Miscellaneous papers on apiculture

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Material Information

Title:
Miscellaneous papers on apiculture
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
vii, 123 p., 10 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), 2 maps ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bee culture   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
General Note:
The eight papers constituting this bulletin were issued ... 1907-1911.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029638092
oclc - 15610985
Classification:
ddc - 632
System ID:
AA00018927:00001

Full Text

















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B URA U F ENONOLOGIY
L. 0 HoARD Entmolgio an Chif o Bueau
C.L ~ArjEtmlgstadAtngCifi bsm fCJ
R. S Cu N, xwuiviAsIda"
W.I. ~~t he Cek
F. H CHMNDEN in hare oftruc cro andstoed podudimse ineitpNS
A .Hpm, ncweofoetii nvtgtot

W. AHu~m, n chrgeof outhrn iel cro ined nvatgatons
F. M. Wm~s~im in chage of ereal adforag insed investigation
A. L. Qum TA~cim, n chargeofiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinvesigatiois
E.F m~is ncareoIeeclue









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CONTENTS



Pam.
at fttnww Umy. --------------- 7 -R. P. PkUlips-
-------------------------------------

1OW4, extme hiOne
-------------------- 2

-,honey,. ----------------------- 3
---------- I ---------
Y_
------------------
00 4esVucdm of tb
bsd*O* ol dWeam -------------- 12
a0fty
--------- ------ 12
---------- -------- 13
-------------- --------- 14

W ir ',OIL
--------- C. A. Bmwu--- 16
-------- P. phmips - 19

--------------------- ------- 19
Asom'' (6wkr-*-, -0 ----------------- 20
-------------- 21
--------------------------- 21
Oaks- 23
....... ------------------- 23
------- ----------------- 24
----------- --------------- --- 25
---------------- 26

"**guy Istradup-od into Mom-
- - - - - 97
- - - ----------------- 29
---------- 30
........................ A

to the tmtmeut.
0. P. White- 33
33
34
34



7 7




7#7

..... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






V1 MISCELTANEOUS PAPXR8 ON APICULTtlllo-


A brief survey of Hawauiian bee keeping ........... .......... B. A P)Mjw&,,el
Introduction ..........................................................
Publicadow on Hawaiian bee keeping., ................................
Bee keepers' aamciation. .............................................
Methods of management ............................................
Bee rights ..................................... .................
Extent of the industry- ....... ................ 0 ............
Sources of honey ........... .......... 0 ....... 0 ............... ........
Introduction of honey plants ...........................................
Wax production ........... o ................................
Disease survey ........................................................
The status of apiculture in the United States .................. E. F. PWUps..
Introduction ..........................................................
Scope of the industry ............................................
Pre;sent sources of loss ............ 7 ....................................
The needs and possibilities of apiculture ...........................
Summary .............................................................
Bee keeping in Massachusetts .............................. Burton N. GWa..
Historical sketch .................................... -----------
Experience of bee keepers in Massachusetts ----------------------------
Number of colonies per bee keeper ------------------------------------
Distribution of bees in Massachusetts ...............................
Increase in number of colonies. .................................
Production of honey and wax ................... & ....................... .
Sources of honey ..................
Periods of nectar secretion in different localities ...................
Races of bees ---------------------------------------------------------
H ives --------------------------------------------- ------------------
W entering ----------------------------- ; ..........................
Bees in greenhouses --------------------------------------------------
The bee market ------------------------------------------------------
Enemies ......................................... -------- ------
Bee diseases... -----------------------------------------------------
Bee keepers' organizations ---------------------------------------------
Summary ........................... I ................................
A list of the more important articles on bee keeping in Mmawhusetts -----
Index ---------------------------------------------------- ----------------














414









-7

















L L U STI AT I'O-N S,.,





V," xrla (40" io) in comb infec-W
------------------ 20
am removed tD
--- 20
IF invcmb infected with
............ 20
*fb* lm mw*uwtW and poo-

----------------- 23
43
kom the Hawsfian Agri-
-------------------- 44
bw MOW yo WMW OU WWft& tD PMVCnt
e 4 tv&O pUnfttiou ------------ 46
q, 2.,A Imum jaiigla ------ 48
-Coo fMhL MMOR
4FIRSt
............... 50
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2 MISCEM"BOUS PAPERS 014 APIMILTUR9.
be easier in the future. For a discussion of this work the
referred to Bulletin No. 110 of the Bureau of Chemistry,
Chemical Analysis and Composition of American Honeys."
Some of the common praetices ol bee keepers are, howeyer,
to serious question, and it is primarily to call attention to these
the present paper iis presented. It is possible to treat pum
grade efitracted honey so that on chemical examination it wou
condemned or called in question. In the past there has been
trouble in cases where chemists have declared honeys, to which
ing has been added, to be adulterated; part of the' fault possib4lyy
with the use of poor methods by lchemists, but not all of it. If
keeper treats pure honey so that its chemical composition is cha
it is no longer honey, and should not be sold for such. Several
the most widely circulated text-books on a iculture advocate
questionable practices.
There are several text-books gi ing detailed information as to t
production and care of extracted honey. It is n6t the purpow
this paper to replace these, but to pointout the main principles.to
observed, and especially to call attention to a, few points whick,
not seem to be understood by the majority of honey producer& 31a"
details which are apparently unnecessary in inost cases are omi
since the writer believes that each bee keeper must find out M"Y,-,
minor details in his own experience, and less important phasm
the work may better be learned from other sources.
A
THE ADVANTAGES OF THE PRODUCTION OF ]ULTRA HOMM:
It is not the purpose of this paper to advocate the production
extracted honey as preferable to that of comb honey, nor would it
at all desirable to have the production of fancy comb honey dim1'J'&Z'#'@
ished. For the benefit of the honey market, however, it could noC,
result in anything but good were the poorer grades of comb
to be sold as extracted. The discolored (" travel-stained Lq "m'k
irregularly or partially capped comb honey found on so many
kets is a poor advertisement for the the bee keeper who tries,16,
produce a fancy article.
The production of extracted honey means considerably less lab(*'
for the bee keeper and also less work of certain kinds for the beesi
for it 'is not necessary for the latter to secrete so much wax. Sinqoi.'
it takes several pounds of honey under most conditions to produce'i
Ir
pound of wax, the -surplus per colony is greater with extracted I
than with comb, but this is compensated by the fact that comb honer
of equal grade universally sells at a higher price.
In the Production of extracted honey it is much easier to
swarming, sincie the brood chamber 'is not contracted so much and-
queen has in opportunity to work to her maximum capacity. 0#







js Ysrnewthmr il es
a 1011d I h *0 dAon fsrlus
cooyf4 o ed]W'oy
flwbga h bma tone cmnnet tr
-b;wvddtebo eee scrflt u
bu im,0 hpoprhdni s is wmr
A t me-a d
a', mU 1atiyo wxbe ete ,i
'hnyi h 0Vwbxso'win n oe scn
Asoe nto v fMuhhnyi oe ee
11 1,vl|wf h I envc"atetatdh ny
m m ... .......................
trac somc ftehnyi
W!bw ekWto oo
hav fouh'olieo.Ilsi
t1 f vWi ah yeprec o
&fe oetattoliteta o uh
'%WIKT HOWZY
routOmudb tlata
-I6*fSr h doaeso -rm
Me/ Il vgteavnag facnrce
ilUrt 0w h urlshnyit h pe
-4r"haeltl IC nteponto
_W zw fo
b"kqWi o xe temxmmrsls
th reie f h ags n
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4 ISIEANOU APW N IIULM
Beoeo us tth ie fth einigoftehoe

hieboyexclysmia t he-rodchmerso ld__. ie
th oln.Maybe epespu ny r rmeLn 0
hiebd sd sasrls hme othttebe ibud

cob. ic i naprth onyte obisctdont
nomltikes hi ie lc orteimdaesoingo
plushony ad a th sae tme prmis te bes o scree s me
The .phy~logyof wx seretin isveryimpefecty un ertd,,
prbalywa s lwysserte, o rete o lsletetd
hev oe lwadb pcngwd hswxiss~dt h
keeper.
As te fmes f te seondhiv bod beome illd, te, one
eihrbeetate toneadth rme euedt e eild o
adiioa iv od ul ffrmsma e u irclyoe

brodchmbr n'blo te irtsupls od. ~esgouni
thouh omsofsele ony ompycobshih r u,--tth
cob soldb btee hefrs wohvebdis T.e esml







S*"d owWi yybip uuw'se to recommend
it 4ould be goyawd by
cueAs m manY oth"
VJ fu tudy of
%A44k.& -groo 4ftl obout lomlity differ-
the t_ VW
-d 10ftlitY is- OnlY m WWWO
to, tl* tj%*,, twvm of various observed
_04,,ttui th*t tbM Arg SCOM of local
tobna ,succm or faiJure, accord-
0o studW vtri'04` A

"o, T,
ej"ng board I cen the
bo is gaining in ularity_
4W 0 the secon& storv, or
"go Into
of the season. Some bee
Mve nevewbeen- used
"perforated zine is abw-
. . . . .......
combs which have been
than that Proidu 'in
This is doubtless &u6, t6
skins and ldivalex&eia
6f tr6d cells-becomes -dissolved in
"tb*, ells *", ustmlly spoken of 'as
BY thesilk of, the
QMOUI no possible objection
Jor #xtracting, Ifwould
tlii upiversal use of only such
g thic producti6n of
would mcist




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thw




41




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440

6 XWOELL&NZOVS, r"M OW "1CMTV2&

upper story is cleared of bees and the frames of honey
moved easily. If the queen I's in the upper story, however,
may be if Po perforated zinc is used, or as she occasiopally is
how, the bees will not desert the'brood, and there will still be
on the combs. FAcapes may be put on by quickly lifting ths,
story and inserting the board in the evening, and by the next 1
the upper story will usually be entirely clear of bees.
After the combs are removed from the hive, they should be
covered so that the bees in the air wiU not begin to rob.. The -Al
of carrying- them to the extracting room will depend on the
of combs to be carried and the arrangement of the apiary
buckets holding five combs at a time may be used; an extra hive
is often fixed with a handle: and cloth cover, or the entire hive
may be carried in on a caft or otherwise if it is free from bee&

TEEM EXTRACTING ROOX.
The place where the honey is extracted should be so arrang- ed
no bees can enter it when ittracted bythe odor of the honey,,,
windows should be sobuilt that if some bees do enter they can.
get out through bee escapes or cones so constructed that no other
w *R be able to find the opening. Bee escapes-may be used, but
ally a better plan is to have the windows covered with Mu"Oe
tacked on the outside, the wire cloth extending above the
about 6 inches andheld away from the side of the house by
inch strips. Bees almost always crawl upward and they will
up the netting and out through the top openings, but other bees
not try to get in thRtway. A screen so arranged will allow a
large number of bees to escape very quickly. -That the e
room be "bee tight" is practically the only absolute requi
Honey should never be extracted in the open air except du
heavy boney flow, when bees- are not inclined to rob. Where
apiaries are under the management of one man, it is somedmw'.
sirable to make a portable extracting house on wheels so that it
taken fromplace to plam
UNCAPPING HONEY.

