Papers on cereal and forage insects

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Title:
Papers on cereal and forage insects
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
7 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Forage plants -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029637351
oclc - 22577538
Classification:
lcc - SB818 .B85 no.95, 1913
System ID:
AA00018926:00001

Full Text
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U. S. DEPARTMENT


)F AGRICULTURE,


BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 95.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.




PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS









CONTENTS AND INDEX.











ISSUED FEBRUARY 7, 1913.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1913.


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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY- BULLETIN No. 95.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.



I. THE TIMOTHY STEM-BORER, A NEW TIMOTHY INSECT.
By W. J. PHILLIPS, Entomological Assistant.

II. THE MAIZE BILLBUG.
By E. 0. G. KELLY, Entomological Assistant.

III. CHINCH-BUG INVESTIGATIONS WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
By E. 0. G. KELLY, Entomological Assistant,
AND
T. H1. PARKS, Entomological Assistant.

IV. THE SO-CALLED "CURLEW BUG."
By F. M. WEBSTER, In Charge of CGrtal and Foragt Insect Ir etetgations.

V. THE FALSE WIREWORMS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST.
By JAMES A. HYSLOP, Agent and Expert.

VI. THE LEGUME POD MOTH.
THE LEGUME POD MAGGOT.
By JAMES A. HYSLOP, Agent and Exp(rt.

VII. THE ALFALFA LOOPER IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST.
By JAMES A. HYSLOP, Agent and Expert.




















WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1913.




















BUREA U OF ENTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.
F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. Mh. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field rork.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge.
GEO. I. REEVES, W. J. PHILLIPS, C. N. AINSLIE, E. 0. G. KELLY, T. D. URBAHNS,
H. M. RUSSELL, GEO. G. AINSLIE, J. A. HYSLOP, W. R. WALTON, J. T. MONELL,
J. J. DAVIS, T. H. PARKS, H. L. VIERECK, R. A. VICKERY, HENRY Fox, J. R.
MALLOCH, V. L. WILDERMUTH, IV. R. AMcCONNELL, HERBERT T. OSBORN, PHILIP
LUGINBILL, W. R. THOMPSON, HARRISON R. SMITH, E. G. SMYTH, C. W. CREEL,
E. J. VOSLER, R. N. WILSON, VERNON KING, PHILIP B. MILES, E. H. GIBBON,
L. P. ROCKWOOD, entomological assistants.
NETTIE S. KLOPPER, ELLEN DASHIELL, preparators.
CHAS. PETTY, collaborator.
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., December 11, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for publication as
Bulletin No. 95, seven papers dealing with cereal and forage hisects,
and methods for their control. These papers, which were issued
separately during the years 1911 and 1912, are as follows: The
Timothy Stem-Borer, by W. J. Phillips; Thle Maize Billbug, by
E. 0. G. Kelly; Chinch-Bug Investigations West of the Mississippi
River, by E. 0. G. Kelly and T. H. Parks; The So-Called "Curlew
Bug," by F. M. Webster; The False Wireworms of the Pacific North-
west, by James A. Hyslop; The Legume Pod Moth and The Legume
Pod Maggot, by James A. Hyslop; The Alfalfa Looper, by James
A. Hyslop.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.




IA

















PREFACE.


The articles included in this bulletin relate to insects more or less
destructive to cereal and forage crops in the United States. They
represent investigations largely completed during the fiscal year
1911-12.
The timothy stem-borer, the subject of Part I, has not during our
observations been especially injurious, but is likely to become so
should several favorable conditions result in increased abundance.
The maize billbug (Part II) and the so-called "curlew bug" (Part IV)
are two very closely related insects, the latter being especially
destructive in Virginia and the Carolinas, while the former is occa-
sionally quite "injurious in the West. The paper relating to chinch-
bug investigations west of the Mississippi River (Part III) is exceed-
ingly timely and serves to make more clear the difference in condi-
tions, as regards the chinch bug, between the country west of the
Mississippi River and that lying east of it. Parts V, VI, and VII
relate to species more or less destructive in the extreme northwestern
portion of the United States, a section of the country somewhat pecul-
iar in that it differs greatly in hisect fauna from more southern and
eastern sections of the country.
All of these papers relate to insects that the farmer must, to a
greater or less extent, encounter and control in a successful carrying
out of his business.
F. M. WEBSTER,
In Charge of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations.







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CONTENTS.


The timothy stem-borer, a new timothy insect ( Mordellistena ustulala Lec.)


W. J. Phillip


8.


Introduction.................
HIntrorytin----------------------
History ..........................
Distribution.....................
Character of attack...............
Host plants- ...........----............
Description of the different stages..
Life history and habits .............
The egg .......................-----------
The larva....................
The pupa ....................
The adult ....................
Life cycle.........................
Hibernation .......................
Parasitic enemies .................
Remedial measures ...............
The maize billbug (Sphenophoru.s naidis
Introduction ......................
History of the species.......-....
Injuries since 1895 .................
Distribution.....................
Food plants ......................
Description and life history. .......
Number of generations.............
Records of depredations............
Remedial measures...............


('httn.


I . . . .


Chinch-bug investigations west. of the Mississippi


.E.0.


