Papers on cereal and forage insects

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Papers on cereal and forage insects
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
9 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029636469
oclc - 758870835
System ID:
AA00018925:00005

Full Text



IJ. S. DEPARTMENT


BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 85, Part VII.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


THE SMOKY




BY


JAMES


CRANE-FLY


A. HYSLOP


Agent and Expert.



ISSUED OCTOBER 7, 1910.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.


1910.


OF AGRICULTURE,


























BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY. 3


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau. *
C. L. MARLATT, Assistant Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Cnif.' I
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant. i
WV. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk. i


F. 1-H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect in vestiga"t9,
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations. :
F. M. WEBSTER, inll charge of cereal and forage insect investigations. ,
A. L. QUAINTANCE, inl charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of pretrenting spread of moths, field work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE. in charge of editorial work.. :
MIABEL COLCORD, librarian. l


CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

F. M. WEBSTER, in charge. :

GEO. I. REEVES, C. N. AINSLIE, J. A. HYSLOP, V. L. WILDERMUTH, R. A. VIcKEZY
T. H. PARKS, HERBERT T. OSBORN, agents and experts. ,
W. J. PHILLIPS, E. 0. G. KELLY, GEO. G. AINSLIE, PHILIP LUGINBILL, entomors
logical assistants.
MARGARET MARSHALL, stenographer.
NETTIE S. KLOPFER, preparator. :

11 ...




*:.,








I
q"
.":;E
-E!:
". iiiii


.. .. : ":ii















CO NT ENTS.

Page.
Introduction..................-----------------------..-------..---------...............------....--------- 119
Description ..-------..-----......----.--------------------...............-----------.------- 121
The adult................------------------------------------.........-----------------.. 121
The egg ....--------------------.............--------...--------------------------- 122
The larva................--------------...--..-----------..-------.....-----------....-------- 123
The pupa ..............----------------........-----.------.---..----..-------...--.----------- 125
Life history.---------------...............------...------------....---.-.-----.----.-----.... ---126
Natural enemies ----------------------------------------------------128
Parasites----------......---------...-....- ----- .---- .-----------....----...------.----- 128
Other insect foes ---------------..........-----------------------.----------.. 128
Birds.--------------------...------...........--.-------......---..------.-----..------- 129
Fungous enemies----......-----..--------------------.------------------......... 130
Remedial and preventive measures --------------------------------------130
Larvae of crane-flies as accidental inhabitants of man ....................... 131
Bibliography --------------.....-..--.---------.....----------------------------........ 132





ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
FIG. 60. The smoky crane-fly (Tipula infuscata): Adult female and details -..- 122
61. The smoky crane-fly: Adult male and details--------------------- 123 0
62. The smoky crane-fly: Eggs ...------------------------------------............. 123
63. The smoky crane-fly: Larva and details --..--------------......--..--------.. 124
64. The smoky crane-fly: Pupa -----------------......-...---------..---------... 125
65. The smoky crane-fly: Positions assumed by adult in emerging from
pupal case --------.......------------------......--...-----.......--.......------------ 127
66. Admontia pergandei, a parasite of Tipula infusenta ----------------.................. 128
III






S

t

















ii


I
I.




























I




b






S





I

















I

a


I













U. S. D. A., B. E. Bul. 85, Part VII.


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.



THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY.
(Tipula infuseata Loew.)

By JAMES A. HYSLOP,
Agent and E.rpcrt.

INTRODUCTION.
The maggots or larvae of the Tipulidar are known in the several
parts of this country by many local names, among which, perhaps.
the most generally applied are meadow-maggots." leather-jackets,"
"grubs," and cutworms." The last name has proved most unfor-
tunate, leading to great confusion in Departmental and station corre-
spondence, and has arisen from a mistaken, though very prevalent,
impression among farmers that these larva? are the same as the true
cutworms, and that in late spring when the weather conditions are
favorable the so-called cutworms come to the surface of the
ground where they burst from exposure to the sun's rays. The
larva, for it is in the larval stage of development exclusively that
these insects are of economic importance to the farmer, are really
the young of several species of crane-flies--also known as "galli-
nippers," giant mosquitoes," and daddy-long-legs." The last
name, however, is sometimes applied to the eight-legged and wingless
harvest spiders (Phalangidue).
A comprehensive economic treatment of this family of insects, as
such, is impossible at the present time, owing to the necessarily frag-
mentary condition of our knowledge of the early stages of most of
the species and the great diversity of habits exhibited by those which
have been studied. In mode of living they range from the aquatic
NOTE.-The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance, received in pre-
paring this paper, of Messrs. Nathan Banks, Frederick Knab, and D. W.
Coquillett, who critically reviewed the technical descriptions, and of Mr. R. E.
Snodgrass, who prepared the anatomical drawings of the larval head. The
other illustrations were prepared by Mr. J. F. Strauss and the author.
119