The honey, before it is extracted, must be uncapped, and this s
be done with a long knife which is kept oharp, ekan, and
There are several types of uncapping knives. If a consid
amount of honey is to be extracted, Iit is do0rable to have two or
knives for each operator so that one may be heated in' hot wstw, ,
the other is used.
As the cappings of wax are cut off some honey flows out, and
aquently the uncapping should be done over a regular 1'
umn1cmappiq




1 14
I It'- In
P ~dfralemy b ud
odkaW4 iedih in o reet h
wWAtth*wyti *0abvywrentin
vapu o *1* lwh, t dan finote
Thxheyu"laerbead t watcoe
orOxe*.,tsitowhc tecob
ph-d t* :ooVvovd nid ithacn
Ub y etrfgl o~elaingth
ngho ~o, hroghydoe
e npicpliscn
Of Mt "~ifl~iJ9,ad aiou
bet o etato a be oudt
gatdo*4i adth ases r
fi eqp r nwmdes ha h




8~~~~~ll AIM M APSO P
erll ntmoe hn 0 ercnt Sm vryrieonysW


litea 2prcnto ae nte. fMr hn2 er
wae emisintehne tthieofetacin it il
femn.Terphigo oe ni~SDtOI fte, v
ofth srpuswae o te ecar btesecalyf h
tionof he sug~s ofthenectr. nto he evulse nd
hony.Unip hnes onai alarerprpotin f ucos o
suar ad t s roabe ha te onerth hne rmansin the
th es f uroewilbefun n h hny.Wil ony

thewa frm eroto8 o 1 pe cntin her scrse onent twj
est oney ae tose. whih cotai theleas. Th ofica
standrdofth.Asoiaio o Ofiia Ariulurl heist
8 e cn f uroeiIhny

Iti h oic fms eekeest alwti ipeigt

plcei te ie ywatigunilte oeyislos lllor






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10 108CELLANZOVS PAMO 09 AMCULtUtt'
Formerly tho general public ;ras suspicious of grauakt*_
in the belief that it oontained cam sugar, but, it 4
generally understood that pure honeys will granulated in time,'
this crystallization is generally considered as a test of purityl
education of the purchasing public has so far progresso6d thok,
some bee keepen prefer to sell, their honey in a solid
dition, it being cut up into bricks and wrapped in oil paper.
In bottling honey, or in putting honey from any 14rSe
into smaller onas it *is necessary to liquefy the entire quantity
pletely. before the operation is begun. This may be dope
mersing the receptacle. in water which has been heated t6
1700 F., and letting it remain until, the honey is all. liquid
from crystals. IHConey should never be liquefied by dire
tion of, heat, and it is extremely important that it should
a temperature of more thari 1600 F. : It is well known to alm
bee keepers that honey heated to higher temperatures will
darker in color and lose flavor, and, consequently, they are
very careful on this point. There is, however, a very Much
important reason for avoiding high temepratures. When
heated to 1800 F. and more, the higher alcohols which give
its aroma are driven off and, more than that,, a decomposition of
tain of the sugars takes place; this is what gives the darker ',P
to the honey. Of all the various substances used for the ad
of honey the one most nearly resembling pure honey is inve
of which Herzfelt's artificial honeyis one of- the b6t illustrati
In the detetion of adulteration, one of the tests for the addition
invert sugar is based on the presence of decomposition products"
to heat. These decomposition products in invert sugar are
identical with the decomposition products in overheated honqo'
any rate, honey which has been heated to more than 180* F. for'-
considerable time 'ves the test for invert sugar and would
fore, be declared to be adulterated if this test were applied
chemist. A bee keeper might argue that he was not infringing on
pure-food law in overheating his honey, since he had added no
in the way of an adulterant. If, however, he changes the i
composition of his honey by injudicious treatment it, is no loqei
pure honey, and he has no right to sell it under that name.
It is very much safer to liquefy honey at a tempekaturle of about
140'D F. and thus avoid any danger of decom ition. If this I
temperature is used it is of course necessary to keep the honey at A.
-temperature for a consider-able time, but the safety of such 4
ceeding makes the extra time well worth while.
Two or three of the most widely 'circulated American text
on bee keeping advocate the drawing off of the liquid portioo
granulated- honey, particularly in the am of honey which wai uAl.







gtau*latqd' Portion
very fine quality
-will-be readily
A640ry is'-Mide up of
GOO bf
in 4004 sacroso i certain
lind watm 0" The 4OXOaft-
_117 then,
IA"1000 540"W2 XR4 water,

'Ah* the fixikw
ompoumd.
be *dd as such.
in granulatiOA, it
the vemptsele be liquefied, and
from it for bowing
hme Wpotmd can and is to be
'j th" ike Outift 60
WS Aut; j*4 battles,
ag tothe
boW a
s wiR contai
rapidly, whA others
wfl[l not grautdate for a
AOFOU9MY7 Woe of the bot,
Jil oj4er to proted himself,
b0***VM op," point. Some bee keepers
#,-*o the bdWas and heat it afterwards
eVoTeuip"M fbis hati vMay points in,
Wo compo;IR'St parts which
*Wd Or5t bp lleliw
ftow wwal spwies-of

Y
on by the addition
vtorr hooeys tio granw.;
Wo have stoted that
Iho hoo*. Ilis

A-*H* *&,d
M.





'44
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1 2 WISCMLAWROUS P"ZW ON MMULTURIE.
adulterated; but the history of the sample precluded this.
The honey had apparently changed greatly with W in ap
as well as M" composition.
Some bee keepers make a practice of adding a 'very. small
of glycerin to the honey to prevent granulation. This should
done, for it is.adulterating thehoney. Some have argued that,
glycerin costs so much more than honey, they are notadu
in that they are not adding something cheaper to the honey to I
their profit. According to pure-food laws, however, nothing C",
added to honey unless the addition is specifically stated, and'-
addition of even a small amount of glycerin is, in the eyes of t6,
as great az offense as the addition of glucose.
HEATING JWJMZX, "]L ITIM DEBMUCTION OF BACT
DXSZAKL
The onl condition under which honey should be heated to a h
temperature than 160* F. is in the case of honey which his been
tracted from a colony- containing foul brood. In order to kill
bacteria of either of the brood diseases, it is desirable to diluft
honev bv adding an equal amount of water and then raise the
ature to the boiling point and keep it there, allowing'the mi
to boil vigorously for at least thirty- minutes; in order that
may be run, it is.better to make this one hour. Honey, which'Is
treated is changed chemically and is no longer pure honey, but it
makes a good sirup for Jeeding to bees and is the best way of A:
honey from an infected source. Too much care can not be exe
in bringing this- to the proper temperature, and it must be..
bered that the resdIting product is not honey, but a sirup, the chein
R'on of which is quite unlike that of pure
composi 1 onley.
VACKING OF XTILACTED HONEY.
If honey tends to granulated rapidly, it will save much trouble
1 71"T
liquefying to put it into the receptacle in which it is to be'sold as
after extraction as possible. There will then be no' di Sculty-
the various ingredients bec6min separated. To preseve the .
cate aromas it is desirable that honey be sealed as soon as possible.'
When honey is put up in less than 3-pound packagvs it is generally
bottled. A bottle makes a much more attractive package than a tio-,
can and shows off the contents. There is no. doubt of the fact 1
honey sells largely on its appearance, and too much care can not.
exercised in packing and labelling so as to make the pa'Aage attriet.
ive to the purchaser. In cases where a bee keeper sells directly tw'i'
loca I trade he may educate his customers to judge his honeys by
flavor, in which event it'is a mmaterial what kind of package is USW







44 fur-
'f*t to, 0, veow
W&
At Is too, often
m such *poor,
fh*t7 C for their

Ai tin cans
A squiom can hold
Ux" boxed together
ty.M are often
"W" 4''hy ome for- large
but their use mn
a bamlmust be
of Ow fact that honi,*y
if_;,wheo the honey 1-8 put

it cortain amotmt of
uld be usW'with

granulation -
honoy 'is not A ttract-
thconey should be
Wge mn and r.6n into
as pum'ble, and seated
Umilly- b6ons on the
-rapidJy from *ese
hopey gets upoxi the sides
Jbat the boney fdl the
*' 4r,
't toust idso firee of
0 _Sovw myle of
of, Wxx" ".a rosio.
Gr"u atidn
*t st marv uni-
jr. zkAd"iS'*Uch











............ .......... .......
416





14 Z VS I P M O A~n LTM & 7' ,
rapily, t my becaried rom wam romdu doos i
bakaan titrvl fa a rtw o mpoo
thsi aomaie ihocaina trin w U ouaiew
beiu h hoecnwl so easli ae oey a
pourd ito maler cepacls, uch s wterroo


rir o yse pisadaloedte~lzei teP
iti t esod f loedt: rnlaesli na ag
ti aye utwyan h hnycu no rem ii
inth wy ha pins f uterassoetme pepv

A~~~~iiiiHHi maktfr"hny res mutgneal sW P

forasye te enralpuli hs otleane t lok f
shape.~~~HH HHWHHH BH TheB coto h akg slesti hto ods
grnlae onyn b'on osiee- uero ortb
liudhny eerlb epr av sdti efM
cess~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ and...........................ion..o thir ustm




1&A tWU MDU11
rA_
%ahini Sm oede rn-
-i aomm op ftattp eeinlddi
901 01"em hyaenticue ntetbe
4h em io0w 1lw prt nthstbems
ixiatotpmpnide fth aiu oes
P 1*eswikia aiey=r dxrn us n



-uld htprcialyn
14pat Whmoete ilvr





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S. .:.... .. .
. -
.:..:':: EE* :EE


METHODS OF HORNY TESTIG FOR EU 4
.:E* Ei :: .. ...iiaiii ii~iiiiiiii^


By C. A. BiowNE, Ph. D.,
Chief, Sugar Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistrp. .*
r .. ::.. .. .::: ... ..

The most common forms of adulteration which ate W..
present in the sophistication of honey are the addition of
glucose, cane sugar, and invert sugar. The adulteration ....... ...........
by dilution with water is less commonly practiced; such ad.....
is easily recognized by the increased fluidity of the honey, and-.':-
...............





is, besides, the increased danger that the product will spoil fit
fermentation. It is often desirable, however, for the bee ..i
know the approximate percentage of moisture in his p
order to avoid the marketing of unripe honey -which might
the limit for water allowed by the standards (25 per cent).
....~ ~ ..... ... .', .. ....








average water content of American honey, according to the
for 99 pure samples analyzed in the Bureau of Chemistry,
per cent, so that there is above this a margin of more than 7 perWAU
in which the moisture of honeys may be allowed to fluctuate.
The accurate determination of moisture in honey in the chenm
laboratory is a somewhat complicated process. A carefully w
amount of the honey is evaporated at a temperature of about I
in a vacuum chamber until no more moisture is given off, and *th:illi,
in weight during the interval is calculated as water. For th
keeper such a method of determination is too involved and
,. .. ... ... ...i ..ii












cated; there is, however, a much simpler method by means of
the moisture content of a honey can be determined with ease rn
rapidity and with a fair degree of accuracy. This is by means di
specific gravity float or spindle. The liquefied honey is poUredi
a tall cylinder and immersed in hot water of 1700 F. tempertra
The hone is stirred with a thermometer and as soon as the temi *
ture has reached 1600 F. the spindle is lowered into -the honey a
allowed to come to rest. The point at which the surface of the hon:

a This paper was prepared by Doctor Browne of the Bureau of Chemistry asi
the completion of his work on honey analysis. For greater detail the re&-::
Is referred to Bulletin 110 of the Bureau of Chemistry, entitled "Chepa
Analysis and Composition of American Honeys." This bulletin may be obwt
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office. W
ton. D. C. It can not be obtained from the Bureau of Entomology.- ii:
16
..v ..:: ":iiildl
,:iii" ii




lIIN,
11M 0 R S o B E-PIS
,i ikuo h pinl nlc ie ecnaeo
4euaedtriaino luoe aesgr n te
Ahe be e'elilusal e6lgedt eott h
fi* chms-Tii seily rea ead aesgr
t_ sI tosml etfr ssbtac hc a eapidb
glcs an addivr

colormti*Ufr th rsnr--ftomr lguoeo
Aia n ow.`Uito 1*p!n ymensfadlt on
90-n1e ne ato h hn 6b x
qepr by-ouef-aeri_ "ttb
44*,rp fteidneslto'I h oe
p1oelw onirilguoei oal bet
cooe ardo pehwvr tepeec fgu
mii clal oi& .I akn hsts ti lwasbs
outt etapm~v "tst nda-,smilr cndi io'suin
Ai
kmolItI tadn-hesm mtb fdoso
**t
IntismA~ta eial cmarsn fclor cn

of hoe ih!vrsga iu sbigp
Am is ut huhntas!ieya rsn
e exetint"c
i U uoenc re 7i srphsi ayrset


M ditnus tfompr oe nes
t7
t,e nwiWcs tas ilcn




MICELAE~TSPPMONAPC-TU-
quniy o riica net sg r rsn nt e mixue
hones wich-hae nt ben soild b ovrheaing donotgiv

reacion
In~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ iii carrying ou......prvosy ecibdolyavx
oulyi partswl e eurd hesea pnlefo
tmmigtewae otn o oe n teohrmp
beotand rman anfctrrofcemcl vd
mea ryidr frcnaiigth oe wiesindig/fl.*
nedd sas oleto fts ubsadrcs mal
cetmtrgrdae ylne'ilalob ondueu o
ing~~~~~~~~~~~j ou h olm fhoe outosad fraen, l
ratus~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ shudb hruhy lae n isd fe sne-,











!o A
JjIm iht-wil h a
byI
owactto ~mj6-Vl- orb-
AwaWodamotthyw m spoRdt
Ttt-'Ia spmtr n dide.i


roy oihtifasal tc
iii frte est
Aht emye =amdric dow

Como
ALI
|mvbra
ana h
il *ko




m 4_
MICLNWLSP
As on a te olny s trngth wx mth cn o o
bu a hebesdcras n ube hecob ofr oohld t
othe of he othsand ithn a ery hor tim thewhoehie
mass~~~~~~~~~ ofwxmt unes avlexrtadooonLlb
ar cmpetl dstoyd n nthngreansbi te e
of e~ri o te iv bttms.Ifth mthlavi atu
inecedmaeral teywul srv t rmoe h

be epe sto aees od o--sistfeqetyth a.
Thetwowaxmohs iffr realy n tei haitsinwpwwuml
but t 'i notthe urpoe ofthispape to iscus th* pojit&
larg wa mot (Glleia monela .) i th mo
trbtd n sfon nprcialyeey ato te td

an roal weevrte oeybeisnw et M essei`

moh( lri g ~~ a.) nteohrhad snts






















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U-1


..... .... .
................ .