''. Kell


1
1
2
2
2
3
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
9
9
S. 11
I- U







11
12
.. 14
1- - 5
. - 15
16
22
- 22
.- 22


River


E. 0. G. Kelly and T. H. Parks.. 23
Introduction.......................................................... 23
Distribution .......................................................... 23
Description and number of generations ................................. 24
M igrations ............................................................ 24
Status of the chinch-bug problem in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma .... 26
Southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma, 1910 ...................... 29
Kansas, 1911. -------------------------------------..................... ...-----------.. ..... .. . 30
Hibernation........................................................... 32
Preventive measures recommended .................................... 36
Rem edial m measures ................................................... 38
Unsatisfactory remedial measures ...................................... 39
Plowing under infested crops.......................................---------------------------------------.... 39
Parasitic fungi ....................................................... 40
Early observations............................................ --------------------------------------------.... 40
Observations by the writers ....................................... 41
Sum m ary ............................................................ 50

t The seven papers constituting this bulletin were issued in separate form on March 31, April 22, and
December 14, 1911, and April 10, April 22, May 31, and October 16, 1912, respectively.
VII


Page.

1


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VIII


PAPERS ON CEREAL


The so-called "curlew bug" (Sphenoph
Introduction.....................
History of the species..............
Bureau notes .....................
Distribution ............ ..........
Food plants ......................
Description and life history........
The egg.................
The larva ....................
The pupa ....................
The adult ....................
Recent investigations of the Bureau
Remedial and preventive measures.
Natural enemies ..................
The false wireworms of the Pacific Norti
Introduction.....................


4;


AND FORAGE INSECTS.

P---
orus callous Oliv.)....F. M. Webister.. 53
.................................... 53 :
.................................... 54 >
. . . . ...... ....................... 54
.................................... 57 t
.................................... 58 "i
.................................... 59'
.................................... 59
.................................... 60 .I
.................................... !iJ
.................................... 63 g
of Entomology ..................... W, .
.................................... 6 i
.................................... 71 i
west ............... James A. Hyslop.. 73 F
.................................... 73 "'i


Historical ................... ..........................................
D distribution ..........................................................
The work in the Big Bend region of Washington........................
Descriptions .........................................................
Eleodes letecheri vandykei Blaisd .....................................
Eleodes pibnelioides Mann..........................................
Food substances ......................... ...................................
Seasonal history ............................... .......................
Natural enemies and parasites .........................................
Remedial and preventive measures....................................
The legume pod moth (Etiella zinckenella schisticolor Zell.).... James A. Hyslop..
Historical .................... .........................................
Synonymy and distribution...........................................
Food plants ..........................................................
D description ..........................................................
Seasonal history ......................................................
Field work ........................................................ .
Artificial dissemination ...............................................
Parasites .............................................................
Remedial and preventive measures....................................
The legume pod maggot (Pegomya planipalpis Stein)........ James A. HIyslop..
General account ......................... ...................................
D description ...................................................... ....
Parasites .............................................................
Remedial and preventive measures....................................
The alfalfa looper in the Pacific Northwest (Autographa gamma californica
Speyer)................................................ fames A. Hyslop..
Introduction..........................................................
Distribution ....................................................... .
Seasonal history ............................................. .........
Food plants ..........................................................
Descriptions .................. .-. .. .......-........... -------............
Parasites .......................................................... .
D diseases ..............................................................
Remedies and preventive ....----..............-....................
Index ............ .........................................................


73
75 ]
76 :
S78 .
78 :i
80 I
82 .
83
84 i
86 :
89
89
90
90
91
92
94
103
104
104
105 1
105
106
108
108

109
109
110
110
112
112
114
118
118
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ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.

PLATE I. The timothy stem-borer (Mordellistena ustulata): Larvae and pupa
in stems ........................ ................ ...................
II. Fig. 1.-Corn plant injured by the adult of the maize billbug
(Sphenophorus maidis); afterwards attacked by the larva. Fig. 2.-
Corn plant showing on stalk the effects of feeding by adult, maize
billbugs; effects of feeding by larvae on roots. Fig. 3.-Corn plant,
much distorted, showing suckers; final effects of feeding of adult
maize billbug ............................. ..................
III. Corn plants showing effects of feeding of adult maize billbugs in the
field; plant at left, not attacked; the two at right attacked by larvae.
IV. Ravages of the chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus). Fig. 1.-Corn plant
killed by chinch bug. Fig. 2.-Chinch-bug ravages in cornfield in
southern Kansas, 1910. Fig. 3.-Cornfield adjoining wheat field
from which chinch bugs migrated in immense numbers at harvest
time ................. .............................................
V. Hibernation of the chinch bug. Fig. 1.-Pile of sorghum canes in
which no hibernating chinch bugs could be found. Fig. 2.-
Waste land along stream in foreground, sedge-grass meadow in
background; chinch bugs found hibernating in both. Fig. 3.-
Clumps of red sedge grass (Andropogon scoparius) in which over
6,000 chinch bugs were found hibernating during winter of 1909-10.
VI. The portion of the Shannonhouse cornfield, Hertford, N. C., on
which corn was grown in 1910, totally destroyed by the "curlew
bug," Sphenophorus callous, in 1911..... ................
VII. The portion of the Shannonhouse cornfield that was devoted to
cotton in 1910; planted to corn in 1911 and uninjured by the "cur-
lew bug" ...................... .................................
VIII. The dividing line in the Shannonhouse cornfield in 1911 between
the portion (to the left of the man standing in the center) devoted
to cotton in 1910 and the portion (to the right) where corn was
grown in 1910 ....................... ............................
IX. Fig. 1.-View of cornfield near Appleton, Tenn., showing damage by
the "curlew bug." Fig. 2.-Corn plants, showing normal plant
and those damaged by the "curlew bug".......................
X. Experimental plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during the season of 1911 ......................................
XI. The alfalfa looper and its parasites. Fig. 1.-Cocoon cluster of
Apanteles hyslopi. Fig. 2.-Cocoon of alfalfa looper (Autographa
gamma californica). Fig. 3.-Larva of alfalfa looper with cocoon of
Microplitis alaskensis. Fig. 4.-Pupa of alfalfa looper. Fig. 5.-
Adult alfalfa looper. Fig. 6.-Adult alfalfa looper at rest........


