U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 85, Part III.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau. b
PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
THE CLOVER-ROOT CURCULIO.
V. L. WILDERMVTH,
Agent and. E.rirt.
ISSUED MARCH 7, 1910.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
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IL. F. PHILLIPS iCh cluiten Cheff bf culture
A.HAS.AN IOAM 1INISECi f lerit ic.tii::S
A. U). HPuu xis, in cImargt of fores luxcll in reetgai.s
F'.~ ~~~~~F NI. WESTER, ill charge.o eeladfrg nsc nrsialos
1. AN'LIP Jn cHarge~s Cf bee cull mv E.i.t.re.i- .Hy
I>. NI. I~on3I:KS, i" (luirge of p rc cnting .' preadi of inof lix, fir!.! r'iirl...:"':
lloI.L A IP. CUrRRIi ix ciii '!' (ltig f (ii? torirul w-ork. 'j
NIM FIL f'i('onoic, ibrnirianH. ,:
CrrcHiu ANI) I'OR.\(;1 INSKC'T i NVFSTIUiATIONSS. .:,.
F. M. \\'FBSTI:R, in c-hirgef. l
W. I1&APLR DIEAN, V. I.. WILUFKOITH. R. A. VICKERY. T.'11. I'AIKS, HERBERT.'---
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C. I. M ,RI.,I..t i~t,, Et,, ol,#i en Acin~ ('he[ ,, th~m'c"t O e. 'il~iiN
CONTN ( T F NTS.
In trod auction ............................................................. ,'-1
History of the clover-root 'urculio in foreign countries ...................... 0
History of its occurrence in America....................................... :1
Seasonal history .......................................................... 32
D descriptions ...................................................... ....... : 14
T h e ad u lt ................................................ .......... 3 4
The egg ........................................... ................ 35
T h e larva ............................................................ 315
T he pupa ............................................................ ;- 5
Feeding habits .............................. ................. .......... 36
Food plants ..................... . .. ............. ...... .. .......... . ... 36
N natural checks ........................................................... 37
B ird enem ies ......... .. .................................................. :7
Preventive and rem edies- ................................................ 3.S
B ibliography ................ ..................................... ...... '
I LL UST RATIO 0 NS.
Fir;. IS. The Clover-root uirculio .Sdione. hisphiuli's ): Adult-............---..
116. The clover-root curcilin: Eggs-....................................
17. The clover-root curculio: Lara. .................................. i
18. The clover-root curculio: Pupa .....-- .......................-----
19. The clover-root curculio: Red-clover root showing effects of attack by .:4::
larv:, and red-clover leaf showing work of adult beetles-.......... i
UI S. D. A., B. E. Bul. 85, Part I11. C. F. I. I., March 7, 191U.
I PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
STHE CLOVER-ROOT CURCULIO.
(Sifones I im.pididlIs Fab. i
By V. L. WILDERMUTH,
Agent and E.rpcrt.
The genus Sitones includes a large number of species, many of
which are known to be more or less injurious to leguminou,, orop-.
Sitones puncticollis Steph. and S. lineatu, L., frequently called pea
weevils," have been especially destructive at times to peas, beans, and
clover in England as well as on the Continent. In the years 1880 to
1882 and 1883 the crop of peas and beans was practically ruined in
parts of England. Miss Ormerod (1883, 18S4. 1893), stated that the
larvae were sometimes known as white maggots" and that in Eng-
land they obtain their living from the roots of the plants; attacked,
while the adults feed on the leaves.
In this country only, the flavescent clover curcitlio (S. la're.-(eci.s
Marsh.) has so far proved the most destructive relative of S. &Jusp'ul-
ultuis. Sitones flurescens depredates on red and white clo'e'r. more
particularly the latter, and perhaps does a large amount of obscure
damage, being'widely distributed over most of the United States
While S. hispidulus has never been so abundant in this country as
totally to destroy a clover crop, yet there is no doubt that injuries
that have before been either unnoticed or else laid at the door of some
other clover pests, as S. puncticollis, S. lineatu., or Phytonom ,s punc-
tatas Fab., or even the clover root-borer (Hylastiyt.y obsctur'us
Marsh.), by the ordinary observer, were partly the work of the adults
and larvae of this beetle.