WORK OF THE LARGE WAX MOTH (GALLERIA MELLONELLA) IN COMB INFECTED WITH AMERICAN'FOUL BROOD. (ORIGINAL)







































-91

























6 :; .


...mE .. ...:"
















































HIEINFECTED WITH AMERIAN F~oul BROOD, THE FRAMES REMOVED toG SHOW WORK

U OF THE LARGE WAX MOTH GALLERIAA MELLONELLA). (ORIGINAL.)





























.... ......
......... .... ....
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WORK OF THE LESSER WAX MOTH (ACHROIA GR:ISELLA) IN COMB INFECTED WITH AMERICAN FOUL BROOD. (ORIGINAL.)





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hi b'YF4MIE 04ac

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Sul, 75, pt, 111, 13ur@su orf Entorrtology Lj 9, Dept, of Aocufture, PLATE IV.

/PST R A P-p 0 RZ, 17 1
SULLIVA M E Ft R I M A C K 0
EXPLAN.4776IN:
0 WASH I NeTONJ
I- = AWRKUN
CD W 4 N 0 N A M O'M BMW
Ir A JM
< )
VZE K 0 T IV Et'w 8 H I R E
R 0 C K I N 6 H A M
.CWL AWW

1141 LLSSORO =,fflffloVAN IN


XRENSSELAER
R A IV E 8 3 E X
k, AWWRAt"m
m ARM

+
0 Lf AM&Y 490M
14 =AAAwf4vAfdvjw
------- '),mIDDLE3EX IN &WCM6W-


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IL n \PLYMOUT
.0 TOLLANDI PptovlorNc

IR H 0 D

0 A R
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w L 0 8 L D
w T
IN w 0
M)VVLE3EX 0 1 G
A Oh's tk\



*4006 LOW- N "ET






DWOPUTION OF B" MaEA,%ES IN MAW",U8FTT,9 A-NO, POUISLE SOURO" OF INFEWRON FROM NStGH110AINd STATM








AJue or!9
Yi!
WIOA- OR 10LT i n

C"|
4r Ilo





vmWLco, nemaInTpp

in%eicn itni




24 MET-TNHOU PAFM ONA!-
that~ ~~~~~~~~_ thi nrdcini o eet hseiec s*
result~~~~~~~~~ ofbekees eot o fmr rls e
inefnteruosbu t s aedupnrmtso
insinnmrossmpe f rodcm wtt ti
be epesi teSae uig h at m ndah l



thee onitinsbe kepig an otbebro& ote
pefcinwhc spssbe ofctrinb epn m
th idstyasdoeidmcsofschdsese;tIcas
to bcom disourged y "badluck" ad tolos* i
bes h 1 uk"ms cag;te e epr
naue fth isaes heethyexs, n hwt

otewieth ndsrywlldcrae v//oe
TH TO NWNBE ISASS
Tw otaiu boddiess fbesaeno nwn',
ataktedvloigbodadsordc ttattecln,








"Jew-7 I



tool bXWOO a" a
-It.10 -
Ovjir 4MVVeO; TbedW-
AM 10011PO a4d
on the beft mear Ow
0". th" tOM YeDD*l
mow lwvww W)" ]As" died of tbb

-14 OL gnat iwUmw"
19"m ftm hTegfflar
J~ 00 wall Ot 'the MIL
YO died i-xv--m-WO dliv-
t odor Of the Avaml-
4md brood We dis-
U Oulday to blAwted. -' lt t
WOW d'Ad mPrc*&.IftOre

knew to oomr m
t*1 6roodls most do-'
tUhtwt dimppentmWg lift


We't
us difficWt to esd-
-A f wlffllpax ofty* )id
The loss of mlonics
of.-cr6p, the remlt-
WIN Lql bees, and &at demor
Ao mum bee keepers to go
ppUW of W# queem
do(-ilaivia effeci on, the

'he

a-ntl f to" d;

low
L






S6 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ON APICULTURE.

PAZIMM EXTENT OF DEZ DISEASES IN ssAcHUszTft_
The extent of bee diseases in Massachusetts may be, readily seetC,
the map. The towns in which they are p6sitively known to o
are listed blo'w in black-faced type. Towns in which they pro
exist are listed in lighter-faced type.

Table showing the towns in which the bee diseases ri8pectively occur.
[Black-tseed type Indicates where disease is positively k nown to exist. LAght-ftoot 14
type indicates that disease Is probably present.)

American foul brood. European foul brood.

Bristol County: Worcester County: Berkshire county: Hampshire
Acushnet. Brookfie'ld. Great Barring- Belchertown,
Freetown. Chariton. ton. Greenvw1eko '
New Bedford. Leominster. Me. Wormter Cvvnt:
Westport. Sturbridge. Sandisfield. Auburz6
Essex county: Southbridge. Sheffield. Barre. .-a
Amesbury. Warren. 'Franklin County: Brookfield.
Salisbury. Worcester. Deerfield. Charlton.
Hampden County: Greenfield. Hardwick.
Brimfield. Montage. New Braintree.
Stur
Ludlow. Northfield. South r
Monsoon. Hampden County: Id
Springfield. Blandford. Wax n4r
Wilbraham. Brimfield. Wore*ster*
Hampshire County: Ludlow.
Belchertown. Monsoon.
Middlesex County: Springdeld.
Marlboro. Wilbraham.

The distribution of these diseases is based, as is explained, on bae-
teriological findings in numerous samples of suspected brood, sub-
mitted by the bee keepers during the past year and a half. The
examinations were made by Dr. G. Franklin White, expert in b&OW
riology, of this Bureau. In plotting the regions where diseam`46
thus definitely known to exist a solid red color has been used. Indti,
letters, A for American foul brood and E for European foul broo,
show which disease is present in each locality.
Besides these definite data there are in the Bureau of Entomolod I
a great number of reports from bee keepers throughout Massa
setts, which, without the definite knowledge from the bacteriol09W**,
examinations, would be of slight significance and importance,
which, in conjunction with these fifidings, are of the greatest va
They indicate regions of probable infection, which are shown on flk
map in likhter tone.
As an illustration, a bee keeper who lives in Acushnet reports,
lost all my bees, thirty swarms, at once." This bare statement is
slight import; bui taken together with the fact that American
brood occurs in Freetown, it would indicate that American foul brood,
is distributed throughout southern Bristol County. Another
tration 'is found in Worcester County. Bacteriological examinatioAr,
shows that in Auburn and Worcester both European foul broo& *A44, 4
American foul brood exist A bee keeper from Barre reports that W




--27
he14fryfvkCliiso be.Fo Es
from !_FBanre,8 bige n a
nilun anmdo~n ocserad uun eot

bwntaoeb n e,,epri onbtb
had! e ie i are as female
haI.ooewih1 ot x ls
ff ddohea h reetdyo
aloal
Iut cooisr _. _tw. Pli eotcm fo
,% 1m'OM
cont an Ou*iu tf ne'don hs-eto



V1 011lWMaevos
J* b loli.sapretta uo
f-m-,NwYokSatwer h
fo i' /tVrwr h esi etr
1n" !otinofte _tt
i ,j Hhcy lee!wt Erpa olbod
ixCnnmk hamRa~~y ivddLth
th wetrinl h tae nMsahsts




-M ofinntin



qCon
-,tr tha
ib
i*4 o

[]i 1






28 PAPEW OW AMUMTURE.
in 1881, agwn, Dr. Jammi V. C. Smith a says (p. 41):
Great lamentationa are heard about the bee4moM* whom
tions In the New Engbmd States have been deemlW as
More specifically he mys (p. 48):
In the Interior of Massachuntts, New HimpWrej and COADOCtieut
farmers have become heartily discouraged In their attempto at eaMvattov4
lamentably appear to have abandoned them entirely.
Such reports strongly suggest that some unknoim agent, %"a
ease, depleted thv, bees and made them subjects for the
of bee moths. Even at that early date Doctor Smith
(p. 41) that all the damage "attributed to it [the bee moth),;j
admits of some doubt." Without being conclusive, such e
must be accepted as strbngly indicative of the existence of
probably of American foul brood, in Massachusetts.
About 1896 the writer saw in Worcester a hive in which the
had died from some affection of the brood. It was diagnosed
as a disease which is now designated ag Ainerican foul bro*L
one hive out of several Was affected.
European foul brood, on the other haind, is of more remnt
duction in the State. It was first recognized m- New York
1895, where it is thought to have been.introduced in importatkoi-11,
bees from the south. As the map shows, this disease has
spread into Massachusetts from New York.
The late Mr. James F. Wood, of North Dann, noticed 'in the
necticut and Swift River valleys of Massachusetts a brood
of, bees which made its appearance in that region about 1901.,1-
Aid much damage, destroying all the bees in the yards* w
appeared; but, as it was apparently not American foul brwd
Wood regarded it as a new disease. From a dewription made 14,
address before the Worcester County Bee Keeperi? Ammiatwiift
Dr. James B. Paigeb of Massachusetts Agric4iltural C41ege t
was closely associated with Mr. Wood and who made a studytt-
the disease, it would appear to have been European foul
Being first observed in Massachusetts in 19,01, it would havo*t
ample time to have spread from New YorkState:
With so little recorded data, it is difficult to drtw positive 006
clusions regarding the distribution of these disensw in years 9041"
by- It is far more important, however, to realize that they
existed in the State for a considerable thine, that they have
and are a decided check on the Progress of bee keeping, but
they can now be counteracted.
GAn.Emy on the PractimbUtty of Caftlyation of the Haney bee
By Jerome V. C. Multh, M. D., DoiKon, 1831.
6 WwWo Bee Dtwaft American Vee Kenwo VOL 14 pp. 0-70, 19W







IEMYi o"" "irO infcin
wae-*teiepab ,i"etysra yhi
.ooid fbe retm vr, atotehv
00tnise h omoftedsv.Cnnety
is1o4* e@yeeypecuinmAb
04f o ontcw ncnatwt
d I ie oey en8 T.
06a,0 Itigt egadd ic

if A w e co nie


* gav mi a envgrul
.41 iti etrtmaeti nhu


IIL
VC
Colnie
m
66Uv
01








































There is one agent over which the bee keeper has no control %41
which should cause him no anxiety if a considerable territory. "b
freed of the diseases. It is a well-known fact that under certain 6w4
editions, as, for instance, in storms and heavy winds, bees enter hiq
other than their own. Obviously, then, such bees in their
of hives may spread the infection. This only emphasizes theu
of cleaning the disease out of a whole State, or, better, out of ab ....:
of States, as New England. Cooperation is the key to the situation'. ;,
7 :: !... "III~i
BROOD DISEASES CAN BE CONTROLLED.

Enumeration of the methods by which disease is spread sh nl 'i
not convey the idea that these diseases can not be combated, for .j.
has been thoroughly demonstrated that by judicious and peiSi.
manipulation both of them can be successfully controlled and.-aAi
..::::.y::


SReport of the Meeting of the Inspectors of Apiaries, San AntonIo,
November 12, 1906. Bul. 70, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agric., 1907.


.. .::. EE




'7t V t:'
V t
tt,
ttt,

rapidity with which they, spread, however, makes co-
Ift keepers throughout the State or States essential.
and Territoriess -now have legislation and inspectors
t the bee keepers ftom the spread of, these, infectious
e State "nearest to Massachusetts is- New York, where
loss of bees alone is shown in the following -figures:

tD 1899, in a limited area, tlt,6 loss of bees alone is estimated
-----------------
when concentWed effort to suppress bee dismse was begun,
&Mounted to ---- -------------------------------- --------- 25,420
------------------------------------------- ----------- 2% 289
-------------------------------- : ------------------------ 10,853
'-W'tbe loss of the previous year was halved,'making it ----------- 5,860
it was ---------------------------------------------------- 4,741
It was aggin divided -by tw% being -------`-------------------- 2,2920
f1wre was again a reduction of nettrly 50 per cmt ---------- 1,725
loftl' 1-cas of beeE covering about ten ------- 110, 49i
-other States the encoumgmg mults of mispection and peri
oftort to suppriew the inroa& 6fd&se are--mmilar.



6 are not alone police'oflicers. They are educators, up
bft keepemgiving instructions in modern methods of-bee kie6p_:
experienced in treating foul brood, and a great stim-
11ey are necessarily exacting and thorough; but
aim, help the bee
00t to seize and condemn; their is to
in a ecmiperativie elffort to eradicate disease, and
Of course the individual can do much for
b -k64ii* hiw, own yard clean and free from infection but
4 is# dAn-ger of reinfection from his neighbors, if they
tio -4 te, with t; P.
vop"A 0- t e

-A V*otM 4Cii( OV 'V34 FOR BROOD DISRL .

