Third Report of the United States Entomological Commission

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Title:
Third Report of the United States Entomological Commission
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United States Entomological Commission
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U.S. G.P.O. ( Washington )
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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TAB L E


OF CONTENTS.


. UBMITTAli ................. ..... ...... ... .......


--- -.-.---- ..-.....---..---.... .... .... ...........- XIII
S...- .


'N

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I


REFERENCE TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN
LQCUST.


CHAPTER I.


E l::TO THE CHONOLOGY OF LOCUST RAVAGES IN 1880 AND 1881 ...-
'iiutoat in 1880, in Texas, 3-in Colorado, 4-in Utah, 4-in 1881, in
lipul.6-in Utah, 7. a


&^i J, .;:"l ": :l. :" /T. CHAPTER I 1.
] --[ -iji isIX111;-,'l,'tiiXi:. .. T JU I -- -- - -- -

W MONT LCT IN ONTANA 1880 ...................
* t*l Mou'1!tity from &it Paul to Montana, 8-between Bismarck and Fort
3ill1* 0hg,3.tburning often impractickble, 9-destroying locusts by ditches
*ill ikerioiii'il" sene deue, 13-ropes dragged to drive them, 15-" drifts of
* iti4l pps'ft 71 16-shooting against locust swarms, 16-destroying by ditches
....A. mi..iiiiimg strI ..w.t7-n6onore damage for three or four years, 17-
**tesdi of -the lct in the Northwest, 17-topography of Western Da-
IM t
W41 ont& =09 .

'N ,NH i :lYl' :yii4:':: ; I.:'.:.". -"*! f TCH A PT E R Ill.
:....'. ... :l:'. ..H EE0. . : ":.-',:" -.. A

. i OWt MOUNTAr LOCUST IN WYOMING, MONTANA, ETC., IN 1881 .....
' ofii : l submitta.if report by Mr. Lawrence Bruner, 21-general report,
., *.f histo.deprdations, 22-the earlier ones, 23-characteristics
ii*. .ermanent..*gion, 24-settlement and other checks against locusts,
E jMAdijrifo.utiol of the Permanent Regions, 25-their physical peculiari-
,i.|, he arid region, 29--permanent breeding grounds, 29-their loca-
*'iy .^^ amd .relationl, S0-the sources of locusts, 30-interchange-of swarms,
'"i,'ul::,,,, u migratory routes, 31-gtencies controlling migration, 32-
........... .!! -i"!" ..ilS.:';::' '^. ... -* ..^ ^% ^
sdiv, i;',i;antages of the temporary regj nm, 33-period of hatching, 34-pe-
hi 6.d of growth, 3-,-habits of the young, 36-habits at maturity, 36-
i oie:': :: s of occasion over-increase, 37-cheoks, enemies, 38-the efforts of
Sep"rts baffled, 4i tree culture, 4--climatic checks, 43-tree planting,
,,: .-flights affected by storms, 45-number of annual broods, 46-subper-
HI li am:..^ ent region, 4&-its relations, 47-locust movements therein, 48-fliow
/" Wtghflt this insect, 49-locust probabilities, 49-recent swarms, 50.
N"i r,. ...
I ,,,,, ,;, ,: .. ,:- CHAPTER IV.

... .... OTUR LQOWT8 ANlD ON THE WESTERN CRICKET--......... ------ -
nlocunats., 5S i-st of North American locusts north of Mexico, 5:6-th4
Mi: .::::.' ..(in ) IP.. " .

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TV TABLE OF CONTEM.

CUA1YrER V.
N
DAT.& OSTAINI&D FROM 6GL&R PHY"06 AND ZARTRQIUAKZ 0 non$ A*4',
PL=D TO BLUCLDATS XACUNT M1ULTM"=A?1Q2( AND 4'"NOC"WHROILAW
A. H. Swimmm
Importance of the centrg luminary, wide e&cts of variaUsift its
tial ewr", 65-on the tidea, on ahemical aDd oq;mmio AL aN. Ott
physical finees, on epidemics, etc. 165, 66-peflods of sun spo* ee
effects of, 06--thermometrie effects of. 67-volcanic iMectmLo f, 68--am*qo,
mologiW effects of,.08--a now an n-opot table, 69--gtatemo4lond t&bq3go,
tion of sun-Vot d!4ev4 69--comparlson of sun-spot perloob- and Iwo* 'Y' -
periods, 73-American locusts diminished by the spots, 73-Arope= omWwo i
firmative examples of locusts and other inseets, 74-tabu"on of too
OrIft..&IMA I-
inseet captares 79--explained, 61-migration and dieWboop"
81-locusts again predicted in four or ton years, 83--conclv&jsns

PART U.-THE ARMY WORM OAIWER-WO190, AND
HESSIAN FLY.
CHAPTER V1.
TaK A Y WORM ------------------------
Nomenclature, 89--other army worms, falsely so called, Mad
distribution, 91-injuries by, 92-past history of;
acters of, 101 -the eggo 101-the larva, 102-the pupa, 100--adulta **4
8"Ual differences, 0103-habits and na*ral. history, 10k,-*vipodU***'
105--habits when young, 108-duration of larval life, .1610--travall*
habitst etc.p 110-time of appewanceo U2--audden appeavowee aud
appearance, 114-food-plants, 116-the pupa state, 117-4"its of thoik
moth, 117--flight, 118-position at rest, 118-namber of broods yeady;*-
118-hibernation 122-natural enemies, 125---romedies, 1W-burming olt,
gram, etc., 128-prmHctioxw4 meteorologic;%1 influence oa the sped94,
LIN-ditching, coal tar, poisoning, 00-rolling, fencing, ralpfmg, 131--ce.,
port of observations by L. 0. Howard, 132--extent of country injurod,
133--crops injured, 133--amonat of damage, 133-previons season *%A
crop, 134-number of broods, 134--an accompanyina cat4worm, 135-
natural enemies, 135-army-worm correspondence in spring*f 1882, 06-
the invasion of 1880 in New Jersey, by Rev. Samuel Lockw4d, 139--pat
formanees of the worms, 139-the direction of travel, 141--origin, arms.,
etc., 14.3--breeding spots, 143-recapitulatio, habi* and raiaedie46
1 '4
notes from Prof. C. V. Riley, the number of brok* hibernagon, eeason4
influeRces, 147-Bibliography, 148. *1
CHAPTFyR VH.
CANKER-WORMS ................
'--' :'-V --------------------
Classification, 157-two distinct insects concerned, 158-4iftrenow be-
tween. them, 159-nomenclature, 162-past history, 165-the mining cook-
er-worm, 170-range of the species, 170--eharacters, 171-h*Wts and natp.
ural history, 172-appearance of the worms, 173-fhod-plantr4 174-4nod"
of distribution, 175-enemies, 175--destractiveness of coaker-worms*
178-the fall eanker-worm, 179-range of this species, 179--ite charwtw4
180-habits and natural history, 181-oviposition, 182--mmeon of ap-
pearauce, 182-pupation, 183-food-plants, 183-remedies and preventive
memureg applicable to both species, 183-sticky substanoei4 183-h&zW-
in^n band,, 185--troughs of oil, 186-precautions and clawification of
contrivances, 189-jarring and burning, 191-washesand dusUng'N 191-
Paris green, 192-muriate of lime, IW,-snlphur plugged in trees, 193--
fall plowing, 193-birds and parwites, 195--different inea.. &&nst
the species, 196.







AJM., s s --h a V .A- w a. -I


CHAPTER VIII.


. i;: ll... : .. .. .. "
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M, U2E.wAz FLY-Is RAVAGES, HABITS, AND THE MAmS or PEpV] NTfIG IS
."...;. "....--" -; -.:'i: ... . . ... . . . .. .. ... . . .."
pitri action, ;198-losses occasioned by the Hessian fly, 199-description
go ,...the fly, 207-habits, 910-mode of egg-laying, 211-effects of the larva,
,,:: S3--weather and seasonal influences 215-parasites, 216-remedies, 220-
, .. iate mowing, 21-early sowing, 223-advantage of high culture, 225-
T ppiii.a g with w beep, 925--sowing hardy varieties, 227-special remedies,
Ptp,:.,:"-ii:..:8 plication of lime, 229-rolling the ground, 229-close cutting,
i.i....i;;;:]: bring stuble, 230-periodicity of the fly,' 20-chronological
i':j i. fly year; 232-distribution of the fly, 234-its origin in America,
..f. ......l&bistory of its distribution in the Old World, 234-in America, 240-
Smmr:y:..i. of habit. and remedieB,,244-list of works and articles on the
rNS!!!!:i~::iS .:460 afly, 245.


i........ .....
PART I.-SCIENTIFIC RESULTS.
iii i...... ....?. .;i. ". .. . d "
I ..... ..... CHAPTER IX.
'i: .. ... :! .. ..:i :" '
..Dmo...... s"o'..O..Nm...O T C S . ......
*pw!:de25.'1::'...'. 2-thi flat-headed apple borer, ChrysobolAris femoratW, 251-
..!,i:. .l .... :. :. .. . .
OAetaepora virgaid, 252-Madsppkil up., 253-the flat-headed spruce
b ,:. ...,.:.:.... (MoBa.opMiKfd), 254-the flat-headed peach and cherry borer, Dicera
..!: .i~i: .:' .. ..".
,,d....:,..w:.m....U.' d Say, .2-buprestid under hemlock bark, 255-Cerambyceki,
- 2: 1-: i:: i i::. : . .. .
;.. : .:IU::.giclorn larva under hemlock bark, 256-&perda on the willow,
r.. .......: ....! ..... . ...i":ii,; i,!;i A!:,ho lesser. pine o e, 2 l m Hsd m n 56--the oak
Ub64h.~a lesser phn. borer, Awmn. me.t. Haldeman, 256-the oak
Sib ,e'pA.d,.'.s .....,, .p pw.e.lwm Newman, 257-The common oak Clytus,
U,,,l.,i00,:ii ,u... colnv9 Fabr., 257-Ciytus (T) larva on black birch, 259-the
tbbd :.R h:.:agium,. 4 ReU.a Olivier, 59--the lesser Prionus, Orthowna
m ..(Deo., ... er), 260-unknown longlWorn borer from an oak log,
-A .. -un4.., 0own louicomrn borer in sycamore, 26
|| EE":.::N:iy ::!:;. I'. : .l? : IT ..r 1 IA ^
CHAPTER X.
.t.l .::". .. .... ...L S ...................

|l.|iiO I.. .........................
roeaia 10 on of the blastoderm, 263-origin of the primitive amoeboid cells,
.':1 :..4 bb~lastodermic die or primitive band, 264-the germinal groove,
;f4-ouigin of 'the cellular or germinal layers, 264-diagrammatic view
III:::!i.. the origin of these layers, from Graber, 265-embryonal membranes,
rI',i.'l.;ia!!::-s membrane, 265-amnion, 265-tabular view of the eight
, N;::R,!a!y:n.i:l layers, i265-division of the embryo or primitive band into
body segments 266-development of the appendages, 266-of the nervous
WIs. tmi a, 66-of the alimentary canal, 266-the stomodmum, 266-the
prWoutodaxum, 207-he mesenteron or stomach, 267-the pyloric append-
i...wiiofi.i.......O the stomach, 267--the Malpighian tubes, 267-the genital glahds,
i ii...".....
t.........t...rachea and salivary glands, 267--spinning glands, 267-devel-
p t-of the wings, 268-criticism of Gegenbaur's views, 269-Frit
....i.l .eI& s "views, 9 e--i-seculation on the primary origin of wings, 270-
1kfitti~nof metamorphosis with the acquisition of wings, and of the
i:Whr with the opening of the sexual organs, 271-differentlatiotof
p!in.11;= .and metanotum dependent on the presence of wings, S71-
| 'i,^ut of::o':pupal stage, n271-genealogy of the orders of in-

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198



















251.







TAWL1M


T= XKMTOWGICAYA JMVZLOPXMRT:07 0X=0P"MM#
Upid devisliq;mmi of the embrY0 in 6W1;WU)4 of GfJW44
tsps "4#arfe, 272--&rmsfian and 1 tl"on of the swas
r/2-formation of the digestve eanal, 272-thnations
and hind-gat, 2n-iorigin of the Malpighim vessa* Ory g
traches, and ovaries, =1--the woMons.of eW studied he autb*,4 1
prepared by N. N. Mascaa 273.
,DxvxLopxmw o3r )ULorrmn ATLA*= ................... ..... .
Rapidity of development in looust eggs bdd in autumn 27S-4quisiuw #r
the observation of stages eaglier than those studied, W*-w*od at
prepustionofthe.egpdudisc274-stmetursof the
ey* 274-of the heart 274-mods of origin of theh"its
of the heart, 274--structure of the tracheai 275---of the aaasx-
275-relations of the prootodmum to the aminion, Of *0
Malpighian tubes, 276-the yolk cells and yolk grannles
DZVELOPMENT 6F CALOPTZNUS SPRMVS ........................ W'W- W,
The primitive segments, 277-tke nervous vyst=4 M-the **ohms M-
the digestive canal, 278--details of stmeture in mom adva*W embryvs
278-stracture of eyes,27S-origin of ocelli, 08-relationslat antionuve
eyes, ely-pens, and labrum to the procephalic lobes 279".0kneture of
brain and other ganglia, 279-relations of maindibles and 69 two pabw
Of maxillae, 279-relative development of logo, M-swtioss of embry#
about ready to hatch,, 279.
MRZ DZVPJOPMIMT OF THE R&PX-3BOXUMG BBMWM HTLURGOPS A= XTUIP-
DORUS ....................................................... jft ----------
Breeding habits of Xyk"w oedatm, 28&--ovipodtion of Hjh" ~a%
280-egg I of the Xyleborm 24 hours after impregnation, 201-more do.,
veloped egg, 280--threads connecting the amnion, with thel smus MqMW
brane,'281-dorsal view of the embryo, 281--Uter stage in Zrj$wTm, Oft.
later stage in Xyleborus, 281-number of pairs of spiracles, 9%-etrud6m
and habits of freshly hatched HyZurplu, 281.
Tnz NUMBER OF SEGMENTS IN THE HEAD OF WINGED
Views generally entertained on this subject, 282--head, compmd of four
segments, 283-the procephalic lobes form the antennal 9gmen% 284-
the clypeus and labr'nm are the tergal portion of this spgamouk 284-the
epicranium is the plural portion, 284--the owiput is the torgal portift
of the labial segment, 284-the gular region probably the base of MW
labium, 285.
CHAPTER X1.
TRz sysTEmA.Tic Poumiq oF TnE oRTHopTzRA Lw imxAxiox i o oTmm ow
DZRS OF INSECTS ......................
Review of the characteristics of the four lowest orders of wbkVd inaeclm
286--probablo descent of Orthopters, Pseudoneuropterm4 and Dmast;o-
ptera from a Thysanuran form, 2W-method of the preseal study, 296-
characters of the Phylopten, 287-mouth-parts 287-th0r&31 W-WingN
288-abdomen, 288-metamorphosis, 288-nomenclature of aternal p"
of arthropoda, 288-sequence of orders of Phyloptera, 288-74cUrs of
Dermatoptera, 289--of Orthoptera, 2W-of Pseudoneureptera 290-w&vA
of uniformity in characters of Pseudoneuropters, 290-146
cheracters superficial, 290--structure of laMum, 291-relati" proportimW
of head-parts, 291---subdivm*ions of the order, 292--obaroobers of Platy-
ptera, 292-of Odonata, 292-of Ephemerin% 993--Gharw6en of, Neure-
ptera, 293-liguls, 2WJ--thorax, 293-wiAge, M-abdome34 M--eubdi-
visions of the order, 294-tabular view of the grand divisions of winged




















.'a 5, ognificano of the abdominal legs of Panorpid larvae, 299-the hyper-
ft'l i fmorphosi of Mantispa a key to the origin of a complete metamor-
W07i;2 99-the apect of the Neuroptera comparatively specialized and
i:. ;!:. .:i~i ,..'..] i~i Iii i .i . . .... .": .
aON t:en, 299-the Neuropterous labium a secondary product, 299-origin
.. ....e. Coleoptera, 299-the free, active larvae of the carnivorous groups
.i. o..t ....earlyW ald to the primitie form, 300-the scavenger and phyto-
a pug~as larvihow increasing degradation of development, 300-the
lai.. ve .... form of the maxillae a good index of the general development of
,......iMody in Cobptera, 300-structure ot maxillse in the several families,
resemblance of the mouth-parts of Elaterid larve to those of
r a(a-hbilarva, -the hypernetamorphosis of Meloida furnishes a clew
aih probabliOrigin of the different types of Coleopterous larva, 301-
i||a!t|| i:i descriptii of the metamorphoses of Meloe, 301-of Epicanta, 302-
...i: i ~~i!!i~ ; :! .. .......
ampar!!:!!!!!s,11 on oft.4e.larval stages of Meloidae with the different types of
. .. ... . ... ... .
I........ .olterous 1m v, 302-origin of the Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hy-
1.. .. ..oer, 30fpresence of temporary abdominal appendages on each
: : :i!.'! :";... : !i.... . ;;'': .:'..; '.; .: : .. ... "...i ." ".
liaS!:"!11.,^:!! titt of ILdIdopterons, Coleopterous, and Orthopterous embryos,
..::'~ii 2 ;:i:: .. .. ;. : ..... :e : s:
K. .-4. . escriptitofthe structure of Dermatoptera (Forficula), 304-Labia,
:EEE:EE::EEEE. .":":::: :E ..E .:qE ... .. .
. : .. .. rvauia of J iuela, 308-Orthoptera, 309-Blattariam, 309-close re-
4;9?i bialon||l of BlattAmd Termes, 310-structure of Mantida, 310-Blatta the
..$..| ..m. of the Orthoptera, 312-Mautis connects the Aciydii and the
)I aittariia: e, 319 sru cture of Phasmida, 312--Diapheromera, 312-Priso-
l.il' p.. 3 13-this ..nus connects the Phasmida with the Acrydii, 314-struc-
a 0 of Acryd, 314-rCaloptenus, 314-Proscopia, 316-Conocephalus,
1B.u. '..-... oustariin (Anabrus), 318-GrylUidm, 319-Gryllus, 319-Gryllo-
W ....ipef 320-(-wthus, 322-sequence of families of Orthoptera, 322-
a.l.............srucr of liBudoneuroptera, 322-Corrodentia, 322-Perlida (Ptero-
zp|py.)lgf^ ^ 322?soidaB (Psocus), 325-Termitidae, 326-Odonata, 329-
"hemeina, b3-Neuroptera, 335-Planipennia, 335-Sialida, 335- "
oi.a;: :. ... -Panorpida (Panorpa), 342-Trichoptera (Limnephi-
Ui': t::: : : : .. ::.. : ) 3 ..
.4:' .. : .|: .. ". :.mi Y" .
ins)!CHAPTER XII.

|| .:.: .uits ...W.. THE GOGEO2P.CAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCUST,
ip r:::.::: WT. COLORED ZOO-GEOGRAPHICAL MAP OF NORTH AM cRIA&. 346
: ::" .: .L .. :;;.. :.. .: ..: i ".
..E: :P ... "". :... :" .4,.
S.... : : APPENDICES.
APPENDIX I.
1. ER|QE T3UB OCCURRENCE OF THE HESSIAN FLY IN NORTH
...i,:i + .;:: .:: .... ..-.:
..... ..... .... ..... ..... .... ..... ..... ..... [3
?'ii!:#,,,....... ... .ii: ..r :. :; .. .... . .P E D X I
1 z wspap references, [3]-in 1784-'85, at Long Island antd West
Cbhester, [3jl-ti1788, in Long Island, Delaware, New Jersey, and Penn-
ry f*vaii: lnima, [3]-Alie fly resisted by certain varieties of wheat, [34].
.iii ,:~iii.ipiyiii,'':.'!":',, .:::", ,* ". : D D y n m T T^ ':~'

APPENDIX IL .-
1.VON "E RYTZE GALL-GNAT. BY DR. HERMxAN LOzW -.-- [6)
r a".,tt --as to thogiu al country of the HeMsla fly,. [6]-the rye gall-gnat
4 .the Hetaa fly, may not be the same ipeciees, [6]-desoription of the
aa-:..*,. gallgna^t,:. swaN.,, [7j.
a iiiEj a ':i~i:Pa : "v .
I :j aa [ [[:: a ".. "
i !i!_ a :
:Ia ~I ta; :E i::.i
a i i, ::La'?..:" ..aia.
N iii ,i! i !.,..,i;.. ,', .. ..,
,i# !m".:."aa a,.. :...






Vill TABLIC OF CONTUN".


8. OBSERVATIONS ON TIM NNW CROP GAL16-02VT. ftDx
FULDA, 1861. Trauslated by Carl F. Giseler
Literature, [8]-prelWnary oonsideration of the imbinsojOnd ImW
stages, [8]--oocurmm at FuWa, [$]-breeding under ne*, CO) a*.
sonal and wxual diffaeuves, 193--4he 11Y short lived, [10)4ptim
of the adultr [101--of the male, [12]-of the famale, 1133-Ahe win$*
generation, [14]--the egg, L15]--the nuVt, [16]-the or abry*
salisy [191-the perfect insect, [20]--seasonal and sexual 7
(21]-only the maggots hibemate, Lft]-msinee aud doubli broodadi
(23]-snmmar generation, [23]-the new eereal gall,*rnat i* 00nipand-
with Cwi"yia smUsa Loew, [24 ]-compadson of Q ~404 J"w, wft'
0. &etrwtar Say, [24)-;views of Loew, Fitek and Herrie*
[25] -the rye gall-gnat, 0. seoaUna and 0. aftdor, &U of am lpqeiai
[28]-the name HeW&u fly not Justified, [201--histoorical. av*nee thero.
on, [28]-attempt at a now theory of the origin of the iylmk
Asiatic ori 'I. 1311-7Mried to North America from Frauft vr Spa*
[32]-parasibx [33]-rme&wp [34] -,the removal of the 1rjey after.
growth, [34]-picking by hand,, [35]-grazing, [35]-mowiX%, etc-,, [NJ
a wing grain as bait, [36]-plowing, burning, rolling, [3714*iehnew of,
soil, [37]-reWtative varieties of wheat, [38]--sowlng late or "ft [30].

APPENDIX M.

TnBHX&sIANFL'ruw8mEkAnq1869. BYPj&o=mF.DR.Fmw**0oim.....
The Hessian fly, Cmidonsyia datructer, and other iliptera, olbser"id. do"-
ing grain in SilesiN [39].

APPENDIX IV.

KOZPP.EN'S ACCOX&T OF TIM, HESSIAN By F. T. Komprm, $V. PBrRms.
BURG, 1880 ---------------------------------------------------------------- [4LIJ
The Hessian fly recently detected extensively distributed in Ruvais, [41)-
two generations each semon, [41]-number of eggs at eaoh 4aposition.,
(41]-parasites, [4l]-doubtful species of Cecidomy* [42]-doscriptims
of species, [42].
APPENDIX V.

THz HzssIAN FLY NOT nwou=D FRox EuRopz. By D& IEL A. HAOM9 CAJ(r-
BRMGICp MASS__
Conclusions of the author and others as to the nativity of C4aWmyia do-
8trwtor, [43]-notimported by the Hessian troops, [43]-probably here
before this war, [45]-not known in Germany before 1857, [46]-miAakes
corrected, [46]-a critical review of its history, [47)-marked difference
between C. datructer and C. 8wdinaj [49).

APPENDIX VI.
REPORr ON THIC ROCKY MOUNTAIN* LOCUST IN 1880. BY JOEM MARTMN.-.. 1601
Report to Dr. Cyrus Thomas of observations, [50]--damages from locusts
and wheat flies in Minnesota, [501-previous damages fivm, loausW in
Dakota, [51]-in Montana, [52).

APPENDIX VII.
RzPORT oF xoTEs xADz nq 1880 By A. J. Cnuqi&w --------------------
No locusts in Kansas, (65]-suffering from droughk [555]-favomble ofi-
matio changes, [55]-the locusta in, Colorado, [56]. 4X

A"





..... ... . .
Ki ..... TABLE QF CONTENTS. 1 i

Y, '*:,*' :APPENDIX VIII.
Page.
^ T :.." .:1':.. . :.. : .j /^ ':: **P sg"
M'4, 6 AEOUS LOCUST NOTS .....-...-..--..--..-..-.--......... [57]
i :.: ,.1 : Dates and localities of locust swarms that have attained the coast of Great
j Britain. Notes .by A. H. Swinton, [57)-occurrence of the migratory
!.l .ocust in Japan, [59]-early notices of locusts in North America, [59]-
'tlocusts at Fort Frontenaco or Cataraqui, Canada, [59]-at Puerto Se-
guro Harbor, California, [60]-the locust in California in 1880, [60]-in
Nevada, [60]-locusts and coffee trees in Guatemala, [60]-history of
(.4". locusts in other countries, [61]-locusts probably never will do so much
4 ...amage again in North America, [61]-utilization of locusts as food,
I ; ;":j:6.-o::f:*:.,;; cricketis as manure, [62]-ravages of locusts in Russia i4 1879
i. 1880, [62]-iu the Caucasus, [63]-in Elizavetopol, [63]-in the die-
nioct of Rassaohs, [64]-plowing as a means of killing the locusts, [64]
...-..... .. -destrauction of locusts in the district of Gori, [64]-locusts in China
'. n 1878, [66]-oil as a means ofidestroying them, [65]-2,000,000 catties
....... .... ... eggs colleted, [65]-article on the extermination of the locust in
..:!...;ii .. .[65-68}"rbhinese bibliography of the subject, [65]-Chinese reg-
.:us:;: :!::::: regarding the extermination of locusts, [67]-locusts in Cape
,Olon, South Africa, [68]-ravages of unfledged locusts, [68]-locusts
1.:A o [69]--barriers as means of warding off and capturing locusts,
,1..1... i,;,..l@. .)3-.egg laying and hatching, [72]-protection against flying locusts,
7SJ-oci'"n-usts i the Philippine Islands in 1878-79, [72]-the locust
|3 $ ,in Bolivia, [72]-locusts in India, [73]-in the Ottapidaram
|"dN ltuq, [73]-in Sattur, [73]-request of the Madras Government for
.7..mton as.. to the movements of the locusts, [74]-locusts in Kul-
.i .' .:. ." ".". .. i "...". n &
; lpurum.. Comaratlingum, Kolumam, and in the Pulni Taluq,[74]-diff-
i:!. ',;: :-! :- ultieS in coping with locusts in southern India, [74 J-means against
| ledgelocult.. [75]-locusts driven into the sea at Tuticorin and
..T'ehed,.ur, [73]-recommendation of rewards for gathering locusts,
. :! :; 763-ousts at Peryapatty, [76]-in the Bellary district, [77]-recom-
... i,',i, .. .... .. :... '. . ...... i X
I............. 3 dati'on of means against locusts, [78]-locusts at Madura, [78]-
;..d,. Iestrauction of young locusts by fire at Pothanore, [78]-locusts at Ti-
e!. . oorthyporl, Dhully, and Jellipatty, [79]-in various parts of the
:: i... ... .:'::.. .. '
:!:!E;P : u,:: i njab, [79]--zeans against the locusts, [79]-remuneration for destruc-
t;. ... . ........ ...
I' :;t : ion of locusts, [80]-locusts in Cuddapah district, [81].

r^.... ,* *APPENDIX IX.

