Varieties of cheese

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Material Information

Title:
Varieties of cheese descriptions and analyses
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
78 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Doane, C. F ( Charles Francis ), 1872-
Lawson, H. W ( Huron Willis ), 1873-
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cheese -- Varieties   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 69-74) and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by C.F. Doane and H.W. Lawson.
General Note:
"December 21, 1911."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612383
oclc - 22194502
lccn - agr11002386
Classification:
lcc - SF623 .B14 no.146
System ID:
AA00018899:00001

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Imilued Deornl*'r 21. 1911.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN 14o.
A. I. MELVIN, Cimi t* IURLAU.


VARIETIES OF


CHEESE:


DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES.


BY

C. F. DOANE, M. S.,
Assistant Dairyman, Dairy Division,
AND
H. W. LAWSON, M. S., M. D.,
Office of Experiment Stations, Department of Agriculture.


[A revision of Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 105.]


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1911.
























THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.



Chief: A. D. MELVIN.
Assistant Chief: A. M. FARRINGTON.
Chief Clerk: CHARLES C. CARROLL.
Animal Husbandry Division: GEORGE M. ROMMEL, chief.
Biochemic Division: M. DORSET, chief.
Dairy Division: B. H. RAWL, chief.
Inspection Division: RICE P. STEDDOM, chief; R. A. RAMSAY, MORRIS WOODEN,
and ALBERT E. BEHNKE, associate chiefs.
Pathological Division: JOHN R. MOHLER, chief.
Quarantine Division: RICHARD W. HICKMAN, chief.
Zoological Division: B. H. RANSOM, chief.
Experiment Station: E. C. SCHROEDER, superintendent.
Editor: JAMES M. PICKENS.
DAIRY DIVISION.

B. H. RAWL, Chief.

HELMER RABILD, in charge of Dairy Farming Investigations.
S. C. THOMPSON, in charge of Dairy Manufacturing Investigations.
L. A. ROGERS, in charge of Research Laboratories.
GEORGE M. WHITAKEB, in charge of Market Milk Investigations.
ROBERT McADAM, in charge of Renovated Butter Inspection.
2
















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEiPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Wash/ngton, D. C., Augu.t 31, 1911.
SIR: In 1908 there was published as Bulletin 105 of this bureau a
paper entitled "Varieties of Cheese: Descriptions and Analyses," by
Mr. C. F. Doane, of the dairy division of this bureau, and Dr. H. W.
Lawson, of the Office of Experiment Stations of this department.
As the supply of that bulletin is exhausted, and as it has been found
desirable to make a few additions and some slight revisions, I have
the honor to transmit herewith the copy for a revised edition and to
recommend that it be issued as a new bulletin. A few new varieties
have been added and certain descriptions in the first edition have
been revised to conform to present usage.
As was stated in transmitting the original manuscript, the work is
a compilation of descriptions and analyses of all the varieties of do-
mestic and foreign cheese about which it has been possible to obtain
such information in the literature bearing upon the subject. In a
number of cases only meager details could be secured, and owing to
the size of the work the descriptions are necessarily of a very con-
densed nature.
Respectfully, A. D. MEILvIN,
Chicf of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
3
































CONTENTS.


Page.
Introduction------------------------------------------------------- 5
Descriptions of varieties of cheese----------------------------------- 7
Analyses of cheese -------------------------------------------------62
Sources of analytical data ------------------------------------------- 69
Index ------------------------------------------------------------ 75
4














VARIETIES OF CHEESE: DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES.


INTRODUCTION.

The amount of cheese imported into the United States is increas-
ing rapidly. During the six years from 1900 to 1905. inclusive, the
value of the imports increased from $1.946.033 to $3,875,161. Italy
and Switzerland supplied the bulk of this cheese, most of the re-
mainder coming from France and Holland. The best known of the
varieties of cheese imported were the Parmesan and Gorgonzola
from Italy, the Emmental from Switzerland, the Roquefort, Camem-
bert and Brie from France, and the Edam from Holland. The
growing demand for cheese is not, however, confined to these well-
known varieties, much interest being manifested in many kinds as
yet of very little commercial importance but highly esteemed in the
localities where produced.
Attempts have long been made in this country to imitate some of
the European varieties, and in some instances the results have been
decidedly successful. The manufacture of Swiss, or Emmental, and
of Limburg types has become well established. The investigations
conducted at the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station in Con-
necticut have shown that cheese of the Camembert type, equal in
every way to the imported article, may be produced in the United
States. This department is cooperating in investigations of this
kind, and recently results have been obtained which make it prac-
tically certain that a cheese of the nature of Roquefort or Stilton
can likewise be produced in this country.
Information concerning the manufacture aml c(oml)osition of the
numerous varieties of cheese is not very acce-sible to Engilih readers
and the apparent need of some work of reference, in connection at
least with the importation and home production of cheese, hais there-
fore led to the preparation of the descriptive notes and the compila-
tion of the analytical data contained in this bulletin.
The descriptions are for the most part based upon data contained
in treatises on dairying and in articles in foreign periodicals. WThile
in many instances they are very incomplete and possibly at times
inaccurate, they nevertheless contain in condensed form practically
5






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


all the important information that it has been possible to secure in
an extended search through the literature relating in any way to
the subject. Owing to the large number of publications consulted,
it has seemed impracticable to give references to the descriptive
matter.
The analyses have been compiled in most instances from the origi-
nal publications. In all cases, however, the sources of the data have
been given in the list of references which follows the table of an-
alyses. No effort has been made to collect the numerous analyses of
filled cheese, and in the case of American Cheddar cheese only a part
of the available data has been included in the compilation.


















DESCRIPTIONS OF VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

ABERTAM.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from sheep's milk in thle region of Carlsbad.
Bohemia.
ALEMTEJO.

This name is applied to rather soft cheeses made in the Province of Alemnitejo,
Portugal. They are cylindrical in shape and are made in three sizes. averaging
in weight about 2 ounces, 1 pound, and 4 pounds, respectively. They are made
for the most part from the milk of sheep, though goat's milk is often added,
especially for the smaller sizes. The milk is warmed and curdled usually with
an extract prepared from the flowers of a kind of thistle. The cheeses are
ripened for several weeks.
ALPIN.

This is a kind of Mont d'Or cheese made in the Alpine regions of France. It
is also known as Clirimbert. The milk is coagulated with rennet at SO0 F. in
2 hours. The curd is dipped into molds 3 to 4 inches in diameter and 21 inches
in height The cheese is allowed to drain and is turned several times during
one day, after which it is salted and ripened for 8 to 15 days.

ALTENBURG.

This is a goat's-milk cheese made in Germany, where it is known as Alten-
burger Ziegenklise. A cheese is 8 inches in diameter, 1 to 2 inches in thickness,
and weighs about 2 pounds.
AMBERT.

This cheese, known as Fourme d'Ambert, is a cylindrical-shaped imitation
Roquefort cheese made from cow's milk. It is said to differ from other forms
of blue or imitation Roquefort cheese made in the southeastern part of France
in that the salt is mixed with the curd rather than rubbed on the surface of the
cheese.
ANCIEN IMPERIAL.

The curd is prepared in the same manner for this cheese as for Neufchltel.
The cheese is about 2 inches square and one-half inch thick. It is also known
as Petit Carr6 and when ripened as Carr6 Affin,. The cheese is sold and con-
sumed both while fresh and after ripening. The ripening process is not essen-
tially different from that of Neufchfttel.

APPENZELL.

This cheese, which is very similar to Emmental, is made in the Canton of
Appenzell, Switzerland, and also in Bavaria and Baden. It is usually made of
skim milk, but sometimes of whole milk.






VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


BACKSTEIN.

Backstein, meaning brick, is so called from its shape, but it is not identical
with the Brick cheese made in the United States. The process of manufacture
is similar to that of Limburg.
BANBURY.

This was a soft, rich cheese, very popular in England in the early part of the
nineteenth century. It was a cylindrical cheese about 1 inch thick.

BARBEREY.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and deriving its name
from the village of Barberey, near Troyes, France. It is also commonly
known as Fromage de Troyes. The milk while still fresh and warm is coagu-
lated with rennet, the time allowed being usually about 4 hours. The uncut
curd is put into a wooden mold having a perforated bottom. After draining
for 3 hours the cheese is turned into an earthenware mold, the wooden one
being removed after 24 hours. The cheeses are salted, dried in a well-venti-
lated room, and ripened for about 3 weeks, usually in a subterranean curing
room. In summer the cheese is often sold without ripening. A cheese is
5 to 6 inches in diameter and U1 inches in thickness.

BATTLEMAT.

This is an Emmental cheese made in the Canton of Tessin, Switzerland, in
the western part of Austria, and in the northern part of Italy. It is recom-
mended for localities where a great quantity of milk can not be obtained.
The cheese is circular in form, about 16 inches in diameter and 4 inches high,
and weighs from 40 to 80 pounds. It is cooked at a slightly lower temperature
than the Emmental and is a little softer when ripened. It ripens more rapidly
than the Emmental, being ready for market in about 4 months.

BAUDEN.

Baudenkiise is a sour-milk cheese made in the herders' huts in the mountains
between Bohemia and Silesia in essentially the same manner as Harzkiise.
It is made up in two forms, one conical with a diameter and a height of 3"
inches, and the other cylindrical, with a diameter of 5 inches and a height of
2A inches. It is also known locally as KoppenkiIse.

BELGIAN COOKED.

The milk which has been allowed to curdle spontaneously is skimmed and
the curd heated to 135 to 140 F. and then placed in a cloth and allowed to
drain. When dry it is thoroughly kneaded by hand and is allowed to undergo
fermentation, which takes ordinarily from 10 to 14 days in winter and 6 to 8
days in summer. When the fermentation is complete, cream and salt are
added and the mixture is heated gently and stirred until homogeneous, when
it is put into molds and allowed to ripen for 8 days longer. A cheese ordinarily
weighs about 3A pounds. It is not essentially different from other forms of
cooked cheese.
BELLELAY.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from whole milk and sometimes called
Tote de Moine, and Monk's Head. This cheese originated with the monks of
the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the fifteenth century, and is made ex-
clusively in that locality at the present time.







VARIETIES OF ChIEESE.


The sweet milk is set at about 90 F. with suillcl.t'nt rennet to ci guiilhate it Ili
20 to 30 inuitit's. The curd is (cit c'xnin raltliely tine :anid is xtirL'il w1 lil,, I-ing'
heated slowly to a temperature of 110". It Is cooked intiuch llr iir tlhan
Limburg and not so firm as Emmental.
When cooked the curd is dIdipped into wooden hoops lined with ciltl. Tli-.
cheeses are pressed In rotation for a few lmintes at a tlaze, fit. jr,.--S l.i-g
used for a number of cheeses. After pressing, the cheeses are \ wrppe.,l il l b1k
for a couple of weeks, or until they are firm enough to rtrquii' i, 'lt.-rt
They are cured in : a moist cellar ait a comparatively low tenliptrit1'n', is. it is
not desired to have eyes develop. The cheese when ready for ha::irlwt h:1s a
diameter of 7 inches and weighs from 9 to 15 pomiunds. It ripell-s ilii :loiilt 1'
months andi will keep for 3 or 4 years. It has a soft, buttery consisoletiy andl
can be spread on bread for eating.

BERGQUARA.

This is a Swedish cheese resembling Gouda. It was known in Sweden in the
eighteenth century.
BLEU.

The names Pflt6 Bleu and Fromage Bleu are applied to several kinds of hbrd
rennet cheese made from cow's milk in imitation of Roquefort cheese in the
southeastern part of France. Owing to the mottled, marbled, or veined appje:jr-
ance they are also designated Fromage PersillW. Among these are (;ex. Sas-
senage, and Septmoncel. This name is also applied locally to several more, ,r
less distinct kinds made in the regions of the Auvergne and Aubrac Mo Il:t;ins
and designated Bleu d'Auvergne, Cantal, Guiole or Laguiole. aud St. Flour.
Other cheeses of this order mentioned as made in France are Queyras, Chainm-
poleon, Sarraz, and Journiac.

BOUDANNE.

This is a French cheese made from cow's milk. The milk, either whole or
skimmed, is heated to about 85 F., sufficient rennet is added to secure con .iula-
tion in 1 hour, and the curd is cut to the size of peas, stirred, aild healed to
100 or above. After standing for 10 to 15 minutes the curd is pressed li hianld
and put into molds S inches in diameter and 3 inches in height. The ch(Lses
are drained, turned frequently, salted, and ripened for 2 to 3 months.

BOX (FIRM).

This cheese, known in different localities where made as TIoheiburg, Mondsee,
and Weihenstephan, is made from whole cow's milk and is a rithenr niri rennet
cheese. The flavor is said to be mild, but piquant. The milk is heated to 90
to 93 F. in a kettle, is colored with saffron, and set with sufficient rennet to
curdle it in 20 to 25 minutes. The curd is cut up as fine as peas and the con-
tents of the kettle are heated very slowly to a temperature of 1050), being. stirred
meanwhile. The fire is then removed and the curd allowed to settle fir 5 min-
utes, when the whey is dipped off. The curd is then (lipped into ( cloth and from
this is scooped into hoops. Light pressure is applied and in 15 minutes the
cheese is turned, and the turning is repeated frequently for several hours. The
cheese is kept in a well-ventilated room at 00 for 3 to 5 days. after which it is
taken to the cellar. It is salted by rubbing. or sprinkling salt oil tlihe surface.
Ripening requires from 2 to 3 months. The cheese weighs from 1 to 4 pounds,
and is undoubtedly similar to the Brick cheese of the United States.







10


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


BOX (SOFT).

This is a rennet cheese made from partially skimmed cow's milk and known
locally as Schachteiklise. It is a rather unimportant variety produced in Wfirt-
temberg in a small locality called Hohenheim, a name which the cheese often
takes.
In making this cheese the skimmed evening's milk is mixed with the whole
morning's milk, or a part of the milk is skimmed with a centrifuge and is mixed
with an equal volume of whole milk. The cheese is made in a copper kettle.
The milk is warmed to 110 F., colored with saffron, and rennet added. It is
allowed to stand for one to one and one-half hours before cutting. The curd is
cut into rather coarse particles, after which it is allowed to stand for a few
minutes, when the whey is dipped off, and for every 200 pounds of milk used a
small handful of caraway seed is added. The curd is then dipped into hoops 61
inches in height and the same in diameter. It remains in these hoops for 10
hours and is frequently turned, after which it is transferred to a wooden hoop
only one-half as high, where it remains for 12 hours. The cheese is then
sprinkled with salt and put in the ripening cellar, where it remains about 3
months.
A soft rennet cheese known as Fromage de Bolte is made in the mountains of
Doubs, France, in the fall. It resembles Pont l'eveque.

BRA.

This cheese is made by nomads in the region of Bra in Piedmont, Italy. It is
a hard rennet cheese weighing about 12 pounds. The milk, which is partly
skimmed, is heated to about 90 F., and sufficient rennet is added to coagulate it
in 30 to 40 minutes. The curd is cut to the size of rice grains and the whey
removed after about one-half of an hour. The curd is put into a form about 12
inches in diameter and 3 inches in height and subjected to pressure for 12 to 24
hours. It is salted by immersion in brine and also by sprinkling salt on the
surface. The cheese is then ripened.

BRAND.

This is a German hand cheese weighing about one-third of a pound, made from
sour-milk curd cooked at a little higher temperature than ordinarily practiced.
The curd is salted and allowed to ferment one day. It is then mixed with
butter, pressed into shape and dried, and finally placed in kegs to ripen, during
which process it is moistened occasionally with beer.

BRICK.

The exact derivation of this name is not known. It may have been adopted
because of the shape, or because of the fact that bricks are used almost exclu-
sively for weighting down the press. Brick cheese is a rennet cheese made from
unskimmed cow's milk, and is purely an American product. In characteristics
it is about halfway between Limburg and Emmental. It has a strong, sweetish
taste, a sort of elastic texture, and many small round eyes or holes. It is made
about 10 by 6 by 3 inches in size. There are many factories making this
product, especially in southern Wisconsin.
Perfectly sweet milk is set in a vat at 86 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate
it in 20 to 30 minutes. The curd is cut with Cheddar curd knives, and is then
heated to 110 to 120 and stirred constantly. The cooking is continued until
the curd has become firm enough so that a handful squeezed together will fall







VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 11

apart when released. The curd is then dipped into the mold, which is a heavy
rectangular box without a Ibottom andi with silts mlsawedt InII tile idea to allow
drainage. The mold is set on the draining table, a follower Is put on the curd.
and one or two bricks are used oin each cheese for pressure. The cheeses art,
allowed to remain in the molds for 24 hours, when they are removed, rulilhed ill
over with salt, and piled three deep. The salting Is done each day for 3 days,
after which the cheese Is taken to the ripening cellar, which should have a 1tem-
perature of from 00* to 65 and be comparatively moist. Ritpening requIres 2
months.
BRICKBAT.

This is a rennet cheese made as early as the eighteenth century In Wiltshire,
England. It is made from fresh milk. to which a small portion of cream has
been added. The milk is set at about 90 F. and allowed to stand 2 hours before
the curd is disturbed. The curd Is cut coarse, dipped into wooden forms, and
light pressure applied. The cheese is said to be fit for consumption for one
year after being made.
BRIE.

This Is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. The cheese varies in size
and also in quality, depending on whether whole or partly skimmed milk is
used. The method of manufacture closely resembles that of Camembert.
This cheese has been made in France for several centuries. Mention was
made of it as early as 1407. It is made throughout France, but more exten-
sively In the Department of Seine et Marne, in which it doubtless originated.
This department contains Meaux, Coulommiers, and Melun, places noted for
their manufacture of Brie cheese, though often under local names. More or
less successful imitations of this cheese are made in other countries. It was
estimated that 7,000,000 pounds of Brie cheese was sold in Paris during 1900.
The export trade is also very important.
The milk used is usually perfectly fresh. It is not uncommon, however, to
mix the evening's milk, when kept cool over night, with the morning's milk.
Some artificial coloring matter is added to the milk, which is then set with
rennet at a temperature of S0 to 85 F. After standing undisturbed for about
2 hours the curd is dipped into forms or hoops, of which there are three sizes
in common use. The largest size is about 15 inches in diameter, the medium
size about 12 inches in diameter, and the smallest size about 6 inches In diam-
eter. These vary in height from 2 to 3 inches. After drainage for 24 hours
without pressure being applied, the hoops are removed and the surface of the
cheese is sprinkled with salt. Charcoal is sometimes mixed with the salt used.
The cheese is then transferred to the first curing room, which Is kept dry anjl
well ventilated. After remaining in this room for about 8 days, the cheese
becomes covered with mold. It is then transferred to the second curing room
or cellar, which is usually very dark, imperfectly ventilated, and has a tem-
perature of about 60 F. The cheese remains here for from 2 to 4 weeks or
until the consistency and odor indicate that it Is sufficiently ripened. The red
coloration which the surface of the cheese finally acquires has been attributed
to an organism designated Bacillus flrmatatis. The ripening is due to one or
more species of molds which occur on the surface and produce enzyms which in
turn cause a gradual and progressive breaking down of the casein from the
exterior toward the center. The interior of a ripened cheese varies in con-
sistency from waxy to semiiquid and has a very pronounced odor and a sharp
characteristic taste.







12


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


BRINSEN.

This cheese, known locally as Laudoch, Zips, Liptau, Siebenbiirgen, Neusohl,
Altsohl, and Klencz, is made in the Carpathian Mountains of Hungary from
sheep's milk, or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk.
The cheese is made in small lots, only 2 to 4 gallons of milk being used at
one time. This is put into a kettle when fresh and sufficient rennet is added
with the milk at a temperature of from 75 to 85 F. to secure coagulation in
15 minutes. The curd is broken up and the whey dipped and the curd is
placed in a linen sack and allowed to drain for 24 hours. It is then cut into
pieces and placed on a board, where with frequent turnings it is allowed to
remain until it commences to get smeary, which requires about 8 days. The
pieces are then laid one on top of another in a vessel holding from 40 to 60
pounds, where they remain for 24 hours, after which they are removed, the
rind cut away, and the curd or partially cured cheese broken up in another
vessel. After 10 hours salt is stirred in and the curd run through a mill which
cuts it very fine, when it is packed in a tub with beech shavings.

BROCCIO.

This is a sour-milk cheese made from sheep's milk in Corsica. It is some-
times mixed with sugar and rum and made into small cakes. It is similar to
Ziger.
BURGUNDY.

This cheese, known in France as Fromage de Bourgogne, is described as a
soft, white, loaf-shaped cheese weighing about 4 pounds.

BUTTERMILK.

This cheese, which is made from the curd of buttermilk, is of somewhat finer
grain than skimmed-milk cottage cheese, which it closely resembles. Butter-
milk of 0.5 or 0.6 per cent acidity is run into a steam-heated vat or starter can,
or placed in a pail which can be heated in a tub of hot water. The buttermilk
is stirred and heated to 75 to 78 F., then covered and left for 11 to 2 hours.
The temperature is then raised to 140 F., and in about 1 hour the curd settles
to the bottom. The whey is removed and the curd transferred to a draining
cloth or bag for about 10 hours. It should be stirred occasionally while drain-
ing. When dry the curd is salted, put up in small packages, and wrapped in
parchment paper.
CACIOCAVALLO.

This is a somewhat peculiar kind of cheese made from either whole or partly
skimmed cow's milk. Various explanations have been made as to the origin of
the name, which means literally horse cheese. One explanation offered is that
the cheese was originally made in the region of Monte Cavallo, and another is
that the imprint of a horse's head was made in each cheese as the trade-mark
of the original manufacturer. The original home of this cheese was southern
Italy, but it is now made extensively in northern Italy as well. The history
of the cheese dates back several centuries.
The temperature of the coagulation of the milk with rennet varies greatly
but is usually from 90 to 95 F. The time allowed for coagulation is also
variable, being usually about one-half hour. The curd is cut very finely and
sometimes allowed to ferment for 24 hours, when it is heated by means of very







VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 13

hot water, or more cominouly hot whey, and subsequently worked by hand
until all the whey Is expressed l aid the curd lecmines hon ogelnoti and capiible
of being drawn out Inti long threads. It Is then molded Into iany desired sluipe
and salted by immersioI n brine for about 2 days. Tie cliht-est are suis-
iendedl i pairs from the ceiling and lightly smokedt. Trie surface may be
rubbed with olive oil or butter. They are kept In a cool, dry ruoomn until soldl.
As seen on the iuzrket they vary much in siz.e and shape. On an a'ver:nge they
weigh about 3 pounds. The most common shalie 1is that rtesenbling a tbeet,
a constriction near the toll being due to the string which Is tied around tihe
cheese for the purpose of hanging it upl. This clleese is sometimes a;itell while
comparatively fresh, but is more frequently kept for monith.s and then grated
and used for flavoring soups and as an addition to macaroni and similar foods.
A small quantity Is imported into the unitedd States.

CAERPHILLY.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Wales from unskimmed cow's milk.
The milk is set very sweet at a temperature of 85 F. with enough rennet to co-
agulate it in 1 hour. The curd is cut in A-inch cubes and stirred for 1 hour with-
out further heating. It is then put in cloths and subjected to light pressure for
an hour and is again broken up fine and put to press, where it remains, with
Daily changing, for 3 days. During this time one-half ounce salt to each pound
of curd is rubbed on the surface. Each cheese weighs about S pounds. The
cheese requires about 3 weeks for ripening, at a temperature of 65 to 700.

CAMBRIDGE.

This is a soft rennet English cheese made from cow's milk. Milk is set at
90 F. and rennet added. At the end of 1 hour the curd is dipped into molds
without cutting and allowed to stand for 30 hours, when it is ready for eating.

CAMEMBERT.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. A typical cheese is about
41 inches in diameter and 14 inches thick and is usually found on the market in
this country wrapped in paper and inclosed in a wooden box of the same shape.
The cheese usually has a rind about one-eighth of an inch in thickness, which
is composed of molds and dried cheese. The interior is yellowish in color and
waxy, creamy, or almost fluid in consistency, depending largely upon the degree
of ripeness.
Camembert cheese is said to have originated in 1791 in the locality from which
it derives its name in the Department of Orne. in the northwestern part of
France. The industry extended soon into Calvados, and these two Departments
are still the principal seat of the industry. Cheese of the same type, however,
is made in other parts of France and also in other countries; among these are
Compiegne, Contentin, Pavilion, Soumaintrain. and Thury-en-Valois. Very suc-
cessful results have been obtained at the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion in Connecticut.
Camembert cheese is made from whole fresh milk or from milk which has
been partly skimmed. The evening's milk may be skimmed and mixed with the
fresh morning's milk. The temperature of setting is about SO0 to S5 F., and
the quantity of rennet added for this purpose is sufficient to secure the desired
degree of firmness in about 2 hours. The curd is then transferred, usually with
as little breaking up as possible, to perforated tin forms or hoops about 44







14 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

inches in diameter and the same in height. These rest upon rush mats which
permit free drainage. The filling of the forms may be done at two or three
times separated by short intervals allowed for the curd to settle. Each form
holds the equivalent in curd of about 2 quarts of milk. After draining for about
18 hours, and preferably in a room having a uniform temperature of 65 to 70,
the cheese is turned. This is repeated frequently for about 2 days, when the
cheese is removed from the forms and salted on the outside. Two or three days
later the cheese is transferred to a well-ventilated room, where the ripening
process begins. The cheese remains here for 15 to 20 days, during which time
it is turned very frequently and the surface becomes covered with molds, which
gradually produce a breaking down of the casein. It is then taken to the cur-
ing cellar, where the ripening process is completed in about 3 weeks, when it is
packed and marketed.

CANQUILLOTE.

This is a skim-milk cheese made in the eastern part of France. It is also
known locally as Fromagere and Tempete. The milk is allowed to coagulate
spontaneously, after which it is heated gently and the whey drawn off. The
curd is pressed in order to remove as much of the whey as possible, crumbled
fine, and fermented at a temperature of about 70 F. for 2 or 3 days, dur-
ing which time it is stirred frequently. When the cheese has acquired its.
characteristic taste it is melted with the addition of water, salt, eggs, and
butter and put into molds of various kinds.

CANTAL.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk more or less skimmed.
Its manufacture is extensive in the Department of Cantal, France. It is also
known as Auvergne or Auvergne Blue on account of its being manufactured in
the region of the Auvergne Mountains. Locally the cheese is commonly known
as Fourme. The cheese is doubtless a very old variety, and the method of
manufacture has remained quite primitive. The milk, usually fresh but some-
times several hours old, is set with rennet at a temperature of about 85 F., the
time allowed for coagulation being about 30 minutes. The curd is then cut very
finely and the whey dipped off. The curd is subjected to pressure in order to
remove as much of the whey as possible, and is allowed to ferment for 24 hours,
which process is considered very important. The curd is then broken up by
hand or by machinery and salted at the rate of 2.5 to 3 per cent. When
Thoroughly kneaded it is put into hoops about 14 inches in diameter. Pressure
is applied for about 2 days, during which time it is turned very frequently.
The cheese is next transferred to the curing cellar, where it remains for 6
weeks to 6 months. The yield of cheese is usually 10 to 11 per cent of the
weight of the milk. A ripened cheese weighs from 40 to 120 pounds.

CHAMPOLAON.

Champoleon, or Queyras, is a hard rennet cheese made from skim milk in the
Department of Hautes-Alpes, France.

CHAOURCE.

This is a soft whole-milk rennet cheese resembling Camembert and deriving its
name from the village of Chaource, in the Department of Aube, France. It is
about 4 inches in diameter and 3 inches thick.







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


15


CHASCHOL DE CHASCHOSIS.
This cheese is made In the Canton of (Irisons, Switzerland. It Is a hard ren-
net cheese made from skimmed cow's milk. The cheeses are IN to 22 Inches In
diameter, 3 to 4 inches high, and weigh from 22 to 40 IK)UMIIS.