From the history of other species of insects that have been imported
into this country, and from the fact that late in November, 1909, at
two localities, viz, Corning, N. Y., and Marion. Pa., the adults were
a See Bibliography, p. 3S.
CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
found to have practically eaten up the foliage of clover plai-ts, t..4
is reason to believe that this one may become destructive to the iZj
crop in future years. i
Up to the year 1909 nothing was known regarding the hatsth
this species in America. Adults were found by Mr. J. A. Hyslop,"'"E
this Bureau, early in April. but as Mr. Hyslop was almost. iml
diately thereafter detailed to investigations on the Pacific coast, tI
writer continued during the remainder of the year the life history
study begun by him and succeeded in following out the complete 1i
cycle. The writer is greatly indebted to Prof. F. M. Webster, 0
charge of cereal and forage insect investigations in the Bureau of En
tomology, for his kind direction of the work and for his assistance i
thle preparation of the manuscript. ,;
HISTORY OF THE CLOVER-ROOT CURCULIO IN FOREIGN COUNTRY.
The clover-root curculio appears to be a native of Europe, ori$
nally described by Fabricius (1776) as Curculio hispidula and report
by him as inhabiting aquatic plants in the neighborhood of '" Kill, j..
This description seems to have been drawn up prior to 1776. Laid
Germar (1S-24) placed it in the genus Sitones and reported it am
under stones. "
In 1S31 Stephens stated that the species occurred in abundance a.
sandy heath.- and moist meadows in some half dozen different plai
Schoenherr (1834) reported it as being found in northern an
temperate Europe. Hle also described a species found in "' Tauri
as S. ho-nmo-rhoidalis, which was later, in 1864, determined by AIisr
in his Classification of the Genus Sitones," as S. hispidulis of G
mar. At this time Allard stated that S. hispiduhts was very comrm.
all over Europe. as lie had received specimens sent by Motschu ..
from Holland. Hungary, Caucasia. Poland, central Russia, and eai
ern Siberia. From this and from Stephens's British report it will h
seen that it was even at that time widely distributed throughoiiJ
Europe, England. and parts of Siberia. This insect has not attract
so much attention as an economic species in Europe as have othe':.9
this genus, especially S. llneatus and S. puncticollis, but Brisd
(1876) made some interesting observations on its destructivenessl
clover in the vicinity of Dirschau, western Prussia. He fouitiV
clover field there of one year's standing overrun by insects.
leaves were badly eaten and the roots brown and dried up. UiJ
digging up the earth, he found, among the various larvt and pul.
several larva- and a pupa of a Curculionid which afterwardsprdH
to be those of Silones hispidulus. The larvae were found to feed,,4
THE CLOVER-BOOT CURCULIO.
clover roots and thle pupae were concealed in small earthen cells in the
ground, the latter requiring only a short time for development, when
the adults began their depredations on the remaining clover leaves.
It'will thus be noted that its record would seem to show that it may
become destructive in America.
HISTORY OF ITS OCCURRENCE IN AMERICA.
Although it has, since the middle of the last century, been widely
distributed over Europe and long before that time was very common
in England and parts of Europe, yet it was evidently not introduced
into America until much later. The first specimen was collected by
Le Conte at Long Branch, N. J., in the year 1876. about the roots of
grass growing on sand dunes (Hamilton. 1894). During subsequent
years its appearance was also noted and collections made at various
places in New Jersey, and in 18136 Mr. E. A. Schwarz found it at
Piney Point, Md., while three years later it made its appearance in
large numbers in the city of Washington. D. C.. being found there
on both red and white clover on the White House lot by Mr. Henry
Ulke (Schwarz, 1889).
Dr. F. H. Chittenden. of this Bureau. found the species very abuln-
dant in Wai-hington, D. C., in 1891, and in the spring of 1896 hlie found
the beetles on clover, many of them in copula, on the Department of
Agriculture grounds, but after that time lie was able to find them
only in limited numbers. Collections made since the early observa-
tions of Mr. Schwarz and others show the species to be gradually
moving westward. In 1894 specimens were collected by the late Dr.
John Hamilton at Pittsburg, Pa. (Hamilton. 1894). In 1906 Mr.
