The cold storage of cheese

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Material Information

Title:
The cold storage of cheese experiments of 1903-04
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
26 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lane, Clarence Bronson, 1870-1929
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cheese -- Storage   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Clarence B. Lane.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613469
oclc - 22416432
System ID:
AA00018908:00001

Full Text




















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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN Nu. .s3.
A. D. MELVIN, CHiI-T- OF BUREAU.







THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.

(EXPERIMENTS OF 1903-4.)




BY

CLARENCE B. LANE, B. S..
A-Issislapip Chief ol tlihe Dair Dilvision, Bareau of Animal Inda sir,.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1906.



























DAIRY DIVISION.

S.1 IIV-TFL' -rTA. F.
c'h,. i: Ed. H. WVeh-ter.
Ass.ist nt .. '(;* : ('. I. Ilzi .
JMiarket milk ;s11 ,.l,/, ta l, ii t iii of, in ch:irgc.
',,,/, ; ',i ,,i ,,l,.': I'. 1 1. i ray, rljrm i-,t; L.. A R'iger-:, hba tericjiogi.l.
Cheese ;.. ,'li,X,,w r,. ('. :. Ir'>an-. in rliare; (C'h' le Th'on, iiiy'iloI ist; Arthur VW .
Dox, chemist, T. \W. [-:-ji-fff, expert maker if I'.ronl,-an ar vietie- of cheese.
.'o,il,,,i.rii b ;,i /i I. I{ ivl, ii hare; riuincan Stuart, asi.-'istant.
Dairy hmll,,,js iiq i,,.tq i', : 1. I P. 'arks, inl charge.

iN. t:CTi N \ I- '-r .

Renmvated-butte)m ;,ir,,.. .M. W. Lang, 42;: Marint- Bliilling, C'hicag'o, in charge.
,'i,,,, 11 i -/,/, i, m i ,,,,rl./cl- Il i W ell,, I.ack' %ill(-, P:I., ill ihiar.e.
bs.,,l,/,*, Robert Mi .\laTda. 42:3 Marint> Buildiiin, (A.'hiiago; qieI'rLe M. Whitaker,
Washington, Ii ('.: 1-.. A. MDnuldI, Seattle, \Wa'h.; \W. S. Smarzo, 6. Harrison
street, New York, N. Y.
2



















LIFTTiR Nll: TRANSMIT.\TAL


U. S. D)EI'ARTME:NT' (OF Al;MCIt'iUIRE,
BUREAU 1F ANIMAL. INDUSTRY,
l t,/^,;,, ,,,, D). ('., 3,iree Is, 1906.
SIR: I have the honor to transmiit th. acconimllpaning paper entitled
The Cold Storage of C'hep-.." being a study (tf this '.ulhject under
commnner-ial coniliitions witli a view to sol'king (nuiio of the practical
problem.- involved in this iiIj)mportant brain-h of our trade.
This work, which was carried 'out during lD11i-1., was planned and
directed l-v the late lhiierv E. AlvI'ord whilI chief of the Dairy Divi-
sion of thi.-, Bureaui. The re-ilt, have Ieen -Iwrou'ht to' gather and
prepared for Ilmblication by Clarence B. Lane, a.,si.Atant chief of the
Dairy Division. The aLutholr giveN credit to [)uncan Stuart, assistant
in dairyilg-, for valuable e aid iin ct'ililin tables and charts.
Thi. article contain. information which ik believed to have consid-
erable value for the cheese trade, and I therefore recommend its pub-
lication as Bulletin No. .,3 in the ..eries of tlii- lBureau.
Respectfu illy,
A. I). MELVIN,
( '//,;f ofBiureau.
Hon. JIAME.S WILSON,
S'cer't turfy ,t" .it y ,'. -tillur'.
3






















C () NTEN TS.


Page.
Introduction ............................... ............................. 7
Object of t ihe experiment ................................................ 7
Plan of tnhe experim ent ................................................... 7
Source, character, a id arn it -f the chev;e ui-'el -.................... ..... 8
Chemical analysis uf tie chee-e ............................................ 8
Temperatures at which the chee.-e %%a-4 stored .............---------------................--- 9
Length ,,f the experiment ................................................. 10
Details if tire .-torage ............................ ......................... 10
System of refrigeration ............................................... 10
Results if the experiments ................................................ 10
I. I.oss in weight at the different teniperaturrs .....------.-----.....--......---------- 11
[letailsf weighing the cheese- ..................... ............. ----------------11
Factors influencing liss in weiht. ............................... 12
a. Tem pt-rature ................. ......... .. ... .. 12
I, Size andl form ................ ..................--...-.......- 13
-. Paraffining ................................- - ........... 14
II. Effect of temperature un quality if lht-e-e in stiirae -------.........---..------- 17
Description (f cheese at time 'f storing .. ....................... 17
Result of first scoring ............ ....................... ....- -- 17
Result, of secon:l scoring ......................................... 18
Result of third scoring..................................... ..... 19
Result of fourth scoring ......................................... 19
Influence of paraffin (in the quality -if cheese in storage-----------.. 21
Effect of freezing on the quality .----------...........-..----.----...------------ 22
General summary .................. ...........................---...... 23
Results in regard to weight............ .. ................ -----..-.. 23
Results- in regard to quality ............. .... ----.--......----- 25
Effect of paraffin on quality. ......................... ............ 26
5

























ILLUSTRATIONS.


P1. T .1.
Page.
1. .'ect ions ,f Cheddar cheese before storage ................................ 8
2. Sections of Clieddlaricheese alfterS months' storage at 2R0 F. i not paraffined) 16
3. S.t-tionsof Cheddar cheese afterS mnnth-' storage at 28 F. i jiaratffined ) ..... 16
4. Se"-tiosid If"Yi'ung America" cheese after 8 months' storage at 40 F ...... 20
5. Sectionsof Ch'ieildlar cheese after .54 months' storageat 5 F. I frozen') ........ 22
6. Sections of "Flats" after 5A months' storage at 5 F. t frozen i ............. 22

FI C. URES.
1. Record of temperature \ariations during entire storage period ............. 11
2. 4;roup I, Cheddars. Loss in weight for 8 months ....... . .......... 13
3. Group II, Flats. Lo'. in weight for N months ...... ............. 15
4. Group III, Young Auiericas. Loss in weight fur 8 munths .............. 16









6:
i:






j
4:













THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


INTRODUCTION.

This experiment was planned and conducted by Maj. Henry E.
Alvord, late chief or' the Dairy Division, and it was practically com-
pleted before his death, which occurred October 1, 1904. The results
have been brought together and tabulated by the writer in the present
bulletin. The general details of the experiment were in charge of
William E. Smith, dairy inspector, who was also chairman of the
board of scorers. The other judges were B. F. Van Valkenburgh,
dairy inspector, and F. P. Swift, representing one of the largest
cheese-exporting firms in Montreal and New York. New York was
chosen a-, the place for the investigations, and suitable arrangements
were made at a cold-storage warehouse, where rooms were fitted up
and the desired temperatures secured.

OBJECT OF THE EXPERIMENT.
The investigations were undertaken to study on a commercial scale
and under commercial conditions the influence which different temper-
atures exert (1) upon the weight of the cheese, (2) upon the quality
of the cheese, and (3) the influence of such temperatures in combina-
tion with coating the cheese with paraffin. The commercial quality
of the stored l)roduct was determined by a jury of experts thoroughly
in touch with the demands of the market.

PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT.

About 3 tons of cheese was purchased, of three different types,
or sizes, known in the trade as Cheddars, Flats, and Young Americas.
The product was as even and uniform in all respects as possible, except
for the difference in .size and shape of the three types. About one-
lilf of the cheeses were paraffined and the other half remained in their
natural condition. Almost the entire quantity wa.s divided into three
lots, as evenly as possible in all respects, and these lots were stored at
the temperatures of 28', 34, and 40' F., respectively. Each con-
tained about 40 or 50 cheeses. The cheese- were examined by a com-
mittee of experts and weighed when first placed in storage and every
26837-No. 83-06---2 7







THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


two months thereafter for a period of eight months. It was further
planned to freeze another lot of cheese, much smaller than the lots
mentioned above, holding thi., at a temperature of about 5' F., for the
l)urp),le of determining the effect of freezing on the quality. Chemical
analv.es, were made of the chee.,e before placing in storage to deter-
mine it, character.

sLOUICE. ('IIARACTEH, AND) AMOUNT OF THE CHEESE USED.

