Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides

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Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 116.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomolngi t and Chil of Bureau.


PAPERS ON DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS

AND INSECTICIDES.


CONTENTS AND -INDEX.












ISSUED JANUARY 18, 1915.


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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1915.


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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 116.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



PAPERS ON DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS

AND INSECTICIDES.




I. SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS AGAINST THE GRAPE LEAFHOPPER
IN THE LAKE ERIE VALLEY IN 1911.
By FRED JOHNSON, Agent and E"pert.

II. THE GRAPE-BERRY MOTH.
By FRED JOHNSON and A. 0. HAMMAR, Entomological Assistants.

III. THE CHERRY FRUIT SAWFLY.
By S. W. FOSTER, Entomological Assistant.

IV. LIME-SULPHUR AS A STOMACH POISON FOR INSECTS.
By E. W. SCOTT and E. H. SIEGLER, Entomological Assistants,
Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations.

V. THE FRUIT-TREE LEAF-ROLLER.
By JOHN B. GILL, Entomological Assistmnt.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OPPFICE.
1915.




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BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
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L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATr, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Chief Clerk and Executive Assistant.
F. H. CHnITENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HoPKINS, in charge offorest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture. -I
A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth investigations.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, iii charge of editorial work. I
MABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.

DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.



FRED E. BROOKS, JOHN B. GILL, R. L. NOUGARET, A. C. BAKER. R. A. CusmA,
J. F. STRAUSS, W. F. TURNER, J. H. PAINE, E. H. SIEGLER, W. B. WOOD, F. L.I
SIMANTON, E. B. BLAKESLEE, H. B. SCAMMELL, entomological assistants.
E. J. NEWCOMER, W. M. DAVIDSON, A. J. ACKERMAN, R. J. FISKE, DWIGHT ISELY, i
E. W. GEYER, A. I. FABIS, B. R. LEACH, H. G. INGERSON, H. K. PLANK, WiCeR-
tific assistants. -a :
E. W. SCOTrrT. W. S. ABBOrTT, J. E. DUDLEY, J., employed in enforcement n of Ineetoi, ,
Act of 1910. 1


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CONTENTS.


Spraying experiments against the grape leafhopper in the Lake Erie Valley
in 1911.............................. .................... Fred Johnson..
Introduction ........................................... ...............
Treatment of nymphs of the grape leafhopper with contact sprays.........
Field experiments with tobacco extracts...............................
Vineyard experiments in 1911 .........................................
Use of combined contact and poison spray..............................
Effect of grape leafhopper control on quality of fruit....................
Conclusion................................. ............................
The grape-berry moth (Polychrosis viteana Clem.), Fred Johnson and A. G.
Hammar ............... ...............................................
Introduction.........................................................
H history ..............................................................
Origin and distribution...............................................
Food plants..........................................................
Occurrence of the grape-berry moth in destructive numbers............
Habits of the adult or moth...........................................
Habits and character of injury of the larva.............................
Destructiveness of the larva ...........................................
Other insects whose injury to grape berries resembles that caused by the
larva of the grape-berry moth.......................................


Description ...................................................
Seasonal history ... ......................................
Life-history studies in 1909 .................................
Spring brood of moths ...............................
Time of emergence of spring brood of moths..........
Oviposition of spring-emerging moths in confinement.
Length of life of spring brood of moths..............
First generation .......................................
Incubation period of first-brood eggs...............
Length of feeding period of first-brood larvae .........
Length of pupal stage of first-brood pupae............
Time of emergence of first-brood moths..............
Oviposition of first-brood moths....................
Hibernation of first-brood pupae....................
Length of life cycle of first generation...............


Second generation.................


Incubation period of second-brood eggs.............
Length of feeding period of second-brood larvae......
Date second-brood larvae leave fruit...............
Miscellaneous rearing records for the seasons of 1907 and 1908.
Summary of life-history studies of the grape-berry moth.....
Parasitic enemies............................................
Degree of vineyard infestation in Erie County. Pa..............


Page.

1
1
1
2
3
9
10
12


15
15
17
.18
20
21
22
23


26


.... 28
.... . 30
....... 30
....... 30
....... 30
....... 31
....... 32
. . .... 32
....... 32
....... 33
....... 33
....... 34
....... 35
....... 36
....... 37
....... 38


.............. ....