Page.

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18


24





36


60


60



60


68

100




112






PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


TEXT FIGURES.
POW|
FIG. 1. The timothy stem-borer (Mordellistena ustulata): Adult ................ 2 -
2. The timothy stem-borer: Egg ........................................ 3 I
3. The timothy stem-borer: Larva and details ........................... 3
4. The timothy stem-borer: Pupa and details............................ 5
5. The maize billbug (Sphenophorus maidis): Eggs ...................... 16
6. The maize billbug: Larva .................................-........... 1
7. Corn plant showing result of attack by the maize billbug .............. 18
8. Swamp grass attacked by the maize billbug- ........................... 18
9. The maize billbug: Pupa ............................................ 19
10. The maize billbug: Adult ............................................ 21 I
11. Map showing distribution of the chinch bug west of the Mississippi III
R iver, 1911 ....................................................... 24 -I-
12. Corn plant about 2 feet tall, infested by chinch bugs .................. 25 2
13. The chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus): Eggs, larvae, details ............ 26
14. The chinch bug: Adult of long-winged form .......................... 26
15. The chinch bug: Adults covered with "white fungus" (Sporotrichum
globuliferumn) ........ .. ............................. .......... 47-
16. The "curlew bug" (Sphenophorus callous) ............................ 53 .
17. Map showing distribution of the "curlew bug" (Sphenophorus callous)
and the maize billbug (Sphenopborus maidis) ...................... 57
18. The "curlew bug": Egg as placed in stem of young corn plant........ 59
19. The "curlew bug": Larva; heads'of larvae of "curlew bug" and maize ::
billbug .......................................................... 60
20. The "curlew bug": Pupa .......................................... 63
21. The "curlew bug": Eggs, pupa, adult, work in corn ................... 65
22. False wireworm, Eleodes letcheri vandykei: Adults in characteristic
attitudes ........................................................ 73
23. False wireworm, Eleodes letcheri vandykei: Egg ......................... 78
24. False wireworm, Eleodes letcheri vandykei: Larva and details ........... 79
25. False wireworm, Eleodes letcheri vandykei: Pupa, dorsal and ventral
aspects ......................................................... 79
26. False wireworm, Eleodes letcheri vandykei: Adult .....----................. 80
27. False wireworm, Eleodes pimnelioides: Adult, details of larva ............ 81
28. The legume pod moth (Etiella zinckenella schisticolor): Egg ............. 91
29. The legume pod moth: Larva and details............................ 91
30. The legume pod moth: Pupa........................................ 92
31. The legume pod moth: Adult ......................................... 92
32. The legume pod moth: Larva feeding in a pod of field pea ............. 93
33. The work of the legume pod moth compared with that of the pea weevils
(Bruchid e) ...................................................... 95
34. Planting plan of plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during the season of 1910---------..........--..-..--------..------.....-----------.. 96
35. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume
pod moth to varieties of peas commencing to bloom on a given date
in 1910 ......................................................... 98
36. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume
pod moth to varieties in full bloom on a given date in 1910 ........ 99
37. Diagram showing maximum and minimum damage done by the legume i
pod moth to varieties of peas which ceased to bloom on a given date
in 1910 ............................... .......................... 100
38. Diagram showing mean percentage of damage done by the legume pod
moth to varieties of peas in full bloom on a given date in 1910..... 101







ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
FIG. 39. Planting plan of plats used in investigations of the legume pod moth
during the season of 1911........................................ 101
40. Diagram showing mean percentage of damage done by the legume pod
moth to varieties of peas in full bloom on a given date in 1911 ..... 103
41. The legume pod maggot (Pegomya planipalpis): Larva and details... 106
42. The legume pod maggot: Puparium............................... 106
43. The legume pod maggot: Pupa...................................... 107
44. The legume pod maggot: Adult male and head of female............. 107
45. The alfalfa looper (Autographa gamma californica): Larva, dorsal and
lateral aspects ................................................. 113
46. Rhogas autographs?, a parasite of the alfalfa looper ................... 115
47. Larval skin of alfalfa looper from which Rhogas autographs has issued. 115
48. Cocoons of alfalfa looper parasites: Microplitis sp., Sargaritis v'ebsteri,
Microplitis alask'ensis .......................................... 116
49. Apanteles hyslopi, a parasite of the alfalfa looper...................... 116
50. Plagia americana, a parasite of the alfalfa looper ..................... 117
51. Phorocera saundersii, a parasite of the alfalfa looper.................. 117
























ERRATA.