C. F. I. I., October 7, 1910.





PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


forms such as Limnophila luteipennis 0. S., Helobia punctipe ..i
Meig., Erioptera graphic 0. S. (C. A. Hart, 1895),and Tipula a&I
dominalis Say, through the semiaquatic forms, of which Holm H
rubiginosa Loew (V. L. Kellogg, 1901) is an example, to the distineS
terrestrial forms among which are several species of Tipula and mo
of the species of Pachyrhina, so far as the latter have been studieit
In seasonal development they range from Tipula virgo 0. :
T. eluta Loew, Pachyrhina ferruginea Fab. and P. macroceraj
Say, which are flying about in March and April; through!l
Tipula spernax 0. S. and T. angustipennis Loew, which appear in)
May; most of the species of Pachyrhina, so far as studied, Tipula.':
ftliginosa Say, T. trivittata Say, T. tephrocephala Loew, T. bicornii>
Loew, and T. graphic Doane, abroad in early June; Tipula gratat
Loew, T. angulata Loew, and T. tricolor Fab., in July; Pachyrhn4M::
sodalis Loew, a probable second brood of P. ferruginea Fab., Tipu::i
hebes Loew, T. abdominalis Say, T. costalis Say, T. macrolabis Loew,:
T. valida Loew, and the second brood of T. bicornis Loew, in August'
and September; and last to Tipula flavicans Fab. and T. infuscata-
Loew, which appear in October. i
Among the observations on these insects in relation to agriculture"
in the United States might be mentioned an article by Dr. T. W:.:
Harris (1854), in which he records receiving a bottle of tipulid larva
with a letter stating that they were found alive in great numbers (onMi
the snow in March. Dr. C. V. Riley (1867) briefly mentions them a.m,
of economic importance. Dr. B. D. Walsh (1869) refers to a letter':
from a farmer at Mexico, Mo., who complains of these larvae in his gar-1
den and who notes that they stand freezing with impunity. Doctor
Riley (1870) published a letter from a correspondent at Meadville.
Pa., in which he records finding these larvae in great numbers under'
mulch hay. Dr. S. A. Forbes (1888) reports a very general and seri-
ous outbreak of tipulids (Tipula bicornis Loew) in grass and clover
meadows throughout southern and central Illinois, many pastures:
and hayfields being almost completely ruined. He also published &.l
letter from Doctor Riley (1888) in which the latter reports a veriy1
similar outbreak in California in 1874. In an unsigned article in th&a
Pacific Rural Press for March 29, 1889, record is made of an out-.
break in Healdsburg, Cal., specimens having been received at tb'
state agricultural experiment station with the note that they wei
completely stripping the wheat fields. Prof. F. M. Webster (18921'
records a bad outbreak of tipulids (Tipula bicornis) in AndersonI
Ind., in 1888, the larvae attacking clover. He also records an attack
of Pachyrhina sp. on young wheat near Farmersburg, Ind. Hi,
On April 2, 1908, a number of tipulid larvae were received at
office from Mount Vernon, Ind., with the note that they were .
numerous in hay meadows in that locality. Mr. R. W. Doane, m.::


120




THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY. 121

letter to this office, records a very serious outbreak of Tipulidme
(Tipula simplex Doane) in central California during the season of
1907, and states that thousands of acres of wheat and grass lands and
clover fields were absolutely stripped of verdure.
In Europe Tipula oleracea L. and other species have long been
recognized as important pests.

DESCRIPTION.

