First Report of the United States Entomological Commission

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First Report of the United States Entomological Commission
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United States Entomological Commission
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U.S. G.P.O. ( Washington )

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\FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
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UNITED STATES



ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION

FOR

THE VEA.R 1877

RELATING TO THE


iROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST

AND

THE BEST METHODS OF PREVENTING ITS INJURIES AND OF GUARDING
AGAINST I I IO I PE OF AN APPR
TION MADE BY CONGRESS FOR TIS PURPOSE.

WITH











GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,
S1878.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.




OF A ...... .... .... ................. ...... ...... X
TTER OF SBM A....e....................................... xm


INTRODUCTION.
RODUCTORY RMARKS .... ................................................
reation and organiation of the Commission, 1-Division of labor, 1-Cir-
lar sent out, --Area over which eggs were laid in 176, 6-Outlook
in spring in more Southern States, 7-Ltter to Governor Anthony, of Kan-
a, on the condition of things in May, -10-State of things in Minnesota
spring, 11-Otlook in Nebraska in June, -econd meeting of th
Commission, 14-Oslook in Iowa in June, 15-Visit to Colorado, Utah,
and Montana in June, 17-Visit to Colorado in July, 17-20-Third meet-
ing of the Commision, 21-Trip to the Pific Coast, 21-Trip to British
Americ -Lt of chapters, 23-Character and synopsis of chapters, 24-
29-Prospects for 1877,29.

CHAPTER I.

AS ICATION AND NO NLATUR: CHARACTERS OF THE PEE.... .... 13
Famile of the Orthoptera, 32-Locust vs. Grasshopper, 33-Generic nomen-
lature, 37-G eric diagnosis, 40-Species of the genus Caloptenus, 42-





Compared with locust ravages in the Eastern Hemisphere, 53-Injury in
the Northwest early in the present century, 54-Brief reviews from 1820 to
7, cust history in Tex, 7- in Idia Territory, 3-in

n Iowa, 7780-in Minnesota, 80-87-in Dakota, 8-92-in Montan, 92-
96-in Idaho, 96-in Wyoming, 97-in Colorado, 99-102-in Utah, 10!-104
-in New Mexico and Arizona, 105-in Nevada, 105-in Oregon and Wash-
ington Territory, 106-in British North America, 108-112-Tabular view
of locust years, 113.
CHAPTER II.
eec,.. c,. e aeeec a.,.. cc e


STATISTICS OFLO-E--.-.- .... ...... ...... ............ ..... 114
Difficulty of obtaining reliable data, 114-Estimates n Kansas, 115-in
Minnesota, 116-in Missouri, 117Loss in Kansas, Nebrak, Iowa, and
i i i i crops, 120-Loss to Missouri in



2 9350






IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
Page.
AGRICULTURAL BEARING OF THE LOCUST PROBLEM .... .2. .. ......
Drawback to the settling of the West, 124-What is likely t the effect
in the future, 125-Modification and settlement of the Wes plan
129-Crops which suffer mot, and those which suffer least, 130 all
grains not affected by invading swarms, 128-Need of judgment in plant-
ing, 129.
CHAPTER V.

PERMANENT BREEDING-GROUNDS OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST. ---...... 131
Permanent breeding-grounds, 131-Definition of the permanent region, 133-
Its character and extent, 134-The Rocky Mountain locust a sub-boreal
insect, 135-The Sub-permanent region, 136-The Temporary region, 136.

CHAPTER VI.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.--....---...........--- ---.....--......---------.. 136
Eastern limits of spread, 137-Northern limits, 139-Western limits, 140-
Southern limits, 141-Sub-permanent region, 142.

CHAPTER VII.

MIGRATIONS .---...----......-....----.----..---..-----..---------................---------..---..-.........---......------. 143
Classification of flights, 143-Invading swarms, 143-Returning swarms,
143-Local flights, 143-Height at which swarms move, 144-Effect of
change of wind and weather on flights, 145-Flight at night, 147-Migra-
tions previous to 1877 east of the Rocky Mountain plateau, 148-Direction
of invading swarms prior to 1877, 149-Direction of flight in 1876, 151-
Migrations within the permanent region, 153-158-in Montana, 153-in
Wyoming, 156-in Colorado, 157-in Eastern Idaho and Utah, 158-in the
lower Snake Valley, 158--eturn migrations from the temporary region
previous to 1877, 159-162-Return migrations in 1877, 162-165-Local
flights in 1877, 165-Record of flights for July 3 and July 20, 1877, 165-
169-Summary of flights by States, 170-174-Southward flights in 1877,
175-Movements in different directions at one time, 176-Destination of
return swarms, 177.

CHAPTER VIII.

HIABITS AND NATURAL HISTORY .................................. ........... 2 12
Destructive powers of locusts, 212-215-Stoppage of railroad trains, 215-
Rate at which locust swarms move, 215-Velocity of flight, 216-Direction
of invading swarms, 217-Time of appearance of invading swarms, 217-
Flight at night, 218-Height of flight, 219-General habits at night, 219-
Where the eggs are laid, 222-Manner in which the eggs are laid, 223
Philosophy of the egg-mass, 225-The female lays more than e egg-ma,
226-Interval between different egg-laying, 227-Numberf eggs lad,
228-The hatching process, 28-231-Where and under what onditions of
soil the young hatch most freely, 231-ime of batching, 231-Habit o
the young or unfledged locusts in the temporary region, 232-Directions
in whiche young t ong ravel, 234-Rate at which the youngtravel, 235-
They reach but a fTw miles east of where they hatch, 235-Not led by kings
and queen, 236-Time of year when wings are acquired, 237-Direction
taken by swarms departing fr the Temporary region, 238-Dtination
of departing swarms, 238-Do the return swarms breed 239-Do retur









1i iit :i:il ... P age.
w arms from te Temporary regon retrace their corse I40-The sp'ci es
essentially singlebooded 404ons why it cannot produce two
generations annually, 243-The species cannot permanently dwell in the
Temporary region, 244-The iniects which hatch there do not remain,
d46-Extesive and thick egg-laying seldom occura twice consecutively










a1 ao-n 25
Stin, 249-Food-p ts, 2-roe and plants mot liked and those least


External anatomy, ,57-Divisions of the body, 258-Sexual differences, 259-
Internal anatomy,261-The digestive system,26-264-The nervous sys-
-he fine anaty f te of the RockyMoi t--
n lo t, 277-Diret egglayer, 8How the ebr lies within the



egg, 78-How it burts, the egg, 27 9.
CHAPTER X.

The si stages of growth, 797-Variability in the depth of coloring, 281- The

mature 8tTages between the Rockcy Motain, the Leesehr,and th Red-Iegged
locusts, 2Tf g


INVERTEBRATE 284ES....... .. ... ... . .. .


Value of the loust's minute enemies, 284-Animals tat destroy the eggs, 2o5
-The Aho egg-prie,85-The common le fly, 28 Ground
beetles and their larvie, 289-Barpain larvw, 289-The egg-feeding Amara,
S291-Blilter-betle larvx, 292-Their ebaracter and locust-egg-feeding
habit8, 293-History of the oil-beetle, 294-History of Sitari8 ,25-Hiistory

Oer melold genera, 30-oldier-beetle lar 302-Asilid larv, 303-
Click-beetle larvU, 304-Miscellaneous 8peceOe,305-Chalcid-fly, 306-Ani.
:mal that prey on the locnut after it is born, 306-The locust mite, 306-
The efcacy of its work, 308-Its transformations, 309-Other mites, 312-
313-Ground-beetles, 313-Tiger-beetles, 314-Ailu-flies, 317-Digger-
wasps, 317Tachinafles, 319-Their efficacy in destrying locusts, 321-

bistory, 327-332-Insects attacked by hair-worms, 327-How hair-worms
get into locust, 332-Misceslaneous locust enemies, 334.a

% CHAPTER XII.


Good offices of birds probably underrated, 234-Experience of correspond-
entg, 336-Some of the most useful birds, 338-Paper by Professor Aughey
on the beneficial work of bird338Enormos number of birds destroyed
for market, 346-Damage done to insectivorous birds by birds of prey,
348-The Eno;ish eparrow, 349-What public sentiment needs, 349.
iiil~*









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VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XITI.
Page.
REMEDIEIS AND DEVICES FOR DESTRUCTION .-................... ... ... .. 350
Encouragement of natural agencies, 351-Destruction of the eggs, 351-Har-
rowing in the autumn, 353-Experiments to test the effect of alternately
freezing and thawing, 353-Experiments to test the effects of exposure to
air, 354-Experience with harrowing, 355-Plowing, 356-Experiments to
test the effects of burying at different depths, 356-Experience in plow-
ing, 358-Irrigation, 359-Experiments to test the effects of moisture on
the eggs, 359-Tramping, 361-Collecting, 361-Destruction of the young
or unfledged locusts, 362-Burning, 363-The burning of prairies, 363-The
Hetzel burning machine, 363-The Horner burning contrivance, 363-
Hand burners, 364-The Atwood machine, 364-Use of wire and kerosene,
364-Crushing, 364-The Drum locust-crusher, 365-The Simpson locust-
crusher, 366-The Hoos locust-crusher, 367-The Hansberry locust-crusher,
368-The Kenworthy locust machine, 370-J. C. Melcher's machine, 371-
The Peteler machine, 371-The King suction-machine, 374-The Flory
locust-machine, 376-Trapping locusts, 377-Nets and seines, 377-Ditch-
ing and trenching, 378-Protection by barriers, 381-Coal-oil, 381-Coal-
oil pans, 383-The Canfield pan, 384-The Adams pan, 385-The Anderson
coal-oil contrivance, 386-Mr. Long's contrivance, 386-Mr. Watrous's con-
trivance, 387-Mr. Swearingen's contrivance, 387-Use of coal-tar, 387-
The Robbins' pan, 388, 390-Use of coal-tar previous to 1877, 388-Other
machines for the use of coal-tar, 391-Catching and bagging, 391-Principles
and facts to be borne in mind in catching locusts, 391-The Riley machine,
392-Mr. Thompson's net, 392-The Elliot catcher, 394-The Wilson-Rhode
catcher, 395-Contrivance for catching the pup, 394-The Godard catch-
er, 395-The Benson catcher, 396-The Hutchins catcher, 396-The Syl-
vester catcher, 397-The Hero 'hopper-catcher, 398-The Belt device, 398-
Hand-nets, 399-Use of destructive agents, 399-Buhach or Persian insect-
powder, 400-Veith's insect-fluid, 400-Sulpho-carbonate of potassium,
401-Naphthaline, 401-Paris green, 401-The protection of fruit trees,
403-Destruction of the winged insects, 404-Fumigation, 405-The effect
of concussion, 405-Diversified agriculture, 406-Legislation, 407-Bounty
laws, 409-Missouri locust act, 409-Kansas locust acts, 410-Minnesota
locust acts, 412-Nebraska locust act, 413-Suggestions that may be of
service, 414-More attention needed to the growth of root-crops, 415-
The benefits of irrigation, 415-Hogs and poultry, 415--on-planting,
415-Use of soldiers, 416-Preventive measures against the winged in-
sects, 417-Further investigation needed, 417-Means that have been sug-
gested against the winged insects, 418-Systematic burning of young,
418-Cooperation with Dominion Government, 419-Protection by smoke,
419-Farmers should receive the locust probabilities, 420.

CHAPTER XIV.
INFLUENCE OF PRAIRIE FIRES ON LOCUST INCREASE .......................... 421
Reasons given why prairie fires do not influence locust increase, 421-Possi-
ble indirect connection in the past, 422.

CHAPTER XV.
INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON THE SPECIES ......... ....................... '423
Meteorological conditions affecting the life of the locust, 423-Effects of
weather on the young locusts, 424-ffects of weather on the eggs, 424-
Possibility of predicting consequences upon meteorological grounds, 424-
The temperature of the soil, 425-Thermal constant for the hatching of
locuet eggs, 426-Number of bour which eggs must b exposed to hatch
at a temperature of 600 F., 431-Number of hours required in 1875.






TABLE. OF CONTENTS. VI


En T GNERALY FOLLOW SEVERE LOCUST INURY ................. 432
Contrast between sumer and autumn, 432-No evil without some compen-
ating good, 433-Changes that follow the locusts, 433-Sudden appear-




CHAPTER XVII.


ices, 44-They furnish a large quantity of formic aid, and a new oil,
443-Lout a manreandaspoltry food, 443.

CHAPTER XVIII.

RAVAES O O OCU r T UNT .......S ........................ 4


mn sp es concerned in ti work, 446-Loat flights in Illinois, 44
ditions, 448-Lont flights in Ohio, 449-Imp ortance of discriminating be-w oil,








Species concerned, 45m-Late injuries in Southern California, 454-Tab-
nlar view of locust years, 45-Inj'ry from other non-migratory locusts,h


CHAPTER XIX.

RAVAGES OF LOCUSTS IN OTHER COUNTRI ................................ 460
Lonat injuries in Central America, 4--Great destruction in Honduras and,


Guatemala, 462-The locusts in South America, 465-The locusts in the
Old World, 467-Injuries in Germany, 468--Habits of the European spe-

cies, 469-4Injuries in Russia, 470-Different species affecting the Old
World, 471-Geographical distribution of the European migratory locust,
472-476-Note on Algerian locusts, 476-Iury in China, 477-In South-
ern Australia, 477.







State of things in spring, 4-Exertions of farmers, o4]-Different means em-
ployed to destroy the eggs, [4]-Effects of temperature and rain-fall on
the eggs, [5]-Dates of hatching, [6]-Late hatching, [7 ]-Progress dur-
ing sid, -8I-First win ged 10 --Statistis of damate u11].






[7]-roru dnBra ?








APPENDIX II.
Page.
AUGHEY ON LOCUST-FEEDING BIRD ...... -... ........ .... ......... ....... 13
Letter of transmittal, [13]-Examinations of the contents of the
of birds of Nebraska, giving the number of locusts, number of other ins
and number of Peeds, of the differen birds, considered i thir proper
classificatory position, [14]-[621.

APPENDIX III.
TEXAS DATA FOR 1877.. .................... .......................... [63]
Report of Jacob Boll, special assistant, [62]-Reports from correspondents
and other miscellaneous reports, chronologically arranged, [64]-[82].

APPENDIX IV.
MISSOURI DATA FOR 1877. ...............--............................... [83]
Reports from correspondents, and other data, chronologically arranged, [83].

APPENDIX V.
KANSAS DATA FOR 1877----..-------..-..........--......--....-.....--------------.............--. [85]
Report by George F. Gaumer, special assistant, [85]-Report by A. N. God-
frey, special assistant, [88]-Reports from correspondents and miscellane-
ous matter, chronologically arranged, [90]-[103].

APPENDIX VI.
IOWA DATA FOR 1877 .........-...................................... ..... [104]
Detailed data from correspondents, and from other sources, chronologically
arranged, [104]-[110].
APPENDIX VII.
COLORADO DATA FOR 1877 ........................... .......................... [111]
Report from William Holly, special assistant, [111 ]-Data from correspond-
ents and from other sources, [113]-[116].

APPENDIX VIII.
SNEBRASKA DATA FOR 1877 .--.. .-. ---- .... - [116]
Journal kept by Prof. Samuel Aughey, special assistant, [117]-[128]-Mis-
cellaneous data from correspondents, chronologically arranged, [128]-
[132]-Record kept by Hon. J. Sterling Morton, [132].

APPENDIX IX.
NARRATIVE OF THE FIRST JOURNEY MADE IN THE SUMMER OF 1877, BY MR.
PACKARD..---...--.................... ...... [134
Diary notes through Kansas, Colorado, and Utah, [135]-Observations in
Montana, [137]-Results of the journey, [138].
SAPPENDIX X. .
NARRATIVE OF A SECOND JOURNEY IN THE SUMMER OF 1877, BY MR.PACKARD. [139]
From Chicago to Utah, [139]-Observations in Oregon and Washington Ter-
ritory, [140]-From Vancouver Island to California, [141]-V aiations in
Caloptenus spretuas, atlanit, and femur-rubrum, [143].
APPENDIX XI.
BRITIS I-AMERICAN DATA .................................................. 145]
Characteristics and prevailing winds of Manitoba, [145]-Data from the
Cypres Hills region, [146]-The locust breeds permanently in the third
prairie steppe, [146]-No damage ever done in the Peace River country,
[146]-Ravages in the Northwest in the early part of the century, 147]-
Records by the Hon. Donald Gunn, [148].









SAPPENDIK XIL
Page.
t i S 1. .... ... ............. .............. ............ 150

Southward movements in Minnesota and Iowa, [150]-In Nebraska and
Missouri, [151]-In Arkansas and Kansas, [152]-In Colorado and Texas,



T AND MIAO Ix1877 ........ .. a...... .. ......... .... [156]
Locust movements in the more southern portion of the 'IVmporary region,
[156]-[164]-Flights in the more northern parts of the locust country,


APPENDIX XIV.

ra~wER TO THE quFarToN: DID ANY LOCUSTS REMAIN IN THE TEMPORARY
REGION AFTR THE DEPARTURE OF THE RaTURKSWAMMS? ............... 1983
A rfrom Ar Colorado, and Iowa, [198]-Answers from Kansas,
1]-Answer from Misori, [200]-Answers from Minnesota, Nebraska,
and Texas, [201].

APPENDIX XV.

PR UVAIN-G DIRECTION 1- WHICH THE YOUNG IN8ECTS TRAVEL .... .... ...... [2023
Movements of young in Iowa and Nebraska, 202-Movemets in Dakota,


APPENDIX XV

mE OF YTEAR WHEN THE BULK OF THE INSECTS BECOME WINGED [.*.. (205]

|L
Data from various States and Territories, [205 06].

APPENDIX XVII.

SO THE IAT NIT ...... .... .. ...... ..... ............. [207]
b of s in Iowa, and Nebraska, [207-In M
eota and elsewhere, 208](21

APPENDIX XVIII.
ACTS RELATING TO THE EGGS ............ ................................ [211]
Data as to time of batching of eggs, proportion destroyed, causes of destruc-
tion, &c., in Colorado and Dakota, [211]-In Iowa and Kansas, [212J-In
Minnesota, [213]-In Missouri and Nebraska, [216]-In Texas and Utah,
[217].
APPENDIX XIX.
EAN OF DESTRUCTION ...... ...... ...... ...... ................ ...... ..... [18]
Means employed in Dakota and Nebraska, [218]-In Iowa, [219]-In Min-




URY: CROPS AFFECTED ........................ ...... .... ...... .... .... [222]
Injury in the different States and Territories, [222]-[225].
REVIOS VISITATIONS-A OF ANIMALS........ ..........,... ......,......... ([221]





D ata from Nebraska and Iowa, [226]-From Minnesota, [227]-From Da-
ota) F 229).
s:ieip ** i *| iS ,. sjs- e j *^ *^ M t ' f
Bi'"^1!1r ^A ..ffiuuM^ x/l^l'llli j,
rr~ns^C;i jtr ^|pdai~it :^ri;a:-n ~ ~ilf ii- i~a ?-l~f L Sa~fl I Il d~iCiI LI ir 'f a







X. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX XXII.
Page.
MINNESOTA DATA -.-.-. ---...-.... -....-........ ...... .-.. *... .... [230]
Early injury in Minnesota, [230]-Data for 1877, [231]-[235].

APPENDIX XXIII.

ARE THE EGGS EVER LAID THICKLY FOR TWO CONSECUTIVE YEARS IN THE
SAME GROUND .. -.... .... ....... .... ............ [236]
Answers to the above question from Arkansas, Colorado, and Iowa, [236]-
From Kansas, [237]-From Missouri, [238]-From Minnesota, Nebraska,
and Texas, [239].

APPENDIX XXIV.
MISCELLANEOUS DATA.. ......................................-....... .... [240]
From Minnesota and Nebraska, [240]-From Iowa, [241]-From Dakota,
[242].

APPENDIX XXV.

DATA FROM DAKOTA, MONTANA,- UTAH, AND NEW MEXICO ............. .. .... [43]
From Dakota, [243]-[247]-From Montana, [248]-From Utah, [253]-
From New Mexico, [259].

APPENDIX XXVI.
LIST OF CORRESPONDENTS .---...... ...... ........... ....... ...... ....- [261]
In Arkansas, British America, and California, [261]-In Colorado and Da-
kota, [262]-In Idaho and Iowa, [263]-In Kansas, [264]-In Minnesota,
[265]-In Missouri, [267]-In Montana, [269]-In Nebraska,'Nevada, and
New Mexico, [270]-In Texas, Utah, and Washington Territory, [271]-In
Wyoming, [272].

APPENDIX XXVII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE LOCUSTS OF AMERICA .............. ............. [273]
INDEX ................................................................... [2981]
ERRATA .............. ....a.............................. [295]j
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



OFFI eO TH UNIE STATns
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES,
Wa:shigton, D. C., Febrary 2 1878.



h 1877, to report upon the depredations of the Rocky Mountain
n the W tates and Territories, and the best practicable method of pre-
venting their recurrence or guarding against their nvasions, and was attached to the
Sand graph l Survey of the Territories under my arge.
The Commissioners at once began their work upon receiving their appointments.
Several thousand lars asking for information were sent to persons in the locust
area, and two bulletina in pamphlet form were issued, one containing full Information
regding the preventive measures and direct remedies then known against the young
ate use by mers; the second containing an account of the habits




when services and observations were of most bnefit.
Ho went in April to Texas, and devoted most of the month of May to Southwest Mis-
souri and Kansas. He visited Iowa in June, examining parts of Northwest Missouri
and portions of an and Nebraka. The month of July was spent by him in Colo-
rado, and most of August and part of September in British America. In October he
again spent some time in Kansasand again visited Texas in November.
ttt for Wyoming and Utah, spending a few days in

Benton, thence down the Missouri River to Bsmarck, and through Dakota to Saint
Paul, Minn. He was, in August and September, in the Western Territories, and was in
and Nevada at the time when the people were suffering from the locusts, and
afterward made a journey through Northern California, Eastern Oregon, and Wash-
so as to ascertain the western limits of the distribution of the Rocky
Mountain locust. He, also, with the aid of observers in California, determined, with
tolerable certainty, the species which have, for two centuries past, locally ravaged
Oregon and California.
Mr. Thomas in the ravages and migrations of the locust in Iowa, Nebraska,
and Minnesota, making three different trips to the sections for this purpose.
The great practical mportance of an exhaustive study of this destructive insect
throughout all the immense extent of the locust area, which lies between the 94th and
120th meridian, embracing nearly two million square miles, may be realized from the
fact that on a careful estimate from all the data obtainable the States and Territories
lying west of the Mississippi and east of the great plains suffered by the depredations
of the locusts an aggregate los, in the destruction of crops alone, during the years
1874-77, of $100,000,000, to say nothing of the indirect loss by stoppage of business and
various enterprise, which m t have been fully as much more,thusmakingthe direct
and indirect loss not less than $ ,000,000. In addition to all this we must includeas
be frm x h






XII LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

a part of the effect of locust injuries the checking of immigration and the depreciation
in the value of lands. So depressing, in fact, was this result in some regions as to par-
alyze trade, put a stop to all new enterprises, and dishearten the communities where
the suffering was greatest. I have every evidence that the work of the Commission
already done has directly saved the small amount originally appropriated more than
a hundred fold. Besides this it was indirectly beneficial by its encouraging predictions
as to the future, which were fully verified, and by the recommendations made, which
restored a good degree of confidence and had much to do in inducing emigration west-
ward. The very encouraging conclusions of the Commission as to the prospects the
present year and for some years to come will also continue to exert a most beneficial
effect on the West. The predictions of the Commission, which are on record in the
introduction to the report, were verified to a remarkable degree, as the events of the
year proved.
When we remember that to this day comparatively little is known of the source,
movements, and management of the locusts that have for ages devastated the countries
of the Old World, our government may well feel proud of the light that in a single
year has been thrown on all these questions so far as our own destructive species is
concerned.
Still, much remains to be done by the Commission. Further surveys need to be
made of the permanent breeding-grounds in the Northwestern Territories; more facts
are needed to perfect our knowledge of the migrations in this area; the co-operation
of our government with Canada is needed to work up the subject properly in the lo-
cust region north of the United States boundary-line, and some other problems remain
to be solved. When this is accomplished I believe that it will be possible at least to
greatly modify or lessen these invasions and diminish the losses resulting therefrom,
if not entirely prevent them.
The Commission therefore ask for another appropriation of $18,000 in order to com-
plete this special investigation and to present to Congress a second and final report
that shall evince the wisdom and economy of the national government in causing th
investigation to be made, and shall bear practical results commensurate with the in-
terests to the agriculture of the West involved. It is also contemplated to spend a
portion of the time, when not in the locust area,, in studying the habits and ravages of
the cotton-worm of the Southern States. This can be done without interfering with
the locust work, provided the full amount of the appropriation asked for be made.
It is believed that all such investigations of our more injurious insects will result in
the saving of a large proportion of the annual losses to the country from insect pests,
which are estimated to amount annually to $200,000,000; and it seems prudent and
wise to take such steps as shall result in an abatement of the evil.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
F. V. HAYDEN,
United States Geologist.
Hon. CARL SCHURZ,
Secretary of the Interior.












LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.



WASHINGTN, D. C., 1, 1878.
DEAt SI: We herewith submit our first Report, to be by you transmitted to the
shows, the larger part of the summer season
Swork; yet t formed t a allpart of the labor of the
mm e m of which was muh en in attending to an extensive
orrespondence, and in conveying information to individuals seeking it. Aside from
|dthe en different parts of the Report, we have studied
t t egg tot adult, of quite a number of the more common
laoccur east of the Mississippi. The result of these studies, as also of the
imore elaborate resarcs on the embryology of the locust, have been excluded from
the present volume, in order not to delay its publication, and because they may more
appropriately be given in special memoirs.
The reation of t cial commission was but an expression of the public demand
Son the l t problem, which was to a great degree involved in dark-
Sa was clled for because it was felt how little of a
denite and satisfactory nature was generally known on the subject.
Entering the l with a fll sense of the magnitude of the work, and with some
mgiv s as to the of ii that at first
seemed insurmountable have either dwindled or entirely disappearId; and we point
with some pride to the ts and discoveries embodied n our Report.
ot ye receiving our appointments; yet witin that time
we have been able to establish the ore important laws by which the insect is gov-
erned, and to bound, with a degree of acuracy that we had scarcely dared hope for,
the permanent breednggroud whence the dsastrous warms emanate, and wich
before were almost unknown.
to crops that threatened the West at the time the
Commission was appointed was safely passed, and in the event of its recurrence we
have faith tat, as a record of what has been and a guide to what maybe done in
uture, this Report will, if judiciously distributed, enable the farmers to brave it again.
The young insects as they occur in the more fertile States affected can be mastered, as
teeport will, we hope, abundantly prove. We point out the way, also, which we have
every reason to believe will prove feasible and practicable, to prevent future incursions

While it has been the object of the Commission to cover as much ground as possible,
so as to make tis annual report as full and reliable as the time would permit, there
yet remain several important subjects that it has so far been mpossible to properly
and exhaustively study.
The territory affected is so vast, embracing about 2,000,000 square miles, that much
of it was imperfectly explored, especially in the Northwest. Mr. Riley had to cut
ort his investigations in British America both for want of time and want of funds.
For similar reasons, and on account of Indian troubles, Montana, Wyoming, and Dakota

The year 1877 was an abnormal year, 4. e., the winged insects had the previous year
overrn and laid eggs in a large section of country in which the species is not indige-
nous and a numerous progeny hatched in such country the past spring. This was
most fortunate for many reasons, and it enabled the Commission to carefully study the
zxu






XIV LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.

insects in thi t their unnatural condition, and to carry on experiments with a view of
learning how best to control them. Much of the work of the Commission was with
these young insects. The losses sustained through the devastations of the pest by a
young and struggling frontier population, ill able to bear them, were immense, and
there was so much discouragement that hundreds and thousands of persons were on
the point of abandoning their new homes. At this juncture the Commission went
into the field, and, by its encouraging predictions and recommendations, did much to
inspire the people with hope and confidence, and greatly helped to draw westward
again the emigration that had stopped.
All this work, however, interfered with needed investigation into the proper range
and native home and breeding-grounds, and some other important questions which
can only be properly studied during a normal year, i. e., one in which the insect is con-
fined to its native or permanent breeding-grounds. Such a year will be the present
(1878), for from our investigations we are able to state with confidence that the
people of the more fertile country west of the Mississippi, occasionally termed the
border States, will not be troubled with the young insects next spring and summer, and
probably not for several years to come.
It is therefore quite important that the investigations be continued until every ques-
tion is settled that human investigation can settle.
For the proper settlement of some of the questions, the co-operation of the Domin-
ion Government is desirable, and has been promised. The work should be made so
thorough as to obviate any necessity in future years of creating another commission
for the same purpose, and we are desirous of making it thus thorough.
There are various other insects of national importance of which much has yet to be
learned, and, in addition to completing the locust investigation, the Commission pro-
pose, during the coming year, with proper aid from Congress, to study and report on
some of these worst enemies of our agriculture. They are especially desirous of report-
ing on the Cotton Worm and other cotton insects of the South, which, though often
so disastrous to the cotton crop, have never been fully studied, and as to the mere
natural history of which there are yet many mysteries and conflicting theories.
Much has yet to be done in giving practical form to the conclusions arrived at and
plans proposed by the Commission, to enable the work already done to bear proper
fruit. To bring about the needed co-operation of the two governments, to cause proper
laws to be enacted in all the States interested, and to inculcate the truths that alone
will make the farmer master of the situation, is largely the work of the future.
In concluding this brief letter, permit us to sincerely thank you for your hearty co-
operation and aid, without which we should have lost much valuable time in neces-
sary work at Washington, and to which we are largely indebted for whatever success
has crowned our efforts.
We have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully,
C. V. RILEY.
A. S. PACKARD, Jn.
CYRUS THOMAS.
To Dr. F. V. HAYDEN,
United States Geologist.





*~"






\ -^ ^a











PREFACE.



Thi report is the moreimmediateresultof the first year's work of the
Commission, and is respectfully submited for the benefit of the farmers
of the West, who have so sorely suffered from the injuries inflicted by
the insect of which it treats. The Commissioners hope and believe that
ill an invuabe record, for f re reference and use, of all that



minence features of the subject most important from the
practical and economic stand-point. There is, however, matter of a
more or less scientific and technical nature invariably connected with
investigations like that we are charged with, and the report would, in our
judgment, be incomplete were such matter omitted. In order to better
enable the reader who cares little or nothing for such technical details
to pa over them, they are printed in smaller type than the text.
We have divided the locust area into three regions, which we have
called, respectively, the Permanen t, the ,sperianent, and the Temporary.
l be freqently used for the sake of precision and
concis in the body of the Report, we here call the attention of the
reader to Map 1, on which they are represented.
In order to prevent the volume from becoming too bulky, we have
een obied to shorten some of the concluding chapters, and to omit
tirel an eaborate bibliography of locust literature in other countries,
prepared for us by Mr. B. P. Man, of Cambridge, Mass., as also a de-
p on the locusts of the Pacific slope, by Mr. S. H. Scudder
Much interesting material in the form of classified replies to circulars,
detailed data used in making up the Report, and the work of special
assistants is releated to a series of appendices at the end of the volume.
These are paginated separately in brackets, with a view of hastening the
printing of the and they are arranged numercally to facili-
tt will frequently be alluded to in the
body of the work by means of corresponding numbers in parentheses.
In these appendices will also be found a list of correspondents (App. 26),
who have, in one way or another, assisted the Commission. These are
given by States, with the post-office addresses arranged alphabetically,
in order to avoid the constant repetition of full names in the different
classid r s to c. The insect drawings for the woodcuts
Slife,of them by Mr. Riley, some of them by
XV





XVI PREFACE.

Mr. J. H. Emerton, of Salem, Mass., and a few by Mr. J. S. Kingsley, of
the same place. They are generally larger than life, but the atural size
is indicated by hair-line or outline, except with such more highly mag-
nified details of special parts as have the-natural size already indicated
by the other figures. The anatomical drawings were made by Mr. Em-
erton from preparations by Mr. Packard, and the histological illustra-
tions by Mr. C. S. Minot. The lithographic plates.(I to IV) were either
drawn by Mr. Riley, or by Mr. Emerton under his direction. The dimen-
sions are expressed either in inches and the fractional parts of an inch,
or (of the more minute objects) in millimeters-1 millimeter (Immn) not
quite equaling 0.25 inch. The sign j, wherever used, is an abbreviation
for the word "male," and the sign 9 for "female." The three maps
were prepared by Mr. Packard.
The Commissioners take this occasion to thank the numerous corre-
spondents and others who have aided in the work, and to acknowledge
their indebtedness to the managers of the following railroads for the
favor of passes over their respective lines:
Southern Michigan and Lake Shore; Chicago, Rock Island and
Pacific; Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul; Western Union; North-
ern Pacific; Saint Paul and Sioux City; First Division Saint Paul and
Pacific; Saint Paul and Pacific; Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska; Sioux
City and Pacific; Chicago and Northwestern; Keokuk and Des Moines;
Des Moines and Fort Dodge; Chicago, Burlington and Quincy; Central
Railroad of Iowa; Kaansas Pacific; Kansas City, Saint Joseph and Coun-
cil Bluffs; Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf; Saint Joseph and Den-
ver; Missouri, Kansas and Texas; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe;
Burlington and Missouri River, in Nebraska; Denver and Rio Grande;
Texas and Pacific; Saint Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern; Inter-
national and Great Northern; Missouri Pacific; Saint Louis and San
Francisco; Saint Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute and Indianapolis; Ohio
and Mississippi; Illinois Central; Galveston, Harrisburg and San An-
tonio; Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston; Denver Pacific; Union
Pacific; Atchison and Nebraska.
They also take this means of acknowledging the courtesy and enour-
agement received from the executives of the several Western States
more particularly concerned, and the assistance given by the Signal
Bureau also the good services of the several special assistants em-
ployed, and particularly to Mr. Allen Whitman, of Saint Paul, Minn.,
to Prof. Samuel Aughey, of Lincoln, Nebr., and to Mr. Theo. Pergande,
who faithfully assisted in office-work at the headquarters.
' '*~ ,*y ' *i'



; *^ ..*;.r,-*










INTRODUCTION.



The njury by the Rocky Mountain locust to the agriculture, and, as
a consequence, to the general welfare of the States and Territories west
of the isiippi, had been so great during the years 1873, 1874, 185,
and 187 as to create a very general feeling among the people that
steps s be taken by Congress loking to a mitigation of an evil
which had asumed national imporfance. This feeling found expres-
sion, during the year last mentioned, in various memorials to Congress,
one of the most important and cogent of which was that from a confer-
ence of the governors of various Western States and Territories, held at
Omaha, Nebr., on the 25th and 26th of October, 1876. This memorial
prayed for the creation of a commission of five experts to thoroughly
investigate the subject, and an appropriation of $25,000.
Th United States Entomological Commission was created in pursu-
nce of an act of Congress appropriating $18,000 to pay the expenses
three skilled entomologists to be attached to Dr. F. V. Hayden's
U e StatesGoloical and Geographical Surey of the Territories, and
to reprupon Rocky ountain locusts, with a special view as to the
best practicable method of preventnting the injuries from these insects,
of guardig against their invasions. The Secretary of the Interior
p ted Mr. Charles V. iley, of Saint Louis, Mo., as chief, Mr. Cyrus
T mas, of Carbondale, Ill., a disbursing-agent, and r. A. S. Pack-
ard, jr., of Salem, Mass., as secretary. Upon receiving their appoint-
nt, the Comissioners at once met in Washington for the purpose of
organization. The following record from the minutes of this first meet-
Sid ts the scope of the work undrtaken by the Commission, and
the field which each member thereof was more particularly to occupy:
so f labor.-Voted that th locut-re be divided into tree region, to each ofwhich a Com
missioner be aigned, as follows:
o C.V.R tme regon est the Rocky Mountains and south of the 40t parallel thestern
half of Iowa, and, conjointly with Mr. Packard, Bitish America west of the 94th meridian.
To A.S. Packard, jr., Western Wyoming, Montana, Utah, Idabo, and the Pacific coast.
Thomas the portion north of Riley's region, uding the eastern alf of Wyoming, orh-
ern Colorado, the southern and eastern part of akota, Nebraka, eastern half of Iowa, and .
nesota. [Northwestern Iowa was subsequently added.]
To Mr. Riley were assigned Biology, or atural History, Invertebrate Enemies and Parasites
(Insects, &c.), Remedies and Devices for the Destruction of the Locust,
To Mr. Thomas, Geographical Distribution, Enemies not Entomological, Agricultural Bearings of
the Subject.
Td Thomas of Meteorological Phenomena with the Migrations.
It was also decided that the publications should consist of circulars,
bulletins, memoirs, and the annual report of doings and results of the
work of the, and that Mr. Riley sh Id at once prepare the
IA






2 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

bulletins, to contain a digest of the habits and best means of destroying
the locust, for immediate circulation. It was also agreed that by inter-
change of data collected and consideration of each others' work by
the Commission as a whole, the publications be made, os far as possible,
conjoint.
On the 22d of March, 1877, the preliminary plan of action was
submitted to the Secretary of the Interior, and, as it met with his
approval, the members separated to begin work in the field as quickly
as possible, since the young locusts were already hatching and doing
damage in Texas and southerly regions. It was decided to have a
merely nominal office at Washington, and that the headquarters of the
Commission should be at Saint Louis, on account of the more central
location of this city, and its greater proximity to the locust-region.
The following circulars, issued a few days afterward, explain them-
selves:
CIRCULAR No. 1.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION,

Mr.
DEAR SIR: The Commissioners are desirous of collecting, as soon as possible, all as-
certainable facts in reference to the migrations of the Rocky Mountain locust (Calop-
tenus spretus), and also regarding its appearance, habits, and devastations in your sec-
tion.
We present below a series of topics upon which we shall be glad to receive data
from your locality. We expect you to dwell only on those topics upon which you have
positive information, and shall be glad to receive any facts or views not suggested by
this circular. Some of the subjects cannot be reported on till toward the approach of
winter, while others can be considered earlier. In responding, therefore, we ask our
correspondents to couple their answers with the number of the circular and of the
inquiry.
We shall be glad to receive and will determine any of the different species of lo-
custs that occur in your locality, and particularly specimens of their different para-
sites and natural enemies. These are best forwarded by mail, packed in cotton, moist-
ened with alcohol, and placed in secure tin or wooden boxes. Living specimens may
be sent in tin boxes, and are preferred, where they will not be too long on the way.
The inquiries have reference more particularly to the present year 1877, and when
facts are communicated that have reference to other years, correspondents will please
be careful to specify the particular year.
The Commissioners will refund whatever expense may be incurred for postage in re-
plying to this circular, or in forwarding specimens, should correspondents so desire.
Copies of documents published by the Commission will be sent to correspondents
who forward data in accordance with this request. Communications may be sent to
either of the Commissioners.
CHAS. V. RILEY.
A. S. PACKARD, J .
CYRUS THOMAS&
TOPICS ON WHICH DATA ARE REQUESTED.
1. Date and time of day of the arrival of swarms.
la. Direction and force of the wind at the time.
lb. Temperature and character of the weather at the time (clear or cloudy).
lc. Direction of the flight, density, height, and extent of the swarms.






ORGANI TION OF THE COMMISSI 3ON.

Dat and time of day of the departure of warms.
a. Direction and force of the wind at the time.
2b. Temperature and character of the weather at the time.
Direction of the fht, denty, and extent of the swarms.
SDat when the first eggs, if any, were deposited the present year.
Date when the e were most numerously hatching the present year.
Date when the egs were n umerously hatching in pre ous years.
6. Proportn of that failed to atch the present year, and probable causes of
such failure.
7. Nature of the soil and situations in which the eggs were most largely deposited.
8. Nature of the soil and situations in which the young were mcst numerously
batched.
9. Date at which the first insect acquired full wings.
10. awhen the winged insects frst began to migrate.
1. Estimate the Injury do in your county and State.
12. Crops which suffered most.
13. Crops most easily protected.

15. The prevailing direction in which the young insects traveled, and any other
fact. in relation to the marnchig of the young.
The employed in your section for the destruction of the unfledged insec s,
or to protect crops from their ravages, and how far these proved satisfactory.
17. The means employed in your section for the destruction of the winged insects,
or toprotect crops from their ravages, and how far these have proved atisfactory.
18. Descriptions if possible, figures of such mechanical contrivances as have
prod useful in your loality for the destruction of either the young or the winged
insects.
19. If your section was not visited in 1876, please tate this fact.
20. If visited any previous years, please give the dates.
1. To what extent have birds, domestic fowls, and other animals, domestic or wild,
been useful in destroying these insects.
Sthe ratio of prairie to timber in your ction or in your county.
S all you know about the habits of the young or full-grown insects during
the night,and e ally whether ou have er kno th to arch or continue to fly after

24. The amount of damage to fruit and shade trees, and the most satisfactory means
employed in your section to protect them.

CIRCULAR No. 2.

Mr. r Louis, Mo., 187 .

EAR SR: With a view of securing c-peration, and of obtaining data in the par-
ticar divis s of the subject assigned to e, I beg leave to call your attention more
ary to the following topis, and ask your careful consideration of the same:
SNATURA ITORY.- e natral hitory of the species has been already pretty
thoroughly studied, so far as the development from the egg to the mature insect is con-
cYet I sall be ge you communicate any facts or observations in your
possession that you believe to be new or unrecorded. As to the habits of the species,
room for fresh atons, as the habits vary somewhat with locality,,
ta~ st es have ben mstly mae in M i and Kansas. I would direct






4 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

your attention, therefore, under this head, more particularly to topics 12, 13, 14, and
15, of Circular No. 1, or, crops which suffr most; crops most easily proteted; crops which
suffer least; and the prevailing direction in which the young insects travel in your section, or
any other facts in relation to the marching of the young. Also, I desire all observations
that are at all reliable as to the habits of both the young and the winged insects during the
night, especially as to whether the latter have ever been known to continue fying after dark.
While there may be little to add to what is now known of the natural history and
habits of the Rocky Mountain locust (Caloptenus spretus Thomas), with which the
Commission is more particularly concerned, there is much of interest yet to learn of
the other species of locusts that are indigenous in your locality, and are often con-
founded with the spretus. Any facts as to the habits, time and mode of depositing eggs,
state in which the winter is passed, time of acquiring wings, or, in short, any observations
upon the native species, and more particularly those that are injurious, are earnestly
desired by me. The observations should, as far as possible, be accompanied by speci-
mens, and, indeed, I shall be glad to receive specimens of the different locusts or
grasshoppers from your locality in different stages of growth. They may be killed
either by dipping in hot water, by means of a little chloroform, or by throwing in alco-
hol; and should be mailed to me in stout wooden or tin boxes, packed in coarse saw-
dust or cotton previously moistened with alcohol. Living specimens, which are pre.
ferred, are best sent in tight tin boxes along with a small amount of apprpriate food.
II. INSECT ENEMIES AND PARASITES.-These will differ also, according to locality,
and I shall be glad to receive specimens of all invertebrate animals that may be found
preying either internally or externally on the locusts. Such specimens, when soft or
small, are best preserved in alcohol, and mailed between two layers of cotton thor-
oughly saturated with alcohol, in a small and tight tin box. When larger they may
be mailed as already indicated above. I respectfully solicit answers to the following
questions:
1. What invertebrate animals are known to attack the locust-eggs in your locality, and
to what extent have they destroyed the same?
2. What insect enemies attack, first, the young; second, the winged locusts; and
what percentage of these have been destroyed by them ?
3. State any facts that you know about the habits and transformations of the diff.r-
ent parasites or other enemies observed.
III. REMEDIEs.-Under this head I desire general reports on topics 16 and 17 of Cir-
cular No. 1. First, as to the means employed in your section for the destruction of the
unfledged insects, or to protect crops from their ravages, and how far such means have
proved satisfactory; second, the means employed against the winged insects, and how
far they have proved satisfactory.
I would more particularly call your attention to the following points:
4. Has any application, either in powder or liquid, been used that protected special
plants from locust ravages without injuring the plant?
5. Has harrowing of the eggs in the fall been resorted to, and with what effect; or
have any other means been employed to expose or break open the egg-masses?
6. Where satisfactory results have followed the plowing under of the eggs, state
the time of year of such plowing, the depth, and the nature of the soil.
7. Where ditching has been resorted to to protect fields from the inroads of the un-
flgeged locusts, state the measure of success, the nature of the soil, and the character,
particularly as to the depth and width, of the ditch.
If any measures not recommended by the Commission in its bulletins are or have
been adopted, please specify them.
If you desire to test any special measure involving expense, where such test seems
warranted by possible practical results, please correspond with me for further advice
.and instruction.
TV. DEVICES FOR DESTRUCTION.-Under this head I desire reorts as to the effiency






CIRULARS ENT OUT. 5

and usefines of ch machines or other mechanical contrivances as have been tried
and used in your section. Where any machine has proed useful desire to obtain
ptio f the same, and, where e, illtrations. Where such
have not already been drawn up or made, I will cooperate with inventors in getting
o where it s thouht desiral So far as tm will permit, I shall u-
e to personally examine and test suh contrivances, and will assist to a full trial
of any inventor who communicates his plans.
Copies of documents published by the Commissio will be sent to correspondents who
forward data in accordance with these requests.
I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
CHAS. V. RILEY.

Some tional qutions were sent out with Circular No. 1 by Mr.
Thomas, and among them the following:
Fur copies of all the records you can obtain, which were ade at the time of the
of the grhoppe whether written or printed.
State all you may know in reference to eggs hatching in the fall.
What plants cultivated or wild, appear to be preferred by the young, and what by
the full-grown insectsf
What plants, ltivated or wild, appear to be least relished
to what extent the invading swarms have been observed to injure the native
gand to what extent the young have been observed to injure them.
Whatanmals, such as quadrpeds, birds, and reptiles, have been observed feeding
upon the young or full-grown insects or their eggs
State what for destroying the eggs have been tried, and how far they have
proved effectual.
State theratio of prairie timber in yor section.
ate l y k i r to the habits of the young or grown insects during
the night; where they remain, whether they ever march, contnue to fly, eat, &c.
At what rate do s s move during flight
Mr. Packard also issued a special ircular, requesting, in addition to
information sought by Circular 1, special information west of the
mountains, as follows:
CIRCULAR No. 3.
SALEM, MASS., My 15,1877.
SSIR: In behalf the United States Entomolgical Commission I ask your aid
in studying he habits, distribution, and extent of damage done, in past years as well
sthe pst, y the locust or destructive pper, the department of the locust-
area assigned to me,i.e., Montana, Idaho Western Wyoming, Utah, Oregon, Washing-
ton Territory, and California.
The ain breeding-places of the locusts visiting the border States are situated in the
Information is especially desired concerning the breeding of locusts in the
aroundthe Blk Hills, especially to the east and north; also in the val-
ley of the Platte, Yellowstone, Upper Missouri, Snake, and Columbia Rivers, and
especially the treeless plains of Eastern Oregon and the eastern portion of Washing-
Territory. The invading Utah former years are supposed to have come
from the Snake Valley to the northwest and north.
The said Territores particularly Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Eastern Washing-
r are so thlyttlethat it will be diffiult for me to obtain the post-
e address of those t willing to co-operate with the Commission if they
our These andother publications of the Co
toin part or wholly the questions appended to
thisirlar. Posmasters and others receivig this circular are respectfully requested






REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

to send the address of any one who they think would thus co-operate with the Com-
mission.
While locusts have not seriously ravaged the Pacific coast sitce 1855, it is very desir-
able for the Commission to ascertain whether it is the Rocky Mountain locust or some
other species of grasshopper which has periodically devastated the coast for nearly
two centuries past. For this purpose specimens from all parts of the States of Cali-
fornia, Nevada, and Oregon, and Arizona and Washington Territories, are earnestly
desired.
Please, therefore, send me specimens of any destructive grasshopper, as well as
samples of all the different kinds of grasshoppers and crickets, their eggs, young, and
parasites, in your town or county, so that I may be sure which species is referred to in
your communication. They may be killed by hot water or soaked in alcohol a few
hours, dried and packed between papers, in cotton or sawdust, in strong wooden or tin
boxes, and mailed to me at Salem, Mass. It would be well also to keep a bottle of
alcohol or whisky on hand into which specimens could be thrown from time to time.
The bottle could be carefully packed and sent, at the end of the season, by express, to
the headquarters of the Commission at Saint Louis, Mo.
Please inclose in all parcels and bottles a label giving date, town, county, and State
or Territory, the name of collector, written with a black-lead pencil on stout letter-
paper. Postage will, of course, be refunded, if desired. Trusting to receive your
hearty co-operation in the objects of the Commission,
I remain, your obedient servant,
A. S. PACKARD, JR.,
Secretary United States Entomological Commission.

Has your section ever been visited by invading swarms of grasshoppers? If so, name
the years.
Please furnish copies of all the records you can obtain which were made at the time
of the visitations of the grasshoppers, whether written or printed.
As will be seen by the classified replies in the appendix, much valuable
information was obtained by means of the first general circular, but
scarcely any on the special points in the others. This was to be ex-
pected, as the average farmer is in no position to carry out special
investigations, which for their satisfactory completion require time,
training, and proper appliances.
It is our intention, in this connection, to give a brief history of our
field-work and of the locust phenomena of the season, but for full details
regarding the year's occurrences in the different States the reader is
referred to the chapter on chronology and to the appendices.
As will appear in the chapter just referred to, locust-eggs had been
laid in 1876 over an extensive area, roughly defined by drawing a line
from Breckenridge to Cheyenne, thence to the Taos Valley, thence to
Houston, thence to Saint Paul, the eastern line deflecting westward in
Missouri and Kansas. They were most thickly laid east of the 100th
meridian, and the gravest apprehensions were naturally felt as to the
injury that would result in the spring of 1877. The examination eggs
from time to time during the winter, from different parts of the area
just defined, made it quite certain, as spring approached, that the ma-
jority of them would hatch; and as already intimated, the young
insects were doing much injury in southerly regions by the time the
Commission was created. Mr. Riley visited Texas in April, when the

ftal






OTLOOK IN SPRING IN TEXAS, ARKANSAS, MISSOURI. 7

o tswere doing their greatest damage, or just as the bulk of them
were reaching the pupa state around Denison and Dallas, and the winged
nsetad commened to fly from the more southern parts. About
damage was done to ung cotton, but here and
t Galv n the country is devoted largely to grazing and was not so
ly About Hutchins the farmers dpaired of saving
anything, and many fine settlements along the Texas Central and along
the Gal vestou, Harrisbur and San Antonio Railways suffered severely.
Around San Antonio large numbers of the insects were found by Mr.
J. Boll, of Dallas, whom we employed as special assistant, and whose
port, with other details fro this State, will be found in the appendix.
(App. 3.&)
Having during the winter, as entmolMgist of the State, thoroughly
familiarized himself with the extent and condition of the eggs in South-
west Missouri, he spent but a brief period there early in the month; and
while there was slight damage "in spots," the country suffered far les
fom the young insects than it had the previous autumn from their
winged parents. (See App. 4.) The only counties in which the insects
atched at all in Missouri were: 1st, Athison and Holt, and the western
half of Nodaway and Andrew, in the extreme northwest corner. 21,
McDonald, Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, Barton, Dade, Newton, Cedar,
Vernon, mor particularly in the southwest alf; Polk in the northwest
third; and Hickory in the southwest third.
What is true of Missouri is also true of the limited area in the north-
wet corner of Arkansas; and while Mr. Riley had no time to visit
ton Cout, where th es had been most thickly laid, reports
showed that the injury from the young insects was trifting. In passing
throgh Indian Territory, along the M., & T. Railroad, no damage
was no ; and though the winged insects were thick enough in the
tory to render travel on orseback disagreeable the previous
autumn, wild prairie and timber and grazing land so predominate over
the cultivated area that the damage can never be great.
During the end of April and the early part of May, Mr. Riley was
i the field in Kansas, traveling over the southeastern couties with
Gvernor Anthony and Mr. A. S. Johnson of the Atchison, Topeka
Santa 6 Railroad He found the people determined to resist
te emy, and in many c s well prepared and organized to do so.
nted, with co-operation of the governor, who partly de-
d tr exp to asstants in this State, viz, Mr. A. N. God-
M hat and Mr.F Gauer, of Lawrence. Their reports,
with other data (App. 5), together with the following letters, will convey
a correct idea of the condition of things in this State at the time:
STATE oF KANsAs, EXEcuTIVE DEPARTMENT,
Topeka, May 5,1877.
o o o me join you in your tour of observation through the
I in the rets of your examination, and have
to urge on you the imortance Of aSSig over as reat a breadth of territory as






8 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

possible in the time you can give to this State. I desire from yo, for publication, a
statement of the true condition and prospects as you find them.
I have feared that the reports of addled eggs and disappearing insects are ased ou
hope instead of facts. If so, they cannot fail to work injury by quieting the people
with belief in a false security. If the eggs in the soil are still unhatched and in a
condition to produce in destructive numbers when the weather is propitious, it is far
better that the people know the worst and prepare for it without delay.
I am satisfied that a determined and systematic effort will -exterminate the locust
and save our growing crops, even if the worst be true as to the present hatching, An
organization under the township law, or unanimity of volunteer action, with the means
now known to be effective in the destruction of these insects, cannot fail of substantial
success.
To this end I hope you will favor me with a full report of your tour of observation.
together with such suggestions as to mode and time of destroying the locust, as your
observation and experience shall warrant. This statement from you will be accepted
as authentic by the great majority of our people, and will allay fear if there is no
danger, and awaken to action if a pending peril exists.
Very respectfully,
GEO. T. ANTHONY,
Governor of Kansas.
Prof. C. V. RILEY,
Chief of United States Entomological Commission, Emporia, Kans.
SALINA, KAS., May 10, 1877.
MY DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 5th instant is before me. I am entirely of your
opinion as to the importance of getting at the real facts and prospects in connection
with locust ilnjury. The dispatches to our papers are so often colored in the interest
of land-owners, and loan and real-estate agents, that the community at large places but
small reliance on them. It is, moreover, the avowed policy of many journals to sup-
press the truth about locust troubles, under the mistaken notion that such suppression
benefits; whereas no policy is more injurious to a community in the end.
In the present instance the favorable reports are, in the main, warranted; and there
is no doubt in my mind that throughout the larger part of Kansas the battle is already
fought, and the future injury must be comparatively trifling. For nearly three weeks
I have been traveling and observing in Texas and Southeastern Kansas, and feel safe
in making the above statement for that part of your State which I have visited.
Throughout the locust-area of the State south of the Kansas Pacific Railroad-which area
includes most of the region bounded on the east by a line running from a little west of
Lawrence toward Fort Scott, and on the west by another passing up through Hutchinson
and Ellsworth-the eggs are laid in sufficient quantities to have given birth to locusts
enough to have eaten everything green by the time they attained full growth, under con-
ditions favorable to them. Many of the eggs were destroyed by the Anthomyia egg-par-
asite, and the other enemies described in my writings. Some of them hatched in the Fall,
and many more during the warm weather of the latter part of January and fore part
of February. The insects thus hatched perished. The bulk of the eggs hatched
during the last week of March and the early part of April. The young insects were very
thick then; they commenced to do injury and begat general fear. The farmers for
the most part fought them with energy. Then followed, from the middle of April on,
a period of cold and wet weather. The enemy rapidly weakened and was from all
quarters reported as disappearing.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE YOUNG.
In every part of the State which I have visited, and where I have examined carefully
the condition of things, the young locusts have very largely, in some instances totally,
disappeared; and I now have no doubt whatever that the reports of such disapear-
ance that are so general throughout the entire portion of the State that was threat-
ened, have their foundation in fact. Thi disappearance is enerally attributed to






STATE OF THINGS IN KANSAS IN MAY. 9

death anl dissolutin from the cold and wet weather that followed the principal batch-
ing. That this weather has been instrumental in causing death among the
hop g ps I e no bt, because ar always a certain portion just hatched
Sj which are particularly tender and susceptible to the injurious effects
of cl renching rins. But they have beenow dyiying fat during the
warm and nny her, and these dead isects are not parasitized, but simply
sIn my last (ninth) report made to the State of Msouri, in stating the
auses that might diminish the prospective injury, I wrote:
Smay expect that, as compared with 1875, a larger proportion of the
that will ath in will be weaklyand soon perish. There is a
bre possibility that, after the bulk of the young have hatched, and before they have
commenced to do serious harm, we may have such unseasonably cold and wet weather
as to kill them by myrids, and effectually weaken ther power for injury.
Both possibilities have become actualites.
It is a singularfact, however, that notwithstanding the large numbers which hatched,
o o been able to discover the dead carasses of these disappearing locusts in
anything like the numbers necessary to account for the disappearance; and, in most
ns where dead have been reported to me, an examinatio at once showed
that the parties had mistaken therefor the evi or empty skins of those which had
molted; which akin. are always abundant under straw or weeds, or at the base of a
w tool, where the young insects congregate when undergoing their molts.
The youn lo t posses remarkable tenacity of life, and the fact that the bulk of
those grem are in the third stage (i ., have molted twice) and must have batched
the unfavorable weather set in, is in itself enough to show that other factors
than those meteorological have entered largely into the problem of disappearance.
The principal of these I will briefly enmerate, be unlike meteorological or
cimatic influences, they may, most of them, be relied upon in future, are largely
within man's control, and may even be rendered still more eff etive. They are, in
hort, elements of certainty in the problem of locust destruction.
First. The natural Enemies of the Locuet.-These cosist in the present instance (the
parsites not afcting it till It gets older) of the vertebrate animals which are known
to feed upon it, such as snakes, gophers, field-mice, &c., and birds. These last have
been more efficient than most of us imagine, and I never saw blackbirds, plover, &c.,
: numerous. Their dung often whitens the ields where the locusts were once thick,
a they have been the principal cause of the latter's disappearabce. The prolonged
col and wet retarded the development of the insects, benefited the wheat, and gave
our f ered friends an excellent opportunity to check them. We should employ all
meas to ee the multiplication of the birds.
Second. The Farmern.-In most parts of the State I have traversed, the farmers had
determned from the beginning to make war, and they did make war, and so success-
ly that the nsects were pretty effectually destroyed before the cold and wet oc.
cu The means employed were mostly k erosene-pans and burning-over 700 kero-
sene-pans having been made at Salina alone.
Third. The eath.-The continued cold after the principal hatching had the effect,
as stated, to kill may that were just hatching or molting. The heavy rains
ed many away nto the streams, and in some intances in soils which contain
sad and lime, and which are liable to crack when dry, the rains doubtless covered up
and killed such as were sheltering in such fissures.
Fourth. Cliat e ft tt the insects, especially after the second and third
olt are dying,is simply confirmatory of the views I have always held and adl-
vanced, that the species of its natural habitat, and can never permaently thrive
here. These views I need not now repeat at length. While the number that have
t b e sickly and did hae not so far begun to compare with those which have
the other mentioned, it will doubtless continue to increase as
t larger, for already they show a tendency to unnaturally group together
during the heat of the day and feed much less ravenously than when in perfect health.






10 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

EXTENT OF THE FAVORABLE STATE OF THINGS.
Such are the generally favorable conditions throughout the area which I have al-
ready mentioned, and of which alone I can speak with assurance How far the same
conditions prevail north of the Kansas Pacific, and in the other States threatened, I
cannot positively tell yet; but similar reports of disappearance are very general, and
I am strongly of the opinion that we shall have a repetition of the comparative harm-
lessness of 1867.
VIGILANCE STILL NECESSARY.
I am the last to desire that this favorable report should lull your farmers into an
undue sense of security. The security against injury will depend altogether on the
proportion of eggs which have hatched. Thus in the more sandy belt west of a line
roughly drawn through Junction City and Florence, not one per cent. of the eggs re-
main unhatched; while east of that line, where the eggs were laid later and the soil is
mostly colder and more tenacious, from one-half to three-fourths of them are yet un-
hatched, and, with few exceptions, sound. In the former area a few fields may suffer,
especially along the river-courses, but there will be no general destruction; in the lat-
ter the injury may yet be great, and should be provided against.
REMEDIES.
[Here followed a summary of remedies.]
CONCLUSION.
I have endeavored in the above hurried notes to comply with your request, and have
necessarily left much of interest unsaid. Altogether, the prospect is much brighter
than I had dared to hope. There is some apprehension from the winged insects that
have been for some time leaving Texas, where little was done to fight the pest, and
where much injury has occurred in spots, particularly from Denison southwest-
wardly. But in passing from the south, the injury done by the winged insects is never
materially felt. They are unhealthy and less voracious, and the crops are well ad-
vanced. They also pass mostly over the western part of your State. Permit me to
remark, in conclusion, that I have met with few persons who do not feel that if taken
in time the young insects are easily mastered and need cause little alarm in future-
a fact which I have long since insisted on, and which is generally admitted by all who
have had experience. When the locust-scourge is fully understood, and the farmers
unite in determined effort to counteract it, it will cease to be so much of a bugbear,
and no longer interfere with the settlement of the' beautiful and productive western
plains which it visits at irregular intervals.
I have the honor to remain, yours, truly.
C. V. RILEY.
GEO. T. ANTHONY,
Governor of the State of Kansas.
We are under sincere obligations not only to Governor Anthony who
so materially assisted us, but, among many others, to Mr. Alfred Gray,
secretary of the State board of agriculture, for repeated favors and co-
operation.
During the latter half of April and first part of May Mr. Thomas
visited Minnesota, Northwestern Iowa, and Nebraska, devoting his
attention at this time chiefly to an examination of the egg-deposits, the
condition of the eggs, and the indications where the young were hen
hatching out. He also at this time made arrangements throughout the
various sections of these States and Dakota with local observers, who
were to note all important facts in their respective sections relating to
the locusts, and report from time to time. Mr. Allen Whitman. of Saint






iSTATE OF THINGS IN MINNESOTA. 11

vi y been employed by the State of Minnesota to
report upon the history, habits, and injuries of the Rocky Mountain
n that tate, was engage as assistant for that portion of the
distrit. Prof. Samuel Aughey, of the State Uiversity at Lincoln,
was engage as a at for that portion of the district. The valuable
aid furnished by these two assistants will be shown byeference to their
eports which will be found partly in the appendix (Apps. 1, 2 and 8) and
partly incorporated in the text.
While in Minnesota Mr. Thomas prepared and issued the additional
questions heretofore allded to. e was al called upo to give his
opinion n reference to the prospects of the season, and, gloomy as these
appead at the time, he did not hesitate to state as his conviction in
various publications that the end of the trouble was drawing near. The
executive of this State, Governor Pillsbury, entered eartily into the
work of the Commission, giving it every encouragement and assistance
in his power.
The fllowing extract fro a letter of Mr. Thomas's, published at the
me in the Chicago Inter-Ocean, will give an idea of the locuststatus
as nderstood at that time in Minnesota and Dakota:
I have just visited the southwestern part of Minnesota, spending a short time in
making inquiries and examinations in a few of the counties pposed to contain the
vi deposits of eggs. In some localities, where the eggs were observed in great
umbelast fall, but few were to be found in these places, as a general rule. I ob-
served in considerable numbers certain coleopterous, hymenopterous, and dipterous
lari known as locust-egg destroyers. In other places, but a few miles distant, eggs
were found in abndance, and mostly sound. The information, so far as ascertained
nce to this portion of Minnesota, agre in the main with these observations,
and thus explains the apparently confiing reports received. Thes fact render it
probable that, while it is true as a general rule that the locusts will hatch out over
the greater portion of Southwestern Minnesota, yet many loalities will be compara-
tively free from the young; in other words, the hatching will be uneven throughout
this sec and wil not be in proportion to the umber of eggs deposited.
The bounty law will probably prove inoperative in the wort-infeted conties, as
he cti of these counties feel certain it will entail a det upon them which will
require to pay; hence they will not avail themselves of its provisions.
Hatching has already commenced as far north as Nicollet County, in the warmer sit-
tions, and as I southwest on the Saint Paul and Sioux City Road, I noticed
Sprairies in every direction were burning, for the purpose of destroying the young

Several of the counties of this section lying near and along the western boundary
Sthe i Sate will probably escape serious jury, as but few eggs have been deposited
n them. The young have hatched out in considerable numbers around Sioux City,
ut how far this ex s northwest and southeast in this area I am unable to say from
ve ation. have appeard in the extreme souteast of Dakota, but
all I can learn tory not likely to have any cosiderable portion of its

D visit to Nebraska the severe cold storm of the
lattepart of April and he was enabled to note carefully its
.effect upon the eggs and young which were then hatching out quite
-numerously.






12 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

His second visit was in June, at which time the insects had advanced
in some sections of his district to the pupa state, and at what may be
designated as the critical period so far as this section was concerned.
The result of Mr. Thomas's visit to Nebraska at this time will be best
shown by the following report made by him and Professor Aughey to
the executive of that State, Governor Garber. to whom we are likewise
greatly indebted for aid and encouragement in our work in Nebraska.
We quote from the Omaha Republican of June 36, 1877, in which the
report was first published:
In response to the request of Governor Garber and a number of citizens of Nebraska,
Professors Thomas and Aughey have prepared a statement giving the results of their
personal examinations of those portions of Nebraska in which the grasshoppers depos-
ited their eggs last fall. The statement embraces information covering every such lo-
cality; and in their letter to Governor Garber, transmitting their report, Professors
Thomas and Aughey state as their general conclusion that although the locusts re-
main in limited areas in the eastern counties, the prospects in Nebraska are even more
flattering than the most hopeful of your citizens anticipated a month ago."
THE REPORT.
Our examinations cover the greater part of the settled portion of the State, and have
been made over quite an extensive area in person. From the other sections, which we
have not been able to visit, we have obtained, within the last few days, direct and
positive information which we are satisfied is correct. We have made it a point to
visit in person the areas supposed to be the worst infested, and have not conntnted our-
selves with inquiries at these points, but have gone out on the farms in order to see
for ourselves the actual condition of affairs in this respect. Before mentioning any of
the details we may state, as
THE GENERAL RESULT OF OUR EXAMINATIONS,
First. That the eggs have been nearly or quite all hatched out; at least, so few re-
main unhatched that it is wholly unnecessary'to consider them in this report.
Secondly. That the locusts which hatched out in the sections west of the meridian
of Lincoln have died off to such an extent that but few remain, not enough at any
pont, so far as we have observed or could ascertain, to do any'injury to the crops.
Thirdly. The only section in which we find them in numbers sufficient to give any
uneasiness is the eastern tier of counties lying along or near the Missouri River; and
although found somewhat numerously in certain areas in this section, their numbers
are much less than the most hopeful of your citizens anticipated a few weeks ago.
Even these have done but little injury to crops up to the present time, and seem to
have lost their usual ravenous appetites and vitality. In fact, scarcely an injured
field can be observed in a day's ride through the sections where they are considered
most numerous. We have traveled through these areas with persons from States east
of the Mississippi, visiting Nebraska with a view of locating here or examining the
lands, and without exception they have expressed surprise at the uninjured condition
of the crops after the alarming reports they have heard.
Fourthly. In those sections where they yet remain, not only are they far less active
than usual, but as a rule they are confined to very small areas irregularly distributed;
or, as generally and correctly expressed by the farmers, "they are in spots." In such
places the farmers are generally fighting them vigorously and with every prospt of
success, and we are glad to say that they are, with few exceptions, hopeful and confi-
dent that they will suffer but little less. As a general rule, we find the farmers confi-
dent that in the future they will be fully able to cope with the young. In some places
precautionary and defensive measures have been neglected until the locusts have ad-
vanced to a size at which it is more diffcult to destroy them. A few of the early hatch
ing, where any of them remain, are already entering the winged state.






OUTLOOK IN NEBRASKA IN JUNE. 13

In lookig over the tate, there re, as a whole, we feel fully warranted in saying
tat, so far as the yong locusts batched out this season are concerned, the danger has
passed, and the citizens need not remain in uncertainty any longer. We are satisfied
that the los from their depredations, as compared with the whole crop, pill be so
mathatitseffect pon the State will not be felt. This opinion we believe will be
fUy borne out by the summary of fact hereafter stated.
"1* *
THE PRESENT DISTRIBUTION.
Although the locusts hatched out quite numerously in various localities, as far west
as the west line of the egg-deposit, they have almost entirely disappeared from all
parts west of the meridian of Lincoln; and even east of that there are large areas in
which there are none to be found, or at least so few that the farmers apprehend no
daner whatever from them. Even in the sections where the are considered the most
numeros, up to the present they have been limited to isolated spots. An examination
made at one of the worst infeste spots showed that the number of acres over which
they then spread as compared with the number of acre in cultivativaton was so limited
that it was evident that, with a reasonable effort, their destruction might be rendered
certain. It s true that enough might hatch out on five acres to overrun and destroy
the crops on one hundred and sixty acres if the season should favor them, and no
effort be made to destroy them; but, at the same time, it is equally true that if all on
the five acres are destroyed before they spread, the rest of the one hundred and sixty
acres, at least, will be saved.
MIGRATING SWARMS FROM THE SOUTH.
That a fw swarms from the south have recently passed over the western part of the
State, going north, s ndoubtedly true. So far but few, if any, have come down in
the settled districts, and have done no injury whatever. Heretofore the swarms moving
from the south ward toward their nive habitat have not, so far as we are aware,
done any njury n this State. We do not apprehend any damage from them; in fact,
this is precisely what the commission anticipated and predicted, and is one of the
strongest possible corroborations of the theory that they can never tecome permanent
residents of this part of the Mississippi Valley. And we may as well reaffirm in this
connection our oft-repeated conviction, from what we know of the history and habits
of this species, that it is impossible for it ever to become a permanent resident of these
border States, and hence that the race must run out here, and that it can only be
continued by repeated nvasions from its native habitat in the far northwest or Rocky
Mountain region. This disposition to return also confirms our repeated assertions that
it can never progress eastward as did the potato-beetle; that its line of eastern progress
s as frmly fixed by climatic and physical causes as though its way were barred by
some insurmountable barrier. We therefore maintain that the people of these States
ought to confide in these conclusions of science which have been so sigually borne out
by the facts.

CONCLUSION.
In concluding this brief and hasty report, we have only to repeat what we have
already said-that we consider the dager from the young which have hatched out this
season in Nebraska over, and that this part of the problem is solved. We also believe
that the long eres ita has come to a close. There may be, and doubtless
will be, at rregular periods, visitations by migrating swarms, but it is Dnot at all likely
that the present generation will witness another such a serie s as that which has just
paed. We append hereto, as a part of this report, a brief account of the means of
destroying the young and unfledged locusts which we have just issued in the form of


CYRUS THOMAS.
SAMUEL AUGHEY.






14 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

At this time a special "bulletin for Nebraska," giving a condensed
account how to deal with the insect, was issued and distributed not
only in that State, but also in Northern Iowa.
From May 26th to the 28th the Commission met at Saint Louis for the
transaction of business and the perfecting of plans for the future.
During the month of June Mr. Riley was most of the time in the field
in the southern part of Iowa, touching also points in Nebraska and Kan-
sas meanwhile. He would here acknowledge his obligations to the ex-
ecutive of the State, and to the professors at the agricultural college at
Ames, for aid and encouragement.
The following letter will prove a record of the situation in this State
up to the time it was written, while later occurrences are given else-
where (Chapter 1, App. 6):
ATCHISON, KANS., June 20, 1877.
Sim.: In accordance with your request and my promise, I herewith transmit a brief
summary of my examinations, during the past fortnight, in reference to locust injury
in the western part of Iowa, south of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway.
The rains, during most of the time, have been so severe and heavy as to render travel
across the country often unpleasant and difficult; yet I have managed to examine the
condition of things at many points along the Chicago and Northwestern from Council
Bluffs to the eastern limit of the locust region in Story County; thence across to the
Chicago and Rock Island; thence along the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, and
across the country from Malvern in Mills County, southwardly. Stopping at these
points and pushing out to those farms where the insects were reported most numerous,
and having reports from many points not visited, my conclusions are drawn with assur-
ance, and, though favorable, are, if anything, not sufficiently so.
PURPOSE OF THE VISIT.
My examinations were partly in furtherance of the plan of the Commission to visit
personally and collect the varied experiences of every State and Territory within the
locust range; partly to ascertain the real prospects, and to encourage the farmers and
disseminate information among them, where such work was necessary.
NO MORE EGGS TO HATCH.
A few straggling eggs were hatched as late as a week ago; but none now remain to
hatch except a few from indigenous species.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE YOUNG.
As elsewhere over the threatened region, the eggs were exceedingly numerous, and
the young locusts hatched in April in such numbers, and began their work of destrac-
tion with such vigor, that the greatest apprehension was felt. They soon began to dis-
appear, however, and this disapp earance was due to the same causes enumerated some
five weeks ago in my letter to Governor Anthony, of Kansas, reviewing the condition,
and prospects at that time in that State. Summarized, they may be stated as follows:
The weather.-The continued cold and heavy rains after the principal hatching de-
stroyed immense numbers. I have known them washed into the Des Moines River so
as to form a putrefying scum two inches thick. The farmer owes the salvaton of his
crops largely to this cause.
Climate.-An inherent tendency to disease in the species when in this part of the
country has made it most susceptible to the adverse weather, and carried off a large
proportion. This is an exemplification of the views constantly urged by me.
Natural enemic.-It is a general law that in proportion as a specie becomes unduly
and excessively multiplicd its natural enemies correspondingly increase. The abund-






OUTLOOK IN IOWA IN JUNE. 15

ane of lo t and of its eggs during the last few years east of the Rocky Mountains
Sgiven all loct-feeding animals a bountiful supply of food. They have, therefore,
not only thriven and multiplied, but many which do not normally feed upon the insect
have acquired the habit. In Iowa, as elsewhere, these natural enemi es-epecially in-
setivoro bird-have done exceptionally good work; a worinrthered by the weather,
which retarded and redered very irregular the development of the insect.
T-Who have been better organized and more determined to make war,
and who have used better means and methods than in former years.
GENERAL SURVEY OF THE FIELD.
As you are probably aware, the locusts reached the farthest east along the line of the
Chicago and Northwestern, and the egg-deposit receded from Story County southwest-
wardly. Throught the northern and eastern portion of this area the damage has
been so trifling that it is scarcely worth mentioning. The corn, from too much cold
and wet, is backward, and the weeds have on all low land got an unfavorable start of
the cultivator; much of it also rotted and necessitated replanting; but the spring
wheat ( wheat is too apt to spring-kill and is uncertain) and other small grain could
not well look better. The greatest injury has been south and west, along the Missouri
and along the Wahabon cey. As a general thing, the injury has been greatest along
streams, where the insects hatched later and obtained greater protection from cold or
storm. In these less-favored parts, however, there is no single farm that presents the
desolate aspect so general two years ago. In restricted spots the insects are quite
thick, and have done blight injury, but in a general way the prospects were seldom
brighter.
WHAT WILL HAPPEN.
The inset have been getting wings in increasing numbers during the past week.
These will rise from day to day, as the wind and weather permit, and fly away to the
north and northwest. This, on account of the irreglar hatching and the great diver-
ity of size in the insects now here, will continue for the next two or three weeks, and
the flghts will consequently be so scattering as scarcely to be noticed. In the north-
eastern counties visited the farmers are out of danger. The insects are not more
nuerous than ndigenous species sometimes are in dry seasons east of the Mississippi,
and the vegetation is so rank that they can make no appreciable effect upon it. In the
outhwest counties there will be greater injury, and you may expect to hear of a corn-
ield cleaned out here, and a wheat-field more or less damaged there, where no precau-
tio is taken against such an occurrence. Yet here, also, the average loss will be
slight-no greater than it has been in Texas and South Kansas, where generally excel-
lent crops have been or are being harvested. In fact, very much the same conditions
prevail in the counties bordering on the Missouri east as in those in Nebraska west-
where Professors Thomas and Aughey, on behalf of the Commission, have been making
extended observations, and conclude that the loss from locust depredations will be so
slight that its effect upon the State will scarcely be felt.
LESS FAVORABLE IN NORTHWESTERN IOWA.
Judging from numerous reports which reach me, the outlook is less favorable in the
northwest counties. Indeed, from Humboldt and Kossuth Counties westward, the
counties are far more gloomy. Professor Thomas has charge of that part of the State,
and is now there. Much can be done to allay unnecessary alarm, and you may expect
to hear from him.
SUGGESTIVE NOTES.
In passing through the magnificently fertile southwestern counties of your State,

First. The want of diversity in culture. Corn is too supremely king. Some town-
ips are one vast corn-field; and while the farmer generally instinctively plants that
which a him the best he often does so from habit and imitation. In a country






16 REPORT UNITED STATES ETOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

subject to locust ravages disaster is averted by greater diversity. Without discussing
the advantage of a diversity of crops, the advisability of growing more stock must be
obvious: first, to consume the corn at home; secondly, to avoid sweeping disaster.
Had the season been less unfavorable to the locusts, they might have cleaned out
the grain-fields, and, as is their wont, left untouched the wild prairie meadows. Verbum
8at sapienti.
Secondly. In every community there, are those who persist in doing nothing to pre-
vent locust injury. These individuals frequently bring ruin not only upon themselves,
but upon more persevering neighbors. There is need of more organization, and Iowa
needs some such law as her sister States north and west passed last winter-a law
that will oblige every able-bodied man to work one or more days, either in the Fall in
destroying the eggs, or in the spring in destroying the young insects, whenever the
township trustees, at the request of a given number of citizens of the township, may
call them to such work under special provisions similar to those of existing road-laws.
[Here followed some practical suggestions that are given in Chapter 13.]
Sundry devices for the use of both coal-oil and coal-tar have been patented, and the
patentees in some instances charge an exorbitant and unreasonable royalty. I would
advise farmers to
SAVE THEIR MONEY.
The principle of destruction cannot be patented, since coal-oil and coal-tar for the
destruction of locusts have been used in former years, and extensively in Colorado.
Their use against insects is a public privilege and possession.
The particular construction of the machine is immaterial. Farmers will thank
manufacturers who sell at a decent profit, but should give no encouragement to those
who charge thrice what a machine is worth because of a patent.

PROSPECTIVE DAMAGE.
There is some apprehension from swarms from the south, and from fresh flights later
in the season from the northwest. I think there is little danger of either. The return
swarms in summer from the country south are never very disastrous. The insects
have been flying north and northwest for about six weeks, but so scattered that, as I
anticipated five weeks ago, no serious injury has followed their settling. They fly
mostly west of Iowa, and when they do injury it is generally near the British-American
line. That there will be no fresh visitation of a widespread character later in the
year from the northwest there is every reason to hope. The native breeding-grounds
must have been measurably depleted last year, and the return migration has been so
far, and doubtless will be, slight. This reasoning applies to the section of your S-ate
which I have visited. It will apply to all the country south and east of the forty-
fourth parallel and one hundredth meridian, but will hold less and less true as we go
north and west of those limits. Altogether the outlook is favorable. From excessive
wet, and for other reasons, the ordinary grain pests, like the chinch-bug, will be harm.
less, and with favorable weather henceforth there is very reason to feel encouraged.
I have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully,
C. V. RILEY.
His Excellency Gov 3. J. G. NEWBOLD,
De8 Moines, Iowa.

Mr. Packard started west after the Saint Louis meeting, and reached
Denver, Colo., on the first of June. He spent several days at Morrison
and Greeley, collecting facts about the young and return migaton
from the southward. May 29 and 30, he made observations at Jules-
burg and vicinity; June 7-11, at Salt Lake, Farminrgton, &c.; June
12-24, he passed through Idaho into Montana, stopping at Virginia
City, Bozeman, Helena, and Fort enton. From here e assed dow






SVISIT TO ITA AND NORTHWEST. 17

the Missor River June 2-27, and through Dakota to Saint Paul and

As te of this journey, the Commission was able to confirm the
belief it had previously announced, that there were no unfledged
lo t in a very sive region of the Northwest, comprising large
portios of Montana, Dakota, and also British America, for about two
hundred and fifty miles north of the Missouri River a region bounded
on the north by the Saskatchewan River. As this region, toether with
Yellowstone Valley, is uually the great breeding-grod of the
Roky Mountain locust, the Commission felt more confidently enabled,
from the state of things there and in Wyoming and Colorado, to predict
that t e would be no serious invasion of the border States from Texas
to Mineta in the summer and aut n, which would insure an immu-
niy fm the attacks of young locusts, at least in 1878. It was also
ascertaned that the tracts of country in Colorado, Utah, and Idaho,
where eggs were laid the year previous, and unfleded locusts were ob-
Sn greater or less numbers that the cold, heavy rains of April
May, and the parasites, had, as the Mississipp border States, so
ateially reduced their number as to render them powerless to oo ma-
teril arm, except in Cache and Malade Valleys, in Northern Utah,
while serious loca damage was committed by them in Bitter Root Val-
ley, Montana. Much information was also obtained during this trip

(App. 9.)
During the first week n July, Mr. Riley took the field in Colorado,
and te llowng letter, written ust before his return, together with
subsequently obtained (Chapter App. 7), will form a summary of
the state of things:

S editor of the Colorado Farmer
D : Upon my arrival in Denver, three weeks ago, you requested me to fur-
ish you with brie t of myntended observtio in Colorado before my de-
part I can nd time for but a few hurried jottings.
OBJECT OF VISIT.
As you are already aware, my visit has been in furtherance of the work of the United
States Entomological Commission, and my investigations have had reference to the
SMountan t, or grhopper. It gives me great pleasure to state that all
whom I have met with in Colorado, fm the State officers down to the bumblest
farmer, have generously assisted in my efforts, and expressed a hearty sympathy with
work of the Commission. After visiting Greley, Golden, Boulder, and other points
Sof Denver, and s of the ranches lying along the Denver and Rio Grande
Railroad, I found very little that was instructive beyond what intelligent correspond-
ens had already communicaed. ence I spent as much time as possible in the mount-
and on, wihin easy of the narw-gauge road
already mentioned, to the ofers of which I am under special obligations for liberal
aid. Mr. William Holly, of Del Norte, bas, on behalf of the Commission, visited most
of the interesting points which I have ad no time to reach, in Park, Lake, Gunnison,
Fremont, Sagach, Sn Juan, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties.
sG *






18 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

RETROSPECTIVE.
In all the States to the east invaded last year, the eggs of the locust were laid very
thickly, and the gravest apprehensions as to injury existed as spring opened. Nor
were these without warrant. Notwithstanding those eggs which were destroyed dur-
ing the winter by enemies, and those which prematurely hatched in the fall and during
the mild weather of February, enough hatched in April to cause consternation.
Throughout the invaded country lying east of Colorado, already visited by the Com-
mission-which includes all the States affected, from Texas to Minnesota-the insects
have disappeared without, in a general way, doing any very serious injury. What
with the increased number of birds and their other enemies, the more determined
efforts made, and improved methods of warfare employed against them by farmers,
the heavy, cold, and continued rains that followed the principal hatching, and the
greater debility and tendency to disease among them everywhere noticeable, the young
insects rapidly decreased in numbers, and those which survived to acquire wings rose
and flew to the northwest in scattering swarms. Even in Northwest Iowa and a few
counties toward the southwest of Minnesota, where the injury was greatest, the insects
have not remained to deposit as they did in past years. They continued to die off, and
finally left, or are now leaving, after doing more or less injury.
I have been much interested in finding how thoroughly the conditions above de-
scribed have prevailed over all parts of Colorado having an altitude less than 7,000
feet above the sea-lev el. There were more eggs laid in Colorado last Fall than during
any previous year that those whom I have conversed with remember. The principal
hatching in April was followed by continued cold rains and snows, which would par-
tially thaw during the day and freeze again at night, so that the young insects were
alternately subjected to much slush and frost. In early summer there was by far the
largest amount of rain-f-ll known for many years in the State. The insects were
weak and died and disappeared. Birds were unusually serviceable in destroying them,
and one little gray gregarious species, described to me as being abundant and efficient in
February, and which is perhaps the horned shore-lark (Erimophila alpestris), I have
not noticed to the east.
Very much the same condition of things occurred all over the State below the alti-
tude stated, whether in the northern half or along the eastern base of the Sangre de
Cristo and in the Cucharas Valley, where the insects hatched more thickly. Few
years have been more favorable to the Colorado farmer. I have noticed a number of
poor wheat-fields, resulting from defective irrigation or other causes, but the average
yield will, I think, be from twenty to twenty-five bushels to the acre. A good deal of
rye was so burnt out that it had to be prematurely cut and used for hay. Barley has
yielded from twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre, and the yield of oats will be fair.
Corn looks well, and stock of all kinds is in excellent condition. In Lake County,
where there is an extensive area under cultivation along the Arkansas, and where the
damage was great last year, few locusts hatched the present year. In Park County,
mostly devoted to grazing, the injury has been slight The San Luis Valley, which is
devoted to agriculture and stock-raising, has suffered little, and the beautiful Ute
Valley has also, as is usually the case, been singularly free. In the Wett Mountain
Valley, which is specially subject to injury, the farmers had to fight early in the sea-
son, and the injury in the valley of the Costilla, where fields were cleaned out by the
young locusts, was greater than in any other part of the State, The severe injury
extended southward into New Mexico, where the valley of the Taos has been swept
clean; yet, on the opposite side of the mountains, the president of the New Mexico
Stock and Agricultural Association reports to Mr. Holly no injury occurred, teoung
insects having disappeared.
CONDITIONS IN THE PARKS AND PASSES ABOVE THE ALTITUDE OF 7,000 FEET.
While in the lower plains and valley regions of the State the conditions have been
so similar to those which prevailed toward the Misssisppi, they hav been quite dif-






VISIT TO COLORADO. 19

e hi p and parks. At altitudes of from 8,000 to 9,000 feet above
atching occurred in May, and was later in proportion as we as-
unt in the places with an altitude of 12,000 to feet, the insets are
t ch great heiht the mature dead are often to be found in large
ties under stones and other shelter, which they sought last fall when prema-
by winter, and their oung re hopping about in great numbers. As
no ture is carried on in these parks and passes, no effort is made to destroy the


TH OCT PROBL MORE COMPLCATED IN COLORADO THAN IN THE LOWER MIS-
SIMBIPPI VALLEY.
It n oneene of the above facts that the lost question becomes so compli-
cated in your State. Colorado combines within her limits the meteorological and cli-
atic f dozen States. In the Missiippi Valley country, there are laws
g the Fall nvasions from the northwest and the return migrations in summer
on which to with tolerable urae. This is more particularly true uth
of the forty fourth parallel. Your most disastrous swarms also come from the north
an orthwet, and the nsect which hatch out on your plains ast of the mountains
a governed by the same laws and nstincts as those which hatch to the east;
on rng wings they leave, and those tha rise before the second week in July will
bear mostly to the north and northwest. This is more particularly the case south of
vide After the middle of July the rains increase and the winds are ore vari-
able, so far as I have yet certained, greatly from the st or south in the
morning, but stronger from west or northwest in the afternoon. Swarms are liable,
S at almost any tie ar the middle of July, to swoop down from the parks
and plateas west of the range upon the valleys and plains to the east. These remain
within your borders, or, if they pas beyond, bear southeastwardly toward Texas.
From what light the Commission so far t be more and more plain that
I have been correct in considering the species as boreal, and in locating the breeding-
grounds of the mot disastrous swarms, lke that of last year, in the plains regions of
the extreme Northwest, wher e summers are short and the winters long and severe,
d the exods of the winged nsects from that portion o your Stat lying east of
the mountains less complete than in Kansas and Missouri, for instance, and of the
earlier matred individual that have not left, some commenced ovipositing a week or
sThe young from eggs laid thus early will prematurely hatch this summer or
Fland inevitably perish; just as those now hatching toward the snow-line will per-
attaining maturity. The nsect single-brooded, and the tendency to pro-
e two brood where the summers are too long, is a fatal t the perpetuation of the
specie. as tho want of time to properly mature a single generation where the summers
are too short. Both extremes obtain within the limits of your State, as, also, the in-
termedate conditions in which the species can thrive permanently; whereas in no
Sof the Mississippi Valley south of the forty-fourt parallel, and, probably, some de-
ge farther north, can the species hold its. own continuously, and, with few excep-
tions, it seldom remains a single year.


While the record in aup to this time is so interesting, In comparison with
tht in other Stes the probabilities during the rest of the season more deeply iterest
people. What are the prospects Thi is the question put to me on every
The farmer who s t about harvesting his heat is anxious to know whether
ces are that t will be ddenly ruined by the winged pests, as it has been in

We he in former writings designated the species as subalpine, but the term here used in its
logicl ense is more strictly correct, implying that region, as the Saskatchewan and Lake Superior
areas, between the subarctic and north temperate.






