Some insects injurious to vegetable crops

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Material Information

Title:
Some insects injurious to vegetable crops a series of articles dealing with insects of this class
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States. Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
117 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Vegetables -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the direction of the entomologist by F.H. Chittenden.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021640042
oclc - 22631467
System ID:
AA00018858:00001

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY-BULLETIN No. 33, NEW SERIES.
L. 0. HOWARD, Chief of Division.









SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO


VEGETABLE CROPS.


A SERIES OF ARTICLES DEALING


WITH INSECTS


OF THIS CLASS.





PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST,
BY
F. H. CHITTENDEN,
ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1902.


. ..; .. : :.* .. ".






















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF A(-;RICULTURE,
DivisioN OF ENTrOMOLOGY,
Washin;lnm, D. ('.. Ap'l 15, 1902.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manuscript containing
a large number of accounts of insects injuriious to vegetable crops,
which have been drawn up, as a result of his investigations, by Mr.
F. H. Chitteiiden, Assistant Entomologit. Mr. Chittenden has been
devotingr himself a-isiduously to this worlk for some years, and has
learned a great deal that is valuable to truck farmers and to economic
entomologists. I recommend that this manuscript be publ)lished as
Bulletin No. 33, new series, of this Division.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
n tIo l toogistt.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Sc_ tary of Agric ctw irt.

















CONTENTS.


Page
THE POTATO STALK WEEVIl. (Trichobaris lrinotata Say). (Illustrated)--------........ 9
THE NORTHERN LEAF-FOOTED PLANT-BUG (Leptoglossts opposites Say). (Illus-
trated) .--................----------------------------......---.----......------..-----........------------.. 18
THE CARROT RUST FLY (Psila rosw Fab.). (Illustrated)------......----...----------. 26
THE CARROT BEETLE (Ligyrts gibbosus Dej.). (Illustrated)-----......--......---------- 32
THE BEET ARMY WORM (Laphygma exigna Itbn.). (Illustrated)-----------.......... 37
NOTES ON WEBWORMS -..------..-----.-----------------------------------------................. 46
THE GARDEN WEBWORM (Lo.xostege snimilalis Guen.). (Illustrated)------...... 46
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BEET WEBWORM (Loxostege sticticalis
Linn.). (Illustrated) .--.---------------...--------------------------.................. 47
THE IMPORTED CABBAGE WEBWORM (HelhlUa undalis Fab.)------------- .............. -48
THE RED TURNIP BEETLE (Entomoscelis vidonidis Pall.). (Illustrated) ...... 49
THE CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGE WORM (Piome' rimosalis Guen.). (Illustrated). 54
THE CABBAGE LOOPER (Plusia bra.%icac Riley). (Illustrated) .---....------------...... 60
A NEw CABBAGE LOOPER (Plusia precafotioni.Guen. ). (Illustrated)..----------....... 69
THE CELERY LOOPER (Phisia simpler tuen.). (Illustrated) -------.---------.... 73
N6TES ON DIPT'EROvS LEAF-MINERS ON CABBAGE---------------------------- ............................ 75
THE IMPORTED TURNIP LEAF-MINER (Scaptomyza flave'ila Meig.)....---------..... 75
THE NATIVE CABBAGE LEAF-MINER (Scaptomy/za adult Loew)----------........... 76
THE IMPORTED CABBAGE LEAF-MINER (Scaptomyza gram imimi Fall.) ...... 76
THE NATIVE CLOVER LEAF-MINER (Agromyza dim iuta Walk.)...-----------....... 77
THE FOUR-SPOTrED CABBAGE FLEA-BEETLE (Phyllotrela bipustualaa Fab.). (Il-
lustrated)--------------------------------------------------------------.............................................................. 77
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON SOME CABBAGE INSECTS-------------------------- .......................... 78
THE CABBAGE CURCULIO (Ceutorhiychus rapa Gyll.)--...-..-----------------........... 78
THE SEED-STALK WEEVIL (Ceutorhynchu.s quadridens Panz.)-------------........... 79
Pemphigus sp---------------------------------------------------------......................................................... 79
WASPS AS DESTROYERS OF CABBAGE WORMS---------------------------- ............................ -79
THE CABBAGE ROOT MAGGOT INJURIOUS TO CELERY-------------------- .................... -80
OBSERVATIONS ON INSECTS AFFECTING LATE CABBAGE AND SIMILAR CROPS.
(Illustrated) ..--..----..---------.-----.......---------------------------------........................... 80
THE IMPORTED CABBAGE BUTTERFLY (Pieris rapT Linn.) ................ ----------------81
THE DIAMOND-BACK MOTH (Phitella cruciferartum Zell. )--------------.............. 81
THE HARLEQUIN CABBAGE BULG (Murgantia histrionica Hahn.)..-----------........ 82
THE CABBAGE LOOPER (Plusia brassict Riley)---..-....---------------------................ 83
THE CABBAGE PLANT-LOUSE (Aphis brassicm Linn.)-----------------...................... 83
THE SEED-CORN MAGGOT (Phorbiafusciceps Zett.). (Illustrated).........------------.. 84
THE BEAN LEAF-ROLLER (Eudamus proteus Linn.). (Illustrated)..------------......... 92
THE PEA MOTH (Semasia nigricana Steph.). (Illustrated)........------------------....... 96
THE BEAN CUTWORM (Ogdoconta cinereola Guen.). (Illustrated)---....--..-------.. 98
3






4
Page.
NOTES ON INSECTS AFFECTING BEANS AND PEAS ............................ 100
THE GRAY HAIR-STREA K BUTTERFLY ( Ur nole.s [Thecla] ,uelinii. HbIn.). (Il-
lustrated )..---------..------.......---...-----..---------..--------------------.......... 101
THE BEAN LEAF-BEETLE (Cerotomia trifurc,'uta Forst.)--------------------.......... 102
THE LIMA-BEAN VINE-BORER (fnopilota ,iubilella Hulst. )..--..--------- 102
Di;abrolif' nfri pt'ni. Say- ..----.....-----------..-------------......-------..------ 103
THIE MEXI('AN BEAN WEEVIL (SpeNrMophagus pecforali. Shp. )------------ 103
THE PEA WEEVIL (Bri'chu.s pisorum Linn.) --------.--..-----------------...... 104
THE BOLL WORM OR CORN-EAR WORM (IJfdhb1iz. armiger Hbn.).------- 104
TilE FALL WEBWORM (Iqphmiidria cmI u.a Dru.)...------. -----...-........------ 104
THE GARDEN FLEA-HOPPER (Haltris uhleri Giard.). (Illustrated) ------ 105
Aratilhor',erus gal'crtor Fab-....-------.---..------------------------------.. 105
.lyhiw. eurinus Say, and A. pilostilus H.-S --...--.------------....----.-------- 106
LEAF-HOPPERS (T(,td1goi;;d.l' and .lassida,). (Illustrated) ---------------- 107
THE BEAN APHIS (Aphis rumicis Linn.)--- ...---------...--------....---------...-- 109
WIREWORMS. (Illustrated) -----------.....-----......---...---.----------------- 109
NOTES ON FLEA-BEETLES -----------------..------.......----------.....-...-...----.------------.. 110
THE PALE-STRIPED FLEA-BEETLE (Systena blhndd aMel'.) --- --------------110
THE RED-HEADED FLEA-BEETLE (Systenafro ,aliN Fab.). (Illustrated) -_ 111
THE SMARTWEED FLEA-BEETLE (Sqyent w lidoswiis Forst.)------------ 113
THE TOOTHED FLEA-BEETLE (C( ocwlOncma denticulata Ill.)---------------- 114
THE BR.ASSY FLEA-BEETLE (Ch UodCIuma pd;cir'r;i Mels.). (Illustrated) 115
THE SP'IN.ACH FLEA-BEETLE (Di.,:/i .riufnl na Dalm. )------------............ 116
THE EGG PLA.NT FLEA-BEETLE (Epilri.,fit. ctila Cr.). (Illusttrated)....--------... 117



















ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
Fie,. 1. Trihobari.q trinoat4I: beetle, larva, pupa, and section of potato stalk
showing larva and pupa in situ---------------------------------- .................................. 10
2. Hydrcecia nitela: moth, larva, and chrysalis --.--....-------....---.---------- 11
3. Leptoglossu. oppositlus: bug and eggs ------........-----------.......------------- 20
4. Leptoglossus oppositus: immature stages of nymphs ...------------.......------ 21
5. Trichopoda pennipes: mature fly--------------------------------- ................................... 25
6. Psila rosw: adult fly, larva, puparium, and details-------------- .................. 27
7. Ligyrus gibbosus: beetle------- ..........--------.....------..-------...------------. 32
8. Laphygnia e igua: moth, larva, and egg-- ....-----..--------..------------...... 38
9. Laphy/gma erigua: segment of larva-------- ............--.----.------.-----.------ 39
10. Loxostege slicticalis: moth and larva-------- ...........----.-------------------. 48
11. Entomoscelis adonidis: beetle ---------..-------.............---.----------------- 50
12. Pionea rimosali.: different stages----------............-------........----------------....... 55
13. Plusia brassic.r: all stages-------------------..............-..-..----------..---------- 61
14. Plusia brassiee: immature larva---------------...................---.------..--------- 62
15. Plusia precationis: moth. larva, and pupa-..----......---.----------..--------. 70
16. Plusia simple.i: moth and larva. -----------..--........------.....-..------..--------- 73
17. Scaptomyzaflaveula: different stages and work---------............--..-----..------- 75
18. Phyllotreta bipustulata: beetle .-----------..-----------...........---..-----------. 78
19. Phorbiafusciceps: different stages and details ------------....-......--.....--------- 85
20. Eadamus proteus: moth, larva, and pupa in cocoon-----.......------....------- 93
21. Semasia nigricana Steph.: moth and larva-.--..-........................ 96
22. Epiblemna nigricana: H.-S moth ----------------------------------.................................... 97
23. Ogdoconta cinereola: moth, larva, pupa, and work -------------------99
24. Uranotes melinus: all stages .--.----------...---.----...----..--------------. 102
25. Halticus uhleri: sexes, etc .....--------------..------.............----.-------------- 105
26. Diedrocephala vermuta: adults and nymphs .--...------..---------....---.----- 107
27. Monocrepidius vespertinus: larva and adult ..------..-..------------------ 110
28. Systenafrontalis: beetle---------..-----------...........-..-------------------. 112
29. Chwtocnema pulicaria: beetle- -----------------...------...----------- 115
30. Epitrix fuscula: beetle.............--...............-......------...........-- 117
5













PREFACE.


