Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Papers on deciduous fruit insects and insecticides
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029625351
oclc - 22570371
System ID:
AA00018917:00001

Full Text








-BUREAU OF INTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 115.
L. 0. HOWARD. Eatomuls and Chief of Bureau.
@.


PAPERS ON DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS

AND INSECTICIDES.


.. .... ... .






CONTENTS
...... . .. ...





N
H :!" .:* #"

I "i' ,, i'. .


AND


INDEX.


ISSUED FEBRUARY 5,


v ':.. : .: *: : .. . "" .."!
.. .. .' .H.
.'l i;:!^ |."! '::. *.
.. .::. :' C ..
7E: .' 1"'.


:1
'H'


." .: : -. : ..: : *, '.



... .. .. ..


r .
r" :EE7










.4..&'tNH .





n dH"'m: A
:. *ii ::











:..' 1




E : :.[[ :: ; ^
."I

,, ::i : 'E*: E
t;ip




















-'*


.4 .'a!
: .iiiii l(i
..1..




... *.. ^1












j 14
+, :-'i +i^


: .- t :" E.:.*" : ym ..i"
I n

.r~


74 L %
", 4
13 ..!m

a:.' :::i+
i lbS




+A :: ;:
.-h. i:[[[::

... I..
e.. *.:.' t,: .. i i
~ 9 ': ::', ..
... H HH .: .
.::::.
"" '.r: :'i
*...:::
-. E ...:
a:t': :' V







1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
F" BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 115.

r L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
0


PAPERS ON DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS

AND INSECTICIDES.




S I. LIFE-HISTORY STUDIES ON THE CODLING MOTH IN MICHIGAN.
By A. G. HAMMAR, Entomological Assistant,
Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations,
2
S: II.' THE ONE-SPRAY METHOD IN THE CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH
BY AND THE PLUM CURCULIO. (SECOND REPORT.)
By[A. L. QUAINTANCE, In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigation,
AND
::..'E. W. SCOTT, Entomological Assistant.

;:| III.LIFE HISTORY OF THE CODLING MOTH IN THE SANTA CLARA
~VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.
,: By P. R. JONES AD W. M. DAVIDSON,
S aEntomological Assistants, Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations.
NiEE iii~iE :

ii)iiA: :
I"'




OE P..IN.I
':hi



*k





19k5




WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
H' ',,1915.

























LII.




*iH

"ii





II



I 4
.... .i::. ":.!









f,S
:E"EE ......h:i


i "E E:: .





. ..... i !




*" .
jul. p,": .i
.. .::
"PIE "
.. N,"
















BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Chief Clerk and Executive Assistant.
F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
I E. F. PHILLipS, in charge of bee culture.
A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth investigations.
SROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
SMABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.
I. DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.
SA. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge.
SFRED E. BROOKS, JOHN B. GILL, R. L. NOUGARET, A. C. BAKER, R. A. CuSmAN,
iJ. F. STRAUSS, W. F. TURNER, J. H. PAINE, E. H. SIEGLER, W. B. WOOD, F. L.
SIMANTON, E. B. BLAKESLEE, H. B. SCAMMELL, entomological assistants.
E. J. NEWCOMER, W. M. DAVIDSON, A. J. ACKERMAN, R. J. FISKE, DWIGHT ISELY,
SE. W. GEYER, A. I. FABIS, B. R. LEACH, H. G. INGERSON, H. K. PLANK, sciCn-
Sti fic assistants.
2 E. W. SCOTT, W. S. ABBOTT, J. E. DUDLEY, JR., employed in enforcement of insecticide
Sact of 1910.
V












..






: Ii:"L..








* Iif
1 ..





It
V



'II

*. .:i











a;a
:...:

.::.": ^ ^




















L i|
+,[ii.: "+ttt


'!:i "::: r" i- I
*.' .:"!i~
:E:E ii" ". :* i" :- t

: i!'J*...ii -/I
i:: .* : .-I


..... il
















CONTENTS.

