Investigations in the manufacture and storage of cheese

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Title:
Investigations in the manufacture and storage of cheese with a digest of previous work on the subject
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Uncontrolled:
Cold curing of American cheese
Physical Description:
68 p. : ; 24 cm.
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English
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Doane, C. F ( Charles Francis ), 1872-
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
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Washington, D.C
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Cheese   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by C.F. Doane.

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University of Florida
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lccn - 06001149
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSrRY. -BULLETIN No. 85.
A. D. MELVIN, CHIEF OF BUREAU.






INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE

AND CURING OF CHEESE.






VI.-THE COLD CURING OF AMERICAN CHEESE,

WITH A DIGEST OF PREVIOUS WORK ON THE SUBJECT.

BY

C. F. DOANE, M. S.,
Exp.erl in Dai' Ying, Daiy Diziisio'i,
Bureau of animal Indu story.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
I190o.


























DAIRY DIVISION.



SCIENTIFIC STArF.
Chief- Ed. H. Webster.
A.%-istant chitf: (C' B. Lane.
Mja1V1t mi/Ak ;inr. ii0a/iols, Assistant chief, in charge.
Butter inrr'fligationa- ('. E. Gray, clhmi~kt L. A. Rogers, bacteriologist.
'hcte,, iriftijatlioras: C. F Doane, in charge: Charles Thorn, rnm3cologist; Arthur W. Dox,
chemni-: T. \V. lssajell', expert maker of European varieties of cheese.
Soulhten dairyinq:1 B. H. Rawl, in charge. Duncan Stuart, assistant.
Dairy bkid;inq.s irie'esligalions: G. It. Parks, in charge.

INSPECTION STAFF.

RenoradleJ-buuter f.acloroes- M. W. Lang, 423 Marine Building, Chicago, in charge.
Re tiora)aled -bI ir ,markets: Levi Well-;, Lacecv ille, Pa., in charge.
Inspectors. Robert McAdam, 423 Marine Building, Chicago, George M. Whitaker, Washing-
ton, D. C.; E..\. McDonald, Seattle, Wash.; W. S. Smarzo, 6 Harrison street., New
York, N Y.
2




















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPAWrIIMNIENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
lWa.shingtoit, D. C'., May 10, 1906.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manuscript entitled
"The Cold Curing of American Cheese," by C. F. Doane, expert in
charge of cheese investigations of the Dairy Division of this Bureau.
This paper, which is one in a series on Investigations in the Manufac-
ture and Curing of Cheese, contains a report of recent experiments by
the Dairy I)vision, prefaced by a review of previous work in cold
curing. In view of thle undoubted value of this information for the
cheese industry of the country I recommend its publication as a bul-
letin of this Bureau.
Respectfully,
A. D. MELvIN,
(C, ief'of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.

















































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University ol Florida Ceorqe A Sm'aiher: Lihr3rigc ViIlh :.i pporl Irom L'v RASIS ard ihe Sloan Four'daliori


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CONTENTS.


Page.
Preliminary remarks ..................................... ....... ........... 9
Review of prev ious experiments in cold and cool curing ....................-------------------------... 11
The subeartli duct ....................................................... 12
The W is.consin work in cold curing ....................................... 13
The first cold-i during experiments ...................-...-...-...--- ...-- ..-.... 13
Later work ........................................ -----............... 14
Results of W isconsin experiment; ................... -.- --.-- ----. ---..--.--- 15
Canadian experiments in cold and cool curing----..... ...................... ------------------------.. 16
Comiments. on the Wisconsin and thie Canadian work ........................ 19
comparison n of ice and mechanical refrigeration.............--............--- 20
Increase of cold-storage plants in cheese district ....................... 21
Comparative advantages of cold and cool curing.........--............... 22
Cooperative work by th. Department of Agriculture and State stations....... 24
Minor experiments by the Iowa and New York station ...............-------...... 27
Report of recent experiments by the Department of Agriculture ....---..---------------. 28
Trade conditions and practices- .......................................-----.... --------- 29
Plan of the work ......................................................- 29
Details of manufacture, storage, and curing ............................ ....31
Lowv and high rennet ............................ ...................31
Selection and handling of milk and curd...................--------...........--- 32
Method of -toring and curing .............................-...........------ 33
Paraffining .......... ........ 34
Details of making the cheese .. .. -.......... .....-...- ---- -------- 34
Treatment of factory-cured chee-,,-. ............. -.- -----------------. 36
The judges and the scoring ................................ .... .......... 37
Effect 4f paraffining and temperature on weight ............--..----..............--------- 38
Scores of the cheese .................................. ................... 41
Cold curing and acid cheese....... ...................................... 65
Variations in scores of the different judges ................--.....--...--.........-- 66
Relation of green curd to cured cheese...................----------------.................-- 67
EffTect of extra rennet ...................................-...............---- 68
7














INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE AND CURING
OF CHEESE.


THE COLD CURING OF AMERICAN CHEESE.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

There is a general opinion of long standing that it is necessary for
cheese to go through a ripening or breaking-down process before it is.
fit for human food. The green cheese as it comes from the press hasa
consistency much like that of india rubber and feels somewhat like
that substance to the touch. In addition there are certain physiolog-
ical effects popularly supposed to follow the eating of green curd as it
comes from the vat, and this supposition has grown into a belief on the
part of both scientist and layman that the green cheese is partially if
not almost wholly indigestible. These opinions, which will very
likely be shown to have little foundation in fact, made it seem desir-
able that the cheese should go through a ripening or breaking-down
process before it reached the hands of the retail dealer and consumer.
But it is not the purpose in this bulletin to go into any discussion of
the changes that occur during this ripening period; they are very
complicated, are probably due to a number of disputed causes, and
are evidently not thoroughly understood by scientists in general.
The outward evidence that this ripening has progressed to a sup-
posedly sufficient extent is a change in the physical condition of the
cheese, in which the curd loses its elastic consistency and becomes
friable and waxy to the touch and somewhat soluble in water. During
this process, when carried through under old factory conditions, there
is also a decided change in the flavor. The flat and insipid taste of
the green curd disappears, and the product acquires a characteristic
cheesy flavor, which becomes strong and sharp as the ripening
progresses.
As will be discussed in greater detail later, a decided change has
evidently taken place in the tastes and desires of the consumer along
this line. The market is progressing toward a milder cheese, and this
change has evidently come with the new ideas in regard touring.
Under the old system of warm curing rooms the consumer had very
little chance to become acquainted with anything but a product well
broken down in texture and highly developed in flavor. While it is
9





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


hard to predict the future course of the consumer's taste in this con-
nection, it is very doubtful if we shall ever arrive at the time or con-
dition when as a general thing some flavor is not desired in the cheese.
This compare tire demand for mild or for strong cheese is very naturally
of considerable interest in connection with any question concerning.
methods and conditions of curing. Especially is this true in the
discussion of methods which are likely to cause a great variation in the
flavor of the product. The old system of warm rooms developed a
high flavor; the new system of cold rooms has a tendency to suppress
flavor entirely. To ascertain the public taste and meet it by modifi-
cations will probably prove to be almost a necessity in the cheese-
curing industry.
In the American or Cheddar cheese industry of the present time
there are two very important, practical questions, one of recent origin
and the other recognized for several years. These are so closely
related that it is almost impossible to consider them separately, as
they depend to a great extent upon each other. The recent question
has already been mentioned, and relates to the growth of the popular
demand for mild cheese; the other is the problem of the influence of
temperature on the curing of cheese, which has been studied for about
ten years and which has a number of points that have not yet been
settled to the satisfaction of cheese dealers in general.
In the early days of the industry in this country not much attention
was paid to the question of the effect of temperature on curing. The
curing rooms or "dry houses," as they were called, had very little or
no provision against changes in temperature, and it is probable that
the temperature followed closely that of the outside atmosphere.
The practice of winter cheese making is of comparatively recent origin,
so that there was, as a rule, no necessity for any provision against the
freezing of the product. Heat was not supposed to have any effect
in the curing-it would at least, so appear from a description of the old
curing rooms-and consequently no attempt at insulation was made.
It was not until 1895 that this question of curing-room temperature
was considered of sufficient importance to warrant any attempt being
made to determine if any benefit could be derived from the employ-
ment of an artificial temperature lower than the temperature prevail-
ing during a large part of the summer. It is somewhat astonishing
that this should have been the case, as at the present time it is so well
recognized that the effects of high temperature on cheese are plainly
unfavorable that we do not understand why the cheese maker of
twenty or thirty years ago should not have perceived this and tried
to remedy it. We know that where a cheese has any tendency what-
ever to a gassy nature the heat immediately causes it to swell or huff
up to an extent causing considerable damage to its commercial value.
We also know that the heat causes the grease to come out of the





REVIEW OF PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS.


cheese, and that. it has a tendency to develop any latent undesirable
flavors; in fact, there are but few respects in which heat does not have.
an unfavorable influence. And yet it would appear that the cheese
maker of those days entirely overlooked these things. It is likely that
he considered these evils as more the result of the season than the
effect of any conditions that were within his control.
The first scientific theories worthy of consideration in connection
with the curing process did not tend to help matters to any extent.
As soon as the science of bacteriology. had grown to any importance tihe
ripening of cheese was studied from this point ot view, and it w'as very
generally concluded that the process was almost entirely due to bac-
teriological changes. It was believed that these changes could not
take place in a temperature below that at which the germs developed
to the best advantage. This would require from 60 to 80' F., and it
was naturally supposed that anything within these limits was proper
and necessary.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS IN COLD AND COOL
CURING.
The first work to determine the influence of lower temperatures on
the ripening of cheese was undertaken by the Wisconsin Experiment
Station in 1S95.a In this experiment cheese was cured at three tem-
peratures, 50, 60 to 65, and 85 F. It was found that the cheese
cured at 50 F., though requiring a much longer time than the cheese
cured at the higher temperatures, broke down fully as well. It was
considered by the judges to have about the same quality and value as
the cheese cured at the temperature of from 60 to 65 F. It was
found in this experiment that the cheese cured at S5 F. was very
strong and almost unfit for use.
This proof that cheese could be cured satisfactorily below 60 F.
had in it the germ of a revolution in ideas and practices concerning the
process. Two important facts were brought out: the first, that cheese
could be cured at a temperature much below that at which bacteria,
supposed to have so much influence on the curing, could very well*
develop; the other, in connection with the bacteriological study which
was conducted at the same time with the cheese under experiment,
that the bacteria persisted in large numbers much longer in the cheese
kept at a low temperature than in that kept at a higher temperature.
These experiments were soon followed by similar work in Iowa,6 in
Canada,/ and by the New York State Experiment Station at Geneva.d
These experiments, which were along parallel lines and gave similar
results, will be mentioned again.
a Annual Report, Wisconsin Experiment Station, 18.97.
b Bulletin No. 57, Iowa Experiment Station.
cAnnual Report, Ontario Agricultural Collegre. and Experimental Farm, 1900.
dBulletin No. 184, New York Experiment Station.





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


THE SUBEARTH DUCT.

The conclusion, drawn from the work of these experiment stations,
that low temperatures for curing could be profitably employed led to
attempts to secure a lower range of temperature in the rooms already
in use. An effort was made to provide better insulated curing rooms
in which the temperature would not he greatly affected by hot weather
outside. In a few instances in Wisconsin and in many instances in
Canada some attempt was made to secure lower temperatures by
an ificial means. The best known of these devices is what is called the
subearth duct, which is worthy of notice in any discussion of the sub-
ject of temperatures in connection with cheese ripening. The principle
of the subearth duct, as is well understood by cheese men acquainted
with the subject, was based upon the fact that the temperature of the
earth several feet below the surface remains practically stationary and
is much below the average temperature of the atmosphere during the
summer months. Several lines of tiles, such as are used for drain-
age purposes, were liid at varying depths beneath the earth's surface
and provided with a funnel which turned toward the wind at the
opening where the pipe came to the surface. There was also a funnel
which acted as a draft above the curing room and served to draw
the air through these tiles and into the curing room. The room itself,
of course, was well insulated, and it was found that by this means a
fairly even temperature could be maintained at about 60 F. There
were certain modifications of this duct, in some instances the curing-
room air being drawn from near the bottom of a well in much the
same manner. This was also a success in regulating the temperature.
In this country this method of maintaining a suitable and even
temperature was for various reasons never very extensively applied,
there being a difference of opinion regarding its efficiency. A number
of cheese makers who had cool-curing rooms believed that they could
make a softer cheese than had been customary in hot weather, but
when this cheese passed from the hands of the maker to the dealer and
was brought in contact with higher temperatures it. caused unfavor-
able comment. This was wrongly and unreasonably charged to the
subearth-duct curing room, when in fact it was the fault of the maker.
There was also said to be considerably more trouble with mold than
had been the case with the old-style curing rooms.
Had there been any necessity for the continuation of this method
for securing low temperatures there is little doubt that the subearth
duct or some other artificial means of obtaining the same results would
have come into general use in the better cheese districts, for at the
present time the bad effects of any high degree of temperature in the
curing of cheese are thoroughly understood. But other methods and
systems of handling cheese were developed, founded on new discover-





WISCONSIN WORK IN COLD CURTNG.


ies, and the development, of the cold-storage system did away with
any necessity for a cool factory curing room.
Following the introduction of cold-storage curing, cheese was held
in the factory for a much shorter period than formerly. The subearth
duct was expensive, and well-insulated curing rooms were found to be
satisfactory for the shorter period before going to the storage room.

THE WISCONSIN WORK IN COLD CUITRING.
The work in Wisconsin, already mentioned, led Doctors Babcock
and Russell to believe that the processes through which cheese passed
in curing were due partially at least to other agencies than bacteria.
Investigations were conducted which led to the discovery of galac-
tase,a an enzyme natural to milk and which has the power of breaking
down the casein. It is not the purpose of this bulletin to enter into
any details of that discovery or of the controversy that has resulted
between scientists on this general subject of cheese curing. This dis-
covery indicated that it might be entirely possible to cure cheese at a
much lower temperature than had previously been used, and naturally
led to experiments along this line. There is no doubt that this dis-
covery has been responsible for many changes in the cheese industry,
for it has affected the curing processes, has indirectly modified the
taste of the consumer, and a long series of changes has followed, some
of which are still in progress.
The Wisconsin Station was the first to inaugurate experiments in the
cold curing of cheese.b This very naturally followed thlie discovery of
galactase and the previous experiments in cool curing, which might be
considered as preliminary to the greater work that followed. Wiscon-
sin's first work along these lines was followed in a short time by similar
experiments at Guelph, Ontario, Canada, under the direction of Pro-
fessor Dean, head of the dairy department of the Agricultural College.
About an equal amount of work has been done by these two institu-
tions, but of course thatdone by Wisconsin will always be of the greater
interest, because to this station belongs the credit of having made the
discovery which naturally led up to this work, and because of its gen-
eral activity along these lines.
THE FIRST COLD-CURING EXPERIMENTS.
The first actual cold-curing experiments were undertaken at the
Wisconsin Station following the discovery of galact.ase.c In these
tests five temperatures were employed, 15, 33, 40, 50, and 60 F.
a Annual Report, Wisconsin Experiment Station, 1897.
b "Cold curing" is the term ordinarily applied to curing at temperatures below 50 F.,
to differentiate it from the method employed in Canada, where artificial temperatures
above 50 F. are used and the process is termed "cool curing." These terms are well
understood by cheese men and are entirely distinct.
cAnnual Report, Wisconsin Experiment Station, 1901.





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


Three different lots of cheese were stored at these temperatures, the
lots being made up, respectively, with 3, 6, and 9 ounces of rennet to
1,000 pounds of milk. Chemical analyses made periodically after the
cheese was put into storage showed by the soluble proteids that the
cheese broke down more slowly in the lower temperatures. There
was, however, a steady, though slow, change even at the lowest tem-
perature of 15 F. The increased amount of rennet, according to the
analyses, showed marked influence in hastening the breaking down of
the curd.
In storing these cheeses at the different temperatures it was found
that 40 and 50 F. gave the best results when considered by the
market standards of that time. The temperature of 60 F. gave a
cheese with impaired flavor and injured texture. In these tests the
high-rennet cheese had the best texture, the flavor being as good as
with the lower rennet. A peculiarity often noticed in cheese held at a
low temperature was first seen in these experiments-that is, the
development of white specks throughout the body of the cheese,
which might be considered as injuring its commercial value to a very
slight extent. The cheeses in these experiments were cut and photo-
graphs were made which showed the close texture of the cold-cured
cheese. At the temperature cf 15 F. a soggy, crumbly texture was
found.a In this report the first suggestions were made as to the
advisability of building centralized curing rooms, and the report also
mentioned further experiments which were then in progress along the
same line. Only partial results were given, the full statement of the
completed experiment being left for a future publication.
In the publication covering the completed experiment data are
given as to the effect of a long period of time on the cheese carried at
33 and 40 F. This cheese was found to be of fine quality at the end
of two years, while that held at 50 F. was on the decline at the end of
sixteen months.
LATER WORK.

The details of three additional series of experiments are given in the
same report. In the first of these the cheese was made at. the univer-
sity, the normal amount of rennet being added and the cheese being
stored at 15, 40, and 60 F. The cheese held at 60 F. commenced
to deteriorate in quality at about six months, and was putrid at about
fourteen months. The cheese placed in the 15-degree temperature
was removed to a 40-degree room at the end of seven months. In this
series the cheese held at 60 F. received the highest total score, which
was given when it was five months of age. The cheese kept. at 40 F.
received a maximum score of 1 point less than the 60-degree cheese,
a Further experiments modified this conclusion.
bAnnual Report, Wisconsin Experiment Station, 1902.





WISCONSIN WORK IN COLD CURING.


reaching this at. fourteen months. The cheese held at 15 F. scored
very low until placed in the 40-degree room, when it commenced to
improve and developed into a very fine product.
The second experiment of the series was made in a regular cheese
factory, and the report states that the results are entitled to more
weight than those of previous trials, as all the cliheese came from the
same vat. The cheese was made with 3 ounces of rennet, and was
stored at 15, 40, 50, and 60 F. Before being stored the cheese was
divided into three lots. The first lot went into storage direct from the
press, the second lot was held at 40 F. for fifteen days and then stored
the same as the first lot, and the third lot was kept at 40 F. for thirty
days and then stored as the others. The temperatures of 50 F. and
below seemed to give the best results, the cheese cured at 50 F. being
the best of all. Part of the cheese hlield for fifteen and thirty days at
40 F. and then for five months at 15 F. was then removed to the
40-degree room. At the end of one year some of this cheese had
an almost perfect score.
The cheese for the third and last series was made in a commercial
factory and was stored at 32, 35, 40, and 60 F. The results
were the same as in the previous trials. A number of duplicates
which were put into storage were afterwards sold in the ('hicago
market and brought prices considerably above that obtained for
ordinary cheese.
These three experiments strongly emphasized the fact that in body
and texture all the cheese kept at the lower temperatures was supe-
rior, but according to the market standards of that time it would
appear that the cheese cured at 60 F. was superior to the others
in flavor at some periods of its ripening and would probably have
brought better prices. As this prime condition for the 60-degree
cheese was at about five months of age, it is exceedingly doubtful if
the improved quality at the lower temperatures was of any practical
benefit.
RESULTS OF WISCONSIN EXPERIMENTS.
The work done by the Wisconsin Station was summed up in another
report, a number of points being emphasized which had been brought
out in the work of the station and which had not been given much
prominence in previous reports. Attention was, called to the fact
that the cheese cured in cold storage was much more uniform in
quality than that cured under the old conditions. It was stated
that most factories suffered considerable loss from the rejection of
cheese because of its inferior quality. It was pointed out that such
losses were in part due to the use of tainted milk and to variation
in manufacturing details, but in large measure they might be
a Bulletin No. 94, Wisconsin Experiment Station.