'11om who am most omperienced in the suppression of brood dis-
are agreedthat sh 00which is practically shook stwarm-
modifications of this rocess are the only successful methods.

tion, empowerbW InupwOoTa to twelve of these States andlTer-
ft6m 041. 61., Uur. Rot.,, Immiod Wovendw ra, 19K and en-
JAWS 14 Force A#*bwt, Injurious I InpeeW mod PoW Brood In Me
by ;* 0. _96"rl sod A. V. Ifturgam
VO Olot", bY 1COXODUatim Mde In 1905 by Mr. Charles
the ot agriewtore of New York

skre -.4.1,00MO" bj Dr X F. Phillips Itt'Circular 7%






MrOCILLA-S NOVO PAkPng ON ANU U LT U BE,

SHAKMG.

Sh is briefly this: As soon as a odloqy I"$'
eased, and at a time when there would be no robbing, is,
the old stand into a hive containing new frawks wM narrow
of foundation. In this way none of the I SAMMY 1:0.,
posited in the new cells. Should the diwase reappear,, which is,
times the case, the operation must be repeated. In order to',P
the bees from swarming out, the: queen may, be caged in -the
a few days or the entrance closed with % piece of
zinc. Care should be taken hot to scatter parts 0- f'the
hive, particularly the honey, where bees can got at them.

DIMMICTION OF EaVE MATERTAM.

Honey, unless it has been boild as above described, should
be fed back to bees. Wax, however, after being rendered and
fracture into foundation, is commonly used without apparent
ger. It is customary in the East to put bees back in6 hives
have formerly contained diseased colonies, after they have
thoroughly cleaned of all bits of wax and honey. In the Wes4
ever, the hives are either burned out with 'O*il, with a blue-
torch, or are disinfected with strong chemical disin
frames should be burned, sinc'e it does not pay to c1tan the=












fl, MIT








VA A, Dwomber 26o 19ft -

LAMOU MAIWW ON AMICUIUITU111111

or, W-610-- m%& ("On) OIR m





briW a forhme to a fewj but
*Q wmfoA to V*," homes in Am"-
is,* pkasun and a profit -to so many, ii
Ou6 of, 16 gre*t6t obstacles encountered
There area n-u
dib heaq- bee., Tb96 which cause. the
_"pm, diseases am kAown to the bee
bul and'. Pidded
JAM i's W from paralysis and dys-
of iu4xw a am SooWtivam encounr
i Wis to br4 these disesms eff"vely, he sbauld,
v"'their etiology. Therefom- this
to Amm the causw'of bee dismwi, as
t the impm4anm of such

P 44v of tWI0 WWI refening to
Alm a state of rest. By com-
wtwd- aw-
hftl* tho
ov'", am WWI 0 tho
Ato &0 'A
0 0 q, ibrium AAUY -
AA i*U6 j a difiers'

ow Ythe CM)WS









xt J f #j,






84 MISCMANROUS"PAPEM ON APICULTUR19.

ETIOLOGY (CAUSE) OF I)nMASES
]Every abnormal condition Iin the body of an animal which
know as disease has a cause which has brought about such a
tion. In most of the diseases of man and the higher animals Com
atively little is known of the cause. Likewise, and unfortunit
the same is -true of bee diseases. Gradually but slowly new hub
about all diseases are added to our knowledge, the unfortunate, things
being that so many statements are reported as facts which have nevw,
been demonstrated to be true.
In the study of the etiology of a disease and in the discussion of,
it is convenient to divide the causal factors into predisposing
exciting. Under the predisposing causes which may be considerv4l,'
as factors in bee diseases we have age, sex, race, heredity, climat,,
# V''
and pre-existing disease... Under the exciting causes.we may consider
food and micro-organismso
let us conider the different factors just menfiow&
To illustrate, I`W

rRMISPOSING CAUSES,
AGF,.
In our experience with human diseases we have learned to expom
scarlet fever, measles, mumps, and whooping cough more often in
children than in adults; typhoid fever and appendicitis in young,
adults; and cancer in those more advanced in life. In bee diseasw
we expect European foul brood to attack larvae that are y
ourvr"
than those which suffer from American foul brood. We expect theI-A 4%1
so-called pickled brood to die just before or after capping, wW.,
I
paralysis is, as far as we know, a diseaseof adult life. 0
SFX.
'Of some importance in the etiology. of human diseases is the factor, I
sex. Inflammatory rheumatism, gout, and diabetes, f or examp*'
occur more frequently in men, while goiter and hysteria are
frequent in women. In bee diseases we expect in American f*1
brood to find the worker larvae more often attacked than the drone,
while in European foul brood this difference, if it exists, does 90
only to a slight degree.
HXWMrry.

You are all familiar with the fact that heredity is considered aa, -VV
an important predisposing factor in tuberculosis, cancer, gout, M*-'#
sanity, etc. It is interesting that in the so-called "pickled broo(Pt -
there iis some evidence which indicates that heredity plays an imri-,
portant r6le.







immm i4-opae itth
.1%podtrl wvromtWt nhabt
"A'era raeo h~o s imn oti isese
jp"sbleetf w nipran atr n e
,W,'oprtv P ,10cltl nono h' hs
4** f w fwun nsm ciae hni
toi 4-ta l-atccniin lyS
416 0,ob -q t rb be
*4Dmmm
b" vfj*o fifhn! od ihbe i

[]-*A
owo wemtawe nindvdul
of, itdof lieiwwpLqta n
M& i 'fottdi vnoshmnad
die n
ftied o nw- hte av
sxce0 mnn tako ie
Ysot cn
emv a utWeMny I me keq mr
1M w i-rdclne r es&fv
Whtb rntte Jr-rmdwsw
bu o opoal, htte aesf


oran whcontproma
twudMsxaeAeipr




PM tob*s r
lit e o

Imma

44m



























small, indeed, that 12,000 placed end to end measure but 1 inch.
increase in number with marvelous rapidity. Under favorable
........... ....... i
tions each bacterium in twenty minutes becomes two. At this
countless millions are formed in twenty-four hours. As the .s.o..b
comes exhausted in which they are growing many species form Spn
which are in a way comparable to the seeds of higher plants. T
spores are very difficult to destroy by heat and other disi
It is well to remember, concerning the distribution of bacteria M
they are found in very large numbers everywhere about us, but ii
most of them are as harmless as the vegetables we eat. But
there be introduced into an apiary, for example, the species of .
which causes American foul brood, then the brood becomes .
to the disease and will probably contract it. _
The study of bacteria must be carried on for the most part
laboratory. By the use of the microscope we are able to te..e
genus (e. g., Bacillus) to which an organism belongs, and by s
prepared media, or soils, we are able to determine the species to whisk '1
it belongs (e. g., alvei). .
Having determined these things about bacteria, we are interested
finding out what they are capable of doing. We learn that some
good, as, for example, in bringing to decay the remains of dead s I
mals and plants, while other species do harm by their ability to po.C
duce disease or death in the animals in which they are able to p|i*
entrance. The disease American foul brood, which causes the -r_
eat loss to the bee-keeping industry, has been demonstrated tH1.4....,.
EEE.'. t:: : .tt
. . EE. I




TO TRETMNT
bor U m nestn httedah
sp'eob -r n ntelrm
|i .go
Ou o o *Mooabln oteai
ar Iq nml.Mn
U[],
aIom
amItrh W~
I7



wa airtzoaw-owdi 0o~t p.i a
Aei 'if;o
,h w oxr srain 1ceoeteei


-ds an aeavr fmt


o,,s~is A peg-
to ha! oe obtecueo
4A




,, V
XISCFAAWBOS PAERS O APIC=TME
TM"M3T f ISAS






Thi ltiate bjet intheinvstigtio of issam i th su
trametoftem eor dsas anb retd aioal

digoi ms emae note wrdi usedtrmie


disease is prsent.If, fo examle, ih so-caled "pickle broo
presentHHii ina partetramn il eqit ifret rm
itwul eifAercnfolboo r uoft ol bod
presnt;andif nodisese g peset, *9 smetmesb~penf
be kepr usecs dsese i i ipotat ha aposiiv
be mae ofthiscondtion
Thereis n methd bywhichbee iseas canbe sop.siivel

noedasbyth fndngofth eciin cus i te ffctd n
bees Ths fat i mad us of'in iagosin saplesof roo

th aoaoyadilsrte n motn datgein

theetoloy f dsese.Ifwearetodevsemetod fr treatnwa






MMDom TO MTMENT. 39

0 hooq tualm and wax ex-
usied Aurift an 41so a fivitful,
tokeep th,3 dimm-pro-
of YOWIt AilpgOd *iaby eep out d
W elo YIQ "e, 00
Unoy Oi' 1 1, $1 that it did not come
J -m-,m thoroughly boiled.
apmy or- I
use OU stfwpositive that they
vft an infected api*q, UW i I I
to bee "Pplies from an in-
&Oed.*,
inioas Aisoam- A merican foul
until tho muse of any other in-
vmYom imn do no better than- to -suggest-
iiiIhe treatmmt of such a disease as
t of 'American foul brood.


ny
rcOlval of ihe diaet, -
th prbia, and the use of drugs.
mm fromthe xAimy, altIthe
froni which
-wvm .,aad, honey., It always
to mo law*, VO, or a hive which h"bem
Al
low shmfd be exercised xio
',has 1*6n revioved, that it "Y

&up is that'91 an anti-
a- pxmat, 0-f som dlrqglike bets

0c; I!jiowth of

Off"the Oioliqw


Q4
0 4

















carried to healthy larvae. Actual contact of the appendages ..44U
bee with the foul-brood material, and the subsequent contact
same appendages with the food of the larvae, may be a methWi4 l
which the disease-producing bacteria are spread. We do know tli
in foul brood it is possible to obtain Bacillus Zarvw from the hIx
and we do know that when bees are fed the spores of Bailusl...
in honey American foul brood will appear in the apiary. .
The spores of this bacillus are very resistant to heat and
disinfectants. They resist the boiling temperature of wae r., 1;a r
fifteen minutes. In 5 per cent carbolic acid they were not kidlWiL
two months' time. This was demonstrated by obtaining groiw.t
cultures after the spores had remained in this disinfectant for i
.. . . .. .. :::: ...::
length of time. Likewise it has been demonstrated that the sP
of Bacillus larvo, when taken from the scales of American foul r4..
resist the action of mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate), 1:1,U..
aqueous solution, for two months. Having such facts before ua1 ."
can better judge the methods for treatment.
In treating this disease we must bear in mind the preventive AH
curative measures. In the preventive treatment many of the
tions you can control; others may be difficult. You can at
sure that you import no bees or used supplies which might hav :egB
in an infected apiary. Use no old combs and feed no ho'neyji..;[
which you do not know the history. In this way the bacillus
causes the disease in a large measure can be kept out of the.:
There are conditions which are difficult to control. Should a-
apiary be diseased and some of the colonies become weak or dI.
it might be difficult for you, in a dearth of nectar, to keep your bee
from robbing the diseased apiary and in this way bringing t
disease-producing germs to your healthy colonies. 1ii
Some preliminary experiments have been made, but the results %
not indicate that drugs, in the treatment of this disease, have: i
value advocated by some English writers. .|
I
.. .I .




OF"" IMTBT 4
IK "
bii i nte nrmus'e ifsI tak
onerirpro n hgot o helrw sarl
folbod.ToCIMo hi ies sntdfntl
bro edo ti ies'Cehr n CeieL1



"I



ou aodain f h ies hc iso
ibeeLTeidvdaso ti pce r ut M 1
I 4adhv ofrfie ogo.we
mei.Utlw nwmoeaotti pce
't sBc u-Y"-Snc h as sntPs


J 1111i

,k1 isn yt il ai, a m
AL, hilbod []kw esal xetta
*WAeat wlbexohmrredlefetv.U il we
I- kh !oq f]uoea olbodw a on
to mas h plcto fte aepicpe hc r
S CI""ImrJ 20.




42 MMUUMOUS APM N XnM.TiM

Sic w no otig oitvlyaou hecue*4

veylite nte a o retet.Te eovld
th iv oudtedt rmdyte eet fth arce
beanipotntfatr nth eiloy
S A A CNL WO&A
Wehv o bifycnsdrdte auead h tow
dieaesan hvesugete om o te ricile uo
mehd ftetmn utdpndi uhteten
effciet. f w reie wht w hae jst--i
etioogy nd teatent f th diferet dieass,-w.----em
ingfats

Thr s u nedsasAercnfolbooo hih -
a b o u el h e c t n g c u e T e c a s s p ces f '
three an higscncrnn te ituetelisrbuio





Prin
























,":.-:[:.." ** .. -f f'~ hl .. .













"a
... . . .







... .... ...
' :.. . .. ..
































i' i:::".':"i::::i::. .,...,,: ",, .:
..... ..i:,;ii" .. . ..
.'::::::::':EEE: EE... ... .. :: ....


.... ... ,: .."