Page 2, line 18 from bottom, for this year read in 1910.
Plate I, facing page 8, after line at bottom, insert: a, Work of larva in bulb of plant;
b, larva ascending stem to pupate; c, pupa in cell, the gallery plugged withfrass below.
Much enlarged. (Original.)
Page 12, line 19 from bottom, before corn borer insert double' quotation mark in
place of single quotation mark.
Page 15, line 16, for were read was.
In Plate IV, facing page 24, the cut of figure 1 is upside down.
Page 46, line 16 from bottom, after 4 insert per cent.
Page 74, last line, insert superior figure 1 (1) before Bureau.
Page 76, line 16 from bottom, for littorale read aviculare.
Page 77, line 12 from bottom, for littorale read aviculare.
Page 81, line 4, after monograph insert comma.
Page 81, line 5 from bottom, before Dr. insert of.
Page 82, line 5 from bottom, for littorale read aviculare.
Page 83, line 8, for littorale read aviculare.
XII














IN1 D EX.

Page.
Agropyron sp.. host plant of Mordellistena ustualaa .......................... 2
Agrostis alba, host plant of Mordellistena ustulata ........................... -----------------------2
Alfalfa, food plant of Aulographa gamma californica.......................... ------------------------112
looper. (See Autographa gamma californica.
Ameloctonus n. sp., parasite of Autographa gamma caliobrtica- ------ 116
Anas platyrhynchos, enemy of Eleodes adults ............................... 84
Andropogon furcatus, hibernating shelter for chinch bug- .................... 34,35
scoparius, hibernating shelter for chinch bug ............. 27, 29.32, 34
Ant, Formica ritfa obscuripes, enemy of Autographa gamma californica ........ 117
subpolita, enemy of Aulographa gamma californica .............. 118
Tetramorium cxspitum, enemy of Eleodes .............................. 85
Apanteles hyslopi, parasite of Aulographa gamma californica............... 116,117
Arsenate of lead ineffective as repellent against false wireworms (Eleodes) .... 87
Arsenical sprays not very effective against maize hillbug (Sphenophorus maidis). 22
Astragalus sp., food plant of Etiella zinckenella schislicolor ................... 89, 91
Asyndsmus leirisi, enemy of Eleodes adults ................................. 84
Aulographa gam ma californica ............................................ 109-118
activity in bright sunlight ..................... 110
adult, description .......................... 113-114
control by parasites ..................... 109-110. 118
description .................................. 112-114
diseases ...................................... 118
distribution ................................. 110
early record of injury to alfalfa ................. 109log
egg, description ............................... 112
food plants ................................... 112
larva, description ............................ 112-113
outbreak in California in 1886 .................. 110
parasites ................................... 114-118
pupa, description .............................. 113
remedies and preventive. I- ---------------- 118
seasonal history ............................ 110-112
Bacteria in diseased larvae of Autographa gamma californica ................. 118
Bacterial disease, possible cause of death of larvae of Sphenophorus callosus... 71
Badger, adults of Eleodes obscura sulcipennis in burrows ..................... 76
enemy of false wireworms ..--------------------------------------...................................... 75
Baldpate. (See Mareca americana.)
Barley, food plant of Autographa gamma californica ........................... ----------112
, Barriers, coal-tar, against chinch bug...................................... ---------------------------------37-38
|: dust, against chinch bug ...------------------------........------.............------- 37
t green-corn, unsatisfactory against chinch hug ..................... 39
Bartramia longicauda, enemy of Eleodes adult ............................... 84
iBean, lima, food plant of Etiella zinckenella schislicolor....................... ------------89.90
I1eard-grass, broom. (See Andropogon scoparius.)
: forked. (See Andropogonfurcalus.)
71312-Bull. 95-13--2 119






120 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.

Paz&:
Beet, sugar, roots food of false wireworms .................................. :
Billbug, maize. (See Sphenophorus maidis.)
Bisulphid of carbon against legume pod moth (Etiella zinckenella 8schistieolor).. 104
Blackbird, Brewer's. (See Euphagus cyanocephalus.)
Bluebird, western. (See Sialia mexicana occidentalis.)
Bluegrass. (See Poa spp.)
Botrylis rileyi, fungous parasite of Plusia brassie ........................... 118
Bracon sp., parasite of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor .......................... 104
Braconid parasite of Etiella zindcenella schisticolor.......................... 89, 104
Bromus secalinus, probable food plant of Mordellistena ustulata ............... 2
"Budworm," colloquial name for Diatrwa sp. on corn ....................... 69
Bufo sp., enemy of Eleodes ............................................... 85
Burning against chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus) ............................. 36-37
maize billbug (Sphenophorus maidis) ........................ 22
Butcher bird, enemy of Eleodes ............................................ 85
Cabbage, food plant of Autographa gamma californica ........................ 112
Eleodes tricostata ...................................... 73-74
Calandra callosa=Sphenophorus callosus ...................................... 54
Calomagrostis, hibernating shelter of chinch bug ............................ 35
Cane in piles, hibernating place of chinch bug ............................. 32
Cannibalism in false wireworms in confinement.............................. --------------------------82
Carexfrankii, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus .......................... 57,58, 60
vulpinoidea, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus....................... -----------------------58
Cecidomyia spp., hosts of Holaspis parellina and Ilolaspis papaveris ........... 108
Centrocercus urophasianus, enemy of Eleodes adults .......................... 84
Chalcidids parasitic on Pegomya planipalpis------------------------------................................. 108
Cheat. (See Bromus secalinus.)
Chickens, enemies of Eleodes adults .......................................... 84
Chinch bug, control by parasitic fungi ...................................... 40-50
description ............................................-------------------------------------------...... 24
destruction of those in hibernation .------------------------........................... 36-37
which enter corn fields...................... ------------------38-39
distribution west of Mississippi River ---.....--------.-.......----------....... 23-24
generations, number ........................................... 24
hibernation ................................................... 32-36
in Kansas, 1911 ................................................ 30-32
southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma, 1910 ................ 29-30
m igrations ..................................................... 24-26
parasitic fungi ................................................ 40-50
plowing under infested crops for its destruction.................. 39-40
preventive measures recommended ............................. 36-38
remedial measures ........................................... ----------------38-39
status in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma ....................... 26-32
unsatisfactory remedial measures ................................ 39
west of Mississippi River ................................-------...... 23-52
summary--- -............................ 50-52
Chordeiles acutipennis texensis, enemy of Sphenophorus callosus ......... ..... 71
Chrysolophus amhersti and adult Eleodes. -------------------------- ----- 84
pictus and adult Eleodes...................................... ---------------------------------84'
Chufa. (See Cyperus esculentus.)
Citellus columbianus, adults of Eleodes letcheri vandykei in burrows---------......- 8
townsendi, adults of Eleodes obspura sulcipennis in burrows .............-- 7
"Clewbug," colloquial name for Sphenophorus callosus ......................






