Special report on the cause and prevention of swine plague

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Title:
Special report on the cause and prevention of swine plague
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Smith, Theobald, 1859-1934
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 025828068
oclc - 00972355
System ID:
AA00018873:00001

Full Text





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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA


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THE GIFT OF


BERT W. BIDER,
USDA, GAINESVILLE,


V.M.D.,
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


.......................


.,,$ormal lungs of pig, inflated, lateralaurfa 163
Same lungs, diaphragmatle surAbe ................................ 163
,',Hepatization of lung with pleuritic exudate .... ............. & ...... 163
,$xma lung with adherent portion of diaphragm .................... 163,
u0patizati -on of lung with necrotic foci 163
Jnre'umonia' plouritis, and perioarditis produeed by inoculation of
swine-plague bacteria.,... ...... 163
Owwons degeneration of lungs in swine plague ..................... 163
,C*Reans maws in Inng tissue. Masses of exudate in large intestine.6 163
09114fse and br6ncho-pneumonia .................................. 163
Periearditis in swine plagae,... ............. L ........... 163
bacteris (highly magnified) ........................ 163
$w"me-plag'uobaeterisi'uoultures ............. a won omon man -Wmvw 4. 163

















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HUTR FTRNMITL
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lueaerp
th vsiain tdi ealwihhv
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Thdfiutesronigivsiain fifciu
haebe/eymch/nrae yte rqeta~ca
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to bintoberupn heaal- h kowedewhchi
soraily i arou ars o teciilzd ord Te
'In nii e r poeteeitne favrln wn
//oei n t dnit ihtedsaeo
du o eifc-b
evhpeaeti Gray tas emntae hwd








infectious diseases to which our swine are subject The nt.re and :
cause of these diseases are made clear; and knowing these, we c an
apply the curative and preventive measures which the progress of .
medical science has made possible, or which future researches may :
show to be available. .
SD. E. SALMON,
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Hon. J. M. RusK,
Secretary of Agriculture.


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IOSCNENNG H AUE N TOOY
OFSIE LGE

IIIRDCOY
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du ofeI 1d dsrbtonoe hecnty
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The question whether swine plague is an infectious disease by itself, '6U
demanding the attention of the veterinarian, the agriculturist, and the ., :!J
Government, was practically solved, though not absolutely demon- :i
strated, by the investigations of 1887. The repeated attacks upon this '
work made it desirable to spend much more time than was :actually ..!
necessary in the investigation of outbreaks as they came within re ........ch .
of facilities from time to time, and now a large amount of material him A
been collected which fully confirms the position taken in 1887, that I
there are at least two swine diseases of an infectious character.. These
have very likely existed together for a long time, but a differentiation
could only be effected by the advanced position of bacteriology and the
ample means provided by the Government.
The frequent association of hog-cholera bacilli with swine-plague
bacteria has made it necessary to pay some attention to hog cholera as .
well. These investigations are based on the facts already published :
on hog cholera and the bacillus of that disease in the special reporton .... ..
hog cholera (1889). This report is therefore necessary to an under-
standing of the contents of the present volume so far as the strictly
experimental portion is concerned.. .
It is to be hoped that these investigations will prove not only of ad&
vantage in the protection of swine from disease, but will be a basis for .
the investigation of diseases of other domesticated animals due to this .
group of bacteria, which may appear at any time owing to the growing
complexity of intercourse between different sections of the country, .
modifications in the methods of stock-raising, etc. I
'-- It must not be assumed that our knowledge of the etiology of swine
diseases is complete even with the advances made thus far in swine
plague and hog cholera. There are important questions with reference i
to both diseases which demand elucidation. Especially is it desirable
to investigate those outbreaks more carefully 'in wic we find the ap-
pearances of hog cholera without the bacilli in the internal organ .
he complete mast ery over a disease is only to be obtained by complete
insight into its causes. If all the suggestions derived from scientific in .
vestigations, conscientiously applied, fail to prevent the appearance of ,
a given disease it signifies that our information is as yet income t1.,
and that there are some still, unknown channels through whiah the :i.
bacteria of such disease are distributed..* ,, .. ..iis
... ... .....:N', ; ."i
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hilgbepeet1nfteivs
.-ilalstdcmytotm h r t
ia h efgtos ad"l eie oko
-,Mt ouddb hr4 hobe iol nad
omainlrptto fsttmn& I eea l
tmetnm
Iaa ftetx aebe u
AJ11te netgtosprpriciigadtie
oubekatpyadbceilgclnts
ofsieadsalraiasbv eo ettgte
veotras hlealesnilinomto eie


atosadeprmns t efud ntesbe
ofte-eot
ta hrfrhv enarngdi te olwn re
b(wr efrtdwiefolwdb re eiwo
*v dtald coutf.lte vsigton. Te cm
tino hsiepauebera:fterd
&I*n oefcssoigth iedsrbto fIi
amn oetctdaias nahatycniin
// aoadd iigabifacon f:teivsiaino
Mio aty l h eutadpatclosrain
ofvlet-hefre mbouh oehr









passes through a herd quite rapidly, ana those aimmas which live ioug '1
eat have reached a stage of the disease in which, the swins-plagut
bacteria may have entirely disappeared. ....
A third difficulty to be contended with is the rapid death of the awi-, $-
male, which makes a thorough examination of each animal impossible. .*iii
The alternative before us is either to limit our examination to a certain '.I
number of organs in every animal, or else to examine a few very .
thoroughly. While we have endeavored to meet both demands, of ex. I
amining every animal, and also doing it as thoroughly as possible, we
have but partially succeeded in this, owing to lack of facilities and
assistance. The pathological changes differ so much from animal to
animal, the extent of the organs involved varies to such a degree, tIat
there is a great temptation to examine every animal in the hope that
most information can be obtained in this way.
Se investigations consisted in watching the course of the disease in
the infected animals, in post-mortem examinations of those that died,
in microscopic examination of the diseased tissues, fresh and hardened,
and in bacteriological examination of a certain number of organs. The
post-mortem examination included the various organs and tissues, with
the exception of the brain and spinal cord, which were exposed in a
very few cases only. The skin was first reflected from the thorax and
abdomen, the abdomen carefully opened, and the spleen or a portion of
it first removed with sterile instruments and reserved for further ex-
amination. From any fluid or exudate present a minute quantity was
transferred to culture media by means of a platinum wire bent into
a loop about three to four millimetres in diameter and soldered into a
glass rod. The thorax was next opened by removing the sternum, and
from any effusion or exudate cultures were made at once. The vari-
ous organs destined to be used for bacteriological examination were
removed in whole or in part before being soiled.
Portions of organs designed for microscopical examination were in
part examined fresh by making sections with the razor, teasing, etc.,
in part hardened in 95 per cent. alcohol and infiltrated with paraffin
before the sections were made. These were stained in different ways,
chiefly in alum carmine and in alkaline methylene blue (Loffler), which
was found most satisfactory in bringing out the swine-plague bacteria.
The various cultures were made in the following manner: With a
platinum spatula a small area of the surface of an organ was thoroughly
scorched, and from the scorched area minute particles of tissue were
cut out with flamed scissors and forceps, the scorched layer being
rejected. These particles were then transferred to various media for l
tube and plate cultures and also used for the inoculation of animals" S
Another mode of inoculating cultures used was to pierce the sco ed ..,It
area with a straight stiff platinum wire, which was then stirred abot iil|

J ...ma




lA
evw he ur~e ofaw.In his way
Idb!neereadi
I otvswmnmru eog ob dtce
0 f h o e i e i k .t e v r o s o t r a s
ilopadwrmen-rsetvl hloedwranth
NoeiIaiIymd fti o ndct h ifrnei
ofm aeiluetoioaaetecluemd.
I~a ~hdi ou fdsnedgteetra ufc
vhigte na5prcn.slto feroi cdo
M et ouinofmrui hoie o hr ie
seea -iiin nPae ihtage o n nte
ofteogn a o mloebcue h nto
ofsocigasml oto fth ufe e e
M,"1 a~coy hn utrswr ncltd'Wt
ft h ih enrceIiete er a tl
04,vnrclr-alwssoce|vrasal ra
0Io~esauawsue obr hog.Tepaiu
or-h ls ieti loTwst ecletd a
, L!uraeITh aemtos 'eeefpoe
,o baal xermnaaias
ofsiepau*biem gras.a sal
*|o~,ppoe u omnsladteodur
a|" ~,bs ei.-nteeririvsiain























outbreak is Whether one or both Kifids of bacteria are: present.. ThiS
can only be determined by bacteriological investigation. Itis evident ;!iii
that to examine every organ of every pig bacteriologically isatiasklii:ii q
enormous dimensions, hence the simplest reliable method must ibe: Cu&t'il^::
played. At first thought it would seem sufficient to make platealtnr: i::
from the various organs and examine the colonies as they dev.lop...:"S!!
There are, however, objections to this method taken alone... Certain':..
varieties of swine plague bacteria, especially the most virulientdo not*
as a rule grow in gelatine, while on agar the colonies of hojcholera.cn a ,.t
not be distinguished positively from those of swine plague, unless Idth-ia:
bacteria composing -these colonies are examined. For a rapid and rei-A:,`
able determination of the presence or absence of these two kind. of :E
bacteria. I have found in addition agar and bouillon tube cultures neO- ..
essary. The motile hog cholera bacilli are detected at once in the I
bouillon and in the condensation water of the inclined agar ciltures. 'ii
Such cultures may then be plated, and fresh cultures of the hog-cholera III,
bacilli and the swine-plague bacteria obtained by inoculating Nmr a
isolated colonies. These cultures are then in condition to be teste d.on :i
smaller animals to make the diagnosis complete. While it is desirabl.Me i
that when both kinds of bacteria are present they should be isolated ,|
from as many animals as possible, it is obvious that the presence o i::
virulent hog-cholera bacilli in a single animal of a herd leads to the :"
inference that they are most likely present in all the remaining diseased.
animals. ": .*.ti
The detection of swine-plague bacteria in liquid cultures containing _|
hog-cholera bacilli is, as a rule, not difficult. The best method con.sistas..l
in the examination of the liquid unstained in a drop suspended tIi.'K::t
the under Aurface of a cover-glass resting on the margins of fte:Nt lfl
or in the slide. The most convenient cell I have found to b6t!t1.
glass ring fastened to the sli4e with Canada balsam. A little. ....






W-1IM~th cverOwwih, hedro o i
6ih~gt&imr-Ioswl o rwi P
KII 'M edl eete n t i rp b h i
t Odr ftedo 6eaietetoknso e
4 edsigase b aaihdfeenei iei ao
tir~aiI hn h rwtfo h:eneiaif
4ul tt& tob xmn64itmsbdiuewihbu-
prfril n8 oilnii
*ti A'tbs us h
Th xmtatn fcutiWI'Uti ane a o
With n h td-o hs iemd hntepeec
kid'fbeeA asbe pstvl dtrieIfn
4* itevleM:sbeun wr n ipye mp
ribd-We ooeartobexmndadoofbut
1,A hc, lm fg/t s9ird-p s fcns.ne
'tieo h oilnad ieonesto ae faa
fht-htmtl bcei.d o awy el~
trnfre rmagr rgltn, nolqi!o
_" `f1- ec hi ofiymyb eitrl ovi
'tey e exmndatrhvn-nltp di'lqi' o
l/C
bebrei idta h clne fafwbce|
ck rpo fuio rmtodsssdbd a sp
`iIle hn ayote ooisw reetal.ta
J nieyls nth eodo hr pae nbulo
k,-d fatrahv o tm hsm pitnte
fi n ohmybdtctdo:telloigdy
haebe rgnly.a'retdfeeci h im
-t ie grPi.hv cainlyfie odm
-M fcran atraoig*ihroafiue-o
th ai rwho te aceirWrpddyi u
Aa|irbuf n grtb utrsmd ttesm
Ihrih -tedsrdifrain





.16

ing what relation they bear to the disease. Many of them can mvwt- nt il
ally be traced to the intestines where they commonly vegetate. Their
presence in the internal organs may be accounted for by the extenave
lesions in lungs and intestines which serve as entrances into the blood.
This presence of strange bacteria has also been observed in other infec-
tious diseases by other observers, and attention has been called to it in
connection with hog cholera in the special report on that malady, p. 58, I.
The detection of these foreign bacteria has been in large part due to I
the use of bouillon. As they are usually present in very small numbers .
their colonies on plates might easily be overlooked or attributed to
accidental infection. They would appear only on the first plate among '
large numbers of other colonies and most likely be overlooked, since
the development of colonies on crowded plates is limited, and they fre- .
quently fail to show any special features unless they have time and
opportunity to expand. This is true of gelatine and particularly so of
agar, on which colonies show, at best, few differences. When bouillon
is inoculated all bacteria have for a time equal opportunities to develop, .
as stated above, and they at once thrust themselves upon our attention.
Such mixed cultures have been and are still styled contaminated by
those who fail to see their real significance. Such criticisms may,
however, be safely left to take care of themselves at the present time.
As an illustration of the foregoing, I have frequently found in the bot-
tom of bouillon tubes into which a bit of tissue had been introduced
large spore-bearing bacilli, which have been referred to in the various
reports as "anaerobic," "post-mortem" bacilli. These bacilli do not
develop in fresh cultures, nor would they appear on plates. The bot-
torn of the culture liquid and the bit -of tissue furnish for the time a
suitable soil.*
The use of animals in the isolation of bacteria is of great value in
swine diseases. Rabbits are peculiarly susceptible to swine-plague bac-.
teria. Inoculated with the more virulent varieties they die within 20
hours, and the inoculated bacteria can be obtained from the various
organs. Frequently when cultures failed to determine the presence of
these bacteria in tissues rabbit inoculation was still successful. When
a mixed outbreak is under examination it is evident that since rabbits
do not succumb to minute doses of hog-cholera bacilli in less than 7
days, the rabbits will die of swine plague first and the hog-cholera
bacilli will not be obtained from their organs. There are, however, at-
tenuated varieties of swine-plague bacteria frequently encountered in
mixed outbreaks which prove fatal to rabbits in from 3 to 10 days. In
+,hese cases when pure cultures are inoculated there is more or less sup-
purative destruction of the subcutis starting from the point of inoc-
ulation, while the internal organs are quite free from changes and
bacteria also. In such protracted cases, provided both kinds of bacte-
For a simple method of cultivating such bacteria in addition to those now in use :.
for anaerobes, see foot-note, p. 81. ...
. .. .. .........





17

t in the tissue inoculated, both kinds may ap-
`cWturesf or oWy the hog-cholera bacilli may have
through the body, while the swine-plague bacteria
,'to the inoculated locality. Since hog-cholera bacWI' do
much local- inflamma.tioD, wheDever this is extensive in
sW directly from the pig,-it iia pretty certain that swine-
and perhaps other still unknown bacteria may have
should be looked for.
',inoculation may thus prove very serviceable, bat the post-
s must bo carefully interpreted in connection with
gical observations. In any caw they rarely bring to light
bacilli when the inoculated animal succumbs to swine plague
fourth or fifth day.
Words are necessary to define some of he anatomical terms
aa Psy inasmuch as a thorough description of the
Y of the domesticated animali has not yet been made.
4colons are confined chiefly to the lungs and intestines our
be confined to these organs.,
Qatod'through the trachea after the sternum is removed, and while the lungs
natural position in the thoracic cavity., it will be observed that the
against the ribs laterally is the most extensive. Thatsurface rest-
comes next, while the ventral aspect is the smallest (See
t lung is made up of four lobes, the left has only three. (in,
AwAtomy the left: lung is considered as being made up of only two.)
is a large principal lobe resting upon the diaphragm and against the
oraciewall. This, lobe forms the major part of each lung. Theremainder,
'Um aut4nior (or cephalic). portion of the cav ity, is made up of two small
extending centrally (or downward in the standing position of the animal)
expanded state covering the heart laterally, the other extending towards
and overlap-ping.. the base of the heart. These small lobes may be denomi-
*,a -ventral and oaphalic lobes, respectively. The right cephalic lobe is longer
distinct fmm the ventral lobe than the corresponding left cephalic.
iu between the two principal lobes and resting on the diaphragm is a small
ida ng, to the right lung (azygos or median
va= 1,, belongi lobe). This lobe rests
ift, against the mediastinal membrane, and on the right it is separated from
*Ot principal lobe by a fold of the pleura passing from the ventral fhoracic wall
the inferior vens cava. This small lobe is almost completely shut off, there.
Oe other lobes by folds of the pleura.
Ao trachea and its branches have been examined it is easier to understand
.-Into lobes'. The trachea divides in the thorax into two principal
Ior bronchi. These brouchi pass into the principal Iobes, straight to
,J border, giving W a number of small branches along the'IT course. very
'Olwo of bifurcation the left bronchus gives off a large branch, which rami-
-substance of tho left vintral lobe. : 1kom this branch another goes to the
lob'o. la some lungs the branches of these two lobes arise together from a
ftarcely perceptible trunk, and are of nearly equal, size. The bronchial
't lung differs materially from that of the left. About 2 centimetres
L fT, n4tion the trachea gives off a small bronchus, which supplies the right
%A& twolusiTely. At the bifurcation the right bronchus sends a short
ik iheguWl median or azygos lobe a-ad one to the ventral lobe.
portion of the large intetitine of the pig consists of a duplicatMe which














in Ie auaomen. Xne coOea panr is loosely oounu iogeimer ana reaauy movanie in
the abdomen. As regards the dimensions the following measurements retaken from
a male pig about 7 months old, and 39 inches long from the tip of snout to root of taiL
The intestine was dissented with normal feces: 1, mcecum, extending from closed end
to ileo-cecal valve, 71 inches long; 2, from valve to duplicature or bend in the center
of the coil, 5 feet; 3, from'the latter point to anus, 6 feet. It will be noticed that the
folding takes place in the middle of the entire length of the large intestine.
In the description of the regions the duplicature is a convenient point at which to
distinguish the upper from the lower colon. Where the rectum begins it would be difi-
cult to determine without careful anatomical observations. Provisionally, its limit
if determined by its old original signification may be placed at eight to twelve inches
from the external opening or anus.
In examining the large intestine it is best to begin the separation at the fold or
bend in the center of the coil and continue until the cacum and lower colon are
reached. The ctcum is easily removed with the small intestine attached. Thelower
colon is associated with the duodenum in the same mesentery and is crossed by it.
SCare must be taken not to injure eithe; tube at this point in attempting to separate
them. In beginning it is best to tie a string around the tube at the flexure as-a
landmark for future reference.
The writer has used, apparently without discrimination, the English
and the metric system of weights and measures. It will be noticed,
however, that in the more strictly scientific part of the work only the
metric system is used, while in those portions which may be interesting
to a wider circle the English system is substituted.

























4 .










14
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th umro _Wtewie aeanme fps-otm
ouo iesdpg nIl/ij o h ups fietfig

Oawn iesseitn n hzetr ttswt h
'exlr o wnepau si a te eoiae)

onsneNvme,18,onteEprmn tto
Itwl ermmee httehgcoeabclu

inNvme f18,adcaeul tde st t
an ahoei haams
ore xmntin eemde ntefeltesle






20
:.."

Much time was spent in studying the motile bacillus, owing to" its
superficial resemblance to hog-cholera bacilli. Any one familiar with
intestinal bacteria, will, I think, at once concede, after reading the de-
scription on page 78 of 'the report referred to, that this was the baciusw
coli. The peculiar expanding and rapid growth on gelatine, the coagu-
lation of milk, the offensive, putrescent odor of the cultures, are prop-
erties which do not belong to hog- cholera bacilli. Moreover there was
no manifestation of any pathogenic power. The small non-motile
bacteria were identical with those named throughout this report as
swine-plague bacteria.

H.

Several months later the writer, having found the information obh
trained on this journey quite different from what was expected, under-
took another journey in the same State.* As usual the various re-
ports of swine disease found in the papers vanished before the writer's
approach, and after much search a herd was found near Sodorus,
Champaign County, in which a number of animals had already perished
and some were very sick. Two of the latter were killed. In No. 1
there were extensive pneumonia and some large ulcers in the large in-
testine. In No. 2 there were the same pneumonia, a very large spleen,
and one ulcer on the valve in the large intestine. Various cultures
were made at the time and blood was collected in pipettes which were
sealed in the flame. The result of the bacteriological examination was
briefly as follows:
From No. 1: The spleen contained only hog-cholera bacteria. The
* blood (first pipette) hog-cholera bacteria and streptococci. The blood
(second pipette) contained only swine-plague bacteria.
From No. 2: The spleen, blood, and pleural cavity each contained
swine-plague bacteria.
Sections of the lung tissue of No.2, hardened in alcohol, showed large
numbers of swine-plague bacteria in the alveoli.
With swine-plague bacteria from the pleural tube cultures of pig No.
2 a considerable number of inoculations were made upon smaller ani-
mals to determine their pathogenic power as compared with the swine-
plague bacteria already found. The inoculations were made by inject-
ing definite quantities of bouillon cultures which had been inoculated
from single colonies on gelatine plates.


One mouse, one-eighth cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 48 hours.
One mouse, three-sixteenths cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 24 hours.
One mouse, one-twelfth cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 2 days.
One mouse, one-twelfth cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 6 days.