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iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1 5iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii 1 5iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii
ii ii ..................................... iC ........i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii... D H H





..l HA AIA IS A D



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iius
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ikjakayu@@
..... pera==== m t-- i iiiiii@
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i i il ii ... ... ... .......................... ............. ...... ...
Itiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 140iv

iiiiiiiiiiiiii ii>
iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiti




Ow A, J&ULry1,99
Otis, LT RL
SU IY WA&AOlFB


tuuUWsV neo hemnrinutie
tl ,L s*n'l hrpamti s
lblj7 ew ealain nuty
w tero s, et rin fr cwideab !
W$ neewar by troim
4 fe, er]t omene
iAviw f hefcttht heeino
All
cete I swl s
topu o e~abiefacon
xiaatoIf&In
-aMkig m Aicl


'-A''tU bft reepim o, th
oo A W emv d !m






44 MISCIP-M&ANEOUS PAPERS ON APICULTURE.

islands have been extremely fortunate in enlisting the interest
Hawaii Agricultural, Experiment Station. Mr. D.. L. Van Di
entomologist of the station, has been very active in rendering
assistance to the bee-keeping industryby his investigations, and',
Alice M Thompson, the acting chemist, has done good work in
ical analysis of honeys.

333M3M-XZZTZRS1 AMOCIATION.

The be keepers of Hawaii are -organizedinto an active and
association, which has been in existence about two years. BY
effort this organization has accomplished much that is of great'
to the industry. When the question of marketing their honey
the regulations of the food and drugs act of 1906 arose they
representative to Washington to present their case. In this',,
many other ways the bee men'have shown themselves to be alerC
progressive in looking after their best interests.

X XAMAGEXENT. V,

At the present -time bee keeping is largely in the hands of
corporations, they owning and bperating at least four-fifts
the bees on the islands. These companies-are, all managed by
4
can citizens, but there are 9, number of smaller apiwnes, some of
are owned by Ja anese. The last-named apiariesare usuallyoot.,
well kept nor are they so productive. The total number of
at present is probably about 20,000, and the annual output of
which is mostly shipped to the-mainland or to Europe, is
about 600 tons.a The keeping of bees by corporations, as 0
individual ownership, is something which- is rarely, observe4,.,,,'
where. As they are located a considerable distante from the 0.
and as the expense of supplies and shippingis high, it has
desirable to the bee keepers to organize companies so that theyj
make large shipments. There* is also on the Hawaiian
tendency, to a marked degree, to incorporate all ind4Aries, and*
less the prevalence of this method of conducting. buWzew hasii
the bee keepers to adopt it also. With this qatem it is
one skilled manager to oversee the manipulatioa of several
colonies, the actual manipulation being done mi, most cases, by
Japanese helpers; in this way the cost of of the apia
is reduced very considerably. Since theprice obtaiued for Hawaii
honey is still rather low, it is of course necessary to 'reduce expenw
...... .. .. .. .... ... ... .. ... .
every way possible. .... ....... .. .....
The crop for 19M wM VrobaMy amomf tw nftrly 1,OW tons, accorlb*
remt report froin t1io












IX













4w





phi 9











me

A- Ems







h ot












o l











































too




te T;_



loam, At W- POO v
in IU*an** me-
Of would Oertainly appear
asa XM* pro(*dm The notm-
i$, the for outyards, which can
would not be Pos-
for, tho, the available agriculturitJ
oostly as sugn planta-
r-cane
wms& th& mauager--of
-with
and -the bee, keper
A'PW' It% agrees
-,wo, of the bnA and for thoi *honey
t1v is in the' form of an
eacl ton of honey removed'from
7
IiA,,AW Aum for-theyear, the bee, keeper
Of v 4, gm g a crop. The planta-
*Uow, no othox be6 keepers to keep
oldyW, within -the
P I tation eompany h
leam those wAh the',idea
plfttktation. lf,%Ior
the im-meffiAe
a diseouraging
tot in Oidy* Ofte -Vmy, st"Ahobee
The SAme WIng
-0 olltmw to tfie boundary
0911 Uo


Ar M-ngt=to is not

ftom, 40Y -given










.4-

wj Pq?,




46 MIL&MU PPA O AnCLT
iso teoino ta heWndi us bothlf tce
isan-f au emst b wpl oerdfrmanainutu
pon.Mlka snta aepoucn s~, u h
foes i nary toke, ndth olyplcefo hav ep nm_
to e i te muntin, wereseera foes tres renwtr Luwnmm
Th sad fMu cudntbeeaieda aefm-st




Hawiith laget o th goup i reatiel th l a wA- ltll
an~f h slns.Tee r ol fwapais ntis
isamoteqa i xen o onetcuad hreae r!
tis.O tesot cat hreae at raso cnLi
istre fth Hmku cas n henrt. heKna--A
prbbl upotsoebes'n h o~,plna ios n:











































































FIG. I.--A TYPICAL HAWAIIAN APIARY,. THE HIVES ON STANDS TO PREVENT ANT

ATTACKS. (ORIGINAL)


fW::i: i ;:'MAPIAR iN A COFEE PLANTATION. (ORIGINAL)


. :.. ..
||. L.".





...... .. .


0: "h.. .

. .. ....



.:: .... ...
:;,, ."

" "- ^ :.'...:'.

.... :: 'f .
."" ...'"
.... .. ".....

*k




. .






OURVEY OF HAWAUAW B= ICX"%WG. 47'

this is not all equally produaive frqm a bee-*6eping
this is some algarroba, for, e d#, but, iftoteaou& toin-
very much. This area supports nimily 5,000 c'olonies$
yield exceptiona4 large =p& In mrtain parts of
Rion is too strong to yield ptoper results, but- some
over 200 pounds to tho vokay. In acmae other eaner areas
can be almost equaledL Algtrrobt will not produce so
ac", but this is partly due to the fact that it blooms for less
while cane fields furnish honeydew every day in the
s4ip of algarrob* forest on Molokai supports nearly 21000
tt'will not average wore than otte-half mik in width, and
.,r6Alk* ot it is used for bem,

SOVIUMS or IMOVxr.
#
VI Y.
FIAMAL UONV

of #oral hoaq -m-the islands annually is
iwm Fomerly tho o0y- sourm iqf hon6y on the islands
v, tiddy _oxmgh dWaibuted, to make bee keeping commer-
*W WIP"ObO4 MU" jwawe-" (PL Vnil fig. 1.)
i4froduced into the isla by Father Bnchelo4 founder
oaffiolic nu-M-041 M' IWI and -the orwnal tree still
street, in Honolulu. It bas been carried to all the
of the moA vvtlu,*bIo p4uto ever brought into tI*
wt only an wmegemt lumey, but trhe pods allod
wood i6 the Smime, of fuel.
is it water whfte, iR color *ndg ftfttd*tm
the bm in spite of the warm chinatt-01
.... makm frequent -extractions necessa,
$O#Xodo, U rwoom where alggrratw
At the close of the flow. an
vp the colony until. the next flow

roduc4 and
i's
f t6GW homw No-, ww-




t 44
46




4ff
# #






48 XtROXI"EOUS PAMS OX "tCtMTUR9.

honey and melts most 'of the wax, and the: wax from the
is then extracted by the usual methods. The honey from th'
extractors is not darkened, as one would expect.
The algarroba. tree (Pro8opiijuliflora) is either, the same s
or very closely related to the mesquite of the southwest. 0
islands 'it grows to the size of a tree, as is also the case in Mexico.
Texas 'it is generally very much smaller.' In 1909 the tree ftm
bloom about the 1 st of March, the time varying. considerably
ferent localities on the islands. It usually blooms until
this very long blooming period adds greatly to its value to,
keepers.
The following list of honey plants, other than algit
nished by Mr. D. L. Van Dine, entomologist of the
cultural Experiment Station. Mr. Van Dine has studied the'
sources of the islands very thoroughly. Many of these ploana
pointed out to the writer while he was on the islands.
]FOREST TREES.
Texas mesquite (,Pro8opis glandulosa).: Growing In dooryard cif' Ur'
Conradt, Pukoo, Island of Molokai. Seeds under propagation at ffAvma*
cultural Experiment Station. Introduced by Mr. Conradt from' Tez"
-years ago.
Ohia lehua Wetrosidero8 polymorpha), Produces a particularly, high
of honey. Locations for apiaries as a rule somewhat inaccessible. One loc*tko
on the Island of Molokai is within the ohia lehua b6lt.
Various species of Acacia (black battle, koa, etc.). Mountainous distrieft.
Various species of Eucalyptus. Mountainous distrieftL
Willwill (Erythrina monosperma). In gulches on Molokai iqLd OahW
Ptose-apple (Eugenia jambos) I I I ,
Mamant (Sophora chry8ophylla). Found In higher forest belts.
Catalpa (Catalpa specio8a and C. bignonioides). Introduced by W;
G. Smith, April, 1902, from the Missouri Botanical Gardens*. The
distributed to L. von Tempsky, Makawao, and H. P. Baldwin.' IN
MRUJ; to S. L M., Damon, Moanalua. Gardens, on Oahu; to F
Malaweli, on Kauai; and to Loulsson Brothers and Albert Homer,,
and B. B. Bond, Kohala, on Hawaii. The seeds were sent to the a
parties under date -of April 10, 1902. No reports are on' file at this
to the results of this Introduction,
Logwood. (Hawmtoovlon campechianum). Found In dooryard&, 9;_
are growing In the grounds of Oahu College and one In the grounds of
Home, Honolulu. Seeds under propagation at Hawaii Agriculturmal
ment Station. The hcpey produced by beed from this tree Ii reported
the finest table honey in the world. The propaga#on and distribution of
logwood throughout the Territory would be of great value to bee keepers.
wood furnishes the logwood dye of commerm
The black mangrove of Florida. Introduced by Mr. Jared G. Smith: I
southern Florida, for the purpose of preventing the mud flats from
-along the coast of Molokai near Kaunakakat. The Introduction was
several years ago and the trees are how well established at the above-m
Mom The tree to a valuable honey plant 'The station Is now try
the Philippine mangrove, a tree suitable for similar locations but
greater value as a timber. tree.


























































FIG. 1.-PART OF AN ALGARROBA FOREST. (ORIGINAL)


..::.. ~ ~. .." ..!. .":.: .... ..
.. . ... .".." ...
,,4. ki A LANTANA JUNGLE. (ORIGINAL.)
...:.. ...





... .. .. .::..i























0





















9
*I







A RUM 8MVEY OF* UAWAn" IBM K WMG. 49


apwles of Citrus (oranM lemon,' lim% ete-).
('Persea, graumima).
'Ovwa spp.) -

(Briobot a iapanica).
ffamorindv8 indim).
PASTUIM PLANTS.
burr-el2ver (-Hedicag& dentieuZata). Introduced on Maui In M2
*r. 0. IL Blacow. Now founit generally on the ranches of the islands.
CarMt grass (I-Appia repew). Growing on, grounds of Hawaii Agricultural
Station.
ria or filaree tBrodium eicuitarium and R. nwschatum). Seeds tro-
ed on Hawaii and
In Chlifornia hay. Wablish on upland pastures

OIaVer' (Tilfoliwn repen8). Found on Haleakalaand Makawao

'A
CROP PLANTS.,
Dbal (Agave "salana).
Various species of encurbits (melons, sq"_8hK-pumpkins, cucumlersl et.).
1K. "R&GX PLANTS.
8"Oral varietim
bkm and yellow. Occasionally used as green--manure plant on sugar

4- *Oftier pea (Lathvms tingiltanus). Growing at Haiku, Maui.
TL (Onobrwhis Rativa). A forage phtnt introduced by Mr. -Jared G.
JU-19K Seed distributed to ranches.
OIRWAXXNTAL ffL&NTR.
jorUeolarly the royal and cocoanut
horUcultural form of Romneva coulteri, found in rdens in
Ax





_14014 two qmdoW (PlateVUT, 11g. a)
WOOMIA sages (Artessi*ia). Intr6duced by Rawallan Bee Keeper,Asm-
dation in 1W7. Wot as yet establish& Suitable for waste, and lands, The
*ost bnportant hohey plant in OWftbmia. Valuable as a forage plant
iaw (Hilda app.).
(Yerbe" bonaiienaU).
Meteropogon cmtortug).
needle (lauki) (Ridaw pUosa).
(Argen~ mexieasa),o
viswsa var. vathslaft).

