Market milk investigations

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Market milk investigations
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Uncontrolled:
Milk and cream exhibit at the National Dairy Show, 1906
Physical Description:
21 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lane, Clarence Bronson, 1870-1929
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cream   ( lcsh )
Milk -- Quality   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Clarence B. Lane.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613088
oclc - 22357212
System ID:
AA00018905:00001

Full Text























M...




VISZ
ar







.ii











q.-





17J, A
i;-.. 7







ee










.- U ,j ^.,, L .. Jf., l.y n .. .. "" -." .. ... *.- .:: .'t i ;--.'.'t :-M
j r. Ape- ... ....

A~-1 Prba~. ariu4m
YV *!.fD
;Qw firune Di4 o 'a W. fUKK&NS, .. 7.
'. Rdjr, ,u M;e$j 7 O.....
", _- ; ** ..., .*nia .', ,, a. Xoim ; .... ..AB....,r ..M ^



Bioemica Ditiuion:M J N t*,o efi M-;- ^
4 ..4 . ........ ".L"




S Zoological Dlviuieiv BtVnrfb H.. If.
' ; 1- .: ** *. r .^ ..."'> '- ;" f
*- .. ; .. :,x .9. ).. "__, :.. 'r wi ....r,^'^ : "'"







4- & Q; EBC.nH~ownB,Baporat n~eat W. ktn^ 4
S: oH. --. ,' .. .

. & .* . t ., : . ,; ". .. . ...


Arkatnsas Sty, rl-DrjBWRe.HX W 4Maic, il" e, B
.nebiwr.y 4c& Co. I ., w/ P
Austin, Mint-Dr. X. 0. A.deron, 6m GeoreB 3' M
A. Ho.mel &Co. ;.i..
altimore, N -Dr. .. H e.i. ,....
Blozln~o U-Dr. Fref~ti Braj~lintou. 4- o:rL
Continetal Packing 1ozay .': euk .1F.
Boston M W.-Dr. J. k pe aAA e8t1 i-q' h O iA il* t
"Mrhtood',Mww.-Dr.W.'9. ftifpb. field ProviL on . , ..I...p:
Buffalo. T.-Dr. B. P. Wed, Live "tk-J4x. NO York, *. r '
cheangoBuildbig.EatBu lO, B l.e.. 1 e.
Cedar pids, Iowa.-Dr. TT A. ShIp.eyc.e. OfKt ACit .-
Sii. &Co. 4 -" P. *bo.XI .... 2,
Chicago, II. -Dr 5' enetti, ".room 4.6 R Ot oi..
: c eI B .- onSG '* V "'
S inl ati., Oho: A. ... i
Vul Olo%-r. B. v. A*N
Da.,-n '-ftt,;u
lLnd PTairision C oip pan ., "-o..'.o S0,
Daveport, owa--Dr. MLe. lBeer n, e-s are Heny. an E.
Kphre Packing OdZWBby.t. : -, 2
Deiver. Ooio.4-Dr. W. E. LaeM Weter- Qi5 l-r
MO1Des*4cnr* tF6.P Btl)Rr.+7;6z
D e* d Pki C on-m n. iu" \' :os *". :. -' hM
Doi- Uotu, s"le.-D-I . h. tet Mille/ t-j..j. .Aoz'p ; o-,.J i
Agar Packing (2A=-, 4 : %: *O.lpmii y^t".
Detoit, Micb .-Dr. L. !. r sene u *,4W Deg., Pb-t M) ,
Sta ndistB &Co. '.. ." ''. .. ".
'4.4 C.l W .- W B .D e. t -er e lrte.
o,. d Brothrau. Y,.
Fort Worth, Te.-Dr. A. K walref Lm.e-, ow,
%&Co. j .-p 4
Hfntqnsbn, flKaa-Dr. Jt K takeg~a
eSVer; Oolo4-D .'W, f .. B. C ,'n;&We ...F.
Hutqhin C ompackiny. Cmpa y.' .. .
Dmam Cnesli, nld.-ir,. IE. C. 9ee l eat ,
Ai* OckL UOi.ge T" .4
Js Cityb Yromp d,. i All pn

L-' Auogp, C -ehr.. m el, .ce h
USCO "A M "- ;