In these animals there were no marked lesions. In some the bacteria
injected were present in large numbers in the various organs; in others
they were very scarce.


*L. o., p. 79.


;... . :i~i

.ii'::i i..iiii
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**:i|
--!


I


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21

oubic ceutitn6b!6 subcutaneously, dies in 4 days.
'cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 5 days.
cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 3 days.
at the place of inoculation the sabeutis was ratich
OT-Ournlent 'Infiltration, and there'was more or lem hemor-
4)qdative peritonitis. In, the exadate the, injected bacteria
4btaidan't.
ouo-half cubic centimetre subcutaneously,, dies in 2 days.
itireo-fourtbs cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 4 days.
of the inoculation the. muscular tissue more or less
]Bacteria not detected in the internal organs.
ea-pig, one-fourths cubic centimetre subcutaneously, dies in 6 days WML
changes and exudative peritonitis aud pleuritls.
one-half cubic centimetre suboutaneously,:dies in 5 days.
I cubic centimetre subcutaneously, rebovered.
was extensive nearosis of the pectoral muscle at the place of inocu-

wing animals were inoculated by rubbing into the subeu-
-0swe through a i cision a loop dipped into a gelatin cul-


ig (abdomen) dies in 5 days; subcutaneous lesion very extensive.
g (abdomen) dies in 8 da-va; subcutaneous lesion very extensive.
roo of tail) dies in 3 days.
(Wort of tail), dies.in 4 days..
(ear)dies in 9 days; extensive suboutkineous lesions.
ons (breast) rexuain well.
(breast) rem ain s well.
cWtures of the swine-plague bactonria derived from the blood
M10.1 two r0bitA were inoculated to see if the bacteria from
es were identical.
'44bbii received one twenty-fourth cubideentimetre bouillon cultum; died in

rabbit received a loop of gelat.,no culture; died in 10 days.
*Idth ihere was much, local inflammation in the suboutis and peritonitis.
cOltures of, th swin -plague bacteria from'these two sources a
'of pip were inoetilated as indicated in the table
QlLantity sourm
lGf In of culture.
M'an. injected.

O.C.
11" 188 *2J Geneseo, Ill ........... Dies in 18 days.
0 *2J -.do .............. *.:. Dies In 10 days; generalbed Jaundicq,
90"150 *5 ....do ............ ..., DlesinMdays.
tj -.do ................... No efflect,
7 *5 Sodorus, Ill ...... Dies in 9 days; jaundim
*3 ....do ............ Dies in 35 days.
-5 .... do ................. Dies in 8 days; Jauj3dice.
t,*, _.do .......... No effect
*5 ........... ..... Dies in 11 fAundice.
*5 ........... Dies in 7 days; Jaundtm

*,Subcutaheou& t Into right lung.















'lne liver in Lnese cases was greasy enlargea ana so nrm wau wnWi;. ::
removed from the body there was no change of form.. There was no..
obstruction to the flow of bile in the bile ducts. The disease of tbe .
liver tissue itself was shown in sections of cases 289 and 375 to be due "
.i *;.::*i :: .iB
to inflammatory foci within the lobules. In some of these foci the pa- 3
renchyma cells were still visible, but very feebly stained the trabecular
arrangement was destroyed; the nuclei of the cells very much shriveled
or absent. In other foci the parenchyma was replaced by numerous .1
round cells.- From these observations it would seem that the disease *
consisted of necrosis of a mass of hepatic cells followed by round cell
infiltration. These foci varied in size from one-eighth to one-half the :
.area of the lobule. Almost every lobule was affected, either several :
small areas or one large area of disease being present in each, situated .
usually near the periphery. In No. 375 there was also very extensive
cellular infiltration beneath the capsule.*
That the disease was induced by the inoculation can not be very well
denied in view of the facts in the case. The animals used were from -*
four different -lots purchased from four different owners.t No other
animal in these lots died with these lesions of the liver. The inocula-
tions must, therefore, be considered as the direct cause of the fatal
result.
These experiments are in so far remarkable as future subcutaneous
inoculations with swine-plague bacteria from other sources, with one
exception, produced no effect. 1 have not observed this disease since
the time these experiments were made. The only explanation which
can be made is that these varieties of swine-plague bacteria had a
slightly different pathogenic power which manifested itself in the man-
ner described.
Much ill-considered criticism has been leveled at these experiments and results .-
by F. S. Billings, and they are, therefore, presented again simply to show the in-
founded character of these criticisms. While the term cirrhosis used in the earlier :
reports may not have exactly expressed the diseased condition of the liver, it should
also be remembered that the field of comparative pathology is not sufficiently devel-
oped to aid us in choosing terms or in finding certain diseases already described and *.
named. "
t No. 287-294, bought June 1, 1886, when 8 weeks old, from Mr. M.; Nos. 329-33..
bought Aug. 27, 1886, when 8 weeks old. from Mr. B.; Nos. 363-367, bought Oct i:A.
1886, when 8 weeks old, from Mr. J.; Nos. 368-383, bought Oct. 18, 1886, when" :,,
weeks old, from Mr. J. F. ..... ...:::
V ""
.. :. -... .. :.. ,
... ...... ...







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.24

animal or make cultures, being engaged in other work at the time. An..: 'iiii
other fact which led to the supposition that this disease was different F.i
from the disease which appeared later in the other animals of this lot ;:i
was told by the owner. Nos. 405 and 406 were the only pigs which had
not been confined in pens, and which, therefore, may have been ex- 'i
posed to infection on the farm which did not reach the penned animals.L
At the time No. 406 died (February 1), the other animals appeared
well. Some of these were distributed into small pens by themselves
and fed different doses of cathartics. Meanwhile no other animal of
this lot died until 15 days later, when 403 died. The following table
gives information concerning the rest:

Date of
Pigs. deatb. Remarks.

No.406 Feb.1.... Intestival ulcers.
No. 403 Feb. 16... Ventral lobes of lungs diseased; cronpous inflammation of large intestine.
No. 405 Feb. 18... Extensive pneumonia and pleuritis; croupous inflammation of large intestine.
No. 402 Feb. 19... Slight pneumonia; croupous inflammation of large intestine.
No. 404 .........Not affected.


As regards the bacteriological examination the following may be said:
No. 406. None made because disease supposed to be hog cholera.
No. 403. None made for same reason.
No. 405. Swine-plague bacteria found in lungs; other organs not examined.
No. 402. Bouillon cultures made from pleural shreds, spleen, liver, and blood.
Gelatine cultures made from blood and liver.
Nearly all the cultures from No. 402 contained a large spore-bearing
bacillus which I have frequently found since then in cases of swine dis-
ease having hemorrhagic lesions. Cultures from the liver and blood
contained also swine-plague bacteria which were isolated by rabbit
inoculation.
It will be noticed that in the later cases, Nos. 403, 405, and 402, the
large intestine was the seat of a peculiarly intense inflammation, ac-
companied by the exudation of circumscribed masses of fibrin easily
lifted away from the mucosa, leaving a paler, slightly depressed spot
showing no necrosis of tissue. In the rectum this exudate formed a
continuous sheet also easily removable.
It might be claimed that the feeding of a dose of aloes or salts may
have caused this peculiar intestinal inflammation. This claim, however,
is effectually disposed of by case No. 407. This animal, one of the same
herd, had not been taken from the neighboring farm. It was found
dead February 22, and brought to the Station for examination. The
notes of this case are reproduced because it must be considered the
most trustworthy of all.
No. 407. Pig of medium size, white; skin of abdomen, chest, neck, and back deeply
reddened. Fat abundant, slightly reddened along the line alba. Superficial
inguinal glands slightly enlarged; spleen dotted with elevated blood-red points.*


* These points are found in spleens of healthy swine.


.' :i

S... .....





















nt to cheat wall over the hepatized portion. A. whitish, spongy mem-
ite d bout one-eighth to one-fourth -inch thick, inclosing a small
Ijid, On removing the lungs the membrane remained adherent
l an, ad was removed with difficulty. A portion of the dia-
XtmW attached. The left lung adhered firmly to the chest wall in
ilei it was consolidated. The costal pleura was deeply reddened,
U.cM of a close net-work of minute vessels. Trachea and bronchi

lE the :'. ne.o.idated region is sharply but irregularly marked off from the
*B|rty consistent and slightly elevated. The color varies from a bright
SIn all, minute grayish points are present one-twelfth inch in
4 .. aom distance. apart, and of a hazy outline. The smaller bronchi
lpgiurulnt fluRid. In the surrounding lobules in which the disease is
wie.t.. interlobular tissue is distended with a serious infiltration; the
1eU'd with very consistent dark clots. Heart rather large, pericar-
IR aiz.. .le, ventricle, and large veins ditrnded with clots; small
iv... ntricle. . /
.. xnia'Jta'n of the lung tissue in coert. glass preparation6$shows the
tnuainrows-bacteria with the polar stap n recent lesions; in older ones
P*f.". Other forms are present, but only in small fiumbers. The ileural
ai inde up of rounds cells, bound to4e6her by bundles of 11fibfin; i con-

@ts sections of the large intestine,-where a mass of exudate jir still
itmwseolar and submucous layers are&$tact, if we except a slight cellun-
. near..... the base of the crypts. The maone layer, however, i consider-
:.,.:.The purae epithelium, including a portion of the crypts of Lieber-
so 10ditlugishable, but merges without demarcation iVto an exudate
..".thi.k, consisting of leucocytes imbedded in a'mesh-work of fibrin,
.. s tain.
e::f swine-plague bacteria in tubes of gelatine were obtained from the
'n. each needle track a large number of colonies developed. A
Mom. ii.rane gave the same result.. Cover-glass preparations from spleen
M '""ive. Two tubes of beef infusion into which bits of spleen had
Ji;r|uained sterile. Two similar cultures from the liver contained each
e:vidently of post-mrt e growth. The blood from the heart was
f.eteria, for two tubes of gelatineo, each inoculated six or seven times
..... :,de.vlop a single colony.,
Si ....ithe ear with &-bit of lung tissue died within 4 days. There
*0.r.ieden"ing of the ear. Lungs deeply congested (hypostatie Ic).
ie1:|< W4 p .lue bacteria in blood, spleen, and liver. Cultures
.......... ... . . .......'










What is of importance in this case and in No. 402 is the absence pf:: :U i
hog-cholera bacilli from the internal organs were we would certainly- '^:
expect to find them in this disease. If we refuse to consider the intesr i
tinal lesions as caused by swine-plague bacteria, we have the alter- :-|
native of assuming the existence of bacteria which produce intestinal :
disease without penetrating into the internal organs proper.*
Five other cases in this investigation deserve special attention. Nos.
408, 409, and 410 of the same herd still remained on the farm. After ::.
the examination of 407 had shown the absence of hog cholera, and the :
presence in the diseased lungs of swine-plague germs, and the evidence.
thus far obtained pointed to a different disease caused by the latter
bacteria, two pigs, Nos. 359 and 360, were taken from the Station to the
farm and penned with the three mentioned to determine whether the
disease is readily communicable. This was done February 28. March
5, No. 408 died. March 16 the remaining four were taken back to the
Station and placed in an unused pen free from infection, so as to be
under observation.
Of these four pigs No. 409 died March 20, No. 410, March 29. Of the
exposed animals No. 359 died March 24, 24 days after the commence-
ment of the exposure; No. 360, April 6, 37 days thereafter. Of these
four cases No. 360 was not examined. Of the remaining three, hog-
cholera bacilli were detected in 409 by rabbit inoculation, but not in
either 408 or 410, while swine-plague bacteria were found in 408 and
359. Looking over .ho original notes I am convinced that the number
of cultures made from the spleens of 408,410, and 359 were sufficient to
enable us to exclude the presence of hog cholera from these cases. No.
409 is therefore the only animal from the adjoining farm which was ex-
amined iu which hog-cholera bacilli were detected. It is likewise
strange that in the spleen of No. 408 a bacillus should appear resem-
bling hog-cholera bacillus itrmany respects, but not identical with it,
and producing only suppuration in rabbits.
The cases which came under observation subsequently, and in which
hog-cholera bacilli were readily demonstrated in the spleen, were Station
pigs which had been exposed some time ago to the infection of hog
cholera. These cases are chiefly valuable in pointing out that the swine-
plague bacteria are transmitted from animal to animal and associated
with lung disease. They may be thrown out altogether, since the
source of the hog-cholera bacilli is traceable. H
No. 372. Fed viscera of hog cholera case December 24,1886, in infected |
p en .... ......
pen.
By "iot'rnal organs" I mean those organs which do not come in contact withthe
air or food, either directly or indirectly. Thus the entire respiratory and digestivek:"^:!
tract may be regarded as external, so far as bacteria are concerned.

.H'....1




mmmP F,
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pf4&Fbar ,,i netdpn
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pe.ac 8
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iUteivsiain f h reigya.Te
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ioioto h nmlseaieasoitd ihbcei
edfo owcoea atra
th rnmsiiiyo tepemnat te
th aebatraweefud
lag netnasosre nte al ae,
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rabtiouae h ee o-blr ail ed
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Thiatr fbt ug eaie lesi lu
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4:xesv nuoi n luiy leaino ag
ebooil ug;hgcolr atrai pen
:"Igtaeotss flnr;ucr i agitsie
inlreIaetn;'o-hlr atrai pen




0 "....3.. ..

rL '-
28




During November, 1888, the writer was directed to make some in-
vestigations in Iowa,* where swine diseases at that time were prevail-
ing to a considerable extent. In the vicinity of Mason City pigs from
three herds, some distance apart, were examined. The lesions observed
were both intestinal and pulmonary. The intestinal lesions, though
varying considerably in appearance and intensity, did not differ, on the
whole, from those observed in hog cholera. The lung lesions varied
considerably in character and extent, from a slight collapse in a single
lobe to almost total hepatization, accompanied by exudative pleuritis.
The investigations were limited to post-mortem examination and
cultures from the spleen. From each spleen small bits of tissue were
removed to two tubes of agar. In addition, portions of diseased lung
tissue and ulcerated mucous membrane from the large intestine were cut
out and transferred to sterile test tubes plugged with cotton wool for
inoculation into rabbits. Ten pigs were examined in this manner.
In but one case did the spleen pulp show any bacteria under the
microscope, and in this case they were streptococci. In but one agar
tube of the spleen series did anything develop. This was a motile
bacillus, resembling the hog-cholera bacillus in form, but differing in
its growth on agar, in bouillon, and in gelatine, this growth being in
all cases more vigorous. Of two mice and one rabbit inoculated, one
mouse died in 5 days. The lesions were indefinite and did not point
to hog cholera. Moreover, the other mouse and the rabbit remained
unaffected.
With particles of diseased lung tissue and mucous membrane from
some of these cases a considerable number of rabbits and some mice
were inoculated. Of those that died some contained no bacteria of any
description. Those inoculated from three cases out of ten died of
swine plague since these bacteria were found. A few survived the
inoculation.
The nature of this disease was not, therefore, cleared up by these in-
vestigations, since the results were not uniform. While in hog chol-
era the bacilli are present in the spleen, and readily obtained therefrom
by cultivation, they were not present in the spleens of these ten cases.
As already stated, swine-plague bacteria were obtained from three cases.
They were quite virulent, as the inoculations upon pigs show. Thus
one pig, which received 9 cubic centimetres of a bouillon culture into
the right lung through the chest wall, died within 20 hours of septi-.
wemia, the injected bacteria being present in the spleen in considerable
numbers. Another pig, which received a subcutaneous injection at the ||
same time, remained well. Somewhat later two pigs received into the
right lung lj cubic centimetres and 3 cubic centimetres of a bouillon
.. iii
























DReport of the Bureau of Animal Industry for 1887-'88, pp. 135-145, where a do-
tailed account of this work is given.








_#mWh had received the smaller dose was sick for a
It was killed 1J months after. the inoculation, and
foand everyyrhere adherent to the chest wall. In the
a considerable quantity of pus had collected, in which
b*cterla were still Pyesenti as determined by culturest
I Which had, received the larger d6se became very ill and
-day.,satterinocalation. At the. autopsy were detected par.
n of the right lung, with extensive exudative pleurAis

-following casm which have not yet been published, demon-
strikingly. th virulence of these bacteria. The growth on
of agar cultures about 9 days old was scraped off and trans-
sWrile bouillon until a turbid suspension was obtained. This
a: was prepared because these bactexia multiply very feebly
and, when the latter is used as the injecting -fluid very few
-,,wtually introduced into the body. This turbid, suspension
to inoculate 2 pigs. No. 120 received into the abdomen 2
es, No. 143 into the right lung through the chest wall
centimetre. The inoculation was.made March 11 1889
outUs after the bActeria had been obtained from the diseased

%male, 5 months, old., Into the right lung through the chest' wall,
'Metres of abolve suspension m*jeeted with hypodermic syringe, 6 p. m.
Found dead early next morning.
eous, inguinalglanAs par#y hemorrhagic. From the cut subentaueous
'ofright side liqui blood oozes out. In abdomen the solitary follicles of
no appear as bright red circular spots three-sixteenth8 inch diameter, as
serogA. Spleen -slightly engorged.
quantity of bl(;d-stained serum in right plural isac. The needle had puuc-
the convex: surface of principal lobe, where there was some infiltration of blood.
*Yer of fibrin. on convex surface of the small anterior lobes and on per'icardium.
e6llapsed lobules along free border of theso lobes.
Xii, ktain the mucosa, of flandus is deeply reddened over an area of 3 to 4 square
in this area two hemorrhagic spots. The npper half of duodenum with
i ntensely reddened. Contents somdwhat bloodTstained. All Peyer's patches
small intestine from duodenum to ileo-owcal valve are intensely reddened,
olas appearing as blood-red points. On some patches, hemorrhages on the
Considerable number of ascarides in small intestine. In large intestine
niPhatic patch n6ar valve likewise reddened. Kesenteric and mesocolicglands

very much congested. The glomernli appear as minute blood-red points.
_quantity of urine in bladder loadod with albumen. Blood fails to Qlot. In
Isirge numbers of swine plague bacteria.
-143.- t'swx malei .5 months old. hije6ted into abdomen .1 cubic centimetre of
iAopendon of swine plague bacteri,4, March 18, Animal dies 40 hours after
""ekiad slightly swollen: and hyperwmic. In abdominal cavity peritoneum
4,jalAuto vessels injected. Shreds of a viscid grayish exudate attached
0, **&M, contiguous coils of intestines, and stomach. Considera-We opaque
smm pre"nt. Vessels of diaphragm injected; some lbeebymoses observed.
ekadate also present. The mesentery mdematous, especially where









much swollen, serosa dark red. On the mucoss which is congested a ytlitmwitb'g
pasty exudate loosely rests, occupying the side to which mesentery is attaqhmL. ..
This exudate is made up of leucocytes imbedded in strands of fibrin. Peyer's patobesn i:
along this region and down to ileo-csecal valve are deeply congested and swollen so"w
as to appear boat-shaped. (The bacteria had evidently traveled along mesentery i
and invaded the walls of the small intestine.) .
Large intestine distended with dry feces. Mucosa of caecum and colon more or
less congested, the congestion limited mainly to summits of folds. The lymphatic
patch near Valve very hyperaemic and swollen. -
In each pleural sac about 50 cubic centimetres of reddish serum. A thin membia-
noneus exudate covering the dependent half of both lungs easily scraped away as a
pale yellowish pulpy mass. The remainder of pleura opaque, a barely visible exu-
date covering it. The lungs are hypermemic, the free border of the ventral and ce-
phalic lobes collapsed. Bronchial glands swollen and -byperseBmio. "
Pericardium thickened, clouded; vessels injected. A barely visible exudqte on it.
Vessels of heart surface very much distended. Petechiff on left auricle and under
endocardium of left ventricle near semi-lunar valves. Right heart distended with a
dark, soft coagnlum.
In the peritoneal exudate, which consists chiefly of fibrin and a few leucocytes,
immense numbers of the injected bacteria are present, showing after staining the
polar arrangement of protoplasm very distinctly. The pleural exudate composed of
the same elements. In some leucocytes up to twenty bacteria. In the spleen and
blood from the heartL large numbers of swine-plague bacteria. Agar cultures from
the spleen, pleural, and peritoneal cavities contain only the injected bacteria. A
bouillon culture from the spleen likewise pure.































