The animal industry of Argentina


Material Information

The animal industry of Argentina
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
72 p., 15 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Bicknell, Frank W
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Domestic animals -- Argentina   ( lcsh )
Animal industry -- Argentina   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Frank W. Bicknell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612484
oclc - 06084844
lccn - agr09001189
lcc - SF623 .B14 no. 48
System ID:

Full Text

* 6
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S- p osI-/

IOne hIi iundred and sixty-two miles southwest of Bin ios Aires.

D E SALMON. D 'I M, ChEf of Bureu.




Special AgenTt fizil AgriCLIlttIral Expl1jrer.



t.,,inr.^/1mf, D. C., hd!/ <, 18903.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a
paper entitled "The Animal Industry of Argentina," by Frank W.
Bicknell, special agent and agricultural explorer.
Mr. Bicknell show., the tatuss of the animal industry of Argentina
at this time, and dwell.-, upon the prospects of that Republic as a mar-
ket for purebred animals from the United States. Some excellent
photographs of the cattle, sheep, and horses now being produced in
that country accompany the paper.
The subject-matter of this paper is such as will go far toward
answering the many requests that come to the Department of Agri-
culture for information regarding the animal industry of Argentina,
and I recommend that it be published as a bulletin of the Bureau of
Animal Industry series.
D. E. SALMON, Chitf/ Hon. JIAMAES WILSON, Svrcvt/iry.


Int roduwclinn ...- ........ ....................-------- --- -------------- ---- 7
The Argentine Rural Society. .............-- ---.---------... ----------...- 8
The great annual stIock shlio ........-----------......-----...--.------------------------ 12
The annual sale; nf iree ling st.'rk ........-----------..------...-----------...--------- 14
The herd liok- amin flock bo'.k if Argentina .......-----------------..------------ 21
What Artgentin,. lrve-'ders ant...............-------------..-----------------.-------.------- 23
Preference fr Slinrtlirrn, ...---.......---................................--- -------------------------------------24
Den inl for o\w- -----------------.........-----------.---------------.--------- 25
Other breeds .......................------------------------.--.--..-......-------------..---.----- 26
Profits -f impirters ................................................-------------------------------------------------...... 27
High prices f-ir ordinary animals ...................................... 29
Fat-stock andI hrse sh-jli. ............--------------.....--------------....--------..--.------ 30
Kind of cattle for expert anil hoiimt'us .,iinption... --------------.--....-----------......-. 31
Argentine steers art- rass ,,r all'alla fi--l --------------------------------.................................... 32
The manufacture (f taaj, il<,I linin ---..... .................................. 33
Meat supply vf But-nis Aire ............-----------------.........---------..----------------............. 33
Shortage of eows in Arnina ..---------.......--.-----------..------------------- 35
Sales of horses in Argentina ............................................... 36
Sales of sheep in Argentina ..-----------............---.------------....----..-----..-------- 37
Animal sanitary reyulatii'ns ............................................. -----------------------------------------------37
Conditions and cust if admliiiii,'n of lirvet-dii'n stock .-..-------------------- 41
The dairy industry. ...............-----------------......--..------------.------------------ 43
Selection of cws for milking quinalities- .--...---.. ----........--...----. 47
Trst of dlairy c wmvs- ................................................... --------------- 48
Sarifire if cows ............................................-----------------------------------------------------........ 50
Statistics of pro' ict ion and I a aity .. .-....-----.- ---- -----...........-.. 50
Cheese business .t -atilasf'tir .....----..----..------------------------------..... -5
Experiments in i',mp[mr-i'iii rf I -r,.: ...-----.......--....-....-------- 53
Hum cows are f ........ ..... ......-----------------..---------------------..---------.. 54
Carrying vapacit I .-f patures -.............................................. 55
Advice (if an Argentine packvr ............---------------------......----------...---------.. 56
Live-sto'k vensI,. ............----------.............---.....--....-------...... 57
Exportation of livestock...............................................---------------------------------------------... 58
Health of live stock .................---------------------........-------......--------------------.. 59
The sheep business .................-----------------......---------------------.......----------- 61
The evolution of the sheep-bret-ding indhtry in Agentina -----...-------------....... 64
Argentine resources shown by exports .....--------------------...........--------------......... 68
Principal exports for five years ........--------..-----.----------...-------.------ 70
Exports in detail .......---------------............-----------------------.--------- 70
Distribution of exports.-- .............................................. -----------------------------------------71


FRONTIrPIE'F.. In Argentina.
Pi.vir I. uinril Wn'elin'ck, firn-t-prize :--yeanr-olil Shorthorn hull --------.............. 8
II. Lailas 6 th, fir-it-prize :2'-yerar-,il .S ii irth ,r'i bill .................. 8
III. Farrier BridIekirke, first-prize 2-.var-onlil Siorlhiurn lull ........... 16
IV. Cal',mel 16, first-prize 3-y'ear-olil Short, h irn cow .................. 16
V. Giranli-,n -12, price chanmpi'n In -reforI, :3 years old ............. 16
VI. Fir-st-prize ('y'lde' iale stallion ................................... 32
V II. First-priz.e Shire stallion ......................................... 32
VIII. FD ,ril, Percheron stallion, 3j years old .....................---....... 32
IX. DAWet, first-prize Holstein bull, 22 months ,,lil................... 48
X. Best cow of Flemish group, winning ('hainlion.hip in diairy test .... 48
X.I. Grade slI,,rtli,.nri lull-, 21 years old--- ......-----....................... 56
XII. Holstein cows and calves --.------.----------------------------... 56
XIII. Fitz. 1, first-prize yearling Lii.noln sheep; fig. 2, first-prize Hamp-
shire Down ranm -------.----------....-----------...--.........----------. 64
XIV. S.cni'll-prize Ilail lsuillets, ls months ill ........................ 64
X V. Hampshire Down rains, 3 mionthlis old- ........-.................. 64


.o,,e;.--Uile.-s otherwise stated, all expressions of value used herein refer to
Argentine paper moruiv, w hih \\ill ii -,t thi. fir>-i]j-r I,-,a. (.Mayi, 1903) 44 cents of
United Stlates moine fi-r the Ip,-, i lill-ir). The valuations in the custom-house, in"
which the :nuimnts 'if imipi'it-:irl exli irts are stated, are in A r._,itin- gold, worth
96.5 Unite-d Stati.- niiiev fu r hi'- pe.-,.
.jrfirv toii#, u.ivs ,4 1 l, .-'. vuii., ,IivLA..'i:. -2,2'114.62 pounds.
KI,,. -2.2046-H l,,,ullls.
Liter.- 1.0567 ,itart:. i,r i'.2',4 gallii.
H vin,1;ter.-2..s37 hIn-lI,.l, lrv mva:-iire, or 26.417 gallons, liquid measure.
IHet tar1 l I" nil. -2.47 airrt.-.
.Sqaurte vjf I'vd.--4.17 ir>-s.
Lciy,,r v[ 1,rd.-i' ;,l"-, a7nrcrs.
Meter.-3Y.37 iinche-s.
KAli'm, 0.621"' mile.
Easf,,m_;,.-A.\ .tok farmi, gi-neia.dll \t-r large, where breeding steers and wethers
for market, amid .-oiiietiui-i al.,, liirelih:' purebred animals for sale as breeding ani-
mals, are carried on.
Est,'.'irr,,. -Th I-1111 \% lit o i'w\\nIs an t-tancia.
Cabeita.--An e.tallishnint \\ii% here iveding animals are raised for sale.
C.haiv'er,'.-The mian 1who o0 n a ..d afria.
COimp.-The tern alplii_- to the country, the rural part, derived, no
doubt, from the Spanish word "utnp.," mineaningthe country. People in town say
" am going to the camp," inr-t-a'l ,f aN\ ini, "I am g-,ii's to the country."
Ii.ide cimp.-Thn Ietti-r and itore cultivated and favorably situated land and
pastures; usually applil tt tlie better portions of the province of Buenos Aires.
(Oubiiid,. av j.-The iniire 'li-tant. It-- fertile, dryer and less valuable part of the
grazing country.
Mp.Lo.-I ;iradeul aiiiuials--partl I pur--blooded, of any sort.
Norvillo.s. -Steer-,.
Erlar'ad,'r,,.-Tht- .ar d.i aui -hel.- in the port of Buenos Aires where imported
animals are receiveIl and where <-xpi rt animalsare inspected and dispatched on board
Prigorit.',,.-Frozeii-mteat e-talli,-h nevn.
Lecherria.--Either a minilk depot in tihe city for the sale of milk at retail or the
establishment of a milk dealer in the i, iintry.
Pulitr,.-The national dikh, especially for the poorer classes. It consists gener-
ally of beef, potatoes, and whatever ,tlt.'r \e together in one dish and i. ,erve-d in tlIm same manner, requiring few dishes. Some
kind of squash i9 a favorite addlition anI sometimes chicken is added or substituted
for beef. Occasionally a little p,,rk is pat in. If ,,'-l meat is used and it is well
cooked and nit too muinch water used, it is very palatable and nourishing. The
better families make it with ,hi,.ken, well flavored, and the chicken and vegetables
are served separately.
l('itc,'eir, r.-A frimner-a niiaii wihl tilI the land and raises a crop on a chacra, or

Digili7eo ri, [te Inileinel Archde
in 2012 r,'In luncling Irom
UniversilE, ol Florida George A Smalhers Libraries >vlhn support from Li,'R!SIS and the Sloan Foundalion

nlp archie,,,, org celails animlOuCiusae


seir;,di (frn and.( I qriii/llimil Ed xplorer.
The Argentine Republic is not to be studied hastily if reliable
information i-i expected. Many mistaken ideas of the country have
been promulgated by those who have spoken or written from imper-
fect knowledge or from hasty surface observations. It is difficult to
obtain complete or accurate information regarding any resource or
industry. Neither Government officials nor the people engaged in any
kind of business have coll-cted and published complete and exact
reports concerning what is being done or may be done in the country.
One can never be sure to what extent statistics have been "estimated,"
and the operation of comparing and analyzing a part of these reports is
likely to reveal flaws that raise doubts as to the reliability of the whole.
So the independent investigator, desiring to prove all things-to take
nothing for granted and to state nothing of which he is himself in
doubt-must get as many facts, estimates, and opinions as possible,
and then, adding his own observations and knowledge, be prepared to
judge of the v:tilue of what he has heard and read and to form his own
conclusions. This is the policy which was adopted by the writer in
his investigations in Argentina during parts of the years 1902 and
1903-something over a year altogether. This brief account of some
phases of the live-stock indusLtry in the great, rich Republic of the
south is conservative rather than enthusiastic, and the statements
made herein have been carefully verified.
The first object of this inquiry was to determine whether or not the
breeders of pure-blooded stock in the United States could sell animals
in Argentina. That question may be answered positively in the
affirmative, providing the conditions here set forth are studied and
observed and only first-class animals are sent to the Argentine sales.
If some good Shorthorn bulls and cows could arrive in Buenos Aires
from about the 1st to the 20th of August, so they could pass the
required forty days in quarantine and be ready to be shown at the
time of the great annual stock show and sales in the latter part of


September and the first of October, there is little doubt that the
returns would be quite satisfactory to those who sent them.
Because this country is a long distance from the United States and
the people rangee to uL,, we should not be frightened and hesitate to
reach out for a business that is so simple and that has earned such
hand-ome profits for others. There is nothing to fear in taking
stock to Argentina to sell if the animals are right. They should
without fail be tested for tuberculosis before leaving home, for they
will be subjected to the tuberculin test there at the end of the forty
days' quarantine, and, if they react, showing that they have the dis-
ease, they will have to be slaughtered or removed from the country
immediately. The English breeders who send animals to Argentina
do not generally do this. Our Government certificate showing free-
dom from tuberculosis would therefore add to the value of the
There is no prejudice against any North American in Argentina
that is worth taking into consideration in any business enterprise.
Any man from the United States who has something to sell that
please.- the people there will be well received, and he has as good a
chance to .-ell it as any other man from any other country, providing
that he knows the conditions as well as the other man and conforms to
them. These things, he mut learn. To sell breeding stock he will
have no trouble if the animals are the right sort, for good breeding
stock is keenly .sought after, and the supply is inadequate. The Argen-
tines would be very glad to see us enter more into competition with
the English anti others in respect of their trade, and we may do so
very profitably and safely if we study the conditions and observe them
in what we do. The writer met with a very cordial reception among
Argentines. and has to acknowledge many courtesies. He found
them. as well as the Englih farmers and stock raisers, who are very
strong there, alway- willing to give information. They show a lively
interest in us and admiration for our development.


The first Argentine Rural Society (Sociedad Rural Argentino), the
progenitor of the present organization bearing that name, had its
origin in 1857. The prime mover in putting the idea into effect has
told the writer the story of the inception and development of this,
probably the most important, organization in Argentina. Like many
other good things in Argentina, it had its inception in England. Don
Eduardo Olivera, then a student in London, attending the lectures of
John Nesbit on agricultural chemistry, noticed in a Buenos Aires
newspaper an article by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, afterwards
President of the Republic and also the man who introduced the North
American teacher. to Argentina, commending a letter the young





man had written to his father describing the agricultural show in
Birmingham. The Argentines were advised to avail themselves of the.
benefits of like organizations, and this led to the organization the follow-
ing year of the fir.-t agricultural show in the country- a very small
affair, under the presidency of Gervasio A. Posadas. During the show
a meeting of estancierosa was held and a committee named to form a
rural society. This committee consisted of Seefiores Posadas, Sarmiento,
Olivera, Favier, and Clark. But civil war came on. Ind the committee
never met. It was not until July, is6, that fourteen breeders miet in
Buenos Aires and organized the present Rural Society. The provi-
sional committee was ,los6 Martinez de Hoz, Eduardo (O)livera, atind
Ramon Viton. The rules and plan for the society, which had been
prepared in lS5.s by Sefior Olivera, were the basis. of the permianmnt
organization, which was perfected a month later (August.l.5t;) with
forty-seven members. The chief objects of the society. :ti then set
forth, were the following:
(1) To promote by all possible means the inprilovement cif 'uir -tck ini a rational
way, bast.d upon -cientifeic experience.
(21 To study tle best means uf irrigating ,uir qr" ,iii,., a. tl .i- I- Irain
(3) To promote the morality and well-being of our camp populati-m.
(4) To study the be-t breeds of cattle and shet-p abroad, \%ith the pl.urj -. of
improving, biy importation of breeding animals, the stuck %e imw p ,.,e..
(5) To search for and -tudyv scientiflk methiodIs adapted tbp th,- conhiii,,in- .4 our
country and calculated to increase our agricultural output.
(61 To secure commercial relations with foreign countries, in ,rdler t- exchange
produce and create a market for ours abroad.
To assist in carrying out these purpose.-,, it was deemed necessary to
secure rational teaching of agriculture and to establi h an agricultural
museum to display national products, soil, etc.. 11d (l al.,so foreign prod-
uce of a similar nature, to serve as models. Practical tests of the
most improved machinery were provided for. The miuseumn wa,
founded under the presidency of Sefior Olivera, and later has been
reorganized as the Industrial Club, its scope greatly enlarged, rid
made a very important factor in the industrial developmetlnt of the
country, maintaining, as it does,, a permanent exl)osition of national
products in Buenos Aires.
The first pretentious show of the Rural Society was held in Palermo,
a suburb of Buenos Aires, in 1875. The officers and their friends-
those personally engaged in the venture-had great difficulty in getting
any animals to exhibit. Very few seemed to take much interest in the
show. Only 18 cattle, 19 sheep, and 19 horses were exhibited. In
fact, it was not until 1895 that the show assumed national and note-
worthy importance. Its development since then ha-: been rapid,
steady, and sure, except as regards sheep, with which there have been
a See page 5 for explanation of this and other termnis.


fluctuation(. The following comparison of the number of animals
exhibited -ince 1l5i5 shows the development of the exposition:

A'u ,i t'" *,f ,',ttl., I,,r:', .., ,,Il .l e.i l i I i c .e _qf.'sales al thr expositlovns uf the RuralSociety,
189. Ir 1902.

Yi.,r. Cailkl. H1 ri..... Sheep. 1Sales.
I1 "........... . .............. .............. 2 4 531 $' 130,000
I .... .... ....... .....................i 497 91 1. 783 300,000
.. ....... ........................... I111; 2,080 335,000
l' . .. .. ... ...................... 94-2 '245 1,157 660,000
1,'''. ... .' 1, 4$7 1'. ', '204 880,000
l .' ......... . ....................... ....... 1,487 I'M 2,204 8W .00
i. . . . ... .. ................ .............. 1,7.36 271 2.06. 975,000
19,I ... ......... .. .. ........................ 1, M '4 l .M00 916.000
1302 ....... .. ... ...................... O 314 1 1.7,N 1,291,797

lB'sidc, tlih.,'. other .iale., ar, held every year, at various other fairs
in othor parts of the yountry1, usualiv in August, Septemler, and Octo-
ber. La-t year an exposition similar to the one in Buenos Aires was
held in Ro.sario, and, for the first effort, was remarkably successful.
The .;ail' were small, because at that time the crop outlook was very
uncertain; pastures had .-1uffered from frost. and drought in the country
trilbutary to that show, and estancieros were avoiding every possible
expenditure. The rains came and the prospect brightened very much,
however, before the Palermo ,how in Buenos Aires was held; so the
sales there were good.
Various fairs are held in the province of Buenos Aires, some of them
under the aup)ices of societies and some by auctioneers for the sale of
live .stork- both breeding stock and stock cattle, fattened or to be fat-
tened, and .-heep. Then, there are the sales held in the auction houses
in Buenos- Aires. which are very important to breeders, for here are
brought together representatives of the be.-t herds and flocks in the
couLIntry v and al.-,o the be.,t imported animals. This year all the
imported animal.-, which are already arriving from England, will be
sold in these great auction marts.
The next show, to lbe held in September and October, 1903, will be
a national show, where only those animals bred in the country will be
admitted, either for exhibition or sale, unless owned ly Argentines at
the present time (May, 1903). All imported stock will therefore be
sold in the auction marts in the city. Next year (1904) the show will
probably he international, foreign-bred animals being admitted. Both
before and after the show, every year, sales are in progress in these
marts. Two of them are a block in depth, opening on two streets
in the business center and have large, airy, clean stalls and auction
rings, where the animals are well cared for and shown to the best
advantage. Sales of rams are held here at the time of the September-
October show, and again in January, and then, beginning in March, for


several weeks. In ,JanuIry of this year ;:S3 ramins were sold in one sale.
The September-October sales are always best, however. Nearly all
kinds of live stock are sold at auction in this country.
Until the organization of the national department of agriculture,
about four years ago, the Rural Society exerted a tremendous influ-
ence upon legi.-lation and all regulations affecting the stock and ;i'ri-
cultural interests, especially the former. It is composed mostly of
wealthy and influential men, most of whom live at least a largi part of
the year in the city of Bueino- Aires. They are owners of hundreds
of thousands of acres of the bc-t land in the Republic and are chiefly
interested in stock raising. The influence of the Rural Society is still
very great, and it is extending its usefulness by trying to interest and
benefit the agricultural class, even the small colonist. Tin first ;Igri-
cultural show proper wa.- held in May of this year, and it was the aim
of the mianagemnient to make it similar r to our great agricultural fairs.
For a number of 'ear. the .society has held a show at this time for the
exhibition of fat stock and horses only.
The Rural Society affiliates to a certain extent with similar organi-
zations in other provinces, andi a delegate is appointed to represent
the Rural Society in each of thl.,e. There are eight of these provin-
cial societies, most of which puldish monthly bulletins, and several
local or district societies in the province of Buenos Aires that hold
local fairs and .sales.
They are beginning to learn in Argentina what their big fertile
country can do for them, and where and how to make the best of it.
They lack agricultural literature and periodicals, such as we have,
because the scientific study of agriculture is only just b1giniiiiin.'r, and
because the farmers (called chacareros, as distinguished from estan-
cieros, or stock raisers), the menii who are raising c(rops, are mostly
foreigners, many of them unable and unwilling to read. Of course,
there are many proprietors (owners of land on a large scale) and a few
small farmers who are eager for the best information to be had. For
the benefit of these the Rural Society publishes a monthly review, or
bulletin, of 60 to 100 pages, containing the best information obtainable
regarding agricultural and stock-raising miatter-, with market condi-
tions the world over, and such statistical information as may be had.
The Rural Society in Rosario also publishes a monthly bulletin, and
so do some of the other rural societies. The ministry of agriculture
publishes, besides numerous special bulletins and reports, a semi-
monthly bulletin covering the whole field of agriculture, stock raising,
forestry, etc., which is quite exhaustive.. The newspapers give con-
siderable attention to live stock and agriculture. One Englikh daily
has a page on Sunday given wholly to these subjects. The English
estancieros have done much for the country by adopting improved
methods, and they are all students of agricultural and live-stock litera-


ture. Periodical and book-. and especially the publications of the
United State-, Department of Agriculture, are eagerly s-eized upon by
the .nerv.tic, progr,-ive English. and by many native Argentines of
Latin blood who have learned English and de-ire to profit by our
experience and -.tudy.


