Papers on cereal and forage insects

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Title:
Papers on cereal and forage insects
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
7 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Forage plants -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029637351
oclc - 22577538
Classification:
lcc - SB818 .B85 no.95, 1913
System ID:
AA00018926:00005

Full Text



(cr/i


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 95, Part VI.

L. 0. HOWARD. Eantmmoloit and Chief of Bureau.


PAPERS ON CEREAL A-ND FORAGE INSECTS.


THE LEGUME POD MOTH.


THE LEGUME POD MAGGOT.






BY



JAMES A. HYSLOP,

Agent and Expert, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations.


ISSUED MAY 31, 1912.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.


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B UREA U OF ENTO MOLOG Y.

L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of-truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in. charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage inject investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD, librarian.

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

F. M. WEBSTER, in charge.

GEO. I. REEVES, W. J. PHILLIPS, C. N. AINSLIE, E. 0. G. KELLY, T. D. URBAHNI
HARRY S. SMITHr, GEO. G. AINSLIE, J. A. HYSLOP, W. R. WALTON, J. T. MONAU
J. J. DAVIS, T. H. PARKS, R. A. VICKERY, V. L. WILDERMUTH, E. G. SxrM
HERBERT T. OSBORN, PHILIP LUGINBILL, C. W. CREEL, E. J. VOSLER, R. N, Wn
SON, VERNON KING, entomological assistants.
NETTIE S. KLOPFER, ELLEN DASHIELL, preparators.
MIRIAM WELLES REEVES, collaborator.






















CON 0 XTE NTS.



The legume pod moth (Etiella zinckenella schisticolor Zell.)..--.............---
H historical ......... ................................. ...................
Synonymy and distribution...........................................
Food plants.............................................................
Description............................................................
The egg.....---....................................................
The larva .....-.........--.........................................
The pupa..........................................................
The adult.................... .......................................
Seasonal history........................................................
Field work.--................ .........................................
Experimental work carried on during the season of 1910.----- --


Experimental work carried on during the season


Artificial dissemination -....--.....---.....-
Parasites.....--....--.....---..-.....-.......
Remedial and preventive measures.......
The legume pod maggot (Pegornya planipalpis
General account --..............-........
Description.......-- ...--.........-........
The larva..........................
The puparium .....................
The pupa
The adupa- ------------------ .- ..-------
The adult............................
Parasites ..... ... ...... .. ............
Remedial and preventive measures.......


of 1911-- - - -






... ........... ......


- - - - - -

Stein) ...-..


LII


Page.
89
89
90
90
91
91
91
92
92
92
94
95
99
103
104
104
105
105
106
106
106
107
107
108
108
















IL, UST R A T IONS. j


PLATES.
PLATE X. Experimental plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during the season of 1911----------...- ...................... 100 .
TEXT FIGURES.

FIG. 28. The legume pod moth (Etiella zinckenella schisticolor): Egg ........... 91
29. The legume pod moth: Larva and details.......................... -------------------------91 -
30. The legume pod moth: Pupa --...----------.-....---....--------------------............. 92
31. The legume pod moth: Adult ..................................... 92
32. The legume pod moth: Larva feeding in a pod of field pea----------........... 93
33. The work of the legume pod moth compared with that of the pea
weevils (Bruchidae) ................ : -----------------....-------------............ 95
34. Planting plan of plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during theseason of 1910.. -------------------------------------96.
35. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume
pod moth to varieties of peas commencing to bloom on a given date
in 1910 ......................................................... 98
36. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the
legume pod moth to varieties in full bloom on a given date in 1910.. 99 |
37. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the ,
legume pod moth to varieties of peas which ceased to bloom on a
given date in 1910 ............................................... 100 :?
38. Diagram showing mean percentage of damage done by the legume
pod moth to varieties of peas in full bloom on a given date in 1910.. 101 il
39. Planting plan of plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during the season of 1911- ........................................ --101
40. Diagram showing mean percentage of damage done by the legume p|
pod moth to varieties of peas in full bloom on a given date in 1911.. 1I
41. The legume pod maggot (Pegomya planipalpis): Larva and details... -
42. The legume pod maggot: Puparium------..........-----.--------------.............
43. The legume pod maggot: Pupa......................----------.-
44. The legume pod maggot: Adult male and head of female.......--......
Iv .3











U. S. D. A., B. E. Bul. 95, Part VL.


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


THE LEGUME POD MOTH.
(Etiella zinckenella schisticolor Zell.)
By JAMES A. HYSLOP,
Agent and Expert, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations.

HISTORICAL.
The first mention of the legume pod moth (Etiella zinclcenella
schisticolor Zell.) as of economic importance in the United States is
found in the unpublished notes of Mr. Theodore Pergande in the
files of the Bureau of Entomology, and refers to a number of lima-
bean pods sent in by Mr. Albert Koebele from Eldorado County,
Cal., on July 21, 1885. The larvae were reported as doing consider-
able damage to the bean crop in that region. They left the pods and,
if not full grown, entered other pods to continue feeding or, if full
grown, constructed slight cocoons in the bottom of the rearing jar
and pupated. Adults emerged September 2 and September 15.
A similar reference,2 from the same source, refers to a number of
pods of Crotolaria incana collected by Mr. E. A. Schwarz at Cocoanut
Grove, Fla., on May 9, 1887, and sent to the Bureau of Entomology.
The larvae were eating the seed, and from these on May 16 an adult
emerged. From a second lot of seed pods from the same source
received on June 1, three more moths emerged on the 24th.
On May 2, 1896, a number of pods of Astragalus sp. were received
by the bureau from Mr. C. L. Marlatt,3 the material having been
collected at Neucestown, Tex., infested with larvae of Etiella zincken-
ela. On May 13 a braconid parasite issued, and on June 5 an adult
moth emerged.
A single specimen was received from Mr. E. E. Bogue,4 of Still-
water, Okla., on August 17, 1896, which he had previously reared
from the seed pod of Crotolara sagittalis.
Dr. F. H. Chittenden,5 of this bureau, has published a paper on
this insect in which the records made by.Mr. H. 0. Marsh are incor-
I Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 3819.
2 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 4129.
a Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7044.
4 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7173.
6 Bul. 82, Pt. III, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 25, 1909.


