hoptm IM T1 K9
0"WM I"61*04a fO
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-ar"Oom iw hJdIetlvdae
B UREA U OP ENTOMOLO Y.
L. 0. HOWARDm, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. M nRLn, Assistant Entomologist and Acting Chief in Abence of
R. S. CLInTON, Executive Assistant. ::
COns. J. GLIses, Chief Clerk.
F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect invei
A. D. HOPKns, in charge offorest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCB, in charge of deciduous fruit insect invesigation.
E. F. PHILuPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field wormk.
ROMA P. CURRI, in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD, librarian.
TRUCK-CROP AND STORED PRODUCr INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.
F. H. CHIITENDEN, in charge.
....... ; ..:.. i. .
. :. .
,E ":: :- .
... "' .. =.::
*": t l :..:..;E:IEi. !
H. M. RUSSEzLL, C. H. POPENOX, D. K. MCMILLAN, H. 0. MASH, E. G. &m.,
THos. H. JONES, agents and experts.
E. D. BAmLL,a special field agent.
ES. U. TITUS,0 I. J. CONDIT, H. 8. HELLER,b W
a Resigned June 30, 1909.
B. PAnKma, wollabcratoq
,;. ",. ......
Resigned January fl, iS.3:,4^
....... i :,i!i ii :!i i ,
... .. .. ....::E EE:=== "EE E
.: .. *... E:ii:...:::":i : ::"::
:: !:i! I'i~ ii
I I I I I
..E ....."'.... ... .. ..
DxrmommqT r Amwmmum
iagnm D.CJnar 5 90
UV h oo o|mih o ufmina
Xo kmetpp mug!-- cra~wUeuiu
OO" hopp ,whc eeitud eaWydrn
IW n 90 ma ofos 1 mrg ie n
Bm!a yF LMttne;TeWtr
andAa amOmLt-kt yRH tedm
Spwo ja h tie are aepmb
W-; fth Sgr ee ndThi
14myT~ r odtob .ABU h ei
E ....." .:::E E:EEE:. .:....
.'., ........ .,.. .h.. ..:E HE :;
..... .....mi. .i ~ FZii~:iiii
... .. ,i!, ...: mm i, i !i: : iiii ii !.... .
. ..... ....... . . . .
tm PulctoCMmsasriso rilswihhv
in svn 1arnobruhtoehraasingl
Itm re oaln f'netgtosbgni 86 h
owlso whc eepbihdi r-0-sbleiso h
~lw inYiboso h eatet n ncruaso
Th il. iofeIscsIjrost rc rp,
wgid s'b ~,tetelfa a engvnt'h
xII ntewa" bel, i eult eea
saagsbtIhc peae nteYabo o
P10,onrcrd0h otatnw oaiie odae n
tb sgtiomto.inrgr ormde h
4,hslm*;=a yte ae-rmswu ic
th rpltimo ubiaincoeigti
4W*, 'iscixrl esbec fwte-rs
bI osdrdM earmn ulcto ih
ofte ae-rwlefbe1 ota
too&'h rner spno m.igve
no di ungtdfo t ti nonv
*Wwostfo nvroscos n
A iia rtceo h
Anomv ro s oi o p e o
:; .: i!::: :ii:!l
'~E. : :Ei!:i :i
- ::":;+::]g |ll
::i .|:. .::::
i L~ K* '4iim~ii
"K" i ji!'i! iii~ i
A :i i:!i:iiiii~i.:
..... :i- IT --q
": A'HNii:i E:Ei ......
S "Iiii:ii iiii
: #: ". m :"i i i .. ..
": ": :: . ':
..*:: ..:: -:-;: ::...: :.:::::.
:!:..: :iP:: .:ii :EMiiL
. . . . .. 'Ii
WOIAON vrrLe ...----P .-hunm
-- - - -- - - -* . . - - - -
.. . . . . . . .
in u y - - - - -
-- - -- --I
bfttlo Miop* aspw* -) ------- ------
-0wI &u w 1e). ,F .Cikk I
OCOM ----- ----- ..... ... 1
Suf., -.f.Cik|., 1
.. . .- - - - 6
.. .. ... .. . .
.. -- - - - -- - . .. 2
- - - - - - - - - - -2
-- - - - - - - - - 2
-- - - -- - -2
- - - - 2
-- -- -- - - -- - 2
-- - - -- - - __6
-- - -- - -- - 2
-- - - +.. . . . 2
Grte. P.H *Wn 2
.. . .. . 28
.. .. .. 29
.. .. ... .. .. .. .
Natural enemies ...................................................... A
Methods of control -.................................................... i
:: ,,i: ..||::,."'
R&sum6 of experiments and conclusions ................................ :
Bibliographical list .................................................... I
The hop tflea-beetle (Psylliodea punctulata Melsh.) .......... F. H. Chittende. m
Introductory...................................................... -.. : 'i
Descriptive ................... ................................. .'.
Distribution ....................................................... I
Recent injuries ................................................. I
Methods of attack, food habits, and generations-.................. ...... I
Life history and habits---------------------------
Life history and habits.............................................. :.ii^
Notes on other species ...............................................
Local conditions and natural influences................................
Methods of control ............................................. .... .;.:
Mechanical and cultural methods-.................................
Bibliography ....................................................... I
Summary............ ............................................... .
Miscellaneous notes on truck crop insectsP................... H. Chitbsdes. H|
Successful use of arenate of lead against the asparagus beetle.............-
A note on the asparagus miner ........................................ i
Injurious occur.enne of the pea moth in the United States...............i;
A new western root-maggot ............................................I,
Notes on water-cre insects............................................. ist
Index..... ............................................................ .. i
.. . . *
_9]? (dO9V *d hfr O F. .7Ek i
aAdt yik;c W9 ,. ei ia;fe
um "av)xWm m kaoighheg
hi Ow*Mlid obth odo m nbe
|Z fmOW*" -bo o*cmt~
A e o bko nomw aeo
--Ab xadarAutF .4;
0;iba a poow d ei!a
"NM", 1 Wi M U o ffo 1cin
i oi w fnypso o
At .Rfax om rg -Fg -u
-- - - - - - 3
bet t -4 c"!~g
AbM yAEz mla n oenrgbe
potato eld .................................. ........ ... . . .....U.
10. The semitropical army worm: Field of late Irish po ..tatoes,
vine. entirely stripped by larva.................... .. ..:.
11. The semitropical atmy worm: Larva eating bark of "catelew
also nymph of spined soldier-bug (Podisu maeUwtvri),
on larvae of Prodenia eridania w- ....... ... ....... ...
12. Hop flea-beetle (Psylliode punctulata): Larva and adult.....
13. View of hopyard, showing how flea-beetles keep down vines. .....
14. Hop leaves, showing work of flea-beetle .....------.----.....----
15. Work of flea-beetle after vines are grown...................-
16. Trained hop shoots stripped by flea-beetle ......................
17. Breeding and control cage in place over a hill ................
18. A crew spraying hops in British Columbia .............. .........
19. Tarred catchers for hop flea-beetles. .............................4
... ... ..... . . . . . . .. .. .. .....,:i
.- 13l( iiiiiiiii
:iL:i E iiii
W. rALIud M&-,ia
E INSECTSi INJURIOU TO TRUK CROPS
....... ASPA GUSiii iiiiiiiiiii
id in Margeiofnwiii7Wiiiiiiiil
heii~i: i:: stalk ofiiiiiusam frquniyiiiakeibiiiiian i
yer hav been reotdcniiibyIjrdbytelrao
iii ot ofiiiin teiliiiiy toihicithiiamiasiiiusiineiia
be gi ve.i1elrviiiiudrihieiemi fth tlk n
wbni a rnfre ote6 o fase"saeteti
oqe knbcmsmr r esrutrdadtepeec o h
------- isesl eetd tpeae oeaudnl ertebs
L__aaadpntaie eo h ufc o hgofdt
------ or8!nhmDui h
--~da ble a a ttnto byisaudne-M- eo h rnia
-goigscin fNwEgan n'tbdfi obcm
a, pupanum irom iae; e, same iromaoove; ures aoouL &.o mm. in leog
f, section of asparagus stalk, showing injury about 1 mm. in width. :
and location of puparia on detached see- abot mm wdth
tion; a-e, much enlarged; f, slightly reduced The egg has not been ohb
(original). This species belongs to the'.
ous family Agromyzidae, and was described by Loew in 18I
locality being given as "Middle States."
In its injurious occurrences this species appears to be limited to a:
eastern United States, from New England to Tennessee. FPom avi
able data it is quite obvious, however, that it may be destructive ove'
considerable territory, including a large portion of Massachusetts a
Connecticut, Long Island, the District of Columbia, Pennyand
and Tennessee. As it is recorded from New Jersey, it is probI
injurious there, although no reports of injury in that State: i
reached this office. In time it will doubtless attract attention inb
mediate points and in States farther north and west. It hm '"
appeared in asparagus beds in California. i
HISTORICAL AN3D BIOLOGICAL NOTES.
In May, 1897, and afterwards this fly was observed inabundms
the writer on terminal shoots of asparagus, particularly at CN
John, Md. Two weeks later no more flies were seen, but Ju
they reappeared and were then usually seen in copuqa. It wwis
mised at the time that this second appearance indicated the fi:t |
generation of the year and its abundance on asparagus seemed too
that it lived in some manner at the expense of that plant Examiane
of asparagus plants at that time, however, failed to show attack. I
facts which have just been narrated were published in 1898.b
a Diptera America septentrionalis indigent, Centuria octava 84, p. 4G.',;
b Bal. 10, n. a., Div. Ent, U. 8. Dept. Agric., p. 62, 1898.
we reie fJjr s'n h tito ouW
-Kovle Tmadi hematm heswmcm
obevto fM.F .Srn44wohssa htwr
obevdi|il nlogWn n19.Ti
is-m ad unable fsxpg hc ersnsalta
Of thopceatta ie
'i etme,10,wr a rcie rmM.Foei
-en/yon D.C2o nuyt hesak fawgso
a 1egbri mkfr-Whntewie ii~h
X BiniotofTnemKov lleTn.,,,ent
uvu shwn h oko hsmnruo h ku
27,q leso hedidppr
18)10,M.T iesBos uteo. Piadlhs ,
iaxwihh ccrtl d rbdseeit as
trul thntecmo sagobelAniho
-tw r trenwbd f a-g nacun fisrr
~ 8drcin r .C rt iie ag rc m
inches below the surface. ......
.... .. ::..U:. .....
Severe injury was reported on the farms of Mr. F k
inches below the surfa................e. .L:.:......... :. ..:.,........."
Mr. Charles W. Prescott, at Concord, Mmass. The
region had never noticed this insect until Mr. Shamel's m
showed that its injuries were extensive. Later Mr. Shaimexi
finding infestation in every field and patch of asparagusW W
visited in Massachusetts and Connecticut, particularly at .Si
Granby, and Hartford, Conn., and he believed attack to be wid
October 26, 1906, Mr. Ralph E. Smith wrote, by requesth
conditions under which this asparagus miner was found in aib
in the yellow stalks of asparagus in California, as reported:: by I
an article on Asparagus Rust Control," had prevailed for tW4q
years. The insect was always very abundant at thebaseofth ei
dying stalks, although the injury was attributed to the "eu
reported as wireworms on a previous occasion.6 '
"::::::: ": ... : "I E:.:.::.:.:.
Witn our present knowledge of the life economy of this 2p.i
methods of control suggest themselves as of greatest value, aM)
be that they will prove all that is necessary under ordinary comi
(1) In spring permit a few volunteer asparagus plants to
trap crop, to lure the fly from the main crop or the c:uttiWg
the deposition of her eggs. After this has been accomplishedi- 11
crop should be destroyed by pulling the infested plants and.
them with their contained puparia. The time to pull the ph
vary according to locality and somewhat according to seM:i
The second and third week in June would be about the rigt:i
and near the District of Columbia. On Long Island this worka
be done a week or two later. In the northernmost range a
insect-for example, in Massachusetts-the last of June awld 9|
of July would probably be a suitable time.
(2) The second generation can be destroyed in like manner :
ing old infested asparagus stalks as soon as attack becomes U
and promptly burning them also.
aBui. 172, Univ. Cal. Agrie. Exp. Sta., p. 21; tBuL. 166, 1.. !
....... ... .. ,
1".* U ::
* .. ...: :::.:::,:
i ~ #_
VOMMCOMOM, ver L itwod
NO i & doit awy___
in t b w"au!e
li ant od bt h
ofniLW .Aoiw wo vt n ohgnma
*mo"O*A "- her m snwpon
i # W
f:# ;4o f
. # P 2 T # _: : # 4# t I f _
aats ea. ? r g -.- --v- vaw a a a~~fU S- ... WS IJ l --S-PS as UJS%5v 'urns sass!1
beetles in the Yearbook for 1896,a many notes on their
destructive occurrences have been published. Some ft
were published Bsoon afterward.6 The following brief i
subject is submitted as a sequel to those articles and a summ"uI
further dissemination of these pests in a decade of years.
T1E COlMON ASPAAGUS BEETLE. M
(OCiWoceri aspragi L.) !
The predictions made by the writer in regard to the fnur| I
bution of the common asparagus beetle have been completely d
as regards its western spread, although it has not as yet been .p.
as far south as Kentucky. Mr. J.. G. Sanders, however, ilntw
writer that it has been established about Columbus, Ohio, sini"
and Mr. Charles Dury, Cincinnati, Ohio, reported this species atil
Hill, about 7 miles from that city, on asparagus beds in 1905. H
were observed during June. The customary injury was noted
plants appeared as though scorched with fire. In 1897 the q
was observed to have continued its spread westward along lab,
and was then known in nine counties in northeastern Ohio. T.ih
lowing year it was first noticed in western Virginia. In i1:=
was reported to have been present at Benton Harbor, Mick..
1896. By 1899 it had made its appearance in Canada, accompau
the twelve-spotted species, in the Niagara River region. .: ...
It is interesting to note that in 1900 the present species, whi
been rapidly increasing its range in the East, including'New 1
after occurring in injurious numbers in Maryland, was aSi
totally destroyed by the hot spell of July and August that m::
in the District of Columbia and neighboring parts of VirT
Maryland; whence the conclusion that this condition prevailS
considerably larger extent than came to the writer's personal "
In 1901 Dr. James Fletcher noted that the species, though p
the Niagara district, had not increased to the extent that wass..
It had spread to Guelph, Ontario, that year, and did much m1
about St. Catharines. In 1904 its occurrence around Toronto
aYearbook U. S. Dept Agric. 1896 (1897), pp. M 41-.
b Bul. 10, n. s., Div. Ent, U. S. Dept. Agric., pp. 54-, 1898. L
::.:-E E:E. :
vL prd 4 eo 1.It a
"!d n aau
8641ai o wce ln ab hc aprxmae t
Hmtii," owrI 95w eie onl!