All Argentine blreeder-, or at least !,5 per cent of them, look for-
ward to the annual ,how of breeding -;tock. given lIv the Argentine
Rural Society in Septeuiber and October in Buenos aires, as the time
when they will sell the animal, they have raised for other Ibreeders or
for estancieros and securee new blood for their herd-. The show is a
great national stock exh'iange. where the breeders bring %%hat they
have to otfnr and come to -.eo what others have done. and the estanci-
erOu-. the producers of beef and mutton and wool and horse., come to
buy "reproductores to -.upply their large needs; so there are buyers
for all classes of animals. The cabaniero, or breeder of pedigreed
animal., looks only for the beI-t, antd is willing to pay fancy and prac-
tically unlinmit-d prices for animall, that meet his idea., of perfection.
The estanciero, or producer of beef, mutton, and wool, looks only,
as a rule, for animal. of individual merit for his own use in the camp.
and he does not care for pedigree. Hie is contented with a grade bull
that he can ibuyi at $2111o to $lii'i. The same is true of the sheep and
horses shown in the exposition, as it will be noticed that many well-
bred mestizos, or graded animals, sold for good prices. in cattle and
sheep and poor price, in horses.
The opening of the fair i.- a gala occasion. The Pre'4dent of the
Republic alway-; attend- and the minister of agriculture delivers an
address, as well as the president of the society. The speech of the
latter, made at the opening of the exposition in Septembhr, 1902,
contained sonime rather remarkable suggestions, as. he is a firm friend of
England, and has been much gratified by having been made an honor-
ary member of the Royal Agricultural Society of Great Britain. This
gentleman, Dr. E. Ramos Mlexia. was formerly minister of agricul-
ture and a member of the Argentine Congress. where he advocated
the pis.,age of a law requiring the modification of the tuberculin test
of cattle for tuberculo-i.s, in that animals not far advanced in the dis-
ease should not be .-laiughtered on arrival in the country, but should be
branded so they could be known and kept apart from others. But.
this proposition wa. defeated and the disposition of animals found to
be affected with tuberculo-i- under the tuberculin test was left, in the
order putting the law into effect, to the determination of the execu-
tive. This decree orders the destruction of the animals or their imme-
diate shipment out of the country. Dr. Ramus Mexia has published
a pamphlet on the subject in the English language, in which he gives


his speeches in Congress Sustaining his contentions. The work is
dedicated to the Royal Agricultural Society of England.
After the first week of the fair much of the best stock is removed.
The attendance is not large at any time-only a few hundred men
being present, except on a few afternoon-;, when the ladies conime. TI
show has been and is yet, to a large extent, for rich men-those doing
business on a large scale. The small farmers and stock raisers do not
come to see it. It is in no sense a fair like ourgreat State fairs. This
year they are organizing for the first time an agricultural fair, to be
combined with the fat-stock show this month (May, 1'",3), in which
they hope to interest a greater number of small proprietors. The
admission fee at the exposition is at first $2 and is gradually reduced
to 51) cents during the second week.
The visitor, fresh from the United States, with indefinite ideas
about "' the wild cattle on the pampas of the Argentine Republic" is
astonished to land here, pass through this great, modern, healthy city
of 876,01h) people, pa.-t its beautiful, well-kept parks to the well-
equipped and admirably arranged grounds of the Argentine Rural
Society, and there tind the greatest collection of purebred cattle and
sheep that he ever saw. The grounds are beautiful, and the buildings
and stalls for animals are very well arranged and spacious. The loca-
tion is in a suburb of the city called Palermo, near the finest park in
the city.
The new feature of this year's show was the dairy exhibit, the first
one the society has given. This. was demanded by the lively interest
in that industry now being manifested in the country, and this exhibit
attracted more attention from the people than any other part of the
show. A very large building was supplied with power, and all sorts
of dairy machinery was. shown in operation. The United S'taztes was
not well represented in this exhibit, but our manufacturers might do
well there.
Very little interest is taken in hogs in Argentina, as their absence
from the exposition shows,,. It is quite safe to predict that some
day pork will be one of the chief sources of Argentine wealth, but
at present the business of hog raising is out of favor, though the
products of the hog, when properly prepared, bring high prices. The
chief obstacle seems to be the lack of a reliable market at this time
for a large production, and the high taxes and great amount of
inspection that accompany the marketing of pork. Aigentina once
had a good market in Brazil. but that was lost by the degeneration of
the. pork owing to the feeding of pigs on decayed animals and other
offal. When the system of feeding corn to animals is adopted, and
large packing houses assure producer; of a steady market, the hog
business will come up in Argentina, for there appears to be no good
reason why it should not.


The work of tihe judges in this exposition is generally done before
the show opens. This is always the practice in the fat-stock show in

Thre mo.,t .-ignificant feature of the stock show in September was the
saleof the animals brought there for that purpose; for that, undoubt-
edly, is the vital thing in the whole enterprise-that which gives it
such an attraction for breeders and meat producers. Not an imported
animal wa, s-old in the show, and only a few just before. These few
were an installment that had been brought from the United States
about two years before, and, having left New York the day after the
Argentine port- were closed to the United States, were prohibited
from entering the country until this time. They were chiefly of Scotch
blood and in0ot of then had been imported into the United States and
Canada. The highe-Nt price got by any of them was $7,400 for a roan
3' years old. Others .,old for $4.,00, $4,500, $3,500, $4,450, and so on.
One Null. :i Cruikshank 4 years old, was from Danvers, Ill. His age
was against him, as it wn- with all this lot, and he had a bad knee. He
has not been sold andl is on an e-tancia owned by the importer. There
is no profit in bringing bulls here over 30 months old, and 24 months
or thereabout-, i- better.
In thi, lihow in September and October 1.4012 cattle, 199 horses, and
924 -helep were sold. The numbers of each exhibited were: Cattle,
2,1t;s; hor.-e-. 314. and sheep, 1.718. Six pigs and 31 representatives
of the poultry yard were sold, the pigs averaging about $45 each and
the poultry I'I11.
The price, for breeding cattle were generally better than ever before,
owing to the lack of any imported stock and to the prosperous outlook
for the stock interests and for the couIntry generally. The prices
obtained fm' tirdinnary camp lbulls-not eligible to registration in the
hernl(ok. from grade cows wholly without pedigree-were the most
a.-toni-hing. The.e were shown in open pens in lots of from 4 to 10
Imiln:.-s. generally about s. Of tihe Shorthorns there were 74 lots,
comprising 542 animals. that sold for $214,514, or an average of
$395.7.. Thi, ieijuivalent toabout$174 United States money. Twelve
of these animal, -old for more than $1,000 each, the highest being
$1,500. Many brought from $600 to $950, and the lowest price was
$70, and this for oldv a few animals. The Shorthorn heifers of the
same clas.,s did not .ell so well, for they were inferior animals. Some-
what over 3u10 of themin were shown, of which 157 were sold at an aver-
age of $216.65, the highest being $850 and the lowest $40. These
heifers were not considered good animals, or they would have brought
good prices. The best heifers are rarely offered at public sale. Com-
paratively few breeders have cows or heifers to sell, or at least they


do not offer the best of these as they do with their bulls. They keep
the heifers for their own use as a rule and sell only the least desirable
animals. Breeders are keenly on the lookout for good cows and heif-
ers, and if any are for sale some one in the neighborhood is likely to
buy them privately, saving the owner the trouble and expense of tak-
ing them to market to be sold at auction. These conditions explain
the rather indifferent quality, the comparatively low price.,, and small
numbers of cows and heifers at the ann11il stock show.
Taking the prize-winning animals as they come, according to age,
we may learn something of the preferences of Argentine breeders
and the prices they are willing to pay. It should be remembered that
these prices for native bulls were higher than ever before because
of the fact stated above that there had been no importations of any
consequence for eighteen months.

Born March 1 to December 31. 1899: (1) Lord Wenlock, roan, bred
by Pereyra, sold for $6.(00; (2) Boer 137, roan, bred by Prreda, sold
for $3,200; (3) Baron 049, red and white, bred by Gimenez Paz, sold
for $7,200. Twenty-eight entries, 2e1 sold, average. *2,.SS;: highest
$7,200, lowest $1,300.
Born January 1 to June 30, 1900: (1.) Ladas 6, roan, champion of
the show and winner of special prizes, bred by Thomas Bell, sold for
$10,300; (2) Surcouf. roan. bred by Fages, sold for $10,5'."0; (3)
Somerville 310, roan, bred )by Vivot, sold for $7,000; honorable men-
tion, Mercurio 152, roan, bred by Pereda, .sold for $11,1o0l). Nineteen
entries, 18 sold, average $3,944; highest $11,100, lowe-t $75o.
Born between July 1 and December 31, 19011: (1) FarrierBridekirk,
red, bred by Pereyra. sold for $11,000; (2) Sultan 12, roan, bred by
Villafafie, sold for $4,1iiu; (3) Ulpiano, red, bred by Fage-, sold for
$5,300; first honorable mention, Stanley 325, red and white, bred by
Vivot, sold for $4,2,0; second honorable mention. Boulevard 01,2, red,
bred by Gimenez Paz, sold for $6,001i. Sixty-one entries, 51 sold,
average $2,795; highest $11,0 ini, lowest $t65.
Born between January 1 and June 30,, D11'1: (1) Newton Stoni, roan,
bred by Thomas Bell; (2) Alexandro Beauty 091, roan, blred by Gimnie-
nez Paz; (3) Fernando, roan. bred by Aldao. Twenty-three entries,
but none of the winners sold; 9 others in the class sold from $1,100 to
$5,600, average $1,877.
Born before January 1, 1)900: 1) Stella 155, red, bred by JosC
Cobo; (2) Duchess Lily 22, red and white, bred by Anchorenia; (3)
Celestina 103, roan, bred by Malbran, sold for $2,000. Seven entries,
1 sale.


Born between January 1 and June 30, 1900: (1) Duchess Lily 26,
roan, bred by Anchorena; only entry.
Born between July 1, 190t), and March 1, 1901: (1) Calomel 16,
roan, bred by Pereyra: (2) Dalia 89. roan, bred by Pereyra; (3) Rose-
mary, red and white, bred by Cardenas, sold for $2,000. Eight entries,
4 sales at $2,1100 each.
Born between March 1 and December 31, 1899: (1) Grandison 42,.
champion of the breed in the show and also champion of the bulls of
the beef races, bred by Villafaiie, not sold, and since died; (2) Caron-
bier 54, bred by Pereda, sold for $2,150; (3) Kaki 63, bred by Pereda,
sold for $1,100. Four entries, 2 sales.
Born between January 1 and June 30, 1900: (1) Shamrock, bred by
Pereyra; (2) Mahnlmesbury 9, bred by Villafafle, sold for $3,200; (3)
Grandison 52, bred by Villafafie, sold for $2,000. Four entries, 3
sales; lowest $80U0.
Born between July 1 and December 31, 1900: (1) Wonderful, bred
by Pereyra; (2) Grandison 15, bred by Villafafie; (3) Grandison 55,
bred by Villafafie, sold for $2,500. Fourteen entries; 10 sales at $500
to $2.5<1i, average $925.
Born between January 1 and June 30, 1901: (1) Grandison 63, (2)
Grandison 65, and (3) Iron King, all bred by Villafafie, and the 3 sold
for $7,00)i.
Only 1 Hereford cow, born between July 1, 1900, and March 1,
19'1, was shown for a prize: Zamora, shown by Pereyra, and given a
second prize, and not sold.
Only 4 Polled Angus bulls were shown for prizes. One was sold
for $50oi and another went with two 2-year-old cows for $1,300 for the
lot. Only 3 Polled Angus cows were shown, the winner of the first
prize going with the bull referred to and another cow for $1,300.
A few Holstein bulls were offered, 1 being sold for $1,050 and 2
others for $500 each. Only one prize was awarded, and that to the
one that sold for $1.W50.
Not a Jersey was to be seen in the show, either for prize or sale.
The Jersey herd in Carcarafii. owned by people from the United States
who have for years operated a cheese factory there and made it famous,
is the only one of any size in the country. Jerseys are regarded as
an expensive family luxury and only a few people think of having
them, because they do not make beef.
Two groups of Shorthorn bulls of 8 animals each, born in 1900, all
registered, the only entries in their classes, sold at $1,000 to $2,100



,f ,








each, one group averaging $1,375 and the other $1.519). Two groups
of Herefords of the same grade sold for averages of $7111 and $625,
respectively, they being the only entries. Two group- of s Hereford
heifers, the only entries, sold at an average of $270. and $*2.5'), respec-
tively. No Shorthorn heifers were shown in groups for prizes.
Under the head of mestizo.,, or grades, some very sati.,factory sales
are recorded, showing the readiness of the Argentine breeder to buy
animals on their individual merits, without a recognized pedigree and
ineligible to entry in the Argentine herdbook, especiallyV if such ani-
mals come from well-known breeders and have been sired liv rcgi-tIred
bulls. The Shorthorn bulls in this c:ttegory were shown in groups of
8, and there were 345 entries for prizes, the classification living "Grade
Shorthorn bulls of two and four teeth." The group that won the first
prize was not sold. The winners of the second d prize sold for tian average
of $1,731, and the third prize group for an average of $iu:3.5. Of the
280 animals entered in this class 218 were sold, the average price being
$725. The highest price was $2,60 and the lowvot $.81, the latter for
2 lots only. All the others sold for $250 or more, generally around
$600 to $S110, while 5s of these young hulls sold for $l,iii> or more.
The heifers of the corresponding category sold for less than half, and
the best of them were reserved from sale. Of the l20 shown, 56 were
sold at an average price of $345. The first and second prize winners
were not offered for sale, and the lot that won third prize sold for an
average of $734-1 of them for *l, mals than those referred to in the beginning of this chapter, tOhe "camp
bulls in pen," that sold for an average of $31.)5.7S. The latter were
rougher animals, raised in the camp. never having had any special care,
and most of them were not so well bred as the ones juLisL referred to,
which were entered for prizes. But many successful breeders are
going in for bulls that have not been pampered, but have grown up
under the conditions which they must meet on the average estancia
that is not breeding show animals, but i- aiming to produce the most
beef of the best quality at the least cost. It i- often said in Argentina
that the ambition to produce show apinials has resulted in lowering
the vitality of the sires. What we want," breeders often say, "is a
good supply of young, hardy bulls that have been raised to camp con-
ditions, so they can go out with the herd, take things as they come,
and keep in good condition while doing their work and without watch-
ing and special care."
Only 5 Hereford grade bulls were shown under the class provided
for them, and they sold for $450 each. Eight Polled Angus heifers
sold for $80 each and S Red Lincolns for $130 each.
3369-No. 48-03-- 2


Many animals are brought to the exposition for sale only, not being
entered for any prize. Under this head 161 purebred Shorthorn bulls
were shown, and 127 of them were sold at the average price of $1,270.
The highes-t price was $ti.ln.I and tlhe lowest $250. Four sold for more
than S4.olii. These were all from one breeder and were sired by the
noted hull Spartan. Three sold for less than S4.-li-)0 and more than
$3,00O and 16 .,-old for prices between $2.OOii and S3,0o0. Nearly all
these bulls. were born between June and Dere'emibeP. looi.
Seven purebred Ilerefords of the same class sold for prices ranging
from $55o to ?$2h,00hl, or an average of $1 .lei; 3 Polled Angus averaged
$423; 3 Ilolsteins averaged $5)0; 5 Flemish averaged ,I1,10:20 Polled
Angus camp-bred grade hull-; sold for an average of $211, and 1 lot of
heifers for $45 each. But the Polled Angu.- is gaining, and many
well-informed men in Argentina think it will lie the second breed in
the country-next to the Shorthorn-though now it is very much
below the Hereford in numbers.
Among Argentine breeders there are many wealthy men who will
cheerfully pay enormous prices for animals., that l)leafse their fancy,
and they frequently do it. Sometimes thi,- r.,sults in s,,timulating prices
to an unnatural extent, but it is certain that superior animals will
always find admirers and bring prices that average far above those
obtained in the United States. It is true that many good bulls are
sold privately in the country at lower from $1'i> to $200-and
that there are plenty of native breeder, who have not yet learned that
it pays to buy a good hull. There are plenty of rough, miserable
cattle in the country, lint improvement is going on rapidly, as men
see that it doe,, n(it pay to raise poor cattle when on the same amount
of land they might be producing good animal.', and realizing much
larger profits. The great increase in the price of land is also leading
estancieros to make the mo.-t of it. and tlhey can no longer afford to go
on in the old loose way, being -ati.sfied with prices of cattle ranging
from $2I> to .a:1.. They must double or treble these figures, and they
are doing it; but they mutst continue t(o import new blood to keep their
herds up or they will surely degenerate.
'.11 rP.
As noted elsewhere, the significantt feature of the .-heep sales was the
decline in the l)prices obtained for Lincolns, as compared with the sales
of 1901, and the gain in prices and number sold of Rambouillets and
the Downs. The Merino type is surely in better demand, more gen-
eral, and not confined to a few breeder.,. The highest price for a
Rambouillet ram in the 19I01 show was T,3oo, while in this show the
highest price was, only $2,00.D11. About. 'l per cent more animals were
sold in 191o2, however, and the average was higher. The Hampshire


Down-; held their average well u I,) 1au.-e they were not numerous
and there Was a good deImld for all. Two lambs 3 months old sold
for $17.: each. which i- .-aid to be the record price for Hampshire ram
lambs of this age. 'he sale. of llatil)..-hire l)Dowii,., Oxford Downs,
and Shropshirus during the year following this show did not develop
big prices. a, it :ailppears thliit the b)reeder.- supplied their wants mostly
during the -how.

Thi, hre .-ahle were' not part iclal iy ni)teworthy, nor, for the most
part, were ti lit hores -how% TIh, hor-,v business at present is not at
its he-t. though g i ) ood horse- i, ay I,(e prlodiced here very cheaply. The
heavy horses w,,re critici.,ed Ibc.L.aue thhey were too heavy and did not
show life enough. Sone of tli light ro,,l.sters, the Hackneys, and the
saddle hot'-,r.e were ver ;ittracti\e ;idl fi 'ind imany admirers. These,
it will I)e noted, 1ironught the best price-. The higlmi.-t price in the sale
wai for a Iieauttiful d:>pple-gr:;v Pernchenron., 4 years old, named Docil.
He was one of tive eiitrie., i, hi,- cla.,. in which three prizes were
offered, )Lit he wa. not con,.-idered by the judges to be worthy of a
prize. The winner of the first prize was not ,dd. but the second-
prize animal brought $450, while Docil commanded the top price in
the whole show. Many other good heavy colts sold for very low prices,
which was rather di.c'ourl'aging to th breeders of this class of horses,
for sonime of then were of excellent t yple and individual qualities. The
s-ales of heavy draft mares was better than in the May show, as they
were more utiniforin and ,old for miore nearly uniform price.-, though
rather low a, compared with the price.- -iuch mares would command
elsewhere. Buit a- these were canimlp-Ibred animals, the prices were not
so low as they -eemi to the out.,ider.
The official report of ale-, mad(le in the exposition is given herewith
as it. wU., prel)pared hy the Runirl Soc-iety. As published, it contained
many errors, lbut -oimne of these have been corrected. It is still
incomplete and i naccu rate in -oile rsp)ects, however, and, like some
other A rgi ntiiie official -,tati-tics. imust ie taken in a general way--as
an ap)proximnation and not. as an exact -tatement. For instance, it will
he noticed that. the average price of heavy "pen" mares is given at
$97.97, while the lowet price i, .aid to be $100, when it was really
:32s. The highest price paid for a heavy -tallion is said to have been
.2,4( 01, when one was -sold for $i.0111. PBut, in a general wa,.y, it gives
an idea of the sales in a conden..ed form. The cattle -ales, as given
in detail in the foregoing account, were worked out by the author of
this report -independeit of this record.
In this statement. of -ales, stall and "pen" are translations of
Argentine classification, "-galpoii" ad "a corral," which are used to
ditinguish animals raised under shelter and with great care from


thoe raisl i more o"r lIs, in the open camp. There is another classi-
fication midway between these two, namely, Criado sistema mixto,"
meaning, kept part of the time under shelter and part of the time in
the open. "Criado ai anampo" i. the expression generally used for
an iniinial that has been raied in the camp altogether.

Si',inl, p..,'l .'trld'l it fif ( .l i f s l 1 ," it i I/l, NX.iel/'.em r- I itIl/,r i .,l io.iliohn, Buenio Aires,

IA. 1T LI-..

rn Nizini, r Nh i,]n'.,.r .\ii.iIIII i Hichc.t L.wen.-l Average
iR I ,l.. i I %hi.. ,r pnr e. price.

|Sh r h, rh- . .mi .l ''._, 1. .,l l l. 0J) 5400 $1,i'2.990
'.l..I ... .l.. .. I Fi .nil 19 'I 12, IO -' (tl) 2,000 2. 000.OQ
NMIl . I. .U ;'AU WJ2. U l'i 2, ,0 I 7C 509. .2
', .. i-IF i ,, .. i' 1.1 9' 5:10 1, N0 40 235.00

T ,, .. ..... . . . ..... .. . 1, Iy I 'G; I :j2, I ..................... ..........
IIi r; i,.rd,
ti ll ........l .... '.. -. :s. 349 1 520 0 l 1,415.96
7 ........ ........... ...... ....................
..Mdl-' ... I .'J 1.,.;'0 11.1(0 170 513.70
.''..m.. .lrvm. I 1"; 16 4 10l) "-0 I 250 260.00

I'.I I ... ....... .......... I I ,4. 79 '......... . .

I |.M l..I ,. ". .O'.O- 0 -.2., 300 450.00
II.................. Female. . 1,000 '00 200 200.00
Maltl. l 2 1 ti 4-5 30 100 321.25
................... F m l. 2'J 1i; 1. UUO SO 45 62.60

T ,, t . . . . . . . . . .. .. 0 6 7 .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .
Hli.-h ,it- '

]inMI ... I; 4 2 4OU 1.0' G 200 433.33
ThIll ;ui 1,i*1i........... .. ,,h '

I . . . . . . .. . . . 1.1 .1 *. U I . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .

.h m I li ,I ... : .- *,10 ), 2'l 900, 1,010.00
i ... ............................
1 ,,- . . . . .. . . . .. 1 0 . . . . . . . .. ... . . ...

tvh"ll ... I, IU4 W0 J00 466.66
. ..... l. .... .1 ......... ........

Sl .. ..... .. .. . .... .. ... . . .....
Hill uri1C. nII
i l .. . .. .. .. .. . . .... . .. .. ..... ... ..... .
.111 .1 11nm ..h l .N. I I 1:0 1 130 130.00

. . .... ......... ......... ...... ...... ..... -.
Red -',,It,'l |
p '.- . . . . .. M tI . . 1 . .. .. .W l.. . I . . . . . . .
,... . . I.


(onde,,.srul slaleni ti, t i, I .'.i *'.* t, ( lb r tnt t 'a I/i. 'S'.'j Se ni/a. (I' t.l~. i t/j,, tIttfl Ji'ti t 'it tn I 't*'

Nit ilti r N i r i
ril>.l N II

.A ll ,1'lH I IT L ,-' .t A rr.. r,
-:,h i ~rn, I~,' ], l ..

Stl ......... ......... F tr lnh Iv.
Light dIraftr
.l a l l .. . . . . . . . . I h
|Ft-n il 11,
P ei . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. F nini I, .
Heavy diraft:
S ta ll .. .. .. .... .. ...... . F .
I Feli iii
TP il .......... ......... Frin jl' ..
'r (i, iI l . . . . . . . . . .. .

ii I-'.I:

RaimLtn il, ............... li l 2t "
l F>ailiilI,. 1 21 '1
| .h ll I .. **'. 12 .-, '
L i n c i Il i . . . . . . . . . . . ". . v
Iarntl Iv'. 12
Shropshir ........ .......i -'u h.. l

Oxfordsilhre ........ .. .. it . 1 1 .

T o ila l . .. ... .. ... .. .. .. .. . ... 1.7 1 1

I1 tillt- . 3.1i !1
HphieIirmale.. ;i i'

T o a .. .. .. .. . .. ... 1 7 1>- ..

-.xii''u 11i. "'j

2 "ILl
- I1 11

.it ... ..IU t, lllI

,,,i i, 7'. 2 l','

' .12 I Ilil

'4 1 71 1. 1:1. 11
I I '1 ii .'11,

i,. i l ".1 II.1

7; "i i 90 i i
2,. 2 "i "it
l''i _'_Pt

Pigs ....... ................ . M nl.
P o u ltry ..... ... .. . ...... ..
D o g .. ... . . . .. .. .. .. . .
strand lItttil fir il, -hi\ ..


The Rural Society control., all the herdbooks and flockbooks in
the country. The Shorthorn herdbook was started about thirty
years ago by several breeders ;and remained a private concern until a
little more than two years ago, when it was purchased by the Rural
Society. The Hereford herdlook was purchased 1)by this society

several years ago, as was also that. of the Red Lincolns. The Polled
Angus record was started by the .ocietty six or seven years ago.
There are no rival herdbook., and the registration in the society's

books is recognized everywhere in the country.
There is a commission of three members for each breed. Each

member holds office for two years and is eligible for reelection. This

commission passes upon all applications for regiration. aind though
an appeal may be taken to the general board of the society, this has


2 ii',iJ iii1

1I ll I 'iII '
I ',11 1 1 1 I

7 i' i )
* (i'l Il)

lul~l '.-7 ti7

J i
*l I~L I%

III 'l 1<'>

",i1 22u 77

".11 ":i 1 11i

lit; 1!
]2 '. _
] r,' .. ,", "I

,i i%11

lii. itt.