C. F. I. I., May 31. 19122.





PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


porated. Mr. Marsh found the larvae attacking lima beans at Santa'l:I
Ana, Garden Grove, Anaheim, and Watts, in California. At Garden
Grove they had destroyed 40 per cent of the crop. i

SYNONYMY AND DISTRIBUTION. :
The species Etiella zinckeneUlla was described by Treitschke' inI
1S32, and the variety E. zinckenella schisticolor was described as .'
E. schisticolor in 1881 by P. C. Zeller 2 from two specimens, a male 1
and a female, collected from "very different parts of North America!'
Tile male was from California and was collected October 8, but of
the female he has nothing to say. He also refers to specimens of
E. zinckeneUlla examined by him from Sierra Leone, West Africa;
Madagascar; Honda, Colombia, South America; and "Carolina" in
this country. Later Rev. G. D. Hulst 3 redescribed this species
under the name Etiela villosa, and gave Colorado and Califorina as
the habitat. Dr. H. G. Dyar in his catalogue gives Arizona as an
additiondto the habitat.
The typical E. zinckenelZa is represented in the National Museum,
collection by specimens from Hampton, N. H.; Weekapong, R. L;
Key West and Archer, Fla.; Oxbow, Saskatchewan; Texas; Still-
water, Okla.; and Denver, Colo. The variety E. zinckenella schisti-
color is represented by specimens from Stockton, Utah; Springfield,
Idaho; Eldorado, Clairmont, Alameda, and San Diego, Cal.; Nogales,
Ariz.; and Pullman, Wash. It will be noted that all the specimens
of the variety were collected west of or in the Rocky Mountains.
Etiella zinckendlla schistcolor differs very slightly from the typical
form. It has a suffusion of gray scales on the primaries as its chief
distinctive character. A number of specimens from Florida, one
specimen from Rhode Island, and one from New Hampshire very
closely resemble the European specimens of E. zinckenella.
A possible explanation of the above facts may be that the variety
schisticolor is a native of the Pacific slope of this continent, while the;;
forms found in the eastern United States are the typical E. zinckes-'!*
ella recently introduced into this country from the Old World or South |':
America. i
FOOD PLANTS.
Larvae of Etiellw zinckenelUa have been recorded as feeding on the::
seed of several species of leguminous plants. In California (Eldora& ::|
County) Mr. A. Koebele 4 found them doing considerable damapu
to lima beans and they were recently found by Mr. H. 0. Marsh..
of this bureau, working on the same crop in that State. Mr. E.
I Die Schmetterlinge von Europa, von Friedrich Treitachke, 9 Band, p. 201, 1812.
SHorme Societatia Entomologice RoSic, voL 16, p. 177,1881.
SEnt. Amer., vol. 3, p. 133, 1887. 'I
4 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 48 K.
SB1ul. 82, Pt. lM, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 25, 1909. ,


90





THE LEGUME POD MOTH. 91

Bogue found the larvae in the seed pods of the common rattlebox
(Orotolaria sagittalis) at Stillwater, Okla., and Mr. E. A. Schwarz 2
found them in the pods of a tropical species of
this genus (Crotolaria incana) at Cocoanut Grove .
Fla. Mr. C. L. Marlatt3 records finding the *^krtv' o: .
larve in the seed pods of milk vetch (Astragalus
sp.). They are also recorded by Herrich-Schiffer4 FIG. 28.-Te legume pod
f r ji _i r -* *FiG. 28.--The legume pod
as feeding in the seed pods of Spartium junceum moth (Etiella zinckenella
near Vienna, Austria. schisticolor): Egg. Great-
During 1910 and 1911 the author reared the lyenlarged. (Original.)
species from the pods of common lupines (Lupinus spp.) and Canada
field peas at Pullman, Wash.
DESCRIPTION.
THE EGG.
Fig. 28.)
Egg glistening white, bluntly elliptical in outline and circular in cross section,
measuring 0.58 mm. in length and 0.31 mm. in diameter. Chorion very delicate,
colorless, and with fine irregular corrugations on the surface.

Il W

\~.'-,iJ.'
/7. -.. -- ..7' 7 '

















MoG. 29.-The legume pod moth. Larva: a, Side view; b, lateral aspect of head; c, caudal segments;
d, pronotal shield. a, enlarged; b, c, d, greatly enlarged. (Original.'

THE LARVA.
(Fig. 29.)
Full-grown larva from 12 to 17 mm. in length and from 2.5 to 3.5 mm. in diameter.
Head yellow, black patch over ocellar area; mandibles and tip of labrum black;
five ocelli arranged in an anteriorly directed semicircle at base of antenna. Dor-
1 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7173.
2 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 4129.
3 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7044.
4 Syst. Bearb. der Schmett. von Europa, vol. 4, p. 72, 1849.