20 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

From what I have said above, it follows that I cannot predicate with the same assur-
ance that I have done in Texas, Missouri, Kansas, and Iowa; but, to be brief, the pros-
pects are, in my opinion, quite favorable. * *
Dr. Packard, of the Commission, who has been through Utah, Idaho, Montana, and
Wyoming, confirms my conclusion that the Northwest must be measurably depleted,
for he could not find a locust in Montana from the Idaho line up to Fort Benton or
down the Missouri line to Bismarck. None are to be seen in the region south of South
Saskatchewan, and there is an immense area free from them in their native home.
There is very little danger, then, of injury from Fall swarms from the Northwest, unless
they come from the Black Hills country. There remains the chance of swarms from
your own western parks and plateaus or from those of Utah; but I have good reasons
for believing that they will prove no more injurious than the swarms which have been
passing on several days since I have been in the State from said western hatching-
grounds. There is a constant struggle for supremacy between the plant-feeder and its
carnivorous enemies. The Rocky Mountain locust got the upper hand during the ex-
cessively dry seasons of the. early part of the present decade, and has been so numer-
ous for the past three or four years that its enemies have rioted in plenty, and at last,
in their turn, have increased inordinately. In all your parks the Tachina flies (which
produce the parasitic maggots known to infest the locust) are so numerous as to
cause a constant buzzing like a swarm of bees, and to prove a positive nuisance to
tourists. Every winged locust that attempts to fly is pursued by three or four of them,
and the locusts that are daily rising from said parks, whenever the breeze is favorable,
are very generally parasitized and diseased in consequence. The same holds true, as
I learn from reports, in Utah, and as the parasites will increase as the season advances
there is no reason to believe that the later swarms from the west of you will prove
more injurious than those that have already left. The same will also largely hold true
of those which leave the Black Hills country, though I have less positive information
from that region. Nature maintains her average in the long run, and ad few seasons of
drought and locust ravages are apt to be followed by a period of more rainy seasons
and locust decrease.
REMEDIES.
As these have been quite fully given in the Commission's bulletins, and are not par-
ticularly called for at this season, I will dismiss the subject with the remark that I
have found no means employed in Colorado that are not employed in other States, ex-
cept as your irrigating ditches permit of a peculiar and satisfactory use of coal-oil. I
should, perhaps, except also one means employed in the Wet Mountain Valley, where,
as the young insects pass from the ledges and benches where they hatch into the val-
ley, they are so effectually rolled into a slush made by ovelflowing the ground, that a
pestilence from their dead bodies is sometimes threatened. I think your farmers are
not sufficiently appreciative of the dry ditch, which could of en be used to great ad-
vantage where other means fail.

The Commissioners consider it their duty not only to disseminate information already
possessed, but to gather from all parts of the country the facts peculiar to each section,
for experience differs immensely with latitude and surroundings. The flights of the
winged insects-their direction and the direction and force of the wind at the time in
Colorado during the rest of the season-will be of great interest, and the Commission
will feel under obligations to any of your readers who will send me notes thereon.
Yours, very truly,
C. V. RILEY.
SUMMIT, LA VETA PASS, JlTy 28, 1877.

Mr. William Holly, of Del Norte, as stated in the above letter, was
employed as special assistant in this State, traveling extensively on
horseback during June and July to collect information in the southern
counties. His report, with other data, appears elsewhere. (App. 7.)






VISIT TO PACIFIC COAST. 21

Prof.. S. Westeott, of Chicgo, also made a trip for us to this State
durintth of August, while Prof. L Packard of the Patent
Ofe, visited the State earlier, n order to make some chemical experi-
ments.
Th ommissioners met and held a third meting in Chicago, Ill.,
Augst 7-8, for CDsultation and the trnsaction of necessary business.
After planning for field-work for August and September they separated,
to meet again on the 1st of October, Mr. Packard started west, reaching
Salt Lake Augut 12; thence he went through Nevada, obtaining new
acts about h invasions of lousts from Idaho, stopping at Reno, and
th by way of Lake Tahoe, wher e species of locust destructive
in a a was observed, he went to Portland, Oreg., tracing in the
Valley and about Portland the small form allied to the Rocky
Mountai locust. Going up the Columbia River to The Dalles and to
Wallula, information was obtained regarding the western limits of the
Rocky Mountain locust and recent invasions in Eastern Oregon and
Washington Territories of this locust.
Returning to San Francisco by way of Victoria, Vancouver's Island,
where colecos were made of locusts allied closely to the Rocky
Mountain species, considerable information was received at Merced,
tockton, nd along the road to the Yosemite Valley, regarding
the ravags of the Calates atlaniE, the destructive locust of Califor-
naand, ro observations made in the mountains, as well as on Mount
Shas, at the northern extremity of the Sierra Nevada, it was definitly
ascertained that swarms of the Rocky Mountain locust have probably
never flown over that range from the plains east, and that the damages
e llly on the Pacific coast have been most probably cmmitted by
Calpts fnr-rbru and C. atanis, conjointly or separately, both
of th species conjointly causing similar losses in the Atlntic States.
. returned to Salem on October 4
uts of this journey may be summed up as follows: Definite
inion s obtained concerning the invasion of Northern Nevada
and Oregon and Washington Territory by swarms of the'genu-
ie Rocky Mountain locust, and all of the swarms were traced with a
I odegree of accuracy to the Snake River Valley, in the vicinity of
Bois City and northward and souteastwardly. The western limits of
SRoky Mountain locust were definitely ascertained to be near the
meridian of 12, extendig alon g the limits of this line from latitude 580
to 37 It is most probable that while this locust may occasionally, in
Terri and on, fly to the eastern flank of the Cas-
cade Range, and in alifornia as far as the eastern flank of the Sierra
Nevada, swarms never pass over those mountains. (For detailed notes
of this journey, eApp 10
During the last days of August and first of September Mr. Thomas
again visited the Northwest in order to consult with his assistants, bring
data oand arrange it in reference to the report.
S eng was held at o City, Iowa, afer which Mr. Thomas, ac.






22 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

companied by Mr. Whitman, visited various parts of Northern Iowa in
order to gather specimens of those which had dropped from flying
swarms, and to ascertain exactly the eastern limit of their extension in
this latitude.
In addition to these visits, Mr. Whitman traveled extensively over
the counties ra vaged by the locusts in Minnesota, and Professor Aughey
over those of Nebraska.
Mr. Riley started, after the Chicago meeting, for Manitoba, remaining
a few days on the way in Minnesota to ascertain the extreme eastern
limit of flight in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties. Most of the month
of August and part of September were spent in Manitoba, where he
was fortunate in meeting the Hon M. P. Mills, minister of the interior,
and the Hon. Mr. C. A. P. Pelletier, minister of agriculture, of Canada,
both of whom are strongly in sympathy with the work of the Com-
mission. Indeed, Mr. Pelletier had our first circular reprinted and sent
out by the Dominion council. While at Winnepeg he was under many ob.
ligations to Bishop Tach6, Governor A. Morris, many Hudson Bay fact-
ors, aud other officers, but especially to Mr. J. W. Taylor, United States
consul, whose uniform kindness and whose extensive knowledge of the
Saskatchewan country materially helped to make his stay pleasant and
profitable. This trip gave us much definite information regarding the
destination of the early summer flights, and regarding the northern
and eastern limits of the speciesW spread and of its permanent breeding-
grounds north of our boundary-line. These permanent breeding-grounds
turn out to be much more clearly defined than we had reason to hope,
and they are, in a broad way, coequal with the limit of what is known as
the third prairie plateau or steppe, an immense plains region drained
by the South Saskatchewan and the Red Deer River. We were also able
to obtain evidence of great locust abundance in this country as far back
as the very beginning of the present century. (See Chapter 1.)
A fourth meeting of the Commission was held in Chicago, October 1-2,
for the further transaction of business and to complete the division of
labor on the report. During this month Mr. Riley made a trip to Kan-
sas, as far as Manhattan, with a view of ascertaining whether any of
the insects that had hatched in the spring had remained in that section
of the country (App. 14); while in November he made a brief trip
as far as Dallas, Tex., for the same purpose and to get facts as to
autumn flights.
The fifth meeting of the Commission was a protracted one, held in
Washington during the latter part of January and early part of Feb-
ruary, 1878, for the purpose of comparing and digesting the workdone
on the report and preparing the same for the printer. By comparing
and interchanging notes the report has been made as much as possible
a whole, and opinions expressed or conclusions drawn are those of the
entire Commission, unless dissent therefrom by any one member be ex-
pressed in a note. The chapters have been severally prepared as fol-
lows:
1






WIST OF CHAPTERS. 23

Introction. By Mr. Riley.
hapter 1. lassification and Nomenclature: Characters of the pe-
es. sBy Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 2. Chronological History. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 3. Statistics of Losses. By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 4. Agricultural Bearings of the Subject. By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 5. Native or Permanent Breeding-Grounds. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 6. Geographical Distribution. By Messrs. Thomas and Pack-
ard.
Chapter 7. Migrations. By Messrs. Packard and Thomas.
Chapter 8. Habits and Natural History. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 9. Anatomy and Embryology. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 10. Metamorphoses. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 11. Invertebrate Enemies (Insects, &c). By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 12. Vertebrate Enemies (Birds, &c). By Mr. Thomas.
ChObapter 13. Remedies and Devices for Destruction. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 14. Influence of Prairie Fires on Locust Increase. By Mr.
Riley.
Chapter 15. Influence of Weather on the Species. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 16. Effects that generally follow severe Locust Injury. By
Mr. Riley.
Chapter 17. Uses to which Locusts may be put. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 18. Rav of other Locusts In the United States. By Mr.
Riley.
Chapter 19. Loust Ravages in other Countries. By Mr. Packard.
The first chapter relates to the classificatory position, name, and
characters of the species, which, while belonging to the same family as
the locusts of the Old World, is nevertheless purely an American insect,
oc urring on no other continent. For a correct and proper understand-
ing of the whole subject, it is very essential that we discriminate be-
tween certain closely allied species, which are easily confounded by the
ion-entomologist, and which yet have very different habits and instincts,
By means of a large amount of material from all parts of the country.
and by study of the immature stages, we have been able to accurately
define the three forms most apt to b be confounded, and they will be dis-
tinguished throughout the report by the popular names of Rocky
Montain locust (Caloptena spreus), Lesser locust (C. atlanis*), and the
Red-legged locust t (0. fcur-rbrm). We consider them good species,
as species go, and the plates will at once show their distinguishing char-
acteristics. As is found to be the case with nearly all species when
large material from widely different sectious is studied, there are several
varieties and races that may e grouped around each of these three
typical forms, and which ar intermediate between them; but it has
*Originally dened from specimens from the New England ates, but subequeny found to have
very wide range and not to be confned to the east.
ong known by this popular name on account of the red obanks (tibia,) which are not, however, con.
ned to this ecies but are characteristic of all three under consideration.






24 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

not been deemed necessary to confuse the ordinary reader by further
definitions in this chapter, since it is the inenention to give in a separate
memoir a synopsis of the genus, with descriptions of all the North Amer-
ican species at present known.
In the second chapter we have given a chronological record of locust
injury in this country, which shows it to be no modern occurrence; and
if the injury appears to have increased of late years it is only because
there is a larger cultivated area within the locust region, and the devas-
tation is more noticeable. The impression that this insect is on the in-
crease, and that its invasions are becoming more general and more fre-
quent is wide-spread, but it is scarcely justified by the facts, which
clearly indicate that the species has for centuries (and doubtless for
centuries of centuries) been at times excessively abundant and injurious
to the vegetation of the western plains. The history of 1877 is given
rather fully in this chapter, and is interesting in that it differs from that
of 1875, the year when the insects also hatched out in so large a part of
the temporary region. In that year the hatching was more uniform, the
young more vigorous, and, notwithstanding the spring and early sum-
mer were as wet and stormy as in 1877, the destruction of crops was
complete. In 1877, though the eggs were more numerous, the hatching
was more irregular, the young insects more feeble and diseased, and the
destruction, except in a few counties of Northwestern Iowa and Minne-
sota, was trifling. The reasons for the difference in the two years are
sufficiently obvious. The winter of 1874-'75 was severe and steady-
more in keeping with the boreal country where the insect is at home-
and the eggs were well preserved and hatched more uniformly; more-
over, they were laid by insects fresh from their northwest home. The
eggs laid in 1876 were largely from insects from the subpermanent coun-
try ; they were subjected to much mild and changeable winter weather,
while the spring rains were cold and disastrous to the young. In addi-
tion to these facts, the increase of natural enemies that inevitably fol-
lowed the few years of locust abundance, and the greater efforts of the
farmer, and better means of fighting, should be taken into account.
Chapter 3, in showing that the loss to the States between the Mis-
sissippi and the Rocky Mountains from this insect between 1873-'77
amounted to about $200,000,000, will serve to convey an idea to those
not conversant with the facts of the vast importance of the question
and the prominent rble this tiny locust plays in the destiny of the
country. When we reflect that these losses fell most heavily upon a
Irontier population without wealth, we cease to wonder at the suffering
a:d consternation that at times prevailed, and must admire the corage
and fortitude with which the people have fought adversity. A means
of arriving at these losses from two wholly different standpoints, and
f.om entirely different data, has been employed, thereby rendering the
one a check upon the other.
Chapter 4 treats of the effect of locust injury upon the agricultural






OHABACTER OF CIIAPURa.u 25

and development of the West; the crops most liable to and
most exempt from injury. It also discuses the best modes of
cropping and the modeof farming that will give greatest security against
locust ravages.
The facts brought forward in considering the native or permanent
breedinggrounds (Chapter 5) show this locust to be essentially boreal,
and that, in its normal condition, it is confined to the more northern
plains. The area of its permanent abode lies principally east of the
mountains, between latitude 370 and 520 and reaching to about the-
102d meridian. West of the range the permanent breeding-grounds
seem to be cofined to more limited areas in the Snake River Valley and
Cache and alade Vlley regions.
The chapter (6) on geographical distribution gives the limit of the
range o spread of the species. The data obtained during the year fix
the eastern limit along almost precisely the same line at which it had
been previously established, broadly along the 94th meridian; but the
nortern, western, and southern boundaries are for the first time estab.
lished with anyting like deflniteness. The exact eastern limit is given in
the chapter. It is an interesting fact that both north and east the limit
is, in the main, coequal with the timberline. West of the mountains
the line is in the neighborhood of the 118th meridian, the Cascade and
Blue Mountain Ranges and the moisture beyond them appearing to be
the most obvious barriers.
The Commissin has made an especial effort to record all the move-
ments of locusts during the year 1877, no less than 2,500 observations
being recorded. The managers of each of the three lines across the
country, viz the Atchison, Topeka and santa F6, the Kansas Pacific,
and the Union Pacific, assisted us by republishing our queries and in-
structing their agents to report, so that we had three almost parallel
lines checking each other.
The data i the chapter (7) on migrations and in the appendix
(App. 12) sow very clearly that the movements of the winged insects
that hatch out in the temporary region is toward the north or the north-
est early in summer, the direction being more and more due nortfi
ward the eastern limit. In other words there is, as we first declared
ree years ago, a return migration toward the native breeding-grounds
of the insects hatching in the temporary region. This return move-
t is very constant east of the plains and south of the 44th parallel,
less so north and west of those lines. Thus in Minnesota, from
wich the reports are very complete, the movements are much more
irregular than in Iowa, and they are most regular in Texas. It is well
es lished that there may be two contrary currents over considerable
le goo evidence is produced to show that flight is not unfre-
continued into the night, elly uring fair, warm, and dry
midsummer weather. '
The observatons in me orthwest r ieer, and while






26 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

flights from the south are recorded in July, passing over the Cypress
Hills region in Northwest Territory, and reaching the North Saskatch
ewan at a few points, and even passing some distance, north of Fort
Carleton, yet from the want of data in the intermediate country we
cannot say positively that these were continuations from our side the
boundary-line, though the probability is that they were. The evidence
-and it is very complete-indicates that some of the swarms that went
northward the past season, through Minnesota and Dakota east of the
.Missouri, penetrated north of the boundary-line; but we know from the
history of 1875, and from the experience of the Hon. onnald Gunn, of
Winnepeg (App., 11), that the return migration does at times reach
beyond said line, and that the insects often pass from the south over
Manitoba during the month of June, or so early as to imply develop-
ment several degrees south of that province.
The question as to what eventually became of these northward-return.
ing swarms was everywhere asked during the summer. The evidence
is clear that, as in previous years, these returning insects were mostly
so diseased and parasitized that they dropped in scattered numbers and
perished on their northward and northwestward journey. This is no
theory, but known to have beeu the case in the more thickly settled
parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota, from which the in-
sects that dropped were reported, and in some cases sent to us. Mr. J.
G. Kittson, of Fort Walsh, Cypress Hills, British America, also reports
that those which alighted there gradually disappeared without taking
further flight, and that they were badly attacked by parasites (App.
11). As this return flight is principally over a vast plain and prairie re-
gion that is thinly settled, the number of insects that dropped and were
lost to sight in said plains must have been infinitely greater than that
which was observed to come down in the more thickly settled regions
to the east. We found the insects sparsely spread over the rank prairies
west of Brainerd, along the Northern Pacific, and along Red River, and
by this we mean that a few would hop from the grass at every step
wherever we searched for them. We met with only here and there a
straggler in Manitoba; but they were more numerous, as we have just
seen, farther west. After the middle of July the flights began to trend
in the opposite direction, or toward the south, and the data, which we
have been at some pains to obtain on the autumn flights (App. 12),
show that they were, as usual, pretty constant in the same direction.
It is clearly shown that in the more northern parts of the country the
northward-bound insects are often driven back and forth, constantly
diminishing in numbers, and from their harmlessness and the facthat
the northwest breeding-grounds are known to have been measurably
free in spring, it is more than probable that the autumn flights over the
temporary region were made up of the more robust of the insects that
had, earlier in the season,left that region. West of the Rocky Mount
ains, and in ristrided sections in MV nutin, ast of them, the flights
prevail in other directions.






MOVEMENTS OF LOCUSTS. 27

ihaptr8 will be found to contain all that is at present acurately
known on the general habits and natural history of the species, bring
ing out a nmber of new fats and correcting some errors which have
heretofore prevailed. We would call especial attention to the por-
which treat of the locations where eggs are preferably laid, the
of oil which most assist hatching, the general habits of the
yng, and to t two subapter, which show that in the temporary
n, outh of the 44th parallel, te he turn migration to the North-
west s so complete that no insects of any consequence remain in the
n, and in which are given the reasons why, in said region, the
eggs are never laid thickly for two consecutive ears, and, as a conse-
quence, severe injury in spring and early summer for for two such consecu-
tie years never tak place. We have also discused here the philoso-
phy of the migrating habit, showing pretty conclusively that it is not
to be attributed to one cause alone, but to several causes.
The chapter on embryology and anatomy contains observations on
te mode of growth and hatching of the embryo, and gives new facts
ng the external structure of the locust and the internal anatomy
of the tory organs concerned in lightening the bod during flight.
The g and minte anatomy of the digestive system and of the
neo system is also for the first time given.
chapter on transformations will be found interesting as giving
exat knowledge on the number of molts suffered by the species, mode
and manner of molting, and of getting wings, and the structural changes
that take place during growth.
In chapter 11 will be found an illustrated account of all the more
minute enemies of the locust that are known to attack it in this country.
Several interesting scientific discoveries are recorded, and among these
we w d draw especial attention to the interestig transformations of
S mite, which is parasitic in its early 6 legged state pon the
St, and in its adult -legged state destroys the locust-eggs;
also to the rious life-history of the blister-beetles, which in their larval
stat turn out to be locust-egg destroyers. The excessive multiplication
of most of these natural enemies was very generally noticed during the
past year, the ground in some places being red with the egg-feeding
mites, and the air full of swarms of the Tachina-flies, from which come
the maggots that eat out the vitals of the locust.
In ap 12 are given the locust-feeding habits of many western
Snot heretofore known to have that habit; and the good offices
of birds are specially made manifest, examinations of the stomachs of
e 90 species and 6 spemens having been made with special refer.
their lochabits. The record in reference to these ex-
s is very f, giving the date, the locality, the common and
e names of the scie, and the number of locusts and of other
in each. The value heretofore placed on these aids by ento-
moloists is fully sustained by this record.






28 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

In chapter 13, which is one of the most extended and most important
practically, it is clearly shon n that the young locusts may be controlled,
and by what means, while the way is pointed out how to better control
the winged insects. Many valuable .evices for destruction are illus-
trated, among them one invented by Mr. Riley, which gave entire satis-
faction, and will, it is believed, supersede other contrivances as a cheap
and practicable means of destruction, applicable at any season, whether
the plants or the insects be small or large. In this chapter, also, the
necessity of legislation, the relative merits of ditching, plowing, harrow-
ing, the use of coal-oil, of various fluids and powders, and of burning are
discussed; as also the best means of protecting special plants and trees.
In chapters 14 and 15 the influence of prairie-fires and of weather
on locust-increase is discussed. It is shown that prairie-fires can have
but little influence on the multiplication of the insect except when they
are judiciously manipulated and controlled as suggested in chapter 13.
The effects of frost and of wet weather on the eggs and on the young
insects have an important practical bearing, and we have given a series
of experiments which prove that the eggs are not greatly influenced
either by frost or water. That they should resist intense cold was to be
expected, since the species is boreal; but that they should remain im-
pervious to constant soaking, is contrary to the prevailing views hith-
erto held on the subject. They are, also, far less susceptible to alter-
nate freezing and thawing than was anticipated. The young locusts, on
the contrary, perish whenever the temperature falls more than fifteen
degrees below freezing-point, while they are very seriously and injuri-
ously affected by prolonged wet weather, especially if it be cold in ad-
dition.
The effects that invariably follow severe locust-injury are treated
of in chapter 16, and the changes that, in consequence of such injury,
take place in the flora and fauna-the increase of some species and de-
crease of others-are sometimes very striking. It must also be assur-
ing to the people of the West to know that there are good and sufficient
reasons why a year of great locust-devastation is apt to be followed by
one of locust-immunity and good crops.
In chapter 17 we have discussed the uses to which locusts may be
put, and, not to dilate here on their availability as food for various ani-
mals, including man, as fish-bait, or as manure, the chemical analysis
given of the dead locusts is quite interesting. The insects furnish a new
oil, which we have christened Caloptine, and a very large percentage of
formic acid. Though this acid exists in the ant and some other insects,
it is with difficulty obtained in large quantities; whereas by thaction
of sulphuric acid upon the locust-juices it passes off with great readi-
ness and in remarkable quantity and gravity. The various uses of this
acid, whether as a therapeutic, &c., are capable of great and valuable
extension where it can be obtained so readily and in such quantity.
In the two concluding chapters it is clearly shown that locust-ravages






FUTURE PROSPECTS. 29

are byno means confined to the country wet of the ississippi, but
may occur and have occurred in other parts of the country, at times in
intensity. It is also shown that no quarter of the globe is exempt
from these pests, and that the counties bordering mountain-ranges in
outhern Europe, Asia, and Africa, especially, have, since biblical
times, and, doubtless, ages before, been devastated at irregular periods
by devouring locust hordes.
We cannot well close this introduction without so statement of our
views as to the locust-prospects for the immediate future, since our opin-
ions are constanly being asked for. That the insect will, in the future,
again pour down at times from its breeding-grounds into the temporary
region, unless, by the co-operation of the two governments intrested, it
s prevented from so doing by the course we recommend, or by some
still more feasible course yet to be discovered, there can be no reaon-
able doubt. Yet, in proportion as that country becmes sttled will
locust-ijury be more and more easily ontrolled. But we do not besi-
tate to give it as our deliberate opinion that there will be no srious in-
jury n such temporary region the cming summer, and, probably, not
r several years to come. We rest this conclusion, first, on our per-
sonal examinations the past autumn over much of the country named;
secondly, on the reports of correspondents in said country (App. 14);
thirdly, on the reports from the extreme Northwest, or permanent region.
These show that none of the insects of any consequence that hatched in
the temporary region remained to lay eggs; that scarcely any eggs were
laid by the scattering autumn swarms, and that, with few exceptions,
the permanent reon east of the mountains is likewise remarkabl free
of eggs.




C





















































































































































Irr~





NOMENLATURE. 31





CHAPTER I.

CLASSIFICATIO AND NOMENCLATURE-CHARACTERS OF
THE SPECIES.

The great damage done in the West during the past few years by
grasshoppers" has caused these i s to e more closely observed than
formerly, and the members of the Commission are from time to time re-
ceiving specimens from persons both east and west inquiring whether
they are he much-dreaded speies. We have therefore concluded to
give a brief outline of the classification of the family to which this
species belongs, and of the charcters by which the group and species
may be distinguished from other groups and species which are closely
allied.
When the popular name of a group of insects or other animals, that
Sgenerally accepted, corresponds somewhat closely in its appliction
to the scientific division, it is not difficult to convey to the general reader
a correct idea of the position and characters of a given species by refer-
ence to and comparison wit well-known species of that group. Un-
fortunately, in the present instance, not only is the pportunity for refer
eie to well-known species wanting, but the popular names applied to
d groups are so confused and erroneous that their use is alcu-
Sto convey incorrect ideas to unscientific readers
Even the name loct as formerly, and yet very generally, applied in
thi country incorrectly used, referring to an insect not even belonging
to the same order as the locusts of oriental countries.
The seventeen-year locust 1 of North America is, in fact, not a locust
in the true sense, but a species of Cicada, or barvest-fly belonging to
the order Heiptra, which contains only insects with a mouth prolonged
into a horny, jointed tube formed for sucking the juices of the plants or
animals on which they feed.
On the contrary, the locusts of the Old World, to which the term was
ally and correctly applied, are species of migratory grasshoppers
belonging to the order Ortopra, and are furnished with strong biting
jaws or mandibles. There are other very material differences between
he two, but these will suffice to show that they are quite distinct.
The very common name grasshopper has likewise been unfortunate
nits use and application not only in a popular sense, but even by
tists, referringat one time to the true locusts or to the various
sof the family to which they belong, and at another to species of
a d enfamily, which katydids. In fact, the term as gener-
ally used applies to most of the species of two different families of Or-
thoera. In order therefore, to convey a correct idea of the destructive





32 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

species now under consideration we are necessarily compelled to fall
back upon the scientific arrangement and characters of the family, sub-
divisions, and species. Commencing with the order, we will give briefly
the characters of the various divisions and subdivisions leading to the
genus Caloptenus, to which the Rocky Mountain locust belongs, omitting
those divisions and groups not represented in the United States, and
referring only to those characters which are most easily recognized, and
which apply specially to our acridian fauna.
The Order ORTHOPTERA is distinguished from the other orders of the
insect class chiefly by the following characters: Mouth furnished with
mandibles or strong biting jaws; wings four (occasionally wanting),
upper pair coriaceous or parchment-like and flexible; under pair thin
and membranous, folding lengthwise only in plaits like a fan; trans-
formations incomplete, being active in all stages after hatching from the
egg.
Although not as extensive as some other orders, it contains a large
number of species which differ very materially in appearance and charac-
ters, and are generally known in this country by the common names
earwigs, cockroaches, deviPs-horses, walking-sticks, grasshoppers, and
crickets. Each of these names, except the next to the last, represents a
distinct family of the order, thus:
Earwigs -..-.... ...... ....... .... .......Family 1. .Forficuldco.
Cockroaches ..................... ..........Family 2. Blattidw.
Devils-horses ...................................Family 3. Mantidw.
Walking-sticks................... ............ Family 4. Phasmidc.
Grasshoppers Family 5. Acridida.
Grasshoppers ............ ........... .... Family 6. Locstidda .
Crickets .... .. ...... ...... ...... ........ amily 7. Gryllidwc.

As will be seen from this list, there is no confusion between the scien-
tific and common names until we reach "grasshoppers," among which
our insect belongs. Other names, it is true, are sometimes applied to
insects of the previous families, but with the exception of "earwig "
they correspond in their application with the family limits as here given.
As before stated, the term grasshopper is applied to insects of two
families-Acrididw and Locustidw; but notwithstanding this difficulty
in using the popular name, the insects which compose the family are
easily distinguished from each other by prominent characters.
Locustidw includes those species usually found on the grass, bushes, and
trees, which have very long, thread-like antennae, generally longer than
the body of the insect; the tarsi or feet are fourojointed ; the female is
furnished at the tip of the abdomen with an exserted ovipositor, usually
more or less curved and sword-shaped; and the upper wings of the
male are furnished, at the base, with a peculiar arrangement of the
nerves, with which, by rubbing them together, they produce sharp, shrill
notes. To this family belong the true grasshoppers, the katydids, and





LOCUST VS. GRASSHOPPER. 33

milar insets; t is true there are other species which strongly resemble
and ae u ly clled 1 crickets that belong to this family.
A|ridide, includes those species which usually reside on the ground,
nd a distinguished from those of the other families of saltatorial
t y the following characters:
he anten are comparatively short, never exceeding the body in
length, and in North American species composed of fro twelve to
twenty-five joints; the tarsi are apparently three-jointed; the females
are frnished at the tip of the abdomen with four short corneouspieces,
t of which crve upward and two downward; the male is without
the shrilling organ at the base of the wings found in the Locustidw.
SThis family contains the true locusts, such as those of oriental coun-
tries and the Rocky Mountain locust; also such so-called grassoppers
as the common red-legged species of the States and thos found hop-
ping on the ground in open waste fields, along roadsides, &c. There-
fore, n speaking hereafter of these species, we shall use the term locust.
As the family contains a very large number of species varying consid-
bly n form and character, entomologists have endeavored to divide
It Into sections or subfamilies, by bringing together those minor groups
having certain characters in common. he various results of these
ttempts cannot be introduced here, as this would not only require too
much space, but also the introduction of matter of purely scientifc in-
Sand of no practical use in this brief review of the classification.
S bdivisions vary in number according to the characters
selecd by the different authors, some making as many as eleven sub-
ilies, others only two or three. Yet, as a general rule, the difference
Snot so much in the grouping as in the value attached to the groups,
the subamilies of one author being considered as subordinate divisions
by other authors.
Without undertaking at his time to decide upon the respective mer-
of these several arrangements, we have selected for present purposes
that which akes but three subfamilies, as it appears to be the simplest
d most easily understood by general readers. n our descriptions of
ese subdivisions we shall confine ourselves to those represented in the
opteral faua of that portion of North America north of Mexico, and
as possible select such characters only ass re necessary to distin-
guish these divisions from each other The first subfamily, Proscopinr,
contains only exotic species, and may therefore be omitted from further
consideration.
The second subfamily, Aridi, is distinguished by having the pro-
otm in the form of a shield, which covers the prothorax and extends
ard at farth o a short distance upon the base of the abdo-
men, never reaching tha half way to the tip, and seldom half this
distance; the breast is drawn up, that is, it is not
in the same plane as th rt of the sternum or breast; it is spined,
3 G






34 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

tubercled, or smooth, but never advanced upon the mouth in the form
of a, muffler; elytra or upper wings, when present, always as long as
the wings; tarsi with pads between the claws.
The third subfamily, Tettigince, is characterized by having the prono-
tum, in the form of a shield, extending backward nearly or quite to the
tip of the abdomen, and sometimes even beyond it; the prosternum in
the same plane as the rest of the sternum, and advanced upon the mouth
in the form of a muffler; elytra when present usually shorter than the
wings,'and placed at the sides of the body; tarsi without pads between
the claws.
The two latter families are represented in the United States, but
the great body of our locusts belong to the Acridinw, the species of
Tettiginc being comparatively few, quite small, and seldom noticed by
unscientific observers. As the Caloptenus spretus and all other migra-
tory locusts belong to Acridinc, we shall limit our further consideration
to this subfamily. It contains several subordinate groups, but the charac-
ters by which these are distinguished from each other are not so appar-
ent and uniform as those separating the subfamilies, nor is it necessary
for us in this general report to attempt an explanation of these differ-
ences. Perhaps we may as well state here that no arrangement we have
seen can be considered satisfactory. The form of the head and antennas,
formerly selected as characters, are too indefinite to meet the demands
of science, while those adopted by StAl in his most recent arrangement
can scarcely be considered of sufficient value or importance to render
them more satisfactory; they also fail to separate forms which we think
ought not be brought together. To bring together the long conical head,
ensiform antenne, and elongate body of Truxalis with the round head,
filiform antenna, and massive bodies of some of the heavier Oedipodw,
and to separate such forms as Pachytylus migratorius and Acridium pere-
grinum, cannot be justified simply because of the presence or absence of
a little prosternal spine or transverse pronotal sulcus. The difficulty
arises from the fact that the Truxalidw gradually separate into the two
branches represented in part by the Acridii and Oedipodw, the transition
from the former to the two latter being so gradual that it is almost im-
possible to mark the dividing line. But any system which fails to recog-
nize the Truxalid group and yet separates the two latter is defective and
unsatisfactory.
Therefore, for want of a better arrangement, we adopt for the present
the following, although aware that it is defective, but it enables us to
eliminate the Truxalid group, which is the only use we wish to make of
it at this time.
A. The head conical or pyramidal; the face very oblique, or sloped
under toward the breast; the antennm usually, though not
always, enlarged at the base; hind legs comparatively slender.
Truxalini.





CHARACTERS OF IGRATORY LOCUSTS. 35

A A ead more or ovoid or subglobular; face perpendicular or
nearly so, never very oblique, though often somewhat arcuate
below; antenna iliform, subdepressed or clavate, and not en-
larged at the base; hind legs generally robust and very distinctly
enlarged at the base.
a. Prosternum or front breast armed with a spine or tubercle.
Acridini.
a a. Presternum unarmed............................ Oedipodii.
Although at least one species of Oediodini is migratory in the Old
Woird, and aspecies in North America (Qamnu.l pellucida Scudd.) be-
longing to the same group was formerly supposed to be the migratory
loust of California, yet at present our observations are confined to
Aeridini, which contains the destructive locust of the West. This limits
us to those species found in the United States which have the head more
or subglobular or ovoid, and the front breast armed with a spine.
The latter character is easily recognized by any one, as the spine may
be seen by examining the under side of the neck; it usually stands out
like a little blunt thorn, very distinct. If this is wanting, the observer
may kow without further observation that his specimen does not belong
to the migratory species of our country. If it has the spine, and the
ead is not conical or pyramidal, then he must refer to the characters
hereafter given of the genera and species.
We have now reached the genera, which cannot be fully discussed at
t, as thiwoud require, if properly done, a revision of the Calop-
teiand and an examination of all our native species. We
will, therefore, simply mention the ore important genera of the group
represented in the United States, calling attention to a few of the more
prominent characters by which Calopt enu is separated from those genera
t cosely allied to it. We will also make use of localities, habits, &.,
w ever they will ssist the general reader in any way in determining
whether or not a given specimen belongs to Caloptenus.
The fllowing genera of Acridl which are mentioned by North Ameri-
can authors may be omitted from further consideration for the reasons



The first contains only gigantic species, and if rre sented at all in

the southwestern border of Texas.


igly clo i ily red; while those of our Calopteni

BOmmatolampi has been superseded by Mr. Scudder's new genus H.es-
perotettix.






36 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL OMMISSION.

Platyphyma and Chromacris have probably been introduced by mis-
take.
Dactylotum has been introduced into our nomenclature for the recep-
tion of a very short-winged and brightly-colored species-Pezotettix
picta Thos.
This leaves only the following genera as necessary to be considered:
Acridium, Caloptenus, Hesperotettix and Pczotettix.
As Hesperotettix contains, so far as we are aware, but three species,
easily distinguished from Caloptenus spretus by the following characters
and facts, it may also be excluded: One is short-winged, green, and found
only in the Eastern Middle States; another somewhat common in the
West is green, with reddish bands around the femora; the other has
so far been found only in Arizona; it is yellow, thickly dotted over
with black, and the antennae annulated with alternate colors.
There is a difference of opinion in reference to the characters of the
genera Caloptenus and Pezotettix; Professor Sthl, of Sweden, maintain-
ing that if properly limited Caloptenus does not embrace any of our
species. He places C. femur-rubrum, and consequently the closely allied
species, in Pezotettix. Without attempting to discuss the question so
far as it relates to the proper characters, we have concluded, for reasons
which will be mentioned further on, to retain the name Caloptenus and
to use the genus in the sense understood by American and most Euro-
pean authors. Although the chief distinction between this genus and
Pezotettix, as adopted in this country, the difference in the length of the
wings, cannot be considered satisfactory, yet, as it will answer present
purposes, we will avail ourselves of it in order to eliminate the group
from consideration. Acridium, so far as represented in the United
States, may be characterized as follows:
Vertex but slightly inclined, angularly expanded in front of the eyes;
antennal grooves profound and extending downward to the clypeus;
eyes elongate-elliptical. Pronotum somewhat compressed on the sides,
depth usually considerably more than the width, moderately but dis-
tinctly expanding behind the last sulcus (very slightly in rubiginosum);
lateral carine obsolete on the anterior lobes, the sides rounding up
somewhat as the sides of an arch to the median carina; the dorsum of
the posterior lobe more flattened, with the lateral carinm subdistinct;
the lower margin of the lateral lobes straight, the posterior lateral angle
slightly obtuse, varying from about 1000 to 1100 posterior margin ob-
tuse-angled and rounded at the tip. Elytra and wings, with one ex-
ception, considerably longer than the abdomen, and in the exception pass
it slightly. Abdomen elongate, rather slender; that of the male not en-
larged at the tip; the last segment of the male subeonical and dis-
tinctly notched at the tip, usually with a square notch; cerci of the
male flat, usually broad, oblong, and straight. Prosternal spine,robust,
subcylindrical, blunt, and approximating the margin of the mesoster-
num. The spines of the posterior tibim always have at lt least the basal






*GENERIC NOME 37

portion pale, either yelowih or white, even when the tibia are black.
Posteror femora long, reaching to the tip of the abdomen moderately
robust, the outer face flat.
The spees, with one exception, are large, the females exceeding two
inches in length; the exception, rubigino um, is rare in the West, and so
far has not been found west of the Mississippi. We have omitted A.
frontali Thos., as it does not proerly belong to this genus, having
been placed here by the author provisionally. As it is green, there is
no danger of its being confounded with 0. preus. To this genus be-
long A. aeri m, a large reddish-brown species, marked on the
outer wings with cellular quadrate fuscous spots, which often does con-
siderable injury to crops in the sections south of the latitude of Saint
Louis, whi is nearly its northern limit. In 1875 and 1876, and even in
1877, it was seen migrating in considerble numbers, causing much
alarm, as those who saw them supposed they were veritable Rocky
Mountain locusts. Such flights were observed in Southeast Indiana,
Southwest Ohio, Southern Illinois, and Georgia. These flights are very
limited in extent, reaching at farthest but a mile or two. Their large
size, coloring, generic characters, and southern habitats will readily
distingush them from the C. spretus. We may remark here that one of
the most destructive migratory species of Southwestern Asia and
Northern Africa (Acridium pcregrinum) is not only congeneric with this
species, but so closely resembles it that ordinary observation would
arcely detect the differenuces between the two.
As before stated, the characters by which the genus Pezotettix is dis-
tinguished are not satisfactory, and undoubtedly require revision, but
in this country the abbreviation or want of wings has generally been
adopted as a leading character, which, whether well-chosen or not, is
sufficient to distinguish its species from C. spretus, which answers our
present purpose. This limits us to the genus alopteus and the species
belonging to it which are found north of Mexico.
As before intimated, Dr. Stl, of Sweden, in his recent work on
Orthoptera (R o Ortopterorum), has so modified the characters of
Coptenus (if we admit his Calliptenus as a synonym) and PeZotetti,
tht none of our species which have heretofore been placed in the
former can be retained, some, as femur rubr, C. and closely
allied species being referred to a subdivision of the latter genus named
Sthe author elanop He eends the Caliptamus of Serville to
Calliptenus.
If this change is followed, it will add to the confusion of the nomen-
lature o this group, inflicting on it a host of synonyms where they
are already too numerous. If the rule in relation priority require this
ange, then we might be disposed to submit to it and adopt it, other-
e w prefer to retan names which by long usage and general
ceptace have been w into all of our entomological and other
writins where the insects of this group are mentined. Let us ten






38 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

examine this point for a moment, using what Mr. Thomas has stated in
his article on Orthoptera in Lieutenant Wheelers rport of his explora-
tions as a basis.
Dr. Stal holds that we have no Calopteni in North America, most of
the species which have usually been placed in that genus being refer-
able to Pezotettix. In his diagnosis of these genera the chief distinc-
tions given are as follows: In Galliptenus the elytra are destitute of the
intercalate vein; the posterior femora broad and distinctly serrate above;
the posterior salcus in the middle or before the middle.
In Pezotettix the elytra are usually abbreviated or rudimentary, and
furnished with an intercalate vein; the upper margin of the posterior
femora entire and unarmed; posterior sulcus of the pronotum some-
times situated behind the middle.
The genus was established by Serville in 1831, in his article entitled
"Revue Methodique des Insectes de Fordre des Orthopteres," vol. 22,
Annales des Sciences Naturelles, with the following as its distinguishing
characters:
Calliptamus (KaaXoc L'rapat). Posterior legs longer than the body, robust, and salta-
torial. Abdomen firm, neither inflated nor vesicular. Anterior extremity of the pros-
ternum not covering the mouth, the latter [prosternum] having a rather -robust,
straight, and obtuse point [spine]. A pad (rather small) between the tarsal claws.
Antenna, filiform, composed of more than twenty cylindric rather indistinct joints.
Head vertical, without frontal projection, or having one that is but slightly prominent,
and obtuse anteriorly. The middle cariuam of the face with a space between them;
sometimes but slightly prominent inferiorly. Ocellus distinct. Tibia neither widened
or channeled above; lower three-fourths of the upper side with two rows of closely-
set spines; first joint of the tarsi elongated. Eyes oval. Pronotum distinctly tricar-
inate above; lateral carina, as prominent as the median one; its transverse strim slightly
distinct. Posterior margin more or less rounded. Elytra and wings of ordinary length.
Legs robust.
In this genus he included the following species:
1. C. sanguinipes, from South America.
2. C. italicus, from Africa and Europe.
3. C. morn, from Africa, Switzerland, and Pyrenees.
It is evident the author did not base his diagnosis chiefly on C. italius
as some of the characters used are made prominent because of their
greater prominence in one of the other of the three species.
Afterward, in 1839, in his lHistoire des Orthoptrres, the same author
removed C. morio to (Edipoda, as it was in fact no Acridian he also
returned 0. sanguinipes to Acridium. He also gave a new diagnosis of
the genus, as follows:
Posterior legs robust, much shorter than in the preceding genus (Aidium); femora
short, much enlarged, very strongly channeled below; tibia short, stout, having on
the lower three-fourths of the upper side two rows of spines, the basal ones very short;
the under side of the femora and upper side of the tibi, fringed with fine hairs; the
rminal spines (or spurs) large, curved. Tars straight, furnshed with a little pad
bctween the claws; the first joint of the strior as long as the two last united.






BGENERIC CHARACTERS. 39

ealarge anteror face vertical; with four distinct carin; front a little flattened
between the eyes, and also strongly aloate. Antenna short, filiform, multiarticulate;
joints indistint, cylindrical. Ponotum short, shareened, or almost smooh its disk
at; transerse nions febl; dorsal arina distint, ateral more or less prominent;
te posterior border sloped lightly obliquely on the side; median point somewhat
sali. Protern furnished in the middle with a strong spine, somewhat anlarged,
and very obtuse at the apex. Elytra short, not passing the abdomen, generally equal
to it in length. Wings short, not quite the length of the elytra. Eyes large, oblong,
slightly prominent. Palpi abort; joints cylindrical. Breast large, flat. Abdomen en-
larged, strongly unicarinate above; terminal pieces of the female short, as are also the
appendages (oer). Subanal plate of the male 8omewhat triangular, pointed, and
entire at the tip; elevated or straight; appendages of this sex more or less long; some-
ti e eou and urved; in others larger, horny, curved inwards, and truncate at


Here be divides the genus into two sections, as follows :
First. Abdominal appendages of the male sometimes setaceous, a little curved a the
born of an ox. Subanal plate of the male rather short, elevated. Pronotumin sha-
greened; its posterior median point somewhat prominent.
Second. Abdominal appendagesof the male very large, corneous, bent interiorly en
uiller at the extremity, where it is subtruncate. Subanal plate of the male almost


. ita u is placed in the latter division.
The removal of the two species mentioned above left C. italicu as the
only original representative of his genus. But in the mean time Bur-
meister redescribes the gen, and changes the name to Caloptenus, in-
luding in it as de scribad and understood by him not only italicus, but
also the American species fcmur-rubrum, femoratus, and bivittatus, be-
sides a number of other exotic species. This author in his HandbucAh
der Entoologie (1838) describes the genus as follows, giving Calliptamue
of Servile as a synonym:
A more compressed and yet in general more pleasing structure of the body betrays
the members of this genus. Moreover, its head stands entirely vertical, has no no-
ticbly prominent pex, and the two median frontal carinm are united into a flat
bulge, which, in the neighborhood of the lower ocellus, is obsolete. The margins of
the vertex in front of the eyes are rather sharp, and the part between them is notice-
ably depressed (sulcate). The strong mouth parts (mandibles)are distinguished, on
closer examination, by several pointed teeth on the inner margin. The pronotum has
distinctly marked lateral borders (or carinE), and a sometimes distinctly, sometimes less
prominent median line (carina); the posterior margin is more or less salient; and the
last of the transverse impressed lines cuts the median carina about its middle. The
prosternm has an obtuse vertical spine; the flat meso- and metasternum are broad.
Wings and elytra without distinctive characters. Hind femora thick, strongly com-
pressed, with prominent carina above; as long as the abdomen. The male in this
genuis especially distingied by the great development of its genitalia, which causes
a spherical thickening of the apex of the abdomen. The terminal ventral plate is,
moreover, sometimes large, and envelopes the apex, and sometimes no longer than
usual; in the latter case the ce are very large and curved inward.

In this C. femoratus, 1 from Carolina," appears to be his type; C.
femur-rubrum being placed next, and C. italicue third.






40 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Attention is called to the fact that neither of the authors mentioned
alludes to the serratures on the posterior femora, or want of the inter-
calate vein of the elytra. Serville evidently intended, by some of the
characters given in his first description of the genus, to distinguish it
from Pneumora, belonging to a wholly different -group; his pronatal
characters are also inapplicaple to most of the species which have usually
been placed in the genus. Omitting these, nothing remains in his diag-
nosis but what is applicable to a number of other genera.
Taking these facts into consideration, we are forced to consider the
Caloptenus of Burmeister, although given but as an emendation of Ser-
ville's Calliptamus, as really a new genus. This being the case, C.femur-
rubrum must be retained as the type, unless femoratus is considered a
good species.
It is also worthy of remark that Seville's genus does not appear to
have been adopted or used by any other author previous to the publica-
tion of Burmeister's Handbuch. On the contrary, Brulle (Hist. Nat.,
1835); 0. G. Costa (Fauna di Napoli, 1836), and Hahn (Icon. Orthop.,
1835), retain italicus in Acridium.
The character of Caloptenus and Pezotettix, as given by H. Fischer,
(Orthoptera Europea, 1853) were evidently intended to embrace only
European species, and although we infer from his remarks that he would
include our species of Calopteni in the former genus, yet the characters
render it very doubtful where they would fall.
Therefore, while we admit that the group stood sadly in need of re-
vision at the time Stal entered upon the work, yet we do not think the
facts warrant him in dropping the generic name Caloptenus or in remov-
ing femur-rubrum therefrom, hence we cannot follow him in this
change. This is, perhaps, not a proper place to discuss a question of
this kind, but we have considered it necessary to say this much in ex-
planation of our reasons for differing with so distinguished an entomol-
ogist in his special field as Dr. StAl.
Under the circumstances it is perhaps best that we should define the
genus as we understand it, or at least give the characters which the
North American species have in common which we include in Caloptenus.
These are as follows:
CALOPTENUS, Gen. char.
Head subglobular, front vertical, or nearly so. Eyes ovoid, sometimes almost sub-
orbicular, but usually the length is to the breadth as three to two, and the front side is
more or less straightened; usually the upper canthus is more or less angular, but some-
times it is rounded so as to obliterate the angle; generally rounder and morepromi-
nent in the male than in the female; separated above by a little less than their width.
Vertex narrow between the eyes, the width at this point being a little less than the
width of the eye; usually though not always sulcate, the sulcus or groove shallow;
expanding slightly, abruptly, and angularly immediately in front of the eyes; deflexed
(150 to 400), and generally rounded in front. Frontal costa usually quite prominent,
about as broad as the vertex between the eyes; sides parallel flat, or shallowly sulcate,






DIAGNOSIS OP THE GENUS CALOPTENUS. 41

reaching to or nearly to the clypeus. Pronotom subquadrate, that is to say, a cross
ion (in the middle) wil present a quadrate figure or parallelogram with the upper
corners slightly rounded; the sides are nearly perpendicular; the disk or dorsal sur-
face is ery nearly fat, with a little thread-like, median carina, usually distinct on the
plobe, but sometimes obliterated on the middle and anterior lobes; the lateral
carinaare obtuse, but distinctly marked as the angle where thi disk and sides meet;
on the posterior lobe they sometimes appear as true carin, though not prominent or
sharp; the lower margin of the sides is nearly straight, sometimes projecting a little
in the middle, where the triangular corner piece connects; the posterior lateral margin
varies somewhat; in some species it forms a distinct entering angle at the shoulder or
lateral carina, n others it continues to the tip in an almost straight line; the three
transverse incisions are distinct and situated close together, the posterior one being a
little behind the middle and always cutting the middle carina; all three sever the
teral car but the anterior one ends at the upper margin of the sides with a slight
and short curve forward; the posterior and middle ones extend down the sides well
toward the lower margin, and most generally about midway down the posterior sends
out at right angles a branch sulcus which often crosses the intermediate space to the
middle one; there is also a fourth sulcus extending down the sides close to the
teror margin; th posterior slcus and usually the middle one make a short curve
forward immediately at the median carina; the posterior margin is obtuse-angled,
rounded at the tip; the posterior lobe is usually finely punctured, while the middle
and anterior lobes have a velvety or felty appearance.
The elytra and wings extend to or beyond the tip of the abdomen; the former are
narrow (except in C. bivitatuv); the latter transparent in all our species; sometimes a
very slight greenish-yellow or a bluish tinge is observed, the nerves usually more or
lessdark. Theabdomen is usually ubcyindrical, presenting no distinct keel above;
that of the male enlarged at the tip and curved upward; the cerci are usually flat,
rounded at the tip,.and curved up but some ae straight and others tapering. The
last abdominal ent, which curves upward like the prow of a boat, is some-
times truncate above, sometimes with a slight angular notch. Posterior femora ro-
bust, much enlarged near the base, the external face more or less convex, in the
female never longer and generally shorter than the abdomen; in the male the reveres
is the rule. Pads between the claws large, reaching a maximum size in some of the
species. Mst of our species have the upper portion of the Inner face of the posterior
thighs marked with three oblique dark bands (the one at the base often indistinct).
There is generally a dark stripe on the side running back from the eye to the
last transverse sulcus of the pronotum; it is often interrupted, broken, or partially
obliterated, but is seldom wholly wanting in those species any way closely allied to C.
sprew or C. femur-rubrum. The antenna are filiform and slender, reaching their maxi-
mum length in the male of C. diferentialis, where they sometimes attain the middle of
the body. The prosternal spine is usually stout and conical, quadrangular at the base,
and generally slightly transverse; in one or two species it approximates the mesoster-
num, but this is not usual.
Our speciesvary in length from 6-10 to 24 inches.

The genus as thus characterized is represented in the territory em-
braced in our observations by a number of species, several of which
are so closely allied to preu that it is difficul for any but an expe-
rieced entomologist to determine to which a specimen belongs. We
think it more than likely that future investigations will show that several
of the species which have been described as distinct are but varieties

The following list contains all the species found in the United States






42 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

which have been described up to the present time, except a few men-
tioned by older authors, which have not been identified inrecent years:
7. femur-rubrum, Deg. 0. robustus, Scudd. C. Yarrowii, Thos.
spretus, Thos. Turnbulli, Thos. regalis, Dodge.
atlanis, Riley. floridanus, Thos. fasciatus, Scudd.
repletus, Walk. angustipennis, Dodge. helluo, Scudd.
bilituratis, Walk. plumbum, Dodge. devorator, Scudd.
punctulatus, Uhler. bivittatus, Say. ponderosus, Scudd.
lurida, Dodge. differentialis, Thos. flavolineatus, Thos.
minor, Scudd. griseus, Thos. Keelerii, Thos.
gracilipes, Scudd. scriptus, Walk. olucris, Dodge.
deletor, Scudd. occidentalis, Thos.
Although this list of species is somewhat large, it will be necessary
to call attention to but few of them, as the larger number can easily be
disposed of by reference to locality or a single character.
C. spretus, or Rocky Mountain locust, as will hereafter be more fully
shown, is a comparatively small species, the body seldom exceeding one
inch and a quarter in length, slender, the elytra or upper wings longer
than the body, of a pale brownish color, with small squarish darker
spots arranged along the middle line; body some shade of brown, never
distinctly green or bright yellow, and without pale or yellow stripes
along the back.
By referring to locality, we may eliminate the following species:
C.floridanus and Keelerii. So far only found in Florida.
C. griseus. With spots scattered over the elytra; rare, and hitherto dis-
covered only in Ohio.
G. bivittatus. A widely-dispersed species, much larger than spretus,
with two yellow or pale stripes along the back.
C. differentialis. Our largest species belonging to the genus, one and a
half to two inches long, without spots on the elytra.
C. Turnbullii. Dull yellowish-brown, with two broad yellow stripes;
wings scarcely as long as the abdomen.
C. repletus and scriptus. Hitherto found only in northwest part of Wash-
ington Territory.
The following species are local in the places mentioned, and are dis-
tinguished by having the last abdominal segment of the male rounded
or squarely truncate at the tip, whereas that of spretu is notched:
C. plumbum, Nebraska i tip of male abdomen rounded.
7. ponderosus, Texas; tip of male abdomen rounded.
C. robustus, Texas; tip of male abdomen rounded.
(. devorator, Texas; tip of the male abdomen truncate.
C. deletor, Texas; tip of the male abdomen rounded.
0. glaucipes, Texas; tip of the male abdomen acuminate but rounded.
C. fasciatus, Texas and Nebraska; tip of the male abdomen rounded.
C. minor, Nebraska; very small; tip of the male abdomen tuberculat.
0. lurida, Nebraska; last ventral segment of the male entire.






S43

0. Volrs, Nebraska; terminal segment of the male abdomen pointed

ome of th aredoubtless good species and may be found to be more
wdely distributed than our present knowledge would indicate. Some
of em are most probably local offshoots or varieties of femr-rubrwn.
. hu is from Texas; the female only has been observed, and has
the spots on the elytra scattered throughout.
Srega has been observed at only one locality in ebraska, is very
distinct, being marked to a greater or less degree with bluish and
white; disk of the elytra white, and veins of the wings white; hind
tibi bright blue, with a white annnlus near the knee.
C. is known only by a single female, probably from Arizona
but possibly from Nevada; elytra brown, with oblong yellow spots
along the disk, sarcely as long as the abdomen.
C viat, from Southern California, is evidently very closely allied
to preu, and in all probability is but a southwest or Pacific coast
variety of i It is distinguished from that species by being some-
what fleshier shorter wings, and its bright yellow lines. The last
ventral segment of the male is very slightly notched.
C. ag penni has been observed only in Nebraska, and is evidently
a local variety of 0. atlani ; in fact, the characters given scarcely
justify its being designated as a variety.
. ~ctuatu found in New England, is probably nothing more than a
sectional variety of femtur.rubrum.
C. occidentlis, found west from Minnesota to Colorado, although possess-
ing distinctive characters, is probably nothing more than an offshoot
from femur-rubrum, not like atlanis in the direction of spretus.
C. bi'turatue, Washington Territory, has been observed at but one or
two points.
This leaves but three species, femur-rubrum, spretu8, and atlanis, which
require speal mention in this connection, as they are the only ones
generally distributed which are so closely allied to each other as to
render it difficult to distinguish them.
Caloptenu spretug, Thomas.
Asevery fact relating to the history and habits of this species is either
of eoomic or scientift interest, we give here'a brief history of its no-
menclature.
A..bt 18, Mr Thomas, then residing in Southern Illinois, sent some
ecimen of Orthoptra collected in that locality to Mr. P. R. Uhler,
of Baltimore, Md., for determination; among those returned was one
marked Acridiuml _preti, with a note stating that it was new.
r imas on "Insects injurious to vegetation
in Illinois," in 1862, but not published until 1865 (Trans. Ill. St. Agl.
o., V), he describes a speciesof locust under the name A. spreti8 Uhler,

General color dark, brown, with dusky points and lighter rays. Head
brown with duky oints; anten reddish yellow. Thorax an asby brown, with a






44 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

velvety luster on the anterior half, the latter half punctured; the lower edges, at the
sides, paler-sometimes pale red, at others almost white. Elytra extending about half
over the abdomen (or not exceeding two-thirds), marked along their internal margins
with a light, reddish-brown ray; external margin dusky; a few dusky dots along the
internal margins. Wings not quite as long as the elytra; transparent, pale yellowish
on the disk, tinged with red at the base (in recent specimens). Posterior thighs crossed
by two black bands, and black at the knees; intermediate spaces pale yellow-often
almost white. Length of female, one inch and three-eighths; of the male, slightly
over an inch.
This species is quite common here along the road-side and among low weeds and
grass.
Immediately after this, in the same paper, follows a brief description
offemur-rubrum, showing that he then considered the two species as dis-
tinct. But there is evidently some mistake in his description; although
it agrees in part with the characters of spretus, part of the description
cannot possibly apply to that species. The original specimens were
destroyed soon after the paper alluded to was written, and Mr. Thomas
is unable at present to explain the error, and knows of no species in
Southern Illinois to which the description will apply throughout. It is
more than probable that there was some confusion of specimens at the
time the description was written. It is possible that one or more of the
three specimens "a. b. c." (Walker's Cat. Dermap. Salt.) of the British
Museum are from the collection made by Mr. Thomas at that time.
In the "Practical Entomologist" (October, 1866), Mr. Walsh notices this
species somewhat at length under the name of Caloptenus spretus, quot-
ing Mr. Uhler as authority, but gives no further description than a com-
parison of the length of the wings with those of C.femur-rubrum.
In Mr. Scudder's "Catalogue of the Orthoptera of North America,"
published in 1868, it is mentioned under the name Acridium spretum
Uhler.
No description of the species having been published previous to the
appearance of the Snyopsis of the Acridide of North America," Mr.
Thomas described it as follows:
Very much like C.femur-rubrum, Burm., the principal difference being in the length
of the elytra and wings, a notch at the tip of the last ( ) ventral segment. Posterior
lobe of the pronotum slightly expanding; median somewhat distinct. Elytra and
wings pass the abdomen about one-third their length. The last ( ) ventral segment,
which is turned up almost vertically, is somewhat tapering and is notched at the apex,
which distinguishes it from the femur-rubrum ; the notch is small, but is distinct. Pros-
ternal spine, robust, subcylindrical, transverse. Migratory.
Color.-Scarcely distinct from the C. femur-rubrum. The occiput and disk of the pro-
notum generally reddish-brown; the posterior lobe somewhat paler than the anterior
and middle. Spots as in femur-rubrum, arranged in a line along the middle of the ely-
tra; these are a little larger and more abundant toward the apex. The head and tho-
rax are sometimes a very dark olive-brown, at others reddish-brown and even brown-
ish-yellow, the color deepening with age. The wings are pellucid, nerves dusky toward
the apex; when flying high and against the sun their wings look like large snow-flakes.
Dimensions.- Length (to tip of abdomen) 1 to 1.2 inches; elytr as long as the
body ; posterior femora, 0.55 inch; posterior tibia, 0.5 inch. J Length, 0.85 to 1 inch;
elytra, 0.9 to 1.05 inch.






DES O CA PTENU SPRETU. 45

his st, therefore, be accepted as the first description of the spe-

Sthe Report of the Geological Survey of the Territries for 1871
(ublished in 1872), he described the pupm as follows:
S yeow ( ometimes varied to light-brown, and at other a pale pea-
), a large proportion o black spots and strips, also a few white dot and
; labrm and lower part of the face, mostly black; pper part of the face, the
ereand cheeks yellow (or the prevailing color); a row of black dots on each mar-
gin of the broad, late, frontal cota; occiput with two lateral and one median dot
ted lines of black; a broad line of dp black starts behind each eye and crosses over
the entire length of the pronotum, widening and bowing upward near the middle of
the pronotum; the immature, soewhat fan-shaped elytra [wing-pas] are black, with
a white dot on the disk near the base, from which proceed about n or twelve white
rays, the d or pper margi yellow ; dorsal and lateral portions of the abdomen
varied with white and black; a triangular black dot on each side of each segment;
tip and venter yellowish.
In his Seventh Annual Report" (1875), Mr. Riley gives the follow.
lan additional characters of the perfect insect from living specimens,
also the following descriptions of the larva and pupa:
Regarding oloration, with fer-rr, it s quite variable, and the dad spec-
en convey a very imperfect idea of the living colors which are thus given in my
notes taken n the field. The more common specimens are yellowish-white beneath;
glacous across the breast and about mouth-parts; pale bluish-glaucous, often with
sh of purple, on the sides of the head and thorax and on the front of the face;
olive-brown on the top of the head and thorax; pale beneat, more or less bluish
above, and marked with black, especially toward base, on the abdomen. The front
ings have the grounl-color pale grayish-yellow inclining to green, and their spots
and veins brown; the hind wings, except a yellowish or brownish shade at apex and
alo the front edge, and a green tint at base, are transparent and colorless, with the
ins brown. The front and middle leg are yellowish. The hind leg have the thighs
strdwith pale glaucous and reddish on the outside and upper half of inside, with
Sbroad black or dusky arks on the upper edge, the terminal one extending be-
around the knee. The saks are coral-red with black spines; the feet some-
hat paler with black claws; antenn, pale yellow; palpi, tipped with black. In
the dead specimens all these colors become more dingy and ellow. Palpi and front
legsin some specimens tinged with red or blue; the hind tibie sometimes yellowish
insted of red, ly in the middle.
ara.-When newly hatched the larva is of a uniform pale gray without distinctive
m It soon becomes mottled with the characteristic arks, however. After the
t molt the hind thighs are conspicuously marked on the upper outside with a longi-
nblack line; the thorax is dark with the median dorsal carina and two distinct
lateral strips pale yellow, the black extending on the head behind the eyes. The
sidesof the thorax then become more yellow with each molt, the black on the hind
S pronounced, nd the almost always bl The occiput and abdomen
a e are mottled with brown, the former marked with a fine median, and two
broader anteriorly converging pale line, the latter with two rather broken lateral
lines of the same color.
Pupa.-The pupa is characterized by its paler, more yellow color, bringing more
nto the blk the upper part of the thorax and behind the eyes; by
the spotted nature of the ecally along the iidges, by the isolation of the
black bdoral mark on the lobes of protorax, and by the large size of
ii, viiblhe first molt, and increasing with each subsequent
with a discal spot, and pale veins and borders Th
ind anks incline to blish rather than red as in the mature insect.






46 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The following somewhat full description of theperfect insect is given
from a comparison of a large number of specimens from diferent
sections:
Female.-The face nearly perpendicular, sloping under, toward the breast very
slightly; a few of the specimens reared in confinement form a somewhat marked ex-
ception to this character, sloping under (by measurement) 360 from rprpendicular,
while a deflexion of 150 appears to be the extreme of those collected. Vertex between
the eyes same width as the frontal costa just above the central ocellus, and distinctly
less than the shortest diameter of the eyes; the fastigium, or portion of the vertex in
front of the eyes, more or less distinctly channeled, and deflexed at an angle of about'
400 from horizontal. Eyes nearly straight in front from the upper to the lower can-
thus, about semicircular behind. Antenna quite slender, and rather short, reaching
only to or but slightly beyond the tip of the pronotum.
Pronotum short, the anterior portion scarcely as broad as the head; sides of the an-
terior lobes parallel, the posterior lobe expanding somewhat rapidly posteriorly; the
median carina threadlike, but always distinct on the posterior lobe, usually obsolete
on the anterior lobes; lateral carina obtuse but distinct on the posterior lobe, usually
so on the middle lobe but becoming obsolete toward the front; posterior lateral mar-
gin perpendicular from the humeral angle one-third its length then curves forward
to the posterior lateral angle which is obtuse and rounded; the (entering) humeral
angle is sharply defined, and in this respect appears to differ from C. fenur-rubrum and
C. atlanis; the apex is obtuse, angled (about 1000) rounded at the point; posterior
lobe minutely and shallowly punctured throughout, anterior lobes smooth with few or
no punctures except along the lower margin of the sides. Elytra and wings extend-
ing beyond the tip of the abdomen from one-fourth to one-third their length (see meas-
urements given below); the elytra are of nearly uniform width throughout, slightly
curving upward at the apex, the thin portion (that part in which the branch nerves
curve upward) occupying about two-fifths of the length; wings a little shorter than
the elytra, very thin and delicate; nerves and nervules very slender. Abdomen, and
in fact the whole insect, rather more slender than usual in this genus, but this appear-
ance is partly due to the elongated wings; cerci very small, triangular or tooth-shaped,
not extending across the segment on which they rest; the valves of the ovipositor
quite prominent, especially the upper pair which are more than usually exerted, sharp
at the tips, and deeply excavated above. The posterior femora usually extend about
to the tip of the abdomen, and are rather slender in comparison with some other spe-
cies of the genus.
Color.-Reddish-brown with fuscous spots. Head and the pronotum back to the
posterior sulcus reddish-brown varying in depth in individuals; the face is sometimes
of a lighter and brighter red than the pronotum, sometimes darker assuming a dark
purplish hue; the posterior lobe of the pronotum is generally a pale, olive brown, its
lighter color contrasting somewhat distinctly with the darker shades of the anterior
portion; some individuals exhibit much lighter colors than here described, varying
from a very dark brown to a dull yellow. Specimens which have but recently entered
the perfect state often show on the posterior lobe traces of the dark longitudinal lines
seen in the pupa. The dark line on the side of the head and pronotum usually so con-
spicuous in the closely allied species is generally obliterated in this species by the
dark brown color, but it usually appears distinctly in specimens which have been
immersed for some time in alcohol, and is also manifest in the pale individuals, but is
broken up by pale spaces and lines. The eyes are shining black. Elytra ash-brown,
more or less tinged with reddish-brown at the base and fading toward the apex; in
the disk or middle field, commencing near the base, where this field comes to a point,
is an irregular row of fuscous dots, usually single to where the thin portion com-
mences, now and then a double dot appearing; from this point to the apex they de-
crease in size and distinctness and spread over the entire width; as aeneral rule the







MEASURENTS OP CALOPTENU SPRETUS. 47

inner eld (posterior maginal area) is marked with a few fuscous dots; in some indi-
vidual one or two quite distinct are seen, in thers they are ver minute and dim,
and not unfrequently they are entirply wanting. Wings transparent, with a very
light yellowish tinge at the base; nerves and nervules of the costal area and apical
p black, rest pale. The abdomen is generally glossy brown with the posterior
margins of the segments pale; venter yellowish or pale brown; sternum pale brown
or dullyellow. Anterior and middle legs usually more or less rufous but varying from
reddish-brown to pale boneyyellow. Posterior femora with the disk reddish-brown,
sometimes showing dim outlines of oblique bands; the inner face and lower carina
yellowish, the latter usually tinged with red; the upper carina and upper portion of
the inner face yellowish, marked with three large black spots or partial bands, one at
the base, the other two equally spaced in the middle portion; apex or knee black or
with a black crescent each side.
The posterior tibie vary in color from a bright coral red to pale yellow, and in some
cases to bluish.
Measrements (these are given below).
Mal.-Differs from the female as follows: Is somewhat smaller, the average differ-
ence in the length of tne body being shown by the measurements given below; the
wings are nearly or quite as long as in the female; it is also somewhat slenderer, but
thse differences are too light and variable to be of any value as characteristics; the
ais enlarged or widened posteriorly and curved upward at the apex the last
ventral segment being elongated, rounded and narrowed upward like the prow of a
boat, and at the tip is distinctly notched, the lobes somewhat tubercular in form; this
part of the apical segment is covered with minute scattering hairs. This notc forms
one of the chief characteristics of the species, at least the most important one in dis-
tinguishing it from femur-rubrum. The super anal platc, or triangular piece above the
anal opening, is sharply bicariate longitudinally ; the tooth-like appendages at the
base, above, are narrow and slender. The cerci are & mewhat longer than the width of
the preceding segment, are broad and fiat throughout, the width equalling two-thirds
the length; not suddenly narrowed or constiicted, moderately curved upward and in-
ward; roundly narrowed and depressed near the apex. The prosternal spine (in both
sexes) is sub-quadrate and large at the bane but distinctly transverse, robust and de-




$ 0
cg ly e nig to a blunt oint.









Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch.
1. 25 0.1 8 0.15 0 13 1. 4 0. 38 0. 15 0.23
1.23 0.33 0.18 0. 15 1.28 0.38 0.15 0.23
1.2 0.40 0. 23 0.17 1.30 0.36 0.13 0.23
1.34 0.30 0.12 0.18 1.23 0.36 0.12 0.o24
1.38 0.40 0.22 0.18 1.3) 0.42 0.18 0.i24
1.29 0. 24 0.06 0.18 1 33 0.28 0.04 0.24
1.33 0. ?8 0.19 019 1.35 0.32 0.08 0.24
1.44 0.38 0.19 0.19 1. 3 t 0.39 0.1 5 0.24
1.25 0.39 0.19 0.20 1.30 0.42 0.18 0.24
1.38 0.43 0. 23 0.120 1.35 0.43 0.19 0.24
1.24 0.33 0.13 0.20 1. 26 0.30 0.06 0.124
1.25 0.112 0.12 0.20 1,38 0.40 0.16 0.124
1.15 0.33 0.13 0. 2 1.33 0.31) 0.12 0.24
1.35 0.42 0.20 0.29 1.24 0.33 0.08 0. 2
1.28 0.40 0.18 0.22 1.23 0.38 0.13 0.25
1.30 0. 40 0.18 0.22 1 45 0.43 0.18 0.25
1.33 0.4 0.20 0.23 1.50 0.4.3 0.18 0.25
1.29 0.28 0.05 0.23 1. 33 0.33 0.08 0.25
1.35 0.33 0.10 0.23 1.30 0.43 0.18 0.25
L 16 0.36 0.13 0. 23 1.30 0.33 0.08 0.25







48 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Measurements of the female-Continued.





nh. Inch. Ih. Inch. Inch. nch. Inch. I ch.




1.25 0.30 0.04 0.26 1.38 0.42 0.13 0. 29

1.34 0.30 0.04 0.26 1.29 0.38 0.09 0.29
.45 0.52 0.16 0. 26 1.33 0. 0.10 0. 29




1.45 0.344 0.018 0.26 1.36 0.34 0.104 0.2930
1.25 0.30 0.04 0.26 1.45 0.3 0.13 0. 30
1.39 0.45 0.18 0.27 1.38 0.33 0.03 0.930
1.452 0.40 0.1 0.27 1.35 0.340 0.10 0.30
1.26 0.36 0.09 0.27 1.38 0.439 0.108 0.31
1. 28 0.40 0.13 0.27 1.29 0. 35 0.04 0.31
1.528 0.35 0.108 0.27 1.38 0. 35 0.103 0.32
1. 0.33 0.06 0.27 1.342 0.348 0.16 0.31
1.33 0.35 0.08 0.27 1.30 0.40 0.18 0.32
1.28 0.35 0.08 0.27 1.43 0. 3 0.06 0.32


1.26 0.39 0.12 0.27 1.25 0.435 0.103 0.32
1.38 0.342 0.015 0.27 1. 346 0.44 0.12 0.32
1.2830 0.40 0.13 0.27 1.3 0.36 0.04 0.32
1.23 0.35 0.08 0.27 1.24 0.36 0.03 0.332
1.43 0.30 0.02 0.28 1.34 0.45 0.12 0.332
1.29 0.36 0.08 0.27 1.35 0.43 0.10 0.33
1.28 0.38 0.10 0.28 1.35 0.3845 0.10 0.35
1.30 0.36 0.08 0.28 1.32 0.38 0.03 0.32
1.35 0.34 0.15 0.28 1.33 0.33 0.103 0.35
1.30 0.43 0.15 0.28 1.43 0.45 0.10 0.35
1.40 0.35 0.08 0.27 1.36 0.36 0.03 0.33


1.33 0.38 0.10 0.28 1.38 0.42 0.03 0.38
1.238 0.42 0.13 0.29 1.53 0.49 0.10 0.39


1.15 0.38 0.09 0.29


Later meas8rements of the female.


Length to tip of elytra. Length to tip of elytra.


Iowa specimens .......................... 1.23 Montana specimens ...................... 1.20
1.15 1.25
1.27 1.31
1. 08(?)
1.38 Average ........................... 1. 25
1.30
1.20
1.25
1.26
1.26 Coloradospecme .................... 1.34
1. 0..27 0.45 0.10 0.35
1.21
1.22
1.32
1.21
1..4 Dakota specimens0.3 ..................... 1.23
1.20 1.15
1.21 1.17
1.29 1.30
1.22 ,,
A r g ti of. 2. .. e........... g t.. 1. o










Average ......................... 1Average............................ 1.23


ITdahospecimens ......................... 1.40
1.35
1. 5N Specimens retred by Miss Middleton from
1.34 eggs from Mliniesota ................... 1.32
1.29 1.20
-1. 08 --1.18
Average ............................ 1.3.
----, ColAverage .......................... 1.23







MEAUREMENTS OF CALOPTENUS 8PRETUS. 49

eaurem of te male (Rily'8 Seveth Report).S










inch. Ich. Inch Inch. Inc I Ic. nch.
1.24 0.25 0.05 0.20 1.35 0.34 0.03 0.31
1.0 0. 28 0.08 0.20 1.30 0.34 0.03 0.31
1. 29 0. 0.08 0. 20 1.33 0. 33 0.02 0. 31
1.18 0.33 0.12 0.2 1.25 0.34 0. 03 0.31
1.26 0.5 0.03 0.22 1.32 0.34 0. 03 0.31
1. 0.29 0.06 0. 23 1.30 0.34 0.03 0.31
1.10 0.29 0.05 0.24 1. 18 0.34 0.02 0.32
1.33 0.2 0.04 0. 5 1.38 0.40 0.(8 0.3
1. 33 0.35 0.09 0. 1. 3 0.42 0.09 0.33
1.24 0.29 0.0 0.26 1.40 0. 38 0.05 0. 33
1. 29 0.35 0.08 0.Q 1.28 0.38 0.05 0.33
1.30 0.3 0. 05 0.7 1.:30 0.35 0.01 0.33
1.30 0. 5 0.08 0.27 1.4 0.38 0.04 0.34
1.8 0.35 0.08 0. 27 1.30 0.38 0.03 0. 3
1.29 0.32 0.05 0.27 1.40 0.38 0. 03 0.35
1.24 0.30 0.03 0.27 1.33 0. 35 0.00 0.35
1.19 0.33 0.06 0.27 1.33 0.38 0.03 0.35
1.~2 0.36 0.09 0.17 1.35 0.38 0.02 0.36
1.28 0.30 0.02 0.28 1.34 0.38 0 002 0.30
1. 24 0.38 0. 9 0.29 1.29 0.38 0. 0 0.36
1.3 0.39 0.10 0. 29 1.33 0.35 0.02 0.37
S 0.38 0.09 0. 29 1.36 0.43 0.06 0.37
1.35 0.35 0.05 0.30 1.38 0.34 0.5 0.39
1.35 0.40 0.10 0.30 1.33 0.36 0.03 0.39


Later measurements of the malc.


Length to tip of 1eytra Length to tip of elytr.


Iowa pecimen .......................... 1.20 Colorado eciens ..................... 1. 31
1.23 1.40
1.15 1. 28
1.17 1.23
1. 26 -
1.18 Average ........................... 1.31
1. 19
1. 18
1 28
Average ........................... 1. 205
Dakotpemens. ..................... 1.19
ontana specimens ....................... 21 1.21
1.21 Avera
1.30 Average-------------------. 1.20
Average ............................ 1.24

Idaho specmens--------.*--.----------- 1.28
1.26 Rearedby Mis Middleton from ogg..... 1.19
1.21 1.24

A er g ............................ 1.26 Average ........................... 1.215


The species most closely allied to ipretu8 is the C. atlanis, Riley, which
autor describes in hi seventh report, as follows:

e h to tip of abd n .70 85 inch; to tip of closed wings, 0.92-1.05 inches.
At once diinguihed from r-rbrm by the notebed character of the anal ab-
dominal joint in the ale, and by the soter, ls taperiig cerel; also by the greater
relative lngth of the wings, which extend, on an average, nearly one-third their
ength beyond the tip of the abdomen in the dried speimen; also by the larger and
4G






50 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSIO.

more distinct spots on the wings, in all which characters it much more closely resem-
bles spretua than femur rubrunm. From spretus, again, it is at once distinguished by the
smaller size, the more distinct separation of the dark markrunning from the eyes on
the prothorax, and of the pale line from the base of wings to hind thigh; and also by
the anal joint in the male, tapering more suddenly, and by the two lobes forming the
notch being less marked. From both species it is dist:nguished not only by its smaller
size but by the deeper, more livid color of the dark parts, and the paler yellow of the
light parts; the colors thus more strongly contrasting.
* Just as the typical femur-rubrum is at once distinguished from the typical
spretus by the characters indicated, so atlania, though structurally nearer to pretus, is
distinguished from it at a glance by its much smaller size and darker, more marbled
coloring. The contrast is all the greater in the living specimens of spretus that at all
approach it in these respects.
Measurements of the male.-Length to the tip of the elytra, 0.97, 0.95, 0.98, 0.95,
0.96, 0.84, 1.05, 0.93.

0. femur-rubrum, De G.
This species is also closely allied to spretus and atlanis, and as it has
often been described, we will here simply refer to the differences betweern
it and the former of these two (spretus).
Female.-The only very marked difference between the females is the shorter wings
of this species, yet there are other slight variations observable when a large number
of specimens are compared, such as the following: The eyes in femur-rubrut are
slightly more prominent; the head, pronotum, and sides of the thorax are usually some
shade of olive-brown, varying from pale to almost black; the black line behind the
eyes is quite broad, seldom broken up, and is distinct in the darkest specimens. The
humeral (entering) angles of the posterior margin of the pronotum are more rounded
and not so sharply defined as in spretua; the median carina is usually more distinct. on
the anterior lobes, while the lateral carinal are rather more obtuse and not so well de-
fined; the punctures on the posterior lobe are more distinct. The wings extend but
slightly beyond the extremity of the abdomen (see measurements below). In this
species and atlanis, the intercalate vein is present in the elytra (notwithstanding the
assertion of Stfl to the contrary), dimly and imperfectly it is true, but it can be clearly
seen for more than half the length of its course; in spretus it is wanting, its place being
marked by the line of union between the two rows of cells. The fuscous spots or dots
are not so conspicuous or widely spread over the apical portion of the elytra and the
elytra are narrower and straighter.
As a very general rule, the upper half of the external face or disk of the posteror
femora is black or brown, the lower margin and lower half of the inner face bright
coral-red; when these colors are well defined, there is a yellow space or stripe between
the red and black; but these markings are subject to considerable variation, the red
sometimes being entirely wanting, the external face dark, and the lower margin yel-
low; sometimes the dark is replaced by a pale olive. The tibia are most generally
bright red, but this character is not without its exceptions. Usually there is a pale
ray extending from the base of the wings to the posterior coxa, but is occasionally
wanting in dark specimens and is generally absent in spretus. The prosternal spine is
not so distinctly quadrate at base as in spretus, transverse, flattened behind,and not
regularly conical, but more uniform in size to the broadly-rounded and very blunt
appx.
Male.-The most constant difference between the species is found in the form of the
last ventral segment of the male; in femur-rubrum this segment, although strongly
curved upward as et, i tu s not so distinctly narrowed toward the end but rounded,
and instead of being notched at the tip is squarely truncate, presenting a sharp, hori-
zont .l, ard almo t semicircular margin. Below the tip on the posterior face of the







UR NTOF ALOENU FEUR-RUBRUM. 51

segment is a rather large tranverse gash-like indentation. The cerei are about the same
legh as those of the malepreu and about the same width at the base, but are nar-
oe the middleto the tip to abou half tle width at the base. The little tth-
t the base of th super-anal plate are ongate d lender, as in
spres nd are sinuate.

earement of the female (Riley's venth report).

0 Ce B I -t 5








1. 2 0.13 0.15 0.00. 10 0.0 0. 07
1.15 0. 3 0. 15 0.00 1.09 0. 10 0.03 0.07
*al - 8 a el*






1.8 0. 0. 10 0.01 1.15 0. 10 0.03 0.07
1. 0. 0.4 0.01 1. 15 0.0 0.00 0.08
1. 0.0 0. 0.01 1.12 0. I 0.00 0.04
1.03 0.04 0.04 0.01 1. 14 0. 15 0.00 0.09
1.10 0.06 0.03 0.0 1. 18 0.09 0.00 0.09
1.0 0. 0.0 0. 01 1. 1 0. 13 0.0 0.09
1.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.16 0.0 1 0.00 0.09
1. 08 0.03 0.04 0.01 1.19 0.23 0.12 0.0 I
1.I0 0.04 0. 0 0. 0 1.1 0. 14 0. 03 0. 1
S1.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.13 0.12 0.00 0.01
1.0 0.06 0.04 0.02 0. 5 0.10 0.03 0. 00
1.0 0.14 0. 12 0.02 1. 0 0.10 0.03 0.011
1.04 0.02 0.00 0.02 1.*0 0.10 0. 0 0.01
1.08 0.02 0.00 0.02 1.03 0.04 0. 03 0.01
1.04 0.03 0.00 0.03 1.00 0.04 0.03 0.01
1.09 0. 0 0.00 0.03 1.03 0.05 0.03 0.01
1.03 0.03 0.00 0.03 10.0 0.04 0.00 0.01
1.08 0.12 0. 09 0.03 1 0 0. 05 0.03 0. O
1.04 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.97 0.02 0.00 0.02
1.10 0.106 0.03 0.03 1.06 0.10 0.0 0.032
1.0413 0.14 0.10 0.04 3 0.04 0.02 0. 02
1.13 0. 08 0.04 0.0 1.0.94 0.10 0.00 0.02
1.08 0.04 0.10 0.04 1.O 0.04 0.02 0.03
1.13 0.09 0.05 0.04 1.10 0. 0 0. 06 0.03
1.18 0.41 0.08 0.04 1.09 0.08 0. 05 0.03
1.13 009 0.05 0.04 1.10 0.09 0.00 0.03
1.13 0.09 0.05 0.04 1.04 0.05 0.02 0.03
1.15 0.13 0.08 0.05 1.10 0.04 0.01 0.04
1,09 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.95 0.09 0.05 0.04
1.15 0.13 0.08 O.05 0.99 0.08 0.04 0.04
1. 1 0.5 0.10 0.5 1.03 0.08 0.04 0.04
1.19 0. 4 0.09 0.03 1.08 0.09 0.05 0.04
1.04 05 0.0 1.08 0. 10 0. 06 0.04
1.19 0.14 0.08 0.06 1.09 0.08 003 0.05
1.15 0. 0 0. 0. 99 0.05 0.00 0.05
.1 0.08 0.0 0.~0 1.04 0.05 0. 03 0.05
1.18 0.14 0.0 0.0C 1.05 0.06 0.00 0.06
1.13 0.09 0.03 0.06 1. 19 0.12 0.05 0.07
1.13 0.09 0.2 0.07 1.05 0.08 0.00 0.08

A few additional measurements of last year's specimens:
Male1.0 0.94 1.02 1.05, 1.07, 1.07.

Sto the aracters metioned in the original description of
aa s, we would call attention to the following differences between
it and reu on the one side and f urrubru on the other.
ende.-As compared with the female of spretus the wings are
o extending le and somiet es beyond th tip of the abdomen,
not differing greatly, in this respect, fromn femn r-rubrum; the elytra
S r, curved upw very slightly t the apex, very few spots
or dots n the apical potion, and these minute and dim. The inner
St always ii ac at he posterior half of the intercala






52 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

vein apparent. The wings pellucid, but when living have next the base
a bluish-white tinge; a larger portion of the nerves and nervules dark.
The black stripe on the side of the head and pronotum nearly always
apparent, even in the darkest individuals; head and anterior lobes of
the pronotum with the velvety appearance, so marked in spretus, but
here dark or olive brown, without the reddish cast so common in that
species; the pale, oblique, metathoracic ray usually apparent, but often
obliterated.
There are no reliable characters by which to distinguish it from the
female of femur-rubrum; the posterior lobe of the pronotum is usually
less conspicuously punctured, agreeing in this respect with spretus.
Miale.-Differs from spretus. in being smaller, pronotum rather niore
constricted and subcylindrical; eyes more rounded and prominent the
notch at the tip of the last ventral segment less distinct, sometimes al-
most obliterated; more of the nerves of the wings dark.
From the male of femur-rubrum it differs in usually having longer
wings; in some individuals they are as long, proportionably, as in any
specimen of spretus; in others, little or no longer than in femur-rubrum;
in the more slender form, and smaller size; in having the apical seg-
ment of the abdomen narrowed and notched at the tip; in having the
cerci broad throughout, and shaped as in spretus; in having the tooth-
like appendages at the base of the super-anal plate shortened and broad-
ened, and with a longer union at their base.
It is evident from these characters that atlanis is an osculant species
(or variety) intermediate between spretus and femur-rubrum, partaking
largely of the characters of each, and, in a few respects, differing from
both. The female approaches very near femur-rubrum, scarcely show-
ing varietal differences from the female of that species, while -on the
other hand the male approaches much nearer spretus than it doesfemur-
rubrum, as shown by the character of the terminal segment, the form of
the cerci, and the length of the wings. The local species heretofore
mentioned, which belong to this restricted group are, in all probability,
offshoots from spretus or femur-rubrum, the particular direction of the
variation depending upon the peculiar condition of the locality.
The popular names of these species are as follows:
C. femur-rubrum has generally been and is still known as the Red-
legged locust' or, which is better, the "Common Red-legged locust."
C. atlanis was first described from the New England States, but as
the species is not confined to the Atlantic slope, and the term Atlantic
might convey a wrong idea, we have concluded to call it the-i esser
locust," in reference to its smaller size.
C. spretus is known by several popular names, as The Hopper,"
Army grasshopper," "Red-legged locust," Mormon loct," West-
ern locust," "Hateful grasshopper," and "Rocky-ountain locust."
The last name, which Mr. Riley suggested as the most appropriate, is
now generally adopted, and has been accepted by the Commission.












CHAPTER II.

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY.

The history of the American or Rocky Mountain locust is in nearly
all respects parallel with that of the locust of the Old World. It breeds
over a lage continental area, and periodically, in sesons of extreme
drought and other favoring meteorological conditions, migrates in im-
mense hordes for several hundred miles beyond its usual habitat.
Unlike the locust of the Eastern Hemisphere, our species naturally
affects the cooler and mor elevated portions of the temerate zone in
the New World, though its southern limits extend at times into the hot
and dry plains of the Great Basin.
Fitfu- and periodical in its visits to the older, settled portions of the Wst,
theistory of the Rocky Mountain locustis difficult to trace beyond a period
f about thirteen years. Previous to the year 1864 it has been rarely
referred to by travelers in the West, and after examining the reports
of the government expeditions and the works of Lewis and Clark, Pike,
Irving, and others, we find little or no mention made of it. It is a ques-
tion in our mind whether in some regions it may not have increased in
numbers since the Far West has been partially settled, particularly in
those regions where irrigation has been practiced, as in Utah and Colo-
rado and in the western edge of the Mississippi Valley, as in Nebraska,
Kansas, Iowa, and Minnesota; but this is entirely uncertain, and it is
more nable to suppose that as the Western Territories become more
thickly the numbers of locusts will become diminished.
In trati of the history of locust invasions, we will first consider the
subject in very general way, and then state the facts more concisely,
arranged according to searate States and Territoes; and, thirdly,
present a summary of the subject in a tabular view. The latter is cal-
culated to send a cill to the agricultural heart when one sees how dense
the figures are from 1864 until 1877, and to lead one to infer that the
evil is waxing greater and greater as the years go on. This may be
due, however, to the greater extent of the country settled and to the
fact that the population is growing denser and denser. However that
may be, we shall deal with facts and not with theories, and would
remind the reader that in a number of the years there recorded large
harvests resulted, the injury done by locusts being local and only con-
fine to a portion of the s on, while in 1877 the largest wheat harvest
ever grown was safely harvested.
ving out of a t t locust visitations in the Atlantic and
tates, which were made by different species from the Rocky
an locust the first authentic statement is to be found in Neil






54 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

History of Minnesota, wherein it is stated that in 1818 and 1819 vast
hordes of grasshoppers appeared in Minnesota, eating everything in
their courses in some cases the ground being covered three or four
inches thick. In the same years they were destructive in the Red River
*country in Manitoba. In 1820, or the succeeding year, they ravaged the
western counties of Missouri, and Riley' suggests that the 1820 swarms
may have also ravaged Kansas and the neighboring regions northward.
In 1842, locusts appeared in Minnesota and Wyoming; in 1845, in
Texas; in 1846 and 1847, in the limits of what is now Wyoming; and in
1849, in Texas, and possibly in Minnesota. In Utah they have appeared
from 1851 until 1877, except only the years 1873 and 1874, and*a glance
at the table shows that this Territory is liable to suffer annually more
or less, especially in the northern portion.
Vast swarms of locusts were seen in Idaho in 1852, as well as in
Utah, while Dakota was visited, or had native swarms, in 1853. The
year 1854 was a year for locusts in Texas, Kansas, and Utah, and 1855,
notable for locust ravages on the Pacific coast, was not a bad year east,
Texas only having been invaded, although A. S. Taylor states that
they abounded on the immense grassy prairies lying on the eastern
slopes of the Rocky Mountains, a statement supported by no facts, so
far as we can learn.
In the year 1856, however, locusts prevailed in Texas, Kansas, Iowa,
Minnesota, possibly Wyoming and Utah, and in the succeeding year
they committed extensive ravages in Manitoba, and the States men-
tioned as suffering in 1856, with the addition of Nebraska. The States
of Texas and Nebraska received slight injury from the progeny of those
that migrated thither the previous two years.
In 1860, the region about Topeka, Kans., was visited by what must
have been a limited and rather local swarm.
The year 1861 witnessed the presence of locusts in Nebraska, Mon-
tana, and Utah, but the accounts are scanty.
Montana and Utah sustained losses from locusts in 1862, but in 1863
they occurred not only in those Territories, but also in Dakota and
Minnesota.
But the most decided increase in the numbers of locusts was felt in
1864, a year of general visitation in Utah, Montana, Dakota, Colorado,
portions of New Mexico, and east of the plains in Nebraska, Iowa, Min-
nesota, as well as Manitoba, and there were resulting swarms, in most
cases the progeny of those which came in 1864, in Iowa, Minnesota,
Dakota, and Manitoba, while Montana, Colorado, and Norther New
Mexico had swarms of their own.
A notable locust year was 1866, and, as Riley states, the injury com-
mitted was sufficiently great and wide-spread to attract national atten-
SSoventh, Eighth, and Ninth Reports on the Noxious, Beneficial and otherInsects of Misso. By
C. V. ily, Stat Entomologist, 1875-'77. The following history is rely ken from the reports,
sometimes word for word.






CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY, 1867-1873. 55

tion The i swarmed over the Northwest and did great damage
in Ka Nebraska, and Northeastern Texas, and invaded the western
coutie of Msuri very much as they did in 1874. They came, how-
eve, about a month later than in that year. They were often so thick
trains were seriousl delayed on account of the immense numbers
crushedonthe track." Iowa,Minnesota, Colorado, and Utah also suffered.
While in 1867 local damae was done in the spring by the young of
the swarms of the prvious year, late in the summer new swarms flew
a the plains from the West and Northwest and invaded the border
States; in t, the same Staes suffered as in 1860, as will be seen by
a glance at the tabular view.
In 1,local injuries ensued from the ravages of the un-
fledged ts early in the season, and reports from Montana, Idaho,
Dakota, Colorado, and Utah show that there was some trouble in those
Territories.
The year 1870 was a s on of comparative immunity from locust in-
v ns, though Iowa and Minnesota received some swarms, and the
insects were observed in Dakota, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.
Kansas received slight injury from these pests in 1872, as well as
Minnesota, Dakota, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, but it was not marked.
In 1873, the hosts gathered for a fresh onslaught upon the agricultu-
ral region bordering the great plains. The invasion of 1873, says Riley.
s pretty geer over a trip of contry unning from the northern
parts of Colorado and southern parts of Wyoming, through Nebraska
and Dakota, to the southwestern counties of Minnesota, and northwest-
er counties of Iowa, the injury being most felt in the last two more
thickly settled States. "The insects poured in upon this cuntry
during the summer and laid their eggs in all the more eastern portions
reached. The cry of distress that went up from the afflicted people of
Minnesota In the fall of that year is still fresh in mind, and the pioneers
of Western Iowa, in addition to the locust devastations, suffered severe
damage from a terrific tornado."
By far the most disastrous locust year, however, was 1874, as the more
thickly settled portions of the Mississippi Valley west of the ninety-fourth
meridian were invaded by dense and most destructive swarms. The
States of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas were overrun, while portions of
Wyoming, Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, New Mexico, Indian Ter-
y, and Texas were ravaged by swarms from the northwest, as they
were abundant that year in Montana and in British America. The
to these States and Territories was estimated at not much less than
,. Much of the loss this year resulted from the progeny of the
invaders of 1873, wh early in the season devoured the crops of the
gion where they hatched, and eventually spread to the southeast.
suffered, per more heavily than any other State. This,
llwas one of log-contined drought, and in
Missouri the evil was comlicated by the ravages of the chinch-bu.






56 RREPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The next year (1875) the young hatched in immense numbers over an
area variously estimated at from 250 to 350 -miles from north to south
and from 200 to 270 miles from east to west, embracing portions of
Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. "The tract in which the injury done
by the destructive enemy was worst was confined to the two western
tiers of counties in Missouri, and the four tiers of counties in Kansas,
bounded by the Missouri River on the east. The greatest damage ex-
tended over a strip 25 miles each side of the Missouri River, from Omaha
to Kansas City, and then extended south to the southwestern limit of
Missouri. About three-quarters of a million of people were, to a greater
or less extent, made sufferers. The experience of different localities was
not equal or uniform. Contiguous farms sometimes presented the con-
trast of abundance and utter want, according to the caprices of the
invaders, or according as they hatched in localities favorable to the
laying of the eggs. This fact gave rise to contradictory reports, each
particular locality generalizing from its owli experience. The fact is,
however, that over the region described there was a very general devas-
tation, involving the destruction of three-fourths of all field and garden
crops. While the injury was greatest in the area defined above, the
insects hatched in more or less injurious numbers from Texas to British
America, the prevalence of the insects in Manitoba being such that in
many parts little or no cultivation was attempted." (Riley.)
Missouri had never before been visited by a calamity so appaling and
so disastrous in its results as the locust ravages of 1875, and detailed
returns of the damage done in this State showed a loss of over $15,000,000.
(Riley.)
In 1876 no trouble was experienced in the spring, there being in the
border States little damage done by the young, except in portions of
Minnesota and Colorado, and it was hoped that no further losses would
ensue this year. But locusts bred in great quantities in Montana, and in
British America, north of this Territory, and in Wyoming, Dakota and
Colorado, this being a year of unusual drought in those Territories, and
in August and the autumn following, immense swarms swept over the
plains, falling upon the larger part of Kansas and Nebraska, the west-
ern half of Iowa, and some of the western counties in Missouri, and
reaching into the Indian Territory, Texas and the northwest corner of
Arkansas. Besides this, local swarms hatching in Minnesota early in
the year flew south and southwest into Iowa and Nebraska, and they
laid eggs in August.
The spring of 1877 opened with dismal prospects all over the States
east of the plains, as well as in Colorado. Happily it was a spring in
which there was an unusual rain-fall in April, May, and June, the coun-
try along the Missouri being flooded in places. The weather was also
exceptionally cool; and this condition of things extended over Colorado,
Northern Utah, Wyoming, Central Montana, and British'America. In
consequence of this season of wet and cold, the young grasshoppers






LOCUST RECORD IN TEXAS. 57

died in immense numbers herever they hatched, and comparatively
lived acquire win. South of the parallel of 400 they flew, late
i in June, in a general northwest and northerly course;
and from Minnesota and Iowa many took flight to Dakota and Montanoa
whence their progenitors came, and others remairing behind flew about
irreglarly in the States of Minnesota and Iowa.
The outlook for 1878 is excellent; but still there may be light swarms
from the northwest if he season is favorable. We will now give a more
detailed history of locust invasions in the different States and Territories.

THE LOCUST IN TEXAS.

The list of locstyears in Texas is rather a formidable one. The
earliest year recorded is 1845.
1845.-We have accounts from various sources of their swarming in
Texas this year. (Riley's seventh report.)
1847.-Mr. B. J. P. McDowell states that locusts made their appear-
ance in Caldwell County October 1, 1847, and remained during the fall,
but did little damage. The county officials of Caldwell County have
kept in their county records a diary of the appearance of the grass-
hoppers in that county since their first appearance, in 1847.
1849.-Riley states, also, that there are various accounts of locust
in Texas this year.
184.-About ten or fifteen miles, as near as we can calculate, from
Fort Belknap, April 25, 1854, losts were observed by the members of
Captain (now General) Pope's expedition, as it is stated that "the whole
section of country is covered over with grasshoppers in countless
myriads. They were very troublesome, and at night they completely
filed our tents. They appear to be going south; and if they do so, in-
creasing in strength and numbers, an incalculable amount of injury will
be inflict on the farmer. The da was remarkably warm." (J. H.
Byrne's Diary of Capt. John Popes Expedition, Pacific Railroad Sur-
veys, vol. ii, Appendix A, p. 87.)
1855.-Mr. Taylor, in his article in the Smithsonian Report for 1858,
states that locusts this year infested "those portions of the State of
Texas which resemble in physical characteristics Utah and California."
We have, however, been unable to obtain any corroborative data, ex-
cept the statement of Mr. Reveschon; bat the fact that he states that
they were in Texas in the following year is confirmatory of his state-
ment.
1856.-Locusts are said to have existed in Texas in small numbers
th year. (Taylor.) Mr. Reveschon writes that "I came into this
as] county in February, 185 The fall previous a great number
Sashoppers made their appearance," and destroyed a field of thirty

1857.November 6, locusts appeared in Caldwell County, coming






58 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

from the west, destroying turnips, &e As we have full information
given below regarding the hatching of locusts in Texas, there is good
reason to believe that swarms visited the region where the eggs were
hatching in 1858 in the previous year more extensively than any pub-
lished accounts state.
1858.-The following facts regarding the ravages of locusts in Western
Texas, in 1858, are taken from the Gonzales Inquirer for 1858. The
young locusts began to hatch "by the million," January 16, and by the
middle of March they had done extensive damage to the wheat and
garden crops. March 27, on the San Marcos and Guadalupe Rivers,
and on the Sandies, they did great damage to the corn crops and gardens."
They seem to have collected together, and are moving in a southward
direction, sweeping everything in their route. As yet, they are not
more than half grown, and can only travel by the leaping system, their
wings not having grown out. Large flocks of birds are not only devour-
ing them, but it is said they are actually devouring each other. After
doing great damage, April 21-May 8 they flew in a northeast or north-
ward course. By May 8, they had mostly disappeared, and almost
wholly so by the 15th. So complete and so general has been the de-
struction that all the farmers will be compelled to replant. In the
spring of 1858, they destroyed our growing crops and took their flight
north from 10th to 16th of April. (D. A. Todd, Austin, Tex.) In Cald-
well County the young began to disappear about April 20.
1866.-Locusts appeared in the northwest part of Collins County
about the 1st of September, destroyed all the wheat that had come up,
and then passed on to the southwest. They had nearly disappeared in
October. (Monthly Report Ag. Dept., 1866, p. 441.)
1867.-The young hatched in threatening numbers, but a cold snap
during the first week in May destroyed them. Nearly a dozen counties
were invaded in the autumn. In Dallas County the locust first appeared
October 17, theair being filled with them. '" They appeared tobecoming
from the west and traveling east." In October they also appeared in
Fannin, Red River, Bell, Coryell, Lavaca, Burleson, Fayette,.Aus-
tin, and Lampasas Counties, appearing in the latter county" in im-
mense numbers about the first of October, and completely destroyed
the autumn and winter gardens, and injured the stock-range materially.
They continued with us until the 20th, when they moved on their jour-
ney in a southeasterly direction. In Lavaca County they deposited
their eggs "by the million." In Coryell County, central Texas they
appeared October 12, "coming in vast quantities from the north," and
proved very destructive to grain and garden produce. Mr. Affleck, of
Brenham, states that locusts appeared there in the first week of Novem-
ber, "but were announced toward the northwest of us as being on the
way some weeks before." They were busy about the first of December
depositing their eggs. They appeared at Union Hill, five miles to the
west of Mr. Affleck's farm, for a week before appearing at the latter






S ITORY I TEXAS, 18681873. 59

pl were two weeks longer in reaching Brenham, seven and a
miles to he south by (Riley's seventh report.)
188.The young hatched out in the spring, but were destroyed by
the heavy rains. Mr. Afeck states that they began to batch early in
February, and by the 28th of March began to more in bands in or near
Brenam, Glenblyth Valley, and injure grdens. By April 23, vast
numbers of locusts went off Some of them got off by flight, but the
bulk kept on on foB t toward the northwest, followed and preyed upon
by hundreds of black hawks, or rather buzzards-I think the Falco har-
lan." No swarms of "emigrant" locusts arrived from the Northwest in
the autumn. Two observers, however, at Calvert, agree in stating that
locusts appeared there in the autumn of 1867 and 1868. There are no
records of the appearance of locusts after this until about the year 1872
or 1873.
18721-That locusts probably invaded Texas during 1872, and each
year following until 1876, will be seen by the following extracts from
reports from United States weather signal observers, forwarded by the
Chief Signal-Officer, United States Army, at the request of the Com-
mission:
SThey visited this section in 1876, and for five or or six years prei-
ous." (E. G. Prince, Fredericksburg.)
SVisited every year twice since about four or five years." (J. C.
Rickli, Mason,Tex., June 13, 1877.)
"Of late, for three or four years, they came to Western Texas every
year. They arrived in the latter part of September, during October,
and kept coming till November, till the first frost put a stop to their
wanderings." (J. C. Rickli, Mason, Tex., July 12, 1877.)
These data may refer to 1872, but we leave the matter in doubt until
more exact information is received. The following statement, however,
tend to show that there was an invasion in 1872, as locusts are reported
as existing small numbers in the spring of 1873. If these were not
native species, then there must have been a slight invasion of C. pretus
in 1872.
"This section was visited by small numbers of these insects in the
sng and autumn of 1873 and 1875, and from October 1 to 15, 18[7]6.
None the present year." (William Norrington, United States Signal
vice, Uvalde, Tex.)
1873.-1 In September, 1873 [no speecified date], there appeared at
isplace, suddenly, immense swarms of locusts, coming from a north-
erly direction. The direction of their flight followed the Rio Grande
or about thirty miles in its course to the Gulf. For about five
the multitudes kept traveling over this place, descending to the
grnd at sndown and rm ing below until shortly after sunrise the
rning, when all would rise in a body and resume their flight.
he w her during this visitation was very dry and sultry, and the
revailin wind northerly; the damage done immense. These locusts






60 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

left an immense amount of eggs behind, which, at the beginning of
spring-i. e., the latter part of January in this section-began to hatch.
Then it was discovered that the eggs had been laid over a tract of
country nearly two miles wide, having the Rio Grande River for its
center, and following its course out -to what distance I am unable to
ascertain." (Frederick Belford, United States Signal Service, Eagle
Pass.)
1874.-Mr. Belford continues his statement regarding the progeny of
the locusts which invaded Texas in 1873: "The wingless insects were
harmless in the early stages of their growth, but as their development
proceeded, the work of devastation began. In the first part of May,
1874, they began to move-not flying, but crawling. The fact has been
observed that the movements of these swarms of young locusts were in
exactly the opposite direction to which their progenitors had traveled.
They seemed to retrace the steps of their ancestors. Those hatched on
this side of the Rio Grande River moved north toward the settlements,
and on their way everything in the shape of vegetation was totally
consumed. Those hatched on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande (they
extended a mile and a half on each side of the river) took a direction
west of north, and the work of devastation was equally great in the
parts of Mexico they passed over. I am assured on good authority that
when leaving this section they were too young to fly, and their march
was carried on by crawling and hopping. Toward the latter part of
May, 1874, all had left, and planting was begun. Now, these young
locusts, before leaving, had deposited eggs, but the eggs of the young
ones are not very plentiful and sparsely distributed. The people of this
section, while this occurs, do not mind it much, as the damage done by
this not very numerous offspring is never considerable."
At Denison they arrived in September, 1874. (United States Signal
Office.) September 14, 1874, locusts appeared in Dallas County, but,
according to Mr. Boll, were not one-tenth as abundant as in 1876; still
they destroyed all the young vegetation, and injured the fall wheat to
some extent. "All this month they laid countless millions of eggs, about
as many as in 1867. At the end of this month most had disappeared
traveling in a southern or eastern direction. (G. Reveschon.)
1875.-It seems by the extract from Mr. Belford's statement, that the
young hatched this year from eggs laid in the late autumn of 1874 did
but little injury to crops. He adds, In September, 1875, another large
swarm of locusts made its appearance, coming from the same direction
i. e., north, but their numbers were not as formidable as thoseof the
previous year. These insects deposited their eggs, which were hatched
the ensuing spring, i. e., latter part of January, 1876. The numbersof the
young ones coming forth was comparatively isignificant, and having
in their turn deposited their eggs, they left about the first half of May,
1876, in a northerly direction. (F. Belford, Eagle Pass, Unitd States






SRONOLOGY TEXAS, 1876. 61

Signal Ofie) At Denison, locusts arrived in September, 1874, remain-
ig ntil June, 1875. (W. A. Massey, United States Signal Office.)
Uvalde was visited by small numbers of locusts in the spring (young)
and autumn of 1873 and 1875, and from October 1 to 15, 1876. Lredo
wa visited in 1875 and 1876, appearing each year about the beginning
of November. (United States Signal Office.)
187 .-Swarms of locusts reached Texas from the north and west, about
the middle of epteber, and from that time forth till winter were flying
very generally over the State, reaching eventually latitude 29P, or, more
definitely, to the Gulf all the way from the Sabine River to Austin.
Their course was almniost due south, and their injury confined to succu-
let eetables, shrubs, and fruit-trees, the orange and cotton suffering
more particularly. At Austin the cars for about ten days were so much
obstructed on the Texas Central ilroad line as to necessitate their
stopping o sionally to clear the track of the grasshoppers. Eggs wePo
laid throughout the territory overun, and the young hatched in large
quantities during the mild weather of February, but those which hatched
near the Gulf ad up to the date of March 5 been destroyed by heavy
cold rains that occurred the latter part of February. (Riley's ninth
report.) The invading swarms began to arrive late in August, and
cotinuedto come for six weeks, and the course of their flight was gen-
erally due south; others state that they came from the northwest.
rom reports received from the Office of the Chief Signal-Officer, United
States Army, we extract the following statements: In the fall of 1870,
they went down to Eastern Texas, as well as to the western part of the
State. Everythig in the line of vegetables was destroyed, fruittrees
and grape-vines damaged more or less. Small winter grain is preferred
to grass, and mostly destroyed." At Dallas, they first arrived Septem-
ber 20, from the northwest; the swarm was estimated to be 2,000 feet
high, and from forty to sixty miles wide. (J. Boll.) "The area invaded
by the g soppers in Texas, in the fall of 1876, was embraced between
longitude 960 and 990 (west from Greenwich, or 190 and 22' west from
Washington). It extended entirely across the State, from Red River
n the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south covering six degrees of
longitude, or an area about 200 miles in width by 360 in length, or 72,000
squrmiles; this belt extends throsugh the center of the State from
north to south, between parallel lines, with somewhat irregular edges,
termi by the course of the wind at different times during their
'march to the sea.' By reference to the map of Texas, it will be seen
t the best agricul portion of the State was covered by them."
1877. The spring was mild in Texas, and the young hatched the lat-
part of January, n February, and the last ones in March. From
Mah 1 to 10, at isn, ty did the most mischief, and began to fly
away by the 10th of May,bbut a good many remained until the 15th.
Si sd this pest grows worse and worse every year, and will event-
ally ruin the farmers if something is not done to check them. After






62 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

fighting with the climate, poor soil, late frosts, and heavy droughts,
they have still to fight the grasshoppers in this arid section of
country. Twice a year, in the spring and fall, the growth of vegetation
is checked by them to a fearful extent." (J. C. Rickli, Mason, Tex.,
United States Signal Service.).
At Corsicana, eggs were announced to be hatching the 5th of Feb-
ruary, but most numerously about the 20th of February, and on the
smooth, barren sandy spots. The young insects acquired wings the first
of May and commenced migrating as soon as winged, and were most
numerous from the 9th to 12th of May, and disappeared about the 20th
of May. Wheat suffered most; corn least. Fruit and vegetables were
greatly injured. The injury will not exceed 10 per cent. (J. W. Smith,
United States Signal Service.) This account is confirmed by other
United States observers in different parts of the State. At Pilot Point,
the United States signal-observer states: On the last of April and
first of May, clouds of locusts alighted, flying from the south with, a
brisk south wind, and staid over night and one day, eating large fields
of wheat and corn, and then, rising, resumed their northward flight";
and again under date of May 25, "Clouds of them are flying northward
at the present time, and most all have left this portion of the country.
* * Since the hoppers have left, the vegetation has come out
again and the farmers are hard at work replanting their fields, and as
far as I can understand, the crops will prove favorable this season, con-
sidering the damage done."
A slight invasion took place in the autumn of this year, as may be
seen by the following extract from the report of J. C. Rickli, United
States signal-observer at Mason: ctober 30, 1877. High tempera-
ture, with wind veering to northwest and north, increasing in velocity
to 32 miles per hour and bringing the first Rocky Mountain locusts in
their swarms at 4 p. m. They pursued their southern course, and did
not deposit any eggs in this section."
"On the 3d of October, 1877, in the afternoon, myriads of grasshop-
pers were seen passing over this station about two or three hundred
feet high, coming from the north and going south; wind was from north-
west and four miles an hour; temperature 720, fair weather. Their
flight continued the 4th, but there were more of them apparently.
None were observed on the 5th; wind from south, 4 miles an hour, and
cloudy; temperature about 620. On the 6th, they resumed their jour-
ney, going south, though in small numbers. Temperature about 750 ;
fair weather; wind from southeast, four miles an hour. During their
flight none came down. (E. G. Prince, Fredericksburg, United States
Signal Service.)
A correspondent at Ieadsville, Robinson County, states that
Sabout the last of August, immense numbers passed over our county,
but high up in air." From Helotes, Bexar County, we learn that, "on
September 28, 29, and 30, swarms passed over this county, but, so far





SCHRONOLOGY: INDIAN TERRITORY. 63

SI can understand, none have laid eggs or even lighted on the

The United States sign~l observer, C. A. Smith, Galveston, sends the
following fats regarding the presence of locusts in that portion of
Txas, principally copied from the Galveston Daily News. Hatching
began January 25, but the young appeared most numerously between
February 15 and March 1, and by the 10th of that month they were
observed hopping in bands in almost every instance northward. In
Grnzales County they were seen flying northward about April 15,
becoming fledged about April 5, and in other counties about the 20th
to 25th. In Austin County, on April 30th, "the heavens were clouded
with them, going north, the wind being south." In other counties they
migrated northward; for example, in Falls County there were "millions
passing over, flying northward, about May 2. They disappeared in dif-
ferent counties from May 5 to 16. No eggs were deposited during the
present year.
The damages were at first reported as severe from early all of the
central couties of the State, but many of the devastated grain fields en-
tirely recovered after the departure of the insects." Mr. Smith concludes
"that the damage to the grain crops in the sixty-four counties visited
cannot exceed 5 per cent. Gardens everywhere appear to have suf-
ferred to a much greater extent than the gin crops. Theyare reported
as having been etirely destroyed in a large number of cases, and were
badly damaged wherever visited. He estimates $790,350 as the approx.
imate damage to gardens.
tHE LOCUST IN INDIAN TERRITORY.
While it is most probable that Indian Territory wa visited in nearly the
sme years as Texas and Missouri, the records are very meager. In
1874 portons were visited according to the reports of the Agricultural
Department.
In 1875 locusts hatched out in large numbers early in the spring. The
sinal-service observer at Fort Gibson reports that there were three
dstinct swarms seen about the 1st of May, which seemed to originate
fm eggs laid the previous year. During the month of May they de-
ed in a generally north and west direction. A dispatch from Fort
ibson, dated June 1, states that "millions of locusts flew westerly.
The Grand, Verdigris, and Arkansas Rivers were covered with the dead
s that failed to fly across at the start.
In 1876, at Fort Gibson, they appeared September 16 to 28. (United
Stes Signal Service.) Mr. Riley states that "they were thick over
most of the Territory, passing southward, from the middle of Sep; ember,
and many of them remaining through the season." Locusts were not
SatFort Sill, either i876 or 1877. (United States Signal Office.)
ib was not vis y locusts during the summer of 1877, but
fro13 to May 1, the yong hatched out in great numbers but






C4 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

died from the effects of the long-continued cold rains occurring shortly
after the eggs began to hatch." "No young locusts were seen after the
14th of May. None of the locusts arrived at maturity, neither were any
seen off their hatching-grounds." (United States Signal Office.)

THE LOCUST IN ARKANSAS.
The first recorded instance of locusts extending into this State was,
according to Mr. Riley, in 1876. They overran the extreme north-
west corner of the State, and were particularly injurious in Ben-
ton County, the damage being mostly confined to this county and the
region south of it, the.insects not extending east to Carroll County.
"They made their advent from the 7th to the 15th of October, coming
with the wind from the northwest and flying south and southwest,
until they struck the base of Boston Mountain. As in our own [Mis-
souri] southeast counties, wheat was greatly injured by them, and eggs
were laid up to the time winter set in." (Riley's ninth report.)
In 1877, Arkansas was again visited, but to what extent is unknown.
The only data at hand are the following statements from correspondents:
At Bentonville, Benton County, A few passed over the last days of Sep-
tember, and a very few alighted in some localities. Again it is stated
that "fresh swarms passed over from the northwest, but none settled."
At Carrollton, Carroll County, no swarms were noticed during the pres-
ent year, though they passed over in the autumn of 1876.

THE LOCUST IN MISSOURI.
The history of the invasion of this State by the. Rocky Mountain
locust has been so fully set forth by Mr. B. D. Walsh, in his Illinois
report, and by Mr. Riley, in his seventh, eighth, and ninth annual re-
ports on the injurious insects of Missouri, that the following account
is simply a brief abstract of their statements, the portions quoted being
in most cases taken from Mr. Riley's report.
1820 or 1821.-In one of these years, it is uncertain which, Western
Missouri was visited by locusts. "They came in the autumn by millions,
devouring every green thing, but too late to do much harm. They
literally filled the earth with their eggs, and then died. The next
spring they hatched out, but did but little harm, and when full-fledged
left for parts unknown. Other districts of country have been visited
by them, but, so far as I could learn, they have done but little harm
after the first year. (Prairie Farmer, June 15, 1867.) This statement
is corroborated by the following: A Missouri paper publishes state-
ment by an oHl settler, that great numbers of grasshoppers appeared in
September, 1820, doing much damage. The next spring they hatced
out, destroying the cotton, flax, hemp, wheat, and tobacco crops; but
the corn escaped uninjured. About the middle of June they all disap-
peared, flying off in a southeast direction. (etern Rural, 1867.)
1866.-The next recorded invasion took place in 1866, when the west-







ern onties of Missouri were overrun much as in 1874. They came,
however, about a month later than in 1874. They were often so thick
that trains were seri ly delayed on nt of the immense numbers
rshed on the track." (W h's Illinois Report.) Innumerable eggs
were deposited in the autumn.
18B7.-Serious damage was done by the young locusts in the spring,
larly about aint Joseph and Oregon. By the middle of July
had nearly all left the tate. A fresh, tough less extensive inva-
n, swept over Nebr a and portions of Kansas and the western
Sof Iowa and Minnesota, or, in Wal's words, "the main body
descended through Nebraska upon Iowa, instead of through Kansas
upn Misuri," but the extreme northwest corner of Missouri was over-
run by thewarms, which were said to have come from the Rocky


lowing counties: Andrew, C Clinton, Daviess, Gentry, Jacksou,
odaway There was, however, no fresh invasion from the west.
1869.-Early in the season of this year locusts troubled the western
bo of Missouri. "They hatched out in countle numbers from
h to 24th of March in olt County. In Andrew County the
g, where the ground was smooth and hard, as 'sod' or prairie that
plowed in the previous June, and not afterward plowed, de-
stroyed most of the wheat. Our own stock was ba enough,
but e 18th of June we received a large addition of flying ones from
th, whi in some places took half of the corn, atltoug they
left on the 23 ofJune, staing less than five days. They came with a
strog south wind, and while here the north wind blew, and if they were
dist ed they would work a little south; but on the 23d, at 11 a. m.,
the south wind blew and they rose simultaneously and most of them
left us; but ou original stock not being able to fly remained. There
are no os of the p ce of locusts in Missouri in 1870 1871, 1872

1874.-The locust visitation of this year was the most calamitous to
Missouri, as to the nighboring tates, of any yet recorded. A map of
Sover this year, as with 186, is given in Mr.
iley's seventh report. He states that the general direction from which
was from no west. They reached olt County on
the 8th of August, and all the counties on the same line, north and
h, fm W h t M, were reached during the latter part
of the same month. They then continued to make short flights, and
finally reached their extreme eastern limit toward the last of Septem-
ber. They flw no farther east than in 1866, except in the norther
part of the State, and only visited the western fourth or fifth of the
State. The swarmsduring early August, and in most of the
yed till f from their fist a
pearance till frost swarms came nd n left,so that there were most always
G@






66 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

some of them about. The injury in Missouri was comparatively slight
compared with that done in 1874 in Kansas.
1875.-" Serious and distressing," says Mr. Riley, as were the ravages
of this insect in 1874, when the winged swarms overswept several of
the Western States, and poured into our western counties in the fall,
the injury and suffering that ensued were as naught in Missouri
compared to what resulted from the unfledged myriads that hatched
out in the spring of 1875." The spring was propitious to the young,
few adverse causes tending to reduce their number being in operation.
"The winter of 1874-'75, though commencing late, was severe, steady,
and protracted till toward the first of May, when spring suddenly came
upon us in full force. There was no very variable weather in the earlier
months; whereas such weather did occur in 1867." Besides this the
summer seasons of 1873 and 1874 were dry and hot. The worst injury
was done in the two western tiers of Missouri. The greatest damage
extended over a strip twenty-five miles each side of the Missouri River,
from Omaha to Kansas City, and then extending south to the south-
western limit of Missouri."
Early in May the reports from the locust district of the State were
very conflicting; the insects were confined to within short radii of their
hatching-grounds. The season was propitious, and where the insects
did not occur, everything promised well. As the month drew more and
more to a close, the insects extended the area of destruction and the
alarm became general. By the end of the month the non-timbered
portions of the middle western counties were as bare as in winter.
Here and there patches of Amarantus blitum and a few jagged stalks
of milkweed (Asclepias) served to relieve the monotony. An occasional
out-field or low piece of prairie would also remain green; but with these
exceptions one might travel for days by buggy and find everything
eaten off, even to underbrush in the woods. The suffering was great
and the people well-nigh disheartened. Cattle and stock of all kinds, ex-
cepthogs and poultry, were driven away to the more favored counties, and
relief committees were organized. Many families left the State tnder
the influence of the temporary panic and the unnecessary forebodings
and exaggerated statement of the pessimists. Chronic loafers and
idlers even made some trouble and threatened to seize the goods and
property of the well-to-do. Relief work was, however, carried on
energetically, and with few exceptions no violence occurred. Early in
June the insects began to leave; the farmers began replanting with a
will. As the mouth advanced the prospects brightened, and by the 4th
of July the whole country presented a green and thrifty appearance
again. The greatest damage occurred in the counties bordering on the
Missouri River to Liberty, and thence southward; and Bates, Buchanan,
Barton, Clay, Cass, Clinton, Henry, Jackson, Johnson, Lafayette, Platte,
Saint Clair, and Vernon suffered most. The other counties in the dis-
trict invaded in 1874, and specially those along the eastern borders of






CHRONOLOGY: MISSOUR 187 187. 67T

that distrit, suffered less. In some of these, as the extreme norh-
wes, reason may be found in the fact that the winged in-
set74 id not stay long enough to lay excessive numbers of
egg; while in those aloug the eastern border the reason is to be found
inte fat that the winged swarms when they reached this limit were
Iwek and decimated; they were the straggling remains of a vast
army. a
17. e counties ravaged by the young insects in 1875, had
splenid crops in 187. Freh armies of locusts in the early autumn
from the th and northwest, swept over the western border of the
Stat. It should be noted that a great drought prevailed in the North-
west, wh favored their multiplication as in other locust years, the
drought and eat being the exciting cae of the undue increase of lo-
custs and other insect pests.
"Te middle western counties which suffered mst in 1875 (i. e., the
poron of the State in which the winged insects reached the farthest
east in 1874, and laid most eggs) were not overrun in 1876, and will not
suffr in 1877 Such are the counties of Platte, Clay, Cass, Lafyette,
Jo n, Henry, Petis, Baes, and Benton. In these countiest the farm-
ers have little or nothing to fear, except as they my receive a few strag-
gling and comparatively harmless bevies of the winged locusts next
June and July, from the neighboring country. The counties that were
o run and will suffer are, first, Atchison and Holt, and the western
f of Nodaway, and Andrew in the extreme northwest corner; sec-
ond, McDonald, Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, Barton, Dade, Newton, Cedar,
, more particularly i the southwest half; Polk, in the northwest
third; Hickory in the southwest third; Saint Clair in scattering places,
anChristian and Greene in the extreme border.
."The locusts came into all these counties lat Fall, very generally ate
off theFall wheat, an filled the ground with their eggs, in most parts
quite t l. As elsewhere they continued laying until overtaken by

"Bate, a ng to one correspondent, also receiv a few of the in-
tn the western half; while a few stragglers are also reported in
Harison, and evn in Gentry, Henry, and Cass; but it is evident that
Sthey were not in sufficient numbers to do harm or to cause
ay febodings in the spring. They came into the northwest corner
from the north and northwest, early in September, and were to some
extent p ted from reaching beyond the points indicated, by south
winds.
SThey entered the southwest counties from the southwest nearly a
th later, invading ewton and Donld by September 23, and
the middle of by the t of October, and Cedar by the
middle of the month. It is quite clear that the eastern limit of the
warms which came and northwest was receding west-
Accordin to Sinal Service reorts ome were seen in 1odaway County much earlier.






68 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

ward after they reached Northwest Missouri; and that Southwest Mi
souri, Southeast Kansas, and Northwest Arkansas, would have escaped
had it not been for west and southwest winds that brought back insects
which had reached south of these points.
The dates of arrival of these insects are nearly a month later than
in 1874, and in this respect the 1876 invasion more nearly resembles
that of 1866. It was also less immediately disastrous than that of 1874,
and most of the crops were either garnered or beyond injury, and the
principal damage was to the Fall wheat, which, as already stated was
eaten down, and in most cases effectually destroyed, at a time, too, when
it was generally too late to do anything more than to let the ground lie
over to plant in corn in the spring."-(Riley's Ninth Report.)
1877.-Although the prospect of injury from young locusts was
threatening, yet, as in Kansas and Nebraska, the young soon after
hatching perished in large numbers, so that little injury was experienced
and the crops were unusually large. No locusts arrived in the State
from the Rocky Mountains. The swarms of fledged locusts which sur-
vived the cold, wet weather were light in the State, and did no mischief,
and, so far as known, laid no eggs. The following statement will give
some idea of the distribution and movements of the local swarms:
"The insects were leaving Jasper and adjacent southwest counties
where they had hatched, the latter part of May and early in June, that
part of the State being vacated by the middle of June, and the course
being north and northwest. They left the northwest counties toward
the end of June and during the first week of July, the direction being
northwest, except on June 30, when some stragglers were blown back
from the northwest over Nodaway County."
August 14, large numbers passed over Oregon, Holt County, flying
southwest; about the 20th, a few passed over Flag Springs, Andrew
County, from the northeast; at Pickering, Nodaway County, during the
third week in September large swarms were observed flying from the
northwest to the southeast, but none were known to alight. In Atchi-
son County large swarms from the north passed over in August and
September, and a few dropped down, but no eggs were deposited.

THE LOCUST IN KANSAS.

We have fuller information regarding the ravages of locusts in this
State than in Nebraska, probably from the fact that the State was set-
tled earlier and has a much larger population, and suffered more from
the hordes of invading locusts.3
a 1846.-There are no records of locusts in Kansas in 1846, and I quote the following statement doubt-
ful whether the grasshoppers referred to were local species or emigrants from the west. "As we pro-
coeded on our jorney, we heard the confused hum of thousands of grasoppers, now and then broken
by the chirping of the ricket. These nsects are found in great abundance, and obtain greater size
than any I have seen elsewhere."-(Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth, in
Missouri to San Diego, Cal., by W Emory, p. 392. The insects were observed July 2, 1846, in the
Kansa River Valley.)






CHRONOLOGY: 6KANSAS 18 66. 9

18-t viited Kana, but how extensively is not known; the
warm arrived in the autumn.-(T. Wells.)
1855.-The eggs laid the previous autumn hatched in the spring of
Sif I remember aright one of our oldfarmers who was then
vi on the south side of the Kansas River tld me that his wheat was
all by them. I do not remember seeing any myself that year.
It was dry in the spring, but after about the middle of May we had fre-
ent and very vy showers ll through the seaso."(T. C. Well.)
S1856-57.-a I the autumns of 1856 and 1857 the wheat and corn
a were eaten aund the outside of fields, I suppose by aop-
.ten pret, though I never noticed them in great numbers so as to
attract cular attention until 1860.-(T. Wells.)
at locusts appeared in Kansas this year is affirmed by
Mr. T. Wells, who remarks, What I have sid about them in 1860,
and fr then to the present time, I know to be true from my peronal
observation, with the single exception of 1864."-(T. C. Wells, Manhat-
tan, Kansas.)
1864.-l I was E that [this] year, but am told by those that were
e tat i was very dry, and that the locust were here."-(T. C.

it reco of any invasion we are aware of refers to this
yr, t ugh it is not mprobable that a portio of the State, at least,
was in 1 or 1821, and, possibly, in 1846, but there are no
records to that effect extant.
In August and Sepmber, 1-10, 1 swarms of locusts arrived. In
Agut thy made their appearance in the frontier settlements of Kan-
as and Nebraska, and later, early in September, destroyed every green
thing in trats in the eastern part of the State. On the Nemaha River
, wever, lies mostly in ebraska) and is in the eastern limits of
IthS they aved in louds glittering in the sunlight like huge
flakes of snow," and destroyed the late corn and the winter wheat, and
began at once laying their eggs, so that the ground was fairly honey-
combed by their egg-cells.
September At Council Grove "a tremendous shower of grass hop-
prcame from the south, completely filling the air as high as one could
s, and lking like driving snow-storm"; they eat every green thing.
In Allen County they appeared September 11; they almost darken
the in their flight"; they eat everything green, including winter
w Brown C y they covered a tract twelve miles in width,
and consumed pretty much everything green. Trees were stripped of
lystripped the stak. *
SNth te K th f the air so as to obscure the sun.
Theya been ce of two hundred miles above Fort
K. In aryvhoppers in that section eat every green
thing. The Leavenwort p reported tht a vast army of grass
the west. They d cleanedut Topeka,






70 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

the capital, of garden vegetables, grass, and clover, and left the ground
as if burned with fire. Corn is eaten to the roots. About Lawrence,
though very numerous, yet coming so late they did not do essential
damage, but deposited their eggs. In Douglas County they made their
appearance by the billion. The prevailing winds in the State during
August and September were westerly, and the season was dry and hot.-
(Practical Entomologist, ii, 3-4.)
1867.-The locusts this year, according to B. D. Walsh, took a rather
more northerly course, the main body descending through Nebraska
upon Iowa, instead of through Kansas upon Missouri. Still in both years
there were flying columns of the enemy, that deviated a little from the
general line of march either to the right or to the left. For, as will be
seen hereafter, some of the more northerly parts of Kansas and the ex-
treme northwest corner of Missouri were invaded by the army of 1867;
and as I have shown in the Practical Entomologist, the southern parts
of Nebraska were very generally invaded by the army of 1866." Nearly
as last year, the invasions occurred from August 25 to September 30,
and the locusts came from the northwest.-(Walsh's First Illinois Rep.)
1868.-Locusts, which hatched in the spring, devastated the State,
locally, and the region west of Fort Riley was ravaged in the autumn,
but whether by foreign swarms or those native to the State is not stated.
August 7, locusts appeared in Riley County, flying from the northwest
apparently, as a southeast wind prevented their leaving on the 8th. It
is possible that the swarms came from Iowa and Minnesota, rather than
from the west. In the early part of August they attracted attention
in Kansas and during the preceding month in Iowa and Minnesota.
(American Entomologist, i, 74.) From this fact we infer that the inva-
sions were local and from the north.
1869.-For two years, apparently, the progeny of those which over-
run the State in 1866-67 remained and did some damage. In 1869 the
young hatched out In Saline, Lyon, and Brown Counties, but left as soon
as they acquired wings, namely, about the middle of June. They were
destructive east of Nemaha County, but no extended damage was done
in the State generally, and none were seen in 1870 and 1871.
1872.-This year "foreign" locusts did some harm in parts of Kansas.
At Beloit they appeared in the last week in August and devoured every-
thing green.-(Riley's Seventh Report.)
1873.-While Nebraska and the country to the north was generally
overrun in 1873, there is no record of their appearance in Kansas.
1874.-This was the worst locust year in Kansas, the State,'like its
neighbors north and south, suffering extremely. Mr. Riley in hisseventh
report says the locusts swept over the State "in overwhelming hordes
from the plains of Colorado on the west, and the fields of Nebraska on
the north, in many instances clearing off all traces of vegetation in a
few hours." The corn crop was ruied by them. They appeared i
every county, so far as the records show, except Clarke, Comanche,






SCHRONOLOGY: KANSASY 1875. 71

Goe, Donpan, Graham, Greenwood, Harper, Hodgeman, Kiowa,
Pratt, Sumner, Stafford, Trego, and Wallace, which are
or less norganized and uninhabited, so that no records were ob-
though they were overrn like the rest according to Mr. A. Gray,
Sthe Board of Agriculture. The suffering was great, thirty
coun reporting 1,842 families, aggregating 9,154 persons, reduced
to destitution, and immigration to the State was checked, and relief
ees throughout the country were formed to aid them.
About the 15t-5th of July, the locusts appeared in Northern and
Nrhwe n Kanss, and continued to be destructive till at least the
end of Auust, ad laid their eggs in the autumn. During this year the
greatest damae was from northwest to southeast, being lightest along
the e n half of the State, which the wined insects reached too late
to do vey s injury; but the greatest bulk of the eggs were laid
as the locustapproached the eastern limitsof theState.-(Riley's Eighth
)

1875.-In ths year the damage done was by the young locsts, which
atchd in enormous numbers in the eastern part of the State, so that,
as Mr. iley states, "in 1875 the tables were turned ; the eastern
portion of the State suffered, and the western counties were little
troubled? He also states that "the ravages of the young locusts were
confined to a district of about 150 miles in length and 50 miles in
br h, at the widest, along the eastern border. The counties of Don-
ipha, Brown, Atchison, Jefferson, Leavenworth, Douglass, Labette,
Johson, Miami, Franklin, Linn, Bates, and Bourbon, suffered more or
less severely." The locusts hatched out mostly in April and early May,
cme fledged May 28 to JUe 15, and then all flew in a general
northwest direction. (Riley's eighth report.) The writer passed over
the ravaged region along the Kansas Pacific Railroad just after the
s had taken flight and witnessed the bare fields, desolated towns
and g l n they left behind along this part of the country. They
w out of eState, and there were no invasions from the north or
west that year, and no damage done after the middle of July. Still,
g to the fear of dister, there was said to be a heavy emigration
of farmers from the State.
There were fresh nvasions from the north and northwest from
late in July until early in September. "Early in September the swarms
thic d, and the wind blowing amost a gale from the west and north-
west for two or three days subsequently, the insects during that time
swept down in darkening clouds over the greater portion of the State
S mn o ond the 96th. (iley's ninth report.)
Prof. F. H. ow, October 4, 1876 made the following statement:
I camethrough Kansas from Colorado (Denver) on the 5th and 6th September. Ca-
opte preu at that time extended about 100 miles east of the mountains, lat of which
of itduring the daylight on the 5th. Next morning we
n mall numille (Saline County), 180 miles west of Kan-
City;infll force at Salina, 12 miles farther east; and found the east front of this






72 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

line 4 miles west of Abilene, in Dickinson County, and about 150 miles west of Kansas
City. Observing and inquiring at the stations in this 30-mile belt, I invariably learned
that the flight of the locust was from the north and not from the west, as two years ago
(in 1874).
Four weeks have now passed and the locust has not yet reached Lawrence, its east-
ern line being about 20 miles west of Lawrence, only about 100 miles farther east than
it was four weeks ago. This eastern line extends across the State from north to south,
the entire State west of this line having been visited. In many places the pest has
come in immense numbers, while in many other places there has been but a light
sprinkling. Little damage has been done thus far, almost none at all in comparison
with two years ago, it being so late in the season that the crops of this year were
secure. The fall-wheat, however, has been very generally eaten down, but has come
up again when drilled after the departure of the hordes which remain but a few days
in a place. Wheat sown broadcast has been generally killed, having been eaten down
to the kernel. The great danger to be feared now is the spring-hatching of the eggs
which have been deposited in varying abundance in the eastern part of the region
visited. It is agreed on all hands that the present visitation is far less numerous than
two years ago. The locusts are everywhere reported to be heavily parasitized by the
red mite and the Tachina fly. Can it be that these hordes are the "spring hatch"
from Iowa, Minnesota, and Wyoming ? While in the South Park in July, I found great
numbers of young spretus along the streams from the mountain-sides. When on the
summit of Pike's Peak, July 28 and 29, the winged results were flying due east as high
up in the air as the eye could reach. They did not descend upon us at Manitou until
the 12th of August. (Packard's report in Hayden's Survey, 1875.)
At Abilene locusts were observed August 24 and 25 going in a
southwest course, with the wind moderate from the northeast. Sep-
tember 2, 3, and 4 vast swarms flew north; September 6 vast swarms
going northwest, the wind strong from the southeast. September 7, at
about 11 o'clock, the advance guard reached Abilene going due east,
with a strong gale, flying very low. They began falling at once, and
kept gradually changing their course until 1 p. m., when they went due
north and ceased flying at 2 p. m. The ground was alive with them,
and some of the citizens smoked them out of their gardens success-
fully. A thunder-storm reached us at 6 p. m., and the rain fell in tor-
rents until midnight. September 8 the locusts seemed more active
after the previous night's flood than was expected, as we supposed that
they were all drowned in the torrents of water that fell, and by 11 a. n.
the air was full of locusts flying so low that clouds of them could be
seen at a great distance in every direction. I have not seen such quan-
tities in six years' observation. On the 9th and 10th, after a rainy
night, the locusts in innumerable quantities left in a very strong cold
north wind. Afterward a few flew northward and westward, but the
bulk passed to the southward, and no flights were observed after the
26th, when the direction was due south."-(W. T. Davidson.)
Mr. Gaumer states that the invading swarms in the autumn deposited
their e-gs in almost every available place throughout all the counties
of southeastern Kansas.
1877.-Although much trouble was expected from the young locusts
this year, yet owing to the exceptionally wet and cold spring and early
summer, the young died soon after hatching, and did little local inury.






1CHRONOLOGY: KA S 73

No invasions from the Roky ountains oc red, and only local swarms
after July 8 passed to and fro over the State, laying few or no eggs, and
wh v apprehensions were felt in the early spring the result shows
that an unusually large wheatcrop was raised.
o e r a little more in detail: Throughout the locust area of the
State south of e Pacifle Railroad-which area includes most
of th region bounded on the east by a line running from a little west
of Lawrence tward Fort Scott, and on the west by another passing up
thriugh Hutchinson and Ellsworth-the eggs were laid in 1876 in suai-
t qati to have given birth to lousts enough to have eaten every-
thing green by the time they attained full growth, under conditions
favorable to them Many of the eggs were destroyed by the Anthomyia
aegg-paa and the other enemies described in Mr. Riley's Reports.
Some of them hatched in the fall, and many more during the warm
wof latter part of January and fore part of February. The
nets thus hatced perished. The bulk of the eggs hatched during
of and the early part of April The young insects
I e very tik then; they commenced to do injury and begat general
fear. The farmers for the most part fought them with energy. Then
owed, from the middle of April on, a period of cold and wet weather;
the young rapidly weakened and were from all quarters reported as
The continued cold after the principal hatching, had the
effcto kill man that were just hatching or moulting. The heavy
s a w man away into the streams, and in some instances
Ss whih contain sand and lme, and which are liable to crack
whn dry, the rain dobtless covered up and killed s as were shelo
tering in such fissures.
Still, conderable numbers became fledged, and local swarms were
passng through and over the State, through the summer; while light
swarms flew into the State from the south and north. For example: *
A small swarm pased over the part of the State May17 and 19, in a northand
northeast direction. Other flights, all going northwest, passed over Labette County
May 23 and over Norton and Ellis Counties in the same directicu from the 21st to the
23d. An extesive swarm passed over the western counties May 26 and 27, flying
north. Light swarms passed northwest at intervals from this time on until the main
the State. This occurred on Jun 12, 13, and 14, and was very general,

From the 15th to the 20th, the locusts were leaving in scattered numbers whenever
favorable weather prompted, and after the 20th fw remained, save in exceptional lo-
calities where hatching was greatly delayed from local causes.
After this date the following observations wee made by Mr. Gaumer,

At 1 p. m. June 16, the first winged locusts were seen flying over the Wakarusa.
They were very high in the air. The wind at the time was blowing at the of about
fteen miles per hour, from a direction a little east of south, and the locusts were flying
with the wind. The sky was nearl clear and weather warm.
June 18, they again began to fly, at 11.45 a. m. The wind was south-southwest, and
Iblowing at the rate of about forty miles per hour. They increased in number until






74 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

2.35 p. m., when there were a great many flying, as high as could be seen with the na-
ked eye. At 3.30 many of them were quite low, and a few were seen to drop down, and
they continued to fall until 4.30 p. m. At 5 p. m. they ceased tofly, and there was about
one locust to every square rod. They flew very swiftly, and in a north northeast
direction.
June 19, I again visited the country round about Chanute. Found the locusts had
nearly all disappeared. Those which had hatched previous to my first visit had all died
in a few days afterward. The eggs were not all hatched, for in front of Mr. Ashby's
house we dug up good eggs which had been deposited in a hard, sandy soil, and were
overlaid with a deposit of sand about one inch deep, from an adjoining field. Most of
them were spoiled.
At Parsons, June 20, I found the locusts molting the last time, and many of them
already had their wings. Some were flying, but not in any considerable numbers. Few
had come to maturity. At Chetopa they nearly all had wings, and had been leaving
for two days. Several large swarms were seen feeding upon dog-fennel, but nowhere
did they injure the corn or wheat. Nearly all the gardens in the eastern portion of the
city were eaten up.
Locusts were observed flying over Lawrence in a northerly and northwesterly direc-
tion, every clear day, until July 10.
The heaviest flight of the season was southward on the 20th of July.
Light swarms continued to fly about in various portions of the State
until October, flying southward and southwesterly.

THE LOCUST IN NEBRASKA.
While only the western half of Minnesota and the western third of
Iowa are liable to invasion, the entire State of Nebraska has been more
or less invaded, different portions, however, suffering in different years.
1857.-There must have been a locust invasion in this year in West-
ern Nebraska, for the young appeared in 1-858 as may be seen by
reading the subjoined paragraph.
1858.-"In the spring of 1858, as soon as grass was three inches high,
near the creek and through the valleys, we found them. They
*ate my corn which was four or five inches high, also turnips, grass, &c.,
(and I believe onions) but their ravages were not great. * I
heard that they were bad on the Missouri River that season, 400 miles
northeast of Laramie, the direction the wind took them. And the next
season I heard of them in Minnesota." (W. M. Hinman.)
1861.-""Also yesterday, at 12 o'clock, I discovered them very thick
and high up, traveling with the wind to the northwest for one and a
half hours, when there were no more to be seen. We have had two or
three days of hard southeast wind, and probably these were succssive
grasshoppers from Texas or the Cherokee country." (W. M. inman in
a letter to the Smithsonian Institution, dated June 10, 1861).
1864.-This is the first year, as yet known, in which Nebraska suffered
According to Governor Furnas, Northern Nebraska was overrun by
locusts this year.
1866.-Late in August swarms crossed the State (especially the south-
ern half) from the west, extending nearly or quite to theMissouri River,
devouring everything about Fort Kearney, and Nebraska City, and the





RONOLOGY: NEBRASKA 18671875. 75

ther frontier settlements. That the invasion was widespread is evi-
dened by the widespread abundance of the young the following spring.
187.-This was also a notable locust year, the whole State being
ore or less aflited, the young being abundant and destructive in the
spring, and in the summer fresh swarms coming from the northwest.
From Walh's First Illinois eport, we learn that in May, about Omaha,
the young hatched out by the million, from eggs which were "deposited
over the whole fce of the country, from the lower part of Cass County,
clealt through the southern part of Kansas." Early in June a storm in
the country south of the Platte, rid that region'of the young, the work
of destruction having been farther carried on by black birds, plover and
other birds. Late in August, and in the autumn, there were heavy in-
vaslons from the northwest in the Missouri Valley.
1868.-The young hatched from eggs laid in the previous summer;
hatched out in large numbers all over the State, many hatched late in
May, but throughout the spring millions were killed by heavy rains and
some few by birds. (Bruner). Nevertheless, extensive damage was
done by them.
1869.-Although there are no records at hand regarding locust inva-
sons this year, yet as the insects occurred in abundance in Iowa and
Kansas, they must have been more or less destructive in Nebraska.
1873.-After an interval of four years, swarms of locusts appear from
the west and northwest and overrun Nebraska as well as the adjoining
tates. In Adams County a cosiderable flight of locusts passed north-
wardly May 19th or 20th, remained till the 25th or 26th, when they
rose and flew north, doing but little ijury. In the autumn a number
of swarms passed southward, but did slight mischief.
1874.-Thi s wa the most calamitous locust year in Nebraska, as well
as throughout the West, beyond the 94th meridian. Not only did the
young locusts hatch in great numbers, but also swarms of unusual extent
swept ovr the State and proved more destructive than at any year pre-
viousor succeeding. It is to be observed that this was an exceptionally
dry and hot summer, locusts always abounding in dry springs and sum-
mers. The entire State from a point about thirty miles from the Missouri
River, west, was more or less devastated, the extreme western portion
entirely so. (Goveror Furnas). Swarms arrived on or about July 21,
remaining about ten days, time enough for them to devour the corn crop
and deposit their eggs by the million.
1875.-The locusts hatched remarkably late (about May 20th from eggs
laid in the previous summer, principally in the district immediately bor-
dering on the Missiver, and a comparatively small area suffered
from the attacks of the g "oThe populous and highly cultivated
counties of Nemaha, Richardson, and Otoe were most severely ravaged.
Before these locusts acquired their wings, swarms from the south in a
northward direction over the State, cause some trouble and anxiety in the
ollowing counties: Saunders, Washington, Douglas, Buffalo, Pawnee,






76 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Clay, and Barton. The loss, however, to the State at large did not
amount to five per cent." (Riley's eighth report.)
1876.-Another invasion of the State in August of this year, resulted
in the northeast counties in the loss of one-half of the corn crop, while
the western half of the State, particularly in the valleys of the Elkhorn,
Platte, and Republican Rivers, suffered a good deal. Eggs were laid
over the eastern part of the State, but less extensively in the western
portion. (Riley's ninth report). By some good obsvevers, the invasion
of 1876 was considered as calamitous as that of 1874, andi it is to be
noted that the summer of 1876 was extremely hot and dry, the prevail-
ing winds south and hot, much as in 1874. The year ended with bad
prospects for 1877, the ground all over the State being well seeded with
locust-eggs.
1877.-The early and late spring and early summer being unusually
wet and cold, multitudes of the young locusts were killed, lying upon
the surface of the ground so thick that they could in places be picked up
in handfuls. Happily, owing to these favorable meteorological causes
so unlike those of the previous year and 1874, the amount of damage
done was comparatively slight and an unusually large wheat and corn
crop was raised raised in this State as well as throughout the Mississippi
Valley States. Owing to the same cause in the northwest, and the fact
that few eggs were laid in the larger portions of Montana, Dakota, and
Wyoming, as well as in British America, there was no invasion of locusts
late in the summer, from the Rocky Mountain region, leaving excellent
prospects for an immunity from their attacks in 1878. Light swarms
moved into or across the State from the south in June, and local
swarms were observed in August.
The following statements received from our correspondents will give
an idea of these local flights:
A small flight passed over Franklin County, as early as May 17, flying northwest,
and another over Butler County, May 19, flying north. A heavy swarm passed over
Agallala and adjacent counties, during May26, 27, and 28, the direction being northwest.
They were seen sparsely flying in the same direction on various occasions until the mid-
die of June, when extensive flights were again reported, especially over Butler and
Platte counties. During the latter part of June and first part of July the insects
were rising and leaving every day when the weather was favorable, or the wind from
the south or southeast.
On and after August 6, they began at Geneva, Platte County, to "go
south and southwest in swarms, which continued daily, whenever thewind
was favorable, for over a month. They showed no disposition to alight,
except when compelled to do so by opposing winds." At Salem, 4 fresh
swarms were seen to pass over this point on the 8th and 9th of August,
and light swarms continued to fly as late as the 25th of August." At
Steele, Jefferson County, from the 13th to the 23d of September a good
many locusts passed over, mostly from the northeast. At Pleasant
Hill, Saline County, "large swarms passed over from the northeast,
undoubtedly from Northwestern Iowa, Southern Minnesota, and South-





CHRONOLOGY: IOWA,1833-18. 77

eastern Dakota, and settled in places ere. They avoided cornfelds,
settling in mall grain ad grass. They appeared to be in a feeble,
degenerat condition, always leaving the next morning, eating nothing,
appearing to come down to rest. They departed in a southwesterly
dirtion. AtNebo, after oar own crop left, swarms were flying over
for days fm the northeast." At Dewit Saline County,
frehswarms from the northeast passed over, and some few settled,
but went off again in a few days, except a few stragglers that remained
until October 1; no egs were laid" At Omaha swarms were observed
in the air.
THE LOCUST IN IOWA.

This State has probably been afflicted in nearly the same years as
Minnesota; the locusts never extending, however, more than a little
beyond the western half of the State.
1833I-The authority for a locust invasion this year is the following
extrct from a letter from Mr. A. Strong, of Pocahontas, lowa to Mr.
Whitman: In regard to the grasshopper raid of 1833, the was no
white settlement here then, but there is a part of a tribe of Indians liv-
ig near the center of this State, and they used to hunt through here,
and in some of their visits here in 1866, their chief, Johnny Green, who
was a very old man, told the people here that thirtythree years before
that the hoppers came so thick that the grass was all eaten off, and
there was no gras for their ponies; and the grund looked black, as if
there had been a prairie fre. He also said that there had been no more
grasshoppers till 186, when be was speaking. This chief was a very
intelligent man, and was about one-half white; but the Indians are very
liable to exaggerate; I have forgotten the name of the tribe of Indians,
but think they were the Winnebagoes or Pottawattoniies.
1856.-In Western and Northwestern Iowa, their ravages this year
Iwee ionsderable (Riley's seventh report). They came in August
from the north and flew south. Eggs hatched in great numlbrs in the
spring, but no damage was done by the young in 1857. (A. H. G'eason,
Little Sioux, Harrison County.)
1857.-The general locust invasion which swept this year over the
Northwest, also reached as far east as Central Iowa. (RileNs seventh
report) Ida, Adams, Pottawattamie (Council Bluffs) Counties were

1861-4-5.-Some damage was done in 1864 about Sioux City. Eggs
e laid which hatched out in 1865; the young doing considerable

-The Saint Pa s for Ju 21, 18, is aut t for te
following statement: General Sully, in a private letter from Sioux
the fllowng account of the grasshopper plague which is
Col. W. Thompson, of marck, told us th at in 1850, at Council grassoppers ate up a corn-
eld late in July or early in August; the corn belonged to the Mormons The species ay have b


t ~ ssu~~~;; il





78 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

desolating the region of country he has traversed. He says: 'The
only thing spoken of about here is the grasshoppers. They are awful;
they have actually eaten holes in my wagon-covers, and in the 'paulin
that cover my stores. A soldier on his way here lay down to sleep in
the middle of the day on the prairie. The troops had been marching all
night. His comrades noticed him covered with grasshoppers, and
woke him. His throat and wrist were bleeding from the bite of these
insects. This is no fiction. "
1866.-(" In regard to the raids here, the one in 1866 did not extend
but about fifteen miles east and fifteen miles south of here, while the
next raid went a little farther east and south; till the last one went
over a large part of the northwest portion of Iowa." (A. Strong.)
1867.-Young, unfledged locusts made sad ravages upon the crops of
Southwestern Iowa. Later in the season there was a general invasion
of the State, the swarms arriving at Fort Dodge September 10, in Clark
County about October 5. "So far as we have been able to learn they
did not appear beyond the eastern boundaries of Polk and Marion
Counties in 1867." (Iowa Homestead.) "Grasshoppers came here from
the southwest on the 10th September, 1867, and deposited eggs shortly
afterward. The young hatched in the May and June following, taking
the garden vegetables as fast as they could find them; oats and wheat
also suffered severely."' A swarm of grasshoppers swept from Fort
Benton to Missouri, reaching as far east as the Des Moines River. I
have read of them as being at Denver, Colo., at the western terminus
of the Kansas branch of the Pacific Railroad."6 Mr. Whitman writes us
that upon inquiry he finds "' that the visit of 1867 was very extensive in
that State" (Iowa). He adds that Ida, Carroll, Greene, Sac, Webster,
Adams, Guthrie, Pocahoutas, Orange, Woodbury, Pottawattamie, Page,
Hamilton, Calhoun, Adair, Audubon, and Plymouth Counties were vis-
ited this year.
1868.-Locusts visited Page County August 7 and 8 in "fearful num-
bers"; they also visited Boone, Buena Vista, Woodbury.
1870-'72.--" In 1870 Algona was visited, and in 1871 the progeny
hatched by myriads till after the 1st of June, and left about the 1st of
July." (Riley's seventh report.) "In the seasons of 1871 and 1872 they
flew over, but few alighted; no damage was done." (H. J. Newell,
Athol, Sioux County.)
1873.-The northwestern counties of Iowa were swept by swarms of
locusts. (Riley). Harrison County was visited and some destruction
done; they deposited eggs, which hatched out April and May of the
next year. Athol, Sioux County, was visited by a heavy swar from
the south in June, which did much damage; the insects deposited eggs.
(H. J. Newell.)
1874.-Much of the injury done in Iowa this year resulted from the
SOscar J. Strong, Iolfe, Pocahontas County, Iowa, in Western Farmer,, February, 189.
6S. Morrill,'Onawa, Iowa. (Iowa Homestead, November, 1867.)







y of 18 swarms. Fresh swarms came, how-
ever, in 1874? and the western counties of Algona, Calhoun, Cherokee,
lay, Dickinson, mmett, Harrison, Humboldt, Jasper, Kossutb, Lyon,
O'Brien, Osceola, Palo Alto, Pocahontas, Plymouth, Sioux, Winnebago,
Woodury, suffered more or less. As the drought was less severe
in o r parts of the country, and the crops good, the distress in
the ravaged counties was easily relieved. (Riley's seventh report).
SIn 1874 the young 'hoppers destroyed gardens and injured other
Heavy swarms also came from the north in the latter part of
July or the Art of Agust, doing great damage." (A. J. Newell, Athol.)
1875.-Few locusts athed in the spring of this year in Iowa, but
about the 10th of June until the middle of July, swarms flew in from
he south over the wetern c ties, many of which alighted and re-
mained one or two days, committing depredations in corn-fields, gardens,
and nurseries. Rye, wheat, and oats were also damaged to some extent.
the counties of Mills, Fremont, and Council Bluffs a loss of twenty-
vepercent. was reported. (Riley's eigth report.) At AtholMr. New-
el rthat "a swarm passed over from the north; a few alighted;
but no damage was done to speak of."
1876.-As in a few of the southwest counties in Minnesota, so in
ning parts of Northwest Iowa, and notably in Osceola and Dickin
n Counties, the young nsects atched out from eggs laid in 1875, but
by the middle of June they had disappeared without doig much harm,
o, in some ca oved off in a northwest direction. About the 1st of
tthe northwestern counties of this State were visited by heavy
"They appeared to cross the State line from Dakota and Min-
ota at almost exactly the same date for Emmett, Dickinson, Osceola,
Lyon, Sioux, and Plymouth Counties, and from here they swept at once
ut into the counties lying eastward and a little to the south." The
mostetern point reached was in the middle of the State, and the line
retreats westward from Story County both north and south. (Riley's
nth repor) "In summing up their coming here, I willsay that from
the year 185 there has not been a year but that swarms have been
s pasing over from the northeast, north, and northwest, but, with
t exceptions of the years when they were exceptionally abundant
(18561867 1874, and 1876), they have never deposited their eggs to any
at amount." (Whitman.) They laid eggs at Ames. (Besse.)
7.-In the spring of this year the young hatched out in the follow-
ing counties: Lyon, Ida, Ciarroll, Greene, Sac, Hancock, Webster, Madi-
son, Guthrie, Wright, Pocahotas, Boone, Buena Vista, Winnebago,
ioux, Woodury, Pottawatt Paga, Hamilton, Worth, Calhoun,
dair, and Plymouth, but the cold wet weather killed them, and little
rion was done except in Pottawattamie County. (Ltter from
r. Whitman.) There were no invasions this year from the northwest.
t r n f r over this State was on June 14. It
toward The next day the wind a retty





80 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

strong from the north, and the locusts were checked and ceased to fly;
but on the two following days, the wind blowing from the south again,
they continued to pass over. From this time on till the first week in
August they were leaving the State, the direction being uniformly north-
west. As soon as they became winged, myriads flew over Webster City,
apparently going southward. At Athol, Sioux County, our correspond-
ent reports that after the departure of the young locusts, swarms from
the north-northeast and northwest passed over July 15, 16, 20, 27, 28,
and 31, August 1, 6, 7, 8,9, 21, and 22." At Council Bluffs fresh swarms
passed over from the north, but did no damage and laid no eggs." At
Des Moines, "fresh swarms came from the north and northwest in Au-
gust, but did little damage." Locusts passed over Sac City in great
numbers during August, going south-oututheast and southwest, but none
alighted. (Whitman.)

THE LOCUST IN MINNESOTA.7

Besides those years in which the region now comprised within the
State of Minnesota has been scourged in common with other States and
Territories, there are various statements, allusions, and traditions to be
collected, which go to show that the Northwest has been repeatedly
visited by the locust in years previous or additional to those in which
such occurrences have been historically recorded. Some of these tra-
ditions are probably of no value, whatever their intrinsic probability
may be. Among these are the traditions, said to be derived from the
Indians, that the locusts had formerly taken possession of the country
and held it for seventeen years; also that they had, in times past, eon-.
sumed the vegetation as far east as Stillwater (though this may per-
haps refer to the year 1856). Setting all these aside, the statement
made by Capt. Jonathan Carver (in his "Narrative" of the year 1766),
that large swarms of locusts "infest these parts and the interior colonies
and oftentimes do much mischief," shows that such occurrences were
repeated. It is difficult to say what regions are denoted by "these
parts "; but his usual application of the word "interior 1 is to the regions
from the great lakes westward.
The visitations of locusts in Lord Selkirk's Red River colony in 1818
can hardly be said to concern Minnesota, as but a small portion of that
colony lay within what are now the borders of Minnesota; but it is not
improbable that the wilderness to the northwest was overrun in those
years.
1830 and 1842.-Still further allusions may be found in the follow.
ing extract from a letter of Rev. J. A. Gilfillan, missionaryat the
White Earth Indian agency, to the Minnesota grasshopper commis-
sion, 1875:
"My informant, Michel Villebrun (a Missouri River half-breed, resid-
ing at the agency, now seventy years old, whom I consider a reliable
7 Prepared for the Commission by Mr. Allen Whitman, Assistant to the Commission.




Full Text












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA L I B R A R I E S

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WASIEUNGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 18789











TABLE OF CONTENTS.




LETTER OF' TRANSMITTAL ....................................-LETTER OF SUBMIITTAL---------------------------------. ..------w.o X I II
PREFACE-------------------------------------------------------.

,INTRODUCTION.
I_iNRO~ucTOrmy REMARKS----------. m-------------------------------- --------Creation and organization of the Cominnjsi, 1-Division of labor, 1-CirCUlakrs sent out, 2-6--Area over which eggs were laid inl 1$176, 6-Outlook in spring inl more Southern States, 7-Letttr to Governor Anthjony, of' KanSZ18 onl tile condition of, things inl MNay, -1O-Sate of thing's inl Minne'sota in spring, 11-Ouitlook in -Nebraska in June, l3-$' condl mee-ting of the Commission, 14-Outlook in Iowa in June, 15Vstto Coloradlo, Utah,
ndMontana inl June, 17-Visit to Colorado in July,- 17-20 -Thid meeting of the Commission, 21-Trip to the Pacific Coast, *21-Trip to British.
Amlerica, 2-List of chpes(4Caate n yosso chapters, 2429-Profspects for 18 77 ,29.

CHAPTER I.

CLAS8IFICAION AND NOMEFNCLATUZE : CHARACTIERS OF' THE S11JAYS ... ---- 1
Families of the rtper,3Loutr, Gra'.shopper, 33-Generic noin1enlclature, 37-Genleric diagnosis, 410-Species (of the gelns Calop~tenuls, 4Full definition of' Caloptcpu.s xpretas and of its nearest4 conig(ner's, 4CHAPTER UI.

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF L~OCUSTr........... IJRS------------------531
Compared With locus-t ra.vage-S inl the Easttern1 IHeml)isphere., .53-Iuitiry inl
the Northwest early in the present century, -54-Brief r-eviews from 1-120 to 1877, 54-56-Locust history in Texas, 5-7-L2-in IninTerrirory 63-in, Ar-kansas, 64-in Missouri, (i4-43- -in Kansas. G6$-74-in Neboraska, 74-77in Ioxa, 77-i 0-in Mlinnesoti, 8--i Dakota. -S-92-in Monitana, 9.)96-in Idahlo,96-in Wyom11ing, 97-in Colorado, 99-102-inl Utah, 10Q-1104 -in 'New Mexico ind Arizona, 105-in NeVadll, 105-in Oregon and Washillgcton Territory, 106-in Britishi North America, 10$-112-Tabular view
of locust years, 113.
CHAPTER 111.

STATSICS OF OS SE----------.....---------... ---------------------------------114
Difficulty of -obtaining reliable data, 114-Estimates in Kansas, 115-in
Minnesot, 116-in Missouri, 117-Loss in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri in 1874, 118-Loss to different crops, 120-Loss to Missouri in
1875, 121-Total loss during the years 1874-1877, ,$200,00000, 122.




IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
Page.
AGRICULTURAL BEARING OF THE LOCUST PROBLEM ....................-------------------------- 123
Drawback to the settling of the West, 124-What is likely tobe the effect
in the future, 125-Modification and settlement of the Western plains, 129-Crops which suffer most, and those which suffer least, 130-Small grains not affected by invading swarms, 128-Need of judgment in planting, 129.
CHAPTER V.

PERMANENT BREEDING-GROUNDS OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST ........... 131
Permanent breeding-grounds, 131-Definition of the permanent region, 133Its character and extent, 134-The Rocky Mountain locust a sub-boreal insect, 135-The Sub-permanent region, 136-The Temporary region, 136.

CHAPTER VI.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION................................................ 136
Eastern limits of spread, 137-Northern limits, 139-Western limits, 140Southern limits, 141-Sub-permanent region, 142.

CHAPTER VII.

MIGRATIONS .................... ............................................ 143
Classification of flights, 143-Invading swarms, 143-Returning swarms,
143-Local flights, 143-Height at which swarms move, 144-Effect of change of wind and weather on flights, 145-Flight at night, 147-Migrations previous to 1877 east of the Rocky Mountain plateau, 148-Direction of invading swarms prior to 1877, 149-Direction of flight in 1876, 151Migrations within the permanent region, 153-158-in Montana, 153-in Wyoming, 156-in Colorado, 157-in Eastern Idaho and Utah, 158-in the lower Snake Valley, 158-Return migrations from the temporary region previous to 1877, 159-162-Return migrations in 1877, 162-165-Local flights in 1877, 165-Record of flights for July 3 and July 20, 1877, 165169-Summary of flights by States, 170-174-Southward flights in 1877, 175-Movements in different directions at one time, 176-Destination of
return swarms, 177.

CHAPTER VIII.

HABITS AND NATURAL HISTORY .............................................. 212
Destructive powers of locusts, 212-215--Stoppage of railroad trains, 215Rate at which locust swarms move, 215-Velocity of flight, 216-Direction of invading swarms, 217-Time of appearance of invading swarms, 217Flight at night, 218-Height of flight, 219-General habits at night, 219Where the eggs are laid, 222-Manner in which the eggs are laid, 223Philosophy of the egg-mass, 225-The female lays more than one egg-mass, 226-Interval between different egg-layings, 227-Number of eggs laid, 228-The hatching process, 228-231-Where and under what conditions of soil the young hatch most freely, 231-Time of hatching, 231-Habits of the young or unfledged locusts in the temporary region, 232-Directions in which the young travel, 234-Rate at which the young travel, 235They reach but a fbw miles east of where they hatch, 235-Not led by kings and queens, 236-Time of year when wings are acquired, 237-Direction taken by swarms departing from the Temporary region, 238-Destination of departing swarms, 23S-Do the return swarms breed f 239-Do return




TABLE OF CONTENTS. N


HABITS AND NATURAL H11,T0PY.-C0ntinued.
swarins from the Teniporary region retrace their course? 240-The species essentially single-brooded, 240-243-Reasons why it cannot produce two, generations ani)ually, 243-The species cannot perruariently dwell in tile Temporary re(rion, 244-The ln-,ects which hatch there do not reinain, 246-Extensive arid thick em-1,tyin- seldoin ocetirs twice couseciltivelv in the sarne locality, !247-I'e.i.sons -, Jjy it does'liot, 24-1-Can.ges of migration, 249-Food-plauts, 2.7)1-Crol)s aml platits most liked and those least liked, 25-_)-' 54-Uiin(cestsary al.trin caused by comparatively haruiless
species, 255.
CIIAPTER IX.

Al;.kTo.%IY AND FNI1111YOLOGY .. ___. .--. w ....... 257
I"xternal (111rcrences'-259In ter Ila I I I I: ito In V, 'jh' I -T I It di-ost I Vc S%,S I Ui n? 1 -The lit, F Volts SN'stent, '.46-1-The heart, !(;G-The travlle;r ai.id dilate(I alt-,ws, 26 -.Mode of
2(')9-'f lit, locust an a;:ronaut, 270-Thv inale repro(Itictivc SN'S-1
teui,' 740-The female repro(luctiVe S Steill,'271-0i-,111.s of Spt-rial Sense, thO 10CUSt, ''73-EMhI'V0101'V Of t Ilk' R.06K MOLItit ain locii-st,277-111fl-t-rent v-,-layt r,,27. -Ilmv the cutbryo lics Nvithin the it bur ,ts the eg-, '27,10.
in t" n

CIIAPTFIZ _X.
NIF ...............................
Thesixstagesof rro-xth,279-Var1abI1Ity lit thedepth of color] ng, 2,41 The
proce ss of moitino.,,2; i--ritne reiliflreil for it, -2-:,-Dift'erenve A in the imrnatiirestatre4betweeu thc-14.4-le."'ed.
locusts, .-,3.,
CHAPTI'l?. XI.
INVERTFRRATE FNE.\11ES_._.
N-altie of the locust's mitiute enemies, 2- 4-Anitnals that destrov the
-The Anfhoniyia couitijon flesh-fly, 2, !)-Gromidbeetlesandtheirlarvw,
111Q-Their charocter and _e,,,rfeejIiIjr
291-13lister-beetle larva, -, Ipellst Mn r1A
habit8,293-11istoryof the oil-beetle,294-11istory of SitarM,2D5-111story of Ifornia, 296-History of Epicauta, 2197-11acrobwfi8 and Henous, 301Otber melold. genera, 302-Soldier-beetle larva', 30-2-Asilid. lar',-R-,, 303Click-beetle larvv, 30 I-!\Iiscellaneous species, 305- C bale id-fl. v, *306-Aniinals that prey on the locust after it is born, 306-The locust mite,306The efficacy of its work, 30,- -Its trans formations, 309-0ther mites, 312313-Grou n d- beetles, 31:3-Tiger-beetles, 311-Asilus-flies, 317-Digfrerwa.! ps,:. 17-Tachina-tlies,319-Their efficacy in destroying locusts, 3.21Flesh-flies, 3-23-1chneumon-flies, 3-24-11air-wornis, 32( --Their curious lifebistory, 327-332-In sects attacked by hair-wornis, 3-27-11ow hair-worms
get into locusts, 332-Miscellaneous locust enemies, 331.

:: CHAPTER X11.

VERTEBRATE ENZEMIES ....................................................... 334
Good offices of birds probably underrated, 2:34-Experience of correspondents, 336-Some of the most useful birds, 338-Paper by Professor Aughey on the beneficial work of birds, 338-Enormous number of birds destroyed for market, :346-Damage done to insectivorous birds by birds of prey,
348--The English Lparrow, 349-What public sentiment needs, 349.




VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XITI.
Page.
REMEDIES AND DEVICES FOR DESTRUCTION ......................... -........ 350
Encouragement of natural agencies, 351-Destruction of the eggs, 351-Harrowing in the autumn, 353-Experiments to test the effect of alternately freezing and thawing, 353-Experiments to test the effects of exposure to air, 354-Experience with harrowing, 355-Plowing, 356-Experiments to test the effects of burying at different depths, 356-Experience in plowing, 358-Irrigation, 359-Experiments to test the effects of moisture on the eggs, 359-Tramping, 361-Collecting, 361-Destruction of the young or unfledged locusts, 362-Burning, 363-The burning of prairies, 363-The Hetzel burning machine, 363-The Homrner burning contrivance, 363Hand burners, 364-The Atwood machine, 364-Use of wire and kerosene, 364-Crushing, 364-The Drum locust-crusher, 365-The Simpson locustcrusher, 366-The Hoos locust-crusher, 367-The Hausberry locust-crusher, 368-The Kenworthy locust machine, 370-J. C. Melcher's machine, 371The Peteler machine, 371-The King suction-machine, 374-The Flory locust-machine, 376-Trapping locusts, 377-Nets and seines, 377-Ditching and trenching, 378-Protection by barriers, 381-Coal-oil, 381-Coaloil pans, 383-The Canfield pan, 384-The Adams pan, .285-The Anderson coal-oil contrivance, 386-Mr. Long's contrivance, 386-Mr. Watrous's contrivance, 387-Mr. Swearingen's contrivance, 387-Use of coal-tar, 387The Robbins' pan, 388, 390-Use of coal-tar previous to 1877, 388-Other machines for the use of coal-tar, 391-Catching and bagging, 391-Principles and facts to be borne in mind in catching locusts, 391-The Riley machine, 392-Mr. Thompson's net, 392-The Elliot catcher, 394-The Wilson-Rhode catcher, 395-Contrivance for catching the pupm, 394-The Godard catcher, 395-The Benson catcher, 396-The Hutchins catcher, 396-The Sylvester catcher, 397-The Hero 'hopper-catcher, 398-The Belt device, 398Hand-nets, 399-Use of destructive agents, 399-Buhach or Persian insectpowder, 400-Veith's insect-fluid, 400-Sulpho-carbonate of potassium, 401-Naphthaline, 401-Paris green, 401-The protection of fruit trees, 403-Destruction of the winged insects, 404-Fumigation, 405-The effect of concussion, 405-Diversified agriculture, 406-Legislation, 407-Bounty laws, 409-Missouri locust act, 409-Kansas locust acts, 410-Minnesota locust acts, 412-Nebraska locust act, 413-Suggestions that may be of service, 414-More attention needed to the growth of root-crops, 415The benefits of irrigation, 415-Hogs and poultry, 415-Non-planting, 415-Use of soldiers, 416-Preventive measures against the winged insects, 417-Further investigation needed, 417-Means that have been suggested against the winged insects, 418-Systematic burning of young, 418-CoSperation with Dominion Government, 419-Protection by smoke,
419-Farmers should receive the locust probabilities, 420.

CHAPTER XIV.
INFLUENCE OF PRAIRIE FIRES ON LOCUST INCREASE ......................... 421
Reasons given why prairie fires do not influence locust increase, 421-Possi.
ble indirect connection in the past, 422.

CHAPTER XV.
,NFLUEXCE OF WEATHER ON TIlE SPECIES ................................... 423
Meteorological conditions affecting the life of the locust, 423-Effects of
weather on the young locusts, 424-Effects of weather on the eggs, 424Possibility of predicting consequences upon meteorological grounds, 424The temperature of the soil, 425-Thermal constant for the hatching of locust eggs, 426-Number of hours which eggs must be exposed to hatch
at a temperature of 600 F., 431-Number of hours required in 1875.




TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII

CHAPTER XVI.
Page.
EFFECTS THAT GENERALLY FOLLOW SEVERE LOCUST INJURY ................. 432
Contrast between summer and autumn, 432-No evil without some compensating good, 433-Changes that follow the locusts, 433-Sudden appearance of plants and insects not ordinarily noticed, 434-The White-lined Morning Sphinx, 435-Tame grasses permanently injured, wild grasses not, 43.5-Permanent effects on different plants, 436--Injury to fruit
trees, 436.
CHAPTER XVII.
USES TO WHICH LOCUSTS MAY BE PUT ............ .... .......... ............ 437
Locusts as food for man, 438-441-As fish-bait, 441-Analysis of locustjuices, 442-They furnish a large quantity of formic acid, and a new oil,
442, 443-Locusts as manure, and as poultry food, 443.

CHAPTER XVIII.

RAVAGES OF OTHER LOCUSTS IN THE UNITED STATES ........................ 443
Ravages of locusts that are occasionally migratory in the Atlantic States,
443-Great destruction in past years in New Nngland, 444-The most common species concerned in this work, 446-Locust flights in Illinois, 446The species composing them, 447-The phenomenon exceptional, 447-Locusts ordinarily non-migratory, occasionally become so under favoring conditions, 448-Locust flights in Ohio, 449-Importance of discriminating between species, 450-Geographical limits of species, 450-The migratory locusts of the Pacific, 451-Chronological account of their ravages, 451Species concerned, 452-Late injuries in Southern California, 454-Tabular view of locust years, 456-Injury from other non-migratory locusts,
456--The species concerned, 459.

CHAPTER XIX.

RAVAGES OF LOCUSTS IN OTHER COUNTIES ................................. 460
Locust injuries in Cent'ral America, 460-Great destruction in Honduras and
Guatemala, 462-The locusts in South America, 465-The locusts in the Old World, 467-Injuries in Germany, 468-Habits of the European species, 469-Injuries in Russia, 470-Different species affecting the Old World, 471-Geographical distribution of the European migratory locust, 472-476-Notes on Algerian locusts, 476-Injury in China, 477-In Southen Australia, 477.



APPENDICES.

APPENDIX I.

Mr. ALLEN WHITMAN'S REPORT FROM MINNESOTA.......................... [3]
State of things in spring, 4-Exertions of farmers, [4]-Different means employed to destroy the eggs, [4]-Effects of temperature and rain-fall on the eggs, [5]-Dates of hatching, [6]-Late hatching, [7 ]-Progress during spring, [8-First winged, [10- Statistics of damage, [11].




TII TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX II
Page.
AUGHEY ON LOCUST-FEEDING BIRDS -------------------. [13]
Letter of transmittal, [13]-Examinations of the contents of the stomachs
of birds of Nebraska, giving the number of locusts, number of other insects, and number of Feeds, of the different birds, considered in their proper
classificatory position, [14]-[62].

APPENDIX III.
TEXAS DATA FOR 1877 ..................................................... [63]
Report of Jacob Boll, special'assistant, [62]-Reports from correspondents
and other miscellaneous reports, chronologically arranged, [64]-[82].

APPENDIX IV.
MISSOURI DATA FOR 1877------------------------------------------[83]
Reports from correspondents, and other data, chronologically arranged, [83].

APPENDIX V.
KANSAS DATA FOR 1877 ...................................................[85]
Report by George F. Gaumer, special assistant, [85]-Report by A. N. Godfrey, special assistant, [88]-Reports from correspondents and miscellaneous matter, chronologically arranged, [90]-[ 103].

APPENDIX VI.
IOWA DATA FOR 1877--------------------------------------------[104]
Detailed data from correspondents, and from other sources, chronologically
arranged, [104]-[110].
APPENDIX VII.
COLORADO DATA FOR 1877 ................................................. [111]
Report from William Holly, special assistant, [111 ]-Data from correspondents and from other sources, [113]-[116].

APPENDIX VIII.
NEBRASKA DATA FOR 1877 .--------------.......... [116]
Journal kept by Prof. Samuel Aughey, special assistant, [117]-[128]-Miscellaneous data from correspondents, chronologically arranged, [128][132]-Record kept by Hon. J. Sterling Morton, [132].

APPENDIX IX.
NARRATIVE OF THE FIRST JOURNEY MADE IN THE SUMMER OF 1877, BY MR.
PACKARD ................. ................. [134]
Diary notes through Kansas, Colorado, and Utah, [135]-Observations in
Montana, [137]-Results of the journey, [138].
APPENDIX X.
NARRATIVE OF A SECOND JOURNEY IN THE SUMMER OF 1877, BY MR. PACKARD. [139]
From Chicago to Utah, [139]-Observations in Oregon and Washington Territory, [140]-From Vancouver Island to California, [141 ]-Variations in
Caloptenu8 pretu8, atlani8, and femur-rubrurn, [ 143].
APPENDIX XI.
BRITISH -AMEICAN DATA ---------------------------------------- -------. 145]
Characteristics and prevailing winds of Manitoba, [145]-Data from the
Cypress Hills region, [146]-The locust breeds permanently in the third prairie steppe, [146]-No damage ever done in the Peace River country, [146]-Ravages in the Northwest in the early part of the century, [147]Records by the Hon. Donald Gunn, [148].




TABLE OF CONTENTS. Ix

APPENDIX XII.
Page.
Au-tmN-xFLIGHITSIN 18--77 [150]
Southward movements in M.Ninnesota and Iowa, [150]-n1 -Nebraska and Missouri, [151 ]-In Arkansas and Kansas, [152]-In Colorado and Texas,
[155]
APPENDIX XIII.
FLIGHTS AND) MIGRATIONS IN 1877 ..---............-------------....[156]
Locust movements In the more southern portion of the fl-iporary region, [I5(;]-[164]-Flighte in the more northern parts of the locust country,
[164]-197]
APPENDIX XIV.

ANSWERS TO THlE QUESTION: DID ANY LCTSRENMIN IN THE- TiMPARioiY
RZEGION Al rE R THlE DEPARCTURE F, THE- 'r.RRM?--------- l~
An!,wers from Arkansas, Colorado, andl Iowa, [19 ]-Aiiswvrs from K11 anlsis, [1'9]-A nswers fromn Mis souri, [20-nwr io instNebraska,
and Texas, L0]

APPEND)IX XV.

PREVAILING minRE.cioN I-,NN WhI(' THlE YOUNG INSI-CTS TRAVEL---------22
Movements of young1 inl Iowa andI Nebraska, [20w2]-MNovenients iul Dakota, Minnesota, and elsew~here, [*203].

APPE1-ND'IX XVL.

TrIE OF YEAR WHEN THE BULK OFv THEINSiS ICQ WIN611E...-----.. 205
Data from various States and Territimes, 2342tl

APP1IENDIX XVII.


Nocturnal habits of locuists inl Iowa, Dakota, and 'Nebraskai, [ 207 ]-hi Mininesota and elsewhere, [2U11.]-[-210]

APPENDIX XVIII.
FACTS REFLATING TO THE E(CGS-------------------------------------------[.11
Data as to time of hatching of eggs, proportion dIestroyed, causes of decstruction, &c., in Colorado and Daikota, [%1]I ow n asa,[1]I
Mlinnesota, [213]-Ini Missouri and Neb~raska, [216;]-Jn Texas andI Utah,
[-217].
APPENDIX XIX.
MEANS OF DESTRUCTION....... .----------------------[218]
Means employed in Dakowa and Nebraska, [28 TI owa, [J j-nMilluesota, [220]-Elsew here, ['221].

APPENDIX XX.
INJURY: CROPS AFFECTED----------------- --------[222]
Injury in the different States and Territories, [-2221-[225].

APPENDIX XXI.

PREVIOUS VISITATIONS-AID) OF ANIMA.S------..----------------[226]
Data from Nebraska and Iowa, [2'26]-From 'Minnesota, [2,27]-From Dakota, [229].




S...TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX XXII.
Page.
MINNESOTA DATA ............................................... .... ..... [230]
Early injury in Minnesota, [230]-Data for 1877, [231]-[235].

APPENDIX XXIII.
ARE THE EGGS EVER LAID THICKLY FOR TWO CONSECUTIVE YEARS IN THE SAME GROUND ........................................................ [236]
Answers to the above question from Arkansas, Colorado, and Iowa, [236]From Kansas, [237]-From Missouri, [238]-From Minnesota, Nebraska,
and Texas, [239].

APPENDIX XXIV.
MISCELLANEOUS DATA ...................... ------------.. [240]
From Minnesota and Nebraska, [240]-From Iowa, [241]-From Dakota,
[242].

APPENDIX XXV.

DATA FROM DAKOTA, MONTANA, UTAH, AND NEW MEXICO ................. [243]
From Dakota, [243]-[247]-From Montana, [248]-From Utah, [253]From New Mexico, [259].