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


ascribed to variation in curing conditions due to inefficient methods
of control. Of these curing conditions, temperature was by far the
most important. With cheese cured at lower temperatures the effect
of these factors was much modified, with reference not only to the
conditions which occurred in the curing, but also to the variations
in conditions of manufacture. The result showed that with a lower
temperature the quality of the cheese is more uniform, and the product
would naturally bring a somewhat higher price and be more sought
after by the buyer.
An interesting feature of the work carried on by the Wisconsin
Station was the placing of cheese at a temperature below freezing,
15 or 17 F. It has always been believed by people familiar with
the handling of cheese under storage conditions, and it seems to be
an opinion firmly held at the present, time, that a temperature low
enough to freeze is detrimental, if not ruinous, to the cheese. The
first report of the Wisconsin Station seemed to support this idea.
Cheese came from the low temperature in a very unsatisfactory con-
dition; but further experiments along this line gave a slightly dif-
ferent result, the cheese being handled differently after coming from
the colder temperature. In the first experiment it was scored imme-
diately after coming from the 15-degree room. In subsequent experi-
ments the cheese was placed in a warmer room for a time, and, as has
been previously noted, there was an immediate and constant improve-
ment until it reached an almost perfect condition, showing that the
bad effect of the freezing of the cheese was only temporary. While
this fact is interesting from a scientific point, of view, it is doubtful
if under the present market conditions it can ever be put into practical
application. It is true that the cheese kept much longer at this lower
temperature, and it is also probably true that the cheese could be
held indefinitely at 15 F., but it is difficult to see how this-could
be applied to any commercial condition where it would be of any
value. In short, it is doubtful if it is ever advisable to keep cheese
longer than nine or ten months. Conditions may some time arise
under which this would be desirable, but it is now difficult to imagine
any future conditions to warrant this temperature being applied to
any cheese as it comes into storage.
CANADIAN EXPERIMENTS IN COLD AND COOL CURING.
As has been already mentioned, the Ontario Agricultural College
followed very closely the lead of the Wisconsin Experiment Station
in curing experiments involving the effect of different temperatures.A
In the first experiments cheese was cured at 60, 66, and 69 F.,
and it was found that that. cured at 60 F. was of higher quality,
both in texture and flavor, than that cured at either of the other
a Annual Report, Ontario Agricultural Collecge and Experimental Farm, 1898.





CANADIAN EXPERIMENTS.


temperatures. The cheese cured at the highest temperature went
off in flavor very rapidly. The tests ran through a period of two
months and included a large number of lots o(f cheese. In a series
of cooperative experiments with cheese factories the same tempera-
tures were employed and the same results were obtained.
During the following year the previous tests were rel)peate(d.
Results were the same as before, the cheese ('cure(l at the lowest tem-
perature being the best in quality. It was found in these tests that
cheeses of varying sizes were affected in practically the same way
by the different, temperatures. Some of the cheese was carried at
a high temperature obtained artificially, and was then placed in the
cool rooms, but this was found to be of no advantage, though no
comment was made indicating that. it was of any particular disad-
vantage.
All of the foregoing work was again repeated the following year.6
Practically the same conditions were met as in the previous experi-
ments, cheese being cured at 60, 65, and 70 F. The same results
were obtained, and, as before, cheese held at a warmer temperature
for one week before going into colder rooms showed no benefit derived
from this process. In all of these experiments the score for flavor
had been about the same for the different temperatures, but the
texture was very markedly improved at the lowest temperature.
The year following a partial report was made on the employment
of a40-degree temperature for curing.c While the experiment had not
been completed at. the time of making the report, there was evidence
that the cheese carried at 40 F. would be better than the control
cheese carried at 65 F.
In a bulletin published in 1902 thle final results of the work last
mentioned were given.d It was stated that the temperature of the
cold room averaged 38 F. and that the average temperature of the
warm, or control, room was 64 F. One cheese from each lot mnide
was placed directly in the cold room, and three others were kept in
the warm room for one, two, and three weeks, respectively, and were
then placed in the cold room. A fifth cheese was ripened in the warm
room. The final scoring on these lots showed that the cheese placed
immediately in the cold room was the best of all, while the cheese
ripened in the warm room was much the poorest of any. The cheese
placed directly in the cold room also lost less in weight than the
others.
a Annual Report, Ontario Agricultural College and Experinimental Fnrm, 1899.
bAnnual Report, Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, 1!O0.
cAnnual Report, Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm. 19)1.
dBulletin No. 121, Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm.
30624-No. 85-06--2





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


The work of 1902 was continued in 1903. a In this series of experi-
ments a storage room cooled by natural ice to 40 F. was compared
with a mechanically refrigerated room carried at. the same tempera-
ture. Cheese was also carried at, 50 F. All cheese, except as other-
wise stated, was placed in storage direct from the hoops. Nine lots of
cheese were made and some of each stored in each room. For com-
parison a cheese from each lot was held in the warm room for one
week and then placed in the 40-degree ice-refrigerated room, and one
cheese from each lot was completely cured in the warm room, which
averaged above 60 F. Nine other lots of cheese were made and
stored in the same way, except that the cheese carried in the ordinary
temperature for one week was placed in the mechanically refrigerated
room instead of the room cooled by natural ice. In all of these
tests the cheese placed immediately in the 40-degree room was
slightly better at. the end of the test than any other, while the cheese.
ripened at the ordinary curing-room temperature was of noticeably
poorer quality in both flavor and texture. The cheese held in the
warm room for a week was practically as good as that going
immediately into storage. There was found to be very little differ-
ence in the effects of mechanical and ice refrigeration on the quality
of the cheese, the small difference being in favor of the artificially
refrigerated rooms. There was less shrinkage in the ice-cooled rooms,
because of the higher humidity, which probably amounted almost. to
saturation. None of the cheese was paraffined. In connection with
these experiments it was stated that. cheese could be held for a week
before going into cold-storage rooms without damage, provided the
temperature did not go above 90 F.
The Ontario experiments were continued in 1904.b Several new
features were introduced in this series of tests. Professor Dean tried
the effect of varying quantities of rennet and also compared boxed
cheese with cheese placed on the shelf and handled in the old way-
that is, turned and rubbed occasionally. He also again compared ice
and mechanical refrigeration in these tests. Fourteen lots of cheese
were made up, seven lots with 31 ounces of rennet to 1,000 pounds of
milk and seven with 6' ounces of rennet to 1,000 pounds of milk.
These were carried at a temperature of 40 F., being divided between
the ice-chilled and the mechanically refrigerated rooms. The score
of the cheese showed no practical difference in the quality when made
from varying quantities of rennet.
For the boxing and shelf test nine lots of cheese were made and
were divided between the ice and mechanical storage rooms. Half
of thlie cheese was kept on the shelf, and half was kept in boxes without
turning. The results showed a slightly greater shrinkage on the shelf
aAnnuil Repo-t, Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, 1903.
b Annual Report, Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, 1904.





COMMENTS ON WISCONSIN AND CANADIAN WORK.


and a slightly greater tendency to mold in the boxes. There was no
difference in the quality in either case.
Six lots of cheese were made uip for temperature experiments.
Cheese was carried at 28, 40, 50o, and 55 F. The cheese ripened
at 40 F. scored slightly higher, hut the difference was very unimpor-
tant and was well within the limits of probable error of the judges.
For the ice and mechanical storage test thirteen days' make of
cheese was used. One cheese from each day's make was held at a
warm temperature for one week and then placed in mechanical storage
at a temperature of 40 F., and thlie same plan was followed with regard
to the ice storage. Three other cheeses went direct into storage from
the hoops, one in the ice storage at 40' F., another in the mechanical
storage at the same temperature, and the third in a 50-degree room.
When these cheeses were scored, they showed very little difference in
quality, as in the previous year's test, the cheese cured at 50-degree
being slightly better, and the mechanical and ice refrigeration show-
ing no difference in effects, except in the less shrinkage in the ice-
cooled rooms, which was due to the higher humidit-.

COMMENTS ON TIlE WISCONSIN AND THE CANAD)IAN WORK.

As has been heretofore mentioned, the Wisconsin Station deserves
credit for having made the preliminary discoveries which indicated a
possible adoption of lower curing temperatures, and it is entitled to
further credit for having inaugurated experiments along this line. It
is probably true that no two men on the continent were better quali-
fied to have undertaken this pioneer work than Doctors Babcock and
Russell. The first experiments were conducted at the station proper,
and as a result of this work certain recommendations were made
which have not as yet been fully adopted, hut which will probably
prove to be the basis for the treatment and handling of all cheese in
the not-far-distant future. One recommendation was that the cheese
be put into cold storage direct from the hoop, and it was pointed out
that this would check the development of many undesirable ferments
which appear within a few days or weeks after the cheese is made.
This purely experimental work was supplemented by additional
tests in a regular cheese factory. This latter work approached very
closely actual commercial conditions, and, as stated in the reports of
the station, perhaps deserves greater weight than the previous work.
In fact, there was an element of weakness in the first work done,
because the cheese was made up in small vats, not all of the cheese
in one test, coming from the same vat, thus leaving a decided possi-
bility for variation in quality.
A number of benefits to be derived from the low temperature were
pointed out. It was shown that cheese made from day to day and
cured under these conditions showed greater uniformity in quality,





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


this of course being due to the fact that undesirable qualities had very
little opportunity to develop under these conditions. It was also
shown that the cheese lost much less in weight when cured at the low
temperature. This was a very important point at the time of these
experiments. Another point was the longer period for curing and
the consequently longer time during which the cheese was fit for con-
sumption. It would appear that this was an important point, but in
view of market conditions it is doubtful if this fact of longer keeping is
of as great advantage as was at first supposed, except in the carrying
of cheese for the winter and spring trade. It is deemed necessary by
cheese makers that all cheese of a previous year's make be cleaned up
by about April 1 to avoid a financial loss due to the lower prices of the
new cheese, which comes on the market about this time and which
appears to he just as desirable to the consumer. A few months
added to the keeping period may be desirable, but one or two years
would not be considered by many dealers.
In the work done at Guelph, Canada, there were two very com-
mendable features, one being the great number of different days'
make which was compared. In the experiments for 1904 alone 42
lots of cheese were made up. The other feature was the fact that all
of the cheese in a single test came from the same vat of milk. As the
milk at Guelph is obtained from herds scattered throughout a small
territory-the same condition that prevails in the case of a commercial
factory-these experiments should have great weight. It would
appear that the only possible opportunity for variation or ground for
criticism would be on account of the cheese not being carried in regular
cold-storage establishments, such as are found in the larger cities and
which are conducted upon a commercial scale.
COMPARISON OF ICE AND MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION.
An interesting feature of the Ontario work was a comparison of the
effect upon cheese of ice and mechanical refrigeration. This was a
point well worth investigating, especially in the days before paraffining
had become general. It is difficult, however, to comprehend how the
cheese could be influenced to any appreciable extent by the fact that
one room was cooled by ice and another by some other means. The
only probable variation in the condition of the atmosphere would be
in the relatively higher humidity in the rooms cooled by ice. At the
present time, when practically all the cheese that comes into cold
storage is paraffined, any variation in the moisture content of the air
would have no effect whatever, or certainly none that need be taken
into consideration. The cheese used in the Canadian experiments,
as well as that used in the Wisconsin work, was not paraffined, and it
was thought probable that the humidity would lessen the shrinkage
and through this influence the quality. As was brought out in the





INCREASE OF COLD-STORAGE PLANTS.


experiments, the cheese kept in the ice-cooled rooms did lose a little
less in weight, but the quality was the same, as nearly as could be
determined by the judges. A little more trouble with mold was
experienced in the ice-cooled room, due to the humidity of the atmos-
phere. Since the adoption of paraffining, it is probable that a highi
humidity would be undesirable because of the possible effect it might
have on the paraffin. This is merely assumed and has no experimental
foundation, but it is entirely possible that the effect would be unfavor-
able.
INCREASE OF COLD-STORAGE PLANTS IN CHEESE DISTRICTS.
The practical application of results obtained by the Wisconsin
Station was indicated in the recommendation made by Doctors
Babcock and Russell that central curing rooms be built. These rooms
were designed to take the place ol the ordinary factory curing rooms
and were to he situated close enough to a number of factories so that
the cheese could be taken from such factories to the curing room every
few days. These rooms were to be looked after by competent men
and were to be kept at temperatures under 50 F. One such curing
room was actually built at La Crosse, Wis., and was in operation for
a short while, but through some mismanagement or poor planning was
forced to cease operations. The further building of such curing rooms
was probably stopped by the great number of cold-storage ware-
houses, which were soon built in the towns near the cheese districts.
In New York such establishments are found at Watertown, Lowville,
and Jamestown; in Wisconsin they are found at Sheboygan, Fond
du Lac, Plymouth, and many other places situated in or near sections
of the State devoted largely to the cheese industry. These storage
places did away with the necessity for the centralized curing room,
though in fact they are an adaptation of the idea on a slightly different
business basis from that which was at first contemplated. The dealers
who buy cheese direct from the factories are located near these storage
houses, and at Plymouth, Wis., half a dozen of the largest cheese firms
in the world have their main offices, though the town itself is only a
small country village. This is perhaps the most marked example of
the present, condition.
With the building of these storage houses near the cheese factories
it. naturally followed that cheese commenced to find its way from the
factories into the hands of the dealers much sooner after leaving the
hoop. This tendency has increased until now the cheese is under two
weeks of age, as a rule, when placed in storage; in fact, it is as young as
the dealers will accept it at the present time, for reasons which will be
mentioned hereafter. This is the logical outcome of the whole ques-
tion of the cold curing of cheese. There will undoubtedly be changes
in details, but the main points will probably not be changed under the
present conditions. Curing in the cheese factory is a thing of the





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


past in sections closely connected by rail with towns having cold-
storage houses. The tendency is for the dealer to take the cheese
closer to the hoop, and anything that will show how this can safely be
done will hasten the adoption of the recommendation and idea
advanced by Doctors Babcock and Russell-namely, that cheese
should go into storage the day it is taken from the press.
COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES OF COLD AND COOL CURING.
The outcome of the experiments in Canada has been a little different
trom that of the Wisconsin experiments. In fact. there are many
things regarding the situation as it is found in Canada which are very
difficult to explain. The work done at. Guelph would seem to have
indicated that cold storage was the only correct way of handling
cheese. Canada has a department of agriculture, with a dairy com-
missioner who has always been actively interested and taken a leading
part in the development of the cheese industry of the Dominion. On
the basis of results obtained in tests that were carried on in various
factories, cooperative cool-curing rooms were recommended. As has
been heretofore explained, these rooms were to carry a temperature
above 50 F.; in fact, in practice they averaged about 58 F., according
to the reports. These rooms were necessarily cooled by artificial
means during a part of the year. In advocating this cool-curing
system in preference to cold curing, three arguments were advanced.
One was that the expense of holding the rooms at the higher tempera-
ture is much less than would be required for a temperature of 40 F.;
another was that the time required for curing is only about one week
longer in the cool rooms than would be necessary in the ordinary
factory curing rooms; while the third argument was that in the cool
rooms cheese developed a decided flavor which was necessary for the
export trade.
On the recommendation of the Canadian department at least three
such rooms have been built in as many different sections. They
appear to have given perfect satisfaction, and cheese cured in these
rooms was of course of a much more uniform quality and the shrink-
age much less than with the old conditions of factory curing rooms.
The general scheme was to pay for storage about what was saved in
the shrinkage. This saving did not quite pay for the actual cost of
maintaining the rooms, but it is probable that if the better quality of
the cheese due to being cured under such favorable conditions could be
taken into consideration the benefits derived would undoubtedly pay
or more than pay for the actual cost. A number of factories patronize
each of these cool rooms, teams being furnished to collect the cheese
practically every day by making a circuit of the factories. This plan
gets the cheese into a favorable temperature almost as it comes from
the press, and is undoubtedly a desirable feature.





COMPARISON OF COLD AND COOL CURING.


One of the arguments in favor of the cool rooms and which has been
urged in this country against the employment of cold storage for cur-
ing cheese is based on the fact that perhaps the best cheese made in the
course of the season comes from the factories in the latter part of Sep-
tember and during October. In this connection English Cheddar
cheese, to which reference is often made, is cured at about the same
temperature as would prevail in the American cheese districts in
October, which would be about 60 F. This argument is very
unscientific to say the least. There are other probable reasons for
the superiority of our September and October cheese. This season is
especially good for the production of very fine milk: nights are cool and
the milk easily kept, and the cows have advanced in lactation until
there is a relatively high percentage of fat in the milk. The English
Cheddar, the superior qualities of which are probably much due to
imagination, is made utinder almost the same conditions of climate as
prevail in this country in the early. autumn. The EngIlih summers
are very cool, giving a fine opportunity for producing good milk; and
the quality of the English cheese, if as good as claimed, is undoubtedly
due to this fact rather than to any superiority of curing temperature
over the regular cold storage.
It is doubtful if the argument advanced concerning the comparative
cost of "cool-curing" rooms and "cold-curing" rooms has any material
foundation. In theory it would, of course, cost more to hold aroomat
40 F. than at 55 F., but considering the amount of cheese that even
a small cold-storage house will hold and the relatively small cost per
pound for this storing, it is doubtful if the comparative cost would
have any great influence. It seems that no figures have been com-
piled to show what has been the actual cost of storage in the cool rooms
per pound of cheese. The Dairy Division of this Department re-
quested such information from the Dominion government, but was
told that it was not available. However, prices charged for the stor-
age of cheese in various cold-storage houses in this country were
obtained. One storage firm quotes one-fourth of a cent per pound for
five months from June 1 and one-half a cent per pound for nine
months from June 1. A large Chicago house charges 16 cents per 100
pounds for the first sixty days or any part thereof and S cents per 100
pounds for each succeeding thirty days. This amounts to about one-
twentieth to one-eighth of a cent per pound per month. This would
appear to be such a reasonable charge that it would be difficult for any
other system to show any appreciable advantage.
The contention that the comparative difference in the time of curing
is considerable does not appear to have any real foundation. In gen-
eral terms it. was claimed that the cheese in the cool-curing rooms
required but about one week longer for curing than would be necessary
under factory conditions, while it was further claimed that cheese




MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


carried at 40 F. required about four times as long a period for ripening.
The latter part of this contention is probably true, as it was shown by
the Wisconsin Station through chemical analyses made during the
course of ripening that cheese held at 40 F. broke down in four weeks
to about the same extent to which cheese carried at 70 F. would break
down in one week, and according to the reports of the same station
there was a decided difference in the rate of curing of cheese held at
55 and at 65 F.-much more, in fact, than was claimed in the argu-.
ments for the cool-curing rooms.
In connection with the claim that the cheese cured in the cool-curing
rooms had a more desirable flavor than cheese cured in the cold-curing
rooms, there seems to be room for a decided difference of opinion. As
has been previously mentioned, the market demand is growing rapidly
toward a cheese of mild flavor. This will be mentioned hereafter, but
in this connection it may be stated that the scoring of the cheese in
the experiments conducted at Guelph was done by well-known
Canadian buyers and exporters, and in their opinion the cheese cured
at 40' F. was slightly superior in quality to that cured at 60 F.
The Canadian cool-curing rooms attempt to pay expenses by the
saving in shrinkage. In cold curing, as now generally practiced in
this country, cheese is paraflfined as it goes into storage, thus prevent-
ing practically all shrinkage. Otherwise the shrinkage would amount
to about 1 pound or more in 20, and at 10 cents a pound this saving in
shrinkage would be sufficient to carry the cheese in storage for nine
months at the prevailing rates.
Evidently one fact that has not been taken into consideration is that
a temperature of 55 or 60' F. will not check many undesirable fer-
ments which may occur in the ripening cheese. It was emphasized by
Babcock and Russell that one of the advantages in a cold-curing room
lay in the fact that many undesirable qualities due to conditions which
existed at the time of making could be almost entirely overcome by
the use of very cold temperatures in curing. This would not hold true
for the cool-curing rooms. It would be impossible, owing to these
factory conditions, to get such an even quality of cheese in the cool
rooms as could be secured by the use of the lower temperatures.