Packing Company. o>y.'W,. -
ouisvi lle y t .-Dr..pa. H.'H o , SW .C V
Mankato. ManL. Dr t ," r..
Gardner.
"Mazalliown. Wo DwD4 .
o.i.tamn & Co." ..'
Mason ,-i b .-,a. b eZbet, Mjanr eC* K. .
o .JeaIt ..--._...,,,I,,. .,o-
'444 : i "' ~ ",.
Decker& o, ie-r. .7Z Ar. l.e!~e] btl
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ M W.W, `Eer. .:" x '
~~~~~~~~ OR Mahltwlol. r.a.Q. -ete
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .0 "fif- i... "'" ..





Property of the United States GovernmentL

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY -BULLETIN No. 87.
A. D ME1 VIN, CmIF OF B.,REAL




MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.






II.-THE MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT THE

NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW, 1906.



BY
CLARENCE B. LANE, B. S..
Assislani Chief of Dair. Division, Bur'eiuo o" Animal Ilidustpi'.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1906





*." *- .* * 1 q ":



~ I



:i
MM..

.4








ORGANIZATION OF THE DAIRY DIVISION.


ADMINISTRATION.
CThief: Ed. H. Webster.
,Assi.Cant chiff- C. B. Lane.
.4As.istant: Win. Hart Dexter.
SCIENTIFIC STAFF.

Butter inrc4igation.: Chief, in charge: C. E. Gray, chemist and experimental maker;
C. W. Fryhofer, assistant: E. A. McDonald, W. S. Smarzo, W. J. Crcdicott, market -
inspect ors.
Market milk investigations. A.,sistant chief, in charge: R. H. Shaw, chemist; George M.
Whitaker, assistant.
Cher.e inrflttation.r': C. F. Doane, in charge. American varieties. John L. Sammis, chem-
ist: .lay W. More. expert maker. European varieties: Charles Thorn, mycologist;
Arthur W. Dox, chemist. T. W. Issajeff, expert maker.
Southern dairy.y ince-.iqtilonix. B. H. Rawl, in charge: H. N. Slater, Duncan Stuart, J. A
Conover, S. E. Barnes, J. W. Ridgeway, J. E. Don-nan, assistants
Building anti tfanagerent in'',igtitni B. D. White, in charge: G. H. Parks, architect. ,
Dairy laboratories: C. E. Gray, chemist: L. A. Rogers, bacteriological chemist.
INSPECTION STAFF.

Rinovated buttfrjictorie'. M. W. Lang, 510 Northwestern Building, Chicago, ill., in charge.
Renovated butter market', : Levi Wells, Laceyville, Pa., in charge.
In rpirtors: Robert McAdam, 510 Northwestern Building, Chicago, Ill.;: George M. Whitaker,
Washington. D. C.; E. A. McDonald, Seattle, Wash.
Depuly inptctor.-: S B Willis, Boston, Mass.; R. A. McBride, J. H. Barrett, 6 Harrison
street, New York, N. Y.
2









:C".






..i!



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Waishington, D. C., Jdu- 16, 11906.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit the accompanying manuscript
entitled "The Milk and Cream Exhibit at the National Dairy Show,
1906," by Clarence B. Lane, assistant chief of the Dairy Division of
this Bureau, and to recommend its publication as a bulletin in the
series of the Bureau.
This milk and cream competition, which was under the direction of
the Dairy Division, was a new departure in connection with dairy
shows in this country, and the very satisfactory outcome warrants a
wide dissemination of the data obtained. The practical results are
calculated to be of great educational value to our dairymen and
farmers, as they emphasize the importance of sanitary conditions-, and
methods in the production of milk.
Respectfully, A. D. MELVIN,
(tiq' n Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.

















INTRODUCTION.


This bulletin is the second in a series on Market Milk Investiga-
titns. The first number, which was not given the general title now
adopted for this series, is Bulletin No. 73, "The Bacteria of Pasteur-
eU riand unpasteurized Milk," by L. A. Rogers. The work to be
reported i this series will consist of investigations in the problems
involved in the handling of market milk from production to con-
sumption. It is the intention to confine the series to original research
work by members of the Dairy Division or under its direction.
The present bulletin treats of an experiment in scoring or judging
the valueof market milk and cream as conducted by Mr. C. B. Lane,
Assistant Chief of the Dairy Division, at. the National Dairy Show,
Chicago, in February. 1906. An attempt was made to determine
ways and means of giving fair and accurate score in this class of
dairy prudtwts. Butter, cheese, and other products have been for
years judged as to their quality in contests and on the market, a
numerical score being given' to indicate their value. This bulletin
treats of the methods used in the Chicato test, with lessons learned
from the course of the %\ ork.
Much credit should be given to the officers ol the National Dairy
Show Association and to the Chicago Board of Health for the interest
shown and the assistance rendered in making the test a success.
ED. H. WEBSTER,
('hiej' ,,Drliry Division..
























CONTENTS.

P iC
Int rod u cto r .v ... .. .. .. .. ...... .... .......... ...... .... .. ......... . .... 7
C lassiicK'ation of the exhibit-; ................................................. 7
C o n d it io n s o f en try ..... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .S
Scoring: tlhe milk and creimn ...... .......................................... 9
Judges and expert-r ....................................... ....... ... 9
S co re c irds ... ... ..... ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... . .. 9
T ests fo r fl a v o r. ....... .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . I I
T ests fo r chem ical i zu ulit ics ....... ......... .................... ...... ... 12
T est.s fo r keep ing qit ilities . . ........ ............... .. ............. 12
Appea-amce of package.< nnd content,. ...... .... .. .. ... 12
Scores ......................................... ... ..... ........ 1 4
T he aw ards i:i ('lis I--vertilied m ilk .......................................... 17
Condiltiors under which the certified mnilk winning the gold niednl wMa- producrild. 17
Description of the dairn producing the t certified milk %lich % on the il'.ver inedild. 17
T he awards in Class Il-m a rket m ilk ..................................... .... .IS
Conditions under %%hihi the market milk reei' ing thie gild nruidal i a. produice. IS
Description (if the dair-y thich produced the market milk rinniiig the %ilv,-r
m e d a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
T hre adw rds in Class I II- crvani ........................................ ..... 19
Conditions, under % hiih t lihe crenm retiring tiw 1 pi., iip I gol d n ed I %i1 'producr-fl 20
L esson s fnini ih e r o n te -t ..... .... .... .. .. .... ...... .... .. .... .... .. .... .. 2"1
The keeping qualities of sanitary" m ilk .......... .. ...................... 20
Superiority of re;tilied over i nirk t ilk . .. . ... ............... 20
Sanitary methods more important thin brIeed of cuuw-...... ................. 21





:j





A .














ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
PL% I: 1. Fig. I.-Some of the shipping cases containing samples of milk and cream.
Fig. 2. A good shipping case ..................................... 12
2. Fig 1.-Styles f L'ottles in ClI-i I-certified milk. Fig. 2.-Styles of bot-
