Varieties of cheese

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Material Information

Title:
Varieties of cheese descriptions and analyses
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
72 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Doane, C. F ( Charles Francis ), 1872-
Lawson, H. W ( Huron Willis ), 1873-
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cheese -- Varieties   ( lcsh )
Cheese   ( mesh )
Genre:
Govt Pub, Federal
Govt Pub, Federal.
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 63-68) and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by C.F. Doane and H.W. Lawson.
General Note:
"June 27, 1908."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613641
oclc - 22302032
lccn - 08000666
System ID:
AA00018911:00001

Full Text





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property of the Unitct States Govornmeni.


Issued June 27. 1908.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BuLLETIN 105.
A. D. MELVIN, CHIEF OF BUREAU.





VARIETIES OF CHEESE:

DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES.



BY


C. F. DOANE, M. S.,
Assistant Dair. man, Dairy Division,

AND


H. W. LAWSON, MN. S., M. D.,
Office of Experiment Stations, Department ot Agriculture.


WASHINGTON:
* GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1908.











THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


Ch,!" A. D. MELVIN.
Assistant (-h,,j A. M. FARRI\GTON.
Chtif Clerk: E. B. JONES.
Biochemic Division: M. D'k.-'ET, chif:; J.\UES A. EMERY, assistant chief.
Dairy Division: ED. H \\EBSTER, chieL; C. B. LANF.. assistant chi"if.
Inspection Division: RICE P. STrLDIJoM, ,hi-f, MNORIS \VW .rrF.N. R. A. RAMSAY,
and ALBERT E. BEHNKE, ass,,-iat< chiefs.
Pathological Division: JoHN R. MoHLWER, chief; HENRY J. WASHBURN, assistant
chief.
Quarantine Division: Ricu.nr, \V. HICKMAN, chief.
Division of Znroloqij B. II. R. N.O.M, chief.
E p1t,,'ni1, Station: E. C'. SCH OEDLR, u p.irinternd ent; \W. E. ('lrTrON, assistant.
Animal II.ubi'tndlan: GEOR(jE M. RtIMMLL.
Editor: JAMES M. PICKEN.S.
DAIRY DIVISION.
Cluif: ED. H. WEBSTER.
Assistant Chief: C. B. LANE.

Dair.q 1lrrninq inmt :hgation.i, B. H. I'aal in charge.
Southern tiaiiry;,r B. II. Rawl, S. E. Bairnes. I. E. Do.rman, T. E. W\oodward,
C. 0. Moser, J. C. Guthrif, and A K. Risser. assistant dairyinpn; Duncan Stuart,
assistant in dairying; J. A. Corlnvr, civntiftic assistant in dairying, H. P. Lykes
and J. T. Eaton, agents in dairying.
Dairy records: Wm. Iart Dexter. assis.ttnit dairyiin. i
Dairy piodmies iniesiiqation.., L A.4. Rngir5 in ,haryr.

Butter: John L. Sherk. e.xpert. \V. S. Smar7o and P. H. Kieffler, collaborators.
Ch,(sr C. F. Doane, A. \W. Dix, aud 'harlcs Thon, as:istanh dairyvmcn; T. W.
Is6aj.4f, expert cheese maker: J. \V. M.,r"., F. R. Thonmsi'n, vxp.rts in dairying; S. K.
Suzuki, collaborator; L. D. Bushnell, expert in dairy barAeriliogy.
Milk secretion: R. H. Shaw, a-sistant dairynian; A. E. Pe-rkins, scientific assistant;
A. H. Douglass, assistant hemist; J. 0. Halversoni, .xpert itu dairy chemistry.
Milk: L. A. Rogers, Iatctriolugical chemist (C'. R. Pot tiger, dairy bacteriologist.
(irqanitiationi and tinanugqeimi, in icsitnt'Ofn.

Creameries, draft;u iiand dlvsigniiiy: B. D. \\hilte, as-istanit dairyman, in charge;
C. W. Fryhfl'r, sv'ientific assi-[ant; H.J. (C'reditiott and J. G. Winkjer. assistant
dairymen; Robert MeAdam. iuS.pl'itor; K. E. Parks, arLchitLct.
JMarl milk service: ('. B. Laine, assistant chief, in charge; G. M. \VWhitakcr, dairy
inspector; Ivan C. Wet-ld. assiutai dair man.
1ftnoifld hbi'irr inspection.

M. W. Lang, dairy inpictior. in ,harge. 22 Fifth avenue, room 510, Chicago. Ill.;
Levi \V ..s, dairy inspector, t Harrison street, New York, N. Y.; S. B. Willis and
H. P. Olsen, dc.puty inspectors.
















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
W\'is7h iiglon, D. C., January 18, 1908.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, and to recommend
for publication as a bulletin of this Bureau, a manuscript entitled
"Varieties of Cheese: Descriptions and Analyses." This paper was
prepared(l under the direction of the chief of the Dairy Division by
C. F. Doane, assistant dairyman in that division, and H. W. Lawson,
of the Office of Experiment, Stations.
The work is a compilation of descriptions and analyses of all the
varieties -ofi domestic and foreign cheese about which it has been
possible to obtain such information in the literature bearing upon
the subject. In a number of cases only meager details could be
'secured, and owing to the size of the work the descriptions are neces-
sarily of a very condensed nature.
Acknowledgment is made of the courtesies and assistance ex-
tended by the Office of Experiment Stations in .the preparation of
this bulletin.
Respectfully, A. D. MELVIN,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMIES WILSON,
Secretary oq' A.griculture.































CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction ................................... . ................... . ... 5
D descriptions of varieties of cheese . .............. ....................... 7
A nalyses of cheese ................................ ...................... 56
Sources of analytical data .................................................. 63
Index .................................................................... 69
4













VARIETIES OF CHEESE: DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES.


INTRODUCTION.
The amount of cheese imported into the United States is increas-
ing rapidly. During the 6 years from 1900 to 1905, inclusive, the
value of the imports increased from $1,946,033 to $3,875,161. Italy
and Switzerland supplied the bulk of this cheese, most of the re-
mainder coming from France and Holland. The best known of the
varieties of cheese imported were the Parmesan and Gorgonzola
from Italy, the Emmental from Switzerland, the Roquefort, Camem-
bert, and Brie from France, and the Edam from Holland. The
growing demand for cheese is not, however, confined to these well-
known varieties, much interest being manifested in many kinds as
yet of very little commercial importance but highly esteemed in the
localities where produced.
Attempts have long been made in this country to imitate some of
the European varieties and in some instances the results have been
decidedly successful. The manufacture of Swiss, or Emmental, and
of Limburg types has become well established. The investigations
conducted at the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station in Con-
necticut. have shown that cheese of the Camembert type, equal in
every way to the imported article, may be produced in the United
States. This Department is cooperating in investigations of this
kind and recently results have been obtained which make it prac-
tically certain that a cheese of the nature of Roquefort or Stilton
can likewise be produced in this country.
Information concerning the manufacture and composition of the
numerous varieties of cheese is not very accessible to English readers
and the apparent need of some work of reference, in connection at
least with the importation and home production of cheese, has,
therefore, led to the preparation of the descriptive notes and the
compilation of the analytical data contained in this bulletin.
The descriptions are, for the most part, based upon data contained
in treatises on dairying and in articles in foreign periodicals. While
in many instances they are very incomplete and possibly at times
inaccurate, they nevertheless contain in condensed form practically
all the important information that it has been possible to secure in





6 INTRODUCTION.
an extended search through the literature relating in any way to
the subject. Owing to the large number of publications consulted,
it has seemed impracticable to give references to the descriptive
matter.
The analyses have been compiled in most instances from the original
publications. In all cases, however, the sources of the data have
been given in the list of references which follows the table of analyses.
No effort has been made to collect the numerous analyses of filled
cheese, and in the case of American Cheddar cheese only a part of
the available data has been included in the compilation.















DESCRIPTIONS OF VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

ABERTAM.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from sheep's milk in the region of Carlsbad,
Bohemia.
ALEMTEJO.

This name is applied to rather soft cheeses made in the province of Alemtejo, Portu-
gal. They are cylindrical in shape and are made in three sizes averaging in weight
abviiit 2 ounces I pomid, and 4 piimds. rw-p'rti'ely. Tlu. y are made for the most
part from the milk of sheep, though goat's milk is often dded,I. especially for the
smaller qiz-es. The milk is warmed and curdled usually with an extract prepared
from the flowers of a kind of thistle. The cheeses are ripened for several weeks.

ALPIN.

This is a kind of Mont d'Or cheese madp in the Alpine regions of France. It is also
known as -ilrimbert. The milk is coagulated with rennet at 80 F. in two hours.
The curd is dipped into molds 3 to 4 inches in diameter and 21 inches in height. The
cheese is allowed to drain and is turned several times d(lring one day, after which it
is salted and ripened for eight to fifteen days.

ALTENBURG.

This is a goat's-milk cheese made in Germany, where it is known as Altenburger
Ziegenkise. A cheese is 8 inches in diam.unete-r, 1 to 2 inches in thickness, and weighs
about 2 pounds.
AMBERT.
This cheese, known as Fourme d'Arnbert, is a cylind rical-Shappe I imitation Roque-
fort cheese made from cow's milk. It is said to differ from other forms of blue or imi-
tstion R,'iel',rt cheese made in the s.'iirlip a.tern part of France in that the salt is
mixed with the curd rather than rull'ed on the suiirfac- of the cheese.

ANCIEN IMPERIAL.

The curd ih prepared in the same manner for this cheese as for NeXifeh'ite1. The
cheese is about 2 inches square and one-half inch thick. It is also known as Petit
Carrv andi when ripened as Carr6 Affin6. The cheese is sold and consumed both while
iresh and after ripening. The ripening process is not essentially different from that
of Neufchatel.
APPENZELL.

This cheese, which is very similar t, Emmental, ismade in the Canton of A. ppen-ell.
Switzerland, and also in Bavaria and Baden. It is uLsally made of skim milk but
sometimes of whole milk.
BACKSTEIN.

Backstein, meaning brick, is so called from its shape, but it is not identical with the
Brick cheese made in the United States. The process of manuiifacture is similar to
that of Limnburg.




*"Iq

8 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

BANBURY.

This was a soft, rich cheese, very popular in England in the early part of the nine-
teenth century. It was a cylindrical cheese about 1 inch thick.

BARBEREY.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and deriving its name from the
village of Barberey near Troyes. France. It is also commonly known as Fromage de
Troyes. The milk while still fresh and warm is coagulated with rennet, the time
allowed being usually about four hours. The uncut curd is put into a wooden mold
having a perforated bottom. After draining for three hours the cheese is turned into
an earthenware mold, the wooden one being removed after twenty-four hours. The
cheeses are salted, dried in a well-ventilated room, and ripened fur about three weeks,
usually' in a subterranean curing room. In summer the cheese is often sold without
ripening A cheese is 5 to 6 inches in diameter and 1 inches in thickness.

BATTLEMAT.

This is an Emmental cheese made in the Canton of Tessin. Switzerland, in the
western part of Austria, and in the northern part of Italy. It is recommended for
localities where a great quantity of milk can not be obtained. The cheese is circular
in form, about 16 inches in diameter and 4 inches high, and weighs from 40 to 80
pounds. It is cooked at a slightly lower temperature than the Emmental and is a
little softer when ripened. It ripens more rapidly than the Emmental, being ready
for market in about four months.

"BAUDEN.

Baudenkase is a sour-milk cheese made in the herders' huts in the mountains be-
tween Bohemia and Silesia in essentially the same manner as Harzkiise. It is made
up in two forms, one conical with a diameter and a height of 34 inches, and the other
cylindrical, with a diameter of 5 inches and a height of 2j inches. It is also known
locally as Koppenkase.
BELGIAN COOKED.

The milk which has been allowed to curdle spontaneously is skimmed and the curd
heated to 135 to 140 F. and then placed in a cloth and allowed to drain. When
dry it is thoroughly kneaded by hand and is allowed to undergo fermentation, which
takes ordinarily from ten to fourteen days in winter and six to eight days in summer.
When the fermentation is complete, cream and salt are added and the mixture is heated
genily and stirred until homogeneous, when it is put into molds and allowed to ripen
for eight days longer. A cheese ordinarily weighs about 34 pounds. It is not essen-
tially different from ot her forms of cooked cheese.

BELLELAY.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from whole milk and sometimes called TAte de
Moine. and Monk's Head. This cheese originated with the monks of the Canton of
Bern, Switzerland. in the fifteenth century, and is made exclusively in that locality
at the present time.
The sweet milk is set at about 90 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in twenty
to Ihirty minutes. The curd is cut comparatively fine and is stirred while being
heated slowly to a temperature of 110. It is cooked much firmer than Limburg
and not so firm as Emmental.
When cooked the curd is dipped into wooden hoops lined with cloth. The cheeses
are pressed in rotation for a few minutes at a time, one press being used for a number






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


of cheeses. After pressing, I lhe cheeses are wrapped in bark for a couple of we-L-s, or
until they are lirm enough to require no support. They are cured in a moist cellar
at a comparatively low temper:ifliure. as it is not desired to have eyes develop. The
cheese when ready fr market has a diameter of 7 inches and weighs from 9 to 15 pounds.
It ripens in about twelve months and %ill keep for three or four years. It has a soft,
buttery consistency and can be spread on bread for eating.

BERGQUARA.

This is a Swedish cheese resembling Gouda. It was known in Sweden in theeight-
eenth cent ury.
BLEU.

The names Pat6 Blepii and I'Frmagi:- Bleu are applied to several kindsof hard rennet
cheese made from cow's milk in imitation of Roquefort cheese in the southeastern part
of France. Owing to the mottled, marbled, or veined appearance they are also desig-
nated Fronage Persill6. Amirniing these are Gex, S.<',eriage, and Septmoncel. This
naine i,. als applied locally to several more or less distinct kinds made in the regions
of the Auvergne and Aubrac mountains and designated Bleu d'Auvergne, Cantal,
Guiole or Lagiiile. and Saint Flour. Other cheeses of this order mentioned as made
in France arc QIeyras, Clmiapi,1(6on, Sarraz, and Journiac.

BOUDANNE.

This is a French cheese made from cow's milk. The milk, either whole or skimmed,
is heated to about S5 F., sufficient rennet is added to secure cgl.'iil.ition in one hour,
and the curd is cut to the size of peas. stirred, and heated to 100 or above. After
staniling for ten to fifteen minutes the curd is pressed by hand and put into molds 8
incihcs in di.amnieter and 3 inches in height. The cheeses are drained, turned fre-
quently. halted, and ripened fur two to three months.

BOX (FIRM).

This cheese, known in different, localities where made as Hohenburg, M,,ndspe, and
\\'eilienstcphun. i4 made from whole cow's milk and is a rather firm rennet cheese.
The fla\,;r is said to be mild but piquant. The milk is heated to 90 to 93 F. in a
kettle, is colored with saffron, and set with sufli,'iFit rennet to curdle it in twenty to
twcy -tir ziiiiiluti-. The curd is cut up as fine as peas and the contents of the kettle
are heated \ery slowly to a temperature of 105, being stirred meanwhile. The
fire is then remni\'il and the curd allowed to settle for five minutes, when the whey
is dipped off. The curd is then dipped into a cloth and from this is scooped into
hi, rips. Light pressure is applied and in fifteen minutes the cheese is turned, and the
turning i4 repeated frequently for several hours. The cheese is kept in a well-venti-
lated room. at 60' for three to five days. after which it is taken to the cellar. It is
salted Iby ruliliiig or eririnkling sa.ilt on the surface. Ripening requires from two to
three months. The cheese weighs from 1 to 4 pounds: and is undoubtedly similahto
the Brick cheese of the United States.

BOX ;SOFT|.
This is a rennet cheese made frim partially skimmed cow's milk and known locally
as Cr hachtkasce. It. is a rather uninij -rtalnt variety produced in Wfirttemberg in a
small locality called Hohcnhi'im, a njmne % which the cheese often takes.
In making this cheese the skimmed ev ening's milk is mixed with the whole morn-
ing'- minilk, or a part of the milk is skimmed with a centrifuge and is mixed with an
i qiil \olunm< of whole milk. The cheese is made in a copper kettle. The milk is
warmed to 110 F., colored with saffron, and rennet added. It is allowed to stand for
30022-Bull. 105-08-- 2






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


one to one and one-half hours before cutting. The curd is cut into rather coarse par-
ticles, after which it is allowed to stand for a few minutess% when the whey is dipped
off, and for every 200 pounds of milk used a mall handful of caraway seed Is added.
Thi. curd is then dipped into hoops 6Q inches in hight and thi' sa3mi in diameter. It
remains in these hoops for ten hours and is frequently turned, after which it is trans-
ferred to a wooden hoop only one-half as high, where it reniains for twelve hours. The
cheese is then sprinkled with salt and put in the ,ipening e,.lilar, where it remains
about three months.
A soft rennet cheese known as Frijiiiap, de Iilte is made in the mountains of Doubs,
France, in the fall. It resembles Pont 1'Evvque.
BRA.
This cheese is made by niinuads in the region of Hra in Piedmont, Italy. It is a hard
rennet cheese weighing about 12 pounds. The milk, which k partly skimmed, is
heated to about 90 F., anI srit, i.nt rennet is added iI, co:izulati' it in thirty to forty
minutes. The curd is cut to the size of rice grain, and the lh.ev rnm..ived after about
one-half of an hour. Thi, curd is put into a f-irm about 12 inches in diameter and 3
inches in bhig.hi and subjected to pressure for twtlhe to twci.nty-four hours. It is
.arIud 1,y immersion in brine and also by sprinkling salt on thn surface. The
cheese is then ripened.
BRAND.
This is a German hand cheese weighing about on-thlird [f a pound, made from sour-
milk curd cooked at a little higher temperature th.ini ordinarily practiced. The curd
is salted and allowed to ferment one day. It is then mixcd with butter, pressed into
shape and dried, and finally placed in kegs to ripen, during which process it is mois-
tened occasionally with beer.
BRICK.
The exact derivation of this name is not known. I t may have b)een adopted because
of the shape, or because ,,f the fact that bricks ai:ro used ahin,1ist LxclSiNiiely for weight-
ing down the press. Brick cheese is a rennet chc(-'i moade Ininr utiskinmiied cow's
milk, and is purely an American product. In lcharacteri-tic- it i6 abLut halfway
between Limburg and Emmental. It has a strong swect.li ta-t., a sort of elastic
texture, and many small round eyes or holes. It is mnade abbut 10 by 6 by 3 inches
in size. There are many factories making this product, e.-pcially in southern
Wisconsin.
Perfectly sweet milk is set in a vat at 8W F. U ith uiliiciccnt r'nnet to coagulate it in
twenty to thirty minutes. T'he curd is cut with (.'ihedd.ir curd knives, and is then
heated to 110 to 1"20 and stirred constantly. The cu.,king i. t.,mticint.d until the
curd has become firm enough so that a handful sILuCt'Z.'.d tIgrtleLT will fall apart when
released. The curd is then dipped into the mold. % which in a vI, \y rectangular box
without a bottom and with slits sawed in the ,.idcs tIn allow drainage. The mold is
set on the di.iiiir-, table, a follower is put on the t-undl. and 1 ur 21 ljrir'ks are used on
eath cheese for pressure. The cheeses ar, alliwi.d to remain in the molds for twenty-
four hours, when thly are rtinovid. rulbb ed all over with .alt, and pild three deep.
.The salting is done each day for threcf days, after which the clieis, i.s taken to the
rip.-,t in, cellar, which should have a temperature of from 60 tjo 50 and lbe compara-
tively moist. Ripening requires two months.
BRICKBAT.
This is a rennet cheese made as early as the eighteenth century in Wiltshire, Eng-
land. It is made from fresh milk, to which a small portion of cream has been added.
* The milk is set at about 90 F. and allowed to stand two hours before the curd is
di.turl,,d. The curd is cut coarse, dipped into Iwoder" forms, and light pressure
applied. The cheese is said to be fit for consumption for one year after being made.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


BRIE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made f'roin cow's milk. The cheese varies in size a:d
also in quality, de.ipuilhig on whether whole or partly skimmed milk is used. The
method (if manufacture closely resembles that of ('aienlihert
This cheese has been made in France for several centuries. Mention was made of
it as early as 1407. It is made tdir niugliiit Frani-c. but more extensively in the Depart-
ment of Sie i et M.irno,:,in which it doubtless ,'rigiii,i(il. This Department contains
Meaux, ',,loiniiier., and Melun, places noted fir their manufacture -if Brie cheese,
though often under local names. M,,r' or less successful imitations of this cheese are
made in othcr countries- It was estimated that 7,000,000 pounds of Brie cheese was
eold in P.aris during f000. The export trade is also very important.
The milk used is usually perfectly -fi's.'h It is not uncommon, however, to mix the
evening's miilk, when kept cool over night, with the morning's iijilk Some artificial
c.,loring matter is addled to the milk, which is then set with rennet at a temperature
of 800 to 85 F. After standing undisturbed for about two hours the curd is dipped
into forimns or hoop ls, of which there are three sizes in common use. Ti hv largest size is
about 15 inches in diameter, the medium size about 12 inches in dliaiiic.rh., and the
smialle.,t size about 6 inches in diameter. These vary in height from 2 to 3 inches.
After draining fir twenty-four hours without pressure 1.-iinig applied, the hoops are
removed and the surface of the cheese is sprinkled with salt. Charcoal is sometimes
mixed with the salt used. The -cheese is then transferred to the first iriiiin, room,
which is kept dry and well ecntil.ited. After ro,.minini'g in ihi- room foir about eight
days, the cheese becomes covered with mold. It is then transferred to the second
curing room or cellar, which is Iusuanlly very dark, imperfectly ventilated, and has a
temuleratuire of about 60 F. The cheese remains here for from two to four weeks or
until thlie cnsistencyand odor indicate that it is .-itllii icntly ripened. The red colora-
ti in which the iirf.i, e of the cheese finally acquires has been attributed to an organism
desig;natol lBat i17".s firmatatis. The ripening is due to one or more species of molds
which occur on the surface and produce enzyms which in turn cause a gradual and
pit grcssi\ c breaking down of the casein from the exterior toward the center. The
interior ,,if a ripened cheese varies in consistency from waxy to semiliquid and has a
very pronounced odor and a sharp characteristic taste.

BRINSEN.

This cheese, known locally as Laudoch, Zips, Liptau, Siebenbirgen, Neusohl, Alt-
srhli, and KIeni-. is made in the ('irjltlii.in Mountains of Silesia from A'it rp,'s milk,
or a mixture of lc1t-(i,*-| and *,.it'.s milk.
The cheese is made in small lots, only 2 to 4 gallons of milk being used at one time.
This is put into a kettle when ire.-hli and stilli(i ii.-nt rennet is added with the 1Milk at a
temperature of from 75' to S-' F. to secure coagulation in liitieen minutes. The curd
is broken up and the whey dipped and the curd is ,l.lic'.od in a linen sack and allowed
to drain for twenty-four hours. It is then cut into pieces and placed on a board, where
with frequent turnings it is .illowd to remain until it commences to get smeary, which
requires about eight days. Th.- pieces are then laid one on top of another in a vessel
holding fr.,,u 40 to 60 1iunIs, where they remain for twenty-four hours, after which
they nre rein ivedi, the rind cut away, and the curd or partially cured cheese broken up
in another vessel. After ten hours salt is stirred in and the curd run flitrumgh a mill
which cuts it very fine, when it is packed in a tub with beech shavings.

BROCCIO.

This isa sour-mnilk cheese made from sheep's mill; in Corsica. It is sometimes mixed
with sugar and rum and made into small cakes. It is similar to Ziger.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


BURGUNDY.

This cheese, known in France as Fromage le I Il,,rg, ,gne, is described as a eoft, white,
loaf-shaped cheese voigbini, about 4 ponnils.

CACIOCAVALLO.

This is a somewhat peculiar kind of cheese made fr ,ni either w hlo ior partly skimmed
cow'smilk. Various f'xpl..iiin have been made as to ilii:' o:iin ,if thie name. which
means literally horse cheese. One explanation i-ffre, l is that the lieeu.-v w"as -riginally
made in the region of Monte (Ca\;ill,. and another is that ih(. imprint i.if a horse's
head was made in each cheese as ihi trade-mark of the original ianulfaictiirer. The'
original home of this cheese was southern Itl.y, but it is now male extensively in
northern Italy as well. The history of the cheese datm.s back sever.! r' t tries.
The temperature of the coagulation of the milk with rennet \nries greatly but is
usually from 90 to 95 F. The time adllweI fur coagulation is a.ls, variable, being
usually about on-.li.ildf hour. Tio curd is cut very tinely ar.il s,,icTimuc allowed to
ferment for twenty-four hours, when it is heated by means of \ i-ry hI it water or more
commonly hot whey, and subsequently \,i] kei by hand until all the wlhey i expressed
and the curd becomes h,,m,.i'emtii and capable of being draw 1 iinut into, long threads.
It is then molded into any desired shape and salted 1by immnwpion in brine for about
two .'1.,y- The cheeses are suspended in pairs from the ceiling anl lihlitly smoked.
The surface may be rubbed with olive oil or butter. They .i.- Leli't in ai cool, dry
room until sold. As seen on the market they vary much in .si.'r ntl .-haLpe. On an
average they weigh about 3 pounds. 'lT' most common mi.iloe i- 1hat resembling a
beet, a constriction near the top being due to the string which is icl jariindl the cheese
for the purpose of hanging it up. This cheese is sometimeseater wlil, i,,mparatively
fresh but is more [iihi-ni.ly kept for months and then gratcil .il ud-ld fur flavoring
soups .ml as an ail'lii iuo to macaroni and similar fl'iild--. A small qujantity is imported
into the United States.
CAERPHILLY.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Wales frI ,n unskimmeiI c, ,w's milk. The milk
is set very sweet at a tempIerature of .'-) F. % it h ,iniigli rennet tip (.iagilate it. in one
hour. The curd is cut in i-inch cubes and stirred for one hiu r wit hitlito further heating.
It is then put in cloths and subjected to lightly pressure for an litir .in1 is again broken
up fine and put to press, where it remains with hi ily hanging fi' three dilays. During
this time ,iii.-h.ut ounce salt to each pound of curd is rubbed 0n thle surface. Each
cheese weighs about 8 pounds. The cheese requires about thiL' weeks fr ripening,
at a temperature of ,., to 70o.
CAMBRIDGE.

This is a soft rennet EntIli hL cheese made fnrni cow's milk. Milk i. .set at 90' F. and
rennet added. At the end of one hour the curd is dipped i111 mildi without cutting
and allowed to stand for thirty h1,1is. when it is re.,ly fur eating.

CAMEMBERT.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. A i yliical hliee:e is about 4
inches in diameter and 1 inches thick and is u.otliy fund on the market in this
country wi.ipp-el in paper and inclosed in a wooden box of the same shape. The
cheese usually has a rindl about ince-eighth Of an inch in thickne's which is composed
of mulds and dried cheese. The interior is yellowish in color and waxy,. creamy, or
almost fluid in consistency, derendling largely upon the degree of ripeness.
Camembert cheese is :.di.l to have originatedd in 1791 in the locality from which it
derives its name in the Department of Orne. in the northwestern part of France The






VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 13

industry extended soon ino llvaios and these two Departments are slill the prin-
cipal seat of he inul ustr'. C'lieepe tf the same type, however, is made in other parts of
France and nl-, in other c,, nim ies; an ing Ilhe-e are C,,mpig'ie (',intenruin, Pavilion,
Soumnaintrain ajnl Tliury-ru-V.,l'i-. Very .ii<"t ('sful results have been obtained at
the Stours Agricultural E'xperinint Staii,,iin in Connecticut.
C'amemhl-rt clihecse i made ir.m ii whole i.s-lh milk or from milk which has been
partly skimmed. The evening's milk may be skimmed and mixed %itli the fri sh
inmorning's milk. The tenperaiture tii siiiiig is about 80 to S.) F., and the uilainlily
of rnnoet acdil. I,-r this pilrlh,.... is tnlli'i,,nt l,, secure the desired dIgr,,' of firmness in
asout w,' liuiir<. Th. t inrl fiq tilln transferred usually % illi as little lir.aldkii up as
pqss.ibljle, t, ptrfiraitid tin i, rin ,r hloops about 41 inches in diameter and the same
in height. Thi-s, reoi lipi nis ulita ts which permit frr. draitun,. Til filling of the
fi-rnis may It, dnr,- at Iw o .r thlri-. ines separated by short intervals allowed for il,-,
curd I; .ia.tlh. fl.hi fir hils ilh,. equivalent in curd of about 2 quarts of milk.
Afltr driiiinig fl1r ailuil ( ighilt.nii uIi7rs, and preferably in a room l.i\ iii. a iiiiiIirmi
teimperat',ir ,l o;.'- I,, 711. ihi lito,.s,- i.s turned. This is repeated frequently for about
Iwo days, \li1.i I li lii.. i- i' .n i. I r. min the forms and salted on the outside. T"'i
or three diays. ].lit r Ilhi ll..- i-i r.iit-trr,.l to a well-ventilated room where the ripen-
ing iroc',ss l.,i..is. Til .l-r.-, rri'.tins here for lil- t 1 i to 1 wo.1K days, during which
line it is turlinI vere fIr,.haltly Ia ,l the surface becomes covered with molds, which
gradually prodiu i- "I hIrakiiig d ,\ ui of the casein. It is li'ii taken to the (1imi.11
cellar, where r hl, riplenini iur< a. i- ,,mpleted in about three weeks, when it ii packed
and mniarkethl.
CANQUILLOTE.

