Papers on insects affecting vegetable and truck crops

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Papers on insects affecting vegetable and truck crops
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Marsh, H. O ( Harold Oscar ), 1885-1918
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029623034
oclc - 22539527
System ID:
AA00018915:00003

Full Text



U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY- BULLETIN No. 127, Part II.
L 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


PAPERS ON INSECTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE
AND TRUCK CROPS.


THE STRIPED


BEET


CATERPILLAR.



BY

H. 0. MARSH,


ISSITED MAY 19,


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1913.


!i; !ii i L .. :. 2 "' .- ,'. "
i "
S.UN .


. .,I *,.,
M ., 94 .


I


.4


is


42J

























BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.

L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
2. L. AIARLATT. Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Exrcntirc Assqi-tant.
WV. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.
:"ii i













F. Ir. CHITTENDEN. in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigation.
A. D. HOPKINS. in charge of forest insect inrestigations.
WV. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop in-ectf in restigalions.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect inresdigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of dec"uoi's fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGtRS. in charge of prerenting mprefild of uiothf,, field wcork.
ROLLA P. CURRIE. in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD. in charge of library.

TRUCK CROP AND STORED PRODUCT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

F. II. CHITTENDEN. in charge.

C. H. POPENOE, Wm. B. PARKER, M. M. HIGH. H. 0. MARSH. JOHN E. GRAY,
FRED A. JOHNSTON, D. E. FINK, C. F. STAHL, A. B. DUCKETT. entomological
assistants.
L J. CONDIT, R. S. VAILE, collaborators in California.
HENRY N. ORD, collaborator in Oregon.
THos. 1H. JONES, collaborator in Porto Rico.
MARION T. VAN HORN. PAULINE M. JOHNSON, ANITA M. BALLINGER, CECILIA
Sisco, preparators.
:... . ....



















Ai .















.7
:: I ii




'l.li.:i',























CONTENTS.


Introduction ...............................................................
E xtent of injury............................................................
General appearance and habits..............................................
Life history ................ ....................................----------------------------------
Rearing records ......... .................--------------------------.....................
Natural enemies and other checks.........-------......-..........................
Recommendations for control ----------------------......................................
Conclusion............................. .. ..................................


ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE.

PLATE V. Field sprayer suitable for spraying sugar beets..................


TEXT FIGURES.


FIG. 4. The striped beet caterpillar (Mamestra trijblii): Moth, caterpillar, pupa.
5. The striped beet caterpillar: Eggs..................................
76304-13 III


Page.
13
13
14
15
15
17
18
18


Page.
16









I'*l
I










: iJ
-~@, ::'l]|













-I








HI


.!. .:..














U. S. D. A., B. E. Bul. 127, Part II. T. C. & S. P. I. I., May 19, 1913.

PAPERS ON INSECTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE AND
TRUCK CROPS.


THE STRIPED BEET CATERPILLAR.
(Maamestra trifolii Rott.)
By H. 0. MARSH,
Entomological Assistant.

INTRODUCTION.
Among the caterpillars or worms" which infest sugar beets
in the Arkansas Valley in Colorado and Kansas is the so-called
garden Mamestra or clover cutworm (M11amestra trifolii Rott.). This
insect is ordinarily one of the minor beet pests, although during some
years it develops in sufficient numbers to cause noticeable damage.
The writer had this insect under observation in the Arkansas Valley
during portions of four years (1909-1912), and this article is based.
on notes made during those years.
In the Arkansas Valley the larvae were found on two plants only-
sugar beet and lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium-n album.). Sugar beet
appeared to be the favorite.

EXTENT OF INJURY.
Except in the year 1911 the larvae were rare and caused practically
no damage throughout the years the species was under observation.
During 1911 hundreds of beet fields were examined in the territory
between Pueblo, Colo., and Garden City, Kans., and almost without
exception the larvae were found on beets in all of these fields. The
larvae were most abundant and generally distributed during the
middle and latter half of June. During this month about 75 acres
of small beets in various portions of the valley were observed to be
stripped of foliage. About 5 acres were destroyed. As a rule the
defoliated beets promptly recovered and put out new leaves, but
occasionally the larvae destroyed the crowns of the plants, and when
this damage occurred the plants died.