M e n ROitPr ide n fisocrec
Reot rmXch" !e ht t a en
.4vcnt fAa aot1 lafo
an_+t tv ps n htVWiiiy
,yp*oe ct ta h pce
a // fdsrbtoitmgtb oe ht
-,a*"eewsfon o h is tm nWretn
aI itl ateriln ha-thd vrbe
--1 dul T tti pq i' -enmnlyet-
Alxnda Conyfr myya
-Mr Rah-L$ihwoeo h curneo h
sttntsd w uon thdbe ey
Ag 'j he picplasasu etrota
4wnil ihti netadisocr
omd utalfl ob hthsietfcto
'tr"-ea.I adjtbe rWme&
to6 rgoadti nue h
01Pt etei.s& oaiisweei
Vii~e o ihotpeeet 8 t
#A Rmn ersf$,1a ei
x+ om rpel 16*
_4116*-1r an//ine olfw4
In Pennsylvania Prof. H. A. Surface,6 in a series of"
with Paris green and arsenate of lead, applied to aspari i
first week of June, 1905, found that not more than 50 per .
insects were killed when Paris green and lime were used.
arsenate 90 per cent were killed, while in oneexperlbmeatby
tion of resin soap, which is used as an addition t ant
a Rept. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sti. f. 1908 (1904), pp. 276, 2M .
b Monthly Bulletin, Div. of ZooL, Pa. State Dept Agric., VtL IV, Mp, 1X
... 11 . ::': : ::.
..... .. : ....
.:: ."" : ........:; | | I
:: "::: "::.* :" i : EE:!^ :!!!
weriklld o t 5 Pant t te_ nitismeth
4f jedWsmda h Wo lxtIpudt 4gloso
1 pond o on e ddd
of ledhsbe mt aifcoyrslso Prg
of I on n1 Cgloso ae.Adtoa
ryt setan-eeac mutoftepiontaia
evidetyol igesryw apid
TWI4" M APILGI
"oyya k 8d hnte itiuino h wvl
t~m hsbenoe i eloaiisithUntdSas
---- wlldsrbuo etwr n epcaly nortw
t- itteIwre trdhu h
Or" "&d fdsa rmte tatccatt h
The -floig W(W i a ecre y r .P
Hvtcu"i ewYrada arws sBfao
ra pce aamaat hl nsoen-ylcH
e _oxi fhwig" t assillcll itiue
. : E: EE... II
:" !: ...E. il
.. .==.. ^ *i
.. m* .--BE"~iii
:: :" ... :
: 9 "E!!
I. p .1
THE WAE-RSS OB
iiiiiiirahyT 1U ge.
Durng* p4'hrWYVM isisp~dha atrcte vry'eon i iiiiii
- atni' eaf fio utmem beoe 1i- i
mm(avtutoenk rwfrmre-mprt- l
WetVr c Va4L b eosi lrl
thsdfeigfo u o mn orpr hc.
votaudnti os dminaei
toa nilydfeetlWlte cfii.-,vhwt
Smra motyfehwtrfrmihb 0 -I P
iss itntfv h nre OMR'SW78(ns
tht re erpto Msfv t gf Japaac
of streams where these sowbugs have been found mad::
they are frequently seen crawling in a thick mass at
They feed, so far as known, exclusively on cress, not:.
as attacking any other form of vegetation.
BEPOITS OF INJUIOUS OCCUIl N .C ..
This sowbug has been observed as a pest since 1902 .
report of its pernicious habits was made in 1904, when 6'
specimens through Mr. J. W. Bryan, Anacostia, D. C.,.
town, W. Va., where it was very injurious to water cress.
In March, 1905, Mr. Powell Arnette reported injury at
Va., to cress grown .in spring wot......
^ \ sowbugs were always found in ib
and did not attack cress above the:'t
After destroying the last vestige of
in one of his ponds they remained &1'*
J1i bottom "a foot deep," crawling
During 1906 (June 18) Mr. J :*.
Reed, Carlisle, Pa., wrote in regad 9i
^ species and its destructive work oftn 1
.. ... .. .. .
'. ." cress in his locality. Specimens wut.||i|
ceived August 11. The sowbug .wa'...
nIo. S.-The water-cress sowbug served principally on the roots and :i
(Mawaseilua hrahywm). En- leaves, crawling up along the Sasq:,
large (after Richardson). * < ^
larged(afterRchardson) cutting off the leaves. August .0.
George C. Jordan, Washington, D. C., sent specimens from::i:
City, Va., stating that this "water bug" was devouring hi, a
beds, and, since a million or more were colonized on the pli*$h,:
would be no crop at the rate they were reproducing. WIa IB
plants were lifted the sowbugs were observed to drop from tlhei.
.. ..... .. :" F E" EEE:E:
: EK "" E :E
METHODS Or CONRnO ..
Three ways of controlling this species are suggested. The:ii::
and most important consists in a method of growing the w watek
so as to eliminate injuries by the sowbug. The second falls "
the head of direct remedies, and none of these has as yet : gie '
isfactory results. The third consists in the use of Afish or fotWi
destroyers. This last means of eradicating'the pest has not yet "I
a fair trial. ,,
The following description of a successful method of disposing
the cress sowbug has been placed at our disposal by Messrs. B. Bxi
Ol OWO'*R T DSORO OBC
done b the owbug o watr er~f him ade itour geatim
VM gowin& i~ Onl, a terng i forfou yeas hae wesue
# fi ki l n a w y *t k O O -d o n H u n u m b r s s a s o b e s u r e o f a C r O P
i s r w r rw nlkso te m o ig wtrA~ hr
-tb toimv b O -t e naial o'pl n ueU
1 A n etidt f"t O ihwr-efktaspae hr
I ~ Mo ae a-t o hog bn u h usrmie
Oee sr, xlw eoft flyaot21 e M
lo i~ fg
emeett h SWM agj
m Ice e ,( eft4 -m a e sdOl hr
"Wb&O eSM Wdiedo pr e n dqn
40ta o LOft tmMb h
4*.c I Ibr
We have not used water in these trenches deeper than 10 InWhe 10
able to say how a larger or more rapidly flowing supply of wa01*04
nor have we grown winter cress in them, as our water supply tb JP
for that purpose. *...*a;^;;!!i.!!^ !!
:.p..Dawm 'v rh w a* **'x'' : iii."i ;iiii iiii "
OTHER REMEDIES. ,... *!:i~iii~i
About the only other remedies which we have been able
are the use of a substance, such as sulphate ef copper or
lime, which might be placed in the water to destroy the ..
the former has already been tested by Messrs. I Bryan A&e
page 13), it need not be mentioned further.
Mr. John H. Reed states that a grower at Healing SpriA"" .
. ...: .:.:..::... .tt+i ::,j.i
has a remedy consisting of a poisonous material which is .....
the water, but he does not know the ingredients nor whether ji':'
would be danger to stock drinking the water below the spring. H.:.
writes also of the possible use of chlorid of lime. A tank of eah
composed principally of chlorid of lime ran into a creek at Vetit.
Holly Springs, Pa., killed everything that was living in thaiti
for about half a mile downward, but did not poison stock that d"lJttS
the water. The bleach came from a paper-mill tank whicb h S i
burst. If chlorid of lime is tested it should be used on a very W1lI11
scale at first to note the effect on plant life. It is apt to be ha i rma
to trout and other fish present.
Mr. Reed also suggested the employment of ducks to destroy t
pest, but this would necessitate the abandonment of cress cultsM:'eJ
a season, as the ducks would injure the condiment both by iI#
... ... . ...
A .. H: ... A.... ...
and by fouling the water. "" ^",
Among other remedies, we have recommended draining ad! w !
water where possible and exposing the sowbugs to the. drying #4iis
of the sun.
f~f T":.. ".I.* "* .v. .iiiii"- M
^ B B jA.....AA : *.,,::: :!!t!,. |f :!:l
FISHES AS A POSSIBLE MEANS OF DESTROYING THIS ISOPOt..... ......
.... ,... .. .. ,
In response to inquiry, the following information was r-cifl..l
from the Bureau of Fisheries, through Mr. Lawrence 0. M sqm
Acting Secretary, Department of Commerce and Labor, in regsxtz.."
the fishes which might be found useful in the destruction of U.
aquatic isopod in its occurrence on water cress: .
Among the fishes which would probably prove most useful for this p
and with which it Is suggested that the Department may wish to exp
-~ ~~~ 11 #.....................................................................................................................
THI 80 "iiiiii
ter iiiiiiiilsnoaus iphn ,,ad .dipr
ocusfo ihgnt lbmvMsirpl n eaad I iisiiii
in smll-lwlndpods Te eo i funifomManet
ina i rivr mouho, n~theGrea Laks,'an Inpiiticlly ll o
f lake in th upperMissisippiialley.iheithrd oiiiiiinimalle
ponds- rom norhern Oho to Ifinois ad mouthto Missssippl
ofec fteeseie ol eotie a n n fsvrl-
)Okes n the orthen'part 'of 1diana
'tb be h ts meo h cti h s i h ls euef liihi o ni
*MI ssgeseihtiimgtbiotiwiet r oeo oeo
spce nw s"a os" eogn otegnsHhleds
or*mseiso hsgnscnbfudi lotay=lsugs
In PenyvnaVriiadWs igna
|-iie eivsta apsoudpoe(f'au n-epn
cre' obg h igoedabchw*r-ta'h
*st bewthd oW ha fe d o evlp"raill
they donot atack theorm ormake- te wate mudd. 'Cat
'0 bemtredan fun -anin inth- as o te atrmre
twic wi *iingdrd lewii(p-162
By P. H. CHuTTRND, *..
Eniomologiat in Charge of Breedin hlperdmak
Among plant-feeding native insects which have 0recey
in new r6les is a little blackish leaf-beetle, Phadon .ru i'neap
which was reported for the first time as injurious to
(Nasturtium officinale) in Pennsylvania, in 1908.
During September Mrs. Hannah B. Hannum, Brandyviwl.
Pa., sent larvae and adults of this species, with state ilra
were devastating her water-cress pond. Both larvae aid
chiefly on the lower side of the leaves. In confinement..
tinued feeding, attacking the stalks also. The larvae.
development about the same time, being fully matured Sepw
and 12, on the last of these two days crawling about the
and ceasing to feed. The pupal period was not observe,
probably lasted ten days or a fortnight, as the weather tWOis
The beetles continued for some time in our rearing cages,to
pairing, but depositing no eggs.
August 19, 1904, Mrs. Hannum sent additional species I
species in the beetle and nearly grown larval stages. It ww.ia.
that the beetles did not swim rapidly, but steadily, and t08
seemingly not discomposed by being somewhat out of their:....
element. It seems probable that they fly from plpnt to
like most beetles undoubtedly are able to float for many -o
perhaps even swim short distances until they reach a lan....
September 13 our correspondent sent still another lot of this
mostly beetles, but a number of larvae were included.
Specimens of the larvae of a syrphus fly accompanied thi ad
and probably fed at times on the small larvae of the beetle. i|
The beetle.-This species belongs to the tribe Chrysomelini qT
family Chrysomelida. It is classified in our publications 0e
Coleoptera of America north of Mexico with Plagioden, but.
ropean systematists place allied forms in the genus Phadon I
which now comprises seven species occurring in our country.,:."
are very small semiglobose forms. The outline is oval, with the tK
16 :! *-*B-
'W T RCJ IU TO
aneiryadteae agie.Teeyrhv ih
str*iiiiiiiH~i wihasotsbuua adsbagnlrwo
ITh hr onto h as I t lcly
p|etseismaue :sato~gt fa nhM
(3m- sAii/brny le/adhs h lta nevl
swohbti elt anl| uuoewe ihymg
whl!h hrxJ urspclyrtclt.Teoiia
--o eg.Teeg aeno oeudrosrvto.Te.rb
resmbltoeo h uoenP roa [,dsrbdb
appars soehtHetato eae
kallm i,-nyta t svrymc-salr ti bu
probably in West Virginia.
Brief mention of the occurrence of this leaf-beetle as an
water cress in Pennsylvania in 1903 was made by the wdi
Mr. Frederick Knab, of this office, mentioning the same l
Plagiodera viridis, has recorded b its occurrence in geres .
upon water cress neat Springfield, Mass., in-' 1902. ..
... .. ..... ...
the species in question has been verified by the'co...i.B.
mens, and Mr. Knab's record was evidently made on:.tpU.:.
of Crotch that cruginowsa was merely .a varietyof o
HABITS ON'. TH AND A flLAEED 0P Mi.:ll
We can not at the present writing give an approximatdfl
of the life history of Phcedon sniginosa, and hence must 4q
what is known of the related Ph. armoraciw, which iscomni i.|i
continents.' This latter has evidently been introduced 'hfi
country, but its habits have apparently not been studied
known in England as the blue beetle and mustard beetle,' ".
considerable importance locally, in some seasons ravagbm%|
fields of mustard, cress, cabbage, and kohlrabi. It passes
as adult, reappearing in spring on cruciferous plants. .Fryw
that in the three years prior to 1881 the Isle of Ely, England,
from the ravages of this species, entire fields being injured.
.'# .. ..
was attacked at about the time of the formation of the.smed p
after the stalks were stripped nearly to the cuticle the"beeI
ferred their attention to kohlrabi, which they completely
at first attacking the leaves and afterwards the bulbs, leaving W
but bare stalks.
The water-cress leaf-beetle is doubtless no exception to tMim|
rule among most Chrysomelide and other species of P S
laying its eggs on the under side of the leaves. Both la
aYbk. U. S. Dept. Agrlc. f. 1908 (1904), p. 564; 6 EItoIoIoCiCal NeWIn.
1903, p. 89; oCrotch, Proc. Acad. Phlla., 1878, pp. 54, 55; GPhAcdo*s
L. syn.: Plagiodera cocklearie Panz., GylIl.; PhAwdon ett Kb 1%t. _I
the same as cochleariw Fab. e Fryer and others have given acountS I
species In The Entomologist (Vol. XIV, pp. 44, 187, etc.).
the cuie~ f thestem fter eedin on t e laea
1oie Mtecs m ret.E .1ic a b
pataiyo-hlatrfrwtrces1n te rcf.
grwin aeypae'admnin h etuto fa
meaopoi inteerhih ua tt atn or
Aq sCrais 1 ie shvn bevdtognrtos
1 eerto en on nMyadJn n h eodM
Thmsf.Hr eod h ae troto nln
veR n asaohr!otpat.T imp~ n eno
and mmlr Rltr
.4mwycurlti nsc ne riaycniin
itbe.Prsgenw re yorcrepnet
ou an sp|le vrtepatswe h e a n
-o_-__-me om wh t
th xuibr wngt h
sucIXss uy gTrUWiug UJIC WSLLJO uroa 11 Wj SUuM" U'SgarMWi 7pflw|
the beetles away. In cold weather it was neeessar sWI.
houses where the cress did well until .the coming of w ii
weather, when the beetles would sometimes clean it owi i
tirely, leaving only the roots. By tearing the crest out. ..
and in ponds which were not exposed to running wztii-a
replant her beds, and hoped in time to get rid of the
P OW ::.. !iii~~~~
:*ii "ii ...."