W. J. Phillips collected one -pecimen with wheat sweepings at Rich-
mond. Indl., and in the spring of 1908 thle writer found both the larvai
and adult very plentiful at Groveport. near Columbus, Ohio. A
specimen was also secured at Newton-Hamilton, Pa.. during the past
summer, and later in the season a few specimens were collected at
Watertown and Clyde, N. Y., and at Vicksburg. Pa.; while at Corn-
ing, N. Y., and at Marion, Pa., the species were found in numbers
large enough to be a decided detriment to the clover crop. As many
as two dozen adult beetles were found at the base of a single plant at
Corning, N. Y., and practically all the clover plants in a mixed clover
and timothy meadow had at least one-hlialf to two-thirds of the
foliage eaten away. At Marion, Pa.. the beetles were about as
numerous as at Corning, N. Y., and in a 16-acre clover field from
two to six beetles were found at the base of every plant, while the
damage done was readily noticeable. The damage, of course, would
be more apparent at this time of the year. for the cold weather had
already checked the growth of the clover plants and enabled the
32 CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
at Old Orchard Beach. Me.. between 3 and 4 p. min., September:..
1909, by Mr. C. A. Davis. At this time the beetles were a-wA P
over the sand along the wave line; the tide was rising and the wtI
was light and offshore. During the summer of 1909, also, adults:
found in an alfalfa field, near Pullman, Wash., by Mr. J. A. Hylid
SEASONAL HISTORY. il
This insect hibernates in the adult form, hiding itself no doail
under rubbish and leaves close to the ground. During the last Wid
of November, 1909, adult males and females were found at W"tv
town and Corning, N. Y., apparently hibernating. They were lyj
on the ground under and among the dead leaves and stems of th
clover plant. Hibernating individuals begin to die off about.Ni
latter part of May or first of June. Miss Ormerod. in her reput
for 1882, quotes Mr. Cluttenbuck as saying that he found ad4.
Sitones punceticollis and S. linieatvt.m hibernating in barley, oats, LUA
wheat straw. He says, We traced the sometimes total loss of ti.
crop of Trifolium to this source. inasmuch as we found the i ,
in the top joint of the stubble, among which we usually drilled-tti
crimson clover (Trifolbum incitirnaaum) without plowing." Si4
the work and habits of Si/toes' hispiddulus are so very similar H
those of S. Uliealtus, it seem, probable that it may hibernate in snilmi
The adults come forth with the first warm days of early spri..
and the female very soon begins oviposition. Adults were obsern4
abroad in large numbers by Mr. Hyslop in a small clover fieli
near Grant road, District of Columbia, on the 1st of April, 1904
and when collected in vials they immediately deposited eggs.
May 4 almost fully developed larvT were found by the writer 0.
clover roots -it Grant road. Eggs for these must have been depositoj
during the latter part of Marcli.
The female deposits l)romiscuously a large number of whitish egg
on the leaves and ground, or even on the side of (lthe cage when con
fined. In the field eggs were found adhering to the lower leavi
o(f both red clover and alfalfa. Within less than a day these ego
change in color to a shining black. It is very probable, howevwN
Ihat in the natural state the eggs are usually deposited at ornH
(lthe surface of the ground. The egg period is 13 days in durat1I
The larvae immediately after hatching go down into the gronm
Great trouble was experienced in getting eggs to hatch in reanaij
cages, and it seems from this that there may possibly be some ot..iM
a's yet unknown condition entering into egg deposition in the fi
THE CLOVER-ROOT CURCULIO. 33
The adult beetle endeavors to escape injury or capture by feigning
Death. If a clover plant upon which this beetle is resting be touched.
iQ: the beetle drops to the ground and lies there an inactive and almost
: invisible object. It is only when in motion that one is able to see it
: readily, since its color harmonizes so well with its surroundings.
The larval period varies from seventeen to twenty-one days, the
latter being apparently nearer the normal.
*i The pupal stage is passed in an earthen cell, which is oval in out-
K,, line, about three-sixteenths of an inch (5 mm.) long, and half as
:.' large in diameter. The time required for the pupal stage is from
i eight to ten days, easily determined independently of the other two
p stages by collecting nearly mature larvae in the field and rearing then
I to adults.