SRNCtWITH SPRING CAKER-WORM. BY MARTIN A. HOWELL, JR. [82]
u .Means employed to save an orchard from the ravages of canker-worms,
S,.' @[82]-pruning, manuring, and washing of the trees, [82]-spraying of
"......:...tie leaves with soft soap and arsenite of soda in water, [83]-belting
I ... '* "'the trees with .sulphur and adhesive mixtures, [83]-endurance of the
I:' moths, [84]-variation of color in eggs, [85]-most practical means of
I,: relief, [85]-adulterations of Paris green, [85]-gop.od force-pumps, [85]- i
I distribution of canker-worms by the wind, [85].



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LETTER OF SUBMTTAOL.G













Wakntn D. C., Jly 3,182
.. .. ...... .








tha the romso epof giutrts ofsi omsinb aet h oms
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reJii:i,!i;! I,; have th hoo:osbi hs t hr eot

,, EjEN', HE

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Ikes
...5.. ...7: ..::...E:. ": "


W kingt on~... .. RI,.J.LEY 31,1882.
On behalf oOFt Sts El Co a



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7 j~oowpotdnewit the act of ogrs, prve'arh3 18,hc
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=i : . .." ........ .
i::i : .'.' .. .. .':" '";. _. .
tovld; :,::::i!:: es that the reports of said Commission be made to the Commjs-


4i:;ii;c:i,;: t gicui I have the honor to submit this, its third report,
|iiirhiiith w.s in prepajraton and was ordered by Congress while the Corn-
uduuion!!i~":;;: Was yet under the Interior Departmen t.












































HE!, ..";,,:i} C. V. RILEY,
.*Cie;' : -O f UT.S. 10.0O.



Ce. . :,:i.,t :;,.. ."0mmiuuionor of Agrioulture."


































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(XII












NN44








R ..i i..... ... .. '. .
D,;f iF ;i ". :.. .. .. ..'...".
iM ::; *;. M .E M E.
PREFACE.
17H':


L s report was planned during the period when the Commission was
Ps e by Congress with the investigation, not only of the Rocky
... $m..atai locust, but of other insects injurious to agriculture. Hence
into three parts.
Embraces chapters on the Rocky Mountain locust and' on other
.and the Western .cricket. In Chapter I some additional chrono-
::ii : -'... ... ... ::. :..
rht s for the years 1880 and 1881 are given; while Chapters II
B lcontatin reports of obser-ations in the northwest territories for
1880and 1881 respectively, by Mr. Lawrence Bruner. It has
OW 6 Object of the Commission, since the completion of the work on
i.....: ~frmt and second reports were based, to have the breeding
Jts4-'.: cthe locust examined annually, as far as possible, with a
li* :*(eertainix| the prospects of injury or immunity from its rav-
...... :..*: : e n u ig..... ...
.. ens uing yar. Mr. Bruner's work was in pursuance of this
g:E i 11.......And the results were given to the public at the time, pendingthe
ll u printing of this volume.
i i, i ;iJ, .;: .:I : :.. . .. ".::, .::. ':.. ...... ":::" L .": ":
.,... .....Upter MIr. Bruner has also given a list of the species of locusts
b r a,'North AMerica, and some notes on the Western cricket.
?Iirt V e ontat-a some interesting data, by Mr. A. H. Swinton, on
b connetion of locust multiplication and migration with solar

iiEi : ubracesiree chapters, and is devoted to popular treatises
:ii :iii!:i ... .. . ... ... ...

...I.k|iive. J-kn0 i own jurious insects of national importance.
i: ?1OW 1 VI, by Ir. Riley, treats of the Army worm. It has been pre-
$nialP*1*:ti a view of presenting a full and connected statement of all
i.!!'.:!F. i i bknown in retrence to the insect, and will be found to contain, in
ukd"., aI number of recent facts and observations not elsewhere re-
.. .........
... .ii . ...:: "::: .
i MEN:..ME
l'tjl"lfrE|TIrv, by Mr. Riley, treats of Canker worms. It is also a gen-
S; ..:.............t of these destructive insects, prepared with a view of bring-
$Jeft*ther the mote recent discoveries with regard to them.
..a........4.. .VIII, bY: Mr. Packard, treats in a similar manner of the Hes-
i Aii fltM'hd is, in f-, a revised edition of Bulletin No. 5 on that insect.
Nt111. is devoted to miscellaneous subjects, and contains the more
,i!blreal matter of:: the- report. It embraces four chapters relating to
i q*| ,4daeeilopment, metamorphoses, and anatomy of the locust and other
g ,:the result of more purely scientific studies carried on with
itrepBpractical work of the commission.
S, by M. Packard, contains a number pf descriptions of the
injurious foest insects, and is accompanied by numerous figures
............ F G (


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X1V PREFACS.

In Chapter X, by Mr. Packard, there is given a p9AW
the mode of development of the locusts (Calopimm adoWo and 4"
preAw-ed by a genera,19 but brief, account of the em'U'rilu"W
general; a few concluding pages are devoted to some points
breeding habits and development of two bark-baring beedes
to evergreen bmes. This chapter also contains a
mode of origin of the wings of insects, with a final seWo.n on tbw
ber of segments in the head of winged insect&
In Chapter XI, also by Mr. Packard, are given the rewts of
studies on the external anatom of inmets of the order
(to which the locust belongs), together with that of to allied
This has led the author to propose a separation of thme Neur"4,"",
with complete transformations (aa had already been done by oart
German and English entomologists), from the Pseudon ewoptera, and to Z,
regard these two groups, with the Orthoptera, and Dematoptera 10
wigs), as four orders of a category which may be reg*ded as a vupft*, -
order, for which the name Phyloptera is proposed. TJ* charactemat
the Ph loptera, are given, and those of the four above-awmtioned ordo,
followed by some suggestions as to their probable gemealogy; aWsiAg- .
with a condensed statement of the essential peculiaritim of structwMat
the families as represented by one or more typical gener%4 and illusa*W' Z
by numerous figures.
The twelfth and concluding chapter comprises a briot desMptioo of '.4
colored zoological map of North AmeAcQ4 supplemerAory: to a a a no
of the geographical distribution of the Rocky MountaW locuat givm
the first and second reports of the Commission.
The appendices include (1) early references to the owurrence a(**
Hessian fly in Worth America - (II) extended aFticles on the HaWkw
'AAL
fly, translated from the German of Dr. Herman 1Aw and Dr.
Wagner; (III) an account of injury to grain in 1869 by the
in Silesia, from the German of Dr. Ferd. Cohn; (IV) a trands"'Of
an account of the same insect, by F. T. KUppen; aAd (V) M IL A# '4
JEI agen's discussion as to the original source. of the ReWan Ryo
Appendices VI and VII contain brief reports, by Mr. 4ohn XarteaaaA
by Mr. A. J. Chapman, of observations on the Rocky Mounb&W loau4-ia
1880; Appendix VIII gives a number of notes on. locwiU4 and
of their injuries and the means used against them in other coun
while Appendix IX contains some interesting experleEmon the
Cauker-worm, by Mr. Martin A. Howell, jr.
The Commissioners heartily thank the various correspirdents wbo
have replied to inquiries and take pleasure in acknowledging tht& Ja-
debteduess to Mr. A. H. Swinton Of England; Rev. Samuel
of Freehold N. J., and Mr. Martin A. Howell, of Greenwood, 11L, for aa*.-
tributions;'to Mr. L. 0. Howard, and Mr. B. Pe n Of the
logical Division, for material assistance in the prepariktWn of Chapb"
VI and V II respectively, and to Dr. Carl F. GWer, ft drawing&









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'7!

NOIAD&Y OF LOU-UST RA--VAQMO-'
hot-
LOCUST J$ 18M AND'TR. 4'' 7"2,,
4 1 +

of a shnilar one in our mcondvevott..
,9 chaptor f br data xagaoulw`
glVolmi4 and, abo, fbr Nebft*N,,wlb
tho,

L ravlAgCO2 and tb* M*
tbas"ttwed tbin swarms WAW,

"W" IN 1880.1

Otis* illM, 1 W8 (I$
$WOM" DOW into the
tbe =0
RI,
from, PRMM.
pm, W


to vsfl& not 1 11
of J2AAboro they ft*
W* *Crally
Chipa Crook 4
)0*0*0 el), 1A NW, W"O bW*" Ice

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kmaeu flew in at Hufsula.

LOCUST IN 00LON"O IN

MWIM11A VV I&MIly sk )itd6'mW& ivmdous Ift
thai in 1$79, ut, aswill be m"u, by thefollowing
of the 0olo Fattier, none appearedIn'the

Dxxnxio

Amgm*, brA 4Wm 11 Wak, a, few nwoxTm VAvy lom4 JA'
eWtV, of, Boulder oud Lougmoat anA Dm+er*abj;t t1m
P UOAP 00 were 4uite thick anti ''Aightly InAtid i fow
vejetAlm They' have not attempted'to. getft itom thisOg
*T *ortftliA *iji11jMmtd %1ftd kind of
eme bored into Oe smund, as if 'to lay eggs;'but 1, have h
'holftfor aggs and only *mu'd one b"* and athem whhom
it 4ding
por 0 189P.

if they xpowl*ere in 1"'14'

4

t
13. &-The loeftts apparently came from Nmdkl -and
$0**,emmpe av*r4h*,' fivw $4e, ao"h"eL




JD041W our, joumy to Waht, IOU 4u ;U4 9f *h*

4"A. or be4w
10"Wif7 R"k or i* &UO Qskofh" I*
thq wm seen m abundanee at, Lake Point, gah
W
w kwdof, belo
aMoMW thetafmtion 'Vftb*v, A few
Tbofaflowing comtempondence m6ows.the
Tft**ory tbb yaaz mhilk Map I Wo the
&VO, *t)kob*ghmtng.of Jum,
tot 40 An great 1bu
drybenabee, who" the hateWnjgw%# on aoyqu)g
iW p*tbas But," a general thi ug
#me and'taka efec4ve steps to got ra a
Ue roatiug them oat by diggiug up and buruiag eM
*mthod, as I aWwd to, yemj. 141





I It



0 alloy
-O.-C akeVlmi Bhh
_0 O p r w r e o t d
UiJu ly ,ibiiiiit O Wiiiiiiiiv a niii!
X vsim U tz iiiiiiiiiiiiiio, iiiiiIA "il.
SI :ii-re ei eiTo riosaiiiiiiiiiiiii or t bat t~a
oI a tt c k eiiiiA A iiiiiiiiiihiiiiiina a d e s h ic c m m e c e
-#,Id oet edo or pid ec .'K'ooIpo
a lnss 1r
11ineoo kwiniI a ~,had ~mPo4a&to&Ja
tbti u he msig h topr 4eooadel D
miclfnpaeIfro omiint o htIhv 1 t
et Y10dArtytmtero/ oea.Ialfudh1~e
p /!AI6,gt o ooto Su~loa n ik ypta~
"ibbgm ft0 etiflttfthfmimyi rrcue so
-ke no !td
's-lwb6.1
6oI 4i66 -weetegow lr









v rot *40-


PACKAXV Jr.


36bius Itm: A dwi Uwe sp l*WUv4 *Uilo


t A aga 4
llft Thoy ba" dme =ad dmmq'p to b Jqs&
UOUV48 rosus am= t9 tr*vdftw % # r +"T-

And IwAh* OW

vWiO.W PIM* have bom W" ts
to *Plow dfta hNfrow the is"- An&
in WO "Y woo.
owl Oat W7.
loom was iootm AUSMA W SeSite
4


k4t

yaw,
of Wbwta In the Rftky
Wu=7 by, MX h Brsumi
fb'r 1881. Thc twb for I
is O'"We fML
LOMM ft Tx "I
lftrn 014 fty k&UM -WO*
at one poin14 ai atffio Ume ve i*
66 seawn"had been. rmarkably 661d and
for them to appear. At Ewtland, W6
"Come *6 dx: before from *Abilene, on the Tex"
vho informed us Ahat the lowsts wen hat6bg
20 wilm west of.FaWand and that in ouepl**
upoo the groun4L Thlo-vaW4 that, 0
boor #hwthuhmm*



lied Owthward
-*SbA&. ftt it U only in exaMtkml sedvery
the 100"t WM ever Wnwft into tM Otow io
The hieW we lesmed and the knowledge of t"





IJ 9 i f

`dWf`6nd[sd i*Mx6]a**~gtu
a mc-omry flddti tt uthv endr e
th etr ato teSatadfo h am.4o
an aainJ-e .& t etr n.suhm

i/ otesenCl.eloao sw sNetr ea n n

wah!aisrelhefihsadbe~in rud.o 81
i tin -fgt rpre y r rnri fmo l
=9LCUTi UA N 81
| A
e,-sr& i --fre eor, eeyya ne151
"1 X eIP~ n' a kt oe-peh p 'aes c r md fpki .
be--14. Ut9 *lcssei ii i a am' #t
L, ifoc I-o. I
9r.ua ief Vst2
tn -fimo atI pad pedd
8AL LA*CT ;I XyW
-e cigIe1V f lm im AI
haePi!llons'ii.f*8eipl


:m isvos sn h Me~t gi'MDtVP7
*I'es wol mrewt ep f2 r3iceWml
agii aq *'ry app 4e6A4
f bWmt DRbrJon9tad

.7.0
I w
Cuatr
oftclty.o Tudy
W~ ehC0*!g flaoea hy Wo6e 81*ttoW
k*ubjtq,,e a loPk R
""s6
he ildnto u.o
of ",,h lhr h "
,"miiKW h6slt~~e


411









fit




OP
ME M)IOXY 31FOU"A-M LMV" IlDffxF

On the 4th day of JOY T"OmshiN Webr., br
Qhimp and Worthimtift !Wway and, the 81
Rafiwkol going by Way of.,6iwxQtY. At Saint
over the Northern Pacifte, which canw'd we to
stWou about* 100 Infles. West of B" Dak.
c9pow" of tba vaaioux- species of locuko to be*
fewdats concernmig their movements daring
10 Place the jowney wam continued by sto es
tb&Tm9"- R-iiVw,,wheft kagalwhalted to make
Wto 08 movemftta of kictrats ftftg poeviows
I took'pawage on one of 00 Yellowstone Ane of
lan"g, at, mmth. of. BIS Rom River,, makiug
tMim i and: Akjff the"* as W
Wh"I abo"t twenty bovx% From thk
was up the TOROWStone. 14verto new ]DOMMall,
"Vf
$4 15* Wen m
PwAk" a.46 sud
k: A I


nmox% "d &W spent tnII06 fte In converefog wit*
puU of the -TeMmi in..referenoe to theOighte
bo* %Pr tbo P"vej* 4" Ip"t F"M B-0
the Gidlsit in to itojauction wlthAe"K Op em &*4,J
Aer"K abigh, dry: plabma....wd rocky vaR( 7i 6"
the Missousit v4ick::N!aA followed, until within abo
At.",place considerable infomation. was obWu
movements bf the locust, and also numerous
10CM4 collected, at various localities in. the
Fro*. 401"a 1 W04 x 04wvoom
wot* to: 9,90
sod tban: Joined wameA.1.6 ...... . . . .
inw, the bwd"ing the-NkMOU&
and trupper, trhow" on hU w to' Fort*
SLY
jo*ed hii, fIoatfn#,:fI'q*P6 tbo khmuri to !ten
9PIWtUARY. of: Oudyl"14 OM
0 From For
00ting 4MMMM& t Benton I took
126rutoriav Itig il--- in Xwdnaa byMz. 1wnumBrunw, mfA





wqteetfefwits ft*Va n otm
bai ngea&pet hruhtu fCnrlot
Daoaadtruhtehar!fmc ftepw~n
an m bal aly ol-ntvr elb eei
ne,!sa h ieOm aigtruh osa i
etm ftev u itiigBlwt i oes
i priuo h:oa r~brHgteetoIi :
wbl rsigt onr n
tvnteoeen
OtyI6A ,eese nt5ari mHnme2fynt

Sai
I bwf eesl A :aes cd~f~* 4Y.
|W ww s.rmU4ashvnletwme:
FrmI-kIhaiy w u fw our:wmmex,
Jxmqtebo.

IQ AP Dl
atGenAvrS
I ed~'hd~"Stnr~,o ffo: tUt
![]1*d~~- ~iti mr V6Wo~&
1#" f iel "urabbftlsetffvi
My00imti a hogtte oet h
.- iut 1rNie vl!UI&U4;# 1bdfo i l
soia WOeaw|w wtiItmpok
#1 Ha-Mv~hot *b9 itw~~
iahe a//n:59 ebr:96





t A

Pn



MWW--- i t POWOOko _fe
ARM
ww SUN AAW




demiL n 7

an &e
[Ile
WNW C"W ftm OW NOVW, $a dw6w
ALIL
Kii meJkbeWaud_"mL`b4lhisi*, vhicill
0 WUM*T
Om speouar thm W 4ftrmfmwelfil u'll,
`wUftftyimsd4uedt&beftu" i -lilt
44ft *M46.-ftV & **W %60M* at OOG*W*iWA,
sWi*,'**w at" sbove V*, VO ftow


a* st" *try tbwueusft Of '80:
A*d, Fmt ED

a" fwvvind other 104vftmi, W *mi*
tj4j* to *e 40tbw
JLS M jatWn Wda*2 jmtlber w
up
Verb SIM qjdteACWVO.-_4dkry. %
744V 29.r.-Wifted into I the fO*bMU, nor* a,(
y6og -bwva and pupm df severs I -_ 400des of,
wap1V..qpvtm#amd.V.atkm9#o Theyweame
loVAW*,es *hem -tho gpm was goo(L 0. W_,
I i I it, being equW] even to 40"
pau" Pwowsix 70od#4 and
-6 -lig
3L--WodUgsd4WmW* to*
.4%004 &-Met a a C"O nmm" w1ho -has JuA*
Oheyoune, on tle Union Psicift Ralhvsdb.#
in" Ahem* to Fwt Ran*, thou moftla simg tbol
)09"to"s roft -pba Kftrvmyj 060M do" I
td Utdo ft Hom, down to Fw*,0q*Wt, %W-
f#
11,0. -&"batik few nadvia *akl-mO",upojk.44
beft abnoht dmm& the heiA of WyOmm,9
T 06dmc ul"Oms we
A
the 0*0" tmfAfted W4
tbst lk4W *W% qmmW

a mi 191,111M Ot bout ftd*








413
! *swlcssonteJdt er
'nt. Yevr.,Ya
TW-aw4ote- irtryciktw
an dh.I ol o
i n eeec oaeO perncdrcinqj4hV...
thycm!r~,btotie R&adtoa~r
[ v poehWih. e pdbeeq"n-

AWW :rwn xante ait!f9"
|4-~a~Aueos utht h
iuotoeio- f'txAaiorftfoPoaT

1im-A, nrw oet h noe~. f W10t
d o meof.17,8584 B
tem opi O '
!ifqya4erY~g8j~
ft Jv *Iwp ud aWAA b.


..Oe iiapvd..w" )e x
lit-V*Ateq_











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Xentiiiindibutifiiilboiiswa la' 0

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ft# iiiie 61iiiiiiiiuAmwt
tboy !*"ad 1941"! 11111 UWU! yvft!"0801....
A.i-&- -- ,, .&
biiiiiiiiiiiii ............t l v e a i st
OM"=;]]ili ............t e,-P WV-TO S M WL
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii s M Wbi 'tb
gad xiiiiiiiiiiii Vftaldeftbie dnaft*
10 1kth d
Viiiiii .................. w ~ s eW

i ft ale ni h:sfnw-o O ; Vte
ffrwO tb6.:.Atdtb, 68solhell abdtbw)
overu byiiiiisofiiemiiiatweiiiiiiee
duvJA:iiiiiiii183tiiiii"W -vo
Mot*Ofiiemiiiiiiiiii 6-Woiiiiiino
n" i yVihIdudtNttta f
enoL eablimeto iiiiiiiiiime b


i iiiiiiiiiii
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iiiiiiiiii etm* nth ftt aq
A liiiiiAiiiiiiiiiiiii.
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91

&mteiiias.M~'i h&6 m h
% nt h :g-itadsnhi




'1Ti' WI
]I ti "1
Ii o ,0 tmwo

Ovl!h mOWN h a uu 781ICnO

r!tO tnig4*U*mWgolllot**
|r 4 U4 wl aee o
iuwf| hop t BstmW 4]
! W'eW4wnwft.t-a u e~.t h
a! QU4bt aele'.nyn h:VApi
Ab, ]ee e w
!e4ntn ae)visuhet 4N
|T n I ...a :W O
g! p .1 h o
Im igfote nrAj.1se nt.bw,,
Alionr' K h ork n1w*'P- O
ipA;O 1 r~
At UW4*4kEiy VMAb-OIm


71
yvW*y.pio a~d
LAA" ,A9Am*WImtelt
amWwe4g1 mq
fta u|4.-1(v
i414 i k Ol:4
oiIb m q~i
w|iWyt ,f~eigo afit
wi MPAW(Iw!dbyt0mru TC
-"w*Qy w st e0,rap wqo
oy4UAt a 4|m.
no ft#h
i4 3am tmewvvbo

woA10 h m gsld m n




t7 0

t.- -A-


an I I oil 'is of.

i #0 PC
Probably ftm the JudM *M-,X""hAAx
bAW" 01M tho tyiatuw ift-Ift Amd left
wftt (Goodale Others came from the
60toosay. Of ft" going through tubi*',
ShW of vast swarms of locusts voInIng
wathwest;. Thoy wm ooming sad godvg *i
Tbi&w9s.:JxAixg*s4S,7&- Someef tWvm
thot the MW.of their wings was me& Uk4 IRMW
Wbileat Fort Keag, the post gwdenortohif.
W'M 411: th0mg HOM x0aaw"'and,

PINd up 2 bet 4ew eft the surfmWof, x4WW*,UKAWW
or pwfi6Wars I'D rdoveam to A" or,
A"t 1 O.-Between Bozemmn and HolvC

jAp wo ism &14 but fer0t. Vhls 'thor"4";6
hL"'osvt0*nn4 eim so- mmy A" tbb

M4 vhere thy san'dblkb putw"

iw-041r"M; or threw (I. vp"W. *I d
A" Oro'",, or, nativifw, all of *%Mhf-306 ,4ww"
ompo" aa ff"M"o "bat I hodded, -AcAb ir ;0844
-growth
AU& ft"'s %B*dfvtm "'Mipvwry
"aay- (,&Ogmt, t2t wew Apoft t4alkiur,#
FfWY ear VaHey, nortbimst bf Aelena, 40'
Irg
00 4bew sevw veftttm upon 4*, do ftmo*b
ttwvMd laW "d piskt 'an&as
-T1WP*rAtftY -JoftatNw bow 20 'almost"
vojwftr u" 11plft of ft", Y"UN, or ft*M 1-19
h" beft eWmed by ~ tb*t
*"of country was oempied by 7owmg jtmt'
fbotMls. This 1.-:b"yt.hinktru6,,W'ftCM1 I
found orily uativft (a few 0. affaftis, C.f
sevoral smaller species). Theae were pon
tot-bills just below timber line.,
The migratory locast fint L appeated In this
G&M ftm theesat in,'g"M alondsMeffav
yean (18751187C 187;:1878, ano 1879) wasl&




"i'""V.i
-. S t nsdibtv~o iiw e
04 e .t6cosow!,h~t l o
W e'0i ill ftp a rpM ry 6tO4
oep1e al ide yterpdl~fJladIf
anfmnhwsTi asreo eey d66W
MW6h tht.e6 oms W1 wnld ovnyh f
44,a.o eog:o thi opoteiaie
kI onfii'A -h as ad-otes:e&
! hsAamW
org l-aefonteJdtadMa
li 1po
re"e ee ath& U pig o:17,te
-imindi-te Itnmdeutydrn 8I7
th A1y fr-Vle o eie tp ee.ee
Y ht ithgWrepoe ya.fwadprW6
bm ha6 Iy6'ilswrr osknt hl-eeil.
ontDd*1f mto-e a sdfrsrf!dy
| -igd ut)Nt-hW esi a :oga~
goe h7lnwsa bl~r AJ
roebog thftldagn! rp ewe hi
is m~eeAto eeloat.To, ~bPOf









00-1
-0 -6 AAL -
too 4.94-- IL
120d4hu" 4OWU ju OWN lot
TWW IqA &me sgpv as ia OA to tbw,
ViOUART, MKOM i& thU P4Wt Of thO tMft*17-
*ed,-14 the vioMty of

After this, the wmt, swarms th he noticed w
JAI fmxt tue aimt to sou*e#AL Front tW m,
uptobstyear, when they dioappmWedto
mX*d to.
T", dam&& during this sueoewiou of yews wame
Valley,, but the Sean of greatea Wq"
OW be:. -," ]In t4e sprin g of 1877 the yogag xem
,mad was "Piately biddea by them lu
vjmW summer, MCI$ great iwarms. came W Avm'-
pwited -their egp in quautWes thakcoWd -
young were hatched early in May, and je4 4W
jw U6 latter part of: June: aad,eaxly July. Th

