Medical milk commissions and the production of certified milk in the United States

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Material Information

Title:
Medical milk commissions and the production of certified milk in the United States
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
43 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lane, Clarence Bronson, 1870-1929
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Milk commissions, Medical   ( lcsh )
Milk -- Quality   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Clarence B. Lane.
General Note:
"May 5, 1908."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613660
oclc - 22302921
Classification:
ddc - 630 Un3an, no.104
System ID:
AA00018912:00001

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Issued May 5. '10S.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN 104.
A. D. MELVIN, CHIF OF BUriAU.





MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS AND THE


PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK

IN THE UNITED STATES.




BY

CLARENCE B. LANE.
,ssislant Chief 'f the l)airY ). ;siomn.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1908.









THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


('h;,j. A. D. MELVIN.
Assistant Chitf- A. M. FARRINGTON.
('hif ('Ch-L E. B. JoNES.
Biochemic Division: M. DORSErT, hiilf; J.AMES A. EMERY, assistant chief.
Dairy Division: ED. H. WEBSTER. chief: C. B. LANE, assistant chief.
Inspection Division: RICE P. STLDDOM, chief; MORRIS WOODEN, R. A. RAMSAY,
and ALBERT E. BEHNKE, associate chiefs.
Potihonyiiol Division: JoHN R. MOHLEJI, chief; HENRY J. WASHBURN, assistant
chief.
Quarantine Dii .ioi RICHARD W. HIcKMAN,, chief.
Division of Zoology: B. H. RANSOM, chief.
Animal Husbandman: GEORGE M. ROMM IL.
Editor: JAMES M. PICKETS.
Librarian: BEATRICE OBEBRLY RI..ER4.

DAIRY DIVISION.
('hi'. Ed. H. Webster.
Assistant Chid': C. B. Lane.
Dairy farmbeq in itifigalions, B. H. Ruut.I'l in rhorqr.
Southern daryirioq. B. H. Rawl. S. E. Barres, J. E. Dorman, T. E. Woodward, C. 0.
Mo-s.r, J. C. Guthrie, and A. K. Risser, assistant dairymen; Duncan Stuart, assist-
ant in dairying; J. A. Conover, scientitir assistant in dairying; H. P. Lykes and J. T.
Eaton. agents in dairying.
Dairy records: W\Vmi. Hart Dexter. assistant dairyman.

Dairy products irrtsligatiogains, L .. Roqers in rharqg:.
Butter: John L. Sherk, expert; W. S. Smarzo and P. H. Kieffer, collaborators.
Cheese: C. F. Doane, A. W. Dox, and C'harles Thornm, assistant dairymen; T. W.
Issajeff, expert cheese maker; J. \W. More, F. R. Thomson, experts in dairying; S. K.
Suzuki, collaborator; L. D. Bushnell, expert in dairy hacteriology.
Milk secretion: R. H. Shaw, assistant dairyman; A. E. Perkins, scientific assistant;
A. H. Douglass, assistant chemist; J. 0. Halverson, expert in dairy chemistry.
Mi/k L. A. Rog(ers, bacteriological chemist: 1'. R. Potteiger, dairy bacteriologist.
(lrqaoiialiton and maiovcqnient ine'c.itiqntio'is.

Creameries, dralftiy and irsiqning: B. D. White, assistant dairyman, in charge;
C. W. FrN hof-r, scientific assistant; H. J. Crecdicott and J. G. Winkjer, assistant dairy
men; Robert Mc.Adam, inspector: K. E. Parks, architect.
Market milk service: C. B. Lane, az-sistant chief, in charge; G. M. Whitaker, dairy*
inspector; Ivan C. Weld and Lee H. P. Maynard, assistant dairymen.

Rcrno, tled bllfr insptilion.
M. W. Lang, dairy inspector, in charge, 22 Fifth avenue, room 510, Chicago, Ill.;
Levi Wells, dairy inspector. i Harrison street, New York, N. Y.; S. B. Willis and
H. P Olsen, deputy inspectors.
2


















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
llWashingtonrt, D. C., January 2, 1908.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit, and to recommend for publi-
cation as Bulletin 104 of this Bureau, the accompanying manuscript
entitled "Medical Milk Commissions and the Production of Certified
Milk in the United( States," by Clarence B. Lane, assistant chief of
the Dairy Division of this.Bureau. The writer gives a history of the
movement which has brought about the organization of milk com-
missions in a number of cities throughout the country, and describes
the methods used in the production of what is termed "certified
milk." The work of milk commissions and the production of cer-
tified milk not only result in supplying a high-grade product for
special uses, but are believed to be important factors in improving
the quality of the general milk supply.
Respectfully,
A. D. MELVIN,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secrdarq of Agqriculture.














































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CONTENTS.


I -TIHE WORK OF MILK COMMISSIONS.
Page.
The first commission It.s 'rgaizaii and objects........................... 7
Oljectl. of tiit- ji is'. ti nis i .............................................. 8
Threefoid exaninatiion ly experts ....................................... 8
Origin and mieaninig ,if the terin "certilied milk" ................---........ 8
Control of dairies .......................................................... 9
Methods and wirk of the v'iri',ils milk commissions ........................... 14
Nunimber of certified dairies and quantity of milk produced............... ----------16
Standards 1,'r condition and quality of milk ............................. 16
Living up ti., tIhe siandardI........ .................................... 16
Inspectii an if dairy arid pr id t ....- ------------------------........ -------------- 16
Health if em pl'yet-. .................................................. 17
Pretautians i, prevent readd of vontagi,,us diseases ..................... 17
Investigations relative it, quality if ort- ili, d milk ........................... 17
Some general Iinsi, rier n.tio s ................................................ 18
Is thie demand fir certified minilk increasing?................... -------........ 18
Prire- of vertified milk ciinpareil with ilhosr of market milk --.............. 18
Influence if luilk ,miniiissiins in the quality of the general :il-ly-....... 19
San-valled certiied i milk nit viintriolled by milk commissions....... ......-------------- 19
Legal i7at itn ,if the term "certi fied milk"........-----------------------------..................... 20
Financial support ,f inmilk commissions ..............................-- ..... -- 20
The Aniericani .\ssi iation -if Medical Milk ('omninissiorns....................... 21

II.-TIHE PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED> MILK.

Informnuati,,n secured frimin prJducers......................................... 23
Number andt breed of ci uws and quantity and quality 4f milk .............. 23
Bacteria in the m ilk ................................ ......-.............. 23
Method, if (leaning and disinfecting stables-------------....-.........------------ 23
Cleaning and treatment if cIws preparatory to milking................... 25
M ilkers and m ilking................................................... 25
Handling the m ilk .................................................... 26
Sterilizing caps for milk bottlcs...................................... ... 28
Coverings and seals far ittles ............... ...... -----........- ...... ..-----------. 28
M ilk pails. strainers, and stotIs ...............-.......................... 29
Prices received fr certified milk ....................................... 33
Is the produr tion of certitiedl milk pnirfitalle '........................... 34
Sanitary iindlitions of certifeil-minilk dairies ...........- ..--. .. ....... .. --- 34
The quality of certified m ilk ....................................... ........---------. 35
Certified milk anti market milk compared ...... ............................. 37
Keeping qualities of certified milk ........................................... 37
Is certified milk wurth the extra ost? ----------------------------------------...................................... 38
The future of the certified-milk industry .................................... 39
An economical method of producing certified milk ........................... 39
5























ILLUSTRATIONS.



P1.AT F.
Page.
PLATE I. Exterior views of dairy sta l-iv where certified milk is produced..... 24
II. Interior views of dairy stables where certifiedd milk is produced..... 24
III. Steps in the production and handling of certified milk .............. 24
IV. Steps in the handling and delivery of certified milk................ 24
V. Fig. 1. Covered milk cooler.-Fig. 2. Parts of cooler............... 28
VI. Fig. 1. Coverings for bottles of certified milk.-Fig. 2. Bottles with
outer coverings removed ...................................... 28
TEXT FIGURES.
FiG. 1. An arrangement of cooler and hand bottle tiller ...................... 26
2. Ground plan of dairy house for certified milk plant with fifty cows.... 27
3. Copper case used in sterilizing milk caps........................... 28
4. Metal frame on which milk pail.s are set in stables to keep them out of
the dirt........................ .............................. 29
5. Some forms of milk pails used in certified dairies.................... 30
6. Additional forms of milk pails used in certified dairies............... 31
7. Two more forms of milk pails used in certified dairies................ 31
8. Form of strainer used in a few certified plants ........................ 32
9. Milk stools used in certified dairies ................ ............... 33
10. Stall with panel wooden floor..................................... 40
11. Cow-tail holder...................................... ........... 41












MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS AND THE PRODUCTION
OF CERTIFIED MILK IN THE UNITED STATES.


I.-THE WORK OF MILK COMMISSIONS.

The organization of milk commissions in this country was an im-
portant step toward the improvement of the quality of milk. While
the number of commissions is very limited and the milk produced
under their supervision amounts to only a fraction of 1 per cent of the
1 0,000,000,000 quarts or more of market milk annually consumed, the
great value of certified milk to invalids and its influence in reducing
the mortality among infants and children are beyond estimation.
Further, the work of milk commissions has had no little influence in
improving the general milk supply of cities where such commissions
exist, by setting a higher standard of quality and by creating public
sentiment in favor of pure milk.
THE FIRST COMMISSION: ITS ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTS.
The beginning of this movement dates back to 1890, when the Med-
ical Society of New Jersey made an effort to improve the milk produc-
tion in that State. A committee was appointed to make aninvestiga-
tion of the milk supply as far as it affected the public health. After
two years' work this committee submitted a report condemning many
of the methods employed in the production and handling of milk and
advising an appeal to the State for a strict scientific supervision of all
the dairies within its limits. The appeal was made, but failed. While
the need was admitted, the authorities pleaded lack of.funds for mak-
ing the changes suggested.
This effort having met with defeat, another line of work was resorted
to. The chairman, a Newark physician, presented a plan in 1892 to
the Practitioners' Club of that city whereby physicians might them-
selves supervise the production of milk and thus be perfectly sure of its
purity. The requirements for the production of certified milk were
given with the utmost detail. It was recommended that a milk com-
mission be formed by physicians who should certify to the milk over
their names provided the requirements were fulfilled. This plan was
indorsed by the Practitioners' Club, and a search was begun for a
7





8 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

dairy with equipment suited to such rigid regulations. A dairy was
fiiunIl whlith had already set such a high standard that the methods
used could readily be accommodated to the requirements of the medi-
cal commission.
Having secured a dairyman who was ready to bind himself by con-
tract to conduct his dairy in accordance with the requirements, physi-
cians from Newark, Orange, and Montclair were chosen to make up
the first milk commission, which was organized April 13, 1893, and the
production -f what is known as "certified milk" was begun. This
cominiision was named "The Medical Milk Commission of Essex
County, New Jersey." Since this was organized about 25 others have
been or are now being formed in various cities on a similar plan. A
description of the first will therefore serve to give a general idea of
milk commissions and their work.

OBJECTS O)F THE COMMISSION.
The objects and requirements of the commission were stated as
follows:
The objects ,,f this commission are to establish correct clinical standards -it purity for
cow's milk- to become reponsibl, for a periodical inspection ul ihiv dairies under its
ptlr,,nag'., provide for chemical and bacteriological examinations of lie product, and
the frequent scrutiny of the stock 1>y competent v.eterinarian-: tn promote only pro-
fessional and piulilhi interests.
Th,, fIlli'wina are three general rt.quirenients or standards fur thi milk: 11) An ab-
sence of larnv numbers of micro-organisms, and the ,nriir> freedom .f the milk from
pathogenic varieties; (2) unvarying resistance ta, early fermentative changes in the
milk. so that it may be kept under ordinary conditions without extraordinary care; (3)
a constant nutritive value of kn,,wn chemical omposiion., and a uniform relation be-
tween i h- percentage of faIt., proiids, and carbohydrates.
THREEFOLD EXAMINATION BY EXPERTS.
A chemist and a bacteriologist examine samples of the milk, which
they obtain themselves, twice each month, and report their findings
to the commission. A veterinarian examines the cows twice a
month and makes report. Representatives of the commission in
person make a monthly inspection of the dairy and report to the
others.
The veterinarian must show the mnilch cows to be in perfect health.
The chemist must show the milk to contain the required amount of
solids and to be free from all foreign matter. The bacteriologist
must show the absence of all disease-producing bacteria, and a
minimum of bacteria of all sorts. Only in case all these reports are
sat isfactirv does the comn mission certify to the milk.