The pre-ent publication comprises a series of articles and notes
brought together in bulletin form in continuation of work begun sev-
eral years ago, the earlier results of which were published in Bulletin
10 of the present series, in the Yearbooks of this Department for 1896
and 1898, and in several circulars of this office. Bulletin 23 of this
series was devoted exclusively to the subject of insects injurious to
garden crops and Bulletin 19 mainly to the same subject. This con-
tribution is therefore the third bulletin of the series, and is entitled
"Some Insects Injurious to Vegetable Crops."
The various species of noxious insects discussed have, with few
exceptions, been destructive during the years 1900 and 1901, but a few
came under observation at an earlier date. The work is therefore, to
a certain extent, a report on the principal insects which have been
injurious and whose ravages have been brought to the attention of
this office as affecting the vegetable crops of the country during the
past two years. Circumstances beyond the writer's control have pre-
vented the publication of this matter until the present time.
The initial article treats of the potato stalk weevil, which has been
very injurious for a number of years but has never received extensive
notice in any of the publications of this Department; hence, all avail-
able facts concerning it, together with an original illustration, have
been brought together. The Northern leaf-footed plant-bug attracted
more attention during the last two years than ever before in its his-
tory, and its abundance in the vicinity of the District of Columbia
enabled a study of its habits and the practical completion of a knowl-
edge of its life hi-tory, the results of which are here given.
We have to record the appearance of a new insect enemy of carrot,
celery, and some other umbelliferous crops in this country. The
insect in question, the carrot rust fly, has been present in Canada since
1885, but was not known as the cause of injury to any crop plants in
the United States until the past year, when it occasioned the ruin.of
6,000 plants of celery on one farm in New York State. The proba-
bilities are that this species will continue to spread and that it may
become an important pest; in fact, the most serious drawback to the
cultivation of carrot, parsnip, celery, and other umbelliferous crops.
Another insect now holds this distinction. It may be known as the








carrot beetle, as it is to carrot that it does most injury, although pars-
nip, potato, and other root crops and some other cultivated plants are
subject to its depredations. This latter has been quite prominent in
recent years, and is therefore deserving of attention.
Although the beet army worm has been destructive since 1899, there
are some facts that have been learned in regard to it and its distribu-
tion and origin that have not been recorded. Since sugar-beet grow-
ing is just now engrossing the attention of legislators and farmers in
many sections of the country, it seems appropriate that as complete
an article as possible in regard to this, one of the most important
enemies of beets, be published. Three species of webworms, one of
them more particularly destructive to the sugar beet, the second an
introduced and important enemy of cruciferous crops in the South. and
the garden webworm, a species of omnivorous habits, have also been
the occasion of considerable correspondence.
Several species of insects injurious to cruciferous crops have been
under observation. Hitherto no account of the red turnip beetle
has appeared in Departmental publications; hence, an account based
on injuries in the Northwest is presented. The insect is more par-
ticularly destructive in the Dominion of Canada, but also inhabits
the United States, and it seems probable that injuries will increase
with time. This species is related to the Colorado potato beetle, and
at any time an outbreak may be apprehended. The cabbage looper, a
common pest throughout the South, and frequently making its appear-
ance as far northward as Long Island in destructive numbers, has,
after an almost complete disappearance, returned to the more northern
points which it had previously invaded. It is considered in connec-
tion with two related species, one of which is new as an enemy of cab-
bage, and the other known as the celery looper. The cross-striped
cabbage worm, or so-called "cabbage Pionea," has a similar distribu-
tion to the common cabbage looper, and an account of it is also given.
Some shorter notes are presented in regard to some cabbage insects
whose habits have not been thoroughly studied, as well as some
observations on insects affecting late cabbage and similar crops, the
latter article forming the basis for an appeal for clean farming.
A number of insects injurious to beans and other leguminous crops
have been prominent during recent years, and four of these, the seed-
corn maggot, the bean leaf-roller, the pea moth, and the bean cut-
worm, are the subjects of articles. The remaining species are treated
in an article comprising many subjects. It should be mentioned at
this point that the destructive green pea louse continued its ravages
during 1900, extending its depredations in the West particularly; but
as this species has been given much attention by entomologists in
Delaware and Maryland, the writer's notes are withheld. What there
was that seemed desirable for early publication was brought out in the








form of a circular. It should be added, however, that injury during
1901 was very light, although some damage was done over small areas.
The season of 1900 was rather remarkable for irruptions of different
forms of flea-beetles in various portions of our country, several species
doing very considerable damage, in some cases unprecedented.
Assistance has been rendered in the preparation of this bulletin by
the writer's associates, which is duly credited in its proper place: but
it should be especially mentioned that Mr. F. C. Pratt assisted in the
collation of the literature of many of the species treated. Credit is also
due to Mr. Th. Pergande for some of the notes, and particularly the
hearings made in earlier years, nearly all of those of a later date hav-
ing been conducted by the writer. Twenty-six of the figures which
illustrate this bulletin have been drawn by Miss Lillie Sullivan, under
the writer's personal supervision, from selected and fresh material
wherever this was obtainable.
F. H. CHITTENDEN.













SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETABLE
CROPS.


THE POTATO STALK WEEVIL.
(7Trichoboris trinotain Say.)
One of the important insect enemies of the potato, and a common
species almost everywhere east of the Rocky Mountains and south of
New England, is a little gray weevil, whose larva works normally in
the stems of wild Solanaceic, such as horse nettle, ground cherry, and
jimson weed, in most fields where these plants are allowed to grow.
The habits of this insect and its manner of attacking potato have
been known for half a century, the first instance of injury having been
noticed in- 1849 near Philadelphia, Pa. Since that time the injuries
inflicted by it to potato have attracted considerable attention, periodi-
cally and locally, especially during the last decade, and there is reason
to believe that it is often present and doing damage, though unde-
tected, in potato fields, where the insect itself has never been seen.
Its habit of living within the stem in its larval condition, and the
small size of the beetles, together with their habit of dropping from
the plants when disturbed, is accountable for injury by the species so
often escaping notice. Hence it happens that, although a pest of
long standing, the insect is unknown to mniany potato growers.
During 1900 this species was reported to have done injury near
Philadelphia, Pa., and South Holland, Ill., and to have been quite
prevalent in Maryland on potato; but injury was without doubt much
more extensive than reported. In 1901 the potato crop of Sheridan
County, Nebr., was nearly ruined by this insect, and it made its initial
appearance in Canada, doing much damage on Pelee Island.
In earlier years more or less damage to the potato crop was com-
mitted in other portions of Nebraska, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
Maryland, as well as in Kansas.
DESCRIPTION.
The beetle.-The adult potato stalk weevil is a small ash-gray weevil,
or snout-beetle, of the family Curculionide. Its real color is black
throughout, but its surface is covered with minute gray scales, which
give it a nearly uniform gray appearance. The head, however, appears
9






10


black, and there are three black impressed spots at the base of the
elytra or wing covers-one scutellar and two lateral-from which the
insect has derived its Latin name, tlIotata. The rostrum or snout is
robust and rather strongly curved, and the antennae, like those of other
Curculionids, are elbowed and clubbed at the ends. The body is oval
and somewhat depressed or flattened above. The male is credited with
being generally larger than the female-something rather unusual in
insects. The length is about one-sixth of an inch (3 to 4.5"1,") and the
width less than half that (1.2 to 1.75"1"1).
\ ( /The beetle is shown in the accompanying


,j-"-- ^i^
4. r!



^ > rrv


Ii

C.


C


U -




FI(;. 1.-Tri'liili'ri. trinotata: a, beetle;
b, larva from side; c, pupa; d, section
of potato stalk opened to show larva
and pupa in situ-a, b, c, five times
natural size, d, natural size (original.)


illustration (fig. 1, a).
T i -ggyq is of the usual white color and
oval form seen among the Rhynchophora,
and, according to the measurements of
Faville and Parrott, is about 0.6mm in
length and 0.4"11 in width.
The h'wr, or grub, as it appears when
first hatched from the egg, does not ap-
pear to have been described. It is, how-
ever, whitish at this stage, and without
feet. When full grown it is remarkably
elongate in form, about eight or nine
times as long as wide, with small circular
pale-brown head, the whole having the
appearance shown at b (fig. 1). It reaches
a length of about two-fifths of an inch


(9 to 11"mm), and is only moderately curved when in natural position in
the stems. Instead of legs these larvaw are provided with feebly defined
thoracic leg pads. The color at this, as in the pupal condition, varies
from nearly white to rather bright yellow, the color in one instance,
in an individual taken from the root stem of Solimm i ci'ol'nenfsis,
being of a decidedly rosy or light pinkish hue.
The pupa looks like that of other weevils, and presents no very
noticeable features for description. A ventral view of a )pupa is shown
at c (fig. 1). At d a larva and pupa are figured natural size within an
opened stalk of potato.
DISTRIBUTION.
The potato stalk weevil is rather generally distributed throughout
the Carolinian and Austroriparian regions. Northward the limit of
injurious occurrence was reached in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in
the East, and in Illinois and Iowa in the West; recently, however, the
species. has become a pest in Canada. Southward the insect is found
to Florida and westward to Texas. A list of localities follows:
Titn.\ville, Little Silver, Freehold, Hopewell, New Brunswick, and Trenton, N. J.;
Yorkana, Germantown, Westchester, Pawling, Philadelphia, Allegheny, and Pitts-









ville, Pa.; Newark, Del.; Belair, River View, Cabin John, Marshall Hall, Green-
wood, and Baltimore, and Howard, Washington, and Montgomery counties, Md.
(Johnson); Rosslyn and DeepCreek, Va.; District of Columbia; North Carolina; South
Carolina; Kentucky; Wayne, Cobden, Anna, Carbondale, and Normal, Ill.; Kansas
City, Kirkwood, and Cadet, Mo.; Fort Scott, Onega, Wilder, Topeka, Fairmount,
Edwardsville, Manhattan, Lawrence, and Connor, Kans., well distributed over the
eastern part of the State; Ames, Adel, Davenport and Marcus, and Polk and Boone
counties, Iowa; Omaha, Albany, and elsewhere in Nebraska; Cincinnati, Aberdeen,
and Gallipolis, Ohio; Detriot, Mich.; Key West and Jacksonville, Fla.; St. Anthony
Park, Minn. (Lugger); and Pelee Island, Canada.
NoTE.-In the southwest this species is replaced lby a few others of the same genus
and of very similar appearance and habits, but not injurious to the same extent. One
of these, T. mnucorea Lec., is common in Arizona and southern California; and T. le.rana
Lec. is a well-known form in Texas, New Mexivo, and Colorado.






















b
e




FIG. 2.-Hydrcia nitela: a, female moth; b, half-grown larvw: r, mature larva in injured stalk:
d, lateral view of abdominal segment of same;: c, pupa-all somewhat enlarged (original).

T. compact Casey, according to Cockerell, breeds in Dtiura ineteloides, and is
common in the Mesilla Valley of New Mexico. It has not been reported to damage
potato, perhaps because this vegetable is not much grown in that State. Without
doubt all the species of Trichobaris feed on Solanacetw.
The potato stalk weevil is also known as potato stalk borer, and several other
species of insects, the larvae of moths resembling those which produce cutworms,
are sometimes known by the same name. The most common species (in literature)
is Hydrecia (Gortyna) nitela, known as the stalk borer, heart worm, etc. An equally
common species in some localities which has practically the same habits is known as
Hydrcecia nebris Guen.
Even as late as 1897 Hydrcecia nitela was referred to as the potato stalk borer, and
as doing injury to potatoes in western Maine, damage being due to the larva's boring
into the pith of potato stalks, causing them to wilt. It will thus be seen that although
the stalk weevil and the stalk borers are entirely different, belonging to different
groups, they do injury in a similar manner, and are therefore apt to be confused
by those not thoroughly conversant with them. We present a figure of the species






12


of stalk borer under consideration which will serve as a fair sample of this group.
The moth (fig. 2, a) is medium brown in color, and marked as shown. The young
larva is quite peculiar in having the first three or four abdominal segments suffused
in such a manner as to give the insect the appearance of beingdiseased (see b). The
larva when mature has more or less the appearance shown at c, which, however, will
answer almost equally well for other species of the genus. Careful comparative study
is necessary in order to establish the differences between these species in their larval
stages. An abdominal segment of Iijdrol,oiat 'ifeld in the larval stage is shown at d
(fig. 2), while at e is shown the female pupa or chrysalis. This insect was reported
during 1901, liv Mr. F. M.Webster, as having done much injury to wheat and carnations
in portions of Ohio. It is to be regretted that several other species are undoubtedly
confused with this insert because of their great similarity in the larval stages. The
writer, as well as Mr. Pergandile, of this office, has reared the moth from the stalks of
common pigweed (. l,,'osia trifihi), and there is no doubt of Harris's record of injury
by this species to corn. It is credited with having done injury to the stalks of tomato,
spinach, cauliflower, eggplant, pepper, ahllia, aster, lily, spinra, salvia, thistle,
milkweed, ligweed, ragweed, slmartweed(, cocklebur, and castor bean; and to the
twigs of blackl)erry, currant, apple, and peach, as well as to wheat and corn.