... ... .
:" ::.:"

... -:...,i~ i~ i'








INM UIN F 8910

ofsie iessa tsoo .fe h opeino
gain pt 18 a esttdbify sflos
wellhrceie ailsbabe nonee ste
40 netoAdsas emdhgcoerwihi hel
lag netn. ic 186oratninhsbe
dies nsiewihwhc.abceru sascae
In td nosiepoe ob eyviuetadmygv
mma hntebceraaeitjce it h ug.Ti

todmnbaeteeitneofadsaedfeigfo o
ha ee ale wnepauebcus nidnialds

e nGray frtdsrbd n18,wscle cwie
lugdsaewssont b omncbe ]V.
ofteotraseamndtecagsfon nteits
no edsigihd rmhg hlr (xetprasi






82 .

animals died, and in attempting to trace the causes which led to it we :....,
obtained the following information: :
The pigs were purchased in the markets of Washington City the it- |
ter part of September. They were thirty-five in number, in two, possi- |
b]y three, lots. One lot came in two crates. It could not be deter-
mined whether it was made up of pigs from one or two sources. They
began to die, as stated, about a week after their arrival. We examined ,
in all thirteen animals, the first on October 12, the last on October 28.
A few days later the last of these thirty-five pigs succumbed to the dis-
ease. It lasted, therefore, about 1 month. A few large swine which
were on the place when these animals arrived did not take the infection.
In the following pages a detailed statement of the pathological and
the bacteriological examination is given. Those who are not specially
interested in these notes will find a summary of the ascertained facts
following them.
No. 1. October 12. Male pig, weighing about 25 pounds, died last night. On inner
aspect of right thigh an area, about one-half inch in diameter, of extravasation, ex-
tending down into true skin. No ulcers in the mouth. Spleen not enlarged.
Contents of stomach slight in amount, consisting chiefly of sand and a turbid
liquid; walls contracted, throwing mucosa into large folds. The greater part of
mucosa intensely congested. In the funds a large ulnicer 11 inches across, covered by
a slough one-quarter inch thick. The subjacent wall nearly one-half inch thick, on
section deeply reddened throughout, due to a sanguinolent, mBdematous infiltration
of the wall. Adjacent to this a smaller inflammatory thickening covered with a thin
pultaceous slough'.- The mucosa of duodenum uniformly and deeply pigmented. In
the ileum the mucosa is swollen, Peyer's patches reddened. '
Mucosa of cacum of a bluish-gray color, dotted with a small number of ulcers not
much larger than pins' heads, covered with yellowish sloughs. Similar follioular
ulcers on Peyer's patch near valve. Upper colon contains much earth, adhering rather
closely to mucosa. The latter quite deeply pigmented, the pigmentation intensified
in lower colon. In upper colon a small number of flatfish yellowish-white sloughs
from one-sixteenth to one-eighth inch in diameter.
In thorax, the pleura covering the diaphragm and ribs is overlaid by a pale
pinkish membranous exudate, easily rubbed off and especially abundant on the right
side.
The various lobes of both lungs firmly glued together by exudate. The ventral
lobes, the major portion of cephalic lobes, and a small portion of the principal lobes
adjacent to the ventrals are hepatized. The hepatized areas are covered by false
membranes varying in thickness and easily peeled off. Through the hepatized lobes
are disseminated necrotic masses of a greenish color varying in size from mere specks
to peas. They contain large numbers of swine-plague bacteria, which show a polar
stain very clearly. The tissue around the terminal portion of both bronchi in the
principal lobes is hepatized and contains necrotic foci. Lung-worms abundant in
the left bronchus. Both bronchi contain small quantities of reddish foam. Peri-
cardium thickened, opaque; vessels injected; the ventral surface is covered by a
membranous exudate and it is adherent to the heart surface by means of a similar i
exudate. Cover-glass preparations from the pleural and pericardia! exudate, from
various regions of hepatized lung tissue, contain large numbers of swine-plague bae-
teria. ""'
A rabbit was inoculated October 12 by placing a bit of lung tissue under the akin TA
of abdomen. Dead next morning. Slight ecchymosis in the subcutis at the point..:':,|:: |
of inoculation. The blood and spleen contain immense numbers of swine-plague.ii..l.

...... .. .. .. ..





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In the spleen a few minute oval bacteria detected. With a platinum neel the
surface of an agar tube and a bouillon tube inoculated. On following G4y. ,0ihe:
former showed a considerable number of round, grayish colonies, 1l to S mulim3lh'ze '
(one-sixteenth to one-eighth inch) in diameter; condensation water clouded. Iin** ....
tube only swine-plague germs detected. The bouillon culture contains a considerable :
number of minute granules, representing clumps of swine-plague bacteria.
An agar culture from the liver grew like the spleen culture and contained only swine- ,
plague germs. ::
At the autopsy an agar and a bouillon tube inoculated from the right pleura. In ::
the former only the condensation water became turbid and contains swine-plague
germs exclusively. The bouillon tube remains sterile; similarly a bouillon tubefrom
pericardial exudate remains sterile. (It is highly probable that the flocculent growth
of the swine-plague germs in bouillon and the sterility of these tubes was occasioned.
by an unsuitable condition of the bouillon.) ,
From a bit of lung tissue, the pleural surface of which had been thoroughly :
scorched, gelatin roll cultures were prepared. After a number of days the first roll .li
showed a large number of colonies as mere points, the second roll about 100 colonies, .
somewhat larger. From both tubes bouillon was inoculated from individual colonies. j:
These contained after development only swine-plague bacteria.
At the same time the scorched lung tissue was pricked with platinum needle and "
an agar tube inoculated. On the surface a considerable number of similar colonies
appeared on the following day. Some of these examined were swine-plague germs.,
In the condensation water a few chains of a short, motionless rod appeared among
the great bulk of swine-plague germs.
At the same time a rabbit was inoculated from the lung tissue. It was dead next
morning. Enormous numbers of polar stained swine-plague germs found in stained
preparation of spleen pulp. An agar culture confirms the microscopic examination.
No. 3. Died last night. Female; weighs about 25 pounds; in very poor condition. A
Spleen considerably engorged; contains a small number of bacteria; nature to be J
determined by cultivation.
Digestive tract: One ulcer on the gums of lower jaw. Stomach contents like
those of No. 2. In the funds an area of mucosa, about 4 inches in diameter, is early
black from extravasation, and thickened. A zone several inches wide outside of this'
is deeply reddened. The mucosa of duodenum and ileum more or less discolored the
vessels, showing arborescent injection. In the ccoum, the mucosa is of a bluish-
gray color, and dotted with a dozen sloughs, one-eighth inch diameter, of a yellow
color; the tissue at the margin of the slough thickened, elevated. The Peyer's patch
near valve deeply congested and sprinkled with enlarged grayish follicles. Mucosa
of colon more or less discolored and hypersamic in patches; only three small ulcers
found. The liver appears normal, the bile in bladder very thick, flaky. Punctiform :
ecchymoses on surface of kidneys. J
In the lungs the major portion of both ventral lobes is solidified, the tips being
emphysematous. The hepatized portions are bright red in color, with faint yellow-
ish mottling.
Bacteriological examination: Cover-glass preparations of the hepatized lung tissue
show no bacteria. From a bit of tissue two gelatin roll 60ultures prepared and a:
rabbit inoculated. Roll A subsequently contained a large number of apparently iden-,:|
tical colonies. Roll B, about fifty of the same colonies and one chromogene. Care-
ful examination of these revealed hog-cholera bacilli. The inoculated rabbit die t:::"'
within 36 hours. At the place of inoculation the bit of lung tissue was surrounided'.ii
by a small area of purulent infiltration and dilated blood-vessels. In the blood. A..
spleen a very large number of swine-plague bacteria. A bouillon culture fro thei
blood faintly clouded on the following day, and holding in suspension barely yis1
granules made up of clumps of swine-plague bacteria. No motile bacteria detectedd i
The spleen 9f the pig contained few bacteria, character not doteninnntb/ W
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onOlera. -rne two tune cuitures iLKaWewu UoUWI!AWi Ouiy Mog-onoiera Ea..,W,| / .:I;. ,,.
No. 5. October 15. Small male pig, weighing about 26 pounds, died last nik :lJ. ..
Skin about urinary meatus reddened. Subcutaneous inguinal glands ea p&
firm, juicy, faintly mottled with red. .", "
Stomach contracted. Contents same as in preceding cases. Mucosa in large.l.- .,!:!
summits of which somewhat reddened. Slight discoloration ofmus onof lower IlHpB i.d
Contents of large intestine firm., in form of lumps. In the senum about btenla i, I4:'!
from one-eighth to one-half inch in diameter, the largest button-shapped, fla.ftisa s ,:,-Nj
firm, yellowish, necrotic base extending into subjacent muscular coat. O. a pl''I *
necrosis of Peyer's patch at valve. In the colon a small number of large au4 atai $i
button ulcers. The solitary follicles projecting as large as split peas. When sqhqesi.d .i
a white soft mass exudes from a central depression. :|
Liver rather firm in texture. Gall bladder .contains semi-liquid, flaky bile. .. :i!
Spleen slightly enlarged. Kidneys on section very pale. i ..
Both lungs cedematous. Hepatization involves the free tip of both small cep4 is ,;j
lobes of the right lung, the major portion of the ventral lobe of the left lu ng,. Ml"
both principal lobes are a moderate number of small hepatized foci. In both ,brpoch : j |
a large quantity of very viscid muco pus, which extends down into the branches of .....!
the principal lobes. These latter and the terminal portion of the principal bronchi o
contain plugs of lung worms. Bronchial glands enlarged, firmin, pale. -
Bacteriological examination: In cover-glass preparations from the spleen a very few ::
bacteria resembling somewhat hog-cholera bacilli seen. An agar culture inoculated d ]
with platinum wire remained sterile. On the following day spleen taken from re-
frigerator and a second agar tube inoculated with particle of pulp. In this tube a "'
colony of greenish fluorescent bacilli appeared, .
From hepatized lung tissue two gelatine rolls were prepared. The first one was- l
spoiled by a few liquefying colonies; the remaining small colonies were inaccessible.
The second roll remained sterile. "
A rabbit inoculated subcutaneously with a particle of lung tissue died in 24 hours. |
At the place of inoculation considerable purulent thickening of skin with eechymosis :o ^
of the subsutis. Numerous very small coccidia cysts in liver. Spleen enlarged,
congested. (Bacteriological notes of tbis-rabbit mislaid.) .",..
No, 6. October 15. Small female in very poor condition; died last night; more or
less decomposition. Ventral aspect of body reddened. Subcutaneous inguinal glands:
enlarged, firm, and very hypertBmic. .:::,
Stomach much contracted, empty. Mucosa of fundus beset with punctiform hem-w
orrhages. Small intestine not marked by changes one ulcer in lower ileum, 0on-(m
tents of cwecum and colon of a somewhat pasty consistency mixed with coarse sand.
In the ceecum about six old, flattish ulcers, from one-fourth to one-half inch in diam-n:i
eter, also a patch of easily removable, membranous exudate several inches square'
In the colon near the valve several ulcers and a similar patch of exudate. ..
In the lungs the hepatization, though extensive, is more or less scattered in foci aI
follows:
A few hepatized foci in left cephalic, one large hepatized mass in ventral, an. S i.
wedge-shaped masses in left principal lobe. In the rightlung, fully two-thirds oft.tia:
median and the whole of the ventral lobe solidified. The latter lightly glued to. t:ii.
neighboring lobes. Disseminated through it are very many necrotic foci about ..:i:
eighth inch in diameter. In the right principal lobe several hepatized massi:,. I&
both bronchi a large number of adult lung worms. Pericardium thickened :. 0iS
injected. Spleen not enlarged or congested. : i .. .
Bacteriological examination: Spleen found more or less'deco posed. Npgp
cover-glass preparation. In an agar culture therefrom numerous isole Ai
ent hog cholera colonies appeared on following day. :
A rabbit inoculated eubcutaneously with a bit of lung tisase (tbp. i| i
..... ..




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88.
8 :';;":i:i:. : :Q i

Large quantities of lung worms in left bronchus and branches oontainme In. thae:......:::':
caudal third of principal lobe. Right bronchus not opened. Pericardium thiokene4 I:
opaque. Heart surface covered with a thin, transparent pseudo-membrane.... JfR : 04
auricle hemorrhagic. A clot distending the right heart and forming of it a comply. *te
cast. Center of clot pale. ::::
Bacteriological examination: From spleen two agar cultures made. One remains
sterile. In the other on second day a faint growth starting from condensation water' "
upwards. The latter contains clumps of swine-plague bacteria and large bacilli with
terminal spore. Several gas bubbles in agar.
From the pleural exudate of right lung an agar and a bouillon culture prepared at :
autopsy. On following day a large number of punctiform colonies on agar surface.
Minute flakes in condensation water. In bouillon minute granules, representing .:
clumps of minute oval cocci. In both tubes only swine-plague bacteria.
From the more recently hepatized regions of lungs which contain large numbers of
swine-plague bacteria and some large bacilli, two gelatin rolls and two agar plates
prepared.
In the gelatin roll A two forms of colonies appeared, one with disk homogeneous,
the other with a distinct peripheral zone. In rpll B only one kind appeared. A
number of bouillon tubes were inoculated from colonies in roll B which turned out
to be streptococci. From roll A bits of gelatine were removed to bouillon with
warmed platinum needle, some cultures remained sterile while others contained
streptococci.
On the agar plate A, large numbers of apparently identical colonies appeared. On
plate B, a moderate number developed. Of these a few examined were made up of
swine-plague bacteria.
A large rabbit inoculated with a particle of lung tissue died within 20 hours. No
internal changes, excepting a probably pre-existing fatty condition of the liver. Few
swine-plague bacteria detected with the microscope. An agar and a bouillon culture
from heart's blood contained only swine-plague bacteria on second day.
No. 9. October 18. Female pig; died last night; weighs about 30 pounds. Sub-
cutaneous glands of groin enlarged, firm, cortex hyperammic.
One small necrotic patch on mucous surface of lower lip.' Stomach with funds
pale, pyloric region bile-stai ned. Around the cardiac expansion are about thirty
yellowish-white, confluent, and isolated ulcers from one-eighth to one-fourth inch in
diameter. They are raised above the level of the mucosa, flat on top. Projecting
slough soft, friable; base of ulcer very firm, extending into muscular coat. Mucous
membrane of duodenum bile stained; arborescent injection of minute vessels. Mucosa
of ileum more or less discolored and inflamed. Large intestine with walls very m, h
infiltrated and mucosa extensively destroyed by necrotic changes. In the cenaum, a
large patch of ulceration having a peculiar gnawed appearance, surrounding islands
of intact mucosa. On section the mucosa is found converted into a yellowish-white,
firm mass.
In the colon patches like these are interspersed with a large number of isolated cir-
cular ulcers with blackish, depressed surface and a subjacent yellowish, firm, thick
base extending into the muscular coat. Besides these, there are a considerable num-
ber of ulcers with an elevated, soft, necrotic top, easily scraped away. In lower colon,
large patches of destroyed mucosa.
Spleen very large, friable, pulp very dark. Liver tissue apparently unaffected.
Bile rather thick. Kidneys with parenchymatous degeneration of cortex.
Lungs as whole much affected. In the right lung all but the dorsal third of the
ventral lobe solid, enlarged, bright red, with large and small masses of a pale-greenish ::
color disseminated through it. A portion of the cephalic lobe solid, in the same con ::i!
edition. One-half of the median lobe similarly diseased. The principal lobe glued to |]
ventral lobe by a thin pseudo-membrane. About one-third along the ventral aspec#,
solidified in masses from one-half to three-fourths inch in diameter, these masses ex_:10.t:
tending from diaphragmatic to convex surface of the lobe. The interlobular ttaiwaie
". .. ~ 'i i--... ..








'dinkmdedwith serum. The vaAous of the left
as the correspondTmg ones of the right lung. Pleuritie
ons in the form of a delicate network:
contall, much frotby mneo-pus. In the left Urminal
byhopatized.tissue, are ma8ma oflung worms completely occlud-

a Im-ge, pale, containing a variable number of small necrotic foci..
#,xamination: From the right plural sac a bouillon and an agar
d with platinum loop. In both only swine-plaguo bacteria sub-

recently hepatized region. of the lungs two agar plates were prepared
s6rum, In wbich microscopic examination bad shown an immense
o pla&e bacteria. Plate A contained, after several days, a small num-
eus colonies and a very large number of baroy visible c0louies,, which
%de up of Rwine-plague bacteria. On Plat# B no development
advanced disease two gelatin rolls were prepared from a particle
Roll A liquefied. Roll B, after a weeks time, contained about
Woieg of the same character, resembling hog cholera, and one large
ttansferred to agar., and bouillon tubes proved to be not hog

with a bit of diseasedlung tissue died within 20 hours. Organs
At point of inoculation obilaiderable purule nt infiltration. Th. blood
large number of swine-plagno bacteriN showing in stained prepara-
"n *ory well. Cultures in .. bouillon and on agar. confirmatory.
4"parti,016 of pulp used to prepare one bouillon culture and an agar
"TAWIlon tbet mobile hog -cholera bacilli ap-peag.4 among clumps of
On the plate, after several days a modeta4 number of colonies
it -very Urge number of colonies of a very small size" Appeared. Some
ined are hog-cholert bacilli, tbo lafter swine-plagne bacteria.
OW of liver tissue the same cultures were made, and the same mixture
And swine-plague bacteria found.
move reemt pueumonle infiltration prepared from material hardened
W a conaiderable amount of fibrin in the alveoli, in whose meshes are a
and very many of the minute swine-plague bactmia.% The peribron-
obular lymph'spaces are distended with fibrin and cells and contain
"a'Wine-plagne ba@tbria.
prop ed from tiesue in which the disease is much more advanced show a
sion of the alveoli and small air tubes with dense cellular masses in
6-plague bacteria are more or less abundant. The tissue surrounding such
in the alveoli a moderate number of round cells, largely intermixed
alls. Bacteria abaent.
0,oWber 19. Small male pig in poor condition, weigbing'21 pounds. Died
$ubentaneous inguiInal glands very large. On section punctiform. hem-
04, trt6gnlar masses of apparently necrosed tissue observed.
646ni6b7 a-considerable number of single and confluent ulcers with project-
friable slough, resting on a firm, hadurated, whitish base. The mucosa
10a shows extensive arborescent iniecUon. of minute vesseIs.
W large intestine, a chocolate-colored liquid containing much sand.
tho joucous membrane are about as extensive as in cam 9. The larger
moiridiptheritic depoeit than in precedink case.
,:U,* ** blickisb, ftiable. Cystic degeneration of both kidneys.
diseased. Nearly the whole of the left lung excepting the*caudal
lobe hepatized,, and covered with a thick membranous exudate.
off in shreds and larger patches, especially dense on the ventral
adjacent pericardium. Lobes adherent to one another; adhe






