The cheese .elected was all of the firm typical Cheddar variety, made
in the State., (if New York and WVisconsin. For convenience, we will
group the lot-: a. follows: Group 1-Export Cheddar: ua. natural; b,
paraffined. Group II -Flats: ,-, natural; h, paraffined. Group III-
Youtng Americas: i, nattiral; /b. paraffined. Group IV-All theabove-
named -tvles stored at freezing temperature.
The table herewith gives the location, of the factories from which
the different lots were .secured. and also the .,ize, amount, and score of
the chee-e purchased.

T E, 1. Orqii, qIntilili',, ini dtl. %rTipli(.L cka1'het.e ,,.ed in tie ,ixperimeed.

inuii ant %tvlk. 'l %%eght Flavor Mlake. Texture.
t-hri~ll anbrtyle i,.hr


Grniuip I E.xport ('helddar. F6ih Creek
Factr,. -,. Lot% rence Comity. N Y
Grouijp 11. Flat. Springbroiok Facltory. '
',nitaraugu-C.iiuiin . Y
Grrup III. Young Amerira. VIllt-ey
Honii- Faitory. Sheboygan (Coninly.


(i rigid andl -it le

mroip I. E l-xpi:irt 'hedd'nr. F-h rreek
Far.tiry. SI La" reire ('nuilvl. N Y.
i
i.riip II Flat. Springbtrok Fat[or,.
r'Hltiir.tmiL'- Coiinun! N ) I
irolip Ill Yoing .murict.a \'Atlley
Heu-.: Fattorv. .heb.'vgan Counti '.
\ i. I


Lbs ',.s.
, 3.472 1
1.922 12
41. II


Color

High, utnl.
for im
High to very
hieh.a fen
mottled
Good ....... .


Alme
fee
Fine


o, per- Fine, close, Waxy and
lioni. firm mellow.
in per Finep. close, i Firm, metl-


feel. fithn.
Fine to per- Firm, -lose,
feet. fairly waxy


low.
Firm. mel-
Ilow,waxy.


s.tyle. Surfaces. Bfm Pam ing.
finish ing.

Fine.. Smonth, firm. IGi)od .1 Well done.
t tendency to
mold.
Fini.. Brightsmooth, Good Well done.
firm.
Fine.. Brighti,smooth. Good., Well done.
firm. I


The chee.-,e was not made -pecially for this experiment, but was
.-elected from the lot., received inll New York City from the above-named
factories in the regular course of business, and the effort was made to
select (chee-, that was of uniformly high quality.

CHEMICAl. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEESE.

A complete chemical analysis was made by the Bureau of Chemistry
of two of the styles of cheese (export. Cheddars and Flats) in order to
determine more accurately their exact character. As these two kinds
cainme from different counties and represent two sections of the State of
New York, the result are of interest. They are as follows:







BUL. No. 83, B. A. I.


SECTIONS OF CHEDDAR CHEESE BEFORE STORAGE.
[Lower figure shows small section of above cheese at natural size.]


PLATE 1.




I







TEMPERATURES AT WHICH THE (HEESE WAS STORED.

TABLE II .- 'h nii;rdiii ,i JiiIxt;. t i'' iir I '/i,'dtb rs utiid fl7ts.


StylI.


SFat. hy I Pa.i I,' Apprnx .
WIatelr. t lital griav 1' BIt i. k TI i tY
t irniethnd. mntlhod |N ni.'
II ",N ,. .


A-,. | Tlnl.
I


Export Cheddilar.. ............ 7. ;6 i 32. '4 Lo .t 21. .3 .I '. .-2'
Flat......... ... .... 14.1I :. 73 I .i, :i0 21 .1 i, .,' '

a Factor 6.37 i, not correct fur I fi tIilroge'nou imat tr I if I1 ripernid I h (t.i -Im. Of liliI, hl'iii IIfult I%
of ripening call fori la iir er faclor. bilt in lihe pre"rir t tati of knjwledger wc in ti(, n, I.L'ltt r Im illi
use the casein factor 6.37.

TEMPERATURES AT WHI'HI THE CHEESE WAS STORED.I)

The cheese wa-; weighed and put in the storage roonii in Ioxe- a boiut
two weeks from the time it was made, thi., living; about thlie hili, l ship-
ping age of cheese in commercial practice. The tenillperiiatlirei- ot' 2 ,
34-:, and 40- F. were .elected for the reason that the Ie-,t ttriag-e tenl-
peratures were believed to range between 2S- and 4-i F. With any
temperature below 2bs F. there would be clanger of freezing, and on
the other hand it has been proved (luite conclusivelyv that cheese (arn
not be carried in the best condition at a temperature over 40- F. A ai
part of the experiment sonime of the cheese was held at a teml),peratlre
of & F. to note the effect of freezing.
The following is a copy of the score card adopted for the experi-
enents:

[Experimenits in storing cheese It low I -)tet[ernttr,.. U'niited Staintes r[,'r[artm nt al Agricullture.
Bureau of Animal luiil,-try. Dairy Diviv i.in.J
CHEESE JUDGING.
NI'MERI'AL. AND r['F.'RPTl1VF -", ,RF. CARD.
SC or checsr' a ir atnple i mnrexti ..... .. ......... .... .............. ..........

Nt'ti.Rii~u StttnRL.
In^ 100 [ ^ S^ 0 1?" ** .o.r ...."................
Pere'i- F.RI'111)',,RE
Perfection, 1100 NMake. texture. Flavor, 2, lFinint-. tF'oIr. ] Frih, ,.rfaste',
point t tO points 10 ',oirt.
S c o re .... .. ... .. ... ...... .. ... ..... .... ... .. ... .. .... .... ... .. .. ... .. .. . ..


Dale: ........ ..... ......... .... ... Iv, In tit'l tq .jtlqt.. ... .... ....... ..

DE.qCRIPTIVE SCORE. iCheck a- ffii] lheliw i


Make, texture, and body. Flavor.

Perfect ........ ...... Silky .............. Perfect ..
Sm ooth .. .. . Rough ........... Clean .... ......
Pas y ....... .... S......... .. .. ......... Flat ........... ..
W eak ........... .. Acidity ..... ... Fruity ....
Sour ................. Close ... ....... . Sw Ieet ........ ...
Loose .............. ............... ..... T ainted .
Holes, m echanical .................. W eedy ...... .. .
H oles, gas ............................... Tallow y ... .....
I ______________ ^ ___


Cul,,r. Fiullh, 'uriate,.

Perfect ......... Perfect.
High .......... Fine.
Medium .... . ,ood.
Light ............. I Poor.
Spotted ......... Checked.
Streaked ...... Damaged.
Mottled ...
Natural........






10 THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.

LENGTH OF THE EXPERIMENT.

The chee.-e 'was stored in October, 1903, and remained in storage
until April IS, 19114, when one-half of the quantity stored at each
teriperl'tii' V WHa, J)laced )upon the market, with the exception of that
stored at a freezing temperature. The remainder (with the exception
of ai few che.-es removed for samples) was held until June 20, and
then sold. The frozen cheesee held at 5 F. was also disposed of in
u tne.
DETAILS OF THE STORAGE.

A., already .t4lated, arrangements were made with a refrigerating
coiijpiiiy 'vf Nuxw York ('ity to provide storage and take care of these
different lots. of cheese. Roomnis were arranged in which the tempera-
titr, ,mild 1e controlled ind( kept at 40:, 34-, and 28, F. Automatic
tabiilators werei provided in each room to show continuously the state
of the temperature. ('lose watch was kept.of the refrigerating rooms,
and thi' temll)erature-, were noted at least three times daily to see
that the thermometer- were running properly and that the tempera-
tllre. were Iolr'illial. (See tig. 1.)
The different lots, of cheese were distributed in the different rooms
a s indicated in the following table:

TA. L III.-- D;triliut.tl ,f rhee.e nat difl'renl teniqi,'raltir.s.
c'hee te14l0F. (heeseMl540 F. Vht-eseatL2F.. Cheeseal50F.
~TVt a 'h~1*.~.Niarc Wvtihi. Numj1 %Ieigh:. IN", NU_________
ltof ber Weight. Wber. Weight.

