Investigations in the manufacture and storage of butter

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Material Information

Title:
Investigations in the manufacture and storage of butter
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Uncontrolled:
Keeping qualities of butter made under different conditions and stored at different temperatures
Physical Description:
24 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gray, C. E ( Charles Earl ), 1881-1944
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Butter -- Storage   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by C.E. Gray ; with remarks on the scoring of the butter by G.L. McKay.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029629833
oclc - 22416102
System ID:
AA00018924:00001

Full Text



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H U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN No. 84.
A. D. MELVIN, CMaEF OF BuREAu.




INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE


AND STORAGE OF BUTTER.




I.-THE KEEPING QUALITIES OF BUTTER MADE UNDER
DIFFERENT CONDITIONS AND STORED AT
DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.
BY
C. E. GRAY,


Dairy Expert in Charge of Butter Inzvestigations, Dairy Division,
Bureau of Animal Industry.

WITH REMARKS ON THE SCORING OF THE BUTTER.
BY

G. L. McKAY,
Professor of Dairying, Iowa State College.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1906.


CI,

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f. :... ., -..
















DAIRY DIVISION.



SCIENTIFIC STAFF.

Chief.
ED. H. WEBSTER.

Assistant Chief, in charge of Market Milk Investigations.
C. B. LANE.

Butler Investigations.
C. E. GRAy, chemist.
L. A. ROGERS, bacteriologist.

Cheese Investigations.
C. F. DOANE, in charge.
CHAS. THoM, mycologist.
ARTHUR W. Dox, chemist.
T. W. ISSAJEFF, expert maker European varieties of cheese.

Southern Dairying.
B. H. RAWL, in charge.
DUNCAN STUART, &assistant.

Dairy Buildings Investigations.
G. H. PARKS, in charge.

INSPECTION STAFF.
Renovated Butter Factories.
M. W. LANG, 423 Marine Building, Chicago, in charge.

Renovated Butter Markets.
LEvi WELLS, Laceyville, Pa., in charge.

Inspectors.
ROBERT McADAM, 423 Marine Building, Chicago.
W. S. SMARZO, 6 Harrison street, New York.
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Washington, D. C.
E. A. MCDONALD, Seattle, Wash.

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Washington, D. C., April 19, 1906.
Sin: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for publication as a
bulletin of this Bureau, a report of certain investigations made by the
Dairy Division in the manufacture and storage of butter. This rep-
resents the beginning of an important line of work, which has been
undertaken with the object of giving practical assistance to the butter
trade.
Respectfully,
A. D. MELVIN,
Ch ief of Bun end.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Aqriculture.













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INTRODUCTION.


This bulletin is the first of a series to be issued dealing with investi-
gations in the manufacture and storage of butter, a line of work
recently taken up by the Dairy Division. Every step in the making
and storage of butter is so intimately connected with every other step
that the work of the experts assigned to these studies is never com-
plete at any stage, but the results will be published from time to time
as facts enough are gathered to warrant publication. The reports of
this work will appear under the general title of Investigations in the
Manufacture and Storage of Butter," with such subtitles as will indi-
cate the particular line or phase of work discussed in each bulletin.
The present number treats of the keeping qualities of butter made
under different conditions and stored at different temperatures. The
plan of this investigation is to study the keeping qualities of butter-
(1) As affected by temperature of storing.
(2) As affected by pasteurization of cream.
(3) As affected by salting.
(4) As affected by package in which it is stored, as (a) tubs, and (b)
cans so-called hermetically sealed.
(5) As affected by air in the package, as in (a) cans full, and (b) cans
partially full.
This work was outlined by Mr. C. E. Gray, dairy expert in the
Dairy Division, and is being carried out under his supervision. This
report gives the results of the first season's work (1905-6). The
experiments are being continued, and such portions of the work as
may seem to be incomplete or inconclusive are already in process of
repeating. It is thought advisable to make this preliminary report at
this time, however, so that persons storing butter may have during
the coming season the results thus far obtained, and any advantages
that may be derived from them.
The butter used in these experiments was made by Mr. Gray, some
at Topeka, Kans., and some at Monticello, Iowa, and was stored in
special rooms built and equipped for the Dairy Division in Chicago,
111., by Messrs. A. Booth & Co.






6 INTRODUCTION.

The Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station participated in the work
by furnishing the services of Prof. G. L. McKay as expert in scoring
the butter. He was assisted by Mr. P. H. Kieffer, assistant dairy,
commissioner of Iowa. Their excellent judgment of the quality of
butter has added materially to the completeness and value of the work.
Professor McKay's statement concerning the scoring follows Mr. Gray's
report of the test.
ED. H. WEBSTER,
Chilfof t/e Dairy Division..





























CONTENTS.

Page.
Making the butter.......................................................--------------------------------------------------- 9
Packing ...............................................................----------------------------------------------------------.. 11
Storage.............................................................. -----------------------------------------------------------.... 11
Scoring .................................................................. 11
Effect of salt .........................................................-------------------------------------------------------.... 16
Keeping qualities of butter in full cans and tubse ------.....---------------------.............. 18
Effect of air in cans.-----------..........---...--------........---..---.----..-----------------........... 19
Effect of storage temperatures ----------------------.......-----..........--------------............ 20
Keeping qualities after removal from storage ------------------------------20
Summary ...........-------------------------------...----...........-.......----------.------.... 22
Remarks on the scoring of the butter ...................................... 23
7














































Digitized bC the Iniernei Archive
.n 2012 vilh FLnding from
Lin, ei.il, ol Florida George A Sinmalhers Libraies wilh suppoil Irom L'v'RASIS and Ihe Sloanl Foundation


hFlp aichi,'e og details iniesOOusde







INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE
OF BUTTER.