This is a skinmi-mnilk chlisr- niatl. in the eastern part of France. It is also known
locally as Frnir,,ng;re. and T.niptme. The milk is allowed to coagulate spontaneously,
after whichli it is ltii',l gently an, I llh whey drawn tff. Th, curd is pressed in order
tI remove, as min'hi if he whi. as ia's.i1l, crumbled fin-, and fermented at a temper-
ature of about ;0 F. f,,r Iwo ,r iithri- lays, ditring which time it is stirred fr.,ju.t-nily.
When thel' chIs- hIas atqiiiriil iit i har.icteri-i ii taste it is melted with the addition of
waler, salt, eg-j, and 1-,iitt.r anild iput into molds of various kinds.

CANTAL.

This is a hard rennet che-se nmatri from cow's milk more or less skimmed. Its
manufacture is extensie in the li).p.artment of Cantal, France. It is also known as
Auvergne or Aw^irgrn- Blue -n at ci int of its being manufactured in the region of the
Auvergne Mounitainis. I.,,cally lie cheese is commonly known as Fourme. The
cheese is cloulithlss a vry HII varifl-ty and il,- method of manufacture has remained
quite primitive. The milk, visually fresh but sometimes several hours old, is set with
rennet at a temperature (f alhout So5 F., lthl time allowed for coagulation being about
thirty miuuties. Thit- curl is th(i-n i itn v-ry finely and the whey dipped off. Thi- curd
is suhijcctled ti pressure in ird,-r tI, remove as much of the whey as p,,-sibbi, and is
allowed tu fiurmuent liart, tw(-iinty-fitir hliurs. which process is considered very important.
The curd is then broken up ILy hand or by mat hiirv,- and salted at the rate of 2.5 to 3
per cent. When thoroughly krneadle d it is put into hoops about 14 inches in diameter.
Pressure is applied lor about twvo days, during which time it is turned xv.ry frequently.
The cheese is -text transferr.d to the curing c liar, where it remains for six weeks to
six months. TIte yield (f cheese is usually 10 to 11 per cent of the weight of the milk.
A ripened cheese weight from -10 to 120 pounds.
/
CHAMPOLEON.

Champokl'-on, or Queyras, is a" hard rennet cheese made from skim milk in the
Department of Hautes-Alpes, France.






14 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.
CHAOURCE.

Thik is a s.''t whole-milk rennet cheese resembling Camembert and deriving its
name from the village of Chaource, in fli-i Department rif Aube, France. It is about
4 inches in diameter and 3 inches thick.

CHASCHOL DE CHASCHOSIS.

This cheese is made in the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland. It is a hard rennet
cheese mnade from sk iiini-ld cow's milk. The chf-,sis are 18 to 22 inches in diameter,
3 to 4 inches high, and weigh from 22 to 40 pi-unds.

CHEDDAR.

This cheese is so named 'rfm the village of ('heddar in Somersetshire, England,
where it was first made. It is a c'niiparative ly old ehce though the genuine
Ch'.,I-l.i- process as it is now known is not il. t"heldar cliecF' is an exceedingly
popular variety, being much used as a f_,, prndurt in Aii.ritra and England. It is
probably the most important of all cheeses as rg-ards th. vilant ity made annually.
Thi. term Ch, hi.tr as used at the present time applies usually to a process of making
rather than to any particular shape of cheese. The name, lhwt'vir, is occasionally
used to di.-i.IdtJ- a certain :i;', of cheese 14 to 14' inches in diaii-ter, and weighing
from 60 to 100 pounds. Cheese made by the Chi-1.ilar p:rFcess has, however, many
different shapes with distinguishing names, such as Flats, which have the same
diameter as the <'l-tdd.ir size but weigh only 3) t, i0 pounds: Daisies, which are 12
inches in diameter and weigh 20 puinl-k: Yrung Arnmcricas, which are 8 inches in
diameter and weigh 8 to 12 pi.iundis; Long IIMns. which are 5 inches in diameter
and weigh 12 p1und:; and Squares, which ax.r (if various sizes andi usually 3 to 4
inches thick. The cheese may be white or colrnd yellow, and it may be almost
fresh or tihroughly ripened and broken down. It i; made from sweet cow's milk,
which may be skimmed, partly skimmed, or iinskimn.-d. h1ien made from un-
skimmed milk the eh.'.so is called "'full cream ;" wlih-n ,therwis'n. it is called "part
skim" or "skim."
The- mill, morning's and cv'ening's mixed, is set at SM F. with sufficient rennet to
coagulate to the proper point in from twenty-five to forty minutes. At the time of
setting the milk should have an at idity of abuiit 0.IS t.1 0.20 per cent. Color may
or may not be used. The curd is cut whei it br,-aks evenly before, the finger. The
cutting is (lone with curd knives. These knivrs arv made utip tf blades set about
one-third of an inch apart in frames. In oneframne the knives are set perpendicularly
and in the other horizontally. Vlhrn, well cut the curd is in uniform cubes of about
one-third of an inch.
After tf lit in the curd is heated slowly and with continued stirring until it reaches
a temperature of f'riin 96 to 108. WVith the ,se (,f minechanical agitators, as is the
common practice, the curd should beheated about .1 de-grecs higher than when stirring
is done by hand. After heating the diningg is (iitntinued intermittently until the
curd is sufficiently firm. This is determined by Fqueezinrt a liandfuil, which should
fall apart immediately on 1)b.ing releas,.l. Thi' whly is then drawn. At the same
time the acid should have reached about 0.2)0 le.r cent or ',ne-fourth of an inch on the
hot iron, h.'i,.h latter is determined by measuring the linglith f strings when the
curd is touched to a hot iron. The curd is then matted about 4 inches deep, some-
times in the bottom of the vat, sometimes on racks covered with a coarse linen cloth.
After it has remained here long enough to stick together it, is cut into rectangular
pieces easy to lihanidleh., which are turned frequently and finally piled two to four
deep; in the n .- wlihle the temperature of the curd is kept at about 90a. When
the curd has broken down until it has the smooth feeling of velvet, which requires
from one to three hours, it is milled by means of a machine, which cuts it into pieces





VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


the size if a finger. It is then stirred on tl, < liottoin of the vat until whey ceases to
run, which requiiirs from onie-half to one and one-lilf hours, when it is 'allid at the
rate of 2 to 2, poiind-" if !alt t, 100 pounds of milk. It is then ready to'put in press.
The curd is put inl,, tinned iron hoops of the proper size, whiich are lined with
chel.-.-cloth I aindai-. I Tlie 1 jops are put in presses and great pressure is applied
by meaus if .-crws. The next morning the cheese is removed from the hoops and
put Pn lshel\vs in a curing room. Formerly the cheese was kept in a curing room as
long as six mnintlihs, but at the present time it is covered with a coat of paratlin and
put in eold l suirage when three to twelve days of age. Th.r, is a gr,.,ing demand
on the part iff consu,-ners for mild cheese, and onin.qut-ntly ripening must be carried
on at a enmpiratuir. below 500.
An iimp)rlant pinit in the pr-ces, of manijfartuirin- Cli'helar cheese is tihe- develop-
ment of the c.lsirel1 amount of acid. A maximum quantity in the whey that can
be developed wiiluit injuring lthe texture of the cheese is aimed at, and the proper
breaking down of "lie curd before millin- and q.dtini is attributed to the acid. It
is very probabl, th.ui too much weight has been placed on the di -.ir.ibilitv of a maxi-
mium d-vel ipinnl of ncid, and that practically as g,,id cheese can be produced
wilhlut thli' hi hli acid.
CHESHIRE.

This cheese is one of the oldest and most popular of the Engli.-hli varieties. It is a
rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk, and is named for I'lil-i ,r County,
Enigland. where it is largely produced. It is made in cylindrical shape from 14 to 16
inchi-s in dian.it-r, and w,.igh. 50 to 70 pounds. In making this cheese .uffli- i-nt
annatti, is used to give the product a very hig-h color. The process of manufacture
varies in detail in different sections. Perfectly sweet milk, night's and morning's
mixed, is set at a fcEml,.rjturin. of from 750 to 90 F. Their curd is cut in one hour,
usually with an instrument in which knives are set in a frame to cut cubes 1 to 11
inches square. This is pushed down thrilighl the curd and finally worked back and
forth at aa n angle. This is continued until the particles of curd are the size of p as,
which require, ab,.ut one hour. The curd is then allowed to settle and mat on the
bottom 1of the vat frr about an hliur, when it is rolled up to one end, wvi.iglbid d.-wn,
and tlhi whey drawn after the desired degree of acidity has been o1itained The curd
is (ut in pi-ces the right size to handle and is piled on racks. It is then run through
a curd mill, sailed at the rate of 3 pounds to 1,000 pounds of milk, and put into a
hoop having a numil),r i', holes in the side through which skewers can be thrust into
the chliees, to promote drainage. Tihe cheese in the hoop is put in a heated wooden
box called an oven, and sometimes light pressure is up]lii-l, thu pressure increasing
gradually utint il it reaches aiit 1 ton. The curing cellar or room is about C,)0 to 65.
From eight to ten mniinlhs. is required for thorough ripening..

CHESHIRE-STILTON.

This is a crnmlinatlin. of the Cheishire and Stiltn varieties of cheese in which the
general charartorilti,.- -f size and shape and manufacture of ih,- Cheshire is retained,
and a growth of the mold peculiar to Stilton is secured. Th,- mold is secured by
keeping out each day a mall piltion of curd aind mixing it with some curd in which
the mold is growing well.
CHIAVARI.
This is a sour-milk cheese made in the region of Chiavari, Italy, from whole cows'
milk. It is also known as Cacio Romano. A hard rennet cheese made in the same
region is also known by this name.






16 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

COMMISSION.

This cheese is made in Holland and resembles Edam in the process of manufacture,
but it has a slightly different shape, being flattened at the ends. It is said to be made
from whole cow's milk.
COTHERSTONE.
This is a rennet cow's-milk cheese made in Yorkshire, England, and resembles the
well known Stilton cheese of that country. It is a local product manufactured only
on a small scale. It has also been known a- Yorkshirt-Stiltn.

COOKED.
This kind of cheese is so calle-d because the curd ik heated to the melting point in
its manufacture. It is made from fresh curd prepared by breaking up and heating
the curd of sour clabbered milk. When cooled :ulf.icientlyv this curd is placed in a
receptacle and allowed to stand fir three or fiur d.iys until it has become colored
throughout. It is then put into a kettle over a liwi; salt, milk, and usually caraway
seed are added, and the whole is stirre-d vigorously until it bectomues of the consistency
of thick molasses, or until it si rings when a spoon i-i withdrawn. The mass can then
be put into molds until it becomes cold, or placed in a vessel for keeping. It gets
hard with cooling and will retain the shape of th miIild.
Cooked cheese, made in northern Germany, i.s called Topfen, and a similar product
made in Sardinia is called Freiaa, and Paneiilas. The same kind of cheese made in
Belgium is called Belgian cooked cheese. Similar kinds are made in other countries.

COTTAGE.

This is a sour-milk cheese made extensively in this country, where it is often called
Dutch cheese, and Smear-case. It is manufactured usually in a very small way,
but occasionally it is made in large factories. Skim milk is allowed to soir and the
curd is then broken up and held at a temperature of about 100 F. for three to four
hours, or until it has become stlit iently firm. The whey is then drained off and the
curd placed under slight pressure for a time. The (urd is either consumed imme-
diately or is packed in tubs and placed in cold storage. It is prepared for eating by
moistening with either milk or cream. Sometimes it is made up into shapes and
wrapped in tin fil. No ripening is ever allowed.

COULOMMIERS.
This is a small-sizedl Brie cheese 5 t1 6 inches in diameter and 1 inch in thickness,
and weighing aluut 1 pound. It is nmade in [lthe regi,,n of ('ulommiers, France.

CREAM.

Genuine cream cheese is made from a ri, hli cream thickened by souring, or from
sweet cream thickened with rennet. This is put in a cluth and allowed to drain, the
cloth being changed several times diiring. the draining. which requires about four days.
It is then placed on a board covered with a cloth, sprinkled with salt, and turned
occasionally. It isready fr 'consumpti,.n in from five to ten days.
Another variety of cream cheese is made from cream with a low content of fat (12 to
15 per cent). The cream is curdled with rennet, bruken up to allow a part of the
whey to escape, and is then mixed and worked into almost a paste. This is then
molded into pieces weighing 2 to 4 ounces, which are wrapped in tin foil and placed
on the market without curing. It is a very mild and a very rich cheese and is manu-
factured on an extensive scale by a few large factories in the United States.
A so-called double-cream cheese, known in France as Fromage Double Creme, is
made by coagulating a mixture of milk and cream and putting this into a cloth and






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


allowing it to drain thoroughly, when it is salted, kneaded, and molded into any
desired shape. It is eaten fresh. The Gervais is a cheese of this kind.
A French cream cheese, Fromage h la Creme, is prepared by mixing sweet cream
with well-ripened sour-milk curd or rennet curd. Another French cream cheese,
which contains considerable salt as a preservative, is known as Demi-sel. There are
in addition several cream cheeses having specific names, such as Philadelphia cream.

CREUSE.
This is, a skim-milk farm cheese made in the Department of the same name in
France. Coagulation is secured either by the addition of a small quantity of rennet
or by heating the sour milk. When set with rennet the period required is usually
twelve hours. The curd is put into earthenware molds about 7 inches in diameter
and 5 to 6 inches in height, the bottom and sides being perforated. After draining for
several days the cheese is removed from the molds, salted, and turned frequently.
It becomes in time very dry and hard and may be preserved for a year or longer. The
cheese is also ripened by placing in tightly closed receptacles lined with straw, in
which case it becomes yellow and soft and acquires a very pronounced taste.

CRISTALINNA.
This a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the Canton of Graubtinden,
Switzerland.
DAMEN.
This is a soft uncured rennet cheese made from cow's milk in Hungary and is much
in demand in the markets of Vienna. It is sometimes known as Gloire des Montagnes.

DANISH EXPORT.
This cheese is made in some of the creameries of Denmark to furnish an outlet for
the skim milk and the buttermilk. In the process of manufacture as high as 15 per
cent of fresh buttermilk is added to the skim milk. The mixture is set at 98 F. with
sufficient rennet to coagulate in twenty-five minutes. The curd is carefully and
evenly cut, stirred for a few minutes, dipped into forms having rounded bottoms,
kneaded, pressed down, and finally covered with a board upon which a weight is
placed. Twelve hours later the cheeses are placed in a brine tank for twenty-four
hours, when they are taken out and covered with salt for a short time. They are then
transferred to the ripening room where the temperature is about 55 and are turned
and wiped with a cloth every day for five weeks. The cheeses are cylindrical in shape
and are small and flat.
DERBYSHIRE.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk in Derbyshire, England.
It is cylindrical in shape and about the size of the Cheshire, though often smaller. It
is made usually in farm dairies, and because of this fact the size varies with the size
of the herd. The quality also varies to such an extent that very few really good
cheeses can be found. Night's milk -in which the development of acid has been
prevented as much as possible is mixed with the morning's milk and the whole is set
at a temperature of 80 F. The setting period is one hour and the curd is allowed to
become very firm before cutting. The curd is cut to the size of a pea and after being
allowed to settle is piled in the center of the vat, where after the whey is removed it is
subjected to light pressure. The curd is cut and again piled and heavier pressure
applied. This is repeated until the curd reaches a certain degree of firmness, when it
is run through a mill and salted at the rate of 1 pound of salt to 1,000 pounds of milk.
It is then put in a press for one hour, when it is removed and the surface of the cheese
scalded for one minute in water heated to 150. It is put back in the press for five
30022-Bull. 105-08---3






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


hours, the pressure applied being gradually increased, when it is salted on the surface
and again pressed. The pressing continues for three days, the cheese being salted
each day. The curing room is kept preferably at 60, and the time required for curing
is from three to four months.
A cheese called Gloucester made in the county of Gloucester, England, is said to
be identical with Derbyshire cheese. Double Gloucester is identical with single
Gloucester in all respects but size. It is twice as thick as a single Gloucester, hence
the name. Wiltshire, Leicestershire, and Warwickshire cheeses belong to the Der-
byshire type.
DEVONSHIRE CREAM.

In making this cheese the cream is allowed to rise for several hours, when the milk
with the layer of cream is scalded. It is then set away for a short time in order that
the layer of cream may harden. The cream is then put into small molds and placed
upon straw mats to drain. After becoming hard enough to retain its shape it is ready
-for market.
DORSET.

Dorset, or Blue Dorset, is a cheese resembling in character and method of manu-
facture the better known Stilton. It is named from Dorsetshire, England, in which
it is made.
DOTTER.

This cheese is said to have been made by G. Leuchs, in Niirnberg, by mixing the
yolk of eggs with skim milk and making this mixture into cheese in the usual way.

DRY.

This cheese, known also as Sperrkase and Trockenkaiise, is made in the eastern part
of the Bavarian Alps and in the Tyrol, in the small dairies of those localities. It is
an extremely simple product made for home consumption, and is made only in the
winter season, when the milk can not be profitably used for other purposes. As soon
as the milk is skimmed it is put into a large kettle which can be swung over a fire.
Here it is kept warm until it is thoroughly thickened from souring. It is then broken
up and cooked quite firm. A small quantity of salt and sometimes some caraway
seed are added and the curd is put into forms of various sizes. It is then placed in a
drying room, where it becomes very hard, when it is ready for eating.

DUEL.

This is a ;oft cured rennet cheese made from cow's milk. It is an Austrian prod-
uct, 2 by 2 by 1 inches in size.
DUNLOP.

This was formerly the national cheese of Scotland, but it has been almost super-.
seded by the Cheddar, which it resembled.

EDAM.

This is a hard rennet cheese produced in Holland; it is also known as Katzenkopf,
TWte de Maure, and Manbollen. The best of the product is made of unskimmed cow's
milk, but much of it at the present time is made from milk which has had at least
one-half of the fat removed. The cheeses are round and are colored deep red on the
surface or wrapped in tin foil.
The perfectly fresh milk is set at 90 to 95 F. Color is added and sufficient rennet
is used to coagulate the milk in fifteen minutes. The curd is cut and after a very short
stirring is allowed to settle to the bottom, when the whey is dipped off. The curd is
gathered in a pile and pressure is applied for a short time to expel the whey. Care is






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


taken in the meanwhile that, the curd does not get below "2'0 or above 90. The curd
is then ready for the press. Soimet ini.s wooden molds are used, but the best are made
of iron. An attempt is made to put just sufficient curd into the mold to make a perfect
sphere when pressed. When the mold is halif full a little salt is added. When lt,
mold is full, it is pressed lightly until the cheese will hold its form, when it is taken out
and immersed in water for two minutes at 1254. The cheese is then put in the press,
where it remains for twelve hours. It is th.-n removed from the mold and placed in
another form resembling the mold but without a cover, and ha ing a hole leading from
the bottom. The cheese is salted by rubbing salt on the surface. Sometimes it is
kept in a salt bath for a day before putting salt on the surface. IFullnwing the salting,
the cheese is washed in hot whey, and thin surface is scraped smooth. It is thou taken
to the ripening cellar, which should have a temperature of between 50 and 70. Here
it is turned daily for a time and finally twice a week. In the meanwhile it is occasion-
ally moistened with cold wateror fresh beer. When the cheese is one month old it is
washed in water at 70 for twenty minutes and then placed in the sun to dry, after
which it is rubbed with linseed oil. Before shipping the cheese is colored, usually
red, but for some markets it is colored yellow with annatto. This coloring is done with
a watery), solution of litmus and Berlin red, or with carmine. A considerable quantity
of this cheese is imported into the United States. At the present time some Edam
cheeses are inclosed in air-tight tins for export.

ELBING.
This is a West Prussian hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk which, during the
winter, is partly skimmed but at other times left whole. It is known also as Werder-
kiise, and Niederungskase. Enough rennet is added to the milk at a temperature of
80 F. ti coagulate it in from fifteen to thirty minutes. The curd is cut and cooked to
100, salted in the granular state, and pressed for twelve hours. A cheese is 10 to 20
inches in diameter and 3 to4 inches in thickness. Ripening requires about one month
at a temperature of 75.
EMMENTAL.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk, and has a mild,
somewhat sweetish flavor. It is characterized by holes or eyes which develop to about
the size of a penny in typical cheeses and are situated from 1 to3 inches apart. Cheese
. of the same kind made in the United States is known as Domestic Swiss, and that made
in the region of Lake Constance is called Algau Emmental. Other local names are
Bellunese. Formaggio Dolce, Fontine d'Aosta, and Thraanen.
Emmental cheese originated in the Canton of Emmental. Switzerland. It is a very
old variety. In the middle of the fifteenth century a cheese probably of this type
was manufactured in the Canton of Emmental. In the middle of the seventeenth
century the industry was well developed and genuine Emmental cheese was bring
exported. In 1722 its manufacture unde'i the name of Gruyere is recorded in France,
two cooperative societies having been organized for this purpose.
Emmental cheese is now manufactured in every civilized country. In the United
States there are many factories, located principally in \\i.-cn.in, New York, and
Ohio. In Switzerland the greater part of the milk produced is made into this product,
and large districts in France and northern Italy are devoted to its miniiuifaiturc. The
best of the product made in Switzerland is exported, about 5,000,000 pounds coming
to the United States annually. The imported cheese sells in this country at about 25
cents a pound wholesale, and the domestic cheese sells at about 14 cents. Practically
as good cheese can be manufactured in the United States as in Switzerland, but
prejudice, combined with the fact that much of the domestic product is sold as
imported, has held the price at a low level.
There is a slight difference in manipulation of the milk in making Emmental
cheese in this country as compared with Switzerland. In the latter country the






20 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

evening's and morning's milk are made up together, while in the United States it
is popularly believed that the evening's milk must be made into cheese immediately
after milking, as is done with the morning's milk.
In making the cheese in Switzerland the evening's milk is skimmed; the fresh
morning's milk is heated to 108 to 110 F. and the cream from the evening's milk
is added and well stirred in. The cooled evening's milk with a little saffron is then
added and the whole is mixed. The milk is then brought to a temperature of 90
in summer and 95 in winter and sufficient rennet is added to coagulate the milk
in thirty to forty minutes. The whole process is carried through in a huge copper
kettle holding 300 gallons of milk. The rennet used is the calf's stomach soaked
for twenty-four hours in whey. When the milk has thickened to almost the desired
point for cutting, which is practically the same as for ordinary American or Cheddar
cheese, the thin surface layer is scooped off and turned bottom side up. This is
supposed to aid in incorporating the layer of cream with the cheese. The curd is
then cut very coarse by means of a so-called harp. The cheese maker with a wooden
scoop in each hand then draws the mass of curd toward him. that lying on the bottom
of the kettle being brought to the surface. At this point the cheese maker and an
assistant commence stirring the curd with the harp, a breaker having first been fitted
to the inside of the kettle to interrupt the current of the whey and curd. The harps
are given a circular motion and cut the curd very fine-about the size of wheat ker-
nels or smaller.
After this stage is reached heating is commenced. In Switzerland all of the heat-
ing until re-cently was done over an open fire, the kettle being swung on a large crane,
and most of the factories have the same method at the present time. In this country
the same method was followed in the early days of the industry, but at the present
time inclosed fireplaces into which the kettle can be swung and doors closed to retain
the heat are largely employed. This takes away much of thrf- discomfort of the oper-
ation. In a few instances the kettles are set in cement and an iron car containing
the fire is run under it. The more modern factories employ steam, and this appears
to be the most satisfactory way. When the heating is begun the contents of the kettle
are brought rapidly to the desired temperature, which may be from 126 to 140, the
higher temperature often being necessary to get the curd sufficiently firm. The stir-
ring in the meanwhile continues for about one hour, with slight interruptions near
the end of the process when the curd has become so firm that it will not mat
together. The end of the cooking is determined by the firmness of the curd, which -
is judged by matting a small cake with pressure by the hands and noting the ease
with which thiL cake breaks when held by the edge.
When the curd is sufficiently firm the contents of the kettle are rotated rapidly
and allowed to come to a standstill as the momentum is lost. This brings all the
curd into a cone-shaped pile in the center of the kettle. One edge of a heavy linen
cloth resembling burlap is wrapped around a piece of hoop iron and by this means
the cloth is slipped under the pile of curd. The mass of curd is then raised from
the whey by means of a rope and pulley and lowered into a cheese hoop on the
draining table. These hoops are 4 to 6 inches deep and vary greatly in diameter.
The cloth is folded over the cheese, a large follower is put on top. and the press is
allowed to come down on the cheese. The press is usually a log swung at one end
and operated by a double lever. Pressure is continued for the first time just long
enough for the curd mass to retain its shape The hoop is then removed, the cheese
turned over, and a dry cloth substituted. The cheese is allowed to remain in the
press about twenty-four hours, during which time it is turned and a dry cloth sub-
stituted several times (six or more).
At the end of the pressing the curd should be a homogeneous mass without holes.
The cheese is then removed to the salting board, covered with a layer of salt, and
turned occasionally. In a day or two it is put in the salting tank in a brine strong






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


enough to float an egg; it remains here at the discretion of the cheese maker for one
to four days. Often no brine tank is used with.Emmental cheese.
The cheese is thin taken to the curing cellar. In the best factories two or more
cellars with different temperatures are available and the cheeses are placed in them
according to the way the cheese maker thinks their development, requires. If it
appears that the cheese may develop too fast and have too many and too large eyes,
the cheese is placed in a cool cellar; if the reverse is true, a warm cellar is selected.
The cellars vary in temperature from 55 to 65, though in extreme cases 70 or a
little higher may be used. %While the cheeses are in the ripening cellar, which in
Switzerland may be sixto ten months or longer, and in the United States three to six
months, they should be turned and washed every other day for the first two or three
months and at longer intervals subsequently, and at the same time a little coarse
salt is sprinkled on the surface. In a few hours this salt has dissolved and the brine
is spread over thebsurface with a long-handled brush.
The.cheeses are very large, about 6 inches in thickness and sometimes as much
as 4 feet in diameter, and weigh from 60 to 220 pounds. In shipping, a number
of them are placed in a tub which may contain 1,000 pounds of cheese. Sometimes
Emmental cheese is made up in the form of blocks instead of like millstones. The
blocks are about 28 inches long and 8 inches square in the other dimensions.
ENGADINE.
This is made in the Canton of Graubiinden, Switzerland, and is a rennet cheese
made from unskimmed cow's milk.
ENGLISH DAIRY.
This name is applied to a very hard cheese, made in the same general way as Ched-
dar, but cooked much more. This cheese has been made mostly in the United States.
It is used for culinary purposes.
EPOISSE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from whole or partly skimmed milk in the Depart-
ment of Cote d'Or, France.
ERVY.
This is a soft whole-milk rennet cheese resembling Camembhert and deriving its
name from the village if Ervy, in the Department of Aube. France. A cheese is
about 7 inches in diameter, 2j inches thick, and weighs about 4 pounds.
FARM.
This cheese, made in France, and known variously as Fromage a la Pie, Mou, Maigre,
and Ferme, is essentially the same as our Cottage cheese. The method of making is
very simple. When the skimmed milk has become curdled the whey is poured off
and the curd kneaded and molded into various sizes and shapes. Draining is some-
times hastened by placing a board and weight upon the curd. Salt and sometimes
sweet cream are added. The cheese is consumed usually on the farm where made
either while fresh or after it has undergone fermentation.
FILLED.
Filled cheese is the name applied to cheese from which the butterfat has been re-
moved and foreign fats added. The foreign fat is added by stirring it violently in the
milk and setting with sufficient rennet to coagulate quickly. The rest of the manu-
facture is the same as for Cheddar cheese. Filled cheese was very extensively manu-
factured in the United States for a number of years, but State and Federal laws have
made this no longer practical. Many of the European varieties of cheese are counter-
feited or adulterated in the same manner.






22 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

FLOWER.

This cheese is so named because it is made with the addition of the petals of various
kinds of flowers, such as roses and marigolds. It is a soft-cared rennet cheese made
in England fri 'm whole cow's milk.

FORMAGELLE.

Thisisa small s.,fr ripened rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the northwestern
part of Italy.
FORMAGGINI.

This name is applied to several kinds of small Italian cheeses. The kind designated
Firmagiiii di Lecco is a small cylindrical dessert cheese weighing about 2 ounces,
made in the region at all stages of ripening until it becomes very piquant. Sometimes salt, pepper,
sugar, and cinnamon are mixed with this cheese, and occasionally oil and vinegar are
added. The method of manufacture is not essentially different from that of other soft
cheeses. Cow's milk is used with the addition at times of some goat's milk. Rennet
is added to ihei warmed milk, which is then allowed to stand for twenty-four hours at a
temperature of a iui to drain for three to four hours, when it is salted and put into cylindrical molds about
1P inches in diameter and 2 inches high.

FROMAGE FORT.

Several kinds of cooked cheese prepared in France are known by this name. In
the Department if Ain, Fromage Fort is prepared by melting well-drained skim-milk
curd, putting the melted nmass into a cloth, and subjecting it to pressure and afterward
burying it in dry ashes in order to remove as much of the whey as possible. The mass,
is then grated fine and allowed to ferment for eight to ten days, after which milk,
butter, salt, pepper, wine, etc., are added to it, and the mixture isallowed to undergo
further fermentation.
Canquillote, Cancoillotte, or Fruimagre, prepared in the eastern part of France, is a
cheese of this kind, as is also the Fondue, or cooked cheese, of Lorraine.

GAMMELOST.

Gammelost is made in Norway fromni skimmed sour milk. The milk is cooked or
warmed in a kettle and allowed to stand for one hour while the precipitated casein
gathers at the bottom. This is taken up in a cloth and the whole is put into a form
where light pressure is applied. The cheese still in the cloth in the form is put in the
hot v licy for an hour. when it is again placed under pressure for a short period. It
is put in a warm placeand turned daily. At the end of fourteen days it is packed in
a chest wit h wet straw. The cheeses vary in weight from 24 to 65 pounds.