I E". .IGE'R
..E'd i: EE *.
INSECTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE AND TRUCK CROPS. 4H^^^^^^^^^i


14


During July, August, and early September the larva were.
erately common on beets, but the infested areas were scattered. ...
practically no damage resulted. Lafe in the fall they developed
considerable numbers on beets in some fields. At this season, ho1,,#
ever, the infested ..
Spbeets were maotusre1 :
and no noticeablee, ,i1,,,
damage result d::. Ih:
The majority of I
these larva' reached :e
maturity during9:A
October, and many
a- pupae were observed:,:
During the latter-:.:
part of the month:9
and in early No-
vember. The winterul.
of 1911-12 was a.- .....
6 ceptionally severe,
Fio. 4.-The striped beet caterpillar tManicstra trijolii): and the extreme I
r. Moth; b, caterpillar; c, pupa. Enlarged. (Original. cold a pp arently
killed the ptip&e. No live individuals were found during the following.
snrina, and the larva' were verve rare throughout the summer of 1912. ;i


C? C


GENERAL APPEARANCE AND HABITS.
The adult of the striped beet caterpillar is a stockily built moth be- .**'
longing to the lepidopterous family Noctuida'. (See fig. 4, a.) :.
The forewings ji
are dull grayish
brown and have
an expanse of
about 1-i inches.
The hind wings 2I
are grayish, with
brown markings. d .
The moths are ^i,^:
attracted to lights
but are sluggish
and, except for oc- FIG. 5.-The striped beet caterpillar: Eggs. (Original.) "l
casional individ-
nals which may be found resting on boards, telegraph poles, and iM`
similar locations, are seldom seen by the casual observer.
The eggs (fig. 5) are rather large, pearly white or pale yellow, :i
ribbed, and hemispherical. They are deposited singly on the underw||
side of the leaves.






THE STRIPED BEET CATERPILLAR.


i The mature larvae (fig. 4, b) are about'l1 inches in length and are
*! dull green, with a more or less distinct pinkish stripe along .each side.
The larvae are voracious feeders. When infesting sugar beets they
S prefer the older leaves, and the infested foliage may be entirely con-
sumed, with the exception of the petioles. The full-grown larvae
burrow into the soil to the depth of about an inch and form pupa-
tion cells in the earth by wriggling about.
The pupae (fig. 4, c) are "chunky," reddish brown, and about nine-
sixteenths of an inch in length.

LIFE HISTORY.

There are three generations of this insect in the Arkansas Valley
each year. The first moths are to be found during the latter half
o? May. These deposit eggs, from which a generation develops
during the first part of July. Eggs deposited by the July genera-
tion produce moths during the latter part of August and in early
September. The larvae of the third generation mature late in the
fall, and the pupae which develop live through the winter in cells
in the soil. Adults develop from these pupae during the latter half
of May of the following year.

REARING RECORDS.

During 1911 and 1912 the following rearing records were obtained
in the laboratory at Rocky Ford, Colo.
On June 1, 1911, a few eggs were collected in the field from sugar
beets. They were deposited singly on the underside of the leaves.
The record is as follows:
June 1-------------------------------- Eggs collected.
June 5 -------------------------------- Eggs hatched.
June 19----------------------------- Larve reached maturity.
June21--------------------------- First pupe formed.
July 2 ---------------.---------------- First adults issued.
From the foregoing records the stages are as follows:
Days.
Egg stage--------------------------------- ------------ 4
Larval stage-------------------------------------------- 16
Pupal stage-------------------------------------------- 11
Total --------------------------------------------31
On June 7, 1911, two apparently mature larvae were collected in the
field from sugar beets. They burrowed into the soil and formed
S: their pupation cells June 9 and pupated June 11. The adults issued
| June 29. In this case the pupal period was 18 days.
S.September 17, 1i911, a female moth captured at Rocky Ford was
placed in a cage containing sugar-beet foliage, alfalfa blossoms, and



.... l..