THE ADULT.
The species was originally described by Loew (1863) from a single
female specimen. The original description, translated by the author,
is as follows:
Gray, thoracic stripes brownish gray, darkly margined, median stripe imper-
fectly divided; abdomen darkly testaceous, median line clouded, posterior
margin of each segment, all of the last segments, and the base of the ovipositor
brownish gray, opaque; wings uniformly faintly clouded, the apex of the same
color, costal cell and stigma clouded. Length of body 71 lines, length of wings
from 7 to 71 lines. Head gray, rostrum reddish brown, becoming gray above,
palpi dark yellow, apex nearly black. First antennal segment reddish brown,
grayish, second segment red, flagellum black, basal segment red. Dorsum of
thorax gray, stripes brownish gray and more darkly margined, median stripe
imperfectly divided. Pleura whitish gray. Abdomen dark testaceous, posterior
margin of each segment, all of last segments, lateral margin, and base of ovi-
positor grayish brown, opaque, narrow median stripe fuscus. Lamellhe of the
ovipositor rufotestaceous, the upper ones pointed and slightly curved inward.
Wings faintly clouded, apex of the same color, first basal cell and stigma brown.
NOTE.-Very close to Tipula helva, except that the whole body is darker
and the wings are more evenly colored.
In addition to the original description the author desires to add the
following:
Female (fig. 60).-Ovipositor consisting of 4 external, brown, chitinous plates
and a semichitinous yellow lingulaform appendage. Upper plates one-third
longer than lower ones, sword-shaped, slightly flexed ventrad; on inner surface
of fused upper plates a hemispherical, bilobed, membranous cushion closely
set with fine hairs; lower plates truncate and nearly concealed by upper plates
when insect is at rest; inner surface of each lower plate with several hairs;
lingulaform appendage triangularly grooved dorsally, and quite hairy. Length
of body, 18 mm.; wing, 15.5 mm. (measurements made from dried specimens).
Male (fig. 61).-General color of head and thorax brownish gray, abdomen
and legs yellow, eyes black, rostrum yellowish brown below and pale yellowish
gray above, palpi clouded; scape of antennae yellowish gray, distal half of joint
3 and remaining joints brown. Thorax marked with a light-gray median line
which is distinct anteriorly but fades out about half way to the V-shaped
suture; a light-gray margin around the anterior border of the mesothorax,
widening to triangular patches at the spiracles, and 2 longitudinal lines par-
allel to the median line, arising at the apices of the triangular patches and
extending backward to the V-shaped suture; pleura and coxie whitish gray;
femora light yellow, densely clothed with short black hairs; tibia and tarsi
darker and clothed with short black hairs. Abdomen with narrow ventral,





122


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


a narrow lateral, and a broad dorsal brown stripe. Wings evenly eloug
the veins, marginal cell. and stigma brown. Hypopygium globular, though SWi
conspicuously broader than preceding segments: pleural suture distinct at 1
distal end. although obliterated proximally; middle apical appendages ead
bearing a stout black hook which curves inward, upward, and forward; uppo
apical appendages consisting of sparsely hairy, quadrate, yellow flaps whk
are rolled upward, inward, and then downward; lower apical appendagu


FIG. 60.-The crane-fly (Tipula infuscata) : a, Adult female; b, ovipositor, lateral aspet.
c, lower genital plate, inside surface; d, head, dorsal aspect; e, antennal joints; J, of:,
positor, ventral aspect, with lower plates removed: g, lengulaform appendage of sain
About natural size. (Original.)

consisting of heavy, convex, triangular pieces bearing several hairs. A smaIl
semichitinous flap is situated directly above the ventral carina. Two proi*d
nent blunt teeth arm the dorsum of the ninth segment. Length of body, 1t8...
mmi.: wing. 14 mm. (measurements made from dried specimens).

THE EGG. :i

Egg (fig. 62) shiny black, elongate oval. one end being slightly conoidal;,,
distinct round pit on one side near conoid end. Length, 8S4p: width. 245W .





THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY.


