Cattle breeders' associations in Denmark

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Title:
Cattle breeders' associations in Denmark
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
40 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Rasmussen, Fred ( Frederik ), 1876-1932
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle breeders -- Societies, etc -- Denmark   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Frederik Rasmussen.
General Note:
"February 17, 1911."

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029616809
oclc - 22269609
lccn - agr11000202
System ID:
AA00018913:00001

Full Text
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mlued Fh-lniiir. 17,1911.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN 129.
A. D. MFLVIN, CmBF OF BURsAU.




CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS

IN DENMARK.






BY

FREDERIK RASMUSSEN,
Proc. .,of /ll 'lnriTf, N'ew Hampshire tolnlqe
of hpwru!'*//u;H' and .UC, hani,' Iris.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1911.























THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


Chief: A. D. MELVIN.
Asifant Chirf: A. M. FARBINGTON.
C' hieif ('Cihik: CHARLE (.C'. CARROLL.
Animal Husbandry Dirision: UEORbE M. I(OMMEL, chief.
Bio'hfltmic Di'ision: M. DORSET, chief.
Dairy Dirision: B. H. RA.WL, chief.
Inspection Division: RICE P. SrEDDO1, chief: MORRIS WOODEN.1L A. IIAMISAY,
and ALBERT E. BEHNKE, associate chiefs.
Puitli, gicil Division: JoiHN R. MOHLER, chief.
Quarantine Division: RICHII.RD W. HICKMAN. chief.
Zoological Diri.sion: B. H. RANSOM. chief.
Ex.pcriment Station: E. C. SCHIROEDEU, superintendent.
Editor: JAMES M. PICKENS.

DAIRY DIVISION.

H. H. RAWL, Chief.

HELMER RABILD, in chuirgc of Dairy 'urtming In rCsl iga tions.
B. D. WHITE, in charge of Dairy Manuft I during iinr.stigafions.
L. A. RoG:rss. in charge of Rcscarclh Laboratoric..
GEORGE M. WHITAKER. ii charge of Market Milk Inrt-csliguations.
ROBERT MCADAM, in charge of RmiT'alled Butter hl.pt'ction.
2












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF A;RICULLTURE,
B uREA U OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Washinigton, D. C., September 28, 1910.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manuscript relating
to the cattle breeders' association-, and the dairy industry in Denmark,
by Frederik Rasmussen, professor of dairying at the New Hampshire
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. The paper was written
as a result of a personal visit to Denmark, together with the con.ulta-
tion of official reports and with cattle experts in that country.
The highly specialized nature of the dairy industry in Denmark,
as well as its undoubted success, as evidenced by the high appreciation
of Danish products on the British market, are well known. Al-
though it may not be practicable or desirable in this country to fol-
low in all respects thle Danish plan and methods of organization,
some of the features can probably be advantageously applied, with
or without modxlification, to our conditions, and the information con-
tained in thle )papl)er will undoubtedly be of value to our dairymen and
to others who may be interested. I therefore respectfully recom-
mend the publication of the article in the bulletin series of this
Bureau.
Respect fully, A. D. MEL\:IN,
Chief of Bureau.
1lon. JA..MES W\ILSUN,
Sc-retary of Agriculture.















































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in 2012 iIn luinoing from
University ol Floricla Geoige A Smainers Libraie-. %ihin ;>upporl lion, L", RAS-iS 3nr he Sloan Founclation


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CONTENTS.


Page.
Brief history of the Danish cattle industry .................................. 7
The native breeds of cattle in Denmark............... ...................... 9
Organizat iin of i atile breeders' associations.................................. 10
Cow-test asso'iat ions.................................................... 11
Duties of expert counselor............................................. 11
Working details of cattle breeders' associations............................... 12
Method of financing an association....................................... --------------------------------------13
Government aid and supervision...................................... 13
Eligibility for government aid...........--------------..-...-------------------- 15
Value of shows and fairs................................................... 21
Government show commissions and bull shows ............................. 22
Method of judging at shows............................................... 23
Market prices of bulls and conditions of transfer ............................- 25
Difficulties encountered in the wrk of the associations-...................... 26
Influence of cattle breeders' assoriai ions upon the dairy industry ............. 27
Growth of the industry................................................ 28
Acknowledgment........................................................... 29
Appendix .................... ............................................... 30
By-laws for cattle breeders' associations under common maiagemetit on
the island o(if Funen................................................... 30
Law relating to institutions for the promotion of the breeding and keeping
of domestic animals.................................................. 32
Form of contract used in t he purchase of bulls........................... 38





ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
PLATE I. Jutland breed of cattle.-Fig. 1. Bull, Elkjaer Hovding, 41 years
old, herdbook No. 1442. Fig. 2. Cow, herdbook No. 55--------......... 8
II. Red Danish cattle -Fig. 1. KnudLombjerge, bull, herdbook N'. 16.
Fig. 2. Cow, herdbook No. 229----.------------............---------------.... 8


































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I
4













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CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DANISH CATTLE INDUSTRY.

During the first half of the nineteenth century Denmark was a
grain-producing country. Agricultural success was measured by the
raising of crops from a soil still rich in natural fertility. This for
awhile was made possible by better drainage, by a rotation of crops,
by treating the soil with lime or marl, and by the use of improved
agricultural implements. However, it was inevitable that a system of
farming in which no efforts were made to retain or add to the fertility
of the soil would sooner or later become unprofitable. The live-stock
indust-ry at this time was of secondary importance. Although a few
cattle were kept on nearly every farm, they received very little atten-
tion. They were pastured in summer, and as it was thought unprofit-
able to feed grain the -tock was fed in the winter time entirely
on hay and straw, especially the latter. Such treatment was very
detrimental to young animrnal, and as in addition no systematic
method of breeding was carried ouit, the type of cattle was retrograd-
ing instead of improving.
Later on, when it became manifest-that owing to the lack of farm
manure tlhe soil was being gradually deprived of its fertility and its
power to produce profitable crops, the live-stock industry began to
grow in import aince. The local conditions favored its development
along two lines. In the main portion of Jutland the beef industry
first became of greatest importance, while on the islands-Funen, Zea-
land, and others-the effort was directed toward the production of
dairy products.
Prior to 1S.0 the general method in use to dispose of cattle in Jut-
land was to sell the steers as feeders when from 4 to 7 years old, to be
fattened on the marshes along the coast of Holstein. In the year
18,4 a permanent direct steamship line was established between Jut-
land and England, and instead of selling the steers as feeders they
were fattened on the large Danish farms. The increased demand for
beef at higher prices started considerable importation of Shorthorn
cattle from England, to be crossed with the native stock for develop-
ment of better beef qualities. The first cross was very promising,
the result being a better beef form, as well as earlier maturity. But
7




S" A

8 CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK. '1

when the farmers began indiscriminately to mate cross-bred animals .I
of second and third generations and at the same time did not fulfill
thle requirements in the way of feed and care demanded by the Short-
horns, a retrogression instead of an improvement was the result. The
danger of this method of breeding was soon realized by some of the
leading agriculturists. They also began to realize that the Jutland
cattle, when properly fed and cared for, had good qualities which
formerly had been overlooked, and in some places the Jutland breed
was kept pure. In 1881 definite steps were taken to preserve this
breed by appointing a live-stock commission for its preservation and
improvement.
The importation of Shorthorn cattle had an important effect on the
development of the cattle industry in Denmark, not so much by an
infusion of blood, but by giving (lie farmers an ideal as to form and
teaching them the importance of good feed and care in the rearing of
cattle.
The English market demanded butter as well as beef, and after a
time this had its influence on the development of the Jutland cattle.
Although the beef qualities at first were considered of greatest im-
portance, stress was afterwards laid on the milking qualities and for
a time efforts were directed toward the development of a dual-pur-
pose breed. As it proved to be difficult, if not impossible, to fix both
the milk and beef producing tendencies in the animals so that both
could be transmitted with certainty, this effort was abandoned. How-
ever, many people began to consider the milking qualities in the
animal of greater importance than the beef qualities, and steps were
taken to develop the Jutland cow as a dairy animal. But the ma-
jority of people continued to breed for beef, as is shown by the steady
increase in the importation of Shorthorn cattle until about 1876, the
result of which has already been discussed.
In 1860 the first "dairy counselor" was appointed by the Royal
Danish Agricultural Society, and the time from 1860 to 1880 marks
thle period of transition from beef to milk production. During this
period the main topic for discussion in the agricultural press and at
meetings was the relative profit in the production of beef and butter.
The profits in these two systems were often expressed by comparing
the cost at which the manure was obtained. For instance, a report
from Gjedsergaard in 1865 showed that where dairying was carried
on (lthe cost of the manure represented only 2.5 per cent of the value
of the feed consumed (the cows being f:d liberally), while in the case
of feeding for beef it represented 14 per cent. This statement also
illustrates that the manure was considered a very important factor in
connection with the cattle industry and that the farmers fully realized :
the value and rnece.,ity of the manure in the production of crops on
a worn-out soil.
"di









PLATE I.


B'., 129 B.,;j, u or ANMAL IND 'UI:T U S D_T C AG I"cJLTuIt


FIG 1.-BULL, ELKJAER HOVDING, 41 YEARS OLD. HERDBOOK No. 1442.


FIG. 2.-Cow, HERDBOOK No. 55.

JUTLAND BREED OF CATTLE.















BUL. 129. BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


FIG_ 1 *. KN.LMjy ..L .. ... ., No. 16.


FIG. 1.-KNUD LOMBJERGE, BULL, HERDBOOK NO. 16.


FIG. 2.-Cow, HERDBOOK No. 229.

RED DANISH CATTLE.


PLATE II.








NATIVE BREEDS OF CATTLE IN DENMARK.