INDEX. 121

Page.
Clover, red, food plant of Autographa gamma california .........-------............-----.. 112
"Clue bug," colloquial name for Sphenophonrus callous ....................... 55
Coal-tar barriers against chinch bug ................. *....................... 37-38
ineffective as a repellent against false wireworms i Eleodes .......... 87
Corn fodder, hibernating place of chinch bugs ................................. 33
food plant of Sphenophorus callosus ............ ...................... 54-57, 59
maidis ..................................... 15
husks, hibernating place of chinch bug .................................. 32
leaves, food of Eleodes adults ......................................... 82
seed, food of Eleodes adults............................................ 82
false ivireworms (Eleodes) ................................. 82
Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis, enemy of Eleodes adults....................... 84
Corymbites inflatus destroying wheat field.................................... 74
Crop rotation against "curlew bug" (Sphenophorus callosus).................. 70-71
timothy stem-borer (Mordellistena ustulala) ............. 9
Crotolaria incana, food plant of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor................. 89,91
sagittalis, food plant of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor. .............. 89, 91
Crow, western. (See Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis.)
Cultural methods against "curlew bug" (Sphenophorus callosus).............. 70-71
false wireworms (Eleodes).......................... 86-87
legume pod moth (Etiella zinckertella schisticolor) ... 104
"Curlew bug." (See Sphenophorus callosus.)
Cyperus esculentus, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus................... 55, 57,58
exaltatus, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus....... ........ ........ 59
rotundatus, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus ....................... 58
strigosus, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus....................... 58
Dactylis glomerata, host plant of Mordellistena ustulata ....................... 2
Diatrao saccharalis, remedies similar to those employed against Sphenophorus
maidis ......... ....................................... 22
resemblance of injury to that of Sphenophorus maidis...... 22
sp., on corn, known as "budworm ". .............................. 69
Digitaria, hibernating shelter of chinch bug ................................. 35
Disease affecting larvae of Eleodes........................................... 85-86
bacterial. (See Bacterial disease.)
fungous. (See Sporotrichum globuliferum.)
Dock. (See Runme sp.)
Dryobates rillosus, enemy of Eleodes adults ................................. 84
Ducks, enemies of Eleodes adults .......................................... 84
Dust barriers against chinch bug .......................................... 37
Early varieties of peas. use in preventing injury by legume pod moth (Etiella
zinckenella schisticolor) .................................................... 104
Elder. (See Sambucus sp.)
Eleodes adults, defensive habits and secretion .............................. 7G-77
food substances............................................ 82
natural enemies and parasites.............................. 84-86
larvae. (See Wireworms, false.)
Eleodes dentipes, longevity of adults in confinement ......................... 84
extricata, occurrence in Pacific Northwest .......................... 74
hispilabris, occurrence in Pacific Northwest........................ 74, 75
humeralis, occurrence in Pacific Northwest........................... 74
letcheri randykei, adult, description ............................... 80
descriptions........................................ 78-80
distribution....................................... 75






122


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Eleodes letchiri varrndykei, egg, description..................................
investigations in Big Bend region of Washington....
larva, description.................................
occurrence in Pacific Northwest................. .
pupa, description.................................
seasonal history. ...................................
manni. occurrence in Pacific Northwest..............................
nigrina, number of eggs ..............................................
occurrence in Pacific Northwest.............................
obseura sulcipennis. adults found in burrows of Citellus townsendi and
badger .......................................
occurrence in Pacific Northwest.................
opaca, damage to seed wheat .................. ......................
distribution ................................................
pimelioides, adult, description......................................
descriptions ...........................................
distribution .................................... ........
egg, description .................... ... ..................
eggs, num ber. ..........................................
in wheat field in Pacific Northwest.......................
larva, description ......................................
pupa, description ......................................
schwarzii, occurrence in Pacific Northwest -.. ......................
suturalis, distribution .............................................
early record as injuring wheat ........... ..................
host of Perililus n. sp ......................................
seasonal history. ...........................................
texana, distribution ......................................
tricostata, distribution .......................................... -
early records as injuring cabbage...........................
"Elephant bug," colloquial name for Sphenophorus maidis..................