TIlE LARVA.
Larva (fig. 613. a) filiform. 19 mm. in length :nd 3 mm. in diameter at its
widest point when fully extended. General co:or dirty yellowish brown, dark-

















xNrI




















aspect ; g/, end of abdomen, latenal a,l natural size b, enlarged ; C-1/, ,..c'
,171," /,

































enlarged. (Original.)
//






















euiug to almost black at the extremities. Body composed of 13 seg-ments, the
,. ?//
f/




















head being about two-thirds incased in the first and entirely retractile within
the first two segments. Posterior segment (. fig. 3, A-) ter- apt;
minated by 4 blunt, radially arranged tubercles, between p dil si
which are 2 large black spiracles p when contracted the 4 tu- -flu
bieriles completely conceal the spiracles; on ventral surface
of this segment are 4 large and 2 smaller radially arranged ra il i
pseudopods, posterior to which is the anus (fig. 63, i). e
Head (fig. 63, c, e) partly chitianized, 2.1 rm. in length
and 1.4 mm. in width. Genal region extending backward Frw. GO'.-The smok"
from the mandibles and miaxillr e as two strongly convex crane fly: Eggs.
plates, deeply pigmented on their anterior half and fading ely agifid
(Original. I
out to transparent chitin on their posterior margins. These
plates are widely separated postero-ventrally to form the pharyngeal foramen;
antero-veutrally they are continuouswith the meutum. Dorsally they appear to
5554-le-Bull. 85, pt 7-10-- 2


123






124


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


ailiproxiNmte each- other, owing to 2 posteriorly directed, narrow lobes, leaving :
betwi' ii tlien1 a unrrow, dorsal, median, semitransparent area which widens an-


FIG. G3.-The smoky crane-fly: a, Larva, left side; b, clypeo-labral part of bead, dorsal
aspect; c, ventral aspect of head, showing also position of front edge of prothorax;
d(7, maxilla; e, dorsal view of bead; f, left mandible and its muscle apodemes4 ventral
aspect; g, left mandible, dorsal aspect; h, mental lobes of ventral wall of head; i, anal
segment, terminal aspect: ik, Fame, dorsal aspect, a, Enlarged; b-k, more enlarged.
(Original.)
teriorly to receive the fused frons, clypeus, and labrum. Postero-ventrally the
gular region seems to be separated from the occipital region by a transparent





THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY.


125


area extending from the pharyngeal foramen dorsally and posteriorly about one-
third of the distance to the vertex. Mientum (fig. 63, h) terminated by a median
blunt lobe supported on each side by a smaller lobe and two partly fused lobes;
a nonchitinized, transpl)arent area extends from the pharyngeal foramen into the
apex of this organ, this area separated from the foramen proper by a pair of
posteriorly directed, blunt lobes of the gular region. Labrum bearing on its
dorsal surface a pair of broad protuberances (fig. 63. b) each surmounted exter-
nally with a brush of fine hairs and internally with a rounded tubercle bearing
3 peculiarly formed bristles. Antennme single jointed, cylindrical, about one-
fourth as wide as long, situated above the mandibles; basal tubercle trun-
cate, about one-half length of antennae. Mandibles (fig. 63, f, g) stout, the
crown concave and provided with 2 large external teeth and a smaller dorsal
internal one, ',iaxille (fig. 63, d() quadrate, each being provided with 2 ante-
rior and 1 lateral tuft of hairs and a short truncate cylindrical palpus. Body
integument attached to head capsule at a line passing
around head directly behind mandibles. Thoracic and
abdominal segments, except anal segment, without ex-
ternal appendages or vestiture of any kind. Circuim-
stigmal tubercles armed on their inner borders with a f
row of very short spines supported by a row of fine hairs.

THE PUPA.