GAUTRAIS.
This is a cylindrical cheese weighing about 5 pounds and very closely resembling
Port du Salut. It is made in the Department of Mayenne, France.

GAVOT.
This cheese is made from cow's, sheep's, or goat's milk in the Department of Hautes-
Alpes, France.
GEHEIMRATH.

This is a cheese made in small quantities in Holland. It resembles a small Gouda
cheese in quality and process of mnianufacture. It is colored a deep yellow. -






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


GPROME.

This is a soft rennet cheese made in the mountainous regions of the Vosges, France.
The name is a corruption of Gerardmer, a village in the region where the cheese has
been made fur at least fifty years. The variety is very similar to M iinster, but not so
well known.
Cow's milk is used almost exclusively, though at times a little goat's milk is added.
The freshly milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 80 to 90 F. In about
one-half hour after adding the rennet the curd is cut into rather large cubes and allowed
to stand for about one hour when the whey is dipped off. The curd is then put into
cylindrical forms or hoops 6 to 7 inches in diameter. Formerly these were made of
wood, one being placed upon another, making total height of 14 to 15 inches. They
are now being made also of tin and in various sizes. The cheeses are turned after 6
hours and again after 12 hours. During the next two or three days they are turned
twice daily, the hoops being changed each time. A room temperature between 60
and 70 is desired during this process. The cheeses are then salted, the amount of
salt used being from 3 to 3.5 per cent of the weight of the cheese.
The cheeses are then placed in a well-ventilated room for several days and when
sufficiently dry are transferred to the curing cellar. Here they are turned frequently
and worked with warm salt water to prevent the growth of molds. Ripening requires
from six weeks to four months, depending upon the size of the cheeses, which vary in
weight from one-half pound to 5 pounds or more. Anise is sometimes incorporated
with the curd before putting into the forms. Such cheese when oldoftenhas agreenish
appearance.
GERVAIS.
This is a French cheese made from a mixture of whole milk and cream. The mix-
ture is set with rennet at about 65 F., the time required being about 12 hours. The
curd is then inclosed in cloth and hung up to drain. When sufiitlicintly dry it is
sal ted and pressed into molds. The molds are soon removed and the cheese is wrapped
in paraffin paper. The cheese is usually consumed while fresh, but may be kept for
several days.
GEX.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk. It belongs to the class of blue
or marbled cheese known in France as Fromage Persill," which includes Sassenage,
Septmoncel, and several other kinds resembling Roquefort. It is made principally
in the southeastern part of France and derives its name from the town of Gex in.the
Department of Ain, where the cheese has been made for at least sixty years. There
has been little tendency for the industry to extend to other regions than that in which
it originated, and even here it is said to be diminishing.
Rennet is added to the fresh milk as soon as possible after milking. The time
allowed for coagulation is one and one-half to two hours. The curd is then broken up
and stirred until the mass is in a semiliquid condition, when it is allowed to stand
for about ten minutes. After the curd has settled to the bottom of the vat the whey
is drained off. The curd is then worked by hand, salted lightly, and put into hoops
about 12 inches in diameter and 5 inches in height. In about one hour the cheese is
turned and a disk and weight placed upon it. The turning is repeated three or four
times a day,the hoops being removed at the end of the first day. After salting, the
cheese is taken to the curing room, where it soon acquires a bluish appearance, due
to the development of a penicillium. This mold is not introduced -into the interior
of the cheese during making by means of mottled bread, as is the case with Roquefort
cheese. The ripening process, which requires from three to four months, is completed
in cellars or natural caves. A ripened cheese weighs from 14 to 15 pounds.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


GISLEV.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Denmark from skimmed cow's milk.

GLUMSE.
This cheese is made from sour skimmed milk in western Prussia. The thickened
milk is placed over a slow fire at about 105 F. and is cooked as long as any whey is
expelled. The cooking may be done by pouring hot water into the milk. After
cooking, the curd is removedfrom the whey with a perforated dipper and is allowed to
drain in a hair sieve. Milk or cream is added to the cheese just before eating. This
is evidently a cottage cheese.
GOAT'S MILK.
There are a large number of goat's-milk cheeses, rrany of which are not designated
by local names. In France some of these are known by the names Chevret or Chev-
rotin, in Italy as Formaggio di Capra, and in German-speaking countries as Ziegenkise
or Gaiskisli. Among those in France to which local names have been attached are
Gratairon, Lamothe, and Poitiers.
The Gaiskasli is a soft cheese made in certain parts of Germany and Switzerland.
The milk is set with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in about 40 minutes. The curd is
then broken up, stirred, and dipped into cylindrical molds about 3 inches in diameter.
The mold is filled sufficiently to make a cheese U to 2 inches thick and weighing one-
half pound. The mold is set on a straw mat which allows the whey to drain freely,
and salt is sprinkled on the surface. In two days the cheese is turned and the otler
surface is salted. The cheese requires about three weeks to ripen and is said to have a
very pleasant flavor.
A kind of cheese is made in Norway by drying goat's milk by boiling, fresh milk or
cream sometiimes being added during the process.

GORGONZOLA.
This variety, known also as Stracchino di Gorgonzola, is a rennet Italian cheese
made from whole cow's milk. The name is taken from the village of Gorgonzola, near
Milan, but very little of this cheese is now made in that immediate locality. The
interior of the cheese is mottled or veined with a penicillium much like Roquefort,
and for this reason the cheese has been grouped with the Roquefort and Stilton varie-
ties. As seen upon the markets in this country, the surface of the cheese is covered
with a thin coat resembling clay, said to be prepared by mixing barite or gypsum, lard
or tallow, and coloring matter. The cheeses are cylindrical in shape, being about 12
inches in diameter and 6 inches in height, and as marketed are wrapped in paper and
packed with straw in wicker baskets
The manufacture of Gorgonzola cheese is an important industry in Lombardy, where
formerly it was carried on principally during the months of September and October,
but with the establishment of curing cellars in the Alps, especially near Lecco, the
manufacture is no longer confined to this season.
The milk used in making this cheese is warmed to a temperature of about 75 F. and
coagulated rapidly with rennet, the time required being usually from fifteen to twenty
minutes. The curd is then cut very finely and inclosed in a cloth and drained, after
which it is put into hoops 12 inches in diameter and 10 inches high. It was formerly
the custom to allow the curd from the evening's milk to drain over night and to mix it
with the fresh warm curd from the morning's milk prepared in the same way. The
curd from the evening's milk and that from the morning's milk, crumbled very fine,
were put into hoops in layers with moldy bread crumbs interspersed between the
layers. The cheese is turned frequently for four or five days, the cloths being changed
occasionally, and is salted from the outside, the process requiring about two weeks.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


It is then transferred to the curing rooms, where a low temperature is usually main-
tained. At an early stage in the process of ripening the cheese is usually punched
with an instrument about 6 inches long tapering from a sharp point to a diameter rof about
one-eighth inch at the base. About 150 holes are made in each cheese. This favors
the development of the penicillium throughout the interiorof the cheese. Well-made
cheese may be kept for a year or longer. In the region where made, much of the cheese
is consumed while in a fresh condition.

GOUDA.

This is a Holland cheese made from whole or partly skimmed cow's milk. It is
round and weighs 10 to 45 pounds. The milk, to which coloring matter has been
added, is set at 91 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in fiftecu minutes. The
curd is cut or broken with a wooden scoop, a harp, or an American cheese knife. It
is allowed to stand for a minute and the whey is dipped off. Hot whey or hot water
is poured on the mass of curd until the whole has reached a temperature of 104 tr 110.
When the curd squeaks or whistles when it is crushed between the teeth, the whey
or water is dipped off and the curd is stirred and piled where it will drain well. The
curd is then thoroughly kneaded and sometimes lightly salted. After salting, the
curd is put into round molds and placed in a press, where it remains for twenty-four
hours with increasing pressure. The cheese is then salted either by immersion in
brine or by rubbing salt on the surface. The salting continues for four to eight days.
After salting, thecheese iswashed with hotwhey. It isthen transferred to the ripening
cel lar, where it is turned daily for several days and finally once a week until ripened.
It is ready for consumption in six to eight months. When the cheese is a few days
old it is washed with water and colored with saffron. Some of this cheese is shipped
to the United States. As seen in this country each cheese is covered with an animal
tissue said to be a bladder.
GOURNAY.
This is a soft rennet cheese whick derives its name from the villageof Goumrnay in
the Department of Seine-Inferieure, France, where it is made. It is about 3 inches
in diameter and three-fourths inch thick.

GOYA.
This cheese is manufactured in the Province of CoITientes, in the Argentine Re-
public. Either whole or partly skimmed milk is used. It is heated to a temperature
of 75 to 85 F. and coagulated with rennet in fifteen to thirty minutes. The curd is
cut and put into sacks to drain, after which it is put into molds.

GRANULAR CURD.

This cheese resembles the genuine Cheddar proce-s cheese in all points excepting
that it is not matted and milled. As soon as the curd is cooked firm enough it is salted
and pressed. Because no acid is developed between cooking and pressing, a little
more acid may be allowed to develop before drawing the whey, and the curd should
be cooked firmer.
GRAY.

This is a sour skim-milk product of the Tyrol. When the milk is thickened the
curd is brought to a proper firmness by light heating, and is then dipped into a cheese
cloth, care being taken that the flocculent matter at the bottom of the kettle is thor-
oughly mixed with the rest of the curd in order to insure an even product. The curd
is put under a press for ten minutes, when it is broken up by hand or in a mill and
salt and pepper are added. The curd is Ihen put into firms or hoops, and to insure
the proper ripening a little well-ripened grated gray cheese is added, or bread crumbs
30022-Bull. 105-0--






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


with the characteristic mold growth are mixed with the curd as it is put into the forms.
The forms are made in various shapes and sizes and are supplied with holes to facilitate
drainage. The cheese remains in the forms under pressure for twenty-four hours,
and is then taken to the drying room, which has a temperature of 70 F. The length
of time it should remain in the drying room is determined by the appearance of the
cheese. It is then taken to the ripening cellar. The cheese when ripened has a
pleasant taste and a gray appearance through the entire mass.

GRUYERE.

This name is applied to Emmental cheese manufactured in France, the name
originating from the Swiss village of Gruyere. The cheese was first mentioned in
1722, when two societies were reported to have been organized for its manufacture.
The Gruyere cheese is made in three different qualities-whole milk, partly skimmed,
and skimmed. It is usually made from partly skimmed milk, and this is supposed
to distinguish it from Emmental, which is supposed to be made from whole milk.
The manufacture of Gruyere cheese is an extensive industry in France, about 50,000,-
000 pounds having been manufactured annually the latter part of the last century.

GUSSING.
This is an Austrian skim-milk cheese weighing from 4 to 8 pounds. It resembles
very much the brick cheese of the United States and is made in practically the same
way.
HAND.

Hand cheese is so named because it was molded originally into its final shape by
hand. It is a sour-milk cheese, very popular among German races, and manufactured
in many ,.,untries.
The process of making varies in different localities, but in general is about as follows:
The skimmed milk is mixed with buttermilk and put into a tinned vessel where it is
held at a favorable temperature for souring. When thick the curd is broken up by
stirring and heated to 1200 F. The cooking is continued for about three hours and
for the first hour of this time is stirred thoroughly. After cooking the whey is drained
off and the curd is put in a mold for cooling. It is then ground fine in a curd mill
and salt is incorporated, and for some kinds caraway seed is added. The curd is then
pressed into the desired shapes and sizes. The small cheeses are dried in a warm room
and then transferred to the curing cellar, where they are kept on shelves until the
ripening on the surface has commenced, when they are packed in boxes. The cheese
has a very sharp, pungent odor and taste, which to most people unaccustomed to it
are very disagreeable.
There are many local names for hand cheeses, among which are the following: Thu-
ringia caraway cheese; Ihlefeld, made in Mecklenburg; Livlander, made in Russia;
Olmujtzer Bierkise, Dresdener Bierkase; Satz, made in Saxony; T.yrol sour cheese;
Berliner K uh kase, and Alt Kuhkise.
HARZ.

This is a hand cheese made in different sizes. It is 1c to 2j inches in diameter and
4 to I inch in thickness and weighs one-fourth pound. It is identical in manufacture
with hand cheese.
HAY.
This cheese, kriown as Fromage de Foin, is a skim-milk variety made in the Depart-
ment of Seine-lnf6rieure, France. The cheese derives its name from the fact that it
is ripened oil as freshly cut hay as possible, which gives a characteristic aroma to the
cheese. The cheese ia some respects resembles a poor grade of Livarot. It is about
10 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches thick.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 80 to 85 F. In about one hour the
curd is cut and the whey removed; the curd is then pressed to remove as much of the
whey as possible, after which it is pressed by hand into molds. After draining for
about two days it is put into the drying room, where it remains for about three weeks,
when it is taken to the curing cellar and buried in hay. After remaining here for six
weeks to three months it is ready for sale. The consumption of this variety is largely
restricted to the region where it is made.

HOHENHEIM.

This is a soft cheese made in Hohenheim from partly skimmed milk. It is cylin-
drical in shape, 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and weighs about one-half pound.
The skimmed evening's milk is added to the morning's milk and heated in a copper
kettle to 110 F. Some saffron is used for color and rennet is added. In one to one and
one-half hours the curd is broken up and the whey dipped off. Caraway seed is
stirred in. by which process the curd is reduced to smaller particles. It is then dipped
into tin hoops having holes to allow easy draining. The curd remains in these hoops
for twelve hours and an additional twelve hours on a drying board. It is then sprinkled
with salt and when this is dissolved it is again salted and placed in the ripening cellar.
Ripening requires three months.

HOLSTEIN HEALTH.

This is a cooked cheese made from sour skimmed milk, the local name being Hol-
steiner Gesundheits Kase. The milk is heated lightly and the curd is strongly
pressed; it is then well mixed and put in a tin kettle. A little cream and salt are
added and the whole is stirred while it is being heated to the melting temperature
over a fire. It is then put into a hoop or mold which holds about one-half pound and
is allowed to cool.
HOLSTEIN SKIM-MILK.

As the name indicates, this is a skim-milk cheese made in the Province of Holstein,
where it is known as Holsteiner Magerkse. Usually in the manufacture of this
cheese 6 percent of buttermilk is added to separator skim milk A part is heated to
160 F. and the remainder is mixed with the pasteurized portion. The milk is col-
ored with saffron, and rennet powder is used for coagulating the casein, which requires
about 35 minutes. The curd is then broken up and allowed to remain in the whey
for thirty minutes without stirring. A cloth is then used for lifting the curd from the
whey, and I per cent of salt is mixed in. The curd is pressed for one-half hour, when
it is turned and pressure again applied. The pressure is gradually increased from 5
pounds to 9 pounds for each pound of cheese. The cheese is transferred to the curing
cellar, which has a temperature of 60. It is here turned daily until ripened, which
requires four months. Each cheese weighs from 12 to 14 pounds.

HOP.

Hop or Hopfen cheese is a German product. The ground curd is salted and allowed
to ripen for three or four days, when it is mixed with fresh curd and molded into small
cheeses measuring about 2j inches in diameter and 1 inch in thickness. These are
placed in a well-ventilated room and allowed to become quite dry, when they are
packed in hops.
HVID GJEDEOST.
This is a goat's-milk cheese made in Norway. The milk is set at 70 F. or higher.
The curd is broken up and is cooked in the usual manner. It is then pressed in forms
9 to 10 inches long, 6 inches broad, and 4 inches high. The cheese is made only for
local consumption.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


ILHA.

Ilha is a Portuguese word meaning island, and is applied to the cow's-milk cheeses
made in the Azore Islands and imported quite extensively into Portugal. They are
moderately firm cheeses measuring 10 to 12 inches in diameter and about 4 inches in
thickness.
INCANESTRATO.

This name is applied to cheese made in Sicily. The mixture of evening's and
morning's milk is curdled with rennet in about three-fourths of an hour. The curd
is then stirred thoroughly and 2 per cent of water is added. After standing for five
minutes the curd is separated from the whey, pressed by hand, and sometimes allowed
to ferment for two to three days, when it is cooked in whey and then pressed and
salted. Various spices are added. A kind known as Majocchino and made in the
region of Messina, out of cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, contains olive oil.

ISIGNY.

This is an American cheese originating about thirty years ago in attempts to make
Camembert cheese in this country. The proper ripening for Camembert cheese was
not secured and hence a distinct name was given to the product. The cheese is
slightly larger than Camembert but of the same shape. The ripened product bears a
close resemblance to Limburg. The process of manufacture is similar to that of
Camembert. During ripening, however, the cheese is washed and rubbed occasion-
ally to check the growth of molds on the surface.

JOCHBERG.

This cheese is made from a mixture of cow's and goat's milk in the Tyrol. The
cheese weighs 45 pounds and is 20 inches in diameter and 4 inches high.

JOSEPHINE.

This is a soft cured rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk in Silesia. It is put
up in small cylindrical packages.
KAJMAK.

The Turkish word Kajmak signifies cream and is used to designate a product made
in Servia and sometimes known as Servian butter. This product is, however,, analo-
gous to a cream cheese. The milk is boiled and put into large shallow vessels usually
made of wood, and allowed to stand for twelve hours, when the cream is removed and
usually salted. The flavor varies greatly with the age of the sample and is said to be
between that of a goat's-milk cheese and Roquefort.

KASCAVAL.

This is a loaf-shaped rennet cheese weighing from 4 to 6 pounds, made from sheep's
milk in Bulgaria, Roumania, and Transylvania. Goat's milk is sometimes added.
Considerable quantities of the cheese are exported.

KATSCHKAWALJ.

This is a sheep's-milk cheese made in Servia. The milk is curdled with rennet
and the curd is drained and inclosed in tin cans which are put into boiling water. The
curd is subsequently worked by hand and molded into various shapes. A cheese
weighs ordinarily about 6 pounds.
KJARSGAARD.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Denmark from skimmed cow's milk.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


KLOSTER.

This is a soft ripened rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk. It has a
somewhat unusual shape. 1 by 1 by 4 inches, and weighs less than one-fourth pound.
KOLOS-MONOSTOR.

This is a sheep's-milk rennet cheese made in the agricultural school in Transyl-
vania. The cheese is rectangular in shape, 81 by 5 by 3 inches, and weighs 4 pounds.

KOPPEN.

Koppenkase is a goat's-milk cheese made in Germany. The milk is set at 80 to
85 F.. and after the whey has been dipped off the curd is put into a cup-shaped ves-
sel which gives form to the cheese and also the name. The cheese is placed in awarm
room and sprinkled with salt. It is allowed to dry for from two to three days and is
then placed in the ripening room. The ripened cheese weighs from 3 to 4 ounces. It
has a sharp, pungent, slightly smoky flavor.

KOSHER.

This cheese undervarious names is made in several countries. It is a cow's-milk
rennet cheese made for the Jewish trade. The process of manufacture resembles that
of Limburg. The cheese, however, is eaten fresh.
KOSHER GOUDA.

This is a cheese made especially for the Jewish trade. It is identical with a Gouda
cheese in every way except in size and in having no bladder covering. It weighs
from 4 to 6 pounds and is 8 inches in diameter and 3 inches thick. It bears a stamp
which identifies it to the Jewish consumer. Small quantities are imported into this
country.
KRUTT.

Krutt. or Kirgischerkaise, is made by the nomadic tribes of the middle Asiatic
Steppes from sour skim milk of the cow, goat, sheep, or camel. When the milk
coagulates salt is added and the curd is hung up in a sack to drain, after which it is
subjected to moderate pressure. The curd is then made up into small balls which
are placed in the sun to dry.
KUHBACH.

This is a soft ripened rennet cheese made from whole or partly skimmed cow's
milk. It is a German product, made in upper Bavaria. It is cylindrical in shape,
weighs 2 pounds, and is 6 inches in diameter and 3 inches high.

LAGUIOLE.
This is a hard rennet cheese varying but little if any from Cantal and resembling
Roquefort. It derives its name from the village of Laguiole in the Department of
Aveyron, France. The cheese is made extensively in the mountains of Aubrac, where
it is said to have been made at the time of the Roman occupation. The milk, either
whole or partly skimmed, is set with rennet, the time allowed being about thirty min-
utes. The curd is allowed to ferment for about twenty-four hours and is then put into
hoops and pressed. At least one month is required for ripening. Laguiole or Guiole
cheese is considered superior to Cantal, although the two varieties are made in essen-
tially the same way.
LANCASHIRE.
This is an English cheese named from the county in which it is made. The even-
ing's milk is partly skimmed and is heated so that when the morning's milk is added






30 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

the temperature of the whole is brought to 80 F., or slightly higher. Enough rennet
is added to coagulate the milk in one hour. The curd is broken up, stirred for a short
time, and pressed on the bottom of the vat by means of a heavy sieve. The whey is
soon drained off and the curd is ground in a curd mill into particles the size of kernels
of corn and then put into the press. Salting is done in brine in which the cheese is
placed for four to six days. From the brine tank the cheese is transferred to the curing
room.
LANGRES.
This is a soft rennet cheese made in the northeastern part of France. It derives its
name from the village of Langres in the Department of Haute-Marne, where it is said
to have been made since the time of the Merovingian kings. The perfectly fresh milk
is set with rennet at a temperature of about 90 to 95 F. After standing for several
hours it is put into cylindrical forms. The cheeses ripen for about two to three months.
A ripened cheese weighs from 1l to 2 pounds and is about 5 inches in diameter and 8
inches high. The cheese is consumed for the most part in the region where made.

LAPLAND.

The Laplanders make a variety of cheese from the milk of the reindeer. It resem-
bles very much the harder varieties of the Emmental group. The cheese has a very
unusual shape. It is round and flat and is so formed that a cross section would resem-
ble a dumbbell with angular instead of round ends.

LATTICINI.

This is applied to cheeses made from the milk of buffaloes, particularly in the region
of Naples, but also in other parts of It aly.

LEATHER.

Leather, Leder, or Holstein dairy cheese is made in Schleswig-Holstein, from
skimmed cow's milk with an addition of from 5 to 10 per cent of buttermilk.
The milk is set at from 95 to 100 F. and requires twenty-five to thirty-five minutes
for coagulation. It is then broken up with a harp or a stirring stick, and is stirred with
a Danish stirrer. When the particles are reduced to the size of peas the curd is piled
up on one side of the vat or kettle and allowed to stand for ten minutes. The whey is
then dipped off. The curd is cut with a knife into pieces the size of the hand, put in
a wooden or tin bowl, and pressed for one-half hour, when it is cut into pieces and
run through a cheese mill. Itis then salted, put in a cloth, and again put in the press,
where the pressure is gradually increased. The cheese is turned occasionally and a
fresh dry cloth supplied. After twelve hours of pressing the cheese is put into the
salt bath, where it is kept forty to forty-eight hours. It is then transferred to the
ripening cellar, where it is wiped with a dry cloth every day for about a week and
thereafter twice a week, the ripening requiring about four months. The cured cheese
has small eyes; it is made cylindrical, and is 4 to 6 inches in height and 10 to 12 inches
in diameter. It weighs 15 to 25 pounds.

LEICESTER.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. It is named from a
county in England where it is made. It resembles the better known Cheshire and
Cheddar in every way.
Evening's and morning's milk are mixed and set at a temperature of from 76 to
84 F. The curd is allowed to set very firm, which requires ninety minutes. It is
cut very carefully and allowed to settle twenty minutes, when the whey-.is drawn off.
The curd is then gathered in a cloth, pressed, and broken up several times until a






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


certain degree of dryness has been attained, and then salted lightly and put to press.
Pressure is continued for five days, the cheese being removed and salted on the out-
side each day.
LEYDEN.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Holland, where it is known also as Bergues,
Delft, Komynde, Koejekaars, and Hobbe. The milk, which is either partly or
entirely skimmed, is set with rennet at 72 to 75 F. It is allowed to stand for one
hour, when the curd is cut and then stirred while being warmed up to 97. The heat-
ing is done by pouring hot whey over the curd. The curd is then dipped out with a
cloth and kneaded by hand. Caraway seed is added to a portion of the curd which,
in filling the hoops, constitutes the middle of three layers. The cheese is then put in
press. It is turned after three hours and a fresh cloth applied. The pressing con-
tinues for twenty-four hours. Salting is done on the surface daily. If the rind be-
comes hard it is washed in whey or water, and occasionally milk is smeared on the
surface. The surface is colored with litmus in alkaline water. A ripened cheese
weighs about 25 pounds and is 12 inches in diameter and 3 to 5 inches in thickness.
As seen on the American market it has a very dark-brown surface.
LIMBURG.
This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk which may contain all of the fat
or be partly or entirely skimmed. The best Limburg is undoubtedly made from
whole milk. This cheese has a very strong and characteristic odor and taste. The
cheese is about 6 by 6 by 3 inches and weighs about 2 pounds.
The most common synonyms of Limburg are Backstein and Hervd. There are,
however, many local names for this kind of cheese, such as Algau, Lanark, Marianhof,
Morin, St. Michels, Schiltzen, Tanzenberg, Carinthian, Grottenhof, Emmersdorf,
Briol, and Lindenhof.
Limburg cheese originated in the province of Luittich, Belgium, in the neighbor-
hood of Herv6, and was marketed in Limburg, Belgium. Its manufacture has spread
to Germany and Austria, where it is very popular, and to the United States, where
large quantities are made, mostly in New York and Wisconsin.
Sweet milk is set without any coloring matter at a temperature of from 91 to 96
F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate the milk in about forty minutes. In foreign
countries a kettle is used but in the United States an ordinary rectangular cheese vat
is found to be more satisfactory. The curd is cut or broken into pieces about one-
third-inch cube and is stirred for a short time without additional heating. It is then
dipped into rectangular forms, 28 inches long, 5 inches broad, and about 8 inches
deep. These forms are kept on a draining board where the whey drains out freely.
When the cheese has been in the forms with frequent turnings for a sufficient length
of time to retain its shape it is removed to the salting table, where the surface is rubbed
with salt daily. When the surface of the cheese commences to get slippery, the
cheese is put in a ripening cellar having a temperature of about 60. While in the
cellar the surface of each cheese is rubbed thoroughly at frequent intervals. Ripen-
ing requires one to two months. When ripe the cheese is wrapped in paper, and then
in tin foil, and put in boxes each containing about 50 cheeses.
No Limburg is imported into this country at the present time, contrary to the
popular belief. The type of cheese is made so cheaply and of such good quality in
this country that the foreign make has been crowded out of the market.
LIPTAU.
This cheese is made in the Provinces of Liptau, Saros, and Arva, in Austria, from
sheep's milk. Condiments, especially red pepper, are usually added. It is rather
greasy and has a sharp taste. The details of manufacture are the same as for Brinsen
cheese.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


LIVAROT.
This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk more or less skimmed. It derives
its name from the village of Livarot in the Department of Calvados, France, where the
industry is centralized. This cheese has the advantage over Camembert made in the
same region in that it may be manufactured and consumed during the warm months.
The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 95 to 104 F. Aft her one and one-half
to two hours the curd is cut and placed on a rush mat or a cloth and allowed to drain
for about fifteen minutes, during which time it is crumbled as finely as possible. It is
then put into tin hoops or forms 6 inches in diameter and the same in height. The
cheeses are turned very frequently until they become firm, when they are salted and
left on the draining board for four or five days. At this stage they are sometimes sold
as white cheese, but more often they are transferred to a well-ventilated room for
fifteen to twenty days and then to the curing cellar, which is kept very tightly closed:
B3y thus retaining the ammonia and other products the cheese acquires a strong,
piquant taste. During ripening the cheeses are turned two or three times a week
and iiccasionally wiped with a cloth moistened with salt water. After ripening for
ten to twelve days they are wrapped with the leaves of Typha lalifolia, commonly
called laiche. In three to five months they are colored with annatto and marketed.

LORRAINE.

This is a small sour-milk hand cheese made in Lorraine, Germany, and regarded
as a delicacy in that country. It is seasoned with pepper, salt, and pistachio nuts,
and is eaten in a comparatively fresh state. The cheeses are made in sizes of about 2
ounces and sell for a very high price-at the rate of about 50 cents a pound.

LUNEBERG.

This cheese is made in the small valleys of the Voralberg Mountains in the western
part of Austria. The art of cheese making in this locality was imported from Switzer-
land, and the copper kettle and characteristic presses are used. Saffron is used for
coloring, and the milk is warmed in the copper kettle to 870 to 90 F., at which tem-
perature the rennet is added, enough being used to coagulate the milk in twenty to
thirty minutes. The curd is cut into pieces the size of hazelnuts and is cooked with
stirring to a temperature of 122. The curd is dipped into cloths which are put into
wooden formnis and light pressure is applied. The curd remains in the press for twenty-
four hours, during which time it is turned occasionally and a dry cloth supplied. The
cheese is then taken to, the cellar and is salted on the surface. In the cellar it is rubbed
and washed occasionally. When ripe it is said to be about midway in type between
Emmental and Limburg.

MACONNAIS.

This is a French goat's-milk cheese, 2 inches square by Ij inches thick.

MACQUELINE.

This is a soft rennet cheese of the Camembert type, 4 inches in diameter and 11
inches thick, made from whole or partly skimmed milk in the region of Senlis, in the
Department of Oise, France. The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about
80 F. and allowed to stand for five hours, when the curd is put into hoops. After
twenty-four hours the hoops are removed and the cheese is salted and taken to the
curing room, where it remains for twenty days or more. A cheese weighs about one-
fourth of a pound and requires about 2 liters of milk in its manufacture. The cheese
sells at a lower price than Camembert, made in the same region.





VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 33

MAIKASE.

This is a cheese resembling Gouda. It is made in Holland in the early summer, is
softer than the regular Gnrjud.a, and hence can be marketed at an e.arlier period.

MAINZ HAND.

This is a typical hand cheese sometimes called Pnip The milk is treated in the
usual way, and the curd after coolling is thoroughly kneaded by harinl. hlle thoroughness
of this manipulation inlluenciiig the quality of the cheese. The curd is then pressed
by hand into flat cakes and allowed to dry for a week. They are then packed in a jar
or keg and placed in a cellar for ripening. This requires from six to eight weeks.

MALAKOFF.

This is another form of Neiful'chiatel cheese about 2 inches in diameter and one-half
of an inch in thickness. It may be consumed either while fresh or after ripening.

MANUR.

This cheese is made in Servia from either sheep's or cow's milk. The milk is first
heated to the boiling temperature and then cooled until the fingers can be held in it.
A mixture of buttermilk and fresh whey with rennet is added. The curd is lifted
from the whey in a cloth and allowed to drain, when it is kneaded like bread, lightly
salted, and dried.
MAQUEE.

This is a soft rennet brick-shaped cheese made from cow's milk in Belgium. It
is known where made as Fr,_rnzi.e Mou.

MARKISCH HAND.

This cheese is similar to a hand cheese. The milk is treated in the same way as
in hand cheese up to th.- salting. The curd is then put in a linen sack and heavy
pressure is applied. The mass is then cut into oblong pieces and allowed to dry and
cure as regular hand cheese.
MAROILLES.

This is a soft rennet cheese of the Pont 1']Evque type made from whole or partly
skimmed cow's milk in the Departments of Aisne and Nord, France. There are
several kinds varying in size, shape, and details of manufacture, of which the Tuile
de Flandre and Larron are best known. The cheese as made at Maroilles is about 6
inches square and 2 inches thick; that made at Saint Aubin 5 inches square and 3
inches thick. The Larron is about 24 inches square and 1l inches thick, and weighs
about 6 ounces. The Tuilt. de Flandre is about twice as large. The Dauphin is
semilunar in shape and contains herbs. A pear-shaped form designated Boulette
may be made in part from buttermilk.
The best cheese is made from fresh whole milk, although the most of it is made
from milk partly or entirely skimmed. Thn temperature of setting with rennet is
about 75 F. and the time allowed from one to four hours. The curd is drained for
one to two hours in a box having a perforated bottom, and is then put into square
forms or hoops 5 to 6 inches on a side and 3 to 4 inches high. The cheese is turned
frequently until firm and then salted on all six faces and taken to the curing cellar
where it is washed frequently with salt water to prevent the growth of molds. Ripen-
ing requires three to five months. Defective cheeses are said to be common.
30.022-Bull. I O--,-- 5






34 VARIETIES OF CHEESE,

MASCARPONE.
This is an Italian cream cheese about 2 inches in diameter and 21 inches in height.
The cream is heated to about 194 F. and dilute acetic or tartaric acid is added. The
mixture is stirred and drained through cloth and then put into molds. It is eaten in
a fresh condition.
MECKLENBURG SKIM.
This is a rennet cheese made from skim milk and named from the province in
which it is made. The milk is placed in a copper kettle and warmed with steam.
Saffron is added for coloring and sufficient rennet is used to coagulate the milk in 30
minutes. The curd is broken up into particles the size of peas. The temperature is
raised to 92 F. in 12 minutes. The curd is then removed from the kettle by means
of a cloth and put into a hoop and pressure applied. This is increased gradually
until it reaches fifteen times the weight of the cheese in twenty-four hours. The
cheese is then placed in a drying room held at 70 until a rind is formed. As much
salt is then sprinkled on the surface as can be absorbed. In the meanwhile the cheese
is taken from the drying room and placed in the regular curing room, which has a
temperature of 60 and a relative humidity of 85 to 95 per cent.

MIGNOT.
This is a soft rennet cheese either cylindrical or cubical in form. It has been
made in the Department of Calvados, France, for over one hundred years and resembles
Pont l'veque and Livarot. There are two types of this cheese, designated white
and passe; the first, a fresh cheese, is made during the period from April to September,
and the second, a ripened cheese, is made during the remainder of the year.

MONTASIO.

This cheese originated in the part of Carinthia, in Austria, called Friaul, where the
annual product is now valued at $600,000. At the present time it is made not only
in Carinthia, but in the neighboring provinces and in Italy.
The milk, either whole or partly skimmed, and consisting usually of a mixture of
cow's and goat's milk, is heated in a kettle to 95 F. and sufficient rennet is added to
coagulate it in thirty to forty minutes. It is then cut very carefully to the size of peas
and heated gradually to a temperature of 120'. When the desired temperature is
reached, which is usually in about one-half hour, heating is stopped and the stirring
continued for thirty to forty minutes. Some of the whey is dipped from the kettle
and the curd is removed by means of a cloth. The cheese is pressed for twenty-four
hours, during which time it is turned frequently. The salting requires usually about
one month, the total amount applied varying from 2k to 3 per cent of the weight of the
pressed cheese. After salting, the cheese is taken to a we.ll-ventilated room and
allIjwel to dry. In this room the cheese is turned frequently and rubbed in order to
free it from molds. When dry it is scraped carefully and taken tu the curing cellar.
The cheese is here rubbed frequently with a coarse cloth, and when the rind has
become firm and does not show the presence of mold, olive oil is usually applied.
Sometimes the rind is colored black by means of soot.
The fresh cheese is almost white. The old cheese becomes yellow, granular, and
has a sharp taste and characteristic odor. It is usually eaten when three to twelve
months of age, but may be kept much longer and then grated.

MONTAVONER.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Au-tria. During the process of manufacture
dried herbs (Achillea moschata and A. ralta i are added.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 35

MONT CENIS.

This is a hard rennet cheese resembling tih imitation Roquefort varieties like Gex
and Septmonrel and made in ilip, region of Mont Cenis, in the southeastern part of
France. The milk used is usually a mixture of cow's, sheep's, and goat's. The
evening's milk is usually skimmed and added to that of the morning. Primitive
methods of cheese making are employed. Th." milk is set with rennet at a tempera-
ture o0 about 85 F. The curd is then cut and allowed to drain for twenty-four hours,
when fresh cur, I is thoroughly mixed with it. The mixture is then put into molds and
moderate pressure applied. After turning frimently for several days and salting it
is transferred t, the curirng cellar, where it is turned frequently, washed with salt
water to check the growth of molds on the surface, and allowed to ripen for three to
four months. The ripening is due mainly to a pf.ni'illiulu which is sometimes incor-
porated in the rurd by means of moldy bread. A ripened cheese is about 18 inches in
diameter, 6 to 8 inches in height, and weight about 25 pounds.
MONT D'OR.
This is a soft rennet cht-e.-e of the Pont I'l veqiiw type formerly made from goat's
milk but now made almost exclusively from cow's milk. Sometimes a small amount
of goat's milk i added to the cow's milk.
It derives its namefrom Mont d'Or, near Lyons, inthe Departmentof Rh6ne, France,
where it is said to have been made for over three centuries. At the present time it is
made not only in Rh6ne and neighboring Departments but in the other parts of France,
especially Eure and Oise.
Whole or partly skimmed milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 90 to 100 F.
The curd, in from one-half hour to two hours after the addition of the rennet to the
milk and with or without cutting, is put into circular forms or hoops about 4 inches
in diameter and 3 inches high. These rest upon a draining board covered with straw.
After about one hour the cheese is turned, and frequently thereafter until firm. A
disk with a light weight is sometimes placed upon each cheese in order to hasten the
removal of the whey. The cheese is salted on the surface. Much of it is sold in a
fresh condition. It is also ripened for about one week in summer and two to three
weeks in winter, during which time it is turned frequentlyand washed with saltwater
to prevent the growth of molds.
MONTHLtRY.
This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk in Seine-et-Oise, France. A
large cheese is about 2 inches thick and 14 inches in diameter and weighs about 5A
pounds. There is also a smaller sized cheese which weighs about 3 pounds. Either
whole milk or partly skimmed milk is used. Rennet is added to the milk at ordinary
temperature-, and the curd when .-utfiriently firm is broken up, put into molds, and
subjected to pressure. After salting the cheese is cured for eight to fitit-en days in a
s6-called drying room and then ripened in a cellar at a temperature of about 55 F.
During ripening the cheese becomes covered at first with a whitish mold and later
with a blue moldl in which red spots appear. It is ready for sale at the end of about
one month.
MOZARINELLI.
This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk in Italy.
MONSTER.
Minister is a rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk in the western part of
Germany, near the Vosges Mountains, and named from the ( it y of Miinster, near which
it is made. Similar cheese made in the neighboring portion of France is called G&-
rom4, and Munster cheese made near Colmar and Strassburg is sometimes given the
names of these two cities.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


The milk is set at about 90 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in thirty minutes.
The curd is then broken up and allowed to stand for thirty to forty-five minutes with-
out stirring, when it is dipped with a sieve which holds back the small particles of
curd and gives a slight pressure to the curd. After rpmoving the whey the curd is
scooped into forms or hoops and caraway or anise seed is usually added. The hoops
are made in two parts, the lower of which is 4 inches high and 7 inches in diameter
with holes in the bottom for draining, and the upper of which is of the same dimen-
sions. The whole resembles an ordinary cheese hoop with bandages. The hoop is
lined with cheese cloth. After the curd has been in the hoop for twelve hours the
upper part of the hoop can be removed. The cheese is turned and the cloth removed.
The cheese is now put in the upper portion of the hoop and turned frequently for four
to six days. The temperature is held in the meanwhile at 68. After salt has been
rubbed on the surface daily for three days the cheese is taken to the cellar, which has
a temperature of 51 to 55, where it is allowed to ripen for tw'o to three months. The
cheese sells for about 15 cents a pound when ripe.

MYSOST.

Mysost is made from whey and is a product of Norway, Sweden. and Denmark, and
to a very limited extent of the United States. It has a light-brown color, a buttery
consistency, and a mild, sweetish taste.
The method of manufacture is as follows: As soon as the curd of the regular cheese is
removed from the whey, the whey is strained and is put in a kettle or large pan over
the fire and the albuminous material which rises to the surface is skimmed off. The
whey is evaporated as rapidly as possible with constant and thorough stirring. When
it has reached about one-fourth its original volume the albumin previously skimmed
off is returned and stirred thoroughly to break up all possible l u mps. When the whey
has attained the consistency of thiLkenied milk it is poured quickly into a wooden
trough and stirred with a paddle until cool to prevent the formation of sugar crystals.
This can then be molded into the d,--ired forrm. In this country it is usually made
into cylindrical shapes and wrapp,-d in tin foil.

NIEHEIM.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Westphalia and named from a city in that prov-
ince. The sour milk is heated to a temperature of 100 to 120 F. Thec urd is collected
in a cloth and allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, when it is worked until in a
fine condition. The curd is made up into cakes which are put into a cellar and turned
frequently for five to eight days. It is then broken up, and salt and caraway seed,
and sometimes beer or milk, are added. The cheese is covered lightly with straw and
finally packed in casks with hops anid allowed to ripen.

NESSEL.

This is a 4oii-I'.ur.,l rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk. It is an Eng-
lish product and is made round and very thin.

NEUFCHATEL.
This is a soft rennet cheese made extensively in the Department of Seine-Inftrieure,
France, from cow's milk either whole or skimmed. Bondon, Malakoff, Petit Carr6,
and Petit Suisse are essentially the sameas Neufchatel, but have slightly different
shapes.
The milk, preferably fresh, is set at 85 F. with only so much rennet as is necessary
to secure the desired coagulation in twenty-four hours in summer and from thirty-six
to forty-eight hours in winter. The curd is then inclosed in cheese cloth and drained
for twelve hours, after which it is sul'jei'ted to pressure for another period of twelve






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


hours. It is then thoroughly kneaded by hand, or in the larger factories by means of a
curd mill, and pressed into tin cylinders about 2 inches in diameter and 3 inches high.
The cheeses are removed soon from the molds, saltud, and replaced. After draining
for twenty-iour hours they are transferred to the so-called drying room, where they
become covered with white and later with blue molds. The)' are then taken to the
curing cellar, where the ripening process is continued for three to four weeks. The
appearance uf red spots on the surface is taken as an indication that the ripening has
progressed far .niugh. Tihe cheeses are then wrapped in tin foil and marketed.

NEW MILK.

This chee.se is made in Holland. The process of manufacture resembles that of
Gouda cheerr. It is made only in limited quantities at the beginning of the summer
season and is eaten fresh.
NOSTRALE.
This name is applied locally to two kinds of rennet cheese made from cow's milk in
the mountainous regions of northwestern Italy. The hard cheese, designated For-
maggio Duro, is made during the spring while the herds are still in the valleys, and the
soft cheese, Formaggiu Tenero, during the summer when they are pastured in the
mountains. The cheese is said to be a very old variety and the methods of manufac-
ture to hay,' remained primitive. A cheese designated Raschera made in the region
of Mondovi is probably the same as Nostrale.

OLIVET.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's in ilk. The manufacture of this variety
originated south of Orleans, in the Department of Loiret, France. The- industry is
now carried on north of Orleans near Olivet, to which place the cheese doubtless owes
its name. There are three forms of this cheese, designated white or summer cheese,
blue or the ordinary half-ripened form, and ripened. In general the process of manu-
facture resembles that of Camembert. The ordinary form is made from either whole
milk or partly skimmed milk. About two hours after the addition of rennet the curd
is placed iu a receptacle having holes in the bottom and sides and allowed to drain for
twenty-four hours, when it is put into forms about 6 inches in diameter. The cheese
is turned and salted the nexl day and about one day later is taken to the first curing
room. where it is placed on shelves covered with straw. Th is room is kept at a tem-
peratire of about 65 F. Here the cheese becomes red in a few days and later blue.
The blue t:Alor is a sign of maturity, and its appearance requires from ten to fifteen
days in summer and one month in winter. The cheese is then ready for marketing.
When properly cared for it may remain in good condition for several months. The
form designated ripened is made in the same way until the blue color appears, when
the cheese is put into the curing cellar where ripening is carried to a much further
extent. Ordinarily this requires from fifteen to thirty days, but the cheese is here
sometimes covered with ashes, which are believed to hasten the ripening process.
The form designated white or summer cheese is made from whole milk to which cream
is sometimes added. The curd is obtained in the ordinary manner and pressed into
molds in which it is sold as fresh cheese, summer cheese, white cheese, or cream cheese.

OLMUTZER QUARGEL.
This is a hand cheese made extensively in the western part of Austria. It is 1i
inches in diameter and one-third of an inch thick and contains caraway seed. It
is made with 5 per cent of salt and after drying is put in salt whey for a time. It is
then packed in kegs and ripened for eight to ten weeks. In all other respects the
manufacture is identical with that of hand cheese.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


PAGLIA.

This is a more or less successful imitation of Go-rgonzola cheese, made in the Canton
of Ticino, Switzerland. A cheese is 8 inches in diameter and 2 inches in thickness.
The milk is et at a temperature of 100F.,lhe time allowed being about fifteen minutes.
The curd is broken up, stirred, and put into hoops. When sufficiently drained the
cheese is taken to a cool cellar and placed on straw, where fermentation is usually
very rapid and marked. The process is delayed to some extent by excessive salting,
which is continued for about one month. The cheese is very soft in consistency and
has a pleasant aromatic flavor.
PAGO.
This is a rennet cheese made from sheep'r mil k in tihe Island of Pago, in the Province
of Dalmatia, Austria. It is put up in sizes weighing from one-half to 8 pounds.

PARMESAN.
This name is in common use outside of Italy fr the cheese made and known in
that country for centuries as Grana, the term grana or granona referring to the granular
appearance of the cheese when broken, as is necessary on account of the hardness of
the cheese, which makes cutting practically impossible. There are two quite distinct
kinds of this cheese, one made in Lombardy and the other in Emilia, the centers of
production being separated by the River Po. Parma, situated in Emilia, has long
been an important commercial center for both kinds, and to this fact the name Par-
mesan is due. The use of the term Parmesan, however, is sometimes restricted to
the cheese made in Lombardy, the term Reggian being used to designate that made
in Emilia. Italian writers refer usually to the Lombardy cheese as Cacio, or Formaggio
Grana Lodigiano, Lodi being an iniporlant center of trade, and to the Emilian cheese
as Grana Parmigiano or Reggiano. The Lodi cheese is larger and made from a poorer
quality of milk than the Reggian. The latter is col,,red and brings a much higher
price. The f:.Ilowinrg description of the process of manufacture applies equally well
to both kinds.
The milk which has been skimmed to a greater or less extent is heated in copper
kettles to a temperature vary ing according to the acidity of the milk from 90 to 1000 F.
The kettle is then removed from the tire, rennet added, and the kettle covered and
allowed to stand for twenty minutes to one hour, when the curd is cut very fine and
cooked, with stirring, to 115 to 125 for fifteen to forty-five minutes. The curd is
removed from the kettle by means of a cloth and after draining for a short time is put
into hoops. These are about 10 inches high and 18 inches or more in diameter and
are lined with coarse cloth iriefri filling. Pressure- is then applied for twenty-four
hours, the cheese ',ing turned frequently and the cloths changed. The salting,
which is begun in one to three days after removing from the press, is continued for
a considerable length of tiint, rft-nii forty day.s. The(- chiee-vs are then transferred to
a cool, well-ventilated room, where they may be stored for years, the surface being
rubbed with oil from time to time. TheI exterior of the cheese is dark green or black,
due to coloring matter rubbed on the surface. A grc.-nish color in the interior has
been attributed to the contamination with copper from the vessels in which the milk
is allowed to stand before skimming.
The Lombardy cheese made from April to September is known locally as Sorte
Maggc'nga. and that from October to March as Sorte Vermenga. The Reggian cheese
is made only in summer.
Parmesan cheese when well made may be broken and grated easily and may be
kept for an, indefinite number of years. It is grated and used largely for soups and
with macaroni. A rns-idirabh.- quantity of this cheese is imported into this country
and sells for a very high price.






VA.kRIETIES OF CHEESE. 39

PECORINO.

The Forrnaggio Pecorini are the shevp'-ruilk cheeses made in Italy and of which .
there are numerous more or less clearly ,elirnehe kinds. The most common cheese of
this srT i the one designated Cacio Pecorino R.,man.,. or merely Romano. This
v-arie. con4-iderably in size and shape. The weight may.v range from 2 to 25 pounds.
A chee-- ,'i ordinary size is about 10 inches in diameter and 6 inches in thickne,-4.
The intprii,,r is slightly greenish in ,:_l,:r somewhat LranirLr and devoid of eyes or
holes In making Romano) cheese the milk is heated to 1O00 F. and c"ariula.dA by
rennet in fifteen minutes. The curd is cut. cooked to 1200. s-irri. arid put into
forms and allowed to drain. Sahlin. is done both 1% imersion in brine and by
rubbing salt on he surface. As much as 7 to 8 percent of salt is iwua lly in:'irp,,r-.iid
in the course ,f one month. This proce issmeti i.iwilitared by punching several
holes in the cheese. Ripening is usually done at a temperature .-i 600 to 701 and
requires eight months or longer.
The Pecorino Dolce is anrifi-iallv ,,l,,rlv with annatto and -'jlije ir'l to considerable
pressure in the process of manuaia.turie.
Pecorino Tusc-ano is a smaller i.hee-e tuan the R,,mano. measuring usually 6 inches
in diameter and 2 to 4 inches in thickness and weighing 2 to o p. ,irid
Among the sheep's-milk cheese bearing local names are the f.-,l,win.z Ancona,
Cotrone. Iglesias, Leonessa Puglia. and \iterho. In ihe mariidacture of Viterbo
cheese the milk is curdled by means of a wild artichoke. Cy'nra scolpyuM .

PFISTER.

This cheese is classed in the Emmental group though its method of manufacture
differs materially. It is made from fresh skimmed cow's milk. It takes its name
from Pfister Huber in (Cham. Swizerland. who e'vidently was the first to manufac-
ture it.
The milk is set at 85 F. with sufficient rennet t, c.agu.laleitin Lhirtny minute-. The
curd is cut coarse and allowed t1. i.4tand i,.,r fifteen minutes when the whey is dipped off.
The curd is again stirred fur fi minutes, care being taken that the temperature does
not fall below the setting point. The curd is again allowed to stand for five minute-s
when it is taken frum the kettle in a clotih and put in a hoop. where it is pres-ed for
twenty-four hours, being turned ,cca~inall and dry clothsubistituted The cheese
is transferred from the press to the salt bath where it remains for three days. It is
then taken to a moist room having a temperature of 85'. Here it is placed on shelves
and turned and silted ,*c-.asiri-'ly. Tlie cheese is ready for market at about 6 weeks
of age. It isdrum-shaped. likea,.harat. tri.iii. mFnmenial but not so la-ge. weighing
about 50 pounds.
PHILADELPHIA CREAM.

This is an ordinary cream cheese put up by a firni in New York State. It is 3 by 24
by l, inches in size and is wrapp!el in parchment paper and tin fil.

PINEAPPLE.

This cheese. which is said to have had its orig-in in I.iiichfield f7County. Conn.. about
1845. is so named from the fruit of that name which the cheese is made to resemble in
shape. I. is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. The cheese is quite
hard and is rather highly colored. The early prnex,- ':f manufactiure is the same as
with Cheddar. except that it is cooked much harder. The curd is pressed in the
desired shape in various sizes up to 6 pounds in weight. Aher pressing, the cheese
is dipped for a few minutes in water at 120 F. and is then put in a net for twenty-
four hours which gives it the diamond-shaped corrugationson the surface. It requires
several months to ripen ad during this time 'lIe surface is rubbLed with oil, which
makes it very smooth and hard.






40 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

PONT L'iEVEQUE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. Three grades are recognized,
depending upon the quality of the milk used. A Pont l'Ev'que cheese is about 41
inches square and 11 inches thick.
This cheese was made in the thirteenth century in the valley of Auge from which
it derived its earlier name Augelot, and by corruption Angelot. The principal seat
of the industry at the present time is Pont l'Ev6que and vicinity. in the Department
of Calvados, France. The manufacture of this cheese is ui considerable importance
in the region designated. The milk used may be either whole milk with or without
the addition of cream, a mixture of whole and skimmed milk. or mi Ik en t irely skimmed.
Cl'iring matter and warm or hot water are usually added to the milk before setting
with rennet, which is dune at a temperature of about 95 F. After standing for fifteen
to thirty minutes the curd is cut, removed to a draining board for a few minutes, and
then put into square forms or hoops. The cheese is turned very frequently during
the first half hour and five or six times more during the remainder of the first day.
It is salted the second or third day and transferred to a well-ventilated room for several
days. When sufficiently dried it is taken to the curing cellar. During drying and
ripening the cheeses are turned every other day and while in the cellar are washed
frequently with salt water. Ripening requires usually from three to six weeks.

PORT DU SALUT.
This is a rennet cheese made from cow's milk. In many respects it is intermediate
between the soft and hard varieties. The rind is firm and resistant but the interior is
soft and homogeneous, though it does not become semiliquid like the interior of Brie
cheese. This variety of cheese originated about 1865 in the Trappist Abbey, Port du
Salut. situated about 6 miles from Laval, in the Department of Mayenne, France.
While the process is to some extent kept a secret by the Trappists, very successful
imitations are made outside of the monasteries in this region.
The milk, either whole or partly skimmed and preferably slightly acid, is heated to
90 to 95 F. and sufficient rennet added in order to secure the desired firmness of the
curd in about thirty minutes. Coloring matter is usually added to the mail k The curd
is cut very fine and in a manner similar to that followed in making Emmental cheese.
This requires about twenty minutes. A part of the whey may then be removed. The
curd is then stirred and may be heated or cooked to a moderate degree. The final tem-
perature reached in cooking varies from 100 to 105, depending upon the acidity of the
milk. The time required in stirring and heating is about twenty minutes. The curd
is then allowed to settle and the whey removed. After being stirred vigorously for two
to four minutes, the curd is put into molds which are of two siz-es, the smaller about
7 inches in diameter and the larger about 10 inches. A disk is placed on the cheese and
pressure applied by means of presses for ten to twelve hours, the cheese being turned
and the cloths frequently changed during this time. The next day the hoops are
removed and the cheese salted. After drying for about twenty-four hours, it. is trans-
ferred to the ripening cellar where it remains from five to six weeks. In this place a
temperature of about 55 and a relative humidity of 850 to 90 is preferred. During
ripening the cheeses are turned very frequently and washed with salt water, the fre-
quency depending somewhat upon the rapidity with which molds develop. The
cheese is often sold before the ripening process is entirely complete.

POTATO.
This cheese is made in Thuringia in the central part of Germany. In the manufac-
ture of potato cheese, curd is made from sour cow's milk, ori n some cases from renneted
milk. Sometimes sheep's or goat's milk is used. The potatoes are boiled and grated
ormashed. One part of the potatoes is thoroughly mixed or kneaded with two or three






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


parts of the curd In the better chees-e there parts of poUtatoes is mixed with two parts
of curd. During thi' mixing, saltis added and sometimes caraway seed. The cheeses
allowed to stand for two to four days while a fermentation takes place. After this the
curd is again thoroughly kneaded and placed in forms for a day. It is then dried and
is sometimes coverdil with beer or cream. It is finally placed in tubs and allowed to
ripen for fourteen days.
POTTED.

This domestic cheese is usually prepared from well-ripened Cheddar cheese by grind-
ing the cheese very fine and incorporating with it butter, condiments, spirits, etc. It
is put up in small porcelain jars and is much in demand.
PRATTIGAU.
This is made from skimmed cow's milk and is so named from the '..all-y of Switzer-
land in whir-ch it is made. Its maufar.i'turi- is the same as that of Limburg. Cheeses
weigh from 20 to 25 pounds.
PRESTOST.

Prestost is a prod uct of Sweden, where it is often r'alled Saaland Pfarr. It is a rennet
cheese made from fresh cow's milk and resembles Gouda. It was known in the eight-
eenth century. The milk is set at 90 F. and is allowed to become very firm, when itis
cut coarse with a wooden knife and poured into a sieve which allows the whey to drain
off. The curd is thk-n put into a cloth and kneaded. \\hiii:.ky is mixed with the curd,
which is then packed in a basket, and aft.-r some salt is sprinkled on the surface it is
put in the cellar. The cloth inclosing the cheese is chang.il daily for three days, after
which the cheese is washed with whisky. A cheese is cylindrical in shape and weighs
5 to 30 pounds.
PROVIDENCE.

This cheese is about 8 inches in diameter and 11 inches thick, and very closely resem-
bles Port du Salut. It is made in the monastery of Bricquebec in the Department of
Manche, France.
PROVOLE.

This is one of the most esteemed of the several kinds of hard rennet cheese made in
central and southern Italy from cow's milk, in( hiding also that of buiffaloes. The
cheese is round or o\al and weighs from 4 to 6 pounds. Smaller sizes weighing about
2 pounds are known as Provoloni. In many rP:p(-'l., including the cooking of the
curd with hot water and the smoking of the cheese, Provole and Provoloni resemble
Caciocaval lo. Considerable amounts of this cheese are imported into the United States.
PULTOST.
Pultost, also called Knaost, is made usually frn'in sour milk but it may be made with
rennet. It is a Norwegian product and is made in private dairies in the mountains of
that country. The milk is placed in a kettle and if not sour i-noughli to coagulate on
warming the acidity is increased by the addition of buttermilk. When sufficient acid
has developed the milk is warmed to 113 F. The curd is broken up with a scoop and
stirred to keep it from matting together while it is being hb'.at.d to 140. It is then
dipped and ground up fine. Buttermilk is added .ind the whole is thoroughly kneaded
and put into troughs, where it is covered with a cloth. It is allowed to stand'for three
days with occasional stirring.
QUESO DE CINCHO.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Venezuela and known also as Queso de Palma
Metida. ]t is exported in the form of balls 8 to 16 inches in diameter and wrapped in
palm leaves.






42 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

QUESO DE HOJA.
This isaPorto Rican cheese made from fresh cow's milk. Thecurd iscut intoblocks
about 6 inches square and 2 inches thick. After part of the whey is drained off, which
may require several hours, the pieces of curd are immersed in water or whey having
a temperature of 150 F. This gives a tough layer to the block of curd, which is then
removed to a table and pressed or stretched by the use of a broad wooden spoon or
paddle. Salt is sprinkled on the surface and the piece of curd is folded and wrapped
in a cloth and squeezed to force out the moisture. The finished product is about 6
inches in diameter, 1 to 2 inches thick, and has slightly rounded top and bottom sur-
faces. When the cheese is cut it appears to be in layers like leaves upon one another,
hence the name, signifying leaf cheese.

QUESO DE MANO.
This is a sour-milk cheese resembling a hand cheese, and is made in Venezuela.
It is 6 to 7 inches in diameter.
QUESO DE PRENSA.

This is a Porto Rican product, and is a hard rennet cheese made from unskimmed
cow's milk. The milk is allowed to stand six hours without coolingand rennet isthen
added. The curd is broken by hand or with a stick, and after part of the whey is
separated the curd is transferred to a table and is broken into small pieces. It is then
put in wooden frames, and salt is added either as the curd goes into the frame or by
sprinkling on top. Light pressure is applied, either by hand or by means of a screw.
After leaving the press the cheese is placed on racks. It may be eaten fresh or allowed
to stand for two to three months. The cheeses are 11 inches long, 54 inches wide, and
3 inches thick, and weigh about 5 pounds. The name signifies pressed cheese.

