 1iUt up) to till pr' -,nt thT-e s)1r'ils li.\ I ,e ot 'beenll ,-,ri i ii
] isiana. Several species ki on hi' t't irosl" thIl'2 h tilte winitter. ullt
1:evelopme ict is slower a1nd e'er oo o, o\ i to it of
food and relatively lower teml)nratntre. Evehe itl It n of t Ic tI'l
:ibernatin,' forms long' warni -plls mn;.i lrit,'N lit' st,-i',s out of i,-
:ter quarters. Fromi the al ,ve it is 1)pl;ii th:it :1o1()s jlito,,- i rt 1 Iot Ini-
forl'm ill sea,.o'-)lIl apl ,LillE. S 1 'i l F are Illore alud1tI lant (ol' sa 10TI
than another and some may continue lo6tgr" tin otlirs \\ i1e1 the,' dlo
appear. A\ certain sp)Icies are spe iic 1'ct- IIIn e;1i* Iel'., it i- ess(rtiali
that the season, of ditflercnIt S1,ei. Ihe e.iref cily st dli,(1 ;ild talll:it' ,I.
T,/,. --Woi have not found that a ,Iv sl-ecil- of I,,'-,lilito w ill
deposit e,',,'- upon anything other tlian water. Eve tE i I\v it I I-
tan.., X. le 'r at variety of conditions. \ve lI ave IInot l)l, )le iII :In i\
way- c r( ) o orate Dr'. JIohn B. Smi itlto's ti l l,, iti>// tl,:tt (.', /.
Slay egg's upo),n mari i 1,',-. lihe l)o.ssvI) l(,I ,.XI)I:,i:itio, is tlii:t Ill,' ,*_'rs
of tils ,pecie'. are frequently e1(t lihl al(d dry h.v ti l.. iiu&(
Sevaporation of tlie waiter up1)1, xlii.h tliiv arIe de|)osjitel.

|SO)MIE: ()>NsI.:lVATI)Ns UP'ON TWO) Sl'I. I O:
mThe su-mmier of 10)2 prodhice(d i:inv ttntsi:;il codlitios. for tIe de\vl-
oplment of th,,.' ;aqil;atic i-,.-,ts thi:t ;rev deliiindeint t11)(11n siiull lpon, ds
or pools for" their perpI).tuati(n, o Mind :I, ,-:ile tv, adch j)i:te o ) u)tortility
for the .-tl(lv of the ada)tal)ility ,tf s(uci forms iin ovx'1-,, iin"' wri:it
are regarded as lli ftv:i-)l)l(e eIvhiro)in ents. (' certain sylvtiI lt194,%lii-
toes twere 114)4,'4v' to) l}u'Millnl vei' I l l ()IIio us' ill :i f'\\ d:iv aftlt'' I :i ivV
showers, e\en though ta (dro0ll -lit o)f t1re (,e )iio )itVis prtvaix I.it il' vioi t'
the rain-,. Prominent :iinonI)g the nli-,li itot ltiscr I u'tre t\, -III,
cies of a alliltipper''( i{/ f'Iuf /fb/- :n iid /:) I" - lii' iiit-
ural c i.li-i,,On to b)e dIra\\n .%\;is tli;it tltl( .''^.. < of itn'se spe-i(".. as \\cl
as oft ( ;i ,?/,li' *> i,,,.;,',,u w iich :, inv:, ii:ily f)otiil witli tli'em. 1:i,
unbhat'clivd ulpo the -',, d, durin tils tlo u, ry S| II. II,., ,
several P,,', .i jIui )'i breeding p :''. xe r, '\,,.1 ,re ll \\ e d ;i !'
rain fell in snttim'-int (inai11,tity to till the l)c ind, Indhr()o,-,i \ :iitio l 1 trv,
could alwav.- be fimIid a fe'\ hour : ;fttr. ()ur. iv,'.ticv:ti4 i.
continuCed. Tlhe conclusion was ,ei.1ied1 tli:nt :;li of tl t'ih -j did i1''t
hatch with the first rainfall. hut tli:it tII' :1lt',i 0 tioni of drt :i- i 'Olt
weather finally hatlched all tle e ,-s tl:it I'd lite,'Id dl|>itid t!.,' Ir-