*' --'It I 1 11 1' HlU



never been done lbut once, when the commi.-.sion was sustained. The
comnii.ision has power to send( inspectors to the "cabalfina" (breeding
establishment) to verify the claim made ii the application for regis-
tration. but thi- also ha. never been done.
Until now any aninmual that was entitled to registration in the
Coates's herdbook of England wa,a admitted to registration in the
"Herdbook Argentina." After a long and spirited discussion the
directors of the society decided that hereafter no imported Shorthorn
can be regi.-tered in the llerdbook Argentina unles.-, the first dam and
sire of the .same inscribed in the pedigree were recorded prior to the
year 1,S50. The argument used to bring about this restriction, which
shuts out many bulls that have been going to Argentina from England,
was that so long a- the Argentine breeders were not permitted-to
register grade Shorthorn, after many years of crossing and improving,
English Ir,',eder, should not 1i' permitted to register animals of five
Many I reeder', are in.favor of establishing a second hlierdbook-a
prepaliratory record -in which should lie inscribed graded animals
alfto'L a certain ntmiller of cr' these animals to be eligible to entry
in the regular IirdIook after a certain number of additional crosses.
But these were outvoted when tihe recent regulation was made.
The beef producer, he who is thinking only of producinggood steers,
is not particular about the, pedigrees of his hulls., lie looks to the
individual merits of the huill he is buying first, then seeks to know
what breeder they came from, and. lastly, perhaps, to ascertain what
sort of ancev-tor, they had. He wants the bull in order to raise steers
and ha., no utie for the pedigree.
There are )probal 'lvy not more than fifty Ireeders in Argentina who
arv familiar w ith pedigrees and families and take these into prime con-
.,ideration in lu'ying bulls. Until very recently the Argentines were
thinking wholly (if Ieef. 'They prefer deep reds and dark roans
because, they .a. the lighter colors fade out and look very bad in
their ,'o ntrti .
The certificate of the recognized herdbook in any country will be
rec, gnized in Argentina hr the lRural Society, provided the animals
presented for regi.-tration comply with the conditions stated. The
American Shorthorn Herd Book hlas. been recognized there before, and
so has the Hereford Regis.,ter. Between the years 1879 and 1887 many
Herefords were brought to Argentina from the United States. The
certificates of pedigree must lie indorsed by the Argentine consul in
the port from which the animals are shipped. Animals must be regis-
tered within one year after their birth or importation in the country.
The fee for the registration of cattle is $5 for each animal born in the
country and $1(1 for each imported animal for members of the Rural
Society and twice these amounts for those not members.


The flockbook.. are held in -.mnall repute by the sheep breeder.; not
that they are not perfectly regular r and of a high standard, but the
breeder, a- at rule do not think it worth while to register their animals,
particularly ewes. Only about half a dozen breeders regi-;tvr regu-
larly. Rln,.1 nmust come prepared to regi.-ter, in case the cvrtificiates
should lie (-called for. 1but fre.iiient1y iuyers do not ask for them, par-
ticuliarly if they know the reputation of the place tihey came from.
If from the United State,. the certificates would undoubtedly be
demanded. The tlockliooks are based on the Engli.h requirements,
and the fee for regi.t ration i.-,l for individuals and 50 cents per head
where the registration i- collective, and double these amounts for
imported anitnmal. Nonciilier-i pay double fees. The regi-.tration
in (lthe flockhooks i.. but it will very likely be slow.
The lierdlooik-, and flnn.klk-, are in .hanrge of a competent Eng-
lishmian, Mr. II. Brnce ,Percny, ho acts as secretary to all4-the commis-
sions.. a.nd i. ii personally. rLe of the ,ile, in the Rural Society's
building" in Bueniio Air,-.
An arlitratio n bIoand fi'r thlie settlement of disputes anniing the
member', without going inti, court is one of the benefits open to the
member. of the A.rgentinet, Rural Society. Disputes between mem-
bers, or between a meimbier and an outsider, may be submitted to this
tribunal., which i-, (ompo-,ed of some of the best men in the country.
But both mut agreive to ,ulmiiit to thle decision of the oaltrd. and if a
member violate, the deci.,ion lie is expelled and posted in disgrace.
This board w ,tarted about ten years ig, and 'terwards alndned,
as very few took in (uch intere-t in it. About two years ago it was
revived, but .till it i. Ihut little patronized. An effort was then made
to make it compulsory t',ir Iotlh parties to a dispute, if members of the
society, to stibllmit tli,,ir contint ion toarbitrimtion, which is free of cot,
if either iarty de-sired it; but this failed.

An annual exhibition 4f ,reedin_, stock by the Argentine Rural
Society will lie held d(iring tht. latter part of September and the first
half of October, 1904. At that time the Rural Society's show will
probably lie an international one,, and imported animals maybe shown
on the groLunds; thi.- i., not )permitted when the show is only national,
as it is this *'ear, and imported animal can not be shown for prizes or
admitted to the show ground.. Shipments should be made from New
Yoik not later than July 1 to 15.
The English port, were opened to Argentine live stock on February
3, 19403, after having been closed nearly three years. A slight out-
break of foot-and-mouth di-eae on three estancias caused the Argen-
tine governmentnt to close its port, to export animals on MaIy 9, 1903,
pending the erad ication of t h i malady, but this may not last more than


a few months. The Argentine Government now (,une, 1903) claims
that the disea.,e no longer exists in the country and is at present seek-
inga readmis-ion to British market, for live animals. The three months
during which the export tradle went on -timulated prices and taught
the producer., of fat cattle and .-heep that they can only hope to com-
pete with the United States by producing the I)et animals and prepar-
ing them in the best pos.,ible manner.
The danger of war with Chile appear-, to be )pa-t and capital is being
more freely invested in the country. Agricultural and stock breeding
operations- are I)eing and will be carried on with more certainty every
year, as the condition-, are Ieing studied and fewer mistakes are being
made: hence greater profits and more money to invest in improve-
ment% of all kinld-,. Last year was a bad time, as much uncertainty
prevailed. The mniarkets were limited to the local demands and three
fr.-e.Zin" pl)It.s and one chilled-meat concern, with what could be
worked tlup in the way of live-animal trade in South Africa, Spain,
Portugal. and Brazil. all of which was not much. Of course, there
were the ,aladeros (salting establishmentss, the makersof tasajo (jerked
beef), but these showed a heavy falling off during 19,42. But now the
country exhibits every indication of a boom. The price of country
property ha., advanced 30 per cent within the year, and there is little
dis,,ent from the opinion that these values will be maintained. Alfalfa
is taking the place of the unproductive wheat fields, and cattle are
wanted to eat the alfalfa, though much of it i., exported. Two
additional chilled-meat etablishmients are in process of building and
other-, are in prospect, while some of those already in existence are
being enlarged. New areas are being opened up at the southwest,
new railway lines are in projection both north and south, and all this
means a demand for better and more cattle. The same is true of
sheep. A change i, taking place, as so well told by Mr. Herbert
Gibson in a contribution to this report. A demand is felt which the
United State-; can -upply-that is, for good mutton sheep.

A glance at the report of sales at the last show, given in detail
elsewhere, indicates the overwhelming preponderance of Shorthorns
in Argentina. Of all the cattle there exhibited (2,(6'7), 1.824 were
Shorthorn-,, and of the total amount of cattle sales ($1,007,695), the
Shorthorns brought $*932,5S1. This is a fair indication of the pref-
erence of estancieros in the country. The influence of thi., great major-
ity of Shorthorn breeders is so great that it is difficult to introduce any
other breed, and other breeds do not have the same fair chance that
they would if they had more supporters. There are, to be sure, many
breeder, and advocates of the Hereford as on animal of superior hardi-
ne,,s, good health, feeding qualitie.s under adverse conditions, and a


sure breeder. It is generally admitted that the Hereford is better for
poorly camps than the Shorthorn, and that he is much better able to
endure hardship. In most of the tests for fat steers the Hereford has
shown a greater percentage of net beef, winning the championship in
the May show of the Rural Society for four consecutive years. The
objection made to him is that he does not produce a marketable fat
steer as soon a- the Shorthorn. It i.< claimed that in the good camps,
on alfalfa or the best native gras.e.-,. the Shorthorn is ready for market
six months sooner and, age for age, produces a heavier, finer-grained
animal. So that it is better at thi, time to take Shorthorns to that
market than any other sort of animal.
Argentine breeders have not gone in for any special strain of Short-
horns, except that now the tremendous impetus given to the dairy indus-
try makes the milk strains popular, a., for iiin.tiince, those of the Bates
family. At present the ('ruikshank Shorthorns predominate largely.
While breeders there will look ver. carefully to see that the pedigree
is all right, they buy on their individual judgment of the merits of ani-
mals offered rather than on the certificates of pedigree that go with
them. The Shorthorn bull, mui.,t be .short in the legs, deep and long
in the body, with a good head, full, wide chest, well-laid shoulders,
strong loins, and well-.,prung rib.s, covered with deep, mellow flesh,
full hind quarters; and his color will please best if it is a deep red or
roan, preferably the former. Special stres.,s is laid on the head there.
Bulls should be from 2 to 3 years of age. but not less than 18 months old.
Some tirst-class Shorthorn cows, especially those known to be good
milkers, and heifers of good milking and beef antecedents, will be sure
to bring long prices, for they are very much wanted. It was notice-
able at the Rural Society's show that the very limited number of cows
shown were of inferior quality compared with the bulls. To be sure,
breeders do not like to take tine cows to the show, because they must
be fattened more than i- good for them, and the inducement is not
sufficient, as they do not desire to sell them. A good bull may always
be had with a fourth of the effort required to find an equally good
cow. Notice that while '233 high-grade bulls were sold, only 6 cows
were sold in that class. The 238 Shorthorn cows sold were of the
corral, or rougher, class, and yet they sold for an average of $21-5, or
$103 United States money. The young bulls of the same class brought
an average of $510, or $224 gold. and it must be remembered that
great number of these were not purebred, and so had no pedigree.
They were bought wholly on their individual merits., and many of
them brought from $1,500 to $2,(000. If the cows had been of equal
quality they would have brought much more than they did.
These mestizo cows were, in fact., rather inferior, and were the


second or third choice of the herd., front which they came. Often
they were merely the pick of general camp stock, and most of them
had no pedigree whatever.
The uniformity of the exhibit-; of some of the better breeders was
an indication that tihey paying more attention to the selection of
dlam, recognizing the folly of wa.-ting expensive bulls on poor cows.
A very go-od authority on the .-elling qualities of breeding stock in
Arg-ntina -ays;:
There i- a g 'o,-I demand fir ?-uperi r ci,-, pruovidling they be -f conditions to enter
thet- Argei itir- fIlerdlhok. During the y'ar 1.02 all pedigree tuns, even inferior
anidl ,,i -ne-, were }'hi ut v'cry goii prices It is safe to :ay thai there is a buyer
f,,r ev>rv Si-,rtlijrn 1-1W., inWt rievee:arilv a choice specimen, but of good type and
antec-ili-nt- (' ,v.wv t., bring t'jp Irie.s here niust be -trong in the hind quarters;
th v miii-t hae iiiiini-takalhle i-.ef 'lualitie-.
A., indicated cl-,e'- her, in the reference to the dairy industry, there
i, L deniinll ftOr .ootni. thhonr u1ghlv *' iod -i res of the dai ry breeds, except
'r.-r,'y.-v. :iinld a few not.'iJlIy ood( c(iw,. The Hol-teins .,een destined
to play :ini imnilport:it part in the fututire (of the Argentine rattle-breed-
ing indutitry. a nd .-o atre the Flemisli cattle, neither of which can now
l)e imported into thi, country from iEurope. The strength of the
HoI-.teins in the United State- ought to give the breeders of that race
a troodl haiince in Argentina.
II ereford.'l. will not bring high prices., there, compared with Short-
horn,, though li an anitial that would command favorable attention, a
really great .,ire, would pro'bablly fetch ;5,Iiini equal to $2,201) United
States money, or positly a little more. A criticism that. is often made
of the Argentine herd- other than Shorthorn., is the lack of really
great individual .sire.,. There are breeders of Herefords. Holsteins,
and Alerdeen-Ang-i who will recognize and buy, regardless of price,
bull, of the highes.t merit, but will not look at an ordinary animal.
As, the importer of the-e ,breed, itist look to the best breeders for his
c.toii' l.-, he miti-.t Ihe able to sati.,fy them.
The following t iw-,I a comparison of the price; obtained for Short-
hors i and Hlereford., for three years- past in the tRural Society's sales'
in (O)'toiier:
l'r,,',., ,.f ii,,,r,/,r ,i ,,,,,l lr.,,Ir .^ t,,, i rI,,,,,. ,,,I il erel;,~ri 1. 90, 1900-19t2.
I. eid ig rev Pediigree Urale Grade
'"r .-hunhhurn'. H>rhuhjids. Shonhorns. Herefords.

lO" ... ................. ....................... Sl ,79 $895 $447 $362
lI .... ........................................I 2-,277 1.937 4 6 475
It ... .. .... .................................... 2.891 1,34+ 5U .41 297

It i-, hardly fair to the Hlerefords to make such a comparison with-
out making allowance for severall influence., on the prices obtained. In


1901 the Herefords were of a better class than in 19i2. though the
number of bidders was greater in the latter year. So few animals
were presented that one or two high price, paid for di\ liiduials in l1911
affected the average. Mr. Eduardo Bullrich, a man well inforiiinw1 on
live-stock matters. gives the fdhollowing opinion concerning Herefords,
being the result of years of close observation among breeders and
The lHerefordI i a Ibreed which, for its ailaptahility to rane eroniliti,,m-, hardy con-
stitutiiin, 'ouragt, ani ileer\v'raince, c'-mbined with ideal grazing ]jr,,itrlit>. will
make its way in ouir imntrv as well as any other 1 -e.f bre-1, lln'-'ih perhaps slowly.
The Polled Angu- is making headway and, though but little known,
is giving re.,ult.- that are attracting attention. In a circular letter to
estancieros advising then what to breed for the new chilled-beef estab-
lishmnent at La Plata. the manager. Mr. Daniel Kingsland, puts Pulled
Angus second only to Shorthorns. The breed is well adapted to the
tine pasturage of the valuable inside cammp,. as well as to the ru'ugher
regions where it.s vigorous con-titution enable-s it to thrive under con-
ditions that would interfere with success with Shorthorns. Some
magnificent steers have appeared in the export markets from the
Polled Angus growers. It would not be wi.,e, liowever, to bring to
this market as an experiment more than one Polled Anugus bull.
Some first-cla.,- Polled )Durhami or Red Polled rull-, ought to find
ready buyers, for they have admirers; and there is a tendency among
some breeders to dehorn and to s.,trive to produce hornless cattle. The
advantages in shipping and handling are .uffici.nt to pay for consider-
able effort and expense. Dehorning is not much practiced, however,
especially upon grown animal.,. There is a strong prejudice. ag.iin-t it
on humanitarian grounds. Some breeders and shippers claim that it
is an advantage to have the horn, in handling cattle on shipboard.


About three years ago an English importer bought a tine young
dark-roan Shorthorn bull at the Belfast fair in Ireland for 115
($510.98) and brought. it with others to Buenos Aires, where the
animals were sold at auction. This young bull, Farrier, attracted the
fancy of Serior Leonardo Perevra, one of the most -ticcessfiul and one
of the richest breeders in the country. His estancia, San Juan, is
the show place of the country, only an hour's ride from Buenos Aires.
Here he has 5 leagues, or nearly 34.111) acre-, and in various other
parts of the country he owns a total of sil leagLiue. and many thousand
cattle. The San Juan place is the old home place, where his father
began the improvement of his stock more than fifty years ago, and is
used only for breeding stock. Thirty to forty men are employed to
care for the beautiful park which lie maintains there. Senfior Pierevyra
breeds Shorthorn and Hereford cattle, Lincoln and Merino sheep, and


various. breeds of horses-always winning many prizes at the shows
and getting the top prii.-, for the animal, he sells.
All this by way of preface to the sale of the handsome roan Short-
horn hill that pleased Sefior Pereyra. He pleased others also, so
that the price went up to $15,70., or $6,751 United States money,
before the other bidder., were willing to quit and let Seflor Pereyra
have thle ]ull. lie hIas always, been well pleased with his bargain, for
Farrier hia., git'iven himi about 231 fine calves, among them a prize
winner thi-, season, ai red bull that was second only to one other in the
show ii the contest tor the championship of Shorthorns. This bull
sold for -it.oi ,, or more than the champion. In the show were 8 or
10 others of Farrier'.- sons, of which 4 were sold-for $900, $3,200,
and 2 ffr $4.201, respectively-the total sales of Serior Pereyra from
thiis bull alone being $23,5u10 in the auction sales in this one show.
Others of Farrier's get were reserved from sale.
Thit trenimendus profit realized by the importer of this bill is not a
matter of surpri.-e, though a1 little larger than is often earned. Many
bull, aire, bought in England for 14 and sold in the Argentine spring
sales for from $3,10o1. to $7,000 paper, or from six to fourteen times
what they cost in England. Often breeders in Argentina order bulls
sent iout from England or Scotland on commission; that is, buyers in
England. familiar with the country and the wants of the Argentine
breeders, especially their clients, attend the English sales and buy on
the order of the Argentine breeders, receiving a good commission for
their Pervices. This generally results in the English breeder getting
better prices for his animal.,, for the agent of the Argentine breeder
knows his client expects to pay a handsome price, and when he finds an
aninimal that he thinks will .-uit he bids till he get.- it. When two or
three of these htuyer. come together, it is a fine thing for the English
breeder. Those wx ho buy on speculation on their own account for sale at
auction in Argentina look about for good animals, which can be bought
cheap and sold on their individual merits,; and they're very successful in
thlie business,. Only a short time ago the bull Royal Duke was bought on
order from the herdl of the King of England foran Argentine breeder,
Senior Manuel .J)os (iobo, for 800, and the bull, being old and in poor
health, died oti shipboard, insured for C1,200.
When the Argentine ports were closed to importations from Eng-
land, a clever English importer went to the United States and bought
a lot of bulls, mostly those that had been brought previously from
Englind or Scotland, and started for Buenos Aires with them. Some
of his- rival., heard of it, and the ports were closed to animals from
the States on the representation that hlie wa., bringing animals from Eng-
land to the United States to be reshipped to Buenos Aires. This decree
was i-,suted the day before his animals left New York, but no advice was
sent to New York, and lie sailed in ignorance of it. The result was


that the animals lay in Montevideo for eighteen months or more, until
they could be admitted here. A hull named Brave Archer was bought
in Chicago for $240 United States money. lie lind been brought from
Scotland about a year before, and though lie was a 4-year-old, he sold
in Bueno.s Aire, last year for $6,s0i.
Some recent importations of light-roan Shorthorns from Scotland
sold at $1,400 to $2,500, it being the wrong time to offer them, :aind
part of then were withdrawn for later sale. The'Iy were not extraor-
dinary ainimals-some of them l)eing very ordiiUary -aind the prices
realized gave the importers a snug profit.
In 1.S87 .Nsmo( Vrirginia breeders .sent a large consignment of Short- .
borne here. and they realized very handsoi.,e prirc.., for them, the leading
bull bringing $12.ij0u,. They en ijoed a gdl, but the revolu-
tion in 1890 brought it to ain end.
111.I11 I'UILIS FOIRt 'icI %IN \1 I'% \NIM.sA.
The following recital of the disposition of a certain shipment of
cattle is full of suggestion: The shipment consisted of 1 bull, born
March 7, 1900, 14 heifers and cows from 2 to 2 yearsold, oneof them
a cow with a young calf, and one 8-monthlis old calf. Two of the heifers
were ineligible for registry in the Argentine herdbook: one of these
sold for $600 and the other was withdrawn. 'The heifer calf 8 months
old was sold for $500. The bull was a rather good animal, a d(ep red,
a little rough in shape and faulty in the head, and a trifle faulty in the
hind quarters, but in excellent condition, strong, and well developed,
and he sold for $3.500. The general comment among those present
was that he was a very good bull for breeding steers, but not good
enough for a sire of breeding animals.. The heifers, with one or two
exceptions, were very inferior. They were mostly roans, with two or
three reds. They had sufferedd from long voyages and the unfavorable
conditions at Las Palmas, where they spent eight iiimonth., after having
once been rejected at Buenos Aires because they arrived with foot-
and-mouth disease. They were very h leggy." a fault quickly to be
noticed in Argentina. and most of their, were had in other respects,
particularly in the hind quarters. They were all bred to good bulls,
and, being young and of good breeding, familiar to the bidders, and
brought by a well-known importer, they brought astonishingly) good
prices. The lowest price was $1,000, the highest $2,11110, and the aver-
age for 12 was $1,490. They were offered at a very bad season when
very few care to buy. If they had been offered at the time of the Sep-
temniber .show, they would undoubtedly have brought considerably more.
If these animals, which in this country would have been slow sale
at $150 to $200 United States money, and might have gone for less,
could be sold at an unfavorable time for such good price.-, what would
be realized for tiptop cows, such as could be sent from the United


State,, There is no doubt about there being a good business in tak-
ing such excellent animals there. The country is simply hungry for
good breedingo animals, especially Shorthorns. and cows will be par-
ticularly acceptable. because they are badly needed.