QUESO DE PUNA.
This is a Porto Rican product, resembling very much the Cottage or Dutch cheese
of the United States. The milk is set with rennet and the curd is thoroughly mashed
or kneaded by hand, salt being added at the same time. The curd is put in a hoop 5
inches in diameter and 1i inches deep, where it remains without pressure for two or
three days, or until it will keep its form. The cheese is eaten fresh.
RABACAL.

This is a round, rather firm cheese made from the milk of sheep and goats in the
vicinity of Coimbra, Portugal. A cheese is 4 to 5 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick.

RADEN.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from skim milk in Mecklenburg. The cheeses
are 16 inches in diameter and 4 inches thick, and weigh 32 pounds. The process of
manufacture does not differ materially from that of Emmental.

RANGIPORT.
This cheese is in every way analogous to Port du Salut. It is about 6 inches in
diameter and 2j inches thick and weighs about 2j pounds. It is made in the Depart-
ment of Seine-et-Oise, France.
RAYON.
This is a special type of Emmental cheese -made largely in the Canton of Fribourg,
Switzerland, for exportation to Italy, though some is now manufactured in Italy.
Itis made of partly skimmed milk, and the cooking is continued to a point that insures
a very dry hard cheese which develops no eyes. After curing it is shipped largely






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


to Turin, where it is placed on edge on shelves in a dry, warm cave, and the fat leaks
out, leaving the cheese exceedingly dry and hard, when it is used for grating. After
the drying process the cheese is called Raper.

REBBIOLA.
Rebbiola, or Robiola, is a soft cheese made principally in the Alpine districts of
Italy. The process of manufacture is very simple. It is generally made from milk
skimmed after twelve hours, but whole milk is sometimes used. The cheese is circular
and weighs about 2 pounds. The ripening process is very rapid, requiring usually
twelve to fifteen days. The milk is set at a temperature of 90 F., the time allowed
being usually about one-half hour. The curd is cut fine and put into molds 8 inches
in diameter and 6 inches high, the bottom being perforated. Five hours later the
cheeses are removed from the molds and placed on a draining board covered with
straw. After two or three days they are salted and then ripened.

REBLOCHON.
This is a soft French cheese weighing 1 to 2 pounds. It is made from fresh whole
milk which is curdled with rennet at a temperature of 80 F. or above, the time
allowed being about thirty minutes. The curd is cut to the size of peas, cooked to
about 95, and after the removal of the whey is put into molds about 6 inches in
diameter and 2 inches in height. A weight of about 5 pounds is placed upon each
cheese, which is turned frequently and salted after about twelve hours. In a moist
room having a temperature of about 60 the desired degree of ripening is secured in
four to five weeks. An imitation of this cheese, made in Savoy, France, is known as
Brizecon.
REINDEER MILK.
In Norway and Sweden the milk of the reindeer is sometimes used for cheesemak-
ing. Rennet is added at 100 F., and the curd is cut and dipped into a large frame,
where it is pressed lightly. The mass of curd is then cut into pieces 5 by 4 by 21
inches, which are salted on the surface and are allowed to ripen in a dry curing room.

RIESENGEBIRGE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from goat's milk in the mountains on the northern
border of Bohemia. The milk is set at about 90 F. The curd is broken up and the
whey dipped off, after which the curd is put in forms, where it remains in a warm
place for twenty-four hours. It is then covered with salt and after drying for three
to four days is placed in the curing cellar. From each 100 pounds of milk 18 poundsof
cheese is secured.
RINNEN.
This is a sour-milk cheese which was known in the eighteenth century. It is made
in Pomerania from milk sufficiently acid to cause a precipitation of the curd when it
is warmed to about 90 F. The cheese derives its name from the wooden trough in
which it is laid to drain. The curd is broken up and heated to expel the whey. The
curd is kneaded by hand and caraway seed is added. It is molded into forms and
pressed. Salt is then rubbed on the outside. The cheese is dried and put in a box
to ripen.
ROLL.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in England from unskimmed cow's milk. It is
cylindrical in shape, 8 inches high by 9 inches in diameter. A cheese weighs 20
pounds.






44 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

ROLLOT.

This is a soft rennet cheese 2J inches in diameter and 2 inches thick, made in the
Departments of Somme and Oise, France.
ROMADOUR.
Romadour, Remoudou, or Romatur cheese is a southern Bavarian product similar
to Limburg. It is 4J by 2 by 2 inches in size and weighs 1 pound. It is said to be
a little finer variety of cheese than Limburg and to sell for a slightly higher price.
ROQUEFORT.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from the milk of sheep There are, however,
numerous imitations or varieties closely resembling Roquefort. such as Gex and Sept-
moncel, made from cow's milk. One of the most striking characteristics of this cheese
is the mottled or marbled appearance of the interior, due to the development of a
penicillium, which is the principal ripening agent. The manufacture of Roquefort
cheese has been carried on in the southeastern part -f France for at least two cen-
turies. The industry is particularly important in the Department of Aveyron,
in which is situated the village of Roquefort, from which the cheese derives its
name. It is also madein Corsica. Imitationsof Roquefort cheese are made in various
countries.
The evening's milk is heated to 140 to 150 F., cold, and kept over night. After
being skimmed it is mixed with the fresh morning's milk. The mixture is then set
with rennet at a temperature of about 90. In from one to two hours after the addi-
tion of rennet the curd is cut until the particles are about the size of walnuts. The
whey which rises to the surface is dipped off and the curd is put into hoops which
are about 81 inches in diameter and 3| inches in height. The hoops are filled usu-
ally in three layers, a layer of moldy bread crumbs being interspersed between the
first and second and second and third layers. The bread used for this purpose is
prepairil from wheat and barley flour with the addition of whey and a little vinegar.,
It is thriighly baked and kept in a moist place for four to six weeks, during which
time it becomes permeated with a growth of the mold referred to. The crust is re-
moved and the interior is crumbled very fine and sifted. The cheese is subjected to
pressure which is gradually increased for ten to twelve hours. It is turned usually
one hour after putting into hoops. At the end of about twelve hours it is wrapped
in cloth and taken to the first curing room. The cloths are frequently changed dur-
ing the ten to twelve days the cheese remains in this place.
Formerly the manufacture of the cheese utip to this stage was carried on by the
shepherds themselves, but in recent years centralized factories have been established
and timuch of the milk is collected and there made into cheese. The cheese is then
taken to the caves. These are for the most part natural caverns which exist in large
numbers in the region of Roquefort. The temperature in these caves is 40 to 45,
and the air circulates very freely through them. Recently, artificial caves have been
constructed and used. When the cheeses reach the cav'es they are salted, which
serves to check the gnrwth of the mold on the surface. One or two days later they
are rubbed vigorously with cloth and are afterwards subjected to thorough scraping
with knives, a process formerly done by hand, but now much more satisfactorily and
economically by machinery. The salting, scraping, or brushing seems to check the
development of mold on the surface. In order to favor the growth of mold in the in-
terior, the cheese is pierced by machinery with 60 to 100 small steel needles, which
process permits the free access of air. The cheese may be sold after thirty to forty
days or may remain in the caves as long as five months, depending upon the degree of
ripening desired. The cheese loses during ripening by scraping and evaporation as
much as 25 per cent of the original weight. The weight when ripened is about 4J
to 5 pounds.






VARIETIES uF' CHEESE.


SAANEN.

This is a type of Emmental cheese made in Switzerland from cow's milk. It is
sometimes known as IIartka-e, Reilikase, and.Walliskise. First mentioned in the
sixteentlh cenliury it is still manufactured extensively at the present time and ex-
ported to a limited extent. It sells for a higher price than the regular Emmental.
The process oif manufaciur', is idthntical with that of Emmental except that it is
cooked muh ,ryer. takes much 1,lnger to cure, and keeps longer. The cheese weighs
from 10 to 20 pounds. The eyes are few and small.
The ripeniug pi.riod is never les than three years and many require as long as nine
years, the aerag. being six yva.'r- The cheeses are kept to great ages. it being the
custom to make a cheese at tih(- birth of a child and eat it at the burial feast or even
at the burial fh-ast of a son of the child for whom it is made. One cheese is mentioned
as being twn hundred y%.ar- old and is considered a great honor to the household.
Many cheeses arn krpt until they are thirty years old.
SAGE.
Thik che.-e is ii made by the ordinary tliihihar pruc'.ss, and may be of any of tho
various shapes a nd sizes in which that cheese is pressed. As seen when cut it has a
green mottled appearance.
Fornrmierly .-,g* cheese was made by mixing green sage leaves with the curd before
it wa.s pre.zsid. At the present time the flavor of sage is obtained by sage extract.
To secure[ tln green mottles, succulent green corn is cut fine and the juice is pressed
out. A simill portion of the milk is mixed with this juice and is set with rennet in a
small vat whilf, the bulk of the milk is set in the ordinary manner. After the curd is
cut and is lirnm nuugh to be handled, the green curd from the .mall vat is mixed
with the uncolored curd, and thi. process is continued as in the Cheddar process.
This is a very popular variety of ches-i. with many consumers.
SAINT CLAUDE.
This is a small, square, goat's-milk cheese made in the region of Saint Claude,
France. The milk is curdled with rennet and the curd placed in molds for six to
eight hours. It is then salted and allowed to ripen, or may, however, be eaten when
fresh. A cheese weighs from one-quarter to One-l.hlf pound.
SAINT BENOIT.
This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Olivet. and is made in the Department of
Loiret, France. Charcoal is added to the salt which is applied to the exterior of the
cheese. Ripening requires from twelve to fiflteepn days in summer and eighteen to
twenty days in winter. A cheese is about 6 inches in diameter.
SAINT MARCELLIN.
This is a goat's-milk cheese made in the Department of Isere, Franc. Sheep's
milk or even cjw's milk may be mixed with the goat's milk. A cheese is about 3
inches in diameter and three-fourths of an inch thi'k and weighs about onime-fouirth
pound.
SAINT REMY.
This is a soft rennet cheese differing but little from Pont l'Eveque. It is made in
the Department of flaute-Sa6re, France.
SALOIO.
This is a kind of hand cheese made from skimmed cow's milk on farms in the region
of Lisbon, Portugal. It has the form of a short cylinder, measures 11 to 2 inches in
diameter, and weighs about 4 ounces. A similar cheese of about the same character
is made in Thomar, about 50 miles north of Lisbon.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


SAP SAGO.
This cheese is made from sour skimmed cow's milk principally in Glarus, Switzer-
land. It is known also as Schabzieger, Glarnerkaise, Gruinerkase, and Krauterkase.
It is claimed to have been made in the thirteenth century; the authentic history at
least dates back to the fifteenth century. Sap Sago is a small, hard green cheese fla-
vored with the leaves of a species of clover; it is shaped like a truncated cone, 4 inches
high, 3 inches in diameter at the base, and 2 inches at the top. This cheese is imported
to some extent into the United States under the name of Sap Sago.
The skimmed milk from which this cheese is made is not allowed to become sour
enough to coagulate on heating, as it would make too hard a curd. The milk when it
has reached the right acidity is heated to the boiling temperature while being stirred.
Cold buttermilk is then added, as is also some whey having a high percentage of acid-
ity. The material coagulating on the surface is skimmed off. The milk is then
stirred while sufficient acid whey is added to precipitate the casein. When too little
whey is used the curd is too soft, and when too much is used it is too hard. The curd
is dipped with a skimmer and spread out to cool and then put in boxes and allowed to
drain and ferment. The box is kept at a temperature of about 60 F. and pressure is
applied by weighting with stones. Ripening is allowed to continue for three to six
weeks. If the temperature of the room is too high or there is not sufficient pressure,
too rapid and strong fermentation results. This curd is used for making the finished
product, but the cheese is seldom finished where the curd is made. The curd is
ground in a mill and every 100 pounds of cheese contains 5 pounds of salt and 25
pounds of dried Jeldotus cerulea, an aromatic clover which is grown in the Canton of
Schweiz for the purpose. The ground material is worked up into a dough and is
forced into molds lined with linen cloth, and the name of the manufacturer is stamped
on the large end. The mold is then emptied and refilled. The cheeses are dumped
promiscuously into a large cask holding about 200 pounds. A comparatively small
quantity is shipped into this country. It sells at a low price and is usually grated.

SASSENAGE.

This is a hard rennet cheese, about 12 inches in diameter and 3 inches in height,
made from cow's milk to which small quantities of goat's and sheep's milk are usually
added. The cheese is almost identical with that of Gex and Septmoncel. It derives
its name from the village of Sassenage, near Grenoble, in the Department of Isere,
France. The milk used is usually a mixture of skimmed milk and whole milk. It is
set with rennet and the curd is cut and put into molds in the same manner as with the
other varieties mentioned. The same is also true of the ripening process, which
requires about two months.
SCANNO.
This is a soft rennet cheese made from the milk of sheep in the A pennine Mountains,
in the Province of Abruzzo, Italy. It derives its name from the village of Scanno.
The surface of the cheese is colored a deep black. The interior is bright yellow and
has the consistency of butter.
SCARMORZE.

This is a small rennet cheese made in southern Italy from the milk of buffaloes.

SCHAMSER.
This cheese, which is also known as Rheinwaid, is a rennet cheese made from
skimmed cow's milk in the Canton Graubuinden, Switzerland. The cheeses weigh
from 40 to 45 pounds and are 18 inches in diameter and 5 inches high.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


SCHLOSS.

Schlosskase, or Castle cheese, is a Limburg cheese made in the northern part of
Austria. It is a soft cured rennet cheese 4 by 2 by 2 inches in size. When ready for
market it is wrapped in tin foil.
SCHOTTENGSIED.

This is a whey cheese made by t he peasants of the Alps for home use.

SCHWARZENBERG.
This cheese is made in southern Bohemia and western Hungary. It is a rennet
cheese made from partly skimmed cow's milk. One part of skimmed milk is added to
two parts of fresh mil k. In about one hour after the addition of rennet the curd is
broken up and thoroughly stirred. It is then dipped into wooden forms and light
pressure applied for half a day. For four or five days following the cheese is rubbed
with salt and is then taken to the cellar, where it is washed daily with salt water until
ripe, which requires two to three months.

SENECTERRE.
This is a soft rennet cheese originating at Saint Nectaire, in the Department of
Puy-de-D6me, France. It is made out of whole milk, is cylindrical in shape, and
weighs about 1 pounds.
SEPTMONCEL.
This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk to which a small proportion of
goat's milk is sometimes added. It resembles the Gex and Sassenage varieties very
closely and its process of manufacture is almost identical with that of Roquefort. It
is also known as Jura blue cheese. It derives its name from the village of Septmoncel,
near Saint-Claude, in the Department of Jura, where the cheese is for the most part
made. The cheese is made almost exclusively on isolated farms rather than in co-
operati ve dairies, and the methods employed are somewhat rudimentary.
The milk, which is usually partly skimmed, is set with rennet at a temperature of
about 85 F. The curd is cut and stirred after about one and one-half hours. After the
curd has settled the whey is poured off. The stirring and draining are repeated sev-
eral times until the curd is sufficiently firm to put into hoops. Moderate pressure is
applied for a few hours. The cheese is salted at the end of twenty-four hours and
thereafter daily for several days. It is then transferred to the first curing room, which
is kept cool and moist. After three to four weeks it has become covered with blue
mold, when it is transferred to cellars or natural caves, where the ripening is completed
in from three to four weeks longer.

SERRA DA ESTRELLA.

This is the most highly prized of the several kinds of cheeses made in Portugal.
The name refers to the mountainous region in which the cheese is produced. It is
made for the most part from the milk of sheep, but goat's milk is often added to this
or even used alone, and occasionally cow's milk is used.
The method of making this cheese is comparatively simple. The milk is warmed
in a kettle with little regard to the temperature obtained, and is coagulated in most
cases by means of an extract of the flowers of a kind of thistle. The time required for
curdling varies from two to six hours, depending upon the amount of the extract used.
The curd is broken up with a ladle or by hand, squeezed to remove most of the whey,
and put into circular forms. After draining until sufficiently firm the cheeses are re-
moved from the hoops and allowed to ripen for several weeks, during which time they
are frequently washed with whey and salted on the surface. The cheeses vary much






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


in size, the larger measuring about 10 inches in diameter and 2 inches thick, and weigh-
ing about 5 pounds. The cheese is rather soft and has a pleasant aci'l taste.
A similar cheese made in another part of Portugal is known as Castello Branco.

SERVIAN.

In making Servian cheese the milk is warmed in a kettle over a fire or in a tub by
immersing heated stones. After the rennet is added the milk is allowed to stand one
hour. The curd is then lifted in a cloth and the whey allowed to drain. It is then
placed in a wo, den vessel, salted, and covered successively with whey for about eight
days and fresh milk for about six days.

SILESIAN.

A cheese known locally as Schlesisrher Weichquarg is made from skimmed cow's
milk, the process of manufacture resmeibling that of hand cheese. The milk is allowed
to coagulate from souring and the curd is broken up and cooked at 100 F. for a short
period. The curd is then put in a ,loth sack and light pressure applied for twenty-four
hours, after which it is kneaded by hand and salt and milk or ere-am are added. Fla-
voring substances such as onions or caraway seed are also sometimes added. The
cheese is eaten fresh.
Another cheese known as Schlesischer Sauermilchkase is also made in much the
same way as hand cheese. The cheeses are kept on shelves covered with straw, and
aredriedby the stove in winter and in a latticework house in summer. Drying is con-
tinued until the cheese becomes very hard. The cheese is ripened in a cellar, the
process requiring three to eight. weeks, during which time it is washed every few days
with warm water.
SIRAZ.
This is a Servian cheese made as a rule from whole milk. The milk isset at 104 F.
and the curd is lifted from the whey with a cljth and pressed into cakes 4 to 6 inches
in diameter and 1 inch thick. These cakes are placed in the sun to dry until the fat
commences to run, when they are rubbed several times with salt until a good crust is
formed. The cakes are then packed in a wooden vessel and allowed to ripen. The cut
surface shows a smooth appearance without holes. It is between a hard and a soft
cheese.
SLIPCOTE.
This cheese is made in Rutlandshire, England. It is a soft unripened rennet cheese,
made from cow's milk. Thecurd isdipped into small formsand no pressure is applied.
After the cheese is removed from the form the surface dries and cracks and is easily
slipped off, hence the name. It is an old cheese, having been well known in the mid-
dle of the eighteenth century.
SPALEN.
This is a lyp'. of Emmental cheese, and is sometimes known as Stringer. Its origin
isunknown. It ii made largelyin the Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, from sweet
cow's milk, often partly skimme.]. The name it derived from the vessel in which the
cheeses are transported and in which five or six of them are packed. This is a small
cheese for an Emmental type. Each cheese weighs from 35 to 40 pounds.
No thermometer is used in the manufacture, the temperature being judged by the
feeling, and a very uneven product is the result. The process of making seems to vary
much, the press conrikting of a biard with stones for weights, and the temperature of
the cellar being poorly regulated.
SPITZ.
This is a small rennet chi-.se made from cow's milk The cheese is cylindrical in
shape, being 4 inches high and 1I inches in diameter.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


STEPPES.

This name is applied to a Russian cheese made from whole milk. The milk after the
addition ui coloring matter is heated to about 90 F. and treated with sufficient rennet
to secure coagulation in forty to forty-five minutes. The curd is cut into large cubes,
the whey rimo\ cd slowly, and the curd still further broken up until the particles are
uniformly about the size of peas The curd is then heated gradually to 100 to 104,
the mass meanwhile being gently agitated. The stirring is kept up for some time after
heating ceases until the curd becomes dry, when it is placed in molds 10 by 5 by 7
inches. A itpr the cheeses are removed from the molds they are turned frequently and
five hours later are salted and transferred to the curing cellar, where a temperature of
about 5-- is maintained. During ripening the cheeses are worked occasionally with
salt water and turned frequently.
STILTON.

This is a hard rennet cheese, the best of which is made from cow's milk to which
a portion ,f wream has been aiddled. It was first made near the village of Stilton, Hunt-
ingdonshire. England about the middle of the eighteenth century. It is now made
principally in Leicestershire and West Rurlandlshiirf. though its manufacture has
extended to other parts of England Its manufacture has been tried, though without
success, in the United States. The cheese is about 7 inches in diameter and 9 inches
high, and weighs 12 to 15 pounds. It has a very characteristic wrinkled orridged
skin or rind. which is likely caused by the drying of molds and bacteria on the sur-
face. When cut it shows blue or green portions of mold which give its characteristic
piquant flavor. The price in this country is about 45 cents a pound wholesale. The
cheese helungs ti the same group as the Roquefort. of France and the Gorgonzola of
Italy
The morning's milk is put in a tin vat and the cream from the night's milk is added,
and the whole is brought to a temperature of 80 F., when the rennet is added. It
is claimed by some cheese makers that the curd should be S.fter when broken up or
cut than the curd for Cheddar cheese, while by others it is believed that it should
become very firm before it is disturbed, allowing one to two hours for setting. When
sufficiently firm the curd is dipped into cloths which are placed in tin strainers. After
draining for one hour the cloths containing the curd are packed closely together in
a large tub and allowed to remain for twelve hours, when they are again tightened
and packed for eighteen hours. The curd is ground up coarse, and salt is added,
1 pound to 60 pounds of curd. The curd is then put into tin hoops 8 inches in diam-
eter and 10 inches deep. The cheeses remain in the hoops for six days, when they
are bandaged for tw elve days, or until they become firm, and are then placed in the
curing room at 65. Ripened Stilton cheese is of late often ground up and put into
jars holding 1 to 2\ pounds.
STRACCHINO.
This name is applied to several forms of Italian soft cheeses, the best known of
which is Stracchino di Gorgonzola, which is described under the name of Gorgonzola.
A square form 6 to 8 inches on a side and 11 inches thick is known as Stracchino di
Milano, Fresco. Quadro, orQuartirola: This cheese is prepared similarly to Gorgonzola
but is allowed to ripen for only ah,,ut two months. It is not much exported. Strac-
chino Crescenza is a very soft and highly colored cheese usually eaten fresh. The
form is similar to that of the Quartirola. It is usually marketed in about eight days
and can not be kept long.
STYRIA.
This is a cylindrical-shaped cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk in Styria,
Austria.






50 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

SWEET CURD.

This is a name applied in the United States to a hard rennet cheese made from
cow's milk. The name is used to distinguish it from the ordinary Cheddar or granu-
lar process, as in making Sweet Curd cheese the milk is set sweet and the cutting and
cooking are done rapidly without regard to the development of acid. In making
this cheese the curd is cooked ven, firm and is salted and put to press immediately.
In all other respects the process is t he same as for Cheddar and the cheese when ripened
resembles that cheese very closely.
SWISS.

Swiss or Schweitzer cheese belongs to the Emmental group of cheeses and is made
usually from half-skimmed cow's milk. Its manufacture i very old. It is supposed
to have originated in the Alps, but is now made in most of the sur-rounding countries.
It is made mostly in the winter season when the pri e of butter is high, and only for
local consumption. Its manufacture differs fronm-real Emmental in tha4 it is made
from half-skimmed milk. The morning's milk is first heated and the skimmed even-
ing's milk is added. The curd is cut coarser and is not cooked so firm as Emmental,
which gives a softer and more quickly ripened cheese.

TAFI.

This cheese is manufactured in the Province of Tucuman, in the Argentine Republic.

TAMIL.

This cheese is made by the Trappists in Savoy. France. The whole milk is heated
to about 80 F. and coagulated with rennet in about thirty minutes. The curd is
cut fine, cooked to about 100, stirred, and put into molds 7 inches in diameter and
4 inches in height. The cheese is pressed for six to eight hours, the cloths being
changed frequently. After being salted the cheese is ripened for five to six weeks.
The method of manufacture is, to a large extent, a trade secret. The Tome de Beau-
mont is a more or less successful imitation.

TEXEL.

This is a sheep's-milk cheese made in Holland. It was known in the seventeenth
century. A cheese weighs 3 to 4 pounds and is colored green

THENAY.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and Vend6me and is made in the
region of Thenay in the Department of Loir-et-Cher, France. It is of comparatively
recent origin and its consumption-is limited practically to the region in which it is
produced.
The evening's milk without being skimmed is mixed with the fresh morning's milk.
The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 85 F. and allowed to stand for
four to five hours. The curd is then broken up and put into hoops about 5 inches
in diameter and 4 inches in height. After draining for about one day it is turned and
salted. The cheese is then kept for about twenty days in a well-ventilated room
during which time it becomes covered with molds. It is then taken to the curing cellar
for about fifteen days.
TIGNARD.

This is a hard rennet cheese, resembling Gex and Sassenage, made from sheep's
and goat's milk in the valley of the Tigne, in Savoy, France.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 51

TILSIT.
This is a hard reutet cheese made mainly in East Prussia from unskimmed cow's
milk. It is sometimes called Ragnit. The milk is set at 92 F. with iltinierit, rennet
to coagulate in from tiftenii to forty minutes. The curd is rather coarsely cut or broken
and is cooked to 10) 1 ti 1100, Ib.ing Qtirrt-d meanwhile with a harp. The curd is cooked
quite firm or until it can not be squeezed through between the fiwo-rg5, which requires
about firty minutes. It iq then dililid into cylindrical form-4, where it remains
twenty-four hours The chl.-ese is then covered thickly with salt for from one to two
days, when it is put into a .salt bath fir thre(-e to five days and then transferred to the
cellar. Here it i.; rubbed and washed with salt water frequently, and allowed to ripen
for four to six mont4is. Th- cheese is 6 to 12 inches in diameter, 3 to 41 inches in
height, and weight from (I 1i- 2S pounds. It resembles in general characteristics the
Brick cheese of the United States.
TOPPEN.

This is a (ermnn four-milk cheese made from skim milk and eaten while fresh. It
is put up in small packag,-4 weighing about 1 ounce.

TRAPPIST.

This cheese originated with the Tralppists in 1885 in the monastery of Mariastern,
near Banjaluka, in B':.ni.A. The fresh milk is heated to about 85 F. and rennet is
added. After one to one and one-half hours the curd, without beingg cut or stirred,
is put into hoops and pres-.ed, after which it is salted and ripened. The growth of
mold is entirely pre\ ent-id by fri-quont, washing and thus the cheese ripens uniformly
throughout. The ripr.niin l period of the smaller cheeses is five to six weeks in summer,
but the cheese is usually .-hipped at the end of four to five weeks. The cheese is pale
yellow in color and has a remarkably mild taste. Although this cheese is to be classed
among the soft varieties, the water content is often below 45 per cent. The ripening
is also more characteristic uf the'hard cheeses. The smallest size of the cheese made
in the monastery referred to has a diameter of 6 inches, a height of 2 inches, and weighs
2 to 3 pounds. A larger si.,e measures 9 inches in diameter, 2 inches in height, and
weighs about 10 pounds. There is also a still larger size. The cheese is exported to a
large extent to Austria and Hungary, the most important centers of the trade in these
regions being Gratz and Budapest. It is, however, found in all of the large cities of
Austria, and the demand appears to be constantly invcr',i.-riui.

TRAVNIK.
This is a soft rennet cheese made usually from whole sheep's milk to which a small
amount of goat's milk is added. Skinimmed milk, however, is sometimes used. It is
also known as AJrnauten and Viasic. This cheese originated in Albania in the north-
western part of Turkey in E'urope and has been made for at least a century. In the
country of origin it was known at first by the name Arnautski Sir or Arnauten cheese.
At the present time it is made in Bosnia and Herzegov in., but principally in the Vlasic
Plain. The center of trade in this cheese is Travnik in Bosnia.
The fresh warm milk is treated with sufficient rennet to secure coagulation in one and
one-fourth to two hours and is then allowed to stand fora shorttime until the coagulum
contracts and the whey appears on the surface. The curd is then put into woolen
sacks and drained for seven to eight hours, when it is pressed into flattened balls by
hand. These are dried for a short time in the open air and then packed iuto wooden
receptacles varying in diameter from 14 to 28 inches, having a height of about 24 inches,
and holding from 50 to 130 pounds of cheese. Each layer of cheese is salted and
pressed so that no air spaces are left. When the recc-ptacle is filled the whey usually
shows at the surface, any excess being removed. Moderate pressure is applied to the






52 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

cover placed upon the cheese. When fresh, the cheese made from whole sheep's milk
has a soft consistency, a nearly white color, and a pleasant, mild taste. The cheese,
however, is usually allowed to ripen for two weeks to several months. No holes should
develop in the cheese.
TROUVILLE.
This is a soft rennet cheese made in the same locality as Pont 1'Evque and is of the
same nature though superior in quality. Only fresh whole milk is used. The tem-
perature of setting with rennet is 85 to 95 F. The growth of molds during ripening is
prevented by frequent washing with salt water.
TROYES.
Two kinds of cheese are referred to by this name-one a washed cheese with a yellow
rind, known as Ervy, and the other a cheese very closely resembling Camembert and
known as Barberey. The industry is quite restricted.
TWOROG.
This isa sour-milk cheese made in Russia. The soured milk is kept in a warm place
for twenty-four hours, when the whey is removed and the curd put into wooden forms
and subjected to pressure. This cheese is made on a large scale by farmers and is often
used in making a bread called "Notruschki."
URI.
This is a hard rennet cow's-milk cheese made in the Canton of Uri, Switzerland. It
has a diameter of 8 to 12 inches, and is 8 inches high. It weighs 20 to 40 pounds.
VACHERIN.
This name is applied to two quite different kinds of cheese.
Theform designated Vacherin a la Main is made in Switzerland and in Savoy, France.
Whole cow's milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 85 F., and the curd is
cut very fine and put into hoops 12 inches in diameter and 5 to 6 inches high. It is
salted and ripened. The rind is firm and hard but the interior is almost liquid in con-
sistency. It is either spread on bread or eaten with a spoon. A ripened cheese weighs
from 5 to 10 pounds. A cheese of this kind made in the same region is known locally as
Tome de Montagne.
The form designated Vacherin Fondu is made in much the same manner as Emmen-
tal cheese. The ripened cheese is then melted and spices are added.
VEND6ME.
This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and Thenay, and is made in the
region of Vendome in the Department of Loir-et-Cher, France.
The warm morning's milk is usually mixed with that of the previous evening, which
secures ordinarily a setting temperature of 75 to 85 F., which is desired. The period
of setting is four to five hours in summer and five to six hours in winter. The curd is
then broken up and put into hoops about 5 inches in diameter and 4 inches in height.
After draining for twenty-four hours the cheese is turned and salted, which process is
twice repeated at intervals of twelve hours. When sufficiently dried it is placed in the
curing cellar where it is often buried in ashes. This cheese is placed by some on a
rank with Camembert. The principal market is Paris.
VILLIERS.
This is a soft rennet cheese made in the Department of Haute-Marne, France. It isa
square cheese weighing about 1 pound.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


VOID. -
This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Pont l'Eveque and Limburg. It is made in
the Department of Meuse, France. The milk is set with rennet at a high temperature,
the whey is removed as rapidly as possible, and the cheeses during ripening are washed
frequently with salt water.
VORARLBERG SOUR-MILK.