Entomophthora aphidis, parasite of chinch bug....................
Erax lateralis, enemy of Sphenophorus callosus..................
Etiella villosa=Etiella zinckenella..............................
zinckenella, synonymy ...................................
schisticolor ..................................
adult, description .................
description .........................
dissemination, artificial ............
distribution .......................
egg, description ....................
field work, 1910-11 .................
food plants ....................
historical .........................
larva, description ................
parasites ........................
pupa, description ............. ..------
remedial and preventive measures-.
seasonal history ...................


. . . . .. .o. .
. . .. .. .

......... .I.
. . .o .. . ..


.. . . . . .


........... 94-103
............ 90-91
............ 89-90
............ 91-92
- .. ..104
. . . . . . 92
............. 104
............. 1092-94
----------. .. 92-94


synonymy ............................ ..... - --
Euphagus cyanocephaabs ......... ............................................
enemy of Eleodes-.......................----- -------.....
Eleodes letcheri vandykei ....................


Paw.
78
76-78
78-79
74,75
79-M
83-84
74
83
74, 75

76
74,75
74
76
81-82
80-82
75
8d
83
74, 75
80-81
81
74
76
74
85
83-84
76
75
73-74
14
40
71
90
90
89-104
92
91-92
103
90
91






INDEX.


123


Page.
Fodder shocks, hibernating places of chinch bug .......................... 32
Formica rufa obscuripes, enemy of Autographa gainma calfjornicu ................ 117
subpolita, enemy of Autographa gamma californica........- ........... ------- 118
Fumigation against legume pod maggot (Pegomya planipalpis') ................. 108
Fungi parasitic on chinch bug (see also Sporotrichum globuliferunm and Ento-
mophthora aphidis.)
observations by Kelly and Parks, field studies
in Kansas and Oklahoma ........ 41-46
early -............................. 10-41
Fungous disease of chinch bug. (See Sporotrichum globuliferum.)
Fungus, Botrytis rileyi, parasitic on Autographa gamma californica ............ 118
probable cause of death of larvme of Sphenophorus callosus ............ 71
white, i See Sporotrichumn globuliferunm.)
Gasoline torcli against chinch bug-- M ...... ...... ....................... 38-39
Gennxus uychlheoierus, enemy of Eleodes adults ............................. ----------------------84
Geococcyr chdljorn icus, enemy of Eleodes adults ............................... 84
Geometrid larva,, comparisolln of movements with those of Autographa gamma
californica ...........................................................----------------------. 111
Grackle, bronzed. iSee Quiscalus quiscula a'neus. i
Grass, blue-slem, hibernating shelter of chinch bug. ....................... 33
broom beard. (See Andropogon scoparius.)
crab. (See I)igitaria.)
forked beard. (See Andropogon furcatus.)
orchard. (See Dactylis glomnerala.)
quack. (See Agropyron sp.)
reed. (See Calomago-rostis.)
se(lge. (See Andropogon scoparius.)
swamp. (See Tripsacum dactyloides.)
wild, hibernating shelter of chinch bug ................................ 33
witch. (See Panic-um capillare.)
Hay in piles, hibernating place of chinch bug............................... 33
Hemerocampa leucostigmnia, periodical outbreaks and control by parasites ..... 109
Hen, sage. (See Centrocercus urophasianus.)
Heterospilus mordellistenw, parasite of Mordellistena ustulata ................. 9
Ilolaspis n. sp., parasite of Pegomya planipalpis .............................. 108
papaveris, parasite of Cecidomyia spp.... .. ........................ 108
parellina, parasite of Cecidomyia spp ... ..-......................... ----------------------108
HYSLOP, J. A., paper, "The Alfalfa Looper in the Pacific Northwest (Autographa
gamma calijbrnica Speyer)" ....................... 109-118
"The False Wireworms of the Pacific Northwest" ...... 73-87
"The Legume Pod Maggot (Pegomya planipalpis
Stein)"................ .................... 105-108
"The Legume Pod Moth (Etiella ziackenella schisticolor
Zell.)" ............... .... ------....--------------.. 89-104
Kafir in piles, hibernating place of chinch bug.. ............................ 32
"Kaloo bug,"?' colloquial name forSphenophorus callous ...................... 54
KELLY, E. 0. G., paper, "The Maize Billbug (Sphenophorus maidis Chttn.)".. 11-22
and PARKS, T. H., paper, "Chinch-Bug Investigations West
of the Mississippi River "......................... ..... 23-52
Kerosene emulsion against chinch bug ....................................... ---------------------------39
"Klew," colloquial name for Sphenophorus callosus.......................... 53
"Klewbug," colloquial name for Sphenophorus callosus ...................... 56
"Kloobug," colloquial name for Sphenophorus cullosus ....................... 53






PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Lampyrid larvae. azwociation with Sphenophorus callous in infested hills of
corn ...................................................................
Lanius ludovticianus gambeli, enemy of Eleodes adults .........................
Larks, horned. (See Otocoris alpestris var.)
Legume pod maggot. (See Pegomya planipalpis.)
moth. (See Etiella zinckenella schisticolor.)
Legumes, food plants of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor ........................
Lima bean. (See Bean, lima.)
Lupines (see also Lupinus spp.).
foodc plants of Pegomya plan ipalpis................................
Lupinus spp. (see also Lupines).
food plants of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor....................
Mallard. (See Arias platyrhynchos.)
Malva rotundifolia, food plant of Autographa gamma californica................
place of oviposition of Autographa gamma californica......
Mareca americana. enemy of Eleodes adults...................................
"Measuring worms." (See Geometrid larvae.)
Melanerpes erythrocephalus, enemy of Eleodes adults...........................
Merisus mordellistente, parasite of Mordellistena ustulata.......................