ORIGIN AND 1MEANIN( OF THE TERM "CERTIFIED MILK."
The term "Certified Milk" originated with the member of the
commission who formulated the plan. At the instance of the com-





CONTROL OF DAIRIES.


mission the word "Certified" was registered by Mr. Francisco in the
United States Patent Office on October 16, 1904, under register No.
25,36S, thte object being to protect it from being degraded by dairy-
men not under contract with a medical commission. It was dis-
tinctly understood, however, that the use of the term should be
allowed without question when employed by medical milk commis-
sions organized to influence dairy work for clinical purposes. Certi- *
fled milk, then, in the strict sense of the term, is milk produced under
a legal contract between a medical milk commission and a dairyman
and which conforms to the requirements. It may be said further
. that milk entitled to be certified is clean and wholesome, and is
obtained from healthy cows which are kept in sanitary quarters, fed
wholesome feed, and given pure water. It is drawn from clean cows
by clean, healthy attendants into clean receptacles and in a clean at-
mosphere. It is handled in a clean manner, cooled quickly, put into
sterile vessels, placed in cold storage, and iced in transportation
when necessary.
CONTROL OF DAIRIES.
Some commissions-particiularly such as have under their super-
vision only one dairyman who both produces and distributes certified
milk-enter into a binding contract with the dairymen. This con-
tract contains a more or less complete and detailed statement of the
conditions under which the certified milk must be produced and
marketed; specifies standards for composition and bacterial content
of the milk; provides for inspection of premises, examination of cows,
and collection and analysis of milk samples; and includes provisions
under which the contract may be terminated by either party entering
into it.
Many commissions prefer not to have any contract with their
producers and claim that it is superfluous and unnecessary. The
producers understand well that if their milk does not come up to-the .
requirements they can not sell it. However, in cases where there are
contracts commissions are not at, all hasty in severing relations with a
producer when his milk falls below requirements, but make more
frequent inspections and lend every effort at such inspections to help
the dairyman out of his trouble. In this way,when a producer does
have trouble lie often writes to know when the commission can send a
representative to help him out of his difficulty. The efforts of such
commissions are therefore to help and cooperate closely with the
producer. Some commissions feel safer in the work without a
lengthy binding contract. This plan allows a certain latitude for
meeting conditions as they arise, and the latter vary greatly at
different farms even though the dairymen all produce milk well
within the requirements and standards. Where there is no contract
with the dairyman it is customary for the commissions to send a
30776-Bul. 104-08---2






10 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

circular giving information concerning the production, standards, and
general requirements of certified milk. A good example of such a
circular follows:

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MILK COMMIShIIN l'r THL MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE COUNTY
OF NEW YORK t)R CERTIFIED MILK.
*
The commission has fixed upon a maxiiu.imli of 3U,000 germs uof all kinds per cubic
centimeter of milk. which must not hb- exce-d-,d ti. obtain the endorsement of the
commission. This standard must be Uattained solely by measures directed toward
scrupulous ean linr..,-, proper cooling, and primplt dllivery.
The milk certified bythe commission must u iintain not less than 4 ptr cent of butter-
fat on the axerage, and have all other characteristics ,f pure. wholesome milk.
Milk must not be sold as certified mor. than twenty-four hours after its arrival in
New York City.
Dealers.-In order that dealers who incur t h,- expense and take the precautions nec-
essary to furnish a truly clean and wh,,lesom, milk may have some suitable means of
briingi ii these facts beforethe public, the commission offi-rs them the right to use caps
on their milk jars stamped with the word-: '" Certified liy the Milk Commission of the
Medical Society of the County of New Y,,rk." The dealers are given the right to use
these certificates when their milk is i'htinied und-r the conditions required by the
commission and infonirms to its standards.
In accordance with a law passed at the last legislature,, the word Certified" may be
used on the cap only when accompanied by the name of th, society which certifies it.
The tinned sealed cap authorized by the commission must lbe used on all the certi-
fied milk i,.)!-ing through the, hands if dealers se-lling milk other than the certified.
These caps are sent by the makers only to the farnu where the milk is bottled.
The name of thef farm from which the milk comes must appear on either the paper
cap or the. tin cap.
Each bottle of milk must be dated on the date of bottling.
The milk commission looks to the dealers for its fee.
The dealer is expected to send a bottle ,f milk each wyeek to the research laboratory
of the department of health, taken at random from the day's supply for examination
by experts for the commission.
The dealers are to furnish deep, covered boxes for the certified milk.
The required conditions at the farm are as follows:
1. The barnyard.-The barnyard should be free from manure and well drained, so
that it may not harbor stagnant water The manure which collects each day should
not be pIlec, close to the barn, but should be taken several hundred feet away. If
these rules are observed not only will the barnyard be free from objectionable smell,
which is an injury to the milk, but the number of flies in summer will be considerably
diminished. These flies are an element of danger, for they are fond of both filth and
milk and are liable to get into the milk after having soiled their bodies and legs in.
recently visited tilih, thus carrying it into the milk. Flies also irritate cows, and by
making them nervous reduce the amount of their milk.
2. The stable.-In the stable the principles of cleanliness must be strictly observed.
The room in which the cows are milked should have no storage loft above it; where
this is not fr-azibl] the floor of the loft should be tight, to prevent the sifting of dust into
the stable beneath.
The stables should be well ventilated, lighted, and drained, and should have tight
floors, preferably of cement, never of dirt.
They should be whitewashed inside at least twice a year, unless the walls are painted
or of smooth cement finish which can be washed frequently.






MILK COMMISSION REQUIREMENTS. 11

The air should always be fresh and without bad odor. A ,utticient number of lan-
terns should Ibe provided to enable the necessary work to be properly done during the
dark hours. The manure should be removed twice daily, except when the cows are
outside in the fields the entire time' between the morning and afternoon milking.-
The manure gutter mudt be kept in a sanitary condition. All -weeping must !'.
finished before the grooming "4f the cows begins, so that the air may be free from dust
at the time of milking.
There shoulil he an adequate supply >of warm and cold water, and the necessary
wash basins, soap. and towels.
.3. It'ahr supply.-The whole premises used for dairy puirpt'ws, as well as the barn,
must have a supply ,, water absolutely fr,'e from any danger of pollution with animal
matter and suflicieintly abundant fer all pmrpcs,.s and easy of access.
4. The roirs.-No cows will lie allowed in the herd furnishing certified milk except
those which have successfully passed a tuberculin test. All must be tested at least
once a year, by a veterinarian appro\ ed by the milk commission. Any animal sus-
pected of being in Iad health must be promptly removed from the herd and her milk
rejected. Do nut allow the cows tI, be excited by hard driving, abuse, loud talking,
or any unnecessaryy disturbance.
Feed.-Do not allow any strongly flavored lfiIl. like garlic to be eaten by the cows.
When ensilage is fed. it mnust Ie. givo'n in ,nly one fe'ediung daily, and that aft''r the
morning milking, and the full ratiui hall on',sist of not more than 20 pounds daily
for the averag.-sized cow. \\hein fed in the fall. small amounts must be given and
the increase te the full ration must lIw gradual.
Corn stalks miiust not be fed until after thi- ctrn has hlissnmi'd, and the first feed-
ings must be in small amiucnls and the inc-roase must be gradual.
If fed otherwise, ensilage and corn stalks art' liable; to cause the milk to affect children
seriously.
Cleanin,.-(rnr.om the entire body of hlie cow daily. Bt-fen each milking wash
the udder with a cloth used only fi-r the udders, and wip,. it with a clean, dry towel.
Never lea\e the udder wet, and be sure that the water and towel used are clean.
The tail should be kept clean by frequent washing. If the hair on the flanks, tail,
and udder is clipped close andti the brush ton the tail is cut short, it will be much easier
to keep thte cow clean.
The cows must be kept standing after the cleaning until the milking is finished.
This may be done by a chain or a rope under the neck.
5. "Th milkers.-The milki'r must be personally clean. He should neither have
nor come in contact with any contagious disease while employed in handling the
milk. In case of any illns-m in the person or family of any employee in the dairy,
such employee must absent himself from the dairy until a physician certifies that it
is safe for him tio return.
In order that the milk commission may bIe informed as to the health of the employees
at the certified farms, the commission has had postal cards printed to be supplied to
the farms, and to be filled out and returned each week by the owner, manager, or
physician of the larm, certifying that none are handling the milk who are in con-
tact with any contagious disease.
Before milking, the hands should be washed in warm water with soap and nail
brush and well dried with a clean towel. On DO account should the hands be wet
during milking.
The milkers should have light-colored, washable suits, including caps, and not
less than two clean suits weekly. The garments should be kept in a clean place,
protected from dust, when not in use.
Iron milking stools are recommended, and they should be kept clean.
Milkers should do their work quietly and at the same hour morning and evening.
Jerking the teat increases materially the bacterial contamination of the milk and
should be forbidden.






12 MILK COMMISSIONS S AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

6. Helpers olhcr than milkers.-All persons engaged in the stable and dairy should
be reliable and intelligent. Children under 12 should not be allowed in the stable
or dairy during milking, since in their ignorance they Imay do harm, and from their
liability to contagious diseases they are more apt than older persons to transmit them
through the milk.
7. Small animals.-Cats and dogs must be excluded from the stables during the
time of milking.
8. The milk.-All milk from uows sixty days hefire and ten days after calving must
be rejected.
The first few streams from each teat shtomild be discarded in order t,, free the milk
ducts from the milk that has remained in them fur s.me time and in which the bacteria
are sure to have multiplied greatly. If any part of the milk is bloody or stringy or
unnatural in appearance, the while quantity yielded by that animal must be re-
jected. If any accident occurs in which a pail becomes dirty, or the milk in a pail
becomes dirty, do not try to remove the dirt hy straining, but put aside the pail, and
do not use the milk for bottling, and use a lean pail.
Remove the milk from each cow from the stable immediately after it is obtained to
a clean room and strain through a sterilized strainer (f cheese cloth and absorbent
cotton.
The rapid coiling is a matter oi great importance. The milk should be cooled to
45 F. within an hour and not allowed to ris, above that as long as it is in the hands
of producer or dealer. In order to assist in th- rapid ('coolin, the bottles should be
cold before the milk is put into them.
Aeration of milk beyond that obtained in milking is unnecessary.
9. Utrnsils.-All utensils should be as siinple in construction as possible, and so
made that they may be thoroughly sterili/,.d before each using.
Coolers, if used, shriild be sterilized in a hosedl sterilit.tr, unless a very high tem-
perature can be obtained by the steam sent tIhn-iugh them.
Bottling machines :hiuld he made entirely if metal with no rubber about them,
and should be sterilized in the closed strilizer l-.fori each milking, or bottling.
If cans are used, all should have smoothly sol:(.red joints, with no places to collect
the dirt.
Pails should have openings nut exceeding 8 inihels in dliamet-r, and may be either
straight pails, or the usual shape with the top protected by a hood.
Bot tles should be of the kind known as "common sense." and capped with a steril-
ized paraffined paper disk, and the cap' autthorized by the commission.
All dairy utensils, including the bottles. mu-t be thoroughly cleansed and sterilized.
This can be done by first thoroughly rinsing in warm water, then washing with a brush
and soap, or other alkaline cleansing material, and hot water, and thoroughly rinsing.
After this cleansing they should he steriliz.F-d by boiling, or in a closed sterilizer
with steam, and then kept inverted in a place free from dust.
10. The dairi -The room or rooms where the utensils are washed and sterilized
and the milk boittlehd houiill bh, at a distance from the house, so as to lessen the danger
of transmitting through ihe milk any disease whii h may occur in the house.
The bottling room, where tli- milk is exposed. should he ,, Nituated that the doors
may be entirely closed during the bottling and not openedd to admit the milk nor to
take out the filled bottles.
The empty cases should not lie allowed to enter the bottling room nor should the
washing of any utensils le allowed in the room.
Th, workers in the dairy should wear white washable suits, including cap, when
handling the milk.
Bottles must be capped, as soon as possible after filling, with the sterilized disks.






MTLK COMMISSION REQUIREMENTS.


11. Examination of the milk, and dairy inspection.-In order that the dealer and the
commission may be kept informed of the character of the milk, specimens taken at
random will be examined weekly by experts for the commission n at the laboratory of
the department of health, the use of the laboratories having been given for that purpose.
The commission reserves to itself the right to make inspections of certified farms at
any time and to take specimens of the milk for examination and to impose fines for
repeated or deliberate violations of the requirements of the commission.
The conommission alsi, reserves the right to change its standards in any reasonable
manner upon dinu notice libting given ti the dealers.
The expenses of making the -regular milk reports and the inspections are borne by
the dealers. The treasurer rf (lite Medical Soctirty of the County of N-w York will
send bills thi first of each month fir the certiti,'ati',n for the.previous month.
The monthly charges. whi'h arc intended to cover all c'x p.n.oi-s, are as follows:
Where the output 41f a fariI is handled by one dealer:
F, r daily output of less than 100 quarts .................................. $8
For daily output of frim 100 ti 200 quarts ................................ 10
For daily output of frim 200 ti 500 quarts ................................ 12
For daily output iif over 500 quarts .--.................................... 15
Where the output of a farm is sent t,, several dealers, each dealer pays:
For daily output of less than 100 quarts ...-........'...................... 6
For daily output of from 100 Ir, 200 quarts ................................ 8
For daily output oif from 200 ti 500 quarts ................................ 10
For daily output of over 500 quarts ..................................... 12
The names of the dealers, with thei-ir addresses, are printed on cards and inclosed
with the monthly bulletin of the medical scii-ty, which is sent to about 1,700 phy-
sicians. For this $1 is charged each month.

