Fattening calves in Alabama

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Material Information

Title:
Fattening calves in Alabama investigations in cooperation with the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
Series Title:
Bulletin (United States. Bureau of Animal Industry) ;
Physical Description:
40 p., 3 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gray, Dan T ( Daniel Thomas ), 1878-
Ward, W. F ( William Francis )
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher:
Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Calves -- Feeding and feeds -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Dan T. Gray and W.F. Ward.
General Note:
"Issued July 27, 1912."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612345
oclc - 56081762
System ID:
AA00018898:00001

Full Text











Bk"'^ ** A. D. MELVIN, CHIEF op BURnUu.


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ITTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.
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INVESTIGATIONS IN COOPERATION WITH THE
ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.


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~BY
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DAN T. GRAY,
P..' professorr of Animal Husbandry, Alabama Polhtechnic lnltilute,

iE^ AND

W. F. WARD,

; 'Junior Animal Husbandman, Bureau of Animal Indusry.
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RNMENT PaNTING OFFICE.
1912.


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Issued July 2;, 1912.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN 147.
A. D. MELVIN. CHIEF oF BUREAU.






FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.


INVESTIGATIONS IN COOPERATION WX'ITH THE
ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION





BY


DAN T. GRAY,
Professor of An inmal Husbaidry, Alabama Polylechnic Institu te,
AND
WV. F. WARD,
Junior .4nimnal Htusbandman, flunitea, of.4n-imal Industy.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.











i
















THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


rh.f: A. 1). MELVIN.
Assitand (-lluf." A. M. FARBrNGTON.
Ch'i ftl(rk: CHARLE'4 (. <'ARROLL.
Animal FHlusbandrq. D'i';s)n: GEORGE NT. ROMMF.i, chief.
Biochnemit- Divisiont: M. DoRsEr, chief.
Diairt Division: B. H. RAWL, chief.
Inr.pelionru Di'ision: RICE P. STEDDOM, chief, MORRIS WOODEN, R. A. RAMBAY,
andf ALBERT E. BEHNKE, associate chiefs.
l'otholrqical Division: JOHN R. MOHLER, chief.
(Quarantintc Divi.sion: RICHARD \'. HICKMAN, chief.
Zooloqiril Di is-io: B. H. RANSOM, chief.
Exprrim.,ti nationn: E. C. SCHROEDER, superintendent.
Eilfrr: JAMES M. PICKENS.












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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Washington, D. C., January 30, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit, and to recommend for publica-
tion as a bulletin of this bureau, a manuscript entitled "Fattening
Calves in Alabama," by Prof. Dan T. Gray, of the Alabama Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, and Mr. W. F. Ward, of the Animal Hus-
bandry Division of this bureau.
The paper gives the details of three experiments in fattening calves
in Alabama. two lots being fed during the winter on separate farms
with various southern feeds, and the third lot carried through the
%%inter and subsequently fattened while on pasture. These experi-
ments form at part of the investigations in beef production which are
being carried on by cooperation between the Alabama Experiment
Station and this bureau, the work on the part of the bureau being
under the direction of Mr. George M. Rommel, chief of the Animal
Husbandry Division.
Respectfully, A. D. MELVIN,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.

































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CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction .................... .... ......................................... 7
Plan of the work .................. ..................................... 8
I.-Winter fattening of calves on cottonseed meal and hulls, comrn-and-cob meal,
and alfalfa hay .................................................. 9
Kind of calves used .......... ...................................... 9
General plan of the work .......................................... 10
Shelter and lots .................................................... 10
Method of feeding and handling the calves .................------------------------...... 10
Character and price of feeds ........................--..-.......--....... 11
Daily rations ...................................................... 11
W eights and gains .................................................. 13
Quantity and cost of feed required to make 100 pounds gain.....-...... -15
Prices realized on each kind of feed when prices of the other feeds are
fixed ........................................................... 16
Financial statement ................................................ 17
Slaughter records .................................................. 19
Sum m ary ........................................................ 20
1I.-Fattening calves in winter on cottonseed meal and hulls and pea vine hay.- 22
The calves ....................................................... 22
Plan of the work .................................................. 23
Prices and quality of feeds .......................................... 23
Daily rations ....................................................... 23
Weights and gains .................................................. 24
Quantity and cost of feed required to make 100 pounds gain........... 24
Amount realized on each ton of feed when prices of the other feeds are
fixed........................................................... 25
Financial statement.............................................. 25
Slaughter records .................................................. 26
Summary ........................................................ 26
III.-Wintering calves followed by fattening on pasture..................... --------------------28
Plan and object of the work ----------------------...................... : ................. 28
The calves ........................................................ 28
Feed and management ............................................. 29
The pasture- ........................................................ 29
Character and prices of feeds ....................................... 30
Daily rations ...................................................... 30
Weights and gains ................................................. 31
Quantity and cost of feed required to make 100 pounds gain .......... 32
Prices realized for feeds as a result of feeding to calves ............... 33
Financial statement ............................................... 33
Slaughter records ................................................. 34
Summary ........................................................ 35
IV.-General statement ................................................... 37
Conclusions ...................................................... 38
Summary of conclusions ............................................ 39
5





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ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
Plate I. Calves used in feeding experiments. Lot 3 (Part I) at beginning of
te t ............................................................. 8
II. Calves after winter fattening. Lot 2 (Part 1) at close of test .......... 8
III. Calves fattening on pasture. Condition of animals five weeks before
end of test (Part III)............................................ 28
6











FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.


INTRODUCTION.
The beef-cattle business can be, and usually is, divided into two
parts-breeding and fattening. As a rule, the man who raises the
calf does not finish it on his own farm for the market; he usually sells
it to a neighboring farmer who makes a business of fattening and pre-
paring the calf or steer for the market. Thus the feeder oftentimes
has no interest at all in raising the calves. Probably the ideal con-
dition, at least for Alabama and adjacent States, is for the calf to be
raised and finished on the same farm. But this ideal condition can
seldom be realized because the man who raises the calf has, as a rule,
only a few cows and can seldom afford to take the time and trouble
to fatten the few calves which these cows bring each year. Even if
the small farmer were to fatten these few calves each year he could
seldom afford to ship them to the larger markets, so he is at the mercy
of the local buyers. As a result of this condition of affairs the pro-
fessional feeder has developed. His business is to collect calves and
steers into carload lots and prepare them for the open market.
The farmer who has as many as 30 breeding cows on his farm should
make it a rule to fatten their offspring himself; he can seldom afford
to sell the calves to the professional feeder. The feeder usually
makes money on the process of fattening, and the man who raises
calves in sufficient numbers should keep this extra profit at home.
Furthermore, the farmer who has from 8 to 12 calves or steers ready
for the feed lot will usually find it profitable to buy a sufficient number
of feeders to complete the load, and he can then finish all of them on
his own farm.
There are many ways of disposing of beef calves or cattle, and the
farmer should be watchful and avoid methods by which money might
be lost. It is possible to raise beef cattle properly and by selling them
improperly to lose money on the business, in just the same way that
it is possible to raise good apples, potatoes, and peaches and lose
money on them when the marketing part of the business is not studied
and given proper attention. When beef cattle are bred, fed, and
marketed in a scientific and businesslike manner, satisfactory profits
should be realized. This is proved by the experience of good cattle-
men, and by the cooperative experimental work between the Bureau
of Animal Industry and the Alabama Experiment Station.




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8 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA. :::..
PLAN OF THE WORK.
The farmer who raises calves is often at a loss to know at what .q.t"
they should be disposed of. The spring calf may be sold the sulbs
quent fall; it may be fattened during the winter months and sold ar!
a fat yearling calf; it may be kept on the farm until it is from 2 to 4
years of age and then sold to a professional feeder; or, the mature-|
steer may be fattened on the farm where it was raised instead of being ,
sold to a feeder. On account of these various methods which it is
possible to adopt for disposing of beef animals, the owner is often in
doubt as to the most. profitable manner of handling and disposing of .
his crop of calves. :
This bureau, working in cooperation with the Alabama Experiment "'J
Station, has done several years' experimental work in fattening ma-:.it
ture steers for the market.' The steers used in these experiments AI
were not raised on the farm where they were fattened; they were,.r4
purchased from small farmers who sold them for from 21 to 3j cents
a pound, the price paid depending upon the quality, age, size, and II
condition of the animals. Excellent profits were realized on all of
these cattle with the exception of one lot, but it is probable that some :::
of the farmers who raised the steers lost money on their part of the .
transaction, as cattle can not be raised and sold at a profit for 2j :
cents a pound.
Since the publication of the results of the work above mentioned,
many farmers in the South have raised the question, "Why not fatten .:
the animals while they are young'?" In the past the farmers and
planters insisted on keeping the offspring of their beef cows until they
were from 3 to 4 years old, but many inquiries are now made as to the .
advisability of fattening the calves so as to dispose of them by the
time they are a year old. "
Two or three points can be urged in favor of this system. First,
more breeding animals can be kept upon a farm when the offspirng
are disposed of at an early age, than when they are held and sold as ::
steers. Second, the younger the animal, the cheaper each pound of
beef is made. Third, the money invested is turned more rapidly
when the calves are sold at a young age. ..
In order that they might be in a position to assist in answering such
inquiries, authorities of the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Ala- !
bama Experiment Station undertook three experiments in fattening
calves, which are hereafter described. The details in this bulletin are ,;
accordingly divided into three parts. In Part I the calves were fat-
tened, during their first winter, on cottonseed meal and hulls, corn-
and-cob meal, and alfalfa hay; in Part II similar winter fattening
was carried on with cottonseed meal and hulls and peavine hay, and
in Part III the calves were fed in the winter and fattened during the
following pasture season.
'See Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletins 103 and 131, and Alabama Experiment Station Balletinm iSO
and 151.




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CALVES USED IN FEEDING EXPERIMENTS. LOT 3 (PART I) AT BEGINNING OF TEST.