RECENT INJURY.

During 1897 Messrs. Kirkpatrick & Son, Connor, Wyandotte
County, Kans., sent. specimens of the larvi of this weevil in potato
stems, writing July 2 that about one-fourth of the vines at that place
were affected, and other fields looked to be over half destroyed.
Larva' were found in vines that looked to be perfectly healthy. To
find the insects it was necessary to pull the vine and split it open.
September 8 of the same year specimniens of this species were received
from Mr. George W. Pickering, Wayne. Du Page County, Ill., with
the statement that they had been found inside the stalks of potato.
In 1898 Mr. Pickering again sent speciminens, July 5 and 30, of larvae
in the .stalks. Some presented foliage partly dead, while others which
were also inhabited by this insect showed no evidence of infestation.
Some hills of potato yielded but few tubers, while others contained
a normal yield. It was noted that the infested stalks generally pull
easily and break off just below the surface. They appeared rather
rusty as a rule, and some had what appeared to be a fungus-like
excrescence at the bottom of the stalk.
During 1900 Mr. Samuel Carter, Philadelphia, Pa., sent larvae
within the stalks of potato, with accompanying information, under date
of August 15, that this species infested the whole potato crop of that
vicinity. He expressed the opinion that the crop was an entire failure,
the yield being just about one-eighth of what it should have been.
During 1901 a single report of injury by this potato stalk weevil
reached this office. This was made in December by Mr. James Egan,
Albany, Nebr., who stated that the potato crop in Sheridan County
had been nearly ruined by this insect. Mr. G. W. Pickering, who
reported injuries in Illinois in 1897 and 1898, stated that since that








time the insect had done no damage, although he had looked for injury
in his vicinity. A gentleman of his acquaintance, who had raised potatoes
in one of the potato districts of Pennsylvania, said that this species,
as a rule, had little effect on the general crop there. Mr. H. M.
Kirkpatrick, who reported injury in 1897, stated that no further dam-
age had been noticed in Wyandotte County, Kans.
From Mr. Edwin Taylor, Edwardsville, Kans., was received infor-
mation that this species had been present in that vicinity for a good
many years, but that it had never injured the potato crop seriously.
Writing December 23, 1901, he stated that this insect was less observed
that year than usual.
From the above and other sources of information it would seem
that this species is unusually periodical, and injuries are generally to be
attributed to the growth of potatoes on or in the vicinity of land that
has been permitted to run to Solanaceou.s weeds, nearly all of which
furnish food for the potato stalk weevil. A list of these will be fur-
nished later on in the present article.

EARLIER DIVISIONAL RECORDS.
August 1, 1884, vines containing this larva were received from Mr.
Richard B. Taylor, Westchester, Pa.,with the statement that this borer
had destroyed two-thirds of his potato crop (Ann. Rept. Corn. Agr.
for 1884, p. 411). September 6,1892, Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt reported
the rearing of this curculio from Solamnn caro(,neone at Kirkwood,
Mo. (Insect Life, Vol. V, p. 135). July 20, 1893, larvae of this species
were received from Mr. H. Still, Deep Creek, Va., found boring in
the stems of eggplant, with the statement that the plants were dying
by the hundreds daily. August 5, 1895, Mr. W. T. L. Taliaferro,
Belair, Md., sent larvae in stalks of potato. August 26, 1896, we
received larvae and sections of potato stalks killed by this species
from Mr. G. C. Brown, Yorkana, Pa., who stated that the insect
was new to that locality so far as injuries were concerned. A few
other records of injury have been published in the columns of Insect
Life and in bulletins of the Division of Entomology.
LITERATURE AND HISTORY OF THE SPECIES.
The potato stalk weevil was first described as Baridius trinotatus,
in 1831, by Thomas Say (Descr. N. Am. Curculionides, etc., p. 18).
In the year 1849 this insect attracted some attention by its ravages
in the vicinity of Germantown, Pa., and Camden, N. J., as related by
Miss M. H. Morris, in a communication published in the American
Agriculturist of the following year (April, 1850, Vol. IX, pp. 113,
114). The account in question, which is the first that was published
concerning this insect, is headed "The Potato Curculio," and is erro-
neous in some particulars, owing to the fact that the disease known as




- I


14

potato rot was attributed to this insect, on which assumption it was
stated that the wvago-es of the weevil were traced from Mexico to
Maine. The description of the egg and oviposition is wrong, the eggs
being described as bright red instead of white in color. During the
same year Harris published in the New England Farmer (June 22,
1850, n. s., Vol. II, p. 204) a short account of this species, quoting
freely from NMiss Morris, entering somewhat into detail to show that
it was probably not the cause of the disease of potato. Harris is cred-
ited with publishing two more accounts of this species in the next
year, but they appeared in popular publications, now inaccessible,
which is true of a large proportion of accounts of this insect published
by other persons. The writer has references to about 60 communi-
cations in regard to this weevil, for the most part short notices of injury
and brief general accounts, usually compiled, and containing nothing
original or of value otherwise. For this reason mention will be omitted
of many of them. In Harris's Insects Injurious to Vegetation a brief
popular account is given, based as before on Miss Morris's writings.
A short general account was published by Walsh and Riley in 1868
(Am. Ent., Vol. I, p. 22), with illustrations of the insect in three stages,
and a similar account by Riley, followed in his First Missouri Report,
published in 1t69 (pp. 94, 95), with mention of the insect's injurious
occurrence in Missouri the previous year.
Several accounts of little consequence followed during succeeding
years until 1890. During that year the insect became troublesome in
the State of Iowa, and was the subject of study by Prof. (C. P. Gillette
(Bul. 11, Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta., pp. 490-492). In this account it is
stated that this weevil was one of the worst insect pests of the season,
and the estimate was made that half a iIb*l;m of dOl/.'q, would prob-
ably fall far short of making good the loss that it occasioned to the
potato crop in the State of Iowa alone. Two years later the insect
was again very injurious in Iowa, as reported by F. A. Sirrine (Bul.
19, Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta., pp. 589-594). Considerable is added to our
knowledge of the insect and its wild food plants in this last account.
In 1893 it was reported to be injurious in Virginia, New Jersey, Iowa,
and Ohio. In 1S94 this weevil is mentioned by R. C. Schiedt (Report
Penna. State Board of Agriculture, 1894, p. 194) as one of the worst
in-ect pests of that year in Pennsylvania. The same year it attracted
attention by its ravages in New Jersey, and was studied by Prof.
J. B. Smith, the result taking form in an eight-page article pub-
lished originally in Bulletin 109, New Jersey Agricultural College
Experiment Station (pp. 25-32). This account includes three original
illustrations. The following year this weevil was even more wide-
spread in New Jersey than in 1894 (Annual Report N. J. Agr. Col.
Exp. Sta. for 1895, p. 390).
During 1806 the potato stalk weevil was quite troublesome in Mary-








land, and was briefly reported by Prof. W. G. Johnson (Bul. 57, Md.
Agric. Exp. Station, p. 5). During that year serious damage was
done to the potato crop in Kansas, with the result that the insect
was given special study by Messrs. Faville and Parrott in a 12-page
leaflet (Bul. 82, Kansas State Agric. College Exp. Station). This
is a very'full account and includes 15 illustrations. A short summary
of this article was published as Press Bulletin 19 in December, 1898,
and republished in Bulletin 86 (pp. 35-37). Injury was also inflicted
the same year in Pennsylvania, complaint having been made at Pawling,
in the vicinity of which place infestation was stated to have been
evidently quite general (2d An. Rept. Pa. Dept. Agr. for 1896 [1897],
pp. 361-363).
In 1897 the potato stalk weevil was reported as doing much injury
in Baltimore County, Md. (Bul. 9. n. s., p. 81).
In the Rural New Yorker for August 27, 1898, correspondence is
published, with answer by Mr. Slingerland, concerning the occur-
rence of this species in potato vines at Pittsville. Pa., that year.
Owing to its extensive depredations in the potato fields in northeast-
ern Maryland, especially in Harford County, during 1898, an account
by Prof. E. Dwight Sanderson was published in the National Stock-
man and Farmer for December 8, 1898.
During 1899 no reports of injury came to the writer's attention.
Moreover, the species was rare wherever sought for in the vicinity of
the Distrit of Columbia.
In the Rural New Yorker for August 11, 1900 (p. 544), a short note
is published on the occurrence of this species at South Holland. Ill.,
where it had injured nearly every stemni of potatoes, destroying about
half the crop. An answer by Mr. Slingerland accompanied this note.
In Dr. Fletcher's report as entomologist and botanist for the
experimental farms of Canada (p. 234, 1902), he makes mention of
the occurrence of this species for the first time as a Canadian insect.
The report is on the authority of Professor Lochhead, and is in brief
that many vines were completely destroyed by the potato stalk weevil,
present in all stages in September, at Pelee Island. It was stated
that the island exported 30,000 bushels of potatoes the previous year,
but in 1901 it would have no more than enough for its own consump-
tion and none to spare. This report is followed by a short general
account of the insect, with remedies.
NATURE OF INJURY; FOOD PLANTS.
Frequently, more often perhaps than not, injury by this potato
pest is attributed to drought or blight. It is more conspicuous in sea-
sons of prolonged drought and most severe on early varieties of potato.
The undermining of the stalks of potato by the larvae causes them to
wilt, and the wilting and the dying of the leaves is the first and only





16


outward manifestation of attack. When the insects are present in the
field it is often stated that the plants are "blighted." The diseases
of potato, particularly one caused by bacteria, are apt also to be mis-
taken for the work of the weevil, as in both cases the leaves look as
if sunburned particularly after the vines have been affected for some
time. Not infrequently the field will be found to suffer from the com-
bined effects of dry weather, disease, and stalk weevil. To detect the
privesence of the weevil it is only necessary to cut open the infested
stalks, when the insect will be found in some stage in the pith. The
weevil's presence is generally shown first in the withering of the lower
branches, but in dry, hot weather the whole plant may be affected.
The beetles feed on the leaves of potato and other Solanaceae, but
do no appreciable injury in this stage.
This insect attacks, in addition to potato, nearly all of the Solanaceae
growing wild within its natural range. The list of food plants includes,
besides potato, eggplant (Soo(nuin. melmongena), horse nettle (S. caro-
7; ,,.Js'), bull nettle (S. rostrttu i ), jimson weed (Datwura .stramonium),
purple thorn apple (D. tattl, ), ground cherry (Pliysalis longifolia,
jp/i;laddel pica, lanw<.(lafi, ,t,',-phylla, and birgiianat var. anmbigua).
According to Faville and Parrott this insect also attacks cocklebur
(X /,,,,, icanadeose). Tobacco and tomato appear exempt.
The presence of a single larva in a potato stalk is not sufficient to
injure it to any extent, although it must have a weakening effect, but
when many larvae occur in the same stalk destruction is complete. As
many as 5 or 6 individuals may sometimes be found in a potato stalk,
and 8 have been observed in the sterns of a ground-cherry plant.