SAlthough the period from 1850 to 1SS0 shows a marked improve-
went in the cattle industry in Denmark, this was due to better meth-
ods of feeding rather than to a systematic application of the prin-
ciples of breeding. There were very few farmers who understood
the importance of the bull in the improvement of the breed, and the
nearest and cheapest bull was, as a rule, considered the best. In
some sections the farmers took turns in keeping what was called the
"town bull," each man keeping a bull for the use of his neighbors for
a year. These bulls seldom reached an age of over 2 years, and were
thus disposed of before they were fully developed and before their
breeding value had been determined. More care was taken in tlhe
selection of the heifer calves for breeding purposes: they as a rule
were selected from what were suppo,'e'l to be tlhe best cows: but in
regard to milk production this was simply a chance selection, for very
few people kept records.
THE NATIVE BREEDS OF CATTLE IN DENMARK.
The Jutland breed has already been referred to as being native to
the mainland of Denmark. The other native breed, the Red Danish,
is indigenous to the islands. The cattle in Jutland were in earlier
days known for their beef qualities, especially the excellent quality
of meat they produced, while the cattle on the islands had superior
milking qualities.
The characteristic color of the Jutland breed is black and white,
a few, however, being gray and white. (See P1. I, figs. 1 and 2.)
Although the color and to some extent the general appearance would
indicate the breed to contain some Holstein-Friesian blood, no his-
torical references could be found by the writer to that effect. The
origin of the breed seems unknown, and, as one writer states, it is
"natii-e to the soil." In the period from 1820 to 1850 efforts were
made to improve the Jutland cattle by an infusion of new blood, and
animals were imported from Tyrol, Switzerland, England, and IIol-
stein (those from the latter place were not the Holstein-Friesian
breed, but a red breed of cattle). However, this crossing did not
result in an improvement of the Jutland cattle and was therefore
Discontinued.
The Red Danish cattle (PI. II, figs. 1 and 2) are found in southern
Jutland and on the islands of Funen, Zealand, and some of the
smaller islands. The native stock which forms the basis for the Red
Danish breed is different from the native stock from which the Jut-
land breed originated. As the name indicates, the color of the cattle
,'is red. At the time when efforts were made to cross the native cattle
of Jutland with the cattle from Tyrol and Switzerland similar
attempts were made to use these breeds to improve the native btock on
62535-Bull. 129--11--2





CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


the islands. Furthermore, at this time cattle were also imported to the
islands from Scotland (Ayrshire) and Schleswig. Most of these im-
ported breeds, however, have had very little influence upon the devel-
opment of the Red Danish cattle. The Red Danish cow may be
said to be a cross between the native stock of the islands and the
Angler (from Angein in Schleswig) and other strains of cattle
imported from Schleswig. The climatic condition of the islands and
of Schleswig are practically the same. The imported cattle, although
in several respects resembling the native stock on the islands, had
superior milking qualities, but were hardly as rugged in constitution.
The result of this crossing has been the development of a new and
better breed.
ORGANIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS.
The first cattle breeders' association was formed in 1874. The
object of this association was to keep pure and improve the Jutland
breed by the use of purebred bulls. Eleven purebred bulls were
bought and placed on different farms in the community. Few of the
farmers, however, fully realized the value of the purebred bull in
improving the herd; others expected greater results than could be
accomplished in the course of two or three years, while the Govern-
ment, although encouraging the movement, made no special provision
for the aid or support of such organizations. Under these conditions
probably the worst mistake made was to start the association on so
large a scale; that is, with too large a territory, too large a mem-
bership, and too many bulls under one management. The farmers
were not in close enough contact with one another, and it was a diffi-
cult task for the management to suit all the members in buying and
placing the bulls as well as in other work which necessarily had to be
left in the hands of a few. The result was that the farmers gradu-
ally lost interest in the work, and the association was dissolved in
1878. One of the principal reasons for the success of the smaller
associations as started later, is that the members are in closer
contact with each other, giving frequent opportunities for discussing
the work, and also that a greater number of them have an active part
in the work of the association, thus securing recognition and assum-
ing responsibility, which are two very important factors in bringing
out the best results.
In 1881 a second association was formed. In this association the
selection of bulls was made of more importance than previously, as
shown by a paragraph in the by-laws pledging the members to use
on all cows from which calves were to be reared only such bulls as
had been passed on :,by a judging committee.
The increase in the number of associations was slow until 1887,
after which rapid progresss; took place in all parts of the country.
About 1889 the associations in some localities began to combine under






ORGANIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS.


one management, tlhe object being to foster cooperation between the
local and the state agricultural organizations and to get a state
representative for the cattle breeders' association,. Soon after, some
of the agricultural societies offered to join forces with the joint
cattle breeders' association, and a common representative management
was agreed upon. An expert agricultural counselor was, as a rule,
appointed by the joint associations, who also frequently acted as
secretary for the organizations.
There were 1,095 cattle breeders' associations in operation in 1906,
owning 1,369 bulls and having a total membership of 26,200. All
of these association-; received government aid. In addition there
were at least 30 more in operation which did not receive any assist-
ance froin the Governnient.

COtW -TEST ASSOCIATIONS.

The mniinutes of a meeting of cattle breeders' s.-ociations in the
district of Kolding in 1894 states that discussions took place in
regard to having regular fat determinations made of each individual
cow's milk to aid in the selection of good breeding animals. However,
no definite steps were taken to carry out this work, and in 1S95 the
first. cow-test association was formed in Vejen, largely through the
efforts of members of the cattle breeders' associations. A rapid in-
crease in cow-test associations followed, and it soon became evident
that these association-, made it unnecessary for the testing of cows
to be taken up as part of the work of the cattle breeders' associations.
In fact, the records of the cow-test associations became the founda-
tion and guide for the work of the cattle breeders' associations, and
it. was natural that the former soon were drawn under the common
management which already existed for the cattle breeders' associa-
tions and the agricultural societies.

DUTIES OF EXPERT' COUNSELOR.

As has been stated, these common-mianagement organizations em-
ployed an expert counselor. The following rules, quoted below, laid
down by the common management for the district of Kolding, will,
make clearer the scope of his work:
1. It is the duty of the expert to work for the advancement of the cattle
breeders and the test associations under the common management:
(a) By taking part in meetings and fairs.
(b) By assisting in the selection of cows for the various cattle breeders'
associations.
c) By giving lectures as arranged with the presidents of the official associa-
tions.






CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


1i) By attending state and other shows considered of importance in connec-
tion with his work.
(c) By assisting in the organization of cow-test associations, and, when neces-
sary, helping the associations in making out yearly reports
(f) By assisting the individual members in the association as much as time
permits.
cg) By taking charge of the keeping of herd books for herds under the
common management, after arrangement with its committee.
2. The expert works under the direction of the president of the common man-
agement, discussing with him the details of the work. It is his duty in every
w;a to further the development of the cattle breeders' association and cow-test
associations. He also receives information fruomn breeders within as well as
outside the district of the common management in regard to bulls of good breed-
ing that are for sale. enaliing him to direct prospective buyers. But the expert
must iu no way have personal financial interest in the sale of breeding aLimals.
3. It is also the duty of the expert to assist the agricultural societies in
a ranging catalogues for fairs avd similar work.
4. Each year. before May 1, the expert gives a written report of his work for
the past year.

WORKING DETAILS OF CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS.

Owing to the necessity of first describing the general character of
the cattle breeders' a-socialions and the gradual changes and broaden-
ing of the movement, little has been said so far in regard to the details
of the work and the aim of these associations. They are local organi-
zation.-, with a membership of from 4 to 60, the average being about
2-4. The aimi of the organization is to produce a rapid improvement
and development of the cattle in the community by the purchase of
one or more bulls of recognized breeding. As the members of the
association generally own more cows than this bull or bulls can serve,
a local judging committee is appointed, which, together with the
expert employed by the common-management association, visits each
member and selects a number of cows worthy to be bred to the asso-
ciation bulls, in proportion to the size of his herd and the total
number of cows in the association.
The bull is, as a rule, stationed with the member who submits the
lowest bid for.keeping him, the price varying from 200 kroner
($53.60) to 335 kroner ($89.78) per year.a
SFurther improvement in the cattle is to be obtained by periodical
inspection of the herds, by advice in regard to the rearing of young
stock, by compulsory exhibiting at association shows, and by taking
part in county and government shows.

a One krone=26.S cents in United States money, which makes $1=3.73 kroner.
In the remainder of this bulletin only the American equivalents of stated sums
are given, except in the Appendix, consisting of quotations from Danish docu-
ments, where the Danish amounts are shown as well.






MANAGEMENT OF BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 13

The by-laws of the associations under conmmnon management for the
island of Funen, given in the Appendix, are the result of the experi-
ence in this work up to the present time. They explain several
details of the work of the association and show the thoroughness of
the organization. Although these laws govern only a certain district,
yet those of other districts in the country for both the Jutland and
the Red Danish breeds of cattle are almost identical, so they can be
taken as representative of those for the whole of Denmark.

METHOD OF FINANCING AN ASSOCIATION.

The principal items of expense in starting an association are the
cost of the bull and the necessary book, and blanks for keeping rec-
ords. To cover these expenses a loan is obtained, for which each
member is responsible in proportion to the number of cows he has
registered in the association. In this way the individual members
do not have to furnish the necessary funds for starting the enterprise,
and thus it is possible for farmers with small means to participate.
To protect the association from losses which might be incurred by
accident, sickness, or death, valuable bulls are, as a rule, insured in'
special cooperative insurance companies.
The revenue for the maintenance of the association is derived from
membership fees, service fees of the bull, the government aid, which
averages $40.20 per annum for each bull belonging to the association,
and the income from premiums at fairs and shows.

GOVERNMENT AID AND SUPERVISION.