> ... :: .:::E EEi': "::iisi
.. EE:EE EE. EEEs E
< ::~~~. ... ....lll~i'
*ii::: .: ::. 1 11:;iiii i
... l m ll
,. V i ii 'iH ,i
:" ::in::": :n'
X n.4P4Twe qn .19n
I iw xeiet
AW in char
'l/cadea&o b ot ht~ e net tak
i6 om ,qtas66peae.Tese
to--- fr/~,*wfo ic 887 hni
M eaintti1'-iiiac ncary os
r'etyo1je4 *v% 'hthrourcre
-m'd an hms'unme fupbihdntso
thIa- ftespce obcm
JfOI *- t aeo !
S- l ..-wing:ii
e .whit i
un go" 4
... .rlei..... ....
FIG. 6.-The cranberry apanworm (Caera pawnpiaria): a, Female moth; A n .Bii
b, larva, dorsal view; c, larva, lateral view; d, pupa; e, male antenna; y on
f, enlarged joints of ame. All enlarged; e,f, more enlarged (original). yfrlfijC
...... ... i:!!::i ..:i i
nra pampinaria. It has indeed received five specific nameai :|||ii
of these were given by Guen6e, it is of itself indicative of
tion of the moth. The list follows: ...
Boarmia sublunaria Gn., Spec. & Gent, IX, 248 (1857); B ft
Spec. & Gen., IX, 24') (1857); B. oolecta Wlk., Cat Brit. Ma,
(1860); Cleora tinctaria Wlk., Cat Brit. Mus., XXI, p. 486 (1800) I.:
fraudulentaria Zeller, Verh. zool.-bot. GeL. Wieft, XXII, p. 492 (1873) ..
phora pOamptnaria Pack., Mon. Geom., p. 432 (1876). :'
The egg appears not to have been described. .,
The larva.-The larva resembles those of other geometrid.s k
of elongate form, about nine times as long as wide, with tW
pairs of thoracic or front legs bunched closely together near th'
and in having only two pairs of prolegs, or unjointed leA.i
... ...... i
:: EE :EEE E E
... :::' .. | |". |;:
W WIa lqcoso rms
whc W i oml mmrdi h itito
or edAkw- W Ukea ie ihlgte
readbw'--I ed10 togymre ihtas
i a lcbs : h hf~d emnsa6mre
a aro,& o|i-a~uia ie h en
semn em o hedrlsr eapi frnbet
wprtd oa lm umlebt ism niiul
TUP4itmt sgetas er bv
61|W ~vef-,Ielrawe ulgonmau
ar wnl'pAfut nlnt 2-3m
i~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~M iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
L8AOAM gt fa nh( Mu
oftei/lh lc fteitemdaelg
In o oter i th caue o th
Of-' th "omi r -maotisa&o
!1ro _wbd olo i h etr
Georgia, and Florida in.early October. .
.... .. .. : : ::.. :.
The spanworm under consideration was described und*;ii
of Boarmia pampinaria by Guenee in 1857.2 In 1876: i:
Packard gave a detailed description of the moth, with a cWad
of its distribution and remarks on the larva and pupat, S4
being stated to feed on pear.10 In 1881 Dr. G. H. Fora
note on the larva observed feeding on willow and geranim'ij
transformed to pupm September 16 and October 2, and th.
issued April 17 of the following year. During the ye.r,::`
species was observed by Dr. J. B. Smith,7 then a tempo
of this office, doing injury at Cotuit, Mass. During that $I
spanworms were so abundant in the cranberry bogs in thi. ..
that their numbers could be compared only to the
(Heliophila unipuncta Haw.). In the case in question thiy-W
a space about a rod square, devoured that, and spread in 1':
line across the bog. The number of moths that would "l:
produced from these insects should they have been peui
transform was described as being" frightful." A rather SEi
by Dr. S. A. Forbes followed in 1884,s in which the sta8t
made that the larva was found in midsummer feeding on I.i
strawberry in southern Illinois. Larvae obtained August L
on the 11th, and the moths emerged on the 22d, giving elev1n:iii
the pupal stage at that season. Larvae collected Septemiber.
half grown, were believed to represent a second gene-ratM.
larva of this species came under the observation of t:he:.....
asparagus first in 1897.11 In 1899 Doctor Lugger" stated 1l
caterpillars were found on apple and blackberry, and that t
at least two generations annually.
As this is one of the commonest species of its genus, ot ::
tribution, and authentically determined as living on c6tte
seems little doubt that it was the type of Glover's account a
larger spanworm," figured and described in his accounts of
frequenting the cotton plant, 'published.in 1856 1 and again "U
A curious blunder was made by M. D. Landon, who.6i
species as the "cotton caterpillar (Noctua aiyUna)" in I 61
illustration being a crude copy taken from Glover's first
account of this spanworm.. c
|~*fudfgo otn ue1 av
-cagdt ua ado ue2 h Inot
irlad4hvi d1 asa pp.Tesm
wa rwe --evrlocson--mmtrilotie
In th i/do ~jba yMsmPra n
un 8tomt stafo h ua uut1 h
obereloig chne opp uus .,adise
ofteWw uut2 h av a
cbsdt" &tebr4 h mt sun
618,V'rcie,-v keBasodFl.frm .
Cxm & 4i ba
V ,//o oag
qeix fmth nte .Ntoa
vbAwi-te emn o
as late as uctoner, note oy tne writer ana others, snow.. W.....
generations in the Northern States, while the record otf
rence of the moths in March in Texas (by Belfrage)w .
cate that in the Gulf States there may be an additional .....
It would seen practically impossible for larvae hatching .
deposited in early spring to require until late October..W
maturity, hence the natural inference of two generat.icm
climate like the District of Columbia. The cranberry
Massachusetts claim two generations for that State, one!;;i.
as larvae in June and early July, the other in the lttfi ii.
The eggs are unknown, and the periods of egg and 1
not been ascertained, but the pupal condition has been
be passed, for the first generation, in from 11 to 14 day:ih
over-wintering pupa consumes five or six months in the O
Columbia, a shorter time farther south, and a-longer time:is.
The date of the appearance in the North of the fit nh
not been learned positively nor the natural time of emerge
first new generation of moths.
Doctor Smith7 has stated that the larvae of this spentK
checked by parasites, but that in some localities almost .:::
they become numerous enough to be destructive. In
however, in the cranberry bogs of New Jersey they are 0t
all, showing great scarcity, due probably in part, at least,
causes. Only one parasite for this species is known, nam|j
ori^ta boarmia3 Coq., a tachina fly reared at this Departlilp*I
Cotuit and other localities in Massachusetts several yearS .I l
Th.is species is not difficult to control on asparagus or ot...
crops. As it feeds in free exposure on the foliage, spraying
Paris green or arsenate of lead will destroy it, and when midf
these insecticides is used for the asparagus beetles it will ki11
the span.worms which may be present. The Paris g "e. .
H .. F i ".. i
ritt fIpudt bu 0 o10glo' fwtr n
ofla tte aeo bu Ipudt 5 o5 aln
Th aermde il plyeulywf oteocr
thssece n rn1r os
-TWED eotCm isinrPtns .9, lt II1 i.4
rm oal hsseks Apasi arlns eriadFoiaeryi
Ocoe n ef pnteptl ftecotnfoe;lraadaut ecie
A-S6jsGnrldsT/do~eVl X hlnts
Jm haldklio sRamdpmiarafo erBlioe-B rgi
ftj erm n sR hunrafo ot mrc. a
'A .RI o M g.,.IA l i:i 0
V- kuoayfgrda h oto aepla Ncm yn)1
A.$ eotU .Gooia uvyTr. adn o.X
44,Pat I t2, 96
f*~i W n eaI ecitol fmth yoyy itiuinadnt
an ua h oierfeigo er
'1jp otnadispicpI nuiu net< ahntn
VI iL6',8 S8
Io;v4 ehyla n oh on al nOtbri eri edn
lt A'01Y 1 ,8,II
oklrafeigo wlo n eaim
7,1 'U .4(.&,14.Et -U .Dp gb.2-8 84
t*4g =at) eeenet nuist rnbris ecito f
rlere U sVmtpoapmpnra eei
some numbers, especially on asparagus, has permitted a std#4)
species, which adds somewhat to what has previously beeu.:pb
.... .... ... . .
Only a few short notices of this insect have appeared in
of the Department of Agriculture or elsewhere, to the writa ....l .
edge. The following somewhat brief account is therefore:V- fi
This species is a noctuid, related to the cutworms, and. is.. ,
with the zebra caterpillar (Mamestra pickta Harr.). Trf jiw
originally described in 1864,a the species at that time beian ..3
from the middle and eastern States, where it was stated to i.
mon. It is also recorded as occurring in the northern S t.ar .....
dently, considering its numbers in the Gulf region, it may .bNiia
in fiost States east of the Mississippi River Valley.
.. .. : "i .. .... .....ii:. i iiiii
The moth is quite prettily marked, as can be seen by ret.
figure 7, a. The prevailing tint of the fore-wings is a .li.gt i.
color, marked with velvety-black and brown spots, the pattern ...
somewhat but usually about as figured. The lower wings an::
.. ......... .=.
colored, with dusky margins, and the veins are moderately a
The females, as is usual with this group, have the abdomen s..............
treated, while the males have abdomens with bushy tips.
expanse is a little more than an inch and a quarter.
The eggs.-No description of the egg is available at the .:0
The larva is also a pretty form and its markings recall t.
caterpillar. It will be noticed by the figure (fig. 7, b, c) that 0
considerable difference, however, and the two species are nit ..:
likely to be confused by anyone who carefully examines them.4!!!
present species has a larger and wider head and is darker
usual with the common zebra caterpillar. The appearanceii4
head from in front is shown at d. The stripes with which the
*Apamea legiflma, Proc. Ent Soc. Phila., Vol. III, p. 82. ,:i!!
.. .. :::::"j::':E: !E
28~~ ( -
I ..*.** .l
THE STRIPIRD GMWEX CATM MLAR. 21)
are bla& and yellow, as. with the zebra caterpillar, but the
iAripe is divided into two portions, the upper one lighter than
kmer, and the entire lateral surface when marked colasi U of
stripes, whereas in the other. species these stripes are broken
-As pupa, when mature, is nearly black in color, and has the
ce illustrated (fig. 7, e). It measures about five-eighths of
i4ch mi' length, including the tips.
W s species was briefly mentioned as I having been found by the
"ter, inL.th larval Condition on Md.
aspara,,us at Marshall Hall,
October, 1896-a At that timd it
b0possible. to ascertain whether
"oot it bred from egga.depositeA
thi's plant, but later observations
in u*ompany with Mr.-
Pratt during the first and see-
,-weeks of October show Con-
that such must be the case,
were found in the greatest
on three large patches, of
at Brookland, D. C.
usually occurred singly, but
ly in pairs.
DUring the heat of the day, in
dian summer weather usual at, e
ington- at, that time of th
e FIG. 7.The striped garden caterpinar
many larvae would be found WalneatrG legitima): a, Adult; D,
ed out upon diy sprigs of larva from above; c, same from side;
4, iead of same from front ; e,
8, and in spite of their pupa. All natural size except d,
t co ors they would easily have which is enlarged (from Howard).
d the observation of anyone without experience, in insect col-
The larva, in fact, furnishes 'a good example of protective
fion. An individual would be in plain sight, and then if one's
were directed elsewhere foi- a moment it would sometimes be
to find it again, although it might be within a foot cd the
'rym Obtained October 7 and later were kept Jwding on asparagus
Vftrimg'cages until the third week of October 'when they de-
to the, earth and soon -afterwards assumed the pupal condition.
date of the assumption of the chrysalis form was not ascer-
10RU1.101, U. S., Div. But, U. S. Dept. Agr., P. 60,
tmis iarva was Lxounu rauier auuuuauuy uy nucwur njuowmrxu..:iu
fields in southern Virginia, near the North Carolina border
the leaves, which in some oases were badly ragged.' The SM.
issued in July.
During 1900 and 1901 correspondence was had in regard|
caterpillar with Mr. H. Walter McWlliams, Griffin, G.L.,- IN
specimens, as also larvae of the so-called cottoirf cutworm. (
ornithogalli Guen.), with which the insect was associated. i
years. The caterpillars were noticed there in greatest numb .s.:..
November, and both species were reported as destroying a "
garden crops, among which were cabbage, collards, turnip,.... riB
rape, peas and related plants, as also some other vegetables.:::;
larvae were seen as late as the last week of November.
Among other office records are two which also have a b i
the biology of this species. One of these was made by i
Pergande, who found the larvae in the District of Columbia .
on blackberry and on flowers of a goldenrod (Solidago sp):.!411
other is a shbrt note by Mr. F. M. Webster upon the rearing
moth in spring from the seed pods of milkweed (Ailde pw it6du
nata), near Lafayette, Ind. "The larva appeared to subsist ip
seeds, the pods being attached unopened to the wrecked plant .........
October 21 the larva was found at Washington, D. C. We hp*.:1
further records in regard to the habits of this species other t .4
capture of moths in the District of Columbia July 25, Auguqst
25, and September 2, and there are specimens also in teq
National Museum from Lewis County, N. Y., July 4, col
0. Meske, and others from New Jersey without definite locty.:t! :
species is also said to occur at Portland, Oregon. It is interetA,
note that among these specimens are inflated larvae and
heads labeled "pretty cutworm," which might be termed i ..,. i
The rearing Jar was kept under somewhat unnatural conditions, .t..
too warm and dry, but the effect of one condition might have been eoumii
by another, and the date of issuance of the adults was not far from that ,,
would be assumed in nature-more likely earlier than otherwise. '!
b Yearbook U. S. Dept Agrlc. for 1898, p. 142o U
SInsect Life, Vol. II, p. 882, 1890. "-1
ofotJ1ldg fto pe"i a o
'o iOIrmtto Armtmteer e
t1SOik h YI fprosfo
stg ftelra hm oe eemd n1
XmmIadte mut hc m d ihte
AtSJP nerteDstito-Clm* &tw
i n a r a i g 0j r w t g a s h m t o b k e
'b e 1ad1 ocoka iht n]fte
ar u dth t m of g as
th phthd soigtei ero.t eol
L 4 h a v a o p e e h i s o t
im ady pebr2 tescn-iot-a
day astescn ara ntr etme
thr skn e i dysa h ewdo
$frhml curemkn1 ay o h or
'Adq mdt h Mms Afe h
of W eedl-w eer
-as an nNP
e avm-hi hoe
x t ,
about as follows: Egg period, 3 to 5 days; first larval Iat
second larval instar, 2 days; third, 5 days; fourth, .. ..........
8 days, and pupal stage, 7 to 10 months. Hibernation
pupal stage. ........
The observed food plants include asparagus, cabbage, &ia. .
turnip, ruta-baga, rape, peas and related plants, greenholeW A
tobacco, grass, and blackberry. Of wild plants, golden-iire
milkweed have been observed, the larva attacking theI
the former and the seed pods of the latter.
METHODS OF CONTROL.
Although -the early habits of this species as it occurs mi. t J
have not been observed, there is no doubt that, like the ..zebr.