THE KEEPING QUALITIES OF BUTTER MADE UNDER DIFFERENT CON-
DITIONS AND STORED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.
By C. E. GRAY.
MAKING THE BUTTER.
As shown in Table I, all butter used in this investigation was pre-
pared from five lots of cream, each lot containing enough butter fat to
make about 1,200 pounds of butter, or two churnings. The quality of
the cream in lots 1, 2, and 3 was about the same, all being sour. The
quality of lots 4 and 5 was good, the cream being perfectly sweet.
The cream in lot 5 was the better of the two, having been received at
the creamery on the same (lay it was separated. Each of lots 1, 2, and
3 was mixed thoroughly in a vat, then divided into two parts about
equally, one part being marked A and the other B, as shown in the
table. There being in the creamery no vats of sufficient capacity to
hold either lots 4 or 5, the cans of cream in each lot were divided into
two parts, which were also marked A and B, respectively. The parts
from each lot marked A were not pasteurized; the parts marked B
were pasteurized.
Each churning after washing was salted to contain a low percentage
of salt, and worked about the usual number of revolutions. Half of
each churning was then removed from the churn and packed. To the
parts remaining in the churn more salt was added and the butter was
worked just enough to incorporate the salt evenly. This method of
procedure gave from each lot of cream one churning of butter from
unpasteurized cream and one churning from pasteurized cream, one-
half of each churning with a low percentage of salt and the other half
with a higher percentage of salt.
The system used in marking gave to each kind of butter three sym-
bols, the first (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5) denoting the lot of cream from which
the butter was made, the second (A or B) whether the cream was unpas-
teurized or pasteurized, and the third (L or H) whether the butter
contained a low or high percentage of salt. For example, 1 A L would
indicate the butter from the first lot of cream, unpasteurized, and
lightly salted; 1 A H, from first lot of cream, unpasteurized, heavily
salted; 1 B H, from first lot of cream, pasteurized, heavily salted;
1 B L, from first lot of cream, pasteurized, lightly salted; 2 A L, from
second lot of cream, unpasteurized, lightly salted, etc.
9
28044--No. 84-06-2






TABLE I.-Detaile of butter making andZ composition of butter. ,||

Lot of cream No. 1, taken Lot of cream No. 2, taken Lotf cream No. 8, taken Lot of cream No. 4, taken Lot of cream No. 5, taken
June 80, 1105; condition June 80, 1905; condition June 80, 1905; condition July 10, 1905: condition July 10, 1905; condition
sor;q ou;qualirty fair; acid- sweet; quality good; sweet;ooda .
sour quality fair; acid- sour; quality fair; acid- our ty very good;
Ity 0.0 per cent Ity 0.75 per cent. t 0.58 per cent, acidity not taken. acidity not taken.
SA. IB. 2A. 2B. A. 3B. 4A. 4B. 5 A. 5B.

Pasteuried ......... ..............16501700 F ........1650-1700 F ................ 1650470 F ............... 1700 F................1700 F.
Starter added ............. lop.ct.. ::..:j 10 ct....... 10 p.Ct ...... 10 p ct ...... 10 p, Ct ..... 10 p.et .....10p. ct...... 10 P.ct l .ct... -----t
8 2.p.. . .. . . 3 4 p .0 p c t . . . 3 90 P c t . . . 3 7 p .[
Fat................... 9. p.ct... 2.2p. ct .... 29.4 p.et ... 29.3p.et .... 81.4p. ct.... 31.6p, ct.. 82.... .. 4 ~ t .. 89 p. ct ...... 87 P, t.
Timeheldbefore churning. 6 8 in...... 3. 25m.... 6 h. 40m.... 21h.40m... 20 h.40m,-- 2 h. 42n .... 6h.55m.... 18 tS0m ... 22 1t40 m.i
Acdtywhenhurned .... 0.8576 p. ct... 0.576 p. ct... 0.594 p. ct... 0.76 p. ct. 0.576 p. ct.,. 0.594 p. et... 0.498p. e... 0.875 p. ct... ,42 p. ct... 0.850 p ct.
Amo ong add.. 4 ounces ..,. 4 ounces .... 4.,4 ouncesF ...... 44 ounces... 4.5 ounces.. 4.5 ounces... 4nes .... 4 ounces.... oces .... .4 ounc
Tim e~ for ch r i g. . 0m n .. . 1h . . 5r ........ I 5m ..... 30 rn .. ...... 50ra .. ++..... 82 m +........ 2 m m +. ....... 50 m ..... 47 m .+++,+ + ++
Wahwae ue ...++....... 50glo ns .. 50glo n ...l 60galn ... 50glons,+ .. gallons .., 50gallons... 50 alon ..+.8+ 60.gallons .. 50 gaf ons ...| 60 gallns+ :++++:
Temperatureofch... wash I F.... ........ 670F ........ 660 F ... F ........ 530F ..... ... 58" ....... 53 F.
Tiin641) Su..n...... :t540o m.... 1 5 F........ 54un .....a,. win... S.
Salt ad .......ter. 25pounds ... 25pounds... 23pounds... 28pounds... 2pounds... 20porends.. p .. ... 28 pn 22 pounds

1 A L. I A IBL, 1133' 2AL. 2AH. 2"L. 2BH. 8 *AL. SA. "SB. SBH. 4AL. 4AH. 431. 4BS. 5AL. 5AH,5 6L. 5BH.

Salt added .... .. p s ...... 1 ....... .. 12 .. .... 10.. .... 18 ....... 20 ...... 18| 18....... 20...
Revolutions work---- .... ... ....... 11 ....... 1.....---------------------------------------------
Analysis:

os.60 12.95 12.82 It 18.1 0 14.74 14.43 14.68 12.42 12.80 12.05 12.00 16.00 1.07 12.68 13.59 11.59 12.89 13.03 18.12
Salt ......... .... .... d 1.02 8.20 1.1 2.8 2.00 8.16 1.:2 78 4. 88 1.5 3.72 1.80 8.61 1.46 4.66 1. 2.88 1.2 16

Fat ......... d ... 8 0- 82.6- 5 8 81- 8. 82 64 85
....... not salt o d... 1 2 1. 22 1.0 1.0 1. 0 1.1 1.4 1.4 1. 2 1. 57. 17 1+ + .04 + ++ .. . .82 1 1 6 4 6 9 .69 .... C1++++





MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER.


