The principal household insects of the United States

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Material Information

Title:
The principal household insects of the United States
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Division on Entomology ;
Physical Description:
130 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Marlatt, C. L
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Household pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by L.O. Howard and C.L. Marlatt ; with a chapter on insects affecting dry vegetable foods / by F.H. Chittenden.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029638811
oclc - 11464799
Classification:
lcc - QL467 .H8 1896
ddc - 591.6
System ID:
AA00018930:00001

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BULLETIN No. 4.-NEW SERIES.
"v U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
4 ." ...
* DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

THE:.PN.I

S..THE PRINCIPAL
..... ..
:-:... ":l


HOUSEHOLD


OF THE


UNITED


STATES.


L. 0. HOWARD AND


C. L. MARRLATT.


WITH[ A CHAPTER ON


INSECTS AFFECTING DRY VEGETABLE FOODS.
BY
F. I. CIIITTENDEN.


KS'


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1896.


INSECT


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DiviSION OF ENTOOL ..:: ..*.
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Washington, AD.O,Jm yU.

SiR.: I have the honor to -'-ubmit for publication the a&c'1041in

account of the principal household insects of the United.tse.

Respectfully,
L. 0. Ho I..



HO. J. STERLING MORTON ........
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ILLUSTRATIONS.



Page.
FIG. 1.-Culex pungens: adnult ................................ 10
2.-Culex pungens: eggs and young larve ........................... 11
3.-Ciilex pungens: bead of larva ................................... 13
4.-Culexs pungens: larva and pupa ................................. 15
5.-Pulex serraticeps: egg, adult, etc.... .................. 25
6.-Pulex serraticeps: larva ...............--.....-.................... 27
7.-Cimex lectularins: adult ................- ..- ............... 32
8.-Cimex lectularius: egg, and young larva...--.................... 33
9.-Cimex lectularius: larval stages ................................. 35
10.-Conorhinus sanguisuga: pupa and adults ........................ 39
11.-Conorhinus sanguisuiga: larva and egg--......................... 40
12.-Conorhinus sanguisuga: head, showing mouth-parts ............. 41
13.-Musca domestic: adult, puparium, etc .....- .....-- ............ 43
14.-Musca domestic: larva ... --...--... --.. .......--............. 45
15.-Musca domestic: pupa......................................... 46
16.-Scutigera forceps: adult ......................................... 48
17.-Scutigera forceps: larva ....................................... 49
18.-Bryobia pratensis: females and details ............. .............. 51
19.-Bryobiapratensis: larva.................. ..................... 52
20.-Gryllus domesticus: adult ....... .......................... ...... 53
21.-Gryllus assimilis: adult -........................................ 54
22.-Gryllus assimnilis: wings ......... ............................. 55
23.-Anthrenus scrophularihr: all stages ..---......--.........--....-........ 58
24.-Attagenus piceus: all stages ............................ ....... 61
25.-Tinea pellionella: adult and larva ............................... 63
26.-Tineola biselliella: adult, larva, and cocoon .....--................. 66
27.-Trichophaga tapetzella: adult moth- ........................--. 67
28.-Termes flavipes: male and female ................................ 70
29.-Termes flavipes: head of winged female ......................... 72
30.-Termes flavipes: newly hatched larva and egg ................... 73
31.-Termes flavipes: different forms ................................. 74
32.-Lepisma saccharina: adult ...................................... 76
33.-Lepisma domestic: adult ....................................... 77
34.-Atropos divinatoria: adult .............. ........................ 79
35.-Lepidocyrtus americanus: adult, dorsal view ..........-......-- .. 82
36.-Lepidocyrtus americanus: adult, ventral view ...---..-.............. 82
37.-Lepidocyrtus americanus: adult, lateral view ..........--.......-------... 83
38.-Periplaneta americana: adult........................-----..-..- 81
39.-Periplaneta americana: egg capsu- ............................. 89
40.-Periplaneta australasi..,: adult and pupa.....................---. 91
41.-Periplaneta orientalis: different forms ........................... 92
42.-Phyllodromia gernianica: various stages ......................... 92
43.-Monomorium pharaonis: female and worker ...................... -- 96
44.-Monomorium minutum: male, female, and worker ................ 97
5








.. ....;:;EE ... .
FIG. 45.-Tetramorium csBpitum: different forms ................... -,
46.-Tyroglyphus longior: male and female, ............... .._
47.-Tyroglyphus siro: female ...--...--..............--......... ....
48.-Piophila casei: different forms ..----.......----...----.................... .
49.-Necrobia rufipes: larva and adult ...............................
50.-Dermestes lardarius: larva, pupa, and adult ..----........--......,..
51.-Drosophila ampelophila: different stages ...-------....--...----------......
52.-Tribolium confusum and ferrugineum: different stages....-.- .
53.-Echocerus cornutus: adult male -------------.......-..... ...-,.
54.-Tenebrio molitor: different stages ..........................:..
55.-Tenebrio obseurus: a t male ...................------.............,.
56.-Plodia interpunctella differentt stages ......................-
57.-Pyralis farinalis: adult moth, etc .----......---.-----...----------..--.
58.-Pyralis farinalis: eggs, larva, etc .........-- ......--- ...........
59.-Silvanus surinamensis: larva, pupa, and adult............. ..
60.-Tenebroides mauritapicus: larva, pupa, and adult ---..--------.
61.-Sitodrepa panicea: larva, pupa, and adult .----.-...-----.-...--
62.-Sitodrepa pan icea: head of larva........................ ....
63.-Lasioderma serricorne: larva, pupa, and adult .-.................
64.-Lasioderma serricorne: head of larva .......--..........---.........


P iz
98 ::i;
100
101
103
105
108
110
113
115
116
118
119
119
120 i
121
123
124 6
125
126
126


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CHAPITE,. III.

HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS THAT ARE
ANNOYING RATHER THAN DIRECTLY INJURIOUS.

JdN L.. 1. :1\1v.\l1 n;ii1 C. L.M \Il:l..\TT.

HOUSE FLIES.
( fnnvc domna'nlwtic, cil t.)

In common parlance there is but one lionse fly, 1altliough a iniuiber of
species are in the liailbit of entering liouses aind cause IRIro, or less
annoyance. The most abi lait form is the house fly proper (Alhsira
domestic Linn.). It is a, newdinii-sizedl, grayisli fly, with its ,ou,,th
parts spread out at the tip for sucking Il liquid substances. It breeds
in manure a.iid dooryard filth and is fi1und in nearly all pirts of tlhe


I


Fio. 13.-Musca domeulica: a, adult miale-. ipro)lhoscis anid illlis of same; terminal juinis if
antennwC; d, headl oil' eiim l; ',, |impariuti f, aw irrior spiratclh-a-ll ilnrt.ed1 (hii i11,ll.
world. On account of thle conformation of its nmotth pJarts, tlhe liuse
fly can not bite, yet oit) impwessiomi is stronger in the minds of most
people than that this insect does occasionally bite. This impression is
due to the frequent occurrence in houses ()f another fly (Stowmo.rys crali-
trans), which may be called tile stable fly, and which, while closely
resembling the house fly (so closely, in fact, as to deceive anyone 1)ut an
.t:s






44 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

entomologist), differs from it in the important particular that its mouth
parts are formed for piercing the skin. It is perhaps second in point
of abundance to the house fly in most portions of the Northeastern
States.
A third species, commonly called the cluster fly (Pollenia rudis), is a
very frequent visitant of houses, particularly in the spring and fall.
This fly is somewhat larger than the house fly, with a dark-colored,
smooth abdomeiJ and a sprinkling of yellowish hair. It is not so active
as the house fly, and particularly in the fall is very sluggish. At such
times it may be picked up readily, and is very subject to the attacks of
a fungus disease which causes it to die upon window panes surrounded
by a whitish efflorescence. Occasionally this fly occurs in houses in
such numbers as to cause great annoyance, but such occurrences are
comparatively rare.
A fourth species is another stable fly known as Cyrtoneura stabulans,
and a fifth, rather commoner than the last, is the so-called bluebottle
fly (Calliphora erythrocephtala). This insect is also called the blowfly
or meat fly, and breeds in decaying animal material. Another species,
about the size of the bluebottle, which breeds abundantly in cow-
dung and is also found in houses, although usually in less numbers
than the others, is also commonly called the bluebottle or-'green-bbttle
fly (Lucilia cesar).
There is still another species, smaller than any of those so far men-
tioned, which is known to entomologists as Homalomyia canicularis,
sometimes called the small house fly. It is distinguished from the
ordinary house fly by its paler and more pointed body and conical shape.
The male, which is much commoner than the female, has large pale
patches at the base of the abdomen, which are translucent. When
seen on a window pane the light shines through that part of the body.
Not much complaint would be made of house flies were the true house
fly a nonexistent form. Under ordinary circumstances it far outnum-
bers all other species iu houses. Common and widespread as this
species is, there is very general ignorance, as with many other extremely
common insects, as to its life history and habits outside of the adult
stage. Writing in 1873, Dr. A. S. Packard' showed that no one in this
country had up to that time investigated its habits, and that evem in
Europe but little attention had been given to it. He showed that the
habits were mentioned in only three works, one of which was published
during the present century, with figures so poor and inadequate as to
be actually misleading. De Geer (1752) showed that ti.e larva lives in
warm and humid dung, but did not say how long it remains in the
different stages. Bouch6 (1834)states that the larva lives in horse and
fowl's dung, especially when warm; he did not, however, give the
length of the larval state.
On the Transformations of the Common House Fly, with Notes on Allied Forms.::
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XVI, 1874, p. 136.
f]





HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INS(KI'TS. 45

t Dr. Packard studied the species with sonicme care, ;aiid ob(,ltaiiied large
imumbers of the eggs by exposing liorse mn,1n1. lie carefully I i lowel
: the transformations (of tlhe isect, ind(l gave (leSt-lriplionlls o aIll stages.
He found the duration 4it thie egg state ti) lite I wetlty fioir hollors, tihe
duration of the larval state fi\ve to sev.Ien da(ls. nitl of leh' pupal state
five to seven days. Tie period from the time of hatchiing Io ti' exclu-
sion of the adult, therefore. (aocuties, accordi g to 'a Cll'urd, r'i'ii teil to
fourteen days. His observations were made at S;ilem, Iss.
As is quite to be expected, is we go further south the house Ily
becomes more numerous aIl mIore troublesome. Thle niiallr of geti-
erations annually increases as the season becomes longer, iand with thle
warm climate thie develop-
ment of the larvaw becomes -'7 \---.---y ----
more rapid. A few rearing l; N.- ",
experiments were made in f- / -. ,
this office during the sulmmier .'" .
of 1895, and it was unexpect. \
edly found that the house tfly -'N I/
is a difficult insect to rear in -(.J._J
confinement. Buzzing about A -,/
everywhere, and apparently .
living with ease under the
most adverse conditions, it is
nevertheless, when confined I .
in the warm season of the
year to a small receptacle,
not at all tenacious of life.
It results from this fact, for
example, that it is almost "' /
impossible to ascertain the ',f .
length of the life of the liouse a-. a-
fly in the adult condition. ., fly in the a ult co ition. Fji;. 14.--fusca dloinstica: a, full-grown larva; b, one of
On June 26 a small quantity its anterior spiracles; c, side view of head; d, hind eind
of fresh horse manure wais of imody showing anal sjpiracl.s; ', side view of hi.-iad;
f. hbead from albove; g, lirh;ed o'f .mIIIIg 1,lrvi front aliove:
exposed in a fly-infested room h., ,..gs-n-.. enlarge.d .ioriginali.'
for a few minutes. The flies
deposited their eggs freely and immediately in this s.ubstallnce. At tihe
same time the specimens were confined in.a glass dish 7.5 ilncItes in dliain-
eterand 3 inches in height. In this disli wavis a layer of moist sand, cov-
ered with a layerof fresh horse maniure, and the vessel was covered with
a piece of gauze. Oil thle following morning all tlhe flies, tweity-fouir in
number, were dead, anlld not a single (,egg had been laid. A fresh silp-
lply of flies was introduced into tlhe same vessel, and tlhe next tmorniilig all
were dead and ino eggs liad been laid. The cover was now removed from
this vessel and the latter placed in a glass cylinder It incites high, the
SThe experiments which follow were conducted by Mr. I. W. \ ijiuillett.




I
".i:......... : = ... .. '" "

46 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

top of which was covered with gauze, and twenty flies introduced."
This was at noon; by 4 o'clock in the afternoon no eggs could be found,
but at 9 o'clock the next morning two clusters of eggshells, one cluster '
containing 26 and the other 45 eggs, were found. The eggs had been
deposited in small cavities between the sides of the vessel and the
manure, at a depthi of about a quarter of an iuch below the surface,
but were not arranged in any regular order. Afterwards several black-
berries, cherries, and partly decayed apples were placed in this vessel,
and more flies were introduced. A single egg was found the next day
on the upper side of one of the blackberries. At a later date experi-
ments were tried in the same jar with fresh cow manure. Apparently
no eggs were del)osited until thle third day, when two small clusters
were observed. These hatchlied in due time, but all the larvae died
before attaining full growth.
r C These experiments were-
. ...... ....hardly extensive enough to al-
low us to generalize, but so far
V _I as they go they seem to show
that horse manure is thefavorite
breeding place of the house fly.
Continuous observations made
upon the offspring of flies which
bred most freely in this last-
named substance indicated that
the larve molt twice and that
there are thus three distinct
larval stages. The periods of
Fiu. 15.-Musca doinmcstica: a, pupa removed from lv s
pnlpariuIn; b, hind end of body of larva in second development were found to be
stage; c, anal spiracles of'larva in first stage-all about as follows: Egg from de-
enlarged (original).
i. position to., hatching, one-third
of a day; hatching of larva to first molt, one day; first to second molt,
one day; secoInd molt to pul)ation, three days; pupation to issuing of
the adult, five days; total life round, approximately ten days. There
is thus abundance of time for the development of twelve or thirteen
generations in the climate of Washington every summer.
The number of eggs laid by anl individual fly is undoubtedly very
large, averaging about 120, and the enormous numbers in which the
insects occur is thus plainly accounted for, especially when we consider
the abundance and universal occurrence of appropriate larval food.
The different stages of the insect are well illustrated in the accompany-
ing figures and need no description.
Taschenberg in his Praktische Insektenkunde, iv, 1880,102-107, gives.,
a good popular account of the house fly, but leaves the impression that
the duration of a generation is much longer than we have indicated.
He also states that the female lays its eggs on a great variety of sub-
stances, particularly on spoiled and moist food stuffs, decaying meat,





HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS. 47

Seat broth, cut melons, dead aiimals, in manet pits, on imiaire heaps,
M and even in cuspidors and open snuffl' boxes. Tile fact remains hlow-
: ever that horse manure firms the prinlcipal l feeding pl;ice, L(d tilt ill
confinement we have b1en ii able to rear it PI inaturity oi aily other
substance.
There is not much that need be said about rIli|medics for o ise flies.
A careful screening of wind(ow-s aid doors during thle soiiiier miotlis,
with tlhe supplementary use (of sticky fly paper, is a method kniown to
everyone, and there seems to be little h1mpe in thle iinair I'tntii'v of iui(ch
relief by doing away with thle l)reedigii places. A single stable in
which a horse is kept will supply liousie Ilies fi'r :ani extended neighbor-
hood. People living iii agricultural coim|imuiities will prl()bably 1ev1er
be rid of the pest, but iin cities, with better methods of disposal of
garbage and with thie lessening of thle numbers of horses and horse
stables consequent upn)i electric street railways and bicycles, ;aii(l
probably horseless carriages, the tiie may come, and before very liing
wheu window screens may be discarded. The prompt g;tlheriiig of'
horse manure which nimay be treated with lime or kept in a specially
prepared pit would greatly abate the .fly nuisalice, and city o(rdinancwes
compelling horse owners to follow slime such course are desirable.
Absolute cleanliness, even udIer existing circulista|,ces, will always
result in a diminution of tile numbers of tlhe house Ily, and. as will be
pointed out iin other cases in this bulletii, most household insects are
less attracted to tlhe premises of what is known as tlie old-hfashioned
housekeeper than to those of tlie other kind.
The house fly lhas a number of natural enemies, and, as will be pointed
out in the next section of this bulletin, the comITniiI house centipede
destroys it in considerable numbers; there is a small reddish mite
which frequently covers its body an1d gradually destroys it; it is sulb-
ject to tlhe attacks of hymnenopteroils parasites in its larval condition,
and it is destroyed b)y predatory beetles at tlie salie time. Tle most
eflkctiveenemy, however, is a funigous disease k nuowin as sbi QU.%s'iIU WU.sc0',
which carries off flies in large numbers, particularly toward the close
of the season. Time epidemic ceases in D)ecenlber, anld atltlhoughll many
thousands are killed by it, tlhe remarkable rapidity of development il
the early summer months soo1 moire tfhia replaces tle thousauids thus
destroyed.
L.0. ii.
THE HOUSE CENTIPEDE.
('.ci fi era /or', s L;af.)
This centipede, particularly within tlhe, last len or twelve years, lias
become altogether too common an object in dwelling houses iH tlhe
Middle and Northern States fortihe peace of mind of tile inmates. It isa
very fragile creature, capable of very rapid movements, and elevated con-
siderably above tlhe surface upon which it runs by very uiiinlmierous long
legs. It may often be seei dlarting aciot-Irss tli( 0s witlli very great speed,





PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS:


occasionally stopping suddenly and remaining absolutely mdiiles
presently to resume its rapid movements, often darting di.ii*
inmates of thie house, particularly women, evidently with a des i Dton1' -.
ceal itself beneath their dresses, and thus creating considerabij-g `: r-
nation. The creature is not a true insect, but belongs to the Mo4::
commonly known as centipedes or thousand-legs, and is sometimes
called the "skein" centipede, from the fact that when craUsbhed or
motionless it looks, from its numerous long legs, like a massof fila-
ments or threads. It is a creature of thle (lamp, and is particularly
abundant in bathrooms, moist closets, and cel-
lars, multiplying excessively also in e0nserv-
atories, especially about places where pots are
stored, and near heating pipes. In houses it
will often be dislodged from behind furniture
or be seen to run rapidly across the room,
either in search of food or concealment. If
examined closely its very cleanly habits may
/ occasionally be manifested in that it may be
-- 'f. observed to pass its long legs, one after an-
other, through its mandibles, to remove any
adheringg dust. Its rather weird apparance,
y/ its peculiar manner of locomotion, and fre-
T/ quently its altogether too friendly way of ap-
Sproaching people, give it great interest, and,
/ N with its increasing abundance in the North,
f\make it a subject of frequent inquiry. It is a
Southern species, its normal habitat being in
/ll the southern tier of States and southwestward
\through Texas into Mexico. It has slowly
y spread northward, having been observed in
/Pennsylvania as early as 1849, and reaching
SNew York and Massachusetts twenty or
twenty-five years ago, but for many yearsafter
its first appearance in the latter States it was
of rare occurrence. It is now very cono.
V ~throughout New York and the New iai*
Fio.l6.--Rcutigera forceps: Adult-- States, and extends westward w41? nd
natural size (original). . .- ., '**.S B -'
natural size (original, the Mississippi, probably to the moni, .
It is a very delicate creature, and it is almost impossible 1 6 eitch it,
even should one desire to do so, without dismembering several of its
numerous legs or crushing it. If crushed under the foot,.8s onels first
impulse would suggest, nothing remains but a mass of intertwined
limbs, giving it the appearance of a tangle of threads. If captured, so
that it can be more easily examined, it will l)e found to consist of a
worm-like body of an inch or a little more in length, armed 4t je head
w i t h .:... .." .. ": : . .. ..: ."
with a pair of very long, slender autennae, and along" the s| with a.
h.: t~i .,. "' ,
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48





HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTIIER INSECTS.


49


fringe of fifteen pairs of long legs. Thle last pair are much longer than
-ttfwietrilnghgfefy
the others, in the female more than twice tle length of tlhe body. In
color it is of a grayish yellow, marked above with tliree longitudinal
dark stripes. Examination of its nioutli parts shows that they are v'ery
powerful, and fitted for biting, indicating a predatory (or carnlivorous
habit.
The indications of its mouth parts are borne out by its food habits,
besides being indicated by the known food habits otf the other members
of the group of centipedes to which it belongs. It was inferred before
any direct observations were made, that its food wis probably house
flies, roaches, and aiiy (other insect ilnhabitants of dwellings. Later
many direct observations have confirnied this inference, and in cap-












/
'I,












FIG. 17.-Scntigera foreepa: a, newly-hatched individual b, one o.f legs ir
same; c, tnmihnal segment iol' body showing tnol.v'eloped legs ili.ih'd up
within-all enlarged (original).

tivity, on the authority of Professor Hargitt, it feeds readily on roaches,
house flies, and other insects. Miss .Murtfeldt reports also having
observed specimens devouring small moths. During the act of devour-
ing a moth they kept their nminerouts long legs vibrating with incre(lible
swiftness, so as to give tlhe appearance (of' a hliazy spot or space suir-
rounding the fluttering moth (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 258), It is sup-
posed also to feed on the bedbug, and doubtless will eat any insect
which it captures, and its quickness and agility leave few insects safe
from it.
Messrs. Fletcher and Howard observed its mode of capturing the
croton bug, which is interesting as illustrating the habits of this centi-
pede and its allies. In this instance the centipede sprang over its
I 2805-No. 4--4




:." .. ::.: .....[
50 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. :'i : i

prey, inclosing and caging it with its many legs. In its habit of spring-
ing after its prey this centipede is similar to spiders, which it also
resembles in its rapacious habits. It would therefore seem to be a very
efficient enemy of many of our house pests. The common idea that it
probably feeds on household goods and woolens or other clothing has
no basis in fact.
The popular belief is that this centipede is extremely poisonous,
and, as it belongs with the poisonous group of centipedes, it can not
be questioned but that the bite of the creature is probably somewhat
poisonous as well as painful, though the seriousness of the results will
be dependent, as in all similar cases, on the susceptibility of the patient.
The poison injected in the act of biting is probably merely to assist in
numbing and quieting its victim, and in spite of its abundance in houses
in the North, and for many years its much greater abundance in the
South, very few cases are recorded of its having bitten any human
being, and it is very questionable whether it would ever, unprovoked,
attack any large animal. If pressed with the bare foot or hand, or if
caught between sheets in beds, this, like almost any other insect, will
unquestionably bite in self-defense, and the few such cases on record
indicate that severe swelling and pain may result from the poison
injected. Prompt dressing of the wound with ammonia will greatly
alleviate the disagreeable symptoms.
Little is known of the early life history of this Myriapod. It is
found in the adult state in houses during practically the entire year.
Half-grown individuals are also found frequently during the summer.
A newly-born specimen was recently found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard in
the Department Insectary under a moist section of a log, and differed
from the older forms chiefly in possessing fewer legs. Its character-
istics are indicated in the accompanying illustration (fig. 17). In the
half-grown and later stages it does not differ materially from the adult,
except in size, and its habits throughout life are probably subject to
little variation.
If it were not for its uncanny appearance, which is hardly calculated
tQ inspire confidence, especially when it is darting at one with great
speed, and the rather poisonous nature of its bite, it would not neces-
sarily be an unwelcome visitor in houses, but, on the contrary, to be
looked upon rather as an aid in keeping'in check various household
pests. Its appearance in our dwellings, however, will not often be wel-
come notwithstanding its useful r6le. It can be best controlled by
promptly destroying all the individuals which make their appearance,
and by keeping the moist places in houses free from any object behind
which it can conceal itself, or at least subjecting such locations to
frequent inspection. In places near water pipes, or in storerooms where
it may secrete itself and occur in some numbers, a free use :of fresh
pyrethrum powder is to be advised. M
*.L.M.
% :

. . *.. ';" ...'::": *
... :" . .?! .;... .. ,. '





HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


51


!THE CLOVER MITE.
(fBr!obia pruictenis (;;rm.I.
The subject of this section is a very minute reddish nilite, less thaill i
millimeter in length, which, particularly in tlhe Middle States, fre-
quently enters houses in enormous numbers in autuiun, ca using con.sid-
erable consternation and arousing very natural tears. Aside from the


ix


Ji


'N


SFIG. 1S.-Bryobia pratensiu: a, female from alove: b, sanie, ventral view, with legS remorived: r
*nd d, tarsal claws; e, proboscis and palpi from below: f. priibosci.4 enlaru.l:I g, IplPpums enlhrgm.I h.
.itie of the body scales; i, scale from outer (ce*plhilo.-thoraric prominent'; j, saslj, frini inn-rr 'IpIlial,)
Ithoracic prominence; k, serrate hair from linsal joint of lI, 1. :ini, frnii pniitiniilr inint. on,
J ine of last joint-a, b, greatlyV enlargted; c-in, still moire cnlargcd (fromin liilhy iand M.IrlIatt).
I..


^
m AJ|
A"
/ \ (?
/




. . . . . . . ... :...!'.: . ... i.I::...
52 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. SH
.1;
disagreeableness of its mere presence, it has no objectionable conse -
quences. This mite is somewhat allied to the common red mite of
greenhouses, and in fact has a similar habit, but lives out of doors on
vegetation and has a decided preference for clover, whence its common
name of clover mite. It occurs very commonly in the Northern and
Central States from Massachusetts to California, and is frequently
abundant on various orchard and shade trees. In the mountain ranges
of the Pacific Coast its eggs have been found in enormous numbers on
the bark of various mountain trees, especially the cottonwood (Populus
tremuloides). These eggs are often massed two or three lasers deep,
and their reddish color entirely obscures
S- the natural color of the bark. One writer
states that he found at least 50 square feet
r of these eggs on the south sides of the
trunks of cottonwoods at an elevationf of '
6,000 to 8,000 feet. In the Eastern and
Central States the eggs are found similarly
B"-placed in the crotches of orchard and shade
E)4 trees, and frequently in sufficient numbers
S-to give a reddish color to small areas.
Complaints of this mite have been received
from a great many sources in the Middle
Sand\ Eastern States. That they aro a nui-
\ /," sance in houses is due to their habit of
FIG. 19.-Bryobia pratensis: Newly- migrating in the fall, possibly for shelter
hated larva-greatly enlarged or in search of food. In the case of house
(from Riley and Marlatt.).
invasions the mites will almost invariably
be found to have come from some near-by vegetation, usually from the
surrounding lawns. After they have once gained entrance they may
be exterminated by a liberal and abundant use of insect powders, fumi-
gating with burning brimstone, or spraying with benzine, ewe being
taken, if the latter substance be used, to see that no fire is present. If
the invasion be discovered at the very outset, it may be stopped by
spraying the sides of the house very liberally with kerosene or by treat-
ing the surrounding lawns with a spray of kerosene emulsion.
C. L M.

THE HOUSE CRICKET.
(Gryllus domnesticus Linn.)
No insect inhabitants of dwellings are better known than thedomestic
or hearth crickets, not so much from observation of the insects them-
selves as from familiarity with their vibrant, shrilling song notes,
which, while thoroughly inharmonious in themselves, are,'p ly from
the difficulty in locating the songster, often given a superstitious sig-
nificance and taken, according to the mood of the listener, to be either





53


HOUSE FLTES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


a harbinger of good and itdicative (t cheerfulness ;iiil plenty, or to
give rise to melancholy aiid to belokein misfortune. 'The former idea
prevails, however, aidl Cowplr expresses the CoIIIInI belief that the-
Sounds inilnarmionimis in, themselves ;and harsli,
Yet heard in scenes whlore pacie ftirev'r reigns,
And only there. ple:ise hi g hlily r tlieir sake.
The comumnoii naIIie cricket" is d(4'scriptive )of its cheerful, chirpi)g
note, and is derived fromn tlie imit:ative French popular n :lae cricri"
(from criquter). Similar descriptive niamies are appliedi to it ill manly
foreign tongues.
The introduction ) of tlhe domestic cricket of Europe into America
was probably at a very early date, at. least in portions (W thl1e country.
Kalm, a careful and scientific o()bserver, writing in 1749i of this insect,
says that they are "abundant in Canada,
especially in the countryy where these dis- \ /
agreeable guests lodge in thle clinneys; / \
nor are they uncommon in tlhe towns.
They stay here both summer ;and winter, \
and frequently cut clothes in pieces fior
pastime." The year before, however, lie i ,.
writes that he hlad not met with them in _-, ,,
any of the houses in Pennsylvania or ... -
New jersey.,
The occurrence of this insect in (Cnada t --.
in comparative abundance has since been A
confirmed by Provancher and Caulfield, p' '
and in various Eastern towns in tle0 -rih lnsfvI n
UniiitedStatesby Uhliler,(;lover, a-id ()otliers. ,. i ;,in,,,-nu,,,ini .size ioriin:aI).
It has also been observed in various States
westward to and beyond thle Mississippli. It does not seem to be at
all common on this continent, however, except in Canada,'and tlie more
familiar insect to most Americans is one or other of our brownish-black
field crickets, which often enter houses ;and accoinmmiodate themselves
to domesticity almost as completely as tlhe tried European hearth
cricket. Our native crickets are more robust aind of larger size, but
present the sam(i teI(Idecy (it location and food habits as their Euro-
pean relatives. A species ( Gryllux a.s.simili. F'a.b.) often find in
houses in Washington is represented in fig. 21. Tiet fiollowing account
of the imported domestic cricket applies in thle main also to any ()of our
native species which are amujlirnilg (l4omlesticity. Our l specie-s are, hllow-
ever, not known to breed in houses, altlh ouglh it is not at all imnprob-
able that this is inow occasionally true (of s one of them.
The house cricket belongs to) thle.jum)ping (or saltatorial family o)f the
Orthoptera, being closely allied to the common field (crickets and the
curious mole cricket. Thle normal mode o()f progression is by a series of
Travels, V..1. i, p. :31S; I1, p. 2.-P6.




.' ..,.,... !!.i, ...
....." ... . ..7.. ..,., .,,. ,. ,
54 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. :...
.. ...:: : .* -^
leaps, the hind femora being greatly thickened and enlarged, kangaroo-
like. In color the house cricket is light yellowish-brown, and its squarish
body and spherical head are very characteristic. The antennae or feelers
are very long and thread-like, exceeding the body in length.
The chirping song of the cricket is produced only by the male, and
is supposed to be a love call. If so, it has been pointed out that it
evidently betokens, on account of its long continuance, a patient per-
sistence which deserves the highest encomium. It is produced by the
friction or stridulation of the upper wings over each other. At the
base of each of these wings is a large talc-like spot-the crepitaculum-
which is characterized by
its inflated appearance
S and its very coarse, irreg-
S0 ular veining. By rasping
........ or scraping the file-like-
under surface of one wing
.. over the roughening of the
.- J^ other the vibrant note of
^ the cricket is produced.
C The song is, therefore,
d analogous to that made
by an instrument rather
0 than to the voiceor sounds
P of higher animals.# To be
B at all significant to the in-
osect, however, it must be
... b heard, and what seems to
/ 3S be the insect ear is found
f :in curious organs on the
fore t1biaB, represented in
f l the illustration (fig. 21,
t ~c, d, e,f).
FIG. 21.-Gryllus assimbilis: a, female; b, male; c, d, fore tibiae, The house crilkiet USU-
inner and outer views showing drums of ear; e and f, drums ally occurs on the ground
or tympana-enlarged (original). floor of dwellings, and
evinces its liking for warmth by often occurring in the .vicinity of
fireplaces, concealing itself between the bricks of chimneys or behind
baseboards, frequently burrowing into the mortar of walls. It is par-
ticularly apt to abound in bakehouses. It is rarely very abundant,
but at times multiplies excessively and becomes a very serious nuisance.
During cold weather, or in cold rooms in winter, it remains torpid, but
under the influence of warmth it becomes active and musical. It is
easily kept in captivity as a pet, and will reward the possessor by
furnishing an abundance of its peculiar melody, and in Spain It is often
kept, it is reported, in cages, as we do singing birds. It is ih the main
nocturnal in its habits, coming out in the dusk of evening and. roaming


.. .... .il.. .. ... .1





HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


55


About the house for whatever food materials it may discover. It feeds
Readily on bread crumbs or alinost any tbod product to which it can
get access, aud is particuIlarly attracted to liquids, in its cagerness to
get at which it often neets deatli by drowning. It is a very pugnacious
insect and will bite vigorously if captured, and is also prcdacvous or
carnivorous, like most of its outdoor allies. It is supposed to fieed on
various other house insects, such as the cockroach and is also probably
cannibalistic. A pair of a native species kept in a cage by tlie writer,
for a short period manifested tie greatest friendliness, but thie male
shortly afterwards made a very substantial meal 'of his (companion.
The crickets, in common with most other Orthoptera, will occasion-
ally, in pure wantonness seemingly, cut and injure fabrics, and are
particularly apt to cut into wet clothing, evidently froni their liking
for moisture. Any of the
common field grasshop- ..---3
pers or crickets, entering Kt'-,
houses, are apt to try :.
their sharp jaws on cur- ; |
tains, garments, etc., and t
Dr. J. A. Lintnuer records / '
the case of a suit of cloth- / /
ing just from the tailor "-.
which was completely \x
ruined in a night by i "
a common black field / / cricket (Gryllusluctuos us), .A'
whichhadenteredan open .,' 6 L
window in some numbers. Fin. 22-Grliens as-timili: a, win! or feiimale: b, wing of
There is a popular sulper- nmle showiun iiort irrgLilar anti ruarscr vuiniug--cuLargid
^, originala.
station also to tile efect1e
that if a cricket be killed its relatives will prompl)tly cut tlie garments
of the offender.
In Europe, and undoubtedly also in this country, tlie lheartlh cricket
is found in houses in all sizes, from thie very young to tlne full-grown
insects, and probably often deposits its eggs and goes through its
entire transformations witlhiin the four walls of dwellings. In summnier
it also appears frequently out of doors in Europe about hedges and in
gardens, returning to the house for protection at the approach of cold
weather, and being apparently unable to winter out ( I doors, at least
in cold climates, in this country it has been taken at electric lights
out of doors. Its eggs, judging from our knowledge (if allied species,
are deposited in clusters, and the young resemble their parents very
closely, except in size and in lacking wings; they present also no
variation in habit.
So mniuch superstition and pl)l)ular interest attaches to tlie house
18th ient. Ins. N. V., p. 17!;.






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


cricket that frequently there is a strong feeling against destroying it;
and to many it is a pleasant incentive to revery, filling the mind with
pleasant contemplations, and perhaps lulling the wakeful to restful
sleep. Not to all, however, does it appeal in this way, and for those
to whom its notes are rasping and irritating, and who fear for the
safety of their garments, or are otherwise evilly disposed toward it,
the following methods of control will be of interest:
It may be readily destroyed by taking advantage of its liking for
liquids, and any vessel containing beer or other liquid placed about
will usually result in crickets being collected and drowned in numbers.
It may also be destroyed by the distribution of uncooked vegetables,
such as ground-up carrots or potatoes, strongly poisoned with arsenic.
In the use of poisoned baits in dwellings great care, however, should
always be exercised.
C. L. M:

THE PAPER WASP.
(Vespa germanica Fab.)
It frequently happens, more particularly in suburban places and in
the country, that the common yellow jackets or paper wasps, notably
Vespa germanica Fab., will have their nests near dwellings and mul-
tiply to such an extent as to become serious nuisances about houses, to
which they are attracted by the moisture about wells or to fruit refuse.
Under these circumstances they become a source of some danger from
the liability of their stinging horses. Unless houses are carefully
screened they will frequently be attracted into them in considerable
numbers, and on account of their pugnacious disposition render meal
taking a proceeding of considerable risk. They have a great fondness
for all sweetened liquids and will swarm over fruit, especially melons.
The species most apt to be annoying in houses in the East is the one
mentioned at the head of this article. It is of European origin, and,
like many other introduced animals, as the English sparrow, for exam-
ple, has become even more numerous in its new home than in its old.
It sometimes nests in trees in Europe, but in this country commonly
dwells in large underground colonies located usually only a few inches
below the surface, and often in the deserted nests of field mice, which
have been cleaned out and greatly enlarged by their insect tenants.
The nest consists of a loose papery envelope, within which are from
four to eight stories or tiers of combs, attached to each other with strong
central supports. The largest combs sometimes have a diameter of 12
inches and the larger nests a capacity of upward of one-half bushel.
Throughout the summer a colony contains, in addition to the queen
mother, workers only. The perfectly sexed individuals, females or
queens and males, appear only in the fall, usually in September, are
much larger than the workers, and are reared in special cells of large
size in the undermost or last constructed of the combs.

*.. "


56






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


57


With the apl)Jrtoaeih o(f .cold weather the nests are iabaldllonted1tl ost,
of the individuals, including all the workers a(ld males, pelrishilig, ;and
only the perfect timales, thle product (f tile last fiill lrood, wintering
over. Early in splrinig these( over-winter(ed females (c(.ic, out of the
cracks ii logs or holes in walls, etc., in which the)'y lhave hibieriated, alId
unaided originate new colonies of workers, which I y Inidsutmmtier (Iftetn
contain 20,000 or more individuals. No lhoeV, \vax. or pollen is stored
in the nests, but the young are fed Iby the workers on :I liquid derived
from insects or other substances eaten.
The paper wasps have a number of' natural enemies. Tficy are cap-
tured and devoured by two species of robber lies, aid il addition their
underground nests, as I an informeI by wood,.11-4, ar frequently dug
out by foxes and skunks, which feed o)1 tie larva' ad pulIpa conta inied
in them.
The best means of abating the wasp1 nuisance is to discover tlhe nest
and destroy tlhe inmates. Ordinarily by watchiitg indivilual wasps tle
nest can be located, and the introduction of a few spoonfuls of cloltro-
form or bisull)phide of carbon into the entrance, after all have come in fbr
the night, will suffice to destroy the inhabitants.
Other Vespas, especially the common bald- faced hornet ( IVe.pa macY-
lata Linn.), which builds large paper nests ii trees, also enter houses,
but not so abundantly as the small yellow and black species referred to.
The slenderyellowish-brown wasps ( Iioliscc., spp.), wiich build uIcovered
combs attached to rafters and in trees, are also frequent visitors in
houses, but are not so pugnacious and will rarely attack anyone unless
they are accidentally taken hold of or their nests disturbedd. All of these
wasps are of more or less service to housekeepl)ers in that they are
active enemies of the common house fly.
C. L. !M.




.. .:.... i .. ...
.... .... !' ..... .

". i:":.:. ".:







CHAPTER V.

SPECIES INJURIOUS. TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, TIMBERS ETC.

By C. L. MARLATT.

THE WHITE ANT.

(Termes flavipes Koll.)

No insect occurring in houses is capable of doing greater damage
S than the one under consideration. Its injuries are often hidden and
concealed until the damage is beyond repair, and as it affects the integ-
rity of the building itself as well as its contents, the importaniee of thI
insect becomes very evident. Fortunately it is not often present id
the North in houses, but as the Tropics are approached the injurieO
from it in dwellings or other structures of wood are of common expe4
rience and often of the most serious nature, causing the'sdden crum-
bling of bridges, wharves, and settling of floors or buildings.

II





0 I
I ". ..-.. .. ..












Fra. 28.-Termes favipes: a. adult male; b, terminal abdominal segments of same from bslowf C, a
of female; d, male, side view somewhat inflated by treatment with ammonia; a, abfoomefn of female
side view; f, tarsus, showing joints and claw; a, d, e, enlarged; b, c,f, greatly enlarged (original

The term "white ant," by which this insect is universally known, i
entirely inappropriate in so far as it indicates amy relationekiji with th
true ants. Strictly speaking, the white ant is not an. ant at all, b
belongs with the Neuroptera and is allied to the dragon flies and Ma
flies. The only analogy with ants is in superficial resemblance arfd
the social habits .of the two groups, in which great simnilirity exisi.
The popular acquaintance with the termite or white ant is mainl
70
.,..,,,,,.. ,.,: .. ..
,, ,..,.,: .... .,.x:. ;,- ,





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


derived from witnessing its nuptial spring light, when tihe small,
brownish, ant-like creatures with long glistening white wings emerge
from cracks in tlhe ground or Ifroin crevices in buildings, swariiiing out
sometimes in enormous numbers, so that they may often be swept up
by the quart. These winged individuals are not the ones which do tlhe
damage, however, and are a mnere colonizing form. Tlie re.il depreda-
tors are soft-bodied, ltrge-hleaded, milky-white illsects, less tlian ;la
quarter of an inch ili length, which may ol'ten be found in niunibers
under rotting boards or in decaying' stumps., These last are tilhe work-
ers and soldiers (fig. 31, r and d), and constitute the bulk of th le (colony
for most of the year, tihe winged migrating forms, (co1nsistin.g of tile
sexed individuals, appearing normally only once a year, usually il
spring or early summer.
The white ants present, in an entirely distinct order of insects,
another of those most curious problems of comunnuial societies which
find so many examples among tlhe ants, bees, anud wasps. A colony of
white ants includes workers, soldiers, tlie young of the various forms,
and, at the proper season of the year, the winged males and females;
also a single parent pair, tlhe specially developed king anld queen. In
the case of the common white ant of this country (Tcrmcx.fl snipes), the
true fully developed queen or mother of the colony and her consort,
the fully developed king or male, have never been found. The soldiers
or workers are degraded or undeveloped individuals of both sexes,
differing in this respect from ants and bees, in which tlhe workers are
all undeveloped females.
The economy of the termites is almost exactly analogous to that of
the ants and bees. The workers attend to all the duties of thie colony,
make the excavations, build the nests, care for tlhe young, and protect
and minister to the wants of the queen or mother ant. In this they are
assisted somewhat by the soldiers, whose duty, however, is also pro-
tective, their enormous development of head and jaws indicating their
r61e as the fighters or defenders of the colony. Both the workers and
soldiers are blind. The colonizing individuals differ from the others in
being fully developed sexually and in possession of very long wings,
which normally lie tiat. over each other, the upper wings concealing tle
lower, and both p)rojecting beyond the abdomen. These wings have a
very peculiar suture near the base, where they can be readily broken
off, leaving mere stump)s. At tihe time of the spring flight the winged
individuals emerge from tlhe colony very rapidly, frequently swarming
in clouds out of doors, and after a short flight fall to tlhe ground and
very soon succeed inll breaking off their long, clumsy wings at the suture
referred to. In this swarming or nuptiall fliglht they come ouit in pairs
and under favorable conditions each pair might establish a new colony,
but in point of fact this probably rarely if ever happens. They are
weak flyers, clumsy, and not capable of extensive locojmotimon oi, fiot.
and are promptly preyed upon and destroyed by many insectivorous
animals, and rarely indeed do any of thie individuals escape.


71




: .. .... .. .. ..........
72 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .'.... ..

Theoretically, if one of these pairs succeeded in finding a decaying
stump or other suitable condition at hand, they would enter itkaad the
king and queen, being both active, would attend to the wants oftie new
colony and superintend the rearing of the first brood of workers and
soldiers, which would then assume the laborious duties of the young
colony. Thereafter the queen, by constant and liberal feeding and
absolute inaction, would increase immensely, "her abdomen becoming
many thousand times its original size. She would practically lose the
power of locomotion and become a mere egg-laying machine of enormous
capacity. Allied species whose habits have been studied in this par-
ticular indicate an egg-laying rate of 60 per minute, or sonmetbing like
80,000 per day.
In the absence of a queen, however, white ants are able to develop
from a very young larva or a nymph of what would otherwise become a
winged female what is known as a supplementary queen, which is. never
winged and never leaves the colony. This supplementary queen (fig.
31, a) is smaller than the perfect sexed queen, but subserves allithe needs











Fin. 29.-Termes flavipes: a, head of winged female viewed from above; b, same from bele*, -with
mouth-parts opened out-greatly enlarged (original). "

of the colony in the matter of egg laying, and is the only parent insect
so far found in the nests of the common white ant in this `cuntry.
Whether a true queen exists or not is, therefore, open to question; if-
not, all the individuals which escape in *ie spring and summerzifgr1a-4 i
tions must perish, and this swarming would, therefore, have t biet:b-
sidered a mere survival of a once useful feature in the economy of this
insect, now no longer, or rarely, of service. *
The normal method of the formation of new colonies is probably by
the mere division or splitting up of old ones or the carrying of insisted i
logs or timbers from one point to another. A
The development of these curious insects is very simple. There is
scarcely any metamorphosis, the change from the young larva to the
adult being very gradual and without any marked difference ina truc
Sure. They feed on decaying wood or vegetable material of say ort,
and are able to carry their excavations into any timbers Yhieb are
moistened, or into furniture, books, or papers stored in rooms which:
are at all moist. Their food is the finely divided material it'o whichI
S.
N .'.' : .





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


they bore, and from which they seem to be ;able to extr;ict a cert:iin
amount of nourishment, sometimes redcvoniring thle samie' material sev-
eral times. They are also somewhat cainibalistic, :iIId will devour tihe
superfluous members of the (coloity without conmpunctioi, aiid nori mally
consume all dead individuals, east. skins, a il otherrefuse material. They
may also feed to a certain extent ont the liquids produced by tlie decayiIIg,
vegetable matter in which they live, and lperhlial)s on the fingoid ele-
ments resulting from snch lidecay. They air ca p.lile ilso o' exuding a
sort of nectar, which is used to feed the youni"g ;,i6l the roal pair, aind
which they also generously give to ea.cli other.
All except the migrating winged forms ;ire iicapabldie of enidur;ing
full sunlight, and the soft, delicate bodies of thie workers, soldiers, aiidl
yuong rapidly shrivel when exposed.
In all .their operations, therefore, they .. *
carefully conceal themselves, and iii ">' ..,'.
their mining of timbers or books and I ,'
papers the surface isalways left intact, ; -- -
.- -/ 4 -* -',*-* . .. a.
and whenever it is necessary for them --. Vt' "J., -
to extend their colonies it, is only done '
under the protection of covered run- :& A 4
ways, which they construct of par- 'IW <
tidcles of comminuted wood or little w i
pellets of excrement. In this way the
.. .._ . .. .,~' "--- \ ]
damage which they are doing is often o
entirely hidden, and not until furnIi- Fl,. 30.-Tr,'in's f,, a. r,,: a, newly hiiatclied
ture breaks down or the underpinning larva: /, saue froi ilw below Cg-all en.
larged to same scale tori-iII II.
and timbers of houses or floors yield
is the injury recognized. Thie swarming of winged individuals in the
early summer, if in or about houses, is an in(lication of' their injurious
presence and warrants an immediate investigation to prevent serious
damage later on.
The common termite of America is very widespread, occurring from
the Atlantic to the Pacific awd from Cainada southward to the Gulf.
It has been found on the mountains of Colorado and Washington at a
height of over 7,000 feet. In prairieregioins it may often be seen during
the swarming season issuing from the ground at frequent intervals
over large pasture tracts, where it must feed on tIe roots of grass and
other herbage. It has also been carried to other countries and is a
common and often very injurious enemy o)f buildings and libraries
in Europe. A closely allied and eqllLally i ijurious 1European species
(Termes licifugHs) has also been brought to this country ihi exchange tbr
ours, but compared with our own species is somewhat rare though
already widely distributed. In this country serious damage to build-
ings from the white ant has not beeni of common occurrence, especially
in the North, except in some notable instances. In Europe iur
species has caused greater damage, iand some years ago gained access
to one of the Imperial hothouses at Vienna, and int spite of all effolbrts


73




S. .*..... ::..; :.::H INT. .|
74 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.
to save the building it was necessary ultimately to tear it down and :I
replace It with an iron structure. In this country instances :are on
record of very serious damage to books and papers. An accuMalation A
of books and papers belonging to the State of Illinois was thoroughly
ruined by their attacks. A school library in South Carolina,. which
had been left closed for the summer, was found on being opened in the
autumn to be completely eaten out and rendered valueless. In the
Department of Agriculture an accumulation of records and documents
stored ii a vault which was not thoroughly dry, and allowed to remain
undisturbed for several years, on examination proved to be thoroughly



441

!V
....


At.-





i -
^ *,,M -- - ,. / l l ....







a J
414
":" ".... "- '~-A- aI" "







FIG. 31I.-Termrs favipes: a, queen; b, nymph of winged female; c, worker; d, soldier-a-i enlarged
(original).
mnined and ruined by white ants. Humboldt, ou the authority of
Hagen, accounts for the rarity of old books in New Spain by the fre-
quency of the destructive work of these insects.
Numerous instances of damage to underpinning of buildings and to
timbers are also on record. The flooring of one of the largest sections
ef the United States National Museum haas, for some years back, beeT
annually undermined and weakened by a very large colony :f, these
pests which could not be located, and finally the present season the
authorities solved the problem by replacing the wood floor with- one of
cement. A few years ago it was found necessary to tear down and
, S '* '" ,,





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC. 75

rebuild three frame buildings iln 'WaIslhingtonl ill collseqillence of thie
work of this insidious 1Ie.
Damage of the sort mentioned hlas occurred .as tlir north as ioston,
but, as stated, greatly increases as one approaches t Ie Trp(1jics, where tilne
warmth and moisture are especially suited to the development and indl-
tiplication of these insects. Here houses and furniture ;Ire never safety
from attack. Thie sudden cru inibling into mi:sses, of dlist of chairs, desks,
or other furniture, and tlhe min int ;a d dest rutiion ,'cIill'ct iRnls (l" 1)ooks
and papers, are matters of coi mn in experience, very little Iinit of the
damage being given by a surfai e inspectionn. even wihe tle. interior ,of
timbers or boards has been ti orouglily eaten out, leaving ;a mere pa;iwr
shell. While confining their work almost solel xto n1iistened o.r decay-
ing timbers or vegetable inateri;il of ;ny sort, books,. anid plape'rs tiat
are somewhat moist, they arte known to work also in living trees, carry.
ing their mines through lie moist a111n nearly dead l 'iart woodl. In thlis
way some valuable trees in Boston were so iniijurel :is t4i 1nakei their
removal necessary. Ini Florida they are oftell the (.1use ,t gre nt damage
to orange trees, working arou(ld the crowns and in the roots (if tiees.
They are sometimes also tlie occasion of considerable loss in (onser-a-
tories, attacking cuttings and the roots of plants. In prairie regions
also their work mniust necessarily be of the latter nature.
The white ant is not confined to country places, but is just .as apt to
occur in the midst of towns, and especi.illy in buildings which are sin-r
rounded by open lawns containing growing trees and flower beds richly
manured.
The first means of protection, therefore, consists in surrounding all
libraries or buildings iln which articles of value are stored with clear
spaces and graveled or asphlalted walks. Tine normal hlabit of these
insects of breeding in decaying, stumps and partially rotted 1)posts or
boards immediately suggests the wisdom of tlhe prompt removal of all
such material which would otherwise facilitate the formation or per'-
petuation of their colonies. Complete dryness in buIildings is an inimplor-
taut means of rendering them safe from attack, and tihe presence of
flying termites at any time in I lthe spring or summer should be followed
immediately by a prompt investigation to locate tlie colony anld deter-
mine the possibilities of damage. Tlie point of emergence of winged
individuals may approximately, though t not always, ind(licate tlie location
of the colony, and if it can be got at by the removal of flooring ()or
opening the walls, tlie colony may be destroyed by tlie removal of tile
decaying or weakened timbers and ;a thorough dlrelnchning withi steami,l
hot water, or, preferably, kerosene or sonec other petroleum oil. T'i'le
destruction of winged individuals as thiley .emerge is of no- vain. what
ever; the colony itself must lbe readlied or future damage will wit bIe
interfered with in tlhe least. It' tlie colony iv inaccessilile it nmay some-
times be possible to inject into) tlie walls or crevices, from which tie
winged individuals are emerging, kerosene ill slitticie'nt q|uaintity to
reach the main nest, itf the conditions lie suci as to indicate that it may




Z::! !

76 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .. .:.:': 1

be near by, and by this means most, if not all, of the inmates way be
killed. In all districts of the South frequent examinations of libraries
and stored papers should be made.
The advisability, in regions where the ant is likely to be especially
destructive, of giving all buildings a stone foundation or imbedding all
the lower timbers and joists in cement willie at once evident.

THE SILVER FISH.
(Lepisma saceharina Linn.)

This insect is often one of the most troublesome enemies of books,
papers, card labels in museums, and starched clothing, and ocasionally
stored food substances. Its peculiar fish-like form and scaly, glistening
body, together with its very rapid movements and active efforts at
concealment whenever it is uncovered,
-, ,r have attached considerable popular in-
\ terest to it and have resulted 'm its
/ receiving a number of more or less desrip-
tive popular names, such as sili .,fish,
J,: /silver louse, silver-witch, sugar If:ketc.
Sl .' The species named above is t'ihomei-Wn
II- one in England, but also occurs" th:is
A .country, and, like most other d Sc
insects, is now practically cosmnipitan,
; -i^ B '. .***, -..' -
It has a number of near allies, whi6h
closely resemble it, both in iapi race
-_ :.i-,.: and habits. One of these(I -
., 144 ."::, 7
-: mobia) domestic Pack.) has certn pe-
$ culiarities of habit which 1will beei..- ed
to later. The peculiar appearance of the
{] common silver fish early drew attention
Sto it, and a fairly accurate description of
FIG. 32.-Lepismna saccharina: adult- it, given in a little work publishhd in
enlarged (original).
London in 1665 by the Royal Society, is
interesting enough to reproduce: : : ..
Itis a small, silvery, shining worm or moth which I found much conversant Amuvng
books and papers, and is supposed to be that which corrodes and eats holes through
the leaves and covers. It appears to the naked eye a small, glittering, pearl-eolored
moth, which, upon the removing of books and papers in the summer, is often.obierved
very nimbly to scud and pack away to some lurking cranny where it may better
protect itself from any appearing dangers. Its head appears big and bluat 'and its
body tapers from it toward the tail, smaller and smaller, being shaped alosat like a
carret. '
On account of its always shunning the light and its ability to run
very rapidly to places of concealment, it is not often seen and is most '
Micrographia, R. Hooke, London, 1665. .
. *;: . *:... .*
*C .]
* .. .. .'" ".1' .





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAI'ER, BOOKS, ETC. 77

difficult to capture, and being clothed with sniootli, glistening scales, it
will slip from between the fingers a(nd is almost impossible to secure
without crushing or damaging. It is oje of thle most serious pests in
libraries, particularly to thlie binding of books, aind will frequently eat
off the gold lettering to get at tile paste beiieatlh, ,r, as relo'irted by
Mr. P. R. Uhler, of Baltimore, often gnaws ofi white slips gluied 'n the
backs of books. Heavily dlaz/ed paper seeiiis ver attractive to this
insect, and it has frequently lhajppened tHint the labels iln museum col-
lections have been disfigured or destroyecd by it, tic glazed siirhae
having been entirely
eaten off. In so m c
cases books printed oi i
heavily sized paper /
will have the surface,
of the leaves a good
deal scraped, leaving -.
only the portions coy- 7../
ered bytheink. It will --
also eat any starched
clothing, linen, or cur- .
tains, and has been ,.
known to do very se- '.-2
rious damage to silks
which had probably
been stiffened with -, .. .
sizing. Its damage in t',
houses, in addition to
its injury to books,
consists in causi i ,
the wall paper to scale
off by its feeding- on
the starch paste. It
occasionally gets into .
vegetable drugs or
sim ilar mi ateria I left ,,. :.r. t.,./.;r.,,., i :111 iii Ib i.i,. -riiI;ir,.I i.)ri,'inaii
undistiurl)ed for long
periods. It is relport'ed also It at --,It. casially % intl carpets and pish-a
covered furniture, but this is opeli to question.
The silver fish belongs to the lowest order of' insects-the' Thysa-
nura,-is wingless, anid of very simple strctur'. It is a woirm like
insect about one third of an inch'i in lengthl, taiperiig firnmi near tile
head to the extremity (f tlte body. Tlie lhead carries two plrominent
antenne, and at thle tip of ille 1 oly arie three loing. lristle-shialped
appendages, one pointing' (I directly l;ick w;ard a iid t lie other t wo) 'x tend-
ing out at a considerable a tgh. Thle entire suirf;'e ( f tlhe d i s vco'.-
Sered with very minute scales like 14ose of .1 in th. Six legs s;riig




a~~. .f P tur.....

78 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

from the thorax, and, while not very long, they are powerful and enable
the insect to run with great rapidity.
In certain peculiarities of structure, and also in their habits, these
anomalous insects much remind one of roaches, and their quick, gliding
movements and flattened bodies greatly heighten this -resemblance.
More striking than all, however, is the remarkable development -of the
coxm or basal joints of the legs in the silver fish, which finds its counter-
part in roaches, and, taken in connection with the other features of
resemblance, seems to point to a very close alliance between the two
groups, if, indeed, the silver fish are not merely structurally degraded
forms of roaches and to be properly classed with the Blaitidt.
The general distribution of the insect about rooms, in bookcases,
and under wall paper renders the application of insecticides difficult
and often impracticable. It readily succumbs to pyrethrum, and where-
ever this can be applied, as on book shelves, it furnishes the best means
of control. For starched clothing and similar objects liable to be
injured by it there are no means except frequent handling and airing
and the destruction by hand of all specimens discovered." Little dam-
age is liable to occur in houses except in comparatively moist situ-
ations or where stored objects remain undisturbed for a year Or more.
Another of the common silver fishes of this country, refetrld to in
the opening paragraph, has developed a novel habit of frequenting
ovens and fireplaces, and seemingly revels in an amount of heat which
would be fatal to most other insects. It disports itself min numbers
about the openings of ranges and over the hot bricks and metal, mani-
festing a most surprising immunity from the effects of high teMpera-
ture. This heat-loving or bakehouse species (fig. 33) was described in
1873 as Lepisma domnestica by Packard, who reported it to be common
about fireplaces at Salem, Mass. This species is also very abundant in
Washington. What is evidently this same insect has'become very com-
mon, particularly in the last year or two, in England and on the Conti-
nent, where it manifests the same liking for hot places exhibited by it
in this country. The habit of this species of congregating itbake-
houses and dwellings, about fireplaces and ovens, has given rise to the
common appellation for it in England of fire-brat." Similardescriptive
names are applied to them also on the Continent. This species closely
resembles the common silver fish in size and general appearance, but
may be readily distinguished from it by the presence on the 'Upper
surface of dusky markings. It also possesses well-marked structural
differences, which have led to its late reference to a distinct genus-
Thermobia. An Italian entomologist, Rovelli, has described this insect
under the descriptive name furnorum, from its inhabiting vtons, and
the name of the genus to which it is now assigned by English eftomolo,
gists is also descriptive of its heatloering character. A DIta ento-
mologist, Oudemans, reports that he has found it in abundance in all
bakehouses that he has examined in Amsterdam, where it is wMI known
to bakers and has received a number of familiar names.





SPECIES INJURIO'S TO WALL PAl'I'I, BOo)KS, iTC. 79)

THE BOOK-LOUSE.
(A. trh p, li. ii)i, ti,,'i, I '.i i.)
This pale, louse-like insect, mieIaslilillg' les.- 11uiai 1 lmil1 in I4.igtl,. Isi.l-
Illy occurs in houses, though rarely in a,,. lnliiiels'. amiii is io.st od'tlen
seen on opening old musty volumnas, sca.plitl)ii-g :cro sS lu' pae Ill Ioi-
eal itself elsewhere. From tiis habit coles it.s p Pila llr L a IimC Ie ook-
ouse. It is one of the smln lest 1)' inise.ts, 1'arly c:lo rles.-. .IO "1-liii st
visible to the unaided eye. except a;s its active znmoveim i ts att lLra.l
one's attention. It belong-s to the fainiily l's.cidl.i. ;ani is soiivim wlat
losely allied to the white ants. 1Ieln)iginig ihi l'e sate if. orde.r. ''There ar.
number of species of ps)(ocids \vliiili f"i'-ellt lini.ses. all l'optlatrly
Styled book-lice, and having lii1its a, i lian r;ir.''teristlics very SI1imillar h)
the one named above, whlichi is tlhe lo, ne .oiiiiuii ad111 a1en'noiig .iec.ies.



..\ \ f/ ^" .. "" /' ." ' -
." ,.. -- '.3. ., ,o ., -\ }


^* ..,, .. .. ,,,-. .. ,_ .'.-



i C~~~~L Ar. f-*<-





: G Atropos divinatora: nf. ;l-- l ; .., ),,.1..] .J
7f illa ) ; i il lil l:(llii l ,r ri n .lL .
.,and maybe taken as tie type. All these troublesome ous(e se'ci are
111 pe -i' 711









soft-bodied, wingless, degraded -reittvres, represe.ntitll- tll, \ey lNw0.st
.form of insect life. A great anyi species, also. live o()ut of ,l,141r.s, A.man y
of these being winged amd som, wlhat rj-evspmblin.,"' plant-lice. Tlhey fre
.quently occur in numbers o tile ark (,f trees and( tle. walls (it' 11uiiliixl.-. .
and fteed on lichens or decmayinf ve,-etablel, matitr. ''lie Isocid;. irv
biting insects, lha'ing well-delope d mamlilTes and other mouth parts.
One of the most interesting tfe.'atiirehs ill connelc14-ti(oll \Jil till- ('1)ll1lllt)i i
house species, and fro'm whivii it takes someties tin- name "dieaIth
watch," is the repIutation it Inas (,t 'mkini.,I ;t ticking .-o l. supposed tip
gnosticate dire tOnse('ie .e to some inmate ot dlil l.11-v. l'Tilat it
n make some such noise.. p)r(obalylv I)v striking ." its lield a;ai'-%" soe
ard object, seems to be pretty wvell established inl spit ,ot' thle swectinig
[...





80 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. 1 .; ........ .

impossibility of an audible sound being produced in this iy by so
small an insect. This psocid is not, however, the true deathwatch,
This doubtful honor is shared by a near ally, also a psocid. and having
similar habits (Clothilla pulsatoria), and certain wood-borin.g beetles,
which frequently work in the timbers of houses.
The house species, and particularly the one named at the head of
this chapter, are widely distributed, almost cosmopolitan, and are
occasionally the source of very considerable annoyance and damage.
Throughout the warm season they may be frequently seen in eapboards,:
on window ledges, or library shelves, especially among books or papers
which are seldom used. They are practically omnivorous, feeding on:
any animal or vegetable matter, and are especially. fond of ftbe starchy
paste used in book bindings or for attaching wall paper. 'They also
feed on flour, meal, and other farinaceous substances, and aeMequently
very destructive to collections of natural history objects..
Under ordinary circumstances these insects are not especially injuri-
ous in dwelling houses, and it is only where the materials wbieh the
are capable of injuring or in which they will breed are left nadisturbed
for long periods that they are apt to multiply and cause any serious
damage. Occasionally, however, they will multiply in excessive num-
bers in some available food supply and swarm over the hpuise, to the
great consternation of the housekeeper. In cases of such extraordi-
nary multiplication, so difficult are they to reach in the many recesses
in which they can conceal themselves that the most persistent and
thorough cleansing and fumigating are scarcely of any avail. For|
tunately, such instances of excessive multiplication are :rare, but
there are several notable cases on record. The straw or hsk ifilingq
of mattresses or beds seem to be especially favorable locations fa their
multiplication, and in the worst cases of infestation the psotids have
come from such sources. Small species of psocidt are often extraor-.,
dinarily abundant in straw in barns and stables, and Dr. IUntowI
quotes Mr. McLachlan, of London, England, as having found myriad4
of thespecies under discussion in the straw coverings of wine bottles;_
Mr. Alfred C. Stokes, Trenton, N. J. (Insect Life, Vol.-I, p. 144A
reports a case which may be taken as a sample of several record(
instances of a similar nature. He says that in a new house kept b:
very neat occul)ants a mattress of hair and corn husks which had bee|
purchased some six months before was found in September, after th4
house had been closed about six weeks, to be so covered with theb
insects that a pin point could not have been put down without touch
ing one or more of the bugs." The side of the lower sheet next t1
mattress was likewise covered, and further search showed the Walls an<|
in fact the entire house to be swarming with them. A sweep of t,
hand over the walls would gather then by thousands% liir
:: .. :.:' .'' ': F : : .:i .::'.:. ::.. .. ... ::
were swarming with them, and they were under evtt: K
everything. The mattress was found to contain millions or th*m
.:.

,4:7
*" 'H ...' i
"::. ... :- ...