1LI, n: Lbr. 0_I Jim. Lbs Oi.
ai'h>,.h...r. Tilliirf,l ........... .... .. A 6 .545 4 8 1 V,0 4 2 13B 13
(h,-,lid r li -nrabnined . .. S 547 13 ,I 541 6 538 9 1 67 14
Finl aniral .. . .. . 299 14 n I 304 10 h 299 6 2 74 7
Filn ., rfflip l ... ...... 99 12 29 A J1U 11 1 37 8
,,lng A. m irwa.rn tui rall .. ..... 6 0l 10 6 i 61 10 6 il 14 2 20 13
Ynung Am-ru pajraffill.':d .. .... i 62 14 i 62 7 6 t.3 6 2 20 17

SYSTEM OF REFRIt;ERATIUN.
Thle chee.-e Was tored in small rooms specially built for this experi-
inent. Cold air was taken into these rooms from a main cooling room
lined with brine pipe.-s. The temperature was governed by sliding
door., which were opened or closed as became necessary in order to
hold thle different. rooms at the required temperature. In the 40-degree
room an automatic electric heater was used to assist in regulating the
tern pe rat ure.
RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS.

In presenting the result. of these experiments only the summaries
will he given. The main points naturally arrange themselves in two
di-tinct parts. Under Part I will be discussed the loss in weight






LOSS IN WEIGHT AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. 11

sustained at the different tern- tN
ru GJU^ ltl Ol 1'^
perature.-, and Part I1 will s w I I y--- ,--C -
include thle effect of the dif- ocr 271: ocr31 2 ocr. 3
erent temperatuies on the 3 N 7 I 7
quality of the chce.e .stored. TW 3 O
:NOV /0 ,NOV /4 NOV /4
1. Io., iN WEIGHT AT ,THE DIF- NIlOV /7 NOV 21/ OV 2/
FEKHENTr TEMPLrR.T'IUREN.
NOV 24- MOV 28 NOV 28
So few data are available on D D
this subject thlit the question T\\ ,- "
of shrinkauge was made the DEC 8 DEC./2 DEC/2
chief feature of thi-. experi- DEC. 5 DC. /9 ,-C.0/9
menit. The telliperatlres em- ||DEC 22 DEC 26 DEC126
plowed were -nomewhat lower -J ZA
.1 ,.^ : DEC 29 ...JAN .2 '. A/-...A 2
thin those ui.id in ordinary D2 -I JN
practice. It i-; therefore uf IA NAV 5 JAM. 9 /AN 9
interest to ascertain whether E JAV ./2 .VA /6 JAN /6
these temperature, )posses. JAN| 9 A2 JA 2|
anv advantage over tho.e ustI-
-ZZlAA 26 jJA IV 3 Au Al3
ally employed. Heavy loses 26 30 JA30
are a great tax to the pro- ff| B 2 5-3 6 --a 6
ducer; therefore any factor E9 F / /
-EB 9 FC3. 45 Ffr6/1
which can ihe iued t.o d(,.ea' e *vr .a,
the loss adds .,o much to the FEB /6 |! FEB20! FEB|201
receipts from the milk pro- .EB 23 F-| C8FEB27 "EB.27
(dluced. AR / |'A.? 5 A WRS
lYAR 8 MAP!.2 vAq/2
IPETArIS uF WEIGHING TnE C-HIEESE. ;
r,.. i ,. i S :: '-... AR1 /S :: 'W R 19 \\\\ 1\W ?9
The cheese was all carefully R A/S .,AR.19 *AQ'9
weighed before being placed I AR?2 ,AR26 >pQ26
in ,torage, record, hein-g taken MAp.29 APt 2 l Pl 2
to the nearest ounce. In -:
,API 5 -APP 9 PR. 9
order that the result.-, might
be practical, it was arranged APR12 APP/6 PR./1
to note at stated periods the APR1./9 ,APPR3 tPR?3
losses that occurred. Thlie PR.26 APR 30 APR 30
cheese was therefore weighed Z A7
,l ~ ~ ~ ~ _1A 3 IoM Y:5AVJ=:;:/ 7 ::::WA Y 7
every two months from the
time it was put in storage, or AY/o10 MAY/I ,'-, YA ,'-
four times during the period MAVY 17 :z,_/_I -Z AY2I/
of eight, months. The accom- MY AY
:'AY 24 = MY 281 MAY 28
paying charts (tigs. 2, 3, and
4), showing these data, indi- ,A| Y 3/ JUN | 4 1Z4| 4
cate the loss at. any one of NJU 7 ua//N J,,,' /
these periods. M uv ,' ,









THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


FA('TOR. INFLU'ENI'I N I.fSS IN WEIGHT.

There are several factor-, which affect the rate of shrinkage of cheese
in Storage, among which may hie mentioned temperature, size, and
form of cheese, protection of the external surface by paraffin, mnois-
ture content of the cheese, and humidity of the air. In this experi-
lment. however, only the first three were studied, and the results will
be dikcus.sed in relation to each other in the order given.

A. TEMPERATURE.

It ha, already been shown in Table I that three common types of
cheese were selected for study ving the rate of lo.ss in storage at teu-
perature- of 4o 34 and 28- F. The styles and weights used were:
Fifty-one Cheddars. weighing 3,472 pounds 1 ounce; 51 Flats, weigh-

ing 1,922 pounds 12 ounce-, and 40) Young Americas, weighing 415
pounds 11 ounce.,, making a total of 5,8101 pounds 8 ounces.
The following table shows the lo-,se., for each lou pounds of cheese
of the different types at each inspection:

TABLE IV.-Poids loss is per 100 pounds of rhee,.

NATU RA L.


Date of inspection.


-iN le ui chte-e and itmtim-ri- D a, t .-iorvd. --.-F-
lir D {.i6 14yI. 19o, FIeh 1', 1ia04
t63(daysi. i a %l.avsi


I'hltlI nr
4U F .. ........ .. ... O t. 12, 19;03
31 -:' F .. ........... ... do .......
2- F ..... ...... .... do .......
,FIil I
41 i F ... .. .. .... d o .......
"j4 F ...... ... ............ do .......
., F ...... .. ... .. .... .. ... .i ........
'mu i .A' nit'rin
4U F .... Ot -'. 1903
:!4L F ..... ...... .... d ......
*-' ': F . . .. .. .. .. i O ... .


2..2-,1
I &!2
1 F-2"
93
1.62
1.15
i 19 day. 1
2 -'37 i
1.21
i.1g


3.6-s
2 M
1.48

2 T.S
2. 31)
1.32
1112 days.)
4.73
3. 13
1..42


Apr. 14, 19n4 June 15,1904
is dayss. (247 days.


4.A8
4.18
1.81
3.90
3.21
1.1I
1 171 days.)
6.81
5.02
2.83


PA RA FFIN ED.


-f h I o1if i-he-e and tempt-rn-
I ur r.


Iuv F .
341 ': F ... ..
': I .. .. ...
Fl.iit

4U F .. .. .

liJ An' rica
F4 .. ......
2 F .. ...... .


Dalte -inred


.... Oc 12,1903
... ..... d u . .. .
. . ... ........
. . . .. . d r . .. .
. . d ( . .. ..

. .... i )ct. 26, 19I :3
.... ... d o ... ...
. .. ... .. d o ... ....


Date uf inspection.


Dec. 1. 1.903 Feb IS% 1904
i63 dayl,. 1-26 days


Aipr. 14. 1904
(185 days).


0.il 1.64 2.0:
.27 .72 1.3.
.19 .37 .6
.49 1.14 1.4!
.49 .97 1.3:
.......... 32 .61
49days. 112 days.) (171 daas.1
60 2.01
.59 1.1 1.I
.......... 60 1.1'


5.87
5.12
2.88

5. 3 5
4.37
2.19
(233 days.)
9.34 1
6.95
4.925






June 16.1904
(247 days).