*,.~~ "" ":E : "'.:!""l **
pillar, the young when first hatched are gregarious for smi ..
and hence may be easily discovered and destroyed by m.la
means or by arsenicals. All of the caterpillars of this elass..S
succumb to arsenical poisons, and for this species in its occura.
asparagus and some other plants arsenate of lead is to be pref
It may be used at the rate of about 1 pound combined with l1*
gallons of water or Bordeaux mixture. If an adhesive resi$:"
such as resin fish-oil soap, is added, it makes this mixture m.1..
more permanent, and a single application is then all that is .
Paris green may be used in the same manner at the rate of I :':.
to 100 or 150 gallons of water. It is evident that this speciA'
the zebra caterpillar, does no particular.harm as a rule im,..ii|
generation, but is much more abundant in the second or late
eration, when certain plants are injured by it. Owing to t.
culty of locating the larger larvae, it is evident that handpd
would not be applicable for them in their later stages. ,
.. i::'EI i
: .: .St i;::ii
SUL M Part IV. 19sued January=, 190.
INSECTS INJURIOUS'Tn TRUCK CjXV
OF THE SUGAR BEEr AND THEIRRELATION
TEM "CURLY-LEAF OONDITION.
By E. D. BALL9 Ph. D,
Specki Field Agent.
MPAUC"Un vf the sugar beet into the Wermountain
Ieas, low hm rwulted each season from a c9ndition
(See P-L 114 fig. 17 PIS. 11, M;
L Grand- Junction, WG., the beet growers:
Poqueut losea from this source. Supt. George Austin,
,$vpr Com a serious loss around T-Ph*'
papy, reported . .11
1M the, beet crop Sevier TTtah7 Was
tho,*zt year the damage was worse and more
in 5- 1 he State of Utah
t extmded throughout
of ,Colora& and Idaho.
tb*, *0nd`1t*wh`W been looked upon as -a result of some
diease or due to a soil.or climatic condition.
noticed for the first time that a leafhopper
Dhket -present in la numbers the fields
v3s 66 worst, and the writer, in connection with
of the Utah Agricultural Experiment Sta-
'An'JaVostigation of the insect and its relation to the_
-work t its life history, so most
*ft too late to ou
'to asWdY of its relation to the curly-leaf condi-
medie& This investigation was con-
cooperation with the, Bureau of Entomol-
P was worked out. Owing to the small inum-
V those two seasons, little more was dow with
ww laets were learned in regard. to me"& of
of the Mpiry-
called to the (A burly-leaf " i
Prt4 x IL shaw, then chun" of the Grana, jum-,
-1 Initt= A.
T)rr eMfd M W" At
y_ no exj
late in the season after the curly-leaf character had. .".
and after the greater number of insects had disappeabedY!.,
tion of the beets always revealed a few specimens of E
along with other leafhoppers and miscellaneous insects, ht
sufficient number to cause suspicion. -
Late in June, 1905, reports began to come in to the UMta. i'
station of the appearance of an insect in the beet fields: ofw uB
and central portions of the State, and on July 8 the wX
pany with Mr. George Austin, visited the fields around LetI.
found the beet leafhoppers, associated with smaller number
chinch bugs (Nysius) and leafhoppers of the genus Agallia A
serious damage to the young plants, especially in the lat-j
...s : .,.,,
From the size of the beets and the number of the beet leW V..
present when first examined in 1905, the prediction was maiS
insects would not be able seriously to retard the further .gnnI
beets. This prediction was based on the ordinary amountof,
done by insects of sucking habits. That the number ofi .
would be able to injure or even seriously retard a very *V
was recognized, but that the same number could have any awwd
effect on large beets was contrary to all expectations based. onI a
edge of similar attacks by Nysius, Agallia, and other sucking
. ... . .. r .. ,i
The trouble soon afterwards appeared in the Cache Vae:
and was under observation there throughout the remainder :iof
son, while several trips were made to various parts of .t1
Wherever it appeared it gradually grew worse, and althoug:1:
1905 started with everything favorable in the early season,
beet crop fell below the average about 75,000 tons. This, ho-we
not anywhere represent the entire loss, as both sugar coatA.
purity of the beets harvested fell far below the average, entaili
their loss to the sugar companies and bringing the total to u
half a million dollars. ....
In Sanpete and Sevier counties, in the southern part of ,N
large part of the acreage was abandoned early in the season, wi
rest barely paid the expense of harvesting. In Utah County ui
varied from a total loss on a few late fields to a full crop,w
average of more than a half crop harvestedL In the Cache Y
the northern part of the State, the loss was about one-third in h
and in Weber and Boxelder counties less than that.
In 1906 a very small number of leafhoppers appeared, and, i.
season was cool, even where they were most abundant little d:
was done. A careful study was made of the life history and
tion of the species, and a number of tests were made of its minji
W, Seuo npWf U -Dp.o giut .PAEi.
L9OmfM-(UETX R 1t O
**0.'ol;bw Awiw 4e, mOm; m l
U0 ww7h4w kmMMi"Af,-.
ifo etfbuj wn o, b'W
W;/=O ;;lvh etmo nxr/
"rmfii a btf.X-
_p o 0
dc b ba ad room;
Iw m W M
9 l Lt
MpS UIt fI
anl/4 anteilllnbm t
-AWUskO 1 aAA (n m~i
ivgmat, one end, and are thrust into the leaf stem. in a slightly
ar--.direction. At first they are scarcely visible (PL I, fig.
Mbu as the stem grows they are pushed out with the opening up
i, injured spot until at hatching time they are often half free
)i. g., A). After the eggs hatch, the egg scars continue to en-
.i.. ... remain throughout the season as irregular, elongate, crater-
.ep.ings (PL I, fig. 1, i). The eggs are deposited on all parts of
...stem, usually one in a place. In-the cages they were often
.. e .together, very likely in this case by different insects,
:Jl ad a number were inserted into the midrib and secondary
: "tblea:.d and a few into the leaf margin near the base.
FW!# (1iL I, fig. 1, b)are very active, pale creamy white or
r..d .forms. The commonest form is pale creamy in
.. i ni saddle on the middle of the abdomen and various
a::: ta .prot horax and wing-pads. Some have the same pat-
a r.d.i......ud color, more are creamy yellow, and occa-
... .is seen with a broad and somewhat irregular dark stripe
I 4 .:. When small the nymphs will be found most com-
bi.A ..Bithje uzolding leaves at the center of the beet, but as
older they spread out over the plant.
".':""" ": .. ... ".. p p la n t .
9 .. ......
...;=..... ........: .:" .........
.:.: .. .......:: ..:: .::. :.: : .. . .....
.... .. ...= ..... i j!ji~ i .i i! i;f fgii ... .... .
hr$ ll foooidpat of this species is still in doubt. In the
%*-*s*.id on asewood (Sarcobatus), sea-blite (Dondia),
te Russian thistle, and rarely on other plants
.webu lie .occurring on the waste land. As these places
A tIh eafhopperswent to the sugar beets in the areas
IfE fil.L one case, however, the species was found in
Nm gr ieasewood during egg-laying time, which would
p as :its original host.L Its known distribution is all
..Sm.. a wh. t p lan is abundisant.*i
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. E .: i.....:." .. . .
.. ..... .... .. : :.... :.. .. :.
i::,l iiiiiiii,::i ::: ::, i:.... .. ...... .. ... .
iii~ i~iiii ??i : :.. "i .Y: .:: ."" : ." : ." ...... ... .. "
L iEEEEEEEE:...EEEE'..:EEE:.::::EE. E : .: ..:. : E .... ..li i i i i i i i i i :? .,i : i i ; : i . i : : : . : i i .. .
..ii! !!i : i;;i; :i .. ::.. .. : . ..... .. ............ ..._
This leafhopper is apparently a native of the southwH
of the United States. It has been collected from about'tl|
of Denver, Colo., south along the edge of the mountainis,
New Mexico, and west though Arizona, Utah, and uthe...
to the coast in California and Oregon. Though nfln .
mountain region, its distribution is restricted to the i
and it is never taken on the mountains themselves. From this
it has not spread very far up to the present time. It wa"4 f
Fort Collins and Lamar, Colo., in 1901-in one ease 100 mi..
of its known habitat, on wild plants, and in the other an eq
tance east, but was rare in both situations. In Utah it has u
the northern line of the State and into Idaho as far as t ::h-t p.
ticular beet area has been extended, while it has not as yet beaa :1shpk
from the wild plants north of Ogden, Utah.
LIFE-HISTORY STUDIES. ,
...: J : !iiiiE:ii;i
Search was made for this species as soon as the gro
commenced in the spring of 1906, but no specimens were i
in the Cache Valley, Utah, up to the time the beets came :::i
trip to Sevier County, Utah, at the time the very earliest'"beS K
were just showing (April 22) failed to disclose a single in.d.fi .ib .
either in the beet fields or in waste places or hedgerows adj :ae:t1i t
the beet-growing districts. The first specimens discovered thu
son were found at Thompsons, Utah, May 3, feeding on It i a
thistle, and a few days later the insect was found on the same po. t:
and on an annual saltbush (Atriplex) at Grand Junction, Col .....
Beet fields were examined at Grand Junction, Colo., May 8, ......
in Utah at Lehi, May 9; Smithfield, May 12; Garland; M a U.
Lehi, May 17; Corinne and Penrose, May 22; and Provo I 4
June 1, without finding a single leafhopper on any of th em .......
beets were not up at Lehi o4 May 9, nor at Smithfield, but te .MG*'
were examined carefully, especially where weeds were begizwiin'g toi
appear. Fields at Logan, Utah, were under observation duraigl'l0l
this time and up to July 1, but no leafhoppers were found. :
.. ,:::.:.:. : : :! :ii ... ..... ....
2 : .. -:1.: ... . ... ..! ::[
RECORD AT LEHI, UTAH. ,"
On June 21 a field was examined at Lehi in which there waslk::::i
average of one or two leafhoppers to a beet. They were allay'
and two-thirds of them females. The beets in this field were .
6 to 10 inches across, and no sign of injury was observed. On emiit
ining the other fields in the valley a very much smaller nunbet'ifil
leafhoppers was found. Some fields had one individual to I0-b.I4 ,
I19POPR FTH VA BE.3
had noea l.Th vrg oudnthv eenmr
fhpie to2 et.Te eems ueoi.o h
| rfedado h al bes w ace fvr
doeth'fitoevstdha olahppr tti ie
fam_ lsfo hsfedwr isetd n ul eeoe
IoaId i necon,9ion,7iantead'rm2o4
oni fte'tes nylrg gscudb enwt h
anIrbbysmIo hs eecuhe hl en e
ThIattaIl eae aful eeoe gsadta
weeII ~ae hnmlsiniae htteeaut a
OAiIogtm n eentnw nso ro hthdjs
10,fb urunigwl ad
Wteaut eesihl'es u oxtsadtenmh
-lobetidgqw n ut bndn e fte
f_ mbtn hrs ilscudb on.Mr
Wm fon nteerybes mr ul ef o h
`4o itmslIbu w-hrsSm
anIoefl-rw.'agenmeso dlso h
44t abu afo h efopr en dlttis
44 ihallswr bna.Th efopr eenal
bu e ml ypswr tl ob
90 h omswremsl dlmleIen tlii
iIi-0r a tl uteanme ffl-rw
I~ ao eedsetdan e on hthd
6gjbtters a 6sg fay hs e
-rtiitrmat fteoe-itre ro ffml
RECORD AT MONROB, UTAH.
In Monroe, Sevier County, the season opened early,.' mud;il5
were nearly all planted in April. An examination AprUi0,..
tioned above, failed to discover a single leafhopper.
On June 26, on a second visit, nearly all the beets-M We
shape, with leaves touching in the rows, and only l1sing
inches of touching across rows. The leafhoppers were* ....T
every patch, both adults and very small nymphs, and .
larger nymph was seen. Mr. Fred Gould, field superintadzi),i
that he had observed the adults for some time. There were aitics
hoppers on the older patches than on the late planted ones, fa3.
that they had migrated in before the younger beets were far;;3i4,
advanced to attract them. ... ........,
On July 25 the leafhoppers had increased in numbers, avnlg:.
from 10 to 20 to a beet on the earlier patches. Adult males we re. i
mon, showing that the nymphs had commenced to change to a:
again. All stages of nymphs were still common, however.
On September 14 the numbers of leafhoppers were beginning t
decrease. Several counting gave an average of 7 males to 5
and 5 large nymphs. The dissection of a number of females mhow
no eggs developed as yet, and there seemed little doubt that tb
would hibernate.. ..
LF, A, / .. .j' i:.....
OTHER RECORDS IN UTAH.. .- ........:':i *
S : .. "..y iiii ---"
A field belonging to a Mr. Irons at Moroni, Sanpete Coni .....
visited June 27, and an average of one leafhopper to every tw ftit
was found. Mr. Irons, who is a very careful observer, said taat 111
had been there for some time. A careful search was made for thp
nymphs, but none was found. This was by far the worst inbl
field in the county, the average being less than one insect to teo 'b.
July 26 adults and nymphs were about equally common, and ::::
.. .... %.. ::.. :: N ii.i::: !
In the Cache Valley and the rest of the northern end of the .
the leafhoppers did not appear in sufficient numbers to ena=bleM
to make any life-history notes. On this account all cage i
were transferred to Lehi. ..
CAGE EXPERIMENTS, LEHI, UTAH.
The field observations on life history were all checked bI
experiments (PI. IV, figs. 2, 3). Cages 1 to 3 were failures, t
the adults escaping from the material used. Later a very SO
scrim was used and proved satisfactory for the life-history wru|
was too closely meshed to obtain normal temperature and mut
conditions inside. All cages were run in pairs on similar bet
with insects and one without, as a check on the injury to the I
" :... "....i.M
.. ;.. .'. ' ', .. E
. .. ** : i: i
IMM SG B .8
wW5(ls lbsuo et bu nhsi im
Juy1,1 dl elopr, 2o 'hc eefmls
inocmCPeiu iwin a.A ta i
Wf migegadteprsneo.a eyfwss
intefedpoe htteealetoe ea eofn
tiebfrI a hrfre-xetdta oeo h
nedwudbei eoitn tOM
23teecgsweeadM h oecnann
th cu eefudt e arycvrdwt g
T/ ftesos-eermvd n rsreadfudt
16 gso orta n-ixho h oalnme rs
ambro eae eesmi h ae u onmh
"teAu hwds oeegsas n hr a ut
ofsalnmh hthdapaetybe u eet
iw abe ntecg nl eete as o&s
hm ohthdwti hrentoffendy~ri h ii
)o h cmiin on tecg.Aohr ti
an ks/d n hers eta eo
On August 30 but few leafhoppers could be seen, and"4720e
On September 12 the leafhoppers were almost all gon
had been laid, either in the cage or field, and disse"otIia4
that the females had no visible eggs in the abdomen up t JII
was thought at this time that the adults would lay eggs i
and then die. Accordingly a new lot was started, as ho:w7t
Cages 10 and 11 (large lantern globes).-On August 'N N
hoppers were introduced into No. 10, of which 12 were fh
No. 11 one female and several males were introduced. On.
12 no egg scars could be found in either cage.
Cages 13 and 14 (silk scrim with a glass top).-On fSepd
20 leafhoppers, nearly all of which were females, were u
cage 13...... ... ...
.... .. .... ,...=. :. .... .