92


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


......... .. ............. ... :. ii~ :
sum ruddy pink, except the pronotum (immature larve are evenly pale .E-::l
cream colored, with head and pronotal shield black or brown), the pleural and 'w'iI
tral surfaces pale green or cream white. Head pale yellow. Tips of thoracic I
and head brownish yellow. Five pairs of prolegs situated on segments 3, 4, 5, .
and 9; the last pair can be retracted, so as to be almost invisible. Pronotum 1
lowish, with brown or black markings as follows: Two medial pairs of dot patcibse,3S|
the posterior pair nearly touching the posterior margi#n::i
and somewhat oblong in outline, the anterior per
approaching the anterior margin and linear in out-?!:
R. line, being for the most part made up of a single row.my
Hlof dots; both pairs converging anteriorly, the anterior"
^ i^ HIrows forming a V. Posterior margin bearing fou"rI
bristles. Two pairs of bristles flanking the anterior
median patches of dots, the posterior bristle in eah
pair short.
THE PUPA.
(Fig. 30.)
AH Pupa from 6 to 10 mm. in length, amber-yelloW,
with the tip of the abdomen, the edges of the abdonm-
FIG. 30.-The legume pod moth: Pupa. final segments, and margins of the.wings outlined in
Greatly enlarged. (Original.) brown. Fourth, filth, and sixth abdominal segmentt.
each bearing a pair of short spines on the ventral surface. Abdominal segments 2 to 9
bearing well-defined brown spiracles. Terminal abdominal segment provided with
a transverse row of 6 hooked bristles and a pair of lip-shaped tubercles on its doid. :i
surface. '
THE ADULT. !
(Fig. 31.)
"The adult expands 24-27 mm. Labial palpi russet-gray above, gray below. Maxp',
illary palpi yellowish, brown on end. Head, collar and fore-thorax orange fuscous
Thorax behind fuscous gray. Abdomen fuscous; fore wings mouse color, consisting of:
bluish gray, overlaid partly with ;
fuscous. A broad white stripe
extending from base along costa N:A j
to apex. Extreme edge of costa.:H
of ground color broadening out- i
wardly just beyond middle and
fading away toward apex. A
dull yellowish basal stripe reach-
ing from white costal stripe to in- ,:
ner margin, edged inwardly with :H'9ll
a row of maroon-brown scales, the .,aws
scales being longer than usual.
Hind wings fuscous, deepening FIG. 31.-The legume pod moth: Adult. Enlarged aboa$
in wings' diameters. (Original.)
outwardly, with dark marginal diameters. (Original.)
line. Beneath even glistening, very light fuscous." (Hulst, Trans. Amer. En.
vol. 17, p. 170, 1890.)
SEASONAL HISTORY.
On July 26, 1911, an eggshell was found on the outer surface ofU
calyx of a well-filled though still green lupine seed pod. The I
which had evidently emerged only a few minutes before it was:`
.::|





THE LEGUME POD MOTH.


covered, measured 1.2 mm. in length and was found just inside the
pod at the terminus of a burrow which led from just in front of the
egg through the calyx and pod wall. The hole through which the
larva emerged from the eggshell was terminal, round, and very neatly
cut. A few days later two eggs were found on the calcyces of field
peas; these were brought into the insectaxy but failed to hatch.
During late July and early August, 1911, larvae in all stages of
development, from very small specimens, evidently just hatched, to
those which were mature and spinning cocoons, were found in both
the pods of field peas and lupines. The larvae on first emerging are
pale green or cream colored, the pronotal plate and head being
entirely black or brown; with the first molt the pronotal plate assumes
the characteristic pattern described elsewhere in this paper, but the
body does not assume the rosy tint as described until nearly mature.
The larvae feed for about three weeks, only partly consuming the
peas, as is seen in figure 32, destroying them as seed, besides greatly
reducing their weight as stock feed. The pod always contains a mass
of frass held to-
gether by a loosely
constructed web.--
The larva will
leave one pod and
enter another if
the food supply is FIG. 32.-The legume pod moth: Larva feeding in a pod or field pea. En
exhausted, or if large. (Original.)
for any other reason the pod becomes uninhabitable. When mature,
if the peas are still unharvested in the field, it emerges from the pods
and enters the ground to pupate, or if the pods have been harvested
it spins a tough silken cocoon in the nearest available sheltered place.
Larvae that become mature during the warm weather of early
August, out of doors, or later under laboratory conditions, pupate
immediately and emerge as adults in about six weeks. Adults have
been obtained in our laboratory on August 5 and as late as August 28.
Whether these lay eggs which pass the winter successfully, or whether
they hibernate as adults, is still undetermined. Larvae that reach
maturity in late September, when the nights are cold, spin their
cocoons and hibernate therein as larvae, pupating in the spring and
emerging at the time the earliest lupines are setting seed.
On the lupines there are very probably two generations a year.
The moths of the first generation, coming from hibernating larvae,
lay all their eggs on the lupines, as the field peas are just commencing
to grow. The offspring of this generation mature late in July and,
finding the field peas ripening, very naturally turn their attention
to these large areas of suitable food as well as to their natural food,
the later lupines.
29993-Bull. 95, pt. 6-12-2


93





PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Mr. C. L. Marlatt' reared adults on June 5, 1896, fromlar.. M
.~ ~~ . .: .... :::::::.
were collected May 2 of that year at Nuecestown, Tex. Mr. Aflsfl
Koebele 2 reared adults on September 2 and 15, 1885, from larv
collected June 21 at Rattlesnake Bridge, Eldorado County,
Mr. Koebele also noticed the entrance holes of young larvae and]
exit holes of older larvae in the pod husks. He says, "Ti41
larvae spun a web on the bottom of the jar in which thaiyll
pupated."' i
Mr. Theodore Pergande3 received a number of larvae from Mr.:!
E. A. Schwarz collected at Cocoanut Grove, Fla., on May 9, 1887, andi:,
on May 26 reared an adult from this material. More material from"':
the same source was received on June 1, and on the 24th three mpor
adults emerged.
Mr. H. 0. Marsh obtained adults from January 9 to February 26,
1909, from larvae collected October 22, 1908, at Anaheim, Cal.4 ;
These observations indicate that two generations a year is char-wj,
acteristic of this species, the adults of the first appearing in early'
June and those of the second in September. The adults obtained in.,::
January and February were reared under laboratory conditions, which'I
very probably accelerated their development. In the more southan::::::
parts of its range this species may have more than two generati6ons.4i:
.Nil
FIELD WORK.
July 21, 1909, while examining the seed pods of the commoniK:|
lupine (Lupinus sp.) many were found to contain lepidopterous.2',
larvae. In such pods the seeds were always more or less destroyedi!.
The pods also contained a mass of frass which was held together by a:i'!
loosely constructed web. A few days later, on examining the cola.
elected material, several of the pods were found with newly eateo'gi
holes in the sides and two larvae were found with half their bodies"
within fresh pods. ..
On August 7 one of the larvae, very plump, was found still in the
pod, it having in the meantime become suffused with a rosy coKlo
This larva had constructed a loose silken cocoon, through which 1,
body could be easily seen. Ten days later the larva pupated 4
emerged as an adult (Etiella zinckenella schisticolor) September 2S
In the rearing cages with solid bases most of the larvae left the
pods and spun their cocoons among the litter and dirt in the bottu'
of the cages. In cages with bottoms of earth the larvae always .A:-
rowed 2 or 3 inches below the surface to pupate.
On August 1, 1910, Mr. M. W. Evans, of the Bureau of P1..
Industry, told the author of a larva that he was finding in the fiel-.
L Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7044.
2 Bureau of Entomology Nqtes, No. 48 K. .... ..N
a Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 4129.
SBul. 82, Pt. III, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 25, 190.