3.19
1.36
1.27

2.17
1.63
1.02
(233 days.1 I
2.38 R
2.11
1.45


2
1
6
3
7
B
0
8
7


It will be observed that the losses sustained by the different types

are greater at. 4u' F. than at either of the other temperatures. Dur-
ing the period of 247 days the losses for the Cheddars and Flats at


"i






LOSS IN WEIGHT AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.


40' F. were 5.87 and 5.53 per cent, respectively, while for the Young
Ainericas for the slightly shorter period of 233 days the loss was 9.34
per cent. At 34 F. the losses were 5.12, 4.37, and (i.!5 per cent,
respectively, for the same periods, and at 2s- F., 2.88, 2.19, and 4.25'
per cent. In case of all three type., therefore, the use of the 2-S F.
tempernitu re for storing prevented over one-half of the loss in weight,
Its .ouimpred with 40 F. Their .-aving, therefore, for a factory making
501, pounds of cheese daily would amount to at least 15 pounds of
eChiee..e, or $1.50 per daiy for the season when Cheddars and Flats are
made, and in case of the Young Americas the saving would be even
greater, provided the cheese were placed in -torige about two weeks
from thlie hoop, as was the case in this experiment.
The los.s's at periods of 185, 1211. and 63 day, are also shown, and
will n.i.ist the dealer in determining at what ,tasge of storage he can
most proftitaly di.-puse of his product.

6 ".' :j:::: I I :400
_ ___7 z7 40' 0


44- O -


3 -A



~ ~ ~ ~I: :~~~ I i 2 PARAF,
,5 . . . . ---. . .- -: / .~ 0 PA RAE






f10 2HO. 3I05. 4HO0. 5105. 61105. 7X05 8003.
Fie. 2-Group I, Cheddars. Loss in weight for 8 months. (Broken lines represent natural cheese,
solid lines paraffined cheese.)
Tlie difference in the amount of shrinkage was more marked between
the temperatures of 2s- and 34 F. than between the temperatures of
314 and 46 F.
In order to permit a more ready comparison of the above data, the
aNie are pre-ented in graphic form in figs. 2, 3, and 4.

B. SIZE AND FORM.
The average weight of the Cheddair type of cheese in this experi-
ment was 68 pounds, of the Flats 37 pouida and of the Yomung Amer-
icas 10.4 pounds. By co mpairing figs. 2, 3, and 4, it is evident that at
40- F. there was not a great ilifl'rrrme in the loss between the Cheddars






THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


and the Flats, which amounted to 5.87 and 5.53 percent, respectively, for
the eight months, while the Young Americas lost. 9.34 per cent. The
charts of the other temperatures show a similar variation. As pointed A
out by Babcock and Russell" the loss in weight during the curing of
cheese is not due entirely to evaporation:
A cheese in curing is constantly breathing out carbon dioxide, the same as any
living organism, due to the development of micro-organisms (bacterial growth within
the cheese, as well as molds on the surface).
It is believed that the difference in the losses between the different
types of cheese, a. sThown in the illustrations, is due largely to the dif-
ference in size, the weight of the Young Americas being less than
one-sixth of that of the Cheddars.
C. PARAFFINING.
A suitable apparatus for paraffining may be described as follows:
The framework for use in hoisting and lowering the cheese into the
taLnk con-ists of four posts extending from floor to ceiling, two of
them at one end 6 inches apart, with a similar pair S feet away.
Between these pairs of posts is a tank 7 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 2
feet deep. A space about 4 inches wide and running lengthwise of
the interior of the tank is partitioned off. In this is placed the
unmielted paraffin as fast as a supply is needed. This entire tank is
inclo.ed by a pocket tank, there being about one-fourth of an inch
space between the tanks at the sides and ends, and one-half to three-
fourths of an inch at the bottom. To either side of this pocket is
attached about halfway up a 2k-inch water pipe, connected with a
tank heated by a stove. It is so arranged that the hot water flows all
around and under the tank, thereby heating the paraffin to the boiling
point. The best temperature is obtained when the water is kept boil-
ing. Inside and at each end of the main structure is attached a frame
over the center of the v'at, on which the cheeses are placed edgewise
before being lowered into the tank. They are let down by hand with
a small rope run over a pulley, a counterbalance with transferable
weights being used. It can be balanced to carry two, four, or six
cheeses.
The time required for proper paraffining varies according to the
condition of the cheese. The cheese, are lowered slowly until covered.
They are then allowed to remain fifteen seconds, when they are raised
out of the paraffin and allowed to drip until the paraffin on the surface
is hard. This usually requires about fifteen seconds.
By thi.- plan of paraffining no odor is given off hand the paraffin is
left transparent and without smell or taste. An apparatus sometimes
used for this purpose heats the paraffin by means of steam pipes placed
aBulletin 49, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.






LOSS IN WEIGHT AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.


in the bottom of the tank, Itut this plan frei gently burns" the
paraffin, causing it to take on a 'erv'y oflen.,ive odor and flavor. This
had flavor is transmitted to the cheese and detract, front it., value. A
35-pomund cheese should carry from half :in ounce to 2 ounces of
paraffin and a 7-1)IOUnd 1 cheese 3 to 4 ounces. The apparnittius outlined
above has proved practical andl( turns out a1 very attractive product.
One-half of the cheeses in each group were paraffined (see Table IV)
by the above method, the object being to determine how far this treat-
mnient retards lthe rate at which cheese lo.,s its moisture. Table IV
gives the data at-, to thle percentage of Ih.-., in both the paraffined and
unparaflined (control) lot.. 'ithe re',ults :ire al-o presented in figs. 2,
3, and 4.
The application of paraffin to cheese of tlite Cheddar type stored at
40- F. resulted in reducing tlie lo.-, to little more than one-half that of
the iunparatined cheese: at ;14 F. ntearlY three-fourth- of thlie loss was
0oI___I___I___


4



J 1



T Ir
~3"
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ^ 4
Poe - _
--10- -- - - __- -m _


30
9




"0PARAPJ
PARAF-
PARAF


/O. 2 5MOS 3M05. 410O5. 5M05. 6M05. 7M05. 8003.
FIl.;. J.-Girjui.ip II. Flats. Los- in wigh t f,,r S minlli,.
prevented, while thle losses in thle paraffined chiese at %2 3 F. were
reduced almo-t to a minimum. This was al.o the case with the
unparalffined chee.,e at this latter temperature, although the losses were
still more than twice as great where the cheese was not treated with
paraffin.
The relation between the loses in the paraffined and unparaffined
cheese in the Flats i., similar to that observed in the Cheddar,.
The curves show that at 40: F. more than one-half of the loss was pre-
vented by coating with paraffin during eight months' storage, while at
34- F. nearly two-thirds of the loss was prevented, and at 28-." F. over
one-half. Both the paraffined and iunparaffined lots in this group lost
even less at the latter temperature than did the preceding group.







l6 TIlE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.

A, would naturally he expected, the Young America type, being the
sminallet. showed the greatest loss, and fig. 4 demonstrates very
clearly tlhe advis.liitY of coating cheee with paraffin, particularly
if the chle.-,e handled i., of this type. It will be seen from the dia-
grain that there was a very rapid and constant loss in the case of
the iiparatliined rclhee.e from the date it was placed in storage. This
aniniiitedtl tio !'.:'4 per cent during the eight months' period at the 40


i.-I AI 1 f
I I I I i l l ~ l l l l l l i l~ lI I


~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 -- _ --- _ ^ _


17- 7

- ___ _ _ t_
_L !~ - _ __I t/ _


-Aw
I I
-I-----.
I-i


l I I 1 1 1


I:I__ I I_ :^ ^ I I :==:I I I a
+#





I~ ~~ I I 11o
- -. :-^ -.-T I ^


/MO. 2M05 5105. ',MO5. 5105


6M05. 7//5.


,0


34








20


0 0PArPAF
40PA PA f

.0PARA F


9M05.


Fi... I -4 ;roli) Ill. Young Americr.i. L'.s; in weight for 8 months.