LIFE HISTORY.
The beetles have been observed in the vicinity of the District of
Columbia as early as May 20 on wild Solanum and Datura, which at
that time were only 2 or 3 inches high. It seems probable that the
beetles seldom put in an appearance earlier than the middle of May,
as the plants are s('arcely far enough advanced before that time for
food. Pairing was noticed a few days afterwards, and oviposition
prol babdly begins normally before the end of the month of May, although
farther north it does not commence until June. The female weevil
deposits her eggs singly, in small slits or holes about one-twelfth of an
inch in length, made in the stalks of the insect's food plants and occa-
sionally in the branches. In about a week or ten days. according to
temperature, the larva hatches from the egg and begins to feed by
making small channels, which increase in size with the growth of the
insect, downward toward the bases of the stalks. After working down-
ward for a distance-usually to the roots-the larva turns about and
begins the enlargement of the old channel for a portion of the way
upward. The undermining of a stalk by the tunneling of several






17

larvae has the effect of impairing the vitality of the plant and causing
the leaves to wilt and die. Upon attaining full growth the larva
makes a cell of castings and woody fibers in which to transform to
pupa and ultimately to adult. The pupal stage varies from eight to
eleven days, according to temperature. In the District of Columbia
the pupal period was passed in nine days in warm August weather;
larvae have been noted to obtain full growth by the second week of
July, and images of the new generation have appeared as early as
July 24. In more northern localities development is slower, the
beetles seldom appearing before August and maturing as late as Sep-
tember. The pupal cells may be constructed in any portion of the
stem, but are preferably placed near the roots, where the stalk is
firmest and where the beetles will be best protected during their hiber-
nation. All beetles mature by September and hibernation is there-
fore always as a beetle, and the knowledge of this fact is of value in
the control of the species, as will presently be fully explained.
NATURAL ENEMIES.
The potato stalk weevil is subject to the attack of a small dark-col-
ored four-winged parasite fly known as Siglaphus curculionis Fitch, a
well-known hymenopterous enemy of the plum curculio. A species of
chalcis fly was reared at this office from material received in 1896 from
Yorkana, Pa. The larvae, according to Professor Gillette (Insect Life,
Vol. III, p. 247), sometimes fall a prey to wireworms. Messrs. Kirk-
patrick & Son, previously mentioned in connection with recent injury,
sent the larva of Dirasteri'us amabilis July 2, 1897, with the statement
that several of these wireworms were noticed in the stems of potato
that had been infested by the weevil.
REMEDIES.
The potato stalk weevil is not a difficult insect to deal with. About
the only remedy that is necessary is to pull up infested vines as soon
as they commence to wilt and show evidence of attack, and spread
them out so that they will be exposed to the sun and will dry and thus
prevent the escape of the insects which they contain. Then all stalks
in infested fields should be burned as soon as the crop is off. By thus
destroying the weevils the crop of insects for another year will be
greatly lessened. In connection with this remedy it is also advisable
to keep down all Solanaceous weeds which serve as breeding places for
this and other insects and are therefore a standing menace to the culture
of potatoes. The time for the destruction of the weeds is in July,
after they have attractedthe hibernated beetles to them for egg laying,
or any time thereafter before the seeds are ripe. For perfect success
in this treatment of potato fields, the cooperation of neighboring farmers
is essential.
23987-No. 33-02- 2





18


A liberal use of fertilizers in an infested field will often aid the
injured plants to recuperate from insect attack. Unfortunately, injury
is not apt to be detected until it is far advanced and the plants begin
to die. As soon, therefore, as a plant shows weakness its stalk should
be split open to ascertain the cause.
It should be remembered that early potatoes are more subject to
injury than later ones, and that the latest varieties are practically
exempt from injury.
THE NORTHERN LEAF-FOOTED PLANT-BUG.
(Lcp/ofl/fhwsl,. opposetus Say.)
During the season of 1900 this injurious species of plant-bug occurred
in o-reat abundance in and about the District of Columbia, and was
also reported to be troublesome in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.
After the publication of the writer's first article on this insect (Bul-
letin No. 19, n. s., pp. 14-46), it was brought to his attention, first by
correspondence and afterwards by observation, that the species of
Leptoglossus subsist in all their stages preferably upon the fruit of
the plants subject to their attack. The first intimation of this fact came
from correspondence with Mr. Henry J. Gerling, St. Charles, Mo.,
who wrote under date of August 8, 1S99, that 1. ing the fruit of cucumber and the fruit and buds of nest-egg gourd in
his vicinity. When first observed the nymphs were about a quarter
of an inch long and blood-red in color. After they had pierced the
fruit, a waxy secretion exuded from the wounds, such exudation often
showing all over the fruit affected.
We have now, as a result of recent investigation, a knowledge of the
full life history of the species, which will be presented in detail.
INJURY DURING 1899 AND 1900.
Damage by this plant-bug to gourd and cucumber at St. Charles,
Mo., in 1899 has already been mentioned. The fruits or vegetables
from which our material was obtained were said to be literally cov-
ered with the insects. September 13, 1899, Mr. F. C. Pratt observed
attack to the fruit of cucumber at Alexandria, Va. September 25 we
received from Mr. Thos. I. Todd, Athens, Ga., specimens of nymphs
in different stages, with the report that this insect was injuring the
stems of young watermelon.
In 1000, Mr. H. Guibor, House Springs, Mo., sent the young of this
species. June 14, mostly in the second stage of the nymph, but with
one in the third stage, with the report that they were attacking the
fruit of pear. June 25, Mr. John G. Bauranel, Clarksville, Johnson
County, Ark., sent specimens with the statement that this plant-bug
was preying upon peach and cantaloupe in that locality. Peaches,
when ripe, were sometimes found full of imperfect spots, manifested by






19


a roughening of the skin. When peeled a dark, circular spot caused
by the puncture of this insect, which our correspondent likened to the
perforation of an awl, could be seen. The insects were present in
great numbers on the peaches, quietly sucking the juice. Cantaloupe
vines would appear to be perfectly healthy in the morning, and perhaps
by noon would be wilted and dying, although roots and stems appeared
to be sound. Specimens of this species were observed about the middle
of July, and Mr. Otto Heidemann, of this office, states that he saw
nymphs of a related species still earlier. July 25, Rev. Fred M.
Dickey, Deanewood, D. C., stated that he had recently observed the
insects in copula on his ptlums and cherries. July 30 a considerable
number of insects were received from the last mentioned locality,
some in copulation when received. August 3, Mr. August Busck
reported this species very abundant on peach trees in the District of
Columbia, most of the specimens captured having been found paired.
From the date just mentioned to August 16, Mr. Pratt observed this
plant-bug on three occasions at, St. Eimo, Va., on stalks of corn where
no other crop was growing and on August 27 he found numerous indi-
viduals puncturing tomatoes. There were several colonies at work
and the majority of the individuals were in the third stage of the
nymph. In the first week of September Mr. Pratt noticed that much
injury was being done to seed cucumbers, many plants being com-
pletely covered with the bugs in their various stages. The following
week the same observer found the insect doing some harm to cymlings,
near Deanewood.
OCCURRENCE DURING THE SEASON OF 1901.
During 1901 this plant-bug came under frequent observation, more
especially by Mr. Pratt at St. Elmo and elsewhere in Virginia. He
noticed it on pear, plum, and peach attacking the fruit; he also saw it
puncturing corn in milk and tomatoes, and he states that it was as
common as in 1900 on cantaloupe and other cucurbits. September 20,
Mr. John S. Seibert, Cumberland, Md., sent specimens of the nymph
in the last stage, with the information that they were puncturing the
fruit of hazel nut, transmitting at the same time nuts showing punc-
ture scars.
This insect is accused of more injury than the mere puncturing of
fruits. There is no doubt whatever that in feeding it injects a certain
liquid, the same as or similar to that which is secreted by the common
squash bug, and that this poisons the plant, causing the fruit to be
distorted or checking its growth. It has also been accused of being a
transmitter of fungus diseases of pear and other fruit trees. It seems
quite probable that this is the case, although further observations are
necessary to settle the matter. It was reported too late in the season
for careful investigation.






20


Aside from their preference for fruit as food, the species of Lepto-
glossus very closely resemble the squash bugs (Anasa) in many of the
details of life economy. The eggs are of simiilar color and net-veined
like those of Anasa. but are of different shape and deposited length-
wise instead of in somewhat irregular masses. During the early
stages of the nymph the predominating color is red, but in the last
stage the close resemblance to Anasa is quite evident. In the length
of the stages of the life cycle the two genera do not appear to differ.
THE EGG AND OVIPOSITION.
The eggs are laid in the same manner as those of L. phyllopu.s, in
single rows or chains along the stems or leaf-ribs of the plants upon
which the insects feed. They evidently differ in coloring from those
of phyllppts, however, all that have
j "--w" been observed being pale bronze to
dark bronze-brown, none of them
T Golden. The eggs are semicylindrical,
C _fl V' -^ -
o^ looking from one end, as shown in
figure 3, c, and are rather strongly
S -^ flattened on the lower surface, where
SIx Hattached to a plant. The outline, as
r seen from above, is short oblong, the
eggs l)eing placed so close together end
b to end that they form what appears to
a T be a stiff, cylindrical rod, of which
F e mat each egg is a joint or cell. At one end
FIG. 3.-Leptoglossuts opoiti.": a, mature of the egg, covering a little more than
bug; b, string of eggs; c. egg from end; half of the distance from that extrem-
d, sculpture of egg; e, egg from side,
showing opening from which young ity to the other, there is a circular area
has escaped-all except d about twice with a surrounding circle of light color
natural size (original).
natural size (original)and bearing a transverse curved row of
from 4 to 6 elevated points. This circular area comes off like a trap-
door (e) for the issuance of the young. Under a microscope of mod-
erately high power the entire surface is seen to be finely reticulate,
with rather regular pentagonal and hexagonal areas (d). The length
of an egg is about 1.4"", and the width 1- 15 the height being
a trifle less. A chain of eggs is shown at h (fig. 3), and the sculpture
of an egg at d. Chains vary in length from those having half a dozen
eggs, and measuring about three-eighths of an inch, to others having
26 eggs and measuring 1 inches in length.
THlE NYMPHS.
The nymphs when first transformed have the legs and antennae rose-
colored, the body pale orange-red, the eyes reddish or reddish-brown.
The ground colors change, in all except the fifth stage, to brighter








orange or vermilion with dark-I;rown or black legs and antennae,
while the amount of black on other portions of the body increases
with each successive molt.a
First stage.-The nymph when first hatched from the egg is pale
coral red in color, with long, dark brown or nearly black legs, the
proximal half of the antennae being of the same color and the remainder
pale coral, becoming darker soon after hatching. The antennae and
legs are of nearly equal length, about one-fourth longer than the body
(with the head). The rostrum, which is kept closely folded under the
body when the insect is not feeding, is of the same color as the legs
and about three-fourths as long as the body. The posterior portion
of the body is sparsely tuberculate, the arrangement being as shown
in the accompanying illustration (fig. 4) at a. The legs and antennae
are clothed with sparse short black hairs. The tibiae of the hind legs







II
bb
a\t



Ce d
FIG. 4.-Lcplthgiossis fpiunsitits: a. nymph of first tliigi: b. ec'ind .tage; c, third stage; d, fourth stage;
e, fifth stage-all about two and one-half times natural size (original).
show no evidence of the expansions which appear in later stages. The
length of the body when first hatched is about 2.3"m, and the width is
about 0.8"m.
Second stage.-With the casting of the first skin, the nymph takes
on a more elongated appearance generally, the head, body, antennae,
and legs all being longer and more cylindrical, while the tubercles
become more pronounced. The two dorsal abdominal tubercles and
the anal extremity become black, and a pair of minute tubercles
usually show just behind the pair back of the hind legs. The hind
tibiae shows slight evidence of enlargement. Length when fully
matured, 6mm. This stage is illustrated at b, fig. 4.
Thirdstage. -Superficially this stage (fig. 4, c) looks but little different
from the second. The thorax is longer than the head, the black por-
aThe differences between the nymphs of this species and of L. phyllUopus are not
nearly so marked as in the two cucurbit-feeding Anasas, tristis and armigera.