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I. WINTER FATTENING OF CALVES ON COTTONSEED
MEAL AND HULLS, CORN-AND-COB MEAL, AND
ALFALFA HAY.
The main object in doing this calf-feeding work was to determine
whether the farmer can afford to raise a good grade of calves and
finish them for the market while they are yet less than a year old.
Secondary considerations were, of course, involved as well.
In this part of the test the calves were divided into three lots, so
that a comparison of certain feeds could be made. The following
problems were studied:
1. To learn whether a farmer can profitably raise and fatten calves
and finish them for the market by the time they are a year old.
2. To make comparisons of southern feeds and combinations of
feeds which can be used for fattening calves during the winter months.
Owing to the fact that a high grade of calves can not be obtained
near the Experiment Station at Auburn, Ala., the work was carried
on upon the farm of Messrs. Cobb and McMillan, of Sumterville, Ala.,
with whom the bureau and the station have been in cooperation for a
number of years. Messrs. Cobb and McMillan furnished the calves
and the feed, and the bureau and the Experiment Station provided a
trained man to live on the farm and have personal supervision of the
experimental work. Mr. H. J. Chatterton was stationed upon the
farm and supervised the work.
KIND OF CALVES USED.
The calves used in this work were high-grade animals. The farmer
who raises beef cattle can not afford to raise scrubs, especially the
man who expects to finish them for the market while they are young.
It would have been absolutely impossible to have made a profit, on
these calves if they had been scrubs instead of hligh-grade beef calves.
High-priced feeds can seldom be fed profitably to low-priced cattle.
It may be possible for a professional feeder to make a profit on scrubs
even when high-priced feeds are used, but when such is the case it
means that the feeder made the profit at the expense of the man who
raised the scrubs. In other words, it means that the feeder did not pay
the producer as much for the scrubs as it actually cost to raise them.
The majority of the calves were raised on the farm of Cobb and
McMillan, near Sumterville, Ala., where the feeding was done. Some
of them were purchased from neighboring farmers in Sumter and
adjoining counties. The calves were all well-bred animals, although
not purebred. They were grade Shorthorns, Aberdeen-Angus, Here-
9
29834-Bull. 147-12--2






10 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA. eeu
fords, and Red Polls, the majority being from one-half to seven-
eighths pure. All had been born the preceding spring, so they were
from 6 to 8 months of age when the fattening experiment began.
During the summer they had run with their mothers on good pasture,
and during this time they demanded practically no attention from
the owner, except to see that they were salted and dipped. Both
the mothers and the calves were dipped regularly all through the
summer months to reduce the number of ticks. Very few ticks
appeared on the cattle during the summer time.
On November 17, 1910, when the preliminary feeding began, the
calves averaged 338 pounds in weight
GENERAL PLAN OF THE WORK.
When fall arrived and the pastures were exhausted the calves were
taken from their mothers and placed in this winter work. They were
in excellent condition at. this time. The original intention had been
to begin the winter feeding early in the fall, to avoid losing any part
of the calf fat, but on account of an unavoidable delay the feeding
was not begun until the above-mentioned date, so no doubt the calves
lost a few pounds in weight after the pastures became short.
On November 17, 1910, the calves were tagged, dehorned, and
divided into three lots. Each lot was fed until March 17. 1911, on
the following feeds:
Lot 1. Cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, mixed alfalfa hay. Lot
2. Cottonseed meal, two-thirds; corn-and-cob meal, 6ne-third; cot-
tonseed hulls; mixed alfalfa hay. Lot 3. Cottonseed meal, one-third;
corn-and-cob meal, two-thirds: cottonseed hulls; mixed alfalfa hay.
SHELTER AND LOTS.
The calves were young, so each lot was provided with shelter
sufficiently good to turn the cold rains and break the cold north
winds. If they had been mature steers the shelter would not have
been necessary, but calves will not do well, even this far south,"with-
out some protection from the cold winds and rains of the winter
months. Each lot was confined in a one-half acre paddock. While
the lots were not paved, still they did not become excessively muddy,
even during the periods of excessive rain. The ground floors of the
sheds were always dry, so the calves had a comfortable and conven-
ient place in which to rest.
METHOD OF FEEDING AND HANDLING THE CALVES.
On November 17, 1910, all the calves were tagged and dehorned.
On the following day the individual weights were secured and the 77
calves were divided into three lots as nearly equal as possible in
quality, weight, and breeding. The preliminary feeding began
November 18, 1910. All of the males were castrated on November


..ai






CHARACTER AND PRICE OF RATIONS-EXPERIMENT I. 11

23 and 24. No doubt the results would have been more satisfactory
if the calves had been castrated at an earlier age.
The animals were fed twice each day, the morning feed being given
about 7 o'clock and the night feed at 5 o'clock. The concentrated
feeds were placed in the troughs, each of which was about 12 feet
long and 3 feet wide. The hay was fed in separate hay racks. Both
the troughs and the racks were under sheds so that the feed never
became wet and the calves had comfortable quarters in which to eat.
Salt was supplied regularly, also good pure water in clean troughs.
At the beginning and end of the experiment individual weights
were taken on two successive days. During the course of the test
the total weight of each Int was taken every 28 days.
CHARACTER AND PRICE OF FEEDS.
Cottonseed meal, corn-and-cob meal, cottonseed hills, and mixed
alfalfa hay were all used in this test. The cottonseed meal and the
hulls were purchased and hauled to the farm. The corn-and-cob
meal and the mixed alfalfa hay were grown upon the farm. All of
the feeds were of good quality. The cottonseed meal waz fresh and
bright; the hay consisted of a mixture of about one-half each of John-
son grass and alfalfa. The corn was grown upon the farm, and before
it, was fed the whole ear of corn with the shuck was run through a
grinder and made into corn-and-cob meal.
The feeds were valued as follows:
Cottonseed meal..................................... per ton.. $26. 00
Cottonseed hulls......................................do.... 7.00
Corn ............................................. per bushel.. .70
Mixed hay.......................................... per ton.. 15.00
As a matter of fact the cottonseed meal cost only $25 a ton, and
corn was worth only 50 cents a bushel, but the above prices were
adopted for the sake of uniformity. These prices hare been used in
other publications of this bureau, and represent fairly accurately the
average prices of feeds in this Stit te
DAILY RATIONS.
More care and skill must be exercised in feeding a young animal
than an old one. A 6-year-old ox may be cared for and fed in a care-
less manner and still no serious results follow; but the young calf will
not grow and develop with any degree of satisfaction under a careless
system of management and feeding. The younger the animal the
greater the skill required to care for and feed it; one case of overfeed-
ing will often throw the stomach and bowels out of condition for weeks.
It will be noticed from the table below that at first the calves were
given a very small quantity of concentrated feed, the amount being
gradually increased to the end of the test. They were given, from
the beginning, all of the hay they would clean up.










TABLE L-Daily ration for each calf (November 17, 1910, to March 17, 1911). 1-.
I tIo

Lot 1. Lot 2. Lot 3.

Period. Cotton- Cotton- id Cotton- Corn-and- Cotton-. M Cotton- Corn-and- Cotton-
seed seed Mxed seed seed eed seed cob seed Mixed
meal. hulls. ay. meal. meal. hulls. hay. meal. meal. hulls. hay.

Poubd. Pounos. Pou Pounds. Powns. Poviss. Po. Po PowuP. Powod. Pounds. Powund.
November 17 to December 7 (preliminary period)............. 2.09 5.34 5.10 1.91 0.69 5.77 5.57 1.38 1.69 5.35 4.66 i
December 8to January 4 (28 days) ............................. 2.69 7.36 5.05 1.85 .92 7.36 5.18 1.85 3.73 7.39 3.70 >.
January 5 to February 1 (28 days) ........................... 3.16 7.57 5.24 2.14 1.17 7.57 5.51 2.14 4.67 7.57 3.36
February 2to March 1(28 days) ............................... 3.63 8.00 5.86 2.70 1.35 8.00- 5.51 2.15 4.30 8.00 8.57
March 2 to March 17 (16 days) ................................. 3.67 8.88 5.79 3.42 1.71 8.80 5.74 2.00 4.00 8.00 5.60


0






WEIGHTS AND GAINS-EXPERIMENT I.


During the preliminary feeding period each calf in lot 1 received
an average of only 2.09 pounds of cottonseed meal each day, and
during the last 16 days of the feeding period the calves in this lot
received an average daily feed of only 3.67 pounds of cottonseed
meal. At one time the daily allowance was raised to 4 pounds for
each calf, but some of them began to scour and the allowance of meal
was quickly reduced. The calves in lots 2 and 3 received a partial
feed of corn-and-cob meal; this was mixed with the cottonseed meal,
so the daily allowance of concentrated feeds for the calves of these
two lots was greater than that of the calves in lot 1. During the
preliminary period each calf in lot 2 received a daily feed of 2.6
pounds of concentrated feeds, practically one-fourth of the amount
being corn-and-cob meal. Each calf in lot 3, during the same period,
received 3.05 pounds daily of the concentrated feeds, 55.4 per cent
of which was corn-and-cob meal. At the end of the test each calf
in lot 3 was eating 6 pounds daily of a mixture of one-third cotton-
seed meal and two-thirds corn-and-cob meal. They ate this amount
readily with no ill results following.
It should be noted that when the amount of feed was increased
it was increased gradually. No abrupt changes were made.
WEIGHTS AND GAINS.
When the preliminary weights were taken, November 18, 1910,
the calves averaged from six to eight months in age. While they were
not large for their age, they were larger than the average for the
State. Their mothers probably averaged about 1,000 pounds in
weight in usual breeding condition. The calves had not been pam-
pered in any way during the summer months; they had simply run
with their mothers upon a reasonably good pasture.
In some previous experimental work done by this bureau and the
Alabama Experiment Station, yearling grade Angus calves attained
a weight of only 402 pounds, but they were heavily infested with
ticks. Some ticks were permitted to get on the calves used in the
present test, but they were not badly infested. Of course, this slight
infestation retarded their development, but just how much it is
impossible to state.
The table below shows that the calves made satisfactory gains
during the winter feeding periods.







FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

TABLE 2.-Weights, total gains, and average daily gains.
PRELIMINARY PERIOD (NOV. 17 TO DEC. 7).


Nun- Number Averae Average Average Average
initial finl total daily
Lotc ba le, Ration. ofdays weight of welghtof gap of gain or
caesfed. each calf., each calf.t each calf. each calf.