I:;, The larval period was determined by getting the combined length
Sof the egg. larval, and pupal periods and subtracting from these the
i- number of days required for the egg and pupal stages. This method
S was followed because of the difficulty experienced in getting the
Newly hatched larva, to live after being transferred from the vial
in which the eggs were hatched to a clover plant on which they could"
feed, and also because of the fact that the more fully developed
larvae, when disturbed to any extent, nearly always died. Thus, to
avoid this, a record was Iept of the d(lay of egg deposition in a cer-
tain cage and then the beetles were removed and the cage left undi.-
turbed but watched carefully until adults appeared. The time re-
quired for this was from thirty-eight to forty-three days, thus making
from seventeen to twenty-one days for the larval stage.
I Miss Ormerod (1882) has found that in England Stou'w. lnieatu'8
S and S. puncticollis, two closely allied species, have a fall brood. Mr.
IR. W. Christy, corresponding with Miss Ormerod, stated that as late
as October 21 he was unable to find larve of S. piictiiois, but that
[- during the month of November they were in abundance; while Prof.
F. M. Webster. in Indiana (Webster, 1886), ha., made the same
observation in regard to S. flavescens. Thus it seemed probable that
a fall brood might also occur in AS. h;spihduilus, but subsequent obser-
vation proves that in the neighborhood of Washington this i.., not
On September 23 the writer made a thorough but unsuccessful
search in a field of clover near Grant road, District of Columbia,
for the larvxe of this insect. Adults were found in abundance around
the clover crowns, but when placed in confinement these failed to
deposit eggs. However, a number of females collected October 7
deposited a dozen or more eggs during the following night. From
this time on collections were made every ten days and on each oc-
casion, when placed in vials and left overnight, the females depos-
CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
ited eggs. Of the several hundred eggs collected by this met..i(
however, only two or three hatched. On November 4 the wrif ........
while searching on the grounds of the Washington Monument, ...
Washington, D. C., found an egg evidently belonging to this sp.."i'
which, however, failed to hatch. Since the investigation of c
roots at various intervals during October and November failed4|l
reveal any larvae, it seems certain that the second or fall brood :J4
wanting in this locality. These observations fail to explain ti
reason for the deposition of eggs in vials. However, during the la
week in November, while the writer was on an inspection trij
through New York and Pennsylvania, an opportunity was afford...
him for collecting a large number of beetles, all of which were iiVB
patently in the hibernating stage. These, when taken to a waul
room, deposited eggs almost immediately. The facility with whI.
the eggs were deposited in vials may then be ..i
counted for by thle fact that these females wel
just ready to deposit eggs atd only awaiting:
warm spring day to carry out this work; theW
I fore, on being taken into a warm room the propS
p P degree of temperature was afforded and g
Deposition immediately followed.
r *THE ADULT.
Fli,. 15.-The clover-
root curculio (Sielo .
,,r hispidulus, The adult (fig. 15) is a small, black, hatd'
Adult. Greatly en- bodied beetle, from 3 to 5 mm. in length and
from 1.25 to 2 mm. in breadth. It has a shoil
head and a general, deeply punctured appearance on the surface od
the head, thorax, and elytra. It was described by Fabricius (Pay-
kull, 1800) as follows:
Head black with fuscous scales. Beak short, concave. Antenna slightly longS
than the head. Base rufous. Apex ashy. Eyes large, deep-set. Thorax lonw
than broad, convex, almost cylindrical, black. Below obscure, ashy sealeda
above deeply Iumctiured fuscous scales. Ashy scales in the parallel lougitfld&
nal lines. Middle one shortest. Scutelluni less ashy. Elytra black. Scai
densely fuscous and less ashy. Not as wide as thorax but twice as long, elm
vex, i'nmtate-striate. with series of erect, rigid white hairs between t..
striations. Wings white, hyaline. Breast and abdomen black, with fusomt*
rufous scales. Feet rufous. Femora fuscous-ashy, unarmed. As broad .:..
Curcitllo hirsulttits but not quite so long. :?
THE CLOVrER-ROOT CURCULIO.
The egg (fig. 16), as observed by Mr. J. A. Hyslop, is very slightly
ellipsoidal, almost spherical, and slightly granular, measuring 0.36
mm. in diameter; white when first deposited (fig. 16. a). but turning
jet-black after twenty-four hours
(fig. 16, b.)