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


seemed to be the source of sU)pp)ly. Thie measures taken were Iliost
thorough. The mattress was promptly reil oved; walls and doors were
washed with borax and corrosive sublimate solhition,; carpets were
steam cleaned; pyretlhrumi was freely used; furniture was beaten,
cleaned, and varnished, tlhe struggle being kept up for a year wirtli all
the persistence of an extraordinarily neat housekeeper. The insect
continued to have thie best of it, however, and persistedi, 111 igh in
diminished numbers.
The family then removed to a hotel and for (lays the house was fullnmi-
gated with burning sulphur and the scrubbing was repeated. The
insect was still not entirely exteriniatcd anid tlhe house was vacated
again and subjected to tlhe, vapor of benzine. Tlie insects, two years
after the removal of thie mattress, were reported to be still in tlhe house,
greatly reduced, but to be found'in dark corners.
An almost exact duplication of this experience is reported by D)r.
J. A. Lintner (Second Report, p. 198) as occurring in a, residence in
Otsego County, N. Y., the infestation coming originally from straw-
filled ticks.
In aggravated cases of the kind noted nothing but the most thorough
steps will be of avail. The source of supply, if in straw or husk ticks,
should be promptly removed and the contents of the ticks or mattresses
burned.
Carpets and bedding should be steam cleaned and floors should be
thoroughly washed with soapsuds and the walls washed and repapered
or painted. Benzine or gasoline should be applied freely to all possible
retreats or to furniture which can not be otherwise cleaned. Thorough
fumigation with brimstone, as recommended for the bedbug (see p. 38),
or like fumigation with bisulphide of carbon, will destroy many of the
psocids if the room can be tightly closed for several hours.
There is no means of preventing tlhe occasional occurrence of psocids
in houses, but unless exceptional opportunities are furnished they will
rarely be troublesome, and occasional examinations of book shelves or
other locations where they are apt to appear, with a liberal dusting of
pyrethrum powder whenever necessary, will ordinarily keep them inll
check. With plenty of air and light and in apartments in daily use
they rarely appear in any numbers. Tlhe use of straw or lihusk filled
ticks or mattresses would seem inadvisable or at least should be discon-
tinued at the first indication of being at all subject to infestation.
THE AMERICAN SPRING-TAIL.
(Lepido'Y/rt, aimeri'f nun Marl;att. )
This very anomalous little insect, measuring scarcely more than one.
tenth of an inch, silvery gray in color, with purple or violet markings,
may be frequently observed in houses in situations similar to those fre-
quented by the two species last described. In comnnoi with the silver
2805-No. 4- 6




.......... ..... ".......i~ :
;" ~ ~ ~ ... ."....:....ii..:
.... .. ::MM ... ::::'
""NIw "" INSE: CTS.
PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .::":":::"....::. -


82


fish, it belongs to the order of insects known as Aptera winglesss), from
the fact of their having no vestige of wings throughout life.
The simple structure of these insects, and particularly their resem-
blance to the larval state of winged insects, has led to the belief that
they are the primitive forms of insect life. That this is true is, however,
by no means certain, and they may rather be degraded or debased
examples of some of the higher orders of insects. The species figured
herewith is not infrequently found in dwellings in Washington, but is
apparently undescribed, and, in fact, little is known of the American
species. It is, however, closely allied to a European form (L. crvricalis),
often found in cellars, and figured by Wr John Lubbock in his mono-
graph on these insects (P1. XXV). Another allied European species
(Seira domestic) has been named from the fact of its being a frequenter
of houses.


FIG. 35.-Spring-tail (Lepidocyrtus americanus)
view from above (original).


c' **


lag


FIG. 36.-Spring-tail (Lepidocyrtus americanus)
view from beneath (original).
/


These insects belong to the suborder Collembola, which (following
Sharp) is distinguished from the other suborder of Aptera, Thysanura,
by having but five body segments instead of ten, and possessing a:
very peculiar ventral tube on the first segment, and commonly also a..
terminal spring, by means of which these creatures leap with great.
agility, and from which they take their common name of "lspring-tails."'
These insects, though very abundant, have been very little studied,.
and little is known of their life habits. They often multiply in extraor-
dinary numbers, especially in moist situations, swarming on the sur-
face of stagnant water or on wet soil. They seem to be very tolerant
of cold, and we have interesting accounts of the occurrence of a spe-
cies related to the one figured in the Arctic regions on melting snow
fields and on glaciers, where they are known as "snow fleas" or" snow
worms." Other interesting forms oceur in caves, and in the Mammotl
Cave in Kentucky they are notably abundant. In houses they ma,
often be found on window sills, in bathrooms, and sometimes, undoe


!
i





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC. 83

favorable situations, in very considerable nminlu'.rs. Especially are
they apt to occur where there are rwitidow oplts ilr il si.all colnserva-
tories, but are not confined to these sittitionts. Very little is known of
their food habits, but t hecy ar supposed( to silb.sist I refifuse or chiefly
decaying vegetable matter.
The striking l)peculiarities of these insects are inll the remarkable
ventral tube anld tlie strong saltatoriad aplpendaLge of tihe extremiity
of the body. The
first arises fromf/."/
A. ~~~~~~~ ~_ t *11 1cr_ i& v \ I* ll
the forward body o QowI/w(f '2 .
segment, and l -. ~
seems to act in JiPl 7
this species as a
sort of a retainer. ,.
for the leaping
organ, or spring 4 ,
proper, as shown a f: "
in fig. 36. It is 1
said to secrete a ... _
viscid fluidWhicl -[(i.:7.-Spring.Iiil Li,-ivlryrtus ameriran,,). a, lateral view of ft
enables tlhe insect m'alt; b, foot of s:111ame; c, (ip (rspring-til; itl, Ilvl .ca;i1. ,, upptj r lip
to better adhere o-r lahiima,;f, miandililror.i.jtwm ; g, lo',erjaws and loer liji ormaxil
and lain 11111- (origin;i).
to smooth vertical
surfaces. The so-called "catcl," or retainer proper, is shown in a small
projection between the lind pair of legs and tihe spring (fig. 37/, and
grasps the latter near the mti(l(ldle. The springing organ is two-jointe(ld,
the last joint being bifurcate, and( its terminals inclosing tlhe ventral
tube. It is shown in normal position in fig. ;(6, and as it appears when
leaping in fig. 37, a.
These insects can not survive dryness, and, while they will not often
occur in sufficient numbers to be particularly objectionable, the removal
of the moist objects or surfaces on which they congregate and tihe
maintenance of dry conditions will cause them to soon disappear.











CHAPTER VII.


SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HAMS, FRUIT, AND VINEGAR.
By L. 0. HOWARD.

THE CHEESE, HAM, AND FLOUR MITES.
(Tyroglyphus longior L. and T. siro Gerv.)

Very minute, more or less colorless, eight-legged creatures swarm in
numbers over and in old cheese and various stored products, such as
dried meats, dried fruit, vanilla, and flour of different kinds." The
species may be distinguished by the illustrations. Tyroglyphns longior















II











FIG. 46.-Tyroglyphus longior: a, female; b, male-greatly enlarged (after Canestzaii).
is more rapid in its movements, larger in size, with longer and more cyl-
indrical body, and longer and more numerous shining hairs sticking out
on the sides. The two species are frequently found feeding in common.
Both species are common to Europe and the United States, and both;
have probably been.carried to all parts of the world in food supplies. e
100 :
:ii/:11





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHIEE'SE, HAMS, FRUIT, ETC. 101
Aristotle knew the cheese nIite.s aIld sljoke1 ,f( tle.lu ;i- t Ill. smallest
of living creatures. Many subseqiet writers have Migdrel te and
mentioned them, but the full life histiv.y was nit kiiowi, ,til iSi.I ,
when Claparede determinvied that the geui,.s I ,lypopis wias eo.,jiisi of
forms which are steps in the develop ivI t (if trII v t vrigl ljIiiils.
All through the Sullilmlier iioiithis, aill(1 i:i v:iar liii diriil tiil-
winter months, these (creatures breled will] t;il,1oiii-lii1g ai.piditV a.i1id
fecundity. The rapidity of 1iiultipmlieitioi iiiild thle e.\liriru iiii ii- 1111111-
bers in which these mites will oc'1 uii(lder 'livorailIc coniilitiois are
almost incredible. In1 18S2 T. ]In qi'ir was founiidi iln all Olii, iliciikiii.r.
house, covering the (driedl ;mid packedd rehl'is (ivmidy fiir sal ais ai Iirtil.
izer)in a layerwhicli ini soiie plac;'s was ihalfa i| iili ill tliickiliess. At
a low estimate 1 squair incii of such ;ai ly r i411141 ciitliiii 11I.0110 id1
viduals. The females bring fiirtli tlih ir voi iil.1 iliv1, :ill i nie' ii t ii i
reach full growth aliil repro(duice, uitil ai
cheese, once infested( by a few, sw'aris wvitli i/
thecrawlingn multitude, whicli calluse its .s dlid. \ -
mass to crumble and become ilixcd with "Si,
excremental pellets ind casit-off skins."
Through tlhe summer months the mites ,ar X .
soft bodied and have comparatively feeble --- i .i -
powers of locomotion, anid wlieii they have '
become numerous eiiough to devolir tlie ,
whole of a cheese, with no other food at ,4 -.. i
hand, it was for a long tiiime a puzzle to kn(ow "
what became of tlieiii and to understand / ,
how a cheese could beconie affected without /
contact with another infested clieese or
without being l)laced in an itifeste(l ,room. It//
has been ascertaine(ld, however, that when
necessity requires it, and(l whliei tlhe isects I P. 4-7'i/ir .i//j'hP *ro: ,i.,ivi-
l ^ ng r -:ill y r'Xll] ln" l i l,,'l.r I- ,'rl,.T ). *
happen to be in the proper stage ot growth. fl. -
they have the power of iinot only almost ii delliliiitely irloiiii,' exist.
ence, but of undergoing ;L i' coplete chanig f lr-I, Iilli irii lill)g I1i ,
brown protective coveriil-s into whicli all of tlie hlegs ca lite lliawii i
repose. Back iii Vaui Lecuiiwc ek'.i lie e tisi. ui i iilth nti'alist shiowedl
that even tile softer lorii (ca.ii iilcldegoi a fast oi ele ven we \iik-s witlimit,
apparent discomfort, and it is li now Lkliiowni tliat ill t0l1 l;iri-1 .livIll or
IHypopus state it nmay realili f'r Ianilliy llliilhis wVitlloilt tfIIl.
In the majority of cases, however, while giv \el cVieeise i*4 eop.iild.etevly
destroyed, all of tlhe young aniid ol mIites lperis'ii ail i4iily l oif't :1"
middle age whicli iare ready to take on til. Ie, iy11,,l)ii e.1iti,,ii .il suivive.
These fortunate survivors, possessig tli'ir souls witl ,ititiir',, retire
into their shells and fast andl wait, land as ever tiliilg oi.llllto Iiin wlho
waits, some lucky day a miouse or lihouse lly v or Smliilther inseirvt r141,1,'s
that way, and thle little miite clings to it adil is carriiil aw\IV. li SomlliC





102 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

spot where another cheese or food in some other form is at hand. It
is in this way, as well as by the more readily understood means, that
new cheese becomes infested and that the insect makes its appearance
in pantries supposed to be perfectly clean.

REMEDIES AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

When we consider the great hardihood and extreme tenacity of life
of this insect in the Hypopus condition, and the fact that almost every
flying or crawling thing may become its common carrier, the difficulty
of disinfecting a storeroom and of keeping it disinfected becomes very
plain. Nothing, in fact, but the utmost cleanliness and watchfulness
will prevent the appearance of the mites. When they have once entered
a cheese, for example, there is no remedy except to cut out the infested
portions. All energies must be bent toward prevention. If a given
room seems to be badly infested it should be cleaned out, fumigated
with sulphur, and washed out thoroughly with kerosene emulsion.
Food supplies liable to be infested should be inspected daily during
hot weather.
It is a point of considerable interest and of some practical account
that there often occur, where these mites are present in numbers, one or
more species of predaceous mites which feed exclusively on the injurious
individuals and tend to greatly lessen their numbers. Some years ago
a gentleman in Milwaukee sent the writer some thousands of mites
which were found in a bin of wheat in an old elevator. They occurred
in such numbers that every morning a quart or more could be swept
up below the spout where they had sifted out. An examination of
specimens sent showed that three species of predaceous mites were
present among the others, and one of them was so numerous that there
was no hesitation in writing to the Milwaukee gentleman that the pre-
daceous mites would probably soon destroy the wheat feeders and thus
the pest of mites would correct itself. The prediction was speedily
verified in part a week or so later, when the correspondent wrote: "As
you say, the parasitic mites have largely destroyed the smaller ones,
and I suppose when their food is all gone they will die of starvation."

THE CHEESE SKIPPER OR HAM SKIPPER.
(Piophila case Linn.)
A small, glistening, black, two-winged fly lays its eggs on cheese,
smoked ham, and chipped beef. The eggs hatch into small white cylin-
drical maggots which feed upon the cheese or meat and rapidly reach
full growth, at which time they are one-fifth of an inch in length., The
maggot is commonly called skipper" from its wonderful leaping pow-
ers, which it possesses in common with certain other fly larva, all of
which are devoid of legs. The leap is made by bringing the two ends
of the body together and suddenly releasing them like a spring. In
this way it will sometimes jump 3 or 4 inches. J. j





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CIIhEE.SE, IHAM.I, FRUIT', ETC. 103
This insect, like so naiy ot1er I ,ill.14lil il SIp .is, is .lS1ics Ijopolita;ii,
and was doubtless originally iliipoirted froi 'iroi iitti tll. Iiiteil
States.
Careful observations on tlhe lit history of tJiis, spicii. lI., l.ee.
made by several writers. I I. 189_' M1iss M1. . MnIrtt tildt. \N Ioset. :it ten
tion was called to the species on accountllll (' ilte gre;Iat l.ni:i \\lii 'Ici it
was representedl to 1be (ldoiig i, certa;iii WVst' p;icki diiig :lI1l'iir
establishments, stulied the life history ow f of i slit,1.'r generalli,,,
The eggs were shown by l Miss Mirttleldt to be 14eposit.il il inllreoil less"
compact clusters of front ,5) to 15.',;id, ;Als.o sC'Ittrd sila .ry. Ii lil,,r
observation Jjars thle iver:ii2 iiniuherl wais 8(11() single fiii;il'. hilt il i
possible that ui(der tlhes alinoriln;id i ,(litionts I lie iiii l.' :i s. ;il]'



aiv






P't""^~ ~ ~ / A\ ^ ^ /









FIG. 4A.- Pijphila cawi, ri, lar\:v : b, pnip.iriini ,-. ,iUli a. d, Tii.ih. \\ ; e, f1i7iilrll. w ith 14111i, ,d- .,;I
1i, r l ((iruvl riii_ il ,.

than usual. Thle e'_ is white, slender. oblong, slid-lilly.ue 11''. n.
in length, with a diameter of almllot onle fo-ur61th its, l'ngtl, Illitr'liiiLr
takes place witliin thirty..six hours. The l;irva is cN.)'ilindricaiil, t;iI-.riii,
gradually toward aiiterior eniid, aidil triuicaitv pol.,sterioir1 ly'iii'inisheld ;it
hinder extremity witli two hiorlly projecting sti.inat&i ani ;i lp:iir "of
fleshy filamenits. Tile larva co.ipletes its growth h ill fromi seien o) ,.i.lit
days, attainiing a lenitli of from 7 to 9 m \n'lailv FIldilig. il'"llc 611od
supply is slfficiellt it dioc.,,s nlot, mo14)ve :a61o1t ln1l1.-i1 il'tiil.f c.lsters. li,'
larva. often completing their gro tl, inl tlhe sille crevice. ill whlihl tfll-
mother flies deposited their cgo-'s. \'ell mat,,re., however, it ,,,\ tis
away to sonie dry spot, co.itricts ill h-lngth, Issulles ;I yell,,\i1, ,olor,
and gradually forms into a go](lell-broiwn plariim or.'1 4 liili. ill lelngthi.
Insect L.ilt, Vol. VI, Ai 17i>-17>.





PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


In ten days the adult fly issues. Miss Murtfeldt was unable to make
the fly lay its eggs on fresh meat of any kind, nor did she find that it
was able to breed upon meat which was simply salty. The average
duration of adult larvae, according to her observations, does not exceed
a week, and thus the entire life cycle may be concluded in three weeks.
These observations were made in August.
During February of the same year specimens of the same insect were
sent by a Kansas packing house to Mr. V. L, Kellogg, then of the
Kansas State University. At that time of the year his breeding notes
show that the egg state occupied about four days, the larva state about
two weeks, and the pupa state one week.' The adults lived in the
breeding jars from six days to two weeks after issuing from the puparia.
Larvae kept with ham and bacon did not I ake at all kindly to cheese
to which they were removed. Careful observations on the life history in
Europe have been made by Dr. H. F. Kessler.2 Dr. Kessler found that
the average time in developing from the egg to the adult is four to five
weeks, with two or three generations during the summer, the last
generation occurring in September, the larva over-wintering in the
puparium and transforming to pupa in May. Other writers Say that
the insect passes the winter in the adult stage.
As a cheese insect in this country this fly does not play as impor-
tant a role as it does as an enemy to smoked meat. It is a matter of
observation that the mother fly seems to prefer the older and richer
cheeses in which to deposit eggs. Her taste is excellent, and while
it is a fair thing to say that skipper" cheese is usually the best, it
will hardly do to support the conclusion that it is good because it is
skipperry" although this conclusion is current among a certain class
of cheese eaters. With the abundance of the species in picking
houses we have nothing to do in this connection. When occurring
upon hams it seems to prefer the outer fatty portions.

REMEDIES.
All that we have said of the preventive for the cheese and meat
mites will answer equally well for the "skipper." Portions of cheese
and hams attacked should be cut out, shelves of pantries should be
kept scrupulously clean, and the kerosene-emulsion wash used when it
has once been determined that the insect is present in numbers. Every
crack should be carefully washed out, since the puparia might be found
in such situations. Close screening of the windows of pantries is
advised to keep out the fly.
STrans. Kans. Acad. Sci., Vol. XIII, 114-115.
2 Bericht d. Ver. f. Naturk. z. Cassel, Vols. XXIX u. XXX, pp. 58-60.


I
f


..... ,,.... .................... .i ,.., ,,, _..,m


104





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CJI.ESh:, IIAMS, FILUIT, ETC.


THE RED-LEGGED HAM BEETLE.
(2'eVr.',1ih r, li,/fil, lh)1;.)


Two or three species of sillill 1etles. ble longilg (g it liiily C('erilll ,
and which are normally sc ai venger 'Vs, ii ,I occaisia.aally 11,i u dried mIea;ts
and other stored aniiiil products. Tie i ost ;ibOii a ld t mnw i, I his
country is the species indica ted in tlhe title. It is a si;il 1, rat l,.r slh4i
der beetle of dark bluish color, with relddislh les. Its 1:ir'a;i i ;: .sl'lller
worm, and is at first white, with ;i brown leo'id and two small lIuiks at
the end of the body. As it becomes older it becomes dairker, :ilnd \ lienl
full grown is grayish white, with a series 4of iirrown 1;itrih.s ali, 1e. it
is then rather more than oiie-hal;ll ;ata ineli iii le'gth ;anIl t I';r islori'iis
within a paper-like cocoon. Fromi the aippe ra'nce of this cocoon tlhe
insect l;is lbeome( known
is tlhe "ipaler woritn" to
V(Iculca s inl lI;iiis aLild dried
miteat s.
.crve' l, hIi rit ipJW is :I co.1 -
IB TS& t iol)itan, sipeies, r()c tir-
~~rinmr aill ,.rtihe I liited
'" States' icsll rilot) a stllstlat
li;1, Africa. aindl thlie East
di. Itis ~sliarully a sgle-

I ldrai ii ii, tie plr fits of
^Hfli t le l'n le, 1Nit 'cnasion-
S. Illy, uitder exc it'l iotnal
Fir;. 49.--Yerrba rfil..': a. ]rv.Lr : b, l...111l 'il'lii instances, it becomes
or same; c. adult il,.ei'. ,i. c, i tl.,rvi ; extreeuely ;1ab ld;lna t, ;it ndl
b, greatlY'ti u iin ;ir,,i, r (,,r'i..i:-'ul i.
,.imay zuiil ma;ny halis. It
is by no means unconiolill, anId is particularly abundanit in thie West
and South.
The injuries caused by this insect are generally diiei tfi careless j;iack-
ing of haims or to the ;iccideitail cutting or cracking" r even to coil-
siderable stretching or frayilig of the caiivaIs coveringt.
As inldicatedL above, this ilisect isii nit colillnied to liallis ftor its 1i.(1, bilt
lives upon other dead animal matter, iot\ always waitli, liwev'er, ais 1lo
certain other insects, for decoinpositionii to set iln beh-Ie l-,1iiliiiia its
attacks. The beetle, a ippeariilg iln 3'1iy or .I tile, ciiltlier liiigi br i'd inll
the storehouse or storeroomi iii quest.ioi, or haivi i ll' iglo\i in I'li31 tlie
outside, is attracted to the hatis, and wherever it ra;nli iilil tlie siigliatest
bit of exposed meat it lays a iutillbicr of itaia1i6' iarroiw, i\T I Witisi eggs.
Such hams as have been injured by overlieatiig or by liaagiig too ilog
in the suin, from rain, aaid pl ;irticl;iarly those whiial liata 'e 1bc4 0oaeP sliimly
from lying too long inll tiae pile, ire those which at itact it iiaaist 1iut it
never seems to lay eggs except where thle mlleat is iaoi're. or less eX\olsed,


105





106


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


or, at all events, if it does lay the eggs; the young grubs, on hatching,
fail t.o reach the meat, except where they are not obliged to penetrate
the canvas.
The larve hatch in a few days and burrow into the fatty tissue near
the rind, growing rapidly, and seeming to congregate, by preference,
in the hollow of the bone at the butt end of the ham. As stated above,
they are, when first hatched, white in color, with a brown head and two
small looks at the end of the body. They are slender and very active,
and upon reaching full growth they either gnaw into the muscle of the
ham or occasionally eat into a neighboring beam, forming a glistening,
paper-like cocoon, which appears granulated on the outside. Within
this cocoon the larva casts its skin and assumes the pupa state, issuing
as a perfect beetle in a longer or a shorter time. According to Dr.
Riley, who treated this species in his Sixth Report on the Insects of
Missouri (p. 96), there are several generations in the course of year
at St. Louis, but the winter is invariably passed in the larval condition,
the first beetles appearing, as previously stated, not earlier than the
1st of May, and usually not before the middle of that month.'


REMEDIES
The only remedies which need be insisted upon in case of customary
damage to ham by this insect are the early and very careful packing of
the hams and the use of strong canvas, impenetrable by the insect, and
which is not likely to fray or break. These measures are the direct
result of the knowledge of the life history of the insect.
Two instances in the experience of Dr. Riley are of sufficient interest
to deserve specific mention. In 1871 and in previous years the firm of
Francis Whittaker & Sons, of St. Louis, had suffered serious loss from
the damage done by this beetle. After an investigation of the facts
they were advised that all of the canvasing on the hams should be done
earlier than was customary, or prior to the first of May, and also that a
heavier canvas be used, to prevent the possibility of its giving, way
upon the small ends. This advice was followed, with the result that
during the ensuing year not a single ham was lost or returned by a
customer on account of worms.
The second case was that of S. S.'Pierce, of Boston, who, in May,
1873, received 22 tierces of hams from a Cincinnati firm. The hams
were taken from the casks and hung in the loft, and not examined until
August, when they were found to be full of worms. Claim was made
on the packers for damages, and it was finally agreed to leave the
matter to referees, who were selected from prominent packers, and who
decided in favor of the Cincinnati firm. The fact is, however, as could

'Mr. Schwarz states that hlie has found the adult beetles in the dead of winter in
Detroit, Mich., and Cambridge, Mass., and calls our attention to the fact that the
species is recorded by H. T. Fay in his article on winter collecting (Proc. Entom.
Soc. Phil., Vol. I, p. 197,1862).


... ...i. .


'1





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CK.EESE, HA.MS, F1I'I1T, ETC.


readily have been slt:,wii ilad aill expert eitonl,,16 ciLi l4 .i alliedd ill.
that if the covering of the liamis was soid, al(d Iall 1,elen kep'lt ilntact
while ill the hands (if ti(e BosI()on firli%, ;is Seet'IS to hIave l'e0ll 4,p
by them, the eggs must li;ive been l A1 li 1'rie the Lams- It' ('iCilsiailiti.
The diflerenie iii climate b1itween Cii(ineijiati ;idl JjIoNtui:a wo111 :iis(
give added weight to) ttle Ilioto)i c.hili. 'iT'l lack if kXiiiWli.tl o, lite
actual facts governing the( case is shown by till written .,liniii tit' ol,
ofthepacking,' exlp(i ts, wl) st;ite previously used in;inil;L liil('r ii picking tlir, li ,is, ll1ey li11! lI,.giil tip
use husk, wlichli was \-vcry likely to co it;ain tlie- gerii, r'nnii \\ liii-li till-
worm is bred."!
The insect is hardly at th'.or in lioiis.'k'e.iiig o a.V',l3t in tle- 1'a1ii 11r-y,
where a fariner inay put, tll) ;i sinllll nit mlber l' 0 l:ilins I411r ]i4tir I 4'iisit1liij).
tion during thie eiisuii..g yeatr'. In ardliinary 111111imll1ds :i aw'r'yv Ily ii
ueed only be returned to .thle d l1.er 'rlt \\wlii I it vwas loi-iit.

THE LARDER BEETLE.
( P r,. 'n,-.l. ,,rdfirri,, Lin U )
A dark-brown beetle o)t' the shaipt, ililstrited il t lie fignire. \itli a
pale, yellowish -brow 1 b aid confitail"in six lhlac.k dots aco()ss tIl 'lil l|'r
half of tle winll c Covers three tenths of an inch inl lesgtli. Tilt larva
is brown and hairy, taper.s from head to tail. 1and is fllrisiiiSid witlI
two short, curvedi, lihorny spines on top) of tlhe lIst jo)int ut' Il lit' i "y.
It is a coniion intIseCiIm pest, and is foundL il isaany kini(d-. w ainisial
food products, such ais hanis, bar ion, and other. kids of' Ieat. lcd tc'i's
(of which it seenis to lhe esplecially fiold) o1, ioo,1 lt's, skill., lbeii'swaix,
silkworm cocoons, featiersa, anial 10air. It l:i1s i\-VIc" beiel re.crl.dil as.
damaging woolen cloth, and its popuitlar taname. ''larder'" ill "bacl.i"
beetle, is a very appropriate oie.
The insect has long been known inl ti 'nlited States. It is akls
found in all parts of Eurtope a-ind ill Asia. It is cn.,si(lderell by )Dr. lam-l
ilton to be probably ;a native of tlhe iited States as well as iintrid(.i'ced
by commerce. It scenms to oc.lur inl all parts of this comlntry.
There are recorded io full and declinite stateenvnits re-gardilisg tlie, lifI
history of this species, andl we. have islade npo 4 1servatios. wihichIl will
enable us to give the length 1' life, duaratioin of di l'erenit stages. .and
other facts of ecinal interest. I'nder fatvirai'ble co 'ilitii i, hsoweve,'l
the insect is unquestionably a rapid reuedler. Miss ('arl'lii F. I. 1iens-
tis, of St. Jolin, New Briiinswick, iT tlit( Aligust ( 18781! 1ii1eli.r (t' Ilte
Canadian Entomoliogist, slates tliat live weeks after pliaillng a 1fiii :al.
in a glass jar, witli a plece' of meat, slit' 1iund1l a large .and l inlii _lti$
colony of larva', most o(f them flll growni. 1)r. 4;. II. irii. it liel
Proceedings of' tile l'llEnto(molo)gical Societyf jl.iilade'lpia (\',ii. I. 1S1.
p. 28), states that tite insect renilaiis il tihe pliipa conillitlilli ti;r :I pl. ilhd
varying from three or foir ihays to :i week, or e'veni ii'. mie dee'ldig


principally o1 the warmth of tlhe lwocality.


1)7


From this stitemllelnt we set'





108 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

that an entire generation may be developed in six weeks. Therefore,
the increase of the insect may be very rapid and there may be four or
five generations annually. The larva, when feeding upon dried and
smoked meat, according to Dr. Horn, is usually seen creeping on the
surface of the meat. For food it prefers such as contains fat and con-
nective tissue, seldom attacking the muscular portions. It does not
bury itself in its food until about the time of assuming the pupa state.
In general, the beetles make their way into houses in May and June,
and at once deposit their eggs on their favorite food if they can obtain
access to it. Where this is' impossible they will lay their eggs, as will
other beetles of the same family, near small cracks, so that the young






















FIG. 50.-Dermestes lardarius: a, larva; b, pupa; c, adult beetle-all enlarged (original).
r
larvae when hatched can crawl through. Dr. Riley, in his Sixth Mis-
souri Report, states that fresh hams are not so liable to attack by this
insect as are those which are tainted or injured.

REMEDIES.
Where a storeroom is overrun with this insect its contents should be
cleared out, so far as practicable, and the room should either be sprayed
with benzine or subjected to strong fumes of bisulphide of carbon.
Where an article of diet such as a ham, has begun to be infested, the
affected portion should be cut away and the surface should be washed
with a very dilute carbolic solution. Miss Heustisi in the article above-
mentioned, showed that tallow was very offensive and destructive to
this insect, but there is seldom a case where this interesting bit of :
knowledge can be utilized. Dr. Hagen, when he first came to Cam- 2
bridge, found his office overrun with this insect. On a sunny day in
*- -* ."I





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHIIEESE, IIAMS, FIUIT'I', ETC.


November the southern outer wall was speck led! within theml. lie suc-
ceeded in ridding the establislameltt by trappitg them day after day
with a piece of cheese. The cheese proved tI lte ve\treme.ly ;attractive,
and he destroyed them by liantd two or IIree tiiies ,I day Ilii I i h I:ad
practically exterminated them. Shortly aIter tlie, intr,1ldIti ion(11 the
Pasteur system of silk worm inot lit ins lcspectiion l' r pl,.lril in iranice,
according to Maurice (Girard, great da;inage wai done by thi I Der ates tiI
which attacked first tlhe bodies of thle ,1lot.s as. they were at tachi elt i
their egg receptacles. They laid 1 heir egs in tihn t mths, al t hlir larv;.e
first ate the bodies andl afterwards the silkworm ,,.',s 1 hacitiselves, tilis
occasioning in 1S71 at PontGisqnet a loss ,of'etihird iItl' o.,, r ,cop.
The remedial measures aloptehd were to screetan tlie widows witl at very
fine wire gauze to l)revent tlhe entrance of 1betles a:iud at'tenw'nirls to
submit thlie rooms to fumigation \illi 1isllpiilde0 of .carlo o,"' cl rron ()i''
sublimate.
An interesting case of damage to bacmn was eninationed by I )r. Lint-
ner in the Cultivator and (C'ountry (;eiitlviiaii fo'r Tme 26, 8l$si. An
individual in WValkersville, Md., ladl fotld 1a l:'lc haimg tip il paIlIIr
meat sacks tlhe 1st of March affected within beetles, aiil larva. later inll
the season, presumably ini Juie. Thle beetles at.ust have ioviplositedl in
the bacon before sacking, or there must fiave' beent crac sk I i tit' pl:tl)(Ir
bags through which tlhe young larva-' entereil. Tlie date o tlhe bag-
ging renders the former hypothesis imaprobable. Tihe instance seemed(
to show the necessity for very careful and early bagging. The sliglItest
crack or slit in the paper would be large enough to allow tie en'triance
of the newly latched larva, Sill(ce tie 'beetles will lay thl.ir eggs llilearl
such a crack or slit. Dr. Litner further advised a thoromi.h white-
washing of the apartment in which tlhe sacks Welre hinig, which in this
case was a garret.

THE FRUIT FLIES OR VINEGAR FLIES.
(l)r,,.i,,hila sljp.)
There are in North America about thirty species of liglit-brown flies
belonging to the getnus Drlisoplhila, of wlaichl perhaps tlite ma.ijorwity
breed in the juices of (lecayinijg and fermezntinng frCit. 'Their larva- are
small, white, slender niaggots, alld are frel leinttly fo ana(d iln val';iled fl'tnits
and pickles which have been irlperte'tly sealedl, roc iilar: limostly near
the top of the jars. but living witliout inlconei.u',eic, in the briny or
vinegary liquidii and transf, rmig within ii'wt b1o 1 p.tiri;i 1rondtal tiht'
edges of the jar. Thie comrnmonest species s.eemJ tio be IP. ,mnt lpIih ila
Loew and 1). amut'na Liew,
The majority of the species are .stri'tlI No1rt0 A mu 'ri'a'an, .aial tis
includes the two specially niitiotioed in Ilie para.gralph alove.. .IrItuiough
D. ampelophila hasalso been fbimndl in ('tba. Sevelal -specie,. hI,'wever,
are common to Europe and thie l'nitedi States, 'for examile'. 1). fn, Ifhris.
D. graminum, and D. tran s rcrsa. ). ainpc/lnph/ili seems ti tlt', cimon.'iaest


109





110 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

species all over the United States and is mainly responsible for the
injury to canned fruits and pickles.
All of the species of Drosophila are probably rapid breeders. Care-
ful descriptions of the early stages of D. ampelophila and D. amnwna
are given by Professor Comstock in the Annual Report of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture for 1881-82. The first-named species he calls the I
vine-loving pomace fly, and he met with it frequently in the course of
an investigation of the apple maggot (Trypeta pomonella), the flies en-
tering apples which had been injured by the Trypeta, completing the
work of disintegration and hastening decay. They are found com-
monly, according to Comstock, about the refuse of cider mills and fer-
menting vats of grape pomniace. D. amnwna he found to be associated
with the former species in apples previously damaged by the Trypeta,
but it was not so abundant as D. ampelophila. The larva of both







a4







FIG. 51.-Drosophila ampelophila: a, adult fly; b, antenna; c, base of tibia and first tarsal jebit; d,
puparium, side view; c, same, dorsal view; f, larva; g, anal segmentof same-a, d;e,f, muh enlqged;
b, c, g, still more enlarged (original).
species, and presumably other species of the genus as well, are fur-
nished with strong anal spiracles through which the larvae is able to
breathe by protuding simply the end of its body to the air. There are
also delicate tufts about the anal spiracles which may be branchial in.
their character.
Professor Forbes, in the Transactions of the Illinois State Horticul-
tural Society, 1884, mentions the damage done by D. ampelophila to the
grape crop at Moline, Ill. He states that they attack most frequently
grapes which have been mutilated by birds or damaged by rot, but
once having commenced on a cluster are likely to pass from one berry
to another, the flies meantime constantly laying eggs.
Dr. Lintner, in his first report as State entomologist of New York,
mentions the habits of the European species, showing that D. oellaris
occurs in fermented liquids in cellars, such as wine, cider, vinegar, and
beer, and also in decayed potatoes. He also states that a species had
been sent to him as damaging flour paste. He had observed partieu-
larly a species which occurred in ajar of mustard pickles, The larvw ,'
....:





SOME INSECTS AFFECTING C(II.KS,, HAMS, IIIT, I:TC. Ill
when nearly full grown, left flte liquid :til alvanet'l. tote stid a;n(
top of thile glass j.ar where l. li,:,; pi.l,.,., tI mll. where they ef'uulil iib
observed feeding o1 coiindeiisvil lm ist lrt. '1',e tnsstir,.*d t(o l:ria,
from which the first lies issued in I;,jr l:;i ys.
Mr. G. J. Bowles, in theli ( ili;iiia F liit,,1,,Ioiui-t hIr iulei. ISS',
figures roughly tle dillcireut slI,.,.s of /I. ,nf JVI1, ,l gi :'d :;ii
account oft' its (lanaig. ti rislibi iy \ ine,;ir. Al ,irtllewaiwtre J.ti' hadl
been nearly filled with rIa.lipbeirries aiiId 'vine.. a', ()n o0l1eiirn. t li,.jaiir
about tell days later (Aiitnist 16) it wa-s uil tl t6b swa i'ilg \\ ith
the larv;e anld coc(ons)t of the iin-e.t. I udlredls tf il. I.r\;. WTert
crawling on thle sid(les of thle J;ir ;iiild Ili' iilltciridl. pupa' were found ahuiid(antly, si-'.lt. ;inld iin clii -4t.r-, a;rtic(lil \\ Iv i's.
thecover touclied tlt, to)p i)f tile.ijar. 'I'llc sil,)rt ti ie ii- i|iircil tfi Iite.
production of so iiaiiy individuals \\,is suiprisinig. Mr. lhuI Jjs Iitlf'
filled a covered tuinmbler with the lickled rl.sp.lhrriis a;il I;t v:11, :iil
they continued to pr)'od(ice flies lor seveia;il wet.s. 'I'lie lIjll,)w1i,, /. season
the same observer inotic.'d l ihat f lt licts were ;utlIr-a.cttd In snuuie rasp-)-
berry wine in process ofl' ferzaientattioti. l]iov(rig il)ll tll..i,' jars a;rid
alighting upon the corks, evidt ,itly s,'ki-k Ig It. i (,nopiMlIiZ tlil'(ILli
which they might pass to lay their .,s. At t;ailoher hi,, lie pIlacd(l a
few raspberries, with a small quantity o' vinegar, it :a pitclle .ir with a
loose cover. A ftortitight afterwards ;a ililn.)'r ,! l;n\';' werV s'ai it
the bottle, and several pula;i were ;atttacht.di to its ,sitls.
This statenient, together with Dr. Lintner's, that tile pptlil stat' mlay
last but bour days, shows tl:hat ;a bs tud In;y ,ni tleveli1p inl twelaty 1days.
The general habits ot'tliese insects aire ell w t ideist( ll, )y ;i1tnuist ev'ry
housewife. The writer liaas oftei iobseti vedl titemi aliiiit liis owI n i lintse,
and has seen tlhe larIva-' wvrkii,,. iilud1el ('o()[tilitio).s tlescribedI', Is Mr,
Bowles, and lie is infoil'elld 1by Mr. MarLrlatt that (11e (of tliet species is
extremely abundant at Malinhatttan. lkaiis., andl tiat ill oi i,\sii 1i)115(se-
hold .tlie greatest care w1i4 s iWecessa;lly to pievet'iit I ilt'ill I ion 'eiit'terinlg
fruit jars.
1 K:M 1:Il]S.

Thle eomimion entrante of these little l),sostiplil;as itoi, pant it's ;ial,
storerooimis, as well as inuto) diiii.' lotlls \'lit'' l'vili i- kepst 1i]po1 tlhe
sideboard, is another arguiienlt ill falvioi.r (ut ,ar'l' f\ i' iimilolw sciee'ning.l
W here they have once entered a jar t ,f iii it iI is Io ,t I1ertessai yI t hira'\w
away the entire content-s )f' lilt' jar, since' tlile larv;l. oii'r olv o ttliet
top layers. These iiay b.e i-teiovet d. ;titd tle l ni1' t 1i:iill, ti ii t .,li ii teints
may often prove pure atil s\\weet. All rlit ;alilled wht'l ilt' i,1 ;aisl li1]-
nietically sealed will be sale. '[li' Flies will l;iy tit'ir .L:1' ii| iiI i l,'.ijr,
perhaps, or uponll tie cloth cove'iilg, ;ii :111 li: o'.t ilinl'IcrTle )il,. le' 'l-
iug will suffice for tlhe iwlyli.ittit'd m ".rir.ot to .t't 'r 6; st) flil' .t;illitf
must be perfect. An occasional lnull.g 4o)" Jlyt't hlyliiinii al11ul lt ,lit 11 t-
room will destroy the files wh'i sil lay lIave gIaileti elntralce.'. WNliri''e .
jar has once been opened its .toitents a.n be pre.vetrv.N whin-. t'i- se.
insects are numerous only by placing it ill ssut,,t tight ri'eC'lta'li'.














CONTENTS.


Page.
INTRODUCTION .............---...----..............---.......------................---..--....... 7
CHAPTER I.-MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS. (By L. C(LjIoward) ---..----..--....--------- 9
Mosquitoes (Culicidw spp.) ................----.. ........ ----------------...............- 9
The cat and dog flea (Pulex serraticeps Gerv.) .......-..................... 24
CHAPTER II.-THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE. (By C. L. Marlatt) ............ 32
The bedbug (Cimex lectularius Linn.) .................................... 32
The blood-sucking cone-nose (Conorhinua sanguisuga Lec.) ..----.---....--------... 38
CHAPTER III.-HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS THAT ARE
ANNOYING RATHER THAN DIRECTLY INJURIOUS. (By L. 0. Howard and
C. L. Marlatt) ........................................................ 43
House flies (Musca domestica, et al.). (L. 0. H.) ...--........ ; .............. 43
The house centipede (Scutigeraforceps Raf.). (C. L. M.) .................. 47
The clover mite (Bryobia pratensis Garm.). (C. L. M.) .................... 51
The house cricket (Gryllus domesticus Linn). (C. L. M.) ...........-....... 52
The paper wasp ( Fespa germanica Fab.). (C. L. M.) ..................... 56
CHAPTER IV.-SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, CLOTHING, CARPETS,
UPHOLSTERY, ETC. (By L. 0. Howard and C. L. Marlatt) ............... 58
The carpet beetle or "buffalo moth" (Anthrexus scrophulariw Linn.).
(L. O.H .) ............................................................. 58
The black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus 01.). (L. 0. H.) ............... 61
The clothes moths (Tinea pellionella, et al.) (C. L. M.) ................... 63
CHAPTER V.-SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, TIMBER1 ETC. (By
C.L. Marlatt) ......................................................... 70
The white ant (Termes flavipes Koll.) .... --................................. 70
The silver fish (Lepisma saccharina Linn.)..--------------------------------.............................. -76
The book louse (Atropos dirinatoria Fab.) ---................................ 79
The American spring-tail (Lepidocyrtp#s americanus Marl.) ................ 81
CHAPTER VI.-COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS. (By C. L. Marlatt) ........ 84
Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, et al.)-------------------------------............................... 84
House ants (Monomorlum pharaonis, et al. )................................ -------------------------------95
CHAPTER VII.-SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HAMS, FRUIT, AND VINEGAR.
(By L. 0. Howard).: .................................................. 100
The cheese, ham, and flour mites (Tyroglyphus longior and Tyroglyphus siro). 100
The cheese skipper or ham skipper (Piophila casei Linn) ................. 102
The red-legged ham beetle (Necrobia rufipes Fab.).--...------..--------------....... 105
The larder beetle (Dermestes lardariusN Linn.) ............................ 107
The fruit flies or vinegar flies (Drosophila spp.) .......................... 109
CHAPTER VIII.-INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS AND OTHER DRY VEGETABLE
JOODS. (By F. H. Chittenden) ......--......................--............ 112
The flour beetles.....................................................-------------------------------------------------------... 112
The meal-worms ........................................................ 115
The meal moths ......................................................... 118
The grain beetles ...----..-.................................................. 120
The drug-store beetle and its allie .......---.......-......-.................. 124
Species of occasional occurrence in vegetable stores ..................... 128
3














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INTRODUCTION.



On an average, from 500 to 600 letters of inquiry are received at this
office each month. A very considerable number of these inquiries
relate to insects which are found in houses and which either annoy the
occupants by their direct attacks or are injurious to household goods
and provisions. The available literature on this class of insects is not
extensive. Prof. C. H. Fernald, of the Massachusetts Agricultural
Experiment Station, published a short bulletin on the general subject
some three years ago, but only a few of the most prominent insects of
this class were treated. Other American articles are scattered in
various publications, in the reports of the State entomologists and
bulletins of the entomologists of the State agricultural experiment
stations, and in the entomological and other scientific journals. A
small volume was published in England in 1893, which bears the title
of Our Household Insects, by Mr. Edward A. Butler, a competent
entomologist, who has brought together a mass of interesting facts.
This little volume, however, treats of English insects only. There is
abundant room, then, for the present publication. Much that is pre-
sented herewith is based upon original observations in the office, and all
accessible publications upon the species treated have been consulted.
As will be observed from the title-page, the preparation of the bulletin
has been the joint work of the writer and of Messrs. Marlatt and Chit-
tenden. Mr. Chittenden's work has been confined to a concluding
chapter on the subject of the species that affect dry vegetable foods, a
labor for which he is particularly well fitted by reason of his long
study of these species. There has been no systematic division in the
work of the main portion of the bulletin between the writer and Mr.
Marlatt. Each of us has chosen the topics in which he felt especially
interested. It results that longer or shorter articles by one or the
other are arranged according to the proper position of the topic in the
scheme as a whole and are not brought together under the respective
authors. The authorship of the individual articles, however, may be
readily accredited by the fact that not only is it displayed in the table
of contents, but by the further fact that the contributions are initialed
in every case.
The very curious but not unexpected condition has been shown in
the preparation of this bulletin that of some of our commonest house
hold insects the life history is not known with any degree of exactness.





INTRODUCTION. .. .

Of such common species as the household centipede (S&mtig40n rcqs)




cation of topics of desired investigation to students. The iil.a:"tions
have all been made by Miss Sullivan, with the exception of ssose of
the cheese skipper and ham beetles and the house centipee, which
have been prepared by Mr. Otto Heidemann. All drawings hae. been
made under the supervision of the author of the sectionL in w*Ih they
appear. LO


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THE PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS
OF THE

UNITED STATES.

CHAPTER I.

MOSQUITOES AND 'FLEAS.
By L. 0. HOWARD.

MOSQUITOES.
(Culicidw spp.)
Although mosquitoes are out-of-door insects, they may be considered
appropriately under the head of household pests, for the reason that
they enter houses, to the torment of the inhabitants, all through the
summer months, and many of them pass the winter in cellars. In fact,
it is probably safe to say that no distinctive household pest causes as
much annoyance as the mosquito.
We are accustomed to think and speak of the mosquito as if there
were but one species; yet, to our knowledge, there are no less than
eight species, for example, which are more or less common in the Dis-
trict of Columbia, and the writer has noticed at New Orleans, La.,
certainly four different species at the same season of the year, while at
Christmas time a fifth species, smaller than the others, causes consid-
erable trouble in the houses of that city. In Trinidad Mr. Urich states
that hlie has observed at least ten different species from the island of
St. Vincent. In his Catalogue of the Diptera of North America Baron
Osten Sacken records twenty-one from North America, and it is per-
haps safe to say that not half of the species are described. In the
collection of the United States National Museum there are twenty
distinct species, all of which have been authentically determined by
Mr. Coquillett.
The common species at Washington in the months of May and June
is Culexpungens WVied. I say the common species, but do not wish to
be understood as saying that mosquitoes are common in Washington at
that time of the year. As a matter of fact, the city is singularly free
from this little pest, and this is .largely due to the reclamation of the
marshes of the Potomac River, which in war times and for a number
of years afterwards caused the inhabitants of this city to suffer severely
from this insect. As late as 1875, it is said, it was almost impossible
to spend any of the night hours near the marshes without smudges.
Later in the season other species become abundant.







The writer, in the course of certain observations, has arr t'ts-
gens through approximately*wo generations in the earlyp t| he
. ~ ~. ... iiJ"i j.: .. .....
season. It is strange that recent and definite observations m pS aCUn-
.. ::...... .

A L A'i "... .. .:.: ..


il\


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711


FIo. l.-Culez pungent: a, female, from side; b, male, trom above; c, front tarsus of same; 4, middle
tarsus; e, hind tarsus; f, genitalia of same; 9, scales from hind border of wing; A, sW.-o s*mdisk
of wing-enlarged (original).::.

rately determined species of many of our commonest insects Uien not
been published. This is mainly due to the fact that most entooogists
have a way of saving time by following the observations of olderniters.

.' . ... :: : ..... ::
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f _?^P





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS. 11

This is all well enough where the species and the conditions are identi-
cal, but when, as is the case with such a* insect as that under observa-
tion, the principal observations were made upon a different, though
congeneric, species, and in another part of the globe, where climatic
and other conditions differ, the custom is unfortunate. There is not, in
any of our published works, a thoroughly satisfactory figure of a well-
determined species of mosquito, or of its earlier stages. The statements
quoted in the text-books and manuals date back, in general, to the time
of R6aumur. one hundred and fifty years ago. These observations were
made in the month of May, upon a species (Culex pipiens) which does
not occur in North America, and in the one locality of Paris, France.
The notes made upon C. pungens at Washington possess, therefore, some
scientific importance.







a









FIG. 2.-Oulez pungent: Egg-mass above in center; young larva, greatly enlarged, at right; young
larvmp, not so much enlarged, below; enlarged eggs above at left (original).

The operation of egg-laying was not observed, but it probably takes
place in the very early morning hours. The eggs are laid in the usual
boat-shaped mass, just as those of C. pipiens, as described by Reaumur.
We say boat-shaped mass, because that is the ordinary expression. As
a matter of fact, however, the egg masses are of all sorts of shapes.
The most common one is the pointed ellipse, convex below and concave
above, all the eggs perpendicular, in six to thirteen longitudinal rows,
with from 3 or 4 to 40 eggs in a row. The number of eggs in each batch
varies from 200 to 400. As seen from above, the egg-mass is gray brown;
from below, silvery white, the latter appearance being due to the air
film. It seems impossible to wet these egg masses. They may be
pushed under water, but bob up, apparently as dry as ever. The egg
mass separates rather regularly and the eggs are not stuck together






... .. .... ..::: i :; ii i .... .
very firmly. After they have hatched the mass will di Mi 8AW
.. .]::! .": ... ii :ii .. ... .. . .
few days, even in perfectly still water. ':. i..
The individual eggs are 0.7 mm. in length and 0.16 mm. in::% beter,
at the base. They are slender, broader and blunt at bottom, -s1erer
and somewhat pointed at tip. The tip is always dark grayish, wnin
color, while the rest of the egg is dirty white. Repeated obsrtions
show that the eggs hatch, under advantageous conditions, etaoly as
soon as sixteen hours. Water buckets containing no egg massspaced
out at night, were found to contain egg masses at 8 o'clock in theo:m ing,
which, as above stated, wer.robably laid in the early mori4 before
daylight. These eggs, the third week in May, began to hat6 quite
regularly at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the same day on warn days.
In cooler weather they sometimes remained unhatched until tbw second
day. If we apply the evidence of European observers to this species,
the period of the egg state may be under twelve hours; but thbe.fr s
possibility that they are laid earlier in the night, which accounts for the
fact that sixteen hours is the shortest period which we can definitely
mention..
The larvae issue from the underside of the egg massesad aft ex-
tremely active at birth. When first observed it is easy to fall ito an
error regarding the length of time which they can remain undrnwater,
or rather without coming to the surface to breathe, since, in Sttdg to
come to the surface for air, many of them will strike the undersWe of
the egg mass and remain there for many minutes. It is altogether
likely, however, that they get air at this point through the e..S.:. or
through the air film by which the egg mass is surrounded, and tat
they are as readily drowned by continuous immersion as are the older
ones, as will be shown later. ..
One of the first peculiarities which strikes one on observing tese
newly hatched larvme under the lens is that the tufts of filaments W ich
are conspicuous at the mouth are in absolutely constant vibration.
This peculiarity, and the wriggling of the larvae through the watr*w nd
their great activity, render them interesting objects of study. Ii pn-
eral, the larvae, passing through apparently three different stages, each
maturity and transform to.pupae in a minimum of seven days. When
nearly full grown their movements were studied with more are, as
they were easier to observe than when newly hatched. At thistime
the larva remains near the surface of the water, with its respiratory
siphon at the exact surface and its mouth filaments in constant rvibra
tion, directing food into the mouth cavity. Occasionally the trva
descends to the bottom, but, though repeatedly timed, a heahl.yitndi-
vidual was never seen to remain voluntarily below the surfacemore
than a minute. In ascending it comes up with an effort, wit::aSeAries
of jerks and wrigglings with its tail. It descends without e0fft, but
ascends with difficulty; in other words, its specific gravity a :es to be
greater than that of the water. As soon, however, as the respiratory
.. :. .. ....
.. :. : : : . .
... -' *E."





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


Siphon reaches the surface, fresh air flows into its trachea:, and t le
physical properties of the so-called surface ilmin of tlhe water assist it
in maintaining its position.
The account by Miall, in his recently published Natural History of
Aquatic Insects, is misleading, for the reason that he assumes that the
end of the body, with its four (or, as lie lhas it, five) leaf-like exl)aisions,
i is the breathing organ. As a matter of f.it, as is )laiIly shown by
fig. 2, this end of the body does not reach thlie surface, and it is tihe
tip of the respiratory siphon only wliicli is extended to the air. This
respiratory tube takes its origin from tlihe tip of the eiglith abdominal
segment, and the very large trachea, can be seen extending to its
Sextremity, where they have a double orifice. The ninth segment of
the abdomen is armed it the tip with four flaps andl six hairs, as shown
in fig. 4. These flaps are gill-like in appearance, though they are prob-
ably simply locomotory in function. With so remarkably developed an

















Fio. 3.-Culdexpungens: Head of larva from below at left; same from above at right-greatly enlarged
(original).

apparatus for direct air breathing there is no necessity for gill struct-
ures. Raschke' and Hurst2 consider that the larva breathes both by
the anus and by these gill flaps, as well as by the large trachee which
open at the tip of the respiratory tube. Raschke considers that these
traehem are so unnecessarily large that they possess a hydrostatic
function. The writer is inclined to believe that the gill flaps may be
functional as branchial structures in the young larva, but that they
largely lose this office in later life.
After seven or eight days, at a minimum, as just stated, the larva
transforms to pupa. The pupa, as has.been repeatedly pointed out
with other species, differs most pronouncedly front the larva in the
great swelling of the thlioracic segments. In this stage the insect is

'Raschke, Die Larve von Culex nemnoro.nus, Berlin. 1887.
Hurt, The Pupal Stage of Culex, Manchester, 1890.


13






14 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. ....,S,

lighter than water. It remains motionless at the surface, m+a i! when
disturbed does not sink without effort, as does the larva, but Is only
able to descend by a violent muscular action. It wriggles ad swims
as actively as does the larva, and soon reaches the bottom of the jar
or breeding place. As soon as it ceases to exert itself however, it
floats gradually up to the surface of the water again. The fa how-
ever, that the larva, after it is once below the surface of the water, sinks
rather than rises, accounts for the death of many individuals. Lt they
become sick or weak, or for any reason are unable to exert audicient
muscular force to wriggle to the surface at frequent intervals, they will
actually drown, and the writer has seen many of them die in this way.
It seems almost like a contradiction in terms to speak of an aquatic
insect drowning, but this is a frequent cause of mortality among wrig-
glers. This fact also explains the efficacy of the remedial treatment
which causes the surface of the water to become covered with a im of
oil of any kind. Aside from the actual insecticide effect of the oil, the
larvae drown from not being able to reach the air. The struture of the
pupa differs in no material respect from that of corresponding stages
of European species, as so admirably figured and described by holder
writers, notably R6aumur and Swammerdam,' and needs no dei on
in view of the care with which the figures accompanying this article
have been drawn. The air tubes no longer open at the anal end of the
body, but through two trumpet-shaped sclerites on the thorax, rom
which it results that the pupa remains upright at the surface, instead
of with the head downward. There is a very apparent object in this
reversal of the position of the body, since the adult insect issues bom
the thorax and needs the floating skin to support itself while its vings
are expanding.
In general, the adult insects issue from the pupae that are two :days
old. This gives what is probably the minimum generation for this
species as ten days, namely, sixteen to twenty-four hours for t4he egg,
seven days for the larva, and two days for the pupa5 The indiviiduals
emerging on the first day were invariably males. On the 'secw4 day
the great majority were males, but there were also a few female. The
preponderance of males continued to hold for three days; later the
females were in the majority. In confinement the males died quickly;
several lived for four days, but none for more than that peia.-: The
females, however, lived for a much longer time. Some were et alive
without food, in a confined space of not more than 4 inches deep by 6
across, for three weeks. But one egg mass was deposited in confine-
ment. This was deposited on the morning of June 30 by a female whieh
issued from the pupa June 2T. No further observationsa-W aeN
upon the time elapsing between the emergence of the femalsl& the
laying of the eggs. but in no case, probably, does it exceed iV as.y

SEven Bonanni, in 1691, gave very fair figures of the larva and pupi of.pi. M16B.
species. Micrographia Curiosa, Rome, MDCXCI, Pars. II, Tab. L. K ... .
S . i..... .. .
. .' .. "": ','., i ,: iji jl i .... .: :. ............
... .:.'iE .:.i : E:."... :: ".. :
.: : ..::: jj : i k... ':. :..... .... : :.. '





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


The length of time which elapses for a generation, which we have
just mentioned, is almost indefinitely enlarged if the weather be cool.
As a matter of fact, a long spell of cool weather followed the issuing of
the adults just mentioned. Larwve were watched for twenty days, dur-
ing which time they did not reach full growth.
The extreme shortness of this June generation is significant. It
accounts for the fact that swarms of mosquitoes may develop upon
occasion in surface pools of rain water, which may dry up entirely in


r


C i.," .o.


Mo. 4.-CuhexpUngens: Full-grown larva at left; pupa at right above, its anal segment below-all
greatly enlarged (original).
the course of two weeks, or in a chance bucket of water left undis-
turbed for that length of time. Further, the shortness of this genera-
tion was, while not unexpected, not at all in accordance with any pub-
lished statements as to the length of life )f any immature mosquito of
any species. But these published statements, as previously shown,
were nearly all based upon observations made in a colder climate and
in the month of May.
On August 1 Mr. F. C. Pratt, an assistant in the division of ento-


15


7


icl/ ll; \vll






16 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .,.,
.... . ....
mology, brought in from Lakelaud, Md., a small place 9 les from ;
Washington, specimens of a large and very ferocious mosquito, which
Mr. Coquillett determined as Anophele8 quadrimaculatu Say, a species
which had previously been observed at Washington in August. This
mosquito was very abundant at Lakeland at the time, and t.its eggs
were obtained, but rearing operations were interrupted by absence from
Washington. At the same time the commonest of the mosquitoes
at Washington was found to be Culex consobrinus. This latter species
was one which was studied by the writer in 1892 in the Catskill Moun-
tains, near Tannersville, Greene County, N. Y. This species in Wash-
ington became, during August, more abundant than O.pungen. Octo-
ber 25, however, the writer found both species in his house, vhich they
had evidently entered for hibernation. In 1893 several specimens of
pungens were taken iii the month of January in the cellar of his house
in Georgetown. This hibernation in cellars as well as in outlhouss
is very common, although it is not frequently referred to, Specimens
of C. consobrinus were received in November, 1894, from J.-M.-Wade, of
Boston, with the statement that they were abundant in his cellar in
that city. The cellar was very cold, although in one corner there was
a tin furnace pipe. The mosquitoes avoided the warm corner, at were
always thickest in the cold parts of the cellar. So abundant Wre they
that if a lamp were held up the inside of the chimney would soon be
covered half an inch thick with their bodies.
The degree of cold seems to make no difference with this successful
hibernation. Arctic explorers have long since recorded the abundance
of mosquitoes in the extreme north. In the narrative of 0. F.Hall'Ps
second arctic expedition the statement is made that mosquitoes appeared
on the 7th of July, 1869, in extraordinary abundance. Dr. E. Sterling,
of Cleveland, Ohio, has sent us an account of the appearance of mos-
quitoes by thousands in March, 1844, when he was on a snowshoe trip
from Mackinaw to Sault Ste. Marie. Their extraordinary numbers at
this season of the year is remarkable, indicating a most' plmatiful
hibernation. Mr. H. Stewart, of North Carolina, has written us of a
similar experience on the north shore of Lake Superior in 186. On
warm days inMarch, when the snow was several feet deep and the ice
on the lake 5 feet in thickness, mosquitoes appeared in swarms, "literally
blackening the banks of snow in the sheltered places." The Indians
told Mr. Stewart that the mosquitoes lived through the winter, and
that the old ones were the most annoying to them. May 9,1896, Mr.
Lugger sent the writer from St. Anthony Park, Minn., specimen of 0.
consobrinus, stating that it cams in a genuine swarm in Apri'with:
heavy snowstorm, at a time when all of the lakes were covered with
ice-" Minnesota's most certain crop." .7.
It is a well-known fact that the adult male mosquito does nt .iees-
sarily take nourishment, and that the adult female does not uesrily :
rely upon the blood of warm-blooded animals., They are plat00eders
.. ;, ** ...: '
.... ",* .'"I.. '..'. .
. "" :" ":: ? :i . *:i'
.: **. *.. y^ ..... ..: ,





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


and have also been recorded as feeding upon insects. Dr. Hagen mien-
tions taking a species in the Northwest feeding upon the chrysalis of a
butterfly, while scattered through the seven volumes of Insect Life are
a number of records of observations of a vegetarian habit, one writer
Stating that he has seen them with their beaks inserted in boiled
I potatoes on the table, and another that lie has seen watermelon rinds
i with many mosquitoes settled upon them and busily engaged in sucking
Sthe juices. Mosquitoes undoubtedly feed normally on the juices of
plants, and not one in a million ever gets an opportunity to taste the
blood of a warm-blooded animal. When we think of' the enormous
tracts of marsh land into which warm-blooded animals never pene-
Strate, and in which mosquitoes are breeding in countless numbers, the
2 truth of this statement becomes apparent. The males have been
Observed sipping at drops of water, and one instance of a fondness for
Molasses has been recorded. Mr. E. A. Schwarz has observed one
drinking beer.
The literature of popular entomology is full of instances of the enor-
mous numbers in which mosquitoes occasionally occur, but a new
instance may not be out of place here. Mr. Schwarz tells the writer
that hfrhas never seen, even in New Jersey, mosquitoes to compare in
numbers with those at Corpus Christi, Tex. When the wind blows from
any other direction than south, he says, hundreds of thousands of mil-
lions of mosquitoes blow in upon the town. Great herds of hundreds
of horses run before the mosquitoes in order to get to the water. With
a change of wind, however, the mosquitoes blow away.