OAWA won adopW to 4
ft- k4o'destruo-U04 of a* -YOUAW xjz*, "d4th"k
not put'mi -their crops until the young we all
*Wd, *OW off 4 bumiv g ,BUUW* AW40 Ovor AjW
a".qv goodaxe, sWee ixt this towuntri vubt,
t# M"UMN a": if 444*1 In WIY in 4p*g j* 71.
I A,
34
WM09k M&I.Ods wWe ewpWyvd,
16M t
YO,**& VJA I While Uke at awoxw peat
04PW of 'awak*4 aft4 artAlle Y 006awd Ae
keeping them-in the awi. 1 am infoirmed that in
a4d:x4 strewa, wjtk the
)zw, by tue #hwx wimod, b aw
y Jeo"ts hawi beat
*e south fork of 15un, River abPat 40 mike w
Ma
Aupot 19.-o-Betweeu Fo)rt Sb*w and the i 1
dr fist'on which at various Uwe Rumero"',
this diotr*4 ifte All-Ather14 appeaft tq be
flit session. In fact, there are fewer of 0. spretus
th" of any other species.
Attgug 20.-Dariug three hourW bunt for
0. sprafts., Canght many for trout flabi g, but
this V* c018M,
dmage, meutioned in leatuty Wit
and east But Uttle far done heM and not






^!:.: ..:, n': .:.' " "^ "":,:~ ~ llBli J l; .J' pIJ9 jJJ"J l ^ l m jA J** -* V~tJ t;W k K J k .LL *** *.*l J Jk V m J. j TT zcJRJ <& -
:.. :... : "" " I rv '. S 4 4
,...W..S.t .. -A few locusts (0. spretus) on the 6low bottom lands 12
iut:it:.! h of the Fort Shaw and Camp Baker crossing. Not numler-
NriUihtnough to do any damage. Hatched here. No grazing or farm-
tftIitW vicinity.
|i i26.8-A few locusts on table-land between mouth of Sun River
tiTeat Falls of Missouri. Numerous Pezotettigi in cooleys branch-
: ^^Mif frmm, iaon s..
ff.I%:: rWw ew-. with different persons who spend the spring and summer
,b:'tii...dih!! t and Muselshell basins all show that this year there are
St ,.....except natives in the country bordering on and drained by
1:' *:.:l. ~rivers and their tributaries. Several say they could scarcely
f1:|'Sh!ogh 'hoppers to bait foivfish. During the latter part of July
UW y" .August, 1876, while in these two valleys, saw numerous
.. .....": .a'' ., ':'. .
; *I |e swarms moving west for three weeks. They were hatched in
fit S try and north; Also swarms in August, 1878, moving south,
H ***k df~~dto have been hatched in the British provinces, north ofAs-
S' hb iO. Also report of swarms occurring in these basins from 1873 to
|t ^IW&^eB year in particular, when they flew in such numbers as to ob-
w:a#b e sUo.n for three days (Goodale). We cannot give the dates or
!::iI o: gtlghts for these year's.
&j Zm4 western Wyoming was visited by swarms in August, 1878, from
l AWtst and flying to the southwest. They were so ravenous as
aof clothing left lying on the ground (Soldier).
*'aK~ ltm fb small swarthm of locusts flying eastward through Wyoming
o! s~eof Union Pacific Railway last summer, 1879. Could ascer-
!':'i h it s or particular.
,: ,,, ......., ..
from British America claim no locusts this year in the imme-
%*i nity of the line adjoining Montana; nor can I learn of any in
*i.. S ik ver country. But in the spring of 1878 great numbers were
D *to brbed both in the Milk River country and the British posses-
. ... .Mjbhing. .Never saw many locusts in the mountains of British '
.|... were he was prospecting for a number of years (Miner).
Ni :,ii thIese data it would appear that the present year finds the en-
||I.ftor thwcst comparatively free from this great pest, and probably
N:!*WS country. Of course, as I have already mentioned, there are
i ij#'late4 areas over which small numbers of this species still exist;
ibt th, which I visited are so small and the locusts on them so few
t' I dnott think they will migrate or increase to sufficient numbers
X**falage for the next three or four years,, and perhaps for a much
r length of time. -It is true reports have come from several locali-
t crops were partially destroyed by "grasshoppers," but might
'"otbe other speciesW If they were of the migratory kind, I should
S 'lhat we.should hear more of them than we do. "
....EMIS OF.THE CUST IN THE NORTHWEST..
might think that in this out-of-the-way country the locust would
,1W'OY free from. enemies of all kinds, but such is not the case.
......I ".
.... .. : L ." .:.' ..
S :.. . ..






RzpoRr RTATEO IOVOLOOMA36

During my sojourn in NWatans I notleed wvero -4-Idem"Of
-w- ups, Ichneumons, andotber insects preying upo* thee M`
of locusts, and I sm satisfied that they must also 0'40 "a tthhee
individuals. Besides thew then we qe*eral vsAedm of sm&U
thatare occasionally found attached to vaHousapecies of loausts,,
katydids, and even beotles. Them are the oung of a elass br,
mites th94 a's a rule, live upon the eggs of insectA.parfioW
Orthoptera.
Birds are just as much enemies to locusts here so in the
souri region, and almost every species f6und in theme Parts.18
feed upon and destroy myriads of them during loctot years; Bven
-blackbird h ' beAm known to mt
birds as the cat-bird and crow ave
ofthem. Ravens, too, and magpies are very fond of their, eggN Ma,
often seen during winter to dig up and eat gre4 numbers of tb
Z.
While coming down to the terminus I noticed a magow eaptnflagAW"
eating quite a number of several species of Odipo&#. He was fidir to,
rV
agile and interested in the work as a sparrow wotild have been.
Besides birds and insects there axe quite a nixmber of other
in Montana and the Northwest that do a good work in demsittrmoylini
custs. I refer to skunks, badgers, chipmunks and like animals.*
munks, although animals thougbt to be strictly vegetad"s, an
insect-destroyers. I have at varions times surpriiped the little
fellows while they were sitting on a- log a6d gnawing away a
hopper or katydid which they had captured, no doubt to vary
theirl"01
table diet At other times'l have adso seen them in Plarsuit of twoi* ,
That these animals are of considerable aid in the keeping down
V
ious insects there can bp no doubt, since in thispart of theC4MftU7_#WJr
are very numerous. Snakes, toads, and lizardq, too, eat many =a
and no doubt capture.,many'locasts; while mice ofdifferent Muds
alittle. Then add to the work of these inatural enendeg thatof
climatic influences, &c., and we liave quite an army of eaemiei#
trying-though not intentionally-to keep in che* this pest.
Since I have never iseen a description of the Method of
eggs by Tachina flies on the bodies of locusts,$ I will give it hem U*?!
as follows: A female fly as soon as fertilized skime- over the surfim I!
search of amftable, hosts on the bodies of which to deposit her eggNAm47
thus continue in them her kind. At last she spies a good healthy'
ing locust, may be one of the migratory species, or may be, only &vA*WV6 A-P-#
nevertbelem it is just to her liking, and she silentli, alights Upoir amor
of graas or upon the ground close by to wait until the Upper, VAqO*,-4
s0ous of the lurking eneikv, launches into the air, when she I's UpolkWiiL,x
and has dropped a minute egg upon his body betweenhis wjng&T4*
if not destroyed, issoon hatched and the maggot eats into the
body, where it continues to eat and grVw until it fe fully fed and
0.L descriptiom of the me0od wM be found ta the 7th Mo. MAL Jtepv.p. 17k M" In UM -77 t
of the CommUdon, p. SM






*' ;IOPOGRAPHY OF WEBSTRN DAKOTA AND MONTANA. .19
t^ ^:.. L : ,, ,. ..,
.i ^..;.^.. ta Mge, to the pupa form. By this time,the locust has become ex-
L7 i H!kuta and dies. Frequently as many as-two and even three maggots
4 w.ined in the body of a single locust. Occasionally the fly has to try
^...... do... if zen or more times before she succeeds in depositing her eggs,
u'the ocust o as oon as it is aware of her presence, closes its wings and
;| jrpsto the ground.
''". .vet seen these flies so numerous in some parts of Western Dakota
ad M!,. Montana this past summer that.for each 'hopper that flew up there
"Iwi neftrm three to five flies to follow. Of course but a small per cent.
S the eggas.. of this enemy of the locust ever mature, otherwise the lo-
^:* 4^~~twouLd,^ soon disappear from the face of the earth by this insect's
t.. k. ..... iione. The reason the flyphooses the moment the locust is on the
||; gfor-depositing her eggs is quite obvious. If she were to deposit
.i..I1':9egg upon any other portion of the body than between and under the
| hcji' ats *wings the locust would be liable to scrape it off; besides at
|.. p slot is situated the softest portion of the body. I consider the
fl.: v a........ges-done to the locusts by this fly one of the reasons that they mi-

l' Sot^'statnding the great -numbers annually destroyed by natural
A : 5 ^we can by no means depend wholly upon these remedies for
'..tm ination of thiB destructive plague, the migratory or Rocky
.i-... ....l. in. locust. We must be on the alert and do all in our power to
s1 atiby various means, these, our friends, in keeping within bounds
IA thlis ,fi1)all other insect plagues. It is true that under favorable con-
4 4b tuxe soon balances herself, but when unnatural conditions
*prthisa equality is, broken. So all must unite in again restoring
$b:f lLanige to its original equilibrium.
J ...... M. TOPOGRAPHY UF WESTERN DAKOTA AND MONTANA.
hJ:,A ^ greater portion of country lying west of the Missouri River and.
3 U"i: tbleandfud. the greater portion of which is sparingly coyvqred 1bya,
a. alih,. groWth of bunch and buffalo grasses. These gasses seldomat-
t*:o" i"- than a foot in height, and always mature long before frosts '(
$Y.. it.g.'"adreary, desert-like appearance to the country eveg before the,
"| t t .. approaches. The valleys are few and arrow, spldoni havingg. C.
||,-^f.te h .of running water flowing through them; and lake a" ponds. ,
:|S ~ta but when present are alkaline. Theentirt county is fit fqr (
:iMii .-but grazing, save very narrow strips loifg.the margins of~,e /
... ... streams, which can be farmed if irrigated. (() 4 1 L..
Slage portion of western Dakota and eastern Moantan iM o ck6 t up
-bns, and is so destitute of vegetation, that travel through it is
Zable. These ate called bad-lands-a very correct name forthem, :
%r!I. in them everything has the appearance of having once been
n burned. The soil' is variegated with all sorts of colors tftat
..:..btprdduced by heat. Sulphur, lime, and iron are present in their


tii i iJ:.. .. .
Hii ..
i t :,


























'The mountain chains are numerous, and occupy about one-tenth I:!
the entire area of the Territory, I should judge. Among these th :t.:i. ...,l
much good grazing, and now and then a small patch of tilablelb :::
The grazing, however, among these ranges if only good during
warmer parts of the year, when the snoWs are off. .. .!. ,;'...I..l".
It is over the greater portion of the entire country that the IS0i,
~ ~. .: ,E ........., .".[
deposit their eggs only avoiding the higher points and timbe..red p ..
tions of the mountain ranges and the very lowest of the valley .i1Sll; .
where it is too wet. This entire area is admirably suited for them, sX.a
during the summer and fall months, the country is dry and the noil tw1:.,!'
offering just such conditions as are generally chosen bythem under..w.iim ,
+ ~ ~..: ;+ :,i
to deposit their eggs.. .. ......
Over this vast area I am sorry to say that burning would be ipapoj >
ble except over a very few small districts in the extreme easternmpotii... .
where the locusts do not often breed. From the time thesnow s begi t.:
neljuntil the grass is almost fully Arown, this vast district is almost baly ;
< visited by rain and snow storms, and the country where level is ona.. ........
tast mud-bhoe. The young grass, too, seems to begin, to grow even .1*..iil!
Sore the snpw melts. At any rate by the time the young locusts appedit..
the country is quite green and fires would not run. This was .attetdi':.W',^.^.
Sby all withtwhom I spoke in reference to destroying the young by pnm qi ,
v ... ,,,, ....J .. ...[ "
fires in spring. So, appears that other means would have to be adou ;'j., -.,
I*,Sdtroy. the ySIug in Montana.
Windiavx'niuch to do with the direction taken by swarms, but's:qr; iN
with their migrating. Rains cause them to alight. Mountain n ,
river courses, and valleys also seem to slightly change their coa.n%1i ;i
and form thoroughfares along which swarm after swarm passes: -1 1 kil
... .. ....... d i +.
after year. ,*
:: ": ii!

*4
;: r
%.
...*"!"; ;,+'';M
,. *; : ..' '. : i',,,.i +i''








R '-i L .... .. .. . **


.F ,. ... ... ..

4tWICHAPTER III0
; "..... = "; E!.E.=.- : =" E" .e ,E \

ES. .. ... .. ": . ....



00
pRCY O TAIN LOCUST IN WYOMING, M(ONTANA,
S .... .. IN 1881...
yep : '*'* ."* i .."*:! :.. ***




WST POINT NE"R., January 10, 1882.




"*S:'I. have the honor to report the following in reference to my trip
f~osghportions of the West and Northwest, as entomological agent
.. -z tb United States Department of Agriculture, in studying various'
C H AP T ER I II.

r '.;.:" L ';": ":'.. : ":.; .EP;V :K : ::::.





kos n ji::o: o and more"particularly in accumulating
':-..^. ....
..."::". Wi::::. ...:: .... :" ": A m A*
[if:).. tt :,fO.igh po MoUNTofthe LOeUS aIdNortwes MIas etMOloNclag.




Ml" ", ....rious to agriculture
.S..:. .M$O data in reference to the Rocky Mountain locust (0. spretu).
.P St fihe tine of receiving my appointment, I was in Greeley, Colo., and
silt-.a went to work-by making excursions in various directions into
Sunxding country, These were made while connected with the
N ceutratiwi work of several new lines of'railroad which were being
bilt by the Union Pacific Railroad Company, hence were of no expense
Department other than my salary. 'Afterwards I also accom-
... ..": .; .E... d ;....







Spahd I'.rofessors Lester F. Ward and 0. A. White, of the United States
. .. .. : :.... ...







... a Surveyi several of their drives into the country adjacent.
sh:or-t f: excursions took me over a considerable area of the farming
..... of Colorado, and also out into the plains lying to the eastward
8own their latte and its tributaries.
po. receiving further instructions 1 proceeded west, working along.
l,:ii: e of the Union Pacific Railway, which was left from time to time.
*bs.. a. e short excursions into the adjoining districts, where it was re-
il' e the locusts had done damage to crops and vegetation -generally,
Sie, too, within the past few years. The principal of these was
A~tbuof following up Ham's Fork of Green River to Hod age's Pass, and
I ~ t "16 miles down the western slope towards Bear River. In making
.III: .. I succeeded in establishing some important facts in reference
P..
N|: toW movements of 0. spretds in this part of Wyoming, and also in
: dfiug somewhat to our knowledge of its natural history, which may
: ....... of value in fihin it hereafter.
then proceeded to Ogden, Utah, where I took the train north over
..&U: .....:.tsa and Northern Railroad, into the valley of the Snake River,
obtained data in reference to the movements of this insect in
Sb pa rof Idaho; thence working northward and westward thltough
C u:... eys of the Big Hole, Deer Lodge, Hellgate, and Missoula Rivers,
NASta ingi n large portion of Montana "hitherto not visited by any
It rof the Commission. e
.21

.n theP....t..a.s
Nii Nbp iigfrhrintutosIpoedd et okn ln
: .':::: : 'e of th nio acfcRala, hc wsly rmtieI ie











































this insect. I will, however, give a condensed account ofthe .more. -..i.-.:.......
., ii .. .' i".........5
portant points that directly treat upon the means of their diminuUA| H
and prevention in future, with a few additional traits noticed duringtb heIO
past season. Of course it will be necessary occasionally to aUdM:rW-: I.
matters mentioned in the annual reports of the Commission, and aso .:.:.iNil.w
other records relating to the life-history and depredations of this mia'y!
other locusts. Before entering upon a discussion of this subject, I wEi' v'
give a brief history of this insect and its depredations in varionhopo ,t;..,
tions of the country which it visits in the course of its migration.. "
Up to the time of the settlement of portions of Eastern Kansas,.. N.i:i.
S braska, and part of Minnesota, comparatively little was known of loahg
swarms and their magnitude in North America. At long intervals u. i.......


.... ..,ix i . .._ ".
: ii~!iiii:i
Eii a '
::::.EEEi~~
.... |:.:E H:EE:










...'il... .:.. wild and unsettled regions. These, as would be imagined, were
'isiie notices of their having been seen, without any attempt at a descrip-
ti|?n of them oy anything relating to their movements. It is but a few
rs jsr since that they even so much as had a name of their own. (Walsh
I 8...&) iBut, as the country in the then Territories above mentioned
ll:. to be settled they became more and more known, as swarms made
t|iii # ppearnce from time to time and occasionally alighted ppon and
MIJ :ed fields of grain and gardens. It was not, however, until with-
t"tpast fifteen years that they began to attract much attention by
P O .: ir ravages. I now refer inore particularly to Kansas and Nebraska,
withi^ii adjoining portions of Iowa and Missouri. Minnesota, too, was but
l s:'l''ttled in those parts frequently visited, while Dakota was but
I:i.....i.. knwn. True, locusts had several times been known to do damage
..rwg.tation in Manitoba and Minnesota as early as 1819, when they
we,,-AAM to have been very numerous.
.~*het.- r swarms of locusts visited these districts as often prior to
:h: u tr settlement as they have since, it is not easy to ascertain; but that
% I' ) .tId so occasionally is quite certain, and that, too, in numbers
.j eqnqfy great or even greater than in our time. In speaking with
-: :a!nid Omaha Indian during the summer of 1876 in reference to grass-
IhPp,.a.,he said that about twenty-five years previously he had seen
t.. 'is..' i .. .O numerous in the Elkhorn Valley and adjoining parts that they
A atinii ly all the grass for many miles around. In fact,, the Indians
eoikd scarcely find enough grass for their ponies. This was while they
', erut on a buffalo hunt. He also stated that at other times they had
P. et rith the locusts while out on their hunts, but never in such great
III' aubers as at this one particular time. He said they came from the
ifontaix ns "far off," at the same time pointing up the valley to the north-
*I' west. Last year while in Montana I also learned from Indians that at'
| times, anwy years ago, the locusts were exceedingly numerous in the val-
iek' 1 .ptheYellowstone River and its tributaries; and that on several oc-
efi.s ca they had been so numerous as to devour most of the vegetation,
| s, t ereby to cause the buffalo to seek food in other parts. When asked
I sbo t their flights, one old fellow (Indian) intimated that he had seen
I:i m y. Yin numbers sufficiently great to obscure the sun. It might be
4ze tionedwhether this information obtained from Indians can be relied
iupi. aso value. To this I will answer "yes," for all Indians are very
$..lose observers and remember quite accurately all incidents that are in
B", pa wayonnected with their modes of life, and particularly is this tiue
.while out on their hunts. A few had even noticed that the locusts were
K&Usked by a kind of fly, which deposited its eggs between their -ings. -
C;Qos: the settlement of a country and'the planting of new species of
K1~ ti0on ever have the effect of drawing to it insect, enemies from
v...i, if. so, to what extent is this true ? This is a question that


ii ii .. ........
:.:EEK: w .: -"






24 RzPoRT uNmeD sum
uadoubtedly h" presented itpff to the =%ds of uore 4ban
moloost and tiller of the W% "it is Worthy Of kleramon br
eonnection. Before discussingit,1owle'ver, ktmegWe *short
tiou of the preferences of chmate altitude, vegetalian wrfluo
ration, &c., that this partioular %*des of least mom., I,
with that ehosen by others.
If we run our eyes over the map of "d act A-A
that portion coutained between the meridians 106P and 1170
Greenwich, and from the of latitude 400 to NP, we bsv* 66,
permaneDt home of this insect pretty -well before u& Itisall, J-PO
ably elevated a hove the surrounding emntry, treblips ever the SY44w
portion, and also arid, tbus agreeing to some extent with the loewt-W-
habited area6 of Eastern Europe, Northern Africs4 Western and Boutlow
ern Asia, Central Australia, and portions of Oentral. smd South, Aiueriw,
Now what is there in these peculiar "binatiois of surfmo and Ow,
mate and elevation that sliould produce the unwanted iucrew in nuw
berF3 of a few particular species of widely different W"ta I: Am woaft.
already aware, all these insects become exceedingly:%mmarotle at Ww-l
vals, and at such times leave. their breeding gronn*4 =or
-or -a prop6ft
speaking, their native babitatsi and fall upon the adjouining fb%4416
country, where they cause great depredation, and..:An many
even pestilence and famine. That this great- ineremm is ta. OKHM 1W
connected'with their migratory habits we know,'but JuA bow Wvft
brought about in, the first place we mmuot say. As shmm in -1, em
the reports of the Commission, tbese invaSions, id cat,. #06 go.UMWM-V*V,
sions of the entire country subject to their visits, Appew to Wiew at
tervals of about eleven years.
The reports of the Commission which hav6 ahvao appeared havesw
thoroughly described the nxture, and habits of this loamt I that Lneed'
not dwell upon its natural history or mode of migraUug. That it is Ooto
oughly migratory by nature tanuot be doubted;: fbr at admobt
point in the Permanent Region during the months o(Ju1y,, Augmet, md
September, on -fine sunshiny days, a few of these inseets eM bwsimm is
the move. Even asingle family or the progeny of a singlefemale WU
move from the locality where 'it hatched to someMber pbint In OU
native babitat or adjacent to it.
If we reflect for a moment as tothe surface configumbonof the difiermt
countries ftm. which at tim es invadin g h6rdes of 10cwts come, we 8_6
notice that they are all pretty much alike, and that'Aho an R1807 as a
rule destitute of timb;r and rank vegetation of any kind. They ar* ma,
more or less elevated plateaus or table-lands, paroally clothed witk
bunch grasses and dwarfed shrubs, which grow in.,olusters. Te atris,
dry and bracing in its natlare, and the winds which sweep:over them am
brisk. Taking into consideration these peculiarities of the variouslo.
oust countries, it strikes us that only in, a country of -such.& character aso
swarms of locusts origillate and continue to exist am unooinihonly gXtt,,








V, a and iWthis be true, changing these characteristics would nec-
...N. i rlritesult in their diminution, unless they really can continue to
|vM i: in such immense numbers in a-region the surface of which is dif-
(p t feii from the foregoing. Judging from experience and from the past
H 0il0Ii0wYl of this locust, I should say that it would not and cannot con-
:icr 4,pl under such changed conditions. For, if it could breed only in
f.tI.r o.eA *reas, it would of necessity become less numerous. Also, when
;:: ellng it would become more scattered, and would then be more apt
t;i)b* k I ept in check by locust-feeding birds in connection with insects
6a 7 4:tiber enemies which lurk in the recesses of forests and about groves
..., : .' :'. ....
I Au me ad ii eows. Always with the advance of settlement birds and in-
% 4 vourxing animals of a. certain class make their appearance, and
S.1. azin.oh towards keeping in check these pests. As-examples of these I
bjit tlM0be pleasure of introducing the robin, quail, orioles, sparrows, blue-
:;1|fr ,and other species that love to hang about the abodes of man-all
o i which are great insectsdeatroyers.
.....F; .:.. &t:b ly in the above ways, then, will advance of civilization and the,
%eti,: lflrg -of this area tend to diminish the locust in numbers, but it will
jil HpRvent their increase.
I;a eJ1; !.eady intimated, there is a tract of country in the West and North.
y: t which, by its peculiar characteristics, is especially adapted to the
sJlp-eiof life of this locust; hence it has been termed the Permanent
HI H..: ltp jy the members of the Commission heretofore referred to.
Al h :: hw this ioseot at times visits and breeds throughout the greater
.:- .i..O..qf f the country lying west of the Mississippi River and east of
:kt O~ csAe range of mowntsins, it is partial to a particular portion of
HHti:aiiast area that possesses peculiar climatic conditions. This region
X,",:.4B;.', '.bounded as follows: On the east by a line beginning on the
piamaijh,t the junction of the thirty-seventh parallel with the one hundred
a....w si..xth meridian, and running in a northeasterly direction to the ninety-
zfl interietlian on the forty -fifth parallel, whence the course changes to
H."A-4 H iitnoth'until the boundary line is reached, where it inclines to.the
.0 0 t:'ini! wet a curve and strikes the fifty-third parallel at about the one
:Ib wr and third meridian. The northern boundary is the commence-
~ ~ ~.. E .. .. ... . .,
watof: : ]if the trans-continental timber region of British America. 'On the
it : Wt this region is bounded by a line nearly coincident with the'one
, hwfadred and seventeenth meridian, sometimes running to the east, and
H-.- IatOther times to the west of it, and towards the south making an abrupt
Siia. n ..ngle to the southeast to avoid the desert regions of southern Nevada
S. 'portion. of southwestern Utah. The features of this entire region, .,
or i least of those portions of it chosen by this locust as breeding-
. i ~ ......... ....
pI w ds. are its comparative aridity and freedom from timber.
Ihis rgion is divided as follows into several districts that differ it-
AW:,M No configuration: The Mountain Region, the Plateau Region, the
H"."-I of Plains, and the Basin Iegiou..
t.".: .i Platea4 Region, which is generally termed the Colorado Plateaus,