Pupa (fig. 64) cylindrical, slightly sinuate in profile, l
19 mm. in length and 2 mm. in diameter. Cases con- i ,
training wings, antennae, and legs free and lying ap-
pressed to venter. General color yellowish brown, the
head, wings, antennae, legs, and thoracic respiratory 'V
tubes dark brown. A light yellow stripe bordered by
a fuscous line on either side, situated directly ventral .
to the spiracles, extends from tip of wings to base of ;
anal segment. The fuscous line dorsal to this stripe
is continuous with a wide fuscous band along the an-
terior margin of each segment dorsally, and also with .-
a narrow line defining each annuilus. The hand is
very conspicuous on the fifth segment but rather faint FIG. 64.The smoky
on the others, crane-fly: Pupa, lateral
Head well defined; eyes prominent. On ventral a s p e c t. Enlarged.
surface directly between eyes is a prominent tubercle
surmounted by a spine. Anterior to this spine and between the antenna fosse
are 2 more spines.
Pronotum bearing a pair of strongly clubbed and distinctly annulated respi-
ratory tubes which are directed anteriorly with the clubs inclined slightly
ventrad. Wings extending from a short distance behind eyes to base of first
abdominal segment. Third pair of legs extending to base of third segment of
abdomen.
Abdomen composed of 6 segments, although, owing to annular constrictions on
the first 5 segments, appearing to have 11. Each segment, except anal, provided
ventrally with a transverse row of 8 short, marginal spines, and 2 larger and
more widely separated spines near anterior margin; segments provided dorsally
with a similar transverse row of 10 short marginal spines arranged in groups;
the two groups nearest median line consisting of 2 spines each and the groups
nearest stigmata with 3 spines each. Dorsal surface of segments directly
anterior to this transverse row of spines and posterior to the annulus finely





126 PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.
*I
hairy. Tergum of anal segment bearing 3 pairs of transversely placed, acutely ....
conoida tubercles; one pair. the tubercles of which are placed near together,
situated near middle; a second pair. widely separated and posterior to the first,
and a third pair directed caudad. not so widely separated as the second, located i
at posterior marginal angles. Directly ventrad to the third pair of tergal' *
tubercles is a subquadrate lobe bearing at its outer angles a pair of stout
tubercles. A median emargination on the posterior border is continuous with
a median groove to the tergum. On each side of this median groove and
directly below the terminal pair of tergal tubercles are 2 conchate cavities,
probably stigmal in function.
LIFE HISTORY.
On March 20. 1908, a number of tipulid larvae (Tipulda infuscata)
were sent to this office by Mr. E. W. Lawrence, of Jackson, Tenn.,
with the statement that they were completely destroying Japan clover.
(Lespedeza sb'ita) in the tenth district of Madison County, and
this pape; deals exclusively with our subsequent investigations of this
particular species.
Early in October the adults (figs. 60, 61) of this species are abroad
in great numbers among tall, rank grass, clover, and weeds, from
which they rise awkwardly, as one approaches, flying but a few yards
before alighting. They continue abundant in the field during the
greater part of October, belated individuals being found about Wash-
ingtoi, D. C.. as late as October 30.
From material received from Jackson, Tenn., the first adults ap-
peared on October 5. 1 male and 3 females emerging. These females
mated almost immediately after emerging, but died without oviposit-
iniig. On October 20 a female that emerged on October 13, and that
had remained mated for over sixteen hours, began ovipositing on the
slate bottom of the rearing cage. She would deposit three or four eggs
in a given place and then move on excitedly an inch or more and
repeat the process. On being placed in a pot of earth she seemed
more at home, elevating her body on the long legs, holding the
abdomen perpendicular to the surface of the ground, then slowly -
moving forward, bobbing up and down, and apparently feeling the
ground with the tip of her ovipositor until she found a crevice or
hole. when she would let her abdomen into the cavity, deposit a few
eggs. and move on to repeat the process at the next crevice encoun-
tered. That the Tipulidhe normally flip the eggs about while flying
seems very doubtful, but under adverse circumstances, such as being
caught in spiders' webs, as one often sees them, they undoubtedly use
this means, though probably not intentionally, of dispersing their
eggs. A specimen of this species etherized for examination threw
out 176 eggs by sudden sidewise movements of the upper and lower
genital plates, much as one would snap the fingers. One egg was
thrown to a distance of 10 inches.
The average number of eggs laid by one female of this species, as
determined by confining recently fertilized females in separate rear-




THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY.