REMEDIES AGAINST MOSQUITOES.
Of the remedies in use in houses the burning of pyrethrum powder
and the catching of the mosquitoes on the walls with kerosene in cups,
as described in Insect Life (Vol. V, p. 143), are probably the best, next
to a thorough screening and mosquito bars about the bed. It may be of
interest to mention incidentally a remedy in use among the Chinese, as
recorded in Robert Fortune's Residence Among the Chinese: Scenes
and Adventures Among the Chinese in 1853-1856" (London, 1857).
Long-necked bags of paper, half an inch in diameter and 2 feet long, are
filled with the following substances: Either pine or juniper sawdust,
mixed with a small quantity of "nu-wang" and 1 ounce of arsenic.
These substances are well mixed and run into the bags in a dry state;
each bag is coiled like a snake and wrapped and tied with thread. The
outer end is lighted and the coil laid on a board. Two coils are suffi-
cient for an ordinary-sized room, and M0O coils sell for 6 cents. Mr.
Mun YenChung, of the Chinese legation, has been good enough to inform
the writer that by "nu-wang" Mr. Fortune probably meant liu-wang
(brimstone).
Altogether the most satisfactory ways of fighting mosquitoes are
those which result in the destruction of the larval or the abolition of
2805-No. 4-2


17





18 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. I
their breeding places. In not every locality are these .1516i'
but in many places there is absolutely no necessity frte..' i qu.i
annoyance. The three main preventive measures arem' theAd. ingof.
breeding places, the introduction of small fish into Asleiwtsirsedug
places, and the treatment of such pools with kerosene. *The re three
alternatives, any one of which will be efficacious, and:anoii6i.wh.ich:
may be usedl where there are reasons against the trial of, th. rs.
In 1892 the writer published the first account of extensive :tit. doors |
experiments to determine the actual effect upon the oe of a f
thin layer of kerosene upon the surface of water in breedf.ingpmsandi
the relative amount to be used. He showed the quantity of osene
necessary for a given water surface, and demonstrated. ha er that
not only are the larvae and pupe thereby destroyed:.. alm0.o.mm l-
ately, but that the female mosquitoes are not deterred. froi attempt
ing to oviposit upon the surface of the water, and that th0e iaius
destroyed in large numbers before their eggs are laid.He aI. swed
approximately the length of time for which one such Seaio.t old
remain operative. No originality was claimed for the suggest; bat b
only for the more or less exact experimentation. The wrMite k elf,
as early as 1867, bad found that kerosene would kill i. 4 arvm",%
and the same knowledge was probably put in practice, althoIbithout
publicity, in other parts of the country. In fact, Mr. H. IW:....tes
(Insect Life, Vol. VII, p. 212) that in the French quarter of' R fl:"6ns0
it has been a common practice for many years to place kerse the
water tanks to lessen the numbers of mosquitoes in a give;d*ityI
although he knew nothing that had been written to show that l.-hwas
the case, and he says: "In this age of advancement we can- -J-Onger
go by hearsay evidence." Suggestions as to the use of k Heroeead
even experiments on a water surface 10 inches square, shw..i-, that.
the larvam could be killed by kerosene, were recorded by*llS3 B.
Aaron in her Lamborn prize essay and published in the work.i ted
" Dragon Flies versus Mosquitoes" (D. Appleton & Co., 1890). ....: W.
Beutenmuliler also in the same work made the same suggestio.t!..
The quantity of kerosene to be practically used, as sh1ow the
writer's experiments, is approximately 1 ounce to 15 sBqUT4::a| t of
water surface, and ordinarily the application need not. be re. wed for
one month. Since 1892 several demonstrations, on both alA4gA d a
small scale, have beqe made.. Two localities were rid of th.luit
plague under the supervision of the writer by the .....i...f.kosene
alone. Mr. Weed, in the article above mentioned, stats bte&.. j.rid
the college campus of the Mississippi Agricultural College o1Wfn|"iopiies
by the treatment with kerosene of eleven large water tak..s. ,.. t .o.
B. Smith has recorded, though without details, success withtIABmedy
in two cases on Long Island (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 914.F,:`3. H.
Comstock tells the writer that a similar series of experli*MA with
perfectly satisfactory results, was carried out by Mr. '.. ... ......
logg on the campus of Stanford University, at Palo AitoI WSCThr tin
: .' .. ... : iH i i i: ".:.....
..... ..... .. ..... .... . . .. .... ... .. .
. :. ".:.: S .m :E ..:
", :".E". '' ::::E4 .: ".K' : : "'






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


case post holes filled with surface water were treated, with the result
that the mosquito plague was almost immediately alleviated.
Additional experiments on a somewhat larger scale have been made
Sby Rev. John D. Long at Oak Island Beach, Long Island Sound, and
by Mr. W. R. Hopson, near Bridgeport, Conn., also onL the shores of
Long Island Sound, the experiments in both cases indicating the effi-
cacy of the remedy when applied intelligently. I have not been able
to learn the details of Mr. Ilopson's operations, but am told that they
included extensive draining as well as the use of kerosene.
It is not, however, the great sea marshes along the coast, where mos-
quitoes breed in countless numbers, which we can expect to treat by
This method, but the inland places, where the mosquito supply is derived
from comparatively small swamps and circumscribed pools. In most
localities people endure the torment or direct their remedies against
i the adult insect only, without the slightest attempt to investigate the
: source of the supply, when the very first step should be the undertak-
ing of such an investigation. In "Gleanings in Bee Culture" (October
11 1895) we notice the statement in the California column that in some
California towns the pit or vault behind water-closets is subject to
flushing with water during the irrigation of the land near by. A
period of several weeks elapses before more water is turned in, and in
-the meantime the water becomes stagnant and the breeding place of
-millions of mosquitoes. Then, as the correspondent says, "people go
around wondering where all the mosquitoes come from, put up screens,
burn buhach, and make a great fuss." Nothing could be easier than
to pour an ounce of kerosene into each of these pits, and all danger
from mosquitoes will have passed.
In many houses in Baltimore, Md., the sewage drains first into wells
or sinks in the backyard, and thence in some cases into sewers, and in
other cases is pumped out periodically. These wells invariably have
open privies built over them, and the mosquitoes, which breed in the
stagnant contents of the sinks, have free egress into the open air back
of the houses. Hence parts of Baltimore much farther removed from
either running or stagnant water than certain parts of Washington,
where no mosquitoes are found, are terribly mosquito ridden, and sleep
without mosquito bars is, from May to December, almost impossible.
Specimens of Culex pungens captured November 5 in such a privy as
described have been brought to the writer from Baltimore by one of his
assistants, Mr. R. M. Reese.
Kerosene has been tried by Mr. Reese in one case in Baltimore, and
two treatments of a privy made about May 1 and June 1, respectively,
seemed to diminish the numbers of the pest in that particular house;
but without concerted action of all the householders in a given block
(all the houses, be it remembered, being exactly alike in the method of
sewage disposal) no great amount of good could be accomplished.
With such concerted action, however, there seems to be no reason why


19





PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


the mosquito plague could not be greatly diminished inrW rift
most, parts of Baltimore at a very small expense. Usualite wIH:
serves two houses, the privies being built in pairs, so that :oneifetmenti!::
would suffice for two dwellings. .. i
On ponds of any size the quickest and most perfect met od.f form-;
ing a film of kerosene will be to spray the oil over the snrfiee of the :I
water. "
The remedy which depends upon draining breeding places :needs no
extended discussion. Naturally the draining off of the water of pools
will prevent mosquitoes from breeding there, and the poesbility of :I
such draining and the means by which it may be done wil vary with
each individual case. The writer is informed that an elaborate bit of
work which has been done at Virginia Beach bears pn this method.
Behind the hotels at this place, the hotels themselves frntibg upon
the beach, was a large fresh-water lake, which, with its adjoining
swamps, was a source of mosquito supply, and it was further :fared
that it made the neighborhood malarious. Two canals were ct from
the lake to the ocean, and by means of machinery the water of the
lake was changed from a body of fresh to a body of salt water. ::Water
that is somewhat brackish will support mosquitoes, Iut ater which
is purely salt will destroy them. J .
The introduction of fish into fishless breeding places is ano mktnat-
ter. It may be undesirable to treat certain breeding places with *kero-
sene, as, for instance, water which is intended for drinking, altab ough
this has been done without harm in tanks where, as is eustoeary, the
drinking supply is drawn from the bottom of the tank. An interesting
case noted in Insect Life (Vol. IV, p. 223), in which a pair of ap was
placed in each of several tanks, in the Riviera, is a case in point.i The
value of most small fishes for the purpose of destroying moquito
larvae was well indicated by an experience described to us b-. Mr.
C. H. Russell, of Bridgeport, Conn. In this case a very high tide broke
-away a dike and flooded the salt meadows of Stratford, a smai town
a few miles from Bridgeport. The receding tide left two salLbkes,
nearly side by side and of the same size. In one lake the ib left a
dozen or more small fishes, while the other was fishless. An exa.Miation
by Mr. Russell in the summer of 1891 showed that while tis less
lake contained tens of thousands of mosquito larva, thcWataini ng
. ... .. ... ..i:, :!.."
the fish had no larva. 14 T
The use of carp for this purpose has been mentioned in th*epeeding
paragraph, but most small fish will answer as well. The wvitr-knows
of none that will be better than either of the common little. ckle-
backs (Gasterosteus aculeatus or Pygosteus pungitis). They ae mall ::
but very active and very voracious. Mr. F. W. Urich ::oiffkiadidad,
has written us that there is a little cyprinoid common in tat: :daland
which answers admirably for this purpose. This fish h i*j|t0bo ea!:
specifically determined, but we hope to make an effort i tkWseA| i
:!i ."~~ ~~.. .:'." .: ..; i d ':, ". '. ."
.. "," ..... . : ~ i. ... .. ." .,:"
......' ." ." .... ":' ..ii :; ;':i~ i : ..".... ... ".. ..: ..L ...I


20





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


into our Southern States, if it proves to be new to our fauna. At Bee-
ville, Tex., a little fish is used for this purpose which is there called a
perch, although we have not been able to find out just what the species
is. They soon eat up the mosquito larvae, however, and in order to keepl)
them alive the people adopt an ingenious fly trap, which they keep in
their houses and in which about a quart of flies a day is caught. These
flies are then fed to the fish. This makes a little circle which strikes
us as particularly ingenious and pleasant. The fly traps catch the
flies and rid the house of that pest. The flies are fed to the fish in
Sthe water tanks and keep them alive in order that they may feed on
i the mosquito larva, thus keeping the houses free of mosquitoes.
SWhere kerosene is considered objectionable, and where fish can not
be readily obtained, there is another course left open. It is the con-
stant artificial agitation of the water, since mosquitoes will oviposit
, only in still water. At San Diego, Tex., in the summer there are no
f streams for many miles, but plenty of mosquitoes breed in the water
tanks. Some enterprising individuals keep their tanks free by putting
Sin a little wheel, which is turned by the windmill, and keeps the water
Almost constantly agitated.

THE MOSQUITOES OF THE COUNTRY AT LARGE.
In the introductory paragraph the writer has indicated that we have
numerous species among the mosquitoes of the United States and that
several different species may occur in the same locality. It happens,
however, that no definite knowledge exists, even among entomologists
as to the exact species which may be found in any given locality. The
desirability of a careful study of our mosquitoes is therefore apparent.
As a preliminary step, the writer borrowed all of the mosquitoes from
the collections of Prof. Lawrence Bruner, of the University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Nebr.; Prof. J. H. Comstock, of Cornell University, Ithaca,
N. Y.; Prof. H. Garman, of the agricultural experiment station at
Lexington, Ky.; Prof. C. P. Gillette, agricultural experiment station,
Fort Collins, Colo.; Prof. C. W. Johnson, Wagner Free Institute, Phil-
adelphia, Pa.; Prof. Otto Lugger, agricultural experiment station,
St. Anthony Park, Minn.; Dr. WV. A. Nason, Algonquin, Ill., and Mr.
Th. Pergande, Washington, D. C. The material thus received, together
with the collection of Culicid(e of the department of insects in the
National Museum, was placed in the hands of Mr. D. WV. Coquillett for
specific study.
The results of this study were interesting. Mr. Coquillett had under
his hands mosquitoes from nearly all portions of the United States.
He found that the material represented twenty different species, of five
genera, and was able to make out some important synonymical facts.
In the distribution of certain species the results were unexpected. It
was found that some of the commoner forms, viz, Culex consobrinus,
0. ewitans, 0. perturbans, C. posticatus, C.p ungcns, Prosophora ciliata,


21





22 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .. .... ..
S".": "v :. : bi ........ 11 .. ..
Anopheles punctipennis, and A. quadrimaculata, occur dl tt '.iii
country, from New England to Texas, and even to soutlhrf uA". kri a..-"|
In almost any given locality in the United States, therefore Amirould .II..
probably be able to find all of these eight species, with per i two or .
three additional ones.
The list which follows was drawn up by Mr. Ooquillett, adaiodies, .
in part, the results of his studies. It must be remembeed that, after t
all, the material was scanty, since no one has taken the trouble to 4*
thoroughly collect mosquitoes. The list represents, however, a istinct :
and important advance on our former knowledge of these a:. oying
creatures. 7 .

LIST OF THE MOSQUITOES OF THE UNITED STATES,.
(A) Species examined by D. W. Coquillett. .
.. 'i :" .".
Culex consobrinus Desv. 3 males, 18 females. : -. .......
Synonyms: Culex punch otor Kirby; C. impatiens Walk.; C. pinguis Walk.; i'swor-
natu8 Will. (the latter synonymy based on a study of one of WlitoiOs co-
type specimens). .
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., September 28 (Nutu.mn.);
Catskill Mountains, Greene County, N. Y., 2,500 feet (Howard); linoi4nch.i
21, April 29, May 6, October 16 (Nason); St. Anthony Park, Minn.. April, May,
on snow (Lugger); Saskatchewan River, British America; SoutKt akuia .(Nat.
Mus.); Lincoln, Nebr., May. September (Bruner); Colorado (NatcM6;)n Los
Angeles, Cal., February (Coquillett); Argue Mountains, Cal., April (. t bis.);
Santa F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell). ::' -
Culex excitans Walk. 3 males, 2 females. ,.,
Habitat: New Bedford, Mass. (Johnson); Lincoln, Nebr., May (Bzuweirfi*nta
F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell). .
Culex exorucians Walk. 3 females. :
Habitat: Ithaca, N. Y., July i4 (Comstock). :::::
Culex fasciatus Fabr. 4 males, 2 females. ..
Synonyms: Gulex tieniatus Wied.; Culex mosquito Desv. (non Arribalzag-f:'
Habitat: Georgia, August (Coquillett); Natchitoches, La., October 6 (J*4lon);
Isle of Pines, W. I. (Scudder); Kingston, Jamaica, July 13 (JohnBuK,4|.
Culex impiger Walk. 14 males, 50 females. '
Synonym: Culex implacabilis Walk. :y.l
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., May 24, June 2 (Nfli:: .);
Ithaca, N. Y., July 9 and 17, August 28; Wilmuth, N. Y., June 10: (Oietok);
Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.); Minnesota (Lgger);
London County, Va., Aug. 26 (Pratt); Tyrone, Ky., July 14 (Garlani) .eorgia a
(Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex., (Cockerell); Isle of Pines, W. IL (Bctdafl Poet-
land, Jamaica (Johnson). ..: .!. .
Culex perturbans Walk. 8 females. ..
Habitat: Lakeland, Md., August 8 (Pratt); Virginia, August g17(eaS de);
Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnson); Texas (Nat. Mus.). ..
Culex posticatus Wied. 5 females. ..
Synonym: Culex musieus Say. :. '.".,
Habitat: Montgomery County, Pa., July 17 (Johnson); Texas (NI' :W ).i4
Culex pungens Wied. 25 males, 103 females. ':.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., Septembe 6, uhidgo,:" :
Mass., September 16 to November 5; Boston, Mass.; Baticm, I.,vem -
ber 5 (Nat. Mus.), November 26 (Lugger); Charlton Heights, Mt:..,D be 1
.... : .. ....
..... ...' F ~ !;:~ii : : ..,. .... .. .i .......






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


23


(Pratt); District of Columbia, January 30, March 5, May 6 and 15, June 28, July
11, August, October 10, 15, 25, and 31, November 4, 8, 13, 16, and 23, December
23. 23 (Pergande); Ithaca, N. Y., May 29, July 17, August 28 (Comstock); Illinois
(Nason); Minnesota (Lugger); Lincoln, Nebr., September 20 (Bruner); Lcx-
J' ington, Ky., November 10 (Garman); New Orleans, La., December 17 (Howard);
San Antonio, Tex., May 5 (Marlatt); Georgia, August (Coquillett); Portland,
Jamaica (Johnson).
I Ctulex signifer Coq. 1 female.
Habitat: District of Columbia, June (Coquillett).
Culex stimulans Walk. 13 males, 54 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., June 2, July 9; Cambridge,
Mass., May; Jamaica Plain, Mass., August 25 (Nat. Mus.); Baltimore, Md.
(Lugger); Illinois, August 1, September 15, October 5 (Nason); Agricultural
College, Mich. (Gillette); Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.);
Lincoln, Nebr. (Bruner); Colorado (Nat. Mus.); Ithaca, N. Y., June 13, 18, 29,
July 14, August 28; Wilmuth, N. Y., June 10 (Comstock); Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Culex tarsalis Coq. 1 male, 4 females.
Habitat: Argus Mountains, Cal., April; Folsom, Cal., July 3 (Nat. Mus.).
Culex triseriata Say. 3 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H. (Nat. Mus.); Delaware County, Pa., June 12
(Johnson); Washington, D. C.. May 5, London County, Va. (Pratt).
Culex taeniorhynchus Wied. 1 male, 32 females.
(Not the Culex ta'niorhynchis Wied. of Arribalzaga.)
Habitat: Maine, August; Beverly, Mass., June, September 15 (Nat. Mus.);
Avalon, Anglesea, and Atlantic City, N. J., July 10 to 29 (Johnson); Far
Rockaway, Long Island, N. Y., Aug. 30 (Howard); District of Columbia
(Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.); St. Augustine and Charlotte Harbor, Fla.,
July; Portland, Jamaica (Johnson).
Psorophora ciliata Fabr. 2 males, 29 females.
Habitat: Dorchester, Mass. (Nat. Mus.); Washington, D. C. (Chittenden);
Westville, N. J., July 2 (Johnson); Illinois (Nason); Brooklyn Bridge, Ky.,
June 23 (Garman); Lincoln, Nebr., July, August (Bruner); Los Angeles, Cal.
(Coquillett); San Diego, Tex., May 15 (Schwarz); Florida, July (Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles crucians Wied. 3 females.
Habitat: District of Columbia, April 27 (Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles punctipennis Say. 5 males, 13 females.
(Considered by Wiedemann to be the same species as his Anopheles crucians, but
the two are certainly distinct.)
Synonym: Culex hyemalis Fitch (wrongly referred to Anopheles quadrimaculata
in the Osten Sacken Catalogue).
Habitat: Castleton, Vt., February 1 (temperature 6 F.); Beverly, Mass., Sep-
tember 19, October 2; Cambridge, Mass., June 16, September 30, October 20
(Nat. Mus.); Charlton Heights, Md., March 31, November 17 (Pratt); District
of Columbia, June 6, October 15, 25, and 31 (Pergaude); Philadelphia, Pa.,
October 12 (Johnson); Ithaca, N. Y., April 17, August 28 (Comstock); Illinois,
October 16 (Nason); Texas (Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex. (Cockerell); Port-
land, Jamaica (Johnson).
Anopheles quadrimaculata Say. 3 males, 31 females.
Habitat: Berlin Falls, N. H., August (Nat. Mus.); Ithaca, N. Y., January, July
31, November 28 (Comstock); Lakeland, Md., August 8; Charlton Heights,
Md., November 24 (Pratt); District of Columbia, July, October 15, November
2 and 14 (Pergande); Illinois, September 10, October 10 (Nason); St. Anthony
Park, Minn., December 11 (Lugger); Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnson);
Texas (Nat. Mua.).






24 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.
.....: .. . .
Megarhinus ferox Wied. 1 male. f :,-J .. .
Habitat: District of Columbia, August 22 (Pergande). ,
Megarhinus rutilus Coq. 3 males, 5 females. .. .:.:. I
Habitat: North Carolina; Georgiana, Fla. (Nat. Mus.). |
Aides sapphirinus 0. S. I female. ,,.
Habitat: Ithaca, N.Y. (Comstock).":: ;
(B) Species recorded from the United States, but not included in the m4eer.i ei t. |e.
Culex rubidus Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina. :
Culex testaceus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 128, Tab. III f: 1. Wis-
consin.....i:
Culex incident Thomson, Eugenie's Resa, etc., 443. California.: .
Culex territans Walker, Dipt. Saund., 428. United States. ::
Psorophora boscii Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina.
Anopheles annulimanus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 129, 7b. I, 2.
Wisconsin.
Anopheles ferruginosus Wiedemann, Auss. Zw., I, 12. New Orleans (Wied.); on the
Mississippi (Say). -
Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Journ. Ac. Phil., II[, 10, 2; Compl. Wr., 39.
(Change of name by Wied.) ;
Anopheles maculipennis Meigen (European species, which also occurs in North Aileica,
according to Loew, Sillim. Journ., n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Anopheles nigripes Staeger (European species, which also occurs in Nlz America,
according to Loew, Sillim. Journ.,, n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Aides fuscus 0. Sacken, Western Diptera, 191. Cambridge, Mass.
*" ": ": "

THE CAT AND DOG FLEA.

(Pulex serraticeps "Gerv.)-

Examination of many specimens of fleas sent to the Department in
recent years shows that the species which commonly overruns houses
during the damp summers, in our Eastern cities at least, is not, aS f:any
have supposed, the human flea (Pulex irritans), but/the comme tc::os-
mopolitan flea of the dog and the cat (Pulex serraticeps). There iwide-
spread ignorance as to the transformations of this insect, and eve the
.. ....... . .
average entomologist is puzzled to know where to consult good e tares
of the different stages and a detailed account of the life history. ....The
figures accompanying this article have been prepared to fill thi want,
and the following account of the transformations has been drawn up
from notes made during the summer. of 1895, at the request of the
writer, by Mr. Pergande, of the division of entomology. Tbesbt two
of the previously published articles are, one by Labou1bbne', in the
Annales de ]a Soci6t6 Entomologique de France, 1872, pp, 267- 73, PL.
XIII, and the other by W. J. Simmons, read before the Micosopical
Society of Calcutta, March 5, 1888, and printed in The Ai4erican
Monthly Microscopical Journal for December, 1888, with ijuitn-
tions.1. "::";

'Ritzema has written an article on the natural history of the dog :.iwhh, "J
however, could not be consulted by the writer. '
. . . . . . . ... .I ... ... .. .
.. ; ~~ ~~~ .." ..:;: ;:[i .:: .... : ".. .i'i

i ... .. .. ... .
. : .... .. ........ ..





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


25


Laboulbene describes carefully the pretty, oval, waxy white or
opaque, porcelain-colored, smooth egg, which reaches 0.5 niii. in
length. He describes the external appearance of the larva' and recites
their extremely rapid movements, which are nma(lde by means of the
bristles with which they are furnished, and particularly by means of
the tubercle and the hair-like spines below thie head. ie placed larvae
upon dust, with birds' feathers mixed with dried blood, upon which
they developed perfectly. Others were put on the sweepings of a room,
and developed just as well. Laboulbene at first believed that blood
was necessary for the nourishment of the larvae, the reddish-colored
contents of the digestive tract making him think so; but lie found they
would flourish and complete their metamorphoses in sweepings in which
there was no trace of blood. Ile concluded that all that has been said
on Pulex irritants nourishing its young on dried blood is very problem-










SC






Flo. 5.-.Puez serraticeps ; a, egg; b, larva in cocoon; c, pupa; d, adult; e, mouth-parts of same from
side; f, labium of same from below: g, antenna of same-all enlarged (original).
atical. In his opinion the larvae of the cat flea for the most part live
upon the ground in spots where cats stay, and that they live in the
dust in the cracks of the floor. The cocoon he described as ovoid,
almost rounded, brown and granular, because it is covered with dust,
delicate, but difficult to open, attached by one surface. It is about
2.5 mm. by 2.75 mium. The only statement in the article regarding the
length of the different stages is to the effect that the pul)al condition
lasts from one to two weeks.
Mr. Simmons found the eggs upl)On a cloth upon which a dog had
been sleeping, in the midst of a dust composed of fragments of cuticle,
hairs, fibers, and pellets of dried blood, the last being probably thie nat-
ural excreta of the fleas. In fifty hours most of the eggs hatched. The
larve are described, and the statement is made that in seven (lays they
began to spin their cocoons. They remained in the cocoons eight days,





26 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. ..:' .

when the adults emerged, completing their transformatim'.M.e.n :... .... '
days after the eggs w ere deposited. '. ... .. :. ..
The eggs of the flea under consideration are deposited. btwen the I
hairs of the infested animals, but are not fastened to them, sot wt.when ?
the animal moves about or lies down numbers of the eggs vOtlie dis- ,
lodged and drop to the ground or the floor or wherever the anima may
be at the time. An easy way to collect them, therefore, is to lay a strip
of cloth for the animal to sleep upon, and afterwards brush the cloth
into a receptacle, in which the eggs will be found in numbers. Some
difficulty was found in securing proper conditions of moisture: to bring
about successful rearing, and some detailed account of our experience
will be of value to persons who desire to repeat the rearing i order to
secure material for microscopic study, and will be at the same time
suggestive as bearing on the conditions under which the iiseet wiil
multiply in houses.
On June 27 a number of eggs were collected and placed in two glass
vessels, one large and one small, each containing a layer of sand at the
bottom, next a layer of sawdust, and on top of this a layer of rich soil.
The eggs were placed between two layers of blotting paper on top of
the soil. On June 29 fourteen of the eggs had hatched in the small
vessel, and the larvae had crawled at once down into the saw4ust.
On July 1 some of the eggs were found to have hatched in the :large
vessel, and the alimentary canal of the larvae was already brownish,
indicating that they had been feeding to some extent and presumably
upon the particles of dried blood collected with the eggs and placed
with them between the layers of blotting paper. By July 11 al of these
larvae in both vessels had died, apparently, without having cast a skin.
They were very active during most of this period, crawling rapidly
about when disturbed. Some were noticed to feed upon particls of
peat which was placed with them. From some of these individuals
fig. 6 was made. On the second antennal joint there was appa. nt a:
sensorial spot, and on or near the base of the antennae were two sall,
slender, fleshy tubercles and a few granulations on each side, son*Ais-
tance behind the antennae. At the base of the head above occured a
small, apparently well -differentiated sclerite, as indicated in fig. 64, -.the
purpose of which we can not surmise. Immediately behind it,Gothe
anterior border of the first thoracic Segment, is apparently a deflate
sculpturing, indicating a thickening of the integument at t..his point.
The posterior border of this segment is a somewhat similar, :Aintly
indicated band. The first nine segments bear each four dorsal bristles
and, on each side, one ventro-lateral bristle, near the posterior ag.gin.
The two following segments bear each six dorsal bristles and one vntro-
lateral bristle, and the penultimate segment eight dorsal and. 4 fnu-
tral bristle. These bristles become gradually longer toward tie ad of.
the body. The last segment is without long bristles, althou.thre is
a semicircular transverse row of numerous fine hairs and a .. i ..atch
. :- .~ ... .~iL : ,: .. .. .. ...
J ......., :::,i, i : : :!
......... .. ....... P
1J7::::. M4 .. .





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


of still finer hairs onl each of the anal lobes near the base of the anal
prolegs, as shown in fig. 6, c.
On July 6 another lot of eggs was placed in each of the two different
Vessels. One lot was kept moist and the other dry, and both lots were
Provided with nothing but the particles of dried blood and a few
: crumbs of dry bread. On July 8 it was discovered that all of thle eggs
Shad hatched. Both vessels had been kept closed under a glass cover.
SThose between the layers of damp blotting paper had apparently not
fed. Some were dead, having crawled up the sides of the vessel.
Those in the dry receptable were very lively and had fed abundantly,
so that the whole alimentary canal, from one end to the other, was
dark brown.






CL







--l'





FIe. 6.-Pulez serraticepa: a, larva; b, head; c, anal end of" nsame-greatly enlarged (original).

On July 9 the larvae in the dry receptacle had cast the first skin,
but upon careful examination were seen to agree perfectly with those
of the first stage, except that they were larger. No trace of eyes could
be found in either stage. The mandibles apparently bore four blunt
teeth. At this date the larvae kept in the moist receptacle had not
cast a skin, and appeared almost colorless, having fed very little. In
both vessels, however, all the larvae were very active and ran about
very briskly. Their movements when crawling recall those of many
Tineid larvae. Ten individuals of the second stage were removed to
another vessel to see whether they would cast a second skin.
On July 10 all of the larvae in the original moist vessel died. Those
in the dry vessel, which had been fed with bread crumbs, were still
growing nicely, and were very active. By July 15 all the larvae which
had been transferred, to watch Ior further molts, had died without


27





28 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .... .

molting. They either stuck to the crumbs, which were rathetb& asy, 4
or to the sides of the glass, which had also become somewhat yeasy.
:. :. ... 0 S P

On the same date the larvae in the dry vessel, from wbich ::tin ten O
had been removed, commenced to spin up. Many were restley run-
ning about in search of suitable places for spinning, and some h'i even
reached the top of the blotting paper. A thin layer of graycotton
was placed between the two blotting papers to give them stable
spinning places. The eggs hatched in two days, having been kept dry
all the time. The first skin was cast two days after hatching, :and the
beginning of spinning occurred eight days after hatching.
By July 19 no more specimens had spun up and many had died. The
receptacle seemed to be too dry and too hot, and the blotting paper was
somewhat moistened. But one pupa was found, which was that of a
larva which began to spin July 15. July 21 no others had spun up,
although they were still very lively. The pupa had become brownish. .
July 22 the adult flea issued over night and escaped through the cov-
ering. From that time until July 29 no more spun cocoons, and many
of them died. On July 30 one of the survivors commenced to spin,
twenty-four days after hatching. The cocoon is delicate, white in
color, and is very well shown at fig. 5. 4
On August 2 this larva, which commenced to spin July 210canged
to pupa. On August 6 it was still white in color, becoming somewhat
yellowish on the 7th and quite brown on the 8th. On the 9th the adult
flea was found to have issued overnight. The pupa state, therefore,
lasted about eight days, and it is to be noted that the pupa remains
white until shortly before the emergence of the adult. It was sapjosed
that the pupa stage in this instance was longer than usual, on account
of the fact that the larval stage was so very much longer tha in the
first instance. .
On July 11 another series of experiments was started, in order to
gauge the variation in the duration of the stages and settle theques-
tion of the number of larval molts. Eggs collected on thisai1iate
hatched July 13. On July 16,. of fifteen larvae eleven had cast thietrst
skin. On July 18 five specimens cast the second skin. July .1i the
weather was extremely warm and a number of the larvw died. July20
the heat continued, and more died. On July 23 seven larv. whIkhad
cast the first skin remained; one of them had begun to spin up.: :The
were on the morning of this date three cast skins in the receplaoo, so
that there are apparently three molts. In this final state the bristles
have become longer and the mandibles have two teeth at the, apex.
The remaining four were carried on until August 8, when the last one.
died, none of them having succeeded in casting a third skin. O::f the
entire lot, but one was reared to the pupa state, afd this pup: was
preserved in alcohol for drawing. The record of this advanmjp:eci-
men shows three molts, and that it began to spin eight dup afte
hatching. The average of the others shows that the eggs bslthi


.. ...... .." % :! : i.......... i~. : .. ... ::".. .:.
.. :": ..: E: :":E"E E. : : :. .': . .. .:'E
p N... :.:..:'. 4i t:: ::sE .: .::. .E
.. .. .:.mim~ iii~ !Pi".:: ." '::::. 4.i





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


from two to four days and that some of the larva- cast their first skin
three to four days later, and a second skin two to six (lays later.
On July 15 another series was begun. The eggs collected on this
date began to hatch on the 17th and all had hatched by the morning
of the. 18th. July 21 some of them lhad cast the first skin.
August 1 the first one spun up; August 3, two more; August 6, two
more. At this date the first one which constructed its cocoon turned
brown. August 7 one full-grown larva transformed to pupa without
spinning a cocoon. August 12 the first adult emerged. A summary
for this lot shows that the eggs hatch in from two to four days and
that the larvae cast the first skin from five to seven days later. Some
spun up sixteen to twenty days after hatching, and the imago appeared
six days later.
Observation of these last two lots shows that the larvae are very apt
to die if kept too dry or too moist. They also need plenty of air.
July 20 another series was begun. Eggs collected on this date
hatched the following day. July 24 the first skin was cast; July 26, in
one case a second skin was cast. July 27 three more cast a second
skin, and on this date one individual spun its cocoon. July 29 three
more began to spin; on July 30 many more. On July 30 the first one
that began to spin was found to have changed to pupa. August 2
many cocoons were found. Some of the larvae, disturbed while spin-
ning, left the incomplete cocoon and transformed to pupa outside of it.
Most of the advanced specimens were placed in alcohol, and it was not
until August 14 that an adult was allowed to emerge.
This series of observations showed that the eggs hatched about one
day after being placed in the vessels. The larvwe cast their first skin
in from three to seven (lays, and their second skin in from three to four
days. They commenced spinning in from seven to fourteen days after
hatching, and the imago appeared five days later.
From these observations it appears that in summer at Washington
many specimens will undergo their transformations quite as rapidly as
Mr. Simmons found to be the case at Calcutta, and that an entire gen-
eration may develop in little more than a fortnight; also that an excess
of moisture is prejudicial to the successful development of the insect
and that in the same way the breedig place must not be too dry. The
little particles of blood found among the eggs on the cloth upon
which the infested animal has slept are probably the excrement of the
adult fleas. This substance in itself, together with what vegetable
dust is found in the places where these larvae rear themselves, suffices
for the larval food.
REMEDIES.
U
Flea larvae will not develop successfully in situations where they are
likely to be disturbed. That they vill develop i ii the d(lust in the cracks
in floors which are not frequently swept has been observed by the
writer. The overrunning of houses in summer during the temporary


29





W C (bAL ~ j AJ JLL U O UJL JJ ^ A1 ^U > j .:.:..::. ,...!.::-^. i j-:1 ~ii :::::.iS~

absence of the occupants is undoubtedly due to thaof .d-
a brood of fleas in the dust in the cracks of the floor from eggm: shich j
have been dropped by some pet dog or cat. This oVerruu g is.
more liable to occur in moist than in excessively dry summer weather, :
and it is more likely to occur during the absence of the occpnts. of .
the house, for the reason that the floors do not, under smiWSireun- .
stances, receive their customary sweeping. The use o i ts or f
straw mattings, in our opinion, favors their development a .d. the cir-
cumstances above mentioned. The young larva% are so slendei nd so
active that they readily penetrate the interstices of both sorta A cover-
ings and find an abiding place in some crack where they are nows t likely
to be disturbed. '
That it is not difficult to destroy this flea in its early stages i shown .
by the difficulty we have had in rearing it; but to destroy the adIult fleas
is another matter. Their extreme activity and great hardin.-ess readr
any but the most strenuous measures unsuccessful. In such ese s we
have tried a number of the ordinarily recommended remedies ilavain.
Even the persistent use of California buhach and other pyreafrmn
powders, and, what seems still stranger, a free sprinkling of floor mat-
ting with benzine, were ineffectual in one particular case "f extreme
infestation. In fact, it was not until all the floor mattingsjhs4 been
taken up and the floor washed down with hot soapsuds that the flea
pest abated. In another case, however, the writer found that:: a sin:.gle
application of California buhach, freely applied, was perfectly suess-
ful; and in a third case a single thorough application of benSine also
resulted in perfect success. The pyrethrum application was mode in a
Brooklyn (N. Y.) house, and the benzine application in a Washington
residence. The frequently recommended newspaper remedy of pacing
a piece of raw meat in the center of a piece of sticky fly paper has been
thoroughly tried by the writer, without the slightest success.. As a
palliative measure, however, the plan adopted by Professor Gag in
the McGraw Building of Cornell University, and described at". length
on page 422 of Vol. VII, Insect Life, may be worth trying. It..*R be
remembered that Professor Gage tied sheets of sticky fly .paper:, with
the sticky side out, around the legs of the janitor of the building, who
then for several hours walked up and down the floor of the infOested
room, with the result that all or nearly all of the fleas jumpedi on his
ankles, as they will always do, and were caught by the fly papet.
In his recent summary of the described fleas (Canadian UEntonolo-
gist, August, 1895, pp. 221-222) Mr. C. F. Baker shows that thkre: are
forty-seven valid species, which attack all sorts of warm-blooded
animals. The species which we have just considered (Ptulera:. ati-
ceps Gervais) is, as he states, the common cat and dog flea, wel known
over all parts of the world. Mr. Baker further states that, "besides
the various wild cats and dogs, it has been reported from Zrpstes
ichneumon (Pharaoh's rat), Fcetorius. putorius (common iElt of


....... . .. .. . .
"::'.".dii;i il:..:Ii.:
: ji!:.. '. "d


D113DITOIBAT T. IfcTl'crTTrfT.TW TATMfflrrwa


nit





MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


31


Europe), Hywna striata (striped hyena), Lepus fimidus (common hare),
and Procyon lotor (raccoon). It is also said to occasionally sip human
Blood [sic/]. I have specimens from various parts of Nortl Anerica,
Sand also from Europe." Many unfortunate inhabitants of New York,
Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore during the past few stumnmers
will be able to verify Mr. Baker's statement that the species occa-
sionally sips human blood! This species may be distinguished at a
Glance from the so-called human flea (Pzlcx irrita(ns) by the fact that
the latter species does not possess the strong recurred spines onl the
margin of the head, which show so distinctly in fig. 5.







flp :"s+f::"' : :2 : '* "ii
..:'.., ...... .... .

. ." .....
.. .. :".


CHAPTER IV.
U S.
SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, CLOTHIMe CARPETS,
UPHOLSTERY ETC.
OI "A P.S
By L. 0. HOWARD and C. L. MARL&TT. "
THE CARPET BEETLE, OR "BUFFALO MOTM."
(A nthren 8s 8crophulariwce Linn.)

All the year round, in well heated houses, but more frequently in.
summer and fall, an active brown larva a quarter of an inch or less i
length and clothed with stiff brown hairs,.which ace longer around the;
sides and still longer at the ends than on the back, fee4 upon carpets,
and woolen goods, working in a hidden manner from the undAsurfme
sometimes making irregular holes, but more frequently folloA ig the
:~ ~.. .: . .. . . + i
line of a floor crack and cutting long slits in a carpet. ;......

rt





AMA





FIG. 23.-Anthrenus scroplilarice: a, larva, dorsal view; b, pupa within larval skin; c, papa, ventral
view; d, adult-all enlarged-(from Riley).
.:... ": :;:.:"..":.. :+

This insect in the United States is known as a carpet beetle initb4
" ";! :.: ..''.: ::" '" E


northern part of the country only. Beginning with Masswchusetts,4
extends west to Kansas. It is not known as a carpet beetle in Wash
iigton or Baltimore, and is hot common in Philadelphia, but abonnds!
... . ".... .. .. A 44.. : .. :
in New York, Boston, aall th e New England States, and west thro:g
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. It
originally a European insect and is found i all parts of E ..rope. .
was imported into this country about 1874, probably almost Aimsultatsm
ously at New York and Boston. It has long been known onacre lN|shte<
Coast, but not, so far as we are aware, in-the rble ofa
The adult insect is a small, broad-oval beetle, ao.:.; .
of an inch long, black in color, but is covered with ox
scales, which give it a marbled black-and-white up
58





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, "ETC.


Shas a red stripe downi the middle of the back, widellingi into Ipojerttions
at three intervals. When (listurbed it l plays 'lIssul,'i) fliln"g upj its
legs and aittennle a1d eilgnilg death. As ; general tling the beetles
begin to appear in the fall, and cointinite to issue, il lheatd l IoIises,
throughout the winter aId(l following spring. Somill tter issuing they
pair, and the females lay their eggs in coi'venieiat spots. Tle eggs
hatch, under favorable conditions, in ;a few ilays, aind tile larva', with
plenty of food, d(levelop quite rapidly. Their d(evelophel)nt is ret;alrd(led
by cold weather or lack of food, anld they rei ain alive in tlhe larval
state, in such conditions, ;111( piarticllahrly il a dry atnlmosihere, linr aIll
almost indefinite period, mnolting frequently and ft'ed(ling upon their .a;st
skins. Under normal conditions, however, tlhe skin is east aiout six
times, and there is, probably, in the North, not more than two atanual
generations. When the l.irva reaches full growth tlhe yellowvisllh lpJpa
is formed within the last larval skin. Eventually thisskin splitsdown
the back and reveals tlhe pupa, from which the beetle emerges later.
The beetles are day fliers, and when not engaged in e,-gg laying are
attracted to the light. They fly to tlhe windows, and may oftei be found
upon thesills or panes. Where they can f)ly out through an open window
they do so, and are strongly attracted to the flowers of certain plants,
Particularly the family Scrophulatriace,, but also to certain Comilposit;,
such as milfoil (Achillea. miillc/blium). The flowers of Sp)ir;a are also
strongly-attractive to tihe beetles. It is probable, however, that. this
migration from the house takes place, umider or(linary cir'umlsta.nces,
after the eggs have been laid.
In Europe the insect is not especially notedl as a household lpest, and..
we are inclined to think that this is owing to thle fact that carpets are
little used. In fact, we believe tiat only were carpets are extensively
used are the .onditiois fitavorable for tlie great increase ot tlhe insect.
Carpets once put down are seldom, taken i1p f'or a year, amid in tihe
meantime thle insect develops unlinterrul)te'dly. Where polislhied iloors
and rugs are used tlhe rugs sire often ta ken )up am l beaten, and in the
same way woolens amid firs are never allowed to remain undistulrbed
for an entire year. It is a well-known faet that the carjet lhalbit is a
bad one from other points of view, a nd there is little 4li obt. tliat if' car-
pets were more generally discardeil in our more Northern States tlie
buffaloo 1ig" would gradually cease to lI tlie households il pest that it,
is to-day. Tlhe insect is known in Enlrolpe as aI 11111iseu mi pest. but inas
not acquired( this habit to any great extentt il this country. It is
known to have this lhabit inl Cambridge, ,Mass., and D)etroit, Michi., as
well as in San Francisco, Cal., huit iit inll otiler licalities. In all of
these three cases it had been imported( from Europe in insect collections.

RE3ME) IES.
F There is no easy way to keep tlhe carpet beetle in check. When it
bas once taken possession of a house nothing but thle most thorough
sI
* a


59




.5:.." n!.

60 1Q11
." iaD'4...Vi, .. .. ,. ':," , "
.... :".i ,'b ':: 'i di.: ..:..... ".h 6.: ".:"...
and long.continued men-4 :..-l* efi Otit. Th B
house cleaning, so often areessy and hurriedly p
have shown above, peculiarly favorable to the d-
insect. TWo house cleaning would be better than iiojdI7L
it would be better to undertake it in midsummer taa
of the year. Where convenience or conservatism',4,
ence to the old custom, however, we have simply to iR .
simply j ,, IJ, t
thoroughness and a slight variation in the custA:o
rooms should be attended to one or two at a time. ......
be taken up, thoroughly beaten, and sprayed J.
zinc, and allowed to air for several hourss' The room,
.: .. ,: . .... ..... .
be thoroughly swept and dusted, the floors washed dwI.
the cracks carefully cleaned out, and kerosene or j.:
thbg cracks and sprayed under the baseboards. The
ability of benzine, and even its vapor when confined
bered and fire carefully guarded against. Where
constructed and the cracks are wide it will be a
cracks with plaster of paris in a liquid state; this i:: !
and lessen the number of harboring places for the insec ,
ing the carpet tarred roofing paper should be laidu...u
.i : ... ... .....i.: . .. .
least around the edges, but preferably over the entire
the carpet is relaid it will be well to tack it down raftBherJi|
it can be occasionally lifted at the edges and examined"
of the insect. Later in the season, if such an exaKP i
insect to have made its appearance, a good though somewh.a-bt o
remedy consists in laying a damp cloth smoothly over thIe V-ip.ct.d
spot of the carpet and ironing it with a hot iron. The steam ths gen-
erated will pass through the carpet and kill the insects immediately
beneath it. .
The measures used in the care of furs, rugs, and woolen goods gen-
erally to prevent the work ot this insect during the summer are prac-
tically identical with those recommended for the clothes :moths,
elsewhere mentioned. The most perfect and simplest is storage at a
temperature of from 40 to 42 F. For the cheaper methods tht reader
is referred to the chapter on clothes moths. t .
These strenuous measures, if persisted in, are the oply hopi of the
good housekeeper, so long as the system of heavy carpet coverig the
entire floor surface is adhered to. Good housekeepers are corr tive
people, but we expect eventually to see a more general adopmitof the
rug or of the square of carpet, which may at all times be rieify exam-
ined and treated if found necessary. Where the floors aur:bad the
practice of laying straw mattings under the rugs produces S sightly
appearance, and, while not as cleanly as a bare floor, affrdst$i, fewer
harboring places for this insect. ~ ... ..

A -

.. ...






SPECIES JNJ tY.tIOUS '


THE BLACK CARPET BEETLE.
( .(Attageenl 8piceun )li.)

SThis carpet beetle occurs iii general in the same situations in which
,the preceding species is found. The lara is an activeli ghlt-brown,
.:somewhat cylindrical creature, clothed with closely alppresse(ld hairs,
;and with a long terminal tuft of hairs at the end (of the body. It is
,readily distinguished from the so-called "buffalo ilmotli" by its shape
'and in general by its lighter color. It is iot so lobud ,of working in
cracks and cutting long slits in carpets, and in general is not so dalu-
gerous a species as the other.
SThis insect has been a denizen of tlie United States certainly since
j,1854. It is widespread in Europe and Asia, and lirst attracted atteii-
'. tion as a carpet insect in this country in 187!9, evliei lDr. Lintner folun1d







T.

.l_ '" ''

1 ,-'1



a'





FIG. 24.-Atiagenna ypiceus: (a, larvia b. IJIupaI: c, 2lt1lt: l lor.al ii/.ho iua .Irgiuent1 ,8l'p ( ;i ; p iih)ve.
at left, male andi feniak tl e tiutn. ;-all ; i large (origiuiil).

it in connection with the "buffalo nmotlh" at Shelenectady, N. Y. Ithad
previously been observed by Hageii in (.'ambrid ge, in the Musetum of Nat-
ural History, at an early date, and had been found i n feathers by WValsh.
Since 1880 it ihas become very abundantt in WVaslahigton, I). C., and
here takes the place of Anthr/ireuus srophi/ iff Iw. It i;s beel received
at the division of entomology from (oflstowNvi, N. II.; IlI;rtfird, ('o)nn.;
New York City, Lawrence, Long Island(, N. X.; ashinigto, and ('lia-
grin Falls, Ohio; Detroit, Agricultural College, Charlotte, adi(l Drain,
Mich.; Philadelplhia, Pa.; Wadestowin, W. Va., and Memphis, Tenn.
From hearsay information the writer believes thit it is also more
or less abundant in houses in Charlleston, S. ('., Savau.nual. (;a., and
Jacksonville, Fla.
The adult insect is a sm:ill, oval, blackk beetle of the general ippieaUrace





62 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. ..
... .. ... ; .: !.
indicated in the figure. It is readily distinguished frot&Ai:rtm.. ..
scrophulariw. Its natural history has not been studied i' ..i
there is little doubt that it is similar to that of the oth.im
seems to have a particular predilection for feathers and ....ral V
times been observed to produce in feather beds a peculi.arr of the
ticking. It lhas also been known to infest flour mills and i6. t'.&Oertaiai
extent a feeder upon cereal products. It is a museum pest of consid-
erable importance, and, in fact, when first discovered in connection JA
with the Anthrenus, by Dr. Liutner, it was supposed to be.: present '
around the margin of carpets simply in search of dead flies sand other
,animal matter, such as cast skins of Anthrenus, i-tc. In 1878 firHagen
stated in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History that
during late years this insect had propagated to a fearful extent" n many
houses in Cambridge, and that he believed it to be respousibI- or fully
half of all the destruction ascribed to the previous species., i the
arranged collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology it occurred
only rarely, and Dr. Hagen always found a crack or a slit in the infested
box through which the thin and slender young larva had entered-. The
insect, he said, could always be recognized by the small, globula tocher-
ous excrement. Mr. Schwarz, writing in 1890, -spoke of tlycent
increase in numbers of this insect in Washington, D.C. As4 eum-
pest he had found it frequently in insect boxes which were %aite
tight, but, fortunately, this species does not seem to be able to: enter
through as small a crack as Anthrenus or Trogoderma. In January,
1892, Mrs. Horace French, of Elgin, Kane County, Ill., wrote as that
many houses in Elgin were infested both by this species and :by the
buffalo carpet beetle. The black carpet beetle, however, seemed, acord-
ing to the correspondent, to work constantly through the year, Unmind-
ful of change of temperature, while the other species did little damage
except during the warmer months. Her own house was completely
overrun, and after taking up the carpets and discoveringp:he fua extent
of their ravages it was deemed unsafe to replace them.
Until recently we had made but one attempt to follow out theileAtled
life hiistory. This was in June, 1882, when the beetle seemed to be
especially numerous, flying into the open windows of the office. Ai.uam-
ber were placed June 20 in a jar with pieces of rag. On June 23 six
eggs were found to have been deposited, three of which were ioady.
much shriveled, apparently not fertilized. The color of the egs was
white and they were extremely soft and of broad oval shape, ]withirreg-
ular striate sculpturing, like the markings on the palm of one's haud.
No further eggs were deposited and those previously laid did i t|&
Quite recently, in the course of his studies of insects I:i0
stored food, Mr. Chittenden, of this office, has many times: x:
the larva of this species in seeds and other vegetable prd
museum of the Department. He has shown that the l .
successfully from the egg in flour and meal. Incidentally,' h!(e.





|| SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC. 63

lat the beetles begin to appear in houses ill Washington, I). C., as
early as the last of April and (occur in thle greatest u,,itbers during the
lot spells late in May and early in .Jiie. By the middle of'.iune their
'umbers become less. J1eginii g ,1 May G, beetles were. pJlaced I'om
lime to time into a jar with woolen clot hl On .0le 0 13 .(rtain Ilarva;e
measuring about 1 iiiin. il lenigtlh were fiillill. A year Ironi tile placing
of the first beetles inl the jar thle largest, lhirv;, were foulind to ,e only
4.5 mm. long. IsolatedL full-growii larva-. were several times observed
to pupate, with the result that thle pui)tal stage 'was ftund to last from
:six to fifteen (lays. In Mr. (Chittemien's Cxperiilients in rearing this
insect two years were required tor its (develo)pment fromi egg to beetle.

I EM E 1) IES.
Owing to the similarity of habits, thie same remedies may be used
against this insect as against the buff'alo carlet. beetle. Notwith-
standing Mrs. French's experience to the contrary, we (1o not consider
it as serious a household p)est as the other species.
I. 0. I[.

THE CLOTHES MOTHS.
(Tinea jiellionella, c' al.)
The destructive work (f the larv; of the small motlis com n monly
known as clothes moths, and also as carpet iotlis, fur ilotlus, etc., in,
woolen fabrics, fur, and similar material, during tile warm months of
summer in the North,
and in the South at any -. .,_
season, is an altogether
too common experi-
ence. The preference- S--'.Z-
they so often show tbr
woolen or fulr garn ,e iits,.
gives these insects a
much more general in-
terest than is perhaps -
trueof any other house "
hold pest. Not only v ,ii. .-,'. I.nea ,'clnumIaei a. l, a4 1 t, r, -: I,,rV;. in ri.e -,e .i
are they a pest to the :,,g,. (from Rik% .
good housekeeper, but tlhe bachelor, whose interest in d(Imestic mat-
ters might otherwise remain al. a lowh elbb, knows to his sorrow of
their abundance in thle disastrous results of their liresemce in his
wardrobe.
:! The little yellowish or buf'-colored mnolis sometimes seen flit-
ting about rooms, attracted to la mps at iigirht (r d(islo(dged Iro, ill-
iested garments, are themselves harmless enioighl; iln fil(t their l minuth
parts are rudimentary, and they can not enjoy even thie ,orlinary




~ ~~~ ~~~.. ..., ...= =i.i !i++!!= ..
64 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. T OF
.. ^s."':E: .. ~
pleasures of the winged existence of other moths in sampling the nectar
of flowers. It is, therefore, to the larvae only that the destructieve work
is due.
The clothes moths all belong to the group of minute Lepidoptera
known as Tineina, the old Latin name for cloth worms of all sorts, and
are characterized by very narrow wings, fringed with long hairs. The
common species of clothes moths have been associated with man from
the earliest times and are thoroughly cosmopolitan. They are all prob-
ably of Old World origin, none of them being indigenous to the United
States. That they were well known to the ancients is shown by Job's
reference to "-a garment that is moth eaten," and Pliny has given such
an accurate description of one of them as to lead to the easy'identifica-
tion of the species. That they were early introduced into the United
States is shown by Pehr Kalm, the Swedish scientist whom we have
previously quoted and who seemed to take a keen interest in house pests.
He reported these Tineids to be abundant in 1748 in Philadelphia,
then a straggling village, and says that clothes, worsted gloves, and
other woolen stuf's hung up all summer were often eaten through and
through by the worms, and furs were so ruined that the hair would
come off in handfuls.1
What led to the first association of these and other households pests
with man is an interesting problem. In the case of the clothes moths,
the larvwe of all of which can, in case of necessity, still subsist on
almost any dry animal matter, their early association with man was
probably in the role of scavengers, and in prehistoric times they proba-
bly fed on waste animal material about human habitations and on fur
garments. The fondness they exhibit nowadays for tailor-made suits
and expensive products of the loom is simply an illustration ef their
ability to keep pace with man in his development in the matter of
clothing from the skin garments of savagery to the artistic products
of the modern tailor and dressmaker.
Three common destructive species of clothes moths occur an this
country, Much confusion, however, exists in all the early writings
on these insects, all three species being inextricably mixed in the
descriptions and accounts of habits. Collections of these moths were
submitted some years ago by Professors Fernald and Riley to Lord
Walsingham, of Merton Hall, England, the world's authority on
Tineids, and from the latter's careful diagnosis it is now possible to
easily separate and recognize the diffent species.
The common injurious clothes moths are the case-making species
(Tinea pellionella Linn.), the webbing species or Southern clothes moth
(Tineola biselliella Hummel), and the gallery species or tapestry moth
(Trichophaga tapetzella Linn.).
A few other species which normally infest animal products may

1 Kalm's Travels, Vol. I, p. 317.





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC.


65


f occasionally also injure woolens, but are not of suflicieiit iimportanice to
be here noted.
The case-making clothes minotlh (Tine pJie'llionfl/1( Linn.) (fig. 25) is
the only species which constrticts for its protectionI a true transport-
able case. It was characterized ly Linnaeins and carefully studied by
R6aumur early inll the last century. Its iiiorl interesting lalits have
caused it to be often a subject ( t investigation, and its life history will
serve to illustrate the habits of all thie clothes liotlhs.
The moth expands about hlialf an inch, or fromt 10 to 14 nun. Its lead
and forewings are grayish yellow, with indistinlct fuscous spots on tle
middle of the wings. The hind wings are whiite or grayishl and silky,
It is the common species in the North, being widely dlistrilbited ;ind
very destructive. Its larva feeds on woolens, carpets, etc., and is espe-
cially destructive to furs and feathers. Ili tlhe North it hlas but oue
annual generation, the moths appearing from June to Awugust, aild on
the authority of Professor Fernald, even inl rooms kept uiifiormnly
heated night and day it never occurs inl tlhe larval state ini winter. Il
the South, however, it appears from January to October, and lIas two
or even more broods annually.
Pliny says of its larva that it "is clad iin a jacket, gradually forming
for itself its. own garinent, like the snail in its shell, and when this is
taken from it, it immediately d(lies; but when its garment hlias reached its
proper dimensions it changes into a chrysalis, from which, at tlhe proper
time, the moth issues."
The larva is a dull white caterpillar, with the head and tle uppl)l)er
part of the next segment light brown, and is never seen free froii its
movable case or jacket, the construction of which is its first task. If it
be necessary for it to change its position, the head and first segment are
thrust out of the case, leaving the thoracic legs free, with which it
crawls, dragging its case after it to any suitable situation. With the
growth of the larva it becomes necessary from time to time to enlarge
the case both in length and circumference, and this is accomplished in
a very interesting way. Without leaving its case the larva makes a
slit halfway down one side and inserts a triangular gore of new mnate-
rial. A similar insertion is iiade on the opposite side, and the larva
reverses itself without leaving the c;ise and makes corresplonding slits
and additions in the other half. Thie cise is lengthened by successive
additions to either end. Exteriorly tlie case appears to be a matted
mass of small particles of wool; interiorly it is lined with soft, whlitisli
silk. By transferring tie larva from time to time to fabrics tuf different
colors the case may be made to assume ;as varied at lttern as tlhe
experimenter desires, and will illustrate, ill its c(olori(ig. tile peculiar
method of making tlhe enlargements antl additions (described.
Ou reaching full growth the larv:t attaches its case by silken threads
to the garment or other material upon which it lias been feeding, or
S...sometimes carries it long distances. In one instance numbers of them
2805--No. 4--5





66 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. .

were noticed to have scaled a 15-foot wall to attach their. eqs in an
angle of the cornice of the ceiling. It undergoes its transfbrmations
to the chrysalis within the larval case, and under normal conditions the
moth emerges three weeks later, the chrysalis having previously worked
partly out of the larval case to facilitate the escape of the moth. The
latter has an irregular flight and can also run rapidly. It has a dis-
tinct aversion to light ani usually promptly conceals itself in garments
or crevices whenever it is frightened from its resting place. The moths
are comparatively short lived, not long surviving the deposition of their
eggs for a new. generation of destructive larva. The eggs are minute,
not easily visible to the naked eye, and are commonly placed directly
on the material which is to furnish the larvae with food. In some cases
they may be deposited in the crevices of trunks or boxes, through which
the newly hatched larvae enter.
In working in feathers this insect occasionally causes a felting very
similar to that produced by the dermestid beetle Attagenuspi0oee (p.61).
The protection afforded by the seclusion of this insect in hoUses does
not prevent its having insect ene-
mies, and at least two hymenop-
---t-. ^ ^t terous parasites have been. reared
in this country from its larval
--= +/: + ++cases. OM
cases. These are yperamus
"'/'']' '+/,+" '' tinewa Riley MS., and A nteles
carpatus Say, both reared from
_. -- specimens collected in Michigan.
A_ .-'_ The webbing or Southern
clothes moth (Tieol-a 'bselliela
Hummel) (fig. 26) is the more
FIG. 26.-Tineola biseltiella: moth, larva, cocoon .
and empty pupa-skin-enlargeu (after Riley), abundant and injurious soecies in
the latitude of Wasflngtoi and
southward. It also occurs farther north, though in somewhat less
numbers than the preceding species. It presents two annual broods
even in the Northern States, the first appearing in June from eggs
deposited in May, and the second in August and September. It is
about the size of pellionella. The forewings are, however, uniformly
pale ocherous, without markings or spots. Its larva feeds on a large
variety of animal substances-woolens, hair, feathers, fars, and in Eng-
land it has even been observed to feed on cobwebs in the barners of
rooms, and in confinement has been successfully reared on thisa rather
dainty food substance. The report that it feeds on dried plants in
herbaria is rather open to question, as its other recorded food materials
are all of animal origin.
Frequently this species is a very troublesome pest in mus par-
ticularly in collections of the larger moths. Prof. F Webster, of
Wooster, Ohio, has had some of his large moths badly rAdld by itsi
larvae, and Dr. Hagen also records it as feeding on insect collections.1
:: -*- 1





SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC.


Dr. Riley reared it in conjunction with the angoumois grain moth (,ito-
troga cerealella) from grain, it being apparent that its larv;' had sub-
Isisted on dead specimens of thie grain motlh. It is very apt to attack
large Lepidoptera on the spreading board, aizd lias, in fact, been carried
through several generations on dried specimenlls of mloths.
Its general animal-feeding habit is further indicated by tLi' interest-
iug case reported by Dr. .J. C. Merrill, U. S. A*.who submitted a sample
can of beef meal which lad been rejecte(l as "weevilly." Tile ldamiage
proved to be due to the larva' orf Tincola bisclliclla amid goes to sub-
stantiate the theory already advanced that clothes motis w-ere scaven-
gers in their earliest association with man.
The larva of this imotth constructs no case, I but spills a silky or more
properly cobwebby path wherever it goes. When full grown it lbuilds
a cocoon of silk, intermixed with bits of wool, resembling somewhat tlhe
caseof pellionella, but more iiwegular ill outline. Within this it under-
goes its transformation to tlhe clhrysalis, and tlie miothi ii emerging
leaves its p)upal shell projecting
out of the cocoon, as with the pre- 7--
ceding species. :-...
The tapestry motli ( Trichiopqiha y -
tapetzella Linn.) (fig. '27) is rare in ..... .. .
the United States. It is imuch .
larger than either of the other two 11'.,
species, measuring three-fourtis h
inch in expanse of wings, and is Fi,. 27.--fri',.pha," t,'zila: a ,,,i .'th-
t'iilargt '. (diittr IRilu. 1.
more striking in coloration. The
head is white, the basal third of the forewip'igs black, with the exterior
two-thirds of a creamy white, more or less obscured oi the middle with
gray; the hind wings are pale gray.
It normally affects rather coarser and heavier cloths than thlie smaller
species and is more apt to occur in carpets, horse blankets, and tapes-
tries than in the finer and thinner woolen fabrics. It also affects felting,
furs, and skins, and is a connmomi source of damage to the woolen
upholstering of carriages, being rather more apt to occur ill carriage
houses and barns than indwelliig houses. Its larva entersdlirectly inito
the material which it infests, constructing burrows or galleries lined more
or less completely with silk. Within these galleries it is l)rote'cted a ld
concealed during its larval life, and later umlergoes its transfiormations
without other protectiomi than that aflordedl by thel gallery. Thle dam-
age is due as much or minore to its burrowing as to tlhe actual ;attouit of
the material consumed for Shod.
One of the parasites reared froi m pllionclla (lpafniclfiS rnrpaltu. Say)
has also been reared frout this species at St. Imlis, M3o.


67





68 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS :I

REMEDIES. "
There is no easy method of preventing the damage done by clothes
moths, and to maintain the integrity of woolens or other materials
whiich they are likely to attack demands constant vigilance, with fre-
quent inspection and treatment. In general they are liable to affect
injuriously only articles 4Jich are put away and left undisturbed for
some little time.. Articles in daily or weekly use, and apartments fre-
quently aired and swept, or used as living rooms, are not apt to be seri-
ously affected. Carpets under these conditions are rarely attached,
except sometimes around the borders, where the insects are not so much
disturbed by walking and sweeping. Agitation, such as beating, shak-.
ing or brushing, and exposure to air and sunlight are old remedies and
still among the best at command. Various repellants, such as tobacco,
camphor, naphthaline cones or balls, and ,cedar chips or sprigs, have a'
certain value if the garments are not already stocked with eggs or
larvae. The odors of these repellants are so disagreeable to the parent
moths that they are not apt to come to deposit their eggs be long-as
the odor is strong. As it weakens the protection decreases, and if the
eggs or larvae are already present, these odors have no effect on their
development; while if the moths are inclosed with the stordotmaterial
to be protected by these repellants, so that they can not esope, they
will of necessity deposit their eggs and the destructive work; of the
larvae will be little, if at all, restricted. After woolens have been given
a vigorous and thorough treatment and aired and'exposed to sunlight,
however it is of some advantage in packing them away to inciolse with
them any of the repellants mentioned. Cedar chests and wardrobes
are of value in proportion to the freedom of the material from infesta-
tion when stored away; but as the odor of the wood is largely lost with
age, in the course of a few years the protection/ greatly decreases.
Furs and garments may also be stored in boxes or trunks which have
been lined with the heavy tar paper used in buildings. New papering
should be given to such receptacles every year or two. Similarly, the
tarred-paper moth bags are of some value, always, however, first sub-
jecting the materials to the treatment outlined above.
To protect carpets, clothes, and cloth-covered furniture, furs, etc.,
they should be thoroughly beaten, shaken, brushed, and exposed as
long as is practicable to the sunlight in early spring, either ia April,
May, or June, depending on the latitude. The brushing of garments is
a very important consideration, to remove the eggs or young larvEB,
whlichli might escape notice. Such material can then be hung away in
clothes closets which have been thoroughly cleaned and, if necessary,
sprayed with beizine about the cracks of the floor and the baseboards.
If no other protection be given, they should be examined at least once
a month during summer, brushed, and, if necessary, exposed to the.
sunlight.
."i
'J






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOOI)S, ETIC.