IV DECIDUQIUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.

The grape-berry moth, etc.-Continued.
Remedial measures .............................-----------......................
The destruction of fallen leaves.....................................
Plowing in late fall or early spring...... ....................
Bagging the clusters. ....................................
Hand picking infested berries.....................................
Removal of "trimmings"..........................................
Experiments with poison sprays....................................
Recommendations for control...........................................
Conclusion............................................................
Bibliography .........................................................
The cherry fruit sawfly (Hoplocampa cookdei [Clarke]) ..........S. W. Fose..
Introduction..........................................................
Seasonal history and habits ............................................


The adult.


The egg ..................... .......................................
The larva ........................................................
Natural enemies ......................................................
Experiments in control...............................................
Lime-sulphur as a stomach poison for insects.. E. W. Scott and BE. H. Sieglr..-
Introduction .........................................................
Conditions of the experiments ..................................
R esults.................................................... ...........
Miscellaneous tests ...................................................
Conclusions.............. ......... ........... ................. ....
The fruit-tree leaf-roller (Archips argyrospila Walk.)............ ---------John B. Gill..
Introduction.................................................
H history ..............................................................
D istribution..........................................................
Food plants ...................................................... ...
Character of injury..........................-..... ......... ..... .......
Description of stages.......- ...........-- ..- ..---........ .......... .....
Life history and habits ............... .............................
Larval stage........................ -------------------------------------- ----
Pupal stage --------------------------------------------------. -
The adult and egg stages. ..........................................
The adult and egg stages-----------------
Summary of life history ..............------------------.....--....-....--.----------......
Hibernation.........---------------....--..---....-....-..------...-------..-----..-
Natural enemies. ------------------------------ ..--------..--
M ethods of control .....................................................
Experimental tests for the destruction of the eggs---------------...................
Spraying experiments for the destruction of the egg masses...........
Spraying experiments against the larvae ............................
Light traps ..........................--.............-............... .-
Conclusions.................------------------------..........----..--..--------
Recommendations for control ................................. .........-
Index .......................---------------------------------................ --.. ----- -----------
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ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.
Page.
PLATE I. Spraying against the grape leafhopper. Fig. 1.-Rod and single
cyclone nozzle used to apply spray to underside of grape foliage.
Power supplied by tractor sprayer. Vineyard of Mr. H. H. Harper,
North East, Pa. Fig. 2.-Rod carrying two cyclone nozzles used
to apply spray to underside of grape foliage. Power supplied by
compressed air. Vineyard of Mr. A. I. Loop, North East, Pa.... 4
11. Comparison of sprayed and unsprayed plats. Fig. 1.-Showing con-
dition of vine injured by grape leafhopper in unsprayed plat.
Note loss of foliage and also berries from clusters. Vineyard of
Mr. W. E. Gray, North East, Pa. Fig. 2.-Showing condition of
vine in plat sprayed with tobacco extract No. 1 against grape leaf-
hopper. Note Larger size of berries in clusters, heavy foliage, and
stronger cane growth. Vineyard of Mr. W. E. Gray, North East,
Pa............ ...-... ......................................... 8
III. Spraying against the grape leafhopper. Fig. 1.-Gasoline engine
sprayer supplying power for two "trailer" leads of hose in spraying
against grape leafhopper. Vineyard of Mr. J. E. Beatty, North
East, Pa. Fig. 2.-Gasoline-engine sprayer supplying power for
two "trailer" leads of hose in spraying against grape leafhopper.
Vineyard of Peacock-Rood Co., Westfield, N. Y................. 8
IV. The grape-berry moth (Polychrosis viteana). Figs. 1, 2.-Adult or
moth. Fig. 3.-Full-grown larvae. Fig. 4.-Pupae............... 16
V. Injury to grapes by larvw of first brood of the grape-berry moth.
Fig. 1.-Showing destruction of portion of grape cluster as a result
of boring of larva into stem. Fig. 2.-Showing cracking of infested
berries and also the way in which berries first attacked are secured
by web to berries which are attacked later in the development of
the larva ..................................................... 24
VI. Injury to grapes by larvae of second brood of the grape-berry moth.
Fig. 1.-Showing clusters of Concord grapes from which infested
berries have been removed. Fig: 2.-Injury to berries by larvae
just previous to harvesting of fruit ............................... 24
VII. Outdoor rearing shelter and cage used in life-history studies at North
East, Pa. Fig. 1.-Portion of outdoor shelter used in the rearing of
insects during 1909. Fig. 2.-Cage built over grapevines in which
the generations of the grape-berry moth were reared during 1909.. 32
VIII. Spraying against the grape-berry moth. Fig. 1.-Showing size of
grape berries at second spray application about the time many of
the first-brood eggs of the grape-berry moth are deposited on them.
Fig. 2.-Trailer method of vineyard spraying in order to apply the
spray to the underside of the foliage or to the grape clusters where
the foliage is dense........... ... ........................ 00
IX. Fig. 1.-Cherries injured by the cherry fruit sawfly (Hoplocamp'z
cooked). Fig. 2.-Entranee and exit holes of the cherry fruit saw-
fly ................................................-------------------------------------------------.... 76






DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.


PL


aTE X. Fig. 1.-Cherry blossom clusters at stage of development when mast
of the eggs of the cherry fruit sawfly are being deposited. Fig.
2.-Larvae and cocoons of the cherry fruit sawfly ................
XI. Fig. 1.-Sprayed twig of wilebmvjshowing larvae of the fall web-
worm (Byphantria cunea) feeAin -n leaves; at right, same, covered
with paper bag, to prevent escape of larvae. Fig. 2.-Unsprayed
twig of wild cherry upon which fall webworms have been feeding
for some time; for comparison with sprayed twig...............
XII. Stages and work of the fruit-tree leaf-roller (Archips argyrospi).
Fig. 1.-Hatched egg masses on apple twigs. Fig. 2.-Full grown
larva. Fig. 3.-Pupae. Fig. 4.--Cocoon and pupal case. Fig.
5.-Young apples injured by larvae.............................
XIII. Work of the fruit-tree leaf-roller. Fig. 1.-Apple branch, showing
webbing and injury to foliage by larvae. Fig. 2.-Apples injured
by larvae......................................................
XIV. Apple orchard at Canon City, Colo., defoliated by the fruit-tree leaf-
roller................ .........................................
XV. Excessive webbing by larvae of the frint-tree leaf-roller............
XVI. Stages of the fruit-tree leaf-roller. Fig. 1.-Egg masses on trunk of
apple tree. Fig. 2.-Moth and extruded pupal case. Fig. 3.-
Unhatched egg masses on apple twigs..............................

TEXT FIGURES.


FIG. 1. The grape leafhopper (Typhlocyba comes var. coloradensi): Adult ......
2. The grape leafhopper: Nymph of the first stage.......................
3. The grape leafhopper: Fully developed nymph of the fifth stage-- ......-
4. Map showing distribution of the grape-berry moth (Polychrosis viteana)..
5. Injury to grape cluster by larva of grape-berry moth during and just
after the blooming period ........................................
6. Pupal cases made on grape leaf by full-grown larvae of the first brood of
the grape-berry moth.............................................
7. Cluster of Concord grapes on which many second-brood eggs of the grape-
berry moth are present ...........................................
8. The grape curculio (Craponius inxquali.): Adult, larva, pupa........
9. Work of the grape curculio in berry of grape.........................
10. Diagram showing time of emergence of spring-brood moths of the grape-
berry moth in 1909 at North East, Pa ..............................
11. Diagram showing time of emergence of the first-brood moths of the grape-
berry moth in 1909 at North East, Pa..............................
12. Diagram showing time of leaving the grape berries by second-brood
larvae of the grape-berry moth, from fruit collected in the field, North
East, Pa., 1909..................................................
13. Diagram showing time of emergence of the first-brood moths of the grape-
berry moth in 1907 at North East, Pa........ ...............
14. Diagram showing time of emergence of the spring-brood moths of the
grape-berry moth in 1908 at North East, Pa............ .........
15. Seasonal history of the grape-berry moth as observed in 1909 at North
East, Pa...................... ...... -......................
16. Thymaris slingerlandana, a common parasite of the grape-berry moth.. -
17. Vineyard in which poison-spray experiments were conducted against
larvae of the grape-berry moth during the seasons of 1907, 1908, and
1909; vineyard of Mr. W. S. Wheeler, North East, Pa....... -----------.....-


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ILLUSTRATIONS.