The newly hatched larva is 0.68
mm. in length by 0.18 mm. in il
breadth and white. The head is
light chocolate, the posterior emar-
ginate portion very light, and the a
sides darker. The head is very
prominent, and cordate, 0.16 mm.
in length by 0.19 mm. in breadth.
the posterior portion deeply emar-
FIG. 16.--The clover-root curculio: a,'
ginate. The abdomen bears black Egg. immediately ofter oriposition: b,
hairs averaging 0.17 mm. in length. egg. one day after oviposition. Greatly
Tl. t I 1 C i^ enlarged. (Original. i
The full-grown larva (fig. 17) is enlarged. (Original.
5 mm. in length and 1.3 mm. in breadth. It is white, with a tinge
of yellow. The head is light chocolate. 1 mm. in length by 0.85 mm.
in breadth. When found in a natural condi-
/,tion the fresh specimen has a purplish tinge,
apparently due to the contents of the alimentary
THE PUPA. r
The pupa (fig. 18) is 4i mm. _
in length, almost white, with a -
EM light tinge of yellow on the
ji dorsal abdominal area. Each
segment of the abdomen bears
~ a row of dark hairs and pos-
teriorly at each side of thie
Fin. 17.-The clover- teriorly at each side of the FIG. 18.-The clover-
root curculio: Larva, terminal segment are two very root curculio:
Greatly enlarged, prominent, dark spines, with Pupa. Greatly en-
(Original.) large. (Original.)
a secondary spine on the out-
side of each. On the fourth day after pupation the eves turn
reddish brown and on the ninth day the mandibles become the
The larva? of this beetle feed on the roots of all the plants .".
tioned as food plants. The smaller, more tender, or fibrous zoof l
eaten by the younger larvae, which, as they become more ma.tfj0"
tack the larger roots. Large cavities are eaten along the main r"
and often these are in the form of a groove containing the
larva (fig. 19, a). An examination of clover roots, made on:.
tember 23, showed clearly the after effects of the work of the i
The roots were eaten at various places, some of them appeari..
though the whole surface had been eaten off, the roots being a
and brown, the d&Y
done during late a'
or early in the sums
~ The adults feed oub:
]Ifleaves, eating out
ular' patches from.|
margin of the
(Fig. 19, b.) They"::
not as hearty eat-^e-'I
f l Fsome of the allied A . "
.,..of beetles thatli..
F'. l o i:.'clover, and hence .
swa wwork is not so notibe..
except wh ien the b .
7-1 i have developed in
6 sively large number,:'.
By t was the case at Co rni
.J N. Y.
grow upWhile the genus .
folium seems to provj4
FIG. 19.-The clovcr-root curcullo: a, Red clover root the natural food pl
showing effects of attack by larv1; b, red clover leaf of this insect, there
showing work of adult beetles. About natural size. ..
(OriginaI.1 reasons for believing
others may in future:
added. The species kispidulus, when first observed in this co .n...
by Doctor Le Conte, was reported by him as present around the ..
of grasses growing on sand dunes. Stephens in 1831 reported it:4
England as being abundant on sandy heaths, which were no do10
grown up with grass.
The writer in the spring of 1908 found the larvae in large nuMz
in a blue-grass pasture. These were to all appearances fed[
THE CLOVER-BOOT CUBCULIO.
Partly on blue-grass roots, as the only clover present 'was T. repcins,
Sand this was rather scattering in the field. From this it would seem
that some of the grasses may be host plants.
Of the genus Trifolium, red clover appears to be the most common
choice as a food, while white clover (T'. rtpens), crimson clover (T.
iwncarndtum.), and alsike clover (T. hybridum) are all fed upon to a
greater or less extent by both thle adults and larvae. Alfalfa (Mcdi-
cago saliva) seems to be a common food plant for both larvae and
adults. On June 17 the writer collected numerous larvar from among
alfalfa roots in a field at Somerset Heights, Md., and while sweep-
ing over a field of alfalfa with an insect net at Muirkirk, Md., on
April 28, experienced no difficulty whatever in securing from six to
eight, adults with each sweep of the net. It seems likely that, with
the increasing acreage of alfalfa, this insect may become a destructive
pest and also menace this crop. The fact that alfalfa is always left
standing on the same land for a fairly long period, from three to six
years, may greatly accelerate the rapidity with which the insect will
be able to increase in numbers.