On October 20 the field of beets was harvested., The eq
removed and the beets labeled and sent on for examinataioi&Sl
leaf and stem, and even the parts of the beet itself protrudt
the ground, were examined carefully, but no sign of any ig
could be found on these beets or on those from the previi
Many of the leafhoppers were alive at the time the cars=
moved, and there seems to be no doubt that they must bibau
adults. . '
SUMMARY OF LIE HISTORY. 5.
By the time the beets were thinned the leafhoppers began:t::.4
in the fields and by the middle of June were well distribute
gradually increased in numbers for some time after this.
began at Lehi, Utah, late in June and continued until late b lL...
each female depositing about 80 eggs, the period of dep.....
tending through several weeks, the greater number of the
ever, being deposited in the ten days preceding the middle % .
The nymphs appeared in small numbers by July 10, and ...
be found in small numbers in September. A great m0j'|
emerged from the eggs the last ten days in July and cbuj
adults some twenty days later. The first adults appeared f
nymphs the last of July and continued to increase in number i
August. The egg stage in the cage experiments was between
and fifteen days; the larval stage between sixteen and twe4
TAX IMM FwH, UA I .4
an uhtm-wsseti Rtdigcn itinsi
or jutwa obiaino atoswsncs
I( ul-ef"s aa otebes vni h
i uMndtee-ol e&r n hr etta wa
d anrwn suul hiei h etfed
th e colinafce n efuc
f wssnsosrain hr emdt eltl
cur -la1odtonwsth euto h t
cobndwt h fec favr oek
itwsnte htaog h de ftefed
ih n hd-sc swol efrihdb~
itemb ioossadofsetcoe n ic
-' ,b "iie ifru frtefrt e 'os
'wot pin fee h cA~-jn ilswr
Whm h e vrgdfom21t ,tn e ce
sof no hwm&dmg niedd1
M il a lc ftl olrteso h ot
,|~ qIytl n' ntews ii.I te lcsi
*., ha bt* el cutiate. U de orinry oni--- mm
_M al le w ol aebe uttervre
a th edkp h r-nfo eoigqies
OW! ainoecm h ffcso h ef
O)~dMMO &iwh, hu hetarotisfocdio e
044a og smeria be esls wie if aee
worse throughout the season. The only explaation :
condition was that, while the beet had plenty of watei l
soil was dry and dusty, and the ground was as hot as in
field, while in the fields that were irrigated early the eMai
the moist surface kept the temperature down until the beaW'
enough to shade the ground. This would also explain ......
everywhere in the State, except in Sevier County, the W
affected much worse than the early ones. In other p
State the early beets were large enough to shade, the ...
rows by the time the hot weather and leafhoppers aItp
Sevier County, on the other hand, the hot, dry weatbe |
" ., 7 ; ..,.' : .7': ...
earlier and the leafhoppers were so much more numerous thatei*j
earliest beets could not withstand their attack when exrpou .
full force of the sun. .
The unusual numbers of the beet leafhopper were ""'
largely the result of a winter and spring, favorable for te p"
tion of insect life, as almost all injurious insects were presiMS
creased numbers 'during that season (1905). The leafhqp i
however, evidently been increasing for several years and
before this reached destructive numbers in Sevier Countiy,. a
beet growers there had been suffering increasingly from whi,
called "blight" for two years previous to this, and this i
the number of insects, followed by a winter favorable to thirdr
vival, resulted in the outbreak of 1905. ;
The leafhoppers were present in every field examined ini V40
season, and occurred in the greatest abundance in the areas in
the "curly-leaf" was worst. The average number ofaduMW A
over-wintered brood to a beet varied from 3 or 4 up to 10 or 4.i
probably even more than that in Sevier County, judging f B
number found there later. No serious damage was done whai
were only the smaller numbers, and even where the damage wp
it seemed to depend more upon how early they appeared an M'U:i
perature and moisture of the locality at that time than on
number above an average of possibly 5 or 6 to a beet. In. 9::.:
appeared in very small numbers. The field at Lehi, Utah,
experiments were conducted, was by far the worst found,
they averaged only about 1 or 2 to a beet, while the ava :i
valley would not have been more than 1 to every ten or
and the average of the State was even less.
A field in Boxelder County, Utah, was examined in Augu:t, I
in which the leafhoppers had recently appeared in large pu
averaging 100 or even 200 in some places to the beet. The be,,B
large enough then to shade the ground,.and the field was 1
gated from that time on. Almost no curling of the leaves ,
Vllror gO 91A M.4
Wd n ntefl h ied a nal pt h
Th g|eod il m'o iwihtela opr
uni fe h dlshd ace u.O h te
,-i eeeaiedi hcmh eahpeshdbe
inte esnbt a hnAdspme fe h
vitrd n e nteefed h e
thtuhu th esnadtebesge os nta f
wit keoeeeuso a re nafedi h ah
i A 191Tifedcnane ueosaut n
to n onigolqel nadfrad n
ofte-abrdeihnet osoe n asdte
7W!rpls stesrysrc hm neuso
A$[r o ae a ite feto h dls n
of '' otohenmh ol
L nw -tem~rnm
im dadsm oudbcm utesil u
" i tso ae-pouethsaeefe nteaut
tha itsrIMn o h atr ollhw
Ahqto h ra eae ftebead
qisina xetdthttenme fla
jo 1 la "o ifrntszd et
b" i otefieeso heguencs
tm h m tueadnosur oldntbecn
"wa ioueaTedapc iin
04 71 ,-T ` o
`AIdtt epteisctfr eii,D
'1 IMhpe _fwihwr eae ed
'oabe ihatp8ice ndaee
ly prprdadsbitda hnls
smaller than when examined five 'days before. Se .. dJ
large number of nymphs had hatched out, the outer lein ....
and the rest looking sickly; ten days later than tOhis"
examined again and the beet was dead and dry, whiik the 5
check cage had again doubled in size. Twelve leafhoppWr
eggs stopped the growth of a beet in less than two wegbo
together with their progeny, killed it in less than two wld.
The same number of adult specimenA of Agallia, Nysiusn Qii. ....
would scarcely have made an impression on a beet of: :-MJB
COHARACT.IST0ICS OF ".U.LT-LEA."I
The first symptom of "curly-leaf" or "blight" otk t
thickening of all the smaller veinlets of the leaf, givi. f
ened appearance on the underside. This is followed b..::
the edge (PI. III, fig. 1) and a final rolling up oftIe -.0t 1
1, j; PL II, figs. 2, 3; PI. III, fig. 2), the upper surface : dI|
rolled in. As this progresses the small veinlets grow .WiJlm
more irregular, knotlike swellings appear at frequent :
III, fig. 2), and in extreme cases little nipplelike s
extending to a height of nearly one-fourth of an inch(
This will be noticed first upon a medium-sizedW
spreading to the younger ones, while at the same time tk
stops growing and a large number of fibrous roots- are I
II, fig. 1). These roots are not confined to two irreguar
a healthy beet. The beet often continues in this way th.i
: .. ....... ..
season, in bad cases it shrivels and dies, while in a few ...
is a partial recovery and a new set of leaves. though. the..I
remains very low. . .....
Many of the species of this genus of leafhopppen
discoloration or distortion of the leaves of their food
appears to be of the same nature as the. work of the |
species, and is a process little understood. Th4 wrinkliing
of the leaves by some of the species is vry similar i
the work of some gall-forming aphides. Some specie::: ......
a change in color similar to that produced in many gil- .
In the case of Eutettia strobi (PL I, fig. 2 a, b) and'.. a
the Chenopodium or on the sugar beet and of iE. ,
straminea (PL I, fig. 6) on the Helianthus the discoloratioN a
IuL 66. Ft- IV, Bureau of Entomlogy, U. S..Dept. of AgiicuE.Ure. PLATE 11.
WORK OF EuTETTIX TENFELI-A ON SWAR BEET.
Cfir1Y-Jmf bectf the result Of Sttack by EldeUix temeUa, and n no
hum t1te mme field, showing durerence in size. Fig& 2, 3--l' Curly-leaf 11 beets as
0MMJfttbf#4W- Flg C-Normal becis Imm same field. (Original.)
:... ::.. ::: ... .
* IS r *;"";;: ;" '"
.. .... .. .
. .: ..::: ..
.....'.. : . ....: ...
".... ::.:. ::: .. ..
.. .. .... .. i ... ":"|jig::" ..... :!
.. ... .....i: ,,i.i.: .. .....
.. ...' ". .....
..:. :: .....
:: .: ":'" E :: ':E :"::E" E *.. :::
.. .. ......
.. ..: q~~~ii~i I;.
. ... ..:.: ..... z... : :::: .
... : : ... .. :......
::'::. ::' "L ':::.i:::;i:::: :.L i :...,,.. !ii
"" iii ." "! :iiii :.':I ii
:"" .' :.i"""E .. .: i:EE
.ii~ ~ii~3:iE,!', ...... .
..i~ iE ":iiiEE ... ... .. .
.. .. .. .. . ...
r "m .m.m .. .. ..
.. EEEEE:" ... ..E E..".....
.. .. .... .....
iW.'K" VI .I ti LLA I.. SUGAR BE ET..
~6. ~ ~ -Back of a leaf aftlocted byeryea
.... ...... ..
.. ........ :
.. . ..: ... ... .
... ... ... E
: =.... .. ...: '.:s
.. ....... . .
I" :... .. .::..:::...
'?'* : .. .. ....:.."."
.. .. ... : ...:..EEEEE
.. .. ...
... ..... ...". H
.:: .. ..... "
... i l.:imiiii!
.. +: i;ii!;l
Tig OPPFAB OF THE SVGAA BEET.
the litfle nymphs begin to feed, and Ws. is soon followed by
of the lmf in a certain definite way in each- cam That.
wtt caused by the Lechantiml injury of the puncture or due
,to the loss of sap seems to be abundantly, proved, by the fact
Menopodi1UM is often attacked by other sucking insects in
nu ibers without producing either the red pigment or
distortion. The fact that a certain characteristic color
are always produced by a given species, no matter
on a Chenopodium or on a sugar beet, and that the color and
vimy or the different species -of the same genus even when
va the same plant, would indicate that there is some definite
bA& of, it all. It has &Lso been noticed that in all this group
amount of damage isi done in. hot, dry situations.
or not the. ' curly-leaf condition is entirely the result of
Amwe in the beet caused by the attack of the beet leafhopper is
#&,open quedion, but that there is some relationship between the
attack and the 11 curly-leaf does not seem to admit of a
boL the light of the facts brought out in the investigations. The
p f damage 'in a given valley was directly proportional to the
,of Jealhoppers present, the injury appeared only after the
of -the leafhoppers, and the curly-leaf condition is
occur only -on beets growing within the range of this insect,
was not called to the damage early enough in 1905 to
whoffier or not the curly-leaf appeared before the first
Of the nymphs- At Lehi 1Utah7 the curly-leaf ap-
very soon after the first nymphs. In the Cache Valley, Utah,
common. by the time the first curling was noticed.
vory.amtwatch was kept in all parts of the State for the
Simi of leaf-curl, and in no case did it appear (except on the
boots) until after the nymphs began to hatch out. In fact, in
cam examined the cast skins of nymphs could be found
of oqOed l4aves while on healthy beets these were very
41 ebwmtiong of both Years more leafhoppers
the ediled beets than on others. At first this was
Www a gregarious habit in the adult, but it may be due to
A given female lays most of her eggs on a single plant
tend to rmamthem In Euteltim 8troU and the
Amigforms, where the nymphs a" brightly colored and
thtir dwcolar.ed spots for protecdoti, it is not unugual for
'to pass its whole life on a inigle leaf, or on two or
ones; in most ca&*s, but a si*e 4YPh will be found
,suid sometimes the adult and the nymphal gkin of each
d under a dingle leaf. It is very likely that tht
t~Ua and that this &ct in part A
least, accounts for one beet being, badly aeted wiWi
ones are unharmed. In the case of Eu stoi .
where most of the leaves of a small plant are a
portion, the plant usually shrivels up and dies, but: Vte...
two leaves on a large plant are distorted the pbms !,i
to be affected at all, and in no case. does the colo
the new leaves. In several cases small beets have.
every leaf has been deformed by the work of e Tn*4
apparently stopped growing.
In the case of the "curly-leaf," however, the abna.
apparently spreads from leaf to leaf until finally the ........
affected, even though the leafhoppers may have dismp..
the process is complete. This was abundantly ......
mother beets set out in the spring of 1906. -lese beets .wi|
from the best-looking'beets of 1905, and... would nW..
ones that showed little or no effect of the "curly4t ,""|.l"
before. In every case observed the first leaves sent
were as curly as the average of the year. before,. d i
formed stunted lettucelike. heads, and later 'wit ....d "I
however, survived through the season, and a .. MaUR!
som stalks, but as a seed crop they .were an entirn..ef..h
ing took place before any leaffoppers were found I&:
in rows adjoining young beets that were not at all
not become affected during the season. This would.. .
agency, whatever it may be, that causes "curly-leaf"
beet itself over winter and was transmitted to the- i..,J,..
In early September, 1907, the sugar-beet region
Cal., was visited by the writer and a .number of o at
commonly called "blight" or "curly-leaf" were.
however, proved to be quite different in character otihns
leaf" condition caused by Eutetti tenela. The leves M
were found to be covered with pale spots, the edges itie&
instead of up, and the whole appearance was quite '-P .'
ful search was made over many acres for specimens
none was found; instead a species of Empoasca was
associated with this appearance of the beets. The matter.,:,1
cussed further in connection with that species (p. 51).
. ... . .. ...:... ... .
Prof. E. G. Titus reports that on a trip through .h. il
regions of the West in September, 1904, he found A'
at La Grande and Echo, Oreg. At La Grande litt. dmg.
while at Echo one field of 10 acres wan so Wexiouly iwut. '
[ .' i~i.::ii! ..!i": .. '. ::.. ." ..:". .... .. .. .. j~ ..
" .1.[ ...,:,:..... ::.. . .. .... .. ." .." ::.. .. :.. .. .. . :"
lWtisrn^ OFE rTIXTNLAOKSGRIET.^'
-deg ....b .' t t, V" In i:.L.-Cea 'usedin theiM -hitory
.^P:l::lt L < ... ......
H ~iiiii~ iii!!H ~iiiiiimii~i .:: .: i ::::: .. ii ;.... .m..... ... i.:L
iiiiiii iii iiiii !i! i!!ii!!!!!!!ii~ iii :;: ..... .....::::
. : .: i .. :: :::;i, .ii i
*: .., " :. :: E : .
i. -t i
I .. ..
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:. : ..'.^
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E "i E:: :
*.. ". ;;
A : "** "**'"
... : s"..p
< % fc, "* ::... "
'OP FWAR BMI
cae 'bih"ta tws nthretd ayo h
*dde n h etwr mllad btd hl h ef
icod besetu nnmes
anipekesadrpotdt b mt eroso tehge
ofSln .Wehrti a h re"cryla or h
II rei yerwsIo eerie.
stI 19" nte rpwsmd yhmtruhtesm
and afwseieso uetztnatken tPyt
Litte dmag wa beig dne hatseaon, ut iel me re
derale ossin 905 n bth ayete nd Backoot Idho.