92


vious season. In one instance after the first rain (following a thre i
months' dry spell), which occurred on Tuesday at 11 a. mi., adults were
appearing from the pond on the following Sunday at 2 p. m. Adult$.
were captured and caged to secure the eggs, if possible. This we-
succeeded in doing. In one case we kept a P. howardii female thirty-:
eight days, during which time she oviposited five times. Several
specimens of P. ciliata and P. ioiwardut were kept thirty to thirty-two
days, with three and four ovipositions.
During the month of August it was not uncommon to have larve
pupate in four days after hatching, and in one case only nineteen hours
elapsed after pupation before the adult emerged. In summer, how-
ever, the normal pupal life is from twenty-four to thirty-three hours.
During November the larval and pupal life is more prolonged. Eggs
deposited in August and September have not hatched up to the present
time, and are now likely to remain in this condition until next summer.

SOME INSECT INHABITANTS OF THE STEMS OF ELYMUS
CANADENSIS.
By F. M. WEBSTER, U'rbamw, Ill.

While studying the Toisoma infesting the stems of grains and grasses
in connection with some investigations carried out for the Division of
Entomology, under Dr. Howard, I have found Elymus canadensis, to
all appearances, unusually attractive to insect life. As will be observed
from the accompanying list, several new forms have been found.
Another interesting feature of the matter is that, though often Elymus
can ad7'nsis and E. v//'y;/n i .s have been found growing interjacent, not
infrequently touching each other, yet the partiality of insects for the
former species is strongly indicated in the list. Species marked with
a star (*)were reared also from Elyrnus vbh/ics. Unless otherwise
stated, the stems from which the species given was reared were from
the vicinity of Champaign and Urbana, Ill.
Isosomin sp. Larv.e living in the stems.
iso.oma sp. LarNw living in cells in the stems.
Em-rytfoina sp. nov.? Adults August 15 to 25.
*Eiq)eJiiis allynii French.
*"Mt'risus isosomatis Riley.
lmoino)orus chal(cidlelpuflu. Walsh.
1o(')l1ccn-?s sp.?
CocecopJuiytgs sp.? Princeton, Ind.
*Pvl,,h)'roi(d(.il1 ix.o.wm(ldis Ashmead(l MS. nov. gen. et sp. Parasitic on the cell
inhabiting Isosoma. Urbana, Ill., and Princeton, Ind.
C&cc'iiicyritsflatvus Ashmead MS. nov. sp. Princeton, Ind.
*Oliq;til(i grasses-i from Priinceton, Ind(., and in connection with Eutr ltomocharis eragrostidis
Howard, at Urbana. This is the first time this genus has been recorded in
America.