It would be more conveniient, l1owev'er, to So4 iicloste or wrip lI) such
material as to lprevelit thle a( cess of the moths to it, ;Ifter it has o0ice
been thoroughly treated iinil aiired. Tills (.;ii lie e;isily etflectled il tihe
case of clothing aindi furs by wrapping tIlhill up1 tightly ill stoUit paper,
or inclosing in well-made liags of cotton, or linii cloth oir strrolg paper.
" Dr. Howard has adopltedl ; liin which'li is i iexpensive :iiil whiclt lie
Shas found eminently satisfictoiy. lFor a si1all st1n 1ie secW S.ireid a i nzii-
ber of the large plastebomIrd boxes s1clt as tailors use, :tid i le tlise
; pagks away all winter clothing, gummilg : strip o' wrapping paper
Around tihe edge, so Ias to seal lup the box co(ml14litely alld leave Io
cracks. These boxes with care will last 1many yea.'s. W\ithi tlioriglu
preliminary treatment it will not be necessa ry to use ] ie tv ;r-iziprVeginated
Paper sacks sold as motli 1p rotectors, witich iiuay be obl jetioniable oni
:, account of the odor.
SThe method of I)rotettion adopl)ted by one( of tlhe letditlg fu rriers (11'f
* Washington, whlio also lhas a lar'e business and expelicice in stolrilgi
* costly furs, etc., is practically tfie course already outliiied.
SFurs, etc., when received are first muost tloroughly and vigorously
* beaten with small sticks, to dislodge all loosened hair and the larv'. or
'i: moths. They are then gone over carefully with a steel comibl and packed
: av ay in large boxes lined with leavy tar rooling paper, or in closets
: similarly lined with this paper. Ai examination is ia(Ie every two to
four weeks, and, ift' necessary at any time, any garment requiring it is
rebeaten and combed. During many years ofexierience in this climate,
which is especially favorable to moth damniage, this merchant has pre-
vented any serious injury from motlhs.
A common method of protection followed by larger dealers in carpets
and furs, etc., is the use of cold storage for protection. In all large
towns anyone can avail himself of this means by patronizing storage
companies, and protection will be guaranteed. A temperature nmaili-
tained at 400 F. is protective, but often a much lower temperature is
maintained-down to 200 F.
In the case of cloth-covered furniture a(nd cloth-linedl carriages which
are stored or left unused for considerable periods in summer it will
probably be necessary to spray them tw ice or three times, viz, in April,
June, and August with benzine or nalph4tha, to protect them from nmoths.
These substances can be al)pplied very readlily with tany small spayir,,,ing
device and will not harm thie material. but cauttion must be exercised
on account of their inflammalility. Another means o'f protecting sctlh
articles is to sponge tlheim very carefully within a (ilute siluutiol of 'corro
: sive sublimate in alcoliol made just strong enough not ti leave :a wiit'
I stin.
('. L. M.


69













CHAPTER VIII.

INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS AND OTHER DRY VEGETABLE
FOODS.
By F. H. CHITTENDEN.
Of the many insects that infest the granary, flouring mill, and ware- *
house, a considerable proportion contrive at times to find their way
into habitations. A small number of these are of almost universal
occurrence in the household, and several others are frequently brought
into the pantry or storeroom in cereal foods, dried fruits, and other
merchandise.
Not so long ago that it has passed out of remembrance it.was cus-
tomary in well-regulated households, even in large cities, to set aside a
room, in addition to the cupboard aud cellar, for the storage of barrels
of flour, bags of meal, boxes of raisins, dried apples, and the like, and
such custom still prevails in country homes; but at the present time
city housekeepers purchase for the most part in small quantities at the
"corner grocery" from time to time as required. As a consequence, the
city housewife, unless she should happen to reside in the immediate
neighborhood of a store or warehouse, is not so subject to annoyance
from storeroom insects as are her country cousins. There is this differ-
ence, however, that the farmer's wife is prone to look upon as a neces-
sary evil what the city housekeeper may behold as a veritable calamity.
Fortunately, the insects that breed in dry vegetable foods and that dis-
play a disposition to make a permanent abode of the storeroom number
not more than about a dozen, the remainder, of which a few forms will
be selected for passing notice, being only casual visitants and readily
controlled under ordinary conditions.
THE FLOUR BEETLES.
Several little flattened beetles of a shining reddish brown color and
similar appearance generally so frequently occur in bags and barrels
of flour as to have earned the popular title of flour weevils." They
live upon cereal and other seeds and various other stored products, but
generally prefer flour and meal and patented articles of diet containing
farinaceous matter.
Their eggs are often deposited in the flour in the mills, and these and
the larvae they produce, being minute and pale in color, readily escape
notice; but after the flour has been barreled or placed in bags :and left
unopened for any length of time the adult beetles make their appear-,
ance, and in due course the flour is ruined, for when the insec :s have
112:. *






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ET('. 113
k
time to propagate they soon convert tl,.e lH)Irlt ilto a gnrly iiseless mi:ss.
A part of the annoyance to purchaser, dea ler, l;itd aiii l'itir'r is ,il e
to the fact that tlIe insects are highly Iot',siv e, i; t,\w speciiii 11,eisnI,
sufficient to impart a d(lisagreeable ;anid lpr.sistnIt Odm-r to til' infested
substance.
TI-IE C(ONI'USEI. FlOI'U IEEiT'lEi:.
( "ribiinin runij'.iim 111 Ih v.)
The most injurious enemy to lprepl)are'ld c-4real t'(l. s is IIiIIIibteilly t Ihe
above-mentioned species. Singinil:arly enouigli, ii1 less taii tw, y.peatrs
from the time of its first recooglniitmi ais ;i distinct -%p. eis I.c.11rriiag in
this country, this insect liad lbeen reported :is inIjuri ns in iij'arly every
State and Territory in the Ulion. Thie divisiiiial experience o.' ;i sil-
gle year, 1894, shows that. ,inwe compl;aitts are 1,1ad. (or injirim'.s 1y
this than of any other graniivoriUis species. Mr. \W 1. ..TI)liinsiP, in t li,
American Miller ( P Jiiin ;iry 1, lSi,;, sl>i'alkiu. o,1 this i1i-l.4t Is ;a nuill
pest, says that it was tlie tmost tripblc.s-,i inP sl(vICS i t, ol'1 i y .ear S95,
and expresses tlhe
belief that it had -
cost the millers of -'
the United States y I
over $100,000 in 'l
1malufactured prod'(- e .'
ucts (luring that : .

is shining reddish i
brown in color and c d
resembles ii minima- .
turetheadult of the [S
familiar meal-worni
(T enebrio), w li i c ]i 7.. -i..,i-,. i,,ii, c"1, 11n1'1., ai. Ir, b. larva; e. li'': .-., iii.' ri ,I .
will be referred to i, lateral lobe ,,1 abomen o1 I', 1: '. '. .1I ''I Il.'. 'ii. .Ii, Fan.
further in the fol- t.n'ti f, sanm e ,1.1. ,. i ... ,- il r,:I ir 1 .inIihu.r,
ill,-'t r.ti iinii.
lowing pages. It is
scarcely a sixth of an inch long, bhiI'ig til.n,10t ,111 e.\XI't '-oiiuiti'ri,;Irt of
the rust-red flour beetle (T.'ferrqinr'H mi), witl which it II.; licern g.'i-
erally confused, but nmay be distinguishl.ied by tl,. stitrtir'tr,. at tile
antennae, which are only gradlually (:lLvat', by its 1>ro;,lr li.%Il. tl,.
cheeks being expanded at tlhe sides and a,.iglait,,d at 1li. 4. es. 'i'lip
thorax above is gradually narrow'. d lbehltinl, its lhinil bind gs l1;i'ir ii'r,.'
or less acute. The adult beetle is shown, i.'il.Irge d. il (lie .0c1i ii, j .: lyiiiNg
illustration (fig. 52) at ar, anid tile fi ead and a 1iienn. .till ir. at e. The same parts offi'rr,) in 'nm :Iare prs, tr'i .iit< t M', 1'o,1iij: iii-',ii.
This species, like nearly all the others tlIat tfieqlu-'t tl,,- i iiil v stit',
room, is what is termed a general feeder. It prefle'rs. ,iaweve'r, 1r,.1,; iril
cereals, and hence is most troublesome in tliur, C'*ntr tieal. IatliiLt';iIl,
2805-No. 4- 8






114 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

cracked wheat, and patented foods, but likewise infests ii:i lt,..! s"...
experience such useful commodities as ginger, cayenne.. p$p..e. hing
powder, orris root, snuff, slippery elm, peanuts, peas, beaqai.4eds J
of various kinds that are kept long in store. It sometimes also attackss .
cabinets of dried insects. *.,.
As an instance of the nature of injury to flour in households i ay be
mentioned an experience recently reported, as it is one that mi tl1 to
the lot of any housekeeper. The house had been closed for sir::|reks,
and on the return of the family the flour, which was kept lia'slarge
wooden bucket with tightly fitting cover, and known to the.:'tn :eas a
kanakin, was swarming with the larve and beetles of this apeies.
The damaged flour was removed and the bucket refilled. only In fl again
found with the insectsat w ork in the fresh material. A person exami-
nation showed that the insects, or enough of them to cause reinsa 6 tioDn
had remained in the cracks of the bucket and in holes that. th.y.hd
their larvme, or Silvanus surinamensis, which accompanied &thn [had
made in the soft wood. The bucket was again emptied and tf"i: pail
scalded, which had the effect of killing all the insects exe"t.ai::ifew
which were discovered to have escaped through holes which thej hfad
made in the bottom. The pail had then to be painted on the .ottom.
Two reports have reached this office of injury by this speil'.it ak-
ing powder. In one instance considerable damage had bebi":-`-:toe, ::
resulting in the loss of an entire consignment, necessitating its Iaee- :-
ment by the manufacturers, not to mention the annoyance to all *|ites
concerned. Customers were returning boxes of thg powder almOct as ::.
soon as opened, on account of thepresence of these beetles. Tei4 ng
powder, of which wheat flour was in this instance one of the iugndS uts,
is put up for sale in tight tin boxes, and so closely coveted with.iJpier
as to be practically air-tight; consequently the insects must have&g ined
entrance at the manufactory before the boxes were covered. ... ........
The life history of this species is in brief as follows: The ti;j|'' ear
white eggs are attached to some convenient surface in the craob||ron.u
the sides of the bag, barrel, or other receptacle in which the-: sted
substance is contained. These hatch into minute larvae, whi fSdor
a period, depending upon the temperature, and then transform to 4 '
white puple, which in due time change to beetles, which coplat n soon
after transformation, and another generation enters upon its life rpund.
In this manner several broods are generated in the couirse,-of, yer.
From observations conducted by the writer it has been lear.4t;hat i
this insect is capable in an exceptionally high temperature of tuder- |
going its entire round of existence from egg to imago in thirt*yhit:,ys, |
The minimum period of incubation was not ascertained, hut.:imir be-^
assumed as about six days. This, with six days for the ppl raiod, :
gives twenty-four days as the shortest developmental pedil.d f the.e
..l... .. :ool.e. w... thes p last Y
larva. In cooler weather these periods last two or three.t::. y longAh
...' : .. .::'' i i:. ". ... L
. ... .. :: i : .... . ....
I '.. ... ....
.." .. . ....
.:. .. ..... :' ': ii, !: !: .. ........ ii!
".: '. :. ...: .:i : :i : ; .. .. .. . . .. . .. ..






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


fn well-heated buildings iii a latitude like that of W;Islillngtlon we thus
have the possibility of ait least fotir geCieratios ;a year.
The mature larva is shown in tlhe figure (fig. 5)2) at h. the pupa at v
and d.
TIHE IL sT-Riu IIOURi, II.;ETLI:.
( "'rilhuliiim ', rr fqain' iI Fa Ii.)
This species, as previously stated, closely r.eselles tle first-llell-
tioned flour beetle in color, fo(rmn, and si/z'. bult Ill;ay 6-) distiiilguishled
by the form of thile hliead, whicli is not expanded ce'odl the eyes at tihe
sides, and by the aiitenia-, wiichl termi inmate in a L distinct tiire.e-:ointed
club (see fig. 52,f/). In its liabits awd life history this iisec.t closely
resembles its congenier, 7' coifusum, b[tt it is apparentlyy soiewhiat
restricted to the Southern States, altlIh)oigll occasioInLtally tori id il I l(e
North. It is often reported in flour, :1al, :aid grai,, 1and is solletimes
shipped north in consignments of rice.

TiIIE BIU AD-JOILNED 1"'LOIT' i BEl.TLE.

( Ihio'(<'h".rS CWfltor ,ii. Fa1b.)

A third flour beetle that sominetines finds its way into houllses is tli.
one above mentioned. It so closely resembles thle two preceding spe-
cies that the females particularly arc witli difficulty disti.rguishled frIl
them. The male, with its broad, conspicuous i:tan-
dibular horns, isshowii at fig.53. Tlhe general lalbits f
of this species also so nearly resemble those of Tri- -
boliumn that it will be iiunnecessary to gi\ve more tlan
a brief mention of its known foods. It lias beeien
found in ground cereals of various sorts, including f
flour, meal, gernmea," rolled barley, bread, larmy ..11
biscuit, maize, wheat, and rice. In southern ('alifbr- |
nia it occurs even under bark, showing co nlplete
acclimatization. It is somewhat lilitedl il distribu-
tion in the United States, but is freqiiently ine't with ii,,. 53.-e,,,cerus cor.
in large seaport towns, especially on tlie Pacitic "fi,,: ,iiil t I...--
. i l T: riil ,iH l (,,ri''n.ilf.
Coast, and is ont the increase elsewhere. In some
parts of Europe, according to r'enport, it is a veritalpe pest iII bakeries
by getting into the flour anid into tile ,masses of fiernleiting duigh tlhat
accumulate upon the mnolds used inl baking bread.

THE MEAL-WORMS.
Two species of beetles and their larva', tlie latter fat';iliar ti nearly
everyone under thle name 1" meal-worms,"' attract attention by rIe1;sn)I
of their large size and somewhat serpent-like ipjpleiravVe wheln tli e y
invade the family flour barrel, tlhe feed box, bags of 1i'bran or ,teal, oir
are turned up in unexpected places. These are a.illmog the' liuialy Si k('cis


115





116 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. I
.. .. .".' ::: n i i i ... ... ': ..:::: :

that develop in refuse grain dust and mill products that are o asly I.
permitted to accumulate in the dark corners and out-of-the.wa*#places
in flouring mills, bakeries, stores, and stables. The two species are
- about equally common and do niot differ materially in their :habits,
and although abundant enough wherever grain is stored, do little or no
damage to seed stock, being found mostly in corn meal and other ground
products. They are also of some importance as enemies to ship biscuit.
As with some of the other storehouse insects, the Tenebrios are not
an unmixed evil, for they have a commercial value to the bird fancier,
being used as food for nightingales, mocking birds, and olter feathered
songsters.
THE YELLOW MEAL-WORM.
(Tenebrio molitor Linn.)
The above-mentioned species is the meal-worm most often refmped[ -
to in scientific literature. Its name-Tenebrio, meaning one whoa.huns u
the light; molitor, a miller-is suggestive of its habits and was given "
to it by Linnaeus in thb year 1761. Accounts of its larva, however,
appeared may years .
earlier, one of ths by |.
Thomas Monfftaig 9
. . ...back to the ye 1.M$
|.&As it is in the lnv al
Jgi 1 J '\\ stage that this int is
best lnown, theo ame
FIG"yellow meal -W orm"
e, ac is suggested t ditin-
guish it from. the".bon-
a s generic species wAch
"inis m.u ch darker in cplor.
oC The I arva (Bee .s.fig." "g.,
not iniscylindrical, loga rnd
slender, attaidiaig a
e length of upward of0 an
Fwi. 54.-Tenebrio molitor: a, larva e b, pupa; female beetle; d, inch and being about
egg, with surrounding case; a, antenna-a, b,c,d, about twice eight times as long
natural size; e, more enlarged (original). as broad. It iAwaxen
in appearance, much resembling a wireworm. In color it is yellow,
shading to darker ochreous toward each end and near the articulation
of each joint. The anal extremity terminates in two minute spines,
not in a single point, as figured and described by Westwood an.d other
writers. The pupa (b) is white, and the adult insect, as will readiq be
seen by reference to the illustration, (c) resembles on a large scale one of 1
the flour beetles. It is considerably over half an inch long, soamewhat,
flattened, shining, and nearly black. An enlarged antenna i0 ashown
at e .... e .'.' .
....",::-: .": I I.. ': ... :I
:". :. ":: :::: .. ..:...
:: :. :,K.,H::..,.: .A i n
.....' .. ... :".. : ....






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 117

The eggs are white, beau-slhapedla, l aboul(i *to 'wentietl of an
inch long, and are deposited by the parent 1beetl, inll tlilt, IIIraLl or olher
substance which is to serve as thlie fio, of the fitU'tr, laIrva, singly ,'-or
in groups, as high as ifourteen or sixteen being hail ill .I single dlay.
They are adhesive when first extrudedl ai11d 1e(1 o'ie ttced ;itMi f)ny
surface upon wlhiclh they are laidl, aLI also tlake oli a ',oatiiig ;i par
tidcles of meal or other inaterial. In tlie illustration, at 4, ;in ,,,gg is
shown in profile within its covering ofi meal.
The beetles begin to) appear in tlhe laLtitildi Of \4) ;I.lsiiigtion in A.jpril
and May, occurring iost alundantly in ilc litte-r i(ontt iin ;14 in Jue',
when they run and fly actively a;lnout il search 1 of thlei, Illates aLll i0f a
new place for the depl)osition of their eggs. Iii about two% week-, froii
the time the eggs are laid tie infant ieial-\vworim, witicli is at lirst clear
white in color and with plromiiniient antenna- antl legs, in:iakes its apj i e:ir-
ance. It soon turns yellow, and as it feeds vtacii)uiisly its grtowtlh is
rapid. In three niontlhs it atLtains approximate mIat i-ity, a:id 'roil tlien
till the following spring undergoes little c(1hange. After having sled
about a dozen skis, beginning froi soon after its hat,- hig, it chialges
to pupa and in this state remains albouit a trtnighwt. It will, thelre-
fore, be noticed that this species is annual in development, a single
brood only app)I)earing each year. The beetles are noc'turnal. andl, being
moderately strong flyers, are often attracted to lights. They have tle
pungent odor characteristic of thle family Tenebrionide.
In 1889 a physician seniit uts larval specimens of tlis ;ieal-wtioi.
reported to hare been ejected from tlhe stomach of a patienti. a;d( tlhern
are many other records of' similar occurrences 4f tthee larv;e iil the
human body. We also received during the yea;tr a sp'imeint of thlis
insect, with ai accomil)panying newspaper clipl)ping givilIg 'I an ccount of
its having been taken in a, hotel from a large 1)pin cush(ioi filled with
"shorts." The noise made by tlhe beetles scratch.ing about il enaciv-
oring to obtain their exit from the cu.slion had cause(l a guoiest to) coim-
plain that his room was haunted. (See Insect Lifie, Vol. II, pl. 118.)

THE DARK MEAIL-WOIUM.

( 7'- ebrio oh(,m -nsrun Linn.)
The darker of the two meal-worn larva' lias been calleded by writers
the American meal-worm, an ol)bvious miisnomiier', as tiis species. like the
preceding, in all probability came originally Ironi telinperate .I-.urope
or Asia, and is, like other sl)ecies m11ost vollili i ly 'foi6ld it tlie store-
house, an introduced cosmool) lite.
The mature insect, illustrated at fig. 55. is very similar ti tlit parent
of the yellow meal-worm, being (f' nlteavily tl' samve dli mell'si, Ills, bit1
distinguishable by its color, which is dulli, pice is black. There aire
other points of difference, notably in tlhe ;intetn;1et tie tlirld joint in tie'
present species being perceptibly longer than in molitor. The larvwa also






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD 'INSECTS. iz.
.. ........: :i!: j J ..".. .
":~ ~." .: ::L i: !: i ::... :".i .: N ..:.' U i N: '. .... ". 'i
resembles that of the preceding, differing chiefly in its miu*. r "
brownish markings. The pupa, however, is of the same whiish eor.
The beetles, in the writer's experience, bi to
Cccc^^ appear considerably earlier than do those- ofthe
.yellow meal-worm. Here at Washington .theyay
Y be found as early as the latter part of February,
I^ j remaining till the beginning of July, occurring ost
abundantly in April and May. -L
In 1890 a correspondent sent specimens of jarvae
that had been found in a grocery store in a pq01l of
adulterated ground black pepper, and within te: year
we received a lot of living larvae from Dr. J.B.Porter,.
of Glendale, Ohio, that had been found in asoxof j
Fi. 55.-Tenebrio obecu- commercial soda ash. We have also specimens that .-.
rus : male--somewhat
enlarged (original).s were taken among phosphate fertilizers, cotto seed, .
and cotton meal. It should be unnecessary to re- w-
mark that these larvme did not feed upon the chemicals, although they
lived in them for some time. .
THE MEAL MOTHS.
Two species of moths, in addition to the clothes moths, are bi tual
frequenters of the household, the one attracting notice through the
depredations of its larva in a variety of articles, the other chieflylby
its beautiful appearance in the winged form. .
THE INDIAN-MEAL MOTH.
(Plodia interpunctella Huebn.)
A small moth of about the same size as the clothes moths, lwhioh it
somewhat resembles when in flight, is very often found in stores, and
through them is brought into the household, where it 'is an all-round
nuisance, feeding upon almost anything edible. It makes its home
almost everywhere, and is very sure to be found in boxes of preserved
fruits if these are left open for any time, but does not disdain fruits
that have been left in barrels to rot and dry up, as frequently happens.
The common name of this insect is sufficiently indicative of its fond
ness for meal, and it feeds as well upon flour and upon grain ofa li
sorts, ground or whole. In the writer's experience it bree4s :iai in
chick-peas and table beans, peanuts, English walnuts, almonds, edible ::
acorns, chocolate beans, dried fruits of all kinds, including 'arrnts,
raisins, peaches, apples, apricots, prunes, plums, and cherries, and sods :1|
of several sorts. It has also been recorded as infesting i0clov9er wd, ;:
garlic heads, dried roots of dandelion, pecan nuts, and cinnamo:m br
and has been reported to invade beehives, and does considerable di*u .ii|
at times in museums, feeding on herbarium specimens, and :evenat:.k-
.. : ~~~~ ~~~..:..: : ..E" .:.I:iE:.". "
ing dried insects. ::..:'";
The adult moth has a wing expanse of between a half an*2.-;|
quarters of an inch, and is of the general appearance reps AK.






INSECTS AFFECTING CE1I:ALS, 1,.'T11.


the illustration (fig. e (56, a). T1 1, o0ibter two tliris ol' tlin f0lre-% |ings ar'
reddish brown witli a copry Iister; the inltler i" rti, 14111i d t1 lhiniid-
wings are light dirty
grayish. The l-arva,
or caterpillar, shown
at e, d, c, and./ meas-. IIt
ures when full irowny -
about half an inchi and -
varies in color, )eillg ,
whitish, with lilt -. W
rose, yellowish or c
greenish tin ts. T he Fi,,. :. ,i',Iac ;iit. iiiiii1.t. 1, 71aiii. .F i,- .,v i.. r. .11rr-ii-
p u p a (b )is li 'lit r vo w l ]L.r, Lt" l'.l . 1,,'4il it',% -,Ji ll' 11.11. ,.,i. ,d 1, ..1.
:;I l '. fir- tl,,ul- ium l 11 :M I li ,t l' i : r[ ,i l.:ir m l ,r, l.r (I ,
ill color. 1l,,r'. illii-tr-.itiii.).
ThIe eggs are miinute aid wl iite, and are (dheposited. to tlii' n1111iiml'r t4
350, singly and in groups of from tliree to a do(4/eli or 1r1(, lilITll
whatever substance tlie female miay see fit to select fi)r tlie sustetactie,
of her offspring. In tibuor more days tlicy hliatcli, ad( i Fou or m iore
weeks another brood is produced. In this :iaier iIa sucl(cession (it'
generations appears wlhiiclh will v;ry, according to thietemperaiture oit'
the building that tlhe inllsect inhabits, f1rom four to possibly six or seven
a year.
The caterpillars spin a certain amount of silk as they feed, joining
together particles of their food and excrement, :and tlius injure for food
several times the amount of material that they consumer. When fully
matured they crawl hither and thither, trailing large quantities of their
silken threads after them, in their search fbr a suitable place for trants-
formation, and finally surround themselves in a cylindrical silken welb,
in which they change to chrysalids aInd then to moths.

THE MEAL SNOUT-310TI.
(Pyralis farinalis Linn.)
This species in its mature condition is the most attractive of all
household insects. It measures across its expanded fore-wings upward









Fl.'i *7. I'Yrat1s fainaliai a. ,l. ill a ith: h, li rvai r. pilin
ill in,'Pe(iil- t' i'' niynmiirii l r i.t I i.'ma in l m .
(Wl three-quarters tof an incih. Its dark c(4l11's ;airl. it' diiifr.it shades
ot' brown,11 with reddish reftltetiotis; the lighter co.,lrs are wvihit ish ail


119





SS AL .L .L t ..W. .A.. J:J J .J t t:::: ... 1 :L: ....rJ F ;'S:' :'"3 0.0a
..... .. ....... :. :. o ." !
form the pattern shown in the illustration (fig. 57, a). The.o'ie.fj#Ir
(b) is whitish, shading off to a darker color at either end,: ani: a
reddish head. The pupa, shown in its enveloping cover of skIt a,
and naked at fig. 58, e, is reddish brown. .. :'..
The habits of this moth are peculiar. The larvae subsit cimefly
upon cereals, but seem not to prefer them in any particular condition,
feeding alike on the seed, whole or ground, bran, husk, or straw. They
will attack other seeds and dried plants, and are at tinimes injurious to
hay, particularly clover. They are also reported to feed upon tired
potatoes. Within the year larvae were brought to this office in flour and
specimens of the insect's work in sweet marjoram, an herb someimes"
used in cooking. The caterpillars live in long tubes or tunnels m-
posed of silk and particles of meal or other material, and while thus
incased in the obscure corners in ic: h
9they habitually live are completely ..-
3cealed from observation. When mature
They leave them and construct cocoon-like
cases and undergo transformation within.
z The life history of the meal snout-moth
e. has never been properly understood, the.
-j efforts to rear and observe it having a1ays
proved unsatisfactory. Certain European
writers have expressed the belief that .the
S c d species is biennial in development, bniutt-1
. 58.-Purals farinalis: a, egg-... .
Is. 58.Pys, .oefaenl a, egg;- periments now being conducted go to p er0
mass; b, eggs, more enlarged; c, P..
egg showing embryo within; d, at least four generations a year. The "pe-
larva, dorsal view; e, pupa-all en- cies has been carried through all its staes
larged (original). .. ."
lage this spring in about eight weeks.
From recent experience it would seem that comparatively little danger
need be apprehended from injuries by this insect if material upon whic
it is likely to feed be kept in a clean, dry place: Almost Without ex ep
tion, the cases of damage attributable to it have occurred in cefan.
upon floors, in outhouses, or in places where refuse vegetable mate
had accumulated. 7
THE GRAIN BEETLES. '
"* : ., i" ;' ::.
There are two clavicorn beetles, known, respectively, as the a:w-
toothed grain beetle and the cadelle, of omnivorous habits and univs
distribution, that commonly occur in dwellings as well as in graaa i'
mills, and warehouses. The former is so small. as to readily is.pe
notice except when it is present in numbers; the latter, though slm-.i"
occurring in abundance, is conspicuous, both as larva and b et l% i6'
account of its size. The two species resemble each other -'in be.*g'
". : ': .: 'i',,::'::'^: :^.';* "i' :". i: !;:"' ,;"
partially carnivorous and predaceous, following in the wake o::.f* eS :::!
insects like the Indian-meal moth, the cadelle particularly ....ift..
atonement for its ravages in the pantry supplies by devouring tbtUll
small insects as cross its path that it is able to overcome. ....
.. .... :.: .. .
*. h
0 :






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 121


THE SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE.
$
(Silranu8s s8urifamI'lSiS Linn1.)
Taken all in all, this is perhaps the comnmonest inssect tlat habitually
abides in groceries, and, excepting tlhe so-called Croton bug, the one
most often found in the pantry. Wherever anything ediblle is store(l
this insect will be found. It is chiefly vegetarian, but is aln iost omni v-
orous, and is especially fond of cereals and breadstuffs, l)reserved fruits,
nuts, and seeds of various kinds. Among other coiminod(lities of the
household that are subject to its delwredatio4is may be imelitioned yeast
cakes, mace, snuff', ail(l red )pel)per.
The mature beetles will feed uponI sugar aiid have beenll repol)rtedl in
starch, tobacco, and dried meats, but it is douibtfiul if tilhe insect will
breed in such substances. Thie beetles or their larv'; have thle bad




!Is





ii
V' '1I-




Fin. 59.-Silvanus aurinamaenis: a, be et I; b, pupa r, larva-all enlartel; d1, antiui-aL uOr larva-
more ulargedl (auutthlior'i illustration .

habit of perforating tlie paper bags in which flour -and other comesti-
bles are kept. When present in boxes of fruit-and they are very
sure to be there if the covers are left off throughout the summer-there
may be no visible evidence of their presence until the bottom is reached,
but here they will be found in great numbers, and when disturbed
scamper off in the greatest haste. This insect is almost invariably
present wherever the Indian meal moth is found, and the list of the
food products that have been mentioned as subject to this moth's
attack will answer about equally well for the beetle.
As an instance of unusual trouble caused by this insect may be
mentioned the case cited by Taschenberg of the beetles having invaded
sleeping apartments adjoining a brewery where stores were kept and
annoying the sleepers at night by nipping them in their beds.
This beetle is a member of the family Cicujidaw. It is only about
one-tenth of an inch long, slender, much flattened, and of a chocolate-









six minute teeth like those of a saw on each side, as in.ia.Ii.. ......g
59 a... .....
The larva is somewhat depressed, and nearly white in 1Mtw|ith :xv
darker markings, as.shown in the illustration (c). It hassix *uind -M
an abdominal-proleg, and is exceedingly active, running about, :ji'4Wing A
.. ... .... .
here and there. ::, .
When fully matured the larva fastens itself by meazaui o sme 7:
adhesive matter, evidently excrementitious, to any convenient,, :
and thus attached transforms to pupa and afterward to iaag Whe.:': M
the insect is living in such granular substances as oatmeal and cr--aked '
wheat a delicate case is constructed of fragments of these mstrisls,
but when in flour and meal often no covering is made. From dta
acquired by experiment it is estimated that there may be six .r u'vsar
generations of this insect annually in the latitude of the f tistr of
Columbia. During the summiner months the life cyclerequiet:i bt
twenty-four days; in spring, from six to ten weeks. At Washington,
it has been learned, the species winters over in the adult state, even in
a well-warmed indoor temperature.

THE CADELLE. *. :;;: ..
'.i f ".. '
.. :.* ... .... *
(Tenebroides mauritanicus Linn.) "". :
** ii:: .!i::. : .: ; *..:: ;!
The term "cadelle" was first proposed years ago in France foirthie
larva of this insect. The Latin name was given to it in 1758, w mi t
was described as a species of Tenebrio and classified with the iBeij:
worms, the adult of which it very slightly resembles in its WSer
color and depressed elongate form. It belongs, however, to a disit
family, the Trogositidae, and is considerably smaller than the meal-
worm beetles, measuring about a third of an inch. It is very:i dik,
shining brown in color, much flattened, and of the somewhat oblon
form indicated in the illustration (fig. 60, a). The antenna is sh:t4i"
much enlarged on page 123. The general appearance of the latis "
shown at 'It is fleshy and slender, measuring when full grown n Ie :
..... ~ ~ ~..! '. ..... ....
three fourths of an inch. It is whitish in color, with head aw. t:i,|of ,
the anal segment d(lark brown, the latter terminating in two- d .ak...p- I
neous hooks. The three thoracic segments are also marked wi ::-r
brown, as indicated in the figure. The pupa (b) is white. .... "
There has always been a difference of opinion in regard to0ithoe i.... ...
of the food of Tenebroides mauritanicus, some claiming that tl::
A, .E : : :: .: .......
was carnivorous. It has been satisfactorily proven through ox t :j
by the writer that the insect is both herbivorous and predaouit'I
most often found in cereals and in nuts, but may be occa .ondly 7. :^| :
in other materials. 'I






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 123

If personal experience and( divisional records be :iny criterion, this
species excels all other grain feeders in its lproclivity f'or obtrudiiilg its
presence ill unexpected places. It is a most unlwelcomne guest at all
times, its large size, both in tihe larval and adult stages, reildehriing its
appearanIce coUSpicu M1s, not to stay alarming or (lisglusting, t(o most
persons. In tlhe pages of Inset Life we have noted( its presence in
milk (Vol. I, p. 112), the evidence being that the milk liad been adul-
terated with some fairinacemous jiaterial in which tlhe beetle liad lived as
larva. On pages 314 :indl 3(;0 it is zlientioned as havilig tuiluieled for a
long time through a lask or an insecticide (white hellebore) which was






or*












^:[ / ,







Fla. 60.-Tenebroides mruritanicus: a. adult lwetit with grr.-th .e.ii
large antenna nabove; b, pupa; c, larva-all (nlargetl originall).

found by experiment to be of sufficient strength to kill currant worms.
Again, on pages 274-275 of Volume VI wve note the presence of this
and( other insects in refined sugar. Mr. R. S. Clifton, of this office.
recently showed the writer a larva found in powdered sugar. with the
information that the sugar hiad been returiied promptly to tlie grocer.
of whom it had just been purchased. In granulated sugar the (ccur-
rence of this and( probably of other insects is generally thle result of
accident, as it has never been proven that insects breed i n sugar ini this
('cond(lition. In thle case of pulverized sugar, however, the presence (of
insects would at least create a suspicion of ad(lulteration with flour.








reason to ueueve ma mis minsect is o[ Amern an naanviy.a iv '*i.werIs
also from most other storehouse species in being annual in itw da4ffIi4.-
I . . . ....' .
ment, propagating, it is true, throughout the warm seasons butjl ng :::1
forth only a single brood each year. :::::::: '
... . .. M ' :" " ::~
THE DRUG-STORE BEETLE AND ITS A.LLIES. E '5: 3
THE DRUG-STORE BEETLE. .:.
(Sitodrepa panicea Linn.) '. ...|
One of the commonest of storehouse pests is the little S.twbpa .
panicea, a frequent visitor in habitations, which it enters at Open -
windows. :; :
This beetle is a member of the family Ptinidae. It is cylindrical in 1
-.form, measuring about a tenth of an inch in length, and is ofa uniform <
light-brown color, with very fine, silky pubescence. The elytra ar e6 i- :il
tinctly striated and the antennae terminate in an elongate three-jointed i



..:: 4
7: . 7":







JFiG. 61.-Sitodrepa panicea: a, larva; b, pupa; c, beetle, dormal view; d, lateral view-&A-s. jh ::
enlarged; e, antenna-more enlarged (original). .:: :: ;
.. ::< :::!~ iiii: : ".:




.. .. ..:** : i -

club. Fig. 612 c, shows the beetle with antennae extended, repPe tt ]
ing an antenna greatly enlarged. When at rest the head is retrauted -7
into the peculiar hood-like thorax, as shown in profile at d, and with the
legs and antennae folded under and tightly appressed to the.bod, ihcei 1
little creature easily escapes observation. The larva is white,: .....
darker mouth-parts, and of the cylindrical curved form indicated t fc
The characteristic form of the head and legs is reproduced at *i||" ; .:|i
The pupa, illustrated at b, is white. ..:: .. ....
The insect received its Latin name from its occurrence in dry iI3
(panis), and in Europe it is still known as the bread beetle, bt it |
injuries are to druggists' supplies; hence the name drug-atx:|bi(|i|JS'3
Its depredations do not stop here, however, for it invades- ii:| |... ^ "i^
of all kinds, mills, granaries, and tobacco warehouses. Of 3...
wares its preference is for flour, meal, breakfast foods, and e0nW .U
It is especially partial to red pepper, and is often found in A.M.
barb, chamomile, boneset, and other roots and herbs that war 14
..... :i ,.'i;::i i";I
.... i:,: ii : ,ii!I
..... .::::Z : : i i ;i: .iI
.. ..'..'....:!:,.I
: ::: :ii~i : 4





INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


the farmhouse in our grandmothers' day. It also sometimes qgets into
dried beans and peas, chocolate, black pePl)1r, powdered coffee, licorice,
peppermint, almonds, and seeds o)f every descripljtion.
The subject of injuries wrought by tli.s species has formed the text
of a considerable literature, going back to the year 1721, when Pastor
Frisch found the larva feeding upon rye bread, land including, besides
damage of the nature referred to, injury to dr;wigs anid paintings,
manuscripts and books. Some sillgular instances an- recorded of its
injuries as a bookworm. Thie late D)r. I lagen wrote that lhe once saw
'a whole shelf of theological books, two hundred years old, traveled
through transversely" by the larva of this insect, and still another
record is published of injury by this species, or Ptlinusfur, to twenty-
seven folio volumes, which it is said were "l eriforated in a straight line
by one and the same insect, and so regular was tlie tunnel thiat a string
could be passed through the whole length of it
and the entire set of books lifted up at once. "_
In pharmacies it runs nearly tlie whole gamut -/ -
of everything kept in store, from insipid gluten / /" '.-
wafers to such acrid substances as wormwood, 7 ,\' -.
from the aromatic cardamom and anise to tlie "t
deadly aconite and belladonna. It is particularly 11a1q
abundant in roots, such as orris amid flag, and
sometimes infests cantharides.
It is recorded to have established a colony ihi a. 7^
human skeleton which h;ad been dried with the -L' '"-2 -
ligaments left on, and tihe writer has seen speci- 1
means taken from a mummy. It has even been Fl,;. 62.-S.itdrepa paniceta:
Iirad of l:irv.a. .hIuwunahlve;
said to perforate tin foil and sheet lead, and that (ir f l .rva b.,laiw-inuh
it will "eat anything except cast iron." In short, .ulanre11 ri-r ,i .ilh.
a whole chapter could be devoted to the food material of this insect, as
nothing seems to come amiss to it and its voracious latrva. Tlne sub-
ject may conclude with the statement that this D)ivision lias received
complaints from three different correspondents of injury to gun wad-
ding, and there are several records of injury to boots and shoes and
sheet cork.
The larv-e bore into hard substances like roots, tunneling them in
every direction, and feed also upon the powder which soon forms ald
is cast out of their burrows. In powdery substances tlie larva tirimn
little round balls or cells, which become cocoons, in which they undergo
transformation to pl)upe and then to the adult insect. I have reared
tlie insect from egg to beetle in two months, and as it habitually li-ves
in artificially heated buildings and breeds out through tlhe winter
,months, there may be at least four broods in a modeniterly warn
itminosphere.
Minute as is this beetle, it is preyed ul)on by a still smaller parasite,
a chalois fly known as Meraporus calandra' How., which pursues its


125




Full Text


SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CIhEESE, HAMS, FI.IT, ETC.


readily have been shown had an expert eiltoimiilogist been' clled in,
that if the covering of tine hains wvas sound, anld iha;l been kept iitactC
while in the hands of the Boston lirni, as seems to have beel lrovt'eL
by them, the eggs must have been l;liid before tlhe hamlIs left Cincinnati.
The difference in climate betweell Ci(ciiiiniati ;LIId 1.Boston W woull also
give added weight to the Boston clatim. TIrj lack of kin iw ledgie of t lie
actual facts governing tflie case is shown by tie writtei (1opinioM (of one
of the packing experts, who stated that, wi e'n'as ine ('iscisiannati tirnm had
previously used manilIa paper in par.Ckinlg their 1has, they 11ail begu.'il to
use husk, which was '"very likely to co'stainl the' gerti I' flm which tiet
worm is 1ired."!
The insect is hardly a factor in housekeeping evx\ept iil tIe(- conitry,
Where a farmer may put up a small number of hams fior im'e 'vilonsump.il
I tion during thIe ensuing year. In ordinary households al, worily 1m:a1
n ueed only be returned to tlie dealer from whom it was bought.

THE LARDER BEETLE.
I( rrmee.se lar lariun. Ilinn.)
;: A dark-brown beetle of the shape illustrated i tlhe figure, with a
;1 pale, yellowish-brown bandl containing six black dots across thie lipper
Half of the wing covers, three-tenths of an inch in lezgtlh. Tine larva
Sis brown and hairy, tapers from hlead to tail, and is furnished with
two short, curved, horny spines on top of the last joint of tlie body.
SIt is a common museum pest, and is found il nilany kinlds of animal
: food products, such as hanms, bacon, and other kinds of ineat, ()ld cheese
(of which it seems to be especially fonl), hlorn, hoofs, skins, beeswax,
Ssilkworm cocoons, feathers, and hair. It lihas never been recorded as
Damaging woolen cloth, and its popular hnamne, larder" or "bacon"
Beetle, is a very appropriate (one.
: The insect has long been known in tlie United States. It is also
Found in all parts of Europe and in Asia. It is considered by Dr. Iam-
ilton to be probably a native of tihe United States as well as introduced
by commerce. It seems to occur iii all parts of this country.
There are recorded no full and definite statements regarding tile life
history of this species, and we have made ,o oliservationas whi-icl will
enable us to give the length of life, duration of different stages, awill
other facts of equal interest. Under favorable co.ditio)s, however,
the insect is unquestionably a rapid Iree(der. Miss Caroline I. I leis-
Stis, of St. John, New Brunswick, in time August (1878) snlmer 41' the
. Canadian Entomologist, states that live weeks after placing ;a Ii-male
in a glass jar, with a piece of meat, she Ifnuld a large anld 1oi11ris.inig,
Colony of larvae, most of them full grown. D)r. (i. 11n.lio-n. in tihe
Proceedings of the Entomological Society Wf llPhiladelldhia(Vol. I. I.ISl,
p. 28), states that the insect remains in the plupa condition fior a jwriod
* varying from three or four days to a week, or even more, dejpen liig
Sprincipally on the warmtlh of tihe locality. From this statement we see


107













CHAPTER II.


THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE.
By C. L. MARLATT.
THE BEDBUG.
(Cimex lectularius Linu.)
This disgusting human parasite, the very discussion of which is
tabooed in polite society, is practically limited to houses of the meaner
sort, or where the owners are indifferent or careless, or to hostelries
not always of the cheaper kind. The careful housekeeper would feel it
a signal disgrace to have her chambers invaded by this insect, and, in
point of fact, where ordinary care and vigilance are maintained the
danger in this direction is very slight. The presence of this insect,
however, is not necessarily an indication of neglect or carelessness, for,










r




Fio. 7.-Cimex lectularius: a, adult female, gorged with blood; b, same, from below; a, rudimentary
wing-pad; d, muouth-parts-all enlarged (original).
little as the idea may be relished, it may often gain access in spite of
the best of care and the adoption of all reasonable precautions. It is
very apt to get into the trunks and satchels of travelers, and mnay thus
be introduced into homes. Unfortunately, also, it is quite capable of
migrating from one house to another, and will often continue to come
from an adjoining house, sometimes for a period of several months,
gaining entrance daily. Such migration is especially apt to take place
if the human inhabitants of an infested house leave it. With the
32






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC. G5

Occasionally also injure woolens, but are not of sufficient importance to
I be here noted.
SThe case-mraking clothes minoth (Tinea ulUmw-nclla Lhin.) (fig. 25.) is
the only species which constructs for its protection a true tralnsport-
able case. It was characterized by Linffinus and carefully stud(lied by
R6aumur early in the last century. Its iaore interesting habits have
caused it to be often a subject of investigation, aInd(1 its life history will
serve to illustrate the habits of all tle clothes imotlzs.
The moth expands about half an inch, or from 10 to 14 nmn. Its lead
and forewings are grayish yellow, with indistinct fuscous spots on tlie
middle of the wings. The hind wings are white or grayish and silky.
It is the common species inll the North, being widely distributed and
very destructive. Its larva feeds on woolens, carpets, etc., and is espe-
cially destructive to furs and feathers. In the North it has lbut one
V
annual generation, the moths appearing from June to August, and, on
the authority of Professor Fernald, even in rooms kept uiiformily
heated night and day it never occurs in the larval state in winter. In
the South, however, it appears front January to October, and has two
or even more broods annually.
Pliny says of its larva that it "is clad in jacket, grad ally formihig
for itself its own garment, like the snail in its shell, and when this is
taken from it, it immediately dies; but when its garment hlias reached its
proper dimensions it changes into a chrysalis, from which, at. the proper
time, the moth issues."
" The larva is a dull white caterpillar, with the head and the upper
part of the next segment light brown, and is never seen free from its
movable case or jacket, the construction of which is its first task. If it
he necessary for it to change its position, thie head and first segment are
thrustt out of the case, leaving the thoracic legs free, with which it /
crawls, dragging its case after it to any suitable situation. With the
Growth of the larva it becomes necessary from time to time to enlarge
the case both in length and circumference, and this is accomplished in
a very interesting way. Without leaving its case the larva makes a
slit halfway down one side and inserts a triangular gore (of new mate-
rial. A similar insertion is made on tlhe opposite side, and the larva
reverses itself without leaving the case and makes corresponding slits
and additions in the other hlialf. Tlhe case is lengthened by successive
additions to either end. Exteriorly the case appears to be a nmatted
mass of small particles of wool- interiorly it is lined with soft, wlhitish
silk. By transferring tlie larva from time to time to fabrics orf 4itleremit
colors the case'may be made to assume as varied a pattern as the
experimenter desires, and will illustrate, in its cioloring. tile peculiar
method of making the enlargements and additions described.
On reaching full growth tlhe larva attaches its case by silken threa(lds
to the garment or. other material upon which it, has been feeding, or
sometimes carries it long distances. In one instance numbers of them
21470-No. 4- 5














CHAPTER VI.

COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.

By C. L. MARLATT.
COCKROACHES.


(Periplaneta americana et al.)


Roaches are among the commonest and most offensive of the insects
which frequent human habitations. They were well known to the
ancients, who called them lucifuga, from their habit of always shunning
the light. The common English name for them, or, more properly, for
the common domestic English species, is "black beetle." In America
this name has not been adopted to any extent for this insect, which was


Fml 38.-Tlie American roach (Periplaneta americana): a, view from above; b, ftom beneath-both
enlarged one-third (original).

early introduced here, and the term "roach,"or "cockroach.," is the
common appellation of all the domestic species. The little German
roach, however, is very generally known as the Croton bug, from its |
early association with the Croton waterworks system in New York City.
The popular designations of this insect in Germany illustrate, in anj






THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE.


37


which attack meni. it is entirely possible for these pests to be transilit,-
ters of contagious diseases.
Like its allies, the bedbug ullnderg-oes all iicompllete Imi'tamliorpliosis,
the young being very similar to their parents in alpearalce, structure,
and in habit. Til eggs are wliite oval objects, hliaviig a little proiject-
ing rim around one edge, and aire laid in 1,atce'ls of from oie-l,:iir dozen
to fifty in cracks and crevices where the bugs go for concIeal:JIeit. Tile
eggs hatch in a week or tell days, and thle youllg escape by pullshilg
the lid within the p)rojectincg rim from tlie shell. At first, they :ire yel-
lowish white, nearly transparent, the browii color of tlhe more mature
insect increasing with the later molts. During the course of develop-
ment the skin is shed five times, :t;d with thle last molt tlie minute
wing pads characteristic of thle adult insect mhake their appearance.
A period of about eleven weeks lihas beeun supposed to be necessary
for the complete maturity of this insect, lbut we have found tliis period
subject to great variation, depending on warmth and food supply.
Breeding experiments conducted at this ollice indicate, under most
favorable conditions, a period avera gi ng eiglit days between moltings
and between the laying of tlhe e'ggs and their htchielng, giving about
seven weeks as the period from eogg to adult insect. Some individuals
under the same conditions will, however, remain two to three weeks
between moltings, and without food as already shown they Ilay
remain unchanged for an indefinite time. Ordinarily but one meal is
taken between molts, so that each bedblug must puncture its lost
five times before becoming mature and at least once af'terw\ards before
it again develops eggs. They are said to lay several batches of .,eggs,
during the season, and are extremely prolific, as occasionally realized
by the housekeeper, to her chliagrin al(nd embarrassment.

IEMEDI)I ES.
The bedbug, on account of its habits of concealment, is usually
beyond tlie reach of powders, and thle ordinary insect powders, such
as pyrethrum, are of practically no avail against it. If iron or brass
bedsteads are used tlie eradication of the insect is comparatively easy.
With large wooden bedsteads, furnishing many cracks and (11crevi(es
into wlhicli thie bugs can force their flat, thin bodies, their extermin:a-
tion becomes a matter of cousiderable difficulty. Tlie most practical
way to effect this end is by very liberal app)liiations (o benzine or
kerosene or any other of ti e petroleum o)ils. 'liTese must be introd uced
into all crevices with small brushes or feathers, or by in jecting with
small syringes. Corrosive sublimate is also of \al;duei. :11(1 oil of tur-
pentine may be used in tlie same wiy. Tlie lilieral use of lhot water
wherever it may be emiiployed without daliger to fimrniture, etc.. is also
an effectual method ot'dlestlroying both eggs a;md1 active bugs. Various
bedbug remedies and mixtuires are for sale, most. o)f Iiem co.i1taininig
one or the other of thie ingredients mentioned, alnd they are frequently






48


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


occasionally stopping suddenly and remaining absolutely motionless,
presently to resume its rapid movements, often darting directly at
inmates of tlhe house, particularly women, evidently with a desire to con-
ceal itself beneath their dresses, and thus creating considerable conster-
nation. The creature is not a true insect, but belongs to the Myriopoda,
commonly known as centipedes or thousand-legs, and is sometimes
called the "skein" centipede, from the fact that when crushed or
motionless it looks, Irom its numerous long legs, like a mass of fila-
ments or threads. It is a creature of the damp, and is particularly
abundant in bathrooms, moist closets, and cel-
lars, multiplying excessively also in conserv-
atories, especially about places where pots are
stored, and near heating pipes. In houses it
will often be dislodged from behind furniture
or be seen to run rapidly across the room,
either in search of food or concealment. If
examined closely its very cleanly habits may
i occasionally be manifested in that it may be
"-^^ M^ observed to pass its long legs, one after an-
-^ other, through its mandibles, to remove any
adhering dust. Its rather weird appearance,
/ ^ its peculiar manner of locomotion, and fre-
Y- quently its altogether too friendly way of ap-
p reachingg people, give it great interest, and,
I / with its increasing abundance in the North,
make it a subject of frequent inquiry. It is a
Southern species, its normal habitat being in
S\ the southern tier of States and southwestward
S\\ through Texas into Mexico. It has slowly
spread northward, having been observed in
/ Pennsylvania as early as 1849, and reaching
New York and Massachusetts twenty or
twenty-five years ago, but for many years after
its first appearance in the latter States it was
fof rare occurrence. It is now very common
throughout New York and the New England
Fi',.16.--scutigeraforceps: Adult- States, and extends westward well beyond
natural size (original). thie Mississippi, probably to the mountains.
It is a very delicate creature, and it is almost impossible to catch it,
even should one desire to do so, without dismembering several of its
numerous legs or crushing it. If crushed under the foot, as one's first
impulse would suggest, nothing remains but a mass of intertwined
limbs, giving it the appearance of a tangle of threads. If captured, so
that it can be more easily examined, it will be found to consist of a
worm-like body of an inch or a little more in length, armed at the head
with a pair of very long, slender antennae, and along the sides with a






116 PRINCIPAL* HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

that develop in refuse grain dust and mill products that are carelessly
permitted to accumulate in the dark corners and out-of-the-way places
in flouring mills, bakeries, stores, and stables. The two 'species are
about equally common and do not differ materially in their habits,
and although abundant enough wherever grain is stored, do little or no.
damage to seed stock, being found mostly in corn meal and other ground
products. They are also of some importance as enemies to ship biscuit.
As with sonic of the other storehouse insects, the Tenebrios are not
an unmixed evil, for they have a commercial value to the bird fancier,
being used as food for nightingales, mocking birds, and other feathered
songsters.
THE YELLOW MEAL-WORM.
S
(Tenebrio molitor Linn.)
The above-mentioned species is the meal-worm most often referred
to in scientific literature. Its name-Tenebrio, meaning one who shuns
the light; molitor, a miniller-is suggestive of its habits and was given
to it by Linnaus in the year 1761 Accounts of its larva, however,
appeared many years
H is earlier, one of these, by
Thomas Moufet, dating
back to the.year 1634.
F ii l As it is in the larval
nat ra izestage that this insect is
i best known, the name
"yellow meal- worm"
is suggested to distin-
s T p guish it from the con-
generic species, which
U& 'is much darker in color.
se The larva (see fig. 54,a)
t is cylindrical, long, and
a t slender, attaining a
length of upward of an
FIG. 54.-Tenebrio 9nolitor: a, larva; b, pupa; c, female beetle; d, inch and being about
egg, with surrounding case; e, antenna--a, b, c, d, about twice eight times as long
natural size; e, more enlarged (author's illustration, reengraved). as broad. It is waxen
in appearance, much resembling a wireworm. In color it is yellow,
shading to darker ochreous toward each end and near the articulation
of each joint. The anal extremity terminates in two minute spines,
not in a single point, as figured and described by Westwood and other
writers. The pupa (b) is white, and the adult insect, as will readily be
seen by reference to the illustration, (c) resembles on a large scale one of
the flour beetles. It is considerably over half an inch long, somewhat
flattened, shining, and nearly black. An enlarged antenna is shown
at e.






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


their breeding places. In not every locality are these measures feasible,
but in many places there is absolutely no necessity for the mosquito
annoyance. The three main preventive measures are the draining of
breeding places, the introduction of small fish into fishless breeding
places, and the treatment of such pools with kerosene. These are three
alternatives, any one of which will be efficacious, and anyone of which
may be used where there are reasons against the trial of the others.
In 1892 the writer published the first account of extensive out of-doors
experiments to determine the actual effect upon the mosquitoes of a
thin layer of kerosene upon the surface of water in breeding pools and
the relative amount to be used. He showed the quantity of kerosene
necessary for a given water surface, and demonstrated further that
not only are the larvwe and pupe thereby destroyed almost immedi-
ately, but that the female mosquitoes are not deterred from attempt-
ing to oviposit upon the surface of the water, and that they are thus
destroyed in large numbers before their eggs are laid. He also showed
approximately the length of time for which one such treatment would
remain operative. No originality was claimed for the suggestion, hut
only for the more or less exact experimentation. The writer himself,
as early as 1867, bad found that kerosene would kill mosquito-larve,
and the same knowledge was probably put in practice, although without
publicity, in other parts of the country. In fact, Mr. H. E. Weed states
(Insect Life, Vol. VII, p. 212) that in the French quarter of New Orleans
it has been a common practice for many years to place kerosene in the
water tanks to lessen the numbers of mosquitoes in a given locality,
although he knew nothing that had been written to show that such was
the case, and lie says: "In this age of advancement w)e can no longer
go by hearsay evidence." Suggestions as to the use of kerosene, and
even experiments on a water surface 10 inches square, showing that
the larvae could be killed by kerosene, were recorded by Mrs. 0. B.
Aaron in her Lamborn prize essay and published in the work entitled
" Dragon Flies versus Mosquitoes" (D. Appleton & Co., 1890). Mr. W.
Beutenmiiller also in the same work made the same suggestion.
The quantity of kerosene to be practically used, as shown by the
writer's experiments, is approximately 1 ounce to 15 square feet of
water surface, and ordinarily the application need not be renewed for
one month. Since 1892 several demonstrations, on both a large and a
small scale, have been made. Two localities were rid of the mosquito
plague under the supervision of the writer by the use of kerosene
alone. Mr. Weed, in the article above mentioned, states that he rid
the college campus of the Mississippi Agricultural College of mosquitoes
by the treatment with kerosene of eleven large water tanks. Dr. John
B. Smith has recorded, though without details, success with this remedy
in two cases on Long Island (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 91). Prof. J. H.
Comstock tells the writer that a similar series of experiments, with
perfectly satisfactory results, was carried out by Mr. Vernon L. Kel-
logg oni the campus of Stanford University, at Palo Alto, Cal. In this


18






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


top of which was covered with gauze, and twenty flies Introduced.
This was at noon; by 4 o'clock in the afternoon no eggs could be found,
but at 9 o'clock the next morning two clusters of eggshells, one cluster
containing 26 and the other 45 eggs, were found. The eggs had been
deposited in small cavities between the sides of the vessel and the
manure, at a depth of about a quarter of an inch below the surface,
but were not arranged in any regular order. Afterwards several black-
berries, cherries, and partly decayed apples were placed in this vessel,
and more flies were introduced. A single egg was found the next day
on the upper side of one of the blackberries. At a later date experi-
ments were tried in the same jar with fresh cow manure. Apparently
no eggs were deposited until the third day, when two small clusters
were observed. These hatched in due time, but all the larva died
before attaining full growth.
@ <. These experiments were
hardly extensive enough to al-
low us to generalize, but so far
as they go they seem to show
I that horse manure is thefavorite




named substance indicated that
the larvam molt twice and that
b. there are thus three distinct
-M d ao larval stages. The periods of
Fd. 15.--Misca domeshca: a, pupa removed from
puparium; b, hind end of body of larva in second development were found to be
stage; c, anal spiracles of larva in first stage-all about as follows: Egg from de-
enlarged (original). position to hatching, one-third

of a day; hatching of larva to first molt, one day; first to second molt,
one day; second molt to pupation, three days; pupation to issuing of
the adult, five days; total life round, approximately ten days. There
is thus abundance of time for the development of twelve or thirteen
generations in the climate of Washington every summer.
The number of eggs laid by an individual fly is undoubtedly very
large, averaging about 120, and the enormous numbers in which the
insects occur is thus plainly accounted for, especially when we consider
the abundance and universal occurrence of appropriate larval food.
The different stages of the insect are well illustrated in the accompany-
ing figures and need no description.
Taschenberg in his Praktische Insektenkunde, iv, 1880,102-107, gives
a good popular account of the house fly, but leaves the impression that
the duration of a generation is much longer tha; we have indicated.
He also states th ththe female lays its eggs on a great variety of sub-
stances, particularly on spoiled and moist food stuffs, decaying meat,


46






24 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

Megarhinus ferox Wicd. 1 male.
Habitat: District of Columbia, August 22 (Pergande).
Megarhinus rutilus Coq. 3 males, 5 females.
Habitat: North Carolina; Georgiana, Fla. (Nat. Mus.).
Aides sapphirinus 0. S. 1 female.
Habitat: Ithaca, N. Y. (Comstock).
(B) Species recorded from the United States, but not included in the material studied.
Culex rubidus Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina.
Culex teslaceus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 128, Tab. III, f. 1. Wis-
consin.
Culex incident Thomson, Eugenie's Resa, etc., 443. California.
Culex territans Walker, Dipt. Saund., 428. United States.
Psorophora boscii Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina.
Anopheles annulimanus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 129, Tab. III, f. 2.
Wisconsin.
Anopheles ferruginosus Wiedemaun, Auss. Zw., I, 12. New Orleans (Wied.); on the
Mississippi (Say).
Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Jouru. Ac. Phil., III, 10, 2; Compl. Wr., II, 39.
(Change of name by Wied.)
Anopheles inaculipennis Meigen (European species, which also occurs in North America,
according to Loew, Sillim. Journ., n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Anopheles nigripes Staeger (European species, which also occurs in North America,
according to LoeW, Sillim. Journ., n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Aidesfuscus 0. Sacken, Western Diptera, 191. Cambridge, Mass.


THE CAT AND DOG FLEA.

(Pulex serraticeps Gerv.)

Examination of many specimens of fleas sent to the Department in
recent years shows that the species which commonly overruns houses
during the damp summers, in our Eastern cities at least, is not, as many
have supposed, the human flea (Pulex irritans), but the common cos-
minopolitan flea of the dog and the cat (Pulex serraticeps). There is wide;-,
spread ignorance as to the transformations of this insect, and even the
average entomologist is puzzled to know where to consult good figures
of the different stages and a detailed account of the life history. The
figures accompanying this article have been prepared to fill this want,
and the following account of the transformations has been drawn up
from notes made during the summer of 1895, at the request of the
writer, by Mr. Pergande, of the division of entomology. The best two
of the previously published articles are, one by Laboulbene, in the
Annales de la Societ6 Entomologique de France, 1872, pp. 267-273, PI.
XIII, and the other by W. J. Simmons, read before the Microscopical
Society of Calcutta, March 5, 1888, and printed in The American
Monthly Microscopical Journal for December, 1888, with no illustra-
tions.1

'Ritzema has written an article on the natural history of the dog flea, which,
however, could not be consulted by the writer.







ILLUSTRATIONS.


Paege.
FIG. 45.-Tetramorium cespitum: different forms ....----..........-........... 98
46.-Tyroglyphus longior: male and female -----..-------...---..---------....... 100
47.-Tyroglyphus siro: female ..............---.....--....--................. 101
48.-Piophila casei: different forms ..............---------....................--. 103
49.-Necrobia rufipes: larva and adult ---------------------------- 105
50.-Dermestes lardarius: larva, pupa, and adult .-.--..----------........--. 108
51.-Drosophila ampelophila: different stages .............-- ........... 110
52.-Tribolium confnsunm and ferrugineum: different stages...----------- 113
53.-Echocerus cornutus: adult male ................................. 115
54.-Tenebrio molitor: different stages ...------------.........--..----....----------..... 116
55.-Tenebrio obscurus: adult male ........--------------.....----------------.......... 118
56.-Plodia interpuuctella: different stages ........--......----...........-.. 119
57.-Pyralis farinalis: adult moth, etc ------------------------------119
58.-Pyralis farinalis: eggs, larva, etc ................................ 120
59.-Silvanus surinamensis: larva, pupa, and adult----....-.---...----------.. 121
60.-Tenebroid6s mauritanicus: larva, pupa, and adult ------ 123
61.-Sitodrepa panicea: larva, pupa, and adult..-------.......--------------........ 124
62.-Sitodrepa panicea: head of larva ................................ 125
63.-Lasioderma serricorne: larva, pupa, and adult ..........--.......--.. 126
64.-Lasioderma serricorne: head of larva .........---..........-----......... 126











CHAPTER IV.


SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, CLOTHING, CARPETS,
UPHOLSTERY, ETC.
By L. 0. HOWARD and C. L. MARLArTT.
THE CARPET BEETLE, OR "BUFFALO MOTH."
(AnthrenU8 scrophulariw Linn.)
All the year round, in welliheated houses, but more frequently in
summer and fall, an active brown larva a quarter of an inch or less in
length and clothed with stiff brown hairs, which are longer around the
sides and still longer at the ends than on the back, feeds upon carpets
and woolen goods, working in a hidden manner from the under surface,
sometimes making irregular holes, but more frequently following the
line of a floor crack and cutting long slits in a carpet.





!~






FIGo. 23.-Anthrenus scrophularice: a, larva, dorsal view; b, pupa within larval skin; c, pupa, ventral
view; d, adult-all enlarged-(from Riley).
This insect in the United States is known as a carpet beetle in the
northern part of the country only. Beginning with Massachusetts, it
extends west to Kansas. It is not known as a carpet beetle in Wash-
ington or Baltimore, and is not common in Philadelphia, but abounds
in New York, Boston, all the New England States, and west through
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. It is
originally a European insect and is found in all parts of Europe. It
was imported into this country about 1874, probably almost simultane-
ously at New York and Boston. It has long been known on the Pacific
Coast, but not, so far as we are aware, in the rble of a carpet enemy.
The adult insect is a small, broad-oval beetle, about three-sixteenths
of an inch long, black in color, but is covered with exceedingly minute
scales, which give it a marbled black-and-white appearance. It also
58






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


11


This is all well enough where the species and the conditions are idelt i-
cal, but when, as is the case with such ait insect as that under observa-
tion, the principal observations were made upon a different, thlliughl
congeneric, species, and in ;anotlaer 1)art of the globe, where climatic
and other conditions differ, the custom is unfortunate. There is not, in
any of ouir published works, a thoroughly satisfactory figure of a well-
determined species of moslquito, or of its earlier stages. The statements
quoted in the text-books and manuals date back, in general, to tle tile
of ]eaumur. one hundred and fifty years ago. Tflese oblservatioiis were
made in the month o(f May, upon a species (Cule.r pipiens) whvid. does
not occur in Nortlh Amaerica, and in the one locality of Paris, lFrance,.
The notes made upo) (. p nuqvae. at VWaslhington possess, therefore, some
scientific importance.
*



















FIG. 2.-hiOulex pungenits: Egg-mass abolmve in center; young larva, greatly enlarged, at right; young
lanrva, not so much cnlargcd, bHelow; enitlarged eggs above at left (original).