;Fxo.'18. Plat-arrangement of poison-spraying experiments against the larvae of
the grape-berry moth in the vineyard of Mr. W. S. Wheeler, North
East, Pa., 1907.................................................
.19. Gasoline-engine sprayer outfit used in vineyard experiments against the
larvae of the grape-berry moth in vineyard of Mr. W. S. Wheeler,
North East, Pa., 1907, 1903, 1909................................
20. Stage of development of grape blossom cluster at which poison-spray
application should be made against early hatching larvae of the grape-
berry moth which infest the blossom clusters......................
21. Plat arrangement of poison-spraying experiments against the grape-
berry moth in the vineyard of Mr. W. S. Wheeler, North East, Pa.,
1908 and 1909..................................................
22. Overwintering cocoons of the grape-berry moth upon leaf on ground,
beneath a badly infested grapevine -.-............-..........---.
23. The cherry fruit sawfly (Hoplocampa cookei): Egg, larvae, adult and
details, work....................................................
24. Microbracon sp., a hymenopterous parasite of the'cherry fruit sawfly...


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INDEX.


Page.
Agelaidus phmniceus phaniceus, enemy of Archips argyrospila .................. 102
Alfalfa, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................... 94
Ambrosia trifida, reported food plant of Polychrosis viteana .................... 21
Amelotonua sp., parasite of Polychrosis viteana ............................... 48
Amorpha stems, reported food of Polychrosis viteana .......................... 20
Apanttues canarsie, parasite of Polychrosis viteana ............................. 47
Canarsia hammondi ............................ 47
sp., parasite of Polychrosis viteana ................................. 48
Apple, food plant of Archips argyrospila ..................................... 92, 93
Apricot, food plant of Archips argyrospila..................................... 93
Archips argyrospila ....................................................... 91-110
adult, description ......................................... 96
life history and habits.............................. 99-101
control experiments, conclusions ........................ 108-109
methods ........................................ 102-109
recommendations ................................ 109-110
damage caused in Missouri................................. 92
description of stages ...................................... 96-97
distribution ............................................. 93
egg, description .......................................... 96
life history ......................................... 99-101
eggs, experiments for destruction ......................... 103-105
enemies ................................................. 102
food plants .............................................. 93-94
habits .................................................. 97-102
hibernation ............................................. 101-102
history .................................................. 92-93
in irv rhnharptp~r Q4-Q5


Arsenate of lead


in New York in 1911, Herrick's description............
larva, description....................................
life history and habits..._.......................
life history..........................................
summary................................
outbreaks in Southwest...............................
pupa, description....................................
life history....................................
against cherry fruit sawfly..................... ........
fall webworm as compared with lime-sulphur ....
fruit-tree leaf-roller............................
grape-berry moth...............................


..... 91
..... 96
..... 97-98
.... 97-102
..... 101
..... 91
..... 97
..... 98-99
..... 79
..... 84-88
... 106-107
..... 9-10


grape rootworm--------------------------------..................................... 9-10
and Bordeaux mixture against grape insects.................. 5
grape-berry moth .............. 54-67
lime-sulphur against fall webworm .................... 83,85,87
nicotine solution against fruit-tree leaf-roller .......... 106-107
Paris green against fruit-tree leaf-roller ................. 106-107
74567-Bull. 116-15-- 2 111






112


DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.