For several years the Rural Society has given a show in May for
horses,. fat cattle, and -sheep. It is l)rimarily a horse fair, as the sales
are chieflv of horses. It is a combination of market and competition
for prizes, and many animals. aie brought to the show to be sold, not
being Inte'red for iprizes. This .show was to be combined with the new
agricultural fair thi- %ear (s'ee p. 13).
IntAere-t centers in the competition among tlhe Shorthorns for the
chanmpion-hipl, although for four year-, prior to 1902 the champion fat
steers were Ilerefords. This is the more remarkable' because of the
cumiparatively- *mall number of Herefords, bred in the country. In
the l9t12 show there were twenty lots of 8 steers each competing in
the Shorthorn class and only two lots of 8 each in the Hereford, Polled
Angus, and holstein claO-es. For the Hereford to win under these
circumintance%. with the great preponderance of opinion against him
among the ireeders. and hence among the judges, has been a source of
much sati-,faction to the chamipiont, of the breed. In the last show the
championship wa, won by the Shorthorns. but the block test that was
made after the award, after the animals were sold and slaughtered by
one of tihe chilled-beef companies, wa, against the Shorthorns and in
favor oif the Herefords.
Tht.- average weight of the 16o Shorthorns shown, aged about 42
mionthb, was 7'' kilos, or 1.719. pounds.. They were sold at auction
at price- ranging from $11i to S31(i per animal, and were bought
for export.. a ll good fat steer, were then, by the frozen-meat and
chilled-inmeat e-tabli.shment,. Thi, i.s equivalent to $48.40 to $136.40
United State., money. The average price was $187.75, or $82.61
United State i- money, or $ per hundredweight live weight. These
are extraordinary prices for prize animals, carefully prepared. The
lowest weight was 1,531 pounds and the highest 2,008.
The Hlereftird, averaged in weight 1.815 pounds and sold for an
average (if $2tii, or $SS United States money. The Polled Angus,
with an average weight of 1.318 pounds, sold for an average of $90.
The Holstein- showed an average weight of 1,478 pounds and brought
an average price of Sf97..'t(.
The firit-prize Shorthorns, the ones that won the championship of
all breed-, weighed an average of 1,931 pounds, and one lot of 8
Librought A31ii each and the other S- $270. When slaughtered they
dressed mit ;2.2 per cent of net beef. The ,econd-prize Shorthorns,
composed of three lot., of s each, averaged in weight 1,885 pounds,


and they sold for an average of $207. They dressed out 62.8 per cent
of net beef. Tlhe third-prize group of Shorthorns were the heaviest,
averaging t2,110 pounds, but the animals were marked ,11' Iby the
judges for excc.-s of fat and for other reasons. They were sold pri-
vately for $31o each, the s.nle price as the champions. No block test
was made of these animals, which were exported alive to South Africa.
The Herefords made a fine showing when slaughtered. The first
prize lot. weighed an average of l.s121 pounds and sold for $?'211, each.
They' dressed out 65.11 per cent of net beef. The second prize Here-
fords averaged l1s), pound- and brought $1'15 apiece, giving ;2.'75
per cent of dre.-..ed bietef.
No block test- have been reported on the Polled Angi- and Hol-
steins, but the former were not regarded as exceptionally good animals
and no prize was awarded them.

Prior to the opening of the British ports in February, 11"io:1, the
best grade Shorthorn steers and other steers that could grade with
them were Ioughlt for export at $75 to .111u and occasionally a little
more for very superior ainials. When the English ports were again
closed to Argentine live stouk (May, 1903). the price for the best
grass-fed steers of 3 to 3 years old the usual polling age for export,
was from $.85 to $115. There was a good demnind;: in fact, more than
the supply could meet and maintain its quality for export. Not 5 per
cent of these steers had tasted grain, but the majority of them had
been fattened on alfalfa and others on native grasses. This quick
production and the ease with which such steers are sold has encroached
a little more every year upon the reserve supply; that is, younger
animals have been sold for export, fewer good steers are killed for
home consumption. and more cows, heifers, and calves, as well as
inferior steers and oxen, are used to supplyy the home markets.
Thus it is extremely difficult to get a good piece of beef in the city
of Buenos Aire... None of the best fat steers-"export type," they
are called-a-e brought to Buenos Aires to be sold, or at least so
rarely that the local market, are not looked to for any part of the
suppl)ly. If a man has a lot of good steers ready for market, he
notifies his broker in Bueno- Aires, who notifies- the buyers, the "fri-
gorifico,," and the exporters of live cattle, and the latter send their
representatives to inspect the cattle. Then the lbyvers make bids,
either through the inspector- on the spot or through the brokers in
the city. Some estancieros get along without brokers and do business
directly with the buyers. The prices quoted are for the animals on
the estancia, and it cost- from $s to $10 each to ring them to Buenos
Aires. The top price of $ll5 is but rarely paid. The usual price for
the best animals is from $10.l to $111, and still more are sold to the


frigorificos at $85 to $100. Now that the English ports are closed
again, there is a decline of perhaps 10 or 15 per cent in the prices of
the het steerl.-. Tbee animals., range in weight from 1,225 to 1,425
pounds, giving a weight of 700o to 800 pounds of net beef, exclusive
of head, feet, kidneys, liver, and other fat and offal. The marketable
by-products there are limited and there is much more waste than in
the goret pat-'king houses in the United States.
The freezing work., prefer steers of greater age because of their
gt-reater weight, but there is scarcely a good steer in the country that
i- 15 Cears old that could have been sold younger. Very few are kept
beyond 4 year.,; selling at 3 years or younger is happening oftener,
and i, tihe general rule. Formerly the selling age was 44- years.
Alfalfa has had more to do with getting the animals on the market a
'year younger than any other one cause. Cattle for the export trade
arc shipped to Buenos Aires., 45o to 75) mniles, but the cheaper grades
arc driven at least a good part of the distance, as they will not stand
the freight charge.,, and it i., much cheaper to drive them to market.
The public roads in Argentina are very wide on this account.


Corn-fed animials are very rarely, almost never, seen. The prices
paid for steers hy the frigorificos. which, until a few months ago,
furnihed, and again at the present time do furnish, almost the only
market for good steers, did not warrant any -corn feeding. A few
years ago, before the English ports were closed to Argentine live
cattle, so-C:Liled corn-fed steers brought $5 to $10 per head more than
those that had not received any grain. But these were not really corn-
fed, for thevy had received corn and dry hay for a month or so only
before being brought to market, and this in order to teach them to eat
it on the voyage. They had their accustomed alfalfa or grass pasture
during the day and the corn and other dry feed at night. This system
may be reT-zumed this winter if the price of corn is lower than it is
now. At present producers of fat steers say it would not pay. Corn
is now sellingg for about 35 to 40 cents United States money per
American buhel of 56 pounds. It is claimed by many Argentine
breeder, and -feeders that the alfalfa and grass-fed beef is as good as
corn-fed beef, but the best-informed ones-those who know the differ-
enceo and have seen both kinds-realize that the Argentine, who would
get the best price for his steers in competition with those from the
United States, must finish them on corn, and this course is being advo-
cated 1,y many who predict that this must soon come. It is likely to
be a long time, however, before any considerable amount of corn-fed
Argentine beef will find its way abroad. It will require some strong
object lesson; to convince the great mass of producers, because they are
doing very well at present; and until they see Argentine corn-fed steers

Pr 4

I ,




~'Sg 44,. t.,.~J .*",~ ~ ..~K-tsw ~ a <.7; t4~t
-A, ~ 4VM4.









sold in Elgland tfor a much higher price than the gra.--fed ones they
will not go to the trouble and expense of feeding. The present tend-
ency toward mixed farming may brwing it about to a ,itaiu extlixnt,
but the country, y is at present .,o divided into zones" for this and that
purlpose that corn rai.-,ing and steer feeding are not \ rv likely to be
done on thile same estancia to any great extent for several years. The
increasing demand for iuch animal., both in England and the United
States, i, ;in influence which will -ooner or later bring about their pro-
duction in Argentina, where they can undoubtedly be grown for imany
years very' cheaply. Some feeder-s tried corn feeding on a small scale
several iear-, ago. with excellent s;, but they had difficulty in
finding any buyer in Argentina who would pay the difference. One
breeder tried the ecndlng ,f a fe.w on his own account, and he -ays
that he made a profit of over $l1 gold per head after hargiiing off all
pos-,ible expense for feed and lab'wr.


The' .-ailaderojs are showing rapid falling off in their production of
tasajo. 01 jerked beef, 1iicauLe they can not sell their product at a
price that will warrant paying the prices for animals in competition
with the frigoriifico:-, the Ibeef-,xtract factories, the export trade, or
even the city market. One factory has been gradually made
over from a jerkel-meat e-stalishlnent into one for the manufacture
of beef extract, for which a bIetter quality of meat is used, while only
the parts utide.-,irablid for beef ext ract are used for ta-ajo. One of these
companies has ju.,t paid a 2'2 per cent dividend.

The beef .-.apply of thle city Of Buenos Aires comess from one great
market, where from 1.2t,1 to 3,500 animals-steers, ,xen. cows,
heifers, and calve,-a-rc briiught daily and sold by various commission
men to the city butchers. Part of the sales are at autiii. but the
majority are private. The killing is all done in a phice provided by
the city and i i under n11nicipal in.pection. Sheep Ind hogs, as well
as cattle, are all killed here, each man killing on his own atcoiunt.
There is a tremendous waste, especially during the summer, as there
is no refrigeration, and -ill meit is sold th' Lay' it is killed, or surely
the next day. Many N i .utchers bi-y, carcasses from others who kill by
wholesale ind suppl)llv retailerr. If the retailer, when ordering his
supply tile day before. overetimi ts, the next diai y' business, he
suLffer., a loss, a:ud it often happiien, that the price of meat begins to
fall before noon and Iby night i, ha.' wnihat it was in the imorniing.
especially if the day hlias been warin. e meat, .ieideh, leing. i,,iially
from inferior animalk.. i- tough alld 'trili.'y and flll of water. hbArink-
33,l--No. 4,s-u-3-- 3


ing he ily inll tihe' cooking. It hlias had no time to cool, and being
grass-fed is waterr\. Beside.s,, it is sold by the chunk, not by weight,
and i, cuit iup in much the s:imte manner as meat i.- cut. for dogs or
menagerie i)eas.,t.. Such a thing ai, a sirloin or porterhouse steak is
unknown in Art-rentinn. The carcasses being hacked to pieces without
regard to the choice cuts and sold at. a uniform price for the whole,
good and bad. mitake-s it very dilictilt to get a good piece, though some-
tines tender. juicy steak, and attractive roasts may he had in the
be-t reS.,taurant and hotels., but it is liv no means a sure thing. Several
effort- have 1,been made to enforce the municipal law requiring meat to
be sold by thei kilo; but the butcher., are opposed to it. and customers
who ldelnand th,. right to Ibuy by the kilo 0oo0 learn that it does not
pay. for they get more if they buy by the piece. All these conditions
would -evll to offir a good opening for a modern fresh-meat. estab-
lishnient inll thet, city of Buenos Aire._, -upplying good chilled and
setasone(d meat. properly cut up. with more economical slaughtering
and ntcording t(o better method-s.
The prices obtained at the Buno..., Aire, rattle market vary greatly,
according to the quality of the animal, offered and the daily demands
of thl. market. For steer, the prices run from $30 to $75, the aver-
age leiilg p)roliably not far from $50 to $0r1i. For oxen, about the
saine. Forcow,. $21ito $so;, with otca-ionally a few at higher prices-
thoe having, a little better blood that have been picked up for breed-
ing. Heifer. i .ell at $14 to $2'3 and calve, for from $3 to $18, the
average being -,mewhere around $s. Many of the cows, heifers,
calve, and steer- -old in t'hi..i market are not slaughtered, but are
bought to ,tock other estancias,. Thi.- happens very often at the
extreme.- o(f seasons or when some part of the country has ,-uffered a
drought. Under suich conditions., estancieros rind their camps over-
stocked. ,u they kep a, In many ainmals as they dare-generally more
than they lhonull--ad .lsend the res.t through thi inmarket to some more
forl'tulnate pailrt f t he county \cVher'. there i.s feed.
Prices of mIIeat ill the Butno, Aire- markets at present (May, 19013)
arc itnoted a', follow., in paper money per pound and piece, but, as a
matter of fact, the prices paid are le.,, lietau.le meat is sold by the
lutpI cheaper than it wouhnll 1e by actual weight:
B.,t.-Loin, 2ul cent-; roa.,t, 25 to `12; boiling, for puchero, the
poor man's national di-h, 16i; steaks., 20; runmp, 1i; breast, 9 to 13;
ox tongues, S0 cents each: Haimbutrg steak, 22: bones, i9.
q l.-1, to 3tI' cent.
o'rl.-32 to 45 centt.-, and Ilam. imported, $2.0i4, dloniestic, ..I cents,
the latter bting very inferior.
Jlt///on.-13 to 45 cent,.
I-enlli.- is to :.i cents.
T ri/,',.,..-'43 to '; each.


Fow'.,. -$1.21; to Si.;'l each.
Chiktk'n.-$l to $1.2o; each.
Du/ags.-$1 to $1.5o each.
117ri di'.-r.-4; to 70 cent, each.
tc,,. .-$3. 5a each.
3,rt ij tit. (';,!,,hir to, 7mi/t /w,/ h/,iq .-- l ti> S1.41 a pair.
Prfirf,'(,..-30 cents per pair.
Pirfun,. ..--l60 cents per pair.
Rabbl.s'. -$1.

Returning to the fatt-,tock show: Sonic good. fat cows- were shown,
both Shorthorns and Herorfords, but these are onllv a ninor incident
of the show and are uiiually tho.s-e that have proved useles for breed-
ing purpose.-. The price., obtained %ere very poor. The best ones,
weighing from 1,400 to 1.50,1 pounds. were l)ought by one freezing
company -which ordinaiily kills no cows of ainy decription-at 1'12
to $77, and others went for $41. The sacrifice ,f cows and heifers
is one of the most deplorable mistakes now being made in Argentina,
and is so regarded by the majority of the most progre-sive breeders;
yet it goes on, as one may see any day hr going" to the mataderos,"
the municipal slaughtering place in connection with the Buenos Aires
cattle market. To be sure, a good proportion uf these cows are of a
very inferior class-" clearing.,," often, from estancias where the stock
is being improved. But the number of cows sold for beef is due, in a
large measure, to the demand for beef that can not hie. applied in any
other way and is another evidence that the number of cattle in the
country is overestimated and has probably not increa.-ed much, if any,
since the census of 1P095, which placed the total number i t 2', Il,)(i.
The country is short of cows, and it can not. afford to kill them so long
a.s they are useful for breeding. A proposition to re.,triet the killing
of cows to those over 6i years old met with derision. The Government
would like to do something to check this destructive practice, but as
yet has not found a practical way to begin it, and the same is true in
regard to calves.
These conditions indicate how ,.trong the demand is for cows of good
blood. The expositions show it by the small numbers of cows and
heifers shown or sold. Those who have good cows do not like either
to get them in condition to satisfy show demands or to take the risk
and undergo the expense of taking them to the show.,, and any good
breeder who has good cows never thinks of selling g them, but rather of
watching for a chance to buy more. High-grade cows, as stated else-
where, are eagerly sought, for, and good prices will be paid for them,
and have been paid, and are now being paid whenever they are offered.



(Of the 413 horse., iii tIhe May fair, only a few were worthy of
special nice, and these were the light coach and saddle horses. The
price's for thei' great majority of animals sold were very low, but for
.-otnc of the prize animals, and for the attractive light coach and sad-
dle horse-, the piriCe, s.eemted to IeC .satisfactory, as prices go in that
country. Thei horse lmu.iniss. While it has improved much, is not in as
flourishing a condition as it i.- likely to he. Hard times,, bicycles, elec-
tric street railways, and even atutomobIile,. -o it is said in the papers
there, have hurt the horse business, The highest prices obtained were
for coach horses, the lighter ones bringing the best prices. The first
prize winner in thie light, coach cla.,s, a hackney Anglo-Norman sorrel
inar.-. lwbriught $'2.' l,, while the third horse in the same class, a geld-
ing from the same breeder, sold for $'2,11i 1, and the second prize
wiinnir from another breeder, *1,ui'i. The third prize pair in coach
hor-,ev. York-lhire-A.izrican cross, sold for $1,30u. A heavy Shire
coach horse, second prize winner, aged ) years, from an imported sire
andi puriire'i mare. ,old for $7111. The first prize Anglo-Norman
.addle horse .old f,,r $:loii, the second fmor $251., a few others at $300
to $40. and a nuiiii her (if attractive, ones from $1i11 to $150. A few
hackney, Ibrought $tiIii, and $7i 0, lut ino-t o(if them went for much
le--aromund $Ioii and even les,,-and hackney sold from $45 to
$911. Thn- Cwle.,dale,, brought very poor prices, and were a rather
logy" I.ot. Inot 1of thenm, though, o(f fairly good breeding. Perhaps
the fact that grain i, not often fed to horses there may have had some-
thing to doI with thil apl)pearance of many hor.-es. The first prize
Clyde-dale-, in groupl-). of ; colts, sold for $151, each, the second group
for $1Di.-, and the. third for s'225. As with the Ibull-s in the fine-stock
show, the opinion, of buyers do not always agree with those of the
judge-, who aw ard thI' prizes. Other Clydesdales, pure and of mixed
blood. sod a.- low as, *35 and $36, and many went at $55 to $100,
though some al,, commanded from $120 to $180. A great many camp-
bred urma res and ordinary geldings found slow buyers at $41) to $60,
and even less than the lower figure. Some sold for only $15 each.
Thee horses were not worth more than they brought, for an ordinary
horse may bIe bouglit any day for $31), or less than $14 United States
m, oev. The cocheros" (drivers of ordinary carriages for hire) in
Buebno, Aire.,, who abuse their horses shamefully, find it cheaper to
ituv a new hor.-e than to feed or take decent care of the poor old
animals they often are seen driving.
Soine .-plendid mules were shown-large, strong animals that were
.,hipped I t Smouth Africa and sold at a good price. Two lots were
e-pecially noteworthy, the result of a cross of a Poitou jack on
Clyde-dale mare-s. But an e.-tauciero who has tried them says that


his colonists found them too slow and lazy and inferior to the smaller
but more energetic inile of the country. Still the large mules are in
good demand, and a fo-w big Anmerician jacks could be di.-p,-,1d of
to excellent advantage. Sonime Tex:is .tockmen who went to Argentiat
a few months ago to start a stock ranch and do general farming near
Lake Nahuel lHuapi. in the southliwesterni part of the Republic, brought
two big jc.k.., which excited a good deal of admiration, and experi-
enced men wanted to know where more such animals could be had.
The mule huiiness was a very profitable one for Arpgentina during the
Boer war. and the country, especially the northern part, in the prov-
ince of Cordolia, has been pretty well drained of mules. The business
is practically over now, libut Ii-edint i, going on, and the demand for
mules and for jacks is good.


Only 2411 fat sheep wvre exhibited in the May show, for at that
time sheep breeders were rather di-couiraged, or had been for a year.
The prices, both of wool and mutton, were very low. Plenty of
sheep were sold in the early part of the year lt102 for $1 to $1.50.
Fat sheep, fit for export, were bringing only $4 to $7.50, and the
market for these was confined to the three freezing works. There is
record of the sale of three lots of thee sheep, 1-211 in all. Two lots of
40-one of Lincolns and one of Hamp.,hire Downs-sold for $5.50
each. while another lot of 416 Lineoln went'for $4..^'.
The Argentine Government devoted much effort during the year
1902 to the task of persuading the Briti-h Board of Agriculture, not
only that Argentina is free from foot-and- imiutl, disease, but that
there is no danger of its being brought into the country from its
neighbors, especially from Uruguay. and in turn sent again to the
foreign cattle markets in England. Many tinimes it seemed that the
Engli.,h ports, closed to Argentine cattle and sheep in April, 1900,
were about to be opened, hut some new objection from the British
Board of Agriculture would prevent it. The influence of the English
meat producers was very great and the Engvlli.. breeders seemed to
be in great fear of another outbreak from imported infection. But
at last the Argentine Government was able to comply with the condi-
tions imposed biy the British Board of Agriculture, and on Febru-
ary 3, 1903, the bars were let down, permitting Argentine sheep and
cattle to be sent to the English ports alive under conditions similar to
those required of importations from the United States. The condi-
tions required of the Argentine Government were not severe, once
the fact was established, as it iundoubtedly was, that foot-and-mouth
disease did not exist in Argentina and had not for a year been within


the limits of the territory from which cattle are exported or alfalfa
shipped that could be infected. The best authorities in Argentina
do not deny, but freely admit, that foot-and-mouth disease is liable
to appear at any time in places, and it exists now in some of the dis-
tant provinces, from which cattle are not exported and but seldom
brought directly to market. They are brought to better camps to
be fattened before they are exported or slaughtered, and the con-
tention i., that the system of inspection within this territory is so
thorough that the existence of the disease is detected immediately
upon its appearance. Rigorous measures are then taken to confine it,
and it is soon stamped out. So men like Ronaldo Tidblom, the chief
live-stock authority of Argentina and director of the bureau of ani-
mal industry, claim that there is no danger of infected animals being
exported or of arriving with the disease. No animal can lie exported
without having first been inspected on the estancia by a Federal Gov-
ernment inspector and again in the port of Buenos Aires, Rosario, or
LaI Plaita, whence animals may be exported:
The recent outbreak that caused the Argentine Government to
promptly prohibit exportation of all kinds of live animals to whatever
destination was confined to three estancias within 65 miles of the city
of Buenos Aires. It first appeared among some imported animals
undergoing quarantine in the port. The first animal showing the dis-
ease was promtuptly slaughtered. In a day or two 2 other animals
appearing infected were also slaughtered. The next day 7 more
showed the disease, and by this time the origin of it had been traced
to green alfalfa brought from an estancia which was shown to have the
disease. Thereupon, it, being proved that the animals had not brought
the disease with them from England, and that all were infected, no
more were killed, and all that pass the tuberculin test at the termina-
tion of the quarantine, after they recover from the aphthous fever (or
aftosa, as foot-and-mouth disease is called there), will be admitted the
same a..s if they' had not had the disease. In the meantime the places
of it- appearance were quarantined. The authorities do not anticipate
any further spread of the disease and expect it will all be over in a
month or so.0 The closing of the ports was out of regard for the Eng-
lish fear of the disease and to show a determined effort to maintain a
clean bill of health.
The close proximity of the Republic of Uruguay, where more or
less the same conditions prevail as in Argentina, led the British
Board of Agriculture to insist that the Argentine Government must
either induce Uruguay to adopt the same regulations or exclude Uru-
guayan cattle altogether from the country. The negotiations with
Uruguay were attended with difficulty. The saladeros, or jerked-meat
a Since' this was written the Argentine 4;t)vernmnent has declared officially that the
disease no longer exists in tlhe country.


factories, on the U ruguav River, on both sides, get their cattle from
both sides of the river. The stovkminen o)f the Argentine province, of
Entre Rios .,ellI many of their cattle to the UriuguayVan saladeros, and
the Argentine saladeros get, attle from Uruguay. TI'her were other
dealings in feeders and fat stock. ;) thlie .-Uspen;ion of this trunfkic would
have entailed heavy loses. The latt l)oint discussed was the desire of
Uruguay to lie allowed to load live stockk mon the same ships with
Argentine animals for England and other points. This was not agree-
able to the Buienos Aires Government, as it would involve additional
risk of disease appearing among the animals on the voyage and there
would he no waiy of knowing in which country it originated. Finally
the 1Uruguayan Government. atigreed to the conditions, as it shares, on
equal term,, in the benefits of admission to the Englih market, while
the work of removing the obstacles has been done by the Argentines.
The Governments of Argentina uand Uruguay have made regulations
in substance as follows, governing the importation and exportation of
animals, in compliance with the demands of the British Board of
Article 1 prohibits (a) the imniportation or landing of animals, animal
remains, etc.. from any country where dangerous contagious or infec-
tious animal diseases exit; (Ib) the importation of animals from a
country whose laws do not, in the opinion of the executive, offer suf-
ficient guarantee against contagion; (') theimportation of animals from
abroad through any other port than Buenos Aires; (d) the importation
of animals from any co'intry that have originally come from a prohib-
ited country; (,) the importation of animals in a ship which has,
within thirty days of its embarkation, loaded animals in a prohibited
country; (.t) the importation of animals in a ship which, after loading,
has been in contact with any kind of animals p)rocueding from a prohib-
ited country, or which has called at. any port of such a country; (g)
the entry into an Argentine port of any ship which has, during the
preceding sixty days. loaded animals of such a country; (A) the impor-
tation of animals having "garrapatas," or Texas fever ticks.
Article 2 prohibits the exportation of animals attacked by contagious
diseases, or suspected of being so, or bruised, and of those that have
not undergone veterinary inspection on the estancia and at the port of
embarkation, and that have not been transported in disinfected vehicles.
Also exportation in a ship which hlias on board animals from a prohib-
ited nation or that has not been diinfected after having remained in
or touched at, during the preceding sixty days, the port of a nation
under prohibition by reason of the cattle plague, or during thirty days,
if prohibited on account of the existence of pleuro-pneumonia, foot-
and-mouth disease, or glandern; also the exportation of cattle having
the Texas fever ticks.
The importation of all classes of animals from Russia, Roumniania,