APPENDIX XXVI.
LIST OF CORRESPONDENTS ....................-.......................... [261]
In Arkansas, British America, and California, [261]-In Colorado and Dakota, [262]-In Idaho and Iowa, [263]-In Kansas, [264]-In Minnesota, [265]-In Missouri, [267]-In Montana, [269]-In Nebraska,'Nevada, and New Mexico, [270]-In Texas, Utah, and Washington Territory, [271]-In
Wyoming, [272].
APPENDIX XXVII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE LOCUSTS OF AMERICA......................... [273]
INDEX .....----------------------------------------......... [281]
ERRATA ...........................--.... [295]












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.




OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES, Washington, D1). C., Febriary 2, 1,78.
Sm: I have the honor, in behalf of the Commissioners, to transmit to you the first annual report of the United States Entomological Commission for the year 177. This Commission, consisting of three skilled entomologists, was authorized by act of Congress approved March 3, 1877, to report upon the depredations of the Rocky Mountain locusts in the Western States and Territories, and the best practicable method of preventing their recurrence or guarding against their invasions, and was attached to the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories under my charge. The Commissioners at once began their work upon receiving their appointments. Several thousand circulars asking for information were sent to persons in the locust area, and two bulletins in pamphlet form were issued, one containing full information regarding the preventive measures and direct remedies then known against the young locusts, for immediate use by farmers; the second containing an account of the habits of the locust, so far as then known, with numerous illustrations. The field work was so subdivided as best to promote the end in view. It was carried on from early in April until the early part of November. Mr. Riley was in the field and among the farmers in the more southern portions of the locust region,at those seasons when his services and observations were of most benefit. He went in April to Texas, and devoted most of the month of May to Southwest Missouri and Kansas. He visited Iowa in June, examining parts of Northwest Missouri and portions of Kansas and Nebraska. The month of July was spent by him in Colorado, and most of August and part of September in British America. In October he again spent some time in Kansas,and again visited Texas in November. Mr. Packard, late in May, started for Wyoming and Utah, spending a few days in Colorado, and in June passed through Idaho and Montana, from Franklin to Fort Benton, thence down the Missouri River to Bismarck, and through Dakota to Saint Paul, Minn. He was, in August and September, in the Western Territories, and was in Utah and Nevada at the time when the people were suffering from the locusts, and afterward made a journey through Northern California, Eastern Oregon, and Washington Teriitory, so as to ascertain the western limits of the distribution of the Rocky Mountain locust. He, also, with the aid of observers in California, determined, with tolerable certainty, the species which have, for two centuries past, locally ravaged Oregon and California.
Mr. Thomas investigated the ravages and migrations of the locust in Iowa, Nebraska, and Minnesota, making three different trips to thes sections for this purpose.
The great practical importance of an exhaustive study of this destructive insect throughout all the immense extent of the locust area, which lies between the 94,h and 120th meridian, embracing nearly two million square miles, may be realized from the fact that on a careful estimate from all the data obtainable the States and Territories lying west of the Mississippi and east of the great plains suffered by the depredations of the locusts an aggregate loss, in the destruction of crops alone, during the years 1874-'77, of $100,000,000, to say nothing of the indirect loss by stoppage of business and various enterprises, which must have been fully as much more, thus making the direct and indirect loss not less than $200,000,000. In addition to all this we must include as YT




X1I LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL*'

a part of the effect of locust injuries the checking of immigration and the depreciation in the value of lands. So depressing, in fact, was this result in some regions as to paralyze trade, put a stop to all new enterprises, and dishearten the communities where the suffering was greatest. I have every evidence that the work of the Commission already done has directly saved the small amount originally appropriated more than a hundred fold. Besides this it was indirectly benefioial by its encouraging predictions as to the future, which were fully verified, and by the recommendations made, whicli restored a good degree of confidence and had much to do in inducing emigration westward. The very encouraging conclusions of the Commission as to the prospects the present year and for some years to come will also continue to exert a most beneficial effect on the West. The predictions of the Commission, which are on record in the introduction to the report, were verified to a remarkable degree, as the events of the year proved.
When we remember that to this day comparatively little is known of the source, movements, and management of the locusts that have for ages devastated the countries of the Old World, our government may well feel proud of the ligh-t that in a single year has been thrown on all these questions so far as our own destructive species is concerned.
Still, much remains to be done by the Commission. Further surveys need to be made of the permanent breeding-grounds in the Northwestern Territories; more facts are needed to perfect our knowledge of the migrations in this area; the co-operation of our government with Canada is needed to work up the subject properly in the locust region north of the United States boundary-line, and some other problems remain to be solved. When this is accomplished I believe that it will be possible at least to greatly modify or lessen these invasions and diminish the losses resulting therefrom, if not entirely prevent them.
The Commission therefore ask for another appropriation of $18, 000 in order to complete this special investigation and to present to Congress a second and final report that shall evince the wisdom and economy of the national government in causing the investigation to be made, and shall bear practical results Commensurate with the interests to the agriculture of the West involved. It is also contemplated to spend a portion of the time, when not in the locust area, in studying the habits and ravages of the cotton-wornm of the Southern States. This can be done without interfering with the locust work, provided the full amount of the appropriation asked for be made.
It is believed that all such investigations of our more injurious insects will result in the saving of a large proportion of the annual losses to the country from insect pests, which are estimated to amount annually to $200,000,000; and it seems prudent and wise to take such steps as shall result in an abatement of the evil.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
F. V. HAYDEN,
United States Geologi8t.
Hon. CARL ScHUnz,
Secretary of the Interior.











LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.




WASHINGTON, 1). C., Fdbrnary 1, 1878.
DEAR SIR: We herewith submit our first Report, to Ibe by you transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior. As the Report shows, the larger part of the summer season was spent in active field-work; yet this formed but a small part of the labor of the Commission, each member of which was much engaged in attending to an extensive correspondence, and in conveying information to individuals seeking it. Aside from the experiments made and recorded in different parts of the Report, we have studied the transformations, front the egg to the adult, of quite a number of the more conmon locusts that occur east of the Mississippi. The results of these studies, as also of the more elaborate researches on the embryology of the locust, have been excluded from the present volume, in order not to delay its publication, and because they may more appropriately be given in special memoirs.
The creation of this special commission was but an expression of the public demand for more light on the locust problem, which was to a great degree involved in darkness and mystery. Investigation was called for because it was felt how little of a definite and satisfactory nature was generally known on the subject.
Entering the field with a full sense of the magnitude of the work, and with some misgivings as to the final outcome of our investigations, the difficnltie that at first seemed insurmountable have either dwindled or entirely disappeared d; and we point with some pride to the facts and discoveries embodied in our Report.
A year has not yet passed since receiving our appointments; yet within that time we have been able to establish the more important laws by which the insect is governed, and to bund, with a degree of accuracy that we had scarcely dared hope for, the permanent breeding--rounds whence the disastrous swarms emanate, and which before were almost unknown.
The danger of total destruction to crops that threatened the West at the time the Commission was appointed was safely passed, and in the event of its recurrence we have faith that, as a record of what has been and a guide to what may be done in future, this Report will, if judiciously distributed, enable the farmers to brave it again.
The young insects as they occur in the more fertile States affected can be mastered, as the Report will, we hope, abundantly prove. We point out the way, also,which we have every reason to believe will prove feasible and practicable, to prevent future incursions of the winged swarms.
While it has been the object of the Commission to cover as much ground as possible, so as to make this annual report as full and reliable as the time would permit, there yet remain several important subjects that it has so far been impossible to properly and exhaustively study.
The territory affected is so vast, embracing about 2,000,000 square miles, that much of it was imperfectly explored, especially in the Northwest. Mr. Riley had to cut short his investigations in British America both for want of time and want of funds. For similar reasons, and on account of Indian troubles, Montana, Wyoming, and Dakota have been but superficially explored.
The year 1877 was an abnormal year, i. e., the winged insects had the previous year overrun and laid eggs in a large section of country in which the species is not indigonous, and a numerous progeny hatched in such country the past spring. This was most fortunate for many reasons, and it enabled the Commission to carefully study the XIII




XlY LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.

insects in this their unnatural condition, and to carry on experiments with a view of learning how best to control them. Much of the work of the Commission was with these young insects. The losses sustained through the devastations of the pest by a young and struggling frontier population, ill able to bear them, were immense, and there was so much discouragement that hundreds and thousands of persons were on the point of abandoning their new homes. At this juncture the Commission went into the field, and, by its encouraging predictions and recommendations, did much to inspire the people with hope and confidence, and greatly helped to draw westward again the emigration that had stopped,
All this work, however, interfered with needed investigation into the proper range and native home and breeding-grounds, and some other important questions which can only be properly studied during a normal year, i. e., one in which the insect is confined to its native or permanent breeding-grounds. Such a year will be the present (1878), for from our investigations we are able to state with confidence that the people of the more fertile country west of the Mississippi, occasionally termed the border States, will not be troubled with the young insects next spring and summer, and probably not for several years to come.
It is therefore quite important that the investigations be continued until every question is settled that human investigation can settle.
For the proper settlement of some of the questions, the co-operation of the Dominion Government is desirable, and has been promised. The work should be made so thorough as to obviate any necessity in future years of creating another commission for the same purpose, and we are desirous of making it thus thorough.
There are various other insects of national importance of which much hag yet to be learned, and, in addition to completing the locust investigation, the OJommission propose, during the Coming year, with proper aid from Congress, to study and report on some of these worst enemies of our agriculture. They are especially desirous of reporting on the Cotton Worm and other cotton insects of the South, which, though often so disastrous to the cotton crop, have never been fully studied, and as to the mere natural history of which there are yet many mysteries and conflicting theories.
Much has yet to be done in giving practical form to the conclusions arrived at and plans proposed by the Commission, to enable the work already done to bear proper fruit. To bring about the needed co-operation of the two governments, to cause proper laws to be enacted in all the States interested, and to inculcate the truths that alone will make the farmer master of the situation, is largely the work of the future.
In concluding this brief letter, permit us to sincerely thank you for your hearty cooperation and aid, without which we should have lost much valuable time in necessary work at Washington, and to which we are largely indebted for whatever success has crowned our efforts.
We have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully,
C. V. RILEY.
A. S. PACKARD, JR.
CYRUS THOMAS.
To Dr. F. V. HAYDEN,
United State8 Geologi8t.









PE FA CE.



This report is the more immediate result of the first year's work of the Commission, and is respectfully submitted for the benefit of the farmers of the West, who have so sorely suffered from the injuries inflicted by the insect of which it treats. The Commissioners hope and believe that it will form an invaluable record, for future reference and use, of all that is at present known of so important a subject.
Our work was ordered primarily for the benefit of the farmers of the locust-stricken country, and we have endeavored to present vi ith greatest prominence those features of the subject most important from the practical and economic stand-point. There is, however, matter of a more or less scientific and technical nature invariably connected with, investigations like that we are charged with, and the report would, in our judgment, be incomplete were such matter omitted. In order to better enable the reader who cares little or nothing for such technical details to pass over them, they are printed in smaller type than the text.
We have divided the locust area into three regions, which we have called, respectively, the Permanent, the Subpermancnt, and the Temporary. As these terms will be frequently used for the sake of precision and conciseness in the body of the Report, we here call the attention of the reader to Map 1, on which they are represented.
In order to prevent the volume from becomingr too bulky, we have been obliged to shorten some of the concluding chaipters, and to omit entirely an elaborate b~ibliographly of locust literature in other countries, prepared for us by Mr. B. P. Mann, of Cambridge, M1ass., as also a descriptive paper on the locusts of the Pacific slope, by M1r. S. H. Scudder.
Much interesting material in the form of classified replies to circulars, detailed data used in making up the Report, and the work of special assistants, is relegated to a series of appendices at the end of the volume. These are paginated separately in brackets, with a view of hastening the printing of the Report, and they are arranged numerically to facilitate reference, as the different parts will frequently be alluded to in the body of the work by means of corresponding numbers in parentheses. In these appendices will also be found a list of correspondents (App. 26), who have, in one way or another, assisted the Commission. These are given by States, with the post-office addresses arranged alphabetically, in order to avoid the constant repetition of full -names in the different classified replies to circulars. The insect drawings for the woodcuts have been made from life, many of them by Mr. Riley, some of them by xv




XVI PREFACE.

Mr. J. HI. Emerton, of Salem, Mass., and a few by Mr. J. S. Kingsley, of the same place. They are' gnerally larger than, life, but the natural size is indicated by hair-line or outline, except with such more highly magnified details of special parts as have the-natural size already indicated by the other figures. The anatomical drawings were made by Mr. Emerton from preparations by Mr. Packard, and the histological illustrations by Mr. C. S. Minot. The lithographic plates.(I to IV) were either drawn by Mr. Riley, or by Mr. Emerton under his direction. The 'dimensions are expressed either in inches and the fractional parts of an inch, or (of the more minute objects) in millimeters-i millimeter (1mm) not quite equaling 0.25 inch. The sign S, wherever used, is an abbreviation for the word "male," and the sign 1 for 11fml. The three maps were prepared by Mr. Packard.
The Commissioners take this occasion to thank the numerous correspondents and others who have aided in the work, and to acknowledge their indebtedness to the managers of the following railroads for the favor of passes over their respective lines:
Southern Michigan and Lake Shore; Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific; Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul; Western Union; Northern Pacific; Saint Paul and Sioux City; First Division Saint Paul and Pacific; Saint Paul and Pacific; Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska; Sioux City and Pacific; Chicago and Northwestern; Keokuk and Des Moines; Des Moines and Fort Dodge; Chicago, Burlington and Quincy; Central Railroad of Iowa; Kansas Pacific; Kansas City, Saint Joseph and Council Bluffs; Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf; Saint Joseph and Denver; Missouri, Kansas and Texas; Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6; Burlington and Missouri River, in Nebraska; Denver and Rio Grande;Texas and Pacific; Saint Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern; International and Great Northern; Missouri Pacific; Saint Louis and San Francisco; Saint Louis, Yandalia, Terre Haute and Indianapolis; Ohio and Mississippi; Illinois Central; Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio; Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston; Denver Pacific; 'Union Pacific ; Atchison and Nebraska.
They also take this means of acknowledging the courtesy and encouragement received from the executives of the several Western States more particularly concerned, and the assistance given by the Signal Bureau ; also the good services of the several special assistants employed, and particularly to Mr. Allen Whitman, of Saint Paul, Minn., to Prof. Samuel Aughey, of Lincoln, Nebr., and to Mr. Theo. Pergande, who faithfully assisted in office-work at the headquarters.








INTRODUCTION.



The injury by the Rocky Mountain locust to the agriculture, and, as a consequence, to the general welfare of the States and Territories west of the Mississippi, had been so great during the years 1873) 1874, 1875, and 1876, as to create a very general feeling among the people that steps should be taken by Congress looking to a mitigation of an evil which had assumed national importance. This feeling found expression, during the year last mentioned, in various memorials to Congress, one of the most important and cogent of which was that from a conference of the governors of various Western States and Territories, held at Omaha, Nebr., on the 25th and 26th of October, 1876. This memorial prayed for the creation of a commission of five experts to thoroughly investigate the subject, and an appropriation of $25,000.
The United States Entomological Commission was created inI pursuance of an act of Congress appropriating $18,000 to pay the expenses of three skilled entomologists to be attached to Dr. F. V. lUyden's United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and to report upon Rocky Mountain locusts, with a special view as to the best practicable method of preventing the injuries from these insects, and of guarding against their invasions. The Secretary of the Interior appointed Mr. Charles V. Riley, of Saint Louis, Mo., as chief, Mr. Cyrus Thomas, of Carbondale, Ill., as disbursing-agent, and Mr. A. S. Packard, jr., of Salem, Mass., as secretary. Upon receiving their appointments, the Commissioners at once met in Washington for the purpose of organization. The following record from the minutes of this first meeting indicates the scope of the work undertaken by the Commission, and the field which each member thereof was more particularly to occupy : Division of labor.-Voted that the locust-area be divided into three regions, to each of which a Commissioner be assigned, as follows:
To C V. Riley, the region east of the Rocky Mountains and south of the 40th parallel, the western half of Iowa, and, conjointly with Mr. Packard, Biitish America west of the 94th nwridian.
To A. S. Packard, jr., Western Wyoming, Montana, Utah, Idaho, and the Pacific coast.
To Cyrus Thomas the portion north of Riley's region, including the eastern half of Wyoming, Northern Colorado, the southern and eastern part of Dakota, Nebraska, eastern half of Iowa, and Min. nesota. [Northwestern Iowa was subsequently added.]
To Mr. Riley were assigned Biology, or Natural History, Invertebrate Enemies and Parasites (Insects, &c.), Remedies and Devices for the Destruction of the Locust.
To Mr. Packard, Anatomy and Embryology.
To Mr. Thomas, Geographical Distribution, Enemies not Entomological, Agricultural Bearings of the Subject.
To Packard and Thomas conjointly, Connection of -eteorological Pbenomena with the Migraticns.
It was also decided that the publications should consist of circulars, bulletins, memoirs, and the annual report of doings and results of the work of the Commission, and that Mr. Riley should at once prepare the laG





2 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

bulletins, to contain a digest of the habits and best means of destroying the locust, for immediate circulation. It was also agreed that by interchange of data collected and consideration of each others' work by the Commission as a whole, the publications be made, As far as possible, conjoint.
On the 22d of March, 1877, the preliminary plan of action was submitted to the Secretary of, the Interior, and, as it met with his approval, the members separated to begin work in the field as quickly as possible, since the young locusts were already hatching 'and doing damage in Texas and southerly regions. It was decided to have a merely nominal office at Washington, and that the headquarters of the Commission should be at Saint Louis, on account of the more central location of this city, and its greater proximity to the locust-region.
The following circulars, issued a few days afterward, explain themselves:
CIRCULAR No. 1.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES ENTOMIOLOGICAL COMMISSION,
---87
Mr.
DEAR SIR: The Cornmissioners are desirous of collecting, as soon as possible, all ascertainable facts in reference to the migrations of the Rocky Mountain locust (Calopten us 8pret us), and also regarding its appearance, habits, and devastations in your section.
We present below a series of topics upon which we shall be glad to receive data from your locality. We expect you to dwell only on those topics upon which you have posi' ive information, and shall be glad to receive any facts or views not suggested by this circular. Some of the subjects cannot be reported on till toward the approach of winter, while others can be considered earlier. In responding, therefore, we ask our correspondents to couple their answers with the number of the circular and of the inquiry.
We shall be glad to receive and will determine any of the different species of locusts that occur in your locality, and particularly specimens of their different parasites and natural enemies. These are best forwarded by mail, packed in cotton, moistened with alcohol, and placed in secure tin or wooden boxes. Living specimens may be sent in tin boxes, and are preferred, where they will not be too long~ On the way.
The inquiries have reference more particularly to the present year 1877, and when facts are communicated that have reference to other years, correspondents will please be careful to specify the particular year.
The Commissioners will refund whatever expense may be incurred for postage in replying to this circular, or in forwarding specimens, should correspondents so desire.
Copies of documents published by the Commission will be sent to correspon dents. who forward data in accordance with this request. Communications may bo sent to either of the Comniissioners.
CHAS. V. RILEY.
A. S. PACKARD, JR.
CYRUS THOMIAS.

TOPICS ON WHICH DATA AREi REQUESTED.
1. Date and time of (lay of the arrival of swarms.
la. Direction and force of the wind at the time.
lb. Temperature and character of the weather at the time (clear or cloudy).
le. Direction of the flight, density, height, and extent of the swarms.




ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMISSION. 3

2. Date and time of day of the departure of swarms.
2a. Direction and force of the wind at the time.
2b. Temperature and character of the weather at the time.
2c. Direction of the flight, density, and extent of the swarms.
3. Date when the first eggs, if any, were deposited the present year.
4. Date when the eggs were most numerously hatching the present year.
5. Date when the eggs were most numerously hatching in previous years.
6. Proportion of eggs that failed to hatch the present year, and probable causes of such failure.
7. Nature of the soil and situations in which the eggs were most largely deposited.
8. Nature of the soil and situations in which the young were mcst numerously hatched.
9. Date at which the first insect acquired full wings.
10. Date when the winged insects first began to migrate.
11. Estimate the injury done in your county and State.
12. Crops which suffered most.
13. Crops most easily protected.
14. Crops which suffered least.
15. The prevailing direction in which the young insects traveled, and any other facts in relation to the marching of the young.
16. The means employed in your section for the destruction of the unfledged insect s, or to protect crops from their ravages, and how far these proved satisfactory.
17. The means employed in your section for the destruction of the winged insects, or to protect crops from their ravages, and how far thicc have 1)proved satisfactory.
18. Descriptions, and, if possible, figures of such mechanical contrivances as have proved useful in your locality for the destruction of either the young or the winigcd insects.
19. If your section was not visited in 1 76, please state this fact.
20. If visited any previous years, please give the dates.
21. To what extent have birds, domestic fowls, and other animals, domestic or wild, been useful in destroying these insects.
22. State the ratio of prairie to timber in your section or in your county.
23. State all you know about the habits of the young or full-grown insects during the night, and exprcially whether you hare (cer known them to march or continue to fly aJftcr the isun is down, and if so, how long into the night.
24. The amount of damage to fruit and shade trees, and the most satisfactory means employed in your section to protect them.

CIRCULAR No. 2.


Mr. SAINT Louis, Mo., 187 .
DEAR SIR: With a view of securing co-operation, and of obtaining data in the particular divisions of the subject assigned to me, I beg leave to call your attention more particularly to the following topics, and ask your careful consideration of the same:
I. NATURAL HISToRY.-The natural history of the species has been already pretty thoroughly studied, so far as the development from the egg to the mature insect is concerned. Yet I shall be glad to have you communicate any facts or observations in your possession that you believe to be new or unrecorded. As to the habits of the species, there is more room for fresh observations, as tbe habits vary somewhat with locality,, and my own studies have been mostly made in Missouri and Kansas. I would direct




4 REP ORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

your attention, therefore, under this head, more particularly to topics 12, 13, 14, and 15, of Circular No. 1, or, crops which 8ufflermost; crops most easily protected; crops which suffer least ; and the prevailing direction in which the young insects travel in your section, or any other facts in relation to the marching of the young. Also, desire all observations that are at all reliable as to the habits of both the young and the winged insects during the night, especially as to whet her the latter have ever been known to continue flying after dark.
While there may be little to add to what is now known of the natural history and habits of the Rocky Mountain locust (('aloptenus spretus Thomas), with which the Commission is more particularly concerned, there is much of interest yet t 'o learn of the other species of locusts that are indigenous in your locality, and are often confounded with the spretus. Any facts as to the habits, time and mode of depositing eggs, st ate in which the winter is passed, time of acquiring wings, or, in short, any observations upon the native species, and more particularly those that are InDjurious, are earnestly desired by me. The observations should, as far as possible, be accompanied by specimens, and, indeed, I shall be glad to receive specimens of the different locusts or "4grasshoppers"1 from your locality in different stages, of growth. They may be killed either by dipping in hot water, by means of a little chloroform, or by throwing in alcohol; and should be mailed to me in stout wooden or tin boxes, packed in coarse sawdust or cotton previously moistened with alcohol. Living specimens, which are *pre. ferred, are best sent in tight tin boxes along with a small amount of appropriate fool.
HI. INSECT ENEMIES AND FARASiTES.-These will differ also, according to locality, and I shall be glad to receive specimens of all invertebrate animals that may be found preying either internally or externally on the locusts. Such specimens, when soft or small, are best preserved in alcohol, and mailed between two layers of cotton thoroughly saturated with alcohol, in a small and tight tin box. When larger they may be mailed as already indicated above. I respectfully solicit answers to the following questions:
1. What invertebrate animals are known to attack the locust-eggs in your locality, and to what extent have they destroyed the same?
2. What insect enemies attack, first, the young; second, the winged locusts; and
-what percentage of these have been destroyed by them ?
3. State any facts that you know about the habits and transformations of the diff.rent parasites or other enemies observed.
III. REMEDIEs.-Under this head I desire general reports on topics 16 and 17 of Circular No. 1. First, as to the means employed in your section for the destruction of the unfledged insects or to protect crops from their ravages, and how far such means have proved satisfactory ; second, the means employed against the winged insects, and how far they have proved satisfactory.
I would more particularly call your attention to the following points:
4. Has any application, either in powder or liquid, been used that protected special plants from locust ravages without injuring the plant?
5. Has harrowing of the eggs in the fall been resorted to, and with what effect; or have any other means been employed to expose or break open the egg -massesI
6. Where satisfactory results have followed the plowing under of the eggs, state the time of year of such plowing, the depth, and the nature of the soil.
7. Where ditching has been resorted to to protect fields from the inroads of the -unfledged locusts, state the measure of success, the nature of the soil, and the character, particularly as to the depth and width, of the ditch.
If any measures 'not recommended by the Commission in its bulletins are or have been adopted, please specify them.
If you desire to test any special measure involving expense, where such test seems warranted by possible practical results, please correspond with me for further advice and instruction.
IV. DE~VICES FOR DESTRTCTIO.-Under this head I desire reports as to the efficiency





CIRCULARS SENT OUT. 5

and usefulness of such machines or other mechanical contrivances as have been tried and used in your section. Where any machine has proved useful I desire to obtain fullI plans and description of the same, and, where possible, illustrations. Where such have not already been drawn up or made, I will co-operate with inventors in getting the work done where it is thought desirable. So far as time will permit, I shall endeavor to personally examine and test such contrivances, and will assist to a full trial of them any inventor who communicates his plans. Copies of documents published by the Commission will be sent to correspondents who forward data in accordance with these requests.
I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
CILAS. V. RILEY.

Some additional questions were sent out with Circular No. 1 by Mr. Thomas, and among them the following:

Furnish copies of all the records you can obtain, which were made at the time of the visitations of the grasshoppers, whether written or printed.
State all you may know in reference to eggs hatching in the fall.
What plants, cultivated or wild, appear to be preferred by the young, and what by the full-grown insects!
What plants, cultivated or wild, appear to be least relished ?
State to what extent the invading swarms have been observed to injure the native grasses, and to what extent the young have been observed to injure them.
What animals, such as quadrupeds, birds, and reptiles, have beeu observed feeding upon the young or full-grown insects or their eggs t
State what measures for destroying the eggs have beea tried, and how far they have proved effectual.
State the ratio of prairie to timber in your section.
State all you know in reference to the habits of the young or grown insects during the night; where they remain, whether they ever march, continue to fly, eat, &c.
At what rate do swarms move during flight I
Mr. Packard also issued a special circular, requesting, in addition to the information sought by Circular No. 1, special information west of the mountains, as follows:
CIRCULAR No. 3.
SALEM, Mass., May 15, 1877.
DEAR SIR: In behalf of the United States Entomological Commission I ask your aid in studying the habits, distribution, and extent of damage done, in past years as well asthe present, by the locust or destructive grasshopper, in the department of the locustarea assigned to me, i. e., Montana, Idaho, Western Wyoming, Utah, Oregon, Washington Territory, and California.
The main breeding-places of the locusts visiting the border States are situated in the Northwest. Information is especially desired concerning the breeding of locusts in the plains lying around the Black Hills, especially to the east and north; also in the valleys of the Platte, Yellowstone, Upper Missouri, Snake, and Columbia Rivers, and especially the treeless plains of Eastern Oregon and the eastern portion of Washington Territory. The locusts invading Utah in former years are supposed to have come from the Snake Valley to the northwest and north.
The said Territories, particularly Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Eastern Washing1on and Oregon, are so thinly settled that it will be difficult for me to obtain the posteffice address of those who might be willing to co-operate with the Commission if they could receive our circular and bulletins. These and other publications of the Commission will be sent to those answering in part or wholly the questions appended to this circular. Postmasters and others receiving this circular are respectfully requested




REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

to send the address of any one who they think would thus co-operate with the Cornmission.
While locusts have not serl~ously ravaged the Pacific coast since 1855, it is very desirable for the Commission to ascertain whether it is the Rocky Mountain locust or some other species of grasshopper which has periodically devastated the coast for nearly two centuries past. For this purpose specimens from all parts of the States of California, Nevada, and Oregon, and Arizona and Washington Territories, are earnestly desired.
Please, therefore, send me specmens of any destructive grasshopper, as well as samples of all the different kinds of grasshoppers and crickets, their eggs, young, and parasites, in your town or county, so that I may be sure which species is referred to in. your communication. They may be killed lby hot water or soaked in alcohol a few hours, dried and packed between papers, in cotton or sawdust, in strong wooden or tin boxes, and mailed to me at Salem, Mass. It would be well also to keep a bottle of alcohol or whisky on hand into which specimens could be thrown from time to timce. The bottle could be carefully packed and sent, at the end of the season, by express, to the headquarters of the Commission at Saint Louis, Mo.
Please inclose in all parcels and bottles a label giving date, town, county, and State or Territory, the name of collector, written with a black-lead pencil on stout letterpaper. Postage will, of course, be refunded, if desired. Trusting to receive your hearty co-operation in the objects of the Commission,
I remain, your obedient servant,A.SPCKRJ,

Secretary United States Entomological Commnission.

H-as your section ever been visited by invading swarms of grasshoppersT If so, name tlb-e years.
Please furnish copies of all the records you can obtain which were made at the time of the visitations of the grasshoppers, whether written or printed.

As will be seen by the classified replies in the appeadix, much valuable information was obtained by means of the first general circular, but scarcely any on the special points in the others. This was to be expected, as the average farmer is in no position to carry out special investigations, which for their satisfactory completion require time, training, and proper appliances.
It is our intention, in this connection, to give a brief history of our field-work and of the locust phenomena of the season, but for full details regarding the year's occurrences in the different States the reader is ref'erred to the chapter on chronology and to the appendices.
As will appear in the chapter just referred to, locust-eggs bad been laid in 1876 over an extensive area, roughly defined by drawing a line from Breckenridge to Cheyenne, thence to the Taios Valley, thence to Houston, thence to Saint Paul, the eastern line deflecting westward in Missouri and Kansas. They were most thickly laid east of the 100th meridian, and the gravest apprehensions were naturally felt as to the injury that would result in the spring of 1877. The examination of eggs from time to time during the winter, from different parts of the ,irea jttit definedi, made it quite certain, as spring approached, that the majority of them would hatch ; and asi already intimated, the young insects were doing) much injury in southerly regions by the time the Commission was created. Mr. Riley visited Texas in April, when the




OUTLOOK IN SPRING IN TEXAS, ARKANSAS, MISSOURI. 7

locusts were doing their greatest damage, or just as the bulk of them were reaching the pupa state around Denison and Dallas, and the winged insects had commenced to fly from the more southern parts. About Houston considerable damage was done to young cotton, but here and about Galveston the country is devoted largely to grazing and was not so seriously affected. About Hutchins the farmers despaired of saving anything, and many fine settlements along the Texas Central and along the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railways suffered severely. Around San Antonio large numbers of the insects were found by Mr. J. Boll, of Dallas, whom we employed as special assistant, and whose reports, with other details from this State, will be found in the appendix. (App. 3.)
Having during the winter, as entomologist of the State, thoroughly familiarized himself with the extent and condition of the eggs in Southwest Missouri, he spent but a brief l)eriod there early in the month; and while there was slight damage "in spots," the country suffered far less from the young insects than it had the previous autumn from their winged parents. (See App. 4.) The only counties in which the insects hatched at all in Missouri were: 1st, Atchison and Holt, and the western half of Nodaway and Andrew, in the extreme northwest corner. 2d, McDonald, Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, Barton, Dade, Newton, Cedar, Vernon, more particularly in the southwest half; Polk in the northwest third; and Hickory in the southwest third.
What is true of Missouri is also true of the limited area in the northwest corner of Arkansas; and while Mr. Riley had no time to visit Benton County, where the eggs had been most thickly laid, reports showed that the injury from the young insects was trifling. In passing through Indian Territory, along the M., K. & T. Railroad, no damage was noticed; and though the winged insects were thick enough in the Territory to render travel on horseback disagreeable the previous autumn, wild prairie and timber and grazing land so predominate over the cultivated area that the damage can never be great.
During the end of April and the early part of May, Mr. Riley was in the field in Kansas, traveling over the southeastern counties with Governor Anthony and Mr. A. S. Johnson of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 Railroad. He found the people determined to resist the enemy, and in many cases well prepared and organized to do so. He appointed, with the co-operation of the governor, who partly defrayed their expenses, two assistants in this State, viz, Mr. A. N. Godfrey, of Manhattan, and Mr. G. F. Gaumer, of Lawrence. Their reports, with other data (App. 5), together with the following letters, will convey a correct idea of the condition of things in this State at the time: STATE OF KANSAS, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Top eka, May 5, 1877.
Sin: It is now impossible for me to join you in your tour of observation through the State, as promised. I feel a deep interest in the results of your examination, and have to urge upon you the importance of passing over as great a breadth of territory as




8 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

possible in the time you can give to this State. I desire from you, for publication, a statement of the true condition and prospects as you find them.
I have feared that the reports of addled eggs and disappearing insects are based ou hope instead of facts. If so, they cannot fail to work injury by quieting the people with belief in a false security. If the eggs in the soil are still unhatched and in a condition to produce in destructive numbers when the weather is propitious, it is far better that the people know the worst and prepare for it without delay.
I am satisfied that a determined and systematic effort will exterminate the locust and save our growing crops, even if the worst be true as to the present hatching, An organization under the township law, or unanim ity of volunteer action, with the means now known to be effective in the destruction of these insects, cannot fail of substantial success.
To this end I hope you will favor me with a full report of your tour of observation. together with such suggestions as to mode and time of destroying the locust, as your observation and experience shall warrant. This statement from you will be accepted as authentic by the great majority of our people, and will allay fear if there is no danger, and awaken to action if a pending peril exists.
Very respectfully,
GEO. T. ANTHONY,
Governor of Kansas.
Prof. C. V. RILEY,
Chief of United States Entomological Commission, Emporia, Kans.
SALINA, KANS., May 10, 1877.
My DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 5th instant is before me. I am entirely of your opinion as to the importance of getting at the real facts and prospects in connection with locust injury. The dispatches to our papers are so often colored in the interest of land-owners, and loan and rval-estate agents, that the community at large places but small reliance on them. It is, moreover, the avowed policy of many journals to suppress the truth about locust troubles, under the mistaken notion that such suppression benefits; whereas no policy is more injurious to a community in the end.
In the present instance the favorable reports are, in the main, warranted; and there is no doubt in my mind that throughout the larger part of Kansas the battle is already fought, and the future injury must be comparatively trifling. For nearly three weeks I have been traveling and observing in Texas and Southeastern Kansas, and feel safe in making the above statement for that part of your State which I have visited. Throughout the locust-area of the State south of the Kansas Pacific Railroad-which area includes most of the region bounded on the east by a line running from a little west of Lawrence toward Fort Scott, and on the west by another passing up through Hutchinson and Ellsworth-the eggs are laid in sufficient quantities to have given birth to locusts enough to have eaten everything green by the time they attained full growth, under conditions favorable to them. Many of the eggs were destroyed by the Anthomyia egg-parasite, and the other enemies described in my writings. Some of them hatched in the Fall, and many more during the warm weather of the latter part of January and fore part of February. The insects thus hatched perished. The bulk of the eggs hatched during the last week of March and the early part of April. The young insects were very thick then; they commenced to do injury and begat general fear. The farmers for the most part fought them with energy. Then followed, from the middle of April on, a period of cold and wet weather. The enemy rapidly weakened and was from all quarters reported as disappearing.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE YOUNG.
In every part of the State which I have visited, and where I have examined carefully the condition of things, the young locusts have very largely, in some instances totally, (isat)pared ; and I now have no doubt whatever that the reports of such disappearaice that are so general throughout the entire portion of the State that was threatened, have their foundation in fact. This disappearance is generally attributed to




STATE OF THINGS IN KANSAS IN MAY. 9

death and dissolution from the cold and wet weather that followed the principal hatching. That this weather has been largely instrumental in causing death among the hopping pests I have no doubt, because there are always a certain portion just hatched or just molting, which are particularly tender and susceptible to the injurious effects of cold, drenching rains. But they have been dying and are now dying fast during the present warm and sunny weather, and these dead insects are not parasitized, but simply diseased-sick. In my last (ninth) report made to the State of MNsouri, in stating the causes that might diminish the prospective injury, I wrote:
We may therefore expect that, as compared with 1875, a larger proportion of the young that will hatch in 1876 will be weakly and soon perish. There is a bare possibility that, after the bulk of the young have hatched, and before they have commenced to do serious harm, we may have such unseasonably cold and wet weather as to kill them by myriads, and effectually weaken their power for injury.
Both possibilities have become actualities.
It is a singular fact, however, that notwithstanding the large numbers which hatched, no one has been able to discover the dead carcasses of these disappearing locusts in anything like the numbers necessary to account for the disappearance; and, in most instances where dead insects have been reported tome, an examination at once showed that the parties had mistaken therefor the exivi~e or empty skins of those which had mIolted; which skins are always abundant under straw or weeds, or at the base of a wheat.stool, where the young insects congregate when undergoing their molts.
The young locusts possess remarkable tenacity of life, and the fact that the bulk of those remaining are in the third stage (i. e., have bolted twice) and must have hatched before the unfavorable weather set in, is in itself enough to show that other factors than those meteorological have entered largely into the problem of disappearance. The principal of these I will briefly enumerate, because, unlike meteorological or climatic influences, they may, most of then, be relied upon in future, are largely within man's control,and may even be rendered still more ef' etive. They are, in short, elements of certainty in the problem of locust destruction.
First. The natural Enemies of the Locust.-These consist in the present instance (the parasites not affecting it till it gets older) of the vertebrate animals which are known to feed upon it, such as snakes, gophers, field-mice, &c., and birds. These last have been more efficient than most of us imagine, and I never saw blackbirds, plover, &c., so numerous. Their dung often whitens the fields where the locusts were once thick, and they have been the principal cause of the latter's disappearance. The prolonged cold and wet retarded the development of the insects, benefited the wheat, and gave our feathered friends an excellent opportunity to check them. We should employ all means to encourage the multiplication of the birds.
Second. The Farmeri8.-In most parts of the State I have traversed, the farmers had determined from the beginning to make war, and they did make war, and so successfully that the insects were pretty effectually destroyed before the cold and wet occurred. The means employed were mostly kerosene-pans and burning--over 700 kerosene-pans having been made at Salina alone.
Third. The Weather.-The continued cold after the principal hatching had the effect, as already stated, to kill many that were just hatching or molting. The heavy rains washed many away into the streams, and in some instances in soils which contain sand and lime, and which are liable to crack when dry, the rains doubtless covered up and killed such as were sheltering in such fissures.
Fourth. Climate.-The fact that the insects, especially after the second and third moltings, are dying, is simply confirmatory of the views I have always held and advanced, that the species is out of its natural habitat, and can never permanently thrive here. These views I need not now repeat at length. While the number that have thus become sickly and died have not so far begun to compare with those which have perished in the other three ways mentioned, it will doubtless continue to increase as the insects get larger, for already they show a tendency to unnaturally group together during the heat of the day, and feed much less ravenously than when in perfect health.




10 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

EXTENT OF THE FAVORABLE STATE OF THINGS.
Such are the generally favorable conditions throughout the area which I have already mentioned, and of which alone I can speak with assurance. How far the Sameo conditions prevail north of the Kansas Pacific, and in the other States threatened, I cannot positively tell yet ; but similar reports of disappearance are very general, and I am strongly of the opinion that we shall have a repetition of the comparative harmlessness of 1867.
VIGILANCE STILL NECESSARY.
I am the last to desire that this favorable report should lull your farmers into an undue sense of security. The security against injury will depend altogether on the proportion of eggs which have hatched. Thus in the more sandy belt west of a line roughly drawn through Junction City and Florence, not one per cent. of the eggs remain unhatched ; while east of that line, where the eggs were laid later and the roil is mostly colder and more tenacious, from one-half to three-fourths of them are yet unhatched, and, with few exceptions, sound. In the former area a few fields may suffer, especially along the river-courses, but there will be no general destruction; in the latter the iDj ury may yet be great, and should be provided against.
REMEDIES.
[Here followed a summary of remedies.]

CONCLUSION.
I have endeavored in the above hurried notes to comply with your request, and have necessarily left much of interest unsaid. Altogether, the prospect is much brighter than I had dared to hop~e. There is some apprehension from the winged insects that have been for some time leaving Texas, where little was done to fight the pest, and where much injury has occurred in spots, particularly from Denison southwestwardly. But in passing from the south, the injury done by the winged insects is never materially felt. They are unhealthy and less voracious, and the crops are well advanced. They also pass mostly over the western part of your State. Permit me to remark, in conclusion, that I have met with few persons who do not feel that if taken in time the young insects are easily mastered and need cause little alarm in futurea fact which I have long since insisted on, and which is generally admitted by all who have had experience. When the locust-scourge is fully understood, and the farmers unite in determined effort to counteract it, it will cease to be so much of a bugbear, and no longer interfere with the set~lemeut of the beautiful and productive western plains which it visits at irregular intervals.
I have the honor to remain, yours, truly. C. V. RILEY.
GEO. T. ANTIHONY,
Governor of the State of JKan8a8.

We are under sincere obligations inot only to Governor Anthonty who so materially assisted us, but, among many others, to Mr. Alfred Gray, secretary of the State board of agriculture, for repeated favors and coolperationI.
During the latter half of April and first part of May Mr. Thomas visited Minnesota, Northwestern Iowa, and Nebraska, devoting his attention at this time chiefly to an examination of the egg-deposits, the condition of the eggs, and the indications where the young were 'then hatching out. He also at this time made arrangements throughout the various stoetions of these States and Dakota with local observers, who were to note all important facts in their respective sections relating to the locusts, and report from time to time. Mkr. Allen Whitman, of Saint




STATE OF THINGS IN MINNESOTA. 11

Paul, who had previously been employed by the State of Minnesota to report upon the history, habits, and injuries of the Rocky Mountain locust in that State, was engaged as assistant for that portion of the district. Prof. Samuel Aughey, of the State University at Lincoln, was engaged as assistant for that portion of the district. The valuable aid furnished by these two assistants will be shown by 'eference to their reports which will be found partly in the appendix (Apps. 1, 2 and 8) and partly incorporated in the text.
While in Minnesota Mr. Thomas prepared and issued the additional questions heretofore alluded to. Hle was also called upon to give his opinion in reference to the prospects of the season, and, gloomy as these appeared at the time, he did not hesitate to state as his conviction in various publications that the end of the trouble was drawing near. The executive of this State, Governor Pillsbury, entered heartily into the work of the Commission, giving it every encouragement and assistance in his power.
The ibllowing extract from a letter of Mr. Thomas's, published at the time in the Chicago Inter-Ocean, will give an idea of the locust-status as understood at that time in Minnesota and Dakota: I have just visited the southwestern part of Minnesota, spending a short time in making inquiries and examinations in a few of the counties supposed to contain the heaviest deposits of eggs. In some localities, where the eggs were observed in great numbers last fall, but few were to be found in these places, as a general rule. I observed in considerable numbers certain coleopterous, hymenopterous, and dipterous larve, known as locust-egg destroyers. In other places, but a few miles distant, eggs were found in abundance, and mostly sound. The information, so far as ascertained in reference to this portion of Minnesota, agrees in the main with these observations, and thus explains the apparently coinfltcting reports received. These factor render it probable that, while it is true as a general rule that the locusts will hatch out over the greater portion of Southwestern Minnesota, yet many lo-alities will be comparatively free from the young; in other words, the hatching will be uneven throughout this section, and will not be in proportion to the number of eggs deposited. The bounty law will probably prove inoperative in the worst-infested counties, as the citizens of these counties feel certain it will entail a debt upon them which will require years to pay; hence they will not avail themselves of its provisions. Hatching has already commenced as far north as Nicollet County, in the warmersitnations, and as I passed southwest on the Saint Paul and Sioux City Road, I noticed the prairies in every direction were burning, for the purpose of destroying the young 'hoppers.
Several of the counties of this section lying near and along the western boundary of the State will probably escape serious injury, as but few eggs have been deposited in them. The young have hatched out in considerable numbers around Sioux City, but how far this extends northwest and southeast in this area I am unable to say from positive information. Some have appeared in the extreme southeast of Dakota, but from all I can learn this Territory is not likely to have any considerable portion of its area infested.

During Mr. Thomas's visit to Nebraska the severe cold storm of the latter part of April occurred, and he was enabled to note carefully its effect upon the eggs and young which were then hatching out quite numerously.




12 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

His second visit was in June, at which time the insects had advanced in some sections of his district to the pupa state, and at what may be designated as the critical period so far as this section was concerned.
The result of Mr. Thomas's visit to Nebraska at this time will be best shown by the following report made by him and Professor Aughey to the executive of that State, Governor Garber. to whom we are likewise greatly indebted for aid and encouragement in our work in Nebraska. We quote from the Omaha Republican of June 16, 1877, in which the report was first published:
In response to the request of Governor Garber and a number of citizens of Nebraska, Professors Thomas and Aughey have prepared a statement giving the results of their personal examinations of those portions of Nebraska in which the grasshoppers deposited their eggs last fall. The statement embraces information covering every such locality; and in their letter to Governor Garber, transmitting their report, Professors Thomas and Aughey state as their general conclusion that "although the locusts remain in limited areas in the eastern counties, the prospects in Nebraska are even more flattering than the most hopeful of your citizens anticipated a month ago."
THE REPORT.
Our examinations cover the greater part of the settled portion of the State, and have been made over quite an extensive area in person. From the other sections, which we have not been able to visit, we have obtained, within the last few days, direct and positive information which we are satisfied is correct. We have made it a point to visit in person the areas supposed to be the worst infested, and have not contented ourselves with inquiries at these points, but have gone cut on the farms in order to see for ourselves the actual condition of affairs in this respect. Before mentioning any of the details we may state, as
THE GENERAL RESULT OF OUR EXAMINATIONS,
First. That the eggs have been nearly or quite all hatched out; at least, so few remain unhatched that it is wholly unnecessary to consider them in this report.
Secondly. That the locusts which hatched out in the sections west of the meridian of Lincoln have died off to such an extent that but few remain, not enough at any pont, so far as we have observed or could ascertain, to do any injury to the crops. Thirdly. The only section in which we find them in numbers sufficient to give any uneasiness is the eastern tier of counties lying along or near the Missouri River; and although found somewhat numerously in certain areas in this section, their numbers are much less than the most hopeful of your citizens anticipated a few weeks ago. Even these have done but litLle injury to crops up to the present time, and seem to have lost their usual ravenous appetites and vitality. In fact, scarcely an injured field can be observed in a day's ride through the sections where they are considered most numerous. We have traveled through these areas with persons from States east of the Mississippi, visiting Nebraska with a view of locating here or examining the lands, and without exception they have expressed surprise at the uninjured condition of the crops after the alarming reports they have heard.
Fourthly. In those sections where they yet remain, not only are they far less active than usual, but as a rule they are confined to very small areas irregularly distributed; or, as generally and correctly expressed by the farmers, "they are in spots." In such places the fariners are generally fighting them vigorously and with every prospect of success, and we are glad to say that they are, with few exceptions, hopeful and confident that they will suffer but little less. As a general rule, we find the farmers confident that in the future they will be fully able to cope with the young. In some places prcautioiiary and defensive measures have been neglected until the locusts have advanced to a siz.l at which it is more difficult to destroy them. A few of the early hatching, where any of them remain, are already entering the winged state.





OUTLOOK IN NEBRASKA IN JUNE. 13

In looking over the State, theref re, as a whole, we feel fully warranted in saying that, so far as the young locusts hatched out this season are concerned, the danger has passed, and the citizens need not remain in uncertainty any longer. We are satisfied that the loss from their depredations, as compared with the whole crop, ill be so small that its effect upon the State will not be felt. This opinion we believe will be fully borne out by the summary of facts hereafter stated.
** **
THE PRESENT DISTRIBUTION.
Although the locusts hatched out quite numerously in various localities, as far west as the west line of the egg-deposit, they have almost entirely disappeared from all parts west of the meridian of Lincoln; and even east of that there are large areas in which there are none to be found, or at least so few that the farmers apprehend no danger whatever from them. Even in the sections where they are considered the most numerous, up to the present they have been limited to isolated spots. An examination made at one of the worst infested spots showed that the number of acres over which they then spread as compared with the number of acres in cultivation was so limited that it was evident that, with a reasonable effort, their destruction might be rendered certain. It is true that enough might hatch out on five acres to overrun and destroy the crops on one hundred and sixty acres if the season should favor them, and no effort be made to destroy them ; but, at the same time, it is equally true that if all on the five acres are destroyed before they spread, the rest of the one hundred and sixty acres, at least, will be saved.
MIGRATING SWARMS FROM THE SOUTH.
That a few swarms from the south have recently passed over the western part of the State, going north, is undoubtedly true. So far but few, if any, have come down in the settled districts, and have done no injury whatever. Heretofore the swarms moving from the south northward toward their native habitat have not, so far as we are aware, done any injury in this State. We do not app--rehend any damage from them; in fact, this is precisely what the commission anticipated and predicted, and is one of the strongest possible corroborations of the theory that they can never become permanent residents of this part of the Mississippi Valley. And we may as well reaffirm in this connection our oft-repeated conviction, from what we know of the history and habits of this species, that it is impossible for it ever to become a permanent resident of these border States, and hence that the race must run out here, and that it can only be continued by repeated invasions from its native habitat in the far northwest or Rocky Mountain region. This disposition to return also confirms our repeated assertions that it can never progress eastward as did the potato-beetle; that its line of eastern progress is as firmly fixed by climatic and physical causes as though its way were barred by some insurmountable barrier. We therefore maintain that the people of these States ought to confide in these conclusions of science which have been s) sigually borne out by the facts.
0 0
CONCLUSION.
In concluding this brief and hasty report, we have only to repeat what we have already said-that we consider the danger from the young which have hatched out this season in Nebraska over, and that this part of the problem is solved. We also believe that the long series of viitations has come to a close. There may be, and doubtless will be, at irregular periods, visitations by migrating swarms, but it is not at all likely that the present generation will witness another such a series as that which has just passed. We append hereto, as a part of this report, a brief account of the means of destroying the young and unfledged locusts which we have just issued in the form of a special bulletin for Nebraska.
Very respectfully,
CYRUS THOMAS.
SAMUEL AUGHEY.




14" REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

At this time a special "bulletin for Nebraska," giving a condensed account ho0W to deal with the insect, was issued and distributed not oly in that State, but also in Northern Iowa.
From May 26th to the 28th the Commission met at Saint Louis for the transaction of business and the perfecting of plans for the future.
During the month of June Mr.. Riley was most of the time in the field in the southern part of Iowa, touching also points in Nebraska and Kansas meanwhile. He would here acknowledge his obligations to the executive of the State, and to the professors at the agricultural college at Ames, for aid and encouragement.
The following letter wilt prove a record of the situation in this State up to the time it was written, while later occurrences are given elsewhere (Chapter 1, App. 6):
ATCHISON, KANS., June 20, 1877.
Sivi: In accordance with your request and my promise, I herewith transmit a brief summary of my examinations, during the past fortnight, in reference to locust injury in the western part of Iowa, south of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway. The rains, during most of the time, have been so Severe and heavy as to render travel across the country often unpleasant and difficult; yet I have managed to examine the condition of things at many points along the Chicago and Northwestern from Council Bluffs to the eastern limit of the locust region in Story County;- thence across to the Chicago and Rock Island; thence along the Chicago, Burlington and Quilncy, and across the country from Malvern in Mills County, southwardly. Stopping at these pointts and pushing out to those farms where the insects were reported most numerous, and having reports from many points not visited, my conclusions are drawn with assurance, and, though favorable, are, if anything, not sufficiently so.
PURPOSE OF THE VISIT.
My examinations were partly in furtherance of the plan of the Commission to visit personally and collect the varied experiences of every State and Territory within the locust range; partly to ascertain the real prospects, and to encourage the farmers and disseminate information among them, where such work was necessary.
NO MORE EGGS TO HATCH.
Afew strag gling( eggs were hatched as late as a week ago; but none now remain to hatch except a fow from indigenous species.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE YOUNG.
As elsewhere over the threatened region, the eggs were exceedingly numerous, and the young locusts hatched in April in such numbers, and began their work of destietion with such vigor, that the greatest apprehension was felt. They soon began to disappear, however, and this disapp earance was due to the same cause's enumerated some live weeks ago in my letter to Governor Anthony, of Kansas, reviewing the condition, and prospects at that time in that State. Summarized, they may be stated as follows:
The u'cather.-T-he Continued cold and heavy rains after the principal hatching dostroyed immense numbers. I have known them washed into the Des Moines River so as to form a putrefyimig SCUM two inches thick. The farmer owes the salvation of his crops largely to this cause.
Clirnate.-An inherent tendency to disease in the species when in this part of the country has; made it most susceptible to the adverse weather, and carried oiff a large, prolportion. This is; an exemplification of the views constantly urged by me.
NYataral cncrics-It is a general law that in p~roportionl as a species becomes unduly and excessively multiplicid its natural enemies correspondingly increase. The abund-





OUTLOOK IN IOWA IN JUNE. 15

ance of the locust and of its eggs during the last few years east of the Rocky Mountains has given all locust-feeding animals a bountiful supply of food. They have, therefore, not only thriven and multiplied, but many which do not normally feed upon the insect have acquired the habit. In Iowa, as elsewhere, these natural enemies-especially insectivorous birds-have done exceptionally good work; a work.furthered bythe weather, which retarded and rendered very irregular the development of the insect.
Thefarmers.-Who have been better organized and more determined to make war, and who have used better means and methods than in former years.
GENERAL SURVEY OF THE FIELD.
As you are probably aware, the locusts reached the farthest east along the line of the Chicago and Northwestern, and the egg-deposit receded from Story County southwestwardly. Throughout the northern and eastern portion of this area the damage has been so trifling that it is scarcely worth mentioning. The corn, from too much cold and wet, is backward, and the weeds have on all low land got an unfavorable start of the cultivator; much of it also rotted and necessitated replanting; but the spring wheat (Fall wheat is too apt to spring-kill and is uncertain) and other small grain could not well look better. The greatest injury has been south and west, along the Missouri and along the Wahabouncey. As a general thing, the injury has been greatest along streams, where the insects hatched later and obtained greater protection from cold or storm. In these les&-favored parts, however, there is no single farm that presents the desolate aspect so general two years ago. In restricted spots the insects are quite thi*k, and have done slight injury, but in a general way the prospects were seldom brighter.
WHAT WILL HAPPEN.
The insects have been getting wings in increasing numbers during the past week. These will rise from day to day, as the wind and weather permit, and fly away to the north and northwest. This, on account of the irregular hatching and the great diversity of size in the insects now here, will continue for the next iwo or three weeks, and the flights will consequently be so scattering as scarcely to be noticed. In the northeastern counties visited the farmers are out of danger. The insects are not more numerous than indigenous species sometimes are in dry seasons east of the Mississippi, and the vegetation is so rank that they can make no appreciable effect upon it. In the southwest counties there will be greater injury, and you may expect to hear of a cornfield cleaned out here, and a wheat-field more or less damaged there, where no precaution is taken against such an occurrence. Yet here, also, the average loss will be slight-no greater than it has been in Texas and South Kansas, where generally excellent crops have been or are being harvested. In fact, very much the same conditions prevail in the counties bordering on the Missouri east as in those in Nebraska westwhere Professors Thomas and Aughey, on behalf of the Commission, have been making extended observations, and conclude that the loss from locust depredations will be so slight that its effect upon the State will scarcely be felt.
LESS FAVORABLE IN NORTHWESTERN IOWA. Judging from numerous reports which reach me, the outlook is less favorable in the northwest counties. Indeed, from Humboldt and Kossuth Counties westward, the counties are far more gloomy. Professor Thomas has charge of that part of the State, and is now there. Much can be done to allay unnecessary alarm, and you may expect to hear from him.
SUGGESTIVE NOTES.
In passing through the magnificently fertile southwestern counties of your State, two things were particularly noticeable:
First. The want of diversity in culture. Corn is too supremely king. Some townships are one vast corn-field; and while the farmer generally instinctively plants that which pays him the best, he often does so from habit and imitation. In a country




16 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

subject to locust ravages disaster is averted by greater diversity. Without discussing the advantage of a diversity of crops, the advisability of growing more stock must be obvious: first, to consume the corn at home; secondly, to avoid sweeping disaster. Had the season been less unfavorable to the locusts, they might have cleanefil out the grain-fields, and, as is their wont, left untouched the wild prairie meadows. Verbuzm 8at sapienti.
Secondly. In every community there, are those who persist in doing n othing to prevent locust injury. These individuals frequently bring ruin n ot only upon themselves, but upon more persevering neighbors. There is need of more organization, and Iowa needs some such law as her sister States north and west passed last winter-a law that will oblige every able-bodied man to work one or more days, either in the Fall in destroying the eggs, or in the spring in destroying the young insects, whenever the township trustees, at the request of a given number of citizens of tlie township, may call them to such work under special provisions similar to those of existing road-laws.
[Here followed some practical suggestions that are given in Chapter 13.]
Sundry devices for the use of both coal-oil and coal-tar have been patented, and the patentees in some instances charge an exorbitant and unreasonable royalty. I would advise farmers to
SAVE THEIR MONEY.
The principle of destruction cannot be patented, since coal-oil and coal1-tar for the destruction of locusts have been used in former years, and extensively in Colorado. Their use against insects is a public privilege and possession.
The particular construction of the machine is immaterial. Farmers will thank manufacturers who sell at a decent profit, but should give no encouragement to those who charge thrice what a machine is worth because of a patent.

PROSPECTIVE DAMAGE.
There is some apprehension from swarms from the south, and from fresh flights later in the season from the northwest. I think there is little danger of either. The return swarms in summer from the country south are never very disastrous. The insects have been flying north and northwest for about six weeks, but so scattered that, as I anticipated five weeks ago, no serious injury has followed their settling. They fly mostly west of Iowa, and when they do injury it is generally near the British-American line. That there will be no fresh visitation of a widespread character later in the year from the northwest there is every reason to hope. The native breeding-grounds must have been measurably depleted last year, and the return migration has been so far, and doubtless will be, slight. This reasoning applies to the sectio 'n of your S-ate which I have visited. It will apply to all the country south and east of the fortyfourth parallel and one hundredth meridian, but will hold less and less true a's we go north and west of those limits. Altogether the outlook is favorable. From excessive wet, and for other reasons, the ordinary grain pests, like the chinch-bug, will be harmless, and with favorable weather henceforth there is very reason to feel encouraged.
I have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully, C .RLY

His Excellency Gov. J. G. NEWBOL.D,
De8 Moines, Iowa.

Mr. Packard -started west after the Saint Louis meeting, and reached Denver, Colo., on the first of June. He spent several (lay's at Morrison and Greeley, collecting facts about the young and return mirration from the south ward. May 29 and 30, he made observations at Julesburg anid vicinity; June 7-11, at Salt Lake, Farmington, &c.; June 12-24, he passed through Idaho into Montana, stopping at Virginia City, Bozeman, Helena, and Fort Benton. From here hie passed down




VISIT TO UTAH AND NORTHWEST. 17

the Missouri River June 24-27, and through Dakota to Saint Paul and home, reaching Salem July 5.
As the result of this journey, the Commission was able to confirm the belief it had previously announced, that there were no unfledged locusts in a very extensive region of the Northwest, comprising large portions of Montana, Dakota, and also British America, for about two hundred and fifty miles north of the Missouri River, a region bounded on the north by the Saskatchewan River. As this region, together with the Yellowstone Valley, is usually the great breeding-ground of the Rocky Mountain locust, the Commission felt more confidently enabled, from the state of things there and in Wyoming and Colorado, to predict that there would be no serious invasion of the border States from Texas to Minnesota in the summer and autumn, which would insure an immunity from the attacks of young locusts, at least in 1878. It was also ascertained that the tracts of country in Colorado, Utah, and Idaho, where eggs were laid the year previous, and unfledged locusts were observed in greater or less numbers, that the cold, heavy rains of April and May, and the parasites, had, as in the Mississippi border States, so materially reduced their number as to render them powerless to do material harm, except in Cache and Malade Valleys, in Northern Utah, while serious local damage was committed by them in Bitter Root Valley, Montana. Much information was also obtained during this trip regarding locust occurrences in the Territories and in British America. (App. 9.)
During the first week in July, Mr. Riley took the field in Colorado, and the following letter, written just before his return, together with data subsequently obtained (Chapter I, App. 7), will form a summary of the state of things:
To the editor of the Colorado Farmer:
DEAR SIR: Upon my arrival in Denver, three weeks ago, you requested me to furnish you with a brief account of my intended observations in Colorado before my departure. I can find time for but a few hurried jottings.
OBJECT OF VISIT.
As you are already aware, my visit has been in furtherance of the work of the United States Entomological Commission, and my investigations have had reference to the Rocky Mountain locust, or grasshopper. It gives me great pleasure to state that all whom I have met with in Colorado, from the State officers down to the humblest farmer, have generously assisted in my efforts, and expressed a hearty sympathy with the work of the Commission. After visiting Greeley, Golden, Boulder, and other points north of Denver, and some of the ranches lying along the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, I found very little that was instructive beyond what intelligent correspondents had already communicated. Hence, I spent as much time as possible in the mountain passes and canions, espec ally those within easy reach of the narrow-gauge road already mentioned, to the officers of which I am under special obligations for liberal aid. Mr. William Holly, of Del Norte, has, on behalf of the Commission, visited most of the interesting points which I have had no time to reach, in Park, Lake, Gunnison, Fremont, Saguache, San Juan, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties.
2G




18 REPORT UNITED STATES' ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

RETROSPECTIVE.
In fill the States to the east invaded last year, the eggs of the locust were laid very thickly, and the gravest apprehensions as to injury existed as spring opened. Nor were these without warrant. Notwithstanding those eggs which were destroyed during the winter by enemies, and those which prematurely hatched in the fall and during the mild weather of February, enough hatched in April to cause consterniation. Throughout the invaded country lying east of Colorado, already visited by the Comnmission-which includes all the States affected, from Texas to Minnesota-the insects have disappeared without, in a general way, doing any very serious injury. What with the increased number of birds and their other enemies, the more determined efforts made, and improved methods of warfare employed against them by farmers, the heavy, cold, and continued rains that followed the principal hatching, and the greater debility and tendency to disease among them everywhere noticeable, the young insects rapidly decreased in numbers, and those which survived to acquire wings rose and flew to the northwest in scattering swarms. Even in Northwest Iowa and a few counties toward the south west Of Minnesota, where the injury was great-est, the insects have not remained to deposit as they did in past years. They continued to die off, and finally left, or are now leaving, after doing more or less injury. I have been much interested in finding how thoroughly the conditions above described have prevailed over all parts of Colorado having an altitude less than 7,000 feet above the sea-lev el. There were more eggs laid in Colorado last Fall than during any previous year that those whom I have conversed with remember. The principal hatching in April was followed by continued cold rains and snows, which would partially thaw during the day and freeze again at night, so that the young insects were alternately subjected to much slush and frost. In early summer there was by far the largest amount of rain-f.ill known for many years in the State. The insects were weak and died and disappeared. Birds were unusually serviceable in destroying them, and one little gray gregarious species, described to me as being abundant and efficient in February, and which is perhaps the horned shore-lark (Erimoihila alpe8tris), I have not noticed to the east.
Very much the same condition of things occurred all over the State below the altitude stated, whether in the northern half or along the eastern base of the Sangre de Cristo and in the Cucharas Valley, where the insects hatched more thickly. Few years have been more favorable to the Colorado farmer. I have noticed a number of poor wheat-fields, resulting from defective irrigation or other causes, but the average yield will, I think, be from twenty to twenty-five bushels to the acre. A good deal of rye was so burnt out that it had to be prematurely cut and used for hay. Barley has yielded from twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre, and the yield of oats will be fair. Corn looks well, and stock of all kinds is in excellent condition. In Lake County, where there is an extensive area under cultivation along the Arkansas, and where the damage was great last year, few locusts hatched the present year. In Park County, mostly devoted to grazing, the injury has been slight The San Luis Valley, which is devoted to agrriculture and stock-raising, has suffered little, and the beautiful Ute Valley has also, as is usually the case, been singularly free. In the Wett Mountain Valley, which is specially subject to inj ury, the farmers had to fight early in the season, and the injury in the valley of the Costilla, where fields were cleaned out by the young locusts, was greater than in any other part of the State, The severe injury extended southward into New Mexico, where the valley of the Taos has been swept clean; yet, on the opposite side of the mountains, the president of the New Mexico Stock and Agricultural Association reports to Mr. Holly no injury occurred, the young insects havingr disappeared.
CONDITIONS IN THlE PARKS AND PASSES ABOVE THE ALTITUDE OF 7,000 FEET.
While in the lower plains and valley regions of the State the conditions have been so similar to those which prevailed toward the Mississippi, they havq been quite dif-





VISIT TO COLORADO. 19

ferent in the higher plateaus and parks. At altitudes of from 8,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea, the principal hatching occurred in May, and was later in proportion as we ascended, until, in the places with an altitude of 12,000 to l ))00 feet, the insects are still hatching. At such great heights the mature dead are often to be found in large quantities under stones and other shelter, which they sought last fall when prematurely overtaken by winter, and their young are hopping about in great numbers. As no agriculture is carried on in these parks and passes, no effort is made to destroy the


THE LOCUST PROBLEM MORE COMPLICATED IN COLORADO THAN IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY.
It is in consequence of the above facts that the locust question becomes so complicated in your State. Colorado combines within her limits the meteorological and climatic features of a dozen States. In the Mississippi Valley country, there are laws governing the Fall invasions from the northwest and the return migrations in summer on which to pedicate with tolerable assurance. This is more particularly true south of the forty fourth parallel. Your most disastrous swarms also come from the north and northwest, and the insects which batch out on your plains east of the mountains are largely governed by the same laws and instincts as those which hatch to the east ; on acquiring wings they leave, and those that rise before the second week in July will bear mostly to the north and northwest. This is more particularly the case south of the divide. After the middle of July the rains increase and the winds are more variable, prevailing, so far as I have yet ascertained, greatly from the east or south in the morning, but stronger from west or northwest in the afternoon. Swarms are liable, therefore, at almost any time after the middle of July, to swoop down from the parks and plateaus west of the range upon the valleys and plains to the east. These remain within your borders, or, if they pass beyond, bear southeastwardly toward Texas. From what light the Commission so far po it becomes more and more plain that
I have been correct in considering the species as boreal,* and in locating the breedinggrounds of the mote disastrous swarms, like that of last year, in the plains regions of the extreme Northwest, where the summers are short and the winters long and severe, I find the exodus of the wingA insects from that portion of your State lying east of the mountains less complete than in Kansas and Missouri, for instance, and of the earlier matured individuals that have not left, some commenced ovipositing a week or so since. The young from eggs laid thus early will prematurely hatch this summer or Fall, and inevitably perish ; just as those now hatching toward the snow-line will perish before attaining maturity. The insect is single-brooded, and the tendency to produce two broods where the summers are too long, is as fatal to the perpetuation of the species as th- want of time to properly mature a single generation where the summers are too short. Both extremes obtain within the limits of your State, as, also, the intermediate conditions in which the species can thrive permanently; whereas in no part of the Mississippi Valley south of the forty-fourth parallel, and, probably, some degrees farther north, can the species hold its. own continuously, and, with few exceptions, it seldom remains a single year.

PROSPECTIVE.
While the record in Colorado up to this time is so interesting, in comparison with that in other States, the probabilities during the rest of the season more deeply interest your people. "What are the prospects ? This is the question put to me on every hand. The farmer who is just about harvesting his wheat is anxious to know whether the chances are that it will be suddenly ruined by the winged pests, as it has been in past years, or that it will be unmolested.
We have in former writings designated the species as subalpine, but the term here used in its zoblogloal sense is more strictly correct, implying that region, as the Saskatchewan and Lake Superior areas, between the subarctic and north temperate.





20 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

From what I have said above, it follows that I cannot predicate with the same assurance that I have done in Texas, Missouri, Kansas, and Iowa; but, to be brief, the prospects are, in my opinion, quite favorable. * *
Dr. Packard, of the Commission, who has been through Utah, Idaho, Montana, and Wyomning. confirms my conclusion that the Northwest must be measurably depleted, for he could not find a locust in Montana from the Idaho line up to Fort Benton or down the Missouri line to Bismarck. None are to be seen in the region 'south of South Saskatchewan, and there is an immense area free from them in their native home. There is very little danger, then, of injury from Fall swarms from the Northwest, unless they come from the Black Hills country. There remains the chance of swarms from your own western parks and plateaus or from those of Utah; but I have good reasons for believing that they will prove no more injurious than the swarms which have been passing on several days since I have been in the State from said western hatchinggrounds. There is a constant struggle for supremacy between the plant-feeder and its carnivorous enemies. The Rocky Mountain locust got the upper hand during the excessively dry seasons of the. early part of the present decade, and has been so numerous for the past three or four years that its enemies have rioted in plenty, and at last, in their turn, have increased inordinately. In all your parks the Tachina flies (which produce the parasitic maggots known to infest the locust) are so numerous as to cause a constant buzzing like a swarm of bees, and to prove a positive nuisance to tourists. Every winged locust that attempts to fly is pursued by three or four of them, and the locusts that are daily rising from said parks, whenever the breeze is favorable, are very generally parasitized and diseased in consequence. The same holds true, as I learn from reports, in Utah, and as the parasites will increase as the season advances there is no reason to believe that the later swarms from the west of you will prove more injurious than those that have already left. The same will also largely hold true of those which leave the Black Hills country, though I have less positive information from that region. Nature maintains her average in the long run, and a few seasons of drought and locust ravages are apt to be followed by a period of more rainy seasons and locust decrease.
REMEDIES.
As these have been quite fully given in the Commission's bulletins, and are not particularly called for at this season, I will dismiss the subject with the remark that I have found no means employed in Colorado that are not employed in other States, except as your irrigating ditches permit of a peculiar and satisfactory use of coal-oil. I should, perhaps, except also one means employed in the Wet Mountain Valley, where, as the young insects pass from the ledges and benches where they hatch into the valley, they are so effectually rolled into a slush made by overflowing the ground, that a pestilence from their dead bodies is sometimes threatened. I think your farmers are not sufficiently appreciative of the dry ditch, which could often be used to great advantage where other means fail.

The Commissioners consider it their duty not only to disseminate information already possessed, but to gather from all parts of the country the facts peculiar to each setion, for experience differs ininiensely with latitude and surroundings. The flights of the winged insects-their direction an d the directionn and force of the wind at the time in Colorado during the rest of the season-will be of great interest, and the Cuminission will feel under obligations to any of your readers who will send me notes thereon.
Yours, very truly, C .RLY

SUMMIT, LA VIETA PASS, July 28, 1877.
Mr. William Holly, of Del Norte, as stated in the above letter, was eipployed as special assistant iii this State, traveling extensively on hor-seback during June and July to collect information in the southern counties. His report, with other data, appears elsewhere. (App. 7.)




VISIT TO PACIFIC COAST. 21

Prof. O. S. Westcott, of Chicago, also made a trip for us to this State during the month of August, while Prof. R. L. Packard, of the Patent Office, visited the State earlier, in order to make some chemical experimnients.
The Commissioners met and held a third meeting in Chicago, Ill., August 7-8, for consultation and the transaction of necessary business. After planning for field-work for August and September they separated, to meet again on the 1st of October. Mr. Packard started west, reaching Salt Lake August 12; thence he went through Nevada, obtaining new facts about fresh invasions of locusts from Idaho, stopping at Reno, and thence, by way of Lake Tahoe, where the species of locust destructive in California was observed, he went to Portland, Oreg., tracing in the Shasta Valley and about Portland the small form allied to the Rocky Mountain locust. Going up the Columbia River to The Dalles and to Wallula, information was obtained regarding the western limits of the Rocky Mountain locust and recent invasions in Eastern Oregon and Washington Territories of this locust.
Returning to San Francisco by way of Victoria, Vancouver's Island, where collections were made of locusts allied closely to the Rocky Mountain species, considerable information was received at Merced, Stockton, and places along the road to the Yosemite Valley, regarding the ravages of the Caloptenus atlanis, the destructive locust of California, and, from observations made in the mountains, as well as on Mount Shasta, at the northern extremity of the Sierra Nevada, it was definitely ascertained that swarms of the Rocky Mountain locust have probably never flown over that range from the plains east, and that the damages done locally on the Pacific coast have been most probably committed by Caloptenus femur-rubrum and C. atlanis, conjointly or separately, both of these species conjointly causing similar losses in the Atlantic States. Mr. Packard returned to Salem on October 4.
The results of this journey may be summed up as follows: Definite information was obtained concerning the invasion of Northern Nevada and Eastern Oregon and Washington Territory by swarms of the'genuine Rocky Mountain locust, and all of the swarms were traced with a good degree of accuracy to the Snake River Valley, in the vicinity of Boise City and northward and souteastwardly. The western limits of the Rocky Mountain locust were definitely ascertained to be near the meridian of 1200, extending alon g the limits of this line from latitude 580 to 370. It is most probable that while this locust may occasionally, in Washington Territory and Oregon, fly to the eastern flank of the Cascade Range, and in Calitbfornia as far as the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada, swarms never pass over those mountains. (For detailed notes of this journey, see App. 10.)
During the last days of August and first of September Mr. Thomas again visited the Northwest in order to consult with his assistants, bring together the data obtained, and arrange it in reference to the report. The meeting was held at Sioux City, Iowa, after which Mr. Thomas, ac-




22 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

companied by Mr. Whitman, visited various parts of Northern Iowa in order to gather specimens of those which had dropped from flying swarms, and to ascertain exactly the eastern limit of their extension in this latitude.
In addition to these visits, Mr. Whitman traveled extensively over the counties ra vaged by the locusts in Minnesota, and Professor Aughey over those of Nebraska.
Mr. Riley started, after the Chicago meeting, for Manitoba,, remaining a few days on the way in Minnesota to ascertain the extreme eastern limit of flight in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties. Most of the month of August and part of September were spent in Manitoba, where he was fortunate in meeting the Hon. M. P. Mills, minister of the interior, and the Hon. Mr. C. A. P. Pelletier, minister of agriculture, of Canada, both of whom are strongly in sympathy with the work of the Commission. Indeed, Mr. Pelletier had our first circular reprinted and sent, out by the Dominion council. While at Winnepeg he was under many obligations to Bishop Tach6, Governor A. Morris, many Hudson Bay factors, and other officers, but especially to Mr. J. W. Taylor, United States consul, whose uniform kindness and whose extensive knowledge of the Saskatchewan country materially helped to make his stay pleasant and profitable. This trip gave us much definite information regarding the destination of the early summer flights, and regarding the northern and eastern limits of the species' spread and of its permanent breedinggrounds north of our boundary-line. These permanent breeding-grounds turn out to be much more clearly defined than we had reason to hope, and they are, in a broad way, coequal with the limit of what is known as the third prairie plateau or steppe, an immense plains region drained by the South Saskatch ewan and the Red Deer River. We were also able to obtain evidence of great locust abundance in this country as far back as the very beginning of the present century. (See Chapter 1.)
A fourth meeting Of the Commission was held in Chicago, October 1-2, for the further transaction of business and to complete the division of labor on the report. During this month Mr. Riley made a trip to Kansas, as far as Manhattan, with a view of ascertaining whether any of the insects that had hatched in the spring had remained in that section of the country (App. 14); while in November he made a brief trip as far as Dallas, Tex., for the same purpose and to get facts as to autumn flights.
The fifth meeting of the Commission was a protracted one, held in Washington during the latter part of January and early part of 'February, 1878, for the purpose of comparing and digesting the work done, on the report and preparing the same for the printer. By comparing and interchanging notes the report has been made as much as possible a whole, andl opinions expressed or conclusions (drawn are those of the entire Commission, unless dissent therefrom by any one member be exp~ressed in a note. The chapters have been severally prepared as follows:




LIST OF CHAPTERS. 23

Introduction. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 1. Classification and Nomenclature: Characters of the Species. By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 2. Chronological History. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 3. Statistics of Losses. By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 4. Agricultural Bearings of the Subject. By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 5. Native or Permanent Breeding-Grounds. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 6. Geographical Distribution. By Messrs. Thomas and Packard.
Chapter 7. Migrations. By Messrs. Packard and Thomas.
Chapter 8. Habits and Natural History. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 9. Anatomy and Embryology. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 10. Metamorphoses. By MAr. Riley.
Chapter 11. Invertebrate Enemies (Insects, &c). By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 12. Vertebrate Enemies (Birds, &c). By Mr. Thomas.
Chapter 13. Remedies and Devices for Destruction. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 14. Influence of Prairie Fires on Locust Increase. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 15. Influence of Weather on the Species. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 16. Etlects that generally follow severe Locust Injury. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 17. Uses to which Locusts may be put. By Mr. Packard.
Chapter 18. Ravages of other Locusts in the United States. By Mr. Riley.
Chapter 19. Locust Ravages in other Countries. By Mr. Packard.
The first chapter relates to the classificatory position, name, and characters of the species, which, while belonging to the same family as the locusts of the Old World, is nevertheless purely an American insect, occurring on no other continent. For a correct and proper understanding of the whole subject, it is very essential that we discriminate between certain closely allied species, which are easily confounded by the non-entomologist, and which yet have very different habits and instincts, By means of a large amount of material from all parts of the country, and by study of the immature stages, we have been able to accurately define the three forms most apt to be confounded, and they will be distinguished throughout the report by the popular names of Rocky Mountain locust (Caloptenus spretus), Lesser locust (0. atlanis*), and the Red-legged locust t (C. femur-rubrum). We consider them good species, as species go, and the plates will at once show their distinguishing characteristics. As is found to be the case with nearly all species when large material from widely different sections is studied, there are several varieties and races that may be grouped around each of these three typical forms, and which are intermediate between them; but it has
*Originally defined from specmens from the ew England States, but subsequently found to have a very wide range and not to be confined to the east. t Long known by this popular name on account of the red shanks (tibia) which are not, however, conf.ned to this species but are characteristic of all three under consideration.




24 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

not been deemed necessary to confuse the ordinary reader by further definitions in this chapter, since it is the intention to give in a separate memoir a synopsis Of the genus, with descriptions of all the North American species at present known.
In the second chapter we have given a chronological record of locust injury in this country, which shows it to be no modern occurrence; and if the injury appears to have increased of late years it is only because there -*is a larger cultivated area within the locust region, and, the devastation is more noticeable. The impression that this insect is on the increase, and that its invasions are becoming more general and more frequent is wide-spread, but it is scarcely justified by the facts, which clearly indicate that the species has for centuries (and doubtless for centuries of centuries) been at times excessively abundant and injurious to the vegetation of the western plains. The history of 1877 is given rather fully in this chapter, and is interesting in that it differs from that of 1875, the year when the insects also hatched out in so large a part of the temporary region. In that year the hatching was more uniform, the young more vigorous, and, notwithstanding the spring and early summer were as wet and stormy as in 1877, the destruction of crops was complete. In 1877, though the eggs were more numerous, the hatching was more irregular, the young insects more feeble and diseased, and the destruction, except in a few -counties of Northwestern Iowa and Minnesota., was trifling. The reasons for the difference in the two years are sufficiently obvious. The winter of 1874-'75 was severe and steadymore in keeping with the boreal country where the insect is at home and the eggs were well preserved and hatched more uniformly; moreover, they were laid by insects fresh from their northwest home. The eggs laid in 1876 wer e largely from insects from the subpermanent country; they were subjected to much mild and changeable winter weather, while the spring rains were cold and disastrous to the young. In addition to these facts, the increase of natural enemies that inevitably followed the few years of locust abundance, and the greater efforts of the farmer, anid better means of fightinDg, should be taken into account.
Chapter 3, in showing that the loss to the States between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains from this insect between 1873-277 amounted to about $200,000,000, will serve to convey an idea to those not conversant with the facts of the vast importance of the question and the prominent rble this tiny locust plays in the deStiny Of the country. When we reflect that these losses fell most heavily upon a Irjiijtier population without wealth, we cease to wonder at the suffering aaid consternation that at times prevailed, and must admire the courage anid fortitude with which the people have fought adversity. A means of arriving at the.s:e losses from two wholly different stand-points, and f~oin entirely different data, has been employed, thereby rendering the one a check upon the other.
Chapter 4 treats of the effect of locust injury upon the agricultural




CHARACTER OF CHAPrERS. 25

progress and development of the West; the crops most liable to and those most exempt from injury. It also discusses the best modes of cropping and the modeof farming that will give greatest security against locust ravages.
The facts brought forward in considering the native or permanent breeding-grounds (Chapter 5) show this locust to be essentially boreal, and that, in its normal condition, it is confined to the more northern plains. The area of its permanent abode lies principally east of the mountains, between latitude 370 and 520 and reaching to about the. 102d meridian. West of the range the permanent breeding-grounds seem to be confined to more limited areas in the Snake River Valley and Cache and Malade Valley regions.
The chapter (6) on geographical distribution gives the limit of the range or spread of the species. The data obtained during the year fix the eastern limit along almost precisely the same line at w hich it had been previously established, broadly along the 94th meridian; but the northern, western, and southern boundaries are for the first time established with anything like definiteness. The exact eastern limit is given in the chapter. It is an interesting fact that both north and east the limit is, in the main, coequal with the timber line. West of the mountains the line is in the neighborhood of the 118th meridian, the Cascade and Blue Mountain Ranges and the moisture beyond them appearing to be the most obvious barriers.
The Commission has made an especial effort to record all the movements of locusts during the year 1877, no less than 2,5(00 observations being recorded. The managers of each of the three lines across the country, viz, the Atchison, Topeka and eanta F6, the Kansas Pacific, and the Union Pacific, assisted us by republishing our queries and instructing their agents to report, so that we had three almost parallel lines checking each other.
-The data in the chapter (7) on migrations and in the appendix (App. 12) show very clearly that the movements of the winged insects that hatch out in the temporary region is toward the north or the northwest early in summer, the direction being more and more due nortli toward the eastern limit. In other words, there is, as we first declared three years ago, a return migration toward the native breeding-grounds of the insects hatching in the temporary region. This return movement is very constant east of the plains and south of the 44th parallel, but less so north and west of those lines. Thus in Minnesota, from which the reports are very complete, the movements are much more irregular than in Iowa, and they are most regular in Texas. It is well established that there may be two contrary currents over considerable areas, while good evidence is produced to show that flight is not unfrequently continued into the night, especially during fair, warm, and dry midsummer weather. '
The observations in d1e xA'eite NIorthwest are me eger, and while




26 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

flights from the south are recorded in July, passing over the Cypress Hills region in Northwest Territory, and reaching the North Saskatchewan at a few points, and even passing some distance. north of Fort Carleton, yet from the want of data -in the intermediate country we cannot say positively that these were continuations from our side the boundary-line, though the p)robability is that they were. The evidence
-and it is very complete-indicates that some of the swarms that went northward the past season, through Minnesota and Dakota east of the .Missouri, penetrated north of the boundary-line ; but we know from the history of 1875, and from the experience of the Hon. Donald Gunn, of Winnepeg (App., 11), that the return migration does at times reach beyond said line, and that the insects often pass from the south over Manitoba during the month of June, or so early as to imply development several degrees south of that province.
The question as to what eventually became of these northward-returning swarms was everywhere asked during the summer. The evidence is clear that, as in previous years, these returning insects were mostly so diseased and parasitized that they dropped in scattered numbers and perished on their northward and northwestward journey. This is no theory, but known to have been the case iii the 'More thickly settled parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota, from which the insects that dropped were reported, and in some cases sent to us. Mr. J. G. Kittsou, of Fort W~alsh, Cypress Hills, British America, also reports that those which alighted there gradually disappeared without taking farther flight, and that they were badly attacked by parasites (App. 11). As this return flight is principally over a vast plain and prairie region that is thinly settled, the number of insects that dropped andl were lost to sight in said plains must have been infinitely greater than that which was observed to come down in the more thickly settled regions to the east. We found the insects sparsely spread over the rank prairies west of Brainerd, along the Northern Pacific, and along Red River, and by this we mean that a few would hop from the grass at every step wherever we searched for them. We met with only here and there a straggler in Manitoba; but they were more numerous, as we have just seen, farther west. After the middle of July the flights began to trend in the opposite direction, or toward the south, and the data, which we have been at some pains to obtain. on the autumn flights (App. 12), show that they were, as usual, pretty constant in the same direction. It is clearly shown that in the more northern parts of the country the north ward- bound insects are often driven back and forth, constantly diminishing in numbers, and from their harmlessness and the facet that the northiiwest breeding-grounds are known to h ave been measurably free in spring,7 it is more than probable that the autumn flights over the temporary region were made up of the more robust of the insects that
had,~~ lariefitt, that region. West of the Rtocky Mountains, and in restidted seton$ In MX ntan 0ast of them, the flights prevail in other directions.




MOVEMENTS OF LOCUSTS. 27

Chapter 8 will be found to contain all that is at present accurately known on the general habits and natural history of the species, bringing out a number of new facts and correcting some errors which have heretofore prevailed. We would call especial attention to the portions which treat of the locations where eggs are preferably laid, the conditions of soil which most assist hatching, the general habits of the young, and to the two subchapters, which show that in the temporary region, south of the 44th parallel, the return migration to the -orthwest is so complete that no insects of any consequence remain in the autumn, and in which are given the reasons why, in said region, the eggs are never laid thickly for two consecutive years, and, as a consequence, severe injury in spring and early summer for two such consecutive years never takes place. We have also discussed here the philosophy of the migrating habit, showing pretty conclusively that it is not to be attributed to one cause alone, but to several causes.
The chapter on embryology and anatomy contains observations on the mode of growth and hatching of the embryo, and gives new facts regarding the external structure of the locust and the internal anatomy of the respiratory organs concerned in lightening the body during flight. The general and minute anatomy of the digestive system and of the iervous system is also for the first time given.
The chapter on transformations will be found interesting as giving exact knowledge on the number of molts suffered by the species, mode and manner of molting, and of getting wings, and the structural changes that take place during growth.
In chapter 11 will be found an illustrated account of all the more minute enemies of the locust that are known to attack it in this country. Several interesting scientific discoveries are recorded, and among these we would draw especial attention to the interesting transformations of the lcust-mite, which is parasitic in its early 6 legged state upon the mature insect, and in its adult 8-legged state destroys the locust-eggs; also to the curious life-history of the blister-beetles, which in their larval state turn out to be locust-egg destroyers. The excessive multiplication of most of these natural enemies was very generally noticed during the past year, the ground in some places being red with the egg-feeding mites, and the air full of swarms of the Tachina-flies, from which come the maggots that eat out the vitals of the locust.
In chapter 12 are given the locust-feeding habits of many western animals not heretofore known to have that habit ; and the good offices of birds are specially made manifest, examinations of the stomachs of over 90 species and 630 specimens having been made with special reference to their locust-eating habits. The record in reference to these examinations is very full, giving the date, the locality, the common and scientific names of the species, and the number of locusts and of other insectsfound in each. The value heretofore placed on these aids by entomolorist s is fully sustained by this record.




28 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

In chapter 13, which is one of the most extended and most important, practically, it is clearly shox% n that the young locusts may be controlled, and by what means, while the way is pointed out how to better control the winged insects. Many valuable Aevices for destruction are illustrated, among them one invented by Mr. Riley, which gave entire satisfaction, and will, it is believed, supersede other contrivances as a cheap and practicable means of destruction, applicable at any season, whether the plants or the insects be small or large. In this chapter, also, the necessity of legislation, the relative merits of ditching, plowing, harrowing, the use of coal-oil, of various fluids and powders, and of burning are discussed; as also the best means of protecting special plants and trees.
In chapters 14 and 15 the influence of prairie-fires and of weather on locust-iucrease is discussed. It is shown that prairie-fires can have but little influence on the multiplication of the insect except when they are judiciously manipulated and controlled as suggested in chapter 13. The effects of frost and of wet weather on the eggs and on the young insects have an important practical bearing, and we have given a series of experiments which prove that the eggs are not greatly influenced either by frost or water. That they should resist intense cold was to be expected, since the species is boreal; but that they should remain impervious to constant soaking, is contrary to the prevailing views hitherto held on the subject. They are, also, far less susceptible to alternate freezing and thawing than was anticipated. The young locusts, on the contrary, perish whenever the temperature falls more than fifteen degrees below freezing-point, while they are very seriously and iDjuriously -iffected by prolonged wet weather, especially if it be cold in addition.
The effects that invariably follow severe locust-iDjury are treated of in chapter 16, and the changes that, in consequence of such injury, take place in the flora and fauna-the increase of some species and decrease of others-are sometimes very striking. It must also be assuring to the people of the West to know that there are good and sufficient reasons why a year of great locust-devastation is apt to be followed by one of locust-immunity and good crops.
In chapter 17 we have discussed the uses to which locusts may be put, and, not to dilate here on their availability as food for various animals, including man, as fish-bait, or as manure, the chemical analysis given of the dead locusts is quite interesting. The insects furnish a new oil, which we have christened Caloptine, and a very large percentage of formic acid. Though this acid exists in the ant and some other insects, it is with difficulty obtained in large quantities; whereas by the action of sulphuric acid upon the locust-juices it passes off with great readiiiess and in remarkable quantity and gravity. The various uses of this acid, whether as a therapeutic, &c., are capable of great and valuable extension where it can be obtained so readily and in such quantity.
In the two concluding chapters it is clearly shown that locust-ravages




FUTURE PROSPECTS. 29

are by no means confined to the country west of the Mississippi, but may occur and have occurred in other parts of the country, at times in great intensity. It is also shown that no quarter of the globe is exempt from these pests, and that the countries bordering mountain-ranges in Southern Europe, Asia, and Africa, especially, have, since biblical times, and, doubtless, ages before, been devastated at irregular periods by devouring locust hordes.
We cannot well close this introduction without some statement of our views as to the locust-prospects for the immediate future, since our opinions are constantly being asked for. That the insect will, in the future, again pour down at times from its breeding-grounds into the temporary region, unless, by the co-operation of the two governments interested, it
-is prevented from so doing by the course we recommend, or by some still more feasible course yet to be discovered, there can be no reasonable doubt. Yet, in proportion as that country becomes settled will locust-injury be more and more easily controlled. But we do not hesitate to give it as our deliberate opinion that there will be no serious injury in such temporary region the coming summer, and, probably, not for several years to come. WVe rest this conclusion, first, on our personal examinations the past autumn over much of the country name. d; secondly, on the reports of correspondents in said country (App. 14); thirdly, on the reports from the extreme Northwest, or permanent region. These show that none of the insects of any consequence that hatched in the temporary region remained to lay eggs; that scarcely any eggs were laid by the scattering autumn swarms, and that, with few exceptions, the permanent region east of the mountains is likewise remarkably free of eggs.