COOPERATIVE WORK BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND STATE
STATIONS.

At the suggestion of the Wisconsin Experiment Station the Depart-
mnent of Agriculture, through the Dairy Division of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, in 1902 entered into a cooperative arrangement for
conducting some commercial experiments on the cold curing of
cheese. a The station at first contemplated that all the work should be
a Bulletin No. 49, Bureau of Animal Industry.





COOPERATIVE WORK WITH STATE STATIONS.


undertaken in that State and the cheese made in factories over which
the station could exercise a certain degree o(if control. Upon the sug-
gestion of the Dairy Division, however, the work was broadened so as
to include the New York State Station at Geneva, and was further
extended to include cheese from a number of different States, namely,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa. Storage facilities
for the Eastern States were secured in New York City and for the
Western States at Waterloo, Wis.
Different. types and styles of American cheese were gathered from
the factories scattered throughout the States mentioned. This cheese
was stored, without paraffining, at 40, 50, and 60 F. Three judges
scored the cheese in charge of the Wisconsin Station, and a different set
of three judges scored the cheese in charge of the New York Station.
Mr. Baer, expert cheese maker for the Wisconsin Station and univer-
versity, made periodical inspections of the Waterloo cheese in addition
to the regular scoring by the judges. The Wisconsin cheese was
scored at the end 4f three months and again at the end of five months.
The score showed a slight difference in favor of the cheese kept at 40
F. This difference was greater at the end of five months than at the
end of three months, though at neither time dlid the average variation
reach a total of 4 points out of a possible 10U. The market value was
placed on the cheese by the judges and showed slightly in favor of the
cheese stored at 40' F.
The cheese in charge of the New York Station was scored at five
different times-when fresh, at the end of two months, at the end of
four months, at the end of six months, and again in eight months.
The cheese held at 60 F. was sold at the end of four months, as it had
commenced to deteriorate. The lowest score was given to the cheese
held at 50 F. at the end of six months. The cheese held at 40 F.
gave a slightly higher maximum scoring, and, as had been demon-
strated in previous experiments, remained in good condition very
much longer.
In addition to this regular work, one of the New York City cheese
dealers furnished a quantity of cheese to be used in paraffining tests.
Half of this was paraffined and half remained unparaffined. Both
lots were divided between the 40, 50, and 60 rooms. The results
showed a decided saving in shrinkage in the paraffined cheese and no
effect on quality.
There are several things connected with the scoring in New York
City which are a little difficult to understand. The cheese when green
scored practically as high as when thoroughly ripened. No explana-
tion was offered, and evidently none was called for on this point, but it
is difficult to understand why such a high score should have been given
at that time. It is impossible for cheese fresh from the press to have
the characteristics of a desirable texture. It has no developed flavor





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


and its qualities at best must have been purely negative. Another
point in connection with the scoring was the fact that such small differ-
ences in quality were noted between the different lots of cheese. The
cheese was selected from a number of different factories, was subject
to adverse influences before arriving in New York, and it is improbable
that it could have been so nearly of the same quality. The explanation
of this point, if there be any explanation, is probably that all three
judges were commercial men, that all of the cheese, according to com-
mercial standards, was well above the quality demanded for the high-"
est prices, anti consequently the judges did not discriminate to any
extent within these limits. From a commercial standpoint the scor-
ing and its results were undoubtedly entirely satisfactory, but from an
experimental point of view it. would appear that there was something
more to be desired.
Another point in connection with this cooperative work as affecting
both New York and Wisconsin and which might be considered subject
to some criticism was the fact that the cheese for these experiments
was obtained in quantities varying from 500 to 1,000 pounds from each.
factory. It is extremely improbable that in the case of the larger
amounts coming from a single factory the cheese was all made in one
vat. It would seem that a thoroughly satisfactory test would have
required that the cheese from each and every factory should bedivided
between the different temperatures selected for storing on the basis of
the vat in which the cheese was made-that is, that each vat of milk
should have been considered by itself in dividing the cheese for the
different temperatures of storing. Two vats of milk on the same day
can easily vary as much in quality as the milk of widely separated days.
It is a well-known fact that where more than one vat is run in a fac-
tory on the same day cheese of the very highest quality may be made
in one vat and of exceptionally poor quality in another. In these
experiments, in a number of cases at least, it appears as though the
cheese from each factory was lumped together without reference to
whether it was made in one or two vats, and it is quite likely that some
variation in results was due to this fact, as such could easily have been
the case had the cheese varied as much in quality as it frequently does
under such conditions.
This cooperative work was impaired somewhat, in the writer's
opinion, by the insistence of the Department of Agriculture that
the cheese should be gathered from so many different sources. It
was, of course, impossible to supervise or control the making of the
cheese under such conditions. Then, too, such long shipments were'
required in many instances that the cheese was several days old
before going into storage. There is no question but the work would
have been much more valuable could it have been done in one locality
where some direct observations could have been made on the manu-





MINOR EXPERIMENTS.


-facture. Care was used in selecting the factories from which the
.cheese was to come, but this did not. overcome the weak points in
the general plan.

MINOR EXPERIMENTS BY THE IOWA AND NEW YORK STATIONS.

In addition to the more extensive experiments conducted in Wis-
consin and Canada and the cooperative work in which the United
States Department of Agriculture took part, some minor work on
the effect, of temperature in cheese curing has been done at the Iowa
Station and at the New York State Station.6 These experiments
were concluded before the regular cold-storage work was undertaken
in Wisconsin and Canada.
The work in Iowa was partially in cooperation with Canada. Cheese
was shipped from Ontario and cured at a temperature of about 60 F.
Other cheese was cured at 55 F. In another test, fresh cheese was
held at 90 F. for a few days after making and then cured at a lower
temperature. It was concluded from these experiments that the
exposure to a high artificial temperature for several days before going
into the colder rooms had no bad effect.
In the New York State Station test temperatures of 550, 60, 65,
70, 75, and 80' F. were employed. The cheese cured at 55' F.
scored 7 points higher than that cured at 65 F. and above.
Besides the conclusion announced as a result of the Iowa experi-
ments in cool curing, to the effect that cheese could be held at a
relativel- high temperature several days before going into the colder
rooms without injury, this same statement was mnde as a result of
some of the Canadian experiments, and was repeated by t le Wisconsin
workers in connection with their recommendation for a central curing
plant. Mention has previously been made of the recommendation
of the Wisconsin Station that cheese should go into storage direct
from the hoop, and it would appear that these statements were rather
inconsistent. There is no doubt that all these investigators were
in error in their statements, as a general proposition, that cheese
could be held at a high temperature even for a few days without
injury. It might be true of cheese which had been made from pure
milk, under exceptionally good conditions; but where undesirable
flavors have a tendency to develop, any period of high temperature,
no matter how short, after leaving the press would undoubtedly
give undesirable results. The fact that in many cases the cheese
which went direct into storage was given a higher score than that
which remained in the ordinary curing rooms for from one to two
weeks is proof of this statement. Although some cheese can stafind
a Bulletin No. 57, Iowa Experiment Station.
bBulletin No. 184, New York Stale Station.





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


a warm temperature without injury and could even be cured at a
temperature of 70 F. and come out with an almost perfect score,
as has been shown on many occasions, this is no proof that the warm
temperature is desirable for curing.
REPORT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTS BY THE DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE.
The Dairy Division thought it wise to conduct further expenmenua
in cold curing, as the only commercial test made in which the Depart-
ment cooperated was so unsatisfactory that it did not lessen the
desirability for further work of this nature. Again, market condi-
tions had changed so radically that the work performed -and the
conclusions drawn therefrom, which might have been entirely satis-
factory a few years ago, would not apply to present conditions.
A number of questions have been advanced by dealers who utilize
cold storage in regard to recommendations made on the basis of pre-
vious experiments to the effect that cheese should go into storage
direct from the hoop. The dealers have been afraid to adopt this
view entirely, though the general method of handling is perhaps
growing slowly in this direction. Perhaps the reason advanced by
most dealers against buying perfectly fresh cheese is that it is impos-
sible to tell, when a cheese is inspected too young, just how it will
develop. Any bad qualities, or at least a few of the bad qualities,
which are likely to show in the cured product can not be detected
in a cheese a day old. The most important of these possibly injurious
qualities is in connection with the development of acid, though unde-
sirable flavors would perhaps be mentioned by many of the dealers.
It is well known that a high-acid cheese appears perfectly normal as
it comes from the press, and the fact that there is too much acid
does not show until the cheese is at least a week old or even two
weeks old. In certain seasons of the year this is a fault that is very
likely to occur at times in all factories, and as a high-acid cheese
brings a much lower market price the dealers have a just reason for
being suspicious of fresh cheese. The contention that other faults
may develop will not be so difficult to overcome. It has already
been proven that cold storage checks a great majority of the unde-
sirable ferments, and a fault which is not noticeable in the green
cheese will not be likely to develop after the cheese is placed in
storage at a temperature too low for bacteriological changes. This
needs to be demonstrated perhaps a little further and to be impressed
upon the ?hinds of the dealers. The work heretofore conducted has
been almost without exception with a very high-grade product. In
previous tests the cheese ripened at the ordinary curing-room tem-
peratures rated above the requirements for the highest market price,
and because of this the experiments did not demonstrate the great
advantages of the early application of cold temperatures.





RECENT EXPERIMENTS BY THE DEPARTMENT.


TRADE CONDITIONS AND PRACTICES.

Before undertaking the-work covered by this report a very careful
investigation of conditions affecting the cheese industry was made.
This investigation showed that the practice of putting cheese into cold
storage before it was cured had become almost universal. Very few
factories throughout the cheese districts of New York and Wisconsin
keep the cheese on hand for a longer period than two weeks. This
means that the ripening process has progressed very little before the
cheese goes into storage, and the greater part of the curing, if it takes
place at all, must be done at the low temperature.
There was, however, within narrow limits, considerable variation in
the age at which the cheese was placed in storage. Some dealers were
willing to take it when one week old, while others insisted that it be
two weeks old. The time varied somewhat, however, with the market
demands and the season of the year. It was an open secret that at
certain periods when cheese was scarce and the demand insistent
cheese would be taken when four days old or even less, though this was
not put into storage, but as a rule was shipped immediately to the
consumer.
The temperatures employed at the different storage houses showed
considerable variation. It appeared that at some a temperature as
low as 30 F. was used, while at others the temperature employed was
slightly above 40 F., a majority ranging from about 34 to 36 F.
No reason could ever be obtained why any one establishment
employed a particular temperature, the managers of those using the
lower temperatures simply stating that the temperature was as low as
possible without danger of freezing the cheese.

PLAN OF THE WORK.

In planning for the work in view, the points brought out in previous
investigations served as a basis for the experiment. As the custom
of curing cheese in the factory curing room had practically ceased to
exist., there was no reason for making any particular effort to demon-
strate the superiority of cold curing over the old method. It seemed
to have been sufficiently demonstrated both in this country and in
Canada that a temperature of 50 F. or lower was the most satisfac-
tory for cheese ripening, so no particular weight was placed on any
further demonstration of this point, though a few cheeses were carried
in the factory curing room to show what a long exposure to high tem-
peratures might develop in a cheese which would otherwise have been
of a high quality.
As the temperatures employed by different, storage houses varied
from about. 30 to 40 F., two temperatures were selected for our
work-namely, 320 and 40 F., and as cheese is placed in storage at





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


various ages, in these experiments cheese fresh from the press and at
one and two weeks of age was stored in rooms of different temperatures...
There has been considerable discussion as to the effect on ripening
of different styles, shapes, and sizes of cheese. It seems to have been
demonstrated in Canada on one or two occasions, and also in the coop-
erative experiments hereinbefore mentioned in which the Dairy
Division took part, that the size of the cheese had very little influence
on its quality. There is a popular belief, however, that the large
Cheddar cheese weighing from 60 to 100 pounds develops a better
texture and perhaps a better flavor than smaller types. This is.
extremely doubtful when considered in the light of actual knowledge.
The size of the cheese was given no consideration, as it was believed.
that it would have no important bearing upon this general problem.
If cold storage benefits a small cheese, it should certainly benefit a
large one, and vice versa. The only exception that could possibly be
made to this statement would be in connection with the'possible varia-
tion in water content of the small and large types. The small cheeses
are as a rule not subjected to so great pressure as are the large ones, but
even if this were not the case it is doubtful if the amount of pressure
applied plays any important part in the water content of the cheese.
Analyses go to show that small types of cheese possess about the same
percentage of water as large types. For the experiments the "Daisy"
style of cheese was chosen. It is about halfway between the extremes
of size represented by the old-fashioned "Cheddar" and the "Young
America." It is, moreover, an extremely popular size, often bringing
in the regular market as high as a cent a pound more than the other
styles. It. is shaped about like the old styles of cheese, and is of suffi-
cient size to permit heavy pressure.
In selecting a place for the experiments the ground was gone over
carefully and a number of things were taken into consideration.
Previous work has usually been carried out. with the factory and place
of storage so widely separated that accurate work was impossible.
It was impossible for the man in charge of the work to look after
the details of the storage, and the distance did not permit of cheese
being taken direct from the hoop and put. into storage the same day.
In the first place it was desired that this work should be put on a
commercial basis as far as possible and that the cheese should be made
in a commercial factory representative of a large number of factories.
To do this required that the work of both making and storing should
be done in some rural district. But two suitable locations could be
found-Utica, N. Y., and Plymouth, Wis. The storage plants at
these points employed mechanical refrigeration, which permitted
variation in temperature. A number of storage establishments in
both Wisconsin and New York used natural ice and were not arranged
to allow any great variation in the temperature of different rooms or





DETAILS OF RECENT EXPERIMENTS.


to secure constant, temperature in the same rooms. The Plymouth
storage warehouse is situated in the heart of a region devoted almost
exclusively to the cheese industry. Perhaps 25 factories (of large size
are to be found within a radius of 5 miles. This was considered the
best location, and very satisfactory arrangements were made with the
proprietors of the storage establishment located at that place. The
factory selected was only 3 miles from the storage house, was the
largest factory in the district, receiving 15,000 pounds of milk per day,
and was owned and operated by an unusually successful cheese maker.
The milk received at this factory was of about the same quality and
sanitary condition as would be found in a majority of the factories
in the district. The factory itself was not a model, as that term
would ordinarily be understood, hut it was a good, practical estab-
lishment, with good equipment and satisfactory sanitary surround-
ings. The maker was a man familiar with the cheese business in
nearly every phase, and was able to give most excellent advice and
assistance.
The Wisconsin Dairymen's Association was very naturally inter-
ested in the work that was being conducted within the State, and
when requested gave the services of its traveling cheese instructor on
two occasions to serve as a check on the work being done. This
was thought. desirable in order to make the cheese representative of
the whole State rather than of one locality or factory.
In these experiments it was planned to make cheese four days each
week, low-rennet cheese being made one week and high-rennet cheese
the next, and then a week intervening in which no cheese was made
and the work in the storage rooms looked after. This plan was
followed except on two occasions, when the cheese was made only
three days in the week. Fifteen lots of low-rennet cheese and eleven
lots of high-rennet cheese were made up, being in all twenty-six days'
make.
The first lot of cheese was made June 19 and the last lot in theregu-
lar line of experiments August 24. It would have been more desirable
to have commenced this work about the 1st of June, but, unfortu-
nately, arrangements could not be completed by that time. How-
ever, the experiments covered the greater part of the storage season,
and were therefore of sufficient duration to be representative of the
cheese which is held in storage throughout, the summer and fall.

DETAILS OF MANUFACTURE, STORAGE, AND CURING.
LOW AND HIGH RENNET.
As had been done in some of the previous work both in Wisconsin
and in Canada, cheese was made up for these experiments with
different quantities of rennet, the normal amount of 3 ounces to 1,000





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


pounds of milk being used for part. of the work and double this amount
for the remainder. This was thought desirable, as under the present
market conditions much of the cheese is rushed from the factory to
the consumer, and with our present knowledge of cheese as a food
product it is desirable that at least some degree of ripening should
occur before the cheese is eaten. It is entirely possible that a great
deal of cheese, especially in the early spring, gets into the hands of the
consumer at two weeks after making. Ordinarily there would be very
little chance for breaking down or ripening to occur within this period.
It has been demonstrated that rennet hastens this process, and it is
quite desirable, or at least appears to be desirable, to have some means
for hastening the ripening either when the cheese goes upon the market
so young or when it goes into storage direct from the hoop, as the cold
temperature of course checks the ripening process. Unfortunately
there was no opportunity to compare the exact rate of ripening of the
high and low rennet cheese. This has been done, however, in Wis-
consin, and it was demonstrated thoroughly that cheese made with
double the usual quantity of rennet broke dbwn much faster than that
with the ordinary quantity. The cheese in our experiments was
closely observed and the rate of ripening was determined, so far as
this could be done without chemical analysis.
If the use of larger quantities of rennet ever becomes customary, it
'will be desirable to have some data to show the effect of the rennet on
the quality of the cheese as well as on its rate of ripening. This, of
course, is demonstrated more or less thoroughly in the work here
presented.
SELECTION AND HANDLING OF MILK AND CURD.
As has been noted before, the cheese for these experiments was made
on a commercial scale. It was made up entirely in a large vat holding
about 5,000 pounds of milk, and in no case were any small experimen-
tal lots manufactured. At first there was an attempt made to select
milk that would make up a good cheese. This was done by watching
the development of the milk in the three vats in the factory, and about
the time the whey was drawn selecting the most promising curd.
This was discontinued, however, after a few days, and the plan then
followed was to watch the vats from day to day and take the contents
of the vat that appeared to be doing the best for a continued period of
time. This resulted in getting a few lots of cheese that were not the best,
as shown in the curd; a number of the curds were tainted, and in one or
two instances the curds were slightly gassy. Thiswas not undesirable,
however, from an experimental point of view, for any benefits that
may be derived from storage are likely to be in its application to what
might otherwise be a poor cheese. In fact, this is a line of work that
the Dairy Division has in view for the future.





METHOD OF STORING AND CURING.