ICottonseed meal ..... ........ 1 Pouwt Pounds. Pounds. Puendnis.
1 27 Cottonseed hulls.......... .. 19 3. 380 42 2.21
1 MLxed alfalfa hay ............ .
Cottonseed meal. two-thilds.... 1I
2 24 Corn-and-cob meal, one-third.. 1 31 37 41 2.10
Cottonseed hulls........ . .3 37 4 .
Mixed alfalfa hay ........ .. .. .. ..
JCottonseed meal, one-third .. I
3 26 Corn-and-cob meal. two-thruds . 19 32 367 39 2.05
ICottonseed hulls .. ..... .......
Mixed alfalfa hay. .. .. ..........

REGULAR FEEDING PERIOD (DEC. ., 1910, TO MAR. 17, 1911).

Cottonseed meal. .. I
27 Cottonseed hulls . .. .... I W 3O 541 161 1.61
I LXeaI alfala hay . ... ... I
ColtonseedJ meal. two-third ...
2 21 Corn-and-coh mel31. one-tlurd... 1 374 543 169 I.E
S Cottonseed hulls ... 3 543 19
Mixed alfalfa hay.. .. .. .. .
2 Cottonseed meal. one-lhird ... .
3 ,J Corn-and-cob mineral, two-thirds .. 367 546 179 1.79
3 Cottonseed hulls . .. .
S MLxed alfalfa hay. ..


PRELIMINARY AND REGULAR PERIODS COMBINED (NOV. 17,


1910, TO MAR. 17, 1911).


I Cottonseed meal .... . 1
27 Cottonseed hulls ...........119 13s 541 203 1.71
Mixed alfalfa hay. ... . ...... ...
(Cottonseed meal, two-thirds........
24 Corn-and-cob meal, one-third.... 119 .. 54o 210 1.76
Cottonseed hulls ................. ..
Mixed alfalfa hay...................
Cottonseed meal, one-third...........
26 Corn-and-t r ottonseed hulls.............. .
Mixed alfalfa hay ............... I


During the preliminary period from November


17 to December 7


the calves were dehorned and the males castrated, yet they made
excellent gains. The lots gained a daily average of 2.21, 2.16, and
2.05 pounds, respectively, during this period. Of course some of
this increase can be attributed to "fill"; it was not all real gain in
terms of meat and bone.
During the regular experiment from December 8 to March 17 the
gains were also entirely satisfactory. The calves in lot 1, the lot
which had no corn-and-cob meal mixed with cottonseed meal, made
the smallest gains, each calf gaining 1.61 pounds a day; this, how-
ever, was a satisfactory daily gain for small and young animals.
The calves in lot 3, the lot which was given the heavy feed of corn-
and-cob meal along with the cottonseed meal, made the greatest


W.







COST OF 100 POUNDS GAIN-EXPERIMENT 1.


gains, each calf gaining 1.79 pounds daily. The calves in lot 2, the
lot which received the small amount of corn-and-cob meal along
with the cottonseed meal, made anl average daily gain of 1.69 pounds.
During the whole winter feeding period each calf gained an average
of 203, 210, and 218 pounds in weight in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively,
so that when the calves were sold, March 17, the whole lot. of 77
calves averaged 543 pounds in weight. They were practically 12
months old when sold.
It should not be inferred that the ration which produced the
greatest gain in a given tinm is necessarily the best or most profitable
one. While the question of rapidity of gain is an extremely im-
portant factor in final profits, there are other factors, as the cost of
the gain, which must. be taken into consideration.

QUANTITY AND COST OF FEED REQUIRED TO MAKE 100 POUNDS
GAIN.

While the feeds used were all expensive ones, the cost. to make
100 pounds of gain in live weight was not excessive. In fact, the
gains were made cheaply. This Was (due to several factors. First,
the calves were young and growing, and young animals of all kinds
can be made to increase in weight more econonmially than old ones.
Second, the calves were very thrifty, and so made good use of the
feed that they ate. Third, all of the rations were extremely palat-
able, especially the two which had the corn-and-cob meal mixed
with the cottonseed meal. A young animal of any kind will not
make satisfactory gains on an unpalatable ration. Fourth, the
calves had comfortable quarters and were fed and watered regularly.

TABLE 3.-Quantity and cost of .feed required to make 100 pounds of gain.


Lot.


Ration.


Cottonseed meal ....................
1 Cottonseed hulls ...................
Mixed alfalfa hay ...................
Cottonseed meal, two-thirds .......
2 Corn-and-cob meal, one-third......
SCottonseed hulls ...................
SMixed alfalfa hay ..................
Cottonseed meal, one-third ..........
Corn-and-cob meal, two-thirds.....
Cottonseed hulls..................
Mixed alflala hay...................


Preliminary per,- Regular feeding
od-19 days (Nov. peno'.t-R days
17to Dee. 7i. (l)et. 8 toMar. 17)


Pounds Cost of
of feel to fel'd to
mako WiO make HI0
pounds pounds
ol gain. of gain.

Pounds. Dollars.
95
241 3.80
230
88.
40 .
2t56 r 4.4i]
257
66
103
261 4.51
2612
22S-


Pounds Cost of
of feed to ft-ed to
make lio make Iu00
pounds pounds
of gain. of gain.

Pounds. Dollars.
I 201
{ 486 6.85

464 663
3'2J3
I I14 :
430 9
216I


Preliminary and
rp,-ulir periods
combined-119 days
(Nov. 17 to Mar. 17).

Pounds Cost of
of f-,ed to feed to
make 10i make Itl
pounds pounds
oi gnin. of gain.

Pounds Dlloars.
179
435 6 22
315
f 133'
425 6.19
310
130 I
211 [ 6.8.
400
t 218






16 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

During thle preliminary period the calves made both rapid and
economical gains, notwithstanding the fact that they had been -
dehorned and castrated. It cost $3.80, $4.40, and $4.51 to make 100
pounds of gain in live weight in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively, during
the preliminary period. In this period, therefore, the calves which
ate nothing except cottonseed meal, hulls, and alfalfa hay made the
cheapest gains. This, however, was not true of the test when taken j
as a whole.
After the calves had been on feed some weeklcs, within the "fill" not
taken into consideration, the gains were not made as cheaply as at
first. Under average feeding conditions the cheapest gains are made
during the first few weeks of the fattening process; the expensive
gains are usually made near the close of the feeding period. During
the regular feeding period it cost $6.85, $6.63, and $6.95 to make
100 pounds of gain in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cheapest
gains were by the calves in lot 2, where the small amount of corn-
and-cob meal was fed along with the cottonseed meal. The most
expensive gains were made in lot 3, where the calves received a
heavy proportion of corn-and-cob meal.
The cost of the gains, however, does not determine absolutely the
final profits. While the cost of the gains is a very important factor
in determining final profits, there are other factors which must be
taken into consideration as well. The final selling price of the cattle
must also, be considered as an important factor. If expensive gains
are accompanied by a proportionate increase in the final value and
selling price of the cattle, the cost of the gains is a minor considera-
tion; but if expensive gains do not increase the final selling price of
the animal in proportion to the increased expense of making the
gains, those feeds which have caused the expensive gains should be
eliminated.
When the preliminary and the regular periods are combined into
one period of 119 days, it cost $6.22, $6.19, and $6.83 to produce 100
pounds of gains in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively, lot 2 still showing
up to the best advantage and lot 3 to a considerable disadvantage.
PRICES REALIZED ON EACH KIND OF FEED WHEN PRICES OF THE
OTHER FEEDS ARE FIXED.
As previously stated, the cottonseed meal cost $26 a ton and the
hulls $7 a ton, the hay being valued at $15 a ton and the corn at 70
cents a bushel. Before a farmer spends $26 for a ton of cottonseed
meal and $7 for a ton of hulls to be used as a feed for cattle he should
know whether or not lie will get his money back in the shape of
profits on the cattle. In other words, the farmer should know
whether lie will be able to realize a profit on the money invested in
the feed. When hlie has hay and corn on his farm he expects to sell






FINANCIAL STATEMENT-EXPERIMENT I.


them at the highest possible price. When, in addition, hlie has cattle
the farmer often hesitates as to the best method of disposing of the
corn and hay. The question arises in his mind, Should I feed the
hay and corn to the calves and steers, or should I sell these feeds
directly upon the market?
The following table throws some light on this problem:
TABLE 4.-Prices realized on each feed in.hen fed to the culrves and prices of the other feeds
are fixed.

Feed. Lir I. Lot 2. Lot 3.

Cottonseed mpal. ........... ................................. ..per ton. 836. 10 142. I 3 836.50
Cottonseed hulls ........................... .............................do.. 11. 15 12.05 10.40
Corn ................... .. ... . .. ................ per bushl. . 1.9 .95
Altalfa hay ............................. ....... .....................per ion.. 21.72 20.92 21.25

While the cottonseed meal cost only $26 a ton, it, was fed to the
calves and sold, by means of them, for $36.10 to $42.18 a ton. The
hulls cost only $7 a ton, and they were resold, by means of the calves,
for $10.40 to $12.05 a ton. If the corn had been sold upon the market
it would not have brought more than 60 cents a bushel during the fall
of 1910 (it is charged against these calves, however, at 70 cents a
bushel), but when it was fed to these calves it was sold, by means of
the calves, for 95 cents a bushel in lot, 3 and $1.90 a bushel in lot 2.
If the mixed alfalfa hay had been sold as hay, it would not have
brought more than $15 a ton on the farm, but it was sold, through the
calves, for $20.72 to $21.25 a ton.
These results tend to show that the farmer can usually afford to buy
certain outside feeds-feeds which have not been grown on the
farm-for feeding his animals, while he can almost always afford to
feed his home-grown feeds to live stock rather than sell them upon the
market.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.

These calves were raised on the farm on which they were fattened,
so the initial or fall price is an estimated one. Their estimated value
was placed at 31 cents a pound on the farm, without shrink, when
these experiments began, November 17, 1910.
When they were ready to be sold, buyers visited the farm to make bids.
At the time of sale the beef market was on a rapid decline, so they did
not sell as well as was expected. They were sold March 17, 1911, the
calves in lot 1 selling for $5.01 per hundredweight on the farm, those
in lot 2 bringing $5.11 per hundredweight, and those in lot 3 selling
for $5.26 per hundredweight. All the sales were based on the farm
weight after a 3 per cent shrink. They were shipped to the Cincin-
nati market, where complete slaughter records were secured.
29834--Bull. 147-12-3







18 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

TABLE 5.-Financial statement.