tles in (.'lass 11- m market m ilk...................................... 12
3. Interior of stable where certified milk winning gold medal was produced ... 18
4. Fig 1-Interior of dair- house where market milk receiving gold medal
was handled. Fig 2 -Some of the tot% which produced market milk
receiving gold m edal............................................. 18
6










Ni
!:i


j..t
















THE MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT THE NATIONAL
DAIRY SHOW, 1906.


INTRODUCTORY.
Like many other features of the National Dairy Show held at
Chicago, Ill.. February 15-24, 1006, the milk and cream exhibit was
designed to be educational in its scope and to show some of the
possibilities in the handling and keeping of these products. The
handling of dairy products is of greater importance to the health of
the people consuming them than the production. The mot indif-
ferent dairy farmer can produce milk and cream, but it requires
knowledge and skill to handle them properly.
For a number of years the National ('reamerv Buttermakers'
Association, as well as State dairy associations, have called for ex-
hibits of butter and cheese at their annual gatherings and offered
medals and diplomas for those products receiving the highest scores.
It seemed very proper, therefore, that the milk producer should
have an opportunity to exhibit his product and have it scored in a
similar way. The National Dairy Show at Chicago seemed to offer a
most. excellent opportunity for such an exhibit, hence the Dairy
Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry secured space and called
for exhibits of milk and cream from all dairymen throughout the
country who could be reached through the medium of the dairy
papers and by means of press bulletins.
Much interest was exhibited in the contest from the start and
applications for entry came from many sections of the country, the
most distant points being Massachusetts on the east, Maryland nn the
south, and Kansas on the west. Thirteen States were represented
in all.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE EXHIBITS.
The exhibits were divided into three classes, as follows:
Class I. Certified milk.-This comprised all milk sold under a guar-
anty as to its purity, chemical composition, and bacterial content,
most milk of this class being produced by expert dairymen in various
localities under the direction of the local milk commissions.








8 MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.

Class II. Alarket milk.-A large percentage of the milk supply of
our cities was covered by this class, which of course included all milk
that is not sold under any guaranty as to its character.
Class III. Cr(ain'.-This was to be sweet cream, unpasteurized and
free from preservatives. In fact it was specified that none of the
products should be pasteurized. Pasteurized products were not
included, principally because the work was more in the nature of an
experiment and it was thought best not to include too many classes
in the first attempt.

CONDITIONS OF ENTRY.

Separate entry blanks were prepared for each class, but, as they
were all quite similar, only one-that for market milk-is presented
here.

INati-'nil P.,rvr Show. Milk an'.L crek-arim pclinn. undr r the direction nf thP Dairy Division. Bureau of
Anirnlu lndul rv I. '.. Pp rparimint of Agriculture 1
"FFICI..AL ENTRY BLANK
MARLHKET MILK 1C;LSS III
P 0. address.
Date ,- 1906.
E St OENDORF. Chicaqo. Ill.
.Serr tay, .\'ation,l Dairil Shou A.-isowiation:
Ple,j- eInter for me 12 quarts of milk to compete for prizes offered by the association at
Cini'api. Ill February 1.5-2-1, 1.406. in accordance with the conditions herein prescribed.
i Signed I -- -
Rul'- i Exhibitors can rmanke only OIne enter This must include 12 quarts of milk in
t1olitl' iuquart, or pint-) placed in a box .-uitabljle fur shipping. (2'i The milk tobe the prop-
,-rv of tlhe- as-sciation. ,3i Every exhibitor is required to fill out and sign the following
'ert hint'ale
1. hereby certify that the milk entered in this competition is a fair sample
if the prod'ut sold b)v me, that it i. free from preservative.s, and ihat it has not been pas-
teurized or stierihized. I further state that I du not claim oradvertise to produce "certified"
Milk
i Signed i __
i Proprietor -----
iOigned in mv presence-
Thle above must be signed bv the proprietor, secretary, or manager, and a disinterested
party.
J.As. A. WALKER, President.
E. SUDENDORF, Secretary.
HOW TO COMPETE.

Milk. to ompete for prize-;., mnIlt be sent by express from station nearest the producer,
dirf-cI ti. E. Suidendorf. tecretary, National Dairy Show Association, care Chicago Cold
Storage and Warehouse Company, Sixteenth street and Indiana avenue, Chicago, Ill., and
express rr-,.cipt must accompany entry blank. Express charges on exhibits must be prepaid
to destination.
The package should be iced and carefully wrapped, the shipping tag plainly addressed,
on outside: also card tacked on box inside the wrapping, plainly giving sender's name and
address. so as to avoid mistakes in identif3-ing packages.





MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. V

In order that the milk entered by the exhibitors may be of the same age when scored, it is
hereby specified that it shall be drawn from the cows February 12 and shipped by express
as soon thereafter as possible.
The secretary or his representative will be on hand to take charge of milk on its arrival
and will see that it is properly cared for.
It is desirable that the package be plainly marked in some way giving the name of the
exhibitor, and that thle bottles, caps, etc., be such as are u-ed in the regular trade, thus giv-
ing an individuality to each exhibit. It is also desired, if possible, that a photograph of
either the interior or exterior of your dairy barn or dairy house accompany the application
for use in the exhibit.
Only these official entry Ilanks furnished by the secretary will be accepted.
QUESTIONS TO BE .ANSWERED B EXHIBITORS.
1. Give date and hour this milk was drawn from the cow:
2. Give date and hour thi- milk %%a- delivered to the express corilpany.:-
3. Does this inlk fairly represent the average product of your herd in quialityv and clean-
lines, I
4. How was the milk treated from the timnie it was drawn front the cow until shipped?

Remark.:

SCORING THE MILK AND CREAM.

The idea of scoring milk and cream on a basis similar to that used
for butter, and having score cards giving a certain number of points
for flavor, composition, and bacterial content, is entirely new, but
this plan was carried out in the present instance with most satis-
factory results. In fact, much less difficulty was experienced by
the judges in deciding upon the various points than was anticipated.
As already stated, all the milk and cream entered in this contest was
produced on February 12 and was packed in ice and shipped to a
cold-storage house in ('hicago. The scoring was done February 15,
when the product was three days old.

JUDGES AND EXPERTS.

It was planned at the outset to give the products exhibited the