F. ti'npr.iatiire. By coating with paraffin the loss at this temperature
wa, rdIItied to 2'.3-' per cent, or nearly three-fourths. At 341 F. two-
third, of thle Io., \\a prevented, and at 28- F. practically the same
re-ult w;a. noted.
No furthl'r Argumenet is. needed to demonstrate the value of paraffin
I- at factor in preventing shrinkage in stored cheese. This, together
with lI t u..c of lowh temlper:iture.-, results in a great saving to the dealer,
and (.aLlil.,, himi to pay the factory bIetter prices, and the factory in
tu'1 to lp;Iy mort. to tlie l)t producer.


jl


Atf^U







BUL. No. 83, B. A. I.


SECTIONS OF CHEDDAR CHEESE AFTER EIGHT MONTHS' STORAGE AT 28 F. (NOT
PARAFFINED).
[Lower figure shows small section of above cheese at natural size.]


PLATE 2.










BUL. No. 83, B. A. I.


SECTIONS OF CHEDDAR CHEESE AFTER EIGHT MONTHS' STORAGE AT 28 F.
(PARAFFINED).
[Lower ',,ir, shows small section of above cheese ait natural size.]


PLATE 3.









EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON QITALITY.


II. EI-'F.n i r 1i: TE'IFR.%TLTHE (IN Q.t'AI.iA y i.' (' F-.-.s IN SI,)R. I';.
In order to determine tihe effect of different temperi't v .s oi tile
quality of cheese and to ascertain the length of time reqiiuired to
develop the product to it, blest selling co(Jldition, cheese wa-, inspected
and scored by commercial expert, once in two months during the
period of storage. The averages of the scores of the thr-eh judge- at
the different examinations are presented in Table V (p. 211).
DiESt'RIPTION OF 'II- FES AT TIME qI i STMUIIxi.
Group 1, Cheddar type. was represented by ,,1 cheeses, weighing a
total of 3,4712 pounds and 1 ouncte, manufactured y' thle Fish C(reek
factory, St. Lawrence County, N. V.; shipped from there on October
5, 1903, and received at New York City on October 9 in the regular
course of business. Twenty-five of them were parafftined on Octobler 1l.
Description of cheese: Flavor, as nearly perfection as possible; make,
fine, close, and firm, showing a few curd Hi-ires; texture, waxy and
mellow; color, a strong shade of colored cheese, veiry uniform; .,ty le
and finish, fine; surfaces, smooth and firm: the natural cheese had a
slight tendency to mold, owing to damnip weather: boxing, good; par-
affining, very well done; weights, average about fIV pounds. For
numerical score, see Table V.
Group II, Flats, was represented by 51 cheese,, weighing I,2'-
pounds 12 ounces, manufactured at the Springbrook factory, Catta-
raugus County, N. Y.; shipped from there Octobelir 3. 13, and
received in New York City October 5 in the regular course of buIsi-
ness. Twenty-five of them were paraffined on October s.
Description of cheese: Flavor, fine to perfect; make, tinel, close.
firm (one loosely packed in hoop): texture, tirm, mellow; color, high
to very high, a few inclined to mottle; style and finih, fine; surface.
bright, smooth, and firm: boxing, good; paraffining, very well done;
weights, average about 3S pounds. For numerical .core, see Talile V.
Group III, Young Americas, was represented by 41) chee.-, weigh-
ing 415 pounds 11 ounces, manufactured at Valley Ihoue factory,
Sheboygan County, Wis.; shipped from there on October l19, 19n13, and
received at New York October 23 in the regular course of bu.ine.s.
One-half of this lot was paraffined October 24.
Description of cheese: Flavor, fine to perfect; make, fine, clo.-e,
fairly firm; texture, firm, mellow, waxy; color, good; style and finish,
fine; surfaces, bright, smooth, firm; boxing, good: paraffining, well
done; weights, average about 10 ) pounds.. For numerical score, see
Table V.
RESULT OF FIRST BORING.
The first scoring took place December 14, 1903, 63 days after
placing in storage for the Cheddars and Flats, and 44 days., for the
Young Americas.






THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


(triii 1, C,.,'.'.-At thle -)u- F. temperature all the cheese was
found to he in tihnl' condition, quite equal to that when stored, while at
:;4 and 2" F. thlerv was some mold on the tops and sides of the
chieee,, not pa raf'finid. The 28- F. product wa-s hiighe.st iln 1oth flavor
and texture and pt'rfect in color and finish, scoring a total of 99.5.
The 34 F. cheese roared d -9. 1, arid the 40: F. cheese 99.
,i.,,,t 1, F/aiF.,.-These were slightly moldy at the 2b- and 34' F.
tt'1pleraturce-, while at 40- F. they presented a good appearance. The
judges reported that this group seemed to be developing a winterish
flavor, undoubtedly resulting from the low temperature, although this
vwas, mt noticeable in either the Cheddars or the Young Americas.
Thi- ,tvl. alo ..cored its highe-t on all points at the 2-2 F. tempera-
ture. the t' tal liejiur 97. At 34- F. the cheese was marked down 3
point.- for color. Tile total score at 4ti- F. was 9.5.2.
;,',,,, //, o)',,,, Ali,,/ricas..-These showed some mold at all three
te' 111 perl tLi res. It is rather remarkable that they .'Ncored the same at
all temperature-', on all four points, including texture, flavor, color,
aind finish, thile total 1I ing 'W'.7.
;rim Iji .s/vito v,/ .11a F.-These cheeses were frozen solid, show-
ing ice on the surfaces, and it was, impossible to bore them with heavy
triers. Near the end of the experiment, however, they were thawed
oit and scored, the result of this .-coring being given el-ewhere. At
the tirit inspection the .-urfaces and sides of the cheese were wrinkled
and cracked, owing to the action of the cold.
RESULT OF SECOND SCORINI;.
The second commercial scoring took place February 15, 1904, at the
end of 121i da.ysfor the Cheddars and Flats and 112 days for the Young
A.mericia-'.
Ie in almost perfect condition, which was rather a surprise, particu-
larly in ca.-e of that not paraffined. The cheese was-bright and had no
particular appearance of heing cold stored. The average of the cbeores
of the judge-, gave the 4W: F. product. 99.3. which is 11.3 higher than
tile scorilng of the 2,S- F. cheese and 1.5 higher than that. of the cheese
storedd at 34- F. It will be remembered that at the first scoring the
2S F. ('heddars scored the highest; the difference in the scores, how-
ever, is not great. At 2.- and 34- F. the cheese was more or less
moldy, and at the latter temperature 1.2 points were taken off for
la vor.
ifi'.qp 11, Flh,..-This class of cheese showed some deterioration
in flavor and color in all the rooms, which indicated that there was
s.ome chemical or latent defect, in them which could not be accounted
for without chemical analysis. The highest score, 95.2, was given to
the 40 F. cheese, a, in the case of the Cheddars,, while the 28'- F.
cheese received -94, and the 34- F. product .43.1.






EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON QUALITY.