Lot 1. Cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, mixed alfalfa hay:
By sale of 27 calves, 14,172 pounds, at $5.01 per hundredweight........ $710.02
To27calves, 9,120 pounds, at 34 centsa pound ................. $319.20
To 9,821 pounds ciot tonseed meal, at $26 a ton .................. 127.67
To 23,908 pounds cottonseed hulls, at $7 a ton................ 83.68
To 17,320 pounds mixed alfalfa hay, at $15 a ton .............. 129.90
Total expense .................................................... 660. 45
Total pr,,fi t. ........................................................... 49. 57
Profit per calf ...... ................... . .. ... ................ 1.84

Lot 2. Cottonseed meal two-thirds, corn-and-cob meal one-third, cottonseed hulls,
mixed alfalfa hay:
By sale of 24 calves, 12,633 pounds, at $5.11 per hundredweight........ $645.55
To 24 calves, 7,984 pounds, at 3A cents a pound .............. $279. 44
To 6,6S2 pounds cottonseed meal, at $26 a ton ................ 86. 87
To 3,298 pounds corn-and-cob meal, at 70 cents a bushel....... 32.98
To 21,418 pounds cottonseed hulls, at $7 a ton ................. 74.96
To 15,630 pounds mixed alfalfa hay, at $15 a ton .............. 117.23
Total expense ................. ................................... 591.48
Total profit ............... .. ................................... ..... 54. 07
Profit per calf ............... .. ...................................... 2. 25

Lot 3. Cottonseed meal one-third, corn-and-cob meal two-thirds, cottonseed hulls,
mixed alfalfa hay:
By sale 26 calves, 13,774 pounds, at $5.26 per hundredweight ........... $724.51
To 26 calves, 8,531 pounds, at 34 cents a pound............. $298.59
To 7,353 pounds cottonseed meal, at $26 a ton................ 95. 59
To 11,963 pounds corn-and-cob meal, at 70 cents a bushel...... 119.63
To 22,687 pounds cottonseed hulls, at $7 a ton ................. 79. 40
To 12,363 pounds mixed alfalfa hay, at $15 a ton.............. 92.72
Total expense.................................................... 685.93
Total profit ............................................................ 38. 58
Profit per calf .......................................................... 1.48

The foregoing shows that all of the calves were fed at a profit, the
lowest being $1.48 per calf in lot 3 and the highest, $2.25 per calf in
lot 2. What do these profits mean? They mean that. the corn and
hay raised on the farm were sold, through the calves, at 70 cents a
bushel and $15 a ton, respectively; that the money expended for
cottonseed meal and hulls was all returned to the owner; that the
fertilizer value of these feeds was left on the farm, and, in addition,
each calf returned the above additional profits. The monetary
returns were satisfactory, as the farm feeds were sold for more, by
means of the calves, than could have been secured for them on the .
market, and their fertilizing value was left on the farm in the shape of
barnyard manure.






SLAUGHTER "RECORDS-EXPERIMENT I.


The calves in lot 3, the ones which received the heavy ration of
corn-and-cob meal, returned the smallest profit, notwithstanding
the fact that. they sold for the highest price at Cincinnati. The
increase in the price did not overcome the added expense of feeding a
heavy ration of corn-and-cob meal. While it did not pay to feed the
heavy ration of corn-and-cob-meal, it did pay to feed the small
amount of cornl-an(I-cob meal which was used in lot 2, as the calves in
this lot proved to be the most profitable ones fed. This indicates that
when fattening beef calves with cottonseed meal and corn-and-cob
meal as concentrates one-third of the concentrated part of the
ration can profitably consist of corn-and-cob meal, while it is less
profitable to have corn-and-cob meal constitute two-thirds of the con-
centrated part of the ration.
However, there is one factor that has not been taken into consider-
ation which, if considered, would add to the profits of lots 2 and 3,
especially the latter. Some undigested corn passed through the
calves in these two lots; if hogs followed them they would derive no
little benefit from the droppinlgs. In fact, several hogs did follow
the calves in lot 3, but no record was kept of their gains. These gains
should be credited to the calves.

SLAUGHTER RECORDS.
As stated before, the-e calves were all shipped to the Cincinnati
market, where full slaughter data were secured. The animals were
driven 9 miles firiom the farm to the railroad, and on account of
unusual delays they were ,n the cars 67 hours before reaching Cincin-
nati. The slaughter results are given in the following table:
TABLE 6.--Siighhtr data,

SLive wuighis. Shrnkcme Per cent dressed.
Lot.Number of
Lot. Nambr Totl on afermr At Crecin- A..rae*. Total. u farm By market
ck sfi n farm 11, Bv -ninrk
.\a o E A. CrU.- By market
farm .et shriti nati. p.r irilf weight. weight.

Pound,. Pof 'InJ. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Percent. Percent.
1 2? 14.6 14. 7L2 13 ?n0 1,560 57.8 47.6 51.7
2 24 13.024 12 t. 3 11 7-1i 1,284 53.5 47.8 51.5
3 26 14.200 1.3. 774 12, 700 1,500 57.7 48.9 53.1

The calves of lot 3, the ones which received the large proportion
of corn-and-cob meal, dre-sed out the highest, each calf in this lot
dressing 53.1 per cent. of the market weigliht. The calves in lots 1
and 2 dressed out 51.7 and 51.5 per cent, respectively.
The trip was a hard one on the calves, and when the size of the
animals is taken into consideration they shrank heavily on the road
to Cincinnati. The average loss in weight for each calf was 57.8
pounds in lot. 1, 53.5 pounds in lot 2, and 57.7 pounds in lot 3.







20 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

SUMMARY.

The first experiment is summarized as follows:

TABLE 7.-Summary statement.

Item. Lot 1. Lot 2. Lot 3,

C alves in c.ibh lot ......... 27 ..................... 24 ........ . .......... 26.
Cottonseed meal....... Cottonseed meal, two- Cottonseed meal, one-
thirds, t hurd.
ation................ Cottonseed hulls....... Corn-anJ-cob meal, one- Corn-and-cob meal, two.
t i...........rd, t hu. ds.
Mixed alfalfa hay...... Cottonced hulls........ Cottonseed hulls.
........... ............ Mixed alfalfa hay ...... Mixed alfalfa hay.
Total days ffed .. ......... 11 .................... 119 ........ ............. 119.
Average wt-ighl when 33S pounds .............. 333 pounds .............. 328 pounds.
feeding bIeaa.
Average in l ,itiht .... 541 pounds ............ 543 pound .ds............ 546 pounds.
Averagoegiu ol,-aL h alt... 201 pounds ...... 210 pounds ............ 21S pounds.
A rerage daily ginm oreab 1.71 pounds ............ 1.76 pounds............. l.3 pounds.
calf.
179 pou-nds meal........ 133 pounds meal........ 130 pounds meaL
P'ound.is fi-d to make 100 )4.35 pounds hulls....... 65 pounds corn ......... 211 pounds corn.
pouunls g-im. J15 pounds lt.y......... 125 pounds hullsq ....... 4U0O pounds bulls.
'... ..................... 310 pounds hay......... 21S pounds ay.
Cost to make i) poiind.s i..22 .................... Si 19 ............. ..... $. 6.83.
gain.
P'r i r.-;aliied on each ion S] ................. . $2.1 ................. $36.50.
O) 0[ l TOD O '.I. IJ 'In- .i I u'tie-n
w tier pri, a* are fix d.
Pri. ', r atlied orn ea.:h ton $11 1:5 .... ............. $1205................... $10.40.
t[ i hLl.15 ,hi-n other
pr w.t.-s ar : fix u -1.
]'rie i.ali.'ed on ea3h .. .... ............ . ................... ..
bith. Is ol cor r he-n
oth' r prit r' fi\ .'1. ]
.Prc,' r, h.li .,.l un .a hi tin 2ii.2.............. . .52' 2................... $21.25.
ol h.i\ t~in uther prices
.ar.- fi, ..-i.
Fall p-ri ,-ol tlve r- r-rcw t. S.. .,n .... .............. ti ..- ......... ........... $3.50.
Sullinrg pjrice uf alv-',- p,.-r SS I ................... $5 i1 ........... ...... I 5.26.
t" t.
.Pro it on ibh t.t.lf t,,,t 4 ................... !2.25 ............ .... 81 45.
S1ll ,x" l-.g.p. n., i i


1. The animals used in the experiment were calves ranging from 6
to 8 moiontlis i age.
2. The Feeding was begun November 17, 1910, and continued until
Maich 17, 1911.
3. The 77 calves were divided into three lots and each lot fed upon
the following feeds:
Lot 1. Cottonseedl meal; cottonseed hulls; mixed alfalfa hay.
Lot. 2. Cottonseed meal, two-thirds; corn-and-cob meal, one-third;
cottonseed liulls; mixed alfalfa hay. Lot 3. Cottonseed meal, one-
third; c,),'n-andt-cob meal, two-thirds; cottonseed, hulls; mixed
alfialfa hIay.
4. Dul-ing tile whole feeding period each calf in lots 1,2, and 3 made
an average daily gain of 1.71, 1.76, and 1.83 pounds, respectively.
5. When tite wliole feeding period is taken into consideration the
following pounds of feed were required to make 100 pounds of gain:
Lot 1: 179 pounds of cottonseedl meal, 435 pounds of hulls, and
315 pounds of hay. Lot, 2: 133 pounds of cottonseed meal, 65 pounds
of corn-and-cob meal, 425 pounds of hulls, and 310 pounds of hay.






SUM iMARY-EXPERIMENT I.