PACKING.
The tubs in which the butter was packed were of spruce, all being
thoroughly steamed and paraffined inside before packing. Tubs of 20
pounds capacity were used in packing butter from lots 1,2, and 3, and
tubs of 25 pounds capacity in packing butter from lots 4 and 5. All
cans were madeof the bestquality of tin. Cans of the so-called 3-pound
capacity, however (those in which butter from lots 1, 2, and 3 was
packed), when full held 3J pounds. Cans in which butter from lots 4
and 5 was packed held when full exactly 3 pounds.
From each kind of butter made from lots of cream 1, 2, and 3 there
were packed 9 tubs, holding 20 pounds each; 12 cans, 3J pounds each;
12 cans partly full, 3 pounds each; 12 cans partly full, 24 pounds each;
and from each kind of butter from lots 4 and 5 there were packed 9
tubs of 25 pounds each, 12 cans of 3 pounds each, and 12 cans partly
full, 2- pounds each, making in all 180 tubs, containing 3,960 pounds,
624 cans, containing 1,788 pounds, a total of 5,748 pounds of butter.
Cans, partly full were used to note the effect of air on the keeping
qualities of the butter.
STORAGE.
The butter from lots of cream 1, 2, and 3 was held at a temperature
of + 32 F. from July 2 until July 18, when it was shipped by refrige-
rator freight to the storage rooms, where it arrived in good condition
without having become warm. The butter from lots 4 and 5 was held at
a temperature of about 40c_ F. from July 11 until July 20, when it was
shipped by refrigerator freight to the storage rooms, arriving July 21
and being placed in storage July 22.
Four different storage rooms were used, one held at -10- F., a sec-
ondat+100 F., third at +32' F., and a vestibule having variable tem-
perature. The records, as kept by recording thermometers, indicate
that there was very little variation in the temperatures of the first three
rooms. A recording thermometer in the vestibule shows variations
of temperature from 20 to 65 F. However, the greater part of the
time the temperature was between 300 and 50C' F.
Three tubs, 3 full cans, and 3 partly full cans from each kind of butter
were placed in the room at -10 F., the same kind and number of pack-
ages in the room at +10 F., and the same in the room at +32 F. Cans
similar to those placed in the other rooms, but no tubs, were stored in
the vestibule. The object in storing triplicate packages at each tem-
perature was to furnish butter for the three scoring.

SCORING.
The butter was scored by Prof. G. L. McKay, professor of dairy-
ing at the Iowa State College, and Mr. P. H. Kieffer, assistant dairy
commissioner of Iowa. The first scoring was made on July 22, just







1a BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


before the butter was placed in the storage room. At that time only'-
one tub of each kind of butter was examined, it being assumed that
the quality of each kind in all packages at that time was the same, the
butter having been held only a short time and at low temperatures.
The second scoring was made December 21 and 22, 1905, after tho
butter had been in storage five months. The butter scored at this
time was removed December 18, 1905, from the rooms at -10, +10,
and +32- F. and placed in the vestibule, the temperature of thevestibule
at the time of scoring being 500 and 55 F. The third scoring was made
March 22 and 23, 1906, after the butter had been in storage eight
months. The butter scored at this time was removed from storage in
Chicago March 20, 1906, and shipped by refrigerator freight to the
Iowa Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa, where it was examined, as
stated, on March 22 and 23, 1906.
All scores made at the times above stated, with comments as to the
quality and condition of the butter at each scoring, are given in
Tables II, III, IV, V, and VI.

TABLE II.--Scores of all butler made from cream of lot No. 1, with remarks as to fljnr.


Scored
July 22,
1905,
before
storing.


A L, containing 1.02 per I
cent sali: I
Tubs and cans.......... a 88
Tubs, 20 pounds ........!........
Cans, full, 3.' pounds...........
Cans, 3 pound. ................
Cans, 2, pounds ....... ......
A H, containing 3.20 per
cent salt.
Tubs and cans.......... h 89
Tubs, 20 pounds................
Cans, full, 3l pounds...........
Cans, 3 pounds .................
Cans, 24 pounds ................
B L, containing 1.10 per
cent salt:
Tubsand cans.......... .91
Tubs, 20 pounds ...............
Cans, full, 3: pounds..:. ........
Cans, 3 pounds.............
Cans, 24 pounds ........ ........
B H, containing 2.87 per
cent sal t:
Tubs and cans ......... 91
Tubs, 20 pounds ................
Cans, full, 3l pounds ...........
Cans, 3 pounds ......... .......
Cans, 21 pounds ................


Stored at
-10 F.

Scored Scored
Dec. 21,. Mar. 22,
1905. 1906.


b 93
931
931
91i


""90"
91.
91
88


93
wi,
921
n91


o 904
911
91i
884


901
88
88
85


o c88"
90
894,
85


k914
901
90go.'
87


'87
89
88
87


a Very unclean, fishy; decided old cream flavor.
bTrace fishy.
SFishy.
dCheesy and iallowy.
e Rancid.
f Cheesy.


Stored at
+10 F.

Scored Scored
Dec. 21, Mar. 22.
1905. 1906.


0921
""gal
93,
98
91


C 891
92
911
892


92
92
91
91

90
91
911
S9


90
90
90
85


f 86
89
881
84


kg'l
f87
87
84


s'P87
89
88
82


Stored at
+32 F.

Scored I Scored
Dec. 21, Mar. 22,
1905. 1906.


a90
91
901
884


A 85
90
89,
84


89
90
891
88

""88'
891
89
86


a Rancid and sour.
A Salt mackerel.
i Fishy; old cream.
J Fishy; very poor.
k Slightly cheesy.


86
d88%
88
86


J84
88
87
84

"1'88"
f90
90
89


P 87
b90
89
87


Stored at
variable tem-
peraturea.

Scored Scored
Dec. 21, Mar. 22,
1905. 1IM.


80
e So
P77
72



e9
e82
80

e"SO


78
77



178
f78
/73


f8a
IU
80




87
M



S's
*M
m8D



Pas
pa
Pa


i Old and stale.
m Very cheesy.
STurpentine; old.
o Not clean; old cream.
P Stale; old cream.







MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER. 13


TABLEI III.-Scores of all butter made from cream of lot No. 2, with remarks cis to flavor.


Scored
July22,
1905.
before
storing.


2A L, containing per cent
salt:
Tubs and cans .......... 911
Tubs, 20 pounds ........ ........
Cans, full, 3" pounds............
Cans, 3 pounds .........'.......
Cans, 24 pounds................
2 A H, containing 3.16 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans.......... A 894
Tubs, 20 pounds........ .......
Cans, full, 3. pounds ... ........
Cans, 3 pounds ......... ........
Cans, 24 pounds........ .......
2 B L, containing 1.52 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans.......... 911
Tubs, 20 pounds........ .......
Cans, full, pounds ...........
Cans, 3 pounds.................
Cans, 24 pounds........ .......
2 B H, containing 3.28 per
cent salt:
Tubsand cans.......... .89
Tubs, 20 pounds..............
Cans, full3 pounds ........
Cans, 3 pounds d.............
Cans, 24 pounds........ ........