(boi,/ II/, }I/; 1,,i r,'i',r-,. -This was the onl" kind which showed
any mold it :i4 F. at this trial. A-ide from the iimold, however, the
cheese was aiinmo-t perfect. and scored l'*#. At 34 and 21s -' F. the
cheeses were iiuite mnioldy and(l a little off in flavor, scoring 97.5 and
96.8, respectively.
I{M L'Ui.I 'F T I-ICI SCORING.
The third commercial .coring took place April 14, !9 4, at the end
of 185 days for thie Cheddair- and Flats and 171 days for the Young
Americas. All If the cheeses at this scoring, with the exception of
those coated with parattin. were covered more or less with mold.
Grou.ip I. V '.'r/.tr,,.-As wa., the case at the second jury trial, the
40 F. chec-.e ,oredI highest--9..3-the only deduction f'rom perfect
score being on piint of texture. At the temperatures of 34 and
28 F. the cheese was quite heavily covered with mold. The judges
gave them ,cores of 9*7.1 and i>7, rt.spectively.
Group IL. Flif,.-A-., in the last test, this .tyvle of cheesewas found
to hlie con.-iderably o'ff in flavor and color at all of the temperatures.
That stored at ;34 F. was given the highest score- -9:.4-while the 40
and 28S- F. cheese vwa. -.cored 92.8 and 88.8, respectively.
Gr.tIp IIlL ,,i,, An,. ,.,.- -The 34 F. cheese of this type scored
highest-.--.2-as was thle ca.-e with the Flats, while the 400 F. prod-
uct followed cloely with 9S. 1 points, and the 2s- F. product scored
9136. the latter being marked down for flavor and texture as well as
finish.
t "EL I' OF FO U"RTH SCORING.
The fourth commercial scoring took place June 15, 11'ii4, 247 day.-
after the cheese was placed in storage in the case of the Cheddars and
Flats and 2333 days in the case of the Young Americas.
r;up I, 1 % .ler,.--The cheese scored remarkably high consider-
ing the length of time it had been in storage. The judges gave the
cheese at 40" F., 49.5 for texture, 25 for flavor, 15 for color, and 9.3
for finish, making a total of 9S.S. Thi., is 1.3 points higher than it
scored when first placed in .-.to)rage. At 34- F. the total score was ..2
and at28 W- F. 96.2.
Gry"'i 11, Flat..--For some reason this class of cheese scored highest
at 34: F., the judges giving it a total of 95.2. The cheese at 40 F. was
next with a .core of 92.3. and the 2S F. cheese last with a score of 88.3.
It will he noted that thi -. tyIe of chee.-e scored less at the fourth scoring
than when it was placed in storage, and, as previously stated, this was
probably due to some defect in the making.
Grip III, Y5,,un An ricu-a. .-These held their quality remarkably
well, scoring for 40'-'. 34"', and 28- F., 97.9, 97.5, and 96.3, respectively,
against 98.8., 9, and 98.1 at the time the cheesewas placed in storage.
The greatest deterioration was in the appearance or finish of the cheese
and in the flavor; but as the lowest score for all temperatures was 97.5
points, it is rated as high quality even after eight months' storage.








THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


The following tabulation is deduced from the detailed numerical

scores made hby the three judges, showing the average scores as to

texture, flavor, color, and finish (surface,):

TABLE V.-.'uinimary qif the s.oring.

AT iu' F.


S Iv' i lil I ,iiiiili.,ii n II l-ii-f- [ mri 1" 'rot'. T2Xtiirv. Flavorr. Color.


Oc'l. 12.1903
DI lr 14. 1903'
Feb. 1". 1904
Apr 14,19mU4
Ilitte 1M, 1904
SOct. 12.19l1.3
'Dec. 14, 2'A1
Febl. 15,1904
Apr. 14.1904
June 15.1904

(j-H--. 12, l190:3
Det 14, 1903
Fel 15, 1i. 4
Apr 14.1904
Slint I 1 U114
. t 1. 12. 11.t
DtO 14, 10.3
Feb. 1.5, 1904
Apr 14. 1904
I Jin- 15.1904

icr 2;, 1903
D-c 14.1'.03
F b. I'. 1904
pir 11, 19U1
S.lunlt. 1 '. '104
.... Oct. 261, 1'.03
Dr-:. 14,1903
Feb. 1-, 1904
Apr. 14.1904
SJune 1.1'.04


4.S .5
V) 7
49 :3
49 3
49.
49.7
49 A
44 3
49 3
49 3
49.3
4.1.3I
1.' 1
4.4 '4
49.4
9
4.4.3
4,$. 7
49.5
4V.
19 I
4,K.
4S X I

41.4. U
49. U
.50.0
49.3

4.1.3 I
4$. 34
41' *
511 0
19 .S
49.3
49.3


'-'4.0
24.3
413
2'i 0 I
T' 0 I
"2. 0
?50
2*1. S
'I. U
-'U

2-'1.7
23 U
23.3
23.2
23.3
24 t
3.7
21.7 4
23. 1

25. 0
*b. o
"230
,Y) 0,
215 t)
'4.7
24.2
i4 5
23 0
2*. $
2-4. 3


15.0

1.5 0
15 Vi

15.0
15.0
15.0
1.5.0
1ivo


1i4
13.4
12.5
10 7I

13. 7
13 0
13 0
12. 1
11 :"

14. '


1.O.0
1. .0

150
15 0

1",.0


Finish. Total
score.


10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
9.3
10 0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
92
10.0
10.0
10.0
9.9
9.2

10.0
10.0
9 7
,.9 9
10.0
10o

10.0
9 7


AT 34c F.


:i. li.' ant .,riirhliln Of .hek-e.


Natural.




Paraffiet ..



Flat
Natural .



F'nrarfi<' .




Young Ainerit.ad
Natural . .


Paraftint'l .........


I Date 'i, -cir. Trxtlure. Flavor.


. Out. 12. 19J3I 49.7
ll i'. 14, 19u1 49.".
Feb. I. 1 4 4S
Apr. 14,1904 19 *
JunIe 1. 1i904 49.',
., Ofc. 12. ,1903 49.
Delic. 14.1903 50.0
Feb 1.42904 49.0
Apr 14, 1904 49.3
.June 15. 1904 49.1


Utt 12.1903
i I(c( 14.1903
Feb. 1.1, 1914
Apr. 14.1904
Jur 135. 1904
..... .... _-rlt. 12. 190'.,,
Det 14, 1903
F,:b. 15, 1904
Apr 14, 1904
.Irrne 15. 1904
19I

........... U.t. 2i.. 1903
Dee. 14,1903
Fe:b. I.i 2904
Apr. 14 19W14
lIn" !%, 1904
O0t. 26, ?103
Dec. 11.1903
Feh. I.1 904
Apr. 14. 1904
June 15.,1904


4.'4 9
19.3
1.S.6
4.$ 7
48. 9

4S.9
4S.5
49 2
4$ 7
4)4< 7
l.. 9

48.7
.50.0
49 3
49.3
49 2
4x 7
:50. 0
49.3
49 3
49. 3


24. 8
21 4 ,
2-4.3
24 3
'4 9
24.9

24.
24. %
24 7
24.3



24.8
*'23. .iS

23.3

23 5
*2. .




22 7
23.0

24.3
24. 7
23.5
24 .9
24.5
*-4.91

24. 2
24.7
24.2
24.3
24.5


Collr Finish. Total
score.


25.0
23.0

l 5. 0
1.5. 0
1.5.0
1.5.0
1.5. 0

I. 0

13 8
12.0
12.0
12.0
14.0
14.0
12. 1
12 0
lU 0
10 5

1.5.0
1.0
1.5.0
1l 0
15.0
15 0
15.0
15.0
15.0


10.0 I
9.9
9.7
14.6
9.0
10 0
10.0
10.0
9.9
10. 0

10.0
9.9
9.7
9.4
. A
10.0
98
9.8
9.7
9.3

10.0
10.0
9.7
9.0
8.8
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
9.7


Cheddar
Natural .



Paraffined ..




Flnl
Naiurnl



I'a rA tffii i .



VYiitg Arme'ricn
Nulatural .



I'nraffimit ......

















































C4
S-















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ca

SECTIONS OF "YOUNG AMERICA" CHEESE AFTER EIGHT MONTHS' STORAGE AT 400 F.

[Cheese on left not paraffine-l, cheese on right puirtifline-I I











EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON QUALITY.


TA ,I." VK ,111,111111 ii'tI ..*','iin,- (- 'niilit n1 .

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C Styeidd r 'illhn af :1,t'->"


Cheddar:
Natural ....



Parafinrei ..



Flat.
Natural .



Paraffinei .



Young Americti
Natural. ..



Partffi net ..


I" l'ip I ..lui,.


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INFLI.'ENLE ( 1 PARAFFI' 4N '' 'ri i '% L i\ in 'i IIF-.L- 1% .' iN I- ..