most careful and rigid examination possible on all points, so that
the final results would he beyond question. The judges were C. B.
Lane, assistant chief of the Dairy Division; W. A. Stocking, jr.,
bacteriologist, Storrs Experiment Station, and Ivan C. Weld, in-
structor in dairying, New Hampshire College. In addition to the
judges, two experts from the Dairy Division were employed to make
tests, namely, C. E. Gray, chemist, and L. A. Rogers, bacteriologist.

SCORE CARDS.

The score cards used in each class are presented herewith. While
some minor changes would probably be made if the work were
repeated, in general it may be said that they were satisfactory to all
concerned.
1883-No. 87-06-- 2







10 MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.

INational Dairy Show. Chicago. II.. February 15-24, 1906.]

MILK .JUDGING---CLASS I (CERTIFIED MILK).

'Undr the lirction of thr Dairy Division. Bureau of Animal Industry. U. S Department of Agri-
culture
Score lhr urple marked ............................................

NUMERICAL SCORE.

General condition and
I'.'rfhtt. 100 Ia Chemical qualh- Keeping qualities, appearance of pack-
pnIn s. Flaor. 40 points tips. 40 point .30 points age and contents, 10
points.

S c-r, r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .


D)ae- -- .1900. Initials of Judge:
DESCRIPTIVE SCORE.
it('heck as found blow i
General condition
.rijnr Cht-mial qualitiesp. Keeping qualities, and appearance
of package and
contents.

Pe rit-i Perlect. Perfect. Perfect.
Bittpr Fat 1-clow amount guaranlCeeJ Bac-leria exceed guarantee. Sediment.
\etIl% Toldl ohids Ilelo% amount Objectionable bacteria Unattractive.
gudranlited
Ga rln. Ex-essive acid.
SilagP -our.
Cou


[National Dairy. Show Chiragn. III.. February 15-24. 1906 I

MILK JltDUINUG-CL.SS. II (MARKET MILK')

I'nJ.-r the lirt tion ,I the Dairy Division Burpa.u ol Animal Industry. I'. S. Department of Agri-
culture
S.cori tAr san ple mnk,.d...........................................

NL MERICA.L SCORE.

General condition and
I'f-ri-tt IW Fi'or. 1 i Chemital quali- Keeping qualities, appearance of pack-
pini, fdor. l t-ins 25 points. 25 points age and contents. 10
points.

S c ri r . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Date. -- 1906 Initials or, Judge: --
DESCRIPTIVE SCORE
iCheck as found below. i
General condition
Flior Chemical qualilipes. Keeping qualities. and appearance
of package and
contents.

P rtf,-c t Prfect Perfect. Perfect.
BIt t-r. Fat Ix-low 3.2) percent. Bacteria exc-ed 100.000 per c. r. Sediment.
Wc-edy. Total solid, below 12 percent. Objectionable bacteria U'nattrvctive.
'a rl(. Excessive arid.
Silagr. Sour.

Cow.;y







MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 11

[National Dairy Show. Chicago. Ill Fi-hrtary 15-24. 1901",

CREAM .1t'DGING-CLASS III.

Under the dinvr'tion '-.I[ the Dairy Diision. Bureau of Aninial Induqtry. It. S. Dppartmpnt of .\gri-
cull ure.
Score.for .amiiple marked: ............................................
NU'MERIC.AL SCORE.

P G ne general eonditlr' r nnd
F o0. 4 p4int chemical qualh- Keeping qualities, i appranri .ic" of pack-
pointt. vo. Ie p2in 0 prints 25 points age rnrd contilt 4. 15
io point s.

S c o re . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. ... . . . . .. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .
.. . . .


Date: --- 1906.


Initials o(if judge: --


DESCRIPTIVE SCORE
i'heck a- found Ii'low i


Fla vor.


Chemical quahlitie.


Perfect. Prrflct.
Bad odor. Wide variation from guaran-
teed percentage of fat
Bitter.
Fat
Weedy.
Solid not art.
Garlic. Total solids
Silage.
Cowy.


General e,,ndition
Keeping quahtiri,. an apparnce
of packag, and
contentt.

Perfect. PIrii't.
Exct'-iv, inirlier of li ha teria F rotl'y.
Oijecli onjl.l bacteria. Lumpy.
Exctes i,' acHe. Srdillprnt.
Sour. Un'ia t t racttve


TESTS FOR FLAVOR.

Flavor was given the most points on the score card in all three
classes for the reason that it was considered the most important.
Unpalatable milk or cream is of practically no value as an article of
food; on the other hand, if these products contain a low percentage
of fat or solids not fat or an excessive number of bacteria anti still
have a good flavor, they may be utilized, and, in fact, miure or less
milk and cream of this character is used. Hence we see that flavor
is of the first importance.
Before making the tests the samples of milk were heated in a
water bath to a temperature of about 100 F. This heating seemed
to bring out objectionable flavors in a more marked degree than
when the milk was cold, although tests were made of both the cold
and warmn milk. Tests for flavor in the cream samples were made
in a similar manner. If one has never collected a promiscuou-i lot
of samples and made tests of this character, he will he surprised how
easily off-flavors may be detected and how much the quality of the
flavor, so to speak, varies. Some of the samples tested seemed to






MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.


be almost entirely lacking in flavor, while others had a rich, pleasant
flavor and aroma. :
TESTS FOR CHEMICAL QUALITIES.
Thile following remarks are by C. E. Gray, who made the chemnical..I
tests:i
The acidity ol the milk and cream was determined by "Mann's test," the butter fat b1
the Babcock method, and solids not fat by the lactometer. In addition to these analyew:
all samples were tested for formaldehyde by Ilehner's method. None of this preservative.
could be detected in any of the samples. All samples were tested for pasteurization hg
Staok's method. From this test it could not be determined conclusively that any of th4
amrnples had been pasteurized. .:
TESTS FOR KEEPING QUALITIES.
IL. A. Roger., who performed the bacteriological work, remarks a
follows: ":
All plates were made with ordinary 2 per cent lactose gelatin and with dilutions varying..
from -", c. c. to c;, c. c. The counts were made after five days, excepting when the:::.1
rapid growth of liquifying colonies made an earlier count necessary. In some cases it waa.:'
evident from the acidity of the milk that the colonies of the lactic-acid bacteria had not."!
developed at the time the bacteria on the plates were counted.
It is unsafe to generalize from the limited data obtained in this manner. However,i.;.
many of the producers of these milks demonstrated that milk with a low bacterial content..
can be secured without the expensive apparatus usually found in the so-called sanitary
dairies. Those who understand and observe the fundamental rules of cleanliness in the..
stable, where the great contamination of milk occurs, have little difficulty in producing
milk with good keeping qualities.
/
APPEARANCE OF PACKAGES AND CONTENTS.
It is of interest to note the different, styles of shipping cases in:1:
which the exhibits were sent (see pl. 1, fig. 1). Some were very neat:
(see pi. 1, fig. 2), and this goes a good way in selling milk. Many of:;
them were made entirely of wood, others had a galvanized-iron case':
inside of a wooden box. All of the samples were heavily iced.
While only a few points were allowed on the score card for the:
appearance of the package and contents, this phase of the scoring is
considered of sufficient importance to call for special attention.
There is no excuse for the presence of dirt or sediment of any kind in"
milk or cream; it is an indication that it comes from an unclean dairy.
Wherever such was found by the judges, six points were deducted,
and several bottles were always examined to make sure that this'
criticism could justly be made on the whole shipment. Aside from..i
sediment, the general appearance and neatness of the package- was !"
considered. Sometimes the caps fitted very poorly and in one or-
two instances tin tops were used, the latter not being desirable from .
a sanitary standpoint. In the case of the certified milk a number.::
of styles of caps, coverings, and methods of sealing were presented,:.,
some of which were very attractive.






BUL, No. 87, B. A. 1. PLATE 1.


Ri..- STE.
I b .- J:r/ oji ::: ...",2


FIG. 1.-SOME OF THE SHIPPING CASES CONTAINING SAMPLES OF MILK AND CREAM.


FIG. 2.-A GOOD SHIPPING CASE.











BUL. No. 87, B. A. I.


FIG. 1.-STYLES OF BOTTLES IN CLASS I-CERTIFIED MILK.


FIG. 2.-STYLES OF BOTTLES IN CLASS 11-MARKET MILK.
(See description in text, page 13.)


PLATE 2.








MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 13

A few samples of bottles and coverings are shown in plate 2, a brief
description of which is as folows: Counting from left to right of figure
1-certified milk-the top of the first bottle has an outside covering
of thin paper fastened with an elastic band; on this covering are
stamped the words "Certified milk" and tile name of the dairy.
This covering prevents dust from reaching the inner cap: the latter,
which fits tightly into the top of the bottle, is the ordinary paper
pup cap commonly used for milk bottles. The tops of the second
and third bottles are neatly covered with tin foil, under which were
ordinary paper caps covered with about one-eighth inch of paraffin.
The tin foil and paraffin make the finish more expensive, but they
are more satisfactory to the customer, and, altogether, these two
bottles present the most attractive appearance. In addition to tlhe
above precautions the second bottle is fastened with a wire and lead
seal. The fourth and fifth bottles are also covered with tin foil, but
are not as attractive as the two just described, for the reason that the
foil extends down too far on the bottle and looks ragged. These
bottles have no paraffin under the foil, simply a plain capl. Tlhe
last bottle to the right ihas a piece of thin rubber cloth fastened over
the top with an elastic band: this keeps out all water and dust, but
it is not very attractive. It will be noted that while the six bottles
all hold the same amount of milk, there is quite a difference in their
height, some having a short neck and others a tall slim neck, which
makes the cream appear to have greater volume.
Turning to figure 2-market milk---we have quite a contrast in
the style of bottles presented. Counting Trom the left, the first,
third, and fourth are ordinary types of market milk bottles having
ordinary caps. In the case of the first, however, about one-eighth
of an inch of paraffin is illed in over the cap, making it air-tight and
dust proof. The second bottle differs from the others in having tlhe
neck marked off in rings, indicating the number of ounces of cream
on the top of the bottle. The fifth and sixth bottles have tin tops
in addition to paper caps. This style of top is not considered sani-
tary and is gradually disappearing from the milk trade.








14 MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.:.


SCORES. "


The numerical and descriptive scores are given in the following

tables:

.'uiin,:rical ,.'orua ,if th4 eihibdis of certified milk, market milk, ard cream.

CLASS I-CERTIFIED MILK.


Flavor Chemical
perfect 401 qualities
( 40 perfect 20
potsi I points'.


. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 3 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . :3 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . I 3 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5
. .. . . . .. . 3 1


20!
20
20
20,
20
20
20


I General
I condition
Keeping I and ap-
pea ra nee4
qualities pckg Total
(perfect .30 score.
pit, and con-
Pointsi.
tents (per-;
Sfeet 10l
points).

30 10 96
30 10 95
ab20 10 87
30 10 98
30 10, 97
30 10' 95
30 10 954


CLASS II-MARKET MILK.


Sample No.


Flavor
(perfect 40
points


0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
262 .. . .. .
2 1 i . . . . . . . . . . . . .
211 . . . . . .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ..
- 0 5 . . . . .. .. . . . . .
20'
S20 .. . . ............... . .. ...

20 . . . .. . . .....
21 .. .. .. .............. ...........
2 2 .. . . . . . .
S . . . . . . . . . ...
2 13 .. . . . . . . . . .
2 5 . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. .
2 111 . . . . . .. .. . . .. .
2 . . . . . . . . . .. ..

21) ...... ........ .. ...... .......... .


22'


a Excessive hiacturia
b. Ohli,| 'tiondll- blb cteria.
Barred ironm competition.
E1 EXtsi .Ve acid.


Chemical i Keeping
qualities qualities
perfect 25 1 (perfect 25
points. pointSi.


-j
25
e,? 7 '
.25
25
25
25
25
-5
25
25
e1 19
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25


General
Condition
and ap-
pea ra nee
of package
and con-
Stents (per-
fect 10
points).

im


d 23
d 23
25
d 23
25
25
25
25
25
25

25
25
25l

25 i
a 19
24
25


35 25 a24 10
3i.' .25I b24A I00

Fat below standard.
f Solids below standard.
SImperfect package.
h Sediment.


Total
score.





95 9
92

93
88
934
94
90
93
92
85
83
96
87
89
71
90
86
87
95
94
951



A








.4
...
i:


Sample No.


10 l .. .. .
1')2 . ..
101 .
10 .
I ii ', . . .
IN; .
1 15 . . .







MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 15


Numerical scores of the exhibits of certified milk, market miilk, and creamn-('onlinued.

CLASS III-CREAM.


C"heinical
Flavor iniali tie.
perfect 411I, p-.rf-ct 20)
point s.. po-l2 n I.


Kr-eping

,Illitir.
, p,' rf el ).''*
r,,liiit' ,.


'ipnrira I
eO~llJl hell
co I Id I I ,I
ill-i af-

11." p kage
,nd inn- frt')- .
wi'ls tIpor-
if-ee I '.
p0olIll.. i.


3 0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
303 .. ... ... .. ..... .. .. .. . . . .
3 01 3 . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .
3 0 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 0 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 0 6 7 . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . ..
3 0 7 . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . .. . . . .
3 0 8 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..
3 0 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3 10 . .. . . ... . . . . .
3 1 1 . . . . . . . .
3 1 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 1 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. ,
3 1 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .

i Excessive acid
b Frothby' and lumpy.
SFat below standard.
4 Exee'sve hiacrler-i


3i.
33
i..
J5
37
,.4


33

32,
':7


220
:2)
'9
-;0
211
21J


211
2-'0

-'11
2')
?')

2"i


2.1
25
23