22

tions of the body are darker and more conspicuous, and the abdominal
tubercles more prominent. The antennae and legs are wider, the latter
with the lateral tibial expansions just beginning to show, being now
about the same width as the tibia itself, and without teeth. The
tubercles are larger, but the dorsal spines are scarcely longer than in
the second stage. The haustellum immediately after the molt projects
beyond the abdomen to a distance about equal to the length of the
head. Length of body just after molt, 6m'"'.
F1f1i,.h ..ifa,.-The appearance of this stage is shown at d, fig. 4.
The antennae, hind legs, and body are subequal in length, the haustel-
lum a little shorter when first transformed, the width of the body at
this time only a little over 2m', becoming about 3.5"ml before the next
molt. Wheni "full colored" the body is of about the same appearance
as in the third stage, but the red ground color becomes lighter and
duller orange before molting, while the black coloring extends farther.
The wing pads are broiizy black, occupying more than half the thorax;
the tibi'v each marked with a whitish band just below the middle;
lateral expansions about two-thirds wider than tarsi, with one more or
less feebly marked lateral tooth toward apex. Length when first
molted, 9m'".
ift0 . of the fourth .kih the nymuph begins to show the appearance of the
mature bug; the antenna e nd legs are still shining black, the latter
yellowish at the extreme apex. and the tarsi have each a whitish band,
a,.s in the preceding stage. The lateral expansions are several times as
broad as in the preceding stage. strongly bidentate on the lateral sur-
face, and ratherr feebly unidentate on the inner portion, which is
;iiairked with a medial white spot. The head and b)ody are black,
thickly covered with gray pubescencie, thickest on the head. The
prothorax is narrower at the apex, where it is of about the same width
as the base of the head, and broader tha)i the thorax at the base; the
sides are nearly straight, with wide orange margin .lust behind the
apex of the thorax there is a pair of small, rounded orange tubercles
placed rather closely together. Length when first molted, 11""'.
The addalt.-A full description of the mature insect has been given
by the writer in the article previously mentioned (p. 45), but for the
benefit of those who may not have opportunity to refer to that descrip-
tion it may be stated that the parent insect is a large, chocolate-brown
heteropterous bug of the same family as the squash bugs, the Coreidam,
from which insects it may be readily distinguished by its more slender
form, acutely pointed head, and longer antenna and legs, but more
particularly by the leaf-like expansion of the hind legs (see fig. 3,a).
The length is 18 to 21""1'1, and the width across the thorax 5 to 6""".






23


DISTRIBUTION.
Leptoglossus opposilt.s is Austro-riparian in distribution, although it
extends about halfway into the Carolinian region and sometimes even
farther north, such occurrence, however, in the writer's opinion, being
rare and in some cases perhaps accidental. With recorded distribu-
tion and the localities furnished during the year, we know that this
species occurs in Georgia, Texas, Arkansas. Missouri, Indian Terri-
tory, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, District of Columbia, Ken-
tucky, Indiana, New York, and New Jersey. In the last-mentioned
State it is recorded from Shiloh in September, and it was captured on
Staten Island, New York, in October, by Mr. W. T. Davis.

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.

The lfe cycle.-The life history of this plant-bug, as previously
intimated, practically duplicates, as regards the length of the different
stages, that of our two common species of Anasa, tt'sfi.' and -riiqynt't.
Eggs that were deposited in extremely hot weather in early August
produced nymphs in eight days and the first molt of the nymph took
place in three days.
The nymphs do not thrive in confinement as well as do those of the
species of Anasa, and the working out of the periods of the different
stages would, therefore, have ]been laborious. Assuming the periods
to be practically identical, we have the egg stage eight days, the first
nymph stage three days, a'S l)reviou.sly ascertained, and can surmise
the second and third nymnph stages to be five to seven days each, the
fourth five or six days, and the fifth .-,even or eight days, the minimum
period of the entire life cycle probably beingg about five weeks, and
the maximum seldom more than six weeks, except in the case of some
of the late broods which occur in the fall.
As with Anasa, there is only a single generation produced each. yea r.
The first appearance of this plant-bug in the neighborhood of the
District of Columbia is probably not fart from the first day of July,
the earliest date when it has been observed. This is two or three
weeks later than the appearance of Anis ftr/sth.. The first eggs ob-
tairied were deposited August 9. Nymphs were first seen August 13;
the second stage, August 16.
The first imagos of the new generation developed September 10,
and during the next few days many more were seen both in our rear-
ing cages and in the field. The hibernated bugs disappeared a week
or two earlier, so that there was no overlapping of generations observ-
able. The second stage of the nymph has been observed during dif-
ferent seasons as late as the middle of September and an individual of
the third stage September 23. A belated adult was observed in the
second week of November.





24


Fold Jhahdi ..-It may be well to sumni up what is now known of the
food and other habits of this species. It is obvious that cucurbits are
the favorite food of both adults and nymphs, although the earlier
arrivals or hibernated adults are more often found upon fruit trees.
The nymphs are most abundant on cucurbits, which naturally is true
of adults of the new generation which remain on or in the vicinity of
the plants upon which they developed until time for seeking winter
quarters. Plums, cherries, peaches, and tomatoes are frequently
punctured by the insects in all stages, tomatoes appearing to be pre-
ferred in our rearing jars to other food. Green corn is fed upon
readily. There is record of occurrence on corn published by Dr.
Lintner in the Country Gentleman of October 7, 1886 (p. 753). Of
other published records of food habits we have Mr. Ashmead's men-
tion of this species in his enumeration of the insect enemies of cotton;
also note of the occurrence of eggs and nymphs on a hedge plant and
on Russian apricot. Grape has been recorded as a food by Dr. Lint-
ner (loc. cit.). The natural wild food plant remains to be discovered.
In the report of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station for
1900-1901 mention is made of this bug as having been received from
various parts of Oklahoma, accompanied with the report that it was
injuring the fruits of peach and plum by puncturing them and suck-
ing out their juices. The species occasioned considerable alarni there,
and farmers were asked to send specimens whenever found, in order
that several points in its life history might be determined.
Otlr o'lhabits.-The nymphs, as soon as hatched, group themselves
about the chains of eggs and remain there during the day and probably
till nightfall. Afterwards they may be found in other locations, and
those which have been under observation, both in the field and in con-
finement, at once selected a place for congregating where they were
to be seen throughout the day, the individuals of a colony or those
which hatched from a single egg mass always remaining by them-
selves. In one rearing cage a colony established itself at the base
of a squash leaf near the stalk, which appears to be a favorite rest-
ing place for this as well as other plant-bugs, including the squash
bugs; and another colony formed at the apex of the same leaf, as far
as possible from the first colony. Here they remained day after day
without mingling. Finally a stray nymph from a third egg mass, and
larger than the others, joined the lower colony and remained with them.
With the assumption of the third stage, the nymphs kept under obser-
vation deserted their original congregating places and collected in
another portion of the cage, where they were joined by a newly
hatched colony. With later stages it is a matter of common occur-
rence to find in the field three or four stages in a single group.
A fully matured nymph was observed to shed its last skin October 2.






25


at 11.30 a. m. At this time it was a light carmine; in the afternoon
it had changed to the normal dull black color.
This plant-bug has a similar but much fainter odor than the common
squash bug, but in ordinary handling of the creatures, nymphs and
adults, it would scarcely be noticed.

NATURAL ENEMIES.
Quite frequently the adults of this plant bug are noticed with Tach-
inid eggs on the upper surface of the thorax. During the first week
of August a fly was reared from hibernated adults, which proved to be
Trichopoda pcnntpesv (fig. 5). An
adult of the squash bug, Anaxa
tristis, was found September 14 with
a nymph of the second stage of this
plant-bug affixed to its beak.
REMEDIES.
This plant-bug can, in the case of
ordinary attack, be controlled by
hand-picking or by capturing the
insects in inverted umbrellas, bags,
or specially prepared nets satu rated
with kerosene; the best time for FIG. 5.--Trirhlmpwha pnumipts: adtlt, fly three
^ timesi natural size (original).
their capture being in the early (original).
morning or late in the evening, as they are apt to be active, taking
wing readily, in the heat of the day.
A certain measure of relief should be obtained by the free use of
kerosene emulsion, which will at least kill the younger nymphs.
Some of the remedies in use against the striped cucumber beetle-'
and other insect enemies of cucurbits will assist in the control of this
species when it occurs on cucurbits. Among these are the protection
of young plants with coverings; the use of repellents, such as land
plaster or gypsum, saturated with kerosene or turpentine; the plant-
ing of an excess of seed to distribute attack; the stimulation of the
growth of the plant by manures or other proper fertilizer; and, lastly,
clean cultural practice. If. as soon as. the crop is harvested, the vines
be gathered and burned, many bugs in their different stages will be
destroyed and the crop of insects will be reduced for the ensuing year.
With a knowledge of the natural wild food plant or plants of this
species, we might be able to control it in the same manner as sug-
gested for its congener, L. phyllvpus, which feeds normally upon
thistles. This matter is considered on page 48 of Bulletin No. 19,
present series.
aSee Circular No. 31, 2d ser., The Striped Cucumber Beetle, pp. 4-7.






26


THE CARROT RUST FLY.
(Psi!,, osi Fab.)
This imported pest. which has been noted as injurious to carrots in
Canada since 1885, made its appearance during the season of 1901 in
New York, and did considerable injury.
November 14 and 19, 1901, Mr. James Granger, Broadalbin, N. Y.,
sent specimens of the inmaggoot which proved, on rearing, to be this
specie and which he found at work in a celery field during the sum-
mer. The larval seemed to begin eating into the thick part of the root
when the plant was about half grown, stunting it so as to make it
worthless for market. About 6,000 plants had been ruined during the
season, and traces of the ravages of the maggot were found all over a
field containing 60,000 plants.
It is to be regretted that the rearing and subsequent identification
of the species was made so late in the season that it was impossible to
make any biological observations. The importance of the species as a
pest in Europe and its prospective increase and injuriousness in this
country are such. however, that it is deemed advisable to present at
this time what is known concerning the insect and its life history. All
that has been hitherto published on its occurrence in America is from
the pen of Dr. James Fletcher, Dominion entomologist of Canada.
Attack on carrots is not difficult of recognition. The leaves of the
young plants early in the spring turn reddish, and the roots are found
to be blotched with rusty patches, particularly toward their tips. The
roots when stored for winter, although not always manifesting any
degree of injury on the outer surface, may at times he perforated in
all directions by dirty brownish burrows, from which the whitish or
yellowish larva, may be found sometimes projecting.