ing cages and by dissecting the abdomens of females that had just
emerged, was approximately 300. This number had also been found
to be about the egg-laying capacity of Tipula bicornis, as from three
specimens Prof. F. M. Webster (1892) obtained 297, 282, and 289
eggs, respectively; and also of Tipula tephrocephala, from the abdo-
men of a female of which 255 eggs were obtained. A specimen of
Tipula angustipennis which the writer collected at Pullman, "Wash.,
however, contained 602 eggs, and Mr. E. 0. G. Kelly found that a con-
fined specimen of an undetermined Tipula from Kansas laid 417 eggs.
The eggs laid in our rearing cages failed to hatch, b'ut from the notes
made by Mr. E. 0. G. Kelly on the egg stage of an undetermined
species in Kansas
they probably hatch "" f.
in from one. to
three weeks.
The larvat (fig. kW ^"
63, a), which often "
occur in enormous
numbers, as many
as 200 having been --- --.
found in an area
covering a little
over 1 square foot, .
feed upon the roots 1
of various plants,
seeming to prefer
the Leguminosae,
and, contrary to
most published ac- /
counts of the habits
of these larvae, they /,
not only suck the __-__ = _---
juices of the roots -
but devour the FIa. 65.-The smoky crane-fly: Adult, emerging from pupal
case. Enlarged. (Original.)
plant tissue itself,
as is evidenced by the stomach contents of several larvae examined
in this office. Moreover, the well-developed biting mandibles would
indicate a tissue feeding habit. They feed during the early fall
and hibernate as half-grown larvae, resuming activities in the
spring. In feeding, these larvae move about in the ground quite
freely, as-is evidenced by the small molehill-like ridges which they
leave, in going from plant to plant just under the surface of the
ground. They become full grown about the middle of July. form
perpendicular cells about 3 or 4 inches underground, and remain
inactive until about the middle of September, when they pupate.
The pupal stage lasts from a week to ten days. The pupa (fig. 64)


127




PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


then, by means of the abdominal spines, works its way to the surface, :i
from which it protrudes about two-thirds of its entire length (fig. 65)." .t..
By swaying backward and forward the rapidly drying pupal skin is :
soon split across the back of the head and down the dorsum of the
thorax. The swaying movement now serves to work the adult out i,
until the legs are freed, when with their aid it rapidly extricates
itself. The males usually appear first and are swarming in the fields .
when the females emerge, so that the latter are mated when their
wings are hardly dry. In Pullman, Wash., the writer observed a
small cloud of Tipulidte (Dicranomyia venusta Bergr.) on April 27, .
1909, hovering under the eaves of the government field insectary...
Other similar observations have been made on other species and C. N. ::
Ainslie (1907) noted that
/ with Trichocera bimacula
Walk. this was a mating
process.
B NATURAL ENEMIES.
PARASITES.
Among insect parasites
Sbut one is known to attack
This species or, as far as
/' the writer knows, any
other tipulid in this coun-
try,. It is a small tachinid
FIG. 66.-Admontia pergandei, a parasite of Tipula fly, Admontia pergandei
infuscata. Enlarged. (Original.) (fig. 66) described by Mr.
(fig. 66), described by Mr.
D. W. Coquillett in 1895. These parasites were first noticed in the
rearing cages in which the Tipula larvae were confined, on October 7,
when 4 specimens emerged. Within the next week 15 more specimens
were taken from this cage. This genus is recorded as parasitic on
Tipulidae in Europe, but heretofore has not been recorded as such in
this country. A female of this tachinid was dissected and found to
contain 103 elongate-elliptical white eggs measuring 0.564 mm. in
length and 0.146 mm. in diameter.
OTHER INSECT FOES.
Prof. F. M. Webster records the carabid beetles Pterostichus lucu-
blandus Say and P. femoralis Kirby as probably predaceous on these :
tipulids. He also records (1888) the larvae of Harpalus sp. and
Platynus sp. as preying on the larvae and pupae of Tipulidae at Ander-
son, Ind., and the ant Aphenogaster fulva Roger as found in the act i
of dragging a living adult tipulid over the ground.
The larvae of Trombidium sp. and Rhyncholophus sp. are often :::
found attached to the base of the wings and abdomen of tipulids. |


128




THE SMOKY CRANE-FLY. 129

BIRDS.