--I
,1 -21

I 2.1
25+
'-.3
e 24
,1 e '2
25
-.'

25
25
.'-3


e .'et iJ'er ior.i il 1I.I( trl-n I
Sliapt'rfi'.,t p ikiJge
i Ba rrr.1 ormu. coinip',titiOni
. ,e, Ii ni.en i


Descriptive ..coret j Ihe rrxhibifts of certifieIl ,r ilk, morkl ,,, ilk. inlil trant.

CLASSS I-CERTIFIED MILK.

I L i1 li -
I ..i .


Sam-
ple Flavor.
No


Specific Fat. SolilIs r'r(al
gravitY. not lIat snolid


101 Good. .... .0313
102 . do ...... 1 0303
103... Excellent.. 1.0324
104 . ..... .do ...... 1. 0324
105 . .. .. do ....... .0313
106 G ood ....... I 0 "113,
107 ... Exce-llent. 1.0313 I
115a .I ...... . ...


P cl
5.0
53
1. 1
1.2
47
1. S
4. 7


P if.

S. l4
8.93
8.95
.3. 7.4
S. IA)
s4. 7r


P 0.
13. ?I
13 94
1.3 03
13 15
Ij 4%
12 41
I. 4A


Tott;il lac-
.\<.l- Itfrid p.-r
it% cilllii. i ii-
liI t'r


/'* I
1, f
). I N9



103
17-


I Average......... 4 .. 6 79 1 '.3 1 i l"t,


a Barred frl ni c'i-TnpetilLon.


20.
.**I .nooJ
-..i.,-H.
121)
(I
21.0


7>4; 2~-'4


Sample No.


15
'. I0
15
1.1



'14
"'Iii l.
IS'



14
I1
1.5
',9


illi

>1 1
'Il



,.ii,



*:%
''3


HI.t.t
I -
If Tia
p.r

'f liili-
n't-'-r



0


'0
1, 0l
"'(I


'Triiarks


,l Io h,.l.ii'w r

i' nl,iI,, i, ,t ilil ..
Sin,l Iih'i-'r.-r'.
Drn.
I ihito, i,.icillh'..







i MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.


Descriptivir kcorea. of tht erhxhibit.s of certif4d milk, market milk, and cream-Continued.

CLASS II-MARKET MILK.


S. ii -
pip
No1


El,. coin


201. . eExeIllrnt . .
202. GooI .....

202. .1 Exevlle-nt..
204. -ood ....
20W. Strong ...
20t,. (.,nod .. ...
20 7 ... i o ......
201. 'Un I'npallla[l'

20'.. L nplea iint.
210 . .. lo ... ....

'211 L npalij l. ili.
212-. Exc llpnt . .


211. Fine ....
214 .1 L npalatalile

215 ,Go d ......
216. t' np.I la t.l'le
21 do ....
21'. .lnpl,-asant.

219 I'.- n.l ......


221,1
"222.. I, n I
'221. E ci'ellint ..


Spendi. Fat. Solids Total ALid-
gravilt\. not lfat. solids ity.


p rt
1.0324 5 8
1.0345 5 8

I UJ5i 2.6
I 0313 4.4
1.0324 t).0
i 0o.03 5 5
1. OL11 5 0
1.0318 3 h

. i32A' 4. 4
1.11i303 4 6

1.031q1 5.0
I. 0.303 3 2


I O3flA
103N.
1.0303

1.0313
I (0324
1.0331
I. (013

1.0.329

1 0318


1.0.035 4.0

I n340 4.4


P ct
9.28
9. 36

9.34
8 72
9.33
8 67
9 -22
8.93

9 10
9. 14

8 96
8 22


8.68
8.42

8 55
8 t5
9. 12
9. 2S

8 92

S. 5i


P (I.
15.09
15.J36

11.98
13. 12
15. 33
14. 1;
14.22
12.53

13 50
13. '4

13.96 I
11.42


13 28
12.G62

12. 15
13 15
12.92
16..3S

12.22

12.75


P. Ct.
0. 207
.234

.237
.196
2.58
.175
.201
192

.199
.171

205
176

198
.180

172
225
.221
.183

189

194


Lique-
fying
Total bac- bac-
teria per teria
cubic ten- per
timeter. cubic
centi-
meter.


35.000
8.800

2, 9'00

23,00 bOO
2,400
400
14.500

3. 6100
3.300
S19.000
295.000


6.000
13.800

6.W00
21,000, 1100
Woo
241,000

57.000

13. 600


5.000
700

100
0
300
1.000
100
0

200
500

4.000
109.000


2600
2. WOO

2.000
10.000
0
72,.000

10,000

9.500


.. ... i ; i . . .. ... ..O ... .n~ .o i......
9 19. 13.19 198 113.000 14.o00

9 4 13 I 0 .214 41.000 8.900


Remarks.


Liquefiers, various
kinds.
Slow liquefiers.


Do.

Spreading liquefi-
ers.

Large spreading
liquefiers.

Liquefiers spread-
ing. growth dif-
fused.

Liquefiers large,
spreading.
Slow liquefiers.


Spreading liquefi-
ers.
Liquefiers, proteus
like.
Liquefiers, small
coloiues.

Liquefiers, spread-
ing.
Small colonies liq-
uefiers.


S. 4. 5 S 98 13 49 .200 9.5. IN2 43.204


CLASS Ill-CREAM.

c-l nt ... ..... 34 0 ....... .... 0.232 4.000 200 Slow liquefiers.
rr-lh'nt Slow liquefiers...
d. .... ........ .. 44 0 .............. 27n I 00 500 I'ota to bacillus.
etlh ni ............. 17 0 ..... .... . . . .218 12.000 200 Slow liquefiers.
o................. 31 0 .. .. .' ........ 1A7 88.000 4.000 Potato bacillus.
d.... ......... 34 0 .. . ........ .217 2,810,000 43,000 Spreading liquefi-
ers.
. . . .. . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . .
od .......... .... .. q1 0 ..... ...... .2411 426.00W) HO Do.
Cellent ......... 2t. .... .. .. 02 16.700 2,100 Do.
.do ......... .. . 31 n ..... .. ........ 171 I 98.000 25.000 Do.
.'o ................. 31 0 ................. 1. 1 256,000 76.000 Liquefiers spread-
Io i ng. v'a rious
i kinds.
od ..... ........... .. 5 0 ........... .176 0 0 Liquefiers spread-
SI ng.
c. llpnL ........... I ... ........ .. .IO W2 300 100 Potato bacillus.
.n.......... ... 27 0) .. .. .. ....... Iq8 i 46,(10 A.600 Liquefiers s I o w ,
felloww color.
r ...... .... .. . 1.4 i ....... .. .. . .203 166.,000 14.000 Liquefiers spread-
ing.
wv.. .. ............ . .207 104.000 7.000 Liquefiers spread-
ing, growth dif-
fused.

Average .... ...... 31.0 .. .... i ........ .205 287,871 12,950


30J
.111N








.114
31
317 .
0"i. .


30l9. .
.310 .


311
'11 4
31''


7l..


E K
Rd
Ex



Go
Ex




Go

Ex


BI,

Co


a Barred from competition.


b Fat percent not determined.







MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 17

THE AWARDS IN CLASS I-CERTIFIED MILK.
There were eight entries in this class, and none of them had a
disagreeable flavor, but there was a great difference in the quality
or pleasantness of the flavor. The chemical qualities of thle milk
received most careful attention, and the percentage of butter tat.
ranged from 3.8 to 5.3, averaging 41.5. The percentage of total
solids ranged from 12.40 to 13.94, and averaged 13.33. Thle vari-
ation was, therefore, within comparat ively narrow limit., which of
course would naturally be expected in milk of this cla,,. The inum-
ber of bacteria in the certified milk saminples ranged from 0 to 51,.000
per cubic centimeter. Tle number of putrefactive and undesirable
bacteria w'as very small in most cases. The percentage of acidlity-
varied from 0.171 to 0. 198, and averaged 0.1, S. It should be remenm-
bered that all samples were 3 days o1d when te.-,ted. The scores
varied from s7 to 9S, and averaged )4.S. There was no sediment
found in any of these samples.
The medals and diplomas in this class were awarded ais follow,:

Nunilt r of sample" an.1 rnani, of',xhiliTor. S'1rl", SL. o r,

104 S M Shoemaker..... Ni.. .. Mar' land ... . I li l:l
105. Frank J (Carr................ .. ..... .. N VYork.. '- Si ,,r 1. ,u I|
P101. W anwa Dairy Farm ....... ........ .. I'.P n" In ]h .. n'. Lilm i ila.
107 Totwar's Wa rn Court (rpiinmifr,' Cn. .Michigan.. ....: I.
102. SE. Louis Dairy Co ...... .M sour .. ... i. Li.
10(6. Woodend Farm Co ........... M inn.-ola. )o
One entry not includeIpd aio 'e fail,'i] i. re.t h the diplr.in. timlrk n''C,. ,I'l i 'ri \an s i i-ar d l r.nri
compel ition.
CONDITIONS IU'NDER WHICH THE CERTIFIED MILK WINNING THE GOLD
MEDAL WAS PRODUCEDD"
The building in which the cows were stabled was, a single storv,
with concrete and glass sides, plastered ceiling, concrete floors, indi-
vidual watering device, and a modern system of ventilation. tSee
p1. 3.) The cows were principally grade Shorthorns, with a lew
grade Ilolsteins. Previous to milking the fore milk was drawn into
a small cup at. the side of the milk pail. The pail had a small aper-
ture over which was drawn a sterile cheese cloth, a fresh cloth being
used for each cow. The milk was promptly removed from the barn