DESCRIPTIVE.

This species is quite minute, the adult or parent fly measuring only
about one-sixth of an inch (4mm) in length, with a wing expanse of
a little more than three-tenths of an inch (8mm). The color of the
body is dark green, described by some authors as black, and it is
rather sparsely clothed with yellow hairs. The head and legs are pale
yellow, and the eyes are black. The general appearance of the two
sexes is shown at S and 9 respectively (fig. 6). It will be noted that
the male abdomen is rounded at the apex, while that of the female is
prolonged into a rather acute point. A more detailed description
is given by Curtis.
Th/e l-,r,'f, about half grown, is figured at.' g. It is paler than the
more mature larva. The full-grown larwa resembles rather closely
that of the cheese maggot, to which this species is nearly related, but
is much darker in color, being rather dark brown, with the segments






27


well marked, the head, as is usual with related maggots, being minute.
-while the posterior extremity is truncate. The general appearance is
shown at b, the spiracles at c, and the anal segment at 7. The length
Sof the mature larva is a little less than three-tenths of an inch (7mm).
Thepupariunum (e) is of about the same color as the larva, and the
anterior portion is obliquely truncate, recalling the appearance of
the anal segment of the Scolytidi or bark-beetles. The length is
nearly one-fifth of an inch (4.5mmn).








P6
a g










FIoG. 6.-PPseia rosr: d',. male fly; 9. female fly. lateral view: a. antenna of male: b. full-grown larva.
lateral view: c. spiracles of same: d, anal extremity from tlh unl: e. pupatriu1 : .(, young larva:
g, anal segment from side-flies, young and mature larva, and pupariun. right times natural size';
other portions more enlarged (original 1.

According to Curtis, when the imago issues from the pupariumni an
oval lid on this portion lifts up. permitting the fly to crawl out. The
posterior extremity ends in two minute and not l)promilnent dark
tubercles.
DISTRIBUTION.
The carrot rust fly is a pest in England and Germany and probably
elsewhere on the continent of Europe. It was originally described
from Kilia, in Bessarabia. Just when it was first introduced in this
country does not appear to be known, but ravages were not apparent
until 1885, and until the present year the species seems to have been
confined to Canada, although we have in the National Museum a single
specimen received from Mrs. A. T. Slosson, labelled Franconia, N. H.
New York is apparently, therefore, an unrecorded locality and celery
a new food plant. It frequently happens that a species introduced
from one country into another, particularly from the Old World into
America, assumes new habits and acquires new tastes as regards food.
The localities in which the species has been observed in Canada will be
mentioned further on.
From the known distribution of the carrot rust fly it would seem
probable that this species will not be troublesome far southward, its






28


establishment in Canada for at least eighteen years indicating its
adaptability to a cold climate. It will perhaps not extend farther
south than the Upper Austral life area, and for a number of years at
least would be most injurious in the more northern portion of that
zone and in the Transition. There is little doubt that it will in time
spread westward, and may some day become a pest in the celery fields
of Micehigan.
OCCURRENCE IN CANADA.
The first record of the occurrence of the carrot rust fly in America
appears to be that published by Dr. Fletcher, who, as already remarked,
has written all that has hitherto been known of the occurrence of this
species on this continent. In 1885 carrots purchased in the market at
Ottawa were seen to be much mined by small white maggots, which
proved by rearing to be the carrot fly (Rpt. Ent., Dept. Agr., Can.,
1885, p. 15). In 18S6 Dr. Fletcher found young plants of carrot
in a garden at Ottawa badly attacked in the spring. The same year
a great deal of damage was done, particularly to roots stored for
the winter. Mr. F. B. C'taulfield, an entomologist of Montreal,
reported that in February, 1887, nearly all the carrots that he had
S( (exposed for sale were more or less attacked. At Nepean, On-
tario, early 'arrots were badly attacked, nearly every root showing
signs of the insect's presence, two-thirds of tlhe crop being seriously
injured for the market (Rpt. Ent. and Bot., Exp. Farms, Dom. of
Can., for 1887 [1888], p. 21).
In 1897 the species was; reported a- occasioning complaints during
the previous ten or twelve years, chiefly in the Province of New
Brunswick, but also in Ontario and Quebec. Attack is described as
being a serious one, carrots stored for winter use ,beingr rendered use-
less for the table from the discolored burrows of the numerous mag-
gots which sometimes occur in a single root.
In 1895 a correspondent at Rothsay, Kings County. N. B., whose
crop had suffered severely from the ravages of this insect, noticed that
late sown carrots were less injured than those sown at the ordinary
tine. Late planting has since been recommended and adopted with
considerable success (I. c. for 1897 [181-s], pp. 19 -19S). Specific men-
tion is made of injury at Upper Sackville. Brookville, and Clifton,
N. B. In the first locality injury was noticed in 1894 and 1895, at
Brookville in 1895, and at Clifton for several years. In the last local-
ity few carrots were raised of late years on account of this pest."
The following year (I. c. for 1898 [1899], pp. 193-194) specific injury
to carrots at Noulton and Ste. Marie, Quebec, was noticed.
EUROPEAN LITERATURE OF THE INSECT.
The original description of the carrot rust fly, by Fabricius, ap-
peared in 1792 (Entomologica Systemnatica. Vol. IV, p. 356) and






29


:: under the name of MJhsca rooe, the specific name evidently being sug-
Sgested by the capture of the mature fly upon a rose bush, but this is
not explained in the text, which reads "Habitat in Kilie floribu.s."
SIn subsequent years the species was redescribed by Fallen, Meigen,
Macquart, and Zetterstedt, and in 1834 Bouche (Naturgeschichte der
Insekten, pp. 97, 98) gave some account of its habits. In 1837 a popu-
lar account was published by Vincent Kollar (Schidliche Insekten, p.
168). Kollar's account is translated in the London edition published
in 1840 (pp. 160, 161) the insect being referred to as the "negro fly."
The same year John Curtis published, in Farm Insects (pp. 404-407),
a still more extensive article with illustrations and descriptions of all
stages. Accounts also appeared in subsequent years by Miss E. A.
Ormerod (Manual of Injurious Insects and other publications), by
Taschenberg, and others. It is probably this fly which Joshua Major
mentions in his "Treatise on the Insects most Prevalent on Fruit
Trees and Garden Produce," published in London in 1829. On page
183 he states, under the head of carrots, that "the greatest pest to this
plant is a small white larva of a small fly (I,(llydi..mus CoGhplanatwfv)".
Hie furnishes the information that moist weather appears to be the most
productive of the depredations of this species, stating that under such
atmospheric conditions it is not uncommon to see whole and exten-
sive crops laid waste and rendered useless, by their perforating and
defacing the Carrot from one end to the other, which effect gives rise
to the common term canker, which gardeners have so much to com-
plain of in this vegetable." On page 199 he also refers to this species
as "grub (Pollydismu. Cojnplinatu.)-See on Carrots." He adds that
he can suggest nothing for the destruction of the pest since the mag-
gots are so deeply fortified in the plants which they attack that noth-
ing can be applied that will reach them without destroying the plants.
He, however, recommends rotation with crops not affected by this
species, and avoiding plots that have had carrots the year before.
Zetterstedt quotes Dahlbom (Dipt. Scand., Vol. VI., p. 2403) as
having reared this species from larvae at the roots of turnip (Brassica
rapa), and rape (B. aifpwti).
HABITS OF THE SPECIES.
The life history of the carrot rust fly does not appear to have been
worked out. What we know is from the authors that have been quoted.
The writer is inclined to believe that in the United States the species
will be found to pass the winter usually as a puparium. possibly
occasionally also as a larva; but as larvae work also on carrots in store
Sthe flies will develop in winter, as happened in the writer's laboratory,
which is kept unusually cool for a working room and still cooler at
night during the colder months. Hence we have great irregularity
of development, making generalization impossible until we have an






30


opportunity to make observations in the field. As the larvae go deep
into the ground up)Onl the approach of cold weather it is quite probable
that they may Nhe able to survive as such.
In any case, the insect develops rather early in the season. Attack
begins with young carrots which turn of a rusty color, and upon
examination the roots will be seen to be disfigured with rusty patches,
more especially toward the tips. Both flies and maggots are found
throughout the warmer months. but the latter desert the roots for
pupation in the earth, the last generation probably descending much
deeper into the earth than the earlier ones. According to Curtis the
sullllmmer generations develop in three or four weeks. No one appears
to have surmised how many generations are produced. There must
be at least two, and probal)ly Nmore. Miss Ormerod states that the fly
goes down into the ground for oviposition where she can find a crack
or other opening about the roots of the carrot (or other food plant
aIffected), and the, maggots when hatched work their way into the roots;
when this is (quite small they often destroy the lower portion.

NATURAL ENEMIES AND ASSOCIATES.
Curti- found a species of parasitic four-winged fly which he described
as i..1.; ,,'; (Farm Insects. p. 42()). and which he presumed was a
parasite of this species and connected with its ecoonomy.
PoJuly iJmiiti/s ijp1 the roots, which have been previously perforated by the maggots of
this species. -omnetimes congregating in such vast numbers that he sup-
posed that it was this creature which was reported to have devoured
carrots by the acre in Scotland in 1S31. This is a European milli-
pede several times rel)orted to be introduced in this country," and
it is sometimes accompnl)anied by a centipede known as Scolopendra
J,1't'ir'i, said to assist in depredations.
Prof. 0. F. Cook, who is our best American authority on the Myriapoda, informs
the writer that, although this species lhas been recorded as occurring in the United
States, it has not yet been positively recognized on this continent, he having never
secln spe.inens. It seems probable that notwithstanding the fact that this insect
must have been broui-ht to this country in potted plants and in earth perhaps thou-
sani's of tithes, it has, for some unknown reason, failed to gain a permanent foothold.
In response to the inquiry of the writer as to whether any of the Myriapoda, better
known as thousand-lce,.ed wormns, millipedes, etc., were capable of original damage
to plant tissue, Professor Cook stated that their mouth-parts were not formed either
for biting or chewing, and that they were only capable of eroding or scraping dis-
e.a.ed tissue, and, to some extent, soft, delicate plants. In this way, however, they
can do occa-i,,nal da niage by constantly scraping plant growth like the tubers of
potatoes affevteul with sc.aib and -iimilar diseases, and young, delicate plants that might
recover if they were not attacked.