FORM FOR DAIRYMAN S APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION OF MILK AND CREAM.

Application of dairyman.

Date ........................ 190 -....
I hereby make application it, the Jackson County Medical Society fir the certification
of milk and cream to be sId by me in tit- city of Jackson. In consideration of such
certification I agree tt observe such rules and regulations as may from time to time be
enacted by the committee appointed by the Jackson County Medical Society. I also
agree to allow such committee or their proper representatives, whenever they request
it. to remove from any milk wagon or from the dairy a reasonable sample of milk
or cream. It is understood that failure to comply with the rules of the committee will
result in the suspension or withdrawal of my certification.
Name of dairy .................. .. ............................. ....
License No ............ Residence -.. .............................................
Nam e of form er owner...........................................................
Number of quarts of milk and cream per dlay.....................................
If obtained from outside sources other than dairy owned by applicant, give names
and addreszes ................................................................
Signat ur,- of applicant..................... ..
To Dr ............................ .............Secretary,
Crlonv Building. Ja2 kson. Mich.





14 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

FORM FOR MILK COMMISSION'S CERTIFICATE TO THE DAIRYMAN.
The Milk Commission of the Acadimnzy of Mrdicinr, Cincinnati, Ohio.
D ate ..............................
The veterinary inspector 4i the commission has examined the dairy of Mr.........
..................--- and reports it to he well kept and clean, and the cows to be in
healthy condition.
The- bacteriologist report.. that the milk doe, not contain germs beyond the limits
of the standards of the commission fr ................................ milk.
The chemist r-prts that the milk Li of standard richness, and that he has discovered
in it no imnpirities. coloring matters, chemical preservatives. or harmful substances.
Tho commission certifies to these Latemenls ol examineers. Itl is understood and
agreed to by the said ............................................................
that this certificate is not goi id for more than ............. .........................
from date, before which time another examination will be made.
Signed ..................................

METHODS AND WORK OF THE VARIOUS MILK COMMISSIONS.

As previously stated, the first milk commission was organized
April 13, 1S93, and it was not until five years later (1898) that. the
second was formed. After 1S99 the movement spread more rapidly
and commissions were organized as follows: One in 1900, one in 1901,
five in 1902, two in 1903, three in 1904, one in 1905, five in 1906, and
thirteen organized or in process of organizing in 1907. The subject
is being agitated in several cities at the present. time and it is quite
probable that the number of commissions will be considerably in-
creased in the near future. In order to obtain information relative
to the work of the commissions anti their methods of operation a list
of queries was sent to each. The answers received from the com-
missions have been summarized in Table 1, page 15.







TABLE 1.- Facts relating to the work of minilk rominissiowns.a


N.inr of Lo iini1ssion. i




iEssex County IN. J.'j.i Medical Milk Cnmmission.... ..................
Milk Commission of Ilartlird County Meditail Sni'.v. llartford, Conn.c...
Philadelphia Pediatrie Sot iety Milk Commiositn. . ........
Milk Commission of the Medical Sotitl', of the Conntv 'of Ni-v York i N. Y.I ....
Milk Commission of the Rochester 1,N V.) .%cad.-rnm of Sciernc. ..
Milk Commission of the Medical Societ y of the County of K i ngs (N. Y.).........
Milk Commission of the Elmira (N. Y.) Academy of Science...................
Milk Commission of the Medical Society of the County of Albany (N. Y.).......
Medical Sor-it v of the District of Columbia Milk Commissionc .................
Milk Commission of the llenwippin County Medicl Society (Minneapolis Minin.).
Milk Commission of the Miliuker- Medical Soeii-t,' ............................
Milk Commission of the Children's Hospital of Chicao .......
Tne St. Louis Pure-Milk Commission................................
Milk Commission of the Cit v of Cleveland .... ..................... ..
Oakland %Cal i Home Clulh Milk Cornriissinn ...... .. ....... ... . . .
Milk Commission iof Syracuse Acad'mw cof Me'heline. Svroi usc., N. '. .
Milk Commisson of the San Franrisco County -Cal.i M,'dical Sontt.,'.......
Milk Commission of the Academy rii M.dilin., C'incllnati. Ohi(' ..
Milk Commission of the Cambridge (Mass.) Medical Improvement Society...... I
Jefftrson Count\ Mi'dicil Snociet'V Milk Commission (I.ouisvill, Kyi i...
(Commission of the Surlolk Dist rit. t Medical Society (Bn.ston, Mas');
Milk Conimis.ion of the Academy of Medicine of. Toledo (Ohio) ..................
Jackson County Medical Sodi y Milk Commission (Jackson, Mich.) .............
Montgnomo-rv County Medical Milk ComiIn.'i,,n, Dayton, Ohio...................
Wa tl e (Culinty Medical Milk l..itini-si, I-ro il t, Mich...... ...............
Sumin.l Counti v Mrli(tl Milk Cornmisli~n. A krnin. Ohio...................
Knn i% lCit'.' Purt- Milk Com morni:iri, Kansns C'it%. Kaii< ....... ....
Rutland Cunty Mtiieal Milk C. mmiisii'n. Runluid, L....................


Standards estal ished.
Whcn Maximum [
organ- Iacter uttr f, t. I Solids
,d per cuhli not fat.
centimeter I


Difficulty -
in keeping Num-
mllK 1ier of [
up to dairies.
standard.


Per cent. Per cent.
1893 I (I) 4.5 9.0 No.......
I18 '; ..... ....
11,I 10.00 d ii ''l No. . .
1900 Iwnoo I 4.0 it' Littlo.
1901 Illi.P010 3.5 9.0 Little.....
"1902 } 4.0 (b) Some.....
1902 u. 000 3..-,-4.5 (/) No........
1902 In 3. :. .... ..... No ........
"1,lon I


1902
1902
1903
1903
1904
1904
1904
1905
1906
1906
1906
1906
1906
1907
1907
1907
0)
(0)
^ I


iO. fiII
10. i'on
3d1, nou
30, oon
lii 11 00n
3U Wit)u
2). 000

10.000

20,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
50, 000
in, nonI



2510,000
10,000
50, 000 ]!
25, 000
10,000


.1 :-4 8.5 No .... .
.1 7' 4 5 8.0 No........
4 1) (b) ............
3.25--4 5 8.6 No.......
4 0 (b) Little....
4.0 ) 8.0 No........


. .. . . . . . . . .
3.5 (b)
4.0 (b)
3.7 9.3
4.0 8.0
3.,5-4.5 (b)
4.0 ..........I.


* N ,.',. . . .
No.
Little. .
Little .....
Little.....


3.5 .. ....... No.......
4.5 ......... No........


SPricefp
Milk per
handled quart of
daily, certified
Smilk.


Quar t.
1 '2. -'00
4 2.450
2*0 9.373
1 230
8 2,810
1 120
1 225


1 2,000
1 .300
2 33,
1 447
1 600
(t) I "'i
I 4u0
1 7)0
3 632
........ 250


il 250 12


SPat,, hlirgely collected prior to January 1.1907. Milk commissions are also in
pr,,, vs of f- rma tion at New Orleans, La., IPti.liurg, Pa.; Jacksonville. Fla.; Colo-
r.do Spring... Cole. : Binghamton, N. Y.,ind Bbthii-hemi, Pa.
b No staniidrd established.
c Not active at the present time-1908.
d Milk sold as 4 per cent milk is allowed to vary from 3.5 to 4.5 per cent. That
sold as 5 per cent milk is allowed to vary from 4.5 to 5.5 per cent.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . 'I . .


e HiplIi.r limit for summer: lower for winter.
fSp t.i f' gravity 1.029 to 1.034; proteid 3.9to 4.5; sugar 4 to 4 per cent.
9 Sold for infant .f',liiht at about half this price.
h (0-i'rii..us -upr1i.J, I at time of report owing to effects of earthquake and fire.
i Nowv ,'rgain/ing.


Price
per
quart of
ordinary
market
milk.

Cen1t.


8
0

*6
6-8
5

6
6
7-81
9
........ ..
10
b
7-8
71
8-10
6-8
7
7-9


Cents.
12
12-16
12-20
10
12
8
12

10
.. .. io
12
g12
15
15
124
124-13
14
10
10
20
12
8


I ..........





16 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

NUMBER OF CERTIFIED DAIRIES AND QUANTITY OF MILK PRODUCED.
The number of dairies producing milk for any one commission
varies from 1 to 20. Eleven commissions have 1 each: three have 2;
one has 3; one 4; and one 20. Four commissions have temporarily
stopped certifyving to milk, namely, Hartford, Minneapolis, San Fran-
.isc-, and Washington.- The least amount handled(l daily by any one
commission is 120 quarts and the greatest amount 9,373 quarts. (See
Table 1.) A few commissions certify to cream as well as milk. The
reports from commissions show that there were 24,103 quarts of cer-
tified milk handled ,laily on January 1. 1907.
STANDARDS FOR CONDITION AND QUALITY OF MILK.
The standards for bacteria vary with tlhe different commissions.
Of the 20 reporting standards, 13 place the number at 10,000 per
cubic centimeter, 1 at 2011,000, anti 3 at 30,001). One has a standard
of if0,000 from October to April, and 20,000 from April to October.
Another has a standard of 5,000 in winter and 10,000 in summer,
and another a standard of 25,000 in winter and 50,000 in summer.
The standard for cream in all cases where it is certified is 25,000 per
cubic centimeter.
The standard required for fat in eight instances is a minimum of
4 per cent; in three instances, 3.5; in two, 4.5; and in one, 3.7+.
Four allow a range of 3.5 to 4.5, one a range of 3.25 to 4.50, and
one 3.75 to 4.50. One puts out a special milk containing a higher
percentage of fat, which must keep within the limits of 4.50 and 5.50
per cent. One commission specifies that the cream must not vary
more than 2 per cent from the guaranty. Only eight commissions re-
port standards for solids not fat. These range from S to 9.3 per cent.
LIVING UP TO THE STANDARD.
Twelve commissions report that their dairies have no difficulty in
producing milk that is up to the required standards. Five report a
little difficulty, and one states that there was no trouble with the
bacteria count, but that it took several months to reach the fat
standard, which was 4 per cent.
INSPECTION OF DAIRY AND PRODUCT.
The answers from the various commissions relative to inspections
show considerable variation. In some instances the inspections are
made by members of the commission and in others paid inspectors
are employed to do the work. As a rule inspections of the dairy are
made monthly either by a veterinarian or a member of the commis-
sion, or both, and in some instances inspections are made every two
weeks. The tuberculin test is usually applied annually, but. in some
cases this is done every six months. Chemical and bacteriological





THE QITALITY OF CERTIFIED MILK.


examinations range all the way from once a week to once in two
months; in most instances, however, it is the practice to make tests
every two weeks or oftener.
HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES.
The employees in certified-milk plants are required to be clean in
habits and appearance and are not admitted to the stables or dairy
if not in good health. Some commissions require that emlh)loyees be
regularly examined by a physician and given certificates of health.
In some certified plants attendants when ill are cared for in a build-
ing specially set apart for thle purpose..
PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT SPREAD OF CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.
Where a large milk business is conducted and several thousand cus-
tomers are served daily, there is danger that some contagious disease
may be brought to the dairy in some of the bottles. To avoid this,
in some instances a wagon makes a special trip to collect bottles from
any house where a contagious diseasee is known to exist. These bottles
are thoroughly boiled in a special room before they come to the dairy
proper. They are then subjected to the same lchtanising process as
all the others'.
INVESTIGATIONS RELATIVE TO QUALITY OF CERTIFIED MILK.
Milk commissions have sometimes been criticised for not being
strict enough with the dairymen in regard to -com[p1yin'j with their
standards. Reports from the commissions show that in nearly all
cases samples are secured from the distributor without warning, which
is a very important and commendable. practice, for if the milk, when
it reaches the consumer, dues not comply with the standards which
the commission claims to maintain, the product is misrepresented and
is a fraud.
In order to determine this point an investigation was made in two
of the larger cities where certified milk is sold.
First in vestigaltid.-The standard for bacteria of the milk com-
mission in the city where this investigation was made was 10,000 per
cubic centimeter. There were four certified dairies supplying milk,
and the bacteria count was as follows:
Bacteria Bacteria
per cubic per cubic
centimeter,. centimeter.
Dairy No. 1 ... ................ 5,700 Dairy N.. 3.......-----....---- .. 5,600
Dairy No. 2...................... 4,200 Dairy No. 4...................... ------------------4,900
It will be seen that the certified milk from all four of the dairies was
well within the limits of the standard established by the commission.
The analyses were made in the month of November.
30776-Bul. 104-08-3