and run over a cooler and bottled as quickly as possible. The
feeds used were those ordinarily approved for cattle, cotton-seed
meal and silage being used moderately.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DAIRY PRODUCING THE CERTIFIED MILK WHICH
WON THE SILVER MEDAL.
The cows are kept in a basement barn with concrete floor. The
stable is well lighted andl ventilated. The herd of 200 cows is com-
posed of Brown Swiss, Jerseys, and a few Holstein-Friesians.

u The same exhibitor also won the silver medal in tihe crcamn contest.







18 MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS. 4

The dairy building is all concrete, built upon the most approval
plans, and equipped with modern dairy utensils. After milking, thesl
milk is simply run over a cooler, bottled, and iced. A.B
THE AWARDS IN CLASS II-MARKET MILK. l
There were 23 entries in this class, and all of the milk was sound-:::l
and sweet when tested. A great variety of flavors were found in the."
samples exhibited in this class; one had a pronounced silage od'orr:
two or three had a suggestion of a cowy odor, etc. The percentage
of butter fat in the various samples ranged from 2.6 to 7.1, an4d.
averaged 4.5. All but two samples passed the standard of 3.25 pet -
cent which was used in this test. The total solids ranged from 11.42 i
to 16.3S per cent, and averaged 13.49, all but two passing the stand-:I:_
ard of 12 per cent. The acidity ranged from 0.171 to 0.258 per cent,.
and averaged 0.200; three were above the standard of 0.225 per::i
cent. The total bacteria ranged from 400 to 21,000.000 per cubic..
centimeter: leaving out the highest count (21,000,000), the average..bH
was 30,273. The liquefying bacteria ranged from 0 to 710,000, and,'
averaged 43.204. The totai score ranged from 71 to 96, and aver-,'
aged -9.7.
The following were awarded medals or diplomas in this class: i

Nirnl., r of .sanmplo ani namrn of .xhlbhitor. State. Score. Award. :::.7
213 i ait A Sin. . ... ...... ............ VW isconsin ... .. 96 Gold medal. i
)22 S. Edwin Thornton............................ Maryland.... .... 951 Silver medal.
,a11 N N. Rose... ... .......... .. New Vork .. .. 95 I Diploma. :::I
2'21' Storrs E. rp.'rini Statio .............. ... Connecticut ...... 95 Do. 1.2
22'-' II. 1 Ilood A Son-..... ....................... Massachusetts .... 94 1 Do. I
2): Mrs N. E I'arri-.h .... ..................... Kansas ........... ..I 94 Do.
2'u,. I' E I ill ... ... .. ......... .. Illinois .... ......' 934 Do.
0i. S. M Shon.maki-r... .... .. . ....... Maryland... ......' 93 Do. .
2041 \%% ilun l )dir, ('o........................... llinois ........... 93|J Do. :
La2. P B ailey .. ...................... ... . O hio .............. 92 D o. I
21N. Glb nrt Ilickcox.... .. .. . ........... W isconsin........ 92 Do ii
21; .\ E T horm pson .. ... . ..... .. .... Illinois ........... 90 Do. *i|
Iul'. U' ion D airy Co .......................... . .... .. do ... .... ... 90 D o.
Tein in thi< i is not included aijovi. failed to reach the diploma mark 190)
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE MARKET MILK RECEIVING THE GO0.W:
MEDAL WAS PRODUCED. i
ji
The herd consists of choice purebred and grade Jerseys, number
about 30 milking cows. It is the practice of the owner to raise heifem.{'
calves from the best cows. The barn is well lighted and ventilated,!h
the floors are of cement, and the walls and ceiling are kept thorougww
whitewashed. The manure from the stables is hauled direct to thr
field.
The feed used in this dairy consists of corn silage (well eared),..
shredded corn stover, and mixed hay for roughage, the grain part conviljK
sisting of w heat bran and middlings and buckwheat middlings, besides"".4
the corn in the silage. Care is taken during milking to have as litti
dust as possible in the barn. The cows are kept thoroughly oliaif




Ir,


I -


7


4


INTERIOR OF STABLE WHERE CERTIFIED MILK WINNING GOLD MEDAL WAS PRODUCED.


tf












BUL. No. 87, B. A. I.
mnlll[FA.


FIG. 1.-INTERIOR OF DAIRY HOUSE WHERE MARKET MILK RECEIVING GOLD MEDAL
WAS HANDLED.


FIG. 2.-SOME OF THE COWS WHICH PRODUCED MARKET MILK RECEIVING GOLD MEDAL.


PLATE 4.











MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 19

The milk from each cow is weighed after milking, and as soon as a
small can is filled it is taken to a separate building used only for han-
dlingmilk. Here the milk is strained through a wire strainer and three
cloth strainers and stored in cold water until bottled. After bottling,
the milk is placed in cases and packed in ice ready for delivery. All
dairy utensils are rinsed, washed, scalded with boiling water, and
drained. The herd is tuberculin tested and great care is exercised to
keep it healthy.
The milk retails at 6 cents per quart throughout the year in a small
town of 3,000 inhabitants. The owners take much pride in produ-
cing clean milk free from dangerous germs.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DAIRY WHICH PRODUCED TIlE MARKET MILK
WINNING THE SILVER MEDAL.

The barn is a frame structure of ordinary type. The herd of 28
cows is of mixed breeding, and includes Jersey, Holstein, and Short-
horn grades. The cows are fed a well-balanced ration the year round.
When the milk was produced for the contest the ration consisted of
millet hay and cut. corn stover, supplemented with corn and cob meal,
dried brewers' grains, and molasses feed. The milk was produced and
handled in a cleanly manner, cooled and aerated immediately after
being drawn, and stored in spring water.

THE AWARDS IN CLASS III-CREAM.

The exhibits of this product were of a very fine character, consider-
ing that they were three days old when scored and that some of them
had been shipped from a distance of over a thousand miles. The per-
centage of fat in the various cream samples ranged from 17 to 44, the
acidity from 0.171 to 0.270. One only was found to be above the
acidity standard of 0.25 per cent. The total bacteria ranged from
0 to 2,810,000. The number of liquefying bacteria ranged from 0 to
76,000. The total scores ranged from 86 to 98, and averaged 93.6.
The awards in the cream contest were'as follows:

Number of sample and name of exhibitor. State Scon., .ward

315. Storra Experiment Station... ....... .... Connecticut... 98 Special gold medal.
308. Union Dairy Co.. .................... Illinois. 97 Goid medal.
309. S. M. Shoemaker........................... Maryland.... 96t Silvrr medal.
31L4. Frank E. Headley ......................... Missouri ...... 96 Diploma.
301. M N Ross ........................ ........ New York ........ 9b Do.
311. Cott Barnett ............................... Indiana....... 95 Do.
303. L. P. Bailey............................ ...... Ohio ......... .. 95 Do.
304. Grace G. Durand ............ ................ Illinois ........ 95 Do.
310. J. Gilbert Hickeox .......................... W isconsin ...... 95 Do.
316. Towar's Wayne County Creamery.......... Michigan ........ 93 Do
307. R. F. Shannon............................. Pennsylvania.... 91Y j Do.
305. U. A. Towers.............................. W isconsin .... .. 91 Do.