The larva was found to be attacked byi a fungus, one of the Ento-
mophthoro, which no doubt assists in keeping the insect in check.
The larvae, because of their sluggish movements, might be easily cap-
tured and fed upon by predaceous beetles, but the fact that the larvae
and pupw are subterranean in their habits i a1 semiprotection from
parasitic insects as well as from many predaceous enemies. No Hy-
menopterous or Dipterous parar ites were observed.
The Biological Survey, in its work on the food habits of birds,
has found that the following birds feed upon the adults of this
beetle: Upland -plover (Bartramia lo,iqguea, ; killdeer or killdee
(Owyechus vociferus); ruffed grouse HBona, itijbtl,'i-). broad-
winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) flicker i( 'olaptes a'nra/u-) : night-
hawk (Chordeiles rirginianus) ; chimney swift (Chati'a pelagica) ;
wood pewee (Myiochanes vi,, no): (i)ow blackbird (Qmis.ral/s quis-
dnla) ; meadowlark (Sturnella magna) : Lincoln finch (Mclo.pha
: lincolni) ; song sparrow (3Melospzan mclodi,) : chipping -parrow
:. (Spizella passerina) ; and the white-throated -,plarrow (Zo,,oiuiirhid
Of these birds the chimney swift and song sparrow were found to
S bb the greatest, feeders on the insect, as nimany as fifteen adult beetles
!: being found in the stomach of one chimney swift, while but few less
were found in stomachs of song sparrows.
38 CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIES.
Up to the present, time the depredations of this beetle have al |
parently been too limited and inconspicuous to call for inveastiS
nations along the line of remedies and preventive.
The system of short crop rotation, so advantageously employee
in the eastern United States, has no doubt assisted in limiting th.i
number. ('lover is. as a rule, grown for only a short period ome*.
the same piece of ground and thus no opportunity is afforded for_ tj
continuous development of the pest. On the other hand, the planiiJ
allowing alfalfa to stand on the same ground for a period of frMimii
three to six years would probably facilitate the increase of the inse&Wi
From the nature of the work of the beetles it is very hard to sugt iii
gest any remedy that would destroy the beetle and not produce more!
or less damage to the clover crop. Clover fields might be burned ov|M|
during the winter months, when the ground is frozen, without injuriuagj
the plants to any extent. l
The fact that the larvae are easily killed when disturbed su' ':!
gests a possible remedy in harrowing or cultivating the ground
some method in early spring and thus destroying a certain percentags:4
of the larva,, but for this to be wholly effective a large amount of :I
the clover would necessarily also be damaged and possibly killed...:'
As shown before, natural enemies, such as fungous diseases anml:
birds, have without a doubt contributed largely toward holding tin
insects in check. "
The following list includes the more important papers relating t'i
this species and is practically complete for the American literature: -.
1776. FABRICnUS, J. H.-Genera insectorum, p. 226..
1300. PAYKULL, G. VON-Fauna Suecica. Insect. Vol. 3, p. 305. 7
1824. GERMAR, E. F.-Ilnsectorum species, vol. 1, p. 417. .
1831. STEPHENS, J. F.-lllustrntions of British entomology, vol. 4, p. 134.
18,34. SCHOENIIERR, ('. J.-Genera et species Curculionidum. vol. 2, p. 123.
1864. ALLARD, E.-Anu. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 4, ser. 4, p. 376.
1876. BRISCHKE, C. G. H.-Entomologische Mountsblitter, Vol. 1. p. 38. :::
1881. OPMEROD, ELEANOR A.-Notes of observations of injurious insects. Report,-,a
isso. 1.on1h0l1. 11). 5-ii. '
1882. ORNEnon, ELEANOR A.-Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. f. 1882, pp. xii, xiv-xvL .:;
1S83. ORMEROD, ELLANOR A.-Report of observations 'if injurious insects durinagij
the year 1882. etc. London, pp. 13-15, 81-84. .i
1884. ORMEROD, ELEANOR A.-Report of observations of injurious insects &ai
common crop pests during the year 1883, etc. London, pp. 57-59. ,III
.1883-4. BARGAGLI, PIERO-Rnssegna biological di Rincofori Europei, p. 53. '.
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