Stored at
-10 F.

Scored Scored
Dec.21, Mar. 22.
1905. 1906.


93
92j
884


189
90
90
82


i91 89
91 | 871
90 87
87 80

"".. o. i . i' "
91 k 89
90 J i84
89,4 84

89" 854
90 J16
891 85
88 so


Stored at Stored at
+10 F. +32 F.

Scored Scored I Scored Scored
Dec.21, Mar. 22, Dec.21. Mar. 22,
1905. 1906. 1906. 190t.




b 9 b8
""c"89i "bg"3~9 9' ""r"i """088

'I' e 89 92 90
911 e89 911 90
89 e87 90 80


i90
91
90
87


'901
904
90
v 88



"189
89
87


k882
82




P88
88
82


8.5
86
844
83


I
....... ........






q88 q82
90 e589
90 84
86 84


k-'g6 ""80
1 87
87 87
86 84


Stored at
variable tem-
peratures.

Scored Scored
Dec.21, Mar. 22,
1905. 1906.


.f894
f 790
A89
187




/88
f87





85
8fi
85




85
82


84
84


84



""n86
84



r 6


86
84


81)


a Slightly unclean. i Fishy.
bOld cream; cheesy. J Fishy: old.
SVery fishy. kOily; fish)y.
d Turpentine. Oily.
'Cheesy. mOily: fishy, old.
SRancid. n Scale: old cream.
0 Very cheesy, o Trace fishy.
h Pronounced fishy; undesir- POily; trace fishy.
able; unclean; turpentine q Rancid; trace fishy.
flavor. r Rancid; stale; cheesy.


s Rancid; turpentine.
I Strong, fishy; unclean flavor; old
cream; dirty can flavor.
SVery metallic.







14 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

TABLE I V.-Scores of all butter made from cream of lot No. 8, with remarks as to flaw


3 A L, containing 1.78 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans..........
Tubs, 20 pounds........
Cans, full, 3 pounds...
Cans, 3 pounds.........
Cans, 21 pounds........
3 A H, containing 4.83 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans..........
Tubs, 20 pounds........
Cans, full, 31 pounds...
Cans, 3 pounds.........
Cans, 2i pounds........
3 B L. containing 1.51 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans..........
Tubs, 20 pounds........
Cans, full, 3" pounds...
Cans, 3 pounds .........
Cans, 2; pounds ........
3 B H, containing 3.72 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans..........
Tubs, 20 pounds........
Cans, full, 31 pounds...
Cans, 3 pounds.........
Cans, 24 pounds........

aOily. fishy: cheesy.
b Sour.
cOily;: cheesy.
dTurpentine.
eVery cheesy.


Scored
July 22,
1905,
before
storing.




89










089





r 89


Stored at
-10o F.


Scored
Dec. 21,
1905.



92
921
92
89


188
Ick90
k87
k84


92|
92
92
:894


k87
88
88
84


Scored
Mar. 22.
1906.



a"88
f83
83
87


k87
i87
86
h87


87
87
87
80


h8b
A85
A85
h83


/Cheesy.
a Cheesy; stale.
A Very poor.
I Salt mackerel.
j Very fishy.


Stored at
+10 F.


Scored
Dec. 21,
1905.



b91i
92
92
91



90
89
84

92
911
911
90


86
87
87
86


Scored
Mar.22,
1906.



o871
o82
A80
A78


k85
86
A84
A 78

88
187
f87
f84


h85
A85
A85
h83


Stored at
+320 F.


Scored
Dec. 21,
1905.



d91U
91
91
91


J84
87
861
82


91
90
90
89


""82'
86
85
82


k Fishy.
l Oily.
mOld: stale.
"Oily; fishy.
o Not clean.


Scored
Mar.22,
1906.



e84
187
f87
f87


J"/78'
J86
87
88



84
''86
'84



884
884
82


Storedat -
variable tern-.
peratures,


Scored
Dec. 21,
1905.





88
87




86
82



P"89
88
86




86
84


pOld; rancid.
q Metallic.
r Weedy.
a Fishy; very poor.


TABLE V.-Scores of all butter made from cream of lot No. 4, with remarks as to flavor.

Stored at Stored at Stored at StvaTed ate
Scored~~Stre -1aFti~ r n variable temn-
Scored -I0 F. +100 F. +320 F.
July r2, peratures.
1905,
before Scored Scored Scored Scored Scored IScored Scored Scored
storing. Dec. 22, Mar. 22. Dec. 22, Mar. 22, Dec. 22, Mar. 22, Dec. 22, Mar. 22,
1905. 1906. 1905. 1906. 1905. 1906. 1906. 1906.

4 A L, containing 1.80 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans........... 95 ........ ................................................
Tubs, 20 pounds ........ ........ 934 b 931 931 93 089 91 ...............
Cans, full, 3 pounds............. 93 92 d91j 93 91 88 89 68
Cans, 2 pounds ........ ........ 93 90 911 184 a88 84 86 682
4 A H, containing 3.60 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans.......... h 94 ....... ........ ........................................
Tubs, 20pounds ................. i9 W2 a"9 .2 J914 92 f89 k88.................
Cans, full pounds ..... ........ 911 924 91 86 89 86 186 go'
Cans, 2' pounds................ 911 92 91 -85 87 80 184
4 B L. containing 1.46 per
cent alt-
Tubs and cans .......... "97 ........ ........ ................. ................ ..
Tubs, 20 pounds................ 94 -934 931 93 90 86 ...........
Cans, full,3 pounds............. 951 92 d924 93 891 90 '87 ...-
Cans, 2 pounds ........ ........ 93 92 d92 92 88 90 ,84 :!-
4 B H, containing 4.66 per '
cent salt:
Tubs and cans.......... q9 .......... ................................ ........ ...........
Tubs, 20 pounds ........ ....... 93 93 92 93 m89 88................
Cans, full, 3 pounds............. 92) 92 921 92 r89 86 188
Can2, 2" pounds................ 921 91 911 88 r87 81 184 88
Can%~~ .1 ...88.8....14


n Slightlyv fiat.
b Very good.
c Oily; trace fishy.
d Metallic.
e Cheesy.
I Fishy, oily.


g Rancid; old.
A Sweet but flat.
d Trace fishy.
J Stale, trace fishy.
I Very fishy.
i Rancid.