Servia, Cnpe Colony. Natal, Orange River Colony, and other British
coloni", in South Africa; the German and Portuguese possessions of
E,-.t and We,.st Africa, the French l)possesions of West Africa, and
Ma, ligaisar. PBolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Vienezuela, Colombia, and English,
Dutch, and French GIuiilIL i-, prohibited.
Importation of cattle, sheep, goat-, and hog- fromin the continent of
Europe, Auitralia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and from the States of
Maie. New IIampshire, Vermont, Massacthusetts, Connecticut, and
Rhohde Island, of the United States, is prohibited. There is no pro-
hibition against the re-t of the United State,, tlhe New England States
having" been included in the )prohiblited list because of the outbreak
of fot-and-nimuth disease there. This prohibition will be removed
when the disease, in the opinion of the United States Department of
Agriulture, i- eflectuatlly stamped out."
Article 4 require., that animals imported must be accompanied by
a certitic.ate (in the United States from the Department of Agriculture)
showing that the cattle plague has not exis.,ted for ten years in the
country from which they l)roceed: and that neither pleuro-pneumonia
nor foot-and-mouth di-ease has existed there during thle preceding six
month; 1th]iat as regoards sheep it must. ie shown that no case of small-
pox in .-heelp lias occurred during their .six months; a., regards horses a
similarr certificate in reference to gland(lers and lampas. This certificate
muut bie indorred h thile Argentine consul at the port, of embarkation.
Proviion is made for the inspection of .,hips bringing live stock
and for segregation and quarantine, or destruction if they have the
prescrilbed dis.e.-, of alimalls not found in perfect sanitary condition.
Arti('hI *6 specifties the quarantine and inspection of animals imported,
a-., ftllo.,: (Cattle. 4o days, during which neither the owner nor anyone
repllr-eit ing hiim may have access to the animals. At the expiration
of this-; period cattle are .-,ubjected to the tuberculin test. and if they
react, showing that they have tuberculosis, they must be slaughtered
withiiit (coieptnatttiton or removed from the country within S days.
Sheep are to he kept. in qjunrantine and isolated for 15 days and horses
for S days.,. Horses may le tested for glanders at the expiration of
the quarantine period, and if they have the disease, or if they have
beCen in contact with horses suffering from glanders, must, be slaugh-
tered without compensation. The length of the quarantine is at the
discretion of the director of the division de ganaderia (bureau of
animal indu.,try) and may be extended, though it is not likely to be.
Special provisions are made for commerce between the Republics of
Argentina and Uruguay, requiring thorough inspection and dipping
in the official dipping places for killing ticks. Importations from
', Frnt-amil-i .uith diisea-e hns entirely disappeared from the I'nited States, and on
July 20, 1i0tt3, tlihe' Secretary 'if Agriculture issued an order reopening the port of
Bo.ton fi r ex port cattle.-EDITOR.


Uruguay are not subject to the same regulations a.s other countrie-..,
the certific'ate of health of cattle and other annuals beIing Iiort' inl-
sive and b)(ing give'n from 'ach section )f the t nii'try frontIi ihich
animnial.s proceed.

C(.i lNDITION., .%VD. 'iis l .\IMI-,-I N it.l.' i(CE:Il)IN 'i'l. K.

All breeding stock is admitted freet, of dluty. Importers should h f win
a contnecti-on at Buenos, Aire- leforer shippingg, :is it will i,' : li'reat
advantage t )lupnl arrivial.
The auction lihouso of Adolhfo Bullrich & C_',.., of 'initmi Ai'.es it one
of the most proimineiit int Argentina; in fact, it efl.. e tmoe thaln ,half of
all the breeding stock sold ill the country. Thi foundtvr (if tlit. '-tai-
lishment hlins Ieen ma v or of Buento Air'e-; twxo t'rm.l'. andt lie will p-.pnd
sonle monthIs this ye.'ar t'rave'ling ill the lITn it.d Sttte,- ..tltjdyinj ,utIr
breeding et-abl)lishment:.. Hi.; son, Ednartldo Bullit li, i- tiil' iiian0'a1'r.
These men speak Engli.-h aind have a wide knriwledge (f thlie oiutrt,'y
arid large :ic, Liailntarnce arl inftlience with breeder- of A.krointina.
Breeding stock, feeding -tovk. farimn (if all kinds., .it" |iVopt'rty, and
almost everything, in fact., is sold at auction ini Argentina. 'Tlit
are held in a great. market, running through from onet .-tret't toi anotlihr,
in thlie very midst. of thlie husiness- di,.trit. Hier, th lt-1 imial.z, art' ktp)t
on exhibition for two or three weeks generally v previou'ts to tli -.lts.l
The sales are well advertised and are attended I, tlie heading Itr I.t'.ders,
especially during the spring sales -in Selptemliber and, ().tolei'r.
The service in the eminar'adero,- where animal.- I art. deta ined dIlning
quarantine and the owner.' art, not allowed to s't' them, i. generally'*
quite satisfactory to thlie Englli-h importers of But.nos Airvt's. There,
has been no complaint aside fromi one litt, bluit, on tlie colltritl 'a I, the
service hias been conmpliruented. There i. no ca tuse to anticipate ainy
trouble or excessive charge._ the regular rates Ibeing given herewith.
The auctioneer's ollinlils'io i i i t per ett lt iII lIt'', :and( tlie ol, th'r
expenses upon arrival in Buens Aires. ;i.ido from personal expeis'e.s,
until the animal..s are -oldl, are as follow.:
At the landing stage, or (-mlularta let"r:
r IIloaI) ling at.tlet or harI e., p ri' lieal, I .................................. 2. .. 00
L ,lonailiug sheep, per lieal ................................. .......... ri)
Feed i.ha, nmaize, an I bran per >lini n lr ltai"d';l-
Cattle anil horses ......l......................................... 1. 50
Cattle anal horses, with oilI cake andl ,ats .......................... '2. 00
Sheep I hay, maize, and bran i, per heal ........................... .4-0)
Entramne andl crane fee I Goverlnmenit tax MI lanhIlir,, -,ta,'tei-
Cattle amn l hir-es, gnll ............................................ .
Sheep, gil .......... ........................................ 01
n.All reference a tii mIuney, inlt.s. gold ik sptcifil,, is in .\rgentin' lpapi'r, ',iuth 44
cents in Uinite il States mone"' am the dolllar.


('leai ing at the ciuitoin-house:
StarmpH for clearing. $1 per $1,000 declared value.
Stamps for lucumiients, $6.75 on each consignment.
Fei ,bf 4is-ton-house broker, from $10 to $25, according to shipment.
At the aui.ction house:
Fett il hay, maize, Ibran, ani oil cake) per dlieim-
Cattle anil horses, per head ....................................... $2.00
Sheep, per head .................................................. .50
Driving from landing stage pens to auction mart:
Cattle and horse-, per head ........................................... 1.50
Cartage of cattle, according to number of animals, as may be arranged.
Cartage f sheep per cart .......................................... 2.00
Receiving auimal-, and delivery at auction mart is gratis.
So little business, ha', been offered in recent year-, that there are no
regular fixed rates on the shipment of animals from New York to
Bueno-4 Aires. Four English companies run regular steamers direct
from New York to Buenos A ires, aind they- have all expressed a willing-
nies:. to acconmrudate shippers of pedigreed stock to a greater or less
extent. These companies are the Prince Line, the Lamport & Holt
Line, the Norton Line, and Houlder Brothers. The rates are as fol-
low',. in United States money: Cattle, $55 per head; sheep, $13.20 per
head: horses. S.2.511 per head: donkeys, 27.50 per head.
The animal..- will u.-uallv be carried on the after deck, in the open,
with proper rover. The voyage, except the last four days, is a smooth
and warm one usually, especially in the season when shipments should
be made. From Rio de Janeiro to Montevideo it is likely to be cool
and rough in July and August, ,o that precautions should be taken to
protect the animals.
The teamship company supplies nothing but water to the animals.
All feed must be :-upplied by the shipper, but it is carried free unless
there is. a large amount in excess of what i,, required; in that case it is
charged freight at the rate of $3.S6 per ton. Where 6 cattle, or 35
sheep, or i horse, are shipped at one time, free passage i4 given to one
attendant unless he requires cabin accommodations, in which case he
is charged $51, passage money. The voyage is not an unpleasant one;
the h.uips are fairly comfortable for a few passengers, and it is highly
advisable that valuable animals should be in the care of some one who
understands them and is personally interested in their welfare. Arrange-
ment.-, can be made with the captain of the ship for the care of the
animals by the crew, however, for a small fee. It is of the utmost
importance that the animals shall have plenty of cool, fresh water dur-
ing the voyage, not only for drinking, but for bathing the animals
while passing through the Tropics. Salt water will not do, as it causes
irritation of the skin and makes the coat look rough. Coal dust has
the sam effect. Stalls should be padded for the same reason, as it
will pay to minake suie that animals arrive looking as well as pos-


sible. A laxative should be provided for u.-,e while passing through
the Tropics. The length of the voyage varies froin twenty-three to
thirty days.
Insurance on the animals against all risks mal he hLd in reliable com-
panies for froiui 5 to lo per cent, depending upon th' line and the ship,
and it is advisable to carry in.uLanlece, as the steamnship counpany does
not assume .inv reponsibilitv.


During tie year 19112 Argentina exported !.,30S,2iti pounds of but-
ter, chiefly to England and South Africa. This was an increase of 187
per cent over the exportation of the previous yar, which was 3,2:32,3:391
pounds. There are no -tatistics of production for home consumption,
but the best estimate available that of the Rural Society-puts thepro-
duction of thel province of Buentos Aires. at. "20 toin.- per day. 'The pro-
duction and consumption of butter outside this pro,'ince is not possible
to estimate closely, but certainly all the rest of thle country does not
produce lo per centof the amount produced in this, province, if we leave
out of the account the amount produced anti consumeid in the city and
vicinity of Rosario, the second city of the Republic, having a popula-
tion of over 120,000. Even this city i, ,ppl)lied. to a large extent,
from the province of Buenos Aire.-, for a-, yet only ai small proportion
of the estancieros are making butter. '1he private production and
consumption ntmust also be omitted inll this conflpari-,on, for that is
increasing on the estaneias. Still there are thousands of people own-
ing various numbers of cattle who either go without butter or buy it
in the towns.
The city of Buenos Aires, with it., 87',ilouo people, i-, of course, the
chief local market for Argentine butter, and(l it ik well supplied within a
very good quality. The consump)tion is estimated at only 4- pounds
per capital per annum. The working classes do not have butter on
their tables as they do in the United States. The present price in the
city is about 22 to 24 cents gold per pound.
To supply the demand there are four great factories or .-ystems of
factories. Their plan of operation is something g unique. 'The indus-
try is, of course, only in its incipiency. butt it is interesting to note the
process and rapidity) of its development, its extensive possibilities, and
the probability of it,, immediate and tremendous growth.
La Union Argentina, the chief butter naker of Argentina, is a
cooperative creamery on a very large scale. It was organized in ls99
to save the butter industry from the collapse that threatened it, which
was due to the wastefulness of small individual production and the
lack of uniformity and modern methods. The lawt rel)ort of the


Arg'enilin Rural Society gives ain account of the organization and
operation of La I'nion Argentimina. which i.s inll substance as follows:
Tlih .aippli ant fir iiiii]lirl-hii must Ie a producer ,if milk, agree not to dispose of
it ,r :mnv ,f it., prodilcts except through the society, and he must own five shares.
But ont lived ntt be a mnemnber in order to receive the benefits of the organization,
.-ince memllevr- and tiiinmiember-i arc treated alike in the charges for services ren-
derd l, and are paid l-r proceed- of ,ales in the samine manner and at the same time.
The so.ietl receives :ani amount *f milk or cream from any person, whether member
air lint, tco elit made inti butter. Patr in o(f t lie society pay th ie expenses of the cream-
ery-freights anil either expenses-in proportion ta the value of their consignments.
Those who -endl diiilk arte not charged fiir the use of the separators. A commission
'f S cent-'lt palr i per kiln i- i'haredil oin the butter inaile froin either milk sent in and
-eparalte'l or friin creaml thalint ha, bien separatedil Ieftire living sent to the factory.
Thi- It abIut 1.i 'iiits.g'Pold lier p ,ini l, andl i- to cover the following charges:
i i Freight cliarnes. on milk or cream.
i 0 Carla.t ,in erevan from the rluai al station iu Buenuos Aires to the factory.
3i .\ Attii'i.lin tI o rdeirs lirl uti n' il-, fur fuel, instruction-, etc.
S4 i ( 'ail'- for tria-jirtiiigl ( rel;iIi.
1511 Ini-p['tin ih f tlie th e l stparatlr. I'y fr.eiiUent te"-' ol tlii' ielarated milk.
i ; 1 Makingw. ..r'. aiild sale o(f litter.
TIn- y.civl" it's iiit I iprchas,- milk or i ream, nor does it guarantee any fixed price
fur tli' Itter ainadt fri either. ftier lehtin'. each vonsiczntiien t it is made into
Ibmtter. :anI li Ilireci hors ti x lie for inaking up the monthly accounts in
acordance ith i llthe irii e.- lotainvil.
The -,,ciety haiI tiirity-five Irilutinig nmeniber.- till the 1st of May, 1899, and the
in'rea-jv hIas lIcr, -,, rapidl that in Selpteimber, 19t)2, it had 1,134 consignors of milk
andi cit-am, i'ill'ter- ;and nionuilnlier.-, and'l fort '-three creameries throughout the
irnince (i of Bl.uen.o- Airt's :idI two in l'tntre Riot. Since the latter (late four netiw
ereaterit-ii hlie Ieen .-t'rted in the province of Entre Rios. The-e new creameries
\wert. started I1 thlit' pirohlu,'r suIsi'ribl in;Z for thle sto k to the extent of the cost of
thi,' inlaiinery, at tin' .antie tihe ideilariiinti in writing how inmuch milk each can fur-
nish til.iil\ Each i.f thuse c'reameriet ik selaraling alout 7,000 quarts of milk per
dav. Tile society ihi. niidaln reair -separaling stations throughout the country,
vhere\%-r thlie milk c;in h- lii ltainetl ill suffi'ieint quiantitlies. The daily production of
the ',cic t\ i- nmm\ alout vi'uilteeac tnnIq.
A cr(i14nrv ill Ar.rgenit ini mieain. a place where cream is separated
froin miilk aind the (cre.''il sent to the factory in the city to be made
into butter, cheese'. or other' milk product. What we understand as a
c're;ltniPer i ", cia led ai fabric di, inatnteca," or butter factory, in Argen-
tina. ITA Union Aro-entina snakes all it,. butter in Buenos Aires,
receiving treamll froin nutliV station.-,, or creamneries, scattered all
through the provinces where dairying has been taken up. Two of
these stations art' in the northern part of the Province of Santa F6, in
lthe Jewi.,h colony. Thlie cream is sent daily to Buenos Aires. twenty
hours 1) train, in all weather, without ice. The colonists get about
') cents, paper per liter in winter and 3 cents in summer for their
Wilk., equivalent to a trifle more than 1 cent gold per quart in the winter
and 1.4 cents in the sumiier, with which they are well satisfied. They
set thi ,an,; containing milk out in the road in the hot sun and the
cceaiNtorV wagon comes along and picks them up, dropping the empty


cans in tlhe samnie iiinner. The .kitnmed milk is used at the creamery
to feed pigs..
The railway rates for thle transportation of milk and cream, per 100
kilos (220 pounds) are as follows, in Argentin, paper money:
Less than 5or kilomieters (31 mile.-): Southern, 14.31;; We$.terr,, $1;
Rosario, Sn. ii; and the Pacific, $(j.73.
From 5oto lDi) kilometers (31 to 62 miles): Southern, $1.57; Western,
$1.20); Ro-,ario. $1.70; and the Pacific. $2.40.
From "201 to 300 kilometers (124 to Is.; miles): Sotitliern, *$2.18;
Western. $2..s6; Roario, $3.41; and the Pacific, $1;.
From 310 to 1e01 kilometer.- (IIM; to 55,9 nih.-): Southern, 8-2.27;
Western, $3.64; Rosario, $4.3nu; and the Pacific, .?'.
The .4ewish colony referred to ships by the Rosario line and paiys
the highest figure, as it is 355 miles from Buenos Aires. There is
much complaint, especially from dairymen near Buenos Aires, of the
high rates of transportation maintained 1 y the railways.
The society protects the reputation of its butter product by requir-
ing every exporter to brand the cases "Producto Argentino," and to
receive shipments on s.hipboard directly from the society. The price
obtained by the producer ik not fair from 80 cents paper per kil,, or
16 cents gold per pound. The average price in London in l'l2- was
about. 22.5 cents gold iper pound, leaving a comfortable Imargin to cover
the cost of shipment and give the exporter a satisfactory profit. The
average Buenos Aire-, prices, in December, for four year, have been,
in gold, as follow.-,: 1.'. 1,9.2 cents; l91i11, 19.6 cents; l"il,, )i cen. t:
190-2, 1.2 cents.
Argentine butter ha., won a good reputation in the Enm.,lih mar-
kets, and has been sold in competition with the Frincli. Hollaind,
and Australian products at prices almost as good as the best, and
it has been gaining in l)pric-, as well as in quantity exported. The
amount "f the exl)ortation i., increasing rapidly, as new creameries
are being erected, and the capacity of those already in operation is
being enlarged. New territory is being opened up and separating
station.-! established, where the milk is brought and the cream taken
out and sent to Buenos Aires or some other place to be made into
Argentine butter iN. of a ver.v good quality, and uniformity is
secured by the large production under one management. It lacks the
firmness and grain of U'nitfd State-s butter, however, and even with-
out considering the fact that it is never Nalted, unless so ordered, it
does not seemni to have quite the rich flavor of that made in the best
creameries in thie United States. fIoweer, it suits thi, European
market very well and is gaining ground 'The Souith Africatn
market is also an important one for Argentina in this respect, as in
others. The salted butter, which i, worked twi.e, 1,eiin,- left to 4tand


over night after suiting, is of a very fine, even quality, firm and rich
in llavor. and compares very well with that made in the IWnited States.
The city of Buenos Aires has three great dairy companies that sup-
idly all minilk products to the people at retail and also make some
butter for export and for sale outside Buenos Aires. There are two
or three other butter manufacturing companies that buy milk and
cream and export butter, and within a year or two these will be

The dairy business in the city of Buenos Aires is interesting and
in some way's unique. Three companies have large dairies of their
own, where attention has been for some years given to the breeding
of minilch cow.-. The peculiarity of the dairy industry there is the
es.,talihiivneit all over the city by these three companies of little
lecheria.s,, or minilk depot,, where milk is sold in every form, both
fresh and manufactured. Thee little shops are located in all parts of
the city, even on the principal shopping streets, and are very clean
and attractive. T'he interior is always painted white, and the attend-
anth are usually young women. Milk as a beverage is popular, and
all the,,e l)lacpies have it fresh, sweet, and cool, apd also buttermilk and
other minilk bev-erages. A large glass of milk costs 10 cents paper, or
a little over 4 cents of our money. It is estimated that the three com-
panies, ,ell daily from l.i.Oi, to 15,lIuo glasses.,. The daily consump-
tion (of milk in the. city i, about 201,1100i liters, or 211,340 quarts.
These hvgienically conducted establishments sell about one-fifth of it
The rest is sold in a, multitude of ways by small dairies. Many of
them drive the cow-, about and milk them in the streets as the milk is
called for b y their patrons. Others do not take the cows out, but
keepl) them in prominent places in the city, and milk them on order, so
people van see what they are getting. Some lecheros (milk sellers)
,still go about in the old fashion, with milk cans onl horseback, as they
still do in the provincial town.s. The three companies referred to sell
milk at 1-5 cents per liter, or 211 cents delivered. The prices obtained
by tihe other milk .seller, range from S, to 20 cents paper per liter,
according to the quality of the milk and the repute of the dealer.
The city has a .,system of inspection of milk, hut through lack of suffi-
cient inspectors it i.,s not very efficient. The milk is usually of a fair
Quality, and that of the three companies is always good. Sterilized
milk, which they prepare and sell in sealed bottles, is much used.
Two of the three companies have contributed to the advancement of
the dairy industry by the development of manufactured products from
it. One has two fine estancias about 60 miles from Buenos Aires
stocked with about 2,000 cows, as well as other stock. The cream is
separated from the milk on the estancia, and only the cream is sent to
the factory in Buenos Aires. Casein, also an important export prod-
uct, is taken out of the milk after the cream has been extracted, and


what remains is fed to pigs. Besides butter ad111 sterilized milk, the
dairy companies make a preparation peculiar to Argentina, known
as '"dulce de lI-che," literally, sweett of milkk" This confection is
made by boiling whole milk and sugar for several hour,, with con-
stant stirring, untill it becomes very thick, a sugary paste that is deli-
cious ats a dressing or a-, a de-sert by itself, and is very popular there.
The people make it themselves and use it freely. Condensed milk of
excellent quality, both sweetened and natural, is made by these com-
panies. Another milk product that has found high favor in Buenos
Aires is that known us "hleche nmaternizada." o(r baby', milk. One
company ha., been especially succes-sfull with thi-, milk prepared for
infants. It. is put uip in sealed bottles, and it retains its sweetness
without carrying any dcleteriou., substance. People taking long voy-
ages often take hundreds of bottle- of thi., milk for the use of the
baby. The same company makes tine toilet soap and several other
products from milk. Two put up butter in -mall tins, also sterilized
milk, for export.
The keen rivalry among these companies. especially the two best
known, howss the interest taken in the development, of the dairy
industry. Their exhibits at the recent show attracted more attention
than any other feature. The business in all t.he.,e lines is developing
with a rush, but it is certainly permanently established and destined
to be one of the chief sources of Argentine wealth. The waste of milk
that has been going on in the country ha. begun to decrease; estan-
cierosare beginning to understand the importance of making the most
out of the milk and to -ee the mistake thev have been making in
allowing the calves to have it.
,ELEt( ION iF (C-W, FlOR'H ILK!NI, (I'.\ IIQ I 1ES.
Estanciero., are looking to their breeding to get milking qualities,
something to which the average breeder has given no thought hereto-
fore. The dairy breeds, except the Jersey, are attracting more atten-
tion. For this rea,,on milk-giving Shorthorns will commend themselves
to Argentines, provided that they arc also mineat producers; that is,
a Bates cow or bull, known to have a good milk-producing inheritance,
will be regarded very favorably, provided the animal promises to pro-
duce first-class beef animals also. Formerly nothing but beef was
thought of; cows were rarely milked, and calves ran with their mothers
until they were S or 9 months old. Now they speak of taming cows
to milk as they would of breaking a wild horse. The progressive
breeders and estancieros are making selections of their cows with
regard to their milking qualities, and are seeking to' improve, the
amount and quality of the milk of their offspring.
Holsteins have some strong admirers, and Dr. Enrique Fvnn, one of
the principal breeders of Argentina, is about to make a visit to the