The curds for these experiments were cooked a little more firmly
than was the custom in most of the cheese niade in thli., factory. The
tendency in the factories of both Wisconsin alnd New York is to make
a cheese as soft. as possible, or, what is more to the p',int, to incorpo-
rate all the water possible in the curd, as the reputation of the maker at
the present, time depends perhaps more largely upon t ho yield secured
than on the quality, and consequently a large number of makers pay
but little attention to quality and considerable at tent ion. to means for
securing quantity. However, for the experiments under discussion,
quality was considered first and quantity last. ThIe cheese was prob-
ably not cooked quite as firm as was the custom aniong cheese makers
ten or fifteen years ago, but it was carried far enough to insure a pro-
duct that would stand up in the warmest weather, and which from
every point, of view would be considered a very sat i,.Iactory article.
All the cheese was made according t, \\what is known as the Cheddar
process. The acid was allowed to develop tio a certain point before the
milk was set and to develop further to a certain degree, as shown by
the iron test, before the whey was drawn. After- tlie first few weeks
of the making an acidimeter was installed and tu..ed constantly in
parallel tests with the hot iron. Tli,. curd was cooked and allowed to
break down or mellow to about the extent required by most cheese
makers. It was ground in a mill with knives for cutting rather than
tearing tlie curd. It was then allowed i t stand iintil it stopped drain-
ing and reached about thlie proper c ondition, and was then rinsed
within warm water and salted at the rate of a-bout 2 to, 2' pounds of salt
to 1,000 pounds of milk.
MErijOD OF SfRHINU .AND tI'RIN(..
As before stated, the cheese was made up in the "Daisy" style as
being perhaps the most popular form of cheese made in the Northwest.
From the vat of milk selected about 14 cheeses of this style were taken
every day. Of these 2 were allowed to ripen in the factory curing
room, 2 were placed at. once in the 32-degree roomni, 2 were placed at
once in the 40-degree rooni, 2 were placed in the 32-degree room and
2 in the 40-degree room at the end of one week, and 2 were placed in
the 32-degree room and 2 in the 40-degree roiomni at the end of two
weeks. They were divided in pairs in this manner so as to be sure of
having duplicates to take the place of any cheese which might be
injured or possibly lost. As has been mentioned, the factory was
located near the storage house, and it was possible to get the green
cheese into storage exactly at the times specified. Cheese taken from
the hoop in the morning was put in the storage house in the afternoon.
30624-No. 85-06-3





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


PARAFFNING.

All of the cheese put into storage at the end of one and two weeks
was paraffined, the factory being provided with ain outfit for this pur-
pose. The cheese which was immediately placed into storage was not
paraffined until from 3 t>o 5 w'-eks old, as it is popularly believed among
dealers that cheese direct from the press can not he paraffined without
injury to quality. The cheese remaining in the factory curing room
wasnotparaffined. Some difficulty was encountered in the paraffining
work with the cheese which remained in storage for several weeks
before pa1raffinhig. This period had given the mold time to commence
developing, and when the cheese was paraffined in a vat belonging to
one of the dealers located near the storage plant the cold surface of the
cheese, by cooling the paraffin, prevented the mold spores from being
killed, and the mold developed after the cheese was returned to storage.
In addition the cold surface caused an unusually heavy white coating
of paraffin to stick tu the surface, and, the growing mold ruining the
surface of the cheese, the combination gave the cheese a bad appear-
ance. After the first few lots were paraffined in this manner the
cheese was held in the hot paraffin until the surface had time to become
warm. This killed the mold spores, made a much thinner coating, and
altogether overcame the prev'ioIus trouble.
DETAJL- OF MAKING THE CUEELE.
A very careful record of all experimental data was kept from the
time the milk entered the factory until the cheese went into storage.
This record is presented in tabulated form, as follows:




TABLE I.-Data of making the cheese.

LOW RENNET 0 OUNCES TO 1.000 1'utLUNDS OF MILK.


Lot.


Rennet
l est.


Tern-
'1iTC |Jir r m-
Timige to tlivrv 0
el[ I Ilg took- n

Ilig.


.Mlnuteq. )I
40 9I
iJ 100
315 101
:35 100
40 101
40 99
.15 98
35 98
35 99
35 99
35 99
35 99
40 98
40 99
40 99
30 99


Timne
to
rich Time'
cook- to Ad i roi
ing draw- .
lexi-I Lug.
p.,,ra-
lur !|

Irouri HnovJrs Peril Iniha
1 40 2 20 ........
1:30 2:15 ........
1:50 2:15 ........
1:35 2:10 .......
1:25 2:40 0 22
1:40 3:10 .20
1:35 3:15 .20
1:35 3:15 .20
1:20 2:50 .15

1:25 2:50 .16

1:20 2:45 .16
1:20 2:55 .16
1:20 2:15 .16
1:20 2:40 .15
1:10 3:25 .15
1:00 1:45 .16


Time I
[o
grmnd-
ilv(!.



Hour.
4.20
4:15
4:45
5:10
5:10
5:10
5:35
5:35
6:05

4:50

5.15
5:25
4:45
5:10
6:10
4:15


Remarks


Time
\ ** t,' l. n. ilt -
lhg.



1' r I/. hi h,. I llou.r
S 5.20
....... 1 6:30
........ I, 6:05
7I 6:10
L1I i 1 7:10
.70 1 6:10
.80 1 7:15
.80 1 7:15
.75 1 7:05

.75 1 5:50
.75 1 6:15
.80 1 6:55
.70 1 5:45
.75 I 6:40
.75 1 7:10
.83 I 5:45


HIGH RENNET (6 OUNCES TO 1,000 POUNDS OF MILK).


1I Firm.........
1 .. ..do........
1j Very firnnm....

........ Firmnn........
...... Medium......
........ Firm .........
........ .. . do .. ....
........ % -r '. t'Irnl. ...
..... ... F1 1 ........
.. .... .. do .......
........ Very firm....


Clean.............
..... do ............
..... do ............

..... do ............
.... do............
..... do ............
..... do............
Acid taint.......
Clean............
..... do............
----- do... -- ....


.\ pp.,iro.l soft and moist on
ru,.'k
Appeared wet on rack.

Very dry.
Became very soft on rack.
Vv r% fine curd.

Do.


I ron Degre, of
I rron i -I ,' In F hlivor.
hiiclh (o]kjd




In, hf1 '
lI Mediuni...... C.eai .............
1 Firm ........... do..... do ............
........ S.ft ............. ..........
I Fi rT ... .. . . l. ..... ........
...... ..... do........ ..... do............
........ Very firm .... ..... do.........
.. .. do.............do............
........ Firm ............ ..do............
........ Soft...............do...........

........ ..... do.............do............

........ Finn ..............do............
........ ..... do........ Tainted..........
........ Medium..... Clean.... ...
........ Firm ......... jdl'. i.,i ,,l l ....
S....... .... do ........ ('] ]i .. . .
........ ..... do........ Soap taint........


t 11i'r Ir,.J]
I X.
i i[pi li iiJv

.\ \i r' hiii curl.

.\pp nLir.i '. K Oi l tI rnirk
Cu('lrd l.,vconllhll ]inn ori Il]P
rjck
.\pprar,l ,] Ih\ oakLwl ,r,
t h' rurk

A. fiC, ruril.
SI,1l pinhr,]h.
A \.r\ liu -wvrkinPilUr.l
1'uvh.,l, -. fhvl', 'i'irklig


MlinufS.
.1 3 00
2 2 45
3 .1 00
4 3"10
5 3:00
6 3:45
7 4:15
8 4:15
9 3:20

10 3:30
11 .3 30
12 1 50
13 3:40
14 3:40
15 3:15
16 3:00


3:30
3:00
3:10
3:20
3:10
3:45
3:30
4:00
3:40
3:40
3:45


i


6:45
5:15
6 :20

6:25
5:05
6:40
7:10
8:25
5:52
5:55
6:25





MANUFACTURE AND CUTRING OF CHEESE.


It. is understood by cheese makers that milk develops so differently
from day to day, or even for thie same day in different vats, that it is'
impossible to make an exact schedule of treat ment which would apply
to every lot of cheese made. Only one factor was constant, and that
was thle temperature of setting the milk, which was always exactly 86
F. The rennet test of the milk was always made before setting, and the
milk reached about a certain degree of ripeness depending upon the
way it had been developing. The regular Marshall rennet test was
usel but instead of timing it by degrees as is customary it was timed
by a watch in minutes antd seconds, which on the whole was much
more exact and satisfactory. The table shows that the variation in
tinhe rennet lest wi, from two minutes annd forty-five seconds to four
minutes alnd fifteen .-eeconrl. This wide range was not accidental, but
was ldue to the fact that the milk was ripening at different rates at
these diifferent Wperi ils. Thle time from setting to cutting varied with
the low-rennet cheese from thirty to forty minutes and with the high-
rennet cheese from t went-v-two to thirty minutes. The cheese was
cut when the stage of coagulatinn adopted by most cheese makers was
reachiedl. It i, impo.'s.ible to describe this stage intelligibly, but it is
well known to practical cheese makers. The temperature of cooking
varied from 9S' to 101 F. The vats in which the cheese was made
had mechanical agitators, which required a little higher cooking than
under the old method of stirring by hand and with rakes. The time
for cutting, cooking, drying, and salting is calculated from the time
of .setting, so that under thlie headings for timnie of grinding and time of
salting .s'ix hours and fifty-five mininutes or five hours and thirty min-
iutes, as the case may be, means that that length of time had elapsed
since thlie milk was set. The time for drawing the whey was regulated
by the acid test after the first week, though as a check the iron test
was mriade at the same time. The acid was allowed to develop about
as high as was safe without causing an acid cheese. The time of
grinding was regulated by the condition of the curd, and at this time
al.,so the acid and iron tests were made. Salting was likewise regu-
latecl by the condition of the curd. The other columns of the table
devoted to firmness, flavor, and remarks will he taken up in discussing
inc lividual I lots of cheese in connection wit li the scores.
ThEATrMENT OF FACTORY-C-URED CHEESE.
The first part of thlie cheese kept in the factory curing room was held
until it had about reached its prime condition, when it was put into
the 32-dlegree room and held there until all the factory-cured cheese
was realv for scoring. As heretofore stated, the factory curing was
not considered an important feature of the experiment, though there
were several points brought out in the development of flavors in this
factory-cured cheese that were of great interest in connection with





'HE JUDGES AND THF SCORING.


future work contemplated by the Dairy Divi-ion. It was not con-
sidered of sufficient impl)ortance to w-arrant calling together theregular
judges for this work, aid so) only one man inspected this cheese. Fur-
ther, it, was not regarded of enough importance to warrant taking up
the time of this man for more than one day, on which all of the cheese
wasseored. This (f course made the first cluese manufactured consid-
erably older than the last, andl it introduced a disturbing factor in the
putting of thlie first cheese into the 32-ldegrev st rage room. However,
as fine distinctions in the comparative iqualily of this lot of cheese
were notl desired, the inf rma tion recuiv'ed wa.- l I that was wanted.
TIlE .Ji'I)CGES AND TFilE SCORING.

Mr. U. S. Baer, assistant dairy amnd food commissioner for Wisconsin
and formerly cheese expert for the univ',er-it andi experiment station,
scored the factory-cured cheese, lie al-' assit,,I in the scoring of the
cold-storage cheese, the other two judges being Mr. C. A. White, of
Fond idu Lac, Wis., anti Mr. I. W. Steinholl', of Stratford, Canada.
Mr. White was unanimously intlorsed for this work by the cheese
dealers of Plymouth andl Shebogan andI wii,- \ widely recommended lbv
persons connected with the cheese industry of (lithe State. Mr. Stein-
hoff is an exceptionally well-known cheese man in Canada, d1,ing a
large business and having been ciinnected itih the .l'coring in the ex-
periment s tonductl(ted at Guelph. These three men naide a very satis-
factory combination, as all lild spent iMny yeVars in handling cheese
and each was an expert in his particihular line. Mr. Steinholl' repre-
sented thlie Canadian idea and was an authority in export cheese, and
Mr. White was perhaps as well actquainted with and as able to antici-
pate the popular taste fir cheese in the UnitedI States as any other
dealer. These two men viewed tlie subject largely from a commercial
standpoint, while Mr. Baer, who had lv been c(innected with the experi-
mental work of the Wisconsin St at ion, mias well qualified to represent
the educational or experimental phase.
The cheese was, of course nt scored a-s it went into storage. The
notes on the condition of tlhe curd anid the way the cheese was made
would be far more accurate ,s an indication if the condition and
quality than any expert scoring of cheese fresh from the hoops could
possibly be. MNoreover, as. all of each lot came from one vat, it was of
course identical alnd required no inspection for thlie purpose of properly
dividing it alnd placing it into different storage rooms. Only one
regular scoring was attempted. This perhaps may be open to criti-
cism, but in the opinion of the judges at the time the scoring was done
it was quite evident that the cheese hadl just about arrived at its prime
condition. Some of the cheese held for two weeks in the factory
curing room and then placed in the 411-degree room had advanced a
little too far, in the opinion of one of the judges, and was marked off





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


accordingly. On the other hand, the cheese which went direct into the
32-degree room from the hoop was sometimes a little too mild to suit
the other judges, so the differences about balanced themselves in this
respect. In previous tests made at other places a number of scoring
hadbeen made, but it was impossible to show from an inspection of the
records just what was gained by this extra work and expense.

EFFECT OF PARAFFINING AND TF.MPERATURE ON WEIGHT.

The greater part of the cheese was weighed, the only exception being
with the first lots, which went into the cold rooms direct from the hoop,
as the scales for use at the storage house, though ordered in ample
time, had not arrived. A good pair of scales was in use at the factory,
and all the cheese paraffined before going into storage was weighed.
The cheese was weighed at three different periods-as it came from the
press, at the time it was paraflined, and finally at the time it was
scored. The weights of the duplicates only are given in the following
table, as the plugging made a difference in the weight of the cheese
plugged for scoring:





TABLE II.-We;ghI of chieee ait different periods.

LOW RENNET.


Fact orytrcrd. I 32-degrov room In 411-id.grpo roonm In 32-degree room tit
i from hoops. I fronm hoop< one %eek.

Lot. Fresh I I Fresh When Fresh I When Fr'sh When I
LF o r N h e n f r o ni p a r n l W h e n [ mr | p i fr h e n r i p u t i n i W h e
press pre<- finea. 3pri-s firmd. i pnc.
Lgo.

Lb.o:.'oz. Lb. o. Lb.,. L.i..o: Lbs.oz. Lbs.oz.'Lbs.. o. Li o-:. Lb, o. L.'b.oz Lb.
1 19 3 1i 3 Iv 14 . . 19 2 19 11 '.. ..... 1 15 19 7 I S 15 18 I
2 19 12 17 14 ........ ........................................19 13 19 7 19
3 19 10 117 13 ........ ................ ........ ........ ........ 19 15 19 8 19
4 19 14 18 0 ........ ................ ........ ........ ........ 19 10 19 4 19
5 11 4 17 12 ........ ................ ........ ........ ........ 19 14 19 1 18 1
6 19 8 17 13 ........ ................ ........ ........ ........ 19 7 18 15 18 1
719 6 17 14 ........ ... ............ ........ ........ ........ 19 7 18 15 181
8 19 9 18 0 ... ................... . ...... 19 8 18 15 18 ]
10 19 11 18 9 IP 1 19 4 ij 4 ho v' IS 15 N 14 19 9 ........ 19
11 19 7 18 9 19 13 19 7 19 7 19 10 19 4 19 4 19 10 19 3 19
12 19 10 18 12 19 5 18 15 18 15 19 8 19 2 19 2 19 0 18 8 18
13 18 8 17 15 19 7 18 12 18 10 19 10 19 2 19 2 19 9 19 2 19
14 19 11 19 0 19 9 18 15 18 13 19 8 19 4 19 3 19 9 19 4 19
15 19 14 18 15 19 14 19 3 19 2 19 15 19 10 19 8 19 9 19 1 19
16 19 11 18 15 19 12 19 2 19 0 19 7 19 1 19 0 19 11 19 2 19


HIGH RENNET.


In 40-d'gree room at IIn 32-iJrgre. roomi at IIn 40-degree room at
| one wieek. Iwo werks | two weeks.

n Fr.,h IW -he'ri 1 r -FFh e'hi-ih I F p r esh When
d from p ti '" Nh(-" pill in "1 h "i 2r r po. %%' hen
d I syor- score,1. *,^ ,,,,r- -<.or.,l I r ~r
I 'r OIiI .. o r s c o r v dl .
*pprig. ;ugr'.
~ igi ig 1u

oz.Lb s.oz. V. ao: Lb .o: Lb., : LV-,.oz LP. o-: Lf, o- L.bs.o Los. o.
4 19 13 19 5 11 2 19. Ix 1, 18 ,9IQ 8i IS 13 P1 9
6 19 13 19 7 19 319 12 19 1 19 119 8 18 12 l.s I0
7 19 12 19 4 18 15 19 3 18 4 18 4 19 12 18 12 18 9
4 19 6 19 1 18 15 .. ...... ......
14 19 10 19 3 18 14 14 IU 1. IS 1 I I 19I :3 18 t( Is 2
14 19 8 19 0 18 12 19 7 18 9 1S 8 819 6 18 8 P, 4
14 19 3 18 11 18 7 19 6 18 11 18 3 19 5 18 8 Is 4
14 19 9 19 1 18 12 19 10 18 15 18 13 19 11 18 15 I.4 9
0 19 9 19 3 18 12 19 7 18 11 18 8 19 11 18 14 I. II
2 19 9 19 2 19 2 19 6 18 12 18 11 19 5 18 9 1 ,,
7 19 2 18 10 18 5 19 4 18 8 18 19 6 18 10 I.
1 19 12 19 4 19 1 19 7 18 11 1810 19 9 18 14 1, II
2 19 13 19 8 19 7 19 8 18 14 18 14 19 13 19 2 1" '1)
0 19 13 19 5 19 4 19 8 18 13 18 12 19 14 19 2 I (1
2 19 12 19 2 19 0 19 11 18 14 18 14 19 9 18 13 1 11


19 7
19 12
19 12
19 13
19 6
19 6
19 7
19 13


.... ... ........
i9 19 1
19 5 19 5
19 2 19 0
19 3 18 15
19 0 18 14
19 2 19 1
19 1 18 14
19 8 19 7


........ 0 61 0 7


19 10
19 13
19 4
19 7
19 12
19 10
19 15
19 4
19 2
19 8
19 10


19 3 18 15
19 4 19 2
18 13 18 11
19 2 18 14
19 6 19 6
19 3 19 2
19 8 19 7
18 13 18 9
18 11 18 9
19 1 18 15
19 I 19 0


0 7:, 0 9


.19 11
19 11
19 1
19 12
19 8
19 11
19 13
19 5
19 3
19 8
19 8


19 4
18 15
18 6
19 6
19 1
19 5
19 6
18 15
18 13
19 2
19 0


18 14
18 12
18 4
19 6
19 1
19 1
19 4
18 12
18 11
19 0
18 14


19 13
19 13
19 2
19 9
19 15
19 10
19 9
19 16
19 1
19 2
19 11


. 0... 0 7 0 10


19 0
19 2
18 6
18 14
19 4
18 14
18 14
18 11
18 7
18 6
18 14


........ 0 12


18 14
19 0
18 4
18 13
19 3
18 13
18 13
18 8
18 4
18 4
18 14


20 1
19 11
19 1
19 6
19 13
19 12
19 12
19 8
19 5
19 8
19 10


0 13 ........


19 4 19 1
19 1 18 11
18 4 18 4
18 12 18 9
19 2 18 15
19 0 18 14
19 2 18 12
18 14 18 9
18 11 18 6
18 11 18 6
18 14 18 12


0 12 0 15I


19 13
19 11
19 6
19 9
19 12
19 10
19 13
19 0
19 10
19 11
19 10


1I
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
A ernpe
loss tio lh
lots......