PlKto
Arsenate of lead, Bordeaux mixture, and tobacco extract against grape leaf-
hopper and other grape insects and fungous diseases ....... 9-
resin fish-oil soap, and Bordeaux mixture against grape-berry .
moth................................................... -----------------------------------------5;
zinc against fruit-tree leaf-roller............................... 106-107
Arsenite of lime and Bordeaux mixture against grape-benrry moth- .............. 54-67
burning of grape foliage from use with tobacco extract ....... 10 e
resin fish-oil soap, and Bordeaux mixture against grape-benry.
moth ------------------------------------------4r
m t .. .... ............................................. ..4i57
Ascogaster carpocapsxe, parasite of Carpocapsa pomonella ---------------..................... 4
Polychrosis viteana------------------------.......................... 48
Ash, food plant of Archips argyrospila. ---------------------------.--------- 2, :::
Aspidiotus howardi, miscible ails in control------------------------------ -i .
perniciosus, miscible oils in control-......-----------------...........--------- 110 i
Bagging the clusters against grape-berry moth.-............................. -2
Basswood, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................. 94
Bathymetis sp., near terminalis, parasite of Polychrosis viteana.................. 46
Beans, food plants of Archips argyrospila.................................... .i---------------------------------- 9
Blackberry blossoms, reported food of Polychrosis viteana..-..----..-.....----. 20
food plant of Archips argyrospila........................ -----------------------94
Blackbird, red-winged. (See Agelaius phluniceus phwniceus.)
Bluebird. (See Sialia sialis.)
Boneset, reported food plant of Polychrosis riteana ............................ 21
Bordeaux mixture against fall webworm .................................... 8 H;i
grape mildew .................................... 9-14 :
and arsenate of lead against grape-berry moth ..........-..... 5t4-47ff
grape insects- ................... 65 "
arsenite of lime against grape-berry moth .............. 54-57
arsenate of lead, and tobacco extract against grape leaf-
hopper and other grape insects and fungous diseases..... 9-10
fish-oil soap, and tobacco extract against grape leafhopper
and other grape insects and fungous diseases .............. 9-10
resin fish-oil soap, and arsenate of lead against grape-berry
moth......-------------...................54-
arsenite of lime against grape-berry
moth ............................ 54-57


Box-elder, food plant of Archips argyrospila ..................................
Brawcon s crtator, parasite of Polychrosis viteana................................
Calosoma scrutator, enemy of Archips argyrospila............................
Canarsia hammondi, host of Apanteles canarsi ................................
Carpocapsa pomonella, host of Aseogaster carpocapsr...........................
lime-sulphur as a stomach poison .......................
vitisella, bibliographic reference ................................
-Polychrosis viteana..................--------------------..---...---......----
Catbird. (See Dumetella carolinensis.)
Cedar, food plant of Archips argyrospila ......................................
Cherry, food plant of Archips argyrospila.....................................
fruit sawfly. (See Hoplocampa cooei.)
wild, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...........-..-------.............-
black. (See Prunus serotina.)
Clean culture against grape-berry moth........................--......-..---------
Clover, red, food plant of Archips argyrospila-..--------------------------
Codling moth. (See Carpompsa pomonella.)


93
46
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48
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INDEX.


113


i". Page.
S Copper sulphate against grape mildew ...................................... 5
i Cottonwood, food plant of Archips argyrospila .............................. 94
SCraponius inrequalis, similarity of injury to that of Polychrosis viteana ..... 16, 26-27
Cultural methods against cherry fruit sawfly ................................. 79
Currant, food plant of Archips argyrospila.................................... ---------------------------------93
Dioctes obliteratus, parasite of Gelechia rubidella.............................. ----------------------------48
Polychrosis viteana ............................. 48
Distillate-oil emulsion against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs ...................... 103
and nicotine sulphate against cherry fruit sawfly ...... 79
Dolerus cookei=-Hoplocampa cookei ......................................... 73
Dumetella carolinensis, enemy of Archips argyrospila .......................... 102
Elm, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...................................... 93
Endopiza? viteana=Polychrosis viteana ...................................... 18, 29
Epiurus indagator, parasite of Archips argyrospila ............................ 102
var. nigrifrons parasite of Polychrosis viteana .............. 48
Eriocampoides cerasi, sulphur as a stomach poison ............................ 88-89
Erythrwus sp., enemy of Archips argyrospila ................................. 102
Eudemis botrqna, biographical references .................................... 68-70
name wrongly applied to Polychrosis viteana ................ 15,18
Evoxysoma vitis, resemblance of injury to that of grape-berry moth ........... 27-28
Exorista blanda, parasite of Archips argyrospila ............................... 102
chelonix, parasite of Archips argyrospila ............................. 102
nigripalpis, parasite of Archips argyrospila ........................... 102
pyste, parasite of Archips argyrospila ................................ 102
Fish-oil soap and lime-sulphur against codling moth ......................... 89
Formica monlanus, enemy of Archips argyrospila ............................. 102
Foster, S. W., paper, "The Cherry Fruit Sawfly (Hopocampa cookei [Clarke])". 73-79
Gelechia rubidella, host of Diodctes obliteratus .................................. 48
SGelechia sp., host of Glypta vulgaris .......................................... 46
Gill, John B., paper, "The Fruit-Tree Leaf-Roller (Archips argyrospila Walk.)" 91-110
Glypta anirnosa, hosts .................................................... 46
parasite of Polychrosis viteana ............................. 47
vulgaris, hosts- ...................................................... 46
parasite of Polychrosis vileana .............................. 46
Gooseberry, food plant of Archips argyrospila ............................... 93
Grape, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................... 94
berries, food of Endospiza (?) viteana ................................. 18
blossoms, food plant of Polychrosis viteana ............................ 21
curculio. (See Craponius insaqualis.)
quality of fruit affected by grape leafhopper control ................... 10-12
rootworm, control by arsenate of lead ............................... 9-10
tendrils, food of Polychrosis viteana .................................. 21
Grapes, increased yield produced by spraying for grape leafhopper ........... 4-9
wild, food of Polychrosis viteana .................................... 21
Hammar, A. G., Fred Johnson and, paper, "The Grape-Berry Moth (Poly-
chrosis viteana Clem .)" .................................................. 15-71
SHand picking berries against grape-berry moth .............................. 52
SHazelnut, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................. 94
SHickory, food plant of Archips argyrospila ................................... 93
SHoplocampa californica=Hoplocampa cookei ................................. 73-74
'cookei ........................................................ 73-79
adult, habits and seasonal history ....................... 74-76
B control experiments ................................... 79