94





THE LEGUME POD MOTH.


* pods in his experimental plats at Pullman, Wash. On examining
some of.these larvae it was found that they resembled those of Etiella
zinckenella schisticolor that had been found in lupine-seed pods the
previous year, differing only in being larger, measuring about 17 mm.
in length, while those from lupine measured-only 13 mm., due, with-
out doubt, to the difference in food plant.
The following day a number of the larvae were collected from the
field-pea pods and placed on earth in a flowerpot, into which they
immediately burrowed.
From a larva placed in a pill box an adult emerged on August 27 and
on the same day two moths emerged from the earth in 'the flowerpot.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK CARRIED ON DURING TIHE SEASON OF 1910.

In the spring of 1910 the Bureau of Plant Industry planted over
100 varieties of field peas at Pullman, Wash. These were planted















FIG. 33.-The work of the legume pod moth (upper row) compared with that of the pea
weevils (Bruchida) (lower row). Enlarged. (Original.)
in plats I rod square, in order to study development and adapta-
bility of the various varieties under semiarid conditions. Mr. M. W.
Evans has very kindly permitted the use of his field notes, and of
the crop when harvested from these plats, which has greatly facili-
tated this investigation, These notes indicated the time of planting,
the time the first flowers of each variety came into bloom, the time
of maximum blooming, and the time of last blossoms. The seed
harvested from each plat was kept in individual packages.
By actual count the writer determined the percentage of damage to
each variety of field peas by these moths. The "worms" do not
usually consume the entire seed, but so far destroy it as to render ger-
mination impossible. Seed thus damaged is easily distinguished from
that attacked by Bruchus. The latter makes a very smooth round
exit hole, while the former gnaws into the seed very irregularly.
(See fig. 33.)


95






96 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS. .....

Figure 34 is a plan of the experimental plats and shows very c,
that the attacks of the pod moth were not restricted to any onen"
of the field, but were more or less promiscuously distributed. "
plantings were made on a gentle slope, the upper side being to ti
south, thus giving a northerly exposure. The vacant rectangle !


the center of the plan indicates a wheat-straw stack.


All sides of


field were bounded by grain fields, and the roadside was pr


22


23


24-


05


- Y -' i --*-- ta -*. 11.1 111m11lt


Y Y V I


/3


14-


/I


17


'8


4. 4-


2C


27


9


20


'Si>


21


-t I t-t 4 4 1-


Z8


X0


3/


3J3


Y4


3J$


3J 37 38 9 40 A4/ 2 43 14 45 47 4-0 497

--- --- -- ----- -1 --- ----- --- -- ----. ______ --.________ ^^i !
J-0 ,/ 52 .S3 -4 o'f Sc 57 S8 S9 'C o IP Go 691

C4 -_V S ( C ?7 G8 C9 ?70 7/ P2

7J3 74 75 7C STrArW 57s/CK 77 78 79 80 81

cZ 83 8* 8S 8 7 5809 90

-9/ 92 -3 94L- 9U X f7 9 / A0 /0/ /02 /J, /04

105 IC0 /07 108 /09 I/O /V / 112 /43 /4 J- //6 M/ Wi //J

/19 /20 /2/ /22 /23J 124 /F5 12G /2? /28 /29 /30 /3/ 132

/33 /34 /35 /JG /37 /38 /3M 4-0 /,04/ 142 /43 4- /4S 4

/47 /4-8 14 IJ- /15/ /52 15W /54- /f I/G /157 /SW /9 /0

FIG. 34.-Planting plan of plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth during the season of l9,t
(Original.)

without weeds of any kind. The plats were separated from each
other by strips of oats 1 yard in width. "
Field peas vary greatly in texture of the seed, time of blooming,
time of maturing seed, and adaptability to semiarid conditions. TWl
variability, however, is confined to the varieties to a large extent
the individuals of a variety being quite- uniform in response to give"
conditions. This fact at once opened the question of a worm!
resistant variety. The results arrived at by this investigation m
very suggestive. The actual records made in the investigation are 4
be found in Table I, but to make the results more readily available thl






THE LEGUME POD MOTH.' 97


variations in percentage of damage under several variables are graph-
ically illustrated by diagrams.

TABLE I.-Record of experimental work on the legume pod moth for the season of 1910.


B Began Full Bloom- Total Number Per cent
Plat No. NB.o. bloom- bloom. ng number of seed Peacn
o. ing. bloom ended, of seed. damaged, damaged.