18 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

Second inrtshsiatioii.-The standard for bacteria established by the
commission in this city was 30,000. Nine samples of certified milk
were examined with the following results:
Bacteria Bacteria
per cubic per cubic
centimeter, cent imeter.
No. 1 .....--- .--- ----. --. .-..----... 9, 300 Ni. 6 ......................... 11,000
SN.o 2 .--.. .. -- -- --- ----- 2,300 No. 7 .......................... 6,200
N 3--- .......-- ..-- ................. 21,300 Nr. 8 .................. ........ 5,400
N 4 .. ..---.... ........-- ...... 13.700 N.. 9......................... 2,700
No. 5 ..............----.-..--------. 12, 800
All of the above samples were well under the standard of 30,000,
the highest being 21,300 and the lowest 2,300.
While the bacteria count in these samples is doubtless somewhat
lower than wouhi be found under summer conditions, still it. is an in-
dication that the commissions are doing careful, honest work.
The reports of commissions indicated that the milk from the vari-
ous certified dairies follows the standards very closely in composition.
Some reported very careful records of examinations for bacteria.
As a rule the number of bacteria found was considerably below the
number allowed. The Rochester "commission reported the average
of 100 examinations to be 3,.53 per cubic centimeter. The Cleve-
land commission reported an average of 3,817 for one year, and the
- Elmira commission 3,500 for the same period. The percentage of fat
in the milk reported shows a variation from 3.80 to 5.40 and an aver-
age for all certified milk of 4.54 per cent.

SOME GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.

IS THE DEMAND FOR CERTIFIED MILK INCREASING?

All but one of the commissions reporting stated that the demand for
certified milk was increasing. One stated that the demand had
doubled in one year and another that it had nearly trebled in two
months. New commissions are constantly being organized, and it
appears that there is no lack of demand for the product in most
instances; but,on the other hand, there is a scarcity of dairymen who
are willing to meet the requirements for production imposed by the
commissions.

PRICES OF CERTIFIED MILK COMPARED WITH THOSE OF MARKET MILK.

The prices of certified milk to the consumer vary in different cities
from 8 cents to 20 cents a quart, the average price for all cities being
about 121 cents. The price of ordinary market, milk varies from 5
cents to 10 cents a quart and averages about 71 cents. Certified milk
therefore sells for an average of 5 cents more per quart than market
milk. As a rule, where the price of market milk is low, the price of





THE INFLUENCE OF MILK COMMISSIONS.


certified milk is also comparatively low, although this does not hold
true in all cases. In some cities different prices are charged for certi-
fied milk : for example, in New York this product sells at prices vary-
ing from 12 cents to 20 cents, while the price of market milk is
generally S cents per quart.
INFLUENCE OF MILK COMMISSIONS ON THE QUALITY OF THE GENERAL
SUPPLY.

Fourteen of the eighteen commissions reporting on this question
stated that they believed the commissions had had some influence in
improving the general supply; two others stated that they were t ry-
ing to effect some improvements; one stated that l)erhaps some
influence was exerted, and the remaining one did not venture an
opinion. These improvements have been brought about through the
influence of the commissions in securing better regulations and higher
standards relative to producing and handling milk; in modifying
advertisements which misrepresented some of the milk sold in the
city; in interesting local papers in clean-milk movements, and in
assisting in making prosecutions.
The producers of certified milk also have a good influence upon the
general milk supply by setting examples of cleanliness and good man-
agement. Milk venders in the city by display-ing signs on their wagons
showing that their milk has been approved by a commission appointed
for this purpose have had a good effect upon the market-milk trade.
Market-milk producers are encouraged to make improvements and
in time become certified-milk producers, better prices for their
product being the principal inducement.

SO-CALLED CERTIFIED MILK NOT CONTROLLED BY MILK COMMISSIONS.
There are a few dairymen who sell their product under the name of
certified milk who have no connection with milk commissions. These
in some cases certify to their own product, and in others samples are
sent to a State experiment station or to some local chemist or bac-
teriologist for examination. Some dairymen in this class supply a
very creditable product. There are others whose milk is of only
ordinary quality and who should never be allowed to use the term
"certified." Here again the samples for analysis are usually taken
by the dairyman himself from milk fresh from the cow and imme-
diately iced and sent to the analyst. The analyst reports his results
and the dairyman uses them to advertise his product. This can not
be looked upon as anything but a deception, as the consumer is given
to understand that this is the analysis of the milk as it is delivered
to him daily. It is only when medical milk commissions have been
organized and a plan of education has been started to create a demand





20 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

for sanitary milk designed for infant feeding that there arises any
danger of an impure milk being put on the market under such a label.
It is manifestly unfair, therefore, that, after a commission, serving
without pay in the interest of the public, has created a feeling that
"certified" milk means a safe, clean milk for infant feeding, some
unprincipled dairyman should be able to prey on the ignorance of the
public and supply an unsafe milk at a high price. Some steps should
be taken by the miilk commissions or by city or State officers to pre-
vent such practices. Where milk is an article of interstate commerce,
however, the national pure-food law covers misrepresentations of this
character.

LEGALIZATION (IF THE TERM 'CERTIFIED MILK."

The State of New York has set a good example in recently passing a
law for regulating the sale of certified milk. A port ion of t hlie law reads
as follows:
No ) prsin sliall v,'II or exchangee. ir uTffer jr .xp'ise fur sale. or -xlihangi', as and for
(,rtnihtii, rilk any milk which do,,s nit ,iinfiri tip the- regiulaitioiis prescribed by, and
it-ar hai i ',rtiticatin if,. a nulk ofnliilissiln appoiritel by a cmitily medical society
irgaanii.eii tinde'r and chanr'rd by tl Mel-dical Srif i-ety f the? Stat'.' i Ne-w York and
hiicih ha.ia ii',t bei,'ii prinotiniu(.d by siuih auth-ority to be free r,.nim antiseptics, added
], t-,.r\ati\- M. iiiI patlih rCn,( baliiria. ir bait.ria in xc(.ess-:vi nunimbers. All milk
A,,l a ,,rtifi,.d milk .hall It. ,iii, )iciiiiiu, ly miarktld with ti, niamue of the commission
crnl fyinig it
Efforts are being made to secure (lithe passage of similar legislation
iin several either States, and there is every indication that misusers of
the term "'certified" will lie prosecutedl in the future.0

FINANCIAL. SUPPORT OF MILK COMMISSIONS.

Members of milk commissions rarely receive any pay for their work,
their services being given gratis for the public good. Small expenses
of the commission are usually met by the commission itself. Occa-
sionally philanthropic subscriptions are received. In one city three
men contributed $,(800 after an appeal by the commission. Postage,
printing, and salaries of experts are usually paid by the producers.
There are several methods used for collecting the money from dairy-
men to meet these expenses, the most common one being the sale of
caps to milk producers at from $4.75 -to $5 a thousand. One com-
mission charges a tax of half a cent a quart for certification. Another
commission meets its incidental expenses by charging each dairy-
man $6 a month. The most successful and just method is apparently
that of a "per bottle tax."
"The Kentucky legislature on February 12, 1908. passed a pure-food law containing
pru visions regarding certified milk.






ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS.


THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL MILK COMMISSIONS .a
When it is considered how very efficient milk commissions have
been in t hie various communities in which they have been established,
it is surprising how few have been formed since the first one was
organized in 1x93. The spread of this movement was undoubtedly
retarded because of the difficulties that presented themselves to
those who had such an organization in contemplation. The question
was not broadly understood by the medical profession, and even
when thlie organization of a milk commission was determined upon it
was difficult to arrive at the most acceptable plan of organization and
detail of working methods.
The usual procedure was to get into correspondence with one of
the older commissions, which would relate its individual way of
handling this problem. If the plan submitted seemed unsatisfactory,
other commissions would be written to, and so an endless correspond-
ence resulted, which proved especially burdensome to the Newvark,
N. J., commission.
The secretary of the Cincinnati commission, Dr. Otto P. Geier,
encountered this same difficulty at the period of organization of that
commission. It resulted in his sending out a series of 24 questions
covering every phase of activity in milk-commission work. These
were addressed, to every commission then known. This very ex-
hauListive tabulation showed that there existed considerable lack of
uniformity as to organization, working methods, supervision of
dairies, chemical and bacteriological standards, methods of bottling,
caplj)ing and dealing, etc.
Out of this mass of correspondence an at tempt was made to arrive
at the most acceptable standards and working factors, and the con-
clusion was reached that a conference of the milk commissions would
be most valuable to all concerned.
In February, 1907, the ('incinnati commission addressed the various
milk commissions suggesting a conference to be held in connection
with the meeting of the American Medical Association at Atlantic
City. Out of this grew a temporary organization. Dr. Henry L.
Coit, Dr. Otto P. Geier, Dr. Samuel McC. Hamill, Dr. Rowland G.
Freeman, Dr. William H. Park, and Dr. Thomas W. Harvey, acting
as a committee, formulated a program and called the conference for
June 3, 1907, at Atlantic City.
This initial conference was remarkable in that delegates were
present from 12 different States, representing 21 commissions in as
many cities. Over 100 physicians and leading liygienists attended
this meeting, and a tremendous amount of work was accomplished.
a The w writer is indebted to Dr. Otto P. Geier, secretary of the American Association
ol Medical Milk (',nmmissions. for data regarding the organization of the association.






22 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

Reports were read by delegates as to the work of their particular
commissions. Papers were presented on the broad topic of a pure-
milk supply for cities. A permanent organization was effected, to
be known as the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions,
and the following officers were elected:
President, Dr. Henry L. Coit.
Secretary, Dr. Otto P. Geier.
Treasurer, Dr. Samuel Mc('. Hamill.
Council: Dr. Rowland G. Freeman. chairman (5 years,, Dr. Henry Enos Tuley
(4 years), Dr. C. \V. 3Brown (3 years', Dr. A. W. Myers (2 years i, Dr. H. L. K. Shaw
(1 year), and the president, secretary, and treasurer oi the association.
Committees were appointed upon every phase of activity in milk
certification to investigate and report at the next annual meeting.
It can be said that this meeting marks a new era in thle pure-milk
crusade. It is agreed that this organization is in position to crystallize
the best thought that has been given to this subject, and that
through such central organization quick dissemination of that
knowledge will follow.
A better understanding of this subject will reveal the fact that
milk commissions are widening their scope and that through their
activity the quality oa the general supply of numilk in our large cities
is being elevated. It will show that it is practical for any medical
association to form such a commission, which, once formed, will be
most useful in educating the public as well as the profession and in
creating a demand for a cleaner milk supply, and will thus further
the efforts of boards of health.
The necessity for such an organization is shown by the records
of its secretary, who has been in correspondence with 11 com-
missions organized since June, 1907, indicating an increase of 50
per cent over the number of commissions then known to exist.
The second annual meeting will be held in Chicago June 1, 1908,
one day previous to the meeting of the American Medical Association.






II.-THE PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.


INFORMATION SECURED FROM PRODUCERS.
In order to secure accurate data relative to the production of cer-
tified milk a list of questions was sent to dairymen prodlu.ing this
grade of milk, and the information given is briefly shown in Table 2.
It will be seen from the table that 33 of the 50 dairies producing
certified milk in the United States reported in response to queries
sent them. Their answers give us sufficient data for a description of
the methods commonly practiced in certified-milk production.
Plates I and II show the exterior and interior views of several
stables used in the production of certified milk, and Plates III and .
IV the methods of handling the cows and the milk.
NUMBER AND BREED OF COWS AND QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF MILK.
The number of cows in herds producing certified milk varies from
25 to 500. Practically every breed is represented in some of these
herds, and some grade or native stock is found in two-thirds of them.
There are several herds of registered animals. The breed is not con-
sidered of special importance with most of the commissions, provided
the composition of the milk produced is 'within the limits of the
standard prescribed. The health of the animals and cleanliness of
the surroundings and product are the most important elements in
production. Th6 production of the different herds ranges from 225
to 5,000 quarts daily (though the milk from the largest herd is not
all certified). The butterfat in the milk as reported varies from 3.6
to 6.5 per cent and averages about 4.69 per cent. This agrees fairly
well with the average percentage of 4.54 reported by the commissions,
the difference probably being due to the fact that only 33 dairies ar^
represented in the average for dairies while the average reported by
commissions represents practically all the certified-milk producers.
BACTERIA IN THE MILK.
The number of bacteria in the milk, as reported by the dairymen,
varies all the way from 200 to 10,000 per cubic centimeter. One
(No. 11) has an average of 3,317 for 43 weeks; another (No. 29)
reports a count of below 1,000 for one year and an average of 150
for 15 successive weeks from samples taken at random in the city.
METHODS OF CLEANING AND DISINFECTING STABLES.
It is the general practice in certified dairies to remove the manure
at least twice daily to the field, or to a suitable pit some distance
from the stable. In the most carefully managed dairies the whole
interior of the stable is washed and scrubbed daily with water con-









TABLE 2.-Forts reluting to production of certified milk in the Unite! States, as reported by dairymen.