Page.
LIFE-HISTORY STUDIES ON THE CODLING MOrH IN MICHIGAN. A. G. Hanmar.. 1
Introduction .......................................................... 1
Definition of terms used ...........---.....-............................... 2
Seasonal-history studies of 1909 .........................-.....---........... 3
Time of emergence of moths of spring brood ........................ 3
Time of emergence of moths of the first brood ........................ 4
Band-record experiments in 1909 .................................. 5
Seasonal-history studies of 1910 ......................................... 6
W entering larvae ................................................... 6
Spring brood of pupae .............................................------------------------------------------ 8
Spring brood of moths............................................-----------------------------------------.. 11
The first generation ............................................... 14
The second generation- ............................................. 23
Band records of 1910---------------------. --26
Summary of seasonal-history studies of 1910......-------------.......-----------.. 31
Seasonal-history studies of 1911-----......-....-------------..----.-------------- 32
Source of rearing material ......................................... 33
Winter-killed larvae ..............................---------------------------------.................. -------------33
Spring brood of pupae- ............................................ 34
Spring brood of moths.............................................----------------------------------------- 37
The first generation ....-------------------------------------------.......................................... 42
The second generation..........................................-----------------------------------------... 55
Band records of 1911 .---------------.-------........--..---...--.--..--...--------- 60
Summary of seasonal-history studies of 1911 -.-------...----------------...... 65
Weather records for 1909, 1910, and 1911 ---..-------.--.-----..-------------.. 66
Comparative life-history studies for the seasons of 1909. 1910, and 1911.... 70
Insect enem ies ........................................................ 73
Predaceous insects............ ..........----------......................----------------------------------.. 73
Parasitic insects .................................................. 74
Nematode worms ................................................. 76
Miscellaneous observations...........................................-----------------------------------------.. 76
Number of larval instars and molts of the codling moth ............... 76
Cannibalism among larvae of the codling moth ....................... 83
Codling moth larvae remaining two seasons in the larval stage........ --------83
Codling moth larvae feeding on apple foliage ......................... 84
Summary ...............------------------------------------------------------... .............. 84
T 'NONE-SPRAY METHOD IN THE CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH AND THE
Pw .: LUM CURCULIO (SECOND REPORT). A. L. Quaintance and E. W. Scott. 87
Introduction- ....................... ......................----------------------------------------. 87
Experiments in Virginia ............................................. 88
: The codling moth -------------------------------------------------- 89
The plum curculio....... --------------------------------------- 91
vu.
N ,." ,i
i:::!iiii]: .S

F: ~i":






DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND ISCOTICOIDESB.


THE ONE-SPRAY METHOD IN THE CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH ASD T[=
PLUM CURCULIO (SECOND REPORT)-Continued.
Experiments in Michigan .............................................
The codling moth................................................
Experiments in Delaware..............................................
The codling moth .............. ...................................
The plum curculio --------......---.................................
Experiments in Kansas ...............................................
The codling moth-..........................--.....................
Summ ary of results ...................................................
Conclusions...................................................-------------------------------------------------........
LIFE HISTORY OF THE CODLING MOTH IN THE SANTA CLARA VALLEY OP CALI-


FORNIA ..........................
Introduction........................
Seasonal-history studies of 1909........
Spring brood of pupae...........
Spring brood of moths.........
First generation.................
Second generation...............
Seasonal-history studies of 1910 .......
Spring brood of pupae.............
Spring brood of moths.............
First generation.................
Second generation..............
Review of life-history work of 1910
Seasonal-history studies for 1911.......
Spring brood of pupae.............
Spring brood of moths.............
First generation.................
Second generation-..............


P. R. Jones and W. M. Davidson..


Natural enemies of the codling moth --.......--........-..................
Parasitic insects ..................................................
Predaceous insects --.........--..-..-...---.--.--...............
Band records of 1909. .......................................
Band records of 1910 .............................. ....................

Band records of 1911 --....... ............. ...........................
First-brood emergence v. overwintering emergence, 1911 -.........-------.....
Review of life-history work of 1911 --.......---........................
Comparison of life history in 1910 and 1911.--.......-..---...............
Weather records for 1909, 1910, and 1911 --....---.-------------.........
Comparative life-history studies for the seasons 1909, 1910, and 1911.......
Control of the codling moth on pears and apples in the Santa Clara Valley.
The O'Toole pear orchard at Alviso, Cal.............................
Spraying operations....................................
Season of 1910 .............................................
Season of 1911 ....................................-.......
The Northern apple orchard .................................'
Season of 1911 .................................................
Conclusions from experiments in control .............................
Summary ............................. ...................-.......
Index.. . ... . .......... ....... . .......... .. . . ........ . .i


11i..


i9.
11.