51 ................ ......... 21289 June 14 June 17 July 6 21,802 0 0.0
97......................... 24177 June 16 June 21 ..do... 14,098 11 .0
102........................ ------------------- 21288 June 17 June 23 July 9 19,920 0 .0
26......................... ----------------------- 11097 ...do.... June 21 July 12 7,506 0 .0
20 -.....---...-....-............. 11112 ...do-. June 23 ..do.... 24,722 15 .0
43 .........-------................ 22639 June 19 June 24 ...do.... 9,010 0 .0
46--...----.....--........- ......... 24895 ...do..... June 25 ...do .... 13,828 10 .0
31------.......--------.........------ 24179 ...do...-.. June 26 ...do .... 19,508 8 .0
59.------....--------------...... 22077 June 14 June 21 July 14 14,517 0 .0
2-----.....-------......--------------... 23331 June 21 June 26 July 16 6,662 2 .0
100........................ 2-- 2007 June 16 .......... July 17 15,484 4 .0
acU-e ..................... 20466 June 28 July I ...do..... 22,117 4 .0
8...................--- ... 220.36 June 23 ..--.do..... July 24 15,539 14 .0
16...--------.......-.---------.------- 21709 June 26 ...do....... do..... 24,581 11 .0
101 ......................... 21605 June 10 June 16 July 3 26,431 36 .1
4- --......................... 23290A June 26 July 1 July 7 11,781 21 .1
63 ......................... 22638 June 10 June 17 July 12 30,276 36 .1
149 ......................... 23525 June 19 June 26 ...do..... 10,500 20 1
5 ----------.......--------------............. 22640 June 26 July 1 July 26 13,e25 25 1
150 ..--...... ... .......... 23290H July 1 July 6 .......... 19,413 33 1
72.....................-----------------------... 17006 ....... ... .do..... Aug. 3 23,707 37 .1
19 .......................... 18455 June 24 July 1 July 14 11,310 30 .2
32 .......................... 24178 June 21 ......... July 22 12,694 31 2
73 .......................... 24940 ...do..... June 26 ..do..... 13,063 28 .2
70 .......................... 20467 June 26 June 30 .do.... 18,495 45 .2
42 .......................... 24262 June 16 June 23 July 17 9,792 33 .3
48 .......................... 19389 June 23 June 28 July 24 22,960 .O .3
13........... -----------------------.............. 22040 July 1 July 9 Aug. 3 19,039 65 .3
41 .......................... 17486 June 26 July 3 July 24 13,252 66 .4
7 -..........-.....--..... 22045 ...do ..... July 6 July 26 14,522 72 .4
55 .......................... 12888A June 30 .do..do ... .......... 10,477 43 .4
10...................---------------------....... 19786 ...do ..... July 3 July 26 11,939 59 .4
103 ......................... 20382A ...do..... July 6 July 29 20,335 85 .4
44 .......................... 19290 June 19 June 24 July 6 3,346 21 .6
17 -....................... 21290 June 21 June 30 July 17 22,372 136 .6
54........................------------------------- 16439 June 23 ....... ... do..... 24,937 169 .6
148------.......----------------............... 23547 June 26 June 30 .......... 14,585 95 .6
49......................... ----------------------- 17483 June 30 July 6 July 26 33,529 229 .6
104- .....................----- ... 19788A ...do ..... ... do..... ......... 16,509 107 .6
61 ......................... 16437 June 26 ..do-..-.. July 29 9,3.50 63 .6
35 .......................... 22043 ...do ..... .. do--.... July 26 20,588 145 7
14 -- --........ ...... ....... 22038 July 3 ...do..--... ..-do..... 20,255 145 .7
98 ........................------------------------- 23850 June 19 June 26 July 17 13,971 138 .9
76 ......................... 18456 June 23 ...do..... .......... 13,639 131 .9
25 ......................... 16130 -...- do..--... July I Aug. 3 2,279 21 .9
80 ......................... 10274A July 9 July 17 Aug. 14 10,290 122 1.1
56---------.........---------------............... 12887 June 26 June 30 July 22 9,848 119 1.2
87..........-.......-..... 23851 ...do-......-do ..... July 24 21,895 292 1.3
60_... ..... ---17483A June 28 July 6 Aug. 3 9,400 127 1.3
90 ....................... 20381 July 17 July 24 Aug. 13 8,887 118 1.3
69.......................... 23847 June 28 July 6 Aug. 3 19,007 302 1. 5
58 ................... 22078 June 23 ..........July 24 8,444 164 J. 9
160....................... 16436 June 24 June 30 July 22 18,724 382 2
37 ......................... 22044 July 1 July 9 Aug. 3 18,555 411 2.2
12-.................. 9-9-22041 July 3 July 12 July 26 12,053 278 2.3
77.......................... 19787 July 2 July 9 .......... 14,699 389 2.6
82,-........... .......... 19709 July 3 July 14 Aug. 9 14,713 387 2.6
15......................... -22037 ...do..... July 9 July 26 22,148 683 3
40........... .......... 19785 June 26 July 6 ...do..... 10,447 346 3. 3
159 .....................-.... 16437A June 28 ...do ..... .. do.... 7,105 244 3. 4
36--...----------------------..................... 22046 July 1 ...do ..... .. do ..... 11,191 391 3. 4
38 ......................... 22042 July 3 July 9 ..do.... 13,822 502 3.6
88 .......................... 22049 ...do..... ...do..... July 29 23,573 893 3.7
99 .......................... 23848 June 26 July 3 Aug. 3 15,066 563 3. 7
& acre ..................... 16819 July 3 July 9 ...do.... 6,581 281 4.2
S 156.........------------------------........... 17483E July 9 July 14 July 29 10,732 821 7.6


The diagram, figure 35, shows the maximum (solid line) and mini-
mum (dotted line) percentage of seed damaged in all varieties which
commenced blooming at any given time. It shows that varieties






PAPERS'ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


which began blooming during and after the last week in JuneiA
decidedly the most severely attacked.
Figure 36 shows similar data on all varieties in full bloom at
given time, besides very clearly showing that such varieties as
in full bloom between the first and last weeks of July were the 3
severely attacked.


".


7.0


6.0


Ito


4.0


3.0


.O0


%,4
N 5s N

I N


FIG. 35.-Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume pod moth to variety*
of peas commencing to bloom on a given date in 1910. (Original.) ,

Figure 37 shows similar data on all varieties which ceased blooW::.,
ing on any given date, and indicates that such. varieties as ha:4I
ceased blooming before the middle of July were only slightly damaged,,
As the time the plants are in full bloom is very evidently of tihe
greatest significance, Table II and figure 38 were arranged to showQ
the mean percentage of damage done to all varieties in full blooi&
at any given time, which indicates- very conclusively that varietil&
which were in full bloom, from the 1st to the middle of July are ;!::
far the worst damaged by the legume pod moth. '


98






THE LEGUME POD MOTH.


99


TABLE II.-Mean percentage of damage done by the legume pod moth to all plats in full
bloom on a given date in the season of 1910.


Date of full bloom.


Jane 16.................. ...
June 17......................
June 21......................
June23......................
June24......................
June25.............-----.....
June26.....................
June28 ........... ............
June 30...................


Mean
per cent
of seed
damaged.


Number
of plants.


I II


Date of full bloom.


July 1 .......................
July 3 ..................
July 6 .......................
July 9 .......................
July 12.................... .
July 14 ......................
July 17 ......................
July 24 ......................


Mean
per cent
of seed
damaged.


0.2
2.1
1. 1
2.5
2.3
I


Number
of plats.