United States to secure some new breeding stock which the laws f.
Argentina do hot permit him to bring from the Continent of Europ.::
He is well satisfied as to the superiority of the Holstein for his purpose .
and as a meat producer at the same time. The Holsteins are stronger.
in the country than any other of the special dairy breeds.
Flemish cattle have been bred for fifteen years on one estancia near
Las Hera.,. about 6.u miles southwest of Buenos Aires. One owner
hl.i won many prizes with his cattle. He obtained his first stock
nearly twenty years ago and has imported a number of well-bred cows .:
from Belgium since. The importation of cattle and sheep from the
Continent of Europe to Argentina is prohibited under the agreement
with England whereby the English ports were reopened to live animals-
from Argentina, but such importation had not been permitted for two
or three years before. There is no likelihood that European animals
will he admitted to Argentina for many years. The supply of Flemish
and Holstein br-eding stock i.- very small in the country. There are
but two or three herds, of each worth mentioning and scarcely any
first-class breeding stock is on the market. The strong interest in the
dairy industry makes it certain that superior purebred animals of this
class which, in addition to their well-known milk-producing powers,
show beef qualities at the same time, will find a quick and very satis-
factory ",ale in this market. This applies to Shorthorns as well as to
I-Holsteiii and Filmi.,h cattle. Tiptop young animals may be relied
111)011n if properly pre.,ented to bring anywhere from $800 to $5,000
gold, and $1,5011) would seem to be a safe figure to count on. If the
animal.- were of right kind in all particulars they would bring more
rather than le.-, if offered at the right time.
One breeder has been trying a cross between Shorthorn and Flemish
cattle with significantt results. Shorthorn and Shorthorn-Flemish
steer, of the .ame age were prepared for market utinder precisely the
saame conditions. The Shorthorns averaged 1,218 pounds, while the
cros-bred steer.- gave an average of 1,441 pounds. It is claimed for
this cro.-,-s that it produces at cow almost as good as the Flemish and a
steer better than the Flemish and generally as good as the Shorthorn;
that the cross-bred steer is hardier than the Shorthorn and matures
equally early. The milk test in the recent show also gives some
-.trong evidence favorable to this cross, which now has many advocates
and is likely to be tried by others.
But those who believe in producing milch cows by a careful selec-
tion of Shorthorns are probably four time. as numerous as the sup-
porters of all other breeds combined in Argentina, for no claims are
made for th HIereford in thi., respect
The practical test of dairy cow., was one of the most interesting and
instructive features of the exposition. The competition was among

^^^^if '***




I -
L j~j



This cow gave 35 liters of milk per day.


lots of 5 cow.-, eoch. They were given the same food and( milk 1iorin-
ing and evening for three days under the infection of the judges.
Seven lots of Shorthorns, two of Holstein.s, one of Shorthorn-Flenish,
and one of Polled Angus were entered. Championship prizes were
offered for the group showing the greatest aggregate quantity of milk,
quality considered, and for the one showing the greatest percentage of
butter fat. All thle cows were accompanied )3by their calvei and had, of
course, beetl carefully selected and prepared for thi, competition,
though they had not been allowed to become fat. The result was very
gratifying to the advocates of the Flemish and the Shorthorn-Flemish
cross. The fact should not be overlooked, however, that the Flemish
cows were the result of fifteen or twenty years of careful and intelli-
gent selection from a large herd of the best original Belgianl stock
and its descendant.,., while the Holsteins have had only "ix years of
selection from a comparatively small herd.
The Holstein people here feel sure that their ibreetd will fuLrnih a
better animal for beef and milk combined, alleging that-
(1) Holsteins are hardier, better adapted to the open lift, f thlie
Argentine camp, to which they are objectedd, than eith-r Shorthorns
or Flemish. Holsteins, they vay, ((o Ibetter in the open camp than
under shelter, requiring the freedom of the open air t) pr(iduce the
best results.
(2) Holsteins are less, liable to disease than either Flemishl .r Short-
(3) The milking (qualities of ltolsteins of the -;aime ilr inl "reel ing
and .selection are equal to Flemish, ani they generally pro Ilu ,it better
beef animals.
The official report of the milk tests, on which the awards of both
championship prizes were made, and others, is -; follows, an, reduced
to our weights and measures:

Record o'f ipNi., u'f HIi q i 'r .'. ( if' I., ..
The [prtdiikl.' i i i w,. ill "ith 1 it for three uinsi;'., T i' l l' '.

Br ..d. Milk lwi, r Hzlter.

F le m is h .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .
Shorthnr -F le m ii i . . ........................... .. ........... .
H olstein ......... .. ............. ....... .................. ....
Do .............. ........................ . ....... ....
S h o rth o rn ...... ......... ..... .. ...... . .. .
D o . ... . .. .... ... .. .... .... . .. ... .... .
Do ............................. ................... ..
D .... ... . .................................. . .. . .. I
D r" ... .. ... ..... . . .... .. .. .... ... .. . ... . . .. .. .. ...
D ............... ....... ....... ..... ..... ... ... .... ..
Di .................................................
Polled A. in um ..................... .. ...................... .. ..

3369-No. 4b->3--4

Q1,Illt11, 1 ,'I't
:;i 12 17"
*.In). h. .4 f'.%,4
3 ,9. **r. :.t 0'-IS

-.'Al; "w ; 703 l
l%4 ,A 3 6"ii
27'4 96 3. ,"'.4
2'.1. 39 .1 2-2.5
l'.'M. ] ;. IG(
i65. 1 .4. 3 'i
1 4' .1.' :. O(1
,-,I Ni 1 4 1100

2"1. til
26 61
22 W9
17 59
19. hl
I.'. 37
I. 17
I. 417
11. 91
10. :6
I) 1IS



There i, no) relialule or complete information as to the number of
cow,, Iing milked or the number not being milked. No live-stock
cenusli has been attempted since ls1(5, and the best-informed men in
the country do not believe there' ha- been much increase in the num-
ber of animal-, since that. time, if there has been any increase. So
many lo.,-ses have been incurred, so many cows have been killed, and
the younger animals have been drawn upon -o heavily for export that
the natural increase has been kept down. One estimate, crediting
each cow with 3(1) kilos., or 66.13 pounds, is that only 137,000 cows
supplied thle export butter trade of 190)'2. Against this development
of a .mall percentage of the cows of the country, to which should be
added those employed in producing butter for home consumption and
other milk productt, which, all told, can not be, more than 1,000,000
and prohil)lY fewer, we have .1ome idea of the destruction of cows.
In 111 1-, 95.91,1) cows were .laughtered in the saladeros. or jerked-beef
factorie,-. Thi- was more than three tile.- as, many as were consumed
there in 1s!)7. when the number was 32,09113. In the Buenos Aires
.slaughter -ards 84.9l2 cow., were killed for beef in 1101, and in 1902
the number wa-t. 111I9.s'N, I. The same thing i- going on all over the
count rv. To lie -.ure. th(e cows slaughteredd are the inferior ones, but
by no mean- old ones oni. It -uits the inmen who are improving their
stock to get rid o(f the poor cow-s to the best advantage, and that is
for slaughter.
But it is ;a bad thing for the country to have so many cows killed,"
sa vs Rtmonalo Tidiwoim. director of the bureau of animal industry.
I"The better cla-s of e.,tancieros, those having valuable camps, may
not find it to [heir advantage to keep these cows, but they are needed
outside on l:and- not -o valuable, where any cow is better than no cow.
For the intere.-t- (of the rountrmy at large, we can not afford to have
so many young cow., slaughtereded and measures will be taken to pre-
vent the killing of cow-, under 5 or Ii years old. We would like to
say 7 year., but that is iimpracticable, becau.-se it is difficult to keep
account of the age of cow-, after they have all their teeth. So the
best we cani do is to prohibit the killing o(if cows before they have all
their teeth and are known to be : or 0 years old. Then we hope the
surplus cow-, of the inside camps will rind their way outside, where
they are needed. This subject will bho discussed in congress thii
winter and something will Ie done."
I \ .-TI r l-T I 'r u _I'iI"IITION NI> I'.PALTV.

The dairy industry is not yet ,ufficiently organized to permit one to
say what it costs to produce a pound of butter, or what the average
yield of milk per cow is, or what cows are worth. These things


canll oly lib alpproxinmated. It i, safe to .,Nay that the average estancia
cow does not average iimuch more than 5 or lperhap- 5j quarts per tday,
and that this milk will not toe.t (on the average through the year more
than 2.S to :3 per cent butter fat; in nianly cases it will be more, and
in the fall-in N\April and May the percentage of butter fat will rise
considevrahbl. Some herdi will average 3 per cent or a trifle more,
but 3 per centt the year atround is o n.idercd good. As to yield in
(tquantit'y, man% cows will not give moqr, than 4 or 4j quarts per day,
while others will give imiiich m1ore. The following estimate is given
byI the Ru-ir:l Society ill its ;inuial report, the information havini- been
furnished Iy Lat Union Argentina:
To priidriicea iiounrd of butter, l1 Engli.1i quarts (equal to 12 United States quarts)
or about 25 pounds of inilk .ire required. The cows in our dairies and estancias, a
Cross d Siihrthiirnii anl criJila i the native half-wild stock) will yield about :1, quarts
per rT'iiiaiiii: in milk fir alhi.iut 2111 ,lay- It must be remembered tihat in all
ilairiv hIeriIs iher,. are alua;.- 3boil !0 per cent of the cows that can not be milked
fur oine ir irnotlthr.
Tlie ai, ,rave ri -t if a dair co%% andI calf is about $30 (United Siat,.-); if the yield
is greater than the average if 54 quiarts, the cost is proportionately higher, as it is
considered that earhi additional quart if milk yield represents an additional value of
about $5 gulil; so a crow giving 9 iiquarts is wrtli from $45 to $Sti, and if it givi-i from
13 to 15 quarts. 16.5 to $75. .Alouit [,er cent of our dairy cows are graded Ship 't-
horns. Three cows with their calves require about two squares (A\ acres) of land.
Rent 'f lanil ih s n ilkiut t$1.50 gold per acre per year. Care and milking in each dairy
(120 to 151) cows j requiires three experieni'cil men. The wages of these men would
be a little river i1 5 gold p,'r nwith, with liiardI and lidlging, which represents about
$S gold in addition. The price paid fir milk by hli, creameries is about 1 cents
gold per quart.
The price, here given for cows are rarely realized except for the
very lie.t class of graded Shorthorns-known to have good blood.
Thle average cow ellss for half or less than half the amount quoted.
The rental price for land i. low except for land far out in the (ut.ide
At pre-.nt the lmI4ine..s is continued to the northern two-thirds of the
province (if Blueno-, Aire-A. southern and eastern C6rdoba, and most
of Santa Fe and Entre Rios. except the northern part.. where it is too
hot. The developmentt of dilairying is not only incre:-ing with great
rapidity in thla:t territory, hut i4 going beyond it, especially to the
.-.,outh and west, so it seems safe to count on -eeing several million more
cows being milked in two or three years and a consequent enor'mous
increase in the exportation of butter from Argentina.
Ii the dry times and in the spring when the grass is watery the tests
for butter fat run very low. One of the oldest and best herds of beef
Shorthorns lias had cows giving at the.,e times as low as 1.7 to 1.8 per
cent. Reliable creamery tests through the year gave this herd but
2.31 per cent butter fat on about 3<"i cows-a very low average. In
the same vicinity another herd, con-isting of Shorthorns, grTade Short-


horns,, andi( a slight strain of Jersey in some animals, averaged 3.22
per cent (if butter fat, which is above the general average for that
section of the country. A herd of Jerseys belonging to the cream-
ery', of which ,25o are always being milked, gives 4.36 per cent of
butter fat. All these tests cover a period of twenty-two months, four
composite tests being made each month. The locality was Carcarafia,
province of Santa F(, near Rosario, and the period included a very
serious drought, during which the cows suffered much. Some of them
wen, fed a little dry alfalfa during the worst time. The creamery
herd o(f Jerey-, i: fed nothing hut a handful of chopped alfalfa and
bran at milking time to keep them quiet. During this period of
twenty-two months., the .ler.,eys onit alfalfa averaged 6' liters daily,
though thi- is far from a fair indication of what they do there, because
of the drought and short pa4turage. Many individuals in this herd
give 21) liters a day when in full flow and test 6 percent butter fat-
sumIetimIC-4 ;t-, high a," ;..S per cent. The Jersey calves are taken from
their miothr.s as soon as they are born, and most of the bulls are sold
as .oon a- )possihlP for veal. Though they- are very well bred, and in
the United States would lbe valuable for breeding animals, there is no
demand for them there. The Jerey i% a very unpopular breed in
ArgentiniM bcau.-,e it gives So little beef, and, though occasionally a
rich etanciero or breeder has a few Jerseys for his own family use,
they are regarded as an expensive luxury. The (CarcaraiA people
raised a few steer., from their Jersey., for their own use and found the
beef good. though the animals were small.
I H : .'FF I'lINK i.. \niT MTI.lFAI T' PUY.

Thi Carcaraiui creamery i_ managed by ain American and is one of
the ,lde-st in the country, having until recently a very profitable, almost
muonopolistic, business in cheese. The Carcaraflaii cheese is famous all
over the country. The factory was started many years ago by a citi-
zen of the United States, who died about, two years ago. At first it
wna, a butter factory, but the cheese business, once the conditions
peculiar to the country were mastered, was very profitable until others
began to follow then into the induLstry, which resulted in overstocking
the limited Argentine market with various sorts., of cheese. The over-
production reduced the price one-third; now it is only about 80 cents
l)paper per kilo, or about 16 cents gold per pound. They tried to
export, but lost money in the South African market.
The ('arcarcaiia cheese is a rich full-cream cheese of excellent qual-
it', lbut, like all other cheese made in Argentina, its sale is and will
for .sme time be limited. The cheese industry in the country is more
or le.-s in this condition generally and is not very prosperous; there-
fore attention i~ turned chiefly to butter.


EXPERIMENT"; I;\ (N M l'.\R -lH N I1 BF:EEI)-.

An experiment recently Imade ,ni the (iGraiija Bin-;aia e.-,tancia. near

Las Heras, til miles southwest of Buenos Aire,. ivt's,.1 ; reli)l le'

record and comparison of four lot.s of cows two of Shortlornl-,. ofi

of Flemish. and one of Hol.,teins covering alli entire v ,,ir. Tie fol-

lowing table gives the result inl United State' c.- quart.,:

.1i/Alk i,'ld (tiind i er ,'01,it;'r i.f i, itt,'r filt i, ,..1 1 .f /,' .r ,r t ,ri ,t'.

Herd No. 1. 17'
Shon hr ihin-.

Y er r ai l l m n tl i QI T
U harl .T

J u ly .. .............
A ugu.t .............
September.. ... ..'
October ........ ...
Novemib -r ..........
Deelemher .........


January ...........
February ..........
M arch ..............
A pril ...............
M ay ................
J u n e ................

hlrn No). 2 17', Herd1 N.- 3
Fin~rili. ,[:-,hlmLl

ill lll-r

fli I

. '427 '
22. 17.3

22. 17
33. t6 ,

2,. 3.47

19. 141

17, '.1t4
13, -. 'I
1,1. 243

it. '1.14
l 1. 1l;.6-
'.1,1" L.1

.11, I ;1
27, l'4l

.4(1, 2-'.'.

;g' -if ,

t "T
fit 1.

3> .1.
2 ;

-' I


17. 6t;62 3 8 2 .5 :3?2

iI.i sil

] 7. 769i'
1N I-'-'

" I i.'..'.

24.' 17

"2 741

13 II! ',

'.. I 12. 4u,7

1 ] 7I Hi-rI N .I 4 17i
i- hi'-Ini hI I rn.

,;r i it. ]'t rT fill
,1'[ '>'r "i 'lrl-. h' tli'n r
I [. alit

Sii 17 i'L, ,
: I 1'l.A. 3
: 1 I7, ,;,i. ._;

2 17 2;', ,, 2
2 2_ 2'.

I4 '.7'.
4-' ''.
421 22,
2..' ",1
17. Il-'" 1

; "' 1].1 1 ','*

Total ......... 3. it. 1 :3 .. .. . ..1. '. ..
Average ................ 3 6 ..

. .. *i,'l 7,?,;l- . .. .. .. 3 l ,, 1 ,l
21 .. . . .... ..1.
142 .


No. 1, 170 Shcrlhorin-. ........... .. .. ..
No. 2, 17u Flemih .... ...... . ... ....
No. 3, 130 Holtcin .......................... ..
Nu. 4. 170 Shorthiir ............... ... I

"i- illi ihri'lh t llI P ill, i ll| i| i pr,-r .',-'.'. .\ '% -raii-n
__ __ ail llli~r
I'> r -il r 'tr r l] :. I't-I .%e m . l', f ii]','. Ir d

I2 9
1/11,I f' i/i f ~,I I I.'.ii fI II 1'l~,111 'irl : i- i
3. 15"2 "Q,1 1 ".;4 I, ;1 ",
11 'J.:,' ",s,2 I, ",2 ", '.*-. '.
-A,:;, 7:7 | ",',I 1. ")i,7 I 3 2'
.3:l3, UII, l. I, l.|iij 3 ,

The Shorthorns have been going through a I p'ocese of -t.lection f0or

eleven 'eai'., especially herd No. 1, -4howing ai little letter rl'.'iLIt, tllllln

herd No. 4. The Flirmish cow.,s Werv bougilit only two ,'yei', liefore

and were not selected animal ni: many were only' heifer.,-, -o tlie coli-

parison is hardly fair to them. The Holteins hli\,v l1ien ion the pIlaice

six years and included practically the entire herd of tlii, lbre'ed, both

inferior and superior. The (iier)er te.-,t wasi ue'd to determiiie the

percentage of butter fat in the milk. These averilge-, rll', C.on.-idered

very good, running through the year, of cow. kept all tilhe time in the


( 'l 'int,0''I 4,1-ilnlt Ill.


open camp. Another test near Buenos., Aires, of which careful record
wa, kept every day for ten years. for each individual cow in a herd of
211 crriath, Shorthorns, nearly pure. shows a .;teady average of 3 to 3.5
iper cnt of butter fat thro ughli the year. These cows were in the open
cam1p. o nIniitral grasses. with perhaps a little dry alfalfa in the winter.
1111%W .\CW It FElI.
Th. cow.s in the Grafija Blanca experiment were given no dry feed,
except Oct'siatinIlvY ai little dry alfalfa, when the pasture was dry in the
winter: Iut. this is done only by a small minority of estancieros. Most
cattle-;and. indeed., these cow.- most of the time-live and fatten and the
cow, .,i ve rich milk thlie year around on the native grasses, and nothing
mnrir,. T'l'lvy do, int have so much ilfalf. in this., part, of the country
a,4 ii ithis, a- it does not do well. Alfalfa in this -.ection lasts only
seven years at lIest. anl if cattle are put on it, only two years, as a
rule. But the native grases are, very rich and, in ordinary times,
furni-,li ahiundant feed through the year. There are' winter grasses
and uiiniier grasses, .-c' eeding each other, .o that there is always
fre-l, gras,; and, iunle,-ss :i drouglit ocCUris, tiere i- never need of giving
idry fife,. even to fatten %teer-. Thle estimate put upon the carrying
capacity (if the native grase', in thi, district is 2 cattle per square
(4.17 inre,') the \ear airouind, or 1 per square for fattening. In the
springg and summer tle cairp.- will carry more, especially the so-called
refined aiamps, tiat have l teen in use fur somnie years with cattle and
not oenrstocked. ,o the Ihttilr grasses piredominatte. But if pastures
are .stockikedl to the limit in the -uiimer thy will not be in condition to
carry. tli cattle in the winter.
Not nily tlih ilId llnalti've' gra.,,es, but severall of the tantme grasses and
forage plant.- well ki.own in Europe, which it is declared have never
been artificially planted here, are to he found in these refined'" camps.
Among are white lover, rye gra1,, and timothy, all of which
I have seen growing till Buenos Aire., estancias, where people insist
that it has never been i)lanted. There are several other., of these
gass..s that appear and flourish at different times in the year.
The thistles (if Ar.gentina were once considered one of the most valu-
ali,' cattle foods, aindt in all tlihe camps, that are without alfalfa they are
yet highly valued, andl often come in very oppol)l)rtuntely when other
pastis. (or gria.sses ar not at their beIt, especially in winter. In
fact, it wa-, with serious hesitation that es.tani-iero)s began to destroy
tlihe thistles in order to putt in alfalfa. The pioneetr- il alfalfa began
imore than twenty years ago, and among tie. earliest, and most promi-
mint of them were the Blenitz Brothers. from California. on their
s.-taMCia (' L3 C'alifornia," aIbout 70 miles northwest from Rosario, the :
second V( city and produce market of Argentina. They were the first to
have a league, of land ill alfalfa. When they began they were warned
'A .relfiilI calip is :i piltioni oi the riountrv bielter developed than others.


by the nativesof the folly of Iplowing up the thi-,tI-., and were assured
that the' wM'old suffer for it. lihut their success has proved that they
were right.
But ti ui.-efiulne-.- id tin' thistle is not entirely past. The three
princiipal va'rietic. that Illairk the 'lit'tinecii'nnt" if the camp are cardo
negro, or black thi.tle, tihe first to appear; cardo de cvi-,tila, or Spal-
ish thlistle, which follows in two or three year,: and cardo asnal, or
coarse thistle, the laIst to appear, after the camp has been in process
of rtfiiienient" for several years. The last is the best for cattle and
is considered a ald uablde forage plant in sonime sections where thereis no
alfalfa. It i-s green in the winter, even in dry times, and the cattle
like it.

