... The influence of breed and individuality on the composition and properties of milk

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Title:
... The influence of breed and individuality on the composition and properties of milk
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry. Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
27 p. incl. tables. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Eckles, Clarence Henry, 1875-1933
Shaw, Roscoe Hart, 1877-1928 ( joint author )
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Milk -- Analysis   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By C. H. Eckles ... and Roscoe H. Shaw ...

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029611922
oclc - 173481296
lccn - 13000019
System ID:
AA00018893:00001

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li:::,- .Im ed January 18, 1913.


S U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-BULLETIN 156.
I
A. D. MELVIN, CHEEF OF BUREAU.





THE INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON

THE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF MILK.






BY

C. H. ECKLES,
Professor of Dairy Husbandry, University of Missouri,

AND
S
ROSCOE H. SHAW,
Chemist, Dairy Division, Bureau of Animal Industry.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1913.























BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


Chief: A. D. MELVIN.
Assistant Chief: A. M. FARRINGTON.
Chief Clerk: CHARLES C. CARROLL.
Animal Husbandry Division: GEORGE M. ROMMEL, chief.
Biochemic Division: M. DORSET, chief.
Dairy Division: B. H. RAWL, chief.
Field Inspection Division: R. A. RAMSAY, chief.
Meat Inspection Division: RICE P. STEDDOM, chief.
Pathological Division: JOHN R. MOHLER, chief.
Quarantine Division: RICHARD W. HICKMAN, chief.
Zoological Division: B. H. RANSOM, chief.
Experiment Station: E. C. SCHROEDER, superintendent.
Editor: JAMES M. PICKENS.
DAIRY DIVISION.
B. H. RAWL, Chief.
HELMER RABILD, in charge of Dairy Farming Investigations.
S. C. THOMPSON, in charge of Dairy Manufacturing Investigations.
L. A. ROGERS, in charge of Research Laboratories.
ERNEST KELLY, in charge of Market Milk Investigations.
ROBERT MCADAM, in charge of Renovated Butter Inspection.


















I LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
DI Washington, C., July 11, 1912.
S SIR: I have the honor to transmit, and to recommend for publi-
cII ation in the bulletin series of this bureau, the accompanying manu-
l script entitled "The Influence of Breed and Individuality on the
| Composition and Properties of Milk," by Messrs. C. H. Eckles, pro-
.l s fesor of dairy husbandry, University of Missouri, and Roscoe H.
I Shaw, chemist in the Dairy Division of this bureau.
|, The experimental work reported herein forms part of a series of
!cooperative investigations inaugurated in 1906 between the Dairy
SDivision and the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, with the
Subject of studying in detail the factors influencing the composition
S and properties of milk as produced under normal dairy conditions.
S The first results of the work have been forwarded for publication as
S Bulletin 155, entitled "The Influence of the Stage of Lactation upon
the Composition and Properties of Milk."
Respectfully,
A. D. MELVIN,
Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
3
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CONTENTS.


Intr oduction..............................................................
Plan of the investigation ..................................................
Method of sampling and preparation of samples for analysis ...................
The true average per cent.............................................


Results of the experiments ..............................
S Total solids...--...---............. ................
Fat. .--..-.-. ........ ..-..-.......................
Total protein....................- .....- .... .--.
Cain-- ...... ....................................
Relation of the casein to the fat....................
Sugar .....,....---.......---..............---...--.-....
The chemical and physical constants of the fat.. -...
Relative size of the fat globules................
The Reichert-Meissl number...................


The iodin absorption number..............
The saponification or Koettstorfer number. -
The melting point of the fat-..............
Summary and conclusions.........................


ILLUSTRATION.


FIG. 1. Relative size of the fat globules in milk of dairy cattle................
5


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TH'E INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON THE COM-
I POSITION AND PROPERTIES OF MILK.


INTRODUCTION.
R.In 1906 the Dairy Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry, in
oqwrration with the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station,
:begon a series of investigations, the main object of which was to
stday in detail the factors influencing the composition and proper-
tie of normal milk. It is a well-known fact that although the
I same constituents are always present in milk, the relative amount
of each is subject to constant variations. Among the causes of
these variations are known to be the breed of the animal, the stage
of lactation, the individuality, and to some extent the feed, the
interval between the milkings, and the temperature and weather
conditions. It is also known that the first and the last milk drawn
Differ in composition.
hA. lrge amount of data has been published regarding these varia-
Ntorns, the greater part of which deals with the fat content alone.
In planning this series of investigations it was arranged to give
'attention first of all to the variations occurring during the period
of lactation. The data concerning this part of the subject have
been prepared for publication as Bulletin 155 of the Bureau of Ani-
mal Industry, entitled "The Influence of the Stage of Lactation on
the Composition and Properties of Milk." In carrying on this inves-
ligation the plans were so arranged that the influence of breed and
Individuality of the animals could be studied concurrently with that
of the period of lactation, and a presentation of these results is the
object of the present paper.
Theoe is no lack of data concerning the influence of the breed and
tbe individuality of the animal upon the composition of milk as far
sw the per cent of the fat is concerned, although in practically all
investigations reported there was no uniformity in the rations fed
the animals and no data taken concerning the composition of the
fat produced. When the influence of the stage of lactation is not
taken into account, and when the ration is changed from time to
time or varies with different animals, it is clearly impossible to state
*O MOi-Bull. 156-13--2 7






INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


to what extent any variation found may be due to the ration fed
and to what extent to the stage of lactation, breed, or individuality
of the animal. It is especially important to keep the ration uni-
form, since it has been demonstrated that the nature of the food
has an important influence, more particularly in regard to the com-
position of the fat.
PLAN OF THE INVESTIGATION.
Eleven animals were selected for the investigation, consisting of 3
representatives each of the Jersey, Holstein, and Shorthorn breeds,
and 2 of the Ayrshire breed. These cows were typical specimens
of the breed-that is to say, neither superior nor inferior producers
of milk, but about the average. They were all purebred and reg-
istered. They were kept under much the same conditions as would
be found in a commercial dairy except in regard to the control of
the feed of the animals. The ration fed was of uniform composi-
tion throughout the entire lactation period and was made up as
follows:
Choice alfalfa hay ........................................... 3 parts.
Grain mixture:
Corn, 8 parts ............................................
Bran, 1 part ............................................. 2 parts.
Oats, 1 part............................................. J
This ration supplied the nutrients necessary for milk production in
about the right proportion. The ratio between the hay and the
grain was such that the animals would eat the entire ration at all
times. The amount fed was governed by the needs of the animal.
The animals all went through the entire lactation period with no ill
effects resulting from the lack of variety, and in no case was there
any serious sickness of any kind. The hay, which was the most
variable part of the ration, was bought in large quantities from the
same source in order that there might be few changes in its compo-
sition. The animals were housed at night in the barn for feeding
and milking and in the daytime were turned outside in a dry lot.
The date for beginning the taking of samples was 5 days after the
birth of the calf. The sampling was continued until the production
of milk declined to the point where in a commercial dairy the cow
would not be milked longer. A more detailed account of the plan
of the investigation is found in Bulletin 155, previously mentioned.
METHOD OF SAMPLING AND PREPARATION OF SAMPLES FOR
ANALYSIS.
The milk was weighed immediately after milking and mixed by
pouring from one pail to another. A sample consisting of about 1
liter placed in a glass jar bearing the number of the cow and marked






SSULTS OP Tr UXBIMBTS. 9

the amount of milk produced was delivered -at the laboratory.
.iWtain number of cubic centimeters per pound of milk produced
$.then. measured out and placed in a closed receptacle. In this
r a composite sample was prepared representing the produc-
Wnof that particular cow for 1 week. The milk was preserved by

S addition of, formalin. At the end of the week the composite
Iiij^isample was thoroughly mixed and a subsample consisting of about
03 0 c. c. taken for analysis. The remainder of the composite sam-
pe ~W~as heated to the proper temperature and the cream separated
Rith lyand-power separator. The cream so obtained was churned
...y.a.. in a glass jar, and the butter resulting was melted on a
sktemi lath. The methods of sampling and analysis have been
.... b e.. ". d in detail in Bulletin 155; it is sufficient to say that the
iii hods of analysis followed were those of the Association of Offi-
SAgricultural Chemists wherever possible.
A-" :... THE TRUE AVERAGE PER CENT.
** ." il : : *: .. "
4. ,n many cases in reporting analyses of milk a simple average
instead of a true average is given. An average made in this man-
O eris often misleading. In the case of the constituents of the milk
it generally gives a result somewhat high, since milk becomes richer
0s it decreases in amount toward the end of the lactation period.
nles otherwise stated the averages given in this publication rep-
resent true averages. The average per cent of fat for the lactation
period, for example, is found by dividing the total milk into the
total fat produced.

: RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS.

Table 1 gives the data concerning the cows used in this investi-
gation. Under the heading "Period samples were taken" is shown
the periods covered by the samples taken for analysis.

TABLE 1.-Data concerning the cows used.


To- Av- To-
No. of r tal era tal
Breed. of Age. calve of Date of Period samples were taken, yield far yield
of bm~of
cowcalving. br g. of con- of
L milk. tent. fat.

Ya.nou. Lbs. P.ct. Lbs.
sy.. 4 6 10 Novr. 13,1906 Dec. 30,1906 Nov. 24,1907, to Sept. 7,1908... 5,429 4.87264.45
o. 99 8 1 Jan. 1,1907 Mar. 23,1907 Jan. 5,1907, to Nov. 30,1907.... 6,115 4.64284.04
D. 118 11 4 Sept 27,106 Not bred.... Oct. 6, 1906, to Oct. 26,1907..... 5,783 6.36307.45
Ayhir. 3 Dec. 28,1907 Feb. 3,1908 Dec. 29,1907, to Oct. 3,1908.... 6,275 3.51220.34
Do..... 4 8 Sept. 27,1907 Mar. 16,1908 Sept. 29,1907, to Sept. 18,1908.. 6,382 3.85245.64
Her=. 5 3 July 17,1907 Dee. 1,1907 July 20,1907, to Aug. 8,1908.... 8,684 3.24280.76
.....206 5 0 May 31,1907 Sept. 28,1907 June 1,19079 to Apr 4,1908..... 8,994 2.93263.66
Do 20 3 8 July 20,1907 Nov.18,1907 July 20,1907 to July 4,1908.... 8,814 3.02273.34
Shorthorn 40 4 4 Sept. 30,1907 Jan. 25,1908 Oct.5,1907 toAug. 1,1908..... 5,172 3.89201.37
Do..... 402 4 11 Oct. 13,1907 Dec. 21,1907 Oct. 19,1907, to July 18, 1908... 4,449 4.13183.57
Do..... 4M 6 0 Feb. 11,1908 July 7,1908 Feb. 15, to Dec. 190toe.1 908... 6,5 3.35220.52


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10 INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.

TOTAL SOLIDS.

The determinations for total solids were made by using the Bab-
cock asbestos method. The figures given are in each case an average
of the determinations for 4 weekly composite samples. These are
simple averages. The averages given for the lactation period of the
animal and for the breeds are true averages.
Table 2 gives the percentage of total solids for each of the 11 ani-
mals used in the investigation by 4-week periods, the average for
each animal for the period of lactation, and the average by breeds.
The results correspond closely with those usually given for the breeds
included. In Table 3 is given a compilation of analyses reported by
several experiment stations in this country. The figures used
include only those that represent purebred animals of the respective
breeds, and where an entire period of lactation is involved. The
data included in the column headed "Other American experiment
stations" include all in print coming under the above conditions.
A portion of this data was taken presumably by calculation from the
specific gravity and the fat. Since these animals, owned by various
experiment stations, represent a variety of conditions, it is believed
that the average figure given, which includes all the data of such
kind available up to the present, is reasonably accurate.
Table 4 gives the composition of the total solids in percentage of
fat, protein, and sugar. The ash is not included, since it was lacking
in some of the data, and furthermore, the amount of ash is so uniform
with the different breeds and different individuals that no marked
variations were found. The animals supplying the data from the
New Jersey and New York experiment stations are the same as in
Table 3.
TABLE 2.-Average percentage of total solids for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week
periods.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.

Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 .............................. 14.13 .......... .......... 14.13 13.07 13.20 13.13
2....................................... 13.09 14.08 13.58 12.27 12.50 12.39
3........................................ 13.30 14.55 13.92 12.14 12.57 12.36
4.............................. 14.14 13.15 .......... 13.64 11.81 12.64 12.23
5 .............................. 14.28 12.92 .......... 13.60 11.66 13.09 12.38
6 .............................. 14.15 12.76 15.30 14.07 11.35 12.86 12.11
7 .............................. 13.87 13.04 15.16 14.02 11.38 12.63 12.01
8 .............................. 13.77 12.81 15.61 14.06 12.15 12.64 12.39
9 .............................. 13.63 13.35 14.79 13.76 12.56 12.49 12.52
10 .............................. 14.57 14.27 14.45 14.43 13.85 11.78 12.81
11 ....... ................................. 15.15 14.42 14.88 .......... 13.55 13.55
12 ...................................... 16.08 15.08 15.58.......... 13.04 18.04
13 ............................. .................... 16.10 16.10 .......... 13.27 13.27
14 ........................ ....................171 1716 ......... .............
True average of total solids. 14 09 13.34 15.02 14.09 12.08 12.71 12.41







1B B ESULTS OF THE EXPEBIMENTS.
& ,. i


11


A t--A*4ww pmtqW of totMl aida for eac cw, and breed average, by 4-nveek
perwid-Continued.


tour, Su-week perid No.
Iii1


Bel-oins.


No. 205.


No. 206.


No. 200.


Average
for
Holsteins.


Shorthorns.


No. 400. No. 40.lNo. 403.


A: .-I 'III'


..... ... ....::: . .I." . .

U... 5N:! :: ...................
r ..............................
.. ......................
.. .. ....




a. ... .............


j:pasvevage::::t:ta::solids
S......................

Se...... ......................
i, .. ..............................
Tm avewage of tot..omUd.


Per d.
11.74
11.68
11.70
11.95
12.11
11.77
11.98
12.16
11.96
12.12
1120
12.50
13.04
13.42


12.12


Pere.
10.95
10.10
10.18
10.27
10.54
10.73
10.75
1080
11.01
11.90
13.30


10.73


Per et.
11.24
10.23
10.63
11.07
11.15
10.96
11.20
11.23
11.58
12.58
12.99
13.51
14.52


Per cent.
11.31
10.64
10.84
11.10
11.27
11.15
11.31
11.39
11.51
12.20
12.83
13.01
13.78
13.42


Pert.
13.71
13.29
13.06
12.48
13.06
13.05
12.96
13.08
13.03
12.43
12.84


Per t.
13.74
13.29
13.07
13.07
13.16
12.97
13.02
12.93
13.81
13.94


Per t.
12.85
12.16
11.75
11.56
11.56
11.65
12.77
12.52
12.38
12.90
13.19


I I I I I I


11.35 1


11.38 13.08


13.01 1 12.17


TAan 3.-Co so of total solids in thi. investigation wnth results reported by
American experiment stations.


Shi nvestig- New Jersey Ex- New York Ex- Other American
issu puiment Sta- periment Sta- experiment sta- General average.
M tion.1 tion.' tions.


Num, Num- NMu- War- NWrm-
.... vsam Averag, Nu1-- Aeg n Average NAm- Average Average
ben of Anerage ber of Average her of Avn e of Avn e of veg
total ero total er total erp- total i anr total
on' =E ds. i8 solids. sohlids. solids. solids.
... mals. reaus, eals, mals. mats.


Pier Met. Per&e t. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
ays.... 3 14.09 3 14.34 3 15.5 29 14.90 38 14.70
W y................ 3 14.48 2 14.I 6 14.20 11 14.49
Ayrs.re.. 2 12.41 3 12.70 4 12.8 17 12.98 26 12.72
13 1.38 3 12.12 2 12.2 9 12.29 17 12.00
3 12.689 3 12.45 ................................... 6 12.57

i NeiLMn, James. Experiments with different breeds of dairy cows. New Jersey Agricultural Experi-
smnt Station, Bulletin 77. New Brunswick, Dec., 1890.
New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Annual Reports. Geneva,
m, 1isu,18s.

TABLE 4.-Average composition of the total solids in milk of dairy cattle, as reported by
American experiment stations.


Bed.


Fat.