Mnq eetkna noOe. n co rgi
197- onysihiaaesoin nete lc.L
ietkn'h h dls
a-ubro lcs eevstdb PoesrTtsi
bu noseieso uextkn nSpebr-
p/ thogIhLaionadsri"3:a ae n e
- o R.1nlawr ae tCiao h 3h ovr
AWSo ul-ef wr oie.
* -ln cniino lgt"o h ua et sit
'4,ixmn th drud egoapassoIIatra
-Ifivetlahpe Etfi ee~ ae)Issvrt
heavy and do not jump or fly as readily ashe males an:d S.
.. ... .. ........... .... i
easily caught. A modified form of thip machine, cninda1 ,"
couple of tarred wings to be drawn along on each sideof::
beets, while a drag agitated the tops and caused the .n.et ...
would probably capture more thpn the simpler tar-pa .
If the insects appeared while the beets were quite small, they:iid
be largely destroyed by rolling when the weather was cold or'.
and the insects sluggish.
A number of preventive jneasures may be used to assist ....
in withstanding the attack pf the leafhoppers. In some se ..t 0o d
planting will produce bets large enough to s4ade the grom4 .
time the beet leafhoppers appear, and thus reduce the tenm i
below the danger line. In a few places, like the Grand Jun.t &..
trict in Colorado and Sevier County in Utah, early planting i
would not avail, as the insects appear soon after the ear:liest1::
come through the ground. For such sections early and freq tii
nations would assist in keeping the ground cool until the bou:i
large enough to shade it and thus take care of themselves.
All preventive measures will depend for success upon somr..n:
of controlling the temperature in the field so that the ground AW*
be hot and dry at the time the leafhoppers appear. .
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. '.
1895. GILLrTE, C. P., and C. F. BAKn.-A preliminary list of the
1896. BAKEr, C. F.-New Hemiptera.
1900. FozBEs, S. A., and C. A. H&w.-The economic entomology ofth
1903. CHirrENDfr, F. H.-Yearbook U. S. Dept Agric. L. 1902, p. 73,
Mention. "Reported as injurious to sugar beet in Aison"." r'i
1906. HOWARD, L. O.-Yearbook U. 8. Dept Agric. f. 1905, p. 680, 1l06.
Injury In Utah. Mention as ENtette strift Bal1.
1907. BALL, E. D.-Report of the entomologist <16th Rept. Utah Agrit 'j
Sta.,- p. 16.
Character of injury and damages In 1o6. Mention ButewttI ttua tC
1907. BALL, E. D.-The genus Eutettix.
A systematic and ecocomle review of the group, with original lilutitthta.
LRAFROPPF.RS OF TM AtTOAA MMT. 49
47 species of leafhoppers of the genus Eutettix besides teneUa
known to have definite food plants related to the sugar beet, and
more, the food plant of which is not known, will probably be
to have similar habits. All of these species will no doubt be
on the sugar beet as fast as it cultivation is extended into the
where these inse(is occur. The following species of Eutettix
known to occur on the beet, and are arranged M* about
of their present importance.
ix strabi Fitch.-The nymphs of Eutettix strobi are thickly
-viith -red, giving them a strongly reddish appearance. They
Vdad on Chenopodium-a7bum (Pl. 1, fig'2'a) and are confined
tothe underside of the leaf. The attack produces a red dis-
and a curling of the leaf, which serves as a double protec-
'for the immt Them are two broods in a season, the nymphs
in late N[ay and early June and maturing from the middle
'Oe in July. The adults of this bro6d are common from the
of June through July- Nymphs appear again late in July,
adults appear late in August, and more commonly in
__-b or. This species was carefully studied through the first brood
Then the area under observation was pastured and the
lost. The Colorado records agree with last year's work for the
brood, and furnish data for the second one. Prof. Herbert
&A called attention to the red coloring of the leaves. It
W*M noticed matty t` Sinm: This Is, no doiibt, the AUygug sp-
,,_,IRrtwer.b Forbes and Hart have nuistaken the nymph for that of
irmratu&$zY.v The la.rva Of P, i?"ratus, however, is brown-
111"Us and lives on the ground. Eutettim strobi has been found
(PL 1, fig. 2, b) in a number of places in Colorado and Utah,
of th however, around the margins of fields. In one
iawts had appeared on the beets when they we" quite
been numerous enough to, deform every leaf on a
'Of, w4s and entirey stop their growth.
sokula Ball (Pl.. 11 fig. 3).--Eukttix scitula is a white
it brown saddle and brown prohotum. The nymphs ar*e
tay pink color and ]i on the underside of the Cheno-
the same way that those of Eutettio stroU do, except
the 4WxAmfions an lighter- This species is appamay
firsi brood, has been carefully worked out, but
4vo been observed in the fill. The broods appear about
as those of E. strobi. TbI; is' a iestem species occur-
a Selouft VOL IK IM.
6 UuL, 2% o* st Div. Ent., U. S. Dept A&Ie-, p 17*'IML
V J$uL 60r, 111L Agde- Expi. SUL., V. 424* 1900.
8trobi and E. seminuda are often found on trees and s
same habit. In the case of E. strobi and E. wcitt um|Hi
stances of bad infestation have been near trees. In tV&
scitula these have been poplars, but two of the worst
injury from E. 8trobi were alongside apple trees.'
Eutettix seminuda Say.-Eutettix seminuda is a white ja'9
a brown saddle. It occurs from Kansas east to the Atla....
The nymphs are pale, with a brown saddle on the abdomen n1
brown on the thorax. Nothing is known as to their native toa0|
but from the close relationship to the preceding species it ::a:!
that it will prove to be a Chenopodium. There are two
season, the first one appearing slightly earlier than in thein
strobi. Eutettix seminuda has been reported on beets in
does not occur in the West, where the writer has worked on ik
Eutettix clarivida Van Duzee (P1. I, fig. 4, a, b, c, 4).- S
clarivida is a green species with four black points on the m.ig|
the vertex. It occurs very commonly on the shad scale (
confertifolia) and on one or two other species of the samin ga
the arid regions. It has been found on beets at Grand Junci$Ao,
The nymphs are green, with two black spots on the vertex.
history is not known.
Eutettia insana Ball (PL I, fig. 7), E. albida Ball, and
culata Ball occur on different species of Atriplex in the arid M'tj
and may be expected to occur on the beets. ,
EutettiW stricta Ball (P1. I, fig. 8, a, b) is an Arizona sp "
the nearest relative of E. tenella that we know. There is
more danger from this than from any other species of tb4j
if the sugar beet should be introduced within its range.
All the species of Agallia in a given section will be found Si
ing the sugar beet more or less. Several of the species .sseui.
almost omnivorous in food habits but where they do shower-.W
erence it is for the relatives of the beet. For two of thWi:
cinereaa and bigelovia) a definite food plant is known, atkj.
cases they are close relatives of the beet. The species of .ApS7
divided into.two groups, based on structural and life-hitoy
ters. In one group, which includes sanguinolenta, ukleri, cere
bigelovice, they seem to prefer warm and rather dry situatkn
adults hibernating and spreading over the beet fields, in the sp
time to lay their eggs and produce their single brood of young
14 EV P O S O T E S G R B E .5
sagiw t rv stems bn7 h e
A w w s e n c u t y a d i o nd i l i l s o e h r w t
0ip d es h s b e b e v d o d o s d r b e d m p i
Valy n Clrd, n run Am*ith h
* p a ea l!i u e a d m t r n h a t h l f J l n
-hl fAgsafwrnnn ntruhtemnh
vi mraObr n ali on lotecuieyo'
ai cl fdsr einad rmti.aut fe l
filsoIet.,I a cmo tGadJnto
010 a d a ,. M n o U a n e h o e e t c n i
I* v o s a p a i u e a d m a u e t e l s a f o u y
',J~f ab ee s the do ot m ture ntil someiimeiater
ge o i a e
70 i d a r w n n a k l n o l n a e n f u d i
fi d t G a d J n t o n a d P l s d s o o
0 "a d A n v l a S y b e o g t h
In his trip in 1904 Empoascas were noticed in several plas:m
fornia, and quite serious damage from "blight" or
was found in a few- places, but the particular nature of *0:::.
was not observed. *.
The Empoascas nearly all pass the winter as adults, hi. .
rubbish and sheltered places near their food plants. In tI..
they feed on anything that offers until their food plants t ....
then they gather on them, laying eggs in early summer. IU:
nymphs feed on the underside of the leaf and are quite activdi :a2;
keep out of sight.
Spraying with kerosene emulsion, 1 part of the stock soiutice tt
parts of water, proved to be a satisfactory remedy for an XmpumO
on potatoes in Iowa some years ago, and no doubt could be iused,:i|W
beets with success. Burning off rubbish around the field in:Ia
fall would probably reduce their numbers.
CONCLUSIONS IN REGARD TO "CURLY-LEt" ^ ^^^ ^^ ^
As a result of the above investigations, it appears that there aw"s S^^
least two distinct kinds of "curly-leaf" that have been c
under one name. One, in which the leaves become rough and t
and curl up and in which the beet is stunted and does not reoowrntt4
other, in which the leaves remain smooth but show numerouisP ........
spots and in which the edges turn down, and in which, as far as::*$!
the injury is confined to the leaves attacked. The first-mentio.n .IM
of "curly-leaf occurs from Grand Junction, Colo., west tothe pi:oib
coast and is the one that has been seriously injurious in the AiMe
mountain region. This condition is brought about by the seS 4.
the beet leafhopper (Eutettix tenella), and will, nodoubt, be
for some time at least, to the southwestern part of the United 1i i
the native home of this insect. The second kind of "curly-lftl'ii li
been found in California quite commonly, and doubtless will be .i'4
to occur sparingly at least in the eastern part of the United t
wherever an Empoasca attacks the sugar beet."
Besides these two types of this injury it is quite possible. 4 I||
rare cases other types with still other causes have been sew ..
recognized at the time as distinct. Investigations in the Cd ..I. .
field have been so meager that it is impossible to say as yet W
type has caused the greatest injury. In the intermountuain
where most of the work has been done, practically all the Minuq
known to have been caused by the first type. '
1W kPr .IoedJnay? 9e
''EINSSIJROST RC RP.
11 RM""f ON
ByF.H.Gurrum ad .,M.Rusm
th me f10 ot rhils aepla Po
ICr)Mae oteotnctomcm ne h
oftIjno uhra'rid,-Fa twsosre
th Ih ni aycss h tm n riso l
pre rc rw nta iiiytels nldn
-pttietptto W lnppe, ka olrs n
!ok;sinwso osdral eeiy n ra '
Aoni ilsadgrdn nta n qs te ein
Ioal tS~gsi n o h etcato h
JUIe. ft ibleetobth aaeseiswsrprd
he o aeo h rsntiv'nteedp o
i sydla epddteMjnu aiso hsseis
acon a enpeaedfrpbiainbIh
Th hpeso eetm'uis aua nme n
reoishv ev opld-rmtejno u
'br .Da,_ ieohrassac nteprp
0 esdl oroldgdi t rprpI
th p ne osdrto ofe tm
referable to the genus Prodenia, the moth has little of tW3
ance of our other two North American species."
The moth.-The adult or moth has a wing expanse of ii
inches (33-381mm); the fore-wings are dull gray, atin
dotted with brownish and black scales forming a pattern a.
in figure 8, d. There is considerable variability in thesem-
some individuals having a strongly marked renifonnrm spo ii
prominent blackish posterior marginal line, and a similar bkl
FIG. 8.-The semitropical army worm (Prodenia eridauia): o, Egg-mass fith.:m
egg, much enlarged, showing lateral view at right and top at left; o, Bmtkt-*
d, moth; e, dark form of larva nearly grown; f, g, larva, full-grownL. %l..w:! ...
large; b, highly magnified; c, more magnified. (Original.) *'l "
on the latero-posterior margin. Individuals also occur N,,.
there is a straight, broad, jet-black dash or band beg iiig:
middle of the fore-wing and extending to the lateral m'argiz,
is the nigrofaacia of Hulst. The hind-wings are pearly whi I
this pearly luster.being still stronger below. The body is m14
gray and the antennae are yellowish brown. .
The darkest forms of this species aremarked very much asmiii
genus Acronycta. *
The eggs.-The eggs are deposited in irregular masses, a::-
in figure 8, a, closely placed together, sometimes in two
I Prodenia ornmithogalli Guen. (" cotton cutworm ") and P. oomwwMi
-wiU Qo4frm-eboyo fefwtThy b
I h fiddpii ndh h perac u
m erpillar r wfiiiiiithaiofitheiothritwoiiiiii
i cetytb aual eerdt htgns n
tosti la vaiiioiiolr.T eirondcloiiidr
'ei niiulan nerybakithdakfms
I sei~ hnapocigmtrt ntepnli
an som ti essodak.s.t.rse bl...et. T he- iiiiii
aoe],e wtanarwslgtyitruedmd ianyl
'id d rteyelwsbtgaasripe wic
Ai*frsth rtgla evt draiptscaatr
mnsacl esoad h ae omte r
I si h te w pcis hnfl-rw h
-- ,,,,,,andiiaiiiuiiiiiA&-an inch and a half ini"
fI'to it aisfo n-orho nic
0" eghofha oed fteW9
Zuta ULIU LC u-I n. a.L iU&-U LL C LU-L J UULW l UUVI W vpuru 1.5M J UMWLVfI 011J5U1IP WM
defined line; tubercles small, black; a large, vinous, somewhat elevti
on tubercles I and Iv on Joint 5 and on tubercle I on joint 12, Ma:n.M
about the spiracle on Joints 11-12; anal feet reddish; cervical shbW::lHl..
infuscated, cut by three white lines; anal plate blackish; thoracic feesthbb
abdominal ones greenish. *
Stage IV.-Head rounded, rather quadrate, not notched, the cliypse 'l"
vertex even with joint 2; pale red, paler on the clypeus, ocelli and i
dark; width 1.0mm. Body robust, thickened at Joints 5 and 12, ::e .