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pulp contained both hog-cholera and swine-plague bacteria. .
From the liver the same cultures prepared. In the agar tube besides. a Ige anuna- t":
ber of small colonies are six larger ones. These consist of hog-cholera ba&oill t. "i
former of swine-plague bacteria. In the bouillon tube both germs are present.., ':..*.: .
No inculations or cultures were made with lung tissue from this case. An ajr. .
and a bouillon tube were inoculated with a platinum loop from pleural exudite at i
the autopsy. In both only swine-plague germs appeared. ::
No. 11. October 22. Black female, weighing 221 pounds, died last night. S8ubcu- :I
taneous inguinal glands indurated; cortex reddened. Some hemorrhagic points In :
parenchyma. Fine shreds of exudate on serous-surface of large intestine. '.".
In stomach a small quantity of food. Over the entire funds the mucosa inteney. iy
congested and swollen. No ulceration. Small intestine not affected. Large int. -
tine contains a small quantity of turbid fluid. Mucosa much pigmented. Ii the:
cacum and upper.,.colon a small number of ulcers with slightly projecting slough;
lower colon considerably congested. Follicles swollen; when compressed, a white
curdy plug issues from a central opening.
Both lungs diseased. In the right lung near the caudal border of principal lobe a
wedge-shaped mass of hepatized tissue, of a bright red color. The peribronchial
and interlobular tissue infiltrated over this region, and the pleura covered with a
thin exudate. In the bronchi of this lobe are masses of mucus and pus in which
lung worms are imbedded. In both cephalic and ventral lobes are masses of herpa-.
tized tissue; in the former also a large necrotic mass.
The two small lobes of the left lung are converted into a greenish-yellow necrotic
mass, which cuts like firm cheese. In the principal lobe are three foci of hepatization,
two of them near the tip of the lobe, where the bronchus and branches are occluded
with lung worms imbedded in mucus.
Pericardium thickened, vessels injected. .
Cultures made in bouillon and on agar from pleural exudate. The bouillon culture
contained after several days only hog-cholera bacilli. The agar tube was lost. From .
a particle of lung tissue a gelatine roll A, and agar plate B prepared. On the agar
plate six small colonies appeared, made up of swine-plague bacteria. No colonies ap-
peared in the gelatine roll.
A rabbit was inoculated with a particle of lung tissue. It died in 9 days with
characteristic hog-cholera lesions. Cultures from the spleen contained only hog-
cholera bacilli.
From the spleen and liver, bouillon and agar tubes were inoculated with plain umii.
wire. In all four tubes only hog-cholera bacilli appeared subsequently. .
No. 12. October 26. White female pig, weighing about 30 pounds. Died yesteaii".|
afternoon and placed in refrigerator until this morning. Subcutaneous iugui.i:$ill
glands enlarged, hyperiemic. In abdominal cavity some dark-colored seei.up i.::.:::!
One ulcer on mucous surface of lower lip and one on gums. Stomah:. on.taote..l.
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portion of the principal lobe two small hepatized feel. Numerous lung wsrm'i t'
minafbronchus. "'' ::':1^
.. ... .. .. ...... i" :. .,' '. ,, '
.E ..:." .. .. ." .'..
In the right lung between ventral and cephalic lobes a portion of hepatized ..:. .. -
tied lung tissue. Somewhat back of this region a ima of necrotic tissue, separia d ii:
from the surrounding tissue by a greenish-white line and covered by a thick opau# "::
pleura of the same color. In the principal lobe a large wedge-shaped mass of hep. '"
tized tissue extending inwards from the lateral border several inches. On section :i::
is dark red, mottled with grayish circles and irregular lines. The pleura much thick-
ened, opaque. Another wedge-shaped hepatized mass situated near caudal tip, per-
haps further towards necrosis than the preceding one. Pleura covering it necrose tt
Lung worms in the terminal bronchus imbedded in mucus. ....
Cover-glass preparations from the more recent pneumonic masses show very few
germs. From the right pleural cavity a bouillon and an agar tube inoculated. In
the former, motile hog-cholera bacilli; in the latter about seven colonies of the asme
size composed of motile bacilli, probably hog cholera, though they appear somewhat.
too large. A black rabbit inoculated in subcutis with a particle of lung tissue died
in seven days. At the place of inoculation the suboutis is infiltrated over an area of
several square inches with pus. No peritonitis; spleen large, containing many hog-
cholera bacilli; necroses in liver.
In cover-glass preparations from spleen and liver a considerable number of hog-
cholera bacilli detected. From spleen an agar and a bouillon tube were inoculated
with platinum needle. Both contain only hog-cholera bacilli on following day.
Cultures from the spleen gave the same result.
The lesions found in these thirteen cases may be summarized briefly
as follows:
No. 1. October 12. Extensive hepatization of lungs with necrotic foci; lung
worms; exudative'pleuritis and pericarditis. Congestion and necrosis of stomach;
hypermmia, pigmentation, and ulceration of the large intestine; ulcers small, ulcer-
ation evidently follicular. Only swine-plague bacteria found.
No. 2. October 12. Spleen large. Fully four-fifths of lungs hepatized, with necro-
tic foci; pleuritis and pericarditis; lung worms; bronchitis. Small ulcers in large
intestine. Only swine-plague bacteria found.
No. 3. October 12. Spleen large. Pneumonia slight; no pleuritis. Hemorrhagic
inflammation of stomach. Ulcers in large intestine. Both hog-cholera and swine-
plague bacteria detected. I 1
No. 4. October 14. Multiple pneumonic foci in lungs. No pleuritis. Lung worms.
Hypermmia of stomach. Ulcers and patches of necrosis in large intestine. Only
hog-cholera bacilli detected. -
No. 5. October 15. Scattering pneumonic areas; bronchitis; lung worms. Ulcers
in large intestine (button ulcers). Only swine-plague bacteria detected.
No. 6. October 15. Considerable hepatization of all lobes; lung worms. Large
ulcers in large intestine. Only hog-cholera bacilli detected.
No. 7. October 15. Spleen large. Hepatization not extensive; pleuritis; bron-
chitis; no lung worms. Only Peyer's patch near valve ulcerated. Only swine-plague
bacteria found.
No. 8. October 17. About four-fifths of lung tissue hepatized, with necrotic foci;
pleuritis and pericarditis. Lung worms. No ulcers in large intestine. Infarcts in
kidneys. Only swine-plague bacteria found.
No. 9. October 18. About one-half of lung tissue hepatized with necrotic foci;
pleuritis; lung worms; bronchitis. Necrotic patches and ulcers in stomach and
large intestine. Spleen large. Both-hog- cholera and swine-plague bacteria detected. ..
No. 10. October 19. Spleen large. Three-fourths of lung tissue hepatized., with
necrotic foci; pleuritis; bronchitis; Lung worms. Ulceration of stomach ud large1,n
V
... ..B: .: i:.iid!ii" :.




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present they should not after a time invade every atimM,:. sie 0j.i| :
presence of one disease, such as swine plague, would oppose the btfl..! j
sion of hog cholera in the same animal, a'hypothesi for which we .'',
no supporting facts. If we turn to the positive evidence we find tin t I:Ii
in ten out of thirteen animals the same virulent swine-plague bacteria
were found. We have, in other words, bacteria pathogenic in pigs as '
we shall presently show, which travel from animal to animal and pro- ::i
duce a more or less extensive pneumonia with pleuritis. These fa:c I
are in themselves sufficient to separate swine plague as a distinct dia.-
eage from hog cholera.
In those cases thoroughly studied, such as Nos. 1 and 2, hog-cholera
bacilli were probably entirely absent. A glance at the table will s18ow
that when they were detected they were always found in the spleen.
In Nos. 1 and 2 only swine-plague bacteria were found in the spleen.,
The same may be said of No. 12. Why the hog-cholera bacilli should
have been in these animals and not appear in any of the numerous cul-
tures made is certainly incomprehensible.
Perhaps the best evidence, aside from inoculation, that swine-plague
bacteria are the cause of the pneumonia is deducible from the bacte-
riological examination of the lungs and pleura. In only two later
cases were hog-cholera bacilli obtained from the pleura. In one (No.
13), the lung disease had advanced to caseation, and it accords with
former experience that in such cases swine-plague bacteria are gone,
and if hog-cholera bacilli are in the animal they are certain to appear
in these dead lung masses, and hence in the pleural cavity. In those
lungs which were extensively hepatized, but in which necrosis had
not advanced far, the hepatized tissue was practically a pure culture
of the swine-plague bacteria. The cause of the intestinal lesions must
remain a matter of doubt, although their nature combined with the
presence of hog-cholera bacilli in the herd would lead us to regard them
as due to the latter.
As to the origin of this mixed outbreak, nothing positive could be
learned of the former history of the herd. As it was made up of two,
possibly three lots, it may be assumed that one lot brought one germ
and another lot the other. This hypothesis gains force from the great
variation in the extent and character of the lung and intestinal lesions.
Meanwhile it must be remembered that only one-third of the herd came
under observation, owing to the rapidity with which the animals sue- .
cumbed and the somewhat tardy information concerning the outbreak
which reached us.
U-
THE PRODUCTION OF DISEASE IN SWINE AND OTHER ANIMALS WITH
THE SWINE-PLAGUE BACTERIA FROM THIS OUTBREAK. .,J

The bacteriological notes already given indicate a virulent vanelj ..o... .
these bacteria, inasmuch as rabbits succumbed to a subcutamin. tg
oculation of a minute dose within 20 hours. The following ...... ............
..: .. .. ... ..
.. .... .:.. : ''. *
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SnLC wuin Muug nsvwzn cW vcrvu in par11 wal n pinuriu oxupate. ine vuntrai ..- w-:^
thirds of principal lobe covered with a thick pseudo-membrane and hepatizdd, very |..
firm; on section, red, mottled with gray. The ventral and cephalic lobes col:iji.
covered with exudate, which extends to contiguous pericardium. (See plae VI).,-
The entire diaphragmatic portion of pleuiira of both principal lobes and media lobe :
converted into a wrinkled, necrotic mass. Pericardial sac contains much red'dlish I
turbid fluid. The surface of the heart covered with a whitish, firm, roughenedl exu- :
date. .
Stomach contracted; contains a small quantity of bile-stained liquid. The muousae
of the funds bluish-red, swollen. The whole covered with a layer of visoid, bile- :
stained mucus. The remainder of digestive tract free from inflammation. -
In the liver the central region of acini dark brownish red, the outer portion pale
brownish.
The presence of the injected swine-plague bacteria in the organs of this animal:
were determined by the following cultures:
From the spleen, in which no bacteria were detected under the microscope, an agar
tube inoculated with platinum wire and a bouillon tube by adding a particle of pulp,
The bouillon tube became clouded with swine plague. The agar tube imained
sterile. A rabbit inoculated subcutaneously in the ear with a platinum loop dipped ;|
into the bouillon culture died within 20 hours. In blood and spleen very large num- .';
bers of swine-plague bacteria. In cultures from these organs only these germ pros-:
ent. 'I
A small area on the hepatized left principal lobe scorched, and a small particle out
out with flamed scissors. From the serum filling the cavity thus formed, which con- ,
trained large numbers of swine-plague bacteria, one gelatine roll, and from this two i
agar plates prepared. The roll remained free from growth; also one agar plate. -I
On the other appeared a large number of minute colonies and several large colonies :I
of bacillus subfilis. The former were identified as swine-plague colonies. From the
left pleural exudate an agar tube was inoculated. Abundant growth of swine-plague
bacteria on the following day. :,
From the hepatized region of the left principal lobe portions were placed in al.o-,.
hol and subsequently sections prepared. The alveoli and small air tubes dn he.s.lyf'r
packed with masses of cellular exudate. The interlobular @sue distended with i
network of fibrin and a scanty number of leucocytes. In the contiguous, still pei'
vious areas, some air tubes were occluded with cellular plugs, and either around ths...;
or independent of them were isolated groups of alveoli occluded with round oellet!:
Swine-plague bacteria were present in enormous numbers both in the parenaeht
and the interlobular tissue. They were densely and uniformly sprinkled aromttid"ti!Vi
between the cells, in some places forming dense zooglgca. They were mueb h..
than in cultures, being just visible at 600 diameters. (See plate x, fig. A i!t
These inoculations show that these bacteria injected .en. ..

have little or no effect, but when introduced into one of M (
.... ... .. ....
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In September a boar, 5 months old, died in pen 1. There had been
no disease on the place 2 years previous to this occurrence, and no recent
purchase of pigs. In the latter part of October ten pigs, 2 months old,
were purchased, five placed in pen 1, and five in pen 5. At this time a
sow in pen 2 had four pigs, all of which died in a few days, while the
sow, although sick for a time, recovered.
In pen 3 a sow became sick very suddenly November 8, and died next
day. A litter of seven pigs, 7 weeks old and small f r their age, died
:nW o ....':







within 4 days after the death of the sow. Of these, five came underour
observation (Nos. 1 to 5 inclusive, of the autopsy notes). These five,
after a very careful examination, proved to be cases of swine plague.
PDV. I. P: Agu%









While the recently purchased pigs in pen 1 remained unaffected, those
in pen 5 began to die at the same time that the young pigs in pen 3.
were dying. Thus two died November 9 and one November 10. One
of these was carefully examined, and to our surprise the disease was a
found to be hog cholera, as the autopsy notes (No. 6) clearly show.
The remainder were taken to the Experiment Station. At the same
time there were in pen 4 two pigs about 5 months old and one old sow. 2
One of the pigs, sick November 12, was transferred to the Experiment i1
Station, where it was found dead on the following- morning. This osso
also was one of hog cholera (Case 7). By feeding the viscera of these ,
two pigs to fresh pigs an outbreak of hog cholera was produced, which
was subsequently utilized in a series of experiments on vaccination, as a ..
.: .... ... ... .












means of exposing swine which had been vaccinated beforehand-
..... ....:












On inquiry over a month later, we were informed that no
losses from swine diseases had been sustained.
In the following pages are given the notes of the autop it
bacteriological examination of the litter of small pigs wh2icmo8thldt#^
3. They are all the more interesting in that the iai n ws tm
.. ..... 3
day.A ltte ofsevn pis, weks ld nd mallf.. thir gedie




*7

49

uncomplicated with hog cholera. The autopsy notes of the two
A f] M pen 5 a'pd pen 4 are Opp ended to complete the
remarkable outbreak.
889.-Pig No. 1, white female, weighs about 15 pounds. Died last
Worable reddening of the skin over the ventral aspect of the body.
contain a'smald quantity of a yellowish viscid liquid. Fundus covered
a I nd intensely reddened and swollen. In the large intestine, mucosa
ored; in a few places somewhat reddened. No necrosis or ulceration.
e nieso-colon. enlarged, indurated, pale.
A
6-balf of both lungs hopatized, the disease limited to the ventral or do-
f. The varl6us lobes adherent to one another, to pericardium and dia,
means of a thin, papery pseudo-membrane, which is removable. The hopa-
very firm on section, grayish red or red mottled with gray. Near the roots
obes, also, on diaphragmatic surface of the. lun 7-are considerable numbers, of
Oorotio masses, surrounded by a bluish zone. In the trachea and bronchi, -red-
in the distal extremities of both bronchi, lungworms imbedded in mucus.
qwan,'not congested.. Liver exceedingly firm to the touch. Surface not
owing to acini slightly projecting above interlobular tissue.
ical examination: Preparations from hepatized lung tissue contain an
number ofvery'minute oval bacteria. Those from the plbral exudate con-
'#ler number. On one of the principal lobes the pleura was scorched over
portion,'and with a particle of tissue from within the scorched area, a
tell A and two. agar plates t, prepared. In the gelatin roll appeared, after
k a large number of barely visible colonies. A week later, besides these, a
bor of colonie' 4 to,6 times larger than the preceding, had appeared.
'66 large number of colonies microscopic examination not successful.
ta of golatine were removed at different intervals with warmed platinum
aaO trAnsferred to peptone bouillon. In these tubes only swine-plague germs
The larger colonies may have been streptococei, as -they failed to develop in
b'"'Mon. Both agsr plates, after several days, con tain ed a large number of iden-
quite small colonies, which were found -to be swine plague colonies by micro-
aniination an d transfer tobouillon. In order to determine whether any other
were present, two bouillon fubes were luocn lated directly from the lungs, by
them with a platinum wire and tranferring this to the bouillon. In both
V swine plag"bacteria appeared.
tt46bit inoculated at the samo time with a particle of lung tissue died in 5 days.
cutaneous tissue over abdomen extensively thickefied by a purulent and gel-
.,infiltrate extending over part of thorax. The abdominal walls are thickened
iftodtotheviscera. These latter covered with a rather firm elastic exudate, which
4qwnl between the coils. The serosa is sprinkled with punctiform ecchymoses.
Will; thoracie*organs not affected. In the abdominal exudate are immense
of oval bacteri a, staining rather fbobly. These not detected in spleen and
Aa agar tube inoculated.from the spleen contained but a single swine-plagne
A gelatin culture from the blood shows in the track of the needle about
_'te round colonies. In a bouillon culture from the peritoneal exudate only
ague"bacteria developed.
tbo Pleural exudate of the ig an agar and a bouillon tube inoculated at the
Iia the-former a considerable number ot isolated and confluent colonies of
bacteria appeared. The bouillon culture likewisepontai-ne only swine-

ibe, sp]Oen pulp, in wbich no bacteria were detected, a particle placed in. an
&UoUiUontitbo. Both were sterile on the following day. Onthethirdday
-t t only swine-plague germs. In the
41noi* 0 be bouillon, which contained
J tile coitiletisation water was clouded, and a grayish'Inembrane istaxting from
agar surface. Only swine-plague bacteria detected in this grovth.












* alveolar capillaries were greatly distended with corpuscles, almost occluding tZ* i
vieoli. Imbedded in the fibrinous plugs of the alveoli were colonies of minute coe, 0 |
almost every alveolus containing one or more such colonies. In sections from tissue..:
in more advanced stages there were, in addition to the more dense cell infilration, .
large masses of the minute bacteria occupying the alveoli in some portions of thi
section. Any regularity in the distribution of these bacteria not observed. l
No. 2. Examined at the same time. White female, weight 15 pounds. Skin oxa
ventral aspect of body moderately reddened. Subcutaneous inguinal glands hy-3
peraemic.
Stomach contains a small quantity of turbid liquid. Mucosa of funds consider-i
ably reddened. In the small intestine the vessels of villi appear injected, especially.
in duodenum. In the coecum and colon the entire mucosa has an intense DPurplish hue, :
shading into a wine color. This most marked in the caecum and upper 4 or 5 inches.
of colon, where the epithelium appears necrosed. The inflammation gradually dimin- i
ishes and disappears in the rectum. 4
Exudative pleuritis as in case 1; the pseudo membrane as thick as heavy paper.
About two-thirds of right lung hepatized. The cephalic and ventral lobe entirely]
solidified, also adjoining half of the principal lobe. In the caudal portion of the latter .
several hepatized foci. Lung worms in terminal bronchus. The tip of cephalic lobe&
completely necrosed. The ventral lobe contains large, yellowish-white, homogeneous,
foci of dead tissue. Median lobe completely hepatized. Through it are disseminated i
necrotic foci. - '
In left, lung, principal lobe entirely hepatized. Hemorrhagic,-grayish-red, and.1
grayish lobules found on the same cut surface. Ventral and cephalic lobes merely:
congested. Pericardium thickened. 4
Spleen small, pulp darker than normal and softened. Liver as in No. 1. Bile very..
thick, dark-colored.
Bacteriological examination: An agar and a bouillon tube were inoculated each.
with a particle of spleen pulp. The agar tube remained sterile. The bouillon be-|
came faintly clouded on the second day aud contained only swine-plague bacteria.
The hepatized lung tissue and pleural exudate both show presence of swine plague
germs; the lung tissue contains immense numbers of them. With a bit of the latter
a gelatine roll A and agar plate B prepared. In the gelatine roll, a considerable
number of very minute brownish colonies appeared within a week. They were a
alike. Several transferred to bouillon at intervals and the resulting cultures o
fully examined. Only swine-plague bacteria detected. The agar plate had a mode.
ate number of colonies, those growing on surface from 2 to 3 millimetres in diameter
These also proved to be swine plague when examined and transferred to bouillon fo
further identification.
At the autopsy an agar and a bouillon tube were inoculated from the right pleu
cavity. On the agar appeared a large number of isolated and confluent colonies
apparently alike. Some of these, as well as the growth in the condensation water
were examined and found to be swine-plague bacteria. The bouillon contained ali'
a streptococcus and a bacillus, imparting a sour smell to the culture. A rabbit i
oculated with a particle of lung tissue died in 6 days. The subcutaneous infil
tion and the peritonitis precisely as in the rabbit inoculated from No. 1. The sple
contained scarcely any, the blood few, and the peritoneal exudate an immense numW.
of swine-plague bacteria. Agar cultures from exudate and blood and a bouillon c
ture from the exudate contained only swine-plague bacteria. ..i..
The presence of swine-plague bacteria on the inflamed mucosa of ecaum w-as
onstrated by inoculating a rabbit with a particle of mucosa which had been ..i
-. I-.' .:j.i -





SL


iith considerable local infiltration, but no
iplfta with -platinum needle remained sterile. A
d4 bedame elouded. with swine-plague, bacteria. To further
Oth oublo contimetre of this bouillon oultme T days old was
Into,& rabbit., It lived 11 days. There was extensivepu'ru-
tho MIHMtia over ab domen and thorax. Internitl organs riomal.
e i-noedlated with particle of liver tissue. This remained clear.
eday. White female weighing 18 pounds. Diedlastnight.
dy consid6rably reddened. Stomach as in preceding cases.
ra very much reddened; the remainder of the small intestine nor-
oEwuta and colon not, quite so intensely inflamed as in No. 2. Indi-
Owieb, s6ft exudate appearing in small maws as part of the feces.
61jaracters not determined.
Oye pleuritis,'the exudate, thick on diaphrakm which -Rrnly adheres
slight an convex surface of Inn,"g where appears as, a rough enin g or
The various lobes glued to each other and to pericardium.
1"g tbe',.-two smaller lobe& (veotral and eephalic) in a condition, of pale-
vory, slightly enlargo& In the principal lobe fourlor.five' foci of
iatidn imbedded innormal tiowne, on section marked with grayish,
Thos6 masses are, elevat6dslightly above the sarrounding tissue and
a thi'cl opaqne, greenish-white pleuT& In the right lung both smaller
luger than the corresponding left lobes, -very firm to the'tonch. The
O#ftlded with minute gravish masses. In the principal lobe the bepa-
k_*,ox4, dark red in color. -Te small median lobe enveloped in exudate and
,cut eurface grayish red.
-'ht 4 small qantity of reddish, frothy liquid. In the right terminal
rms. Bronchial glands very large, firm, yellowish white..
'infl&med, opaque. In. left heart a firi washed clot imbedded in a
ulum. The right heart distended with a dark, soft coagulum.
0 11, dark-colored. Liver and bile as in No. 2.
0,41 examination: From the spleen an agar and a bouillon tube inoc-
a particle'6f pulp,% After several days a grayish growth, spreading, from
ep, composed of rather large cocef. The bouillon tube at this time also
'.'qotitsins only swine-plague germs.
"'T
'ar-cultures prepared from the liver., In the bouillon tube only swine-
ria I appeared. On the agar surface three colonies present, oue of these
oney the others large spore-bearing bacilli. In the turbid condensation
siaiMe large bacilli andswine-plague bacteria intermingled. In cover-glass
ng frpm spleen and liver no germs could be detected.
right plural cavity $in agar and a bouillon tube inoculated. Both re-

ra recoutly hopatized lu'ng tissue, which coutwiw large numbers of
eiiay agelatine roll Aand an agar plate Bprepxed. Inthegelatine
appmrod answering to the description given for those under case 1.
Mft tubes prepared from the colonies contained no hog-cholera gerths at
bao-plague bacteria and possibly streptococei were present, although
.U, doubtful. The agar plate R r4fmaind free from growth. A bouil-
.1ated with a plaUnuin needle thrust tnto the hepatized lung remained