CHEDDAR.
This cheese is so named from the village of Cheddar In Somersetshire, Eng-
land, where It was first made. It is a comparatively old cheese', though the gen-
nine Cheddar process as it is now known is not old. Cheddar cheese is an ex-
ceedingly popular variety, being much used as a food product in America and
England. It Is probably the most important of all cheeses as regards theI l (an-
tity made annually. The term Cheddar as used at the present time applies
usually to a process of making rather than to any particular shape of cheese.
The name, however, is occasionally used to designate a certain size of cheese 14
to 16 inches in diameter, and weighing from 60 to 100 pounds. Cheese made by
the Cheddar process has, however, many different shapes with distinguishing
names, such as Flats, which have the same diameter as the Cheddar size, but.
weigh only 30 to 40 pounds; Daisies, which are 12 inches in diameter and weigh
20 pounds; Young Americas, which are S inches in diameter and weigh 8 to 12
pounds; Long Horns, which are 5 inches in diameter and weigh 12 pounds; and
Squares, which are of various sizes and usually 3 to 4 inches thick. The cheese
may be white or colored yellow, and it may be almost fresh or thoroughly ripened
and broken down. It is made from sweet cow's milk, which may be skimmed,
partly skimmed, or unskimmed. When made from unskimmed milk the cheese
is called "full cream; when otherwise, it is called part skim or skim."
The milk, morning's and evening's mixed, is set at 85 F. with sufficient rennet
to coagulate to the proper point in from 25 to 40 minutes. At the time of set-
ting the milk should have an acidity of about 0.18 to 0.20 per cent. Color may
or may not be used. The curd is cut when it breaks evenly before rhe finger.
The cutting is done with curd knives. These knives are made up of blades set
about one-third of an inch apart in frames. In one frame the knives are set per-
pendicularly and in the other horizontally. When well cut the curd is in uni-
form cubes of about one-third of an inch.
After cutting the curd is heated slowly and with continued stirring until it
reaches a temperature of from 96 to 108. With the use of mechanical agita-
tors, as is the common practice, the curd should be heated about 4 degrees
higher than when stirring is done by hand. After heating the stirring is con-
tinued intermittently until the curd is sufficiently firm. This is determined by
squeezing a handful, which should fall apart immediately on being released.
The whey is then drawn. At the same time the acid should have reached about
0.20 per cent or one-fourth of an inch on the hot iron, which latter is determined
by measuring the length of strings when the curd is touched to a hot iron. The
curd is then matted about 4 inches deep, sometimes in the bottom of the vat,
sometimes on racks covered with a coarse linen cloth. After it has remained
here long enough to stick together It is cut into rectangular pieces easy to handle,
which are turned frequently and finally piled two to four deep; In the mean-
while the temperature of the curd is kept at about 90. When the curd has
broken down until it has the smooth feeling of velvet, which requires from one
to three hours, it is milled by means of a machine, which cuts it into pieces the
size of a finger. It is then stirred on the bottom of the vat until whey ceases to
run, which requires from one-half to one and one-half hours, when it is salted at
the rate of 2 to 2j pounds of salt to 100 pounds of milk. It is then ready to put
in press. The curd is put into tinned iron hoops of the proper size, which are







16


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


lined with cheese-cloth bandages. The hoops are put in presses and great pres-
sure is applied by means of screws. The next morning the cheese is removed
from the hoops and put on shelves in a curing room. Formerly the cheese was
kept in a curing room as long as 6 months, but at the present time it is covered
with a coat of paraffin and put in cold storage when 3 to 12 days of age. There
is a growing demand on the part of consumers for mild cheese, and consequently
ripening must be carried on at a temperature below 50.
An important point in the process of manufacturing Cheddar cheese is the
development of the desired amount of acid. A maximum quantity in the whey
that can be developed without injuring the texture of the cheese is aimed at,
and the proper breaking down of the curd before milling and salting is
attributed to the acid. It is very probable that too much weight has been
placed on the desirability of a maximum development of acid, and that prac-
tically as good cheese can be produced without the high acid.
Some of the details in the manufacture of Cheddar cheese are varied to
some extent, and other names may be used to designate the cheese so made.
A stirred curd cheese is one where the curd particles are not allowed to mat
together after the whey is drawn. The curd is stirred at intervals to prevent
this matting process, but it differs from the sweet curd cheese, as acid is allowed
to develop before salting and pressing. Formerly there was a comparatively
large quantity of stirred curd cheese made, but there is very little, if any, made
at the present time.
A washed curd cheese varies from the regular Cheddar process in having the
milled curd subjected for a short period to cold water. This process is
evidently practiced to force the curd to take up a small percentage of the
water and increase the yield. It results in a cheese which apparently breaks
down or ripens much more rapidly than cheese made in the ordinary way.
This ripening is very likely not due to the excess of moisture but to some
other unexplained reason. Some States have prohibited the use of the State
brand on washed curd cheese.

CHESHIRE.

This cheese is one of the oldest and most popular of the English varieties.
It is a rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk, and is named for
Chester County, England, where it is largely produced. It is made in cylin-
drical shape from 14 to 16 inches in diameter, and weighs 50 to 70 pounds.
In making this cheese sufficient annatto is used to give the product a very
high color. The process of manufacture varies in detail in different sections.
Perfectly sweet milk, night's and morning's mixed, is set at a temperature of
from 75 to 90 F. The curd is cut in 1 hour, usually with an instrument in
which knives are set in a frame to cut cubes 1 to 1:1 inches square. This is
pushed down through the curd and finally worked back and forth at an angle.
This is continued until the particles of curd are the size of peas, which requires
about 1 hour. The curd is then allowed to settle and mat on the bottom of
the vat for about an hour, when it is rolled up to one end, weighted down,
and the whey drawn after the desired degree of acidity has been obtained.
The curd is cut in pieces the right size to handle and is piled on racks. It is
then run through a curd mill, salted at the rate of 3 pounds to 1,000 pounds
of milk, and put into a hoop having a number of holes in the side through
which skewers can be thrust into the cheese to promote drainage. The cheese
in the hoop is put in a heated wooden box called an oven, and sometimes light
pressure is applied, the pressure increasing gradually until it reaches about
1. ton. The curing cellar or room is about 60 to 65. From 8 to 10 months
is required for thorough ripening.







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


17


CHESHIRE-STILTON.

This Is a comibinatlont of the ('heshir-t and Stilton varieties of cheese in
which the general characteristics of size and shape and manufacturer (of the
Cheshire is retained, and a growth of thi' n-iild peculiar toi) SIlton ih scvured.
The mold is secured by keeping out each day a small portion of curd aid
mixing It with some curd uIn which the mold is growing well.

CHIAVARI.

This is a sour-milk cheese made In the region of Chlavarl, Italy, from whole
cow's milk. It is also known as Caclo Romano. A hard rennet cheese made
in the same region is also known by this name.

COMMISSION.

This cheese is mode in Holland and resembles Edam in the process of manu-
facture, but it has a slightly different shape, being flattened at the ends. It is
said to be made from whole cow's milk.

COTHERSTONE.

This is a rennet cow's-milk cheese made in Yorkshire, England, and resembles
the well-known Stilton cheese of that country. It is a local product nimanufac-
tured only on a small scale. It has also been known as Yorkshire-Stilton.

COOKED.

This kind of cheese is so called because the curd is heated to the melting point
in its manufacture. It is made from fresh curd prepared by breaking up and
heating the curd of sour clabbered milk. When cooled sufficiently this curd is
placed in a receptacle and allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days until it has become
colored throughout. It is then put into a kettle over a fire; salt, milk, and
usually caraway seed are added, and the whole is stirred vigorously until it
becomes of the consistency of thick molasses, or until it strings when a spoon
is withdrawn. The mass can then be put into molds until it becomes cold, or
placed in a vessel for keeping. It gets hard with cooling and will retain the
shape of the mold.
Cooked cheese, made in northern Germany, is called Topfen, and a similar
product made in Sardinia is called Freisa, and Paneddas. The same kind of
cheese made in Belgium is called Belgian cooked cheese. Similar kinds are
made in other countries.
COTTAGE.

This is a sour-milk cheese made extensively in this country, where it is often
called Dutch cheese, and Smearcase. It is manufactured usually in a very
small way, but occasionally it is made in large factQries. Skim milk is allowed
to sour and the curd is then broken up and held nt a temperature of about
100 F. for 3 to 4 hours, or until it has become sufficiently firm. The whey is
then drained off and the curd placed under slight pressure for a time. The curd
is either consumed immediately or is packed in tubs and placed in cold storage.
It is prepared for eating by moistening with either milk or cream. Sometimes
it is made up into shapes and wrapped in tin foil. No ripening is ever allowed.
10415-Bull. 146--11-- 2







18


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


COULOMMIERS.

This is a small-sized Brie cheese 5 to 6 inches in diameter and 1 inch in
thickness, and weighing about 1 pound. It is made in the region of Coulom-
miers, France.
CREAM.

Genuine cream cheese is made from a rich cream thickened by souring, or
from sweet cream thickened with rennet. This is put in a cloth and allowed to
drain, the cloth being changed several times during the draining, which re-
quires about 4 days. It is then placed pn a board covered with a cloth, sprinkled
with salt, and turned occasionally. It is ready for consumption in from 5 to 10
days.
Another variety of cream cheese is made from cream with a low content of
fat (12 to 15 per cent). The cream is curdled with rennet, broken up to allow a
part of the whey to escape, and is then mixed and worked into almost a paste.
This is then molded into pieces weighing 2 to 4 ounces, which are wrapped in
tin foil and placed on the market without curing. It is a very mild and a very
rich cheese and is manufactured on an extensive scale by a few large factories
in the United States.
A so-called double-cream cheese, known in France as Fromage Double Creme,
is made by coagulating a mixture of milk and cream and putting this into a
cloth and allowing it to drain thoroughly, when it is salted, kneaded, and molded
into any desired shape. It is eaten fresh. The Gervais is a cheese of this kind.
A French cream cheese, Fromage a la Creme, is prepared by mixing sweet
cream with well-ripened sour-milk curd or rennet curd. Another French cream
cheese, which contains considerable salt as a preservative, is known as Demi-
sel. There are in addition several cream cheeses having specific names, such
ais Philadelphia Cream.
In the United States cream cheese is usually sold under some trade name,
such as Philadelphia Cream. The manufacturers in this country have in some
cases attempted to vary this cheese by the use of some flavoring matter or
condiment.
CREUSE.

This is a skim-milk farm cheese made in the department of the same name in
France. Coagulation is secured either by the addition of a small quantity of
rennet or by heating the sour milk. When set with rennet the period required
is usually 12 hours. The curd is put into earthenware molds about 7 inches in
diameter and 5 to 6 inches in height, the bottom and sides being perforated.
After draining for several days the cheese is removed from the molds, salted,
and turned frequently. It becomes in time very dry and hard and may be
preserved for a year or longer. The cheese is also ripened by placing in tightly
closed receptacles lined with straw, iu which case it becomes yellow and soft
and acquires a very pronounced taste.

CRISTALINNA.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the Canton of Grau-
bunden, Switzerland.
DAMEN.

This is a soft uncured rennet cheese made from cow's milk in Hungary and is
much in demand in the markets of Vienna. It is sometimes known as Gloire
des Montagnes.







VARIETIES 1OF CHEESE.


DANISH EXPORT.

This cheese l nia ma tle in s ot e of tin crt':ilit'is of 1Den mark to fiirrnih Nian
outlet for the skimi miilk andil tit butt ermilk. In tihe process( of Iinannfiireit'r, is
high as 15 1*er cent of fresh buttermilk is added to tlit, skin inilk. Th, iviixtur'.
Is set at 9S F. with sutilffcient rennet to (cagulgullite it] 2i5 l lt mlttes. The irurd Is
carefully andi evenly cut, stirred for 1t few minutess, diliKedil Intot f rlmIls h.a vlig
rounded bottoms, kneaded, pret'sed down.a d tiithilly (I1ovitrctd withl 11i .b:ord, up n1J1
which a weight is placed. Twe, lve hours lIter the cles-,s inre ilacedi ini :t rinnf
tank for 24 hours, when they are taken out iInd covered willi salt fir a short
time. They are then transferred to the ripening room,. wher tlio tenijiprliture
is about 55, and are turned aind wipled witlih a cloth every day for 5 weeks. The
cheeses are cylindrical in shape anti are small and flat.

DERBYSHIRE.

This Is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk in Derbyshire, Eng-
land. It Is cylindrical in shape and about the size of the Cheshire, thou4gh- often
smaller. It is made usually in farm dairies, and because of this fact the size
varies with the size of the herd. The quality also varies to such an extent that
very few really good cheeses can be found. Night's milk in which the develop-
ment of acid has been prevented as much as possible is mixed with the morning's
milk, and the whole is set at a temperature of 80 F. The setting period is 1
hour, and the curd is allowed to become very firm before cutting. The curd
Is cut to the size of a pea and after being allowed to settle is piled in the center
of the vat, where, after the whey is removed, it is subjected to light pressure.
The curd is cut and again piled and heavier pressure applied. This is repeated
until the curd reaches a certain degree of firmness, when it is run through a'
mill and salted at the rate of 1 pound of salt to 1,000 pounds of milk. It ik
then put in a press for 1 hour, when it is removed and the surface of the cheese
scalded for 1 minute in water heated to 150. It is put back in the press for 5
hours, the pressure applied being gradually increased, when it is salted on the
surface and again pressed. The pressing continues for 3 days, the cheese being
salted each day. The curing room is kept preferably at 60, nnd the time
required for curing is from 3 to 4 months.
A cheese called Gloucester made in the county of Gloucester, England, is saiid
to be identical with Derbyshire cheese. Double Gloucester is identical with
single Gloucester in all respects but size. It is twice as thick as a single
Gloucester, hence the name. Wiltshire, Leicestershire, and Warwickshire
cheeses belong to the Derbyshire type.

DEVONSHIRE CREAM.

In making this cheese the cream is allowed to rise for several hours, when
the milk with the layer of cream is scalded. It is then set away for a short
time in order that the layer of cream may harden. The cream is then put into
small molds and placed upon straw mats to drain. After becoming hard enough
to retain its shape it is ready for market.

DORSET.

Dorset, or Blue Dorset, is a cheese resembling in character and method of
manufacture the better known Stilton. It is named from Dorsetshire, England,
in which it is made.







20 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

DOTTER.

This cheese is said to have been made by G. Leuchs, in Nurnberg, by mixing
the yolk of eggs with skim milk and making this mixture into cheese in the
usual way.
DRY.

This cheese, known also as Sperrkiise and Trockenklise, is made in the east-
ern part of the Bavarian Alps and in the Tyrol, in the small dairies of those
localities. It is an extremely simple product made for home consumption, and
is made only in the winter season, when the milk can not be profitably used
for other purposes. As soon as the milk is skimmed it is put into a large kettle
which can be swung over a fire. Here it is kept warm until it is thoroughly
thickened from souring. It is then broken up and cooked quite firm. A small
quantity of salt and sometimes some caraway seed are added, and the curd is
put into forms of various sizes. It is then placed in a drying room, where it
becomes very hard, when it is ready for eating.

DUEL.

This is a soft cured rennet cheese made from cow's milk. It is an Austrian
product, 2 by 2 by 1 inches in size.

DUNLOP.

This was formerly the national cheese of Scotland, but it has been almost
superseded by the Cheddar, which it resembled.

EDAM.

This is a hard rennet cheese produced in Holland; it is also known as Katzen-
kopf, TOte de Maure, and Manbollen. The best of the product is made of un-
skimmed cow's milk, but much of it at the present time is made from milk
which has had at least one-half of the fat removed. The cheeses are round
and are colored deep red on the surface or wrapped in tin foil.
The perfectly fresh milk is set at 90 to 95 F. Color is added and sufficient
rennet is used to coagulate the milk in 15 minutes. The curd is cut and after
a very short stirring is allowed to settle to the bottom, when the whey is dipped
off. The curd is gathered in a pile and pressure is applied for a short time to
expel the whey. Care is taken in the meanwhile that the curd does not get
below 82 or above 90. The curd is then ready for the press. Sometimes
wooden molds are used, but the best are made of iron. An attempt is made to
put just sufficient curd into the mold to make a perfect sphere when pressed.
When the mold is half full a little salt is added. When the mold is full, it is
pressed lightly until the cheese will hold its form, when it is taken out and im-
mersed in water for two minutes at 125. The cheese is then put in the press,
where it remains for 12 hours. It is then removed from one mold and placed
in another form resembling the mold but without a cover, and having a hole
leading from the bottom. The cheese is salted by rubbing salt on the surface.
Sometimes it is kept in a salt bath for a day before putting salt on the surface.
Following the salting, the cheese is washed in hot whey, and the surface is
scraped smooth. It is then taken to the ripening cellar, which should have a
temperature of between 50 and 70. Here it is turned daily for a time and
finally twice a week. In the meanwhile it is occasionally moistened with cold
water or fresh beer. When the cheese is 1 month old it is washed in water at







VARIETTES OF CHEESE. 21

70' for 20 minutes and then placedtl In the sun to dry, after which it Is rialii,,1
with linseedi oil. Before shipping the cheese Is col'iredil, nsnially red, ibuit frr
some markets it Is colored yellow with annatto. This clrlnorig Is dlime withi a
watery solution of litmus and Berlin red, or with c.nrnine. A conslidqirablil
quantity of this cheese Is Imniported Into the Unitetd States. At the lpnre.st'nt tiine
some Edam cheeses are Inclosed In air-tight tins for export.

ELBING.

This is a West Prussian hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk which,
during the winter, is partly skimmed, but at other times left whole. It is
known also as Werderkiise and Niederungski.is&. Enough rennet is aidliled to)
the milk at a temperature of S00 F. to coagulate it in from :15 to :0 mininutes.
The curd is cut and cooked to 100(, salted in the granular state, anId pre'ss.eil
for 12 hours. A cheese is 10 to 20 inches in diameter and 3 to 4 inclihs In
thickness. Ripening requires about 1 month at a temperature of 750.

EMMENTAL.

This a hard rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk, and has a
mild, somewhat sweetish flavor. It is characterized by holes or eyes which
develop to about the size of a penny in typical cheeses and are situated from
1 to 3 inches apart. Cheese of the same kind made in the United States is
known as Domestic Swiss, and that made in the region of Lake Constance is
called Algau Emmental. Other local names are Bellunese, Formaggio Doice,
Fontine d'Aosta, and Thraanen.
Emmental cheese originated in Canton Bern, Valley of Emmental, Switzer-
land. It is a very old variety. In the middle of the fifteenth century a cheese
probably of this type was manufactured in the Canton of Emmental. In the
middle of the seventeenth century the industry was well developed and genuine
Emmental cheese was being exported. In 1722 its manufacture under the name
of Gruyere is recorded in France, two cooperative societies having been organ-
ized for this purpose.
Emmental cheese is now manufactured in every civilized country. In the
United States there are many factories, located principally in Wisconsin, New
York, and Ohio. In Switzerland the greater part of the milk produced is made
into this product, and large districts in France and northern Italy are devoted
to its manufacture. The best of the product made in Switzerland is exported,
about 5.000,000 pounds coming to the United States annually. The imported
cheese sells in this country at about 25 cents a pound wholesale, and the do-
mestic cheese sells at about 14 cents. Practically as good cheese can be mnanu-
factured in the United States as in Switzerland, but prejudice, combined with
the fact that much of the domestic product is sold as imported, has held the
price at a low level.
There is a slight difference in manipulation of the milk in making Emmental
cheese in this country as compared with Switzerland. In the latter country the
evening's and morning's milk are made up together, while in the United States it
is popularly believed that the evening's milk must be made into cheese immedi-
ately after milking, as is done with the morning's milk.
In making the cheese in Switzerland the evening's milk Is skimmed; the fresh
morning's milk is heated to 108 to 110 F. and the cream from the evening's
milk is added and well stirred in. The cooled evening's milk with a little saf-
fron is then added and the whole is mixed. The milk is then brought to a tem-
perature of 90 in summer and 95 in winter and sufficient rennet is added to







22 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

coagulate the milk in 30 to 40 ,minutes. The whole process is carried through
in a huge copper kettle holding 300 gallons of milk. The rennet used is the
calfs stomach soaked for 24 hours in whey. When the milk has thickened to
almost the desired point for cutting, which is practically the same as for ordi-
nary American or Cheddar cheese, the thin surface layer is scooped off and
turned bottom side up. This is supposed to aid in incorporating the layer of
cream with the cheese. The curd is then cut very coarse by means of a so-called
harp. The cheese maker with a wooden scoop in each hand then draws the
mass of curd toward him, that lying on the bottom of the kettle being brought
to the surface. At this point the cheese maker and an assistant commence
stirring the curd with the harp, a breaker having first been fitted to the inside
of the kettle to interrupt the current of the whey and curd. The harps are
given a circular motion and cut the curd very fine-about the size of wheat
kernels or smaller.
After this stage is reached heating' is commenced. In Switzerland all of the
heating until recently was done over an open fire, the kettle being swung on a
large crane, and most of the factories have the same method at the present time.
In this country the same method was followed in the early days of the industry,
but at the present time inclosed fireplaces into which the kettle can be swung
and doors closed to retain the heat are largely employed. This takes away
much of the discomfort of the operation. In a few instances the kettles are set
in cement and an iron car containing the fire is run under it. The more modern
factories employ steam, and this appears to be the most satisfactory way.
When the heating is begun the contents of the kettle are brought rapidly to the
desired temperature, which may be from 126 to 140, the higher temperature
often being necessary to get the curd sufficiently firm. The stirring in the mean-
while continues for about 1 hour, with slight interruptions near the end of the
process when the curd has become so firm that it will not mat together. The
end of the cooking is determined by the firmness of the curd, which is judged
by matting a small cake with pressure by the hands and noting the ease with
which this cake breaks when held by the edge.
When the curd is sufficiently firm the contents of the kettle are rotated
rapidly and allowed to come to standstill as the .momentum is lost This brings
all the curd into a cone-shaped pile in the center of the kettle. One edge of a
heavy linen cloth resembling burlap is wrapped around a piece of hoop iron and
by this means the cloth is slipped under the pile of curd. The mass of curd is
then raised from the whey by means of a rope and pulley and lowered into a
cheese hoop on the draining table. These hoops are 4 to 6 inches deep and
vary greatly in diameter. The cloth is folded over the cheese, a large follower
is put on top, and the press is allowed to come down on the cheese. The press
is usually'a log swung at one end and operated by a double lever. Pressure is
continued for the first time just long enough for the curd mass to retain its
shape. The hoop is then removed, the cheese turned over, and a dry cloth sub-
stituted. The cheese is allowed to remain in the press about 24 hours, during
which time it is turned and a dry cloth substituted several times (six or more).
At the end of the pressing the curd should be a homogeneous mass without
holes. The cheese is then removed to the salting board, covered with a layer of
salt, and turned occasionally. In a day or two it is put in the salting tank in a
brine strong enough to float an egg; it remains here at the discretion of the
cheese maker for 1 to 4 days. Often no brine tank is used with Emmental
cheese.
The cheese is then taken to the curing cellar. In the best factories two or
more cellars with different temperatures are available, and the cheeses are
placed in them according to the way the cheese maker thinks their development







VARIIrlES ( OF CIIEESE. 23

requires. If it ait pears Ihlit t lie .li 1.%. lii vy dlvilp toiTn faist and ti, have. t t n111111y
and tiM) large t'ey s. thi' cl '1se IN Ihil.'l hi 11 ,il, 'llr" if llr rIvrrt' i I in '. ait
wIarinI c llar is selhvltt d. 'l'lT ll ', i ltI' .% i: n *l iit'ij'r irtr fri-nin ,-.5 lp I;.i,
though In extreine cas' s 7il 1 ir i l lli 1ili 1;r lill.y lt is. l. W hilt. tilt i' ill'i'Si
are in the ri'peniniig cellar, wliIrl in Swwilciih, 'l iiitay !b' ; to, liI Iuitlohs ir Ilnig.'r,
and In thlie I'lted Stait's :1 too i i,'1itliis. 1 t1wy siiiillu I t- tiiri,,il ;liI(l waislatl every
other day for tlit' first 2 or :t im(ibilli.s niidl :i It 'llr o liitl.,lls siili.setiirilitly,
and at thie sinme timeno ii 111le *t irseo s.11t is spriaiklrl Ili tlih slirf;a.ie. In a
few hours this salt lihas dissolveld, ainil Itho brine is sjlir :al ()\(,r tIl- sirfitc with
a long-handled brush.
The cheeses are very large. abAlt il itinlhs iii liiicknss aid siid smetiliies is
much as 4 feet in diameter, and weigh'l froill ( t( (1 2__41 1i1n lS. Iln slijipiilg, a
number of them ire lilacexl ill a tnl whichli may c*iatiii 1,00HI) ioUnIIIds of (cliese.
Sometimes Eimental cheese is made up in tlie fioiini (f bl.-.ks inste.nid of like
millstones. The blocks are about 2S inches long and S inches square In the
other dimensions.
ENGADINE.

This is made in the ('anton of (Criatub(inden, Switzerlnlid, and is a rennet
cheese made from unskininied tow's milk.

ENGLISH DAIRY.

This name is applied to a very hard cheese. made in the same general way as
Cheddar, but cooked much more. This cheese has been made mostly in the
United States. It is used for culinary purpo-ses.

EPOISSE.
This Is a soft rennet cheese made from whole or partly skimmed milk in the
Department of C6te d'Or, France.
ERVY.

This is a soft whole-milk rennet cheese resembling Camembert and deriving
its name from the village of Ervy. in the Department of Aube, France. A
cheese is about 7 inches in diameter, '22 inches thick, and weighs about 4 pounds.

FARM.

This cheese, made in France. an(d kni-nown variously as Fromage L la Pie, Mou,
Maigre, and Ferme, is essentially the same as our C'tta'e cheese. The method
of making is very simple. When the skimmed milk has become curdled the
whey is poured off and the curd needed and miolded into various sizes and
shapes. Draining is sometimes hastened by placing a board and weight upon
the curd. Salt and sometimes sweet cream are added. The cheese is consumed
usually on the farm where made, either while fresh or after it has undergone
fermentation.
FILLED.

Filled cheese is the name applied to cheese from which thie butter fat has been
removed and foreign fats added. The foreign fat is added by stirring it vio-
lently in the milk and setting with sufficient rennet to coarulate quickly. The
rest of the manufacture is the same as for Cheddar cheese. Filled cheese was
very extensively manufactured in the U'nited States for a number of years, but
State and Federal laws have made this no longer practical. Many of the
European varieties of cheese are counterfeited or adulterated in the same
manner.







24


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


FLOWER.

This cheese is so named because it is made with the addition of the petals of
various kinds of flowers, such as roses and marigolds. It is a soft cured rennet
cheese made in England from whole cow's milk.

FORMAGELLE.

This is a small soft ripened rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the north-
western part of Italy.
FORMAGGINI.

This name is applied to several kinds of small Italian cheeses. The kind
designated Formaggini di Lecco is a small cylindrical dessert cheese, weighing
about 2 ounces, made in the region of Lecco, in Lombardy. It is consumed while
fresh and sweet and at all stages of ripening until it becomes very piquant.
Sometimes salt, pepper, sugar, and cinnamon are mixed with this cheese, and
occasionally oil and vinegar are added. The method of manufacture is not
essentially different from that of other soft cheeses. Cow's milk is used with
the addition at times of some goat's milk. Rennet is added to the warmed
milk, which is then allowed to stand for 24 hours at a temperature of about
55 F. The curd, with as little breaking up as possible, is allowed to drain for
3 to 4 hours, when it is salted and put into cylindrical molds about 1I Inches
in diameter and 2 inches high.

FROMAGE FORT.

Several kinds of cooked cheese prepared in France are known by this name.
In the Department of Ain, Fromage Fort is prepared by melting well-drained
skim-milk curd, putting the melted mass into a cloth, and subjecting it to
pressure and afterwards burying it in dry ashes in order to remove as much of
the whey as possible. The mass is then grated fine and allowed to ferment for
8 to 10 days, after which milk, butter, salt, pepper, wine, etc., are added to it,
and the mixture is allowed to undergo further fermentation.
Canquillote, Cancoillotte, or Fromagere, prepared in the eastern part of
France, is a cheese of this kind, as is also the Fondue, or cooked cheese, of
Lorraine.
GAMMELOST.

Gammelost is made in Norway from skimmed sour milk. The milk is cooked
or warmed in a kettle and allowed to stand for 1 hour while the precipitated
casein gathers at the bottom. This is taken up in a cloth, and the whole is put
into a form where light pressure is applied. The cheese still in the cloth in the
form is put in the hot whey for an hour, when it is again placed under pressure
for a short period. It is put in a warm place and turned daily. At the end of
14 days it is packed in a chest with wet straw. The cheeses vary in weight from
24 to 65 pounds.
GAUTRAIS.

This is a cylindrical cheese weighing about 5 pounds and very closely resem-
bling Port du Salut. It is made in the Department of Mayenne, France.

GAVOT.

This cheese is made from cow's, sheep's, or goat's milk in the Department of
Hautes-Alpes, France.







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


25


GEHEIMRATH.
S
This is a cheese made In small quantitlhes In lhollnil. It remihblhMS n minall
Gouda cheese in quality and process of niiuinifactlire. It I1 colr-ld n tlev. yellow.

GtROMI.

This is a soft rennet cheese made In the mountainous regions (ife tli Vages,
France. The name Is a corruption of (Wrrardmer, a village In thi, r1elon, where
the cheese has been nade for at least r;) years. The variety is very similar to
Muster, but not so well known.
Cow's milk Is used almost exclusively, though at times a little gil's milk Is
added. The fresh milk is set with rennet at a templeratureof about S'0 toui '.i F.
In about one-half hour after adding the rennet tlie curd is cut iito rather
large cubes and allowed to stand for about 1 hour when tihe whey is dipped off.
The curd Is then put into cylindrical forms or hoops E6 to 7 ichies In diameter.
Formerly these were made of wood. one being placed upon another, making a
total height of 14 to 15 inches. They are now being made also on tin and in
various sizes. The cheeses are turned after 6 hours and again after 12 hours.
During the next 2 or 3 days they are turned twice daily, the hoops being
changed each time. A room temperature between 60 and 70 is desired during,
this process. The cheeses are then salted, the amount of ,salt used being from
3 to 3.5 per cent of the weight of the cheese.
The cheeses are then placed in a well-ventilated room for several days and
when sufficiently dry are transferred to the curing cellar. Here they are turned
frequently and worked with warm salt water to prevent the growth of molds.
Ripening requires from 6 weeks to 4 months, depending upon the size of the
cheeses, which vary in weight from one-half pound to 5 pounds or more. Anise
is sometimes incorporated with the curd before putting into the forms. Such
cheese when old often has a greenish appearance.

GERVAIS.

This is a French cheese made from a mixture of whole milk and cream. The
mixture is set with rennet at about 65 F., the time required being about 12
hours. The curd is then inclosed in cloth and hung up to drain. When suffi-
ciently dry it is salted and pressed into molds. The mnolds are so,),n rnoved aid
the cheese is wrapped in paraffin paper. The cheese is usually consumed while
fresh, but may be kept for several days.