P. d.
33.3
34.7
29.1
29.1
29.3


P. t.
36.4
35.1
27.3
2.0


P.C.
3&5.1
3.6
2'.'1
27.1
29.4


P.d.
34.9
34.9
28.7
28.1
29.3


Protein.


P. d.
.27.6
27.1
27.4
27.1
26.3


P.4.
25.4
24.7
26.3
27.4
---. --.


P.dt.
i25.8

26.1
28.1
26.6


P.ct.
26.3
25.9
26.6
27.5
26.4


Sugar.


P. ct.
33.8
33.3
38.1
38.7
38.6


P. ct.
33.4
35.0
40.8
39.1


P.t.
34.5

39.6
37.3
39.3


Aver.
age.


P. A
33.9
34.2
39.5
38.4
38.9


The fat represents from 28 to 35 per cent of the total solids, varying
especially with the breed and to some extent with the individual.
The total solids produced by the Jersey and Guernsey breeds contain,


Avenage
for Short-
horre.


Per cent.
13.43
12.91
12.62
12.37
12.59
13.56
12.92
12.84
13.07
13.09
13.02
...... ....


12.69


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12 INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.

on an average, 34.9 per cent of fat, which is relatively high as com-
pared with the Holstein, Ayrshire, or Shorthorn breeds. Among the
breeds included in these data the Holstein, with an average of 28.1
per cent, has the lowest proportion of fat, while the Shorthorn ranks
next. The rule is that those animals having a higher per cent of fat
in the milk also have a relatively larger proportion of fat in the solids.
The individual animals show some variations, but on the whole they
follow the characteristics of their breed quite closely. The per cent
of fat in the total solids produced by the 3 Jerseys used in this inves-
tigation varied from 34.6 to 35.7, the 3 Holsteins from 26.7 to 27.3,
while the 3 Shorthorns varied from 27.7 to 31.7. The individual
variation has to be taken into account in connection with the total
solids, but is of less importance than is the variation due to breed.
FAT.
Table 5 gives the percentage of fat in the milk of the 11 animals
represented in the investigation, expressed in the same manner as
the total solids. The well-known facts regarding the relative compo-
sition of the milk for the 4 breeds used is brought out in these data.
Table 6 gives the average percentage of fat in the milk of animals
used in investigations at the New Jersey and New York experiment
stations; also a compilation showing the average per cent of fat for
all registered animals of the respective breeds, the records of which
have been published by American experiment stations. This table
includes only data relating to purebred animals and where it is possi-
ble to obtain a true average per cent of fat for the entire period of
lactation. It is believed that the summary, representing as it does a
large number of animals in different States under somewhat compar-
able conditions, gives a reliable average as to the fat content of the
milk of the breeds represented.
TABLE 5.-Average percentage of fat for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week periods.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.
Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 ............................... 5.17 5.22 .......... 5.20 4.01 3.87 3.97
2 ............................... 4.63 4.79 5.31 4.91 3.61 3.74 3.68
3 ............................... 5.07 4.43 5.55 5.02 3.38 3.81 3.60
4............................... 4.85 4.40 5.11 4.79 3.36 3.81 3.59
5............................... 4.81 4.33 5.51 4.88 3.32 4.08 3.70
6............................... 5.00 4.22 5.71 4.98 3.26 3.78 3.52
7............................... 4.73 4.36 5.69 4.93 3.30 3.95 3.63
8............................... 4.51 4.18 5.80 4.83 3.53 3.94 3.74
9............................. 4. 73 4.63 5.17 4.84 3.74 3.67 3.71
10............................... 5.18 4.98 4.47 4.88 4.52 3.58 4.05
11 ........... .............................. 5.62 4.83 5.23 .......... 4.92 4,92
12................................ -52 5.8 .......... 6.07 5. 28 5.68 .......... 3.96 3.96
13........................ ............... ..... 5.48 5.48 .......... 4.18 4.18
14.............................. ............47 .......... 6 4 .. .
True average of total fat.. 4.87 4.64 5.36 4.95 3.51 3.85 3.68






SEBULT OF THE EXPERIMENTS. 13

50 #-Average percentage offat/ for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week periods-
Continued.

.. .. Hosteins. Shorthorns.

Krnu week period No. Average Average
Fo2 '":. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
SHolsteins. horns.

r. dP P. ct. P. ct. Per cent. P. d.P P. Act. Per cent.
..... 3.24 3.07 12 3.14 4.12 4.55 3.58 4.08
....................... 2.8 2.60 2.87 4.09 4.17 3.38 3.88
.:: 3 ...... ............ "3.02 2.58 2.74 2.78 3.99 3.97 3.18 3.71
4?.......:.... .............. 3.25 2.84 3.24 3.11 3.65 3.80 3.16 3.54
6: 4,. .. .... ........ .... 3.29 2.89 3.14 3.11 3.70 3.84 3.14 3.58
..::... ...........- 3-06 3.06 2.81 2.96 3.69 3.92 3.13 3.58
7- .........................-- ..... 3.26 2.88 2.94 3.03 3.85 3.98 3.23 3.69
8............................ 3.25 3.00 3.01 3.09 3.73 3.90 3.55 3.73
9w,4.. .................... 3.15 3.00) 3.01 3.05 4.05 4.67 3.85 4.19
........................... 3.31 3.09 3.52 3.31 4.16 4.42 4.00 4.19
S .. ..... ............... 3.31 3.40 3.46 3.39 4.17 ........ 4.05 4.11
S.......................... 3.49 ........ 3.90 3.69.... ......................
.4.r-.:......... ........... .. 3.68........ 5.28 4.48 ............. ..........
14............................. 3.68 ................ 3.68 ................. ..........
iH i~ H ___--- --------------------------------------
Tru avng :o:.. tota fa.. 3."23
: True average of total fat... 3.23 2.93 3.10 3.09 3.89 4.13 3.37 3.73
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.. -.. .Hj : o.
TAiBE 6.-Average percentage of fat in milk of dairy cattle, as reported by American

:'New mesy. New York. Missouri. All American ex-
Sperient stations.tation.
i!n1New Jersey. New York. Missouri. peSimtstatons.
.. .. Number A Nuber A Number
Number Average Number Average N b Average Number Average
of of Of of ft
fat fat. fat. f at.
: '* "animals. at. animal fnals, fat. animals. MIMI

,". Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Jer.ey.............. 3 4.78 3 5.60 3 495 153 5.14
[ s "y.......... 3 5.02 2 5.15 .................... 21 4.98
Ayrsb-ire ............. 3 3.68 4 3.57 2 3.68 24 3.85
H- Bti.. ........... 3 3.51 2 3.28 3 3.09 83 3.45
Shorthorn ............ 3 3.65 .................... 3 3.73 40 3.63
Red Poll ............. .................................................. 9 4.03

It is a well-known fact that individuals within a breed vary consid-
erably in the percentage of fat. The data here given are too limited
to contribute much of value on this point. While by far the greater
number of individuals within the breed will come close to the average
for that breed, a comparatively few vary widely. It is characteristic
of the breeds having the higher percentage of fat to show the greater
individual variations. The percentage of fat secured during a lacta-
tion period may also be influenced to some extent by the time of the
year in which the milking period began.1 On the average' the milk
produced during the fall and early winter has a higher percentage of
fat than that produced by the same animal in the early spring and
summer. For this reason the cow that is fresh in the fall and pro-
duces the largest quantity of milk during the cool weather will have
a higher average test for the year than will be the case if she freshens
in the spring and produces the maximum yield during the period of
warm weather.
l Eckles, C. H. Jahreszeitliche Schwankungen des prozentischen Fettgehaltes in Kuhmilk. Milch-
wtrtsehaftlihes Zentralblatt, vol. 5, no. 11, p. 488-502. Leipzig, Nov. 1909.