"ated with a particle of lung tissue succumbed to the disease in, 8
sive subcutaneous purul6ht infiltration over abdomen. No peritoni-
fqepwations and cultures from blood and spleen are negatLve.
-sections, were cut from portions of one principal lobe hardened in
W46 nearly alloocladed by round coils, emong which in a cer-
masses of the'8,ery Minute swine-plague bacteria co I
pT











nignt. veutrai surface or te Dooay moderately redadened. Considerable quantity of :
subcutaneous fat. Lymphatic glands in groin slightly enlarged and reddened.
One ulcer at base of left lower front tooth. Stomach contracted and contains a .
small quantity of liquid resembling tomato juice. The mucosa of funds over an area '::
3 inches in diameter of a dark wine-red color; the hypersmmia extends through entire I
mucous layer. On the surface a very delicate, easily removable pseudo-mBaibrane.
Mucosa of duodenum pigmented and bile-stained. In lower ileum some patches of
punctiform ecchymosis. In large intestine feces adhering rather firmly to mucdsaa,
which is reddened and pigmented in spots and patches and somewhat rough to the
touch.
In thracic cavity lungs covered with false membrane and in part adherentto chest-
wall and pericardium. On removing them, the pleuritis ahd hepatization found
nearly as extensive as in the preceding case, i. e., the greater part of both small lobes
in each lung hepatized and exceedingly firm; in the principal lobes disseminated foci
of hepatization both of the grayish-red and the hemorrhagic type. Lung worms not
detected. In the air tubes of the ventral lobes cylinders of whitish pus. In the large
bronchi reddish frothy liquid. Pericarditis as in preceding case. On the epicardium
a very delicate pseudo-membrane.
Liver tissue very firm to the touch; bile thick. Pyramidal portion of kidneys dark
red. Spleen small, somewhat darker colored than in normal condition.
Bacteriological examination: Cover-glass preparations of the pleural exudate show :
a moderate number of swine-plague bacteria. In the lung tissue there are immense
numbers of these bacteria, with an occasional large bacillus amongst them. From the
right pleural cavity an agar and a bouillon tube, from the left an agar tube inoculated
at the autopsy. ...In these tubes a considerable number of identical colonies appeared
made up of swine-plague bacteria. In the condensation water of an agar culture
from right pleura occasional streptococci to be seen. The bouillon tube became uni-
formly clouded with swine-plague bacteria. After two weeks a few very large colo-
nies of strange bacteria had developed in both agar tubes.
With a particle of lung tissue a gelatine roll A and an agar plate B prepared. Roll :
A broke; plate B showed in a few days about 50 colonies, evidently alike. Those .
examined and transferred to bouillon consisted only of swine-plague bacteria..
A rabbit inoculated with a particle of lung tissue remained unaffected. Another 1
rabbit received a subcutaneous injection of one-eighth cubic centimetre bouillon from :
an agar colony of lung plate. This rabbit died in 13 days with a very large abscess |
at the point of inoculation. S
In the spleen of pig no bacteria were detected with the microscope. In the liver
several germs resembling swine-plague bacteria were observed. With particles of T
liver and spleen tissue two agar and two bouillon tubes were inoculated. Only the
bouillon tube from the liTver became fertile and contained a diplococcus; no swine-,"'
plague bacteria.
Sections from the lung tissue hardened in alcohol and stained in various ways wete:....
carefully examined. In the same section were lobules in which the alveoli contained -h.
fibrin and very few cells, others ih which much desquamation of the epithelial cells:;
had taken place, and others in which the alveoli were occluded by dense cell masses.I7
In some places the septa had apparently disappeared and a continuous plug of densely.:
massed cells extended through a number of continuous alveoli. The small air-tubes
were likewise filled up with cell masses. The interlobular tissue distended within
serum, the lymph channels similarly distended and containing masses of leucoeyteAG
In all alveoli excepting those containing only the desquamnated cells, the very minute
oval swine-plague bacteria are present in immense numbers, disseminated sin..
through the mdematous tissue and in large zooglmea amongst the cellular masses.




i5
0 b ae egt bu 0pinl, idls ih.
th&o ohn bomlexetn oehtbus
oflreitsneadseln o h oitryflils h
exrmdtrog etrloeig
,etr ugtsu maie. h ies novstevn
exetntelf cpaiwihi fe rmpemn
pIpeeysldfe adcna w ecoi oi hc
coes h perao tediesd ras n h boch n
prm ipllbsnmru lgso ugwrsibde nmcs
th earllbsocue yclnrclmse fmcsadps
exmnto:A grtbiouatd rmtergiperlcv
cotie usqetl ooiso wiepau atra
,repmm tin fdsae ugtsu hwlrenmeso a ops
Ots ml vlIbceipoal wn lge n cainlcan
el-AgltniolclueAadanaa lI eemd rmpr
tm u IrolAteeapaeatraweaotoeude o-
.4oktrl veooi8o lwylqeyn hooee n eyag
jutsoigads ndrtemcocp.Patce fgltn.
i niatcooiswr eoetobulobtndeeo etto



















It will be observed that these five animals died of swine plague pure
and simple. Hog-cholera bacilli were absent. An examination. of the
pathological notes shows in every case extensive pneumonia, aecoin-
panied by exudative pleuritis and terminating in some cases in necrosis
of lung tissue. Perhaps the most instructive feature of the disease
is the inflammation of the stomach and large intestine, which was
especially marked in the second case. In the third, besides the intense
hyperemia, there was evidence of exudation.
That such intense hyperaemia, provided the bacteria continue to act
on the membrane, or provided they are of the proper degree of viru-
lence, may lead to croupous and diphtheritic deposits and subsequent !
ulceration, needs no comment. Moreover, the swelling of the solitary .
follicles with discharge of contents, as observed in No. 5, may lead to
subsequent ulceration. It is interesting to note that the disease reached
its severest expression in No. 2, both as regards lungs and intestines,
and in later cases the lesions became less extensive.
The table giving the results of the bacteriological work shows a grad-
ual disappearance of the swine-plague bacteria and the invasion of other
bacteria. Thus, in the spleens of Nos. 1,2, and 3, swine-plague bacteria
were detected while the cultures from the spleens of Nos. 4 and 5 re-
mained sterile. That these bacteria perish very speedily in the body :
is highly probable when we bear in mind that they die very rapidly in 4
culture media, a fact to be pointed out further on.
The swine-plague bacteria causing this outbreak were not so virulent 9i
as those of the preceding one as demonstrated by the inoculation of
rabbits from lung tissue and pure cultures. While those of the pre-
ceding outbreak destroyed rabbits in 20 hours, these were fatal in from
2 to 13 days, according to the size and age of the rabbit. The following
inoculation, made about 4 weeks after the last case was examined, serves a|
as an additional illustration : i
December 6, 1889.-A large white rabbit inoculated subcutaneously on right ear'"
with a loop rubbed over the growth of an agar culture. The animal was founhd4Sead t!
December 10. From the place of inoculation on the right ear, suppuratibn Md EK-
tended down over the muscles of the neck. In right pleural sac, on pleuraof fIja
and right lung, a thick creamy deposit. A similar, more consistent exudat ..i..
cardium, which is more or less ecchymosed. Other organs not affected. .... ..'. i "...... .... ....".
... ." .: I. .. .
.." .""' ............ : m
... .. ...... .... .





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a oa bcs.W iesaldssijetdit
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prprdfo naa utr n.dyod h abtsb
144il lbtrcvrd twsclrfre ntetitet
se61ice qaetesbuisi hcee yprln n
skngnrnu n vr r n ad hoadmnlmili
68d nena rasno fetd
hieabtrcie noervi 03cbccnier fabul
Aius l.Terbi hwdsgs fsib lns o ie'I
WD n fe eea ek tws oie omv ihgetdfl
m edo h ieenhdy eyaimcadti.Itra
noml xetn inyo mihcre sfty eea b
faono h etkejit onann lihmlyps lu
ino n b ces.
&na9rclui asod ubdsspnino hecnesto
- 1' ncrvi. ftorbis;oercie n-orh ui
A- te'oehl cbccntmte
.V e ndos nte1loig a;betigaclrtd n
dodti'mrig n h is nmlte edprilydan
-pendr,,lre n sfee.Noprtnts.Lvrvr
14 no nelblrpl elws ot.ln.Cod wligo
Fatdgnrto o atmsl.'igthat itne
cogltdbodsml uniy ot ug eea






56

Having thus demonstrated an outbreak of pure swine plague among
the animals in pen 3, let us turn briefly to the diseased swine in the
other pens which came under observation. It will be remembered that
one pig from pen 5 died November 10, and was taken to the Experiment
Station, where it was kept in the refrigerator until November 11. The
subject is sufficiently important to warrant the reproduction of the notes:
No. 6. Stomach contracted; contains a small quantity of food. One ulcer at the mar-
gin of the cmsophageal expansion, the latter covered with a thin brownish-yellow layer
of desquamated epithelium. In the ileum small ulcers, about 2 to a square inch, one-
eighth inch across; adherent slough stained yellow. Extensive ulceration in cacum
and upper colon. The ulcers vary from one-eighth to one-half inch in diameter, black-
ish on the surface. The base consists of a firm yellowish-white tissue extending into
muscular coat. Six inches below the valve one large, button-shaped ulcer, the firm
base extending to serosa and three-eighth inch think. The serosa under it discolored
and the meso-colon adherent to it. In the lower colon are a large number of circular
pale spots on the discolored, pigmented mucosa, representing probably the places to
which exudates had been attached but now shed.
Lymph glands in lesser momentum and meso-cecum with cortex hemorrhagic.
In left pleural cavity large patches of blood extravasation under pleura of ribs.
No pleuritis. Posterior mediastinal and bronchial glands hemorrhagic. Throughout
the entire lung tissue are disseminated hepatized foci of various sizes surrounded by
healthy and more or less emphysematous tissue. Thus in the right lung about one-
half of both cephalic and ventral lobes and a small volume of principal lobe involved.
In the left lung one-half of cephalic lobe and tip of ventral lobe hepatized;: in the
principal lobe six small foci. One-half of median lobe hepatized. The small air
tubes plugged with thick muco-pus. In the principal lobe several of the foci directly
traceable to plugs of lung worms, which are very abundant.
Spleen somewhat enlarged, discolored; pulp soft.
Bacteriological examination: In spleen pulp a considerable number of hog-cholera
bacteria detected. An agar and a bouillon tube inoculated with platinum wire. In
the former a considerable number of isolated colonies of the same size appear, which
are, so far as examined, hog-cholera bacilli. In the bouillon tube only hog-cholera
bacilli observed. A rabbit inoculated with a particle of spleen pulp died in 4 days.
At the point of inoculation a small abscess. Spleen large, dark, softened; contains a
a few hog-cholera bacilli. Numerous very small points of necrosis on liver surfaces.
In an agar culture from the spleen only hog-cholera bacilli detected.
With a particle of lung tissue in which a few hog-cholera bacilli were observed a
gelatine roll A and an agar plate B prepared. In the roll there were present at end
of a week a large number of small brownish colonies and about fifty several times
larger. By carefully removing the smaller ones to bouillon these were found to be
hog-cholera bacilli. The large colonies not examined. On the agar plate a consider-
able number of vigorous hog-cholera colonies appeared in 2 days.
Case 7. November 13. Large white female, 5 months old, weight 65 pounds. Ven-
tral aspect of body and ears bluish red. Subcutaneous fat abundant. Lymphatic
glands of groin with surface purplish and parenchyma mottled red and gray. A
small number of ecchymoses on abdominal side of diaphragm. Spleen very large,
blackish, soft.
Stomach partly filled with food. Mucosa of funds, and, in fact, of fully one-third
the whole area of stomach surface, intensely reddened. The hyperimia extends to
submucous tissue. Slight ecchymosis and pigmentation of duodenum. Occasional
petechise in ileum; Peyer's patch near valve pigmented. Entire mucosa of caecum :
and colon purplish gray and dotted with petechiae. On mucosa of csecum about 30 '
pale circular spots slightly depressed, which evidently were the seat of adhesenfl:t
sloughs or exudates. In rectum peteohiae; glands of meso-colon hemorrhagic .4:

... .....






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hind quarters. They died 3 to 5 days after showing signs or disease.
Some lived longer, others died quite suddenly. .
Of the forty-two pigs remaining July 23, twenty died between July
23 and July 28, five died on the Experiment Station, and only seven, out
of a total of ninety-seven, lived through the disease.
Seventeen animals came under our observation. Of these, twelve
were examined on the farm and the remaining five sent alive by express
to the Experiment Station. Here they all died within a week after their
arrival. Of those examined on the farm, Nos. 1 to 4, inclusive, and
Nos. 11 and 12, came under Dr. Kilborne's observation. From Nos. 5
to 10, inclusive, cultures were made on the farm by the writer. Cul-
tures were therefore made from eleven cases only.
The bacteriological examination of Nos. 5 to 10, inclusive, can not be
regarded as thorough, owing to the innumerable insect pests on the
farm. Much work, however, was bestowed upon Nos. 13 to 17, inclu-
sive, which died at the Station. The notes of this outbreak are reported'
in detail, while the usual summary will be given farther on.
No. 1. July 21, 1890. Weight of animal about 50 pounds. Skin not reddened. A
few delicate fibrils of exudate stretching over coils of intestines. Spleen very much
enlarged, congested.
Digestive tract. Stomach contains a small quantity of food. Mucosa of funds
intensely hyperakmic, bordering on hemorrhage.
Small intestine nearly normal. Contents of large intestine liquid. The mucosa
of cecum and entire colon nearly concealed by a layer of dirty, greenish-yellow, diph-
theritic membrane, quite readily scraped away, exposing a deeply reddened, raw
surface.
Right lung normal. The entire left lung is covered with a pale yellowish (friable)
exudate, which glues this lung to surrounding parts. The lung itself contains
masses of hepatized tissue, aggregating, perhaps, one-fourth of the entire lung.
The lymphatic glands generally are enlarged; the cortex, and sometimes medul-
lary portion also, infiltrated with blood. Other viscera not markedly changed.
No. 2. July 21, 1890. Weight of animal about 75 pounds. Died very suddenly
during the day. No skin lesions. Spleen barely larger than normal.
Digestive tract. Only the large intestine was markedly affected. The muoosa
extensively pigmented with occasional patches of hyperasmia. In colon just below
the valve one ulcer one-half inch across and a few smaller ones discovered.
Each pleural sac contained nearly 500 cubic centimetres of slightly-clouded serum
containing large masses of gelatinous coagula. The lungs free from pneumonia.
Lymphatic glands and remaining viscera not diseased.
No. 3. July 22. Weighs about 40 pounds; died during the night. Had been sick
at least a week according to statement of owner. Spleen moderately gorged. with
blood.
Digestive tract. The mucosa of caecum and upper half of colon more or less pig-
mented and beeet with rather deep ulcers from one-eighth to one-third inch in
diameter.
Fully three-fourths of the right lung is hepatized and contains a few necrotic
caseous masses. The pleura of this lung covered with considerable pale yelloivshi
exudate and adherent to pericardium. Left lung and pleura normal. -,
No. 4. July 22. Animal died quite unexpectedly last night. Slight exudativn.
peritonitis. Spleen engorged. .i : LI :i,
Digestive tract. Stomach normal, filled with food. Mucosa of large misine. .jA0
extensively pigmented, merging into hypernmia in the lower colon. Iumer6Otii.j
h*




K_
;1 L
to he-brh nhi imtr xedn
11me fpsmnc oi paety f nauecaatr
exdt nth ih lerlse
iognrl-ihcrtxegre ihboo.Ptcia"te
toet eioelcvrn f.diprgsoah n:wlso
Pi idbten1 .ad6p xmie t7p .Spr
gbd ftegonbprmctrogot otxhsaprls
01 iet att e m cs ft ef nd s ft eso ahi vle i
*ainwt uefcalncoi.I h met n pe oo
pofcalyncrsd
sam m acnieal mun fPl elwseu.Teitroa
Ah ag itne ihiN eptzto.Ftydgnrtono
ofidey
th iAaia rmwihclueswriatmtd ueo es
wihabto pentis.Sbeunlvlqufcinto loi
=a oee yavsi elcl.tesalbclu'asn
gm ntesn anr n oiln tfrmdavsi ufc
mpoiy eaigteliudcer
tuewihwsiouaedwt i fsle tsu eandseie






60

appeared on the inclined surface of the agar about thirty isolated colonies, circular,
slightly convex, 1I millimetres in diameter, grayish, translucent. The clear condeo-
sation water contained a floccalent deposit. Colonies and condensation water show,
minute oval cocci apparently identical with swine-plague bacteria.
From these colonies a peptone bouillon tube, an agar tube, and a gelatin tube were
inoculated August 25. On the following day the liquid culture contained minute
clumps adhering to sides of tube. Liquid nearly clear. The agar tube showed a
delicate grayish line on the surface. Both tubes contained only the minute oval
cocci. The gelatine tube remained free from growth. To test the pathogenic nature
of the germ a rabbit was inoculated in the ear from a colony of the original spleen
culture July 28. (This rabbit had been inoculated June 3 into the thigh with a
very attenuated culture of swine-plague bacteria sent to the laboratory.) The rab-
bit died in 21 days. From the original inoculation an abscess as large as a hen's egg
had formed on the superficial muscular layer of the thigh. Spleen much enlarged,
soft. In stained cover-glass preparations of spleen, liver, and blood numerous swine-
plague bacteria were detected. A tube of agar was inoculated from the blood and a
tube of bouillon from the spleen. On the following day a uniform grayish glistening
layer had appeared on the agar surface, made up, so far as the microscopic exami-
nation could go, of non-motile oval cocci. The bouillon culture, uniformly clouded,
contained the same bacteria only. These were readily identified as swine-plague bac-
teria.
No. 10. This animal died during the night; examined at 7 a. m. next morning,
July 23. Subcutaneous lymphatic glahds in the groin very large, in part hemor.
rhagic. Spleen enlarged, firm, not congested. In the digestive tract the mucosa of
cecum is concealed by a very thin necrotic layer; mucosa itself purplish. This con-
gestion extends along entire colon; meso-colic lymphatics hemorrhagic.
In thorax, the base of all lobes of both lungs involved in bright red hepatization.
Pleural sacs contain cQnsiderable serum which distends also the interlobular tissue.
Heart muscle quite pale and discolored in patches.
A small number of tube cultures in agar and gelatine were prepared at the autopsy
as follows:
An agar tube inoculated with a bit of spleen tissue showed no growth on the fol-
lowing day. Condensation water turbid, however, containing a large spore-bearing
bacillus, the bacillus becoming spindle-shaped or nearly spherical when the spore
fully matured. No other bacteria detected. On the second day a faint growth had
extended on the agar surface, and a small motile bacillus detected. Agarplates were
then made to isolate this bacillus, which was quite easily accomplished since the large
spore-bearing bacillus failed to grow on plates. The small bacillus formed grayish,
slightly gelatinous surface colonies. It was actively motile, the motion being chiefly
a twirl with little change of place. Careful subsequent tests showed it to be entirely
different from the hog-cholera bacillus with which it might have been confounded.
From the kidney two minute bits of tissue were transferred, one to a tube of agar,
the other to gelatine. The agar tube contained on the following day about fifty col-
onies of the same germ found in the spleen culture of No. 9, i. e., swine plague. In
the condensation water the large spore-bearing bacillus was also present, and a few
gas bubbles in the agar. The gelatine tube showed very slight liquefaction of the
gelatine on the surface where the bit of kidney tissue lay. This was probably due
to the large bacillus which did not develop any more in this situation.
From the liver an agar and a gelatine tube culture were prepared in the same
manner.
In the agar tube a considerable number of colonies of the swine-plague bacteria
had appeared July 25. No other germs subsequently detected. In the gelatin cul-
ture slight liquefaction took place, owing to the presence of an actively motile bacillus.
in chains.
An agar tube inoculated from the pleural effusion remained sterile.


*- i'.