No. of No. of Milk pro-
doa i Location. cows diic-J
dairy, in herd. daily, a


I


25
150
34
52


Br, d of cows.


East Schodauck. N. Y
W av.,a, 'a .. . '
Barryv town. N Y..
Warwick. N. Y. I
Warwick. N. Y .... .
Wilow GC.1 iipa ...
Norwich. N. Y....... .
Smithhorn. N Y .... .
Malvern. Pa ... '
Oakland. Cal ..... .I
Dover Plains N. Y...
Kinderhook. N Y...
Waltham Mass......I
Highland. N. Y. ... .
Haddonsfield. N. I...i
Earlville. N. Y.....
Walden. N. Y. .....
VWesi \lcnna, N. Y.
Greenwood. Mo...
Selnia, Mo. ... ....
Tully, N Y........
\ white Plains, N. Y...
Kings.lpys, Pa ........
New Roadhouse, Ill..
Lebanon, Ohio......
Briarcliff Manor, N Y.
Rochester, N. Y ....
Pewaukee, Wis.....
Newburgh, N. Y ....
Canajoharie, N. Y...
Anchorage, Ky......
Fairfield, N. J......
Cedarhurst. N. Y....


A,.rarep qidlily uandcon-
dition of ililk.

Fat in Bacteria.
milk. I


Quirt'.
225 JPr.qpy lIolstpins. and grad's ...... . '.
1,:j 30 i Guernse.wy. grades. and niiti%.s .........
200 Jersey and (;ui-riiqenv graiilh..
54o Mixed i(eding. . .. .
V-0 r) Llhbam ........... ............... I
251)0 hI-Tsy' I purelhri-d and gradr.-. .........
3";U Giurnseys, Jers'v_. and Holsitemin ....
00 1 lo]llr'ins and J.rscv-. .... .. .. ... i
tOO Mixed lireeds..... ..................
7.5 Mixed ireeds................. I
5501 No spreial hr l. ............... I
2:,.0 Regiter'd hI rseys ....... .. .. .. ... I
900 Mixed reed .... ................
150 lersevs ... .. .. 1
451) RegisteIed Uurnseys ..... . .. .
300 Jprs.r's and nati ves....... ...... .....
500 JerseY.' GuernsL'vs and Naives .. .....
500 i Grad. Jt-irrvs. Guernseys. vic .. .
720 l' reir d lsl isn,.. . .. . ......
5(0 J,'rsevs and llnlsteins ipurcbred and grade i..
1.900 It i sey, Ilolstein and Swiss grade. ...
3to0 Jir ey s ... . . ..... ..... .. .
265 J.ersi.ys .... ... .. ... .. .
7.5 Grade lInolstPins ..... .......... .. ..
475 Sh.rthorns and mixed......... ..
2,8.i1 J(rsepys ipnrehred and grader) ...........
331 terseys and mixed blood ............
2,200 Holstpin, Guernsey, and Jprsey grades. .
600 Jersey and Guernsey grades...........
225 Hnlstem-ins and Jerseys ..............
200 Jerseys .... ............... ....
5,000 M ixed hreeding.... ............... . .. ...
600 G uernsey grades ..................... .....


Pr,.rt.
4 6i
4 7
5 Li
4.0
S0
4 7.5
45
4 .1
4 0
4 U
4..3">
5 )
41
.3 Ij
5.0
). Ii
45
4.5
.5.0
31,
47
4.5
6.1)
4.5 4
4.u
CS

4. 1
4.0
6.0
4 0
6.5
4.5
5.0


TWel!ptra I uirr of
milk.

Cooled. Stored.

o F. F.
421 42
40 40
33 40
45-4 i 50
31-40 I 3S-40
48' 48
45-50) 45-50

3"-40 36-40
50-fhO 50-GO
40-45 40-45
3(-40 I J- 40
50: 40
3tL-40 i 3t,-40
40-50 40-50
37 37
411-45 40
40 410
48 18
45 4"5
36-40 36-40
32-38 32-38

40-50 40-50
45 45
38--45 3P8-45
45-50 45-50
38 50
40 38
40-50 40-50
45 ...... ...
39 40
42 42-45


Irice per
Is produvi-v si of 41rioa per
c,,r Iird milk elartuibd
milk.



Fairly ..i ....... -1
Yes. 14-lU
Y l s . . . '

SThink so..
Yes .. t'Sl
Y e ...
I Farl s.. . w.b
N o ......... r. 7': .14
. . . .12
N o ........ . b u
Yes.
SJust bl gi.,. lu,
N o .. ..... 10
N o . . . . . .. .
No .. ... t, b>
Yes ... 12
JutI lIpghl' 1 ,6-7
Yrs. at 1'. ets. 10: 1 15i
Yes . .. ..
W III ) .. .. . 1'2
Nl . 15

1 .. . . . . . 9
Yesi 14
Ye .. . .. 10-20
. . .. . 10 .
12
1,20
Yes . ... 12
Yes. I. O1
Yes.. c12
YPes, if large ..1. '10


a Approximate.
b Wholesale.
c Retail.


d Average for forty-three weeks.
r Average for six months.
f For table use, 10 cents; for infant feeding, 15 cents.


a In home market, 10 cents; in New York City, 20 cents.
A In New York City.
i At farm.


1 . . .





14.
5
-? : : : :1
H .. .. I
9 . . . I
10 .....
II ....
12 . . .
1J ......

18.
14.
15. '

1b ..... '
17 . .. .
18. . .. I
19 ......
20 ....
21 ....
22 .....


29 .. ....
23
24 .....
25 .. ...
26.
27.. .
28.....
29 ....
30 ..
31..
32.....,
33......


I. f r i.
3.310
2,o000-5.o 06
1. 500
&00-1.,000
1, O.0-2, 000
85. 0(X))
708.000
5WX)-, COO0
1.000
4,000
500-7. uOo
d 3. 317
9 [. f ks 1
6.500
100-500
I'nder 4,000
2, SO0
5,000
900
S 000
3,500
500-1, 000
O00
400
6, 000
2.000
6,320
4, 00u
?2.000
Under 1,000
1,500-5, 000
3,000
Undpr 10,000
200-3,500




BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


11


^-A


EXTERIOR VIEWS OF DAIRY STABLES WHERE CERTIFIED MILK IS PRODUCED.


PLATE I.








BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


I-


S\I


I I I


-1


414


INTERIOR VIEWS OF DAIRY STABLES WHERE CERTIFIED MILK IS PRODUCED.


PLATE II.








BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


WIN

Am








































STEPS IN THE PRODUCTION AND HANDLING OF CERTIFIED MILK.
1. Clipping cows. 2. C,.iiiiiL' in ,- 3. ..Wii-l iig , r. r, paratory to milking. 4. Milker
washing Iarin ,. Mili"n .... i'1 I i- I and bottling.


PLATE III.










BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


STEPS IN THE HANDLING AND DELIVERY OF CERTIFIED MILK.
7. Sealing bottles. S. Tr, ,Case of bottles r. ,I f.. r delivery. 10. Delivery wagon.
II \\ -,ii-' bottles. 12. ,'iTI,'u bottles.


PLATE IV.


A -


, .:.'* .,








MILKERS AND MILKING.


training a washing compound. Some use a disinfectant in fhe water
once or twice a week, as bichlorid of mercury, carbolic acid, or per-
manganate of potash. Bichlorid of mercury is probably the most
expensive of any of the disinfectants; aside from this fact it is one
of thile milost satisfactory because it gives off no odor. One dairyman
uses cresol in water dailh. Where the interior of the stable is built
of wood, it is whitewashed from two to twelve times annually, or
kept. well painted. Land plaster is the most common disinfectant
for floors and gutters. Slacked lime is also satisfactory for this pur-
pose. Shavings are most in favor for bedding. Some dairymen do
not use any bedding, but this system is not recommended.
CLEANING AND TREATMENT OF COWS PREPARATORY TO MILKING.
The cows are cleaned daily with currycomb and brush. (P1. III,
2.) The udder atd( parts in proximity to it are either washed and
wiped with a clean towel, or are wiped( with a (lamp cloth or sponge.
(PI. III, 3.) In many cases the udder, flanks, etc., are clipped peri-
odically. (PI. III, 1.) Occasionally a dairyman sprays stables and
cows immediately before milking. It is a common practice to fasten
up the cows after they have been cleaned, in such a way that they can
not lie down till they have been milked.
In a few dairies where extraordinary care is used, the whole body
of the cow is groomed an hour or more before each milking, and any
soiled parts are scrubbed with a brush and water containing a wash-
ing compound; the entire body is bathed from the neck back; the
tailis washed, the udder is washed in sterile water from a sterile
pail, and dried with a clean towel, a separate one 1,eing provided for
each cow.
MILKERS AND MILKING.
In a few dairies the miilking is not d(lone in the regular stable, the
cows being taken to a milking room entirely separated from the rest
of the barn. This room is well lighted, and every precaution is taken
to make it absolutely sanitary. Other dairymen claim that just as
good results can be secured by milking in the regular stable if proper
precautions are taken. As some of the lowest bacteria counts on
record have been obtained where the latter plan is followed, this fact
would seem to substantiate the claim.
The custom is almost universal for the milkers to be clad in freshly
laundered suits. Where the most extreme care is taken, the clothing
of each milker receives a thorough cleansing with boiling water after
every milking, and is then locked in an individual air-tight drying
room, where it is sterilized and dried by-steam, remaining there until
wanted for use. Before putting on their special suits, milkers are
required to wash their hands and faces and clean their nails. (P1.
Ill, 4.) At least one producer requires that before the milker com-
mences his work he shall take a shower bath, provision for which is





26 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.


made in rooms adjoining the laundr)
milker is supplied with a pail and a
cleansed and sterilized since last in us
tions, when the milker goes to the mi
and equipment as it is possible to ma


35 F. Sometimes it is strained /
again through absorbent cotton F,
on reaching the cooling room.
In a majority of the dairies a cool
in a few, however, the milk is st ra
water. It is then bottled, packe
crushed ice.


//






I I
A//'/






/


i/ /
//







/
separate rooin. where it is strained /
into a can through a double thick-
ness of cheese cloth (a separate
strainer being used for each pail
(of idlki'. It is then taken imme-
diately to the bottling room (PI.
III, 6,) where usually it is cooled
to a temperature as low as 45 to
jfl0 F and in jAfl p pA.i.af as. hmw as


. When ready for milking the
stool, both of which have been
e. With these extreme precau-
1k room, hlie is as clean in person
ke him. (Pl. III, 5.) In milk-
ing it is a common practice to
discard the foremilk. The
milking is done strictly with
dry hands, except in a few in-
stances where vaseline is em-
ployed (a usage which is re-
ported to be en t irely practical).
In some dairies milkers are re-
quired to wash their hands be-
fore milking each cow, but this
is not the general practice.
HANDLING THE MILK.
After being drawn the milk
is taken immediately to a.











7G






///'.//, /2. i2, "/i//^ Jig, "7111////w//1!,.,'711111/1

;. 1.-AAn arrangement of cooler and hand bottle
filler.

er of some description is used;
ined into cans standing in ice
I in cases, and covered with


*





HANDLING AND COOLING THE MILK.