S


114


DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.


Hoplocampa coocei egg, seasonal history.................... ................ 76-7f
enemies............... ..................... 78-79
habits ............................ ...................... 74-78
larva, habits and seasonal history........................ 77-7.
seasonal history ........................................ 74-78
Hopvines, food plant of Archips argyrospila................................. 94
Horse-chestnut, food plant of Archips argyrospila............................ 92,998
Hyphantria cunea, lime-sulphur as a stomach poison.......................... 81-83
Ichneumon parasite of Hoplocampa cookei................................. 78
Icterus spurius, enemy of Archips argyrospila................................. 102
Ironweed, reported food plant of Polychrosis viteana ......................... 20
Itoplectis conquistor, parasite of Archips argyrospila.......................... 102
Polychrosis viteana........................... 49
Johnson, Fred, paper "Spraying Experiments against the Grape Leafhopper
in the Lake Erie Valley in 1911" ........................................ 1-13
Johnson, Fred, and Hammar, A. G., paper, "The Grape-Berry Moth (Polychro-
sis viteana Clem .)"...................................................... 15-71
Kerosene emulsion against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs.......................... 103
and lime-sulphur against codling moth ................... 89
Kingbird. (See Tyrannus tyrannus.)
Leafhopper, grape, control as affecting quality of fruit........................ 10-12
results of spraying against it.............................. 12-13
spraying experiments against it in the Lake Erie Valley
in 1911, paper......................................... 1-13
treatment of nymphs with contact sprays................ 1-2
use of combined contact and poison spray ................. 9-10
vineyard experiments against it in 1911.................. 3-9
Leaf-roller, fruit-tree. (See Archips argyrospila.)
Light traps against fruit-tree leaf-roller................................... 107-108
Lilac, food plant of Archips argyrospila..................................... 94
Lime against fall webworm................................................ 89
and Paris green against fruit-tree leaf-roller......................... 106-107
sulphur against Howard scale......................................... 105
and arsenate of lead against fall webworm.................. 83,85-87
fish-oil soap against codling moth .......................... 89'
kerosene emulsion against codling moth ................... 89
as a stomach poison for insects, paper.......................... 81-90
commercial, against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs............... 103-105
Lobesia botrana, bibliographic reference.............................;...... 68
name wrongly applied to Polychrosis viteana................ 17-18
Locust, honey, food plant of Archips argyrospila............................. 93
Magnolia leaves, reported food of Polychrosis viteana......................... 21
Maple, food plant of Archips argyrospila..................................... 92
soft, food plant of Archips argyrospila................................ 93
Margaronia quadristigmalis, host of Glypta vulgaris .......................... 46
Meteorus archipsidis, parasite of Archips argyrospila......................... 102
sp., parasite of Polychrosis viteana............................... 48
Microbracon dorsator, parasite of Polychrosis viteana......................... 48
mellitor, parasite of Polychrosis viteana.......................... 48
sp., parasite of Hoplocampa cookei ............................... 78
Mildew of grape, control by Bordeaux mixture............................ 9-10
Nicotine solution and arsenate of lead against fruit-tree leaf-roller ........... 106-107
soap against fruit-tree leaf-roller.............-- .....- 106-107


Eq
Thu


- Hit






INDEX.