This, as the name indicates, is made from sour cow's milk. It is semicircular in
shape and varies in size. It is essentially a hard cheese.
The sweet milk is put in a kettle and raised to 77 F., and sour thickened milk is
added and the mixture stirred and heated to 95, at which temperature it coagulates.
While this is being stirred with a curd scoop the temperature is raised to 105. The
curd is then dipped into forms, where it is turned a few times during twenty-four
hours. Salt is rubbed on the surface and the cheese is placed in a room having a tem-
perature of 67. The cheese is then placed in a cask and held for three days, and salt
is sprinkled over the surface daily. The ripening is completed in a cellar. When
ripe thp cheese is greasy and has a very strong odor and flavor.

WEISSLAK.

This is a soft cured rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the Bavarian Algau, Ger-
many. The cheese weighs about 21 pounds, and is rectangular in shape, 41 by 4 by
34 inches.
WENSLEYDALE.
This cheese derives its name from the valley in Yorkshire, England, in which it is
made. It is a rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. It is cylindrical in shape
and weighs from 5 to 15 pounds.
In the old method of manufacture the evening's milk is heated to 100 F., and the
fresh morning's milk is added. It is set with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in thirty-
five minutes. The breaking or cutting process requires thirty-five minutes, after
which the curd is allowed to stand for forty-five minutes at 90. The whey is then
removed, and the curd is put in vats lined with cloth and light pressure is applied for
thirty minutes. The curd is broken up and allowed to drain for one hour. It is then
milled and is pressed for twenty-four hours, when it is wrapped in cloth, and finally
put in brine for three days.
In the new method of manufacture the evening's milk and the morning's milk are
mixed in a copper kettle, heated to 95, and enough rennet is added to coagulate it in
forty-five minutes. The curd is then broken up by hand or with a breaker. The
whey is removed and the curd dipped into tin hoops where it drains for three hours.
It is then turned and drained for another three hours. After pres-ing for twenty-four
hours, the cheese is salted by immersion in brine for three days.

WEST FRIESIAN.

This is a rennet cheese made from skimmed cow's milk. The milk is set in a copper
kettle, one hour being allowed for coagulation. The curd is broken up and placed in
a wooden tub, where it is kneaded. The curd is allowed to stand for several hours and
then salted. It is pressed for three hours, washed in hot water, wrapped in a fine
cloth, and again pressed for twelve hours. The cheese is eaten when one week old.

WESTPHALIA SOUR-MILK.

This is a hand cheese made in Westphalia. Sour milk is stirred and heated to 100
F., and placed in a sack and the whey pressed out. The curd is then kneaded by
hand and salted, butter and caraway seed or pepper being added. It is then molded
by hand, dried for a few hours, and ripened in a cellar.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


WHITE.
Fromage Blanc, or White cheese, is a skim-milk cheese made in France during the
summer months. The milk is set with rennet at about 75 F. The curd is usually
molded into cylindrical forms. The cheese is consumed while fresh and may or may
not be salted,
WITHANIA.
This is so called because made with rennet manufactured from withania berries.
Cheese made with the rennet of these berries is said to have an agreeable flavor if
ripened to the right degree, but it develops an acrid flavor with age. The texture is
not so good as with animal rennet. This form of rennet is recommended for use ip
India, where the religion and prejudice of the peoIple make the use of animal rennet
impractical.
ZIEGEL.

This is a cheese made in Austria either from whole cow's milk or from whole milk
to which 15 per cent of cream has been added. The cheese measures 3 by 2 by 2J
inches, and weighs about ine-half pound
In making thei whole-milk cheese the milk is warmed it, 95 F. and sufficient rennet
is added to cjagulate it in thirty minutes. The curd is broken up with a harp and cut
loose from the bottom of the vessel, after which it is allowed tLi remain undisturbed
for rhirty minutes. At the end of this time the curd, which is again matted together,
is cut into pieces and stirred gently for a considerable lime, after which it is allowed
to stand again for fifteen minutes. The collected whey is then dipped off and the
curd is dipped into forms which are 24 inches long, 5 inches high, and hold the curd
of 7 to 8 gallons of milk. Befre the furmu is tilled a cheese cloth is placed in it which
helps in turning the curd. The curd remains in the form twenty-four hours to drain
and is then cut into measured sizes and placed in another form, where it is allowed to
remain fir eight days, the curd being turned and the buard on which the form rests
being changed daily. Salt is then sprinkled on the cheese and for one month it is
washed in salt water and rubbed with the hands every day. It is ready for market
in eight weeks from the time of making.

ZIGER.
This is a cheese made from the whey obtained in the manufacture of other cheese.
It consists principally of albumin, but where no effort is made to separate the fat
from the whey the product may contain a relatively high proportion of fat. It is a
cheap food product made in all the countries of Central Europe. Among the many
names applied to it are Albumin cheese, Recuit, Ricotta, Broccio, Brocotte, Serac,
and Ceracee.
In the manufacture of this product an effort is sometimes made to remove the fat
remaining in the whey, but in most cases the fat is allowed to remain. Where it is
desired to skim the whey a small portion ,1 very sour whey, previously prepared, is
added to the sweet whey and the whole is heated to ]ii0 to ]75 F. fr a few minutes,
when the fat collects on the surface and can he sl.inimed off. Following this a greater
portion, if sour whey is added and the whey is thlien heated nearly to the boiling point,
when the albumin is precipitated in a flocciilent condition .an'l rises to the surface of
the whey. When the whey is not in normal condition the albumin may be precipi-
tated in a powdery mass. This is often prevented by adding 3 to 5 per cent of butter-
milk to the whey before the last heating. The casein of the buttermilk is precipitated,
the albumin being carried with it. It is considered that this addition of casein injures
the product. The albumin when skimmed from the whey is salted and packed in a
vessel and may be covered with whey.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 55

A so-called formed Ziger cheese is made by molding the half-dried albumin into
squares which may be still further dried. Some of these have local names, such as
the Hudelziger made in the Canton of Glarus, Switzerland.
In Vorarlberg the albumin is skimmed from the whey, allowed to cool, placed in
cheese cloth, and subjected to increasing pressure in an Emmental cheese press.
After twenty-four hours the cheese is put into a salt bath to which sweet cider and
vinegar are sometimes added.
A mixtureof Zigerand cream prepared in the Savoy is known as Gruau de Montagne.
An albumin cheese made from the whey of goat's-milk cheese in the Canton of Grau-
biinden, Switzerland, is known as Mascarponi.























ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Alerrimtej .. .



Backstein ... .



Bat lelmat .

Bellelay ....

Bondon.

Brick
B rie .. .... .







Brie-
American ........

Brinsen . ........



Burgun .'j .. ...
Caciocavallon ..



Caerphjili . . . .
Cambridge. ...
Camemhert ... ......










C an ta l .......... .. ..


Anthority..,




HotIman....

Perpira . . .

Flecehmann..

Lindt.......

Eugling ........

Benecke.......
Lind t......... .
Chattawav ....
Lindet ... ....
Weema ......
Balland . . .
B ly th .. . ..

DtuclaUX ...

von Klenize.. .
Liridet .. ..
Pa ;en .....

.'Arnold ....
Johnson ...
M alior .......

MI kofl . .

Balland ...
,artori .......

Spica.

Char tai av ....
ihaattawiy
A. rnold .......
Batland .. ...
Chattai wa y
Duclau\ .. ..
Krtiger .....
Lindet .
M acoir .. ....
Muter ... ..
Pa, en .....
Roller .. ..
StLutzer .. ... .
Stilt
Balland ........

Duclaux........

Lindet..........
Patrick (2).....


Number of
analyses.


I Pro-

'Water. Fat. teids.
am oid,


I ~ ~ et...c

.Perr. Percl. Pteru.
I .. ... .. . l 2!" 3S 25 20 87
\ average. 41.11 27 4' 21.45
41'Ma imnunm '.. 4X 9 31 59 24 33
iMmnimum... 32.97 25.27 17.77
. 173.12 2.76 19.84
.1.l61.04 6.80 23.85
14'5.24 28. 16 23.14
- .... 135 80 3,7 40 24.44
.Average ..... 417 71 24 08 22.99
7.Maxmmum.... 50 53 29.42 24.48
iMinimum.. 44.24 20 52 21.22
1 ....... ... .. 3q 62 30.10 25.70
1 ... ... 37. 59 30.05 28 88
1 .. 39 50 24.40 9.40
1 ..... 54.30 23.0)) 16 10
1 ...... ..... .3 69 25.86 23 80
S4S 80 22. 45 1994
..... 43.90 2-S.93 19 04
1 .......... ..... 51.,W 24.SO 18.10
|Average . .. 50.04 27.50 18 34
.'5Maximum.... 53.34 21 50 19.94
Miin ihmumrn. 46.1 i 24.60 17 16
S ...... .. 5.'5 69 21.42 17.29
I .. .. .. 53 50 22.50 18.00
2 '153 IN 24.03 14 94
145.25 25.7.3 18.48

1 . . 41.50 36.15 17.63
1 .. .. .. 60 20 20 96 15.94
2 149 20 22.30 23 10
..... 37.70 3J2.60 25 20
143. f10 27.70 19 W,0
.1 .......... .49.70 27 t10 14.30
152.20 26 20 14.40
1. 2,.50 38 55 28.34
S119 76 ,31.71 37 ,.3
- -.. .. 2.09 35.90 36.06
iAverage .... 23 68 25 49 29.25
U:a MaVumum. 33 24 30.09 35.09
I MLnimum.. 15.34 19 00 22.16
1 ..... . . 24 80 30 4U 37.20
I 32 10 47 10 24.60
1 .... 50.41 20..55 25.49
S. .. .. .. 49 U0 21.65 18.72
. 147 90 21 90 21.80
Si 143 40 22 60 24.40)
1 45 24 30.31 19.75
1......... .59 42 117 24 17.13
1..... .. 3.S0 22 00 17.10
1 .. . .49.87 25 .54 18.76
1 .. ... ..... 48.78 21.35 21 07
1. 51.94 21.05 18.90
1 ........... ... 52.98 23.71 19.12
1 .. . ....... . 50 90 27.30 18 66
28 50 34.10 2f.38
3 ............... :35 10 2S.30 24 9S
139.00 26 90 24 22
(Average...... 43 48 25.70 22.55
4I Maximum. 44 SO 31.10 24.10
IMinimum. 40.70 22.50 21.50
1 ... .. .... 40 90 29.30 20 50
S .. .. .. ... . 39 92 28 14 28.84


aSee Sources of analytical data for details.


Total Salt in
ash. ash.


Milk
sugar.
lactic
acid,
Ietc.

Per ct.
3.06
4.66
5 24
3.82
2.17
3.48

2.35
3.35
2.25




4.85
6.63






4.93

1.37
1.00
2.70
1.20
1.80
1.30
1.65







5.95


4."70


4.40

4.46'
7 22
5.93
6.47
7.50
4.30


Per cl.
7.60
6 07
6.40
5.87
2. U
4.83
3.46
2.36
2.87
3.14
2.71
4.72
3.48
.70
5.00
4.20
3.96
1.50
5.00
4.12
4.37
3.57
5.60
4.00
5.63
5.61

4.70
1.53
4.40
5.80
7.30
6.80
0 (k0
1.46
5.60
5.80
7.63
10.50
5.79
3.40
4.40
3 52
4.68
4.70
3.80
4.70
1.56
4.40
5.83
3.46
4.71
4.19
3.14
4.56
4.40
3.95


4.80
4.50


Per cd.
2.90
2 05
3.20
1.18






3.35

4.30



3.22
3 70
2.67
3.20



.40





3.26
3.16
3.39
6.23
2 10





"3.69

3.20
4.01

3.21
2.21


2.05
3 10
.80
2.60







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of chcesee--4'ont inued.


Cbheddar-
American.........






























Cheddar-
Canadian ..........






Cheddar-
English ..........











Cheddar-
Queensland........


II


Bith ........ 2 Averpe... . 2 Il
% %e-r ge....' 1. ill
Ch,tllawas ..... N' t l lin lll I ..' 3" 71.i
IMhuiunul ni .3. .i 1
G riflit h,; . 1 .. ........... 3. .14
H .ill ..... I .............. 30 10)
Jones ........... I .. ....... 3', 04
I.,'erie .... 3.'A 5)2
.lovd ........ 31 M i Uhidlil .37 73.
I lininmm ln I" .F,
Average 3. :1, I,.
\'r.elrker .. .. 13 Ma n ui ui . 14 43
MiniuluiI li 32
V'nn K leri ..... 1 .. ...... i.. 3 2.


Brurinich .......


t17 t.7


Authority


oThe 15 analyses are each the average of 5 monthly anal', seq. The green cheese ,a-s arialy:'el ty'
Wallace.
b Green cheese made at New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. lsi12.
c Sugar, ash. etc.
d Green cheese made at numerous factories in New York, 1S92 and l WJ3.
Age of cheese, seven weeks.
(Age of cheese, five months.
r Green cheese
A Age of cheese, I month.
SCured cheese.


Numlber of
analyses.


Variety.


P(r c.
fAV.\vrge.... 4. .04
rl',lhl ll .. .. . a \i1nuin3 38. 5.0
ininmunni.. 2,s II
I vetrdge. ... 24 (37
79.3 . Ma. iiun11 n . ,i-11 i
I Minimnuni i3 ',.. ,
(a ... vert e. .. 31. i 7
NIL) .....N.. M nunm 1. .11
MIM ll ,i3;Il .l 2. .6 4
13 .\veran e.... 41 I1

Cooke ........ 3 ............ 17 16
1 4. 1,2
Drew. .... ...2iil Arernee. .... .i1 i.
I \vel tge... 411 32
C.e.iQimnahn . q'iM., \334l1119 1' 41
IM Jii.irnrir ., N.
e\. l JL,(, ..1 Iare
Patrick il . . I '.,, \!aPtiu.ni] 3." lb
Pi M ieiln Il N i ii 3 i 2. 4I 4
SnIlyder. .. vr .32 71
U.'t .0 raue.r' . 17 1I1
| \ -'ri)i3', '-. 4il .4
1\ 6 41 iliiil 4.1 4.3
I I M iN iihl : (m32 .
Van Slyvke .... \'rr p .rt; i'.
r" M itl' ihiiliti I 1 I .
IM mitiniinli -} 21.'.

I flI.M all Illltlll 1,< III
I ,min niilln 1 23 ."4
\oelrker . .... 4 .A ver:j | 12 3'l
|\eraigp. Ill 4'V 2
\\a 'dlhi's ........ I"A: a\num 111.1-5
il irh iinuin. . n 2',
3'to '.1
%\ ilon ........ 3 ............. 7 1
41.4 2
Chaltlwav ..... ............ 33.30
vprape ..... 34 07
Clark . ... NI XiM.i nm im ... 31r.,,S
IN"inniikin .. 312 2S
I 59 .. Avrage... ;4 -il
6 .%\vera ge :3 .. 13? .1
S llntelworth.. 1 15 Ae'rage, ... 3l 5.4
5 Aeragr .. . 33.51


I Pro- ilk
t eids, -qugar, Total alt in
F aids, aid ash. ash.
S aetC.,


Per cr. Perci. Pe r ci. Per rl. Peir cf.
35 56 26 87 . 3.40 ...
41.0.3 2. l.. .5 .. .... 4 0-",
1 190 25.57 ..... 2.71 ... ....
32 62 :I l I. 4 ... 4 4 ......
", 2 6. 3 :,5 27 ...... .......
23 20 27.67 ..... 2 41
27.72 :34.62 ....... .,4 .....
,16 4,4 41.47 ...... 4 22 .......
I Q s 2&. 73 2..9
1I 3"1 41 10 .. 3.33 ......
S i ...1..... 3 73 .......
2"7.70 2,. :1. ...... 3 (l' .......
7. 2U. 19 ...... 1 71 ...
,. i 4 :3 1. 41 ....... .. .. ..
2t. (l, 2 ., . v 3 ;4 ,I
.17 .2 :34.14 ..... i . .
1', .77 22. 1:3 I. 2 3.
1' "7 I 21.91 3 '1 I, 4 1 i
40 53 11.7; 2. i!4 4 i
24 77 1. 1; 1. t -' 41
X ,* 2 ', 21 i ,1 ... .... .. .
I .', -1 6 4 ....... L 4 3- . .
4 N l 2 1 -. I .. . ., rl|
.1i, 26 I I ... . I '
.111 i3 "il ( .. i. 12 :
.:4 4.4 24 I 'I .; i .I,.I

It 17 13 4-., 1 Z4
:ii, % 2,-1.: li ... .' 1 .
44 .1 . ,1 i .. .. (' 4
27 22 21 r,.1 ....... 4-. ..
II 44 2Li., 7 i t'C 4 1 1
'I, -V, '21 I" 1.36 .b I l .
46 SO1 32. 0.) 2.1;S 4 i'.3
21 77 14.11 .41 2-. 1 .
41 5,, 2 4 '3 .4" 2 r' .. ..
.36.i 18 27.14 I 1 5 2.'J ....
5.08 45.04 3.12 l2.O .
30 .60 27 60 ....... 3 ru ......
22 r-4 4).Cr' .... .. 3.4i . ...
2-I. r,7 41. .2 .... 1. 9 1
X, M 23. '314 3o;41
I i'ri 13 3 q'2 i ....... i 1 4 ....
I 3'i 31 23 1,t . .. i ;'f i 7) .
.i 'it' 21 94 ...... r. 7 4
j.3 S1 2:l. 911. i ....... e.- 5 61 .......
32 97 24.94 ....... e 51. 5
22. 51 45. ) ....... 4 I .
2'. 02 27 72 ....... 3 12 1 ... ...
30 :570 IrI) ...... 4 .31 ......
25r) til ?.. 7a) ....... 3 911 ....
.14 3'. 22 '1s 2. lU 422.
3fi .54 30. 15 '...... ....
3W. 411 2,3 '.. 4. 5. 4.
: .1 33. 01 i4 .... 4 05 . .
34 t1 5 3'. 111 ....... 4 W
I i, v:Hl 22 7. I 3 40 .... ..
il, 45 27. _M i I.ll 3 42 70
41 r., .1 3-7 t .' 4 il 1 5.
2 21 23. 2 .22 2.0l3 .09
27 '1 '.3. 47 ... 3 4o .......
33 17 24 5I ...... 4 09 1. L44
. 37 337 I 2 1,.24 I.... 4.04 . ...


I







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of cheesc-Continued.


Variety.




C he-iire ........... ..










(rI herst nne. .... ..

C'niil.-nimnie-r'. .


Cream in-
E ngli-li .. .. ..




C"reamrn-
F rf.rch rnm.-.qel.

(' 0 [ n7I i . . . ....

D.ir.i.h E\p.irT..

I. rl.vsh lir ....
l ),.r,,-t .. ...

rii ril'jp ... ....... ..
F Jajin ........ .















Erldiam-.\menran ...




.Einmentiaul.





Engarnlin ......
FrTngairi i ,l e.rcrr,
'a irJn ph ii i- .. . .


AuLoIv. Number f Waer
analyses.


SArnold .........
B all.,u l ........

Bladei ......... I

I h ,1lta i 'W y .....
il rilillh .. ..
.in pide ......... .

iyen .........


' l r .... ...

Lin diet ....


. ri-m tawaiy. ....
HIas .dll .. . .. .
S. ttaw' v . ......


'1i 111... .. ....

SIlli nil .........

LiriJet ........
1) i |l Li\ .\ . .. ...

Storch. ..

Shr.-llon.. ..
Vi't I ii......... .
V I n .. ......
Jones. . ..
I rnol.I !I

Ballandi . I


DahIt., .... .. .


PLhl n K . . .
IIi 's)

von Ih-n,:,.. ..
Snnd |et. .
Liniplt
Mayer ..... .
Patrick ('I .....
P I yen ... ..

Hae2 ker .......

Van lykep......

Ben,( kC ......

TiT rng ... .
',,' 'v n K t.. .

Sl.nidt ......
II . .do

I Cnrn-ill".i I
i Vonelk,.r ..

BaIkLanJ.

Kom p .........
Richmnimd. .
SLlt/.trr ...
a Green cheese.


Per rl.
I ............. 1 24. h9
I .............. 22 W0
[Average.....' 44 59
6Maxtmrum ... 52 t O0
MimimuIM. ... 36. 10
2 137 80
.... 131 4|i
1 ............. 27 55
1............. 1. 10
|30. .i9
135 9t,2
2.. ........ 5
1 ............ 38 20
,-,I I8 -2S
...... 1
I ............. 50 40
21(53 (li
- ..... 157 8S
2 1.57 (0
- .... 11400
1......... .. ... 10 .34
1 .... ........ ... 9. 4
Av eraige .... 36. 49
SMa\imuni . 47 94
IMinimum .... 27. i9
1 .... ........ 52. 10

S1 ....... ...... 49 1 1
S............. 56 75
[Average ..... 45 W
/Maxinum .. 49 8
[MinimnLum... 39 7
I . . . . . . 3. 6. 0
1 .. .. .. . 4 1 4 4
1 .......... 41 55
I .. ... 31 46
:2 1_,29 23
2............'1292,3
129 5b
2 I)'37 90
. .. ... 138 50,
J Average.... I51 ib
4Maximnumn ... 60 38
IMirnwmmn I 41 70
32 57
3 ............... i33 62
142 85
1 .......... .3..0 10
I ... . .. ... 4 1 8
1 ... ..... I 42 60
I .. . ....... 33.20
I .. ...... 32 80
,:36 i II)
141.41
'48 0.
3. ............ 44 44
146 80
,[Averagp. 47 55
18 Maximutm. 55 34
JMininmin . 41 25
jAv'riagi ..... 37 77
7. MuX \liunfi .. 47 54
(Mintrnum1 ... 30 49
I ...... .. 33 53
1 ... ..... 35 18
(Average .. 33 (0)
5)Maxinimuni . 37.44
Minimmuim... 24 17
1 ...... . 47 30
,2 J61.00
\l6 6G
1 . . ... 42 44
.(Aeraige .... 51.58
4(Maximum... 58.00
NMinimuni .. 44 70
I .... .... .. 2. 9 4
I . .... 33 80
I .... ...... .. 44.84


Pcr c.
37 uS
39. 5
21.355
30 .7
9. a5
31 30
35 3i
31-.00
32 3SH
25. 4








34.0
21. 31
29 31
3.2 51
30 25
3"l "'9
2Q. 12
21' 45
21. 50
25 W0

39 30
W.9 10
Ii7. 32
59. 8S
.S. 0$
66.81
43 76
25. 20

34.00
21.34
13 41
23 70
9.34
35 20
27 56
8 711
31 86
24 71
27.43
25 90





-23 CIO
24 29
11 5

3.38




24 40
32. IQ
33 99
26 73
27. 51
24 05




20. Of)
2'i 00
29 58
27. 54
25 06
23 21
25. 37
23. 30
24. 42
31.75
19 73
23 92
31.70
5 75
30 '29
27. 9
30 .50
.33. 37
28 54
11.40
19.20
41.150
3 36
31.98
40.47
26.85
29 75
57 79
30.73


b Sugar, ash, etc.


Pro-
teids,
amids,
etc.


Per c.
33. 3t,
27. 16
29 25
32 95
'24.44
25.70
'26 50)
31.00
30.90
34 75
25. N
24 08
226 Ob
23. S2
21 93
24. 3S
17.41
16. ")
13 00

19.00
21. 10
2.02
IS 40
5 28
8.77
2.00
13.49

11.80
18.91
30 01
31 00
27 69
24. 50
22 25
4409
25 87
33 89
32 31
27 32
25 34
2, 82
31.92
24 00
23 98
23 48
19.39
32 81
29.47
23 90
29.60
28 41
29. 43
25.6.3
21 49
22.69
24.24
22.18
24.70
19. 95
30.97
37 r6
25.51
29 99
32 23
30.34
37.51
3044
36.34
16.37
35.80
42.12
11.30
19 94
7.20
11.80
790
15.48


suga r,
Milk
lactic J
acid, I
etc.



6.80




2.21

759
5.17
4..
3.81
3 70
.2. 7b
4 81)





5 77
I '2.7


Milk
sugar r,
lactic
acid,
etc.

Per it.






2.21

7"59
5. 17
4..53
3.81
3 70
2. 7u
4 80)





5 77
1 27
2. 50
'*1-
8.28



5 30
5.90
2 65
4 .36
4 24



4.08
9 07


0 35
6.34
5.15


2. 60


3 83
3 79
2.92





.31






9.85
4.29
7.09
2.13
2.58


Total
ash.



Per ct.
4.85
3.94
4.61
5.00
390
4.20
4.40
3 24
3.70
4.78
4.10
4.45
4 31
3 92
3.20
5.51
f, 94
5 7it)
4.10

3.40
1.20
.32
b. 47
.82
1.48
.44
.93

3.00
2.90
363
4 17
3 33
4 24
4.51
5.00
3 81
8.14
8.49
480
2.80
6 04
7.33
5.54
4 67
242
5 62
6 84
4 60
5 50
6.60
5 55
6 93
b 21
3 02
2 59
3 68
h 5.80
946
2 51
6 85
S109
4.60
5.88
460
4.17
4. 95
3.38
4.96
343
6.10
2.22
60
1.42
.25
2 93
.50
2.95


Salt In
ash.



Per el.







1.30

i.91
1 59
.79
255

4.80
3.60









2.40
1.34
I 86
2 55
1 II1

2 93











3 20
330








3 80
7.59
I 19






3.00





.76















Variety.


G x .......... .
GC.,lp\ ..... .
Glouces.l r ....... ..








Goal-milk-- French ..


Crnat-ni.ll>--N,,r,.i'girn

Gi'rgon?,l.i. ..












Gouda...........






Gouda--American ..

G ruybre ...... .......


VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 59


A nolysi of cheese-('in tinued.


Pro- Milkj
Numberof Water. Fat. tids, T Total Saltin
oy analyses. amids, ash. ash.
etc. etc.


'Tn I1. nl..
P.;lagil .
B e ll .... .. .
Bly1 h .....
Chait.way. .
tiffilh1. .
lones.........
Voeleker.......
Ball:indl.
I 'll II'f k ll ....

Werenskiold ...

Bell............
Chattaway ....

Duelaux........
SI orri w ....
\fn lhin.
Lindet.....-------
.M-iggi'ra ... .

Musso ..........
Soxhlet.........
Arnold......






Haewker........

Ballni2 .. ...


Benec.ke ........
Chi-iitt., w.IV--. ....
Duelaux.......
Lindet.........
Lindt..........

Payen ..........
Harz Handl.......... Vieth...........
Vieth.....--...

H erv l .......... ..... B allaInd .......
Ilha ................. Floffinans n.
Pereira.........

Incaneqt ratn..... ..Spica...........

Kajmak........... ... Zega,--..........

KaIcaval ..o Malor.........
Katt..kawaj... 7.(gt..
Krutt....... .... ..Leutner .......