Government aid and supervision have been very important factors
in the development of thlie Danish cattle industry, especially since
1902, when the laws relative to the promotion and breeding of domes-
tic animals were revised, making provision for additional appro-
priations and support for the cattle breeders' associations. (See
Appendix for details.)
The following is a statement of the government appropriation in
1906 for the promotion of breeding and keeping of domestic animals:
Premiums at agricultural association shows-- ------------------ $29,480
Premiums at the breeding association shows niiler ci.miion manage-
ment 5-------------------------------------------------------5,360
Premiums for government stallion shows--------------------------- 20,100
Premiums for government bull shows ---------------------------- 20,10)
Horse-breeding associations ----------------------------------------- 32,160
Cattle breeders' associations---------- --------------------------37, 524
Swine breeders' associations------------------------------- ------ 1,0172
Sheep breeders' associations ------------------------------------ 1. 3-i
Cow-test associations ------------------------------------------20,100
Salaries to association experts- ----------------------------------- 8,040





CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


For competitive dairy test-------------------------------- $6,700
Breeding centers for swine --------------------------------------. 12,060
Publishing herd books----------..--------------------------------- 5,360
Miscellaneous institutions for the improvement of domestic animals___ 10, 720
Government show commissions----------------------------------- 10,318
For the eradication of certain contagious diseases and to prevent the
spread of tuberculosis ----------------------------------------53,600
Total----------------------------------------------------.. 274,030
Thle total state appropriations for the promotion of agriculture
amounted to $1,120,930. This is a very large sum of money when
compared with the appropriations by our Federal and State govern-
ments for similar work. It should be considered also that Denmark
is a very small country, only a little over one-fourth the size of the
State of Iowa, although the population is slightly larger-about 21
million,. Furthermore, much more can be accomplished for this sum
of money in Denmark than can be accomplished for a similar amount
in the United States. For instance, the average wages of 106 assist-
ants in charge of the test association on the island of Funen in 1906
was about $120 per year. The state appropriation for a cow-test
association is $67. Thus a little over one-half of the assistants' wages
was paid by the State.
One striking feature of the state appropriations, which is also
alluded to elsewhere, is that of giving in proportion to the interest
shown in the enterprises undertaken by the various associations. The
fact that the State distributes money in proportion to the amount the
breeding associations or agricultural societies themselves can produce
is an incentive for the associations to raise as much money as possible
and helps greatly to keep up interest in the work.
It must not be understood, however, that the Government controls
all the agricultural associations receiving government aid. Although
there is a well-regulated supervision of government money expended,
it is a supervision which is optional to the cattle owners. The
farmers, in forming cooperative associations and accepting the gov-
ernment aid, voluntarily put themselves under its supervision. As
has already been mentioned, there were in Denmark in 1906, besides
1,095. breeding associations receiving government aid, 30 cooperative
breeding associations which did not receive government, aid, and con-
sequently were not subjected to government supervision. The Govern-
ment does not try to force its supervision upon the cooperative
societies, neither does it try to discourage or check individual enter-
prise. The great advancement in cooperation has come from the
people themselves. They have felt the need and benefit of coopera-
tion. Each community seems to have furnished its own leaders and
organizers, of whom many have spent a great, deal of their own time
and money in fostering the spirit of cooperation and in getting the






MANAGEMENT OF BREEDERS) ASSOCIATIONS.


people to see that the welfare of a country or of a community is bound
up in the success and welfare of all its individuals and not in the
success of a few. The Government has in a wise manner encouraged
cooperative enterprises and rendered them stable. It has guided,
aided, and bound together the organizations which served the best
interests of all, so that they have become powerful agencies in the
developing of the agricultural resources of the country and in pro-
rooting the welfare of its inhabitants.
Besides the large amount of money set aside by the Government
for premiums at fairs and shows, as well as other appropriations
which indirectly benefit the cattle breeders' associations, the direct
appropriation for these associations in 1906 was $42,sIO. As before
intimated each eligible association receives an animount varying from
$34.84 to $45.56 per bull yearly, according to a classification adopted
by the common management in which the good qualities of the bull
:lnd the work of the association in general are considered. (For
details see section 14 in the Appendix, p. 36.)
Additional aid to the extent of from $13.40 to $40.20 may be ob-
tained by breeding ass-ociations for special work in developing good
families. Furthermore, if the association employs an assistant to
keep records of the yield of milk and butter fat and the food con-
sumed by the individual cows in the herds, it can be recognized as a
cow-test association and receive an additional aid of $67 a year.
The aid to the cattle breeder,' associations is apportioned by the
minister of agriculture. The individual association applies for gov-
ernment aid through its common-management association, which
refers the application to a still higher common management, the
latter representing alo the cow-test associations and agricultural
societies for the district. This body considers the application and
recommends to the department of agriculture. Associations receiving
government aid are at all times subject to government inspection.
FLIUIBILITIY FOR GOVERNMENT AID.
In order to be eligible for government aid the cattle breeders' asso-
ciations must. have their by-laws approved by the minister of agri-
culture. The by-laws must contain provisions to the effect that the
cows of the members shall be selected under the proper supervision,
that the bull shall be examined twice a year by a veterinarian, and
that the herds shall be inspected on the farms at least once a year by
the board of directors or a committee of its members. Before gov-
ernment aid will be granted for a specified bull he must have received
a premium or '" recognition money" at a government show or at a
breeding-association show ,iipported by tlie government.






CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


In explanation of the phrase recognition money," it should be
stated that at these shows, in addition to the regular premiums dis-
tributed, a certain sum of money is distributed among the bulls which
do not receive premiums, but which are considered worthy of recog-
nition as good bulls. This is called recognition money."
A bull to be eligible for government aid must, furthermore, win a
premium every year at a breeding-association show until such time as
his offspring receive premiums; or, after having reached the age of
3 years, hlie must at least be found worthy of a premium at a govern-
ment show unless special conditions should make it impossible to put
the animal on exhibition, in which case the fact must be certified to by
the chairman of the district show. No aid shall be granted before
the bull reaches the age of lj years, and then only as long as he shall
blie in possession of his full breeding capacity.
In case a bull is sold, the government aid can be retained if the
association, within two months after the sale, buys another bull meet-
ing the above-named requirements.
The Government not only requires certain eligibility rules before
granting aid, but after this is done it also requires a complete report
from each association at the end of the year, giving detailed infor-
ination concerning the bull, the cows, and their offspring, and the
financial condition of the association. This supervision keeps the
Government in touch with the results and progress of the work in
all parts of the country. It gives an opportunity for comparison
between individual associations, which often yields much valuable
information in regard to the success of the work. Furthermore, the
fact that a very detailed report is required once a year means that
all records and books of the association are completed at that time,
which helps to eliminate to some-extent the not uncommon careless-
ness of secretaries and treasurers of local organizations where prompt-
ness is not compulsory.
The following blanks used for making application for government
aid and for making yearly reports will illustrate the extent and
details of the government supervision:

APPLICATION BLANK FOR GOVERNMENT AID TO CATTLE-BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS.a
Name of breeding association: --
;Name of .omlIl(o nIIanagement association: --

".\ vi.iy ift" IIh liws o(f the association must accompany the application. If
nil as,.iii;tiolis11 ii4il-ti thi snlie coninioi management have uniform laws, one
copy trill office furl all the associations.






MANAGEMENT OF BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 17

To the Department of Agriculture:
The breeding association of in -- province hereby applies for
government aid for the keeping of the association bulls, according tu law
relating to domestic animals of May 23, 1902.
The association was formed the and has to-day -- members, with
- selected cows. The association has subordinated itself to the common
management of the the declaration of which will be found on the
opposite page.
The bull belonging to the association is ut the-- lireed, is named
was born in the month of in the ear -- with and was pur-
chased at .a price of of which was cash and on time.
Its pedigree will be found on the third page. It ha.,s been owned and utilized
by the association since --, and has rt-ccied lpremiumis at the following
shows namee the circuit):


Government show%,. Yu.r. l'ri,.e. Yerr"'iir'li .,ti>oci.li) \ h 'rar. 'Prize.




Certificate of the veterinarian relating tI, the lihealth andml I'reltlii taluacity of
the bull will be found on next page.
Concerning the work of the association during the 'iurrent fim.-;l iytar. the fol-
lowing information is rendered: [If the association has changed bull since the
last 1st of April, it must be stated when and for w"hat reason Iht former bull
was sold.]

The breeding association of -- the -- -. 1'll-.

Signature of .i1'is lei it I I'r uvidl'nt.

P. 0. address
VETERINARIAN'S ( 'ERrIIIAi1.,

The undersigned has to-dayv examined th :lt. 'vu-ituied L~itthl-brecders" asso-
ciation bull, named -- and found it healthy, a nudi;trtitlhrly ivit suffering
from any disease liable to be transmitted by service. and in pot.-.se'siule of its
breeding capacity.

the 190-.
Signed)
.Ai tlli h iitil r t v riinet'ian.

Indorsement of the chairman of the common management:
This application is recommended.

the -- 190-.
( Signature ) -,
i t'hairijitji of

6258350-Bull. 1 29-- 11-- 3







18 CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS !N DENMARK.

RI'PORT 10 IL SE-NNT 1) I1 1)1i I PARI MI. NT OF AGRItI L 'TUl'r I. ON I'-. MURIK OF CATTLE.
RKL1IiLK ..ASI O.TIATIONS RC(.F. VIN; (AO%. EX RNMENT ..ID).

To tLhe I)EPr. IRTMENT OF AI.-,RICULTRE.
I{EPI'OIIT

for the yea;r froui April 1. 1)--, to Manrlch ;1, lj. J-, fr',iii --- -: title breeders'
;Ii soviiationl, .qllh]'i l lIi;nIt l tnl ... 'iiiiiii III ;nII fII.i .


,'ii. -t alin I 'n.-'\


I. 'i'm- Ass cI.IrUN.


1. \\h lel \viis thie asii.iatioit hllrdt' '.


2. How Imlliny iutilie'rs Ihaiil tilie assn-
tiotn [iMarch 31. 1l1.--'


3. HIIw Ilialliy iiieLi e'rs are aIso uivin-
bers of ;i iow) -tt S o'it iciion'.


II. INORuiM.\TliN 4C'ONi LRNI'Ni, Till I. B Ii. OWNED E)n T1IE ASSO I NT11 MARCH 31,
]Il-, .% AT THE ExN OF TIlE FISCAl. YF.AR.


1. 'iit it ill '!


2. IBrled of bull.:


3. When lirn'?


4. \Vhrl_ l-rli'C.


5I. W hein- I';'-ir' l'


qj. WuiViI liii}'litlh ?


7. Tht, pirice jiiii fort the It ll' !
I The ;lliiillllt nil tililt st-tedl sep-
i r;)tely. I


S. Wheni :inil wherp (lid the hull
Iat rt 'Pivp ;e prenihinu. \and whit
ianiount'.







MANAGEMENT OF BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIJNS. 19

IA
1 >1|1.>I Irlll I .\11- W ,'I


111. ||Fill'.\ I. M .m\I|i.mx C"'l ,< 1:1;zN I m 1I1 I',l II.

I. How iiii.y stIlettel i'w.- ,lii i lhi'
bull ,'rve dtiiring la';-t Mti il] .';ir'l


10. How may. callv'e woire dlrnI >!edi l.1i-I
fiscal year b>y >vws ,-'en l I..% h l.-
bull'


11. low oftelln, in tlie .tii'rst. -if ilie
year. has lthi. liilll I mpn tIxnIie Iiili
11 ii vet?'rinai;r'liin. ;ln. ;it 'liit
t i Liies ?


12. W ith blt'iii is Ili' Ibull nl;ible d?
I Nilme midl Iec-,ruliii 0 ;inhilr'.-s. I

I\V. Till' f'iw^'-.