The carrinug- capacity of anI Argentine camp varies so widely from
the rich alfalffa're,, or alfalfa pastures, and inside natural camps
to the more or le.,s IaLrren outside camps that it is impossible to
say what thle country it large will do. Director 'Fidtbiomi makes an
estimate of I bovine aiinnial to, 6 acres and 1 sheep to 1 acre. This
applies to the ditant pinipa.. where the grasses are not so rich and
the water is scarce. linut it does not apply to the sections in which cat-
tie are fattened, or w here they will be fattened for a go,,d n:iNy years.
Regions like that will piodulcie stock cattle to be fattened on richer
p1)astuirage, nearer market. In the pr ,\in,. of (',rd l., for instance,
the natural grass. otr past ftcrte. as it is called, will carry about .sjO)
animals per lea-gue, or 1 to iacre-. but they do not get fat by any
means. Oni the samen lanid put into alfalfa 3.'1()00 head of cattle are
kept fat the rear around. The land is divided into several poteros,
or pa-.tures, and the cattle are moved about from one to another of
these. There are )plenty of places in the country where the same con-
ditions prevail, and they are fa-t being made over into alfalfares.
Man% landowners are gradually working their land into alfalfa by
colonizing it andt thus earning enough from wheat or flax in the first
two or three year., tot pay all the expense of putting it into alfalfa,
which thle owners could niiot afford to do at since, and this system gives
them a profit hbeides. On tin. other hallnd, many estancieros in the
south and middle of the province of Buenos Aires are finding it so
protitalde to raise wheat that they are renting their land to colonists
for wheat or are putting it in theiil,;Ives, rather than use it for stock.
In other parts of thle same province they say that 1 to 1 animals per
square (4. IT acres) is the capacity of the native gi'a-.--. In the same
place the estimate of the alfalfare-, is 3 ainimals- per square for six to
seven months out of the year, as in winter there is not much a:ilfalfa to
be had. In the province of Santa F' the native camlps \aIry widely,
but in the southern part. which is best, tin' native grasses can be relied
on in good seasons for about, 1 to 1} anirmtal- per .


dry cold season comes on, the cattle do not do well on this feed.
Alfalfa in the same district will fatten 3 to 5 head per square in five
to eight months, depending on the condition of the cattle when they
reach the place, and the nature of the ,ea,,on-whether the alfalfa is
in prime condition or needing rain. In the province of Buenos Aires,
where they have alfalfa, it usually does not endure feeding well,
except in certain exceptional parts. The native grasses are more
relied upon, as they are much better there than in the upper provinces.
In C6rdoba and Santa F6 they are forced to put in alfalfa, as otherwise
the camps would not be stocked, except with inferior criolla, or native,
As a general rule, in the majority of cases, little or no provision is
made by estancieros against the u.,ual annual dry season in the winter
or for extreme droughts, and the cattlesuffer accordingly. Of course,
there are many exceptions to this improvidence, notably in the older
and more valuable inside camps, and the success attained by the men
who have taken the better care of their stock during the cold and dry
season., have done much to teach the necessity and profit of prepar-
ing to give stock dry feed during times of drought, and to finish steers
on grain. Cheap, frozen, grass-fed beef will, of course, continue to
be sold in England. but for export alive and for chilled beef of the
best quality, alfalfa or the native grasses alone will not produce ani-
mals that. will command high prices.


Mr. Daniel Kingmland, manager of the new chilled-meat works in
La Plata, near Buteno, Aires, ha-, just issued a circular to estancieros
giving them advice as to the best kind of animals to meet the demands
of the chilled-meat trade. Itl, suggestions have added importance
from the fact that he is an old resident of the country, a producer of
beef animal, himself, and knows the conditions and possibilities of the
country well. Ini his circular he says:
With regarI to cattle, the export of beef in a refrigerated or chilled state to the
United Kingdom is nuow an accompli-hed fact, but is still in its infancy, and places
this country in the position of being the principal competitor of the United States of
North America, which has hitherto enjoyedl the whole of Ibis trade. To compete
with then successfully', it i- our opinion that great care should be taken to produce
bullocks which will al'%ays be \%orth more for this purpose and command a higher
pritcV thin fur any other. For chilling, it is not necessary to send extremely heavy-
%eiglht cutthl. Bullocks of two and a half to three years old, well finished, and
weighing from 550 to 620 kilos., or an average weight of 580 kilos (1,213 to 1,367
poundil.,, or an average of 1,27.t pounds), will command the best prices. To produce
this article from the average well-bred mestizo (graded animal), now plentiful, it
does not matter whether the cross is Durham, Polled Angus, Hereford, Red Lincoln,
or any either mneat-producing strain, so long as the animals are always well fed and
looked afttr in the winter season, when grass is scarce, or any other time when there
should lie a shortage of feed, never allowing the animals to become poor. This can
be done by always growing a certain amount of alfalfa, corn, or other foods for winter




v "
. .. I I. . ..4 .

I r .u .-4" " ', .




feeding. By doing this estancieros will have no dilt'icuilty in producing the animals
required all the year around, and the results will be .atisfactry th themselves.
The trouble and expense of cultivating a small proportion of their laud in order to
provide food for the winter and fattening stock in had seasons will Ii- well repaid.

Concerning the production of lambs for export. Mr. Kingsland says:

The production of lambs for export shows tlhegreatest r'uIm f,'r implroveiment, and
should give good results to those who undertake to lproduciwe the slitalle article.
This can be done by introducing nmeat-produt ing strain- .,f sheep in?-) your flocks,
such as Hampshire, Southdown, Oxford, Shropshire, anil also Border Lei,-ester rams,
and, for the low camps, Romney Marsh rains. Then by winter feeding the i-wes,
enabling them always to have plenty of milk fur their lambs, they wuldl fatten
at from five to seven months old to average 30 kilos 16i il pounds i live % et-ight, and
would be worth 10s., or even more. Lamnibs intended fur t-xr.,rt should neIver be
shorn, as it throws them back, and the wool olbtained I arelt' c-)'ver- tht- cit of
shearing. By producing lambs and selling them at this age, you are turning yuur
capital every year, and therefore doubling your proildicing powers. Tit- fi.liuing
facts will show you how far we are behindil New Zealand, %% which country i-i ur- chief
competitor in the frozen-sheep industry: The total number of she,'-p of all ulas,-'e in
New Zealand last 'ear was about 20,000,U000, andI it expurtt-d ni-arl' -1,000,000 of
frozen sheep and lambs. At the same time we hadl liO0,0000,000 iLet-p, inI thi.s ciiiitry
and our export was only 3,500,000. These figures speak for tlheiiin-elve, aid hliould
be an object lesson as to the possibilities in tlie productioi andI early niatuiring ,f fat
lambs; and it has also had the effect -if increa-ing the value of, al -xtenlin., tlhe
demand for, land suitable for thle prioluction of lambs ti., a very great extent. VWe
would strongly advise estancieros to lay themselves out to prepare a i-irtain nunnlier
of lambs for export every year. The results iiunt b- i.,f thIe niiirt sati-faitory nature
to them andi will increase the salie o.f the flick, antI eainjl-i all :aromnid.


No one knows how many cattle there are in Argentina. Authorities
disagree in their estimates., hut it is now quite generally I nlmitted that
the estimates that have been given during the past two or three \eatrs
are too high. The last regular live-stock census taken in 1s1.,i, cml-
pared with the previous one, taken in 1.SSs, is an, follows:

Lir -slur" Cu,.'t. ., ,, .- I irI.h ii:, iNS. 'Ind j,'fJ ;.

Kind if animals. IS-4.

CATTLE. .iiiii,,,
Critullos inative).......... 17., 745"7N 2
C estizos i graded I ........ 3.3,. A01
'Purebr tct ................ . 7,5
M ihl h cows .............. ,-.t.. V26
Oxen for servir., .........


3% l| li ii .-
14,197, 'y
72, 21

9' -3. O,

Total ........ . lyto U, 7 ',2.7u1 l,.26
HO S( P. i

horses ............... 1,043,37 1 i
io t nat Live I .........' 2, 926. fi6 7 4 l.U .ii 7
izos (graded) ........ -259,009 414. 9.s5
oughbrods ........... 4,957 1., .577

Total . ............. 4.2:314, 032 4, 44 ?i ,4

Kin ,if n fanial.


CIrlio lli, tr i . ........
MIe'tti,, i gr. tf .i ... .
Pu r l | .r t i . .. .. . ..

"I',iil IIIu ,t' ltn k"
i 'u rljr l...............
'H ort ..............
-'tcet, ...........

P ig . ..............
A--.'q fidt fnltlt'i . ..
( i l i ....... .. .....

Im I %I.`).'.

.V ,nb,,. .\ ,,,, ,'
S12 i,*214 17,'11'4 i.1
42-, l1,1'',,71 ,l 5 1't|;, 1-7
.'.Nl.ll t^ I j 1
o'. ;',. i,-7 74, ',;9, '.2

1-'. Vi.. 107 1 7U1, F,26
4,2. 03.12 .1, 14i,, .)9
706; 0 ,'7 7 1, 17'i. "PC2
3 it 7" 1.h 1,52, 71.i d
J 417. IlV I i'. .it,.t
. 1, "94..iG . 7 N, 1 C0



Stati.s-tics ju.-t p)ublished by the bureau of statistics of the department
of agriculture, covering about three-fourths of the country, show that
where in 189. 5 there were 16,t25:,363 cattle, there are now only
1.5,144-6,8:.2, a decrease of 5 per cent. The correctness of these figures
has been challenged. and the bureau of animnil industry is arranging
to take a .enuis that. will be more reliable. Still, it is well known that
there i., a much le.-,s number of cattle in some parts of the country, nota-
bly in the southwest and in the north. Droughts, overstocking, garra-
p)ata ticks, foot-and-mouth disease, and anthrax have carried off many
thousand,. Cows have been sacrificed, thus interfering with the natural
increase, until the governmentt is planning, as previously explained,
to take te)ps to stop it. Younger animals are being sent to market
also. The mo.t conservative estimates do not place the total number
of cattle in the country at more than 24,0NO,u0u, though it must'be
admitted that it. i,, most difficult to arrive at a safe estimate or to find
a sure basis to figure on.
Estimates on the number of sheep, based on the amount of the clip,
on known conditions, careful reports from the sheep sections, and inti-
mate knowledge of the bu.-iness, vary from 811,1 ii0j.00< to 115,000,000.
It i, iprobabl v fair to conclude that. the real number is a little below an
average between these two figures.


During Jannuirv, Fb'rua'ry. March, and April, when the English
port- were 14open ti Argentine live stock, the number of animals
exported wa.s:

I'. Juit.% ,'if i. ,, 1t : Iroi .4 ,r;nehut ,4 1 i rii l In pril, 1903.

C.aIl Ii.. Slht-p. Hurset-. Mulec. Asses.

Jatitiir% .ind Ftbrilir' |'.lii< t. 1to Englainil. South
Alril,' Briizl.andIl spain i11 ... .... .. ..... .. 11.92 .I..t:tiV 1.234 7.3q8 5.597
.M1r. h.
Ti E.'nglitnd ......... .................. ........ 10. 9 4 ... .. .... ...
T. t.ilt rica .......... ........................ 9 9 -12. 0 1.0 71 20
*r ,.ithfr 'niUntri'.- I ...... .. .. ......... ..... 3 27 .......... .... ...
T l ..... ... .. ..... .. . . 1 2 '. ', S 211 I 74 i 20
A.pri l . ....... . .......... 12.. i7 44 10.l 52P) J97 I 30

", lnh-h r[irl- ,ip.n tI .\r% .na tirn.' livt l.v 'k F'bru.arv 3 ann'1 ,h',-t.d Mn i 9. 190:.
mI l l i m ni i li ii- fi r Miri hi Iirain r 'l-ll r'tllurrs %tir,. I' llth'. 13 .T.14 iit't p. 47.931. hn'r-es,. 626;
m il> -. ,. pi--. to 1it I) n .l innlflt art not ni r ti
Tlh, average weight of the steers exported is given at 1.462 pounds.
('on idirahble complaint ha- been made by the exporter', of live stock
about thv delays and expense of the inspection, di-infection, and fit-
tings rt-|uired iby the Government for the exportation of live stock.
But. no d oubt these will be overcome in time. The Government
appears determined to use all possible precautions to prevent diseased


animals from bring exported and to provide that the animals shall
have such care on the voyage :is that they shall arrive at their desti-
nation in good condition.
The re.-ultt were not. what halLd 1been expected, for various reasons.
A great majority (of thie cattle that did not do well on the \oyag, were
wild, iitnLaimed brutes. They were bruised and frightened in the rail-
way cars coming to Buenos Airez. Arriving there, they were unac-
customed to such close quarters, did not know how to eat dry food,
and, being hutled about and lifted ,on hoard in great, cages high in the
air, they were .still more frightened. On board they knew still less
how to adjust,- themselves to their i(new rrou ,i ngs, failed to eat,
were proixibly not so well cared for :sl, they miglit have been, and some
veryi heavy losses resulted. ()One ship was out twenty days longer
than expected, and thIe animals hail little to eat. Several lost from 20
to 30 per cent of the aninmai., oi board, and those that got through
were in had condition. The sales ran from 12 to t'.3 ( .3.' to
$111.7s IT. S.) inii the Englih markett. Several cargoes were sold at
12 to t'li ($5S.3: to K77.7t, 1'. S.). hlii.h meant heavy losses. The
animals cot in Argentina from '.S to f:ll -41'.88 to s:,:,'..46 U. S.),
generally about e'10 ($4.S.ti LT. S.). iThe ocean freight was from 3
10s. to 4 Ils-. (16.9tl to $21.,s7 U. S. i, the former bing the lowest
rate at the time the ports were clos-ed (*May 9). The rates for sheep
were 6s. a li head. Then there was tlie ,ostof feed and care besides, so
that 'S18 (S7.4! U. S.) wa.-, the lowest price that gave a profit. Rates
to South Africa were 4 (611.414 U. S.) for cattle and i-s. (1,.44 U. S.)
for sheep. To Para, Brazil, whore a .imall but regular trade in cattle
has been worked up, the rate i., : 4 Is. (*1.87 U. S.)per head. The
ships used in the trade are niot specially adapted to the business. There
waIs lack of l)propr ventilation, the hitting, were not always what they
should have been, and, in fact, the hmuiness was just being learned and
better ship-, were leing offered when thie foot-and-mouth outbreak put
a ztop to it for a time.
But the chief le.-son learned by Argentines in their latest experi-
ment with cattle exportatimi was that they must abandon their hopes
of getting prices equal to those obtained for the prime corn-fed steers
from the IUnited States unle.,s thev al-,o feed their animals grain to
finish then for market. They also learned that a wild animal will not
come off the range, take a railway journey, and go on shipboard and
travel four weeks mnless he lImas been prepared for it by taming and
feeding before he leaves thi- e.-tamia. So we may expect to see the
Argentine estancieros begin within a year or two to put grain-fed
steer.s on Ihe market, lbut not in Iarge numnl)bers.
Aside froit the anthrax, which is still %ver had in the province of
Entre Rios and in certain parts of the province of Buenos Aires, and


thile garrapata, or Texas fever ticks, which infest the northern prov-
inces, the health of the cattle is good. The foot-and-mouth disease,
referred to elsewhere, is regarded as a very small affair that will soon
be ended so far as the better part of the country is concerned.
The pa-t ,eason and the present one have been favorable to the
health of cattle, except in a few places, where they have suffered
from severe droughts. The Government is making a brave effort to
confine thile tick.- to the warmer sections, where they are thickest, and
to prohibit cattle from coming south beyond a certain point.
For many years cattle have been brought down from the Chaco aind
other parts of northern Argentina to be fattened on the rich camps of
the provinces- of southern Santa Fe, C6rdoba, Entre Rios, and north-
ern Buenos Aires. It has been a very good business, for the pro-
ducers of stock rattle on these cheap northern camps could afford to
sell their .stock at very low prices. The cattle were immune from the
fever, though carrying plenty of ticks. In this way some of the best
stock region- were- infested with ticks. But those who brought these
cattle down. paying $15 or '420 for 2-year-olds, keeping them on grass
for a year or so. and selling them at. prices ranging from $35 to $60,
strongly objected to having this business interfered with. The ques-
tion w[;is disem.n.sed for several years before the Government finally
established a line and required the cattle crossing it coming south
to be dipped. It wa, made compulsory to use a certain dip,
and that was another source of controversy, the claim being made
that other dips were equally good. But the Government authori-
ties init that their dip is the only one that will actually kill the
ticks, while other dips .simply cause them to drop off the animals.
The establishment of this line affected the saladeros, or jerked-beef
factoric.,, thie .shipment of fat steers to Buenos Aires, and the bring-
ing of s.teers down from the north to fatten. In the province of Entre
Rios, where the saladeros are located, the movement of live stock fur-
nished a large part of the provincial revenues, and its partial curtail-
ment inflicted hliard-,hip on the provincial government. It is generally
claimed that the official dipping stations are wholly inadequate. The
animals, are submerged one at. a time in a cage let into the bath by a
sort of derrick. It. is impossible to dip wore than 23u or 25f per day
of these wild animals. All sorts of objections were and are still being
rai-,ed. Beside-, niany stockmen regard the whole thing as nonsense
and claim that the tick's do not carry thei Texas fever. Several post-
ponement.,s of the taking effect of the decree were made, but it finally
went into operation on April 1, 19m3. During that month it was sus-
pended, so far as Entre Rios was concerned, until July 31, under an
agreement with the provincial government that it would cooperate
with the Federal Government at the end of that time in putting it into
full force. The provincial government is to erect enough dipping


stations to accommodate the demands. The Minister of Agriculture
has just refused to further extend the time when dipping will be

During the tirst six months of the year 1902. and in the latter part
of 1901, the sheep business in Argentina was very di,.cour:uging and the
Argentines, alway.-, quick to take up a promising new thing and just
as quick to run froni it when they strike a had season, began to sell their
sheep for nearly nothing. Sheep could Ie bought by thousands for
$1.50 to $2 and many were sold for $1 paper, or from 45 to 90 cents
gold each. Various causes contributed to this, but the low prices of
wool and mutton were the chief ones. The British ports were closed
to live sheep and the freezing companies paid what they pleased for
fat wethers and lambs-usually from $4 to $6 paper, rarely more than
$5.50. The best wools were selling at 15 to 20 per cent less than now.
The home demand for mutton wa., not sufficient to make a price better
than $2 to $4 in Buenos Aires. The coarse Lincoln wools especially
were not in demand and were being -;hipped in great quantities to the
United States for carpet manufacture. Now the markets are better
for both wool and mutton and a change i, coming over the Argentine
flocks. This was one of the most striking features of the great annual
show, and it points to conditions that offer to the sheep breeders of the
United States an opportunity to make some sales of Rambouillet and
Merino rams. Of the 1,71S sheep exhibited and offered for sale, !'155
were Lincolns, but they did not, as heretofore, bring the highest prices
or command the most interest. The Down breeds, the Rambouillets,
and the Merinos were more sought after, in proportion to their num-
bers, and their numbers were greater than in any previous show. It
will be noticed that the* Lincolns stood third in the average price of
sale, closely pressed by the Oxford Downs. The prices were not so
high as in 1901, when the champion Ramnbouillet ram sold for $7,300,
and this year it sold for only $2.0IIo. But. the highetbu priced Lincoln
was only $1,600. In a later sale in .Januarv a group of 4 Lincolns sold
for an average of $1,750. the highest price being $2.3 In this sale (January 21, 22, and 23) 3s"3 rams, mostly she.iarlings,
from 16 to 28 months old. were sold with the following results:
Average price.
267 Lincoln rams, purebred ................................. $206.53
75 Lincoln, grades .......................................... 46.13
41 Black-faced purebred ramn ............................... 121.27


High-s. in l, lowe.i prices ,.f princ;pdl bireeders.

B r ,'e d t h erTW Niiv bt .r l
Breed. Tier Td. l-ighe4t. Lowest. Average.

Lin oln ...... ..... Pm hur ( ...................... 4 1 2,300 81.300 11,750
M nili r . .......... ... ...... 770 340 474
I.partillanr ... .......................... 0 1', 00 170 292
*, I.'...p-' ..................... ....... 7 a10o 150 391
M ain 1 .In 1 i ... .. ................... I 4 71 320 380
B., .t P .'P ......... ................ 4M0 170 243
Harnp uhirt ........ cHli r I" (' ...... .................. ......... .. 100 ...........
O x'inri liw ,' .... L .n,n rli1. I', r,\ ri ... .......... ........ ........ 3 00 ... ... ....
.. 10 SO O........
r , h r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 0 1 0 10 . . .
_____________________ I _______________"

With the exception of tih Puchuri anid Mendiberri lots, these were
the second picking of the flocks, thi best having been sent to the
Pal,,rm',o show the l)reviot- Septniember'. These two breeders did not
exhibit at Palermo. With these exceptions the animals were, on the
whole, inferior to those ,hown at Palermo, especially the Downs.
The following is from the manager of the largest live-stock auction
house, whose opportunities for studying the needs of Argentine breed-
ers are iinI'rpaI-sed:

In inmy Nipinion this y>-ar'- tendency ha- hIevii towardil the Black-faced sheep, the
D)oti n, a tend'erinrcv which is likely to grw until the lireed iinpresse, itself upon the
co',untrv jver thlie Limniln.- andI Ranml iouillets, just as in former ;ears the Lincolns
iniprisel tlen-elvi-s UaainPt thlie Merino types. The reasons for this are early matu-
rity h, Iardv ,iiistitutiiia, quality' of meat, and ieq>ual price for wool. These are the
same umilditinns uhirli in ither tinis secured superi,'rity for the Lincolns, a superi-
ority hi.rli lia ciiiim enc-d It' vanish tmn at<'ount of theexiess of production. I
atlril'ale Ithis e ,,hitin ti f breeilds leP.-s to a dlistin t supt-riority <'f any of them than to
thu influerne--the inex'irallt- law%-oif supply and demand uipoin production. Ex-
perience in I'teedinr. inmijiiaedI tith a viear insight into thlie special requirements
of ramip ,a' climate fr each of Itlie improved breeds,,will ring forward the good
qualities, they all ,O.sses..