METHODS OF CONTROL.
As with other species which feed beneath the surface of the ground,
the carrot rust fly is a difficult one to reach with insecticides. Our
Principal dependence is therefore based upon methods of tillage which
Swill serve to avert attack.
M Kerosene emulsion prepared in the proportion of one part to ten of
Water and sprayed upon the carrots along the rows with a knapsack
:& or other sprayer, or sand, land plaster, or ashes, with which kerosene
Shas been mixed at the rate of half a pint to 3 gallons, sprinkled along
t the rows, are (with the exception of crude carbolic acid at the rate of
I half a pint in 5 gallons) about the only applications which have been
Made with good results. In Canada, according to Dr. Fletcher, one or
the other of these applications should be made once a week through
June from the time the roots begin to form, and particularly after the
rows have been thinned.
Late sowing has also been practiced to great advantage, several per-
sons attesting its value.
Rotationm of crops should always be practiced in the case of such
species as the present one, and this means the planting of a new bed
: each year as far as possible from land infested the previous season.
Many of those who have complained of injuries have admitted planting
carrots on the same ground year after year, and some have testified to
the value of rotation.
Destruction of the insects in stored carrots. -Where carrots are
stored for winter use in ea'th this should be treated to destroy the
larvae or puparia which leave the roots to enter the soil for transfor-
mation. This may be accomplished in several ways: (1) By burying
the earth deeply; (2) by spreading it in thin layers where it will be
exposed to the elements; (3) where possible, by throwing it into pools
where it will -be frozen; or (4) by exposing it to heat or steam in any
manner which may be most convenient.
Treatment of the insect in celery beds.-Now that we know that this
t insect also infests celery, it is obvious .that celery should not follow
carrots nor carrots celery in rotation. Clean cultivation should be
practiced, which means the destruction of all remnants after the celery
crop has been harvested, and if the insect is found to destroy celery in
store in the same manner as carrots, the earth, after the larve have
entered it, should be treated in the same manner as described above.
After harvesting, it would be a good plan to give the celery fields a
light raking or cultivating of sufficient depth to expose the larvae
or puparia that they may be destroyed by frost; early the following
Spring, before the flies have time to issue, if the earth be plowed
Deeply, it will, with little doubt, have the effect of destroying most
of the insects; and such as have not been killed by frost and survive





32


cultivating and raking would be buried so deeply under the ground
by the spring plowing that they would not be able to effect their
escape.
THE CARROT BEETLE.
(Ligyrnis gibbosus Dej.)
A very common beetle along the Atlantic coast from Long Island to
the Gulf States, and at many points inland, has been reported as the
,t use of injury to carrots and other root crops, and to some other plants.
It first attracted attention from its injury to sunflower and has been
given the name of sunflower beetle; but as its record shows it to be the
worst insect enemy to carrot and parsnip known in the United States
at present, the name of carrot beetle is suggested as more appropriate.
It is somewhat of a general feeder, and, as we learn more of its habits,
we will doubtless find that it will, on occasion, attack many other plants
than those which will be specified.
During the year 1900 it was destructive to corn in Louisiana and
Mississippi, and the following year to sunflower in Illinois and to root
crops in Indiana.
DESCRIPTION.
The beflle (fig. 7).-From three other species of Ligyrus, gibbosus
can be distinguished without much difficulty. It is of robust form,
like rughama,, the Pacific coast form, and relictts, but from both
it may be known by its much smaller size. It
,i Hmeasures between one-half and five-eights of an
inch in length, and its width is more than half
the length. The surface of the elytra is strongly
6 sculptured and coarsely punctate, characters
Which will distinguish this genus from Lachnos-
Sterna. The color varies from reddish brown to
nearly black on the dorsal surface. The lower
surface is reddish brown, and the legs, which are
still brighter colored, are clothed with reddish-
FIG. 7.-L-c,,,,,, gibh,,,s: yellow hairs. The remaining species, rugiceps,
beetle-about twice nat- is restricted to the South, and is narrower than
ural size (4,rigill). the others, with a different facies.
The species may further be distinguished from ryginasuts (with which
it ag(rees- in having the thorax impressed in front, and with a small
tubercle, and in having the anterior tibie tridentate) by the structure
of the clypeus which is bidentate or two-toothed, the clypeus in rugi-
rfi. ., being unidentate or single-toothed.
The ,gg is of the.-usual scarabvid appearance, when recently laid
measuring 1.70mm in length and 1.45 mm in diameter, but when ready to
hatch the length is about 2.30 mm and the diameter 2.20 mm. In almost
every respect the egg is a counterpart of that of Lachnosterna, which






33


was described by the writer in Bulletin No. 19 of the present series
(p. 75). It is perfectly snow-white with just a perceptible luster when
laid, but becomes grayer when near the hatching time. The larva and
pupa have never been described, to the writer's knowledge.

DISTRIBUTION.
The list of localities in which Ligyris gibbosis has been observed.
and by which it is represented in most cases in the National Museum,
includes territory from Long Island to California and Oregon, as well
as the Gulf States. It indicates a very wide distribution, but so far as
we know at present the species does not occur in the Northern States
in the Transition or even in the more northern portions of the Upper
Austral life zones. For example, although it is extremely abundant
about the city of New York, it does not occur in the central portion of
the State. A list of known localities follows:
New York, Staten Island, Long Island, N. Y.; in New Jersey at Trevose, Brigan-
tine, and Highlands, and "throughout the State, but much more common along the
shore at light" (Smith); Pennsylvania; Maryland; Cobb's Island, Pennington Gap,
Fortress Monroe, and Virginia Beach, Va.; District of Columbia; Keokuk, Iowa;
Thomson, Ill.; Purdue and Chesterton, Ind.; Moody, Ark.; Topeka, Riley County,
Onaga, and Atchison, Kans.; St. James and Glencoe, Nebr.; Capron and Crescent
City, Fla.; Craig, Miss.; San Diego, Plainview, Rock Hill, and Gainesville, Tex.; Salt
Lake, Utah; Las Cruces, Albuquerque, Mesilla Valley, and Water Canon, N. Mex.;
Yuma and Wilcox, Ariz.; Bayou La Fourche, Mer Rouge, and Ville Platte, La.;
Grand Rapids, Wis.; Pueblo, Colo.; Los Angeles, Kern County, and southern Cali-
fornia; Hood River, and Dalles, Oreg.

RECENT INJURIOUS AND OTHER UNRECORDED OCCURRENCES.
April 21, 1900, Mr. Rene L. Derouen, Ville Platte, La., sent speci-
mens of this insect with the report that the species was concerned in
the destruction of the corn crop of that vicinity. The beetles were
described as cutting the corn just above the roots. The previous
year's crop was lost through its depredations, and fear was expressed
that the country might suffer very much indeed through the ravages
of this pest. Mr. James Lambeth, Craig, Miss., sent specimens, with
the information that many of these insects were to be found in a corn-
field about an inch deep in the ground.
During 1901 we received in June specimens of the beetle, with
information from Prof. W. G. Johnson, associate editor American
Agriculturist, that this species was found injuring the roots of sun-
flower and sweet potato at Thomson, Carroll County, 111. October 10
we received specimens of beetles eating the roots of celery, carrots,
and parsnips, and sent by Mr. F. J. Dickinson, Chesterton, Ind. He
stated that the carrot crop appeared to be in good condition, judging
from the tops, but when the plants were pulled it was seen that the
roots were full of little holes. The beetles appeared to work entirely
23987-No. 33-02--3






34


under ground, and our correspondent stated that they had ruined the
carrot and celery crop that fall. December 5, Mr. Dickinson again
wrote in regard to investigations which he had conducted at the
writer's request. He succeeded in ascertaining that carrots, at least
in that locality, were the chosen food of the beetles, but celery and
sweet potatoes were greatly damaged. Of parsnips an occasional
root was found that had been eaten into, but not to seriously damage
it. Celery was greatly injured by the beetles' gnawing into the roots
so that the plants were killed and dwarfed, sometimes so badly that
the crop was practically worthless for market. One-half of Mr. Dick-
inson's sweet potatoes were not marketable on account of the holes
made by these beetles.

LITERATURE AND RECORDED INJURIES BY THE SPECIES.
The first account which the writer finds of injuries by the carrot
beetle was published in the report of the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture for 1880 (p. 274). About the middle of August of that year
specimens were received from St. James, Nebr., where it was
reported at the roots of sunflower plants of sickly appearance, from 5
to 25 of the beetles to each plant. They had eaten the bark from the
root and scored long grooves in the wood. The larve were found in
the same situation doing apparently the same work. Later in the fall
of the same year a correspondent at Glencoe, Nebr., wrote that
this species often nearly exterminated wild sunflower by working at
its roots. He had also observed it on cultivated sunflower and dahlia.
June 4 of the same, year we received from Mr. D. Donaldson, Rock
Hill, Bexar County. Tex., a lot of larvae of this species-which were
.sul)sequently reared to adults-with the report that the species was
doing much damage to potatoes. Of this lot, one changed to pupa
June 14 and others June 16, the beetles issuing June 28 and July 1,
respectively, It will thus be seen that the pupal condition for this
season required about fourteen or fifteen days. Pupation took place
in an oval cavity in the earth formed by the rolling and twisting of
the larva. September 16 Mr. J. H. Wayland, Plainview, Tex., sent
beetles with the report that they were numerous and doing much
damage to shrubs and vegetables of different kinds by working upon
their roots, first cutting small roots and afterwards the tops. From 1
to 50 beetles could be found in the ground around the roots of single
vegetables, weeds, and small shrubs.
It is plain from the above that injuries must have been quite exten-
sive in the year 1880.
In September, 1889, Mr. F. M. Webster reported the occurrence
of this species in destructive numbers on carrot at Purdue, Ind.
The carrots were found to be gnawed to the depth of 2 or 3 inches,
the cavities thus formed being large and irregular. Injuries con-







35


tinued during that month and October and up to the 6th of December.
(Insect Life, Vol. I, p. 382). During the year 1890 Liqyrus gibbosus
was reported by Professor Bruner as having been quite destructive to
the sugar beet over limited areas toward the western part of the State
of Nebraska. It attacked the roots, into which the mature insects
gnawed great holes, sometimes entirely embedding themselves. They
worked for the most part on old ground and where irrigation was
practiced. The work upon the roots extended from the surface to a
considerable depth, but was most apparent at about 3 or 4 inches below
the surface. In some instances it reached a depth of fully 7 inches
(Bul. 23, o. s., p. 17). In 1894 Mr. Webster again reported this
species to be destroying sunflowers by eating the roots, the beetles
going from hill to hill to continue their depredations. This occur-
rence took place in Indiana, as before, in St. Joseph County (Insect
Life, Vol. VII, p. 206; Ohio Farmer, July 5, 1894, p. 17).
In Bulletin No. 36 of the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment
Station, by H. E. Weed (Nov., 1895, pp. 156, 157), an interesting
note is published on the occurrence of this species in Mississippi. The
injury by the beetles is described as somewhat resembling that of corn
billbugs. When a stalk of corn is attacked it presents a wilted
appearance, but after a few days of favorable weather it may recover.
An excellent illustration of the cause of attack is given, well worth
repeating, in Mr. Weed's own language.
In June of this year many reports were received from Adams County of damage
being done by these beetles and we were at a loss as to how toaccount for the injury.
Upon investigation, however, we found the following to be the situation: The beetles
were doing damage only in a limited locality, and had done the most damage upon
a plantation where some 3,000 head of cattle were pastured last year. The land was
not plowed until spring and the corn was planted immediately afterwards. These
facts explained the whole matter. The beetles were attracted to the pasture last
year by the droppings of the cattle and had deposited their eggs in the grass. The
larve fed on the roots of the grass last season and changed into mature beetles just
before the ground was broken. The corn immediately after was attacked by tlhe
beetles, as it was the only vegetation on the land. If the land had not been broken
up the beetles would probably have fed on the grass and deposited their eggs as
usual.
The substance of this report of injury is repeated in the eighth
annual report of the same station (p. 71).
A short general account of this species is given by Messrs. Forbes
and Hart in Bulletin No. 60 of the University of Illinois Agricultural
Experiment Station (p. 152), which includes an original illustration of
the beetle.
SOME DIVISIONAL RECORDS OF ATTACK.