Figure 1 shows an arrangement of cooler and hand bottle filler,
and figure 2 is a floor plan for a small dairy house for handling cer-
tified milk. If the barn is sanitary the dairy house may be directly
attached, the weigh room -'erving to separate the milk room from the
barn. There is probably less danger to the quality of the milk in
having the dairy connected with the barn (as shown in fig. 2) than
in having these buildings separated by an open space through which
the milk is carried after each cow is milked.
The cooler (parts of which are -shown in P1. V) is placed in the
receiving room (designated as "weigh room" in fig. 2). After each
cow is milked the milk is passed over the cooler and into the hand
bottling receptacle in the bottling room. One man bottles the milk
without assistance aind is able to fill and cap 200 to 300 bottles an
hour and place them in the storeroom. It will be seen that this
arrangement facilitates
prompt'cooling and im- N. /
mediate bottling with-| WAS ROON
out exposing the milk. "of/ a ROOM|
The apparatus is very
simple, inexpensive
(cost not exceeding 0 k
Z5 eaH oan VHSM .. ^ ^^ ^ $,X, QC
$ 150), sanitary, and can
be easily and quickly e Ie ,r \
cleaned. It is under- ,ICE Ba&u.e
stood that the apparatus M RO --
shown in the illustration EFRiee., R V E
is designed for the small|
certified-milk producer
with about 50 cows.
Considering the pos- FiG. 2.-Dairy house for certified-milk plant with fifty cows.
sibilities of producing (A A, coal bunkers; B, boiler; C, sterilizer; D, shower bath;
certified milk with the E, bottling table; F, cooler; G, receiving can.)
inexpensive dairy house (fig. 2) and the apparatus required for cool-
ing and bottling as described and illustrated (see p. 26), the small
dairyman should Be encouraged to produce certified milk.
The milk coolers in some of the dairies are so constructed that the
upper coils of pipe can be filled with hydrant or well water and the
lower ones with ice water or brine. The top coils remove much of
the animal heat, while the lower ones reduce the milk to a tempera-
ture of 35 to 40 F. As the milk is very much exposed in this room,
the importance of the air being free from all impurities is apparent.
In the best dairies the room is sterilized with steam preparatory to
cooling the milk, and in some instances the air entering the room is
filtered through absorbent cotton or a spray of water.





28 MILK COMMISSIONS S AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

The milk from the cooler passes immediately into a tank connected
with the bottling machine. Some plants are so arranged that the
bottling machine, as well as the bottles, passes through a pressure
steam sterilizer before entering the bottling room. Paper caps
(made from wood pulp) are universally used on the bottles. The
filled bottles are rapidly packed in cases and covered with cracked
ice. They are then put in cold storage, or in some cases transported
immediately, the ice being renewed as often as necessary in trans-
portation so that a low temperature is maintained until the product
reaches the consumer. (See PI. IV.)

STERILIZING CAPS FOR MILK BOTTLES.

It is important that the milk caps be kept sterile, otherwise the
milk is contaminated immediately after being bottled. This is
provided for in some instances by the milk commissions, which
sterilize the caps and send them to the dairymen in pasteboard
boxes, 100 caps in each box. Some dairymen sterilize their own
caps by inclosing them in a galvanized iron box or a cloth bag and
placing them in the sterilizer. Some use copper tubes
for this purpose. (Fig. 3.) These are so constructed
that the caps can be removed and placed in the bottles
by tiu(.hing only the edges.
COVERINGS AND SEALS FOR BOTTLES.

Some producers of certified milk use nothing for seal-
ing the bottles but ordinary pulp caps stamped with
the name of the commission and the date. Others
use various coverings in addition to the ordinary cap.,
some of which are shown in Plate VI.
A parchment, circle bearing the name of the dairy
FIG3.Cae ~is frequently placed over the top of the bottle in addi-
FIG.3.-Copper
caseusedinster- tion to the pulp cap. and fastened with a rubber band.
ilizing milk caps. (PI. VI, fig. 1, No. 2.) Another style consists of a tin-
foil covering on the top of the bottle in addition to the ordinary cap.
The covering is sometimes pasted down with a label, making a very
neat package, but one too expensive for practical use. (See Pl. VI,
fig. 1, No. 4.) The pulp cap sometimes leaks (Pl. VI, fig. 2, No. 4),
allowing bacteria to enter.
Sometimes, in addition to the pulp cap, a metal cover is used
which fits over the top of the bottle and is fastened with a wire and
lead seal. (P1. VI, fig. 1, No. 1.) While this method affords good
protection to the mijk, it adds unnecessary expense. However, there
is noting to prevent the pulp cap from leaking and molds from
developing. (See P1. VI, fig. 2, No. 1.)







BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


FIG. 1.-COVERED MILK COOLER.


FIG. 2.-PARTS OF COOLER.
1. Cooler proper. Water pass> iir..':i, iho. ri.. of coil, and milk over outer s.urface. 2. Recep-
tacle placed on top of No. 1 I.I I. ri.,rni.n.- in the bottom near the edge for ,i,. rili in, milk
over the cooler. 3. Cover 111 I,.,ii,. 'I... r 1. Receptacle for r'I. i., the ilIk .inl which
also contains the strainer. TI,. Ila irr ,iti-- of a perforated -.i.o- %. ni. hi is put in first: next
to this is placed a layer of ch.-.- I I, then a layer of absorbent cotton followed by another
layer of cheese cloth and a I r. n'ri.i d plate. 5. A copper ring, filled with lead and heavily
tinned, placed on top of parts of strainer to hold them in position.


PLATE V.










BUL. 104, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE.


FIG. 1.-COVERINGS FOR BOTTLES OF CERTIFIED MILK.


FIG. 2.-BOTTLES WITH OUTER COVERINGS REMOVED.


PLATE V1.








CARE AND CONSTRUCTION OF UITTENSILS.


Still another method is to cover the paper cap with a plug of paraffin
on which is placed by means of a rubber stamp the date on which the
milk should be used. The whole is then 'covered with parchment
paper fastened with a rubber band. This style is illustrated inl
Pl. VI (fig. 1, No. 3, and fig. 2, No. 3). The rubber stamp is sup-
plied to each producer by the milk commission and is changed
monthly. Every stamp has a secret mark so that all certified milk
can be readily identified in the city. The stamp reads "To be sold
and used [date]." It is practically impossible to tamper with this
seal without the fact being detected. The paraffin has the advan-
tage of sealing the bottle and preventing deception by refilling. It
is also cheap, and altogether this makes a most desirable package.

MILK PAILS, STRAINERS, AND STOOLS.

The milk pails used in certified-milk plants present a great variety
of styles. Generally speaking, they have a small opening (5 to 8
inches.) Some are provided
with a strainer through -
which the milk passes in ,
entering the pail. This con- r"
sists, in some instances, of
several thiicknesse' of cheese : r .
cloth, in others of both '
cheese cloth an ati bsorbent o
cotton, and in still others ofi
metal wire. One form of -

of a stool. (Fig. 9.)
The styles of milk pails shown in future 5 were reported as actdully
in use at certified-milk plants. No attempt has been made to illus-
trate all the kinds of pails in the trade. The cuts, however, give a
good general idea of the forms commonly found on certified dairy
farms. (Figs. 5, 6, and 7.)
No. 1 haa the ad vantage of being stamped from one piece of tin. The strainer, how-
ever, is poorly constructed, having a metal sieve permanently soldered in the bottom,
and the top killed making it difficult to keep clean. This pail would doubtless
giv'e better results in fairly clean dairies if the strainer were discarded altogether.
No. 2 has a removable cover, cheese cloth being spread over top of pail before cover
Is put on. It is a fairly gouod pail, but the removable cover has no special advantage
over the one-piece pail and it makes one more part to keep clean. The cover must be
removed after each milking, thus adding to the danger of contamination.
No. 3 is similar to No. 1, except that it has a strainer simpler in construction and
hence more readily cleaned.
No. 4 is a substantial small-top pail. It would be improved by a hood similar to that
of No. 5. It is difficult for the milker to hold, on account of being smaller at the top
than at the bottom.




30 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.
No. 5 exhibits the best principles. There is no strainer attached, and the hood pre-
vents dust and dirt from dropping into the milk when the pail is tipped in the position
used in milking. It should be made of one piece of tin. It is, however, not aseasyfor
the milker to hold as styles 1, 2, and 3.
No. 6 is a very popular pail with certified-milk producers. Absorbent cotton is
placed in the top between two layers of cheese cloth, and this serves as a strainer during
milking. The capis removed from the opening at the right to pourout the milk. This
pail altogether is a little complex and requires careful cleaning to keep it in good con-
dition. The absorbent cotton also adds somp expc-nse. Clean dairies do not require a
pail with a strainer, afd if no strain-r is used ihv extra spout is of no value.


FIG. 5.-Some forms of milk pails used in certified dairies.
No. 7 is a porcelain pail with adjustable tin cover similar to No. 2. Cheese cloth is
placed over the top of the pail before the cover is put on, and serves as a strainer.
Ni. 8 is an ordinary open pail with no provision fur keeping out dirt. It should not
be used in any dairy.
No. 9 is a good sanitary pail. It has a small top provided with a metal strainer.
In certified dairies probably Ilet ter results would be secured by leaving out thestrainer.
The pail would be imDroved if stamped from one piece of tin.


r~b


V





PAILS USED IN CERfIFIED DAIRIES.


Nos. 10 and 11 illustrate thesame pail, No. 11 -1, wi,_ngasectionof i li- interior. This
pail is objectionabh, for the reason that the cover is carelessly soldered in, leaving an
open seam ir i which collects dirt and is imjipo,,il1 to keep clean.


FIG. 6.-Additional forms of milk pails used in certified dairies.
No. 12 shows the shape of an ordinary cream can. The opening is too large and the
can is not provided with a hood. The can has too many seams, and it is not ordinarily
built strong enough for milking.
Nr-. 13 is a gond. sanitary milk pail. The height is convenient, and as the opening is
on the side there is but little
chance fordirt to fall in. The
seams are well flushed with
solder. The objection to this
pail. if anN,, is the diffic:dt] t
of seeing that all parts are ..
clean. "[
No. 14 is a sanitary milk
pail showing cup attached for
holding the forernilk. The
most objectionable feature of
the pail is the difficulty, of 13
seeing whether all parts of
the interior are clean. FIG. 7.-Two more forms of milk pails used in certified plants.

As already stated, there are other sanitary milk pails on the market
which are not presented here simply because their use has not been
reported in this investigation.


I


(I ANQ





32 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.
Aside from the strainers used in'the pails, absorbent cotton is'gen-
erally preferred. This is usually inclosed between two thicknesses
of cheese cloth, a method which is found to be very practical.
The only object in having a strainer in a certified dairy is for safety.
There should be no visible dirt. or dust. on the strainer, hut in case a
hair or any particles of dirt should accidentally fall into the milk
the strainer prevents it from passing
into the can and finally into the.
bottle. The strainer also acts as an in-
(dicator and shows whether or not the
milking has been (lone in a cleanly man-
ner. It is believed to be best not to
have a strainer of any kind in the
milk pail, as its absence has a tendency
to mnake the milker use the utmost care
*H Io nin his work, because he knows that. if
any particles of dirt fall they will go
directly into the milk. After milking
each cow the milk should be strained
Through two or more thicknesses of
I ..r cheese cloth or through sterilized cot-
't ton. Either one of these can be thrown
away after use and there are no strain-
O ers to wash. Metal strainers are not
necessary or desirable in a certified-milk
plant. When they are used they should
^ be so constructed that they can be
taken apart for thorough cleaning.
Figure 8 shows a form of strainer
,.. '' '\ used in a few certified dairies. It has
: '" adjustable sieves which facilitate clean-
,./ ing. While this style is commonly used
where milk is more or less dirty, some
simple form such as two or three thick-
nesses of cheese cloth which can be
2 Thrown away after straining each cow's
milk is better. Metal parts are diffi-
Fio.s8.-Form oi strainer used in a few cult to keep sterile and may add more
certified plants. bacteria than they remove.
The milk stools used in certified plants vary greatly in construction,
style, and material. Some are constructed wholly of wood and some
have metal legs and wooden seat; those in most. common use are






MILKING STOOLS USED IN CERTIFIED DAIRIES.


made of heavy galvanized iron: these will stand constant sterilizing
and never wear out.
Figure 9 shows a
number of forms of
stools that have been
reported in use at cer-
tified dairies.
No. 1 is a good type if san-
itary stool mad. of metal. 2 i_
The ends of the pipes used -
for the legs are filled with
lead, and there are ni. r-r-
ners to colkcert di rt.
Nos. 2 andt 4i are similar i.
No. 1, iexept that ciap, are i" f- --
ascrewed ionl the ends of thie __
legs, making them slightly
more dili-ulh tol keep 'lean.
No. 3 serves f,_,r both pall
and milk stool. The -,vr er
hoops, bail, etc., make it
more dilfitult to keep rleani
than the simpler syles. 4
No. 5 is devised s,. that ,---_ _
one end serves as a reqcerl- 0
tacle to hold the pail while
the milker sits on the other
end. As in the rase of No. 0 0
3, this style is more diffieull
to keep in a sanitary eondi- 5 9
tion than the simpler forms.
No. 6 is ponstrttted en-
tirely of iron, galvanize'l
after being put together. Itwoea 6
is simply constructed, hav-
ing only a single leg. The i
base. however, furnishes a
larger surface to keep b lean. Fo. 9f-Milking stools used in certified dairies.
PRICES RECEIVED FOR CERTIFIED MILK.