y H!..: F






26 impoaT ummw STI&T98 Sm"NOLMIC" CONJUMONO

extends from southern W"Ming thm9h Vesom 0010r"o
eastorn Utah far into Now Mex and A no gon&.. TbW arp
the north by Wind River and Sweetwater wasilon east byW '
Park Mountaini4 on the south by the Desert R&W Begimo4 and ojtV*_
west by the Basin Range Re&u." This region is "chiefly drsivod*,.
the Colorado River; but a small area on the nortbvwt is:drainiduip
Shoshone River, another on the northeast intd the PbUa River# Sia
another on the southeaat into the Rio Grande del Ifforte, and fin4y 6*
western margin is drained by the upper portions of Ahe Sevie4'Prove,(
Ogden, Weber, and Bear Rivers., The general elevation 1*8 7 JbW
above the level of the se%4 varying froni 5,000 to 12,000 feeL The asont
from the low desert- plains on the south is very abruA iR mmy phm, -
by a steep and almost impassable escarpment."
The streams which traverse the reeon have their soukeed in the Wmd HiverM*=4-'
ajin on the north, in the Park Mountains on the eas, and a number of Im"! 1 1
come from the west. In their courmw throlugh the plateaus t1my run in esbms,
Them caAons are profound gorges corroded bythe streams themselves. Tbell"counUy
rock" is composed of sedimentary beds nearly horizontal. The region in 41w
exceedingly wid, but the mountains that stand on the Am of 41m badn a
large proportion of moiffkam, and in t1us manner ghmams of
volume head in the mountains, ran through Ahe plateaus, and descend mpidly to *a
level of the sea, while the country through w1dch they pass is very nowgerly sapp*A
With moigtUre. 3
The Mountain Region comprises the mountainous portim of Ifforthem
Wyoming, part of Central Colorado, all of Idaho with adjoibing portiew
of ffevada4 Oregon, and Washington Territory, also tM western bal of
Montana. This region is composed chiefty of high ranges of moan
most of which am partially clothed with forests of eoniferouB tree&
There are numerous stremns of considerable magnitude. Them havo
their sources high in the mountains where there is much. rain od
melting of winter snows. Their lower courses lie along beaufful.04.7
richly carpeted valleys that am for the most part destitute of timber,
and are bounded by low foot-hills covered with bunch -grasses- and
artemisias. This region in the lower portions is also quite arid... With-,
in this region thexe are also quite a number of low bodn-like valleo
that formerly were occupied ky lakes. These are for the most-part richly
clothed with grasses and other low vegetation, and are generally drained.
by some mountain stream. They all lie northward in Montanai Jdahe
and Waskngton Territory, and are of considerable elevatioN varying
from about 3,000 to 7,000 feet above the level of the, IMM6
Sloping eastward from the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains towards
the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers is an extensive tract of cou
known as the Plaim& It is for the most part a comparatively =oot14
treeless tract covered by sparse vegetation, mostly grasses anA herto
that grow in clumps or clusters. The climate varies in temperature
as we pass from east to west and from south to north. The region is
3 X4. T. W. Powell Prebm to Geology of the Uigh rl of uul














l" ". :.:." : ." ": .p as::o..j .A:r -Liza uLJV VC A 4 W "Ji aJ C U L A LL
ll.a.l places by clumps of willows and other deciduous trees and shrubs;
a:w l Ijtm.any of these broad sea-like valleys are to be seen some of the
t.. t ..a tiful pictures of the West.
Slis ditfion to the three regions above mentioned, there is another
il ,piatiou that we will call the Bdisin Region. This region is situated be-
a .-the Wasatch Range on the east, and Sierra Nevada Range on
tw: wwt,40 and is drained by streams running into lakes, of which Great
|!it,^ Lake is the chief one. This basin region is separated from the
l.i:.by'.: ranges of mountains and high plateaus, and.is one of the most
I7, pons "of the entire. Rocky Mountain Region. The foot-hills
4nilys ." lying to the eastward are decorated with- beautiful flowers
...:! .. ; :% ... .... ..
.......":..4 grasses, while to the westward it gradually shades off into the
iii' :i(:% gions.
1'fIlt country comprised in the above-described regions is at times
|.i.'Q -by. swarms of this destructive locust, and possesses such cli-
.l. A. other conditions as are best adapted to its life and great in-

i:. -quite evident that a country-the surface of which is so varied
*llgl .l^. .: .: l..: .. ii" ~'* y :.. :
i ekten lve mustalso possess a varied climate, and that this is partly
iei ... e aware, at least as far as heat and cold are concerned. But
.. .w.... t take into consideration one peculiarity of all this extent of
Hi| Si;yfyisz., its aridity. We have arid and high plateaus, arid mount-
........!.lTiys the plains are arid, and an arid interior basin. We are also
atik that (. spretus thrives equally well in all of these districts where
[:IM P. :.. *r .d. -.*. -..i..... i-. ,, -
', is not too great, and where the annual precipitation does not
Az. I-.16 inches.
1y'l.:Wj. J.J. W. Powell also describes the lands of this region as those which
Al' ...i' gable, pasture lands, and timber tracts. Besides these there are
i d bad lands, chaparral lands, and lava beds.
fih ihese various regions, as determined by surface configuration, the
irrigble and pasture lands are those chiefly chosen by this insect as breed-
i. g grounds. Hence the'area of the Perman ent Region comprises but a
..Tll per cent. of the arid regions of the West or of that part of the
l.. ky"Mountain system where'the annual precipitation is less than 20
l... i as and still less when we confine it to the more humid portions of
I S ...istricts as chosen in years of ordinary numbers of this lasect. >
ajr, Prowe describes these regions as follows:
i.......... I niagsble lands and timber lands constftute but a small fraction of the Arid
|l|, ,,1". .Between the lowlands on the one hand and the highlands on the other ia




,H H ...
:":".:EE"". : iE '" E. t ...

7k ,,.HJ:,.,,..i. ...."






































'U- L@ UK MSVS A JU% M Kh 6 P AL UL u. a ILU ,,U Y V U. U M UW*W LA L-u.ME4M M .,S a, W~ M '..''...
value for pasturage purposes. ii*
After making all the deductions, there yet remain vast areas of valuable p aa........:
Islands bearing nutritious but' scanty grass. The lands along the week.r aMd t II :s ii
have been relegated to that class which has been described as ir sble, bPnu :
lands under consideration are away from the permanent streWams. No ir. t s iw:
over them, and no creeks meander among their hills, the only water to be tatf 'a' : I::I
these lands being scattered and isolated springs and the little brooks thich-thf :*'i
feed. These, however, never join the great rivers on their way to the sea, beiatbib ,
to run but a short distance from their fountains, when they spread among the sad : s
to be re-evaporated. . .. ... '
Within the Arid Region only a small portion of the country is irrigable. Them b.. i
rigable tracts are low lands lying along the streams. On the mountains and'iu :'I'l
plateaus forests are found at elevations so great that summer frost forbid the ilt-14
ovation of the soil. ....
These lands comprise but a very small per cent. of the Arid Region a i.:::r:I
der the present resources for obtaining the aiount'of wtter requists ........
for remunerative cultivation of the soil. .+^,
Throughout this Arid Region timber of value is found growing apd ntm-
neously on the higher plateaus and mountains. These timber region..:a
are bounded above and below bylines which are very irregular, due to ^ ......... q
local conditions. Above the upper line no timber grows because ofth AV.......
rigor of the climate, and below no timber grows because of auidity::. A.J

..... .....

H "








aM. -s .the timber districts are found at lower altitudes in the northern
p. t.:i t n of the Arid or Rocky Mountain Region than in the southern por-
AI (ti This is due to the decrease in temperature as we pass from south
to u,;i., rth. The forests are chiefly of pines, spruce, cedars, and fir, but
t|e:: 4 pnes are of principal value. Below these timbered regions, on the
lo-i. Wer -slopes of mountains, on the mesasand hills, low, scattered forests.
S:'' often found, composed chiefly of dwarfed pifon pines and scrubby
Kt. p oedarn. f o hil

4".1! c;:ur..I. se that portion of the Arid Region described as the timber-
,i. ing X g'region is much larger than that actually covered by forests;
bUt:,. ". At s .:A.is to a great extent dua o the destructive agency of fires that
K"uin.!":l::ll:y destroy inconceivable quantities of timber. These regions
io .piH.se from 20 to 25 per cent. of the Arid Regibn, though at least one
i u- i.f.ias been denuded or is kept bare by the above-mentibned agency.
T, h ia;aregion, too, is very much like the temporary region of this locust in
I : MU.Ial. precipitation of moisture, and hence these bare portions are
,. s... frequently chosen as localities for egg-depositing as are those,.
Hi. ijimediately below this line, that have been described as grazing
.. .. ! .... ..****. ':. '
$k.e 'area of the Arid Region the altitude of which is greater than the
6. regiongin is comparatively small, and comprises mountain peaks and
p ['::.".f mountain ranges that extend above the line of perpetual snow
$-w. 1 i.... 0.Oius climate. Very seldom do any of these locusts choose the
||| .= :' .. . :" *""^ "^'-1 -
|'n: r r portions of this region as breeding grounds, since it is too un-
o n'w'a and quite humid, although the greater portion of the moisture
tis,, :.lls here is id the form of snow and hail. Neither do they fre-
%.uMt themauvaises terrs, deserts, lava beds, or chaparral lands. Then
.. W .iihave remaining the two other regions as the true home and breeding*
Si~~tWd of this insect, viz., the irrigable lands and the grazing lands..
i43-"v'ourse great numbers of locusts are annually bred within and even,
above the forest region of the Rocky Mountain system, but, as before
.a :"ted(4 the humidity of this area is too great, and hence it follows that
b " es .cannot be as vigorous as those bred below and in a more arid cli-
m t.. .. That this insect does not require nor seek a high temperature,..
w. ane aware from the condition of the climate in those portions of
t" Btish America where it breeds in such overwhelming numbers.
(I.. This region, which is known as the permanent breeding-grounds of
the,, Rocky Mountain locust, as before stated, comprises all that region
S. west and north of the deserts where the annual rainfall is- less than
.0 inches, an area of about 300,000 square miles. Of course they do not
breed throughout this entire region annually, nor on all the surface;
'bt it is because they are always to be found in some portion of it in. -
S or less numbers, and because they can continue to eiist year
0 o:: r year without becoming diseased, that this name has been given to.
i)&e region.
Si'V


K: j. K ..
A U... ,!!iLh..:. . F






80 RzpoRlr u-NiTw anTze: swromoLoomAL co3watos..,

As would be expeoW, a country. as 1wge as this must
vary to some extent in It& surfwe configuration, audiu ift Swa
pearance; but, as a rule, it tis composed of wide stretebes of prWhis .
terspersed with a few small timbered areas and snow-eapped ra"ou
ranges. It 'a watered by the great water systems of the Woo
Yellowstone Platte Colorado, and Columbia, with many minor rktw
along the, fertile valleys of wbich the:youug.locusta an reared
year to year in numbers sufficiently great always to keep the stock
enough so that with a few favorable years this e with,
adjoining country oan be stocked and overrun by ravishing Fjww=flL_
While the locust is capable of continuing its existence on any falvarl
able portion of this Permanent Region,. there are in reality but few poro
tions of it that, on account of -their extent, are adapted to its gresteg
increase. These are far apart, and at times are the cradles of swarm
that visit different sections of the cultivated d1sU14x adjoiAtlag th;m&
The largest and by far the most: important of thesei in, that of Centr#A
Montana and portions of the British Possessions immediately tothe
north. 'The boundaries of this area can be put down as follows: On
the east a line beginning near the Black Hills and running north
the way of the mouth of the Musselshell River to the Saakatchswvin
River and the northern limit of true prairie. The -western boundary
is almost equivalent to the trend of the Rocky -Mountafti RaTiM mming
is fax south as the Sweetwater Basin of Northern Wyoming. : In Otbw
words it passes frobikthe Big Hoin Mountains in Northern, Wyoming in
an almost direct line to Fort Shaw) and thence north as few as the pit&
ries extend, taking in the valleys of the Gallatins, JeBuop, and PrieW,
Pear Rivers as side shoots. The next in importance and size is thAqf
which the, Snake River Valley is the center. This district oomprimo,
all of Central and most of Southern Idaho, portions of N(Imt:6em
and a small part of Nevada and Eastern Oregon. A third area is 00k
of Southern Utah and portions of Northern Arizona and New lfex*.
with a -part of Colorado.
From the former come all the locust swarms that devastate Manitob%
Dakota Minnesota, and at times Nebraska, Iowa, andKansai with a
small portion of Missouri. Or6gon., Nevada and Washingt" TeMbory
receive most of their locust swarms from, the second, whfie Utah and
Colorado, with adjoining portions of Wyoming, receive thein fro-Ai boW
this and the third or that of Arizona and New Mexico. While t6ow'
are the principal courses taken by swarms in leaving these several
locust centers, they occasionally interchange swarms sad then them
localities receive calls from all three se6tions. Montana swarms'erow,
way of the jW86
over the range into the valley of the Snake Rive, by
son and into the northern, part of Idaho, and Washington Territory by,
9 1_
way of the Boundary Pass and Flathead Lake. Tbwe:of the.0eitrsl
region pass northeast mito Montana both by the and by v*,,"e








L. o.i.wxzre swarms directly.
r i tiWhfile it would appear that this interchange of swarms between these
k:';k lu I1 centers was intentional, by a closer examination into the habits
i .f! insect and the influencing agents in its migrations, we cat readily
Si....e .that such is not the fact. Nevertheless, every object is accom-
:w 4Mllh d in this way that could be were they made from impulse or desire.
I tt taiB thelinterchange of swarms there is cross-breeding of unrelated and
K''.449 0iindividuals, thus'preventing the deteriorating influence of a
& k*p.- ooutinued interbreeding. Also, by'having these widely separated
., ::~ ~ f A .:. ,1...
-r"'" isqcs of large area, moving swarms of great magnitude are enabled
S| ,ton::penrate from the fatiguew0rof travel and rear healthy offspring, to
I' tun to their starting point when the favorable opportunity presents
1 ^". ,== .. ""-='' .'"'
r;.regular as appear to be the movements of swarms of locusts in
!.: e w... widely separated areas to one who has not given the subject a close
|.:' y, it.iis, nevertheless, a conceded fact that they'seem to have leading
| zo iii jes thieh they follow. So marked is this rule in certain localities
If ".-Itt. is difficult to learn of any exceptions. An example of this nature
| Pj. it.btof their movements on the Upper Bear River and in portions of
Vfc Waerr Wyoming, where every swarm of which I could obtain any
iWsftnetion came from the west and northwest and flew to the east,
Sn*'theeast, or southeast. They also appear to fly in great circles in sev-
:. ," il;eotions of the West. The cause of this phenomenon is the com-
2;* hled influence of prevailing winds and surface configuration on mov-
. iu. a.swarms. For an example of this peculiar movement we will take
5v w swxarm that leaves the great center of distribution in Montana towards
Zh *. e asou'thwest by way of the Gallatin and Madison Valleys and low
,p, as ses across to the upper waters of the. Snake River. These, after en-
tql u ng this latter valley, follow down that stream to where it makes an
p a*p: ...uapt '-bend to the west. Here the swarms generally divide, some con:
Stinging down the stream, while the remaining portion of the swarm
|: we:qrkso0n south and southeast over the low mountains to Bear River
S i'le and into the great interior basin. Those which strike the valley
if":- A O:Br .River mostly turn up the stream and wend their way toward
1,, tl at and southeast until the vicinity of Green River is reached, when
"P|: ty,:.: h again slightly change their course by swinging to the east and
. mtt ..h...east. From here their course is eastward to the Platte, when they
RA|;5i divide, a portion following up and the other portion following
s:| wn : this stream. The latter, after passing through the cafion out upon
:the, plains, are struck by south-and southeast winds and carried to the
IS'c::th:east toward the Black Hills, and from this point return to south-
:1:-l Monbtana and finally to their starting point. Those tlat-follow'
Sthe Platte cross over the range by way of the various- passes into
.. .. ... Colorado, and either work sofa through this State into New
: :' o,-or drift out on the plains into Western Kansas and Nebraska,.



hall:; r ... ...
'DI I NJ






32 wpoRT UNITM STAT" U"MolowAlf C*XNAKOX

when they booms sesUend. and soopt wbm to auemmo*r
numbers as in the yea 1866, when: they came as fw ees$ as the
portions of these States and did considen6ble daaag&
Those that leave the northern pordon of this great contm and
over the range into Idaho and Wasbington. Territory, :work 004*7
at first then isonth through western Idahoandwtern wagh*Dj*04
Territory, when they turn to the soutboast and reach t4o'cenUml M&IN
*from whith they return to the starting point by way olf the Bush*
Madison Valleys. These movements, however, occur, and for the
part of their course lie, within the Permanent Region$ heam they esswW,
be set down as the mode of travel in all portions of the 0004try at #am
v ited by their iswarms, neither can they be c4nWdered,:iw being No
rule of their flights.
Locusts that follow down the Snake River enter eastern Oregoo *A
work their way northward through this State and western -1dabo:
a portion of southeastern Washington TetTitory, and thence an obtf-
ried by the prevalent winds across the CoBur dtARae ubd Ritber Mot
Mountains into the valleys of the upper portion@ of Olarkes FM* Of tho
Columbia.* Here they continue working, eastward through, wasWn
Montana until they recross the Rocky Mountains into the gi*st beatm
of Montana and British America, thereby completing tU eirealar mev*.-,
ment. Of course these movements are only noticed inboan&Wm *W
the movements of swarms in different portions of the diakieft: embrAwd,
and, as i ust stated, for the most part are confined the
Region. .rl
With these facts in reference -to the movements of Jft"ts is geama
A
before us, it -will now be in order to mention some of tho eonti"ftg
agencies for the various actions of moving swarmo- how it bappe"
that they choose these particular -routes just mentibned, why at certW*
times of the year the prevailing movements'are In we direowa "d,
just opposite at auother,'and why it is that a chang1b of windor the
advance of a storm or even a decided change of tempentare fromi wwft
to cold brings them to the ground.
When locust swarms start for a flight to some other locAlity they,
a rule, follow a particular direction, which varies raach:m'-Aifibrent, seoi
tions of country, and at different seasons of the year., Azy agency 04
interferes with this particular course has a tendency -to bring the *entftt
:in vi;w,
horde of themto the. ground. They appear to have a purlxwe
when starting, which, if interfered, with, -will cause much: uneasinew 0a -
their part. It is not necessary for, me to give any minute dosoriPU4
of the general laws of flight, nor to dwelt upon the influence of swrwik
changes of Wind, temperature, elevation, climate, and surlhee
tion upon these. All these have been discussed at length in vaiia,4-
newspaper articles and other sketches of which thir insect with its W,
tory formed the subject. The reports, too, ofthe United States R
mological Commission are exhaustive on this portion of its natuWk'V














sAA rling to the direction of they wind and the route pursued. Out-
'!. .S$de .f the Permanent Region their movements vary somewhat from
..: 1 whin this region. After the first season's absence, all swarms
l; illp:i te o direct their course back. towards this region, at least this is
!:.ii:.iiiie with those reared in the.Temporary Region of the east. I have
Siin, tlt i3Od that in Nebraska, during the earlier part of the season, the
i:.6wr.i aiug direction taken by swarms is northward and westward,
iwbblat.pr in the season it is toward the south. The turning-point is
..i'qlnt'uly 15. Whether this is really the case, or whether it is due to-
SJ ia... ip. Mndtdeparting swarms, I am not quite prepared to assert posi-
t|n.. Rhiat present. That this is true, however, can easily be ascertained..
iibii rin g to any work giving the data of locust flights for a succes-
il':f yearwrs in this district. However doubtful this may appear at,
Weibi.t.., At is nevertheless my opinion that it all depends upon the out-
pt..!.. ... incoming swarms, with perhaps an occasional exception
.i.. e ...by change of winds, &c.; perhaps also the change in the
I.iid.osf the prevailing winds at about this time has something to
,,;,:. ... ..o w. t .e m matter. .
...t PermantRegion locality matters but little so far as the con
jd! h'Th.Praen lnanltl ar a the cn
qi:l o. of the species is concerned, but outside of this the insect can
witt-n but a few generations, and hence its great uneasiness and
Slowing 'to get back to its native climes and home scenes, t
iii. e the true home of this locust is quite permanent in its leading -
Ip| tqiestw% the Temporary Region is one of variable character and
r~d4.pn (ages, with unsettled winds. The surface of the Permanent
gI is much the same throughout, while that of the Temporary Re-
|' ^44v triable. The true difference between these two regions, how-
*.Vk, ehic seems to tell on the life of Caloptenus spretus, is the amount
lpresentand. also the altitude. A wet or humid climate'
,,n.Jto orable, while one that is arid is favorable to its increase.
alfie ch s n by
Aj:..1.es chosen. by this insect for the depositing of eggs are such
'" l t ry denuded of vegetation and where the soil is firm, as new
;MiVkgS. pastures, roadsides, south hillsides and a variety of similar
M:": Very low or wet grounds are never chosen, neither is very
pi" o sandy soil -that'is liable to be blown away by winds. Thelo-.
... ..,........y. Th l ..
L 0*'"Hwees similar habits throughout" the country at times visited
..... tthesehabits are necessarily slightly altered by variation of
H.......surface configuration, and other intfluiencing agencies. While
ilb)orary Region the egg are chiefly deposited in proximity to
S.; S

ii;:"W:, A:.
i : i ::.: : ::;'.. "i" . 7
,:i! '': ,W r m. ."




77
77 V-



REPoRT uxam sTATFA "M %MbbfttW

lleldo,,in the Permanent Region they are d
whereverthere is sufficient grwi0rth&yo*ngto***b"Jh4
toot of the'M WideWsopwated distritts vary much 10
. erties... Those of 1he permanent hoine we the beWid *0, VI
. gastronome of an insw4 and stand paraUel with 'th
the same lonlitiewduringtafly4pring. Our grasaw on
not touched when wheat fiel& and othek cultiv"
tallned. Even the weeds gmwia in fieldis are thfte,
Ahose on the prairie. When a swarm alights in twregiot
,4"e of depositing eggs it betakes Itself to the f6b0ft
ey where fbod is plentiThl, or to6lemountainsiustb&*fl*bFro"-,,
'the locusts often accumulate in such vast nambers s*,, to on
the ground while at their work of perpetuating their Mid.
ing with a gentleman who spent the greater PGA OCAWAA
northern and central portions of Wyoming, Ywail bdOriW tkstk4
the summers of 1875 and 1876'at times these: loottmw Ivem Ao
as to be piled up iu windows for mfies in length &ud=VqWMUVF
in depth. These were both old and youog. They-bM&td 00 196*
hills aud. ate the grasses elean. tle saitthat 14 wbiW*a*'Steate
of thiwPermanent Region oftersfavorable situadoimfoi the
their eggBY they are more partial to fertile vA11eA
gramy plats near timber line whert there is alwsy* *ftty of
Akilft 10 the ID
vegetation to be had." While the hiamid atmos
Region Is detrimental to its eoutinued existence, *4 lisftt AM
a certain amount of moisture for ita development in
it is that that large distAct, lying for the most P&AIJUA
on the extensive plateaus of the Northwest, is iav&, *U#ted
_e
morease. Thme se nation, too,, Word vast &rem Mlt*e fbr
tion of their eggs, and afterwids for the deteloeitof tke
Eggs are deposited at, intervals during the mohtMbf
lfttembet,. and Oetob by insects matuxing iftil3aull
and at different times. The majority of them howe#4w,4w* "d
the months of Augusi and, September; 6thetoiae, If tho fid
prove too warm and the winter late M* comwmciug, amer of theW,
hatch and die fivm ooldand starvation.
Eggs laid in Juneoften hatch- byMy and the lo6oft,
developed in time to deposit before cold weather stU in too
those hatching later very seldom deposit unless the Ml U
able. Some eggs, too, very likely lie: over one whole year befoft'
ing.
Whether or not locust eggs would hatch after baving laid
a yeax, I am unable to say, as personally 1 have men n
kind nor have I ever seen a substantiated wcount of any SUOT
rence in works on locust literature. Jt is, how-ever, mrerred
farmers living in the vicinity of Missoula, Montsnq that'in
1875 a, great many eggs were deposited throughout th,6 valley.*, -
10 #
























requiredd for the hatching of the eggs varies greatly in dif-
itudes, at various altitudes, and at different times of the year.
nce or absence of warm 9r cool rains, too, seems to make a dif-
Of course it is quite necessary that a certain degree of heat be
i'lso a certain- mount of moisture. Sometimes it appears
A i$ hatch in a comparatively short time, and at others, when
perceptible vanrati6n in the conditions, it requires much

t..namount of heat aqd what other conditions are absolutely
iJl |rthe development of the eggs in the Temporary and Per-
Ifltons, or whether there Is a difference in these, I cannot at
t'i the small amount of data at my command. But that
'&-n things upon whieh the hatching depends can be readily
I .the experiments .that have been conducted by Professor
p4 0Ii.d others fdr this, purpose. Nevertheless, they. were in-
.*. ..i...-.
M*4establs fix d inles by which we can go.
;er hatching, require from forty to sixty days in which to
i ~ ~~o huthir ,reqir.s6t
.. pjfngof c6urse,aDo -ng to the state of the weather, the abun-
f -od.and also their vigor; cold and wet retarding and warmth
.. growth. So after hatching, the little fellows be:in
Search of fdod,a they are generally hatched on grounds
rse They travel, in droves, thus imitating in the start the
iof the species. These droves become scattered as from
hey move on their half famished search for food, and
urse of their growth become so scattered and mixed up that
he ot lkiaturing hardly any two of a single brood are together.
El ie ofswarms in 0the Temporary Region, and very likely is
0t reference to'them in their native habitat. .
Qrleavng the eggs the little fellows molt or shed their skin,
Ion s repeated four more times in most cases and at least
i every case before arriving at maturity. The manner of
,9,q.te similar to the like act with other insects. The larva
.. 'similar a :,i k.
:I .
I.. ..q :","- ":'
I, E I.
,, C!ii... ..,,' .. ...
iiiii '',' !: : !.' ']' ... .. I"
a: -: Ii' ':i : ::", :













































































































./ ./ ......



.... '- i
:: M:;H
..:.: :[:.E3

___....___.._'______












y:id ueo on ie move teiracu oions are conutroieu to a great extent uy
U 4 atubspheric conditions which have already been noticed under the
=f99fidi f general notes." When hungry they come down and feed, and
tii t~ off again. This state of affairs continues until near-the time
i J.-&mencing operations for the continuation of their kind. This
..+ ..: .... ....;: I ::H :;.'. ". "..
.I ....pltaOe within two or three weeks after obtaining wings. Coition
.:. ..... gg depositing are then kep, up alternately until cold weather sets
J3,I. until they die of exhaustion; the number of egg deposits made
A tingle female varying from one to four, each of which averages 25
tIJ -;. he interval between egg deposits being from four to eight or
4,: : ; :+ .! ..... :..
qSo dise according to the state of the weather and the vigor of the
Alap t -it being much more frequent in favorable weather and with
tAnd vigorous females. After egg laying is over they die from
~r~i4'ftsft'of frosts and from the exhaustion brought on by the exer-
t .f ,l.l+..:r... ... . ... *^
~3tAMOf reproduction.
Sii Uwi- does it happen that this insect becomes so exceedingly numer-
fiimnirNI..es when other species remain normal ?" is a question that has
ilii Ybesubmitted to me. My answer is, through its migratory
..*4i........the character of its native habitat. As soon as surroundings
:4I t.... erse to its increase, it has but to launch itself into the air
|$iii oft foi a locality where these are favorable, and where there are
it e'....nemies; while species not possessing this habit are obliged
oeu....n mad struggle on in the best way they can. While migration
V47i'et t.ilways prove beneficial in this direction, the cases where it
qdigmA n.bt r so very few that in the end they are not noticeable.
|| ia(takeany insect tbat has gradually developed this habit we find
I ,l tha thias become alarmingly common and destructive. The Colorado
; P -pa A, .Beetle, for instance, is an example of this sort. But a very
1*tislNz^. "ago we only heard of it as being found in moderate numbers
Ph :onI a wild species of solarium (Solanum rostratumn) -i native of
I .4lot". and adjacent country. On the approach- of man, however,
L :.W#AI.:S cultivated plants it found a new solanaceous plant that it pre-
||Bu4to ,its'old and long-used one. The growth of the latter being
(lrt annd not fortuitous gave this insect a basis, and in a very few
lt h.egaii to move from field to field, establishing colonies wherever
"pt, u.ntit now it has not only spread throughout all Eastern.North
Sbut has also succeeded in reaching Europe. Although not a
s* .e with that of C. spretus, it is a fair example of how migra-
tbfl the increase of a particular species of insect in contradis-
t:. one that is nonmigratory. The Chinch Bug and Cotton
K...a.so .examples of the increase by migration or moving from
ity to another.