GEX.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk. It belongs to the class
of blue or marbled cheese known in France as Fromage Persill6, which includes
Sassenage, Septmoncel. and several other kinds resembling Roquefort. It is
made principally in the southeastern part of France ar.d derives its name from
the town of Gex, in the Department of Ain. where the cheese has been made for
at least 60 years. There has been little tendency for the industry to extend to
other regions than that in which it originated, and even here it is said to be
diminishing.
Rennet is added to the fresh milk as soon as possible after milking. The time
allowed for coagulation is 1| to 2 hours. The curd is then broken up and
stirred until the mass is in a semiliquid condition, when it is allowed to stand
for about 10 minutes. After the curd has settled to the bottom of the vat the
whey is drained off. The curd is then worked by hand, salted lightly, and put







26 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

into hoops about 12 inches in diameter and 5 inches in height. In about 1 hour
the cheese is turned and a disk and'weight placed upon it. The turning is re-
peated three or four times a day, the hoops being removed at the end of the
first day. After salting, the cheese is taken to the curing room, where it soon
acquires a bluish appearance, due to the development of a penicillium. This
mold is not introduced into the interior of the cheese during making by means
of mottled bread, as is the case with Roquefort cheese. The ripening process,
which requires from 3 to 4 months, is completed in cellars or natural caves. A
ripened cheese weighs from 14 to 15 pounds.

GISLEV.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Denmark from skimmed cow's milk.

GLUMSE.
This cheese is made from sour skimmed milk in western Prussia. The thick-
ened milk is placed over a slow fire at about 105 F. and is cooked as long as
any whey is expelled. The cooking may be done by pouring hot water into
the milk. After cooking, the curd is removed from the whey with a perforated
dipper and is allowed to drain in a hair sieve. Milk or cream is added to the
cheese just before eating. This is evidently a cottage cheese.
0
GOAT'S MILK.

There are a large number of goat's-milk cheeses, many of which are not des-
ignated by local names. In France some of these are known by the names
Chevret or Chevrotin, in Italy as Formaggio di Capra, and in German-speaking
countries as Ziegenkilse or Gaisklsli. Among those in France to which local
names have been attached are Gratairon, Lamothe, and Poitiers.
The Gaiskisli is a soft cheese made in certain parts of Germany and Switzer-
land. The milk is set with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in about 40 minutes.
The curd is then broken up, stirred, and dipped into cylindrical molds about 3
inches in diameter. The mold is filled sufficiently to make a cheese 1" to 2
inches thick and weighing one-half pound. The mold is set on a straw mat
which allows the whey to drain freely, and salt is sprinkled on the surface.
In 2 days the cheese is turned, and the other surface is salted. The cheese
requires about 3 weeks to ripen and is said to have a very pleasant flavor.
A kind of cheese is made in Norway by drying goat's milk by boiling, fresh
milk or cream sometimes being added during the process.

GORGONZOLA.

This variety, known also as Stracchino di Gorgonzola, is a rennet Italian
cheese made from whole cow's milk. The name is taken from the village of
Gorgonzola, near Milan, but very little of this cheese is now made in that
immediate locality. The interior of the cheese is mottled or veined with a peni-
cillium much like Roquefort, and for this reason the cheese has been grouped
with the Roquefort and Stilton varieties. As seen upon the markets in this
country, the surface of the cheese is covered with a thin coat resembling clay,
said to be prepared by mixing barite or gypsum, lard or tallow, and coloring
matter. The cheeses are cylindrical in shape, being about 12 inches in diameter
and 6 inches in height, and as marketed are wrapped in paper and packed with
straw in wicker baskets.
The manufacture of Gorgonzola cheese is an important industry in Lombardy,
where formerly it was carried on principally during the months of September







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


27


and October, but with the establismlinient of curing rellars Ii the Alps. espeJially
near LIAcco, the manufacture Is no longer confinltd to this season.
The milk used In making this cheese is wa rned to at temperature of about 75"
F. and coagulated rapidly with rennet. the lime required being usually from 15 to
20 minutes. The curd is then cut very finely and Inclosed in :i cloth and drained,
after which it Is put into hoops 12 inches In diameter and 10 inches high. It
was formerly thecuttom0 to allow t1he rurd from the evening's milk to drain ov-er
night and to mix It with the fresh warinu curd from the morning's milk jprepared
In the same way. The curd from the evening's milk and that from tile morn-
ing's milk, crumbled very fine. were put into hoops In layers with muldy bread
crumbs interspersed between the layers. The cheese is turned frequently for
4 or 5 days, the cloths being changed occasionally, and is .salttd from the out-
side, the process requiring about 2 weeks. It is then transferred to tlew curing
rooms, where a low temperature is usually maintained. At an early sliage in
the process of ripening the cheese is usually punched with an instrument about
6 Inches long, tapering from a sharp point to a diameter of about one-eighth
inch at the base. About 150 holes are made in each cheese. This favors the
development of the penicillium throughout the interior of the cheese. Well-
made cheese may be kept for a year or longer. In the region where made much
of the cheese is consumed while in a fresh condition.

GOUDA.

This Is a Holland cheese made from whole or partly skimmed cow's milk. It
Is round and weighs 10 to 45 pounds. The milk, to which coloring matter
has been added, is set at 91 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in 15
minutes. The curd is cut or broken with a wooden scoop, a harp, or an Amuer-
Ican cheese knife. It is allowed to stand for a minute and the whey is dipped
off. Hot whey or hot water is poured on the mass of curd until the whole
has reached a temperature of 104 to 110. When the curd squeaks or whistles
when it is crushed between the teeth the whey or water is dipped off and the
curd is stirred and piled where it will drain well. The curd is then thoroughly
kneaded and sometimes lightly salted. After salting, the curd is put into
round molds and placed in a press, where it remains for 24 hours with increas-
ing pressure. The cheese is then salted either by immersion in brine or by
rubbing salt on the surface. The salting continues for 4 to S days. After
salting, the cheese is washed with hot whey. It is then transferred to the
ripening cellar, where it is turned daily for several days and finally once a
week until ripened. It is ready for consumption in 6 to 8 months. When the
cheese is a few days old it is washed with water and colored with saffron.
Some of this cheese is shipped to the United States. As seen in this country,
each cheese is covered with an animal tissue said to be a bladder.

GOURNAY.

This is a soft rennet cheese which derives its name from the village of Gour-
nay in the Department of Seine-Infrieure, France, where it is made. It is
about 3 inches in diameter and three-fourths inch thick.

GOYA.

This cheese is manufactured in the Province of Corrientes, in the Argentine
Republic. Either whole or partly skimmed milk is used. It is heated to a tem-
perature of 75 to 85 F. and coagulated with rennet in 15 to 30 minutes. The
curd is cut and put into sacks to drain, after which it Is put into molds.







28 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

GRANULAR CURD.

This cheese resembles the genuine Cheddar process cheese in all points ex-
cepting that it is not matted and milled. As soon as the curd is cooked firm
enough it is salted and pressed. Because no acid is developed between cooking
and pressing, a little more acid may be allowed to develop before drawing the
whey, and the curd should be cooked firmer.

GRAY.

This is a sour skim-milk product of the Tyrol. When the milk is thickened
the curd is brought to a proper firmness by light heating, and is then dipped
into a cheese cloth, care being taken that the flocculent matter at the bottom
of the kettle is thoroughly mixed with the rest of the curd in order to insure an
even product. The curd is put under a press for 10 minutes, when it is broken
up by hand or in a mill and salt and pepper are added. The curd is then put
into forms or hoops, and to insure the proper ripening a little well-ripened
grated gray cheese is added, or bread crumbs with the characteristic mold
growth are mixed with the curd as it is put into the forms. The forms are
made in various shapes and sizes and are supplied with holes to facilitate
drainage. The cheese remains in the forms under pressure for 24 hours, and
is then taken to the drying room, which has a temperature of 70 F. The
length of time it should remain in the drying room is determined by the appear-
ance of the cheese. It is then taken to the ripening cellar. The cheese when
ripened has a pleasant taste and a gray appearance through the entire mass.

GRUYERE.

This name is applied to Emmental cheese manufactured in France, the name
originating from the Swiss village of Gruyere. The cheese was first mentioned
in 1722, when two societies were reported to have been organized for its manu-
facture. The Gruyere cheese is made in three different qualities-whole milk,
partly skimmed, and skimmed. It is usually made from partly skimmed milk,
and this is supposed to distinguish it from Emmental. which is supposed to
be made from whole milk. The manufacture of Gruyere cheese is an extensive
industry in France, about 50,000,000 pounds having been manufactured annually
the latter part of the last century.

GASSING.

This is an Austrian skim-milk cheese weighing from 4 to 8 pounds. It re-
sembles very much the Brick cheese of the United States and is made in practi-
cally the same way.
HAND.

Hand cheese is so named because it was molded originally into its final shape
by hand. It is a sour-milk cheese, very popular among German races, and
manufactured in many countries.
The process of making varies in different localities, but in general is about
as follows: The skimmed milk is mixed with buttermilk and put into a tinned
vessel, where it is held at a favorable temperature for souring. When thick
the curd is broken up by stirring and heated to 120 F. The cooking is con-
tinued for about 3 hours and for the first hour of this time is stirred thoroughly.
After cooking, the whey is drained off and the curd is put in a mold for cooling.
It is then ground fine in a curd mill and salt is incorporated, and for some kinds







VARIETIES OF CIIEESE.


29


caraway seed is added. The curd Is then pressed Into the demiredI shapes and
1sizs. TIhe NIIill 'htlit'sis lir' i' drid I it a w rin rFoom and thlii Ira liferrl'r l to the
curing cellar, where they are kept on shel''s until the ripening tin the silrf;ice
has coinllietnced. wlhen they are packed in boxes. The cheem haIIIs ita very sharp,
pungent odor aid taste, which to nmst iwopile unaccustomed to It is very diK-
agreeable.
There 'ire many local naimUeS for hand cheeses, among which are the fP lluwing :
Thuringia carawny cheese; Ihlefeld. madtle In Mecklenburg; Livlnander, T11:1(11 III
Russia; Olmiitztr Bierkiise; I)Dresdener Bierkiise; Satz, Jli(adl In Snixoiiy;
Tyrol sour cheese; Berliner Kuhkiise; and Alt Kuhkiise.

HARZ.

This is a hand cheese made In different sizes. It is 1j to 2j inches in diam-
eter and one-fourth to three-fourths inch in thickness and weighs one-fourth
pound. It is identical in manufacture with hand cheese.

HAY.

This cheese, known as Fromage de Foin, is a skim-milk variety made in the
Department of Seine-Inferieure, France. The cheese derives its name from
the fact that it is ripened on as freshly cut hay as possible, which gives-a
characteristic aroma to the cheese. The cheese In some respects resembles a
poor grade of Livarot. It is about 10 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches
thick.
The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 80 to 85 F. In about 1
hour the curd is cut and the whey removed; the curd is then pressed to re-
move as much of the whey as possible, after which it is pressed by hand into
molds. After draining for about 2 days it is put into the drying room, where
it remains for about 3 weeks, when it is taken to the curing cellar and buried
in hay. After remaining here for 6 weeks to 3 months it is ready for sale.
The consumption of this variety is largely restricted to the region where it is
made.
HOHENHEIM.

This is a soft cheese made in Hohenheimi from partly skimmed milk. It is
cylindrical in shape, 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and weighs about one-half pound.
The skimmed evening's milk is added to the morning's milk and heated in
a copper kettle to 110 F. Some saffron is used for color and rennet is added.
In 1 to 1j hours the curd is broken up and the whey dipped off. Caraway
seed is stirred in, by which process the curd is reduced to smaller particles.
It is then dipped into tin hoops having holes to allow easy draining. The
curd remains in these hoops for 12 hours and an additional 12 hours on a dry-
ing board. It is then sprinkled with salt and when this is dissolved it is again
salted and l)haced in the ripeniiin cellar. Ripening requires 3 months.

HOLSTEIN HEALTH.

This is a cooked cheese made from sour skimmed milk, the local name being
Holsteiner Gesundheits Kiise. The milk Is heated lightly and the curd is
strongly pressed; it is then well mixed and put In a tin kettle. A little cream
and salt are added and the whole is stirred while it is being heated to the
melting temperature over a fire. It is then put into a hoop or mold which
holds about one-half pound and is allowed to cool.







30 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

HOLSTEIN SKIM-MILK.

As the name indicates, this is a skim-milk cheese made in the Province of
Holstein, where it is known as Holsteiner Magerkiise. Usually in the manu-
facture of this cheese 6 per cent of buttermilk is added to separator skim milk.
A part is heated to 160 F. and the remainder is mixed with the pasteurized
portion. The milk is colored with saffron, and rennet powder is used for
coagulating the casein, which requires about 35 minutes. The curd is then
broken up and allowed to remain in the whey for 30 minutes without stirring.
A cloth is then used for lifting the curd from the whey, and 1 per cent of salt
is mixed in. The curd is pressed for one-half hour, when it is turned and
pressure again applied. The pressure is gradually increased from 5 pounds
to 9 pounds for each pound of cheese. The cheese is transferred to the curing
cellar, which has a temperature of 60. It is here turned daily until ripened,
which requires 4 months. Each cheese weighs from 12 to 14 pounds.

HOP.

Hop or Hopfen cheese is a German product. The ground curd is salted and
allowed to ripen for 3 or 4 days, when it is mixed with fresh curd and molded
into small cheeses measuring about 21 inches in diameter and 1 inch in thick-
ness. These are placed in a well-ventilated room and allowed to become quite
dry, when they are packed in hops.

HVID GJEDEOST.

This is a goat's-milk cheese made in Norway. The milk is set at 70 F.
or higher. The curd is broken up and is cooked in the usual manner. It is
then pressed in forms 9 to 10 inches long, 6 inches broad, and 4 inches high.
The cheese is made only for local consumption.
ILHA.

Ilha is a Portuguese word meaning island, and is applied to the cow's milk
cheeses made in the Azore Islands and imported quite extensively into Portugal.
They are moderately firm cheeses measuring 10 to 12 inches in diameter and
about 4 inches in thickness.
INCANESTRATO.

This name is applied to cheese made in Sicily. The mixture of evening's and
morning's milk is curdled with rennet in about three-fourths of an hour. The
curd is then stirred thoroughly and 2 per cent of water is added. After stand-
ing for 5 minutes the curd is separated from the whey, pressed by hand, and
sometimes allowed to ferment for 2 to 3 days, when it is cooked in whey and then
pressed and salted. Various spices are added. A kind known as Majocchino and
made in the region of Messina, out of cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, contains
olive oil.
ISIGNY.

This is an American cheese originating about 30 years ago in attempts to
make Camembert cheese in this country. The proper ripening for Camembert
cheese was not secured and hence a distinct name was given to the product.
The cheese is slightly larger than Camembert but of the same shape The
ripened product bears a close resemblance to Limburg. The process of manu-
facture is similar to that of Camembert. During ripening, however, the cheese
is washed and rubbed occasionally to check the growth of molds on the surface.






I







VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 31

JACK.

Jaek cheese wialS first made Ili Mni'tre'y Cou1lnty, ('al., about 2-j yearn ago ftnd
was first e1illed 1u onIut "re) cheese. Its mnnufactue lret under this iiimt Is still
liimittd t ttl1alt State, but Its method lif min inufacture arigrees closely witvh tihe
grainuiIlar curd nmelthod for (Cheddar cheese. Morning's and evinnintg's nilk Is
mixed and warimeld In i vait fromin s to SS F. and rennet extrnict added at thei
rate of 6t to S ounces lier 1.(00 lomitinds of milk. No (:Iloiring 11tte1r Is iused. It
Is ready for lthe urd knife iln aboutt half an hour, its readiness l)in i d(Iterminited
ns hi (Cheddar chee'ste. The cittinug is dii ,n with a curd knife, tihe product thlien
being stirretl by lIind a nd hy ranke. Tilhe curd is heated from 980 in winter to
105 to 110 in summer. After the temperature is uip it is stirred occasionally
with the rake until the whey is drawn at 0.14 to 0.15 per cent acidity. The curd
is then stirred thoroughly to keep from matting and is salted at the rate of 1i
pounds to 100 pounds of curd, thlie whole being thoroughly stirred. During the
salting process cold water is. run under the vat, the hot water having been
previously run off.
The curd is put into press cloths at a temperature of 80 to 85 F., no hoops
being used. One gallon of curd is put into each cloth, making a cheese weighing
64 pounds. Tlhe corners of the cloth are caught up tight, the cheese being
pressed and rolled with thlie other hand. These are then pressed over night and
placed in the curing rooms for 3 weeks before being ready to ship.

JOCHBERG.

This cheese is made from a mixture of cow's and goat's milk in the Tyrol.
The cheese weighs 45 pounds and is 20 inches in diameter and 4 inches high.

JOSEPHINE.

This is a soft cured rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk in Silesia. It
is put up in small cylindrical packages.

KAJMAK.

The Turkish word Kajmak signifies cream and is used to designate a product
made in Servia nnd sometimes known as Servian butter. This product is, how-
ever, analogous to n cream cheese. The milk is boiled and put into large
shallow vessels usually mide of wood, and allowed to stand for 12 hours, when
the cream is removed and usually salted. The flavor varies greatly with the
age of the sample and is said to be between that of a goat's-milk cheese and
Roquefort.
KASCAVAL.

This is a loaf-shaped rennet cheese weighing from 4 to 6 pounds, made from
sheep's milk in Bulgaria, Iloumania, and Trrnsylvania. Goat's milk is some-
times added. Considerable quantities of the cheese are exported.

KATSCHKAWALJ.

This is a sheep's milk cheese made in Servia. The milk is curdled with ren-
net and the curd is drained and inclosed in tin cans which are put into boiling
water. The curd is subsequently worked by hand and molded into various
shapes. A cheese weighs ordinarily about 6 pounds.

KJARSGAARD.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Denmark from skimmed cow's milk.







32 VARIETIES OP CHEESE.

KLOSTER.

This is a soft ripened rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk. It
has a somewhat unusual shape, 1 by 1 by 4 inches, and weighs less than one-
fourth pound.
KOLOS-MONOSTOR.

This is a sheep's-milk rennet cheese made in the agricultural school in
Transylvania. The cheese is rectangular in shape, 8J by 5 by 3 inches, and
weighs 4 pounds.
KOPPEN.

Koppenkise is a goat's-milk cheese made in Germany. The milk is set at
80 to 85 F., and after the whey has been dipped off the curd is put into a cup-
shaped vessel which gives form to the cheese and also the name. The cheese is
placed in a warm room and sprinkled with salt. It is allowed to dry for from 2
to 3 days and is then placed in the ripening room. The ripened cheese weighs
from 3 to 4 ounces. It has a sharp, pungent, slightly smoky flavor.

KOSHER.

This cheese under various names is made in several countries. It is a cow's-
milk rennet cheese made for the Jewish trade. The process of manufacture
resembles that of Limburg. The cheese, however, is eaten fresh.

KOSHER GOUDA.

This is a cheese made especially for the Jewish trade. It is identical with a
Gouda cheese in every way except in size and in having no bladder covering.
It weighs from 4 to 6 pounds and is 81 inches in diameter and 3 inches thick.
It bears a stamp which identifies it to the Jewish consumer. Small quantities
are imported into this country.
KRUTT.

Krutt, or Kirgischerkiise, is made by the nomadic tribes of the middle Asiatic
Steppes from sour skim milk of the cow, goat, sheep, or camel. When the milk
coagulates salt is added and the curd is hung up in a sack to drain, after which
it is subjected to moderate pressure. The curd is then made up into small balls
which are placed in the sun to dry.

KUHBACH.

This is a soft ripened rennet cheese made from whole or partly skimmed
cow's milk. It is a German product, made in upper Bavaria. It is cylindrical
in shape, weighs 2 pounds, and is 6 inches in diameter and 3 inches high.

LAGUIOLE.

This is a hard rennet cheese varying but little if any from Cantal and re-
sembling Roquefort. It derives its name from the village of Laguiole in the
Department of Aveyron, France. The cheese is made extensively in the~moun-
tains of Aubrac, where it is said to have been made at the time of the Roman
occupation. The milk, either whole or partly skimmed, is set with rennet, the
time allowed being about 30 minutes. The curd is allowed to ferment for about
24 hours and is then put into hoops and pressed. At least 1 month is required
for ripening. Laguiole or Guiole cheese is considered superior to Cantal,
although the two varieties are made in essentially the same way.







VARIETIES OF C('IIKEESE.


:i33:


LANCASHIRE.

This Is an Engllsh cheese named froimi thli e i'ity in which It Is inmdle. T1l',
evening's milk is partly skimmnned atnd is hen led. s, tliht wh'nii the iiiiriiing's
milk is added the temiuwrature of tthe whole is brought to SOW' i'.. or mllghtly
higher. Enough rennet is added to coagulate the milk In 1 Ihounr. The curd Is
broken up, stirred for a short time, and pressed on the bottom of thle \lat by
means of a heavy sieve. The whey is soon drained off and the curd Is around
in a curd mill into particles the size of kernels of con and then 1,ut into the
press. Salting Is done in brine, in which the cheese is placed for 4 to G days.
From the brine tank the cheese is transferred to the curing room.

LANGRES.

This is a soft rennet cheese made in the northeastern part of France. It
derives its name from the village of Langres in the Department of Haute-M3arne,
where it is said to have been made since the time of the Merovingian kings.
The perfectly fresh milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 90 to
95 F. After standing for several hours it is put into cylindrical forms. The
cheeses ripen for about 2 to 3 months. A ripened cheese weighs from 1I to 2
pounds and is about 5 inches in diameter and S inches high. The cheese is
consumed for the most part in the region where made.

LAPLAND.

The Laplanders make a variety of cheese from the milk of the reindeer. It
resembles very much the harder varieties of the Emmental group. The cheese
has a very unusual shape. It is round and-flat and is so formed that a cross
section would resemble a dumbbell with angular instead of round ends.

LATTICINI.

This is applied to cheeses made from the milk of buffaloes, particularly in the
region of Naples, but also in other parts of Italy.

LEATHER.

Leather, Leder, or Holstein dairy cheese is made in Schleswig-Holstein, from
skimmed cow's milk with an addition of from 5 to 10 per cent of buttermilk.
The milk is set at from 95 to 100 F. and requires 25 to 35 minutes for
coagulation. It is then broken up with a hbrp or a stirring stick, and is stirred
with a Danish stirrer. When the particles are reduced to the size of peas the
curd is piled up on one side of the vat or kettle and allowed to stand for 10
minutes. The whey is then dipped off. The curd is cut with a knife into pieces
the size of the hand, put in a wooden or tin bowl, and pressed for one-half hour,
when it is cut into pieces and run through a cheese mill. It is then salted, put
in a cloth, and again put in the press, where the pressure is gradually increased.
The cheese is turned occasionally and a fresh dry cloth supplied. After 12
hours of pressing the cheese is put into the salt bath, where it is kept 40 to 48
hours. It is then transferred to the ripening cellar, where it is wiped with a
dry cloth every day for about a week and thereafter twice a week, the ripening
requiring about 4 months. The cured cheese has small eyes; it is made cylin-
drical, and is 4 to 6 inches in height and 10 to 12 inches in diameter. It weighs
15 to 25 pounds.
10415-Bull. 146-11- 3







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


LEICESTER.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. It is named from
a county in England where it is made. It resembles the better known Cheshire
and Cheddar in every way.
Evening's and morning's milk are mixed and set at a temperature of from
76 to 84 F. The curd is allowed to set very firm, which requires 90 minutes.
It is cut very carefully and allowed to settle 20 minutes, when the whey is
drawn off. The curd is then gathered in a cloth, pressed, and broken up several
times until a certain degree of dryness has been attained, and then salted
lightly and put to press. Pressure is continued for 5 days, the cheese being
removed and salted on the outside each day.

LEYDEN.

This is a hard rennet cheese made in Holland, where it is known also as
Bergues, Delft, Komynde, Koejekaars, and Hobbe. The milk, which is either
partly or entirely skimmed, is set with rennet at 72 to 75 F. It is allowed
to stand for 1 hour, when the curd is cut and then stirred while being warmed
up to 970. The heating is done by pouring hot whey over the curd. The curd
is then dipped out with a cloth and kneaded by hand. Caraway seed is added
to a portion of the curd which, in filling the hoops, constitutes the middle of
three layers. The cheese is then put in press. It is turned after 3 hours and
a fresh cloth applied. The pressing continues for 24 hours. Salting is done
on the surface daily. If the rind becomes hard it is washed in whey or water,
and occasionally milk is smeared on the surface. The surface is colored with
litmus in alkaline water. A ripened cheese weighs about 25 pounds and is 12
inches in diameter and 31 to 5 inches in thickness. As seen on the American
market, it has a very dark-brown surface.

LIMBURG.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk which may contain all of
the fat or be partly or entirely skimmed. The best Limburg is undoubtedly
made from whole milk. This cheese has a very strong and characteristic odor
and taste. The cheese is about 6 by 6 by 3 inches and weighs about 2 pounds.
The most common synonyms of Limburg are Backstein and Herve. There
are, however, many local names for this kind of cheese, such as Algau, Lanark,
Marianhof, Morin, St. Michels, Schtitzen, Tanzenberg, Carinthian, Grottenhof,
Emmersdorf, Briol, and Lindenhof.
Limburg cheese originated in the Province of Liittich, Belgium, in the neigh-
borhood of Herve, and was marketed in Limburg, Belgium. Its manufacture
has spread to Germany and Austria, where it is very popular, and to the United
States, where large quantities are made, mostly in New York and Wisconsin.
Sweet milk is set without any coloring matter at a temperature of from 91
to 96 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate the milk in about 40 minutes. In
foreign countries a kettle is used, but in the United States an ordinary rectangu-
lar cheese vat is found to be more satisfactory. The curd is cut or broken into
pieces about one-third-inch cube and is stirred for a short time without addi-
tional heating. It is then dipped into rectangular forms 28 inches long, 51 inches
broad; and about 8 inches deep. These forms are kept on a draining board,
where the whey drains out freely. When the cheese has been in the forms, with
frequent turnings, for a sufficient length of time to retain its shape it is removed
to the salting table, where the surface is rubbed with salt daily. When the
surface of the cheese commences to get slippery, the cheese is put in a ripening


34







VARIETIES OF CIH'IEESE.


:15


cellar having a tempera ture of about (Mi". While In the cellar thi miurfacv 4f
each cheese is rubbed thoroughly it frequent intervals. itiliening requires 1 toi
2 months. When ripe the cheese Is wrapped in paper, nil then In ti. toll, and
put In boxes, each containing about N) cheeses.
No Limburg Is Imported Into this country at the present time, contrary ti
the popular belief. This tylie of cheetwe Is made w) cheaply :iild of such gondi
quality in this country that the foreign inmake has been crowded out of the
market.
LIPTAU.

This cheese is made in the Provinces of liptau, Saros, and rva, in hungary,
from sheep's milk. Condiments, especially red Iepper, are usually added. It is
rather greasy and has a sharp taste. The details of manufacture are the same
as for Brinsen cheese.
LIVAROT.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk more or less skimmed. It
derives its name from the village of Livarot in the I)epartment of Calvados,
France, where the Industry is centralized. This cheese has the advantage over
Camembert made in the same region in that it may be manufactured and con-
sumed during the warm months.
The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 95 to 104 F1'. After 1A to
2 hours the curd is cut and placed on a rush mat or a cloth and allowed to
drain for about 15 minutes, during which time it is crumbled as finely as
possible. It is then put into tin hoops or forms 6 inches in diameter and the
same in height. The cheeses are turned very frequently until they become firm,
when they are salted and left on the draining board for 4 or 5 days. At this
stage they are sometimes sold as white cheese, but more often they are trans-
ferred to a well-ventilated room for 15 to 20 days and then to the curing cellar,
which is kept very tightly closed. By thus retaining the ammonia and other
products the cheese acquires a strong, piquant taste. During ripening the
cheeses are turned two or three times a week and occasionally wiped with a
cloth moistened with salt water. After ripening for 10 to 12 days they are
wrapped with the leaves of Typha latifolia. commonly called laiche. In 3 to 5
months they are colored with annatto and marketed.

LORRAINE.

This is a small sour-milk hand cheese made in Lorraine, Germany, and regarded
as a delicacy in that country. It is seasoned with pepper, salt, and pistachio
nuts, and is eaten in a comparatively fresh state. The cheeses are made in
size of about 2 ounces and sell for a very high price-at the rate of about 50
cents a pound.
LUNEBERG.

This cheese is made in the small valleys of the Voralberg Mountains in the
western part of Austria. The art of cheese making in this locality was
imported from Switzerland, and the copper kettle and characteristic presses are
used. Saffron is used for coloring, and the milk is warmed in the copper kettle
to 87 to 90 F., at which temperature the rennet is added, enough being used
to coagulate the milk in 20 to 30 minutes. The curd is cut into pieces the size
of hazelnuts and is cooked with stirring to a temperature of 122. The curd
is dipped into cloths which are put into wooden forms and light pressure is
applied. The curd remains in the press for 24 hours, during which time it is







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


turned occasionally and a dry cloth supplied. The cheese is then taken to the
cellar and is salted on the surface. In the cellar it is rubbed and washed
occasionally. When ripe it is said to be about midway in type between Emmen-
tal and Limburg.
MACONNAIS.

This is a French goat's-milk cheese, 2 inches square by 1J inches thick.

MACQUELINE.

This is a soft rennet cheese of the Camembert type, 4 inches in diameter and
If inches thick, made from whole or partly skimmed milk in the region of
Senlis, in the Department of Oise, France. The milk is set with rennet at a
temperature of about 80 F. and allowed to stand for 5 hours, when the curd
is put into hoops. After 24 hours the hoops are removed and the cheese is
salted and taken to the curing room, where it remains for 20 days or more. A
cheese weighs about one-fourth of a pound and requires about 2 liters of milk
in its manufacture. The cheese sells at a lower price than Camembert, made
in the same region.
MAIKASE.