The lowest price reported for certified milk delivered at the local
railroad station was 5 to 53 cents a quart in cans, the dealer paving
the transportation charges. One producer bottles his milk and sells
it for 6 cents a quart. wholesale. The dealer furnishes the bottles
and cases and pays the freighLt. The highest price received for
certified iilk bottled at the farm and delivered to the local station
was 10 cents a quart. The retail price for certified milk ranges
from 10 to 30 cents a quart, and the retail price of cream varies
from 30 to 50 cents a quart. The reports received from the milk







34 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

commissions show that prices received for certified milk average
about 5 cents a quart higher than prices for ordinary market milk. It
should be noted that the prices given here are largely wholesale or prices
received by the dairymen, while those reported by the Commissions
in another part of this bulletin are largely retail or prices paid by
the consumer.

IS TIlE PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK PROFITABLE'?

Eighteen certified milk producers reported the business profitable
or fairly so. (See Table 2.) One stated that it was not profitable
at less than 15 cents a quart. Several stated that it was profitable
if conducted on a large scale. Nearness to market and facilities for
transportation also affect the profit. Difficulty in securing com-
petent help and lack of appreciation on the part. of the public were
reported by some to he drawbacks to their business. In many in-
stances the business has not paid owing to the great expense for
buildings and equipment, but much of this expense was entirely
unnecessa-ry. Sanitary conditions and extreme care are far more
important requisites in the production of certified milk than fine
architecture and expensive and superfluous apparatus.

SANITARY CONDITIONS OF CERTIFIED MILK DAIRIES.

In order to determine the sanitary conditions existing in certified
milk dairies, sixteen were visited by a representative of the Dairy
Division and scored on the basis of the official score card prepared
anti used by the Dairy Division. The result of the scoring is shown
in Table :3.

TABLE 3.-DmilrI scores of si.itlvn crrlidfI dainryfarms.a


No. of dairy.


I ............. .. .

4.

.. .
Cl......................

II.
12. . . .. ..
1l' .
14.

S fl.. .. . . .
r cen 'ilt pgr-ft .........
} e-r enal i 'A per let I l'lur.'.. .


Cows (per- Stables
Iret sCui-l, i perl-t
JU1. r-Ole. 265.

2u il 13..)0
211 I 17 O
19 50 211.50
20 I0 22. 'A)
2' L() 23.00
24) iO I Iq.00
I'. 75 23. 'A
20 1i 22.00
J20.00 I 21.90
20 H ) 22. 30
\I 25 a31 140
2Ju Ut, 24.00
201 UO 24 00
"0 110o 24 -.0
2U Oil 24. 5U
2u JO 24. W)
14 90 21. ?U
!N. 5 X7.2


Milk house
i perfect
se., re. 2Ui.

pi. on
Sb.00
1. 00
17.00
SC0 O
20.00
20. U
19. t0)
20. 11i
20. U
19 50
14. 6W
20 0i0
20 00
14(. 90u
94. 5


Milking Iihndling Total score
s per feet pfec t (perfect,
score, 15 .1 p rte 10 1t).
st~ore. 201. I 0)

1200 15. C)1 79.00
13.00 16.00 81.00
12.00 1i5.00 83.00
12 00 15 00 86.50
1I. 00 19.00 92.00
6i. on 20.00 94.00
14.00 1l.00 95.25
1 .. 00 20.00 97.00
15.00 20.00 96.50
15. 00 20. 00 97.30
13.0W 2000 97.75
15.00 20.00 98.50
1. UU 20.00 99.00
13.00 20.00 99.00
15 Ou 2 00 99.50
15. 00 20.00 99.50
14 10 18. b0 93.40
94 AJ 93.40


aThe farms were scored in most instino-oi iy Dr. E. M. Santep. assistant dairyman.

A study of the scores shows the cows to be in almost perfect condi-
tion, the average score being 19.9 points out of a possible 20. All the,
animals had been tested with tuberculin.






THE QUALITY OF CERTIFIED MILK. 35

The greatest defects were found in the stables, saime showing poor
construction, while others were scored oiff a point or two for lack of
cleanliness. Occasionally the light and the ventilation were poor.
The average score for the stables was 21 .., perfect being 25.
The condition of the milk houses was generally good. Seven had
slight deficiencies in construction and 5 were sc-',red ofl a point or two
on equipment. Fourteen of the 10 were given a perfect score for
cleanliness, 14 were perfect on utensils, andl 15 lihad god water supply.
The methods of milking were zood. ('lean, white suits were worn
by the milkers in nearly all cases, anal proper attention was given to
the udders and flanks of the cows before milking. Thle average
score for milking was 14.1 points out of a possible 15). Ten dairies
received a perfect score.
The milk was handled by the most approved I methodIs in most
instances, and promptly cooled to a ternperat tire low enough to keepl)
the bacteria in check. The average score for handling the milk was
18.6 out of a possible 20. Ten dairies receivedI a perfect soire.
Averaging the scores foyr all the conditions, we find I lairv below si),
3 over 80 andti less than 90, andt 12 over 910; 2 sc, red ui-u, and 2, 99.5.
The average score for all dairies was 93.4. ('Coniparing these condi-
tions with the average of some 2,000) dairies pridlmcring ordinary mar-
ket milk for city consumption, we find a striking c ontrast, the average
score for the latter being about 5).

THE QUALITY OF CERTIFIED MILK.
It. was arranged to have 12 samples'of certified milk sent to Wash-
ington from various points for analysis. These were tested fr solidls,
fat, bacteria, acidity, and flavor; anl were scored ion the basis of a
score card prepared for this purpose. Table 4 shows the results if
the scoring.
TABI.E 4.--A.4nalysos ol'fsamples of c ro l i'i, milk i f'our ,I!js ol'l \ slIppl ti li V.liinqtoi
from points. in .V w ,'ork. N, it, .Jrvrs,,, q P, ,n;h',ui iiG.U Ohio, in ,l K, a/, 4k. '1
PESt'II'l IVE SCORE.
Sam"-',d 1,, mriItsnn [ p;a kng."
ie Flavor. Fat. A,,t lili.I. sal!r, '.'i.,,

Per enM. lHr rn P'r v, rt Pfrr rril
I Good ............ 1. 50 S 0 PHi 30 .'.'P ISmi I fr." .r f. Ir iii. ,I i l i r
2 Good ............. 1.71 ').7:,i 11 :,(i 2h'- lI.u"ji 1I .
3 Good ........ .. 1,1 0 0 7i I in. l[ri 4.1KI I)W
4 Slight silage taint '. 5. W ,S 13.4.0 I.Ni A,'tj ..oi
5 Silage and saity h .. C- '1 .9 1) 50 .2I)l 1,82, Traie, rf fnr.'- i, icl=r.
f Fair ..... . . . i. 7. 79 1.3 11' I ,-iN 3. U 1 D o,
7 Slightly hitter.... 4.50 1. 40 l. .Q0 I0 1-l.j1i() Glod.
8 Slight silage flavor 5.00 9. iu 14 00 .203 7..u rae,-r f f!rrcig n m tt-r.
9 G ood ..... ....... 4.60 9. 17 13 77 '. ". ,,iHI G( .,).l
10 Good..... ....... 4 :i) 9.02 13.52 41 ; 2' DI
II Slight silage fla v or 1 4.70 9.40 14 1)0 117 CI 0lLIJ 1.
12 ..... do ........... 4 70 8.94 13..4 .201 2.7e) is-.
Average .... "'1 3 1 13 14 3', li' l 1%,1

a The samples were analyzed by Ivan C. \'elil. s.it.nt 'liA Irvir ,n i n 1 I 0 I .II rv [iiry i inr. tho A jl >
assisted in the scoring.
b Sold tfor 5 percent milk.
cAnalyzed and scored when fitp day' oid. owing in dil,' in Iransporlai'.,n.






36 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

TABLE 4.-Analyses of samples of certified milk Jfour days oldi shipped to Washington
from points in Yew, York, 1Vew Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohw, and Kentucky-Con.
NUMERICAL SCORE.

Appear-
Cp ance of
Flavor iompos l- Bacteria Acidity package Total
Sample No. (perfect feet sor, (perfect (perfect and con- score(per-
geore, 40). S score, 20). score. 5). tents (per- fect, 100).
S.feel score,
101.
1 ...... .... ..... 36 50 17.00 16 00 3.50 9.00 'W .00O
2 . . . .. 3 5U 25.00 211.00 1.50 9.00 *SU00
3 .... .. 36.00 17.00 15.00 3.50 9.50
4 . .... .... .. .. 31.50 22 00 l1i. 00 5.00 10.00 ..50
5 .... i 32.00 25.00 18.00 3.00 9.50 87.50
S..... 33.00 22.00 16 00 3.50 9.50 t 00
7 35. 00 25.00 9.00 4.50 10.00 83.50
8. .. 35.25 23.00 12.00 2.50 9.50 82.25
q .... 30 90 24.00 IC O0 4.50 10.00 91.00
1 i....... ... .. .... :. 2 2>5 0O 21. 00 3.50 10. 00 94.75
11 ... . ... 3 00 21.00 5.00 3.50 10.00 77.25
12 .. ...... 3i 00 24.00 17. (0 3.00 10.00 90.00
Avsug~........ .....7& _____________________
A rgI .... . *.22 7, 15.00 3.41 9.70 86. O0


The scores show that the milk was generally of good quality. Five
samples showed a slight silage taint, which reduced the score some-
what on this point. From observations made by the writer it is be-
lieved this flavor was transmitted to the milk more frequently from
silage odors in the barn during milking than from feeding silage.
One sample was slightly salty and another slightly bitter. The aver-
age score for flavor was 35 points out of a possible 40.
The fat in the milk with one exception reached 4 per cent. or higher.
Four samples were above 5 per cent, two of these being above 6.
These considerably exceeded the limit specified by the commissions.
While the customer receiving this high quality of milk would have
the advantage in quality, it is believed that the fat in certified milk
should be kept within the limits specified by the commissions. As
stated on the score card, 1 point is deducted for every one-fourth per
cent variation from the limits of 3.5 and 4.5 per cent, hence some
scores were reduced quite materially for this reason. The average
for all the samples was 5.03 per cent, solids not fat 9.33, and total
solids 14.36. The average score for composition was 22.75 points
out of a possible 25.
All of the samples were cut a little for excessive acidity, but it
should he stated that the milk was four days old when scored, and
in some cases it had been shipped without ice. The average acidity
was 0.197 per cent, and the average score for acidity was 3.46 points
out of a possible 5.
The bacteria in the milk showed a great variation in numbers, the
highest number being 19,000 per cubic centimeter and the lowest 280.
Deductions were made for counts exceeding 1,000 per cubic centi-
meter on the basis of the score card. The average count was 5,183
and the average score for bacteria was 15 points out of a possible 20.





KEEPING QUALITIES OF CERTIFIED MILK.


The style of the packages and the appearance of the contents so
fqr-as foreign matter was concerned were generally good. Six of the
samples had a slight trace of sediment. The average score was 9.7
points out of a possible 10.
The total score for all samples was 86 on the basis of 100 for per-
fect. One hundred and forty-four samples of market milk recently
scored by the Dairy Division averaged 81.4, indicating that the qual-
ity of milk sold as certified was quite superior to the ordinary product
in spite of the fact that it was from three to four days old when
scored, while the market milk was scored the same day it was pro-
duced.
CERTIFIED MILK AND MARKET MILK COMPARED.
As far as the chemical composition is concerned, certified, milk does
not differ materially from ordinary market milk. The milk comnis-
sions require that the fat and total so]ids shall come within certain
limits, and for this reason there is but little variation in the chemical
composition of certified milk. The standards are not high for the
reason that milk containing about 4 per cent of fat is considered to be
the best for immediate consumption. As stated elsewhere, many of
the herds in certified-milk dairies are composed of grade cows and do
not produce milk of more than (he average richness.
When we compare the bacterial content of certified and market
milk we find a very striking difference. The bacteria in the average
milk supply of our large cities exceed 5)0,'00 to the cubic centimeter,
while the bacteria in certified milk seldom exceed 30,000 to the cubic
centimeter and in most instances average less than 10,000. There
have been some cases where commissions have reported that no bac-
teria were shown to be present by the ordinary methods used for
their detection. Liquefying, putrefactive, and pus-forming bacteria
are seldom present in large numbers; in fact the contracts of some
commissions with the producers specify that the milk shall not con-
tain pathogenic bacteria or more than a limited number of pus cells to
the cubic centimeter.