: Among the birds which are known to feed upon the Tipulidae,
S either as eggs, larvae, or adults, probably the most important are
the wood thrush (Hylocichia m stelina), the Alice thrush (Hylo-
cichia alicice), the catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), the robin
(Planesticus migratorius), and the crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos).
Of the total stomach contents of 22 specimens of the wood thrush,
examined at the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, 12
per cent was made up of tipulid fragments, while 11 specimens of
the Alice thrush contained 8 per cent of tipulid fragments.
The following species also, according to the records of the Bureau
of Biological Survey, are known to feed to a greater or less extent
on Tipulidae or their eggs:


Franklin gull (Larus franklini.
Woodcock (Phiiohela minor).
Wilson snipe (Gallinago delicate).
Killdeer (Oxyechus vociferiis).
Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus).
Mississippi kite (Ictinia minssissippi-
ensis ).
Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus anieri-
can's).
Black billed cuckoo (Coccyzius ery-
throphthahnus).
Kamchatkan cuckoo (Cucaulus canorus
telephone its).
Downy woodpecker (Dryobales pubcs-
cens).
Yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus
various .
Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes
erythrocephalus).
Flicker (Colaptes auratus).
Texan nighthawk (Ohordeiles acuti-
pennis texensis).
Nighthawk (Chordeiles virgin ianus).
Kingbird (Tyran us tyranti us).
Arkansas kingbird (Tyrannus verti-
calis).
Crested flycatcher (Myiarchuts crini-
tus).
Black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans).
Phoebe (Sayornis phcebe).
Say phoebe (Sayornis sayss.
Wood pewee (Myiochanes virens).
Western wood pewee (Myiochanes
richardsoni).
Western flycatcher (Empidonax diffi-
cilis).


Yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax
flariven iris).
Least flycatcher (Empidonax wini-
mus).
Traill flycatcher (Emipidonaxr traiii).
Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax vires-
cens).
Wright flycatcher (Ein pidonax
irrigh ti).
Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata).
Steller jay (Cyanocitta stelleri).
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivoriis).
Yellow-headed blackbird (Xantho-
cephalus rxanthocephaius).
Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phw-
niceus).
Bicolored red-winged blackbird (.tge-
laius gubernator).
Meadowlark (Sturnella magna).
Bullock oriole (Icteruits bullocki.
Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula).
Brewer blackbird (Eaphagus cyano-
ccphalus).
Purple grackle (Quiscalus quiscula).
Aleutian rosy finch (Leucosticte grise-
ontiucia).
Snowflake (Passerina nivalis).
Aleutian savanna sparrow (Passer-
culus sandwicihensis).
Junco (Junco hyemalis).
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia
albicollis).
White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichlia
leucophirys).
Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgi-
ana).





PAPERS ON CEREAL' AND FORAGE INSECTS.


Song sparrow (Melospi:a melodia).
Fox sparrow (Passerclla iliaca).
Lazuli finch (Cyanospiza amnwna).
Western tanager (Piranga ludorici-
ana).
Purple martin Progne subis).
Cliff swallow t Pctrochelidon luni-
fr'ont.S.
Barn swallow (Hirundo crylthrogas-
tcr).
Tree swallow (Iridoprocne bicolor).
Bank swallow (Riparia riparia).
Rough winged swallow (Stelgidop-
tcry.r scrripen nis).
Cedarbird Bonmbycilla cedrornin).
White-eyed vireo Vireo griscus).
Least vireo i Vireo puSiillius).
Black and white warbler (Mnniotilta
raria ).
Yellow warbler {Dendroica wslira).
Audubon warbler (Dendroica audu-
bon i I.
Macgillivray warbler (Oporornis lol-
mei ).
Maryland yellowthroat (Geothilypis
trichas).
Yellow-breasted chat (Icteria rirens).
Wilson warbler (Wilsonia pusilloa).
Redstart iSctophaga rutiicilla).
Brown thrasher (Toxrostomna rufum).


California thrasher (Tozostoma re&K.
r ir u ) ........ ......
rirtum).
Cactus wren (Heleodytes brmnet-
capillus couesi).'
Rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus).
Dotted canon wren (Catherpes meAd
canus punctulatus).
Bewick wren (Thryomanes bewickl).
Long-billed marsh wren (Telmatody-
tes palustris).
Plain titmouse (Bzolophus inornatts).
Black-capped chickadee (Penthestes
atricapillus).
Carolina chickadee (Penthestes caro-
linensis).
Mountain chickadee (Penthestes gam-
beli).
Wren tit (Chamwa fasciala).
Bush tit (Psaltriparus minimus).
Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus caleo-
dula).
Wilson thrush (Hylocichla fusee,-
cens).
Russet -backed thrush (Hylocichla
ustuilata ).
Swainson thrush (Hylocichla ustulata
sirainsoni).
Alaska hermit thrush (Hylocichla gut-
atts).