The objection of ti' exporters to the big Lincoln, both on the hoof
and a- frozen mnutton, has had a great influence upon the breeding of
a better muitton, one that gives a .tnaller. firmier, leaner meat. The
overlproduction o-f the coarse Lincoln wool was the other strong influ-
ence. although tlhi., season there has been some improvement in the
price of Lincoln cross wool. The opinion is quite general in the coun-
try that the breeding of Lincolns has gone too far, and that a better
mutton and a finer wool must be produced. So the Downs. the Black-
faces. are being sought for, especially the Oxford Downs, and also
the Shrop.shires. The demand for Rainhouillets is still strong. As it
is now forbidden to bring rams or any other live stock from Germany
Or any other part of the Continent of Europe, and as the Merino types
are again being sought after, it is plain that this is the time for our
breeders to send their best animals to this country, just as they did


many years ago, when the firt Merinos were brought to Argentina
from Vernont.
Several hundred Lincoln ramw have already been imported from
England, and are being, or have been, sold it. auction. The prices were
very good. oine lot of 20 rams and li> lamni., averaging *110iiS each for
the rams and $3W2 for the laiimbs. Another lot of 6 averaged $1,175;
one sold for $3,KI)'0. Ten ramin lambs averaged $237. Another lot of 4
averaged $314. Among the arrivals from Englandwere 54Shropshire
rams and 62 Shropshire ewes: alo 15 Hainmp.hire Down rams, upon
order. This breed is quite extenivelv used in Argentina.
The Shropshires brought. only about $2,i paper each at the first
sale, and ai secondd sale only $11.10 to $1I0o. The demand was quickly
The freezing works pa:y a higher price per pound of dressed meat
for the smaller, finer mutton sheep than for tin, coarse, large Lincolns,
because the latter meet with objections in the English market, where
for several years they have .,old for a lower price than the smaller
carcasses. One of the largest frozen-mineat concerns in the country
grades it,, lambs and muttons into the following five classes: No. 1, 34
to 39 pounds; No. 2, 40 to 48 pounds: No. 3, 49 to 56 pound'; No. 4,
57 to 64 pound.-; No. 5, t5 to 72 pounds.
The 511 to 56 pound carcas.,es are preferred, so the sheep that will
dress nearest to that Neight rand furnish a good quality of mutton is
the one that. commands the highest, price. Th,- openingof the English
ports is, of course, emphasizing thi, preference for the smaller mutton
sheep, creating a much larger demand for the wethers. This will
encourage the breeder, of the Downs, thle Merino tvpe)-, the sheep of
smaller, liner carcasses and finer but lesser weight of wool. Still, the
improvement in prices of Lincoln and Lincoln cross wools this year
has encouraged the Lincoln breeders, already so greatly in the
majority; and Lincoln rams are still in strong demand, as shown by
the successful sales of those recently imported from England.
The sheep market in the suburbs, of Buenos Aires is a great national
institution, under private management and well directed. Here most
of the sheep in the Republic are sold, although many are ,old on the
estancia, much the same as cattle-that is, the better class of export
lambs and buttons. Prices vary greatly, according to the quality and
weight of the animals, the amount of wool they carry, the demands of
the market at the time of purchase, the distance from Bueno. Aires,
etc. All sheep are bought by the head, as are cattle.
The price of the export type of mutton sleep ihas been going up for
several months, more noticeably since the opening of the English
ports to Argentine live sheep. The top price now is $12 per head for
the best export wethers. The daily prices in the Buenos Aires mar-


ket range from $6 to $12 for fairly good animals, though many ..
sold for less. They are inferior animals, however. All the really gog.
ones bring from $8.51) to $11.50. These prices are about double th*,
of a year ago. The higher prices are for the product of well-kno
estancias, in large numbers, where the animals are more uniform a.
of exceptional quality. The prices vary from 11 to 16 cents paper pdsij
kilogram live weight, the average at this time being about 15 cenle '
This is equivalent to a range of 2.18S to $3.20, or an average of $.,
gold per lou pounds. The distinction made by the frigorificos is th`t
they pay more for the small sheep of fine mutton than would be waxi
ranted if size only was the consideration, as compared with the pro.
paid for the big Lincolns. The latter, however, give a greater quaB'.
tity of wool, and, though the mutton price in England is lower, thera'
arc more pounds to sell, so the man who raises it can afford to take ail.
lower price per pound. For these reasons, although the Lincoln wilL
stand le.. hardship than the smaller breeds, his champions in Argentin&::
are not deserting him altogether. .
There is no better authority on sheep breeding in Argentina th ':::.
Mr. Herbert Gibson, vice-p)resident of the National Rural Societyn.i
His father before him was a sheep-breeder there also, and his interestb.i!
are chiefly concerned with sheep, as importer of purebred rams,':
breeder of breeding stock for this country, producer and purchaserof
wool, and producer of mutton. A few years ago he published a booksi;
"The History of the Sheep-breeding Industry in the Argentisiul'
Republic," and it is considered an authority to-day, except as subssI'
quent developments have changed the conditions in the country. XIlx
Gibson was most active and prominent in the introduction of ttq:
heavy, long-wooled Lincolns into the country twenty years ago, and
urged the crossing of the Lincoln on the smaller Merino breeds fort
double purpose of producing the greatest quantity of wool and mu.t -
For these reasons importance must be attached to the recent pa..
cation of an article in the Anales de la Sociedad Rural Argen'.
the official organ of the Argentine Rural Society, by Mr. Gibson,...
which he distinctly modifies his views regarding the Lincoln br
The fact that this article, written by the best-known writer oni |
sheep industry and one of the foremost advocates of the Lincoln,.i
peered in the chief agricultural and pastoral publication in thecon..i..'
is the best evidence to be had of the great change that is now tak*..
place in the sheep industry of Argentina. The article will be foi:
to be of the deepest interest by all who in any way deal in mut(
or wool, for it is based on long and thorough study and experie'
and is the verdict of a man completely convinced against his will, wi

BuLT,'. No 4,3, B. A. I.






.3 : -. .. 1 .-. ^ ^ A .,S 1
-1 1 .'* *_ ..

S .. .... ,.. Ac,. .
." ".., :


^^ ^B ..- : ,

7" -

I 7



gives the reasons thlt have chaimged hi-, o pinion.,. Th,' ftellowi\in- i- ;i
tran-,lation of the article ill its entirety :

The notable presence if tiet' Dfir i type illi t rit rtilet eXpI-nii ,1i il ti.' Ii Rilal
Societv shiw\.s a ?iglniti-ant far:t. The .-heepi inii.-tr' 'if thi. ruintr i- .el,,,at r. iintr
upon a new evolution. The .suiremay if the Lincoln race l'rlhli.y I,, tlie lii-tir' 'f
the pat. But it will nit ri-i.iil it- e'epliire withl)uit pre ter. in1 thie ft-iilal tills-. li hi.h
belong to it Iv ri;zht atii, tradition. Hlie-n- it 1i- t- Iv ,''ii'nclsii li thit h- Iin'olii
breecler who H rit-, this, ',n %telcominii hi clinpettilor-, i. llit diipo.-s-dI ill ,ii\ way
to quit the field.
After sixteelii v':larl t' i tillionI 'n-imand fI',r an', d ;til ,'i'J-'- if tlhe- L.i.ic'ln
cross-every time h-- i 'ls, nai lt In Ue'olei-w-' iil ''urstlV.1 t,-,dl. \\ i-i illte
British p 'rt .lhi-el,. ii, 'iar.l we,,I] ilI-')iie.l., naiil 'n ir i .iark,-t lif iie t-il tirt
ieniarisnl--iit V' rv ''ic' urligiing--lf it 't fre-eiriL', '-ttalili-linieiit-. ThI. i'lint, ha.
therefore arri'vedl to halni' e ic-uti.iilt %%i th (lie .leiep iuiel.-trv, aindi I iin in;mke
Soime ol-_!er\ati,,n.- "iLicli this -tatle 'if thinv;- % ill lhi\t- -iL',e-te l, Q itli'il I.iilil to
more thaii one lireiler
First. Thile prolsim linii ,if .rn.i- el ,ni l. fins' :r'l ifliiiliii ', ,iiiniii -li'- in i \ iliick '.
Every tini, tliher i, Inure s-,iar,4e wol. Th- ilrc- I tr" tI ii.eark in ,im ie \ill, tlih e
seal of the Linii-li tilhe greater is thei- aemo'unt if ,il ",l- pialdrc-," that ie ,iijj-inee
reject-. What I metian i. that hire 1irodtiv---r .ail i Ii-Lllli-r.ire 'li16 i, ',ippii- h'lir'er-
lions. \\'hen I think tlhijt iV ialor will lie rwnariil andl c.xliilhst 1 I.ii'i.ln ll tk
typi.-al ,ril, iinilfiiril, liV C 'iluiy nee it- art l. Tile lo\ l -ililii fli \,n i] t,, iiiak :-irq.'-Is
in North Ale lrica.
Sev'onsl. It seetili that it i- wit elins 'li_ tili l iY 'n il i- \,tli-l i fi ll iler iial n -re
to the retfin--ine-nt i.f li i N lu k. T ilt- i't iiijrk-tl il kicii', leil,.- -till l.s'- tin- ie-rit
of so lan arv -aritice-. Frilli before ties, ,-in- f ,tlt- l-Brilti-li I.rt- the ,'\ xIiitir
talked t, i eii iilin t tlhi- l i itOilllif the Lifiln'in t\yI t a tiii'f i I' ....' i ,i .',in .>'if l .'- ,
toi.o heav. a4 t e ,i hmaiiI %%,a-4 lim iteii ,l ,,ill" I, tile- illrkit -if this fre--.,ina
e.itabli.slilient- tit+s 'liii i .itinn of %alui-,,l thet L.ill.-iii li i ,ttfi j ii % i% ,' ;i. titi ts'l-,l
than ever. After twenty 'eariir. 'f lal'. ri'iii 1is ri, 're- I lhave -i--ii'in ii :l,'thli.,le I the
result of promliiin' a im' tn h,.i e ,ill ile:tiny i: lilt gr'a.-, tink.
Third. Tii tie-e- tribiilatiiii tlherr, i-' *liither I' t lit hd-itil ,f tle ttiriu. It
i6 notirealhile that %whenonoi FIni-e .-li eeeih illn et:.-tallili-niL' a r-ieeark:ill L.lioilli
t're inll the flock, that i4 the time t1hi w,.ri ra'i-el tilt- e *.reite.:t ilnafivs.. Tli,-re- is a
predislJi-itinn on the .part cif the yearliiefr lallb.- tit faltl l, ii Hi, /iilt i, .'iir.i.S
and to ,uveviip I,- it' effect-. The' -prinig iri-, e. perlir-n..- li ore andi ioi'l'r- e'tern
year a notalile Iecrea-e during the ilrn ande hit iiiiitlthi -' il- f'illflii1g fall.
Oir atfflictet-d sheliherd %%ill .snrel- niiit findi a rekl 'in, dsl-t jSitiili.iii i.lf th I ridile-nm
which -'onfront- him: andl if -,iii-, if ith, a11C .-e4i that hiati' c-li liIt'iciI Ic', t ii- p1,' iilifl'il
situation are marked i.ill, it dlelienls ini tile aiilit' *,f vit-li iniliviiiial i. :-ipplV lliOnl
to this i own '' anil ti ilte-rliiiiie w'hichl i ,,lificatiiim nihlit ti, l i tr' ilii, edil.
The asooI prit- ihldtained during the, lat de'adlt- fr tie- w, ol ;iiu m iiefttilli ,f Lin-
coln cross have indnl'it-e LI til t,' ,'erst,.k iour- ranges % ithi siees,. TIi- :\\i ii a, great
mistake. It is not eniiiali that during, certain Iperioldi -if tlie vea r i-hee i ar' r fat if at
other times they are in-uffiji-i-itly Ieel. This ,,verst ,king Iha- brought nhiat the
English call "lirtly Iature," and onll-.e iluently th,.. -'ale ifl i mortality ine'irasie...
The true Linieoln type has experienced a ifiediieatiain in this ieieuntry, r \\in'i to
the demand for size. Its fleece lias loito the unlliformiity \hichl c-hara'teriz--id it
twenty 'years ago. Its form in lias been exaggerated. Th- [-irity .if thle tI\p l. ea I leen
somewhat sacrificed in order to obtain a large quantity of mreat find \v'Ilnni.e 4f wool.

SNiveinber, 1902.
3369-No. T8-13-- 5


\'ig. r and xitalit*--1ualities necessary it transmit in their purity to thebreed-have
been -ae riutile, in this way.
A ram born anI bred in the stalIle, artificially fedil from it- 1birthi and forced to a
precocious dev-elopment, ran not tran-niit to it. the qualities of robust-
ness necessary to our .-steim tif sheep 1reedling The English breeds do not owe
their p-4,i reputation to inea-mzie, taken against nature, nr have their typical quali-
ie-s been produced in thi', %ayv, .ani the practice in "iir Ireeding establishments,
whose only object is a grnat ,e1teli'pmient. is ti,,, artificial. It i' true we ought not
to iuLlet the 1,trling anitial- 'lestined four tihl expposition, anil we ought to feed
them with the best fodder, keep their t1heee in hli- tit-t ,.,iilition, and put into
practice every legitimate :art t," present tliteni in the must pierfeti t way before the
public. But it seems 'i, ]v reainabl,lt-. nevertlile's, t,, allow then at least to breathe
the pure air of the itild and ni it t he ieavv atm'i,,-phliere f a half-closed and half-dark
-tal1l, to oblige them to ialk anit ti zraie, a1i,1 lastly t- alttay.- keep in inind in
Irel-ar 'iian- them that the Itree'lir 1 i idr,,ii'c .a' ,'1 an'i meat in t;od'- Iia-tures and not
in a f:i-tory lighhte'd witlh elertit- light.
I',-'si 1 over the causes lvhy tit' I.ic, iiin re-il hil- nit given all tlihe results desired
by its di ictitc. we come tit an'l'ier t:niilitiin lt our national tit k., to wit, their
tendency toward tiniiali'tiin No c.nI- %till deIiy lie Ieim-tiiial re-,ults of crossingthe
]i;,lf-lifrel weak Merinui % itli tli. r listt Ilii-iPln, t-, \ ha-i,' lilitihd we are indebted
for the improvement of form, the tirim :al IInallthv i':a-i-, anl the ruggedl constitu-
iiti, which contribute to -irt.rmtnlien 'tin -lIeei, in the .-truiggle against the open-air
life and the climatic, t,,iip',.,r. breeding. But the law '4 ri,,iliiii-i-iti, i .ilpliu.d to -toi k lireeding as %tell as to
other industries. We oulit ,i it ti -e''k either the ''ne i n lie either extreme, but a
medium. TVIc demand oi llfi< market d.,c- mit justify til i.rilduction of an exag-
.ratl specialty, 1ei...mi' illii ,h-r iti, iitairn tlii-. ilecialmy it i. necessary to sacrifice
certain qualities fir the 16n-iit jif .,t I r-, an I -CJiii inr 1 after i lft-t- a ,pear. In this
respect the Lincoln breed lii-, air, 1it -1,i.ak mniii itr-rertly. ha'I g i.'-on tuo popular.
The stock-i rt-diii-, ec',iiiii,,. :; %ell a.s all a stirr-. i.-: an iiiiending history of
ii,.iriftirs The law of ii.iturt- iurk- tli, .-tel, ;ial;ay-' iii,,if% ing, always molding,
always surprising us with lih.r tvtilitiiiil., alnat\.i renni'linrz i1- "bhile we painfully
advance through the t -.iy 'f ]irt.arr-s ilhat iiaii live, v lhy lie seat of his Ihrot and
Iliitiilir in our way obstacle .% lilt i .liiiuil, ,,1 r ritde at tilt- \er' -y nuinent % hen we
thought we had reached tlit.- -uniiuit f ,tir iileal. linBt, a- -lie i. al-o a gaoaud mother.
she relieves our affliction I, -I..,in,; nuiti, t-r way, until then uinknott n to us, by
which 'hlie allv- us to jri.iri,- :'g:lin, tn, a'l\tai ea andI ti hliue.
To ingraft, or, using bI tVI lii i' ti rio-, t'. u i-r l h- t i- ical feature- nf the breeds that
are crossed is a prime con-idt-ratiii, It i- *.ell knio. tn that c-.anaii'iiinity- marks its
lnicreatiiii with all the ihiara, t-irni.tit I ,ihditi,,:- 1if the prig.'nihia-, hei they good or
bad, and that t'iii-.,ii'iiity I i Irvcii thlt, evmullvyei liv thit- 1-reedler ti repro-
duce the type he wished ti' pirjietuate. In lite' t-rossii f thle hrt-Pedsi, the greater
the typical purity of the pIr,'gl.wnt-r thle .'rt-ater -n li 1ti.rfecti,-,n reached in the off-
spring. We start, then, if %te intt'ild ti iri,- ag.'iin, frini a lIai.'i urer than the oine
of t'i nty years ago. Ti,- ,',ar.-.tit-- ',1 thlie ii ix, I.incu.In i f ck- of tlie country y
shows a condition more rati, iii ire tylii-al than thlie mixed Merini, floks showed
then. We rely on the exi-ten-e if :a -tt1ck if rain- f tlie Rainhtiuillet. Lincoln, and
Downi breeds that will -lquly tlie demnandl fii -ires if excpilent lit-dligrees. The
national sheepfold is well a.-gUiti-.Ipd. There are elements to mniodify, in a satisfactory
tav, the cxi-tinr sheep.
But outside :li i.ii le-t ability v-.f thie lire-'ler hli,- writer the-e lines, it stu passes
the limits of an articleh to explain in de,tail the linr e-, through ihit h our national
flocks will approach more ritai l\ ti, a iw-ritalilr iie' liiiiii andI t, the balance of pro-
duction, which is so evidently larking. li, thie lir-t palace, we thought to realize better


the limitations to which we are sulijei.tell l]', tlih climatic and topographic conditions
of the regions itl which we rai-e ii:r Aheep. It is probable that the sheep breeder
situated amniong the tender natural pastures uif the S,.utih, in the climate of frequent
and :opiiouis rain- and, dairi) atmosphere, hosee flock of accentuated Lincoln type
does not increase in thi- value .,f % nol and mieat, would findl it .iadvanta-,'nii- to do
%%hat in New Zealand has given sluch -ali-fatitory resunits, viz, to cross his Lincoln
with Romney Mlarsh. The Kentidi sheep cintributes to impart smoothness, thi,k-
ness, and to a certain extent tinene.-s ti. the fleece of coarse Lincoln, while tli, meat
of this crossing is in good demand, an I a greater constitutional robustness is notice-
able in the otffsprint.
The breeder with alfalfa pasture.- % ill never be a great sheep breeder. His r61e is
in the attli. business. Th- deel-ipmient (of thlie sheep industry on the alfalfa stock
farms is incoimpatilble within thle lr,,l.uctiin if tiie wool, of whatever breed, either
Merin,.,, or Lincoln, or any either. Thi. liroblem for the man with alfalfa has but
a single economic side-to pr,,lice thin I .-t anud grnat.-t uantity of meatand to find
out the type whit'h will lbest answ, i- thi. ,u,-ti,'i, only.
While the free/inz e-talliki,,,-nt- .indI thlie exporters of live sheep do not reward
quality, paying f,,r an animal if the IDi n i r,'ss a price wrnater than that paid for an
animal lit Lincoln cr.os-, it i ti be exlevitl that the breeder will always prefer the
aninial of great-r eight. BIut there .ire reasons for thinking that this will not
always be -, and that tlie [i'\in I're,.-ls, -r,-si.d on the flocks of Lincoln 'riin, are
destined to niii 'lity the general ty Ie of tlle tli-Lks in the alfalfa regions.
In tile outlyinu ra,',es of tlie Suthiwet--the zone of scanty rain and dry atmos-
phere, separate by h'rio listaint-- an, I expensive freights friiin the meat markets-
tlie production o-f tine wiol alppri-xinoatiii, tI the Merino should be the first purpose
of the breeder. The Ioni. wirl 4f thli Fngli-h white-faces does not prosper there.
The conditiuna- of the climate fair thlie. M,-rii. breed. Witli the ,,t'cniiin- of nearer
meat market, vyitli tlie ii[-r,,vi'.-iit iif the vir_,in ran'e, and the planting of artificial
pastures the meat iproilurtiin of tli:mt inie might become a more important factor
than it iQ to-dlay. In thi, a-e the lin-re lr % ill experience another process of evolu-
tion. seeking fromni among the meat breecd, w hose fleece is the most like the Me.rin,-
pet-rhap-. the Shn'rllirec-a netw cro-1 \lhiiih will make his flock a source of nrteater
profit in the production of mi xed piod lucts.
The Argentine breeder needs an |icrea-ing number of establishments in which the
typicvdal breeds of lii- specialty are p ]iii'cd. The pure, r,...-i.d. or mixed sire will
di-app'ar in time. tii be replaced I Iy tlie genuinely, art-neal.dogi, ally., typically pure
sire. The -ieep bre-eder i. called i upon to produce, at a moderate price, iir the
wholesale :heep rai-er a floi k rami fur thlie general flock, of a type and condition
distinctly generic, whi. will not only give suns, but sons like himself. Thin will pro-
mote the union of the national flock. w\\hose production will improve the more it
approaches thste medium of the distinctive qualities of each breed. But no breed, no
cro-sin-, will permuanrntly contribute to the improvement of the flock if the breeder
is nut fir-t imbuedl with the .princilleg of economy. Before findliii-. fault with the
Rainhouillet, or the Lincoln, ',r the l-o n, it will be well to think about the eco-
nomic system of tile farm. Ini our eagerniss to lInilduce much, and of the ,e-t,
we have exacted i more from the soil than the soil could give. The pastures have
been overchargel with sheep, the richnt-ss of the soil has been exhausted, and the
epidemics of worms and other like tribulations that persecute us are but tlie silent
protest of nature, whose fertility has been piotituted.
A good friend of the Argentine Republiq-, the late John Nash, of g'.,'lI memory,
importer of purebred animals, arid one of the pioneer stockmen in the alfalfa region
of the province of Santa F, used to say' that half of the of breeds in stock
enters through the mouth. We are not yet ready to dispense with these rustic
aphorisms of the old world. If we want to obtain letter incomes, better fleeces,


better carcasses, we must not forget that the most classic ram in existence was not a
beauty of Divine origin, but that lie had once, in a period more or less remote, ances-
tors as vulgar, as inferior, ar; cominiii'n as a hull <-f the wild herds from the Falkland
NI:lari-. There is no royal i ,adI to thle perfection (f cattle or sheep. We follow a
path obstructed at every step hv ylisalipointments 'anI unexpected obstacles. The
inipri\m i-menit. of the domestic ireedls i a slow proce-s which never reaches comple-
tion. We need not rily intclligeive and theory, Iut a continuous indefatigable
method aldafte.l to li, c ,,-'iintry-Ihr,) ing now and then a glance toward the past--
if we want to be able to say \ e pri 'riress.


The importance of Argentina a,. a food producer for other parts of
the world across the se> i,- yearly coingin to bie better understood, as
she sends more wheat, more corn, more beef. more mutton, and more
butter nearly every year than the one before. And the Argentines and
those from other lands who have been attracted to Argentina by the
richness of the country and it, houndle:..-; possibilities are getting a
better tinder tanding of their opportunities, and how to make the best
use of them. For the nmo-t part, however, the native Argentine, the
descendant of the older families, prefers to confine his efforts to stock
l ai-ing, agriculture. and politic-, leaving the dev'elopmnent of trade,
of indmlitrif,, and most conimerciail p)ur-,uits to foreigners. Naturally,
the foreigner',' profits in de\ eloping Argentine resources have been
large. The freezing companies that send frozen beef ;and mutton to
England. South Africa, and other markets have been earning 40
per cent dividendl-.. There i, a large margin in the butter business.
Fortunes have been made in grain. But these conditions are not to prevail, and. indeed, are changing already. There is a new
generation in which there i-s much new blood, aMnd the- are ambitious to do more than laise stock and get into the provincial
or national legislative bodies i-r hold oniome other official l post.
Last year the Argentine energy in hunting market, was shown by
the manner in which they went after the South African market. The
Arlgrntiii department of agriculture rented a big transport from the
navy department and -ent severall experimental cargoes' to South
Africa. They took mules, steers, horses, butter, alfalfa, wheat, oats,
sheep, and many other things in mall parcels on the owners' private
account. It was all sold to good advantage, and convinced both ship-
owners and producers that the market was worth working for. Now
there are three regular shi)lpping line,, with frequent sailings, and a
good trade has -pruncng up. Some of the trade has not turned out so
well as was hoped, but the experimental cargoes. sent at the lowest
possible cost to shippers, have built up a trade that would not have
been developed otherwise, and which is worth many thousands of
dollars every month to the Argentine producers of food products,
alfalfa, etc.