Lot 3: 130 pounds of cottonseed meal, 211 pounds of corn-and-cob
meal, 400 pounds of hulls, and 218 pounds of hay.
6. When the whole feeding period is taken into consideration, each
100 pounds of gain in lots 1, 2, and 3 cost $6.22, $6.19, and $6.83,
respectively.
7. Cottonseed meal cost $26 a ton, but, by means of the calves, was
sold for $36.10, $42.18, and $36.50 a ton in lots 1, 2, and 3, respec-
tively, when thle prices of thle other feeds were fixed.
8. Cottonseed hulls cost $7 a ton, but, by means of the calves, each
ton was sold for $11.15, $12.05, and $10.40 in lots 1, 2, and 3, respec-
tively, when the prices of thle other feeds were fixed.
9. By means of the calves each bushel of corn was sold for $1.90
and $0.95 in lots 2 and 3, respectively, when the prices of the other
feeds were fixed.
10. By means of t lie calves each ton of alfalfa hay was sold for $20.72,
$20.92, and $21.25 in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively, when the prices of
the other feeds were fixed.
11. The calves cost $3.50 per hundredweight at the beginning of
the test. At the close they sold for $5.01, $5.11, and $5.26 per hun-
dredweight in lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
12. Each calf netted a clear profit of $1.84, $2.25, and $1.48 in lots
1, 2, and 3, respectively.
13. The profits were satisfactory, as the farm crops were sold for
considerably more, by means of the calves, than if they had been
sold as farm crops, and the value of the fertilizer should also be
considered.














II. FATTENING CALVES IN WINTER ON COTTONSEED
MEAL, COTTONSEED HULLS, AND PEA-VINE HAY.
Fifty-two calves were used in the second experiment, the main
objects of which were:
1. To determine whether or not young beef calves can be fattened
profitably for the spring market on a feed of cottonseed meal, cotton-
seed hulls, and mixed pea-vine hay.
2. To study the value of shelter for young calves while being
fattened.
The 52 calves were divided into two lots when the test began on
December 7, 1910. One lot was fed under the shelter of a good barn,
the other lot. being fed in a corn-stalk field with no shelter at all
except some trees. It was subsequently seen, however, that these
young calves would not thrive during the winter months without
a shelter to turn the cold rains, so on February 11, 1911, they were
brought into the barns and placed under the sheds with the other
calves. After February 11 the 52 head of calves were fed as one lot.
The work was done in cooperation with Mr. E. F. Al.lison, of
Sumter County, Ala., who had kindly agreed to cooperate in experi-
mental work with beef cattle and hogs. Mr. Allison furnished the
calves and the feed, while the bureau and the experiment station
provided a trained man to be stationed on the farm to look after
the experiment. Mr. L. W. Shook lived on the farm and had per-
sonal charge of the work.
THE CALVES.
The majority of the calves used in this experiment were raised on
the farm of Mr. Allison, near Bellamy. Ala. A few calves were pur-
chased from neighbors. More than half of those raised on Mr. Alli-
son's farm were grade Aberdeen-Angus of excellent quality. The
ones which were purchased from neighbors were of common quality
and showed very little beef blood. As a whole, they were not as
large or as good in quality as were the calves which were used in
the other two tests reported in this bulletin. When the test began
they had attained an average weight of 313 pounds. The calves
were born (luring the spring of 1910, so *ere from 6 to 8 months
old when the test began. December 7, 1910. They were valued at
3 cents a pound at the beginning of the experiment.
22 I






CHARACTER AND PRICE OF RATIONS-EXPERIMENT II.


PLAN OF THE WORK.

At the beginning of the test the 52 calves were divided into two
lots of 26 each. One lot was fed in a small paddock, across the west
side of which extended a good shelter. As previously stated, the
intention at first was to feed the second lot of calves without shelter;
that is, they were to be fed in a cornfield where no shelter, except
trees, was available. All were started on feed December 7, 1910,
but it was seen that the calves without shelter were not making
satisfactory and economical gains, as the winter was unusually wet
and cold, so on February 11, 1911, the field lot of calves was
brought to the barn and placed with the other calves. The whole
52 head were fed together in one lot from February 11 to the end of
the test, March 29, 1911.
On account of the fact that the two lots were finally thrown
together into one, the test is presented in this publication as one lot.

PRICES AND QUALITY OF FEEDS.

Cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, and mixed cowpea hay were
the feeds used. The cowpea hay was grown upon the farm; the
other two feeds were purchased on the market. On March 20, 1911,
the supply of cowpea hay was exhausted and a change was made to a
rather poor quality of hay, composed of crab grass, with a small
trace of Lespedeza and pea vines. The feeds were valued as follows:
Cottonseed meal ....................................... per ton.. $26. 00
Cottonseed hulls ........................................... do .... 7.00
Mixed pea-vine hay ...................................do... do.... 15. 00

DAILY RATIONS.

During the first month no hay was fed, but it was thought that it
would be profitable to use some hay along with the hulls, so it was
provided after the first month.
It should be remembered in studying the following daily feeds
that these were young and small calves. Their average weight was
only 313 pounds when the test began.

TABLE 8.-Daily ration for ach calf, by rnonthly periods,from Dec. 7,1910, to Mar. 29,
1911.

Period. Cottonseed Col onked
meal. hulls. Hay.

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
First 28days............. .... ............................. 2.84 10.20 0
Second 2 davs.......... ................................. 3.11 10.40 2.04
T hird 28 das .................. ............................... 3.27 9.94 2.04
Fourth 28 da)s............... ...... ..... ............................. 3.09 9.60 1.92






24 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

During no period did the calves average more than 3.27 pounds
each of cottonseed meal daily. Even with this small allowance of the
meal a few calves scoured. They were given a definite number of
pounds of hulls along with the meal, and all of the hay they would
eat up clean after each meal. They ate, on the average, practically
10 pounds of hulls per calf per day, and slightly more than 2 pounds
of hay. Many feeders would criticise these rations as being too small,
but satisfactory gains were made.

WEIGHTS AND GAINS.
The calves did not make unusually large gains, but when their size
is taken into consideration it is seen that they increased in weight at
a reasonable rate. The feeding period was continued for 112 days,
and during this time an average daily gain of 1.24 pounds was secured.

TABLE 9.-Weights and gains for total feeding period of 112 days, from Dec. 7, 1910, to
Mar. 29, 1911.

Average Average Average Average
initial final totaJ daily
Number of calves. weight of weight of gain or gain of
each calf. each calf. each calf. each calf.

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
52............. . ................................. 313 452 139 1.24

At the inauguration of the experiment each calf weighed 313
pounds; at the close they had attained an average weight of 452
pounds; hence, during the feeding period of 112 days (Dec. 7,
1910, to Mar. 29, 1911) each calf made a total gain of 139 pounds.
The animals were thrifty throughout the whole test.

QUANTITY AND COST OF FEED REQUIRED TO MAKE 100 POUNDS
GAIN.
Considering that these calves were fattened in the winter time and
upon dry feeds altogether, the gains as shown in the table below were
produced at an unusually small expense. This was due largely to the
fact that the animals were young. The younger the animal the more
cheaply can the gains be made. As a rule, the feeder can not expect
to produce gains as cheaply on mature as on young cattle.

TABLE 10.-Quantity and cost of feed required to make 100 pounds of gain.

Pounds of feed Cost of feed
Number of Ration required to to make 100
animals. aon make 100 pounds of
pounds of gain. gain.

Pounds.
ICottonseed m eal ....................... ........ ...... .......... 249
52 Cottonseed hulls ................. .. .. ..... .. .. .. SUs .56.97
AMixed cowpea hay ............. .. .... .................... .. 121 I




Ar


FINANCIAL STATEMENT-EXPERIMENT II. 25

It is seen that 249 pounds of cottonseed meal, 808 pounds of cotton-
seed hulls, and 121 pounds of hay were required to make 100 pounds
of gain; or, when feeds are valued as on page 23, it cost $6.97 to make
100 pounds of increase in live weight.

AMOUNT REALIZED ON EACH TON OF FEED WHEN PRICES OF THE
OTHER FEEDS ARE FIXED.

This test again emphasizes the facts, first, that the farmer can well
afford to buy commercial feeds for his beef animals during the fatten-
ing process, and second, when lie hlias home-raised feeds to sell greater
prices can be realized on them when they are sold by means of live
stock than when sold upon the general grain or hay market. Each
ton of feed used was sold, by means of the calves,, for the following
prices:
Price realized on each ton of cottonseed meal when other prices are fixed .... $46. 32
Price realized on each ton of cottonseed hulls when other prices are fixed.... 13. 24
Price realized on each ton of mixed hay when other prices are fixed ......... 56. 61
Cottonseed meal cost $26 a ton, but it was sold, by means of the
calves, for $46.32 a ton. The cottonseed hulls cost $7 a ton and this
sum was nearly doubled by means of the calves, the price realized
being $13.24 a ton. The price realized on the hay was, of course,
abnormally high, as not much hay was fed; only 4.37 tons were used
throughout. the whole test, but. this small amount was sold, by means
of the calves, for $56.61 a ton when cottonseed meal and hulls are
valued at $26 and $7 a ton, respectively.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT.

At the beginning of the experiment thlie calves were valued at 3 cents
pound. When they were ready to be sold, March 29, 1911, theywere
shipped to New Orleans, where they sold for an average of $5.55 per
hundredweight. All expenses were taken into consideration in the
financial statement below, such as freight, feed, yardage, and commis-
sion for selling in New Orleans. These calves were not sold by farm
weighlit, so the financial statement is based on NewOrleans weightsand
prices:
TABLE 1l.-Financial statement.
By sale of 52 calves, 23,212 pounds, at $5.55.............................. $1,288.27
To 52 calves, 16,304 pounds, at 3 cents a pound ................. $489.12
To 17,900 pounds of cottonseed meal, at $26 a ton ................ 232.70
To 58,303 pounds of cottonseed hulls, at $7 a ton................ 204.06
To 8,743 pounds of mixed pea-vine hay, at $15 a ton ..... ....... 65. 57
To shipping expenses, commission, yardage, etc., on 52 calves .... 114.92
Total expense .................. ......... ......................... 1,106.37
Total profit.................................................. 181.90
Profit per calf............................................. ............ 3.50






26 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

After all expenses were charged against the calves they netted a
clear profit of $3.50 each. This was a satisfactory profit. It cost
$2.21 to ship each calf to New Orleans and pay all the selling expenses
upon their arrival; the total shipping expense amounted to 49 cents
for each 100 pounds live weight.