This is a cheese resembling Gouda. It is made in Holland in the early sum-
mer, is softer than the regular Gouda, and hence can be marketed at an earlier
period.
MAINZ HAND.

This is a typical hand cheese, sometimes called Pimp. The milk is treated in
the usual way, and the curd after cooling is thoroughly kneaded by hand, the
thoroughness of this manipulation influencing the quality of the cheese. The
curd is then pressed by hand into flat cakes and allowed to dry for a week.
They are then packed in a jar or keg and placed in a cellar for ripening. This
requires from 6 to 8 weeks.
MALAKOFF.

This is another form of Neufchatel cheese about 2 inches in diameter and
one-half of an inch in thickness. It may be consumed either while fresh or
after ripening.
MANUR.

This cheese is made in Servia from either sheep's or cow's milk. The milk is
first heated to the boiling temperature and then cooled until the fingers can be
held in it. A mixture of buttermilk and fresh whey with rennet is added.
The curd is lifted from the whey in a cloth and allowed to drain, when it is
kneaded like bread, lightly salted, and dried.

MAQUtE.

This is a soft rennet brick-shaped cheese made from cow's milk in Belgium.
It is known where made as Fromage Mou.

MXRKISCH HAND.

This cheese is similar to a hand cheese. The milk is treated in the same
way as in hand cheese up to the salting. The curd is then put in a linen sack
and heavy pressure is applied. The mass is then cut into oblong pieces and
allowed to dry and cure as regular hand cheese.


36








VARIETIES OF CHcEESE.


37


MAROILLES.

This is a mift reliet rlitt'se uf the i'onit ((',jiu lyie nide from whole ur
partly skimmedt cow's inllk In the Departments orf Aisnte and Noiid. France.
There are several kItds, va%'rying in size. shaitlie, aind details of 1in11f1 tcturra', of
which the Tulle dti Fl1(ndre and Iatir'on are best known. The clhes' as mIM det
at Maroilles Is about (6 inches sqli.'ire aind 2 inches thiIk; thuit inadi' at Saint
Auibin, 5 inches Square and :{ inches thick. Tihe Iarron is about 21 Inrh!es
square and I* inches thick. aind weighs aItmit ; ounces. The Tlil di' Fl.tindre
is about twice as large. 'The Dauphlin is st'iiluniar in shal'- and contains herbs.
A iear-shaped form designatted Itoulette nmay lie niade in part front buttermilk.
The best cheese is umaide fromn fresh whole milk, although the most o(if it is
made from milk partly or entirely skimmnied. The temperature of setting with
rennet is about 75 F. and the time allowed from 1 to 4 hours. The curd is
drained for 1 to 2 hours in a box having a perforated bottom, and is then put
into square forms or hoops 5") to 6 inches on a side and 3 to 4 inches high.
The cheese is turned frequently until firm and then salted on all six faces and
taken to -the curing cellar, where it is washed frequently with salt water to
prevent the growth of molds. Ripe',ing requires 3 to 5 months. Defective
cheeses are said to he common.

MASCARPONE.

This is an Italian cream cheese about 2 inches in diameter and 2j inches in
height. The cream is heated to about 194 F. and dilute acetic or tartaric acid
is added. The mixture is stirred and drained through cloth and then put into
molds. It is eaten in a fresh condition.

MECKLENBURG SKIM.

This is a rennet cheese made from skim milk and named from the province in
which it is made. The milk is placed in a copper kettle and warmed with steam.
Saffron is added for coloring and sufficient rennet is used to coagulate the milk
in 30 minutes. The curd is broken up into particles the size of peas. The tem-
perature is raised to 92 F. in 12 minutes. The curd is then removed from the
kettle by means of a cloth and put into a hoop and pressure applied. This is
increased gradually until it reaches fifteen times the weight of the cheese in 24
hours. The cheese is then placed in a drying room held at 70 until a rind is
formed. As much salt is then sprinkled on the surface as can be absorbed. In
the meanwhile the cheese is taken from the drying room and placed in the reg-
ular curing room, which has a temperature of 60' and a relative humidity of
85" to 95 per cent.
MIGNOT.

This is a soft rennet cheese either cylindrical or cubical in form. It has been
made in the" Department of ('alvados. France, for over 10(W years and
resembles Pont l'Cvque and Livarot. There are two types of this cheese;
designated white and passe: the first, a fresh cheese, is made during the period
from April to September, and the second, a ripened cheese, is made during the
remainder of the year.

MONTASIO.

This cheese originated in the part of Carinthia, in Austria, called Friaul,
where the annual product is now valued at $600,000. At the present time it is
made not only in Carinthia but in the neighboring provinces and in Italy.








38


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


The milk, either whole or partly skimmed, and consisting usually of a mix-
ture of cow's and goat's milk, is heated in a kettle to 95' F. and sufficient ren-
net is added to coagulate it in 30 to 40 minutes. It is then cut very carefully
to the size of peas and heated gradually to a temperature of 1200. When the.
desired temperature is reached, which is usually in about one-half hour, heat-
ing is stopped and the stirring continued for 30 to 40 minutes. Some of the
whey is dipped from the kettle and the curd is removed by means of a cloth.
The cheese is pressed for 24 hours, during which time it is turned frequently.
The salting requires usually about one month, the total amount applied varying
from 21 to 3 per cent of the weight of the pressed cheese. After salting, the
cheese is taken to a well-ventilated room and allowed to dry. In this room the
cheese is turned frequently and rubbed in order to free it from molds. When
dry it is scraped carefully and taken to the curing cellar. The cheese is here
rubbed frequently with a coarse cloth, and when the rind has become firm and
does not show the presence of mold, olive oil is usually applied. Sometimes the
rind is colored black by means of soot.
The fresh cheese is almost white. The old cheese becomes yellow, granular,
and has a sharp taste and characteristic odor. It is usually eaten-when 3 to
12 months of age, but may be kept much longer and then grated.
MONTAVONER.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Austria. During the process of manufac-
ture dried hei'bs (Achi lea nmoschata and A. atrata) are added.

MONT CENIS.

This is a hard rennet cheese resembling the imitation Roquefort varieties like
Gex and Septmoncel and made mi the region of Mont Cenis, in the southeastern
part of France. The milk used is usually a mixture of cow's, sheep's, and
goat's. The evening's milk is usually skimmed and added to that of the morn-
ing. Primitive methods of cheese making are eml)loyed. The milk is set with
rennet at a temperature of about 85 F. The curd is then cut and allowed to
(Irain for 24 hours, when fresh curd is thoroughly mixed with it. The mixture
is then put into molds and moderate pressure applied. After turning frequently
for several days, and salting, it is transferred to the curing cellar, where it is
turned frequently, washed with salt water to check the growth of molds on the
surface, and allowed to ripen for 3 to 4 months. The ripening is due mainly to
a penicillium which is sometimes incorporated in the curd by means of moldy
bread. A ripened cheese is about 18 inches in diameter, 6 to 8 inches in height.
and weighs about 25 pounds.

MONT D'OR.

This is a soft rennet cheese of the Pont l'fvPque type, formerly made from
S
goat's milk but now made almost exclusively from cow's milk. Sometimes a
small amount of goat's milk is added to the cow's milk.
It derives its name from Mont d'Or, near Lyon, in the Department of Rh6ne,
France, where it is said to have been made for over three centuries At the
present time it is made not only in Rh6ne and neighboring Departments but
in the other parts of France, especially Eure and Oise.
Whole or partly skimmed milk is set with rennet at a temperature of 90*
to 1000 F. The card, in from one-half hour to 2 hours after the addition of
the rennet to the milk and with or without cutting, is put into circular forms
or hoops bout 4V inches in diameter and 3 inches high. These rest upon a







VARIETIES OF CHEESE. .19

draining board covered with straw. After about 1 hour the cheese Is turned.
andti frequently thereafter until firm. A disk with a light weight is sonitlnjin
placed up on each cheese in ordethr to hasten the removal of the whley. 'Tlie
cheese Is sitlted on the surface. Much of It is sold In at fresh c'iiditlimn. It Is
also ripened for about tne week In sumnier ntIl '2 to 3I weeks It whlinter, ultiring
which tlIm' it Is turned fretieltly and vasshed with salt water to prevent tnhe
growth of )oldtis.
MONTHLtRY.

This Is a soft rennet ('chtse made from cow's milk In Selne-et-Ols,t France.
A large cheese is about 2 Inches thick and 14 inches in dianmetetr and weighs
about 5I poIunds. There is also a smaller sized cheese which weighs about 3
pounds. Either whole milk or partly skimmed milk is used. RIennet is added
to the milk at ordinary temperatures, and the curd when sufficiently firm is
broken up, put into molds, and subjected to pressure. After salting the che(..-
Is cured for S to 15 days in a so-called drying room and then riplened in :;
cellar at a temperature of about 55 F. During ripening the cheese becomes
covered at first with a whitish mold and later with a blue mold in which red
spots appear. It is ready for sale at the end of about 1 month.

MOZARINELLI.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk in Italy.

MONSTER.

Minster is a rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk in the western
part of Germany. near the Vosges Mountains, and named from the city of
Miinster, near which it is made. Similar cheese made in the neighboring por-
tion of France is called GeronCI, and Miinster cheese made near Colmar and
Strassburg is sometimes given the names of these two cities.
The milk is set at about 90 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in 30
minutes. The curd is then broken up and allowed to stand for 30 to -45 minutes
without stirring, when it is dipped with a sieve which holds back the small
particles of curd and gives a slight pressure to the curd. After removing the
whey the curd is scooped into forms or hoops and caraway or anise seed is
usually added. The hoops are made in two parts, the lower of which is 4
inches high and 7 inches in diameter with holes in the bottom foi drainingu and
the upper of which is of the same dimensions. The whole resembles an ordi-
nary cheese hoop with bandages. The hoop is lined with cheese cloth. After
the curd has been in the hoop for 12 hours the upper part of the hoop can be
removed. The cheese is turned and the cloth removed. The cheese is now put
in the upper portion of the hoop and turned frequently for 4 to 6 days. The
temperature is held in the meanwhile at 68. After salt has been rubbed on
the surface daily for 3 (lays the cheese is taken to the cellar, which has a tem-
perature of 51 to 55, where it is allowed to ripen for 2 to 3 months. The
cheese sells for about 15 cents a pound when ripe.

MYSOST.

Mysost is made from whey and is a product of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark,
and to a very limited extent of the United States. It has a light-brown color, a
buttery consistency, and a mild, sweetish taste.
The method of manufacture is as follows: As soon as the curd of the regular
cheese is removed from the whey, the whey is strained and is put in a kettle or
large pan over the fire and the albuminous material which rises to the surface







40 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

is skimmed off. The whey is evaporated as rapidly as possible with constant
and thorough stirring. When it has reached about one-fourth its original
volume the albumin previously skimmed off is returned and stirred thoroughly
to break up all possible lumps. When the whey has attained the consistency of
thickened milk it is poured quickly into a wooden trough and stirred with a
paddle until cool to prevent the formation of sugar crystals. This can then be
molded into the desired form. In this country it is usually made into cylin-
drical shapes and wrapped in tin foil. Prumost is a local name for this cheese.

NESSEL.

This is a soft-cured rennet cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk. It is an
English product and is made round and very thin.
A
NEUFCHATEL.

This is a soft rennet cheese made extensively in the Department of Seine-
Inferieure, France, from cow's milk either whole or skimmed. Bondon, Mala-
koff, Petit Carr6, and Petit Suisse are essentially the same as Neufchftel, but
have slightly different shapes.
The milk, preferably fresh, is set at 85 F. with only so much rennet as is
necessary to secure the desired coagulation in 24 hours in summer and from
36 to 48 hours in winter. The curd is then inclosed in cheese cloth and drained
for 12 hours, after which it is subjected to pressure for another period of 12
hours. It is then thoroughly kneaded by hand or, in the larger factories, by
means of a curd.mill and pressed into thin cylinders about 2 inches in diameter
and 3 inches high. The cheeses are removed soon from the molds, salted, and
replaced. After draining for 24 hours they are transferred to the so-called dry-
ing room, where they become covered with white and later with blue molds.
They are then taken to the curing cellar, where the ripening process is con-
tinued for 3 to 4 weeks. The appearance of red spots on the surface is taken
as an indication that the ripening has progressed far enough. The cheeses are
then wrapped in tin foil and marketed.
An imitation of the Neufchatel cheese is made in the United States which is
very probably as good as the French variety. Makers in this country have
attempted to vary this cheese by the use of condiments. Pimento, or Pepper
Cream, is a Neufchfltel cheese in which 1 pound of red peppers is used for
every 10 pounds of cheese. The peppers are ground very fine and thoroughly
mixed with the cheese; the whole is then molded into forms and kept in a
cold place.
NEW MILK.

This cheese is made in Holland. The process of manufacture resembles that
of Gouda cheese. It is made only in limited quantities at the beginning of the
summer season and is eaten fresh.

NIEHEIM.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Westphalia andl named from a city in that
province. The sour milk is heated to a temperature of 100 to 120 F. The
curd is collected in a cloth and allowed to stand for 24 hours, when it is worked
until in a fine condition. The curd is made up into cakes which are put into a
cellar and turned frequently for 5 to 8 days. It is then broken up, and salt and
caraway seed, and sometimes beer or milk, are added. The cheese is covered
lightly with straw and finally packed in casks with hops and allowed to ripen.








VARIETIES orF IIEESE. *1

NOSTRALE.

This nant is appl)ltied locally Io twip kinds rf i'renn't ll'-W1(' 11,1iir frim 'n row's
milk in the in*inntitlintus regions( of II Irthwesterun llIl.y. ''The inr Acline,'e.' 's-
ignatted iFormanggil, l rn,. Is niliedti diriing tie' spring whilh ill. th herlis ur still
in the valleys, and their soft cheesee. Firnmaggi, T''viitri,. during 1 lni e siilriner when
they are pasturt l i II the n mounitiiins. T'lh'l clhit-s is s:nii d to I'e :l vI.v hi v.nerhly
and the methods of mainalUfet Ulre to Ia e' retllin ild', pr[iltiti-'. A 1li<'1'1 le-hsig-
tated Itaschera. made ill the re'ghioll if Mtildivi, Is liirit0Plly tly t sSllie ;ias
Nostrale.
OLIVET.

This Is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. The manufacture of this
variety originated south of Orleans, in the Deplartment of Loiret, France. The
industry is now carried on north of Orleans near 01-Olivet, to which place the
cheese doubtless owes its name. There are three forms of this cheese, dh(sig-
nated white or summer cheese. blue or the ordinary haif-ripened form, and
ripened. In general the process of manufacture resembles that of Camembert.
The ordinary form is made from either whole milk or partly skimmed milk.
About 2 hours after the addition of rennet the curd is placed in a receptacle
having holes in the bottom and sides and allowed to drain for 24 hours, when
it is put into forms about 6 inches in diameter. The cheese is turned and
salted the next day, and about I (nay later is taken to the first curing room,
where it is placed on shelves covered with straw. This room is kept at a tem-
perature of about 65 F. Here the cheese becomes red in :i few days and later
blue. The blue color is a sign of maturity, and its appearance requires from 10
to 15 days in summer and 1 month in winter. The cheese is then ready for
marketing. When properly cared for it may remain in good condition for sev-
eral months. The form designated ripened is made in the same way until the
blue color appears, when the cheese is put into the curing cellar, where ripening
is carried to a much further extent. Ordinarily this requires from 15 to 30
days, but the cheese is here sometimes covered with ashes, which are believed
to hasten the ripening process. The form designated white or summer cheese
is made from whole milk, to which cream is sometimes added. The curd is
obtained in the ordinary manner and pressed into niolds, in which it is sold
as fresh cheese, summer cheese, white cheese, or cream cheese.

OLMUJTZER QUARGEL.

This is a hand cheese made extensively in the western part of Austria. It
is 1j inches in diameter and one-third of an inch thick and contains caraway
seed. It is made with 5 per cent of salt and after drying is iput in salt whey
for a time. It is then packed in kegs and ripened for .S to 10 weeks. In all
other respects the manufacture is identical with that of hand cheese.

PAGLIA.

This is a more or less successful imitation of Gorgonzola cheese, made in the
Canton of Ticino, Switzerland. A cheese is S inches in diameter and 2 inches in
thickness. The milk is set at a temperature of 100 F.. the time allowed being
about 15 minutes. The curd is broken up, stirred, and put into hoops. When
sufficiently drained the cheese is taken to a cool cellar and placed on straw,
where fermentation is usually very rapid and marked. The process is delayed
to some extent by excessive salting, which is continued for about I month.
The cheese is very soft in consistency and has a pleasant aromatic flavor.







42 VARIETIES OF'CHEESE.

PAGO.

This is a rennet cheese made from sheep's milk in the island of Pago, in the
Province of Dalmatia, Austria. It is put up in sizes weighing from one-half to
8 pounds.
PARMESAN.

This name is in common use outside of Italy for the cheese made and known
in that country for centuries asGrana, the term grana or "granona" referring
to the granular appearance of the cheese when broken, as is necessary on account
of the hardness of the cheese, which makes cutting practically impossible.
There are two quite distinct kinds of this cheese, one made in Lombardy and the
other in Emilia, the centers of production being separated by the River Po.
Parma, situated in Emilia, has long been an important commercial center for
both kinds, and to this fact the name Parmesan is due. The use of the term
"Parmesan," however, is sometimes restricted to the cheese made in Lombardy,
the term "Reggian being used to designate that made in Emilia. Italian writers
refer usually to the Lombardy cheese as Cacio or Formaggio Grana Lodigiano,
Lodi being an important center of trade, and to the Emilian cheese as Grana
Parmigiano or Reggiano. The Lodi cheese is larger and made from a poorer
quality of milk than the Reggian. The latter is colored and brings a much
higher price. The following description of the process of manufacture applies
equally well to both kinds:
The milk, which has been skimmed to a greater or less extent, is heated in
copper kettles to a temperature varying, according to the acidity of the milk,
from 90 to 100 F. The kettle is then removed from the fire, rennet added,
and the kettle covered and allowed to stand for 20 minutes to 1 hour, when the
curd is cut very fine and cooked, with stirring, to 115 to 125 F. for 15 to 45
minutes. The curd is removed from the kettle by means of a cloth and after
draining for a short time is put into hoops. These are about 10 inches high and
18 inches or more in diameter and are lined with coarse cloth before filling.
Pressure is then applied for 24 hours, the cheese being turned frequently and
the cloths changed. The salting, which is begun in 1 to 3 days after remov-
ing from the press, is continued for a considerable length of time, often 40
days. The cheeses are then transferred to a cool, well-ventilated room, where
they may be stored for years, the surface being rubbed with oil from time to
time, The exterior of the cheese is dark green or black, due to coloring matter
rubbed on the surface. A greenish color in the interior has been attributed to
the contamination with copper from the vessels in which .the milk is allowed to
stand before skimming.
The Lombardy cheese made from April to September is known locally as Sorte
Maggenga and that from October to March as Sorte Vermenga. The Reggian
cheese is made only in summer.
Parmesan cheese when well made may be broken and grated easily and may
he kept for an indefinite number of years. It is grated and used largely for
soups and with macaroni. A considerable quantity of this cheese is imported
into this country and sells for a very high price.

PECORINO.

The Formaggio Pecorini are the sheep's-milk cheeses made in Italy and of
which there are numerous more or less clearly defined kinds. The most com-
mon cheese of this sort is the one designated Cacio Pecorino Romano, or
merely Romano. This varies considerably.in size and shape. The weight may







VARIETIES F 'llC.Ii:ES.


43


range from 2 tot 25. i)iiUllls.. A chu'i-,- ,If ( i ar, ii Is :,1,:il 1 nlii'h,'. ill
diameter aiid I1 t Inihes In thi ckin .ss. Th. Intrrlar i-s slightly gri-iilsjii In r, lr,
somewhat granular, andt tievoIdl of Iy,'is or holIs.. It banking Inimlio ch i.f.
the milk Is heated to lt) I'F. antid co'iguiInted by rtenietlt iUn 1 tilriutes. The vuril
is cutlit. cooked to 124-', stirred. :indl puIt into fo)ris and atllowedl t, drain. Snil-
Ing Is done both by inietrsitn li brine iIn lruil by ruil lllg siIt ,il thie sturfaite. As
much as 7 to S lt.'r cent of salt Is usually I',nc o'rirated in llit co uirse o'f lie.
month. This process Is -1)11W es facilitatdIl by punchluhig severalI hohles.Ii llth
cheese. ltliening is usually done at a telttljierature ti' of i0' to 7(0" and repifire.s s
months or longer.
The Pecorino Dolce is artificially colored with n111nitto iiiil sil.jtIjcte 'I t1( coii-
siderable pressure in the process of manufacture.
Pecorino Tuscano is a smaller cheese Ithan the Itoniano, ineasuring usually (;
inches in diameter and 2 to 4 inches in thickness and weighing "2 to 5 lpoumlnds.
Among the sheep's-milk cheeses bearing local names are the following: .n-
cona, Cotrone, Iglesias. Leonessa, Puglia, and Viterl.)o. In the mainufatctuire vif
Viterbo cheese the milk is curdled by) means of a wild artichoke, ('1/Haura
scolym uIs.
PFISTER.

This cheese is classed in the Emmental group, though its method of manu-
facture differs materially. It is made from fresh skimmed cow's milk. It takes
its name from Pfister Huber, in Cham, Switzerland, who evidently was the first
to manufacture it.
The milk is set at 85 F. with sufficient rennet to coagulate it in 30 minutes.
The curd is cut coarse and allowed to stand for 15 minutes when the whey is
dipped off. The curd is again stirred for 5 minutes, care being taken that the
temperature does not fall below the setting point. The curd is again allowed
to stand for 5 minutes, when it is taken from the kettle in a cloth and put in a
hoop, where it is pressed for 24 hours, being turned occasionally and dry cloths
substituted. The cheese is transferred from the press to the salt bath, where
it remains for 3 days. It is then taken to a moist room having ;.a temperature
of 85. Here it is placed on shelves and turned and salted occasionally. The
cheese is ready for market at about 0 weeks of age. It is drum-shaped, like a
characteristic Emmental, but not so large, weighing about 50 pounds.

PHILADELPHIA CREAM.

This is an ordinary cream cheese puIt up by a firm in New York State. It is
3 by 21 by 1:1 inches in size and is wrapped in pairchitilenr paper and ltin foil.

PINEAPPLE.

This cheese, which is said to have had its origin in Litchfleld County, Conn.,
about 1845, is so named from the fruit of that name which the cheese is made to
resemble in shape. It is a hard rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. The
cheese is quite hard and is rather highly colored. The early process of manu-
facture is the same as with Cheddar, except that it is cooked much harder. The
curd is pressed in the desired shape in various sizes up to 6 pounds in weight.
After pressing, the cheese is dipped for a few minutes in water at 120 F. and
is then put in a net for 24 hours, which gives it the diamond-shaped corruga-
tions on the surface. It requires several months to ripen, and during this
time the surface is rubbed with oil, which makes it very smooth and hard.







VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


PONT L'tVkQUE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from cow's milk. Three grades are recog-
nized, depending upon the quality of the milk used. A Pont l'tveue cheese
is about 41 inches square and 1" inches thick.
This cheese was made in the thirteenth century in the valley of Auge, from
which it derived its earlier name Augelot, and by corruption Angelot. The
principal seat of the industry at the present time is Pont 1'tveque and vicinity,
in the Department of Calvados, France. The manufacture of this cheese is of
considerable importance in the region designated. The milk used may be either
whole milk with or without the addition of cream, a mixture of whole and
skimmed milk, or milk entirely skimmed.
Coloring matter and warm or hot water are usually added to the milk before
setting with rennet, which is done at a temperature of about 95 F. After
standing for 15 to 30 minutes the curd is cut, removed to a draining board
for a few minutes, and then put into square forms or hoops. The cheese is
turned very frequently during the first half hour and five or six times more
during the remainder of the first day. It is salted the second or third day
and transferred to a well-ventilated room for several days. When sufficiently
dried it is taken to the curing cellar. During drying and ripening the cheeses
are turned every day and while in the cellar are washed frequently with salt
water. Ripening requires usually from 3 to 6 weeks.

PORT DU SALUT.

This is a rennet cheese made from cow's milk. In many respects it is inter-
mediate between the soft and hard varieties. The rind is firm and resistant
but the interior is soft and homogenous, though it does not become semiliquid
like the interior of Brie cheese. This variety of cheese originated about 1865
in the Trappist Abbey, Port du Salut, situated about 6 miles from Laval, in the
Department of Mayenne, France. While the process is to some extent kept a
secret by the Trappists, very successful imitations are made outside of the
monasteries in this region.
The milk, either whole or partly skimmed and preferably slightly acid, is
heated to 90 to 95 F. and sufficient rennet added in order to secure the de-
sired firmness of the curd in about 30 minutes. Coloring matter is usually
added to the milk. The curd is cut very fine and in a manner similar to that
followed in making Emmental cheese. This requires about 20 minutes. A
part of the whey may then be removed. The curd is then stirred and may be
heated or cooked to a moderate degree. The final temperature reached in
cooking varies from 100 to 105, depending upon the acidity of the milk. The
time required in stirring and heating is about 20 minutes. The curd is then
allowed to settle and the whey removed. After being stirred vigorously for
two to four minutes, the curd is put into molds which are of two sizes, the
smaller about 7 inches in diameter and the larger about 10 inches. A disk
is placed on the cheese and pressure applied by means of presses for 10 to 12
hours, the cheese being turned and the cloths frequently changed during this
time. The next day the hoops are removed and the cheese salted. After drying
for about 24 hours, it is transferred to the ripening cellar, where it remains
from 5 to 6 weeks. In this place a temperature of about 55 and a relative
humidity of 850 to 90 is preferred. During ripening the cheeses are turned
very frequently and washed with salt water, the frequency depending some-
what upon the rapidity, with which molds develop. The cheese is,often sold
before the ripening process is entirely complete.


44







VARIETIES (OF CHEESE.


*-5


POTATO.

This cheese is Intde itn ThnuI lngla, In the central part of <;erimany. In the tainu-
facture of ilotatlo cheese, cr'tl Is made from stour cw's milk, or in unit. ram,,%
front renneted milk. S1umnetlines sheep's or goalt's umillk Is u1se1 lThi |)IIII|uHM'
are boiltel and grated or imabhed. One palrt of the nmotatoes Is thoroughly ixi'l
or kneaded with two or three parts of the curd. In the better cheese thri',
parts of potatoes is mixed with two arts of curd. During the mixing wilt I1
added, and sometimes caraway seed. The cheese is allowed to stand f<,r "2 t4o 4
days while a fermentation takes place. After this the curd is again thoroughly
kneaded and placed in forms for ai day. It is then dried ainl is stlletinlhm
covered with beer or cream. It is finally placed in tubs and allowed to ripeon
for 14 days.
A variety of this cheese is made iu the United States. It is probable, how-
ever, that this is not allowed to ripen for quite so long a period as the European
potato cheese. In all other essentials it appears to be identically the same.

POTTED.

This cheese is very likely of domestic origin. It is usually prepared from
well-ripened Cheddar cheese by grinding it very fine and mixing with butter,
condiments, spirits, etc. In the past this has been put up in small porcelain
jars, but at the present time a portion of it is wrapped in waxed paper and
either tin or lead foil. This ordinarily goes by the name of Club cheese.

PRATTIGAU.

This is made from skimmed cow's milk and is so named from the valley (if
Switzerland in which it is made. Its manufacture is the same as that of Lim-
burg. Cheeses weigh from 20 to 25 pounds.

PRESTOST.

Prestost is a product of Sweden, where it is often called Saaland Pfarr. It
is a rennet cheese made front fresh cow's milk anud resembles Gouda. It was
known in the eighteenth century. The milk is set at 90 F. and is allowed to
become very firm, when it is cut coarse with a wooden knife and poured into
a sieve, which allows the whey to drain off. The curd is then pnt into a cloth
and kneaded. Whisky is mixed with the curd. which is then packed in a basket.
and after some salt is sprinkled on the surface it is put into the cellar. The
cloth inclosing the cheese is changed daily for 3 days, after which the cheese is
washed with whisky. A cheese is cylindrical in shape and weighs 5 to 30
pounds.
PROVIDENCE.

This cheese is aboout S inches in diameter and 1. inches thick, and very
closely resembles Port dui Salut. It is made in the monastery of Bricquebec in
the Department of Manche, France.

PROVOLE.

This is one of the most esteemed of the several kinds of hard rennet cheese
made in central and southern Italy from cow's milk. including also that of buf-
faloes. The cheese is round or oval and weighs from 4 to 6 pounds. Smaller







46


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


sizes weighing about 2 pounds are known as Provoloni. In many respects, in-
cluding the cooking of the curd with hot water and the smoking of the cheese,
Provole and Provoloni resemble Caciocavallo. Considerable amounts of this
cheese are imported into the United States.

PULTOST.

Pultost, also called Knaost, is made usually from sour milk, but it may be
made with rennet. It is a Norwegian product and is made in private dairies in
the mountains of that country. The milk is placed in a kettle and if not sour
enough to coagulate on warming the acidity is increased by the addition of
buttermilk. When sufficient acid has developed the milk is warmed to 113 F.
The curd is broken up with a scoop and stirred to keep it from matting together
while it is being heated to 140. It is then dipped and ground up fine. Butter-
milk is added and the whole is thoroughly kneaded and put into troughs, where
it is covered with a cloth. It is allowed to stand for three days with occasional
stirring.
QUESO DE CINCHO.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Venezuela and known also as Queso de
Palma Metida. It is exported in the form of balls S to 16 inches in diameter
and wrapped in palm leaves.