1. How niihlly '"'lecle'il Iws dlid IlIh
association lit.%e .M;ir-l :31. Ilo--'


2. Who sele-tedl tile' cnwc-'.


3. Are tlie sple'teid c'w- ni;rl'kal'.l"


4. Are the selected ..m\r (1ihided iil''
classes? ';How iany in ,,i l 'i


5. H-ia e the helrd ls qpf lih I n' lul .h- 1 -
beon exImineiiel it thelir fai'Iii'- I.
rd irecti ili >f tlh h i.i n iin i ',l ll "
Who made tlie exaiinl'l int "iii'
\When %ai it iimmdp?


6. Htp i'a fl t'mi.\ws. all told. a;rtl' ,\lnei
lIy the imembners'?


7. How iii;any I. ;ls" if nlimirti 11 i l.
e-urreld nith ille ill. ilIore of th-'
Ilielibel'rs tf the ;issoaU ltialn"


8. Hlas a <-illet.ti\'e 'xa iii-lti'io1 n itf lie
selectied cows t'e'i a% indi' d il r'iilla
the yelr ';! Whi|n ani where?


9. Whaqt sel'ite fe'e hlas Ibeen -hared?






CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


'iietrion-.


Answers.


V. THE OFFSPRIJNG.


1. Has tlilt offspring of the selected
cinms been collectively examined
liY the mnnaempuent of the asso-
ciationI? If so. wheu and where?


2. What is their opinion about the
offspring on the whole?


3. Is the offspring marked according
to a: certain systeni?


VI. OTHER REMARKS.
(If the association, in the course of the year, has changed bull. information
coneeruing the time and reason should be given here. i

.I, -rtinf foir I/hr lcar from A. wfil 1. 190-, to March 31. 190-.


EXPEN' E.


Deficit from last year.....
For feeding bull ......... i
Insurance of hull.........
Veterinarian ............
E exhibition (if Iill ......
I interest ................
Payments ................
Other expenses ..........
Cash at end (if year ......

Total expenses ....... I


REVENUE.


Cash from last year......
Service fees.............
Prizes..................
Government aid for the
year..................
Other revenue..........


Deficit at end of year.

Total revenue........


Debt of the association March 31, 190- .............. ................

Property if the awriiatinn March 31, 190- (value of bull not included i).

-- breed nig associa t ion --- 190-.
(Signed ) President.
----. Residence.
1'. 0. address.





IMPORTANCE OF LIVE-STOCK SHiOWVS.


VALUE OF SHOWS AND FAIRS.

Although thle value of shows and showing may he questioned by
some, it. is the opinion of the Danish experts and the majority of the
farmers that cattle shows and fairs have been a very important factor
in developing the cattle breeders' associations as well as the whole
cattle industry. As early as 1S10 premiums for bulls were distributed
in a few sections, but not until after 1852 did the practice become
general throughout the country. In 1S52 the Government appro-
priated $4,073.00 for the yearly distribution of premiums for live
stock at fairs and shows. That the Government hlias considered this
money well expended is shown by the gradual increase in the amount
appropriated for such purposes, until in 1906( it reached $35,358'.
The shows have gradually increased in number as well as in exhibits
and attendance. People have come to appreciate more and more the
educational benefit of showing, and the efforts of the Government and
the management of the shows are directed toward making them as
educational and of as much practical value to thle people as lpozsible.
The shows may be classified a, follows:
1. Agricultural-association shows.
2. Shows of breeding associationst under commonti managements.
3. Government bull shows.
4. Shows for young stock .
5. Agricultural convention-.
The agricultural-association show. get an annual subsidy from tlhe
Government equal to tle amount the associations themselves appro-
priate for premiums for lIreeding animals. Thie shows of breeding
associations under common management get t uice the amount they
themselves contribute for prizes. Tlie govern nment bull shows, which
are more fully described in the succeeding chapter. get an annual
appropriation, varying according to the recommendation of the bull-
show commission."
The first show for young stock was hlield in 1892. The aim of this
show was to get together the be.,,t of all the young stock of all breeds
from the whole country. In the development of the breeds the aim
had been the fixing of certain characteristics. Thle bringing together
of the young stock would afford an opportunity to study uniformity
of development, as well as giving the best animal, from the different
show circuits an opportunity to compete against each other. The-e
shows have now become annual affairs and are held in different loca-
tions each year, so as to make them as educative as possible. The
number of entries and visitors has increa,-ed from year to year. for
"For details in regard to distribution of promiiiiiiiiin- n e sep tiou 1. 2 4. \. 1 ",
in Appendix.





.CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IX DENMARK.


ie>:iile: the eiicwational value the shows, have also come to be of con-
-idvrabic importance as a place to -ell and ibuy breeding stock.
Agricultural ,conventions are hlield from time to time. The jrin-
cipal object. as far as the cattle industry is concerned, is the same as
for the yearly shows of young stock, except that animals of all ages
are shown.
GOVERNMENT SHOW COMMISSIONS AND BULL SHOWS.
The government -how commission is a body of men appointed by
the 1iniister of agriculture, who supervises all the fairs and shows re-
ceiving state aid for premiums. The country is divided into thirteen
districts, or circuits, in each of which is a bull commission. The
chairman of this commission is appointed by the minister of agricul-
ture and is a member of the government show commission, the rest
of the members of the commission being appointed upon the recom-
mendation of the agricultural societies in the district.
In 1906, $20,100 was appropriated for premiums at government
bull shows, for bulls over 3 years old and in possession of full breed-
ing power. In each of the thirteen show districts is held one or more
annual bull shows, which, as a rule. are held in connection with other
agricultural association shows. The amount of money appropriated
by the government for premiums is, distributed by thle minister of
agriculture among the ihow districts according to the recommenda-
tion of the chairman of the government show commission, who in ad-
vance has secured reports and recommendations from the chairman
of the bull-show commissions. In the distribution are considered the
number of animals which have been exhibited and have received
preniitms during the last year within the district, and the number
of animals present at the last government show.
The government ,how commission prepares the necessary rules to
gTiile the judges. thus assuring a uniform system of judging through-
out the country.
The bull-show commission, however, decides upon the number and
amount of premiums, the rules for distributing the same, and the
place where the -how is to be held. Furthermore, the commission
judges the animals and distributes the premiums.
In awarding premiums the offspring of the competing animals are
particularly considered, so that the principal part of the money ex-
pended is on account of the power of the bull to produce good off-
spring rather than for his individuality.
If a bull receives a premium the owner is under obligation to let
the animal remain in the country for breeding purposes until the 1st
of May the following year, which practically means for a year after
the premium has been awarded, as all the shows are held during the
sunmmuer months. In case the receiver of a premium decides to forego






METHOD OF JUDGING AT SHOWS.


this obligation, tihe lpremlillm in s to Ie returned to th government
treasury.
It is also the dlut v of lthe chairman of tihe bIlll-show commission to
see that records are kept containing accurate descriptions ;is well as
information in regard to [lie pedigree a1nd offspring of the bulls re-
ceiving premiums. A report on tlie-e topic, and a -tatement of the
amount distributed in premiums a:nd otliherwi.-e expended for (lie hold-
ing of the bull -how in each district ik sent to the minister of agri-
culture each year bI)efore the end of OctoIber.
The importance of the )bull -how.- in developing thlie cattle breeders'
associations and in improving the cattle tof the country can not be
overestimated. As previously .tated. in thlie di.-triblmition of the prizes
by far the most importance i, placed oni the otfl'.pring. It is not
uncommon for a bull or a stallion which ha. Been unable to take
premiumnis as an individual to receive high award- when shown with
offspring. These ohows,, therefore give to bull.-, which may be lack-
ing somniewhat in form and general appearance, liut whicli have the
power to produce good offspring, a chance to be recognized and
valued as they de-erve. On the other hand, bull- which have ranked
high before the age of 3 years may be entirely out of thlie show ring
later if they can not produce good offspring. A., the real value of a
bull depends upon the quality of his,; offl.prilug more tihan on his ap-
pearance, these -hows have had a marked influence upon the rapid
improvement of (lihe cattle.
METHOD OF JUDGING AT SHOWS.

Many changes mark the development of thie judging of cattle at
shows. The scale of points on one of tlhe first ,core card- in use was
24, giving 16 points for the escutcheon and S points for build and
general appearance. This seemingly undue importance laid on tihe
escutcheon was principally due to the Frenchman, (Gienon. who at
that. time called special attention to the escutcheon as an indication
of good milking capacity. The score card was gradually changed
and broadened. More divisions in thlie cale of points- were made as
the importance of (lthe different features which constituted a good
dairy animal became clearer.
In 1887 the ancestors of the animals were for the fir-t time con-
sidered in the judging, by giving R points in a scale of 72 for pedigree.
In 1903 the government show commission revised tihe score card for
dairy cattle as follows:
Points.
Form and size ------------------------------------- ----- 15
Quality and dairy teniIeranitit ---------------------------- 12
Milking qualities------------------------------------------- 12
Pedigree -------------------------------------------------- 12
Total ------------------------------------------- 51






( BATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


The points given for pedigree were to be considered under the
following Ileal-,:
Poin ts.
li. Detailed information in regard to ancestors --. .------- 2
b. lPreiiiiiius iawardd to the animals mentioned iu pedigree--- 3
-. The importance of the family in the development of the
[breed ------------------------------------------------- 3
d. Detailed informntiou in regard to amount of milk and per
cent of fat in milk------------------------------------- 4
Total --------------------------------------------- 12
In the judging of animals at fairs and shows it has become the
ainm more and more to place the animal according to its breeding
value as shown by its offspring and by performance. Although the
methods employed with this in view differ in various parts of the
country, aIIll are working toward this end. At a show held in Copen-
hagen in 1905 there wa, a class for herds of cows with authenticated
records. In order to be eligible to this class heifers after the first
calf had to show a record of at least 5,500 pounds of milk, with an
average of 3.2 per cent fat. From heifers after second calf an
average was required of at ledst 6,050 pounds for the two years, with
3.2 per cent fat, and for aged cows an average of 6,600 pounds of
milk a year, with 3.2 per cent fat. In the hlierd contest the average
per cent of fat in each herd exhibited was required to be at least
3.4 per cepnt. For every additional one-tenth of 1 per cent 1 point,
not to exceed 9) points in all, was added to the total score.
Tlie herd premiums were awarded first according to the appearance
of the cows; then an additional premium was given for production.
In the classification according to production, 330 pounds of butter
wal; given 1 point, and an additional half point was given for each
11 pounds of butter over 330 pounds. Half a point was given for
a fat content of 3.5 per cent, and for every additional one-tenth of 1
per cent half a point was added."
Upon this scale the herds were recognized in the following classes:
l'Iss I ------------------------------------- 7 points or more.
Class I B ------------------------------------- 5 to 7 points.
('lass II A ------------------------------------ 3 to 5 points.
Class 11 B ------------------------------------ I to 3 points.

d The customary niethod of calculating butter is as follows: The loss of fat
in skim milk and buttermilk is estimated at 0.15 pound of fat in every 100
pounds of milk; and the butter is considered to contain S6 per cent butter fat.
This gives the formula:
[ Pounds of milk X percentage of butter fat i-ipounds of milk X 0.0015)]X
100
-, =pounds of butter.