.. . .
4i N +,+: :!.,i. ....7.







38' RT, uzmw &TATza as romowexcAt cowiisftav

Of courw in the cW of the locust-thera are otAeirjAWemOaiWm
gration thattend to such abnormal and aW=Ing infteesoL Tfie
climate and surfiwe confijuration of its native habitat &ks botht
a nature as to favor this end. The long stretches of treelaw
the comparative absence of enemies of all kiu4 wit the
elim;ite, are such as to favor it in the highe"St digree also the
of viau!a destructive agency. When the numbers bcouxe
great in their native habitat, their desire f6r moving micreas" tw,
an extent that they are not satisfied with short journeys-in AmW
we obliged to take long ones in orderto find the u
food which so great an army pf ravenous lomsts
requi
impossible to obtain this short of a climate of 'such a nature as to
duce an exuberaot growth of vegetation, they,:nec""rily 00110h1w
drift with the wind un'til such a region is reacheA. Siji duAn
movements, the prevailing winds are from the northwest, "d west, *e
swarms mast accordingly reach the fertile regions "g the mime*
4j
sippi Valley, in Dakota, Minnesota, and' southward. WIdle xem 001
must follow their instinct of continuing their kind, aud aecordinor
posit their egg&--alwa choosing su4 localities for ihiia.as most
resemble the and region from which they came. These'egp atW
favoring weather, and produce great numbers of young. Soweof*m
as ihey m atmm rise into the air and am retmmed to the and mgm" 4'
the West and Northwest by winds prevailing at this time of the YOW4'
while others are destroyed by various animals, birds, and inb
H
also by. moisture and heat. To prevent these migrations and to
both old and hile with us in the Temporary R40on, mW.
in the Permanent one, has been the aim of thoge who have t#"JO4
ficient interest in the matter to make it a subject of study. J"01",
nearly this oPiect has, been attained, I will not say; but that M"*O
been accomplished there is no denving.
Aside from man and the numerous contrivances which he
fected with which to destroy thLs insect in all of itz stages, them WO
hundreds of birds, mammals-, reptiles, and ittsects, that spend tho gYm6w.,
portion of their lives in keeping this locust withm' bounds, and wli",
by their work alone would soon reduce its numbers to a normal 7%
dition, if they could only follow it up, or if it could be kept in one
iky-this locality to be within the confines of th6'wooded vortion vf.*
*I#
Temporary Region.
It is not my in tention now to enter into a detailed account ot
thote that I have been in the act of devouring :this and other
For such an account I am pleased to be able to refer all who
study this particular branch of locust literature to Prof. Sr4moa.
ey's admirable work, entitled It Nature of the food of Nebrmka
W.
and published in the first report of the CommiSHiono 111 this
t
author cites not lem than 630 cases of dissection 'Of at least
of birds, made by himself during a period of twelve year&
4














....er.urg locusts, and that this is a common practice with most
I there ia but little doubt, as we know their habit of frequently
their diet from vegetable, to animal substances, and also
B IreMs remains of locusts and other insects in the neighbor-
k ..thei. haunts. All rept.s and fishes at times do a great deal
.. lessening the numbers of this as well as other injurious insects.
pt eat is the destruction of locusts by these animals, which we
kit.:.ib.is carried on in a much larger scale by insect parasites which
AiPietnotice. These are almost equally as numerous in species and
Sesof in individuals. Some. of them confine their attacks exclu-
.i44 eggs, others to the young, while still others only destroy
Bi. re ilocust.. Others attack it in all of its stages, and in their
^ l !ife succeed in accompanying it throughout large tracts of .

SIggs-of the locust are attacked by a great variety of insects,
S 'tas:a role, feed upon them in their larval stages. Of these tshe
&ticiable are several species of two-winged flies of the genus
Sha,,quite a number of species of what are popularly known as
jl%:e'aid the grubs of several species of beetles that are closely
iktothe "Spanish Fly." In addition to these quite a large number
oil|aipecies have been known to attack them.
ftvB.uost beneficial of these egg parasites are those known as locust
tiJ:h!ese often become very numerous, at times having been known
iatzxy as high as 70 per cent. of the eggs laid in portions of Minne- '
wtfke-have also. done much -good in portions of Dakota, Iowa,
isW k ,F Kansas, and Missouri, and in part helped to save many a
ll fnI that would.otherwise have been devoured. Native species
6'are also ..attacked by these mites, but whether these are of the
4w f different species I am unable to state at present, not having
iMI edi them with a view of determining them. I have also seen
a&lwpeies of Meloidm. so completely covered by these little red
PW t'ia they appeared like .a moving mass of red insects, and it wa "
Weat dificulty that they were enabled to move about. ;
habits of these mites are such, too, as to' aid in the furtherance
*.gpo.od. work.. Early .in the spring
'Ailaysbetween 300and 400 minute, spherical, orange-red eggsin tbo-.nd. '"
g:|afiy from one to two inches beneath the surface andi m slightly aggluti-
..hich : 1hih however, ealy become sc4ttpred upon disturbance hof the soil.
in due time, there-hatch little o!tige mites, which differ from the
'wing but six'legs.-C(Riley.)


lie ~~~. .... ..... .::"
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.,,
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i: iii+ ++i. : t 1 1.







40 ?RzpoRT uNiTsiD ruTas mmuoumeAL coxxw1M.#f4
V
Them minute mites we very sedve, and fton'bilmager or.bj
own crawl upft the bodies of lomits, Whm they Saten
the winga and softer parts and,-fill themselves with the loewWt
Being now aboard, when, the locusts start oat on their Ung
unwelcome and dangerous -passengers are adrried by them 0:1
new breeding grounds. As: awn as the little fallowa have
gorged themselves' they, let go their hold and drop to thi gromdj VWWA
they betake themselves to some sheltered place and continue
aiid change their form. By this time their adopted hosts haveg"w",%'
vork and deposited their'eggs. Theynow, or ear1,ytheLV"VWJM
crawl down through the raucous substance which Alls the upper
of the hole, in whildh the eggs have been deposited until they
eggs, when they begin their good work. by devouring them 0"1"
-another.
The bird enemies of the -locusts 6ggs are very numeroni; a" ii
many instances, without the aid of the farmer, they wratch ottt,,s"
devour great quantities of them. The principal mode,,hoWerer, in wbick
fil P
they work is to follow'. the plow and barrow and eat the eggs aftar
have been turned up and partially exposed:to view. Blackbiri*
or"'
and many small. birds, with poultry, are the most active in 6%,
of destroying eggs. Mice and shrews, too, are very fond of loeug ejop
apil quite frequently have I seen where they have dog up aid eftm
them. In localities adjoining low, wet places instances of this kind *W,
quite common and in such localities I have on: severid occasio",
praised and disturbed these small mammals while apparently at thU
1Z
work.
The yQung or larvEe are equally and, if anything, more, sought,
and devoured by these various -classes of enemies.: Birds. will D"
them alone in preference to their ordinary food, while a great
of beetles, flies, wa,9ps, &c., will eat them ravenously. In fact so gresid-
ily are they sought for by these animals that it is redly mrPrilging tbAt
a single one of them attains maturity. It is due only totheir'gTe"
bers and to their habit of secreting themselves.
Neither are the mature locusts free from the attacks of these vadev*
enemies, but, having increased so much in size, -it requires.fewer of tbm.
to satisfy the appetites of this reduging army. Nevertheless mmillUkomma'
of these too have been permitted to mature only to be eaten ers t644
make provkdon for a future geirration by'depositing their egg&
Among the internal parasites of the locust we vwious spades
Tachins and flesh flies. These) at all times and in every part of
the Permanent and Temporary Regions, do much tow1wds, dim i
otherwise 1wge increase of this dreaded pest. As far as 1. an
ally concerned, I must confeas that I have never bred more than ab6*
a dozen of these flies from locusts. These were about equally diV,1FWJ111W_1-
.Inv,
between two species, viz., Tachina anoxyma Riley, and
oarnaria L. I have, however, seent hundreds of their maggots







i!... ...: .. ":'.. ". '
lY:ikiin:thto ground during locust years, and have also taken avery large
Il:.;'pie.uof the locusts that were infested with them. At present I can-
| p|..eeaUthe dates when they appeared in greatest numbers, but recol-
rIA.... q wit well their appearance in 1865, when I was assisting some
4a "boys to keep the locusts from cabbage patch.
O -4 onot now remember whether I obtained any of the flesh flies
ii:.i.(l.ph.aga) from the bodies of the matured locust, but have taken
l:.I.*a: i on. the ground soon after they left their victims. Some of these
tm ins, .t the larvae and pupae as well as the winged insects. 1 have
g:4 *t..mRi."t seen them attacking other species of locusts besides the
p.. tor y one, and not unfrequenltly have I found these grubs or mag-
,myVi ying box after having pinned large series of "natives."
iiii.'ndoubtedly belonged to several species and genera, judging
| i4;e:itoth+eir slight differences in size and form; but as I had not the time
I a.di..i.l.. ites for rearing them, the species remain undetermined.
Uii'i ii* quite recently the larval habits of our various blister beetles
tj ^-i:puW but little understood. Since the researches of the Comminission,
H, MiOwN:1t.Wet-the preparatory stages of many insects which had. hitherto
! M.ib:: ,. uded in mystery have been ascertained for the first time.
p| -aii these were those of quite a number of the Meloidae. It has been
aisistatned that they feed upon the eggs of locusts, and especially
huH!uos.'s C pretws. This, then, accounts for the greatnumbers of these
.' iiwAth are found in all the leading locust areas of the West and
%.afl|in, especially in the latter district. Riley has shown in the
SIl ,for 1878 and 1879 the peculiar and interesting feature possessed by
pbie::young of some of these insects of protracting development onte, two,
^ VSfi p more years, thereby supplying a new means for the continu-
OR, # io .species that is dependent upon uncertainties for its continu-
,. ;..ath among the living.
j 1 AIv: e noticed a great number of species of these insects both in Mon-"
;iOan.sd Coplorado. In Montana they were mostly partial to the Legu-
i~j:+! +.:+:,. .+ S +
....eit s i-Lupftnus, Astragalus, &c.-rsome of which in certain localities
we.g.r covered with these beetles and denuded of their foliage, thus fur-
a,.n example of an insect that in its preparatory stages is parasitic
.'1W6et her, and that after maturing lives upon a plant not eaten by the in-
S_.,i, *6..wlich it was a parasite. In this way, then, the parasitic beetle is
0"jJ insured a chance of perpetuating its kind through its capability
biaytug-dormant in its imperfect stages for an indefinite time if the neces-
0.0 ymount of food is absent, but also through its choice of food, in its
KaaSt, since it lives upon that which the locust discards. In Col-
.. t6food-plants of these beetles are chiefly such as belong.to the
HiNt and Solanaeeae-a few choosing the cultivated potato,- -
ih natural remedies add all those which have been devised by
adwBe have such a formidable arry of destroying agencies at
nia ist% the lives of these locusts in the egg, larva, pupa, and
s e that, were it not for their incalculable numbers, they would

I ,: ".ii. ":-'"
j j...... ......
ANN : i :. .::.. . .
T+.d i:ii:.+,p i++t.+ + .:
!+ ii~i;: : .P ." ".N




F 70r-7 7


42 REPORT -UXITZD:, STATES IBITQXQL0QWAL'C0MMU*M*iI

so(m be enidioated fmver Amm the fam of tho esdh Aw iaow
their ravageiL'. But, taking into consideration tba inst
these inewts in conntetion witb'their leading trait*i wosomod
all faith -in our ability to ever -keep tbam within basuds. If ps
prevent their migmtions, perhaps we might hope for aueewqj
wise not. This is the conclusion arrived at by those who hav^
voted a lifetime to the study of this and oU= inaecU of 4L
Those, however, who have lobked *into its minwest traito SOL
lowed the insect throughoat the various portiouw of anatry sk
si v ited by its swarms, eV6D. hope to be able at some famm U00.
its devastation notwithstanding ita migratory a4ure aud its WAi
withdrawing from the settlements1o the vast uusettW phWioan*
'the West and North weA, where for a succession of. years it, gQft 4
with its process of -multiplying without being disturbed by W6'md_'
other natural enemies--in fact where everything:appews toArot i*.11 -714
greatest possible increase. They hope to be able to prev6nt ite eamixg
into the country known at present aa its TOMPOMI-?400a, or PAW*
Of periodical visits. This can only be done by prevenUic its 4090"
increase in its native habitat. Just how this will. be
is difficult at present to state; but by watching ewvfhwald vpaft.01
from time to time all the weak point* in its habits that prea6t,
selves, I am confident that at some time in the future we shall lawa*o'
true secret of its strength, and theroky be enabled to+ head it oft
order to do tkis, however, we must be on the. alext &d condavio
TIM
study it in its native habitat-gathering all the -additional data Voomp,, "A
ble in relation to its breeding, habits, movements, enemies, aW tbm
influence of various acrencies upon all these. No other i sect tb
been studied with a view to' its destruction haa so 'long b4MqA
efforts of experts in'their desire to discover some means of redaWVjft,
numbers as'this one has.; and this has been' all o to its
WILUg 9"Ce*
modesoflife. There is. hardly another one but that wmaer or labar bA*
been compelled to succumb-to maWs devices.
Tree culture, too, throughout the country would be QUIB Step
the final extermination of this ins.ect. By planting groves of treow,
throughout the prairie tands, timber-loving. birds would be en-ticed *way"
from their haunts along rivers and swalter water-&urses and
F! would millions of hisects be deistroyed that otberwme wouldprop"*w
their kind in numbers sufficiently great to destrtW everything g wo,
As before iutimiated the absen6e of trees froin them va4 otifttOW44
the West is the principal reason for the davelopmpnt of kK-.u*t 4WEMNIII
and wherever we find a country of like character we fiud: 9"Woo
sesses its hordes of-migratory Iocusts, and that PA times snub, 0"4*4.
swarms into the- surrounding fertile districts.
KnowiDg that4 as a rule, every animal, whether vertebrate or
tebratel is so constructed as to be able to withstand only a certain
of variation in climate and diet, the question naturally ariew
















. IP JPiI warmer man uts permanent nabitat. vv mie mte eggs uo not
.iJ..l.. to;. be deposited earlier in one section than in the other, the con-
0IFiOf the warm weather of autumn in the Temporary Region hasa
jljepc partially hatch these, and the following cold winter weather
ni:er" .their vitality. In other words, after the eggs have once be-
......^:;|p- -:l. -* : .. ..-
*ii~ binfg the alternate freezing and thawing or cessation of thif
Bi: S' diminishes their vitality to somq extent. Consequently, young
tMdqt in this temporary locality are not as robust and healthy as.
.M.i iiu -in the Permanent Region. A remarkable instance illus-
AJ Pthis was the spring of 1877 after the open winter previous. In
gopf this Professor Samuel Aughey says:
b9iWl beast) cannot long endure a combination of low altitudes and moisture,
ru-with extreme and sudden changes of temperature. Hence, the locust can
rion-localized in Nebraska. The memorable spring of 1877 is a notable il-
.l it...t. fact. In March and April immense numbers hatched out, and then
". iw:5od rains, with sudden alternations of extremes of temperature. Countless
.....R ung locusts died. In many spots where the ground seemed to be covered
flt ls none could be found in a few days. Nothing convinced me that death
:li.:::esus.e of their disappearance, until, getting down on my hands and knees
.:........ ..the ground with a huge magnifying glass, I found their dead carcasses.
P. P -.brood just hatched out disappeared as if by magic from whole counties.
Thi*:1iW| where much damage was done were exceedingly few. In fact the brood
".:*6.Impaired constitutionally that it fell an easy victim to the extremes of a moist
.ii itfu' a comparatively 16w altitude. I also noticed, in previous locust years",-
.tmis.ft accompanied by an extremely hot or cold day, was always fatal to many

A 7Umro us instances of like character came under my notice in that
;i : t ... years. '
isj'p ynged locusts, too, suffer from the effects of change of climate
!'; 14U. ey must undergo in passing from the Permanent to the Tempo-
i;:p|g... io.n. Quite number of instances of internal fungoid growths
under my n6tjice within the past twelve years. I have also
.'#. .large numbers of them die from the effects of what to me ap-.
l .'..to be some kind of pestilence. When examined with a micro-
'iothing unusual could be detected except the peculiarly flabby
l ipeaelthy appearance ..of their muscles and viscera, which were of .
rnhcolonr muo
egg are so much affected by the warm falls of this region that
egg-are so affec
AllBowing s)ringt.he.are found tobepartially destroyed. by semi-
iono.-(-iAughey.) Many of them also become attacked by

i 'i ,i.. .. ......
.M ,..
"i!:::: EE+! :+:" :'::: .: .:
'HH++,., ., ,..: ., ,. . .:;i..., .




7


44 moitv uxmw Irrow mmmoLowAL, coxwok(w.

imol&.. I recall very well the.lsprf 1873, wben great
,eggs deposited the previous:fall failed to hateb, and up*00
were found to be moldy. Thin is caused by ibe www.wet w
falL The lining and covering to the egg-pod partially decompaw
-these conditions and then this decomposition is imparted to tb'#'
which undergo a sort of fermentation-thas fitting them for tU
*f various molds. This condition of affairs was quite exteneiia ij
and adjoining countieg4where I had the opporUmity of examIlax"s
but how general in the State I am unable to state, as I made no NXMMWWWI
at the time to ascertain. Sandy soil, however, appeAred- to be
paratively free from these condition I suppow on krount of
ness and property of absorbing moisturiNor of perinitting it to soak*
In those localities where the eggs were attacked by' mold theape"
Antbomyia flies were also quite numerous. Hen it appears that,
sandy soil the eggs are freest from all destructive agencies true, i a
localities are more like the -permanent breeding grounds.
Naturally with the increase in the number of A i and adraboo
the settlements upon the frontier the devastation by loeusts will be f&,,
les&. They w-RI divide their ravages among more ftrm" and hoW
none will feel the losses nearly ais much as did thow who were isolaW
from their neighbors during past invasions. Thinly-settled diattwi*
auffered much more than those which were more. thickly settled
those lying out upon the pradidie than those adjoining and in
with groves. During these invasions there was no year bat in,,* Tu
a portion of the crops was saved and harvested by the farmers of,
extreme eastern portion of Nebraska and other seetious of eonntv
were comptratively thickdy settled and that. were -aituated near
natural timber-helt and interspersed with planted groves;
the con trary, those that were far away froin these natural and
groves, and thinly settled, were entirely devastated by the hvr4po Of
ravenous insects. Heilce we are compelled to acknowledge that Ow,
settling of a country in which the seftlers are tree-plantere has a
dency to diminish the ratio of locust injury.
Tree-planting is not only a matter of great importaniejo the h4",
itants of a country like ours in supplying a much-needed material A4
fuel during our severe winters, when at times it is impossible to obt"
-coal-either ftom the failure of a 6ufficient supply at the minve ox
from the impracticability of reaching towns where it ew be obtained.,..,
but it jig also of untold benefit as a moderator of climatic
By.planfing trees throughout the Temporary dn wherever
will grow, in time the area in which the locust is. capable 60f
tinuing its existence but two or, at most; three genorations, wtthoi#
having recourse to the and regions hitherto -referredto as the perw"*
breeding-gronnos, will be increased. Aside from the greater amoiftf, :Wt"4
of humiditythit would naturally follow tree-planting, the
4 Cuiziug County and othm In NabrakiL















viduals to fight the locusts, and hence help to increase the sum
Rh- o1f their dead and to diminish the swarms otherwise remaining to
~~ pmge and to increase at the ratio of an hundred-fold.
ib ', has been a great deal of disagreement in reference to the con-
"tion of the flights of locust, swarms during short and local rain-
... an Id also at night. Thit they do continue I think there can
S. longer. any doubt, since the cases where locusts were seen in the
lately before and after local rains of short duration are quite
4db:iL .This summer, while near Golden, Colo., I saw a few locusts
f cy y high during the progress of a rain-storm. I was at an eleva-
fol tibout 8,500 feet at the time, and the locusts were seen through
o3 v openings in the clouds. At other times also, of which 1 cannot
tO.... w give the precise dates, I know of instances where thunder
4....rs came up, and during their progress large numbers of locusts
I.iefnowin as if with the rain. The first of these, of which I have any
Ui"..1 ;,ri ". ;. .. ..
WIlege, occurred in the month of August about fifteen years ago.
*out noon, or a little later, a heavy thunder shower came up from the
I74tiwesi and we boys, who were out with the cattle, began gathering
i-|t jngether so that we could remain in the shelter of a tent that
"'". i erected during the coming of the shower. Well, just how we
.pseold I do not now remember; but after it had rained about an
l.tz we went out, when, to our great surprise, there were thousands of
*g.asshoppers jumping about in every direction, and others were
oMxitg down as if from the clouds. The majority had fallen during
4ei earlier part of the storm, however-as we noticed comparatively
kw of their coming down. During the same afternoopn, after the sun
je.ieout, others were seen in the air. Those which had fallen did not
uist until the next day. A few of them must have been killed in com-
144lwn, because every now and then we found their carcasses lying
. growud, some of which we picked up and used on our pin-hooks
bioaiting fishes. Other incidents, similar to this, have occurred
mitu, but as they did not impress themselves as vividly upon my mind
Eis.at this, I do not now recollect them as well, and therefore can give
S... .

Aj)so during nights when the wind continues to blow quite briskly,.
temperature remains unchanged or falls but little, swarms
-on the move sometimes continue to fly. I recollect several
S'in proof of this where locusts were known to leave a certain
aboutnoon one day, and were not known to have come down
e time daring the following day. One of these occurred in
* ," ..:::..... a , *


"i. : ". :... ....

ii':;i ;: .. "i ... i . .. ,
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.4 1
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1:.,<






40 IMMIORT UMTBID'STITM ]IN'romovooten coxxokok-
t f left the southern part of

alight 4gath until the follow'ing da.V,, when it eMad dovu,
exh part of the SWU, having flown about two hundrt,4
coming down to feed. Oth6r smidt swarms" bave frinlied*'
during the night and eaten fields of gTWn b6fore morning
this kind occurred in 1865, near Fort Calhoun, Nebr. In le
'hoppers were to be seen, but on the.dawin.o.f the fbHowing day
appeared and eaten the greater part of 4 field'of corn.
The majority of cps'" where swarms hAve. -been known to
their fUghts into the night am confineA to th
e Temporary Rei oi
during he earlier part *of the year when they are worklag.04i
northward with south'winds. The further north they proceed, a"
closer to the Peman'ent Region, the fewer'ar6theft unjisitin-al
This is undoubtedly due to the Comparative coolness tit the Min&
in these high latitud s and great al 'ttides, which an, no knd* S-
restriction to their activity. Moonlight nights, too, am pre
these journeys in preferenceto dark aud cloudy ones. P4
Although the neral rule is for this insect to be 9-inee-bro644-141%,
doe's occasioually by its position and jnigrationfss'ucmed iu
Aouble-brooded. Swarms reared in Texas- in early spring
reach Nebraska and even Southern Dakota in ear4, May.'
emlly leav6 eggs that batch in about a M0'111th therebygi*ing thi
tbe- months of July and August in. Which to mature. Tfieiw hori
MoUntL he 1601 At,
i t isclaimed, never a to much, on aceount, of t 'Ornial
sit
tion' F3 under which. they ire developed, and very rarely,40pb
In the mountain.digtriet of Montana and rddto, u well As in.
of the Temporary Ik 1 have noti aft.46r th6WROAV
young were full-grown there* were still others -iii niij just
Now? it may be thA s6me of the instances of so-cOM do'
ness in this i 8e&, if c y eximi ed, would prove to
0,
-of eg'g' s that throu 'h various cause's had be6i' retiirded V- _*_` &&
9 CJ-
usual. That this unevenness in ha;tchin is of ftequeitt it u'
.9
occurrence anyone who' has taken the le"i pains to
know; but however comin I on this inay be', there are aiidlhite 6eet'i
sioually instances *in which the evidence f4voring idoublobiiirooW441
could not well be doubted. We m then take it for grathd that,
ay
der certain conditions it is not only Possible bilt 80tually tro*e'
0. spretu8 becomes double-broode(l. Yet daises of dildkitid, a'
ativeJy few.
SUM-EBXI"NT UEGION.