.. .. ... ... :":. .. k i:~







Af
*1*04ftg*W'baateria from the liver a rabbit waa inoculated in the ear
140hlanoet and insortinga, platinum wire dipped into a colony
&A -next morning. Inoculation wound on, ear bluish and 11 veins
veins of siuboutis filled with blood. Spleen enlarged,. con-
largepart invaded by coccidia. In the blood and spileeu, numerous
showing the polar stain. An agar and a bouillon culture. from the
contain subsequently only. the same germs found in the tissues.
y clouded, no clumpg present. Agar growth like that from case 9.
bow the lung tissue of came 10 -hardened in alcohol were stained in alkai-
blue and alum carmine. The interlobular ti8sue was greatly distended,
,41 zietwork. of fibrin and very few coUs.. The alveoli contained a slight
fibrin and very few oells. Throughout the specimens were individual fila-
bundles of filaments of a rather large bacillus, evidently the saine aelthat
In vne culture. Occasionally in the contents of the alveoli were seen seat-
a of the size and form of swiue-plague..acterin.
from a subentaneougingainal gland hardened in alcohol and stained in
#**Yleno blue revealed largo:areas infiltrat4pd. with blood corpuscles and
'by diatmded blood vewls. In addition to the large bacilli found in the
mps of very small oval bacteria, identical in appearance with swine-
were found scattered over the entire sectionj the clumps being largest
lea.
sAom the spleen none but the large bacilli were detected. The opleen
1, wively loaded with blood pigment.
Om following cases wom examined by Dr. Kilborne on the farm on the morn-
Both had succumbed during the night. No bacteriologipal examina-
ja*07 btft the xotes are given to show the extreme variation in the lesions

Subcutaneous ing-ainat glands very large, hemorrhagic on section. Spleen
Iwgo, daxky friabl6. Mucosa 6f fundua of stomach very hypormmic. Numerous
in inucosa of. small intestine. Muco4a of large intestine intensely con-
portions almost hemorrbagic. ; ilepressed ulcers on Peyer's patch near valve,
with a thin slough; one is over one-half inch in diameter. In the upper colon
branny patches of superficial necrosis, besides numerous. smaller, round
Af necrom's. The various abdominal lymph glands with very hyperminic;

ux both plural sacs eouttain 1.00 cubic centimetres of clouded serum. The
and pulmonary pleura covered with a yellowish, fri able, membranous ex u date,
"pg mutual adhesion of the various lobes. Pericardial. sac not invaded. The
Vortion of both lungs hepatized, only the principal lobes being in P;brt still
Repatized lobes dark red. Bronchial glands hemorrhagic.
114. reritonitis indicated by the presence of 100 to 150 cubic centimetres of
'AxwUte in abdominal cavity. Some-few fibrils of coagulated lymph stretched
.,-fttwes; extensive serious effn on between layers-of meso-colon. Spleen
A like that of No. 11 though less iuarkedly so.
co*Aiw about a litre, of food mucosa pale and covered with abundant
ingaus. Slight eachymosis of upper duodenum. In lower duodenumand
i4 length of jej unum the walls infiltrated with extravasated blood to twice
-thickness. Mucosa of a deep redcolor and pa ly covered by patches of
exudate readily removable., Considerable bleed:lu lower small
vith'slight ecchymosis of mneosa. -
ol.Urge intestine more or less pigmented. In emeam are three ulcers one-
',Wf inch in diamoter,
44_4 vo, *he subjamnt tissue being thickened-by iufiltra-
0*4WUlf to three-fourths imh. On Peyer's patch ndar valve, and in upper
we about half a dozen similar large depressed ulcers with very
W*W w4'00*0 smaller ones.

















No. 13 dies July 31, 3 p. inm.; placed in refrigerator until August 1. Weighs about i
30 pounds. Skin on ventral aspect of body more or lees reddened; over the ste- s
num a few excoriations. The enlarged inguinal glands show as lumps under the skin..:
On section they present a mottled gray and red surface, the red limited chiefly to :
the cortex. (Edema of the subcutis over right knee. H
False membrane covers the left half of the mass of intestines and the spleen; con-
sists of an elastic, rather firm yellowish white layer. Spleen firmly glued to the ,
surrounding intestines, slightly enlarged, dark, softened. Liver firm, cuts with con-
siderable difficulty. Kidneys in condition of parenchymatous degeneration. One .
hemorrhagic spot in medullary portion of one kidney. Pelvis contains a whitish ,
glairy liquid....
Digestive tract. Two superficial necroses on the inner surface of lower lip in front, '.
one on the upper lip and on edge of tongue near tip. Stomach contains a little HI
deeply bile-stained fluid. Mucosa sprinkled with red spots of a washed-out appear- A
ance, most numerous in funds and near pyloric valve. Hypersemia-of duodenum j
begins sharply at pyloric valve. From the opening of bile duct a few drops of thick
bile can be expressed. Remainder of small intestine not markedly changed. The
Peyer's patch in lower ileum has some of its follicles enlarged from which caseous
masses can be expressed. Nl
Large intestine'contains much sand and gravel. Mucosa of caecum of a dark slate
color. The summit of the folds of a purplish hue. Free edge of valve bordered by a
thin slough. On Peyer's patch near valve areas of necrotic tissue of a yellowish color, -
resting on a firm, yellowish-white base three-sixteenths of an inch thick. Upper
colon has its mucosa of the same dark slate color, merging into a wine red. Two :
ulcers one-eighth of an inch in diameter observed. In lower colon congestion slight :1
and gradually disappearing towards rectum. A small number of circular whitish |
erosions, apparently associated with the solitary follicles.
Thorax. Of the left lung, the ventral and cephalic lobes are interspersed with .
small regions of collapse. The remainder of the lobes very emphyseniatous and by- .
peremic. Of the right lung, the anterior half (i. e., including cephalic, ventral, and I
adjacent portion of principal lobe) hepatized, covered by a thin false membrane,
gluing the various lobes lightly to each other and to chest wall. The diseased lobes -
show the regular mottling in the upper, dorsal portion. As we proceed towards the
ventral portion the mottling is less distinct, the tissue firmer and interspersed with
small, irregular, necrotic foci. The smaller bronchi contain a thick, whitish pus. In
ventral lobe a portion of the parenchyma as large as a marble completely converted
into a grayish-yellow homogeneous mass. Of the principal lobe about one-third or
one-fourth hepatized. The mottling of surface very regular. On section grayish,
circumscribed areas one-half inch in diameter interspersed. Over these masses the
pleura is converted into a wrinkled, roughened, hide-like membrane. J
Trachea and bronchi contain small quantities of foamy liquid intermingled with
yellowish particles. Bronchial glands barely enlarged, firm; some lobules pale,
others reddened. .
Bacteriological notes. At the autopsy an agar tube was inoculated with a platinum.::|
loop lightly rubbed over the pleural exudate. On following day a thin grayish.
growth with condensation water clouded. Examination of hanging drop ad .it ...,!
coverglass preparations shows only swine-plague germs. & "
S . . ... *. .
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an ie isesowplrsandpiepau em.A grcl









diameter, dispersed through the hepatizedL tissue. .* ..;...i
Bacteriological examination included the spleen, the lungs, and the pleural 0"ity. .!
At the autopsy an agar tube was inoculated with a bit of pleural exuds4ate. tii .
colonies appeared on the agar surface on the following day, some made up of what::.
appeared to be streptococci, others of micrococci. From this a bouillon culture wira III
prepared, and the latter plated on the following day. From these paltes a coccus, :j
growing in clumps and short chains, and a large bacillus, were isolated. At the ame :!
time a rabbit was inoculated in the ear from the agar culture. The rabbit died in 11 i
days. At the point of inoculation was a large ulcer. Spleen small. Cultures from ..I
various organs on agar and in bouillon remained sterile.
With a bit of hepatized lung tissue a rabbit was inoculated in the ear. Dead in. I
days. Ulcer at the point of inoculation. Right lung hepatized. Pleural cavity con- '
tains some blood-stained serum. Cultures from this animal likewise remain sterile.
From a bit of lung tissue agar plates were also made. On plate A only two colo-
nies appeared made up of large micrococci; on plate B a thin grayish growth made,
up of spore-bearing bacilli. ,
From the spleen two agar plates were niade, from which a large coccus and bacillw
fluoreacos were isolated. A bouillon culture made directly from the spleen was
also plated with the result of finding a streptococcus and a large micrococcus.
No. 15. Male pig, weight about 35 pounds. .Died yesterday and at once placed in
refrigerator until morning.
On abdomen and inner aspect of thighs a few reddish scabs. Spleen somewhat en-
larged and congested.
Digestive tract: One ulcer on tip of tongue. Stomach contains a small quantity of
muddy liquid. Cardiac expansion of wBsophagus covered by a yellowish, easily re-
movable layer of friable material. The mucosa dotted with small red pits. In funidus
deeply reddened area of small extent covered with a thin necrotic layer. Duodenum,
commencing with pyloric valve, of a slate color and deeply pigmented in spots. Pig-
mentation and aborescent injection extends down the small intestine. In large in-
testine considerable pigmentation of mucosa. In ccum and upper 12 inches of colon
are a large number of extensive ulcers of irregular outline, varying in length from
one-half to several inches. They are slightly depressed and covered by ochre-yellow
sloughs scraped away with difficulty. The entire depth of mucosa necrosed. Ileo-
ceecal valve completely encircled by a band of necrosis. Below the first 12 inches of :|
colon the necrosed areas are slightly raised above the surface. No marked thicken- J
ing or infiltration beneath them. In addition to the larger patches there are small,
slightly depressed: round ulcers one-eighth to three-sixteenths inch in diameter, with
adherent superficial slough.
Of the lung tissue, a portion of the right ventral, an adjacent portion of principal
lobe, and part of left ventral lobe collapsed, of a red flesh color; no pneumonic infiltra-
tion perceptible. In the bronchi and extending into branches are small quantities
of translucent, very gelatinous mucus. In the collapsed right ventral lobe the small
air tubes contain whitish cylindrical plugs of mucus and pus.
Urine very turbid, contains much cilcic oxalate but no albumen. Bacteriological ':
examination was limited to the lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys.
From the collapsed lung tissue agar-plate cultures were made with a minute bit of
tissue. Plate A on following day contained numerous isolated and one spreading.:
colony; the latter made up of motile spore-bearing bacilli, the former of swine- "
plague bacteria. Plate B showed but two grayish flat colonies, composed of large .
cocci. '.l
A rabbit inoculated subcutaneously with a bit of lung tissue was found dead on:M
the morning of the second day. At the point of inoculation more or less extravlisa-,
tion of blood. About 25 cubic centimetres of blood-stained serum in abdomial a,-A.
ity. Liver has a red clay color. Cultures on agar and bouillon from heart's b-lo4
and spleen contain only swine-plague bacteria. '. '..*
*Y




it
V~d frm pg sowe RMO XNO(P*t-Mrt I)
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blcih novn heetr AOSWo ad n gt ooe
*ick Lmhtc lnso srcrauewt eorai otx
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exedn ih iInesiytruhu teetr malitsie
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Of 1*-itsieo nerh*caatr oeo o deett h
Mnoao mimadclno pl lt oo.I h etm
ifsmwa ao unt~metaaaiu napl u
















nemorrnages.
Bacteriological examination: Two agar tubes inoculated with a loop of pleral i
serum remained permanently clear. -.
Agar plates from the edematous lung developed on plate A about 150 colonie of I
baillus fluorescent. On plate B one similar colony. A rabbit inoculated with a bit of
the same material remained unaffected.
Spleen pulp-shows no bacteria on microscopic examination. One agar plate pre-
pared with a bit of spleen pulp shows growth only around the bit of tissue. The
growth made up of motile bacilli which resemble hog-cholera bacilli. The notes of
the comparative studies of these bacilli are reserved for the end of this chapter."
A tube of bouillon inoculated from the spleen remained clear. :
Liver tissue shows no bacteria on microscopic examination. Two agar plates pro- .
pared with a bit of tissue remain sterile. A tube of bouillon inoculated in the same
manner became clouded with a abshort, thick, non-motile bacillus. Agar plates from
one kidney likewise negative. '.
Pig No. 17 died August 5, in the morning, and was examined soon after. Female, :
weighing about 40 pounds, and in good condition.
The subcutaneous lymph glands in the' groin are enlarged and reddened, in part ,j
hemorrhagic. In peritoneal cavity, a considerable quantity of straw-colored serum.
The serosa of large intestine roughened and covered by shreds of exudate. A con- j-
siderable mass of gelatinous exudate between layers of mesocolon. Mesocolic
glands swollen, very hypersemic. Spleen very large, dark colored, friable (11 by 3
by I inch).
Digestive tract: Stomach partly filled with a thick pea-soup like liquid. Fundus
over an area of 4 inches in diameter, deeply congested and swollen. A few ascar-
ides in stomach. The mucosa of ileum sprinkled with numerous punctiform bemor- :
rhages. The cwecum appears as an enormously enlarged, dark, bluish-gray body, the
color being due to diffuse blood extravasations. To it are adherent several coil of
small intestine and of colon. It is impossible to separate these parts, the adhesion
being due to extensive inflammatory deposits. The wall of caeum shows great
thickening; in several places it is 11 inches thick. The mucosa of cacum and
upper colon sprinkled with large numbers of ochre-yellow excrescences about one- i
fourth inch apart, and from one-eighth to one-half inch in diameter. These are read-
ily pulled away from the membrane, some leaving but a faint depression, others a
roughened spot behind, surrounded by a bluish-red zone. The larger the excres-
cences the deeper the necrosis beneath them. The mucosa is in general of a dirty
slate color, faintest in the rectum.
Lungs normal with following exceptions: An area of collapse 1 inch square in right
cephalic lobe, and a small area on diaphragmatic surface of right principal lobe about.
one-half inch square showing consolidation beneath. Bronchial glands and those at :":
base of heart with cortex hemorrhagic. Air tubes free from mucus and lung worms.,
A considerable quantity of serum in heart-sac. Epicardium is covered with a very,|
delicate exudate and is thickened andiroughened. Ecehymoses on left auricle and eao-
docardium of left ventricle..
Liver not markedly changed; bile very thick and flaky. Parenchymatous degeners,
tion of cortex of kidneys. Some petechise on pyramids and in pelvis. ii
Bacteriological examination: From the pericardial exudate one agar 'ailin
-- '- -.... ... . 2 .. --J --. . .. : :.:
SSee page 77. ... ..........
*.
... .. .. .. ..... .. ... ... .. .. .. ..... ...........,.
.. 7 ". ." . ... .: .. ..E E. .._."i :' i: ::" ".... :






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and large intestines. A few ulcers in the latter. -:i|
No. 17. August 5. Lungs nearly normal. Pericarditis. Peritonitis. Hypommmfiia
of stomach. Enormous inflammatory thickening of cacum with deposits around it.
Spleen large. Lymph glands swollen, hyperamio. .
The important question arises as to the true nature of this disease;
To the writer it appeared at first like hog cholera, possibly like a mixed:?
outbreak of hog cholera and swine plague. The bacteriological in-
vestigations, however, did not confirm this opinion, based on the post-
mortem appearances. As the investigation proceeded hog-cholera'.
bacilli failed to appear in the cultures with certain exceptions to be
discussed farther on, and indicated in the following table as motile
bacilli:

aNo.e Lungs. Pleura. Spleen. Liver. Kidney. ::

5 ............ Negative ..... Negative..... ...... ....... ............
6..................d------Begtiv--------.......
6 ............................ do ........ Negative....--. .....-- -
7 .........- .. .....- ....... ...do .............do ..... ...........
8 ........... .................... do ......... ................ .................
9 ............ ................ Swine plague. ................ ....... ..
10 ............ Negative ..... Negative ----Swine plague. Swine plague.
13 S'w i n e Swine plague. Swine-plague. (Peritoneum) ..........
plague, swine plague. I
14 Negative. Negative..... Negative.. ... ................ I
15 S w i n e ................ Swine-plague Swine plague. Negative.....
plague, an d motile
bacilli.
16 Negative. Negative..... Motile bacilli Negative.........do.........
(hog chol- "
era?)
17 ............ (Pericardium) Negative ....... do ........ (Peritoneum)
negative.' negative.


It will be noted that in the eleven cases bacteriologically examined:]
swine-plague bacteria appeared in only four. In these four cases they
were detected in nearly all organs subjected to examination. Why they:
were not found in all cases may be due to several reasons. In the first
place, former experience has shown that swine-plague bacteria are apt ..
to remain localized, and that dissemination through the body does not ,4
always take place. If limited to the digestive tract they could nut have'
been detected, because this was not subjected to examination. Secondly, ]
swine-plague bacteria are short lived, even in cultures. They may have!j
largely disappeared from the body at the time of death. Moreover, itl
is not improbable that many swine die from the secondary effects of the
disease. (See No. 17.) The time of examination is therefore of impo
ance. Swine may be infected all together within a short time, and thb p.
tarded deaths may be due to partial resistance followed by compia
tions. The lesions produced in the lungs and intestines .mryp...
.. .. ... .... 4" ";".=.. ii
other bacteria to enter the body, which complicate still moN4Wr
standing of the real cause. .r
... .. 5 ...!! : :: .. i
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... . ... ... ........ ............
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jaraiULlu. ^uuasiucrauioV piLIOLLLItLU Cauuiusc UU UaU rKgntu vOLUrai auu Eiu LCULU ,u'gJ'uU
both principal lobes. Lungs in general hypersemic. Left cephalic lobe emphysema-
tous; left ventral shows hemorrhagic spots near its tip and contains two firm nod-
ules, appearing as yellowish spots under pleura. Left principal lobe contains four
of these spots corresponding to firm nodules in the parenchyma. Besides these, &
wedge-shaped, very firm, hepatized mass extends inward from the edge and almost
through the depth of the parenchyma. These various masses appear yellowish, homo-
geneous, imbedded in hyperaemic, air-containing tissue. They vary from one-eighth
to five-sixteenths inch in diameter, nearly all of them situated near the surface.- The
largest ones are covered by roughened, thickened pleura, thrown into wrinkles; these
are in part yellowish, in part bright red and pink in color. The three lobes of the
right lung contain these necrotic masses. There are several in the right cephalic,
about six in the ventral, and over a dozen in the principal lobe, the largest being
one-half inch in diameter.
Digestive tract: Several small superficial sloughs on dorsum of tongue, near tip.
Stomach contains a considerable quantity of food. Funds deeply reddened over an
area 5 inches in diameter. Duodenum with its mucosa bluish-gray, pigmented. Pey-
er's patch showing as an aggregation of small, depressed pigment spots. Arbores-
cent injection of jejunum merging into a general hyperemia lower down. About 18
inches above valve a patch of mucosa 2 inches long, intensely reddened.
Extensive pigmentation of mucosa of caecum. Mucous glands at the valve dis-
tended with plugs. About 12 inches below the valve the mucosa is intensely red-
dened, merging on hemorrhage. A very delicate elastic membrane (fibrin ?) covers
this region, extending for about 12 inches down the colon. Below this latter point
the mucosa continues more or less hypersBmic and pigmented into the rectum. Mes-
enteric glands enlarged with cortex and interlobular portions hemorrhagic. Meso-
colic glands in the same condition.
Kidneys with cortex pale, somewhat enlarged. Otherwise no marked changes ob-
served.
Spleen slightly enlarged and softened.
Bacteriological examination includes the following organs:
In two necrotic foci of the lungs examined a number of minute oval bacteria with
polar stain were observed in cover-glass preparations. Plates prepared with a bit of
this tissue remained sterile, however. A rabbit inoculated subcutaneously with a
bit of necrosed lung tissue at 3 p. m., Aug. 9, was found dead next morning. In the
spleen and heart's blood and in cultures therefrom only swine-plague bacteria de-
tected. The cultures were inclined agar and bouillon.
In cover-glass preparations of pleural exudate, a large number of swine-plague
bacteria were detected. Two inclined agar and one bouillon tube inoculated at the
autopsy. One agar remained sterile, the two other tubes developed into pure cul-
tures of swine-plague germs.
From the spleen agar plates prepared with a bit of pulp remained sterile. A bouil-
lon culture contained a large spore-bearing bacillus. From the liver, the same prep-
arations made. Both plates and bouillon remained sterile.
From the contents of right ventricle two agar and one bouillon tube were inocu-
lated after scorching through the wall. The bouillon tube remained clear. Both
agar tubes contained subsequently a grayish glistening growth of swine plague
bacteria.
From a meseuteric gland one agar and one bouillon tube inoculated by scorching]!1
the surface and removing with small scissors bits from beneath this area. Both tubes
remained sterile. ..
".. :.i.. !. ....
.. *.: yrmH::Eil:
E* ... '* l"EE i" ^:




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General blush of the skin on the ventral aspect of the body. On right side thep!'
small vessels of the subcutis filled with blood which oozes from the cut ends in .....
form of thick drops. Both superficial inguinal glands hyperzmic.. ... ;
A small quantity of yellowish serum in the abdominal cavity. A network o f
delicate fibrils stretching across coils of intestine. Peritoneum dull, opaque in ap-
. pearance. ,*
Trachea and bronchi contain reddish froth, mucosa reddened. Punctiform hemor-
rhages under the pleura of left luug. Slight general medema of both lungs; some
interlobular edema of the right.
Stomach contains a moderate quantity of deeply yellow-colored liquid. The WO
mucosa covered with a thick layer of tenacious mucus. The funds over an area
inches in diameter is intensely hyperaemic, the intensity being greatest in. the center
of the area. Contents of duodenum of a blackish color. More or less hyperi6mia
throughout the small intestine, with swelling, hypernemia, and ecchymosis of Foeyer's
patches. More or less hyperemia in patches in the cacum and colon. The glandular
patch at the valve especially reddened. Feces dry. Follicles show as circular, red
spots from the serious side. Lymphatic glands of the lesser momentum, mesentery, and
meon-colon very much reddened.
Liver congested. Bile thicker and darker than normal.
On surface and throughout the cortical portion of kidneys numerous punctiform
hemorrhages. Pyramids intensely congested. Glands at hilus with cortex hemor-
rhagic. Bladder contracted, empty.
No. 401 died in the evening of October 31, i. e., somewhat more than
24 hours after inoculation. It was placed in large refrigerator until
next morning.
Subcutaneous vessels as in No. 403. Small patches of a grayish, viscid exudate on
the large intestine, liver, and spleen. Punctiform ecchymoses barely visible to
naked eye under serosa of large intestine. Arborescent injection of the subserous
vessels on ventral wall of abdomen and intestines generally.
In the right pleural sac a considerable quantity of blood-stained liquid and shreds
of exudate stretching from lung to chest wall. The various lobes of both lungs
glued together and to pericardium. The lateral, ventral border of both lungs have
the pleural covering much thickened, roughened, and thrown into wrinkles. Both
lungs congested and edematous. In the right cephalic lobe a mass of dark red
hepatized tissue which may be the place where needle punctured. Grayish-red
hepatization of the major portion of left cephalic lobe. Trachea and bronchi contain
a large quantity of reddish foam. Mucosa with minute vessels injected.
Pericardium opaque and roughened. The entire epicardium similarly affected. A
grayish membranous exudate about the base of the'heart extending upon the large :
vessels.
Stomach contains a moderate quantity of turbid, saffron-colored liquid; mucosa :
covered with a thin layer of mucus. Punctiform reddening of funds. Small intes-
tine contains much yellow liquid, mucosa not altered. Large intestine contains
firm feces. No lesions observed.
Cortex of kidneys rather pale, pyramids very dark red,
Under capsule of spleen, some small extravasations. Parenchyma pale, organ not
enlarged. H
Cover-glass preparations from peritoneum of small and large intestines and of liver
show many swine-plague bacteria. In the spleen their presence not determinable onR .,.
cover-glass preparations. Cultures contained them, however.
;^
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Pig No. 454 was inoculated February 28,1891, with a peptone bouillon
culture of the swine-plague germ from Case 15. Three cubic centimetres
were injected subcutaneously into each thigh. The culture was one
day old, prepared from an agar culture. (Three others inoculated at,
the same time remained well.) The pig was found dead March 2, in the
early morning. It had thus lived between 36 and 48 hours after the
inoculation.
Black and red female pig, weighing about 50 pounds; in good condition. Consid-
erable reddening of the skin of ventral aspect of body and ears. Subcutaneous fat
reddened. From the cut vessels dark, thick blood exudes. Over both inoculated
thighs the subcutaneous vessels are extensively injected, forming a dense network.
The suboutis has a glistening appearance. On the right thigh, near Poupart's liga-
ment, the subcutaneous connective tissue is thickened, yellowish opaque, and friable,
over an area of several square inches.
On opening abdomen the intestines appear very much reddened. A few elastic
fibrils stretched across coils and about 10 cubic centimetres of turbid serum present.
Stomach contains a large quantity of food. Mucosa not affected. Considerable
catarrhal inflammation of the duodenum, which extends into jejunum. The hyperm-
mia extends through the small intestine, but much less intense. Several ascarides
present. The mesenteric glands somewhat congested; in two of them old, caseous
masses, occupying nearly the entire gland.
Large intestine contains a large quantity of semiliquid feces. Mucosa normal.
Meso-colic glands hyperemic.
In each pleural sac about 10 cubic centimetres of turbid effusion. Lungs hyper-
amic and cedematous. Interlobular tissue of anterior (or cephalic) lobes slightly
thickened and opaque, the result of some former inflammation. In trachea and
bronchi some reddish frothy liquid. The mucosa shows marked injection of the
minute blood-vessels, in some places almost hemorrhagic. In right bronchus a small
number of large lung worms.
On left auricle of heart ecchymoses. In left ventricle a small quantity of rather
thick dark blood. Right ventricle distended with it. Coagulation feeble.
Liver quite pale generally, acini distinctly outlined. Parenchymatous inflamma-
tion. On the surface may be seen with a hand-lens numerous minute grayish-yellow
dots, one or more in a lobule and situated chiefly on the periphery. In sections of
fresh tissue they appear as irregular, opaque, amorphous patches. In stained sections
from tissue hardened in alcohol they appear as intralobular aggregations of round
cells occupying the place of parenchyma cells. These foci are probably result of
some former disease. In the intralobular capillaries occasional masses of swine-
plague bacteria detected. (See PI. xi, Fig. 4.)
Spleen enlarged and hyperaemic. Kidneys with cortex broadened. The base of
pyramids somewhat darker red than' normal.
In cover-glass preparations from blood and spleen, swine-plague bacteria present, in
the blood in considerable numbers.
From a bit of spleen pulp two agar plates prepared. On the first, after 24 hour,
numerous swine-plague colonies appeared; on the second nothing developed.
Agar cultures from peritoneal and left pleural cavity remained clear.
j" .i=
.- ii:a !








(a**bft the blood contained'& large number of confluent
ecitme faintly clouded. Both- contained only s witue-plague
vt, t
tho liver inoculated with Platinum. wire contained. on the fol-
number of swiue-plague colonies.
,following cases are of-itaportance owing to the peculiar
joints caused by the Inoculation,
11. With a peptone bouillon culture of swine-plague bac-
same stock calture (Case 15) the following inoculations
Nos. 405 and 4.08 received into a vein of., one hind leg one-
timetre; No& 406 and 407 received one-fourth cubic centi-
each. case the: quantity was diluted with sterile bouillon so
centimetre of liquid was injected.
0 two following days all pigs were sick-and refused to eat the
ore, them. Within a week Nos. 406 and 408 bad nearly
Wo. 405 partially, while No. 407 was unable to get up and
-oo until it was killed, Pecember 3, by a blow on the head.
Mons were a peculiar necrotic and suppurative condition of,
and suppurative pericarditis.
of animal very. poor. Enlargement of the left carpal -and phalangeal
Iimgbt elbow joint, and both hook joints. Along the inner aspect of the
large ntaeswafyellowish dry pus deposited around the muscles. Carpal
*&me limb much enlamed. On opening the joint a considerable quantity
i, found deposited around the bones and betwe.en the tendom over the
4ho joint surfaces. are -discolored, the cartilage in part detached, and -the
readily crus'hed. The toed- enlarg6d, the enlargement due to similar sup-
changes around the phalanges.
elbow joint enlarged;.joint cartilage greenish, opaque. Around the joint
'41, ahwomes contalhing either a turbid liquid or dry cheesy pus, which has bur-
aloug the Mi'termuscular septa of the forearm. Carpal and metacarpal joints
'IbAb not affected.
h hind lim.-be the tarsal and metatarsal joints very much enlarged and in the
-voudition as thos just described. In a small number of ribs the eternal articu'-
11*14W juvolved in suppuration. Over the lower ribs on the rightside the intermus-
4 ol00a, axe imbedded in masses of dry cheesy pus'.
'1-,*jthjzi the, lymphatic glandsat the angle of the jaw and in the inguinal region are
wt yeTlowish masses.
_%AJ*W normal. Pericardium: thickened, adherent to the heart surface by means of
of brittJo, straw-colored pus, covering the entire heartsurface with exception
A* Are& on the left: ventricle to whic4 the pericardium is attached by means
44,
Abrdus, tissue. The pus is mo4 abundant at the base.
digastive, tract firea from inflammatory changes. Stomach contains a smaU.
Of liquid. of a deep yellow color, and some mucus.
show on the surface a small number of discolored, slightly depressed spots,
iding to pale, whitish, wedge-shaped. infarets, extending into medullary
These also seen in sections.
soolored, In spote and pa ches on the surface.
bladder contains a dark-greenish solid mass, cutting like firm. cheese and. filling
ou Oqace of the bladder.
tarsal y'Ant saved'and opened for bacteri6logical examination. The skin is
4 the abscess thoroughly scorched and opened through the iscoic-hed
&considerable quantity ofgreenish-yellow]Liqidlolding















In cover-glass preparations trom liver and spleen, and in an agar culture from th6
latter organ, swine-plague germs demonstrated.
Another case of suppurative changes in the joints following intra-
venous inoculation is the following:
No. 411 received, December 4, 1* cubic centimetres bouillon culture of swine-
plague bacteria into a vein of one hind limb. It immediately became very sick, was
unable to get up, and died December 22. It was greatly emaciated. Both carpal
and the left tarsal joint enlarged, the changes within the joint similar to those
described in the preceding case. Several rib joints in the same condition. In this
case also the presence of the virulent swine-plague bacteria in one diseased carpal
joint was demonstrated by inoculating two rabbits with pus therefrom. Both suc-
cumbed within 20 hours to the inoculation. In the organs the characteristic polar-
stained bacteria. An agar and a peptone bouillon culture from the spleen of the pig
remained sterile.
Two other pigs inoculated at the same time and with the same dose
died in 15 hours with commencing peritonitis, pleuritis, and pulmonary
wdema. In both the stomach was hyperemic.

PATHOGENIC EFFECT ON SMALLER ANIMALS.

The great virulence of the swine-plague bacteria from this outbreak,
as compared with those of former outbreaks, is even better shown by-
the inoculation of small animals. In the notes given below it will be
seen that not only rabbits but guinea-pigs and pigeons succumb to very
small subcutaneous doses of the growth from cultures, while large
fowls are killed by inoculations into the muscular tissue. The inocu-
lation of guinea-pigs aud pigeons with cultures from previous outbreaks
was usually uncertain even though rabbits invariably succumbed.
Guinea-pig8.-October 2, 1890. One guinea-pig received subcutaneously into the
thigh one-fourth cubic centimetre of a peptone-bouillon culture of swine-plague bac-
teria, a second one-twelfth cubic centimetre, and a third one twenty-fourth ncubic
centimetre. The liquid in each case was diluted with 2 parts of sterile bouillon,
hence 3 times this quantity of liquid was actually injected.
The second guinea-pig died within 24 hours. At the point of inoculation consider-'
able gelatinous omdema, the blood vessels injected, and the muscles of thigh covered
with a thin, grayish layer. Stomach and small intestine hypermemic. Spleen en-
larged, dark colored. In blood, spleen, and liver very few bacteria. An agar culture
from the spleen developed only colonies of swine-plague bacteria. The first guinea-
pig died several hours later with similarlesions. Peyer's patches hyperasmic. A mod-
erate number of swine-plague bacteria in the various organs. The third guinea-pig
died in about 36 hours with the same lesions.
October 7. A guinea-pig was inoculated with one one-hundredth cubic centimetre
of a pieptone-bouillon culture. It died in 40 hours. The small intestine very hyper-!7
inemic, occasional patches of punctiform hemorrhages in mucosa. A small number;of ::,
bacteria in the various organs not showing a distinct polar stain. ::,
: "." i~i".~~





/*re Incltd n wt Eeoetosnt ui
th 0"fotythusndh ubi cutme* f pptne
diedin 6 to40houri te sconAI i 8 dy& n t is
Idral puuettiknn ftesbui on h
6it ns ieiadsle ovrdb hnly fcln
at eyfwbtrai h aiu rasadteeuae
inoltlao eysal ossit unapg ofre
thisq oralunti seiso nml
boM 8.Toga mc ncltdwt oe rtodoso
didwtin2 hus ntespennmru si--lge
e oa san'er elinsanepeartos
liedb anijcino ui etmteo ubdas
ai grolue14husod eijcinwsmd ne h:si
moce ienN.2iouae i h aewy-ih ui
,iex monn.ProldApaac. fiouae uce ie
=1fim !~ lo n ie n~ne ubr fbpe hwn
Ifully
// ihsbuaeau ni~inapon fiouain
oodtoa nN.2umnieal yemni fmcs fdoe
smlitsie otnssandeeds.Bcei o onmr
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00ueu!.

A m n i uep ri no tng ierb e it n ets
PiL
"i t onni ihn1 or. atraaudn i rcdn







attention to all motile bacteria having any resemblance to hog-cholera g
bacilli. Four of such were isolated, one from the lung of No. 14, one I
from the spleen of No. 15, one from the spleen of No. 16, and one from the I
kidney of No. 385. These four bacilli the writer subjected to a very care-
ful examination. Those from Nos. 14 and 385 were found to be iden-
tical with the common intestinal germ, bacillus coli communism. Those
from the spleen of Nos. 15 and 16 grew very much like hog-cholera1
bacilli on gelatine plates and in rolls. To bring out the differences ob-
served we will call the bacilli from Case 15 y and those from Case 166.
In gelatine rolls 6 could not be distinguished from a parallel roll cul-
ture of virulent hog-cholera bacilli. The surface colonies of y presented
a somewhat different type, in that they spread in a thinner layer with
very thin edges, somewhat like bacillus coli. They differed, however,
from colonies of the latter by their very restricted growth, attaining a
diameter of only 1 to 2 millimetres.
Both caused considerable turbidity of peptone bouillon, while viru-
lent hog-cholera bacilli cause only cloudiness, which very rarely merges
into a moderate turbidity. These bacilli multiplied therefore far more
energetically in bouillon than do virulent hog-cholera bacilli. There
were other slight differences between these two bacilli. Thus,
while y caused uniform turbidity of the culture fluid, 6 grew more or
less in clumps, which caused a rapid settling of the growth in spite of
the motility of the bacilli. When the culture was shaken up numerous
clumps and flakes rose from the bottom. In the hanging drop these
bacilli presented a strange appearance. The various clumps, composed
of 10 or more bacilli, moved rapidly in various directions across the
field of the microscope. This peculiarity of 6 maintained itself after
passing through several rabbits, and many cultures. In their patho-
genic power these two bacilli differed not only from hog-cholera bacilli,
as they are usually encountered in outbreaks, but from one another, as
the folloWing experiments show:
Bacillus y. Plate cultures made from original culture and bouillon
inoculated from a colony. When 24 hours old, this culture was used
to inoculate 2 rather large rabbits.
One white rabbit received subcutaneously 0.3 cubic centimetre cul- -
ture liquid.
One black rabbit received into an ear-vein 0.3 cubic centimetre
culture liquid. '
Two weeks thereafter, neither having shown any signs of disease,
they were reinoculated. The black one received 1 cubic centimetre,
the white 0.5 cubic centimetre, both into an ear vein.
The white rabbit remained unaffected. It was killed after 16 days,
but no lesions were found. The black one died in 36 hours. The blood
was thick, tarry; the left lung hypostatic; the spleen small. Nol..
bacteria in cover-glass preparations from the spleen. This result did n..
place these bacilli above the level of the ordinary iuntIestil botwil
MU R::R:: ,
.. ....t** '"%;. !j-ii
., r ... ik ,.:i"!




At V -,-#" 'I "
I V,

79

ceatitnetre of the latter, produces death in
ptness when injected into an'ear vein. Two
inoculations wero made April 28:
lfg about 3 pounds, 0.3 cuble cotimetre bouillon

*eighink about 4 pounds, 0.6 cubic centimetre bouillon

.',remained apparently ullaffeeted.
Xay 21,, two rabbits, weighing each 3 pounds, were inocu-
into an ear vein 0 1
.6 cubic centimetre of a bou*lloa
culture had been replated, and from a colony. this
wasprepared. Neither rabbit showed, signs of disease.
seem worth while to spend any mor'e' time on this obviously
organism. Its mark d resemblance in mor I -.aal
ohoracters to, thei. hog-cholera, bacillus maks it highly
it is'elosely related to this latter germ.
Sludilar experimentg with this bacillus from case 16
this one did possess pathogenic properties, though feeble'

original culture a gelatine plate was prepared and a pep-
Wbe inoculated from a colonY. When 4 days' old two
'bits vere inoculated. One received about 0.4,cubic
un(ler the skiii, the other the same quantity into the ear
Ue'tatter, rabbit died in'- 6 days.:
very large, dark, and softened, and contains a large number of
to, be hog-c4olora, baoilli. The liver shows areas of -necrosis. Thez gall-
by indammatory exudation to the omentum. The lungs mdematous.
'o wwation of cortex of kidne s. The small intestine filled with a glairy
liquid. The cultures from this case contained only the injected bacilli,
tn bouillon tubes the eenliar characters described abo'Ve.
which received the sabentaneous dose remained apparently.unaffected.
a04,dAya it was inoculated with swine plague and found dead, the following
At the place of the.first inoculation a cyst nearly I inch. in- diameter con-
qordy- pus. In tH6 appendix verm1formis from tvFenty to thirty whitish 'nod-
'#OV, sorosa. $imilar nodules on, Poyes patch near ileo-cmeal valve.
4hich received an injection Of,
0-43 cubic centiMetre into abdo-
ned well. When killed 10 days a o
fter the inoculati n, the' same
of appendix of cfecum. were found as those just described.
reek4 later, with the culture obtained from the f
irst ra)Wt,
inoculated, each by an.injection into an: ear vein of'O.2
tre.'' These all died within 36..to,,48 hour& In the one
48,,ho4a the following lesions, were observed
ebrG IMerlobular bietwork of a yellowish dolor through the whole
lnior4saope thi*i appeared as fatty degenerati6a of the perjpjery of
ouat Left ventricle of heart in' advtuced fatty degeneration.
4
qs. _In the aplee4 large number* of bacill! whieb appear
Cultures from,
4ed P4.