QUESO DE HOJA.

This is a Porto Rican cheese made from fresh cow's milk. The curd is cut
into blocks about 6 inches square and 2 inches thick. After part of the whey
is drained off, which may require several hours, the pieces of curd are immersed
in water or whey having a temperature of 150 F. This gives a tough layer
to the block of curd, which is then removed to a table and pressed or stretched
by the use of a broad wooden spoon or paddle. Salt is sprinkled on the surface
and the piece of curd is folded and wrapped in a cloth and squeezed to force
out the moisture. The finished product is about 6 inches in diameter, 1 to 2
inches thick, and has slightly rounded top and bottom surfaces. When the
cheese is cut it appears to be in layers like leaves upon one another, hence the
name, signifying leaf cheese.

QUESO DE MANO.

This is a sour-milk cheese resembling a hand cheese, and is made in Vene-
zuela. It is 6 to 7 inches in diameter.

QUESO DE PRENSA.

This is a Porto Rican product, and is a hard rennet cheese made from un-
skimmed cow's milk. The milk is allowed to stand six hours without cooling,
and rennet is then added. The curd is broken by hand or with a stick, and
after part of the whey is separated the curd is transferred to a table and is
broken into small pieces. It is then put in wooden frames, and salt is added
either as the curd goes into the frame or by sprinkling on top. Light pressure
is applied, either by hand or by means of a screw. After leaving the press the
cheese is placed on racks. It may be eaten fresh or allowed to stand for 2 to 3
months. The cheeses are 11 inches nlon. 51 inches wide, and 3 inches thick,
and weigh about 5 pounds. The name signifies pressed cheese.







47


QUESO DE PUNA.

This is a I'orto Itlcan 1prodict, r..-iIIbliI;l viery tl itclt th ('a44tIice o(r 1)utch
cheese of tht, Unittld Sttles. "'1het milk Is ,its wa illq r. i ui'lti uail li c turd Im thor-
oughly mashed or ktnelded 1tby hatIld. Nilt being duliit.d ait thei sainu till,.. Tin'
curd is puit In a hooi) 5 inches in dliinwtter itlid 1.. il'iis .d1.lp.. where It rieninilis
without pressure for 2 or :t days. or until it will keep its form. The cheese Is
eaten fresh.
RABACAL.

This is a round, rather trm cheeset nmulth, flro'n te le uut11k cif sla'ej'], 1Id gn lts ill
the vicinity of ('oimbra, Portugal. A cheetse is 4 to 5) inches in (li.dit-tetr and 1
Inch thick.
RADEN.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from skim milk in Mecklenburg. The
cheeses are 16 inches in diameter and 4 inches thick. anid weigh 32 pounds.
The process of manufacture does not differ materially from that of Emmental.

RANGIPORT.

This cheese is in every way analogous to Port du Sainut. It is about 6 inches
in diameter and 21 inches thick and weighs about 24 pounds. It is made in the
Department of Seine-et-Oise, France.

RAYON.

This is a special type of Emmental cheese, mniade largely in the Canton of
Fribourg, Switzerland, for exportation to Italy, though some is now manu-
factured in Italy. It is made of partly skimmed milk, and the cooking is con-
tinued to a point that insures a very dry, hard cheese, which develops no eyes.
After curing it is shipped largely to Turin. where it is placed on edge on shelves
in a dry, warm cave. and the fat leaks out, leaving the cheese exeeldingly dry
and hard, when it is used for grating. After the drying process the cheese is
called Raper.
REBBIOLA.

Rebbiola, or Robiola, is a soft cheese, made principally in the Alpine districts
of Italy. The process of manufacture is very simple. It is generally made
from milk skimmed after 12 hours, but whole milk is sometimes ised. The
cheese is circular and weighs about 2 pounds. The ripening process is very
rapid, requiring usually 12 to 15 days. The milk is set at a temperature of
90 F., the time allowed being usually about one-half hour. The curd is cut
fine and put into molds 8 inches in diameter and 6 inches high. the bottom
being perforated. Five hours later the cheeses are removed from the molds
and placed on a draining board covered with straw. After 2 or 3 days they
are salted and then ripened.
9
REBLOCHON.

This is a soft French cheese, weighing 1 to 2 pounds. It is made from fresh
whole milk, which is curdled with rennet at a temperature of 80 F. or above.
the time allowed being about 30 minutes. The curd is cut to the size of peas,
cooked to about 95, and after the removal of the whey is put into molds about
6 inches in diameter and 2 inches in height. A weight of about 5 pounds is


VAIIIETII.M'CH 1 E ( -SE.







48


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


placed upon each cheese, which is turned frequently and salted after about
12 hours. In a moist room having a temperature of about 60 the desired
degree of ripening is secured in 4 to 5 weeks. An imitation of this cheese,
made in Savoy, France, is known as Brizecon.

REINDEER MILK.

In Norway and Sweden the milk of the reindeer is sometimes used for
cheesemaking. Rennet is added at 100 F., and the curd is cut and dipped
into a large frame, where it is pressed lightly. The mass of curd is then cut
into pieces 5 by 4 by 2 inches, which are salted on the surface and are allowed
to ripen in a dry curing room.

RIESENGEBIRGE.

This is a soft rennet cheese, made from goat's milk in the mountains on the
northern border of Bohemia. The milk is set at about 90 F. The curd is
broken up and the whey dipped off, after which the curd is put in forms, where
it remains in a warm place for 24 hours. It is then covered with salt and after
drying for 3 to 4 days is placed in the curing cellar. From each 100 pounds
of milk 18 pounds of cheese is secured.

RINNEN.

This is a sour-milk cheese which was known in the eighteenth century. It
is made in Pomerania from milk sufficiently acid to cause a precipitation of the
curd when it is warmed to about 90 F. The cheese derives its name from the
wooden trough in which it is laid to drain. The curd is broken up and heated
to expel the whey. The curd is kneaded by hand and caraway seed is added.
It is molded into forms and pressed. Salt is then rubbed on the outside. The
cheese is dried and put in a box to ripen.

ROLL.

This is a hard rennet cheese, made in England from unskimmed cow's milk.
It is cylindrical in shape, 8 inches high by 9 inches in diameter. A cheese
weighs 20 pounds.
ROLLOT.

This is a soft rennet cheese, 21 inches in diameter and 2 inches thick, made
in the Departments of Somme and Oise, France.

ROMADOUR.

Romadour, Remoudou, or Romatur cheese is a southern Bavarian product
similar to Limburg. It is 4j by 2 by 2 inches in size and weighs 1 pound. It
is said to be a little finer variety of cheese than Limburg and to sell for a
slightly higher price.
ROQUEFORT.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from the milk of sheep. There are, how-
ever, numerous imitations or varieties closely resembling Roquefort, such as
Gex and Septmoncel. made from cow's milk. One of the most striking charac-
teristics of this cheese is the mottled or marbled appearance of the interior, due
to the development of a penicillium, which is the principal ripening agent. The
manufacture of Roquefort cheese has been carried on in the southeastern part
0








VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


49


of France for nt least twei centuries. T'ie' Izdustry Is parlitul n rly luiportiiit
In the l kpurinient otf A'evyron, In which Is situatile tinhe village if Ittoiuefourt.
from which Ihe cheese denies P its in1mie. It IN aIs 1indh. In (.'Corsica. I|u,,llntlias
of Itoqueftort cheese are made In various countries.
The evening's minilk Is heated to 140 to 150 F., cooled. and kept menr night.
After being skimmed it Is mixed with the fresh ntlwrnlng's nilk. Tne iiilxlure
is then set with rennet at at tenJiperature (of ItaboIt 9oK. In fromi 1 |to 2 honrs
after the adllition of rennet the curd is cut until the Inirticles are about the size
of walnuts. The whey which rises to the surface is dil)pte'd off aind tin' curd is
put into hoops which are about S Inches in diameter and 3A inches in height.
The hoops are filled usually in three layers, a layer of m)ldy bread cruinibs
being Interspersed between the first and second and steco-(nd :aind third layers.
The bread used for this purpose is prepared from wheat and barley flour, with
the addition of whey and a little vinegar. It is thoroughly baked and kept in
a moist place for 4 to 6 weeks, during which time it becomes permeated with
a growth of the mold referred to. The crust is removed and the interior is
crumbled very fine and sifted. The cheese is subjected to pressure, which is
gradually increased, for 10 to 12 hours. It is turned usually 1 hour after
putting into hoops. At the end of about 12 hours it is wrapped in cloth and
taken to the first curing room. The cloths are frequently changed during the
10 to 12 days the cheese remains in this place.
Formerly the manufacture of the cheese up to this stage was carried on by
the shepherds themselves, but in recent years centralized factories have been
established and much of the milk is collected and there made into cheese. The
cheese is then taken to the caves. These are for the most part natural caverns
which exist in large numbers in the region of Roquefort. The temperature in
these caves is .10 to 45, and the air circulates very freely through them.
Recently artificial caves have been constructed and used. When the cheeses
reach the caves they are salted, which serves to check the growth of the mold
on the surface. One or two days later they are rubbed vigorously with cloth
and are afterwards subjected to thorough scraping with knives, a process for-
merly done by hand but now much more satifactorily and economically by ma-
chinery. The salting, scraping, or brushing seems to check the development
of mold on the surface. In order to favor the growth of mold in the interior,
the cheese is pierced by machinery with 60 to 100 small steel needles, which
process permits the free access of air. The cheese may be sold after 30 to 40
days or may remain in the caves as long as 5 months, depending upon the
degree of ripening desired. The cheese loses during ripening by scraping and
evaporation as much as 25 per cent of the original weight. The weight when
ripened is about 4J to 5 pounds.

SAANEN.

This is a type of Emmental cheese made in Switzerland from cow's milk. It
is sometimes known at Hartkiise, Reibkiise, and Walliskiise. First mentioned
in the sixteenth century, it is still manufactured extensively at the present
time and exported to a limited extent. It sells for a higher price than the
regular Emmental. The process of manufacture is identical with that of
Emmental, except that it is cooked much dryer, takes much longer to cure, and
keeps longer. The cheese weighs from 10 to 20 pounds. The eyes are few
and small.
The ripening period is never less than 3 years and many require as long as
9 years, the average being 6 years. The cheeses are kept to great ages, it
being the custom to make a cheese at the birth of a child and eat it at the
S10415-Bull. 146-11----4








50 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

burial feast or even at the burial feast of a son of the child for whom it Is
made. One cheese is mentioned as being 200 years old and is considered a great
honor to the household. Many cheeses are kept until they are 30 years old.

SAGE.

This cheese is made by the ordinary Cheddar process, and may be of any of
the various shapes and sizes in which that cheese is pressed. As seen when
cut it has a green mottled appearance.
Formerly sage cheese was made by mixing green sage leaves with the curd
before it was pressed. At the present time the flavor of sage is obtained by sage
extract. To secure the green mottles, succulent green corn is cut fine and the
juice is pressed out. A small portion of the milk is mixed with this juice and
is set with rennet in a small vat while the bulk of the milk is set in the ordi-
nary manner. After the curd is cut and is firm enough to be handled, the green
curd from the small vat is mixed with the uncolored curd, and the process is
continued as in the Cheddar process. This is a very popular variety of cheese
with many consumers.
SAINT BENOIT.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Olivet, and is made in the Department
of Loiret, France. Charcoal 1s added to the salt which is applied to the exterior
of the cheese. Ripening requires from 12 to 15 days in summer and 18 to 20
days in winter. A cheese is about 6 inches in diameter.

SAINT CLAUDE.

This is a small, square, goat's-milk cheese made in the region of Saint Claude,
France. The milk is curdled with rennet and the curd placed in molds for 6
to 8 hours. It is then salted and allowed to ripen, or may, however, be eaten
when fresh. A cheese weighs from one-quarter to one-half pound.

SAINT MARCELLIN.

This is a goat's-milk cheese made in the Department of Isbre, France.
Sheep's milk or even cow's milk may be mixed with the goat's milk. A cheese
is about 3 inches in diameter and three-fourths of an inch thick and weighs
about one-fourth pound.
SAINT REMY.

'This is a soft rennet cheese differing but little from Pont l'ftvoque. It is
made in the Department of Haute-SaOne, France.

SALOIO.

This is a kind of hand cheese made from skimmed cow's milk on farms in
the region of Lisbon, Portugal. It has the form of a short cylinder, measures
1i to 2 inches in diameter, and weighs about 4 ounces. A similar cheese of
about the same character is made in Thomar, about 50 miles north of Lisbon.

SAP SAGO.

This cheese is made from sour skimmed cow's milk, principally in Glarus,
Switzerland. It is known also as Schabzieger, Glarnerkiise, Griinerkiise, and
Kriiuterkiise. It is claimed to have been made in the thirteenth century; the
authentic history at least dates back to the fifteenth century. Sap Sago is a







VARIETIES OF CHEEStE.


51


small, hard, green cheese fliavortd with the leaves of a sN-'ieml (if clover; It Is
shaped like it truncattd cone, 4 inches high, 3 inches li dilaltiter at the buw*.
and 2 Inches at the top. This cheese Is imported to somne extent Into the Unitedil
States under the name of Sap Sago.
The skimmed milk from whih h ch e this Iche le I m is not allowed to lbeTome
sour enough to coagulate on heating, is It would make too hirtd a curd. The
milk when It has reached the right acidity is heated to the boiling temnlp'ratulre
while being stirred. Cold buttermilk is then added, its Is also sonici wIlEy haviu0g
a high pWrcentage of acidity. The material coagulating oil tile surface Is
skimmed off. The milk is then stirred while sufftlcient acid whey is added to
precipitate the casein. When too little whey is used the curd Im too soft, andI
when too much is used it is too hard. The curd is dipped with a skimmer ;nil
spread out to cool and then put in boxes and allowed to drain and ferment. The
box is kept at a temperature of about 600 F., and pressure is applied by
weighting with stones. Ripening is allowed to continue for 3 to 6 weeks. If the
temperature of the room is too high or there is not sufficient pressure, too rapid
and strong fermentation results. This curd is used for making the finished
product, but the cheese is seldom finished where the curd is made. The curd is
ground in a mill, and every 100 pounds of cheese contains 5 pounds of salt and
25 pounds of dried Melilotus ccwrulea, an aromatic clover which is grown in
the Canton of Schweiz for the purpose. The ground material is worked up
into a dough and is forced into molds lined with linen cloth, and the name of
the manufacturer is stamped on the large end. The mold is then emptied and
refilled. The cheeses are dumped promiscuously into a large cask holding about
200 pounds. A comparatively small quantity is shipped into this country. It
sells at a low price and is usually grated.

SASSENAGE.

This is a hard rennet cheese, about 12 inches in diameter and 3 inches in
height, made from cow's milk to which small quantities of goat's and sheep's
milk are usually added. The cheese is almost identical with that of Gex and
Septmoncel. It derives its name from the village of Sassenage, near Grenoble,
in the Department of Isere, France. The milk used is usually a mixture of
skimmed milk and whole milk. It is set with rennet, and the curd is cut and
put into molds in the same manner as with the other varieties mentioned. The
same is also true of the ripening process, which requires about 2 months.

SCANNO.

This is a soft rennet cheese made from the milk of sheep in the Apenuine
Mountains, in the Province of Abruzzo, Italy. It derives its name from the
village of Scanno. The surface of the cheese is colored a deep black. The
interior is bright yellow and has the consistency of butter.

SCARMORZE.

This is a small rennet cheese made in southern Italy from the milk of buffaloes.

SCHAMSER.

This cheese, which is also known as Rheinwald, is a rennet cheese made from
skimmed cow's milk in the Canton Graubiinden, Switzerland. The cheeses
weigh from 40 to 45 pounds and are 18 inches in diameter and 5 inches high.








52 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

SCHLOSS.

Schlosskisbe, or Castle cheese, is a Limburg cheese made in the northern part
of Austria. It is a soft-cured rennet cheese 4 by 2 by 2 inches in size. When
ready for market it is wrapped in tin foil.

SCHOTTENGSIED.

This a whey cheese made by the peasants of the Alps for home use.

SCHWARZENBERG.

This cheese is made in southern Bohemia and western Hungary. It is a
rennet cheese made from partly skimmed cow's milk. One part of skimmed
milk is added to two parts of fresh milk. In about 1 hour after the addition
of rennet the curd is broken up and thoroughly stirred. It is then dipped into
wooden forms and light pressure applied for half a day. For 4 or 5 days fol-
lowing the cheese is rubbed with salt and is then taken to the cellar, where
it is washed daily with salt water until ripe, which requires 2 to 3 months.
StNECTERRE.

This is a soft rennet cheese originating at Saint Nectaire, in the Department
of Puy-de-DOme, France. It is made out of whole milk, is cylindrical in shape,
and weighs about 1j pounds.

SEPTMONCEL.

This is a hard rennet cheese made from cow's milk, to which a small propor-
tion of goat's milk is sometimes added. It resembles the Gex and Sassenage
varieties very closely, and its process of manufacture is almost identical with
that of Roquefort. It is also known as Jura blue cheese. It derives its name
from the village of Septmoncel, near Saint Claude, in the Department of Jura,
where the cheese is for the most part made. The cheese is made almost exclu-
sively on isolated farms rather than in cooperative dairies, and the methods
employed are somewhat rudimentary.
The milk, which is usually partly skimmed, is set with rennet at a tempera-
ture of about 85 F. The curd is cut and stirred after about 1j hours. After
the curd has settled the whey is poured off. The stirring and draining are
repeated several times until the curd is sufficiently firm to put into hoops.
Moderate pressure is applied for a few hours. The cheese is salted at the end
of 24 hours, and thereafter daily for several days. It is then transferred to
the first curing room, which is kept cool and moist. After 3 to 4 weeks it has
become covered with blue mold, when it is transferred to cellars or natural
caves, where the ripening is completed in from 3 to 4 weeks longer.

SERRA DA ESTRELLA.

This is the most highly prized of the several kinds of cheeses made in
Portugal. The name refers to the mountainous region in which the cheese is
produced. It is made for the most part from the milk of sheep, but goat's milk
is often added to this, or even used alone, and occasionally cow's milk is used.
The method of making this cheese is comparatively simple. The milk is
warmed in a kettle with little regard to the temperature obtained, and is
coagulated in most cases by means of an extract of the flowers of a kind of
thistle. The time required for curdling varies from 2 to 6 hours, depending








VARIETIES OF CHEESE. 63

upon the amount of the extract uAl. The curd Ix broken up with a ladle or
by hand, squeezed to remove most of the whey. and put into circular fornij.
After draining i until suflitclently firin th.n cheemes are removed from the hoHoltn
and allowed to ripen for several weeks, during which time they are frequently
washed with whey anti salted on the surface. The cheetems vary much in size,
the larger measuring about 10 inches in diameter and 2 in-ies thick, and weigh-
ing about 5 iMiulnds. The cheese Is rather soft antd hais a illeamant acid taste.
A similar cheese' made in another part of P'ortugiil Is known as ('Castello
IBranco.
SERVIAN.

In making Servian cheese the milk is warmed In a kettle over a fire or in a
tub by immersing heated stones. After the rennet is added the milk is allowed
to stand 1 hour. The curd is then lifted in a cloth and the whey allowed to
drain. It is then placed in a wooden vessel, salted. and covered successively
with whey for about S days and fresh milk for about 6 days.

SILESIAN.

A cheese known locally as Schlesischer Weichquarg is made from skimmed
cow's milk, the process of manufacture resembling that of hand cheese. The
milk is allowed to coagulate from souring and the curd is broken up and cooked
at 100 F. for a short period. The curd is then put in a cloth sack and light
pressure applied for 24 hours, after which it is kneaded by hand and salt and
milk or cream are added. Flavoring substances such as onions or caraway seed
are also sometimes added. The cheese is eaten fresh.
Another cheese known as Schlesischer Sauermilchkiise is also made in much
the same way as hand cheese. The cheeses are kept on shelves covered with
straw, and are dried by the stove in winter and in a latticework house in
summer. Drying is continued until the cheese becomes very hard. The cheese
is ripened in a cellar, the process requiring 3 to 8 weeks, during which time it is
washed every few days with warm water.

SIRAZ.

This is a Servian cheese made as a rule from whole milk. The milk is set
at 104 F. and the curd is lifted from the whey with a cloth and pressed into
cakes 4 to 6 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick. These cakes are placed in the
sun to dry until the fat commences to run. when they are rubbed several times
with salt until a good crust is formed. The cakes are then packed in a wooden
vessel and allowed to ripen. The cut surface shows a smooth appearance with-
out holes. It is between a hard and a soft cheese.
9
SLIPCOTE.

This cheese is made in Rutlandshire, England. It is a soft unripened rennet
cheese, made from cow's milk. The curd is dipped into small forms and no
pressure is applied. After the cheese is removed from the form the surface dries
and cracks and is easily slipped off, hence the name. It is an old cheese, having
been well known in the middle of the eighteenth century.

SPALEN.

This is a type of Emmental cheese, and is sometimes known as Stringer. Its
origin is unknown. It is made largely in the Canton of rnterwalden, Switzer-
land, from sweet cow's milk, often partly skimmed. The name is derived from








54


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


the vessel in which the cheeses are transported and in which five or six of them
are packed. This is a small cheese for an Emmental type. Each cheese weighs
from 35 to 40 pounds.
No thermometer is used in the manufacture, the temperature being judged by
the feeling, and a very uneven product is the result. The process of making
seems to vary much, the press consisting of a board with stones for weights,
and the temperature of the cellar being poorly regulated.

SPITZ.

This is a small rennet cheese made from cow's milk. The cheese is cylindrical
in shape, being 4 inches high and 12 inches in diameter.
STEPPES.

This name is applied to a Russian cheese made from whole milk. The milk
after the addition of coloring matter is heated to about 90 F. and treated with
sufficient rennet to secure coagulation in 40 to 45 minutes. The curd is cut into
large cubes, the whey removed slowly, and the curd is still further broken up
until the particles are uniformly about the size of peas. The curd is then heated
gradually to 100 to 104, the mass meanwhile being gently agitated. The
stirring is kept up for some time after heating ceases until the curd becomes
dry, when it is placed in molds 10 by 53 by 7 inches. After the cheeses are re-
moved from the molds they are turned frequently and 5 hours later are salted
and transferred to the curing cellar, where a temperature of about 55 is main-
tained. During ripening the cheeses are worked occasionally with salt water
and turned frequently.
STILTON.

This is a hard rennet cheese, the best of which is made from cow's milk to
which a portion of cream has been added. It was first made near the village of
Stilton, Huntingdonshire, England, about the middle of the eighteenth century.
It is now made principally in Leicestershire and west Rutlandshire, though its
manufacture has extended to other parts of England. Its manufacture has been
tried, though without success, in the United States. The cheese is about 7
inches in diameter and 9 inches high and weighs 12 to 15 pounds. It has a very
characteristic wrinkled or ridged skin or rind, which is likely caused by the dry-
ing of molds and bacteria on the surface. When cut it shows blue or green por-
tions of mold which give its characteristic piquant flavor. The price in this
country is about 45 cents a pound wholesale. The cheese belongs to the same
group as the Roquefort of France and the Gorgonzola of Italy.
The morning's milk is put in a tin vat and the cream from the night's milk is
added, aud the whdle is brought to a temperature of 80 F., when the rennet is
added. It is claimed by some cheese makers that the curd should be softer
when broken up or cut than the curd for Cheddar cheese, while by others it is
believed that it should become very firm before it is disturbed, allowing 1 to 2
hours for setting. When sufficiently firm the curd is dipped into cloths which
are placed in tin strainers. After draining for 1 hour the cloths containing the
curd are packed closely together in a large tub and allowed to remain for 12
hours, when they are again tightened and packed for 18 hours. The curd is
ground up coarse and salt is added, 1 pound to 60 pounds of curd. The curd is
then put into tin hoops 8 inches in diameter and 10 inches deep. The cheeses
remain in the hoops for 6 days, when they are bandaged for 12 days, or until
they become firm, and are then placed in the curing room at 65. Ripened Stil-
ton cheese is of late often ground up and put into jars holding 1 to 2J pounds.






VARIETIES OF CIIEH E.


55


STRACCHINO.

This name Is applied to several forms of Italian soft cheemes, the best known
of which is Stracchino di (Gorgonzolnd, which Is described under tiin iname oif (-ir-
gouzola. A square form 0 to M inches on a side iId j Inc hlies thii'k I k:nown as
Stracchino di M anIlo Frsco'., Quadro. or Qutrtlrlii. ThiIs chlivem I prelriired
sinihlarly to (Gorgonzolith but is allowed to rllI'n for inly about 2 ljoriths It Is
not much ,xilirtld. Stracchliio ('rC ei'nza is a very sftu and highly col(FreI
cheese usually eaten fresh. The form is similar to tliat o)f the Quartirula. It Is
usually marketed in about 8 days and can nuot be kept long.

STYRIA.

This is a cylindrical-shaped cheese made from unskimmed cow's milk In
Styria, Austria.

SWEET CURD.

This is a name applied in the United States to a hard rennet cheese made
from cow's milk. The name is used to distinguish it from the ordinary Cheddar
or granular process, as in making Sweet Curd cheese the milk is set sweet, and
the cutting and cooking are done rapidly without regard to the development
of acid. In making this cheese the curd is cooked very firm and is salted and
put to press immediately. In all other respects the process is the same as for
Cheddar, and the cheese when ripened resembles that cheese very closely.
Swiss.
SWISS.

Swiss or Schweitzer cheese belongs to the Emmental group of cheeses and is
made usually from half-skimmed cow's milk. Its manufacture is very old. It
Is supposed to have originated in the Alps, but is now made in most of the
surrounding countries. It i.s made mostly in the winter season, when the price
of butter is high, and only for local consumption. Its manufacture differs from
real Emmental in that It is made ftom half-skimmed milk. The morning's milk
is first heated and the skimmed evening's milk is added. The curd is cut
coarser and is not cooked so firm as Emmental, which gives a softer and more
quickly ripened cheese.
The cheese made in the United States which goes by the name of Swiss or
Domestic Swiss is in reality an imitation of the Emmental cheese, as it Is made
from whole milk.

TAFI.

This cheese is manufactured in the Province of Tucuman, in the Argentine
Republic.
TAMIt.
e
This cheese is made by the Trappists in Savoy, France. The whole milkis
heated to about 80 F. and coagulated with rennet in about 30 minutes. The
curd is cut fine, cooked to about 100, stirred, and put into molds 7 inches in
diameter and 4 inches in height. The cheese is pressed for 6 to 8 hours, the
cloths being changed frequently. After being salted the cheese Is ripened for
5 to 6 weeks. The method of manufacture Is, to a large extent a trade secret.
The Tome de Beaumont is a more or less successful imitation.







56 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

TEXEL.

This is a sheep's-milk cheese made in Holland. It was known in the seven-
teenth century. A cheese weighs 3 to 4 pounds and is colored green.

THENAY.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and Vendome and is made
in the region of Thenay in the Department of Loir-et-Cher, France. It is of
comparatively recent origin, and its consumption is limited practically to the
region in which it is produced.
The evening's milk without being skimmed is mixed with the fresh morning's
milk. The milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 85 F. and
allowed to stand for 4 to 5 hours. The curd is then broken up and put into
hoops about 5 inches in diameter and 4 inches in height. After draining for
about 1 day it is turned and salted. The cheese is then kept for about 20 days
in a well-ventilated room during which time it becomes covered with molds. It
is then taken to the curing cellar for about 15 days.

TIGNARD.

This is a hard rennet cheese, resembling Gex and Sassenage, made from
sheep's and goat's milk in the valley of the Tigne, in Savoy, France.

TILSIT.

This is a hard rennet cheese made mainly in East Prussia from unskimmed
cow's milk. It is sometimes called Ragnit. The milk is set at 92 F. with suffi-
cient rennet to coagulate in from 15 to 40 minutes. The curd is rather
coarsely cut or broken and is cooked to 104 to 110, being stirred meanwhile
with a harp. The curd is cooked quite firm or until it can not be squeezed
through between the fingers, which requires about 40 minutes. It is then
dipped into cylindrical forms, where it remains 24 hours. The cheese is then
covered thickly with salt for from 1 to 2 days, when it is put into a salt bath
for 3 to 5 days and then transferred to the cellar. Here it is rubbed and
washed with salt water frequently, and allowed to ripen for 4 to 6 months.
The cheese is 6 to 12 inches in diameter, 3 to 4j inches in height, and weighs
from 6 to 28 pounds. It resembles in general characteristics the Brick cheese
of the United States.
TOPPEN.

This is a German sour-milk cheese made from skim milk and eaten while
fresh. It is put up in small packages weighing about 1 ounce.

TRAPPIST.

This cheese originated with the Trappists in 1885 in the monastery of Maria-
stern, near Banjaluka, in Bosnia. The fresh milk is heated to about 85 F.
and rennet is added. After 1 to 11 hours the curd, without being cut or stirred,
is put into hoops and pressed, after which it is salted and ripened. The
growth of mold is entirely prevented by frequent washing, and thus the cheese
ripens uniformly throughout. The ripening period of the smaller cheeses is
5 to 6 weeks in summer, but the cheese is usually shipped at the end of 4 to
5 weeks. The cheese is pale yellow in color and has a remarkably mild taste.
Although this cheese is to be classed among the soft varieties, the water con-







VAIIET1IS (IF C'IIHEESE.