115


! Page.
Nicotine sulphate and distillate-oil emulsion against cherry fruit sawfly....... 79
Noa sp., host of Omorgus nolz ...........--------------..--------- -- -------. 48
Notoxus monodon, enemy of Archips argyrospila ............................. 102
Oak, food plant of Archips argyrospila--------------------------------...................................... 93
S Oats. food plant of Archips argyrospila ....................................... 94
SOil, miscible, against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs............................ -----------------------103-105
J Oils, miscible, against San Jose scale ....................................... 110
Omorgus nolez, parasite of Nola sp ........................................... 48
Polychrosis viteana ................................ 48
Onions, food plant of Archips argyrospila.................................... 94
Oriole, orchard. (See Icterus spurius.)
Orthizema sp., parasite of Polychrosis viteana ................................. 48
Osage orange, food plant of Archips argyrospila .............................. 94
Predisca scudderiana, host of Glypta animosa ............................... 46
Paris green and arsenate of lead against fruit-tree leaf-roller ................ 106-107
lime against fruit-tree leaf-roller .......................... 106-107
burning of grape foliage from use with tobacco extract ............. 10
Passer domesticus, enemy of Archips argyrospila .............................. 102
Peach, food plant of Archips argyrospila ..................................... 93
Pear, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...................................... 93
Pear slug. (See Eriocampoides cerasi.)
Peas, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...................................... 94
Penthina vitivorana, bibliographic references ................................. 67
=Polychrosis viteana ................................. 17,18, 29
Petroleum, crude, emulsion, against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs ................. 103
S Phoebe. (See Sagornis phabe.)
Phylloxera lice and galls, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ................ 21
Phytodietus sp., parasite of Polychrosis viteana ............................... 48
Pimpla pedals, parasite of Archips argyrospila ............................... 102
Planesticus migratorius, enemy of Archips argyrospila...................... 102
Plowing in the late fall and early spring against grape-berry moth ............ 51
Plum, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...................................... 93
Polychrosis botrana, bibliographic references ................................. 70
other species confused with Polychrosis viteana .................... 15


viteana .............................. ..........................


adult, description .........................
habits .................. .....
bibliography .............................
conclusion.............. .................
control recommendations ..................
description ...............................
destructiveness of larva..................
distribution..............................
egg, description............................
enemies, parasitic..........................
first brood eggs, period of incubation.......
larvae, feeding period, length....
moths, oviposition..............
time of emergence........
pupae, hibernation..............


15-71


............ . 29
.............. 22-23
.............. 67-71
.............. 66-67
.............. 62-66
.............. 28-29
.............. 26
.............. 18-20
.............. 28
.............. 45-48
.............. 32-33
.............. 33
.............. 35-36
.............. 34-35
.............. 36-37


length of stage...............
generation ...............................
food plants .....................................


33-34
32-38
20-21


..........
..........
..........




w w


116


DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.