15






16 INSECTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE AND TRUCK O mZS:l."\,,
.. /. ` .:-." ..... .
dilute honey. She fed eagerly on the honey sirup, tnd on .
19, 123 eggs were deposited. The record is as follows:

September 19-----------------------First egbli oioxihR. H
September 24-------- ---------------Eggs hatched.
November 4----------------------- -.First larve reacheiS
November 10---------- -----------.First pum-tforme : J..
May 16, 1912-----------------------.First adults Isue

From the foregoing records the stages are as follows .' .;..'

Egg stage ----------------------------- --------- l
Larval stage--------------------------- ------------
Pupal stage-- ----------------------------------
Total--------------------------- --- ---------- :

The moths which issued May 16 were placed in a cage
dilute honey. The first eggs were deposited May 20.
as follows:
First generation.
May 16------------------ ------Moths issued.
May 20------------------------First eggs deposited.
May 25---------------------- Eggs hatched., ::
June 12------------------------First larvae reached matutitljP
June 16-- ------------ ----------First pupe formed. .
July 5-------------------------First adults issued. :
' oE.
From the foregoing records the stages a're as follows:
Days.
Egg stage-------------------------------------------- 5
Larval stage--------- ------------------------------- 22'
Pupal stage------------ ------------------------------19 :::
Total-- ---------------------------------------46

The moths which issued July 5 were placed in a separate cage asi
the first eggs were deposited July 11. The record follows:

Second generation.

July 5 ---------------------- Moths issued.
July 11---------------------------- First eggs deposited.
July 17----------------- : -----------Eggs hatched.
August 2---------- ----------------Larva reached maturity. rl
August 5---------------------------First pupae formed. ;
August 20--------------------------First adults issued. "t
i* .. ... ::::
From the foregoing records the stages are as follows:

Egg stage ------------------------------------------ .
Larval stage---------------------------------------


H....
Pupal stage -------------------------- ....




. *" .... .. *. .
T ot l --... a: .:::'':i: ,:': '






















~~j'm *~





3.


,. .-


V/l


FIELD SPRAYER SUITABLE FOR SPR


ca
0

c





0





~m






roo














..' ,- P. .





SAYING SUGAR BEETS. (ORIGINAL.)


^s^
Str'."?.""-
"Slr< *>" '* *
* -i3^- -
~ ^ **'.<. *
- *-***-&.i ."













r


1
p


Ii







F.














A.

II
I




.. ... %... ...' :
*.*" : ,..::.%i ".', "^
THE STRIPED BEET CATERPILLAR. 17

Only nine moths of the second generation developed in the cages"
and, unfortunately, all were females. They deposited hundreds of
eggs which were infertile, failing to hatch. Judging from the records
which were obtained the previous fall it may be concluded that there
are three full generations each year.

EGG-LAYING RECORD.

On September 17, 1911, a female moth was captured and placed in
a cage. Eggs were deposited as follows:
Eggs deposited.
September 19------------------------------------------ 123
September 20------------------------------------------ 114
September 21----------------------------------------- 82
September 22----------- --------------------------------78
September 23------------------------------------------- 82
September 24-------------------- ------------------------ 25
Total-------------------------------------------- 504
The moth died September 25.