Microbracon hyslopi, parasite of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor........
Microplitis alaskensis, parasite of Autographa gamma californica......
n. sp., parasite of Autographa gamma californica..........
Mimus polyglottos leucopterus, enemy of Eleodes adults.............
Mocking bird, western. (See Mimus polyglottos leucopterus.)
M ordellistena ustulata............. ..............................
adult, description of Le Conte................
life history and habits.................
attack, character.............................
description of different stages...............
distribution.................................
egg, description .............................


life history. ...................
enemies, parasitic..................


hibernation .............................................
history ........................... ......................
host plants...........................................
larva, description.....................................
life history and habits...........................
movements in stem............................
outside stem .........................
length of several stages...............................
life cycle ...................... ...........................
history and habits................................
pupa, description......................... ...........
life history and habits..........................
movements in stem............................
movements outside stem ........................
remedial measures...................................
Mowing against timothy stem-borer (Mordellistena ustulata)....................
Nectar of clover and alfalfa, food of moths of Autographa gamma californica....
Nematode worms, occurrence in adult Eleodes..............................
Nematodes, possible cause of death of larvae of Sphenophorus callosus..........


8
1-2 I
2 II
3-4
6-7
6-7
7
8
8
6-8
5-6 -::
7
7-8 7.


9
110

865
71


124


p.-.

71
84



90


105

91

112
110
84

84
9
104


......... 115
.. ....... 115
......... 84

......... 1-9
6
8
2
. . . 8
. . .. .. 2
. . . . 3-6
2
3
. . . . 2
- - . 3


.......... ..........
...................






INDEX. 125

Page.
Nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis texensis, enemy of Sphenophorus callosus .... 71
Nut-grass, yellow. (See Cyperus esculentus.)
Oats, seed, food of false wireworms (Eleodes) ................................. 82
Otocoris alpestris var.................... -------------------------------------------------......... ......... 84
Owl, "billy." (See Speotyto cunicularia hypogma.)
ground. (See Speotyto cunicularia hypogwa.)
Oxyechus vociferus .......................................................... 84
Panicum capillare, food plant of Sphenophorus callous ......................... 55, 58
PARKS, T. H., and KELLY, E. O.G. (See KELLY, EO. G., and PARKS, T. H.
Peanuts, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus................................. 59
Peas, Canada field, food plant of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor ................ 91
field, food plants of Pegomya planipalpis................................ 105
garden, food plants of Autographa gamma cualifornica..................... 112
Pegomya planipalpis...................................................... 105-108
adult, description.................................107-108
description........................................... 106-108
general account......................................... 105
larva, description..................................... 106
parasites ............................................... 108
pupa, description....................................... 107
puparium, description ................................. 106
remedial and preventive measures ...................... 108
Perilitus n. sp., parasite of Eleodes suturalis............... ................ 85
Phasianus reevesi, enemy of Eleodes adults................................... 84
torquatus ....................................................... 84
Pheasant, Chinese. (See Phasianus torquatus.)
golden. (See Chrysolophus pictus.)
Lady Amherst. (See Chrysolophus amherstix.)
Reeves. (See Phasianus reevesi.)
silver. (See Gennxus nychthemerus.)
PHILLIPS, W. J., paper, "The Timothy Stem-borer, A New Timothy Insect
(Mordellistena ustulata Lec.)" ............................................. 1-9
Phorocera saundersii, parasite of Autographa gamma californica................ 117
Phrynosoma cornutumn, enemy of insects...................................... 85
douglasii, enemy of Eleodes..................................... 85
Plagia americana, parasite of Autographa gamma californica ................... 116
Planesticus migratorius propinquus, enemy of Eleodes adults .................. 84
Plover, field. (See Bartramia longicauda.)
killdeer. (See Oxyechus vociferus.)
Plowing, late, against false wireworms ...................................... 86-87
under infested crops for destruction of chinch bug unsatisfactory
except in certain cases........................................... 39-40
Plusia gamma californica==Autographa gamma californica ..................... 109
Poa, hibernation shelter of chinch bug...................................... 35
Poa spp., probably food plants of Mordellistena ustulata ....................... 2
Polygonum aviculare, food plant of Eleodes letcheri vandykei ................... 76
leaves, food of Eleodes adults .......................... 82
Pooecetes gramineus confinis.................................................. 84
Potatoes, seed, food of false wireworms....................................... 82
Pseudapanteles etielile, parasite of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor................ 104
Quiscalus quiscula xneus, enemy of Eleodes adults ........................... 84
Rattlebox, common. (See Crotolaria sagittalis.)






