Fifth Report of the United States Entomological Commission

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Fifth Report of the United States Entomological Commission
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
United States Entomological Commission
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022752585
oclc - 14557913
System ID:
AA00018861:00002

Full Text





















A.


UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA
LIR AY..1'J *!
4 ',.,: i




... . ii'
LIB LRIA .R"




........










LBAY.. ... ........".
..3::1 *
ci




:: .. : EE .
I .. : ...,: :,!:...











: .: a






I-* Y ..
41


!::'ii ., "





CE:.....




I~...


,=.....
":i :",

!: : :.
k:::, :
::.1 ; . .








it .:; :
p... :
:::1" :m :
i":E.''p" :
r :"..
i.n .:...t .
















'Ut, :... ..
....
.."9:!:E".:, .. .






































r' .~:
..Pu i.







































'PC ,..
tii:, ; ,, .
,p:ii:. : .,. .


Apug.


I.
I.
a


. .......... n..


, l :::," ::" : ........
P'E:i :
Ui.i::.:i:





















IL




























.. .,,,,/ ..
~ ~ ~ ~ ........:L::Eii




















.", . .... ...
:EE:, *::EEEEEEE"E
*:::.;:..;;: .; :|I~








































i .. ....:i ..


":"%". iri Pil
": pi:. ii


.. ... m .d!! I.im
::::::"::::":::
i, H9,,; .
""rm




....% Iiridii


i ii!



Hii~Ii.i"d....


S ,i, ii ? ..

i: ... "#" ":' U,


.., %I .:! i

.. . ,...,. .:, . ,:. 'ii .: 9i
.. : *i!:.. t.:"!ii

a il:.. i i i







.: i ".. Idi i



: :;iiii





4 h h X ........ .
.......... ,...... ,. .. [ '....... ..." . .. ..
:i .: ..:..:.... ... : :L ..
..: . :: "-!! : : .. . : ... ..

IC.

SIDEPARTME:N:7T..OF! .. ..U T
: : IEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.


S:..FIFTH REPORT


:, : '.": .. .. m w
OF THE




UNITED STATES







TENTOMOLOGICAL COMMISSION,
.g :.,:' .....








BEING A REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION OF

BULLETIN No. 7,


..^........ .
.........: ....O N





SINSBCT S-INJOURIOUS TO FOREST AND SHADE TREES
1;."::" ..... laII~il~ v V~ WI B~i rni


BY


Si I

AI4?gatS $. PA
3 J )
I -> j p


3' 3
1
2
9> 2 J .3 .2 3
13 ,j 1 Cl > *1 -
i, a," qa-i aq a1 2
e-


LOtARO,; M, P., PH. D.
I 1 i) ) '
-IJ- j j

* -, ..'' *
. . 1 1 -


S
.q 5 .20 mm,
3~ 3
2 j* h *i


'K,
.2
I)
K3
p


WITH WOOD-OUTS AND 38 PLATES.










WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1890.


.. = ...... ...:
4ii:.ii:, ,.," ..


4



IL.
3" :'*C~


'I

~ *.W


- 1


.... .. :. ...: .. ..
::::. ".: ; :" -: -....































. ......... itim ~ iii

-... ......... ....ii:W ~jj




IF
-



~

-S
.I".."li 'ii -lii "i









JOINT RESOLUTION AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING OF TWO TKOUR ^fl

COPIES OF THE FIFTH REPORT OP THE UNITED STATES Ump*M. t

LOGICAL COMMISSION. -::
............................... ::..iii .....
The following resolution, originating in the Horne of Bepreuuihali x ~



=H,,'
tivee, was concurred in by the Scuate, July 6, 1882: |

Resolved by the House of Repruesentativea (the Bernate corncusrriwsg) Thai;thr UaM E|l
printed, for the use of the Department of Agriculture, with necessary Oisutrftomm,
2,000 copies of the fifth report of the United States Entomological Commiss~ion, bielie-
a special report on the insect affecting forest trees.-(See Coegreaeimul'
.:: .....:: i i E E :.:: : E : E .. R














July 7, 1882.) ..:1. ...I
..... :: .... .. ..... .. .



II t
. ... .: ...
S.. ::. ..
.. .......... ... m
*,'". 1 1.,.' *' < .... ......












::.i -. ..Il ,.. : ::....... .:... ......J



ql . r. S . **;

*" :: : * .. .
., . ... .. ..: . .E i E ii

EEL "." : HE:: ....













I IK
Ic.
I J g. .E I L EC


4 * * > ; :

3" 1. .







i ,,i,,. ..... ...... .






TABLE OF CONTENTS.
jljyj i .::::? .::^; : ..g..A S





:. OF S.BM M AL. .... ........... ......... ........................ V.
,Y .






^ 3fc, .. ................ .. ... .. 5





Literature of forest entomology, 5-Insects in general, 6-The beetles and
bakers, 7-Moths and butterflies, 7-Gall-flies, 10--Saw-flies, 12-Plant-
lies, 13-Bark-lice, 14-Dipterous or two-winged gall-flies, 14-Insec-
tivorous or parasitic insects, 14-Artificial breeding of parasitic and
!,n i.: : T ABLE O F C ON TENTS.










... .. ... predaceous insects, 16-Coleopterous enemies of borers, 18-Influence
A ...... .."...




The appearance of unusual n.w growths, 4-The origin of repaired...................................d




Sports from representative indefinite growths is very general, 25-Pre-
Sivterature of foand restmedies against fors-Insects in general, 6-The beetles and
II: b orers, 7-Motl and butterflies, 7-Gall-flremedies against timber-beetlesant-




and bark-borers, 28-:Insecticides and means of applying them to shade
.i"cand forest trek-lies, 31-Paris green and London purple, 31-Insecticide-
. ....o which act by contact, 34-Wood ashes and lime, 34-Coal parashesitic and




prdcoal dust, 35-Pyr-thCom, hellebore, sulphur, 35-Alkaline washes,
' potash lye and soda lye, 35-Alkali9-Gene washes, soaps, 35-Petroleum pro-





ducts, kerosene, naphtha, 36-Kerosiene emulsions, 36-Resin washes,
.. ion s37-Fumigante, 23-gDiseases of trees p37-Hydroyanic aduced by the attacks of insectsicide ap-
,;':paratu 38-Deviace of u nusual new grg powdeths, p-The origin of repaired
I, ...... parts from representativ-The indefinite grothers is verychard general, 39-Pre-
S vie fntior applyn d remedies against forest insects pump, 2739-Ho se and bamboo ex- and
: ortensmeion rod, 42-Nozzles; thenon and remedies against timber-beetlesozzle, 44-The Nixon
S a for Climax nozzles, 346.Paris green and London purple, 31-Insecticides





-- CHA1PTE I.
oJ' -:----InWfts injurious to the Oak............. ....................................... 48
whicthe roots, 49-Affecting the trunk, 53-Affecting the lmbashes and
iiii'':.,`!: co'' "al dust, 35-Pyrethrum, hellebore, sulphur, 35 -Aikaline washes,
*,, ii' poitash lye and soda lye, 35-AKlkaline washes, soaps, 35--Petroleum pro-






... .. tduwits, ker3-Feeding on aphthe buds, 116- InjKere ring th e leaves, 117-Inj wuringhes,
the 37-edFumigants, gases, 37215-Insects either habitually or occasionally oc-
: arringatus, -Devies for applying powders, powder blowers, -Thethe oak, 217.
It jWodason th .................................................... 224bellows, 39-The Leggett Brothers orhad gun, 39-De-
viAffectsing th trunk, 224-Affecting the leavepump, 230-InHosects and bamboo ex-nally
tension rod, 4-Nozzles; the Riley or Cyclone nozzle, 44--The Nion
:':.:......or Climax nozzle, 46.







C CHAPTER II.
lIue, :, ft. iajriow. to the hickory ......................4........................ 4 285
I e uting the trunk and branches, 25-Affecting the bark, 298-Affecting the limbs and
th e l eaves, 299-Affetiding on the fbudsit, 326-Injuring -Othe leavcies occ urring on the
r[ .... the seeds (acorns), 215--Insects either habitually or occasionally oc-






hiurckg on the oak, 27..
'++',::, "CH 'rm II.





ij'iOe to theb elm wa ............................... ........... 329
Affecting the trunk, 329-Othe species.ocurring on the black walnut, 336.a





*lg ||||1:29::|i354:::
^ ipreying upon the elm, 282. "



bajii'+ : during g the trunk and branches, 285--Aff'ecting the bark, 298--Affecting
!!! :. the leaves, 299--Affecting the fruit, 326--Other species occurring on the
6/i''''++,.' hickory, 32 .
3be.sjreeto th lc ssu. ..+. .....----. --. -....3..................
tf lic!,ii tiug the trunk, 329--OthO~ species poeurring on the black walnut, 336.
+''.:ii ..: ;.:+'12 9354













































on thne biroh, 514. .1,
CHAPTER Vra.
I.nte injuriua to ithe bwA ....................... ..-.......rneuawebae4EM...e.....
Affecting the trunk, 515-Affecting the leaves, 515-Other inse.t. os..kqi ....
o .on the beech, 519. ... .....;....
:.. :~~~.... ..p...:,, ...... :
CHAPTER IX. '.
Insects injurious to the Awild cherry, wild plus, the tin, enppl. sb num idis Xfii +"...
Inmsect e affecting the wild cherry: Affecting the trunk, 5B1-Affestimg2 1
leaves, 52--Other insect, 529. '
Insects affecting the wild plum: Feeding on the leaves, 53% -heding Sb-c.:::I
fruit, 530-Other insects, 531. Jeo ,
Insects affecting the service-berry or Jane berry, 531. ,
Inseats affecting the wild thorn: Affecting the leaves, 532-Other iaini,'j
535.
Insects injurious to the crab-apple: Affecting the leave, 537.
Insecto injurious to the mountain ash: Affecting the leaves, 537-Oetr fu-
..... ....
sects, 539. :-I
CHAPTER X. ..
:" "-.l .!i "f:.
insects injurious to a........................................aea.....s.. maea
Affecting the trunk and brancehe 540- eting the leaves, 54-Ot, r la H ..
sects occurring on the ash, 556. :

.:.:: : l




q~~i .V-F..4E': JH ~~~ ';.:.. '.;. ;.........::...... .i:...: .. .
....... .... .. ... : ...E .. .." .. ..". .
-< :: TABLE OF CONTENTS. V
sll iip~ijjii;l "i:.," ..^ . ::... s A w w V



AEbating the trunk, 557-Injuring the leaves, 559-Other insects occurring
Ron the willow, l595.
CHAPTER XI.
i .. .. .... ..


1 ieJurium to the hmeby ..............-------------............................... 601
lajuu ingi the leaves, 602-Boring in the trunk, 610-Cecidomyidous hback-
berry galls, 61-Hackberry Psyllids, 614.

P-CHAPTER XII.
WjprygpontIalder.....--....--.----- --....-.------------------. 623
Boln.... g in the trunk, 623-Injuring the leaves, 625-Other insects of. the
a......3lre 6O 6.
.., injurious to the hazel: Feeding on the leaves, 637-Affecting the
i;iS!.'.:" '.nuts, 641-Other inseets 641.
:" : CHAPTER XV.
|V f' n to t o, etc-------------f.... ........... 643
:..3B:::aring ing the trunk, 643--Eating.the leaves, 644-Other insects also occur-
: na.... g on the sycamore, 646.
l:"9asts injurious to the hop-hornbeam, or iron-wood, 647.
In sects infesting the water-beech, hornbeam, 650.
Ain.tl..". n urin to the sa1asaf 650.
-In, et0s. injuring the honey-locust: Affecting the leaves, 652-Other insects
S of the honey-locust, 653.
l, aiei injuring the horse chestnut, or buckeye: Boring in the terminal
......i. g654-Affoting the leaves, 656.
im e ts ofthe sweet-gum; 657.
Tl"f2i"ijurious to the onr-gum tree, 657.
.it. 1a injuriouss to the prickly ash: Affecting the trunk and limbs, 659-
,'::::::Eating the leaves, 661.
In.set.a of the tulip tree, 663.
Int. injurionas to the sumach, 664.
SInsect. injurious to the poison ivy, 665.
|i[. Iu1ect.1 affecting the catalpa: Affecting the leaves, 666-Affecting the pods,

. i m... t. :, s injurious to the witch hazel, 668.
Imets injurious to the magnolia, 669.
b ain st injurious to the papaw, 669.
IJbaseset. injurious to the tree of heaven, 669.
.s.e.t.. s injurious to the box elder, 669.
.'Im lt injurious to the mesquite, 670.
tt s, injuriouss to the persimmon, 671.
.t...s.. injurious to the California bay or laurel, 671.
In Iets affecting the China tree, 671.
Insects injurious to the dogwood, 672.
i*Bas.ots injurious to the box, 672.
.iT:ect injurious to the black alder, 673. ;
ie t injurious to the Kentucky coffee tree, 673.

CHAPTER XV.
...I....'. to the Pie......--....--.... ...-- ....... ...... ............. 674. i
A A1flin the roots, 675-Affecting the trunk, 676-Affecting the twigs, 735-
LAe. lg the leaves, 756-Other insects occurring on the pine, 809.


; iid... ,," ... ::...
4 :::.:E1E] : .: :.:.:E ::E:E:.""i : ::













IVse s inrous to Lt A pr ... ........... ....u.....s..........,.......e..s .a e is
Afeoting the trunk and branches, 811-Affecting the leaves, 83-A-fsieaJu
the cones, 864-Other insects of the spruce, 856-Insects ijunadou -s .
Rocky Mountain spruce and Douglas aspruoe, 857.
*
OfAPTZA XVII.
Insects injurious to t hfir ree................. .................... ..... .....Mi
Affecting the trunk, 861-Affecting the leaves, 82-Other insets of :...
fir, 869.
CHAPTER n XVIII.
: : .. |:;r":, "." Iji lr!! i., .",::;:;yj;j
IseS. injurious to the hemlock k and larch ................................--.ih ii
Injuring the trunk, 871--Affecting the leaves, 873.
Insects injurious to the larch or tamarack: Affecting the leaves, 8.5--A .t' iHi:
insects, 903. Crx x IXi.iiI
CHAPTER XIX. ,, :' ,jiil
Jusete injurious to the juniper ..............................i............ :
Affecting the trunk, 904-Affecting the leaves, 907. .. i
Insects injurious to the common juniper, 910. ::

CHAPTER XX. i .:: '.l.... :.
..... .......... ii!
Insucts injurdous to Le cedar audOJpress................. .. .. -- seli" t !|
Insects injurious to the cedar, 917. '**- ..
....... .. ..... ..ii
Insects injurious to the cypress, 921. :::.:"^
Insects injurious to the Sequoia gigantea, 922. :::i

EXPLANATIONS TO PLATES.. ...... ..............
INDICES8 OF INSECTS, PLANTS, AND AUTHORS QUOTED ..w............. .. OEWlO

EXPL NATI N8 O PL~g8.... ... .... ... .... ... .... ... .... ... . )il;..... .... ii
.. :m .:EE .................
H.. ......
:: ;:'. ., A ::::;::f a: ii ll:.: l





'I.M
. .. . ::.
.f:. f.':" E:: ~.... ..[EE : ::EE ....




.: ". .... :' "" ii, .":Ei..... .. ....
S .. .... .. .: : .. !
."a:: ;* ::- ":i j . .
::' : ... '* i iQ









< i :: : i< ii 7
.. :::"!'':.ii,,ii : :'.t !
...... :: i i ..: f.. l









"f EE L "":"EEE


"::i ...i: .
...' .it iii:.::k

.. .HE :" i ~ i
HH.. H...: .;,i,




i :ii7 i',', r J .. ..., ,"":';...7 *... .Z".,
...... ... ..i : ... ::.A ii, ...... i. .... ...:::. .
:i :ii: :.i i: "' :" ... i:".. ... ..."..
. :..a E .:: :..... . *..
.... :. : :. : :... ": .. :: :". :


... .... ....










LETTER OF 'SUBMITTAL.
' .:'. y ....:..a .... .... .









.DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC".LTUBE.
DIVISION O. ENTOMOLOGY,
:Washington, D. C., December 26, 1887.
*i H ;;!!*:i!:... .*

















A, -accordance with the-act of Congress approved March 3,
Ijl wlu hch provided that the reports of the United States Entomolog-
Aedil commission be made to the Commissioner of Agriculture, I have
to submit for publication this the fifth and final report of
Q|l commission. This report is on the insects affecting forest trees,
r* 8. Packard, and has been in part written and completed
termination of the work of the Commission, and while he has
-connected with the Division as a special agent.
Respectfully,
i i i. ........












";." ,.C. V. RILEY.
*"**' .Chief U. S. BE. C.
NOMAN J. COLMAN.










Comnmidssinr of Agriculture.
I.. -iii~ii!:.



p',i :'' *LETTER OF" SUBMITTAL1.











ItI
:,i!N ':,,i~iDEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
........DIVISION O ENTOMOLOGY
~:~;. Washington, D. 0., December 26, 1887.
iiOn accordance with the act of Congress approved March 3,
jq..., which provided that the reports of the United States Entomolog-
P0 Comission be made to the Commissioner of Agriculture, I have
Iwizor to submit for publication this the fifth and final report of
Commission. This report is on the insects affecting forest trees,
Dr. A~f. S. Packard, and has been in part written and completed
&the termination of the work of the Commission, hud while he has
connected with the Division as a special agent.
!!i ....C. V. RILEY,
"ii'! '"' "Chsef U7.& E.G(.
emi~. NOnRMN J. COLxn,
Comsasioer f Agiculure
ii N III!illl.
H' L ."..









I!! -.
!!,,HH



























































MEMBERS W 0F THE COMMISSION.


C. V. RILEY, Chief.

A. S. PACKARD, Secretar.

CYRUS THOMAS, Diubrinug Agent.


: ::::"' S'siljlll ll



*1
... .. .. ....:... iiiii~ iii
: ii ... .. .. .....:iii















....... .....
*::: : i iih: ;!:















.. :.m .,imi:i!ii?
.. ::::::*:y*:l::l:::::::





-. :.. .
/"i~...-f..

...... :' ii:.E"
*: .:. ~ii


vmiii


.:.. .. .... :
...... :::..
...... ....=h
... :* EEE. :

:ii


I -.:


... .. : ; : :i: .... .........
... ..: .. .........
... .. .. ..
S.. ...



::" :" i....

H. .. i
.. .. ... .:.d

.E .': liii


.. .... ..: .




.. ~ EE : ":: ... . ." .. .. . .. ...
S.::. :..... .. ....
I[ .... .E'. : ... ....
,,.". ..... ?,:, ... .



mi ..!," ........







INJUJRIOUS TO FOREST AND SHADE TREES,


PREFACE.

Tb1 flloin report is an enlarged and revised edition of Bulletin 7
:-:th--q--U. So Entomological Commission on insects injurious to forest
lllltrees, which was published in 1881.
..i.- of this report is to give to the public, especially those







interested in forestry and the planting and cultivation of shade
-lees a-brief summary of what is up to this time known of the habits
.........appearanceof such insects as are injurious to the more useful kinds








^^^^^^^It is hoped that such a compendium will be found useful, and
. .. ... .. ..









WIl. the: r..eadeor not only to refer to the works of Harris, Fitch, Walsh,








-Le~e^ j Conte, Horn, LeBaron, Saunders, Lintner, Forbes, and others
.0.a. entomologists who have contributed to this neglected branch,









induce him to make careful observations on the habits of destrac-
i ..... .... .









TOIV for est insects and to carry on experiments is to the, best remedies
.... ..... -their insidious attacks. The writer has added notes of obser-
ml~o aade daring the past twenty-five years in the forests of Maine,
lileHampshire, New York, and the woods of Massachusetts, as well
inColorado, Utah, Montana Florida and on the Pacific coast; also












hl.^lamber of original engravings. The aim has been both to present j
-p'li~iial. matter and to bring together from numerous entomological
opillrksB reports, and journals all that is of most importance to the prac-
^|lmno It is hoped that the work in its present form may serve as
:" i:i~ii: ... M e













.. .. ... .. .- synopsis, a starting-point for future more detailed work,
11B l as a handy book of reference for the use of future observers,
B|||$d that it will call the attention of the public to a neglected subject,
m ting entomologists, praical foresters, and gardeners to do what















Yean. to add to our knowledge of this department of applied or\
^^|9nmcentomology.
^IaAiouecould. be written on the insects living on any single kind
hereafter it maybe expected that the insect population of
E:lk, -elm,. poplar, pine, and other trees will be treated of m.no-"
J,.,, teallowi Certannly there could be no moerviseresting and profit-

















_* sfor the young entomologist.
E,, fs
ti.E[ ."
I'. .... nuiust h oeueu id
'I tp~~ceo uhiset t r
Ai'"'2 ".'i. ..
Iii,,,:.: ,Itihoethtsh .cmeduwilbfodusfl n
a: ..ii edr o nyt efrt hwrso ars icWlh

4I....NS,.ECTNJROU'OFOETN HAETRE"


The:i,: ...ilow. ing r~epr isanenlargsedvandreiosedn tedhitio of Buletinc7
*t'"..ii threU.s.t noooia omsino insects injuriousnexermnt o h beto fredest
i! ,'o.!zdsh N d8 trees, whsiichs wtas. pulihed wine 1881.dnoe o bsr
* ~":,:"The desmigne ofin thire port istogy-ive to rsi the pubicespeial those,
:::ii ewsouamshintrest ed inorestr and the plantin and Maschuletivtio fshadel

4 a-,#:.u brer f summiaryo whgatvins. up to this tieekon bofthe habitesen
>ud! iil appearance tof suchinset asgearer injrious tonhemoreousefuomlokinds
: -q( tre It is hoped that suh awompeindium wilresn found uyseful, and
EE:" .l.oS:: .....ii:; th~el reade hnot bonl tof referetonte workt se of Ha trriberes,FicWlh
Jtitey, Le CnteHornogst, Lepron aundaorsers, Lintdnerobs, and dotwhers
yi u e~ntomologits wor havlede ontributddto thisnegf plec ed branh
Jtind :ouce hioulmake carefuln obsrain n the habitsliino ony dstnline-
heriefoetneftsr andto cary on experiment dsht t he i best remedaieso


in Colorado, Utpah, Montan, Fldothria ande onl the Pacific coast also-."
anumber.o originaly tenravings.dThe aimor hasterestng bott present-
jwgia mat ther anyo bigtgehrfomnmru entomological
wcrks," reports, an1orasalta so ms motnet h rc









































and 107 obnoxious to the elm. The poplars afford a liveWli ..
kinds of insects; the willows yield food to 396 species; the WiW
bor 270 species; the alder, 119; the beech, 154; the hazelndut,.
the hornbeam, 88. Coming to the coniferous trees, as the pine
larch, firs, etc., the junipers supply 33 species, while upont
larch, spruce, and firs, collectively, prey 299 species ofM"
France Perris has observed over one hundred species either
to, or living upon without being especially injurious to, the nt
pine. These are described in an octavo volume of 532 psagjs|
numerous plates. !
The number as yet known to attack the different kinds of t
United States may be seen by reference to the following pagft
sufficiently large to excite great fears for the future prosperity 1
diminished forests, unless the Government interposes, and thrtas
proper channels fosters entomological research in this direotimi"
forests, moreover, are much richer in species of trees than thost.
. rope. We have, without doubt, on the trees corresponding to S
. ... i:. t
".:r "'!3


E


..... i! i.i





.;mP" '"* '"" ":. "ii: *" ." " ',
:::i ,!.: .. ,,.", .:...:... .. .. ...
.... .. .Y

Ai.'.. .P.. C .E..
% ..~ ... .. . .R FA E
ii; i pe as many destructive species as in Europe. Bat we have many
-uoiw0 sbade and forest trees of importance in the eastern United States
tM pe and when we add to these the forest trees of the western Rocky
ontain plateau and of the Pacific coast, and when we look forward
$e attention which must be given in the immediate future to the
,..ting of shade and forest trees on the great plains and in California,
W:subject of forest entomology assumes still more importance.
author has here arranged the forest trees in the order of their
I l ance, beginning with the hard-wood or deciduous trees, the oak
.g-the list, and ending with the coniferous trees; and under each
he bhas first described the habits of the insect on the whole most
ns, sometimes merely giving a- list of those insects found to be
a* parasites of the tree but not specially injurious, though it
.jdsI be borne in mind that any species of insect may at certain sea-
qao abound as to prove destructive.
wearing the original bulletin, the author was, for valuable infor-
.. .egarding the food-trees of a number of beetles hitherto unpub-
490il indebted to Mr. George Hunt, of Providence, R. I., and for aid
'.... :: tin specimens he acknowledged the assistance received from
0n. Calder, formerly assistant instructor in chemistry, Brown
S .tU[Eitty, and from Prof. H. 0. Bumpus, then a member of the sopho-
ial41,^aB..s of Brown University.
L :. :E : :.... .. E:: :.... ... .
hile preparing the work in its present form the author has been for
:4 S t-four years connected with the Division of Entomology as a
4i agent, and matter contained in his reports have been incorpo-
,.;*A: this general work. And he takes pleasure in acknowledging
C 0tt. .. ..aid and sympathy in the work shown by Professor Riley,
_* United States Entomologist, not only in allowing free and unre-
4tWOdute-se of specimens, both in his private collection and that which
.. iiie has generously presented to the Agricultural Department at Wash-
i gtn and to the National Museum, but for the privilege of describing
t i J transformations of a number of species, represented by blown or.
Aleiholie larvm. Professor Riley has also freely made over to the author
.a ~hitherto unpublished notes of habits and transformations, which
beeun accumulating for the past twenty years-notes and observa-
494 i:,,:w|hieh most persons would naturally prefer to keep or publish in-
.....enty under their own names. These especially relate to oak and
SWinsDects, besides others, and are acknowledged in the places where
P appear. Re also contributes an account of the insects of the Celtis.
|Prt8ssor Riley has also allowed the use of some unpublished draw-
i :,:.:. .. ..:. ... ...... .
...and a few cuts prepared as Entomologist of the Department of
..I!.ture for future use.
.-ks are also due to the late S. Lowell Elliott, esq., of Brooklyn,
: dwards; esq., of New. York, and Professor Riley, as well as to ,
Horn, of Philadelphia; Dr. P. B. Uhler, of Baltimore; 1Dr.
..e... .r... State entomologist of New York, Mr. L. 0. Hfoward and *



.. H ... .. .. .























oeen maae oy Mr. Josepu rnnognam, 01 rroviaence, i. IL. The 'niii
names are mentioned under the cuts in the text. ...
For aid in collecting specimens in Maine he is indebted to M.t. :5ii[
Wilder and Master Allen Howe, of Lewiston. ..........
The author is well aware of the short-comings and imnp .ier .ifshs .
this report. A good deal of time has been expended in unsucssfl
tempts at raising insects, which has not produced visible results. Up
wards of two hundred descriptions of unidentified larva have..:::!]
.. : ... : :. :"... E..
made; those of the oak appear in the appendix, and others to.a. .im.i!,.
tered through the report. It is hoped that future observations wS*.l.
able us to complete these life-histories. It would have been de qi;!!.
to have had more and, in some cases, better illustrations.
SThis report will be sent to all known to be specially interested j ii
tomology, and they are respectfully asked to send the author 'correth17
and additions, as undoubtedly a number of species have been Osh:m :
from the list of those peculiar to different trees. Such change. eMSil
be made in a second, revised edition, should it be called for lipi9:6
. .... .. .. ._ ..:
public.
BROWN UNIVERSITY, ... .
Providence, B. L, January -2, 1888.
.... "\ .. ... ....

.... ....: ,




-... .. ." . .
S .: :. .... :.


. .. ......... .. .
.. : .. ..." ..... :
":* .: ,: :* ... ":i; ;,.; .iH i
'": ::ii iEEE:i'-h, ; ']
""*i ::. ..: "' " ::':" !!!!!!!! ii' ii:M::
.E :: E EE . .:
..::.E .:1

... ,.., :I i




il:! : .;"""" ".,. ...::".: ,,":* ::;.:--.
H.... : ...... m .:" ..... . ..
pi:::. ::.:: :*,, i'" .. :: :.... . : '
"I ::* "







Mt 7
A:
?.a 2?.
GSi.' "






,,*i E *i,,*i., ;; ..


The subject of Forest Insects is almost a distinct branch of economic
loogy, and little special attention has been given to it as yet in
s country, owing to the fact that our entomological students have
ei .. obliged to concentrate their efforts upon the more destructive
r den and field insects.
he special works on this topic are, though few, notable for the
exesive research and care with which they have been prepared; hence
Sthierpermanent value. By far the most important are the voluminous
..J...or.ks of Dr. J. T. C. Ratzeburg and those of Perris, Eichhoff, and
SKaltenbach, while an excellent general work on forest insects is that
B|:* Judeich and Nitsche. The following list of works bearing directly
S A-i!n, thi. topic, and indispensable, should be supplemented by the reports
|'and. articles of 0. V. Riley, J.A. Lintner, J. H. Comstock, S. A. Forbes,
nd, others:
.... ...... .. .e r a
W. HaIS 2Tratise on some of the Insects injurious to Veget ata. Third edition;
I illustrated. Boston, 1862.
A.TFinT Reports (1 to 14) on the noxious, beneficial, and other Insects of the State of
S" New York. Albany, 1856-'70.
.m K[OL&AR. A Treatise on Insects injurious to Gardeners, Foresters, and Farmers. Trans-
lated from the German by J. and M. London. London, 1840.
Ii|.i T C. RATZUBURG. Die Forstinsekten, etoc. (Forest Insects). Berlin, 1839, 1840, and
1844. 4 vols. 4to, with many plates.
...-.. Die Ichnemoone der Forstinsekten, etc. (Ichneumons of Forest Insects). 3 parts.
| ::; ..Berlin, 1844, 1848, and 1852. 4to. Plates.
V.- Die WJL &derbber und ihre Feinde(Forest Destroyers and their Enemies). Ber-
lin, 1841. 8vo. Sixth edition; 1869.
De Walderderbn iss oder dauenider Schade, welcher durch Insektenfrass, Schalen,
*Sehagen, und Verbeissen an lebenden Waldbdumen entsteht (Forest injury or
S...... losses inflicted by insect attacks, etc.). 4to. 2 parts. Berlin, 1866-'68.,
....,: with many colored plates. (A magnificent and most useful work.)
t PACKARD. Guide to the Study of Insects.. Ninth edition; 1888. 8vo. New York,
H. Holt & Co.
flue uand NNiTsaE. Lehrbuoh der MitteZ-Europiischen Forstinsektenkunde. Wien,
S Part I, 1885. Part II, 1889. 8vo.
CoiOmaqre also the works of Perrit, Taachenberg, Eichhoff, Kaltenbach, Altum,
lnger, Henschel, and others.)
hle the reader is referred to the ordinary text books for the ele-
ofentomology, the following facts may prove serviceabte in
.... with the subject of forest entomology:
... .. .....5


INTRODUCTION.


I

















i *:i

*':.::
' "I































Usu WV LLAG U .,-- I u.. a.w-LrLw- -s.. .-, s a aj w. .
7. Mouth-parts beak-like, but with palpi ..-... Tysanoptrs: Thrips. .....
8. Monuth-parts forming a beak for sucking; no
palpi.----:-------------- ------------. Heiaptera: Bugs.4
9. Wings net-veined; metamorphosis complete. Veuroptera: Lace-winged p t
10. Wings long and narrow; body with a foroeps.Mecaptera: Panorps.
11. Wings not net-veined .----...---..-..---. Trichoptera: Caddis-fly.
12. Fore wings sheathing the hinder ones........ Co leoptera: Beetles.
13. Wingless, parasitic.......................... Siphonaptera: Fleas.
14. One pair of wings.----..--.-.--.--......... Diptera: Flies. ...
15. Four wings and body scaled .--..- ...... Lepidoptera: Butterflie.ii
16. Four clear wings; hinder pair small; a tongue. Hymenopters: Bees, Wa:s ps
Allied to the insects are the myriopods, or centipedes and
worms, none of which are injurious to forest or shade-trees, a .
the smaller kinds of centipedes (Lithobiua, etc.), occur under the b..
decayed trees. No spiders or allied forms, comprising the class trod
nida, are injurious to vegetation, except certain mites (Aeinu) whq
forms and gall-making habits are peculiar. Many spiders tkiqi": 2
their abode in the leaves of shade and forest trees, but none are ||
to be injurious. The false-scorpions (Chelifer, etc.) often occuri.....Fi
the bark of decayed trees, but they are more useful than otherwi...1
they probably devour the smaller wootboring larvm.
The bulk of our destructive forest insects belong to the orders
prising the beetles, the caterpillars, gall-flies, saw-fly larvae, a .iS.
bugs. We will mention them in the order of their importa
destructive to shade and forest trees. 'i





:0:: ..'"". INTRODUCTION. 7

The uttes and borers.-The order Colioptera comprises about 100,000
species of beetles, divided into a large number of families. The beetles
1|| easily recognized by the hard, sheath-like fore wings which pro-
the hind wings; their jaws are stout and thick, more or less
L3im^thed. and adapted for biting.
larva of beetles are called "grubs." They have been thus
I! Ued in the author's Guide to the Study of Insects:"
"i'lar, when active and not permanently inclosed (like the Curculio) in the
ipniiirtenees which form their food, are elongated, flattened, worm-like, with a large
!BSWl nl' developed mouth parts, and with three pairs of thoracic feet, either
rla AOwflShy and retractile, while there is often a single terminal prop-leg on the
:Win:ials.. segment and a lateral horny spine. The larvz of the Cerarbycidw. are
soft, and more or less cylindrical, while those of the Curculionidwp are footless,
l&,*aehl so, and resemble those of the gall-ffies, both hymenopterous and dipterous.
".i:"' paB ".have free limbs, and are: either inclosed in cocoons of earth or, if
V*0i4obbri in ryde cocoons of fine chips and dust, united by threads or a viscid
Up ed the insect. Generally, however, the antenna are folded
Ak A 4 side of the elypens, and the mandibles, maxillam, and labial palpi appear as
lrRgtd papilla. The wing-pads being small, are shaped like those of the adult
_Ji.1e:. and are laid upon the posterior femora, thus exposing the meso- and meta-
.. .... .. ... ,










ii...x to view. The tarsal joints lie parallel on each side of the middle line of the
1he hinder pair not reaching to the tips of the abdomen, which ends in a pair
4$Wii:t hete .prolonged, forked, incurved, horny hooks, which must aid the pupa in
: ak'ug its way to the surface when about to transform into the beetle.
M tof the destructive kinds belong to the following families:
:jd i! i :.:. .:.. ... ...