147
150
185



160
.160
161
161"
IUS






1462
1468
147
150
156
160
.160
161
161
162
163
164,-
1*K'


.C N
Ap






, p,,"* ,* .
, ,.. I.


tLWU
165
166
170
171
172
172
172
176


1l~
'U
11


F7 ]

50



hi I
80 ilr



.''.:: ..,

., ,,IN,|.


.. '


VIII


. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
. ... .. . .... . .. .
.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .


.... .... .... .............'...
............................
............................
...... ......................
................ ..... .......
............................
............................
............................



. .. .. .. . .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ..... .










0


ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.


PLATE I. The codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). Fig. 1.-Variation in size
of moths of the spring brood. Fig. 2.-Two moths resting on the
trunk of an apple tree, showing protective coloration. Fig. 3.-
Larva in winter cocoon. Fig. 4.-Larva in the act of remodeling
the winter cocoon. Fig. 5.-Modified winter cocoon, with exit
tube and silk partition. Fig. 6.-Cocoon after emergence of moth.
Fig. 7.-Variation in size of wintering larvae .....................
II. Outdoor shelter used in rearing the codling moth in 1910 and 1911 at
Douglas, Mich ................ ............... .......................
III. Insect enemies of the codling moth. Fi,,. 1.-Ascogaster carpocapsx,
a hymenopterous parasite of codling-moth larvae. Fig. 2.-Cocoon
of Ascogaster carpocaps.T within a cocoon of the codling moth.
Fig. 3.-Pinacodera limbata, a predaceous beetle destructive to cod-
ling-moth larvae. Figs. 4, 5.-Tenebroides corticalis, beetle and
larva, which feed upon the larva and pupa of the codling moth....
IV. Fig. 1.-Picked apples from three trees of Plat I (demonstration) in
the Edward Hutchins orchard, Fennville, Mich. Fig. 2.-Picked
apples from three trees of Plat III (one spray) in the Edward
Hutchings orchard, Fennville, Mich. Fig. 3.-Picked apples from
three trees of Plat V unsprayedd) in the Edward Hutchins orchard,
Fennville, M ich ................ ......................... .......

TEXT FIGURES.

FIG. 1. Emergence curve of spring brood of moths in 1909 at Douglas, Mich.
Records of R. W Braucher.....................................
2. Emergence curve of first brood of moths in 1909 at Douglas, Mich......
3. Curves showing maturity of larvae of first and second broods; band-
record curve of 1909 at Douglas, Mich...........................
4. Device in obtaining pupal records of the codling moth.............
5. Diagram showing time of spring pupation of codling moth in 1910 at
Douglas, M ich..................................................
6. Emergence curve of spring brood of moths in 1910 at Douglas, Mich ....-
7. Emergence curve of summer brood of moths in 1910 at Douglas, Mich..
8. Cage used in determining feeding period of codling-moth larvae .......
9. Burlap bands on apple tree to catch codling-fnoth larvae............
10. Curves made from band-record experiments in orchards at the lake
shore near Douglas, at Saugatuck, and at New Richmond, Mich.,
1910 ....................... ........................................
11. Diagram to illustrate seasonal history of the codling moth as observed
during 1910 at Douglas, Mich.....................................
12. Curve of spring pupation of the codling moth in 1911 at Douglas, Mich..
13. Curve showing relation of temperature to the duration of the pupal
stage in the spring brood of the codling moth; Douglas, Mich., 1911..
IX


Page.