18 1
18 1
17 12
18 11
18 10
18 10
18 12
18 2
18 12
18 13
18 12


19 14
19 6
19 9
19 11
19 10
19 6
19 4
19 7


19 5 19 0
18 14 18 14
19 2 19 0
19 4 18 13
19 3 19 1
18 9 18 8
18 14 18 12
19 1 18 14


0 81 0 10


1 31 -----.---





MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


With the cheese which went into storage direct from the hoop the
paraffining or weighing was not done at any particular time or stated
period after coming from the hoop. The cheese was closely observed.
and was paraffined when it had commenced to mold. The time, of
course, was longer for the cheese placed in the 32-degree room than
for that in the 40-degree room. The cheese placed direct from the
hoop into the cold rooms did not. color up as rapidly as when kept, in
the factory, hence the paraffining was delayed as long as possible.
It was thought that the paraffining might have some undesirable
effect in preventing the desired coloration in the fresh cheese. On
the other hand it was believed that the delay in paraffining, when the
cheese was kept in a cold and almost saturated atmosphere, could not
have had any bad effect other than in allowing mold to grow.
As has been stated, the influence of temperature on shrinkage is not
so important since the adoption of paraffining as it was in the begin- .
ning of cold-curing experiments. The loss of weight under the paraf-
fin is very slight, sometimes the cheese weighing as much five months
after going into storage as when first paraffined. The interesting fea-
ture of the weight of the cheese in these experiments, as given in Table
II, was the effect on the loss of holding the cheese from one to two
weeks before paraffining and storing, as was done in the regular line
of tlie experiment.
The table shows that there was an average loss of 1 pound 3 ounces
per cheese in the cheese kept in the factory curing room until thor-
outghly cured. The average loss of the cheese put direct into the cold
room from the hoops indicates that there was a greater loss in the
32-degree room than in the 40-degree room both before and after
paraffining. As the cheese was held longer in the former room before
paraffining, the greater loss during this period might be expected, but
no satisfactory explanation can be given of the greater loss after
paraffining. With thle cheese put into the cold rooms at one and two
weeks of age the 32-degree room gave less average shrinkage in both
cases. This would be thle expected result.
The most interesting feature of the results is the decided saving in
weight iby putting cheese in storage at one week of age rather than at
two weeks of age. This saying amounted to 4 ounces per cheese in the
32-degree room and 5 ounces per cheese in the 40-degree room. This,
while seemingly small, is enough of a saving to interest both makers
and dealers who handle large lots of cheese. If the weight lost before
paraffining could be added, it would be an important item, an amount
worth attempting to save if this could he done without injury to the
quality of the cheese. At the present time it is considered impossible
successfully to paraffin and store a cheese fresh from the press. Some
work has been (done along this line, but the results need further ex-
perimental demonstration. It might be said, however, that it will





SCORES OF THE CHEESE.


probably be found that cheese can be paraffined as it comes from the
hoop if it is expected to hold the cheese two months before selling.
Otherwise the cheese would not color up as desired, but would remain
a pale whitish color, which would undoubtedly injure its market price
under present, standards.
In considering the great variation in weights of individual cheeses,
as shown in Table II, many things are found which are difficult to
explain. In many cases there was no loss whatever from the time of
paraffining to the tnime of the last weighing and scoring, these dates
being from five to seven months apart. In one or two cases there was
a loss of S ounces per cheese, and in a number of cases 6 ounces were
-lost. This is a wide range, and the only explanation is that there was
a difference in the paraffining. The paraffin may be applied at a very
high temperature, in which case a very thin coating is left on the sur-
face of the cheese. This effects a saving in paraffin, and for various
reasons makes a much neater appearance. But it, appears that mold
will grow through the thin paraffin, and it is 1)robable that the thin
coat allows a considerable amount of moisture to escape. This par-
ticular point should be determined by experimental tests, as it is a
question of considerable importance. The writer hopes to get some
further information on this subject, as well as concerning the practi-
cability of paraffining cheese fresh from the press. In present practice
the temperature of paraffining tanks is not regulated in any manner.
Though nearly all cheese is paraffined, the practice is still inits infancy
and little is known about its finer points.

SCORES OF TIlE CHEESE.

As previously stated, the cheese in these experiments was scored
only once, and this scoring was done January 6. The numerical and
descriptive scores of the different judges is given in Tables III and IV.
The scores of the factory-cured cheese are shown in Table V. Table
VI gives the average total scores.







TABLE III.-Detailed numerical and descriptive scores of low-rennet cold-cured cheese.
CHEESE STORED AT 32 F.
CtHEESE STORED AT 320 F.


Numerical score.
Age o( cheese when Judge. Flav
stored. Flavor. Texture. Color. I Total. Flavor.
i -i p I


.Avi r . .

Init w ''k..... ..



Two virg, ..... .
T .%v(rI rk g- ...... .


.\ 'rrilgr . . .

l.nt 2
F re'h .............. I


11.

\.


S.
sV.


A. rtnigo ..... .. .. .

Ono werrk .. ..... I .
S.
\V

AverRge .............
I
Two weeks ......... i B.
S

Average.............
Lot 3.
Fresh............... B.
S.


lia. 'ri[ it v'. score.

Texture. Color.


F ,ri ,h .


Remarks.


2I II m 94 Tiiint. I ....... . .. i hi h h . ...... ....... Si r Lght .... ........
2'. I : 11) '12 A n . . . . . . ........
t I 1 l5 111 Il ..i .... ............... St right... .........

2I. 7 II") I0 I l

15 5 I 1r ; '5 Toiiili'l ... ....... . . holi.. .. .. ... ... Stl n ight ............
25 I'l | I dl .l. ... .. ..... ..L. 'i hii's l'n .......... ... . . . . ...
2"5 lni I f i ., .Ir.... .. .. I tla- hnl' . .. .......... .. St ra iglit .. ..........
- 25 2 1I Ill 7 '

25 14 If 5 Tiili ,I .......... ... I;. m hoh'. .................. Slightly w .vy. ......
S I) till .il ... .. ... . .. ... .. .. . .. . ..... .... .... ......
2.3 15 I ') I. H nvir. ...... . I'miI holes ... .............. t right .............

24 :s 14.. 11i 87

21.5 15 11 I 1a Clenin ................. ISm oolh ................... Strn eight .............
2 141 ) I f . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .
2 I 0 9 i liin .. . . ......... (lose, waxi ............... SI raight.............

2,4 5 15 IM 97 3
S I I I I 'li ......... ........... Sti tT........................ Si straight .............
2 .1 15I 10 ....................... .... .... . . ...............I
2..; 15 In 95 Flit .................. Close; wU xy ....... .....Straight ..............

2 :l 15 10 95 6:

2S 15 10 I o ....................... HIoles; stiff................ Straight .............
28 15 10 95 ... ...' . .. ... .. .. . ........ ...... ............ . ......
27 14 10 93 Flat................. Uoles: stiff................. Shade wavy..........
27.7 14.6.; I1I 94.6

29.5 15 10 98.5 Clean ................ Close, wavy ................ White specks........
28 15 10 95 Flat................ ............................. .. ......................







Average.....
One week..........


Average......
Two weeks.........


A\erage......
Lot 4.
Fresh.............. .


Average......

One week..........


Average......
Two weeks.........


W. 44 27 15 10 96

........ 43.3 28 3 15 10 96i.6
B. 42 2 0 i 5 96
S. 41 2'8 15 10 94
W. 44 29 15 10 i N

...... 4- 1 2 '..7 15 10 q16
B 43 29 1 S 10 97
S. 43 28 15 I 1 U i,
W 44 29 15 10 Ut) S

....... 43 3 2'< 7 15 1 10 iE7

B. 42 21. 6 5 10 %tl 5
S 41 2' 15 I10 14
\ 43 27 14 10 94

........ 42 2R. 2. 14 U 10 94 8


B.
8.
W.


B.


S.
W.

Average..............


Lot 5.
Fresh..............


Average.....
One week...........


B.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


Average...... ........


42 29.5 15 10 96.5
39 28 15 10 92
43 28 14 10 95

41.3 28.5 14.6 10 94.4
43.5 29.5 15 10 98
41 28 15 10 94
43 29 15 10 97
42.5 28.8 15 10 96.3


41.5
42
41
41.5

39
40
40


29
28
27
28
27.5
27
29


15
15
15
15
15
15
15


39.6 27.8 15


10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10


Cle an ...............


Silky, weak...............


Straight .............. Paraffined cold;
mold grew under.


................ ....... Close; w axy. ............. Straight ..............
Cl.an .. .. . . . . . .. .. ........... . . . . . . . Siright . . . ....


Clean flat ............
Flat .................
Clean...............


Stiff ......
S il . .. .. .. .. .
'Sil ky .. ... . .


..... S tra ig h t ..... ......
..... StraighI .. ..... ..


Flat........... .... Slightly wtnk, i x .. .. Si r.iighl..
..... do .......... ..... Lo ,1 .. ....... ........... .
.... do................ Waxy ......... .... .. Siraighl .


High ................ Smooth, waxy; close..... White %pvick ..
paintedd ................................... .
........................ W axy...................... Str.ighi ... .


Clean ............ Smooth; silky.............
Flat ............. Loose.....................
..... do ............... Close; waxy...............


95.5 Flat.................
95............. ..
93 Flat..................
94.5
91.5 Off flavor ............
9 2 . . .. . . . .
94 )iT flivyr. ..........

92.5


St riggli..............
...... .................|Moldy outside.
Straight............*


Smooth; waxy ............. Straight.............

Close; weak................ Straight..............


Stiff; mealy ................ Straight.............
(;ril '' ....................... .......................
Chti"-; waxy ................ Straight.............


_;;;;;;;;;;;;_:_______, __ ____:r ;= ;;_; _::____--- I







TABLE 11 .-Detailed nia ire, ,i anid it r iplitir' .core% of loai-re nnel cold-.citrd clirt -(-'ult Inued.

CHEESE STEI) .\T .10, F.-Cnntinued


I Nunitri"IlI score. Di'N'ript li',' .t o or'.
A g e o f c h pe se % h e n IN e c h. ..n.
slted. g F Flavor. Texteit- Color. fi ka Total 1lav'r. 1nIIri'. Cnl]or.
up.

Lr ', i. I
Fresh..... ..... B. 44 _9 5 15 10 4 5 c 'i .............. .. Silky: %I.\y ............. . Il'prfI'et ...............
S 4.3 2- 1.5 111 -11; F l h t . . . . ... .......
W 44 28 15 10 j 7 Ch-ain ................ SIk %......... .. ... ........ Stm n eight ..............
Average ...... ....... 4J.i 2 15 10 1 1 7.1 U
One week...........! B. 4.13 21'. 15 10 "1:.5 ChIaI] ............. . Sinmnilh: unx, ............ I'orfe tl. straight .....
S 4.1 2 15 1) i n. F in t ...... ........ .............................. .... ... .............
W 44 2'4 15 10 | IS | xl ................ W . . .......... Striilght .............
Average ...... ........ 43 .3 2 15 10 '17 1
Two %teeks ......... B. 42 2' 34 30 93 Clean.. ................ Ilols. lons. .............. Slight wav... .....
S. 42 27 14 5 10 93. 5 F Flat............ .. . ............................. .. . .............
W 42 2 14 10 94 F' lat, bitter ......... W yX. ......... ........... Straight ..............
Average............. 442 27., |4 1 III 903 5 i
Lot 7. I
Fresh .............. B. 43 5 2 5 1- 3 II 9 Cilean ............... Silky. waxv............... Straight ..............
S. 41 27 14 10 .2 F lat ...... ........... . ................. Faided ................
W 44 29 15 10 (8 Clean ................. W atxy. .................... SIraight ..............
Average.............. 42 8 28 5 14 i 10 IC'

One week........... B. 40 29 14.5 10 ,13 5 Slightly bitter; slight Mealy.. ... .................. Slightly. win'y.. .....
tainl.
S. 39 2' 14 I0 I9 Too high icii........Menly. griltt,' .............. Aciri ut. faded .....
W. 401 28 14 10 .2 Flat; acid........... Gritty, axy. .............. Fadeid slightly.......
Average............... 3 ; 27.-1 14.1 10 91.3
Two weeks......... B. 42 27.5 15 10 94 5 Slight taint.......... Gritty...................... Straight.............
S. 40 I 27 14 10 91 .............. .... .. .... ........ ..... ....... Faded ...............
W 43 28 14 10 95 Clean................. Holes: waxy ............... Slightly faded.......
Average .............. 41.6 27 5 14.3 10 93.4
Lot .
Fresh..............B. 41 28.5 15 10 94.5 Slight acid........... Smooth, stiff............... ........................


Remarks.











Iz


C




CO
I2
st








I.-
t^


]



t>
SC

l2





of
c
'. w
." +i..Jl [ 5


II





S
\'.

A venigi .. ..... .. .. .. .
A verage............

TOn week .......... B.
S.
W.



S.
\Y.

A vpernge ........... .

Lot 10.
F resh............... S.
W'.

A average ...........


One wIeek ...........


S.
W. ,


Average...... ........

Two weeks......... S.
W.

Average.............

Lot 11.
Fresh............... S.
W.

Average..............

One week ........... S.


Average...........


Two weeks.........

Average.....


41 | 2li | 1 4




40 20 14 '
39 ?4 12

39 25.', 1:3 '
40 c)", I.
40 2.) 1.3
: 29 2. i 1 -
43 25 12

40.I; 23 .3 1 .1

42 5 2' 15
4.J i 2o' 15
42 7 2,, 5 I

42 28 I 5
42 2S I

42.5 2S 14.5


10 91



Ilii (2
lu 92 2
1U i. 92
1 lJ J
1 ] )5)


10' S9


lu 89.?

101 95.51
10 I 97

lu I 9i. 2

10 95
10 1 95
10j 9.5


41 2 15 10 92
41 28 14 10 93

41 27 14.5 10 92.5

40 28 14 10 92
44 29 13 10 96


42

40
44


28.5

27
29


42 2%'


S. 42 28 15
W. 44 29 15

........ 43 28.5 15


10

10
10


94

92
97


10: 94 *i

10 95
10 98

10 96.5


Too high iu( i...... M l .........Nle l . ........... Acid cut ....... ......
.eil. 1 i, ....... .. r, 11. ... .... .. ... Fadod som e .........


N IL ( I nr, .. .........
T,, high it iil ........
A ( i . .. ... ... .. . .


Too high aicidJ .......
. .. .. I1 . .. .. . . . ..
A Id: fl ............


S tiff : mii i ...... ......... ......................
MN ilv\ ......................' Fiaded ...............
. r .... dn ..... ........... ... .. d o .. .... ..... ..


M,'alv; gritty............ ..Aeil cut; faile.l.....
M Riil ; i ........... . ... Straight ..............
Mealy, gritt .......... .. S.. lightly faded ........


r inl .. ............... L o o .se . .... ................ ....... ........ .........
CleriP i ................. Silky ....................... Straigh .......... ...


F la t..................
do................


Flat............."...
Flat; shade bitter....


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. ..
W axv ...... ......... ..... Slghriv f ., .


H oles; I "- . ......... .............. ... . ..
W axy......... ........... Slightly finl.'d .. ..


Flat................................. ........................
Clean................ Holes; silky................ Wavy................


Flat.... ............................. ........................
Clean................. Silky....................... Shade wavy..........



Clean................. Holes; waxy............... Straight..............







TABLE III.-Detailed numerical and descriptive scores of low-rennet cold-cured cheese-Continued.

CHEESE STORED AT 32 F.-Continued.


Age of cheese when Judge.
stored. udge


Liii 12
Frc.-h. .. B
S
\V.

A v'eraig ... .......
One wek ......... B.


Average ....
Two weeks........


Average ......
L.nt 13.


Fresh .............. S
O e.
A '. prnge ...... .....

One week ...........' S.


Average ..... ........
Two wee-ks........ S.


A verage.....
l.ot 14.
Fresh ..............


Average...... ........


Numerical score.


Flavor. Texture.


43.3 24.1.

.19 2S
42 27
43 2%

41 .1 27 ',


I. 4s 28 5
S 42. 27I
\. 41 29

42 .1 2S1 1


42 5 27
41 ] 27

41 7 27
41 27
4.3 27
42 27
42 27
41 21
11.5 2t 5

43 27
42 28

42.5 27.5


Descriptive score.


Color. Make- Total. Fl
up.


l15 li0 ) i ."l ) 5 ('IP,lnI. .

15 10 'i. I
S I I01 4 1 I-lit.


14 I0 ill
14 IU '*1

14 10 1 1




1 4 5 i 04
15 lii i,. 5
15 10 10'
15 lr,' 07



1.5 2 I 2



4 10 1 112
14 5 10 4
14 It| i.




14.5 II) 9.1
I. '2 10 | "%2

:4 10 I- l



14 1 10 91

14.2 10 92 2

15 10 95
15 10, 95

15 I 10 (45


avor.


Texture.


Color.


SBi tt,'r. fl.it ....... . S. irot h .............. .... \V v% ......... .
SIn t ...... . . .. ............... . ..... aI ,,f d .'... . .....
... i . . . . . II'l S. ... xy..... . ... Slightl l. f ded ........


C i il ............ .... Sni ril h ........... . .. I. Pprl t ............
.. .. .. ............. ..... F i1 d d.i ....... .........
F lail ............ ... \\ ii iy ...... . ............ . 'Fded sno ne ..........



F lu t t w,', hig hl nci ., ... ........................ ..... F ald -.'l ................
Shadle acid ........... M pily ........................ I. Shlightly bilded .......


Fliat: tr.o. high ici.. M nll .................... Fa,,.h ...............
'Clan .............. .. I ole.: waxy ............... riiaigh ..............

iri.-r E*.f~aI


F ila t .................. ............................. Iuv ................
Acid: flat: shade i.ta- Guity. .......... ........... Straight ..............
ter.


Flat ........... ..... Lo. ......................
....do................ Waxy...................... Slightly faded; wavy.


Remarks.


Not paraffined.


S l S ii r t h w' a'u .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .
. .. in nt l. w j.i \ .. .. .. .. . ?l S rnilgh .. .. .. .. .. .. .




One week ...........

A average .....

Two weeks.........


S.
'V.


A verge ...... I .. ..


Lot 15.
F resh...............


Average ......

One week...........


Average......
Two %.eekqs.........


Average......

Lot 16.
Fresh..............

Average......

One week...........


IB.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


Average.............

Two weeks......... S.
W.

Average..............


42 2 | 15 10 93 I Fin .............. ... Loose ...................... ........................
142 2 9 I 15 10 95 ...... lo ................ Holes: waxy ................ ....... .. ...... ..

S 42 2i7 i In0 94

41 i 15 1 40 2 Trio high id ........ L.iose ...... . ........... Faded ................
42 28L 15 10 45 Flut ....... .. ...... Sm month ................ Straight ........ .....

41 5 27 15 Io) 93 .


I:


4.t
12
III
43
42


40
40
42

40 6

42
40
42

S 41.3


294
2'11
2?
2S

2.S 3


27
27
28

27 6
2.3
27
29

28.1


42.5 28


40
41

40.5

39
40

39.5


27
26
205
26.5
26
25
25.5


15 1 10


15 10
15 I 10
15 10
r> I 10 ;


15
15
15

15

15
15
15'
14.5
14

14.2

14
13

13.5


10
10
10

10

10
10

10

10
10

10

10
10
10


1J>i Off l vr.r. .......... Sinonth .......... ...... .. traight..... .. . .
94 Flat ............. . .... .. .. . ........ ...........
(ii . d.. ...... ........ ( lo.-: \ .\ .. .. ..... .Sirjight . .... ..
9i 3 '

92 Tainte-'d:; orf fl.ir.. P., sl........................ Straight ..............
92 R ipp ............ . ri It. ........... .............. .. .............
95 F ?it......... .. j I,'.. w axy ................ Sti ig -hi ...... ...
41)


95 5
92
96
94.4

95
96

95.5

91.5
91
91.2

89
88

88.5


Off flavor...........
R ipe ... .. .. .
I-hi t . . ... . ...