I93
Xj lasm u. irel,.cri A-.hi ead1 _AIS. nov. s I. i: ; iiiinl c'-,.' il, whrl, r t11i ,..- ir',r,,
S the stem s of E ,ii,,f .,,,, si, ji4s, or ir,,ii, l\.i t s ll]bke, 1 .lt in eij l ,.' .- it i flir ,
SPrincit-ton, Ind.
i' ticw iltis ,:;,',,*i' 'ii, ''...\-liiit,'a'I M S. nov. ._',l]. et Sj4. I rriiitti. I 4l.
.E'jp-cu.. ` O ( O -n f Il lit Ik-Ii ilk,.
Foir ,i n. sp.'.' A root loi-r ch-i-liv alliel t1 if nut id'l.itical vithli .i. fenhi .1-.
about [r-hana, Ill., oni the rn, t- of cli .A. l=r,,,n ,,.i .ri ,. in Juily.
*B r l,'ih{t,,ir'i.s dt, ,l.l ,, iV,, . ()ll. imdivilual irm i-t,.iJ- c t c d r,, .ir ( ,'..ii .ii.,ii ri,
Ill.
* if'thm irt nilr,,,,,, W altl. This \%:i- rc.ired in coij-i, ira}ildt in iir, -Itiii 1iin of
both E ,'I,,,;], i..;.. ;tii,1 ;. )i../iIi('ii ctkll c Ite in vari ) l o< ...litil.- in lllinuli andI
Indliaim. Ju-t what th 1.irvaH' ti upm is not ( I', ir., thl -1,tiiu- in .ill ..,-' re
stripped (if lfvt-f a I- and t 1- li,. l- w r' i i % ,. im li v ri ,o',, .,, ',. vi, ii ly tlIe I1.r, .
sterns with, in -nte ,a..--. the envellV opiii'.i-' 1 t.:hir
Bes.dhs the forereoinr a 1 occid occurred quite comiil il milder li'
envelopin," sh1eatlis ;mld tin' l:irva, of -()iie specil-, of il)i'l,,)tera wre
frequently to be found. I failed to <.;ir ti h miotli frn', tli-i, 18rv:,
but they feed within thie stem not infrtque'itlv ()':1win' ()out the (e(,n-
ter of the joint.-' so that the ste in is hollow frimi 6Ittoni to top.
It intst l)e statted in connection with this list of the in,-,t it ilit:,1itant
of this species of 2ra:t tlhat I have made no attempt-tt a an exli;aii-tive
study. "h'le prime object in colleetiiir the stems from -.voeral anld
widely separated localities w.:t for the purpo-e of studyinjug' the spiwi.,i
of Isoso0h: infesting" then. Elyvnus appears to be unusually attv-ra4tive
to these in-ects, but I have inva:ri;ably found tlie larvae va.-tly vmoro
numerous in 1. ,.',,,I s than in E. r,,"i-c,. Ihls i.i'llt atlfford
the basis for a discti,.1ion of the (Uc-tion a1 t to wIich of the t o sp ,.i (-,
of grass was the older; but, in the laii 'uiate of Kipling, -that is
another story." I have little doubt that a further andtl more exteindid
research will develop a still q*rvater ntiumier o(f in-,c't ini,:ibit:nts of
this grass. and the fact that the new ,.,'nerta mid qp-cit"- rol,'ldit til
light ma b1e co.-nMideried ini this ca-t a;s a sort of bV-pro,,Ili<,.t flti'm tlt,
study of the Isosomas,. ountht at l,'a-st give z',-t to a firtli,'r sttudvy in
other localitie-s.


SOME INSECT NOTES OF THE YEAR.

By F. M. V\",-iKR, r!,M,,, I.

In g(oint aloit in -'.veal Stat,.- of the M.N idll- \V W .-t. ,,n,' ff tlil-
most striking fetitutir,' of iii,-,t :itt:ak oh,-c'r\'el outt if tln, ,,rdiri:ry
was tile g'4'eat nu11 ,'r o()f l:ives of )la: ts and 1,'11rasss t1h11l 1i:1'dI ,'i,
attacked(i b leaf m iniiers. -, in ly for tll. illl ,'ti 1l ,.t ,i,_-liiii t4 -.\ -
eral species of Diptenra. til 1._}. a' I faiiled lto rlar :1iyt1n11' h illt l';iit
nulnllmers of pl:rasite- frm allecti'l l,.:iv.-. it i- ,,f ]Tillr-, I i l,,--ijIl, toI
give definite information relative t t li, f i. 41-t i.n-it. 1er,',a tl:,t'-
brought from Ohio in June and jl:tdited in ill,- ,,1wii in Url>:IlL W\ic