1

6






74




96
96





A ULUIUUUUb DKU1i. IN4bfUIIb A-24 1MU.KUTW S. .*

FiRo. 14. Emergence curve of moths of the spring brood in 1911 at Doug.las, .
Mich .. .
15. Curve showing relation of the temperature to the time of incubation of '
first-brood and second-brood eggs of the codling moth at DoIais,
M ich., 1911 ..................................................... i 1.7-
16. Emergence curve of moths of the summer brood in 1911 at Dougus, (
Mich....................................................
17. Mailing case used for shipping codling-moth larvae ........-........ i
18. Curves made from band-record experiments in orchards at the lake ,i
shore near Douglas, at Douglas, and at New Richmond, Mich., 191t. .; ^'e ^
19. Curves made from band-record experiments in orchards at Pentwater, "
Douglas, and Benton Harbor, Mich., 1911 ......................... ,
20. Diagram illustrating seasonal history of the codling moth as observed ...
during 191.1 at Douglas, Mich- .....................................
21. Diagram showing time of emergence and relative abundance of spring- :
brood and summer-brood codling moths, and blooming period of
apple trees, during 1909, 1910, and 1911; at Douglas, Mich..........
22. Diagram showing time of leaving the fruit by the first-brood and .
second-brood larvae of the codling moth during 1909, 1910, and 1911,:
at Douglas, Mich ................................................ r .
23. Diagram showing arrangement of plats and trees in the W. F. Gilkeson *..,
orchard, near Fishersville, Va........ ............................ 85
24. Diagram showing arrangement of plats and trees in the Edward Hutch-
ins orchard near Fennville, Mich .............--................. 9 "
25. Diagram showing arrangement of plats and trees in the F. C. Bancr&oft i
orchard, near Camden, Del ........................................ 9
26. Diagram showing arrangement of plats and trees in the Thomas,fruit .:..
farm orchard, near Wichita, Kans................................ 103
27. Diagram showing emergence of moths, derived from band-record
material collected in 1909: ...................................... 117
28. Diagram showing emergence of moths, derived from band-record
material collected in 1909....................................... 118 '
29. Diagram showing time of pupation of spring brood of pupae, 1910.... .119
30. Diagram showing emergence of first-brood moths for 1910 ............. 133
31. Diagram showing seasonal history of the codling moth during the season
of 1910 ..........................................................-------------------------------------------- 142 ...
32. Diagram showing pupation of spring brood of larvae, 1911 ............. 144 :
33. Diagram showing emergence of moths; overwintering brood of 1911.... 144
34. Diagram showing first-brood pupae, 1911 ............................. 1-52
35. Diagram showing emergence of first-brood moths, 1911.............. 1. M
36. Diagram showing band record of 1909.......... ................. i
37. Diagram showing band record of 1910............................... .10.,
38. Diagram showing band record, Northern orchard, 1911............. ---
39. Diagram showing seasonal history of the codling moth during the ; ,k
season of 1911........... ......................................






























ERRATA.


Page 1, after Assistant, replace period by comma.
Page 3, legend to figure 1, for Emergency read Emergence.
Page 32, legend to figure 1, after Douglas insert a comma.
Page 42, legend to Table XLII, for emale read female.
Page 161, line 20, for Melachius read Malachius.
XI















4;
NJ

14
*~1

4
.4
'I


























'N




A,



'V

I
I

V
j












INDEX.

Arsenate of lead- Page.
against codling moth ................................................. 172-180
and Bordeaux mixture against codling moth, plum curculio, and apple
scab ..--------------------------------------------.................................................... 94-98,104-107
and lime-sulphur, commercial, against codling moth and plum curculio.. 89-112
and lime-sulphur, home-boiled, against codling moth and plum curculio.. 93-98
distillate-oil emulsion, and tobacco extract against codling moth and pear
Strips ............................................................ 179-180
Asogaster carpocaps8, parasite of codling moth ......................... 6,74-76,86
Bordeaux mixture-
against apple scab ..................................................... 94
and arsenate of lead against apple scab, codling moth, and plum curcu-
lio ................................-------.......-................... 94-98,104-107
Carpocapsa pomonella. (See Codling moth.)
S Chelonus carpocapsm.. (See Ascogaster carpocapsa.)
Chrysopa sp., enemy of codling moth....................................... 74
Codling moth in Michigan-
band records of 1909 ................................................... 5-6
band records of 1910 ................................................... 26-31
band records of 1911..-----------------------------------------............................................... 60-65
cannibalism among larvae .............................................. 83
cocoon of wintering larva............................................... 6-7
!life-history studies for the seasons of 1909, 1910, and 1911, comparison..... 70-73
definition of terms used...----------------------------------------............................................ 2-3
first-brood eggs, effect of temperature on time of incubation.............. ------------44-45
first-brood eggs, length of incubation ................................. 14,42-44
I first-brood larvae, larval life in cocoon ............................... 15-16,47
first-brood larvae, length of feeding period ................................ 15,46
first-brood larvae, percentage of those transforming and wintering....-..-.- 15,47
first-brood larvae, time of hatching ................................... 14-15,46
first-brood larvae, time of maturity ..................................... 15,47
first-brood moths, egg deposition by individual moths ................... 19-20
first-brood moths, length of life ................................... 20-21,52-53
first-brood moths, time of emergence .............................. 4, 18,50-51
:: first-brood moths, time of oviposition............................. 18-19,51-52
Jt first-brood pupae, length of stage ...........--............ ............... 17,49
|i first-brood pupae, time of pupation ................................... 17,48-49
I first generation .................................................. 14-23,42-55
iinsect enemies ......................................................... 73-76
larvae feeding on apple foliage .......................................... 84
larvae remaining two seasons in larval stage ----------.....----..........--....--------.... 83-84
..: larval instars and molts, number ........................................ 76-83
5> life cycle of first generation ...................................... 21-23,53-55
1 miscellaneous observations ............................................. 76-84
poison spray applications, time to apply them ........................... 86
F. 75716-Bull. 115-15----2 183





DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES.


Codling moth in Michigan-Continued. it
rearing material, source ................................................
seasonal-history studies of 1909 ............................. ......
seasonal-history studies of 1910 ......................................... i 64
seasonal-history studies of 1911......................................... 2
second-brood eggs, effect of temperature on time of incubation ........... |
second-brood eggs, length of incubation ............................ 23-24, 5
second-brood larvae, length of feeding period............................ 2.I


second-brood larvae,
second-brood larvae,
second generation...
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,
spring-brood moths,


spring-brood pupae,
spring-brood pupse,
spring-brood pupae,


time of hatching.............................. 24-2,105
time of leaving fruit...............................a t |
............................................ 28-i ,
egg deposition by individual moths............... 3-4
egg deposition in stock-jar experiments ............ 0r4
length of life ................................... 13,41-4
period of egg deposition ............................ 4
time of emergence ............................ 8-4,11,1
time of oviposition ................................ 1-
variation in size. ....I............................ I


length of pupal stage.......................
methods of recording pupation..............
relation of temperature to duration of stage...


-.-. 10-II,
...3.04


spring-brood pupae, time of pupation...................................


summary, general..............................
summary of seasonal-history studies of 1910........
summary of seasonal-history studies of 1911........
weather records for 1909, 1910, and 1911..........
wintering larvae.................................
wintering larvae, cocoon.........................
wintering larvae, variation in size................
winter-killed larvae .............................
Codling moth in Santa Clara Valley of California-
band records of 1909.............................
band records of 1910 ...........................
band records of 1911 ............................
comparative life-history studies for 1909, 1910, and
comparison of life history in 1910 and 1911........
control on pears and avle .......................


first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood
first-brood


i.......... .........7-8,





.........................
.........om..........
.......i.............


...a...........e.....
................. 7-8,

................... if


..91..............
1911 .............
...e..... ........


65s~
66-n
84
64:

33n%

11-162


... 162-163 i;
... 167-lf *i
... 170-171 :,
....15-o .H.


................... 171-18 :i


eggs ................................................----------------------------------------------..... 115
eggs, incubation period ........................... 126-128,150-151
emergence v. overwintering emergence ..................... 164-165
larvae. ..................................................... 11
larvae, larval life in cocoon............................... 129-130
larvae, number developing in one apple ................... 128,151
larvae, period of feeding in fruit ........................... 128-12
larvae, time of hatching .................................... 128,151
moths, oviposition period ................................. 134,154
moths, time of emergence ..................... 117-118,133-184,154


first-brood pupae .................................................... 115-117
first-brood pupse, length of stage ..............s...... 130-138
first-brood pupae, time of pupation .............................. 130,152-153
first generation .................................... 115-118,126-135,150-155
life cycle of first generation ...................................... 134-135,156
natural enemies ................................................... 160-161
review of life-history work of 1910 ................................... 142-1l