WWW*60'aftwica0m, Tpoftft tes-io (vlneOang 4m



IS._V6UWW M "t 160st of-the honey
Lli Oth'a thawfiovm" -IxWO_ -of -the





50 MISCEMANEOUS PAPERS ON AP101ULTUIM

honey shipped annually from the islands is largely or entirely
dew honey. By far the greater part of this comesfrom the
tions of the sugar-cane leafhopper (PerkiWAIM'Ua 8wcharicida
and possibly some of it from the sugar-cane aphis (Aphiq
Zehnt,.)', although while on the islandg the author observed
the latter species.. (See Pl. IX, fig. 1, showing an spu'" near&
of sugar cane.) Of course, Iin a tropical country there are! bl&,AAAC
Insects producing more or less honeydew. The yorg plant
is most abundantly covered with leafhoppem.
Honeydew from the sugar-cane leafhopper is very dark
color and slightly ropy. In flavor it very strongly' resembles
from the cane juice. Since the color and flavor are so markei i
amount of this when mixed with the mild, light-colored
honey imparts the color and flavor of honeydew to the entift
Most honeydew honeys on the'mainland granulated very
Vy
this type does not granulated at all. Samples several years
clear as when first extracted.
The chemical CoMpoSitiona of Hawaiian honeydew honey,
unlike that of floral honey, and this 'fact has led to the
adulteration by buyers on the mainland and fore
Since nowhere else, as far 'as the author is aware, is honeyde*'
produced in such large quantities, it is not strange that
aminations were misleading. T'he author saw enough whi%,
islands to convince him thathowever unlike floral honey
may be, it is a natural sweet product eolleete4 and stored W
and is then extracted and shipped with no additions of oth
When the food and drugs act of 1906 went into effwt
waiian Bee Keepers' Association sent a representative to W
to find out under what name they could market their crop,,
does not conform to the standard of the 'Association of'
Agricultural Chemists. They were informed that it could
on the mainland market provided it were labeled oust whal it *t
a Chemical COMP08ition of Hawaiian honeydew honey Mde from *A
honeydew.
(From Bulletin No. 110, Bureau of Chemigry, p
Polarization.
complete aniiyslm.
DireeL Invert. 'WLW= Re-
sold due-
for- SU-
CkM_ In- Dif- de- MAC. aws...
medl- Wa- vert Suo- AAL Dez-
t.e stant rota- 200C. 8700. f er- ter-
%PC. tion. ence. ter. su- Irose.1 I tft. Edn-
gar. edL trM.

7. +1L +84.76 21, a 15. a - ;1MJ L 21 0.1151 GL I Rkh
+2cg+17.751 91 1 44.841 5- 271 1.. 20























FIG. 1.-AN APIARY NEAR A SUGAR-CANE FIELD. (ORIGINAL)


. ... .I" .: . .
|^H! ,:!ii,: ;

U:.::":.::..: '..


EE~~~~ ~ ~~~ ..E: E" :EEEEEE .:..: .. ... .. .. ... ... ... . .. .. .. .
.,:.."ib& Mo!a ..TRouGH F..t ..EEiWI. CATTLE (ORIGINAL.)
L..... ......... ..
.. .. .. ...

































































































































































4*





AJ
2t Irvin"
wit Q#N fro. 51

IteoPav bmvvdimw-,q it is now *Ad homy&w
#
Y MAE= the pwaiar honey
'baie to dmI *414 to market honey-
fm UI& M& It gom io
andlm Wed o be tis ; *t
'Pr" Avlq 1011 mi: di f or x

eUmhiaM bow irit0i"Iftw"SmI nedar tou"q&W. HOW-
010 8Of- R"41 na"r bih in" grm4 the bees work omf
vmmh tWrm am niixturesof the tw% stim-ed in the
v f om tba, plare hcjeydem honey to pure
ixt"" that vause the trouble in labeling.
Of it Ponhomy as de&ed hy the standards
too jpolarima light; haice, yoney-
AL Ad
fliem am bkn& ma& by ffie bees of
J& a to'ba" it &emiad Analysis
wit0her a giym quwfity of the product
on himey--, or -as honq&w honey. The
v,**oc**I*m voll illustraW in Plate I of -Bul-
-2
riprodutd as Plate VL IMis
*ill thAlh of hobeydew on the phyeiml
At ow 404 of the mim I*$ the pum algarroba,
as grmuUW, whHe at the other end i i S a Sm-
PW% as it is UMMY found. Be-
Ald" Vvn(m mixf
*emu am LUK%%i JUEM

"MOD, *W& 131 IC M" -x Thomp-
takwil VWIW M "Bedy the same

-A Avlt."
11% ft"m -2W to








j

777
W7
TI






















the strictest sense of the word; nevertheless they are frequently so pronou ..me(
by chemists, who, in the general work of routine, are often satisfied with a mo t
superficial examination, and regard dextrorotation or high ash content as ce :r
tain evidence of adulteration.
There is a test which may be applied with considerable szM7 a:,)
Algarroba honey granulates rapidly and pure honeydew honeydo
not; it has been found by analysis that mixtures which granulated ain !?^^^
as a rule of such a chemical composition that they may be' sold :
honey. The flavor and color may be characteristic of h.onew. i....
honey in spite of the fact that the mixture contains enough floa. l
honey to be sold as such. i
The sugar-cane leafhopper was first collected on the islands by Dr. ::,l
R. C. L. Perkins, now connected with the Hawaiian Sugar Plantes,' ^ "JIi
Agricultural Experiment Station, in 1900, and by February
March of 1903 had "appeared generally throughout the cane fie l
of Hawaii in numbers sufficient to prove a serious check to the gro*tI:::.
of the cane." For several years the work of this insect caused sa in
of about $3,000,000 annually to the planters, and naturally they .
. .. .... .:. ..!!':,.+tttiiD
anxious that something be done to stop this heavy loss. By varies.,^^,^
means the leafhopper has been brought under control until to-d
Sit is not abundant enough to hinder the growth of the plants, "4
plantations that were to a certain extent abandoned are again Ph-
ducing heavy crops of sugar." .
During the time spent on the islands the author saw no sugar-cane m:: :i
fields that were seemingly injured by the leafhopper, but, on the other i;
hand, there were no cane fields examined that did not contain many i.. e

The Leaf-Hopper of the Sugar Cane, by R. C. L. Perkins. Bulletin No. jn
Division of Entomology, Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry,
Territory of Hawaii, 1908.
b The Sugar Cane Leaf-Hopper in Hawaii, by D. L. Van Dine. Bulletin No. 5 ,
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, 1904.
SReport of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the Interior for An
fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, p. 22. '.: a:
Ibid.




SUR" OFRWHI AIEPN.5
W attath efopri ntdigdmg
caermgde o infyta t a "bP-
resn o elein ht t*iI
r n i l gi t r
unessm nieynw ehd ffgt]1
fatta 0 osao onye x rdcdan/
sorei pt ftefc ha nyalmtdaon th
is cesbet esi eti niai o h no
ths net hihsileit
lefopneuea wegmysbtneo h evso
"dtehuybmwr ntisegry oeewee
hoedwadfoa ecate rfr h
tomt-bt
4 akd4ge hna eist lor h
beoe )* al
ofte-atta oedwhne a h at n oo-o
ithbe uglMt/ poalti routi



V-"n Jo mIIbesatM ddcm tohe ill
__ '


';OWbm4 eiu usnet h rmn
|M
'" ssmtigo mtr otewiebth a
f" tht-e a omlssree oke esot o
an (%awr nteml ree nie ieo we
chk V) utsde
We ut xuvl o edigctl nteilns
4 | U so afarl heetectlcngti




L--
54 Ina
Tt hutre n usd q~t xtnviyasi
20 o 8 fet 0 1 I isdobtfl
(PL X, lu
soreofaygea mta ftehndihmt
thtiti reet a"k tllmr Aficl oiulme
ing atuatin on he island
IN.TWUCTW OP ONSTIiAJ
Inadiio t henctr-erein lat nwrond(
eiterasnaiveplnt o a reenlyinrodce, hebe
anios ht thrgod oeyprdcig lnt~bpIm
inres sil oe h aoutoff,6a hny.A
besshwa ake reeenefo loa ncaroe
Thee 's n te ilads t rea del f lnd hih --o
cutvtdatpeet btwih fo t ouhi ,
becltvte.Thr i outes nopotuiy o teJ
ofsoehoe patstote ontiou rgonwhr
no ntree ih utvae cosorgowo an f a
other purpose
Frmtesd xeines"npat nrdciosoih
willbe ellto atchanynewhony-plht ntrducion














... .. .. .. ... ....: ...
,', ... ..... ............ '. .. ... ...i? ':. %.. ,, .. ....... .. ". ,. i"'P ........ ..
i!,.!;:, : :. '. ..: ..,;.... .:, . ... ,,., !. ::...."....:....
.....'i... : ::. :,, ".:. : .[ i ; ; ; .i : :: : .'. ::: ..: "... : .


::i :. :::: :::iL : ... .:., .. ..... .... ... ... "0 0 ::. :. !.,


... .... .. ...



.." ....". .. .
"iiiii~i', ',: :: : Ali


FIG. 1.-HAU HEDGE.


(ORIGINAL)


.. .." ..":EE : :EE. "E E: ..:EEEEEEEE:.EEEEE



....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. :.." i ..!! ""[ ~: i! !i~i~iiii!i..... .,
.... ....... ..: : i:i: .. i!!: -.... ? iiii~**,iii'!i!ii:!: ..
:; :' :" "" ..:i.. ..:: .:iiii:'.ii i: ] ::~ iiii'" ..j
iiiiiiiij!!iiii'":;i"... .... ".. .. ..ii ..~i. ...... ., ~ii;;iii~iii i
E.:."; :[;:.":[[:fiE :: :" EE;;[" .. ..: ...::: .:El;. P:.: '::.. .........fi~
.m ..... : :EiE ".. ". EE ...."" .: ....::":: .. ":.... ...: ..': :":'::': :: .. ". . .
ii',',', ....... .. ~ ~~~~... ."":'':: "" '::;" ....... ..."; A T { RIIA
: i~~~~~~~~~~~i"' ~ ~ ~ ~ .. .... ...:: ...i' :''id::ii'd: ...i: ; ii. ... .
.~~~~~~.... ... ....... F" . .: .:...: ,:.i,!.,,ii:. ..... ;.lo ..8-. E KEEP OUT
{iiiiii~~~im'.:::::. i.. I: ... .i;.: iiii..i::i;mi:;:" : "r!u::. ::::A N & T
dmmm H,,,: .: E, ,, 'E, .. ..i. ,,:!:E~i "!!,Ei,,,,,:Z,,,,",!!:" ...,,.,....,,......" ,,
.:::::::::::::: .: ..:EEEEEEE:::::':... .E :... ::... :::EEEE .. ': .. :.."..:.
EEEEEEEEEEEE:..:" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ... .... .. ....E:E E:EE "EEEE E "E:EEE ". "" "
iiiiiiiiiiii:::. "... .. :E~ii ::EE :!:iiii.ii::i!!E~iiiiE.E ":.... ":..... ii :"

.... ......... ....,....:i, .,:':i,. -i? :,ii iiiii;iii!: .... ........ ........ r .


'?;.;':" ". ':.:: ,:" ": i.'i :4 :; ::". ..:.:.
, ... ..:- ... .....:: "..

*It'. '' t' ; ^

I "." .:
^ .: .. *::. '* ..:..:.:' .





















I'





* 6*
'4~1


* .. 41


S


I!





3tAWAUAIV 191M XXNn-NG.

11, also wax weikhg leim than an amount
Money value, and the freight would be vmy much

arrived on the Wands one'ot the first qyeAiow
to bring about a'Production. of more wax and
It-Ally no honey, AAer getting the available dats,
y given, a, w4hed was suggested which promises to
if we maY jodge by rewdts. obtained in someexPert-
the 4bort- time which could be s in Raw
pent all.
propomd method it'Will be well to review the

4MOvmfW mong bee keepers that at the time, a swarm
-of th inmates of the new home, is- at its height.
uMar with great *"*gor,. but, them being no
oatural. 'conditions, the wax awxeters become
*,,*-trV4doum4Y short time the hive is Supplied wit]4
-of owse, that wax is Secreted at any time
004AW, d M it that mom combs be built
4V4 Proyide4,1 i6f course, that there is
PORM 0% XOM thq'center of the brood chambei
OU04 an needed but, as a itfle,-not w rmkp-
.0tho flow influences this -wax am "on

ArwoOd in' The seaetion of a pound of wtm
MOW eati-
Audent$ Of beest'the various
1*0 -20 pound& There seems to be
M! 2 to
4*
OWhij,g de"te oa queAion,
to the bdid that' 'the reason for
4,_W +WI '0 hat the, sam
t tBe fad
U, Ao4 a desimd X
IiA
4W Uft A to this Phaw
I tio
'rod io
VM %, p Ott U. S;yI-
0', 1"901; ofers qViam"
of W" is
-_#AK
'uo tst,