Immediately joining the Permanent Regionlof this locust, and
between it and the regions temporarily visited, is &': tract of
possessing in part the characteristics of botb of these regionoi
tion of countU, as wotild naturally. be supposed,'is ofteAer v.W4-
svarmsof locusts from the north and west than aro the various:



21
























00 and of dwindling, This interior basin and western mountain
0 Mbetmg at a greater elevation than the region lying to the east, to
zyts. been given, the name of the Sub-permanent Region, more
ieirembles the true home or Permanent Region, and hehce its not
W .i.eI.uded under that name..
M T t: ... i L '..,..
flxf Mrepdy noticed the partiality this insect possesses for a cool
aM^ would naturally.and truly suppose that it would be boreal
.... tre.. This being the case, we would expect to find it the most
sm.ui enjoying tlh greatest immunity from all sorts of deterio-
S-|ufipebces to the northward. -This, at least, is the fact. The
I.D .tlh we go in the interior basin of the Mississippi and MiSouri '
.the.f tore at home do we fiMd the locust. At present, however,
Possible to give the exact temperature and other agencies that
tl*pite for this insect's greatest increase.
l h.ts insect appeals .:to be the only ,species that increases so -
r|f atd tecomes very numerous east of the Rocky Mountains, there
ITm:., foter closely allied species, or rather varieties, that at times
P!;eI..lite numerous west of this range of mountains. These un-
i are but local forms of 0. spretus, produced by, climatic and
|1tlien: ees. Of these other -locusts, one in particular at times
Miu..very numerous, and p.oves in swarms precisely like those of
dllj or migratory species; 0X spref us, and possesses habits almott
ntdca twit tho.ee of that locust. This is the C. atlanis Riley, treated
tr .t 6e .first Report of ..the Commissioni. It is confined to a locality
ning the peculiar climatic conditions of the Permanent Region, some-.
E i u dfi.d by thed. presence of a greater amount of moisture and an
St temperature, also an increase in the timbered area. This .
M !'confinned to the mountaini districts of eastern Oregon, ind a
j.n. niorfi#rn Nevada-, With, perhaps, a small area in sobuthwest-
This insect frequently drifts iiorth into Washington Ter-.
A nse- I B


low;, Ah
H !iii .::: -.. -.. :" -." 1
....":... .
," .. .,..




"T7:74 771 7?,1T


48 RzPoRT u=Trm. 9TATu zNWXjQ1A)010A)6 00)0KX8"X

Atory, aad thence'sastward through Idaw into portiotw Of,"
Monbuxt, where it commits depredations 04 crom Ift the t
from which it m* not considered distinct by the i Abiteaw 1
It has been stunted during growth.,
A few words bere as to the movements of locusta in these Pv%,
West may not ho amisso All those swarms. that Wme into tb*-]--
region from the north and east aretomposed of the genuin
while those that leave approach nearer to atlanis. The mo
also differ tosome extent from those east of the raiage, when tbe;61,*,
long stretches of plains uninterrupted by mountain ranges and
timber as they are in the mountainous district West Rverxxxivewr,
and mountain chain or spur haa a Pndency to'change thie courm at
retard the movements of awarms, while the winds for the great,6rpoftjoA
of the year are contrary, thus adding to the already numerous pm*#P
ities. To understand all these movements, and the laws by whi&
-axe regulated, will require considerable more time in which to inveWt",
Other marked varieties of this insect are claimed by diffeyent faruteis
to occur in isolated sections of the'Northwest, aud it is thought
differences are altogether due to the variations in the olim 'wd our-
grounding. : For my part, I will, not express an opinion at presnti At
have not hadsufficient opportunity to examine into the matter.
Although in the field from the middle of July to the lat of No
I saw comparatively few of these locnatff. Nevertheless at almost
locality where Istopped off, a few of themwere' fiftn,
While out on the plains east of Greeley, Colo., August 6, 1 saw
N
flying to the north. They were the most numerouis at about 2 odq*
m-9 but not -numerous enough to cause unnecessary alarm. Aftertbkl
saw other very limited flights in the vicinity of Fort Collins,
'0;
and Denver. Others were seen on the ground with the UW1vW "I.
but nowhere did I find them as numerous as several, speeje6
latter. A 11 swarm of loctists was seen on Salt- River, a -brana .4 too
Snake River, about the Imt of July, by W. A., Irwin, of ft&w Wy*6
He did not, however, notice any of them in the W, but waa quite jjoi_-
tive as to their identity. 61 Could not have mistaken them, as had iveed7,,
too many in. Kansas." Another swarm of this locust waa
having hatched. in the vicinity of Deer Lod Mont, the premwt yaW,
All at once" they disappeared and were thought to have mn
by.birds and insect enemies, as none were seen in the air. Still
k3waxmwashatebed among the foot-hills aboutMissoula,
they did some injury to wild grasses. They did not come. doWn into* ;h
valley, but upon 41 getting their wings became very restlewandEew
as if not knowing which direction to take-"-(Dakes*-) They
left, mostly towards the south, a, few, however, going north.,
going isouth followed up the' Bitter Root and its tributaries, while
goingnorth drifted towards the Flat Head Lake. Other swar=*,,'
locusts were seen'at various localities on -the Spokane and Snake W












| J U fPL OCUClVSS 1 LL ULLILJj JSUUtCUL ULO T CWO LLAU4A 1 tILPU 1 21UlUJKL ZUD SIJWA U5u 5
.t... uite Jabout their movements, if any. Some individuals told me that
WiB^rH 4ydid not leave, but died off towards fall, while others said they had
:* oticed. Was not able to obtain any of the live insects, but gath
H ,;a few of their carcasses that were lying about on the ground.
tbtA r.i section where they were reported to have hatched this season
iti n Washington Territory is between Colfax and Dayton, where,
ts i plce, they did much injury to several fields of grain. Others
,. t!: reported as having hatched in the vicinity of Lewiston, and farther
.. .. : .. ::. :: .:.' h.". ..
'.. ....... Snake River, as well as in a small portion of eastern Oregon.
r t. tw -however, were noticed in the air.
.:'..tttherefore appears that at present the number of these insects within
|O|t t.: .'of the United States is comparatively small, and, if there are
...................... inthe British Pdssessions to the north, we need not be alarmed
~ 'i .. .'..... ; '':' "
^..omg........ year, as there will be no probability of invading swarms.
b...estion now naturally arises whether or not we shall be visited
rin thenear future by swarms of these locusts; and, if so, how can we
9:.iVt 0x|:6peet to become rid of them. In answer to the former question
..i......y that this depends altogether on the number of locusts in the
*:*,htt Region of Montana and northward from time to time; tund also
Be!s easons in these regions, as well as upon the prevailing winds
.. "' ....EiE:. :. f : : . .. . .
ii, locusts are upon the move. If there are but few locusts in this
II W..Wcan receive but few from it. Again, as long as their numbers
anylocality, their flights are correspondingly shorter. Should
,i:l ~w~eer, be a succession of favorable seasons in this region, we
*,nj &p:ect them to call in the Temporary Region just as they have
.. ..... the past. Of course Dakota and Minnesota will be more in
.. ...... raB h ose States lying farther southward, for reasons heretofore
.: ::i ..:..'.;.:L :: :. i ,i:'.. :..
*iqdand therefore the inhabitants of this section will always have
J0440 in fighting them than will those who live farther from their
|:g ..grounds. However this may be, they are favored to some ex-
.:. :: t:...e ecroPs they raise, viz., wheat, oats, rye, and barley. Should
t4o.ut come into our section of country, which is quite probable,
b"l.U.y thing for us to do is to take matters coolly and philosophically,
4S-46 J1in our power to prevent their offspring from returning to the"
vg 1t1 Region the following season; and not do as many farmers
rng ~past invasions; viz., put our hands in our trousers-pockets
_peet the Commission to destroy the locusts, and the government
'.ue and our families until Providence gives us another crop;
6 o longer any excuse for not knowing how to fight this in-
t its stages, since almost every eaunty paper in districts via.
j. A.I to be visited has hinted at the various means suggested
i '''": :" ... . ..
"' I toii~i'"ii!;,i ::
L i i!i!:;, '::,;:. .







IRWORT UNITXD STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL COMMLOSIOL

by members of the Commimion and swh enalede farmars
save what they could of their cropL
Remember, also, that every effort put forph in lighting I
much towards their diminution and future immunity hum tbWr
Every locust that is destroyed before the bteeding season a
about forty from the possible increase the Nlowing nawn.
In speaking of the future in, reference to the depredations by Jj400*,
in Xebraska Professor B. Anghey says:
When the are& under cultivation 'is trebled, the &mount oi damagewma
do will be more than one-half lem Another more potent apitay a&ud
orease and destructiveness is the increasing rainfall of the State. Wd haw*
seen how the wet season of 1877 destroyed the greater part of these that aw
0'a
that spring. Daring each coming decade the number of similar seasons wM I r
The instincts of the locust will al8o prompt it to remain away from a regi
to its existence.6 J T,
What is true of Nebraska is also true, to a great extAmtj of the
V
part of the Temporary Region. S1
For my part I am inclined to believe that we have expai&md ft
worst raids from this insectl and that if any more viisitationB are
in the future, each successive one will be felt less for rmwim JIMMIUMIKU6110'rima
mentioned.
THE GENERAL OUTLOOM

Having devoted so much space to the -natural hiaWry Wd habbsAO 1 4A
this loust it would be well tv devote a little space to the prob"U"
of locust visits for 18K2, and if any should appear,.. their extwt Md ppW i
able whereabouts. This can only be-approximately stated by uaWg*4
data of 1881 as a basis. As this insect covered but a cmP*rsd*ft,r'
mall area in the Permanent Region within the'United Statas, 61A
too so widely scattered, we may predict that its d JS
will'not be great the coming summer.
While there were a few small flights noticed east -of them" flfvidm011
tba' Rocky Mountains, the majority of them were coufted to 66 *Vs4;
ern portion of the locust area, heretofore noticed as the imotral
that of the Snake River Valley. A few small swAms wer6 rewed at
various localities in western Montana, northem Idaho, eastern WSW* 4
ington Territory and Oregon, as well as in Nevada and parts of U*
These, althoufrh I was unabI6 to obtain sufficient data by which to
istantiato this supposition, after flying away from the locafifies in V=44, I
they were reared, came down and deposited their eg whiak4 of
*will hatch when the proper time arrives. These, am*rdipg to
win mi te but in most instances numbers insuMcient to
great depredations.
The firist locusts that I noticed or heard of this sommon wom
46,
noticed about two o'clock in the afternoon on the fth d1by of.96A.,IN"
They were on the wing at the fimeatid were fiY1ag.wrQ*A&d on a
Retobw of the IPW*a Geogmpby ud (ImIfty ot Nebnida% 00"o-Uft












Dakota near the Black Hills. There were not enough of them,
JI.w... er, to cause alarm for the coming summer, but there may and in
r bability.will be a few scattered swarms emanating from these that
:: isit portions of Nebraska and Dakota. Again, on the 17th of
A:f ,b:.B.'~a few (. spretus were noticed in the air and others on the ground,
"f...Lthe latter of which were copulating preparatory to egg deposit-
.ii i i 3 i i i .... ".... ..... "... .. ..
te se, however, were few in number, and consequently of no im-

beii itext swarm of locusts heard of was at Rawlins Station, where Mr.
. .......... ... Iri: wia informed me that a swarm of locusts had been seen on Salt
.I, anch of Snake River, in Eastern Idaho, July 30. He did not
ESIG s:ay of them in the air, but was quite positive that they were of
Uk i Fdii^^ttiiatory species," as he had seen this insect in Kansas and Ne-
..... ......... ... .... ..
htdtl when- they were so numerous there.
"u ;i'AMUter+ swarm of locusts for this year was that hatched in the vicin-
C Deer Lodge, Mont. Early in May the young larvae appeared in
0 niig np iabers over a small tract of country lying to the west of this
..li.. tgpivbe they did some damage to grass and several fields of grain in
; 1% bthe smaller side valleys. They were supposed to have origi-
l + ~l a swarm that must have come in, left its eggs, and with-
~slbtifieditely after this operations no one could inform me of the
.I o.er even of any having been seen the previous fall. These
|i 4Ss ppesred as mysteriously as they came, as none were seen to fly.
l! liion now that this was the offspring of the small swarm that "
ll flE WKas reared a few miles southeast of Helena, and that was
1-JOI, J to have been destroyed by a flock of sickle-billed curlew.
K'Ai Wr swarm, or rather several small swarms of locusts, were reared
O Nn4 jgigy of Missoula and Frenchtown this past spring from eggs
IY.r left by a swarm coming from the north and west. These did
ll4wfnigioto the wild grasses up among the foot-hills, but did not
..*i4l.i0l'd into tlhe valley. As soon as they matured they became very
. ..... ... td. flew about in various directions, coming and going as if un-
lIPe WhaIt direction to take They fina.ly left, most going southward;
............ If went to the north in the direction of Flat Head Lake and'
SPawS, where they undoubtedly crossed over the range and
"t great Breeding Oentet of the North. Those going south I
4ise to trace, but snppe6se they eame to a halt somewhere in the
lter country, in whieh locality they will rear their young, to
.thr :semnthwadl Movements the coming year. -' '"
1W.Ofall of 1880 loesats came into the valleys of eastern
ey.. from the northeast, -::did some' damage to grain in
... 4 jetie along the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, -


........ .......".t..... A P.
E +: "+ i: ":..
H ..*i! .... :4 .
I+ m++ +,,::~~~~~.............. ..,o.:.................:,:'":m.......+..,.......




I IT,


52 R"ORT UNITZD BTATEB ZNTOMOLOGICAL 0 MM

and passed on southwaril, leaving eggis at VW10US POiDtS al(Mg,
line of march. due swarm men this year (1'880) on Wj
about 48, miles south of Spokane Falls, was of considerable extent
continued for two days. It wat about 4 miles in width where they AM
thickest. After going as far south :as the Palouse River they bagw
depositing eggs and continued to do so until they crossed Bnakeuiyloi I
after which they seem to have been lost eight ot, Very likely # wa,
prove to be identical with the awarm that was reported to have a,
and to have done damage to grain. in the VILCM W44 dw
ing August of this year, 1880.
From the above-mentioned swarms ori inated numerous a man 044mv-
91 'A
that were observed throughout various portions of this Territory durb*,
the present summer, 1881. These, however, were nowhere exceedv*-
numerous and did but little'damage as far as could be aseertaine(4 savo
in a few isolated spots. Only on one occasion were any noticed in *o
air that I could learn of, and this inforination was so vague that I 41A.
not ascertain the direction in which they were moving. At
on the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, great, numbers of ymug-
were hatched, and alad for some distance southwatr& Theme, howevert
do not appear to have migrated, but remained and deposited their eggo4
since, on October 15, 1 found great numbers of their dead bodies 1yWC
scattered over the ground. I was informed that this particular locality
is always more or less infested with this insect.
At several other points, especially along Snake Rivertowards I*vjo,
ton I was informed that young locusts had hatclied and done som'ads*.,
age, but could not learn to what extent this occurred, nor: could 1 awp*6-
tain anything in reference to their movements after maturing. At 00
crossing (Palouse Ferry) of Snake River in early spring, May, I beUer%
several fields of grain were destroyed by these little locusts. 801t Is,
impossible for me to predict anything in reference to locust probabBi".
in this portion of the country for the coining season not knowingav*-
thing more definite in reference to the movements of the locasts hateW
here this season.
In the fall of 1880 great numbers of eggs were deposited in pordoe
of Nevada and Western Utah, which undoubtedly gave birth to was,
young locusts in the spring of 1881, but not having any data whatevet,
from this portion of the West with whi& to substeatiate Udis, I "A,
give no further clew.
However free from locusts the country was in 1879, after the poatv
raids of 1875-1779 they are again on the increase, and should be
against on aU sides. Of course, there must havebeen many moreo(*4*0,w,
small swarms Mi portions of the regions not visited by zne whick*
nothing occurs to check them, in a few yews will, Materially
their numbers. Of course at present, the movemenits:of these swM"34
are all independent of one another but as they become largerazdmww
numerous they will be: more closely connected, andfinally beeome s*,
mated with one movement.













4,F A

SWTS ON OTHER LOCUSTS, AND ON THE WESTERN
".....:. .....C R IC K E T .6
S... ': ......
. "". i" r...:. . .:i:. .. .. ...
,:,,,dditiou to the several species of locusts already noticed in this
.^N- t- there are at least upwards of two hundred and seventy others
f$i$i ar ,known to inhabit the various portions of North America north
MRe^. o,.4and which are more or less injurious to the agriculturist
?t th _tosie who are in any way dependent upon the products of the
,:!#tt heir living. True, but few of these various locusts ever become
.....ii ..i:.i. E :. :i... : L Ed ":.. .i : ". .
S::,,, 6ively numerous as do those concerning the history and habits
iI4h I[ havejust written; neither do they ever, except on rare occa-
1,;, ,and with a few species, become imbued with a desire to migrate.
-IIJAKAim e distribution these insects vary much. Some of them enjoy a
iii i .: " Y :". ":.... ...
,wi^ .Vde-range, and are well represented both in climatic varieties and
,, brs; others are less widely scattered and are few in numbers,
I... %Ai .U,,O others are local in their haunts an.'l quite few in individuals.
....gi.i a...::4Ban, while local, are well represented in numbers in their imme-
I 4tt, .alities. So diverse are the habits of these various species of
.1t'. ,, hpperes. that almost every nook embraced within this entire *
4p.ot.country, where insect life is possible, possesses its one or two or
, |fmi ja^or representatives of this group of jumping insects. Even the
plfi !!':i:!X .:and almost frigid mountain summits, as well as the parched and
V 4Be 4 desert regions of Arizona and New Mexico, furnish suitable
jl st4 A fr a few hardy species that are so constructed as to be able to" ,
r:N jftp4 d heseextremes of climate. However numerous these insects I
ii.. ii ... i:ii... '.. :
I &"diverse their haunts, it is nevertheless an undeniable fact that the
.rn ..""u J".:mber by far are partial to a country, the climate of which is "
.ii..i ... N!ly temperate and where the humidity is not excessive. No-.
|: *'i; .alone possesses at least 140 of them.
!, ..-,.!!.. Ni.::; .. ... .
g. $ke,.4istributiou of these insects we have noticed that the following g
!,ql:s, ,can be relied on to a great extent: (Udipoda and allies are more
4 warm, sunny slopes where the ground is partially bare and
hey have a chance to flit about in the warm, open air and sun
..v Cp. aloptenms and allies, as Pezotettix, Brachystola, &c., are
*partial to low and cooler localities where they can rest in the shade
aj p ut among the-more luxuriant and tender vegetation. zAcri- :. *
a lver, of dense shrubbery and other luxuriant growths of vege-
l ^ ^ ^ 1 r r' eo f bs aisdtn:r e o te r1.... .....- .:..
11I'lt1W Mr Shinnr's- report, of qba~rttvtons undp direction of Professor Riley, for 1881.
53 N

... ...::" .. ..:! . .
.. ii .J,..:: Ir:riL..i. .N..'. . i

*.,.. . . .il',~ii




I&r I r __

54 REPORT UNITED STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL'

tation while a few others freqnent forests and thetr borders, wbOr
rovel in luxury from day to day with the katydids ilad other sh'
ing insects. Pezoteffix, with but few exceptions, pr4m 0001 land
localities, and hence is often found among or near rocks, M, IMOn
slopes, in clearings or on the outskirts of timber belts, and iin
A few species, ais Ghrysochraon and Stenobothrm, are lovers of thw
and damp localities along streams, and as a rule either winter at,
or pum. These are often seen quite early in spring, and very E
have been the cause of unnecessary alarm among the more ignprapt, I
180118, who imagined them to be forerunners of a general locust invaakwi,,,
However numerous these different varieties of locuas th4i arewet,--,'
tered. throughout the various portions of the United &ate# and
ward, all the others combined do not cause one-tenth so much injW.I* 'A
C. spretus does. True, several others at times have be4a known I* bi -
come quite numerous, nd ha-ve committed much -h1jury to amm'"d 7
Vegetation in general. The chief of the8e are Camsuk atrox, 04#-'
tenus differentialis, C. femur-rubrum, and C. atlanis; and it swh tkMa
they have all exhibited to a greater or less degree the ndgratory =Mwa
of the true plague of the West and Northwest.
In addition to the above-named in-sects of this order, I have notked
the following locusts when their movements partook of the migratury
character, viz -. Acridium americanum., (Edipoda plattei, (9.4on
and Tro biti tbk
pidolophus formosu8 ; the male only of the last exhi ug
characteristic. They would start up without any seeming disturbeaft,
and fly great- distances before allighting, and thenrepeat the action semt-
eral times,- invariably going with the wind. Tbese movements. we"
made independently of one anotb or, though occasionally I have nott"
several locusts in the air at the same time. Whether or, not this VIA
a case of true migration on the part of these insects I wM not now
to inquire; but confess that it not only looked so to me ai the time but
also answ ered every purpose that such a movement could.
These 11 natives," as. they axe termed in contradistinction to the Mi.
gratory species, deposit their eggs in such localities as agree with Ow
habits of the different species. They are, however, generally par"
to sheltered and partly bare grounds where, the soil i's firm and not t66
wet.
The young live where their parents do, and dilkr bnt little in tlowr
babits. They molt from three to four times.
M042 if not all) of these locastw. are continuallyhmwsed by 1*"4
and other enemies. These enemies and parasites do'"t m&teAaj1yd*,
from those affecting C. spretus, and therefore requift no adftonal 40*
scription here.
The following is a list of the locusts or grasshoppers as
more eommonly termed, inhabiting the United States and the
portions of Bn'tish America and Canada, as nearly as I CM give
eve


:irk













i NUfl an *-LBtn aia As... aU..J LLD32J 11 JN 3 L V aUM t:
:i + A. Acurum brevipenne Thomas.-Florida.
S2. Mesops wyomingensis Thomas.-Wyoming.
.. .. ~cilorizans Thomas.-Florida. "
Sii: Mermiria alacris Scudd.-Georgia.
: . ..... .........,: W", :i. + "".."...
*f .4 neomexicaina Thomas.-Colorado, Nebraska, &c.
|| ,.. bivittata Seudd.--Eastern and Middle United States.
S Oipomala carinata Thomas.-Eastern United States.
.....!!! i .. +... ..... .
GULF. aptera Scudd.-Pennsylvania. .
i, brachyptera Seudd ..-Massachasetts, Wyoming.
,, Lptyma marginicolle StAl.-Florida.,
." Atenopodes sphenaroides Scudd.-Florida.
......2$,, rufovittata Seudd.-Florida.
..:'+:. : aptera Scudd.-Florida.
s4Piyirgamorpha brevicornis Walker.-Southern United States.
Qzky::p h. punctipennis Thom as.-Tennessee.
,xo'..i: ryphu8obscurus Thomas.-Wyoming.
L OitO.I njsochraon couspersum Thomas.-Eastern States, British A-mer-
. .. ........... le"i a .
.. .. ... punctulatum Thomas.-Connecticut.
abdominal Thomas.-Montana.
*- *obsourum Scudd.-Florida.

vi ..ii3 ,deorum Scudd.-Colorado.
S. I' A orolophitus hirtipes Thom as.-Colorado.
,23, Pedioeertetes nevadensis Thorn as.--Nevada. :
,t^" Sia, Stbothrus occipitalis Thomas.-COolorado, Wyoming, Idaho. *
24i+,5:^ 0 eoloradus Thomas.-Colorado, Wyoming.
S.+1+,::: : *trioarinatus Thomas.-Wyoming.
~III1: +Til admirabilia Uhler.-United States east of Rocky Moan.
.. .... ::E .. E :E : .... : .. .. . .. ":.
,..:.. ...... .. . .. .
|| i r subconVpersus Walker.-Florida.
Naii; ,..: .- speiosvs Scadd..-Minnesota.
..wmulipenia Scudd.--Florida, Massaehusetts, Wyo-
ming, Minnesota, Nibbraska, &c.
V,* cequalis Scudd.- Masachuetts, Maine, New Yerk,
: Miannesota, &o.
3!, bilineatms Seudd.-Massachusetts. -
......pJr fUyi.aRaI Seudd,--Utah, Nebraska, &c. 11
curtifenne: SBudd.e-Nebraska, North America east of
Rocky] Montains. +
clavatus Tlomaas.--KaMsas.


..... ...... .
it: 2 ": ::"
i :: i'.LN N :..1 NN,
NI NJiV NE~iE.. E ..... ... :
:!!:"iiii! ...






I56 RXP))RT UNITED STATZ13 zimmoiiiiioiiwA- cowxmom r; ii
36.iii)i)ii~ &voo rwo ksti aLs-bueo
37.~~~~~i irw hma.4oaoWoig
38 uarmmam hma-ord ymiui
39. graoiU8 Saudd,-Yebrs")
40 plixwThms.-insyvab
41. GoHH Homw simplex Scudd.-DelawaBBBBBB
42.vigam cudliTeaa
43.~~ lhsatsSdd-aions
44. dpsydr Scud,-mClllsdm
45. navcula Sadmlllmlm|do
46.elvam hoas.-KnssXeradu
47.euet G.X.Dogaill|nka
48 tthpya iwut ed.-asc|sts

49 gaoleSodd-Min, riis
50.pla"Wum cad,-ewEnganmOite
51.~~~~ ~ ~ ~ Ghmrchlpcfa cd.C"1.
52.brvien"'Scad.Clmfrn












undulatus Thomas.-Colorado.
Trimerotropis latifasciata Scudd.-Washington Territory.
c5. ~fontana Thomas.-Utah.
1|a similis Scadd.-Washington Territory.
i4. cleruleipes Scudd.-Oregon.
8** 8. vineulata Scudd.-Washington Territory.
,Il~lm1' verruculata Scudd.-Illinois, Nebraska, Montana, and
". Dakota.
91*. auffusa Scudd.-California, Utah.
S. citrina Scudd.-OColorado.
i 2" ".""..- obscura Scudd.-New Mexico.
Ai. ., pseudofasciata Scudd.-California.
,, .. juliana Scudd.-California.
5.:: 0"5,,,, picta Scudd.-Florida, Georgia.
96. lsaoateria carolina Scudd.-United States, Canada.
K^ ,t longipennis Scudd.-Kansas, New Mexico.
i '.98.0 nebrascensis Bruner.-Nebraska.
f* N. H'S isecus eorallipes Scudd.-Utah, Nebraska, Dakota, &c.
10 lineatus Scudd.-Idaho, Colorado.
^,101 neglectus Thomas.-Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming.
.1^^02 haldemannii Scudd.-Colorado.
:: ... .. .:.. .
ii.. .... "'......
3. 1 putnamni Thomas.-Utah or New Mexico.
.. :... :".....
I 04. discoideus StAl.-Florida.
J; 105 annula atrox Scudd.-California, Oregon, Nevada, British Amer.-
/ii,:: ..1ica, &c.
Uo. pellucida Scudd.-Maine, Massachusetts, &c.
.. 107... .. cara decens Scudd.-Utah.
Pnd. ceruleipes Scudd.-Colorado.
H siidia wallula Scudd.-Washington Territory.
S 1v19 eucerata Harris.-Florida.
|lL, 1 sulcifrons Scudd.-California. "
S i a strangulatun Scudd.-Colorado.
SI, r.i aplieura decussata Scudd.-Colorado, Montana.
4 PI ostroma parvum Scudd.--New Mexico.
S.: ~pictum Scudd.-Nebraska.
Hadrotettiz trifascidtus Scudd.-Colorado, Wyoming, Dakota, Mon-
4 tana, Nebraska, &c.
a .T rachyrachys aspera Scudd.-New Mexico.
;:... ctoronafn Scudd.-New Mexico. :
.. .Derotmema cupidineum Scudd.-New Mexico.
flA ia: intlegra Scadd.-OGakornia.
vitWpoda venusta Stal.-Oalifornia.
nwarmorata Uhler.-Massachueetts.