The operation of egg-laying was not observed, but it ) probably takes
place in the very early morning hours. The egogs are laid in tlhe usual
boat-shaped mass, just as those of C. pipiens, as described by R6a1aunur.
We say boat-shaped mass, because that is the ordiilary expression. As
a matter of fact, however, tlhe egg masses are of all sorts of shapes.
The most common one is the )pointed ellipse, convex below and concave
above, all the eggs perpendicular, in six to thirteen longitudinal rows,
with from 3 or 4 to 40 eggs in a row. Tlie lnimber of eggs, in each batch
varies from 200 to 400. As seen from above, thie egg-mass is gray brown,;
from below, silvery white, the latter appearance being due to tlhe air
film. It seems impossible to wet these egg masses. They may be
pushed under water, but bob up, apparently as dry as ever. Thle egg
mass separate$ rather regularly and tlhe eggs are not stuck together






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


113


time to propagate they soon convert the flour into a, gnray useless mass.
A part of the annoyance to purchaser, deeiler, a1d m1a1,4faCtirer is (dueC
to the fact that the insects are highly (ofl'ensive, a few specimens being
sufficient to impart a disagreabl ad persistent odor to the iniflsted
substance.
STHE CONFUSED) FM' 1 R IHiTLE.l.
( 'ribolium couf'.f miii Duv.)
The most injurious enemy to prepared cereal foods is ldm(oibtedly the
above-mentioned species. Singularly enough, in less tliai two years
from the time of its first, recoginitimoi as a distinct species occlcurrinqg in
this country, this insect liad been rcl)orted as ijin-luriouts in nearly every
State and Territory in the Uiiion. The divisional experience oft a sin-
gle year, 1894, shows that niore coinpla;ints are, made of injuries by
this than of any other graniivrois species. Mr. W. (G. Johnlsoii, in the
American Miller of January 1, I89,; speakking of this inssctt as a Iill
pest, says that it was the ,most tro)ublesome species of the year 1S95,
and expresses the
belief that it had
cost the millers of -
the United States t
over $100,000 in l l
manufactured prod- "' %
ucts (luring that
year.
The mature in -
sect is shining red-
disl. brown in color c
and resembles in .'
miniature the ,K ,
adult of the fa-
m i l iar llmeal-wormi .'.. :.. rioliI,, c',n,,r.v,'ii: a, th.I I 1; b, larva; i, ] ia-a I iiin I.i rgd;
(T enebri (), w l i ch ai ,l.,i.rI lobo ,'a l iiiiiiin o0 1' ]II111.1 e, hea, d (ii '1 I -.. -io, ill. an-.
t.Inna; samo ot T. ferruyineumi -all urualt uil.1-Ii,1 (.iiith l r*.
will be referred to iilltr'1tin).
further on. It is
scarcely a sixth of am inch long, being almost ani exact toilliter'lart of
the rust-red flour beetle (T.ferryiuhicimu), with which it lias bceei gen-
erally confused, but may be distinguiislhed by the strictiltre of( the
antenna., which are only gradually clavate, by its broader head, tlhe
cheeks being expanded at the sides and angulat'd at lie eyTes. Tiie
thorax above is gradually narrowed behind, its hind angles tei iimiore
or less acute. Tie adult beetle is shown, enlargeil. in tlie a'.onip:i ,ying
illustration (fig. 52) at (r, and tlhe head and antennif, still iore, en,.largil,
at e. The same parts ofi'crruqin,.m11M are presei teld at f fir 4olpa111riso,.
This species, like nearly all tlhe ot hiers that 1'reiu.ii t tli' fC'Amily stoice
room, is what is termned a general feedler. It plrefrs, hlowevelr, prepare
cereals, and lience is most troublesome in tl,,ir, corn i' meal, oatmeal,
21470-No. 4--6













INTRODUCTION.


On an average, from 500 to (600 letters of inquiry are received at this
office each month. A very considerable number of thesc* inquiries
relate to insects which are found in houses and which either annoy the
occupants by their direct attacks or are injurious to household goods
and provisions. The available literature on this class of insects is not
extensive. Prof. C. IH. Fernald, of the Massachusetts Agricultural
Experiment Station, published a short bulletin on the general subject
some three years ago, but only a few of the most promiiient insects of
this class were treated. Other American articles are scattered in
various publications, in the Ireports of the State entomologists and
bulletins of the entomologists of the State agricultural experiment
stations, and in the entomological and other scientific journals. A
small volume was published in England in 1893, which bears the title
of Our Household Insects, by Mr. Edward A. Butler, a competent
entomologist, who has brought together a mass of interesting facts.
This little volume, however, treats of English insects only. There is
abundant room, then, for the present publication. Much that is pre-
sented herewith is based upon original observations in the office, and all
accessible publications upon the species treated have been consulted.
As will be observed from tlhe title-page, the preparationof tlie bulletin
has been the joint work of the writer and of Messrs. Marlatt and Chit-
tenden. Mr. Chittenden's work has been confined to a concluding
chapter on the subject of the species that affect dry vegetable foods, a
labor for which hlie is particularly well fitted by reason of his long
study of these species. There has been no systematic division in tlhe
work of the main portion of the bulletin between tlhe writer and Mr.
Marlatt. Each of us has chosen the topics in which lie felt especially
interested. It results that longer or shorter articles by one or the
other are arranged according to the proper position of thle topic in the
scheme as a whole and are not brought together under the respective
authors. The authorship of the individual articles, however, may be
readily accredited by the fact that not only is it displayed in tlhe table
of contents, but by the further fact that thie contributions are initialed
in every case.
The very curious but not unexpected condition has been shown in
the preparation of this bulletin that of some of our comminnionest house
hold insects the life history is not known with any degree of 'exactness.






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


of still finer hairs oln each of the anal lobes near the base of the anal
prolegs, as shown in lig. iG, c.
On July 6 another lot of eggs was placed iin each of the two diflerentt
vessels. One lot was kept moist and the other dry, a and both lots were.
provided with nothing but the particles of dried blood aid ;i few
crumbsof dry bread. On JulyS it wa-s discovered tlhat a:ll of tlie evggs
had hatched. Botlh vessels lhad beenll kept closed 1111der a glass c'ver.
Those between the layers of damp blotting paper li;1d apm'-rently not
fed. Some were dead, having crawled up tlhe sides of tlhe vessel.
Those in the dry recelptable were very lively and hIad fed aliundlantly,
so that the whole alimenitary canal, from one end to the other, was
dark brown.




















FIO. 6.-l'ubL x srrraticeps: a. larv'.I : b, i-.tl, tc, anal n el of same-g-rca.tly .nlarnseil (original).

On July 9 the larve in tlhe dry receptacle had cast tlie first skin,
but upon'careful examination were seen to agree perfectly with tiose
of the first stage, except that they were larger. No trace of eyes could
be found in either stage. The mandibles apparently bore four blunt
teeth. At this date thie larviw, kept in the moist receptacle liad iot
cast a skin, and appeared almost colorless, having fed very little. In
both vessels, however, all thle la'rv;u were very active 1(1d ran about
very briskly. Their movements when crawling recall those of many
Tineid larva. Ten individuals of tlhe second stage were removed to
another vessel to see whether they would cast a second skin.
On July 10 all of the larvae in the original moist vessel died. Those
in the dry vessel, which had been fed with bread crumbs, were still
growing nicely, and were very active. By July 15 all tlhe larva which
had been transferred, to watch lor further molts, liad died without


27






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 121


THE SAW-TO(iTIII.l) I.AIN JIEE.y'IIE.
(.i' Iranuii rinal nu i. T Linn.)

Taken all iIn all, thits is perlia, s the I 1 ,Imolnilest in sec.t tli t halit ally
abides ill groceries, and, excepting t lie so-c;jllel ('roton bug, the one
most often found in the pantry. Wherever anything edihie is stored
this insect will be found. It is chlieftly vegetarian, but is almost omnliv-
orous, and is especially fond of cereals and lbreadstlflts, preserved fruits,
nuts, and seeds of various kinds. AnOong other ci;innodities of the
household that are subject to its de(lClredatios may ble mentioned yeast
cakes, mace, snuff, and red pcppier.
The mature beetles will feed upon sugar and have been reported in
starch, tobacco, and dried meats, bunt it is doubtful if the insect will
breed in such substances. The beetles or their lar'v;e have the lbad

r7




/t i-
--'/1 -






Fi. 59.--ilraaus surina ienmis : a, beeootle; b, pupa; e. larva-all enlar',edl; di. a'n1t a of O rIr\';-
more .ulargeil (aulior's illiKIratiii).

habit of perforating the paper bags in which flour and otlier comesti-
bles are kept. When present in boxes of fruit-and they are very
sure to be there if the covers are left off throughout the summer-there
may be no visible evidence of their presence until tihe bottom is reached,
but here they will be found in great numbers, and when disturbed
scamper off in the greatest lhaste. This insect is almost invariably
present wherever the Indian-meal moth is found, and the list of the
food products that have been mentioned as subject to this moth's
attack will answer about equally well for the beetle.
As an instance of unusual trouble caused by this insect may be
mentioned the case cited by Taschenberg of the beetles l Pavinm" invaded
sleeping apartments adjoining a brewery where stores were kept and
annoying the sleepers at night by nipping them in their bels.
This beetle is a member of the family Cucujida'. It is only about
one-tenth tf am inclh long, slender, muc.h flattened, and of a liocwolate-






110 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

species all over the United States and is mainly responsible for the'
injury to canned fruits and pickles.
All of the species of Drosophila are probably rapid breeders. Care-
ful descriptions of the early stages of D. ampelophila and ). amwna
are given by Professor Comstock in the Annual Report of the Depart-.
ment of Agriculture for 1881-82. The first-named species he calls the
vine-loving pomace fly, and he met with it frequently in the course of
an investigation of the apple maggot (Trypeta pomondella), the flies en-
tering apples which had been injured by the Trypeta, completing the
work of disintegration and hastening decay. They are found com-
monly, according to Comstock, about the refuse of cider mills and fer-
menting vats of grape pomace. D. amoena he found to be associated
with the former species in apples previously damaged by the Trypeta.,
but it was not so abundant as D. ampelophila. The larvm of both















FIG. 51.-Drosophila amnpelophila: a, adult fly; antenna; c, base of tibia and first tarsal-joint; ,
puparium, side view ; e, same, dorsal view; f, larva; g, analsegmentof same-a, d, e,f, muchienlarged; :
b, c, g, still more enlarged (original).
species, and presumably other species of the genus as well, are fur-:
nished with strong anal spiracles through which the larvae is able to.
breathe by protuding simply the end of its body to the air. There are
also delicate tufts about the anal spiracles which may be branchial in '
their character.
Professor Forbes, in the Transactions of the Illinois State Horticul-
tural Society, 1884, mentions the damage done by D. ampelophila to the
grape crop at Moline, Ill. He states that they attack most frequently
grapes which have been mutilated by birds or damaged by rot, but
once having commenced on a cluster are likely to pass from one berry:
to another, the flies meantime constantly laying eggs.
Dr. Lintner, in his first report as State entomologist of New York,
mentions the habits of the European species, showing that B. cellaris
occurs in fermented liquids in cellars, such as wine, cider, vinegar, and
beer, and also in decayed potatoes. He also states that a species had
been sent to him as damaging flour paste. He had observed particu-]
larly a species which occurred in a jar of mustard pickles. The larva,





. .. ...7,.
126 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

victim relentlessly, even entering insect boxes infested by its h ot, as-:M
the writer had once occasion to observe. A diminutive mite, P.;& iokv:
loides ventricosus Newp., also preys upon this as well as upon macyo0ther .:
species of like habits, attacking it in its larval and pupal condition. '

THE CIGARETTE BEETLE. "
(Lasioderrma serricorne Fab.) -

*.. -.
VI




6 ,... .: .$
FIG. 63.-Lasioderma serricorne: a, larva; b, pupa; c, beetle; d, same, lateral view-a .HI
enlarged; e, antenna-much enlarged (author's illustration, reengraved).. ...
Another little beetle, superficially resembling the preceding, species
and having very similar habits, often occurs in houses. As its English |
name indicates, it is chiefly known as a destroyer of tobacco, and as nu oh
in the opinion of many thinking people, should be classified with.t e'ba- R
ficial insects. It is by no means so common as the drug-store A)epl :il,|
but it is on the increase and doubtless will in time be found to ave .;
nearly the same range of food materials. As a tobacco feeder it Aout- l
ranks that species, and also appears to fwror*^
\ /certain medicinal plants not so often affected< k
Sby the Sitodrepa. .. "-
-1: Of household supplies it has been .id.a "
m- in the experience of the writer as well a f ...
^^ l^^ others, infesting cayenne pepper, gingerrh, rim;-i
i Bbarb, rice, figs, yeast cakes, and prepared fish 1::
V^Bflsilk and plush upholstery, and has done cqn-
siderable damage to dried and preser ived |
(-^ ^ herbarium specimens in Washiugtou. Of!5
.W^ drugs it is partial to ergot and turmric and I4
S\ / tobacco it devours in every form, in the leaf .
Fie. 64.-Laioderma serrbne: and when made up into chewing pi og. .
Head of larva, shown above: leg rettes, and cigars.". : .... ,
of larva below-much enlarged This species is of about the same sie adI
(original). .i o. a t.. h., 4h
color as the drug-store beetle, but as M.yW~
be seen in the figure (63, a), is more robust and the elytra a rifot4
striated. The head is more prominent and the antennae arejk W4ply A
uniformly serrate, not ending in a three-jointed club (fig. 63^ )i;b[i:n
larva, represented at d in curved position at rest, is mona .vntdJL
~IF 4AhU
..... .V:.
J... ":. i :::....:






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND o'TI[ER INSECTS.


49


fringe of fifteen pairs of long legs. The last pair are much longer than
the others, in the female more than twice the length of the body. In
color it is of a grayish yellow, marked above with three longitudinllal
dark stripes. Examination of its mouth parts shows that they are very
powerful, and fitted for biting, indicating a predatory or carnivorous
habit.
The indications of its mouth parts are borne out by its food liabits,
besides being indicated by the known food hliabits of the other members
of the group of ceniitipedes to which it belongs. It was inferred, before
any direct observations were l ma(le, that its food was probably house
flies, roaches, and ally other insect ilihabitaiits of dwellings. Later
many direct observations have confirmed this inference, and in cap-






,,


4kt
///








Fi;. 17.-Scuttigera forceps: a, newly-hatch'.d individual; b, one of lI.g of
same; c. terminal .segment ,ol body .hlwin^ iiiiulovelopl'( legs Voilkhd up
wit hin--ll eularge'd originall).
tivity, on the authority of Professor Hargitt, it feeds readily on roachles,
house flies, and other insects. Miss Mutirttfeldt reports also having
observed specimens devouring small inothlis. During tlhe act of devour-
inig a moth they kept their numerous long legs vibrating with incredible
swiftness, s() as to give tlhe appearance of a hazy spot or space sur
rounding the tiuttering moth (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 25.S). It is sup-
posed also to feed on the bedbug. and doubtless will eat anlly insect
which it captures, and its quiickiess and agility leave few insects safe
from it.
Messrs. Fletcher and IIoward observed its mode of capturing the
croton bug, which is interesting as illustrating tlhe habits oft this centi-
pede and its allies. In this instance the centipede sprang over its
21470--No. 4--4






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


tea, will be noticed to have a peculiar, disgusting, foreign taste and
odor, the source of which may be a puzzle and will naturally be sup-
posed to come from the food rather than from the dish.
The roaches are normally scavengers in habit and may at times be of
actual service in this direction by eating up and removing any dead
animal material.
One other redeeming trait has been recorded of them, namely, that
they will prey upon that other grievous pest of houses which are not
subjected to careful supervision, the bedbug. Their habits in this direc-
tion have been recorded several times. One writer, in a narrative of a
voyage (Foster's Voyage, Vol. I, p. 373), makes the following statement
in this connection:
Cockroaches, those nuisances to ships, are plentiful at St. Helena, and yet, "bad as
they are, they are more endurable than bugs. Previous to our arrival hero in the
Chanticleer, we had suffered great inconvenience from the latter, but the cockroaches
no sooner made their appearance than the bugs entirely disappeared. The fact is
that the cockroach preys upon them and leaves no sign or vestige of where they have
been. So that it is a most valuable insect.'
The cockroach is, however, far too much of a nuisance itself to war-
rant its being recommended as a means of eradicating even the much
more disagreeable insect referred to.2
The local spread of roaches from house to house is undoubtedly
often effected by their being introduced with supplies, furniture, goods,
etc. That the Croton bug, or German roach, and probably the other
species also, may develop a migratory instinct has been witnessed by
Dr. Howard and the writer in Washington. (See Insect Life, Vol.
VII, p. 349.)
This very interesting instance of what seems to have been a true
migration, in which an army of thousands of roaches by one common
impulse abandoned their old quarters and started on a search for a more
favorable location, illustrates, as pointed out by Dr. Howard, what is
probably of frequent occurrence under the cover of darkness, and
accounts for the way in which new houses frequently become suddenly
overrun with these vermin.

1 Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1855, N. S. 3, p. 77.
2The following interesting letter from Mr. Herbert H. Smith, the collector and
naturalist, gives a vivid picture of the roach nuisance in the Tropics:
"Cockroaches are so common in Brazilian country houses that nobody pays any
attention to them. They have an unpleasant way of getting into provision boxes,
and they deface books, shoes, and sometimes clothing. Where wall paper is used
they soon eat it off in unsightly patches, no doubt seeking the paste beneath. But at
Corumba, on the upper Paraguay, I came across the cockroach in a new r6le. In the
house where we were staying there were nearly a dozen children, and every one of
them had their eyelashes more or less eaten off by cockroaches-a large brown spe-
cies, one of the commonest kind throughout Brazil. The eyelashes were bitten off
irregularly, in some places quite close to the lid. Like most Brazilians, these chil-
dren had very long, black eyelashes, and their appearance thus defaced was odd
enough. The trouble was confined to children, I suppose because they are heavy
sleepers and do not disturb the insects at work. My wife and I sometimes brushed
cockroaches from our faces at night, but thought nothing more of the matter. The
roaches also bite off bits of the toe nails. Brazilians very properly encourage the
large house spiders, because they tend to rid the house of other insect pests."


88






THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE.


33


failure of their usual source of food, the migratory instinct is devel-
oped, and escaping through windows, they pass along walls, water pipes,
or gutters, and thus gain entrance into adjoining houses. It is expe-
dient, therefore, to coiisider this insect, unsavory as the subject may
be, since, as shown, it may be anyone's misfortumie to have his premises
temporarily invaded.
As with nearly all tihe insects associated with inaI, tlhe bedbIgI lias
had the habits now characteristic of it as fi'r back as tlhe records run.
It was undoubtedly of common occurrence in the dwellings .of the
ancient peoples oftAsia. The Romnis were well acquainted with it giv-
ing it the name Cimex. It was supposed by Pliny (awl this was doubt-
less the common belief among the Itoinans) to have medicinal properties,
and it was recommended, among other things, as a specific for the bites
of serpents. It is said to have lbee1I first introduced into England in
1503, but the references to it are of such a nature as to make it very
probable that it had been there long previously. Two hundred and fifty













FIa. 8.- Cimnex 1'ctulariu.s. Egg anid ineowly halclihd larva of 1ilu)ig: a, lairva fromii below; b, larva
from above; c, claw ; d, eggM; r, hair (J piuc of larva-grcat1] Leilarge-l; natural size of larva and
egg indicated by hair lines (original).

years later it was reported to be very abundant in the seaport towns,
but was scarcely known inland. It hlias beei inferred that the following
reference from the old English Bible of 1551 is to this insect: "Thou
shalt not nede to be afriad for eny Bugges by night" (Psalm XCI, 5).
One of the old English names was "wall-louse." It was afterwards
very well known as the chinch," which continued to be thle common
appellation for it until within a century or two, and is still used in parts
of this country. The origin of the name "bedbug" is not known, but
it is such a descriptive one that it would seem to have been very natu-
rally suggested(l. Almost everywhere there are loc.il names for this
parasite, as, for illustration, around Boston they arc called chintzess"
and chinchess," and from Baltimore comes the name "mahogany flat,"
while in New York they are styled "red coats."
The bedbug has accompanied man wherever lie has gone. Vessels.
are almost sure to be infested with it. It is not especially limited by
cold, and is known to occur well north. It probably came to this
; 21470-No. 4- 3




.. ,. ,t .,.,; i +,. h ,, ,,
4I

104 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. ;:

In ten days the adult fly issues. Miss Murtfeldt was unable to make
the fly lay its eggs on fresh meat of any kind, nor did she find that it
was able to breed upon meat which was simply salty. The average
duration of adult larve, according to her observations, does not exceed
a week, and thus the entire life cycle may be concluded in three weeks.
These observations were made in August.
During February of the same year specimens of the same insect were
sent by a Kansas packing house to Mr. V. L. Kellogg, then of the |
Kansas State University. At that time of the year his breeding notes ,
show that the egg state occupied about four days, the larva state about ..
two weeks, and the pupa state one week.1 The adults lived in the 3
breeding jars from six days to two weeks after issuing from the puparia.
Larvae kept with ham and bacon did not I ake at all kindly to,_ cheese
to which they were removed. Careful observations on the lifebuistoryin
Europe have been made by Dr. H. F. Kessler.2 Dr. Kessler found that
the average time in developing from the egg to the adult is four to five
weeks, with two or three generations during the summer, the last
generation occurring in September, the larva over-wintering"Iin the
puparium and transforming to pupa in May. Other writ.er0s a y that
the insect passes the winter in the adult stage. :
As a cheese insect in this country this fly does not play awl:rpor-
tant a role as it does as an enemy to smoked meat. It is a ... .ter of"
observation that the mother fly seems to prefer the older- ardn $cher
___ m m** mm* m iN:') ii' . ... m m m m i*m
cheeses in which to deposit eggs. Her taste is excellent. while,
it is a fair thing to say that skipper" cheese is usually tlfrbiest, it
will hardly do to support the conclusion that it is good. bei4$e it is
skipperry" although this conclusion is current among a. c -lIass
of cheese eaters. With the abundance of the species :.fir.wtcking,
houses we have nothing to do in this connection. WhenKl:adlrring:
upon hams it seems to prefer the outer fatty portions.

REMEDIES.
. _'..
INm ,:m IN m .*: 'iN m m.


mites will answer equally well for the "skipper." Pofi~onj d 4eOese
and hams attacked should be cut out, shelves of~ pantriea^^efrapdb
kept scrupulously clean, and the kerosene-emulsion wash use4 wbeu it
has once been determined that the insect is present in number. .. Eyery.
crack should be carefully washed out, since the puparia wig 1..found
in such situations. Close screening of the windows of p n i..s".....
advised to keep out the fly. m m *m mm:::* :m*. m .
'Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., Vol. XIII, 114-115. .. : :;:" '
Bericht d. Ver. f. Naturk. z. Cassel, Vols. XXIX n. XXX, pp. ', ;



... . ...... HF.... : ... .... ...... ...... :.. ...
.11 H*H
..:






BULLETIN No. 4.-NEW SERIES, REVISED EDITION.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.



THE PRINCIPAL


HOUSEHOLD

OF THE

UNITED S!

BY


INSECTS


-FATES.


L. 0. hOWARD ANI) C. L. MARLATT.

wIrTH A C'iIAi'TER ON

INSEfTS AFFECTING DRY VEGETABLE FOODS.
BY
1. 1. CIIITTENDTN"---,^

/ *>*. -*


US. Oi ,
,p


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1896.






SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE HAMS, FRUIT, ETC.


THE RED-LEGGED HAM BEETLE.
(VNecrid ijllr i ,'. i )h*(;.)
Two or three species of smallI beetles belongi lg to tl fIamLily l('eridr;.,
and which are normally scavengers, feed o(tccasioally p11n died meats
and other stored animal products. The most abndililaat onel( ill this
country is the species il(licate(l in the title. It is a small, rLtler sleA -
der beetle of dlark bluish color, wvitli reddish legs. Its Lirva, is ,;t slender
worm, and is at first white, witli a brown head an4d two small hooks ait
the end of the body. As it becomes older it become's dar'kel', aid when
full grown is grayish white, with a series of brown pat.ltes above. It
is then rather more than one-hlal" ail inchl ill length and transforms
within a paper-like cocoon. From the al)ppearance of this cocoomi the
itisect l.as become known
as the "lla)er wormi" to
dealers in hams and dried
Ineats.
Ntrrobi" riltip." 1 a. Cos-
C, lpolital species, ,occur-
--Jring all oNvelr txe Iinite(l
6 States, i Eunrope, Auistra-
;iha, Africa, anda the East
ShJII(lies. Itkis larllya slie-






is means uncommon, and is particularly allldant ein t West

siderable stretching or fraying of tpes: canva s covering
of" samne: c, ;Atilt beetle--a, e, ent].'r-ed; extrellil( y abull (hlilt anld



As indicated above, this insect is not confined to hans for its od, ut
lives byupon other dead animal mattered is partilarly amidant in tile, est
and South.
The injuries caused by this insect are gtee~mrlly dtie to catreless- p:.-(k-
ing of hamns or to the aceidlental cutting or c-racking or" e%'(11 to a (,oil.
siderable stretching or fraying of the canvas 'overing.
As indicated above, this insect Is not confinedI to, hatins for its, fti(, bl, ~t
lives upon other dead animal matter, not always waiting, hwNeverlas (Io
certain other insects, for decomp)ositionl to set in before beginning its
attacks. The beetle, appearing iin May or June, cithlier having 1bred ill
the storehouse or storeroom in question, or having tiowN in tfrolmi the
outside, is attracted to the hams, an(l wherever it c(an titul the slightest
bit of exposed meat it lays a number of minute, narrow, whitish eggs.
Such hams as have been injured by overheating or by hanging too l)izng
in the sun, from rain, and particularly those which have become slimy
from lying too long in the pile, are those which attract it most; but it
never seems to lay eggs except where the meat is more or less exposed,


105






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


75


rebuild three frame buildings in VWaslhingto in .olsepelen.e of the
work of this insidious foe.
Damage of the sort mentioned(l has occurred as far north as l-oston,
but, as stated, greatly increases as one appl)roaches tlhe Tropics, where the
warmth and moisture are especially suited to thel development and tul-
tiplication of these insects. Here houses and furniture are never safe
from attack. Tle sudden crumbling into masses of dust of cliairs, desks,
or other furniture, and the mining and destruction of collectio s of books
and papers, are matters of common experience, very little hint of the
damage being given by a surface inspection, even whenv the interior of
timbers or boards lias been thioroughlly eaten out, leaving a mere paper
shell. While cotnfining their work almost solely to moistened or decay-
ing timbers or vegetable material of any sort, books, and papers that
are somewhat moist, they are known to work also in living trees, carry-
ing their mines through thie moist and nearly dead heart wood. In this
way some valuable trees iii Boston were so injured as to make their
removal necessary. In Florida they are often the cause of great dam nage
to orange trees, working around the crowns and in the roots of trees.
They are sometimes also the occasion of considerable loss in conselrva-
tories, attacking cuttings and the roots of plants. In prairie regions
also their work must necessarily be of the latter nature.
The white ant is not confined to country places, but is just as apt to
occur in the midst of towns, and especially in buildings which are stir-
rouu.ded by open lawns containing growing trees and flower beds richly
manured.
The first means of protection, therefore, consists in surrounding all
libraries or buildings in which articles of value are stored with clear
spaces and graveled or asphalted walks. The normal habit of these
insects of breeding in decaying stumps and Lpartially rotted posts or
boards immediately suggests tlhe wisdom of the prompt removal of all
such material which would otherwise facilitate the formation or per-
petuation of their colonies. Complete dryness in buildings is an impor-
taut means of rendering them safe from attack, and the presence of
flying termites at any time in the spring or summer should be followed
immediately by a prompt investigation to locate the colony and deter-
mine the possibilities of damage. The point of emergence of winged
individuals may approximately, ihoughr not always, indicate the location
of the colony, and if it can be got at by tle removal of flooring or
opening the walls, the colony may 1)be destroyed by ther removal of the
decaying or weakened timbers and a thorough drenchling with steam,
hot water, or, preferably, kerosene or some other lpetroleum oil. Tlhe
destruction of winged individuals as they emerge is of no value what-
ever; the colony itself must be readcied or future damage will not be
interfered with in the least. If tlhe colony be inaccessible it may some-
times be possible to inject into the walls or crevices, from which the
winged individuals are emerging, kerosene in sufficient jiuantity to
reach the main nest, if the conditions be such as to indicate that it may






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


21


into our Southern States, if it proves to be new to our faunall. At B,.ee
ville, Tex., a little fish is used for this purpose which is there called a
perch, although we have not been able to find out just what the species
is. They soon eat up the mosquito larva', li~owever, and in order to keep
them alive the people adopt an ingenllious fly trap, which they keep in
their houses and in whicil, about a quart of flies a day is caught. These
flies are then fed to the fislh. This makes a little circle which strikes
us as particularly ingenious and pleasant. The fly traps catch the
flies and rid the house of that pest. The flies are fed to the fish in
thie water tanks and keel) theln alive in order that they may feed on
the mosquito larvae, thus keeping the houses free of mosquitoes.
Where kerosene is considered objectionable, and where fish (can not
be readily obtained, there is another course left open. It is the con-
stant artificial agitation of the water, since mosquitoes will oviposit
only in still water. At San Diego, Tex., in thle summer there are no
streams for many miles, but plenty of mosquitoes breed in the water
tanks. Some enterprising individuals keep their tanks free by putting
in a little wheel, which is turned by the windmill, and keeps the water
almost constantly agitated.

THE MOSQUITOES OF THE COUNTRY AT LARGE.
In the introductory paragraph the writer has indicated that we have
numerous species among tlhe mosquitoes of the United States and that
several different species may occur in the same locality. It happens,
however, that no definite knowledge exists, even among entomologists
as to the exact species which may be found in any given locality. The
desirability of a careful study of our mosquitoes is therefore apparent.
As a preliminary step, the writer borrowed all of the mosquitoes from
the collections of Prof. Lawrence Bruner, of the University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Nebr.; Prof. J. H. Comstock, of Cornell University, Ithaca,
N. Y.; Prof. H. Garman, of the agricultural experiment station at
Lexington, Ky.; Prof. C. P. Gillette, agricultural experiment station,
Fort Collins, Colo.; Prof. C. W. Johnson, Wagner Free Institute, Phil-
adelphia, Pa.; Prof. Otto Lugger, agricultural experiment station,
St. Anthony Park, Miun.; Dr. W. A. Nason, Algonquin, Ill.. and MIr.
Th. Pergande, Washington, D. C. TIe mniaterial thus received, together
with the collection of Culicida' of the department of insects in tlhe
National Museum, was placed in the hands of Mr. D. W. Coquillett fir
specific study.
The results of this study were interesting. Mr. Coquillett lhad under
his hands mosquitoes from nearly all portions of thIe United States.
He found that the material represented twenty different species, of live
genera, and was able to make out some important synonymical facts.
In the distribution of certain species the results were unexl)e(ted. It
was found that some of tlhe commoner forms, viz. (Culc. coll.wobril.s.
C. excitans, C. perturbans, C. )oSticu6tt0s8 C. pngclha, 'roopho/ra tli,, 1.




: "K;;^ *: 1
" : :.:" = "X "I
: "..

.. : : :. ... .





CHAPTER VII.

SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HAMS, FRUIT, AND VI5NGAL

By L. 0. HOWARD.

THE CHEESE, HAM, AND FLOUR MITES.

(Tyroglyphus longior L. and T. siro Gerv.)

Very minute, more or less colorless, eight-legged creatures swarm in
numbers over and in old cheese and various stored products, such as
dried meats, dried fruit, vanilla, and flour of different kinds. The
species may be distinguished by the illustrations. Tyroglypi longqior







F. .:i P




















Fin. 46.-Tyroglyphuu longior: a, female; b, male-greatly enlarged (after CaB6Btwlaii).
'/* t :":'':













is more rapid in its movements, larger in size, with longer and 'more cyl-
indrical body, and longer and more numerous shining hairs sticking out
on the sides. The two species are frequently found feeding in. common.
Both species are common to Europe and the United States, and both,.
have probably been carried to all parts of the world in thod supplies.'
100
1UO : .- -..
: .. "...* ":.






53


HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, ANDI) OTHER INSECTS.


a harbinger of good and indicative of clheerfulness and plenty, or to
give rise to melancholy a dL to betoketn niisfort ii prevails, however, and( Cowper expresses the dominion lbelief that tlie-
Sounds inhlarnmniomim in themselves andi harsh,
Yet heard in scenes where, penceC forever reigns,
And only there, please highly for their sake.
The common name ''cricket" is descrilptive of its cheerful, chirping
note, and is derived from tlhe ijnitative French ipular imlle h cricri"
(from criquer). Similar descriptive names are applied to it in many
foreign tongues.
The introduction of the domestic cricket fit Europe into Aimerica
was probably at a very early latet, at least iii portions of flit,' country.
Kaln, a careful and scientific observer, writing in 174- of, this insect,
says that they are "4 abundant in Canada,
especially in the country, where these dis- N
agreeable guests lodge in the chimneys;
nor are they uncommon inll tie towns. -
They stay here both summer and winter, & /
and frequently cut clothes in pieces for i
pastime." The year before, however, lie v i.
writes that he had not met with them in /,
any of the houses in Pennsylvania or -_
New Jersey.1
The occurrence of this insect in Canada F
in comparative abundance ihas since been I;k
confirmed by Provanclier and Caulfield, A A \
and in various Eastern towns in tlie 20.-rju ner a, male
TT *j _ -ii. ^ z, T-I /11i lfl. 20.--/;r>/llu. United Statesby U hler, (lover, and otliers. h,. iii.,.,1e-,,ati ,i:i Si/z (O i ai:l,).
It has also been observed in various States
westward to and beyond tlhe Mississippi. It does not seem to be at
all common on this continent, however, except in "Canada, aind tlhe more
familiar insect to most Americans is one or othlier (t our brown isli-black
field crickets, which often enter houses aidt accomnimidate tliemselves
to domesticity almost as completely as tHlie true Eurol)e;an hlearth
cricket. Our native crickets ire miore robust and o)f larger size, but
present the same tendency of location a-n(d food habits as their Euro-
peau relatives. A species ( Grylis (.ssimilis Falh.) often 1oilnd1 inll
houses in Washington is represented in tig. 21. Tlie tbllowing account
of the imported domestic cricket applies in tlie main also to any of our
native species which are acquiring domiesticity. Our species are, low-
ever, not known to breed iln houses, although it is Iot a:t all improb-
able that this is now occasionally true of sme, f' t lhem..
The house cricket belongs to, the p.inliig or saltt ritl nfaily (if the
Orthoptera, being closely allied to tlhe common field crickets and the
curious mole cricket. The normal mode of progression is by a series .of
'Travels, Vol. I, p. 318 ; iI, p. 256.






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


amusing way both sectional and racial prejudlices. [li north Germany
these roaches are known as "1Schwaben," a name which applies to tihe
inhabitants of south Germany, and the latter section "even up"by call-
ing them "Preussen," after the north Germans. In east Germany they
are called "Russen," and in west Germany "lFrazosen," the two latter
appellations indicating a certain national antipathy to rival countries
as well as a fanciful idea as to origin. Still other ltames are "Spaniier,"
dating from the time of Charles V, anld "Dinle," from 1)eniiark.

DISTRIBUTION ANDI) HISTORY.
The roaches belong to a very extensive family, the Blattidve, com-
paratively few of which, fortunately, have beconie domesticated. In
temperate countries some four or five species are very ('ommon house-
hold pests, and a few occur wild in woods; but they arc essentially
inhabitants of warm countries, and in the Tropics the house species are
very numerous, and the wild species occur in great number and variety,
many of them being striking in shape, coloration, and size, one species
expanding more than 6 inches. The inability of tihe domestic roaclies -
to withstand unusual cold was illustrated by the fact that tlhe severe
weather in the winter of 1894 in Florida, which was so destructive to
the citrus groves, on the authority of Mr. H. G. Hubbard, destroyed
all the roaches, even those in houses, except a few unusually well pro-
tected. Under suitable conditions in the more northern latitude tlhe
domestic species often multiply prodigiously, and even in the far north
a species occurs in the huts of the Laplanders, and sometimes entirely
devours the stores of dried fish put away for winter consumniption.
While the domestic species are few in number, nearly a thousand
species of Blattide have been described and preserved in collections,
and it is estimated that perhaps upward of 5,000 species occur at the /
present time in different l)arts of the world. The great majority of the
roaches live out of doors, subsisting on living vegetation, and occasion-
ally in warm countries are very injurious to cultivated plants.
The roach is one of the most, primitive and ancient insects, in the
sense of its early appearance on the globe, fossil remains of roaches
occurring in abundance in the early coal formnations, ages before tlhe
more common forms of insect lite of the present day lihad begun to
appear. The species now existing are few in number in comparison
with the abundance of forms in the Carboniferous age, which might
with propriety be called the age of cockroaches, the moisture and
warmth of that distant period being alike favorable to plant growth
and the multiplication of this family of insects.
The house roaches of today were undoubtedly very early associated
with man in his primitive dwellings, and through the agency of com-
merce have followed him wherever navigation has extended In fact,
on shipboard they are always especially nuimerus aIdl troublesome.
the moisture and heat of the vessels being particularly favorable to


85






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


derived from witnessing its nuptial spring light, when the small,
brownish, ant-like creatures with long glistening white wings emerge
from cracks in tlhe ground or from crevices inll buildings, swarming out
sometimes in enormous numbers, so that they may often be swept up
by the quart. These winged individuals are not thle ones which do tlhe
damage, however, and are a mnere co'lnizinlg forill. Tihe real dpredi-
tors are soft-bodied, large-lheaded, milky-white insects, less than a
quarter of an inch in length, which may ol'ten be bound in numbers
under rotting boards or in decaying stumps. These last are the work-
ers and soldiers (fig. ;31, v and ,i), and constitute the bulk of the colony
for most of the year, thle winged migrating forms, consisting of tlhe
sexed individuals, appearing normally only once a year, usually in
spring or early summer.
The white ants present, inl an entirely distinct (order of insects,
another of those most curious problems of communal societies which
find so many examples among tlhe ants, bees, and wasps. A colony of
white ants includes workers, soldiers, the young of tlhe various forms,
and, at the proper season of the year, tlhe winged males and females;
also a single parent pair, the specially developed king and queen. In
the case of the common white ant of this country (Termcxs flt rilpes), the
true fully developed queen or mother of the colony and her consort,
the fully developed king or male, have never been found. The soldiers
or workers are degraded or undeveloped individuals of both sexes,
differing in this respect from ants and bees, in which tlie workers are
all undeveloped females.
The economy of the termites is almost exactly analogous to that of
the ants and bees. The workers attend to alnil the duties of the colony,
make the excavations, build the nests, care for tihe young, and protect
and minister to the wants of the queen or mother ant. In this they are /
assisted somewhat by lie soldiers, whose duty, however, is also pro-
tective, their enormous development of head and jaws indicating their
rble as the fighters or defenders of the colony. Both the workers and
soldiers are blind. The colonizing individuals (liffer from thlie others in
being fully developed sexually and iin possession of very long wings,
which normally lie flat over each other, the upper wings concealing the
lower, and both projecting beyond the abdomen. These wings have a
very peculiar suture near the base, where they can lbe readily broken
off, leaving mere stumps. At the time of the spring flight the winged
individuals emerge from the colony very rapidly, frequently swarming
in clouds out of doors, and after a short flight fall to thie ground and
very soon succeed in breaking off their long, clumsy wingsat the suture
referred to. In this swarming or nuptial flight they come out in pairs
and under favorable conditions each pair might establish a new colony,
but in point of fact this probably rarely if ever happens. They are
weak flyers, clumsy, and not capable of extensive locomotion on foot.
and are promptly preyed upon and destroyed by many insectivorous
animals, and rarely indeed (1o any of tlhe individuals escape.


71














HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS THAT ARE
ANNOYING RATHER THAN DIRECTLY INJURIOUS.

By L. 0. IIOWARD :1id1 C. L. 1M.\I:I.JA'TT.

HOUSE FLIES.
( .1Mtsca ,lomn licu, et al.)
In common parlaiee tlere is ibut one house fly, although a number of
species -ire in the habit of entering houses and cause more, or less
ianioyance. The most abindant form is thle house fly proper (1)1.s.,.
ldo),.'licaC Linni.). It is a medium-sized, grayish fly, with its mouth
parts spread out at the tip for sucking up liquid substafices. It breeds
in manure and dooryard filth anid is foiulid in nearly all parts of the







iC














e
Fila. 13.-Musea dunmetira: a, andulit male; 1, proboscis an;l palpWs of same; c, terminal i,,iil of
antenna ; id. head lf I'eimn.ile; ', pupariuni; f, anterior *4pir.l'h -:ill 01iilr,_Ci1 ('iiiiii1
world. On account of the 'onformiatioi o t'its miouitli parts, thie iLIse
fly can not bite, yet no impressiOli is stronger in t lie minds of most
people than that this insect does occasionally bite. Thisi imipressioi is
due to the frequent occurrence in houses of another fly (Som.r,/x (c(lci.
trans), which nmaiy be called tlihe stable fly, iand] which, while closely
resembling the house fly (so closely, in fact, as to deceive anyone bulit ian
4:1





128 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

The larva is white and of the usual ptinid form, quite similar-to that ....
of the drug-store beetle, and feeds, like that species, in a little globu-.
lar case of delicate construction and composed of the material that it ',
infests, and which it cements loosely together. The development of
this species is said to be annual in Europe. It has been carried
through all its transformations here at Washington in about three and
a half months, the pupal period lasting thirteen days.
SThe adult beetles are nocturnal and may be found in the dead of
winter crawling upon the walls of cellars and unheated buildings.

THE BROWN SPIDER BEETLE.
(Ptinus brunneus Duft.)
The last of the domestic Ptinidae that will require special notice is
the one above mentioned, and which, as previously stated, differs from
its congener chiefly in lacking the white marking on its elytra. Nor is
there probably any degree of difference in habits and life history
beyond the recorded list of food materials observed for each species.
Both occur in the same locations, not unusually living together in
apparent harmony. Like Pt. fur, it is disposed to be omnivorous and
is somewhat of a scavenger, frequenting cellars and attics, storehouses,
henhouses, and pigeon lofts, being competent to eke out a living almost
anywhere where anything animal or vegetable is stored. Among the
different substances that afford it sustenance are books, feathers, skins,
dried mushrooms, and the excrement of rats and other domestic
animals. It sometimes gets into drugs, aud is recorded to have attacked
musk root and the powdered leaves of senna and jaborandi.

SPECIES OF OCCASIONAL OCCURRENCE IN VEGETABLE STORES.
The following insects are so often found in dry vegetable foods as to
deserve brief mention. Like preceding species, they are cosmopolitan
in distribution and occur in the greatest numbers in tropical climates.
The granary weevil (Calandra granaria Linn.), a small dark-brown
species about an eighth of an inch long, is very partial to the pearled
barley used in the preparation of soups, and the chick-pea, a legumi-
nous seed cultivated for the same purpose in tropical countries.
A similar species, the rice weevil (C. oryza Linn.), which, with the
preceding, is most destructive in stored grain, as an adult insect some-
times invades boxes of cakes, crackers, yeast cakes, macaroni, and
similar breadstuffs, and is said to attack chestnuts, bird seed, and even
to injure tobacco. It also breeds in rice and in cracked corn and other
cereals that are sufficiently coarse for the purpose.
Two weevils belonging to the family Bruchidae, of wide distribution,
and. known respectively as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum Linn.) and
the bean weevil (B. obtectus Say), lay their eggs upon ripening peas and
beans in our gardens and thence find their way to our tables, being

S:






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


employed in England and on the conltiinent 4f FAtrap<1 as a meals of col-
lecting and destroying roaches. These devices arc all so cmnstructed
that the roaches may easily get into tlheii :md ('ld ,I not afterwards
escape. The destruction of the roac ies is eficctted either by the liIlluid
into which they fall or by do(ising them with hot water, A few of tihe
common forms of traps a1ld tie methods of using thienmi atre crc
described.
A French trap consists of a box containing an attractive', lait, tlhe
cover of which is replaced by fiur glass plates inclined toward tile
center. The roaches fall from the covering glasses into thle 1box a dl are
unable to escape. A similar trap used iII En'glangmd is dlescrilbed by
Westwood. It consists of a small wooden ,box in which a circular hol
is cut in the top and fitted with a glass ring, so th;'t it is ijmpossilde fi'r
theroaches to escape. This trap is baited nightly, ad11( tle c:atch tlhrowI
each morning into boiling water. A simpler form of trap, which I ani
informed by Mr. F. C. Pratt is very successfully used in London, En'g-
land, consists of any deep vessel or jar, against which a minimnber of
sticks are placed, and bent over so that they project into tlhe interior of
the vessel for a few inches. Tihe vessel is partially filled with stale beer
or ale, a liquid for which roaches seem to have a special fondness. In
the morning these vessels are found charged with great qiaittities of
dead and dying roaches, which have 'limbed up tie inclined sticks and
slipped off into the vessel. We have had fair success with this last
method against the oriental roach in Washlimmgton, but against the more
wary and active Croton bug it is compare lively useless.
Traps of the sort described, placed in pantries or bakeries, will unques-
tionably destroy great quantities of roaches, and keep them. perhaps,
more effectively in check than the use of the trouhblesonme insect powders
or thle distribution of poisoned bait, especially as tlhe latter are so often
ineffective.
NATURAL ENEMIES, AND PARASITES.
The common European egg I)parasite of the roach, Ernnmivt ppendi-
gaster, is now probably widely distributed. It occurs iII tino Uimited
States and has also been found in Cuba. Unfortunately, its usefulness
is largely impaired by the occurrence of a secondary parasite, Ent'lon
hagenowi, which preys upon and destroys tlhe first, and lhas also been
introduced into this country with it.
A correspondent informs us also that tle co mmn t ree frog will clear
rooms of roaches over night very efrectually.

HOUSE ANTS.
(Moiomoriitint phariaon is. el fi.)
There are a number of species of ants often, occurring in Ihouses, tlhe
more important of which are comnimon to botl hemnislhieres, and are
probably of Old World origin. One of' these, the little red ant (Munomo-
rium pharaonis Linn.), has become thoroughly domesticated ;id( passes


95






102 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

spot where another cheese or food in some other form is at hand. It
is in this way, as well as by the more readily understood means, that
new cheese becomes infested and that the insect makes its appearance
in pantries supposed to be perfectly clean.

REMEDIES AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

When we consider the great hardihood and extreme tenacity of life
of this insect in the Hypopus condition, abud the fact that almost every
flying or crawling thing may become its common carrier, the difficulty
of disinfecting a storeroom and of keeping it disinfected becomes very
plain. Nothing, in fact, but the utmost cleanliness and watchfulness
will prevent the appearance of the mites. When they have once entered
a cheese, for example, there is no remedy except to cut out the infested
portions. All energies must be bent toward prevention. If a given
room seems to be badly infested it should be cleaned out, fumigated
with sulphur, and washed out thoroughly with kerosene emulsion.
Food supplies liable to be infested should be inspected daily during
hot weather.
It is a point of considerable interest and of some practical account
that there often occur, where these mites are present in numbers, one or
more species of predaceous mites which feed exclusively on the injurious
individuals and tend to greatly lessen their numbers. Some years ago
a gentleman in Milwaukee sent the writer some thousands of mites
which were found in a bin of wheat in an old elevator. They occurred
in such numbers that every morning a quart or more could be swept
up below the spout where they had sifted out. An examination of
specimens sent showed that three species of predaceous mites were
present among the others, and one of them was so numerous that there
was no hesitation in writing to the Milwaukee gentleman that the pre-
daceous mites would probably soon destroy'the wheat feeders a:4nd thus
the pest of mites would correct itself. The prediction was speedily
verified in part a week or so later, when the correspondent wrote: "As
you say, the parasitic mites have largely destroyed the smaller ones,
and I suppose when their food is all gone they will die of starvation."

THE CHEESE SKIPPER OR HAM SKIPPER.
(Piophila c8asei Linn.)
A small, glistening, black, two-winged fly lays its eggs on cheese,
smoked ham, and chipped beef. The eggs hatch into small white cylin-
drical maggots which feed upon the cheese or meat and rapidly reach
full growth, at which time they are one-fifth of an inch in length. The
maggot is commonly called skipper" from its wonderful leaping pow-
ers, which it possesses in common with certain other fly larvs, all of
which are devoid of legs. The leap is made by bringing the two ends
of the body together and suddenly releasing them like a spring. In
this way it will sometimes jump 3 or 4 inches.
" . :':
* :. ^ .*






SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HIAMS, FRUUIT, ETC.


This insect, like so miany 1 tlier olutselioli1 species, is coSsliml(dit11tan,
and was doubtless originally itnilmrted f'rInt i irpe iito tlhe i it.ed
States.
Careful observations i th ie lif listiory of this speci- lha;ivte beenll
Made by several writers. Ili 18922 I1iss .M. iE. MIrtieldt. whose atten-
Stion was called to thle S'pcCies 0Hn ac(c.Itl1t 1 ,ol lll' te:rL;It (daaIi:ige which it
was representedl to be (ohiig ill certain Western packing an1d1 cling
A establishments, studied the life liistory oi' 1the sullmile.r Clner.;tioll.!
SThe eggs were shown by Miss Mitrtrldit tio 1' l'lpolsit ed ill 1i1r10o r( less
Compact clusters of from 5 to 15 aIId also scattered sidgly. I1 her
Observation jars tlhe average ninibtr was :i to a si nlg' feiniale. ltit i is
Possible that under these a:liorilal t ioditioiis tl uiieiil,'r Wais sinaller








;~~ %''i^
ANN'





P:AA
I .







A




Fio. 4$.-Pinphila casei: a. i.arva:1 b. ]ip:-irinm e '. i pa: d. ri.t, fl\ : r. ;marilm u ih "viL." f'iill'l-:-d ll
ivilar-,,'d original.

than usual. The egg is white, slender, oblong, sliglitly curved, 1 inii.
in length, witli a diameter of about oe-oi-rth its lenlgtil. litliil
takes place within thirty-six hliours. The larva is cylindrical, tampering
gradually toward anterior end. and truincate iosteriorly, funt ishlied at
hinder extremity with two lhorny projectiig stigimata and a pair of
fleshy filaments. The larva comJple'tes its growth il, from seven to eight
days, attaining a length of fromn 7 to 9 mil. W ii' feeding, it' t lie ti
Supply is sufficient it does not.t move about imucih. (entire clusters (d1
Slarvae often completing their growth iiln tle same crevice ill which the
mother flies deposited tlieir eggs. When mature, however, it nmlives
away to some dry spot, contracts in length, assumiies a yellowish color,
and gradually forms into a golden-browni pupariu ilm 4 tir. 5 ii.ii inll length.
'Insect Liti', Vol. VI, pp. 171-17-5.


103






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


molting. -They either stuck to the crumbs, which were rather greasy,
or1 to the sides of the glass, which had also become somewhat greasy.
On the same date the larvre in thle dry vessel, from which these ten
had been removed, commenced to spin up. Many were restlessly run-
ning about in search of suitable places for spinning, and some had even
reached the top of the blotting paper. A thin layer of gray cotton
wa-s placed between the two blotting papers to give them suitable
spinning l)laces. The eggs hatched in two days, having been kept dry
all thle time. The first skin was cast two days after hatching, and the
beginning of spinning occurred eight days after hatching.
By July 19 no more specimens lhad spun up and many had died. The
receptacle seemed to be too dry and too hot, and the blotting paper was
somewhat moistened. But one pupa was found, which was that of a
larva which began to spilt July 15. July 21 no others had spun up,
although they were still very lively. The pupa had become brownish.
July 22 the adult flea issued over night and escaped through the cov-
ering. From that time until July 29 no more spun cocoons, and many
of them died. On July 30 one of the survivors commenced to spin,
twenty-four days after hatching. The cocoon is delicate, white in
color, and is very well shown at fig. 5.
On August 2 this larva, which commenced to spin July 21, changed
to pupa. On August 6 it was still white in color, becoming somewhat
yellowish on the 7th and quite brown on the 8th. On the 9th the adult
flea was found to have issued overnight. The pupa state, therefotbre,
lasted about eight days, and it. is to be noted that the pupa remains
white until shortly before the emergence of the adult. It was supposed
that the pupa stage in this instance was. longer than usual, on account
of the fact that the larval stage was so very much longer than in the
first instance.
On July 11 another series of experiments was started, in order to
gauge the variation in the duration of the stages and settle the ques-
tion of the number of larval molts. Eggs collected on this date
hatched July 13. On July 16, of fifteen larvae eleven had cast the first
skin. On July 18 five specimens cast the second skin. Jbly 19 the
weather was extremely warm and a number of the larva died. July20
the heat continued, and more died. On July 23 seven larvae which had
cast the first skin remained; one of them had begun to spin up. There
were on the morning of this date three cast skins in the receptacle, so
that there are apparently three molts. In this final state the bristles'
have become longer and the mandibles have two teeth at the apex.
The remaining four were carried on until August 8, when the last one
d(lied, none of them having succeeded in casting a third skin. Of the
entire lot, but one was reared to the pupa state, and this pupa was
preserved in alcohol for drawing. The record of this advanced speci-
men shows three molts, and that it began to spin eight days after
hatching. The average of the others shows that the eggs hatch in


28






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 119

the illustration (lig. 56, a). The outer two-thirds ot the tifire-%il ls ari.
reddish brown, with a coppery luster; the inner portion and the hind.
wings are light dirty ,
grayish. The larva,
or caterpillar, shown ,
at e, d, e, and./ mieas-
ures when full grown n
about half an inch and a
varies in color, being il a
whitish, with light i
rose, yellowish or b ce
greenish tints. The Fin. 5at.--Ila ini i,, iunictfla a, m,,thl; r fhrysdis C, (.terpil.
pupa (b)is light brown lar, lateral ivw. .. di,-sal view- somewhat enlarged; it, hall.
and r, first albdlo inal I egui-nt 0 f' catvr-pillar--more i-rnlarged (au.
in color. thor's illustrate ion).
The eggs are minute and white, and are deposited, to the nuisoer of
350, singly and in groups o)f frozn three to a dozeii or more 11pon0
whatever substance the female mnay see fit to select for the susteanlce
of her offspring. In lour or more days they hatch, alnd ill four or lnore
weeks another brood is prodIetd. In this manner a succession of
generations appears which will vary, according to the temperature of
the building that the insect inhabits, fr-om four to possibly six or seven
a year.
The caterpillars spin a certain aniountit of silk as te r fee(d joilning
together particles of their food and excrement, and thus injure for food
several times the amount of material that they consume. When fully
matured they crawl hither and thither, trailing large quantities of their
silken threads after them, in their search fbr a suitable place for trans-
formation, and finally surround themselves in a cylindrical silken web,
in which they change to chrysalids and then to moths.

TIlE MEAL SNOUT-MOTH.
(Pyralisfarinalis Linn.)
This species in its nature condition is the most attractive of all
household insects. It measures across its expanded fore-wings UpWard










Fi'i. 57.-_)yralia farinali.: a, adult motlh; k, larva; e, pupa in crncon-
twice natulnd size (antlrit's illusr;tion. rengrawe-ul).

of three-quarters of an inch. Its dark colors are of different shades
of brown, with reddish reflections; the lighter .olors are whitish and






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


absence of the occupants is undoubtedly due to the development of
a brood of fleas in the dust in the cracks of the floor from eggs which
have been dropped by some pet dog or cat. This overrunning is
more liable to occur in moist than in excessively dry summer weather,
and it is more likely to occur during the absence of the occupants of
the house, for the reason that the floors do not, under such circum-
stances, receive their customary sweeping. The use of carpets or
straw minattings, in our opinion, favors their development under the cir-
cumstances above mentioned. The young larvae are so slender and so
active that they readily penetrate the interstices of both sorts of cover-
ings and find an abiding place in some crack where they are not likely
to be disturbed.
That it is not difficult to destroy this flea in its early stages is shown
by the difficulty we have had in rearing it; but to destroy the adult fleas
is another matter. Their extreme activity and great hardiness render
any but the most strenuous measures unsuccessful. In such cases we
have tried a number of the ordinarily recommended remedies in vain.
Even the persistent use of California buhach and other pyrethrum
powders, and, what seems still stranger, a free sprinkling of floor mat-
ting with benzine, were ineffectual in one particular case of extreme
infestation. In fact, it was not until all the floor mattings had been
taken up and the floor washed down with hot soapsuds that the flea
pest abated. In another case, however, the writer found. that a single
application of California buhach, freely applied, was perfectly success-
ful; and in a third case a single thorough application of benzine also
resulted in perfect success. The pyrethrum application was made in a
Brooklyn (N. Y.) house, and the benzine application in a Washington
residence. The frequently recommended newspaper remedy of placing
a piece of raw meat in the center of a piece of sticky flypaper has been
thoroughly tried by the writer, without the slightest success. As a
palliative measure, however, the plan adopted by Professor Gage in
the'McGraw Building of Cornell University, and described at length
on page 422 of Vol. VII, Insect Life, may be worth trying. It will be
remembered that Professor Gage tied sheets of sticky fly paper, with
the sticky side out, around the legs of the janitor of the building, who
then for several hours walked up and down the floor of the infested
room, with the result that all or nearly all of the fleas jumped on his
ankles, as they will always do, and were caught by the fly paper.
In his recent summary of the described fleas (Canadian Entomolo-
gist, August, 1895, pp. 221-222) Mr. C. F. Baker shows that there are
forty-seven valid species, which attack all sorts of warm-blooded
animals. The species which we have just considered (Putsx serrati-
ceps Gervais) is, as he states, the common cat and dog flea, well known
over all parts of the world. Mr. Baker further states that, "besides
the various wild cats and dogs, it has been reported from Herpestes
ichneumon (Pharaoh's rat), Foetorius putorius (common polecat of


30






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


of value. The great desideratum, however, in a case of this kind, is a
daily inspection of beds and bedding and of all crevices and locations
about the premises where these vermin may have gone for conceal-
ment. A vigorous campaign should, in the course of a week or so at
the outside, result in the extermination of this very obnoxious and
embarrassing pest. In the case of rooms containing books or where
liquid applications are inadvisable, a thorough fumigation with brim-
stone is, on the authority of Dr. J. A. Lintner, New York State ento-
mologist, an effective means of destruction. He says:
Place in the center of the room a dish containing about 4 ounces of brimstone,
within a larger vessel, so that the possible overflowing of the barningmass may not
injure the carpet or set fire to the floor. After removing from the room all such
metallic surfaces as might be affected by the fumes, close every aperture, even the
keyholes, and set fire to the brimstone. When four or five hours have elapsed, the
room may be entered and the windows opened for a thorough airing.
The fact that the bedbug has a very effective enemy in the common
house cockroach has already been alluded to, and is particularly
described in the chapter on the cockroach. Another common insect
visitor in houses, and a very annoying one also to the careful house-
keeper, the little red ant (Monomorium pharaonis), is also known to be
a very active and effective enemy of the bedbug. Mr. Theo. Pergande,
of this office, informs me that during the late war, when he was
with the Union army, he occupied at one time barracks at Meridian.
Miss., which had been abandoned by the Southern troops some
time before. The premises proved to be swarming with bedbugs;
but very shortly afterwards the little red house ant discovered the
presence of the bedbugs and came in in enormous numbers, and Mr.
Pergande witnessed the very interesting and pleasing sight of the bed-
bugs being dismembered or carried away bodily by these very minute
ants, many times smaller than the bugs which they were handling so
successfully. The result was that in a single day the bedbug nuisance
was completely abated. The liking of red ants for bedbugs is con-
firmed also by a correspondent writing from Florida (F. C. M. Boggess),
who goes so far as to heartily recommend the artificial introduction of
the ants to abate this bug nuisance. (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 340.)
Bedbugs and other household insects, however, are not of the sort
which it is convenient or profitable to turn over to their natural ene-
mies in the hope that eradication by this means will follow, and the
fact of their being preyed upon by other insects furnishes no excuse to
the housekeeper for not instituting prompt remedial measures.

THE BLOOD-SUCKING CONE-NOSE.
(Conorhinus Ranguisuga Lec.)
Somewhat allied to the bedbug in habit is another true bug, Gono-
rhinus sazguisuga, bearing the very descriptive and appropriate popu-
lar name of the "blood-sucking cone-nose," or sometimes called the!


38






98 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

and commonly has its colonies under pavements, where it is often diffi-
cult of access, or beneath flagging or stones in yaids. It is often a more
persistent and pestilent house nuisance than the true house ant.
This seems to be the species referred to by Kalm1 in .1748 as often
occurring in houses in Philadelphia and manifesting a great fondness
fot sweets. He records also some interesting experiments made by
Mr. (Benjamin 1) Franklin, indicating the ability of these ants t commu-
nicate with one another.
The colonies of the pavement ant are often large, and they may fre-
quently be uncovered in masses of a quart or more on turning over
stones in yards or lifting flagging in paths.
This ant may be often with little difficulty traced to its nest, which,
if accessible, or not thoroughly'protected by unbroken pavement, as of


J













FIG. 45.-The pavement ant (Tetramorium cclpitum): a. winged female; b, same without wings;
e, male; d, worker; e, larva of female; f, head of same; g, pupa of same-all enlarged (original).

asphalt, can be rather easily exterminated. So well established is the
species, however, that new colonies will usually soon take the place of
those destroyed.
Drenching the nests with boiling water or saturating them .with coal
oil, which latter also may be introduced into cracks in pavements or
walls, are effective means of abating the nuisance of this ant.
There are several other ants closely resembling this last, mostly
species of Lasius, some foreign and some native, which form large
colonies in yards, throwing up earthen ant hills, beneath which are
extensive systems of underground galleries. These may often get into
near-by houses and become quite as troublesome as the ants already
mentioned.
Excellent success has been had in destroying these ants with the use
of bisulphide of carbon applied in their nests. The method consists in
pouring an ounce or two of the bisulphide into each of a number of
1 Kalm's Travels, Vol. I, p. 238.




.. ".. .. ..

108 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. "

that an entire generation may be developed in six weeks. Therefore
the increase of the insect may be very rapid and there may be four.
five generations annually. The larva, when feeding upon dried an
smoked meat, according to Dr. Horn, is usually seen creeping on the
surface of the meat. For food it prefers such as contains fat and con-
nective tissue, seldom attacking the muscular portions. It does not
bury itself in its food until about the time of assuming the pupa state.
In general, the beetles make their way into houses in May and June,
and at once deposit their eggs on their favorite food if they can obtain
access to it. Where this is impossible they will lay their eggs, as will
other beetles of the same family, near small cracks, so that the young






'I
















FIG. 50.-Dermestes lardarius: a, larva; b, pupa; e, adult beetle-all enlarged 'trwg)W

larvwe when hatched can crawl through. Dr. Riley, in Ms Siztb Mi
souri Report, states that fresh hams are not so liable to atsk by tIC
insect as are those which are tainted or injured.

REMEDIES. ...
; *'* .^ .* *,













Where a storeroom is overrun with this insect its contents should bI
cleared out, so far as practicable, and the rqom should either& sprayed
with benzine or subjected to strong fumes of bisalphbide -O carbout
Where an article of diet such as a bam, has begun to be infested, thi
affected portion should be cut away and the surface &hCdtvctwashe
/* ** 2 .. ..,' :* . .I ^"











with a very dilute carbolic solution. Miss Heustis, in the irae abor I
mentioned, showed that tallow was very offensive and:: d"sfuctive
.. / ** .. *. '. / "' ' ' ,,











this insect, but there is seldom a case where this interesting bit:
knowledge can be utilized. Dr. Hagen, when he first ":amso !to
bridge, found his office overrun with this insect. On 0 sunny day',
'" ': V .
,. '. % ;::"s ^ " ." : ".':: ..
I [. ," .. ...-~ ; ; .... : .-' "-






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


Europe), Hycena striata (striped hyena), Lepius timidus (commonll hare),
and Procyon lotor (raccoon). It is also said to occasionally sip human
blood [sic!]. I have specimens from various parts of North Ainerica,
and also from Europe." Many unfortunate inhabitants of New York,
Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore during the pjist few suliliers
will be able to verify Mr. Baker's statement that the species occasion-
ally sips human blood! This species may be distinguished at a glance
from the so-called human flea (Pitle.r irritans) by the fact that the latter
species does not possess tlhe strong recurved spines on the margin of
the head, which show so distinctly in fig. 5.