U
7
2
15
8
1
2
1
1


G.e





4;..







.O.



a,O



i.e











Pie. 36.--Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume pod moth to varieties
of peas in full bloom on a given date in 1910. (Original.)


EXPERIMENTAL WORK CARRIED ON DURING THE SEASON OF 1911.

Sixty-seven varieties of field peas were planted in 1911 on the
farm of the State College at Pullman, Wash. The field selected was
in a draw, or ravine, bordered on three sides by grain fields and on
c ~o : ;: : :: :: : ;: ;; : : :: : ; : :: :^ : :: :; : : :: :: : ::I:II LI:: :: : 11 :: :: ;I ::I::I :I :: ;:

^ .0 : : : : ; :; : : : : : : : : S :: :: : : : : : : :: : : : : : : : : : : I : : : I :: : : : : : ; ; : : : : ; ; : :I;;I












(A~1. 1A I I I I-a
.. .. .\ -s------- C
.? .. .. . .
. - -
I F



Vso. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ---Dia-- shw--aiu n iiumdmg oeb h eum o oht aite
of pas n ful boom n agive dae in191. (Oigial.
EXEZMETA WOR.CRRID.N.DRIG.HE.EAON.F.91.
Sixty-seven~-- -----ie ---edpa wr lne i 91o h
farm~~~ of .h .tt .olg at .-hnn -ah -h -il seece -was--
in X .................o t re id s y grin fi ls nd o


I--














experimental plats used this season. The moths wer i
-destructive this season as last, 2.5 per cent being the gi
done to any variety this year, while in 1910 as high es,


G.


,ro


90


%y %9


G


FIG. 37.-Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume pod m
of peas which ceased to bloom on a given date in 1910. (Original.)

of one variety was destroyed. However, the results obtain!
conclusive as those recorded last year. .
Table III gives the data of this season's work and, is sell
atory. Table IV is arranged to show thie mean percentage 0
done to all plats which came into full bloom on any one dat e.
40 graphically illustrates these results and very clearly :A
varieties which were in full bloom prior to June 28 weon .|
unmolested. .




4* ." . ... ..
*i. *fl !8. .. -'--i'' .'. I ...S.1.. .8 ''T *:*,, .: . ..;!iiff 'l:::c ::;ii i
: : "::iE E.:.:E:E:." ...: ..EEE ',Ii
.... "!!"::.'. i!!':: /[, :[ Ii;.!.Pil
% " " .. .... . ., 'i":"
k. : :. ... :;".'H : i ": ::::i:
'jt! :: : i H .i : : H: HW. :i


E:.. A





. .* .* ..- _'_ a--

,,,' .A . ,.....*' ...... . f ;. ', ; .*,- .. ,. . ..- *> '- hi j Jf ..* =: 'K


-u

.-I
m
x


EXPERIMENTAL PLATS USED IN INVESTIGATIONS OF THE LEGUME POD MOTH DURING THE SEASON OF 1911. (ORIGINAL.)


. .., '. j-.' an .'"


D
Ln
-0)
D)





3.
T
W



4


0





m
'I






C
3



c
C



0






0



C
-o
0

0
3


C
D=






102 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS. .

TABLE 11.-Record of experimental work on the legume pdoth for the of
TABLE II I.--Record of experimental work on the legume pod moth for the fecwomzf




Plat No.



.................
2 .................
3 ................
5 .. .. .. .. .. .... ....
12 ..... ... ... ... ..
38 ..................
57................
65.. ..............
4 .. .. .... .. .. ... ..
8 ...... ....... ....
14 .................
6 ................
21 ................
9.................
17 .................
20 .................
30 .................
52 .................
58.................
10 .................
13.................
39.................
56 .......... ......
62 ...... ............
59.................
54.................
5 1........ .........
47 .................
48.................
34.................
44..................
22................
23 .................
63... .. .........
19 ..... ............
43 .................
26 .................
16 ..................
31 ..................
35 ..................
67 .................
28 .................
42 .................
33 .................
46 .................
66 ................
61 .................
11..............
18 .................
24 ..................
27 ................. '
36 ..................
40 ................ ..
53 ................ i
55 ................ .
49 ..................
45 ............... .
25 .................
25 .................
5064 .................
64 .................
41 ............... .
15. ..................
32....... ...........
293 ..................'
7 ..............
37. .I ........ .......


B. P. I.
No.


24895
29366
22639
18806(
29368
22638
21288
3182
17483B
23850
23547
22540
23290D
22044
22043
23414
29372
23290H
19389
17486
29365
25439
24179
11097
24940
23290E
22049
21709
22077
16130
16436A
22037
17483
11112A
17006
22042
22046
29369
2203
22036
11112
29367
21290
29371
25917
3179
22048
22639A
17483F
29323
19786
27003
16437A
12887
22041
29370
23847
20467
19788
27004
3184
22040
17483C
26819
19787
19709
16436C


Date of Began
planting, blooming.


Apr. 15 June 17
...do..... June 7
...do..... June 16
..do...-. ...do....
Apr. 17 June 22
Apr. 18 June 12
...do..... June 19
...do..... June 22
Apr. 15 June 25
...do.... June 16
Apr. 17 June 22
Apr. 15 June 19
Apr. 17 ...do.....
Apr. 15 June 28
Apr. 17 ...do.....
..do..... June 26
..do..... June 19
Apr. 18 June 28
...do..... June 22
Apr. 15 June 28
Apr. 17 July 12
Apr. 18 June 28
...do..... June 19
...do........do.....
...do..... June 22
...do..... June 28
...do...........
...do ..... June 22
...do..... June 12
Apr. 17 June 28
Apr. 18 ..........
Apr. 17 July12
...do..... July 7
Apr. 18 June 16
Apr. 17 July 7
Apr. 18 ..do .....
Apr. 17 ..........
...do..... June 26
...do..... July 7
...do..... June 26
Apr. 18 June 19
Apr. 17 June 24
Apr. 18 ...do.....
Apr. 17 June 28
Apr. 18 July 7
...do..... ..... ...
...do ..... Ju'y 7
Apr. 17 June 28
...do..... July 12
...do..... June 22
. .do..... .........
...do..... July 7
Apr. 18 June 28
...do........do.....
...do..... July 7
...do.... ...do.....
...do........do.....
...do..... June 28
Apr. 17 July 7
Apr. 18 ...do.....
...do..... June 28
...do..... July 7
Apr. 17 ...do.....
...do .... .... ...
...do.... July 7
July 15 1.......
July 18 I June 28


Full
bloom.