K|:way'o1 beetle, broad, fliat, hard; antennae short, serrated. Larva with head and
S|.z ftt snoceeding, segment very broad and flat.----.---.-.---.....--. Bupreatid.
| obeewtlei more or less cylindrical, with very long, slender antennae; larvae
:ed. "borere," their bodies cylindrical, usually footless .......... Cerambyeidew.
7 :;y u fldrica beetles, with no snout, called bark-borers; larvae footless, thick,
...e. ylindrical, pointed at each end ------------ ------------------ Scolytidwe.
g- X::ri-boded beetles, called "weevils," with a long beak or snout, with jaws at tne
aeid- larva grub like, footless, thick and fleshy -...--.........-... Cureuliosidae.
I;-!:' i," i::: : ,:: .:! .: .: .











.Ni an d butterflies.-While a few caterpillars (mostly of the family
Ege&riadse and the Cossidwe) bore into the trunk and branches of trees.
-:7Ie great bulk devour the leaves. Caterpillars are provided with
S.stout, toothed jaws (m andibles) for cutting leaves. They are voracious
Sieders, as will be seen by the following extract from Mr. a. Tron velot
: ......c ro r r n eo











:ii Packardhs lGuide to the Study of Insects:"
SYAlpifars gi ow very rapidly and consume a great quantity of food. Mr. Trouve-
M lias tlhe following account of the gastronomical powers of the Polyphemus
etsepillar: "It is astonishing how rapidly the larva grows, and one who has no
i'.:ipiltence in the matter could hardly believe what an amount of food is devoured
N1'7 tahese little creatures. One experiment which I made can give some idea of it.
SiWi.en.. theh young silk-worm hatches out it weighs one-twentieth of a grain; when
5 dA#ys old it weighs half a grain, or ten times its original weight; twenty days
weight 3 grains, or bixty times its original weight; thirty days old it weighs
$ainsa, or 620 times its original weight; forty days old it weighs 90 grains, or
.W:Vis its original weight; fifty-six days old it weighs 207 grains, or 4,140 times
....... weight.
.. a worm is thirty days old it will have consumed about 90 grains of fpod; but
I Hirfthd-c days old it is fully grown and has consumed not less than one hundred
AHi e


































lowing brief synopsis gives the most salient characteristic 0 i8W|W
families of moths which especially abound on the leaves of sa .b.
forest trees:
Moths of large size; larva with a horn on the eighth abdominal segment.. 4Mm
Moths with stout hairy bodies and small heads and broad wings; larva morae'l
hairy or with spines: usually spinning silken cocoons............Bi
Moths of moderate size: stout bodies; shining hind wings; larvm with ftive ....
abdominal legs; sometimes semi-loopers.............................
Moths with slender bodies, broad wings, both pairs colored alike; larva i*ll
two pairs of abdominal legs; span-worms or geometrids -.......... a
Small moths with narrow, straight fore-wings, the hind wings plain; lairva ji
green or pale, the head spotted, and the body more or less striped........lt..
Still smaller moths, the fore-wings more or less oblong; the larva green, withl*
heads and cervical shields; not striped; rolling leaves or eating buds.. 2br*4M
Minute moths with narrow, pointed wings; larvae small, pale greenish, etc., .
darker head and cervical shield; often mining leaves, buds, ete.... .....
Forest trees, and especially evergreen trees, support each year.
of caterpillars, comprising species of different families. In beati......
branches of any spruce, fir, larch, poplar, or maple, and especially :
oak, a great number and variety of caterpillars are shaken downst
the question arises whether the innumerable host constantly and ,*
narily at work from spring-time to the fall of the leaf in ouar fl
trees ate really injurious to the tree. It is not improbable that gi




I: . .. ... .
gp"^^ J- ..INTRODUCTION.
. ... .. ::: .:..:..:.. ...... .... .....

m!::i done to the tree -by these voracious beings. The process up to a.
rerta.in limit may be one of natural and healthy pruning, but there is
co ertginty that the limit may not at any time be overstepped and
eiri. notion ensue. The tree is attacked in a multitude of ways by cater-
;)llilbnars alone. The buds are eaten by various leaf-rollers (Tortrices),
r00.itaves are mined on the upper and under sides by various Tineids,
.1Sil the leaves are rolled over in various ways and in various degrees
.~~ihk ae shelter for the caterpillars, or they are folded on the edges, or
16hend and sewed together by Tineid, Tortricid, and Pyralid larvae.
iph efidre leaves are devoured by multitudes of species of larger cater-
belonging especially to the Pyralid, Geometrid, Bombycid, and
:IIi[ moths; while certain species prey on the fruit, acorns, nuts,
:.lj^lH M' i BK,...: .. .. h
:it "is a singular fact that of thJe great family of Owlet or Noctuid
Il heiii of which there are known to be 1,200 species in this country,
.i~:: .E: ...." .... ..
S4y. few feed on trees, the bulk of them occurring on herbaceous plants
..... .. .'."."a. S
.IIVifWhile the smaller caterpillars (Microlepidoptera) feed concealed
":H..;. :,:, "... .. p id...a
l|iwen the leaves or in the rolls or folds in the leaf, or in the buds, the
i .pi..lars of the larger species feed exposed on or among the leaves.
*iflfe. they are subject to the attacks of birds and of Ichneumon and
X0i -..la flies, which are constantly on the watch for them. And it is
;|i411m6 to see how nature has protected the caterpillars from observa-
.iAin*While the young of the smaller moths are usually green and of
i ....ame hue as the leaves among which they hide, or reddish and
h| f tiw h if in spruce and fir buds, where they hide at the base of the
needless next to the reddish or brownish shoots, the larger kinds are
.niovziafly colored and assimilated to those of the leaves and twigs
J~,ietv g'winch they feed. Were it not for this they would be snapped
Mp jby birds. Of course, the birds devour a good many, and the pry-
i :ne::mo.s an T
:Singihneumons and Tachinie lay their eggs in a large proportion, but
those which do survive owe their safety to their protective coloration.
| Of some twenty or more different species of Geometrid caterpillars'
wh .ieh occur On the evergreen trees, some are green and so striped with
'.. white that when at rest stretched along a pine needle, they could with
iMI~1-Aty be detected; others resemble in various ways (being brown
A4w: i.i.t..ed) the small twigs of these trees; and one is like a dead red leaf
:of the fir or hemlock. There~are several span-worms on the oak, which
is color and markings, as well as in the tubercles and warts on the body,
'gesewmble the lighter or darker, larger or smaller knotty twigs; this
||a-peiblance, of course, is in keeping with the characteristic habit of
worms of holding themselves out stiff and motionless when not

:..n entirely different way the various kinds of Notodontian cater-
which feed exposed on oak leaves, are protected from observa-
T.ey T feed on the edges of the leaves, and their bodies are green,



: ..: . .. .. .. .. .
d:: : ." .
HP :i.'::" : ." ...
L i.. .. ...


































.... *........ i ii
its life.
To the Iymenoptera belong the gall-flies and saw-flies, be "uitha.l.
and ants, and ichneumons.
Gafl-flies.-These little creatures produce tumors or galls. both ul
trunk, branches, but more usually the smaller twigs and leagei' I*
oak, and rarely other trees. They belong to the family Uynm4"4
are described as follows in the writer's "Guide to the Study of bmeW;,
The gall-flies are closely allied to the parasitic Chalcids, but in their.IOt"w
plant-parasites, as they live in a gall or tumor formed by the abnormal grow*l.:. 4*
vegetable cells, due to the irritation first excited when the egg is laid in tb.he ..i>
substance of the leaf, as the case may be. The generation of the summer br111IC
also anomalous, but the parthenogenesis that occurs in these forms, by wbu4
mense numbers of females are produced, is necessary for the work they p iMbi
the economy of nature. When we see a single oak hung with countless gal
work of a single species, and learn how numerous are its natural enemies, itbJI1i
evident that the demand fora great numerical increase must bemethbyextraU
means, like the generation of the summer broods of the plant-lice. .,,:,,,
The gall-flies are readily recognized by their resemblance to certain C0aoi"|i
the abdomen is much compressed and usually very short, while the ...ec.............
second and third segments, are greatly developed, the remaining ones tbeing:...
cated, or covered one by the other, leaving the lined edges exposed.
within these is the long, partially coiled, very slender ovipositor, which ad.iaM l
the base of the abdomen. [See Plate xv, ovipositor of the gall-fly.] Amo.ng:
distinguishing characters, are the straight (not being elbowed) thirteen to sNixt
jointed antenna, the labial palpi being from two to four jointed and the maatl9


'.".ii
. :" .ni
** "~1- :** :.!, .;* --Ii




.: .... . ..., .

....::: ..... INTRODUCTION. 1

.::. from four to six.jointed. The maxillary lobes are broad and membranous,
"bles the ligula is fleshy, and either rounded or square at the end. There is a cornm-
! $ eiieq:,sttl, cell, while the subcostal cells are incomplete. The egg is of large size,
Al liad i3oreases in size as the embryo becomes more developed. The larva is a short,
P..tfkifleshy, footless grub, with the segments of the body rather convex. When
p'..l^Mimrtwe they immediately attack the interior of the gall, which has already formed
I 'i them. Many species transform within the gall, while others enter the earth
.i t .:.here become pups.
Li ke the Aphides and certain other insects, the females often repro-
prthenogenetically, viz, they lay eggs without having paired with
4;0,0t: he latter not being at the time in existence. Thus the late B.
Watalsh. discovered that the autumn brood of a gall-fly (Cynips quer-
i"-woiuawt=a) consisted entirely of females which laid eggs, producing
I. .. .....," ... :; I "
Mh.kllowing spring both males and females which were originally re-
l'i rd-,to a supposed distinct species (Cynips quercus-spongifica). Hence,
S . several experiments Mr. Walsh declared that "the agamous
- ., ,. iid "' ,......... ,
Biwatumnal female form of this Cynips (C. q.-acioulata) sooner or later
iG :":,:':.. .. ... ". ...
iipoldiioes the bisexual vernal form," and is thus "a mere dimorphous
*| ^ AS1e form" of C. q.-spongifica. It was reserved for two other Ameri-
"Aiwf students of the gall-flies to establish the fact that an alternation
RIF 77ge rations takes place in these insects. The case is thus stated by
'M|iL, 0. Howard, in Psyche (im, 329, June 24, 1882).
" 1|`6u'ieamay justly claim the credit for the discovery of this most interesting fact
ltrnation iofgenerations among Cynipids. Riley, in the interjected remarks in
73j$ pIele on "Controlling Sex in Butterflies" (American Nat., Sept., 1873, v. 7, p.
Sl|Wl,).wnU the first actually to establish the fact beyond all peradventure, as M. Lichten.
ittqiJ-O1ponts out; yet Bassett, four months previously (Can. Entomologist, May, 1873,
|1|Al. p.. 93) had stated, in the following words, the theory which Adler has so fully
- teiared "From all the above facts I infer that all our species that are found only in
-i,,the male sex are represented in another generation by both sexes, and that the two
[ i*:odare, owing to seasonable differences, produced from galls that are entirely
ARdistim ftom each other." In this article Bassett has just missed the actual proof in
i; iw instances. With Cyntips q.-operator he had observed the females of the vernal brood
,iposfting^ in acorn cups and producing the gall q.-operatola of Riley's MS.; but
iJa:se: failed to rear the flies from these galls and so missed the complete proof. In the
1:!k!!se of C. q.-batatus Bass., he had bred the sexual forms from leaf galls, and the agamic
".:N:'fales from twig galls, but had not actually observed the females of the former in the
j| Of ovipositing in the twigs; thus again missing the proof. Riley, however, as he
i s|18U8 i n his published note, succeeded in breeding the agamic females of q.-operator
plll o ae corn galls; thus, in connection with Bassett's observation of the oviposi-
:m........ .., ...mpltely establishing the fact of alternation. So the credit should be joint. It
." 'i1:1.falt, much like the well-known case of Siredon and Amblystoma, in which the
cHfldit should be divided between Baird and Dumeril. Dr. Adler very excusably
H. erlo ked this note of Riley's. Walsh, in his earlier articles, came no nearer the
-ait4nal state of the case than to prove that two females formerly described as dis-
:. .. .. .. .
%iset species, may belong to the same male.
AIlidependently of and subsequently to the work done in the United
SDr. Adler, of Germany, also discovered and satisfactorily
..... : m rc nEtl.",i.30....., O b 18 0 "
'American Entomologist, ii, 330, October, 1870.


i : ... .... .. .
=.:.................
rr :.:;:: .
*a':: ;:, ..
4 %:..:"






























elbowed, and as in Lophyrus are pectinated in the males, serratS!fl
females. In the end of the hind body of the female is uituat!Mfll
"saw" or ovipositor. This consists of two blades, the lower.dpt8
the lower one of which is toothed like a saw, and fits in a groove
under side of the upper blade; both blades being protected by S1





.................................... .... .. ... .... H.....I.



PiG. 1.-Saw of a saw-fly (Hylotoma): a, lateral scale; i, BaW; A gorget. After aip.D 5
like stylets. On pressing the end of the abdomen the saw is depre.S.I..
by this movement the saw, which both cuts and pierces, makes a41"'
in the soft part of the leaf, where it deposits its eggs. (Pig. L) *
The Lophyrus of the pine makes a series of punctures on each that
a pine needle; the Nematus of the alder makes from twenty to fortypt
of semicircular punctures in the under side of the midrib of tin :i4e|
while the larch saw-fly inserts her eggs in two alternating rows 4A6th
*Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, xxxv, Feb. 1, 1881, pp. 151-9K,
x-xii. Dr. Adler's researches were commenced in 1875, and him first paper appwU
in 1877. (Deutsche Entomolog. Zeitsebrift, 1877, Heft 1.)





ii~~~iim ;;7~~~ t:: lP :: d;M : .!:":N. :n::: :i:.. ::" i
i!ji : i: ;: !:i: ;::......: ,...... .:
.......... .... INTRODUCTION. 13

. im .of the fresh leaves of the new shoots. The punctures made in the
...willow by saw-flies of the genus Euura result in the formation of galls
lW.poiri. ors within which the larvaB live.
t:The larvie strongly resemble caterpillars, hence they are sometimes
1. i led "false caterpillars;" but they have from six to eight pairs of ab-
: slnjal legs, whereas caterpillars have only five pairs. Many kinds
(Wma tus, etc.) curl the hind body spirally when feeding or at rest.
are usually green, of the color of the leaves upon which they feed,
4h lines and markings of various colors. They usually molt four
the last change being the most marked. Most of the larvae se-
AW:'dtsilk and spin a tough oval, cylindrical cocoon, in which they
Bom r~ate in the larva and often in the pupa state.
d bees.-Ants have not been noticed in the United States to
trees, but in the tropics species of (Ecodoma, or leaf-bearing ants,
very destructive to trees; it is possible that there are species in the
. iiii,:,.... .. :..... ..1

Glf.W S.tates which may in part defoliate trees.
....s.are -of great use in setting the fruit of trees; little has been ob-
tI..r --ed on this point in this country, but without doubt the visits of in-
!"'merable bees to linden trees are of service in "setting" the seed of
... .. ': ......:.. .. EU :" " : .. ?

'. L~bLgger' mentions the fact that the seeds of the rock maple, so
nm..1'.. erus in the grounds of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
Co. ,were in 1886 uniformly sterile. He attributed this phenomenon
|^ the inclement weather prevailing during the flowering season, which
!M vented bees from visiting the flowers.
.: Pin. t Io a. e-While many Hemiptera, such as the bugs, destroy many
||Thaterpillars, particularly span-worms and leaf-rollers, some of the most
Saying and destructive of our forest insects belong to this order.
.. l ey all take their food by piercing the succulent leaves and stems, or
; twigs of trees, shrubs, or herbs, often causing them, as in the elm aphis,
1'to crdmple up. The species of Psyllidw are very common on the leaves
.:f hard-wood trees, either hopping over the surface or living in leaf
Iglls which are the results of their punctures.
The following account of Aphides or plant-lice is adapted from the
i termss "Guide to the Study of Insects :"
Th''0 plant-lice have greenish, flask-shaped bodies, covered with a soft, powdery,
Mob m m; their antenna are five to seven-jointed, with a three-jointed beak, and legs
with two-jointed tarsi. The males and females are winged, and also the last brood
.of. asexual individuals, while the early summer brood are wingless. The abdomen is
think mand rounded, and in Aphis and Laohnus provided with two "honey tubes" for
|tw psage of a sweet fluid secreted from the stomach.
A the early autumn the colonies of plant-lice are composed of both male and female
vidualas; these pair, the males then die, and the females begin to -deposit their
after which they also die. Early in the spring, as soon as the leaves begin to
Sthe eggs are hatched, and the young lice begin to suck the sap, and soon be-
ubring forth young, which develop by a budding process within the body of the .
*Entomologica Americana, ii, 89.






















uo great damage oy puncturing thne bark ot trees.
Dipterous or two winged gall-flies.-Maples, wild plumns, poplua fll HS
other trees have numerous leaf.-galls of varied form made by little.I!!
like flies belonging to the dipterous family OecidomyidW. Thes e .: iiU
are minute, most of them smaller than a mosquito. The femati:p :|
their eggs in the stems, leaves, and buds of various plants andl J;.i; E
thus producing galls, a common example being the willow dfptsqS:-:;
gall-fly (Cecidomnyia strobiloide.s). There are thirteen other speies::*l4L
by Mr. Walsh to raise galls on eight different kinds of willow, tbefl
ferent kinds of galls being readily distinguished, while the flies :tkeit..
.. .. ". ".=. i. ... ... ............. ..
selves and their maggots are closely similar. The maggots o *id |
Cecidomyians are usually minute orange, pinkish, or yellowish v. na
without feet, and with the body pointed at each end.
Insectivorous or parasitic insects.-While the undue increase of bahi
:. ....:........:: ..
insects is largely prevented by insectivorous birds, their numbers :
9 0. ..=,.. .... .. .... .
especially reduced by the attacks of parasitic or carnivorous m ,:
Of these the most efficient are the ichneumon flies, which are ,'!!i
like insects forming a large group of the order Hymnmoptera,. beloauiuq
to the families Ickheumonida, Proctotrupide, and Ohalcidi .Of .t lb.... ,
ichneumons there are probably from 4,000 to 5,000 species. I :Ma :::y of
the species of Proctotrupida oviposit in the eggs of Lepidoptera amaH-
dragon flies, etc. The largest species belong to the first-named haiy'
They are recognized by their long, slender body and long,e '
ovipositor. The larva is like the maggot of a bee or wasp, being .......
less, soft, and white, and with a smaller head. ,......
"When about to enter the pupa state the larva spins a oGlW ,|ll
consisting in the larger species of an inner dense case and a1
thinner ouner covering, and escapes as a fly through the skin lt
caterpillar. The cocoons of the smaller genera, such as aCrypta::s l
Microgaster, may be found packed closely in considerable nun'sH
side by side, or sometimes placed upright within the body of
pillars."'
Packard's "Guide to the Study of Insecta," p. 193.

* j l:




$i dj i. !i..i..!!ji:.. ... :::.... ...:... . ;. i !. ... .. ..... .
...... .... .."": .... ... '............'...... ..... ...." .. .. :.
. . "E : .." ..: E : .. .: ....: ... ...
......A. .. .. PARASITIC INSECTS.
:" :...:,. .. .. .....
I!:lg. 2-represents the mode of oviposition
Sa a.:. W..unknown ichnenmon observed by us
Fi: :.Providence. The egg (d) was laid on the
iwa6, and the larva soon hatching, bored
t'inder the skin, entering the body so as
ukIly to disappear out of sight.
Sa e eggs are laid either within or on the
4 e ~of the body of the host, usually
A iie: *caterpillar.
S.'s"pecial account of the mode of egg-lay-
..of an European ichneumon (Paniscus
hjhe ts) is given by Mr. E. B. Poulton in
Titiransactions of the Entomological So-
Oo f London, 1886, page 162. .It laid 14
aon the caterpillar it selected as its
iK s firmly attaching them to its skin, most
SS1thtm in the sutures between the segments
1iS. sides of the body.
. I.........is.-probable that an excess of ova is g


15


k---- C


FIG. 2.-Head of a Noctuid cater-
pillar on the hickory, containing a
freshly-hatched ichneumon larva.
A, d, egg-shell of the ichneumon
on the caterpillar's head, the larva
(e) having bored into the protho.
racic segment of its host. B, as
the host appears ten minutes
later, theegg-shell having_ dropped
off. The prothoracic segment has
contracted and the head has he-
come swollen, while the posterior
part of the caterpillar's head has
concealed the opening of the lar-
val parasite seen at A, e. Gissler.
del.

generally laid, for a small


iin do not develop, and the way in which they are attached in
nili groups insures that of those that do develop a large proportion
ti tA larva are so crowded by the others that they die at an early
age;as has been also previously observed. If too large a number
i lai d and all developed, it is obvious that none could arrive at ma-
Atji; but this is obviated in the manner described above, and it is
y ~brought about by the limited space on the circumference of the
iti attacked. This space, orf course, varies with the size of the lat-
bti: and it is more quickly filled in the rapid development of the para.
is upon small than upon large larvae; so that, if they are too numer-
u:pjsrowding ensues earlier, and with more fatal results in the former
LiU in the latter case. Thus the smaller surface may compensate for
tt:e ::s amount of food, and may itself insure that the parasites reach
maurjty.v' The ichneumon lays a smaller number of eggs on small
SspVillsrs than on large ones, and yet lays more than can develop in
Iutes "the eggs being laid in such a way that crowding results if
..Mrinr rly all develop; so that the chance of the eggs being sterile
I:S :i. .tOn the one hand and of the parasitic larva dying immature
on S the other."
11= The larva of the ichneumon does not attack the solid or vital parts
'iaT. host, but absorbs the blood and other fluids of the body. Mr.
Hioetn thinks that the motive force which drives the blood from the
...of. the host into the digestive tract of the parasite is entirely
by the contracted body-walls of the former.
.ohneumons ai polyphagous, i. e, live in insects of widely differ-
%And those of different orders.* Others confined their attacks

......II.e following remarks on ichneumons are taken mainly from Judeich
sftnhch der Mittel-Europaichen Foratinsektenkunde.
























inhabit the tender pupa of bark-boring beetles and leaf-rollerm. :
Among the smaller ichneumons several females usually inhb.:.. 3
... =...... :. .. :. = =
single host, while from 600 to 700 individuals of Pteromsals p va:v
may inhabit a single chrysalid, and 1,200 Apanteles a Sphinx lar :&"
Most ichneumons develop within their hosts, but many spaipte
Chalcids live on the outside and suck the blood of their host. Sw ... "
.A :l : :i .' "....: .. .
ichneumon larvae living within their hosts often undergo tbet::.:1 ..i.i..i.'
remarkable transformation of their mouth-parts. In Mirogati
there are, at first, only the wart-like rudimentary sucking mouthjiiiq-
but after the last molt the larva. acquire ordinary biting mandiib't
with which they can gnaw through the skin of their host. Hovt, III!
the food of the ichneumon larva is wholly fluid, their mouth...-par .i..
allowing them to eat the fat-body of their host. :
Other parasitic insects are the larvae of the Tachina flieism .Nfl
closely allied to the common house-fly. The larva are true ma 1
footless, and take their food by suction through the mouth, the ..n .......T
1......... ... ........ .:..,;.'''ii
parts being very rudimentary. The Tachina (enometopia) NoV
has been observed by Riley to lay from one to six eggs on the*f.itP! -^
the army-worm, "fastening them by an insoluble cement on the w..ppi
surface of the two or three first rings of the body." The young i i
gots in hatching penetrate within the body of the caterpillar, and I$.Uiii
among the internal organs absorb the blood of their unwilling h%
.. ; :ii: ...:.. .m "'. :..".
causing it to weaken and die. ......"'"
Other insectivorous insects are the Aphis-lions, the young of the aW ",i
winged flies Chrysopa and Hemerobius, which are frequently fohli" i.
trees among plant-lice; also Carabid beetles.
Artificial breeding ofparasitic and predaceots inmetal.-Among t.ii esi
important preventive measure against the wholesale ravages fO f I:jft,".
is the artificial breeding of parasitic insects. We early advoti.S i:!!^
in dealing with the Hessian-fly and wheat midge, suggesting::t:::h:!:
portation of the European parasites of the latter species in straw.
Le Baron has experimented with the parasites of the apple berk-hi




......i[ :::ii .. :: ..!i .'."'..r .. :::::i:.: ... .....


ARTIFICIAL BREEDING OF PARASITES. 17

SProfessor Riley -in his third and subsequent Missouri reports has
s w :.how easily and practically certain parasites of the Plum Cur-
uli and of various scale-insects may be artificially disseminated, and
':hM successfully introduced the most common European parasite (Apan.
! (tekes glomeratus) of the imported cabbage worm.*
WIT,.: ... ...... : ... ... .
.i.'.' ... -T.The most striking illustration of the good that may be accomplished by this means
II however, been furnished by Professor Riley since these pages were prepared for
I' printer, and as it refers to an insect Very destructive to forest as well as fruit
a'. we reproduce here the paper read by him at the Toronto (1889) meeting of the
.]A LkUM'oan Association for the Advancement of Science on "the artificial importation
d oii onization of parasites and predac eous enemies of injurious insects":
4I1^.. "The encouragement of the natural checks to the increase of insects injurious to
.! W: O v::tattion may be of a two-fold nature. It frequently happens that an indigenous
H p* Is is found to have certain parasites in only a portion of the country which it
p ljbxp": hrits, In such cases, where it is practicable to transport the parasites, a great
,e~r~so o.f good may be accomplished. CGses in point are not uncommon. *
07rit. t this intentional distribution of the parasites or natural enemies of an injurious
Si ns.et: from one part to another of its native country is by no means to be compared
-is".imptfortance with the introduction of such parasites or enemies from one country to
.p::::!i:Hl r, in which the injurious species has obtained a foothold without the corres-
....pondixig natural enemies which serve to keep it in check in its original home.
Is hk object of the present note is to cite an illustration of artificial introduction on
*siillarga-scale, which has already been productive of great good. A successful attempt
.!at:h^:l is$kind had been made by me in the case of Microgaster glomeratus, which, after
: .... wii ftl.. e efforts, was introduced from Europe and established in the United States
i. .-l|85,and which has now become so widely distributed as to raise the question of
.t uItEJ previous existence there. This Microgaster is one of the commonest parasites of
t3.:I a:; uropea Cabbage Worm, P'ris rapa, which got a foothold in America, without
iJ`t E.rapean enemies, about the year 1859, and which rapidly spread over the States
i d.:p:::a r ts of Canada, with disastrous results to the cabbage crop.
1ecase, to which I would particularly allude is, however, far more important and
ie;k:,itory. Orange culture has become a very important industry in southern Cali-
S....*:::. a.:::. 'i The orange groves there have suffered for some years from the attacks of
.:..ik;vii ral insects, but particularly of a very pernicious scale insect (icerya purchasi
:!i:::k.:!. 40). This is one of our largest coccids and, from its habits and characteristics,
A ..and other citrous fruit-trees but to many other cultivated plants and to forest trees.
qh*Te. damage has become so serious during the past few years that many orange-
gin wronbave abandoned their groves, while the cost and trouble of protecting these
b y the use of insecticides have always been great, even where successful. After
i;':refUl researches.I ascertained that the insect was without much question a native of
Au fstralia and had been artificially introduced not only into southern California, but
ilso into Cape Colony, in South Africa, and probably into New Zealand; also that in
.1.It:s,! na1 tive home it rarely did serious damage, being kept in check there by various"
S.-atural enemies and parasites. Some attempt was made, through correspondence
.. ~ i; th Mr. Fraser S. Crawford, of Adelaide, to introduce one of the parasites by mail
..:.i.i 1887. Specimens were received alive and liberated at Los Angeles under confine-
* simuit, but no positive evidence was obtained of multiplication or colonization. Spe-
ei.. pieffort and introduction on a larger scale seemed necessary.
Ip: :..at autumn and winter in connection with the commission appointed to visit the
), l roune International Exposition and through the State Department I was able to
::ya,,,:end one of my field agents, Mr. Albert Koebele, to Australia with instructions to study
.these natural enemies and to send living specimens to California. The principal facts
jiars been recorded in my last annual report as entomologist of the United States
PNeprtment of Agriculture and in late numbers of Insect Life," a monthly bulletin
Iftahed under the auspices of the entomologist and his assistants. Without going
j-detail I may say that Mr. Koebele's mission has been eminently successful and that
j.iave succeeded in introducing alive not only the most important of the parasites,
juteresting Dipteron (Lestophonus iceryw Williston), but also several predaceous
and particularly certain ladybirds (Coccinellidw.) These were brought over
"ine and spring, have become well acclimated, and are now spreading and
t4ing at a rapid rate. The latest reports which I have received from California -
-H. effect that one of the commoner ladybirds but recently described, namely,
-.-..i... a .rdinalis,. and another lately described by Dr. D. Sharp as Scymnuas res-
il: multiplying and-spreading' in a most satisfactory manner. The consign-
T-2















tions on their habits, are a large number which live under the e 1 "
trees. I quote his accounts of them, premising that we hiare*o
insects with like habits in this country; and though the list of ...A AA
names seems formidable, yet there are no common names for theal'. I
use nearly his own words, with occasional interpolations of..
names.
When one of the Scolytids injurious to pines (the Boetrichusi sfrangriqe) 1 b '
eggs under the bark, the Platysoma oblogmau introduces itself by the hole w ih..w
given entrance to the first named insect; it lays its eggs in the gallery of the Bu i^i i
chus, and from those eggs are born the carnivorouns larvae which devour thabow oC i
wood-eating beetles. Other beetles conduct themselves in the same manner i w:.:i
ring against other Scolyti. The larvas or grubs of Pegaderms dieim Ia 1aq:! ::!!!!.
young of Cryptargus pssills; another wood-eating beetle, the Asusiamm als bvuviW
the deadly enemy of Seolytu9 destructor, so formidable a foe to shade trees; 41s1, '1'a11
bieolor attacks Bostrickas lartimas; Colydium bicolor preys upon the Bostriolao o f'llR
larch; Celgdiam elongatum on Platypus cylindrue; Rhizophag adepraeo m an .gI.. I
g9s piniperda and B. minor; Lwmophlmus hypobori on Hyppoborus fle; HI$ ... q .....
pini on Bostriokhus stenograpkhus; and finally Hypopk/oaw limeri on e wriiddll ibiu
Who will not -be struck by these antagonisms ? Who will not admire this i ..il...f 7ij
of instinct which causes these insects to discover the tree attacked, and pee(tw
among the species wh ich the tree conceals the victim which has been astgnd : :!
them .? "::
Other beetles exhibit the same sagacity. The larvae of several Elatedk& (who. 1i|
worms) and those of Cleras mutillarius and C. formicarias make war on those mof ma
longicorn beetles of the oak, the elm, alder bush, and the pine. The Opit aofit i
and 0. domnesticus are the enemies of the borers which mine oar floors and ieeig; .
Cylidrus albofasciate and the Till7 s umifawiatu prey on Sinofxylon ezdmtmse a.a :
Xylopertha sinaata, which seek the diseased branches of the vine and those of m l :.
trees; the Tarsostenus univitlatWs attacks the Lyctus canalicalatus, injuring owu .iiasnate
works; while the Trogosita mauritaxica destroys the grain moth. .::ljg
In an article in the American Naturalist (xvi, 823) on inquiline wu1t I
borers, or those which usually take up their residence in mines or RVe i
leries made by true wood-borers, Mr. E. A. SBobwarz finds that theba'.1.':
-..'.. :.. .'"* .::.: i! ::|
mon Platypus composites may itself bore in the thick bark ofpi ..

ments from Australia were received at Los Angeles by Dr. D. W. Coquillet, muis:iii:.
of the agents of the division." p p :'ij
The people of California are enthusiastic over the grand success ofthisefrt ia|||1
the Vedalia is spreading with remarkable rapidity and clearing the trees in its wae .,i
Prof. W. A. Henry, director of the Wisconsin Experiment Station, in a reseat m'pudA.
to the Department of Agriculture writes:
"A word in relation to the grand work of the Department in the =ntrod ea .1 iil':
this one predaceons insect. Without dubt it is the best stroke ever nla g Si.:!!!
Agricultural Department at Washington. Doubtless other efforts have bha eM.......
ductive of greater good, but they were of such character that the people Mall.M a"
clearly see and appreciate the benefits, so that the Department did not receive
credit it deserved. Here is the finest illustration possible of the value of the l ifi
ment to give people aid in time of distress. And the distress was very great ..in ...