40

56 MISCELI"IMOUS P"ERS ON "ICULTURE.

done on a basis of two-story colonies. The wax 'in such a
weighs over 6 poundsa averag'ing in value $1.80, Hawaiian wax
of the finest quality.
As additional data, it was learned that it Iis possible to incnase,
number of colonies very rapidly. In one remirkable, case re
20 colonies were increased to 420 in eightMonths... This fact
that a colony of bees can build up very rapidly under the condition*
existing on the islands. It must also, be remembmA that in cane
tions there is practically no stopping of the honey flow.
In view of all these facts it was obvious that if the waic be
from each colony it will form a good beginning in the annual
from a colony. If, then, the colony is in as good shape.. *in a Y
time as it was when the wax was removed, there will be honey enowk. -
stored to make the annual money return higher than if the colony
been run for honey alone.
The method recommended is to shake the colony onto starters of,
foundation. The brood is placed over another colony to develop, 0'1
that it may not be lost; the honey is to be extracted. By d" iding th'--j
apiary into two parts, one-half may be shaken and the brood pilecl o4
the other half. These in turn may be shaken *in three weeks ot--`".
more and their brood addedto. the colonies shaken at first, 104301,14
manipulation is identical wiih the shaking in -treating for bee I dig-It
ease. Similar methods are often employed in honey producing to' 11*1
41.
prevent swarming and to cause bees to work'in the supers. In the t
present instance, however, there. is an entirely different reason or
the practice.
In the trial made with a view to wax production a surprising,
showing was made, and it seemed obvious that the operation could'
be repeated in not more than three months' time, and probably I
if this be true, then there will be removed $1.80 worth of wax orm9ft
at each shaking, which means a considerable gain.
No positive statements of results can be made until the method hAq
stood trial for a time. If this plan serves the purpose in Raw A
will also be valuable in other regions where there is a heavy
flow for a long time.
DISEASE SURVMY.
The bee keepers of the islands were very anxious to lern whethir
or not they had any brood disease among their bees. They were quiti
certain that there was none, but desired this opinion to be confi
For this reason the aplaries visited were carefully examined by t1W
author and absolutely no trace of any known infectious disease va %
Since this was written the writer has received a report, dated Iday 190
on-this series of experiments, showing that 8.88 pounds were extmeted
W fraweik this beins the actual gverage in an apiary of 120 colQnte%





sprtd apily
men O~j,

'Mr.I u TOO mob, t 01 DurmixOf nto
was-tha
Tkmwa'n idi
omCO ndWm nohr m
obtdua t W" O trub

J~ll
p~ b&a gof' ft una
babf~yvXAsapommme
atth OO U Mb~l I ota
*WL-Vmmte** oa u rn m






58 MISCRIAANBOUS PAPERS ON A.PICULTURE.

1. The nature of the diseases.-There are now recogniud two diseasee
lent and contagious jn. their character, which attack the brood of the
These are knowb as American foul brood and European foul brood. It to
nitely known that American foul brood Is caused by a bacterl=4 D
larve, and from the symptoms and behavior of European foulbrood It to aWA- 7,
certain that the latter disease Is likewise caused by a micro-organism. Thet,.
are other diseases recognized by bee keepers, but It Is not known that they aM
Infectiou&
2. Methods of spread.-It is known that both diseases mentioned (Europmn
foul brood and American foul brood) are transmitted In the followitig num-
ners:
(a) By bees from healthy colonies robbing the hives of diseased
(b) By the bee keeper feeding honey from diseased colonles as In the ea**V
of feeding for winter stores In the colder parts of the mainland.
(c) By the accidental feeding of honey from diseased colonie@6 which h"
been extracted and sold In bottles or other containers. (This applies to PaA*
empty honey bottles or cans which may be thrown out carelessly where bees ftn
gain access to them.)
(d) By the Introduction of queens taken from apiaries in disease to
present and which are shipped in cages stocked with candy made from infecW.
honey.
It will be obvious from the local conditions that (b) does not apply to tb6
Hawaiian Islands. It is doubtless true also that (a) does not apply. 11 esm na
say positively that neither disease is present in the Territory, but ft.is ahnmt
certain that they*are not.
Means of preventing the introduction of disease to the Hawafkmt lslands,--A*
an Immediate action', it is-desirable that all queenswhich are shipped to the
Territory be removed from the cages in which they arrive and be introduced to
colonies from a clean cage containing candy made from honey free from di
organisms. This precaution, which is a very simple operation, will be a vVy
good assurance that disease will not be brought to your Islands with lmporta4,
queens.
It is desirable that as soon as possible a quarantine apiary be established, to
which all Imported queens shall he introduced. After two monthle tim% If the
colonies to which the queens are introduced are free from disease% the quo0a
may be sent to the owner with perfect safety.
It is above all desirable that no honey of any kind shall be shipped to yow
islands unless it comes from healthy colonies and Is accompanied by a cerd1k,
-all
cate of a qualified inspector of apiaries that such is the cam This preca, "'W"
is of much more Importance than those against Infection through Importattoo
queens. The bee keeper who Imports queens would probably imn
disease if it appeared In a colony containing a choice imported queen, but If,
disease is brought in with honey It might gain a strong foothold before its dh
covery. This provision will not constitute a prohibition, of the Importatlott of
honey, since on the mahiland there are now about 55 qualified apilair"I
inspectors.
On September 2, 19082 the Board of Commissioners of kgriculture
and Forestry of the Territory of Hawaii passed regulations'pertain-
ing to the impcAation and inspection of honey bees and honey, which
placed restrictions on such importations for the purposer of prevento-
ing the introduction of contagious














R. E. Bul. 75, Part VL A., Junswy 26,1909..

--IWISCELLANEOUS PAYERS 0N APICULTURE.


T-M STATUS OF "ICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.
By E. F. Pwixam, Ph. D.,
in Charge of Apiculture.
MTRODUCTION.
fow persons realize the magnitude,'*iportance,,-fnd possibilities
kownt, bee-keeping industry -in the 'United States. Those
'* an convtrsant with the pursuit, and even those who axe exten-
0ogaged m it, generally fail to comprehend what an important
in the agneulture of* the country apiculture is as a whole, or
jouch the honey bee, by collecting nectar and storing it to
a commercial product, ismistrumental in savmg our resources.
the total value of bee products is small as compared with
of the products of many qther branches of agriculture, it
has an i importance which should not be overlooked.
-t paper i to review the present status of the industry
t6 pointing out where we may look for
-,,vn -9 Yl aw dvancement.
rw*J fpurguitsi ha made greater progress during the past
'hWf oentury than. h4s this one. Before that time the bees of this
were kept i' box hives, and as a result the annual average
omp of honey per colony -was smaft. In addition to this handicap in
'I' being able to manipu][ate the bees- as was needed, bee keepers
lacked a knowWge of the methods of caring for them. With
on of mova-ble-ftamo hives by Langstroth in 1851 it became
to care for bees property and to, manipulate in such 4 way.
t1w best crop. As the use of this type of hive and of the
ortmetor became, general, bee Icepers have become better
modornmetho& of mukipulation, and the industry has
trm a, ne",ible quantity to its presmt important place

Y-04 mvjov X of cases beo keeping is not the principal occu-
1' oswii4 oo in conjunction -with some other business.
159
























sequence a bee keeper must either carry on some other buusm
establish numerous outapiaries to enable him to keep bees eo
to make it an occupation which will support him. Since the "WA
lishment of outapiaries is attended with certain disadvantage, t
usually follows that bee keeping becomes a minor part of a m :
occupation or even a side line. .
Then, too, bee keeping is taken up by many as a recreation ora::.2
subject of nature study. Such persons do not wish to make itta '
sole or main occupation. Many farmers also keep a few coloni!el|
bees and add to their income to some extent in that way. tiitt!!4":
obvious that bee keeping must continue to be an avocation iM
majority of cases.
This brings up for consideration a question which has been m
discussed by those interested in bringing about an advance in %be
industry: Shall an attempt be made to increase the number of.1%
keepers, or to make better ones of a smaller number? Bee kw o-
who follow the pursuit on a commercial scale are usually aadis
that there be no increase in the number engaged in the biuslie:a.i.lli,,:
but rather a decrease, with an accompanying advance in the pn- !
ficiency of those so engaged. This desire is not wholly selfish,, f...
unless the increase is directly in the territory of the individual hisr i
is not affected. I
It frequently happens that a local market is ruined, temporoaiy
at least, by some uninformed bee keeper who keeps a few cooniw,,:
and sells a poor grade of honey for a ridiculously low price, tbiii
a Gates, Burton N.-Bee Keeping in Mamachusetts. Bulletin No. 75, raf' VU-:7
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. (In preparation.)


c4msus







tot up4"ate bee kmper to sell
It wadh in the ImMe commaintity. his con-
no wfto it not for tho fwA that for
I Aownot rV& as a neemity, and the usual
do not Opemte so COM]PICtely as

ectiou to bwkoopen, rather than
In the iiftdmt is) that
ry
it can not be hoped that all will
'this Matters little,
his, bow if he so desim, but when
Ptawat-in a region this bwomm a serioua
kuopor ean not hope to rid his bees of di&-
a Y unqualified bee keepers in his neighbor-
unfortunately is becom-
_*0 Gmutqtho ncA"t bee, keeper keepis
UtABS Smu wnm, and is a, constant
num for-I'pomible to tell when-

g- a-Ung the lwgwt possible honey
A will hardly bo done by making bee
w6"*- It mwA be done by pro-
juterft4od to an extent fflawient to
d and -to do their utinost to get the
Vok hope W &Uam' Aifimate condition,
-1"& to (Ijimouivp negl t and indifferent
-Pt* the solo ow-apati of but
n ag I" on
W in that it ^dds corwidershly
*w.4,
OW01W of thousands
am groat, and tho ad-
to v



vww Of tho
it- iS

44 *%x,

IF


Alba
7"771" 77


































18 0.... ............
1860 ...................
1870 ...................
1880...................
180 ...................
1900 ...................


...u.o.....--.
a14,853,790
23,366,357
14,702,815
25,743,308
63,897,327
61,196,160


a Beeswax and honey.


The last census, that of 1900, recording crop data for 1899, gives tha;:::e


following:
Total number of farms reported in census........................
Number of farms reporting bees.................................
Percentage of total.............................................
Number of colonies, June 1, 1900.................................
Average number per farm reporting bees..........................
Value of bees..................................................
Pounds of honey in 1899.........................................
Pounds of wax in 1899..........................................
Value of honey and wax in 1899................................
Number of farms of white farmers reporting bees..................
Percentage of all farms of white farmers..........................
Number of farms of colored farmers reporting bees.................
Percentage of all farms of colored farmers.......................
Average crop per farm reporting bees:
Honey............................................ pounds..
W ax................................................ do....
Average value of honey and wax per farm reporting bees..........
Average value of bees per farm reporting ........................
* Average value of bees per colony.................................
Average pounds of honey per colony........ .....................
Average pounds of wax per colony...............................
Average value of honey and wax per colony .......................


5, 739, 657 f:
707,261 il
12 3 .: . ..... ::
4,109,626 .
5.8106
$10,186,513 8 ii
61, 196, 160
1,765, 315.
$6, 664,1 i .....
677,966

29,276 H*|;|
8.8. 1
(.2.
86.5" .A
2.S1 ":|

14. 5 ,:IIi
$14.O ('.I(jJj(


$1S62


1,32, 787
631,129
1,106,689
1,166,588
1,765,315


m...........
17.7:1
23.3:1
23.3:1
54.8:1
34.7:1




L ft
9TTM
[]1 adii4Ca' o .iiui
f n ~ I1W.ofnmad mg4,b
per Cm


hCbo
------- 5271 M 6 13 419,S :1,IM,51




24!MSLM 1 35,I1,IM64
?.2 46 20138 ,3
toommrpt1e~=U ~~db dbl.




bri prmmo
|0001 'PN4 m"d on
Ok5 1763S 25SK0 4
k* W IL9 IMM M14 zS
!o4f L4Mi ,3 L7
M$ 3,0 'M &0





A
64 3LISCELLANZOUS PAPTM Olt APICULTUIM.

It wiH be noticed that the data on honey and wax crops do aW
all agree. with the author's estimate given above. In the light of
evidence previously given, it is obvious that the census figures
entirely too small and axe far from doing justice to the
The other data are probably much more reliable. It is hardly a
test to compare 1900 data as to the number of bee keepers with thhosic"
of 1906, but it should be noted that in the recent work of the Bureau, "W
in Massachusetts a there were reported 2,127 bee keepers as comparod
with 1,799, the number given in the census.

MPORTS AND EXPORTS.

Tables IV to VII show the imports and exports of honey and*W&M,
through the ports of entry -of the United States. The data for theio6.
tables were obtained through the courtesy of the Bureau of Statistice
of this Department.,'
a Gates, Burton N.-Bee Keeping in Massachusetts. BuUetin No. 75; Part VA
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. (In preparation)
b Tariff schedules on honey and wax under the different acts of Oongrem imb"umt
to 1841 are as follows:

Acts of- Tariff on honey. TwW on wax.