June 28
June 12
June 19
...do.
June
June 16
June 28
...do...
July 8
June 28
..do.- -
July 8
July 3
July 15
July 13
July 7
June 28
July 10
July 7
...-do.....
July 15
July 7
July 1
June 28
July 5
July 7
July 15
June 28
...do.....
July 8
July 7
July 15
July 13
July 7
July 12
July 15
...do.....
July 7
July 13
July 7
... do s..
..do....
July 5
July 7
July 15
July 10
July 15
July 7
July 15
July 7
...do.....
July 13
July 7
...do....
July 13
July 15
...do.....
July 7
July 15
...do.....
July 5
July 13
July 15
July 18
July 15
..do .....
July 7


Bloom-
ing
ended.


July 15
July 7
July 15
July 7
July 15
...do....
...do .....
...do....
July 30
July 21
July 15
July 21
July 15
Aug. 1
July 29
July 15
...do.....
...do....
..do....
July 21
Aug. 1
July 21
July 10
...do.....
July 15
July 21
...do.....
July 15.
...do.....
July 26:
July 21
Aug. 1
July 30
July 23
July 21
Aug. 1
July 30
July 15
July 21
..do.---
July 15
...do.....
...do.....
July 21
...do.....
July 26
Aug. 1
July 21
...do.....
July 15
July 25
July 26
July 21
July 15
July 25
...do.....
July 21
...do.....
Aug. 1
July 27
July 15
July 21
Aug. 1
..do.....
...do.....
...do ....
July 21


Total
i number
of seed.


9.400
33,529
23,797
2,279
28,417
19,899
22,462
15,745
18,725
16,380
19,725
10,290
22,823
14,463
8,416
16, 279
8,726
8.909
10,080
13.772
21.795
20,224
13,406
31,369
22,259
24, 165
12,514
3,235
14,303
22,857
10,226
191.761
12.814
13,164
14,352
11,828
13,141
10,112
15.373
20, 8C8
16,234
9,399
14,588
26,239
22,859
13,599
19,140
9,277
15.379
13.528
10,621
22,266
8,776
29,165
20,366
7,333
18.206
14,602
11.209
10.,370
14,933
16.498
1,871
24,470
15,473
7,506
21,791


Number
of seed
damaged.


0
0
5
2
7
4
S
93
20
418
21
24
46
104
68
131
883
90
101
161
242
223
148
377
208
290
151
942
201
320
154
299
193
211
243
201
224
184
277
376
294
188
292
527
457
272
383
199
323
285.

185
613
428
162
401
322
259
239
359
397
45
612
387
192
557





THE LEGUME POD MOTH.


103


TABLE IV.-M'Can percentage of damage done by the legume pod moth to all plats in full
bloom on a given date in the season of 1911.


Full bloom.


Mean per
cent of
seed
damaged.


June 12 ........................ 0.0
June 16 ....................... .0
June 19 ............ .......... .. .0
June28.. ................... .5
July 1........................ 1. 1
July 3 ........................ .2
Ju ly 5 ........... ............ 1.9


I,
Number [
of plats. '

I

It '
1
2
10
1
1
3


Full bloom.


July 7 .......................
July 8........................
July 10.......................
July 12.......................
July 13.......................
July 15 ...... .............. ...
July IS .................... .


Mean per
cenj of Number
seed of plats
damaged.

1.7 19
.6 3
1.5 2
1.7 1
1.8 i
1.9 15
*2.5


7.9



'.9





4.#

.0.



\.ao


fY.O



I.@


N N<. No t
N N N .M N


FIG. 40.-Diagram showing mean percentage of damage done by the legume pod moth to varieties of peas
in Ifull bloom on a given date in 1911. (Original.)

ARTIFICIAL DISSEMINATION.

On examining sacks of seed peas, September 14, 1911, a larva was
found enclosed in a very tough silken cocoon. On October 24
another larva was found in a second sack. Mr. Evans also found a
hibernating larva in a seed sack and kept it alive on his desk during
the greater part of the winter. It seems as if this insect could very
easily be introduced into regions where it does not at present occur,
by being shipped with the seed field peas.





PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


PARASITE S. .*,:
> ^>..<...j.^^^^<-^ *.
Two hymenopterous parasites were reared from the larvae i;i
Etiella zizjckenella schisticolor during the investigations at Pullma|.
Wash., viz, Pseudapanteles etiellae Vier. and Micro>bracon Ayslopi Vidf
Dr. F. H. Chittenden 1 records having reared Bracon sp. (deti&
mined by Viereck) from Etiella schisticolor on October 19, 1908,
Santa Ana, Cal., and Mr. C. L. Marlatt2 records rearing a braconaii.
from the larva of this moth at Nuecestown, Tex., on May 13, 1896. .

REMEDIAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES.... "

The legume pod moth is readily controlled by preventive measure:,:4
and for this reason there have beehfi o'" "ti"riments with remedies.
The transportation of the hibernating forms in sacks of seed, and the.:'.!
consequent dissemination of the pest, may be prevented by fumiga"- .i
tion of the seed with carbon bisulphid.
Owing to the presence of the native lupines, extermination of ti:i!Q
pest is impossible, but by planting such early varieties of field peas Ui
come into full bloom before the last week in June it may be praoticaly ::
eliminated as a factor to be dealt with in seed growing in the Pacifkic
Northwest. The date of planting, however, will vary in different :I
localities and under different conditions. i
Bul. 82, Pt. Ill, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 28,1909. I
2 Bureau of Entomology Notes, No. 7044. i.


104








STHE LEGUME POD MAGGOT.
(Pegomya planipalpis Stein.)
By JAMES A. HYSLOP,
Agent and Expert.