METHOD OF JUDGING AT SHOWS.


By this method of judging both the quantity and the quality of
the milk was taken into consideration as well as the individuality
of the animals.
At an agricultural convention in the island of Funen in 1906, in
order for a bull to compete for prizes it was required to present
authenticated records of his dam for at least two years. Further-
more, her production had to be at least 198 pounds a of butter a year
for her first and second years, and 27.5 pounds for the following
years. After complying with these requirements the bulls could be
entered in two classes, to be judged either for their individuality or
for their offspring.
Not only in Denmark, but also in other European countries, much
stress is laid upon pedigree and yield in the judging of dairy-animals.
In Sweden the following score card liha. been siuccesisfuilly used in
the judging of young bulls:
Points.
Pedigree --------------------------------------------------
Yield of anicestors------------------------------------------ 3
Form, 2enlerIl :nip-ar:iaice. ;iii(l strewn tli ---------- ----------
Tota I-------------------------------------------------
Under pedigree are especially considered the male ancestor-, and
their power to transmit their characteritic-, and under the yield of
ancestors is considered the amount produced of both milk and butter.
That the above method: of judging cain bl carried out success-
fully is principally due to the cow-lest a-,sociation,, the records of
which are taken as authenticated for this work. It has been a point
for much discussion as to how much importance should be placed
upon pedigree and how much upon record, in the judging of an
animal. To go from a system of judging on individuality alone to
a system of judging almost entirely on the record-, would be going
from one extreme to another. The fact that form is the result of
function does not make the judging on individuality without founda-
tion. However, by also placing due importance on the ancestors
and their production, stress is laid upon those points that specially
determine the value of the animal for both breeding and economic
purposes.

MARKET PRICES OF BULLS AND CONDITIONS OF TRANSFER.

In 1906 the average price for bulls of the Jutland breed was
$406.'27, $152.76 of this being cash and $253.51 on condition." The
average for the Red Danish breed was $480.79, of which $192.69
"One Danish pound equals 1.102368 English pounds. The weights men-
tioned in this bulletin are all given in English pounds, taking 1.1 English as
equal to 1 Danish.






(CAT ILE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


was cash and $28O.10 on condition." The conditional part of the
sale is explained as follow,,:
Since, in order to obtain government aid, bulls must be recognized
at the shows receiving government support, it is common to buy bulls
for a certain sum of money payable on delivery and an additional
sum according to the recognition the bull receives in the show ring.
A further sum may also be paid if thle bull gets over a certain per
cent of the cows he serves with calf or, in case hlie is shown the first
time with offspring, if he receives a premium of not less than a cer-
tain rank. As it may take two years before some of the terms can
be decided upon, the buyer is, of course, responsible and liable to the
seller for (lthe treatment the animal receives up to that time. The
seller mu.,t furnish a guaranteed pedigree as well as health certificate,
including test for tuberculosis, and also guarantee that the bull is in
posse,,sion of his breeding power. The fact that the greater part of
the purchase price of the animals depends upon conditions, as stated
above, shows how thle people value and are willing to pay for those
qualities in the bull which can not be judged from his outward
appearance, but which largely determine his value for improving the
herd. (See Appendix, p. 38, for complete form of contract commonly
used in ,ale of bulls.)

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE WORK OF THE
ASSOCIATIONS.

Some of the difficulties thle associations have had to meet and which
in many cases hinder the good results to be expected from this work
are:
1. Thle associations do not as a rule keep their bulls long enough. .
Many of the associations keep their bulls only one, two, or at the
most three years. This time is altogether too short to ascertain the
real breeding value of the bull as shown by the offspring. The prin-
cipal reasons for this frequent change of bulls are that. many farmers
fear evil effects from inbreeding, and that the bulls become either
vicious or nonbreeders. That they become vicious is often attributed
to the custom of changing the boarding place of the bull from year
to 'ear in order, perhaps, to save a few dollars on his keep. Often
the bulls become nonbreeders due to overfattening, lack of exercise,
or too heavy service when young.
The result of this frequent change of bulls, even of the same breed,
is in many cases a hindrance to the development of thle cattle industry
in the community, since the offspring from year to year are lacking
in uniformity.
2. Some associations have too large a membership.





INFLUENCE OF CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS.


It can readily be understood that if ain association is too large in
membership and in number of cows the benefit to the individual mem-
ber becomes smaller. Associations having a membership of from
40 to 60, with from 300 to 400 cows and only 1 bull, will not be nearly
so important as will the smaller associations. It is considered that a
full-grown bull can be used on 125 to 150 cows a year if the time of
calving is scattered throughout the year; but as a rule the cows are
bred during a few months, and in such cases the ratio of cows to bulls
should not be more than 50 to 1, especially if the association is aiming
to keep the bull for several years.
3. Frequency of abortions.
Although all cattle breeders' associations have rules prohibiting
cows that have aborted from being bred to association bulls, yet in
many cases abortions have been spread by the bull from herd to herd.
Abortion in a herd not only causes an immediate loss due to a lower
production, but may check improvement in the herd for several years.
To prevent the spread of the disease, not only is great care taken in
disinfecting the bull after each service, but in some associations there
is carried out a frequent systematic veterinary inspection and exam-
ination of all cows in the association.
4. Members do not always use the association bull.
In some communities the members may have to lead their cows a
considerable distance to reach the association bull. This, as also the
higher service fee, often causes members who are not fully alive to
the importance of a well-bred bull in improving the herd to neglect
to bring their cows to the association bull.
INFLUENCE OF CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS UPON THE
DAIRY INDUSTRY.
The influence of the cattle breeder.,' associations is especially marked
along the following lines:
1. By organization and cooperation it became possible for the
smaller farmers to obtain a rapid improvement in their herds, which
otherwise would practically have been impossible.
2. They have constantly and forcibly demonstrated to the farmer
the value of a purebred bull of recognized family in the improve-
ment of the herd.
3. The herd books and records kept by the associations have taught
the farmer to appreciate the value of a pedigree in the selection of
breeding animals.
4. By cooperating with the cow-test associations and agricultural
societies it has become possible to employ many cattle experts, who
not only have acted as educators and advisers but to whom is due the
credit for the uniform and systematic way in which this work is
carried on throughout the country.





CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


The important part played by the breeders' associations in the im-
provement of the cattle is quite noticeable at the fairs and shows. A
few years ago the greater portion of the animals exhibited, especially
bulls, belonged to individual farmers owning large herds. To-day
not only do more bulls in the show rings belong to the breeders' as-
sociation,., but these most frequently carry off the highest honors. By
means of these associations a large number of the smaller farmers
who could not afford to keep or buy a high-priced bull for a few cows
have had an equal opportunity for improving their herds, as well as
equal chances at the shows, with the farmers who own the large herds.
Furthermore, they have added greatly to the interest taken in the
shows and fairs, as each member of an association takes a personal in-
terest andi pride in having his association bull successfully meet the
often very keen competition.

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

Thle number of cows in Denmark in 1866 was 812,000, with an
average annual production of about 2,200 pounds of milk per cow.
The number of cows in 1903 was 1,089,073, with an average produc-
tion of 5,720 pounds. The average annual production at the present
time is estimated to be about 6,600 pounds of milk per cow.
The increase in the production has been specially noticeable as the
cooperative movement has taken hold of branch after branch of the
cattle industry as well as other phases of agricultural work which
indirectly would influence its development. The period from 1880
to 1S83 will always be memorable in the history of Danish agricul-
ture. because it marks the organization of the first cooperative cream-
erry. the first permanent cattle breeders' association, the publishing of
the first public herd book. and the appointment of the committee for
the preservation and improvement of the Jutland breed. It also
inmark, the period at which Denmark ceased to export grain, due to
the fact that it proved more economical to feed it to the cattle. Since
then not only has the grain raised in the country been fed to the live
stock, but the importation of grain and concentrated feedstuffs has
increased from year to year. In 1907 the imports amounted to 1,608
million pound, of grain, 987 million pounds of oil meal and oil cake.
and 131 million pounds of bran and gluten, a total of 2,726 million
pound-,. The larger portion of this large total of feedstuffs has been
used in the production of butter, of which, in 1907, 200,069,200 pounds
were exported to England. But in addition it has added thousands
of dollars worth of plant food to the soil. The fertility once lost
through the marketing of the grain from the farms has not only been
replaced, but in many sections the soil is richer, and is at present
producing larger crops than ever in the past.






ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.


It is well to remember that the great improvement effected in
Danish cattle has not been brought about, by importation of high-
priced animals from other countries, but is simply due to organization
and cooperation, careful selection, systematic application of the prin-
ciples of breeding, and good care and liberal feeding of the cattle. It
is the result of having a definite purpose in view which is never lost
sight of. The Jutland cow, once primarily kept for the production of
beef, has been changed into a profitable dairy cow. The average
annual production of the Red Danish cows, according to the creamery
statistics for the island of Funen in 1907, was 6,930 pounds per cow,
an amount that will compare favorably with any dairy breed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

The author desires to acknowledge the great courtesy received in
Denmark, not only from the officials and experts- connected with the
agricultural department and the agricultural societies, but on every
hand where information was sought. He is especially indebted to
Lars Frederiksen, one of the cattle experts employed by the Jutland
Agricultural Society, for the valuable references given to agricultural
reports and to other agricultural literature.
The following literature has been made iiue of in preparing this
bulletin:
Konsulentberetuing ofjydske Landboforeninger, 1905. S. P. I'etcrseu.
Husdyrbrug of 1906. Axel Appel.
Kvaegavl og Kvaegopdraet. A. Sveudsen.
Landokuouiomisk Aarbog. l!X7. H. C. Larsen.
Kvaegbrugets Udvikling i Danniark, A. ApIel og I'. A. Morkeberg.