Flat................
Clean...............I


Holes; mealy ............... Straight ..........
Tallowy............ ......................
Close; waxy; smooth...... Straigh't..............



Loose ......... ... . . ..... ... .. .
W axy....... Si r.jight .... . ..


Flat ................. Loose; mealy.............
.....do ...............I Holes; gritty..............


Tainted; too high acid
Flat ----..........-----..--..-


Holes; mealy..............
Mealy.....................


Soft rind.


rI/.
.I



P3
a
*2


Not pare Ill ned.


Faded...............
White specks; wavy.









TABLE III Dea ;il4d i, 11, ii'i ,ii a7 ri d.If I. ;p/i[ 'iOIf cl f e I .'Ii,-1' t(ngf C t) -t si r !,c (ire-.f -Cuntinued.

(- iif -ESI-E. STi : A. I' 41o 1


Age of .h,-,c Wi'" wh i
loIre,. .| IIi"


Lot I.
Fresh ....... .... .. B.
I S
\\ .

.A'Cl ig9 . ........

One week ... ...... 13
..
\V.


A t'erage.....

Two week ........


B.
S.
\V.


A erag ..... .

Lot 2.
Fresh ---- B.


Average ......

One week..........



Average ......

Two weeks........


Niiilss'rls ill .*ri i'.i

Flu\vr. jTc ture C_..'lI M ak'--
si.


in 2, 15 It, I '*l
140 1 2u I i I *I
.1 'J11 I111i i I


1 i .;,

4i :3 21i

35 25
37 Ili
* | 22

3b 21 .3


a;i

wii


41.5

4.1

43.2

41
40
42

41

42
42
4.3


Average..... ........ 42 3

Lot 3.
.Fresh-.............. B. 44


1 I I I 1) HI
II I Ill Ill)
I5 li '.5
15 10 S<
15 I1) 8i
l.- 11 Ill !il


IDit rijitri. -e..r..


Il', %l r.


'l *'\ t 1.11 1r


T i] is lt d ......... . i iii ,]i .
.. ....... .. ... 1. .
l.ow . .. .. .. . . .. .. l.i,,t<>-. hl i tr.'.


(C'.,iir,


erpnirk-.


'- I l ll t . . . . . . .
. t I i I ll ... ........


T i itpfl ........... Tiillwy gpuc liwlo' .. .. irii lit ... .. ....
. ....... . ... l t t- .... .. ......... . ...
fil fliavoi ........ . I.Ii Is I ,'-' . . .. I ti0VII ...............


2* 15 I ir '.; Tainted .............
2*-1.' 10 S7 Ovetrrpe. umtn lPd...

24 I 15 I 7 I .f . .ltt. .o .h.e.slio



Ye" | 15 Is1) | I: Mi


"2 I 15 10 94 Fl.t ............
_ 1_ I Slighly tainted .. ..

2n 15 i 10 94 Flat ...............

27.7 1.5 I 9.

2? 15 10i 95 ~ Flat .................
27 15 10 94 ...................... .
23 15 10 95 Clean.................

27.7 1li, 10 94.6


29.5 15 10 98.5 Clean ................
28 15 10 95.5 Flat.................


S- ti ; ]111 IV . . .
. .i ............




s .4 Il'i..l .h .............


. S trait 1h t ..............
. l n l lt. ... . . . . . .:
... S tl nlglill ............ .




. Straight .............


'l. 'e . .. . ... . .. . .. . .S r ii l t. ... . . ... . ..
i..-e, w \v.................S 'gh .t ..........



S tis ................... .. S tra igh t . ..........
;lilt .y ....... .... .. ............................
(Close. W axy ................ S. rn eight ............. .



Stiff ........................ Straight ..............
...... do .........................................
Holes, waxy............... Wa'y. ...............



Smooth: silky .............. Straight..............
.............................. .........................I


Itsla rind.


Bad rind.






Average ......

One week...........


Average ......

T o weeks........


Average .e....

Lot 4.
F resh ..............




Average......

One week...........


Average......

Two weeks.........


Average......

Lot 5.
Fresh..............


Average......

One week...........


W. 144 20 15 i 110 OS Clean ................. i Silky ....................... I Straight .............. Par affined cold;
--- ---- - 11 1 mold under rind.
........ 4 $.| 2S 15 10 1 97 1 .
B. 41 2( 15 l1 Q 1 Flat .............. .. ,mooth ..................... W white sppcks .........
S. 39 27 15 10 91 I'ntl.l d .......... ... inqe ...................... ............ .
W:. 43 29 1 ii 10 95 Fl.,I ...... .... ..... W x, ....... .. . .-.W hi e spe liks .. .

........ 41 28.3 14.3 10 93.6
44 29 15 10 98 ('1,'ii. lich ...... .... .................. trig t........ .....
S. 42 27 15 10 94 .. .. .. .. ..... . .li. ................. .... ..............
W 44 29 15 10 98 i liiL ... .. .. ....... \ a v . ....... ......... . iraglil ...... ... ...


B.

S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W,



B.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


Average..............


43.3 28.3 15 10 96.6

43 30 15 10 98

40 28 15 10 93
43 28 15 10 96

42 28.6 15 10 95.6


42.5 29
38 26
42 28

40.8 27.7

42 28.5
37 25
42 27

40.3 26.8

39 28
40 27
39 28

39.3 27.6

39 28.5
39 27
40 28.5

39.3 28


15
15
15

15

15
15
15

15

15
15
15

15

15
15
15

15


10 96.5
10 89
10 95

10 93.5

10 95.5
10 87
10 94

10 92.1

10 92
10 92
10 92

10 92

10 92.5
10 91
10 93.5

10 92.3


.I . .... .. .. .
.... .... .. ........
'. i i .l '. . . . . . ..


N.-I ( Itkill. gli ht [l uilt
T ai n tedI . ...... .. .
Flat.................


Flat.................
Tainted..............
Flat.................



Off flavor; tainted....
Not clean ............
Off flavor....... .....


Not clean............
Tainted.............
Flat ..................


4innn lh; silky; i.\, ...;.[ .. 1Lg Il .. .. . I' I i j ffi n1 d (41ll.
%l,,, PI"C V tiJIll J
i rllI' ] \p'el'. Iljj .


\Vn y .. ........ii......... .... .


Loo L .- .. -.. ..... .......... ........................
W axy...................... Straight..............


Mechanical holes........... ........................M ,ld
Loose; gritty...................................... li.
Loose holes; waxy ......... :,Htighl ..... ..



Smooth; close ............. Straight ..............
Gritty....................................
Close; waxy................ Straight..............


Close; stiff ................ .i II. .............
-litl '. ....... ................... ....................
a I ', w xy................ ..' ,rI. -il .............


I








TABLE I. I I.- D talih ,I nan,tr;7 oitil : '* # 1 illit,'f 'yroi .' it l to v iit iJ/u-i iil it/i il t -('o ti l tit.d.

iCH EESE STil(LED .\T 4W F -Cn,1ttrn ,'d


Lot 5-Continued.
Two, week- ........


A veroge.....

Lot 6.
Fre h ..............


Average......

One week ..........


Average ......

Two weeks ........


Avernge.....

Lot 7.
Fresh ............


A.verage...... ..

One week ...........


Average...........

Two weeks......... B.


Flivo'r. I'"x IUrP




:li 27
41 2;
111 27


*14 1 2"
.42 2;-'
-2
If -,-7

5 ?


43

4.1

14
41

42.6

42

42

42


40 29.5
40 27
41) 261;

40 27.5

3S 25
40 25
40 26

39.3 2b.3

38 26
38 25


Niilnlricn] 4c,'m

It f. ,, _


Calahr a.Zna 1" -

1' 1 T




14 Ill



14 II
lIi li1 |


2S 1 14 .3 1I

2, 11 i0
?7 11 5 I)U
2A 12 I

27. I 1 S I Ill

21) HI.' 1
2t, 11 u11
*?7 14 I,4

'27 1 1-3 11)
- -I I


I ,
14
13

I1
14
14
12

13.3

13
13


10
10)
1o

10
10
10
10

I0
10
10


,\ge 'AC 11o10.4._. It h(.'i,


'17
012 5

$41 I







'Ji 5
nil
h9

91.5

87
89
88

as

86
86


Flnz-or. T' xt liii,.



T 'ijlltel ........ .... l.n lnlr : .tiffT .........
i l ill t?'. ; t'lp p .. .. .. r ittt y. . . . . . . . . . ..
B ittpr ................ l .: w a y. .............. .




t'liiIl ............... -inn. ith. ilk '. w r W .....
F il t . . . . . . . .l . .. . . . . . . .
.. i . . . . . \V :, . . . . . . . . . .


Slightly qhaiirp: highli..
! I' l I' p r .. ... ......
RIpe .............


Clean: flat...........
lt p.... ....... .....
_ F la t ............ .....

'


C_'Irl r


S lightly I vt vw .......
S.. .r .n ...............

.Ctrfllght .............

Strain t ...... ......
SFih tly . ... .......
S*lightl. fadeid .. ... .


Inles. loowe ................ r .trrniglit ..............
I t -e ............... ... F tilp ........ .......
IoleN waxy .......... .. .. .straight ..............


l.oo'e. holes: mslv ........ straight ..............
M ealy ......... ......... Fad pd ................
Loose; m ealy. ............ Straight ..............


Flat .................. Sm ooth; w ox ........... ........................
.. d ............. M ealy. ......... ......... F aded ...............
Otl fla nvor.......... ... Silky, weak............... .-lightly faded .......


Bitter; too high arid.. Mpaly: gritty ............. Acid cut..............
. do.. d ........ .. ..... do..................... Too light; faded ......
Acid ..............I ...... o .................... Faded ...............


Slightly acidy........ Holes: mealy ............. Mottled: acid cut.....
Too high acid........ Gritty; mealy ............ Too light; acid cut....


Baully paraffined.


* -* *" *: ** ** *


"'till.



'* I ',






'it
tII


sLH K I t


IDt sc ript i '- -;c or .


II,'K r k ;.


-i


I





w.

Average .............

Lot 8.
Fresh .............. B .
S
WV.

Average ...........

One week.......... B.
S.
W.

Average.............

Two weeks. ......... B.
S..
%V

A average ...... .....

Lot 10.
Fresh .............. S.


Average..............


One week..........

Average......

Two weeks....... .


S.
W.


S.

W.


Average..............

Lot 11.
Fresh ............... S.
W.

Average..............

One week........... S.
W.

Average..............


38 26 10 10 4 I Acid: flavory........

3, 25.6 11 6 11 8-5. 2

39 A 14" 1i 9 Too high ac id........
40Wt I ] -2 |1J iu ... do ................ I
.1 21 ) 1.n3 I l 1 F( l t .. ...... ... .. .. .

1) -- - ,,13 .i P3 1 )

2! It Ii ;4 ] 1 1 :A, Id.
S 2 .5 .I |It' i ~i \ . . .. .. . . .. .. . ..
] .' I', i i 1 i.\ i' y .. . . .. .... .

32i |j 24i. 1 )


31J
39
.35

34.6


.14


22


,'1

1'.


I II *',
In :-.
1 77
10 76.2


40 27 14.5 10 91 5
43 28 11 10 i2

41.5 27.5 12.7 10 G1.7

41 27 14.5 10 92.5
42 26 11 10 89

41.5 26.5 12.6 10 -90.6

40 27 14 10 91

40 25 11 10 86

40 26 12.5 10 88.5


41
44

42.5

40
44

42


27 15 10 93
30 15 9 98

28.5 15 9.5 95.5

27 15 10 92
28 15 10 97

27.5 15 10 94.5


Tunred: to high lciil
Too ligh aCi'l ........
I-Igh ac i ...........



Off flavor............
Flat.................


Flat.................
Low.................


Flat; bitter; too high
acid.
Low.................



Flat.................
Clean................


Too high acid........
Perfect...............


Mealy. ...................... Mottled, acid cut ....



Tallowy. gritty ........... Faded ................
Mealv ........ .... ........ do ..............
.... In ...... ... ..... . I SUghtly faded .......


Mealy: gritty, close ....... .Acid rut ...... .......
NIMeu '. glritt ........... Faded ..............
(;l Lnt ".. .... ...... ....... ... ... ... d o . ......... .
.do.............
Tall,-.,v grit ty. holes: lo,.o.se Mot tled .............
Mealy., gritty ............. M. ,M lttled. fadip'l .......
Tall;.wv ................... Mottled ..............


Loose; weak..............
Waxy......................


Fadel ................ I ,Damaged under par-
F.ald 'i stIi,. ...... .. 'I iffin.


M edal. ...................... ........................
' ntt v..................... Streaked............


Gritty..................... Faded...............

.... do..................... Faded (not bright)...



H oles...............................................
Silky...................... Straight.............



Holes; silky............... Straight..............


Moldy.








TABLE III.-Detailed numerical and, descriptive scores of low-rennet cold-cured cheese-Continued.

CHEESE STORED AT 40 F.-Continued.


nntprirn1 eenrn.


Dflsriptivtl aenr'


Age n( ch'o. wlihon


Lot 11-Conlinied.
Twivo wt',k- .......


I






\V


,A %'r;ig'. .........
LoT 12.
F resh .............. S
\v

A v, rag' ...... .....

One w% .k ........... 11.
i s
\V

.\' eragc ............


Tw i 'k ...... .


.A et-rage .....
Lot 13. .
F resh ...............


B
S
'AV



S.
w.


Average............

One week....... .. S.
iW.

A average ...............
Two weeks......... S.
IV.

Ax erago .............
Lot 14.
Fresh .............. S.


Fbln '.' I ii. l'.i r. h, k ... I,. "'l l,''lI.>...r ','tr~ i.- C..]..I
r Ixt ir,' C'..h r. I iii'


42 2'' ..' In '' 'I ...I14, li l i ........... .. . ... \\',' ...
41, 2 .' 1 i 1 l in t . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .

41 27 I I I

4 S 2 Nl ". l . ... .. .. .. . .

4:3 2,3 14 Il *i.r,


41 2. l n :' t i- Ilivor. .I, '....... . ..... .................

41 27 '. 14 4 Ill 112 1.1
4l1 '1'. III ',I l' r l. v, r. i. .... .. .. ... . l.il .. . . .
41 I : i f IL vn r y . . . . . .. I .. .. ....... ..
42 2%, 14 i l HI 1''4 I i .. ..li. u .
______________________ - - I : -


41 2714 3 1 11,' ,
41 2' 1 I' 1 [I : c'uu high h, .i . -. ,il '.v ..................... ............
41 I 2 14 6' 1 l .' ch| . ......., . ... . S... . I r gl., l ... .. .

41 27 14 i lo -12

41 21- 14 In "mtl Fl'hit: ton high n, ,il .. M .Alt. ............ .... ..... F il'd ..............
41 27' 14 11' 93" F I I ............. ... li ," .\ .... . .. ...... St rntighri ........ ....



41 21,. 14 lu 91.5

40 26 14 10 c0 Flit. too high acid . Mealy. .................... Faded ................
41 26 14 10 91 Bilter: Oat.......... Uritty. ................... Straight .............

40 5 26 14 10 0 5

43 27 15 10 Q5 Flat ................. Loose... .................... .. ...........


]1'1IllI I k4


Soft rind; mold un-
der paraffin.


glf lY .: m~T, ..::m ..,; ". ,, : ~ m+ :: m,.::......... : ..................


+





W. 44 28 15

Average .............. 4.3.5 27 5 15
One week ........... S 41 27 15
W. 40 28 15

Average .............. 40 5 2.5'. 15

Two weeks......... S. 40 2i I
\V. 41 -i, 14

.\veriag ...............i 40.5 26 14.5


Lot 15.
Fresh ............


B. 38 28
S. 41 27
W. 41 29

........ 41) 2s


One neelk ..... ..... B. 36 26
S. 38 26
W. 40 28
A rlg,' .......... 38 26.6
Two %eek. ........ I B. .19 21.
S. L) 26
W. i 25
Average .............. "39 23 ',

Lot lu. i
:Fresh ... ......... S. 39 27
\. 40 25
Average ...... ........ 39.5 26

One week ........... S. 40 26
40 25
Average..... ..... 4) 2.
Two weeks......... S. 38 27
W. 40 25
Average...... ........ 39 26


15
15
15
15

15
15
15


15
I)
15
15
15i


14
15
14.5

14
14


10 7 High...............

10 9 Bitter............
!0 [>3 B itter. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...


10 v.3 Lo1 w . ... ...........


I'j 'il "l',.n ripe ....... ....
iL 1 v Low. .... ... ....


10


91


10 91 Off flavor; tainted....
10 93 Flat.................
10 95 .....do................
10) ',i; ,

10 87 Off flavor; tainted....
10 89 Overripe .............
10 93 Flavory..............
10 89.6

10 'i"0o Off flavor.............
10 91 Ripe.................
10 88 Off flavor.............
Ain P

10 90 Tainted..............
10 90 Flat.................

10 90
S 10 90 Tainted..............
S 10 89 Flat.................


I I !,n s', ", '

14 10 89
14 10 89

14 10 89


I P. f=#


Tallowy; gritty........... Straight .............
Mealy; gritty.............. ........................
Close; tallowy ............ trniigti ... .....


Weak ......................


Faded...............
Straight.............


Mealy..................... Faded...............
..... do..................... hltin l, faded .......


Tainted ............. ........................... Faded................
Il I t ........ Mealy ..................... Si,-litl faded.......


NOTE.-Lot 1 stored at 32 and lot 1 stored at 40 F. came from the same vat, and the same is true of all other lots with the same numeral. This is also true with
regard to the table of high-rennet cheese.


W axy ......................



W ax ..ly .....................


.......................
i......................



Smooth...................
L oose ......................
Close; w axy ...............


Tallnw'y; gritty ...........
iriLt ,'. ...... ...... .. ........
CIow-; uaxy...............


Straight..............



Sraigt........................,



Sightliy lided .......



Straight .............
Sl iiigh lyi fade .. .. .. .....



Stai ghti . . . ..
urizght .............


6 t r iIg h I......... ..
...ri, gh t.. .........








Tr.BLE IV -Dfi to ileI ni ti n-al oail t,(r-i pl6i' scot s of h gh-terinfl rold-ricut, chlice'e.

C'I:I SE SI '1 It E1) .\ 32' F.


Age of (.hero' w% li zi g
sti rr.l ih .


Lot I. .
Fresh.........-... .


A v irtge ...... .....

One week...........1 B
S
W.

A vPeraigi ...... ......

Two weks. ......... R.
S
'\.-


NImui rt'nt] -eior

Fl~ l ,n ,,r T ,,. il i r ,' lo r k," T ..ln ].


42 1 ..
*1J [ "' ];) ii *I i
42 r 2 1i Ip ,"
44 2,M 14 II f('.

42 *1 2m .1 14 i III t15 I
".9l 2ti .5 l1 fI f2 '
40 2 5 1> I5l ': '. I
-In 28 14 111 1,'2
.10 2 i. 27 1 14 1. i'l !| D 'I

2 73i I II !i.1
41 2 I 111 i '92
41 2X IJ 1I1 I",


Av'ratge ........ ... 41 27.,'


Lot 2
Fresh............. B.
S
V.

Avrirage ............


Ono week..........


Average ......

Two weeks.........


Average......

Lot 3.
Fresh ...............


11.

w.
S.