The isti of paraflina oiln chete to prevent the 'rowth oIf mold, par-

ticularly when the cheese is tored at low t'iiilperat titlre., II io)W I MI Col) -

n1011 practice. It is g'einil'1illv lvgreted that tile pa;iratii l1houn lii not lie

applied until the chee.,e i, tenll diay'- ior two ieeks ld, a-4 it i.s better to

give time for the surface to dry. It ha- Ib een aii 'l pen l question, liow-

ever, whether thlie qualityy of the *hle.-,', so trc;itu-l wva- iimprlwedi or

deteriorated. Tihet prejudice which lia- exi-,ted aionog -.'nn, retaihtlr-i

against the use of paratlii ins gradually i-(lilap)earing, 111and1 it may Ie

said that manny of the oAjectiu-, agaiin.st the pra,'itice ar quiite groulnld-

less. The greatest objection has come frmil dealers who cN a ii a conll-

siderable loss in weight in removing l the Cloth- frAul the cheese. The

coinri.ssioner of agriculture alnd u.h irying o(f C'anadIal. after conducting

some experiments along this line. sums up) thle matter a, follow,:

There is, of course, an extra Is*,, of weight iin -'tiiipping i paraitinel cheese e'-ual
to the quantity of wiax adhi ering to it. Tljb iniv l 1i1t li e iiur-- thaliiin 4 'i-* 5 (itllcei.
If the grocer has a paraffined cheese in hi p-e-i- .1 week bicifore it is (cut h will
gain more in the saving of shrinkage than is lost in lhe :-tripping of thlie cheese, IIr in
the shrinkage afterwards. When these thin.-,. are better idtl-rst'o, l andl the adlan-
tages of paraffining are fully realized, the objections now raised shouldd he more than
offset.

In our storage experiments the influence of paraffin upon the quality

of cheese as shown by the scores for flavor and texture was studied.


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THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


As., already stated, for this purpose one-naif of tne cheeses in each
group were coated with paraffin, the same cheese being used in experi-
ments on shrinkage. A .summary of the scores of the paraffined and
normal cheese is entered in Table V for comparison.
A study of the figures indicates that in the opinion of the judges
there wa- but little difference in the quality of the natural and par-
affined product. Sometimes the one scored highest and sometimes the
other. Naturally the paraffin prevented to a large extent the growth
of mold, thus maintaining the cheese in a clean and bright condition.
The higher score for finish obtained by the paraffined cheese has atend-
ency to increase the total, and for this reason the paraffined product
scored highest in the final average. This is brought out more clearly
in the following tabulation:
T.%BI. \ 'I.-( b /nair;. n,. Wxv.i'.res of nlturral and pnartfined cheese.
Natural. Paraffined.
'li'rngC - _ _____________________
-,l.le, .l' I.'ict.. lempera- li,,t. I De. Feb. 1Apr. June' Out. Dec. Feb. Apr. Jime
Ire 12' 14 Ih. 14. 15. : 12 14.. 16. 14. 15.
3 F.
___ I__ __ __ _

S 40 97.5 99.0 99 3 99.3 198.S 99.7 99.6 98.6 99. D 99.3
.11 9 9.. 9.1 97 8 97.1I 98.2 99.0 99.7 98.3 98.7 99.0
Chdar 1 1;M 98. 1 995 991'7uj'
C e. ar. .. ... 0 97. u I 96.2 98.3 99.1 99.7 98.0 98.0
5 .. .... ..... ... . .. .... .. ..... .... . .. .. ...... .. ....
I 40o 96 2 9.5.2 9.'.2 92.8 1 92-.3 i 97.0 96.2 93.8 9-2 92.3
34 97 5 994.7 1 93.1 93.4 9S. 2 97. .5 94.3 92.7 91.1 91.7
Flat I 28 98 2 97.0 94. .S 8 0 8jS .3 8 96.7 95.7' 93.8 94.9 89.7
.. .. ... -, .. . . . . .... .. ... .. ..... .... .. .80 .0 ......
Oct.26 I Oct.26|
40 98 & ,?.7 99.0 98.1 97.9 S9 0 99. b 99. 3 98.1 98.3
Yo,unig n'rw 34 98.0 99.7 97.5 9A-t 97 A 97 8 9 9.7 98.65 9 98.5
l9. 2' '8.1 W. 7 96.8 96.0 96.3' 99.5 99.7 97.8 I 97.7 98.0
1 > ...... ...... .... ...... ...... ....... ...... ...... 85.0 ......
.. . .. . .... . 50

EFFE4rT OF FREEZING ON THE QUALITY.

In addition to the experiments at the higher temperatures, it was
thought desirable to store a small quantity at a freezing temperature,
in order to determine the general effects of freezing on the quality.
For this purpose 3 Cheddars weighing 203 pounds 11 ounces, 3 Flats
weighing 111 pounds 15 ounce-, and 4 YouLng Americas weighing 41
pounds 14 ounces, were placed in storage at 5'" F. One each of the
Cheddars and Flats and two of the Young Americas were paraffined.
The Cheddars and Flats were placed in storage October 12 and the
Young Americas October 26. As was expected, the cheese immedi-
ately froze hard. ice showing on the surfaces, and after a time the
tops and sides appeared to be lumpy, indicating that the cheese was
being disintegrated by the cold. The judges found it impossible to
bore these cheeses at the time the others were inspected, and they
were therefore allowed to remain until April 18, six months afterbeing
placed in storage, when they were taken out and kept at a tempera-
ture of about 70'" F. until thoroughly thawed out. The frozen cheese
cut well and presented at first a very natural appearance. The sur-
faces, however, dried faster than is usual with cut cheese, and in case






Bin N:,. 83, B. A. I. PLATE 5.


r j-' -~-
., " "". .



a., .... i : i .~. 3 ,
0* 4
.-- , .. K:
,^ -.:- *,,' ^ .. y-. :


SECTIONS OF CHEDDAR CHEESE AFTER F'qE AND ONE-HALF MONTHS' STORAGE AT
5Y' F. 'FROZEN'.
[Lower figure shows small -citiun of above cbeese ar riaiurail ize


PLATE 5.


BUL No. S3. B. A. I.










BUL. No 83. B A I


SECTIONS OF "FLATS" AFTER FIVE AND ONE-HALF MONTHS' STORAGE AT 5 F.
(FROZEN).
[Lower figure shows small section of above cheese at natural size.]


PLATE 6.




















I
I





a RESULTS AS TO WEIGHT.


of the Cheddar type there was a marked tendency to crunmbhle. As
would naturally lie exl)ected, thle low temperature prevented the
cheese from ripening, and tit flavor was., by no means attractive. Tihe
frozen flavor and the diintegration of thile curd are serious alnd fatal
defects, so far a., handling thile cheese commerciallv is concerned, as
such cheese can be ,old only at a greatly reduced price.
When this cheese vwas, -,cored a number of dealers in the trade were
invited to come and inspect it, liut there was little interest manife-ted.
Of the three type- the Young Americas showed ili much better than the
others, both as to texture 1.ni fl avor. lirt even these had an inipid
taste and were ill a cruinlly condition. Another effect rioted in the
frozen cheese was its mottled appearance. This wa- Inot shown in
the cheese -tored at any of the other telliperatirres.
The following tabulation show-, the '0tcre of frozen rheee after six
months' storage, a, reported biy% tlhe jiudgv-:
T MU K~r V II.-- .,.-.,,/-, ,,/. /I, 'h >... ,,,-,/,ll.; :- I*.:

Style -i 4 hue-t. "l'xtirt FLior i',lur Fifl.ih t'ital

C heddar ......... . ..... .. ... i 1 I I 0
F la t ........... ...... ... i 2 ) II Ill ?t3
Young A.merita.... .. 41J i l 10]

(;ENI- .\1. A s"MIA I.l
This work was designed a, dli-tinctlYv :n storage experiment, having
little regard for the qiieiti''r ouf cLiring. Tihe princri)al object was, to
answer the question. How tido t, diflerent tenptlrature-, isifl'ect tlIe weight
and quality of cheese .tored for coriideralle 1),('riod, The fact was
also kept, in mind while these experimients were in progress that the
chief purpos-e in storing chee-e coiiimerci llY i- to make a profit. It
is believed that some valuable information lisa been collated as to the
best temperatures for holding chee-e. :all- in regt-ard to tlie shrinkage
in weight connected with stuch temperatLtures. It I a, al-o livevn shown
that paraffining cliee-e is econumiical ftur -storae p)urpose-., bIoth as to
loss in weight and thile general appearance of the lprodluct.
PEtI L ', I% H F.I,.IR) T', W ElI.n ir.
We have seen that the .storage of cheese :it a temperature near the
freezing point greatly reduces thie I.lo-, duie to shrinkage in weight as
compared with that which occurs at higher temperatures, that .sLch
loss is still further prevented by covering cheese with paraffin. and
that the combination of these two conditions reduces the shrinkage to
a minimum.
Less ./itr;]thkage a.s result qt' ,.&n'q; l ten,. pera(ture*.-On the basis
of the longest period of time for which we were able to compare the
results at the different temperatures employed (247 days for Cheddars






THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE:


and Flats and 233 days for Young Americas), it was found that the
Cheddar type stored at 4o" F. had lost on an average 5.87 pounds for
lIfi pounds of chee-,e, the cheese at 34 F. had lost 5.12 pounds, and
that. at 2e- F. 2..88 pounds. For 100 pounds of cheese originally
placed in the storage rooms at the different temperatures we had for
sale at the end of the .storage period 94.13 pounds of cheese stored at
40 F., 94.8S pounds stored at 34= F., and 97.12 pounds stored at 28
F. A-.-uming that the cheese sold at a uniform price of 10 cents a
pound (it having been shown that the scores were not materially differ-
ent). the receipts from the original 100 pounds of the cheese at the
different temperatures would lie a'! follow,:
C ',lieilars :.toreuI at 40' F ...................................... $9.41
ihe'llnr- st..ar.il at :340 F...................................... 9.49
Chedllar- storedl at 2;s F ...................................... 9.71
Under the-e condmlition.s the receipts from the cheese stored at 28 F.
are 22 cent- per ll cent('i, more than from tliat stored at 40': F. With the use of paraffin,
:As ,hown later, the differences are even greater.
Following the same methods in presenting the results with the Flats,
we find that at 411- F. this cla.,s of cheese has lost on an average 5.53
pounds for li.i pound.-, of cheese: at 34: F., 4.37 pounds, and at 28 F.,
2.19. pound-,. For l11i pounds of cheese originally placed in the stor-
age rooms, at the different temperatures we therefore had for sale at
the end of the storagee period 94.47 pounds of cheese stored at 40 F.,
95.t;3 poundd, stored at 34 F., and 97.81 pounds stored at 28 F.
A.-uminig here al-,, that the cheese sold at a uniform price of 10 cents
:1 poAiiul. the receipts from the original lO10 pounds of this cheese at
Ithe different temperatures would he as, follows:
Flals stojred- at 40 F............................. ............ $9. 45
Flatr :.t,.r-r d at 34 F .......................................... 9.56
Flat- lt.-re(l at 2, F ....................................- ...... 9.78
The receiptss, therefore, for the cheese stored at 28:' F. would be 22
cents per 111i pound, more than for that stored at 34- F. and 33 cents
more tlain for that stored at 40: F.
Again a similarr consideration of the Young Americas shows that at
4.) F. thi, chas lu-t on an average 9.34 pounds for 100 pounds of
cli.e-.e: a;t 34- F. the loss was 1.9j pounds, and at 28:' F. 4.25 pounds.
For l 1) pounds originally placed in the storage rooms at the different
temperatures we had for sale at the end of the storage period 90.66
pounds of cheese stored at 40"' F.. 93.55 pounds stored at 34 F., and
9.5.75 pounds stored at 28' F. Assuming again the same selling price
for this cheese as for the others, the receipts for the original 100 pounds
at the different temperatures would be as follows:
Young Americas stored at 40 F............................... $9.06
Young Americas stored at 34 F .......................... .... 9.30
Young Americas stored at 28 F ............................... 9.57





RESULTS VS TO QUALITY. 25

On this basis the receipt- for the cheese 4tored at 28 F. would be
27 cents per l'll pounds more than for that stored at 34 F., and 51
cents more than for that .stored at 40- F.
Itfluence ,f ",!z, ida mi ,t.f chces,,.-The three types of cheese in
this experiment-namely. Cheddars, Flats, and Young Anmericas-
weighed on an average 43S, 37.7, and 111l.4 pounds, respectively. It
would naturally be expected that the three kinds would vary some-
what in the amount of shrinkage. The results on this point show that
at the 40 F. temperature there was not a great difference in- the loss
for Cheddars and Flats, the amount for the entire storage period
(eight months) being 5..s7 and 5.'53 per cent, respectively. The Young
Americas, however, which were muciih smaller, lost 9.34 per cent. A
similar variation is shown nt the other temperatures.
*Inffuen'e. of jp.rafin.-At the end of eight months the Cheddar
cheese coated with paraffin had lot only 3.19 pounds for each 100
pounds of cheese originally placed in storage at 41, F., 1.36" pounds
at 34") F., and 1.27 pounds, at 2s F. T'he saving thus effected, based
on the price of cheese at 10) cents a pound, would average about 27
cents for 100 pouLnds of cheese stored at -140 F., :3;s cents per Io('
pounds at 34 F., and 16 cent.- per 11) pounds at 28 F. This small
saving at the 2$- F. teminperatuire is duie to the fact that the loss in
weight was very small where no parattin was used, and while the
paraffin reduced this lo-s still fin-rthri, the effect is not as marked as
in the case of the higher teniperatuire.. Comparing these results
where the greatest saving was efff'ct.'d, namely, the combination of
the 28- F. temperature with paraffining as- against the 40 F. tempera-
ture without pa.ratlining, we have a difference of 46 cents per 100
pounds in favor of the former.
'[The Flats gave a similar result, the saving with paraffined cheese at
28' F., as compared with natural cheee at 40 F., being the same-
about 46 cents.
In the case of the Young Americas the saving was more marked,
this cheese having lo-t only 2.3S pounds per 100 pounds at 40 F., 2.11
pounds at 34- F., and 1.45' pounds at 2s F. Comparing the cheese
kept at 40' F. not covered with paraffin with that at 28 F. covered
with paraffin, there would be a difference of about 52 cents per 100
pounds in favor of the paraffined product at the low temperature.
RESULTS IN RE;.ARD TO QUALITY.
The cheese was carefully scored by three judges every two months,
and the results in detail have been given in preceding tables. It is
only necessary here to state their findings in a general way.
Group I, Cheddars.-This group showed excellent keeping quality
during the whole eight months. At the first scoring, which took place
after two months' storage, the cheese at the three temperatures, namely,






THE COLD STORAGE OF CHEESE.


2S 34 and 4i- F.. .-cored 149.5, 9".i. 1, and '.99, respectively. At the sec-
ond, third, and fou'rtlh -corings the cheee at 40- F. rated the highest,
and the final average for the four scoring at each of the temperatures
of 41) 34 and 28 F. are 99..1, 98.015, and 97.9. respectively.
(G2',j If. F/ilt,. --'lhis type of cheese showed some deterioration at
all temperaturf-.-. even at the first ',coring, and gradually continued to
fall off in quality until the close ot the storage period. That stored
at 34- F. gave the highe.,t average for the four .,coring-,. namely, 94.1
against 93.9 for 40)- F.. and 92.4.02 for 2.- F.
iiroilJ) 1/I. 1Ynviu A l li,,r..:.. .-The cheese in this group held its
qiialit.y. almo-,t without exception, throughout the entire experiment.
Ilrv, again, an, in the case of the Cheddar,, the cheese at. 401- F. gave
the highest average score for the four inspections, namely, 9S.7. This
was, followed closely liv the cheese at 34- F. with a .core of 98.2, that
a:t "2'% F. scoring 'i7.2.
It appears from the above statements that the different tempera-
tire,, ued had no ver' marked influence upon the quality of the cheese,
and, as, statedd at tlhe o.utset. thi-. was one of the minor points of this
experiment.
EFFECr OF PARAFFIN uiN QUALITY.
One-half of each group of cheeses wa., paraffined just before being
placed in -to(raguv: otherwi-e they were handled the same a, unparaffined
chest.. Thle result, of the experiment indicate that the paraffining
had uno prejudicial effect upon any of the types of cheese at any tem-
jperatiure: in fact. in the case of the ('heddars and Young Amricas the
pairaftined product -cored a little tihe highest at. all three temperatures
il th, final average. A similar r result was recorded with the Flats at
tlie Iowe-t temperl'attnire, bit at :14 and 4w F. thie natural cheese in
this class, wa- .-slighltly ahead.













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