.. . : .. .. .. a
blackish olivaceous, dorsal and subdorsal lines straight, yellowish wh..it...
with vinous dottings; traces of a lateral line; subventral region pafiMS
the spiracles, especially after joint 5; large blackish-red blotches at: tubed
I and iv on joint 5 and on joint 12 and tubercle i and stigmatally on Joints .1.
white dotthig in the ground color most conspicuous stigmatally; thoa"" ..
black, abdominal ones pale, anal pair reddish. tn
Stage V.-Head quadrate, rounded, slightly bilobed, shining light redI.bt
the clypeus high; ocelli and setae black; width, 1.6"mm. Body thid.kNe
joints 5 and 12, feet equal, normal, the abdominal ones pale, slightly ifntatq
the thoracic ones black-ringed; dark gray to black, strigose-dotted with wt
S ... .........:'!!
dorsal line narrow, subdorsal broader, straight, even, yellowish white...
with reddish mottlings, cutting the sooty-black cervical shield, but not ::tMe
plate; a quadrate black patch between the lines on joint 5, a small angl-' o
next the subdorsal line on all the other segments, large on joint 12 antd
across; a narrow white-dotted lateral line, scarcely different from the dSi
the ground color; subventral band straight, yellow-white, broad, brokeatA Ii
5, reddish-filled around the spiracles, black spots at tubercles iii with a :d&i
white dot below; subventral region of thorax blackish, of abdomen paler, A:.W
Stage VI.-Head rounded, quadrate, about as high as wide, slight ..I..
the vertex level with joint 2; clypeus high and large; red-brows, z4::!i
reticulate, mouth parts concolorous, ocelli black; width 2.1 to t4' DO:
robust, cylindrical, tapering from joint 5 to joint 2, the head smailJ;:):S:
slightly, Joint 12 distinctly, enlarged and abruptly tapered to joint liiiiSi-
strigose-dotted with white; cervical shield deep black, white-dotted, cut *
white lines; anal plate similar, small, cut by the dorsal line only; ds--i...
narrow, black-dotted and broken, yellowish white, reddish on the cente oWi
segments; subdorsal line broader, straight, yellow-white, reddish cetp i
the segments, with a median row of gray dots, but not incised on the mi
a row of segmental black triangles above it, free of white dots, largest 730
5, the one on Joint 12 now scarcely larger than that on Joint 11; upper MW
the lateral area grayer, with many white dots, lower half blacker, w id
dots on Joints 5 to 13, separated by a row of brighter dots repreetl
lateral line; on Joints 2 to 5 this distinction is weakly developed; spiraelp||
blacker shade with a white dot above tubercle iv; substigmatal band
even, undulate, weak and broadly gray, centered on Joints 2 to 5, f.din...
m~NU_ tjtu ooeoly hnIaeyllw ned
Oe Ome ftewmt n e bv hm
Otol sooIons2 o5,walyo h m
VjWote'etw hrccfe akbon h b
wjn Waa;asteclxrclron- ippdnc Iln
i t ftelb 4A rdes fadmnlfe nasnl
le IVW" ao eo.sial njit7 Hario
itU o Am fi/adprbbyo rpclI
axIeme rmCcau rvCecn
Vi t pce sasorere rmTla
'A'eWfo LAgsieadtergo bu h
Plrd.Fo exsI aesecmn rmRs
 dme n als n teeaeseiescl
41delRnt rvne Rai yM.AbrtKel.
I rood thin rmGogi n eta n
A Ort eod tfopTalfri.Ti ni
mtoo rr rutt eio
Ceta meia n
_s6 frm Plria "rdthot& heGuf egonan
IO A.tA"qce sral omni h
iosX a vrcouli ssmwa
no.Itat trce teto yisdpe
Iwr~e yPer rmri 72
Io-ilod vvTh lutaina-
dk ,v1-lvda s~adpcsapr
Fees on te roKe, tareiess, a c. it went into tme grona J l.
came out the 16th. I once met this caterpillar In such abdiue4
a great quantity of Poke plants there was scarcely a single WEs.
most of these caterpillars, however, were fly-blown by a kind
The moth is rare.
This is allied to our Ph. frugaperda and Commeivw BtweBI.
wings of all these there is the greatest affinity. Their pupVl.W..::is
similar bright red color, and their smooth-striped caterpillar rs
resemblance to each other.
E: .... .... ..~iiiE:!i
* E" : .::
RECENT INJURIES AD BIOLOGIC HNOTE.
On May 14, 1907, this species was observed on the beavea'O::its t
in the truck garden of Mr. C. M. Berry, at Orlando, .Flp ..
was eating holes in the leaves. Numbers of plants, here
.. .. ..... ... . .....
were infested and in most cases the entire plant was.
same larva was observed on pokeweed (Phytolkwca
afterwards on spiny amaranth (AmaranthaU qPino#W)4.
the larvae were scattering and had grown rapidly, $0
inch long. While young, these larva feed on the
leaf, but with larger growth some were noticed feeding-4i
surface as well.
May 24 an egg-mass was found on a leaf of the s iny a
"laid in two sections on the under surface, one on each
midrib. One mass had hatched at this time and the la in
ginning to eat pinlike holes through the leaf.
On July 3 a field of Irish potatoes was found to be
tested by these larvae. They were now nearly full-h
stripped the potato vines, many being observed crawling:-
the field in all directions. On one side they infested aWii'..
least 600 feet away, and were feeding upon eggplant,
and castor-oil plants.
Some interesting notes were made on the abundance of".
in this potato field. On a single young plant of Amal..
larvae were counted, and as many as 314 on a plant ........
in height. A careful estimate of the larva on 10 plants diiJ
weed, not over 6 feet in height, gave a total of 1,300 ..
(See fig. 9.). ,,
To illustrate the voracity of these larva, where any potato.
exposed, they were soon covered by the larvae and the entire s,
eaten out so that they were rendered worthless in about ten S2
About this same -date, July 3, the larva were reported makiwr
work of amaranth; whenever a branch became broken tmc
cause, larvae entered at the break and excavated tunnels 8
inches in length. Pokeweed was entirely ,stripped of leapS
stalks and the shoots being eaten off at the outer end. Potato*
-" iKTWCL A"WR.5
Wm old alo ol* h oko hs
hIOIM a,*1l 4 h a lotCm
th ai oko hsseiswe in
(a ip 0 1.B h uv a lo
|i o! nth id ftrhv4ete vxdu
we" ull row andbadcommnced toente th
July9 te poatofiel, ws stippd, te vnes eredea
the arr ha almst isapeaeA Te goun wa
I*= f tem a a reatr dpththan4 iches an -i
tpro040Widoo);WM*of arm m VM~f
VOW at tb Pun WhM(Or !
C t F
that an earlier brood did great damage to cowpeas, bit.
not be verified by specimens. In the sweet-potato f8i14t
started on the south side and, after stripping the first o
rows, moved over to the next rows and eventually infested
FIG. 10.-The semitropical army worm (Prodmea erfdin) : FieMld of IS. :f
showing vines entirely stripped by larvae; Orlando, la., July 0, 10. (I
field. A Mr. Porter, near the County Home, reporti.ed .'i..
stripped in three days after the larvae were noticed at .q.
having started at one side of the field and swept it elid.
larvae of a third generation were observed at Mr. Cheney's pW
this time; most of them, however, had already gone into tiha
to transform. :
August 3, adults that had pupated about July 25 began to a.
Thus the pupal period occupied about nine days. At this19 I
number of young larvae were noted feeding upon amaran
Solanum, and castor-oil plants. When disturbed they dropped
hung by threads.
OfM.Cee' ac fsetptte a
IP i r~kt a a ~ to O
Ivr !1,,r4 a
larva enterea me earn in mte rearing cage dune iL. .iRala
pupae were found at a considerable depth, bte in
were found barely under the surface. "
July 8 larva in the rearing-cage were :asi grwwtn* lij,
hatching from egg-masses, and others a few days old, wa.
found in abundance on sweet-potato plants. As soon m: ::
they separate, feeding on the leaf on which the egg-may,,
perforating the underside full of minute holes, and le.avi.i...
upper epidermis, which turns brown. On growing lar.ger.:...
arate, as in the case of most caterpillars, except those of
gregarious habit, and soon become widely scattered. E i
abundant it is common to see eight or a dozen on the
single leaf, and frequently as many as an hundred. Oo.M
nearly full-grown larva feeds on the upper side of a 1leaf..: '::.l
cases large larvae were found hiding during the day at the .S
June 15, 1908, the larvae of this insect were found to be iwyi
ant at Orlando, Fla., in one part of the town feeding on.
and in another on amaranth.
EAALY NECOBDS '
:. .....::.. .:
Among the records of the Bureau of Entomology is one at .
1887, when larvae and pupae were received from Mr. E. A S.
with report that the species was very injurious to the e b
Cocoanut Grove, Fla.
In September, 1905, Mr. F. C. Pratt sent to the Bureau :
colony of the larvae found feeding on pokeweed at Dalla,
moths from which began to issue September 26. ii
LIFE-CYCLE ProDs AND GEN ATIONa
Larvae mailed from Orlando, Fla., July 8, arrived at Wa...'
D. C., July 5 and began to enter the earth for pupation the :iC
day. On the.16th two had transformed to pupae, on the day ..i.
ing three more, and the remainder transformed within a e ...'
experiment shows a pupal period of about 9 days, allowing
the larva in the earth before pupating. The weather was quit
In a cooler temperature in August the pupal period require
13 days. "
The moths hatched from different lots were separated ad .In
period observed. In one case this lasted friom August 8 to I
-iK I"LOCA RYWOX .6
thionesueaeae bten71ad8*F n
frm 00t 80 Eidntyths s h x|l
th uto fteetr yl t wsntcdta
Jul 3 rdcdctrilr nte9h ri as
peio oftelrw1Idy.Te ea oima oh
Thsgvsattlproioitelf yeo 1dy o
--ho wete.Iinodnr udo up tmea
-wulIb aot 5iayor5 ees
reodi"Atqit sacrt s ol edsr
unotnt odton tteimtr adt he hne
*.Omorc duing he imewhe theinsct as uderobsrva
wmhwvr oitvl orgnrainIee n
** e-ubrwsosre tOlno hr sas
ofaiale it rnrto nntr. h xc
I o aperneo-hs sol ercre
!dodac oftipce tOlnFadrn h
iW foddams xeln potnt o h td
natra Thsaeudrosraiona ql
WA*r mara s a sAgsapern oices
th osm dacd
op e osrvd-er evninnmeriheie
Imue k~ly 1-Auus,.2
64 SOME INSIRCM INJURIOUS TO MUCK MOPS. -
Cdo,8oma 8ayi Dej.--The larvw of the carabid beetle
8ayi were observed in considerable numbers and were reared to
They were first noticed July 6, when they were quite abundmt
furrows between rows of sweet potato. They were found
by the vines, feeding on the larvw of the Prodenia, and after
out the *uices of one larva they immediately attaclied inotber.
adults issued in our rearing cages August 11.
Poli8tes annulari8 L.-The large brown wasp PoUirteg
was observed July 2, flying quite commonly in sweet-potato
One was watched which alighted on a leaf and began searching
prey, after the custom of such wasp& The search was continued
plant to plant and from leaf to leaf until a Prodenia larva 'W",
located, when it was at once seized behind the head and chewed into a,
shapeless mass. Other wasps of this species were also seen on
posts dragging Prodenia larvae about with thenL
It is interesting to note that Mr. F. F. Crevecoeur, Onagait,
reports having seen this wasp being carried away by the asiW*
robber-fly, Deromyia ternata Loew.
Stiretrw anchorago Fab., var. diana Fabi--The blue-and-red and-'
the uniformly blue forms of the soldier-bug Stiretru8 anehoragoj_.'
which are common in Florida, were observed in nu ibers atts46"O''
the Prodenia larvae in July.
Podi8Mmaculiventris Say.-During July the spined s4dier-b*-,
was seen preying upon the Prodenia, larvae. (See fig. 11.), In Ono,"
instance 18 nymphs were counted on a single amaranth plant infeWmd
by the cutworm. The length of the life cycle of this species fiom
hatching (not from egg-laying) was determined to be 16 days Mi bA-.,
Apatetiew (Eupodi8u8) mucronatm UM.---July 17, and xgsxnih",
December, 1907, this pentatomid bug was observed preying on
larva of this species of Prodenia at Orlando, Fla. It is considered,
rare species and this is probably the first observation which has b"A. #
made on its habits.
Owing to the obscurity of the host insect in the past, no
can be found of any of theseparasites or of other natural ftoaw*_
which affect it, but in Smith and Abbot's work mention is, made 4T,
species of Ichneumon which attacks the larva (see p. 58)
Pontia rapee L.---.vJuly 22, 1907, the young larv88 of the A .
cabbage worm, which had hatched out on cabbage used as food tok
Prodenia eridania Cram. in our rearing cages at Washington, W
AI rUGU IR
Jo.Sepemer 107 a ew roeni ctepilars wichmlmi
dyn ofafnosdsaeiIu ern aewr
,to th!ueuo ln nuty o dniiaino h
'X F.W atm ttdtati a pce fs
IoL=r'ffcieaans hsamywr ne
Exeiet efre a1radFahw
fatta ai reo con ftefeun
attehih'f h rnia otrasi1h
,"o Moidlsc1sOlno slot nfetv n
toueasnteo la.IDigt h
oftelte trmiso h'lnswe h
111Ao ad n pca rp rto hc a
ope neie eetsetels yrqeto
// I m 94i-eprmnsNs8,1,ad1.Abrel
w-0 Vovel nazze mber f thes
m"o h npakspae ffn ult
imApate er paydi eeyaIeeceti
*&*e *Jwswre&s payd n hewr/a
10aI.M rgtsnih.S i
Iiiuy1, netdplnswr srydwt
tI' ucs n rslysae ie ucs
-M sryngwsdn'i h n
iTenx owe h il a xm*
IWrdo nciay opio eam
-i 4v 12 ai r w u cs n
toi pio fwtr wr pae
IT Ioi rwWssryi sJX,
ItWA beoezon xtea
The following day it rained hard for several hours, ut$e
day the spray was found to be as thick on the sweet potatai as
first put on, in spite of two partially rainy days. The
nearly as thick on the collards. An examination of theinfeata
two days after spraying showed that only 25 per cent of t
lars were killed, but July 23, a day later, few large larvamii..
on the plants, showing that as soon as they have eaten suffi ip
they are killed.
July 29, when the rows sprayed with arsenate of lead wnM
examined, they were found in much better condition than i|
or unsprayed rows, few larvw being seen feeding, while de n..
.. .. .. ? ....i;;
Experiments Nos. 6 and 7.-July 20, a sweet-potato i
sprayed with Paris green, 8 ounces to 50 gallons of water. Aid h
case of experiment 5, no rain fell for about six hours; thre
poison dried on well, as previously. The following day it ..
hard for several hours, with the result that by July 22 th*.ji
was all washed off and only a few dead larva were foundi:'::.....
the Paris. green experiments were failures, since the rain
poison off either before it could dry or after it-was well dries
Experiment No. 8.-July 23, the adhesive copper arenits|(
bined with dextrine and glucose) was used at the rate of 1.
100 gallons of water and applied as in previous experimexn&'ii|
following day no results were observed, but the fol iage
burned. At the end of a week no good was accomplished and :
periment was pronounced a failure.
Experiment No. 9.-July 25, plants were again sprayed wS
senate of lead, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water, the conditioli
as in experiment No. 5. Rain at 12.45 p. m. washed off the :
consequently the spraying was a failure. '"..