B.
W.


41 5 2!.-I
42 2,$
43 21


IA ~t4 I.


lift
I,'


10
10
10


42 8 2,M 5 15 10 i"1 1
42 2$i 1I 10 i.i;
41 27 15 I0 9i
43 2k 15 10 i,1

42 2 15 10 95

41 2$ 5 15 10 94.5
40 21i 15 A10 1
43 28 15 10 9

41 3 27 5 15 I 10 938


42 29 14 10 05
41 27 15 10 93


IDse r i ptvc t r.r.
F~a\'or "rext turc.


Flit .. ... Simiooth. a" xv. holes, loose.
F li t lItm t r ..... ... . . ........
C li'lii ... .. ... il ky. .......................


'IIii in l l .......... ,S i oolh loost..............
Ript- .. ..... .. Swiqs holps Inos'.. ........
OiT fla vor. .. .... Swiss hole's; wax',' ........


hlli til llti'J .... '

Flit ... ... .... '...



Flint ......... .......
..... d o . . . . . ..
t li ................


Color.


S t r ighlit .............

Sir. iik' i, ftlil saome


Si ro eight ............

S t ri-a kvil ........ ....


lIlol' .tilt ... ..... .. .... Straight .... ......
Swiss holes. loo1t. .............................
I ;il. holt's, wal xv ......... .. St r eight ............


Sninoth. silky.....


.. Straight ....... .....


Close:; W ixy. ............... Straight ........... .


Slight iaini t .......... G ritty: holes; stilt......... St right .............
R ipe .................. V ei k ....................... ............ .... .
F it ........... ...... lose; waxy................ .. Straight ............


Slightly tainted.....
Ripe: bitter.........
Flat .................




Bitter...............
Flat .................


Mealv: loose ..............
Loose: weak..............
Loose: holes ..............


Straight...........

Straight .............


Loose; waxy.............. Faded................
............................. .................. ..... I Bad rind.


-a, i a i. ....... ...::.. .. .


Rema rks.







Average.....
One week ..........


Average......
Two weeks ........


B.
S.



B. i
P.
W.


Average...... .......
Lot 5.
Fresh ............. B.


Average........
One week .........


A v'erage........
Two % ve k. S ........


B.
S.


W.


S.


Average.............. .....
Lot...... .
Fresh............... B.


Average........

Two weeks.........


B.
S.
W.


Average...... ........


14 10 94 Flat, r .. itter .. 'xy ....................
14.3 10 91

15 10 94 Slight tuint .......... Gr itty .............. .......
15 10 1 1 Tarnted ... .. .... Loose......................
I 1 10 94 F lat ................. WV a xy .....................

14 1, 10 '1 I
141.5 1 9)1 .3 I T aint,'d; bitter ...... .% 1M %.l ......................
14 10 7 . d o . ... ... ... d o . .. ................
13 10 92 Sorime latlcr ... ..... Lono c., ,' ...............

13.8 10 90.1

15 10 97 CI 'ii, flat............ Smooth; weak............
15 10 9 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
15 10 97 i Clari ... ............. C loi .', w .: .. ........
15 10 96.3
] in i Tiinit, i. notI. cl,'kn. Smooth. waxy............
15 I1n 4i1 5 Not ci.in, Ht ....... Loose.................
15 .... 10 95 | 'I..in .......... Sm ooth; close..............

15 10 94.6

15 10 94 Tainted; not clean... Mechanical holes; smooth;
waxy.
15 10 92 Not clean ............. Loose.......... ......
15 10 94 Flat .................. Loose; hole-. .\ ......

15 10 93.3


11 10
15 10
8 10

11.3 10

11 10
12 10
8 10
10.3 10


88 Tainted; bitter.......
90 Very bitter...........
86 Shade bitter..........

88
85 Tainted; bitter.......
87 .....do................
82 Flavory; bitter......
84.5


. d o . . . . . . . .
Fa'.kd some .........



Straight............

Straight ...........


Straight . . ......

Straight..............


White specks........

Striig ht .... . .. .


Tallowy4 pasty............ Mottled..............
Loose...........................do ...do ............
Loose; pasty .............. .....do..............


Tallowy; pasty; loose..... Mottled.............
Weak ..........-_ _.. ..do................
Pasty; loose ................d.....do................


Faded some.........


Straight .............

Too light ............


Faded ...............


i.







TABLE IV.-Detailed numerical and descriptive scores of l,;,l,-r, ran i cold-cured cheese-C- 'nt inued.

k 1 1 E F '. ;4 I' l 1 l1 1 1 1 1 : 2 -' I ,' , l i t , I


I N iiI, rit l -I'ire,
A g e I' l I(t i- ,r rIt , I--- - -
-" **ln[ l' F Il, l,,i." "1" \ l r, n' lIr l ; ; ,,, ,1
!M I,


Li,, 7

Al h v. .a g.... .
OnFre % k...........

On.' wcuk ..........



A V111'9g0. . ..
Two weeks ........


A ver'igo ......
Lot 8.
Fresh ..............


A verage......
One week...........


A verage......
Two weeks........


Average ......
Lot 9.
Fresh..............


1I 4 1 1 h :' h, l l h h -. ri lh. it i\ '," . ". . lrStr Lght. .
42 2,.- 5 I ') 1 ; l- i t i .i tlir . ..... .. ... .
W\ H 11 1 all. I .. . Stii'gh .
\V. I| 2 I | LII n, i'l,.n~l . .. . (t, ....'.a. '... . . .. .. . 'tr ~ight .
.. .. -I: I 2.', >, 14 H hn '.ni. ,. "
4' 1 2 14''. Ill 1'.
S 42 2-4 III Fl.it ...... .. ..... S'.,ininth: i ,i x ........... Stright ... .. .... .
.It 2 I 1 ) [1. .. ............ . L. .n ......... .. ...... ....
42 2iF,t,. ripC ..... Ili-. ..kvdor smooth Straigrt.
\V. 42 2 S I II ',4 Fh lit. gh pt t ............ioth: -. ilk '.,r. o h .. Straight .... ... ....
0 1 I l .it 4 t \ H . . . . . . . .
B. 22 45 'n. 1.5 fI in '.1 i Slight tltint Smo .... '? ioth; I,',,,!.; x\l.IXV ... Strilight .........
4. 41 27 1 Ill . L,-rm .......... .. . ". "
\V. 42 29 14 1 I) 9' | FIlat ....... ......... lo t- else. ,inn th; : ilky S righ t .. . .
...... 41 i 2 14 W i 4 S$
I _
1B. 44 15 I2 .'.') I. ,Pain. high .. . .. ,i o o h, ilkv; wax . Stra gnt .. . . ..
S 4.3 5 2 4.5 1.5 I 7 .. .. .. . L . s .......... .. .... ... . .. .. ....
\V. 14 29 15 In ;.i U'h.ii rip- ..... lo -t silky ........ . [ Siraight .... .......
........ 4.3 2 1 I 0 7 ,
B. 43 5 29 5 15 10 i 1| Clt'a i: high... ..... Smooth, Ilk. iky x',. .. .w. x Str eight: white spr-cks
S. 42 2. 5 4 l n .,I3 Fil .... . ... Loo. .. .... . ....... . ... W white specks .... ..
W 43 2x 12 Il 'i.i Cli ivin t ..... .......... Close. w'nx .............. ..W hite speck lied d.
........ 42 1 2q 1 I, l1 1 4.8'
B. 43 5 29.5 15 10 98 Clean: high ........... Smooth: silky ............. Straight.............
S 43 28 i 10 9 ............ ..... .............. ....... ... ....
W. 43 29 15 0 97 Clean.................Close; waxy................Straight .............
....... 43.1 28.8 15 10 97

B. 41 28.5 14 10 93.5 Flat; bitter.......... Loose: waxy; silky........ .............. .....
S. 41 27 14 10 92 Flat .................. Weak....................... Faded................


I x [iir .


Ri.1n.i I k':.


D[)-,i Iinplln *(.nrn.


A'nillm .







.% %'eriageo......
One week..........


Average......
Two weeks .........



A v'ero gn......

Lot 10.
Fresh..............


Average...... ........
Two weeks......... B.
S.
W.
Average...... ........
Lot 11.
Fresh.............. B.
S.
W.
Average...... ........
One week........... B.
S.
W.
Average..............
Two weeks......... B.


Average...... ........


W. 43 28 13 10
........ .U 417 13. 6 10
B. 4 29 14.5 10
S. J3 2.. 13 IO
10 28 10 10

....... -9 3 27 12.5 10
R 36 28 15 10'
S. ., -24 13 10

\V. 40 2,s 13 10
. ...... 7 t 1 10


(_ 4 I Flat; ripe ............
93 2
93.5 Tainted ...............
87 .. d o . . ..... .... .
59 Bitter...............

89.4
89 Tainted..............
83 Tainted. l1itiur, too
high rei'J.


91
--7 .


39 26.5 15 10 90.5
41 26 15 10 92
43 25 15 10 93

41 25.8 15 10 91.8
38 29 15 10 92
40 27 15 10 92
39 28 15 10 92
-9 2, s 15 10 ,2

43.5 30 15 10 98.5
40 27 14 10 91
42 26 14 10 92
41.8 27.6 14.3 10 93.8
43.5 29.5 15 10 98
40.5 27 14.5 10 92
42 27 14 10 93

42 27.8 14.5 10 94.3
41 29.5 15 10 95.5
36 30 15 10 91
40 26 14 10 90
39 28.5 14.6 10 92.2


Acid; bitter..........


W axy. ..................... .i Slightly faded ........


Loose ........ ............ Straight ..............
MI alN ........ ........ Ton ligtit. faded . . .1
\ V ).: .x .' ... . . . . .. . F ad e d . . . . . . . .


Pasty; watery.............
Mealy.....................
Waxy.....................


Tainted............. Pasty; weak...............
. ... . .. . .. ... 1 .. 1 1" .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
('h ,l h .... .... ....... R ip:'. clor; w axy. ...........


Tainted ............. Smooth; close; waxy.....
Ripe .............. Weak..... ...
O flavor ............ Clot. xy. ......


Not clean ............
Flat.................
..... do ................
.do.............


Flat..............


Tainted; whey flavor.
Tainted; ripe.........
Off flavor............


Mottklel, faded; acid
cut; too light
Slightly fui, l ........



Si ruigh t . .. .. .. .

S t ri ig n t .. .. .. . ... 'i
Straight...........

Straight ...... ,
,. .. . ..l
lo o lih tn ......... .


Smoot n; silky .............. Straight .....


Smooth; close; meaty.


Smooth; silky.............

Close; ripe; silky...........


Smooth; waxy.............
W eak......................
Close; ripe; smooth........


Straight.............


Straight.-...........
Straight...........


Perfect..............
Faded...............
St ra igh t .. ..........


Not paraffined.


I








TABLE IV.-Detadilt nrivic ical itJ descriplive scores of hiyh-rtnnet cold-cured cheewe-'unlinued.

L'IE. ESE SI'T MlE D A 1' 31" F.-Conti'wld.

Nliiintrict l s,,r r D scriptive stor'.


Iftik' W

I In
11.1 !17

IU !H.

10 ill


10 'i12
Ill !4t


in 92
in fit)
IfW 85i


Fli % -r.


Tcxltir.


Color. I Remarks.


Nut qotll l'hini .. .... e'i'rfrct. siniooth. silk Perfoet ............... I
i'ln t . . . .. . W k. ... .. . . ............. . ........... Not parai fl'ied.
(-h .+ ..... ........... C'lo.l. m eatly, silky........ Strnight .............


Slight lv lbitr r ........ Smniooth. win x .... ....... I'Perfct .............. .
T l i ei d ............... WW rt k ....... .. ........... ..... . . .. .. .
if flavor. lint ....... Close, rm eiilv. silk ........ .Struight ..............


OiffIT fl[ vor. tInintrld .. Iit yl; w a.l k ............... Strl eight ..............
Tninled ........ ... W eli k. ............... F di dcid ......... ....
Oil llpior: ovtrrip,.. Clos.. wi'xv ................ St right ....... .... .


CHEESE ST(IRED F. AT 410' F.


Lot 1.
Fresh ...............


Average......
One week..........


Average......

Two weeks........


B.
S.
W.


B
S.
W.


42
41
44

42.3

40
41
42

41

43
40
43


29
27
28

2'8
29
2S.4
2s

28

28
25
27


Average.............


15 to l l O,
15 1 0 I113
lb 10 97

15 101 95.3
S14 10 92
I 10 94
14 10 94
14 3 1 0 93.3
15 1o 9 )
ls 10 go
15 10 95

6 15 10 93.6


Fluil: clenn ........... Sm oo th ....................
F la t ................. L o o se . ... ... ... ..........
Clh ,in................. I W axy ......................


Straight............. Thick paraffin.
Straight...... ....... Cold paraffin; bad
rind.


Not clean........ ... Loose; gritty ............. \ ....nvy ............
FI, t : bitter . .. ... ......................... . .....................
.u........... jutl w................. .I flult, 5pt. .....I-


Flat ..................
Flat: bitter..........
Flat ..................


Gritty; holes; loose.........
Loose......................
Large mechanical holes;
waxy.


tiV U I L ghtK. .........


Straight.............

Straight= ..............


I


.... .Uo ................ niLeisa, W a V ...............


42 26.





Lot 2.
Fresh............ B.
S.
W.

Average .... ........


One week.......... B. 3I 25 14.3 Ill .1-.5
S. 37 -'5 "i in 87
W. 40 27 14 10 qI

Ave rig 39 1. 21, >I 14 5 |
Two ,eek,..... ..... B. 39 2- 15 10 "'
S. s39 2' 14 10 i ,
W. 42 27 15 101 *,

AverT.gi ... .... 40 2 Ii .I ._
Lot3 -
Fresh .... .... B. 38 28.5 15 10 "1 51
SS. 38 27 15 10 '"J
W. 42 28 15 10 'i |

Average...... ........ 39.3 27.8 15 10 1- _'1
One week.......... B. 35 28 15 10' I
S. 37 20 15 10. .*
W. 40 27 15 10 '!I2

Average.............. 37 3 2- 1 It IJ '


.S4 2 14 10 A
3F' 21 15 10 90
40 2n 14 10 90
:9 2' 14.3 10 9 3


Two weeks.........


Average......
Lot 5.
Fresh..............


Average......

One week...........



Average......


B.
S.
W.



B.
S.
W.


B.
S.
W.


37
37
42
38.6

42.5
42.5
43

42.6

40

40
42
40.0


29
26
28
28.3

29
28
28

28.3

27.5

27
27
27.2


15
15
14

14.6

15
15
15

15
15

15
15
15


10
10
10

10

10
10
10

10

10

10
10
10


.-I I
*" I
',4



iji.,.
95.
96

90.

92..
92
94

92.:


.''h ,l'[ [.|Ih I I.1 r . .. .
Sr-lii t 1 I- i '.
Hip, r inn.. .....
R l i pir tlit .


5, J:'h t, .. ... .... ......
5 t.....do...............
.....do ...............


5 Bitter; ihpliil% taint-
ed.
Tainted......
Flavory....... ....

8


SStill .. . Trnight ....
.1 M (-. I I
.W M x-..h ................. .........
\V\ x~' [ . .. . . . .. . l', d-' .. l h'l- '. . .. .. .. .



S ntooli, a.y. ............ Stight il..............
SLoose ..........................................
SClose; smooth.............. Stranightli ..............


Smooth; waxy............. St iagh . .......

i',,J... t',, h..............i ii i ,g t .... .........
S ij .i i' i. . . . . .. .. 1 tira ig ri t . .. .. . .. .. .


Tainted; bitter...... Mealy; gritty; weak........ Slightly wary........
Tainted .............. W eak ....................... e d ....... .........
Bitter ................ Loose ...................... Slightly faded .......


Sharp; Itininrd ....... Gritty. holes; s itl" .......... Slightly w 'v .. ... ..
Rip, ltainited. hitter W vak; lii.sr- ... ........... F Iaded .... ........ .I
OuI luvor ........... ClIrse. gritty; %iIX.' ........ Slightly I hl d ........


B I r: I.iiiE ,l ....... L u iu p\: hlil w 1.1>,< ...... Sitr ight ... ...... .
'li] ]]r: I r i. I 1. T i plim % : ,a k '. Fit. I .ii -I ... ........ ....I
Fl'o .I ... .. .... .. C n- gri: tY, a ........ St. iigh I .. ......... I



Tait .i l r ..... Stiff ........ .. ............ Strnghl ... ........ .
Tiiint,.. .nl...... i ....... ................. .. .. ... .... ....
H'lit .... ..... .'.. \\. x\ .'..... . ..'..i l.... r.j i'ghl ... ... ... . indpouron aIc ounli
~: ii paruffin.


"P 1 ...... .. ... .. L ooriri ,i" g rilty ...... ..... S traig h t .. .. ..
"'i.itiidt ; I' . ... I1 M .l . . .. .. . .. ........ .. . .. ....
O il lplivor; r inc.l .. VW ix'y St riin'ir .... . .







TABLE I'V.-Dttiled niume n, l acll -I it-C, ilii.'i ,coie. of h iglh-renncr coid-crircl cheew -Cont inued.

CIHEESE S'lIF I) .\T 40 F.--Coituinul.


Age r



Lot
Two %





Fresh




One v




Two


Nuimfe ricail sio rr-.
)fe-ii r when '--
lri.l en i lg .Make- 7nt,,I. 1
storrd. Finvor. Taxtiire. tilar. M. i


'i-Cont fnne.lI
x ......... R. 41 2. I ,
5. 41 |S1,1 10 92
W 41 2 7 1 1(1 I.i
Average ...... ........ 41 27 150 I -J. I

Lit 6.
............... B 3 ; 10 10 I' ,
S 36 21. 1 i) in .,2
I "' ,' ,
'. '4 7 10
A .vrage. .............. 27 25 9 1 in 1 ,I .1

reek........... B. 3i '21 10 00 '
S. 37 12 1
\ 40 S_ 10 ',2
A average ...... ........ 37.1.. 25 10 10 ,2 .i.

weeks ......... B. ,; I I 10 _2. ',
S. 3i 2 I I 10 %4
W 40 ., S 10 I "4


Average..........


.. 38., 25 10 10


-4 2


Lot 7. 1
Fresh .............. B. 42 2Q 5 15 10 9. 5
S. I 41 2, 15 in 04
i W. 42 29 15 10 9u

Average...... ....... 41.6 28 S 1510 95.5
One week......... B, 43.5 295 15 10 9S
S. 42 2 15 10 95
W. 43 29 15 10 97

Average.............. 42.8 28.8 15 10 g9u.G
Two weeks......... B. 39 I 29 15 10 93
S. 42 28 15 10 95


lOrscripli' a* scnrire.


Fli v>.r.


Slight taint. n. ot a Itain
la f. Itvi. ...........


rextliir


Color.


M t'Ily Ioi ,,. . .... ...... . St right .. ..... ..
L.o n ;'.. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .
L, s .i', ,il\y .............. Straight .. .. ......


laintf l .............. Pisty; wr,.ak ......... ... M. il lhed ............
S..... .......... W 'en k ........ ............... M o t tlr i. hu .....
Fl'v r\'. ............. i 1'a- .. ......... ........ Mot lpd ............


Trainni il. litt r .. ....
. ln . . . . . . . .
Fl'lavory. ...........


T.in tt d. .litt er .....
. ..no ...............
B it l t r.. ..............


PastyI ; taillowy. ...........
W eii k .....................
' Pasts; tallowy. ... .......


i Pastqv : tullowy. ...........
W ee k ..... ..... ..........
Pasty: tEllowy..........


I


Starter ............... Smooth: silkv; waxy
Flait .................... ......... .
.. do ................ Silky close ..........


M ot tled ......... ...
.. do. ...............
. . ili .... . ...........


M bottled ......... ...
Mottled. iaded......
M ot tled ............