rULUnb, WJIUUU Wauf A wiLUiL UhUC LrUUUIVU U.tUUULU VUIHUJiLUW" uuuMuaai4M i.W
ture into a vein, and lived 6 days. The second rabbit received 0.12 cable 1 H
centimetre, and died in 2 days. Subsequent inoculations showed that
.05 cubic centimetre was fatal in a few days, while smaller quantites I
caused a disease from which the rabbits recovered.
We have thus seen that in addition to the swine-plague bacteria,..
which produced disease both after inoculation and exposure to diseased:
swine, two motile bacteria were isolated from cases 15 and 16, but fro-,
no other. These both resembled hog-cholera bacilli very closely, and
undoubtedly are related to them. But they differed from each other ifa
several particulars, notably in virulence. While the one from No. 16
was shown to be an undoubted but very attenuated variety of hog-.
cholera bacilli, the one from No. 15, though it may also be an attenu- i
ated variety, has so little virulence that its bearing upon the outbreak
in question must be regarded as entirely negative. As to the other
bacillus the question is not so simple. It may be seriously doubted
whether it had anything to do in producing the disease, since its pres-,
ence was detected in but one out of eleven cases, and since hog-cholera
bacilli from genuine hog-cholera outbreaks appear quite regularly in
cultures from the spleen. Moreover, the virulence of the latter is many
times greater than that of the bacilli in question. Thus, to test this::
matter thoroughly, one pig received into the lungs 5 cubic centimetres.'
of a bouillon culture, another 5 cubic centimetres into the abdomen, i
and several others 7 cubic centimetres each directly into the blood..
None of them showed any signs of illness after such treatment. Lastly,
two pigs were fed, after a fast of 24 hours, with200 cubic centimetres of.:.
ai bouillon culture each. This feeding was repeated on two successivei'
d(lays. A slight diarrhea, lasting a few days, was the only visible effect.
On the other hand it is not to be denied that these bacilli may have
occasioned a part at least of the intestinal disease observed in this out-:.
break. The truth may be that these attenuated hog-cholera bacilli, 2
brought from distant outbreaks by individual animals which have sur-
vived such outbreaks or proved themselves insusceptible at the time,:
bad no effect on the animals brought in contact with them until the"
swine plague broke out, when they may have started into activity anu:
contributed to the fatality of the disease. That the bacillus 6 from1"
case 16 should have been the cause of the outbreak and the swine-plagu
bacteria secondary to it would seem very far-fetched in the light fun
nished by the experiments with the swine-plague bacteria. ... .....
In addition to the attenuated hog-cholera bacilli, another d4 ..
^^ ~ -- .. ~ ...; : t .. ...:.....a^.^ y ^ ^ ^ ^
germ was isolated from cultures prepared on the farm from sothe df
earlier cases. This germ is briefly, referred to in the auftopl:
a rather large bacillus, which multiplied in the .eondensaA $I9.a
::. :u.: ... .. .. .. ... .. .
~~~~~~~~. ... .. ". 5 ..:: ..:iii::' i::i a..ii::% ::: r






'Ol Ordcssoe hc r

dain th e
771
ane riay o tos utrq]wei
4 1V I e o g ,t h r f a p
UP bi
WeUawt h ailsd ainn eea
whc- aeftqetydtetdi wn
or bo'u ti ipsil osat7sneIhv
of t6 utvt h atran etisvrlneo
qusto grw nde!aesofaa nt tbs
,,,jle deeo1 taol n;afe r2 ek ati
,daatro,2mlimte.,Te ume fteflydvl
coon iscoey ee ihrditn igrlk rj
hV oeforhasIn
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#o fguoet h grfvr.te who h
_e|outo.Q os val a,:hc a ra
!~pujadfreprin nal u ftetb.Ti


ed oxgniobet o hsproete emu
1"av oudvey sfu n aceiooicl oki vr
ihe !mhtbsae.iouite an:codns f

-o tuehsbe nuefrmn er nvrosknso ilg-
batrooi~lwr sa:cluetbeIhv leayele






82

the liquid appears within 1 or 2 days, and gas bubbles rise in the closed
branch. After a few more days the liquid in the closed branch is in
part replaced by gas, which continues to form for a week or longer.
Meanwhile the bacilli have become deposited in the bottom of the tube
as a whitish, flocculent mass. By cultivation in this way I was able to
keep these bacilli alive for many months until opportunity offered to
test them on animals. That they are pathogenic and may cause ma-
lignant wedema the following inoculations are sufficient to demonstrate:
May 22, 1891, 3 p. m. From a culture in a fermentation tube 14 days old one-half
cubic centimetre of the turbid deposit withdrawn and injected under the skin of a
rather large guinea-pig in the region of the abdomen.
The animal, apparently well at 9 a. m. next morning, lay down at 10 a. m., and died
at 1 p. m. On examination very extensive sanguinolent wadema of the suboutis over
abdomen and part of thorax. On left thigh the wedema accompanied with much dis-
tension of the subeutis with gas. The serosa of abdominal cavity discolored and
vessels injected. Both sides of heart contain dark soft clots. In the blood-stained
suboutis large numbers of the injected bacilli, in the spleen a few, in the blood none
observed. Two fermentation tubes were inoculated with blood and a particle of
spleen pulp, respectively. In both a typical growth appeared in a few days.
At the same time a colony of these bacilli was removed from a glucose agar tube,
now 22 days old, and placed into the suboutis of abdomen of another guinea-pig
through an incision. No symptoms observed until 48 hours, when the animal rested
with abdomen on floor of cage and did not stir when aroused. Apparently neither
drowsy nor in pain. It was found dead on the morning of the third day (60 hours).
The lesions as well as the distribution of the bacilli and cultures from blood and
.spleen were the same as in preceding case.
A pig inoculated subcLltaneously with 2 cubic centimetres of turbid deposit from a
fermentation tube showed no signs of disease.
Whether these bacilli can be implicated in the death of some cases of
this outbreak in which swine-plague bacilli were not detected, these
inoculations will not permit us to decide. The bacilli at the date of
inoculation had been cultivated for 10 months, and hence may have
become, attenuated in the meantime.

X.

At the end of 1890, Veterinarian E. 0. Schroeder was directed .by the
chief of the Bureau to make some examinations of swine diseases in
the West with the object of still further determining the distribution of
hog cholera and swine plague.
Among the several herds examined only one deserves mention, be-
cause positive bacteriological results were obtained. This herd was
found about 1j miles south of Chillicothe, Missouri, where greater or
smaller losses from infectious swine diseases are said to occur each
year.
Cultures were made by Dr. Schroed er on agar, and these were care
fully examined by the writer subsequently. The cultures from one
animal contained only swine-plague bacteria, those from another only
hog-cholera bacilli. This outcome again illustrates the cation whi..-::
... ..:..:...




jqf

-W tn &bcei baie rmiesdai
s ftodfeetbatramyntb
edasoeashs roalybendoe yBil
s.N ocuin' r dan im h e/
whc atramyhv be h rdmntn
e.Te ipyilsrttewd ifso n n
"A opthgncbatra
bre yossh8be odesdfo r cree'
potmre eaiain

bo 7 80 edsvea as nmlhd enoee yonr












T pmwid*,race o ouleain
OnPber'nalreoe on, ihsb cn i sevr
odytfnmtrdpst.Sle eylre ak n ral
















muscle rany. Lungs maematous ana nypersemic along venUrai Dofrer. Ln. i verWa
interlobular tissue broadened, pale, representing degeneration of periphery of aei., i;
Cultures contain only hog cholera bacilli. :::
From pig No. 4 an agar culture from the spleen failed to develop, .

XI.

An intermingling of hog cholera and swine plague was also observed::':
in two outbreaks studied in 1889, and very briefly referred to in the ,ii
port of the Secretary of Agriculture for the same year (p. 75). These: |.
outbreaks are of importance, in so far as the hog-cholera bacilli obtained -1
therefrom were somewhat modified with reference to their biological .
and pathogenic properties. It was evident also that these hog-cholera
bacilli were the predominating cause of the disease in many of the ni- M
males exposed, and the full report is therefore reserved for another pub-.
lication. The investigations are here mentioned to illustrate once again" j
the wide distribution and frequent intermingling of these two patho-: ,
genie bacteria.
gen ....

























.H
~: r

*..s : ii.' !
*"* :"-i**d .E:

*;;a^B









TH DRMO W .PGE
LOIA ADBOOGCLCARCES
g-Irprto ro h penpl o abt hc
10t 0husatriouainb'tie '.nakln
-,4 'e ium :n xaie'ihahg oe
af! thsbe emnetymutdi asm
ofsiepawbatrawl sulyb on
e"plenpup
atOogv h Ipeso fmnt ltee
iniiul fec arseaae rmec te
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concigbd h/odeso-hc r otn
ihw-ftesand xrmte gidcitdi h iue
7e ieiure
on/P/shv:uulya uasae h ocv
ote.Tedphoftecnaiyvaissmwa/n
//.rpae yasragtlni hc cs h npee
speialsae
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Wn, th w tie xrmte ersnigtetoftr
,th 10pvnn pc ehp acmo ebaewtof

]Drn!hspoeste!rtppm ercsfo h















they have been stained and mounted in balsam they are about 1 9
long and 0.5 to 0.6 t wide. Their ends are rounded off and in general
their form is that of a somewhat elongated oval. Besides these aver-
age forms there may be others, 1.8 y long and 0.7 to 0.8 p broad. Di-
mensions larger than these generally belong to forms evidently abnormal
in development. In these the width generally remains the same as that
of the shorter forms.
While these bacteria in cover-glass preparations from pigs, inoculated
rabbits, etc., are the same in appearance, the same bacteria in sections
of tissues hardened in alcohol and stained in the same way do not cor-
respond to the description just given. They are smaller than the
smallest forms described above, and as a rule do not show distinctly
the unstained middle piece. They appear under high powers as mi-
nute uniformly stained oval bodies. It is evident that in the one case
the drying process has a tendency to flatten objects out against the
cover glass, while in the hardening process there is a tendency to
shrinking, which is not counteracted in any way. Hence the different
appearance may be due simply to the difference in the mode of prep-
aration.
The foregoing description applies to virulent varieties which cause
death of the inoculated rabbit in 16 to 20 hours. In the various
organs and the blood the inoculated bacteria are present in large num-
bers. The more attenuated varieties do not produce death thus quickly.
The rabbit dies in from 3 to 10 days. The bacteria have meanwhile
become localized in the peritoneal cavity or the pleural cavity, and
produced an inflammatory exudate which contains immense numbers of
bacteria.. These do not stain so well as those described, and rarely
show the polar arrangement of the protoplasm distinctly. There is
reason to suppose that many of these forms are already destroyed by
the inflammatory process.
In cultures the swine-plague bacteria are smaller than in the bodies
of inoculated animals. Examined in water they appear so minute that
it is with difficulty that they are detected at all (Zeiss apochr. 2 milli-
metres, compens. oc. 4). In general they answer well to the descrip-
tion of micrococci, although they are not round but oval in form. On
the border of the drop holding them in suspension the polar arrange-
ment of the protoplasm is occasionally detected.
Swine-plague bacteria are non-motile. This important charactAet

Micromillimetre or about one twenty-five thousandth of an inch ... ii
.........,... . .: :i."







Mat, once from ho -cholera baeffli. In liquids
m6tion i's frequently seen which is so violent it
6,impression. of spontaneous motion.. They do not
"'however, and this agitation is thusreadily distin-
Aip very active flagellar movement of hog-chblera. -bacilli.
ore easily demonstrated.on the latter. Dr. Yj A. Moore
uch time in the laboratory to bring out flagella on swine.-
"la without suce ess. This was of coure to be expected.
Ave been observed IR any of the conditions under which
Pu cultivate. They are, destroyed in' liquids by a tem-
690 C. (136.40 F.) in 7 minutes. -Their rapid'destruction
disinfectants, etc., renders it highly probable that no spores
d.
on whether swine-plague bacteri*a should be called bacilli
is not'an easy tl' satis actorily. In the tissue$
y iff cultures they may appear as elongated rods, but only
ormial conditions, Their usual form, both in cultures and. in
roln'tissues, is.that of an oval, the longer diameter exceeding.
Wk the shorter diameter. While I we are inclined to call them
"as, least misleading, usage seems to have followed the Koch
611ing thein baci In the, present. report they simply
bacteria, and the mi atter of nomenclature is left open,, .
bacteria are, not so easily cultivated as hog-cholera.:
refusing to multiplyon certain media in which hog-
i readily grow, their life in cultures is much shorter.
folftowing the chief characters of thbse bacteria in the various
ewhat in detail
'4media are'-g vou som since no one character
viently peculiar, and all axe necessary to positively recognize,
es.
e gibwth 'on -nutrient gelatin is: variable and therefore not reliable.
bactetia from outbreaks VII, VIII, and IX, as ai- rule, refused to
I in gelatin. Occasionally colonies develop in roll cultures, but
Oh is very feeble and retarded, and may be overlooked unless
.40 cArefully watched for Ion ger than A: week. An increase of
favor their growth.
turn- to the bacteria di9covered-in 1886 and 1887 perhaps the
016gical difference observable is the more abundant growth of
4iAkles in nutrient gelatin. The deep colonies were from, one-
td"bAb-half millimetre 'In diamebar; the siirface colonies were 4 or
'The former appeared after s e days with a pale .:
om mar-
being brownish, giranular.* The failure to grow
7 '4
*",Oot be regarded as entirely. due to the lower tempera-
ift. g6latine must, be-kept,,' Itseems partly, due, to the nature
rtly to the adaptability of the bacteria. to be culUvatkd.
1VUta Xv ia the ft'port of the Burean of Animal Indnotry for. 1886,
1 r
Of, his ropq t











manner tails to develop shows that some physical or chemical con-
dition of the gelatine is at fault. The gelatine must be regarded as.
drier medium than the agar, which dryness is not so favorable. An-
other possible explanation of the refusal of the more recently cultivated
varieties to multiply in gelatine may be due in part to slight improve-
ments and modifications in the preparation of nutrient gelatine and
agar. On the whole gelatine should not be used in the investigation
of swine plague.
On nutrient agar prepared in the ordinary way with peptone bouillon
and kept in the thermostat, multiplication goes on rapidly, so that in:
24 hours the deep colonies are one-eighth to one-fourth millimetre in
diameter according to the proximity of the colonies to one another (see
Plate xn, Figs. 1 and 2). The deep or submerged colonies appear
roundish or lenticular, and when examined under a low power (about
60 diameters) they are brownish, opaque, with margin and surface beset
with small knobs, thus giving the'disk a reticulated and the border
an irregular wavy appearance. Some colonies do not present this
appearance, but remain smooth on surface and margin. The surface
colonies are glistening, slightly convex, whitish disks, barely trans-
lucent. They are circular, with margin having no irregularities.
Under a low power the central portion is brownish, granular, towards
the margin becoming more homogenous and translucent and exhibit-
ing usually very delicate radial striations. The deep colonies may
attain a diameter of one-half to three-fourths millimetre; the surface
colonies, when 1 centimetre apart, measure 4 to 5 millimetres in diameter.
As in the case of other bacteria, the size of the colonies varies inversely
as their number on the plate.
A very characteristic feature of such plates is the strong, disagree-
able, pungent odor which is emitted. This is best detected when the
agar plates have been prepared in so-called double dishes, and these
are quickly opened after they have been closed for 24 hours or less.
When the growth is abundant this odor persists even after repeated
exposure of the plates.
On the inclined surface of nutrient agar in tubes, the growth may
appear either in the form of isolated colonies or as a single grayish trans-
lucent patch, depending on the number of bacteria rubbed upon the
surface originally. (See Plate xin, Fig. 4.) The condensation water
collected in the bottom is usually quite turbid within 24 hours. After
two or more weeks it will be found that the growth in the water has
assumed a viscid gelatinous consistency, so that it tends to come away ,
in a mass when a platinum loop is introduced. This has been charac.
.. ... .. ......
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Slightly alkaline bouillon containing 1 per cent peptone and one-half per cent salt
was sterilized in flasks containing 200 cubic centimetres each, and inoculated May
15, 1891, with swine-plague bacteria from the following sources:
1. Outbreak VII.
2. Outbreak VIII.
3. Outbreak IX.
4. German swine plague (virulent variety).
These cultures were allowed to remain in the thermostat until June 8, at which
time they were testedaccording to the method indicated.
The culture from VII had an abundant viscid growth on the surface attached to"
glass. Liquid turbid when shaken, faintly alkaline; odor disagreeable and charac-
teristic of swine-plague cultures. Slight precipitate of tribromphenol; no indol
reaction.
The culture from VIII had a thick membrane on the surface, somewhat viscid.
Other characters as in preceding case. Phenol less abundant. No indol.
The culture from IX like that of VIII. Phenol very abundant. Very faint indol
reaction.
The culture of German swine plague gave nearly as much precipitate of tribrom-
phenol crystals as the preceding, but no indol reaction.
Various cultures of hog-cholera bacilli tested showed the presence of neither indol
nor phenol.
The reason why the indol reaction failed in our hands is not clear.
It may be that as the culture grows older the phenol reaction increases
while the indol reaction may disappear. It will be noted that phenol
was detected in all four cultures, in the third in abundance. The crystals
of tribromphenol examined microscopically were identical in all four
cases. It might also be mentioned that the second culture, inoculated
with the least virulent swine-plague bacteria, contained the smallest
quantity of phenol.

RESISTANCE OF SWINE-PLAGUE BACTERIA TO DESTRUCTIVE AGENTS.

Swine-plague bacteria possess less power to resist destructive agents
than hog-cholera bacilli. Their life, even under what might be regarded
as the most favorable conditions, is brief. In the laboratory cultures are
liable to die out in 3 or 4 weeks, especially when evaporation is going
on. In bouillon but 2 or 3 days old the large majority of bacteria are
dead, for if plate cultures be made from the liquid only very few colo-
nies appear where we would expect thousands. The resistance to dry-
ing is feebler than that of hog-cholera bacilli. In the report for 1886,
some experiments are reported which show that drops from a bouillon
culture dried on cover glasses failed to infect fresh tubes on and after 3
days. Shorter periods were not tried in this experiment..
In another trial with peritoneal exudate from a rabbit containing in-xi
mense numbers of swine-plague bacteria dried on cover glasses, bouillon 2
tubes were infected up to the third day, but not thereafter. -.I
... ... ../ .: r : i ?
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Wt.,ftI8$72887 p. 143, some additional experiments are
bacteria from Iowa. Bacteria iia bouillon cul-
od longer than, 36 hours, wem destroyed, while
r, oultures lived for 6 days The d eirence is very
,Oo thickness of the dried film which ig much greater when
mar cultures is employed owing to the density of the

Rkowise more easily- destroyed by disinfectants than are hog -
Ii. Hence the, extended experiments made: in connection
dy of hog-cholera bacilli havq made 4 repetition of such
with swine plague unnecessary. We simply give the fol-
eriments, with: lime, since this disinfectant is cheap7 efficieutt
applied.
Five cubic centimetres of limewater is thoroughly mixed with a
Ar -pla no bacteria 1 day old from outbreak, IX. Bouillon
-with a loop.of this suspension after 45 minutes, 1, 27 30 and 6 hours

ent W" repeated with the modificatiop that two loops of agar growth
:Mth the limewater and bouillon tubes were inoculated immediately after
I e mixture, and after Ov 10p 15 20; 25 30t 403,50, and 60 minutes. All but the
r6oained clear.
140water in a third trial was diluted with two volumes of water, and therefore
&, n this series all but the tube,
ut 0.04 per cent of lime approximately.
immediately after tho bacteria were mixed with the lime water remained

N* eXperime ta show that 3 weak a solution of limewater as. 0.04
is safficient to destroy swine-plague bacte 'a almost imme-

rapidity wiWwhich swine-plague bacteria are destroyed by dry-
IiW"Other agencies. made it very probable that their life in the su,
il layers of the soil where they are depos ited must be very brief.
following simple experiments place this supposition beyond doubt,
,they. show that rabbits can no longer be infected after the bacteria
I)een in the soil for a period of 8 to 10 days.
-4 o'h, 7, 1888. A pot of sterilized soil was inoculated by ppuring upon its surface
oontimetres' of a beef-infusion peptone culture which had been growing for
The pot was kept in the laboratory, covered with a disinfected
Aw-ch 10 a rabbit was inoculated with one-fourth cuble cantimetre of
W"Jufusion in which a little soil had been stirred up. The rabbit died in 48
numerous polar-stained swine-plague bacteria in the internal organs,
,Uteeu days respectively after the soil had been infected two other rabbits
from the same Soil. r Both remained well.
pot of soil was inoculated by pourin upon its surface 106 cluble centi-
b' -Infusion peptone culture 2 days old, of swine-plague bacteria obtained
R. Welch from an outbreak studied by him in 1887 in Baltimore,
77
qkwao sunk into a larger pot filled with sterilized soil, and the whole
j*&a of the- Department of Agriculture on a level with the-wil. To
U*04 of the culture used to infect the soil a rabbitwas inoculated in the
li44ipyad into it. 'It died within 48 houm Cover-glass preparations,
,ZOV lVie, iu0culated bacteria in the internalorgans. Four days later.,








a rabbit was inoculated from the soil as in the preceding experiment. The rabbit
died within 2 days. No bacteria found on cover-glass preparations; cultures contain ii
several kinds of bacteria. Swine-plague bacteria not detected. This case was there-
fore doubtful. April 7, nine days after the infection of the soil, another rabbit was :
inoculated therefrom. This one remained well.
Some experiments niade in 1886 indicated a rapid destruction of swine-
plague bacteria in sterilized water. In 1888 and 1889 Dr. V. A. Moore
was charged to carry out another series of experiments to test this
problem more thoroughly.
In the first experiment a platinum loop rubbed over the surface growth of an agar
culture 24 hours old was stirred up in 10 cubic centimetres sterilized Potomac water
and placed in the laboratory. A second tube of water prepared in the same way was
placed in the refrigerator (50o-55 F.).
From the first tube 1 cubic centimetre transferred to bouillon on the fifth day failed
to infect it. From the second tube the same quantity failed to infect a bouillon, tube
on the seventh day.
In a second series two tubes of water were infected, each with three loops of surface
growth and three drops of condensation water from an agar culture. It will be
noted that in this case some nutritive substances must have been transferred in the
condensation water. Bouillon tubes were infected up to the thirty fifth day from the
water in the laboratory. From that in the refrigerator a successful inoculation was
made on the nineteenth day, but it failed after 38, 41, and 44 days.
A third series was tried. Each of two tubes was infected with three loops of growth
from an agar culture 1 day old. From the one in the laboratory inoculation with 1
cubic centimetre failed on the ninth day; from the one in the refrigerator, after the
twentieth day.
Swine-plague bacteria in water containing no nourishment may thus
succumb in 7 to 10 days at ordinary temperatures (600-700F.). When
some nutritive substances are present this period may be materially
lengthened. In lower temperatures the bacteria seem to live somewhat
longer. A comparison between the relative vitality of hog-cholera and
swine-plague bacteria may be tabulated as follows:

Swine plague. Hog cholera.

Destroyed by moist heat at 58 C .............................. 7 minutes...... minutes.
Destroyed by drying (from bouillon) .--................--......... Ij to 2 days .--. 7 to 9 days.
Destroyed by drying (from agar) .......----...................... After 6 days... After 4 months.
Destroyed in water ............................................ After 10 days.. After 2 to 4 months.
Destroyed in soil............................................... After 4 days... After 2 to 3 months.


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94 3 -

The course of the disease did not always correspond to this descripi
tion. In a small number of instances the subcutaneous inoculation w .as::
followed not by peritonitis but by pleuritisand pericarditis. The exudate ,
into these serious sacs was of the same nature as the peritoneal exudate ,
in other cases. More rarely the pleuritis was accompanied by a genuine
pneumonia of a croupous character.
A third form of the inoculation disease is produced by verfattent-
ated swine-plague bacteria. This attenuation may have been due to
long cultivation in the laboratory or else it may have taken place in na-
ture. The rabbits inoculated subcutaneously may live several weeks.
The place of inoculation becomes the starting point of a partly hemor-
rhagic, partly purulent infiltration and thickening of the skin and
subcutaneous connective tissue which may extend over the entire
abdomen and thorax. The skin in places may become necrotic, dry,
and hard. If the animal survives, which is not infrequently the case,
the inflammation becomes circumscribed into an abscess which finally
heals. In these cases internal changes such as peritonitis and pleuritis
are absent. In some cases, however, a parenchymatous and fatty de-
generation of the heart muscle and the kidneys is present.
Such attenuated bacteria are still capable of producing all the vari-
ous lesions ascribed to the more virulent varieties when injected directly
into the circulation. This is very easily done by choosing a vein of the
ear. After such injection we may produce a rapidly fatal septicemia, or
inflammation of the serious membranes, according to the quantity of
virus injected and the relative virulence. The localization is the same
as with subcutaneous inoculations. In rare cases even intravenous
injections of small doses do not prove fatal, and then we may observe
further localization of the virus in the joints of the extremities, chiefly
the lower, or even in the subcutaneous and intermuscular connective
tissue in different parts of the body. Such localizations were in a state
of suppuration when they came to our notice.
It might be maintained that the attenuated swine-plague bacteria,
such as those from outbreaks VIII and X, were specifically different
from the very virulent varieties obtained from outbreaks VII and IX,
owing to the differences in the rabbit disease produced by them. We
have, however, carried out experiments which dispose of this possible
objection. By making rabbits more insusceptible to the virus of swine
plague by vaccination we have been able to vary the disease produced
by virulent varieties so as to produce nearly all the forms caused by
attenuated varieties. For example, those bacteria (IX) which produce
a rapidly fatal septicemia have, in vaccinated rabbits, produced a pro-
longed disease characterized in some cases only by local reaction at the
point of inoculation and recovery, in others by peritonitis or pleuritis
and pneumonia. The two following cases are interesting illustrations: .
Rabbit No. 19 received into an ear vein about 13 cubic centimetres :
of bouillon culture of swine-plague bacteria, sterilized at 580 C., in fiv':l

.. ... .. . .
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