..lEE ......

H ..i iii... !!'
i WJ irii :L ......... :






.58- wwolff UNITED STAT" "TONOLOGIC" Owl I I 777-t
1M. (Edipoda haydnii Tboma&--Colorado, Wyomjing
.124. fienestraliN Uhler.-Flori&4 X4M h
125. graoilit Thomas.--Oolorado, Wyoaiisg.
126. kiowa Thomase-Colorad% Webralsks, D&kOts &0#
127. cincta Thoma&-oColorado, Wyoming, Illinois &a. xlo,F
.plaftei Thor
128. aa&-Coloradoo Wyoming, 1XKeb"MwikkWj4L4L
129.0 maritina Uhler.--Ma"a&n8ettA4 Connecticut 1
130. hofinannii Thomas.:-New Mexico and Arizon&
i3l. montana Thom as.-Moutana, Idaho,
132. paradoxa Thomas.-Utabi Idaho.
133. rugota Seadd.-United. StateN. VancKmveee -14NA
134. phwnicQptera Germ.-United States.
135. parvicep8 Walker.-California, &e.
136. Vhl6wltig viridig Scudd.-F4orida Nebraska4 Oonneedeu;,A*_-l
Dois, &c.
137. brunneus Scudd.-Texas.
138. Amblytropidiasubityalina Seadd.-Texas.
139. Dociostaurus ornatug Scudd.-New Mexico.
140. Lepru8 ingent? Seudd.-California.
141. Spyllina delicatula Soudd.-Colorado.
14-9d. Bodpedon imbilum Thomas.-Nebraska.
143. flavofasciatum Thomas.-Nebraaks4 Oolorad% Wyowftg,,,-.
Montana, &C.
144. Phrynoteffix verrucula-tus (Uhler MSS).-Pecos River, Texas.
145. Platyphyma montanum Thonias.-M-ontana.
146. Cliromacri8 colorata Walk.-South Carolina.
144'. Tropidacris dwx Seudd.-Texas.
148. Brachy-stola magna Seudd.-Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, and
braska.
virescens Scudd.-Texas, New Mexim
150. Eremobia magna Thos.-Arizona.
151. Acridiumfrontale Tbomaa.-Kansas.
152. unitineatum Walker.-Indiana.
153. rubiginosum Harris.-Bastern United BtatmL,
154. alutazeum Harris.-Eastern United Statm
155. emarginatum Uhler.-Colorado, Nebrsek, aud
156. ainericanum Scudd.-Baetern and Mi.ddle United ft"$'
157. amtb* uum Thomaa.-Ilhnois, Kanow, and
158. ob8curum Burm.-Bouthern States.
159. shookone Thomas.--Arizous4 NevW* Ut8L
160. vagum Seudd.-Cadifornia.
161. appendiculatum Uhler.--Florid%
Ml-
162. Dietyophorw reticukdw Thunb,--F1oricbL
163. marci Burme-.-Flori4a.
164. Pezoteffix olivamm Seudd.-Texas.
165. acutipennis Souddi-4exa&


















.. . .. . .

... .. .. ..:E. "..
ui !i':;":"; :: ,:i.M 17 '





..... ....: .. '., ...=......



Mik.









97.
.i.
::.~ ~ ~ :::.
:" "
** .. ..
.... i i : , ...

*:iPJ" 488. : 7' ..
K b$:4 .
185;::,T .,
i ii: .ei::;: .:. .;.:... --
rii! ',: :t9 .
ar. .L .: ,...
*1*ii!::
:. ..EE E.ii ::'
q4E 1.......
i,!K i9o
.:;:. ..
;ii:? L : .
,10, .. 19T
'i: : ... ', ..
LO: B. ::' : '
19"7'' :',t.
198
: ... .f :.i', .i. ':".
.... O : E
~.. ...; .: : . :


discolor Scudd.-Texas. -
flabellatus Scudd.-Texas.
pupwformis Scudd.-Texas.
aridus Scudd.-Arizona.
aspirans Scudd.-Colorado.
rotundipennis Scudd.-Florida.
puer Scudd.-Florda.
dodgei Thomas.-Utah, Montana, Colorado.
tdllustris Scudd.-New Mexico.
marshallii Thos.-New Mexico, Colorado.
stupefactus Scudd.-New Mexico.
S plagosus Scudd.-New Mexico.
marginatus Scudd.-California.
vivax Scudd.-New Mexico.
jucundus Scudd.-California.
enigma Scudd.-Arizona.
gracilis Bruner.-Nebraska, Dakota.
S glacialis Scudd.-New Hampshire, British America.
mancus Smith.-Maine.
borckii StMl.-California:, Oregon.
zimmermannii Sauss.-Carolina.
longicegrnis Sauss.-Carolina.
nebrascensis Thomas.-Nebraska.
unicolor Thomas.-Illinois.
edax Sauss.-Carolina.
scudderi Uhler.-Maryland, Illinois.
- borealis Scudder.-Minnesota.
septentrionalis Sauss.-Labrador.
pacificus Scudd.-Western United States, California.
occidentalis Bruner.-Nebraska.
albus G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska, Minnesota,
juitius G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska.
autumnali s G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska, Dakota.
pictus Thomas.-Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, &c.


W5. Bradyonotes opimn s Scudd.-California.
.... obesus Thomas.-Montana.
07. Hfeperotettix viridis Scudd.-Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Minnesota,
Kansas, &c.
l.optenus extremus Walker.-British America.
arcticus Walker.-British America.
borealis Fieb.-JBritish America.

1::" "a::::x : i" '
4 'm:iii"i


4:iLi!h~I. ~j4ai*..~*.. =...~. '0


. ..... ,. '.


.:... u.
:...:.......E






60 wwow UNITZD IMAM ENTONOWGWAX

211. Oakytenim bilituratu Walkerw-Xadfie Ckmwtit Moutwum. h f*
A&a
212. punetulatw Uhler.--Maine,::
213 minor Scadda-Mississippi VaRpys'
214. gravilipes Saudd.-(f)
215. deWor Scadd.-Texas.
216, robwtu Scudd.-Texas,
217, turnbullii Thomas.--Pwific coast,
2180. floridanm Thomas.-Florida.
219. angwtipamU G. M. Dodgee--Nebnw)a6
2,920. plumbun G. M. Dodge.-Webraskao :If M
21. diffierentialis Thomas.-Nebraska, lewa Mwo*
soun, &c.
222. grwiw Thomas.-Ohio, Nebraaka.
2239 soriptw Walker.-P"Ifio coast. !#
224. oooidentaH8 Thomas.-Montana, Oolora6, &e.
225. yarrovii Thomas.-Arizona, or Novad&
226. regalis G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska, Colorado, Wyo*A&,,
227. helluo Scudd.-Texas.
2
228. fionderosus Sctidd.-Texas*
229. flavoli-neatus Thomas.-Florida.
230. keeler-i Tbomas.-Florida.
231. volucris G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska.
#;
232. clypeatus Scudd.' Gborgia.
233. (Ifelanoplus) femur-rubrum Deg.-United States, British
234. collinw Seudd.-Vermont.
235. femoratus Scudd.-Washington Territory, Malmo.-
South Carolina, British Columbia, &c.
236.. atlanis Riley.-Northern 'LTnitJ States and B##*
America.
237. rechis Scudd.---Maine.
23% luridws G. M. Dodge.-Nebraska, Dakota, &o.
239. collarig Seudd.-California.
240. devdstator Seudd.-Montana.
-Califoraia Nevada in
241. cinereus Scudd. waah" Kton %W
ritory, &c.
242. 8pretw Uhler.-Western Irnited states and BrOJW,
Amerikm.
243. packardii Scudd.-Washington Territory, 001"0011
Utah, Nebraska, Texas.
244. kennicottii Scudd.-British America and Alasks6
245. bivittatw Scudd.-Eastern and Central 11Jnited
British America.
246. tenebro-sus Feudd.-North Carolina.
247, atizonx Scudd.-Arizona,
248, infantilis Scadd.,Colorado, Wyoming,,Britiab A
Ica, &C.












:. ;. interior Scudd.-Arizona, Utah, &e.
,bowditehii Scudd.-Colorado."
-, ,, flavidus Scudd.-Colorado, Nebraska.
too^^^.^.^ ^. nigresoens Scudd.-Georgia.
:" .2.. wroxya atlantica Scudd.-Atlantic coast, &c.


of-itii3iP^EF>^


recta Scnudd.-Georgia, Florida.
Sornatus Harris.-British America, New Mexico.
arenosus Burm.-South Carolina, Florida.
cucullatus Burm.-Massachusetts, Missouri, &c.
-3 11 i ts --I 3 A


IliE^^ jemoratus ScwuM.-MIaryIand.
!iftriangularis Scudd.-Massachusetts, Maine, New Hamp-
S.. ......... shire, & c.
!i^^.. t', :ru gosu8s Scudd.-Florida.
.. 0iv!.. .oraycepalus Bbrm.-South Carolina.
' : harriaii Packard.-Maine.
2!.5 'granulatus Scudd.-Eastern North America.
2.k Tetti gidea lateralis Scudd.-Florida, Eastern United States.
.ill 0' polymorpha Scudd.--.Eastern United States.
.... .. obesa Soudd.-Georgia.
|; prorsca Scudd.-Georgia.
>I!^,. a. f ftrackidea cristata Scudd.-Florida, Massachusetts.
:: carinata Scudd.-Massachusetts.
i llilst I do not consider perfect in any respect, nor do I claim any
| iii .: .:: :.. ..... . . .
lmfitf^.s for it; on the contrary it possesses many faults, both in the order
ir:n w...which the names occur and in the names themselves. However this
y it will answer the purpose for which it is designed, viz., to
. ibo th .i iirh e great numbers of this family of insects that inhabit our coun-
WIKi. "But few of these species are known to the general class even of
erm .... ologists, and fewer to those who take no interest in the insect
711b.6 l*ti them. By a careful study of these insects throughout the
wtnrn- portions of the unexplored regions of the West and Northwest,
II M4; :' qite confident that many others will be added to this already large
IIUR -h he habits and natural history, too, of most of these locusts, are
:ht eomparatively little understood, and there yet remains much to be


THE WESTERN CRICKET.7'


(Anatbrus8 simplex.)
ions portions of the far West are to be found different species
wingless and dark-colored insects which distantly resemble
sl. the account of this cricket in the Second report of the U. S. Entomological Commia-
rli, p. 8.


: :.,.... :... ... :.... ..:.


:k
.it


4f : '
P::





Lan
via MWOUT UNITSD STATZ8 23 DMOLOG10"

tme cricket& Tkm Wmeft b"g, to tWA. 1!tro A"
Smily of Ortboptara, the LoewtMoe or katydidiw abd slliam
known as Western Cricket& Of the Pn4e A*abno Ume we at
half of a dozen species. One of them, however, has gained JOr
name that cannot own be forgotten by the bwly *"ers of UUb
a4joinmig territories. Ab times this inseet bomme so numerous
its marches great depredation was done to crops and the eady
were entirely despoiled of their agricultural product& Wheat,
and barley, so well as most garden produatiN wem attacked w
utmost ayidity, and when once in a field or garden this inewt
n4 leave without having first eaten everything-the weeds evm
included amon
.g the rest, and in many cases devoured dam to 00-
ground.
This insect is known popularly as the C ricket, the Weetam
Buffalo Cricket, &c., and scientifieAWY as Asabrw sinplm Its disxhd*a
tion appears to be coincident with that of 0. sprdw want of the sown
divide of the Rocky Mountains, but it Hj confined to the mom elev"4t 6
sage wastes and mountain valleys, as well as the open idapes high. up
the mountain sides. In fact, as a rule, it keeps up ammg the moaW,
ains, and only occasionaUy comes down into the valleys on
expeditions.
The cricket, like the locust, was.not, known until emigrants and
seekers began to cross the continen4 and then only was it hewo 4P
havi been seen in the vicinity of Great Bait Lai* and along tba')*t''
Military.Road. Sinee the locust question came up, however, its ku"*,*
rancgre bag greafly increwedg and how we are amare6f its exh&wce 9410- 4"
north and west as Pend d'Oreille Lake and the eastern half of
ton Territory. Oregon too, occasionally, is reported as kaving ift
of vaot herds of crickets while Nevada is occadonally vWW by 04mott,
1n Utah they occasionally appear as far south as Mount Nebo. TV
travel in droves or herds, which 6ome marching along ovtw the qoo*W
like an army intent upon razing to the ground everytbing ibs4 &at,*
its line of march., These armies vary greatly in size and in tbWr tao.,
ties while on the move. As a rule they collect inta.lines varying
a few to hundreds of yards in width, and from a few hundred fi*t tw
mile or more in length. When they axe ready to move, a few of thoW
start off in the direction in which they intend to g% a6d, am fewww.f.
by others, and these again by still others-all tWd.ng the sime raaW"'
and thereby exhibiting the leading character in the moviDg or xajSr#*r'-
it; Pecorwt' 't,
ing of wingless insects. Ants and termites also possess. th
habit, as do several species of crustacean8 that at times we in the hAt
of changing their abodes or of traveling in search of food,
The n atural history and habits of thii cricket we -but Uttle kaqvg
Ye4 since their usual haunts and breeding grounds lie hr up j*JW'tt
mountains and out among tbe sage wastes of the foot hill& Haw
that they generally pass their lives and propagate their kiad yw













A: AtIsed at the ignorance displayed by many of the inhabitants of the
t'Waterni Territories, many of whom wete of the opinion that they are of
j: gte lfe of the cicadas and other periodical species. As wide as the
... Suattio of this insect is, the locality, however, where they are the
Hi tugii^iiia t erous is the lava region along the valley of the Snake River.
...... .is that we hear of them in greater or less numbers every year.
H ye .a-r I heard of crickets throughout Idaho, Montana, and east-
|Mkr9tAhgton Territory, andwas fortunate enough to meet a gentle-
H3 A. Bowen, of Oolfax, W. T.) who was able to give me some
JimT on in reference to their breeding habits in the eastern portion
Pi'W ihgton Territory. The following is the natural history of these
ll1iiil| f iO .... given by him:
.1 ate frequently seen 1i large numbers at different localities throughout
,,, Washington Territory, and at times have done considerable damage to
I*iAir vegetabless, and grasses. That they should occasion great alarm when ap-
||ssnyR!i|:l "in such vast droves is quite natural; but, in reality, they are not so danger-
...ii. ...... ': ght be supposed, since they.are very easily checked in their march by
.I:* can be readily destroyed. If a ditch two feet wide and two and a half
llwl.cvl igfl their line of march they will fall into it and cannot get out. By
.i.... rge pits at intervals they are doubly corralled," and soon begin de-
Oi meother, as they argteat cannibals. Rolling. the ground, too, is of con-
.W: iid toward diminishit. their, numbers.
esiit, arted in a certain direction it-is seldom that they turn aside for or-
obstacOle;, but keep straight ahead until they "fetch up" in some creek,
7iii pyit, 7od are lost bydrownin g or by being devoured by their stronger neigh-
.. :: .... ::+ "" ."; ..U. "
*, king.,of this insect Mr. Bowen said that "the young were so
|itSAbP' *bf' first hatched that they could hardly be seen,i' but in a few
L.S:"'the molt and become perceptibly larger. This "shedding" is'
Several times, until they have finally attained full size, after
ii i:tey become quite :dark colored. When ready to molt they
..i.pi-a.blade of grass, weed, or some other object, to which they
R*1'4tI' le going through the process; after which the skin of the
iwirrim- wA .t Os cracks openwon the back like a cicada, and the new insect
r 0e o qt" "fresh and green," but soft. Sometimes the shell is eaten,
ktp rlly is left clinging where it was shed.
easurly spring when they are just hatched the little fellows are found
ik.tiusters of twenty to forty-probably the offspring of a single female,
So re likely of a single batch of eggs. These young as they increase
i spread from time to time until they form circular droves, with a
.. attwenty or more feet, and finally the various broods become ..
gled that they are no longer discernible.
been a query with the settlers of various portions of the i
Viiii~'iii: i" ,iNI% .,;, :


a. ."..........,.
"T 4i[[i-64iiI ii~~ii, i",i




. ...... ....... .. . .... .. .... ....


64 REPoRT umw evam laRTOMOTAMICAL COMOSSIOW

14 cricket area" of the Weet wbence do the great numbers of t4b
sect come after a series of years in which comparatively few or noim ba'
been noticed, and some even assert that they only mature aftera, 7 1
of seven years or at other definite intervals. Mr. BoweWa idea,
ever, is that they an annual in their generation, mid are notimW
after a winter favorable to the preservation of their eg^ whkh on
moody destroyed in other years. He thinks that m&U droves on a**
nually bred at isolated localities, and spread over.. a large uva to doo*
posit their eggs. In theme views I coincide although I must omilis
that I have had no personal experience with this insect,
A year when crickets were bad in Pleasant Valley, eastm Wad"&,-,
ton Territory, as well as in many other localities 'in this Tet.rimny, VWMAS
that of 1873. At that time, however, but little fiLrming waa awried an
in this district, and hence the damage occasioned by them was ligb$.
Again, in 1877, some were seen in the neighborhood of Oolfam, but them
did not appear to'come in contact with many fields of grain or gardens
in their marches. Since, and prior to this, small droves have bom sw
ported as having been seen in various portions of this and adjoining
portions of Oregon and Idaho. t
11 could supplement this list with many more adeounts of the rapp"41-
ance of this insect, but they are all of a similar character, and heum at
no particular interest here.
But few Parasites are known to affect this crii3ket. Further M*V0-M-'_
gations may greatly enlarge the llst however. In the summer of IM
large numbers of this insect were seen along the Partnauf River. A
few of these were attacked by red mites much like those inftdag th*
migratory and other locusts. These were clinging to -them at varipw
points, but chiefly 4bout; the thorax and rudimenta7 wings. I do mA
know, but suppose they are the young of some egg-eating mite-per-
haps one that attacks the eggs of this and other 1 ha" alm
been told that various'ground-beetles and sand-wasps destroy some of
their young. Hair-worms (Gordiu8), too, am fi-equently found, wound
about their intestine& Bmides these insect enemies then are numewo"
species of birds that devour great numbers of them. !Pishes, to% aw
ture large numbers as they crow streams.
This is all that I will mention at present in connecUon with this ho.
sect but hope some time in the fatunB to be able to gire its fall hiMmy.
Respecthilly yours,
LAW11ENCE IBRUNBX-
Prof. 0. V. 1ULEY1
United ftfes Fatonologi8t,
W"hington, D. 0,












CHAPTER V.
... .. ... ".. . .


41
OBTAINED FROM SOLAR PHYSICS AND EARTH-
COMMOTIONS APPLIED TO ELUCIDATE LOCUST
9l.AfAL/cLIf AND MIGRATION.9
Xi3|iwx ble lantern of the world, the all-vivifying, pulsating heart of
:iW.. .i..;i a n the opinion of Baron von Humboldt, was the primary
B, ttzoepofght and of radiating beat, and the generator of numerous
TO .t#Wi electro-magnetic processes, as indeed of thie greater part of
|t|egaaie activity upon our planet. It is the sun-power that gives
:N4. nations on the surface of the earth, and that conjoins with
i q.. 1t..:". -






|3tt Slaction in producing the mounting of the spring-tide. It is the
E4 fh,`s~ tbat move the atmospheric and oceanic currents; that evoke
^i r oruscations of the polar light; thunder and lightning, hur-
4aterspouts speak of their action; and it is no less the
aythat evoke the aUl-silent forces of chemical attraction and
e-h.:: :i. :V ,
!. :. . . .. ... ...... ....:ILCT(N] OMTOSAPIDT LCDT 'OUT







b4i^iaioily g determine organic life in the endosmose of cell-walls and
J. is, |a nd of ffuscular and nervous fibers (Cosmos, Trans. by Ott
.i g p. 359). This portion of solar physics is now so generally un-
nthait becomes unnecessary to adduce the opinions of other
K u.thatiors, or to refer to an endless and mundane bibliography;
A imay not be out of place to remark, that the conception of
%hkin Tbeing a great electro-magnetic globe would seem to possess no
awa .iia to be considered the predominant 6one; and many doubtless
...bf.'".iko that the stellar forces of rotation, revolution, oscillation
*it o ad obliquity of the ecliptic), gravitation, and chemical affinity,
1i doidered. as phenomena induced by its action. (I notice an
#bE:r.-1Q on this subject in the Journal of Science for March, 1882,

i .ferenceh as it may, certain is it that the scientific mind since
.idia o fiumboldt has become gradually reawakened to the circum-
.that a large class of terrestrial phenomena on which mankind
ti'trhe future development of its resources are not only ruled
W arthW diurnal revolution and annual circuit round the sun, but
.wise himniediately .controlled by a recurring variation in the
.D oirgy of the central luminary of our system itself. Terrestrial
qlAn sid.uon'Ounicated to the Cosmiossion by Mr. A. H. Swinton, of Binfield HQae, Guild-o
*:.. ..Rngland, who has given much attqition to insect periodicity and to whom we hereby ten.
A..$.onts without endorsing th Je author's vi ews.



r *r

U.. . t




_- -4w# '7


66 REPORT UNnTM 8TkTZS ENTOW)LOGICAL

magnetism, electrical aefivity, periodica vaHWonm in t*=
periodicity of -wind disturbance, and annual rain I W hae
Occupied attention *in this respect; and their cycles following
sively on the changes in the bright photosphere vumunding the
have been observed, regiotered, and drawn upin tables. 11!row
indices we may now glean that aa this bright atmosphere of light'. A)
eleven years or so becomes ragged with spots and then rep
shining,9 so do cold and warm mwons, cyclones. and rainf&14 d1immitur&
ances along the electric wire, compass oscillations amral
and other sun symptoms in our sky and soil, follow each other in da
sequenbe. Medical science, too, has not been oblivims. of Ume
periods and not a few attempts have been made to correlate them wi*-.t,-'
seasons of famine, plague choleri4 and other epidemm viitatibim
pestilential cycle, according to Dr. John Parkin, extended from low
until about 1700, and another begau with the linebeenth oentitq* 4%
Journal of Science, August, 1881.)
In the cloud-driven and inconstant climate of. northern Eur-ope, tba,
procession of the seasons daily chronicled in the horizontal swing, a64
vertical dip of the compass needle, would appear hvm all artounU W
be both complex and difficult to unravel; and the same remarlr I thiq14
applies to the tracts of northern America. Indeed, it would appew t 'V
hitherto as though the electrical storms and increasing frequency ju,,"UbA
display of aurora lights, the wind commotions, and perhaps rainW,
Comilag on about the maximum period of sun-spots, and the heat 1"Ves
characterizing the minimum period are. to be considered as the ntaW
obvious and best established features in our solar drama. Blee
storms were felt along the English telegraphic wires in the yews iiji
and 1859, and again, last August (1881), we hear of the compass UeodW
being affected (E n glish Mechanic, of Friday, December 9,, 1881). Doxi*
9 Mr John F. W. He"Mes damthhon of Of 9" WO&U..
hen viewed with powerful telescopes, provided with colored glassm to take off the be* vW*'I
would otherwise injure the eyesight,, the sun is observ4pd to have fteqmmtly hwge and perfoody
spots upon it, surrounded with a kind of border, less completely dark. Mmse qw1s arik bmm
Vffllnanent. When watched from day today, or even from hour to hour,:Absy appear tateWkV or
tract to change their forms, and at length to disagpear altogether, or to break MA amw In poru at**,
surface where none were before. In such cases the central dark-spotalwayo contracts late* PON4,-,
and vanishes "re theborder. Occasionally they break up or divide Into two mom, and In "win',
affer every evidence of. that extreme mobility which belongs only to tfie fluid slate, and of tW 41*60104
sively violent agitation which seems *only compatible with thp or gasems. abdo 49
ter. Their size has been computed at from 465 to 45,000 miles dbmatew and owto si* mok4o
reach a greater ext4mt. That part,. of the sun's disk not oocupied Tky ftwft, U hr hm ="WO
brighiL Its ground is finely mottled with an appearance of minute, daii spots or Pereal
attentively watched, an found to be in a comotant date 6f change. There is nothing wbkk,
sents so faitbfially this appearance as the dow subsidence of some flocanImt chamical 'I IL 44 j 1
a transparent fluid, when viewed perpendicularly from above. Lmti, im the nsloborxaoilat
spotis, or extensive groups of them, large spaces of the surface are often obewwad to be
stronsly utarked curved or branching streaks more luminous than the reA and among Umls
already existing, spote frequently break out. Only one noMon anneg the nany that
broached has gained acceptance in regard to the spots, namely, that they we the da* wAd U*tot"
the sun itself, laid bare to our view by those immense fluctuations In tber 1=1nous re0ons offt
sphere to which it appears to be subject. The region of the spots is 06nined Within about W
sw$s equator, and from their motion on the surikee, careftlly meammki With ndaroftw4w% U i
tfdned the Position of the equator and period of the sun's rotation, &cL--(& Tmatift as A
8:r John F. W. Herschel, pp. 207-2n.)