APPENDIX.


BY-L WS FOR CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS UNDER COMMON MANAGE-
MENT ON THE ISLAND OF FUNEN.

S.('TIOx 1. The aiim of the cattle breeders' association is to produce the sure
and rapid development of a sound, well-built, productive. Red Danish breed of
milch cows. The aim shall be reached principally by the purchase of meritori-
ous herd buIlls, by selecting the best damnis (the selection being, as much as
possible. based on information about yielding capacity and pedigree), by a
rational treatment of the offspring., and by the holding of local shows according
to rules stalted below.
Src. 2. (a) Every cattle breeder within the district is eligible to membership
wvho ;iihscribes to these by-laws and has in his herd at least one cow which is
considered by the management of the association to be worthy of joining the
ranks of the breeding animals.
I bI Members who join later enter with rights and obligations in proportion
to and in accordanue with the state of affairs approved by the last general
meeting.
SEC. 3. Members may be accepted at any time on application to the chairman
or :a member of the board of directors.
Src. 4. Withdrawals from the association can take place only on the 1st of
April of each year. and notification in writing must be sent to the chairman not
less than one year in advance and be receipted for. From the day of receipt
of the notification the member shall have no vote.
Sr-c. 57. The management of the association shall be vested in a board of
directors of members, elected for four years by the general meeting.
From the board of directors, which elects its own chairman, members
shall retire, alternately, every other year; the first time the retirement shall
be hy lot. later according to turn. Reelection is permitted.
The district of the association shall be divided into circuits, with a member
of the board as manager of each circuit.
SEC. G. The members of the board of directors shall see to the enforcement
of the laws and take care of the affairs of the association. When the chairman
or three 'if the members desire, meetings of the board shall be held. Both at
these and at the general meetings records shall be kept.
The board shall select, purchase, offer for service, exclude, and sell the herd
bulls of the association, select the cows of the members, act as judges at the
local shows, and give the members advice regarding their bookkeeping.
The chairman shall call the meetings of the board of directors, decide when
and where they shall be held. preside at the same. and keep the minutes. He
shall represent the association, keep its correspondence and accounts, and act
as its treasurer. He shall be responsible for the funds of the association
intrusted to him and endeavor to make them profitable.
The circuit managers shall work for the benefit of the association in their
respective districts and pay strict attention to the work there. The board of
directors or a committee of the members shall, once a year, inspect the herds of
the members on their farms.






APPENDIX.


SEC. 7. The herd bull must be sound and well built, of Red Danish milking
breed, and recognized good pedigree. He shall be insured, and twice a year
shall be examined by a veterinary surgeon. He should not be utilized for breed-
ing purposes until he reaches the age of Ij years. When purchasing bulls, the
association should secure guarantee of breeding capacity. The bull shall be
exhibited every year until he shall have received premiums on account of his
offspring. Until the age of 3 years he shall he exhibited at a breeding asso-
ciation show subsidized by the Government : and after the age of 3 years at the
government show. lie shall also be exhibited at the local shows.
SEC. S. The members are entitled to have their cows served by the association
bull, provided that the cows are not subject to abortion, are otherwise healthy,
and are approved by the board of directors.
SEC. 9. The fee for service shall be determined every year by the board of
directors, and shall be paid by the nimemnibers in Iproportion to thie number of their
eligible cows.
SEc. 10. Every member must keep the records directed by the board of
directors and is bound to exhibit, at the local shows arranged by the board of
directors, all selected cows and their offspring by the association bull until
the heifers become pregnant for the first time and the bulls reach the age of
2 years. Calves less than 3 months old need not be exhibited. Each calf shall
be earniarked with thie IPiiunter of its tin i 'according to a inetli -ii :Ilnprteil Iby the
management.
The members shall be bound on the demand of the board of directors to ex-
hibit the offspring of the association bull. if such are iu existence, at the annual
offspring shows preceding the government shows.
SEC. 11. The cows shall be selected and a record kept in the selection book.
The selection shall be conducted under proper supervision," but may take place
at any time of the year, and either at the farms or nt the local shows.
Only healthy animals shall be admitted. According to their characteristics
they shall be divided into two classes, A and B, the former of which includes
animals especially suited for breeding and the latter comprises animal Is which it*ni
be utilized for breeding purposes. Every animal shall hav e its ri iimlher 1iran nl!-iI
on the back of the right horn. Cows of class A also have an A branded on the
back of the left horn. Branding may be dispensed with when the (,uws arl,
otherwise marked in a safe manner.
SEc. 12. The board of directors fixes the time and place of the local shows.
and notifies the members eight days in advance. Any cows excluded by the
circuit manager, with the acquiescence of the owner, need not be exhibited, as
they are considered stricken out.
SEC. 13. The fiscal year of the association shall run from the 1st of April
to the 31st of March. The chairman shall deliver his accounts, and they sha.-ll
be returned to him in the course of eight days.
For accounts relating to the individual cows and the association buils the
adopted forms are used. When the selected cows have been accepted by :i cow-
test association, the forms of the latter are used.
SEc. 14. A regular general meeting shall be held once a year after eizht
days previous notification. At the annual meeting the audited accounts shall
be produced, and the chairman shall give a short report of the work of the
association during the past year. Furthermore, new members of the board of
directors shall be elected to succeed the retiring members and also two auditors.

a See law on domestic animals, in Appendix, paragraph 1i.






CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


All questions except those mentioned in section 16 are decided upon by a
majority vote. The votes must be delivered in person. At the general meeting
all matters or questions communicated to the chairman in writing at least four
days prior to the meeting, or proposed by the board of directors, are discussed
and acted upon.
Extra general meetings may be called by the board of directors, and must be
called when one-third of thbc members so desire. The call shall be issued as
aforesaid.
SEc. 15. The members are jointly responsible for all debts contracted in
accordance with the action of the general meeting and for deficits in the annual
accounts or in the settlement of the financial affairs of the association when
such settlement hbas to be made on account of the death or sale of bulls or for
any other reason ; each individual's liability being in proportion to the greatest
number of cows registered as belonging to him at any time during the fiscal
year, regardless of whether some of them were sold, killed, or stricken out.
At withdrawals the withdrawing member, in order to be relieved of his liability,
must pay the proportionate portion of the debt of the association, according to,
a statement rendered by the board and approved by the general meeting. He
shall not be entitled to any portion of a possible surplus.
SEC. 16. The dissolution of the association can only be agreed upon by
a general meeting where three fourth of the members are present and when
three-fourths of those present vote in favor thereof. If no quorum should be
obtained by the first call, a new general meeting shall decide by a majority vote,
regardless of the number of members present.

LAW RELATING TO) INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE BREEDING
AND KEEPING OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS.0

The institutions named below, for the promotion of the breeding and keeping
of domestic animals, shill be aided by government subsidies as follows:
DISIRIP.UITION OF PREMIUMS AT SHOWS.

1. The provincial agricultural association fairs or shows may receive a sub-
sidy n which. with the restriction naimcd in section 3. shall be equal to the amount
the asociations themselves appropriate for premiums for breeding animals.
Agricultiurail associations holding their annual shows in common may receive,
subject to the discretion of the minister of agriculture, a further aid of 10 per
cent of the amount named. (See sees. 2 and 3.)
2. Shows in common. (See secs. 2 and 4 to 6.)
(fa) The shows conducted by associations under common management may
be aided to the amount of twice as much as the interested associations them-
selves contribute for prizes at these shows.
4. Government shows for bulls may receive the amount of 75,000 kroner
($20,100). (See sees. 2 and 7 to 11.) |

BREEDING ASSOCtATIONS.

6. Cattle breeding associations may receive 150 kroner ($40.20) for each bull
belonging to the association. (See secs. 12 and 14.)
7. Breeding associations specially apt to develop good strains may receive
sums up to 20.000 kroner ($5,360). (See sec. 15.)

0Only those clauses which influence the cattle industry are here quoted.
ji






APPENDIX.


OTHER INSTITUTIONS RELATING TO THE BREEDING AND KEEPING OF DOMESrIC
ANIMALS.

9. Test associations may receive tiup to 250 kroner ($07) each; not, however.
lo exceed a total amount of 120.000 kroner ($32.1O)1. (See sec. 17.)
10. For competitions between entire herds there may be appropriated au
amount of not more than 25,000 kroner 1$0.7001. (See sec. IS.)
13. For the publication of herd books. aIn amount of not more than 20.000
kroner ($5.360). (See sec. 21.)
14. For experts in breeding, a subsidy of ,ilnis up to three-fifths of their
annual salaries; not. however, to excetil 30.00 krouner I.$S.'41'1). I See see. 22. )
15. Institutions not included ii, those :hb\1 inuatwd. but aiming at the pro.
motion of the breeding and keeping of domiesti'.- animals. and in the judgment
of the minister of agriculture deservin'.z S,'lp1ort1. shill re-eeive n a amount not
to exceed 40.000 kroner ($10.720).
Furthermore, the Government shall defray tie I'r dliem and transportation
expenses of the chairmen of the ibull aml stallimn show commissions. of the
judges at the government shows, and of the supervisors of the shows of the
breeding associations, and the expenses (onniiet'd with the publication of the
reports of the government show comnms-ions.

AID FOR I'RI.MIIMIS AT SIlOWVS.Y

SEc. 2. In awarding premiums ;acc)nldiIg to Ihi.- law. everything elke being
equal, the first animals to be considered shall be such as have prominent marks
of their breed, have reliable and instruti.tie pedigree rIet'lords, anid lielong to
good, and as far as possible, pure breeds and families.
It shall also be looked after that animals having received premiums at one
show shall not receive such at another show in the s.ime year; the cooperative
shows mentioned in section 1, paragraph 2. and shows at agricultural c-onven-
tions, however, excepted.
SEC. 3. The government aid mentioned in section 1, paragraph 1. shall, In
the proportion there stated, be distributed liv thr iiniiiister of agriculture among
the agricultural associations working for the prninotion of the breeding and
keeping of domestic animals; provided, hoI)ever, that ih assor-iation which has
not been in existence for one year. and has lint at least J150 contributing inenl-
bers, with annual contributions aggregating at least 300 kroner i$S0.40i, shall
receive government aid (provided, however, that the minister of agriculture.
when special geographical conditions make it de.,siralle, may ignore this rille. :
and further provided, that the number of kroner in the subsidy shall not b.
more than four times the number of contributing neIli'bers in thle associatihil.
The amounts appropriated may be used for prenmiuns and recognition money 2
for:
Bulls between 1 and 3 years old.
Cows and heifers: provided that individual cows or heifer, shall nmt receive
prizes when belonging to herds of more than six milk cows.
Herds of at least three members, the female animals oif which must have
been born in the ownership o(if the exhibitor, or else reared by him, and in the
latter case must have been bought by him before they were 3 months old ; ami
family groups of cattle.

a Section 1 is a summary of the provisions stated in more detail in section 2
and following sections.
bThe term recognition money" is explained on p. 10.






CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


Bulls under 2 years of age and mares under 4 years can be awarded recogni-
tion money only.
The amount by which the subsidy may be increased for associations which, in-
stead of holding their shows separately, hold a yearly show in common.0 may by
the minister of agriculture be allowed to be used for either premiums or
expenses.
The award of premiums, both at the shows of single associations and at shows
held under common management, shall be made by a judging committee chosen
by the association. Associations which desire to be considered in the allotment
of subslidies from the government treasury must, before the end of March, make
application therefore to the minister of agriculture, the application to be accom-
panied by information as to whether they fulfill the conditions required for the
granting of subsidies, and as to the size of the fund which the associations,
themselves have decided to distribute during that year in premiums.
The time for holding shows is to be determined by the associations holding
simie. after consultation with the government show commissioner for the dis-
trict in which each association is located. (See Sec. 11.)
Premiums may be awarded only to such animals as are pledged to be kept
in the country for breeding purposes for at least one year after the payment of
the primium. If any such animal is sold abroad before the expiration of one
3ear I he lpritmium shall be refunded.
In other details the rules for distribution of premiums shall be made by the
associations themselves. At every distribution a record must be kept in which
all animals that are awarded premiums shall be noted, with a short description
if their breeding and characteristics, on forms approved by the minister of
agriculture. An extract from this record shall be sent each October to the
minister o)f Agriculture, who thereafter will demand the return of such sub-
sidies ns any association may not have used or which are distributed or kept
contrary to the foregoing regulations.
Si:c. 4. The aid mentioned in section 1, paragraph 2a, shall he distributed,
in the proportion there stated, by the minister of agriculture, as premiums at
the shows held liv associations under common management, which, besides the
kinds if animals mentioned in section 3, may comprise other gatherings of
horses and cattle and, with a regmilar intermission of three years, older stallions
and bulls.
S:c. 7. The amount of 75,000 kroner ($20.100) mentioned in section 1, para-
graph 4, shall be used for premiums for bulls, only bulls mniore than 3 years
old and still strong and in possession of full breeding capacity being eligible.
In every show district shall be held an annual stallion show; while the bull-
show commissions in one or more connected show districts, when conditions
mike it desirable, shall hold annual shows for smaller districts, the number
of which amuist not exceed the number of counties (Amintsraadskredse) in said
show district or districts, and the boundaries of which, as much as possible,
shall coincide with those of the counties, provided that considerations as to the
kind of herds or geographical conditions do not necessitate other boundaries.
The division into districts must be approved by the minister of agriculture,
and can not be changed without his consent, after a new general election of
bull-show commissioners. Changes in the district divisions necessitated by
the appearance of contagious diseases may be made by the minister of
agriculture.
The amount appropriated by the Government for premiums for stallions and
bulls shall be distributed by the minister of agriculture among the show dis-

0 As provided in section 1, paragraphs 1 and 2a.







APPENDIX.


triers, according to recommendations from the chairman of the goverualment bull-
show commission, who shall secure reports and recommendations in advance
from the chairmen of the stallion U and bull show commissions, which reports
and recommendations shall be forwarded, to the minister of agriculture at the
same time as the recommendation of the chairman.
In the distribution shall be considered the number of animals that have been
exhibited and have received premiums during the preceding year and the sta-
tistical information gained by the last enumeration of cattle at the last govern-
ment shows, which information shall be forwarded by thle chairman of the gov-
ernment show commission to the chairmen oif tihl stallion anil h lll show ,-om-
missions, who at the same time shall be requested tip report.
SEC. S. The government shows shall be inanaged by .talliinm and bull com-
missions, respectively, the chairmen of which shall lie alpplointed by the minister
of agriculture, and the other members of which shall lie elected for a term of
three years by the county boards from among tilt men proposed by the agri-
cultural associations indicated below.
To the bull commissions two members and two alternates shall lie elected
by the county boards ill the show districts. In case of a tie vote the elec-
tion shall be decided by lot. Three months prior to the election the county
chairman shall request each agricultural association inll the district which hac
150 members, in the previous year has appropriated at least 340x krioner ($&O.401
of its own means for premiums, and holds annual showsw. lip propose ill writing
a number of members and alternates equal t, the number It lio elected by
the county board, and from among that number the members shall be chosen.
If there should be only one agricultural association in the county, the latter
shall propose twice us many members and alternates as the colinty hoard shall
elect. Each and every stallion and bull show commission shall from .i'mong its
members elect a secretary, who shall act until tlihe following yearr" st:alion l r
bull show shall have been held.
SEC. 9. The stallion and hull show commissions si-hall decide upIlon tihe number
and amount of premiums, tihe rules for distrilibtinu' tlie sanu, thlie place where
the show shall he held. and the expenses nlecessary.
These decisions, as well a- the changes illn :;i4l iloeinl'lints to til' saille,
adopted by tile commission shall be published by tlie comminission.
The government show commission shall Ipeireiae tlie oneessary rules- to sllide
the judges.
The commissioners shall act as judges ;at the Ii'l'rsr alid 1Iull shows,. res4plc-
tively, and shall distribute the premiums.
In awarding premiums the offspring of the conipetinr aiinimals shall lie Ipir-
ticularly considered, so that the principal part of the amount slhaill lie expendled
for premiums for good offspring.
Bulls that have received premiums may be branded with tlie mark of the rcom-
mission, but only when the owner so desires.
Whoever receives a premium thereby assumes the obligation to let time animal,
having been considered worthy of it. remain in the country for breeding puir-
poses, if it is a bull, until the 1st of May of the following year.
Should the receivers of premiums neglect to fulfill this obligation, the pre-
miums shall be returned to the treasury, unless the minister of agriculture shall
admit that special reasons for such neglects have been proved. Amounts of
premiums to be returned according to this regulation may be collected by legal
proceed taings.

0 Stallion show commissions and bull show commissions are independent comi-
missions having separate funds for distribution. Sumnis of money quoted are
used for promoting cattle industry only.







36 CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.

SEC. 10. The chairmen of the stallion and bull show commissions shall deter-
mine the time for holding stallion and bull shows. They shall preside at the
meetings of the commissions and, with the assistance of the secretaries, keep
records which, among other things, shall contain accurate descriptions of the
stallions and bulls that have received premiums, and information regarding
their pedigree and offspring. The chairmen shall receive the amounts appro-
priated for premiums by the Government and distribute the same. They also,
before the end of October of each year, shall send to the minister of agricul-
ture i complete report of the results of the shows, accompanied by a transcript
,f the records and a statement setting forth the amount distributed as premiums
and expendt'd for the holding of stallion and bull shows, etc.
The secretaries of the commissions, who on the whole shall take care of the
preliminary preparation of the shows, shall advertise for not less than two
wve'ls ipni.r i o the holding of the show, in the most widely circulated news-
papers in the district, the place, the time, and the amount of premiums.
SEc. 11. The chairmen of the stallion and bull show commissions, in connec-
tion with the government expert in breeding of domestic animals, under the
presidency of a man appointed by the minister of agriculture, shall form a
government show commission, through which the supervision provided for in
section 3 in the present law shall be conducted in such a way that the full
commission shall divide the associations among its members, and one of the
commission chairmen shall be present at each association show, with the right
to take part in the deliberations and votes of the judging committee.
The government show commission shall hold a regular annual meeting, at
which questions of importance for the work of the commission shall be brought
up and discussed, and issue an annual report.

AID TO BREEDING ASSOCIATIONS.

SEC. 12. The aid to breeding associations discussed below shall be distributed
by the minister of agriculture and only be given to associations, the aims of
which are recognized as good ;:nd useful and which are recommended by the
coninmmon management associations of the province. Applications for aid shall be
sent through the latter.
The breetling associations are, as far as the application of the government
.id is toncernedl, subjected to the supervision of the minister of agriculture.
Should an association dissolve during the fiscal year for which government aid
has been received, the minister of agriculture shall be entitled to claim the
reinmliursement of thle amount or a proportionate part of the same; for this
reimlursenent the members of the board of directors are jointly (one for all
and all for one) responsible.
SEC. 14. The cattle breeders' associations referred to in section 1, paragraph
6. in order to b? eligible for government aid, must have their by-laws approved
by the minister of agriculture. The by-laws must contain provisions to the
effect that the cows of the members shall be selected utinder proper supervision,
that the bull shall be examined twice a year by a veterinarian, and that the
herds shall lie inspected at their homes at least once a year by the board of
directors or a committee of its members. The government aid shall be granted
for a specified bull that must have received a premium or recognition money
at a government show or at a breeding association show supported by the G0v-
ernment. Besides, the bull, until he shall have received offspring premium,
must receive every year a premium at a breeding association show or, after hav-
ing reached the age of 3 years, must at least be considered worthy of a premium

a See p. 16.






APPENDIX. 37

at a government show, unless special conditions should make this impussiblc.
in which latter case the fact must be certified to by the chairman of the dis
trict show. No aid shall be granted before the bull reaches the age of 1I years:
and only as long as the bull owned by the association shall be in possession of
his full breeding capacity.
The annual amount, counting from the day the bull was received by the asso-
ciation, shall be 150 kroner ($40.20) for each bull; provided, however, that in
proportion to the number of bulls the amount intended for breeding associations
under a common provincial management shall be distributed in amounts ranging
from 130 kroner 1$34.84i to 170 kroner ($45.56), according to a classiti'ation
adopted by the common management at which the good qualities of the bull as
well as the work of the association in general shall be considered.
If the bull should be sold, the government aid shall be kept without dis-
count, provided, that the association, within two months after the sale, shall
purchase another bull meeting the requirements named above.
SEc. 15. The amount of aid mentioned in section 1, paragraph 7. may be
utilized by the minister of agriculture for the further encouragement of breed-
ing associations which, by the exhibition of excellent young animals, prove them-
selves to possess special adaptation for the development of valuable-strains of
cattle.
The passing of judgment on the young animals shall occur at the otffsriug
shows conducted by the bull-show commissions, and with the commissioners as
judges.
The aid, granted in amounts ranging from 50 kroner ($13.40) to 150 kroner
($40.20), shall be distributed according to the recommendation of the interested
common-managemnent associations.
In case the associations here mentioned have assistants to keep herd books
and accounts of the yield and feeding of the individual cows, they may, in
accordance with section 17, be granted additional aid as cow-test associations.