... .."EEi~E: E' ..iEE~ii: ii:":i .. 4.. "
i ,'!" : N' ..... . ": ;" .."
'S i ... INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON INSECTS. 19
it i: ',, .. .....
twnipme,::tme but in hard wood, as oak, etc., associates with Colydium lineola
. ...a 8dl So&us costatus, living in their mines. Professor Riley has dis-
cb'rered that the larva of Hemirhipus fascicularis is parasitic on Cyllene
.p^ta, living in its mines. Strongylium tenuicolle is not a true borer, but
'^Mr. Sehwarz has found it in the mines of longicorn borers, wherein it
PerIha'ps lays its eggs.
In.. uence of temperature on insect ife.-The following statements are
ten from Judeich and Nitsche's Lehrbuch., and will apply to insects
t his country:
^"T^.he influence of temperature may either work injuriously on insect
*~:::;';.., .l .." AL...
1^. znovm extremes of heat or cold, or from sudden and, at given times
of:.. tbhe year, abnormal changes. High temperature does not directly in
clqr imate, in the natural course of nature, affect insects. On the other
k..d, it is not unfrequently the, case that insects, suddenly overcome
t b e. frost, freeze to death in great numbers, since with the lowering
f t..he temperature, benumbed by the cold, they can hot reach crevices
Shol^. es out of the reach of the frost. As an example, we may refer to
'| k..wiuter of 1864-'65, in which, in the district of Mark and the prov-
Hi.cce M of Saxony, the caterpillars of pine silk worms and measuring worms
i,,.:;,i,. .... .. "." ... ; .. ... .
i'.em ned unusually long on the trees, and the former froze in the mid-
||'': d"ie of-December,-12.5 C., and the latter during the considerably
|. greter cold in January. Hence the influence of even very great cold
t po the normal hybernating stages of our insects is not very great. In
||| -$iahiei summer of 1854 the 'nun' moth had very generally laid its eggs in
1.eatei n Prussia uncovered on the bark, and these did not freeze in the
b;Ward winter of 1854-'55, notwithstanding the expectation that they
IIold, based on a temperature of 30 to 350 C.
"According to the observations of Regener, openly exposed caterpil-
las ofthe pine silk worm endured -12.50 C. The other stages froze
' earlier, the pupa at -60 C., the moth at -7.50 C., the eggs at -100 C.
II .According to Duclaux (Comptes Rendus, 83, p. 1079) the eggs of the silk
worm endure well. remaining two months in a temperature of -80 C.
"Gre.at fluctuations of temperature during the winter produce ad
ti| aibnormal interruption of the winter's rest or hibernation, and thus cause
..b death of many insects."
':.i,..: oato or broods.-The length of time which any insect needs in
~i'tier t complete a single developmental cycle from the time the egg
,',fis laid until the insect is mature and fit for reproduction is a genera-
4" a generation then is the time from an egg to an egg. The length
.. time of a generation varies, of course, in different insects. Gener-
an. insect requires twelve months for its development. In such a
we speak of an annual generation. On the other hand an insect
requires for its developmental cycle twenty-four, thirty-six, or
eght months has a biennial, triennial, or quadrennial generation.
roptean May beetle has, in northern Germany, a quadrennial .gerrn-
Sthe seventeen-year locust has a generation of seventeen years.
t. other hand, there are insects which repeat their developmental

:' =ii ........"
















of the European Lophyrna pini, with its double generations, whi&wE'WW...
also apply to our L. abietis: The egg is denoted by a point (. ib."-
~~ ~~. :i" ...... .. .. .... iiii
larva by a dash (-), the larva lying in a semi-pupa condition
., :""~~:F.. : i.......... ".iii :m n
cocoon, thus (e); the pupa by the following mark (@),and theial pi:iiil1
by a cross ( +); the time during which the larva is eating, by ahs w
dash ( ); lastly, the period of injury by the larva is pla.edad ,
the time of imaginal injury above, the mark for the stage under duh il
eration.b .. 1....

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oat. Nw. M D".1
II + + +.. . ,,::
v ". *:. :^
+4
1-- -- +- -- "----------
1881. I -l "Ei-
.7
1881. Ieee see 9:-t -__ ___. ___ ___ -______
i .. :'." .. ":iE

In the United States a butterfly or moth which is single-bi wooded i the.
New England or northern Central States may be three-brooded in the
Southern or Gulf States. A generation or brood which appears mud ii
ends in the summer is shorter than that which hibernates. .. ..,;,,,.|.
Thus the summer generation of the species of pine saw-flies (Lopkh"n) ::::
is about four months, the winter generation about eight montli.
Hence the length of the generation depends on the temperature ad .
climate, as does also the number of broods or generations. "This bn- lut
once of climate is, as is well known, so considerable that a specie of "
insect which has a double generation in a certain locality, in another
place with a colder climate is only single-brooded, while in a wanner a1|
climate it is three-brooded. An example is Hyleasinus piniperda. Thua !,ii
also a species of insect whose generations in a certain middle locating iis
is, for example, four-yearly, in a more southern situation is three-yearly...
A proof of this is afforded by the May beetle, which north of the 'Sma :,in,
line' is four, but south of it needs only three years to complete. its
development. A certain species of insect may moreover in the 1ass *0
locality in a warmer and more favorable year be double-brooded, whe iiiil
in the next harsher unfavorable year it is single-brooded. But if the ',:"
checking influence of the harsh weather is less, then even in an uan-
favorable year a second generation may begin to develop, but does a
complete its cycle by the end of twelve months. Hence there 9Me.0
twenty-four months three generations, and then arises what Bstuebs4
calls a 'one-and-a-halfgeneration.' Of this Toimn bideat w notrtti:E
affords an example. '......







I GENERATIONS OR BROODS OF INSECTS. 21

.We have observed that certain species of insects and often individ-
,.i' ual insects may without any assignable reason remain a considerably
..Jf., longer time than usual in the pupa state. Lyda stellata usually" has a
*i!^ Single brood (one year generation) while it frequently happens that
t from the pupa beginning the first of May, the imago does not fly at the
-e-n:.d of May or in June, as is the rule, but that the pupa state lasts over
Sthe next May, when the adult flies. The pupal rest in this case lasts,
r teal d of three weeks, more than a year. A similar case is that of
OWotkocampa pinivora. This relation is connected with the fact that
i ets are cold-blQoded, or better, poikilothermic, i. e., changeably warm
wiz. mals. We understand thereby such animals as those whose peculiar
| body heat, although constantly a little higher than that of the surround-
lg gmedium,the air, water or earth, i. e., their habitat, yet varies with
Sthe changing temperature of this8medium. In contrast with these are
the warm-blooded, or, more exactly, the homwoothermal, i. e., animals with
I- w even temperature which as long as they live steadily maintain their
o| own normal temperature up to a height ranging at most 10 0. The
S lood'heat of a healthy man, although he may be exposed to a degree
I': f cold of -300 U. or a warmth of + 300 0., remains steadily at 380 (3.
S(Judeich and Nitsche.)*
... ; . .. .
S..The duration of development of a warm-blooded animal is definite.
I Whe development of an insect's eggs, however, is analogous to that of
f ish. We best see this when at the beginning of spring the leafing
i. out of the foliage is late and the caterpillars of Clisiocampa hatch cor-
.e spondigly late. Exact series of observations of indubitable cer-
tal inty are scarcely at hand, but, add our authors,t we will cite the posi-
Si-,tve statements of Regenert on the influence of temperature on the
duration of development and of life of the pine Bombyx at different
I': temperatures, though, indeed, they are somewhat inexact and incom-
E1"- "r"plete.
II:.., y W
PrOviounal tabular view of the life-history of the Pine spinner (Gaslropacha pini) at dif-
.......f.erent temperatures, after Regener.

lJ .. ~Duration (in days) of-
r .:....,... Temperature, Caterpillar,
0p!:"!. :. : o C. Egg-stage, from hdtch- tii o Prepara-
from laying ig to spin. pntg ions for Pupal rest.
i.... to hatching, ning of C pupa.
.. -.. cocoon.

..... 4- 4 to 5
... ....',, ,."." + 0 to 5 ............. ,....... ,.............. ............. . ...........
i ::":" + ............ 500 ............. .............. .............
+ B to 110 36 196 ............. .............. ..............
.......... + 11o to 14 26 152 .............. 15 ............
+1l1 to 26915
+ 15 tO 190 20 119 3 9 49
B''" + 18 to 21 18 84 2 51 36
+20 to 240 17 67 2 21 26
S+ 24 to 280 16 56 1 2 21

h degree of the Centigrade thermometer is equal to 1O of Fahrenheit; and
-'the freezing point of water.
0oli and Nitsche, I, 116.
Regpner. ..... Efahrangen fiber den Nahrungsverbrauch und Uiber die Lebens-
i. ebensdauer und Vertilgung der grossen Kiefernraupe. Leipzig: Emil
l,'s, Verlag. 1865.



















the duration of the time of vegetation may itself vary. It isn .aIsifl
retically assumed that a plant needs heat amounting to 20000 f C'on:i4im,+
it can develop in one hundred days, with an average mean tem ipn'S
tare of 200 C.; also as well in one hundred and eleven with 1i V.,dMa+b -+
ninety-one days with an average mean temperature of 220 (. ....
Ratzeburg* applies this to the case of the May beetle. He sayst:
Interesting and important is, moreover, the behavior of the May beetle. u6 I &,N
die and northern Germany its generation is a quadrennial one, in southern :GemswiqpzW'
triennial one. The reason of this plainly lies in the climatic feature of -1bMtbe :
regions. In the south the season opens much earlier and closes later, whi* eb t B :.: i
exert some influence on animals of a pliable nature, easuch as the May beetl4 *a w.: --i
as on plants. The grub there has, in three years, a start of at least three ua0..i:.mt
in comparison with those in the north; also, even in the third summer, its deI4p.. :.i..
ment may be ready, though we should consider that with us in the fourth summEr, :is-'
usually in July; it eats no more, and in August pupates. Ericheon found that the H!0
pupation sometimes occurs even in May; it fails only a little of a three-yeatW gsieiua ii:?
:E:M &. : : ..: : :... : i
tion. Finally, everything depends, as in plants, on the amount of heat in t e .em iiiit
and air which a genus or species needs for its development. If the May beetle d:es" i
not find this in the third summer, it requires it in the fourth, and can shote te 6 I
time in an especially favorable year, but with us can n ever complete it in threeym.m'm ms
Should we, for example, add together the mean temperature of Berlin feo twa ki:;:
months it would amount to 106 C., and for four years 4x106=424; on the e.l -,:i
hand Carlsrahe would in three years give 3750, and beyond the Alps there is .fo :!W.
4240. Should we also take into account the temperature of the soil, the am u 'fla i
the south would be still better for the May beetle. In north Germany in hom 's'',i!!-
sandy soil (in the Waldschutten), the thermometer in the hybernation staged S. !pm
May beetle in one month, from the end of March to the end of April and behiumIut- ;
of May, rises from +63 to +9 C. How is it now in the south? All other Ims s.,
which inhabit both the north and south must have a "heat surplus;" bat siems 1, ,iA'
lasts only one, but at the most two years, it follows that such results as in the e ii
of the May beetle, which requires so long a time to develop, can not occur there.
Accurate researches on this problem are still very rare. Herr Ublig cN|:::+
in Tharand found by observations on the temperature made three t Aes 'iiii
daily during a generation of Tomicus typographus, from May 30 to Jsl i|
21, a heat-amount of 1450 C., or divided, a daily amount of 22.020; 4J6
ing the second generation, from August 4 to October 3, an amount i
1228.50, or divided, a daily amount of 20.480 (Thar. Tagebuch, 25 Bd., s. -
256).
Ratzeburg's statement should also be noticed. A double brood |
Tomieus typographus appears if, as is usual in central Germany,t":::
'Die Waldverderber and ihre Feinde; 80, p. 3V0.
"~ 9
Pr
.K .....:







r:m n temperature of the months reaches 130 C. in May, 17 C. in June,
i1.'5 C in July, 17 C. in August, and 14 C. in September.
| ;.;.:BEt it has now long been proved that plant physiology does not
v isec isept the simple heat-amount of Boussingault and we have besides
j consider the period of sunlight (duration of light) during which alone
Be i chlorophyll-containing parts are- assimilated, as well as the mean
:ta' .erature reached in the sun-at best measured by an actinometer.
:Jll'owever, in animals the transformation of tissue depends much less
....! ....v ..
,91the amount of light than in plants, hence simply the total heat-
......iAmount can scarcely be sufficient to explain the differences in the ani-
phl4 -developmental processes, especially if. we only take into account
|l ".i: temperature of the air. It would be much better to take into con.
i Operation the temperature of the soil throughout their larval life of
oiseots living in the earth, and in, insects living in wood the temperature
||iaI th tree, i. e., the portion of the tree concerned. Compare the exact
- -i eiearches of Krutzsch.0 Such researches should determine what is the
y pvnmum temperature at which generally an advance in development
w'ou~~"l be possible. Also the optimum temperature, i. e., the tempera-
.... ii~ ... ... ..
tri which is most favorable to any process should be noted.
*t.m.-i.xample, these optima would require to be different for the dif-
'i'rent developmental stages in the insects, as would the temperature-
HrL..'...;. ....
i::i:' ma:h supportable to the same. We also know, through the re-
: atches of Semper, t that as in the germination, growth, and flowering of
plan^-, ts, so also in animals; i. e., in our common fresh water snails, the
Stemperature-optima for the different function, i. e., for the ripening
a:-:,the Aexual products and for growth, are different, a thesis which by
i em.per has been applied to a striking attempt at an explanation of the
.^occu rrence of wingless, larval-like, but still sexually developed Ortho-
pt's' li southern lands, i. e., the so-called "stick insect" (Judeich and
I."tseche).
liberation stage.-The developmental cycle of two species of insects
similar generations may, under similar climatic relations, produce
Lyii!q.verv different shape, namely, in the cases where they pass the winter
.difrent stages of development, since the hibernation-stage is always
Io..p..... gest, and hibernation is possible in the egg, as in the larva, pupa,
.... a. .o, 'stage. But under normal relations a given species of insect
always. hibernates in the same stage, i. e., many moths as pupae, some
i1utte ities as imagines.
Itis not possible, then, to predicate in general for a single order of in-
ts- -as to what stage they may hibernate in, since species of the same
y differ inthis respect. Thus, for example, according to an estimate
: : ""-..: .. ... .... . .
j tsuchungen fiber die Temperatur der Biume im Vergleiche zur Luft und
mpetur. Forstwirthschaftliches Jahrbuch der Akademie Tharand, x,

life as affected by the natural conditions of existence. The International i
wSaries. New York, 1881.












cent. in the larval, 28 per cent. in the pupal, and 9 per cent ,in.S.*
imaginal state. Thus it appears that insects which, not to i .keI....
narrow a limitation of genera, belong to one and the same geuw,
hibernate in wholly different stages.
Of many species of insects only the females hibernate after imp
nation in autumn, i. e., many.gnats and our common paper wasp (Veg.) ,.i
while the honey bees tolerate no drones in their hives, so that oalt .:A.:: ----i- ---^^^
queen with the workers lives through the winter. ,
But abnormal meteorological phenomena may so effect such mp w
that a species of insect may hibernate in a different stage of develop.:
ment from what is customary. Indeed there are cases where an iman *::
may, though rarely, live through the winter in another of the hw :ag
stages of metamorphosis than the usual one, for it has been observed i:.
that the pine Gastropacha lives through the second winter as pups .I
(Ratzeburg: Die Forstinsekten, ii., 147, Anm.) Oi the other hand-, 'it is.ii
very common for caterpillars, which seek winter quarters when ::h l
grown. This they have to do as very young animals. Thus the-b '*.ii
Gastropacha hibernates after the first molt, instead of, as usual, a: :: ter l
the second. H
Insects which have generations requiring several years must natar- .5
ally hibernate several times. This may occur in the same or in diffhrt
stages of metamorphosis; thus, for example, the one, two to three year 'i..
generation of the May fly remains as a larva in the water, while tV i
May beetle passes three winters as a larva, but the fourth as an imao :
For the following interesting remarks we are indebted to Judeich a .it ......ili.
Nitsche's work on Forest Entomology: .
Diseases of trees produced by the attacks of inects.-Various det i -....'
ties and alterations of the wood, branches, and leaves result from the
attacks of borers and bud and leaf devourers. Before the tree -com .i
pletely heals there is a more or less long period during which the- ti *'I.II..
assumes an abnormal, morbid appearance. Such appearances in whic..... .I....
the disease affects the growth of the wood are: 1. The appearance a.::::::.:
unusual new structures, svch as leaves, etc., both in form and dimensiosf.
2. The origin of repaired parts from representative growths or sleep g l
buds. 3. The diminution of growth. ii!!!
The appearance of unusual new growths.-In general the changed :lI
sickly new growths are smaller and more sparse than the normal. A
thinner foliage in the year after the damage is generally the result of i....
----------------------------------:: :iii
*A. Werneburg. Der Schmetterling und sein Leben. 8. Berlin: 1854. : 'li
tThe foregoing remarks on insect-generations and hibernation have been trqm s :i
lated from Judeich and Nitsche's valuable work on Central European Entomooc ?t




e i .= :: ,....: ..... . . : .: ...... .. ..
. ...;' i.; ii : :... ...
1^ ^^ DISEASES OF TREES PRODUCED BY INSECTS. 25

i *stripping the trees bare. After injury by the nun caterpillar the trees.
: eem to suffer most in the second year following the damage.
SThe new growth of the fir generally sends out only very short needles,
w:Vbitch remain as brush shoots (Fig. 3.) In the pine there arises after
S4defoliation from lateral buds rosette shoots," i. e., very short, persist-
ri..g growths bearing dense, short, broad, and serrate (gesagte) single
"ii:needles (Fig. 4). But on the other hand cases occur, when many buls
destroyed, where the remaining remnant of the entire sap-stream is
S ad.and the organs formed out of it, i. e., needles or leaves become
fi-Wf"tjnah.aally large, as for example in the ordinary pine, in which case the
.iiil.eaves hber three needles.








:*::,:," .. :
:: ..:.... .. .. "......

A ........


.4








I^LTt^IL9 Latatra twig of a fir eaten by nun cater. Fig. 4. Rosette shoot on the pine. After
[?* ~lluBMaISBM which in 1858 only produced Ratzeburg.
"W:^mh needles." After Ratzeburg.
i~:.:::.. : .. "t" ,








1 7 Smilar relations are observed in the helve oak attacked by O0rchestes.
Venrally the first growth seems to grow straight on and resist the in-
j~yarising from the I aying of the eggs by the female of this leaping
-wevl, and the injured leaves are crumpled, but such leaves on the
:... .E .... .









t.:-16nonis growth (Johannistriebe) become unusually large and abnor-
My formed, while those situated on the summit entirely assume their
Wa shape.
2.%e ^'wrign of repaired parts from representative indefinite growths is-
jion ^ey enral.-The clearest example is afforded by pines deprived by
"^Jeffid buoliana of their terminal shoots. In this case there grows out
. ;!!: ... :.... ..












litea certaintme ho of the uppermost branch (Quirles), which
becomes the terminal shoot, though in growing up there is a crum-
":Eofthe stew in the place under consideration.
the formation -of mostly abnormally shaped organs which have
:: :i ....... .. i













Wr cdfrom aleepn a^^ pine affords the best example.
usully dirmaritAhetliimg bud3s On tie point of origin xfte'
4he .uey ".w e evr t; o -f .ted
pupo. :Pc: bee. ar-,,loe
-,jf .... e
"i0
!:EE:' .. "h







*tbra: eedes..Aftr Btzeurg


jury= aris ting osfiro ethe 1 ying ofther eggs by Rsthe female of the ise lfeapn

-i!,; ;,' tally formed, while hi88osey sitduated onth smm tzentirel sum.hi


wy gen rea-then clares obexampln e islafford ataed by piesderived by
Re.tii..Ginialy.. bthae ofrs gothei terminlshots.Iohscshr grow srih nadrsst outi

i: OW becomsin them thermnl shi:oot thoueghs in groin upalo theeis lapcrum
ug': evl ofd the se injthed pleaces undre considera btion. levs nh

!i!ii -l fSorthedormaion .hofe msityabndormally shaped ontrgyansswhic thaei
.:i mt shrnaperm.h xape
!,iii :; ; th e usuallyof dlpririet phertsnfbo d r pne Qeive pintdofi oriine gofthe
b:' shoo.-Thecers evaper is afod db ines, r deprveloped
I I -A ... . .. .
9 3., 1 :, .4 ..
,,: m ~ol~n f teir vernal hoos. I ths cae tere row3ou
i~i ii! :: er& cetai I~me ashot oftheuppemos brnch Quiles) whch
iii~~i::: Ii:ii:.
JWI~es htemnlsot huhi rwn pteei rm



















sented (Fig. 5), after injury received in Utyw .i
1857 formed only short leading shoot .b M:
1861 again formed a strong shoot.
The diminution of the growth in dIame".h. ....
especially noticeable in thq loss of the fobhqW ^,
Needles, which sometimes occurs in the yw i1g :::1.
injury, but more decidedly the following .ye. ;"..:+
After a greater loss of leaves the annual iap.










} F~~~~ig. & The last seven rings of pine stem almost wholly dil.tlhH'i4f 1:;:|
~ ~~~~..... ....... ....+ ;:,ii










_8g85 T a o not killed outright. After Baomeburg. ". "
erplamIn1,sh. last over for many years. (Fi 6.)......
year's growth. teratz Nrdlinger has repeatedly found signs o...f ..





burg. foliation by the May beetle for three ye "m .
Illl i !... . ... ........






oaks, also on ary a in southern Germany, indicated by vey .m i





annual rings.
I P ~jj.+..,-... ... ..

"L .::" E .... "" ..:."..




The counting of the annual rings to ascertaings opin the almge of the woreelly i
IBM8 but not killed outright. Mow Bat bm & ........ ........ .... ....




.the practically sho important matter of discovering its rate of growth IS.....
frendefolirted unsafe by th are sformaller ation of doeeble rings, which may result
erpllrin85, hownghelast over for many years. (Fig. 6.) "




diffrom the sudden leaving-ot in summer on young shoots, or by the e'




alescence of two annual rings in one, and sometimes even by the total i
omission of a ring. The sharply-defined differenctle befor three the spriu.,:,i
andks, alsutumn growth of walba in southern Germany, indicated by vand brow i'll
:: ... : :i l". ': :.. -:::.
annual rings9 ':+'




Thewood" of ann the annual ring s to asesecLly inte c oniferous woodsf the le
them to be vertically easo important matter of discover other ing its raterruption in
rendered unsafe by the formation of doable rings, which may r 'i ":.+:,
from the sudden leaving-oat in summer on young shoots, or by the.v.i......,i~
alescence of two annual rings in one, and sometimes even by the LOW, ,,,i;]
omission of a ring. The sharply-defined difference between the s j
and autumn growth of wood as denoted by.the color, white and broWU-: i,:,ii'i-
wood" of an annual ring, -especi y ln-4th dwos woods, all"':: ii
them to be very easily dounte j prbvli~ded' therei s*o.1iterraptioR n t"" .+,!,+,,
growth. In the decidaons trees the two layers of tie .anzal rings w:ie

I :.' .... .... I
... ..




:4 .1h..... ... ...... .i
...... .. o ,. ....
REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 27

II. i esssharply distinguished; and it is only in the oaks, ashes, and elms,
.:, where the pores are arranged in rings ("riugporeu") that the richly
v asular spring wood sharply defines each new annual ring from the
; denser and more compact autumnal layer of the preceding ring.
Injuries in the production of the iesin also arise from molds, which
|:i too; a transformation of the starch and of the cellulose into turpen-
| tine, and thus cause a morbid increase as well as outflow of the resin or
pith ; e. g., Agarious melleus, Aecidiumpini, Peziza Willkommii. All in-
e ts which externally gnaw the bark or the wood of coniferous trees, e. g.,
tirk borers, wood wasps, (rapholithapactolana and G. coniferana, Dioryc-
iri abietella; different weevils (Hylobius and Pissodes), produce a more
7, o"rm less strong flow of pitch or resin. But also in the interior of the wood
Sarise.2 abnormal formations, as, for example, the so-called pitch-chains.
We -understand by these a morbid increase of the pitch canals of coni-
*lf .rs into concentric chains which often coalesce; also the pitch canals
A: in the last years ring are completely omitted.
Prevention and remedies against forest insects.-Besides the insecticides
Sfor such insects as feed upon the leaves, and the means of applying
|* them to single trees, to groves, or to more or less extensive forest areas,
|and which will be described farther on by Professor Riley, there are some
s uggestions which may be made as to the remedies against borers.
| I. n the first place it should be borne in mind that dead stumps and
Decaying trees or logs left standing near groves or road-side trees, are
A continual menace to healthy trees, since they afford an asylum or
... .breeding-place to timber and bark borers. Such objects, large and
- l email, should be cut down or pulled up and burnt. Forests should be
kept free from standing dead trees and stumps, or if left standing
i..... should have the bark removed. It is well known that lumberers remove
I the bark of logs to prevent injury to the lumber of "sawyers," or the
grubs of timber-beetles.
S While in the virgin spruce forest on the eastern shores of Lake Ken-
t nebago, Maine, which had never been lumbered, my attention was
1 wo'ibly called to the necessity of cutting down the dead and dying
-A Gspuce so as tosave the healthy trees. It is of course out of the question
Sburn such dead timber, but we question whether it would not in the
i'":ng .run pay the owners of lumber lands to send parties in to cut down
th trees, remove the bark, and thus prevent the breeding of bark-
| borers, and hasten the decay of trees infested by timber and bark-borers.
Plantations and forests of limited extent can with comparative ease
nd. slight expense be kept in neat, trim order by judicious thinning
tad removal of injured or infected branches, the latter being burnt.
^....terr.# in shade and ornamental trees.-Our experience in detecting the
;.. es in the bark of the spruce and fir made by the female Monoham-
the parent-beetle of the "sawyer" or borer, and those made in
i mplee by the female beetle of the maple-tree borer, so destructive"
a. ks and streets, has taught us that it is quite practicable during


A ..... ..
S .r .'i ... . .











damage from such a cause.
One of the most formidable and deadly borers of the oak, from w ii
to California and Texas, is the caterpillar of the Carpenter mothk. ...1
Europe a similar borer is dealt with in the following ways, smoordingb.^::'],!0,, ,, .1
different writers quoted by Miss Ormerod in her "Manual of Injuriousil
Insects." A wire thrust into the "mine" or hole may destroy 1them.
Paraffine injected by a sharp-nozzled syringe with as much fore. as: ..;i
sible into the holes where the caterpillars are working is a good Irie
also any oily or soapy mixture (kerosene injections might injure t.
tree more than the borer). The flames of sulphur blown into'thoe a .II
might be of use. "Where a tree is much infested, it is the best P .lai ":
to cut it down, split it, and destroy the caterpillars within. As many. a I.1
sixty or more caterpillars may be taken from one tree, and when ins thI I
state it will never thoroughly recover, and it becomes a center to atito rat
farther attack, as well as one to spread infection."
As preventive measures, to prevent oviposition, the lower part of t* il
trunk should be washed with whale-oil soap of the consistency of thick ,1
paint. This should be done at or about the time the moth lays her eggs,4
viz, as early as April and May in Texas, and in June and July ia th e 'J
Northern States.: "l
These suggestions will also apply to the Sesian borers of the maple, !
ash, etc.
Prevention and remedies against Timber-beetles and Barck-borers.--The 'i
family of bark-borers (Sfolytidas) include those which live in the bark
and those which descend into the wood, the latter often being called '|
timber-beetles. We have given in this work some of the known fa;ts |
regarding their habits, which are very curious. Eichhoff's exoellat :'
work in German on European bark-beetles is replete with fresh obsi- '.
nations on these beetles. We may here draw attention to what B -. :.i
hoff says concerning some causes of the undue increase of these insects,< .
and their sadden appearance in places not before frequented by them. ..
The chief factors in the growth of bark-beetles are good weather and ]
sufficient nourishment. An uninterrupted dry, and hence hot, summer" "i
checks the growth of the larva, and retards the speedy development
and more often prevents a repetition of another brood, than an unaim ,i
terrupted wet and cold spring and summer. Rence, on account of great
heat and drought many trees survive which would otherwise be injuiwil
by the later brood of bark-beetles. The most favorable conditions fr .
the increase of bark-beetles are doubtless a warm early spring and a,|
warm summer, with frequent rains and a long, mild autumn..
Other circumstances, says Eichhoff, favorable to the increase of birbIL|:,|||.q
beetles, are strong winds, snow, frosts, forest fires, the devastatdoiioni|
wrought by caterpillars, whereby the trees are more or less deootiM.!!-
... ;.* "*.l l :iii ^ ^




:::" ".. ': .. '". .... .... ."
.. . : .".: ..: : .:.! : ." '.. :.. : ."..
...... ..:. .. .EE: : . :
.. :...... .