P,'rt Perd. Prrrf
I131 2' ',1 % 2-1 a
1 .1 2. I l l ') 2 *- I I't l 2 !2 1 ,
1 . .. 41 2 296 41.53
1 ...... 35.75 28.35 31.10
1........... 21.40 25.40 48.10
fI32 10 23.50 31.80
... ... I !7 40 28.10 28.30
1 .11 10 37.92 21.68
1........... 32.52 29.94 31.70
1 .. ............ 35.81 21.97 37.96
[Average.... 34.80 28.02 27.96
13, Maximum-. 40.88 33.68 31.75
Minimum .... 28. 10 22.70 24.50
1 ............... 20.80 25.90 33.60
1.............. 64.80 9.20 17.10
1 ............. 17.73 46, 64 27.90 1
(Average..... 20.90 19.86 7.62
8{Maxhuiini ... 26.53 32.68 10.63
Minimum.... 15.53 10.98 4.43
1 ............ 31.85 27.88 34.34
fin 41n 26.10 27.70
2 i.n 26.70 25.80
2 114-2 ,' 29.70 23.14
i . ix 34.07 22.78
1 7.' 33.69 25.67
S....... ..... 26.81 35.29 33.80
1 .............. 41.50 29.00 19.70
[34.41 37.52 26.75
3 ............ 32.43 34.08 25.94
137. 6.3 36.19 26.94
\ r. .... 37.30 34.67 25.16
7' M.Tiii'hii I 47.10 39.32 28.51
[Minimum.... 29.82 29.00 20.33
1 ............. 43.56 27.95 24.17
1 ............. 21.90 24.81 46.95
[Average..... 54.79 9.02 25.94
11Maximum... 60.17 18.37 34.22
[Minimum.... 50.46 1.64 22.05
1 ............. 38.80 31.20 24.40
1.............. 35.23 29.40 27.01
1 ............. 42.58 16.18 37.43
(46. 03 31.13 18.01
3 b ............. 46.52 29.04 19.25
146.59 28.29 19.64
fAveragp ..... 29.99 28.19 33.0.3
9Maxiniiiin. 33.10 33.40 37.80
IMinimum .... 27.50 23.10 29.54
1. .............. 40.61 26.59 26.18
28.20 28.60 31.30
2 ............... 35.70 31.80 28.70
1 ............ 36.00 29.29 30.84
1. ........... 35.70 28.00 28.90
J (.; 5:7 29.12 32.51
2 .......... 15 ;4 30.64 29.95
f4" 11u1 24.00 31.50
2 .:i' U':. 28.40 33.75
1.. .. 71 1.34 37.01
I',1 I', 1.64 27.72
.2' 4-' 1.83 22.43
I-2 I 1.11 19.38
17 LI 23.93 20.86
1 ............... 28.39 32.00 30.62
S............... 36.89 27.15 24.30
[ \k..rnigo... 29.07 24.74 30.09
14/ Maxiiilmn. 32.48 37.48 38.66
tMinimum .... 26.02 15.88 25.16
Avra ... 31 5.. 55.79 6.25
10 NM:iO ,uximu.i ._i, 0. 63.82 8.73
Miniiiiun '. '., 50.16 4.94
J 0iiI 14.10 28.10
11 V 10 25.50 28.00
16 .'v.r.. ..... 13) 25 31.24 24.25
2 .. '.1 1".31 78.68
*Ir. 1 1.45 69.74


Pc r I1

.31


.44
"".3i



1.98

4.37
7.44
1.22
15.30

4ll, M
58.07
39.04
1.35



.21




1.62
2.00
.91







3.04
3.18
3.40
4.82
7.40
1.50
1.94





1.50

e14.80
;ii: o
c18.00
c21.40
7.71
2.85
7.71


"2.'6i
3.20
.42
2.50
1.40
2.84
1.93
.81


Perri Perct.
4 I ...
3 :-0 .... ..

"i 49 -------.
4.10 ....--.
5.00 .
4.60
4.32 ......
5.84 .......
4.25 .- -
4.53 1.34
5.70 2.04
3.56 .85
4.40 .......
5.80 4. W
4.74 .......
6.06 .......
6.57 .......
5.14 .......
4.58 2.11
5.30.
4.60
4.36 2 -1
4.46 2.64
3.71 ......
4.10 ......
4.80 2.60
4.08 1.33
a6.77 .99
a10. 46 .92
3.82 .......
4.63 .......
3.13 .......
4.32 .......
6.32 ......
5.52 .......
7.30 .......
4.26 .......
5.60 2.80
5.41 .......
3.81 3.68
2.55 .......
2.88 .......
3.12 .......
3.96 .......
4.70 ......
3.50 ......
4.68 2.10
4.70 .......
3.70 ... ..
3.87 .57
3.50 .40
3.80 ......
3.67 ......
3.00 ......
4.79 ......
5.86 4.16
5.65 ......
5.25 4.12
5.36 4.08
10.00 ......
6.14 1.66
3.95 1.50
9.46 5.04
12.70 8.12
4.58 .78
4.50 3.07
8.38 7.36
2.61 1.10
4.80 .......
6.00 .......
6.42 3:95
9.46 8.01
17.84 13.34


a Abnormally high ash content was due to a gypsum preparation with which the cheese was
coated.
b Green cheese.
e Caraway seed.








VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of cheese-Continued.


Variety.




T.aguie.......
ll~r l,.. ,rshiro .'..'.. . ....

Levyd'f .. .........I


Aut horit y.


BallandJ .......
;rifith; .. ...
\'o-l'ker .. .. .
Mayer .... ..


LimL.tIrgE-A- Iit rTl n.. rnmold .......


Livarot.....---........--

Mainz Hand...........
Maroilles ..-........

Mascarpone. .......
Mont-d'Or ...........

Minister ..........


Mysost ......... -----.-





Neilf hAtl .. .


.I ohn o n........
B allI n.J .......
Lind,, .. .
von Klenz,...
Lindt! .... .. .
Pay en...
Fa ilnd .. .....
1.1n1, t
B.,II in.] ..... ..
i.iri,,,
-, h l . . . . .

\'n ~',"k-r .

\V,'-r,.ni ~ ,,,I d .l.l

B jllan.' ..... ..
Rl iin ..... ..
I3lull KI,.tlr...

.1 ri[1 .T.I .


,-r'u ,n ........ .
NX ,.fi, li ltdl-- z, ri,-.in. \rn ,l,] ..... .
I lonn iot.'i' ....


Nogelost.............



Olivet...............
Olmiitz...--.........

Parmesan...........











Pecorino............

Petit Suisse..........
Pineapple ............



Pont-l'Evque.......

Pont-l'Eveque-
..rmod ic n .. .
Port du Sahm ....


D abi ........... i
I
Voelcker........

Balland...
Hornig......- -
SI-oxhl .... .
. rn'tl'.I .......
Ci'htallway... .
Duclaux .........
Lindeti .... ... .

Manetti........

Patrick (2).....
Phiyrn .-.........


Sartori.........

linI i
Cla i rk. .

Johnson........

.A rnold .......
RallanJ .......
L indt ..... ..

Arnold .......
Balland ........
Dul- aux. .. ....
LU nder ..........
R oll t ..........


S : Pro- Milk
uberof teids, sqtgar,
Number of ater. Fat. lactic
analyses. aids, d
etc. | etcd,


Per a. ,Perdt. Perct. Percl. .
........ .34 51 25. 20 28.70 t. 15
I .. ........ 34 77 28.00 7.86 5.21
21 27 17.:8 27.93 5 54
.. 13 ,3 9 '9 "S -:9.06 4.42:
I 41-..0 11 00 35.90 1 00
\1 r. .. .. 3 .3 t,4 2'l 28. 53 ......
4 M. i ?i i iii ...1 w 34 98 35 03 1 .. ....
IMi lrnii ini -:Q. 2-, 21 '9 23. :5 .....
1 ........ 4,.12 q 40 23.00 .31
1 ...... .. ... 3 u "I 21.93 31.7t 8.03
1. 5 ... 2. 2 ..00 _. .90.
I ... .. .. . 3 74 5 5 3 37 33 . ....
1 ............. 40. 3U 3.1 '.0 2-0 :0 ......
I ........... . 40 07 O 73 23..11 ......
11.) 47, 1 |) 14 ......
..It l Jl 41 1. '50 7.1 . ..
I .......... . 43 -. 123 I t'.7 ` 10 8. ,4-
I .. .. ..... .. x q. 7 .7U 25. 31 ... .
1l .". 0 2.', 911 l',. 6l i". .,
. .. 1'7 2*il :ii .f IA. 17 ', 75i
S.... ') 10 24.40 1.50 l
J \0. r,,- . . ':I 5.7 11, S S 44 1
I MaNlIllll.i 2. 4'1 .4 'q 10.76 53 03
Miiiiiniiiii 1 'N 1. 6'.79 3 75
1 . .... . 1 21 :11 Yn Qu .0 41.01
S\\ r.,g ', -3 4 n. 7.1'b .53 24
2 M..,II]I],|I i ill lI1.54 9 19 1..3i
'M1ri 4 17 (17 i, 31 46 (10
.. P).U.80 25.1.5 17.60 5.12
.... ... 15-1 .(i 0 59 14.43 5.9S
1 ....... . :17.. ) 41.30 23 10 ...
S. ... . .',1 72 13 99 20.73 ..
1.5 I. OS "23.14 16 C7 1. 42 1
.. .. 1i7 A1 1 00 17.00 1 32
J.14 47 41 H1 13.03 G6 6I
.li. 9'58 40.71 14 18 9.02
1 ... .... 37 45 34 60 24.04
I ......... 57.2" 22.;1)0 15 03 2.94
[4,.51 N.1J 32.72 8 51
3. ......... 47 12 7.36 31 63 10 36
140..54 I S7 31. 29 7 90
43 K7 1i. 9 29.93 6 47
3. ....... ..5 39 9 9; 33.12 6 39
14244 3 6 42 12 9 S
1 .. ........ 2m 41o 48 16 13 98 5 lu
1 .. ........... 44 54 3.37 41.04 .16
I ....... 7? 49 7 70 38 02 . ...
1 .. .. .. 23.1)1 12.49 55 85 .....
1 ... .. 32.50 17 I 43.60 . .
J311 00 1 26 04 38.42 .
....... ..... 3? 5 71.75 42.27
S. . . . 34 J 23.1N 35 00
.\\.r ,p.. .... 32 16 19 13 43..54
laxiniim )I 3t..11 231.42 48.93 . ..
IMuiuniiu .i . 30.21 12 .8. 38.33 ......
1...... .... 35 39 19. 72 35 551
SJ27 W 1-
.2 f17.. 15.95 44.08 .r9
.... ... 31 -' 1 8 34 25 .... ..
I ..... 14 57 24 05 35. 15 ... .
.\\',ra ... ?9 ,.So 30.51 I 33 5i .. . I
4 .Maxitl l 32 90 31.30 35.59 ....... .
IM nilni i, 2. 7 47 2 2y 96 30.74 . .. I
1 .... ... . 54 60 35 00 7 30 ...... i
S,{ 59 54.56 36..Bo ......
,5.20- 46 46 43.28 .......
JAvertgigp 4.07 38 12 2435 ?2 49
4 Maximum.. 30.95 45.20 34.45 2.75
IMinimum... i 11.62 33 26 27.00 2.16
1.. .. ..... 44 57 21 80 30.36
........... 46 40 25.00 'D0.3? o.6Si
1M 51.00 23.10 17 80.

1 ..... .. 26.Cr2 50.80 ?20.64 .....
.1 2 7.70 35.10 31.16 2.04
117 51 25 93 222 56 .. ..
S. .. 14S 0 24 00 24.29
I .... .10 24.50 24.80 .......
I .... .. .....I 46.46 126.31 23.66 I.......


Total Balt in
ash. ash.



Perd. Perct.
5.45 ......
4.16
4.04 1.03
435 1 1
5.:0 1.40
5.98 ....
6 9 ........;9
4.82
5.10 3.51
4.14 ......
4. 40 2. 90
3.3m
4 50 3.30
5.9,| .
:0....
3 119 ......
4.JU I 90
4 91:. . ...
4 75
5 10 370
4 .......
(1. 0 1 .....
3.: S
4 9'

5 1), .
1.33 ........
4.20 ......
3.40 ......
3.56
2 49 1.44
2.&5 1 90
3.113
3.r>3 .. ....

3 90 ......
2 48 1.42
3 79 .......
3.41 ......
3.17 ......
4.84 .......
5.13 .......
2.22 ....
2 ")
4.30 ......
10.89 .......
1.79 ......
8.14 .... ..
6 20 ......
5 45 1.76
5.07 1.65
5 0 1.70

7.18 .......
5.20 .......
4."2.
4 S2 .......
5 72 .......
709 .......
6 23 .......
6 24 4.95
6.84 5.51
5.31 4.34
.60 .10
5.25 .......
5.06 .......
5.69 2.24
6.18 2.61
5 10 1.86
3.97 .......
160 ...
4.00 61.90

2.54 .......
400 .... ..
4.00 1.90
3.69 1.56
5.30 2.20
3.67 1.31







61


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


.tnalgsj 5 i ,J hut.sc-t ',it ini,?I.


Potted-
American ( I 11 1,
House ....... .
Imperial .... ...
Royal Paragon..
Rabacal ..............
Rebbiola . ....
Reblochon .........
Reindeer milk....
Romadour........


W'rerns. ..... .
\\r llS. . .
loffmanri ....
Cornalla'.
Lindet.
Werntiiiild..
llornig .......
,' tin K l'n.,i ...
I nh.i t . .. .
I'll rick 1 I'-i ....
V let h...


R oquefort ...... .. .. . r'.r lJ ... ....

Ia Ifn li,, d.
B e1 1 ...... .. ...
I lInrnII" H.....
.I n i -n i . .. .

%K ll K l'rl 0 ...
L i n th-.t . .
NIMurir ......
l r rick l "1. ....
I', y'iiv .... .


R icotta& ........ .. .


Saloio ....... .


Sap Sagi. . .


Sa ny. . . . .
S> ptminc-el...

Serra da E-lr.lld...





Servian ......


S palen ........ ... ...

S tilto n .. ............






Swiss--Annerltt tn..


Sartiori ... .

Sartorn .....

} | tl~iis hiii ....
I 'l"p Irnrl .. .. ..
l \ I''rei .i ...

H nef k ......
\on Klin'r ...

Balland. ... .

EIl~ilri.llt...
IHullr r ......

H ini'. 111 .l~l ..

l'crrirn ......

Zr~gi..

B' nn, kt .. .


; nfithi. ..
|1lv. .ill ... .. .
M utiller ...

%'Velckr
.\ m )|ll .......

lhaecker ...

J oh r i ....


Swi_ - Rus',iiin .. .. .. Kalantjn-,w ..

Swi's--Swednish . DaihJ ..........

Tessel ........... ..... o M ycr..
a From cow's milk.


Variety. Iit ll y.


Nu l i> r t
\\' ridl r.i,',-t.




Pi, r f. Prr rr.
I .s ',, '," 34 111
1 bn i'. .1) 10
I ..' ', ,i1 52
I. I',. i. 36
I *'55
2 f 1, 311- 56
21. 2" 1150
17 0' 41. 11
I'.' .11, I; 05
V 'I, [I1 56
I 1, I 11 90
S. I14. 76
1. 14 "', 16
I' ; |*.' 98
I,, 7 .- 70
2- ', ," 30
I ... ,i. 14 38
1' . i t ,+III +30
1.,,1 1 23
I. ;n 2'> -53
1 ; ', 44 14
1............ .. i. '.,, 50
I ."1 5-" .1"' 96
......... .14 37 1 4 54
2-. ; -.' 31
.. t.., I 31 14
1 21. il 4i 13
S. .... i ,.' l 23
1 .i.', 47 -, 22
1 < l 1'. 46
.... 4 .11 : 64
l 2 "I 90
I. 7 2, I 78
17 -". 84
] '1l *-' 8()
1. . t Ii l 52
I 47 i'2 8 C0
I. ts 17 12 27
1'2. lii 't 90
'i 7i 45
.. ..... 2' .11 25
|. \ -r.,", : .! -:i ,. ".'7 69
*I' ,\i .,i 17 '" ; il 56
I tnlliV.i r. I'l 70
. I ,-7 Ih O3,5
I.P \'. r. 1 27 93
12 M i.xI mT, ltI "-.1I h7 '7 93
i M nirniin iiii 21 ;' I' 30
.A v.'r.p' ', ,-) I' 30
1I ,i '.1 .1-2 20
I M iiiiln ili 1-" in 77
11 11 7 79
1 ..... 1"2 I A ;I C,(9
1|i F: 42 20
21- 4'., 80
.12", l ,.1 60
I.. .l ; ;7 24
I I .47 It. 58
I 2 41 ;,, 1, 70
I.. 2 .7 103
212 I1 :17 36
I '- 7 41 98
1 .. . i 2l 4 84
141 4'3 '2,- 93
S, ... ... it 13 21
hI 40 3' 40
I .. . 1 19 3 25
|\ pr.to .... "V- .4 ,12 26
%'M-jxtiiiiin . 3 41 37 20
iMtrtL i t1 LIT. 'I -Ni., m 97
K4. '4 36 44
3 .. .. .. .. "s 4 t '. 13
13n 0' 32.05
SIro. 54 In z.i30
b Froom slicep's milk.


Pr,- Milk I 1
l il.r. -,,' r T tal s lt In
eitc. .'ci ash. Iash
c Ietc.



Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
21.13 ...... 1.49 .......
26.88 ....... 4.22 .......
27.74 ....... 4.13 ......
35.00 2.93 8.26 2.42
19.99 .......7.90 5.80
20.21 3.73 1.22
19.30 3.70 1.80
23.79 2.97 2.43 .......
18.76 .81 6.78 .......
33.60 .02 6.01 .......
30. 18 ....... 6.10 .......
19. G ....... 5. CO0 3.90
26.05 ..... ......47 .
32.72 ....... 6.57 5.80
32.84 ....... 8.82 .......
28.82 .......8.66 ......
34.99 ....... 8.24 .......
25.16 3.00 4. 4 '-...
27.16 1.32 4.88 .......
28.30 ....... 6.70 .......
25.79 4.781
22.62 1 77 6.80 -'7
21.92 ....... 5.00 .
20.50 .... 7.00 .1 1)
32.24 ..... 10.24 . .
24.40 ....... 6.16 .
31.69 4.45....
26.52 3. 72 5.07 .......
27.00 ...... 6.27 ......
25.79 ....... 4.78 .......
18.72 3.97 3.62 ......
8.66 10.36 .72 .......
13.61 11.49 .78 .-- t...
12.94 10.75 1.02 '......
11.37 5.28 5.32 2.49
13.63 2.96 3.20 2.04
15.16 5.97 5.26 3.17
57.59 ....... 13.57 ...
37.06 ....... 10.10 7 .3
45.73 ....... 3.83
28.84 9.38 3.48 ......
27.32 12. 53 4.00 .......
32.06 3.99 4.50 .......
22.02 2.69 4.00 .......
24.03 6.13 4.35 ...
20.40 1.55 351 I.......
22.18 2.24 3.66 .89
23.48 3.93 5.79 2.57
32.10 6.78 8. 96 5.26
17.83 .78 3.23 .94
21.32 2.63 3.30 1.86
32.37 5.12 4.81 3.13
14.66 85 2.40 .93
30.78 2. &55 7.38 4.46
21.10 ... 2.60 .......
26.30 ... 2.90
28.40 ....... 4.10 .......
24.28 3.40 3.86 -
27.66 ....... 4.39 .
35.60 1.08 4.02 75
23.19 ......- 3.24
24.31 2.22 3.93 M1
33.55 ...... 220 "9
32.02 ...... 4.70 ......
22.13 2.90 3.34 .......
24.82 3.32 3.06 .......
22.88 3.24 3.48 .......
26.12 1.77 5.07 1.85
24.85 4.43 5.78 2.67
28.81 6.90 7.44 4.78
20.57 .57 4.36 1.45
23.20 6.11 4.78 .......
23.21 4.36 4.39 .......
24.76 4.59 2.39 ....
20.10 1.40 5.80 3 40
c Green cheese.








VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analuscs of cheesce-Continued.


Variety.


Tnienay..
T iplri-n .....


Tr.lppi't . ....
T rrin p" ..... .. .
V a he r]n .. .. .. .


Veridorrllie... ..

Vllprln

'or0trlhierg .....


r\ ; ir k-hiie ..... .

Venrilcvddde. .
itltshire ...... ..




Ziger...... .....


Authority.


Kr,lug ......
I% rlllg 1 ..... .
\ddmetr ....
. l.lii c
Hei-i ke.
Lim it ..... ...


S Irtrjri .... .

Exglnpg ........

\,ri KlJeize. .

\'uelckr-r .
I "hrl I 1:4 MvI y
I'till'w:! h
';rifflith ..
JI r,ns. .

Vleh ker.


Number of
ardlyses.



. . . . ...





' 1
I............

It I M flllii

,.\Aerige..
9 Ma \unuirm .
(Miniimiulfl
M.d I IllalHll I ,l





1 ..........

| . . . . . .


Eighling ... 3..
u1)11 k leli.. I.


Pro- Milk
r' es, srFat. r 'Total S
Water. Fat. 1.ds ati,-, s.
amids, atd,d ash.
S etc. tC.
I I
I I
Per c 'Per cl. Percl Per cl. Per c. P
S30. 14 15 00 IS 12 .. ... fi. 10
72.44 6i 22 Itl 91 3 07 1.36
6 27 7 3 24., 4 3.54 4.02
45 90 21 10 23.30 ....... 4.00
S570 18.60 14.60 ....... 4.80 '
54 02 23 74 18 98 2.04 308|
45 87 27 '1 259 ...... 1.63
4. tO '0 90 27.97 .... 4.43
SI i 33 :30. 1.1 4.5.52 ,...... 558
'29.1.3 10 SO 17.74 ...... 3.10
S .,.1 30 9,3 .14.19 ..... 6.38
S42 99 17.02 31.19 3.79 4.94
.5,; 8.5 31 [9 40 11 7.21 6.89
.2 12 2 '2 25. 65 1.81 3.79 .
(5 61, 4.48 3t,.42 ..... 2. 49 .
15 1 d 4..54 42 37 2.49
317 29 OS 7.43 .7 If, 4.36
133 1' 30 04 ?1 70' 1 5 5.60
,3 5.3 3089 28 19 2.84 4.5.5
2. .30 33.30 27.20 ....... 3 70
37.21 27.82 26.52 3.88 4.55
b 34 2x 00 31 12 .. 4.41
|14 44 28 71 29 00 3.60 4.25
. 3. 22 19.216 .34.22 2.28 5.02
|4007 2555 26.81 2. 24 5.33
S 51 3.15 22 13 3 97 2 31
.74 4 4.33 14.99 3.93 2.02
il. 47 22 18.72 3.97 3.62
31 f) 3 48 6,4.62 ....... 90


alt in
ash.



er tl.
4.80


3.70
1.77

"279
3.68
2.08
5.03




.72
2.78
1.12


1.03
.60
1.41

















SOURCES OF ANALYTICAL DATA.a


1. ADAMI.TZ, L.
Uvelier Ili lhersivilluIg 1nil ii-imi t-iii ,i- nig des bosnischen trappistenkises.
Milh.-ztg., jahrg. 21, no. 19. 1i. 310-;l:0 Bremen, May 7, IP,92
2. AINOLD. L. P3.
Chie-i.. aii1l ih.,'es iiiakiin. A. i. l:iair'\ i.n's assn., 14th ann. rept., for the
)ear cri ling Jan. 15. 1.,79I. I'i, ai. N Y., ',I See p. 1.15.
Traiirl. ub-t Mili hi-,,t.,.. .ili.' i- 111 .-2 1). 468-1711. Aug. 6; no. 23, p. 484,
Aug. 13: n,". 34, p. 500-51.2. AuI. _10. Lremen, 1879. See p. 502.
3. BALL.,t), .\
Li.s aliinients. Paris, 1907. Sit. N. 2. p. 237-248.
4. BELL, JAMES.
The annl\.-isaunl aiilh,,.tiriiin. f,,iiql!. 2 parts. illus. 20cm. Lond., 1881.
See al.-: cilatilmi.- 1-. 49, 53i 51.
5. BUNE.IH.E, F., ;irlo ScmIULXzF, E
Ufnttr.-Iicliung-,ii iher delin Emii'tlhail>r k:i i- undiber einige andere schwei-
zi.ri.-li, kasc':,,ricn. Landw jahlirli.. lId. 16, p. 317-400. Berl.,1887. See
p. 33S. 373.
6. BLADEs., IHA.RLES M.
htlii.shij- cihesi. AnIal'lst, \ 1'.. p 1:11-133. Lond., June, ],',.
7. BLIND, HLNRI.
L'indut rire froniagsrc n i en ir-.t- 'lihr Lc fromage de Thenay. Jrn. d'agr.
prat., ann. bl, t. 2, ii-i,. p. S7t3-S7'l Paii.. Dec. 9, 1897.
8. BLYrH, ALEXANDER WVYN'TR. ;i.11d 111 nIl. NI.REDITH WYNTER.
Fooi.d;: thir cosmpositi'on and a aly'i,. 50li ed. Lond., 1903. See p. 306.
9. B6G(;L.r). B.
Eine analy-e der (is.\s-k;,t,. I'w :krii'l for .landmiind, II, no. 20, 1890.
.XAimlt Hidrinanns cent. f algr -'l.ill jahrg. 20, p. 287. Leipz., IS1l.
10. BRUNNICI J. J '.
Analyses ,4 Vhll,' anid luiuIr iijiiLIfl'rCur,.d at the Queensland agricultural
college, Gattlun. Queten-land agr. jrn., \'. 9, no. 4, p. 424-428. Brisbane,
(Oct., 1901.
11. [BurTNET, ('.]
See citation 58.
12 [C.ALI ELL.
Alp. inionatsbl.., p. 15,. 1877.] Sve i.[ation 39, p. 325.
13. CHATTA.WAY, \VM.. PF.\ERM.AIN, T. 11. and MooI C. G.
On the ,',mpi)siltion of chei-se. Analyst., v. 19, p. 1-15-I17. L.nd July,
1894.
14. The composition ,f- some Engl-ih vh,.-ese. Analyst, v. 2'0, no. 231, p. 132-134.
Lond., Jimu-. 1895.

a Rceerences nut:ilowdi in .rac'keLs h Lv,' iiot Litcn consulted in the original.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


15. CLARK, R. D.
Report on cheese. N. Y. Estate dairy crinir, 3rd ann. rept. for 1886.
Albany, 1887. See p. 50, 62.
16. Composition of Canadian cheese. Ihidl.. 5lh ann. rirlpt .r ihe l(ar 1888. Albany,
1889. See p. 422.
17. Ibid., 7th ann. rept. for the year 189!0. Alhany. S191. Sece p. 300.
18. COOKE, W. \W., and HILLS, J. L.
Making cheese from iiffpremnt qualii,. 'f mruilk. Vi rnvrni aUr. exp. sta.,
5.lI ann. rept. [fr] 1891. Burlin,,n. 1}92. Sii p. 90
19. CORNALB%, G. "
I formnaggini di lecco. L' indlu:. lat t. v 7,'ipic.. aunni .5. no. 5, p. 35. Reggio-
Emilia. 3ajrlh 1, 19117.
20. I f'rnm.iagi molli di lusso. II r-iiiiatire, ann. 53. no. 49. p. 713-717. Casale
M'.niferralT.i. De< 8, 1'ilt0 .
21. ('HIBB. I'L IL H.
-Nte on Dutch cheese. Analv.t, v. 31, no. 31iil, p). 105-1i. lond., Apr.,
1906.
22. DAHL.
Ueber N,-rwegins natur, rindliilli-lhlung unIl idilk'r, iwirnlhi.chaft. Milch-
ztg..jahrg.l,no.lti.p. 185-191. May 15, ino. IS, p.20-5-212, June 15. Danzig,
1's-2 See p. 210.
23. DREW, CHARLES W.
R,.pri upon cheese. Minn. latv i dair% andl fiiil (,mm., 3rd biennial rept.
Minneapolis, 1890. Ser p. 235.
24. DUCLAUX, PIERRE EMILE.
Le lait. Ed. 2. Paris, 1,,94. Se p. 259-311.
25. Et LI.iN;. W., and KLELNZE. VON.
Versuche auf dem gebiete d'r aIpi-n irirh--hafr. Milih-zig., jahlirg. 7, no.
11. p. 141-143. Mar. 13; no. 12. p. 157-1 H., Mar. 20. 187S. jahrg. 9, no. 40,
p. 59-1-599. Oct. 6, 1880. Brni'n, ISTS-Si.
[B,.ri.lit landw. A-r-u'h-bitat., Ti-igri. 1875-71,. I' t.zen'. 1,.7. p. 12.] See
citation 38, p. 331.
26'. [Faill,.I.
P'rm. 'mng. intern, hyg. alimi-nl.. 4..-' PariL-., 1905 Anal)ys..s made at
Lab., 1.ir-t'-('htr, HllIL. Francr.]
27. F\.,i-':rn. G.
Preparazione e composizione dl i,,rnaggiii I-nil'ar'l, alia rn-nia dtenominato
"MS( arpintl." Ann. d. r. 1.az. sil r. 'd. 'az.mif. Lili, ann. 1902. Lodi,
1903. See p. 71.
28. [FI V-M,.M.,,, W.
Berichtd. nilchw. versuchssat. iadin fur -,',U. p. 31. fur lSM, p. 30.] See
citation 39, p. 334.
29. (IE.nMIAN, C. A.
Mass. state agr. exp. sta. Amherst, ith ann. rvii., 1SSS.. 13,ston, 18S9. See
p. 239.
30. GHIIFITIN'. A. B.
A nalyses de qnel'itups fromages 'A ngleterre. Bull. dt la Sli. thiin. de Paris,
ser. 3, t. 7, p. 282-283. Paris. 1892.
31. HACE( KER, T. L.
Manufa'cure ',f sweet curd che.se. Minn. agr. cxp. sta., Bull. no. 35, p.
104-12S. St. Authony Park, Oct., 1894. See p. 115, 122, 127.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


32. HASSALL, .RTHUR HILL.
Food: its adulteralions and the methods for thir-ir detection. Lond., 1876.
See p. 450.
33. HOFFMANN, M.
Die milchwirtschaftlichen verhiltniks, Portugals. Millh-/tg.. jahrg. 27,
no. 13, p. 197-199. Bremen, Mar. 26, 1898.
34. [HORNIO.
Beitriige zur geschichte, technik und statistik der k1>-nri. Wien, iSi;9.,
p. 40.] See citation 39, pp. 327, 329, ;130. 335, 341.
35. JORNsoN. S.W.
Analyses of some American cheese. Conn. agr. exp. sta., ann. rept., 19.9
New Haven, 1893. See p. 156.
36. [JONES.]
Cited from White, Henry. Report on the exhibition of cheese at Chester in
July, 1858. Jrn. roy. agr. sc., v. 19, p. 420. Lond., l-.'i
37. [K-kLANTAROW, A. VON.
Ueber die chemsche zilsammenset/ing einiger russischer kse. Jrn. russ.
phys.-chem. gesell., v. 1, p. 155. 1882.] Cited from Bericht d. deut.
chein. gesell., jahrg. 15, Jan.-June, p. 1220. Berl., 1'ss2.
38. KLENZE, H. L. VON.
Versuche fiber lie verdaulichkeit verschiedener kas.'.srt.ri. Mihhi-(,g
jahrg. 14, no. 24, p. 369-373. Bremen, June 10, 1885.
39. KOENIG, FRANZ JOSEPH.
Chemnie der menschlichen nahrungs- und genussmittel. 4. aufl. Berl., 1903.
See bd. 1, 321, 335.
40. KRUGER, R.
Beitrhge zur herstellung kamambertartiger weichkiise. Molk.-ztg., jahlirg 6,
no. 33, p. 402. Hildesheim, Aug. 13, 1892. [In this paper Kriiger refers
to previous papers of his in the same periodical.]
41. LEUTNER, W.
Krut t. ein von den Kirgisen bereiteter kase. Pharm. ztschr. f. Russland,
jahrg. 24, no. 1, pp. 8-9. St. Petersb., Jan. 6, 1885. Cited also in Chem.-
ztg., jahrg. 9, no. 14, p. 254. C6then, Feb. 15, 1S'.
42. LINDET, AMMANN, and BRUGIIRE.
Sur la composition des principaux fromages consommes en France. Rev.
g6n. d. lait, ann. 5, no. 18, pp. 416-4 IS. Lierre, June 30, 1906.
43. [LINDT, 0., and MULLER, C.
Analysen verschiedener schweizerischer kIisesorten. General-bericht fiber
die erste schweizerische milIchproduktenauit.iilliiii in Bern, 1. bis 11.
Sept. 1867, von R. Schatzman.]
Abst. Jahresb. iU. d. fortschr. auf d. g.t-saLnmit. d. akr.-chem., jahrg. 10, pp.
354-455. Ber., 1868. See also citation 39, pp. 324. 327, 331, 333.
44. LLOYD, F. J.
Observations on cheddar cheese-making. Report, 1893. Jrn. of the Bath
and west and southern counties soc., ter. 4, v. 4, 1893-4, pp 131-175.
Lond., 1894. See p. 161.
45. MACOIR, Louis.
L'industrie fromagere en Franche-Comt6. Bull d'agr.. t. 20, pp. 376-441.
Bruxelles, 1904. See p. 390.
46. MAGGIORA., ARNALDO.
Ueher die zusammensetzung des fiberreifen ki-es. Arch. f. hyg., bd. 14,
no. 2, pp. 216-224. MUnchen u. Leipz., 1892. See p. 220.