AID TO OTHER INSTITUTIONS CONCERNED IN THEL BREEDING AND KEEPING OF DOMESTIC
ANIMALS.

SEC. 17. The aid mentioned in section 1, paragraph 9, shall be distributed by
the minister of agriculture, in the proportion there indicated, to cow-testing asso-
ciations which have as their aim to instruct cattle owners, increase the profits of
cattle breeding, and promote the development of cattle breeds whose milk will
yield an increased amount of butter; such efforts being made on the basis of
investigations into the feeding, milk yield, and fat content of milk of individual
COWS.
Such associations must have at least 8 members and 200 cows; but the min-
ister of agriculture may dispense with the requirement of such a number of
members or cows, either in consideration of the scattered population of the
locality and special local conditions, or because the association in question has
taken up the work of testing and other branches of the trade, closely connected
with the principal aims, or. finally, when breeding associations of the kind men-
tioned in section 15 are concerned.
Associations having a sufficient number of members and cows to form more
than one association, and employing more than one assistant, may, at the dis-
cretion of the minister of agriculture, receive aid as more than one association.
Cattle breeders' associations or mergers of such, with cows to the number
of 150, which have taken up the testing and examination of the yield and feed-
ing of the cows, may secure aid as cow-testing associations.







CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


The by-laws of the associations must be approved by the minister of agri-
culture, to whom applications for aid should be sent, accompanied by a declara-
tion from the common-management association of the province.
SEC. 1S. The aid mentioned in section 1, paragraph 10, may be used by the
minister of agriculture for holding competitions between entire herds.
The passing of judgment shall be based on a two years' competition conducted
by the common-management association of the district.
In passing judgment, besides the appearance and yielding capacity, the ability
of the individuals to transfer the characteristics and good qualities of the
breed to the offspring should be considered.
Julngment shall be passed by committees, each consisting of three members,
one of whom shall be appointed by the minister of agriculture and the other
two bIy the breeding association which conducts the competition.
The results of the competition shall be published.
Two-thirds of the expenses connected with the competition shall be defrayed
by the Government and one-third by the interested associations, in cooperation
with the competing members.
Str. 21. The amount of 20.,000 kroner ($5,360) provided for in section 1, para-
graph 13, may lie expended by the minister of agriculture inii publishing herd
look', kept by the cooperative Danish agricultural associations; and if the
whole amount should not be expended for that purpose, then. on the recom-
mnendation of the interested common-management association, a portion of it
may bie expended for promoting by other means the keeping of herd books
for cows by the agricultural associations or the common managements of
breeding associations.
SEC. 22. The amount provided for in section 1, paragraph 14. for association
experts shall be'distributed by the minister of agriculture in the proportion
there named for salaries to experts for one or more breeding associations and
'titiOmn a mla niazeiehlt t of cow-test associations.
The government aid shall be subject to recommendation from the common-
inaigement association of the province.
The associations or the common managements shall take care that the experts
render au annual report, accordingg to further directions from the minister of
agriculture, illustrating the work of the experts, and that they take part in the
combined meetings of government and association experts called by the sec-
reti Iry.
SEC. 23{. With the lpermission of the minister of agriculture, aml on terms
tixed by him, on recLommendation of the interested common-management associa-
tion. associa lions working for the improvement of the breed may hold voluntary
Public auctions for the sale of breeding animals without the interference of the
director of auctions and without paying fees.

FORM OF CONTRACT USED IN THE PURCHASE OF BULLS.

The followNving contract is this day made in regard to the bull----------------
(Name of bull.)
owned by ------------------------ and dropped-------------------------
(Name of owner.) tDay and year.)
at _--------------------------by--------------------------------------
(Place of birth.) (I Dam's name and number.)
This contract is made on the following conditions:
SFCT'ON 1. The seller is to deliver the bull at his own expense and risk, at

(Time and place of delivery must be definitely agreed on.)






APPENDIX.


Szc. 2. At the time of the delivery of the bull the seller will furnish to the
buyer:
(a) The pedigree of the bull. If the seller has himself reared the hull. he
guarantees by his signature on the pedigree the accuracy of the inforuimatinn
therein contained. If he has not reared the bull himself, the acicuracy of the
pedigree must be attested in such manner as the buyer agrees to when the
bargain is made.
(b) A veterinarian's certificate of the health of the bull at time of delivery.
in which it must be specially noted that the tuLierulin test has been applied.
with favorable outcome. If there is aniiytliinig lacking in the bull's on, mdition of
health, and the buyer is for that reason unwilling to accept the bull, this con-
tract shall become void and neither of tlhe contracting parties shall have any
claim against the other.
SEc. 3. The seller guarantees that the bull is willing to serve and able to get
calves. If the bull, in spite of proper care. proves to be. in the judgment of the
buyer, not sufficiently able to serve and get offspiling the first year, the seller
will take the bull back again and refund two-thirds of the sum received in
accordance with section 4, A, of this co-ntrailct. and all tlie conditional p'-iy-
meats described in section 1, B, shall thereupon ibe canceled.
SEC. 4. The purchase price is agreed illon ;is follows
A. When the bull is delivered the buyer si:ill p;iy ---- krtoner.
B. In addition, the buyer shall ipay up"ril the rlmdition.is nlimed below thr
following amounts (conditional payments):
(a) If there are found amongst the cows st-'rtil liy this bill not over --
per cent of furrow cows in any one of the first -- years, then the buyer
shall pay kroner for that year; and this clause shall hold good for eac:h
separate year of the number of years specified.
(b) If the bull is awarded first-hlass recognition unmiey a at the cooli'eratihe
shows of the island of I'Funen. the buyer shall pay --- kroner.
1() If the bull is awarded first, second. (oi third Ipre, iitn i It tlie gp-verniment
show for bulls ill tilt' year -- the bit.ur slhtil I;iy V kroulier. I The
year following the show indicated in 'd)i, next plaragralph.)
(dl If, on the first occasion when offslprin, (if this bill is exhibitedil at a1 g-,%-
ernment bull show. the bull is awarded an ipffspr'i I premuiuii qpf at least sNidi'all
class, first degree, the buyer shall pay kroner.
The conditional piaynJeints agreed upin m ner I i shall hie ultie without tpti've
every year on the first day of October, beginning with )ctober 1. Th'
amounts agreed upon under tb), ici, inid i 't shall likewise be due without
notice eight days after the ahove-mentionted reonition noiicy '" or premiiiiiiin.
are awarded to the bull.
All payments shall be made at the residence (If the seller, or i at ;ny other
place which he may designate iu this country, without expense to the seller.
SEC. 5. The buyer shall exhibit the bull at the shows ii.aintid in .-.cclioni 4.
unless prevented by ill health onl the part of thie bull, which must be certified
by a veterinarian. It case the bull's ill health prevents exhibiting him all
conditional payments provided for iil section 4, R. shall lie suspended, but the
obligation nevertheless remains upon the buyer if the bull in that year winiw
any of the'awards mentioned in section 4. b) and (c).
Should the buyer neglect his obligation to exhibit the bull as agreed, he shall
be bound nevertheless to make the payments agreed upon in section 4, (b)
and (c), when they become due.


See 1P. 1i.






CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN DENMARK.


SEC. 6. The buyer shall keel, the bull in proper condition of feed for breeding
purposes, and give him in nil respects good and reasonable care, and keep him
covered by life and accident insurance to the amount of his full value.
SEC. 7. Should it be shown that the seller has delivered to the buyer an incor-
rect pedigree or a false veterinarian's certificate, or that the seller has in any
other way given to the buyer false information about the bull, the buyer may
annul the contract, and the seller (even if he has acted in good faith) shall be
bund to take back the bull and refund the money he has received in accordance
with section 4, A: and, furthermore, must pay the buyer for stable room, feed.
and care ;ln allowance of -- kroner for every day which has passed since
the delivery of the bull to tlhe buyer until his return delivery to the seller; and
neither of the parties shall thereafter have any further claim upon the other.
If the seller knowingly furnishes a false pedigree, veterinarian's certificate,
or other information, the buyer may annul the contract, and the seller shall not
only refund the sum received according to section 4, A, and reimburse the buyer
for stabling, feed, and care, as provided in the first paragraph of this section,
but he shall moreover pay the buyer damages to the extent of 1,000 kroner.
SEC. .s. Should the seller fail to fulfill this contract, by not delivering the bull,
or by not delivering him at the time and place agreed on, even if such failure
be not the fault of the seller, the buyer shall have the option of demanding that
the contract be fulfilled or annulling the contract. In either case the buyer
shall have the right to demand damages for any loss suffered by such non-
fulfillmnent, and particularly for traveling expenses, loss of time, and hotel bills,
incurred in the trip to and from the place of delivery. Should the seller refuse
to deliver the bull, or be unable to do so (for instance, by reason of having sold
him to some other party), he shall be bound to pay damages in the minimum
amount of 200 kroner, and more if the buyer's loss shall actually amount to more.
SEc. 9. Should the buyer be deprived of the bull (by the operation of this
contract or by nonfulfillment of the contract oni the part of the seller), then the
seller, even if he has acted in good faith, shall be bound to refund all money
received, uand furthermore to pIay damages of at least kroner.
If the seller has known in advance that the bull would not be available, he
shall, besides refunding nill money received, be bound to pay damages of at least
1.010 kroner.
SLC. 10. Should either party refuse or neglect to fulfill the provisions of this
contract i including section 10, hlie shall be bound, whether with or without suit
at law, to Iay all expenses of collection, including attorneys' and collectors' fees,
traveling expenses, and other expenses of collection, even if the amount of the
claim should be less than 200 kroner. In regard to this the provisions of the
law of August 6, 1S24, are expressly waived. The violator shall in addition
pay interest on said sums which are to be paid or refunded by him, at the rate of
6 per cent per annum, which interest, on the amounts agreed upon in section 4,
is to )e calculated from the day when such amounts become due, and on other
amounts from the date of the first demand.

iPlace and date.i
t Signature of seller.)

(Signature of buyer.)










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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

I 1262 08928 8103llllllI
3 1262 081928 8103