126 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Rhogas autographs', parasite of Autographa gamma californica ................. 114
Rice, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus............................... 55-56,59
Road-runner. (See Geococcyx californicus.)
Robber fly. (See Erax lateralis.)
Robin, western. (See Planesticus migratorius propinquus.)
Rotation, crop. (See Crop rotation.)
Rumex sp., food plant of Autographa gamma californica ......................... 112
Rushes, wild, hibernating shelter of chinch bug .............................. 33
Sage hen (Centrocercus urophasianus), enemy of false wireworms (Eleodes)..... 75
Saminbucus sp., food plant of Autographa gamma californica..................... ------------------112
Sargaritis websteri, parasite of Autographa gamma californica ............... 115-116
Schizoprymnus phillipsi, parasite of Mordellistena ustulata..................... 9
Sedge, Frank's. (See Carexfrankii.)
Shrike, California. (See Lanius ludovicianus gambeli.)
Sialia mexicana occidentalis, enemy of false wireworms (Eleodes) ............--. 76,85
Skunk, enemy of Eleodes........ ........................................... 85
Sparrow, western vesper. (See Poaecetes gramineus confinis.)
Spartium junceum, food plant of Etiella zinckenella schisticolor ............... 91
Speotyto cunicularia hypogcxa............................................... 84
enemy of Eleodes............................... 85
Sphenophorus callosus...................................................... 53-71
adult, description and life history --.................... 63-68
bureau notes................-- ..................-..... 54-57
description and life history............................ 59-68
distribution ....................................... 57-58
egg, description and life history ......................... 59-60
food plants........................................... 58-59
history of species .................................... 54
injury by beetles ..................................... 67-68
larvae to corn............................... 61-63
larva, description and life history...................... 60-61
life history and description of stages.............--....--- 59-68
natural enemies .................................... 71
pupa, description and life history.....---................. 63
recent investigations by Bureau of Entomology--------. 68-69
related to Sphenophorus maidis .......................... 53
remedial and preventive measures.....---.............- 69-71
Sphenophorus sculptilis Horn a synonym ................. 54
cariosuI, name incorrectly used for Sphenophorus callosus....... 55
Sphenophorus sculptilis Uhler a synonym .............. 54
maidis, adult, description and life history...................... 20-22
comparison of larva with that of Sphenophorus callosus.. 60
depredations, records ................................. 22
description and life history................-..--....... 16-22
distribution ......................................... 15
compared with that of Sphenophorus callous. 57
early records .......................................... 11-12
egg, description and life history ....................... 16
food plants........................................... 15-16
generations, number .................................. 22
history of species...................................... 12-14
!"-






INDEX. 127

Page.
Sphenophorus maidis, injuries since 1895 .................................... 14-15
larva, description and life history- ......------.......---........ 16-19
life history and description of stages..................... -----------------16-22
pupa, description and life history- -..................... 19-20
related to Sphenophorus callosus ........................ 53
rem edial m measures ..................................... 22
pertinax, name incorrectly used for Sphenophorus maidis ........ 12
robustus, name incorrectly used for Sphenophorts miaidis........ -----11-12
sculptilis Horn=Sphenophorus callosus ......................... 54
Uhler=--Sphenophorus cariosus-------------................---------......... 54
Sporobolus, hibernating shelter for chinch bug .--.......-....-...-..-...... 35
Sporotrichum globulifr'ni (see also Fungi parasitic on chinch bug).
effect of dry weather thereon....................... ------------------32
experiments in inoculation of dead chinch bugs --....- 47-48
live chinch bugs ..... 48-50
fungous parasite of chinch bug...................... 40-50
artificial introduction,
field studies ......------- 44-46
conclusions as to prac-
tical efficiency..... 50
Squirrel, ground. (See Citellus fownsendi.)
Stalk-borer, lesser corn. (See Diatrxa saccharalis.)
Stem-borer, timothy. (See Mordell-istena ustulata.)
Straw in piles, hibernating place of chinch bug .............................. ---33
Strychnia sulphate ineffective as repellent against false wireworms (Eleodes).. 87
Sugar sirup, food of Autographa gamma californica moths in confinement ...... 110
Tar, coal. (See Coal tar.)
Tetramoriuni ca'spitumn, enemy of Eleodes .................................... 85
Thrasher, curve-billed. (See Tox.rostoma curvirostre.)
Timothy, host plant of Mordellistena ustulata ................................ 2
stem borer. (See Mordellistena ustulata.)
Toad, garden. (See Bufo sp.)
horned (see also Phrynosoma cornutum).
(Phrynosomna douglasiil), enemy of false wireworms (Eleodes-..--- 75,85
little horned, colloquial name for Phrynosoma douglasii .................. 85
sand, colloquial name for Phrynosomina douglasii......................... 85
Toxostoma curvirostre, enemy of Eleodes adults m............................. 84
Tripsacum dactyloides, food plant of Sphenophorus callosus ...................... 58
maidis............------------ ....... 15-16.21
Tumbleweed. (See Panicum capillare.)
Turkeys, Eleodes adults distasteful and not eaten ............................. 4
Tussock moth, white-marked. (See Hemerocampa leucostigma.)
Vegetable matter, decaying, food of Eleodes adults .......................... S2
Vetch, milk. (See Astragalus sp.')
WEBSTER, F. M., paper, "The So-Called Curlew Bug (Sphenophorus callosus
O liv.) .......................................................... ......---------. 53-71
Wheat, seed, food of Corymbites inflatus ...................................... 74
Eleodes adults ......................................... 82
E leodes opaca ......................................... 74
suturalis ....................................... 74
false wireworms (Eleodes)............................----------------------------.. 82






PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Wiir.'wormnis, ialse (Eleodes), comparison with true wireworms elateridd larvm).
distribution.....................................
food substances................................
historical......................................
investigations in Big Bend Region of Washington.
natural enemies and parasites....................
of the Pacific Northwest.........................
remedial and preventive measures................
Woodpecker, hairy. (See Dryobates villosus.)
Lewis's. (See Asyndesmus leuisi.)
red-headed. (See Melanerpes enjthrocephalus.)


128


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Afmay be procured from the SUP-nlTEN-
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73
75-76
82
73-75
76-78
7M8
84-86
73-87
86-87




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