SLAUGHTER RECORDS.

As stated before, these calves were shipped to New Orleans, where
slaughter records were secured. They were driven 3 miles to the
railroad at Bellamy, Ala., to be loaded on the cars:

TABLE 12.-Slaughter data.

Live weights. Shrinkage. Per cent dressed.

Number of halves. On farm By shunk
Total on after 3 per At New T Average f By market
farm. cen Orleans. Total per call, weight.fm weight.
shrink.

Pounds. Pounds. Poun ds. Pou rids. Poun ds. Per cent. Per cent.
45................ 20,475 19,8hi 19,935 540 12 52.8 52.7


There were 52 calves altogether, but the dressed weights of only
45 were secured. The animals lost an average of 12 pounds each
during the trip to New Orleans; this was an unusually small shrink-
age. They dressed out 52.7 per cent by New Orleans weights, and
52.8 per cent by farm weights, after a 3 per cent shrink.

SUMMARY.

The second experiment is summarized as follows:

TABLE 13.-Summary statement.
Total num ber of calves ................................................... 52
Average weight of each calf at beginning of test (Dec. 7, 1910) ...... pounds.. 313
Average weight of each calf at end of tet (Mar. 29, 1911).............do.... 452
Average gain of each calf ............................................ do .... 139
Average daily gain each calf for 112 days ............................ do.... 1.24
fmeal.............do ... 249
Pounds feed required to make 100 pounds of gain.. hulls.............do.... 808
1hay..............do.... 121
Cost to make 100 pounds of gain........................................... $6.97
Price realized on each ton cottonseed meal, prices of other feeds being fixed.. $46.32
Price realized on each ton cottonseed hulls, prices of other feeds being fixed $13. 24
Price realized on each ton hay, prices of other feeds being fixed ............. $56.61
Value of calves at beginning of test (Dec. 7, 1910) ......... hundredweight.. $3.00
Selling price of calves at New Orleans, Mar. 29, 1911 ...............do....do $5.55
Total profit on each calf................................................... $3.50






SUMMARY-EXPERIMENT II.


1. The calves used in this test were from 6 to 8 months old when
the experiment began, December 7, 1910.
2. They were valued at $3 per hundredweight when the test began.
3. At the beginning of the test the calves averaged 313 pounds in
weight; at the close (Mar. 29, 1911) they had attained an average
weight of 452 pounds. They made an average daily gain of 1.24
pounds.
4. There were required 249 pounds of cottonseed meal, 808 pounds
of cottonseed hulls, and 121 pounds of mixed cowpea hay to make
100 pounds of increase in live weight. The cost of 100 pounds gain
was $6.97.
5. The price realized for each feed when sold through the calves, and
when the prices of the other feeds were fixed, was as follows: Cotton-
seed meal, $46.32 per ton; cottonseed hulls, $13.24 per ton; pea-vine
hay, $56.61 per ton.
6. On March 29, 1911, the calves were shipped to New Orleans and
sold for $5.55 per hundredweight. Each calf netted a clear profit of
$3.50.













III. WINTERING CALVES FOLLOWED BY FATTENING ON
PASTURE.
The third experiment was carried on in cooperation with Messrs.
Cobb and McMillan, of Sumter County, Ala. As in the previous test
(Part I of this bulletin), these farmers furnished the cattle and the
feed, and the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Alabama Experi-
ment Station placed a trained man upon the farm to carry on the
experimental work. One of the authors of this bulletin, Mr. W. F.
Ward, was stationed on the farm and had personal supervision of the
test.
PLAN AND OBJECT OF THE WORK.
The calves in this experiment were born during the spring of 1909.
During the summer of 1909 they were with their mothers on a reason-
ably good pasture and received no particular attention except being
salted regularly. When fall arrived and the pastures were exhausted
they were taken from their mothers, weaned, tagged, dehorned, and
the males castrated. They were then put up in an acre lot in which
there was no grass, and were fed all winter on a ration of cottonseed
meal, corn chop, cottonseed hulls, and mixed alfalfa hay. The object
was to give them sufficient feed to produce good gains all through the
winter months, but not to fatten them for the market until thepasture
was available in the following spring. By the latter part of March,
1910, sweet clover (Melilotus) had appeared, so the calves were
changed from the winter feed to this pasture and fed some cottonseed
cake and alfalfa hay in addition. They were kept upon this pasture
until June 22, 1910, when they were sold. During the latter part of
the grazing season there was some Japan clover (Lespedeza) and Ber-
nmuda in the pasture. During all this time the calves were given a
small daily feed of cottonseed cake along with the pasture.
The object of the work was to determine the profit, if any, in,
handling and feeding beef calves in accordance with the above plan.
THE CALVES.
The 34 calves used in this test were a good grade; none of them
was purebred, but the majority contained from one-half to three-
fourths of Aberdeen-Angus, Hereford, or Shorthorn blood. The
majority of the calves were raised on the farm where the experimental
work was done; some few of them, however, were purchased from
neighbors just before the inauguration of the experiment. As before











































CALVES FATTENING ON PASTURE. CONDITION OF ANIMALS FIVE WEEKS BEFORE END OF TEST (PART 11I),









FEED AND MANAGEMENT-EXPERIMENT III.


stated, they had all been born during the spring of 1909, so were from
7 to 8 months old when they were first weighed, December 3, 1909.
For their age they were not large, although they were larger than the
average calves of the State. At the beginning of the work their
average weight was 386 pounds.
FEED AND MANAGEMENT.
December 3, 1909, the calves were placed in the acre lot, in which
was a good shed that. afforded ample protection from cold rains and
wind. On the above date the winter feeding began. They were
salted at regular intervals. Good, clean, fresh water was kept in
troughs all of the time. The hay racks and the feed bunks or troughs
were all under shelter so that the calves could eat in a comfortable
place no matter how inclement the weather became. During the win-
ter months they were fed twice daily, once early in the morning and
again an hour or so before (lark.
When the grass appeared in the spring (March 22, 1910) each calf
was weighed and all were turned upon the pasture to be fattened on
grass. While on pasture they were fed only once a day, and this was
done about sundown, or in the cool part of the afternoon, so that all
would come out to the feed troughs. The feed, which consisted of
cottonseed cake and alfalfa hay, was not thrown upon the ground;
the cake was placed in feed troughs situated at convenient places in
the pastures, and the hay was fed from hay racks. When cattle are
thus fed in properly constructed hay racks and troughs practically no
feed is wasted.
The pasture was not free from ticks, so the calves became slightly
infested. However, they were dipped at irregular intervals, and very
few ticks appeared on them. No Texas fever cases developed.
A good supply of water was afforded by a creek and an artificial pool.
THE PASTURE.
In the western part of Alabama sweet clover (Melilotus) appears
earlier than any other pasture plant. In the spring of 1910 this
clover pasture was ready for grazing by March 22, but it did not
afford complete and satisfactory grazing at this early (late. However,
no hay was used to supplement the pasture until April 29, when a
small allowance of freshly cut alfalfa hay was added to the pasture
and cake ration. Later on in the season the sweet clover died down,
when Japan clover (Lespedeza), some Bermuda, and carpet grass
constituted the main grazing plants.
The pasture had been in cultivation during the season of 1909, so
did not furnish ample grazing, as the grasses had not become thor-
oughly established. Still the calves made good and economical gains
during the pasture season. The 34 animals were grazed upon a field
which contained practically 100 acres.







FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.


CHARACTER AND PRICES OF FEEDS.
Cottonseed meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed hulls, corn chop, and
freshly cut alfalfa hay were all used at various times throughout the
test. The purchased feeds were charged against the calves at the
market prices. Estimated prices, corresponding as nearly as possible
to the market prices, were placed upon the two feeds which were
grown upon the farm. The following prices were placed upon the
feeds:
Cottonseed meal ..................................... per ton.. $26.00
Cotton.eed cake (broken) ............................... do.... 26.00
Cottonseed hulls ................ ......................... do .... 7.00
Corn chop .......................................... .per bushel.. .70
Alfalfa hay .............................. ........... per ton.. 15.00
Pasture.................................. per head per month.. .50
During thle winter months a hay made up of a mixture of Johnson
_ grass and alfalfa was fed, but that- which was fed along with the
pasture was practically all freshly cut alfalfa. The corn, which was
grown on thle farm, was used in the shape of corn chop, the shelled corn
being run through a grinder which crushed the grain into a coarse meal.
The cottonseed meal and the cottonseed cake were both purchased
from a near-by oil mill. The cake had been broken into nut size and
sacked; this had been done at the mill. All of the feeds were of good
quality.
DAILY RATIONS.

As noted in the early part of this bulletin, young animals must be
fed with a great deal of care and skill; they require more care and
attention than steers and oxen. These calves were fed at practically
the same hour each day, and received a definite amount of feed. This
daily allowance of feed was limited, and it was expected that the
troughs would be clean within an hour after each feeding.
TABLE 1A -Daily feedfor each calf for the t hole period (Dec. 3, 1909, to June 22, 1910).

Daily ration.
Period.
W inter period (Dec. 3 to Pasture period (Mar.
Mar. 24). 2.5 to June 22).

Pounds. Pounda.
2. 18 cottonseed meal.........
First 28 days............... .... .... ........ .3 corn chlf ay .. cotonseed cae.
1.68 cottonseed meal..... ....
3.93 mixed alf a hay.....
17.13 cottonseed hulls ....
n 28 d 2.40 corn chop........ ... 3.85 cottonseed cake.
second 28 d ys.... ....... .. ............... 3.99 mixed alfalfa hay ...... 1.59 alfalfa hay.
7.23 cottonseed hulls .......
1.38 cottonseed meal........
Third 28 da 11.07 corn chop ......... .. 5 cottonseed cake.
hird 28 da s .................................... 3.82 m ixed alfalfa hay ....... 2.74 alfalfa hay.
19.39 cottonseed hulls ...... I
1.48 cottonseed meal .....1...
Fourth 28da. .. 72 corn chop ....... cottonseed cake.S
lourl h 28 days ......... .... ................. 3.36 mixed alfalfa hay .... 2.74 alfalfa hay.'
10.24 cottonseed hulls.......
1 Remainder of pasture season, 5 days.