NOMENCLATURE. 31





CHAPTER I.

CLASSIFICATION A.D NOMEN-TCLATURE-CHARACTERS OF THE SPECIES.

The great damage done in the West during the past few years by "grasshoppers" has caused these insects to be more closely observed than formerly, and the members of the Commission are from time to time receiving specimens from persons both east and west inquiring whether they are the much-dreaded species. We have therefore concluded to give a brief outline of the classification of the family to which this species belongs, and of the characters by which the group and species may be distinguished from other groups and species which are closely allied.
When the popular name of a group of insects or other animals, that is generally accepted, corresponds somewhat closely in its application to the scientific division, it is not difficult to convey to the general reader a correct idea of the position and characters of a given species by reference to and comparison with well-known species of that group. Unfortunately, in the present instance, not only is the opportunity for reference to well-known species wanting, but the popular names applied to species and groups are so confused and erroneous that their use is calculated to convey incorrect ideas to unscientific readers.
Even the name locust as formerly, and yet very generally, applied in this country is incorrectly used, referring to an insect not even belonging to the same order as the locusts of oriental countries.
The "seventeen-year locust" of North America is, in fact, not a locust in the true sense, but a species of Cicada, or harvest-fly, belonging to the order He-miptera, which contains only insects with a mouth prolonged into a horny, jointed tube formed for sucking the juices of the plants or animals on which they feed.
On the contrary, the locusts of the Old World, to which the term was originally and correctly applied, are species of migratory grasshoppers belonging to the order Orthoptera, and are furnished with strong biting jaws or mandibles. There are other very material differences between the two, but these will suffice to show that they are quite distinct.
The very common name "grasshopper" has likewise been unfortunate in its use and application not only in a popular sense, but even by scientists, referring at one time to the true locusts or to the various species of the family to which they belong, and at another to species of a different family, which includes katydids. In fact, the term as generally used applies to most of the species of two different families of Ortkoptera. In order, therefore, to convey a correct idea of the destructive



32 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

species now under consideration we are necessarily compelled to fall back upon the scientific arrangement and characters of the family, subdivisions, and species. Commencing with the order, we will give briefly the characters of the various divisions and subdivisions leading to the genus Caloptenus, to which the Rocky Mountain locust belongs, omitting those divisions and groups not represented in the United States, and referring only to those characters which are most easily recognized, and which apply specially to our acridiai fauna.
The Order ORTHOPTERA is distinguished from the other orders of the insect class chiefly by the following characters: Mouth furnished with mandibles or strong biting jaws; wings four (occasionally wanting), upper pair coriaceous or parchment-like and flexible; under pair thin and membranous, folding lengthwise only in plaits like a fan; transformations incomplete, being active in all stages after hatching trom the egg.
Although not as extensive as some other orders, it contains a large number of species which differ very materially in appearance and characters, and are generally known in this country by the common names earwigs, cockroaches, devil's-horses, walking-sticks, grasshoppers, and crickets. Each of these names, except the next to the last, represents a distinct family of the order, thus:
Earwigs ....... .. ............Family 1. Forficulidw.
Cockroaches ................................. Family 2. Blattidw.
Devil's-horses ------ ............... Family 3. Mantidw.
Walking-sticks ............................... Family 4. Phasmidce.
Grasshoppers ... ................... Family 5. Acridide.
....Family 6. Locustidce.
Crickets .................................... Family 7. Gryllidw.
As will be seen from this list, there is no confusion between the scientific and common names until we reach -'grasshoppers," among which our insect belongs. Other names, it is true, are sometimes applied to insects of the previous families, but with the exception of "earwig" they correspond in their application with the family limits as here given. As before stated, the term grasshopper" is applied to insects of two families-Acrididw and Locustide; but notwithstanding this difficulty in using the popular name, the insects which compose the family are easily distinguished from each other by prominent characters.
Locustidw includes those species usually found on the grass, bushes, and trees, which have very long, thread-like anteniie, generally longer than the body of the insect; the tarsi or feet are four-jointed ; the female is furnished at the tip of the abdomen with an exserted ovipositor, usually more or less curved and sword-shaped; and the upper wings of the male are furnished, at the base, with a peculiar arrangement of the nerves, with which, by rubbing them together, they produce sharp, shrill notes. To this family belong the true grasshoppers, the katydids, and




LOCUST VS. GRASSHOPPER. 33

similar insects; it is true there are other species which strongly resemble and are usually called crickets" that belong to this family.
Acrididc, includes those species which usually reside on the ground, and are distinguished from those of the other families of saltatorial orthoptera by the following characters:
The antenna are comparatively short, never exceeding the body in length, and in North American species composed of from twelve to twenty-five joints; the tarsi are apparently three-jointed; the females are furnished at the tip of the abdomen with four short corneous-pieces, two of which curve upward and two downward; the male is without the shrilling organ at the base of the wings found in the Locustidw.
This family contains the true locusts, such as those of oriental countries and the Rocky Mountain locust; also such so-called grasshoppers as the common red-legged species of the States and those found hopping on the ground in open waste fields, along roadsides, &c. Therefore, in speaking hereafter of these species, we shall use the term locust. As the family contains a very large number of species varying considerably in form and character, entomologists have endeavored to divide it into sections or subfamilies, by bringing together those minor groups having certain characters in common. The various results of these attempts cannot be introduced here, as this would not only rc(quire too much space, but also the introduction of matter of purely scientific interest, and of no practical use in this brief review of the classification.
These subdivisions vary in number according to the characters selected by the different authors, some making as many as eleven subfamilies, others only two or three. Yet, as a general rule, the difference is not so much in the grouping as in the value attached to the groups, the subfamilies of one author being considered as subordinate divisions by other authors.
Without undertaking at this time to decide upon the respective merits of these several arrangements, we have selected for present purposes that which makes but three subfamilies, as it appears to be the simplest and most easily understood by general readers. In our descriptions of these subdivisions we shall confine ourselves to those represented in the orthopteral fauna of that portion of North America north of Mexico, and so far as possible select such characters only as are necessary to distinguish these divisions from each other. The first subfamily, Proscopinw, contains only exotic species, and may therefore be omitted from further consideration.
The second subfamily, Acridinw, is distinguished by having the proDotum in the form of a shield, which covers the prothorax and extends backward at farthest only a short distance upon the base of the abdo. men, never reaching more than half way to the tip, and seldom half this distance; the prosternum or front breast is drawn up, that is, it is not in the same plane as the rest of the sternum or breast; it is spined,
3G




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tubercled, or smooth, but never advanced upon the mouth in the form of ., muffler; elytra or upper wings, when present, always as long as the wings; tarsi with pads between the claws.
The third subfamily, Tettigince, is characterized by having the pronotur, in the form of a shield, extending backward nearly or quite to the tip of the abdomen, and sometimes even beyond it; the prosternum in the same plane as the rest of the sternum, and advanced upon the mouth in the form of a muffler; elytra when present usually shorter than the wings, and placed at the sides of the body; tarsi without pads between the claws.
The two latter families are represented in the United States, but the great body of our locusts belong to the Acridinw, the species of Tettigince being comparatively few, quite small, and seldom noticed by unscientific observers. As the Caloptenus spretus and all other migratory locusts belong to Acridince, we shall limit our further consideration to this subfamily. It contains several subordinate groups, but the characters by which these are distinguished from each other are not so apparent and uniform as those separating the subfamilies, nor is it necessary for us in this general report to attempt an explanation of these differences. Perhaps we may as well state here that no arrangement we have seen can be considered satisfactory. The form of the head and antennee, formerly selected as characters, are too indefinite to meet the demands of science, while those adopted by Stal in his most recent arrangement can scarcely be considered of sufficient value or importance to render them more satisfactory; they also fail to separate forms which we think ought not be brought together. To bring together the long conical head, ensiform antenna, and elongate body of Truxalis with the round head, filiform antenna, and massive bodies of some of the heavier Oedipodcc, and to separate such forms as Pachytylus migratorius and Acridium pere. grinumt, cannot be justified simply because of the presence or absence of a little prosternal spine or transverse pronotal sulcus. The difficulty arises from the fact that the Truxalidw gradually separate into the two branches represented in part by the Acridii and Oedipodw, the transition from the former to the two latter being so gradual that it is almost impossible to mark the dividing line. But any system which fails to recognize the Truxalid group and yet separates the two latter is defective and unsatisftactory.
Therefore, for want of a better arrangement, we adopt for the present the following, although aware that it is defective, but it enables us to eliminate the Truxalid group, which is the only use we wish to make of it at this time.
A. The head conical or pyramidal; the face very oblique, or sloped
under toward the breast; the antennM usually, though not always, enlarged at the base; hind legs comparatively slender.
Truxalini.




CHARACTERS OF MIGRATORY LOCUSTS. 35

A A. Head more or less ovoid or subglobular; face perpendicular or
nearly so, never very oblique, though often somewhat arcuate below; antenaMe filiform, subdepressed or clavate, and not enlarged at the base; hind legs generally robust and very distinctly
enlarged at the base.
a. Prosternum or front breast armed with a spine or tubercle.
Acridini.
a a. Presternum unarmed............................ Oedipodi ni.
Although at least one species of Oedipodini is migratory in the Old World, and a species in North America (Camnula pellucida Scudd.) belonging to the same group was formerly supposed to be the migratory locust of California, yet at present our observations are confined to Acridini, which contains the destructive locust of the West. This limits us to those species found in the United States which have the head more or lees subglobular or ovoid, and the front breast armed with a spine. The latter character is easily recognized by any one, as the spine ntmay be seen by examining the under side of the neck; it usually stands out like a little blunt thorn, very distinct. If this is wanting, the observer may know without further observation that his specimen does not belong to the migratory species of our country. If it has the spine, and the head is not conical or pyramidal, then he must refer to the characters hereafter given of the genera and species.
We have now reached the genera, which cannot be fully discussed at present, as this.would require, if properly done, a revision of the Catlpteni and Pezotettigfi, and an examination of all our native species. We will, therefore, simply mention the more important genera of the group represented in the United States, calling attention to a few of the more prominent characters by which Caloptenlus is separated from those genera most closely allied to it. We will also make use of localities, habits, &c., wherever they will assist the general reader in any way in determining whether or not a given specimen belongs to Caloptenus.
The following genera of Acridii which are mentioned by North American authors may be omitted from further consideration for the reasons given below:
Tropidacris, Dictyophorus, Rhomalea, Oinmmatolamnpis, Platyphymna, Dactylotumi, and Chromacris.
The first contains only gigantic species, and if represented at all in the United States, it is only by a single species occasionally found along the southwestern border of Texas.
Rhomalea may be considered as a synonym of Dictyaphorus, which is represented by but two subtropical species, which are large, with brightly colored under-wings, chiefly red; while those of our Calopteni are transparent.
Ommatolampis has been superseded by Mr. Scudder's new genus Hesperotettix.



36 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Platyphyma and Chromacris have probably been introduced by mistake.
Dactylotum has been introduced into our nomenclature for the reception of a very short-winged and brightly-colored species-Pezotettix picta Thos.
This leaves only the following genera as necessary to be considered: Acridium, Caloptenus, Hesperotettix and Pczotcttix.
As Hesperotettix contains, so far as we are aware, but three species, easily distinguished from Caloptenus spretus by the following characters andfacts, it may also be excluded: One is short-winged, green, and found only in the Eastern Middle States; another somewhat common in the West is green, with reddish bands around the femora; the other has so far been found only in Arizona; it is yellow, thickly dotted over with black, and the antenna annulated with alternate colors.
There is a difference of opinion in reference to the characters of the genera Caloptenus and Pezotettix; Professor Stdhl, of Sweden, maintaining that if properly limited Caloptenus does not embrace any of our species. He places C. femur-rubrum, and consequently the closely allied species, in Pezotettix. Without attempting to discuss the question so far as it relates to the proper characters, we have concluded, for reasons which will be mentioned further on, to retain the name Caloptenus and to use the genus in the sense understood by American and most European authors. Although the chief distinction between this genus and Pezotettix, as adopted in this country, the difference in the length of the wings, cannot be considered satisfactory, yet, as it will answer present purposes, we will avail ourselves of it in order to eliminate the group from consideration. Acridium, so far as represented in the United States, may be characterized as follows:
Vertex but slightly inclined, angularly expanded in frontof theeyes; antennal grooves profound and extending downward to the clypeus; eyes elongate-elliptical. Pronotum somewhat compressed on the sides, depth usually considerably more than the width, moderately but distinctly expanding behind the last sulcus (very slightly in rubiginosum); lateral caring obsolete on the anterior lobes, the sides rounding up somewhat as the sides of an arch to the median carina; the dorsum of the posterior lobe more flattened, with the lateral carinm subdistinct; the lower margin of the lateral lobes straight, the posterior lateral angle slightly obtuse, varying from about 1000 to 1100; posterior margin obtuse-angled and rounded at the tip. Elytra and wings, with one exception, considerably longer than the abdomen, and in the exception pass it slightly. Abdomen elongate, rather slender; that of the male not enlarged at the tip; the last segment of the male subconical and distinctly notched at the tip, usually with a square notch; cerci of the male flat, usually broad, oblong, and straight. Prosternal spine,robust, sube lindrical, blunt, and approximating the margin of the mesosternum. The spines of the posterior tibim always have at least the basal




GENERIC NOMENCLATURE. 37

portion pale, either yellowish or white, even when the tibie are black. Posterior femora long, reaching to the tip of the abdomen, moderately robust, the outer face flat.
The species, with one exception, are large, the females exceeding two inches in length; the exception, rubiginosumn, is rare in the West, and so far has not been found west of the Mississippi. VWe have omitted A. frontalis Thos., as it does not properly belong to this genus, having been placed here by the author provisionally. As it is green, there is no danger of its being confounded with C. spretus. To this genus belongs A. americanunm, a large reddish-brown species, marked on the outer wings with cellular quadrate fuscous spots, which often does considerable injury to crops in the sections south of the latitude of Saint Louis, which is nearly its northern limit. In 1875 and 1876, and even in 1877, it was seen migrating in considerable numbers, causing much alarm, as those who saw them supposed they were veritable Rocky Mountain locusts. Such flights were observed in Southeast Indiana, Southwest Ohio, Southern Illinois, and Georgia. These flights are very limited in extent, reaching at flhrthest but a mile or two. Their large size, coloring, generic characters, and southern habitats will readily distingush them from the C. spretus. We may remark here that one of the most destructive migratory species of Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa (Acridium peregrinum) is not only congeneric with this species, but so closely resembles it that ordinary observation would scarcely detect the differences between the two.
As before stated, the characters by which the genus Pezotettix is distinguished are not satisfactory, and undoubtedly require revision, but in this country the abbreviation or want of wings has generally been adopted as a leading character, which, whether well-chosen or not, is sufficient to distinguish its species from C. spretus, which answers our present purpose. This limits us to the genus Caloptenus, and the species belonging to it which are found north of Mexico.
As before intimated, Dr. Stl, of Sweden, in his recent work on Orthoptera (Recensio Orthopterorumn), has so modified the characters of Caloptenus (if we admit his Calliptenus as a synonym) and )czotetti., that none of our species which have heretofore been placed in the former can be retained, some, as C.femur rubrumn, C. spretus, and closely allied species being referred to a subdivision of the latter genus named by the author Melanoplus. He emends the Calliptamus of Serville to Calliptenus.
If this change is followed, it will add to the confusion of the nomen. clature of this group, inflicting on it a host of synonyms where they are already too numerous. If the rule in relation priority require this change, then we might be disposed to submit to it and adopt it, otherwise we prefer to retain those names which by long usage and general acceptance have been woven into all of our entomological and other writings where the insects of this group are mentioned. Let us then




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examine this point for a moment, using what Mr. Thomas has stated in his article on Orthoptera in Lieutenant Wheeler's report of his explorations as a basis.
Dr. Stail holds that we have no Calopteni in North America, most of the species which have usually been placed in that genus being refer. able to Pezotettix. In his diagnosis of these genera the chief distinc. tions given are as follows: In Galliptenus the elytra are destitute of the intercalate vein; the posterior femora broad and distinctly serrateabove; the posterior sulcus in the middle or before the middle.
In Pezotettix the elytra are usually abbreviated or rudimentary, and furnished with an intercalate vein; the upper margin of the posterior femora entire and unarmed; posterior sulcus of the pronotum sometimes situated behind the middle.
The genus was established by Serville in 1831, in his article entitled "Revue Methodique des Insectes de Pordre des Orthoptbres," vol. 22, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, with the following as its distinguishing characters:
Calliptamus (Kal)og t'rapat). Posterior legs longer than the body, robust, and saltatorial. Abdomen firm, neither inflated nor vesicular. Anterior extremity of the prosternum not covering the mouth, the latter [prosternum] having a rather -robust, straight and obtuse point [spine]. A pad (rather small) between the tarsal claws. Antenna filiform, composed of more than twenty cylindric rather indistinct joints. Head vertical, without frontal projection, or having one that is but slightly prominent, and obtuse anteriorly. The middle carium of the face with a space between them; sometimes but slightly prominent inferiorly. Ocellus distinct. Tibia neither widened or channeled above; lower three-fourths of the upper side with two rows of closelyset spines; first joint of the tarsi elongated. Eyes oval. Pronotum distinctly tricarinate above; lateral caring as prominent as the median one; its transverse strike slightly distinct. Posterior margin more or less rounded. Elytra and wings of ordinary length. Legs robust.
In this genus he included the following species:
1. C. sanguinipes, from South America.
2. (C. italicus, from Africa and Europe.
3. C. morio, from Africa, Switzerland, and Pyrenees.
It is evident the author did not base his diagnosis chiefly on C. italicus, as some of the characters used are made prominent because of their greater prominence in one of the other of the three species.
Afterward, in 1839, in his Histoire des OrthoptMres, the same author removed C. morio to (Ldipoda, as it was in fact no Acridian ; he also returned C. sanguinipes to Acridium. He also gave a new diagnosis of the genus, as foibllows:
Posterior legs robust, much shorter than in the preceding genus (Acridium); femora short, much enlarged, very strongly channeled below; tibit short, stout, having on the lower three-fourths of the upper side two rows of spines, the basal ones very short; the under side of the femora and upper side of the tiblio fringed with fine hairs; the tA-rminal spines (or spurs) large, crved. Tarsi straight, furnished with a little pad between the claws; the first joint of the posterior as long as the two last united.





SUBGENERIC CHARACTERS. 39

Head large; anterior face vertical; with four distinct carin e; front a little flattened between the eyes, and also strongly sulcate. Antennie short, filiform, muiltiarticulate; joints indistinct, cylindrical. Pronotumn short, shagreened, or almost smooth: its disk flat; transverse incitions feeble; dorsal carina distinct, lateral more or less prominent; the posterior border sloped slightly obliquely on the sides; median point somewhat salient. Prosternum furnished in the middle with a strong spine, somewhat enlarged, and very obtuse at the apex. Elytra short, not passing the abdomen, generally equal to it in length. Wings short, not quite the length of the elytra. Eyes large, oblong, slightly prominent. Palpi short; joints cylindrical. Breast large, fiat. Abdomen enlarged, strongly unicarinate above; terminal pieces of the female short, as are also the appendages (cerci). Subanal plate of the male somewhat triangular, pointed, and entire at the tip; elevated or straight; appendages of this sex more or less long; sometimes setaceous and curved; in others larger, horny, curved inwards, and truncate at the tip.

Here he divides the genus into two sections, as follows:
First. Abdominal appendages of the male sometimes setaceous, a little curved a~ the born of an ox. Subanal plate of the male rather short, elevated. Pronoturn shagreened; its posterior median point somewhat prominent.
&cond. Abdominal appendages of the male very large, corneous, bent interiorly en cuiller at the extremity, where it is subtruncate. Subanal plate of the male almost straight.

C. italicus is placed in the latter division.
The removal of the two species mentioned above left C. italicuit as the only original representative of his genus. But in the mean time Burmeisterredescribes the genns, and changes the name to Coloptenus, including in it as describad and understood by him not only italicus, but also the American species femur.rubrum, femoratus, and biritlatus, be. sides a number of other exotic species. This author in his llalndbuchl der Entomologic (1838) describes the genus as follows, giving Calliptamus of Serville as a synonym:

A more compressed and yet in general more pleasing structure of the body betrays the members of this genus. Moreover, its head stands entirely vertical, has no noticably prominent apex, and the two median frontal carinme are united into a flat bulge, which, in the neighborhood of the lower ocellus, is obsolete. The margins of the vertex in front of the eyes are rather sharp, and the part between them is noticeably depressed (sulcate). The strong mouth parts (mandibles.) are distinguished, on closer examination, by several pointed teeth on the inner margin. The proniotum has distinctly marked lateral borders (or carina), and a sometimes distinctly, sometimes less prominent median line (carina); the posterior margin is more or less salient; and the last of the transverse impressed lines cuts the median carina about its middle. The prosternum has an obtuse vertical spine: the flat mneso- and metasternum are broad. Wings and elytra without distinctive characters. Hind femora thick, strongly compressed, with prominent carina above; as long as the abdomen. The male in this genus is especially distinguished by the great development of its genitalia, which causes a spherical thickening of the apex of the abdomen. The terminal ventral plate is, moreover, sometimes large, and envelopes the apex, and sometimes no longer than usual; in the latter case the cerci are very large and curved inward.

In this C. femoratus, "from Carolina," appears to be his type; C. fenur-rubrum being placed next, and C. italicus third.




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Attention is called to the fact that neither of the authors mentioned alludes to the serratures on the posterior femora, or want of the inter. calate vein of the elytra. Serville evidently intended, by some of the characters given in his first description of the genus, to distinguish it from Pneumora, belonging to a wholly different group; his prenatal characters are also inapplicaple to most of the species which have usually been placed in the genus. Omitting these, nothing remainsin his diagnosis but what is applicable to a number of other genera.
Taking these facts into consideration, we are forced to consider the Caloptenus of Burmeister, although given but as an emendation of Serville's Calliptamus, as really a new genus. This being the case, C.femurrubruin must be retained as the type, unless femoratus is considered a good species.
It is also worthy of remark that Seville's genus does not appear to have been adopted or used by any other author previous to the publication of Burmeister's Handbuch. On the contrary, Brulle (f[ist. Nat., 1835) ; 0. G. Costa (Fauna di Napoli, 1836), and Hahn (Icon. Orthop., 1835), retain italicus in Acridium.
The character of Caloptenus and Pezotettix, as given by H. Fischer, (Orthoptera Europea, 1853) were evidently intended to embrace only European species, and although we infer from his remarks that he would include our species of Calopteni in the former genus, yet the characters render it very doubtful where they would fall.
Therefore, while we admit that the group stood sadly in need of revision at the time St'l entered upon the work, yet we do not think the facts warrant him in dropping the generic name Caloptenus or in removing femur-rubrw'm therefrom, hence we cannot follow him in this
change. This is, perhaps, not a proper place to discuss a question of this kind, but we have considered it necessary to say this much in ex)lanation of our reasons for differing with so distinguished an entomologist in his special field as Dr. St' l.
Under the circumstances it is perhaps best that we should define the genus as we understand it, or at least give the characters which the North American species have in common which we include in Calo tenus. These are as follows:

CALOPT EN US, Gen. char.
lhead subglobular, front vertical, or nearly so. Eyes ovoid, sometimes almost suborbicular, but usually the length is to the breadth as three to two, and the front side is more or less straightened; usually the upper cauthus is more or less angular, but sometimes it is rounded so as to obliterate the angle; generally rounder and moro prominent in the male than in the female; separated above by a little less than their width. Vertex narrow between the eyes, the width at this point being a little less than the width of the eye ; usually though not always sulcate, the sulcus or groove shallow; expanding slightly, abruptly, and angularly immediately in front of the eyes; defloxed (150 to 40c), and gencra"ly rounded in front. Frontal costa usually quite prominent, about as broad as the vertex between the eyes; sides parallel flat, or shallowly sulcate,





DIAGNOSIS OF THE GENUS CALOPTENUS. 41

reaching to or nearly to the clypeus. Pronotom subquadrate, that is to say, a cross section (in the middle) will present a quadrate figure or parallelogram with the upper corners slightly rounded; the sides are nearly perpendicular; the disk or dorsal surface is very nearly flat, with a little thread-like, median carina, usually distinct on the posterior lobe, but sometimes obliterated on the middle and anterior lobes; the lateral caring m are obtuse, but distinctly marked as the angle where th3 disk and sides meet; on the posterior lobe they sometimes appear as true caring, though not prominent or sharp; the lower margin of the sides is nearly straight, sometimes projecting a little in the middle, where the triangular corner piece connects; the posterior lateral margin varies somewhat; in some sjecies it forms a distinct entering angle at the shoulder or lateral carina, in others it continues to the tip in an almost straight line; the three transverse incisions are distinct and situated close together, the posterior one being a little behind the middle and always cutting the middle carina; all three sever the lateral carin, but the anterior one ends at the upper margin of the sides with a slight and short curve forward; the posterior and middle ones extend down the sides well toward the lower margin, and most generally about midway down the posterior sends out at right angles a branch sulcus which often crosses the intermediate space to the middle one; there is also a fourth suleus extending down the sides close to the anterior margin; the posterior sulcus and usually the middle one make a short curve forward immediately at the median carina; the posterior margin is obtuse-angled, rounded at the tip; the posterior lole il usually finely punctured, while the middle and anterior lobes have a velvety or felty appearance.
The elytra and win s extend to or beyond the tip of the abdomen; the former are narrow (except in C. bivitftatu); the latter transparent in all our species; sometimes a very slight greenish-yellow or a bluish tinge is observed, the nerves usually more or less dark. The abdomen is usually subeylindrical, presenting no distinct keel above; that of the male enlarged at the tip and curved upward; the cerci are usually flat, rounded at the tip, and curved up but some are straight and others tapering. The last abdominal segment, which curves upward like the prow of a boat, is sometimes truncate above, sometimes with a slight angular notch. Posterior fernora robust, much enlarged near the base, the external face more or less convex, in the female never longer and generally shorter than the abdomen; in the male the reveres is the rule. Pads between the claws large, reaching a maximum size in some of the species. Most of our species have the upper portion of the inner face of the posterior thighs marked with three oblique dark bands (the one at the base often indistinct). There is generally a dark stripe on the side running back from the eye to the last transverse sulcus of the pronotum; it is often interrupted, broken, or partially obliterated, but is seldom wholly wanting in those species any way closely allied to C. upretus or C. femur-rubrum. The antenname are filiform and slender, reaching their maximum length in the male of C. differentialis, where they sometimes attain the middle of the body. The prosternal spine is usually stout and conical, quadrangular at the base, and generally slightly transverse; in one or two species it approximates the mesosternum, but this is not usual.
Our species vary in length from 6-10 to 2j inches.

The genus as thus characterized is represented in the territory embraced in our observations by a number of species, several of which are so closely allied to C. spretus that it is difficult for any but an experienced entomologist to determine to which a specimen belongs. We think it more than likely that future investigations will show that several of the species which have been described as distinct are but varieties of other closely-allied species.
The following list contains all the species found in the United States




42 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

which have been described up to the present time, except a few mentioned by older authors, which have not been identified in recent years: C. femur-rubrum, Deg. C. robustus, Scudd. V. Yarrowii, Thos.
spretus, Thos. Turnbullii, Thos. regalis, Dodge.
atlanis, Riley. floridanus, Thos. fasciatus, Scudd.
repletus, Walk. angustipennis, Dodge. helluo, Scudd.
bilituratis, Walk. plumbum, Dodge. devorator, Scudd.
punctulatus, Uhler. bivittatus, Say. ponderosus, Scudd.
lurida, Dodge. differentialis, Thos. flavolineatus, Thos.
minor, Scudd. griseus, Thos. Keelerii, Thos.
gracilipes, Scudd. scriptus, Walk. volucris, Dodge.
deletor, Scudd. occidentalis, Thos.
Although this list of species is somewhat large, it will be necessary to call attention to but few of them, as the larger number can easily be disposed of by reference to locality or a single character.
C. spretus, or Rocky Mountain locust, as will hereafter be more fully shown, is a comparatively small species, the body seldom exceeding one inch and a quarter in length, slender, the elytra or upper wings longer than the body, of a pale brownish color, with small squarish darker spots arranged along the middle line; body some shade of brown, never distinctly green or bright yellow, and without pale or yellow etripes along the back.
By referring to locality, we may eliminate the following species:
0. floridanus and Keelerii. So far only found in Florida. C. griseus. With spots scattered over the elytra; rare, and hitherto discovered only in Ohio.
C. bivittatus. A widely-dispersed species, much larger than spretus, with two yellow or pale stripes along the back. C. differentialis. Our largest species belonging to the genus, one and a
half to two inches long, without spots on the elytra.
C. Turnbullii. Dull yellowish-brown, with two broad yellow stripes;
wings scarcely as long as the abdomen.
C. repletus and scriptus. Hitherto found only in northwest part of Washington Territory.
The following species are local in the places mentioned, and are distinguished by having the last abdominal segment of the male rounded or squarely truncate at the tip, whereas that of spretus is notched:
0. plumbum, Nebraska tip of male abdomen rounded. C. ponderosus, Texas; tip of male abdomen rounded. C. robustus, Texas; tip of male abdomen rounded. C. devorator, Texas; tip of the male abdomen truncate. C. deletor, Texas; tip of the male abdomen rounded. C. glaucipes, Texas; tip of the male abdomen acuminate but rounded. C.fasciatus, Texas and Nebraska; tip of the male abdomen rounded. C. minor, Nebraska; very small; tip of the male abdomen tuberculate.
0. lurida, Nebraska; last ventral segment of the male entire.




SPECIES OF THE GENUS CALOPTENUS. 43

C. volucris, Nebraska; terminal segment of the male abdomen pointed
at the tip; elytra unspotted.
Some of these are doubtless good species and may be found to be more widely distributed than our present knowledge would indicate. Some of them are most probably local offshoots or varieties of femur-rubrwmn. C. helluo is from Texas; the female only has been observed, and has
the spots on the elytra scattered throughout.
C. regalis has been observed at only one locality in Nebraska, is very
distinct, being marked to a greater or less degree with bluish and white; disk of the elytra white, and veins of the wings white; hind
tibie bright blue, with a white annulus near the knee.
C. Yarrowii is known only by a single female, probably from Arizona,
but possibly from Nevada; elytra brown, with oblong yellow spots
along the disk, scarcely as long as the abdomen.
C.flavolineatus, from Southern California, is evidently very closely allied
to spretus, and in all probability is but a southwest or Pacific coast variety of it. It is distinguished from that species by being somewhat fleshier, shorter wings, and its bright yellow lines. The last
ventral segment of the male is very slightly notched.
C. angustipenns has been observed only in Nebraska, and is evidently
a local variety of C. atlanis; in fact, the characters given scarcely
justify its being designated as a variety.
C. punctulatus, found in New England, is probably nothing more than a
sectional variety of femur-.rubrum.
C. occidentalis, found west from Minnesota to Colorado, although possessing distinctive characters, is probably nothing more than an offshoot
from femur.rubrum, not like atlanis in the direction of spretus.
C. bilituratus, Washington Territory, has been observed at but one or
two points.
This leaves but three species, femnur-rubrum, spretus, and atlanis, which require special mention in this connection, as they are the only ones generally distributed which are so closely allied to each other as to render it difficult to distinguish them. Caloptenus spretus, Thomas.
As every fact relating to the history and habits of this species is either of economic or scientific interest, we give here 'a brief history of its nomenclature.
About 1800, Mr. Thomas, then residing in Southern Illinois, sent some specimens of Orthoptera collected in that locality to Mr. P. R. Uhler, of Baltimore, Md., for determination; among those returned was one marked Acridium spretis, with a note stating that it was new.
In a paper written by Mr. Thomas on "Insects injurious to vegetation in Illinois," in 1862, but not published until 1865 (Trans. Ill. St. Agl. Soc., V), he describes a species of locust under the name A. spretis Uhler, as follows:
General color a dark, brownish purple, with dusky points and lighter rays. Head brown, with dusky points; antennae reddish yellow. Thorax an ashy brown, with a




44 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

velvety luster on the anterior half, the latter half punctured; the lower edges, at the sides, paler-sometimes pale red, at others almost white. Elytra extending about half over the abdomen (or not exceeding two-thirds), marked along their internal margins with a light, reddish-brown ray; external margin dusky; a few dusky dots along the internal margins. Wings not quite as long as the elytra; transparent, pale yellowish on the disk, tinged with red at the base (in recent specimens). Posterior thighs crossed by two black bands, and black at the knees; intermediate spaces pale yellow-often almost white. Length of female, one inch and three-eighths; of the male, slightly over an inch.
This species is quite common here along the road-side and among low weeds and grass.
Immediately after this, in the same paper, follows a brief description offemur-rubrum, showing that he then considered the two species as distinct. But there is evidently some mistake in his description; although it agrees in part with the characters of spretus, part of the description cannot possibly apply to that species. The original specimens were destroyed soon after the paper alluded to was written, and Mr. Thomas is unable at present to explain the error, and knows of no species in Southern Illinois to which the description will apply throughout. It is more than probable that there was some confusion of specimens at the time the description was written. It is possible that one or more of the three specimens "a. b. c." (Walker's Cat. Dermap. Salt.) of the British Museum are from the collection made by Mr. Thomas at that time.
In the "Practical Entomologist" (October, 1866), Mr. Walsh notices this species somewhat at length under the name of Caloptenus spretus, quoting Mr. Uhler as authority, but gives no further description than a comparison of the length of the wings with those of C.femur-rubrum.
In Mr. Scudder's "Catalogue of the Orthoptera of North A merica," published in 1868, it is mentioned under the name Acridium spretum Uhler.
No description of the species having been published previous to the appearance of the Snyopsis of the Acrididx of North America," Mr. Thomas described it as follows:
Very much like C.femar-rubrum, Burm., the principal difference being in the length of the elytra and wings, a notch at the tip of the last (g) ventral segment. Posterior lobe of the pronotum slightly expanding; median somewhat distinct. Elytra and wings pass the abdomen about one-third their length. The last (9) ventral segment, which is turned up almost vertically, is somewhat tapering and is notched at the apex, which distinguishes it from the femur-rubrun ; the notch is small, but is distinct. Prosternal spine, robust, subcylindrical, transverse. Migratory. Color.-Scarcely distinct from the C. femur-rubrum. The occiput and disk of the pronotun generally reddish-browu; the posterior lobe somewhat paler than the anterior and middle. Spots as in femur-rubrum, arranged in a line along the middle of the elytra; these are a little larger and more abundant toward the apex. The head and thorax are sometimes a very dark olive-brown, at others reddish-brown and even brownish-yellow, the color deepening with age. The wings are pellucid, nerves dusky toward the apex ; when flying high and against the sun their wings look like large snow-flakes. Dimensions.-9 Length (to tip of abdomen) 1 to 1.2 inches; elytra as long as the body; posterior fetmora, 0.55 inch ; posterior tibia', 0.5 inch. e Length, 0.5 to I inch; elytra, 0.9 to 1.05 inch.




DESCRIPTIONS OF CALOPTENUS SPRETUS. 45

This must, therefore, be accepted as the first description of the species.
In the Report of the Geological Survey of the Territories for 1871 (published in 1872), he described the pupe as follows :
General color, yellow (sometimes varied to light-brown, and at others a pale peagreen), with a large proportion of black spots and stripes, also a few white dots and lines; labrurn and lower part of the face, mostly black; upper part of the face, the vertex and cheeks yellow (or the prevailing color):; a row of black dots on each mar. gin of the broad, sulcate, frontal costa; occiput with two lateral and one median dotted lines of black; a broad line of diep black starts behind each eye and crosses over the entire length of the pronotum, widening and bowing upward near the middle of the pronotum; the immature, somewhat fan-shaped elytra [wing-pads] are black, with a white dot on the disk near the base, from which proceed about ten or twelve white rays, the dorsal or upper margin yellow ; dorsal and lateral portions of the abdomen varied with white and black; a triangular black dot on each side of each segment; tip and venter yellowish.
In his "1Seventh Annual Report" (1875), Mr. Riley gives the following additional characters of the perfect insect from living specimens, also the following descriptions of the larva and pupa: Regarding coloration, as with femur-ruIrum, it is quite variable, and the dead specimens convey a very imperfect idea of the living colors, which are thus given in my notes taken in the field. The more common specimens are yellowish-white beneath; glaucous across the breast and about mouth-parts; pale bluish-glaucous, often with shades of purple, on the sides of the head and tholax and on the front of the face; olive-brown on the top of the head and thorax; pale beneath, more or less bluish above, and marked with black, especially toward base, on the abdomen. The front Nlngs have the ground-color pale grayish-yellow inclining to green, and their spots and veins brown; the hind wings, except a yellowish or brownish shade at apex and along the front edge, and a green tint at base, are transparent and colorless, with the veins brown. The front and middle legs are yellowish. The hind legs have the thighs striped with pale glaucous and reddish on the outside and upper half of inside, with four broad black or dusky marks on the upper edge, the terminal one extending beneath around the knee. The shanks are coral-red with black spines; the feet somewhat paler with black claws; antennae, pale yellow; palpi, tipped with black. In the dead specimens all these colors become more dingy and )ellow. Palpi and front legs in some specimens tinged with red or blue; the hind tibie sometimes yellowish instead of red, especially in the middle.
Larea.-When newly hatched the larva is of a uniform pale gray without distinctive marks. It soon becomes mottled with the characteristic marks, however. After the first molt the hind thighs are conspicuously marked on the upper outside with a longitudinal black line; the thorax is dark with the median dorsal carina and two distinct lateral strips pale yellow, the black extending on the head behind the eyes. The sides of the thorax then become more yellow with each molt, the black on the hird thighs less pronounced, and the face almost always black. The occiput and abdomen above are mottled with brown, the former marked with a fine median, and two broader anteriorly converging pale lines, the latter with two rather broken lateral lines of the same color.
Pupa.-The pupa is characterized by its paler, more yellow color, bringing more strongly into relief the black on the upper part of the thorax and behind the eyes; by the spotted nature of the face, especially along the ]idges, by the isolation of the black subdorsal mark on the two anterior lobes of prothorax, and by the large size of the wing-pads which, visible from the first molt, and increasing with each subsequent molt, are now dark, with a distinct pale discal spot, and pale veins and borders. Th e hind shanks incline to bluish rather than red, as in the mature insect.




465 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The following somewhat full description of the perfect insect is given from a comparison of a large number of specimens from different sections:
Female.-The face nearly perpendicular, sloping under, toward the breast very slightly; a few of the specimens reared in confinement form a somewhat marked exception to this character, sloping under (by measurement) 360 from perpendicular, while a deflexion of 150 appears to be the extreme of those collected. Vertex between the eyes same width as the frontal costa just above the central ocellus, and distinctly less than the shortest diameter of the eyes; the fastigium, or portion of the vertex in front of the eyes, more or less distinctly channeled, and deflexed at an angle of about 400 from horizontal. Eyes nearly straight in front from the upper to the lower canthus, about semicircular behind. Antenna quite slender, and rather short, reaching only to or but slightly beyond the tip of the pronotum. Pronotum short, the anterior portion scarcely as broad as the head; sides of the anterior lobes parallel, the posterior lobe expanding somewhat rapidly posteriorly; the median carina threadlike, but always distinct on the posterior lobe, usually obsolete on the anterior lobes; lateral carina obtuse but distinct on the posterior lobe, usually so on the middle lobe but becoming obsolete toward the front; posterior lateral margin perpendicular from the humeral angle one-third its length then curves forward to the posterior lateral angle which is obtuse and rounded; the (entering) humeral angle is sharply defined, and in this respect appears to differ from C. femur-rubrum and C. atlanis; the apex is obtuse, angled (about 1000) rounded at the point; posterior lobe minutely and shallowly punctured throughout, anterior lobes smooth with few or no punctures except along the lower margin of the sides. Elytra and wings extending beyond the tip of the abdomen from one-fourth to one-third their length (see measurements given below); the elytra are of nearly uniform width throughout, slightly curving upward at the apex, the thin portion (that part in which the branch nerves curve upward) occupying about two-fifths of the length; wings a little shorter than the elytra, very thin and delicate; nerves and nervules very slender. Abdomen, and in fact the whole insect, rather more slender than usual in this genus, but this appearance is partly due to the elongated wings ; cerci very'small, triangular or tooth-shaped, not extending across the segment on which they rest ; the valves of the ovipositor quite prominent, especially the upper pair which are more than usually exerted, sharp at the tips, and deeply excavated above. The posterior femora usually extend about to the tip of the abdomen, and are rather slender in comparison with some other species of the genus.
Coor.-Reddish-brown with fuscous spots. Head and the pronotum back to the posterior sulens reddish-brown varying in depth in individuals; the face is sometimes of a lighter and brighter red than the pronotum, sometimes darker assuming a dark purplish hue; the posterior lobe of the pronotum is generally a pale, olive brown, its lighter color contrasting somewhat distinctly with the darker shades of the anterior portion; some individuals exhibit much lighter colors than here described, vArying from a very dark brown to a dull yellow. Specimens which have but recently entered the perfect state often show on the posterior lobe traces of the dark longitudinal lines seen in the pupa. The dark line on the side of the head and pronotum usually so conspicuous in the closely allied species is generally obliterated in this species by the dark brown color, but it usually appears distinctly in specimens which .have been immersed for some time in alcohol, and is also manifest in the pale individuals, but is broken up by pale spaces and lines. The eyes are shining black. Elytra ash-brown, more or less tinged with reddish-brown at the base and fading toward the apex; in the disk or middle field, commencing near the base, where this field comes to a point, is an irregular row of fuscous dots, usually single to where the thin portion commences, now and then a double dot appearing; from this point to the apex they decrease in size and distinctness and spread over the entire width; as a general rule the





MEASUREMENTS OF CALOPTENUS SPRETUS. 47

inner field (posterior marginal area) is marked with a few fuscous dots; in some individuals one or two quite distinct are seen, in others they are very minute and dim, and not unfrequently they are entirely wanting. Wings transparent, with a very slight yellowish tinge at the base; nerves and nervules of the costal area and apical portion black, rest pale. The abdomen is generally glossy brown with the posterior margins of the segments pale; venter yellowish or pale brown; sternum pale brown or dull yellow. Anterior and middle legs usually more or less rufous but varying from reddish-brown to pale honey-yellow. Posterior fenmora with the disk reddish-brown, sometimes showing dim outlines of oblique bands; the inner face and lower carina yellowish, the latter usually tinged with red; the upper carina and upper portion of the inner face yellowish, marked with three large bllack spots or partial bands, one at the base, the other two equally spaced in the middle portion; apex or knee black or with a black crescent each side.
The posterior tibie vary in color from a bright coral red to pale yellow, and in some cases to bluish.
Measurements (these are given below).
Male.-Differs from the female as follows: Is somewhat smaller, the average difference in the length of tne body being shown by the measurements given blow; the wings are nearly or quite as long as in the female; it is also somewhat slenderer, but these differences are too slight and variable to be of any value as characteristics; the abdomen is enlarged or widened posteriorly and curved upward at the apex ; the last vntral segment being elongated, rounded and narrowed upward like the prow of a boat, and at the tip is distinctly notched, the lobes somewhat tubercular in form; this part of the apical segment is covered with minute scattering hairs. This notch forms one of the chief characteristics of the species, at least the most important one in distinguishing it from fenur-rubrum. The super anal plath, or triangular piece above the anal opening, is sharply bicarinate longitudinally ; the tooth-like appendages at the base, above, are narrow and slender. The cerci are s mewhat longer than the width of the preceding segment, are broad and 1lat throuz hout, the w idth equalling two-thirds the length; not suddenly narrowed or constricted, moderately curved upward and inward; roundly narrowed and depressed near the apex. The prosternal spine (in both sexes) is sub-quadrate and large at the bate but distinctly tiansvere, robnt and decidedly conical, gradually lessening to a blunt point.

Mcasurements of the female (from lile's Serenth Ieport).



.~~.
7-c
C0



Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inh. Inch. Inch. Inch.
1. : 0.28 0. 15 0 13 1. 4 0.: 0. 15 0.23
1. 23 0. :33 0. 18 0 15 1. 8 0. 31 0. 15 0.23
1.28 0. 40 0. 23 0. 17 1. 30 0. 36 0. 13 0.23
1.34 0. :0 0. 12 0. 18 1. 21 0. 36 0. 12 0. 24
1.38 0. 40 0.2 0.18 1 3) 0. 42 0. 18 0. 24
1. 29 0. 24 0. 06 0. 18 1 33 0.28 0.04 0. 24
1. 33 0. :8 0. 19 0 19 1.35 0. 32 0. 08 0.24
1.44 0.38 0.19 0.13 1.31 0.39 0.15 0. 24
1. 25 0.39 0.19 0. 20 1. 33 0. 42 0. 18 0.24
1. 38 0.43 0. 23 0. 20 1.35 0. 43 0. 19 0.24
1.24 0.33 0. 13 0. 20 1. '26 0. 30 0.06 0.24
1.25 0.-32 0. 12 0. 20 1. 38 0.40 0. 16 0. 24
1.15 0. 331 0. 13 0. 2 1. 3 0. 3- 0. 12 0. 24
1. 33 0. 42 0. 20 0. 22 1.24 0.33 0. 08 0.23
1. 28 0. 40 0.18 0. 2 1. 23 0.38 0. 13 0.23
1.30 0.40 0.18 0. 2 2 1 45 0.43 0.1 0. 25
1.33 0.43 0.20 0.'23 1.50 0.43 0.18 0.25
1.29 0.28 0.05 0.23 1.33 0.33 0.08 0.25
1.35 0. 33 0.10 0. 23 1.30 0. 43 0.18 0.25
S1.16 0.36 0.13 0.23 1.30 0.33 0.08 0.25





48 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.


Measurements of the female-Continued.


Ce 4.4 Ca 444 ..4 0g 0~.0 0 0k O






Sn ch. Inch. In ch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch.
1.25 0. 30 0. 04 0. 26 1.38 0. 42 0. 13 0. 29
1.30 0. 35 0. 09 0. 26 1.35 0.42 0. 13 0. 29
1.28 0. 32 0.06 0. 26 1.36 0. 39 0. 10 0. 29
1. 34 0. 30 0. 04 0. 26 1.29 0. 38 0. 09 0. 29
1.36 0. 34 0. 08 0. 26 1.38 0. 43 0. 14 0. 29
1.25 0. 38 0. 12 0. 26 1. 28 0. 38 0 09 0. 29
1.45 0. 52 0. 16 0. 26 1. 33 0. 39 0. 10 0. 29
1.45 0. 44 0. 18 0. 26 1.36 0. 34 0. 04 0. 30
1.25 0. 30 0. 04 0. 26 1.45 0. 43 0. 13 0. 30
1.39 0. 45 0. 18 0. 27 1.38 0. 33 0. 03 0. 30
1.52 0. 40 0. 13 0.2f7 1. 35 0. 40 0. 10 0. 30
1.26 0. 36 0. 09 0. 27 1. 38 0. 39 0. 08 0. 31
1.28 0. 40 0. 13 0.2 7 1.2 9 0. 35 0. 04 0. 31
1.28 0. 35 0. 08 0. 27 1.38 0. 35 0. 03 0.32
1.33 0. 33 0. 06 0. 27 1.42 0. 48 0. 16 0. 32
1.33 0. 35 0. 08 0. 27 1.30 0. 40 0. 18 0. 32
1.28 0. 35 0. 08 0. 27 1.43 0. 38 0. 06 0. 32
1.26 0. 39 0. 12 0. 27 1.2 5 0. 35 0. 03 0. 32
1.38 0. 42 0. 15 0. 27 1.46 0. 44 0.12 0.32
1.30 0. 40 0. 13 0.2 7 1.33 0. 36 0. 04 0. 32
1.23 0. 35 0. 08 0. 27 1.24 0. 36 0. 03 0. 33
1.43 0. 30 0. 02 0.28 1.34 0. 45 0.12 0. 33
1.29 0. 36 0. 08 0.28 1.35 0. 43 0. 10 0. 33
1. 28 0. 38 0. 10 0. 28 1.35 0. 45 0. 10 0. 35
1.30 0. 36 0. 08 0. 28 1.32 0. 38 0.03 0. 35
1.35 0. 43 0. 15 0.2 8 1.33 0. 33 0. 03 0. 35
1.30 0. 43 0. 15 0. 28 1.43 0. 45 0. 10 0. 35
1.33 0. 38 0. 10 0.2 8 1. 38 0. 42 0. 04 0. 38
1.38 0. 42 0. 13 0.2 9 1. 53 0. 49 0. 10 0. 39
1. 15 0. 38 0. 09 0.2I9


Later measuremen ts of th~e female.


Length to tip of elytra. Length to tip of elytra.


Iowa specimens. ......... ................ 1.2 3 Montana specimens ............... 1. 2i0
1.15 1.25
1.27 1.31
1. 08(?)
1.38 Average ........................... 1.25
1. 30
1. 20
1.25
1.26
1. 26 Colorado specimens..................... 1.34
1.21
1. 42
1.32
1.21
1.24 Dakota specimens ....................... 1.23
1.20 1.15
1.21 1.17
1.15 1.30
1.29 1.30

Avers..... .............. 1 fi4Average ........................... 1.23


Idaho specimens........................ 1. 40
1. 35
1.2"2 Specimen0 0. 1y 2iss iMiddleton from
1.34 eggs from Mi60esota 0.................1.32
1.29 1.20
1.18
Average .0....................... 1. 32
Average.... 0.0....... .... ..1 23






MEASUREMENTS OF CALOPTENUS SPIETUS. 49


Measwrernenita of tkie male (IRiley's &eiitkt Report).




-z: C!



0 7lc. Iw. fw.Icmi v.Inch. In ch.
1.24 0.2-5 0. 05 0.1 1. 35 o.a0.0.3 0.31
1.20 0. 2 0.0 2H0.-0 1.30 0.34 0.03 0.3t
1. 29 0.28J 00q .20 1.33 0.33 0. 02 .
1.1-- 0.3 1 0.1-2 0.21 1.23 0.34 0.0(3 0.31
1.26 0. -5 0. 03 1. :11.32 0.341 010 U.31
1.-1 0. 29 0.06 ~ 31.30 0.34 0. C3 0,31
1. 10 0.90.0.5 0,24A 1. 1$ 0.:A 0.02 0.32
1.33 0.,29) 0.(04 0).2)5 1.38 0. 40 0- C8 0.3
1.3 1 01.3.5 0. 09 0. 2 1.3$-4- 0). 1-2 0. 09 0.33
1.*40.2!) 0. 03 0. 26 1. 40 0.:1-4 0.05.- 0.33I.
1.. 10.3 0.081 0.7 1.28 0.38 0. 05 0.3
1.30 0. 3 2 00 0,7 1.30 0, 0.02 0B3
1.30 0. 35 0.084 0.27_1724 0.3 0. 04
1.28N 0.35- 0.08H 1).2 7 1.3 0.3'i 0, 03 03
1.2 9 0,32 0.05 0.71.40 0.3$ 0.0 0: .-)
1.24 0.00. 03 0.127 1 .3 0. 35 .003
1.1P9 0.131 0. 06 0.2-7 1.33 0.3$1'- 0. 03 0. 35
1.2 0. 36 0. 09 0.. ,35 0.3 0.2 0.361
1.2 0,30 0.0'2, 0.8 1.:11 0.3$ 0.02- 0. M;
1.24 0.318 0.0-1 0.2 .9 0.3$- 30 0.6
1.35 0.39 0. 10 0. 29 1.33 0. : 0.012 0.37
1230.34 0,0) 0.129 1.36 0.,43 0,). 037
1.35 0. 35 0.05 0. 30 1. 3$- 0,34 0.05 0.390
1. 35 0.40 0. 10 U.310 1.33 0. 36' 0. 03 0,3.?


Later mieamuremnt8 of the iwile.


Length1 to tip or elytra. 1engthI to( t ipo c~tr


Iowat specimens......................... 1. 20 ColoradQu s,, ecitneus ..................... 1.31I
1.231. 40
115 1.2
117
1.26
1. 18 .vrg.......................... Lm
119



Average .........................1. 205
Dakota specinions ..................... 1.19
Montana specimens......................2 1.21
1.21 v r g . ... . . . . J,1

Aeag...............1. 30 Avrg.............12



Idaho specitnens........................ 1.2QS
1. 26C Reared by Miszu -Middletou from eggs. .... 1. 19 1. 21t 1.04

A -ra ge.......................... 1.26 Average .......................... 1.217)



The species most closely allied to spretus is the C. atlanis, Riley, which

the author describes in his seventh report, as follows:

Long: l1 to tip of abdomen 0.70-0.85' inch; to tip of closed wings, 0.92-1.05 inches.
At once distinguished from femtur-rubrumi by thle nlotebed character of the anal abdom~inal joint in the male, ond by the sl.orl or, h(8 tapeilriing cerdi; also by tIC greftter
relative length of the wings, which extend, on an average, nearly one-third their
lgth beyond the tip of the abdomen in the dried ispccinlens; also by the larger and

4 G




50 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

more distinct spots on the wings, in all which characters it much more closely resembles spretus than femur rubrum. From sprelus, again, it is at once distinguished by the smaller size, the more distinct separation of the dark mark running from the eyes on the prothorax, and of the pale line from the base of wings to hind thigh; and also by the anal joint in the male, tapering more suddenly, ond by the two lobes forming the notch being less marked. From both species it is distinguished not only by its smaller size but by the deeper, more livid color of the dark parts, and the paler yellow of the light parts; the colors thus more strongly contrasting.
* Just as the typical femur-rubrum is at once distinguished from the typical spretus by the characters indicated, so atlanis, though structurally nearer to 8pretus, is distinguished from it at a glance by its much smaller size and darker, more marbled coloring. The contrast is all the greater in the living specimens of spretus that at all approach it in these respects.
Measurements of the male.-Length to the tip of the elytra, 0.97, 0.95, 0.98, 0.95,
0.96, 0.84, 1.05, 0.93.

C. femur-rubrum, De G.
This species is also closely allied to spretus and atlanis, and as it has often been described, we will here simply refer to the differences between it and the former of these two (spretus).
Female.-The only very marked difference between the females is the shorter wings of this species, yet there are other slight variations observable when a large number of specimens are compared, such as the following: The eyes in femur-rubrum are slightly more prominent; the head, pronotum, and sides of the thorax are usually some shade of olive-brown, varying from pale to almost black; the black line behind the eyes is quite broad, seldom broken up, and is distinct in the darkest specimens. The humeral (entering) angles of the posterior margin of the pronotum are more rounded and not so sharply defined as in spretus; the median carina is usually more distinct on the anterior lobes, while the lateral carinal are rather more obtuse and not so well defined; the punctures on the posterior lobe are more distinct. The wings extend but slightly beyond the extremity of the abdomen (see measurements below). In this species and atlanis, the intercalate vein is present in the elytra (notwithstanding the assertion of Sta'l to the contrary), dimly and imperfectly it is true, but it can be clearly seen for more than half the length of its course; in spretus it is wanting, its place being marked by the line of union between the two rows of cells. The fuscous spots or dots are not so conspicuous or widely spread over the apical portion of the elytra and the elytra are narrower and straighter.
As a very general rule, the upper half of the external face or disk of the postcror femora is black or brown, the lower margin and lower half of the inner face bright coral-red; when these colors are well defined, there is a yellow space or stripe between the red and black; but these markings are subject to considerable variation, the red sometimes being entirely wanting, the external face dark, and the lower margin yellow; sometimes the dark is replaced by a pale olive. The tibim are most generally bright red, but this character is not without its exceptions. Usually there is a pale ray extending from the base of the wings to the posterior coxa, but is occasionally wanting in dark specimens and is generally absent in 8pretus. The prosternal spine is not so distinctly quadrate at base as in spretus, transverse, flattened behind, and not regularly conical, but more uniform in size to the broadly-rounded and very blunt ap( x.
Mle.-The most constant difference between the species is found in the form of the last ventral segnent of the male; in femur-rubrum this segment, although strongly curve, upward as in spretus, is not so distinctly narrowed toward the end but rounded, and i'i~teal of being notched at the tip is squarely truncate, presenting a sharp, horizont al, ad ahno t semicircular margin. Below the tip on the posterior face of the






MEASUREMENTS OF CALOPTENUS FEMUR-RUBRUM. 51


segment is a rather large transverse gash-like indentation. The cerci are about the same
length as those of the male spretu8 and about the same width at the base, but are narrowed from the middle to the tip to about- half the width at the base. The little toothlike appendages at the base of the super-anal plate are elongate and slender, as in
spretue and are sinuate.

Measurement of the female (Riley's Seventh report).












Inch. Inch. Ih. : Inh. Inch Inh. Inoh. Inch.
1. 212 0. 13 U. 15 0. 00 6 10 1.01 0. 07
1. 15 0. 13 0. 15 0. 00 1.09 0. 10 0. 03 0. 07
1. 05 0. 0 0. 03 0. 0 1. 13 0. 10 0. 03 0. 07
1. 0H 0. 09 0o.10 1 5 0. 10 0. 41 '. 07
1.20 0.13 0.14 0. 0 .0 0. 0.
15 O0 0.03 0.1 1. i 0. 1 .0 00
1. 03 0.04 0.04 0.01 1. 14 0. 15 0. 01 0. 00
1. 10 0. 06 0. 00. 01 1. 14 0. 09 0. ) 0. 19
1. of 0. 03 0.02 0. 1 1. 10 0H0.13 0. 01 0. 09
1. t 0. 03 0. 02 0. 0t 1.16 0 12 01. 1) 09
1. 8 0.1 03 0. 0. 01 1. 19 0. 21 0. 12 0. It
1.08 0. 04 0. 03 0. 1.13 0. 14 0. 0:1 0. I
1. 0 0. 03 0. 1 2 0.02 1.13 0. 12 0. 00 0. 12
1.20 0. 06 0.114 0. 0 95 0 tI 0.01 0. 00
1. 15 0. 14 0.1 0.0 1.105 0. 081 0.03
1.043 0.0 0.04 0.,0 1.1 0.1 0.02 0.09
1. 01 0.02 0.00 0. 0 1. 03 0. 0 0.03 OC. 0l

1.0.1 0 0.0 00 1. 03 0. 14 03 0.o
1,09 0. 0.0 0.03 1. 1 0.01 0. 01 0. (
1.00 0,3 0. 0 (to 0. 0.12 0.2
1. 0- 0. 12 0. 0! O. 031 1. 04 0. 0. 0.0 02
1.04 0. 03 0.00 0.03 0. 7 012 0.00 0. 02
1.03 0.08: 0.04. 03'1.09 0 .:00



1. 0 6 03 031. 0 0. 1 0.04 0 01. 13 0. 14 0. 10 0. 04 t 3 0. 04 0. 02 0.02
1. 13 0.02 0.04 0. 04 0. 94 0. 04 0. 03 0.02
1.08 0.04 0.00 0.04 1.0 0.08 0. 03 0.03
1. 13 0. 09 0. 05 0.04 1. to0 0. 059 0. 06 0.03
1. 18 0. 12 0 8 004 1. 0 0. 03 0. 0 6 0. 0:3
1. 13 0. W9 0. 0 0.04 1.04 0. 05 O. 021 0. 0:
1.15 0.13 0.08 0. 0 0.04 0.01 0.01
1. 09 0. 08 0 13 053 0. 95 0. 09 05 0. 04
1. 15 0.13 0. S 0.04 0. 99 0. 0 0. 04 0. 04
1.19 0. !5 0. 10 0. 05 1. 05 0. 04 0. 04 0. 04
1.19 0. 14 0. 09 0. 0 I. 08 0. 09 0.05 0.04
1. 04 0.( 0. 0o 0. 05 1. 0 0. 10o 0. (6 0. 04
1.19 0.14 0 0 0.06 1. 09 0. 08 0 003 0.05
1. 15 0. 14 0 08 0. 06 0. 99 0. 05 0.00 0. 03
1. 13 0.08 0. 02 0. 6 1.04 0 05 0. 0) 0. 03
1. 18 0. 14 0. 0 0. CG 05 0. 06 0. 00 0.06
1.13 0. 9 0.03 0. 06 1. 12 0. 1 0. 05 0. 07
1.13 0.09 0.02 0.07 1.05 0.08 0.00 0.08


A few additional measurements of last year's specimens:
Female-L.21. 1.29.
Malc-1.05, 0.94, 1.02, 1.05, 1.07, 1.07.


In addition to the characters mentioned in the original description of atlanis we would call attention to the following differences between

it and sprefus on the one side and femur-rubrum on the other.

Fenade.-As compared with the female of spretus the wings are sorter, extending less and sometimes beyond the tip of the abdomen,

not difering greatly, in this respect, froin femur-rubru ; the elytra

are narrower, curved upward very slightly at the apex, very few spots

or dots on the apical portion, and these minute and dim. The inner

field is almost always immaculate, the posterior half of the intercalate




52 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

vein apparent. The wings pellucid, but when living have next the base a bluish-white tinge; a larger portion of the nerves and nervules dark. The black stripe on the side of the head and pronotum nearly always apparent, even in the darkest individuals; head and anterior lobes ot the pronotum with the velvety appearance, so marked in spretus, but here dark or olive brown, without the reddish cast so common in that species; the pale, oblique, metathoracic ray usually apparent, but often obliterated.
There are no reliable characters by which to distinguish it from the female of femur.rubrum; the posterior lobe of the pronotum is usually less conspicuously punctured, agreeing in this respect with spretus.
Miale.-Differs from spretus. in being smaller, pronotum rather niore constricted and subcylindrical; eyes more rounded and prominent; the notch at the tip of the last ventral segment less distinct, sometimes almost obliterated; more of the nerves of the wings dark.
From the male of femur-rubrum it differs in usually having longer wings; in some individuals they are as long, proportionably, as in any specimen of spretus; in others, little or no longer than in femur-rubrum; in the more slender form, and smaller size; in having the apical segment of the abdomen narrowed and notched at the tip; in having the cerci broad throughout, and shaped as in spretus; in having the toothlike appendages at the base of the super-anal plate shortened and broadened, and with a longer union at their base.
It is evident from these characters that atlanis is an osculant species (or variety) intermediate between spretus and femur-rubruin, partaking largely of the characters of each, and, in a few respects, differing from both. The female approaches very near femur-rubrum, scarcely showing varietal differences from the female of that species, while -on the other hand the male approaches much nearer spretus than it does femurrubrum, as shown by the character of the terminal segment, the form of the cerci, and the length of the wings. The local species heretofore mentioned, which belong to this restricted group are, in all probability, offshoots from spretus or femur-rubrumin, the particular direction of the variation depending upon the peculiar condition of the locality.
The popular names of these species are as follows:
C. femur rubrum has generally been and is still known as the Redlegged locust"' or, which is better, the "Common Red-legged locust."
C. atlanis was first described from the New England States, but as the species is not confined to the Atlantic slope, and the term Atlantic might convey a wrong idea, we have concluded to call it the" Lesser locust," in reference to its smaller size.
C. spretus is known by several popular names, as The Hopper," "Army grasshopper," Red-legged locust," M1ormon locust," Western locut,," Hateful grasshopper," and "Rocky-Mountain locust." The last name, which Mr. Riley suggested as the most appropriate, is now generally adopted(, and has been accepted by the Commission.




PAST HISTORY OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST. 53





CHAPTER II.

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY.

The history of the American or Rocky Mountain locust is in nearly all respects parallel with that of the locust of the Old World. It breeds over a large continental area, and periodically, in seasons of extreme drought and other favoring meteorological conditions, migrates in imminense hordes for several hundred miles beyond its usual habitat. Unlike the locust of the Eastern Hemisphere, our species naturally affects the cooler and more elevated portions of the temIperate zone in the New World, though its southern limits extend at times into the hot and dry plains of the Great Basin.
Fitfui: and periodical in its visits to the older, settled portionsofthe West, the history of the Rocky Mountain locust is difficult to trace beyond a period of about thirteen years. Previous to the year 1864 it has been rarely referred to by travelers in the West, and after examining the reports of the government expeditions and the works of Lewis and Clark, Pike, Irving, and others, we find little or no mention made of it. It is a question in our mind whether in some regions it may not have increased in numbers since the Far West has been partially settled, particularly in those regions where irrigation has been practiced, as in Utah and Colorado and in the western edge of the Mississippi Valley, as in Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, and Minnesota; but this is entirely uncertain and itis more reasonable to suppose that as the Western Territories become more thickly settled the numbers of locusts will become diminished.
In treating of the history of locust invasions, we will first consider the subject in a very general way, and then state the facts more concisely, arranged according to separate States and Territories; and, thirdly, present a summary of the subject in a tabular view. The latter is calculated to send a chill to the agricultural heart when one sees how dense the figures are from 1864 until 1877, and to lead one to infer that the evil is waxing greater and greater as the years go on. This may be due, however, to the greater extent of the country settled and to the fact that the population is growing denser and denser. However that may be, we shall deal with facts and not with theories, and would remind the reader that in a number of the years there recorded large harvests resulted, the injury done by locusts being local and only confined to a portion of the season, while in 1877 the largest wheat harvest ever grown was safely harvested.
Leaving out of account the locust visitations in the Atlantic and Pacific States, which were made by different species from the Rocky Mountain locust, the first authentic statement is to be found in Neill's




54 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

History of Minnesota, wherein it is stated that in 1818 and 1819 vast hordes of grasshoppers appeared in Minnesota, eating everything in their course, in some cases the ground being covered three or four inches thick. In the same years they were destructive in the Red River
-country in Manitoba. In 1820, or the succeeding year, they ravaged the western counties of Missouri, and Riley' suggests that the 1820 swarms may have also ravaged Kansas and the neighboring regions northward. In 1842, locusts appeared in Minnesota and Wyoming; in 1845, in Texas; in 1846 and 1847, in the limits of what is now Wyoming; and in 1849, in Texas, and possibly in Minnesota. In Utah they have appeared from 1851 until 1877, except only the years 1873 and 1874, and*a glance at the table shows that this Territory is liable to suler annually more or less, especially in the northern portion.
Vast swarms of locusts were seen in Idaho in 1852, as well as in Utah, while Dakota was visited, or had native swarms, in 1853. The year 1854 was a year for locusts in Texas, Kansas, and Utah, and 1855, notable for locust ravages on the Pacific coast, was not a bad year east, Texas only having been invaded, although A. S. Taylor states that they abounded on the immense grassy prairies lying on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, a statement supported by no facts, so far as we can learn.
In the year 1856, however, locusts prevailed in Texas, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, possibly Wyoming and Utah, and in the succeeding year they committed extensive ravages in Manitoba, and the States mentioned as suffering in 1856, with the addition of Nebraska. The States of Texas and Nebraska received slight injury from the progeny of those that migrated thither the previous two years.
In 1860, the region about Topeka, Kans., was visited by what must have been a limited and rather local swarm.
The year 1861 witnessed the presence of locusts in Nebraska, Montana, and Utah, but the accounts are scanty.
Montana and Utah sustained losses from locusts in 1862, but in 1863 they occurred not only in those Territories, but also in Dakota and Minnesota.
But the most decided increase in the numbers of locusts was felt in 1864, a year of general visitation in Utah, Montana, Dakota, Colorado, portions of New Mexico, and east of the plains in Nebraska, Iowa,, Minnesota, as well as Manitoba, and there were resulting swarms, in most cases the progeny of those which came in 1864, in Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, and Manitoba, while Montana, Colorado, and Northern New Mexico had swarms of their own.
A notable locust year was 1866, and, as Riley states, the injury committed was sufficiently great and wide-spread to attract national attend I Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Reports on the Noxious, Bcneficial and otherInsects of Missouri. By C. V. Riley, Stato Entomologist, 1875-'77. The following history is h'trgely tken from these reports, sometimes word for word.




CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY, 1867-1873. 55

lion. "The insects swarmed over the Northwest and did great damage in Kansas, Nebraska, and Northeastern Texas, and invaded the western counties of Missouri very much as they did in 1874. They came, however, about a month later than in that year. They were often so thick that trains were seriously delayed on account of the immense numbers crushedonthe track." Iowa, Minnesota, Colorado, and Utah also suffered.
While in 1867 local damage was done in the spring by the young of the swarms of the previous year, late in the summer new swarms flew across the plains from the West and Northwest and invaded the border States; in fact, the same States suffered as in 1866, as will be seen by a glance at the tabular view.
In 188 and 18, local injuries ensued from the ravages of the unfledged locusts early in the season, and reports from Montana, Idaho, Dakota, Colorado, and Utah show that there was some trouble in those Territories.
The year 1870 was a season of comparative immunity from locust invasions, though Iowa and Minnesota received some swarms, and the insects were observed in Dakota, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.
Kansas received slight injury from these pests in 1872, as well as Minnesota, Dakota, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, but it was not marked.
In 1873, the hosts gathered for a fresh onslaught upon the agricultural region bordering the great plains. The invasion of 1873, says Riley. was pretty general over a strip of country running from the northern parts of Colorado and southern parts of Wyoming, through Nebraska and Dakota, to the southwestern counties of Minnesota, and northwestern counties of Iowa, the injury being most felt in the last two more thickly settled States. "The insects poured in upon this country during the summer and laid their eggs in all the more eastern portions reached. The cry of distress that went up from the afflicted people of Minnesota in the fall or that year is still fresh in mind, and the pioneers of Western Iowa, in addition to the locust devastations, suffered severe damage from a terrific torn ado."
By far the most disastrous locust year, however, was 1874, as the more thickly settled portions of the Mississippi Valley west of the ninety-fourth meridian were invaded by dense and most destructive swarms. The States of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas were overrun, while portions of Wyoming, Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, -New Mexico, Indian Territory, and Texas were ravaged by swarms from the northwest, as they were abundant that year in Montana and in British America. The loss to these States and Territories was estimated at not much less than $50,000,000. Much of the loss this year resulted from the progeny of the invaders of 1873, which early in the season devoured the crops of the region where they hatched, and eventually spread to the southeast. Kansas suffered, perhaps, more heavily than any other State. This, like most other locust-years, was one of long-continued drought, and in Missouri the evil was complicated by the ravages of the chinch-bug.




56 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The next year (1875) the young hatched in immense numbers over an area variously estimated at from 250 to 350 -miles from north to south and from 200 to 270 miles from east to west, embracing portions of Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. "The tract in which the injury done by the destructive enemy was worst was confined to the two western tiers of counties in Missouri, and the four tiers of counties in Kansas, bounded by the Missouri River on the east. The greatest damage extended over a strip 25 miles each side of the Missouri River, from Omaha to Kansas City, and then extended south to the southwestern limit of Missouri. About thiee-quarters of a million of people were, to a greater or less extent, made sufferers. The experience of different localities was not equal or uniform. Contiguous farms sometimes presented the contrast of abundance and utter want, according to the caprices of the invaders, or according as they hatched in localities favorable to the laying of the eggs. This fact gave rise to contradictory reports, each particular locality generalizing from its own experience. The fact is, however, that over the region described there was a very general devastation, involving the destruction of three-fourths of all field and garden crops. While the injury was greatest in the area defined above, the insects hatched in more or less injurious numbers from Texas to British America, the prevalence of the insects in Manitoba being such that in many parts little or no cultivation was attempted." (Riley.)
Missouri had never before been visited by a calamity so appaling and so disastrous in its results as the locust ravages of 1875, and detailed returns of the damage done in this State showed a lossof over $15,000,000. (Riley.)
In 1876 no trouble was experienced in the spring, there being in the border States little damage done by the young, except in portions of Minnesota and Colorado, and it was hoped that no further losses would ensue this year. But locusts bred in great quantities in Montana, and in British America, north of this Territory, and in Wyoming, Dakota and Colorado, this being a year of unusual drought in those Territories, and in August and the autumn following, immense swarms swept over the l)lains, falling upon the larger part of Kansas and Nebraska, the western half of Iowa, and some of the western counties in Missouri, and reaching into the Indian Territory, Texas and the northwest corner of Arkansas. Besides this, local swarms hatching in Minnesota early in the year flew south and southwest into Iowa and Nebraska, and they laid eggs in August.
The spring of 1877 opened with dismal prospects all over the States east of the plains, as vell as in Colorado. Happily it was a spring in which there was an unusual rain-fill in April, May, and June, the country along the Missouri being flooded in places. The weather was also exceptionally cool; and this condition of things extended over Colorado, Northern Utah, Wyoming, Central Montana, and British America. In consequence of this season of wet and cold, the young grasshoppers




LOCUST RECORD IN TEXAS. 57

died in immenUse numbers wherever they hatched, and comparatively few lived to acquire wings. South of the parallel of 400 they flew, late in May and early in June, in a general northwest and northerly course; and from Minnesota and Iowa many took flight to Dakota and Montani, whence their progenitors came, and others remaining behind flew about irregularly in the States of Minnesota and Iowa.
The outlook for 1878 is excellent; but still there may be light swarms from the northwest if the season is favorable. Ae will now give a more detailed history of locust invasions in the different States and Territories.

THE LOCUST IN TEXAS.

The list of locust-years in Texas is rather a formidable one. The earliest year recorded is 1845.
184.-We have accounts from various sources of their swarming in Texas this year. (Riley's seventh report.)
1847.-Mr. S. J. P. McDowell states that locusts made their appearance in Caldwell County October 1, 1847, and remained during the fall, but did little damage. The county officials of Caldwell County have kept in their county records a diary of the appearance of the grasshoppers in that county since their first appearance, in 1847.
1849.-Riley states, also, that there are various accounts of locusts in Texas this year.
1834.-About ten or fifteen miles, as near as we can calculate, from Fort Belknap, April '3, 1854, locusts were observed by the members of Captain (now General) Pope's expedition, as it is stated that the whole section of country is covered over with grasshoppers in countless inmyriads. They were very troublesome, and at night they completely filled our tents. They appear to be going south; and if they do so, increasing in strength and numbers, an incalculable amount of injury will be inflicted on the farmer. The day was remarkably warm." (J. IIH. Byrne's Diary of Capt. John Pope's Expedition, Pacific Railroad Surveys, vol. ii, Appendix A, p. 87.)
1835.-Mr. Taylor, in his article in the Smithsonian Report for 1858, states that locusts this year infested those portions of the State of Texas which resemble in physical characteristics Utah and California." We have, however, been unable to obtain any corroborative data, except the statement of Mr. Reveschon; bat the fact that he states that they were in Texas in the following year is confirmatory of his statement.
185.-Locusts are said to have existed in Texas in small numbers this year. (Taylor.) Mr. Reveschon writes that "I came into this [Dallas] county in February, 1856. The fall previous a great number of grasshoppers made their appearance," and destroyed a field of thirty acres.
1857.-November 6, locusts appeared in Caldwell County, coming




58 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

from the west, destroying turnips, &c. As we have full information given below regarding the hatching of locusts in Texas, there is good reason to believe that swarms visited the region where the eggs were hatching in 1858 in the previous year more extensively than any published accounts state.
1858.-The following facts regarding the ravages of locusts in Western Texas, in. 1858, are taken from the Gonzales Inquirer for 1858. The young locusts began to hatch "by the million," Jani ary 16, and by the middle of March they had done extensive damage to the wheat and garden crops. March 27, on the San Marcos and Guadalupe Rivers, and on the Sandies, they did great damage to the corn crops and gardens."7 They seem to have collected together, and, are moving in a southward direction, sweeping everything in their route. As yet, they are not more than half grown, and can only travel by the leaping system, their wings not having grown out. Large flocks of birds are not only devouring them, but it is said they are actually devouring each other. After doing great damage, April 21-May 8 they flew in a northeast or northward course. By May 8, they had mostly disappeared, and almost wholly so by the 15th. So complete and so general has been the destruction that all the farmers will be compelled to replant. In the spring of 1858, they destroyed our growing crops and took their flight north from 10th to 16th of April. (D. A. Todd, Austin, Tex.) In Caldwell County the young began to disappear about April 20.
18G6.-Locusts appeared in the northwest part of Collins County about the 1st of September, destroyed all the wheat that had come up, and then passed on to the southwest. They had nearly disappeared in October. (Monthly Report Ag. IDept., 1866, p. 441.)
1867.-The young hatched in threatening numbers, but a cold snap (luring the first week in May destroyed them. Nearly a dozen counties were invaded in the autumn. In Dallas County the locust first appeared. October 17, the air being filled with them. "They appeared to becoming from the west and traveling east."7 In October they also appeared in Fannin, Red River, Bell, Coryell, Lavaca, Burleson, FayetteAustin, andl Lampasas Counties, appearing in the latter county" in immnense, numbers about the first of October, and completely destroyed the autumn and winter gardens, and injured the stock-range m ateriallyv. Theiy continued with us until the 20th, when they moved on their jour. ney in a southeasterly direction. In Lavaca County they deposited their eggs "by the million." In Coryeli County, central Texas, they appeared October 12, "coming in vast quantities from. the north,"~ and proved very destructive to grain and garden produce. Mr. Affieck, of Brenhamn, states that locusts appeared there in the first week of Novenmber, "1but were announced toward the northwest of us as being on the way some weeks before." They were busy about the first of December depositing their eggs. They appeared at Union Hill, five miles to the west of Mr. Afleck's farm, for a week before appearing at the latter




LOCUST HISTORY IN TEXAS, 1~68-1873. 59

place, and were two weeks longer in reaching Brenham, seven and a half miles to the south by east. (Riley's seventh report.)
186S.-The young hatched out in the spring, but were destroyed by the heavy rains. MIr. Affleck states that they began to hatch early in February, and by the 28th of March began to mo ve in bands in or near Brenham, Glenblyth Valley, and injure gardens. By April 23, vast numbers of locusts went off. "Some of them got off by flight, but the bulk kept on on foot toward the northwest, followed and preyed upon by hundreds of black hawks, or rather buzzards-1I think the Falco harlani." No swarms of "emigrant" locusts arrived irom the -Northwest in the autumn. Two observers, however, at Calvert, agree in stz:ting that locusts appeared there in the autumn of 1867 and 1868. There are 1no records of the appearance of locusts after this until about the year 1872 or 1873.
18727-That locusts probably invaded Texas during 1872, and each year following until 1876, will be seen by the following extracts Irom reports from United States weather signal observers, forwarded by the Chief Signal-Officer, United States Army, at the request of the Coinmmission:
"They visited this section in 1876, and for five or or six years previous." (E. G. Prince, Fredericksburg.)
Visited every year twice since about four or five years." (J. C. Rickli, Mason, Tex., June 13, 1877.)
"Of late, for three or four years, they came to Western Texas every year. They arrived in the latter part of September, during October, and kept coming till November, till the first frost put a stop to their wanderings." (J. C. Rickli, Mason, Tex., July 12, 1877.)
These data may refer to 1872, but we leave the matter in doubt until more exact information is received. The following statement, however, tends to show that there was an invasion in 1872, as locusts are reported as existing in small numbers in the spring of 1873. If these were not native species, then there must have been a slight invasion of C. sprctus in 1872.
"This section was visited by small numbers of these insects in the spring and autumn of 1873 and 1875, and from October 1 to 15, 18[7]6. None the present year." (William Norrington, United States Signal Service, Uvalde, Tex.)
1873.-" In September, 1873 [no specified date], there appeared at this place, suddenly, immense swarms of locusts, coming from a northerly direction. The direction of their flight followed the Rio Grande River for about thirty miles in its course to the Gulf. For about five days the multitudes kept traveling over this place, descending to the ground at sundown and remaining below until shortly after sunrise the next morning, when all would rise in a body and resume their flight. The weather during this visitation was very dry and sultry, and the prevailing wind northerly; the damage done immense. These locusts




60 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

left an immense amount of eggs behind, which, at the beginning of spring-i. e., the latter part of January in this section-began to hatch. Then it was discovered that the eggs had been laid over a tract of country nearly two miles wide, having the Rio Grande River for its center, and following its course out to what distance I am unable to ascertain." (Frederick Belford, United States Signal Service, Eagle Pass.)
1874.-Mr. Belford continues his statement regarding the progeny of the locusts which invaded Texas in 1873: The wingless insects were harmless in the early stages of their growth, but as their development proceeded, the work of devastation began. In the first part of May, 1874, they began to move-not flying, but crawling. The fact has been observed that the movements of these swarms of young locusts were in exactly the opposite direction to which their progenitors had traveled. They seemed to retrace the steps of their ancestors. Those hatched on this side of the Rio Grande River moved north toward the settlements, and on their way everything in the shape of vegetation was totally consumed. Those hatched on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande (they extended a mile and a half on each side of the river) took a direction west of north, and the work of devastation was equally great in the parts of Mexico they passed over. I am assured on good authority that when leaving this section they were too young to fly, and their march was carried on by crawling and hopping. Toward the latter part of May, 1874, all had left, and planting was begun. Now, these young locusts, before leaving, had deposited eggs, but the eggs of the young ones are not very plentiful and sparsely distributed. The people of this section, while this occurs, do not mind it much, as the damage done by this not very numerous offspring is never considerable."
At Denison they arrived in September, 1874. (United States Signal Office.) September 14, 1874, locusts appeared in Dallas County, but, according to Mr. Boll, were not one-tenth as abundant as in 1876; still they destroyed all the young vegetation, and injured the fall wheat to some extent. "All this month they laid countless millions of eggs, about as many as in 1867. At the end of this month most had disappeared traveling in a southern or eastern direction. (G. Reveschon.)
187.-It seems by the extract from Mr. Belford's statement, that the young hatched this year from eggs laid in the late autumn of 1874 did but little injury to crops. He adds, "lu September, 1875, another large swarm of locusts made its appearance, coming from the same direction, i. c., i1orth, but their numbers were not as formidable as those of the previous year. These insects deposited their eggs, which were hatched the ensuing spring, i.e., latter part of January, 1876. The numbersof the .Noung ones coming forth was comparatively insignificant, and having in their turn deposited their eggs, they left about the first half of May, 1876, in a northerly direction. (F. Belford, Eagle Pass, United States




CHRONOLOGY: TEXAS, 1876. 61

Signal Office.) At Denison, locusts arrived in September, 1874, remaining until June, 1875. (W. A. Massey, United States Signal Office.)
Uvalde was visited by small numbers of locusts in the spring (young) and autumn of 1873 and 1875, and from October 1 to 15, 1876. Laredo was visited in 1875 and 1876, appearing each year about the beginning of November. (United States Signal Oftice.)
187.-Swarms of locusts reached Texas from the north and west, about the middle of September, and from that time forth till winter were flying very generally over the State, reaching eventually latitude 29., or, more definitely, to the Gulf all the way from the Sabine River to Austin. Their course was almost due south, and their injury confined to succulent vegetables, shrubs, and fruit-trees, the orange and cotton sAtering more particularly. At Austin the cars for about ten (days were so much obstructed on the Texas Central Railroad line as to necessitate their stopping occasionally to clear the track of the grasshoppers. Eggs were laid throughout the territory overtun, and the young hatched in large quantities during the mild weather of February, but those which hatched near the Gulf had up to the date of March 5 been destroyed by heavy cold rains that occurred the latter part of February. (Riley's ninth report.) The invading swarms began to arrive late in August, and continued to come for six weeks, and the course of their flight was generally due south; others state that they camine from the northwest. From reports received from the Office of the Chief Signal-Ofificer, United States Army, we extract the following statements: "In the fthill of 1876, they went down to Eastern Texas, as well as to the western part of the State. Everything in the line of vegetables was destroyed, fruittrees and grape-vines damaged more or less. Small winter grain is preferred to grass, and mostly destroyed." At Dallas, they first arrived September 20, from the northwest; the swarm was estimated to be 2,0U0 feet high, and from forty to sixty miles wide. (J. oll.) The area invaded by the grasshoppers in Texas, in the fall of 1876, was embraced between longitude 960 and 990 (west from Greenwich, or 190 and 22' west from Washington). It extended entirely across the State, from Red River on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south, covering six degrees of longitude, or an area about 200 miles in width by 360 in length, or 72,000 square miles; this belt extends through the center of the State from north to south, between parallel lines, with somewhat irregular edges, determined by the course of the wind at different times during their 'march to the sea.' By reference to the map of Texas, it will be seen that the best agricultural portion of the State was covered by them."
1877. The spring was mild in Texas, and the young hatched the latter part of January, in February, and the last ones in March. From March 1 to 10, at Mason, they did the most mischief, and began to fly away by the 10th of May, but a good many remained until the 15th. "It is said this pest grows worse and worse every year, and will eventually ruin the farmers if something is not done to check them. After




62 REPORT UNITED STATES EXTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

fighting with the climate, poor soil, late frosts, and -heavy droughts, they have still to fight the grasshoppers in this arid section of country. Twice a year, in the spring and fall, the growth of vegetation is checked by them to a fearful extent." (J. C. 1Rickii, Mason, Tex., United States Signal Service.).
At Corsicana, eggs were announced to be hatching the 5th of February, but most numerously about the 20th of February, and on the smooth, barren sandy spots. The young insects acquired wings the first of May and commenced migrating as soon as winged, and were most numerous from the 9th to 12th of May, and disappeared about the 20th of May. Wheat suffered most; corn least. Fruit and vegetables were greatly injured. The injury will not exceed 10 per cent. (J. WV. Smith, United States Signal Service.) This account is confirmed by other United States observers in different parts of the State. At Pilot Point, the United States signal-observer states: "1On the last of April and first of May, clouds of locusts alighted, flying from the south with, a brisk south wind, and staid over night and one day, eating large fields of wheat and coin, and then, rising, resumed their northward flight"; and again under date of May 25, "Clouds of them are flying northward at the present time, and most all have left this portion of the country.
* *Since the hoppers have left, the vegetation has come out again and the farmers are hard at work replanting their fields, and as far as I can understand, the crops will prove favorable this season, considering the damage done."
A slight invasion took place in the autumn of this year, as may be seen by the following extract from the report of J. C. Rickli, United States signa-l-observer at Mason: "1Uctober 30, 1877. High temperature, with wind veering to northwest and north, increasing in velocity to 32 miles per hour and bringing the first Rocky Mountain locusts in their swarms at 4 p. m. They pursued their southern course, and did not deposit any eggs in this section."
"On the 3d of October, 1877, in the afternoon, myriads of grasshoppers were seen passing over this station about two or three hundred fe~et high, coming from the north and going south; wind wais from northwest and four miles an hour; temperature 720, fair weather. Their flight continued the 4th, but there were more of them apparently. None were observed on the 5th; wind from south, 4 miles an hour, and cloudy ; temperature about 620. On the 6th, they resumed their journey, going south, though in small numbers. Teinperature about 750; fair weather; wind from southeast, four miles an hour. During their flight none came down. (E. G. Prince, Fredericksburg, United States Signal Serv-ice.)
A correspondent at l1leadsville, Robinson County, states that "about the last of August, immense numbers passed over our county, but high up in air." From Helotes, Bexar County, we learn that, "4on September 28, 29, and 30, swarms passed over this county, but, so far



CHRONOLOGY: INDIAN TERRITORY. 63

as I can understand, none have laid eggs, or even lighted on the ground."
The United States signal-observer, C. A. Smith, Galveston, sends the following facts regarding the presence of locusts in that portion of Texas, principally copied from the Galveston Daily News. Hatching began January 25, but the young appeared most numerously between February 15 and March 1, and by the 10th of that month they were observed hopping in bands in almost every instance northward. In Gronzales County they were seen flying northward about April 15, becoming fledged about April 5, and in other counties about the 20th to 25th. In Austin County, on April 30th, the heavens were clouded with them, going north, the wind being south." In other counties they migrated northward; for example, in Falls County there were "miillions passing over, flying northward, about May 2. They disappeared in dif. ferent counties from May 5 to 16. No eggs were deposited during the present year.
"The damages were at first reported as severe, from nearly all of the central counties of the State, but many of the devastated grain fields entirely recovered after the departure of the insects." Mr. Smith concludes "that the damage to the grain crops in the sixty-four counties visited cannot exceed 5 per cent. Gardens everywhere appear to have sut'ferred to a much greater extent than the grain crops. They are reported as having been entirely destroyed in a large number of cases, and were badly damaged wherever visited. He estimates $790,350 as the approximate damage to gardens.