14 INFLUENCE OF BBEED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.

TOTAL PROTEIN.
Table 7 gives the percentage of total nitrogen as protein for each
individual and the average for each breed. The totals are also cal-
culated as protein by using the factor 6.38. The results show a
decided influence due to the breed of the animals, the Jersey having
a uniformly higher percentage of protein than the others. The Hol-
steins are the lowest, while the Shorthorns and Ayrshires range
between the Holsteins and Jerseys. The marked influence exerted
by the stage of lactation upon the proportion of this constitutent
present can be seen from the data given and has been shown in a
previous publication.1
Table 8 is a compilation from the same sources as used in previous
tables showing the average percentage of protein in the milk of 5
breeds. It will be noted that the figures obtained at the Missouri
Experiment Station for Holsteins, Jerseys, and Ayrshires are some-
what lower than those obtained at the New Jersey and New York
stations, while the figure for the Shorthorns is slightly above. There
is some variation with the individuals regarding the amount of this
constituent secreted, as is the case with other constituents of the
milk. The individuals and breeds having the higher percentage of
fat have at the same time the higher percentage of protein. The
same animals also have a higher ratio of fat to protein. With the
11 cows used in our investigation, for each pound of protein there
was found in the milk of the Jerseys 1.36 pounds of fat, in the Ayr-
shires 1.13, in the Shorthorns 1.10, and in the Holsteins 1.05. While
an individual or a breed that produces milk with a high percentage
of fat is certain to have a high percentage of protein as well, the pro-
tein and the fat do not increase in the same proportion.
TABLE 7.-Average total nitrogen for each cow, and breed average, by week periods, and
average total nitrogen and protein for the whole lactation period.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.
Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 .............................. 0.52 0.51 .......... 0.52 0.53 0.56 0.54
2 .............................. .53 .51 0.51 .52 .47 .50 .48
3. ............................ .57 .51 .56 .55 .48 .48 .48
4.............................. 61 .49 .54 .55 .47 .51 .49
5........................... 60 .49 .65 .58 .46 .51 .49
6......................... 59 .49 .65 .58 .47 .53 .50
7........................... .59 .48 .67 .58 .46 .51 .40
8........................... 57 .50 .64 .57 .49 .50 .50
9............................. 62 .52 .64 .59 .57 .53 .55
10 .............................. .66 .56 .64 .62 .67 .53 .60
11 ...................................... .. .62 65 .63 .......... .53 .53
12 ........ ............... ............ .66 .70 .68 .......... .57
13........................................ ..........75 .75 .......... .65
14. ............................ ..................... .77 .77 .......... ......... .. .........
True average of total
nitrogen................ .58 .51 .62 .57 .49 .52 .51
True average of total
protein ................. 3.70 3.27 3.97 3.64 3.11 3.33 3.25
1 Bulletin 155, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, 1912.







OF THE 15

69W wgrqmfir eaA em, md bad aymp, by 4wonk paio&., and
amap So am pwbin for do u*ak Mdation pvWL-Continued.

r Holsteins. ShorUwMs.

ftup-we& pwW No.
hver
fo ap
Na. ML No. W& iqo. M. r No. 4M No. 4M. No. 4W. f
Iff IoLstein& horw.

p. d. P. d. P. d. P. d. P. d. P. d. P. CI. P. d.
----------------------------- 0.49 (L44 0. 5D 0.48 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.53
3-- -------------------- 43 .38 .45 .42 .51 .52 .49 .51
& -------------------- '.44 .37 .45 .42 .46 .51 .47 .48
4 ----------- ------------------- .44 .39 .47 .43 .48 .54 .47 .50
--------------------- .45 .42 .45 .44 .53 .55 .49 .52
------------------------------ .45 .42 46 .44 .54 .55 .51 .53
--------------------- -------- .45 .41 -W .45 .56 .55 .5.3 .55
---- 1- --------- -------- .44 .43 .49 .45 .56 .57 .57 -57
......................... .48 .44 .52 .48 .58 .63 .58 .59
.00 .70 .60 .63
--------------------- .48 .51 .60 .53 ........ .64 -61
--------------------- .51 .71 .65 .62 .59
..................... .55 ........ .73 .64 ... ---- -------- -------- ----------
------------------------ .59 .71 .65 -------- -------- -------- ----------
......... 4 ------------ .65 -------- -- .65 -------- -------- -------- ----------
True average cA totd
------ .47 .42 .50 .46 .53 .55 .51 .53
.'True Overage of total
poteijL ----------------- 3.00 2.70 3.21 2.93 3.40 3.49 3.28 3.3g


TABLz &-Awmge pffwntage of total protein in milk of dairy mule, as reporkid by
Atnffimn ezperiment statiow.

New Jersey. New York. Missouri. Averap-

Numbu N. Number Number
Ave A Average
Of of
protein, tein' animals. protein.
Of prot animals. Pro


Per eeW. Per cent, Per cent. Per cent.
------------- 3 3.96 3 3.81 3 3.64 9 3.80
GUMMY- J 3 3LO2 2 75 ......... .......... 5 3.84
Ayrsbz-e ............. 3 & 48 4 3.29 2 3.25 9 3.34
Rektain ............. 3 3.29 2 & 23 3 2.93 8 3.15
qhWUWM ............ 3 27 --------- ---------- 3 3.38 6 3.32


CASEIN.

Table 9 gives the average percentage of protein in the form of
casein for each individual and for each breed. Much the same range
of variaition is found here as is the case with the total protein. The
'percentage of the total protein present as casein was for the Holstein
d. : 80.4, the Jersey 80.7, the Ayrshire 83, and the Shorthorn 83.5.
No specii breed characteristic can be observed in regaid to the
relation of casein to the total protemi. The individual variation is
some importance, but not so very much.







16


INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


TABLE 9.-Average casein nitrogen for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week periods,
and average casein nitrogen and casein for the whole lactation period.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.

Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 .............................. 0.44 0.42 .......... 0.43 0.44 0.56 0.50
2 .............................. .38 .41 .32 .37 .40 .50 .45
3 .................-----....-......... .48 .40 .48 .45 .40 .48 .44
4 .............................. .49 .40 .42 .44 .38 .51 .45
5 .....................----......... .48 .40 .54 .47 .39 .51 .45
6 .............................. .48 .40 .52 .47 .39 .53 .46
7 .............................. .47 .39 .54 .47 .39 .51 .45
8 ......................--........ .46 .40 .54 .47 .44 .50 .47
9. -------- ------------------- .50 .42 .51 .48 .52 .53 .53
10 .............................. .52 .46 .50 .49 .59 .53 .56
11 .............................. .......... .51 .51 .51 .......... .53 .53
12 .............................. .......... .53 .55 .54 .......... .57 .57
13 .............................. .......... .......... .61 .61 .......... .65 .65
14 .............................. .. ....... ..-----........ .58 .58 .......... .......... ..........
True average of casein
nitrogen ............... -----.46 .42 .49 .46 .41 .44 .42
True average of casein... 2.93 2.65 3.13 2.93 2.62 2.81 2.70

Holsteins. Shorthorns.

Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
Holsteins. horns.

Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per et. Per ct.
1 ............................... 0.40 0.34 0.39 0.38 0.45 0.44 0.42 0.44
2 ............................... .35 .30 .34 .33 .41 .43 .38 .41
3 ......................... ...... .34 .29 .34 .32 .38 .42 .36 .39
4 ............................... .36 .30 .36 .34 .38 .44 .37 .39
5 ...................-------------------------- .37 .32 .35 .35 .44 .45 .37 .42
6 ............................... .38 .33 .36 .36 .44 .44 .43 .44
7 ............................... .37 .31 .39 .36 .45 .45 .46 .45
8 ............................... .37 .33 .40 .37 .46 .45 .47 .46
9 ............................... .38 .36 .41 .38 .45 .53 .46 .48
10 ............................... .39 .42 .49 .43 .48 .56 .45 .49
11 ............................... .43 .58 .53 .51 .53 -....- .. 48 .51
12 ............................... 45 ........ 59 .52 ........ ........ ........ ..........
13 ......--.................---.........-- .51 ........ .58 .54 ........ .........-.......-.......-------...
14 ......- ......................... ---.57 ........ ..... .. 57 ........ ....... ....... ..........
True average of casein
nitrogen ................ .39 .33 .39 .37 .43 .45 .41 .43
True average of casein.... 2.49 2.11 2.49 2.36 2.74 2.87 2.62 2.74


RELATION OF THE CASEIN TO THE FAT.

The relation between the fat and the casein is of considerable
interest on account of the possibility it affords of calculating the
casein content from the fat analyses and its relation to methods of
paying for milk of varying quality to be used for cheese making.
Van Slyke I formulated a rule for estimating the casein, limited in
its application to milk with fat contents between 3 and 4.5 per cent.
Shuttleworth 2 showed that considerable variations occur with indi-
vidual cows regarding the relation of fat to casein.