.1IT


m Fishy. "
* Very clean but not pronounced...
o old; stale. .
p Very cheesy.
q Brine flavor; butter flavor not pronounced.
r Fishy; stale. AI
NK..K]


-....,'Wi







MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER.


TABLE VI.-Scorea of all butter minade from cream of lot No. 65, with remarks as to.flavor.


5 A L. containing 1.60 per
cent sa] t-
Tubs and cans ..........
Tubs, 20 pounds..:.....
Cans full, 3 pounds.....
Cans, 21 pounds........
5 A H, containing 2.38 per
cent sal t:
Tubs and cans.........
Tubs, 20 pounds.......
Cans full, 3 pounds.....
Cans, 2i pounds........
5 B L, containing 1.32 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans..........
Tubs, 20 pounds.......
Cans full, 3 pounds....
Cans, 21 pounds ........
5B H, containing 3.16 per
cent salt:
Tubs and cans.........
Tube. 20 pounds .......
Cans full, 3 pounds.....
Cans, 24 pounds .......


Scored
July 22,
1905,
before
storing.




a94j




h94Q




197


a Slightly cooked; tallowy;
shows age.
6 Very good; fresh.
a Fishy.
d Metallic.
*Cheesy.
SVery cheesy.


Stored at
-100 F.

Scored Scored
Dec. 22, Mar. 22,
1905. 1906.



.....' '""b9i

92 93
d92 91


914
.... Kil
d91
d90


""93'
"93
93
93
93


Stored at
+100 F.

Scored ScorEd
Dec. 22, Mar. 22,
1906. 1906


92
92
d911


93 i92
93 92
90 90


""94'

92


P934
93,
90W


96
"193
924



d921
92


Stored at Stored at
+ 32 F. variable tern-
+3 F. perarures.

Scored Scored Scored Scored
Dec.22, Mar. 22, Dec 2 Mar 22.
1905. 1 1906. 1906. 1906.


93 .... .... .....6.. ...
d91 c90 1 e88 /85
88 88 80 80 f 85


.861 .... W
8790 894
87 84


93
d914

91&


911


m91
80
86


q '904
r 89.
88


SVery fishy.
h Weedy.
i Trace fishy.
j Oily; fishy.
k Oily.
I Exceptionally good.
SShows age.


82k 7 88


90
90


90
88,
82


.... ... W i6
786
80 78


891


a Trace metallic.
oCooked flavor.
pClean but fiat.
Q Trace fishy; old; stale.
r Ftshy; metallic.


A number of variations in scores may be noted in Tables II, III, IV,
V, and VI, and in order that these variations may be studied with
greater ease other tables are presented.







Lb BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


EFFECT OF SALT. j

The scores in Table VII are from butter in tubs, there b no
material difference between the scores of butter in tubs and in SKl
will be shown. /

TABLE VII.-Scores of all butter in tubs, with averages showing differences .'attributed g
percentage of salt.

scores.

Percent Stored at 10 F. Stored at +10 F. Stored at +NO F.:.:h
of sail Before --
storing. Five Eight Five Eight Five Bight '"
months, months, months, months, months. monta "

I AL ........................ 1.02 88 93 90* 92W 90 90 i
1 A H ....................... 3.20 89 90 88 895 86 85 84
1 B L........................ 1.10 91 93 915 92 911 89 88.
1 B H ................. ..... 2.87 91 901 87 90 87 88 87
2 A L. 29 00 9li 001 t I 0 9 0n A0 ..g


2 A H .......................
2 B L ........................
2 B L........................
2BH ........ ...
AL2 B H ....... ..............
3 A L .......................
3 A H .......................
3 B L.......................
SB H ... ....................
4 A L .......................
4 A H ......................
4 B L ..... ..................
4 B H .......................
SA L ........................
SA H .......................
5 B L ........................
5 B H .......................
Averages of lots 1, 2, 3, 4,
and b
A L .....................
A H .....................
Difference ...........
B L .....................
B H ....................
Difference ...........
Average of both scoring.
lots 1.2. 3.4. and 5:


3.16
1. 52
3.28
1.78
4.83
1.51
3.72
1.80
3.61
1.46
4.6.5
1.60
2.38
1.32
3.16

1.64
3.44
-1.80
1.38
3.54
-2.16


891
91i
89
89
89
89
89
9514
94
97
95
941
94.
97
95,

91.7
91.2
.5
93.1
91.9
1.2


91.
91
89
92
88
92t
87
931
92
94
93
92
914
93
93

92.6
90.5
2.1
92.7
90.5
2.2


87|
90
901
87.
911
874
92
86
931
91i
93%
92J
92
92
93
93


90.9 91.70
89.9 90.15
1.0 ; 1.85
90.9 ; 92.20
88.6 1 89.70


8b,
88
88
85
874
88
88
85
98
921
93
93
934
93
93 -
921

90.60
89.00
1.60
90.66
88.55


89
88
86
91k
84
91
82
89
89
90
89O
90
88
91
90j


84


84
I8
84
84

86

90
90
90.


90.8 87.8.
89.0 856O
8.8 2.8,
89.8 8&0
87.2 85.8,


____________________ I :1: I i :1 I -


lots 1. 2 -3 -. a.......
A L ..................... J.64 ......... 91.7b 91.15 89.06
A H ..................... 3.44 ......... 90.20 89.57 86.00
Difference ........... -1.80 ......... 1.5.5 1.58 8.065
B L ................... 1.38 ......... 91.80 91.42 87.90
B H .................... 3.54 ......... 89.55 89.12 86.50
Difference ............ -2.16 ......... 2.25 2.30 1.40


In comparing the first two scores in the foregoing table, butterei
1 A L and 1 A H, it should be remembered that this butter was from..
the same churning, but with different percentages of salt, the per--
centage in 1 A H being 3.20 and in 1 A L 1.02, a difference of 1.18i |
The scores before storing were 88 and 89, one point in favor of 1 A Hi,
the butter with the greater percentage of salt. The tubs of thisi,
butter held at -10 F. scored after five and eight months 3 points and
2j points, respectively, in favor of the lightly salted butter. Tubs of
the same butter held at +10 F. after five and eight months scored,":
" E:EV:E






MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER.