DAILY RATIONS-EXPERIMENT III.


It will be seen that the calves did not get a heavy grain ration at any
time. For the first 28 days of the winter period each calf was given
practically 3.5 pounds of grain each day; during thesecond period of 28
days the quantity was raised to 4 pounds for each calf daily. This
quantity was too expensive, though, so the grain part of the ration
was reduced considerably during the third period of 28 days. The
object was to get these calves through the winter as cheaply as possi-
ble, and still produce reasonable and steady gains. The pasture was
looked forward to as the feed for making rapid and cheap gains, so the
high-priced winter feeds were used as sparingly as possible. It will be
seen later, however, that the calves made satisfactory gains in the
winter months.
During the winter months a definite quantity of cottonseed hulls
was weighed out to the animals at each feed. It will be seen that
for the first 28 days each calf ate 7.13 pounds of hulls daily, while
during the last 28 days the daily allowance was raised to 10.24 pounds.
Alfalfa hay was fed ad libitum; they were given all they cared to eat
after receiving the regular feed of hulls and concentrates. They did
not consume much alfalfa hay, however, as the average was under 4
pounds daily.
When the pasture season arrived, March 25, 1909, the calves were
turned upon grass and given an average daily feed of 3.23 pounds
of cottonseed cake for the first 28 days. The pasture was not good at
this early date, and the calves made only 0.23 of a pound average
dailygainper head during the firstperiod. It would probably have been
profitable at this time to have supplemented the pasture with some
alfalfa hay, but. the hay could not be secured. By April 29 a new
crop of alfalfa had been cut, so that date marked the beginning of
the use of the hay. After this date hay was fed each day until the
calves were sold. During the last 33 days of the test each calf was
given a daily feed of 5 pounds of cottonseed cake and 2.74 pounds of
alfalfa hay along with the pasture.
WEIGHTS AND GAINS.
These calves were larger than those used in the test reported
in Part I. When the test began the calves averaged 386 pounds in
weight; when it closed, they averaged 628 pounds, or they made
an average total gain of 242 pounds each from December 3, 1909, to
June 22, 1910. Taken as a whole, the gains were entirely satisfactory.
TABLE 15.- Total and daily gains.
Numr Average Average Average Average
Nu Number in I jia final 1otal daily
PeriodNumber of days weightof weightof gain of gainof
Period of calves fed each calf. each calf, each calf, each calf.

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Winter period (Dec. 3, to Mar. 24) ......... 34 112 386 512 126 1.13
Pasture period (Mar. 25 to June 22) ....... 34 89 509 628 119 I 33






FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.


The calves were in the test 201 days. For the first 112 days they
were on dry winter feed; during the final 89 days they were on pasture.
Each calf made an average total gain of 126 pounds from December
3, 1909, to March 24, 1910, or an average daily gain of 1.13 pounds.
This was satisfactory. On March 24, they averaged 512 pounds in
weight and were from 11 to 12 months of age.
During the pasture season of 89 days (March 25 to June 22), the
calves made an average total gain of 119 pounds each, or an average
daily gain of 1.33 pounds. These gains were also satisfactory, but
nothing unusual. When the test closed on June 22 the calves had
reached an average weight of 628 pounds. They) were from 14 to 15
months old at this time.

QUANTITY AND COST OF FEED REQUIRED TO MAKE 100 POUNDS
GAIN.
The table below shows the average daily ration for each calf, the
pounds of feed required to make 100 pounds of increase in live
weight, and the cost to make the gains. In this connection it should
be remembered that these were young and small animals. As a
result of their being young and small their daily feed was small and
their gains were made economically.
TA BLE 16.-Average daily ration ar d quantity and cost office to make 100 pounds of gain.

Average Pounds reed Cost to
Period. Rat ion, daily feed per o make make 100
calf. 100 poundsor pounds
gain. of gain.
Poureds. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal. ... 1. i68 149
Corn chop .......... .39 123 .
WAinter period ( Dc. 3 to Mar. .... 1 Cotton. ed hulls .... 8 4, 754 .
Mixed arlfalfa hay 3 77 335
Cottonseed cake. .4 ri630O 48
rastiire period(Mar. 25 to June 22)....... Collonseed a ke. I 55 4.4
lAlfalfa bay. RI5G11

It cost $SS.63 to make 100 pounds of gain during the winter period
but the same gains were made for only $4.84 when the calves were
on pasture and received a partial ration of cottonseed cake and
alfalfa hay. This strikingly illustrates the importance and value of
pastures. During the winter months expensive gains are almost
always encountered, no matter what kind of live stock is being raised
or fattened. This condition of affairs is usually due to two factors.
First, the feeds which are used during the winter months are the
high-priced ones, and, second, smaller gains are usually secured
(especially with young and growing stock) during the cold months,
and small gains are almost, always expensive.
The cost of the summer gains was small compared with that of the
winter gains, yet these summer gains were unusually expensive. In






FINANCIAL STATEMENT-EXPERIMENT III.


previous pasture-feeding work in this State summer gains have
been made for $2.56 to $3.24 per hundred pounds increase in live
weight when cake was fed along with the pasture. The short pasture
during the early part of the test probably accounts for the expensive
gains; the calves made a daily gain of only 0.23 of a pound during
the first 28 days of the summer feeding.

PRICES REALIZED FOR FEEDS AS A RESULT OF FEEDING TO CALVES.

It will be seen below that excellent prices were realized upon all
of the feeds used during the fattening period. By means of the
calves the feeds were sold for a greater price than they would have
brought had they been l)laced upon the open grain or hay markets.
The feeds brought the following prices as a result of being fed to the
calves:
Cottonseed meal............................. .. ..... ........ per ton.. $45. 93
Corn chop ................... . ........................ per bushel. 1. 37
Cottonseed hulls .... . .. . ................................... per ton.. 10.99
Hay fed in winter.................. ................................ do .... 23.89
Cottonseed cake ................................................... do .... 35.82
Alfalfa hay during p.141 ui:. sea? .n ................................. .... do .... 21.48
Pasture rental ........................................ per head per nm onth.. 1.06
The cottonseed cake cost $26 a ton, but was resold, by means of
the calves, for $35.S2 a ton, as above shown. If the hay had been
sold on the market it would have bro-lght approximately $15 a ton,
but when it was fed to the calves and marketed by means of them
each ton realized $21.48 to $23.89. When measured in terms of
profits made on the calves, the pasture was rented for $1.06 a month
for each calf. If the corn had been hauled to town and sold it would
not have brought over 70 cents a bushel, but when it was fed to the
calves each bushel realized $1.37. The cottonseed meal and hulls
were sold through the calves for $45.93 and $10.99 a ton, respectively.
These results all emphasize the fact that the farmer can usually
sell his farm crops by means of some kind of live stock for more than
can be obtained for them when placed on the markets as raw farm
products.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
As stated before, the majority of these calves were raised on the
farm where the work was (lone. As they were not purchased on the
open market, an estimated fall value was placed upon them. They
were estimated to be worth 31 cents a pound when the winter work
began, December 3, 1909. They were fed through the winter, all
feeds being charged against them at the regular market prices, so
by the time spring arrived they had cost considerably more than the


I See Bureau of Anunmal Indu.rry Bulletin 131, or Alabama Station Bulletin 151.






34 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.

above fall price. The following statement shows the complete cost
of the calves up to March 25, 1910:
TABLE 17.-Total cost of the calves on March 25, 1910..
To 34 calves, 13,118 pounds at 34 cents (fall value)......................... $459.13
To 6,414 pounds cottonseed meal at $26 a ton.............................. 83.38
To 5,303 pounds of corn chop at 70 cents a bushel ......................... 66. 21
To 32,356 pounds of cottonseed hulls at $7 a ton............................ 113.25
To 14,380 pounds of mixed alfalfa hay at $15 a ton ......................... 107.85

Total cost of calves March 25, 1910................................. 829.82

On March 25, 1910, the 34 calves weighed 17,313 pounds, and
their total cost had reached $4.79F+ per hundredweight, consequently
they were valued at this sum for the pasture work. It cost $10.90
to feed each calf from December 3, 1909, to March 24, 1910.

TABLE 18.-Results ofjatlerting the calves on pasture.
By sale of 34 calves, 20,702 pounds, at 54 cents a pound ................. $1,138.61
To34 calves, 17,313 pounds, at $4.79 + per cwt .................. $829.82
To 12,291 pounds cottonseed cake at $26 a ton ................... 159. 78
To 4,691 pounds alfalfa hay at $15 a ton.......................... 35. 18
To total pasture rent, 89 days iMar. 25 to June 22), at 50 cents
per head per month......................................... 50.43
Total expenses ............. ...................... ... ........ 1,075. 21
Total profit........................................................... 63.40
Profit per calf......................................................... 1.86
These calves were sold June 22, 1910, for 5 cents a pound on the
farm, after a 3 per cent shrink. They were shipped to the Meridian
(Miss.) market for slaughter.
The above shows that a profit of $1.86 was made on each calf after
all expenses were taken into account. The financial statement means
that the calves were put into the test at 3 cents a pound in the fall
of 1909; that the alfalfa hay which was grown on thle farm was sold
for $15 a ton; that. the corn, which was also produced upon the farm,
was disposed of for 70 cents a bushel; and, finally, that an additional
profit of $1.86 was made on each calf. This was satisfactory, espe-
cially when it is recalled that a large amount of manure was pro-
duced while the calves were being fed.

SLAUGHTER RECORDS.

The calves were shipped to Meridian, Miss., for slaughter. They
were driven to Scooba, Miss., a distance of 11 miles, to be loaded on
the cars. Through a misunderstanding the live weights were not
secured at Meridian, but the individual weights of the dressed car-
casses were all secured.






SUMMARY-EXPERIMENT III.


TABLE 19.-Slaughter data.

Live weights. Per ent
Per tent
NuerDressed dressed by


Pound Poumads. Pou reds. l'ou nd.
34 ................. ........ ....... 21.342 2j. 702 11.258 54 4

It will be seen that the calves dressed out, by farm weights, after
allowing 3 per cent for shrinkage, 54.4 per cent, which is nearly 2 per
cent higher than the best showing of the winter-fed calves in Parts I
and II. The carcasses were good ones and made an excellent appear-
ance when hung up in the cooler.