Van Slyke, Lucius L. Modern methods of testing milk and milk products. New York, 1907. See
p. 192.
2 Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, Twenty-first Annual Report (1895), pp. 19-27.
Toronto, 1896.




I'


RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS.


17


M at&' studied the relation between the fat and the casein in the
't k of 26 cows representing 5 breeds and covering 12 days' time.
INjd6inds that "the relation of casein to fat varies among animal of
iAferent breeds and among animals of the same breed." His data
averaged by breeds are as follows:


* The following gives the relation of the fat to the
of each of the 11 cows used in our investigation:


casein in the milk


The above statement, representing as it does in each case the
entire lactation period of the animal fed a uniform ration, gives a
fair basis from which to study this question. The figures show that
there is a variation in the ratio between the fat and the casein that is
dependent upon breed. There is little difference between the
Holstein, Ayrshire, and Shorthorn breeds, but the Jersey shows a
much wider ratio than the others. A study of the figures for
the individual animals shows a reasonably close agreement within
the breed. The conclusion from our data would be that while there
is some variation with the individual the variation due to breed is of
greater importance, and that the breeds that have the highest per-
centage of fat have the widest ratio between the fat and the casein.

I Hart, E. B. Variations in the amount of casein in cow's milk. Journal of the American Chemical
Sisety, vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 281-285. Easton, Pa., Feb., 1908L


Relation
Breed. of fat and
casein.

Jersey............................... 1.72:1
Guern ey.................... 1.90: 1
Ho lstein.....-- ------- ----- 1.49:1
Ayrshin ............................. 1.44: 1
Ayrsire ...1.4 :


Ratio of
Breed. No. fat to
cafein

Jery............ ....... 4 1.66: 1
Do ......................... 99 1.75: 1
Do......................... 118 1.71: 1
Average for Jerseys --...----..--...---. -1.69: 1
Ayrshire....................... -------------------300 1.20:1
Do ......................... 301 1.47: 1
Average for Ayrshires..---------- 1.36: 1
Holstein....................... 205 1.30: 1
Do ......................... 206 1.38:1
Do......................... --------------------209 1.25:1
Average for Holsteins.......... 1.31: 1
Shorthorn.................... 400 1.35: 1
Do......................... --------------------402 1.44:1
Do........................ 403 1.29:1
Average for Shorthorns......... 1.36 1







18 INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.

SUGAR.

The sugar content was determined by the optical method.1 The
results are found in Table 10. This table shows that the percentage
of sugar in the milk of the Jersey, Ayrshire, and Shorthorn breeds was
practically the same, while that in the Holstein was somewhat lower.
Table 11 gives the average percentage of sugar from the same
sources as previously used. The average figures show that the
Holstein breed has a somewhat lower percentage of sugar than the
other breeds, although the variation is small as compared with that
of other constituents. It is a well-established fact that, with the
exception of the ash, sugar is the least subject to variations of the
milk constituents. Some variation, however, is found with the
individuals. This is especially noticeable with the Holsteins, where
one has an average of 5.05 per cent and another 4.25 per cent. The
sugar composes from 34 to 39 per cent of the total solids, varying in
this respect with the breed.
TABLE 10.-Average percentage of sugar for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week periods.
Jerseys. Ayrshires.

Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 .............................. 4.89 4.94 .......... 4.92 5.14 5.17 5.16
2.......................I 4.99 5.15 4.47 4.87 4.81 4.72 4.77
3..................... 4.87 5.17 4.70 4.91 4.64 5.62 5.13
4 .............................. 5.28 5.06 4.56 4.97 4.87 5.16 5.02
5 .............................. 5.12 5.04 4.83 4.99 4.96 4.77 4.87
6.............................. 5.00 4.50 5.21 4.90 4.57 4.43 4.50
7.............................. 4.39 4.52 5.20 4.70 4.82 5.38 5.10
8 .............................. 4.45 5.14 5.40 4.99 5.08 5.13 5.11
9.............................. 4.67 4.62 4.57 4.62 5.13 4.85 4.99
10 .............................. 4.60 5.03 4.73 4.79 4.39 4.88 4.64
11 .... ........................... 5.02 4.90 4.96 ............ 4.89 4.89
12 ........................................ 5.61 4.72 5.17 .......... 5.04 5.04
13 .............................. .................... 4.46 4.46 -.-.-..... 5.13 5.13
14............................. ................... 5.22 5.22 .................... ..........
True total average........ 4.85 4.95 4.80 4.87 4.85 4.96 4.90

Holsteins. Shorthorns.
Four-week period No. Average Average
No. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
Holsteins. horns.

Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
1 ............................... 4.69 4.07 4.40 4.39 5.40 4.77 5.21 &.13
2 ............................... 4.98 4.49 4.00 4.49 5.06 5.32 5.22 5.20
3 ............................... 4.84 4.44 4.17 4.48 5.44 5.09 5.39 5.31
4 ............................... 5.18 4.12 3.95 4.42 5.13 4.72 5.00 4.95
5............................... 5.42 4.26 4.42 4.70 4.87 4.55 4.58 4.67
6............................... 5.37 4.04 4.36 4.59 4.95 5.09 5.16 5.07
7............................... 5.20 4.74 4.16 4.70 5.05 5.29 4.98 5.11
8............................... 4.76 4.25 3.94 4.32 5.19 4.73 5.11 5.01
9............................... 5.10 4.09 4.43 4.54 4.65 4.61 4.08 4.46
10 ............................... 5.12 3.94 4.62 4.56 4.22 4.31 4.17 4.23
11............................... 5.13 4.50 4.79 4.81 4.25 ........ ........ 4.25
12 ............................... 5.02 ........ 4.15 4.64 .-..-..... .-.-- .-.- .. -.... ......
13 ............................... 4.89 ........ 4.30 4.60 ......... . ... .......... .........
14 ............................... 4.81 ................ 4.81 ................. .... .............
True total average........ 5.05 4.26 4.25 4.51 5.04 4.91 4.98 4.99

I Official and provisional methods of analysis. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry,
Bulletin 107 (revised). Washington, 1908. See p. 118.






* UBBULTS: O THE ]XPIIEIIXNTS.


1L-.Anwpi puwnb. of .ugcr n milk of dairy Sat, i reported by Awerican
xpmiment fatiosm.

SNew Jersey. New York. Missouri. Average.
Blood .Number Aveg Number Av Number Av: Number A ,
iiiiiii, Average Avera Avag
of of of of
animals. W..r. a aas. IMrarsw animsgasnisl. Sgmr.

4r v 'Per.et. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
*|i1 .......... .... 3 4.85 3 5.41 3 4.87 9 04
3 4.80 2 5.16 .......... .......... 5 4.98
...........I ...........:": ::
... ..... 3 4.84 4 5.33 2 4.90 9 5.02
--i .- 3 4.69 2 L02 3 4.25 6 4.65
...... .... Z 3 4. 8 .......... .......... 3 4.99 6 4.89


STHE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF THE FAT.

S While the previously published data regarding the constituents of
isi are extensive, little is in print concerning the chemical and physi-
S cl.istants of the fat as influenced by the breed and individuality of
the tnixual, with the exception of the relative size of the fat globules.
|| i iiti'studited the milk of 3 breeds of cows and concluded that the
I *. e-d does not have any appreciable influence upon the nature of the
b:: K'irchner states that the composition of the fat is dependent
S. ..o.tly upon the stage of lactation and the food of the animal, but also
Series to some extent with the individual animal.
| The object of the investigations herein reported, as far as the varia-
ltions due to breed and individuality are concerned, was especially to
,0 father data concerning the fat. Since the rations fed the animals was
.u uniform in all cases, the variations found can reasonably be attributed
| to thie influence of the breed or of the individual.
II RELATIVE SIZE OF THE FAT GLOBULES.