: REMEDIES AGAINST BARK-BEETLES. 29
.. :, ::Em' :..
s into the wood or inner bark, lay their eggs, and thus finally form brood-
II, **"galleries.
i Bichhoff asks the pertinent question: "How do great numbers of
bark-beetles pass into regions where perhaps before they were scarcely
k, town by name? For example, at the end of a period of fifty years,
..l.:.::::i..l at once Tomicus curvidens appeared in the Botanic Garden of the

diversity of Vienna, and were very destructive to different exotic
d edaars, larches, etc., afterwards attacking white firs, which contained
i umbers of the beetles.
...iF :. ii~. ... .. .
The bark-borers, especially Tomicus typographus, belong to those in-
e ait s which sometimes produce extensive devastations by immigration
|| **Uw without. According to a German writer they doubtless migrate
.:fo: r short distances, since not seldom there result local destruction of
igroups of firs when previously no bark-borers were to be seen. It is
.also certain that forests previously entirely free from bark-beetles be-
l to.-me infested by bark-beedles bred in wood and lumber yards. It is
||difictalt and questionable how far such an immigration may extend.
A:u^^ example of an extensive emigration of Tomnicus typographus is
afforded by H. Tiedemann in the province of Nishny-Novgorod.
II:. In the midst of an imperial forest of about 2,500 ha lying in the district Arsamass,
... .a composed almost exclusively of hard-wood trees, occur two fir-growths of 50,
P... perhaps 60, ha in extent. In both there was' no windfalls, no burnt areas, but a good
N c l.se growth in which no bark-borers had appeared. Suddenly in the year 1883 the
I: toirk-borers were so numerous that 2,000 fir trunks at once fell, and had to have the
'i,: bairk stripped off and burnt. The appearance of the bark-beetles is in this case only
i.it ..be explained by their flying into this area. The nearest fir-growths are from 15
*2!-- % 20 kilometers distant, and those of sufficient size to afford time for the infection of
-tb se fir-growths in question, about 50 kilometers distant.
S Perhaps the best method o preventing or stopping the work of bark-
1, beetles is that of a Frenchman, MI. Robert, given in the Gardener's
H chronicle and quoted by Miss Ormerod:
*1::. The best remedy appears to be that adopted with great success in France by M.
7,
Ro..-io bert, after careful observation of the circumstances which stopped the operations
Ofthe female.lbeetle when gnawing her gallery for egg-laying, or which disagreed
*:h or destroyed the maggots, and is based in part on similar observations of the
If lafeotof flow of sap to those noticed in England by Dr. Chapman.
aItflpeared on examination that the grubs died if they were not well protected
H:*i rm the drying action of the air; on the other hand, if there was a very large
al:,mount or sap in the vegetable tissues that they fed on, this also killed them; and
:|lit. was observed that when the female was boring through the bark, if a flow of sap
.......k.place she abandoned the spot and went elsewhere. It was also noticed that the
.. k (that is, the boring of the galleries which separates much of the bark from
wood) is usually under thick old bark, such as that of old elm trunks rather
hll" under the thinner bark of the branches. Working on these observations, M.
B~~i had strips of about two inches wide cut out of the bark from the large
G^..' own the trunk to the ground, and it was found that where the young bark
0:.br|:ftrward to heal the wound and a vigorous flow of sap took place that -many
8l0O ts near. it were killed, the bark which had not been entirely undermined
teilidated, and the health of the tree was improved.


hi












bark removed from the elm (this may be done conveniently by a scrapsog|||h|||.|
shaped like a spoke-shave). This operation caused a great flow of-sap in the iumW
lining of the bark (the liber), and the grubs of the 8volytM beetle were60 A1
almost all cases to perish shortly after. Whether this occurred from the allts i... ..il .
disagreeing with them, or from the greater amount of moisture around them,,or tw t.h...
the maggots being more exposed to atmospheric changes, or any other cause b11:;
not ascertained, but the trees that were experimented on were cleared of t$efl.
gots. The treatment was applied on a large scale, and the barked trees wm sllmfi :.... ^
after examination by the Commissioners of the Institute at two different pedlis t
be in more vigorous health than the neighboring ones of which the bark v t'.i :1
touched. More than two thousand elms were thus treated.
This account is abridged from the leading article in the "Gardener's Chroniea t.
Agricultural Gazette," for April 29, 1848, and the method is well worth trying iu O'Bii
public and private parks. It is not expensive; the principle on which it asoto a....
gards vegetable growth is a well-known one, and as regards insect health it hinb od
o ",,*: .... .. ... :!i
well known that a sudden flow of the sap that they feed on, or a sudden imes:q .1i
moisture around them, is very productive of unhealthiness or of fatal diarnh&M ii& ':
vegetable feeding grubs. : ....
A somewhat similar process was tried by the Botanic Society, in 1842, on trees' :.-1 .:\.1ii- i
tested by the Seolytus detruntor in the belt of elms encircling their garden in the: Ue"& i;s.
gent.' Park, London. "It consists in divesting the tree of its rough outer barki ,| :k:.i..
ing careful at the infested parts to go deep enough to destroy the young larvw, i :ild
dressing with the usual mixture of lime and cow-dung." This operation was hu .,i t
very successful, and details with illustrations were given in a paper read in 1840W N..
fore the Botanic Society. -I :'
Various applications have been recommended, such as brushing the bark of ianbse" i|
trees with coal-tar or with whitewash, in order to keep off the beetle attack. AnyW-
thing of this kind that would make the surface unpleasant to the beetle would amw *
tainly be of use so long as it was not of a nature to hurt the tree, and if previous i':
the very rugged bark was partially smoothed it would make the application of whS : ::,
ever mixture might be chosen easier and more thorough.:::f
Anything that would catch the beetles, either going into or out from the bark,-ib .. '
coal-tar, would be particularly useful, and probably strong-smelling and greaq m i::S,
ures, such as fish-oil soft soap, would do much good.. ....
Washing down the trunks of attacked trees has not been suggested, but, Ioo g' :::::::i
at the dislike of the female beetle to moisture in her burrow, it would be worth wOi ...
in the case of single trees which it was an object to preserve, to drench the bark ddly H I
from a garden-engine for a short time when the beetles were seen (or known by l..ik::im
wood-dust thrown out) to be at work forming burrows for egg-laying. ,
The possibility of carrying out the important point of clearing away or treaug: ;:f !
infested standing trees depends, of course, on local circumstances; but, what iB :
care is exercised in other ways, it is very unlikely that much good will be doM I.hII.:
lessening attack so long as the inexcusable practice continues of leaving the kdI 'I
trunks of infested elms lying, with their bark still eon, when containing myu timi of
these maggots, which are all getting ready shortly to change to perfect beetlesaJibm," i:.::..
fly to the nearest growing elms.
Such neglected trunks may be seen in our parks and rural wood-yards all ovweri:ii!i:
country, where, without difficulty, the hand may be run under the. bark astirii|.I
detach feet and yards in length from the trunk all swarming with white I&e9$ ;
maggots in their narrow galleries..: ;
This bark, with its contents, ought never to be permitted to remain. Where ioimt "?:
loose it may be cleared of many of the maggots by stripping it off and letting :1$




:: ...... ...... .!l:i:i~i ::,T. ,::. :i..... .. ... .. .. :..
V :"i: .. ... :'!N I E ...: : .... .. ': ::""
:.:.. : :. : ...:. ..
..... . .. . .. ...
H1%...... REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 31
" .:" ......... '. ... ::. :

v.poi ltry have access to it; or, if still partly adhering, it may be ripped from the wood
b -b!: :: arking tools and burnt; but it is a tangible and serious cause of injury, and if
:::::. .a. ded proprietors were fully aware of the mischief thus caused to their own trees
al'nd aihose of the neighborhood they would quickly get rid of it.

SiB.O TICTDES AND MEANS OF APPLYING THEM TO SHADE AND FOREST
.. TREES .
ll:::..:.i:: *.: '* .: 1 Jj O

a.Thi subject may be divided into two parts, viz, (1) a discussion of
ii. ticides and (2) a discussion of insecticide apparatus.
,() InS.nCIDES.---Remedial measures against forest-tree insects
7E!:::::..:.:: : .. 0 an tt ei s c en m sof ru -
snl!i!!:,::ii; not different from those employed against the insect enemies of fruit-
l..,trees or farm and garden crops. The same species are frequently the
. i :.i.:: : :.:.. ... .
oniruprits in both cases; and, in general, insects of the same orders and
i .I Mi-jies having similar habits and requiring similar treatment, attack
j..wil-groi g, woody plants and the cultivated sorts.
RF.or. convenience of treatment, the first part may be considered under
i lb.bllowing heads: Insecticides which act through the food; insecti-

e.:!::: ... -..Which act by contact; fumigants and gases.
*N E TICIDES WHICH ACT THROUGH THE FOOD.-These insecticides
I.e available against all mandibulate insects that feed externally on the

I' leaves, such as the larvae of Lepidoptera, larvae and adults of leaf-
| J.ding beetles, and saw-fly larva. Gall-insects, leaf-miners, and in-
r. ects which burrow beneath the bark or in the wood cannot be con-
trailed by these means.
.. ..It would be possible to enumerate under this heading a large number
d s ubstances depending fortheir effects on arsenic, strychnine, or other
Spoisons, but I prefer to limit the discussion to the consideration of two
S.substances which are now commonly used to the exclusion of nearly all
.. .... .." ... A~ u a
SParis green and London purple.-Tbe arsenites of copper and cal-
i cium, Paris green and London purple, are so well known as not to
R.eed particular description here. The safety and efficiency with which
... .... can be used and their slight cost fully satisfy all the demands
of:,practical work.
Asi i containing reqprds of a general nature, together with full in-
utions for the use of these poisons, I can not do better than quote
fro"..m'Bulletin No. 10 of the division of entomology,t the conclusions
.brieing based on experiments under my direction, especially by the late
;. W. S. Barnard.
.I.The quotation refers particularly to work against the imported Elm
W-..beetle (Galeruca xanthomelwna) and deals with the treatment of
Trees only, but the results obtained may apply to other insects
Various shade and forest trees. The recommendation given

Sat the author's request, by Professor Riley. -.
ad Trees and Their Insect Defoliators, by C. V. Riley, Entomologist,
Mn 1887. Second revised edition, 1888.


ON
a;~ii ':i:...!:;.:
*[ i[[:E:: .. H:E: .. "
diiii~ii, ~,: .. -.. .













differently affected by the poison. When treated alike there is always manibatfiBh
difference in the susceptibility of different elms to the corrosive effects of the pdNsT
Even individuals of the same species or variety are differently impaired. As ill
those which suit the insect best are injured most by the poison, and thbee WU
resist the insect most withstand the poison best. The latter have coarser mil|hump
with a darker green color and more vigorous general growth: the former hswiif'
delicate foliage, lighter in color and weight, apparently less succulent.
Certain elms of the species U. campesrisA and other species whichnepw .a
poisoned, and shed most of their leaves in consequence in the last of June Lt,.aisS- ,
out a profuse new growth of leaves and twigs. The foliage fell graduaIly h"hied cZ
weeks, and this was somewhat promoted by the succeeding rains.
The larvae move from place to place so seldom that, if the leaves are i'I.w11.11. i
poisoned from the mixture being weakly diluted or from its application onlyia'm p :: .j
scattered drops, which are much avoided by the larva, they are not killed o E6'1 tw
oughly for several days, and in all cases it requires considerable time to attain 11e1
full effect of the poison. This result appears on the plant and on the inset. .:. .....
each rain the poison takes a new effect upon the plant and the pest, which icdio.s1!
that the poison is absorbed more or is more active when wet, and that it act d ibii
hydrating thereafter. Where the tree is too strongly poisoned, each rain -asgm....ia. iia
new lot of leaves to become discolored by the poison or to fall. On some of the sliw :::.
the discoloration appears in brown, dead blotches on the foliage, chiefly about the:::
gnawed places and margins, while in other instances many of the leaves turn yd.w,,
and others fall without change of color. The latter may not all drop from the e .t.i.
of poison, but the coloration referred to is without doubt generally from the sai": :'
action. The poison not only produces the local effects from contact action at the
parts touched by it, but following this there appears a more general effect, as ..ifp i ||||
in that all the foliage appears to lose, to some extent, its freshness and vitAiky.,::!
This secondary influence is probably from poisoning of the sap in a moderate dLS'pii
When this is once observable, no leaf-eater thrives upon the foliage. MSlight w sr
poisoning seems to have a tonic or invigorating effect on the tree. .- .. ...:
Preventive Effects of the Poison.-In this grove the elms that were poisoned ifai M,
were attacked in the spring of 1883 less severely than were those which we at;.ii|
poisoned the previous year1 This would seem to imply that the insects deposit si:on...'...
on the trees nearest to where they develop, and are only partially migratory -hi .ls.:..
ovipositing. The attack afterward became increased, probably by immigmratiwo.n6 ax M
the new generation, so that later in the season the trees were mostly infested to tW.e
usual extent. ,.. .
In the region of Washington a preventive application of poison should be sma& befs4e :
last of May or first of June, when the eggs are being deposited and before they hate h..
This will prevent the worms from ever getting a start. By the preventive u'ued::: :
the tree escapes two kinds of injury: first, that directly from the eating by the 0 in ...
sect; second, that which follows indirectly from the deleterious effects of the opsblt
on the plant, for its caustic effect is much greater where the leaves have baI aI ,
gnawed that the poison comes in contact with the sap.. ,:l
Treatment with London Purple.-Already early in June the insect appears pleutil&iii
On June 7, 1882, it was at work on all the trees, and its clusters of eggs were ni,
ous beneath the leaves. Some of the trees had half ofthe leaves considerably gaw* II
and perforated by larvae of all sizes, and by the adults. At this date fifteen .
constituting the south part of the grove, were treated.
Preparation of the Poison.-London purple (one-half pound), flour (3 quarts),
water (barrel, 40 gallons) were mixed as follows: A large galvanized iron fanm ii..




........ "

. .. .. . .. ..
..... .. ... BMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 33
i .:.: :i.. ..:..... :.. .7
S.trte qi1narts capacity, and having a cross-septum of fine wire gauze, such as is used
*ini ves, also having vertical sides, and a rim to keep it from rocking on the barrel,
.i:l".iinse. About three quarts of cheap flour were placed in the funnel and washed
lhipgh the wire gauze by water poured in.' The flour in passing through is finely
tiI...S and will diffuse in the water without appearing in lumps. The flour is a suit-
h E1i medium to make the poison adhesive. The London purple is then placed upon
ngasse and washed in by the remainder of the water until the barrel is filled. In
Stests the flour was mixed dry with the poison powder, and both were afterward
wedthrough together with good results. It is thought that, by mixing in this
less flour will suffice. Three-eighths of a pound of London purple to one barrel of
maybee taken as a suitable percentage. Three-eighths of an ounce may be used
Equivalent in one bucketful of water. The amount of this poison was reduced
.446i',b.urth of a pound to the barrel with good effect, but this seems to be the min-
:iiiwM quantity, and to be of value it must be applied in favorable weather and with
pfi l .thoroughness. With one-half or three-fourths of a pound to the barrel,
....1S. maximum strength allowable is attained, and this should be applied only
' extremely fine mist, without drenching the foliage.
ikof Mizture.-The flour seems to keep the poison from taking effect on the
~ip"voeuvting to some extent the corrosive injury which otherwise obtains when
:h ia-'pwoiUn iS coarsely sprinkled or too strong. It also renders the poison more per-
.AI I t.I On the leaves, especially on the under surfaces, the London purple and
can'ilgii.: be seen for several weeks after it has been applied, and the insect is not
||j sye, but is prevented from reappearing, at least for a long period. By
f-again, a few weeks later, the insect is deterred with greater certainty for
:lWintrir-season. By being careful to administer the poison before the insect has
Si~a~i4 and. above all, to diffuse the spray finely, but not in large drops, no harm
400':a'-'.itioig will accrue to the plant from the proportion of poison recom-
AM.nded. The new growth, that developed after the first poisoning, was protected
:: Soqrth of a pound to the barrel in 1882. From midsummer until autumn the
S'FMj ed Lhalf of the grove remained denuded of foliage, while the poisoned half
1mdits verdure. The little damage then appearing in the protected part was
:nwl done before the first treatment. Eggs were laid abundantly throughout the
a~~~ Many of these seemed unhealthy and failed to develop, probably because
A"tey0were poisoned. Many hatched, but the young larva soon died. The eggs were
al~~dm deysited on the young leaves that were appearing after the poison was ap-
jpiE!, btat were attached to the developed leaves, and here the larva generally got'
giba ipqison to prevent their attack upon the aftergrowth. Still the young leaves be-
i rated to some extent. The adults, which fly from tree to tree, appeared
P atiifjlly without much interruption throughout the season, and often several
btseen feeding on each tree. Possibly many of these may have become poi-
Sbebfore depositing the eggs.
.B4%. efficiency of London purple being established, it will generally be preferred to
$lIatuunicals, because of its cheapness, better diffusibility, visibility on the foli-
(W4I& isi the effects of the poisons commonly do not appear decidedly for two or
.'ed ays..after their administration, the importance of the preventive method of
.i. ..n.il advance can not be too strongly urged. As the effect is slow in appear-
1miEptIent parties will be apt to repoison on the second or third day, and thus
m-ncgh to hurt the plant when the effect does come. Much depends on dry-
oftwetness of the weather; but good effects may be expected by the third or
.t purple seems to injure the plant less than Paris green.
i ffth Paris green.-In 1883 the Paris green was first applied on the 29th of
tar ohil date the eggs were extremely abundant and hatching rapidly on the
B^t^i Tgreen, flour, and water were mixed by the means previously employed
:!.:*j o purple and already described. The mixture was applied to the north
N-:... same grove of elms. Thus far experience shows that the Paris green is
'ii X.NT-4.
.1 i:: '





















corded concerning work of this kind on other forest trees. WASi tE
trees and vines there is a large experience, and the results' W1 il|
that either of these arsenicals can be safely used on the inst fit-.
plants in proportionsof 1 pound to 100 gallons of water, if V a l
atomized. Strong, hardy plants readily stand a strength of I
to 50 gallons of water, if applied with proper care. It is a tL
elude that between these two limits a strength suitable for -u p .il
may be obtained. ii.
A thoroughly atomized weak mixture will, under favombia..M
editions, prove as efficient as the stronger ones; but in wet, shwtg-
weather weak applications are more liable to be washed of ....t '.......... ...
.- : : i .. .. '".": ..,
Properly atomizing the liquid is of the greatest importance, torimy.
by this means can all the foliage be reached. The even distubsit i |
thus obtained enables the leaves to retain a greater amount of::'Jiij
poison with less injury than when sprayed in coarse drops. I
INSECTICIDES WHICH ACT BY CONTACT.-This class of re isim!
apply principally to non-masticating insects, i. e., those which bfl
their food through a sucking-tube or proboscis, such as the panili-
bugs, aphids, and scale-insects. They may, however, often M g..&..||
cessfully applied to soft-bodied mandibulate insects, in lieu of ..
poisonous mixtures. ::
There are a great variety of substances, such as alkaline vame::s::l
and powders, and preparations of oils, and particularly the prodimusit. 1
petroleum, which have been successfully used on insects afIfotis|;
roots, trunks, branches, and foliage of trees. The experimental *W: .
concerning them have been mostly obtained from cultivated frdit:trap:s.i:
and vines, but they will prove equally available against the snW:.u
enemies of forest trees.
Wood Ashes and Lime.-Of alkaline powders, wood ashes and a
lime are commonly used either pure or in mixtures around the b
trees or interred in the earth among the roots of plants to destroy ..
aphids or other insects affecting the roots. No definite instr!it
concerning their use can be given, as both substances vary as to




m ,.i : j i::!!~iiiiir~ii[iiE !iib. ii! !i, 7 ..: .: .":" ,: .. ... ..

:: ..... .. :..
REME1 AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 35

ad:th,.e conditions of applation also vary greatly. Unleached wood
ah.es habould not be applied too freely in contact with the body of the
xree oi' the roots, since water leaching, through them may contain pot-
ask enough to injure the plant. Lime in any reasonable quantity could
.ii.d y ease injury. The application of either of these is generally
Amnefia and tends to destroy and repel insects from the base and roots
)1 s The ashes act benficially as a fertilizer.
OW.l Ashes and coal Dust.--Ooal ashes and coal dust have been used
&&his purpose, but their effects could only be mechanical, and, while
t*htless of value to the plant as a mulching, could have but little
n insects. The beneficial effects of either of these used dusted
.... e plant are doubtful, except in cases of soft-bodied slugs'(saw-fly
a:|),h where their action is generally good.
J.p.r.hr., Rellebore, S.lphur.-These well known insecticides may
... .." ...." . E : E.. ..... . .... .. .... . .
4ii usdin powdered form or may be mixed with water and applied in
pli;tip While they can not be recommended for general forest work,
.......U frequently arise warranting their use in a limited way against
ilqzids and other soft-bodied insects. Hellebore is of especial value
e.' inutn w-fly larvae. Sulphur is a valuable agent against the red
|pid~~r (Traa ye/tts telarinus) and may be used alone or in connection
t i..... emulsion of kerosene.
A.. ...l.....:.:... Washes: potash Lye and soda Lye.-Alkaline washes are
ii... onh of crude soda or posh, or soap preparations of these sub-
*|eies.: Concentrated soda or potash lye can be purchased at the
4"its,.iad are often used as washes for aphids and coccids with con-
$iwabe success. Of these the potash lye is to be preferred, as its
r-apto on the tree is not so harmful as the soda lye. The best possible
1 e e( ..of a caustic wash is the potash lye leached from wood ashes.
Vido lye washes should be used with caution, since when too strong
iM tUjres both branches and foliage. Definite statements as to the
n. ...Sngth to be used can not be made. The different brands of concen-
Slye vary much in composition, so that it will always be advisable
h|moake test applications before general work is attempted. In the.
JPqiration of washes, one can (1 pound) of lye is dissolved in from 3
jJ galIons of water; the stronger solution is very injurious to tender
lfl and even the weaker one is entirely too harsh for a safe wash;
4~4 dilanted mach more, its effect on the insect will be impaired.
"s me: quantity of lye used in the preparation of a soap will give
:be results, and its use will not then be attended with like danger
..the plant.
A,,kafi~.~.s Washs: Soaps.-Soap preparations are made from either of
.bove lyes with grease or oils of any kind and in my experience are
pr.:'.p.eferable to the crude lyes.
*s'oft or jelly soap makes a good wash for Aphides, and for this
i...... eed notbe strong; for Coccids the strength should be greater. .
ii ration known as whale-oil" soap has a more or less stand-




.I, :. .
H" i .






























.' Japubua uu buw jIgUCL jlrAo.uuIn Vo 1FJ4-UAUUI 'lt ui US i:.5 .Im
ner with safety to most plants, but the destructive effect on tls:j
is by no means satisfactory. The use of kerosene pure is, hovI..
tended with danger and should never be undertaken except in eM
way and with the utmost care. Finely atomized, I have empiops J
some success, especially on oranges and certain conifers in y i
by, before the emulsions were discovered.
Kerosene Emulsions.-The ease and practicability of emuluim
diluting kerosene to any desired strength have been so fuli....
strayed in the course of the work of the division of entomoloflif
my direction that there is no longer need of attempting its use:-1..
The methods of emulsification'have been so fully set forth
that it is unnecessary to undertake their discussion hereM
in the nature of general instructions. ::::......
An emulsion, if properly made, always contains a greater peq
of kerosene than of the other ingredients. This per cent. mfi
from 60 per cent. to 90 per cent., but experiment has shown that INI
cent kerosene will give the most satisfactory results. l
The formula for the preparation of kerosene emulsion o.ziM
recommended by me is the one originated by my former agentJI
G. Hubbard, in his work against orange insects. It is a folicwt
Kerosene .................-................... --..... 2gallonh =M.rqi
Common soap, or whale-oil soap......................... pound
Water .................................................... 1 gallon A" .. .
Dissolve the soap in the water by heating and add the ,I4.
boiling hot, to the kerosene and churn the mixture by means:::
.."" : ..:::... :lEli|i
::.:::::[.; 19i
::: .ai;.
*n
e " :i:.Ei
jii.




"ii[ ii':.;"E : ; Hiiii::::::......:E :ii:... a. M: ':.:!; :: i: ':. ..
CFO i ::~.iP i"'::::!i i: ... :; .... ::... ...

-........ :..... .. REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 37
i:55:*".::i :,. ' i....S:E.: " -.:.:. .
kIi.:: -pump and spray-nozzle for five minutes. The emulsion, if per-
ei t :f:firms a cream which thickens on-cooling and should adhere with-
pl. it iness to the surface of glass. Dilute, before using, one part of
bise emulsion with nine parts of cold water. The above formula makes
053.i!:: gallons of emulsion, and when diluted gives 30 gallons of wash.
III! Beatsin Wash.-Various compounds of resin and emulsions of resin
ithi w kerosene are now being extensively used in California against scale-
K:T
^i:nAsWct6s and other enemies of the orange tree. Resin compounds were
;r!|fiht used as an insecticide by one of my agents, Mr. Albert Koebele,
d his experiments with this substance are given in full in my annual
| e~~tas United States Entomologist for 1886 and 1887, and addi-
Inal .experiments by Mr. Coquillett are given in the report for 1888.
r Koebele had good success with the resin compound prepared as
.. fiflows: Dissolve 3 pounds of sal-soda and 4 pounds of resin in 3 pints
... ... :t above fire; when properly dissolved, add water slowly, while
boilig .. :to make 36 pints of compound. A very strong solution of this
W as: ued on pear tiees without injury to the foliage, the solution con-
n ,.ting of 3 pints of the compound to 4 of water. Numerous successful
II p :iriments were made with one part of the compound and 8 parts of
nter and this strength for most purposes will be sufficient.
Mv;;1. C0, quillett has found the following to be an excellent formula for
e preparation of this compound:*
.. 0- tlb. das. ---.... -..--.......................----............................. pound.. 1
i ..--............---.....----......---...................... ................. pounds.. 8
ake ....................---...............--- ...................... gallons..-32
ss.... .solve. by boiling the caustic soda in a gallon of water; add the resin to one half
!eilm:odiaoin:' tion and dissolve it by boiling; add the remainder of the soda solution
Mi6:: boil over a hot fire, stirring constantly. When sufficiently cooked it will assim-
%:;. !fMl.th water like milk, which it much resembles. Add water and strain through
dI
A 1. oe
A'in emulsion of kerosene with resin compound was satisfactorily ac-

*eiiiiplished by taking equal parts of both substances and working them
together for two minutes with a pump. This emulsion is not so stable
Sthe emulsion with soap, but is eminently effective against scale-
i'iiists and Aphides. At my suggestion the addition of arsenic in the
proportion of 1 pound to from 75 to 300 gallons of the resin, or resin
.ad kerosene wash, was made, and this addition was found to greatly
.... Outhe efficiency of these insecticides.
Th...e value of these insecticides for the protection of shade and orna-
aE.1ntya trees, which, where scale-insects abound, are as liable to attack
injury as the various fruit trees, need not here be emphasized.
S-TrV AN TS-GAsEs.-The destruction of hot-house pests by fumiga-
S.w-.ith sulphur, tobacco, or other noxious substances has long been
The application of such methods to trees on a large scale is,
B, of recent origin.
i:: i.:...;............ .....
expements of the last few years conducted by my California .
.. .. D. W. Coquillett, relating to the use of poisonous fumes or
fisp t the scale-insects of citrous trees have been attended with
.... .... ep"
Se e RHp. of the U. S. Entomologist for 1888, p. 130.


f LA























were charged with any considerable amount of aqueous vapor. j'aliii<
dry-gas process the cyanide is dissolved by boiling in water f-i aS* .i.:!
minutes, using 1 gallon of water for each 5 pounds of cyaniWa 'ai:;
. .. ...:EE :..:... .E g
generate the gas, sulphuric acid is caused to flow upon the qfIbil!
solution in a line stream, causing the gas to be rapidly given oeff iatI
form of a whitish fog. The moisture is taken up by passing thwe p
through sulphuric acid, which by reason of the water taken tp ubeGma
diluted, but may still be employed to generate fresh quantities- ot:in
The gas is confined to the trees under treatment by means of s M ili
able canvas tent or fumigator, of which a number of styles have b.m:'
patented. They are constructed so as to be lowered over the tM-eie.s #*
above or to inclose it from the sides. Full details for the constuo.tlmoi.
:. :.. .:: "::... ::. "":i~i
of these tents, together with figures, are given in the report : i.:::.:::
above, to which the reader is referred, also for a detailed accoauiof
the use of various gases. ....
INSECTICIDE APPARATUS.-The application of insecticides to. h....ll.i.
or forest trees may be successfully accomplished by the use of the suie
devices employed in the case of low-growing plants, except that pa...
force will be required as a rule, and hence larger and stronger 1 machla .-ii
The treatment of young trees or application to the lower part of :..'
trunk or to the base or roots of larger ones may easily be effet"miby:
hand, but in the case of the branches and foliage of large trees: oth::,er
...... **** : .** .i.: i
means must be employed.
As has been already indicated, the principal insecticides are awm r
used in the liquid form, and particularly in the case of work agslsgr.q
the insect enemies of forest trees will this method prove the only.ii ..
ticable one. The use of insecticides in the form of powders willmam,
ally be desirable, however, and hence the treatment of the second :piti f
of the subject may be discussed under (1) devices for applying :
ders and (2) devices for applying liquids.
DEVICES FOR APPLYING POWDERS.-Powder Blowers.-The
cation of powders to trees may be successfully accomplished by_
use of long-discharge-tube power-bellows.




:..... .. ...
....... .... ..... ....
.... ,.. REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 39
.... :: EE: .": ...: :: ":.":''.
4! Th:..:!:" 2U Woodason Bellows.-With one of the double-cone bellows manu-
firetured by Thomas Woodason, Philadelphia, Pa., or other bellows of
uimiir pattern, it is possible to reach branches eight or ten feet high
qu:ite readily, and by mounting into the tree, or by means of a ladder,
:-:.. qui 'effective work can be done on trees ot moderate size.
^ .'The JLeggett Brothers' orchard Gun.-Quite recently the Leggett
1' .IBrothers, of New York City, have invented what they call an "orchard
pr:*|un, a machine for the application of powders to foliage beyond the
466hac.h.. -of the ordinary hand-bellows.
Shis device has been tested in the work of the Entomological Division
" .B:iii.li^ ,:.... :. ..
'i promises for certain kinds of work to be a very useful implement.
It constructed of tin tubing 14 inches in diameter made in sections
eljso as to be easily adjusted to any length desired up to 16 feet. On the
1:1econ .d section from the base of the device is arranged a small fan 4J
phe ~in diameter propelled by a crank and cog-gearing of such rela-
tirv.e diameters that one revolution of the crank gives thirty of the fan.
......Mi delivers a strong blast into the distal portion of the tube or gur.
S:Juu above the fan is arranged on the upper side of the tube a can 8
Ab:.J es long and 4 inches in diameter, from which the powder fed is into
I*. *"; ubeib when the crank is turned by the following contrivance:
S*:B:etween the can and tube is a fiat perforated surface its entire
len'!'^ gth,) and along this surface plays a set of sliding arms attached to a
*.. pistom rod which is thrust forward and backward with each revolu-
r(ti. of te crank. This sifts into the tube just the amount of powder
"i'Ai 'ia""y to supply a constant but extremely diffuse blast. The short-
esat working length of the gun is 5 feet, and in this length it serves
ir -s ordinary work of applying powder. The weight of the imple-.
w:emnt when full length is 7 pounds. The length could be easily increased
.without impairing the efficiency of the implement, except that it would
beco me too heavy and unwieldly.
S DEVICES iFOR APPLYING LIQUIDS.-For the application of liquids to
trees the requisites are a good force-pump and a suitable nozzle, and of
.boAth of them there is no scarcity of styles manufactured in this country.'
In fact, the abundance of pumps, nozzles, and spraying devices tends to
w fugse the would-be purchaser and makes it the more necessary that
'the characteristics of a good apparatus should be carefully pointed out.
as The Pump.-While secondary in importance to the nozzle, a suitable
force-pump is very essential to successful work. As I have previously
Stated, the- nature of the work under discussion precludes the use of
yi but the more powerful machines, except for comparatively limited
W1pltns, where any of the smaller hand pn mps, aquapults, hydro-
-or syringes may be used.
case of tall trees in parks, such as elms, which frequently attain a
of 40 or 50 feet or more, I have recommended the use of fire en-
Wiith which the liquid might be thrown to a considerable distance
te force. of the discharge, caused to break up into an efficient

N .: ... ..... . M
Si !. *? .

iii ~ ~ ~iiid":.: ..
.... 4:..:..
: :Eii .. :a."." .





















--..


--a


-4


SO


--a


FIG. 7.-Double cylinder brass pump.
The appended illustration (Fig.


tacturers of insecticide anMh
appended to this artile-aM::: W.i',
a number of addresses ofilf
firms whose pumps I hsevedii.
and can recommend. .......
" " .. : : .. .. .:E:.. .:.. E"f
-I will content myself herm with'
describing somewhat fully a: Ws&'::::::'-
pumpwhich, in the work. a(.:::; !
United States Entomologiomi(l o-
mission and of the Division of.....
tomology, has proved itself eIl.
adapted to the purposes d ,,in4,,|
The double Cylinder bran Pbmp
The special recommendation bof ",i
..... .:iix.
pump is the more freely giveafem::||
the fact that at present no one h O W I .
a patent on it and various moli.:i
cations embracing the essenata iia
tures are largely manufaotnrt III
: ... .. .. ..
different parts of the country. ..-..''...
tentiou was directed to the .da-
tages of this pump in the weE*
the commission, and it is illustrate.. "
in section and also in opemto::i..i
at plate XLVI of the fourth .e-..
port. The pump, fitted in a barrelA ...
with stirrer attachment, there 0b .:. ,i
trated,was specially construct ty1
Dr. Barnard, and has been several ,;.
times mentioned and illustratet te
other official reports.
7) is sectional view of a similarPlo


now in use by the Division.
The essential features of this pump are an outer cylinder a an *:i
inner cylinder a', which may be called the piston cylinder. This t4
cylinder is provided with a valve, b, similar to the valve int he outer&




...r ( ..:..ii'" ..'riP m.. i!'. Mi~ m !!k. ':: .... .. ..".. ..".

V.. llml .. . .. .


.t......... Thus it represents a displacement cylinder and its capacity

bassck a relation to the outer cylinder that on the downward stroke
*i)tmispae a body of water equal to that taken up by the upward
i trkel of the piston, thus producing a constant pressure in a simple
bwie-banreled pump.
'h.The packing is held in place by a metal follower and fits snugly to
...... ner surface of the outer cylinder. The pipe, c, is of rubber hose and
Miaii of .any length desired to suit the depth of cask or tank and with
: tln* e wire strainer on the bottom. The head of the pump is of cast iron
A* bulged to allow room for a considerable head of water; iron flanges

... q.uAd out from its lower part and furnish support by which it is bolted
IhM tank. All of the working parts are brass. The packing burr and
Sfollower around the upper end of the piston cylinder are the same style
'. ..~l~~l~dnAly used with steam machinery so as to withstand any reason-
W e lPressure. The head to which is attached the compensating bar
6 vm mInto the top of the piston cylinder. The outlet is tapped through
hi boioulged cast-iron head, and the pressure is much better if a good-
S4mm air chamber is attache64 to the discharge pipe just outside of the
| uphead.
... : m' .......

h pump from which Fig. 7 was made has two discharge pipes, and
|4" mn -easily supplies pressure for two ordinary streams of spray.

... !:ii :ill~i :, i .. .... ..

.. ....i :ii:i, ::,:, ... . i

t ......... .....
...........

( ( ...: m ..... . m
XmEEm N m .~ ~ .... Il : ..