GENERAL ACCOUNT.
About the middle of July, 1909, a large number of larvae of Pegomya
planipalpis Stein were found leaving the pods of lupines that had(l
been placed in rearing cages. On the 28th two pupae were found in
one of the cages. Within the next few days many more larvae left
the pods and pupated. A number of these puparia placed in a glass
vial during the autumn of 1910 were kept in the field laboratory all
winter. May 11 of the following year the first adult emerged and
from that date others emerged daily throughout the remainder of
the month. By a number of experiments it was found that humidity
greatly facilitated the emergence of these flies.
These flies were first believed to be scavengers, feeding on the
frass and. decaying seed of the lupine and field peas in the wake of
Sthe legume pod moth. However, investigations in 1910 proved that
the insect, though often found with Etiella, was quite capable of
independently infesting seed pods and was itself an actual seed de-
stroyer. Many pods were found to contain from one to three of these
larvae.
Dr. F. H. Chittenden,I of this bureau, notes this species as attacking
radishes at San Francisco, Cal.
The larvae molt at least twice, as two pairs of pharyngeal hooks
S were found in a pod with one larva. Though several of these dipter-
& ous larvae were found in field-pea pods with the head capsules of
larvae of the legume pod moth, we hardly believe this species to be
Sparasitic, as larvae confined in small vials with pod-moth larvae would
not attack the latter.
I In cages with earth in the bottom the pupae were always to be
S found below the surface at distances ranging from 1 to 3 inches. The
larvae contract just before forming a puparium. The puparium is
S at first creamy yellow, turning brown at the ends first and finally
* becoming entirely ferruginous. A larva that contracted on the
* morning of July 31, 1911, assumed the usual puparium form by 9.30
a. m. of the same day. It was still pale yellow, but by 2.30 p. m. it
S had become brownish at the ends and deep orange-yellow at the
II middle, while next morning the puparium was uniformly ferruginous
II brown.
1 Bul. 66, Pt. VII, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 95,1909.
i 105





106


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


DESCRIPTION.

THE LARVA.

(Fig. 41.)


FIG. 41.-The legume pod maggot(Pegomya planipalpis). Larva: a, Side view; b, oblique aspect of head; .;
thoracic spiracle; d, e, pharyngeal hooks, lateral and dorsal aspect; f. dorsal aspect of caudal sepmuSit-
g, anal spiracle, a, Much enlarged; b-g, highly magnified. (Original.)

Larva cream-white, 7.9 mm. in length and 1.9 mm. in diameter. Broadly blunt '
posteriorly, conically tapering to anterior end. Hook jaws black. At base of coaid:
thoracic segment a pair of fan-shaped thoracic spiracles which are .
pale yellow and ten-lobed. Anal spiracles on rather long papilli- '
form tubercles; spiracular orifices of each spiracle three in number
and arranged to form a letter T, the stem directed laterad and
slightly ventrad. Four small tubercles below the spiracles are ar-
ranged in a row across the end of the caudal segment, the outer
pair the larger. In front and to the side of this row is a pair of
larger tubercles and in front of this pair is a ring of twelve tubercles
around the segment; the two dorso-lateral and the two ventro-lateral
tubercles large and conspicuous, the others smaller. Ventral swell-'
ings on segments 3 to 9, inclusive, armed with many small spinous |,,,
papillaem.


THE PUPARrUM.

(Fig. 42.)
Puparium ferruginous, dark brown at ends.
finely wrinkled. Hook jaws of larva visible.


FrO. 42.-T-ah
.]podu:nt:
got: PUV~tdW-W::irl,
Mint mmbreiuL
(OrigibL) :
Cylindrically oval, :. ...
Length 6.4 mm.; width 2.3 s9iw :




107


THE LEGUME POD MAGGOT.

THE PUPA.
(Pig. 43.)


White, head large, front protruding. Legs and wing pads free.
Third pair of legs under wing pads except tarsi.
THE ADULT.
(Fig. 44.)
The following is a translation of the original de-
scription by P. Stein, published in the Berliner Ento-
mologische Zeitschrift, volume 42, page 234,. 1897.
Pegomya (Chortophila) planipalpis. S 9 Size, shape, and color
similar to Ch. cilicrura Rd. Cinereous; eyes cohering closely on
inside, frontal triangular stripe practically straight, reddish; front
and epistoma laterally moderately prominent, cinereo-rufous, peris-
tome moderately broad, grayish; antennae black, third joint twice as
long as second, base of arista thickened, very slightly pubescent,


<^L.


FIG. 43.-The legume
pod maggot: Pupa.
Much enlarged.
(Otiginal.)


S


\nyr-


I \I'I
S


FIG. 44.-Thelegume pod maggot: Adultinale, enlarged; side of head of female, much enlarged. (Original).
palpi black, apex a little dilated; thorax cinereous, less so on the sides, median line
narrow and lateral stripes hardly perceptibly wider; abdomen elongate, depressed,
median stripe and incisures narrowly black; tarsi black; pulvilli and ungues, the







108 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS..
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anterior ones moderately and the posterior one slightly, elong:sie:; ^
hyaline, longitudinal veins 3 and 4 parallel, anterior cross-vein pe.
nearly straight, costal spines small; squama equal and white, hal.....
Female yellowish-gray; eyes with frontal stripe broad, dirty reddNishII
broadly separated with yellowish gray; palpi distinctly dilated at apex;
immaculate; abdomen oblong, median stripe and small areas shining
lowish brown; base of wings yellowish. Size J 5, 6mm.......

PARASITES.
": : ::::':Eiiiy
Pegomqa planipalpis is attacked by two chalcidid parasitep
(Iolaspis n. sp.) belongs to a genus of which there are twai.
species, Ilolaspis parellina Boh. and H. papaveris Thorns., recor&..
parasitic on Cecidomyia spp. The other parasite (not yet detai"
reared from the legume pod maggot is probably also new to eel

REMEDIAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. i

This maggot has not as yet become a serious factor in .i
seed growing in the Pacific Northwest. The disseminatI
hibernating puparia can be readily prevented by fumigation-:i:
the case with the legume pod moth, it can not be exterminated W
of the native lupines.
I Dalla Torre, Catalogus Hymenopterorum, vol. 5, p. 291, 1898. :
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