Three in this class, not included above, failed to reach the diploma mark (90.1.






MARKET MILK INVESTIGATIONS.


CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE CREAM RECEIVING THE SPECIAL GOLD
MEDAL WAS PRODUCED. ..

The milk from which the cream was taken was the mixed milk of a
herd made up of purebred Jerseys, Guernseys, Ayrsliires, and Hol-
stein-Friesians.
The grain fed consisted of a mixture of 400 pounds wheat bran, 100
pounds cotton-seed meal, and 100 pounds corn meal, 6 to 8 pounds of
tis inixture being fed to each cow. For roughage each cow received
4(1 poumilds of silage and 5 pounds of hay. Previous to milking, the
udlders were wiped with a damp cloth and the milk was drawn into
covered mi!k pails. After being drawn, the milk was taken at once
to the dairy, s.,eparated by means of a centrifugal separator, and
immediately cooled and iced.
LESSONS FROM THE CONTEST.
FIIE KEEPING QUALITIES OF SANITARY MILK.

As stated at the outset, the object of this contest was wholly edu-
cational. It was desired to show that milk and cream produced
under sanitary conditions could be shipped long distances and held
'for several weeks without any other means of preservation than :
'leahnline.s andl c ld. The results were most gratifying, and some of
the sairiples remained perfectly sweet after being shipped a thousand J
miles across tlie country, put in storage at a temperature of about 32
F. fr two weeks, and then reshipped a distance of (900 miles to Wash-
inigton, I). (.'., where they were .stored in an ordinary ice box for 4
several weeks linger, sime of the certified milk samples being still ?
,,weet after five weeks. A part of a box of cream entered in this
cnlte-st was placed in cold storage in Chicago at a temperature of 33
F. and remained sweet and palatable for a period of seven weeks.

SUPERIORITY OF CERTIFIED OVER MARKET MILK.

The so-called certified milk entered in this contest was quite
superior to thlie market milk, the total scores averaging 94.8 and
S9.7, respectively. This result goes to show that certified milk isa
s.Ilperior article, and is actually worth more when we consider its
better flavor and keeping quality and freedom from objectionable i
bacteria, and, further, thlie fact that the richness of the milk is guaran-
teed. It is apparent that the producer of certified milk must be a
thoroughlyy capable man. fle must understand matters pertaining
it rile healthfulness of cows, the effect of disease or any inflam-
mnation or unusual condition of the cow upon the milk, also the i
composition and effect of thlie various feeding stuffs on the cows, the
effect of overfeeding, and unusual disturbances which affect the
quality or flow of the milk; hlie must have some knowledge of bac-
..5






MILK AND CREAM EXHIBIT AT NATIONAL DAIRY SHOW. 21

teria and know the importance of sterilizing utensils, which are
sources of bacterial contamination. Hlie must appreciate the fact
that injudicious feeding of turnips, garlic, ragweed, and unsound
silage will produce undesirable flavors in milk, and must know how to
guard against them. The work of the producLer of certified milk is
often too little appreciated by those who require such milk for the
sick room, infants, etc. They should rejoice in the fact that by
paying a little higher price than that charged fr ordinary milk a
product can he secured that is guaranteed to be rich, pure, clean,
wholesome, and produced from healthy cows.
It may be said concerning the market milk exhibited that a large
percentage of thile samples remained sweet for a week in tlhe exhibit
case, the temperature of which was about 5o` F. While these
samples probably represented a very nmuch higher quality of milk
than that ordinarily supplied to our cities, it may be .said too be
demonstrated that market milk will keep for s-everal davy- if handled
with reasonable care and held at a temperat tire behIlow 50 F.
While no definite percentage of fat was pecitfied for market milk
except that it should be above the standard of 3.25, it i.-. of interest to
note the wide 'variations shown in tlie 23 sample, exhibited, namelyv,
2.6 to 7.1, the average being 4.5. It is known that such wide varia-
tions are not uncommon in the milk supplied to many ,Of Our citie.s.
It. may be stated that these wide variations occur not mnly in the
milk supplied by different dealers, hut in tlie milk from the same
dealer from day to day, particularly where the "dippage" -s',temi is
practiced. These variations may be due to: not properly mixing tlhe
milk from the different cows, or failing to nmix tile iilk in thlie can
before dipping it out. This results in dissatiisfactiomI ton the part of
the consumers, for the reason that they do not want cream deliv-
ered to them one day and a product appl)rtaching, skim milk tlie
next. This question of uniformity is one of great importance to both
producer and consumer.

SANITARY METHODS MORE IMPORTANT THAN BREED (OF COWS.

The fact is also of interest that both the milk and tihe cream which
won the medals in the contest were produced front herds that were
largely of mixed breeding. This indicates that tihe sanitary condi-
tions under which milk is produced and tile method of handling it are
of more importance than the fact that the animals are purebred or
that they are of some particular breed.
















S1


























0*




t


I





r




It












I

I


I
I
S
I
t





I.









4
SI

'I
4




















- U. dir-h%.A. Hedrick, 2l5 St Paul ilildelphia, Pa.-Dr. C. A. Seb&afler, 134-South .
A... .....i ..: ,"., ., . ... Second street. i
.ild )r WUhowo iT Brodway Portland. Mo-Dr. F. W. Runtlnigtou U. S. s-
J.. FC.r O V P.0. box7 toms office. Grand Trunk R. R. wharf.-
Sj. -,4.MJ..'. "Mi ON AND- QUARANTINE Q" IMPORTED ATIMAlA.
.... .';,\ x i: ".:.,o ..' : : ., .., -
I :. :. .. t- .:. ." ", ."" i ... i . .
' ....;.* .. .: Qiuar-ntine stations.
U'( tWie l :'VwYork).--Dr. I Littleton, Mass. (for the port of Boston).-PD.
8 1upeiienaen ,- J. F. Ryder, inspector in charge, 141 Milk street,
W1 Seiporto1 E tiL*)L -W1iJ- Bostou, Mas."
-i,-, flk u, p .' ,
.:". .. TIpeiora on the" Unadian border.
Ogdensburg, t.Y.-Dr. Charles Cowie.
Orono' Me.-Dr. F. L. Russell.
^< K. %reciare Hiimmomd, Fort H4aon, Mieh.-Dr. David Cumming, 912"
Du M" j Lapeer.lvenue. *
M^^Rfe~t-Ik' .M.. Perr., $L AlbariB, Vt.-Djr. C. L. Morin.
Syn Sault Stb. Marie, Micb.-Dr. J. F. Beada

-1 .." .npeora ote M ican border.
,Wiz0 !hon Bira. " S Diep, Cl..-Dr. Robert Darling, care Charle ss
s'r- wh W, f'arker. S. axy. '
N fim.; ," a.. ...rro. TTIONWD .BROAD.

hW (41inm' ahll iLondor. IDr. T. A. Geddes, care U.,S. consulate, Liverpool, .'
q blgofqr GretEBritain and England. :
:.... *" ... ., '. Dr. V, NOrgaard, Honolulu, Haw ii.. .










A A
U .N ... 7% j-.' ,








...F ".' | i "-" .
5"f" Uu.,
`.V i
i.';.!, # .:,': : 'i :'7" "qJ l ,. l- . ..'. ." . r, o .4
411i4
i .)b.,;.,~~~' ....M .%. ..: .


7: -,.01 4"1
di i :. .. 'k .: L .





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA






























S,r
AV' :J








. .... .....







i.,,P










Ai



3.. *.
















.0.