.....=i: ll .. .. ... .. ..i ..
.i ........ .. .,. :...
..'( :,...":'::. ".. ... ..















g. -Single
s'e











N [[I'I m.. .. E .. ... .....

,(L ..: ., : .. . .....


i5 ':..............
..... ii,' lm .:









i E~m~. H ".E .
Wig.8.-Snglediscargepump


::Si shows a similar pump entire, fitted with a single discharge pipe.


.......HE






















yFg :atsa c~u t YTU FI ussossa j v* *s m. a'* qp u r5 j awuiaan uu w *ina H
J power will require a stronger stream thaan',f
carry. In some work it is convenient and hiCA
r to have as much as 30 feet of discharfp.p...
where this small tubing is used it can l A
handled. a .
For elevating the nozzle among the branclmok*|
3" boo rod with the septa burned out so that the 4*
tubing may be passed through, and made in se .ll.
be adjusted to the desired length, is the nt-lM
f contrivance. If this is large enough to admit thM.W
| to pass up the center, and is provided with .....M....I
the top to hold the nozzle vertical or in any dku,0
Desired, it is superior to any other device whieb
ever used. The smaller southern cane, so m--.
used for fishing tackle, makes a very good mnpp
rod, but in such case the discharge-pipe must hbai
ened to the'outside by means of suitabb 4k
FIG..-Panrs ofhose clasps.
pole device for 9 s a a ex: w a osiiio
spraying trees: FIG. 9 shows a section of an extension pole AM
bammb pole, b b ;I"'
p waas'r,j; hose sort first mentioned above. A special feature 4
Asz; Ride hook. v ol;s wahr hc
eddy chamber oz pole is the washer j, which prevents the. drip ir
ale, N;spray,au, trickling down the pole upon the operator.It..
out of a heavy piece of sole leather and fitted snugly over the.:k
few inches below the nozzle.
By means of this supporting pole, trees below 20 feet in heigt...
readily be sprayed. For higher trees, I know of nothing better
a ladder mounted on wheels so as to be easily moved from tIento..i
such as has been used in California in the work against the
scale. This ladder is supported so that it does not rest ag inS
tree, and the operator can move up and down without being hin...
by projecting branches. ,,.


















iiiiiii iiiiii @ @ iiiiiiiiiii fiti






I~iiii ii iiii i iii i iiiiiii i iiiiiiiii iiiii ii ii iiiii ~ i ii ii ~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i i i i i ii iiiiii i
P 1 1 1 W ,iiiiililiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiii iii iiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii iiliiiii~ii~ iiiiii iii ~ ~ l ii i iiiiii iii iiiiiii iii~ i i i i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

















....................................... iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiili iiiiiiii.ii....iiiii...
!=,,~~~~~~. .. ... iiii iii...
-===== @ .. ...........
: : : : : : : : : : : .. . . . .... . . .. . . .i iiiiiii i ..... ..i.i.. .iii.
































thrown; greatest atomizing power with least tendency to clog jtq ..
of cleansing, or ready separation of its component parts; dvi'j
simplicity and adjustability to any angle."
Without attempting a general discussion of the merits of IA
classes of nozzles, I shall content myself with a brief refmerene#Aiji
styles, which, to a greater or less degree, answer the conditioBh:)-
enumerated and which bave stood the test of practical work. L:'....
The Riley or cyclone Nozzle.-This nozzle is now so widely kMn
hardly to require description. As there have been someerAAroneo S
ments as to its Invention, I may take occasion here to reiterate wV ij
. ..: EE:"":;i........
recorded in the fourth report of the commission, viz: that it w a:....
opment and outgrowth of my work on the Cotton Worm, the m.t
gestion of the principle being my own and its development reli
.. .....: ....==
.. =. :. ... .
.... .. .... .LL






........... ...'.!!,l~:.'.:
.. .. ........
C..



Ae



B
FIG. 11.-The Riley or cyloeM NeOl" ..
.. .i| ||.:ii~i
from two years' experimentation under my direction and chiefly .t
.... ............
the assistance of the late Dr. W. S. Barnard. Its principal n at e
sists in the inlet through which the liquid is forced being bored |!
tially through its wall, so as to cause a rapid whirling or oeMtd

14 :y;:.
.*S. "m ....
: .; :;c :.E
. .:. .. : :. :ii::l:a
.L. '."..:ii::...::... :^^,:^ii




:;:::; ~i M::: in [ ::: :.. .:; :: :.: ....... ......
I ...................... .. :: .:,..::, ... : .. ... ..... ...... .... . .. .
... ......... ,REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 45
ii,:. ,::.. .. . ". . .. .'. ...
tl'lr6motii^ 'of the liquid, which issues in a funnel-shaped spray through a.
cen^^^^.tral outlet in the adjustable cap. The breadth or height, fineness or
paie!!: ^er.ness of the spray depend on certain details in the proportion of
th parts, particularly of the central outlet."
11^^^Pmi. 11 shows two styles of this nozzle, which I have adopted from a
H.-hotof experimental forms as the best for all ordinary work. At A is
A Shown the typical small-stemmed nozzle, with the screw cap removed
to show the inlet orifice d. At B is shown a sectional view of the same
..... ... ... ....
Mj"n with the cap removed, showing the tangential entrance to the
1i*amber a through the orifice e, which when the cap is inserted coincides
.. the orifice d. At C is shown a face view of the cap c, which should
S.....be countersunk about the orifice of exit on the exterior surface only ;
mdalsd o an outline drawing of a chamber placed at an angle of 450
wi:t1, .the stem-a form of advantage especiallyin overhead spraying.
S....... The stem may be inserted into the discharge-pipe and fastened by
] ^ wrpping tightly with copper wire, or a more convenient form is made
1ivth a female screw of a size to fit a three-eighth inch nipple. The
H:nii:: pp; !:is inserted into the discharge-pipe and fastened in the ordinary
m :.aner, and allows an easy interchange of nozzles of different sizes or
: :.:...atte.rns. A discharge orifice of about one-sixty-fourth of an inch may
-. e used for a very fine spray for coarser and heavier work a one-six-
:ii .: :: .. "... ...
i....... wth-inch orifice will be preferable.
''""..The value of rotating the liquid to break it up into a suitable spray
l... ndto prevent clogging, which are the essential features of the Riley
iiii... ,.. .. .. .
npcw^ e, has been universally recognized.
I" In this country, owing to the fact that this nozzle has not been pat-
ntW-^ed and is not pushed by interested parties as are patented contriv-
'anes, it has not come into such general use as its merits warrant or
:1as has accompanied the introduction of patented modifications of it in
I other countries. It is now, however, being quite extensively manufact-
.......... ured and offered by the trade, and a number of modifications of this
Snozze have appeared in France, which, while adding certain new feat-
IU r, have not departed from the valuable principle of the typical form,
:. : that of the centrifugal motion of the liquid, these nozzles are
im.. pleyed in France, Germany, and other European countries almost
o the exclusion of all other forms, and. in this country they are also
H exteuu.ively used. More recently a valuable modification has appeared
I this;. country, the Universal Spray Tip, and in New Zealand a com-
po.... d form is manufactured, known as the.New Zealand Triplet, and
01 hhioned after one which I used and described in California in 1887.
A full description of the important modifications of the Riley nozzle
hi1at.'have appeared in this and in foreign countries is given by me in
Hrst Life, Vol. I, Nos. 8 and 9, to which the reader is referred for fuller

S'ithis country, these nozzles are manufactured under contract, for :,
rs, by Thomas Somerville & Son, Washington, D. C., and by




P. ..... .. .. h




















e mwaSeMS nozzw, ny A veUI v vtarore marsmues, rrau :.::iiiiiiii
In New Zealand the Riley nozzle is manufactured by KutseirSti.ilB
of Masterton, who call it the American cyclone nozzle and wxats 1' '.!K
single and in triplets. ....
I will call attention here to but one of the most succeadsl of t i
modifications, which is shown in figure 12. It is known as the Ve4%ql. :I
nozzle, and was devised by a gentleman of that name in Frane. The .i






. ": .... .H:":





FIG. 12.-The Vermorel ozzle-natural size (original). ::: ....
I* "* .... . : '.





important feature of this nozzle is the pin inserted through its bass1
bearing on its upper end a paint sufficiently small to enter the dis-
charge orifice when thrust upward from below. This enables the ope- .
rator to clean the discharge, when it becomes clogged, and is groat.
convenience, especially for spraying heavy suspension liquids.
The Nixon or Climax Nozzle.-This is the invention of Mr. A. EL
Nixon, of Dayton, Ohio. Its work is so satisfactory, especially whee,
considerable force is required, as will be generally the case in forest work, ..j
that I notice it here. A nipple screws on the distal end of a discharge-
pipe, and on its outer end is screwed a brass tube varying in length and
diameter according to size of nozzle. The discharge orifice through the :
nipple regulates the quantity of spray, and nipples with different aized :
discharge orifices are interchangeable. The stream projected throughi||
this nipple strikes a brass screen at the outer end of the tube and isu
into a perfect spray.





~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~. i.im H!;i .m~i ,". i 'u'...... ... ....
..:..... + '...." +': + .: ++. :
.7 a REMEDIES AGAINST FOREST INSECTS. 47
||." iil" : ,:; :Jl .. ':. ::, .... .
p^^ :Cost of a spraying Outfit.-In the foregoing I have presented briefly,
I::yent in sufficient detail, the essential requisites of a good spray apparatus.
'Au' entire outfit, embracing the best materials mentioned above, can be
|' .gotten together by an ingenious person for a sum not exceeding $20.
'i Outfits may be purchased from manufacturers at prices ranging from
SinSo to $50, according to sizes or styles.
A + list of responsible firms with whom the Division of Entomology
.. i.has ..had business relations is here appended:
S W. & B. Douglass, Middletown, Conn.; Rumsey & Co., Seneca Falls,
Y.; Field Force-Pump Company, Lockport, N. Y.; Robert T. Deakin
a. Co, 1Philadelphia, Pa.; Nixon Nozzle and Machine Company, Dayton,
:: O+hio; Woodin & Little, San Francisco Cal.; The Gould's Manufactur-
:.:ihg Company, Seneca Falls, N. Y.; Thomas Woodason, 451 East Cam-
b" street, Philadelphia, Pa.; Leggett & Brother, New York.
... ... .. .... ... .....
...!+ !: '..! ... .
.= =..... .. ... ..





.....i '.... ,.y ;. ::.. .

i..Y :.+ ".. ... ..






: .... . ... ": .. "




:::dm ;... ... :..... .
H Ei *
r :+ + : .




En:" 4a : :
ni;.. ...
C!! i, ++ ,:, ,, ..... ..
iP'ai,+++. ...I : ..
'IL :: + . +
HE i +'!+++

m m":,;+La +
I.. .. .
ii
nili+iE E ":
i E E.'I :' ".:


a rEE ". E" :












,,!!i 7,,L




CHAPTER I.

INSECTS INfjlOUS TO TH OAX.
*'' .. :,::,:::iiii i~ ......i





Various species of QJwerow.
The oak perhaps affords our most valuable lumber, whetqer ui.NP
timber, carriage wood, or when used for carved work, floors, or flim .
.... ........... !m ~ ~ i






As a shade tree it will always be in demand, while graves ofoatWelm.:
among the chief ornaments of parks. The oak can be easlyplautm, i
... .....,,.... E ,,







and it is one of the trees most available in the renewal of our tresOlM.
Unfortunately the oak is preyed upon by a larger number of kinds &lime
sects than perhaps all the other hard-wood forest trees mentioned in t i"
work put together. From the roots to the extremity of the smaflesttwiga,
including the buds and acorns, there are assemblages of insects whichI
: ":i . ..=...









divide the arboreal territory among themselves, not often encroschmbg
on each other's domain. In this way the work of destruction cites abe I
comes thoroughly well done. Yet, considering the number of speciMe.t
insects which prey upon this devoted tree, particularly when isoIMtedbOG 2:
its fellows, it is a wonder how evenly preserved is the balance of nature.
Undoubtedly, as in all other trees and most vegetable growths, a...m..
tain amount of natural, healthy pruning is accomplished by insectlr!1
But were there not a complicated system of checks, particularly nthe
due to parasitic insects and to unfavorable climatic changes, the t6eC
insect life would sweep away every tree and shrub from the fhoe ofth
earth. ...........
In his work on "Plant-Enemies of the Class of Insects," KalteWalmu
enumerates five hundred and thirty-seven species of insects of all ords:ft '
which in Germany prey upon the oaks of that empire.
It is probable that nearly if not quite as many will be found in are.
gion of the same extent in this country, especially since the spede.. t.
oaks are more numerous in the eastern United States than in coat.i2
Europe, the number of species in the latter region being but tW .. A..l:ig
three to twenty in the United States, east of the Rocky MountainO ?-::''
The number of determined species of oak insects recorded in the
lowing pages is over 400, while the number of undetermined apsip J4
would carry the number up to over 500M, or about as many as KalteM .I'




....e. .I.SECTS AFFECTING OAK-...OOT 49
,i ,,i ,... ,@ ::....... ...... ......

I..ords for Germany. It is not improbable that ultimately the number.....
Sspees for the ited States will be be..tween 600 and 800 or even....
U ii :,i i :. ii;,;; .. .: ... .. .....,, .. .. .. .






We :,:-.^ will now briefly indicate those species of insects which are habit-
: i::: EE: .E: ':"" :: ..... ... .. ".:'..




: iil. more or less destructive to the oak....
-~i!;}.:!i:,for Germany. It is not improbable that ultimately the number
6t" spfeses for the United States will be between 600 and 800 or even

*!i'::;:,i.... .e will now briefly indicate those species of insects which are habit-
ma, ;::,,:. ll more or less destructive to the oak.
.Vi -The roots of the live and probably the water oak are infested by the
I r M"gt longicorn borer, Mallodon melanopus, the trees being permanently
yi':.id ....warfed and their growth arrested.
Of the borers in the trunk, the caterpillar of the Carpenter moth
Priwsoqatuai robintiw) probably does more damage than all other borers
c' mbined. Next to this borer, come the flat- head borers, andthe bark-
t wrs, with the oak-pruner (Elaphidion villosum), while the seventeen-
= ,||er Cicada periodically prunes or destroys many of the twigs.
T he eaves suffer most from the attacks of the forest tent-caterpillar
,. (UQ0 i: oopa disstria) and the large black-and-red-striped spiny cater-
P: :: ar of the senatorial moth (Anisota senatoria). These two caterpillars
t hi^ theAtlantic and Central States as a rule do more harm to oak for-
|li ..A-than perhaps all the other species combined.
i !. :!.. .. r ..."... ..
,,t,:&, P~y, many acorns are worm-eaten, the intruder being the grub of
. . .. .' .' : .,': ::.. ,. . ... ..
th l oug-snouted weevil (Balaninus). We have, so far as practicdable,
i "iides ribed the habits and appearance of the most destructive species


AFFECTING THE ROOTS.
..:. .... ,..
::: T he roots of various species of oak are, without much doubt, more
i. orlee" s injured by the attacks of the seventeen-year Cicada while in its
preparatory state, as it is known that this insect, so abundant in the
Rb ntral and southern States of the Union, remains for bver sixteen
I:,years attached by its beak to the rootlets of the oak and probably other
;. forest toes, where it sucks the sap, thus in a greater or less degree in-
Sjring the health of the tree. Observations as to the subterranean
.life of the seventeen-year locust are few and obscure, and it is quite

em:^ncertain how much injury is really done to trees by this habit. They
.have sometimes been found sucking the sap of forest trees, notably the
ssk and also of fruit. trees, such as the pear and apple. According to
Mi Pirst Report, p. 24), the larve are frequently found at great depth,
.. !.. :: .. .". :.. .
in:w.tii, e as much as 10 feet below the surface. It has been claimed
Vby MJss Margaret; a H. Morris, in an account published in 1846, that
B:.iErtrees have. been killed by the larvae sucking the roots. This has
10Ps denied by the late Dr. Smith, of Baltimore, who says:
larva obtains its food from the small vegetable radicels that everywhere per-
tim fertile earth. It takes its food from the surface of these roots, consisting of
Sexudation (like animal perspiration), for which purpose its rostrum or snout
with three exceedingly delicate capillaries or hairs, which project from
Vf 'the snout and sweep over the surface, gathering up the minute dropp of*
This is its only food. The mode of taking it can be seen by a good glass.-
er, December, 1851.

.. ...... ....h ..... !.. .... .
: U Nl,":T-4
























this insect to the twigs and smaller branches of the oak and oitg:9
In Europe the roots of oaks are affected by a small winglemw .... ,
which punctures the root and inserts an egg into the hole. Theil
tion set up by the presence of the larva causes the root to se*Wll WI
tunior or gall is formed, in the center of which lies the white i....... ......
larva or maggot of the fly. ".
Fitch has found similar wingless flies in this country, but t h:i.a
always remain objects rather of a scientific than economic intereLs. i:M
has described them under the names of Biorlizanigra, Phiba ..ji
vicollis and nigrioollis. They are wingless, and occur in forestsin
vember and December, often walking on the snow in company with
other snow insects, such as Boreas and Chionea. There is also at PIa
gall, of which Professor Riley has detected a species. The known 4d
of root-galls are enumerated in Mr. Ashmead's catalogue of Cynipid,
reprinted further on in this chapter, at the end of the section on tiurn
infesting oak twigs. .... .


4'


I. THE LIVE-OAK ROOT-BORER.


Mallodon melanopus Linn. (Larva. P1. xxxv, Fig. 1.)


Boring under ground in the roots of the live-oak and dwarfing the young* tr*q*
Florida and the Gulf States; a very large white grub, transforming to a ]ploswa
longicorn beetle. ....:......... .
While in Florida, at Crescent City, I had an opportunity, owig to
the kindness of Mr. H. G. Hubbard, of collecting the grubs (desab
below) and seeing the injury done by this borer to the live oat ]
... .. . .. .. .
The followingaccount is taken from Professor BRiley's report for 1S
This beetle is one of our largest insects, being about two inches long fh*iiw
broad and heavy. Its larva is a cylindrical grub, or "sawyer," about ais:
thickness and over three inches in length. .
In Texas Mr. Schwarz found the larva of this Mallodon excavating its
the heart-wood of the Hackberry (eltis), a tree of the largest size. nla 1 ''
elsewhere it feeds upon the live-oak, and it would seem that so large ant ..:,.
a borer was well chosen to be the destroyer of this giant among trees. ,




-- -=
i . ..... ...."
. . ..5.... . .. . '. .. ... .. ... ..
Pi;i ,.' OAK-ROOT BORERS. 51

::::..i... .. t .of fact, however, in its connection with this tree the beetle shows a sur-
d rising modification of its recorded habits. Its larva is found, not in the stem of the
ma;ltuibmre'm tree so justly celebrated for its strength and toughness, but always in the
're: q I of infant trees, and usually in degenerate highland varieties of Querous virene,
of its relatives, Q. aquatic and Q. cateabsi.
.,. The mother beetle selects small saplings as a place of deposit for her eggs, which
u^Ire laid in the foot, or collar, of the tree, just below the surface of the ground.
I. f le:ow long a larval existence the insect has is not known, but it must extend over
:sev eral years, since the roots occupied by theseq- larvae grow to a large size, while at
.. :...ie same time they show an entirely abnormal development and become a tangle of
2:.i; vq ge-table knots. In fact, the entire root in its growth accommodates itself to the
r: ltlukements of the borer within. Very few new roots are formed, but the old roots
e.;zxcavated by the larva are constantly receiving additions of woody layers, which
1si. e'.in turn eaten away and huge flattened galleries are formed, which are for the
At; .i part tightly packed with sawdust.
T beetle thus becomes, not the destroyer, but the parasite of the tree, and lives
:i: domicile, which may not improperly be termed a gigantic root-gall. The effect
i the tree is to kill the original sapling, which becomes replaced by a cluster of in-
uii pali fiacant and straggling suckers, forming perhaps a small clump of underbrush.
:. ,im cany eases the branches and leaves are barely sufficient to supply the materials
ii:.. ilt'.dggish growth, and the entire strength of the plant goes toward the formation
roo pcplexus, out of all proportion to the growth above ground, and plainly de-
..... sign id to repair the ravages of the borer.
: The Malldon borers are very abundant in South Georgia and Florida, and as a
i'reoult of-their attacks, vast tracks which might otherwise have become forests, en-
tinl the ground with annual deposits of leaves, are reduced to comparatively bar-
an sc::*u: b, in which the scattered oak bushes barely suffice to cover the surface of
i, the sand.
; Many a new settler, seeing his sandy hill-side covered only by insignificant oak
64ihih uash'es and anticipating easy work in converting the wilderness into a blooming
... giarden of orange-trees, has been grievously disappointed to find before him no light
ltask in clearing from the soil these gnarled and tangled roots. In fact the great
l strength and weight of the southern grubbing-hoe appears no longer a mystery when
IP,*. one contemplates the astonishing pile of "grub roots" which in vigorous hands it
F will extract from a few square rods of apparently unoccupied soil.
ll The results of the work of this beetle are very plainly visible around Savannah,
Sand especially on Tybee Island, where Mr. George Noble first drew our attention to
i i-t; while Mr. Hubbard has carefully studied its work, as here recorded, in Florida.
(Rile/a report, 1884.)
The genus Mallodon contains species of large size with the sides of the prothorax
lamed with numerous small teeth. The head is comparatively large, the eyes
t Btrlogly granulated, distant, transverse, feebly emarginate. The antennae are slender,
boo i exceeding half the length of the body in the male and shorter in the female. The
0 se xu differences are worthy of note. The prothorax in the male is nearly quadrate,
-i::densely punctured, with smooth separate facets, while in the female it is narrowed
iiPufront, more coarsely punctured towards the sides, and uneven on the disk.
..;. The present species is distinguished by the decidedly serrate prothorax, while the
blm.| are densely ciliated on the lower edge. It is dark brown, almost black.
:45 to 55mm, (1.75 to 2.25 inches). It inhabits Florida, Arkansas and Texas.-

a -:ii ^Bo*y as large and thick as one's forefinger. It closely resembles the larva
e sfroieema brnmeanm* in general appearance and proportions, but considerably
ar Shape of the prothoracic segment and size of the head and shape of the
o larva of Prionue laticollis with which to compare it, and which it may
resemble than Orthosoma.




























ever, muon souwuer, iuougn nou reSc Ung oeyoun tMe oDU ox fno
as in Orthosoma, but the four-jointed palpi are a little stouter.
87mm (318 inches); breadth of prothoracic segment, 20"1m.


2. THE BROAD-NECKED PBIONUS.


Prionaus latieolli. (Drary).


/A


.. ...... .;. ". .. ......
.. ... ..= .........
.e..... .. o ..d
.. .. ... ii..
: ..... ... .
:: .:..: ::. ;!:;: .*::;

..... ..
. .. .. ...
". ...".: :.. ".....
r o.... ". .. ....:.:





:.... ...: .. .:
........., ...".. iii
... .. ** "i1: .... .
:Id
.. .,., .. ,,,,...
% ijii'" :: J", ,Idi
.... :E', q ,' ,. :


H... ....! j iij


.:.a EE. :E:."E


"E ::.:" "":EE:.:i


V


FIo. 13.-Broad-necked Prionuns, its larva and pupa. After BRiley.


Though usually living in the roots and trunks of the poplar and bt:al
of-Gilead, Mr. F. Olarkson states that at Oak Hill, Columbia Oou.
N. Y., this borer infests the black oak, the beetle emerging at tW
during the first two weeks in July. ",,,^ ,
'Their presence is quickly realized by the odor of the female, which is very
ful, and can readily be detected 20 feet distant. I placed a male
after emergence in an uncovered jar, and wherever I positioned it, on the '....
elsewhere, the males were attracted from every direction. I captured twee*1..1.
... :* .. =.- ^^


- I....


c.


...:.. ::..'..






.. .. .. .. .,
h:i";
... "ii'





s *iit, !!! I:ii .:!* : .t' "".*,* :. " : i" n' - ** .** -::** : **' . ... .\A T ^ t f T P ? Q^ "
iii-jjri'!ii:." .:" *'"" ':"*" ::: ::i .*itt '''* : ..' .... : : : .L J ...~J~ O ^ ~
; : : ii : :... . :.. .:: :: .... N.:..": N ..... ..... ......




0[.Jifi^'ttenoi~d by Harris, serve as food for the larvam, my observations indisputably prove
e~te^^wyfood also upon the roots of the oak. (Can. Ent., xvi, 95.)
.. ..... TOAK-OR TR 5



^ ,r .. .,. ...
i : .: .. : :: ... ..: .. . ... .
E APPEOTING, THE TRUNK.








. v ... ..e O three inches long, greenish beneath, and the head shining black; the body
!: .:. ... : :... "..... .. ....







i;i: ,;4:'..tliait flatte-nod and with scattered long, fine hairs. The chrysalis also in the
... ...l0-jW-.liWP and transforming to a large, thick-bodied moth in June and July.
F i^ fi-rent parts of New England, from Maine to Rhode Island, and
|.|: .*nOde to Texas, oak lumber and cord-wood is commonly seen to be
Soing largeho.leseyco d galliby the large black burrows of this common and




Illlstetive borer. It is the most directly injurious of all the insects
lll~i0.1; o)n this noble tree, since it sinks its tunnels deep in towards the
E i : i : E.. .... .










fy 0ly t tret inches living wood, and is a difficult insect to discover
s pwhAft fa the ne urya is done. It may be found in the autumn and
.:!.iiw, ants of different sizes, showing TH that at least there is an






. .. ..... of one year between the, smaller and larger sizes, and that
bartof ntly the moth is two, and probably three years in attaining
." .i iii ... ....';
.. .... .. :'. ....




wail bfter the injur isE dOne. I pmayN bfWOund r n the natumn and














* tinte months, mofh differet sizes, lashwn that atg leas ther ircs and
f~~tofthebal of one oyear lbetwee n thesmlean largrizues and Bothat
p .. ... ..

N.




H7hi
7: ,:, "N" ;'::






















SOdrLP After Riley.

emitle moth, without doubt, lays her egge in the cracks and
: : !:::!...... :...





















twos of the bark of the oak or locust, in the latitude of Boston
emiddleof July.
Tt6aken ft the larva and chrysalis from the red oak in Maine and
*00"^ t onecras westward to the Mississippi Valley and southward to
llCOouxty, central olmTexas. At Houston, Tex., I have found a dozen
7.: ,
~~a~eyobe y h lreblc brow f hs omoln
ii fiebre.I s h os ietl nuroso alteanet
:ii':.!! : I::: : I,: : ' N





















female. He adds that with her extensile ovipositor the moth deeikoitl
her eggs in the deep notches and dark bottoms of crevices. t
young worms which batch from them are dark brown with larg mbmp.;...i.
they are active and commence spinning as soon as they are bai' r
(Amer. Ent., ia, 127). He finds it more partial in the West to thb.'!
locust than to the oak. . .... ...
The following account of its habits and transformations is copied hor.
Fitch : .......:.i
... ..::...** .:::*. :::,*|
Of all the wood-boring insects in our land this is by far the most permieiosi, wsua. f|
ing the trees the most cruelly. The stateliest oaks in our forests are ruied, p mb 'I I
in every instance where one of these borers obtains a lodgment in their trunk& .,t, :
perforates a hole the size of a half-inch auger, or large enough to admit t1w i t -:.-]^!
finger, and requiring three or four years for the bark to close together over it. T ?;i.I
hole running inward to the heart of the tree, and admitting the water thereto An '
every shower that passes, causes a decay in the wood to commence, and the tree pme ::
regains its previous soundness.t ..:|
This is also a most prolific insect. The abdomen of the female is s fille ad dte .i1.^
* :"* "i::" ... : :!'
tended with eggs that it becomes unwieldy and inert, falling from side to side its::::.:.
position is shifted. A specimen which I once obtained extruded upward@ o. .h:...;.
hundred eggs within a few hours after its capture, its abdomen becoming dimIxSak. :
hereby to nearly half its previous bulk; and in the analogous European species a" s""
than a thousand eggs have been found on dissection. It hence appears that a siugils
one of these insects is capable of ruining a whole forest of oak trees. This salk ".ty,. : ..i
however, is prevented, probably by most of the eggs being destroyed, either bybirdi ;o:
or by other insects, for these borers are by no means so common in our trees as ti :
fecundity of their parents would lead us to expect. ,
Our moth comes abroad, as already stated, in June and the forepart of July. ItL s "lie
only in the night time, remaining at rest during the day, clinging to the trunks at
trees, its gray color being so similar to that of the bark that it usually escapes noti"e .
In repose its wings are held together in the shape of a roof, covering the hind bieiij.
From observing her motions in confinement, I think the female does not inemr s. ,,a
eggs into the bark, but merely drops them into the cracks and crevices upon i.ts at :
surface. They are coated with a glutinous matter which immediately dries a.d .
hardens on exposure to the air, whereby they adhere to the spot where thoy tamlb.:;:
and if the short two-jointed ovipositor be not fully exerted as the egg isml.i.r

Mass. Agr. Report and Journal, Vol. v, p. 67, with a plate, 1818. :........
t We have observed that the old burrows are lined by a dark layer, consisting 04t.1
mealy debris about as thick as pasteboard; this detritus is probably'oompomed otf:.i.:
castings of the larva, which form a oaste that in drying strongly adheres to the dftIp,
of the gallery.-A. S. P..ii





:p :: ,x OAK-B0ORERS. 55

:I~ n~h atis to carry the egg beyond the hair-like scales with which the body is
do:!!: h! some of these touching adhere to it, their attachment to the body being so
7I twafgs are of a broad oval form, and about half the size of a grain of wheat, be-
i itghe tenth of an inch in length and three-fourths as thick, of a dirty whitish color
rit'..one of the ends black. When highly magnified their surface is seen to be retic-
or occupied by numerous slightly impressed dots arranged in rows like the
s5 sbn in a net. From the fact that several worms of the same size are sometimes
with in a single tree, indicating them all to be the progeny of one parent, it ap-
that the female drops a number of eggs upon each tree that she visits, and prob-
~il4jy disposes of her whole supply upon a very few trees. The size of the eggs doubt-
!! s: renders them a favorite article of food to some of our smaller birds. And a bird
Sim::psuovering some of these eggs will be incited thereby to search for others in the
"ujoinity, which search being successful, will be perseveringly continued so long
i,:aa. egg can be found upon that or any of the adjacent trees. Thus it may be that
the whole stock of eggs which a female deposits, scarcely one escapes being picked
iKBup:an devoured. This appears the mdst probable cause of so few of these worms
!2"? -beng i;n st with, although the females are so prolific.
[.1 i 7^ wm on hatching from the egg sinks itself inward and feeds at first on the soft
=3bi;iine! bwrk, till its jaws acquiring more strength it penetrates to the harder sap-wood
|K|^^^ s lly resorts to the solid heart-wood, residing mostly in and around the center
4tiibicf trunk, boring the wood here usually in a longitudinal direction, and moving
r :"I ifswards alnd forth in its burrow, enlarging it by gnawing its walls as it increases
";"Z mimei'fcse whereby the excavation comes to present nearly the same diameter through
S:::it tholeolength. In an oak in which I met with two worms fully grown and several
:!:o:tter; bat half grown, the whole of the'central part of the trunk had been exten-
dyl mined by preceding generations of this insect and was in a state of incipient
4q:ny:; l Sad I thus had an opportunity to notice the fact that none of the worms were
r lying Ni the decaying wood, all being outside of this; where the wood was still sound.
^^^^^^ ^^^^it is evident that it is living healthy trees which this insect prefers, and not
l" 41i ,e which are sickly and decaying, which latter are preferred by the European
|C,.....;.i .Bsome authors say, though perhaps their observations have not been exact upon
Kiw::;N point, for in the instance here alluded to it.would have been said on a first glance
|t:;jEISt these worms preferred decaying wood, since the diseased heart of the tree was
K ;#rerywhere traversed with their burrows, and the sound wood showed few of them;
Sbd.pd thui-no doubt in many other cases we mistake the cause for the effect, and on
i' seeng semi-putrid wood filled with worm-holes, we suppose the worms have preferred
't wood of this character, when in truth it is these holes which have caused the decay
-!i of the wood.
li RiiThese worms are probably three years in obtaining their growth. They cast off
|gy ljtir: skin several times, and after the last of these moltings their color becomes
*"dii arent from what it has previously been.
IL T. !rieo previous to the last change of its skin is of a rose-red or a pale cherry-
r;.ed color, often with a faint yellowish stripe along the middle of its back, on all
,i:. tubpithe three anterior rings. It is of a cylindrical form, slightly broadest ante-
QI.ior!,'y and a little flattened beneath. It is divided by transverse constrictions resem-
,'..gbc:|a4 shallow grooves into twelve rings, which are twice as broad as long. On
Sek of these rings are a few pimples of a deep purple color, regularly placed, each
;p tfln out a pale-brown bristle. Four of these pimples are on the back, placed at the
olee of an imaginary square or a trapezoid having its hind side the longest, the two
lr'pimples being larger. Small white dots confluent into broken lines may also
)floeived, forming a transverse square in which the two anterior pimples are
< and other dots less regularly placed surrounding the two hind pimples
......;upon: their hind side. Above the breathing pores on each side is also & large
w hich,,upon the four rings bearing the prolegs, has a white dot in its lower
Blieih dot does not appear in the corresponding pimples of the other rings. A




























composed of a multitude of minute hooks, the last pair, however, having t4i....
only around the anterior and outer half of their soles. Placed in a glass 4b ,J
this worm is perfectly helpless, being unable to cling with the. hoos1* eto
smooth surface. .: . .... i.
With the last change of its skin it loses its bright-red color and I tnb iSfti
tinged with green at the sutures, and with a pale-green stripe along the .. ........
back, which disappears at the sutures. The pimples are of a paletawnyydlb
with black centers. The head is light tawny yellow varied in its middle. i*k"
ish white, its anterior edge blackish and the jaws deep black.* :
As the moth into which this worm changes possesses no jaws or other i|*M
by which it is possible for it to perfotate the wood, it is necessary for the n .a.f
pare a way for its future escape from the tree; and the provisions which it W i
this end are truly interesting, indicating that the worm has a clear .per iwabI
its future condition and requirements will be, both in its pupa and its p ainfu$'l
This is the more surprising when we recur to the fact that since its iftimiey
ture has been lying deeply bedded in the interior of the tree, the only act '. .Si
having been to crawl lazily around in its cell and gnaw the wood there whenm.i"......
by hunger. How does it now come to do anything different from what it h. ..
doing for months and years before ? But, having got its growth and the VW:
ing near to haveit change into a pupa or chrysalis, we see itengaging inanerwq
It now bores a passage from the upper end of its cell outward through the wn tH
bark till only a thin scale of the brittle dead outerbark remains. It ia usu.alMN i
bottom of one of the large cracks or furrows in the bark that this pa"0::..
..... ......... .
Received full grown larva from F. G. Mygatt, Richmond, m., Februaryw a6.
found boring in a large black-oak tree, forming their cocoons soon after the
The male larva have generally broken bands of reddish brown across lb. .ii4
each segment. The female larvam are perfectly fulvous or of the color of ...ll..
yellow butter; subcylindrical; thoracic segments broadest, tapering t ......
anus. Segment 1 flatter than the rest; head polished brown and fulvom; j:l.
ous spots variable in size, being more distinct when young, and often connee..A
transverse bands of brown; stigmata brown, large, and distinct; faeet S'a tiiN
same as venter, the former with brown extremities, the latter fringed with M. i
anal segment more glaucous than the rest. Others were received from J. .L
January, 1870, found boring in black locust, and were exactly like the oak
specimens. (Riley's unpublished notes.)