The determination of the relative size of fat globules was introduced
by Babcock.' A description of this method of measurement is also
Found in Bulletin 111, Bureau of Animal Industry, United States
Department of Agriculture. The method is essentially one of com-
paring the average volumes. It has been observed by several inves-
tigators that the breed of the animal has a decided influence upon the
Sis. of the fat globules. Jones' found that the milk of the Holstein
Ihad a much larger proportion of small fat globules, while the Jersey
aad, the Guernsey had the largest, the Ayrshire standing between.
Woll5 gives the following data concerning the size of the fat globules
IViteli, P. Buttaett-Untermechuzgen nachl Reichert-Wolny's Methode. Milch Zeitung, vol. 18, n.
;. 38,p. Bremen, July 10,1890.
a 'Kirhner, W. Handbuch der Milchlwirtacwbaft. Berlin, 1898. See p. 16.
*Iq: ewiorAgfluutkmtl Experiment Station, Fourth Annual Report (M85), p. 293-.302 Albany, 1pM6.
l.: m'les, L. R. Study of milk globules. Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, Fourth Annual
I....... (1 MO), p. U .' B rington, -1891.
W : PWl,. V. The fat globules In cows' milk. Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, Eleventh
i l ] R.pot (1894), p. 223-239. Madison, 1896.


19






INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


in the milk of the 3 breeds which were entered in competition at the
Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893:


Gutzeit I gives the average diameter of the fat globules in his inves-
tigation as follows:
Microns.
Jersey............................................................ 3.50
Shorthorn------------------------------------------------- 2.76
Shorthorn ....................................................... 2.76
Holstein-------- ----- ------------------------------2.58
Table 12 gives the relative size of the fat globules as determined for
each of the 11 animals used in our investigation and the averages for
the breeds. This table shows the same results as noted by others, the
Jersey having by far the largest fat globules, while the Holstein have
the smallest, the Shorthorn standing between the Holstein and the
Jersey. The comparative size of the fat globules in the milk of these
4 breeds is illustrated graphically in figure 1. The chief difference






0000
AYRSHIRE HOLSTEIN
JERSEY SHORTHORN
FIG. 1.-Relative size of the fat globules in the milk of dairy cattle.
between the size of the fat globules with the different breeds is that
with the Jersey there is a greater proportion of the larger globules and
that the milk of the other breeds contains a limited number as large
as the largest in the Jersey milk. The milk of the Holstein breed is
especially noticeable in containing a large number of small fat globules,
together with a wide variation in size.
The table shows that the individuality of the animal has some influ-
ence upon the size of the fat globules, but it is of less importance than
the breed characteristic. The milk of an Ayrshire or a Holstein can
be distinguished from that of a Jersey with considerable certainty by
the characteristic of the fat globules alone. The Shorthorn, on the
I
1 Gutzeit, Ernst. Die Schwankungen der mittleren Gr6sse der Fettkfilgelchen in der Kuhmilch nach
Laktation, Fttterung und Rasse, sowie fiber den physikalischen und chemischen Unterschied der
gr6ssten und kleinsten FettkiUgelchen. Landwirthschaftliche Jahrbfcher, vol. 24, p. 539-67. Berlin,
1895. See p. 648.


Number Relative Avee
Number size of diameter.
Breed of cows. globules. diam

M.twcrons.
Jersey .---........... 25 290 3.95
Guernsey ..... 25 217 3.58
Shorthorn........ 24 177 3.35


20







. .i. : fh, ULTS. OF THU EXPEUIMENTS.


21


h a fat globules that in many cases are as large as those
in ii"the milk of the Jersey, although less uniform in size.

S.t... 12.-Relative aim offat globules in milk of each cow, and breed average, by 4-week
liiii::,t,, : ::: .. : ......r w d s
.:::: .. ......:::::: :EE E: 7
.u ..i;i. .. .....' ... ." : ... ..


0i'' Jerseys. Ayrslires.

* 1 3O11 wek period No. Aea A ra
.No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
.., Jerseys, shires.

I*-*-a-------------------- ------6 5---------------45 235-2-----
,,, ................................ 363 556 459 235 232 234
.............................. 423 339 ......... 381 163 189 176
3 .......-----.---------------------...... 370 325 417 371 148 142 145
,A -............---.........--.. 229 274 879 461 135 155 145
-----.........-------..--------------- 267 264 358 296 115 165 140
6.... ....................- .. 267 349 373 326 133 178 156
7..........-------------.-..--------------...... 235 370 301 302 93 163 128
S............................ 299 367 334 333 80 151 116
.............................. 318 270 335 308 75 146 111
S............................... 228 209 259 232 129 114 122
.1-............................ 167 263 342 257 ---------- 146 146
.................................... 315 229 272 .......... 93 93
........................ .................... 438 438 .......... 110 110
14..- ..............----------.......... --------..........--.......... ----------461 461 .......... ..................
True average of relative
S size of globules .----..------.. 309 336 338 328 141 160 150

SHolsteins. Shorthorns.

Your-week period No. ^ ^^
r...-.ekpr No. A age Average
SNo. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
Holsteins. horns.

-1...-... .................. 242 253 321 272 442 566 357 465
2............................... 147 269 139 185 593 561- 303 486
3 ............................... 148 124 136 136 317 394 213 308
4 ...............-------................ 147 157 138 147 245 274 183 234
S............................... 127 134 104 122 250 280 134 221
6 .............................. 82 155 89 109 277 232 141 217
7...........-- .........-- .......... 107 132 98 112 231 271 146 216
8 ............................... 96 110 99 102 197 214 147 186
9.o-......................-...- 98 96 105 99 214 213 203 210
10 ............................... 90 74 79 81 179 193 175 182
11............................... 81 79 63 74 194 ........ 128 161
12 ............................... 117 ........ 76 97 ........ ...... .. ..........
3 ............................... 102 ........ 118 110 ................ ..........
14.. ......................... 179 ...--.....---- -----. 179 ........ ........ ........ ..........
True average of relative
size of globules.......... 127 164 134 142 311 353 211 282


THE REICHERT-MEIBSL NUMBER.1

The results for the Reichert-Meissl number are given in Table 13.
The Holsteins show the lowest figure for the number, although the

I This and the two succeeding constants of the fat were determined by official methods, the details of
which may be found in Bulletin 107 (revised), Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
For the benefit of those who may be unfamiliar with the terms the following explanation may be helpful:
The Reichert-Meissl number is an arbitrary measure of the volatile acids of which butyric is the principal
one in butterfat. The figures do not show the percentages of the acid, but serve as a means of comparing
dEffent fats with reference to their volatile constituents. The iodin absorption number indicates rela.
tively the amount of lodin a fat will absorb. Since the only fatty acid found to exist in butterft which
has the property of absorbing lodin is oleic acid, the iodin absorption number shows relatively the amount
of this fatty acid present, but in common with the Reichert-Meissl number the figures do not represent
percentages. The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxid required
to saponify 1 gram of fat. Since the amount of potassium hydroxid required depends upon the molecular
weight of the fat the saponification number serves as an indicator of the relative percentages of the fatty
sMids of igh and low molcular weights present.








zW INFLUENCE OF BRBBD AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


Ayrshires on the average are only 0.5 higher, while the Shorthorns
and the Jerseys show a somewhat higher figure. The individual
variations are very marked in the case of Jersey No. 118 with an
average of 23.28, which is the lowest of the entire number. If thea
data of this individual was not included the average for the Jersey
would be considerably higher than any of the other breeds. With
the exception of this individual there is no marked variation that is
to be attributed to the individuality of the animal. The marked
variation in the Reichert-Meissl number due to the advance in the
period of lactation is evident from the table.


TABLE 13.-Average Reichert-Meissi number for each
periods.


cow, and breed average, by 4-week


Four-week period No.


1....-.... ........ ............
2..... ....... ..............
3........ ... .. ......... ....
4... ........ ..............
5.. ...................... .
6........ ............... .
7 ................- ...... ....
8............ ....... .....
9....... . .. ................
10 ..............................
1. ...................... ....
12... ...... .................
13 ............ ..................
14.................... ........
True average of Reichert-
Meissl number.........


Four-week period No.


I ...............................
2.... ...........................
3...........................
4............................
5........... .... ...............
6..... .........................
7................ ..............
8....... ............... ........
9...............................
10 ...............................
11 ..... .... ........ .............
12...............................
13...... .................. ...
14...... ....................
True average of Reichert-
Meissi number..........


Jerseys.


No. 4.


Ayrshires.


- ___________ I ____________ ____________


No. 99.


No. 118.


Average
for
Jerseys.


No. 300.


No. 301.


1 1 I 1


29.22
28.72
28.52
28.50
28.96
29.20
26.87
28.63
25.24
25.95

.... ......