SUMMARY.
TABLE 20.-Sumnmary Statement.
Cost of calves fall of 1909................................................. $3.50
Average weight of calves Dec. 3, 1909 ............................. pounds.. 386
Average daily ration from Dec. 3, 1909, to Mar. 24, 1910:
Cottonseed meal...................... ............... do .... 1.68
Corn chop ..................................................... d. ) .... 1. 39
Cottonseed hulls............. ................................ d. do .... 8.4-19
Mixed alfalfa hay ................................................ d. .. 3.77
Average weight of calves Mar. 24, 1911............................... du.... 512
Average daily gain during the winter months ......................... do.... 1.13
Cost to make 100 pounds increase in live weight during ithe winter nit,,ths... $8. 63
Cost to feed each calf through the winter months........................... $10. 90
Total cost of calves when put on pasture Mar. 24, 1910........... per cwt. $4. 79-r
Cost to make 100 pounds increase in live weight on pasture .................. $4. S4
Each ton of cottonseed cake was sold, prices of other feeds being fixed, by
means of calves, for..................... ................... .. ........... $. $35. 82
Each ton of alfalfa hay was sold, prices of other feeds beinc fix-d,, by means of
calves, for ....................................... .. ................ $21.48
Selling price of calves on farm, after 3 per cent shrink............. per cwt.. $5. 50
Profit on each calf................. ..................................... $1.86
1. The calves used in this work were of a good grade. They were
from 7 to 8 months old when the test began.
2. They were fed through thle winter of 1909-10 on cottonseed
meal, corn chop, cottonseed hulls, and mixed alfalfa hay. In the
spring of 1910 the calves were put in a pasture and finished for tlhe
market on pasture, cottonseed cake, and alfalfa hay.
3. During the winter season (Dec. 3, 1909 to Mar. 24, 1910) the
calves made an average total gain of 126 pounds, or an average
daily gain of 1.13 pounds.
S 4. During the pasture season (Mar. 25, 1910 to June 22, 1910) the
calves made an average total gain of 119 pounds, or an average
daily gain of 1.33 pounds.






FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA. .


5. During the winter season 149 pounds of cottonseed meal, 123
pounds of corn chop, 754 pounds of hulls, and 335 pounds of hay, at
a total cost of $8.63, were required to make 100 pounds of increase
in live weight.
6. During the pasture season 305 pounds of cottonseed cake and
116 pounds of alfalfa hay, at a total cost of $4.84, were required to
make 100 pounds of increase in live weight.
7. Each ton of cottonseed cake was sold, by means of the calves,
for $35.82 when the other feeds were valued as indicated in this
bulletin.
8. Each ton of alfalfa hay was sold, by means of the calves, for
$21.48 when the other feeds were valued as indicated in this bulletin.
9. Each ton of cottonseed meal was sold, by means of the calves,
for $45.93 when the other feeds were valued as indicated in this
bulletin.
10. Each ton of cottonseed hulls was sold, by means of the calves,
for $10.99 when the other feeds were valued as indicated in this
i
bulletin.
11. Each bushel of corn chop was sold, by means of the calves, for
$1.37 when the other feeds were valued as indicated in this bulletin.


$*














IV. GENERAL STATEMENT.


While the calves in Parts I, II, and III of this bulletin were fattened
in different ways and by different methods, all were raised and handled
in the same manner up to the time of being placed in the dry lots.
All were born (luring thle spring months and ran with their mothers
on a-reasonably good pasture during their first summer; they ate
nothing but mother's milk and pasture grasses during this time.
"When the pasture season closed, which was practically December 1
each year, the calves were weaned, dehorned, the males castrated,
and all placed in feed lots to be fattened. At this time the different
methods as previously outlined were introduced. In Part I the
calves were divided into three lots and fattened upon cottonseed
meal, corn-and-cob meal, cottonseed hulls, and alfalfa hay, for the
early spring market; in Part II the calves were all fed in the same
lot and finished for the early spring market on cottonseed meal, cot-
tonseed hulls, and pea-vine hay; in Part III they were carried through
their first winter on a ration slightly below a full feed and fattened
the following summer on pasture supplemented by cottonseed cake
and alfalfa hay.
As a matter of fact, the winter feeding should have been inaug-
urated before December 1, as the calves lost some of their calf fat,
due to short pastures and decreased milk supply, before the feeding
periods began. In farm practice it would be wise either to begin the
winter feeding by November 1 or to have an oat or rye pasture for
the young animals to graze upon after the permanent pastures are
killed by frost.
To feed calves as these were fed it is best to have them born as
early as possible in the spring. This gives them an opportunity to
attain a reasonable size and age by the time they are ready for sale
the following spring or early summer. The southern markets prefer
larger carcasses than the ones obtained from these calves. In some
sections of the country, where the cows must be housed during the
winter months, it, is more desirable to have the calves come in the
fall of the year, as the farmer has more time to care for the small
animals during the winter than during the summer months, and the
calves would be weaned in tihe spring, a season when their growth is
least retarded. In the South, however, where range conditions still
obtain, to have the calves come in the fall would involve the risk of
losing both the mothers and the offspring.







FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA.


The calves in Part I were sold March 17, those in Part II March 29,
while those in Part III were fattened on pasture during the latter
part of the feeding period and not disposed of until June 22. The
calves in Parts I and II were practically 1 year old when sold, while
those in Part 1II were from 14 to 16 months of age at the time of
slaughter. As stated in the introduction, there are some advan-
tages in selling calves at an early age. On the other hand, the
farmer experiences difficulties in feeding young animals which are
not encountered in feeding old and mature animals. In the first
place, it would seldom, or never, pay to finish a poor grade of young
calves for the market, as our markets sharply discriminate against
young animals which carry a predominance of Jersey or scrub blood.
In the second place, the farmer who feeds young animals of any kind
must be a careful and watchful feeder. An old animal may be fed
and handled carelessly and satisfactory results still be obtained, but
not, so with the young animal. A single instance of overfeeding
may so derange the intestinal tract of the young animal that further
development is impossible.
CONCLUSIONS.
The tests in this bulletin indicate that excellent profits may be
made on calves when they are fed properly, handled carefully, and
sold in a businesslike way. In Part I a clear profit of $1.84, $2.25,
and $1.48 was realized on each calf in their respective lots; in Part II,
where nothing was fed except cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, and
pea-vine hay, a profit of $3.50 was realized on each animal; and in
Part III, where the animals were fed a light ration of grain and hay
throughout the winter months and finally finished on pasture, $1.86
profit was realized on each calf.
The reader should understand that these different experiments are '
not directly comparable, but they do, in a general way, teach us
some lessons. The difference in profits between the calves in Parts
I and II was due largely to the selling price; those in Part II simply
sold to greater advantage. This difference in profits in favor of the
calves in Part II was not due to the fact that they made gains more
economically than those in Part I. On the contrary, the calves in
Part I made 100 pounds of gain for $6.22, $6.19, and $6.83 in the
respective lots, while the same gain cost $6.97 in Part II. While the
calves in Part II were a cheaper grade than those in Part I (being
valued at 3 cents a pound when the test began, while those in Part
I were valued at 32 cents a pound), still they sold for practically the
same price when placed on the market; there was a difference of
one-half a cent a pound in favor of the calves in Part II. The calves
in Part I were sold on the Cincinnati market, while those in Part II
were shipped to New Orleans. At the present time, and in fact for







SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS.


some years past, both cattle and hogs have been selling for better
prices on the southern than on the northern markets.
While the calves in Part III sold for a better price than those in
the other tests, still they were not as profitable as some of the others.
The selling price alone does not determine the final profit; other
factors must be considered. It is seen that the winter gains in this
test were expensive, costing $8.63 to make 100 pounds. While the
cost of the subsequent pasture gains was small as compared to the
winter gains, they were not sufficiently cheap to overcome the pre-
ceding high-priced gains and thereby make a profit that was entirely
satisfactory. Notwithstanding the fact that a profit was made on
these calves, the authors are of the opinion that a greater profit would
have been made if they had been fed more liberally during the winter
months and sold in March or April instead of in June. The expensive
winter gains were due to the fact that the animals were held below a
full ration, which goes to show that the nearer the feeder approaches
a mere maintenance ration the more expensive will be the gains. If
the calves had been given a full feed, or almost a full feed, during the
winter months, their gains would have been considerably greater
than they were, and at the same time more economical. The test,
however, does illustrate the value of pastures for making cheap gains.

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS.
This experimental work is being continued, hut at the present time
the following general conclusions, based on the work already done,
can be drawn:
1. A farmer may expect to obtain a reasonable profit on beef calves
when he raises and fattens them on his farm and sells them when they
are 12 to 14 months old. That is, the farmer who feeds his corn and
hay to these young animals can realize more on these raw farm prod-
ucts, when sold through the calves, than when sold as corn or hay.
At the same time a large amount of manure is made on the farm to
enrich the soil.
2. In the South, at least in Alabama at the present time, the calves
should be born during the early spring months.
3. The southern feeder has the choice of many different feeds suit-
able for fattening calves. With reference to the feeds reported in
this bulletin the following conclusions are warranted:
(a) When fattening calves it pays to feed a ration made up of one-
third corn-and-cob meal and two-thirds cottonseed meal, when corn
S is valued at 70 cents a bushel and meal at $26 a ton.
(b) It is not profitable for two-thirds of the concentrated part of the
ration to be composed of corn-and-cob meal when the feeds are valued
as above.




S..

40 FATTENING CALVES IN ALABAMA. "

(c) Young calves can be finished for the market at a profit on cot- :
tonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, and pea-vine hay, but it is more
profitable to introduce corn-and-cob meal to take the place of part
of the cottonseed meal.
4. When shall the calves be sold ? The tests seem to indicate that
it is more profitable to feed a heavy ration and sell the calves at the
end of the winter months when prices are normally high, than to
hold them until the early summer months. Light winter feeding
produces expensive gains. Although the subsequent pasture gains
are made much more cheaply than the winter gains, they are not
made economically enough to overcome or counteract the preceding
high-priced slowly-made winter gains, together with the normal
depreciation in the value of cattle from March or April to June or
July. .

































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