ADDENDUM.
S
The so-called permtanf/anate of potash remedy againstt mnosq itoes.-
During 1898 a newspaper article, purporting to be copied from the
Public Health Journal, was widely published throughout the country.
It claimed that a handful of permanganate of potash will oxidize a
10-acre swamp, kill its embryo insects, and keel) it free from organic
matter for thirty days, at a cost of 25 cents, and that the insect in all
of its stages can be instantly killed by contact with minute quantities
of the substance.
The article showed great ignorance in the life history of the mosquito,
but it gained such wide credence that experiments were undertaken by
the writer. It was found that small quantities of the chemical liad no
effect whatever on the larviwe, which were, however, killed by using
amounts so large that, instead of using "a handful to a 10-acre swamp,"
at least a wagon load would have to be used to accomplish any result.
Moreover, after the use of this large amount and after the larv;e were
killed, the same water twenty-four hours later sustained freshly hatched
mosquito larvie perfectly, so that even were a person to go to the pro-
hibitive expense of killing mosquito larv;e in a swailp with perman-
ganate of potash, the same task would have to be done over again two
days later.


31






42


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


Tourney, describes similar results from a sting from one of these insects
in Arizona. The patient, a woman, broke out over the body and limbs
with red blotches or welts, like a severe case of measles, from a sting
on the shoulder. Bathing with sweet oil soon reduced the dangerous
symptoms, which were accompanied with severe headache and nausea.
Similar results following the puncture of this insect have been reported
from Indian Territory, Kansas, and elsewhere. Miss Kimball (1. c.)
says that some relief from the effects of the bites of this insect is
afforded by camphor, ammonia, and the ordinary remedies for insect
stings.
To attempt to control the out-of-door multiplicatien of this insect is
manifestly out of the question, and in the screening of the entrances
of houses or chambers is the only practical method of protection. It
hardly needs stating that all examples found should be promptly *
killed.






66 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS,

were noticed to have scaled a 15-foot wall to attach their cases in an
angle of the cornice of the ceiling. It undergoes its transformations
to the chrysalis within the larval case, and under normal conditions the
moth emerges three weeks later, the chrysalis having previously worked
partly out of the larval case to facilitate the escape of the moth. The
latter has an irregular flight and can also run rapidly. It has a dis-
tinct aversion to light and usually promptly conceals itself in garments
or crevices whenever it is frightened from its resting place. The moths
are comparatively short lived, not long surviving the deposition of their
eggs for a new generation of destructive larvaw. The eggs are minute,
not easily visible to the naked eye, and are commonly placed directly
on the material which is to furnish the larvae with food. In some cases
they may be deposited in the crevices of trunks or boxes, through which N
the newly hatched larvae enter.
In working in feathers this insect occasionally causes a felting very
similar to that produced by the dermestid beetle Attagenus pieces ()p. 61).
The protection afforded by the seclusion of this insect in houses does
not prevent its having insect ene-
< ~mies, and at least two hymenop-
.terous parasites have been reared
in this country from its larval
Cases. These are Hyperacmus
5%KIN tinew Riley MS., and Apanteles
Sg t carpatus Say, both reared from
^ -- ,,specimens collected in Michigan.
The webbing or Southern,
clothes moth (Tineola biselliella
Hummel) (fig. 26) is the more ;!
FIG. 26.-Tineola bielliella: moth, larva, cocoonHummel) (fig. 26) is the more
and empty pupa-skin-enlargeu (after Riley) abundant and injurious Speciesin "!:
the latitude of Washington and
southward. It also occurs farther north, though in somewhat less
numbers than the preceding species. It presents two annual broods
even in the Northern States, the first appearing in June from eggs
deposited in May, and the second in August and September. It is
about the size of pellionella. The forewings are, however, uniformly
pale ocherous, without markings or spots. Its larva feeds on a large
variety of animal substances-woolens, hair, feathers, furs, and in Eng-
land it has even been observed to feed on cobwebs in the corners of
rooms, and in confinement has been successfully reared on this rather
dainty food substance. The report that it feeds on dried plants in
herbaria is rather open to question, as its other recorded food materials
are all of animal origin.
Frequently this species is a very troublesome pest in museums, par-
ticularly in collections of the larger moths. Prof. F. M. Webster, of
Wooster, Ohio, has had some of his large moths badly riddled by its
larve, and Dr. Hagen also records it as feeding on insect collections.






64


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


pleasures of the winged existence of other moths in sampling the nectar
of flowers. It is, therefore, to the larvae only that the destructive work
is due.
The clothes moths all belong to the group of minute Lepidoptera
known as Tineina, the old Latin name for cloth worms of all sorts, and
are characterized by very narrow wings, fringed with long hairs. The
common species of clothes moths have been associated with man from :
the earliest times and are thoroughly cosmopolitan. They are all prob-
ably of Old World origin, none of them being indigenous to the United
States. That they were well known to the ancients is shown by Job's
reference to '"a garment that is moth eaten," and Pliny has given such
an accurate description of one of them as to lead to the easy identifica-
tion of the species. That they were early introduced into the United '
States is shown by Pehr Kalm, the Swedish scientist whom we have
previously quoted and who seemed to take a keen interest in house pests. I
He reported these Tineids to be abundant in 1748 in Philadelphia,
then a straggling village, and says that clothes, worsted gloves, and
other woolen stuffs hung up all summer were often eaten through and l
through by the worms, and furs were so ruined that the hair would
come off in handfuls.1
What led to the first association of these and other household pests I
with man is an interesting problem. In the case of the clothes moths,
the larvae of all of which can, in case of necessity, still subsist on
almost any dry animal matter, their early association with man was
probably in the r6le of scavengers, and in prehistoric times they proba-
bly fed on waste animal material about human habitations and on fur
garments. The fondness they exhibit nowadays for tailor-made suits
arid expensive products of the loom is simply an illustration of their
ability to keep pace with man in his development in the matter of
clothing from the skin garments of savagery to the artistic products
of the modern tailor and dressmaker.
Three common destructive species of clothes moths occur in this
country. Muchli confusion, however, exists in all the early writings
on these insects, all three species being inextricably mixed in the
descriptions and accounts of habits. Collections of these moths were
submitted some years ago by Professors Fernald and Riley to Lord
Walsingham, of Merton Hall, England, the world's authority on
Tineids, and from the latter's careful diagnosis it is now possible to
easily separate and recognize the diffent species.
The common injurious clothes moths are the case-making species
(Tinea pellionella Linn.), the webbing species or Southern clothes moth
(Tineola biselliella Hummel), and the gallery species or tapestry moth
(Triehophaga tapetzella Linn.).
A few other species which normally infest animal products may
I Kalm's Travels, Vol. I, p. 317.






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC.


63


that the beetles begins to appear ill houses in Washington, 1). C., as
early as the last of April and occur in the greatest numbers 4lirilig the
hot spells late in May and early ill June. By the middle of June their
numbers become less. Beginningig on May 6, beetles were placed friom'
time to time into a jar with woolen cloth. Oni June 13 certaiin larva.
measuring about 1 mm.l in length were fouiiid. A year froiii the placing
of the first beetles ill the jar the largest larva* were Ibund to be only
4.5 mm. long. Isolated full-growni hirvi:, were scvrdl times observed
to pupate, with the result thl.it the pupal stage wais fbund to last from
six to fifteen (lays. In 3Ir. Chittenden's experiments in rearing this
insect two years were required for its development from e.g to beetle.

SEEMED IES.
Owing to the similarity of habits, the same remedies may be used
against this insect as against the buffalo carpet beetle. Notwith-
standing Mrs. French's experience to the contrary, we do not consider
it as serious a household pest as the other species.
L. 0. H.

THE CLOTHES MOTHS.
(Tinea pellionella, et al.)
The destructive work of the larvaw of the small moths commonly
known as clothes moths, and also as carpet moths, fur moths, etc., in
woolen fabrics, fur, anid similar material, during the warm months of
summer in the North,
and in the South at any
season, is aln altogether
too common experi- _
enice. The preference' :IK-
they so often show for
woolen or fur garments r
gives these insects a
much more general in-
terest than is perhaps_
trueof another house-
hold pest. Not only FIn. 25.-Tinea ielliuncila: a, adult: b, l]:rvi ,'. larva in c;so-vn-
largt'd] (rrom Rih'y).
are they a pest to the l
good housekeeper, but tlie bachelor, whose interest ini domestic. mat-
ters might otherwise remain at a low ehh, knows to his sorrow (ift'
their abundance in tlie disastrous results of their pr-esence iii his
wardrobe.
The little yellowish or buff-colored moths sometimes seen flit-
ting about rooms, attracted to lamps at night or d(islodge(l from iln-
fested garments, are themselves harmless emiiughl; iii fict their 1 o111th
parts are rudimentary, and they can not enjoy even thle ordinary






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC.


67


Dr. Riley reared it in conjunction with the angoumois graiL inoth (Sito-
troga cerealella) from grain, it being apparent thliat its larva' la(l sub-
sisted on dead specimens of tlhe grain moth. It is very apt to atttlck
large Lepidoptera. on the spreadiniig board, and hias, in flract, beeI carried
through several generations on dried specimens of iotlhis.
Its general aniimal feeding hlabit is further ind(licated by the interest-
ing case reported by D)r. J. C. Merrill, U. S. A., who suibnmitted a sample
can of beef meal which lhad been rejected as "weevilly." Tie da;Ilage
proved to be due to the larvae of Tincola bisellitfll and goes to sub-
stantiate thle theory already advanced that clothes inoths were s.aven-
gers in their earliest association with man.
The larva of this moth constructs no case, hut spins a silky or more
properly cobwebby patlh wherever it goes. Wlien full grown it builds
a cocoon of silk, intermixed with bits of wool, resembling somewhat tlhe
case of peUlionel la, but more irregular in outline. Within this it undler-
goes its transformation to the chrysalis, and the moth in emerging
leaves its pupal shliell projecting
out of the cocoon, as with the r- I)r-- /
ceding species.
The tapestry moth (Tricliophuiyf 1<
tapetzCella Linn.) (fig. 27) is rare. in ';";.. .. .- '
the IUnited States. It is much ..
larger than either of tlhe other two / '
species, measuring three-fourthlis
inch in expanse of wings, and is F],. 27.- 'ri'hpaga apetzella: niir' mnih-
1 0 'nil~t.ir d<' (i. l',f .r I'ilr'\ i.
more striking in coloration. The
head is white, the basal third of tlhe forewings black, with tlhe exterior
two-thirds of a creamy white, more or less ol)scured on the mi(ldle with
gray; the hind wings are pale gray.
It normally affects rather coarser and heavier cloths tilia the. smaller
species and is more apt to occur in carpets, horse blankets, and tapes-
tries than in the finer and thinner woolen fabrics. It also affects felting,
furs, and skins, and is a common source of damage to the woolen
upholstering of carriages, being rather more lapt to occur in carriage
houses and barns than in dwelling houses. Its larva enters directly into
the material whichit in tests, constructing burron s or galleries lined more
or less completely with silk. Within tleese galleries it is protected and
concealed during its larval life and later unldergoes its transformations
without other protection than tliat affiorde(d by tlie gallery. The da-
age is due as much or more to its lburrowing as to tlee ac'tlal amo iut cif
the material consumed for food.
One of tlhe parasites reared fri-m pllionela (.lp-n lel,.. ,.'rniffe-its Say)
has also been reared fromi this species at St. Louis. Mo.





PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


The writer, in the course of certain observations, has carried (.pun-
gens through approximately two generations in the early part of the
season. It is strange that recent and definite observations upon accn-


A


-fv






P ;0p'e01.... .


Fio. I.-Culex pungena: a, female, from side; b, male, from above; e, front tarsus of same; d, middle
tarsus; e, hindtarsus;f, genilaliaof same; g,scales from hind borderof wing; A, scales fromdisk
of wing-enlarged (original).
rarely determined species of many of our commonest insects have not
been published. This is mainly due to the fact that most entomologists
have a way of saving time by following the observations of older writers.


10


-?'IWO






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


indicated in the figure. It is readily distinguished from Anthrenus
scrophulariw. Its natural history has not been studied in detail, but
there is little doubt that it is similar to that of the other species. It
seems to have a particular predilection for feathers and has several
times been observed to produce in feather beds a peculiar felting of the
ticking. It las also been known to infest flour mills and is to a certain
extent a feeder upon cereal products. It is a museum pest of consid-
erable importance, and, in fact, when first discovered in connection
with the Anthrenus, by Dr. Lintner, it was supposed to be present
around the margin of carpets simply in search of dead flies and other
animal matter, such as cast skins of Anthrenus, Etc. In 1878 Dr. Hagen
stated in the Proceedings of the Boston Society qf Natural History that
during late years this insect had propagated to a fearful extent in many
houses in Cambridge, and that he believed it to be responsible for fully
half of all the destruction ascribed to the previous species. In the
arranged collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology it occurred
only rarely, and Dr. Hagen always found a crack or a slit in the infested
box through which the thin and slender young larva had entered. The
insect, he said, could always be recognized by the small, globular, ocher-
ous excrement. Mr. Schwarz, writing in 1890, spoke of the recent
increase in numbers of this insect in Washington, D.C. As a museum
pest he had found it frequently in insect boxes which were not quite
tight, but, fortunately, this species does not seem to be able to enter
through as small a crack as Anthrenus or Trogoderma. In January,
1892, Mrs. Horace French, of Elgin, Kane County, Ill., wrote us that
many houses in Elgin were infested both by this species and by the
buffalo carpet beetle. The black carpet beetle, however, seemed, accord-
ing to the correspondent, to work constantly through the year, unmind-
fll of change of temperature, while the other species did little damage
except during the warmer months. Her own house was completely
overrun, and after taking up the carpets and discovering the full extent
of their ravages it was deemed unsafe to replace them.
Until recently we had made but one attempt to follow out the detailed
life history. This was in June, 1882, when the beetle seemed to be
especially numerous, flying into the open windows of the office. A num-
ber were placed June 20 iu a jar with pieces of rag. On June 23 six
eggs were found to have been deposited, three of which were already
much shriveled, apparently not fertilized. The color of the eggs was
white and they were extremely soft and of broad oval shape, with irreg-
ular striate sculpturing, like the markings on the palm of one's hand.
No further eggs were deposited and those previously laid did not hatch.
Quite recently, in the course of his studies of insects injurious to
stored food, Mr. Chittenden, of this office, has many times met with
the larva of this species in seeds and other vegetable products in the
museum of the Department. He has shown that the larva will breed
successfully from the egg in flour and meal. Incidentally, he observed


62






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


from two to four days and that some of the larva. cast their first skin
three to four days later, and a second skin two to six (Lays later.
On July 15 another series was begun. 'File eggs collected onl this
date began to hatch on tlhe 17thl anid all had latched by the morLilng
of the 18th. July 21 some of them ihad cast the first skin.
August 1 the first one splun up; August 3, two nmor; August (, two
more. At this date the first one which constructed its cocoon turliedl
brown. August 7 one fufll-grown larva traiistiori med to pupa without
spinning a cocoon. August 12 the first adult eitei'ged. A summary
for this lot shows that the eggs hatchl in from two to four days and
that the larvae cast tlhe first skin from five to seven days later. Some
spun up sixteen to twenty days after hatching, and the inmgo appeared
six days later.
Observation of these last two lots shows that the larv;a, are very apt
to (lie if kept too dry or to)o moist. They also need plenty of air.
July 20 another series was begun. Eg.,s collected on this date
hatched the following day. July 24 thlie first skin wais cast; July 26, i
one case a second skin was cast. July 27 three i(iore cast a second
skin, and on this date one individual smpun its cocoon. July 29 three
more began to spin; on July 30 many more. On July 30 the first one
that began to spin was found to have clhaiged to pupa. August 2
many cocoons were found. Some of tlie larva', disturbed while spill-
ning, left the incompllete cocoon and transformed to pupa outside of it.
Most of the advanced specimneis were placed in alcohol, aid it was not
until August 14 that an adult was allowed to emerge.
This series of observations showed that the eggs hatched about one
day after being placed in the vessels. Tie larvTe cast their first skin
in from three to seven days, and their second skin in from three to lfour
days. They commenced spinning in from seven to fourteen days ;after
hatching, and the imlago appeared five days later.
From these observations it appears that in summer at Washiington
many specimens will undergo their transformations quite as rapidly as
Mr. Simmons found to be the case at Calcutta, and that an entire gen-
eration may develop iii little more than a fort night; also that an excess.
of moisture is prejudicial to tlhe successful development of the insect
and that in the same waythe breeding, place must not lie too dry. Tile
little particles of blood found among the eggs on the cloth upon
which the infested animal has slept are probably tlhe ex('reIeilt of tlhe
adult fleas. This substance in itself, together witl what vegetable
dust is found in tlhe places where these larva' rear thleniselves, slflices
for the larval food.
RE3TMEI)IES.
Flea larve will not develop successfully in situations where they are
likely to be disturbed. That they will develop in tlie dust in tlhe cracks
in floors which are not frequently swept lhas been observed d ,by tlhe
writer. The overrunning of houses in sunllllr (luriling thle te lporary


29




A :: ::!! ,!ii
,Iii


16U PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

The vegetable foods most subject to injury are prepared cereals. If
any of these be badly infested at the time of purchase it will be plainly
evident; if only a moderate number of insects be present and it be
desirable to store the material for some length of time, by sifting over
a large sheet of paper of light color, using a fine sieve for flour and
corn meal and a coarser one for cracked wheat and like foods, the pres-
ence of infesting insects may be detected.
Most people object to the use of flour, meal, and other material for
the preparation of food if it be at all infested with insects, and-to save
trouble will promptly return such material to the merchant of whom it
was purchased. If, however, infestation be not at once detected, the
dealer may in some cases refuse to receive the injured stuff unless the
cause of the trouble can be directly traced to his store or to the milling
company or wholesale dealer of whom it was originally obtained. If
food stuffs are not too badly infested they are not dangerous, and are
useful for consumption by human beings, disagreeable as the traces of the
insects' presence may be. It is sometimes advisable, if not absolutely
necessary, to save such material, as for example when on a protracted
journey, where better is not to be had.
After what has been said regarding the development of the flour
beetles and other insects it should be superfluous to add that it is
impossible to entirely free infested material by sifting, as the eggs and
younger larve slip through the finest meshes. Most insects may be
destroyed by placing the material infested in the oven at a moderate
degree of heat, from 1250 to 1500 F., but care must be exercised not to
expose it to a higher temperature. Corn meal, particularly, is easily
overheated, and afterwards, unless it is soon to be used in cooking, is
apt to become rancid.
If a barrel of flour or large quantity of other provisions becomes
infested, as is apt to happen during the absence of a family from home,
bisulphide of carbon, a liquid chemical in general use against insects
in mills, elevators, granaries, and warehouses, should be used to dis-
infect it. The same reagent is the best insecticide for use when whole
rooms are to be fumigated.
A small quantity of the chemical is sufficient for the disinfection of a
barrel of flour, as the insects for the most part live only in the flour at
the top, being unable to withstand the pressure of a large weight of
material. From a half to a whole teacupful (about 2 to 5 ounces) of the
bisulphide will prove sufficient for the purpose in an ordinary case,
provided the cover be replaced as tightly as possible. In more severe.
cases of infestation it may be necessary to repeat the application. The
bisulphide is poured into shallow paus or plates placed upon the top of
the infested mass and the receptacle covered as closely as possible and
left for a day or more. This chemical is extremely volatile, and being
heavier than air, descends as a gas, killing such insects as the material
may contain. When an entire room or building is overrun with insects,


Ha
A

:l


w


:9
'.9.4


d la




."*'"*:. :" iii l n !-' ...:. :". ; .: 1
." ." :... ... ..
82 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

fish, it belongs to the order of insects known as Aptera (w 1ngsp), from
the fact of their having no vestige of wings throughout life.
The simple structure of these insects, and particularly their resem-
blance to the larval state of winged insects, has led to the belief that
they are the primitive forms of insect life. That this is true is, however,
by no means certain, and they may rather be degraded or debased
examples of some of the higher orders of insects. The species figured
herewith is not infrequently found in dwellings in Washington, but is
apparently undescribed, and, in fact, little is known of the American
species. It is, however, closely allied to a European form (L. cervicalis), I
often found in cellars, and figured by Sir John Lubbock in his mono-
graph on these insects (PI. XXV). Another allied European species
(Seira domestic) has been named from the fact of its beiug a frequenter -
of houses.















FIG. 35.- Spring-tail (Lepidocyrtus americanus) Fio. 36.-Spring-tail ( fL k ~ociyr em
view from above (original), view from beneath (wtgtll4.


Sharp) is distinguished from the other suborder of Aptera, Thysanura,
by having but five body segments instead of ten, and possessing a
very peculiar ventral tube on the first segment, and commonly also a
terminal spring, by means of which these creatures leap wth great,
agility, and from which they take their common name of "sjg$g-tailsY?
These insects, though very abundant, have been very litt"tAudied,
and little is known of their life. habits. They often multiply in.extraor-
dinary numbers, especially in moist situations, swarming oh the .sur-
face of stagnant water or on wet soil. They seem to be very tolemnie.
of cold, and we have interesting accounts of the ocourrenoe qf a spe-
cies related to the one figured in the Arctic regions on meeting snow.
fields and on glaciers, where they are known as "snow 6r BRnow.:
worms." Other interesting forms occur in caves, and 0i40th@Zam.t h
Cave in Kentucky they are notably abundant. In heiB*.y m.ot
F
often be found on window sills, in'bathrooms, and. F `:-- undj'j*
r4.1






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC.


has a red stripe (IOwIL the middle of the back widleninginto projections
at three intervals. Wlien disturbed it '" plays 'possinll," lfoldiilg lup its
legs and antentiv and feigning death. As a g"encrl. 1hing the beetles
begin to appear in the fall, aind continue to issue, in heated houses,
throughout the winter aIlid following spring. Sooni :tl'ter i.ssuingl they
pair, and thle females lay their eggs in conveinient spots. Thel eggs
hatch, under favorable conditions, in a few days, and the l.\ivw, with
plenty of food, develop quite rapidly. Their development is iehirded
by cold weather or lack of food, and they remain alive in tlhe lhrN'al
state, in such conditions, and particularly in a dry atimosphere, for an
almost indefinite period, molting frequently and feedingupon their cast
skis. Under normal conditions, however, the skin is cast about six
times, and there is, probably, in the North not more than two annual
generations. Wlhen the Lirva reaches full growth tlhe yellowish pupa
is formed within tlhe last larval skin. Eventually this skin splits down
the back and reveals the pupa, from which the beetle emerges later.
The beetles are day fliers, and when not engaged in egg laying are
attracted to the light. They fly to the windows, and may often be found
upon the sills or panes. Where they can fly out tlhi rotugh an open window
they do so, and are strongly attracted to the flowers of certain plants,
particularly the family Scrophuhlriace;w, but also to certain Cormposit;. ,
such as milfoil (Achillea millefolium). Tlhe flowers of Spir;,a are also
strongly attractive to the beetles. It is probable, however, that this
migration from the house takes place, under ordinary circuiistances,
after the eggs have been laid.
In Europe the insect is not especially noted as a household 1)pest, and
we are inclined to think that this is owing to the fact that carpets are
little used. In fact, we believe that only where carpets are extensively
used are the conditions favorable for the great increase of the insect. ,
Carpets once put down are seldom, taken up for a year, and in the
meantime the insect develops uninterruptedly. Where polished floors
and rugs are used the rugs are often taken up and beaten, and in the
same way woolens and furs are never allowed to remain undisturbed
for an entire year. It is a well-known fact that the carpet habit is a
bad one from other points of view, and(l there is little doubt that if car-
pets were more generally discarded in our more ,Northern States tlhe
"bufialo bug" would gradually cease to be the household pest that it
is to-day. The insect is known in Euirope as a museum lpest, but lhas
not acquired this habit to any great extent in this country. It is
known to l'have this h]al)it ill Cambridge, Mass., and D)etroit, 'iMcli., as
well as in Sai Francisco, Cal., but not in other localities. ITn ;All of
these three cases it had been imported froil Eulrope ill insect collections.

REMEDIES.
There is no easy way to keep tlhe carpet beetle in check. \When it
has once taken possession of a house nothing lbut tlhe inost through


59






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


Theoretically, if one of these pairs succeeded in finding a decaying
stump or other suitable condition at hand, they would enter it, and the
king and queen, being both active, would attend to the wants of the new
colony and superintend the rearing of the first brood of workers and
soldiers, which would then assume the laborious duties of the young
colony. Thereafter the queen, by constant and liberal feeding and
absolute inaction, would increase immensely, her abdomen becoming
many thousand times its original size. She would practically lose the
power of locomotion and become a mere egg-laying machine of enormous
capacity. Allied species whose habits have been studied in this par-
ticular indicate an egg-laying rate of 60 per minute, or something like
80,000 per day.
In the absence of a queen, however, white ants are able to develop
from a very young larva or a nymph of what would otherwise become a
winged female what is known as a supplementary queen, which is never
winged and never leaves the colony. This supplementary queen (fig.
31, a) is smaller than the perfectsexed queen, but subserves all the needs











FIG. 29.-Termes flavipes: a, head of winged female viewed from above; b, same from below, with
mouth-parts opened out-greatly enlarged (original).
of the colony in the matter of egg laying, and is the only parent insect
so far found in the nests of the common white ant in this country.
Whether a true queen exists or not is, therefore, open to question; if
not, all the individuals which escape in the spring and summer migra-
tions must perish, and this swarming would, therefore, have to be con-
sidered a mere survival of a once useful feature in the economy of this
insect, now no longer, or rarely, of service.
The normal method of the formation of new colonies is probably by
the mere division or splitting up of old ones or the carrying of infested
logs or timbers from one point to another.
The development of these curious insects is very simple. There is
scarcely any metamorphosis, the change from the young larva to the
adult being very gradual and without any marked difference in struc-
ture. They feed on decaying wood or vegetable material of any sort,
and are able to carry their excavations into any timbers which are
moistened, or into furniture, books, or papers stored in rooms which
are at all moist. Their food is the finely divided material into which


72






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


form the pattern shown in the illustration (fig. 57, a). The caterpillar
(b) is whitish, shading off to a darker color at either end, andwith a
reddish head. The pupa, shown in its enveloping cover of silk at c,
and naked at fig. 58, e, is reddish brown.
The habits of this moth are peculiar. The larvae subsist chiefly upon
cereals, but seem not to prefer them in any particular condition, feed-
ing alike on the seed, whole or ground, bran, husk, or straw. They
will attack other seeds and dried plants, and are at times injurious to
hay, particularly clover. They are also reported to feed upon stored
potatoes. Larvae have been brought to this office in flour and speci-
mens of the insect's work have been seen in sweet marjoram, an herb
used in cooking. The caterpillars live in long tubes or tunnels com-
posed of silk and particles of meal or other material, and whilethus
incased in the obscure corners in which
/ they habitually live are completely con-
c ealed from observation. When mature
They leave them and construct cocoon-like
-: cases and undergo transformation within.
.. The life history of the meal snout-moth
ag has not until recently been properly under-
^ stood, efforts to rear and observe it having
proved unsatisfactory. Certain European
writers have expressed the belief that the
b species is biennial in development, but ex-
Fio. 58.-Pyralis farinalis: a, egg- periments recently conducted go to prove
mass; b, eggs, more enlarged; c, egg
showing embryo within; d, larva, at least four generations a year. The spe-
dorsal view; e, pupa-all enlarged cies has been carried through all its stages
(author's illustration, reengraved). in spring in about eight weeks.
in spring in about eight weeks.
From recent experience it would seem that comparatively little danger
need be apprehended from injuries by this insect if material upon which
it is likely to feed be kept in a clean, dry place. Almost without except.
tion, the cases of damage attributable to it have occurred in cellars,
upon floors, in outhouses, or in places where refuse vegetable matter
had accumulated.
THE GRAIN BEETLES.
There are two clavicorn beetles, known, respectively, as the saw-
toothed grain beetle and the cadelle, of omnivorous habits and universal
distribution, that commonly occur in dwellings as well as in granaries,
mills, and warehouses. The former is so small as to readily escape
notice except when it is present in numbers; the latter, though seldom
occurring in abundance, is conspicuous, both as larva and beetle, on
account of its size. The two species resemble each other in being
partially carnivorous and predaceous, following in the wake of other
insects like the Indian-meal moth, the cadelle particularly making
atonement for its ravages in the pantry supplies by destroying such
small insects as cross its path that it is able to overcome.


120






SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HAMS, FRUIT, ETC.


when nearly full grown, left the liquid and advanced to tihe side and
top of the glass jar where hlie had pl(ced(l tliem, where they could be
observed feeding on condensed moisture. They transfins cd to puparia,
from which the first flies issued in t'ur dLys.
Mr. G. J. Bowles, in tVie Canla(ldian Entomolodgist for Jinme, 1882,
figures roughly the different stages of D. unipeliohtila amid gives an
account of its damage to raspberry vinegar. An earthlenware j.ir lhad
been nearly filled with raspberries and vinegar. On opening tie jar
about ten days later (August 16) it was found to e swarb- ing with
the larvau and cocoons of the insect. Hundreds of tlhe larva- were(
crawling on the sides of the ja:tr :(nd tlie underside of tile cover, while
pupte were found abundantly, single and in clusters, pLarticularly where
the cover touched tlie top of the jar. Tihe short time required for the
production of so many individuals was surprising. Mr. Bowles halt'
filled a covered tumbler with thie pickled raspberries and larva', and
they continued to produce flies for several weeks. The following season
the same observer noticed that tlie flies were attracted to some rasp-
berry wine in process of fermentation, hovering about time jars and
alighting upon the corks, evidently seeking fobr a-i opening through
which they might pass to lay their eggs. At another time lie placed a
few raspberries, with a small quantity of vinegar, in a pickle jar with a
loose cover. A fortnight afterwards a number of larva' were seen in
the bottle, and several )pupie were attachlied to its sides.
This statement, together with Dr. Lintner's, that the pupal state may
last but four days, shows that a brood may develop in twenty d(lays.
The general habits of these insects are well understood by almost every
housewife. The writer has often observed then'about his own house,
and has seen the larvae working under conditions described bly Mr.
Bowles, and he is informed by IIMr. Marlatt that one of time species is
extremely abundant at Manhattan, Kanms., and tiat in his own house-
hold the greatest care was necessary to prevent them from entering
fruit jars.
REMEDIES.
The common entrance of these little Drosopifilas into pant ies .and
storerooms, as well as into dining rooms where fruit is kept upon the
sideboard, is another argument in favor of careful window screening.
Where they have once entered ajar of fruit it is not necessary to throw
away the entire contents of tlie jar, since thie larva occur only( oni tlhe
top layers. These may be removed, and tlie renmai-inder of tlie contents
may ofteu prove pure and sweet. All fruit canned while hot and hler-
metically sealed will be safe. The flies will lay their eggs upiimi th.ie jar,
perhaps, or upon thie cloth covering, and an almost imp)ercep)tible o)pen-
ing will suffice for tlie newly hatched nimaggoot to enter; so the sealing
must be perfect. An occasional pulffing of pyretlhrtumn about tlme store-
room will destroy the flies which I-may have gained entrance. WNhere a"
jar has once been opened its cmintents call be preserved. where t iese
insects are numerous only by placing it iin sonme tight recel)tacle.


1li






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHERi INSECTS.


55


about the house for whatever food materials it may discover. It feeds
readily on bread crumbs or allmoH)st any food product to which it can
get access, and is particularly attracted to liquidls, in its eagerness to
get at which it often meets death by (drownling. It is a very pugnacious
insect and will bite vigorously if captured, and( is also predaceous or
carnivorous, like most of its outdoor allies. It is supposed to feed on
various other house insects, such as the cockroach and is also probably
cannibalistic. A pair of a native species kept in a cage by the writer,
for a short period manifested thle greatest friendliness, but thie nale
shortly afterwards made a very substantial meal of his companion.
The crickets, in common with most other Orthoptera, will occasion-
ally, in pure wantonness seemingly, cut alnd injure fabrics, and are
particularly apt to cut into wet clothing, evidently from their liking
for moisture. Any of the
common field grasshop-
pers or crickets, entering r
houses, are apt to tryA
their sharp jaws on cur-
tains, garments, etc., and
Dr. J. A. Lin tuer records'
the case of a suit of clot .id-
ing just from the tailor o
which was completely
ruined in a night by pi
a common black field
cricket( Gryllus luct unsus),
whichlhad entered an open .
window in soIe nuinbers. FIG. 22.-Gryllus ausignilis: a, wing of female: b, wing, of
re i~~ popular Sluper- male showing wore irregular and coarser veining-enlarged
Tlier is POPU!Lr uper originally) .
stitiou also to the effect L,
that if a cricket be killed its relatives will promptly cut tie garments
of the offender.
In Europe, and undoubtedly also in this country, the hearth cricket
is found in houses in all sizes, from the very young to the full-grown
insects, and probably often deposits its eggs anl( goes through its
entire transformations within the four walls of (welli ,gs. In sumner
it also appears frequently out of doors in Europe about lledlges and in
gardens, returning to thie house for protection at the approach of cold
weather, and being apparently unable to wiiter out of doors, at least
in cold climates. In this country it has bee tke at electric lights
out of doors. Its eggs, judging trom our knowledge of allied species,
are deposited in clusters, and the young resemble their parents very
closely, except in size and in lacking wings; they present also no
variation in habit.
So much sul)erstition and 1wl)Iular interest attaches to tlie house
I8th leiit.. Ins. N. Y., p. 17"1.






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


country with the earliest colonists, at least Kalm, writing in 1748-49,
stated that it was plentiful in the English colonies and in Canada,
though unknown among the Indians.
The bedbug belongs to the order Hemiptera, which includes the true
bugs or piercing insects, characterized by possessing a piercing and
sucking beak. The bedbug is to man what the chinch bug is to grains
or the squash bug to cucurbs. Like nearly all the insects parasitic on
animals, however, it is degraded structurally, its parasitic nature and
the slight necessity for extensive locomotion having resulted, after
many ages doubtless, in the loss of wings and the assumption of a
comparatively simple structure. The wings are represented by the
merest rudiments, barely recognizable pads, and it lacks the simple
eyes or ocelli of most other true bugs. In form it is much flattened,
obovate, and in color is rust red, with the abdomen more or less tinged
with black. The absence of wings is a most fortunate circumstance,
since otherwise th( re would be no safety from it even for the most
careful and thorough of housekeepers. Some slight variation in length
of wing pads has been observed, but none with wings showing any
considerable development have ever been found.
A closely allied species is a parasitic messmate in the nests of the
common barn or eaves swallow in this country, and it often happens that
the nests of these birds are fairly alive with these vermin. The latter
not infrequently gain access to houses, and cause the housekeeper con-
siderable momentary alarm. At least three species occur also in Eng-
land, all very closely resembling the bedbug. One of these is found in
pigeon cotes, another in the nests of the English martin, and a third in
places frequented by bats. What seems to be the true bedbug, or at
least a mere variety, also occurs occasionally in poultry houses.1
The most characteristic feature of the insect is the very distinct and
disagreeable odor which it exhales, an odor well known to all who have
been familiar with it as the "buggy" odor. This odor is by no means
limited to the bedbug, but is characteristic of most plant bugs also.
The common chinch bug affecting small grains and the squash bugs all
possess this odor, and it is quite as pungent with these plant-feeding
forms as with the human parasite. The possession of this odor, dis-
agreeable as it is, is, after all, a most fortunate circumstance, as it is of
considerable assistance in detecting the presence of these vermin. The
odor comes from glands, situated in various parts of the body, which
secrete a clear, oily, volatile liquid. The possession of this odor is cer-
tainly, with the plant-feeding forms, a means of protection against
insectivorous birds, rendering these insects obnoxious or distasteful to
their feathered enemies. With the bedbug it is probably an illustration
of a very common phenomenon among animals, the persistence of a
characteristic which is no longer of any especial value to the possessor
of it. The natural enemies of true bugs, against which this odor serves
1 Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 166, Osborn.


34






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


Sand hairy than that of Sitodrepa, and differs as well in the structure of
the head and legs (see fig. 64). The pupa, shown at fig. 63, b, is white
and is incased, like other ptinids, in a fragile cocoon.

THE WHITE-MARKED SPIDER BEETLE.
(1'tinus fur Linn.)
Two more species of this same family and of somewhat similar habits
to the two beetles just mentioned are sufficiently common in storerooms.
and cellars, particularly of old houses, and especially in the North, to
attract occasional notice. The more important of these is Ptinus fur,
which may be called the white-marked spider beetle, to distinguish it
from the allied Pt. brunneus, which is uniform brown in color. This
beetle is reddish brown, with four white bands on its elytra. It has
long antennmi and legs and a more or less globular body, and strongly
suggests a spider in general appearance. The sexes difler considerably,
the female being much more robust than her consort.
As long ago as 1766 Linneus gave an account of this species, which
he stated was very injurious in libraries. It occurs also in old barns,
warehouses, and museums, and is credited with feeding upon a variety
of substances, vegetable and animal, including insect collections and
dried plants in herbaria. It has also been recorded as living in boxes of
red pepper, and during March of the year 1896 was so reported by Mr.
R. C. Lyle, who furnished us with specimens in the infested substance
brought from his home at Cedar Springs, Mich. Many years ago it
was severely injurious to flour at Versailles, France, and recently Dr.
James Fletcher received complaints of its occurring abundantly in
flour at Orillia and Toronto, Canada.
During 1894 we received specimens of this insect, with information
that they had been discovered near Concord, N. H., in a barn in
which were stored a hundred or more bags of cotton seed. They had
devoured the bags and increased so enormously as to cover the build-
ings; had invaded neighboring houses, and were attacking clothing of
all kinds. The owner of this barn, who also conducted a store, was
greatly alarmed for fear they would spread throughout the town, and
serious apprehension was felt in the infested locality that the insect
might become a public nuisance.
When to the items just mentioned we add that Dr. George Dimmock
found this species swarming in a barrel of refuse wool covered with
sheep's dung, and in which it was doubtless breed(ling, and that, to the
writer's personal knowledge, the adults are attracted to fresh fruit, we
sum up the principal facts known regarding this insect in America;
but if we are to believe all the bad things that are said of it in Europe,
it is capable of becoming a serious pest if once permitted to gain
sufficient headway, for it is accused of depredating upon furs and cloth-
ing, roots, grain, and stuffed animals, and of invading seed stores,
apothecaries' wares, and cracker stores.


127






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


when the adults emerged, completing their transformations seventeen
days after the eggs were deposited.
The eggs of the flea under consideration are deposited between the
hairs of the infested animals, but are not fastened to them, so that when
the animal moves about or lies down numbers of the eggs will be dis-
lodged and drop to tlhe ground or the floor or wherever the animal may
be at the time. An easy way to collect them, therefore, is to lay a strip
of cloth for the animal to sleep upon, and afterwards brush the cloth
into a receptacle, in which the eggs will be found in numbers. Some
difficulty was found in securing proper conditions of moisture to bring
about successful rearing, and some detailed account of our experience
will be of value to persons wlo desire to repeat the rearing in order to
secure material for microscopic study, and will be. at the same time
suggestive as bearing on the conditions under which the insect will
multiply in houses.
On June 27 a number of eggs were collected and placed in two glass
vessels, one large and one small, each containing a layer of sand at the
bottom, next a layer of sawdust, and on top of this a layer of rich soil.
The eggs were placed between two layers of blotting paper on top of
the soil. On June 29 fourteen of the eggs had hatched in the small
vessel, and the larve had crawled at once down into the sawdust.
On July 1 some of the eggs were found to have hatched in the large
vessel, and the alimentary canal of the larvaw was already brownish,
indicating that they had been feeding to some extent and presumably
upon the particles of dried blood collected with the eggs and placed
with them between the layers of blotting paper. By July 11 all of these
larvae in both vessels had died, apparently without having cast a skin.
They were very active during most of this period, crawling rapidly
about when disturbed. Some were noticed to feed upon particles of
peat which was placed with them. From some of these individuals
fig. 6 was made. On the second antennal joint there was apparent a
sensorial spot, and on or near the base of the antennae were two small,
slender, fleshy tubercles and a few granulations on each side, some dis-
tance behind the antennae. At the base of the head above occurred a
small, apparently well-differentiated sclerite, as indicated in fig. 6, b, the
purpose of which we can not surmise. Immediately behind it, on the
anterior border of the first thoracic segment, is apparently a delicate
sculpturing, indicating a thickening of the integument at this point.
The posterior border of this segment is a somewhat similar, faintly
indicated band. The first nine segments bear each four do)rsal bristles
and, on each side, one ventro-lateral bristle, near the posterior margin.
The two following segments bear each six dorsal bristles and one ventro-"
lateral bristle, and the penultimate segment eight dorsal and one ven-
tral bristle. These bristles become gradually longer toward the end of
the body. The last segment is without long bristles, although there is
a semicircular transverse row of numerous fine hairs and a small patch


26






80 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

impossibility of an audible sound being produced in this way by so
small an insect. This psocid is not, however, the true deathwatch.
This doubtful honor is shared by a near ally, also a psocid, and having
similar habits (Clothilla pulsatoria), and certain wood-boring beetles,
which frequently work in the timbers of houses.
The house species, and particularly the one named at the head of
this chapter, are widely distributed, almost cosmopolitan, and are
occasionally the source of very considerable annoyance and damage.
Throughout the warm season they may be frequently seen in cupboards,
on window ledges, or library shelves, especially among books or papers
which are seldom used. They are practically omnivorous, feeding on
any animal or vegetable matter, and are especially fond of the starchy
paste used in book bindings or for attaching wall paper. They also
feed on flour, meal, and other farinaceous substances, and are frequently
very destructive to collections of natural history objects.
Under ordinary circumstances these insects are not especially injuri-
ous in dwelling houses, and it is only where the materials which they
are capable of injuring or in which they will breed are left undisturbed
for long periods that they are apt to multiply and cause any serious
damage. Occasionally, however, they will multiply in excessive num-
bers in some available food supply and swarm over the house, to the
great consternation of the housekeeper. In cases of such extraordi-
nary multiplication, so difficult are they to reach in the many recesses
in which they can conceal themselves that the most persistent and
thorough cleansing and fumigating are scarcely of any avail. For-
tunately, such instances of excessive multiplication are rare, but
there are several notable cases on record. The straw or-husk fillings
of mattresses or beds seem to be especially favorable locations for their
multiplication, and in the worst cases of infestation the psocids have
come from such sources. Small species of psocids are often extraor-
dinarily abundant in straw in barns and stables, and Dr. Lintner
quotes Mr. McLachlan, of London, England, as having found myriads
of the species under discussion in the straw coverings of wine bottles.
Mr. Alfred C. Stokes, Trenton, N. J. (Insect Life, Vol. 1, p.. 144),
reports a case which may be taken as a sample of several recorded
instances of a similar nature. He says that in a new house kept by
very neat occupants a mattress of hair and corn husks which had been
purchased some six months before was found in September, after the
house had been closed about six weeks, to be so covered with these
insects that a pin point could not have been put down without touch-
ing one or more of the bugs." The side of the lower sheet next the
mattress was likewise covered, and further search showed the walls and
in fact the entire house to be swarming with them. A sweep of the
hand over the walls would gather them by thousands; bureau drawers
were swarming with them, and they were under every object and in
everything. The mattress was found to contain millions of them and






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


the mosquito plague could not be greatly diminished in many, if not
most, parts of Baltimore at a very small expense. Usually one well
serves two houses, the privies being built in pairs, so that one treatment
would suffice for two dwellings.
On ponds of any size the quickest and most perfect method of form-
ing a film of kerosene will be to spray the oil over the surface of the
water.
The remedy which depends upon draining breeding places needs no
extended discussion. Naturally the draining off of the water of pools
will prevent mosquitoes from breeding there, and the possibility of
such draining and the means by which it may be done will vary with
each individual case. The writer is informed that an elaborate bit of
work which has been done at Virginia Beach bears on this method.
Behind the hotels at this place, the hotels themselves fronting upon
the beach, was a large fresh-water'lake, which, with its adjoining
swamps, was a source of mosquito supply, and it was farther feared
that it made the neighborhood inmalarious. Two canals were cut from
the lake to the ocean, and by means of machinery the water of the
lake was changed from a body of fresh to a body of salt water. Water
that is somewhat brackish will support mosquitoes, but water which
is purely salt will destroy them.
The introduction of fish into fishless breeding places is another mat-
ter. It may be undesirable to treat certain breeding places with kero-
sene, as, for instance, water which is intended for drinking, although
this has been done without harm in tanks where, as is customary, the
drinking supply is drawn from the bottom of the tank. An interesting
case noted in Insect Life (Vol. IV, p. 223), in which a pair of carp was
placed in each of several tanks, in the Riviera, is a case in point. The
value of most small fishes for the purpose of destroying mosquito
larvae was well indicated by an experience described to us by Mr.
C. H. Russell, of Bridgeport, Conn. In this case a very high tide broke
away a dike and flooded the salt meadows of Stratford, a small town
a few miles from Bridgeport. The receding tide left two small lakes,
nearly side by side and of the same size. In one lake the tide left a
dozen or nore small fishes, while the other was fishless. An examination
by Mr. Russell in the summer of 1891 showed that while the fishless
lake contained tens of thousands of mosquito larvae, that containing
the fish had no larvae.
The use of carp for this purpose has been mentioned in the preceding
paragraph, but most small fish will answer as well. The writer knows
of none that will be better than either of the common little stickle-
backs (Gasterosteus aculeatus or Pygosteus pungitius). They are small,
but very active and very voracious. Mr. F. W. Urich, of Trinidad,
has written us that there is a little cyprinoid common in that island
which answers admirably for this purpose. This fish has not been
specifically determined, but we hope to make an effort to introduce it


20






SSPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC. (i9

It would be more (:convenient, however, to so inclose or wrap up1 such
Material as to prevent the access of the m6thls to it, after it, lias once
been thoroughly treated and aired. This canl be easily etffectedl inl tlhe
case'of clothing and furs by wrapping then up tightly iin stout paper,
or inclosing in well-made bags of cotton or lil('.Ien cloth or strong paper.
Dr. Howard has adopted a plan wvliicli is inexpensive and which lie
has found eminently satisfactory. For a small sum lie secured a num-
ber of the large pasteboard boxes such as tailors use, and in these
packs away all winter clothing, gumnuning a strip of wrapping paper
around the edge, so as to seal up the box completely and leave no
cracks. These boxes with care will last many years. With thorough
preliminary treatment it will not be necessary to use tlie tar-impregnated
paper sacks sold as moth protectors, which may be objectionable on
account of the odor.
The method of protection adopl)ted by one of tlhe leading fuirriers of
Washington, who also has a large business and experience in storiIng
costly furs, etc., is l)ractically the course already outlined.
Furs, etc., when received are first most thoroughly and vigorously
beaten with small sticks, to dislodge all loosened hair and the larva! or
moths. They are then gone over carefully with a steel comb and packed
as ay in large boxes lined with heavy tar roofing paper, or in closets
similarly lined with this paper. An examination is made every two to
four weeks, and, if necessary at any time, any garment requiring it is
rebeaten and combed. During many years of experience in this climate,
which is especially favorable to moth damage, this merchant lihas pre-
vented any serious injury from moths.
A common method of protection followed by larger dealers in carpets
and furs, etc., is the use of cold storage for protection. In all large
towns anyone can avail himself of this means by patronizing storage
companies, and protection will be guaranteed. A temperature main-
tained at 40 F. is protective, but often a much lower temperature is
maintained-down to 20 F.
In the case of cloth-covered furniture and cloth-lined carriages which
are stored or left ujiised for considerable periods in suimnner it will
probably be necessary to spray themin twice or three times, viz, in April,
June, and August with benzine or naiaplthia, to protect then from nmoths.
These substances can be applied very readily with any small spraying
device and will not harm the material, but caution must be exercised
on account of their inflammability. Another means of protecting suclh
articles is to sponge them very carefully with a dilute solution o'n corro-
sive sublimate in alcohol made .jutist strong enough not to leave a white
stain.
C.L. M.






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


The length of time which elaplses for a generation, which we have
just mentioned, is almost indefinitely eCIIlarged if the weatller b4e cool.
As a matter of fact, a long spell of coo0l weaitlier followed the issuing of
the adults just mentioned. Larva- were watched for twenty days, d(bir-
ing which time they did not reach full growth.
The extreme shortness of this June generation is significant. It
accounts for tiic fact that swarxis of mosquitoes i iiy develop upon
occasion in surface pools of rain water, which. may dry up entirely in


/


Fin. 4.-Cilexpunigena: Full-grown larva at left; pupa at ri-llit a I -\ its anal .e'in-nft below--sll
greatly enlarged (,riginalh.

the course of two weeks, or in a chance buclet of water left. undis-
turbed for that length of time. Further, tlie sh-oitness of tlisis genlera-
tion was, while not unexpected, not at all in ;accordance with auiy pub-
lished statements as to the length of life of' any iinmatuire mosiliito of
any species. But these lpublislhed statements, as previously shliowi,
were nearly all based upon observations made in: a colder climate and
in the month of May.
On August 1 Mr. F. C. Pratt, an assistant in the division of ento-


15


\

















ILIiSrIRA.\TIO(NS.



Pageo.
Fn;. 1.- Culex pingens: adult ........................................... 10
2.-CCulex plnigeis: eggs :,nd younuglarve- ....--.......---................ 11
3.-Culex puIIngen-: head of larva ................................... 13
4.- Culex pin l.ens : larva and p)Ii)J ..........--........----.....---. 15
5.-Pulex serraticeps: egg, adult, etc.................. .............. 25
6.-Pulex serraticeps: larva ......................................... 27
7.-Cii ex lectilariiiu: adult ------------................--------....-..--...----------..----.- 32
8.-Cimex le4ctularius: egg and young larva -..-..------------------------................... 33
9.-Ciimex lectnilari us : larval stages ..----------------....------........-----------... 35
10.-Conorhinus saneguis.liga: puIpa anid adults ..---------.......---------------..... 39
11.-Conorhinus sauguisga: larva and egg---------------------------....... 40
12.-Conorlhinus san -gu isiiga: head, showing miioutli -parts ............. 41
13.-Musca domestic: adult, piparium, etc .........................--------------------------.. 43
14.-Musca domestic: larva ......--.....-----------.........---------------. 45
15.-Musca doimastica: pnpa ---.....-...------.......------.-----------.. 46
16.-Scutigera forceps: aduilt......................................... --------------------------------------48
17.-Scutigera forceps: larva --------------..............----------.......-----....----------.... 49
18.--Bryobhia pratensis: females aud details........ ---------------------------51
19.-Bryobia pratensis: larva................. ---------------------------------------................... 52
20.-Gryllus domesticus: adult------.............----------------------------........................---. 53
21.-Gryllus assimilis: adult ----------.......---------------......--...----..--------- 54
22.-Gr llus assiniilis: wings..---------------------------------------......... 55
23.-Aiithrenus scropliulari:; : all stages -... --..........-----.. -----. 58
21.-Attagenus piceuis: all stages.............-------------....---...............------------------- 61
25.-Tinea pellioniella: adult and larva ......------------------.......--.....----------- 63
26.-'Tiineolat biselliella: adult, larva, and cocoon..--------------..........--------. 66
27.-Trichophaga tapetzella: adult moth ------------....-------............----.------ 67
28.-Termes lavipes: male and female.-------------------------------............................... 70
29.-Teries tiavipes: head of winged feial ......... -------------------------............. 72
30.-Ternes Ilavipvs: newly hatched ]arva and egg ------------------- 73
31.-Termes flav ipes: different forms ................--------------------------------..........- 74
32.-Lepisma saccharinia: adult -------------------------------------...................................... 76
33.-Lepisma domne8tic; : adult ....................................... 77
34.-Atropos divinatoria: adult ...................................... 79
35.-Lepidlocyrtiis americanuis: adult, dorsal view -................... 82
31.-Lepidhcyrtus ameriicaius: adult, veitriil viw ................... -2
37.-LepidocyrtIus amniericanus: adult, lateral view--.................... S3
38.-Periplaneta aiiericana: :ail t----------------------------.................................... ---- 81
39.-Periiplaneta anricameain : egg, capsule ----------------------------- 89
40.-Periplaneta a.istralasi., : adult and pupa ......................... ill
41.-Periplaneta orientalis: different Iorms-- ........................... 92
42.-Phylloldromii:. germanica : various stages ......................... 192
43.-Mononiorium pliaraonis: female and worker ...................... ---- 96
44.-Monomorium niiiiutum: male, female., and worker. ............... 97






94 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.
"* "- .i ..' '!!*:? ." .. I

There are many proprietary substances which claim to I e fairly
effective roach poisons. The usefulness of most of these is, however,
very problematical, and disappointment will ordinarily follow their 1
application. The only one of these that has given very satisfactory
results is a phosphorous paste, also sold in the form of pills. It prob-
ably consists of sweetened flour paste containing phosphorus, and is
spread on bits of paper or cardboard and placed in the runways of the
roaches. It has been used very successfully in-the Department to free
desks from Croton bugs, numbers of the dead insects being found in the
drawers every day during the time the poison was kept about.
Fumigation.-Wherever roaches infest small rooms or aprtments
which may be sealed up nearly air-tight, and also on shipbod, the
roach nuisance can be greatly abated by the proper use of poisonss
gases, notably bisulphide of carbon. This substance, distributed about
a pantry or room in open vessels, will evaporate, and, if used in saffi-
cient quantity, will destroy roaches. Unless the room can be very
tightly sealed up, however, the vapor dissipates so rapidly that its
effect will be lost before the roaches are killed. The hatches ofA ships,
especially of smaller coasting vessels, may be battened down, as very
liberal application of bisulphide of carbon having been previopFLy made
throughout the interior. If left for twenty-four hours the roaas and
all other vermin will unquestionably have been destroyed. I- the use :
of this substance it must be always borne in mind that it is violently
explosive in the presence of fire, and every possible precaution should
be taken to see that no fire is in or about the premises during tM treat-
ment. It is also deadly to higher animals, and compartm tasiiouldj
be thoroughly aired after fumigation. A safer remedy of. t sameI
nature consists in burning pyrethrum in the infested apart :t. Thae .
smoke and vapors generated by the burning of this insetb are
often more effective in destroying roaches than the appliaotio of the
substance in the ordinary way as a powder. There is no4iteadant|
danger of explosion, and the only precaution necessary is to see that
the room is kept tightly closed for from six to twelve hours. Te smoke
of burning gunpowder is also very obnoxious and deadly toroaches,
particularly the black English roach. On the authority .of X-t. Thee..
Pergande, gunpowder is commonly used in Germany to iw these
roaches out of their haunts about fireplaces. The method -to ts in
molding cones of the moistened powder and placing them ia t"* empty
fireplace and lighting them. The smoke coming from t l burning
powder causes the roaches to come out of the creviesoaw t the
chimney and fire bricks in' great numbers, and rapidly. par*zes or:
kills them, so that they may be afterwards swept up: 00i4tdtitr ed.
This remedy will only apply to old houses with largo Aees, aA..
has no especial significance for the modern house, ixt p$sented,
however, as a inmeans applicable wherever conditions simil* the
described occur. :,), -*
Trapping.-Various forms of traps have been very 1(0e,811

:-. :;i~i+ y "l ...;" < *.."*
.. .. .... .. . . +
: r+,:' ~:+ii: i' i+ ;,+ ;,






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WOOLEN GOODS, ETC. 01


THE BLACK CARPET BEETLE.
( A lltI itC 11S i,'fllc ( 0 i v.)
This carpet beetle occurs ill general ill tile same situations inll which
the preceding species is founil. The larva is an active, lighlt-brown,
somewhat cylindrical creature, clothled wit i closely appressed hairs,
aud with a lonmg terminal tuft of lI irs at the end of the body. It is
readily distinguished from tie so-called buffaloao 1otl" )by its sllape
and in general by its lighter color. It is iot so tond of working in
cracks and cutting long slits ii' carpets, andl in general is not so daln-
gerous a species as the other.
This insect has been a denizen of tlhe United States certainly since
1854. It is widespread in Europ)e and Asia, and( first attracted atten-
tion as a carpet insect in this country in 1879, wvhen Dr. Lintuer found













~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ....V / -
-d '4^^?^ _jt









Fl(i.2i.-Attage-nusjiceit.s: a, larva: b, pipa : c, addlt: a,. all .Iral ;idiml ini nal MsIiii, iis t M il pupa; .Aliove,
at left, male aud feminale :aitcunat-aill 'iinhir.eil originall).

it in connection witli thle "buffalo mnoth" at Sclienectidy, N.Y. It had
previously been observed by Hiagcn in Camnbridge, in tile Muste in of Nat-
ural History, at an early d(late, and liad been found in feathers by Walsh.
Since 1880 it has become very abumida;nt in Washiington, I). C., aud
here takes the place of Anthrct) uts scroit nphitriw. It hlias been received
at the division of entomology from Goffstown, N. II.; IHartflrd, (Coi).;
New York City, Lawrence, Long Island, N. Y.; W\\'slhilngtot and 1h(1 a-
grin Falls, Ohio; Detroit, Agricultural College. Charlotte, and l)rain,
Mich.; Philadelplllia, Pa.; Wadestown, W. Va., and Memphlis, Tcnu.
From hearsay information tlhe writer believes that it is also Minore
or less abund(lant in houses in Chlarleston, S. ('., Savai nali, (a., and
Jacksonville, Fla.
The :adult insect is a small, oval, black beetle of thie general ;"lppearalice











TiIlE PRINCIPAL HOUSEIOI LI) INSECTS
OF T I II

UNITED STATES.

(CIIAPTE'R I.

MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.
By L. (. HOWAII.

MOSQUITOES.
(Curn-Kir p. )
Although i.iosquitoes arc out-of-door insects, they may be considered
appropriately under tlhe head of household pests, for the reason that
they enter houses, to the tormineniit of the inhabitants, all thlroughl the
summer months, aild many of thliem pass the winter in cellars. In fact,
it is probably safe to say tliat no distinctive household pest causes as
much annoyance as the mosquito.
We are accustomed to think and speak of the mosquito as if there
were but one species; yet, to our kiiowledge, there are no less than
eight species, for example, which are more or less commoii inl the Dis
trict of Columbia, and the writer lias noticed at New Orleans, La.,
certainly four different species at the same season of the year, while at
Christmas time a fifth species, smaller than the others, causes coiisid-
erable trouble in the houses of that city. In Trinidad Mr. Urielh states
that he has observed at least ten different species, while Dr. VWilliston
has described several from the island of St. Vincent. Iii hlis Catalogue
of the Diptera of North America Baron Osten Sacken records twenty-
one from North America, and it is perhaps safe to say that not half of
the species are described. Iii the collection of tlhe United States
National Museum there are twenty distinct species, all of wiich have
been authentically determined by Mr. Coquillett.
The common species at Washhingtoii in tlhe mot-is ot May anid June
is Cule.r punecs WVied. I say tlhe common sle)cies, lbut do(10 linot wishl to
be understood as saying thliat mosquitoes art comnimoit in Waslihigtoniat
that time of the year. As ; iiatter of fart, I Ilie city is singmilaily free
from this little pest, 'ad(l this is largely dlie to tie reclamation of the
marshes of the Potomac Rive'r, which i war times ;id foir a number
of years afterwards caused the i ihabitants of thiscity to suffer severely
from this insert. As late as 18.75, it is said, it was almost impossible
to spend any of thie night hours near tihe marslhes without smudges.
Later in the season other species become abun(lait.






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


25


Laboulbiene dleserilbes Icareflilly the pretty, oval. WaIxy white I.r
opaque, poImrcelain-colorcdl, smiooth egg, which reaches 0..1 mm. in
length. lie describes thle exterial aIppealralce of theI' ;irvw; aid reciftes
their extremely rapid miovenients, which are. m;,ad, by iie;ins of, the
bristles with which they are furnished, and particularly by ieus of
tie tubercle aII(l lie hair-like spines belhiw the head., lie placed larv';.
upon dust, with birds' feathers inixed with dried bloo, l 4po which
they developed perfectly. Others were put o(I the sweetpiig-s of a. rooi,
and (lde'velol)ed just as well. Laboilbcne at first 1believel I hat blood
was necessary for tihe nourishment of the larva-', the reddish-colored
contentsof the digestive tract making him think so; but helbd11111 thley
would flourish a(nd COmlilete their inetamorpil)hses in sw1 lepings in which.
there was no trace of blood,. Ile concluded th:it all that lhas been. said
on I'ulex irritans nourishing its young on dried blood is very problem-


...." . . ._-















Fin. 5.- 1*ulex aerraticeps ,* a, og ; b, larva ill cocoon,, ; C, pua: (l, adult; e, 110. p rtM of sanw I'nnii
N-4


Fla. 5.-- Mulex serraticep8 a, errr; b, larv'a in cocoon; c, pipa : d7, adult; e, Itmlll plirts Of satilo I'orn
side: f. labilni of 8atne I'rotin l,.h ; g, aiteuna il' saner- all 'iilfloIl'i, (,'1 if ili.

atical. In, his opinion tlhe larvac of the cat flea. for the most part live
upon the groiud in sports where cats stay, and that they live in the
dust inll tlhe cracks of the floor. The 'coon lie described as ovoid.
almost rouitied, brown anld grianular, because it is covered with (lust,
delicate, but difficult to open, attached by one surf;ace. It is about
2.5 mm. by 2.75 itim. The only statc nient in the article rega;irding tlhe
length of the (liflerent stages is to tlhe effect that the pl)pal co.idition
lasts from one to two weeks.
Mr. Simmons found tlhe eggs upon a cloth iipon which a do gi lua!
been sleeping, in thle inidst of a dust composed of fragi eiits of cuticle,
hairs, fibers, andl pellets of dried blood, the last lbeiii. probably tle nllat-
ural excreta of tlhe fleas. In fifty hours most of the egg's hi;iatcie(l. Tle
larvae are described, and tihe stateeiIt is llade that il sevc, l;iys t hey
began to spin their cocoons. 'They remnaineil in thle cocoons eiglit days,






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSEC'IS. 4


meat broth, cut melons, dead animals, in mailurepits, on ,aliunrelicaps,
and even in cuspidors and open snuff boxes. The fiact remiails ]how-
ever that horse manure forms the principal breeding place, allnd that in
confinement we have been unable to rear it to maturity on a;y other
substance.
There is not much that need be said about reliedies for house flies.
A careful screening of windows and doors during tlhe suitmer 1onttlhs,
with the supplementary use of sticky fly paper, is a method knowit to
everyone, and there seems to be little hope in the near future of mti uclt
relief by doing away with tlhe breeding places. A single stable in
which a horse is kept will supply house flies for an exteidi(led neighbor-
hood. People living in agricultural communities will probably never
be rid of the pest, but in cities, with better niethliods. of disposal of
garbage and with the lessening of the iumnbers of horses aid horse
stables consequent upon electric street railways and bicycles, and
probably horseless carriages, the time may come, and before very long
when window screens may be discarded. Tlhe prompt gathering of
horse manure which may be treated with lime or kept in a specially
prepared pit would greatly abate the fly nuisance, and city ordinances
compelling horse owners to follow some such course arc desirable.
Absolute cleanliness, even under existing circumstances, will always
result in a, diminution of the numbers of the house fly, and, as will be
pointed out ini other cases in this bulletin, most household insects are
less attracted to tlhe premises of what is known as the old-fashioned
housekeeper than to those of the other kind.
The house fly has a number of natural enemies, and, as will be pointed
out in the next section of this bulletin, the common house centipede
destroys it in considerable numbers; there is a small reddish mite
which frequently covers its body and gradually destroys it; it is sub-
ject to the attacks of hymeniopterowis parasites in its larval condition,
and it is destroyed by predatory beetles at the same time. Tle mos,
effectiveenemy, however, is a fungous disease known as Enit.m.ht m usur',
which carries off flies in large numbers, particularly toward the close
of thle season. The epidemic ceases in D)eceimber, and although many
thousands are killed by it, the remarkable rapidity of development in
the early summer months soon more thai replaces tlhe thousands titus
destroyed.
L. 0. It.
THE HOUSE CENTIPEDE.
( .ciifIiii(rP{ 111E/HIs ~i t'.
This centipede, particularly within thle l:Ist teni or twelve years, hi:as
become altogether too common an object i i dwelling houses in tlhe
Middle and Northern States for the peaceof m it id of tlhe inmates. It is a
very fragile creature, capable of very rapid movements. an d elevated con-
siderably above the surface upon which it runs by very numnierous long
legs. It may often be seeni darting across floors with very great speed,


47




/ i:: ~:: :*:*

96 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS'.

its entire existence in houses, having its nests in the walls or beneath
the flooring, and usually forming its new colonies in similar favorable
situations. Two other ants are very common nuisances in houses,
namely, the little black ant (Monomnorium minutum Mayr) and the
pavement ant of the Atlantic Seaboard (Tetramorium owspitum Lin.).
None of these ants are so destructive to household effects or supplies
as they are annoying from the mere fact of their presence and their
faculty for "getting into" articles of food, particularly sugars, sirups,
and other sweets. Having once gained access to stores of this sort,
the news of the discovery is at once conveyed to the colony, and in an
incredibly short time the premises are swarming with these unwelcome
visitors.
In habits and life history these ants are all much alike, and, in cmrn-
mon with other social insects, present that most complex and inter-
esting phase of communal life, with its accompanying division of labor
and diversity of forms of individuals, all working together in the most
perfect harmony and accord. The spec-
linenss ordinarily seen in houses are all
\ neuters, or workers. In the colony itself
if it be discovered and I
ST \opened, will be found 1
A
also the larger wing-
less females and, at
the proper season, the 1
\winged males and fe-
SB7 males. During most .1
/ of the year, however, |
the colony 0oxsists I
FIG. 43.-The red ant (Monomoriuinm pharaonis): a, female; b, almost exclUsively of
worker-enlarged (front Riley). work's with one or
workers, il one or
more perfect wingless females. Winged males and females are pro-1
duced during the summer and almost immediately take their nuptial
flight. The males soon perish, and the females shortly afterwards.1
tear off their own wings, wkich are but feebly attached, and set about
the establishment of new colonies. The eggs, which are produced
in extraordinary numbers by the usually solitary queen mother, are
very minute, oval, whitish objects, and are cared for by the workers,
the young larvae being fed in very much the same way as in the colo-
nies of the hive bee. The so-called ant eggs, in the popular concep-.
tion, are not eggs at all, but the white larvae and pupse, and, if of
females or males, are much larger than the workers and many times
larger than the true eggs.
As a house species the red ant (Monomorium pharaonis Lini.) (fig. 43)
is the common one. It is practically cosmopolitan, and its exact origin
is unknown. This species, nesting habitually in the walls of houses or
beneath flooring, is often difficult to eradicate. There is no means of
. *






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


from the thorax, and, while not very long, they are powerful and enable
the insect to run with great rapidity.
In certain peculiarities of structure, and also in their habits, these
anomalous insects much remind one of roaches, and their quick, gliding
movements and flattened bodies greatly heighten this resemblance.
More striking than all, however, is the remarkable development of the
coxae or basal joints of the legs in the silver fish, which finds its counter-
part in roaches, and, taken in connection with the other features of
resemblance, seems to point to a very close alliance between the two
groups, if, indeed, the silver fish are not merely structurally degraded
forms of roaches and to be properly classed with the Blattida.
The general distribution of the insect about rooms, in bookcases,
and under wall paper renders the application of insecticides difficult
and often impracticable. It readily succumbs to pyrethrum, and where-
ever this can be applied, as on book shelves, it furnishes the best means
of control. For starched clothing and similar objects liable to be
injured by it there are no means except frequent handling and airing
and the destruction by hand of all specimens discovered. Little dam-
age is liable to occur in houses except in comparatively moist situ-
ations or where stored objects remain undisturbed for a year or more.
Another of the common silver fishes of this country, referred to in
the opening paragraph, has developed a novel habit of frequenting
ovens and fireplaces, and seemingly revels in an amount of heat which
would be fatal to most other insects. It disports itself in numbers
about the openings of ranges and over the hot bricks and metal, mani-
festing a most surprising immunity from the effects of high tempera-
ture. This heat-loving or bakehouse species (fig. 33) was described in
1873 as Lepisma domestic by Packard, who reported it to be common
about fireplaces at Salem, Mass. This species is also very abundant in
Washington. What is evidently this same insect has become very com-
mon, particularly in the last year or two, in England and on the Conti-
nent, where it manifests the same liking for hot places exhibited by it
in this country. The habit of this species of congregating in bake-
houses and dwellings, about fireplaces and ovens, has given rise to the
common appellation for it in England of "fire-brat." Similar descriptive
names are applied to them also on the Continent. This species closely
resembles the common silver fish in size and general appearance, but
may be readily distinguished from it by the presence on the upper
surface of dusky markings. It also possesses well-marked structural
differences, which have led to its late reference to a distinct genus-
Thermobia. An Italian entomologist, Rovelli, has described this insect
under the descriptive name furnorum, from its inhabiting ovens, and
the name of the genus to which it is now assigned by English entomolo-
gists is also descriptive of its heat-loving character. A Dutch ento-
mologist, Oudemans, reports that he has found it in abundance in all
bakehouses that he has examined in Amsterdam, where it is well known
to bakers and has received a number of familiar names.