August 30,1842 ............................. Not q)ec* cally mentioned.. 15 per oent ad vskrem
July 30 IM ....................... 30 per owt ad valmun ...... 2D per Axmt ad valoran,
Ma"I 4, N57 ........................................ 24 per oent ad valorem ...... 15 pa owt ad vakxwu.
2,1861 ............ ...... I Not specifically mentioned.. 10 per cent ad valorem.
July 14, IM ................................. 15 Cen on ........ 20 per cent ad valorem
June 30 1864 20 CM ....... ... Not specifically mmbo&%L
March 3, 20 cents per m .......... Cent ad voureaL
October 1, 1890 ................................ 20 oents per gallon ........
Augmt 27, 18K ............................. 10 Oents per ........... Prew
July K 1807 ................................. 20 oen ta per .......... 11yelk




V



Xo" lw V0113M, ST&TM

i1sw am vw" $Aft, -toot- by aqunbia fivm



ftbe.- Maxim


of tobd
vak*.b Plies' 1-3"003- PowtgLw Vattle.,b Prim imports
fta so pocind fi-om all
60"AtOM In cmt;L countrim
----------
aw'M stw &9 37.0 W728 $25,6% &5 =3
la,736 t 4 6 1.,361:= 33,M 2.4 67.8
-067 4L 1 45.3 1', 1%, 795 i 31,M7 2.
lxj 0,00 6# U 9
X3 514 60,4H, 12,345 L 9 W3
S,7 37 S& 1 516,8M 10,477 2.0 21.7
as 4& 6 724,408 18,107 2.5 4L 7
t6 4& 4 884,340 27,534 11 42.0
45 7 1,045,9"
xu 4L 1

Opajo Domingo. 1wti.

Fl t hf'
Averqp Pnf
tonpotU PoundLa Vahwb price per imports
pound
hvM au
ifi OeUbL
ty
4,0 1&0 146AW $$,ON & 5 &7
to 35,184 1,1731 &3 L?
&S 2 'M S,013 -2.0 1.4
14, W 1 476 -1 273 2.2 2.4
14 6.8 44,M 779 L 8 LO
14 L 7 81,4" I'M I I to
14 L5 188,6#0 4,80 2.6 & 9
2.8 JLV 106,1M 2,80 2.7 4.2


A otbwoouattim TOW.
Aft t
AvftW
ta Pomd&s -trWue.b FrWe Per
an pmmd
0"St$- in cmt&

J
IM 1 4 Iff &0 2 IN 352 $0,M &S
2 07:6n M z 9
7. 0402m= 115,40G 3
6D (M -2.9
4LI is 76719
1:3EQ 04 &2
SIS 4L I SO: W 503,651 & I
t2 10 Map" 7018" & 4


j*" tD vw& 12 Pamft
fey,
V"Waft or ""0 Aw" Or ft"




ARM,
44 &ftau U40"d wbe.













































LJ .............
1906-........
1907.........
1908 .........


34,052
67,264
55,311


.11J, 10
8,596
16,941
13,085


10. v
25.2
25.2
23.7


0Wiyfl
27,311
48,831
58,147


10, UM
7,326
13,555
15,379


JW. f
26.8
27.8
26.4


All other countries. Total.


Year ending laJune 30- Average Percentage
Pounds. Value. price per imports Pounds. Valuto
from all
In cents. cotmtrie
countries.3h


1901...................... 37,038 $9,732 26.3 17.3 213,773 .55,8K "
1902...................... 147,764 42,372 2& 8.7 36.2 408,706 1153,7
1903...................... 70,222 19,331 27.5 14.4 488,576 127,22 ..
1904...................... 39,981 11,103 27.8 9.4 425,168 110,878
1905------. ------------- 96,337 26,610 27.6 25.8 373,560 101,121
1906...................... 321,310 90,487 28.2 54.7 587,617 168,014 :
1907............--.--.-. 421,789 125,022 29.6 46.0 917,00M8 264,67 .]
1908...................... 251,505 76,584 30.4 37.5 671,526 194,T0i;:
.. .. .... .... ......... ... ....- .
a Imports of beeswax into the United States are free of duty. ..
Valu.es-The values of all Imported articles, whether subject to ad valorem or spei duties rl
duty, are defined by the act of Congress of June 10, 1890, as-
The actual market value or wholesale price of such merchandise as bou. ght and sold In usual wa
quantities at the time of exportation to the United States in the principal markets at the eoatry
whence Imported, and in the condition in which such merchandise is there bought for exportaio !
United States or consigned to the United States for sale, including the value of all cartons, mas.u
boxes, sacks, and coverings of any kind, and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to plat
merchandise in condition ready for shipment to the United States.
Valuatito decepUtom.-The value of imported articles subject to ad valorem duties is belied:
determined with more accuracy, according to the legal method of valuation, than the value oet 1
with specific duties or free of duty, or the value of exported articles; the valuations of dutiable 1.
and of exports dutiable In foreign countries tend to understatement, and the valuatius of Mlpsrb
are free of duty are liable to Inflation for the purpose of trade deception. m







Imprt%
pvlfm_ in C m E t w ed an ex
i mted
-- -- -- - 6 - -- - - -- .. .. .. .
4w 1 4 3D ------------- --
W 3 A 0 - -- -- - -- -- -
3.3 - - -- -- - -
-- -- -
IK .fl - - --- - - -- - -
4 2|6 2 - - I - - - - - - -
-- -- - -- - -- -- - -
1 6 2 L 6 - - - - - - - -
,L5, 8 4.3 - --- -- - - -I- - - -
"44 8 M1 K,24 6,-- - - -- - - -
4.8 - - - - --



-6 4 0 - - -8 1 2 ) - - -
11W W - - -- - - -- -- - -- - -
4,|- - - 1 - - -- - -
2,67 =Im$ 4







68 MUKTJALAWROUS PAIYZW ON AP1CMTMHe

TA.BLz VIL-Imports and =ports of bmjt= into ae United Statal, 1


Import& Exports.

YOU Wdigkg IMAM- Ay
Pounds. Value. prim POMUU. value.
Cen

....................................... ....................... b414M b&M,8M
........................... ............ ............ ............. b 3* 368 b 910 4W 0
................................................... ............ b 376, M b Ila.. ew 7-.-
A@ ........................... ........................ ............ b M7,554 b 87 141
........................... ............ ............ ............ b 257,415 b jw-%
............................ ............ ............ b 2M 32D 6 74WS UZP.
.1857 ............................ ............... ; ........ ............ b 315, 378 MY=
I&J8 ........................... ............ ............ ............ b 366? 246 b 85$, M
IM ........................... ............ ............ ............ 6 2w 374 b 94, UO
...................... ............ ............ ............ b 30, 474 b 131, ON
............ ............ ...... b 8, 309,745 b %S, 5M
1861 ....................... ... ............ ............ ............ 6270,425 bK4%
18M ........................... ............ ............ ............ b 142,312 b 47,383
1863 ........................... ...... b 259, 901 b 9D, M
1864 ........................... a 8 i,'O'8' -7 113',- 6'6' 7' ------ a' 2-5".'S" b 341,458 b 170,418 4''
1865 ........................... 2D, M 6,414 3D. 7 b 338,776 b 2r>j, 381
1866 ................... .... a 23, 9W a 10, 420 &43.6 b 272, 987 b I^ 6W
1867 ...................... -- 25,617 5,45D 21.3 b 253t 065 bK282
1%8 ........................... ......... 5, WD -- ..... k826,887 b 256,365
1869 ........................... ............ ............ ............ ........... :. M ,396 .........
1870 ........................... ............ a19,897 ............ b W, 668 b 137,443
............ ------------ ------------ ----------- b 19 463,712
1871 ........................... ............. a 16,817 ............ 6365,195 b M 070
1872 ........................... ............ a 2D, 196 ......... b 446, 474 DM LV
1873- ........................ ............ -1,16661 ............. b 374, 486 b 118,053
1874 ......................... ............ 7,918 ............ b 342,068 b.JA 800
1875 ........................... ............ 15,400 .... ....... b W, 425 b K,67,8
1876 ........................... ............ 14,668 ....... .... b 218,610 b 60, W
1877 ........................... ... ........ a 16,844 ------------ b 276,891 b 840 461
1878 ........................... ............ 13,302 ------------ b 326,613 b 96, 074
1970 ........................... ............ a 15,861 ............ 168,745 45, WS 2'
189D ........................... ............ a 2,766 ---- ------- 193P 217 48,89D
............ a 138, 433 ............ %065,724 .91% 9W
Mi ........................... ......... 6,733 ......... 164,090 40,M3
1882 ........................... .... iiii ..... GA 312 ........ ... 124,227 32,325.
1883 ........................... 879 41,681 R 7 59,455 17,6D4
1884 .................. ........ 48,123 9,323 19.4 51,748 16,042
ins ............... ........... 91,754 21,211 2& 1 3%877 9,758
IM ........................... 26,546 5, ng 21.5 136,179 W626
1887 ........................... 10,843 2,371 21.9 9D, MO A 997
1888 ........................... 51,702 9,411 1&2 78,070 2D, 564
IM ........................... 75,951 11,773 15.5 99,917 4918
im ........................... 126,319 2D, 282 16.1 171,391 19, M
............ 1&31815 ------------ 1; ON, M M,754
imn ..................... 379,135 80,486 21.2 IM, 548 3% 027
1892 ........................... 271,068 6rh 487 24.2 IV, 470 al w
1893 ........................... 248,000 62,024 2& 0 77,4341 22,048
1894 ........................... 31816M 80,024 2& 1 469,763 118'M
1895 ........................... '288, 001 78,776 27.4 M, 212 9018M
1896 ........................... 273l464 75,970 27.8 =, 612. a 944
1897 ........................... 174,017 42,339 2-L 9 195,oig 66N,
108 ........................... 272,097 72,473 2& 6 151,094 41,M
IM ........................... 452,016 100,957 2oL 3 15,%494 41,916 tt t
Iwo ........................... 213,813 $1, M 2CI 314; 379 91,913
%N%2n TA 061 K 9 2,14k OU SWIM
1901 ..................... 213,773 Sk 8" X 1 140,276 30, 4*64
1902 ........................... 408,706 113,237 2& 4 IZ, 283 A "MI
lW3 ........................... 4W 676 MY 22D X 0 70, R11 21,3v
1204 ........................... 425,168 116,878 27.5 55,6K 16,545
INS ................ .......... M 5% 101,121 27.1 85,406 2419%
low ........................... W, 617 168, M4 2& 61 1101 71j' M ='M
IW7 ........................... 917,088 264t637 9 110 3k=
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . enp M IKM Wo ........ ............ ..........

Including manubrWivd wam
b stated simply an "wax," an4 Including w of all kinds, as wA as bewwax





igiv


"awn recrddinim1 k 4 J
-- - - - - -- - - - - 4
-- - - - --i- - - - 3
-- --i- - - -- - - - 3


of supisfruei h pay
UDXrM=ARA-PLLNFMA iKT.
"*a ge Vleogapoeizn grn adi
|mmlizt h eorso
11, 8mIotms e-nldd te
th'wxr btth-hne eeLCUI
Of ths lu-e
of ff fisct hc ii
Tj Wmo oe stems
M&tlwtran roalydesmre
iato~ imhsvr :mrhivi
iq ilws iiiI eut hw

ik VaAmVoay boet/Uno w


04 L

1q2


























I "ipI."*~ C 4 4 ii
0' A

Hymenoptera....... 46 28 15 5 23 29 8 32 17 22 8 13. "I
Apismeflifera ....... ... .... 1 1 ..... 1 1
Diptera............. 1.8 16 4 ...... 16 9 7- ...-...-
Coeoptera .......... 4 2 1 2 5 4 ...... 3 3 1 ......... :------ ---
Hemfptera .......... 3 2 .................. ....... . ...- .... ..-.
Total number of
specimens..... 72 59 23 15 44 37 8 52 29 30 8 a3. li

It seems fair to assume that on account of their great numbers the small bees below-
ing to the Halictidse and the Andrenidse are more important agents in carrying poi*
than has been supposed, and in the vicinity of New Haven during the euaonA
1904 and 1905 were of far greater benefit in pollinating the flowers of the plants roga
which they were collected than were the honey bees. ;g
Earlier in the paper they say: "It is not known to the writeS.
that bees are kept in the immediate vicinity of the experiment'4 "
tion; there are several hives less than 2 miles away. Wild honf
bees are probably not very abundant so near the city." iii
There are several facts which should be taken into consideration
in connection with this paper-facts not mentioned by the author 1"H
In the first place, comparatively few honey bees are kept in the. fjl
of Connecticut around New Haven. Furthermore, a scourge of:.I
disease is said to have decimated the bees of Connecticut some "u
ago, and doubtless this decreased the number of bees in a wild stat .E
as much as it is known to have done in the case of bees in hives. NI
disease is now recorded from the vicinity of New Haven, but it maO
still be there unreported, it being found in many parts of the Stat'W
Further, in the vicinity of cities, bees are generally less prevaleni
a Britton and Viereck, 1906.-Insects Collected from the Flowers of Fruit Trees ai
Plants. Fifth Report of the Connecticut State Entomologist for the Year 1905, NO*
Haven, Conn. .