Polychrios witeana, habits and character of injury of larva .....................'"1
of adult or moth ................................... 2240"l
history................................................ .. 1-
injury of larva, character ................................ 2 -
insects whose injury to grape berries is similar thereto ...... 26&*
larva, description....................................... 28 ::!
destructiveness.................................... 2
habits .............................................. 23-256
injury, character ................................... 23-25 :
life cycle of first generation, length ........................ 37-M8
history studies in 1909 ................................ 30-4U i
summary .............................. 44-4 ;
occurrence in destructive numbers ....................... 21-21 :
origin .................................................. 1 -20 .:;
pupa, description ....................................... 2 ..
rearing records, miscellaneous, for 1907 and 1908- ........... 41-44 i
remedies ................................................ 50- 7
seasonal history......................................... 30-45
second brood eggs, incubation period ...................... 34
larvae, date of leaving fruit .................. -3941. ;
feeding period, length ................ ---B
generation....................................... 38-4 ,i.
similarity of injury to that of grape curculio (Craponius inz-
qualis) ...............................................
spring brood of moths, length of life ...................... !
oviposition in confinement ......... 314 I-I
time of emergence ..................-3----
synonymy ...............................................
vineyard infestation in Erie County, Pa., degree ........... 4"-[--:!!!
Poplar, Carolina, food plant of Archips argyrospila ............................
Prunus serotina, food plant of Hyphantria cunea ..............................
Pyralid host of Glypta animosa ............................................. I
Quince, food plant of Archips argyrospila ..................................
Radish, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................... .
Raspberry, food plant of Archips argyrospila ................................. -
fruits, wild, food of Endospiza (?) viteana ........................
wild, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ........................ ::..:
Resin fish-oil soap, arsenite of lime, and Bordeaux mixture against grape-berry
moth ...............................................54-...:
Bordeaux mixture, and arsenate of lead against grape-berry
moth .................................................. 544-01
Retinia argyrospila=Archips argyrospila .................................... --
original description..................................... :
Rhubarb, food plant of Archips argyrospila ................................ 9 ::-
Robin, western. (See Planesticus migratorius propinquus.) n ...4
Rose, food plant of Archips argyrospila ...................................... --
Roses, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ..................--........... - 1......
Sassafras, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................. 9
Endospiza (?) vileana ................................ 181
leaves, reported food of Polychrosis viteana----------------------.........................
Sayornmis ph/be, enemy of Archips argyrospila ...............................---: 3
Scale, Howard. (See Aspidiotus howardi.)
San Jose. (See Aspidiotus vernidosus.)






INDEX. 117

Page
Sialia sialis, enemy of Arcips argyrospila.................................. 102
Scott, E. W., and Siegler, E. H., paper, "Lime-Sulphur as a Stomach Poison
for Insects" ............................................................. 81-90
Siegler, E. H., and Scott E. W., paper, "Lime-Sulphur as a Stomach Poison
for Insects" .............................-.. ............... ....------- ---... ...... .. 81-90
Snowball, food plant of Archips argyrospila ................................. 94
Soap and nicotine solution against fruit-tree leaf-roller ..................... 106-107
fish-oil, Bordeaux mixture, and tobacco extract against grape-leaf hopper
and other grape insects and fungous diseases .......................... 9-10
Sparrow, English. (See Passer domesticss)
Sulphur ineffective against fall webworm ................................... 89
SSumac seed bunches, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ..................... 21
* Temperature in relation to time of leaving fruit of second-brood larvw of Poly-
lchrosis viteana ...............--.....--........--.............................. --- 40-41
Thistle flower buds, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ..................... 20-21
Thoroughwort. (See Boneset.)
Thymaris slingerlandana=Diocles obliteralus .................................... 48
parasite of Polychrosis viteana ....................... 47
Tobacco extract, Bordeaux mixture, and arsenate of lead against grape leafhop-
per and other grape insects and fungous diseases ........... 9-10
fish-oil soap, and Bordeaux mixture against grapeleaf hopper
and other grape insects and fungous diseases .............. 9-10
extracts against grape leafhopper ................................... 2-3
Tortricids, hosts of Glypta animosa ......................................... 46
Tortrixfurvana=Archips argyrospila........................................ -----------------------------92
v-signatana=Archips argyrospila .................................... 92
Trichogramma pretiosa, parasite of Polychrosis riteana ........................ 48
"Trimmings," removal, against grape-berry moth ........................... 52
Tulip-tree leaves, reported food of Polychrosis viteana ........................ 20
Typhlocyba comes. (See Leafhopper, grape.)
var. coloradensis (see also Leafhopper, grape.)
Tyrannus tyrannus, enemy of Archips argyrospila ............................. 102
Urogaster canarsi,=Apanteles canarsi- ..................................... 47
Vernonia. (See Ironweed.)
Virginia creeper, food plant of Archips argyrospila ........................... 94
Walnut, black, food plant of Archips argyrospila ............................ 92,93
Webworm, fall. (See Hyphantria cunea.)
Wheat, food plant of Archips argyrospila .................................... 94
Whitewash against fruit-tree leaf-roller eggs .................................. 103





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