78






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


entomologist), differs from it i n the important particular that its mouth
parts are formed for piercing the skin. It is perhaps second in point
of abundance to the house fly in most portions of the Northeastern
States.
A third species, commonly called the cluster fly (Pollenia rudis), is a
very frequent visitant of houses, particularly in the spring and fall.
This fly is somewhat larger than the house fly, with a dark-colored,
smooth abdomen and a sprinkling of yellowish hair. It is not so active
as the house fly, and particularly in the fall is very sluggish. At such
times it may be picked up readily, and is very subject to the attacks of
a fungus disease which causes it to die upon window panes surrounded
by a whitish efflorescence. Occasionally this fly occurs in houses in
such numbers as to cause great annoyance, but such occurrences are
comparatively rare.
A fourth species is another stable fly known as Cyrtoneura stabulans,
and a fifth, rather commoner than the last, is the so-called bluebottle
fly (Calliphora erythrocephala). This insect is also called the blowfly
or meat fly, and breeds in decaying animal material. Another species,
about the size of the bluebottle, which breeds abundantly in cow-
dung and is also found in houses, although usually in less numbers
than the others, is also commonly called the bluebottle or green-bottle
fly (Lucilia ewsasr).
There is still another species, smaller than any of those so far men-
tioned, which is known to entomologists as Homalomyia canicularis,
sometimes called tlhe small house fly. It is distinguished from the
ordinary house fly by its paler and more pointed body and conical shape..
The male, which is much commoner than the female, has large pale
patches at the base of the abdomen, which are translucent. When
seen on a window pane the light shines through that part of the body.
Not much complaint would be made of house flies were the true house
fly a nonexistent form. Under ordinary circumstances it far outnum-
bers all other species in houses, Common and widespread as this
species is, there is very general ignorance, as with many other extremely
common insects, as to its life history and habits outside of the adult
stage. Writing in 1873, Dr. A. S. Packard showed that no one in this
country had up to that time investigated its habits, and that even in
Europe but little attention lhad been given to it. He showed that the
habits were mentioned in only three works, one of which was published
during the present century, with figures so poor and inadequate as to
be actually misleading. De Geer (1752) showed that thle larva lives in
warm and humid dung, but did not say how long it remains in the
different stages. Bouche (1834)states that the larva lives in horse and
fowl's dung, especially when warm; he did not, however, give the
length of the larval state.
'On the Transformations of the Common House Fly, with Notes on Allied Forms.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XVI, 1874, p. 136.


44






SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, ITAMS, FRUIT, ETC.


101


Aristotle knew the cheese nuites ad1141 SIpok f W theni as tim sIlMilest
of living creatures. Many subsequent writers. have figured them awd
mentioned them, but the full life history was not kiiowIL until lS6(8,
when Claparedc determined that the genus HypopnIts was composed of
forms which are steps inll thie development of true t'roglyphiiids.
All through the summer months, a1d in warm houses dzrinig tiP
winter months these creatures breed witli istni.slhinig rapidlity and
fecundity. The rapidity of niultillic atiod aid the extr 'rd ii ;ary nuam-
bers in which these mites will occur under Favoralble conditions are
almost incredible. Inl 18S82 T. loniir was tiund it ;in Ohio packing
house, covering the dried and pa('ked refuse (ready fir' sale as a fertil-
izer) in a layer which in some places half an inch in thickness. At
a low estimate 1 square inch of such a layer would contain 100,000 indi-
viduals. The females bring forth their young' alive, and these il turn
reach full growth and reproduce, until a
cheese, once infested by a few, swarms with ,
thecrawling multitude, which cause its solid
mass to crumble and become mixed with A
excremental pellets and cast-oft' skills.
Through the summer months the mites are -.
soft bodied and have comparatively feeble -.B-
powers of locomotion, and when they have *j -
become numerous enough to devour the 4, _.
whole of a cheese, with no other food at "
hand, it was for a long time a puzzle to know -.
what became of them and to understand /
how a cheese could become affected without
contact with another infested cheese or // \
without being placed in an infested room. It // \
has been ascertained, however, that when
necessity requires it, and when the insects Fl,. 47.-Trd,,-,,* ,s Poe : i<.,mai.-
7 ~ ~~rn';itly **,il ,g. d at-.. i-l r I1.-rl,..*,.*).
happen to be in thle proper stage ot growth, gry argl l r
they have the power of not only almost indefinitely prolonging exist-
ence, but of undergoing a complete change of form, acquiring hard,
brown protective coverings into which all of tile legs (can Ibe drawn in
repose. Back in Van Leeuwelnhoek's time this )utclh naturalist showed
that even the softer form can undergo a fast of eleven weeks without
apparent discomfort, and it is now known that in tli hard shell or
Hypopus state it may remain fm many months without 'fol.
In the majority of cases, however, where a given cheese is comilletely
destroyed, all of the young and oldl n mites perish and[ only hose of
middle age which are ready to take on tle 1yp1oIls condition survive.
These fortunate survivors, possessing their souls with patience, retire
into their shells and fast and wait, and as everything comes to lhim wlho
waits, some lucky (lay a mouse or house fly or somte other insect comes
that way, and the little mite clings to it and is carried away to some






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


REMEDIES.
There is no easy method of preventing the damage done by clothes
moths, and to maintain the integrity of woolens or other materials
which they are likely to attack demands constant vigilance, with fre-
quent inspection and treatment. In general they are liable to affect
injuriously only articles which are put away and left undisturbed for
some little time. Articles in daily or weekly use, and apartments fre-
quently aired and swept, or used as living rooms, are not apt -to be seri-
ously affected. Carpets under these conditions are rarely attacked,
except sometimes around the borders, where the insects are not so much
disturbed by walking and sweeping. Agitation, such as beating, shak-
ing or brushing, and exposure to air and sunlight are old remedies and
still among the best at command. Various repellants, such as tobacco,
camphor, naphthaline cones or balls, and cedar chips or sprigs, have a
certain value if the garments are not already stocked with eggs or
larvme. The odors of these repellants are so disagreeable to the parent
moths that they are not apt to come to deposit their eggs as long as
the odor is strong. As it weakens the protection decreases, and if the
eggs or larvae are already present, these odors have no effect on their
development; while if the moths are inclosed with the stored material
to be protected by these repellants, so that they can not escape, they
will of necessity deposit their eggs and the destructive work of the
larvae will be little, if at all, restricted. After woolens have been given
a vigorous and thorough treatment and aired and exposed to sunlight,
however, it is of some advantage in packing them away to inclose with
them any of the repellants mentioned. Cedar chests and wardrobes
are of value in proportion to the freedom of the material from infesta-
tion when stored away; but as the odor of the wood is largely lost with
age, in the course of a few years the protection greatly decreases.
Furs and garments may also be stored in boxes or trunks which have
been lined with the heavy tar paper used in buildings. New papering
should be given to such receptacles every year or two. Similarly, the
tarred-paper moth bags are of some value, always, however,. first sub-
jecting the materials to the treatment outlined above.
To protect carpets, clothes, and cloth-covered furniture, furs, etc.,
they should be thoroughly beaten, shaken, brushed, and exposed as
long as is practicable to the sunlight in early spring, either in April,
May, or June, depending on the latitude. The brushing of garments is
a very important consideration, to remove the eggs or young larv,
which might escape notice. Such material can then be hung away in
clothes closets which have been thoroughly cleaned and, if necessary,
sprayed with benzine about the cracks of the floor and the baseboards.
If no other protection be given, they should be examined at least once
a month during summer, brushed, and, if necessary, exposed to the
sunlight.


68




T" Si

114 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

cracked wheat, and patented foods, but likewise infests in the writers
experience such useful communities as ginger, cayenne pepper, baking
powder, orris root, snuff, slippery elm, peanuts, peas, beans, and seeds
of various kinds that are kept long in store. It sometimes also attacks
cabinets of dried insects.
As an instance of the nature of injury to flour in households may be
mentioned an experience recently reported, as it is one that may fall to
the lot of any housekeeper. The house had been closed for six weeks,
and on the return of the family the flour, which was kept in. a large
wooden bucket with tightly fitting cover, and known to the trade as a
kanakin, was swarming with the larve and beetles of this species.
The damaged flour was removed and the bucket refilled, only to be again
found with the insectsat work in the fresh material. A personal exani- J
nation by the writer showed that the insects, or enough of them to
cause reinfestation, had remained in the cracks of the bucket and in
holes that they and their larvae, or Siltvanus surinamensis, which accom-
panied them, had made in the soft wood. The bucket was again
emptied and then scalded, which had the effect of killing all the inMsects
except a few which were discovered to have escaped throtngh holes
which they had made in the bottom. The bottom was then painted.
Two reports have reached this office of injury by this species to bak-
ing powder. In one instance considerable damage had been done,
resulting in the loss of an entire consignment, necessitating its replace-
ment by the manufacturers, not to mention the annoyance to all parties
concerned. Customers were returning boxes of the powder almost as
soon as opened, on account of the presence of these beetles. The baking
powder, of which wheat flour was in this instance one of the ingredients,
is put up for sale in tight tin boxes, and so closely covered with paper
as to be practically air-tight; consequently the insects must have gained
entrance at the manufactory before the boxes were covered.
The life history of this species is in brief as follows: The tiny, clear
white eggs are attached to some convenient surface in the cracks or on
the sides of the bag, barrel, or other receptacle in which the infested
substance is contained. These hatch into minute larva, which feed for
a period, depending upon the temperature, and then transform to naked,
white pupae, which in due time change to beetles, which copulate soon-
after transformation, and another generation enters upon its life round.
In this manner several broods are generated in the course of a year.
From observations conducted by the writer it has been learned that
this insect is capable in an exceptionally high temperature of under-.
going its entire round of existence from egg to imago in thirty-six days.
The minimum period of incubation was not ascertained, but it may be
assumed as about six days. This, with six days for the pupal period,
gives twenty-four days as the shortest developmental period of the '
larva. In cooler weather these periods last two or three times as long. I

: .:; ..* |





PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


to save the building it was necessary ultimately t6 tear it down and
replace tt with an iron structure. In this country instances are on
record of very serious damage to books and papers. An accumulation
of books and papers belonging to the State of Illinois was thoroughly
ruined by their attacks. A school library in South Carolina, which
had been left closed for the summer, was found on being opened in the
autumn to be completely eaten out and rendered valueless. In the
Department of Agriculture an accumulation of records and documents
stored in a vault which was not thoroughly dry, and allowed to remain
undisturbed for several years, on examination proved to be thoroughly


N


I
/


6


1/

!I


t


\(Yd/


FIo. 31.-Termnes flavippa: a, queen; b,


nymph of winged female; e,
(original).


#0


AB


worker; d, soldier-all enlarged


mined and ruined by white ants. Humboldt, on the authority of
Hagen, accounts for the rarity of old books in New Spain by the fre-
quency of the destructive work of these insects.
Numerous instances of damage to underpinning of buildings and to
timbers are also on record. The flooring of one of the largest sections
of the United States National Museum has, for some years back, been
annually undermined and weakened by a very large colony of these
pests which could not be located, and finally the present season the
authorities solved the problem by replacing the wood floor with one of
cement. A few years ago it was found necessary to tear down and


:
t
s
'*:
i
!
:!
:!
!


*1
.4


74


0


\ U.- /






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


often eaten when in the larval condition, satiely screened from view in
these esculent legumes. The former species is restricted to the pea for
food, and though it passes the winter in peas that are kept in store, does
not breed, as does the latter, for successive generations in the same
seed.
Still another weevil (Arwcerus fascicla(tus DeG.), a member of the
family Anthribida., and for which is proposed the name "coflee-beau
weevil," occurred in abundance during the year 1895 in a local grocery
store, having been reported to us by a purchaser who found numbers of
the beetles in dried apples. This species infests, besides coffee beans
and dried apples, mnace, nutmegs, chocolate beans, and the roots of a
species of ginger.
Certain species of Dermestidr, it has recently been learijed, in addi-
tion to a diet of dried animal matter, attack cereals and other vegetable
products. The commonest of these is tlhe black carpet beetle (Attagenus
piceus Oliv.), an account of which, by Dr. Howard, las appeared in pre-
ceding pages. Its larva breeds in cereals, ground and whole, and has
been reared from millet, pumpkin, and timothy seed. Trogoulerma tar-
sale Melsh. has similar habits, and has been tbfound living in grain, flax-
seed, castor beans, cayenne pepper, millet and pumpkin seeds, pea-
nuts, and meal and cake manufactured from them. Anlirenus rcrjbasci
Linn., a near relative of the so-called "buffalo moth" treated in pre-
vious pages, has nearly the same food habits as the two preceding
species.
A grain beetle known as Cathartus adrena Waltl, of the same faniily
as Silvanus surinamensis, has similar habits to the latter, but is much
rarer in stored products. It has been taken by the writer in cereals,
dry dates, figs, and cacao beans.
Lwrmophlowus pusillus Sch., another cucujid beetle, sminaller, flatter,
and with longer antennae than the preceding, occurs in flour, meal,
grain, etc., but, as it is at least partially predaceous, does little harm.
Several small species of the family Nitidulidt are at times very
injurious to dried fruits, but seldom occur abundantly in this country,
except in the South. One of the comnonest of these is Carpophilus
hemnipterus Linn.
A gray moth of the genus Ephestia, related to the Indian-meal mnoth,
sometimes occurs with this latter in nuts and fruits. It is about equally
common in English walnuts, and its 1)ikish-striped larva, do consider-
able injury to dried figs.
The Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga ececalella 01.), a destructive
granary insect, is very injurious to ppcorn, and infests also rice and
and other cereals.
REMEDIES.
A considerable percentage of injury to the dried vegetable products
of the household may be prevented by a moderate degree of care when
purchasing, and in storing in tight receptacles in cool. dry rooms.
21470-No. 4- 9


129






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


57


With the apprioa'-li of cold weaLtlier the nests aie ibl ai(ldoie(41, Imost
of the indivi(lials, iiclilulilig all the workers lland ialls., perish. iig, ;1aid
only the perfect fetmiales, tile proliduct of the last 4fall broolld. w iitt.rilig
over. Early in spriiig these over-wiitered femialvs come o'l t of tile
cracks ili logs or holes in walls, etc., in wliiclh they lu;ive hiberii ate(l, aii(l
unaided originate new colonies of workers, witichli by liiIsiuiliiier often
contain 20,000 or ml'ore id(liv'iduals. No hiniiey, wax, orpollellii is storedl
in the nests, but the young are f'd by tih N' workers oi a liquid d(lerived
from insects or other sublstaices eaitenii.
The paper wasps have a number of natural enemieins. ils Thley are cap-
tured and devouredl by two species of robber ies, and in add(itioni their
underground nests, as I am informed by woodmimeni, are ieieliutly d(llug
out by foxes and skunks, which feed oil the larva' aind pilpa, containi(ed
in them.
The best means of abating the wasp nuisance is to discover tlhe niest
and destroy the inmates. Ordiniarily by watching i dividlual wa:isps the
nest can be located, aind tihe introduction of a few spoonIfuls of chloro-
form or bisulphide of carbon into the entrance, a fter all have come in for
the night, will suffice to destroy the inlialit:ants.
Other Vesl)as, especially the common bald-fa('ed lhornet ( Vespa )(1CU-
lati Linn.), which builds large paper nests iii trees, also enter houses,
but not so abundantly as tlhe small yellow and bl.ck species referred to.
The slenderyellowishl-ibrown wasps(Poli.tc.- spp.), which build uncovered
combs attached to rafters and ini trees, are also frequent visitors in
houses, but are niot so 1pigncious and will rarely attack anyone unless
they are accidentally taken hold of or their ncsts disturbed. All of these
wasps are of more or less service to housekeepers in that they are
active enemies of the cominoimjon huise fly.
C. L. M.






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


115


In well-heated buildings in a latitude like that of Washington we thus
have the possibility of at least. four ,"gentations a year.
The mature larva is shown in figure 52 at b, the pupa at c" alnd d.
THE ItUST-.r-ED lJ') OU It EETLE.
( Tribulinm i ft rrnqineun P 'ili,.)
This species, as previously stated, closely reselles the tirst-men-
tioned flour beetle in color, form and size, bulit miy in. d(list iiguished
by the form of thile head, which is not expanded lbey oid ihe eyes at tile
sides, and by the antenme, which terminate in a distinct three-jointed
club (see fig. 52,f). In its liabits and life history this insect closely
resembles its congenter, T. couifusim, but it is apparently sonmewhlat
restricted to the Southern States, although oceasion;Llly Iouinl in tlhe
North. It is often reported in flour, i eal, a1i grain, and is sometimes
shipped north in consignients of rice.

TIlE IROAD-HORNEI) I'LOUI BEIErLE.
(kl'ch/occra corniftus Fabi.)

A third flour beetle that sometimes finds its way into liouses is tlhe
one above mentioned. It so closely resembles tlhe twvo preceling spe-
cies that the females particularly are with difficulty distiiguislicd fromi
them. Tie wale, with its broad, conspicuous nian-
dibular horns, is shown at fig. 53. Tile general habits
of this species also so nearly resemble those of Tri-
boliunm that it will be unnecessary to give more than
a brief mention of its known foods. It lias been
found in ground cereals of various sorts, icludig
flour, meal, "germea," rolled barley, bread, army
biscuit, maize, wheat, and rice. In southern (Caliliwr- "1
nia it occurs even under bark, showing complete
acclimatization. It is somewhat limited in distrimbu-
tion in the United States, but is frequently ii(et with FtI,;. 5:i-E,;,,,rerj,-,, p.
in large seaport towns, especially on the Pacific nuus: 1al., ,tnl.-i-
Coast, and is on the increase elsewhere. In sonie
parts of Europe, according to report, it is a veritable pest ill bakeries
by getting ito the flour and into thle masses of fermenting doighi tliat
accumulate upon the molds used inl baking bread.

THE MEAL-WORMS.
Two species of beetles and their larva-, tlie latter tatmi liar to nearly
everyone under the name 4 meial-worms," attract attention by reason
of their large size and somewhat serlpent-like appeairalnve wlen tlhey
invade the family flour barrel, thlie feeld box, biags Of bran or meal, or
are turned up in unexpected pla.es. These are among tli'e 1an1y species






































































































































































































































































SW,






56


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


cricket that frequently there is a strong feeling against destroying it;
and to many it is a pleasant incentive to revery, filling the mind with
pleasant contemplations, and perhaps lulling the wakeful to restful
sleep. Not to all, however, does it appeal in this way, and for those
to whom its notes are rasping and irritating, and who fear for the
safety of their garments, or are otherwise evilly disposed toward it,
the following methods of control will be of interest:
It may be readily destroyed by taking advantage of its liking for
liquids, and any vessel containing beer or other liquid placed about
will usually result in crickets being collected and drowned in numbers.
It may also ,be destroyed by the distribution of uncooked vegetables,
such as ground-up carrots or potatoes, strongly poisoned with arsenic.
In the use of poisoned baits in dwellings great care, however, should
always be exercised.
C. L. M.
THE PAPER WASP.
(Vespa germanica Fab.)
It frequently happens, more particularly in suburban places and in
the country, that the common yellow jackets or paper wasps, notably
Vespa germanica Fab., will have their nests near dwellings and mul-
tiply to such an extent as to become serious nuisances about houses, to
which they are attracted by the moisture about wells or to fruit refuse.
Under these circumstances they become a source of some danger from
the liability of their stinging horses. Unless houses are carefully
screened they will frequently be attracted into them in considerable
numbers, and on account of their pugnacious disposition render meal
taking a proceeding of considerable risk. They have a great fondness
for all sweetened liquids and will swarm over fruit, especially melons.
The species most apt to be annoying in houses in the East is the one
mentioned at the head of this article. It is of European origin, and,
like many other introduced animals, as the English sparrow, for exam-
ple, has become even more numerous in its new home than in its old.
It sometimes nests in trees in Europe, but in this country commonly
dwells in large underground colonies located usually only a few inches
below the surface, and often in the deserted nests of field mice, which
have been cleaned out and greatly enlarged by their insect tenants.
The nest consists of a loose papery envelope, within which are from
four to eight stories or tiers of combs, attached to each other with strong
central supports. The largest combs sometimes have a diameter of 12
inches and the larger nests a capacity of upward of one-half bushel.
Throughout the summer a colony contains, in addition to the queen
mother, workers only. The perfectly sexed individuals, females or
queens and males, appear only in the fall, usually in September, are
much larger than the workers, and are reared in special cells of large
size in the undermost or last constructed of the combs.






THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE.


as a means of protection, in the conditions und(ler which the bedblug
lives, are kept away from it, and tlhe roach, which will be sliowN later
to feed on bedbugs, is evidently not deterred by tlhe odor, while the coil-
mon house ant, which will also attack tlhe bedbug, seems inot to tiInd this
odor disagreeable.
The bedbug is thoroughly nocturiial in habit aid displays a certain
degree of wariness and caution, or intelligeiice, in its efforts at con-
cealment during the (lay. It thrives particularly in filthy apalrttients
and in old houses which are full of cracks alnd (crevices in which it can
conceal itself beyond easy reach. It usually leaves tlhe bed at tile
approach of daylight to go into concealmeiit either in cracks in the
bedstead, if it be one of the old wooden variety, or belhiid wainscoting,
or under loose wall paper, where it manifests its gregarious liabit by col-
lecting in masses together. The old-fashioned heavy wooden bedsteads
are especially favorable for the concealment and multiplication of this





,P. I







C
FIG. 9.-Cimex lectularitt: a. tirst larval sk in shed at first moult; b, second larval stage taken imme-
diately after emeriiig 1'roii 1i.1 r, same after Ii rsI iiieal, dist ii -d wit] fi N t I's I ri i uwiI)(

insect, and the general use in later years of iro" and brass bedsteads
has very greatly facilitated its eradication. T'i ey are not apt to be
very active in winter, especially in cold rooms, and ordinarily hibernate
in their places of concealment.
The bedbug, though normally feeding on lhumnian blood, seems to be
able to subsist for a time at least on much simpler food, and in fact tlie
evidence is pretty conclusive that it is able to get more or less suste-
nance from the juices of moistened wood, or tlie moisthire in tIhe acci-
mulations of dust, etc., in crevices in flooring. No othe-r explanation
would seem to account for the fact that houses long (rioccupied are
found, on being reinhiabitated, to be thoroughly stocked with bedblugs.
There is a very prevalent belief among the old settlers in the \West
that this insect normally lives on (lead or diseased cottonwood log's,
and is almost certain to be abundant in log houses of this woodl. 'lhis
belief was recently voiced by Capt. S. M. Swigert, U. S. A., wlio reports
that it often occurs in numbers under the bark of dead trees of c(ottopi-


35






76


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


be uear by, and by this means most, if not all, of the inmates may be
killed. In all districts of the South frequent examinations of libraries
and stored papers should be made.
The advisability, in regions where the ant is likely to be especially
destructive, of giving all buildings a stone foundation or imbedding all
thle lower timbers and joists in cement will be at once evident.

THE SILVER FISH.
(Lepisma saccharina Linn.)

This insect is often one of the most troublesome enemies of books,
papers, card labels in museums, and starched clothing, and occasionally
stored food substances. Its peculiar fish-like form and scaly, glistening
body, together with its very rapid movements and active efforts at
concealment whenever it is uncovered,
Shave attached considerable popular in-
terest to it and have resulted in its
receiving a number of more or lessddscrip-
vtive popular names, such as silver fish,
silver louse, silver witch, sugar fish, etc.
ll "lThe species named above is the common
'J one in England, but also occurs in this
| : country, and, like most other domestic
insects, is now practically cosmopolitan.
S It has a number of near allies, which
f closely resemble it, both in appearance
S and habits. One of these (Lepisma(Ther-
mobia) domestic Pack ) has certain pe-
i culiarities of habit which will be referred
fto later. The peculiar appearance of the
f common silver fish early drew attention
to it, and a fairly accurate description of
FiG. 32.-Lepima saccharine: adult- it, given in a little work published in
enlarged (original).T / / E 1 4 D o *
enlarged (original). London in 1665 by the Royal Society, is
interesting enough to reproduce:
Itis a small, silvery, shining worm or moth which I found much conversant among
books and papers, and is supposed to be that which corrodes and eats holes through
the leaves and covers. It appears to the naked eye a small, glittering, pearl-colored
moth, which, upon the removing of books and papers in the summer, is often observed
very nimbly to scud and pack away to some lurking cranny where it may better
protect itself from any appearing dangers. Its head appears big and blunt, and its
body tapers from it toWard the tail, smaller and smaller, being shaped almost like a
carret.I
On account of its always shunning the light and its ability to run
very rapidly to places of concealment, it is not often seen and is most
Micrographia, R. Hooke, London, 1665.






M)SlI'ITI )ES AN I) F'LEAS.


siphon reaches the surface, fresh air flows into its trache., and tilhe
physical properties of tie so-called surface tilin of tlhe water :assist it
in mniaintaining its position.
In the first edition of this work the writer erroneously attributed tan
error to Proft. L. C. Miall inl regard to tihe ninth body segnieiit with its
terminal flaps. This was due to a wrong reading of Professor Miall's
accurate book on aquatic insects.
The respiratory tube takes its origin from tlhe tip of tlhec eighth abdon i-
nal segment, and the very large trache;e can be seen extelnding to its
extremity, where they have a double orifice. The ninth segment of
the abdomen is armed ;at the tip with four flaps andI six hairs, as shown
iii fig. 4. These flaps are gill like ill appearance, tlioligh they arc prob-
ably simply locomotory in function. With so remarkably developed an
7-K //

,,< / ,













Fin. 3.-- 'ulexpun gens: Hcad of lar' a fronI bhilw .il Ii'ft, sa In1v from iin a Ipi v at ri gli t-- rcaItly.rilvi ri'l
(original).
apparatus for direct air breathing there is no necessity tfor grill struct-
ures. Raschkcl and I Hlurst-' consider tliat thile larva breathes both by
the anus and by these gill flaps, as well a-s by thle large tracheaq wlicl
open at the tip of tlhe respiratory tube. Raschke considers that these
trachea, are so unnecessarily large that they possess a hlydrostatic
function. The writer is inclined to believe that the gill ,.;ips Iiiay lie
functional as branchhial structures in thle young Ilar'va, 11ut. thiait they
largely lose this office in later lileb.
After seven or eight days, at a iniuiiiiin. ;as j.ust slateil. (lie larva
transforms to pupa. The pupa, as thas been relpeatedly pointed out
with other species, differs most pronoIncedlly froii the lirva in tilhe
great swelling of thle thioracic segments. In this stage tlhe insect is
'Raschke, Die larve von (C'ulcr n',,i1r,1n.,m. Ilrrlin. lS87.
H2 urst, The Plupal Stage of Ctlult.x, M:;ncllester. ls!)O.


13






12


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


very firmly. After they have hatched the mass will disintegrate in a
few days, even in perfectly still water.
The individual eggs are 0.7 mm. in length and 0.16 mm. in diameter
at the base. They are slender, broader and blunt at bottom, slenderer
and somewhat pointed at tip. The tip is always dark grayish brown in
color, wlile the rest of the egg is dirty white. Repeated observations
show that the eggs hatch, under advantageous conditions, certainly as
soon as sixteen hours. Water buckets containing no egg masses, placed
out at night, were found to contain egg masses at 8 o'clock in the morning,
which, as above stated, were probably laid in the early morning, before
daylight. These eggs, the third week in May, began to hatch quite
regularly at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the same day on warm days.
In cooler weather they sometimes remained unlatched until the second
day. If we apply the evidence of -European observers to this species,
the period of the egg state may be under twelve hours; but there is a
possibility that they are laid earlier in the night, which accounts for the
fact that sixteen hours is the shortest period which we can definitely
mention.
The larvam issue from the underside of the egg masses, and are ex-
tremely active at birth. When first observed it is easy to fall into an
error regarding the length of time which they can remain under water,
or rather without coming to the surface to breathe, since, in striving to
come to the surface for air, many of them will strike the underside of
the egg mass and remain there for many minutes. It is altogether
likely, however, that they get air at this point through the eggs or
through the air film by which the egg mass is surrounded, and that
they are as readily drowned by continuous immersion as are the older
ones, as will be shown later.
One of the first peculiarities which strikes one on observing these
newly hatched larvam under the lens is that the tufts of filaments which
are conspicuous at the mouth are in absolutely constant vibration.
This peculiarity, and the wriggling of the larva through the water, and
their great activity, render them interesting objects of study. In gen-
eral, the larvae, passing through apparently three different stages, reach
maturity and transform to pupa in a minimum of seven days. When
nearly full grown their movements were studied with more care, as
they were easier to observe than when newly hatched. At this time
the larva remains near the surface of the water, with its respiratory
siphon at the exact surface and its mouth filaments in constant vibra
tion, directing food into the mouth cavity. Occasionally the larva
descends to the bottom, but, though repeatedly timed, a healthy indi-
vidual was never seen to remain voluntarily below the surface more
than a minute. In. ascending it comes up with an effolbrt, with a series
of jerks and wrigglings with its tail. It descends without effort, but
ascends with difficulty; in other words, its specific gravity seems to be
greater than that of the water. As soon, however, as the respiratory




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

11 I1nmi n uin1l ll 1 1 1liil 11111111111116 5694i
3 12-62 09216 5694


..0 ..


*






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


87


the moving of furniture or disturbed inl tlieir hiding places, they are
Rarely seen, and if so uncovered, make off with wonderful celerity, within
a scurrying, nervous gait, and usually are able to elude ;ill efforts at
their capture or destruction. It may often liapl)penl tiat their presence,
at least in the abundance in wlhicii they occur, is hardly realized by
the housekeeper, unless they are surprised iM their midnight feasts.
Coming into a kitchen or pantry suddenly, a soliund of the rustlinlg of
numerous objects will come to the ear, alndl if a light be ijtriioducedl,
often the floor or shelves will lbe seen covered witli scurrying roacies
hastening to places of concealment. In districts where the large
American roach occurs they sometimes swarm i1 t1is way at light inl
such numbers that upon entering a small room in which they are con-
gregated one will be repeatedly struck and( scratched on the face and
hands by the insects in their frantic flight to gain coicea;lnment.
The black roach is less active and wary thiain the others, and particti-
larly the German roach, which is especially agile and shy.
The domestic roaches are practically oniivorous, feeding on almost
any dead animal matter, cereal products, and food materials of all sorts.
They are also said to eat tlieir own cast skins and egg, cases, and it is
supposed that they will attack other species of roaclies, or are, perhaps,
occasionally cannibalistic. They will also eat or gnaw woolens, leather
(as of shoes or furniture), and frequently are the cause of extensive
damage to the cloth and leather bindings of books in libraries and
publishing houses. The sizing or paste used on the cloth covers and in
the binding of books seems to be very -ittractive. Tihe surface of tlhe
covers of cloth-bound books is often much scraped and disfiguredd, par-
ticularly by the German cockroachl (Ectubia german i' a), and tlhe gold
lettering is sometimes eaten off to get at the albumen paste. On ship-
board the damage is often very extensive, on account of the va.ist numi-
bers of cockroaches which frequently occur there, and we have reliable
accounts of entire supplies of ship biscuits having been eaten ull or
ruined by roaches.
The damage they do is not only in the products actually consumed,
but in the soiling and rendering nauseous of everything with which
they come in contact. They leave, wherever they occur il anly nuni-
bers, a fetid, nauseous odor, well known as the "4 roacly" odor, which
is persistent and can not be removed from shelves and dishes without
washing with soap and boiling water. Food sul))lics so tainted are
beyond redemption. This odor comes paLrtly from their excrement, but
chiefly from a darkecolored fluid exuded from the mouth of the insect,
with which it stains its runways, and also in part, doubtless, from tlhe
scent glands, which occur on tlhe bodies of both sexes between certain
segments of the abdomen, and which secrete an oily liquid possessing
a very characteristic and disagreeable odor. It frequently happens
that shelves on which dishes are placed become imlpregnated with this
roachy odor, and this is imparted to and retained by dishlies to such an
extent that everything served in them, particularly liquids, as coffee or






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC. 117

The eggs are white, bealn-shaped, and al)ut one-twentieth of anll
inch long, and are deposited by tihe parent beetle inl thie nm.al (or other
substance which is to serve as the food of tlie future larva, singly or
in groups, as high as foburteen or sixteen being laid ii a- single day.
They are adhesive when first extruded atid become attached to ally
surface upon which they are laid, and also take on a coating of par-
ticles of meal or other material. In tlie illustration, at d, an egg is
shown in profile with its covering of meal.
The beetles begin to appear in tihe latitude of WVashington in April
and May, occurring most abundantly in the latter month ;and iln June,
when they run and fly actively al)out in search of their mates and of a
new place for the deposition of their eggs. In about two weeks from
the time the eggs are laid the inalut meal-worm, which is at first clear
white in color and with prominent antenna' and legs, makes its appear-
ance. It soon turns yellow, and as it feeds voraciously its growth is
rapid. In three months it attains approximate maturity, and fron then
till the following spring undergoes little cliange. After hlavintr shed
about a dozen skins, beginning from soon after its hatching, it changes
to pupa and in this state remains about a fortnight. It will, there-
fore, be noticed that this species is annual in development, a single
brood only appearing each year. The beetles are nocturnal, and. being
moderately strong flyers, are often attracted to lights. They have the
pungent odor characteristic of the family Tenebrionida..
In 1889 a physician sent us larval specimens of this meal-worm
reported to have been ejected from the stomach of a patient, and there
are many other records of similar occurrences of these larva- in tlhe
human body. We also received during the year a specimen of this
insect, with an accompanying newspaper clipping giving an account of
its having been taken in a hotel from a large pin cushion filled with
"shorts." The noise made by the beetles scratching about in endeav-
oring to obtain their exit fromn the cushion had caused a guest to conm-
plain that his room was haunted. (See Insect Life, Vol. 11, p1). 148.)

THE DARK MEAL-WOIIM.
(T fnebrio obh8ur. Linn.)
The darker of the two meal-worm larva lhas been called "by writers
the American meal-worm, an obvious misnomer, Ias this species, like the
preceding, in all probability came originally from templl)erate Liurope
or Asia, and is, like other species most conlmonily found in the store
house, anl introduced cosmopolite.
The mature insect, illustrated at fig. 55. is very similar to tihe parent
of the yellow meal-worm, being of nearly thle same dimensionss, but
distinguishable by its color, which is (1111dull, pleous black. There are
other points of difference, notably in the anteiil:'., tine third joint in the
present species being perceptibly longer than ini molitor. The larva also






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


larger thanii aiiy of the uther donies.ti, species, ail it is i. lit brl wn ii
c.lor, the wings being uniiusmlly loiig, pa werl'zl, ;idl well develojpedl
in both sexes.
The Australian ro.achl (Perpipaneta tustralt.sia,) reseinll the last species, but dliffers strilkinggly iii the brighter alnd niore dli-
ritely limited yellow band omll thle prothorlax mid iii flie yellow dash on
the sides of tlhe upper wings (see fig. 40). In tlhe. I'lnited States it is
the most abundant miid tr(ublesome sI species i In h rida and some if tlie
other Southern States. It is already practically cosiiolpolitaii.


a,


N*


Fla. 40.-The Austrailian roachli ('erilant la austrnlaciuii a. n, iiih priii d
.o yg. b; i,, 'riui-il.: '. ]) p.l--i-. l1 iil ,iz. (,11 igitiali.

The oriental cockroach, or black beetle (Peripqlancta ,ritfftbis), is t lie
common European and particularly tihe Englisih SpeciV.S, :;ila is naota;ble
for the fact that the female is nearly wingless int le adult statte. 'Tlie
wings of the male also are shortened, iot reaching to the extremity (if tlie
body. In color it is very dark brown, almost lack, shining, anti rather
robust, much stouter than tlhe other species, making its English name
of "black beetle" quite al)propriate. This species is notablfly gregarious
in habit, individuals living together iM colonies in the most amicable
way, the small ones being allowed by the larger ones to sit on them,
run over them, and nestle beneath them without any resentment being
shown. This species was a common and troublesome pest in the British






106 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

or, at all events, if it does lay the eggs, the young grubs, on hatching,
fail to reach the meat, except where they are not obliged to penetrate
the canvas.
The larvae hatch in a few days and burrow into the fatty tissue near
the rind, growing rapidly, and seeming to congregate, by preference,
in the hollow of the bone at the butt end of the ham. As stated above,
they are, when first hatched, white in color, with a brown head and two
small hooks at the end of the body. They are slender and very active,
and upon reaching full growth they either gnaw into the muscle of the
ham or occasionally eat into a neighboring beam, forming a glistening,
paper-like cocoon, which appears granulated on the outside. Within
this cocoon the larva casts its skin and assumes the pupa state, issuing
as a perfect beetle in a longer or a shorter time. According/to Dr.
Riley, who treated this species in his Sixth Report on the Insects of
Missouri (p. 96), there are several generations in the course of a year
at St. Louis, but the winter is invariably passed in the larval condition,
the first beetles appearing, as previously stated, not earlier than the
1st of May, and usually not before the middle of that month.'
) .
REMEDIES
The only remedies which need be insisted upon in case of customary
damage to ham by this insect are the early and very careful packing of
the hams and the use of strong canvas, impenetrable by the insect, and
which is not likely to fray or break. These measures are the direct
result of the knowledge of the life history of the insect.
Two instances in the experience of Dr. Riley are of sufficieutijterest
to deserve specific mention. In 1871 and in previous years the: firm of
Francis Whittaker & Sons, of St. Louis, had suffered serious loss from
the damage done by this beetle. After an investigation of the facts]
they were advised that all of the canvasing on the hams should be done
earlier than was customary, or prior to the first of May, and also that a
heavier canvas be used, to prevent the possibility of its giving way
upon the small ends. This advice was followed, with the result that j
during the ensuing year not a single ham was lost or returned by a
customer on account of worms. . .. ..
The second case was that of 9 S. Pierce, of Bostofi, who, in May,
1873, received 22 tierces of hams from a Cincinnati firm. The hams
were taken from the casks and hung in the loft, and not examined until
August, when they were found to be full of worms. Claim-was made
on the packers for damages, and it was finally agreed to leave the J
matter to referees, who were selected from prominent packers, aad who.
decided in favor of the Cincinnati firm. The fact is, however,-as could.

'Mr. Schwarz states that he ha' found the adult beetles in the dead of winter in.
Detroit, Mich., and Cambridge, Mass., and calls our attention to the ftact that the
species is recorded by H. T. Fay in his article on winter collecting (Proc. Entojn.
Soc. Phil., Vol. I, p. 197,1862).






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND) OTHER INSECTS.


45


Dr. Packard studied the species with sonice care, aid(l obtained large
numbers of the eggs, by exposilig horse 1iianur,. lTe carefullyfollowed
the transformations of the insect, andl gave (ldescriptio)is of all stages.
He found thle duration of thie cg'g state to ec tweiity-four hours, lthe
duration of the larval state five to seven days, -.-and oft' le pulipal state
five to seven days. Tlie period froin tlie til ie of hatehll il"'g toie exclu-
sion of the adult, therelbre. occupies, according to Packarid, from tenl to
fourteen d(lays. Ils observations were wade at Saleii., 1M;iss.
As is quite to be expected, as we "o further south tlhe house fly
becomes more iumermous aid( more troublesome. 'i e iubl.er of geii-
erations annually increases as thle season becoi es longer, anld with tlhe
warm climate tlie develop-
ment of the larva, becomes .. -3
more rapid. A few rearzig 27 .
experiments were made in .. r. .
this office during the summer ,
of 1895, an([ it was unexpect- ^ A |/) ..
edly found that tlhe house fly -\/'
is a difficult insect to rear in -. V
confinement. Buzzing about A"- r '
everywhere, and apparently
living with ease under tlie
most adverse conditions, it is i
nevertheless, when confiuied 4
in the warm season of thie I
year to a small receptacle, -,-~
not at all tenacious of life. -
It results from this fact, for
example, that it is almost
impossible to ascertain the
length of the life of the house a. C
fly in the adult condition. I'l, 14. laa lii.iv, lron lara oe
r \,,. ]4.-- jlisrci diim,'. tiri. f,q lI'll-grown larn' a; /,, one ,,f
On Juni e 26 a Small qiuai tity it.. ;IIitLtrir sJpirali<-l ; r, sidleview of litn-al; d, hind 1.n14
of fresh horse manure vwas "I' iadv slii i,_, anal .iair;ct- .:; e, ,iiuh view of h. i.';
.1'. li<.iti fromui alui, ev :', lI..;il (-I' ,ni w, larva friun, aio\r;
exposed in afly-infe.sted room /,. ,., ,ll .,h,,I ,.li ,l,,,.i ,,.li ;
for a few minutes. Trle flies
deposited their eggs freely ad1 iumedialely in tilis suibstai.e.1 At tlie
same time thle spjeiiienss were coit hed ill.a glass dish, 7.5 intclies ill dhialln-
eterand 3 inches in lhicighlit. In thlis dishi was a layer of moist Salnd. coy-
ered with a layerof fresh, liorse il m'.ure,, an1d tlie vessel was ((covered with
a piece of gauze. Oii tlhe following morlihg aill tlhe Ilies twelNty-fiour in
number, were dead, an;id not a single egg 11:1(1 been laid. A fresh Stlp-
ply of flies was i trodNluced iito tie same vessel. and tlhe next miorliiig all
were dead and no eggs had beeii laid. The cover was now removed frmi
this vessel and the latter placed inll a glass cylilnder 1 1 ic.lioes highl, tlie
'The experiments which follow wiTre conducted by Mr. D. \. (',il1ill-tt.






124 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

Contrary to the rule with regard to indoor species, there is every
reason to believe that this insect is of American nativity. It differs
also from most other storehouse species in being annual in its develop- I
ment, propagating, it is true, throughout the warm season, but bringing
forth only a single brood each year.

THE DRUG-STORE BEETLE AND ITS ALLIES.
THE DRUG-STORE BEETLE.
(Sitodrepa panicea Linn.)
One of the commbnest of storehouse pests is the little Sitodrepa
panicea, a frequent visitor in habitations, which it enters at open
windows.
This beetle is a member of the family Ptinida. It is cylindrical in
form, measuring about a tenth of an inch in length, and is of a uniform J
light-brown color, with very fine, silky pubescence. The elytra are dis- -
tinctly striated and the antennae terminate in an elongate three-jointed


e










FIG. fi1.-Sitodrepapanicea: a, larva; b, pupa; c, beetle, dorsal view; d, lateral view-a-flmuch
enlarged; e, antenna-more enlarged (author's illustration, reengraved). r
club. Fig. 61, c, shows the beetle with antennae extended, e represent-
ing an antenna greatly enlarged. When at rest the head is'retracted 2
into the peculiar hood-like thorax, as shown in profile at d, and with the I
legs and antennae folded under and tightly appressed to the body, the .|
little creature easily escapes observation. The larva is white, with j
darker mouth-parts, and of the cylindrical curved form indicated at a.
The characteristic form of the head and legs is reproduced at fig. 62.
The pupa, illustrated at b, is white. :
The insect received its Latin name from its occurrence in dry bread
(panis), and in Europe it is still known as the bread beetle, but its chief
injuries are to druggists' supplies; hence the name drug-store beetle.
Its depredations do not stop here, however, for it invades alike stores
of all kinds, mills, granaries, and tobacco warehouses. Of household i
wares its preference is for flour, meal, breakfast foods, and condiments. '
It is especially partial to red pepper, and is often found in ginger, rhu- -
barb, chamomile, boneset, and other roots and herbs that were kept in i
_d
.. [.4i
..:.VP E






PiINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


leaps, the hind femora being greatly thickened and enlarged, kangaroo-
like. In color the house cricket is light yellowish-brown, and its squarish
body and spherical head are very characteristic. Theantennae or feelers
are very long and thread-like, exceeding the body in length.
The chirping song of the cricket is produced only by the male, and
is supposed to be a love call. If so, it has been pointed out that it
evidently betokens, on account of its long continuance, a patient per-
sistence which deserves the highest encomium. It is produced by the
friction or stridulation of the upper wings over each other. At the
base of each of these wings is a large talc-like spot-the crepitaculum-
which is characterized by
its inflated appearance
and its very coarse, irreg-
0 ular veining. By rasping
....... or scraping the file-like
S, \ B i.t under surface of one wing
;T, ... over the roughening of the
\ other the vibrant note of
Y" the cricket is produced.
a: The song is, therefore,
analogous to that made
S_ by an instrument rather
\ H than to the voiceor sounds
of higher animals. To be
at all significant to the in-
'"N / sect, however, it must be
heard, and what seems to
be the insect ear is found
& Bin curious organs on the
r- fore tibiae, represented in
I ? : the illustration (fig. 21,
eCl ef).
FIG. 21.-Gryllus assimilis: a, femruale; b, male; c, d, fore tibiae, The house cricket USU-
inner and outer views showing drums of ear; e and f, drums ally occurs on the ground
or tympana-enlarged (original), floor of dwellings, and
'M floor of dwellings, and
evinces its liking for warmth by often occurring in the vicinity of
fireplaces, concealing itself between the bricks of chimneys or behind
baseboards, frequently burrowing into the mortar of walls. It is par-
ticularly apt to abound in bakehouses. It is rarely very abundant,
but at times multiplies excessively and becomes a very serious nuisance.
During cold weather, or in cold rooms in winter, it remains torpid, but
under the influence of warmth it becomes active and musical. It is
easily kept in captivity as a pet, and will reward the possessor by
furnishing an abundance of its peculiar melody, and in Spain it is often
kept, it is reported, in cages, as we do singing birds. It is in the main
nocturnal in its habits, coming out in the dusk of evening and roaming


54






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


prey, inclosing and caging it with its many legs. In its habit of spring-
ing after its prey this centipede is similar to spiders, which it also
resembles in its rapacious habits. It would therefore seem to be a very
efficient enemy of many of our house pests. The common idea that it
probably feeds on household goods and woolens or other clothing has
no basis,.in fact.
The popular belief is that this centipede is extremely poisonous,
and, as it belongs with the poisonous group of centipedes, it can not
be questioned but that the bite of the creature is probably somewhat
poisonous as well as painful, though the seriousness of the results will
be dependent, as in all similar cases, on the susceptibility of the patient.
The poison injected in the act of biting is probably merely to assist in
numbing and quieting its victim, and in spite of its abundance in houses
in the North, and for many years its much greater abundance in the
South, very few cases are recorded of its having bitten any human
being, and it is very questionable whether it would ever, unprovoked,
attack any large animal. If pressed with the bare foot or hand, or if
caught between sheets in beds, this, like almost any other insect, will
unquestionably bite in self-defense, and the few such cases on record
indicate that severe swelling and pain may result from the poison
injected. Prompt dressing of the wound with ammonia will greatly
alleviate the disagreeable symptoms.
Little is known of the early life history of this Myriapod. It is
found in the adult state in houses during practically the entire year.
Half-grown individuals are also found frequently during the summer.
A newly-born specimen was recently found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard in
the Department Insectary under a moist section of a log, and differed
from the older forms chiefly in possessing fewer legs. Its character-
istics are indicated in the accompanying illustration (fig. 17). In the
half-grown and later stages it does not differ materially from the adult,
except in size, and its habits throughout life are probably subject to
little variation.
If it were not for its uncanny appearance, which is hardly calculated
to inspire confidence, especially when it is darting at one with great
speed, and the rather poisonous nature of its bite, it would not neces-
sarily be an unwelcome visitor in houses, but, on the contrary, to be
looked upon rather as an aid in keeping in check various household
pests. Its appearance in our dwellings, however, will not often be wel-
come notwithstanding its useful role. It can be best controlled by
promptly destroying all the individuals which make their appearance,
and by keeping the moist places in houses free from any object behind
which it can conceal itself, or at least subjecting such locations to
frequent inspection. In places near water pipes, or in storerooms where
it may secrete itself and occur in some numbers, a free use of fresh
pyrethrum powder is to be advised.
(. L. M.


50




-r ::: :: "..i ::^

118 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

resembles that of the preceding, differing chiefly in its much darker
brownish markings. The pupa, however, is of the same whitish color.
The beetles, in the writer's experience, begin to
ttc^-c% appear considerably earlier than do those of the *
S/ yellow meal-worm. Here at Washington they may i
^>^ 1 be found as early as the latter part of February,
j remaining till the beginning of July, occurring most
abundantly in April and May.
In 1890 a correspondent sent specimens of larvae
1 ~that had been found in a grocery store in a parcel of
.* |adulterated ground black pepper, and intheyear 1896
we received a lot of living larvae from Dr. J.B. Porter, |
of Glendale, Ohio, that had been found in a.bor of
Fin. 55.-Tenebrio obscu- commercial soda ash. We have also specimens that
rus: muale--somewhat ,
rlrged (omrgalsw). were taken among phosphate fertilizers, cotton seed,
and cotton meal. It should be unnecessary to re-
mark that these larvae did not feed upon the chemicals, although they 1
lived in them for some time. :
THE MEAL MOTHS. 1
Two species of moths, in addition to the clothes moths, are habitual |
frequenters .of the household, the one attracting notice through: the A
depredations of its larva in a variety of articles, the other chiefly by .
its beautiful appearance in.the winged form. I
THE INDIAN-MEAL MOTH.
(Plodia interpunctella Huebn.) ,
A small moth of about the same size as the clothes moths, which it.
somewhat resembles when in flight, is very often found in stores, and 3
through them is brought into the household, where it is an all-round |
nuisance, feeding upon almost anything edible. It makes its home
almost everywhere, and is very sure to be found in boxes of preserved 4
fruits if these are left open for any time, but does not disdain fruits
that have been left in barrels to rot and dry up, as frequently happens.
The common name of this insect is sufficiently indicative of its fond-
ness for meal, and it feeds as well upon flour and upon grain of all
sorts, ground or whole. In the writer's experience it breeds also in
chick-peas and table beans, peanuts, English walnuts, almonds, edible
acorns, chocolate beans, dried fruits of all kinds, including currants,
raisins, peaches, apples, apricots, prunes, plums, and cherries, and seeds
of several sorts. It has also been recorded as infesting clover seed,
garlic heads, dried roots of dandelion, pecan nuts, and cinnamon bark,
and has been reported to invade beehives, and does considerable damage
at times in museums, feeding on herbarium specimens, and eve"u attack-
ing dried insects.
The adult moth has a wing expanse of between a half and thre.e-,
quarters of an inch, and is of the general appearance represented in
A* ]
........................'*












CHAPTER V.

SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, TIXB3R, ETC. I
By C. L. MARLATT. ]
THE WHITE ANT.
(Termes flavipes Koll.)
No insect occurring in houses is capable of doing greater damage
than the one under consideration. Its injuries are often hidden ani
concealed until the damage is beyond repair, and as it affects the integ
rity of the building itself as well as its contents, the importance of thi
insect becomes very evident. Fortunately it is not often present Ai
the North inl houses, but as the Tropics are approached the injnri.i
from it in dwellings or other structures of wood are of common expi
rience and often of the most serious nature, causing the sudden crulj
bling of bridges, wharves, and settling of floors or buildings. .
I(







6VV
iii












FroI. 28.-Termes flavipes: a, adult male; b, terminal abdominal segments of same ftom below; a, sax
of female; d, male, side view somewhat inflated by treatment with ammonia; s, abdomen of female
side view;f, tarsus, showing .joints and claw; a, d, e, enlarged; b, c,f, greatly enlarged (original

The term "white ant," by which this insect is universally known, i
entirely inappropriate in so far as it indicates any relationship with tb
true ants. Strictly speaking, the white ant is not an ant at all, bu
belongs with the Neuroptera and is allied to the dragon flies and Ma|
flies. The only analogy with ants is in superficial resemblance and i
the social habits of the two groups, in which great similarity existU
The popular acquaintance with the termite or white ant is main]
70
i





COCKROACHES ANI) HOUSE ANTS. !97

doing this except to locate tlhe nest by following thle workers back to
their point of entrance. It in a wall tle innui tes may somwtiies be
[reached by injecting bisulphide of carbl on oIr a litt h kero.eie. If ii uder
!flooring it may sometimes be possible' to get ;it. themll by taking up a
section. Unless the colony can be' reached ;iid destroyed all other
measures will be of only temporary avail.
The little black ant(Monomnritm mint71 n 11 Mayr) i ig. 1-1) is n1ot strictly
a house species, although freiujl tly occiulrig ii i ndo 's, niidl et'coiiing at
times quite as troublesome as the redi antt. Its co'loiiies usually owe'i'r
under stones in yards, but are fre(qulently otiuLnd in tlhe fields, and will
be recognized from the little pyramidi(ls 'of tine gains ,of soil which stir-




::,,











.,I -' .
C/'












'IO. 44.-The little black ant (Monmnmrriumn miniihtiim): a. fi.inalm : b. ar with winu,_- c. Tysilm.; ,i.
workers; c, pupa; f, larva; y, .gg of worktr--ll e ilarz'l t ,: iDafl)

round the entrance% to, the excavations. It' these colonies be 41Ipen'led
they will be found to contain workers an(l i usually one or imore very
much larger gravid females. This species. whliien o'.1rrin''" ig' i oulises.
can often be traced to its outdoor colony, and tli- destri'tiit n f t his
will prevent further trouble.
SThe pavement ant of our Easternt cities ( Tcf/rurnh 'in' c(fI..'pifittur Lini.)
(fig. 45) is in Europe the commioni m(leadow ant. and is tw vMor t ii'(ie timens
larger than either of thle other species referred to. It. w;as ea' ly initro-
duced into this country, and. while not yet re'iorted t'fromn tlie West, is
very common in Eastern towns, an:d piartin larly hIere in, Washington.
It has readily accommodated itself' to the conditionss f unrb.an existence,
21470-No. 4--7






INSE('CTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


the bisulphide is evaporated at the rate of a pound to every 1,000 feet
of cubic space.
The vapor of this chemical is deadly to all animal life, but there is
no danger in inhaling a small quantity, and although it lhas a powerful
and disagreeable odor, this soon passes away without any after effects
and without harming for food such material as it may be used upon.
The vapor is also inflammable, but if no tire. as. for example, a lighted
cigar, be brought into the immediate vicinity until the flumes have
entirely disappeared, no trouble will be experienced.
Bisulphide of carbon costs, at retail, from 20 to 30 cents a pound; at
wholesale, in 50-pound cans, 10 cents a pound.


131






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


lighter than water. It remains motionless at the surface, and when
disturbed does not sink without effort, as does the larva, but is only
able to descend by a violent muscular action. It wriggles and swims
as actively as does the larva, and soon reaches the bottom of the jar
or breeding place. As soon as it ceases to exert itself, however, it
floats gradually up to the surface of the water again. The fact, how-
ever, that the larva, after it is once below the surface of the water, sinks
rather than rises, accounts for the death of many individuals. If they
become sick or weak, or for any reason are unable to exert sufficient
muscular force to wriggle to the surface at frequent intervals, they will
actually drown, and the writer has seen many of them die in this way.
It seems almost like a contradiction in terms to speak of an aquatic
insect drowning, but this is a frequent cause of mortality among rig-
glers. This fact also explains the efficacy of the remedial treatment
which causes the surface of the water to become covered with a film of
oil of any kind. Aside from the actual insecticide effect of the oil, the
larve drown from not being able to reach the air. The structure of the
pupa differs iin no material respect from that of corresponding stages
of European species, as so admirably figured and described by theolder
writers, notably Raumur and Swammerdam,1 and needs no description
in view of the care with which the figures accompanying this article
have been drawn. The air tubes no longer open at the anal end of the
body, but through two trumpet-shaped sclerites on the thorax, from
which it results that the pupa remains upright at the surface, instead
of with the head downward. There is a very apparent object in this
reversal of the position of the body, since the adult insect issues from
the thorax and needs the floating skin to support itself while its wings
are expanding. /
In general, the adult insects issue from the pupe that are two days
old. This gives what is probably the minimum generation for this
species as ten days, namely, sixteen to twenty-four hours for the egg,
seven days for the larva, and two days for the pupa. The individuals
emerging on the first day were invariably males. On the second day
the great majority were males, but there were also a few females. The
preponderance of males continued to hold for three days; later the
females were in the majority. In confinement the males died quickly;
several lived for four days, but none for more than that period. The
females, however, lived for a much longer time. Some were kept alive
without food, in a confined space of not more than 4 inches deep by 6
across, for three weeks. But one egg mass was deposited inh confine-
ment. This was deposited on the morning of June 30 by a female'which
issued from the pupa June 27. No further observations were made
upon the time elapsing between the emergence of the female and the
laying of the eggs. but in no case, probably, does it exceed a few days.
Even Bonanni, in 1691, gave very fair figures of the larva and pupa of a European
species. Micrographia Curiosa, Rome, MDCXCI, Pars. II, Tab. I.


14






HOUSE FLIES, CENTIPEDES, AND OTHER INSECTS.


51


THE CLOVER MITE.
(Bryobia )rultensis Garni.)
The subject of this section is a very miliute reddi.sh mite, less than at
millimeter in length, which, particularly in the Middle States, fre-
(quIently enters houses in enormous numbers in autumn, causing consid-
erable consternation and arousing very natural fears. Aside from the


I'
> xf


FIG. 18.-Bryobia pratenxis: a, female from above; b, .4ame, ventral view, with l:.qs rcmnvIwl; c
and d, tarsal claws; c, proibo.cis and palpi froin below; f, llribI.fit cnlar',rii'l; gp, .dlliirn cnl-irgi.l; h,
one of the body scales; i, stale 'rom outer 'vtilh:ilo.-t ]ornr'i, pronmincen',: j, scale froi inner ,.ilhi.alp
thoracic prominence: k, serrate hair from basal joint of Ivg; 1, sain'frmi penultimate joint : i,,
spine of lastjoint-a, b, greatly enlarged; c-m, still more enlarged fromm Rilry aiil M:,rliit).