57


S tent is often I!',W -,~ pr 'rut. i'.'n rij'eni'in I' alsi in' i tr l chiractierlntit Nor
the hard -rhiit'sh Tie 5i1ill'lst size r f lith th it-m iiintil Ie' It the Lm1,a11nt'ry
referred to his :i dl(n1 L 'ier Of i; ItiheT'm, it hilglit (of lihlnrs, iiil welghs 2 to
3 pounds. A lii rgrr size atasurtrN's .) Itncli's in dia meter. ''i Il'I-hs InI hlght, and
weighs atl i l ipo ntds. 'I'Theret Is nii) a still liil''1r Plize. T1ih cl( 'e.M Is ex-
Ikortedt to t large extet'nt. to Aknstrin andt I lungary. thne Iim s.t iilMNirt:ant c'ixiterm
of the trMade in thl-sL regions being (;rntz iid I Itniulapest. It Is, hi\'iwe, r, frii.ilI
in all of the large cities upf A. strili. andl tlihe [lti'ii)lI :11'1 '2ar.s too li4 (,uilint.t llly 1 hi-
creasing. This chees- is very pirolmably the s.11, its I'ort dill .n,421t.
A cheese which Is very likely Identikl lC with thlie Trapi ]mst, or Port du Saiil t,
Is made in the Trapplst monastery at Oka, Canada. and goes ly tliii unite of
Oka cheese.
TRAVNIK.

This is a soft rennet cheese made usually froii whole sheep's milk to which a
small amount of goat's milk is added. Skimmned milk. however, is solietinme
used. It is also known as Arnauten atnd Vlasic. This cheese originated In
Albania in the northwestern part of Turkey in Europe and has been made fur
at least a century. In the country of origin it was known at first by the name
Aruautski Sir or Arnauten cheese. At the present time it is made in Bosnia
and Herzegovina, but principally in the Vlasic Plain. The center of trade in
this cheese is Travnik in Bosnia.
The fresh warm milk is 'treated with sufficient rennet to secure coagulation In
one and one-fourth to two hours and is then allowed to stand for a short time
until the coagulum contracts and the whey appears on the surface. The curd
is then put into woolen sacks and drained for 7 to 8 hours, when it is pressed
into flattened balls by hand. These are dried for a short time in the open air
and then packed into wooden receptacles varying in diameter from 14 to 2S
inches, having a height of about 24 inches, and holding from 50 to 130 pounds of
cheese. Each layer of cheese is salted and pressed so that no air spaces are
left. When the receptacle is filled the whey usually shows at the surface, any
excess being removed. Moderate pressure is applied to the cover placed upllon
the cheese. When fresh, the cheese made from whole sheep's milk has a soft
consistency, a nearly white color, and a pleasant, mild taste. The cheese, how-
ever, is usually allowed to ripen for two weeks to several months. No holes
should develop in the cheese.

TROUVILLE.

This is a soft rennet cheese made in the same locality as Pont 1']iveque and
is of the same nature though superior in quality. Only fresh whole milk is
used. The temperature of setting with rennet is $50 to 95 F. The growth of
molds during ripening is prevented by frequent washing with salt water.

TROYES.
4
Two kinds of cheese are referred to by this name-one a washed cheese with a
yellow rind. known as Ervy, and the other a cheese very closely resembling
Camembert and known as Barberey. The industry is quite restricted.

TUNA.

Tuna cheese is a Mexican product which has been of local Importance from
an early date. It is really a confection rather than a cheese, being made from
the fruit of the Tuna cardana, or sometimes the Tuna pachana. The product







58 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

is made by boiling and straining the Tuna pulp until a cheese-like consistency is
reached, sometimes with the addition of nuts or flavors. It is of a chocolate
color, pleasant to the taste, and wholesome. It is said to keep in good condition
indefinitely.

TWOROG.

This is a sour-milk cheese made in Russia. The soured milk is kept in a
warm place for 24 hours, when the whey is removed and the curd put into
wooden forms and subjected to pressure. This cheese is made on a large scale
by farmers and is often used in making a bread called "Notruschki.L"

URI.

This is a hard rennet cow's-milk cheese made in the Canton of Uri, Switzer-
land. It has a diameter of 8 to 12 inches and is 8 inches high. It weighs 20
to 40 pounds.
VACHERIN.

This name is applied to two quite different kinds of cheese.
The form designated Vacherin a la Main is made in Switzerland and in Savoy,
France. Whole cow's milk is set with rennet at a temperature of about 85 F.,
and the curd is cut very fine and put into hoops 12. inches in diameter and 5
to 6 inches high. It is salted and ripened. The rind is firm and hard, but the
interior is almost liquid in consistency. It is either spread on bread or eaten
with a spoon. A ripened cheese weighs from 5 to 10 pounds. A cheese of this
kind made in the same region is known locally as Tome de Montagne.
The form designated Vacherin Fondu is made in much the same manner as
Emmental cheese. The ripened cheese is then melted and spices are added.

VENDOME.

This is a soft rennet cheese resembling Camembert and Thenay, and is made
in the region of Vendome in the Department of Loir-et-Cher, France.
The warm morning's milk is usually mixed with that of the previous evening,
which secures ordinarily a setting temperature of 75 to 85 F., which is
desired. The period of setting is 4 to 5 hours in summer and 5 to 6 hours in
winter. The curd is then broken up and put into hoops about 5 inches in
diameter and 4 inches in height. After draining for 24 hours the cheese is
turned and salted, which process is twice repeated at intervals of 12 hours.
When sufficiently dried it is placed in the curing cellar, where it is often buried
in ashes. This cheese is placed by some on a rank with Camembert. The
principal market is Paris.
VILLIERS.

This is a soft rennet cheese made in the Department of Haute-Marne, France.
It is a square cheese weighing about 1 pound.

VOID.

This is a soft rennet cheese rsembling Pont l'tveque and Limburg. It Is
made in the Department of Meuse, France. The milk is set with rennet at a
high temperature, the whey is removed as rapidly as possible, and the cheeses
during ripening are washed frequently with salt water.







59


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


VORARLBERG SOUR MILK.

This. its h t inh Lte I ilin'ltve I inide froit mur c-n v.w'H ml k. It is 0 ,eilhlrcuilnr
In shalp, nlil vinrles In size. It is t- senthilly it hnrd rli-elw .
The sweet mil 1k Is put lIn it t kitle and ratised t" " F., nd wmur thl Is addeN i iliI thelt ii litun' sil 'irl :tdnil heatited to 95, at which ten'iFmni tirun It
Coiigulilntes. While tils is i eIng stirred with ni curd wol'i the -.illK'ratulire Is
raised it 150. Tie curd is then dlpit led Into formnis. when'eIt is tirndl i tfew
ties during 24 hours. Sailt is ru-lbbed on thi surfaelu't iil1l lin' tcheese. is iliiced
init room having It tiemilerature of (67. The hlithest is tliin pliaced In 1i cisk
anud held for 3: days, and salt Is sprinkled over the surfiia'e daily. Tilp rilpening
is completed in a cellar. When ripe the cheelise Is greasy and hts a very strong
odor and flavor.
WEISSLAK.

This is a soft cured rennet cheese made from cow's milk in the Batvarian
Algau, Germany. The cheese weighs about 2 A pounds, and is rectangular in
shape, 4j by 4 by :3 inches.

WENSLEYDALE.

This cheese derives Its name from the valley in Yorkshire, England, in which
it is made. It is a rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. It is cylindrical
in shape and weighs from 5 to 15 pounds.
In the old method of manufacture the evening's milk is heated to 100 F., and
the fresh morning's milk is added. It is set with sufficient rennet to coagu-
late it in 35 minutes. The breaking or cutting process requires 35 minutes,
after which the curd is allowed to stand for 45 minutes at 90. The whey is
then removed, and the curd is put in vats lined with cloth and light pressure
is applied for 30 minutes. The curd is broken up and allowed to drain for 1
hour. It is then milled and is pressed for 24 hours, when it is wrapped in
cloth, and finally put in brine for 3 days.
In the new method of manufacture the evening's milk and morning's milk
are mixed in a copper kettle, heated to 950, and enough rennet is added to
coagulate it in 45 minutes. The curd is then broken up by hand or with a
breaker. The whey is removed and the curd dipped into tin hoops where it
drains for 3 hours. It is then turned and drained for another 3 hours. After
pressing for 24 hours the cheese is salted by immniersion in brine for 3 days.

WEST FRIESIAN.

This is a rennet cheese made from skimmed cow's milk. The milk is set in a
copper kettle, 1 hour being allowed for coagulation. The curd is broken up and
placed in a wooden tub. where it is kneaded. The curd is allowed to stand for
several hours and then salted. It is pressed for 3 hours, washed In hot water,
wrapped in a fine cloth and again pressed for 12 hours. The cheese is eaten
when 1 week old.

WESTPHALIA SOUR MILK.

This is a hand cheese made in Westphalia. Sour milk is stirred and heated
to 100 F., and placed in a sack and the whey pressed out. The curd is then
kneaded by hand and salted, butter and caraway seed or pepper being added.
It is then molded by hand, dried for a few hours, and ripened in a cellar.







60 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

WHITE.

Fromage Blanc, or White cheese, is a skim-milk cheese made in France during
the summer months. The milk is set with rennet at about 75 F. The curd is
usually molded into cylindrical forms. The cheese is consumed while fresh and
may or may not be salted.
WITHANIA.

This is so called because made with rennet manufactured from withania
berries. Cheese made with the rennet of these berries is said to have an agree-
able flavor if ripened to the right degree, but it develops an acrid flavor with
age. The texture is not so good as with animal rennet. This form of rennet is
recommended for use in India, where the religion and prejudice of the people
make the use of animal rennet impractical.

ZIEGEL.

This is a cheese made in Austria either from whole cow's milk or from whole
milk to which 15 per cent of cream has been added. The cheese measures 3 by
2 by 2" inches, and weighs about one-half pound.
In making the whole-milk cheese the milk is warmed to 95 F. and sufficient
rennet is added to coagulate it in 30 minutes. The curd is broken up with a
harp and cut loose from the bottom of the vessel, after which it is allowed to
remain undisturbed for 30 minutes. At the end of this time the curd, which is
again matted together, is cut into pieces and stirred gently for a considerable
time, after which it is allowed to stand again for 15 minutes. The collected
whey is then dipped off and the curd is dipped into forms which are 24 inches
long, 5 inches high, and hold the curd of 72 to 8 gallons of milk. Before the
form is filled a cheese cloth is placed in it which helps in turning the curd. The
curd remains in the form 24 hours to drain and is then cut into measured sizes
and placed in another form, where it is allowed to remain for 8 days, the curd
being turned and the board on which the form rests being changed daily. Salt
is then sprinkled on the cheese and for 1 month it is washed in salt water and
rubbed with the hands every day. It is ready for market in 8 weeks from the
time of making.
ZIGER.

This is a cheese made from the whey obtained in the manufacture of other
cheese. It consists principally of albumin, but where no effort is made to sepa-
rate the fat from the whey the product may contain a relatively high proportion
of fat. It is a cheap food product made in all the countries of central Europe.
Among the many names applied to it are Albumin cheese, Recuit, Ricotta,
Broccio, Brocotte, Serac, and Ceracee.
In the manufacture of this product an effort is sometimes made to remove the
fat remaining in the whey, but in most cases the fat is allowed to remain.
Where it is desired to skim the whey a small portion of very sour whey, pre-
viously prepared, is added to the sweet whey and the whole is heated to 160 to
175 F. for a few minutes, when the fat collects on the surface and can be
skimmed off. Following this a greater portion of sour whey is added and the
whey is then heated nearly to the boiling point, when the albumin is precipitated
in a flocculent condition and rises to the surface of the whey. When the whey
is not in normal condition the albumin may be precipitated in a powdery mass.
This is often prevented by adding 3 to 5 per cent of buttermilk to the whey







VARIETIES (IF CHEESE. 61

before the lust liithiig. The cnelin of the buttermilk Is preeliltated, the
albuuiln btriing arritld with It. It is considered thnt this iddltiun, of cam'in
Injures tih product. The albumin when skimmend frum th.e whey Is Piltcd n1d
packed in i vessel anti may be covered with whey.
A so-called fornted Zliger cheese is nmaide by molding the hair-dri.d albumin
Into squart'es which nmiy be still further r dried. Some o(if these hlav. IH'||I iiiunes,
such as the liudelziger inade In the ('uniton of (-lirus. Switzurlhind.
In Vorarlberg tlie allaumin is skimmuedt from tile whey, allowed to cool, plavd
iI cheese cloth, uand subjected to Increasing pressure in an Emmnuietal cheese
press. After 24 hours tile cheese Is put into it salt bath to which sweet -ider
and vinegar are sometimes added.
A mixture of Ziger and cream prepared in the Savoy is known as (;ruau de
Montagne. An albumin cheese made from the whey of goat's-milk cheese in the
Canton of GraubUnden, Switzerland, is known as Mascarponl.

























ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Variety.


Alemtejo.............



Backstein ............



Battelmatt...........

Bellelay..............

Bondon..............

Brick.................
Brie..................







Brie-
American.........

Brinsen..............



Burgundy............
Caciocavallo..........



Caerphilly............
Cambridge............
Camembert...........










Cantal................


Authority.a


Hoffman.......

Pereira........


Number of
analyses.


1........ ....
4 Average......
Maximum....
Minimum.....


Fleischmann.... 2................


Lindt...........

Eugling........

Benecke........
Lindt..........
Chattaway.....
Lindet.........
Weems........
Balland........
Biyth..........

Duclaux........

von Klenze.....
Lindet.........
Payen..........

Arnold.......
Johnson........
Major.........

Melikoff........

Balland.......
Sartori.........

Spica..........

Chattaway.....
Chattaway.....
Arnold........
Balland........
Chattaway.....
Duclaux........
Kriiger......
Lindet..........
Macoir.........
Muter..........
Payen.........
Rollet..........
Stutzer.........


2................
rAverage......
7 Maximum....
IMinimum-....-
..............
1................

1................
1................
2................
1................
(Average..-...
5Maximum....
IMinimum.....
................
1................
2................

1................



3...............
1................
2................
,Average......
9 Maximum.-...
Minimum..
1................
1................
1...............
1................
2................
1................
1...............
1...............
1................
1...............
1................
1................
1................


Balland........ 3.................


Duclaux........

Lindet.........
Patrick (2).....


[Average......
Maximum....
Minimum.....
............


Water.


Per ct.
30.22
41.11
48.39
32.97
3.12
.04
45.24
35.80
47.71
50.53
44.24
39.62
37.59
39.50
54.30
38.69
48.80
43.90
51.90
50.04
53.84
46.06
55.69
53.50
f53.99
145.25

41.50
60.20
49.20
37.70
43.10
49.70
52.20
29.50
{19.76
22.09
23.68
33.24
15.34
24.80
32.10
50.41
49.00
47.90
43.40
45.24
59.42
53.80
49.87
48.78
51.94
52.98
50.90
28.50
35.10
139.00
43.48
44.80
40.70
40.90
39.92


Fat.


Per d.
38.25
27.49
31.59
25.27
2.76
6.80
28.16
37.40
24.08
29.42
20.52
30.10
30.05
24.40
23.00
28.86
22.45
28.93
24.80
27.50
29.50
24.60
21.42
22.50
24.83
25.73

36.15
20.96
22.30
32.60
27.70
27.00
26.20
38.55
36.71
35.90
25.49
30.09
19.00
30.40
47.10
20.55
21.65
21.90
22.60
30.31
17.24
22.00
25.54
21.35
21.05
23.71
27.30
34.10
28.30
26.90
25.70
31.10
22.50
29.30
28.14


Pro-
teids,
amids,
etc.


Per c.
20.87
21.45
24.33
17.77
19.84
23.85
23.14
24.44
22.99
24.48
21.22
25.70
28.88
9.40
16.10
23.80
19.94
19.04
18.10
18.34
19.94
17.16
17.29
18.00
14.94
18.48

17.63
15.94
23.10
25.20
19. 0
14.30
14.40
28.84
37.83
36.06
29.25
35.09
22.16
37.20
24.60
25.49
18.72
21.80
24.40
19.75
17.13
17.10
18.76
21.07
18.90
19.12
18.66
28.38
24.98
24.22
22.55
24.10
21.50
20.50
28.84


Milk
sugar,
lactic
acid,
etc.

Per c.
3.06
4.66
5.24
3.82
2.17
3.48

2.35
3.35
2.25




4.85
6.63





4.93


1.37
1.00
2.70
1.20
1.80
1.30
1.65







5.95


4.70O



4.40

4.46
7.22
5.93
6.47
7.50
4.30


Total Salt in
ash. ash.


Per ct.
7.60
6.07
6.40
5.87
2.11
4.83
3.46
2.36
2.87
3.14
2.71
4.72
3.48
.70
5.00
4.20
3.96
1.50
5.00
4.12
4.37
3.57
5.60
4.00
5.63
5.61

4.70
1.53
4.40
5.80
7.30
6.80
6.00
1.46
5.60
5.80
7.63
10.50
5.79
3.40
4.40
3.52
4.68
4.70
3.80
4.70
1.56
4.40
5.83
3.46
4.71
4.19
3.14
4.56
4.40
3.95


4.80
4.50


Per ct.
2.90
2.05
3.20
1.18






3.35


4.30



3.22
3.70
2.67
3.20



.40





3.26
3.16
3.39
6.23
2.10





3.69

3.20
4.01

3.21
2.21


2.05
3.10
.80
2.60


aSee Sources of analytical data for details.









63


'Anl'FK'1r -'"(. n CHliEESE.


A nalyoes of cheeae 4 'nntinuod.


Variety.


Cheddar-
Amerioan.........































Cheddar-
Canadian .........






Cheddar-
English ............











Cheddar-
Queensland ........


Authority


Number of
analysMe.


fAvwrnago....
C'aidwell........ 8 MadimImI.
Minimum.
Average....
79% Maximum..
IMinimum .
Clark......... Average....
Clrk........89 Minimum...
13 Average....


Cooke..........'

Drew..........
Goessmann.....

Patrick (1).....
Snyder.........



Van Slyke.....




Voelcker.......
Wallace........

W ilson.........


3..............
201 Average....
SAverage....
6 Maximum..
Minimum...
(Average...
15a Maximum.
Minimum..
5 Average...
50b Average....
SAverage...
156d Maximum.
Minimum..
Average...
9e Maximum.
IMinimum..
{Average...
6/ Maximum.
Minimum..
4 Average....
IAverage....
15g Maximum..
|Minimum...

3...........


Chattaway..... 1...........
I Average-....
Clark...........11 Maximum .
Minimum...
r5u Average ....
5g Average..
Shuttelworth.. 6 Average h...
1135 Average g...
135 Averagei...
Blyth.......... 2 Average.....


Chattaway....
Griffiths........
Hassall.........
Jones...........
Lloyd..........

Voelcker........
Von Klenze.....i

Briinnich.......


IAverage....
4 Maximum..
Minimum...
I ..............
1 ..............
I..............
Average-...
31 Maxim In ..
Minimum...
Average....
13 Maximum..
Minimum...
1.............


Water.I Fat.



'Per ft. Per t.
I 34.04 Mi.Mt
3,M. .) 41.03
I 11 ;I31. 19
24.93 312.62
40.114 h52. 63
3. rk, 23.20
31.97 27.72
38.16 36'.94
26.64 19.58
41.15 15.39
t5. 3 T32.50
I37.56 27.70
'34.62 37.52
31.05 35.54
40.32 26.05
45.41 37.32
.35.83 15.77
33.09 38.78
38.36 49.56
26.48 24.77
32.71 35.25
37.14 34.65
36.84 33.83
43.89 36.79
32.69 30.00
36.06 34.43
41.15 45.36
32.23 23.27
34.01 36.81
38.10 44.33
29.85 27.22
32.39 31.44
36.42 36.95
41.65 46.80
30.25 21.77
(30.53 41.58
31.70 36.18
43.82 5.98
33.30 30.60
34.07 22.54
36.58 i 25.67
32.28 20.13
34.60 1 35.51
32.53 36.06
36.54 33.81
33.51 32.97


28.10
35. 00
37.70
1-3. 00
36. 34
30.10
31. 04
35. 52
37.73
32.85
35.16
39.43
30.32
35. '22


22.5 0
29.02
30.50
25.60
34.36
36. 54
30.40
30.33
34.65
24.00
30.45
41.58
23.21
27.91


o f31.62 35.17
1............. 27. 67 37. 35


lrot
s:hi:,


Per rt.
26.87
2 15
25. 57
.3m. 01
5. 27
27.67
34.62
41.47
28.73
40.10
23.91
25.58
20.19
33.41
29.89
34.94
22.13
21.93
31.76
15.38
26.81
23.64
23.72
26.11
20.80
24.4.5
28.72
18.45
25.69
30.09
21.53
26.57
21.15
32.09
14.11
23.38
27.19
45.04


27.60
40.02
43.52
33.82
23.18
23.94
23.96
24.94

45.60
27. 72
29.00
26.70
22.98
30.15
28.98
30.04
35.10
2?2. 77
27.80
32.37
23.28
3.3.47
24. 59
26. 24


.i.... .


0. TV
4.09
4. 4


aThe 15 analyses are each the average of 5 monthly analyses. The green cheese was analyzed by
Wallace.
b Green cheese made at New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 1892.
c Sugar, ash, etc.
d Green cheese made at numerous factories in New York, 1892 and 1893.
e Age of cheese, seven weeks.
I Age of cheese, five months.
g Green cheese
h Age of cheese, 1 month.
i Cured cheese.


Salt In
ash.


Milk I
sugar.' Total
acidr, ash.
etc. I

Per ct. Perct.
S3.40
....... 4 (rb
....... 4.42
. . M ^
..... 2.41
....... :1. 54
....... 4.,22
....... 2.59
...... tI :.33
....... 3.73
....... 3.96
....... 3.71
'.'.. '.'... ".... ..
....... 3.74 1.
5.14
....... 2.3.5
1.99 4.09
2.34 4.73
1.65 2.43
....... .c4.57
....... C5.61
....... 7.02
....... 3.12
.61 3.61
.76 5.29
.51 1.81
....... c3.50
....... 4.59
....... 2.72
5.02 4.57
1.36 3.81
2.68 4.61
.41 2.55
2.45 2.06
1.95 2.98
3.12 2.06
....... 3.60
....... 3.45
:3..... 93
3.14
...... C. 70
I....... c7.48
I....... c5.69
. c8.58
4.10
....... 3.12
...... 4.30
.......3.90
2.10 4. 22
....... 3.21
4.58
4.05
I.......... 4.60
i....... 3.40
S3.16 3.42
6.80 4.31
S .22 2.06 '
.- 4n '


Prr rf.



























1.49


.70
1.55
.09

1.44


-1


I


I.


u._________









VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of cheese-Continued.


Variety.


Cheshire.............










Cotherstone..........

Coulommiers.........

Cream-
English..........




Cream-
French Demi-Sel..

Crescenza............

Danish Export........

Derbyshire...........
Dorset...............

Dunlop...............
Edam................


Authority.


Arnold........
Balland........
Blades.........

Chattaway....
Griffiths.......
Lindet.........
Payen.........

Voelcker.......
Griffiths........
Voelcker........
Balland.........
Lindet.......

Chattaway.....
Hassall........
Payen..........
Vieth...........

Balland.........

Lindet.........
Duclaux........
Storch..........

Sheldon.........
Griffiths........
Vieth...........
Jones...........
Arnold.........

Balland.........

Cribb...........

Dahl...........

Hassall .........
von Klenze.....
Lindet..........
Mayer.......
Patrick (2).. -
Payen..........


Edam-American..... Haecker........


Emmental............





Engandine............
Fornmaggini di Lecco..
Gammelost..........

Gervais..............


Van Slyke......

Benecke........

Hornig.........
von Klenze ....

Lindt..........

. .... do ..........
Cornalba.......
Voelcker........

Baland .........
Kbnig.........
Richmond......
Stutzer.........
a Green cheese.


Number of
analyses.


Water.


Per ct.
............... 24.69
1.........-...-- 22.60
Average-..-- -44.59
NMaximum ... 52.60
Minimum.... 36.10
1 J37.80
2............... 31.60
1 ............... 27.55
1 ............... 31.10
9 f3. 39
2.............. 35,92
2.36.96
2............. 132.59
1............... 38.20
Sf38.28
2............... 38.23
1 ............... 50.40
2. J53.00


2. 57.60
1........... 4. 00O
1.............30.34
1.............. 9.48
Average ... 36.49
8{Maximum ... 47.94
Minimum .... 27.69
1..............52.10

1............ 49.60
............... 56.75
[Average....- 45.99
9Maximum. 49.88
Minimum .. 38.78
1............... 60
1............... 41.44
1............... 41.55
1............. 38.46
$29.23
2 ---------'------ 2956
9 137.90
2.............. 3.50
Average.....51.66
Maximum... 60.38
Minimum.... 41.70
32.57
3............... 133.62
142.85
1.............. 30.10
1 ............. 41.88
1....... ..... 42.60
1 .............. 3.20
12 ............... 32.80
9 .J36. 10
2..........41.41
48.69
3a............. 44.44
46.80
(Average.... 47.55
18 aMaximum 55.34
[Minimum.. 41.25
JAverage..... 37.77
7 Maximum... 47.54
LMinimum.... 30.49
1 ............... 33.53
1 ............... 35.18
(Average..... 33.00
5.Maximum... 3. 44
Minimum .... 2417
1............... 47.30
92J61.00
2.........116.66
............... 4 .44
(Average..... 51.58
4 Maximum.. 58.00
[Minimmn... 44.70
1 .............. 52.94
1............... 33.80
1 .............. 44.84


Fat.


Pro-
teids,
aids,
etc.


Milk
sugar,
lactic
acid,
etc.


Total
ash.


I I I I I


Per act.
37.08
39.50
21.55
30.67
9.85
31.30
35.30
36.00
32.30
25.48
26.34
29.34
32.51
30.25
30.89
29.12
20.45
21.50
25.00

39.30
68.10
67.32
59.88
56.08
66.80
43.76
25.20

34.00
21.34
13.41
23.70
9.34
35.20
27.56
8.76
31.86
28.71
27.43
25.90
24.29
11.85
24.40
3.83
32.19
33.99
26.73
27.57
24.05
20.00
28.00
29.58
27.54
25.06
23.21
25.37
23.30
24.42
31.75
19.73
23.92
34.70
5.75
30.29
27.99
30.50
33.37
28.54
11.40
19.20
41.50
3.36
31.98
40.47
26.85
29.75
57.79
36. 73


Perci.
33.36
27.16
29.25
32.95
24.44
25.70
26.50
31.00
30.90
34.75
25.99
24.08
26.06
23.82
23.93
24.38
17.41
16.90
13.00

19.00
20.10
2.02
18.40
5.28
8.77
2.00
13.49
11.80
18.91
30.01
34.00
27.69
24.50
22.25
44.09
25.87
33.89
32.31
27.32
25.34
26.82
31.92
24.00
23.98
23.48
19.39
32.81
29.47
23.90
29.60
28.41
29.43
25.63
21.49
22.69
24.24
22.18
24.70
18.95
30.97
37.65
25.51
29.99
32.23
30.34
37.51
30.44
36.34
16.37
35.80
42.12
11.30
19.94
7.20
11.80
7.90
15.48


Per ct.
6.80




2.21

7.59
5.17
4.53
3.81
3.70
2.76
4.80





5.77
1.27
2.50
.22
8.28


5.'10
5.90
2.65
4.38
4.24



"4.'08
9.07


6.35
6.34
5.15


2.60


3.83
3.79
2.92




.31






9.85
4.29
7.09
2.13
2.58


Per ct.
4.85
3.94
4.61
5.00
3.90
4.20
4.40
3.24
3.70
4.78
4.16
4.45
4.31
3.92
3.20
& 51
6.94
5.70
4.10

3.40
1.20
.32
6.47
.82
1.48
.44
.93
3.00
2.90
3.63
4.17
3.33
4.24
4.51
5.60
3.81
8.14
8.49
4.80
2.80
6.04
7.33
5.54
4.67
2.42
5.62
6.84
4.60
5.50
6.60
5.55
6.93
6.21
3.02
2.59
3.68
b 5.80
9.46
2.51
6.85
11.09
4.60
5.88
4.60
4.17
4.95
3.38
4.96
3.43
6.10
2.22
.60
1.42
.25
2.93
.50
2.95


b Sugar, ash, etc.


64


Salt In
ash.


Pert.



.'i....





1.91
1.59
".....





2.55

3.60


2.40
1.34
1.86
2.55
1.11

2.93











3.20
3.30








3.80
7.59
1.19





1.90
3.00





.76









;65


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analysesa of chee--Cuntinued.


Variety.





(Gt-x ...................
( islrv .................
Gloucester............








Ooat-milk-French ...



Goat-milk-Norwegian

Gorgonzola...........













Gouda................






Gouda-American.....


Gruybre..............









Harz Hand...........


Hervd ................
llha ...................


Incanestrato..........


Kajmak...............

Kascaval .............
Katschkawalj.........
Krutt.................I


Authority.




Balltai .t.l ... j
Bnggi it........
Bell. ...........
Blyth..........'
Chattaway.....
Griffiths........
lassUll........
Jones ..........

Voelcker.......

Balland.........
Lindet..........
Patrick (2).....

Werenskiold.....

Bell ............
Chattaway.....

Duclaux........
lornig......
von Klenze.....
Lindet..........

Maggiora.......


Musso..........

Soxhiet.........
Arnold.........

Cribb...........

Mayer..........
Patrick (2)......
Vieth...........

Haecker........


Balland.........

Benecke-........
Chattaway.....
Duclaux........I
Lindet. ...
Lindt.. ........

Payen..........
Vieth...........

Vieth ..........

Balland........
Toffmann......
Pereira.........