28.17


30.16
28.88
32.09
30.95
27.67
31.21
27.03
27.54
27.03
25.83
24.73
18.43
.. ..... ...
....... ...


28.69


29.54
23.28
24.14
23.69
23.90
24.64
26.66
23.12
25.04
22 85
22.79
20.22
14.23
14.21

23.28


29.64
26.96
28.25
27.71
26.84
28.35
26.83
29.76
25 77
24.88
23.76
19 33
14.23
14.21

26.73


Holsteins.


No. 205. No. 206. No. 209.


S-1-


26.66
26.01
26.33
27.38
27.82
26.92
28.05
27.53
27.86
26.06
25.63
20.39
12.77
10.27

25.81


30.15
29.48
28.15
24.58
27.19
24.51
24.28
23.39
23.53
20.76
17.62




26.13


25.65
26.84
25.10
27.05
24.82
24.68
22.79
23.47
24,23
20.17
21.32
20.70
21.14


24.44


Average
for
Holsteins.


27.49
27.44
26.53
26.34
26.61
25.37
25.04
24.80
25.21
22.33
21.52
20.55
16.96
10.27

25.46


27.66
28.95
27.76
25.76
26.83
25.76
24.57
23.87
23.09
17.96

..... .....


26.34


30.59
27.09
26.58
25.13
24.88
26.79
25.59
26.40
24.42
24.36
18.09
21.72
20.67


25.52


Shorthorns.


No. 400.


30.77
29.31
25.95
25.99
28.58
26.54
24.70
25.99
24.46
22.57
22.25


26.89


No. 402.


30.72
27.14
26.69
25.60
26.07
24.12
23.75
22.93
18.39
16.61


25.55


No. 403.


29.36
26.67
26.31
26.30
25.69
26.02
26.38
24.53
23.27
24.25
25.51


26.29


Average
for Ayr-
shires.


29.13
28.03
27.17
25.45
25.86
26.28
25.08
25.29
23.76
21.16
18.09
21.72
20.67
.e.........


25.93


Average
for Short-
horns.


30.28
27.71
26.32
25.96
26.78
25.56
24.94
24.48
22.04
21.14
23.88


2..........28

26.28






".A. d. Wi fLS *POf TE EXPLRlMENTS.


28


ii* *..fi A 31ioin N Mtna...
*i'....hHghhh.... k 5olg xy 1 ox rsxw x

fibA t14 gives the data in regard to the iodin number for each
lani n or the 4 breeds. It will be observed that with this
t there is an evident variation due to breed. The Shorthorn
theiolostein show a noticeably higher iodin number than the
while the Ayrshire comes between. The Jersey cow No. 118
.Ei~~W An individual variation in this respect, as is the case with the
eisa number. If the figures on this animal be left out of
il "ii. ltsal the variation with the breeds would be even more marked.
Th ,""t u riation with the breeds, since it shows practically the same for
S*& individual, seems sufficient to warrant the conclusion that there
't is a vtiation it this constant to be attributed to breed and that the
Eil.tein and the Shorthorn may be expected to show the highest
1L .e, while the Jersey is at the other extreme.


TAz 14.-Average iodin number for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week periods.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.
.Four-w k Nriod No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

............................. 31.08 32.68 3931 34.36 32.58 28.58 30.53
......- .............. 28.04 W.46 36.33 31.28 28.70 29.91 29.31
5-- ...--- ------------------ 29.61 28.96 32.54 30.37 27.69 30.56 29.13
4...............-..-.....--- 29.94 26.75 28.69 28.46 31.91 29.85 30.88
............................. -- -28.84 29.99 3155 30.13 27.80 30.93 29.22
6. ............................ 28.03 27.29 30.43 28.58 29.61 30.31 29.96
7 .............................. 31.46 27.93 28.67 29.35 35.30 31.04 33.17
5 ............................ 29.75 27.37 32.49 29.87 37.32 30.54 33.93
9.............................. 32.27 28.71 33.67 31.55 35.23 32.64 33.94
-.-.0.........---............ -32.15 28.80 31.43 30.79 37.74 35.11 36.43
U-- ............................. .. 27.61 31.14 29.38 .......... 44.11 44.11
....................................... 29.55 32.37 30.96 .......... 39.62 39.62
1............................................... 38.48 38.48 .......... 36.80 36.80
14 ...... .............................. .............. 35.82 35.82 .......... ....................
True total average........ 29.99 28.87 32.79 30.52 31.14 32.06 31.61

Holsteins. Shorthorns.

Four-watk tRiM No. Average Averag
No. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short.
Holsteins. horns.

1,........ ....................... 37,12 31.00 39.46 35.86 30.13 30.76 33.33 31.42
............................... 34.54 30.57 33.32 32.81 32.12 39.21 35.18 35.50
3 .............................. 3.2 3.53 32.89 33.88 39.065 31.15 33.19 34.46
4............................... 3Lt 31.70 33.10 32.22 31.36 30.42 33.75 31.84
............................ 31. 31.79 33.53 32.36 31.66 32.08 35.28 33.01
6............................... 32:64 31.67 91 33.07 33.31 35.16 35.57 34.68
7............................... 32.12 33.14 k562 34.13 35.71 35.13 34.96 35.26
8 .............................. 33.40 34.25 35.509 34.43 33.25 35.47 36.34 3&O
S............................34.67 33.91 37.01 35.00 34.28 41.01 37.32 37.54
S10...................... ..... 3. 35.27 OS. 36.63 36.91 42.19 35.24 38.11
11U--............................ ..- 3S.. 36.5 36.76 38.49 ........ 35.04 36.77
12............................... 37.3 ........ X0 37.11 ................. ..........
1............................... 42.7 ........ 39.0 40.0 ................ ..........
14...... ................. ............... 42.24................ .................
Tto total aveae........ 34.46 32.68 35.48 34.0 34.08 34.09 34.72 34.36


I.




V







24


INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


THE SAPONIFICATION OR KOETISTORFER NUMBER.

The data regarding this constant are found in Table 15. The varia-
tions that may be attributed to breed are comparatively small. The
Holsteins show a number 1.5 higher than the Shorthorns. This dif-
ference, while comparatively small, seems to indicate at least some
tendency for a variation between these two breeds. With this excep-
tion no special variation can be observed that may be attributed
safely to the influence of the breed. No marked individual varia-
tions are observed, with the exception of Jersey cow No. 118, which
shows individual variations in this as well as in the other constants.
A high iodin number is usually associated with a low Reichert-Meissl
number and a low saponification number. The data of cow No. 118
follow this rule. The variations, however, are not sufficient to justify
any special emphasis being placed upon either breed or individuality
as a factor in causing variations in the saponification number.

TABLE 15.-Average saponification number for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week
periods.

Jerseys. Ayrshires.

I our-week period No. Average Average
No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
Jerseys. shires.

1 ............................. 231.1 230.6 228.5 230.1 232.6 236.9 234.7
2 ............................ 233.1 232.1 224.7 229.9 230.7 234.1 232.4
3 ............................. 232.9 229.5 229.6 230.7 232.3 232.0 232.1
4 ............................. 229.1 232.3 229.0 230.1 224.8 230.4 227.6
5 ............................. 230.7 227.7 230.2 229.5 229.2 227.5 228.4
6 ............................. 229.0 231.7 226.6 229.1 230.1 229.7 229.9
7 ..............---------------------------- 227.8 227.3 229.4 228.2 224.5 219.6 222.0
8 .............................. 229.4 239.8 224.8 231.3 222.0 228.3 225.1
9 ............................ 234.4 234.3 225.1 231.3 223.9 228.4 226.1
10 ............................. 235.9 231.4 227.6 231.6 217.2 224.3 220.8
11 ........................................ 229.4 237.0 233.2 .......... 216.2 216.2
12 ........................................ 219.6 223.9 221.8 .......... 218.7 218.7
13 ........................................ .......... 219.5 219 5 .......... 221.3 221.3
14 ............................................. ............... ... ..
True total average........ 231.3 228.6 227.2 228.9 228.4 227.9 228.2

Holsteins. Shorthorns.

Four-week period No. Average Average
/ No. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
Holsteins. horns.