94

so completely leaf-mined as to render them worthless. From le
mined blades of Panicumn proliferum I reared myriads of Pedobi
wcbs.teri Ashmead, MS. The whitened tips of the leaves of the Pa
cum were so numerous along the streets of Urbana, Ill., as to rend
them conspicuous objects.
Many years ago, at Oxford, Ind., I reared Etunetopia rufipes Mac'
from the stems of Panicum crus-galli. The larvw were first observe
at work in the stems in June, others again in August, the adult
appearing August 13. The effect on the stem of the grass is muc
like that of Jeromyza americana on wheat, except that the grass
attacked before as well as after heading, the attack being to the upp
portion of the stem. I was not then able to get the flies identified
and no report was ever made of the rearing.
Ceratomia cataljxe Edw. attacks the catalpa trees in southern India
and Ohio, sometimes completely defoliating them. The larve ar
attacked by Tachinid flies, and the larger portion of them seemed t
have been parasitized in this way. Farmers about New Harmony, Ind.
report that the cuckoo also feeds upon them.
Pseudoantlionomus longluts Dietz (?) was found in the seed pods o
AMenziesia pilosa, collected in the vicinity of Marlinton, W. Va.
probably in July.
Rkhodobwenu 13-punctatus Ill. was observed feeding on the half-ri
seeds of the garden sunflower, August 16, 1902. I had previously
reared the adult beetle from larva found burrowing in the stalk.
Schizocerus zabriskei Ashm., adults of which were observed in IllW
nois and Indiana in considerable numbers, appeared to be prevented
from breeding in purslane through some cause not clearly apparent
as it was rare that the work of the larvr was to be found.
Again, I have witnessed the work of some of our Coccinellids i
terminating an outbreak of aphides. In the vicinity of Princeton
Ind., late in August, I found a field of red clover that, as was clearly
indicated by the appearance of the clover leaves, had been literally
overrun with a species of aphis, though there were few of them left'
the time of my visit. There were, however, swarms of lady beetle
and their larvTr and pupe to be found everywhere. The species mosi
numerous were Itppodamia 13-punctata, R. glacialis, and H. pare
thesis. The leaves of the clover were stunted, blackened, and curled
with the ca-st skins of the aphids scattered plentifully over them.
Idolotlirp. econiferum Perg., both adult and larva, were found amon
stems of rye in July and in sterns of Elymus in August, at Urbana, Il
Eurytgow ocharis er(i'yrostidis How. was observed cleaning its body
To clean the head and thorax the anterior pair of feet was used, an(
the motions made in doing this can best be illustrated by watching
white rabbit perform the same operation to its face, the quick, jerk
motions being similar in the case of each. For cleaning the win





95


and abdomen the posterior pair of Itg- f id f(1eet wi ised. the ";i
ludicrous motions being Imadle in the Olp:nition. As illustn:itig tIll.
tenacity of life in this species. an individual wt l- o,,-,rved at Il;.l2, .. ii.
with abdomen, wing,", and one p1,terior U emi, b)tit it (contintud(l to
survive in this badly crippled condition until 1s a. Il. (,f tIhe w: ii d:yiv.
Al,,av,, jiJ..'pp. Fab. (ci.,riilly mir li:ted (l itthward h acr-oss Illinois
in swarms drin Septelber. I1ookin" ouit frimill IIIY lihr:yiv N ili,,ow
in Urbana,. Ill., at 3 p. mi., Septembl)er 1"2, I- t h:, ,dr-, of th,.-,.
butterflies winging their way hither :id vyon. seemig i, to 6. .;Itliering
together in the tree tops. The wind w )i Ilrisk frloI ti.i nort.iwr-1.
teml)erature 55 F., and the sun shining unogi-il r.d1. Iiqjlt fl,,-t
during ,Iigh't of 12th, and it was not until about aI. m. of the 1>ti
that the butterflies began to appear. They were, or -Mi',el to II..
flying aimlesslyv about, but bv 10 a. mi. they 1i:t(Id all di:ipl:ri., t liot-h
I was tunalle to vitnes their going, on account of other duties.
Swarms of the-.e butterflies were reported ait \Milledgeville. ('tl'i ,li
County, al)out 160 mil,(- to the northwest, on the 9th, ;tnd. later, at
Hoopston, to the northeast. The fact of a migratimi was shown by
the continued occurrence of these butterflies, in their usu:l iniumber- in
this same locality during the re-t of the month.
Apjli / mali Fitch. Usually, this is not a serious pe-t of the apple.
and in some cases it is really more of a pe-t of the wheat field I tlii of
the orchard. In the State experiment orchard at Orleans, in Indi:tia.
late in October, I had an opportunity of -,eing just what the pe-t wa.v
capable of doing among very young al)pple tree-. At that time there
were but few of the :aphis on the young tree. and the,- few\ were
mostly confined to the tips of the twigs where these lhad not alrrildv
been killed. In mo!t cas,,. however, the little new grow\tli that li:id
been put forth was devoid of healthy leaves, only stunted and driei.
foliage and stems remaining. rhe rows of young tree., ili :a-
though sonme o0e Iliad weeks 1)efore p1s.,dl a 1"lng with a lighitted torch
and scorched them, killing tlie new leave and tender gr owth o(f t1\ i,-
Just what this would etan, in an experinn.tal or,.1,ard of verve vounmr
trees 'can only be fully inderdtood by those who hi:ive ,.in e,,':'ed iii
such wNrvlik.
The He-.sian fly, notwith.-tanding its abilindaell in voliniteer wlIilit
has affected only the earlier-o.wvI w\lie:at. All over -'itithern Ilili:im:i
and Illinois there i- ample )l proof that S,,pteInbe.r--own \\ hli,:t invit,.
the attack of the fly, a d tlhia:t wvl'at -"o\\ n in tl--e loe(aliti,. -iftrr till
first week of Octolber will, as a rule, suffer little fr,,,, tie il:itt<:k of
this pest in the fall. IntelliL,,int "far" e 'r- :ii n' w "l).i\ hhin l -'* ill,
as well as the fly, and timinro their i-wi,-r.i_ to lit tli<-,. ,r.lditio,ms.
I do not recall that attention ll i; b1,en drawnii to tie, f:i't that tie. .red
rust of wheat is much more liable, to attack fly-infe..til pllalnts in tlie,
fall than those not thus affected. In tlie fall of Io'll" :ill ,:irlv--M "wi