184





; : INDEX. 185

SCodling moth in Santa Clara Valley of California-Continued. Page.
l: review of life-history work of 1911 ..................................... 165
l seasonal-history studies of 1909 ....................................... 114-118
g^ seasonal-history studies of 1910 ....................................... 119-143
seasonal-history studies of 1911 ....................................... 143-160
second-brood eggs .................................................... 118
second-brood eg---------------- ------118
second-brood eggs, incubation period ......................... 135-140,156-159
: s econd-brood larvae, feeding -period.......................... 140-141,159-160
; second-brood larvae, time of hatching .................................. 159
S second-brood larvae, time of leaving fruit for wintering .......... 141-142,160
second generation...................................... 118,135-142,156-160
' second series of larvae ............................................... 143-146
f, spring-brood moths................................................... 115
:H spring-brood-moths -------------------------------------------11
": ... spring-brood moths, longevity-----------------149-150
sprig-brood moths, longevity ...................................... 149-150
'.] spring-brood moths, period of oviposition......................... 125-126,149
: spring-brood moths, relative percentage of larvae wintering from band
'i material 'and percentage emerging as first-brood moths the year larvae
were collected-- --- 124-125
I spring-brood moths, time of day moths emerged .................... 125,148-149
.T: spring-brood moths, time of emergence ............................ 122-123,147
~ spring-brood moths, time of emergence versus time wintering larvae leave
*- fruit preceding year ........................................... 123-124,148
s: pring-brood pupae- ..................................................... 114
I .spring-btood pupae, comparative length of pupal periods of male and female
is: a-ve---------------------------122
Slarva ........................................... ................... 122
iv spring-brood pupae, length of spring pupal stage ....................... 120-122
S spring-brood pupae, time of pupation ................................. 119,143
summary ---------------------------------------- ------- 180-181
|;.y summary ............................... ... .... .. .. 180-181
temperature conditions for spring brood of pupae, 1911 .................. 146-147
;: ~weather records for 1909, 1910, and 1911 ............................... 166-170
Codling moth, one-spray method in control-
conclusions ...................................................... ... 110-112
S experiments in Delaware ...................................... ...... 98-102
experiments in Kansas .............................................. 102-107
experiments in Michigan ................................* ............ 92-98
experiments in Virginia ............................................... 87-91
summary of results ................................................... 107-109
) DAvmIDSON, W. M., JONES, P. R., and, paper, "Life History of the Codling
Moth in the Santa ClaraValley of California"- 113-181
Distillate-oil emulsion, tobacco extract, and arsenate of lead against pear thrips
and codling moth .................................................. 179-180
:,: Hairworm, enemy of codling moth.................................. 161
i HAMMAR, A. G., paper, "Life History Studies on the Codling Moth in Michigan"- 1-86
JONES, P. R., and DAVIDSON, W. M., paper, "Life History of the Codling Moth
in the Santa Clara Valley of California" ............................. 113-181
Lacewing fly. (See Crysopa sp.)
Lime sulphur-
commercial, against codling moth and plum curculio ................... 89-102
commercial, and arsenate of lead against codling moth and plum curculio.. 89-112
4 home-boiled, and arsenate of lead against codling moth and plum curculio. 93-98
S;"aladius neus.--....................... ............. 161
ltalaoius autitue, enemy of codling moth .................................... 161
hrm'ithidse. (See Hairworm.)
Nematode worms, parasites of codling moth.................................. 76






.. l S1 .... . l ::I. .I ... I .l ll
DECIDUOUS FRUIT IMsuIK)11 A":
3 1262 08

One-spray method against codling moth ad plu ui- ..
conclusions.......................... ..... ........... .: .
summary of lresults................................ a
paper .............................................. .....
Pinacbdera Zimbata, enemy of codling moth............................
Platynu placidus, enemy of codling moth................. .. . .l
Plum curculio, one-spray method in control-

experiments in Delwae
conclusions............. ... ............................ .... .,.
experiments in Delaware ...............'........................l?:1
experiments in Kanss .................................... ..... .. ...
experiments in Michigan ...................................... P
experiments in Virginia.... ................ ....... .
summary of results........................................... .
QUAINTANCE, A. L., and SCOTT, E. W., paper, "The One-Spray*Aa
the Control of the Codling Moth and the Plum Curculio"....
SCOTT, E. W., QUAINTANCE, A. L., and, paper, "The )ne-Spmy ;ieS
the Control of the Codling Moth and the Plum Ourulio ....... -i
Tenebroides castanea, enemy of codling moth.......................
Tenebroides corticalis, enemy of codling moth.......................
Tobacco extract, distillate-oil emulsion, and arsenate of lead against pe't
and codling moth.............................................. .
Trichogramma pretiosa, parasite of codling moth ..................... -




gAr
... .P!...
: .. ::
.. a



;!ii
I'
-i

.'