1 ............................... 242.2 230.7 237.2 233.4 232.3 234.3 234.3 233.6
2 ............................... 229.3 228.3 230.6 229.4 231.7 233.9 225.4 230.3
3 ............................... 229.0 242.4 231.6 234.3 224.2 229.8 228.1 227.4
4 ............................... 232.9 233.7 230.8 232.8 230.0 223.0 229.9 227.6
5............................... 230.8 232.4 228.3 230.5 229.4 228.3 226.4 228.0
6 ............................... 228.7 231.2 229.0 229.6 227.2 224.3 230.1 227.2
7 ............................... 228.1 229.7 224.0 227.3 223.9 223.7 224.6 224.1
8 ............................... 227.0 225.6 222.4 225.0 226.5 222.7 225.1 224.8
9 ............................... 225.0 224.4 222.0 223.8 224.9 215.8 223.8 221.5
10 ............................... 223.9 219.9 219.2 221.0 220.5 211.5 226.4 219.5
11............................... 226.3 216.4 222.0 221.6 216.8 ........ 226.6 221.7
12............................... 220.8 ........ 230.3 225.5 ........ ..........................
13............................... 210.1 ........ 215.3 212.7 ..................................
14...... ........................... 205.9 .... 205.9 ....... ................ .......
True total average......... 228.2 230.1 229.1 229.1 227.6 226.9 227.9 227.6







25


,,r.T'. / :. RBEBSULTS OF THI EXPERIMENTS.

'.. .. ... : *- ** TU MB. POINT OF T33 PAT.
*:!" ..' i ,"


i6,,IsT melting point was determined according to Wiley's method.
;,mina aion of the data given in Table 16 shows a close agreement
btb melting point for all of the animals. Apparently there is no
n^ristior in the melting point that could reasonably be attributed
| &be:, r to the breed or to the individuality of the animal supplying
|: samples A marked variation is noticeable due to the advance
i:' ft. actation period, but this is regardless of the individual or breed.
Table 17 gives a summary for comparison of the constants of the
i fat for the four breeds.
l ..... '. r "
!,*i lt 16.-Average melting point of the fat for each cow, and breed average, by 4-week
S. .periods.

I .. Jerseys. Ayrshires.

I -Four-week period No. Average Average
: No. 4. No. 99. No. 118. for No. 300. No. 301. for Ayr-
;... : Jerseys. shires.

C:. 0. Oc. 0C 0a 0 0. Ca.
I ............................... 32.36 24.94 26.62 27.97 34.80 32.07 34.44
............................. 32.63 33.24 32.66 32.84 33.39 33.21 33.30
..:...................... 33.39 33.36 33.31 33.35 33.45 32.61 33.03
4 ............................. 32.25 34.53 33.31 33.36 33.54 32.80 33.17
.I8............................. 33.30 33.78 33.80 33.63 33.74 33.85 33.79
6............................. 33.44 34.08 33.40 33.64 33.87 32.98 33.43
7. ,.-.......................... 32.94 34.07 33.92 33.64 33.83 33.98 33.90
& ......................-....... 33.24 34.38 33.66 33.74 33.30 33.55 33.43
--.............-.............. 33.03 34.64 33.39 33.69 33.30 33.33 33.32
10............................ 32.97 33.81 33.59 33.46 34.04 33.10 33.57
11....................................... 34.88 33.81 34.35 .......... 34.35 34.35
12A............ ............. .......... 34.35 33.68 34.02 .......... 33.23 33.23
...................... .................. 33.46 33.46 .......... 33.28 33.28
14............................. ................... 33.50 33.50 .......................... ...
Truetotal average........ 32.91 32.95 32.99 32.95 33.75 33.20 33.47
.#
Holsteins. Shorthorns.

PForn-week perio No. Average Average
No. 205. No. 206. No. 209. for No. 400. No. 402. No. 403. for Short-
A Holsteins. horns.

a C. 00 0C. 0 C, a C. a C. C
1. :. ................-...-.-... 33.41 32.95 32.58 32.98 33.91 32.69 32.70 33.10
2............................. 32.67 33.52 32.16 32.78 32.99 32.79 33.32 33.03
3........................... 33.39 31.94 32.06 32.46 31.61 33.20 32.70 32.50
4....... ....................... 33.76 32.06 31.84 32.55 33.15 33.09 32.60 32.95
5,............................ 33.02 32.47 33.04 32.84 33.01 32.95 33.15 33.04
6.... .......................... 32.93 32.47 31.69 32.36 33.88 33.99 32.98 32.62
........................... 32.88 32.64 32.30 32.61 33.63 33.76 32.54 33.31
8...........................32.98 33.13 32.78 32.96 34.13 33.79 32.65 33.52
............................ 33.26 32.81 32.85 32.97 34.21 34.65 33.14 34.00
.............. ............... 33.09 32.92 33.82 33.28 3 -.40 36.31 33.28 34.99
S............................... 33.01 38.80 33.15 34.99 36.49 ........32.83 34.66
12 ...................... 32.54 ............35.45 3399.. ......... ................
1a.............................. 41.80 ........ 37.39 39.59 ................ ..........
1i4...................... ...48.34 ................ 48.38 ................ ..........
True total average........ 33.76 32.87 32.02 32.88 33.56 33.37 32.89 33.23






INFLUENCE OF BREED AND INDIVIDUALITY ON MILK.


TABLE 17.-Average chemical and physical eonmtants of the fat by breed.

Relative u Saponifi- Refrhert-
Breed. size of fat Iodin nation Wtal mdutt
globules. number. number, number. PO
6C.
Jersey ..................................... 328 30.52 228.9 26.73 32.95
Ay hire................................. I 150 31.61 228.2 25.98 .47
Ho ein................................... 142 34.20 229.1 25.46 32.88
Shorthorn ................................. 282 34.36 227.6 26.28 33.U

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
1. The data presented show the influence of the breed and the
individual upon the composition of the milk and upon the constants
of the fat as evidenced by 11 cows, including 3 each of the Jersey,
Holstein, and Shorthorn breeds, and 2 of the Ayrshire breed. These
cows were kept upon a uniform ration and the samples represent an
entire lactation period for each. A compilation is also given which
includes all complete analyses of the milk of purebred animals for
entire lactation periods published up to the present by American
experiment stations.
2. The average percentage of total solids is highest with the Jersey
and lowest with the Holstein. The fat represents 34.9 per cent of the
total solids with the Jersey breed and 28 per cent for the Holsteins.
The relation of the fat to the total solids is influenced by breed espe-
cially and to some extent by the individual in the breed.
3. The data corroborate the well-known facts regarding the
variations in fat content due to breed.
4. The breed exerts a decided influence upon the protein content.
A low average percentage of fat goes with a low protein content,
although the ration is not constant. Breeds such as the Jersey,
having a high fat content in the milk, also have a high protein con-
tent; they also have a higher ratio of fat to protein.
5. The proportion of the total protein present as casein does not
seem to bear any special relation to the breed, although some indi-
vidual variations are observed.
6. The ratio of casein to the fat varies uniformly with the breed.
The variation between the Ayrshire, Shorthorn, and Holstein is slight,
but the Jersey has more fat in proportion to the casein.
7. The sugar content of milk does not show much variation either
with the breed or with the individual. Our data showed a somewhat
lower figure for the Holsteins than for the Ayrshires, Shorthorns, or
Jerseys.
8. The data presented show the well-known breed characteristics
regarding the size of the fat globules, those in the Jersey being the
largest, followed in order by the Shorthorn, Ayrshire, and Holstein.


26







The breed apparently is a factor having some influence on the
... .. lerteiss number. The highest was found with the Jersey,
the Holstein had somewhat lower figures.
10. The influence of the breed is shown on the iodin number. The
Hoiteins and Shorthorns have a noticeably higher number than
.the Jersey, with the Ayrshire coming between.
| 11. Little influence due to breed or individuality can be observed
*| with the saponification number.
*| 12. The melting point of the fat shows no variation that may be
attibuted to breed and but little with the individual animals.
:! 1 3. With the exception of the size of the fat globules, the fat con-
J slats are far less influenced by the breed and the individuality of the
!: animals than by the stage of the lactation period. The feed of the
Animal is probably a greater factor than breed or individuality in
I influencing the nature of the fat.









ADDITIONAL COI S of this publicton2
may be proceed from the Sur TD
n' or Documrs, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., at 5 oents per copy


SUMM.





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