96


plats of wheat at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station were
severely attacked by both Hessian fly and red rust, so much so that the
station botanist called attention to the occurrence of rust in the wheat
fields in the agricultural press. Plats sown before September 25 were
all seriously affected by the rust, that sown on the 21st being much
more seriously injured than the other plats, for the reason that, with
the others, it was attacked by the fly, but the rust coming at the
critical period of its growth prevented the plants from sending out
tillers, and the damage begun by the fly was thus rendered disastrous
by the rust. The present year, in southern Illinois, I also witnessed
again something of the same sort, with this variation, however: Where
the wheat had been sown on wheat-stubble lands, and sown early, the
young plants had been attacked by the fly, and later the damage had
been accentuated by the rust; and, singularly enough, the exact loca-
tion of the shocks of the harvested grain of the previous crop could
be clearly observed by the much more reddish appearance of the young
growing 'rain, a fact that could be observed at a considerable distance
away. In fact, a circular space the area of the old grain shock was
fairly browning under the effect of the rust, which lessened in inten-
sity from this area outward. These brown-yellow spots could be seen
regularly in rows across the field as the grain had been shocked at
harvest.


MOSQUITOCIDES.
By J. B. SMITH, New Brunswick, Al J.
It is not always possible at once or entirely to abolish breeding
places for mosquitoes and it is highly desirable that we should have at
command some material or class of materials that will kill larvae or
for a time make pools uninhabitable for them. There is a popular
belief in the effectiveness of certain substances without any real basis,
and "mosquitocides" in varying forms testify to the interest which
dealers in patent nostrums are quick to discern in the public.
The most readily available of all the materials that have been used
is petroleum, crude or partly or wholly refined. Sprayed over the
surface of a pool, it forms a film that covers it completely and kills in
a short time the larv? or pup? that are compelled to try for air
through it. In the grade known as fuel oil, it forms a very good
practical material where its odor or its general unpleasant mussiness
are not objectionable. For sewer or catch basins it is probably as
good a thing as can be used, and on quiet waters in confined areas
where a thin film can be maintained, its odor will scarcely be offen-
sive. On larger pools, open to the winds or interrupted by grassy or
other vegetation a great deal of oil must be used, or an unbroken film,
even if secured, will not last long enough to kill more than a small