SPECIES INJURIOUIS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC. 79

THE BOOK-LOUSE.
(Alrt po., di'iinalur'ini F;ll.)
This pale, louse-like insect, measuilring less Ithai 1 in. in. Ii length, sil.-
Ially occurs in houses, though rarely ill aily uimlbers, anil is most often
:seen on opening old musty voliumes, scalpelriniig across t le liage' to (.oii-
ceal itself elsewhere. From this habit coImn's its ,piplalr ialme of book.
louse. It is one of tlhe smallest 4,f insects, nea.ly colorless, ad.u al.m st
invisible to thle unaided eye, except as its active ,iiioveiienits attract
one's attention. It belongs to the family I'socidal. ald is soniewl`at
closely allied to tlhe wliite anits. IeloIging' in iie, same o'rler. 'lihere ae
a number of species of psocids whichli fre(qiuenIIt ious.s, all pi)HputiLlhiy
styled book-lice, and having habits antid c.l(air:cte'rislis v'ery similar to
the one named above, whicl is tlie imore .ol 'oil a1il aiiioyig e l)cics.l

A..\


i ,,v t/a1 : A: // ")



|/ // .^ 7 . /^c( \v








Rl:IG. 34--Atropos dirinat,,rin, (7. ;ldul frin .I ,,w; l Kanw Ir,,, "i ;VB; ,,,.,\!il li, t maxp
.iii ilia ( i : ,d. m .nd ilili-,. c. iliii, .i A l1 (.il.r._, 1 ,I ;0,r i. in .
--









and may be taken as the tyl)e. All tliese troible-somie l,1,[1se species a1.re
Soft-bodied, wingless, degraded creatures, relpesentingl tle very lowe'st
form of insect life. A great many species, also, five oit of doors, many
of these being winged anid somewhat resembling lant-lice. Tley tie
quently occur in numbers onl tlhe bark (ot" trees Lill] tle w;alls (,t uildii g..
and feed on lichens or decayi?4g" vegetable matter. Tlie Pso.idla,. ;1v,
biting insects, having well-dleveloqped mandlibles aindIl otle.r mo).uth lpart.-
One of the most interesting features il connection witli tlie (m.,,nmln,
house species, and from whicl, it takes someti,,es tl,, na,:e "deatlh
atch ," is the reputation it hlas of making a ticking soud, supposed t,,
..Prognosticate dire consequences to Somle inimate of' tIll. l] ..e. TI'h;at it
,an make some sueli noise. priobably by striking" its elad agains-t some
iard object, seems to be pretty well established il, splite of the seeming






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


disagreeableness of its mere presence, it has no objectionable conse-
quences. This mite is somewhat allied to the common red mite of
greenhouses, and in fact has a similar habit, but lives out of doors on
vegetation and has a decided preference for clover, whence its common
name of clover mite. It occurs very commonly in the Northern and
Central States from Massachusetts to California, and is frequently
abundant on various orchard and shade trees. In the mountain ranges
of the Pacific Coast its eggs have been found in enormous numbers on
the bark of various mountain trees, especially the cottonwood (Populus
tremuloides). These eggs are often massed two or three layers deep,
and their reddish color entirely obscures
the natural color of the bark. One writer
states that he found at least 50 square feet
mof these eggs on the south sides of the
trunks of cottonwoods at an elevation of
6,000 to 8,000 feet. In the Eastern and
Central States the eggs are found similarly
placed in the crotches of orchard and shade
S trees, and frequently in sufficient numbers
"*X to give a reddish color to small areas.
*I Complaints of this mite have been received
f firom a great many sources in the Middle
S\ and Eastern States. That they are a nui-
\' sance in houses is due to their habit of
FIG. 19.-Bryobia pratensis: Newly- migrating in the fall, possibly for shelter
hatched larva-- greatly enlarged
(from Riley and Marlatt). or in search of food. In the case of house
invasions the mites will almost invariably
he found to have come from some near-by vegetation, usually from the
surrounding lawns. After they have once gained entrance they may
be exterminated by a liberal and abundant use of insect powders, fumi-
gating with burning brimstone, or spraying with benzine, care being
taken, if the latter substance be used, to see that no fire is present. If
the invasion be discovered at the very outset, it may be stopped by
spraying the sides of the house very liberally with kerosene or by treat-
ing the surrounding lawns with a spray of kerosene emulsion.
C. L. M.

THE HOUSE CRICKET.
(Gryllu8s domesticus Linn.)
No insect inhabitants of dwellings are better known than the domestic
or hearth crickets, not so much from observation of the insects them-
selves as from familiarity with their vibrant, shrilling song notes;
which, while thoroughly inharmonious in themselves, are, partly from
the difficulty in locating the songster, often given a superstitious sig-
nificance and taken, according to the mood of the listener, to be either


52






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


If personal experience and divisional records be any criterion, this
species excels all other grain feeders in its proclivity bfor obtruding its
presence in unexpected places. It is a most unwelcome guest at all
times, its large size, both in tihe larval and adult stages, rendering its
appearance conspicuous, not to say alarming or disgusting, to most
persons. In the pages of Insect Life we have noted its presence in
milk (Vol. I, p. 112), the evidence being that the milk had been adul-
terated with some farinaceous material in which thle beetle had lived as
larva. On pages 314 and 360 it is mentioned as having tunneled for a
long time through a flask of an insecticide (white hellebore) which was


_e1


ctet a-


4



B->4


1 c
Fio. GO. -Tenebroides mauritanicus: a, adult betelle with greatly en-
larzed antenna above; b. pupa; c, larva-all enlargeil originall).


found by experiment to be o()f sufficient strength to kill currant wworms.
Again., on pages 274-275 of Volume VI we note the presence of this
and other insects in refined sugar. Mr. R. S. Clifton, of this office,
recently showed the writer a larva found in powdered sugar, with tlhe
information that the sugar had been returned pnroml)tly to the grocer
of whom it had just been purchased. In granulated sugar the occur-
rence of this and probably of other insects is generally the result of
accident, as it has never been proven that insects breed in sugar in this
condition. In the case of pulverized sugar, however, the presence of
insects would at least create a suspicion of adulteration with flour.


123






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


mology, brought in from Lakeland, Md., a small place 9 miles from
Washington, specimens of a large and very ferocious mosquito, which
Mr. Coquillett determined as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, a species
which had previously been observed at Washington in August. This
mosquito was very abundant at Lakeland at the time, and its eggs
were obtained, but rearing operations were interrupted by absence from
Washington. At the same time the commonest of the mosquitoes
at Washington was found to be Cuiex consobrinus. This latter species
was one which was studied by the writer in 1892 in the Catskill Moun-
tains, near Tannersville, Greene County, N. Y. This species in Wash-
ington became, during August, more abundant than C.pungens. Octo-
ber 25, however, the writer found both species in his house, which they
had evidently entered for hibernation. In 1893 several specimens of
pungens were taken in the month of January in the cellar of his house
in Georgetown. This hibernation in cellars as well as in outhouses
is very common, although it is not frequently referred to. Specimens
of C. consobrinus were received in November, 1894, from J. M. Wade, of
Boston, with the statement that they were abundant in his cellar in
that city. The cellar was very cold, although in one corner there was
a tin furnace pipe. The mosquitoes avoided the warm corner, and were
always thickest in the cold parts of the cellar. So abundant were they
that if a lamp were held up the inside of the chimney would soon be
covered half an inch thick with their bodies.
The degree of cold seems to make no difference with this successful
hibernation. Arctic explorers have long since recorded the abundance
of mosquitoes in the extreme north. In the narrative of C. F. Halls
second arctic expedition the statements made that mosquitoes appeared
on the 7th of July, 1869, in extraordinary abundance. Dr. E. Sterling,
of Cleveland, Ohio, has sent us an account of the appearance of mos-
quitoes by thousands in March, 1844, when he was on a snowshoe trip
from Mackinaw to Sauilt Ste. Marie. Their extraordinary numbers at
this season of the year is remarkable, indicating a most plentiful
hibernation. Mr. H. Stewart, of North Carolina, has written us of a
similar experience on the north shore of Lake Superior in 1866. On
warm days in March, when the snow was several feet deep and the ice
on the lake 5 feet in tlhlickness, mosquitoes appeared in swarms, "literally
blackening the banks of snow in the sheltered places." The Indians
told Mr. Stewart that the mosquitoes lived through the winter, and
that the old ones were the most annoying to them. May 9, 1896, Mr.
Lugger sent the writer from St. Anthony Park, Minn., specimens of 0.
consobrinus, stating that it came in a genuine swarm in April, with a
heavy snowstorm, at a time when all of the lakes were covered with
ice-" Minnesota's most certain crop."
It is a well-known fact that the adult male mosquito does not neces-
sarily take nourishment, and that the adult female does not necessarily
rely upon the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are plant feeders


16






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


17


and have also been recorded as feeding upon insects. Dr. Hageii mien-
tions taking a species in tlhe Northwest feeding upon the chrysalis of a
butterfly, while scattered through the seven volumes of ITnsect Life are
a number of records of oLservations of a vegetarian labit, one writer
stating that hlie has seen them with their beaks inserted ini boiled
potatoes on the table, and another that hlie hais seen watermelon rinds
with many mosquitoes settled upon them and busilyenlgaged in sucking
the juices. Mosquitoes undoubtedly feed normally on the juices of
plants, and not one in a million ever gets an opportunity to taste the
blood of a warm-bloodcd aniimal. Wlien we tliink of tlhe enormous
tracts of marsh land into which warm-blooded animals never pene-
trate, and in which mosquitoes are breeding in countless numbers, tlhe
truth of this statement becomes apl)arellt. The males have been
observed sipl)ping at drops otf water, and one instance of a fiondliess for
molasses has been recorded. Mr. E. A. Schwarz has observed one
drinking beer.
The literature of popular entomology is full of instances of the elior-
mous numbers in which mosquitoes occasionally occur, but a new
instance may not be out of place here. Mr. Schwarz tells the writer
that he has never seen, even in New Jersey, mosquitoes to compare in
numbers with those at Corpus Christi, Tex. When the wind blows from
any other direction than south, he says, hundreds of thousands of mil-
lions of mosquitoes blow in upon the town. Great herds of hundreds
of horses run before tlhe mosquitoes in order to get to the water. With
a change of wind, however, the mosquitoes blow away.

REMEDIES AGAINST MOSQUITOES.
Of thie remedies in use in houses the burning of pyrethrumn powder
and the catching of the mosquitoes on tlhe walls with kerosene in culps,
as described in Insect Life (Vol. V, p. 143), are probably the best, next
to a thorough screening a(nd mosquito bars about the bed. It may be of
interest to mention incidentally a remedy in use among the Chinese, as
recorded inll Robert Fortune's esidenicc Among the Chinese: Scenes
and Adventures Among the Chinese in 1853-18561 (London, 18.7).
Long-necked bags of Paper, halfan inch iin diameter and 2 feet long, are
filled with the following substances: Either pine or juniper sawdust,
mixed with a small quantity of "nu-wanig" and 1 ounce of arsenic.
These substances are well mixed and run into the bags in a dry state;
each bag is coiled like a snakea ;ind wrapped and tiedl with threadl. Tlhe
outer end is lighted and the coil laid on a loard. Two coils are suffi-
cient for an ordinary-sized room, a-id 100 coils sell for 6 cents. Mr.
Mun YenChung, of the Ciinese legation, hias been good enough to it form
the writer that by "nu-wang" Mr. Fortune probably meant liu-wamg
(brimstone).
Altogether the most satisfactory ways of fighting mosquitoes are
those which result in the destruction of tls larv.e or the abolition of
21470-No. 4--2






COCKROACHIIES AND HOUSE ANTS.


of the domestic species, and its injuries to food products, books, etc.,
and the disgusting results of its presence inl pantries, st4rehouses, and
bakeries, give it really a greater ecoInomiC, imlporJtaICe tlhan ally of tihe
other species.
It is very light l-owll illn color, ai(nd characteristically marked oni the
thorax with two dark-brown stripes. It is 1iore active and wary tlhanl
the larger species and much more difficult ti eraLdicate. It is the
smallest of the domestic species, rarely exceeding li'e 'igths lot an
inch in length, and multiplies much oi e ,re rapidly t t lie others, t le.
breeding period being shorter and the number of eg's in the capsules
greater than with the larger roaches. The injuries etf'ected by it to
cloth-bound reports have been the source of very considerable annoy-
ance at the Department of Agriculture and in tli(,e large libraries of
Eastern towns and colleges. The characteristics oC the different stages,
from the egg to the adult, are shown in the illustration (fig. 42).
REMEDIES.

Like the crows among birds, the roaches amoiig insects are appar-
ently unusually well endowed with the ability to) guard themselves
against enemies, displaying great intelligence in keeping out of the
way of the irate housekeeper and in avoiding food or other substances
which have been doctored with poisons for their benefit. 'Their keen-
ness in this direction is unquestionably the iiiheritance of many cen-
turies during which tlhe hIand of man has ever been raised against
them.
The means against these insects, inclutiling always vigilance alil
cleanliness as important preventive, are three, namely, destruction by
poisons, by fumigation with poisonous gases, and by trapping.
Poisons.-As just noted, roaches often seen to display a knowledge
of the presence of poisons in food, and, notwithstanding their lpracti-
cally omnivorous habits, a very little arsenic in baits seems to be
readily detected by themni. In attempting to eradicate roaches froni
the Department storerooms where cloth-bound books are kept various
paste mixtures containing arsenic were tried, but the roahes inva
riably refused to feed on them in the least. Thiis applies particularly
to the Germnan roach, or Croton bug, and may not lold so strongly
with the less wary and l)erhaps less intelligent larger roaches.
A common remedy suggested for roaches consists in tlie liberal use of
Spyrethrum powder or buliach, and when this is persisted ill consider-
able relief will be gained. It is not a perfect reniedy, however, and is
i at best but a temporary exlpe(dient, while it has the :additional ulisad-
Svantage of soiling the shelves or other objects over which it is dusted.
I When used it should be fresh and liberally applied. IRoaches are often
Paralyzed by it when not killed outright, and the moiriing after an
application the infested premises should be gone over and all thie iladl
or partially paralyzed roaches swept lup and burned.


93






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


99


' holes made in the nest with a stick, promptly closi Ig t lIe hOles witI t ihe
foot. The bisulphide penetrates through the U4ldergroIIIId tunntiels
and kills the ants in eniormouis numbers, aInd ift applied withL sIflicient
liberality will exterminate the whole colony.
Whenever the nests of aiiy of these amits can not Ihe loate(l, there is
no other resource but the temporary expedient of destroying t lemt
wherever they occur in the house. Tie best 1mevaIns ot e'ffectinig this
end is to attract them to small bits of spongei l moistened with sweetened
water and placed in the situations where tlhey arc iist nuinmvrous.
These sponges may be collected several times daily 1n4d tiCe anlts
swarming in them destroyed by iminmersion in hot water. It is reported
also that a sirup made by dissolving lborax and sugar in bIuiling water
will effect the destruction of the ants readily amid itn numbers. The
removal of the attracting substances, wherevei practicable, should
always be the first step.
SThat it is possible to drive ants away from houseliold supplies by the
use of repellants is asserted by a Washiington lady who las been much
troubled in the past with these pests. THer practice, which she says
has always given complete satisfaction, consists in placing gum cam-
phor, either free or wrapped loosely in paper, in pantry, sugar batirel,
or other situation infested with ants. Tihe odor of tlhe camiphliur seems
, to be very distasteful to them and they promptly leave the prevnises.






92 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

colonies early in the eighteenth century, although unknown M.Atihe same i
time in the French Canadian possessions.'
It then seemed to be commonly known as the mill beetle. The
early Dutch called them Kakerlach, and in the Swede settlements they
were known as Brodetare
C . (bread eaters). It is now
^ very common in houses in
*^ ithe Elast, but is quite gener-
) c "ally distributed -.is the
a l common species b sofar
removed from th trantic
seaboard as Nei "FA exico.
T The characterist f this
Sce insect are sho w in the
sl t bg ts accompanying fo 'tration
(fig. 41).
The German..: chroach,
Iietobia (PhylI mia) ger-
ean oimeanica, is p: kiIbularly"
C' / abundant in .J many and
Fwa. 41.-The oriental roach (Periplaeta orientalis): a, neighlring uro p e an :i
female; b, male; c, side view of female; d, half-grown countries, but, like "most of
specimen-all natural size (or!-ieina) the other domestic sp.ies, i









plication. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ th Ted pnsofwtrpesifvothrabl me sfi 'sid itma
has become world-wide in distribution. Jif this country it is very often
styled the Croton bug, this designation coming from the facatalready
alluded to, that attention was first prominently drawn to it at.the time
of the completion of the Croton system of waterworks in New York i
City. I t h ad
probably been n
introduced long .
previously, b u t
the extension of
the waterworks
system and of Z
piping afforded it
means of ingress
into residences,
and greatly en-
tFIG. 42.-The German roach (Ectobia germanica): a, first stage;.I b, second
C OU r a g e d i t s stage; c, third stage; d, fourth stage; e, adult; f, female'with egg-
spread and facili- case; g, egg-casd--enlarged; h, adult with wings s I -all natural size
stated its multi- except g. (From Riley.) IP"
favorab its multi-m
plication. The dampness of water pipes is favorable if -it may
be carried by the pressure of the water long dist': Mh the
pipes without injury. This roach has so multiple" !: eastern
United States that it has now become the commonest aii& best known ;
I
I'See Kaim's Travels, Vol. I, p. 321; 11, p. 256. .1






THE BEDBUG AND CONE-NOSE.


Texas or Mexican bedbug, or simply tlhe big bedbug. Until receiitly it
has been a rare visitant in houses, and is still practically unknown in
Eastern cities, but in country places, particularly in the, Mississippi
Valley, is now often found in bedrooms, and its bite is very severe ind
painful, resulting in much more pronounced swelling and intlahininiation
than in the case of the bedbug.
The cone-nose belongs to the group of true bugs which includes
predaceous species, or those which normally feed on other insects
rather than on plant juices. The members of the genus Conorhinus
are mostly South American, and, on the authority of Burmeister,
have the habit in the adult state of living, in part at least, on the
blood of mammals.
The normal food of
our species is, how-
ever, unquestion ably
other insects, and its
liking for h u m an
blood is evidently a
habit of recent ac-
quisition and limited
to the fucll-grown itn-
sect, and probably
only a small percent-
age of these ever
taste blood. Miss wt
Bertha Kimball
(Trans. Kans. Acad.
Sci., Vol. XXIV, p.
128, 1896) reports
that they are often
found in poultry
houses, and that
when abundant they Fi,. o.f.-Coriius sanguisuga: a. tirsnt pupal stage; b, .9wvmil pupal
attack horses in vatge; c, adult bug; d, same, lateral view-all d.nlargwd to same
barns, and probably sale (original).
other domestic animals. In houses it has been find with bedbugs, 311(1
will unquestionably feed upon them, especially if it can secure speci-
mens already charged with human blood, and it has been, actually
observed eating what was taken to be a young roach. hi captivity Miss
Kimball has succeeded in feeding both young' and adults -)11 louse flies.
That the blood-taking habit may be easily acquired is shown by tile fact
that many common plant bugs, if captured, will pierce the flesh, and
several of the species which are attracted to light at luigltt and settle
on one's hand will pierce the skiu and fill themselves with blood.
The accompanying figures of this insect represent the egg, newly
hatched larvte, and last larval stage, drawn to the same scale (fig. 11),
and the pupal stages and the adult, also drawn to a scale, but less


39






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


wood (Populuis monilifera), especially along the Big and Little Horn
rivers in Montana.
The origin of this misconception-for such it is-so far as the out-of-
door occurrence is concerned, is probably, as pointed out by Professor
Riley, from a confusion of the bedbug with the immature stages of an
entirely distinct insect (Aradus sp.) which somewhat resembles the
former and often occurs under cottonwood bark. In houses, green or
moist cottonwood logs or lumber may actually furnish sustenance in
the absence of human food. The bedbug is, however, known to be
able to survive for long periods without food, specimens having been
kept for a year in a sealed vial, with absolutely no means of sustenance
whatever, and in unoccupied houses it can undoubtedly undergo fasts
of extreme length. Individuals obtained from eggs have been .kept
in small sealed vials in this office for several months, remaining active
and sprightly in spite of the fact that they had never taken any nour-
ishment whatever.
Extraordinary stories are current of the remarkable intelligence of
this insect in circumventing various effolbrts to prevent its gaining access
to beds. Most of these are undoubtedly exaggerations, but the inher-
ited experience of many centuries of companionship with man, during
which the bedbug has always found its host an active enemy, has
resulted in a knowledge of the habits of the human animal and afacil-
ity of concealment, particularly as evidenced by its abandoning beds
and going often to distant quarters for protection and hiding during
daylight, which indicate considerable apparent intelligence.
The bite of the bedbug is decidedly poisonous to some individuals,
resulting in a slight swelling and disagreeable inflammation. To such
persons the presence of bedbugs is sufficient to cause the greatest
uneasiness, if not to put sleep and rest entirely out of the question.
With others, however, who are less sensitive, the presence of the bugs
may not be recognized at all, and, except for the occasional staining of
the linen by a crushed individual, their presence might be entirely
overlooked. The inflammation experienced by sensitive persons seems
to result merely from the puncture of the skin by the sharp piercing
setae which constitute the puncturing element of the mouth parts, as
there seems to be no secretion of poison other than the natural fluids
of the mouth.
The biting organ of the bedbug is exactly like that of other hemip-
terous insects. It consists of a rather heavy, fleshy under lip (the only
part ordinarily seen in examining the insect), within which lie four
thread-like hard filaments or setme which glide over each other with
an alternating motion and pierce the flesh. The blood is drawn up
through the beak, which is closely applied to the point of puncture,
and the alternating motion of these setm in the flesh causes the blood
to flow minore freely. The details of the structure of the beak are shown
in the accompanying sketch (fig. 7, d). In common with other insects


36






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


seemed to be the source of supply. The measures taken were most
thorough. The mattress was promptly removed; walls and floors were
washed with borax anti corrosive sublimate solution; carpets were
steam cleaned; pyrethrumni was freely used; furniture was beaten,
cleaned, and varnished, thle struggle being kept up for a year with all
the persistence of anll extraordinarily neat housekeeper. Thel insect
continued to have the best of it, however, and persisted(, tllough in
diminished numbers.
The family then removed to a hotel and for days the l house was fumi-
gated with burning sulpl)hur and the scrubbing was repeated. The
insect was still not entirely exterminated and tfhe house was vacated
again and subjected to the vapor of benzine. Tle insects, two years
after the removal of tlhe mattress, were reported to be still in the house,
greatly reduced, but to be found in dark corners.
An almost exact duplication of this experience is reported by Dr.
J. A. Lintner (Second Report, p. 198) as occurring in i residence in
Otsego County, N. Y., the infestation coming originally from straw-
filled ticks.
In aggravated cases of the kind noted nothing but the most thorough
steps will be of avail. The source of supply, if in straw or husk ticks,
should be promptly removed and the contents of the ticks or mattresses
burned.
Carpets and bedding should be steam cleaned and floors should be
thoroughly washed with soapsuds and the walls washed and repl)apered
or painted. Benzine or gasoline should be apl)plied freely to all possible
retreats or to furniture which can not be otherwise cleaned. Thorough
fumigation with brimstone, as recommended for the bedbug (see p. 38),
or like fumigation with bisulphide of carbon, will destroy inany of the
psocids if the room can be tightly closed for several hours. /
There is no means of preventing the occasional occurrence of psocids
in houses, but unless exceptional opportunities are furnished they will
rarely be troublesome, and occasional examinations of book shelves or
other locations where they are apt to appear, with a liberal dusting of
pyrethrum powder whenever necessary, will ordinarily keep them in
check. With plenty of air and light and in apartments in daily use
they rarely appear in any numbers. Thlie use of straw or lihusk filled
ticks or mattresses would seem inadvisable or at least should be discon-
tinued at the first indication of being at all subject to infestation.

THE AMERICAN SPRING-TAIL.
(Lepidocyi/rti timericaniiuu Ma rlatt.)
This very anomalous little insect, measuring scarcely more thi1an one-
tenth of an inch, silvery gray in color, with purple or violet markings,
may be frequently observed in houses in situations simiilar to those fre-
quented by the two species last described. In commiion with the silver
21740-No. 4--6


81




i ; : ':;i: ..... ;" .. ** ** "* **s









CHAPTER VIII.
INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS AND OTHER DRY VUGETABLE
FOODS.
By F. H. CHITTENDEN.

Of the many insects that infest the granary, flouring mill, aud ware-
house, a considerable proportion contrive at times to. fnd their Way
into habitations. A small number of these are of almost un rsal
occurrence in the household, and several others are frequently brought
into the pantry or storeroom in cereal foods, dried fruits, and'other
merchandise.
Not so long ago that it has passed out of remembrance it wa cus-
tomary in well-regulated households, even in large cities, to set:. ade a
room, in addition to the cupboard and cellar, for the storage'of tarrels
of flour, bags of meal, boxes of raisins, dried apples, and the Jihand
such custom still prevails in country homes; but at the presot'time
city housekeepers purchase for the most part in small quantity at t.he
"corner grocery" from time to time as required. As a conseq ethe
city housewife, unless she should happen to reside in the immediate.
neighborhood of a store or warehouse, is not so subject to a nauoe.0M Y
from storeroom insectM as are her country cousins. There is th. timer-
ence, however, theft the farmer's wife is prone to look upon as aAn4ces-
sary evil what the city housekeeper may behold as a veritable lity.
Fortunately, the insects that breed in dry vegetable foods and that dis-
play a disposition to make a permanent abode of the storerom number
not more than about a dozen, the remainder, of which a few fin wiUl
be selected for passing notice, being only casual visitants and readily
controlled under ordinary conditions.
THE FLOUR BEETLES. L

Several little flattened beetles of a shining reddish brown color and
similar appearance generally so frequently occur in bags and:'barrels
of flour as to have earned the popular title of flour weevilk.. aThey
live upon cereal and other seeds and Various other stored products, but
generally prefer flour and meal and patented articles of diet conitaining
farinaceous matter.
Their eggs are often deposited in the flour in the mills, and th'se and
the larvwe they produce, being minute and pale in color, readily escape
notice; but after the flour has been barreled or placed in bags and left
unopened for any length of time the adult beetles make theft appear-
ance, and inu due course the flour is ruined, for when the insects have.
112






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


case post holes filled with surface water were treated, with the result
that the mosquito plague was almost immediately alleviated.
Additional experiments on a somewhat larger scale have been made
by Rev. John D. Long at Oak Island Beach, Long Island Sound, and
by Mr. W. R. Hopson, near Bridgeport, Conn., also on the shores of
Long Island Sound, the experiments in both cases ind"icatillg he effi-
cacy of the remedy when applied intelligently. I have not lbeeIl able
to learn the details of Mr. Hopson's operations, but am told that they
included extensive draining as well as the use of kerosene.
It is not, however, the great sea marshes along the coast, where inos
quitoes breed in countless numbers, which we can expect to treat by
this method, but the inland places, where the mosquito supply is derived
from comparatively small swamps and circumscribed pools. In most
localities people endure the torment or direct their remedies against
the adult insect only, without the slightest attempt to investigate the
source of the supply, when the very first step should be the undertak-
ing of such an investigation. In "Gleanings ill Bee Culture" (October
1, 1895) we notice the statement in the California column that in some
California towns the pit or vault behind water-closets is subject to
flushing with water during tlhe irrigation of tlhe land near by. A
period of several weeks elapses before more water is turned in, amnd in
the meantime the water becomes stagnant and tlhe breeding place of
millions of mosquitoes. Then, as the correspondent says, "people go
around wondering where all the mosquitoes come from, put up screens,
burn buhach, and make a great fuss." Nothing could be easier than
to pour an ounce of kerosene into each of these pits, and all danger
from mosquitoes will have passed.
In many houses in Baltimore, Md., thie sewage drains first into wells
or sinks in the backyard, and thence in sonime cases into sewers, and in
other cases is pumped out periodically. These wells invariably have.
open privies built over them, and the mosquitoes, which breed in tle
stagnant contents of the sinks, have free egress into the open air back
of the houses. Hence parts of Baltimore much further removed from
either running or stagnant water than certain parts of Washington,
where no mosquitoes are found, are terribly mosquito ridden, and sleep
without mosquito bars is, from May to December, almost impossible.
Specimens of Cidler pungens captured November 5 in such a privy as
described have been brouglit to thIe writer from Baltimore by one of his
assistants, Mr. R. M. Reese.
Kerosene has been tried by Mr. Reese in one case in Baltimore, and-
two treatments of a privy made about May 1 and June 1, respectively,
seemed to diminish the numbers of the pest in that particular house;
but without concerted action of all tlie householders in a given block
(all the houses, be it remembered, being exactly alike iin the method of
sewage disposal) no great amount of good could be accomplished.
With such concerted action, however, there seems to be no reason why


19






22


PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


Anopheles punctipennis, and A. quadrimnaculata, occur all over the
country, from New England to Texas, and even to southern California.
In almost any given locality in the United States, therefore, one would
probably be able to find all of these eight species, with perhaps two or
three additional ones.
The list which follows was drawn up by Mr. Coquillett, and embodies,
in part, the results of his studies. It must be remembered that, after
all, the material was scanty, since no one has taken the trouble to
thoroughly collect mosquitoes. The list represents, however, a distinct
and important advance on our former knowledge of these annoying
creatures.

LIST OF THE MOSQUITOES OF THE UNITED STATES.
(A) Species examined by D. W. Coquillett.
Culex consobrinus Desv. 3 males, 18 females.
Synonyms: Culexpunctor Kirby; C. impatiens Walk.; C. pinguis Walk.; C. isor-
natus Will. (the latter synonymy based on a study of one of Williston's co-
type specimens).
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., September 28 (Nat. Mus.);
Catskill Mountains, Greene County, N. Y., 2,500 feet (Howard); Illinois, March
21, April 29, May 6, October 16 (Nason); St. Anthony Park, Minn., April, May,
on snow (Lugger); Saskatchewan River, British America; South Dakota (Nat.
Mus.); Lincoln, Nebr., May. September (Bruner); Colorado (Nat. Mus.); Los
Angeles, Cal., February (Coquillett); Argus Mountains, Cal., April (Nat. MuB.);
Santa F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell).
Culex excitans Walk. 3 males, 2 females.
Habitat: New Bedford, Mass. (Johnson); Lincoln, Nebr., May (Bruner); Santa
F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell).
Culex excrucians Walk. 3 females.
Habitat: Ithaca, N. Y., July 14 (Comstock).
Culex fasciatus Fabr. 4 males, 2 females.
Synonyms: Culex tcwniatus Wied.; Culex mosquito Desv. (non Arribalzaga).
Habitat: Georgia, August (Coquillett); Natchitoches, La., October 6 (Johnson);
Isle of Pines, W. I. (Scudder); Kingston, Jamaica, July 13 (Johnson).
- Culex impiger Walk. 14 males, 50 females.
Synonym: Culex intplacabilis Walk.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., May 24, June 2 (Nat. Mus.);
Ithaca, N. Y., July 9 and 17, August 28; Wilmuth, N. Y., June 10 (Comstock);
Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.); Minnesota (Lugger);
London County, Va., Aug. 26 (Pratt); Tyrone, Ky., July 14 (Garman); Georgia
(Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex., (Cockerell); Isle of Pines, W. I. (Scudder); Port-
land, Jamaica (Johnson).
Culex perturbans Walk. 8 females.
Habitat: Lakeland, Md., August 8 (Pratt); Virginia, August 17 (Pergande);
Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnson); Texas (Nat. Mus.).
Culex posticatus Wied. 5 females.
Synonym: Culex musicus Say.
Habitat: Montgomery County, Pa., July 17 (Johnson); Texas (Nat. MuS.).
",-Zulex pungens Wied. 25 males, 103 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., September 5; Cambridge,
Mass., September 16 to November 5; Boston, Mass.; Baltimore, Md., Novem-
ber 5 (Nat. Mus.), November 26 (Lugger); Charlton Heights, Md., December 1




*


SOME INSECTS AFFECTING CHEESE, HAMS, FRUIT, ETC. 1i)

November the southern outer wall was speckled with them. lie suc-
ceeded in ridding the establishment by trapping them dlay after day
with a piece of cheese. The cheese proved to be extremely attractive.
and he destroyed then by lhaIInd two (r three tiijes i: dlay until lie lhad
practically exterminated thliemni. Shortly after the introltiction of the
Pasteur system of silkworm mnoth inspection fori plbriiie iil Fra1,1.,
according to Maurice Girard, great damage was don i by tli.is I)ernne'stid,
which attacked first the bodies (if the mjotls. ;is they were attacledI to
their egg receptacles. They laid their eggs in tle nothls, and tlheir larv;e
first ate the bodies and afterwards the silkworm eg.gsi thelziselves, thus
occasioning in 1871 at Pont Gisqnet ai loss* ) onttird'II-I (of the egg crolp.
The remedial measures adopted were to screen tle windows wit h a very
iiine wire gauze to prevent the entrance of beetles and aft.rwrils to
:submit the rooms to fumigation with 1isulphide of 'arbotln (Pi ci(rrlosi.ve
sublimate.
SAn interesting case of damage to bacmn wvas ,iieitioiied by hr. Lint-
ner in the Cultivator andl Country (Geiitleznaan for June '26, 1S .1. An
individual in Walkersville, 1Md., hadl fouInd i1cou hling yp in paper
Seat sacks the 1st of March affected with beetles, and larva- later inl
the season, presumably inl Juie. The beetles 1iiust have oviposited in
the bacon before sacking, or there must have been cracks in tlhe paper
bags through which tlhe young larva- entered. Tlie date of the bag-
ging renders the former hypothesis iiiiprobable. Tihe instance seemed
to show the necessity for very careful and early bagging. Tlie slightest
crack or slit in the paper would be large enough to allow tlhe entrance
of the newly hatched larva, since the beetles will lay their es near
such a crack or slit. Dr. Lintner further advised a thorough white-
washing of the apartment in which the sacks were hunig, which inl this
case was a garret.

THE FRUIT FLIES OR VINEGAR FLIES.
(lDrosnehila spp.)
There are in North America about thirty species of lih.nt-brown flies
belonging to the genus Drosophila, of which lperhialps tlie majority
breed in the juices of (lecaying and fermenting fruit. rf'laeir larv;e are
small, white, slender maggots, and are frequently foitd( iiin camned fruits
and pickles wlhiclh have been inperfectly sealed, occmrrirn g. costly near
the top of the jars, but living without incon-enience ihi Ili briny or
vinegary liquid and transfl'rming within brown lppil);ri;L ;:riouId tlihe
edges of the jar. The commonest species seem to be I ti. ,,ipflnp hiil
Loew and D. ama'na LDew.
The majority of tlhe species are strictly North Anmerican;, and this
includes the two specially mentionIed in tlhe paragranJph above, alt hlIoughi
D. ampelophila has also been found ini Cuba. Several species. however,
are common to Europe and tlhe iiite(id States, fOlr cx;LIIlJe, /I. f,,Itr//.-i,
D. graminun, and 1). tr,.s'rrs,. f. amploplq, ii, seenims tihe coinnimntest






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC.


they bore, and from which they seem to be able to extract a certain
amount of nourishment, sometimes redevoniring the same miaterial sev-
eral times. They are also somewhat cannibalistic, aIndl will devour the
superfluous members of the colony without compunction, and formally
consume all (lead individuals, cast skins, and othlerrefuse material. Tiey
may also feed to a certain extent on the liquids produced by the decaying
vegetable matter in which they live, and perhaps ion the fungoid ele-
ments resulting from such decay. They are, capable also of .exulling a
sort of nectar, which is used to feed tlhe young :nd tl.e ro: il pair, and
which they also generously give to each other.
All except the migrating winged forums are incapable of enduring
full sunlight, and the soft, delicate bodies of the workers, soldiers, :1d
yuong rapidly shrivel when exposed.
In all their operations, therefore, they >. 4.
carefully conceal themselves, and in t,
their mining of timbers or book-s and i
papers the surface is always left intact, -.
and whenever it is necessary for them # '
to extend their colonies it is only done :
under the protection of covered run- ,
ways, which they construct of par-
tidcles of comminuted wood or little ~/"/
pellets of excrement. In this way the \.
damage which they are doing is often -
entirely hidden, and not until furni- Fin,. 30.-TermesfnPirp,,.: a, newly-liat.ii,..I
A. T- i 3 -~i i ; rvai; b, same l'roin below ; <*, v'g --;ill en-
ture breaks down or the underpinning ar same rscblo I w; C, iC g N. n
L to ame scale (oriiiii:iIi.
and timbers of houses or floors yield
is the injury recognized. The swarming of winged individuals in tihe
early summer, if in or about houses, is an indication of their injurious 1
presence and warrants an immediate investigation to prevent serious
damage later on.
The common termite of America is very widespread, occurring from
the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada southward to tile Guilf.
It has been found on the mountains of Colorado and Washington at a
height of over 7.000 feet. In prairie regions it may often be seen during
the swarming season issuing from tlhe ground at frequent intervals
over large pasture tracts, where it must feed on tlhe roots of gra~s and
other herbage. It has also been carried to other countries awl is a
common and often very i.njurious enemy of buildings and libraries
in Europe. A closely allied and( equally injurious European species
(Termes luci'ugHs) has also been brought to this country in exchange for
ours, but compared with our own species is soniewhat rare tlhoughi
already widely distributed. In this country serious (lainage to build
ings from the white ant has not been of common occurrence, especially
in the North, except in some notable instances. In Europe our
species has caused greater damage, and some years ago gained access
to one of the Imperial hothouses at Vienna. and in spite of all etflbrts


73




*: : : ** I ti:

90 PRINCIPAL HOUSE BOLD INSECTS.

from an egg case received from Eagle Pass, Tex., reached the adult
stage between March 14 and June 12 of the following year, indicating
a period of nearly twelve months for complete development The rate
of growth of the roach undoubtedly depends very largely on food and
temperature, and under unfavorable conditions the time required for
development may undoubtedly be vastly lengthened. The abundance
of roaches is, therefore, apparently not accounted for so much :by their
rapidity of multiplication as by their unusual ability to preserve
themselves from ordinary means of destruction and by the scarcity of
natural enemies.

THE COMMON DOMESTIC ROACHES.

The four roaches which have been made the subject of illustrations
represent the species which occur most commonly in houses, bakeries,
or on shipboard. The numerous tropical house species, many of which
are perhaps only partially domesticated, and the subarctic roach of high
altitudes and of the extreme north have been omitted.
The American roach (Periplaneta americana) (fig. 38) is the native or
indigenous species of this continent, originating, it is supposed, in trop-
ical or subtropical Anierica.
The ancient and rather quaint account of this insect' quoted below 1
in a footnote indicates that this species early came to the noticee i
of our forefathers. Its domesticity doubtless resulted from ages of
association with the aborigines. It has now become thoroughly CmOo-
politan, and is unquestionably the most injurious and annoyming of the
species occurring on vessels. It is sometimes numerous also iA green-
houses, causing considerable injury to tender plants. It is a orious
house pest and occasionally vies with the German roach in its Ubjuries
to book bindings. One of the most serious cases of injuryof this sort :
was reported by the Treasury Department. The backs, wjeotimes
entirely, of both cloth and leather bound books were eaten off to get
at the starchy paste used in the binding. (Insect Life, Vol. 1, p. 07-70.)
It is very abundant in the Middle and Western States, whet it has
been until recently practically the only troublesome house species. In
the East it is not often so common as are one or other of the following
species and especially germanica. In foreign countries it has not become
widespread and is largely confined to seaport towns. In size it is

SThe cockroach.-These are very troublesome and destructive vermin, .ad are so
numerous and voracious, that it is impossible to keep Victuals of any kind from
being devoured by them, without close covering. They are flat, and sothin that
few chests or boxes can'exclude them. They eat not only leather, pa. eisut and
woollen, but linen and paper. They disappear in Winter, and appear -atWiumet-
ous in the hottest days in Summer. It is at night they commit their depradations,
and bite people in their beds, especially children's fingers that are greasy. Teylay
innumerable eggs, creeping into the holes of old walls and rubbish, Where they
lie torpid all the Winter. Some have wings, and others are witout-perhaps of
different Sexes. (Catesby: Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1748, Vol. II, p. 10.)

J






8 INTRODUCTION.

Of such common species as the household centipede (Scutigera forceps)
and the silver fish" or slicker" (Lepisma spp.) careful studies yet
remain to be made, and it is hoped that one of the incidental benefits
which will result from the publication of this bulletin will be this indi-
cation of topics of desired investigation to students. The illustrations
have all been made by Miss Sullivan, with the exception of those of
the cheese skipper and ham beetles and the house centipede, which
have been prepared by Mr. Otto Heidemann. All drawings have been
made under the supervision of the author of the section in which they
appear.
L. 0. H.






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ET('.


83


Favorable situations, in very considerable iinl).bers. IEspecially are
they apt to occur where there are window plants or in sinall conserva-
tories, but are not confined to these situations. Very little is known of
;. their food habits, but they arc Sup)posed to sulbsist ni refuse or chlliCly
decaying vegetable natter.
The striking peculiarities of these insects arc in the reinark.Ible
ventral tube and tlhe strong saltatorial appendage of the extreiiity
of the body. The
first arises from
segment,~ ~ a Ld I
the forward body
segmeut, aiid
seems to act in
this species aw a
sort of a retainer
for the leaping
Sorgan, or spring /
Proper, as shown ..
in fig. 36. It is
:F1 said to secrete a
jviscid fluid~which
viscid fluidwhich Im.:17.-Sprirni.-itil i(T iidnryrtus am neri-anit.) a. lateral view of rf-
: enables the insect imailt ; b, fo, of s -sane; c, ipI or spring-t.iil; r, 1ii41' .rili,; e, iiup)ir lip
:o to better adher orlabiun;f, mii;adih)1 or jaws; I, lowerj.ivs and lower lip or maxillaI
aind Iabnitn-tori,-inal).
Sto smooth vertical
surfaces. The so-called "catch," or retainer l)roper, is shown in a simill
7 projection between the hind pair of legs and the spring (fig. 37), and
: grasps the latter near the middle. The springing organ is two-jointed,
Sthe last joint being bifurcate, and its terminals inclosing the ventral
tube. It is shown in normal position in fig. 36, and -s it appears when
leaping in fig. 37, a. /
These insects can not survive dryness, and, while they will not often
occur in sufficient numbers to be particularly objectionable, tle removal
Sof the moist objects or surfaces on vwhichl they congregate and tlhe
maintenance of dry conditions will cause then to soon dis.ippear.
A correspondent reports that. having been troubled by t iese or allied
insects for years in cellars and pantries, relief was finally obtained by
giving the shelves, cupboards, and walls a thorough coating of white
:wash inside and out. The pests abandoned tlhe preinises and were no
longer troublesome. This remedy will be worth trying, especially in
cellars and basement rooms, where there is likelihood of (ldaml pness and
consequent abundance of these in.ects.






86 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


or so-called "black beetle" of Europe (Periplaneta orients*s) is of
Asiatic origin, and it is thought to have been introduced into .:.Europe
in the last two or three hundred years. The original home of this and
the other common European species (Ectobia germanica) is, however,
obscure, and in point of fact they have probably both been associated '
with man fronf the earliest times, and naturally would come into the
newly settled portions of Europe from the older civilizations of Asia
and Egypt.
Of the other two domestic species especially considered in this paper
the Australian roach (P. australasiwce), as its name implies, is a native of
Australia, and the American roach (P. americana) of tropical America. .
4
Rarely do two of the domestic species occur in any numbers together
in the same house. Often also of two neighboring districts one may be
infested with one species, while in the other a distinct species is the
commoner one. The different species are thus seemingly somewhat]
antagonistic, and it is even supposed that they may prey upon each
other, the less numerous species being often driven out.

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS.
Although among the oldest insects geologically, roaches have not
departed notably from the early types, and form one of the most persist-
ent groups among insects. The house species are rather unifrmly dark
brown or dark colored, a coloration which corresponds with th* habit.
of concealment during daylight. They are smooth and slipped insects,
and in shape broad and flattened. The head is inflexed underthe body,'
so that the mouth parts are directed backward and the eyes 40aected'
downward, conforming with their groveling habits. The autcc are
S very long and slender, often having upward of 100 jointsU. I.Tnmales;
usually have two pairs of wings, the outer ones somewhat 0corneu and
the inner ones more membranous and once folded longit udinally.
some species, as, for instance, the black beetle, the females are nearly
wingless. The legs are long and powerful and armed with numerous
strong bristles or spines. The mouth parts are well developed and with'
strong biting jaws, enabling them to eat all sorts of substances.

HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
In houses roaches are particularly abundant in pantries and kitchens,
especially in the neighborhood of fireplaces, on account of the heat.
For the same reason they are often abundant in the oven rooms of
bakeries or wherever the temperature is maintained above the normal,
They conceal themselves during the day behind baseboardsfrniture,
or wherever security and partial protection from the light ambfforded.
Their very flat, thin bodies enable them to squeeze themselves into"
small cracks or spaces where their presence would not be sspectedW
and where they are out of the reach of enemies. Unless routedW out by
... :' .






SPECIES INJURIOUS TO WALL PAPER, BOOKS, ETC. 77

Difficult to capture, and being clothed with smooth, glistLenig scales, it
will slip from between the fingers and is almost impossible to secure
without crushing or damaging. It is one of the most serious pests in
libraries, particularly to the binding of books, and will frequently cat
off the gold lettering to get at tihe paste beneath, or, as reported by
Mr. P. R. Uhler, of lBaltimore, often gnlawsoff whliit, slips glued onil the
backs of books. Heavily glazed paper seems very attractive to this
insect, and it has frequently laplpeCIed thit tim labels in museum col-
lections have been disfigured or destroyed by it, tlie glazed surface
having been entirely
eaten off. In some
cases books printed oni
heavily sized paper
will have the surface
of the leaves a good
deal scraped, .leaving
only the portions cov-
eredbytheink. Itwill --
also eat any starched ,
clothing, linen, or cur-
tains, and has been
known to (do very se-
rious damage to silks
which had probably
been stiffened with h
sizing. Its damage in
houses, in addition to
its injury to books,
consists in causing /
the wall paper to scale
off by its feeding on
the starch paste. It
occasionally gets into
vegetable drugs or
sim ilar m material left 'li. JI. Lepiunia ,I,,,r,.slti,: .ililt tru*iii e.-*ii- ig:&' i i-,inalj)
undisturbed for long
periods. It is reported also to eat occasionally into carpets and iplush-
covered furniture, but this is open to question.
The silver fish belongs to the lowest order of insects-the Thysa-
nura-is wingless, and of very simple structure. It is a wormilike
insect about one-third of an inch in length, tapering from near the
head to the extremity orf the body. Thie head carries two prominent
antennir, and at the tip of the body are three long. bristle-shaped
appendages, one )pointing directly backward and the other two extend-
ing out at a considerable angle. Tite entire surface of the body is cov-
Sered with very minute scales like those of a moth. Six legs spring






PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.


magnified than the others (fig. 10). The eggs and young larvg have
recently been described for the first time by Miss Kimball (A fih and
this summer a large number of specimens in all stages .i.ved
from the West, from which the accompanying figures. X.iade.
From these specimens many eggs were obtained, and later, larva.
The cone-nose is a rather large insect, measuring an inch in length
and characterized by a flattened body and very narrow, pointed head
and short, strong beak. In color it is dark brown, with the light areas
indicated in the figure pinkish. Its buggy" odor is even more intense
than that of the bedbug. It is a night flyer and is attracted into open



















cc,
FIG. 11 -Oonorhinus sanguisuga: a, larva, second stage; b, newly
hatched larva; c, egg with sculpturing of surface shown at side-all
enlarged to same scale-(original).
windows by lights. It conceals itself during the day under any loose
object, often leaving beds which it may have frequented during the night.
The adult is not apt to take flight, but can run rather swiftly.
The eggs are white, changing to yellow and pink before hatching, and
of the peculiar shape indicated in the illustration. The young hatch
within twenty days. There are at least two larval stages (fig. 11, a, b)
and two pupal stages (fig. 10, a, b), the latter characterized by the pres-
ence of distinct wing pads. In all these stages the insect is active and
predaceous. The eggs are normally deposited and the early stages are
undoubtedly passed out of doors, the food of the immature forms being
other insects. The eggs which may be dropped indoors must fail
normally to mature adults, and in fact immature specimens are rarely
found indoors, and the wingless and rather sluggish larvwe and pupae
would have little opportunity of reaching the higher animals under any
circumstances. It winters, both in the partly grown and the adult


40






MOSQUITOES AND FLEAS.


23


(Pratt); District of Columbia, Jaiiuary 30, March 5), May 6 and 15, June 2X, July
11, August, October 10, 151, 25, and 31, November 4, 8, 13, 16, and 23, 1hucemnler
23 (Pergande); Ithaca, N. Y., May 29, July 17, August 28 (Conistock); IllinMis
(Nason); Minnesota (Luigger); Lincoln, Nebr., Septeinwr 201) (Bruner); Le.x-
ington, Ky., November 10 (Garnian) ; New Orleans, La., Decemlier 17 (IHoIward);
San Antonio, Tex., lMay 5 (Marlatt); Ceorgia, AIgust (Coquillett); PortlLanld,
Jamaica (Johnson).
Cu'lex signifer Coq. 1 female.
Habitat: District of ('olumblia, June ((Coquiillett).
Culex stimulans Walk. 13 males, 54 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., June 2, July 9; Cambridge,
Mass., May; Jamaica Plain, Mass., August 25 (Nat. Mus.); Baltimore, Md.
(Lugger); Illinois, August 1, September 15, October 5 (Nason); Agricultural
College, Mich. (Gillette); Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.);
Lincoln, Nebr. (Bruner); Colorado (Na.it. Mus.); Itlhaca, N. Y., Junie 13, 18, 29,
July 14, August 28; WVilmiuth, N. Y., June 10 (Comnistock); (Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Culex tarsalis Coil. 1 male, 4 fenialcs.
Habitat: Argus Mountains, Cal., April; Folsom, Cal., July 3 (Natt. Mus.).
Culex triseriata Say. 3 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H. (Nat. Mus.); Delaware County, Pa., June 12
(Johnson); Washington, D. C., May 5, London County, Va. (Pratt).
Culex teeniorhynchus Wied. 1 male, 32 females.
(Not the ('ulex toa'niorhymnhis Wied. of Arrilbalzaga.)
Habitat: Maine, August; Beverly, Mass., June, September 15 (Nat. Mus.);
Avalon, Anglesea, and Atlantic City, N. J., July 10 to 29 (Johnson); Far
Rockaway, Long Island, N. Y., Aug. 30 (Howard); District of Columbia
(Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.); St. Augustine and Charlotte Harbor, Fla.,
July; Portland, Jamaica (Johnson).
Psorophora ciliata Fabr. 2 males, 29 females.
Habitat: Dorchester, Mass. (Nat. Mus.); Washington. D. C. (Chittenden);
Westville, N. J., July 2 (Johnson); Illinois (Nason); Brooklyn Bridge, Ky.,
June 23 (Garman); Lincoln, Nebr., July, August (Bruner); Los Angeles, Cal.
(Coquillett); San Diego, Tex., May 15 (Schwarz); Florida, July .Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles crucians WVied. 3 females.
Habitat: District of Columbia, April 27 (Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles punctipennis Say. 5 males, 13 females.
(Considered by Wiedemann to be the saine species as his A.nophel's cruciann, but
the two are certainly distinct.)
Synonym: Cilex hyemalis Fitch (wrongly referred to .Anophelen qutadrimniaculata
in the Osten Sacken Catalogue).
Habitat: Castleton, Vt., February 1 (temperature 6 F.); Beverly, Mass., Sep-
tember 19, October 2; Cambridge, Mass., June 16, September 30, October 20
(Nat. Mus.); Charlton Heights, Md., March 31, November 17 (Pratt); D)istrict
of Columbia, June 6, October 15, 25, and 31 (Pergande); Philadelphia, Pa.,
October 12 (Johnson); Ithaca, N.Y., April 17, August 28 (Comistock); Illinois,
October 16 (Nason); Texas (Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex. (Cockerell); Porl-
nland, Jamaica (Johnson).
Anopheles quadrimaculata Say. 3 males, 31 females.
Habitat: Berlin Falls, N. H., August (Nat. Mus.); Ithaca, N. Y., January, July
31, November 28 (Comstock); Lakeland, Md., August 8; Charlton Heights,
Md., November 24 (Pratt); District of Columbia, July, October 15. November
2 and 14 (Pergande); Illinois, September 10, October 10 (Nason); St. Anthony
Park, Minn., December 11 (Lugger); Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnaon);
Texas (Nat. Mus.).






INSECTS AFFECTING CEREALS, ETC.


the farmhouse in our grandmothers' day. It also sometimes gets into
dried beans and peas, chocolate, black ppp)er, powdered coffee, licorice,
peppermint, almonds, and seeds of every description.
The subject of injuries wrought by this species has forced the text
of a considerable literature, going back to tlie year 1721, when Pastor
Frisclh found the larva feeding upon rye bread, and including, besides
damage of the nature referred to, injury to drawings and paintings,
manuscripts alnd books. Some singular instances arc recorded of its
injuries as a bookworm. The late Dr. I lagein wrote that lie once saw
"a whole shelf of theological books, two hundred years old, traveled
through transversely" by the larva of this insect, and still another
record is published of injury by this species, or Pinus fhur, to twenty-
seven folio volumes, which it is said were "perforated in a straight line
by one and the same insect, and so regular was tlie tunnel that a string
could be passed through the whole length of it
and the entire set of books lifted up1) at once." -
In pharmacies it runs nearly the whole gamut i cs-
of everything kept in store, from insipid gluten /""'-
wafers to such acrid substances as wormwood, J -,.|i
from the aromatic cardamom and anise to tlhe -/ i
deadly aconite and belladonna. It is particularly /
abundant in roots, such as orris and flag, and i
sometimes infests cantharides.
It is recorded to have established a colony in a -\---
human skeleton which had been dried with the .----
ligaments left on, and the writer has seen speci- 1 .
mens taken from a mummy. It has even been F,,I ,_-s^rva-. Miowruabve;
IL;I.adot" Ii:rva..shiow u l)ive ;
said to perforate tin foil and sheet lead, and that ig of larva hi.ow-mlih
it will "eat anything except cast iron." In short, Pulart.ed trigiiah.
a whole chapter could be devoted to the food material of this insect, as
nothing seems to come amiss to it and its voracious larva. The sub-
ject may conclude with the statement that this Division hias received
complaints from four different correspondents of injury to rguI wad-
ding, and there are several records of injury to boots and shoes and
sheet cork.
The larvme bore into hard substances like roots tunneling them in
every direction, and feed also upon the powder which soon forms and
is cast out of their burrows. In powdery substances the larvia form
little round balls or cells, which become cocoons, in which they undergo
transformation to pl)up and then to the adult insect. I have reared
the insect from egg to beetle in two months, and as it habitually lives
in artificially heated buildings and breeds out through the winter
months, there may be at least four broods in a moderately wari
atmosphere.
Minute as is this beetle, it is lp;cyed upon by a still smaller parasite,
a chaleis fly known as Meraporus clandraw how., which pursues its


1215






THE BEDBU(; AND CONE-NOSE.


state, often under bamrk of trees or ill anlly sililniar prote'tiollq aid w1ly in
its nocturnal spring and early suenini ier Iliglits. diws it 1.ecile ail eiiny
of man in the effbrt to gratify its t.iste fior hunta intlonod.
This insect is particularly abinlidanlt anld usually enters lmiolses in
early spring (April and May), somi(timlies ill considerlible n1111iiler's. :1and
seems to be (decidedly o teo itncre;wase ui the region witlich it p:lirticii-
larly affects-the plain.;s ricgion fri'm Texas ortii\voia and w.-tw.ird.
A correspondent in Inldian Territory report('d fiaviig" in tlie course o(f
a short while killed upward of a dozen. They were usually fiud inl
the bed or uiear by, and their connection with the injury was ofte.i
very 1)lainIly evident by their being 1'ou1nd tuirgid with blood.
The coniiiion Calilbiorni;a species closely resembles in appe(,:,r;lice and
habits the one iianied at thlie lead of this section, but is ;i distinct,
species a a an apparently undescrilbcd. Tlle
.-\ iloc:il name in Calif.frnia foi r ltis insect is
monitor bug."f
lThe results of the bite 4of tlhec c1ne-IoIse
oil thle huInani subject \ary at good deal
witn thle susceptibility of tli' person bit-
S tei, but are often of a \very serious aid
Ialaruinilg claracter. The pierlcing of the
skin is evidently accoimpalied by tlie
injection of some poisonous liquid or
venom, making a sore, itching w4,iund,
.B accoCnlpa-nied with a burning plain lasting
S0 sometimes from two to lfiir days. and1
FIG. 12.-Conorhinussangui.tgaf ahead\, often assoe-iated with swellings, lhi.elt
showing beak: b, samn,.e, from li1i,..tside. iy extend over a gIood deal of tlhe body.
with pi-rciing seta-' rernimovetd [rnt m a -
sheatl and witlh tipi, on'.,r di hemen- Tluit there is a specific poison injected is
large; c, san.-, froin iicw-imiuiih eln- indicated r:;tl r co(nclusiv\-ely 1by the very
large (original). l/ .
large (original) constant and uiniforni character of the
symptoms in nearly all cases of bites by this insect. It hlas, however,
been suggested that tlhe very serious results. which somietilt.es follow
its bite may be due to tlhe fact that it lhas prIeviolsly thrust its I)e;:ik
into some decaying animal matter, causing a certainn aioint o)1 bhood
poisoning in thie p)atieitt. Thlis theory lias support in tlhe facts stately
by the late J. B. Lemibert, of Califirnia. who sa.yvs. tim.t lie iias noticed
that the species of Coiorhinuli s occul .rring oi tlie I';Paciic Sqlope is
attracted by carrion. Mr. Lembert described the etle.t oil lhimiself
of a sting by this insect on the middle toe of tlhe left foot. Following
the sting au itching sensation extended np tlie leg, larigve l]ot(hles.,
manifesting themselves on tlhe lipper part of tlhe limllb and .extending-
up to the haids and arnis. His lips swelled, and thle itlching and
swelling extended over tlhe lead, and lie was also iniuchl n ituseated.
The itching abated after four or live lhouirs, lsbut t lie swellig.,1 did not go
down until the next day. A correspoIdent, writing to Prof. J. W.


41






60 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

and long-continued measures will eradicate it. The practice of annual
ouseC cleaning, so often carelessly and hurriedly performed, is, as we
have shownt above, peculiarly favorable to the development of the
insect. Two house cleaning would be better than one, and if but one,
it would be better to undertake it in midsummer than at any other time
of the year. Where convenience or conservatism demands an adher-
ence to the old custom, however, we have simply to insist upon extreme
thoroughness and a slight variation in the customary methods. The
rooms should be attended to one or two at a time. The carpets should
be taken up, thoroughly beaten, and sprayed out of doors with ben-
zine, and allowed to air for several hours. The rooms themselves should
be thoroughly swept and dusted, the floors washed down with hot water,
the cracks carefully cleaned out, and kerosene or benzine poured into
the cracks and sprayed under the baseboards. The extreme inflamma-
bility of benzine, and even its vapor when confined, should be remem-
bered and fire carefully guarded against. Where the floors are poorly
constructed and the cracks are wide it will be a good idea to fill the
cracks with plaster of paris in a liquid state; this will afterwards set
and lessen the number of harboring places for the insect. Before relay-
ing the carpet tarred roofing paper should be laid upon the floor, at
least around the edges, but preferably over the entire surface, and when
the carpet is relaid it will be well to tack it down rather lightly, so that
it can be occasionally lifted at the edges and examined for the presence
of the insect. Later in the season, if such an examination shows the
insect to have made its appearance, a good though somewhat laborious
remedy consists in laying a damp cloth smoothly over the suspected
spot of the carpet and ironing it with a hot iron. The steam thus gen-
erated will pass through the carpet and kill the insects immediately
beneath it.
The measures used in the care of furs, rugs, and woolen goods gen-
erally to prevent the work of this insect during the summer are prac-
tically identical with those recommended for the clothes moths,
elsewhere mentioned. The most perfect and simplest is storage at a
temperature of from 40 to 420 F. For the cheaper methods the reader
is referred to the chapter on clothes moths.
These strenuous measures, if persisted in, are the only hope of the
good housekeeper, so long as the system of heavy carpets covering the
entire floor surface is adhered to. Good housekeepers are conservative
people, but we expect eventually to see a more general adoption of the
rug or of the square of carpet, which may at all times be readily exam-
ined and treated if found necessary. Where the floors are bad the
practice of laying straw mattings under the rugs produces a sightly
appearance, and, while not as cleanly as a bare floor, affords still fewer
harboring places for this insect.
L. o. H.






COCKROACHES AND HOUSE ANTS.


LIFE HISTORY.
The roach in its difl'crent stages froiin egg to adult shows .copara-
tively little variation in appearance or habits. The'I'l youlg ;are very
much like the adult, except in point of size and in lacking wings, if
the latter be winged in the adult state. In their mlodle (f oviposition
they present, however, a very anomalous tand p1(h(.--ll, 1 habit. 'lhe eggs,,
instead of being del)osited separately, ais with iimst other insects, are
brought together within the abdomen of the llother into a hard, holrny
pod or capsule which often nearly fills tlhe body of tii p;areilt. This
capsule contains a considerable number of eggs, the number varying
in the different species, arranged in two rows tlhe position of tl.e eggs
being indicated oii the exterior of the capsule by transverse lateral
impressions. When fully forined and
charged with eggs the capsule is often ~
partly extruded from the female abdomen
and retained in this position sometimes
for weeks, or until the young larva' are
ready to emerge. The capl)sule is oval, Fla. 39-Egg-capsuile (,f J'ript aeta
elongate, or somewhat bean shaped, and amerieana: a., iidc, b, end view-nat-
/. i ii rmural size irulicatrd li\ uuiilliii,. Iip'riit
one of its edges is usually serrate. The (, risii:ia!i,.atd -it. figr
young are in some instances assisted to
escape by the parent, who with her feet aids in splitting thie capsule
on the serrate edge to facilitate their exit. On hatching, it is said, the
young are often kept together by the parent and brooded over and
cared for, and at least a colony of young will usually be found associated
with one or two older individuals. These insects arc more or less gre-
garious, notably so in the case of tlhe black beetle of Europe and 1 a.
less extent with the German and American roaches.
They pass through a variable number of molts, sometimes as many
as seven, the skin splitting along the back and the insects coMing oult
white, soft, but rapidly hardening and assuming tlie normal color.
Some astounding statements have been made as to thle length of time
required for the development of thle roach irom the egg to tlhe adult.
Four or five years have been said to be necessary for ani individual to
reach full growth; but more recent bree(ling experiments have inot
altogether confirmed these statements. TlIeir development, however,
is unquestionably slow, and probably under tlhe most favor:iale co uli-
tions rarely is more than one generation per year prodluce(d. Il colder
countries the breeding and growth are practically restricted to tlio
warm season. luring the winter nmontlis they go into concealmlieait
and partial hibernation. Ectobiat germ'i iC' lhas been shown to reach
full growth in a variable period from four and a half to six months
(Hummel, Essais Entomologiques, No. 1, St. Petersburg, 1821). The
common American roach (J'eriphineta americ nta) lhas been carried from
the egg to the adult state inl our insectary. Ymung hatclhing July 11


89






122 PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.

brown color. The antennae are clavate, or club-shaped, and the thorax
has two shallow, longitudinal grooves on the upper surface and bears
six minute teeth like those of a saw on each side, as indicated at fig. :]
59, a.
The larva is somewhat depressed, and nearly white in color, with
darker markings, as shown in the illustration (e). It has six legs and
an abdominal proleg, and is exceedingly active, running about, nibbling
here and there.
When fully matured the larva fastens itself by means of some
adhesive matter, evidently excrementitious, to any convenient surface,
and thus attached transforms to pupa and afterward to imago. When
the insect is living in such granular substances as oatmeal and cracked
wheat a delicate case is constructed of fragments of these materials,;.
but when in flour and meal often no covering is made. From data
acquired by experiment it is estimated that there may be six or seven
generations of this insect annually in the latitude of the District of
Columbia. During the summer months the life cycle requires but,
twenty-four days; in spring, from six to ten weeks. At Washington, :-
it has been learned, the species winters over in the adult state, even in:;
a well-warmed indoor temperature.
.' "

THE CADELLE."

(Tenebroides mauritanicus Linn.) .....
The term "cadelle" was first proposed years ago in France for the,:
larva of this insect. The Latin name was given to it in 1758, when it;:
was described as a species of Tenebrio and classified with the meal- '
worms, the adult of which it very slightly resembles in its somber,"
color and depressed elongate form. It belongs, however, to a distinct |l
family, the Trogositidae, and is considerably smaller than the meal-<
worm beetles, measuring about a third of an inch. It is very dark,:in
shining brown in color, much flattened, and of the somewhat oblong J
form indicated in the illustration (fig. 60, a). The antenna is shown
much enlarged on page 123. The general appearance of the lava is:,
shown at c. It is fleshy and slender, measuring when full grown nearly:
three-fourths of an inch. It is whitish in color, with head and tip of j
the anal segment dark brown, the latter terminating in two dark cor-
neous hooks. The three thoracic segments are also marked with dark
brown, as indicated in the figure. The pupa (b) is white.
There has always been a difference of opinion in regard to the nature:
of the food of Tenebroides mnauritanicus, some claiming that the insect
was carnivorous. It has been satisfactorily proven through experiment:
by the writer that the insect is both herbivorous and predaceons. It is
most often found in cereals and in nuts, but may be occasionally taken
in other materials.