Experiment No. JO.-July 25, plants were sprayed with thec.
arsenite mixture; 10 ounces to 50 gallons of water were applied&a
experiment No. 8, an equal quantity of lime having been added. ,,:I
spray did not show well on the foliage and was invisible wheati
It does not remain in suspension as well as Paris gream and m".
residue remains in the tank. July 28, a few dead larvae wen
2m nya lv u hesm odtoswr
MMT ea rmn a a bouefiue
No I-uy2,pat wr pae ihcpe
at tertof1oucst50glosowae. ii
oucso oprasnt adIqato hc iewr
4 aln fwtr w aslae h pa hwdbte
P-tN.1 e ueo nabnac flm n a
an vnyapidt h eae orlrwwr ed
patexmndaant3 liigPoeian 3li i iiiii
-mtiav Plgantu avkl t)
spa tl eand. nteflae aingt
-btteepr-btwsa alr nkligl1
No V-Jl 9 lnswresrydwt reaeo
to iiiiln f aeapie si rviuecm
arwnte. herewas o ran fo 24 ours Oniife
dasltr4 edlrv eefudad4
det aeo esta%prcn.I hudb
i Aitmhwvr hti s ifcl ofn edlrw
r po calaa-
ho 1 1UMwralotfefrmlrm eepien
ia I.J y3,areaeo ed pud o5 a-
wihu"nuni' oerw xm
i! g a
| WP eto h av eeda;i tes4
61prcn er ildi wody.Ags
enieyimfo avwuls lsl n
'6tudb on oa o.Teemgthv
an. V W IVA .LLL"AA AALU .LULLVW X V LUOA.L URIC uLlllb W1J.LUUL. CU
dead larvae. In another place 112 dead larva were codW
feet of furrow.
xtSUxt OFr ERXPERIMENTS,. AND CONCLUSIONS.
Experiments 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7, in which Paris green was uswd. it
rate of 5 to 8 ounces in 50 gallons of water, were failures beasa 4011b
each case the rain which followed the application was he, Cil:i
poison. .* ......
Experiments 4 and 9, in which arsenate of lead was used at t:i m
of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water, were also failures for the
Experiments 8, 10, and 11, in which copper arsenite was& used MI
a rate of from 10 ounces to 1 pound in 50 gallons of water, alk
not because of burning the foliage, as was feared, but because th ':.i:'
sects were not killed.
Experiments 5, 12, 13, 14, and 15, in which arsenate of lead w40 ..
insecticide employed at the rate of 2 to 3 pounds in 50 galos m1::
water, were successful in each case. I
The results of this series of fifteen experiments show concluil
the superiority of a spray of arsenate of lead to one of Paris g
when applied under suitable conditions. It is in every way nWu
effective and more satisfactory than the latter, as Paris green o
likely to be washed away by the frequent rains of the wet seamen ....
Florida. These remarks apply practically to all cutworms, et
pillars, and other larvae which devour truck and related crcpt
central Florida or similar regions.
ADHESIVE COPPER ARSENITE MIXTURE.
The preparation of copper arsenite used in the experiments j
have just been reported was stated by its inventor to be free bum
soluble arsenious acid and to possess the adhesive properties fourai
no other adhesive insecticide. It was stated to be composed olA..1
per cent dextrin and 4 per cent gum and was prepared to be use.i
conjunction with lime in the proportion of 1 part by.weight to fad
to 6 parts of lime-either dry or in solution, according to thefolia
to be tested. The inventor also expressed his confidence that
insecticide would prove a most economical one for general ga
and other use, as the loss by wind and rain would be reduced at
50 per cent and the first cost of the article would be about half &1t
of Paris green or arsenate of lead.
Samples of this mixture were submitted to Mr. J. K. Hatwo4.
Chief of the Miscellaneous Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistrj, '
furnished the following analysis, August 7, 1907: iiiiii
Or! SNIM140ALARY WRM
MWO o 451Xi,
xini- - - -- - - - -- - - -- - 0 4
| ~ d - - - - - - -- - - - - - 4 8
(a po i aem-- ----------------- 00
otemn ee mn d------------------ 98
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 0 0
ox d - - - - - - -- - - - - - 1 L 3
w*e x mto.
abv nlsstesml vdnl ossso bu 0prcn
80prcn ai re.Te muto oul rnci
wol /mobefy gv iet epostobe
doi erdnaCa tfesnral nwes
an pn aaat M]crles-ed-1o h
to seirDia mrc. saps.W e t
abunantit ttaks te fliae ad, i soe cses
of al om fgre tukgoigi t
nn fkonfo lnsinl oao oao we
pepr ka olrs nd1wes nishbt
't h uwrs aigas h lmighbt n
iti rislk h omnam
*hwttteeg eidmyb pse namn
"W!I peidi 7dyadtah nielf
"-me epeaue oudb but3 aso
-" hr r orgnrton n osbyfv r-
th inetbedn rcial otnosydrn
ofwihsvn-IePrstcad i rdcos
exoiet a cnutdaans hsSee
IW,-hc hw ocusvl htasryo
iqtebdrmdbigmc ueirt ai
... ..... ....i~ iiiil iiiiiiiiii~
3. GBOr, A. R.-Bul. Buff. Soc. Nat. OSd., VoL II, p. 28, 1878, M.
Listed as Xylouges phVtktocc (8. & A.) and recorded from
4. MowuisoN, H. K.-Proc. Acad. Nat. SeL. Phila., p. 62, 1875.
Technical description at AcKnotit erdpte n. up., from Texas,
Briefly compared with phptolakc S. & A.
5. Gnon, A. R.-Can. Ent., Vol. XI, pp. 205, 206, 1879. :::::
BReceived from Texas and referred to Premia pVhteheW; eIax
No excuse for Morrison's Actinofta dervpto.
. ... .. i .:: :..:"
6. HULST, G. D.-Bul. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., Vol. IlI, p. 77; VoL .IV,:;:I
fig. 9, 1881. -
....!: :. ::.. ......
Described as Leuoania Mgrotaacia from one specimen takam T '.ig
Tallahassee, Fla.. ..
7. SMIrH, J. B.-Catalogue Noctulde Boreal America, p. 169, 1838. ::: ..:..
Bibliography; synonymy and distribution. : J
& [Chittenden, F. H.1-Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1907 (1908), p. 1.
Brief unsigned notice of Injury to truck crops in Florida. : III!
In Smith's catalogue of Noctuidae fifteen refemce aw n $
this species, but as only a few of these are of interest in ....
with the present account, the reader is referred to that list
important references are listed above.
..*''* i 'i ii i::iiiii! iin
:.. .I .
n ; i.;:nin
. ... !!:* I
"A Xo1 u 6 a t V .I u d M y 8 M
INET NUIU OTUKCOS
I I/lide pu cuaa s
BY F X errITEN, e. D
pkon ofTruc Crp an spcia insct nvesiga n1
A l i l c i h f o e t e P s l i d g p n t l t e s .
l o a n a e h s b e -. e o d i ec n e r .a
xtnieijr otehppln n osdrbeijr
S i n c e 9 1 a e n r p r e d i n m e s o u a
*-*oa oaiisi dhUaadClrd.I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~p ri u a l in B ritish 'C olumbia, it doei Hiiiiiiiiiiii
41 s a' a e n e p c a l e t u t v i c 9 3
I h h r y a i d e h s s e c e a b cme n u u a l
thl".~ d th t 'n t e C i l w ck a d A a z V l e
h o u b a i a c o p i h d d m g
.O nmo rii
e s i a a e b y M H Q a l a b u 0 p r c n
a. . .: .......
made public before its appearance in the spring, although
several points in its life history still to be worked up. iill
.. J :.L:
The hop flea-beetle (fig. 12) is a member of the 4 '
family Chrysomelide, and resembles other flea-beetles in i lt
........:.... m ::ii
Frio. 12.--The hop flea-beetle (PeyUiodes psctulsts) :.a, LarA; b,
of same; q, upper surface of anal segments of smem; 4, betle.
b, a, more enlarged. (a-qc, After Carpenter; d, orighiaL) -
developed hind thighs. It is of oval form,t with a greeuii
brassy blackish, and punctulate or finely punctured, whbne'I
cific name. The femora, tarsi, and basal joints of the niia
pale yellowish. The punctulations of the thorax are
fine and appear as if made with the point of a very fine neli
punctures of the elytral strike are closely placed, almost trnat
beetle is only about one-tenth of an inch (2n) in leji
less than 1" in width. The male is particularly diatinctieb
ing the first joint of the anterior tarsi broadly dilated and t
8 hstemdleo h ina
isantv mxcnsms ut itntfgm
'1m nhj iEendo nteCniet
ofteU .Ntoa Msu n h uls
00Mad SttninH n e YrN .
ditiue Sih itbrP.MrhJ
J!n d- lrute Dtot rn eg- n
.N-m;LnonAd mhNb. ar
Grn uein Dla otoe
C00;Lgn alnLhSl ae n
,1mI lcfot dh;Sn rn" fr
--at!e4m PalPsaea n Cio a'
WV VA % V IJ L .7 tAALAG, ait9 CX ALWAJALL MUlLAVJL YJ.LLVU JtF L7% ~ WL % LUJ Uj W UWl A MW
radiating in every direction, the affected area growing wrid
wider as time went on. In early spring this species fed ou Ml
anything that came to hand, but its injury to beets was pri
all done at the time the plants were first appearing thre4i
ground or within a few days thereafter. Cases were observiel
the rows of young plants could be seen the entire length of t
one day, and two days later scarcely a beet plant could be 6id
beetles having eaten the tender stem, causing the tops to fall ..
the beets to die. Frequently they attacked beets just as ts :.....
were pushing through the ground. Hundreds of acres h&
destroyed in this way, injury varying greatly in different ....t.
in different localities. ...
__.... ,:.iy- -ii
Great damage was done near Logan, Utah, where the hedge
tard was overrunning the fields. At Lewiston, Utah, at the w#
end of the same valley, injury was also severe, although
little of the common black mustard. m
The destruction of a crop by this species does not necessarily
a complete loss, as the growers replant. The late plants,
are not, as a rule, as good as the earlier ones, and the weeds gait
start that the land is hard to cultivate. After the beets had -
a leaf diameter of 8 or 4 inches no material injury was -to
although the beetles continued to appear in the fields through
season. Beetles were observed July 20, 1906, at Cache Jun
dae uy2,1M teE lmsHr Cmpay
Ia/woeo xosiea"m yti seis n sti
tan uho nem #i rncie eeih h
isg tyidbe otesm opn o h xeln h
villgoeso nterefeMm fri n rgm
-*Maot00aMO o ntw ace nBiih(uba
tb" w mw aebe eymc mlse nBiihClmi
offf-el htsem otk nepcallkn ohpfi/
tedrsot ste oeoto h rud n lo h
V"Ydvlpdlaeso h ie fertesm r bv
af w te rwr.i h am ieinta eebtee
Prviu t rsleanastebasoe-fein vrete
supsdteiscshdbe ipre rmEgadJ h
baee, ehv on httemeise a eni h
1h VW ml ubr o ut ogtr fYa u rp
mdee ut itls esi u ti eraevr
faU rmteoepar hliak .Ccnann 7
Aw tett ~,ahavs fmr hn00 ae6weesw
14w A 03Pomteohrpae Agsm U0
Fie. 3.-View of hopyard, showing how copletely ti he aaep le
Note occasional vine that grows up. Agass, B. C., Jm P4 1nt. ,.0
with this Bureau in the investigation of sugar-beet pe
abundantly, and many of the locality records given =,W I.
ing distribution," in Califoruia, Utah, Idaho, and h 4i
from specimens collected by him on sugar beet in 1905, W9M
Writing of this species in July, 1908, Mr. I. J. OCa:dit'
the beetles were then very comma in the viinity of W:a
" " '' '......... :i;. : .
Chenopodium album and C. rural.
.. .. ...
W.EODS OF Afl.AOK, OOD HAS.T. a G ..S M
This flea-beetle affects both surfaces of leaf. g1aw g:
. ': :.". ..... i....
the skin and devouring the pulp, usualMy leaving th:-I a,,,,,
posite side entire; this later beoom&&oolormi Loaning;
. . 1,i: :: .:i::.. f i i li
a$tela rw n xads I ki tti on
tonadiqety'SOm oe.We h
iomdrt ubi h ev, fg 4 eoerdld
sht h uctmbigms ovosatrth lnshv
-got.I|t tako osi -qetycue h
lc/ k aso ewr o oeo escmltl
vie oflaea hw nfgrs15ad MAsith
Itabelsi eeati'pce osms amt on
"Whe th ete cu ncnidrbenmeste r
7-pn ra aaei oprt-eysottmcm
Ro eVawn okO fe-ete Oiia.
widgown lakmstr. T o rb
of thmpat r fetdb h dl et
0 fte sre.sfodfrte n,.O
Umt oow3A bbr-b
a As to hlbernao
and Doane' have
and D oae e have........ ... .... ..........
the beetle passes the [
under stones or rubb
which respect it nfl
practically all other 40
American flea-beetles- t..
with the first warm
spring the beetles e.mIer
their winter quarters a. ....
mediately commune 11Ud
voraciously upon their 'vo
the life history and .
the species in the word-5,
ed locality in British S .
bia has been kindly fu
by Mr. H. J. Quayle,'wW
also given an account qf-`
dial experiments whichfl
plement those previous I
nished by conver atia, i,
Mr. Eder; indeed, wik !
information supplied b ::0
two gentlemen this ..
FVi. 15.-Work of flea-beetle after vines are would be quite io
grown. (Original.) Before t r an so rib i %rj
Quayle's account it may be well to draw, from it, according:*,
statement of Mr. H. Hulbert, Sardis, B,. C., that this specefp:?AM
its first appearance as a hop pest in British Columbia in 1804 m.A I
it has been of great importance for five years, or since about IW.9GB
regard to Mr. Hulbert's statement that the beetles disappear .
June 1 and reappear the last of July, it is- obvious that during
period the larve are maturing, the pups are formed, and the bee
of the first, or new, generation appear.
-ww oftelf iLyad aiso hssw~
"V'i ro oubzi amfo r uye an
Ln ETIYAMI TII
beteaptr eyeryI h pig" acrigt
!l wia h oigo t odpatTi al tako
th lnsae usigtruhtegon n eoetelae
isoeo h hng htmkscnro ok ifcl
hoeapa hebte r
no ae|e etadei
tU I /ll b ure
4W aswlswht lvr
ho an ti aeyta
4t f anonayhn
Inoeo w aste
W!osta a ere
iA %obol nti
Owt hae i
ft& 94 rial
gr ound, somn. aU
vines and. ot1#0
open Waeld. Minl'
of beetle IhaM
ated In atk ett'::1
they will be o. 1
te soil. inte.atgt
two, three, an%
and the soi si
amined for emI.'
Beetles IM 1"1.m
and enloed t t
earth at the
laid eggs in ofirne
taken from Vt.
Saroud hp roeW
away from M*
WiMle most o
have been taka !
..... =: ::*::,::::
vine, I think ...
to the roots. 4flP
been taken In ge.0
FVi. 17.-Breeding and control cae In place over a hill. __ t h
(Original.) aim e MIM.
distribution of the beetle, both in the United States and in the ni 011"
Chilliwack and Agansi away from any hopyards. Search about tbl
the nettle and other plants growing along the borders and rod Ide
reveal any larve.
The pupa.-We have also taken pupa of what was o O A
Transformation to the adult was, of course, neessar to establish thW.
and some of the'opupm taken to the laboratory dully a. Th
taken about the hop roots 8 or 4 Inches below the sui Ic
Both larvae and pupa, when sought at the same time wet .fm.fh
and sometimes an hour's search would result In oNg Nns
.... ... .:: ...