Spica...........


Zega............

M aior..........
Zega...........
Leutner........


Number of
analyst.




2 ...............
1............
1.............
1.. ............ c


1............. .
..............I
..............
[Average.....
13{%Maximum...
| Minimmn ....
1 ...............
I ...............





1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
...............
| Average.....
8'Maximumrn...
|Minimum....
r ..............



2Avernge ............
2 .. .. .. .. .. .. ...-




ll..............
1..............
...............

3 ..............

{Average.....
7 Maximum...
Minimum....
I...... . .
.............
IAverage.... .
11 Maximnum...I
Minimum....
1...... .......
1...............
1...............

3bt .. ....... ....

r[Average.....
9/Maximum ...
[Minimum....
1 ...............
2...............
1 ...............
1 ...............


2...........


...............
S...............

3 ...............
..............
I..............
(Average.....
141Maxiinii ...
IMiniuiiuni...
JA verage.....
l Maximiumi ...
[Minimunim....
2 ...............
16 Average.....
0


I.


a Abnormally high ash content was due to a gypsum
coated.
b Green cheese.
e Caraway seed.

10415-Bull. 146-11-- 5


preparation with which the Otwese was


Fat.


Wlater.



Per rt.
131 MJ
:M. 10
49. 22
35. 75
21.40
33. 10
137.40
34.10
32. 52
35.81
34.80
40.88
28.10
20.80
64.80
17.7:3
20.90
26.53
15.53
31.85
f40. 30
133.90
(42.80
138.69
`6.72
26. 81
41.50
134. 41
32. 43
137.63
27.30
47. 10
29. 82
43. 56
21.90
54.79
60.17
50.46
3S.SO
35. 23
4-..58
46. 03
46.52
146.59
29.99
33.10
27.50
40.61
(28.20
135. 70
36.00
35.70
[34. 57
135 74
f40 00
132 05
55. 79
l.',) 19
152.7

37. 57)
2'. :;'
3'ii. K'i
32 1.

-'; 02
31..".-,.
3,,. IL
*b.. i13


3. '25
1-1. "7I

f .1. 5.
1 '. 14
\\10. 14


Per c.
2H m
:220
2 9t4



2,*
2M.35
25.40
2M.50
28. 10
37.92
29.94
21.97
28.02
33.68
22.70
25.90
9.20
46.64
19.86
32.68
10.98
27.88
26.10
26. 70
29. 70
34. 07

21)



2!. iv
:' 2"
.34' .i.
..,'i 1I
2.14fl
.. 1 (-,7
:3-1. :2
2"t. 40
27. 95
24. Sl
9.02
18. :7
1.64
31. 2l)


o_.19 )
32. 40
16. IS
31. 1
29. 04
2S. 29
28. 19
33. 40
2.3. 10
26. 59
28.60
31.0SO




20. '2X)
28. 00
*2!.1. 12



'-)q J7
30. ti4
24. 00
2N. 41)
1. 4

31. 1.





5.2
1. 31
1.11
23.* '13.



:37. -IS
15. 1%
.v.>. 79
-i.. s2
:.'l. Hii
1 1 10
25. !A)
31.24
1.31
1.4 5


* Pro-

e lH.
tllll..,
etc,.


Per Ci.
2996
29.8
41.53
31.10
48. 10
31.80
28.30
21.68
31.70
37.96
27.96
31.75
24.50
33.60
17.10
27.90
7.62
10.63
4.43
34.34
27.70
25.80
23.14
22. 7S
25.67
;^. SO)
1'1. 70
2',. 15
25. 94
2"'. 94
2 -,. 1'3
-S. 51
2 '. '.::
21.17
46i. 05
-25.941.
.-l. 22
22. 05
21. )10

3:17. 43
IS. 01
19. 25
11.64
:1 3.03
37. 80
29.54
26. 18
31.30
?28.70
30.84
28.90
:32. 51
29. 95
31.50
,.3.75
';7. oi
27.72
22. 4.1
-'). .3.6
9D.314
30. ti2
24. 3O.
21.30
'o. 0o
P2I. ItS
6. 2.5
iS.73
S 4.94
10
25. 00
21.25
78.68
69. 74


Milk
sugar,
Ils.tic
ttrl.1
eto.

Per c.
6.51
.34

.31


1.98

"4.'37"
7.44
1.22
16.30


46.81
58.07
39.04
1.35



.21




1. i;2
2.00
.91







3.04
3.18
3. 410
4.82
7.40
1.50
1.94





"L.

14. Y0
cISR. X0
21. 10
7.71
2..S5
7.71



2.1
3.20
.42
2.50
1.40
2.8 4
1.'13
.81


Tntol
T 7



Per ft.
4. IN
&U)

,L 4.'4)
4. 10
4.01)
4.32
& 8.1
4.25
4.63
5.70
3.56
4.40
& 80
4.74
6.00
6.67
6.14
4. 58
5.30
4.60)
4. 36
1.46
3.71
4.10
4.80
4.0.4
a 6.77.
fl0. 416
3.82
4. (.3
3 13
4.22
6.32
5. 52
7.30
4. 26
5.60
5 41
3.81
2.55
2.88
3.12
3.90
4.70
3. 0
4. 68
4.70
3.70
3.87
3.50
3.80
3.67
3.00
4.79
5.86
5. 25
A1. Z,'j
5.31.
10.0)
6.11
:. 9fi
9. 41
12. 7')
4. &1
4.50
9. a'
2.61
4.80
.00
&.42
9.46
17.81


Halt In
unh.



Per fr.





,=..,,


1 A4
2.04
8b5
4. .0
4.'0




2.11



2. .4

2 ... 0
.w
.92







-'\SO
I'":.'1 ^8














2.10

.'57


16



4.12
". C8

1.6
1.0
15.04
S8.12
S.75
3.07
7.36
S1.10
4. 16
3.95
f. 01





.014
13.37









VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of cheese-Continued.


Variety.


Lagniore.............
Leicestetshire........

Leyden..,............
Limburg-American-..

Livarot............
Mainz Hand........
Maroilled.............

Mascarpone..........
Mont-d'Or ..........

MOnster..............


Mysoat................




Neufchitel...........





Neufoihtel-American.

N6gelost.............



Olivet................
Olmiitz..... ......

Parmean.........


Peeorino.............
Petit Suisse..........
Pineapple............



Pont-l'Eveque.......

Pont-I'Eveque-
American........
Port du Salut.........


Authority.


Ballanid........
Orifliths.......
Voelcker.......
Mayr..........
Arnold........
Johnsonl.......
Balland........
Lindet.........
von Klenze....
Lindert.........
Payen.........
Fascetti.......
Balland........
Lindet..........
Balland........
Lindet.........
Dahl!...........
Voelcker........

Werenskiold....

Balland.......
Blyth.........
von Klenze....
Martin........
Payen.........
Arnold........
Johnson........
Dahl...........

Voelcker........
Balland........
Hornig.........
Soxhiet.........
Arnold.........
Chattaway.....
Duclaux........
Lindet ..........
Manetti........

Patrick (2).....
Payen..........
Soxhlet.........
Sartori.........
Lindet..........
Clark ........

Johnson.......
Arnold........
Balland........
Lindet.........
Arnold.........
Balland........
Duclaux........
Lindet..........
Rollet..........


Number of
anly8s.


..............
..... .. ....
2. .... .........


t


Water.


34.50
34.77
S35.21
32.89


............... 46.90
fAverage..... 35.64
4(MaxLmum ... 48.60
IMinimum.... 23.26
1.............. 42.12
1 ............... 33.80
1 .............. 52.20
1.............. 53.74
1 ............... 40.30
1 .............. 40.07
o f45.88
2...............145.38
"*--* *---- --*-143.38
1 ............... 43.20
1.............. 58.70
2. 45.40
2............1.37.50
.137.50
1 ............... 52.40
(Average..... 23.57
qMaximum ... 26.49
(Minimum .... 18.58
1............... 24.21
jAverage..... 29.43
2Maximum ... ;38.01
Minimum 24.37
2. i(50.80
.............. 54.80
1 .............. 37.90
1............... 51.72
2 J56.08
....... ....... 157.83
2 134.47
............... 136.58
1 ............... 37.45
1 ............... 57.25
1148.51
3 ............... 47.12
I 40.54
(i43.87
3... ........... 45.39
42.44
1.............. 28.40
1 ............... 44.54
1 ............... 52.49
1 ............... 23.01
1............... 32.50
2 ;:30.09
. . . . - 32.56
1 ............... 34.00
|Average..... 32.16
8{Maximum ... 36.11
[Minimum... 30.20
1............... 35.39
2 ~f27.56
2 ............... 127.3M
*** *-- --- -* 30.31
1 ............... 34.57
Average..... 29.80
Maximum ... 32.90
Minimum.... 27.47
1 ............... 54.60
2 ~ f3.59
2 ............... 1 &W
5.20
Averagb..... 24.07
Maximum... 30.95
Minimum.... 11.62
1 ............... 44.57
1 ............... 46.40
1 ............... 51.00
1 ............... 26.02
1 ............... 27.70
2 ~ 4^7.51 '
2 ............... 148.0251!
'148-02
1............... 38.10
1 ...............1 446.46


25.20
28.00
27.28
29.28
11.00
29.82
34.98
21.29
29.40
21.95
15.00
5.55
33.50
28.73
45.30
49.50
23.97
9.70
25.90
29.83
24. 40
16.26
20.98
9.63
20.80
4.08
10.54
.07
25.15
20.59
41.30
23.99
23.34
21.00
41.91
40.71
34.60
22.30
6.13
7.36
16.87
15.89
9.97
3.36
48.16
3.37
7.70
12.49
17.10
26.04
21.75
23.00
19.13
23.42
12.58
19.72
15.95
21.68
24.05
30.51
31.30
29.96
35.00
54.56
46.46
38.12
45.20
33.26
21.80
25.00
23.10

50.80
35.10
25.93
24.00
24.50
26.31


Pro-
Fat. I teids,
Fat amids,
etc.


Per Per ct.


66


Pernd.
28.70
27.86
27.93
29.06
35.90
28.53
35.05
23.58
23.00
31.76
25.90
37.33
20.20
23.31
8.14
7.62
20.10
25.30
16.86
18.17
15.50
8.88
10.78
6.79
9.06
7.66
9.19
6.34
17.60
14.43
23.10
20.73
16.67
17.00
13.03
14.18
24.04
15.03
32.72
31.63
31.29
29.93
33.12
42.12
13.98
41.04
38.02
55.85
'4.60
38.42
42.27
35.00
43.54
48.93
38.33
35.55
44.08
34.25
35.15
33.51
35.59
30.74
7.30
36.60
43.28
29.35
34.45
27.00
30.36
20.32
17.80
20.64
31.16
22.56
24.29
24.80
23.66


Milk
sugar,
lactic
acid,
etc.

Pertd.
6.15
5.21
5.54
4.42
1.00


.38
8.05





8.84
6.88
9.75

53.03
30.75
41.01
53.24
61.38
46.00
5.12
5.98

i.42
1.32
6.96
9.02
2.94
8.59
10.36
7.90
6.47
6.39
9.85
5.16
.16








.6.869.







2.49
2.75
2.16

6.68


"2.04'


Total
ash.


Per n.
5.45
4.16
4.04
4.35
5.20
5.98
6.69
4.82
5.10
4.44
4.40
3.38
4.50
5.93
.68
.50
3.89
4.30
4.96
4.75
5.00
4.76
6.09
3.28
4.92
5.75
6.38
5.06
1.33
4.20
3.40
3.56
2.49
2.85
3.63
.51
3.90
2.48
3.79
3.41
3.17
4.84
5.13
2.22
4.30
10.89
1.79
8.14
6.20
5.45
5.07
5.20
6.29
7.18
5.20
4.82
5.72
7.09
6.23
6.24
6.84
5.31
.60
5.25
5.06
5.69
6.18
5.10
3.97
1.60
4.00
2.54
4.00
4.00
3.69
5.30
3.67


Bait In
as.


Pern.


1.21
1.40






3.30
...'.







3.751









.344
1.90


1..i42










1.61
1.70





'4.'95
5.51
4.34
.10

"2.'24
2.61
1.88

1".'90


1'.'90
1.58
2.20
1.21








67


VARIETIES IF t'lIEKSEK.


Awilycm tfrhea4'* miiiliiiim.


AutiUwority.


NLznlTr (of
analyst.


Milk
I'r M1L
i .i'l w4*^
m f l [l- t1h"
nii'i, '
tic.'


Total altn
ah. l ah.


Potted- -
A ineloan C'lu 1) I
!oUm .. ... ... .. .
Imperial ...........
Royal Paragon....
Rabttca.............
Robbiola ..............
Reblochon .............
Reindeer milk.........
Romador ............





Roquefot ............












Ricotta ..............I


Saloio................

Sap Sago.............


Savoy ................ .
Septmoncel...........

Serra da Estrella.....





Bervian...............

Spalen................
Stilton................






Swiss-American......




Swiss-Russian.......

Swiss-Swedish......

Tessel .......... ...


Weemesn.........
Wernam........
W*et ns.........
Hoffmann......
Cornmalba.....
Lindet..........
Werensklold...
Ilornig........
von KJenze....
Lindet..........
Patrick (2)....
Vieth..........

Arnold.........

Balland.........
Bell ............
Chattaway....
Hornig.........
Johnson........
von Klenze....
Lindet..........
Muter..........
Patrick (2).....
Payen..........

Sieber ..........
Sartori.........

Sartori.........

IToffmann......
Pereira.........
Arnold.........
Benecke........
von Klenze.....
Balland.........
Balland.........

Biittner........

Hoflmann.....

Pereira.........

Zega............

Benecke.......

Chattaway.....

Griffiths........
Hassall.........
Muter.........
Patrick (2).....
Voelcker........
Arnold........

Haecker.......

Johnson.......

Kalantarow...

Dahl.........

Mayer.........


Pr rl.
1 .... ...... ...1-
1........... 1 ..hI;1
1........... 32- .M
1........... ... l' 45
145 .3t;
* * I '* r:. ;i
2 ......... . 5. :,
I ............... 27.70
........... ..... 51.21
1 .............. 4:1. 21
1 ............... I 60.40
1............... 5 5. 16
1............... 44.55
f28.35
3............... '{28.87
, ,122. 47
1 ............... 28. 90
I ............... 32.26
S............... 29. (0
I ............... 3 93
1.............. .i 39. 28
1 ............. 38.94
'1 ............. 36.90
I ............... 21.56
1 ............... 34. 37
2.. (26.53
2 ............. 23. 55
f 23.54
.............. .. . 93
. 1 a ... ......... G8. 47
' ,f43.80
S 3 ............. 42.48
;143.29
1 ............ 76.25
2 'f54. 37
2................J45. 81
I ............... I 13.30
I ................ 47. 02
1 ............... 38.17
; 'f52.40
S............. .... 149. 70
S ............... 28.20
1 Average ..... 43.58
. 5 Maximum ...' 47.98
S Minimumx.... 35.22
1 ............... 31.87
Average ..... 39. 34
S12 Maximum ... 50.07
Minimum.... 24.38
Average..... 53.99
14 Maximumrn ... S. 84
IMinimum.... 42.10
1 ............... 28.14
i ,119.40
.............. .. 21. 20
*|125.00
. ............... .31 22
.............. 31.37
................ 2S.
I............... 32.97
2 .f32.18
2 ............... 20.27
1 .............. 38.51
(41.43
3 cr............. 35 91
138.40
S 1............... 33.79
jAverage..... 32.74
Maximunim... 35. 44
[Minimum ... 29 80
S129. 34
3............... 3&. 64
136.02
I ............... 54.40
b From sheep's milk.


:1.1.01


.Il. .'ll
:io.:AII

2t). rg)
4:1. 11
17. 05
9. I6
10. 56
11.90
14.76
l1f. 16
29.98
33.70
34. 02
3S.30
34.38
30. 30
31.23
29.53
34. 14
29. 50
35. 96
34. 54
32. 31
30.14
40.13
31.23
5.22
36. 46
31.64
31.90
1.78
25. 84
27. 80
15. 52
6. (CO
12. 27
5.90
6. 45
31.225
27. 69
34. 56
19. 70
40.05
27.93
37. 93
19 30
19.30
32.20
7 77
33. 19
42.20
45. q)
34. 60
37.24
36. .58
30.70
39.03
37.36
43. 98
24.84
29. 93
33 21
32 40
33.25
32. 26
37.20
2S. 97
36.44
29.13
32.05
18.30


21.1 .1 ....
2 3. .. .

W.w
27.74 ... .
l;i. i i, 2. 93

2. 21 ... ...
I')9:01......
23. 79 2.97
I1S. 7li I
33. ItO .02
30. 18I .......
19. 05 .......
21-1. 05 |
32.72 ......
32.84 ......
28. 2 .......
34.99 .......
25). 16 3.00
27.16 i 1.32
S2S.30 .......
25.79 ........
22. C2 1.77 I
21.92 '. . .
20.50 .......
32.24 .... i
24. 40 ......
31. 69 .......
26. 52 3.72
27.00 '. ...... .
25.79 .. ..
18.72 3.97
8.66; 10.36
13.61 11.49 I
12.94 10.75
11.37 5.28 '
13.63 2.96
15. 11) i 5.97
57.59 ........
37.06 i.......
45.73 .......
2S.84 9.38 i
27.32 12.53
32.06 3.99
22.02 2.69
24.03 ti.13
20.40 1.55
22. 18 2.24
23.48 3.93
S32.10 6.78
I 17.83 .78
21.32 2.63
32.37 5.12
,14. (' ,%5
30.78 2.555
21.10 .......
26. 30 ......
28.40 .......
24.28 3.40
27.66 .......
35. 60 1.08
23.19 ..... .
24.31 2 22
33.55 ........
32.02 .......
22.13 2.90
24. 82 3. 32
22.88 3.24
26. 12 1.77
24. ,5 4.43
28.81 6.90
20.57 .57
23.20 6.11
23.21 4.36
24.76 4.59
20.10 1.40


Varhvty.


Prr c. Per a. Perrd. Per d. Per d.


1.449
4.22
4.13
K 26
7.90
3. 73
3. 70
2.43
G. 78.
6.01
ft. 10
5. CO
5.47
6. 57
8.82
8. (i
8& 24
4. 64
4.88
6.70
4.78
( i.'0
5.00
7.00
10.24
6. 16
4. 45
5.07
6.27
4. 78
3.62
72
.78
1.02
5. 32
3.20
5.26
13. 57
10. 10
3. 83
3.48
4.00
4. .50
4.00
4.3.5
3.51
3.66
5.79
8. 96
3.23
3.30
4.81
2.40
7. 38
2. (A
2.90
4.10
3.86
4.39
4.02
3.24
3.93
2.20
4.70
3.34
3.06
3.48
5.07
5.78
7.44
4.36
4.78
4.39
2.39
5.80


I ..i....

5.80
1.22
1.80



3..

5.80






5.27

5.10









2.49
2.04
3.17

7. 53






S89
2.57
5. 26
94
1.86
3.13
.93
4.46




.75

.29



1. M
2. 67
4.7%
1.45


3.40


Wu\B|r. F'at.


a From cow's milk.


< Green cheese.








VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


Analyses of cheese-Continued.


Variety.


Thenay................
Topfen...............

Trappist...........
Troyes................
Vacherin..............

Vendome..............

Viterbo...............

Vorarlberg............



Warwickshire.........

Wensleydale...........
Wiltshire..............




Ziger.................


Authority.


Bin...........
Kdnig.........
Rubner........
Adametz......
Lindet.........
Benecke.......
Lindt..........

Falot.........

Sartori........

Eugling.......

von Klenze....

Voelcker.......

Chattaway....
Griffiths.......
Jones..........

Voelcker.......

Eugling.......

von Klenze....


Number of
analyses.


1..............
.... ...........
................
................
................
..............
1................
I Average......
6{ Maximum....
iMinimum.....
1............
{ Average......
9 Maximum....
Minimum .....
2...............

... ............

1...............
I................
1...............

3..............

3. ............

1...............


Water.


Per ct.
30.14
72. 44
60.27
45. 90
58.70
54.02
45.87
48.69
56. 33
29.63
28.50
42.99
53.85
32.92
53.61
5).58
31.97
33.61
33.53
28.30
37.23
36.34
34.44
39. 22
40.07
I68.51
74.74
168.47
31.00


Fat.


Per ct.
15.00
6.22
7.33
26.10
18.60
23.74
27.21
20.90
30.61
10.80
30.93
17.02
31.99
2.82
4.48
4.56
29.08
30.04
30.89
33.30
27.82
28. 00
28.71
19.26
25.55
3.15
4.33
5.22
3.48


Pro- Milk
teids, ugar, Total
amids, acic ash.
etc. acid,
etc.


Per ct.
18.12
16.91
24.84
23.30
14.60
18.98
25.29
27.97
45.52
17.74
34.19
31.19
40.11
25.65
36.42
42.37
27.43
29.70
28.19
27.20
26.52
31.12
29.00
34.22
26.81
22.13
14.99
18.72
64.62


Per ct.

3.07
3.54

"2.'04




3.79
7.21
1.81

7.16
1.95
2.84

3.88

3.60
2.28
2.24
3.97
3.93
3.97


Per ct.
6.10
1.36
4.02
4.00
4.80
3.08
1.63
4.43
5&58
3.10
6.38
4.94
6.89
3.79
2.49
2.49
4.36
5.60
4.55
3.70
4.55
4. 41
4. 25
5.02
5&33
2.31
2.02
3.62
.90


68


Salt in
ash.



Per t.
4.80


3.70
1.77
2-79
3.68
2.08
5.03




.72
2.78
1.12


1.03
.60
1.41


















SOURCES OF ANALYTICAL DATA.1
1. ADAMErTZ, L.
Ueber die Ierstelmlung indl Zusannimensetzung des bosnischen 'Trappids-
tenkiises. Milch Zeltung, Jahrg. 21, No. 19., p). 310-313. Bremen, May
7, 1S92.
2. ARNOLD, L. B.
Cheese and cheese making. American Dairymen's Association, 14th
Annual Report, for the year ending Jan. 15, 1879. Utica, N. Y,, 1879.
See p. 145.
Translated abstract. Milch Zeitung. Jahrg. 8, No. 32, p. 468-470, Aug.
6; No. 33. p. 4S4, Aug. 13; No. 34, p. 500-502, Aug. 20. Bremen, 1879.
See p. 502.
3. BALLAND, A.
Les aliments. Paris, 1907. See vol. 2, p. 237-248.
4. BELL, JAMES.
The analysis and adulteration of foods. 2 parts. Illus. 20 cm. Lon-
don, 1SS1. See also citations 15, 49, 53, 54.
5. BENECKE, F., and SCHULZE, E.
Untersuchungen fiber den Emmenthaler Klse und fiber einige andere
schweizerische Kuisesorten. Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbiicher, vol. 10,
p. 317-400. Berlin, 1SS7. See p. 338, 373.
6. BLADES, CHARLES M.
Cheshire cheese. The Analyst, vol. 19, p. 131-133. London. June, 1894.
7. BLIN, HENRI.
L'industrie fromagere en Loir-et-Cher. Le fromage de Thenay. Jour-
nal d'Agriculture Pratique, ann. 61, vol. 2, No. 49, p. 870-S79. Paris,
Dec. 9, 1S97.
8. BLYTH, ALEXANDER VWYNTER, and BLYTH, MEREDITi r WINTER.
Foods; their composition and analysis. 5th ed. London, 1903. See
p. 306.
9. B6GGILD, B.
Eine Analyse der Gislev-kiise. Ugeskrift for Landmiind, 11. No. 20, 1890.
Abstract. Biedermann's Centra!blatt fUr Agrikulturchemie, Jahrg. 20,
p. 287. Leipzig, 1S91.
10. BBtNNICH, J. C.
Analyses of cheese and butter manufactured at the Queensland Agricul-
tural College. Gatton. Queenslaind Agricultural Journal, vol. 9, Nd.
4, p. 424-42S. Brisbane, Oct., 1901.
11. BUTTERE. C.1
See citation 58.
12. [CALOWELL.
Alliwirthschaftliche Monatsbliitter, p. 158. 1S77.] See citation 39, p. 32.5.
1 References inclosed in blrarktts have not been consulted In he original.








70 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.,

13. CHATTAWAY, WM.; PEARMAIN, T. H.; and MOOR, C. G.
On the composition of cheese. The Analyst, vol. 19, p. 145-147. London,
July, 1894.
14. The composition of some English cheeses. The Analyst, vol. 20, No.
231, p. 132-134. London, June, 1895.
15. CLARK, R. D.
Report on Cheese. New York State Dairy Commissioner, 3rd Annual Re-
port for 1886. Albany, 1887. See p. 50, 62.
16. Composition of Canadian cheese. Ibid., 5th Annual Report for the year
1888. Albany, 1889. See p. 422.
17. Ibid., 7th Annual Report for the year 1890. Albany, 1891. See p. 300.
18. COOKE, W. W., and HILLS, J. L.
Making cheese from different qualities of milk. Vermont Agricultural
Experiment Station, 5th Annual Report [for] 1891. Burlington, 1892.
See p. 90.
19. CORNALBA, G.
I formaggini di lecco. L' Industria Lattiera e Zootecnica, vol. 5, No. 5, p.
35. Reggio-Emilia, March 1, 1907.
20. I formaggi molli di lusso. II coltivatore, vol. 53, No. 49. p. 713-717. Casale
Monferrato, Dec. 8, 1907.
21. CUBm, CECIL II.
Note on Dutch cheese. The Analyst, vol. 31, No. 361, p. 105-111. Lon-
don, Apr., 1906.
22. DAHL.
Ueber Norwegens Natur, Rindviehhaltung und Molkereiwirthschaft.
Milchzeitung, Jahrg. 1, No. 16, p. 185-191, May 15; No. 18, p. 205-212,
June, 15. Danzig, 1872. See p. 210.
23. DREW, CHARLES W.
Report upon cheese. Minnesota State Dairy and Food Commissioner,
3rd Biennial Report. Minneapolis, 1890. See p. 235.
24. DUCLAUX, PIERRE EMILE.
Le lait. 2d ed. Paris, 1894. See p). 259-311.
25. EUGLING, WM., and KLENZE, VON.
Versuche auf dem gebiete der alpenwirthschaft. Milch-zeitung, Jahrg. 7.
No. 11, p. 141-143. Mar. 13: No. 12, p. 157-160, Mar. 20. 1878; Jahrg.
9, No. 40, p. 597-599, Oct. 6, 1880. Bremen. 1878-80.
[Bericht tiber die Thiitigkeit der Versuchsstatzon des Landes vorarlberg.
1875-6. Bregenz. p. 12.] See citation 38, p. 331.
26. [Fallot.
Premier Congres International Hygiene Alimentaire, 4th sec., Paris, 1905.
Analyses made at Laboratory, Loir-et-Cher, Blois, France.]
27. FASCETTI, G.
Preparazione e composizione del formaggio lonmbardo alla crema denomi-
nato Mascarpone." Annuario della Reale Stazione Sperimentale di
Caseificio di Lodi, ann. 1902. Lodi, 1903. See p. 71.
28. [FLEISCHMANN, W.
Bericht tiber (lie Wirksamkeit der milchwirtschaftlichen Versuchs-stationen
und des Molkarei-Institutes Raden, 1880, p. 34; 1884, p. 30; Rostock,
1881, 1885.] See citation 39, p. 334.
29. GOESMANN. C. A.
Massachusetts State Agriciultural Exp!eriment Station, Amherst, 6th An-
nual Report, 1888. Boston, 1889, See p. 239.







VARIETIESi OF CULESE. 71

30. (iRigFITrs. A. I.
Aiii-ly,.'s di qielqitla frouliages d'Atllh-terre. liti lltidn itI la ,Kucl.tt
(thiiiilqeii de I'a rl, ewr. 3, vol. T7, p. 2-2 -2li. a'nril. 1POW2.
31. IlAtAi *It. T. I..
Ma iiiifa'turt of fswieet urdt t.Lhwitse. Mil .jesul Agrli'ltlurul lxperlluwnl
Station. Itulltlin No. 35., p. 114-12. St. Anthony Pork, Oct., ISJ4.
See p11. 115. 122. 1-17.
32. IIASSAL, ATI'iuI HIILL.
Food: Its adiulteratlois and the methods fur their detl ttion. London,
1870. See 1P. 450.
.3. HOFFMANN, M.
Die ml Ichwlirtschaft lichen Verhilltulsse Portuga ls. Milch Zeltung., Jahbrg.
27, No. 13, p. 197-199. Bremen, Mar. 2U, 1S98.
34. [HoaNxio.
Beltriige zur Geschihhte, Technik uud Statistik der Kilserei. Wien, 186M,
p. 40.] See citation 39, pp. 327, 329. 330, 335, 341.
35. JOHNSON, S. W.
Analyses of some American cheese. Connecticut Agricultural iExperiment
Station. Annual Report., 1892. New Haven, 1S93. See p. 156.
36. [JONES.]
Cited from White, Henry. Report on the exhibition of cheese at Ohester
in July, 1S58. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, vol. 19, p.
420. London. 1858.
37. [KALANTAROW, A. VON.
Ueber die chemnische Zusammensetzung einlger russischer Kuse. Journal
Russian Physico-chemical Society, vol. 14, section 1, Pl). 155,156. St.
Petersburg, 1S82. Cited from Berichte der deutschen chemischen
gesellschaft, Jahrg. 15, Jan.-June, p. 1220. Berlin, 1882.
38. KLENZE, H. L. VON.
Versuche iiber die Verdaulichkeit vcrschiedener Kisesorten. Milch
Zeitung, Jahrg. 14. No. 24, p. 369-373. Bremen, June 10, 1885.
39. KOENIG, FRANZ JOSEPH.
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussniittel. 4. autl. Berlin.
1903. See vol. 1, 321, 335.
40. KRtUGER, R.
Beitriige zur flerstellung kamnuibertartiger Weichkikiste. Mulkerei Zeitung,
Jahrg. 6. No. 33, p. 402. hiildesheim, Aug. 13, 1S92. [In this paper
KrUger refers to previous papers of his in the snnme periodical.]
41. LEUTNER, NW.
Krutt. ein von den Kirgisen bereiteter Kiise. Pliharniaceutlkclie Zeitschrift
fUr Russland. Jahrg. 24, No. 1, pp. 8-9. St. Petersburg, Jan. 6, 1885.
Cited also in Chemikev Zeitung, Jahrg. 9, No. 14, p. 254. Citheu, Feb.
15, 1885.
42. 'LINDET, AMiMANN. and BRUGIRE.
Sur lai co.position des lprinciXiIaux fronitges coItllniIiij1ts en France. Revue
GOin-rale du Lit, Ann. 5, No. 18. pp. 410-41S. Lierre, Jnne 30, 1906.
43. [LINDT, 0., ;and MULLER, C.
Analysen verschhidener s-hwveizerischlier lii sesurteni. (&eneral-berlcht
iiber die ers:e scnhweizeriscle Milchi'rudukten;a usstellug in Bern, 1
bis. 11. Sept. 1807, von R. Schiatzman.]
Abstract Jahlresbericht iiber die I-F'ortschritt' a tlif dteln (;gesnimntgebtete der
Agrikultur-Clielmie. Jalihrg. 10. pip. 354-455. Berlin, 1808. See also cita-
tion 39, pn. 324. 327. 33], ;.