NATURAL ENEMIES AND OTHER CHECKS.
As previously noted, the pupae are formed in earthen cells, near the.
surface of the soil, in the beet fields. When the beets are cultivated
or plowed out at harvest time, many of the cells are broken open and
the pupae. crushed or exposed to the weather. This is an efficient.
check.
During the winter of 1911-12 the minimum temperatures at Rocky
Ford ranged from -15 to -26 F. This exceptionally cold weather
apparently killed many pupve.
In addition to these factors in control, there are several species of
parasitic and predaceous insects which serve to check the increase of
the Mamestra larvae. The following records were obtained at Rocky
Ford:
Microdus inedius Cress., a braconid, was reared July 9, 1912. It is
a medium-sized red and black insect with dusky wings.
Meteorus sp. (Chttn. No. 597), a smaller braconid, honey yellow in
dolor, was reared July 11.
A still smaller species, a braconid (Chttn. No. 598), was reared
August 1, but not positively identified. The body is black, the an-
tennae and legs are yellow, and the abdomen is marked with yellow.
The larvae of this parasite feed externally, in a cluster, on the dorsal
surface of the Mamestra larvae.
Phorocera claripennis Macq., a tachinid, was reared August 4.
This fly is a common cutworm parasite.
Perilloides bioculata Fab., a pentatomid, was frequently found
stabbing the partly grown Mamestra larvae.





18 INSECTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE AND TRUCK CO .

Phidippus coloradensis .Thorell, a spider, was found rar ....
ing on the smaller larvae.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL. '
During 1911 the writer conducted several spraying exper..
against the larva? with Paris green, arsenate of lead, and arsemnite Oi.
zinc. It was found that the larvae of all sizes were readily
with arsenicals. In fact this is one of the most easily conrtrl
pests which occur on sugar beets in the Arkansas Valley.
Paris green proved more quickly effective than other poisons tel^
and the following formula is recommended:
Paris green ------.------------------------potnds-. 3
Whale-oil soap -------------------------------------do-- 6 i
Water -------------------------------------gallons- 100
This mixture should be applied to sugar beets with a field sprayer i
(Plate V) at the rate of from 75 to 100 gallons to the acre. It i
necessary to wet only the surface of the leaves with spray. '|

CONCLUSION. .

In the Arkansas Valley the striped beet caterpillar is a minor*"
enemy of sugar beets. Ordinarily it is held in check by cultural
methods and natural enemies. Occasionally, however, it develops in
injurious numbers, and when this occurs the larvae can be easily con a-
trolled by spraying with Paris green.
S




| !


DDITIONAL COPIES of this publication
may be procured from the SUPERINTEND-
ENT OF DOCUMENTS, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., at 5 cents per copy













































icr
























IE.











ii:






Ni;:"

j::::** *

cc!:.















H ?i"i,,


;zLI'

*I'n








7r7 ~
~~1~ ..~


- .-. .


" ..: . .


:,1 '


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA





1262 08928 8384


"'H
1.~
















I


....:
4-..*:-


Si. .


I..


... : .. ".:.



i: "'ii'
. *
:. EiE: "E Et


t I :' *


. . . . ... :..:........ ..::. ........
' t.: ... ..-
*'i :" ":: :''ii

I :: .."


*a :..


a
IHH.bt .4


614
.4


*

~~1


..


5 "'. :: .. ..""* .:.: .~lV ..
i.E* \ .. "i iii!:^.F
'" : ., :: ":' :'


. .. .' :: :.: :: : :. :

*. i :
: .:, -.l .. '"

"f :':' :".: '
.: i"'; .
:. :; ...
:: *:


.: [ -


j '
.... : I


Sup








*-,*.Aim .'--L*i ^C H
P" ":::::: ...... W ..










iti
5 .^ .. "" .'." .. -^ tt ,?.. 4..
'h: .."". .l""

." .":. : ::... ." ".. ": : *:: .:!: .
*:i .. .. * : :J *i :,1 *.
:""' ." :".. '.. -r *ii i .: .:*.. :. **.:: ..
S .,. .. -'M" .. "::" "..'. E .
: .... 4 4. .::






,; ..' .. :*' :: : ...'" :.** :^ i ^.: ,,11,^ >:









*..i .: :, i A s ". '" .1 :"""
*E ":.:. ::.*:i; :: : ** :*










."t ft
,,:..: .. .. : .. . 5! I