....... .i i
.."... M aiiiii




J .. .. .. ..
.p :i~ii i" .;!. .. . :... ..... '..
i i: i~i: : : .::: ...! :.:.: .:.::-.. :. ..... ...........
i ... .......OAK..... ... -BORERS. 57
.Aii !, .. ... .
,,,.. r the hole in aside is less liable to be discovered by birds. The worm then dili-
00PeI7y l1inasthe. walls of this hole with silken threads interspersed with its chips and
g a rough surface resembling felt, as it withdraws itself backwards for a dis-
= cis Vf about three inches, thus placing itself beyond the reach of any bird or other
ii y outside of the tree, should its retreat be discovered; and it here incloses itself
3i i ci-,:ocoon which it spins of silk, of a long oval form, having the end towards the
7i6iopening much thinner and its threads more loosely woven. In this cocoon it.
S~~,*e off its larva skin and then appears in its nymph or pupa form.
....i:ii m : :".! .. ..
p: Sbjup.ll pa is an inch and three-quarters long and half an inch thick, of a dull chest-
lml 9seifr .the rings of its abdomen paler, and on the back near the anterior edge of
0 "p':ln' is a row of angular teeth, resembling those of a saw, of a dark brown color
of them inclining backward, these rows of teeth extending downwards upon
.llil eWlobelow the breathing pores or about two-thirds of the distance around the
On the middle of each ring is also a much shorter row of little tubercular points.
L hlli .... the under side of the last segment are about four stouter conical teeth,.
Ri2t .tof which are drawn out into sharp points which are curved forward, so that
Fi Mti:rhis last segment, which is tapering and smaller than the others, is bent down-
Cq@01mhese curved points will catch and hold the body from moving forward.
*t:j lput1pa lies perfectly dormant in its cocoon probably a fortnight or longer. It
.i..wakesw from its slumbers and begins to writhe and bend itself from side to side.
1imi.,, ... motion the rows of little teeth upon the rings of its abdomen, which incline
SimkAw las above described, catch in the threads of the cocoon, first upon one side,
.. .i:: . s upon the other, and thus move the body forward, whereby its head presses
; 4 iaeif loosely woven end of the cocoon, more and more firmly, until it forces its
*iaijii,~~~* ngh it, and the pupa works itself forward out of its cocoon. And the same
i.li... i..... ,.motion being continued, the teeth now catch in the threads with which the
si, e of the hole are lined, and thus, though destitute of feet, the pupa moves itself
sl: a gO til it reaches and breaks through the thin scale of bark which hitherto has
.qip. 44,-e mouth of its burrow, and pushes itself onward till about three-fourths of its
figti h ^protruade from the tree, when by curving the tip of its body downward the
$aaipr little hooks thereon catch in some of the threads and hold it from advancing
:i *Niritbr and falling to the ground. By so much motion of the pupa the connections
t.ihe! iiimlosed insect with its shell become sundered and the sutures of the shell are
iipwrobably cracked open, so that the moth readily presses them apart and crawls out
.r.e.m;::: leaving the empty and now lifeless shell projecting out from the mouth of
th:eits b, with a small mass of worm-dust surrounding it.
.. ~l~~ml moth is of a gray color from white scales intermixed with black ones. The
,: i..:.. :.,:arnished upon the crown, or vertex, with longer or hair-like scales. The
*2 antnn are tapering and many-jointed, their basal joint thickest and covered with.
ad.:i. ck and gray scales, the remaining joints being naked, shining, coal-black, each
Sieiarl^ ng two branches on its front side, forming two rows of coarse teeth like
|.tuwe,:Of a comb, the teeth being six or more times as long as thick, and all of the same
tigii tknc,>X~ept at the base and tip, where they become shorter, all of them ciliated with
*i e&i aii" oThe feelers are appressed to the face and reach as high as to the middle
As th0y.as, and are cylindric, clothed with short appressed scales, the separation of
tih'terainal joint being slightly perceptible. The thorax has the shoulder-covers
4'1i* Arming a stripe of this color along each side, which anteriorly curves down-
..... ..... and is continued backward upon the upper side of the breast. Its base is
with larger scales, forming tufts upon each side. The abdomen is conic and
| I.th tips of the wings in its length, and is but slightly covered with scales except
.mifh side, where they form a broad stripe, the under side being entirely de-
;7...it is black and shining, with the sutures dull yellowish. At its tip are three
~. longer than the last rings of the abdomen. The two lower ones are broad,
$ .Saed proesses of a dull brownish yellow color, with their tips rounded and
...t inwards towards each other. The upper one is a slender, black, shining
43W of the same length, its tip sharp-pointed and curved downward. Above
i .ii ii '::i
EE& T" .
C-i ,:























base and tip, is usually gray alternated with transverse black streaks ann ill
and inside of this is a large ash-gray spot occupying the outer ateri*.pinS.
disk. The under sides of both wings are similar to their upper srfae ::.... .:* .......
The. final would not be supposed to pertain to the same species with thed tm........
size is so much larger, her colon so much paler gray, and her hind wings beigw iti
destitute of the bright yellow coloring which forms so conspicuous a mat.is|=a&
other sex. The branches of her antenna are also shorter, being but about -liiihio|m
a long as thick. The ground color of her fore wings is gray, variously n:thi'4.l|
black lines dividing the gray in places into small roundish spots and into riAph:w-
ing black centers. The black color usually forms a broad irregular band sw im'miJiil
middle of the wings parallel with the hind margin, and another between fMe iSmo:*
hind edge, chiefly on the outer half of the wing, the hind edge and fringe being w W: s
alternated with black spots placed on the tips of the veins. The hind wiin gs.mw&iSj
gray and towards their bases blackish, their posterior half being freely transmuCI
Sand faintly netted with darker lines. The body is densely coated with gramy Iu
its under side hoary white; and the legs are gray, with black bands on th in is,!
and black feet, with gray rings at their articulation. ....,...
Remedlea.-We have but a single suggestion to make upon the subject of r- AiM*.:.
against this truly formidable though fortunately rare enemy. It is probable tbh&:`at-stii':1
soap applied the fore part of June to the bodies of trees will be equally maln
against this and other borers as it is against that of the apple tree. This rems y M:ia
well be resorted to, to protect the locusts and oaks which we value -s aorn anii't
trees; and scarce and valuable as timber is becoming in all the older settled uut ':f:rs
of our country, I doubt not it will be found to be good economy to bestow iimir
attention upon the more valuable trees standing in our forests. ,1
It should also be observed that whenever a hole made by a borer is disbconnt t
the trunk of a tree, it should be immediately closed by inserting a plug thSer i, to
exclude the wet which will otherwise be admitted hereby to the interior .of tM ti-.
...... :i, : :........
and produce a decay of the surrounding wood.-(Fitch's Fifth Report, pp. 4 ) t,
.. ... .. .. "... E::E'EE
... ::.:: :.:. : ::; .... i
4. THE LESSER OAK CARPENTER WORM. I'
" ::. ... ..;. ::.."...
Prionoxztw u qverdp'rda (Fitch). :
* i' ":t : :"ilj
Order LEPIDOPTERA; Family CossiDA.
... .. ....:J i
(Pl. ii., Figs. 4, 5.) ::: . i
Another and rather smaller Cossid, but belonging to a closely ......i
species, was found by Mr. J. A. Lintner resting upon the trunk of Aii
oak tree in Schoharie, N. Y. It probably ranges all over the .s..uii4i.
States and Mississippi Valley, since a species, either this or closely aa (
is reported to us by Mr. G. W. Belfrage to inhabit central Tetxas.




Eq r :E:: ii.. E:. : E:.. . !.. "i. ...: ..: ..'. .. . :... i .: :. :. .: .
:P .. OAK-BORERS. 59
.::i .. .... ... ..
,,::, thinks it probable that it bores into the oak. He describes it as
4I "a smaller in size than P. robiniwc, with thin and slight transparent
1 g ~which are crossed by numerous black lines, the outer margin only
c..4.: the forward, pair being opaque and of a gray color; the hind wings
I ..the male are colorless, with the inner margin broadly blackish and
.iiL6 hindd edge coal-black.
S Mr. Lintner has found the larva burrowing in the black oak. The moth
ip eared April 29th. The male is about half as large as the female.
:This species is smaller than rebinie, the female expanding 46mm or
7iU*1U, the male about 10mm less. The male hind wings seem translucent,
Mt!itol:n holding them obliquely in certain lights the yellow tint may be
.eo..n. plainly. This smaller and rarer species occurs also in Texas. It
..:..... reer from reticulations and more transparent than any other form."
te (Baiey, Bull. No. 3, Div. Ent., Dept. Ag., 55.)
^':':':: Z n.-Length an inch and a half. Pale green, with a darker green dorsal stripe,
|trd:,dpzed faintly with yellow. Head flat, subtriangular, dark brown clouded with
V i l f' First segment with two brown spots extending across it, narrowed laterally,
k *iu[:! of nearly the length of the segment medially, where they unite to inclose on the
Vi a;l j line an elongate-elliptical green spot. The anterior segments are flattened,
Q: brii: oader than the following, which gradually diminish in breadth toward the
p ipiopt:eno end. The segments are marked dorsally with four rose-colored elevated
V'. points, tIW6 trapezoidal spots of Guen6e; on the 10th and 11th segments they form a
t Iu;ae A similar spot is present above each stigma, a smaller one below, and an-
oth"{er in front-each of these bearing a short brown hair. The stigmata are oval, -
' arunge-eolored, centered with dark brown. The legs are tipped with chestnut brown,
I:1Ad the prolegs armed with brown plantae.-(Lintner, Ent. Contributions, iv, 135.)
.: ....: 5. Cossula magnijfica Bailey.
- :' (PI. ii, figs. 1-3.)
S:: An" account of this fine moth and its transformations is published in
Fa e ... (ii, 93) by Dr. J. S. Bailey. The larva were found by Mr.
Koebele boring in species of oak and hickory near Tallahassee, Fla.
I A single live-oak was observed standing in an open field containing
miiany larvae, their debris, resembling saw-dust, being distributed over.
X..ite ground around the roots of the tree more than six inches in depth.
'A t the period of pupation the larvae, as is customary with the Cossidae,
W 6,ae its position near the surface of the bark. The tunneling is usu-
I.. conducted near the surface, from one-quarter to one inch beneath
ibthe'bark. After the imagines emerge their pupa cases are left protrud-
ig through the bark."
*f:i s.(-The long testaceous pupa-case is provided with an irregular series of five
0 ulations on each side of the anus. (Bailey.)
0i--Size small; male antennae bipectinate to the tips, the inner series one-third
Uth of the outer pectinations; hind tibiae pilose; wings broad, the front pair
"I44 the apices, costa with dark dots; fuscous gray, smooth, with indistinct
Eay reticulations. A light brown patch covers the outer edge; before the
0. :i light gray subterminal shade. Hind wings blackish brown; front yelUow-
piz light gray; abdomen dark gray; expanse of wings, 36mm. (1.44 inches).


L:r! ..'



























tions ot the wing, the mail as spots (sometimes ocellated with a bla&: llSi lMii
for the greater part rest upon the veins; between 2 and 5, there are othw wl*
termediate to these venular ones; elsewhere, with a few exeeptimonai, thI ... 0
venular, forming two intranervular rows. The coastal region is pale aslk t airbWi.l d ::
black lines rather than reticulated. The median portion of the wing is iup e*4 ifH!id
reticulated. The terminal margin and the unicolorous fringe are ,...i.. ....
marked with a black spot on each vein. .. ........
Secondaries thinly clothed with fuscous hairs, permitting the retiouIlhtthi4
lower surface to be seen in transparency, except between the margin and to"a I...,c
where it is seated in pale ash, as the primaries. Terminal margin and the pli. l l''
black spotted as the primaries.-(Lintner, Ent. Contributions, iv, 130, 1878.) :
F .63
...: ...::: .. ..=..
7. THE TOOTHED-LUGGED BUPRE=TIS. ; tE*
.Y :: .... .:E::E iiu!... ..
Chrysobethris dentipes Germar. : ,
;i. . .... ..:** : ...
Order COLEOPTRA: Family BUPRZSTIDZ. ....... '...

C a.C ..:: :........ ii~




F I .B.'..."....
." ." .. .. :E: .:: ...; ...ii
: "" :" ::::" ::" ;i











FIG. 1-Chrysobothrie dentipee: a, howl, front view; b, last male ventral segment; c, bmal
ventral segment; d, first leg of male. After Horn. B. The same, after Smith. "

Eating a slender, winding, broad, shallow burrow between the bark and uup-wn& j
of newly felled oak trees; a white, footless grub, with the fore part of the bodJyem'4
mously large, circular, and flattened, inclosing the small head in front. ...
. .. :..... -..... ::.. ;









This singularly shaped borer is often found under the bark of OW
felled oaks, or those which have been prostrate for a longer time.
have found it in its mine under the bark of the red oak at Salem,
early in May, in company with more numerous individuals of R" H H
Ha jA
o4,ra. j
: :" :::-' :i :. ':: !:!:::
E :! .::.: ;y":E":":E:Pi





jj~~i~~i@ i 11~ .. .::. ....... :. . ..
i:,:: :: :i ,: . : : ..... ... ...:. .. .. .:
.IE :: i::E1.::.. E ::.' .E ':. ".".." : .
... .. .. .... .
.. OAK-BORERS. 61
iji::,,;!! :::.",.* :::" ....:. : : .... '"" f t ~ c - j ^ a\
.E ... .: : .. ..: ", .. ..
It wiU be seen by the form of this singular borer that it is adapted for
y*life under or next to the bark of diseased trees, as it is quite unfitted,
I reasonn of the enormously swollen front rings of the body, for boring
nuji..ry far into the living fresh wood, as is the case with the oak-boring cat-
crpillar of Prionoxystus robiniw, or the oak pruner (Elaphidion villosum).
With its short, powerful jawsit can eat its way on either side in front
of it, 'after hatching from the egg, which is probably laid by the parent
..bee .Jtle in some crack in the bark. Its head is rather small and partly
rLtnken within the segment next behind the head. This segment, des-
:.::':.tii:.ed to be the prothorax of the beetle, is remarkably broad, nearly
;i~ "**.'.:: ..'***'.-
c tbrpe times as much so as. the hinder segments, and fully as broad again
.. it is long, while the surface above is flat and more or less rough or
pitted in the middle. With this unusual form it can eat its way in a
erpen tine course under the bark, deriving its nourishment from the
as'p-wood next to the bark. Owing to the form of its body in front,
the b.... urrow is shallow and broad, in transverse outline oval cylindrical.
SThe? body of this as well as most other borers is provided with fine,
|:;i *::eate, scattered hairs, projecting on each side of each segment.
Jd going by analogy, these hair are probably provided each with a fine
Snrve (though this remains to be proved), and probably are endowed
;with a delicate sense of touch, useful to the insect as it moves to and
..oin its gallery. The Buprestid larvae are blind, without simple eyes,
since living as they do in total darkness and never coming to the light
-ithey do not need even the simple eyes present in many other larvae,
S..nd which are probably chiefly of use in enabling the insect jp distin-
tinguish light from darkness.
The larvae of the Buprestidce and the breeding habits of the beetles
have not as yet been carefully studied in America, and for any exact
Knowledge we have to go to French and German authors.
According to Perris, the Buprestids couple in the usual manner, the
male mounting upon the back of the female, the act of copulation not
being of long duration.
S The form of the eggs and their size in our species are unknown, or
1-: have not been stated in print. It is most probable that the female lays
Sthem in the bottom of cracks in the bark, or under the partly loosened
Sbark at least, where the larva upon hatching may find itself next to or im-
mediately in contact with the bast or the sap-wood, which probably forms
I thegreater part of its food, though Ratzeburg has found that the frasss"
o.0 rr excrement is colored by the bark, which indicates that the larvae feed
:... .oth on the bast and bark. As to the number of eggs laid by the female
e have no information. The eggs are deposited in fissures or cracks
.t. .means of the extensile end of the body. As Westwood states," The
Aftlaen appears to be composed of only five segments; the remainder
.i.. however, internal, and constitute in the female a retractile, corneous,
....plate, employed for depositing theeggs in the chinks of the bark
Within which the larvae feed." Perris, however, says that "the

".
::.':"% .E
:: 1::E:: 1.. E.:"'
Y7.i, i, ;,..
Li: ,.: ..
















0Iur yo jmrS 10 4 i tM U I C u uDCCI uJ flCxLDCaIUJW lUVMu oW UL@l WUw LULJE S.l.::.i
As regards the habits of the larva we have no direct obseatlajmiis'Nj
the young of this family in this country, though much needed ine:' '
nection with the use of remedial measures.
Mr. E. Peris, in his invaluable work, entitled "Inseetesdu Plus S .m i
time," says of the larva of the European AnoylocheiraflhuvouaetuM:
". :* : " .::: :::::::::i
The larva of the A. flavomaoulata lives in the wood of old pines recently d0ea, at.:: :''
especially in the larger branches and the large twigs (pieu). It is, indeed, nilbwl sm. |.
two last conditions that they oftenest occur. It does not stop in the bark, bemsedt. "i lt
is in the interior of the bark that the female lays its eggs, by means of its ovtaS ,,
and after its birth it plunges into the wood to the depth of about a centimeter[exf (t:::n::
two-fifths of an inch]. It follows the longitudinal fibers of thesap-wood whilmuas :t
ing a gallery elliptical in section, which it leaves behind it completely filled and packed 'iii
with excrement and detritus. When the time of its metamorphosis approahes it I'l
goes towards the surface of the sap-wood, perforates it to the bark, sometimes makm :
a small incision into the latter, stops up the gallery with a plug made entirely f ::
small, compacted chips; then it retires backward a little into a cell scooped ou&t i '
the wood, and this is where it transforms into a pupa.,.:

The following extract from Perris refers to the habits of OCAysobo&Mb i..
solieri, which also lives in the maritime pine in France. The habitif I
our 0. dentipes of the oak, and C. femorata of the oak and different fruit t
trees, and (7. harrisii of the white pine are probably quite similar.
". .. :"ii
According to my observations the Chrysobothris only lays its eggs on the trunks at
pines from five to fifteen centimeters in diameter at the base, and on the branches of ::
old trees. I have never foutd it on an old trunk, and when a large prostrate pine is
deprived of its branches it is on them that it lives, and not on the trunk. I have
already said that the larva lives at first under the bark; it there busies itself, mMa ........
times attacking very plainly the sap-wood, sometimes boring a sinuous gallery, whiec s :
it'leaves behind it filled with white chips and excrements of a brownish red; but t i
the approach of winter it burrows into the wood, where it gouges out a galleryelip- 'i
tical in section, the dimensions of which increase as its bpdy grows larger. Who .
the moment of transformation has arrived it returns into its gallery, and undergo -I
its metamorphosis sometimes more than two centimeters from the surface, because .: I
have found some pupe and perfect insects at this depth.

Perris calls attention to the fact that though the Buprestid beetle. i
stand quite high in the Coleopterous series, yet their larva have an.I
organization inferior to that of all other Coleopterous larva known.
Thus, they have neither feet nor eyes, and there are no other C(oleoptGe::..:-.:::
rous larvae which, as in the Buprestids, have very rudimentary il..... .I...
palpi, and which consist of less thau two joints. ::'l

Ratzeburg's Die Waldverderbniss, etc., ii, p. 360. :i
I N":.
: i :




... : ii i; P iL:i: i i : .... .ihi .. .: .i ....ii
: :::"3 :::!: ..... ... ... .% .. ... ... ... ..
.. ..... *

S...... OAK-BORERS. 63

At: I Te burrows of the Buprestid larva may nearly always be distin-
I" goished, says Perris, by their tortuous course, and by the fact that the
: excrement and detritus, instead of being accumulated in the gallery
I without order, are there disposed in small layers forming concentric arcs,
W irhose opening is turned away from the larvae, and of a regularity not
*","`: los!,ws remarkable than characteristic.
!:::::::is symmetrical arrangement has as its primary cause the dimensions of the gal-
;Q-lwr which are out of proportion with the abdomen of the larva. The latter, because
Sithe size of the anterior portion of its body, is obliged to give to its gallery a size
!:4li:.:,atient for the posterior part to execute freely movements of advance and retreat,
ih'! ih have as their natural result the disposition en arc of the rejected material be-
ind::,: On the other hand, the larva, in consequence of the dimensions of its gallery,
hi order to have points of support is obliged to bend the posterior part of the body
i :'on itself. It is, indeed, ordinarily found in this attitude, which allows it to press
al gfinst the walls, so as to push itself ahead; but in this condition the abdomen forms
I ,t arc which, propping itself from the cbnvex side on the detritus, causes the concav-
v. ..... of the successive beds.
... .We have seen that some Buprestid larva undergo their metamorphoses in the inte-
$or of the bark, others in the thickness of the wood. It is, moreover, in this that the
i'..oiwsiQn of nature is revealed, for it is not capriciously and without motive that things
r.' kppe as I have described. We know, indeed, that if those larvae which do not at-
k-t htle young trees, as those of Ancylooheira 8-guttata, of Chysobothris solieri, and of
I S' ~a S mwaio, and of several species of Agrilus, should live under the bark they
wnuI nidot be sufficiently protected, because the bark is not thick enough and would
I eily separate from the wood. When, however, on the contrary, they live under the
An hatd! and thick bark of old trees, as Melanophila tarda, Chrysobothris affifnis, Agrilus
ip ttatus, and 4-guttatus, and others, they do not hesitate to take refuge in the bark,
b :: because they are there well sheltered, and because they save the beetle from making
a long and difficult journey in order to make its exit. *
I: What is the duration of the life of the larva of the Buprestidw? Ratzeburg is
-.. inclined to believe that it is two years. M. Levaillant, whose observations are repro-
:duced by M. Lucas in his notice of Chalcophora, is also disposed to think that those
: of.this insect pass two years in the wood. The reason which he gives, and which is
dawn from the size of the larva found from December to August, does not seem to
me conclusive, because the female of Chalcophora is capable of laying eggs during
Almost the entire year. As to M. Ratzeburg, he has not, apparently, made careful
Observations in this respect.
As to myself, numerous facts authorize me to say that, in general, these larva only'
|' liveoneyear. For example, some pines, poplars, and willows which I have cut down
J in the spring time, with the design of obtaining Buprestids, have afforded me often
A very numerous perfect insects in May and June of the year following.
*' Some logs of oak, cut in January, 1847, and which lay during a whole year in the
open air, furnished me in June and July, 1848, more than three hundred Chrysobothris
*Jsis. The trunks of some large, very rigorous pines, cut down at the beginning of
:. one year, contained pupa of Ancylo(heira in the following May. Finally, as regards
4tll the species that I have here described, and for a number of others, I have, from
:my own experience, the certainty that the larvae live only one year.
di,;W [admit that, without doubt, among these larvae there are some which, not placed in
editions sufficiently favorable to complete during this period all the phases of their
i e*once, from one cause or another, may be retarded some months, for a year even.
4a over aboept the more willingly this fact, because I have had good occasions for
1...w.ing this in larvae which I have raised in my cabinet; but this is the exception,.
rule is that a single year suffices, in our country, for the development of the
* *the Buprestidm.
I : :



























The beetle.-This insect is so named from the little tooth on the under aillsf::i:
thick fore legs. It is oblong, oval, and flattened, of a bronzed brownish nc pwt ..
black color above, copper-colored beneath, and rough-like shagreen, wv .i.... y
punctures; the thorax is not so wide as the hinder part of the body; itskoidw ile
gin is hollowed on both sides to receive the rounded base of each wing-" 1 1W.
there are two smooth elevated lines on the middle; on each wing-cover Uw6 qi:
three irregular, smooth, elevated lines, which are divided and interrupted |P||
thickly punctured, impressed spots, two of which are oblique; the tips are.. T.............
Length from to 4 of an inch. (Harris.) ..i .. :
.. .. .. ....
..... .... i.".
7. THE FLAT-HEADED BORER.' .
..".".".... .
: .: E .. EE ...... .
Chrysobothrisfemorat a Fabricius. j
".....: ........"..:' ....
Order COLEOPTzRA; Family BUPRESTIDZ. ........ I,..
... ... ..: D i m;, :
Boring under the bark and in the sap-wood of the white oak, and in the GafNSW ......
the pin oak; a pale-yellow flat-headed grub, closely resembling the preceding: a ..i..i.
il. .. .... : :: :::i"..71 .
This pernicious borer of the apple tree, as stated both by Har$"Mi"'
Fitch, originally infested the white oak, but since the settleU int:of e:
country has abounded in the apple sE|
sometimes in the peach, but may SItie 6|
a 0 !f found to injure the white oak. ifley Ja
also found it in the soft maple and' we.
blug ing willow. Riley has reared this
from the oak, apple, mountain ahe::|ii ::i
i elder, peach, and pear, and has found.
.. :::. H- '.
larva in the mountain ash, linden, be .
cherry, and peach (7th Rt. Ins. M ;,I*&*m
Fig. 18 will fairly represent
d or gallery made under the bark of a:..."a
FIG. i.-Chrrobothris femorata: of the white oak, as it occurred at
a, bead; b, last ventral segment of .. 'm mm 'ilf
male c last vetra segment of idence, R. I. -The worm soon aflmt
female; d,first leg of male.- e e sen On
AfterHon&e frtlgo ae- ing made the mine as is seen on th e A-01





I ...... .:.. ... . :.... .+t ... .. k
H. !E. ":':, ",,,:.,",. *" '"K'
; ... OAK-BORERS. 65
.... ,, ,: '* '. ," .. .
,he figure, where after a silnuous course it opens into a broad, shallow
cell, and then after pursuing an irregular direction dilates on the left
:iilto a broad, shallow cell two-thirds of an inch wide; the oval, black
it in the upper corner representing the hole made by the larva for
ti^ c exit of the beetle. In this hole the beetle was found. The large
0.mf is for the repose of the pupa.
f^ At Houston, Tex., I found the larva and pupa in abundance, April
34 ~i881, under the bark of large pin oak stumps and of dead trees.
Bilthe burrows were like those represented in Fig. 18, being irregular
: ii.:,daing, shallow burrows, not nearly so definite in outline as those
piaNe by longicorn borers. The mine is about
. i nceh wide, and terminates in a broad, irreg-
,i''!ul, oval cell 1j inches long and 4 to f inch
I-;dwi de.: In this cell the pupa spends the winter
t^' Ai4 early spring. One end of this cell lies
kfi::.te-.w---ard the outer side of the bark so that even
! if. -the. is not a clearly defined oval opening, -
Ss:. in Fig. 18, the beetle on emerging from the
pupa state can with little difficulty extricate
i:: itself from its cell and makeits way out of doors
,.. by pushing aside a thin barrier of bark. In I 1 W
F.t ease of one in the pin oak there was a Pri. 17.-Transformation of
quite irregular, oval cell built up by the larva Chr.ssobnthris femorata.-
a, larva; b, papa ; c. under side
I between the wood and the bark, the partition of the headand thorage seg-
ments; d, beetle. After Riley.
I consisting of a composition of firm bark dust,
Ithus forming a rud& cocoon. The insect occurred at Providence in
I -the larva, pupa, and beetle states May 20, though the larva were the
Most abundant.
Harris says of it from his observations in eastern Massachusetts:
Its time of appearance is from the end of May to the middle of July, during which
Itt may often be seen, in the middle of the day, resting upon or flying round the trunks
Sof white-oak trees and recently-cut timber of the same kind of wood. I have re-
i: peatedly taken it upon and under the bark of peach trees also. The grubs or larva
bore into the trunks of these trees.
S Mr. Ricksecker remarks that on the Pacific coast it "attacks young
| fruit trees that have been scorched by the sun, but its natural food is
Sthe oak, for I have seen dozens of them in the branches of a small live
.oak that had been cut down less than an hour." (Ent. Amer., i, 97.)
i-* The following extracts from Dr. Fitch's first report will further serve
'. characterize the habits and appearance of this formidable pest of our
mst valuable forest, shade, and fruit trees. It will appear that Dr.
-.tch has been the first to discover an ichneumon parasite in the larva
ies beetle, no European Buprestid beetle being, so far as we know,
by internal parasites:
.... E E i~ i.. :.;. i :"..
iet, which has not heretofore been noticed in our country as a borer in
Ftkfte, pertains to the family Bapreseidw, or the brilliant snapping beetles.
5 ,-- S "
-+ ;*:':'+it.,' ."lg +t"iJ
..... Ii .i.:i%:: : E.. d :
: :,~t ;';i',]in ,+:,=:. :.E:. .::: : .....




