72


VARIETIES OF CHEESE.


44. LLOYD, F. J.
Observations on Cheddar cheese-making. Report, 1893. Journal of the
Bath and West and Southern Counties Society, ser. 4, vol. 4, 1893-4,
pp. 131-175. London, 1894. See p. 161.
45. MACOIR, Louis.
L'industrie fromagere en Franche-Comtd. Bulletin de l'Agriculture, vol.
20, pp. 376-441. Bruxelles, 1904. See p. 390.
4& MAGGIOBA, ASNALDO.
Ueber die Zusammensetzung des Uberreifen Kases. Archiv fuir Hygiene,
vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 216-224. Milnchen und Leipzig, 1892. See p. 220.
47. [MAiou, G.
Die tzigaja-race, ihre Eigenschaften und ihre wirtschaftliche Nutsbarkeit.
Inaug.-diss. Halle, 1887.] Cited from Thiele, Paul. Einiges fiber
Schafkisefabrikation in Siebenbiirgen. Milch. Zeitung, Jahrg. 26, No.
46, pp. 727-729. Bremen, Nov. 3, 1897.
48. MANETTrI, L., and Musso, GIOVANNI.
Sulla composizione dei caci di grana. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie
Italiani, vol. 5, fasc. 3, pp. 174-201. Torino, 1876. See p. 187.
49. Ueber die Zusammensetzung und die Reife des Parmesanklises. Die
Landwirtschaftlichen Versuchs-Stationen, vol. 21, pp. 211-229. Berlin
1878. See p. 215.
50. [MARTIN, ED. W., and MOORE, R. W.]
See citation 14, p. 45.
51. MAYER, ADOLF.
Analysen von hollandisehen Kilsesorten. Milch Zeitung, Jahrg. 16, No. t,
p. 87. Bremnen, Feb. 2, 1887.
52. MELIKOFF, P. G., and ROSENBLATT, M.
Le brynsa, fromage russe de lait de brebis. Journal d'Agriculture
Pratique, ann. 71, n. s., vol. 14, No. 52, p. 814-815. Paris, Dec. 26, 1907.
53. Musso, GIOVANNI, and MIENOZZI, A.
Sulla composizione degli stracchini. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie
Italiani, 1877, vol. 6, fasc. 4, p. 201-206. Torino, 1878.
54. [MUTBm, J.]
See citation 14, p. 44, 50, 52.
55. PATRICK, G. B.
(1) Changes during cheese ripening. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, Bulletin 24, p. 970. Ames, 1894.
(2) Unpublished data. Analyses made in U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, 1901. Samples collected by H. E. Alvord in Europe.
56. PAYEN, A.
Composition de plusieurs substances alimentaires. Journal de Pharmacie,
et de Chimie, ser. 3, vol. 16, p. 279. Paris, 1849.
57. Precis theorique et pratique des substances alimentaires. 4th ed., 1865.
See p. 190-213.
58. PEREIRA, A. CARDOSO, and MASTBAUM, HUGO.
Technisches und Analytisches iiber die Kiseindustrie in Portugal. Chem-
iker Zeitung, Jahrg. 28, No. 84, p. 998-1000. Cothen, Oct. 19, 1904.
59. RICHMOND, HENRY DROOP.
Dairy chemistry; a practical handbook for dairy chemists and others
having control of dairies. London, 1899. See p. 303.







VARIETIES OF CIIKEIE. 73

60. [ROLIrr.I
See clttlhm 45, p. .31M), 41:1.
61. Ri.Nra. M.
Anailyse'de- i sog. T'lift'ns. Zeltwshrift fur Illologhe. vol. 15r. p. 496. MlIn-
chlien, 1 719.
62. BSARTOKI, (GI'SFrr.
SullI co0injosiziuOle dellln rick'uttilt pi irliin. I.e St .izloil Sperlmentnii
Agrurle Itallzini. vol. .IS%, fus-. 4. nlprile, p. 434-4:131. AstI, MIy 6(, 1;!S).
03. Anallsl del carlocavallu. Not plirmirelilnn. Ihid., vol. 22, falhc. 4, nujrll.
p. 337-340. Asti, April, 1Ir2.
64. Die chenio des Schnfkilses. Milch Zeitung, Jahrg., 19), No. i51, p. 1(J1-
1004. Bremen, Dec. 17, 1890.
G5. [SHELDON, JOHN PRINCE
Prize essay on cheese making, etc. Newcastle-uuder-Lymie, 1876.] See
citation 39, p. 326.
66. SHUn'LEWORTH, A. E.
The composition of milk, cheese, and whey in relation to one another.
Ontario Agricultural College. Guelph. Ontario, Bulletin 96. Toronto,
Aug. 16, 1894.
67. Annual report of the professor of chemistry. Ontario Agricultural Col-
lege and Experiment Farm. 21st Annualu Report, IS)5. Toronto, 189%.
See p. 25.
68. Sinln, NADINA.
Ueber die angebliche Ui-vandlung des Eiweisses in Fett beinim Reife
des Roquefort-Kiises. Journal fiir Praktische Cheminie, n. f., vol. 21, p.
203-221. Leipzig, 1880.
69. SNYDEB, HARRY.
The composition of dairy products. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment
Station, Bulletin 27, p. 50-62. St. Anthony Park, Feb., 1s9'3. See p. 60.
TO. [SOXHLET, F.
Erster Bericht tiber Arbeiten der K. K. I.andwirthschliaftlich-Versuchs-
stationen, Wien, vol. 29, [for] 1870-78, Wien, 1STS.] See cita ion 3v}, p.
322, 335.
Tl. SPICA, MATTER, and BLASI, LUIGI DE.
Ricerche chimiche sui formaggi siciliani. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agra-
rie Italiani, vol. 23, fasc. 2, agosto, p. 132-153. Asti, Sept. 25, 1S!)2.
See p. 148.
1T2. [STORCH, V.
Forschungen auf deni Gebiete der Viehlialtung, 1S79, p. 1G66-232.1 See
citation 39, p. 333.
73. STuT'rz, A.
Die chemnische Unterscltchungen der K.ise. Zcir.-rclirift fiir Analytische
Chemie, Jhlirg. :'5, p. 493--502. Wieslbadein, IS96i. See p. 502.
74. VAN SLYKE, Lucius LINCOIs..
Investigation (if clitTse. New\\ Yiork Agriciltural Experiment Station,
n. s.. Bil let in :;7. (:e:inv-a. Nov., 1.M11.
T5. Experiments in the niunuf;icture of cheese (luring May, Ibid., Bulletin
43, June, 1 92.
76. Experiments in the manufacture of cheese during June. Ibid., Bulletin
45, Aug., 1892.







74 VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

77. Experiments in the manufacture of cheese. Ibid., Bulletin 46, Sept.;
Bulletin 47, Nov., 1892.
78. Summary of results of experiments made in the manufacture of cheese
during the season of 1892. Ibid., Bulletin 50, Jan., 1893.
79. Experiments in the manufacture of cheese. Ibid., Bulletin 54, May; Bul-
letin 56, May; Bulletin 60, Oct.; Bulletin 61, Nov.; Bulletin 62, Dec,'
1893; Bulletin 65, Jan., 1894.
80. VIET., P.
Mitteilungen aus demn Laboratorium der Aylesbury Dairy Company in'
London. Milch Zeitung, Jahrg. 16, No. 7, p. 120-121. Bremen. Feb.
16, 1887.
81. Mitteilungen aus dem Laboratorium der Aylesbury Dairy Company in
London. Milch Zeitung, Jahrg. 21, No. 12, p. 191-192. Bremen, March
19, 1892.
82. Bericht fiber die Th!itigkeit des milchwirtschaftlichen Iwtitutz in Ha-'
meln im Jahre 1897. Hannover, 1898. See p. 33.
83. VOELCKNFNI AUGUSTUS.
On the composition of cheese and on practical mistakes in chWe making.
Journal Royal Agricultural Society, vol. 22, p. 29-69. Lounlon, 1861.
84. Cheese experiments. Ibid., vol. 23, p. 170-191. London, 1862.
85. On a peculiar kind of Swedish whey cheese, and on a NorwegAn goats'-
milk cheese. Ibid., ser. 2, vol. 6, p. 333-336. London, 1870.
86. Amerikanischer Kilse aus magerer Milch mit Zusatz von SchmPAlz oder
Oleomargarin. Milch Zeitung, Jahrg. 11, No. 28, p. 438-439. Bremen,
July 12, 1882.
87. WALLACE, HENRY C.
Investigations in cheese making. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station,
Bulletin 21, p. 735-767. Ames, 1893. See p. 756.
88. WEEMS, J. B.
Unpublished data. Analyses made at Iowa Agricultural College, 1896.
Samples furnished by J. H. Monrad.
89. WEBENSKIOLD, FREDERIK H.
Aarsberetning angaaende de offentlige foranstaltninger til landbrugets
fremme i aaret 1885. Kristiania, 1886. See p. 78.
90. Ibid., [for] 1893. Kristiania, 1894. See p. 87.
91. WILSON, N. E.
Cheese and cheese manufacture. Nevada Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, Bulletin 18, Reno, Nov., 1892.
92. ZEGA, A.
Kajmak. Chemiker Zeitung, Jahrg. 21, No. 6, p. 41. Cothen, Jan. 20,
1897.
93. ZEGA, A., and BAJIC, M.
Katschkawalj. Chemiker Zeitung, Jahrg. 19, No. 85, p. 1920. Cithen,
Oct. 23, 1895.
94. ZEGA, A., and PANICS, L.
Serbischer Kilse. Chemiker Zeitung, Jahrg. 22, No. 18, p. 158. Cathen,
March 2, 1898.


















INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES OF CHEESE.


Abertam: Description, 7.
Albumin. See Ziger.
Alemtejo: Description. 7; analysis, W2.
Algau. See Limburg.
Algau Emmental. See Emmental.
Alpin: Description. 7.
Altenburg: Description, 7.
Alt KuhkLse. See Hand.
Altsohl. See Brinsen.
Ambert: Description, 7.
Ancien Imprial: Description, 7.
Ancona. See Pecorino.
Appenzell: Description, 7.
Arnauten. See Travnik.
Auvergne (or Auvergne Bleu). See Cantal.
Backstein (see also Limburg): Description. 8:
analysis, 62.
Banbury: Description, 8.
Barberey: Description, 8.
Battlemat: Description, 8: analysis, 62.
Bauden: Description. 8.
Belgian Cooked: Description, 8.
Bellelay: Description, 8; analysis, 62.
Bellunese. See Emmental.
Bergquara: Description, 9.
Bergues. See Leyden.
Berliner Kuhkiise. See Hand.
Bleu (see also Gex; Sassenage; Septmoncel): De-
scription, 9.
Blue Dorset. See Dorset.
Bondon (see also Neufchtel): Analysis, 62.
Boudanne: Description, 9.
Boulette. See Maroilles.
Box (firm): Description, 9.
Box (soft): Description, 10.
Bra: Description, 10.
Brand: Description, 10.
Brick: Description, 10: analysis, 62.
Brickbat: Description, 11.
Brie: Description, 11; analysis, 62.
Brinsen: Description, 12; analysis, 62.
Briol. See Limburg.
Brizecon. Sec Reblochon.
Broccio (sec also Ziger): Description, 12.
Brocotte. Scc Ziger.
Burgundy: Description, 12; analysis, 62.
Buttermilk: Description, 12.
Cario. See Parmesan.
Cacio Pocorino Romano. S{( Pecorino.
Cacio Romano. See Chivari.
Caciocavello: Description, 12; analysis. 62.
Caerphilly: Description, 13: analysis, 62.
Cambridge: Description, 13; analysis. 62.
Camembert: Description, 13: analysis, 62.
Cnmcoillc tte. See Fromage Fort.


Canquillote (see also Fromage Fort): Deamrip-
tion 14.
Cantal: Description, 14; analysis, 62.
Carinthian. See Limburg.
Carr6 AflinO. See Ancien Imperial.
Castello Branco. See Serra da Estrella.
Ceracee. 8ee Ziger.
Champol6on: Description, 14.
Chaource: Description, 14.
Chaschbl de Chaschosis: Description, 15.
Cheddar: Description .15; analysis, 6.
Cheshire: Description, 16; analysis, 64.
Cheshire-Stilton: Description. 17.
Chevret. See Goat's Milk.
Chevrotin. See Goat's Milk.
Chivari: Description, 17.
Cl6rimbert. See Alpin.
Club. See Potted.
Colmar. See Miinster.
Commission: Description, 17.
Compi6gne. See Camembert.
Contentin. See Camembert.
Cooked: Description, 17.
Cotherstone: Description, 17; analysis, 64.
Cotrone. See Pecorino.
Cottage: Description. 17.
Coulommiers: Description. IS; analysis, 64.
Cream: Description, 18; analysis, 84.
Cream, French Demi-sel: Analysis, 64.
Crescenza: Analysis, 64.
Creuse: Description, 18.
Cristalinna: Description, 18.
Daisies. See Cheddar.
Damen: Description. IS.
Danish Export: Description, 19; analysis, 64.
Dauphin. See Maroilles.
Delft. See Leyden.
Demi-sel. See Cream.
Derbyshire: Descriptiion. I): anialyiL, 4.
Devonshire Cream: Description. I'.
Domestic Swiss-. Se'c Emniential.
Dorset: Description. t'I: analysLs., 4.
Dotter: Decripli,.n, 21.
Dresdener Iierki.ke. See Hand.
Dry: Des.riplion. 20.
Duel: Description, 21).
Dunlop: Descriptiun, 20; analysis, 64.
D)utch. See Cottage.
Edam: Description. 20; an.ilyvis. 64.
Elbing: Dtescription. 21.
Emmental: Description. 21; analysis. 64.
Emmersdorf. Se Linihurrg.
Engadine: Description. 23; analysis 64.
English Dairy: Description. 23.
Elpoisse: Description. 23.








76


INDEX.


Ervy (see also Troyes): Description, 23.
Farm: Description, 23.
Ferme. See Farm.
Filled: Description. 23.
Flats. See Cheddar.
Flower: Description, 24.
Fondue. See Fromage Fort.
Fontine d'Aosta. See Emmental.
Formagelle: Description, 24.
Formaggie di Capra. See Goat's Milk.
Formaggmini: Description, 24.
Formaggini di Lecco: Analysis, 64.
Formaggio Dolce. See Emmental.
Formaggio Duro. See Nostrale.
Formaggio Grana Lodigiano. See Parmesan.
Formaggio Tenero. See Nostrale.
Fourme. See Cantal.
Fourme d'Ambert. See Ambert.
Freisa. See Cooked.
Fresco. See Stracchino.
Fromagbre. See Canquillote; Fromage Fort.
Fromage a. la Crejne. See Cream.
Fromage a la Pie. See Farm.
Fromage Blanc. See White.
Fromage Bleu. See Bleu.
Fromage Double Creme. See Cream.
Fromage de Boite. See Box (soft).
Fromage de Bourgogne. See Burgundy.
Fromage de Foin. See Hay.
Fromage de Troyes. See Barl)erey.
Fromage Fort: Description, 24.
Fromage Mou. See Maqu6e.
Fromage Persill& See Gex; Bleu.
Gaiskasli. See Goat's Milk.
Gammelost: Description, 24; analysis, 64.
Gautrais: Description, 24.
Gavot: Description, 24.
Geheimrath: Description, 25.
Gtrom6 (see also Miinster): Description, 25.
Gervais (see also Cream): Description, 25; analy-
sis, 64.
Gex: Description, 25; analysis, 65.
Gislev: Description, 26; analysis, 65.
Glarnerkiise. See Sap Sago.
Gloire des Montagnes. See Damen.
Glumse: Description, 26.
Gloucester (see also Derbyshire): Analysis, 65.
Goat's Milk: Description, 26; analysis, 65.
Gorgonzola: Description, 26; analysis, 65.
Gouda: Description, 27; analysis, 65.
Gournay: Description, 27.
Goya: Description, 27.
Grana. See Parmesan.
Granular Curd: Description, 28.
Gratairon. See Goat's Milk.
Gray: Description, 28.
Grottenhof. See Limburg.
Gruau de Montagne. See Ziger.
Grunerkiise. See Sap Sago.
Gruyere: Description, 28, analysis, 65.
Guiole. See Laguioie.
GUssing: Description, 28.
Hand: Description, 28.
HartkAse. See Saanen.
Harz: Description, 29; analysis, 65.
Hay: Description, 29.


Herv6 (see also Limburg): Analysis, 65.
Hobbe. See Leyden.
Hohenburg. See Box (firm).
Hohenheim: Description, 29.
Holstein Dairy Cheese. See Leather.
Holstein Health: Description, 29.
Holstein Skim-milk: Description, 30.
Holsteiner Gesundheits Kise: See Holstein Health.
Holsteiner Magerkiise. See Holstein Skim-milk.
Hop: Description, 30.
Hopfen. See Hop.
Hudelziger. See Ziger.
Hvid Gjedeost: Description, 30.
Iglesias. See Pecorino.
Ihlefeld. See Hand.
Ilmha: Description, 30; analysis, 65.
Incanestrato: Description, 30; analysis, 65.
Isigny: Description, 30.
Jack: Description, 31.
Jochberg: Description, 31.
Josephine: Description, 31.
Jura. See Septmoncel.
Kajmak: Description, 31; analysis, 65.
Kascaval: Description, 31; analysis, 65.
Katschkawalj: Description, 31; analysis, 65.
Katzenkopf. See Edam.
KirgischkAse. See Krutt.
Kjarsgaard: Description, 31.
Kloster: Description, 32.
Klencz. See Brinsen.
Knaost. See Pultost.
Koejekaars. See Leyden.
Kolos-Monostor: Description, 32.
Komynde. See Leyden.
Koppen: Description, 32.
Kosher: Description, 32.
Kosher Gouda: Description, 32.
Krauterkiise. See Sap Sago.
Krutt: Description, 32; analysis, 65.
Kuhbach: Description, 32.
Laguioie: Description, 32; analysis, 66.
Lamothe. See Goat's Milk.
Lanark. See Limburg.
Lancashire: Description, 33.
Landoch. See Brinsen.
Langres: Description, 33.
Lapland: Description, 33.
Larron. See Maroilles.
Latticini: Description, 33.
Leather: Description, 33.
Leader. See Leather.
Leicester (see also Derbyshire): Description, 34;
analysis, 66.
Leonessa. See Pecorino.
Leyden: Description, 34; analysis, 66.
Lindenhof. See Limburg.
Limburg: Description, 34; analysis, 66.
Liptau (see also Brinsen): Description, 35.
Livarot: Description, 35; analysis, 66.
Livlander. See Hand.
Long Horns. See Cheddar.
Lorraine: Description, 35.
Liineberg: Description, 35.
Maconnais: Description, 36.
Macqueline: Description, 36.
Maigre. See Farm.
Majocchina. See Incanestrato.








INDEX.


MalkiLe: I)t .crt-rt.lon, 36.
Mwziz Ikuil lIt"e r IIiaLUs. 36, L. lYISU. (66.
MalaLkLu! i rr aLju NvIlk-hAtel): DAcriptin, 3&.
Manllt.-1. .%Stf e lhan.
Mtanuir: li-.s rinltiku. 36.
MainIctuI: lD.'riptluiun. 3t6.
MaritUitiof. LeN Limt'rg..
MLark L-thi lIand: l)t-riptlion, 36.
Maruillis: hDes-ription, 37; analysis, 61.
M:LSarponte: l l'stription, 37; analysis, 66.
Mascurponil. See Ziger.
Mecklenberg Skimni: Description. 37.
Mignot: Description, 37.
Milano. See Stnic-chino.
Mondsee. See Box t(firm).
Monk's Head. See Bellelay.
Montasio: Description, 37.
Montavoner: Description, 3S.
Mont Cenis: Description, 3S.
Moant d'Or: Description, 3s; analysis, 66.
Monterey. See Jack.
Monthlfry: Destcription, 39.
Morin: See Linmburg.
Mou. See Farm.
Mozarinelli: D)escriplion, 39.
Minster: Det-criptioi. 3',; analysis, 66.
Mvsost: Description. 39; analysis, 66.
Nessel: Description. 40.
NeufehAtel: Desription, 40; analysis, 66.
Neutsohl. See Brinsen.
New Milk: Description, 40.
Niederungkiisc. Se Elbing.
Niebeim: Description, 40.
N6gelost: Analysis, 66.
Nostrale: Description, 41.
Oka. See Trappist.
Olimento. See Cream.
Olive Cream. See Cream.
Olivet: Description, 41; analysis, 66.
Olminizer Bierkiise. See Hand.
Olmutzer Quargel (Olmiitz): Description, 41;
analysis, 66.
Paglia: Description. 41.
Pago: Description, 42.
Paneddas. Sac Cooked.
Parmesan: Description, 42; analysis, 66.
PatW Bleu. See Bleu.
Pavilion. See Camembert.
Pecorino: Description, 42; analysis, 66.
Pecorino Dolce. See Pecorino.
Pecorino Tuscano. See Pecorino.
Petit Carr6. See Ancien Imc'rial; Neufchltel.
Petit Suisse (seef also Neufch.tel): Analysis, 66.
Pimento. See Neufchiibel.
Pepper Cream. See NeufchLtel.
P'fister: Description, 43.
Philadelphia Cream: Description, 43.
Pimp. See Mainz lIanl.
Pineapple: Description, 43; analysis, 66.
Poitiers. Sct Goat's Milk.
Pont I'.Evque: Description, 44; analysis, 66.
Port du SalInt: Description, 44; analysis, 66.
Potato: Description. 45.
Pot,'d: Description. 45; analysis, 67.
Prlati2.au: Description, 45.
Pr.,tost: Description, 45.
Prirno, r. Sec Myisost.
Providence: Description, 45.


77


P'rovole: DMierlptlon, 4S.
I'rovuon.te I'rvuloh.erole.
I'ullia. .S'ee IL'euorio.
'PultoiNt: I3-scriptili)1. 46'.
(,utilru. .Ste Strauhriinl.
Quartiroli. Sfee Strarl'rhtno.
Que-so (ie' Cinuliu: I h' i rijl ion, 40.
QUie.st dt I tija: la.srsiplitn, 46.
QUt.o dC M;II3 : 1)-l-rn-iplJtjuli, 4t6.
QuesUti ie l';:1rn Mi. ida. S 'e Qirsu die (Clucho.
QIt'tso de l'rei-sa: I)er{iptliun. 46.
Que.so tie l'iLIU: l)',sriplii',i, 47.
Queymcs. ,S't ('ha;'IpmlI'in.
Ralaval: I)'.scripl)liu, 47; analysis, t17.
IathITi: Ih'scriptioni. 47.
itangiporl: )e-rriptliun, 47.
Itaper. Ste ltRayon.
Ra.uwhera. Sec Nustrale.
Rayon: De-cription, 47.
Rebbiola: Descriplion, 47; analysis, 67.
Reblorhon: Description, 47; analysis, 07.
Iecuit. Sec Zi.-c-r.
Reggian. See i'armesan.
Reggiano. SeC I'Purmeis1.
Reit)kase. Sec :a.incnn.
Reindeer Milk: I)escriptiun. 4s; analysis, 67.
Remnoudon. St Roinudiour.
Rheinwald. See Scirnsecr.
Ricotta (see also ZX.r-:r A analysis, 67.
Riesengebirge: Dest ription, 48.
Rinnen: Description, 4s.
Robiola. See Rebbiola.
Roll: Description, 48.
Rollot: Description, 48.
Romadour: Description, 4s; analysis, 67.
Romano. Set Pecorino.
Romatur. See Romadour.
Roquefort: Description, 48; analysis, 67.
Saaland Pf-r. Sae Pretost.
Saanen: Description, 49.
Sage: Description, 50.
Saint Benoit: Description, 50.
SaintClaude: Description. .I0.
Saint. Marceullin: Deseripl ion, 50.
Saint Michels. Sec Limhiurg.
Saint Remy: Description. 0.
Saloio: Description, .i0:; analysis, 67.
Sandwich Nut. See Cream.
Sap Sago: Description.,1u. analysis, 67.
Sassenage (seealso Gex): De.cription, 51.
Satz. See Hand.
Savoy: Analysis. 67.
Scanno: Des'riptiu,'. 51.
Searmorze: Dec(ripiitL'i..'].
Schalbzieger: See SUp .'j;:Li.
SchaclihtelkiLW e. S&c Iu.x 'i)fl ,.
Schamser: D)escriptiji:, 51.
Schlcsischer Sam L'wrlt.:th h. ,. Sir Sile.ian.
Schlesischer Wvithl-i'iar.g. See s.il.siaLn.
Schloss: Description. 52.
Sc-hottcngsie,'l: De.-ir;ipiion. 32.
Schiitzcn. See Lirnl.hrL:.
Schhwarznbcr.Z: l)e'-,rripltion., "2.
Schweitzer. Sec Swi-;.
S6neclerre: Dr-crip' ,ion. 5 2.
Septmoncel (sce.,'o (;exj: Description, ri2; anal-
ysis, 07.
&rac. Sef Ziger.








78


Serra da Estrella: Description, 52; analysis, 67.
Servian: Description, 53; analysis, 67.
Siebenbiirgen. See Brinsen.
Silesian: Description, 53.
Siraz: Description, 53.
Slipcote: Description, 53.
Smear-case. See Cottage.
Sorte Maggenga. See Parmesan.
Sorte Vermenga. See Parmesan.
Soumaintrain. See Camembert.
Spalen: Description, 53; analysis, 67.
Sperrkiise. See Dry.
Spitz: Description, 54.
Squares. See Cheddar.
Steppes: Description, 54.
Stilton: Description, 54; analysis, 67.
Stirred Curd. See Cheddar.
Stracbchino: Description, 55.
Stracchino di Gorgonzola. See Gorgonzola.
Strassburg. See Minster.
Stringer. See Spalen.
Styria: Description, 55.
Sweet Curd (see also Cheddar): Description, 55.
Swiss: Description, 55; analysis, 67.
Taft: Description, 55.
Tamid: Description, 55.
Tanzenberg. See Limburg.
Tempdte. See Canquillote.
Tessel: Analysis, 67.
TAte de Maure. See Edam.
TMte de Moine. See Bellelay.
Texel: Description, 56.
Thenay: Description, 56; analysis, 68.
Thraanen. See Emmental.
Thuringia. See Hand.
Thury-en-Valois. See Camembert.
Tignard: Description, 56.
Tilsit: Description, 56.


INDEX.


Tome de Beaumont. See Tami4.
Tome de Montagne. See Vacherin.
Topfen (see also Cooked): Analysis, 68.
Toppen: Description, 56.
Trappist: Description, 56; analysis, 68.
Travnik: Description, 57.
Trouville: Description, 57.
Troyes: Description, 57; analysis, 68.
Trockenkise. See Dry.
Tulle de Flandre. See Maroilles.
Tuna: Description, 57.
Tworog: Description, 58.
Uri: Description, 58.
Vacherin: Description, 58; analysis, 68.
Vendfme: Description, 58; analysis, 68.
Villiers: Description, 58.
Viterbo (see also Pecorino): Analysis, 68.
Vlasic. See Travnik.
Void: Description, 58.
Vorarlberg Sour-milk: Description, 59; analyst, 66.
Walliskiise. See Saanen.
Warwickshire (see also Derbyshire): Analyft, 8.
Washed Curd. See Cheddar.
Weihenstephan. See Box (firm).
Weisslak: Description, 59.
Wensleydale: Description, 59, analysis, 68.
West Friesian: Description, 59.
Westphalia Sour-milk: Description, 59.
Werderkiise. See Elbing.
White: Description, 60.
Wiltshire (see also Derbyshire): Analysis, M.
Withania: Description, 60.
Yorkshire-Stilton. See Cotherstone.
Young Americas. See Cheddar.
Ziegel: Description, 60.
ZiegenkiAse. See Goat's Milk.
Ziger: Description, 60; analysis, 68.
Zips. See Brinsen.




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