KEEPING QUALITIES OF CERTIFIED MILK.
As would naturally be expected, certified milk with its small num-
ber of bacteria will keep sweet for a long time. The theory that clean
milk should have a long keeping (quality works out in practice. In-
stances are on record where certified milk has been taken on an ocean
voyage and not only brought back in good condition but kept sweet
until thirty days old. In fact it is now a common practice for people
when crossing the water or taking a long land journey with infants to
take several I cases of certified milk with them. They are then reasonably
sure of having a constant supply of sweet milk for several days. Some
producers who guarantee their milk have offices in London as well as





38 MILK COMMISSIONSS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

in this country so that a supply of fresh milk can be secured by voy-
agers going in either direction. This has been a great. convenience and
has given comfort to many people. Again, a number of certified-milk
dairies in the Unitedl States sent exhibits of milk to the Paris Expo-
sition in 1900. The milk kept perfectly sweet for two weeks and in
some instances lS dayts after being bottled anti after a summer journey
of 3,000 to 4,000 miles. Regular delivery bottles were used, the only
extra precaution being to use two paper caps instead of one, and to
cover thle caps %ith I paraffin so as to exclude the air. Of course the
milk was carefully packed in ice for shipment, but this was the only
means used for preservation.
The result- of the milk andti cream contest at the National Dairy
Show held in Chicago in February, 19106, a were of interest in showing
the keeping quality of certified milk and cream. Some of the milk
exhibited was .-hilpped over 1,000 miles and was still sweet after
five weeks, andti in one instance seven weeks, from the time it was
shipped. These results tend to show that what is needed more
than anything else, in order to improve the milk supply, is cleaner
milk.
IS CERTIFIED MILK WORTH THE EXTRA COST P
In view of the extreme care andti greater expense required in the
production of certified I.ilk, thlie question is sometimes raised as to
whether it is worth thle labor and pains necessary to produce it. It
must be conceded that pure milk is of vital importance in the feeding
of infant-.. The best way to produce it is by the methods commonly
practiced in certified-milk plants as already outlined in this bulletin.
The result of feeding such milk to infants and children in our cities,
as shown in the decrease in the death rate, is a matter of common
know ledge. Further, with more refined ideas of living, there is a
growing demand for milk of the highest quality that can be produced.
Naturally, with thle careful methods used in its production, certified
milk co.,ts more than ordinary market milk, and thle price charged
for it is correspolndingly higher. In spite of this advanced price,
however, a number of certified dairies have failed to make a profit.
Certified milk, produced under the direction of a reliable milk
comminission, is worth more than ordinary market, milk for several
reasons: .11) It is free from disease-producing bacteria, and all othea
germnis are reduced to a minimum. (2) It is free from high acidity and
pathogenic _zermns which lead to stomach derangements and kindred
troubles. (3j The customer can always depend upon his milk coming
from the same farm, the same herd of cows, subjected to the same
treatment, and having the same quality. The fat. content is guar-
anteed not to vary outside of narrow limits; hence the milk is always
Bureau ui Animal Industry Bulletin 87.





AN ECONOMICAL METHOD OF PRODUCTION.


of good quality. (4) (Cleanlines,, andi cold are the only pre.-ervatives
used. (5) It is a safe food for infants and people with delicate diges-
tion. (6) It. is the natural product of the cow, andi ha., n,,t been
subjected to any treatment which ali'ects its digesttibility or changes
its character. (7) It is reasonably free from freir n iiors and
objectionable flavors.
THE FUTURE OF THE CERTIFIED-MILX INDUSTRY.
The production andi sale of certified I mnilk %%iii proabl lNly never
amount to more than a small fraction of the totaIl Miilk c,,nsuined.
It is believed I, however, that thle demand I for this ilass of, milk will
increase, not .on l" for infants andI persons of delicate health, 1bu t fr
people who appreciate a good product anil want the best. There
is over a score of cities att the ipre-ent time each of i which i ,uppliedi
with certified milk from one or nimore dairies, alnd it is believedI thliat
most cities of a population of 25,111)o to 50,00)) or more would ..up-
port a etrtifiedl-milk dairy if the product were propIerly advertied
andti its merits generally known to the public. Phvsitians, assist
greatly in the sale of certified milk, and,, a., a number if them are
usually members of thlie milk coimmissions inII thlie various cities, they
are thoroughly acquainted within the conditions under which thle mlilk
is produced anti freely recommend its use.
AN ECONOMICAL METHOD OF PRODUCING CERTIFIED MILK "
This description is not intended to interest those Mhl are desirous
of building show plants, but only those % ho want to protluce certified
milk of superior quality at the minimum cost for buildings, equipment,
and operation. There are a few essential points in the production and
handling of certified milk which must he observed. If these details are
strictly adhered to, the quality of the milk, so tar as thlie bacterial con-
tent is concerned, is assured.
The following are the points to be regarded as the most important
1. The health of thle cows.
2. The sanitary construction of tlie barn.
3. The sanitary condition of tihe barn.
4. The sanitary condition of the cows.
5. The sanitary condition of utensils.
6. The sanitary condition of clothing.
7. Sanitary mniethods of milking.
S. Few utensils, simple in construction.
9. Rapidity of cooling.
10. Sanitary bottling room.
a This article was prepared by B. D. White. assistant dairyman in the Dairy Divi-
sion, at the author's request, and shows an econuinial method f,,r the productii-n ,-f
certified milk as practiced several years by Mr. White when superintendent of a certi-
fied dairy in Minnesota.





40 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

11. Rapid bottling into sterilized bottles.
12. Keeping filled bottles covered with chopped ice from time of
filling to time of delivery to consumers.
No attempt will be made to theorize, but. the writer will simply
state his practical experience and the results obtained under such
conditions.
Health of the cows.-Every cow was tested at least once each year
for tuberculosis by a competent veterinarian, and new animals to be
placed in the herd were tested, then isolated for three months and
tested again. Herds have been contaminated by purchased animals
which did not react when purchased, but showed a decided reaction











tV
i 6--,- ,














NMI'-
.* [ -








FIG. 10.-Stall with panel wooden floor.
a few months thereafter, thus showing the necessity for this practice.
The cows were watched for other diseases and ailments, and when one
showed symptoms of any trouble she was immediately removed from
the herd and her milk was rejected.
Sanitary cnstrnction of barn.-The barn w-as a one-story structure
of wood with plenty of light anti provided with the King system of
ventilation. The floor, wall, and manger were of cement; the ceiling
was lath and plaster; swing stanchions were used for ties. It was
found that the cement floor was too hard for the cows to stand on
and was the cause of various troubles, such as garget, etc.; con-
sequently it was later covered with 2-inch matched pine flooring,
which gave better results.





SANITARY CONDITION OF BARN AND COWS.


In building again we would substitute panel floors for stalls, as
illustrated in figure 10. Two pieces 4 by 4 inches by 3 feet are laid in
the concrete, and a panel 3 feet wide made of 2 1hy 6-inch matched
.plank nailed to them. The panel projects over the gutter about
1 inch. A space of 6 inches is left between panels which is cemented
level within the top of the plank. This admits of taking up a panel
and putting in a new one without (listurbling the rest of the floor.
In putting down a floor in a new barn, or in replacing an old floor, it is
recommended that tar be used in the joints and on the lower surface of
the floor.
In the construction of a barn intended for the production of cer-
tified milk care should be taken to have as few posts as possible,
and preferably no cross beams or braces
should be exposed. The interior should be
smooth with no place for the lodgment of
dust.
San tary condition of the barnm.-With
the construction of suchli character that a
barn may be kept clean, it only remains to
use energy, water, and washing powder.
Sanitary condition of cows.-The cows as
well as the barn must be kept clean. Ex-
perience has shown that the sanitary condi-
tion of the cows has as much to do with the
bacterial content of the milk as any other
factor. The method used was first to place
the cows in a stall according to their size,
to have sufficient bedding to keep them clean
and comfortable, to keep the hair short in
the region of the udder, to groom the cows
every day, to wash them before every milk-
ing with clean, warm water and a brush,
and just before milking each cow to clean
the udder again with a clean wet towel.
During fly time the tails of three cows (the FIG. i.-cow-tail holder. Thepin-
\ ers snap around the cow's tail
one to be milked andi thlie one on either side) and the rubber band is passed
were fastened with cow-tail holders. (See around the leg and hooked into
the open link on the chain.
fig. 11.) After the cows were washed a
small chain was fastened across the stanchions under the cows' necks
to prevent them from lying down : after they were milked the chains
were unfastened and the cows were allowed to lie down.
The manure was not removed immediately before milking, and
nothing was (lone which would raise a dlust,as dust is one of the most
prolific sources of milk contamination.
Sanitary condition of utersils.-All utensils with which the milk
came in contact were washed, rinsed, and steamed, or sterilized in a
pressure sterilizer.





42 MILK COMMISSIONS AND PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED MILK.

Sanitary condition of clothing.-Milking suits were provided which
consisted of white cluck trousers, a black belt, and a khaki shirt, these
making a neat and sanitary uniform. During the summer months
the sleeves of the shirts were rolled up to or above the elbows. These
suits were washed twice a week. With tight-fitting clothes there is
less danger of contamination than with loose coats.
Sanitary niethod of milking.-With a clean barn, clean and healthy
cows, clean utensils, and milkers wearing clean clothes, all that re-
mains is care. However, it may be mentioned that it was the prac-
tice to wash the hands thoroughly before milking, and each milker
was provided with an individual towel which was used only once.
After the hands were washed and dried and a small amount of
vaseline was rubbed on the palms, each milker took a pail, which
had been previously sterilized by steam, and a clean metal milking
stool, and proceeded to the stable with stool in one hand and pail
in the other. The milkers did not touch the cows with their hands,
except the teats. J.are was taken in holding the pail (which was of
the style shown in fig. 6, No. 9, except that the strainer was dis-
carded) at an angle, so that there was but little if any chance for dirt
to drop into the pail. After milking each cow the milker immedi-
ately proceeded to the milk room, carrying the pail with its opening
away from him. The top of the pail was brushed with a clean damp
cloth, and then the milk was poured into the covered receptacle,
from which it flowed over the cooler, which was in the milk room
attached to the barn. The milker then washed his hands in clean
water and dried them with a clean towel and returned to milk another
cow. The foremnilk from each cow was caught in a separate recep-
tacle and discarded.
t Utensils and equipmnent.-The plant was originally equipped with
the most elaborate apparatus money could buy, but after a thorough
trial with poor results it was practically all discarded, including steril-
izer for milking suits, large open cooler with many receptacles, con-
ductors, etc., and elaborate anterooms connected with washrooms and
baths. Theoretically and for show purposes this appeared all right,
but it had no place in practice. When simpler apparatus was installed
and simpler methods were practiced no difficulty was experienced in
keeping the bacterial content down to an average of 2,000 per cubic
centimeter.
Cooling.-Experience leads us to believe that the rapidity with
which milk is cooled has a wonderful influence in keeping down the
bacteria. Instead of drawing the milk and placing it in a can and
when the can is full sending it. to the dairy house to be passed through
and over the surface of several different contrivances to be strained,
cooled, and conducted to the bottling machine, the cooling was effected
within 60 seconds from the time the milk was drawn from the cows.






ANALYSIS OF CE.RTIF1F-.I MILK.


The temperature of the milk was red lcedI to within 2 degrees of tile
temperature of the water passing through tihe cooler. The style of
cooler is shown in Plate V. From tills point the nilk Was ctie veed to
the milk house or bottling room when conve-,ienMt, ais the low tenmpera-
ture of the milk would permit holding it witlitut clanger Iof increasing
the bacteria.
Sanitary bottling room.-Too much inol,'y w.I .s expendedl for a
so-called bottling room which was, in-,ilateil anI providlel with double
windows which could not ble opened. lThtrv being no intake for fresh
air for fear tof containinating tlie ',tn \\ hln tle ventilating y-.teni
did not work, the room was liot antd dlaiip. It i1 onlyv ie('-,sary to
keep a room closed during thle prct'ess ii,' bottling,. lIeit expensive
insulation and double window s are unne,'te.sarv. A\n ,ort Iinnary ctmInt,
or plastered room, kept clean and with thlie llhor ioistened before
bottling, will answer all purposes, prvi'dedl tli. l milk i.- nlt expisedl in
the room, which it need not be.
Bottling. -Thie bttles into which thlit. milk was put were -terilized
and the milk was bottled as quickly a possible: tlit lilledl bottles
were covered with cruslihed ice until dIlivered IL, tli, ca,.umers.
Analyses of product.- The following bacteria counts oif tle milk sup-
plied by the dairv just described have been revprted,. Thiey are ct'rti-
fied to by Dr. F. F. Wesbrook, iliretotir of' the lalitrattwites of tlhe
Minnesota State Board of Health, andI A. P. MLcDaniel, assistant bac-
teriologist. The tests were made within milk thirty-six holrs olI taken
from delivery wagons.

Date. roltl'n-ii,% I).[IP ('ol~ini-.a.


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