..... Stra igh t .......... ..
.. ..........Straight ............
....... S tra ig h t ............


Clenn. high ......... Smooth; stiff............... Straight.............
Flat ................. . .. ....... .. ................. .
..... do ............... Close; waxy............... Straight..............


Tainted ............. Stiff; loose ................. Straight ........ ...
Ripe ................... ........ .................. ............... ......


R nia r k i.


... ........ ... .. ... .:. .. .. ...... ..... .i. :. .. ... . . .. .. .. ...... .... .. ...: . :. .. . . . ..







Average ..............


Lot 8.
Fresh ...............


Average......
On- week ..........


Average ......

Two weeks.........


Average......


B.
S.
W.



B.
S
\V.


B
$.
\V.


Lot 9.
Fresh.............. B.
w.

A average ..............

One week........... B.
S.
W.

Average..............
Two weeks......... B.
S.
W.
Average...........


Lot 10.
Fresh..............


Average......


B.
S.
W.


42 29 15 10 96 Flat ................ Close; silky. ...............| Straight..............
41 2S.6 15 10 |94

44 29.5 15 ]0 9S 5 Clean ................ Smooth: waxy, ............. Straight ..............
43 21 5 15 t0 q,5'........................5
43 29 15 l0 97 Clean, ripe .......... 'loew. silky.. ................ Straight ..............
4,1 .3 29 15 I 10 17.3
43 5 29 5 145 "a l,'i .1 H igh ....... ......... L ooso ............. ...... . Slightly waxry ........
42 27 15 j I 94 ............. ..... .. .. ..................... ............... . ...
43 27 14 III '4 Flj ................ % xv...................... F.. d d som ei' ..........
42.-8 27 8 14 5 Il i 95..2
42 i 29.5 15 IO 9n i Ch.I,,n ............... . Sm ooth, .x,' .. .. ... . straightt ..............
41 27 15 l 9- I R i-[,.r l itt,-r ...... .. L oosr ... ... . . .. ........ .. ...
4.3 2i 15 10 t 9. Ripr: ckl i ........ I Cls w xy. ...... ....... i.trught ..............
42 2-.3 15 1'I 93.3


40 27
40 26
42 27
40 ; 2( r

37 28
39 25
41 27

39 26.6
37 24
39 25
42 27
39.3 25.3

42 29
39 26
44 29
41.6 28


14 10 91 Flat .................. Pasty; loose ......... .
13 10 89 .....do ...... ..... M ealy....................
13 10 92 .....do ........ Waxy.... ..... .
13.3 10 90 G
14 10 89 7 Too high ,ri'l, bitter.. Tallowy....................
13 10 87 ..... do --- Mealy................ Ma .
13 10 91 Bitter ...............Mealy; tallowy..........
13.3 10 89

12 10 83 Tainted.............. Gritty; loose...........
13 10 87 Tonhigh-;ii.. bith r.. Gritty; mealy..............
13 10 91 Flat..... .... ... .. Gritty......................
12.6 10 87.2

15 10 96 Not quite clean....... Past......................
14 10 89 Ripe................ Weak..... ... ...............
15 10 98 Clean................ Close; silky................
14.6 10 94.3


Sightly a '. .......
l'oo l[ ht... .. ..... ...
. . . .. . . . .


Slighi', wavy........
V'no ligot, faded......
Too light.............


Wavy ...............
Too light. t.,a1 ....
T oo light .............



Sitr: ght ..... .......
Faded...............
Straluip i .............







TABLE IV.-Detailed numerical and descriptive scores of high-rennet cold-cured cheese-Continued.

CHEESE STORED AT 40 F.-Continued.


Age of cheese when Jd
stored. Judge.


Lot 10-Continued.
One week..........


Average......
Two weeks........


Average.....
Lot 11.
Fresh..............


Average.....
One week ...........


Ige......


B.
S.
W.


B.
5.
W.


B.
S.
W.


Numerical score.

Flavor. Texture. Color.


39 26
42 27
39.3 26.3
37 25
40 25
42 26

39.6 25.3


40
40
41
40.3


29
27
28
28


10
14
14
14.3
14
15
14
14.3

15
14
14

14.3


lake- Total.
up. I


1U
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10


88
89
93


'86
90
92
89.3

94
91
93
92.6


40.5 29.5 15 10 95
36 25- 14 10 85
40 27 14 10 91
38.8 27.2 14.3 10 90.3
38 27 14 10 89
39 29 15 10 93
40 27 14 10 91


Descriptive score.


Flavor.


Texture.


Off flavor; tainted.... Tallowy; holes; pasty......
Tainted .............. Pasty; weak..............
Flat................ Pasty; loose...............


Off flavor; tainted.... Tallowy; holes; pasty......
Tainted; ripe ......... Weak; pasty..............
Flat................. I Loose; pasty...............


Color.


Straight.............
Faded...........
Straight.............


Wavy...............
Straight..............


Tainted; old milk..... I Smooth; waxy............ Straight..............
Tainted; bitter....... Weak....................... Faded................
Bitter ................ Close; ripe; silky ........... Straight..............


Whey flavor; old milk.
Tainted; bitter.......
Off flavor............


Tainted..............
..... do................
Off flavor.............


Smooth; waxy ......... Straight..............
Weak ..................... Faded................
Close; ripe; smooth.... .... Straight..............


Gritty; weak .............. Faded................
Holes; mealy ............... White specks ........
Close; smooth .............. Straight..............


Remarks.


Rind poor.


JOJ





One week..........


Average......

Two weeks.........



Average......


B. 38 29.5 1 15 10 92.5 Tainted; blitter. ax...... xy ............... Straight..............
S3 26 I' 5 10 Tr ll Tainti cl .............. W eak .... ................... Faded ................
"W 40 2| 7 1 10 92 Off flavor........... Close: slky ............... Straight ..............
"3S. I1S In 1 1

B. 37 28 1 10 i T-orj high iarid, tainted Pasqty ..................... ,Straight..............
S. 3 21, i 5 10i S T wantedd ............. k k . Fail,I . ... ......
\V. 39 2*s 15 10 ''2 |O l flavor ............. I'ls silky .. .......... ruLgii ..............
. 376 7 131 ,
37I 6 -17 3






MANUFACTITRE AND CURING OF CHEESE.


TABLE V.-Scores of cheese cured in factory.

LOW RENNET.


Mu le- Ttal. Flavor of cheese. Texture.
up.

10 82 Sveet, heated....... Gritty; Swiss holes.
in 79 lTaintvd ............ Stiff, mealy; loose.
10 79 ..i) ..do ............... Do.
10 SO Old milk........... Gritty; mechanical holes.
10 T'I'dinted ............ Stiff, mealy.
10 Cl'. T' ir intei, dirty ....... Gri tty: loose.
10 71 Acid, ltainited ....... Tallowy; loose.
0 81 Acid ...... .......... Mealy.
10 MI Tainted, iEter ..... Smooth; close.
10 I inti ed.............. Sail v; gritty.
10 t] 'Clean ................ G ritty: loose.
10 K7. Ilealed ............... Salvy: close.
u10 .1 W e. edy ............... Do.
10 87 . ...... ...... ...... ... M ealy: dry.
10 %u W eedy. .......... ....' Dry, mealy.


Lot.

I..
2.
3...
4.
h.
7 ...






.3..
5...


7i...
12
II..
10.

I.
13.

15. .
lr. .







1...
3.


8..
9...
I0.
II..
12.


24 15 10
28 15 10
24 15' 10
29i IS1 10
27'. I 10
27 15 0
214' I tO'10
22 15 10'
27, 15 10
245 15 10t
21" 15 10 i
I 1


b6 Tainted .............. I Salvy. gritty, loose.
t3j HeatLed.............. Std. close.
82 I'ainteri .............. Pa.,ty, loose.
9t5i C'lan ........ ... .... W axy; close.
9.1 ........................ D ry; m echanical boles.
95 ............. .......... I Sm ooth; mechanical holes.
94 .lightly tbitter .. ..... W axy.
77 .cld. hitter .......... Tallo 'y.
94.1 Clran ................ Mechafdical holes.
87h Iitter ................ Loose.
97 I Clean ............. ... Close.


TABL.E VI.-A,'erayte oial scure.s qt'che s by lots.

LOW REN.NET.


3.
4.





12
I ............


I -.. .
I I . . .
12 . .
13.
14 . .
I ."> . . . . .
| ll . . .


In 32?-d-
gre' reoin

hoops.

. . '.'. 0
I7 .5

'ii n
.. tl 5
J97 1
t*o, 0
-2 .2
41, 2
91 0
. 9-2 0

95 n
t956


In 40-dc- In 32-de- I in 40-dc- In 32-de-
gr-i? room gro,' room green room gree room
from at one, at one at two
hoops \eeek. % cek. weeks.

9l 11 7.9 8a1 7 87 0
ls 5 91 3 93 7 91 t'
97 913.0 93 I, 97.0
9.5 94 4 93 9t 3
92 .I 92.5 92 3 ...........
(15 5 97.1 94 I 9.3 5
11 5 91 3 8S 1e 93 4
i, 8| 9 0 N 0 s9 2
91 7 95 0 E90 92 5
94 5 94 5 9l 5 91).5
95 5 9 99U? t, 95 5
9? 0 93 0 1i11 5 92 ?
unl 0 Ni4 ( 93 0 9. 5
9's 1 3.J.0 i I. i4 1
.9U 0 912 2 5 e 5


. vc.r:g, ... )iS lt 94 3+ 93 8+ 90 0


HIGH RENNET.


I.1 0+


i In 10-de-
gree room
at two
weeks.

86.0
94.6
96 6
92 1
91 5
W3.3
85 2
7N 2
885
93.0
92.3
90 5
,19.b I
S 89 0

90


. . . . .. .
2 .... .. ...... .
3 ...............

7 . . . . . . .
10..
S...... ... .. .
............. ..
II............
12 ................


95 3
96 3
94.0
9b .1
8s 0
(It, 6
97.
93 7
91 8
43 8
96.0l


91 5
95 0
93 0
94 6.

94 5
94 8
89 4

94.3
91 3


93 3
89 8 1
89 3
92 8
82. 1
9% 6
95.2
89 0
900
90 I
t'l I


Avrage..... 94.4+ 92 3 93.4 I 90 3 91 b
i II


93.6 86.0
91 6 93.5
91.0 82.0
93.0 96.5
84.2 93.0
94.6 95.0
95.3 94.0
87.2 77.0
89 3 94.5
91 0 87.5
900 97 0

90.9 940.5


Fla-
%or.

:34
34
34
3.-i

2"
21,.
'34

.1;
42
1.5
35
Jt


Tex-
I U r-.

2.1
20

20

22


21)



21
21
21?


Color.


15
15

15
15
15
15
15
15
1.5
15
15
15
IS
IS
I51
I5
1.5
IS'
i,5
I.5


111GH RENNET.


37
401
.33
42k
4l)i
424
41
30
424
3,'!
43


Cured at
factory.


82.0
79. 0
79.0
80.0
81.5
69.0
71.0
81.0
81.0
88.0
91.5
87.5
83.0
87.0
80.0

81.4




COLD CURING AND ACID CHEESE.


As shown by the general average in Table VI, the cheese put in the
32-degree room direct from the hoop gave tile highest score, though the
score was very little higher than that for the cheese placed in the
40-degree room at the same time. (f the lots of cheese placed in the
cold rooms at 1 and 2 weeks of age, the 32-degree lot shows an advan-
tage very marked in thle low-rennet series and not quite- so marked in
the high-rennet series.
In the scores for thle individual lots a number of cases are found
where the cheese held in the 40-degree room is given the higher score.
In lot 10 of the high-reninet cheese the cheese placed i -.mnediately in
the 40-degree room scored on an average 2.5 points higher than thlie
cheese placed in the 32-degree room. In a few other caes there was a
difference of 2 points in favor of the 40-degree roo'nm. It will be noted
that. lot 10, to which attention is called, scored very evenly all the way
through, getting a very good score on the cheese cured in the factory
curing room. This was true in every other case where thle cheese held
at 40 F. scored as high as that kept at 32 F.
On the other hand, there were some instances of wide variation in
scores in favor of the 32-degree temperature. As an example, lot 7,
low-rennet cheese, 2 weeks of age at time of scoring, shows a variation
of 8 points in favor -f the 32-degree room. Lot S. lowv-rennet cheese,
shows a variation all the wav through. In looking at T;;ble III in tlie
descriptive score for these lots, we find that taints developed in the
cheese kept out of the cold rooms for one and two week.-, which dlid not
show in the cheese placed at once in the cold room. Further, after
these taints had once started to develop, it would certainly appear that
the 32-degree temperature served much better to hold them in check
than the 40-degree temperature. These points are illustrated and
emphasized in many instances in the descriptive score. The influence
of the colder temperature seemed about equal on flavor and texture.
The greatest beneficial influence of cold curing is with what would
otherwise be poor cheese. Because of this fact Tables III and IV are
much more interesting and show more valuable information than the
table of average results. Cold curing derives its value chiefly from its
effect, on what might otherwise be poor cheese rather than from any
effect it may have in bettering all cheese.

COLD CURING AND ACID CHEESE.
Perhaps the most interesting feature brought out in all this work is
shown in the descriptive scores of lots 7 and 8, low rennet, and lot 9,
high rennet. These three lots were allowed to develop too much acid
in the process of making, and under ordinary conditions of placing in
storage at 2 weeks of age lot 8 would have been a "dead sour." The
cheese held in the factory two weeks and placed in the 40-degree room
was much deteriorated, while the one that went fresh from the press to
30624-No. 85-06--5




1101
6(6 MANUFACrURE AND CURING OF CHEESE. 4

the 32-degree room was very good. It was evident that with this lot
of cheese the 32-degree temperature checked the acid much better than
the 41-degree temperature. It has been generally believed by dealers !
that a cheese with too much acid should be kept out of storage as long
as convenie.it, as acid has been supposed to develop more and cause
greater injury to thle cheese by going early into the cold storage. It
would appear from thle results with the three lots mentioned that the
quicker an acid cheese can be placed in cold storage and the colder the
room the better the cheese will be. This is a very important subject
with the dealers, for this question of acid is the principal obstacle to
thle buying of cheese I) the dealer as it comes from the hoop. Fur-
thee investi-ation of this point is needed, and will be undertaken in the
near future.
VAi'.IATIN. IN SCORES OF THE DIFFERENT JUDGES.

Some explanation i- needed of the wide variation of scores as given
by different judges. The separate scores of each of the three judgesare
indicated by thle initials of their names-B. (.Baer), S.(Steinhoff), and
W.(Whi te ).
As before mentioned, Mr. Baer represented the experimental side,
while the other two judges were commercial men. Mr. Baer's scores,
therefore, naturally presented a miuch wider variation than those of
the other judges. He took off more for faults. A condition which was
not anticipated was found in the tendency of Mr. Steinhoff to mark
down the cheese that had been held in the factory for two weeks before
curing, because, as he said, it had too high a flavor for the English
market. Thi. chee.-c had barely commenced to develop a good cheese
flavor, and had not become hliarp in the least. The other two judges
were inclined to favor it because of the characteristics which Mr.
Steinhoff condemned. The view taken by Mr. Steinhoff was some-
thing of a siirpri-e, as it was generally understood that the English
people were lovers of cheese with a well-developed, even sharp, flavor.
Mr. Steinhoff said that the English demand for milder cheese was
growing v.erN rapidly. If this continues, ;t is only a matter of a very
few years until all cheese, if ripened at all, will have to go through the
ripening process under conditions of temperature that will entirely
suppress flavor developmentt.
As has been stated, the demand for mild cheese has grown by leaps
and bounds in this country until it has become possible to dispose of
cheese to consumers under two weeks from the time it leaves the press.
We do not care to enter into any discussion of the desirability of this
popular taste. It would certainly appear to most people who eat
cheese because they love it that this tendency is wrong and can have
no beneficial effect in the increased use of cheese as a regular part of
the diet.




RELATION OF GREEN CURD TO CURED CHEESE.


There has been some reason to believe that the consumption of green
cheese was due to the fact that such a product was forced on the con-
sumer by the dealers and retailers, so a test was determined on.
Arrangements were made with one of the retail dealers in the market at
Washington, D1). C.. to sell three kindsof cheese as an experiment. One
lot was under 2 weeksof age and to all appearance had not broken down
in thlie least. Another lot had been ripened froimi the hoop in a 32-degree
temperature and was well broken down but almost without flavor.
The third lot had been carried in the factory curing room and then held
in a 40-degree room for several months. It was t lie cheese which Mr.
Steinhoff criticised as being too strong for the English market, but
which w'as highly praised by the other judges. These three cheeses
were exposed for sale in two different markets. samples from all three
lots being placed side Iby side and customers asked to select. In one
stall S customers selected the green cheese, 24 selected the mild cold-
cured cheese, and 11 selected the cheese with t lie well-developed flavor.
At the other stall 30 selected the green, uncure(l cheese. 29 selected the
mild, well-cured cheese, and 11 selected the cheese with the marked
flavor. It would appear from this that the mild cheese, either cured
or uncured, was preferred by most buyers.
The writer has no conmmnent to make on this except to repeat that
from all indications the time is soon coniming when all cheese, if
ripened at all, must be ripened at low temperatures: and, further,
the sooner it is put into cold storage the better.

RELATION OF GREEN CU'RD TO CURED CHEESE.

Some interest attaches to the quest ion of how much thequality of the
ripened cheese depends upon the quality of the curd during the pro-
cess of making. It has been usually considered that any undesirable
quality likely to he found in the ripened cheese will first appear in the
curd sometime during the process of making. IIIn other words, a
faulty or tainted curd makes a poor cheese: o)r. vice versa, a good curd
makes a good cheese. Many cheese makers in selecting a cheese for
exhibition make the selection by the character of the curd. Lots 12,
14, and 16 (low rennet I anti lot -I (high rennet i in Table I were tainted.
The descriptive score shows that lot 12 scored unusually high, lot 14
was about as good, while lot 16 was not a bad cheese. Lot 16 was
tainted at the time of scoring, but the other two were not, and had
evidently not been influenced by the taint which appeared in the
curd. Lot 9 of the high-rennet series turned out to be bitter, but the
cheese which went direct into the 32-degree room from the hoop was a
very fine cheese, evidently above all criticism.
On the other hand, lots 6 and 13 (low rennet ) are marked as very fine
curds, as are lots 10, 11, and 12 (high rennet 1. Lot 6 scored very well,
but the others did not score as high as might have been expected.




68 MANUFACTURE AND CURING OF CHEESE. I

EFFECT OF EXTRA RENNET. "

The advisability of using extra quantities of rennet has not yet been.:./
S determined. It was found that the cheese broke down faster with..
high rennet, but this fact has been demonstrated before. Theoret-
ically, where the supply and demand make it necessary to use very
young cheese, anything that will hasten the ripening process would
be desirable. There is reason to doubt whether this would pay in.
practice. With regard to the comparative keeping qualities of the
high and low rennet cheese, it was stated by the Wisconsin Station
that in its experiments the high-rennet cheese deteriorated in quality
much quicker than that made with normal rennet. This was not .
found to be true of the cheese made for the experiments of the Dairy
Division. In these experiments it was found, on the other hand, that
while the high-rennet cheese broke down in a much shorter period of
time than the normal rennet cheese, it. held its good qualities fully as
long if not longer than the low-rennet cheese. From the scores of the
factory-cured cheese it might appear that additional rennet aided the
cheese in some way to withstand the warm temperature of the factory
curing room.







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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II ll3 1262 08928 7535l1 1
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