THE LOCUST IN INDIAN TERRITORY.
While it is most probable that Indian Territory was visited in nearly the same years as Texas and Missouri, the records are very meager. In 1874 portions were visited according to the reports of the Agricultural Department.
In 1875 locusts hatched out in large numbers early in the spring. The signal-service observer at Fort Gibson reports that there were three distinct swarms seen about the 1st of May, which seemed to originate from eggs laid the previous year. During the month of May they departed in a generally north and west direction. A dispatch from Fort Gibson, dated June 1, states that "millions of locusts flew westerly. The Grand, Verdigris, and Arkansas Rivers were covered with the dead hoppers that failed to fly across at the start."
In 1876, at Fort Gibson, they appeared September 16 to 28. (United States Signal Service.) Mr. Riley states that "they were thick over most of the Territory, passing southward, from the middle of Sep; ember, and many of them remaining through the season." Locusts were not observed at Fort Sill, either in 1876 or 1877. (United States Signal Office.) Fort Gibson was not visited by locusts during the summer of 1877, but from April 13 to May 1, the young hatched out in great numbers, but




C4 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

died from the effects of "the long-continued cold rains occurring shortly after the eggs began to hatch." "No young locusts were seen after the 14th of May. iNone of the locusts arrived at maturity, neither were any seen off their hatching-grounds." (United States Signal Office.)

THE LOCUST IN ARKANSAS.
The first recorded instance of locusts extending into this State was, according to Mr. Riley, in 1876. They overran the extreme northwest corner of the State, and were particularly injurious in Benton County, the damage being mostly confined to this county and the region south of it, the.insects not extending east to Carroll County. "They made their advent from the 7th to the 15th of October, coming with the wind from the northwest and flying south and southwest, until they struck the base of Boston Mountain. As in our own [Missouri] southeast counties, wheat was greatly injured by them, and eggs were laid up to the time winter set in." (Riley's ninth report.)
In 1877, Arkansas was again visited, but to what extent is unknown. The only data at hand are the Ibllowing statements from correspondents: At Bentonville, Benton County, "A few passed over the last days of September, and a very few alighted in some localities." Again it is stated that "fresh swarms passed over from the northwest, but none settled." At Carrollton, Carroll County, no swarms were noticed during the present year, though they passed over in the autumn of 1876.

THE LOCUST IN MISSOURI.
The history of the invasion of this State by the Rocky Mountain locust has been so fully set forth by Mr. B. D. Walsh, in his Illinois report, aDd by Mr. Riley, in his seventh, eighth, and ninth annual reports on the injurious insects of Missouri, that the following account is simply a brief abstract of their statements, the portions quoted being in most cases taken from Mr. Riley's report.
1820 or 1821.-In one of these years, it is uncertain which, Western Missouri was visited by locusts. "They came in the autumn by millions, devouring every green thing, but too late to do much harm. They literally filled the earth with their eggs, and then died. The next spring they hatched out, but did but little harm, and when full-fledged left for pirts unknown. Other districts of country have been visited by them, but, so far as I could learn, they have done but little harm after the first year. (Prairie Farmer, June 15, 1867.) This statement is corroborated by the following: "1 A Missouri paper publishes a statement by an old settler, that great numbers of grasshoppers appeared in September, 1820,doing much damage. The next spring they hatched out, destroying the cotton, flax, hemp, wheat, and tobacco crops; but the corn escaped uninjured. About the middle of June they all disappeired, flying off in a southeast direction. ( WVestern Rural, 1867.)
1566.-The next recorded invasion took place in 1866, when the west-




CHRONOLOGY: MISSOURI, 1867-1874. 65

er counties of Misouri were overrun much as in 1874. "They came, however, about a month later than in 1874. They were often so thick that trains were seriously delayed on account of the immense numbers crushed on the track." (Walsh's Illinois Report.) Innumerable eggs were deposited in the autumn.
187.-Serious damage was done by the young locusts in the spring, particularly about Saint Joseph and Oregon. By the middle of July they had nearly all left the State. A fresh, though less extensive invasiol, swept over Nebraska and portions of Kansas and the western borders of Iowa and Minnesota, or, in Walsh's words, "the main body descended through Nebraska upon Iowa, instead of through Kansas upon Missouri," but the extreme northwest corner of Missouri was overrun by the swarms, which were said to have come from the Rocky Mountains.
1868.-Considerable injury was done by locusts this year in the following counties: Andrew, Cedar, Clinton, DaviesS, Gentry, Jackson, Nodaway. There was, however, no fresh invasion from the west.
1869.-Early in the season of this year locusts troubled the western borders of Missouri. "They hatched out in countless numbers from the 20th to 24th of March in Holt County. In Andrew County the young, where the ground was smooth and hard, as 'sod' or prairie that was plowed in the previous June, and not afterward plowed, destroyed most of the wheat. Our own stock was bad enough,
but on the 18th of June we received a large addition of flying ones from the suth, which in some places took half of the corn, although they left on the 23d of June, staying less than five days. They came with a strong south wind, and while here the north wind blew, and if they were disturbed they would work a little south ; but on the 23d, at 11 a. in., the south wind blew and they rose simultaneously and most of them left us; but our original stock not being able to fly remained. There are no records of the presence of locusts in Missouri in 1870, 1871, 1872, or 1873.
1874.-The locust visitation of this year was the most calamitous to Missouri, as to the neighboring States, of any yet recorded. A map of the area overrun this year, as compared with 1866, is given in Mr. Riley's seventh report. He states that the general direction from which they came was from the northwest. They reached Holt County on the 8th of August, and all the counties on the same line, north and south, from Worth to McDonald, were reached during the latter part of the same month. They then continued to make short flights, and finally reached their extreme eastern limit toward the last of September. They flew no farther east than in 1866, except in the northern part of the State, and only visited the western fourth or fifth of the State. The swarms appeared during early August, and in most of the counties invaded, the locusts stayed till frost, i. e., from their first appearance till frost swarms came and left, so that there were most always
5G




66 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

some of them about. The injury in Missouri was comparatively slight compared with that done in 1874 in Kansas.
1875.-" Serious arnd distressing," says Mr. Riley, "as were the ravages of this insect in 1874, when the winged swarms overswept several of the Western States, and poured into our western counties in the fall, the injury and suffering that ensued were as naught in Missouri compared to what resulted from the unfledged myriads that hatched out in the spring of 1875."1 The spring was propitious to the young, few adverse causes tending to reduce their number being in operation. "1The winter of 1874-'75, though commencing late, was severe, steady, and protracted till toward the first of May, when spring suddenly came upon us in full force. There was no very variable weather in the earlier months; whereas such weather did occur in 1867."1 Besides this the summer seasons of 1873 and 1874 were dry and hot. The worst injury was done in the two western tiers of Missouri. "1The greatest damage extended over a strip twenty-five miles each side of the Missouri River,
fro Omhatoanss ityv, and then extending south to the southwestern limit of Missouri."
"6Early in May the reports from the locust district of the State were very conflicting; the insects were confined to within short radii of their hatching-grounds. The season was propitious, and where the insects did not occur, everything promised well. As the month drew more and more to a close, the insects extended the area of destruction and the alarm. became general. By the end of the month the non-timbered portions of the *middle western counties were as bare as in winter. Here and there patches of Amarantus blitum and a few jagged stalks of milkweed (Asciepias) served to relieve the monotony. An occasional out-field or low piece of prairie would also remain green ; but with these exceptions one might travel for days by buggy and find everything eaten off, even to underbrush in the woods. The suffering was great and the people well-nigh disheartened. Cattle and stock of all kinds, except hogs and poultry, were driven away to the more favored counties, and relief committees were organized. Many families left the State lander the influence of the temporary panic and the unnecessary forebodings and exaggerated statement of the pessimists. Chronic loafers and idlers even made some trouble and threatened to seize the goods and property of the well-to-do. Relief work was, however, carried on energetically, and with few exceptions no violence occurred. Early in June the insects began to leave; the farmers began replanting with a will. As the mouth advanced the prospects brightened, and by the 4th of July the whole country presented a green and thrifty appearance again. The greatest damage occurred in the counties bordering on the Missouiri Rtiver to Liberty, and thence southward; and Bates, Buchanan, Barton, Clay, Cass, Clinton, Henry, Jackson, Johnson, Lafayette, Platte, Saint Clair, and Vernon suffered most. The other counties in the distxict invaded in 1874, and especially those along the eastern borders of




CHRONOLOGY: MISSOURI, 1875, 1876. 67

that district, suffered less. In some of these, as the extreme northwest counties, the reason may be found in the fact that the winged insects of 1874 did not stay long enough to lay excessive numbers of eggs; while in those along the eastern border the reason is to be found in the fact that the winged swarms when they reached this limit were weakened and decimated; they were the straggling remains of a vast army."
1876.-The counties ravaged by the young insects in 1875, had splendid crops in 1876. Fresh armies of locusts in the early autumn from the north and northwest, swept over the western border of the State. It should be noted that a great drought prevailed in the Northwest, which favored their multiplication as in other locust years, the drought and heat being the exciting cause of the undue increase of locusts and other insect pests.
"The middle western counties which suffered most in 1875 (i. e., the portion of the State in which the winged insects reached the farthest east in 1874, and laid most eggs) were not overrun in 1876, and will not suffer in 1877. Such are the counties of Platte, Clay, Cass, Lafayette, Johnson, Henry, Petis, Bates, and Benton. In these counties the farmers have little or nothing to fear, except as they may receive a few straggling and comuiaratively harmless bevies of the winged locusts next June and July, from the neighboring country. The counties that were overrun and will suffer are, first, Atchison and Holt, and the western half of Nodaway, and Andrew in the extreme northwest corner; second, McDonald, Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, Barton, Dade, 'Newton, Cedar, Vernon, more particularly iu the southwest half; Polk, in the northwest third; Hickory in the southwest third; Saint Clair in scattering places, and Christian and Greene in the extreme border.
"The locusts camine into all these counties lat Fall, very generally ate off the Fall wheat, and filled the ground with their eggs, in most parts quite thickly. As elsewhere they continued laying until overtaken by frost.
"Bates, according to one correspondent, also received a few of the insects in the western half; while a few stragglers are also reported in Harrison, and even in Gentry, Henry, and'Cass; but it is evident that in these cases they were not in sufficient numbers to do harm or to cause any forebodings in the spring. They came into the northwest corner from the north and northwest, early in September,' and were to some extent prevented from reaching beyond the points indicated, by south winds.
"They entered the southwest counties from the southwest nearly a month later, invading Newton and McDonald by September 23, and reaching the middle of Barry by the 1st of October, and Cedar by the middle of the month. It is quite clear that the eastern limit of the swarms which came from the north and northwest was receding west2According to Sigal Service reports, some were seen in N daway County much earlier.




68 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

ward after they reached Northwest Missouri; and that Southwest Missouri, Southeast Kansas, and Northwest Arkansas, would have escaped had it not been for west and southwest winds that brought back insects which had reached south of these points.
"The dates of arrival of these insects are nearly a month later than in 1874, and in this respect the 1876 invasion more nearly resembles that of 1866. It was also less immediately disastrous than that of 1874, and most of the crops were either garnered or beyond injury, and the principal damage was to the Fall wheat, -which, as already stated, was eaten down, and in most cases effectually destroyed, at a time, too, when it was generally too late to do anything more than to let the ground lie over to plant in corn in the spring."-(Riley's Ninth Report.)
1877.-Although the prospect of injury from young locusts was
threatening, yet, as in Kansas and Nebraska, the young soon after hatching perished in large numbers, so that little injury was experienced and the crops were unusually large. No locusts arrived in the State from the Rocky Mountains. The swarms of fledged locusts which survived the cold, wet weather were light in the State, and did no mischief, and, so far as known, laid no eggs. The following statement will give some idea of the distribution and movements of the local swarms:
"The insects were leaving Jasper and adjacent southwest counties where they had hatched, the latter part of May and early in June, that part of the State being vacated by the middle of June, and the course being north and northwest., They left the northwest counties toward the end of June and during the first week of July, the direction being northwest, except on June 30, when some stragglers were blown back from the northwest over Nodaway County."
August 14, large numbers passed over Oregon, Holt County, flying southwest; about the 20th, a few passed over Flag Springs, Andrew County, from the northeast; at Pickering, Nodaway County, during the third week in September large swarms were observed flying from the northwest to the southeast, but none were known to alight. In Atchison County large swarms from the north passed over in August and September, and a few dropped down, but no eggs were deposited.

THE LOCUST IN KANSAS.

We have fuller information regarding the ravages of locusts in this State than in Nebraska, probably from the fact that the State was settled earlier and has a much larger population, and suffered more from the hordes of invading locusts.3
3 l846.-Thero are no records of locusts in Kansas in 1846, and I quote the following statement doubtful whether the grasshoppers referred to were loeal species or emigrants from the west. "As we proceeded on our journey, we heard the confused hum of thousands of grasshoppers, now and then broken by the chirping of the cricket. These insects are found in great abundauco, and obtain greater size 1h1n any I have soon elsewhere."-(Notes ot a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth, in Ifissouri to San Jiego, Cal., by w. H. Emory, p. 392. The insects were observed July 2, 1846, in the Kansas River Valley.)




CHRONOLOGY: KANSAS, 1854-1866. 69

1854,-1ocusts visited Kansas, but how extensively is not known; the swarm arrived in the autumn.-(T. C. Wells.) 155.--The eggs laid the previous autumn hatched in the spring of 18557 "and if I remember aright one of our old farmers who was then living on the south side of the Kansas River told me that his wheat was all destroyed by them. I do not remember seeing any myself that year. It was dry in the spring, but after about the middle of May we had frequent and very heavy showers all through the season."-(T. C. Wells.)
1856-'57.-" In the autumns of 1856 and 1857 the wheat and corn leaves were eaten off around the outside of fields, I suppose by Caoptenus spretue, though I never noticed them in great numbers so as to attract particular attention until 186).,"(T. C. Wells.)
1860.-That locusts appeared in Kansas this year is affirmed by Mr. T. C. Wells, who remarks, What I have said about them in 1860, and from then to the present time, I know to be true from my personal observation, with the single exception of 1864."-(T. C. Wells, Manhattan, Kansas.)
1864.-" 1 was East that [this] year, but am told by those that were here that it was very dry, and that the locusts were here."-(T. C. Wells.)
1866.-The first record of any invasion we are aware of refers to this year, though it is not improbable that a portion of the State, at least, was overrun in 1620 or 1821, and, possibly, in 1846, but there are no records to that eflct extant.
In August and Sepkmber, 1-10, 1866, swarms of locusts arrived. In August they made their appearance in the frontier settlements of Kansas and Nebraska, and later, early in September, destroyed every green thing in tracts in the eastern part of the State. On the Neinaha River (which, however, lies mostly in Nebraska) and is in the eastern limits of the State, they arrived in clouds "glittering in the sunlight like huge flakes of snow," and destroyed the late corn and the winter wheat, and began at once laying their eggs, so that the ground was fairly honeycombed by their egg-cells.
September 1. At Council Grove "a tremendous shower of grass hop. pers came from the south, completely filling the air as high as one could see, and looking like a driving snow-storm"; they eat every green thing. In Allen County they appeared September 11; "they almost darken the sun in their flight"; they eat everything green, including winter wheat. "In Brown County they covered a tract twelve miles in width, and consumed pretty much everything green. Trees were stripped of their leaves, and corn-fields literally stripped to the stalk. * In Northwestern Kansas they filled the air so as to obscure the sun. They have been traced for a distance of two hundred miles above Fort Kearney. In Marysville the grasshoppers in that section eat every green thing. The Leavenworth papers reported that a vast army of grass. hoppers reached Lawrence from the west. They had cleaned out Topeka,




70 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

the capital, of garden vegetables, grass, and clover, and left the ground as if burned with fire. Corn is eaten to the roots. About Lawrence, though very numerous, yet coming so late they did not do essential damage, but deposited their eggs. In Douglas County they made their appearance by the billion. The prevailing winds in the State during August and September were westerly, and the season was dry and hot.(Practical Entomologist, ii, 3-4.)
1867.-The locusts this year, according to B. AD Walsh, tookk a rather more northerly course, the main body descending through Nebraska upon Iowa, instead of through Kansas upon Missouri. Still in both years there were flying columns of the enemy, that deviated a little from the general line of march either to the right or to the left. For, as will be seen hereafter, some of the more northerly parts of Kansas and the extreme northwest corner of Missouri were invaded by the army of 1867; and as I have shown in the Practical E ntomologist, the southern parts of Nebraska were very generally invaded by the army of 1866." Nearly as last -year, the invasions occurred from August 25 to September 30, and the locusts came from the northwest.-( Walsh's First Illinois Rep.)
1868.-Locusts, which hatched in the spring, devastated the State, locally, and the region west of Fort Riley was ravaged in the autumn, but whether by foreign swarms or those native to the State is not stated. August 7, locusts appeared in Riley County, flying from the northwest apparently, as a southeast wind prevented their leaving on the 8th. It is possible that the swarms came from Iowa and Minnesota, rather than from the west. In the early part of August they attracted attention in Kansas and during the preceding month in Iowa and Minnesota. (American Entomologist, i, 74.) From this fact we infer that the invasions were local and from the north.
1869.-For two years, apparently, the progeny of those which overrun the State in 1866-267 remained and did some damage. In 1869 the Young hatched out In Saline, Lyon, and Brown Counties, but left as soon as they acquired wings, namely, about the middle of June. They were destructive east of Nemaha County, but no extended damage, was done in the State generally,,and none were seen in 1870 and 1871.
18 72.-Tb is year foreignn 11 locusts did some harm in parts of Kansas. At Beloit they appeared in the last week in August and devoured everyth in g green,.( RiIcy's Seventh Report.)
1873.-While Nebraska and the country to the north was generally overrun in 1873, there is no record of their appearance in Kansas..
1874.-This was the worst locust year in Kansas, the State, like its neighbors north and south, -suffering extremely. Mr. Riley in his seventh report says the locusts swept over the State "in overwhelming hordes from the plains of Colorado on the west, and the fields of Nebraska on the north, in many instances clearing off all traces of vegetation in a few hours." The corn, crop was ruined by, them. They appeared in every county, so far as the records show, except Clarke, Comanche,




CHRONOLOGY: KANSAS, 1875. 71

Gove, Doniphan, Graham, Greenwood, Harper, Bodgeman, Kiowa, Neosho, Ness, Pratt, Sumner, Stafford, Trego, and Wallace, which are more or less unorganized and uninhabited, so that no records were obtained, though they were overrun like the rest according to Mr. A. Gray, secretary of the Board of Agriculture. The suffering was great, thirty counties reporting 1,843 families, aggregating 9,151 persons, reduced to destitution, and immigration to the State was checked, and relief societies throughout the country were formed to aid them.
About the 15th-25th of July, the locusts appeared in Northern and Northwestern Kansas, and continued to be destructive till at least the end of August, and laid their eggs in the autumn. During this year the greatest damage was from northwest to southeast, being lightest along the eastern half of the State, which the winged insects reached too late to do very serious injury; but the greatest bulk of the eggs were laid as the locusts approached the eastern limitsof the State.-(Riley's Eighth Report.)
1875.-In this year the damage done was by the young locusts, which batched in enormous numbers in the eastern part of the State, so that, as Mr. Riley states, "in 1875 the tables were turned; the eastern portion of the State suffered, and the western counties were little troubled." He also states that "the ravages of the young lotusts were confined to a district of about 150 miles in length and 50 miles in breadth, at the widest, along the eastern border. The counties of Doniphan, Brown, Atchison, Jefferson, Leavenworth, Douglass, Labette, Johnson, Miami, Franklio, Linn, Bates, and Bourbon, suffered more or less severely." The locusts hatched out mostly in April and early May, and became tfledged May 28 to June 15, and then all flew in a general northwest direction. (Riley's eighth report.) The writer passed over the ravaged region along the Kansas Pacific Railroad just after the locusts had taken flight and witnessed the bare fields, desolated towns and general ruin they left behind along this part of the country. They flew out of the State, and there were no invasions from the north or west that year, and no damage done after the middle of July. Still, owing to the fear of disaster, there was said to be a heavy emigration of farmers from the State.
1876.-There were fresh invasions from the north and northwest from late in July until early in September. "Early in September the swarms thickened, and the wind blowing almost a gale from the west and northwest for two or three days subsequently, the insects during that time swept down in darkening clouds over the greater portion of the State from the 98th meridian to beyond the 96th. (Riley's ninth report.) Prof. F. H. Snow, October 4, 1876, made the following statement: I came through Kansas from Colorado (Denver) on the 5th and 6th September. Caloptena8 spretus at that time extended about 100 miles east of the mountains, last of which point no trace of it was to be seen during the daylight on the 5th. Next morning we struck locusts in small numbers at Brookville (Saline County), 180 miles west of Kanas City; in full force at Salina, 12 miles farther east; and found the east front of this




72 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

line 4 miles west of Abilene, in Dickinson County, and about 150 miles west of Kansas City. Observing 4-nd inquiring at the stations in this 30-mile belt, I in variably learned that the flight of the locust was from the north and not from the west, as two years ago (in 1874).
Four weeks have now passed and the locust has not yet reached Lawrence, its eastern line being about 20 miles west of Lawrence, only about 100 miles farther east than it was four weeks ago. This eastern line extends across the State from north to south, the entire State west of this line having been visited. In many places the pest has come in immense numbers, while in many other places there has been but a light sprinkling. Little damage has been- done thus far, almost none at all in comparison with two years ago, it being so late in the season that the crops of this year were secure. The fall-wheat, however, has been very generally eaten down, but has come up again when drilled after the departure of the hordes which remain but a few days in a place. Wheat sown broadcast has been generally killed, having been eaten down to the kernel. The great danger to be feared now is the spring-hatching of the eggs which have been deposited in varying abundance in the eastern part of the region visi ited. It is agreed on all hands that the present visitation is far less numerous than two years ago. The locusts are everywhere reported to be heavily parasitized by the red mite and the Tachina fly. Can it be that these hordes are the I'spring hatch" from Iowa, Minnesota, and Wyoming ? While in the South Park in JulyI found great numbers of young spretas along the streams from the mountain-sides. When on the summit of Pike's Peak, July 28 and 29, the winged results were flying due east as high up in the air as the eye could reach. They did niot descend upon us at Manitou until the 12th of August. (Packard's report in Hayden's Survey, 1875.)
At Abilene locusts were observed August 24 and 25 going in a southwest course, with the 'wind moderate from the northeast. "1September 2, 3, and 4 vast swarms flew north; September 6 vast swarms going northwest, the wind strong from the southeast. September '7, at about 11 o'clock, the advance guard reached Abilene going due east, with a strong gale, flying very low. They began. falling at once, and kept gradually changing their course until 1 p. in., when they went due north and ceased flying at 2 p. mn. The ground was alive with them, and some of the citizens smoked them out of their gardens successfully. A thunder-storm reached us at 6 p. mn., and the rain fell in torrents until midnight. September 8 the locusts seemed more active after the previous night's flood than was expected, as we supposed that they were all drowned in the torrents of water. that fell, and by 11 a. m. the air was full of locusts flying so low that clouds of them could be seen at a great distance in every direction. I have not seen such quanitities in six years' observation. On the 9th and 10th, after a rainy night, the locusts in innumerable quantities left in a very strong cold north wind. Afterward a few flew northward and westward, but the bulk passed to the southward, and no flights were observed after the 26th, when the direction was due south."-(W. T. Davidson.)
Mr. Gaumer states that the invading swarms in the autumn deposited their e-gs in almost every available place throughout all the counties of southeastern Kansas.
1877.-Although much trouble was expected from the young locusts this year, yet owing to the exceptionally wet and cold spring and early summer, the young died soon after hatching, and did little local injury,




CHRONOLOGY : KANSAS, 1877. 73

No invasions from the Rocky Mountains occurred, and only local swarms after July 8 passed to and fro over the State, laying few or no eggs, and whatever apprehensions were felt in the early spring the result shows that an unusually large wheat-crop was raised.
To enter a little more in detail: Throughout the locust area of the State south of the Kansas Pacific Railroad-which area includes most of tie region bounded on the east by a line running from a little west of Lawrence toward Fort Scott, and on the west by another passing up through Hutchinson and Ellsworth-the eggs were laid in 1876 in sufficient quantities to have given birth to locusts enough to have eaten everything green by the time they attained full growth, under conditions favorable to them. Many of the eggs were destroyed by the Anthomyia egg-parasite, and the other enemies described in Mr. Riley's Reports. Some of them hatched in the fall, and many more during the warm weather of the latter part of January and fore part of February. The insects thus hatched perished. The bulk of the eggs hatched during the last week of March and the early part of April. The young insects were very thick then; they commenced to do injury and begat general fear. The farmers for the most part fought them with energy. Then fUllowed, from the middle of April on, a period of cold and wet weather; the young rapidly weakened and were from all quarters reported as disappearing. The continued cold after the principal hatching, had the effect to kill many that were just hatching or mioulting. The heavy rains also washed many away into the streams, and in some instances on soils which contain sand and lime, and which are liable to crack when dry, the rains doubtless covered up and killed such as were sheltering in such fissures.
Still, considerable numbers became fledged, and local swarms were passing through and over the State, through the summer; while light swarms flew into the State from the south and north. For example: 4 A small swarm passed over the western p art of the State May 17 and 19, in a north and northeast direction. Other flights, all going northwest, passed over Labette County May 2:3, and over Norton and Ellis Counties in the same direction from the 21st to the 23d. An extensive swarm passed over the western counties May 26 and 27, flying north. Light swarms passed northwest at intervals from this time on until the main exodus from the State. This occurred on June 12, 13, and 14, and was very general, the insects flying due north.
From the 15th to the 20th, the locusts were leaving in scattered numbers whenever favorable weather prompted, and after the 20th few remained, save in exceptional localities where hatching was greatly delayed from local causes.
After this date the following observations were made by Mr. Gaumer, at Lawrence:
At 1 p. m. June 16, the first winged locusts were seen flying over the Wakarusa. They were very high in the air. The wind at the time was blowing at the rate of about fifteen miles per hour, from a direction a little east of south, and the locusts were flying with the wind. The sky was nearly clear and weather warm.
June 18, they again began to fly, at 11.45 a. m. The wind was south-southwest, and blowing at the rate of about forty miles per hour. They increased in number until




74 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

2.35 p. in., when there were a great many flying, as high as could be seen with the naked eye. At 3.30 many of them were quite low, and a few were seen to drop down, and they continued to fall until 4.30 p. m. At 5 p.mi. they ceased to fly, and there was about one locust to every square rod. They flew very swiftly, and in a north northeast direction.
June 19, I again visited the country round about Chanute. Found the locusts had nearly all disappeared. Those which had hatched previous to my first vi 'sit had all died in a few days afterward. The eggs were not all hatched, for in front of Mr. Ashby's house we dug up good eggs which had been deposited in a hard, sandy soil, and were overlaid with a deposit of sand about one inch deep, from an adjoining field. Most of them were spoiled.
At Parsons, June 20, 1 found the locusts molting the last time, and many of them already had their wings. Some were flying, but not in any considerable numbers. Few had come to maturity. At Chetopa they nearly all had wings, and had been leaving for two days. Several large swarms were seen feeding upon dog-fennel, but nowhere did they injure the corn or wheat. Nearly all the gardens in the eastern portion of the city were eaten up.
Locusts were observed flying over Lawrence in a northerly and northwesterly direction, every clear day, until July 10.
The heaviest flight of the season was southward on the 20th of July. Light swarms continued to fly about in various portions of the State until October, flying southward and southwesterly.

THE LOCUST IN NEBRASKA.
While only the western half of Minnesota and the western third of Iowa are liable to invasion, the entire State of iNebraska has been more or less invaded, different portions, however, suffering in different years.
1837.-There must have been a locust invasion in this year in Western Nebraska, for the young appeared in 1-858 as may be seen by reading the subjoined paragraph.
1858.-"l In the spring of 1858, as soon as grass was three inches high, near the creek and through the valleys, we found the m. * They #ate my corn which was four or five inches high, also turnips, grass, &c., (and I believe onions) but their ravages were not great. ** I beard that they were bad on the Missouri River that season, 400 miles northeast of Laramie, the direction the wind took them. And the next season I heard of them in Minnesota." (W. M. Hin man.)
1861.-" Also yesterday, at 12 o'clock, I discovered them very thick and high up, traveling with the wind to the northwest for one and a half hours, when there were no more to be seen. We have had two or three days of hard southeast wind, and probably these were successive grasshoppers from Texas or the Cherokee country." (W. M. I4inman in a letter to the Smithsonian Institution, dated June 10, 1861).
1804.-This is the first year, as yet known, in which Nebraska suffered. According to Governor Furnas, Northern Nebraska was overrun by locusts this year.
1866.-Late in August swarms crossed the State (especially the southemn half) from the west, extending nearly or quite to the Missouri River, devouring everything about Fort Kearney, and Nebraska City, and the




CHRONOLOGY: NEBRASKA, 1867-1875. 75

other frontier settlements. That the invasion was widespread is evidenced by the widespread abundance of the young the following spring.
1867.-This was also a notable locust year, the whole State being more or less afflicted, the young being abundant and destructive in the spring, and in the summer fresh swarms coming from the northwest. From Walsh's First Illinois Report, we learn that in May, about Omaha, the young hatched out by the million, from eggs which were "deposited over the whole face of the country, from the lower part of Cass County, clear through the southern part of Kansas." Early in June a storm in the country south of the Platte, rid that region'of the young, the work of destruction having been farther carried on by black birds, plover and other birds. Late in August, and in the autumn, there were heavy invasions from the northwest in the Missouri Valley.
1868.-The young hatched from eggs laid in the previous summer; hatched out in large numbers all over the State, many hatched late in May, but throughout the spring millions were killed by heavy rains and some few by birds. (Bruner). Nevertheless, extensive damage was done by them.
1869.-Although there are no records at hand regarding locust invasions this year, yet as the insects occurred in abundance in Iowa and Kansas, they must have been more or less destructive in Nebraska.
1873.-After an interval of four years, swarms of locusts appear from the west and notUwest and overrun Nebraska as well as the adjoining States. In Adams County a considerable flight of locusts passed northwardly May 19th or 20th, remained till the 25th or 26th, when they rose and flew north, doing but little injury. In the autumn a number of swarms passed southward, but did slight mischief.
1874.-This was the most calamitous locust year in Nebraska, as well as throughout the West, beyond the 94th meridian. Not only did the young locusts hatch in great numbers, but also swarms of unusual extent swept over the State and proved more destructive than at any year previous or succeeding. It is to be observed that this was an exceptionally dry and hot summer, locusts always abounding in dry springs and summers. The entire State from a point about thirty miles from the Missouri River, west, was more or less devastated, the extreme western portion entirely so. (Governor Furnas). Swarms arrived on or about July 21, remaining about ten days, time enough for them to devour the corn crop and deposit their eggs by the million.
1875.--The locusts hatched remarkably late (about May 20th from eggs laid in the previous summer, principally in the district immediately bordering on the Missouri River, and a comparatively small area suffered from the attacks of the young. "The populous and highly cultivated counties of Nemaha, Richardson, and Otoe were most severely ravaged. Before these locusts acquired their wings, swarms from the south in a northward direction over the State, cause some trouble and anxiety in the following counties: Saunders, Washington, Douglas, Buffalo, Pawnee,




76 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Clay, and Barton. The loss, however, to the State at large did not amount to five per cent." (Riley's eighth report.)
1876.-Another invasion, of the State in August of this year, resulted in the northeast counties in the loss of one-half of. the corn crop, while the western half of the State, particularly in the valleys of the Elkhorn, Platte, and Republican Rivers, suffered a good deal. Eggs were laid over the eastern part of the State, but less extensively in the western portion. (Eviley's ninth report). By some good observers, the invasion of 1876 was considered as calamitous as that of 1874, and it is to be noted that the summer of 1876 was extremely hot and dry, the prevailing winds south and hot, much as in 1874. The year ended with bad prospects for 1877, the ground all over the State being well seeded with locust-eggs.
1877.-The early and late spring and early summer being unusually wet and cold, multitudes of the young locusts were killed, lying upon the surface of the ground so thick. that they could in places be picked up in handfuls. Happily, owing to these favorable meteorological causes so unlike those of the previous year and 1874, the amount of damage done was comparatively slight and an unusually large wheat and corn crop was raised raised in this State as well as throughout the Mississippi Valley States. Owing to the same cause in the northwest, and the fact that few eggs were laid in the larger portions of Montana, Dakota, and Wyoming, as well as in British America, there was no invasion of locusts late in the summer, from the Rocky Mountain region, leaving excellent prospects for an immunity from their attacks in 1878. Light swarms moved into or across the State from the south in June, and local swarms were observed in August.
The following statements received from our correspondents will give an idea of these local flights:
A small flight passed over Franklin County, as early as May 17, flying northwest, and another over Butler County, May 19, flying north. A heavy swarm. passed over Agallala and a(Ijacent counties, duriDg May 26, 27, and 28, the direction being northwest. They were seen sparsely flying in the same direction on various occasions until the middle of June, when extensive flights were again reported, especially over Butler and Platte counties. During the latter part of June and first part of July the insects vere rising and leaving every day when the weather was favorable, or the wind from the south southeast.
On and after August 6, they began at Geneva, Platte County, to 14 go south and southwest in swarms, which continued daily, wbeDevertho wind
-was favorable, for over a month. They showed no disposition to alight, except when compelled to doso by opposing winds." AtSalem,"fresh swarms were seen to pass over this point on the 8th and 9th of August, and light swarms continued to fly as late as the 25th of August." At Steele, Jefferson County, from the 13th to the 23d of September a good many locusts passed over, mostly from the northeast. At Pleasant Hill, Saline County, 41 large swarms passed over from the northeast, undoubtedly from Northwestern Iowa, Southern Minnesota, and South-



CHRONOLOGY: IOWA, 1833-18C5. 77

eastern Dakota, and settled in places here. They avoided cornfields, settling in small grain and grass. They appeared to be in a feeble, degenerate condition, always leaving the next morning, eating nothing, appearing to come down to rest. They departed in a southwesterly direction." At Nebo, "after our own crop left, swarms were flying over us for many days from the northeast." At Dewitt, Saline County, "fresh swarms from the northeast passed over, and some few settled, but went off again in a few days, except a few stragglers that remained until October 1 ; no eggs were laid." At Omaha swamis were observed in the air.
THE LOCUST IN IOWA.

This State has probably been afflicted in nearly the same years as Minnesota; the locusts never extending, however, more than a little beyond the western half of the State.
1833.-The authority for a locust invasion this year is the following extract from a letter from Mr. A. Strong, of Pocahontas, lowa, to Mr. Whitman: "In regard to the grasshopper raid of 1833, there was no white settlement here then, but there is a part of a tribe of Indians living near the center of this State, and they used to hunt through here, and in some of their visits here in 1866, their chief, Johnny Green, who was a very old man, told the people here that thirty-three years before that the grasshoppers came so thick that the grass was all eaten off, and there was no grass for their ponies; and the ground looked black, as ift there had been a prairie fire. He also said that there had been no more grasshoppers till 1866, when he was speaking. This chief was a very intelligent man, and was about one-half white; but the Indians are very liable to exaggerate; 1 have forgotten the name of the tribe of Indians, but think they were the Winnebagoes or Pottawattomies."'
1856.-In Western and Northwestern Iowa, their ravages this year were inconsiderable (Riley's seventh report). They came in August from the north and flew south. Eggs hatched in great numbers in the spring, but no damage was done by the young in 1857. (A. HII. Geason, Little Sioux, Harrison County.)
1857.-The general locust invasion which swept this year over the Northwest, also reached as far east as Central Iowa. (Riles's seventh report.) Ida, Adams, Pottawattamie (Council Bluffs) Counties were visited. (Whitman.)
1864-0365.- Some damage was done in 1864 about Sioux City. Eggs were laid which hatched out in 1865; the young doing considerable mischief.
1865.-The Saint Paul Press for June 21, 1865, is authority for the following statement: "General Sully, in a private letter from Sioux City, gives the following account of the grasshopper plague which is
.Col. W, Thompson, of Bismarck, told us th at in 1850, at Council Bluffs, grasshoppers ate up a corn.field late in July or early in August; the corn belonged to the Mormons. The species way have been, ad probably was, Calopternus femur-rabrum, the common red-legged locust.




78 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

desolating the region of country he has traversed. He says: The only thing spoken of about here is the grasshoppers. They are awful; they have actually eaten holes in my wagon-covers, and in the 'paulins that cover my stores. A soldier on his way here lay down to sleep in the middle of the day on the prairie. The troops had been marching all night. His comrades noticed him covered with* grasshoppers, and woke him. His throat and wrist were bleeding from the bite of these insects. This is no fiton"
1866.-"l In regard to the raids here, the one in 1866 did not extend but about fifteen miles east and fifteen miles south of here, while the next raid went a little farther east and south; till the last one went over a large part of the northwest portion of Iowa." (A. Strong.)
1867.-Young, unfledged locusts made sad ravages upon the crops of Southwestern Iowa. Later in the season there was a general invasion. of the State, the swarms arriving at Fort Dodge September 10, in Clark County about October 5. "So far as we have been able to learn they did not appear beyond the eastern boundaries of Polk and Marion Counties in 1867."1 (Iowa Homestead.) "Grasshoppers came here from the southwest on the 10th September, 1867, and deposited eggs shortly afterward.' The young hatched in the May and June following, taking the garden vegetables as fast as they could find them; oats and wheat also suffered severely." 5 "1A swarm of grasshoppers swept from Fort Benton to Missouri, reaching as far east as the Des Moines River. I have read of them as being at Denver, Colo., at the western terminus of the Kansas branch of the Pacific Railroad."16 Mr. Whitman writes us that upon inquiry he finds thatt the visit of 1867 was very extensive in that State" (Iowa). He adds that Ida, Carroll, Greene, Sac, Webster, Adams, Guthrie, Pocahontas, Orange, Woodbury, Pottawattamie, Page, Hamilton, Calhoun, Adair, Audubon, and Plymouth Counties were visited this year.
1868.-Locusts visited Page County August 7 and 8 in "fearful numbers"; they also visited Boone, Buena Vista, Woodbury.
1870-'72.-" In 1870 Algona was visited, and in 1871 the progeny watched by mnyriads till after the 1st of June, and left about the 1st of July." (Riley's seventh report.) "In the seasons of 1871 and 1872 they flew over, but few alighted; no damage was done." (HI. J. Newell, Athol, Sioux County.)
1873.-T:1he northwestern counties of Iowa were swept by swarms of locusts. (Riley-). Harrison County was visited and some destruction done; they deposited eggs, which hatched out April and May of the next year. Athol, Sioux County, was visited by a heavy swarm from the south in June, which did much damage; the insects deposited eggs. (HI. J. Newell.)
1874.-Much of the injury done in Iowa this year resulted from the
6 Oscar .J. Strongo, I ol f, Pocahontas County, lowb, in Western Farmer, February, 1869. IsS. Morrill, 'Ouawa, Iowa. (Iowa Homestead, November, 1867.)




CHRONOLOGY : IOWA, 1874-1877. 79

attacks of the progeny of the 1873 swarms. Fresh swarms came, however, in 1874, and the western counties of Algona, Calhoun, Cherokee, Clay, Dickinson, Emmett, Harrison, Humboldt, Jasper, Kossuth, Lyon, O'Brien, Osceola, Palo Alto, Pocahontas, Plymouth, Sioux, Winuebago, and Woodbury, suffered more or less. As the drought was less severe than in other parts of the country, and the crops good, the distress in the ravaced counties was easily relieved. (Riley's seventh report).
"In 1874 the young 'hoppers destroyed gardens and injured other crops. Heavy swarms also came from the north in the latter part of July or the first of August, doing great damage." (A. J. Newell, Athol.)
1875.-Few locusts hatched in the spring of this year in Iowa, but about the 10th of June until the middle of July, swarms flew in from the south over the western counties, "many of which alighted and remained one or two d(lays, committing deprdatious in corn-fields, gardens, and nurseries. Rye, wheat, and oats were also damaged to some extent. From the counties of Mills, Fremont, and Council Bluffs a loss of twentyfive percent. was reported. (RItiley's eighth report.) At Athol Mr. Newell reports that "a swarm passed over from the north; a few alighted; but no damage was done to speak of."
1876.-As in a few of the southwest counties in Minnesota, so in adjoining parts of Northwest Iowa, and notably in Osceola and 1)ickinson Counties, the young insects hatched out from eggs laid in 1875, but by the middle of June they had disappeared without doing much harm, or, in some cases, moved off in a northwest direction. About the 1st of August, the northwestern counties of this State were visited by heavy swarms. "They appeared to cross the State line from Dakota and Min. nesota at almost exactly the same date for Emmett, Dickinson, Osceola, Lyon, Sioux, and Plymouth Counties, and from here they swept at once out into the counties lying eastward and a little to the south." The most eastern point reached was in the middle of the State, and the line retreats westward from Story County both north and south. (Riiley's ninth report.) "In summing up their coming here, I will say that from the year 1856 there has not been a year but that swarms have been seen passing over from the northeast, north, and northwest, but, with the exceptions of the years when they were exceptionally abundant (1856,1867, 1874, and 1876), they have never deposited their eggs to any great amount." (Whitman.) They laid eggs at Ames. (Bessey.)
1877.-In the spring of this year the young hatched out in the following counties: Lyon, Ida, Carroll, Greene, Sac, Hancock, Webster, Madison, Guthrie, Wright, Pocahontas, Boone, Buena Vista, Winniebago, ioux, Woodbury, Pottawattamie, Page, Hamilton, Worth, Calhoun, Adair, and Plymouth, but the cold wet weather killed them, and little destruction was done except in Pottawattamie County. (Letter from Mr. Whitman.) There were no invasions this year from the northwest.
The first return flight reported over this State was on June 14. It was dense and toward the north. The next day the wind way pretty



80 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL -COMMISSION.

strong from the north, and the locusts were checked and ceased to fly; but on the two following days, the wind blowing from the south again, they continued to pass over. From this time on till the first week in August they were leaving the. State, the direction being uniformly northwest. As soon as they became winged, mnyriads flew over Webster City, apparently going southward. At Athol, Sioux County, our correspondent reports that afterr the departure of the young locusts, swarms from the north-northeast and northwest passed over July 15, 16, 20, 27, 28, and31, August 1., 6, 7,8 ,9, 21, and 22."1 At Council Bluffs" "fresh swarms passed over from the north, but did no damage and laid no eggs." At' Des Moines, "fresh swarms came from the north and northwest in August, but did little damaga."1 Locusts passed over Sac City in great numbers during August, going south-southeast and southwest, but none alighted. (Whitman.)

THE LOCUST IN MINNESOTA.1

Besides those years in which the region now comprised within the State of Minnesota has been scourged in common with other States and Territories, there are various statements, allusions, and traditions to be collected, which go to show that the Northwest has been repeatedly visited by the locust in years previous or additional to those in which such occurrences have been historically recorded. Some of these traditions are probably of no value, whatever their intrinsic probability may be. Among these are the traditions, said to be derived from the Indians, that the locusts had formerly taken possession of the country and held it for seventeen years; also that they had, in times past, con-. sumed the vegetation as far east as Stillwater (though this may perhaps refer to the year 1856). Setting all these aside, the statement made y Capt. Jonathan Carver (in his "Narrative" of the year 1766), that large swarms of locuists infestt these parts and the interior colonies and oftentimes do much mischief," shows that such occurrences were repeated. It is difficult to say what regions are denoted by theses. parts "1; but his usual application of the word "1interior"1 is to the regions from the great lakes westward.
Tfhe visitations of locusts in Lord Selkirk's Red River colony in 1818 can hardly be said to concern Minnesota, as but a small portion of that colony lay within what are now the borders of Minnesota; but it is not improbable that the wilderness to the northwest was overrun in those years.
183 0 and 1842.-Still further allusions may be found in the follow. ing extract from a letter of Rev. J. A. Gilfillan, missionary at the White Earth Indian agency, to the Minnesota grasshopper commission, 1875:
"My informant, Michel Villebrun (a Missouri River half-breed, residing at the agency, nowv seventy years old, whom I consider a reliable
7 Proparod for the Corn niwion by 31r. Allen Whitmxan, Assistant to the Commrision.




CHRONOLOGY : MINNESOTA, 1830-1857. 81

man), went to Fort Garry forty-five years ago (1830), and saw there for the first time quantities of grasshoppers. They thickly covered both sides of the river for some distance back, and the river was covered with dead ones. Twelve years after the above-mentioned date (in 1842) he came down from Fort Garry to Saint Paul; there were then none at Fort Garry and but few at Saint Paul, but the prairies between these two points were full of them. He came by the way of the Minnesota River."
Still another reference is found in a letter to the New York Tribune, dated June 9, 1857, from Medicine Lodge, Hennepin County, Minnesota, and signed "J. H. H." "About six years ago, as I am informed by a Frenchman who lived at Red River at that time, they (the grasshoppers) destroyed the crops so that the infant colony did not save their seed, but were obliged to live by hunting and fishing."
1849.-Such statements as these it is, of course, no longer possible to verify-, but that there is nothing intrinsically impossible, or even im-. probable, about them may be seen from the following letter from Mr. J. W. Burdick, of Willmar, Minn., an old resident in the Northwest, since 1856. As his letter refers to localities and dates about which it is now difficult to collect or recall facts, I quote it nearly in full, giving the different portions of it under the years to which they refer.
WILLMARE, MINN., Septembr 29, 1877.
ALLEN WHIT1AN, Esq., Sint Pauli, Minn.:
Yours of September 25 is at hand. In reply I woubd !ay that I have no personal knowledge of the grasshoppers visiting Minnesota prior to A. 1).1--.6; but was informed by Indian traders and frontwrsuien that they had Imadet their appearance in vast numbers along the prairie regions west of the big woods about A. 1). 149, and,as far back as any trace could be made, always making their appearance in seasons of great drought; but as there were no cultivated lands previous to l156 in all this vast region, their depredations were confined to the natural herbage of the country.
The year 1855 is sometimes included among the locust years of the State of Minnesota. I know of no other authority 8 for it than the statement on page 203 of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1858. "Every Western man remembers the visitation of grasshoppers in 1855 and 1856 in Kansas, Nebraska, and Mennesota Territories which caused such injuries to the crops of the Indians." But the press of the State for that year (1855), so far as I have been able to learn, contains no allusion whatever to grasshoppers, except in California and Utah. If there were any locust invasions in Minnesota, all the State papers to which I have been able to have access have totally failed to record it.
In 1856-'57.-On the other hand, the State press for the summer and autumn of 1856 is full of notices of invading swarms of locusts, while numerous letters and replies to the circulars of the entomological commission confirm the fact that it was not till 1831 that the invaders reached at least the cultivated portions of the State, and principally the region lying along the Upper Mississippi.
8 We may adld that Col. G. W. Sweet stated to us in Bismarck that locusts arrived at harvest time in Saint Cloud, Minnesota, in 1855. They hatched out in 1856.
6G




82 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.'

They reached the Chippewa Agency at Gull Lake (now in the southern part of Cass County) on the 27th of July, and had arrived at Otter Tail Lake (Otter Tail County) several days before. Their arrival at Sauk Rapids (Benton County) is noted in a letter to the Saint Paul Weekly Minnesotian, and dated August 23,1856. They reached Monticello (Wright County) on the 13-16 of August, and the western part of Hennepin County in the same month. In the latter part of the mouth they reached Carver County, and still later in the season extended to Saint Anthony and nearly to Saint Paul. In the, following spring the young were also found at Shakopee, Scott County, in parts of McLeod County, and along the Upper Minnesota River, and of course all these points also must have been visited in 1856. It is highly probable that the whole region west of the big woods was swept over in 1856. The letter of Mr. Burdick, referred to above, goes on to say:
"In 1856 they deposited their eggs in all the high, sandy hills, and in what prairie was broken by the settlers, along the Crow and Minnesota, Rivers, which, owing to a very late spring in 18577 did not hatch until the month of June, when the excessive rains seemed to destroy all the local hatch; but about the middle of July of that year swarms came from the west and swept everything in the shape of grain and vegetables west of the big woods, and then disappeared just as they have now, no one knows whither." This fact of the arrival of swarms from the west and northwest is different from what occurred in the more easterly portion of the locust region.
Resulting -swarms of 1857.-The records of the hatching swarms of 1857 are still more numerous. The hatching is reported from about the end of May onward, and the young insects were found to be numerous in the Upper Mississippi Valley and about Shakopee. Their vicinity to Saint Paul is noted in the Saint Paul Advertiser (of July 4), where they are reported on farms near Lake Como, "thick in spots and making their mark on vegetati0l)." In June, the Shakopee Advocate says: "The recent cool, wet weather has been a serious check upon the grasshoppers. It is said that bushels of dead grasshoppers may be seen in masses on the prairies." The Saint Paul Advertiser of July 4 states: 4, It is only in the eastern part of the Northern Mississippi Valley, in Benton and Sherburne Counties, that they manifest a settled determination to clear out every green thing-where they appear in such masses as to crackle beneath the feet of persons walking over the prairies."
Toward the middle of July the notices of migrations begin, apparentlv somewhat later than in later years.
July 17, the Saint Paul Daily Pioneer and Democrat quotes the Monticello Times in regard to migrations to the south and southeast. August 1, the Sauk Rapids Frontiersman states that they have nearly all left that vicinity. "For several days of last week and on Sunday they were high in the air, like a snow-storm. They went south and southeast; did not deposit their eggs here.12




CHRONOLOGY: MINNESOTA, IL 56. 83

Late in July, 1856, invading swarms came from the northwest into the Upper Mississippi Valley, and gradually spread along the river dur. ing the season, much the same as they had done in the past summer, and reaching nearly the same limits. The injury was, of course, felt most severely along the Mississippi and the cultivated region adjacent, but the locusts are said to have appeared along the Minnesota River, in the Yellow Medicine country, and at various points in the northwestern part of the State. It is probable that the northwestern part of the State was swept over by migrating swarms during the summer, much the same as in the present year. But few traces of these were seen the following year, except along the Upper Mississippi, where the damage was even greater than the year before. A general flight took place in July, and the direction of the departure was to the south and southwest generally, and was, perhaps, the occasion of the injury done in Iowa that year.
The southward movements of the departing swarms may be inferred from the following statement in the Saint Paul Advertiser, Aug-ist 1: "The last number of the Faribault Herald announces their arrival in that section in swarms. They arrived last week and pounced upon every green thing, threatening destruction to ripening crops." The Saint Peter Free Press says of the grasshoppers: "This pest has arrived at last, and, we are sorry to add, is really doing much harm. From all accounts they are much worse back in the country than here. * We are glad to state, however, that they appear to be leaving, passing to the east and southward."
At Mankato the grasshoppers made their appearance in considerable numbers, but did not do any very serious injury.
Mr. Joseph Flanders, now of Mandelia, relates arriving at the Winnebago Agency, about twelve miles from Mankato, on the 9th of August, 1857, and meeting grasshoppers, moving southeasterly, and many of them flying so low that it was with great difficulty we could continue our journey."
I ought to have included above the resemblances of the spring of the years 1856-'57 to that of 1876-'77.
1856.-The Saint Paul Weekly Times of July 12, 1856, says: "We regret to learn that the crops are suffering for want of rain, particularly oats and wheat. The shower yesterday will benefit them, but much more rain is needed to prevent a meager harvest." August 2, 1856: "The oat crop, owing to the June drought, will not yield as plentiful as in former seasons, although a very fair crop may be expected." Mr. M. M. Kellogg, of Saint Paul, who has kept a record of the weather for many years, writes: "From 1837 to 1862, a period of twenty-five years, there was but one drought in Minnesota, and that was in 1856. The drought in this year was not seriously felt, for the little rain that fell was tolerably well distributed through the summer months, and indeed the drought seems to have been local and to a considerable extent limited in its range."




84 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The letter of J. W. Burdick describes the character of the spring in 1857. Also, the letter of J. H. H., above referred to, says: "One of my neighbors, who by the way is a pious Catholic, says that the Almighty has tried all the usual means of destruction this spring without effect, viz, cold, backward and wet spring, late and severe frosts, and frequent thunder showers."
1863-'77.-No extensive depredations by the locusts in Minnesota are heard of between 1857 and 1864. It has been common to name the years 1864 and 1865 as the only "locust years" between 1857 and 1873. It will perhaps surprise some of our own residents to learn that from 1863 to 1877 there has been hardly a year in which the locusts have not made themselves noticeable within our borders, but principally in the Red River Valley when not heard of elsewhere. In 1866 there was a slight visitation in Kundiyohi County and at or near Redwood Falls. In many of these years invasions in full force occurred in States farther southward, and the presence of the locusts here was hardly felt in a country little cultivated or barely inhabited. But it is not difficult to collect, in addition to what is already well enough known, statements to show that Minnesota has lain for the last fifteen years too dangerously near to the breeding ground of the locusts, although their visits, in many cases barely reaching beyond the State line, could hardly be called invasions.
Even in 1863 swarms were seen flying as far east as Pomme de Teri e River, and Mr. Burdick states that in that year, "In the fall, about the first of November, I was through the country and saw several scouts who informed me that they had seen the hoppers quite thick between here (Willmar) and Kelley's Point (a station in the south part of Meeker County), and also west of here; this must have been late in August or the first of September." All these must have been portions of the swarms which that summer left the marks of their ravages in Dakota, but a few (lays march to the northwest of Big Stone Lake, where the traces of them were found by General Sibley's expedition. That they also appeared in the Red River Valley, in this and the following years, is shown by the following statement, in reply to the circular No. 1 of the United States Entomological Commission, received from Mr. Robert Probstfield, "'the oldest inhabitant" in the neighborhood of Moorhead, giving the years when locusts had appeared there. "In 1863, 1861,1865 (in 1865 very little damage done; not numerous), 1866, 1867, 1869 (in a few localities bad, in others less, in a few none), in 1870, 1871, bad, 1872 bad, 1873, 1874,1875,1876. There are more or less grasshoppers hereevery year, beginning with 1863, when they came from the southwest early in Ma1y, about the 15th or 16th. I came here in April, 1859, there were no gtr shoppers herein 1859,1860, 1861, or 1h62." That eggs were laid here in 1863 is shown by his additional statement: "In 1864, the hoppers grew here; there was no grass to speak of, even the whole timber had a wintry appearance in summer, the leaves being eaten and only the leaf-





CHRONOLOGY: MINNESOTA, 1863. 85

skeleton left." Compare with this the statement of Geo. Emmnerling, of Walballa, Dakota, "We have had them every year, from 1863 to 1875; they came one year and left us the next, when the young had acquired wings, and so they came and went all the time."
Again, in 1864 swarms appeared early in July, along the Upper Minnosota River, and spread eastward gradually during the season, and
reached about as far east as in 1874, i. e., to the third tier of towns in Le Sueur County. Scattering swarms also visited Manitoba in the same
year, and probably some portions of these reached Northwestern Minnesota, for we hear of slight appearances of them in the Red River and
the Sauk Valleys in 1864 and 1865. But the greater portion of the injury was done in the Minnesota Valley, and was followed by a general
departure to the southwest in 1865. The injury in Colorado also was very severe in the same years, but there seems to have been no large movement to the eastward, such as occurred later, in 1860 and 1867.
It seems very likely that the swarms which entered Minnesota in 1864
were hatched at no great distance, and were the offspring of swarms
that had alighted in Eastern Dakota in the preceding year. This may perhaps be inferred from the following letter of the Rev. S. H. Riggs, missionary at the Sisseton Indian agency, dated September 9, 1875:
"In 1-63, it will be remembere<, that on General Sibley's expedition to the Missouri we met with the ravages of the grasshopptrs in various parts of Dakota, particularly, as I remember, near Skunk Lake (in Minnehaha County), where the laige grass had been eaten to the bare stalks, and our animals fared badly.
"In 1865, I visited a camp of Dakota scouts, near the Iole in the Mountain,' at the head of the Redwood. That was in the month of August. The valley of the Minnesota clear out to the Coteau wa so full of grasshoppers as to make it unpleasant traveling. For the next four years I traveled every summer on the Missouri River, coMting over to and from Minnesota. Every season I met with grasshoppers at some point on the east side of the Missouri. In 1-67, and also in 1-6!9, we found( them near Fort Randall. In 1869, in August, we met them above Fort Sully, near Grand River. In all these cases they were only in small battalions, and appeared to have come there from other parts."
"The invasions of 1871 and 1872 were very scattering, and almost entirely harmless. In 1871 they came across the Union River southwest of here, dropping in Pope and Stevens counties (they appeared in several others too), do.ng some damage, but leaving no eggs saV on sandy soil. I do not think their track w as more than ten miles wide. In the following spring, 1872, their destruction of crops was total when hatched
-perhaps twenty-five or thirty farms twelve miles west of here were cleaned out. They also hatched in considerable numbers between here and Melrose, but left before doing much damage. These came from the southwest and returned.' (J. M. McMasters, M. D.) But they were severe in parts of Becker and Clay counties, as may be inferred from the Detroit (Becker County) Record of August 3, 1872." Last week the great herd of grasshoppers which hatched in and devastated the country north and west of us, came upon this country by gradual approaches, at times greatly increased in numbers by a gentle breeze, They did no particular damage to crops until Saturday, July 27 last, when they took hold as if laying in rations for a four d(lays' march. Oa Sunday afternoon (July 28), the intense heat of the morning was relieved bya fresh breeze from the northwest. As if by a preconcerted signal every individual grasshopperjust got up and shook the dust of Detroit from his feet. The wind did not blow steadily, and they in consequence, wandering and hovering about, settled down for the night. On the following day a steady wind blew from the same quarter as on Sunday, which took them steadily to the southwest and high in the air. Those who witnessed the flight will never forget it; looking toward the sun they seemed like drifting snow from 100 to 500 feet upward. * Not a grasshopper remains and they have left no eggs behind.'
1873.-The invasion of this year was something unusual in its character from the earliness of its arrival; the direction from which it came,




86 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

find from the fact that it was the beginning of a visitation which has been prolonged to the present time by what, judging from former years, would appear to be unusual circumstances. Each summer since 1873, in stead of beingr the scene of a general departure of the hatching swarms
-is in former years, has seen portions of those swarms alighting but a few miles from where they were hatched (generally in the next range of counties, and sometimes in other parts of the same county), and depositing their eggs for another brood. They not only appeared in the southwestern counties,, but were flying over Detroit in July, 1873, and large numbers of them fell into Otter Tail Lake, and they left eggs on the Sisseton Agency reservation. The Red River Star (Moorhead) of June 28, says: "1Grasshoppers are making their appearance on the Dakota division of the Northern Pacific Raiilroad "; but there is no further allusion in the Star.
1874-'77.-New swarms coming in from the northwest in 1874 and 1876 have added greatly to the area of devastation in both these years, and in the latter year to the area of the egg deposit; but fortunately the heavy rains so diminished the numbers of those that did hatch, that the State suffered in 1877 far less than was apprehended. I am satisfied inow that in 1875 there was aii invasion somewhere, anud that the eggs laid in 1875, as well as in 1874 and 1876, were laid in part by outsiders." No foreign swarms are known to have flown into Minnesota in 1877; the flight being all out of the State into Dakota, and consisting of the young brood hatched from eggs laid in 1876.
1877.-In Minnesota the young hatched in forty-two or more counties lying mainly in the southwestern quarter of the State, the area, however, not reaching the southwest corner of the State, but in a large number of these so few and so scattering that, owing to a season unusually favorable for the growth of wheat, their presence was hardly noticeable. In the central part of the egg-area they hatched in excessive numbers. A portion of the eggs were destroyed by parasites and otherwise during the fall and spring, or at least failed to hatch. Some portion of the Young may have been destroyed by cold weather and rains in the latter part of April, but at the time the hatching had hardly begun. During the months of May and June, an uniusual'amount of rain-fall, well distributed through those months, delayed and in some measure prevented hatching, while owing to the large number of cool, cloudy, or rainy-days, on which the locusts were averse to eating, the wheat attained a strong and luxuriant growth, which became every day less capable of being injured. The injury at this time in, parts of Minnesota and Northern Iowa was considerable, but the farmers and citizens were battling manfully with their little foes. For a time the prospect in this State was somewhat gloomy, but the encouragement held out by the statement of the commission that this year would in all probability end the present invasion, andl the favorable weather, together with the substantial aid and1 encouragement of the governor and the business men of the cities andl towns and railroad companies, induced the farmers to fight the bat-




CHRONOLOGY: MINNESOTA, 1877. 87

tie through. In spite of all this, the locusts were so numerous in some counties as to destroy the larger part of the wheat crop, and some eighteen counties in all have more or less loss to report. It is certain that we have never seen of late years anything so nearly like total destruction as that which occurred in two counties last spring9; it may be that we have never in any other year had so many bushels of grain destroyed by locusts; but it is certain that in spite of all this, we have never raised so large a wheat crop as in 1877.
After the locusts attained their wings, the first flight noticed occurred on June 15, 16, and 17, passing due north over Rock, Nobles, Murray, and Lyon Counties. "The locusts that hatched in the State commenced to rise during the last week of June, but the principal rising occurred from the 1st to the 7th of July, and during this time the insects uniformly flew to the northwest. From this time on, till early in August, the wind was quite changeable, and the insects appeared to beat about, sometimes going northwest, and at others retracing their course and going southeast and south. Towards the middle of August the winds became more constant from the northwest, and the direction of flight more constant south and southeast." (Riley.)
"The insects that rose after the first week in July (mostly from restricted parts of Minnesota and Dakota) were in many cases borne southwardly and passed over Iowa and Kansas; but up to August 15, did no particular damage. The movements of the insects that bred in Minnesota this year were very similar to the movements of those that bred there in 1876. They at first left to the northwest, but were subsequently brought back and traveled over parts of iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The difference between the two years is, that the flights that thus turned back on their original course in 1876 were recruited and followed by immense and fresh swarms from the northwest plains regions, where, far beyond the boundary line, they hatched and bred innumerably; whereas the Minnesota swarms of 1877 have not been recruited, because there were few eggs laid in 1876 and no insects of any conse.quence reared in 1877 in said northwest country." (Riley.)
9 The counties ravaged to a greater or less degree by the locusts in 1677, with their A heat acreage, is no follows, according to HIon. T. M. Metcalf, Commissioner of Statistics for Minncsota: Counties. Acres. Counties. Acres.

Kandiyohi...... ......................... 35,337 Todd ................................... 6, 868
Chippewa ................................ 16, 638 Renville ............................... 19, 924
W right .................................. 18, 747 Sibley .................................. 8. 799
Stearns .................................. 43, 294 McLeod ................................ 20, 315
Nicollet .................................. 6,151 Meeker ................................. 32,786
Pope..................................... 1, 218 Yellow Medicine ........................ 12,700
Dougl ................................. 18,788 Brown ................................. 14,215
Swift .................................... 13, 318 Redwood ................................ 6, 803
Otter-Tail............................... 30, 711
Stevens ................................. 8, 106 Total, 19 counties ................. 337, 188
Grant ................................... 6, 470




88 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

THE LOCUST IN DAKOTA.
1853-The first notice of locusts in Dakota is to be found in Governor Steven s's'narrative of 1853 (Pacific R. R. Explorations, vol. xii, part 1, p. 58). He was camped on the Cheyenne River near Fort Totten, and remarks: "The grass at the best is very poor, and the great abundance of grasshoppers has made sad havoc with what had grown here."
Although Dakota was probably overrun by swarms which invaded Minnesota from the northwest in the year 1856, yet, as no mention has been made of the fact, we will not further mention it here.
1863.-"In 1863 it will be remembered that on General Sibley's expedition to the Missouri, we met with the ravages of the grasshoppers in various parts of Dakota, particularly, as I remember, near Skunk Lake (in Minnehaha County), where the large grass bad been eaten to the bare stalks, and our animals fared badly." (S. R. Riggs in Whitman's Report on the Locust.) Mr. Whitman thinks they were probably the parents of those which invaded Minnesota in 1864. At Walhalla, Pembina County, they have occurred every year from 1863 to 1875." (G. Emmerling.)
1864.-" We have had them every year from 1863 to 1875. They came one year and left us the next, when the young had acquired wings, and so they came and went all the time." (G. Emmerling, Walhalla, Pemberton County.)
"4 Last year [1864] about five days' march from the Yellowstone. we met the army of grasshoppers on their way east. After that I suffered greatly for grass and many of my animals died. The grasshoppers made a general clearing out down to this place, and then disappeared." (Extract from letter of General Sully, in Saint Paul Press, June 21, 1868.)
1865-'69.-"' In 1865 1 visited a camp of Dakota scouts, near the Hole in the Mountain,' at the head of the Redwood. That was in the month of August. The valley of the Minnesota, clear out to the Coteau, was so full of grasshoppers as to make it unpleasant traveling. For the next four years, I traveled every summer on the Missouri River, coming over to and from Minnesota; every season I met with grasshoppers at some point on the east side of the Missouri. In 1867, and also in 1868, we found them near Fort Randall. In 1869, in August, we met them above Fort Sully, near Grand River. In all the cases they were only in small battallions, and appeared to have come there from other parts.". (S. R, Riggs in Whitman's R~eport.)
Mr. J. P. Tuller states that late in July, 1868, he observed immense numbers of locusts at Devil's Lake, near Fort Totten, where their bodies formed rows from four to six fiet long and two or three feet wide. They caused such a stench that there resulted forty-two cases of bilious fever among the inhabitants. No mention is made of this fact in Reports on Barracks and Hlospitals" of the Surgeon-General's Office for 1870, though it is stated that a post-garden was attempted last year, but the grasshopp(,Ts destroyed the crop." This probably refers to the year 1868.




CHRONOLOGY: DAKOTA, 1870-1874. 6

The presence of destructive locusts is referred to in descriptions of the other forts, but the years in which they occurred are not stated.
1870.-A great swarm of locusts made a descent on the prairies in a portion of Brookings County. (G. S. Codington.)
1871.-A swarm arrived at Berthold July 16, 1871.
1872.-Liberty and Hutchinson Counties, late Union County, were visited by locusts late in August this year. Locusts occurred in Pembina County during 1871 ard 1872, according to Mr. Emmerling.
1873.-In June a small number of locusts came from the westward and alighted near Sisseton Agency and deposited eggs, "from which came, in the spring of 1874, an innumerable multitude." (Rev. S. R. Riggs.)
In Union County a cloud of locusts was observed by Mr. Codington, who adds that "Locusts this year did great damage over a considerable portion of Southeastern Dakota, as far northward as in Minnehaha County. In October I rode across the country from Canton, in Lincoln County, to Vermillion, in Clay County, and observed a large number of fields that had not been harvested because the locusts had destroyed the grain." Mr. J. J. Donnelly tells us that in the latter part of July or
-early in August, 1873, he saw a swarm of locusts flying in the direction of Fort Garry from the headwaters of James River. A lake was filled with their bodies, making the water so putrid that he had to drive the cattle thirty-five miles to get good water for them. Locusts appeared, we were told, at Strawberry Island, 140 miles east of Fort Buford, in 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, but there were none in 1877. Col. W. Thompson informs us that locusts appeared at Fort Rice (now Fort A. Lincoln) in 1873, 1874, 1875, and 1876, but none hatched in 1877. The more settled portions of the Territory were also visited this year. Dr. Elliott Cones, U. S. A., naturalist to the Northern Boundary Commission, writes ime that in 1873 he observed swarms of locusts on Mouse River, in Northern Dakota.
1874.-This was also a locust year in Dakota, although there are no records at hand giving particulars as to invasions. In Capt. W. Ludlow's report of a reconnaissance of the Black Hills of Dakota, in the summer of 1874, it is stated that grasshoppers were observed at Fort Lincoln in June; July 10, immense numbers were seeii on the North Fork of Grand River; July 30, grasshoppers appeared at a point eight or nine miles from Hlarney's Peak, and were seen August 7 in the creek valleys of the hills.
At the Sisseton agency locusts destroyed all the gardens and wheatfields in a circle of five miles about the agency." (Rev. S. R. Riggs.)
Mr. Codington writes that 1874 "was the year of most marked devastation." In Brookings County they appeared July 17, "coming down like a thick snow-storm," and left the 19th; but swarms continued to fly overhead, and descending again the last day of July in greater numbers than before, eating everything green; the devastation extended through nearly all the southeastern counties of Dakota. The poverty




90 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION'.

and suffering were by Do means mythical, as some have seemed to believye.
1875.-During this year immense swarms appeared in Dakota. At Bismnarck they appeared June 6 until July 15, inflicting great damage on all crops except potatoes. At Yankton and Fort Sully they were abundantand destructive. The weather-signal observer at Fort Sully reports large flights June 23, passing over during the morning, going north and northwest at an estimated elevation of about fifty feet to as high as they were visible with field-glasses, possibly a mile; none alighting. This swarm, as near as could be ascertained by telegraph at the time, came from the Minnesota *infested region, along the line of the Sioux City and Saint Paul Railroad, in a continuous cloud, probably 1,1000 miles long from east to west and 500 miles from north to south. How much farther north of this post unascertained and not conjectured. (Riley's Eighth Report.)
Lieut. L. C. Hunt writes from Fort Totten as follows: "In the summer of 1875, grasshoppers hatched in the vicinity of the post took wing in June, and left in the beginning of July." (Whitman's Report, p. 18.) "6This year [1875] they have passed over this part of the country, going in a southeasterly direction. One day they lit down in considerable numbers and there is reason to fear that they deposited their egg,77 (Rev. S. R. Riggs, Sisseton agency). They did, and ac few were hatched there in 1876, writes Mr. Whitman. At Grand Forks the locusts came from the north on or about the 1Oth of July, and, after remaining three days, arose and flew southeast. (Hector Bruce.) Merrick Moore writes fromn Jamestown: "Grasshoppers hatched in this county in the year 1875, and the country north and northwest of this place for a long distance was alive With Young hoppers. Those hatched here took flight about the 10th day of July, taking a southwesterly. direction. Other swarms from the northwest passed over this place high tip, bearing a south course. I cannot recall the dates, but they were from about the 20th of July till late in August. Immense swarms appeared, came into Brookings County from Minnesota (Redwood Falls) July 28, on the 30th were seen to 1)e copulating, and August I and 2 deposited eggs. It was found that partial destruction had extended down the valley of the B~ig Sioux River, but nowhere except in the south part of Brookinigs County had the eggs been deposited. The region ot' the ovipositing extended eastwardl into Minnesota." No further trouble from locusts was exp~erienced iii 1875. (Codington; see also Appendix).
1876.-This was also a bad year for Dakiota. The young hatched out in the northern and eastern p~ortionl of the Territory (Bismnarck, Pembina), and flying swarms in July and August, and September 1 and 2, were observed ait Bismarck, Pemnbina, Yanktonm, and Fort Sully, as wveil as at the allowing towns: Buffalo, Clay, Hanson, Minnehaha, Rtichiand, and Stutsinan. (Monthly Rep. Dep. -Ag. 1876.) ,Whitman states that the, young hatched iii two eastern counties of 1)akota and along the Red




CHRONOLOGY: DAKOTA, 1877. 91

River. In the Little Missouri Valley, on the border of Montana, millions of unfledged locusts were observed May 29. (Whitman's Rep., p. 17.) Along the Northern Pacific Railroad, from Bismarck to Fargo, large swarms were noticed. At Fort Totten some hatched in 1876; swarms visited the region in July, but laid no eggs, and did little damage. Most of the swarms observed in the eastern counties seemed to have come from the northwest, no locusts having this season bred on the James River. The last of July Southeastern Dakota was overrun by locusts, and, on an average, half a crop was saved. (Codington.)
Capt. W. R. Massie, of the Missouri River steamer Red Cloud, informed us, from personal observations, that locusts "hatched out all the way between Bismarck and the Black Hills" in June, 1876. Locusts were observed at Strawberry Island, 140 miles east of Fort Buford, flying at the end of June or early in July, 1876. (S. S. Hughes.)
Extract from letter of Dr. Charles E. McChesney, Fort Sisseton, to Mr. Whitman: I believe locusts hatched to a very large extent in the valley of the James River in 1876, as I know they did on the Coteau and just off the lowlands for ten miles to the west of this post, which was as far as I visited in that direction last year." "Locusts came here to-day in immense numbers from the northwest." (Yankton: Professor Anughey.)
1877.-Scattered bands of locusts were observed June 21 at Bisminarck, and were observed until August 11. (U. S. Weath. Signal Ollice), which came from the southeast, and were observed as far east as Jamestown, June 18-20. Little or no damage was done this year so faIr as heard from.
"t Locusts hatched in this vicinity in considerable numbers, but did but little destruction." (Dr. McChesney, Sisseton agency.) Rev. S. R. Riggs writes, September 28, 1877, from Sisseton agency, as follows: "While I was on the Missouri River near Fort Sully, there was an alighting of hoppers about the 10th of this month. They came on the west wind. For several days they were flying, but not in great numbers. They came down and seemed to increase from (lay to day for several days, until they were very abundant, but, as it was, (lid but little hurt. On the way over, as we came eastward, we found them on the Missouri Coteau, somewhat annoying in traveling, but in no large numbers anywhere."
At Fort Totten a few locusts were seen in July three or four times. "No eggs have been left in this immediate vicinity." (Capt. A. A. Harbach.) None were seen within seventy-five miles of Lower Brule agency.
At Fort Sully, Capt. Leslie Smith, United States Army, reports, under date of October 6, that "no locusts were discovered as having hatched in this vicinity. Swarms were first seen flying north on the 22d of June, and they continued to fly in a northerly direction in immense clouds until about the 10th of July, when they stopped flying past here. None of the swarms alighted. Grasshoppers have been quite numerous along



92 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

the river bottom in this vicinity during the past month, but I am of the opinion that they have been driven in here by prairie-fires that have burned the country for many miles around this post. I observe them copulating quite extensively up to the present date. We had quite a severe frost on the night of the 2d and 3d instant, making ice half an inch thick, since which time some of them have disappeared. I think they have sought shelter in the long grass and weeds. They seemed very ravenous, eating up everything green, and even the small potatoes left on the ground ungathered. I have just this day, for the first time, discovered some few of them depositing their eggs, but I do not think any danger may be apprehended next summer from the small number in this vicinity."
Mr. Whitman reports that very few hatched in Armstrong County, and some died; in Bramble County, May 18, no locusts or eggs were observed; at Scotland, Hutchinson County, eggs were reported within eighteen miles. "1 ew settlers from Yankton to Lake Kampeska, Deuel County, did not see a single grasshopper; there are none in this county. At Grand Forks, no grasshoppers in this section this year. A few passed over at different times during the month of July, but none lit. No eggs here." In Southeastern Dakota the injury was ,sporadic and slight, as reported by Mr. Codington.

THE LOCUST IN MONTANA.
1861.-Mr. P. W. Macadow tells us that he observed locusts in Silver Valley, on the Prickly Pear Creek, in large swarms, about the middle of July, 1861. He thinks they hatched out there. They also occurred in this year at Bozeman.
1862.-In August of this year, Mr. J. D. McCammon, tells us that locusts deposited their eggs in the region between Forts Benton and Shaw, and east of south a little beyond Fort Shaw, but they did not hatch out in the spring of 1863. The winter was very mild, there was no snow, and the roads were dusty. In January, 1863, there were very heavy warm rains, and he thinks the eggs were destroyed by the unusually mild weather.
In July, 1862, above the Vermillion Hills, they came from the northvwest in great numbers. (James II. Darkness.) In August, 18;2, MIr. James Gomley tells us he observed locusts, in myriads, between Sun River and Fort Benton, flying in a southerly directiowi toward the Sun River from Fort Benton. They ate up the tall grass so that there was none left for the cattle. In 182 large numbers of grasshoppers were observed on Grasshopper Creek, near 1Bannock City. (Janmes Stuart, contributions of the list. Soc. of Montana.)
18;.-Yoing locusts in great abundance were observed on the Yelowstone River, near where Bear River empties into it, April 26, 183:. (Start, Iist. Soc. Montana.) Mr. J. J. Hlealy states that he saw




CHRONOLOGY : MONTANA, 18(4-1871.

in Prickley Pear Canion, in 1863, flying from the east ; they were very destructive to the foliage of trees, &c.
1864.-The locust years at Canton, Meagher County, were 18S4, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875. In 1876 no winged locust, plenty of young; and 1877. (W. J. Tierny.) Locusts, then, have appeared at this point for fourteen consecutive years.
1865.-Dr. Lamme, of Bozeman, told me that in 1865 the locusts came to Bozeman late in the season from the northeast, and laid eggs which hatched in 18(6. Mr. B. Kline also states that the locusts occurred at Bozeman in 18(5 and 1866. At Beartown, thirty miles west of Deer Lodge, locusts came in 1865 in a thick swarm from the northeast. Mr. J. J. Healy, who lives in the Sun River settlement, informed us that locusts came into that valley in July and August, 1865, and laid e ggs which hatched out in 1866.
186G.-Mr. George McCullum states that in the Upper Missouri Valley, near Crow Creek, locusts appeared in 1866, 1867, 18G68, 1869 (this was the worst year), 1870, 1871, and 1872. None were seen in 1873 ; but they
the orstyear), 1870, 1871, and 1S72
appeared again in 1874 and 1875 (this was one of the worst locust years), and in 1876 half of the crop was lost. Locusts were abundant and destructive at Bozeman in 1866. (P. W. Macadow.) In the spring they eat up the wheat in the Prickley Pear Valley, south of Helena.
Mr. Chauncey Barbour, editor of the Missoulian, stated to me that in 1866 locusts came into Bitter Root Valley, at Missoula, from the north and northeast and south, from British America, down the Flathead River and over the Main Divide in August, and the eggs laid by them hatched in 1867, and the young were very destructive. None were afterward seen from 1868 to 1874 in Missoula, or to the north or west, until 1875. At Fort Benton they abounded in 1866 and 1867; there were but few in 1868 and 1869. At Hamilton, Gallatin County, no eggs were deposited in 1866, within one hundred miles east or west, north or south, from that locality. (John Potter.) But young hatched out this year in abundance.
Mr. Granville Stuart, of Helena, informs us that he went to Montana in 1857, but he saw no locusts till 1866, when they appeared in dense swarms of unknown extent. They have hatched out in different localities ever since, but not in the same place. The locust years at Deer Lodge were 1866, 1869, 1872, 1874, 1875, 1876. This information extends up to the spring of 1877.
1867-1868.-Locusts arrived in the Sun River region in 1867 and 1868, always coming from the northeast and east, and departing in a westerly and southwesterly direction. (J. J. Healy.) 1869.-Mr. R. M. Goin, of Sterling, observed locusts at this locality in 1869, and also in 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876.
1870.-We were told by a person in Bozemian that locusts were seen in masses on the snow-banks on the Yellowstone Mountains.
1871.-At Fort Benton locusts occurred in abundance in 1871, 1872,




94 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

1873, 1875, and 1876, doing the most damage in 1875. (James M. Arnoux.)
1872.-Locusts hatched out at Fort Benton in 1872. None were, howseen seen at Fort Shaw in June, 1872.
1873.-A swarm of locusts was observed July 10, 1873, in the valley of Davis Creek, in the Yellowstone bad lands, by Messrs. W. F. Phelps and J. A. Allen, as we learn from the former.
1873.-W. Clark states that in this year locusts occurred from Fort Buford westward and up the Yellowstone River. Mr. B. Klein observed a very few locusts in Bozeman in 1873. Mr. J. J. Healy states that locusts came into the San River Valley in 1873 and laid eggs, which hatched out in 1874; swarms came in 1875, which hatched out in 1876; the young on being winged must have departed in 1876, this region being free from then in June, 1877. At Fort Benton, locusts have abounded from 1873 to 1876. At Fort Shaw, 1873, 1874, 1875 were locust years. In 1875 they were most destructive. At Upper Missouri Valley, near Diamond City, the locust years were 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877.
1874.-B. Klein, of BozemUn, states that locusts occurred abundantly in that settlement in 1874, 1875, 1876. Extensive swarms of locusts were seen at Fort Shaw in August, 1874, by Lieut. C. A. Booth, United States Army. No eggs were laid in this year at Fort Bent6n. (R. A. Miller.)
1875.-Dr. James Shaw, post-surgeon at Fort Ellis, states that locusts migrated there in 1825 and 1876. John Potter also states that dense clouds of locusts appeared at Hamilton July 4, 187 5, and laid eggs, hatching out the following year from April 4 to 24. Locusts were abundant at Virginia City July, 1875. (United States weather-signal office.) They also (devastated the plains west of Fort Benton, swarms darkening the sun at Sun River.
1876.-Locusts were abundant, though not flying in swarms, in the summer of 1876 along the Yellowstone River. (Lieut. C. A. Booth.) They were observed to be thick on the ground, it being rainy, in July, 1876, at the mouth of the Rosebud River, and for five miles up the stream, by Mr. William Cody, a scout attached to General Custer's expedition. "1Officers who passed over the country between the Little Missouri and the Yellowstone Rivers during the spring state that at variouis points in that region young locusts were found in immense numbers. Shortly before the 23d of July migrating swarms of locusts appeared in the vicinity of General Crook's camp;- myriads of grasshoppers filled the air, appearing like an immense drifting snow-storm, tending toward the southeast."1 (Whitman's Report, 1). 17.) Locusts hatched in May at Fort Peck; June 20, swarms arrived from the east. (Hughes.)
Locusts hatched near Helena this year. (James Fergus.) At Hamilton no eggs were deposited in 1876, consequently none hatched in 1877. (John Potter.) General John Gibbon, United States Army, writes us that the locusts which visited Fort Shaw in the summer of 1876 "came




CHRONOLOGY : MONTAN A, 1877. 95

from the southeast, as we heard of them at Camp Baker, eighty or ninety miles southeast of here, before they got here, but they do not appear to have migrated from here at all."
1877.-Locusts hatched out on the north banks of the Yellowstone River from Froze-to-death Creek to Clark's Fork, an area of 100 miles in length. General Brisbin stated to me that young locusts were observed by a party of officers eighteen miles east of Fort Ellis. According to James M. Arnoux, young locusts hatched out in the spring on the Marias River, near the Badger River trading-post (about longitude 113 10'), but were killed by the heavy rains, &c.
The first swarms seen flying in the Territory were return flights from the east seen at Fort Peck by Mr. S. S. Hughes, acting Indian agent at Wolf Point, whostates that" large swarms like masses of clouds arrived June 18, from a point due east; some were seen on the21st on the ground, having either dropped by the way or been forced back by the west wind, but were hatched in the vicinity of Fort Peck or Wolf Point this spring."
O. C. Mortson reports locusts as hatching out at Benton, but the young were killed by the wet weather. "Ninety miles south of Fort Benton they were in large numbers, coming from the east," August 4, 1877. August 13 and 14, moderate swarms arrived larger ones appeared one hundred miles south.
W. C. Gillett reports July 15, 1877, that no locusts were at Helena at that date,I "but in the eastern portion of the Territory they report some as coming."
It. N. Sutherlin reports that no eggs were laid in the Missouri Valley, about Diamond City, in 1876; that swarms came Jhly 24, 1877, into the valleys of the Madison, Gallatin, Missouri, Crow Creek, Jefferson, and Sun River, and an immense amount of eggs were deposited about the 10th of August. There was no damage to crops in Deer Lodge and Missoula Counties, and no eggs were deposited there.
Dr. S. S. Turner writes from Fort Peck, June 30, that the locusts are "numerous here at present; have been copulating for several (lays. They were hatched here before my arrival."
In passing through Montana, from Franklin to Fort Benton, in June, no young were observed or heard of, and the inference to be drawn is that few eggs were deposited in the previous summer in Central Montana, except in the Bitter-Root Valley. Eggs must have been deposited numerously along the Yellowstone and its tributaries to afford the supply of locusts that, in July, 1877, swarmed in Central Montana.
Mr. G. W. Norris, superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park, writes us (under date of February, 1878,) that, in passing up from Bismarck to the Yellowstone Park, he saw locusts, "the first of the season," on Custer's battle-field, July 5. "Their line of flight was a little south of west, as I passed out of it at the mouth of the Big Horn, and again entered it at Pompey's Pillar, July 12, and continued in it, but reaching




9J6 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

its front at the mouth of Shield's River, the 17th. I then left them in a strong west wind, steering up Shield's River, and also through Bozeman's. Pass to the Gallatin Valley, while I passed through the gate of the mountains to Bottler's Park, which, with the National Park, they did not enter, nor have they but once, viz, in 1875, since 1868. From July 22-24, 1 saw them numerous and destructive in the Gallatin Valley, where it was estimated that they destroyed at least one-third of the gardens; oats, and barley, but much less of other products. They soon after scattered and strangely vanished, laying few eggs, nor did I learn of any being deposited anywhere upon my return down the Yellowstone and Missouri to Bismarck, and along the Northern Pacific Railroad to Duluth, and hence think there is little prospect of damage from them this year."
THE LOCUST IN IDAHO.
It may be regarded as a general rule that when Northern Utah is visited by locusts, they have mainly come from the Snake River Valley in Eastern Idaho. Facts regarding the history of the locust in this Territory are very scanty, and additional data are extremely desirable.
Mr. W. N. Byers gives us the first published information on this point. He says: "1In 1852, I first observed the insect in question in the valley of the South Fork of the Columbia River, not far from Fort Hall. A swarm lasting two or three days passed over from west-southwest, Moving with the wind, at times darkening the sun, covering houses, cattle, and wagons, against which they were driven. The Digger and Snake Indians were gathering them for food." (Hayden's U. S. Geological Survey, Wyoming, for 1870.) Mr. J. K. Lum tells us that late in July or early in August, 1852, he saw locusts in the Bear River Valley, and westward near Fort Hall (at Portneuf Cafion and Soda Springs in the Montana road). Mr. W. L. Morton also told 'me that in 1852, in traveling on the emigrant road in Bear River Valley, between Blue Springs and Lost Springs, he was one hour passing through a swarm of locusts f *ying northward.
That the locust has periodically infested the Snake River Valley about Boise City is intimated in the following statement by Drs. Jaquett and Moffatt, United States Army, in "tA Report on Barracks and Hospitals, with Descriptions of Military Posts":10 "The most formidable foes of the agriculturist in this region are the cricket or grasshopper, or both, in countless numbers during the month of May or' June. Their track, when in full force, is marked by the utter destruction of all verdure."
At Boise City, according to Rev. William Bollard, eggs were laid by locusts. in 1869 and 1870; the swarms traveled west. The locust years at Boise City were 1869, 1870, and 1877.
According to our observations the locusts hatched out in more or less
10Circuiru No. 1, War Department, Surguon-Gecrnlt's Office, Wasbingtou, December 5, 1870. 40, p. 426.




CHONOLOGY: IDAHO, WYOMING. 97

abundance from Franklin to the Montana line along the stage-road. July 20, 1876, Mr. Wood saw a large swarm of locusts near Camas Creek, on the stage-road to Montana, flying south of east. Mr. J. B. Porter, of Helena, states that July 20, 1676, while stopping for refreshments at Sand Hole, on the stage-road south of Pleasant Valley (this is a station not far from Camas Creek and north of Market Lake), a swarm of locusts came with a roar like a cloud, obscuring the sun, flying nearly from north to south,and over an hour in passing. In early June, 1877, we were informed by the Right Rev. Bishop Tuttle that locusts bred in considerable numbers this spring at Boise City. Later in the season they proved, according to our informant, Mr. C. C. Wheeler, very abundant and destructive to crops in the Bruneau Valley, southwest of Boise City. The 2d of August they were observed at the upper or southwest portion of the Bruneau Valley.

THE LOCUST IN WYOMING.