66 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

47. [MAIOR, G.
Die t:zigaja-race, ihre eigenschaften und ihre wirtschaftliche nutzbarkeit.
Inaug.-diss. IHal]-, 1887.] Cited from Tliiele, Paul. Einiges iber schaf-
kisefabrikation in Siebenbiirgein. Milch.-ztg., jahrg. 26, no. 46, pp. 727-
729. Bremen, Nov. 3, 1897.
48. MAN ETTI, L., and Musso, GIOVANNI.
.;ulla fnnp,.,si/iiinv dei caci di grana. Stn7. ,';pvr. aur. i:il., v. 5. fase. 3, pp.
174-701. Torino, 1876. Seep, 1S7.
49. Ueber die 7.iianiniiplisetlziiig und di, rilIh ds parinntank.st.-s. Die land.
versuchs-stat., bd. 21, pp. 211-2241. Bnrl.. 1S7S. S>- p. 215.
50. [MARTIN, ED. W., and MOORE, R. \W.]
See citation 14, p. 45.
51. MAYER, ADOLF.
Analysen von hollindischen k.is-?orten. Mil h-7tg., j-lir HIi, ni. 5, p. 87.
Bremen, Feb. 2, 1887.
52. MELIJKOFF, P. G., and ROSENBLATT, M.
Le brynsa, fromage russe de lait de Ilrebis. Jrn. d'ai'gr. piJat., ann. 71.
n. s. t. 14, no. 52, p. 81--l.5. Pi.. Dre. 26i, 1q07.
5.1. Musso, GIOVANNI, and MENOZZI, A.
Sulla composizione degli stracchini. Siaz. sper agr. ital 1877, v. 6, fasc. 4,
p. 201-206. Torino, 1878.
54. [Mtrrr. i, J.]
See cirat iorn 14, p. 44, 50, 52.
55. PATRICK, G. E.
(1) Chian.i-s during cheese ripening. Iiwa ngr. vxp. -ia. Bull. 24, p. 970.
Ames, 1894.
(2) 1'npjiliShed data. Analyses r.madt i I.. S. Itf-lartini,-ni 4 Agriculture,
1901. Samples collected by H. E .Xlvird in Ei nrp...
56. PAYEN, A.
Composition de plusieurs substan (.s aliin'intair s. Jrn. de pharm. et de
chim., ser. 3, t. 16, p. 279. Paris,. i,-19.
57. Pr6cis th6orique etpratique d,,- siil)staiin saliiiiu.aire-.. Ed. 4. Paris,1865.
Seep. 190-213. ,
5.. PEREIRA, A. CARDOSO, and MASTBAUM. ll'4;o
rtclini.(-.h-s und analytisches tiber >li, k,,semindu'trie iii Purtugal. t'hem.-
ztg., jahrg. 28, no. 84, p. 99S-1000. Vlolihn. O(4l 1). 1M04.
59. RICHMOND, HENRY DROOP.
Dairy chemistry; a practical handbook for dairy 'liiniiists and itlii-ers having
control of dairies. Lond., 1899. Se p 303
60. [ROLLET.]
See citation 45, p. 390, 413.
61. RUBNER, M.
Analyse des sog. topfens. Zisclir f. hiol bd. 15. p. 4!4i. Mdnchen, 1879.
62. SARTORI, GIUSEPPE.
SiiUlla composizione della ricotta perorina. Staz. spr. agr. ital., v 18, fase. 4,
aprile, p. 434-436. Asti, May 6, 1890
63. Analisi del caciocavallo. Nota prflimiriare. Ibid., %. 22, fasc. 4. aprile,
p. 337-340. Asti, April. 1892.
64. Die chemie des s,.lial'kases. Milih-ztg., jahirg. 19, no. 51, p. 1001-1004.
Bremen, Dec. 17, 1890.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 67

65. [SHELDON, JOHN PRINCE.
Prize essay on cheese making, etc. Niwcj ili -iidhr-Lyme, 1876.] See
citatiii,, 39, p. 326.
66. SHI-TTLEWORTH, A. E.
The cmpusitiwn of milk, cheese, and whey in relation to one another. Out.
agr. i-llhgr., Guelph, Ont., Bull. 96. Toronto, Aug. 16, 1894.
67. Ann. rept. of the professor tf chemistry. Out. a;r. coll. and exp. farm, 21st
ann. r-pt., 1.qi5. Toronto, 1896. See p. 25.
6S. SiERnR.n, NAIN..A.
Uel)r 'lie angebliche umwandluhmng des eiweisses in fett beim reifen des
R.qiif',,rt-ki-i-,. Jrn. f. prakt. chem., n. f., bd. 21, p. 2ii3-221. Leipz.,
18S0.
69. SNYDER, HARRV.
Thei conimpsition of dairy products. Minn. agr. exp. sta., Bull. 27, p. ill i;2.
St. Anthony Park, Feb., 1.93. Seep. 60.
70. ISOXHI.ET, F.
Erster berieht iibetr arbeiten der landw. viui 1470-79, Win, 1878.] See citation 39, p. 322, 335.
71. SPIA, M.virrro,. and Bi \si, LumII DE.
Ricerrhe chimnichesui firmaggi siciliani. Staz. sper. agr. ital., v. '2.. fase. 2,
angos:to, p. 132-153. Asti, Sept. 25, 1892. See p. I1m.
72. [STORe-H, V.
Forschinga n auf dem gebiete der % ii-hiflliirng, l'i, p. li.i;--':;2?.] See cita-
timin 39, p. 33,3.
73. STITZER, A
Die chemiische untersuchungen der kPse. Ztschr. f. analyst. chemi., jahrg. 35,
p .A93-502. Wisbahen. ]}96. See p. 502.
74. VAN SLYKE. LIricIUS LINCOLN.
Inv\':tigatiin of cheese. N.Y. agr. exp. sta., n.s., Bull. 37. C, r,.va.Nov.,
1891.
: 75. Expe-riment-; in the manufacture of cheese dii rinpg May.* Ibid., Bull. 43, June,
1892.
76. Exp-rini-nis in the manufacture of cheese during June. Ifi i Bull. 45,
Aug., LS92.
77. Experimr-nts in the manufacture of cheese. Ibid., Bull. 46, Sept.; Bull. 47,
Nov., 1892.
78. Summary ,f results of experiments madle in tie manufacture of, 1 ..-... luring
the s.aoulm of 1892. Ibid., Bull. 50, JLa.. 1893.
79. Experiments in the manufacture of cheese. Ibid., Bull. 54, May: Bull. 56,
May: Bull. 60, Oct.; Bull. 61, Nuv.; Bull. 62, Dec., lP':3, Bull. 65, Jan.,
1894.
80. VIErH. P.
Mitteilung-n aus dem laboratorium der Aylesbury Citipan,y in London.
NMilch-zg., jahrg. 16, no. 7, p. 120-121. Brmen, Feb. 16, 1887.
81 Mitteilungen ausdemlaboratorium derAylesbury Dairy Company in London.
Milch-zig., jahrg. 21, no. 12, p. 191-192. Bremen, March 19, 1892.
82 Berichlit tiber die thi-tigkeit des milchwirtschaftlichen institute in Hameln im
jahre 1897. IIannover, 1898. See p. 33.
83. VOELCKNER, AUGUSTUS.
On the composition of cheese and on practical rnitaikes in cheese-making.
Jrn. ry. agr. soc., v. 22, p. 29-69. Lond., lSiil
84. Cheese experiments. Ibid., v. 23, p. 170-191. Lond., 1862.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


V O E LC K NE R, AUGusTus--Continued.
85. On a peculiar kind of Swedish whey cheese, and on a Norwegian goats'-milk
cheese. Ibid., ser. 2, v. 6, p. 333-336. Lond., 1870.
86. Amerikanischer ki-e aus magerer milch mit zusatz von schmalz oder oleo-
margarin. Milch-ztg.,jahrg. 11, no.28,p.438-439. Bremen, July 12,1882.
87. WALLACE, HENRY C.
Investigations in cheese-making. Iowa agr. exp. sta., Bull. 21, p. 735-767.
Ames, 1893. See p. 756.
88. WEEMS, J. B.
Unpublished data. Analyses made at Iowa agr. coll., 1896. Samples fnr-
nished by J. H. MonraId.
89. WERENSKIOLD, FREDERIK H.
Aarsberetning angaaende de offentlige'foranstalt ninger til landbrugets fremme
i aaret 1885. Kristiania, 1886i. See p. 78.
90. Ibid., [for] 1893. Kristiania. 1894. See p. 87.
91. WILsoN, N. E.
cheese e and cheese manufacture. Nevada agr. exp. sta., Bull. 18, Reno, Nov.,
1892.
92. ZEGA, A.
Kajmak. Chem.-zig., jahrg. 21, no. C, p. 41. ('Cdthen, Jan. 20, 1897.
93. ZEGA, A., and BAJnc, M.
Katschkawalj. Chem.-ztg., jahrg. 19. no. 85, p. 1920. ('Othen. Oct. 23,1895.
94. ZEGA, A., and PANIcs, L.
Serbischer kaise. Chem.-ztg.,jahrg 22. no. 18, p. 158. thenhe, March 2,1898.

















INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Abertam: Description, 7.
AJbunin. See Ziger.
AJemlejo: Description. 7: analysis. 56.
Algau. Sec Limburg.
Algau Emmrnental. See Eizmnental.
Alpin: Description, 7.
Altenburg: Description. 7.
Alt Kubkdse See Hiand.
,Utsohl. Sec Brnnsen.
Amibert: Description. 7
Ancien Imperial. Description, 7.
Ancona. Set Pecornno.
Appenzell: Description, 7.
Arnauten. Sec Travnik.
Auvergne (or Auvergne Bleui. See Cantal.
Backstein (acc also Limburg): Description, 7;
analysis, 56.
Banbury: Description. 8.
Barberey: Descriptionr, S.
Battlernat Description, 8: analysis, 56.
Bauden: Descnption, 8.
Belgian Cooked- Description. 8.
Bellelay: Description, 8: analysis,56.
Bellunese. See Emmental.
Bergquara: Description, 9.
Bergues. See Leyden.
Berliner Kuhkiise. Ste Hland.
Bleu (see also Gex; Sassenage; Septmoncel): De-
script ion, 9.
Blue Dorset. See Dorset.
Bondon (see also NeufchAtelj: Analysis, 56.
Boudanne" Description. 9.
Boulette. See Maroilles.
Box (firm): Description, 9.
Box (soft): Description, 9.
Bra: Description, 10.
Brand: Descnription, 10.
Brick: Description, 10;: analysis, 56.
Brickbat Description, 10.
Bnrie: Description, II; analysis, 56.
Brinsen: Description, 11; analysis, 56.
Briol See Limburg.
Brizecon. See Reblochor.
Broccio (sec also Ziger): Description, 11.
Brocotte. See Ziger.
Burgundy: Description, 12; analysis, 56.
Cacio. See Parmesan.
Cacio Pecorino Romano. Sec Pecorino.
Cacio Romano. See Chivarin.
CaciocaveUllo: Description, 12; analysis, 56.
Caerphilly: Description, 12; analysis, 5b.
Cambridge: Description, 12: analysis, 56.
Camembert: Description, 12; analysis, 56.
Cancoillotte. See Fromage Fort.
Canquillote (see also Fromage Fort i: Description,
13.


Cantal: Description, 13; analysis, 56.
Carinthian. See Limburg.
Carr4 Affind. See Ancien Imperial.
Castello Branco. See Serra da Estrella.
Ceracee. See Ziger.
Champoleon: Description, 13.
Chaource: Description. 14.
Chasch6l de Chaschosis: Description, 14.
Cheddar: Description, 14; analysis, 57.
Cheshire: Description, 15; analysis, 58.
Cheshire-Stilton: Description, 15.
Chevret. See Goat's Milk.
Chevrotin. See Goat's Milk.
Chivari: Description, 15.
Clerimbert. See Alpin.
Colmar. See Miinster.
Commission: Description, 16.
Compigne. See Camembert.
Contentin. See Camembert.
Cooked: Description, 16.
Cotherstone: Description, 16; analysis, 58.
Cotrone. See Pecorino.
Cottage: Description, 16.
Coulonmmiers: Description, 16; analysis, 58.
Cream: Description, 16; analysis, 58.
Cream, French Demi-sel: Analysis, 58.
Crescenza: Analysis, 58.
Creuse: Description, 17.
Cristalinna: Description, 17.
Daisies. See Cheddar.
Damen: Description, 17.
Danish Export: Description, 17; analysis, 58.
Dauphin. See Maroilles.
Delft. See Leyden.
Demi-sel. See Cream.
Derbyshire: Description, 17; analysis, 58.
Devonshire Cream: Dec ript in..n, 18.
Domestic Swiss. See Emmental.
Dorset: Description, 18; analysis, 58.
Dotter: Description. 18.
Dresdener BierkAse. See Hand.
Dry: Description, 18.
Duel: Description, 18.
Dunlop: Description, 18; analysis, 58.
Dutch: See Cottage.
Edam: Description. 18; analysis, 58.
Elbing: Description, 19.
Emmental: De.cription, 19; analysis, 58.
Emmersdorf. See Limburg.
I Engadine: Description, 21; analysis, 58.
English Dairy: Description. 21.
tpoisse: Description, 21.
Ervy (see also Troyes): Description, 21.
Farm: Description. 21.
Ferme. See Farm.
Filled: Description, 21.







70 INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Flats. See Cheddar.
Flower: Description, 22.
Fondue. See Fromage Fort.
Fontine d'Aosta. See Emmental.
Formagelle: Description, 22.
Formaggie di Capra. See Goat's Milk.
Formaggini: Description. 22.
Formaggini di Lecco: Analysis, 58.
Formaggi, Dolce. See Emmental.
Formaggio Duro. See Nostrale.
Formaggio Grana Lodigiano See Parmesan.
Formaggio Tenero. See Nostrale.
Fourme. See CantaL
Fourmne d'Ambert. See Ambert.
Freisa. See Cooked.
Fresco. See Stracchino.
Fromagere. See Canquillote; Froinage Fort.
Fromage & la Crime. See Cream.
Fronagi, la Pie. See Farm.
Fromage Blanc. See White.
Fromage Bleu. See Bleu.
Fromage Double Creme. See Cream.
Fromage de Bolte. See Box (soft).
Fromage de Bourgogne. See Burgundy.
Frnrniagedlv-Foin. See Hay.
Fromage de rro ir> See Barbcrey.
l'roiii.ig, Fort: D-cripit]on. 22.
Fromage Mou. See Maqu6e.
F-rniage Persill. See Gex; Bleu.
Gaiskiisli. See Goat's Milk.
Gammelost: I)e-,rjpti-n. 2); analysis, 58.
Gautrais: Des'riptirjin. 22. a
Gavot: Description, 22.
Geheimnirath: Dei-c triptii, 22.
Gdromd (see also Murist.fr, : Ilc,eripitoii, 2.1.
Gervais (see also Cre,i m Description, 23; aiujl -
sis, 58.
Gex: lh.'crltion, .2.. analysis, 59.
Gislev: D..cripliri, 24; analysis, 59
Glarnerkiise. See Sap Sago.
Gloire des Molntugric-. See Damen.
Glumse: [D-crpiitl. 24.
Gloucester (see also Derbyshire): Analysis, ,s.
Goat's Milk: Description, 24; analysis, 59.
q.orgo.iiul,,a: Description, 24; ainuly-. .59.
Gouda: Description, 25; analysis, 59.
Gournay: De'crrition. 25.
Goya: Description, 25.
Grana. See Parmesan.
Granular Curd: Description, 25.
Gratairon. See Goat's Milk.
r.;d, Description, 25.
Grottenhof. See Limburg.
Gruau deMontagne. See Ziger.
Grunerkiise. See Sap Sago.
Gruyere: I1 ,L'riptvun, 2'.: analysis, 59.
Guiole. See Laguiole.
Guiissing: Description, 26.
Hand: Description, 26.
Hartkiise. See Saanen.
Harz: Description, 26; analysis, 59.
Hay: Descrjptl,'ri.26.
Herve (see also Limburg): Analysis, 59.
Hobbe. See Leyden.
Hohenburg. See Box nrri..
Hohenheim: Description, 27.
Holstein Dairy Cheese. See Leather.


Holstein Health Description, 27.
Holstein Skism-milk: De-cription, 27.
Ilolsteminer Gesundheils Kdse: See Holstein
Health.
HU.l.teiner Magerkase. See Holstein Skim-milk.
Hop: Description, 27.
lopfen. See Hop.
Hudelziger. See Ziger.
livid Gjedeost: D)Pscription, 27.
Iglesias. Set Pecorino.
lh-lefeld. Sec Hand.
llha Description, 2,; analysis, 59.
Inanebtrato. Do,c ription, 2S; analysis, 59.
Isigny: Description, 28
.Jxhberg" DeCAription, 2S
Josephinc: Description, 2S.
Jura Sce Septlinonricel.
Kjijmak: I'escriptinn. 2s: analysis, 59.
Kahsc\ al. Decriplionn, 2S. analysis, 59
Kjtschkawalj" Description, 28: analysis, 59.
Katienkopf. S.e Edanm.
KniigischkaFe. S(c Krutt.
KjaiEsaarId: De.cription, 2.S.
Kloster: Description, ?9.
Klenc-. Stc Brinseun.
Knatst. Sec Pulinst.
Koejek-iasrs. Sfc Ley'den.
Kolos-Monostir: Desciiltion, 29.
Kr.,innde. Ste Leyden.
Kopit)pen: Decription, 29.
Kobher Description, 2').
Kosher Gouda: Dlescription, 29.
Kiautev kn'e. Sec Sap Sago.
Krtl: Description, 29; analsis,59.
Kuhbach: l)escription, 29.
l.aguiiole: Description,. 29; analysis, 60.
Lamrnotlie. See G-oit s Milk.
Lanaik. Set( Limburg.
Luncisture: Description, 29.
Landoch. Ste Brinmsen.
La ngre.: I)escription, 30.
Lapland: Description, 30.
Larron. Sef Maroilles.
l.aiticini: Description. 30.
Leatlier: Description, JO.
Leder. See Leather.
Leicester ksee al.so DerLysliie)" Description, 30;
L1idl $s5s, 60.
Leonessa. Sec Pecorino.
Leydenc: Description, 31; icaalysis, 60.
Lindenlol. See Limburg.
Lunimurg: Descriptiou, 31: analysis, 60.
Liptau (i;,: also Brinsen): Description, 31.
Liv,'drul: Description, 32; analysis, 60.
I.ivlander. Sec Hand.
Long Horns. S&e Cheddar.
Lorraine: Description, 32.
Luneberg: Descript ion, 32.
Maconnais: Description, 32.
Macqueline: Description, 32.
Maigre. See Farm.
Majocchmna. See Ineanesrrato.
MakiAse: Deseription, 33.
Mainz Hand: Description, 33; analysis, 60.
Malakoff (ste also Neufchf&tel): Description, 33.
Manur: Description, 37.
Maquee: Description, 33.







INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Marianhiof. See Limburg.
Markiseh Hand: Description, 3.3.
Maroilles: Description, 33; analysis. 60.
Mascarpone: DescriLption, 84. analysis, 60.
Mascarponi. Sec Ziger.
Manbollen. See Edam.
Mecklenberg Skim: Description, 34.
Mignot: Description, 34.
Milano. See Stiacchino.
Mondsee. Se" Box kfirmj.
Monk's Head. See Bellelay.
Montasio: Description, 34.
Montavoner: De'eription. 34.
Mont Cenis: Description, J3.
Month d Or. Description. 35; analysis, 60.
Month hltry: Descriptir.n, 35.
Mnrin. See Liniburg.
Mou. See Farm.
Mozartnel]i: Deccrlpltion, 35.
Miinbter: DesLri'LLtioU, .3J. uidlysIS, 60.
M %sost: Desiription. 36. vnal.%. s. 60.
Nessel: Deser ipttion, Jl6.
Neufclihtel: f e-eci-plnon. 36; analysis,60.
Neusohl. Sec Brinben.
New Milk: Descript lion, 37.
NiederungkAise. S,. iElbing.
Nieheini: IDescription, 36.
NWgelosl: .\nalysis.60.
Nostrxle: Deici pptiun. 37.
Olivet Desvripntion, 37; ann1ys,, 60.
OlniutCer Hierk..'e. Sr'c Hrand.
Olmnutzer Quargel lOLrnutz): Description, 37;
analysis, 60.
Paglia. Decription. 38.
Pago- Description, 38.
Panedda.. Sc, Cooked.
Parmesan' DI'cription. 38; arnalysiq, 60.
Pate Bleu. See Bleu.
Pavilion. S Camin benil'rt.
Pccorino: D.?'scription. 3'i, analysis.i 60.
Pccorino Dole"'. Sec P'cori-rn.
Pecornno Tuscano. Sec I'ei'orinruo.
Petit CarTr. S&e .\ncin Impirnal; Neufchatel.
Petit Suisse i.ee al.io Neufiilehilrl Analysis, 60.
Pfisler Deserinptin. 39.
Philadelphia Cream- De-pription. 39.
Pimip. S.e MaLnz Hani.
Pineapple: Desceription, '39; analysis. 60.
Poitiers. Sto Goitl's Milk.
Pont I'1 %'qur.. Desc ript ion. 40; analysis, 60.
Port du Sulut: D)-criptinji, 40; aualysis, 60.
Potato: Decription. 40.
Potted. Description, 41; .ianaly bi., ul.
Prattiguu: Description, 41.
Prerstost: Deti. inpt ion. 41.
Procildenee. Description. 41.
Provnl" Dpseription, 41.
Provoloni. See Provole.
Puglia. Ser Pecorino.
Pultosl: Description, 41.
Quadro. Sei Stracchino.
Quartirola. See Stracchino.
QuesodeCincho: Description. 41.
Queso de Hoja: Description, 42.
Queso de Mano: Descnption, 42.
Queso de Palma Metida. See Queso de Cincho.
Queso de Prensa: Description. 42.


Queso do Puno: besc ript ion. 42.
Queyras. See Champoleon.
Rabacal: Description. 42; analysis, 61.
Radon: Dc'eriptin. 42.
Rangiport: Descriptirin. 42.
Raper. See Rayon.
Raschera. See Nostrale.
Rayon: Description, 42.
Rebbiola: Description, 43; analysis, 61.
Reblochon: Description, 43; analysis, 61.
Recuit. See Ziger.
Reggian. See Parmesan.
Reggiano. See Parmesan.
Reibkiise. See Saancn.
Reindeer Milk: Description, 43; analysis, 61.
Remoudou. See Romadour.
Rheinwald. See Schamser.
Ricotta (see also Zigii i Analysis, 61.
Rinnen: Description, 43.
Riesengebirge: Descriptionl, 43.
Robiola. See Rebbiola.
Roll: Description, 43.
Rollot: Description, 44.
Romadour: Description, 44; analysis, 61.
Romano. See Pecorino.
Romatur. See Romadour.
Roquefort: Description, 44; analysis, 61.
St. Michcls. See Limburg.
Saint Benoit: lli, ( i -nii,. 45.
Saint Claude: Description, 45.
Saint Marcellin: Description, 45.
Saint Reiny: ii'PseTi. r nnii. 45.
Saaland Pfarr. See Prestost.
Saanen: D).r'vriptioii 45.
!.g, Description, 45.
Saloio: Description, 45; analysis, 61.
Sap Sago: Description, 46; analysis, 61.
Sassenage (see also Gex): Description, 46.
Satz. See Hand.
Savoy: Analysis, 61.
Scanno: Description, 46.
Scarmorze: D-i,.ript i.ii. 46.
S''h,i1-z.g-'r. See Sap Sago.
Schachtelkiise. See Box (.ft .
Schamser: Description, 46.
Schlesischer Sauermilchkiise. See Silesian.
Schlesischer Weichquarg. See Silesian.
Schloss: Description, 47.
ecnntIciig. I i." l.cr ,ptii,. 47.
Schiitzen. See Limburg. .
Schwarzonberg: Description, 47.
Schweitzer. See Swiss.
Senceterrc: D,.-.( npion. 47.
Septmoncel (see also Gex): I L' s'n pt iun. 47; anal-
ysis, 61.
Serac. See Ziger.
Serra da Estreila: Description, 47; analysis, 61.
Servian: Description, 48; analysis, 61.
Siebenbiirgen. See Brinsen.
Silesian: Description, 48.
Siraz: Description, 48.
Slipcote: Descnpticin. 48.
Smear-case. See Cottage.
Sorte Maggenga. See Parmesan.
Sorte Vermenga. See Parmesan.
Soumaintrain. See Camembert.
Spalen: Description, 48; analysis, 61.







72 INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Sperrkise. See Dry.
Spitz. Description, 48.
Squares. Sec Cheddar.
Steppes: Description, 49.
Stillon: Description. 49. analysis. 61.
Stracebino: Description. 49.
Sracechino di Gorgoozola. Ste Gorgonzola.
Strassburg. See Munster.
Stnnger. See Spalen.
Styria: Description, 49.
Sweet Curd. Desc nption, 50.
Swiss: Description. O50; analysis. 61.
Tab Description. 50.
Tamie Description. 50.
Tanzenberg. Ste Limburg.
Ternpele. Ste Canquillote.
Teisel: Analy is, 61.
Tete de Maure. S.e Edam.
Tete de Moine. See Bellelay.
Texel Description, 50.
Thenay: Description. 50; analysis. 62.
Thraanen. Set Emmenial.
Thuringia. See Hand.
Thury-en-Valois. Sfe Camembert.
Tignard. Desrenption, 50.
Tilsit: Dcscnription. 51.
Tome de Beaumont. See Tamin.
Tome de Monlagne. Ste Vacherin.
Topfen (Sce also Cooked i: Analysis. 62.
Toppen: Description, 51.
Trappist: Description, 51; anal3is, 6('2
Travnik. Description. 51.


Trouville: Description. 62.
Troyes. Description. 52; analysis. 62.
Trockenkise. See Dry.
Tuile de Flandre. Sec Maroilles.
Tworog: Descnription. 52.
U ri. Description. 52.
Vacbenn. Description. 52; analysis, 62.
Vend6me: Desenption. 52. analysis. 61.
Villiers: Description. 52.
Viterbo (Fee also Peconrinoj. Analysis, 62.
Vlasic. See Travmk.
Void: Description. 53.
Vorarlberg Sour-milk: Description, 53; analysis
62.
Walbskise. See Saanen.
Warwickshire (see also Derbyshire): Analysis, 62
Weibhenstephan. See Box tfirmnn.
Wcisslak: Description, 53.
Wensleydale: Description. 53, analysis, 62.
West Fnriesian: Descnption, 53.
Westphalia Sour-milk. Desncription, 53.
Werderkase. Sec Elbing.
Wiltshire sice also Derbyshire): Analysis, 62.
Withania: Description. 54.
White: Description. 54.
Yorkshire-Stilton. See Cotherstone.
Young Americas. See Cheddar.
Ziegel: Description. 54.
Ziegenkiise. See Goat's Milk.
Ziger: Description, 54; analysis. 62.
Zips. See Brinsen.


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