respectively, 2j points and 4 points in favor of the light salting. The
same butter at +320 F. after five and eight months scored, respect-
ively, 5 points and 2 points in favor of the light salting.
Comparing scores of 5 B L and 5 B H, butter from the same churn-
ing containing 1.32 and 3.16 per cent of salt, respectively, or a differ-
ence of 1.84 per cent, it will be noted that the scores after five months
were exactly the same for butter at -10 and +100 F. After eight
months there was a slight difference in favor of light salting. Butter
5 B H when placed in storage scored the highest of the butter with
heavy salting, and seemed to have been the least affected by the salt.
Throughout the table it will be noted that the butter having the higher
score when placed in storage shows the least effect of heavy salting.
This being true, it seems that the practice of attempting to cover up
undesirable flavors in poor butter by using a large percentage of salt,
if butter is stored, would produce results in the opposite direction to
those desired.
The average of all scores of butter from unpasteurized cream with
light salting compared with the average of the scores of the same
butter with heavy salting shows the following:
Difference in percentages of salt, 1.80. Differences in scores of
butter held at -10 F. after five and eight months, 2.1 points and 1
point, respectively, in favor of light salting. Average of both scor-
ings, 1.55 points in favor of light salting.
The same butter stored at +10 F. after five and eight months
showed, respectively, 1.55 and 1.60 points in favor of light salting.
Average of both scoring, 1.57 points.
The same butter stored at +32 F. after five and eight months
showed 3.3 and 2.8 points, respectively, in favor of light salting, or an
average of 3.05 points.
The average of scores of all butter from pasteurized cream with
light salting compared with average scores of the same butter with
heavy salting shows a difference in the percentage of salt of 2.16.
Scores of butter at -10 F. after five and eight months show a dif-
.ference of 2.2 and 2.3 points, respectively, in favor of light salting, or
an average of 2.25 points.
The same butter stored at +10 F. after five and eight months
shows a difference of 2.5 and 2.1 points, respectively, in favor of light
salting, or an average of 2.3 points.
The same butter stored at +32 F. after five and eight months
shows a difference of 2.6 and 0.2 points, respectively, in favor of light
salting, or an average of 1.40 points.
The only scores indicating that heavy salting was of any advan-
tage were those of the butter held in cans eight months at variable
temperatures.






BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

KEEPING QUALITIES OF BUTTER IN FULL CANS AND TUBS.

TABLE VIII.-Comparison of average scores of butter in full cans and tubs.


Scores.
Stored at -10 F. Stored at + 10 F. Stored at +WL-.
Five Eight Five Eight Five ight
months. months. months, months months, montUh.
Averages, lots 1, 2. 3, 4. and 5.
A L in full cans ............................ 9 89.2 92.15 89.0 91.0 I.,
A L in tubs ............................ 960 90.9 91.70 90.6 90.3 67.
Difference in favorof cans............... .25 -.7 .45 -.4 .7 .6.
Average differenceof both scorings...... -.22 .025 .6
A H in full cans ........................... 91.0 90.0 91.20 86.6 89.1 6..1
A H in tubs .............................. 90.5 89.9 90.15 89.0 87.0 86.0
Difference in favorof cans ............... .1 1.05 -2.4 2.1 21 1
Average difference of both scorings...... .3 -.69 2.1
B Lin full cans............................ 92.4 90.4 91 89.30 89.9 8.
B Lin tubs .............................. 92.7 90.9 9.2 90.65 89.8 86.0
Difference in favor ol cans ............... -.3 -.5 -.3 -1.35 1 .&0
Average difference of both scorings...... -.4 -.82 1.65
B H in full cans... ..................... 90.95 891 90.4 88.30 88.2 86.
B H in tubs................................ 90.50 88.6 89.7 88.55 87.2 85.8
Difference in favorof cans ............... .45 .5 .7 -.2 1.00 1.1
Average difference of both scoring ...... 47 .22 1.05


Comparing the figures in the foregoing table, the average scores of
tubs and full cans of A L (pasteurized cream, lightly salted) butter, it
will .be seen that the butter of five months at -10, +10, and +32 F.
scored, respectively, 0.25, 0.45, and 0.7 point in favor of cans. After
eight months, at -10 and +100 F., scores show 0.7 and 0.4 point,
respectively, in favor of tubs, while at +32 F. scores show 0.5 point
in favor of cans. The average of both scoring shows for butter held
at -10' F. 0.22 point in favor of tubs, and for butter at +10 and
+32 F., 0.025 and 0.6 point, respectively, in favor of cans.
Comparing the average scores from A H (unpasteurized cream,
heavily salted) butter, after five months at -10, +10, and +32 F.K
the scores show 0.5, 1.05, and 2.1 points in favor of cans. After eight .'
months at +10w F. the scores show 2.4 points in favor of tubs, and at :
-10'J and +32 F. 1 and 2.1 points, respectively, in favor of caos;
averages of both scoring showing at -10 and +32 F. 3 andS.:
points, respectively, in favor of cans, and at +10 F. 0.69 point in'
favor of tubs.
With B L (pasteurized cream, lightly salted) butter all scores at.::
-10 and +10 F. were slightly in favor of tubs, while at +32 F. '
butter in cans received an average score a trifle higher than that of the -'
butter in tubs. :
Comparing the average scores of B H (pasteurized cream, lightly.!
J!i
d


*:!i


,.I..
" :!







MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER. I'

salted) butter, all average scores, excepting those of butter held eight
months at +10 F., were in favor of cans.
Comparing all scores of butter in tubs with all scores of butter in
cans at -10 and +10 F., no material difference is noted. At 32 F.
there is a very slight difference in favor of cans.

EFFECT OF AIR IN CANS.

TABLE IX.-Comparison of average scores of butter in full cars and in partly full cans.

I Scores.


Averages, lots 1, 2. 3.4,.and 5:
A L in full cans.........
A L in cans partly full,
2j pounds...........
Difference in favor of
full cans............
Average difference of
both scorings........
A H in full cans ........
A H in cans partly full.
21 pounds ..........
Difference in favor of
full cans ............
Average difference of
both scorings........
B L in full cans.........
B L in can spartly lull,
2i pounds...........
Difference in favor of
full cans............
Average difference of
both scorings........
B H in full cans ........
B H in cans partly full,
2i pounds...........
Difference in favor of
full cans ............
Average difference of
both scoring ........