1842.-Frminont," July 21-28, 1842, encountered a swarm of locusts in the North Platte Valley, at the present site of Fort Fetterman. He says, 'This insect has been so numerous since leaving Fort Laramie that the ground seemed alive with them, and in walking a little moving cloud preceded our footsteps. They had probably ceased their flight, and were preparing to deposit their eggs." (P. 50.) "The great drought and the plague of grasshoppers had swept it so that scarce a blade of grass was to be seen, and there was not a buffdo to be found in the whole region. The Indians had been nearly starved to death, and we could find their road marked by lodges which they had thrown away in order to move more rapidly, and by the carcsses of the horses which they had eaten, or which had perished by starvation." (P. 53.)
1846.-" The late Mr.J.B. Wall, collector of Mon terey, informed me that in a journey from Oregon to Missouri, in 1846, his party encountered in July, on the plains near the north fork of the river Platte, myriads of the grasshoppers, which all appeared to be travelling northward, and proved extremely annoying to the train for many days. Bryant, in his What I saw in California,' relates that on his passage to California, under dates of July, 1846, their company of emigrants also encountered immense swarms of grasshoppers on the prairies near the Platte." (A. S. Taylor, Smithsonian Report for 1858, p. 204.)
1847.-Mr. A. L. Siler writes us that Mr. William Casto told him that he saw locusts oni the Cache la Poudre, between Larimer and the North Plate River, in 1847. This locality would appear to be within the limits of Wyoming, but may be situated within the Colorado line.
1855 or 1856.-Mr. W. M. Hinman writes to the Smithsonian Institu.ation, under date of June 10, 1861: "Five or six years ago they were bad in Utah; the next year they were bad at Fort Laramie."
1.A report on an exploration of the country lying between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mount. ins. on the line of the Kansas and Great PlatLe River. Washington, 1843.
7 G




98 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

1857.-"In August, 1857, large quantities came with a southwest wind and stopped at the United States saw-mill near Laramie Peak." "I think it was about the 26th, 27th, and 28th they came. They were very plenty, but did not destroy much; for a week or more they were cohabiting." (W. M. Hinman, in a letter dated June 10, 1861, addressed to the Smithsonian Institution.) A correspondent of the New York Tribune, in a letter dated Fort Kearney: August 31, 1857, writes, "Last Friday a swarm passed over the fort which darkened the sun so as to render it possible to gaze at it with the naked eye. We saw this swarm at a distance of ten or twelve miles, at which it resembled a cloud of smoke." (Smithsonian Report for 1858, p. 203.)
1870.-Professor Thomas, August 20-23, while travelling with a party of Hayden's United States Geological Survey, up the North Platte, between Fort Fetterman and Red Buttes, observed vast numbers of locusts, many of them pairing.
1873.-Capt. W. J. Jones states in his "Report upon the Reconnaissance of Northwestern Wyoming," made in the summer of 1873, that in the Green River Basin "the region is infested with great swarms of grasshoppers." Mr. Louis Wyatt, of Greeley, Colo., told me that in the middle and last of August, 1873, he saw great numbers seventeen miles west of Cheyenne. In August of the same year he rode through immense numbers flying east through Bridger's Pass. "In 18731 found them in different parts of Western Wyoming, between Fort Bridger and the Yellowstone Lake; but on the plains bordering the Stinking Water River, in July, they were more abundant than I had ever seen them elsewhere before."'2 He also saw them in July in the Wind River Valley, as he writes us.
1874.-Locusts were seen flying at Laramie City; but few breed here. Colonel Shattuck informs us that the locust hatched this year thickly in the Laramie Valley, and indeed "' all over the Laramie plains."
1875.-August 8, at Cheyenne, locusts were observed in great numbers moving from the northwest. (U. S. Weather Signal Service.) August 10, 1875, it was reported from Laramie City that vast clouds of locusts were flying southward. (Riley's Eighth Report.)
1876.-At Cheyenne grasshoppers hatched out in the spring, and were reported to the Agricultural Department as alive May 14, and abundant August 7-31, and a few were seen flying October 3. Mr. Dobbin, the United States signal observer, said young hatched out in abundance and the winged ones were seen very thickly June 27. August,7 and 8, swarms came in abundance, the main body arriving on the 8th and were seen till October 3. Mr. Benj. Eaton tells us that locusts hatched this year in great abundance on Laramie plains. At Camp Brown, in Little Wind River Valley, a fine farming region, locusts were very abundant.
At the Black Hills they bred, and flew afterwards in great quantities. (B. Eaton.) Mr. Robert E. Strayhorn told us that while attached to
JS J 1. Putnam, in Packard's report on the Locust, &c. Hayden'o annual report for 1875, p. 601.




CHRONOLOGY: COLORADO, 1864 1872. 9

General Custer's expedition, in July and August, 1876, he saw about the 1st of July, on Goose Creek, at the baseof the Big Horn Mountains, northwest of Fort Phil. Kearney, a swarm of locusts like clouds of smoke, which were mistaken for a prairie fire. They were passing to the southeast. He also, May 29, saw the young about one-half grown on Sage Creek, thirteen miles north of Fort Fetterman.
1877.-Mr. E P. Snow told us that May 20 he saw a large number of' young locusts which had hatched out in Pleasant Valley, nine miles south of Custer. None were observed breeding at Cheyenne this year. Mr Davis tells us that locusts were seen in the Black Hills at Belle Fourche, and on the Spearfish River, June 16 and 17, flying toward the west. A few locusts were observed in June at Camp at Red Cafion, forty miles distant from the Black Hills. (Capt. "W. S. Collier, U. S.A.)
From a point fifty miles north of Larainie City to Custer, especially in Red Cafion, young locusts were observed in abundance. (Colorado Farmer, May 31.)
At Rock Creek Station, August 3 and several weeks after, locusts flew, coming in all directions ,the largest swarm from the east. At Como Station a small flight of locusts passed over July 15, flying in a southeast direction. (W. E. Carlin.) Large numbers were reported at Fort Reno during June. (Capt. E. M. Coates, United States Army.) Great numbers of locusts hatched on Hay Creek. (Dr. A. P. Frick, United States Army.)
THE LOCUST IN COLORADO.

The earliest records of locusts in Colorado do not extend back of the year 1864, as previous to this there were very few if any farms.
1864.-Large swarms of locusts invaded Colorado from the northwest and north, late in August. (Byers and Arnett.)
1865.-The young, hatching from eggs laid in the previous autumn, "destroyed nearly all the crops." "August 5,1865, an army of grasshoppers came and harvested the oats almost entire, leaving but a small amount of wheat, and nothing else." (Arnett.)
1866.-"In 1866 they came, I think, on the 9th of September; they deposited a large amount of eggs in 1866, which did much damage in the spring of 1867." (Arnett.)
1867.-A large portion of the farming region of Colorado was invaded this year, the swarms, according to the information received from Mr. Byers, coming from the west over the range.
1869.-The locusts this year were, according to Professor Thomas, "comparatively abundant in Colorado, and even in San Luis Valley," and a few were seen south of the Raton Mountains.
1872.-During this year locusts are reported to have been abundant in Middle Park, on Parry's Peak, above timber-line, and among the mountains at Empire City, and were quite plentiful on the plains between Denver and Boulder. (J. D. Putnam.-) Several persons at Greeley




100 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION..,

told us that 1lorusts were abundant in that region in September of this year.
1873.-Locusts hatched out in large numbers in the spring -about Greeley, but we have been unable to learn that any considerable injury was done to crops.
1874.-This was a notable locust year in Colorado. Great swarms were observed by Professor Robinson at Golden City and Denver in July; much damage was done July 8-11 at Valmont, and they extended south to Cafion City. (J. D. Putnam.) Eggs were deposited in great numbers in INorthi Park countlesss numbers of young appearing there"; (Byers), showing that, in 187 5, Colorado was probably visited throughout nearly its whole extent.
1875.-The farmers of Colorado probably suffered more this than any other year from the attacks of young locusts, which hatched from eggs laid by the swarms which visited the agricultural portion of the State in the previous year. At Boulder the injury was light; at Oaribou (elevation 9,167 feet) the first crop was destroyed. They abounded all over Northern and Central Colorado, in the plains and among the mountains, as far south as the La Plata. The winged locusts in August were very abundant about Denver and Greeley. From the 20th July to the end of August swarms repeatedly passed over Denver. (United States Weather Signal Observer.) At Manitou hordes were observed by Mr. Uhler, August 13-16, and he saw large numbers at Cailon City. The writer observed them about Denver, in the mountains about Caribou, Nederland, Georg'etown, Idaho Springs, and Manitou, as well as on the summit of Pike's Peak in July and early August. At Boulder a swarm came from the northwest late in August, and at Greeley swarms arrived from the west and northwest August 25, laid eggs for three days, and left on the 28th August. (J. Max Clark.)
1876.-The locusts hatched in abundance this year from eggs laid in the previous summer, but crops were saved wherever proper exertion was made. In harvest-time, August 2 and 3, swarms arrived from the north and north -northeast, and -flew in a southwesterly direction, and when last heard from had reached the headwaters of the South Arkansats and Rio Grande Rivers, especially from near Grenada to Calion City, the last swarm depositing vast quantities of eggs. During the whole mouth swarms -arrived, and it is supposed by AMr. Byers that all were immigrants, the earlier swarms coming from Wyoming, and the later ones from Western Dakota, Easterni Montana., and perhaps from British America. Mr. Arnett gives the following summary of the inva8ioti ini this State : "1Now, the only difference in their visitations in 1864, 18, and 1866, between that of 1874, 187 5, and 1876, is this: In 1874 they came thirty-five (lays sooner than in 1864; in 1875 they came ten or twelve later than ini 1865; in 1876 they came forty-two days earlier than in 1866. From 186.7 to 1874 wve had 'but few losses from them. A light band occasionally did a little harm. Their movements in all



CHRONOLOGY : COLORADO, 1876-1877. 101

respects, in 1864, 1865, and 1866, have been precisely duplicated in 1874, 1875, and 1876, and from this I conclude we shall have six or seven years' rest."13 Mr. Holly reports that Saguache Valley suffered from two different swarms in 1976.
"In Lake County is an extensive section of cultivated land lying along the main Arkansas. For four years the ranchmen have been 'eaten out of house and home' by the hoppers. In 1876 strong hopes were entertained that they would be exempted from the dreaded scourge, but in July and the first weeks of August vast swarms came from the southwest in such numbers as to preclude any attempt to prevent their ravages. Every green thing was eaten except wpeas (a portion of the crops had been harvested). The insects remained about fifteen days and passed off to the east. The adjoining county of Park suffered considerably, especially the pasturage. The valley of the San Juan River, both in Colorado and New Mexico, as far as the boundary-line of Utah, suffered very little in 1876, and the early brood of locusts in 1877 disappeared without doing material injury. I returned from the San Juan Valley by the way of Conejos and Costilla Counties. These extensive sections are principally devoted to pasturage, and have not been much injured. Late crops have, however, uniformnly been cutoff." (Mr. Holly. See App. 7.)
1877.-As eggs were deposited in immense numbers the previous sum. mer, it was feared that the crops would be universally cut off in the spring and early summer of the present year. Happily, owing to the unusually heavy rains, accompanied by a light fall of snow, together with cold weather late in April and early in May, the young, which hatched by millions in the spring, were destroyed in the same manner as in Kansas and Nebraska. Parasites and insect enemies also aided in the work of destruction, so that little injury was committed by the young locusts, and Colorado raised a large crop of wheat. This refers to the plains on which Greeley and Denver and neighboring towns are situated. In Lake County, where there is an extensive area under cultivation along the Arkansas, and where the damage was great last year, few locusts hatched the pi esent year. In Park County, mostly devoted to grazing, the injury has been very slight.
The San Luis Valley, which is devoted to agriculture and stock-raising, has suffered little, and Ute Valley has also, as is usually the case, been singularly free. In the Wet Mountain Valley, which is specially subject to injury, the farmers had to fight locusts early in the season ; and the injury in the valley of the Costilla, where fields were ravaged by the young locusts, was greater than in any other part of the State. The severe injury extended southward into New Mexico, where the valley of the Taos has been swept clean. Yet, on the opposite side of the mountain, the President of the New Mexico Stock and Agricultural Association reports no injury, the young insects having disappeared.
3 Colorado Farmer, September 7, quoted in Packard's Report on the Rocky Mountain Locust, &c., Hayden's Report of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1875, p. 622.



102 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION'.

While in the lower plains and valley regions of the State the condi. tionis have been so similar to those which prevailed toward the Mississippi, they have been quite different in the higher plateaus and, parks. At altitudes at from. 8,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea, the principal hatching occurred in May, and was later in proportion as we ascend, until in the passes, with an altitude of 12,000 or 13,000 feet, the insects hatch in July. At such great heights the mature (lead are often to be found in large quantities under stones and other shelter, and their young occur in great numbers. As no agriculture is carried on in these parks and passes, no effort is made to destroy the insects.
For the first time, however, in the history of the State, dense swarms of locusts came from the south (probable return flights from Texas and Indian Territory and perhaps Kansas), entering the northeastern corner of the State at Julesburg May 28 and 29. There are no previous records of such flights from this direction or from such a point of the compass. Nothing definite was heard from these flights afterward, except reports of locusts alighting at Deadwood, Black Hills; and their force was probably expended or scattered over the plains. Similar northward-bound swarms were observed about the same time at Wallace and Evans, Kansas, and about the second week in June flights from the south reached Deadwood, in the Black Hills.
In the second week in June there were also flights of locusts over the eastern part of the State, which are said to have come from the south. At La Porte, in Larimer County, there were swarmss from the northwest to southeast in August, but I think they came only a short distance." At Pueblo "a few swarms were observed in the early part of July, passing over from the north or northwest. None of them came down." A few locusts were observed at Larkspur, in Douglas County, but none at Colorado Springs ; and at Georgetown our correspondent states that "no swarms from the north, northeast, or northwest passed over this district." At Denver' "there were no fresh swarms from the north, northeast, or northwest. In the latter part of July they passed over here for two days, flying northeast."
THE LOCUST IN UTAH.
-Utah was for the first time, so far as known, visited in 1851, as we were informed by Brigham Young, late president of the Latter Day Saints. Ogyden was also visited the same year and much damage was done. (F. A. Brown.)
1852.-Locusts were observed on the plains of Northern Utah and Southern Idaho about the first of August, 1852, by Mr. W. N. Byers. NO inDformation, however, has been obtained by settlers in Utah relative ,o the movements of the locusts this year.
1853.-Mr. A. L. Siler, of Ranch, Kane County, says that locusts flew into the Salt Lake region in this year, coining from the east, in July.
1854.-Ogden and Logani, Salt Lake City, Nephi, and Spanish Fork, Utah County, are reported to have been visited this year.



CHRONOLOGY: UTAH, 1855-1867. 103

1855.-Loeusts were more wide-spread and destructive this year than any other, perhaps, excepting the year 1867. Reports of their devastations have been received from residents of Plain City, Weber County, which afterward enjoyed a respite for twelve consecutive years, i. e., until 1867. Salt Lake City and Nephi were also afflicted by them. They also appeared in Spanish Fork City, at Beaver, in Southern Utah; they came in August, 1855, and destroyed nearly the entire crop; but the crops were good in 1856. Payson was visited in 1855, and damage was done by locusts in 1866. It is evident that Northern and Central Utah were overrun by them this year. "After the crops were destroyed, there was not time to get grain from any quarter. The people had to husband their supply to keep the wolf from the door until another harvest; a great many living upon roots, greens, and, in fact, anything that would sustain life. The harvest of 1856 furnished plenty; the grasshopper war was over." (Salt Lake Herald.)
1856.-Ogden suffered this year and for each successive year until and including 1870 (John I. IHaLirt); also Salt Lake City and Payson. It thus appears that Northern Utah, i.e., from Ogden to Idaho (Cache and Malade Valleys), has suffered for sixteen years in succession, from 1854 until 1870, but in Central and Southern Utah, i. e., south of Salt Lake City and vicinity, there are no reports of destructive locusts duringthe years 1857186:3.
1857.-The locusts"ate everything green in Salt Lake Valley." (Iowa Homestead.)
1863.-N o reports of destructive locusts south of Ogden; at this time they were noticed each year from 1863 until 1870.
1864.-Swarms of locusts visited Salt Lake City and vicinity, and Ogden.
1865.-Swarms appeared at Beaver, in Southern Utah, in the autumn.
1866.-Beaver was again visited by swarms, which laid eggs, and their young appeared in 1867, and locusts abounded in the years 1867, 1868, 1869,1870, and 1871, small crops being raised. Payson was visited in 1866, and suffered for five successive years, i.e., until 1871. Logan and Smithfield, Cache Co., suffered this year more perhaps than other settlements outside of Cache County.
1867.-This was, like 1855 and 1860, one of the worst locust years in Utah. The trouble extended from Cache County, where half the grain was devoured, to Salt Lake and in the desert county of Juab at Nephi, as well as south to the town of Beaver. At Saint John's, Tooele County, great swarms came late in the summer, large numbers hatched in 1868, and swarms appeared in 1869, and many young appeared in the spring of 1870; this year being the most calamitous. At this settlement some farmers did not raise a crop for seven successive years. "These locusts arrived in the northern part of this Territory the summer before last and deposited their eggs. These generated the following spring, and immigrated to this city and surroundings last autumn ; they deposited their



104 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

eggs here, and this last spring they hatched out in numbers beyond calculatio.""4 Their progeny was destructive about Salt Lake City in 1868.
1868.-Besides the points already noticed, locusts arrived at Heber, Wasatch County, in a swarm "like a cloud." They were also destructive at Salt Lake City and vicinity, and at Croydon.
1869.-Cache County, and Salt Lake City, Croyden, Morgan County, as well as the other settlements previously mentioned, were visited this year.
1870.-This was a calamitous year in Cache, Weber, and Wasatch Counties, i. e., in Northern Utah; Ogden, Weber, and Plain City, being visited by them. Professor Thomas states that locusts abounded in the Territory in 1870 and for three years previous. In this year locusts apparently prevailed throughout the entire extent of the Territory.
1871.-AfLer abounding in Northern Utah the locusts may usually be expected the following year in Central and sometimes in Southern Utah. Southern Utah was infested by them more this year than any other known. They were observed in Kanab and Hebron, Washington County. At bilver- Reef but few eggs were deposited, but they did much damage to orchards, vineyards, and gardens. At Paragoonah locusts laid eggs in abundance in 1871 and in 1872; one-half thecrops were destroyed by their progeny. (Dr. E. Palmer.) Locusts also abounded, according to Professor Thomas, in the northern parts of the Salt Lake Basin, particularly in Box Elder Cafion and Cache Valley. Salt Lake Basin. early in August, he found to be "swarming with myriads of these grasshoppers, and even after we had passed eastward on the railroad to the heights near Aspen Station, I noticed the air filled with their snowy wings, but could not tell exactly the course they were taking, but thought they were moving southwest."
1872.-We have no information from unpublished sources that the locust did any damage this year, but swarms are reported in a Utah paper as leaving the Territory in August and September, 1872.
In 1873 and 1874 there were no locusts observed in Utah. In July, 1875, a few indigenous locusts (Caloptenus spretus) were observed by the writer at Lake Point, Salt Lake. None were observed by Mr. J. D. Putnam at Spring Lake Villa, about 70 miles south of Salt Lake City. Mr. Alexander Stalker, of Franklin, Utah, informed us that the locusts flew into Malade Valley in 1875.
1876.-Swarms of locust, early in October, settled down at Logan and Smithfield, Cache County, Croydon, Morgan County, and at Sal4 Lake City, extending at least three miles south of the city.
1877.-The young hatching from eggs laid the previous autumn did some injury to fields at Farmington; several fields of wheat were injured at Saint John. Much damage was done in Cache and Malade Valleys. If the wet weather had not destroyed a large percentage of the young, especially in Morgan, Davisb and Salt Lake Counties, as well
14 California Farmer, August 20, 1868.




CHRONOLOGY: NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, NEVADA. 105

as Cache and Malade Valleys, serious damage would have resulted, showing that the invasion was a formidable one in 1876.
We find, in conclusion, that while Southern and Central Utah are more or less exempt from locust invasions, Malade and Cache Valleys and Weber County have been infested fourteen out of the past nineteen years.
THE LOCUST IN NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA.

That it is common and destructive at times in -New Mexico is shown from the statement published in the Monthly Report of the Department of Agriculture, at Washington, D. C., for July, 1876, where it is stated that the corn and oats were itijured and the wheat-crop half destroyed by the grasshopperr," which must be C. spretus, as Taos is near the Colorado line. Mr. Thomas reports a few specimens of C. 8pretus from New Mexico and Arizona in collections made by Lieutenant Wheeler's Expedition during the last four years, and he himself found a few specimens south of Raton Mountains in 18s69. In 1875, however, Lieutenant Carpenter, as he writes me, did not see any swarms in the region extending from Fort Garland to Santa F6. "I could not lcarn," he adds, "that they had ever been troublesome in Northern N-ew Mexico."
Mr. B. Eaton, of Greeley, informed us that locusts were very abunidant in Taos thirty-five years ago, and in 1864 and 1865 they eat up the crops in Taos.
In Northern New Mexico Lieutenant Carpenter found this species (identified by Mr. Scudder) on Taos Peak, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, at a height of 13,000 feet (above timber-line), in July, 1873. (Scudder, in Wheeler's Annual Report for 1866. See Packard's report to 11Hayden.)
Mr. Holly reports that the portions of New Mexico adjacent to Colorado have been injured very little. ", The president of the New Mexico Stock and Agricultural Association informed me that no trouble was experienced by his colony (in Colfax County) in 1876, and up to June 15, 1877, were entirely free, while on the opposite side of the mountains the Taos Valley had been swept clean." Mr. Holly writes that incursions next year of grasshoppers are feared in the San Luis Park and adjoining sections from this direction.
THE LOCUST IN NEVADA.
Mr. Daniel Bonelli writes us, under date of June 26, 1877, that Saint Thomas, Lincoln County, Nevada, was visited by what may have been this species in 1870. He says: "The particular locust you are inquiring after does not seem to thrive here, not having visited this region since 1870, at which time a large swarm came from the northwest and hlid eggs in a sandy mesa in August, while the heat in the shade was 1100 and in the sand hills in tbe sun 1600; all the eggs melted like lead in hot coals, and that class of 'hopper (Rocky Mountain locust) has not ppeared since." Saint Thomas is about 40 miles southwest of Saint George, Utah. Locusts were abundant in Utah this year.



106 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The following facts regarding the occurrence of Calopteitus spretus in Nevada, in 1871, were observed by Mr. Thomas: I saw C. spretus in 1871 in abundance along the Humboldt River in Nevada) most of the way from where the Central Pacific Railroad strikes it. (going west) to the sink or place where it disappears. At one point they were quite abundant, and evidently preparing to migrate, flying up in the air, their wings presenting that peculiar glassy snowy appearance with which you are no doubt familiar. This, if I recollect lightly, was west of Humboldt Station; they were quite abundant at that station (Humboldt), where we dined (going west), but were not migrating there or then; those referred to as seen west of Humboldt being seen as we returned east. You probably remember that saline or alkaline belt at the northwest extremity of Great Salt Lake; just beyond that I began to observe them, and from thence-not continuously, but at certain points-fcom there to, and a short distance west of, Humboldt Sink. The collections made by Wheeler's party in Southeast Nevada had no specimens which I could positively say came from that section. That year (1871), as we went out (June) we saw but few specimens in Salt Lake Valley, but they were quite numerous when we returned from California in August. They were also numerous in Cache Valley and Southern Idaho; in moderate numbers west of the range in Montana as well as east.15 (Packard's Report.)
In 1877, for the first time within the knowledge of the settlers, locusts invaded the northern limits of Nevada. Mr. C. C. Wheeler states that on the 5th and 6th of August they appeared in Nevada, flying in great swarms, eating the crops in the Owyhee Valley, seven miles northwest of Cornucopia, Nev. These swarms most probably came from Bruneau Valley in Idaho, the distance from Cornucopia to the Bruneau Valley being only about one hundred miles in a, northeast direction.

THE LOCUST IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON TERRITORY.

West of the Cascade Mountains no migratory locusts, however, have been known to exist, according to W. Byron Daniels, of Vancouver, Wash., and D. M. Utter, of Olympia. The only authentic accounts of past ravages I could obtain was a statement made to me by Mr. J. K. Lum, that a grasshopper of an unknown species was very abundant at Skookumchuck, Lewis County, Washington Territory, in August, 1856, eating the heads of wheat. It was not observed elsewhere. Grasshoppers are said by A. S. Taylor (Smithsonian Report, 1858) to have been destructive in Oregon in 1852 and 1855. As the species are not mentioned, nor the locality, it is not improbable that Taylor referred to a local species (perhaps Caloptenus atlanis or femur-rubruin, or both) west of the Cascade Mountains.
We have more authentic information regarding the appearance of the genuine Rocky-Mountain locust in Oregon and Washi t.gton Territory, east of the Cascade Mountains, though there are no data to show that Caloptenus spretus has occurred west of longitude 1180 30' west. From J. A. Willsow, Indian agent at Fort Simcoe, Washington Territory,
'6 It will be exceedingly desirable to trace the distribution of a. spretus southward of the present known limits, Ir it is not at all unlikely that it inhabits the northern (cdge of the Mexican plateau, si cc Major Powell informs us that he found a locust, as he thought this species, numerous within twenty miles of the Mexican boundary on the Colorado River.




CHRONOLOGY: OREGON) WASHINGTON TERRITORY. 1)7

situated on the eastern side of the Cascade Range (longitude 120C 50'), and due north of Celilo, I learn that that locality has not been troubled with locusts. Mr. D. S. Baker, president of the Walla Walla and Columnbia Railroad, writes us that the Valley of the Walla Walla River "has not since its settlement, in 1860, been seriously affected by RockyMountain locusts. The Pataha River country, some forty miles (northeast, near Lewiston) distant from here (Walla Walls), year before last (1875), as well as last year (1876), was visited in some small districts with grasshoppers, injuring some crops materially."
In Jordan Valley, Baker County, Oregon, a swarm of locusts "five miles wide and five miles long" appeared July 29, 1877, destroying nearly all (ninety per cent.) of the grain in the valley, and deposited their eggs August 10. (W. F. Gwinn.) Still more direct information is afforded by a letter (dated November 10, 1877) from Mr. Henry Heisy, of Clarksville, Baker County, Oregon, who says that on or about the first of August the forerunners of swarms of grasshoppers appeared, which came in full force on the 13th August, darkening the sun. They came from the southeast, and departed the middle of October in a northwesterly di section, having deposited eggs October 1. Previous to this year there had been no locusts in that section for the last ten years." Philip Ritz, of Walla Walla, writes us as follows: "We have never been visited by the grasshoppers within fifteen years that I have lived here to do any damage, but a number of emigrants which came here late last suimmner told me they saw myriads of them in the air flying noi th, and a few specimens which they examined were the identical grasshopper of Kansas and Nebraska." Mr. J. H. Kunzie, of Umatilla, writes: "No 'hoppers within a circuit of 100 milesaround this locality. Boise City, Ada County, Idaho, and Lewiston, Idaho,and thereabouts, are the only locations where 'hoppers are at home."
At Camp Harney the locust abounds occasionally, as stated by Drs. Styer and Byrne, United States Army, as follows: "Owing to the occurrence of severe frosts daring each month of the year, together with immense swarms of crickets and grasshoppers, it has been found impossible to cultivate a garden with any surety of success. For two seasons the attempt was made and the result proved but a total loss. (Surg. Gen.'s Rep. on Barracks, &c, with description of military posts, 1870, p. 438.) This is the most western point to which the locust has been traced, i.e., longitude 1180 30'.
Dr. J. H. Bartholf, United States Army, writes from Camp Hiarney, Oregon :i6 "The Rocky-Mountain locust has not been here or in this region thus far this year nor the three preceding years." In July and August, 1877, the locust appeared in swarms in the Burnt River Valley, a few miles southeast of Baker City. (See Appendix.)
This locality is about 1735 miles south of Umaitilla, in longitude 11z, 30' W., latitude 4O 30' N., and stuated in the astern flanks of the southern extremity of the Blue Mountains. Its elevation is 4,200 feet above the sea.




108 REPORT UNITED STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

THE LOCUST IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.

North of Montana.-A large proportion of the locusts which fly into Montana about Forts Benton and Shaw come from north of the United States boundary-line, and the years in which the locusts have abounded on the northern side of the Upper Missouri River, in Montana, were probably locust years in British America north of this region.
"4A correspondent at Carleton House, on the Saskatchewan, in speaking of the grasshopper, thus writes: 'The day in which you say they ma(Ie their appearance at iRed River I left Carleton House for Fort Pitt,7 an(] all the way up they were very numerous, and about the litter end of August they were flying south in great numbers.' They were also last autumn at Fort Pelly, in the Swan River district, and no doubt they have deposited their eggs in all the barren ground (prairie) between Fort Pitt and Red River. They did not extend to the Winnipeg River, but myriads of them were drowned in Lakes Mlanitowaba and Winnepeg." (This was apparently either in 1861 or 1865.)-(Letter of Donald Gunn to S. H. Scudder, dated April 17, 1868.)
1873.-Locusts laid eggs in the region about Forts Browning and Belknap, and flew in a westerly direction. (James M. Arnoux.) 1874.-During the summer of this year, Dr. Elliott Cones, U. S. A., naturalist of the United States Northern Boundary Survey, as he writes us, "saw vast swarms in 1874 about one hundred miles north of Fort Benton."
1876.-Mr. James M. Arnoux, of Fort Benton, informed us that in Juie and the fore part of July, 1876, locusts occurred in swarms from an immense region about Fort Benton, extending from latitude 470 50' to latitude 490 30' (approximately), and from longitude 1090 westward to the base of the Rocky Mountains in longitude 1130 30', being especially destructive about the headwaters of the MariaS and Milk Rivers, in approximate longitude 1130 301, where they were so thick and hungry as to eat the bark off of the willows." The movements of the swaris were directly east, an exception to the ordinary rule, said Mr. Arnoux, as about Fort Benton they usually fly from the nor, east in a southwest direction. (It is obvious, however, that north of the boundary-line the locusts most usually fly, when in sufficient numbers to migrate, toward the south and east, as none are known to exist in swarms in the forest region west of the mountains in British America.)
At Belknap, ninety-six to one hundred miles north of Fort Benton, and at Fort Browning, one hundred and fifty miles northeast of Fort Benton, there were this year observed swarms of locusts, which, at the end of June and early in July, were observed flying eastward. In this same year locusts were said by Mr. Arnoux to extend north by west several hundred miles from Fort Benton toward Fort Edmonton, but they were most abundant from eighty to one hundred miles north of Fort
17 Fort Pitt is situated on the North Saskatchewan, in latitude 530 31'.




CHRONOLOY: BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 109

Benton. May 24, 1876, a foot of snow fell in this region, but the young locusts were not killed. Mr. Riley states that at Fort McLeod vast numbers of the young insects were observed by travelers. (Ninth Report.)
1877.-Mr. J. J. Healy tells us that locusts hatched at Fort Mcbeod, in British America (latitude 490 35.', longitude 1130 40' W.), in February, 1877, the weather then being very warm. As Mr. Healy is familiar with the Rocky Mountain locust, and as they abounded in this region in 1870, we are disposed to think that the above statement refers to this species.
At Bismarck we saw Col. A. S. Sweet, who had that day talked with the Rev. Abbott Martin, of Standing Rock, who had just come from Sitting Bull's camp at Wood Mountain, in British America, sixty miles north of the Montana line, and who stated that there were no locusts seen there up to June 8, the date of his departure.
Alanitoba.-The earliest notice of swarms of locusts in this district is to be found in Henry's Journey from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean (1799-1816). The following paragraphs were extracted for the use of the commission by Mr. James Campbell, librarian of the library of Parliament:
1800.-Lake Winnepeg, Sunday, August 17, 100, the beach was covered with grasshoppers which had been thrown up by the waves, and formed one continued line as far as the eye could see. In some places they lay from six to nine inches deep, and now were in a state of putrefaction, which occasioned a horrid stench.
1808.-Pembina River, June 25, 1808. I found great swarms of grasshoppers, which still continue here, and have destroyed the greater part of my vegetables in my kitchen garden; in particular, the onions, cabbage, melons, cucumbers, carrots, parsnips, and beets. They also attacked the potatoes and corn, but these had acquired sufficient strength at the root to resist and sprout up again, whilst plants of a weaker nature had been destroyed. These swarms ofgrasshoppers appear about the 15th of June. They generally come in great clouds from the southward, and spread destruction wherever they pass; even the very trees were sripped of their leaves. They pass on northward until illions are drowned in Lake Winnepeg, and cause a most horrid stench, a' I have already observed.
The locust-years in Manitoba, or that portion of British North America lying between longitude 950 and 1020 W., according to Mr. G. M. Dawson, were the following: 1818, winged locusts; in 1819 the young appeared; from 1820 until 1857 none were noticed; in 1857 locusts arrived, but the source was not stated; in 1858 the progeny of the 1857 swarms were. iinjurious. In 1864 fresh swarms arrived from the west, in July; their progeny were troublesome in 1865. In 1867 swarms appeared(l in August, and their progeny in 1868. Mr. J. J. Donnelly told me at Fort Benton that in 1871 and 1872 the grasshoppers died in heaps and ridges at Fort Garry. In the year 1872 he said that they flew from Saint Joselph, on Pembina River, northwest toward Fort Garry. In 1872 swarms appeared in August, and their progeny in 1873. In 1874 immense awarms arrived July 17th. In the summer of 1875 the progeny of the 1874 swarm hatched in great numbers over almost the entire area, of Manitoba. and westward at least as far as Fort Ellice, on the Assine-




110 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

boine River (longitude 1010 201). In many districts the destruction of crops was well-nigh complete. These broods flew southeast, or south, in July and early August, flying into a country of thick woods, swamps, and lakes.
Foreign swarms from the south crossed the forty-ninth parallel with a wide front stretching from the ninety-eighth to the one hundred and eighth meridian, and are quite distinguishable from those produced in the country from the fact that many of them arrived before the latter were mature. These flights constituted the extreme northern part of the army returning northward and northwestward from the States ravaged in the autumn of 1874. They appeared at Fort Ellice on the 13th of June and at Qu'Appelle Fort on the 17th of the same month, favored much, no doubt, by the steady south and southeast winds, which, according to the meteorological register at Winnepeg, prevailed on the 12th of June and for about a week thereafter. Aftertheir first appearance, however, their subsequent progress seems to have bevn comparatively slow and their advancing border very irregular in outline. They are said to have reached Swan Lake House, the most northern point to which they are known to have attained, about July 10, while Fort Pelly, farther west, and nearly a degree farther south, was reached July 30, and about seven days were occupied in the journey thence to Swan IRiver Barracks, a distance of only 10 miles. It is more than probable .that the first southern swarms were followed by others, which mingled with them, or even, in parts of Manitoba and the country immediately west of it, with the indigenous brood. From a few localities only in Manitoba, and those in its western portion, is the evidence pretty conclusive as to the arrival of foreign swarms from the south. Burnside, Westbourne, Portage la Prairie, Rockwood, and Pigeon Lake may be mentioned as affording instances.
Many of the grasshoppers observed, according to reports received by Mr. Riley, in Dakota., at Fort Thompson, Yankton, Fort Sully, Springfield, Fort Randall, and Bismarck flying northward and northwestward at various dates in June and July, no doubt eventually found their way north of the forty-ninth parallel. Those seen at Bismarck about June 6 and 7 probably belonged to the earliest southern bands above referred to, and, judging from the dates given by Mr. Riley, may have been produced in Nebraska, or more probably even still farther south. A portion of the southern and eastern army probably reached Montana, and may even have penetrated in diminished numbers into the districts in the vicinity of Bow River. A considerable number of locusts appear to have hatched at about the same date as in Manitoba near the extreme western margin of the plains, especially in the country near Bow River. Foreign swarms arrived at Fort McLeod from the southwest, depositing eggs; and most of those hatching near Bow River, and farther north, seem to have gone southeastward early in August. No very definite or wide-spread movement of swarms appears, however, to have occurred during the summer of 1875 in this region, nor, if we may judge from the very meager accounts received, in the corresponding p )rtion of Montana.
During the summer of 1875, the conditions described in the Notes for 1874 as occurring in the region west of the one hundred and third meridian were reproduced in Manitoba, and over a great area of the Western and Southwestern States, with results even more disastrous to the crops than those of the winged invasion of the previous year. We do not hear of any access of fresh swarms to Manitoba from the west or northwest, nor is it probable that any such occurred, notwithstanding the fact that in various parts of the province flights are reported to have passed over from northwest to southeast. From the dates and descriptions given, it seems certain that these were only those from the more remote parts of the province itself, and in many cases the broods hatched in any locality mingled with those coming from a little distance, and departed at the same time. I
The most rewarkable and exceptional feature in connection with the appearance of




CHRONOLOGY: BRITISH AMERICA. 111

the locusts in 1875 is the extensive invasion of the wooded region east of Manitoba by the swarms produced in the province. This is the more noticeable when contrasted with the immunity erjoyed by Prince Albert on the Saskatchewan, alluded to in last year's Notes, which is owing to its separation from the general area of the plains by a belt of timber. On writing to Mr. Clarke, of Carleton House, on the subject, he informs me that this protecting belt of fir-timber is only four miles in width, and extends completely across between the north and south branches of the Saskatchewan. Judging from the above remarkable fact, and the known habits of the locust. I do not think that the incursion made into the forest-country can be looked upon as anything but exceptional,and perhaps showing that the locusts had lost their reckoning. Nor do I believe that it should discourage the cultivation of belts of woodland, which promises to effect in time a general and permanent amelioration of the grasshopper plague. Broadly sketched, the movements of the locusts in 175 conform to a general plan. All those hatching in Minnesota, Manitoba, Northern Dakota, and in the high western region of the plains, at least as far south as Colorado, on obtaining their wings, went southward, and this in some instances regardless of the direction from which their parents had arrived in the previous year. Swarms produced in Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, Texas, and Indian Territory flew northward and northwestward, returningon the course of their parents, which had flown southeastward from that quarter. This movement can he traced over an inmmnense area, from the northern borders of Texas almost to the Saskatchewan River.
Evidence appears to be fast accumulating to show that the general and normal direction of flight for any brood is to return toward the hatching-grounds from which their parents came, and it would seem that to complete the mi;ration-cycle of the locust two years are required. The tendency which the swarms show to migrate on reaching maturity cannot be wondered at, as it is so commonly met with in other animals, and may be assisted by th mere lack of food in the district which has for a long time supported the young locusts. The fact, however-let us call it instinct or knowledgethat the young, while amenable to the migratory tendency, show a determination to exercise it in a direction exactly opposite to the preceding generation is most remarkable. (Dawson.)
1876.- Professor Dawson writes us that, "during the summer of 1876, the grasshopper was scarcely seen in Manitoba, and a fine crop was harvested all over the province. Manitoba is safe for next summer, unless inraded. I have reason to believe, however, that during lIst summer the locust was very abundant in the far West, on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the forty-ninth parallel. With regard to this region, however, I have only general information." (Packard's Report for 1875.)
In Mr. G. M. Dawson's notes on the locust in the northwest in 1876, (Canadian Naturalist, vol. viii, No. 7,) it is stated that July 26th large swarms were seen east of the Little Saskatchewan; they afterward flew southward into the United States. A little west of Winnepeg the young had just hatched, June 19th. On July 16th they were drifting past Fort Ellice, in clouds, to the southeastward, and they were oh. served flying August 4th-11th, at a place about 40 miles northwest of Ellice. "No grasshoppers seen on the way from Ellice to Battleford in August, though abundant in this region of country during July. Very abundant toward the foot of the Rocky Mountains and in the whole upper part of the South Saskatchewan Valley, where they are said to have eaten up all the grass, driving the buffalo eastward to the vicinity




112 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

of the Touchwood Hills, Souris Valley, etc. They did not appear at Fort Galgarry, Bar River, N. W. T., in the summer of 1876, but were reported as abundant on the plains to the eastward. From Fort Walsh, N. W. T., they hatched about the middle of May, and remained until the middle of August, when they flew northwestward. Other swarms arrived on the wing from Montana about the middle of July, and passed on to the northwest without leaving eggs. At Fort Pitt there were no grasshoppers within a distance of 300 miles west. Locusts were observed in hugh swarms 150 miles south of Carleton Home. At Swan River Barracks and Livingston they hatched and remained till August 7th, when they flew northeastward. Flights from the southwest arrived about June 2d and also July 20th and 27th, and August 8th. All the crops were destroyed. For twelve years before July, 1875, no grasshoppers had been seen there. The young hatched northwest of Lake Manitoba and at Manitoba House about June 1st. At Oak Point, Lake Manitoba, locust were seen flying southeastward, and the dead were washed up in meadows a foot thick on the shore of the lake. In 1877 Mr. Riley ascertained that there were very few specimens to be found in Manitoba, as he only met with a few stragglers. Capt. Stewart Moore, of Prince Albert Mission, who had just come from Edmonton, Northwest Territory, reported them as flying from the south early in July, as far northwest as the vicinity of Battle River; Mr. A. Fuller reported them as occurring some distance north of Fort Carleton; Mr. W. J. Scott, of Battleford, who traveled from this place to Winnepeg, in June, found no locusts in the country, thus making the presumption strong that the later flights observed came from farther south.
TABULAR VIEW OF LOCUST-YEARS.

Following is a tabular view of the years in which the Rocky-Mountain locust has appeared, from the earliest date known, up to and including the year 1877.
As may be seen by reference to the foregoing data, in most of these years the actual loss to crops was more or less slight. The years in which losses were sustained by the young hatching in the spring, and in which there were afterward in that season no invasions, are starred. The years in which more or less severe damage was done are in fullfaced type.
It is evident that the apparent increase in the number of locust-years, after and including 1866, is due to the larger population of the West, and to the flhct that there were greater facilities for travel, so that definite information could more readily be obtained. There are no facts tending to show that the locusts themselves have been any more numerous of late years than previous to, for example, the years 1866 and 1867.










TABULAR VIEW OF LOCUST YEARS. 113



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114 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.




CHAPTER III.

STATISTICS OF LOSSES.

The subject of this chapter is so intimately connected with that of the following that it may in fact be considered a part of it; for nothing can be presented which will show in a stronger light the blighting effect of locust visitations upon the agriculture of the West than the immense loss these cause. But in order to present the subject in as clear a light as possible, it has been thought best by the commission to devote a special chapter to it. As will be seen by an inspection of the figures here given, the losses experienced in the border States have been very heavy; indeed, we shouldDot be using too strong language if we were to say they are startling. Although we were satisfied from previous examination of the subject that they were large, we have been somewhat surprised at the figures which a careful collation of the statistics bring out. Large as the figures show the direct loss to the crops to be, they fall far short of representing the entire loss occasioned by the locusts. The check to business, improvements, and the various industrial enterprises; the effect these visitations have of stopping immigration and driving away capital, bring upon these new States a greater loss than that sustained by the crops. A full statement of the subject should therefore include all the losses occasioned by these things, but this can scarcely be reduced to figures or ascertained in dollars and cents; hence our only method of conveying a correct idea iDreference thereto is to introduce statements from those who have had experience in the locust-ravaged districts during such visitations. On account of the great difficulty of obtaining reliable data, where no special arrangement has been made for this purpose-as is generally the case-it is impossible to do more than make an approximate estimate of the actual loss sustained; still we believe what we here give may be relied upon as probably as nearly correct as statistics in reference to crops and agricultural products usually are. In Minnesota some at. tempts have been made to gather statistics in reference to the portion and value of the crops destroyed in that State since 1873; but with this exception we are not aware that any effort has been made in any of the visited States or Territories to obtain such statistics.
We have, therefore, within our reach but two methods by which we may arrive at an approximately correct estimate of these losses. First by combining the localestimates of the loss so far as they have been giveii, and using the per cent. thus obtained as a basis of calculation. But the result of such a calculation would after a-11 be but little better than a guess and of no real value. In stead,, therefore, of attempting to ascertain the aggregate by this inetbod, we will present the statements of




STATISTICS OF LOSSES. 115

local observers showing the ravages of the locusts in their respective sections, which will convey a more vivid and clear idea of the suffering and distress occasioned by these calamitous visitations than can possibly be obtained from a were inspection of statistics and figures. The estimate of the losses will be made by the second method, which consists in comparing the yield of a locust year with that of a year when there was no locust visitation, as, for example, 1874 with 1875, and eliminating as far as possible all losses occasioned by other causes.
Most of our readers will remember very distinctly the reports of destitution and suffering in the border States in 1874, occasioned by the destruction of the crops in these States by the grasshoppers. It was telt to be a national calamity, which called for assistance from the benevolent 'and sympathizing throughout our country. So great, in fact,
was the calamity and so urgent the necessity for some action that the legislatures of some of these States were convened in extra session for the purpose of providing some means of relief.
Although it is now apparent that much that was unwise and derogatory to the best interests of these States was done by overzealous workers, and that the methods of affording relief were in many cases not the best, yet the universal feeling that relief was needed is evidence of the severe loss sustained by the people in the locust-visited area.
The following extract from the Third Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture in Kansas will give some idea of the immediate effect of the locust-visitation in that State in 1874: About the 25th of July, one of those periodic calamitous visitations, to which the trans-Mis8idsippi States are liable once in from eight to ten years, made its appearance in Northern and Northwestern Kansas, the grasshopi er or locust. The air was filled and the fields and trees were completely covered with these voracious trespassers. At one time the total destruction of every green thing seemed imminent. Their course was in a southerly and southeasterly direction, and before the close of August the swarming hosts were enveloping the whole State. The visitation was so sudden that the people of the State became panic-stricken. In the western counties, where immigration for the last two years had been very heavy, and where the chief dependence was corn, potatoes, and garden vegetables, the calamity fell with tfrrible force. Starvation or emigration seemed inevitable unless aid should bo furnished. At this critical period the State board of agriculture undertook to collect correct data relating to the effects of the prevailing drought and devastation of crops by locusts and chinch-bugs. In the mean time Governor Osborne had issued his proclamation convening the legislature in extra session on the 15th day of September.
The following replies to the circular sent out by the board of agriculture to the different counties will give an idea of the destruction of crops by the locusts:
Barton County.-" Grasshoppers appeared July 26 and destroyed all the corn and grden vegetables, together with the present year's growth of fruit trees of all kinds."
Brown County.-" Appeared August 15; stripped the corn and nearly destroyed the ear; took all the foliage from fruit trees, and seriously damaged the fruit."
Clay County.-" Made their appearance in different portions of the county from the th to the 30th of July. Nearly all green crops were destroyed; fifty per cent. of the fit crop ruined."
Cload County.-The most terrible calamity that has ever befallen Northwestern Kan-




116 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

sas has just swept over us like the devouring locust of Palestine. The land was as tho garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness.
Decatur County.-" Grasshoppers destroyed the corn crop and drought the wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes."
Ellis County.-" Destroyed everything growing except the grasses."
Ellsworth County.-" Destroyed corn and everything green except sorghum and broom corn."1
Edwards County.-" Crops entirely destroyed, not one bushel of vegetables or grain being saved for man or beast."
Harvey County.-" Nearly total destruction of corn and vegetables."1
Jefferson County.-" Destroyed all corn, fodder, and vegetables; late corn entirely and early corn to a considerable extent. Fruit trees stripped and fruit badly damaged." Jewell County.-" Destroyed all crops not mature, except sorghum."~ Lincoln Coutty.-" Destroyed corn and vegetables." Lyon Countg.-" Destroyed all green crops and vegetation." Marion County.-" Destroyed nearly all the corn and vegetables." McPherson C~ounty.-" Nearly a total destruction of corn and vegretables."1 Mitchell County.-" Entire corn crop and vegetables destroyed." Mori-is County.-" Corn nearly ruined; vegetables entirely so; fruit and shade trees badly damiaged."7
Norton County.-" Crops entirely destroyed." Osborne County.-" Corn crop destroyed; also vegetables, hedges, and young fruit and forest trees."
Ottawa County.-"' Entirely destroying the corn crop, vegetables, and fruit." Pawnee County.-" Total destruction of crops." .Reno 6Counfy.-"1 General destruction of late crop.s" Republic County.-" Corn crop and vegetables totally destroyed, and fruit trees seriously damaged."
Riley County.-" Destroyed nearly everything green." Russell County.-" Completely devastated the country." Rush County.-" We have nothing left but our teams, which we will have to sell or starve unless we receive aid."
Shawnee County.-" Destroyed nearly everything they were capable of destroying."
Smith County.-" Entirely destroyed corn and nearly all kinds of vegetation."
WTabaunsee County.-"'AlI the corn destroyed except some of the earliest which had ripened; vegetables, fruit trees, and this year's growth of trees were also destroyed."
Was8hington County.-'"Almost entire destruction of corn crop, vegetables, and fruits."
We have no such complete ret urns from counties in the other Western States arid Territories as from Kansas, but in a large part of Nebraska, Minnesota, Dakota, and the northwestern section of Iowa, the destruction of crops in 1874 was about the same as Kansas.
Gov. C. K. Davis, of Minnesota, writing to the Secretary of War, says: "The locusts have devoured every kind of crop in the northwestern part of Minnesota. (TL ey did the samne things last year, in the same area.) Many thousands are now suffe~ringr for food, and I am using every public and private source to send immediate supplies of food."

The commissioner of statistics of the same State, in his report for 1874, says that the locusts destroyed more than 50 per cent. of the crops in thie following counties : Brown, Clay, Cottonwood, Jackson, Lac qui 1'arle, Lintcolni, Lyon, Mart in, Murray, Nobles, Redwood, Renville, Rock, WXaton wan, an[d Yellow Medicine.
The following quotations fromf the corresLpotidence given in Professor





DAMAGE IN MISSOURI IN 1875. 117

Riley's eighth report as State entomologist of Missouri present a somewhat vivid picture of the ravages of the locusts in that State in 1875: "In Saint Joseph the grasshoppers are reported as the sands of the sea, and sweeping everything before them."
Atchkion Count.-" The locusts are taking everything green as fast as it appears above the ground in this part of the county." Bates County.-" It is actually alarming and distressing to see all our crops and pastures eaten off until they are as bare as in midwinter." "The grasshoppers have destroyed the country." "There is scarcely a green thing left in the country. All of our crops are destroyed."
Bu~chanan County.-" I think by the time the hoppers leave here they will have devoured everything green. The crops are about all destroyed now, together with the pastures and meadows. The country would present the appearance of winrer were it not for the foliage of the timber. The-leaves are all stripped off the haztl bushes."
Cass County.-"Those persons at a distance and out of range of the plague can have but a faint idea of our situation, nor can they comprehend the fearful ravages made by these pests. They have already eaten up the wheat and oats, and are taking the corn that is planted as fast as it appears above the ground. Our gardens and meadows have been totally despoiled, and our once beautiful flower-flecked prairies now look as desolate and barren as the desert. Our stock will either have to be sent off or starve, as there is nothing for them to eat. The influence of the plague is being severely felt in our cities and towns by all classes. Business is becoming stagnated, work of All kids is on the decline, and gloom and despondency fill almost every heart."
Clinton County.-" All the meadows, both clover and timothy are absolutely destroyed, and nothing but frequent and heavy rains will save the blue grass. The devastation is much heavier and more universal on the west and south sides of the county. The hazel and undergrowth are leafless as in winter; all the small fruits of every description are destroyed."
Gentry Couniy.-Tbey ate all the wheat that was on high land, also, oats vnd corn; all garden vegetables and a great portion of the fruit. Imagine every green thing on the face of the earth eaten entirely up, the meadows and blue grass pastures as bare of vegetation as the center of a State road that is traveled a great deal, and you can probably form some idea of our condition at the time.
Henry County.-" The locusts have already destroyed a large portion of the crops in sections of this county, and still continue their work of devastation. The western and northern part is almost a desert, there being scarcely a vestige of anything green remaining to be seen."
Jackson County.-" Pastures have been stripped of foliage, oat, and wheat fields have been swept, gardens are bare of any growing vegetable, and the corn-fields are alike destitute of any indications that anything has been planted. The small fruits are irrevocably gone, and the larger fruits are now becoming a prey to their devouring powers. They swarm into the houses, hopping and climbing in every place that is not absolutely closed against them."
Saint Clair County.-" The grasshoppers have eaten up all the flax, all the wheat, and corn, and now are attacking everything green even grass, and three weeks hence will witness a country as barren as the grim deserts of Africa."

We could multiply quotations and extracts from various sources, and from our own correspondence the past season, but these will suffice to convey an idea of the terrible havoc this insect scourge inflicts upon the farmers of a district which it invades in full force. We give them for this purpose as no amount of statistics and figures would ever convey a correct idea of the sufferings of a locust-ravaged pioneer settlement.




118 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

The statements from our own correSPOndents will be found in Append ix 20.
In order to arrive at something like a correct estimate of the absolute loss to crops by locust ravages we have concluded to' take the chief crop-corn-in the four States, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and Iowa, in the years 1874 and 1875, the first a locust year, *the second a full crop year, as a basis. We select these States because they are known to have suffered severely in 1874, and for the reason that the statistics of their crops are given in the annual reports of the Department of Agriculture without any special reference to the point now under consideration and hence are free from any suspicion of a disposition to exaggerate the losses.

Loss on the corn crop tn Kansas, Nebraska, -Iowa, and M[issoutri in 1874,
as shown by reference to the statistical tables in the reports of the Agricultural Departmnent for 1874 and 1875.
Although it is true, as a general rule, that in these western States each year's crop shows an increase over that of the previous year on account of the increased acreage, yet in this case, a comparison of the crop of 1874 with that of 1875 will not lead us into any great error on this account, as the severe shock received by agriculture in these States in 1874 could not easily be ovecotn-e in a single season, moreover, considerable loss was also occasioned by the locusts in 1875; in fact, the wheat crop of 1874 was fully equal -to that of 1875, because the former was generally harvested before the locusts arrived, while the latter was seriously ijured by the young insects.
We are fully aware of the fact that 1874 was a very dry year and that crops throughout the whole coftutry suffered very materially from this cause, and that on this account the difference between the crop of 1874 and 1875 cannot all be attributed to the locusts, in those States visited by them. But, as will be seen~ by the statistics which follow, we have endeavored to eliminate from the estimate the proportion of the loss attributable to the dry season. To do this correctly we have had to make a special case of Illinois from the fact that it has been shown by estimates from two entirely different sets of data that the loss on corni in this State in 1874 by the chinch-bug was, at least, equal to 32 per cent. of the crop of 1875.
Departments' estimate of the corn-crops of 1874 wnd 1875.
1874. 1875.

Bushels. "Bushels.
Iow n.-.-..... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... 115, M2 000, 160, 000, 000
Misouri............................................................. 46, 049', 000 1 C2, 00, 000
K an ps .. ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. . .. 16, 065,000 76, 700, 000
N obraska---------------------------------------------------------......3,500, 000 28, 000, 000
Total------------------------------------------------------......181, 324, 000 391, 700, 0, 0
181, 334, 000
Aggrog:-to loss on corn in these States............................. ........... 211, 366,000O




LOSS TO THE CORN CROP. 119

Taking the crop of 1875 as a basis this shows a loss of 53.8 per cent. occasioned by locusts and drought.
SIf we now take the loss on this crop in all the other States (except Illinois) 'as representing the per cent. of loss occasioned by the dry weather, and deduct this per cent. from the per cent. of loss in the above named Western States, we may fairly consider the remainder as that caused by the locusts.
The total crop of corn in the United States in 1874 and 1875, as given by the department reports, were as follows:

1$74. i 1875.

Brahels. Bushets.
United Stat ........................................................ e.-. 148, 500 1, 321,069. 000
Deduct crops of the States mentioned and Illinois .................... 314, 913, 000672, o., 000
Aggregate of the other States ....................................... 535, 235, 500 64. 369, 000
5:1, T3, 5C0
Aggregate loss on corn in all the other Statea. ...... .................................. 113, 133 ~0

Taking the crop of 1875 as a basis, this shows a loss of 17.4 per cent. Deducting this from the 53.8 per cent. loss in the Western States named it gives 36.4 per cent. as the portion lost, which is attributable to the locust visitation in 1874. Taking 36.4 per cent. of 392,700.090 bushels, the total corn crop of these States in 1875, it gives 142,942,800 bushels as the aggregate loss by the locusts. Estimating this at 28 cents per bushels, the average price for those Western States, as given in the report for 1875, and we have a money loss of 40,023,984 dollars, or in round numbers, forty millions of dollars on the corn-crop alone in a single year in four Western States.
Lest this may be considered as an unfair method of arriving at the correct loss, as it does not take into consideration the difference in acreage, let us see what it amounts to by this method.
The total acreage in coin in these four States in 1874, according to the department report for that year, was 8,721,076, the average yield of corn per acre in these States in 1875 was 37.9 bushels, in 1874 it was 16.4 bushels, showing a difference of 21.5 bushels per acre. The proportion of loss by the locusts was 36.4 per cent. out of 53.8 per cent. or about 68 per cent. of the whole loss. A loss of 21.5 bushels per acre on 8,721,076 acres gives an aggregate of 187,503,134 bushels; 68 per cent. of this is 127,5t2,133 bushels. At 28 cents this gives a money loss of 35,600,5 07 dollars, the two results differing only about 11 per cent.
Minnesota and Texas are omitted from these estimates because this crop was fully as large in these States in 1874 as in 1875, and the loss in the former in 1875 from locusts and cold season was greater than in 1874.
The loss on wheat in 1874 was generally less than in 1875 as it was mostly harvested when the locusts arrived in the former year, and suffered from the young in the latter. This to a large extent was also the




120 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

case with other small grains. The loss on the potato crop, however, was heavy as appears from the following exhibit taken from the same reports heretofore referred to:

Crop of 1874. Crop of 1875. Lo088.

Bushels. Bushels. Busqhels.
Iowa----------------------------------------------... 4, 806, 000 8, 700, 000 3,8~94, 000
:Missouri------------------------------------------... 2, 022 000 6, 300, 000 4, 278, 000
Kansas--------------------------------------------... 1, 116, 000 4, 4e0, 000 3, 364, 000
Ne braska-------------------------------------------.. 275, 000 1. 950,000 1, 675,000
Aggregate-------------------------------------.. 8, 219,000 21,430, 000 13, i111, 000

The loss in those States as shown by these figures amounts to 13,211,000 bushels, worth according to the average price in this section in 1875 (27 cents), $3,556,970; 68 per cent. of which is $2,418,739.
In Minnesota the difference in the potato crops of the two years was a little over 2,000,000, of bushels.
The loss sustained by the destruction of gardens, which suffer more perhaps in proportion to their value than anything else, when aggregated amounts to a much larger sum than would be supposed. As bearing upon this point and sustaining this view, we present the following ingenious method of' arriving at the loss by the destruction of gardens in the locust-visited counties in Texas in 1877, as given by Serg. C. A. Smith, Signal-Service officer at Galveston: From the preceding, which I take as fair examples of the remaining, devastated counties, I conclude that the damage to the grain crops in the 64 counties visited cannot exceed 5 per cent. Gardens everywhere appear to have suffered to a much greater extent than the grain crops. They were reported as having been entirely destroyed in a large number of cases, and were badly damaged wherever visited. Assuming that a large percentage recovered from the ravages of the insects as in the case of the grain, I will estimate 25 per cent, as totally lost. Taking the population of the 64 counties for the year 1870 as a basis, and dividing it by five to get the approximate number of families, and we have for the latter 84,304 ; assuming that one-half of these families have gardens worth $75 each, that an average of 25 per cent. were destroyed, and we have $790,350 as thie approximate damage to gardens.
Extend this method of estimating this item of loss to all the other States and Territories visited by the locusts in 1874 or 1877, and it will readily be seen that the aggregate amount is very far from being an insignificant sum; nor can we consider the calculation an. exaggerated one.
Applying the same method of calculation to the visited portion of Missouri, Iow a, Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas, and including that for Texas, we have a loss on gardens alone in 1877 of a little over $4,000,000.
Let us suppose that the loss on other crops (except potatoes), gardens, orcha.,rds, stock that died from want of food, &c., amountedl to but onehalf the loss on the corn crop;- this would be, taking the lower estimate on corn as heretofore given, something over $11,800,000. Adding together these three items-




LOSS TO OTHER CROPS. 121

Loss on corn ......................................................... $33, 6430, 597
Loss on potatoes ...................................................... 2, 4 1, 739
Lots on other crops .................................................... 17, 800, 000

55, 819, 336
and we have an aggregate loss in the four States mentioned, for the year 1874, by the locusts, of about $56,000,000.
This estimate we believe is fully sustained by the facts, and if erroneous, it is not because the losses are exaggerated, but for the reason that they are understated. It is certainly much less than any made from local estimates.
But the actual amount destroyed by the locusts does not give the absolute financial loss to the people of these States. All over and above what is necessary for home consumption changes hands or form, and with each change increases in value. In other words, every dollar's worth of corn thrown into market or converted, by the time it or its resultant leaves the State, has at least doubled in value. Not that the actual price or value of a bushel of corn is doubled, but that the labor, business, trade, &c., it has put in motion has resulted in adding the value of another bushel to the material wealth of the State, and perhaps if we were to say of two bushels, we should not be beyond the fact. The farmers themselves scarcely felt the effect of these losses financially more than the business men and mechanics of these States, and we think it no exaggeration to say that the absolute financial loss by this secondary effect was fully equal to the direct loss on crops; perhaps even more. If the depreciation in the price of real estate be taken into consideration it was certainly more, but as this will be recovered when the cause of alarm passes away, we have thought best to omit it entirely from the estimate.
Calculating in this way, we see that the actual loss to these four States in a single year by this terrible scourge amounted to at least $100,7000,000.
The loss in Minnesota for this year, although severely felt by the farmers of the western counties, is comparatively small when considered with reference to the production of the whole State. It was estimated by the commissioner of statistics for that State as follows: On wheat...... ........................................................ $2, 000,000
Oats .... . .. ............. .518, 000
Corn ...... ...... ........... .................. .................. 256,000
Other crops ............... ................................... 250,000

Total ............................................................ 3,034,000
We have no satisfactory statements of losses in any of the other States or Territories for this year, and hence can only guess at them from the very imperfect data we have been able to obtain from published reports and our own correspondents during the past year. The following statements and estimates in reference to the losses in other years




122 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

will afford some assistance iu making up a general estimate of the amount sustained during the years 1874-1877:

Statistics of losses in Minnesota occasioned by locusts in the year 1875 tnd 1876, as 8hkoun,
by the report of the commissioner of statistiCs of that State.

1875. 1876.

Bushels. Bushels.
Wheat ........................................................... 2, 024, 92 3, 315,240
Oats .................................... ......................... 1, 127, 7P0 2,251,374
Corn................................................................ 790,981 1,305,169
Barey .................................. ........................... 41,059 159,368
Rye............................................................... 1,131 .........
Buckwheat ......................................................... 10,450........
Potatoes........................................................... 130, 8, 6.............
Beaus ............................................................... 7, 971 ..............
Total. ........................................... 4, 'A41, 230 7, 031, 151

Mr. Riley, in his eighth annual report as State entomologist of Missouri, from the (data he was able to collect, estimates the loss occasioned by the locusts in the counties of Western Missouri, in 1875, on grains alone, as follows:
Atchison, $700,000; Andrew, $50,000; Bates, $200,000; Barton, $5,000; B~enton, $5,000; Buchanan, $2,000,000; Cald well, $10,000; Cass, $2,000,000; Clay, $800,000; Clinton, $600,00O; DeKalb, $200,000; Gentry, $100,000; Harrison, $10,000; Henry, $800,000; Holt, $300,000; Jackson, $2,500,000; Jasper, $5,000; Johnson, $1,000,000; Lafayette, $2,000,000 ; Newton, $5,000; Pettis, $50,000; Platte, $S00,000; Ray, $75,000; Saint Clair, $250,000; Vernon, $75,000; Worth, $10,000. Amounting in the aggregate to something over $15,000,000.
We have no satisfactory statements of losses im~any of the other States or Territories, for this or either of the subsequent years, nor have we aniy data by which to estimate the aggregate losses for either of the years 1874, 1875, 1876, or 1877, in Colorado, Montana, Dakota, or Utah. But it is fair to presume that in the entire locust-visited area, during these years, the total loss would fall but little, if any, short of $200,000,000. If this had been distributed over a number of the thickly-settled States, its effect upor4 the industries of these States would have been but slightly felt; but when we remember that it was borne almost entirely by Minnesota, the western half of Iowa, the western section of Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, the western part of Texas, and some of the sparsely-settied Territories, containing a pioneer population, generally of small means, we can better appreciate the immense suffering it must. have entailed and the severe shock given thereby to the agriculture of the WTest.




AGRICULTURAL BEARING 6F THE SUBJECT. 123





CHAPTER IV.

AGRICULTURAL BEARING OF THE LOCUST PROBLEM.

This particular aspect of the "locust problem" is the one of most importance to the people at large, to the citizens of the infested districts, and to our notional authorities; it is also, doubtless, the one in which Congress feels the most interest; in tact, it embraces the chief object for which the commission was created. Here we are expected to meet and answer the questions, What has been and what is likely to be the effect of locust visitations upon the agricultural development of the great West? It is not difficult to answer the first of these questions. This has already been done, in part, in the foregoing chapter, but will be further considered in a more general manner in this. But the second is the one in reference to which there is most anxiety, and in regard to which the people and our national authorities are most desirous of obtaining information.
We will therefore consider these questions briefly in the order given, but, at the same time, desire that it be understood we cannot undertake to answer fully the second until we have completed our investigations, as there are some important links in the history of these insects which are yet in obscurity.
The direct injury to the agricultural districts of the West is somewhat fully shown in the preceding chapter. The manner in which an injury is inflicted often has a "much more disastrous or paralyzing effect than the injury itself. Ten per cent. loss on the wheat or corn crop of a State, if caused by excessive rains or dry weather, or, if it be the result of some secret insect foe, as the wire-worm, grub-worm, or chinch-bug, will excite no alarm; but, if an invading swarm of locusts swoop down suddenly and unexpectedly upon an agricultural district and in a few hours destroy one field in ten, a feeling of alarm at once takes hold of the entire farming community, and the paralyzing effect is far greater than if twice the amount had been destroyed by some slow and more usual process. If this is repeated for two, three, or four years in succession the discouraging effect is increased in like ratio. But, if instead of a loss of ten per cent. an entire crop is destroyed, a feeling of alarm takes hold not only of the farmers but of the entire population of the visited area, especially if it be a newly-settled district, as our Western States and Territories. In oriental countries, where the people have long been accustomed to such visitations and have learned to expect them, the paralyzing effect, as a matter of course, is not so great; but our western districts are occupied by a population heretofore unaccustomed to such injuries, and hence the shock which the agriculture of those sections




124 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

receives is much greater than it would be if, by long experience, the people had become accustomed to such visitations.
The struggling pioneer who has managed, with his limited means and with no force but himself and family, to break the sod of a forty-acre tract and plant his corn, and then sees it swept away in a single 'day by a swarm of hungry locusts, is necessarily greatly discou raged. If this is repeated for two or three years in succession, or even in the course of a few years, he is forced to give up the contest and seek a home in some other section.
Hundreds and thousands of exactly such cases as this were to be found in the border States during the series of locust visitations which occurred between 1873 and 1877. The tales of their hardships told in letters sent back to their friends had their effect, and for a time the tide of emigration not only ceased but turned back, and hundreds, perhaps thousands, of homes were left untenanted, and fields uncultivated. Nor is it strange that such should be the case; the only wonder is that, under the circumstances, so many continued to struggle so long and so bravely.
As a natural consequence, business of all kinds was in a great degree suspended, improvements stopped, and the development of the country checked. Although rich in material and life-sustaining resources, and abounding in fertility and productive forces, they were in a great degree negatived or rendered valueless for these four years by the visitations of an insect scarcely more than an inch in length. So widespread was the devastation and so severe the scourge that State and national aid was deemed necessary to assist in staying it. As a result of this feeling the legislatures of some of the western States were convened, and the meeting of governors at Omaha, heretofore mentioned, was called. The following extract from Governor Pillsbury's address at the Omaha meeting sets forth in strong colors the distress and uneasiness we have alluded to:
I shall not attempt any details of the prolonged visitation of the destructive insects, from which several States are now suffering. Most of you are doubtless familiar with the sad experience of many localities in your several States, where the people have suffered continuously, to the last extremity of endurance. In my own State the ravages have thus far been confined to a comparatively small belt along our western and northorn borders, but within this area many localities have suffered an almost total loss of crops for four years in succession, and with these people the question is fast assum-. ing the vital alternative of exterminating the peSts, or being exterminated by them.
The following brief extracts from the committee report, resolutions, &c., of that meeting indicate the general feeling and views of those present on this point:
The Rocky Mountain locust, or grasshopper, by its migrations from Territory to Territory and from State to State, destroying millions of dollars' worth of the bard earnir'gs of the western farmers, crippling the progress of the border States, and retarding tiji settlement of thje TeL~rritor~ies, has become a national plague. Its injuries are of such magnitude that no effort should be left untried that will be likely to diminish or avert them. (FroLa committee report.)



EFFECT IN THE FUTURE. 125

The scourge of the grasshoppers or locusts has become so alarming, during the last two years, a to seriously threaten the prosperity of many of the States and Territories. (From Governor Pennington's resolution.)
These cts, together with the statement of the losses sustained as given in the previous chapter, make it evident that the locust visitations in these States and Territories have been a serious drawback upon the agricultural progress of the West.

WHAT IS LIKELY TO BE THE EFFECT IN THE FUTURE.

The favorable result of the agricultural operations last season, brought about in great part by the character of the weather, but in part by the determination with which the farmers contended with their insect foes, has to a great extent restored confidence. Emigration has again set in, and the older residents having learned by experience means of protecting their crops against the ravages of the young locusts, now feel themselves more able to cope with the difliculty than formerly. Yet a repetition of the invasions so recently ended, unless long deferred, would be a severe blow to the agriculture of these western sections, and would cause those seeking new homes to hesitate long before running the risk of having the results of their toil and labor destroyed by this severe scourge.
We firmly believe, as we have again and again asserted, and which so far the facts seem to bear out, that the locusts can never become permanent residents of the border States; that the long series of visitations so recently ended was unusual and is not likely to be repeated for a long time, most probably not in the present century. Our belief, as a matter of course, is based upon the evidence furnished by the past and not upon any prophetic knowledge of the future. If we could foretell the character of the seasons for these coming years, we could then predict with more certainty the movements of the locusts. If there is a succession of dry years like those recently passed we may look for a recurrence of invasions.
A knowledge of the history and habits of the species has a tendency to remove much of the alarm they excite, and when the past season closed without fresh swarms from the native breeding grounds, thus verifying our predictions, and the people saw that the series of visitations had come to an end, there was a very evident feeling of relief; not only because of a crop saved, but because it was an evidence that the locusts had not become permanent residents.
The benefit arising from the appointment of this commission was experienced more immediately and palpably in this connection than any other. Although the object for which it was authorized was to investigate the history and habits of the locusts and suggest such remedies as would be most effectual in counteracting them, yet the members felt it incumbent upon them to devote attention first to the immediate danger




126 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

apprehended from the young insects, and so far as possible to allay the fear and apprehension of invading swarms. And they feel warranted in saying that in tDis respect their efforts were crowned with more favorable results than could have been expected.
The relation of the locust problem to the condition of the country as to humidity or aridity is so intimate that it canuot.be thoroughly understood without a kDowledge of the latter, nor is it likely that a complete solution will ever be found so long as the and condition of a large portion of the West remains as it is.
The migratory babit of locusts, whether in the Eastern or Western CODtineDt. is now known to be directly or indirectly attributable to the and condition of the area in which they originate. It is only in broad and extensive and comparatively barren regions that we find them perpetuating their race and maintaining their migratory habits. Such areas form the great hives in which they multiply and from which they pour forth the vast hordes that fall upon the more fertile surrounding districts. This fact has been known and understood for ages past; and numerous facts, gathered in recent years, show that where man by his folly has converted fertile, districts into barren areas, these, likewise, become the home and prolific hives of the migratory locust.
As is shown elsewhere, the eastern limit of the movements of our migratory species is along the eastern line of Minnesota, middle line of Iowa, and western border of Missouri; but if from any cause these StIltes should ever become as arid as the plains lying west of them, then the locust-swarms will be seen moving eastward across the Mississippi in search of more fertile fields. It is evident, therefore, that the final and complete solution of the locust problem depends to a certain extent upon the possibility of modifyiDg, to some degree at least, the aridity of the great plains of the Northwest, which undoubtedly form the Dative breediDg-grotinds of these insects.
By most persons this will be considered equivalent to saying that the locust problem will never be solved. It would scarcely be proper for us here to enter into a discussion of the question of the possibility of modifying the condition of the dry area, but 'we cannot, refrain from placing upon record our protest against any such conclusion as this. That man, with a mind that can bring art, science, and mechanics to the perfection now visible on every band, must be forever unable to convert the desert into fertile fields, or to redeem the waste places of earth, we cannot believe, unless we are shown that the moisture which once supplied these areas has forever taken its departure from our globe.
To what extent these dry arem of the West can be supplied with water and rendered fertile must be determined by those who are proficient in this particular branch of science; but, that large sections can be redeemed by proper efforts, if made on a scale of sufficient magnitude, we have no doubt.
By utilizing all the water that flows down from the mountains for the




MODIFICATION OF WESTERN COUNTRY. 127

purposes o irrigation ; by collecting in reservoirs the winter supply and distributing it in the growing season, a very large section of these plains might be brought under cultivation, and extensive forests grown where now the surface is naked and barren. Every field brought into cultivaLion, every grove planted, and every square yard added to the water surface of these dry regions, is just so far a step toward the ultimate solution of the locust problem ; and the nearer these can be brought to their native home the more effectual will they be in rooting them out. If extensive efforts in this direction were made in British America, north of Montana, also in Eastern Montana. Western Dakota, and the regions around the Black Hills, it would not only be of immense benefit in supplying new agricultural fields for emigrants from -orthern Europe, but would be a great step toward the final solution of the locust problem. It would also be a most effectual method of settling the Indian question in this region. Just what can be done in the way of redeering these areas we cannot say, but when their settlement depends upon it, and the welfare of a much larger area south and west also depends upon it, certainly the question is worthy of consideration by our national authorities.
The day is not far distant when our national government will be compelled to meet this important question and to test the ability of man to accomplish the work.
The progress of settlement westward must necessarily be slow when it, as is now beginning to be the case, impinges upon the sterile area; it can only push onward when the front line is backed by a dense population and farms studded with groves. It is possible that if there were no other impediments to overcome than this sterility, formidable as it is, the gradual filling up of the border area with an active population would modify the conditions sufficiently, at least, to allow the pushing into and redemption of a belt of considerable breadth. But when to this difficulty is added the devouring locust the hope of success is greatly diminished.
It requires no high degree of scientific attainments or profound knowledge of physical laws to arrive at a conclusion in reference to the point we are discussing. If the conditions remain as they are, and the locusts are not annihilated they will continue to reproduce and migrate. As the arable areas of the West will soon become absolutely necessary for our rapidly growing population, it follows that without some modifying influence in one or the other of these directions, toward a change of conditions or toward annihilation, there is no hope but for a continual warfare on the part of the western farmers with these insect foes. Learning the history and habits of the species will do much good in the way of enabling the agriculturist to contend to much better advantage; to take advantage of every favorable influence and to be far more successful in defending his crops than he could possibly be without this knowledge. It will also enable him to so modify his



128 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.'

method as to reduce the loss and the cost and labor of defending his crops to a minimum. It will, in a, great measure, do away with that feeling of alarm the locusts usually inspire. But still the warfare will go on indefinitely. While it is almost certain that, on account of the wide-spread area of the West in which the migratory species appears to be indigenous, including in. its bounds a large extent of mountain country, it will be impossible by any practicable means to utterly exterminate it, yet there are strong grounds for believing that a complete knowledge of its history, habits, and habitats will render it possible to prevent, in a great measure, its disastrous ineursious into the Mississippi Valley.
We may say truly that one step has been accomplished, for the experience of last season has sufficed to convince the farmers and citizens of the locust-visited sections when another contest comes they will be able to defend their crops from the young insects.
We feel justified, therefore, in affirming that, although favorable seasons for their development will in all probability cause their return at irregular periods, they will never cause such alarm in the future as they bave in the past; and that although they may occasionally cause a temporary check, to, they never can entirely bar, the agricultural progress of the vast area they lately so fearfully ravaged.
Simply fighting these insects fortunately does not exhaust the remedies in the power of the agriculturists of these sections. The facts ascertained render it quite probable, in fact almost certain, that even should the incursions of the locusts continue to occur in the future, and Do means of preventing this be found, a modification in the methods of farmiDg or a change in agricultural operations can be adopted which will render the effect of these invasions comparatively harmless.
As a rule, which has few if any exceptions, the invading swarms do Dot make their appearance in the Mississippi Valleyuntil the latter part of July or first of August. By this time wheat, barley, and oats have generally reached perfection and been harvested. This fact renders it possible to anticipate these swarms and prevent serious injury by relying chiefly upon. these crops when there is reason to fear their incursions.
If the hatching grounds from which these swarms usually come can be definitely ascertained, and the national government, by means of the Signal-Service Corps or otherwise, will take measures to give notice in advance of heavy egg-deposits in. this area, the farmers, by planting small grains, may thus prevent any serious injury by them when they arrive. This remedial measure applies more -particularly to the, central and southern sections, as Nebraska and Iowa and sdutbward. In these sections it appears to be also true as a general rule that the young locusts acquire wings and commence migrating sufficiently early in the season to allow corn of rapid growth to be produ ed after they depart. Hence when the ground is full of eggs and Young locusts are expected



NEED OF JUDGMENT IN PLANTING. 129

in large numbers in the following spring, corn should be relied on as the chief crop.
By adopting this plan of alternating the crops according to the locust status, the injurious effects of both visiting hordes and resulting broods would be very materially lessened.
This plan, as a matter of course, is less applicable in the northern section, where the growing season is shorter and where wheat and small grains come to perfection later in the season. But it is thought by Mr. Taylor, of Manitoba, that by selecting the variety of corn of quickest growth it may be pushed forward to perfection by the time the locusts usually make their appearance. Be this as it may, still it is possible that even here, by a judicious system of cropping, much of the loss which would otherwise be occasioned by these insects may be avoided.
As a general rule the pioneer population of these Western States anld Territories consists of individuals of small means who are compelled ibr the first few years to devote most of their attention to breaking sod, preparing a habitation, and producing food for themselves and stock. Corn is chiefly relied upon, as the seed costs but little, and it aflfords food for both man and beast, and in the broad timberless sections may also be used for fuel. Wheat is the chief crop by which money can he obtained to purchase clothing and other necessaries which cannot be produced on the farm. It is therefore next to impossible for these persons during the first few years after they settle to alternate their crops. But those who have been longer in the country and have made sufficient headway may do this and thus prevent the general distress occasioned by locust invasions. It would also be wise for those who are in a position that will enable them to do so, to diversify their agricultural operaions more than is the custom in these sections. Pease, and the varioust root-crops, such as turnips, potatoes, rutabagas, mangel-wurzel, &c., which answer well for food for stock, are generally less injured than the grains, and should be partially relied upon in years when it is probable the locusts will appear.
The broad prairies of the Northwest are naturally adapted for grazing and seem to be intended for the great wool and beef producing area of that part of the United States east of the Rocky Mountain range; and if this fact were fully appreciated and acted upon as it might be, one great step toward meeting the difficulty would be made. The grasshoppers do but comparatively little injury to the grass, and hence the stock-raisers and herdsmen look with comparative indifference on these visitations. The meat and wool markets are no more likely to be overstocked than the wheat and corn markets, and as the cholera has rendered the raising of hogs an uncertain and precarious business, the meat supply must come chiefly from the pasture of our country. Here, then, is presented one method at least of partially meeting the difficulty.
We present these thoughts, not with a view of urging their adoption exactly as given, but for the purpose of suggesting to the farmers of the West plans by which the difficulty may be in part, at least, overcome,
9G




130 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

even should no method of preventing locust invasions be found. The.s-e plans. as a matter of course, may have to be modified as experience will show to be necessary ; and what is applicable in one section may be uinsuited to another-this can only be ascertained by experience.
Among the questions propounded in the circular (No. 1) which we sent out in the early part of the season, were the following:
"GNo. 12, crops which suffered most."
"No. 14, crops which suffered least."
The answers to these questions, so far as received from Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Dakota, will be found in Appendix 20. From these it appears that crops which suffered most stand about in the following ratio:
Wheat, 100; barley, 33; oats, 30; corn, 26.
Those which suffered least as follows:
Pease, 100; corn, 53; sorghum, 33; oats, 30; potatoes, 2.
While this method of aggregating the replies may and perhaps does present a generally correct idea as to the comparative injury to crops, the ratio cannot be relied upon for several reasons, among which we may mention the following:
.crop generally grown in one section is seldom grown in another. Some crops are much less common than others, and hence are not so often mentioned in the replies. If we take Minnesota, from which most replies were received, and where wheat and pease are more largely pro,duced in proportion to corn than in either of the other States named, the ratio will stand as follows:
Injured most.-Wheat, 100; oats, 37; barley, 37; corn, 9; flax, 9.
-Injured least.-Pease7 100; oats, 38; c orn, 31; sorghum,7 21; potatoes. 17,
In Nebraska the ratio is as follows:
.Inured most.-Wheat, 100; corn, 32; barley, 14.
hT~nured least.-Corn, 100; sorghum, 66; pease, 33; wheat 33.
It is evident, from all the facts we have obtained, that wheat suffers
-most from the young insects, to which, as a matter of course, the replies alluded toapply; but that corn suffers most from the invading swarms, of the field crops.
The replies are evidently intended to apply chiefly to the question of preference in plants shown by young insects. In reference to this point, we may state, as the result of our inquiries and observations, that they are excessively fond of the vegetables grown in gardens; of the field crops they appear to give a decided preference to wheat and barley over corn and oats. As between the last two the testimony is conflicting, but it appears to preponderate to the view that oats are preferred to corn. There appears to be no doubt that pease suffer least of any field ,crops; sorghum and broom-corn appear to stand next in the list of those least liable to injury. The native prairie grass suffers but little from the attacks either of the young or invading insects, while, on the other hand, cultivated grapes appear to be almost as liable to injury as the small grains.




BREEDING GROUNDS OF THE LOCUST. 131



CHAPTER V.

PERMANENT BREEDING GROUNDS OF TIE ROCKY
MOUNTAIN LOCUST.

Previous to the year 1877 our knowledge of the extent of the breeding grounds of the Rocky Mountain locust (Ca loptenus sjretus) was vague and unsatisfactory. It was known that the swarms invading the Mississippi Valley mainly came from portions of Wyoming, Montana, and the region in British America lying north of this territory, but to attempt to map out the area and to determine its extent was impossible. From the data obtained, either directly by the Commission or from its correspondents, we are enabled to present a more or less definite statement regarding the extent of the region, and to indicate it upon a map, which, besides showing the geographical distribution of the species and its migrations, indicates the annual or permanent breeding grounds of this locust, its less permanent or subpermanent breeding grounds (Subpernanent Region), and the region only periodically visited, i. e., the Tern. porary Region.
PERMANENT REGION.

The area in which the locust breeds each year in greater or less numbers is approximately 300,000 square miles; further explorations may increase this area, particularly in Idaho and Montana.
It is not to be inferred that the locust breeds continuously over the whole extent of this area each year, as it is to be understood that the locust within its native, permanent habitat is essentially migratory in its habits, and while for a series of years it may deposit its eggs in a given river valley, in some park, or in some favorable area on the plains lying about the mountains; in a certain year, or for several years in succession, it may desert its customary breeding grounds for adjoining regions, or cross a low range of mountains and breed in a more distant valley. Moreover, the true breeding grounds in this area are for the most part confined to the river bottoms, or sunny slopes of uplands, or to the subalpine grassy areas among the mountains, rather than continuously over the more elevated, dry, bleak plains. For example, over the great range of the plains east of the mountains, where the buffalo grass alone grows, we have no evidence that the larger swarms originate, and where they do, at times, it will be probably found that the locusts hatched in the prairie land bordering the streams in. tersecting the plains, rather than on the drier, less fertile plains themselves. In Central Montana the breeding grounds are, for example,





132 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

known to be situated in the valleys of the Yellowstone, the Upper Missouri, the Sun and Marias Rivers, the Gallatin, Madison, and Jefferson Rivers, and the adjacent grassy plains or prairies bordering their tributaries. All these levels lie below an altitude of 5,000 or 6,000 feet, and usually not over 3,000 to 5,000 feet.
The approximate area in which the locust permanently breeds lies for the most part directly east of the true or main Rocky Mountain Range, the breeding grounds west of the range being comparatively limited. Perhaps one-fourth or one-fifth of the area lies in the lower cations, parks (old lake basins), and valleys situated among the Rocky Mountains. This area lies mainly between longitude 1020 and 1140 west of Greenwich and latitude 530 and 400 north.
Such, in general terms, are the limits of the native and permanent breeding-grounds of this locust, and from which the destructive swarms issue in comparatively slight numbers west and south, but in certain years enormous quantities east, to ravage the States lying west of the Mississippi River and east of the Great Plains.
To enter more into detail, and beginning with that portion of British America lying north of Montana, the Commission have no doubt but that all the region lying south of the forest line and south of the 53d parallel of latitude, including the lower half of the valley of the North Saskatchewan as far north as Fort Pitt, is annually inhabited by the Rocky Mountain locust.
In the northwest, the limits do not quite reach Fort Edmonton. On the west, the line follows the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains, though it is possible that the western barrier above the 50th parallel of latitude may be the Selkirk Mountains."8
The eastern limits of the permanent breeding grounds we may set down approximately as longitude 1040-105o west of Greenwich. The region between this line and the Rocky Mountains is a treeless, elevated plateau, rising gradually from an elevation of about 2,000 feet (Fort Buford is 2,017 feet elevation) to 4,000 or 6,000 feet (Fort Shaw is 6,000 feet, Fort Ellis 4,747 feet, Helena 4,296 feet, Gallatin City 4,132 feet elevation). It is possible that we have drawn the eastern limits of this area too arbitrarily, and that it may follow the line of the Coteau of the Missouri, at least within the limits of Dakota. The northern and eastern limits of the plains are indicated on the map by the line indicating the northern limits of the true prairie land. "I but there is reason to believe 'rNorth of the 49th parallel the Rocky Mountains are now known to extend to the Peace River, and even farther northward, to near the mouth of the MacKenzie, and to maintain throughout niuch the same g~iolgicad character with that of their southern portion. The P)urcell. Selkirk. Colum bia, Cariboo and farther north the Omineca Mountains may be taken collectively as the representatives of the Bitter Root Uanges of Idaho. Tlhe interior plateau of British Columbia represents the great basin of Utah and Nevada, but north of the southern sources of the Columbia this region is not self-contained as to its drainage, but discharges its waters to the Pacific.-IG. M. Dawson's general note on the mines and minerals of' economic value of lritish Columbia, Geological Survey of Canada, 1877.] '9 This and the southern limits of the true forests are taken fromn dati published in Palliser's map, and r'prdu1ced in a 1iap1 of the country to be traversed by the Canadian Pacific Railway.-[Salford Fleminn, engineer in chief, 1d76.1




PERMANENT BREEDING GROUNDS. 133

that the locust breeds in the belt of land lying between the northern limits of prairie and the southern limits of true forests, also indicated on the map.
This region of the Great Plains extends southward, embracing the area drained by the Missouri River and its tributaries and headwaters, west of the 203d meridian, and including the entire Yellowstone Valley except the Belt Mountains and their spurs, the wooded region and mountains about the Yellowstone Lake, and the Wind River Mountains southward, also including the more elevated portion of the plateau from which the Black Mountains rise.
Although the Rocky Mountains, Bitter Root, and Wind River Ranges are excluded partly because we know little of those mountains, which have not been explored by entomologists, yet there are doubtless a good many cafions, river valleys, and parks lying at their base where the locust may locally abound, and from which in years of unusual abundance swarms may pass out to join those originating in the areas where they are known to multiply to an excess.
Of the large area forming over half of the Territory of Idaho, and lying between the Bitter Ioot Range and the valley of the Snake River, we know nothing whatever. No naturalist, much less entomologist, has explored this region, which is mainly drained by the Salmon River, though there are small settlements scattered through it, such as Lemhi, Florence, Elk City, Millersberg, Oro Fino, and C(eur d'Alene Mission on the north, from whence we have been able to obtain no information whatever as to the presence or absence of the locust. The origin of the swarms of locusts that have in certain years locally devasted the region about Lewiston, Walla Walla, and the Pataha Valley is not certainly known, though we suplpose that they have originated in the Snake River Valley, south of latitude 450 30, though some of them may have hatched in the Bitter Root Valley, or even in the valleys on the western flanks of the range. There seems good reasons for regarding the entire valley of the Snake River, from near its headwaters near Henry's Lake and the Teton Range to a little below the mouth of Powder River, in Oregon, as more or less permanently inhabited by the locust, excepting the dry and barren region northwest of Great Salt Lake, concerning which we have no information.
We have ventured to indicate on the map a large area of the Snake River Valley, wesE of the 14th meridian, as a permanent and native breeding ground, from data, however, much more meager than we could desire.
Of the region indicated on the map and lying directly north of the Great Salt Lake, we have such tull and satisfactory information, derived from the personal examination of two of the Commissioners, that we feel sure that the limits are accurate so far as drawn, though the area may prove to be larger than we have ventured to indicate. Records from the year 1851 show that with rare exceptions the Malade and




134 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Cache Valleys have been annually more or less devastated. The swarms have invariably originated in the region to the north, in the valley of the Gallatin, Madison, and Jefferson Rivers. The area extends southward to Salt Lake City. The remaining portion of Utah is more or less barren, dry, and sandy, affording no pasturage sufficient to yield food to large numbers of locusts, or grasshoppers of any sort. Nearly all that visit the Salt Lake Valley come from the 3ear River, Cache and Malade Valleys, while a few probably originate iA the region east of the Wahsatch Mountains, and some may fly over from Western Colorado.
The State of Nevada affords no feeding grounds for the locust, for the same reason that they do not breed in the greater part of Utah, viz, the hot, dry, barren soil affording no grassy plains or fertile river-bottoms for the maintenance of extensive swarms of locusts, except in the valley of the Owyhee River, a limited tract in Northeastern Nevada. For the same reason Arizona and New Mexico are not the permanent abode of the Rocky Mountain locust.
A large and important area remains to be described, viz, that watered by the upper North Platte River and its tributaries, especially that portion of the Platte called the Sweetwater River, east of the 104th meri. dian. This area also includes the plains and valleys lying north and south of the Union Pacific Railroad, the valley of the South Platte west of longitude 1050 30', and the upper Arkansas River, west of the same meridian. West of the Rocky Mountain Range the area probably includes the head-waters of the Yampah or Bear, the Snake and Green River Valleys, north of the 41st parallel. South of this parallel the region, which with our present information on a map of this size can be only approximately drawn, includes the Rocky Mountain Range. In this range the permanent breeding grounds are restricted mainly to the elevated (8,000 or 9,000 feet) North, Middle, and South Parks, and to valleys lying below them, as well as to the areas more favorable to the propagation of the grasshopper lying among the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountaius and the plains immediately adjacent. As a matter of fact, the farming regions lying near the range, as at Greeley, Denver, and the neighboring towns, are exposed to visitations in those years when the locusts multiply unduly in the permanent area, and it is doubtful just where the line between the loot-hills and plains in which these towns are situated should be drawn. Without much doubt, most of the swarms which devastate the farming portion of Colorado are mostly foreign to the'State, and originate in Wyoming; while a few, sometimes, however, large and destructive, fly over the range from Western Colorado,
In conclusion, it will be seen that the areas marked on the map as forming the native or permanent breeding grounds of the Rocky Mountain locust comprise nearly all the available farming regions in the imnense area of the United States lying between the 104th and 120th meridians. We shall be compelled to look squarely in the face the unpleasant fact that the sections in this ai-ea best adapted to agriculture,




THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST A SUB-BOREAL INSECT. 135

and especially the raising of grain, are those where the locust breeds in greatest profusion, and where the climatic conditions are all favorable to its propagation.
On the other hand, it seems obvious that the more that is done by farmers in the future in destroying the young locusts within this permanent area, the more likely will their combined efforts, carried on from year to year, tend to the ultimate destruction of the locusts. And it follows that the more extensively this region is settled, the more will the locusts diminish in numbers. It is, then, only a question of time, and of immediate effort on the part of the present gen eration of tfirmers.
Another fact is established andt proved by study of the distribution of the breeding grounds of this species of locust. While Caloptenus fcmurrubrum, the common red-legged locust, and C. atlanis, the lesser red-legged locust, have an immense natural range, breeding annually in abuindance from Middle Florida to near the Arctic Circle or northern limit of forests, on the east and westward ranging as far south, app)roxilately, as the 40th parallel in Utah and California, C. sprctus is permanently restricted to an area north of the 40th parallel, only extending southward along the Rocky M)untain Range,or periodically visiting the Great Basin south of this parallel. On the other hand, its more extensive and continuous breeding grounds lie north of the 42d parallel and on the elevated plateau of the Rocky Mountains above an altitude of 2.500-3,000 feet. It breeds in destructive numbers in the Rocky Mountains south of this parallel, between 5,000 and 8,000 feet elevation. North of the 53d parallel it does not probably extend, and it is not so boreal and even subarctic an insect as the two previously named species, both of which occur on the summit of Mount Washington, in -New Hampshire, while C. atlanis ranges as far north, on the Pacific Coast, as the Yukonl River.
It would be safe to regard Caloptonus spretus or the Rocky 1Mountain locust as a north subtemperate or sub-boreal insect, viz, an inhabitant of what is called by naturalists the north subtemperate zone of lite, situated between the annual isothermals of 500 and 3604. In vertical distribution it may be said to breed from an altitude of about 2,000 feet up as far as 10,000 feet, or near the timber line in the Rocky Mountains, though few probably breed in great numbers above an altitude of 8,000 feet. The elevated plains of Colorado, Northern Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, where it breeds so abundantly, correspond in a general way to the rather lower plains of Northern Montana and British America. The Rocky Mountain locust, then, like the antelope, the Rocky Mountain sheep, the prairie dog, the bison (as now restricted in its range), pouched marmot, and a number of peculiar birds, reptiles, insects, crustacea, and many trees and plants, is a form purely characteristic of the central #The boreal zone, in North America. comprises the Canadian and American subarctic zownc. While C.ftmur-rubrum (and probably C. atlani) ranges from the subarctic zone, through the I ireal. Can.adian, Alleghanian, Carolinian, and Floridan belts, spretus ranges permanently through what cot responds in the central region of the continent to the Alleghanian or subteniperate and Carolinian or tomierate sone or divisions. There are some features in the animal lift o(,f this central province which strikingly recall the forms characteristic of the steppes and plateaus of Northeastern Asia.