Dorers, the barrow whicn it excavates being twice as broan a is ai sign, *0:.n oil
measuring t .e tenth of an inch or slightly over. It is the latter part ofs .ae...ji ..
these worms thus sink themselves into the solid heart-wood of the tree, ih'v.o....i...
extending upwards from the spot under the bark where they had p .s.iom 4...w4...
On laying open one of these burrows I find it is more than an inch in length, 4*e3:!!!
its lower part is filed and blocked up with the fine sawdust-like castings o.tlibw* iilm.|
Thus, when the worm is destined to lay torpid and inactive during the leg i* ms :t
of winter, it has the forethought, so to speak, to place itself in a safe mad wearS !
treat, within the solid wood of the tree, with the hole leading to its cell plue|^ bqf.
so as effectually to prevent any enemy from gaining admission to it. ;"*,.. ,
v t :. .. ... ..:: ....























ase.-PackarddeL ::i
Still, this worm is not able to secure itself entirely from those parasiti Sssset
which are the destroyers of so many other species of its race, and which, as in 1 a0-.
rently remarked, appear to have been created for the express purpose of piaiWt
upon those species, in order to prevent their becoming excemsively multlplie4d.
should expect that this and other borers, lying as they do beneath tihe. .r ...
within the wood of trees, were so securely shielded that it would be impssdth
fbr any insect enemy to discover and gain access to them, to molest or d
them. But among the specimens sent me by Mr. Barry is one where the Wl B
been entirely devoured, nothing but its shriveled skin remaining, with a.i:d


.J




.. !::'';::i i;...:.,. ... .. . ..
U . ....... ...... ..:.:.::] ? :: :: .:: : :.. .. ..
...!....... ":iii". :i "... ":".... i "' "
la'" :'" "' "''*" '*ls"" " 6. /^Al _D ^ ^T ^ flC
. "..... "
in:' ci h are several minute maggots or footless little grubs, soft, dull white, shining, of
S...:" :1g egg shaped form, pointed at the tip and blunt in front, their bodies divided into
: segments by very fine transverse impressed lines or sutures. They are about one- tenth
: of n inch long and 0.035 broad at the widest part. These are evidently the larvae
il*of some small Hymenopterous or bee-like insect, pertaining, there can be little doubt,
..:.,to the family Chalcidida, the female of which has the instinct to discover these
ofaersr, probably in the earlier periods of their life when they are lying directly be-
kn:, eath the bark, and piercing through the bark with her ovipositor, and puncturing
1b.the skin of the borer, drops her eggs therein, which subsequently hatch and subsist
FI poa the borer, eventually destroying it. These minute larva were forwarded to me
a'der the supposition that they were injurious to the apple tree, whereas, by destroy-
y'^in:g|these pernicious borers, it is evident they must be regarded as our best f friends.
ITh': s fcl t illustrates how important it is for us to be acquainted with our insects in
t he different stages of their lives, that we may be able to discriminate friends from
r ." *:'-4* and know which to destroy and which to cherish. (Fitch.)
r. : Ls inra.-Protborax very broad, being broader and flatter and the abdominal seg-
"ic.t!s i.,, m L aller in proportion than any other borer of this family known to us. Head
::,itracted within the prothorax. The disk finely shagreened with raised dots. A
..iE ..' .." ....
air|: ow inverted V-shaped smooth impressed line in the middle of the disk, the apex
t.:.e. Iee ming prolonged towards but finally becoming obsolete at the front edge of the
.. Mk; the arms of the V behind not reaching very near the posterior edge of the disk.
:. DWoeneath, is a similar roughened disk, but more regularly rounded-oval than above,
r am1m with a single straight median swollen impressed line, which is a little over
ne-half as long as the disk, but which reaches a little nearer the front than the hind
6dgo
Sedge. -
': Second thoracic (mesothoracic) segment very short, considerably shorter and wider
I than the third, with an oval, slightly rough, area on each side of the median line, the
similar area on the third thoracic segment being larger and united over the median
'line.
V The ten abdominal segments of uniform width, being a little shorter than broad,
except the small tenth segment, which is about two-thirds as wide as the ninth. A
pair of irregular, rather long patches on each abdominal segment above, and a pair
of curvilinear impressed lines beneath.
S One pair of mesothoracic and eight pairs of abdominal spiracles.
Head Clittle narrower than the thoracic disk. Clypeus corneous, square in front-
very short and broad. Labrum square, a little longer than wide, front edge mode,
rately rounded, densely hirsute. Antenna 3-jointed; first joint short, membranous,
second considerably narrower, third minute, rounded at tip, considerably slenderer
Than second. Mandibles entirely black. Maxillary lobe short, projecting slightly be-'
yond the edge of labium. Maxillary palpus 2-jointed, second joint not so long as the
first is wide, one-third as thick, and extending a little beyond the maxillary lobe.
4 Lbium entire, the front edge not being excavated.
Length, 221m; breadth of prothoracic segment, 7n1m; length, 4mmn; width of sixth
I abdominal segment, 3mm.
Pups. Body flattened, and of the general shape of the imago. The antennae seen
A= from above extend to a little behind the outer hinder angle of the prothorax. The
O elytra reach to the middle of the fourth abdominal segment. The wings extend as far
si theis hinder edge of the same segment The third pair of tarsi reach to near the
piddle of the sixth abdominal segment. Six pairs of abdominal spiracles. Length,
1" ; breadth, 7nm.
p|: itranaforming, the eyes, the front of the head, the prothorax, the femora, and
M.,and portions of the sternum and under side of the abdominal segments turn

kegoing descriptions have been drawn up from specimens ob-
Ss.... u in Texas and in Rhode Island.
,I im ".i ':..... '.si.. ...-














to the eyes, is densely punctured, and is clothed in front with fnue whiSte heix:s w lo..
are directed downwards. Upon the middle of the top of the head isa smoneo:thsMlll.l
black line with a narrow impressed line through its middle, a mark whihsk sM elt
distinguish this from some of the other species which are closely related to it
thorax is much more broad than long, and is widest forward of the middle. Iflin !-
face is covered with dense, coarsisb punctures, which run into each other a emsniiii
what transverse direction. It is also somewhat uneven, with slight e..... lium l
hollows, but has not two smooth raised lines on its middle and anterior pest: w116b
are met with in another species very similar to this, the tooth-legged Birg| il
beetle (Chrysohothi #dentipes Germar). The ellytra or wing-coven present am:ut
more rough and unequal surface than any other part of the insect. Three s madIi
polished raised lines extend lengthwise of each wing-cover, and the intsnabls twea i
them are in places occupied by smaller raised lines, which form a kind of net-w .,..
and two impressed transverse spots may also be discerned, more or less dei otiy, :Wi
dividing each wing-cover into three nearly equal portions. These spots reach Aw..e.... ..
the inner one of the three raised lines nearly to the outer margin, crossing the two .
other raised lines and interrupting them more or less. They are commonly et '
cupreous tinge, and densely punctured, but are smoother than the other portion of
the surface. A smaller and more deeply impressed spot may commonly be found In
the space next to the suture and forward of the anterior spot, of which it is, a it ws .iJ
a continuation. The wing-covers are rounded at their tips, so as to present a digt I
notch at the suture when they are closed, and the outer margin towards the tip Js a."
several very minute projecting teeth. When the wing-covers are parted the boAk I
is discovered to be of a brilliant bluish-green color and thickly punctured, with a
row of large impressed spots along the middle, one on each segment, and half way
between these and the outer margin is another row of smaller impressed dots, having i
their centers black. The underside of the body and the legs are brilliant eoppay,
the feet being deep shining green, their last joint and the hooks at its end bla i
Here also the surface is everywhere thickly punctured, the punctures on the veMter or i
hind part of the body opening backwards. The last segment ham an elevated line In i
the middle at its base, and its apex is cut off by a straight line, in the middle of which
is commonly a small projecting tooth. The anterior thighs are remarkably awp i
from which circumstance this species has received its name, and they have an ang-
lar projection on their inner sides, beyond the middle. The tibia, or shAks, of thbee
legs are slightly curved. (Fitch.) "
REMEDIES.-Under this bead we extract the following suggestions j
from Fitch: 'I
The remedies for destroying this borer must necessarily be much the samue with
those already stated for the common borer or striped Saperda. They consist deisa i
tially of three measures: First, coating or impregnating the bark with some satb- e.
stance repulsive to the insect; second, destroying the beetle by hand-picking; maid
third, destroying the larva by cutting into and extracting it from its burrow.
As it is during the month of June and forepart of July that the beetle ftq lit
the trees for the purpose of depositing its eggs in the bark, it is probable that w biieK-|.|
washing the trunk and large limbs or rubbing them over with soft so.a.p 4d1'...
June will secure them from molestation from this enemy. And in districts who *1Wi:K
borer is known to infest the apple trees the trees should be repeatedly inmqpectd f:.Mi
ing this part of the year, and any of these beetles that are found upon thems i|i
be captured and destroyed. It is at midday of warm, sunshiny days that the9
..:::' : :" ..

V
::::::..=




.N .~-f e, .i ,.,l P~if:: .:. "..... .. .. k . :'. .
K, : :** OAK-BORERS. 69


li>,t::!' wm^~m will be most successful, as they are then most active and show themselves
Hi; aroad. The larvae, when young, appear to have the same habit with most other
..i borern, of keeping their burrow clean by throwing their castings out of it through a
.m QR orifice in the bark. They can, therefore, be discovered probably by the new
:"sawdust-like powder which will be found adhering to the outer surface of the bark.
I 4:1n A ugust or September, while the worms are yet young and before they have pen-
i|:. ate the heart-wood, the trees should be carefully examined for these worms.
1ni:W.erever, from any particles of the sawdust-like powder appearing externally upon
Mii'" bark, one of these worms is suspected, it will be easy, at least in young trees,
iii.hiie:. re the bark is thin and smooth, to ascertain by puncturing it with a stiff pin
:7 tiulthsr there is any hollow cavity beneath, and if one is discovered, the bark should
hi:4 'ta way with a knife until the worm is found and destroyed. After it has pen-
0i.ed the solid wood it ceases to eject its castings, and, consequently, we are then
mo'J,. without any clew by which to discover it. Hence the importance or searching
tfr it seasonably.
.. :: ..: .... ": ..

:.The following ichneumon parasites are said by Riley to keep the
H.n ..u....mbers. of the larvae in check, besides a chalcid fly: Bracon charts
i&le, r and (Cryptus or Labena grallator Say.
: .... ... ... : ..k~ : .!':"

.'" ..... 8. THE GREEN-HEADED CHRYSOBOTHRIS.

Chrypobothris chlorocephala (Gory).

SOrder COLEOPTERA; Family BUPRESTIDZE.

L Probably boring under the bark of the white-oak, with habits similar to those of
:...:. othar flat-headed borers of the oak; a Buprestid beetle.

; : 9. TnE NORTHERN BRENTHIAN.
i .:: .. : .... .. . .
;: .. ..... :. :.." .
V Eupsalies minute (Drury).

SOrder COLRICOPTERA ; Family BRENTHIDS. J 5
....Boriung into the solid wood of the white oak, forming a cylin-
Orical passage, a slender grub inch long and not quite 0.05 inch
I thick, changing to a weevil with a large, very thick snout.
p* The habits and transformations of this beetle were
i A'first described by Dr. Riley, the original account given FG. 9.-Chryso-
,,...::.. .." bothis ohloro-
by Dr. Harris proving erroneous, his larva being that of cephala.-Smith,
a Tenebrionid beetle, as stated by Riley. This interest-
Il weevil may be found on the trunk and under the bark of the white
oak in June and July in New England, or in May and June in New
Yobrk -and Missouri, having then assumed the imago or beetle con-
:J"!dition. Riley states that it is equally common on the black, red, and
|pot oaks; that it bores in all directions through the heart-wood, and
Is`: found most commonly in stumps or in felled trees the year after
Ahey are cut.
Wtin beetle differs from other weevils in that the snout projects straight
p4,).Iu front, not being curved downwards as in weevils in general. Ini
e the snout is much broader and flatter than in the female, but
,..= .. : :. .... ... ....
,i :,i" K :: ..
b|; -ii:::..
Ki: .:EE' ;. K: "
E .


























gether, they should be not only better armed, but also muckl lgein
than the females." (Riley.) l
According to Riley, in Missouri the eggs are deposited during tin
months of May and June. The female bores a cylindrical hole in 6e:
bark with her slender snout and pushes an egg to the bottom of the I
hole. 1 ,* ..
~ ~~~~~~.... p!':. .:. .. ... :I"E":;
"It requires about a day to make a puncture and deposit the fl..:!!
During the time the puncture is being made the male stands giua4
occasionally assisting the female in extracting her beak; this he d40 |:.:,
by stationing himself at a right angle with her body, and by presuafg
his heavy prosternum against the tip of her abdomen; her stoat An
legs serving as a fulcrum and her long body as a lever. When t..i:. i..
beak is extracted, the female uses her antennae for freeing the pincersiM. : ,
or jaws of bits of wood or dust, the antennae being furnished with $W$
hairs and forming an excellent brush. Should a strange mal :: :,l:i
proach, a heavy contest at once ensues, and continues until 0no 00 lb.'".
other is thrown from the tree. The successful party then takes hisMO iiiiiub...
tion as guard." (W. R. Howard, in Riley's Sixth Report.)
Riley thinks that the larva lives but a single year, although larm :
different sizes occur in midwinter with the beetles. ..h.'* ....
.... .:, m4 : !t::..: ::
The Zarva.-Length, 0.55-0.75 inch; diameter in middle of body, 0.05 inch. Bu y:T
almost straight, cylindrical, 12-jointed, with a few faint hairs only on prot4hor':ii|
around anus; thoracic joints short, bent a little forward, swollen and breedly iujSi.:!
deeply wrinkled, with two especially prominent swellings on top of joints 3 ikd"*,4
converging towards head, and having each a granulated rufous spot; the othertJiis :i
with about three dorsal transverse wrinkles; joints 5-9 subequal, long as 141b'
gether, twice as long as 4; 10-12 diminishing in length, slightly swollen, tihe *lSy
*The Malay Archipelago, p. 482. The line by the side of the insect in this0
other cuts indicates the length of the insect, most of the sketches being elMilfr

K. H
views..

*- N

S:.... :






d P I Ch OAK-SOBERS. 71
.....@ ::::i, ...% i . .... ...: ..

.i.i.. yr a smail 3jointed thoracic legs, the terminal joint being a mere bristle;
mistal. quite distinct and brown, the first pair much the largest, between the fold
r of jobits 9. and 3; the others on anterior fifth of joints 4-11, the last pair more dorsal
..ii:.: .0tie. rest. Head pale yellow, darker around mouth; rounded, more or less bent
vh;.e'::. h breast with sparse, stiff, pale hairs springing from elevated points; ocelli,
.. e; antenna not visible, unless a dusky prominence lying close between mandibles
0:l4ad maxillz be called such; labium small, with two depressions and other inequali-
*5 the margins slightly angular, allowing the jaws to closely fit around it; jaws
i i :% : : ` ... .. ... ...
t.... ri.agular, the inner margin produced at middle into a larger and smaller tooth,
.i .... tI slight excavation near tip; maxille long, with but a short, horny cardinal
the palpi apparently 2-jointed and with difficulty resolved, on account of three
r. t, other prominences around them; garnished on the inside with a close row of
$i!ii : h:airs and on the outside with two stouter hairs; labium large, oboval, the palpi
W$sed in front and 2-jointed.
B* ji.---Average length 0.40 inch, with the antenna curled back over the thorax,
rikntit ori eight terminal joints each with a more or less distinct, forwardly-directed,
Siidiuiuthorn; the snout lying on the breast and varying according to sex; abdominal
gIw t.with a more or less distinct row of small thorns on the posterior dorsal edge,
||E: lt jd int with a more prominent thorn directed backwards in a line with the

.i..!:. 10. THE GRAY-SIDED OAK WEEVIL.
: .. ": .:..:E":.....
... :. . ... Pandeletius hilaris (Herbst).
.,, := ,.:.]: '. ...i'.:" .... ... .: :. .
S / .Order COLEOPTERA; Family CURCULIONIDZ.
.........::: .. '.
"laking a smaller burrow than that of the Northern Brenthian, a worm like that of
M pinm weevil and changing to a gray weevil, found on the leaves
:.m.. May. to Septeber.
... ... ,.... ...
Bi-'a' nd the fact stated by Harris that the larva lives
, m!: ,;:the trunks of white oaks, on which the beetles occur i
.". ..... ..ate in May to September, we know nothing of this


-" Thebtle.-A little pale-brown beetle, variegated with gray upon
bte sides. Its snout is short, broad, and slightly furrowed in the
w' pd:l:: mq~l; there-are three blackish stripes on the thorax, between FIGo. 2l.-Pandel-
w!, Which are two of a light-gray color; the wing-covers have a broad Smith, del..r.
1. ..... :..npe of light gray on the outer side, edged within by a slender
;:: blackish line, and sending two short oblique branches almost across each wing-cover;
iodm the fore legs are larger than the others. Length from one-eighth to one-fifth of
n inceh. (Harris.)

. 11. THE QUERCITRON BARK-BORER.
-...: : "" . ' BAR -BO E

.t r uo adGraphisurus fasciatus (De Geer).
:i Order COLEOPTERA; Family CERAMBYCIDZ:.
.:.i, :..o... '....
.upon and destroying the quercitron bark of newly-felled trees, forming
..i trapks filled with worm-dust, a white, footless grub about 0.60 inch long, and
Stransverse oval tawny-yellow spot on the middle of each wing above and be-
da Jane transforming to a long-horned beetle about one-half an inch long, of
y color sprinkled with blackish spots and punctures, and back of the mid-
iw.wiug-covers an irregular oblique black band; the female with a straight
ipouitor nearly one-quarter of an inch in length. (Fitch.)

.. .EE ... ... ..
..:!i ... .:::
": "' :". .. ... .
k I'::i :.,..:,
r,, i:: ..-, ...


I





a






















# \^the trunk of the tree against the attack ke of iits .w tili
SEquipped as she is, however, the female of this beol.t.. ....
4 able to perforate this hard outer bark and sink .i ...i .....
through it, placing them where her young will 1s ie:w i
selves surrounded with their appropriate bod. "Th
S SBworms from these eggs mine their burrows mostly o*ength.
nro. 22.--Gsphiuurua+ ^ wise of the grain or fibers of the bark, and the chumdli
ba, female. Smith, del. which they excavate are so numerous and so ailed wlth 9
worm-dust of the same color with the bark that it is t ifi
cult to trace them. The eggs are deposited the latter part of June, and the w r :a:i
grow to their full size by the close of the season, and will be found during the wte :ia
and spring, lying in the inner layers of the bark, in a small oval flattened e .I .
about an inch in length, which is usually at the larger end of the track ther I.. & ::.'::
0~.. ': w r :,.1..:..:.. E.^ .E[.'p|
traveled. :::. -
The larva is divided by transverse constrictions into twelve rings, the last ,. :
being double. The head is small and retracted more or less into the neck, its %a. ,
white and shining, and its anterior part deep tawny yellow, and along each side blatk. ,-,
The neck or first ring is much longer as well as thicker than any of the others :ti
two rings nezt to it being shortest. From the neck the body of the worm is sightly 2::
tapered backwards to the middle, from whence it has nearly the same diameter to t.he ::
tip, where it is bluntly rounded. Upon the upper side of the neck, occupying the ::
basal half of this ring, is a large transverse tawny-yellow spot, rounded upon its h*i
ward side; but no corresponding spot appears on the under side of this ring. Oa the "ril
middle of all the other rings, except the two last, both above and below,, is sn t i
vated, rough, transverse, oval spot of a tawny-yellow color. ... i
The beetle, like other species of the family to which it pertains, varies greatly Is
its size, specimens before me being of all lengths, from 0.35 to 0.58. It is of an a '* : .
gray color from short incumbent hairs or scales, which have a faint tinge of tawny*
yellow except along the suture of the wing-covers. It is also bearded with fine eees I1.,
blackish hairs which arise from coarsish black punctures which are sprinkled ova"W::k:'
the thorax and wing-covers, several of which punctures are in the centre of mni ^1
black dots, which in places are confluent into small irregular spots. The head is: ..4".
the same width as the anterior end of the thorax, and has a deep narrow furrow s .ag 1g
its middle its whole length, and on the crown is an oval blackish spot on each si.*...:.
this furrow. The face is dark gray, and the antenna are black with an ash7-gra|lM .
occupying the basal half of each of the joints. The thorax is narrower thm i!!!!r*
wing-covers, more broad than long, and thickest across its middle. Upon eh |i|MP:
slightly back of the middle is an angular projection or short broad spine, blunt atisill
tip. On the middle of the back, between the centre and the babe, is a sfhAcI !|||||B
pressed line, and on each side of this, extending the whole length of the thorax, f:j.|it
wavy blackish stripe, which is suddenly widened towards its hind end, and i Os




CM Hii i~ i~i i .:2 .: ...: :..... ... ...
!!!i~i !! !ii~ii::idii~i~ i.... I::. L '...,. .. "
.... .... ,..., ... ....... .. ... ... .O A O E .7
i :*:: .: .:i .. .. ..
AM-.; .. .. OAK-BOBEBS. 73
Sin itsmiddle. Often, also, there is a blackish spot between the

ato itrio ends of these stripes, extending from the centre of the thorax to its forward
sld. .The scutel is ash-gray in its middle and black upon each side. The wing-cov-
-| i most always show a large oblique and irregular triangular spot of black on their
I: outer side forward of the middle, and always behind the middle is an irregular black
@. oblqueband, which seldom reaches to the suture, and which has a notch in the mid-
p^:de lof its anterior side, and opposite to this on its hind side a large angular projection
tending "backward. Immediately back of this band is an irregular spot of a
.!)pe.r::, black color, which is sometimes confluent with the band; and there is also a
ih.aiijll blackish spot on the outer side of the tips. The tips are cut off, sometimes
.:.iim ster.e.ely in a straight line, but usually concavely, and sometimes presenting a
i;iBigh; t tooth-like projection on each side. The legs are ash-gray, the thighs with two
;Mee:'k^ spots on their upper side, and the shanks with a black band at their base and
qit!he:a!t their tip, these bands being more broad on the hind pair.
fO.. elevating the loose bark of fallen trees the forepart of June, these insects will
e.'fobnd therein, lying in the cavities already mentioned, some of them being still in
t h.:ir..::| upa state, while others are changed to their perfect form, ready with the stout
Mi..: Jaw and sharp teeth with which they are furnished to gnaw their way through the
Il^',.btk aid come abroad.
-: : b species occurs throughout the United States and Canada. Different specimens
i,' Sf it, however, vary greatly in their aspect. Even when newly born, among the in-
:: diuluals in the bark of the same tree, considerable diversities in size and markings
*:i may be noticed. And the beetles found in this situation have their colors so much
brighter and their spots and bands so much more distinct and clearly defined that I
supposed them to be a different species from fasciatus for several years and until spec-
Il'ie:: is came to hand showing a gradual transition from these to the older individuals
I which we usually captureabroad, and meet with preserved in cabinets, in which the
o elor have become faded and aim and the marks obscure and partially obliterated.
Hiit the. shape of some of its parts, also, different specimens are liable to vary. (Fitch.)

: 12. Tnz OAK LIOPUS.

._ Liopus querci Fitch.

:: Order COLuOPTzRA; Family CERAMBYCIDE.

Probably boring in the red and white oak, the beetle occurring on the leaves early
in July.
A very small, long-horned beetle, which I am unable to refer to any
o| f the described species, I am assured lives at the expense of the red
a and white oak, from meeting with it upon those trees standing apart
from others in fields. As the larva of kindred species burrow in the
baii rk of trees, this will probably be found in the same situation in oaks.
: The i beetle is met with upon the leaves of these trees early in July. It
iJs very closely related to the Facetious Liopus. (Fitch.)

:"! 7he boeftle.-It isO.20 inch long, and black, with ash-gray wing-covers, which are punc-
li d and marked with a large black spot on the base of their suture in the form of a
i..land a broad black band slightly back of their middle, which is angulated, some-
phl resembling an inverted letter W, this band often having a small ash-gray spot
| init near its outer ends. Forward of this band are two black dots or short lines
w.... Wing-cover, and sometimes a third dot back of it. There is also a dusky spot,
-..the tips of the wing covers, and their deflected outer margin is black. The
.. are rounded at their tips. The thorax sometimes shows three faint gray
Mibre. It is narrowed anteriorly, and on each side slightly forward of the




























Jauw v aaois WLIU eas auw~w IVaVm tfF M JO au0 nvoiinte u, u Su LUC 4s a iw.s.w
figure of the beetle would refer the reader to the account of imao.i..a.
testing the chestnut. ...........
... .. .... .i n | y
14. THE WHITE-OAK PHYMATODEZS.. :.::.
" *! ii,,||, '^f
"EE ".. : E:; .:""' j""E
i ... : ... .. .."
: :.. :.. :. ; i..:.... .
P1&ruatodea variaHile (Lint.).

Order CoLEOPTERA; Family CznRAMBYCTDUi. '
Boring the trunk and branches of the white oak, a narrow longiaorn liarva b4'I::
ing to a reddish-yellow thick-bodied longicorn beetle, more or lea mmared.-w.1 0:0S
Several specimens of this beetle were taken by Mr. Alfred Potr1i0H
a white-oak stick, Jane 20. It was collected on a pile of oak oarwomdg
May 30, by Mr. (Oalder; and I have a specimen of it from Ba:ift1*bi
. ;. ..:9:. ;:. ;. ... :...t~
City, Utah, identified by Dr. Horn. It is undoubtedly closely sif
in its habits and in the form of the larva to the grape Phymatos |
ured in our first report on the injurious insects of Manssachnhettw d^ aile
one of oar more common speciesofrl
":^ ....:.. *^.. "
.1 : .* 9 d


PMo. 23-Phymstodee varlabills.-
Smith, de.


Beetle.-It is closely allied to P. asmes, bWi bn
and lea s coarsely punctured, while the anteM. a
more reddish; the scutellum is ooneolorou withi
wing-covers. The body, legs (except the fo W
are blackish in the middle), and antsmn.ammn
the tips of the joints of the latter dark, i.
back of the prothorax are two black spots, "....
fluent. The head is black. The wing-oovean-M
sian blue, smooth, finely punctured, with r ,huS
fine, black hairs, bent downwards. SpeieMaalgsems
changed from the pupa state are brown, mdtisp
is exposed to considerable variation, its umtl
cates. The male is just half an inch lomg, h. A"
.60 inch. ... :: :.,ii


The foregoing description is taken from our second report on 4
jurious insects of Massachusetts. The pupa of this beetle wa::.


a :::i
....... a...:: .
.. .... .. .. .




] ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~._m ." mi ii; irii i!: ":..:.. .. ...... ..:..... :: ".". :..:..". .' .".. "
'!iE3::..::E ~HEE~i::!E i" ."" .: :" .: .... ..:.... ."".
.... .. .. ...
.,*".OAK-BO RERS. 75

te iii -atFProvidence; May 30, 1862, by Mr. George Hunt, under the bark
* fteOak (not the white oak); the beetle appeared June 8. We add
ttet "lowing description of the larva of a closely allied species, P.
H lwpUqwFig. 24, which injures the trunk of the grape:
.Te.. lana of the Grape Phymatode.-Several years ago I received from Dr. Shimer, of
V zoidf e.. specimens of the larva, pupa, and adult of this pretty insect (Callidium amen um
U? !Ei. *t ,
:Bt'tisy), which is not uncommon in our own State. So much alike are all the borers
||WPRIa family of long-horned beetles that long and prolix descriptions and carefully
! tui^J- n figures of the mouth parts (wherein most of the differences lie) are absolutely
gBo,....ary for their identification.
.2W'.*.e lrva (Fig. A24, b, head seen from above; a, seen from beneath) has a small head,
| kkt'ih: in a little moral than half as wide as the prothoracic segment. This-latter, be-






*r **:!E..:." !. **'..
"I:. H' a
: ::.. .. .....













FIG. 24.-Grape Phymatodes: a, larvae 6, upper aide; c, under side, of
head of larva much enlarged.-From Packard.
= ... .. : ... .








ftag hesegment immediately succeeding the head, is half as long as broad, with a
i!: i':i! 6 ti,..








|tbtmot median suture and four chitinous patches; the two middle ones transverse
: aidirreguarly oblong, being about twice as broad as long, the outer spots being lon-
gitudinal to the segment, and oblong in form, or about twice as long as broad. The
three segments succeeding are of nearly equal length and width, being about half as
long as the prothoracic segment, and not much narrower. The body decreases in
wida towards the posterior half, which is of equal width throughout, the end sud-
daely rounding off; the terminal three segments are indicated by very slightly-
awkeda sutures, and together form a straight cylindrical portion nearly as long as the
three segments in advance of it taken collectively. The body is slightly hairy, with.
a few fine, pale hairs on the top of the segment next behind the head. The basal
E" :E'tion of the head (epicranium) is broad and smooth, with a few hairs on the edge.
Ze:eyt are two small black dots, each situated a little behind the base of the an-
E ..:E E .: . . ... .. .
:F .. .... .. .... .
Li..iiii:E .














twusAn in a line with them. The frontal piece clypeuss) is very small, about
:'. iresi thnus as broad as long, while the minute upper lip (labrum) is two-thirds as
: iwgnbroad; they together form a somewhat triangular portion resting on the
inner edge of the mandibles, which are broad and short, the ends broad and square,
.blackish in colon The antennae are not quite so large or as long as the maxil-
A*palpi; they are fonr-jointed, the first joint being thick, the second joint a third
.... than the third, while the fourth joint is filiform and about as long as the
4 jint. The under side of the head is chitinons, with a mesial snbtriangular
waea. The chin mentumm) is square, not much longer than broad. The under
um) is one-half as long as broad. The labial palpi are three-jointed, the
Joint being one-half as long as the second; the third joint is minute, short, and
The maxillary palpi are four-jointed, the first joint being twice as tbh k a.r
stheecond and third are of nearly equal length, while the fourth is slender
-:48 long as the second or third. The maxillary lobe is large and broad,












median line of the body, while the transvee crease disappear. .::,
There are nine painrs of stigmata, one pair on the mesothorax, the remainderaaw
first eight abdominal segments. There are three pain of rudimentary thomuwit: I|
represented by very minute two-jointed tuberles, the basal joint coaiugsV* !ci3- '
simple chitinous ring. The under aide of the body is more hairy than abov*..w. u :i,%
the under side of the pro thoracic segment is a pair of round, smooth, vey mh i
chitinona spots, which are succeeded on each of the other rings by aps *pair.of
impressed oblique lines. ,,... l!|lE.
It is nearly half an inch (.45) in length.
It may be readily recognized by the four chitinous patches on the prothorae ail
by the very minute clypeusne and labrum. The upper side of the prothorax is t.ed ,.J
downward towards the head, but not so much as in Clytus. .
The pupa.-It is white, with the wing-coven reaching to the end of the mO abdominal segment. The antenna are not much curved, reaching to the end of tA & :
third abdominal segment, and resting above the legs. The prothorax is swolU just I
behind the middle and is just as long as broad. The maxillary palpi are long, rena :|l
ing nearly to theend of the coxae. The labial palpi reach a little beyond the middle of i
the maxillary palpi. The two anterior pain of legs are folded at right angles to the
body, the third pair obliquely. The first pairof tarsi reach to the base of the second
tarsi; the second pair of tarsi reach to the coxa of the third pair of legs. Itis a
third of an inch (.33) in length. :
The beetle.-Ph. anmsie has a reddish body, with Prussian-blue wing-coves. The 3A
prothorax is just as long as broad, with the sides moderately convex, and broadest "
just behind the middle. The antennae and tibiae are blackish brown, the samt bei I
dull red, the hind pair being darkerthan the others, and the femora are reddish. T :.
prothorax is distinctly punctured, while the elytra are very coarsely punctured. The.. .
soutellum is pale reddish. It is a quarter of an inch in length. A single .speoma
received from Illinois.
15. THE WHITE-BANDED PHYMATODES.
Phymatodes varius (Fabricius). .
Order COLOPTErA; Family CxnAMBYcIm. ,l
Several specimens of this beetle were met with a few years sine, t ,k
last of May, on the trunk of a black oak, in which, it is probable, their .'
younger state had been passed. It is closely re-.
< lated to the black varieties of P. varis PFab. but..
is a third smaller, with the white bands maeb h
S more slender, and the surface of the wing-coves I
I K is perceptibly more rough than in myspecia |
of that insect, notwithstanding their smaller
size. Its thorax is densely punctured, with a |
A short smooth stripe between the center and th. .
/base. One of the specimens varies in havIS I'g:.j
(Fitch.)
BIG. 25.-Phymatodem variu. I have found near Providence several of theeJ
Smith, deL.
pretty little beetles, of both sexes, runningbi .:..





.::, ,ri,,,, -;. ..i .,...; "... ..... ... ..
il!..:i.i ::? : ... i.i.. :... .. .:. .
...:*.* "OAK-BORERS. 77

n ad out of a pile of oak cord-wood in the forest, May 30, under such
.,irumetaices as convinced me they prey upon the white oak. They
wve "identified by Dr. Horn.
!'' :: Beetle.-Black, 0.25 in length or slightly less, and about a third as broad, somewhat
1F, 'itoned, clothed with fine erect gray hairs; its wing-covers with two distinct
i lder white bands which do not reach the suture, the anterior one more slender
t7:hil.i the hind one and curved; the antennae and slender portions of the legs usually
i-.chestnut colored.
*l.y,- :! r,:i. .. :
,:;I..,: .7..... 16. THE COMMON OAK CLYTUS.
;:::: *::..: '... '. "
,:' "'" Xylotrechus colosus (Fabr.).
T,,' !- *S .":. ... ,
"I .. Order COLEOPTERA; Family CERAMBYCIDA.

... LARVA, WITH DETAILS. PLATE XXII, FIGS. 2, 2a.
`::.:V: "Mining between the bark and the wood of the oak, up and down the trunk, and
a-sking a broad, shallow, irregular groove about 5mm wide; the larva, pupa, and
bee" btle occurring late in May and early in June.
S.i',I.. have found, in company with Mr. Calder, the larvae of this pretty
jsetle in abundance mining under the bark of a fallen (probably white)








~A.
r F:
61










c tab a md
fleO. 26.-Xylotreehus colonus; a, pupa; c, end of body, enlarged; the other figures represent details
bi, of the larva, all enlarged; a', antenna; 16, labrum; md, mandible; in, maxilla with the palpus;
Slabtum.-Gisler, del.