Stored at 10 F. Stored at + 10 F. Stored at + 32 F.
- 4
Five Eight Five Eight Five Eight
months, months, months. months months, mouths.
I


92.85 89.2 1
1- -- I -


90.80 87.0

2.05 2.2

2.12
91.0 W90.0
88.6 85.4

S 2 4 4.6

2 9
924 90.4
91.2 87.0

1.2 3.4

2.3
90.95 89.1
89.20 86. 3


Stored at variable
temperatures.

Five I Eight
months., months.


92.15 I 89.0 91.0 S8.3 86.4 43.q
90.80 A4.4 89.1 13.4 82.4 r3 S

1.35 4.6 1 9 4.9 4 0, .0
-I-
2.97 .4 2.0
91.2 16.6 89.1 87.1 8.5.0 86.0
88.3 82.4 1G.6 80 8 81.2 l.6
i
2.9 4.2 4 -S 6.3 3., 5.4

3.55 5.4 4.6
91.9 89.3 89.9 89.0 K5. [ S3.4
90.7 86.7 87.4 87.4 82.4 $2.2


4 1.2

23
85.2 S6.7
81.0 82.9

4.2 3.8


Comparing the average scores of butter in full cans and in partially
full cans it will be noted that there were differences of 1 to 5 points
Sin favor of the full cans. It does not seem necessary to take up these
differences in detail. This deterioration was without doubt due to air
in the partially full cans. Since in packing butter in cans there is no
necessity for having the cans only partially fill, neither is this econom-
ical, the writer does not hesitate to state that where the sealing is done
at atmospheric pressure the cans should be entirely filled, leaving as
little air space as possible. This principle may be applied to packing
butter in other packages. The butter should be packed solidly, leaving




Ni.i! -1

20 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

as few air spaces as possible. Air having a deteriorating effect on the;.::
keeping of storage butter, it would be expected that butter stored in. "
small open packages, as pound prints, would not keep so well as but,.
ter in large packages. This is a belief that has already been accepted
by many.....
EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURES.
TABLE X.-,Scores of butter stored at -10 F. compared with those of butter stored at+14-V
F., +3S F., and at variable temperatures.
Average scores.
A L AbH e L b BH B AWb
batter. butter. butter. difftMuem.


Butter in tabs.
-10 F.......................................
+ 10 F ........................................
Difference in favorof -10 F..............
o10 F .............................. .........
+32 F............................. .........
Difference in favor of -10 F ...............


91.75 90.20 91.80 89.6 ............
91.15 89.57 91.42 89.12 .
9..9. ..'..


.60 I .63 .38 .43.1
91.75 90.20 91.80 89.65 ..........
89.05 6.00 87.90D 8.50 ..........
2.70 4.20 3.90 [ .05 .s


taner in ru cans:
10 F ..................................... 91.02 90.60 91.40 90.02 ..........0
Variable ................5..................... 85.10 85.50 84.60 85.96 ..........
Difference in favor of -10 F ............... .92 5.00 6.80 4.07 &

Table X was prepared from average scores which have been given
in previous tables. The difference in quality of all butter held in
tubs at -10 and +10 F., as shown by average scores, was 041
point in favor of the butter held at a temperature of -10 F. -The
difference in quality of all butter held in tubs at -10 and +32 F.
was, as shown by average scores, 3.46 points in favor of the butter
held at -10 F. The difference in the quality of the butter in full
cans held at -10 F. and at variable temperatures was, as shown by
average scores, 5.45 points in favor of the butter held at -10 F. .

KEEPING QUALITIES AFTER REMOVAL FROM STORAGE.
Results thus far given practically show only the changes which took ::
place while the butter was in storage, the butter being out of storage
only long enough to thaw before scoring. Another matter of as greaist
importance as the keeping qualities of butter when in storage is the
keeping qualities of butter after its removal from storage. The bat-
ter should be in good condition when it reaches the consumer, and
remain good a reasonable length of time. One week would certainly,
be the minimum, and in many cases the time would be much longer, ::
The butter scored December 21 and 22, 1905, could not be scored u"i
second time without considerable inconvenience. The butter scored:
March 22 and 23, 1906, was allowed to remain out of cold storage, aad
the butter in tubs was again scored April 2. The butter was scored,
at that time by Professor McKay alone, as Mr. Kieffer could not -be.:
present. These scores are given in Table X. ::i


":







MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE OF BUTTER.


TABN- XI.-Showing deterioration of storage butter after remotval from storage.

Stored at -10 F. Stored at +10 F. Stored at +32 F.
Butter in tuba Before Scored Scored Scored Scored Scored Scored
Bo 'e Mar. 22, Apr. 2, Mar 22, Apr.2, Mar 22, Apr. 2,
1906. 1906. 1906. 1906. 1906. 1906.

A L..................................... 88 901 75 90 74 86 Very bad.
I AH............................... 89 88 73 86 72 84 Very bad.
1BL ............................... 91 911 75 91i 74 88 Very bad.
1 B H ............................... 91 87 73 87 72 87 Very bad.
2AL.............................. 91i 89 75 89 75 88 Verybad.
2A II.............................891 89 77 88 76 84 Very bad.
2BL............................... 91 88 74 88 73 82 Very bad.
.2B I.............................. 89 85 76 85 75 80 Very bad.
SSA L ............................... 89 88 81 871 79 84 Very bad.
SA D ............................... 89 57 76 85 76 78 Very bad.
3BL .............................. 89 87 75 88 74 84 Very bad.
3BE ............................... 89 85 75 85 76 84 Verybad.
4A L ............................... 95 931 92( 93 901 91 80
4 .AH ............................. 94 92 901 9 90 88 80
4 B L .............................. 97 934 93 93 90. 86 82
4BE ............................... 95 93 92 93 91 88 84
BAL .............................. 94 93 92 931 91 90 80
5AH............................... 941 93 91 93 90 91 82
5 B L............ .................. 97 94 931 93 924 90 83
Average of above scores of butter
from lots4and5 ................. 95.37 93.25 92.12 92.97 90.81 94.25 .........
Average of above scores of butter
from lotls 1, 2, and3 ............. 89.70 87.96 75.33 87.51 74.58 84.08 ...........
Average difference in favor of but-
ter from lots 4 and 5b .............. 5.67 6.29 16.79 6.46 16.23 5.17 ...........