136 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

zoogeograpbical province of North America, not occurring in the Pacific province or in the eastern or Atlantic provinces, except in the latter periodically.
SUPERM1ANENT REGION.

II. The region in which the locust breeds less permanently, but is liable to be invaded each year when it multiplies in excessive numbers in its truly permanent breeding or hatching grounds, lies immediately east of the 104th or 105th meridians, on the elevated plains east of the Rocky Mountains. The altitude of this area constantly diminishes eastward until in elevation and the character and contour of the soil it fades into the region intermediate between the plains and the prairies of the western edge of the Mississippi Valley.
The eastern limits extend north of the 45th parallel to the 97th meridian approximately. From Fort Ransom, on the Cheyenne River, the line demarking the eastern limits curve southward and westward to Pueblo City, Colo. This region includes a large portion of British America between the United States boundary line and latitude 530 north, and between the 97th and 104th or 105th meridians. It includes nearly all of Dakota, the western third of Nebraska (now mostly unsettled), the extreme northwest corner of Kansas, and comprises the northern half of Colorado, east of the Rocky Mountains.
Between the permanent and subpermanent breeding area there are no natural barriers, one region shading imperceptibly into the other, the limits between them being arbitrarily drawn.

TEMPORARY REGION.

III. This region is represented on the map by the dotted area east of the great plains. South of the 42d parallel, and west of the limits of the subpermanent breeding grounds, the region is nearly correct; but in. Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana the limits are only approximately given, and are liable to future correction.



CHAPTER VI.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

As the preceding chapter, on the "native breeding grounds," contains as complete a statement of the nature and extent of these as we are able to give from our present information, and the chapter on "imigrations" contains a somewhat full account of the movements of the swarms within the area overrun by them, we shall devote this chapter simply to tracing the extreme limits of the migrations, or, in other words, the bounds of the locust-visited area, and to an explanation of what we term the "subpermanent region." I




EASTERN LIMIT OF SPREAD. 137

THE EASTERN LIMIT OF MIGRATIONS.

As will be found stated elsewhere, the eastern limit of their range, although marked by no permanent, natural barrier, such as a mountain range or large body of water, is probably as well defined and as rigidly fixed as it is by the forest-clad Sierra of Nevada on the west. Although the highest ranges and loftiest peaks of the Rocky Mountain belt from British America to New Mexico seem to offer no impediment to their movements, and to form no part of the boundary-line of their native breeding grounds or migrations, yet we can mark along the level or undulating prairies of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Indian Territory, and Texas, almost with the precision of a surveyor, the utmost limit of their movements eastward. Why a swarm driven by a northwest wind, when approaching this limit, should drop down rather than move onward to the east of the Mississippi will be discussed elsewhere. All we have to deal with here is the fact which authorizes us to fix this line as the eastern boundary of their movements, not of one or two years, but generally. If it were the limit of the flight of invading swarms, we might conclude that it simply marked the terminus of their flight, and hence bad no real limital value, but when resulting swarms are seen in hundreds of cases stopping at it, although not exhausted or wearied by length of flight, we may reasonably conclude that this is the limit of their range, whether we can assign a satisfactory reason for it or not.
It is due to the memory of Mr. Walsh, formerly State entomologist of Illinois, to state here that he was the first who expressed the belief that these locusts would never cross the Mississippi River. This opinion was stated in the following language, in October, 1866 (Practical Entomologist, vol. i, p. 5):
I do not think that it is at all probable that these Colorado grasshoppers will over cross the Mississippi, as the Colorado potato-bug has done, and pass onward to the Eastern States. In the latter case there were physical obstacles to the eastward spread of the insect previous to the settlement of the Rocky Mountain region. But in the case of the Colorado grasshopper there was no such obstacle; and as they [have] not heretofore spread eastward there is no reason to believe that they will do so hereafter.
In his first annual report" as acting State entomologist of Illinois, published in 1868, is a somewhat lengthy article on these insects, in which he discusses more at length this subject, fixing the eastern limit of their range in Iowa in Polk County, or 115 miles" west of the Mississippi. He mentions also their eastern extension in Minnesota to Anoka County; in Southern Iowa, to Clarke and Page Counties; in Northwestern Missouri, to Nodaway County; in Texas, to Red River, Hunt, Austin, and Lavaca Counties. As will be seen hereafter, three of 'these counties, Anoka, in Minnesota; Clarke, in Iowa; and Red River, in Texas, mark the extreme eastern limit in their respective latitudes, and the others adjoin or lie near the most eastern counties to which the locusts have since extended their migrations.
The eastern limit in Missouri is defined in Mr. Riley's account of the




138 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

invasion of 1874, as, given in his seventh annual reprot. With the exception of a single county, visited in 1877, the migrations have not extended east of the line as marked o'i his map in that report.
We will now give a list of points along the eastern limit to which we have positive knowledge that the migrations of the locusts have extended; a few points further east have been mentioned as among those visited, but the testimony in reference to them is too doubtful and. uncertain to be used in fixing this eastern line. In connection with the points mentioned, the authority from whom the information has been obtained is given in all cases, except where the facts have been ascertained by the Commission since its organization. Where limits previously fixed were reached by swarms in 1877, we have relied upon our own data; hence in such cases no authority is mentioned. This arrangement will enable the reader to note the points along this line which the Commission has been able to determine from observations made in 1877. It will also enable him to mark the eastern range of flights for that year.
British Amnerica.-According to Prof. (G. M. Dawson, movements toward the northeast have extended to the southern end of Lake Winnipeg. From the reports received and recorded by him it is quite probable that their migrations at this northern extremity of the visited area have extended as far east as the 96th meridian. He also records their appearance in 1875 at "Northwest Angle," Lake of the Woods. The swarm seen passingr this point moved onward toward the southeast.
Minnesota and Wisconsin.-From. the Lake of the Woods southward to the line of the NSorthern Pacific Railroad, with the exception of Indian villages on the reservations, there are no settlements, consequently no data from this area have been received, except some verbal reports that swarms of grasshoppers have been seen (no date given) at Red Lake and Leech Lake stations. From the latter point southward the line through these States is represented by the following counties: Cass, Aitkin (Thorn. as, observation in person in 1872), Benton, and Sherburne., Anoka (1856-'57 Walsh), Ramsey, Dakota, Pierce (Wisconsin), Dodge, and the extreme southeast4 corner of M~ower. Iow'a.-The following counties in Iowa indicate the eastern limits of the migrations ini that State: Eastern line of Mitchell, Floyd, Butler, and Grandy; Tama and Poweshiek; Warren and Clark (1867, Walsh); and Taylor. A flight over Appanoose County in 1876 is reported, but this is very doubtful. Mr. Walsh also mentions reported flights in the neighborhood of Dabuque, but the evidence is not entirely satisfactory in reference to the flights or the species. It is possible that now and then a light swarm may be driven beyond what is the usual limit, but we are not tracing these at present, our object in this chapter being to fix as accurately as possible the true limits of their geographical distribution.
Jlissouri.-The following counties along the eastern limit of their movements in Missouri were visited in 1877: Polk, Dade, Lawrence, and




NORTHERN LIMIT OF SPREAD. 139

Barry; the rest of the line through the State is that which was designated by Mr. Riley, in his seventh report, as the eastern limit of their incursion in 1874, which passes through the following counties: Harrison, Daviess, Caldwell, Ray, Lafayette, Pettis, Benton, and Hickory.
Arkansas.-In Arkansas, only the extreme northwest portion appears to have been visited since 1867, at which time, according to the Monthly Report, of the Agricultural Department, they penetrated to Montgomery County. Since then, Mr. Riley's reports up to 1876, and our own correspondence for 1377, show that their incursions into this State have extended only over Carroll, Benton, and Washington Counties.
Indian Territory.-The data in reference to movements in Indian Territory are very meager : that they have reached the eastern boundary as far south as Washington County, Arkansas, since 1867 is certain; that they have also extended east of Fort Gibson is also known positively. The next point south of this reached since 1867, of which we have any certain knowledge, is Grayson County, Texas. But in 1867, when their migrations extended eastward to Montgomery County, Arkansas, they also reached Red River County, Texas; hence, in all probability, including all of Indian Territory.
Texas.-Through Texas the line may be designated by the following counties: Red River (1867, Walsh, and Monthly Rep. Agl. Dept)., Iunt, (Walsh); Anderson, Grimes, Harris, Austin, Colorado, Lavaca, Victoria, Goliad, and Live Oak.
We have been unable to trace them into any of the coast counties in this State, or to the Mexican line on the Lower Rio Grande; yet it is quite possible that swarms have been driven to the gulf shore southwest of Galveston; but the southeast limit of their range appears to be quite constant in the second tier of counties, seldom reaching nearer than thirty miles of the coast, as we are informed by the United States signalservice officers located in that part of the S ate.
By noting on a map the localities given it will be seen that the eastern limit of their range is marked by the following line: From the southern end of Lake Winnepeg, by way, of the Lake of the Woods, to Pierce County, Wisconsin; thence almost directly south to Poweshick County, Iowa; thence south west to Worth County, Missouri; thence, south through Montgomery County, Arkansas, to Houston, Texas, curving westward from this point to Live Oak County. The various bends or flexions in this line are in all probability due to the forests with which the line from the middle of Iowa southward appears to correspond. That this is the case in Southern Iowa and Missouri is certain; but in Minnesota this rule does not appear to hold good, at least to the same degree as farther south. In Manitoba the eastern and also the northern limit corresponds very closely with the timber line.



140 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

NORTHERN LIMITS.
According to Professor Dawson, who has devoted much attention to the study of the history, habits, and movements of the locusts in British America, "northward they appear to be limited by the margin-of the coniferous forest which opportunely follows the line of the North Saskatchewan River." In the Northeast they have evidently passed beyond this line, as they have been seen at Swan Lake House and occasionally at Cumberland House, showing that in this direction they occasionally penetrate to the northern end of Lake Winnipeg. Westward from this point the limit line appears to bend southward, passing between Prince Albert and Fort Carleton, following very nearly the 53d parallel by way of Battleford and Fort Pitt, running a little south of Fort Edmonton, the Battle River Valley being sometimes infested by the locusts. From near Fort Edmonton the line curves around and follows the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains down to Fort McLeod, in longitude 1130 401 latitude 490 35'. The northernmost limits, then, extend to Fort Pitt, in latitude 530 40' (approximate), and the general northern limits of the range of C. spretus extends nearly to the southern limits of the forests which lie partly upon the 53d parallel, but, in greater part, between longitude 1040 and 1140, above the pro. jected route of the Canadian Pacific Railroad.' We know nothing of the species of Caloptenus which probably inhabits the fertile area between Athabasca and Peace Rivers. Mr. H. Scudder has a specimen of Caloptenus atlanis from the Yukon River, and while it is probable that the boreal and subarctic region, north of latitude 530, is inhabited by Caloptenus allanis and femur-rubrum, which thus range from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, it is probable that the long-winged migratory spretus does not range beyond the line of coniferous trees lying along the north shore of the north branch of the Saskatchewan River.
WESTERN LIMITS.
North of latitude 440 the westernmost point in which the RockyMountain locust is known to breed abundantly at certain seasons is in the Missoula Valley, which lies on or near the 114th meridian.
Between Missoula and Lewiston there are no locust breeding grounds, so far as we know; still, as locusts were known in 1875 and 1876 to 21Since the above was put in type we have received from the author Mr. G. M. Dawson's N, tes on the Locust in the Northwest in 187i (Oanadian Naturalist, vol. viii, No. 7), in which he states: "The range of the locust is really limited to the north by the southern margin of the forsat-clad country, and may be roughly (h4ined y~ a lino nearly as follows: From the intersection of the 96th meridian and 49 h parallel ot latitude to the south end cf Lake Winncpeg, thence to Manitoba Lake and following this Iake ad Winnipegosis Lake; from the noith end of the latter westward to the Forks of theSaskatchewan. till the wooded country at the base of the Rocky Mountains is attained." 110e quotes Mr. S. D. Mulkins, of Battleford, who says: From all the information I can collect. I cannot find that the grasshopper has ever visited any of the Ihndson Bay Company's posts north of latitude 530. I have never heard that they have ever penetrated to the Peace River country . At Fort a la Corne, Prince Albert Mission, Turtle Lake, Lac la Biche, Lao la Nun, and Lac Ste. Anne, they have never been seen; and these places are all on the verge of the great forest or just within its southern limit."



WESTERN AND SOUTHERN LIMITS. 141

commit local ravages on the Pataha River, at a point 40 miles northeast of Walla Walla, there seems no doubt but that scattered broods inhabit the valley of the Snake River, and may originate in the south, near Fort Boise, or even fly over the Bitter Root Mountains from Central Montana. It is more probable that the whole valley of the Snake River, where the soil is fertile, is inhabited by locusts, from its source in the Rocky Mountain Range. Lewiston is said to have been visited by locusts, and a large swarm appeared during the past summer in Baker County. Oregon; but the westernmost point to which the locust is known to have reached is Camp Harney, about 175 miles south of Umatilla, in longitude 118D 30' west, latitude 430 30' north. At this point it has orcasionallv abounded, so that in certain years it has been impossible for the garrison to cultivate gardens. Beyond this meridian the Rocky Mountain locust has not been traced. It is not probable that flights have over been borne by winds to the eastern flank of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington Territory, as the desert, hot, dry, grassless region which forms the we-stern edge of the Great Plains of the Columbia, as have been observed by us, is much like the desert region of Nevada, with nothing but sage-bushes to support locust-life. It is not probable that any swarms pass over the Cascade Range or the Sierra Nevada, and indeed there are positive facts to the contrary, as will be seen in our chapter on the migration of the locust.
The next well-established locality in the western limits of the Rocky Mountain locust is a point on Humboldt River, a little west of Hum. boldt Station, where it was observed in considerable numbers by Mr. Thomas in 1871. -N.o specimens of Caloptenus spretus have been found in the southern portion of' Nevada, except that it has been reported at Saint Thomas, near the Utah line, and not very far from Saint George, Utah, where we know the species has been observed. It is evident, therefore, that the migrations of this species in this latitude do not extend farther west than the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada, and then only as straggling swarms from Northern Utah or Southern Idaho, and chiefly along the line of the Central Pacific Railroad.

SOUTHERN LITS.

The data we have been able to obtain for determining this line are very limited in number, and by no means satisfactory ; in fact, we may say that, so far as locust movements are concerned, this is almost terra incognita. All we can say in reference to this line is that they have been known to cross the Rio Grande at Eagle Pass, and penetrate a mile and a half into Mexico; that they have been observed in Western Texas as far as the settlements have extended; that they have penetrated INew Mexico on the northeast as far as Las Vegas and Fort Union, and have passed down in the mountain region from Colorado to Taos, and possibly farther south.




142 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

According to Mr. Taylores account, as given in the Smithsonian Report for 1858, New Mexico was overrun by them in 1855; but so far we have bee i u unable to procure any data by which to verify this statem ent ; on the contrary, all the facts ascertained seem to contradict it. -Statements have been made in reference to their migrations down the Rio Grande to the vicinity of the ilornado del Muerto, while on the contrary it is asserted they have never been seen at Santa F6. Both of these are doubtless incorrect.
We have no positive evidence in reference to the locusts in Arizona further than that they have been seen in the neighborhood of' Saint George, Utah; but the negative evidence indicates pretty clearly that, with the exception of the northern border, this territory is not subject to the visitations of the Rocky Mountain locust.
We may therefore give the boundaryso far as now known, about as follows: From Eagle Pass, Texas, to Santa F6, N. Mex., thence west along the 36th parallel of latitude to Southeastern Nevada.

SUEPERMANENT REGION.

East of the mountains, between what we have described in the precedling chapter as the "Permanent Breeding Grounds," and the more eastern section or temporary region which is visited only at irregular periods, is an irregular and not easily defined area, which forms a kind of debatable ground, which cannot be distinctly classed with either of these regions. As will be seen by reference to the chapter on migrations, the movements in the sections north of Nebraska and Iowa do not appear to be so regular as those of these States'and the area south of them. In other words, as we move northward the characteristic distinctions by which we are enabled to define the permanent breeding grounds and area periodically visited gradually fadeaway, and we enter an area where, although apparently not in their native habitats, the locusts appear more at home than farther south and southeast, i. e., they appear to be able to continue with considerable vigor for two, three, or four years in succession. There are some reasons for believing that the Coteau of the Missouri and the Coteau des Prairies have some influence in. this matter, but the facts ascertained are not sufficient for us to assert this with confidence. That the species is boreal in its habits and characters is now admitted as beyond controversy; hence it is to be expected that as we move northward, where mountains are not necessary to furnish the climatic conditions they require, the distinctions betWeen permanent breeding grounds and visited areas will be less marked. This middle or sub permanent area is necessarily a shifting one, dependinig more or less upon the character of the seasons. Without attempting to give it any definite boundary, we may state that, so far as we have been able to ascertain, these conditions are found in Western Manitoba, Eastern Dakota, Eastern Colorado, and Northwestern Nebraska.




CHARACTER OF DIFFERENT FLIGHTS. 143




CHAPTER VII.

MIGRATIO'NS.

The locusts are the only insects which may be properly termed migratory. It is known that certain butterflies pass in swarms from one place to another, but such flights are local. Swarms of Danaus archipPUS, a common butterfly, have been seen in the Mississippi Valley either in the spring or autumn, but not flying long distances. In the Old World the migratory locust is known to fly for a distance of four or five hundred miles into central Europe from its permanent breeding-area in Asi. The flights taken by locusts in North America may extend over a distance of between one and two thousand miles, from their native breeding g-places in Montana, for example, to Kansas and Missouri, and perhaps Texas. As a rule the flight is undertaken only during a part of the day, and in fair, clear weather, so that the desire for food, cloudy, rainy weather, and adverse winds may keep them from rising and taking wing. In a favorable day they rise early in the forenoon, from eight to ten o'clock, and settle down to eat by four or five in the afternoon. The rate at which they travel is variously estimated from three to fifteen or twenty miles an hour, determined by the velocity of the wind. Thus insects which begia to fly in Montana by the middle of July may not reach Missouri until August or early September, a period of about six weeks elapsing before they reach their destined breeding-grounds.
In order to avoid circumlocution in speaking of the various kinds of flights of the Rocky Mountain locust, the Commission has been conpelled to adopt certain terms by which to designate them.
invading swarns.-This term, when used in reference to their movements east of the mountains, applies to those swarms or hordes which move down from their native hatching-grounds in the West and -Northwest, into those sections where they are not permanent residents. It is only applied to those hatched in their native habitats, and not to those swarms which having hatched in the visited area move northward or northwest and then return, as is often the case.
Returning swarms.-This term is used to designate those swarms hich, having hatched in the invaded district where they are not permanent residents, and having acquired wings, led, apparently by some natural instinct, return to their native home in the Northwest and West.
Local flights.-This is a term used to designate the movements of tose hatched in the invaded district, to and fro, from point to point in tat district. It is not so accurate and definite in its application as the other terms mentioned, as it is applied to those movements to the north d northwest, no matter how general they may be, if the swarms apto fail in their efforts to reach their native home. But notwitho




144 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

standing this indefiniteness it includes a very large number of movements not embraced by either of the other terms, and comprises most of the movements east of the mountains in 1877.
The heightt at which swarms mnove.-To determine this with any exactitude is almost an impossibility, as the swarms do not move in broad sheets, as many who have never observed a flight imagine, nor are they generally in a compact body whose boundary is well- defined, forming a clear line; but more like a vast body of fleecy clouds, or still more correctly, a cloud of snow-flakes; often having a depth that reaches from comparatively near the ground to a height that baffles the keenest eye to distinguish the insects in the upper stratum. Professor Aughey has made some attempts at measuring the height of swarms, and in some instances has succeeded in ascertaining pretty correctly the elevation above the surface, and also the depth of the swarm. But the only iiportant question to be decided in reference to this point is, whether they can and do fly at an elevation so great as to carry the entire swarm out of view on a clear day.
There are some very strong reasons for believing that such is the case, and as it enables us to account for some hitherto unexplained facts we are disposed to assume that it is true, at least it is a point worthy of investigation.
The Sigrnal Service officer at Bismarck states that he observed a swarm on one occasion flying above the (cumulus) clouds. Correspondents in in their reports of flights often speak of them as being veryy high."
In numerous instances they have been brought into view by fieldglasses when invisible to the natural eye; and it was ascertained last summer that they could be seen distinctly through smoked glass when scarcely visible with the natural eye.
But the strongest evidence in favor of the view that they very probay do often fly at an elevation above the plains of the border States which renders them entirely beyond the natural vision is the fact that they can fly at that height. That it is no uncommon thing for cranes and wild geese to fly north and south along the Mississippi at a height which carries them entirely out of view is well known, as their notes can frequently be heard overhead when the eye searches in vain for them. At what elevation these move it is impossible to tell, but it is
-not probable that it is much, if any, over two miles; and it is reasonable to suppose that a height which would render them invisible would render a swarmn of locusts invisible, as the latter are seen not so much as a mass as individuals.
Mr. W. M1. Byers states that in 1868 "from the middle to the 25th of August I was upon the Snowy Range east of Middle Park and on Long'~sPeak. There was a large daily flight of full-grown grasshoppers from west-ni orthiwest reaching apparently to the highest limit of vision when on the highest peaks."
Mr. 3. D). Putnam was on Parry'is Peak. in 1872 during the time a




INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON FLIGHT. 145

swarm was passing over. He states that "they could be seen filling the air like snow-flakes to a great height above the extreme summit of the peak, 13,333 feet."
It is evident from these facts that they can fly at an elevation of 15700 feet above the sea-level, or about two miles and a half above the general surface of Kansas and Nebraska- and far out of sight of the keenest vision.
As they are natives of the dry, elevated table-lands of the Northwest and the region of rarefied air, it is more than probable that one object in leaving the abundant pasture they find amid the fields and prairies of the border States is to search for a drier and more rarefied atmosphere; and led by instinct to seek for this in the upper regions, they continue to ascend until they reach the limit of their power of upward flight.
If this be true it will explain their often sudden and mysterious appearance at points far within the bounds of the settled areas without anything having been seen of them along the line they came. It will fully and sufficiently account for the difficulty of tracing individual swarms along the line of their march.
-Effect of a change of wind or weather on flihts.-A large number of facts have been collected which go to prove that as a very general, or, as we may perhaps truly say, universal rule, a sudden change of wind brings a flying swarm to the ground. From the hict that very often with a return of the wind to its former direction they rise and move on in the course they were going when stopped, it has been taken for granted that they have a desire to move in a given direction, and will therefore only rise and fly when the wind is blowing in a direction that, will enable them to carry out this purpose. The very large number of instances Doted where they have been stopped by contrary winds and refused, apparently with a dogged determination, to move until the wind was right to carry them on in their original course, would seem to be suffi. cient to confirm this theory. That it has, at least, some foundation in ft we think must be admitted; yet we are satisfied it is used to explain numerous movements and phenomena which are due to other and wholly different causes.
That a sudden change in temperature to a lower degree will as surely ng a flying swarm to the ground as a change of wind, is now admitted ball who have studied or observed the habits and movements of these
ts. This is probably one great reason, why they so generally come
wn at the approach of night, as the temperature usually ftalls very idly on these Western plains as the sun disappears. Whether they
wheel round in the air and move back on their course without first ug down it is impossible to say, but so far no case of the kind has
n observed of which we have received any account. Some of the vements in Minnesota during the past year led Mr. Whitman to think h a thing possible, as it would enable him to explain certain facts
10oG


1


146 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

otherwise, shrouded in uncertainty; still, he did not feel warranted in venturing more than the suggestion that such might possibly be the case. Although all direct observations of which we have any knowledge seem to contradict this idea, yet there are some facts in reference to the flights along the eastern limit of their range which are difficult to explain unless we suppose a change in direction without alighting; such, for example, as swarms flying in an easterly direction at this limit', which are never heard of beyond it or on the east side of it; also, swarms seen coming from an easterly direction at points along this limit which were never heard of before being seen passing westward. It is true that a large number of such cases can be accounted for by the very probable supposition that those going eastward came down unnoticed, which we found to be a very common occurrence, even to a degree which could scarcely be believed by those who have not had an opportunity of observing the fact.. Others can be accounted for in other ways, yet after all these eliminations there are still some cases left which can scarcely be accounted for without supposing a change in the direction of flight withoat alighting.
As is shown further on, there are instances where two swarms were seen moving in different directions at the same time, one in an upper current and the other in a lower; also, to one case where a swarm was -flying south in an upper current, while a lower current was moving in an opposite direction,. It is by no means unreasonable to suppose that in some cases the swarm descendiDg or ascending gradually reverses its course or moves with the other current. In reference to the double flight which he observed on July 26 at Ponca, Nebr., Professor Aughey remarks, 11 that at the point or line where the two currents met the locusts seemed to iDtermingle.11
The solution of these minor problems is of the greatest importance, for their determination virtually determines the chief theory in relation to the locust migrations. If their alighting is caused by the difference in temperature of the opposing winds or some other atmospheric condition than simply the direction in which it moves, it follows as a matter of course that they do not drop simply because they are prevented from moving on in the direction they wish to go-a point on which the theory of the returning swarms" chiefly hinges. We are satisfied that the facts so far ascertained in reference to these points, taken together, indicate very clearly that their pauses cannot be fully explained by differences in temperature or simple atmospheric changes, and that the only reasonable explanation which can be given for wany of their stoppages is, that they are prevented by opposing winds from moving on in the direction they desire to go. Still, on account of the very important bearing it has upon the locust probleni, and upon the possibility of otir predicting with certainty their movements inadvance, we think it deserves a more thorough study and additional investigation.




FLIGHT AT NIGHT. 147

As bearing upon the point now under consideration we quote the fol. lowing from Mr. Byer's letter elsewhere mentioned: Along toward noon, on bright warm days, they rise by circular flights, each seeming to act individually, to a considerable height, and then all sail away, with tolerable regularity, in one general direction. If there is no wind many of them continue whirling about in the air, like bees swarming, but away beyond, myriads can be seen moving across the sun toward the southwest, looking like snow-1lakes. If there is a change in the atmosphere, such as the approach of a thunder-storm or gale of wind, they come down precipitately, seeming to fold their wings and fall by the force of gravity, thousands being killed by the fall if it is on stone or other hard surface. If not interrupted by such causes they descend during the afternoon.
It is proper to call attention here to the fact that Mr. Byers is speaking of the phenomena of their flights close to and immediately east of the Rocky Mountains, where there is often an upper current of air moving eastward or southeast, while the atmosphere near the surface of the ground, protected by the mountain-wall, may be comparatively undisturbed-a condition not found on the plains, where the mode of rising is usually different from that here described.
Each Commissioner has had the pleasure of witnessing, in the mountain region, this habit of the locusts, of circling upward behind some shielding ridge, apparently for the purpose of ascertaining the condition or direction of the upper current, and suddenly dropping when it proved from some cause unfavorable.
Flights during the nighlit.-We have received but few reports bearing on this point; in fact, it is not likely that flights, under any circumstances, could be seen at night. Still, there are good reasons for believing that these are by no means uncommon.
On one occasion, Professor Aughey, while traveling at night, near midnight encountered a sudden change of wind, and, at the same time, hosts of falling locusts. We have also received an account of a wellattested case of a swarm coming down at eleven o'clock in the night at a station in Nebraska a little west of Crete. A large number of instances have been reported where swarms were observed flying late in the evening, which, so far as could be ascertained by diligent inquiry, did not come down in the vicinity of the place where last seen. There are also reports of numerous cases where they were observed on the ground early in the morning, yet none were seen the day before. In addition to this strong testimony on the point, there are other facts in reference to their movements which cannot be explained on any other supposition.
We are satisfied, therefore, from all the facts we have been able to gaher bearing upon this point, notwithstanding the very general opinon of the people in the locust-area to the contrary, that flights at night are by no means uncommon. This, in connection with the fact that they can and probably do often fly at such an elevation as to be invisible, will fully account for their repeated mysterious appearance hen it is impossible to hear anything of them along the line they come.




148 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

MIGRATIONS OF THE ROCKY M1OUNTAlIN LOCUST PREVIOUS TO 1877
IN THE STATES EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUJNTAIN PLATEAU, I. Eil
EAST OF LONGITUDE 101-0 (APPROXIMIVATE).

1. Migrations into the States late in the summer and earl?, in the
autumn.-The following are all the facts positively known regarding the course taken by the swarms entering Texas, Indian Territory, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, and Dakota, previous to 1877. For most of the data we are indebted to Walsh's First Annual Report on the Injurious Insects of the State of Illinois, and Riley's Seventh, Eig-hth, and Ninth Reports on the Injurious Insects of Missouri.
1821.-Swarms of locusts entered Missouri flying from the northwest.
1864.-Swarms entered Iowa and Minnesota from the northwest. .None are reported to have flown into the region south.
1865.-They flew into Minnesota from. the west and northwest.
*1866.-There was a general invasion from west and northwest. In Texas, in Collins County and at U~valde, the flights were from the northwest, the wind being northwest.
In Missouri they apparently came from Kansas into Cass County, and N orthwestern Missouri was "overrun from Kansas and the Far West." In Holt County late in September they came in millions from the southisouthwest and west.
In Kansas the locusts first entered the State appearing in the frontier settlements September 12. According to the Leavenworth papers, September 1, at Council Grove, a tremendous shower of grasshoppers came from the south, completely, filling the air as, high as one could see and looking like a driving snow-storm. In Northwestern Kansas they filled the air so as to obscure the sun. They were traced for a distance of 200 miles above Fort Kearney. The Leavenworth papers reported that a vast army of grasshoppers reached Lawrence from the west. The prevailing winds in the State during August and September were westerly. (Walsh in Practical Entomologist, ii, 3. 4.)
it Nebraska, according to several observers, quoted by Mr. B. D. Walsh, the locusts late in the summer of 1866 caine from the west or from a northerly direction. An observer at Peru, Nebr., reported to the Agricultural Department that ''Iin October last the grasshoppers came from the northwest and deposited their eggs." It is obvious that these .swarms caine from the Rocky Mountain p~lateaul, and probably the valley of the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone as well as the North Platte, and~ their tributaries. I
1867.-Lu this year the migrations were late in the summer, and were more wide-spread than in the previous year. Into Dallas County, Texas, the locusts flow from the west and traveled east;- in Lampasas County they flew toward the southeast, i. e., from the northwest; and in (Joryeli County, fromn the north.
In Missouri they were commonly supposed to have come 'from the Rocly Mountain region.




DIRECTION OF INVADING SWARMS PRIOR TO 1877. 149

In Kansas they flew very generally from the northwest. At Council Grove they were observed ptssing to the southeast in great numbers; at Holton, Kans., they seemed to have come from the northeast, as Walsh states that according to an observer at Holton, they can be seen by millions passing to the southwest," but this may have been a local variation in their flight.
In Nebraska the swarms came from the same general direction as in the year previous, namely, from the northwest. An observer at Richland states that August 29-31, for a period of two and a half days, there was a constant influx of grasshoppers from the northwest.
In Iowa the invasion of locusts came from the westward, according to Mr. Walsh, who quotesfrorn two independent sources, the statement that "the Kansas grasshoppers, which for six weeks past have gradually made their way eastward, appeared at O3eeola, Clark County, early in October." At Algona they came September 30, in large numbers, and seemed to come from the west or southwest." In Pocahoutas County they came from the southwest September 10.
1868.-This year locusts appeared in Riley County, Kansas, flying apparently from the northwest, August 7; a southeast wind prevented their leaving on the 8th. (It is possible that the swarms came from Iowa and Minnesota, rather than from the west.)
In Iowa the flights were from the northwest, as it is stated that a strong wind from the northwest carried the locusts August 8 into Page County.
In 1873 locusts entered Texas in September from the north, the wind being northerly.
In 1874 all the accounts indicate that the flights were from a general northwesterly course. We can find no records relative to flights in Texas absolutely indicating that the swarms came in any other direction than from the north or northwest.
In Missouri the flights are stated by Mr. Riley to have been from the Rocky Mountain region. The general direction from which they came was from the northwest, the reports showing remarkable agreement in this respect. The greatest deviation from this course occurred ii the more eastern or last counties visited, when the army became pretty well thinned out and demoralized, and flew about with less uniPormity, being more governed by the wind. The dates at which they are reported from the different counties are interesting, and show that the insects dvanced at an average rate of not more than three miles a day. That they travel at a far greater speed, every one who has witnessed their migrations is aware, and this low average rate is due to the fact that the insects were no longer as vigorous and numerous as they had been in the country to the west. Another interesting fact is deducible from the returns, viz, that the rate of advance was greater in the counties irst invaded than those last reached-a fact indicating that the insects wer, getting more and more exhausted and less desirous of flight the




150 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

farther east they came. They reached Holt County on the 8th of August, and all the counties in the same line, north and south, from Worth to McDonald, were reached during the latter part of the same month. They then continued to make short flights, and finially- reached their extreme eastern limit toward the last of September. The correspondents do not agree as to whether the wind has much influence on their flight; but the majority of the reports show that, as is the nature of the insect in other States, it only flew in dense swarms when the wind was from the northwest.
In Kansas the locusts appeared "in overwhelming hordes from the plains of Colorado on the west, and the fields of Nebraska on the north."1 "They have destroyed the entire corn-crops %of Central and Western, Kansas and left thousands of people in absolute destitution. They have tarried with us longer this year than usual, having been detained by adverse winds from making -their usual annual southerly migration. They do not trouble us unless stopped in their course south by currents counter to the direction of their flight. In Franklin. County they came about August 23d; a north wind brought them."
Nebraska was entirely overrun in 1874, the locusts coming in legions from the north and northwest during the last of July, namely, about the 20th. In (Moe County they appeared late in July and left on the 7th August. "The wind was blowing from the southwest at the time of. their arrival, but I think there was an upper current of wind from the north, which carried the greater part of them past, not more than one in ten (apparently) coining downi" (Quotation in Riley's seventh report.).
We can discover no facts opposing the view that in 1873 and 1874 the swarms which afflicted Iowa came from the northwest; there are no direct facts recorded as to the direction -of the flights; but there are no~ facts indicating that they came either from the south or southwest or northeast.
In Minnesota clouds of locusts in July, 1874, came from Dakota and~ British America, and the year previous swarms came apparently from the northwest; there are no data showing that they came in 1873 from, a direction different from that assumed in 1874.
While Dakota was overrun in 1873 and 1874, we have no authentic data regarding the course of the flights or the winds at the time of migration.
In 1875 Eagle Pass, Tex., was visited by swarms moving from the north in September (United States Signal Office), but north of this State up to the United States boundary line there was no general. invasion from the northwest. From Dakota the locusts migrated from the middle of July until the iniddle of August, moving in a general south and, at times, southeast course.
In 1876 there were fresh arrivals in Texas from the north and northwest. At different lpoints in Texas from September 8 until late in -Nox'em11ber the flights were from points va,,rying from north to northwest@ (Packard's 1deport to IDr. Hayden, 1877.)




DIRECTION OF FLIGHT IN 1876. 151

"At Dallas, at noon September 20, 1870, the air was filled with the first swarm of locusts; by 5 o'clock in the afternoon none were in the air. Previous to this date up to the night of the 19th the wind had been south; it changed on the 20th to the northwest, and this wind brought the locusts in a swarm which must have been many miles long and broad, and from 1,000 to 2,000 feet high, as far as the eye could see. At 10 o'clock, September 21, the air was again filled as at noon of the preceding day, the northwest wind still blowing, and the grasshoppers passed on as the day before, until 4 p. in. On the 22d the wind veered to the south, and the locusts flew during the day in large numbers irregularly about, like a swarm of bees. This continued until noon of the 23d, when a southwest wind bore a large number to the northwest."
They passed across Indian Territory. from the north from the middle of September onward, appearing at Fort Gibson September 16 to 28.
In Benton County, in the extreme northwest of Arkansas, swarms in the autumn passed over from the northwest, but none settled.
In Missouri, according to Mr. Riley, the locusts entered the northwest corner of the State from the north and northwest early in September, and were to some extent prevented from extending farther by south winds. "They entered the southwest counties from the southwest nearly a month later, invading Newton and McDonald by September 23, and reaching the middle of Barry by the first of October, and Cedar by the middle of this month. It is quite clear that the eastern limit of the swarms which came from the north and northwest was receding westward after they reached Northwest Missouri, and that Southwest Missouri, Southeastern Kansas, and Northwestern Arkansas would have escaped had it not been for west and southwest winds that brought back insects which had reached south of these points." The locusts arrived a month later than in 1874, and in this respect the invasion of 1876 more nearly resembled that of 1866.
In Kansas the swarms flew in the main from the north and northwest. "The insects came into the northwest part of the State late in July and early in August, and were seen flying about in many directions, but mainly southward, during the whole month. Early in September the swarms thickened, and the wind blowing almost a gale from the west on the 7th and 8th of the month, and strong from the west and northwest for two or three days subsequently, the insects during that time swept down in darkening clouds over the greater portion of the State from the 98th meridian to beyond the 96th." (Riles's ninth report.) I came through Kansas from Colorado (Denver) on the 5th and 6th September. Caloptenus spretus at that time extended about 1001) miles east of the mountains, last of which point no trace of it was to be seen during daylight on the 5th. Next morning we struck locusts in small numbers at Brookville (Saline County), 180 miles west of Kansas City; in full force at Salina, 12 'miles farther east; and found the east front of this line 4 miles west of Abilene, in Dickinson County, and about 150



152 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

miles west of Kansas City. Observing and inquiring at the stations in this 30-mile belt, I invariably learned that the flight of the'locust was fi-om. the north and not from the west, as two years ago (in 1874). (Prof. F. H. Snow in Packard's report to Dr. Hayden, 1877.)
In Nebraska most of the flights were from the north or northeast early in August, i. e., from Iowa, but late in the month (the 23d-295th) strong northwesterly winds carried them east and south. Still,, the general movement was from the northwest. Early in August they reached the western portions of the State; on the 12th they made a forward movenment, and appeared in the valleys of the Elkhorn, Platte, and Republican. "A soft, southerly wind], varied by an occasional thunder-storm from the northwest, prevailed to the 23d, when, by stiff north wester, the grasshoppers rose and came from their exhausted feeding-grounds upon the east and south portions of the State." (Riley's ninth report.) Of thirteen observations collected by Professor Aughey, from various points in Nebraska, at the end of July and in August, all show that the flights were from the northwest, north or west. (App. 8.)
We have tolerably exact data regarding the course of the swarms which entered Iowa in 187 6. The State was visited by heavy swarms late in July and in 'August, which came from the northwest, as may be seen by the following statement from Riley's ninth report: "About the 1st day of August, the northwestern counties of this State were visited by heavy swarms. They appeared to cross the State line from Dakota and Minnesota at almost exactly the same late for Emmett, Dickinson, Oisceola, Lyon, Sioux, and Plymouth Counties, and from here they swept at once out into the counties lyVing eastward and a little to the south. The direction of flight was a little south of east, and the rate at times eight or more miles an hour."
In Minnesota in 1875 there were no flights from the northwest, but return flights from the States lying south and west.
Ini 1876, however, swarmss came from Dakota, having been heard of on the 23d of July as passing over General Crook's army. These," as we learn from Mr. John C. Wise of the Weekly Review, Mankato, by letter of August 22. "l pushed continuously to the southeast, anDd reached as far east as they were ever known to do, or as far as the corner southwest of Dodge C3ounty. ***It was further noticeable that the insects came down with the northwest winds, and that when the wind changed to the south, as it did for several subsequent days, few of the insects returned with it. The general direction of the flights was from the northwest, with an occasional swarm from the north, west or sotws. In Jakcota. locusts arrived July 28 "1ini immense numbers from the northwest."7
The Manitoba district, which is really continuous with Minnesota in a geographical and climatic point of view, and may best be considered here, has been in1vaded from the west and northwest, and by return flights of locusts from Minnesota and Iowa. In the autumn of 1857 and



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MIGRATIONS WITHIN THE PERMANENT REGION. 153

1874 the course was from the west and northwest. This would indicate that they flew from the great plains lying mainly between the north and south branches of the Saskatchewan River, beyond longitude 105o0 (approximate). Ill 1875 the young which hatched from eggs laid the previous autumn flew in a general southeast course, the same as that pursued by their parents, and this direction of their flight took them in large numbers into the region about the Lake of the Woods, where they could do little harm, while small, unimportant swarms entered Minnesota. In 1875, 1876, and 1877 no swarms arrived in Manitoba from the regions lying westward or northwestward.
From the foregoing facts, we may conclude that the whole tier of States from Texas to Minnesota, as well as the Manitoba settlements, are in locust years always invaded by foreign swarms of locusts, starting mainly from the region which we have described as the permanent breeding-grounds. The return flights which we are now to consider, are the young hatched from eggs laid the previous summer and autumn by the foreign swarms.

MIGRATIONS OF THE LOCUST WITHIN THE PERMANENT BREEDINGGROUNDS.

Montana.--In Montana and that region of British America lying north of this Territory, the course of the migrations have been ascertained with a good degree of certainty, and we begin with the northernmost portion of the permanent breeding area, because it is in Montana that most of the swarms that fly into Eastern Idaho and Utah, as well as, perhaps, Wyoming, and sometimes even Colorado, usually originate. We will arrange our data by years and localities, and then draw gen. eral conclusions from the observations made since the settlement of Montana.
In 1862, between Sun tRiver and Fort Benton, swarms were seen in August flying in a southerly direction toward Sun River from the direction of Fort Benton.
In 1863 they were seen at Fort Benton flying from the east, and at this point the locusts always come from the northeast and east, and depart in a west or southwest course. In 1873, locusts laid their eggs at Fort Benton and flew west and south.
In 1873, 1874, 1875, and 1877, locusts visited Fort Benton, flying from the northeast, more generally east and southeast, and departing generally in a southwest course. In 1876 the course was from the northwest, immense swarms nearly depopulating the country about Fort Benton and the whole region northward to near Fort Edmonton, a distance of about 200 miles, and flew east. At Forts Belknap and Browning all were observed to fly east at the end of June and early in July, flying eastward as soon as they were fledged. These were undoubtedly the warms that invaded Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska late in the sum. mer of 1876. That this exodus of locusts extended into the basin of the




154 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Yellowstone and its tributaries, the Big Horn River, Powder River, North Fork of the Big Cheyenne, which drain the larger part of the Territory of Wyoming, is shown by the observations of Lieutenant Carpenter, United States Army, communicated to the Commission. The source of the swarms that invaded the States lying east of the 103d meridian is clearly shown to have been mainly from Eastern Montana,22 and the region lying north up to the North Saskatchewan, and the northern half of Wyoming.
On the other hand, Eastern Montana was visited in 1875, and again' in 1877, by large swarms from the east and southeast, and these again were evidently the locusts which bred in the State.s east of the 103d meridian in 1875 and 1877, from eggs laid in those States by the locusts which invaded them in 1874 and again in 1876.
For example, at Fort Shaw large swarms which were much more destructive than the local swarms seen in 1873 and 1874 were from the east, and, from information received at Fort Ben ton, a large area of Eastern Montana was invaded by locusts which must have come from the southeast of the Territory, and most probably were in large part return swarms from the border States.
While the general movement at Forts Benton and Peck on the Missouri River in 18i6 was eastward and southeastward, locusts were observed at both points flying from the, southeast and east; these may have been of local origin.
In 1877 the locusts flew from the east at Fort Peck June 290. These had evidently come from Minnesota. These are not to be confounded with the swarms that arrived August 13 and 14. At this date moderate swarms arrived from the east- so utheast. Mr. 0. 0. Martson writes that theyy were previously heard of 90 miles south of Fort Benton Comning from the east. The swarms which visited Fort Benton the middle of August were probably an offshoot from the large swarms which arrived about that time south of us about 100 miles, the mountain-ranges having separated them." These swarms were probably those which invaded the Gallatin Valley and originated in the bad lands of the Yellowstone.
At Helena the locusts, so far as observed, arrived from the east over the Belt Mountains, from the direction of the Yellowvstone River. On the other hand, at Deer Lodge Mr. Granville Stuart inform3 us th-at, while the prevailing winds are west *and northwest, the locusts always come with north and northeast winds; these would bring them from the Sun River Valley (Fort Shaw).
The Lower Missoula Valley, lying west of Helena and De~er Lodge, wqs invaded in 1866 by swarms from the north and northeast and east, sone passing apparently from British America, down the Flathead River and over the Rocky Mountain divide in August.' None were seen afterward from 1868-1874.
in 1875 another invasion, as Mr. Chauncey B-arbonr informs us, clitne
22_Najjmety, that por-tion of Montana lying north of Iat~tudc 450 and -ast, or 1OnuitudeC iS.




MIGRATIONS IN MONTANA. 155

from the east. The swarms flying west had reached Helena July 8 to 10, and by the 17th or 18th July had nearly reached Deer Lodge, when they began to lay their eggs July 18. They reached Missoula about the 8th or 10th of August, when they began to deposit their eggs. In the spring of 1876 the young hatched out, moving in a southerly direction, and by the 20th or 25th of June acquired their wings and went south, remaining in the valley four or five days, and deposited their eggs at the head of the Bitter Root Valley about the middle of July. The next year (July.5, 1877) the locusts which hatched from eggs laid the previous summer were observed departing to the southwest.
South of Helena the flights, as observed at Hamilton and Bozeman and Virginia City, are usually from the east, over the high Belt Mountains which bound the Missouri and Gallatin Rivers on the east. At Bozemau the universal testimony from various persons showed that the main breeding-place of the locusts which afflict the Gallatin Valley is the Yellowstone Valley, 'which lies due east, though sometimes swarms arrive from the Judith Basin. They fly over the Belt Mountains, and the farms which lie close under the foot-hills do not usually, if ever, sutffer, as the locusts are borne for a mile or two beyond the base of the mountains before alighting.
At Bozeman, in 1865, the locusts came late in the season from the northern and departed in a southwest direction. In 1566 they came both from the Yellowstone and Judith Basins, having been traced thence by emigrants. In 1876, however, instead of departing in a southwest course toward Virginia City, as they usually do, they seemed to join the general movement southeast, in the direction of the border States, i. e., across the plains. Mr. R. M. Goin, of Bozeman, informed us that the locusts which infest Bozeman hateli in the bad lands of the Yellowstone, due east of Bozeman, and, when fledged, fly over the Belt Mountains, usually appearing at Bozeman about the 10th of July. In one summer they flew south from Stirling, and he saw swarms all the way from Stirling to Franklin, Idaho, or, as he expressed it, "they went ahead of him from Stirling to Franklin."
At Diamond City the swarms which had come from the east into the Missouri Valley went southwest, and landed in Jefferson Valley, according to Mr. S. W. Sutherlin. Virginia City, according to Mr. J. H. Baker, is visited by swarms which invariably come from a little north of east. The citizens first hear of them in the Madison and Gallatin Valleys, and if locusts hatch out in Sun River they are apt to have them at Virginia City. They depart in a course which takes them to Tay. lor's Bridge on the Snake River, a little north of Fort Hall.
It thus appears that in the arable portions of Central Montana, east of the Rocky Mountain Divide, the main source of locust-swarms is the region of British America lying directly north and east and the Judith and Yellowstone Valleys, separated from the Gallatin, Jefferson, and Upper Missouri Valleys by the Belt Mobntains. In years of unusual




156 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

abundance, as in 1874 and 1876, and when other circumstances favor, they do not fly west and southwest, but there is a general movement eastward beyond the plains to the border States. On the other hand, Montana is liable to be visited by "return flights" of locusts which have hatched in the border States. Thus, when the border States are invaded, it would appear as if the Northwest, namely, Montana, Northern Wyoming, and British America., is partially depopulated, and it would seem as if this general exodusfrom the permanent breeding-ground was an exceptional phenomenon. For example, in 1877, while great numbers hatched in Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and the border States, Central Montana and British America north of it were almost entirely free from locusts, and this was most probably due to the exodus of locusts from this region in 1876.
'Whether the swarms which entered Central Montana, in the year 1877 originated in the Judith and Yellowstone Basins, or flew from the border States, we do not know, but we are disposed to'think that they were of local origin. Still, swarms flying from the southeast were observed July 20, on the Little Big Horn, by Lieutenant Carpenter.
The fact has been established, we think, that the swarms which usually invade Central Montana originate in the region east of the Belt Mountains and in British America. They lay eggs in the Sun River and Gallatin Valleys, for example, and the following year their progeny, as a rule, infest Eastern Idaho and Northern Utah, and the year following perhaps Central and Southern Utah. At any rate, as shown on our map, the main source of supply of the locusts which infest Utah, and the region about Franklin, Idaho, is Central Montana; Central Montana receiving its locusts primarily from Eastern Montana and Bri ish America.
It is impossible to lay down general laws, as the movements of the locusts are as variable and uncertain as the direction of the winds and the condition of the weather in that mountainous country. We have only attempted to give the general facts of the migrations, and find it impossible to lay down absolute laws in the present state of our knowle d(gt.
It would also appear that the region east of the Belt Range, and possibly the Big Horn Mountains, may form a dividing line, east of which the locusts fly east, and west of which they fly west; certainly the Belt Range is not a barrier to their westward flight, although the Bitter Root Range appears to be, deflecting the swarms southward*into Eastern and Southern Idaho and Northern Utah.
ilyoming.-This Territory is so thinly settled, and consequently observations on the migrations of the locust so scanty and incomplete, that it is difficult to draw any general conclusions as to the movements of the swarms that breed in such great numbers in the larger river valleys. The most reliable observations tend to show that the swarms fly in a general southeast, sometimes east course. By reference to the arrows




MIGRATIONS IN WYOMING AND COLORADO. 157

on the third map, which represent actual observations, involving no theory, the fact that the flights are in the main from the northwest will seem to be supported. While some swarms have been observed traveling northward and northeastward, the great majority are reported to travel eastor southeast. In 1873 immense numbers flew east through Bridger's Pass. In 1875 vast numbers were observed at Laramie City flying southward and southeastward. Previous to this year Mr. Thomas saw a swarm flying at South Pass a little north of east, and another near Fort Fetterman due east. In August, 1876 Lieutenant Carpenter, U. S. A., and Mr. Strayhorn, saw swarms flying toward the southeast over a large portion of Northeastern Wyoming, east of the Big Horn Mountains and north of the Black Hills, which separated the swarms, the locusts flying in a general southeast course on each side of that group of peaks. At Laramie and Cheyenne the locusts nearly always come from the northwest, and thence fly southward along the base of the Rocky Mountains, passing over Denver. Lieutenant Carpenter is very explicit in his statements that no swarms fly directly south from the Black Hills into Colorado, but that they fly directly southeast into Nebraska.
In the Wind River Valley, in 1876, swarms were seen by Lieutenant Carpenter flying Southeast; it would thus seem that probably over most of Wyoming, in 1676, there was a general exodus of locusts toward the the southeast into Nebraska and Kansas, as well as Colorado.
In 1877, July 20, Lieutenant Carpeunter observed in the Little Big Horn Valley locusts flying in a northwest course into Montana. These may have originated in extensive hatching-grounds noticed by him about Fort Reno in the late summer of 18716.
Colorado.-This State is so mountainous east of longitude 104 30' that the movements of the locusts are uncertain and difficult to generalize. As a rule the injurious swarms are su pposed to come from the north and northwest, and sometimes directly across the Rocky Mountain Range from the Middle Park and the Snake and Bear River Valleys.
Tue observe ations in Colorado have mostly been made at or near Denver, so that over most of the State the movements of swarms have not been observed.
In 1864 the destructive swarms came from the northwest. In 1867 a swarm from the west side of the range poured into Middle Park. In 1874 the swarms came from the north and west. The next year tlighits of locusts visited Denver, presumably from the North Park, and at Greeley they came from the north and northwest. Departing swarms usually pass to the south and southeast, and in Texas it is supposed that the foreign swarms came from the Rocky Mountain region ot'f Colorado. Sometimes, however, the swarms pass southwest over the mountains.
Mr. Holly (see Appendix 7) reports that one year, in the upper valley of the Rio Grande, the locusts came from the west across the range in immense numbers. In the Saguache Valley the course of the




158 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

flight was northeast across the Saguache Mountains to Lake County. On the main Arkansas River, in Lake County, they fly east. These flights are more or less local and evidently determined by the variable 'winds in this mountain region. It seems, however, to be a matter of fact that a large proportion: of the locusts which devastate the arable, portions of Colorado appear late in July and during August, just as the harvest is over, from the northwest and west, and that by the early part of September they reach Texas, and continue to pass across the plains in a general southeast course until early in November.
Eastern, Idaho and Utah.-In considering the migrations of the IocusrL in the Upper Snake River Valley and in Utah, we should bear in mind that this region is a southern continuation of Central Montana, this being apparently the main source of the locusts which invade Utah. Our observations in Idaho are quite satisfactory, as on the stagre-road from Franklin to Virginia City we were enabled to gather considerable information. From various sources it seems well established that the locusts invariably fly south from the region of Virginia City, past Market Lake and Fort Hall into the Bear River and Malade Valleys. At Franklin we were told that the swarms always come from the north. Mr. J. B. Hunter told us that in driving cattle for a distance of about 200 miles south from Virginia City, swarms of locusts kept moving ahead of him, flying either southeast or south west,~ but never in a northward course. At Franklin the parents of the young locusts observed by us early in June were said to have come from a region 200 miles north, namely, Central Montana; they appeared from a point a little east of north in September, 1876. It thus appears that when they are abundant one year in Central Montana,7 they fly south into Northern Utah, Cache and Malade Valleys and lay their eggs. The young hatching out the succeeding year, or becoming fledged, fly south into the Salt Lake Valley. For example, the locusts which hatched out in Salt Lake Valley were saidl to be the progeny of those which bred in Malade and Cache Valleys the year previous.
At Log-an City, in the Bear River Valley, and at Smith field. they were observed to come from the north. At Plain City, Weber County, in 1867 they came from the northeast, and departed in forty-eight hours in a southwest direction, which took them over Salt Lake, when by a change of windl many perished in the lake. At Nephi, in Central Utah, andl at Saint George, on the southern border of Utah, they arrive usually from the north. For two successive years, according to Mr. Siler, the flights in Southern Utah were to the north;- these were probably return flights, the progeny of those which came the preceding sears from. the north.

MIGRATIONS OF THE LOCUSTS IN THlE LOWER SNAKE VALLEY.

The course of the flights in the Lower Snake Valley is mainly, so far as we have been able to learn, in a general westerly direction. We heard




RETURN MIGRATIONS FROM THE BORDER STATES. 159

of large numbers of locusts hatching in the spring in the Snake Val. ley about Boise City, and that swarms appeared, August 2, in the valley of the Brunean. Three or four days after large swarms appeared about 100 miles southwest of this point in Nevada. The valley of the Jordan River was apparently invaded from the northeast, while the Burnt River Valley was visited from the southeast, the direction of Boise City. The region around Boise, then, appears to be a small center of distribution for swarms moving westward. Of the origin of the locusts which have invaded Lewiston and Patoka Valleys we have no information.

RETURN MIGRATIONS FROM(N THE BORDER STATES (TEXAS TO 1HNNESOTA) PREVIOUS TO 1877.

The data on this subject are scanty previous to 1875.
In Texas, in 18&58 the young took flight north from the 10th to the 16th of April.
In 1867 the flights out of Kansas early in June were to the west or northwest; while in Missouri they were reported, June 8, as going west and southwest from Saint Joseph; at Kansas City, June.26, millions flew northeast.
.In 1869 locusts flew into Andrew County, June 18, from the south, with a strong south wind; on the 23d. a fresh south wind blowing, they rose and went on.
In 1873 Minnesota was visited in June by swarms from the south west.
The movement out of the States lying south of the 44th parallel of latitude in a general north and northwest course was, in 18,5, almost universal. From Texas we have not full data. From Fort Gibson, Ind. T., they departed during the month of May in a generally north and west direction. On one day at the end of May "millions of loctusts flew westerly" from Fort Gibson.
From Missouri the flights during the month of June up to the 20th or 25th of June were to the north and northwest. The locusts first took flight in Kansas from the extreme southeast of the infested region, on May 28 and 29, the swarms passing over the State in a northerly and nort h westerly course.
Mr. Riley, in his Eighth Report, states that "the testimony of a vast majority of observers is conclusive as to the general northwesterly direction of their flight. The few cases on record ot their moving in other dire ;tions are attributable to strong adverse winds, or to the fact that they were merely making short aerial excursions preparatory to the grand flight. It was noticed that when they flew to the south or east it was at a much lower elevation than when apparently returning to their native habitat."
Prof. F. H. Snow, of Lawrence, Kans., states that "when the wind is strong they fly with the wind. If the wind is light they fly toward the northwest by what seems to be a natural instinct. Thus, on June 7, with a southwest wind moving, according to the university anemometer,




160 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

at the rate of three miles an hour, the locusts were flying in vast nurnbers'in a direction a little to the north of west nearly in the face of the wind. On June 12, also, with a northeast wind blowing at the rate of four miles an hour, they were flying in greater numbers than ever before in a northwest course at right angles to the direction of the wind.1 Having once taken wing, there are on record, adds Riley, but two or three instances of their alighting within the borders of the State.
In Nebraska the locusts left the State between the 7th of June and the 6th of July. The course of the swarms was invariably to the northwest, except during the prevalence of strong adverse winds or absolute calms, and in such cases they commonly alighted to await more favorable winds.-( Riley.) Reports received from Nebraska City state that the flights were to the north, coining from the south, probably Missouri, with a south wind.
According to the observations of Professor Aughey, prepared for the Commission, the first flight of locusts north was over Plum Creek, on the Union Pacific Railroad. At Kearney, May 31, innense clouds of locusts passed over in a northerly direction. June 14, enormous numbers of locusts flew north at the rate of eight miles an hour. The hegira extended from 100 miles east of the Missouri to Kearney. At Lincoln, June 16, locusts were seen going north by the "1 countless billions "; the wind was from the south, the thermometer 1000 F. "The locusts began to rise at 8.30 a. m., and the numbers rising increased all the forenoon. At 12.30 1 observed a nimbo-stratus cloud in the zenith, and I could see with my glass that the locusts reached that height. I measured the west line of the university grounds, and with transit quadrant took the angle at each end of this line on the sharp end of this almost stationary cloud. This made the height of the locust-column 5,230 feet, or within 50 feet of one mile. I allowed 50 feet, however, for a rising-space above the surface of the earth. Otherwise the column could have been called a mile thick." As to the size of a swarm observed June 16, Professor Aughey thus writes:
The column extended to-day from at least 100 miles east of the Missouri to Fort Kearney, and was at least 300 miles long east and west. As it averaged at least one-half mile high, though here it was nearly double that, and continued, in round numbers, from nine to three o'clock, the number of locusts was simply enormous and iticalculable. As there were at least 27 locusts, for every cubic yard, the number in a cubic mile was 27,878,400. Taking the half of this number and multiplying it by 300, the length of the column east and west, we have 4,151,460,000. Now, as they were as thiek as thi-i for at least six hours, and as they moved at least five miles an hour, this number must be further multiplied by 30, which will give 124,543,800,000 locusts which moved this day, But, as they were moving much faster and longer, and the column was much higher than in this estimate, the probabilities are that it would be much nearer tho truth to double this number ftr the actual quantity that moved over Lincoln this day. And then it must be furher multiplied to cover theextentof country north and south It is somewhat uncertain over wNhat northern and southern area they were moving on this (lay, but enough is known to justify the further mutiplication by at least four.
The locusts had left the State by June 26.




RETURN MIGRATIONS PRIOR TO 1S77. 161

Serious incursions into Iowa from the States south began to be Imaide about the 10th of June, and lasted from that date till about the middle of July. The western counties of the State suffered considerably tromn the swarms that were almost constantly passing over, many of which alighted.
Minnesota was also invaded by swarms from Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri, which deposited their eggs in this State. The swarms take various directions, but still many of them leave the State, passing into Dakota and toward the Northwest. Mr. Whitman remarks in his report as follows on the return migration in Minnesota and the Northwest: Whether or not it is a general rule that the locusts on acquiring wing- seek the direction from which their parents had cimne in the preceding year (a rule which the experience of Minnesota fails to substantiate), it is certain at least that in 175 the mniu direction taken by the insects that rose from the Lower Misouri Valley country w S northwesterly." (Riley's Eighth Annual Report, p. 10.) These swarms were tr ced by Professor Riley, moving northerly from the end of May through June and into July, and passing various points in Dakota, Wyoming, and Mont.na. They passed northward over Bismarck at various times between June 6 and July 15. (Same Report, p. 86.) But a still more definite statenwnt as to the final destination or these northward-moving swarms is found in an editorial of the Winilpeg Standard, ol, August 19, 176, entitled "Locust flights." It is there stated that in 1~5 "the locusts which hatched in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska, in an area of 250 miles from east to west, and 300 miles from north to south, took flight in June, andt invariably went north. west, and fell in innumerable swarms upon the regions of British America, adjoining Forts Pelly, Carlton, and Ellice, covering an area as large as tha- they vacated on the Missouri River. They were re-enforced by the retiring column from Manitoba, and it seemed to be hoping against hope that the new swarms of 1-76 would not again descend upon the settlements in the Red River Valley. Intelligence was received here that the insects took flight from the vicinity of Fort Pelly on the 10th of July, and then t)llowed a fortnight of intense suspense."
There is, of course, in all this a failure to connect by any direct chain of continued observations the swarms that left the Mississil)pi Valley in 1875 and those which finally disappeared in the region of the mountains and in British America ; still less is it shown that those swarms were the parentsot those which are known to have hatched in the same regions in 1876, or even that those which are known to have hatched there were those which descended upon the lower country in July and August. But there is, at least, a strong series of probabilities.
In Dakota locusts which flew from the States to the southeast arrived about the 28th of June, and passed on in a northwest course. On the same date vast swarms passed over Yankton, going in a northwesterly direction; light clouds passed over Sully, Fort Randall, and Springficld,. in the same direction and on the same date. At Bismarck locusts arrived from a general southerly direction, and by July 15 had all disap, peared, "moving north and west." It would thus appear that in 1875as in 1877, the return flights from the Southern States, Iowa, Kansas, and Minnesota, in many cases pass over Dakota into Montana, and probably British America.
1 G




162 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION,,

RETURN MIGRATIONS EAST OF THM ROCKY MOUNTAINS IN 1877 OF THE
LOCUSTS HATCHED FROM EGGS LAID THE PREVIOUS AUTUMN.

The facts here stated and the records of flights found in the appendix show clearly that in the region south of Minnesota the locusts, as soon as they acquire wings, are disposed from some*cause to move northward. From. the time they commenced to fly at Bastrop, Tex., April 19, until the 8th of July, when a swarm was observed at Glencoe, Nebr., moving south, the direction of the flights was, with very few exceptions, northward, varying in a few cases to westward. In Minnesota the case was different, although there were long flights in June to the northwest, 3 et the rule can scarcely be said to apply here, for the exceptions are too numerous. From the facts heretofore ascertained in reference to their habits this movement was anticipated and predicted. The movements 1n previous years had already led to the conclusion that by some law :governing them there is a tendency in the resulting broods hatched in ,this visited area to return to the native habitats from which their pro:genitors came. That the broods of 1875 and 1876 hatched in the area ,south of Minnesota, did move in this direction is conclusively shown by the data furnished in Mr. Riley's reports for 1875 and 1876, and in the "Papers on locusts by Messrs. Dawson and Whitman.
As will be seen by examining our circular No. 1, a copy of which will
*be found on p. 3 in this report,our first and second questions related ito the flights of locusts and the direction of the wind at the time 'These questions have been more generally answered than perhaps any
-others in the circular, and enable us to give more fully than has ever 'before been done the movements of locusts east of the Rocky Mountains, and especially in the invaded section, which we have, designated the .66 temporary breed in g- grounds."
The past season has been an unusually favorable- one for studying
-the 44 local flights 11 or limited migrations, from the fact that these have
-occurred to an extent hitherto unknown in these border States and adjacent Territories. The amount of material collected for the purpose of ,solving the vari,3us problems connected with these flights is very large, .and although it may not suffice to dispel all the mystery connected with them it has enabled us to explain much that has hitherto been a matter
-of doubt and uncertainty, and to lay down the general laws which gov-ern them.
Strange as it may seem to those who have not carefully studied the .characteristics and habits of the species, yet it is true that it is possible In almost every instance to distinguish an invading from a local -swarm
-although moving in the same direction and apparently from the same point. Those who have had considerable experience with them are generally able, from an inspection of the insects alone, to decide with Reasonable certainty this point. But there are other and still more ituportant methods of determining it.




RETURN MIGRATIONS IN 1877. 163

It may appear of but little importance to the farmers and agriculturists of Kansas or Nebraska, on whose fields a swarm of locusts has fallen, to know whether they are from the plains of Montana or from the prairies of an adjoining State; but if a careful study of their habits shows it to bea general rule that the invading swarms are always, or nearly always, destructive in their operations, and that the local swarms are sel. dom injurious, then this knowledge is important.
One object of the Commission has been to study carefully this point for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is any difference in this respect between the invading swarms and those which are local or return ing swarms; not only on account of its direct importance to the agriculturists of the invaded States, but also on account of its bearing upon the question of their continued vitality in these States.
Early in the season, when rumors of flying locusts came from the south, the Commissioners in the field were asked to express an opinion as to the result; each, when asked, expressed his opinion without hesitation, and allowed it to be published far and wide: "We do not apprehend any danger from them. In fact this is precisely what th e Commission anticipated, and is one of the strongest possible corroborations of the theory held, that these insects can never become permanent residents of this part of the Mississippi Valley."
The result has confirmed to the fullest extent this opinion, and our predictions have been fulfilled in a most remarkable manner. Although from the middle of June to the last of August swarms were constantly moving over Minnesota, Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas, some days covering an area equal to any two of these States, yet in all that time, though visited by myriads after myriads, scarcely a dozen fields in all these States were reported as injured. It may therefore be stated as a general rule, that returning and local swarms do but little injury. It is possible that with a different season the result may be different, but so far as the facts heretofore ascertained are concerned, they point to the same conclusion; therefore, with the experience of the past season added, we are justified in giving this as one general rule in reference to their habits.
And right here we beg leave to call attention to the necessity of studying carefully what, to many, may at first appear as trivial and unimportant. Each law ascertained in reference to this species, whether important in itself in an economic or practical sense, is important as an aid or stepping-stone toward the discovery of other laws.
The discovery of this law in reference to the habits of the different swarms has already been the means of dispelling, in a large degree, the fears the farmers and citizens of these border States entertained in reference to the local swarms. The announcement last season that large swarms had been observed about the middle of May flying north. ward over North Platte, in Lincoln County, Nebr., sent a thrill of alarm throughout that entire State. The fear of such swarms has now de.




164 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

parted. Shortly afterward adverse winds drove back these hordes, or others from the north part of the State, or the neighboring portions of Dakota and Minnesota. The hearts of the Nebraska farmers sank once more. The Com mission replied to such as appealed to them at this time, "6No 'invaders' have left the Northwest; these are but 'local flights,' and little if any danger is to be apprehended from. them."7 The fear of local swarms, even th ough they are from the north, is therefore, to a great degree, at least, gone.
We mention these facts here simply as illustrations of the importance of studying carefully every part of the history of these insects.
It has been quite satisfactorily ascertained that no "invading swarms" visited the border States in 1877. That numerous swarms from the north entered or passed over almost every part of the locust area of these States is true, but that none of these were hatched in their native breeding-grounds we think will be clearly shown by what is hereafter stated, and by the record of flights given in Appendix 13.
In reference to"1 returning swarms," in the sense heretofore explain ed, the data for 1877 are somewhat incomplete, as but few reports have yet reached us from British America, to which section a portion would be likely to wend their way if intent on reaching their original hatchinggrounds; and so far but one or two points in Western Dakota have been heard from. But even without these data there are reasons for believing the return to the native habitats was not so general as was commonly supposed it would be by those who hold that as a rule the resulting broods go back to their native home.
In the early part of the flyNing-season the departing hordes from that portion of the visited area from Nebraska, to Texas, with but few exceptions, moved northward, as it was supposed they would do; but later in the season, with a change of wind, they turned southward, and the flights in this direction were almost as heavy and as long continued as those which had moved northward. As there is satisfactory evidence that these south ward-moving hordes were not invading swarms from the Northwest, they must have consisted in a great measure of those which had previously moved northward. That some (lid pass onward is shown by the reports of northward flights over Bismarck, of swarms alighting in Western Dakota, of flights seen at Cypress Hills, Battlelord, and some other points in British America. Yet the fact that none passed to the north of the international boundary east of Bismarck, and that there were such heavy flights southward east of the Missouri, in DaDakota and Minnesota, leads to the conclusion that but a comparatively small portion of those hatched in the visited area ever succeeded in reach in g their native hatching-grounds. That a considerable portion mayv have, and probably did pass on to the north on the west side of the Missouri, where there are no settlements from which we could receive reports, is more than likely ; and the few accounts we have received from this section indicate that such was the case.




LOCAL FLIGHTS IN 1877. 165

For these reasons the movements of the locusts east of the mountains, in 1877, must be largely included in the category of" local flights," in the broad sense, that is to say, flights whose limits are within the visited area or temporary breeding-grounds.

LOCAL FLIGHTS.

As before stated, the past season has been a very favorable one for studying "local flights" or limited migrations, and the means adopted by the Commission for collecting data upon this point have resulted in accumulating a very large amount of material.
We give, in Appendix 13, in an abbreviated form, the answers on this point received from our numerous correspondents, in order that all who desire to do so may have an opportunity of studying this subject for themselves, and thus be able to test the correctness of our conclusions.
In order to give an idea of the amount of material collected in reference to these flights, we give here a summnnary or rather brief notes of the replies received to our circular No. 1, relating to two days, July 3 and 20, remarking only that the flights from the more Southern States had almost entirely ceased at this season.
In these records the direction of the wind wherever mentioned is to be understood as that from which it was blowing; and where flights are mentioned without giving the direction, they are to be understood as going with the wind. The language of the correspondent has been retained as nearly as possible.

Record of flights for July 3, 1877.
DAKOTA.
Yellow Banks, Deuel County : First appearance, only a few going west at noon. Gary, Deuel County: Fly west.
Medary, Brookings County: Wind south, strong; light swarms go north. Dell Rapids, Minnehaha County: Wind southeast; quite a number alighted. Forestburg, Bramble County: Cloudy; none seen. Rockport, Hanson County: Southeast wind; fly very high, and numerous.
MINNESOTA.
Elbow Lake, Grant County: Wind southeast; considerable number go northwest. Herman, Grant County : Go northwest on the 3d, 4th, and 5th-most on 4th. Brandon, Douglas County: Fly west; air full of them. Burnhamville, Todd County: Some left to west-southwest. Round Prairie, Todd County : Raised in great numbers and went west-southwest. Long Prairie, Nicollet County: Wind east; partly clear; fly with the wind, in moderate numbers.
Morris, Stevens County: Began to fly at 9; go west; wind southeast; clear and warm; began to alight about 1 o'clock.
Westport, Pope County: Fly a little south of west; extensive movement; very high. Fairhaven, Stearns County: Go southwest in great numbers. Paynesville, Stearns County: Gowest very thick; many of ours joined them; many came down, but most of them rose again.




166 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Saint Wendall, Stearns County: Go west; many.
Clear Lake, Sherburne County: Wind northwest; go southeast.
Ortonville, Bigstone County: First seen; a few go west.
Lac-qui-parle, Lac-qui-parle County: Go northwest; immense quantity.
Baxter: Wind little south of east; good breeze; large numbers go northwest.
Montevideo, Chippewa County: Wind southeast; fly very thick northwest.
Dassell, Meeker County: Warm, bright; wind easterly, very light. Locusts went southwest till 1.30; then west. Large swarms rose, and a continuous line passed from 11 to 3 o'clock.
Manannah, Meeker County: Upper flight, west of southwest; lower flight, west.
Corinna, Wright County: Go due south; air seemed full as far as the eye could reach.
Cokato, Wright County: Took flight.
Stockholm, Wright County: Commenced flying to west.
Granite Falls, Yellow Medicine County: Come down in small swarms at 11 o'clock; at 12 rising and filling the air; go northwest.
Beaver, Renville County: During a greater part of the day a swarm as innumerable as the sands of the sea-shore took its flight over this section, going in a westerly direction.
Vicksburg, Renville County: Forenoon cloudy; clear at noon; wind east by southeast; hoppers go with the wind.
Palmyra, Renville County: Go westerly; high.
Brookfield, Renville County: Southeast wind; swarms go west and southwest.
Hale, McLeod County: Wind southeast; immense swarms go with the wind.
Penn, McLeod County: Those that lit on the 1st left, going northwest.
Marshfield, Lincoln County: Go northwest; first swarm seen; light movement.
Marshall, Lyon County: Go west freely, alighting in the evening.
Tracy, Lyon County: Go west; did not alight.

MINNESOTA.

Charleston, Redwood County: Go west-northwest, high, and very fast, from 12 o'clock to 3.30. First flight.
Walnut Station, Redwood County: Small flight to west and northwest, from 11 o'clock to 2.30. A few alighted.
Lamberton, Redwood County: Locusts came in with east-southeast wind.
Cottonwood, Brown County: Go southwest in the forenoon, and northwest in the afternoon.
Linden, Brown County: Wind east on the 3d, 4th, and 5th; took most of them away. Albin, Brown County: Fly west, wind east. Saint Peter, Nicollet County: Large flight southwest. Ridgeley, Nicollet County: Fly west in great numbers; our own go with them. Currie, Murray County: Fly west.
Windom, Cottonwood County: Fly west, very high. Butterfield, Watonwan County: Light southeast wind. Locusts commenced passing over; many alighted.
Madelia, Watonwan County: Continuous flight all day to a little south of west. Those of ours that had wings joined them. Luverne, Rock County: Go a few degrees west of north in considerable number. Kanaranzie, Rock County: Air full; as many come down as leave; alight in the evening and leave in the morning; go northwest. Township 10:3, range 47, Rock County : Fly northwest. Bigelow, Nobles County: Clear; light southeast wind; fly thick from 11 to 4. Worthington, Nobles County : Fly northwest at noon, quite heavy. Graham Lake, Nobles County : Large numbers go west, few come down. Adrain, Nobles County: Some fly, a few alighted.




LOCAL FLIGHTS IN 1877. 167

Deltifield, Jackson County: Wind south of east; go northwest mostly; very high; none alighted.
Chri3tiana, Jackson County : Go a little north of west; a few alighted about 3 o'clock Tenbassen, Martin County: Wind south-southwest in the afternoon, moderate, very warm ; fly northwest.
Firestone, Pipestone County : Go southwest at 10 in the forenoon, none alighting. Bigstoune Lake, Bigstone County: Fly northwest, many alighting.

NEBRASKA.

La Platte Valley: Flying east of north. Heavy rains. Omaha, Douglas County: Flying very high to northwest at 11 in the forenoon. Wind southemt, clear.
IOWA.

Tabor, Fremont County: Go north and northwest.

KANSAS.

Claytonvine, Brown County: Fly northwest; wind south.

Record of flights for July 20, 1!7.

VAKOTA.
Walhalla, Pembina County: Light northwest wind; sunshine; fly southeast; not many.
Caledonia, Traill County: north wind for five days past; good many golsouth; none have passed from south this season.
Yellow Banks, Deuel County: Light northwemst winds; warm; a frightful swarm came about 9 a. in. ; those that were here joined the Ilight at once, waking a dense swarm from about 40 feet high to as high as the eye could reach. By 11 a. m. the lower ones were from 15) to 200 f~et high, and continued much the same to 3 p. m. None alighted.
Gary, Deuel County: Strong wind; fly south in great numbers; very high.
Medary, Brookings County: north wind; clear; immense swarms go south all day; the few scattered on the prairie rise and leave.
Dell Rapids, Minnehaha County: Wind northeast; a great many go southwest.
Sioqx Falls, Minnehaha County: Fly south; few alighted as yet. The greatest quantity of hoppers that has yet been seen passed over to the southeast. A few came down about 6 miles south of here, but did no damage.

MINNESOTA.

Moorhead, Clay County: Fly south and southeast very thick.
Audubon, Becker County : Wind north 10 degrees west; air full-highest I ever saw; some stragglers alight.
Detroit, Becker County: Wind northwest; very pleasant; began to fly at 10 a. m., and all we had here left us; an immense quantity passed.
Township 136, range 45, Wilkins County: Wind northwest and very unsteady; hoppers fly; those of our hatch rise that are large enough; they rise most numerously when the wind comes in gusts.
Fergus Falls, Otter Tail County : Commenced flight to southward.
Elbow Lake, Grant County: Fly southeast; wind northwest; more than at any time this season.
Long Prairie, Todd County: North winds; cool and clear; go south thick.
Saint Wendell, Stearns County: Wind nearly north; great numbers fly nearly south;. some came down.


b

168 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

Saint Cloud, Stearns County: Fly south in great numbers; a few alight.
Becker, Sherburne County: The lau left here; go southwest; good breeze from northwest.
Benson, Swift County; Fly west of south in great numbers; few alight. De Graff, Swift County: Fly east; none alight. Lac qui Parle, Lac qui Parle County: Fly south of southeast; thick ; wind northwest.
Baxter, Lac qui Parle County: Wind north west; clear and warm; vast numbers fly very high southeast.
Montevideo, Chippewa County: Wind northwest; no hoppers, scarcely. Kandiyohi, Kandiyohi County: Good many fly southeast; only a few drop. Willmar, Kandiyohi County: Many fly southeast. Manannab, Meeker County: Those that remained after the flight of the 10th few northwest. (?) [It is probable this should be southeast.] Palmyra, Renville County: Passed over southerly. None seen for two weeks past. Pipestone, Pipestone County: Wind north; fly thick. Windom, Cottonwood County : Fly south. Mount Lake, Cottonwood County: The last passed south at 2.30 p. m. Madelia, Watonwan County: Fly south; wind northwest. Butterfield, Watonwan County: From 15th to 20th wind west and northwest; to-day changed to north, and nearly all left ; go south. Saint James, Watonwan County: All left here to-day. Mankato, Blue Earth County: Millions fly high at 11 a. m.; go south. Wilton, Waseca County: Large numbers fly south; very few have alighted here. Waseca, Waseca County: The hoppers in this section arose and flew to south-southwest.
Luverne, Rock County: Immense swarms go south, alighting but rarely, at 12.30 p. m.; fell in small numbers in places to south and east; upper regions filled with hoppers. Magnolia, Rock County: Large swarms fly south-southwest and southeast, varying with the wind. Many alight in southern part of the cod nty. Kanaranzie, Rock County: Fly south; largest swarm seen yet; none alighted. Little Rock, Nobles County: Immense swarms go south; a few cripples fall. Adrian,Nobles County: Winds north; fly very high ai d thick. Worthington, Nobles County: Flying in clouds; few come down in this vicinity. Wind north, tending east; quite a good many fly as near west as the wind will allow. Bigelow, Nobles County: Wind north; clear; large swarms flew south. Brownsbury, Jackson County: Immense numbers go south; wind from the north. Jackson, Jackson County: "Are flying 9 miles deep as we go to press."-Republic. Hunter, Jackson County: Go south; most numerous I have seen this year. Hector, Renville County: Wind northwest. Glencoe, McLeod County: Fly very thick southeast. Penn, McLeod County: A few scattering ones go south. Benton, Carver County: Great numbers fly southwest; wind from north. Carver, Carver County: Large swarms fly in a southerly or southwesterly direction; some alight near town.
Shakopee, Scott County: Wind northwest to north; clear; fly in great numbers southeast to south, from 10 to 3.
Marshfield, Lincoln County: Wind north; immense swarm came in sight about 11 o'clock, flying south till sundown.
Marshall, Lyon County: Pleasant; air full; go southeast all day.
Lamberton, Redwood County: Wind from north and northwest. From the 8th till the 20th the flight has been steady and culminated in a grand rush on the 20th; the heaviest flight I ever saw.
Albin, Brown County: Few flying; wind north-northwest; no coupling or laying yet.




LOCAL FLIGHTS IN 1877. 169

Saint Peter, Nicollet County: Very thick, and most of them very high; all go southeast.
Le Sueur, Le Sueur County: Passed over to south in greater numbers than at any previous time; were at a great height, and the sun was almost darkened by the immense mAs8.
Le Sueur Centre, Le Sueur County: Heavy flight to south; some few dropped near night on some farms.
Waterville, Le Sueur County: All left from all around here and went south; none lit.
Morristown, Rice County : Fly little west of south ; more than ever before. Went cast in large numbers; most of those hatched here went with them. Blue Earth City, Faribault County: Clouds fly over, south; only a few stopped in this vicinity.
Winebaro City, Faribault County: "Air full from 9 o'clock a. m. to 6 o'clock p. in. Fly southeast. Began to fly at 9.30 a little east of south, with good breeze--dense humbers as the eye could see. Flew till 3 o'clock."--[PIioner Pre88. "Alighted quite thick."-[ Depatch.
Alden, Freeborn County : Left here, and the air was full, thicker than I ever saw before, flying from 11 a. m. to 3 p. in.; wind north-northeast; some commence to couple.
Freeborn, Freeborn County : Began to fly at 11 a. m. Go southeast to east. Air full till 4 o'clock. Some alight, but none leave. Albert Lea. Freeborn County : Fly south at 11 a. m. Strong wind.
Geneva, Freeborn County : First flight left here in large numbers, to southeast.

IOWA.

Algona, Kossuth County: A large number are said to have alighted around Algona.
Carroll City, Carroll County : Large swarms fly over to southeast for two hours.
Dakota City, Humboldt County: Weather clear, wind northwest. Hoppers ily southeast in afternoon, some alighting.
The record of the 3d contains reports from sixty-five different points, scattered over Minnesota, Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas; that of the 20th, from seventy different points. As a matter of course, the record of each day during the flying season is not so full as these two, yet quite a number embrace as many points, and a few days perhaps more. At the commencement, the reports are few and scattering, and as we approach the close of the season they again decrease in number. During the entire season, something like two thousand reports in reference to flights east of the mountains have been received.
A careful study of the record of these two days here given will reveal Several important facts; and as an illustration of our method of using this material, we call attention to some things to be learned therefrom.
That of the 3d, although relating to an area extending from Central Kansas to Northern Minnesota, shows that the flights at all points, except two, were in the direction of the northwest quarter of the compass, varying from north to a little south of west, the variation from a north course being greatest in parts of Minnesota and Dakota. It also shows that in every instance where the direction of the wind is noticed the fight is with the wind; and in one case, at Manannah, Mfeeker County, Minnesota, where there were upper and lower currents moving in differ




170 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION.

ent directions at the same time, the movements of the locusts in the different currents corresponded. therewith.
At one point, where the day was cloudy, none were seen on the wing. At several points a note is made of the fact that the local brood arose and joined the passing swarm. Where the hours are noted, they show the flight to have been during the middle part of the day, or at least between 9 a. mn. and 4 p. m.
Although, as will hereafter be seen, there are exceptions to what here appear to be general rules, yet the rules hold good to a very large extent throughout the entire record, except as to the general direction of the flight, which, as will be seen on the 2Oth,was southward.
The first flight of the season, of which we have any notice, was at Bastrop, Tex., on the 19th of April,2 to the north. The first in Indian Territory, of which there is any record, was at Camp Supply, May 23, to the northwest; but as the accounts from this Territory are very meager, it is not at all likely that we have received notice of the first observed. The first noted in Kansas was in Trego County, May 17, to the northwest., The first in Nebraska was at Amazon, Franklin County, May 15, to the north. The first in Minnesota, of which any reliable account has been given, was at Raymond, Stearns County, June 5, to the southeast. The first in Dakota was at Medary, Brookings County, June 9, moving southeast.

A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE FLIGHTS EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS IN 1877, BY STATES.

Texa.-The first flight reported was observed, as heretofore stated, at Bastrop on the 19th of April, moving northward. This was followed by another, on the 25th of the same month. A somewhat general and very heavy flight occurred on the 1st of May, notices of which were received from Calvert, Salado, New Braunfels, Dallas, and Austin. This movement, which is supposed to have carried off most of the locusts hatched during the spring in this State, was also to the north. A few slight swarms were observed after this up to the 10th of May, but the great body of the insects undoubtedly left about the first of the month. In the latter part of~ August swarms began to return southward; imnee numbers were observed at this time passing over Robertson County; others were seen at Bexar, in the latter part of September (28-30), and others at Bastrop, as late as October.
Missouri-The locusts which hatched in Jasper and adjoining counties in the southwestern part of the State departed toward the north. and northwest during the latter part of May and first 'of June. Those in the extreme northwest section left in the latter part of June and first few
23 Since this was written, additional notes have been received from Tcxas, through the Signal Agervice Rureau, which may show an earlier (l~ate for thte irst fight. As these are to be found in Appendix No. 3, Ow4 reader can easily make the correction, if necessary.