FUNGOUS ENEMIES.


The prevalence of a fungous
larva? and pupae of tipulids (
Farmersburg. Ind.. is recorded


disease (Empusa sp.) among the
Pachyrhina ferruiginea Fab.) at
by Professor Webster. When


attacked by this disease the larvm and pupa? come completely out
of the ground, turn black, and die. On October 27 a female Tipula
nifuscata in one of the rearing cages was found dead and covered
with a decided fungous growth. The fungus was determined by
Mrs. F. W. Patterson. of the Bureau of Plant Industry, as Sporo-
t'ichumn denisum. and may prove to be parasitic.

REMEDIAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

Several remedial measures have been recommended against tipulids
in general by different writers, from time to time, among which
might be mentioned sprinkling the ground with salt, herding sheep
and hogs in infested fields, and rolling the ground with a heavy roller.
Probably the best method of treating an infested field is to plow the
sod under in the early fall and either to run the field into corn,


130




STHE SMOKY CRANE-FLY. 131

L potatoes, and such crops, or to leave it fallow the ensuing summer.
S Pastures and hay fields in localities where this species is known to he
S abundant should be grazed off by the middle of September and kept
so until late in November, as the adult flies usually congregate in rank
growths of grass, clover, weeds, etc.. and there lay their eggs.

LARVA: OF CRANE-FLIES AS ACCIDENTAL INHABITANTS OF MAN.

SWhile we have no knowledge that any of our American Tipulidae
directly affect man. in a contribution to The British Medical Jour-
nal of February 12, 1910. No. 2563, page 371, Dr. W. Soltau Fen-

wick, in a contribution under the head of "The existence of living
creatures in the stomach as a cause of chronic dyspepsia," cites two
: instances, as follows: "In two apparently authentic cases (Lasalle.
Sentex) larvEe belonging to the family of Tipulidie or crane-flies
were detected in the vomit and feces. Of this, the best-known
Species is the Tipula longicornis, or daddy-long-legs, which deposits
its eggs on the ground, whence they possibly gain access to the human
stomach by means of unwashed vegetables and fruit. The grubs,
which are tough-skinned and hard-headed, are well known to gard-
eners by the name of leather jackets."













i :










YT
::::,
|"!!!".
;:::"



hi



I





132


PAPERS ON CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS.


BIBLIOGRAPHY. i

The following list includes the more important papers dealing with I
American species of crane flies in their economic aspects and also :i
few technical papers on the anatomy and classification of these insects: iii
1854. HARRIS, T. W.-New England Farmer, p. 210, May. '
1863. LOEW, H.-Berl. Ent. Zeit., vol. 7, p. 26.
1867. RILEY, (C. V.-Prairie Farmer, p. 219, April 6.
1869. WALSH, B. D.-Amer. Ent. & Bot., p. 100, January.
1870. RILEY, C. V.-Amer. Ent. & Bot., p. 212, May.
1871. WVEYENBERGH, H.-Beitriige zur Anatomie und Histologie der hemicephalen
Dipterenlarven (der Gattung Ctenophora Meig.).
1875. HAMMOND, A.-Hurdwick's Science Gossip, January. August, and
September.
188S. FORBES, S. A.-16th Rep. State Ent. Ill., p. 78.
1892. WEBSTER, F. M.-Bul. 26, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 73.
1895. COQUILLETT, D. W.-Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 3, pp. 54-55.
1895. HART, C. A.-Bul. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, p. 208.
1897. MIALL, L. C., SHELFORD, R., and OSTEN SACKEN, C. R.-Trans. Ent. Soc,
Lond., pp. 343-366, pls. 8-11.
1901. KELLOGG, V. L.-Psyche, vol 9, pp. 207-213.
1904. SNODGRASS, R. E.-Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., pp. 179-236, pIs. 8-18.
1907. AINSLIE, C. N.-Can. Ent., vol. 39, pp. 26-28.

0

















































































































.iir...
'pii .

..:.N:::..
pmiiE
.,,'~II!,





UNIVERSITY OF FLORPA.


I ..