In Table XI, besides the scores of April 2, the scores of March 22
and 23 and those before storing are given. By studying carefully the
scores of April 2 differences will be found which may be attributed to
salt and temperature. These differences in the butter held at -10 and
+10 F. are about the same or perhaps greater than have been noted
in previous tables. There are other differences so much greater that
those attributed to salt and temperature seem of minor importance.
Looking at the scores of April 2, 1906, it is noted that all scores of
butter from the first three lots of cream are very low. while those of
the butter from lots 4 and 5 are only about 1 point lower than the
scores of the same butter ten days previously. To determine more
readily the difference in scores between the butter made from the first
three lots of cream and that from the last two lots two averages have
been made. These show that the average score of all butter from lots
4 and 5 when first scored was 95.37, while the average score of all
butter from lots 1, 2, and 3 was 87, being 5.67 points lower. The
average score of all butter from lots 4 and 5, after being in storage
at -10 F. eight months, was 93.25. After the butter had been out of
storage ten days the average score was 92.12, only 1.13 points lower.
The average score of all butter from lots 1, 2, and 3, after being in
storage at -10 F. eight months, was 87.96. After the butter had
been out of storage ten days the average score was 75.33, or 12.63
points lower, showing that the deterioration of the butter from lots
1, 2, and 3 was more than ten times as great as that from lots 4 and 5.
The rate of deterioration of butter held at +10 F. was practically the






2 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. -I
same as has just been noted for the butter held at -10 F. The dete- J
rioration of all butter held at +32 F. was very marked. :
In endeavoring to account for these differences in keeping quality,, ,"
which have divided the butter into two classes, the first question prob-'
ably would be, How and from what kind of cream was each class of
butter made? For this information we may refer to Table I. As has 0
previously been noted, cream of lots 1, 2, and 3 was sour when received, I
showing acidities of 0.560, 0.575, and 0.558 per cent, respectively, or
between 31 and 32 c. c., Mann's test. The cream in lots 4 and 5 was
of good quality and perfectly sweet. The acid development in lots 1, |
2, and 3 from the time received until churned was very little, owing
to the cream being practically ripe when received. With lots 4 and 5
the percentage of acid developed was not high. In fact, this cream at
the time of churning had lower percentages of acid than had lots 1, 2,
and 3 when received. Other than these points just mentioned there -
was practically no difference in the making of the butter. The butter
from lots 1, 2, and 3 was held about ten days longer before being
placed in storage than was butter from lots 4 and 5; however, it being
held at +32 F., the writer is of the opinion that this length of time
would not make any material difference. There is without doubt a
direct relation between the differences in the cream as shown in Table I
and the differences in the keeping qualities of the butter after removal
from storage, as shown in Table XI.

SUMMARY.

The results thus far obtained in this investigation may be summia-
rized as. follows:
(1) Butter containing low percentages of salt kept better than did
butter of the same lot containing higher percentages of salt.
(2) Butter in full cans and tubs at -10 and +10 F. scored about
the same. At +32 F. there was a slight difference in favor of cans.
(3) Butter in full cans kept much better than did butter in cans only
partially full, the deterioration doubtless being due to the presence of
air in the partially full cans.
(4) Butter held at -100 F. kept best, both when in storage and
after removal from storage. :
(5) Butter made from cream received at the creamery sweet and in
good condition kept well while stored at -10' and +10 F.; also after :
removal from storage, giving results wholly satisfactory. A
(6) Butter made from cream received at the creamery sour and in
fair condition kept well while in storage at -10 and +10 F., but
deteriorated rapidly after removal from storage, giving, on the whole,
results which were very unsatisfactory.












REMARKS ON THE SCORING OF THE BUTTER.
By G. L. McKAY.
It was the writer's privilege to officiate as judge in conjunction with
Mr. P. H. Kieffer, assistant dairy commiiissioner of Iowa. The judges
had no intimation in any of the scoring as to how the different lots
were made. The work was all outlined by Mr. Gray and the records
were kept in his possession until all scoring were completed, so that
there was nothing to influence the judges one way or the other. When
the scoring was completed it was found that the butter made from
cream received sour scored higher on the second scoring than the first.
This was undoubtedly due to many of the odors not being so apparent
when the butter was cold or chilled. It has been asserted by some
butter merchants in the past that butter made from real sour cream
comes out of storage better than that made from mildly acid cream.
This impression is undoubtedly due to the undesirable odors not being
manifest when the butter was chilled or held in storage for some time.
On the final scoring, however, after this butter had stood at a high
temperature for some days the butter made from sour cream went off
flavor very rapidly, as indicated by the scores.
Another noticeable feature, both in the tubs and in the hermetically
sealed cans, was that the fishy flavor was quite pronounced in those lots
made from old cream where a high percentage of salt had been used.
The high percentage of salt seemed to bring out latent odors and
make them more pronounced.
At the second and third scoring it was found that the different lots
of butter kept at high temperatures did not have so decided a fishy
flavor as the butter held at lower temperatures, as other flavors had now
developed which covered up the fishy flavors. The high salting did
not impart a fishy flavor to the butter made from cream received sweet,
so it would seem to the writer that the odors are in the butter, and the
salt simply makes them more pronounced.
It was noticed with regard to the hermetically sealed cans that in
the case of those only partly filled, thus having an air space, the butter
scored much lower than in the full cans. Mr. Gray had so varied the
amount of butter in these cans that different-sized air spaces were left.
In some instances where the amount of butter in the can was the smallest
and the butter was somewhat loose, thus permitting the air to come in
contact with a great portion of it, the quality was much inferior to
that of butter tightly packed.





24 BUREAU O0 ANIMAL INDUSTRY.
The lightly salted butter held at 10 F. seemed to be almost as
at the second scoring as new or freshly made butter. '
The fourth scoring was made twelve days after the butter had b
taken out of storage and had been for ten of these days kept in an o
nary room at a temperature of about 60 F. At this point all
butter made from cream received sour had deteriorated so much
it was practically packing stock, while that made from cream recei.
sweet, salted lightly, and kept at a low temperature up to the time.
leaving the storage room, scored nearly as'high at the third sodrin& :|
The lightly salted butter held at the higher temperatures, had a tei9'
dency to develop what is known as a cheese flavor. In lots held |
+ 320 F. andabove, the cheese flavor seemed to give way to a turpentid
or paint flavor at the third scoring. The butter held at -10 F., boft
in high and low saltings, was more free from foreign odors than thai
held at +10 F. 0
It seems to the writer, from his work in scoring the butter and after
examining the records kept by Mr. Gray, that light salting and ISo
temperatures gave much the best results for storage butter.
















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