;1- f.le display of crimson flashes broke over the roofs and spires of Lon-
Iir ;showing that the earth condenser, according to M. De la Rive's
|..t|oi&ry, then shot its discharge currents into the higher atmosphere.
$ Other auroras were observed on the 5th of April, 1870, and on the 15th
r,:,| i-T.f April and 13th of May, 1869, the former being noticed in America.
(T h~~e reis a good chart showing the agreement of the Magnetic Diurnal
-... A..'. .and Sun-Spot Curves between the years 1841 and 1877, by Mr.
fl i:::. eB, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1880.)
1~i Tu ring from electricity to meteorology, a subject more immediately
b.ting. the present inquiry, we -And that Prof. Piazzi Smyth, the As-
tronormer Royal for Scotland, as the result of observations made from
i:7 to ,869, with thermometers sunk in the rock at the Royal Observ-
.4.~~... Edinburgh, came to the conclusion that a great heat wave occurs
ev'eV"l;.. evenn years and a fraction, its maximum slightly lagging behind
tae .nimum of the sun-spot cycle. Previously Professor Balfour Stew-
|: d 'a found that the winter temperature.range at Kew apparently de-
p:ii ts.o.n the sun-spot period, being greatest at times of maximum sun-
I~ t-, and least at times of minimum sun-spots. At the epoch of maxi-
i. as s".un-spots wind disturbances are most frequent, as is shown in a
rAL4chfrt by Messrs. Jeula and Hunter, and coupling this observa-
.i .. .......
**ra*.w. ith the previous, I think it may be fairly argued that we about
tbktime.(and at the minimum epoch?) have our open winters. Accord-
S fIt:::::!" b. the observations of Schwabe and some recent mean temperature
il*.'tistc from the Times newspaper I have by me, this is a wet as well
0 '" windy conjuncture, and according to Herr Gustav Wex it is the
.tiehi'. len. there is most water in the European rivers. (The river inun-
t.i.s, due often to local causes, do not, nevertheless, follow this law;
take .JI~ *for example those of the Garonne that have occurred in 1425, 1537,
0'W.1727 1772, 1790, 1827, 1835, and 1875.) Still, with all this instru-
t:w:oi. wr) indicated or accomplished, there remain over and above, in
*# .. experience past and present, many strongly marked features in the
Iri....te of Europe that might repay the trouble of erudite tabulation on
I .::o... i- ...hand and of scientific investigation on the other. Thus while
||1"" whWinters have been intensely cold (those of 401, 554, 800, 821,1116,
1-, 234, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1579; 1683, 1708, 1716, 1739, 1753, 1762, ,
p'ri I&.J 1776, 1784, 1795-6, 1797, 1813, as would seem), others have been
.M: iwdinately warm (those of 1183, 1288, 1572; 1621, 1658, 1685, 1703,
6, 1. 85, 1865,,1868,1876, 1880, might be examined in this respect),
*i '$ late and early winters and springs are quite as much a matter of
| .. comment *s warm (the summers of 763, 1333, 1556, 1651-'56, 1766,.1783,
J 181 are alleged to have been hot) and cold summers. .
Within and towards the tropics, as has ever been the opinion, the'solar -
: tfistography presents its phases with greater regularity before

I H,
.:,,.... ':, :I:::" " ".
I[ : Iii.:i:/ ::
Ii:;; !i
i': : ,' .. .
i:, .:!, '::,::'I:::.-: "-






68 REPORT UNITED STATM XXTOMOLOGICA14

the eye of the observer, and ineorroborstion of this testimovy
Mppen, who has drawn up a table of the earth's tam
tion with the sun-ipots between the yean 1770 and 1870 (Zeitsobft
6sterreichisclien Gesellachaft ffir Meteorologie, Aug=t uad Sep
18713), informs us that within the tro a the maximum warmtbr
full year before the year of minimum sun-spots, *while in the
yond it falls two years after the minimum, and that the reguIrAt*
magnitude of the undulations of the temperature curve 118' most
inarked within the tropics and decreases toward the poles. During
heat which accompanies the mini"mum. epochs, droughts may be loski*
for, aud likewise famines, according to Mr. W. W. Huutees tabWsflojj'-4
Lasti noi least, in addition to these sun features now lft4_ft 41 M
phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanic emanations azia hot Wulm,-
hnd entomological phenomena, -such as insect multiplication and mipw,.-
tion, are proclaimed by the voice of all antiquity to result from eafow,
isive heats and dry seasons, and to be the fell accompaniments of fiwOsw
and pestilence. Even now in the picturesque laugaW of theAxaba
find such phraseology as'the yew of the drought, the yew of the eafthm.
quake, the year of the locust, and th6 year of the whirlwind, ihowh
that an MOterest is still felt in the dark numbers of' 111111111,1twn
OMY7 So
vealing the sources of a science we northern nations W ftr too 3jAW11
cavil at. Bat of this anon. On the other hand, about the m
sun-spot years the cyclones in the Indian Ocean and the burricsom 1*
4
the West Indies2 as has been shown by Messrs. Meldrum, andpoo, U
crease in number, and at thesaine time the annual raWall is
in the East Indies and at the Cape of Good Hope, (Mesm.
Lockyer and Hunter in the Nioeteenth Century for No*ember, 1871,
583), furnish a digest of the more recent application of Solar Physic* An'-
Termtiial Phenomena, entitled 19 Sun-spots and Famines Indeed th,
increaseiii wind-disturbances and rainfall would seem to be the leading
feature of the maximum period of'sun-spots all over the glolw atoomok,
quence which some tacitly assign to fhegreater energy of *theam at
this. period. Should, however, this conception seem discordantirM i
notion of the heat waves at the minimum PerioA and the exiatence of,,-
permanent defects in the luminous pbotosphere. of the mm at the MAX-1,
imum, the wind and rain woWd quite as agreeably with the.. known-lavs
of nature be referred tothe irregular action and impotent "state of Qw.t
sun at this conj tincture7 pr9ducing secular- refrigeration,. and -inem ""$-
in this manner the aerial currents and precipitation of aqieous vapw.,.,-
Certain is it that Sir William Herschel7s comparisoh between the PA
of corn and complaints of poor crops in Europe, as founded on the AZ4
t
hypothesis, could not be borne out by the pas
Tran& 1801, pt. III pp. 310-316).
Having thus in a general way introduced my subjbct in its variow,
bearings, I will now proceed to A ow how solar physics influence inAe;6t Z,
multiplication and migration in general, and locust multipl"tion a**:,












4itl immEaana minima ot macula oeetween me years 1o8U and 1 o00. i awoke
M.:-T ; -i| !ealizationof this undertaking in the spring of the year, when stroll-
124 alone over the winter-scorched grass that covers the old earth-
qua kiae waves on the Surrey Downs, but I have found since that the
p:...b.t ::...y of such an enterprise would be conceived by the perusal of a
pm xit ..e. by Prof. Carl Fuchs, entitled Die vulkanischen Erscheinung-
i1 .W 4e:-'VIrde, published in 1865, and also that a few unknown epochs
",!:Ij Tready been taken out by the method which then recommended
-TfWi o t tme from its accuracy by)!. Poey (Comptes Rendus, t. LXXVII,
~~'21 'pi3). -The following are Dr. Fuchs's remarks: "Kluge macht in
l wit a.usam-menstellung.der Eruptioen mehrfach auf das Zusammen-
V .. .... ... ...."A.Mw...1
9. O-Yu'lkanischer Ausbriiche mit kosmischen Prozessen aufmerk-
.... ... .. Ea ergibt sich nimlich aus der Zusammenstellung der Minimal-
niM*ztimabljahre der Sonnenflecken and der vulianischen Eruptionen,
/ so nenfleckenarme Jahre, diq sich zugleich durch geringere
,.$%gs.Vderimagnetischer Variationen auszeichen, zu den eruptionsrei-
anfJahrn gehoren und umgekehrt. Das Jahr 1822 wurde an einer
li tdliokteni Stelle als ein solbches genannt, welches sich durch die Menge
ft|:2;.'ZVptonen auszeichnet, die wahrend desselben stattfanden; das-
bbJ hr zeichnet sich aber anch als Minimaljahr von Sonnenflecken
." '. : ... .. ... .."
...I......b. gleicher Weise die Jahre 1793 1843, 1855. Im Jahre 1769
Ininach R. Wolf die Relativzahl der Sonnenflecken 85.7 und kein:
giuui' AVglkanischer Ausbruch ist in diesem Jahre bekannt. Im
I'9 betrug die Relativzahl der Sonnenflecken 99.2 im Jahre
jabr: ::! :::. r'90.6, und im ersteren Jahre fanden 4, im letzteren 5 Erup-
i.::"mffi V5 sttt. Dagegen wird die Ielativzahl der Sonnenfleoken im1
'"JI.1756. zu 8.8 angegeben und die von 1798 zu 2.8, walhrend in dem-
ue' sngenanten Jahre 12 und in dem andern 10 Eruptionen statt-
fd!:.:.....4..... ':m::'. d .'It'Jahre 1843 war die Relativzahl der Sonnenflecken 8.6,
i.:: ..e'ou. ler Eruptionen betrug 32.2' (Die Vulkanischen Erscheinung-
enp dm Rrde, von Dr. C. W. C. Fuchs, Docent an der Universitfit in Hei- i
bt.[ gl ...... Leipzig und Heidelberg, 1865.)
,,.i....h.owing is a resum6 of M. E, Kluge's views: "M. R. Wolf
.0&iit'Nl -aturf..Gesellsebaft,1852) avait 6nonce, d'apr's une chronique
VZtIxhoise pour les ann6es de 1000 1 1800, que les aurores bornales et
tr.xbleznents de terre s'acctmulent sur les arnnes de teaches. M.
14 ag soutient, aun contraire, que dans les arnnes abondantes en
*j4ea -solaires et ou los variations magnetiques sont plus remarquables,
H Ara=0ptions volcaniques et los tremblements de terre sont aussi plus
4i :? ,(Teber Synchronismus und Antagonismus von' vulkanisihein
.... l9eni und die Beziehungeniderselben zu den Sonnenflecken und

H ;iidi!. " '

A~.




1 1 '4 111,4711,


70 =PORT UMTXD STATES ENTOMOLOGICAL 0

ordmagiietUclien Variationen, Von R Mug LdP4 16&
1 P1.1 8vo.) #
Whether any one has previously taken up the question in its 10'a
Vn
I cannot say. (The lunar disturbance of gravity that ex~ atte
a recent meeting of the British Amso6istion doesnot influence the.,-.
faciecase. H.E.H. Darwin, Rep., 1881). 0ouncMor8chw&1xat1Ds*-.'-
sau, was, according to Humboldt, the fint to tabuiste numeriCar tkk
solar spots, and his tablw4 published originally'in Senumacher% AArio--
ARL
nomische Nachrichten, No. 495 (Bd. XXI, 1844), p. 235$ and
ore given in the fourth volume of Cosmois,'show the
of the solar photosphere between the years 1826 and 18M, ft-om setW
eye observation. Sehwabefj table has been sub.-equeutly imlarged b.r,,
other workers, Professor Wolf carrying it back to 1750 and forw#rd to -
1860 and 1875, and pointing the maximum of spots of 1M, in 8cbw'&b6%
table as 1829. The axiom I have employed in carrying Me sun-spokr
cycles farther into the-past., will be men then to be justified by a refev
ence to, M. Po'e0y's table of earthquakes and voleaumWeruptions in tU .0
Brazils, in the Compteis Rendus, already alluded to; it assumee that the 1%
great periods of earthquake-commotion. and volcanic sadvity harmat.
ize with the maxima and also with the minima peziods, of solar spotq,
and on this assumption I have consulted various; seismic tables *sA,
checked off the periods of disturbance by the records which in thek
or defect fully dicate th6 required disciontinuity
copiousliess -4
at stated intervals. But when these periods were found it further bo.
t
came very evident to me that it was necessary to adopt some meOmA
of numerical precision in order to eliminate the yeare of the sun-ap",
cycles. To this intent, therefore, I first drew up the mean periodwof
greatest commotion in Europe, Asia, and Am encE4 and placed the mar.
ima and minima of san-spota given in Wolf16 tible into the breaks,
where they fell in order, 11 think.-I may say7 at first sight Ythen RK&
out the latter extreme year and the mean year for the mul mia yeaoj
and the former extreme year and. the mean year for the m
One or other of the. numbers, which themselves rarely differed by Am"
than a year, should give me as I found the epochs of fewest 6r M04
spots required.
To explain more fully, let us examine the list of earthquakes And,
Tolcanic eruptions for any breaks in the violence and extent of the 4is.
turbances and mark the periods obtained in this manner, thus OS30
1838). We will then arrange these periods of activity taken ont ftm,
many tables, thus:






















1' P P



K. N .... .* ." .
"" Q




...... ..;;.....; ...
i ;!. o .. * :' *
*" .,. : ,



NIN... :.. .. ...
A Mi n .




i .i::,. "* ..... '1


; : : '; : .,:::* : .;: :: .. : *



H --, S,- *
SEE.







H,
..:. ,': ." . *" ,. .. "
Ut ..' '


4.4: ;. ,.,
S '"'" .. .: . .. : ..,... L
,.. 7" i,.. : :: ; < .. "
: i ::, ^ ...:: :
J. *" 0 I

l.: .: .... :^ : . *, ".
AA










l: ..* : .- : ....? ,:::. ... : r.


^g : :. .* ". : : : .. "
:: .























.. I..", .4*.. "
HE
"... : I... .. .

":" ""*- : :. " I
IS

:.::.' ^ ,' *. "

...u :.:..u u ....


M ,:m nHU .......................... ....




HE 'A
IT:..;..... : .
. ... .. .....







.....:.'. ..... :

I
.. k ... i, i.'i : :



















EN..

V:
m. : .- '.
qy,,



















P, -





... S ..!.... A.


( -1878)
(1875-1872)
(1871-1870)
(1868-1865)
(1862-1858)
(1855-1851)
(1851-1846)
(1844-1841)
(1839-1836)
(1838-1831)
(1830-1828)
(1825-1820)
(1821-1816)
(1812-1809)

(1806-1801)
(1798-1795)
(1792-1788)
(1785-1783)
(1781-1779)
(1776-1775)
(1773-1770)
(1768-1775)
(1762-1759)
(1755-1754)
(1752-1759)
(1746-1742)
(1739-1735)
(1730-1729)
(1726-1724)
(1721-1717)
(1715-1713)
(1708-1706)
(17013-1702)
(1699-1696)
(1693-1691)
(1689-1685)
(1683-1681)
(1679-1677)
(1673-1671)
(1668-1664)
(1662-1654)
(1654-1653)
(1650-1647)
(1646-1643)
(1641-1639)
(1636-1633)
(1628-1626)
(1626-1624)
(1620-1617)
(1613-1612)
(1610-1606J
(1603-1600)
(159-"-1596)
(1593-1586)
(1584-1581)

(1578-1576)
41574-1571)
(1566-1563)
(1561-1558)
(1556-1553)
(1551-1548)
(1546-1542)
(1542-1536)
(1534-1528)
(1522-1519)
(1516-1513)
(1510-1509)
(1507-1503)
(1501-1495)


Remarks.


a i


Locusts.


Locusts.
Locusts.


Locusts.


Locusts.



I Locusts.


I Locusts.


Locusts.


Locusts ?


Locusts.

Locusts.

Locusts.


.1




777 77


72 REPORT UNITED STATE&ENTOKOLOGIOAP COMMOXOM
14(1839-1838)
"(1838-4834) (1831) (1830-1829) (1826-1
'n(1839-1837) (1835-1832) (1&30-1828) (18wi
11(1839-1835) (1833-1831) (18,9294827) (1892255b...11
10(1839-1835) (183X1831) (1&30-1827):

Let us now mark the epochs of the suu-spot cycle n *minimum 4W it'.7,
maximum, as known from Wolf's tables4 to thebreaks to vilitch
appertain, and at the same time find the mean periods of, co
thus : (1839-1836) M 1 (1833-1831) vO (1830-1828) X3 (i825-1820) '101-61
1836 :K33 1 4-
where taking extremes and means I W

M4=1825
the actual years here indicated being giveu by Wolf as 1837f
18331 1829, 1823. Here the position of the years is evidently corrww
found, the jaximum in each case being the mean year of commoUm
and the minimum the latter extremebut, as seen by the lut ftwdoN an
irregularity does sometimes occur. In calculating out the stable how-
'
ever, the latter inconvenience is almost nil, as it will be noticed that tho
known maxima and- minima in WolVs table have cefWnClotrespondM]K
intervals of years 64, 4-616-7, &c.; and also a certain Analdigit as.ftr
as they go, the maxima ending in a'7, 97 61 &c., and the minima in 31 3i
3102 &C.
Having thus correctly taken out the sun-spot numbers in cycles fivai,
the seismic breaks between the years 1881 and 1750, we may pow prq-
Med with confidence to tread on the confines of the unknown and con-
plete the series of maximum and minimum years backto 1500.' Beyaqd,
this'point, the grand epoch when Columbus opened -up for eastern 01
lization a new co4itinent, and when printing was commenced, the data
in the seismic tables become involved and partial, and hm, & the masts,
1 have up to the present only been able to obtain a certain number ot
probable epochs of the solar phases. Sufficient data, howevor, *M be,
found to be present in my table on which to strin'g the more oerWn
records of locust multiplication and migration, as known. to myself fto%',
the exhaustive paper by Mr. Thomas in a former issue of your valuable",
report, relating fully the Old World locust multiplication dwing tba 41 A
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and from my own investigwaom
regarding their. increase during the nineteenth; as also from those dlear,
indications afforded in Mr. Packard7s concise list of the 0. Wetil -Yet"
in America. But before eniering on this subject Lought to melktiom
that some of the breaks in my table are substantiated by eye obftrvv',
tion. Thus Flamsteed tells us that the solar spots wm absent b"ee,,
the years 1676 and 1684, aid according to Domi Cassini they mem
IFrom Eruptions in Iceland, by Thoroddsou (Trang. Geol. Mag.).
"Froin Mons. Perrey's Earthquakes in Greece and Syria.
"From Mons. PoEfe Rafthquakes in South America.
nFrom Mr. MalleVa List of Earthquakes and Volcanic Imptions Mdt. Ass"),
Urrom works of LSOU and Humbolft











Bji:. the maximum in 1681, it becomes evident that the observation of
in teed is indefinitely given, as it makes- a greater interval occur
een the minimum and maximum of the cycle than between the
and minimum. In M..-Poey's table, before alluded to, the fol-
'i| g'years are further given from the strength, number, and extent
s0Ieehqake shocks in the Brazils, namely: 1727 M, 1712.n, 1693 M,f
;0r:158 Mf. These in my table stand as 1730 m, 1714 M, 1691 M, and
:,...the modification being due to the co-ordination of othei seismic
iA :d..the consecutive marking of the solar phases, only then ren-
.i.. ....ssible. Again, it will bep ticed that the cycles of sun-spots in
11 "'.table grow short about the beginning of the seventeenth century
i ia,7'.ei1ngthei out at the commencement of thenineteenth. This circum-
;41i M i owing, as I conclude, to the presence of a greater sun-spot cycle
..i....... e from 1580 to 1814 and marked by the progressive east and
tp,$^fjtl of the compass needle. The years 1580 and 1814 on this
. .: .i : : :....:.:. : .. i..
I*oy'icile I would consider to correspond with the maxima of the
Nf. sille-cycles, and some intermediate epoch about 1640 to correspond
NfA.
$tkb1minimum. This would also answer well to the periods of prev-
|tn*fiBw Md scarcity of auroras in Europe. Thus between 1574, about,
..,ep t18.35, many auroras were observed; few were observed between 1635
raWi1tO8M ; and many were again observed between 1706 and 1842. We
iiiaivia:i Europe back again in the period of few auroras, and I con-
Il7.0 l ta minimum point.in the greater sun-spot cycles, when, judging
SfrdI. the past, great extremes of summer and winter temperature may be
S- ........ .. . p ,
Eav..t g drawn up my table, now comes the second clause of the in-
ulfyy namely, how and in what measure the sun phases influence the
rwordo insects on the surface of the old and new continents. Before
.e.."ing out on this subject, however, I think it may be inferred that
wbeet the terrestrial phenomena follow most directly on the changeful
g. .. ofc the solar photosphere, there shall we find the various features
0:1'. 06t biology marshaled in the strictest order. As before noticed,
$i &$eziu~~enon is to be looked for rather towards the equator than
S-:their':iteetion of the poles of the diurnal sphere, and here it is that
!.if* CtA should be found to multiply and migrate in most immediate de-
|p:: 0 eeon the sun changes. Let us take that example which most con-
....ini, i the Rocky Mountain locust (Oaloptenus spretus). The Perma-
.:: .. .: : .... .
Oim:et legion, and native breeding-ground of this insect, as already ably
EHi!(i? ".: ," .
.la.cr by the entomologists on the Commission, lies within the northern
.p.te zone, between 370 and 53 north latitude. Though some-
iv:bimoved from the tropics, the summer isotherms would adjudge it >
..'" : ... ..... .. .1
ilJHe considered within tropical influence, and' this even more so than
i Europe, which must be virtually so considered. The migra-

.iI .......
.: .. .... .. ...
4,.
i!~ii!' ,,:; ,,, i: :. -




177 -"IWT7 17W" 7pr


74 Rzpowr uNmn OW ES EN SAM&

Votte of the locust have been,- brga&y speaking, in a. sonaeft
tion east and west of this reeoi4 and if rehirence, be made to-Mr.
ardlis analytical table given in the report of the Oommimion for tho
1877 (p. 113), aud the year 1878-179 (p. IU),, we shiLU And ihsm
have waked and waned, that. one climax transpired betwou Wt'
1876, that another transpired between 18M and W71 that Anotbw-
pired between 1855 and 18579 and there remains besides some
tions of an i4vasion about 1842. Now by Wol Pe tabko ol a
1876 1867, 1855, and 1843, severally tangentW tumbera, are tbe
of fewest sun-spots as determined 'by observation. In. thiB
fore the season of multiplication and migration -him preponA
the minimum period of solar spots; and conveimely. oJ)ouf 1840,'
1870, and as I conclude also in 1881, the intermediate 'years of
Sun-Spots, the decreme and restriction of this locust are equally
parent.
But to fully illustrate this satject I will turift to the insedt wi
cation and migration of the Old World, where the data we more
and, the subject matter more familiar. Here we know ragwft
multiplication and migration of various locusts in the:oweal Oft
the Aouthern borders of Europe and Northern Asis, fi-om long
since the earliest day,%, that those droughts which have. be.'en
attributed to the minimum epochs of the sun-spot byele we their senow
of increase. Bat, as I have already intimated (Journal of Sciew* A*
August, 1881), it cannot be therefore assumed tbat all (imtructive illioe*%
on European areas have the same period of multipfleatimio for whO
the corn weevils (Sitophilus granarius and oryzw) of mo granarimi
certainly the more destructive sort which is imported hom, the
of the south, have Shown a tendency to increase about the iMont, OC".
Spots, it would appear thatthe noxious European wheat flies (NA),:
of which there are Said to be two varieties, affect in Geri!iumy a d*mw,,
nial period recurring towards 6e maximum years. This phenommak
may be either. attributable to the circumstance that insects am vdjfo
ously adapted to various conditions of climatAN and ftat there am
taSm recurring times wheir certain families and certain individuab "d
themselves in the most congenial conditions for multiplication; at, 40'0,,
the circumstance that there exist fixed epocho when &general
and west move is witnessed in the man of the Europe" insect 119ma.
These latter times or epochs, north of about 460 north latitude, 910gs
natel as I Shall, proceed to show, with the extremes, of solar enerM 4-0'
that the great European migrations of insects take their rise iu ths,'.
years of minimum sun-spots, and continue until the expiration of t*#'4'
succeeding maximum. Let us exemplify this first, in by
pen's record of the migration of locusts to Southm R SS* gifta
Mr. Thom as.15 Here there is a migration extending' from 1756 to 1A
indicated, then a break until 1783, then another -break until 17ON a"-
Is Report of the Entomological Comndasion on the Rocky Mountain Locust, for 1878-"76, p.Q_











~~.~ c Shwabe, Wolf, and others.
.........OW, then, for the great r6sum6 of European Qlocust migration. In
iSe year 1527 locusts swept out of Turkey into Poland, and in 1536
SityW came from the Black Sea to Hungary, traversing Lithuania and
Ef^i: Itnd to Schleswig. In 1541 the locusts again visit Poland, and a great
11tialmy flies through Germany into Italy, some passing forward over
IP" u lia| and Saxony, while others turn themselves toward Austria and
MW yIy. The next year a swarm passes through Poland and Iithuania
.*latE-, Pussia and Silesia, spreading over a great part of Europe, and
t 'Woi years after there were said tgqbe so many grasshoppers about Mis-
dm tat they covered the ground about a cubit thick. 1544 I doubt-
Mi : y take out as a minimum year of sun-spots, from Mr. Mallet's seismic
.i :t.ale. .' In the year 1553, after five years' drought, great armies of lo-
|i .... weVre noticed, no locality being precised, and in two years' time we
; hear of them at Aries, and the next year in Mailand. 1555 or 1553 works
out a4 a minimum year from Mr. Mallet's table. In 1571 and 1572 locusts
S age to such an extent in Italy that an edict is promulgated by the Vice
Di.ke' of Alcala regarding their destruction. Though this multiplication
) ( vT i4ently indicates a warm solar epoch, I, with-some little hesitation,
ak1...1570 as a proximate maximum (?) of solar spots, the seismic data
: which give the year being somewhat perplexing. In 1613 locusts are de-
gt i ntive in Provence, and thie year takes out very naturally as a mini-
*uxn t-Oinefrom the seismic data. In 1618 and 1619 Spain is afflicted by
:. Fspeies of locust, but like all other records from Spain, this is yet as
wu"At w ing to me in a raison d'dtre as the celebrated chateau; 1618 it hnay.
".06be noticed, is a maximum year of solar spots on my table. In 1645 and
i 64' there was a plague of locusts in the Ukraine, 1645 here being evi-
: dently a minimum epoch of solar spots, as indicated by the seismic data.
[ In 60 Lithuania and Poland are visited by locusts, an invasion I would *
S"orrelate :with a minimum of sun-spots in 1654, and in 1662 we find the
provimie of Puglia Daunia visited by locusts, the minimum of solar
spots being found in 1667, or in 1654, if-part of the former invasion. In
1)84.- immense flight appears in Hungary and Austria, and the next
year a swarm is noticed at Avignon. This multiplication forms a pre-
.: la.e to an invasion of Northern Europe in 1689, when the locusts, now
aibundant in the Ukraine, strike on the coasts of Lithuania and Poland,
i.rehingto'Volhynia, in Russia, during the succeeding year. In 1693.
.0my-yaweep in large bands through Hungary, Bohemia, and Austria, into
iGmiany, reaching Austria on the 3d of August, Jena on the 18th, and
i eiomaron the 20th. This invasion continues to show up in Germany
041696. The year 1688, according to my table, indicates the minimum '
rio of spots to which this influx would be referable.
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