, yak, near Providence, May 26; several pupa were also found, one trans-
,,forming to a beetle May 27. The mine extends up and down the trunk,
WNmand is of the usual form of longicorn mines, being a broad, shallow, ir-
*ii||gnlarly sinuous burrow, and extending part of the way around the
A fiii k, the diameter near the end of the burrow being .jmm.*

ii:' rvs of this insect were found February 25, 1882, boring in dry wood of white
C" aj Washington, D. C. The color of the larva is pale yellowish or whitish. A .
Sband crosses the posterior part of the cervical shield and is beseb with
......g. tening, backward-directed hairs. The beetles commenced issuing July 3,
(Riley's unpublished notes.)

aF
l. ..iii:iii. ....... .i
KdYl .
I ii:i
















iLe7umiJrms v ms myjsue. w uau s uW&j na uus nmasa1I us; "ejues m S in a" U iliisI II
dark. The under side of the prothoracio segment is quite hairy, with miute 7j j
patches among the hairs, and with two conspicuous small, dark, diverging ..
on the middle of the segment, but situated rather far apart. Mesothoraci esiii
little narrower than the prothoracio and shorter than the metathoracio uegmex ib,.;i
latter a little shorter and but very slightly wider than the mesothoraci segment.
Body contracted on the sixth abdominal segment, which is consideably mww1^
than the succeeding part of the abdomen, the seventh abdominal segment being ....ii!l...
.. .. ".... .... ..
than the sixth and of the same width as the eighth; the ninth much shorter amtti 'i
thirds as wide as the eighth. The tenth segment small, one-half as wide, but e j l ,l!
as long as the ninth. Abdominal segments two to seven with transvemsly r :
raised, smooth callosities, those on the sixth and seventh being round iuTas.. .. II
oval; beneath are similar callosities. ,
Head a little over one-half as wide as the prothoracic segment; anteama a "ig ..::S
jointed; second joint one-half to two-thirds as long as the first and one-half ::::::::
thick. Third minute, about one-third as long as the second joint is thick. Maz X'1
with the lobe as wide as the basal joint of the palpus and reaching to the end oftbt I
second palpal joint; the maxilary palpi four-jointed, the second joint one-half .,a
wide as the first; the third just two-thirds as wide as the second; the fourth .as lg |....
but one-half as thick as the third.
Labium with the ligula small and rounded, not more than one-third swift them i
the basal joint of the labial palpus, the latter two-jointed, the secondijoint newly a |.|
long and about two-thirds as thick as the first. Mentnm deeply cleft, one-half |:
long as the submentum. il
Labrum small, rounded, not so long'as round; surface convex, with dese bais,
Mandibles obtuse, rounded, not toothed.
Thoracic spiracles in the middle of the mesothoraeic segment, with the usualeight ..:..
pairs of abdominal ones. Length of body, 17'm; width of prothoracic segment ,:
4.5mm; length, 2mm; width of seventh abdominal segment, 31"m. :
Pupa.-Prothorax well rounded, as in Clytus beetles; antenna slender, eurvwb. M
backward and reaching to the distal end of the middle femora. Femora much k eA .
len, but the legs beyond slender, as in the beetle. (It will not be difficult to digits
guish the genus, from the peculiar form of the thorax, the swollen femora, s and t .
slender legs and antenna.) Abdomen short, end of hind femora extending to tib : ...
third segment from the end of the abdomen. Length, 12 to 13"am. P||
The end of the body terminates in a pair of incurved hooks on each side, the huamrl|
pair a little smaller than the outer. Six large recurved spines on the penultia "st
abdominal segment, the other abdominal segment with about two irregular ..Wu a "t
minute stout spines adapted for progression.
Beetle.--Body rather long and narrow, not so broad and thick, nor the potV a||.
so spherical as in X. undulat.; prothorax with the sides regularly amuate, two ali:: l
spots on each side in front and behind, and a curvilinear spot just behind the mMW,'b..i
Wing-covers with three broad, irregular, waved pale bands, the first a little in tia0,..i:.:ii|.
of the middle, the second much behind the middle, and the third situated a S&.']
tips. Antenna and legs dark-brown; reddish-pitchy in immature ipedm ,
large, round yellow spot on the side between the middle and hind legs, su aoeeed4|l
vertical linear spots on the hinder edge of the abdominal segments. legth ah||j
.......................... "...*,ii







'.ii "...The markings are very variable, but the yellow, wavy line running from the
tm]i', ture and forming the included mark seems to be constant and peculiar to the species.

..... .. "'....
17. SMODICUM CUCUJIFORME (Say).
'Im,,,:ij~,.
Order COLEOPTERA; Family CERAMBYCIDE.
i"This insect bores in the larval stage under the dry bark of the live-..
S(Florida), of the beech in Michigan, and of the hackberry in Texas.
(E A. Schwarz.)
.. ii,: ~~ii :... !. .. .....

.. 18. THE HORN-TAILED BORER, OR PIGEON TREMEX.
To"... : remex cdlumba Linn.
: ... ....,: : .. : .. ..
..:::::'Order HYMENOPTERA; Family UROCERID&E.
..Th.! insect is known to infest the oak, but oftener bores into the
...........i under which head the insect will be described.
..ii! ..:.: .i~~:. [ ...
. ... ...... ',::.,:d:ii:... .. .
... 19. MALLODON DASYSTOMUS (Say).
S. Order COLEOPTERA; Family CERAMBYCIDZE.
I This insect bores in the live-oak, hackberry, pecan; attacking trees

i. healthy condition, and often greatly injuring them, but preferring
Stre, which have already suffered from some cause. The beetle issues
Buom April till August in Florida and Texas. (E. A. Schwarz.)





ii..w" ..


..B-7..-Maodon dastoms. After Horn. FIG. 28.-Typocerna zebratne. Smith, del







A*e-Mandibles nearly horizontal, prolonged in the male; sutural angle of elytra,
In both sexes; the metathoracie episterna, with the inner outline straight;
6J^Jlmf iarginate. Length, 30 to 5O1nm1 (1.25 to 2 inches). '(Horn.)
'



I"







Ini"' :., ;,.t. :ii. "7f.-Kallodon" dsystomus. After Horn. Ptal. 28.--Typocerns zebratna. Smith,. de/.

In t both sexes ; the metathoracic episterna, with the inner outline straight;
emarginate. Length, 30 to 50EBJ (1.2 5 to 2 inches). (Horn.)

























Boring under the bark of the oak, probably after
it has been loosened by the fiat-headed borers, a
curved, fat, footless grub, with the head freer from
the body than in the larval pine weevil; occurring
in all stages under the bark in May, and possibly
producing a radiating track, as in Fig. 30; trans-
forming into a black weevil, with thd surface of
the body punctured, the thorax with a lateral
sharp tubercle on the front edge, while the tarsi
are reddish brown, with whitish hairs.
Fig. 30 represents the mines possibly
made by this weevil.* The original speci-
men of the bark was taken from the same


FlIO. 29.-a, larva; b, papa, ann adult of the oak-
bark weevil. After Emerton.


I i'

A I
:I


if


Ii


~..4AAEvr
^ ^ W y":..: .!dIii
FIG. 30.--Track mad4e by ME5IaWft.Wr@
a longicorn? After Emml ,,,'
::. .......:::
": *: :.. =
" . .:::E:. "-


tree, as numerous individuals of the beetle occurred in different .tag"
of growth and no other weevils or Scolytidse were present. The beead
which makes the burrow may have been a weevil from the shape at:
burrow, which is long, narrow, and deep, being about four inches 1I
It will be seen by reference to the illustration that the parent beetlejS
at least seven eggs in an opening in the bark; when the larvae atq

"Mr. F. H. Chittenden writes that it may be the mine of another boeetl.":''!...


an




.. .E ..ii ',,' ''', ". Ej !i,'i E .. ... .. :E"!. ... .. .. "
..... ... ...... i%, ii :;; mll,. ` -":. .. ..... . . . ..... .
0M r..: : .. .. .. .....
... :[ .. ... .. ... .:.: ...."
V2 .. .. OAK-BORE RBS. 81

'iey mined the bark and scored the wood in directions radiating on one
aide of the place of oviposition; in one case a mine went directly across
the .one next to it. The specimen figured was found at Salem, Mass.
B l.:" eetle.--Of the form indicated by the figure; prothorax square, angulated on each
al::::::tide in front, with a short spine on each wing-cover, with eleven well-marked ridges.
'il da"rk brown, with paler, stiff, short, hirsuties. Base and tips of femora and rest
.4 Ielegs, including the antennae, pitchy reddish. Length, 6 to 8mm.

i,,22. THE SILKY TIMBER-BEETLE.
Lymexylon 8ericeumn (Harris).

(,1"." Order COLEOPTERA; Family LYMEXYLIDE.

BB pn small long cylindrical burrows in the wood of the oak, probably, and other
e:|t; sleuder, odd-looking worm, with six legs placed on its breast, a prominent
P':'UMititpon its neck, and a leaf-like fleahy appendage at the end of its back; chang-
Vi iJg ainto: a long, narrow chestnaut-brown beetle, 0.50 long, bearded with short, shining,
|.. .li hairs, giving it a silky luster; its eyes large and almost meeting together
~.i d below, and its wing-covers tapering and shorter than the body. See
awritnS Treatise, p. 51. (Fitch.)
O:.. .I .. : .......:!i: ]:. '. "
,23. THE AMERICAN TIMBER-BEETLE.

I::,: Hylecwlhs americanus (Harris).
Fj-' "".*Order COLEOPTERA; Family LYMEXYLIDB.
.::.... ...". A. :: : "
.: Awm very similar to the preceding, but with a straight, sharp-pointed horn at
the end of its back in place of a leaf-like appendage ; changing into a pale brownish
[iriedi tle, 0.40 long; its wing-covers, except at their base and its breast, black, its
::: eay small, and a glassy dot on the middle of its forehead resembling a small eyelet.
I 8 (See Harriss Treatise, p. 51.)

SThis and the preceding are very rare insects, and their larvae have
(i never been detected, but are inferred by Dr. Harris to inhabit oaks and
I.. ito have the singular forms above indicated, from the analogy of the per-
l &t insects to two European species. Foreign writers, I see, are misled
by Dr.:Harri.s account into supposing that it is authentically ascer-
tained that our insects coincide in their larva state with the European
species. (Fitch.)

Beetle.-Its head, thorax, abdomen, and legs are light brownish red; the wing-
covers, except at the base, where they are also red, and the breast, between the middle
and hindmost legs, are black. Head not bowed down under the prothorax; eyes
i:mall and black; on the middle of the forehead is one small reddish eyelet; antenna
,liike those of Lymexylon sericeumn, but shorter; thorax nearly square, but wider than
ton.; and in each wing-cover are three slightly elevated ribs. Length, 10mm (A
).,... (Harris.)
bee t. h.a... s Microolytuna gazellula (Haldeman).
I .... 16has been found in the oak in early May at Buffalo, N..
""ssrs. Reinecke and Zesch. (Bull. Brooklyn Eat. Soc., vi, 36.)
51.. I T,. -
*ir iNi" ... "rr-



















ner simiar t mat 0 or ue marKea pine norer, and sne worm reuemmu:;g
that in its appearance. This beetle is half an inch long and seai u
third as broad, of a black color, its wing-covers chestnut red, its 1 i|
having a marbled appearance, produced by short prostrate balms1 *:iii,
dull ocher-yellow color, except on the anterior half of the wimg-qivwf,
where they are gray, and are here followed by a tawny-brown *pNi#*!;
titute of these paler hairs. (Fitch.) For a figure and further ..S.li
the reader is referred to Hickory Insects. .. ".......'... .: ",|
: .... .... . ..h . .... ....
. .** : ";,,. : i-:." ;.
EE:. ... ... .....

25. Goes tigrinue (De Geer). :
...::*:" ...:: :: id I!
.. ... .... ,- .
This species, according to Adams Tolman (Insect Life, i, 343)."b.
commonly taken on the oak in Philadelphia." Mr. Tolman, .howmr".W
does not specifically state that this borer lives in the oak; but W.R:-:e ..-
sert it under oak-borers, as it may yet be found to infest the "oak. IMMtt
is figured and noticed under Hickory nlusects.
. :" ....*,.:":
26. THE BROWN PRIONrS.
Orthosoma brunneum (Forster).
Order COLEOPTERA; Family CERAMBYCIDZ..
The larva of this beetle have been found in rotten oak and walnut.
stumps by Mr. George Hunt, near Providence, but as it is mone on-
monly met with in pine logs the reader is referred to the account of-t it
given under pine insects.

27. UNKNOWN LONGICORN BORER FROM AN OAK LOG. .
(Pl. xxi, Fig. 3.) "
Larva.-Body of large size, gradually tapering to the penultimate ,aepn.. wt&.
three pairs of thoracic legs of moderate size. "
Head small and much rounded. Labrum small and unusually narrow, well r=.m.a. |
on the front edge. Antenuae conspicuous, unusually long; second joint v ,iss" ,
and slender, longer than the basal one is thick; third joint minute and eatst4
Labium very sihall, squarish; submentum and mentum both rectangularw,' .....
than long; the ligola narrow, much rounded in front; labial palpi th"sjit*
third jointobtuse, as long as the second. Maxillary lobe very broad and rahir ek
not reaching beyond the end of the second palpal joint. Maxillary palpi ptbfj iE
first joint very short and broad, second one-half as thick as the first, the third aO..
and a little longer than the second. Mandibles much rounded and entire atti:.::::::





l i i iiii ;;;: ; -"; :" i -!-" ": '.. ..:...:".;':. ...: .. .: .. ". .. . .. . ..

s 1 ; . . . ..." : ....
.THE OAK-PRUNER. 83
.:E ..:.' . ... .
i, : .::::. .:. : ...... .
.. ,:, .. ....
The h 'eallosities on the segments, as figured in the cut, are prominent, more or less
r:;..0u dmed' tubercles with the surface divided irregularly by impressed lines.
..g:;th:".. a, 35mm; width of prothoracic segment, 8mm; length, 3mm1; length of a leg
]witil..:mfcininal claw, 0.4mm; length from base of labrum to posterior edge of mineta-
|:c.**,l 1ic segment, 5ram; length of first and second abdominal segment, each, 2mm;
Iili-gth from base of third abdominal segment to end of body, 28mam; width of each of
Kj|wl ments 2 to 6, 6mm; the seventh and eighth segments are slightly wider.
lii:J Found in an oak log at Providence, R. I., May 20, 1881.
| Compare also pl. xvii, Fig. 2; xix, Fig. 2; xx, Fig. 3.

, AFFECTING THE LIMBS AND TWIGS.
:[:": 7": E E..A ..
:r::' 28. THE OAK PRUNER.

...,:. : Elaphidion villosum (Fabr.).
... . ...' .... .! :
.:.. of Order COLEOPTERA;' Family CERAMBYCIDAE.
.... d!! .. :.:.... ..r "..

i:di: g off the branches of the white and black oak, which fall late in summer to
R gro"i.. .und, containing the larva, which becomes a beetle in the next midsummer
" i '.. :::Pi: :: ::- :, ":" *'. .s
Mi:I;.AlAys its eggs near the axilla of a leaf stalk or small stem.
; in walking under oak trees in the autumn one's attention is often di-
not i ed eto the large number of oak limbs and twigs lying on the ground.
iipPon examination they will be found to have been partially gnawed off



... ....:a 'E*... ..



nj i .;.. ,: :. ....
*E "" :

: E ..." ...., .... ..
": .. ... . "



! :: ... .. ....

.., :, : ..... ... ..










Si. ... 31.-Oak prner: a, larva; b, side view of the same; pupa.-Prom Packard.
ai~ :: .: ...... ..







ftsthe wind having further broken them off. This is the work
m ...:::: ... .. ....








4ibof the oak pruner. The insect's purpose in cutting off the
conscious or not of any design in the matter, is probably, as
la.-suggested, to afford the insect a sufficiently moist retreat to
Uft-ngthe winter. He supposed that the limb thus wounded
.... .... .. .: ... ...... ......







'dry for the maintenance of -the soft-bodied larva,
e -felled to the ground, wherewin thse in the wet and under the
:.::' .: .
=....... .,tewnIaigfrte rkntetf.Ti stewr
.....
...I: ,bo h a rnr h netsproei utn f h






V ea .bOa pruner: a, lat;hi ie viewofnd thersae;i the pupe-o Pcard.udrh


. .4.




















inch ana a tenth in thickness, and have repeatedly met with them seven SM....
feet long and usually an inch, but in one instance an inch and a quarter, is wnI4
The parent beetle seems aware that her progeny in their infancy will be s: *ue
to masticate the hard woody fibers of the limb. She, therefore, mele t ie aliil
small twigs which branch off from it, which is not thicker than a goose q .iD, "w i.40l
base composed of soft wood, the growth of the last year. all the remainderedttfib:
being the green succulent growth of the present year. She places her e.. .'....
tip of this twig, in the angle where one of the leaf-stalks branches offft n .........
young worm which hatches therefrom sinks himself into the center of the ,wlg.
feeds upon the soft pulpy tissue around him until it is all consumed, leaving mx:lb
green outer bark, which is so thin and tender that it withers and dries .pai So&
long becomes broken. By the time this green tender end of the twig is oounsmmsltin
worm has acquired sufficient size and strength to attack the more solid woody Rte
forming its lower end. He accordingly eats his way downward in the est"i d ilth
twig, consuming the pith, to its base, and onward into the main Hlimb from whieha,:
twig grows, extending his burrow obliquely downward to the center of the lilmbsi
distance of half an inch or an inch below the point where the lateral twig is gIwMue|
The worm, being about half grown, is now ready to cut the limb asunder. But t&4
is a most nice and critical operation, requiring much skill and calculation; ;htmrli
limb must not break and fall while he is in the act of gnawing it apartz, or he wil I
crushed by being at the point where it bends and tears asunder, or will t M i t iot"
cavity there when it breaks open and separates. To avoid such casualties, tahs iu
be must after severing it have time to withdraw himself back into hie bdsi. lib
E:.. .. ... ..
limb and plug the opening behind him before the limb breaks and falls. AMiSI
little creature accordingly appears to be so much of a philosopher as to un.uas.i.t
the force of the winds and their action upon the limbs of the tree. so thathe emaBdj
them into his service. He accordingly severs the limb so far that it will esh i
its position until a strong gust of wind strikes it, whereupon it will break off and -iSOL
But the most astonishing part of this feat remains to be noticed. The limb whik:
he cuts off is sometimes only a foot in length and is consequently quite light; mi.s
times ten feet long, loaded with leaves, and very heavy. A man by careftullyinupo
ing the length of the limb, the size of its branches, and the amount of foliage a fiw
upon them could judge how far it should be severed to insure its being afrw4
broken by the winds. But this worm is imprisoned in a dark cell only an leiw .rtw
long in the interior of the limb. How is it possible for this creature., th ......
know the length and weight of the limb and how far it should be cut asnder? Aq sI
moreover, on cutting a number of limbs of different lengths so far that theB Infes
broken by the winds, will find that he has often miscalculated, and thatfeit adiiti
limbs do not break off as he designed they should. This little worm, koe .......
makes a mistake of this kind. If the limb be short it severs all the woody
leaving it hanging only by the outer bark. If it be longer a few of the w l
on its upper side are left uncut in addition to the bark. If it be very long .al...
..** 'i




+ tp+.++++ .. .... .. . .... ....
." .. .. .. : . . h ..
.' .. ..... ... '.THE OAK-PRUNER. 85
.': '""+! "
iot more than there -fonrtha of the wood will be severed. The annexed figures* repre.
- Nm*." t the several ends of limbs of different sizes, the coarsely dotted parts of the two
list, indicating the ragged broken ends of the woody fibers, the remainder being the
isooth surface out by the worms, and the large black dot representing the perfora-
tip leading up the limb to where the worm lies. The first of these figures was taken
ft::-om the limb already spoken of as ten feet in length, and here it will be noticed that
oii fz aion of the stouter wood towards the center of the limb was preserved, as though
|:h:: fe worm had been aware that the weaker sappy fibers outside next to the bark could
i.:." ti.:. be relied upon for sustaining a limb of this size, as they are where the limb is
K: .i:|lew. With such consummate skill and seemingly superterrestrial intelligence does
.i.. philosophical little carpenter vary his proceedings to meet the circumstances of
sis: s.flituation in each particular case! But by tracing the next stage of his life we
i: lulbi be able to see how it is that he probably performs these feats which appear so
| p chiI beyond his sphere.
J: avyi:ng out the limb asunder so far that he supposes it will break with the next
i awind which arises, the worm withdraws himself into his burrow, and that he may
,a'bt be stunned and drop therefrom should the limb strike the earth with violence
t hen it fas, he closes the opening behind him by inserting therein a wad formed of
sati fibers of wood. He now feeds at his leisure upon the pith of the main limb,
: hereby extending his burrow up this limb six or twelve inches or more, until he at-
ti.: "fhis full growth-quietly awaiting the fall of the limb and his descent therein
t,, thoe ground. It is quite probable that he does not always sever the limb sufficiently,
4it the first instance, for it to break and fall. Having cut it so much as he deems
prudenten, he withdraws and commences feeding upon the pith of the limb above the
i pae where it is partially severed, until a high wind occurs. If the limb is not
hi:, heby broken, as soon as the weather becomes calm he very probably returns and
gnawsoff an additional portion of the wood, repeating this act again and again, it
may be, until a wind comes which accomplishes the desired result. And this serves
F explainin to us why it is that the worm severs the limbs at such an early period of
Y0Fis life; Fbr the formidable undertaking of cutting asunder such an extent of hard
dysubils tance, we should expect he would await till he was almost grown and had
l ltaijned his full strength and vigor. But by entering upon this task when he is but
J is|alf grown he has ample opportunity to watch the result, and to return and perfect
K: f .work if he discovers his first essay fails to accomplish the end he has in view.
tiVLhus the first part of the life of this worm is passed in a small twig branching off
*om::4i the main limb. This is so slender and delicate that on being mined as it is by
||ie Worm and all its green outer end consumed, it dies and becomes so decayed and
Wlit, ... that it is usually broken off when the limb falls, whereby it has.escaped the
Wi:l: e of writers hitherto. The remainder of his larva life is passed in the main
ri inAmfist cutting off this limb sufficiently for it to break with the force of the winds,
...... n excavating a burrow upwards in the center of the limb, both before and
f1is riF. it has fallen to the ground, feeding hereon until he has grown to his full size.
. 1| Iisuast frequently the limbs of the red and the black oak that I have met with
entered by the oak pruner, though it is not rare to find those of the scarlet oak (Q.
jqqmua) tnd of the white oak lopped off in the same manner. Limbs of the beech
SobMstnnt not infrequently and those of the birch, the apple, and probably of
trees, are sometimes similarly severed. Mr. P. Weter, of Tirade, Walworth
Wit, informs me that the peach in his vicinity suffers in a similar man-
al toe such an extent some years that the severed limbs, varying from a few
to two feet in length, are seen lying under almost every tree. We have in our
ljeaveral species of beetles very closely related to the oak pruner, but no at-
have yet been made to ascertain their mode of life. It is very probable that
;qR are this same habit of cutting off the limbs of trees, one perhaps preferring
....... if l:f kind of tree, another, another. This is the more probable, since
I* .T.he figures have not been reproduced.-A. 8. P.



. . . .' "E . ..... . .
+: LI
'4i: ,ii ,
'1*"
Vi+ iii!i+i+i+:!:++ a i :























The bark of the beech, it will be recollected, is quite thin and vey ut..iaWM..
it will ily serve to hold the limb in its place if the wood underneath In es C "f
usual manner. And accordingly a remarkable modification of this o-pe-ra't
noticed in the amputated limbs of this tree. The worm eats its way in I-thWlli
beneath the bark until it has acquired sufficient strength to sever the n latii
It then passes transversely around the limb beneath the bark, girdling it .'HliU
off all the softer outer fibers and leaving the harder ones in the middle ofi
uncut, whereby the limb is sustained until the wind strikes it. How .rpvteg
these little creatures have such intelligence given them as enables them to v Syil
operations to such an extent, according to the circumstances of their situaiom i :ii
particular case! I should be inclined to think the beech pruner a differutsiO.'.
from that of the oak, as it dwells beneath the bark instead of in a lateral twig S9 i
euts off the outer instead of the inner wood of the limb; but the worm is it&aifi
with that of the oak in its external appearance, and one of these warms wfai'b
placed in a cage, falling from its fractured burrow in the beech limb, fousk'SBib
wood and commenced boring into an oak limb lying beside it. "M
Not only the limbs, but small young trees, at least of the white oak, ane s ..a.Ml
felled by these insects; in which cases the worm, instead of cutting the *r-.i&a.
transversely, severs it in a slanting or oblique direction, as though it were avrd6Sr
winds would prostrate a perpendicular shoot more readily by its being S'::% i...i.
.7 : .... ::. ..: ......:::..::
manner. :
The larra grows to a length of 0.60, and is then 0.15 thick across its nek, w S':
is broadest. It tapers slightly from its neck backwards, the hind part of Ib:t
being nearly cylindrical. It is a soft or fleshy grub, somewhat shiningada wdie M
color, often slightly tinged with yellow, its head, which is small and retas ..idISW
the neck, being black in front. It is divided, into twelve rings by very deep, b.i
transverse grooves. The neck or first ring is much the largest, and shows : twov:
pale tawny yellow bands on its upper side, the anterior one slightly broken u.ii:m
its middle, and on each side beyond the ends of these bands is a spot of the d io0
The two or three rings next to the neck are shorter than the others, and lea 9 SibW
separated from each other. A faint stripe of a darker color may be disoeridl !
the middle of the back, widely broken apart at each of the sutures. The FsiMif
much narrower and more shining than the others, and is out across by a i'S16
verse line, dividing it into two parts, of which the hinder one or tip is beat""S:.:
small blackish hairs, and a few fine hairs are perceptible upon the other riAgt!!!.
last two rings are retracted into the ring which precedes them, at the pleami.0 ..
animal, whereby this ring becomes humped and swollen; and It appears to be
by thus enlarging the end of its body that the worm holds and moves itself a>i
its cell, its feet being so weak and minute that they are scarcely peroeptibMe-



... . 1M
" .- i -ii -ii iii iii N^^




i E ii.,!7iiii iiiP. i:. ...M ........ ; "N : .. .. .... .... .
E ~ iir~i~iili' iiiiii ~ ll! ;!::" ..... i ".;, :" .... .. . "
,... ... ....

S........... ... THE OAK-PRUNER. 87
i i" ". ... ... . . .. .
:i, .i''::. .. :.. "... .. .
ba" ittle .ervice. It bas three pairs of soft, conical-jointed feet, resembling its an-
.. ao; .. iin .. Iu their size and shape. The first pair is placed on an elevated wrinkle of the
. *bl"at,. :i .,ihs suture between the first and second segments of the thorax, more distant
iL.'. .-. rieah other than are those of the second and third pairs, which are situated on
illi.ii mddlAe of the elevation of the second and third segments.
||",,,.jw of the worms enter their pupa state the last of autumn, and others not till
foi^.tll-owing spring. Hence in examining the fallen limbs in the winter, a larva
be uInd in one, a pupa in another. Preparatory to entering its pupa state, the
i: larva places a small wad of woody fibers, sometimes intermingled with worm-dust,
+iMeloiw it, in its burrow, and sometimes another wad above it if the burrow runs far
,up. the limb, thus partitioning off a room one or two inches in length in which to lie
qit ifig its pupa state. The shriveled cast skin of the larva will be found at the upper
[:.4 I : f this cell, after it has changed.to a pupa.
.l....:.:..::;', iiuijI:Uy those insects which undergo a complete metamorphosis remain at rest,
N yiil^,ugrmant and motionless during their pupa state. The oak pruner, however, is
.:i'. a n:-irkable exception to this. Whenever its cell is opened it will be seen moving
lvs&'ll.m one end of it to the other with quite as much agility as it shows in its larva
llixtat. "The sutures of its abdomen have the same deep transverse grooves as in the
r_.. a. admitting the same amount of motion to this part of its body that it previously
:ltitA'i.i JS~d, lying on its back, it uses the tip of its abdomen as though it were furnished
er*'i prone, the little sharp points with which it is covered being pressed against
. ;l. .oigt h walls of the cell and the body pushed forward or drawn backward hereby,
*. atpp after step, at the will of the animal.
" lke: p N k of much the same size with the larva and of a yellowish-white color.
It.,. t-eqs Ae- sometimes white, sometimes blackish-brown. The antenna-sheaths arise
ta1t1,, ^ notct h upon the inner side of the eyes and, passing directly across the surface
s: .4 organs, extend down along each side of the back above the sheath of the
.. hie -a" middle pairs of legs, then curving inward they pass back to the eye along
thp:. inner side of the same legs, their ends being placed upon the eye slightly inside
FT-!;'!::thei origin. The knees of the hind legs protrude far out from under the upper
r plainMifthe wing-sheaths forward of their tips, whilst the feet of these legs occupy
I',bbL-botwi between the tips of the wing-sheaths. The back of the abdomen shows a
s eininstnot, pale-brown stripe along the middle, on each side of which the surface of the
au:iegmients is furnished with numerous small, erect, sharp points of a dark brown color,
lJtoe i :ou-the apical segment being double the length of the others.
bog bat@e-They are usually from 0.50 to 0.55 in length and 0.12 broad, of a slender,
|q lii.-dcal form, of a dull black color, tinged more or lees with browu on the wing-
IY 'w: e more evidently so towards their tips, whilst the antenna are paler brown, and
l'iiu'n'aider aide and legs chestnut colored, sometimes bright, sometimes dark and.
ll,:!. ^ ~The surface is everywhere clothed with shortish, prostrate gray hairs, and
of~.!:. : . th thrxi hemdleidt n emanr
41 ;i M.l.wing-covers these are in places more dense, forming small gray spots, and on
S'liiWe of the thorax, in the middle, is a whitish dot, formed in the same manner.
I... S.e.. mes also on the base of the thorax, on each side of its middle, a short gray
*ir fo'm by these hairs is very obvious, whilst in other individuals no traces of
ita,' trlpes can be discerned.
The oeutel also is densely covered and gray from these hairs. The surface, above,
4i$tkaecpied by numerous coarse, round punctures, those on the thorax being of the
J|||A .abe with those on the wing-covers, but more crowded, many of them running
...p..... : h..:..h other. Towards the tips of the wing-covers these punctures become per-
smaller.
n-i*:le-ast three-fourths of the fallen limbs no worm is to be found; and an exam-
of them shows that the insect perished at the time the limb was severed, and
had excavated any burrow upward in its center, no perforation being present,
hlt leading into the lateral twig. It is probable that in many of these in-
i4Ikb broke when the worm was in the act of gnawing it asunder, either
w.e g ..w...". ...
weight or from a wind arising whilst the work was in progress. And



.,.. .
iiI ;;;, i I,,,.. 'r..
'l ':ii::i !::,:, ...:i,! ... .. ..
.......~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f.:. ~ i ... :::::" ..... ....... :..



























in r an rom an aricle oy ur. onn namuuon, puiousmeea m r'im..i.
dihan Entomologist, August, 1887:
Divested of all romance and imagination, and descending to fasts, tnhe oj 0miis
of Professors Peck, Fitch, and Harris may be reduced to tide: In the mt:h (li,|
the parent lays the eggs on the limbs or in the axil of a leaf near the eand of.a.4itw ,
of that year's growth of various species of oak, and perhaps other trees. A tr bhc
S :.." .. "::ii.. .... ..
ing, the young larva (in the latter ease) penetrates to the pith and devour=sj a'!..
wards till the woody base is reached, and so onward to the center of the mainm I i{"
here it eats away a considerable portion of the inside of the limb and tfe4, $lmg l
the end of the burrow, which it excavates towards the distal end, eventually MiTM
the ground with the limb, which, being weakened, is broken off by the high aiaiJi
winds. They exist here either as larva or pupa till spring and emege ina J400!
perfect beetles. Time, one year, though not so stated in words. .,.......
The account given in detail below is so different from the above that were the ||
tity of the individnalsn ot established by actual comparison and by renogBoai|V_
thority, it might well be asserted I had given an account of some other In i MIIiu% ,
April, 1883, I procured a barrel of hickory limbs from a tree girdled early M1
The limbs were from one-half to 1 inch in diameter. Very few things d0avepi
them that season, but the next (1884) quite a number of species came rth-CW i
the rriola and eowfatciMtu, NeoclytIs lrac, and .erygtrophaln, .Spu i
tatue, etc. Many larvae of some Cerambycidae continued to work on under to: ii-.
Late in the fall I observed that most of these had penetrated the wood, bat a.B.B.i. i
mained under the bark till April and May of the next year (1885). The mostd::.. .
.. i ... ..........:Ni'
beetles appeared during the first two weeks of June, though individuals oB i
occasionally till September. A few larva were still found at work, but by Oe....:
they likewise had bored into the wood and appeared as beetles the next J .un (I3S).
The normal period of metamorphosis is therefore three years, but in indii .iM.a.
may be retarded to four or more yearn. .:
At the present writing (June 5) these beetles are issuing in great numbers f
barrel of hickory limbs obtained in April, If95, from a tree deadened in Ja.ma ,
1884. thus verifying the first observation. 17-
How the larva get under the bark could not be ascertained. When first emia44
*Also reprinted in the Eighteenth Annual Relport of the Entomologicadl oeety
.t"10p.3840.. ....*1i
Ontario, 1887, pp. 38-40. "



*H adS
": *-'-g --ii~iii