May 9, 1898, Mr. Geo. Davenport, Mer Rouge, La., mailed speci-
mens of this beetle with the report that, although there were few of
this insect in corn in that vicinity the previous year, during 1898 they






36


were very numerous. The beetles went down under the surface of the
earth and completely shredded the cornstalk between the surface and
the roots. They were described as playing havoc with stands of
corn in that region. September 19, of the same year, Mr. B. M.
Vaughn, Grand Rapids, Wis., sent specimens of the beetle working in
carrot tops and in tubers of dahlia.
During 1899, Mr. J. P. Baker, Moody, Drew County, Ark., sent
specimens of beetles, June 3, reporting that they were cutting late
plantings of small corn and cotton, as many as 7 or 8 being found on
a single plant. Older growth of these crops seemed exempt from
attack, evidently owing to their firmer, more woody texture. August
2., Dr. W. H. Ridge, Trevose, Pa., sent specimens of the beetle,
stating that they had been destroying great quantities of carrots by
boring down and eating the roots off, leaving the ground full of holes.

SUMMARY OF FOOD AND OTHER IIABITS.
Our knowledge of the life economy of the carrot beetle is still incom-
plete. It would appear that in many resl)ects it closely resembles the
brown fruit-chafer (Euporia ;'nclda Liun.), which has been treated in
Bulletin No. 19 (n. s.), pages 67-74. Larval injury has been noted,
but there is little doubt that the grubs feed also on humus, manure, and
decomposing roots and tap roots of herbaceous plants. The writer has
observed larva' feeding in earth where there was no opportunity for
plant attack. Most cases of reported injury have been due to the oper-
ations of the beetles, and damage is more pronounced on young plants
than on older growth, the latter appearing, in some cases at least, to
be exempt from attack, owing to their firmer and more woody texture.
Injury may be accomplished both by hibernated individuals in the
spring from April to June, according to locality, and by recently
transformed specimens in late summer and in autumn.
Like the fruit-chafer again, the species is with little doubt single-
brooded. Eggs have been observed by the writer June S from which
larvae hatched ten days later. Pupation takes place in an oval cavity
in the earth, formed by the rolling and twisting of the grub within,
as in the case of allied insects; and the observed pupal period is about
fourteen or fifteen days in the warm weather of late June and early
July. As these observations were made on material received from
Texas, it seems probable that farther north, as, for example, along the
coast of New Jersey and Long Island, pupation taking place at a later
period requires a longer time. Hibernation, without much doubt,
occurs in the adult condition. The favorite food of the beetle is evi-
dently carrot, and after this corn in the Southern States; elsewhere
parsiiip and celery appear to be chosen. Sweet potato and Irish potato
are subject to much damage. Sunflower and dahlia are to be included
as food plants, and sugar beet is sometimes injured, as is also cotton.






37


SThe writer has found the beetles in numbers about the roots of pig-
weed (Ambrosia), and other persons have noticed them about weeds.
Although the species is rather unusually periodical in injurious attack,
it is obviously capable of doing much damage in years when it develops
in great numbers.
NATURAL ENEMIES AND METHODS OF CONTROL.
One bird, the chuck-will's-widow, is recorded as having fed on the
beetles of Liqyru/gibboswQ at Gainesville, Tex. (Ins. Life, Vol. 11, p.189).
It is to be regretted that when this insect is present in large num-
bers in cultivated fields there is little, owing to its manner of working,
that can be accomplished in the line of control. About the only thing
that can be done is to trap the beetles at night by means of stationary
lanterns and pans of water placed below the lanterns, on which is float-
ing a thin scum of kerosene. The lanterns should be stationed at
intervals about the field, particularly around the borders. The beetles
are strongly attracted to electric lights, but it is not certain that they
could be lured from the fields after beginning to feed.
A correspondent reports that by scattering lime through infested
fields the beetles have been apparently driven away. It is possible
that this or some other similar substance might have a deterrent effect,
but it is rather doubtful.
After the crop has been harvested, if the insects continue in numbers
in the ground, either in the adult, larval, or pupal stage, it would be
profitable to turn in hogs, which soon find and root up such insects
from the ground. Chickens also learn to follow the plow after these
and similar insects. Crop rotation should also be practiced.

THE BEET ARMY WORM.
(Laphygma e.rigua Hbn.)
Simultaneously with the occurrence of the fall army worm (La-
phygmafrugqpenra) in the eastern United States in such unusual and
destructive numbers in 1899, as previously reported by the writer
(Bul. 29, n. s., pp. 5-46), a similar outbreak of a related species known
in American literature as Laphygnmaflaviimaculata Harv. occurred in
Colorado and New Mexico. The outbreak in Colorado has been men-
tioned by Prof. C. P. Gillette in several publications, but no compre-
hensive account of the species has yet been published, and recent
studies of literature show that there is such a strong possibility of this
species becoming a serious pest eastward that it becomes a practical
necessity to bring together all that we know about it. All that has
been published in regard to its food habits and ravages in America are
from the observations of Professor Gillette, but through the kindness
of Dr. H. G. Dyar, of the National Museum, I have been referred to
numerous articles on this species going to show that it is widely dis-





38


tribute and cosmopolitan, although in the United States restricted to
an area considerably west of the Mississippi Valley.
Although this insect is obviously of foreign origin, there is proba-
bility of its some time migrating in the same manner as did the
Colorado potato beetle in the late sixties and early seventies; and it is
nearly equally possible that this insect may become as great a foe to the
culture of the sugar and garden beet, as well as to other vegetables,
as the Colorado beetle has been to the potato, though this may not
happen in the near future. It does not confine itself to foliage, hut
after devouring this eats off the crown of a plant and then the roots.
DESCRIPTIVE.
This species, as might be expected from their relationship, is similar
to the fall army, worm in all
"\ /. notstages, but the resemblance is
not close.
The moth (fig. 8, a) resem-
M y bles more nearly the plain gray
form of Z. frufiperda, but
.- m i> .^ the fore-wings are broader and
B paler, the reniform and other
t i. spots as well as mottlings are
1 ^ more distinct, but the hind-
d. ^ y*^ ^ wings differ very slightly, the
> Q, ~veins, particularly the central
--- --7I--i' '"t))) ones, being a little more dis-
m tinct. The body is of similar
coo utaltlemr1sedr
FIG. 8.-LI,,J,1,,n, exigua: a, ,nth: b, larva, lateral color, but a little more slender.
view; c, larva, dorsal view; d, head of larva; e, egg, The wing expanse is less than
viewed from above; f, egg, from side-all enlarged an inch and one-fourth.
(a-d, original; e, f, after Hofmann).
A technical description is
furnished by Hampson (Fauna of British India, Moths, Vol. II, p.
259), which is quoted herewith:
Pale ochreous brown. Fore-wing with the subbasal, ante-, and post-medial double
liie:- indistinct; the orbicular small and round, pale or ochreous; the reniformin usually
hl.s. prominent, witli ochreous or dark center; the submarginal line pale, angled below
the (co.sta, and with some slight dark streaks before it at middle; a marginal series of
lark specks. Hind-wing semtihyaline opalescent white; the veins and outer margin
tinged with ftiscuis.
Tie eggs are also similar, being ribbed as in the case of most Noctuid
moths, but according to the figure and description furnished by
Hofmainn, they differ by being pyramidal, something unusual in the
Noctuidwe. The general appearance of the egg is shown in the illus-
tration at e and f. It will be noticed that the upper third has the
:Ippeaarance of being surmounted by a cap, and this portion is separated
from the lower two-thirds by a white ring.






S39


F The larva.-The few specimens of the larva available for description
are small or not quite mature, the longest measuring less than an inch
and one-fourth, and with much narrower head than that of the fall army
Sworm. The ground color in life is greenish or olivaceous, but this
Does not show in inflated and alcoholic specimens. The lateral stripe,
however, is strongly suggestive of frugiperda, although the surface is
not marked by the large tubercles present in the latter species. The
head is mottled dark brown, with V-mark well indicated; the thoracic
plate scarcely different from the abdominal seg-
ments save in bearing piliferous warts, while the J "A
remainder of the body, with the exception of the i- -
head, which is strongly marked with dark brown f H
undulating lines, is faintly clothed, only a few wl
FIG. 9.-Laphygma erigua:
extremely short hairs appearing at intervals. Below enlarged section of first
the lateral stripe the surface near the spiracles is proleg segment, dorsal
pinkish. The larva is shown, lateral view, at b, and v oigial).
dorsal view at c, figure 8; an enlarged section of the first proleg
segment of the larva is illustrated in figure 9.
Through the kindness of Messrs. Coquillett and Dyar, the follow-
ing more technical descriptions of the larva are furnished:
The young larva.-The young ones are pale green with a whitish dorsal, subdorsal,
and stigmatal line, spiracles white, ringed with black, the head dark brown. Later
in life the head becomes green dotted with blackish and the coloring of the body
differs considerably in the depth of the coloring even among the different individuals
of the same brood and in the same stage of development. In some the ground color
is light green, in others the suprastigmal space varies from dark green to almost
black.
When first hatched the larvae spin a web about them and live gregariously for
several days, after which they disperse and live separately without any protection.
[D. W. Coquillett.]
The mature larva.-Head round, oblique, apex in joint 2; sordid luteous with a
few white flecks on the vertices of the lobes; width about 2mm. Body cylindrical,
equal, normal, joint 12 scarcely enlarged. Cervical shield smoky or green, cut by
three sordid white lines. Green or olivaceous in darker larvae. A straight subdorsal
line a shade paler than the ground color, and a straight broad substigmatal one of the
same color but broadly green, filled so as to appear only at the edges, or else in
the dark form, blotched in dull red centrally on the segments. Between these lines
the lateral space is gray to black, strongly dotted with whitish. Dorsum dotted
and lined confusedly in green or blackish, heaviest centrally, defining a narrow
obscure pale dorsal line. A bright white speck on tubercle iv, which is at the upper
corner of the spiracle. Subventral region pale, mottled in whitish. Feet normal,
green, the thoracic ones brown shaded. [H. G. Dyar.]
THE QUESTION OF NOMENCLATURE.
Considering the cosmopolitan distribution of this species, the question of nomen-
clature becomes important. In Smith's list of Lepidoptera of Boreal America pub-
lished in 1891 (p. 47) the insect is recorded as Caradrina flavimacidulata Harv. In its
larval as well as adult stage, and in its habits, however, it bears so close a resem-
blance to the fall army worm (Laphygma jrugiperda) that it is obvious that the





40


two species belong in one genus. Sir G. F. Hampson in his Fauna of British India
(Moths, Vol. II, p. 259), mentions this species as C(radrin,1 exigiia Hbn., giving a
rather long list of synonyils, of which COJN'dri,(i flAUi-imu1 hala Harv. is one. He
mentions it in Fauna Ilawaiiensis (Vol. I, pt. 2, Macrolepidop)tera, p. 153) as Spodop-
fiet e.xigut Hbn., again giving fliriinueiihila Harv. as a synonym. In Staudinger
and Rebel's "Catalog der Lepidiqpteren," published in 1901 (p. 195), the species is
referred back to the genus Caradrina, with remarks on synonomy and distribution.
DISTRIBUTION.
There can be no doubt that the beet army worm has been introduced,
probably originally on the Pacific coast, and has thence made its way
eastward to eastern Colorado and New Mexico. With the possible
exception of two army worms, the common army worm apd the fall
army worm (both of which may have been introduced originally many
years ago from South and Central America), all of the cutworms which
are most destructive and assume the army-worm habit in seasons of
unusual abundance are of foreign origin. There are no species posi-
tively known to be native which migrate in numbers.
In accepting the opinion of European authorities, Meyrick, Stau-
dinger, and Rebel, as to the identity of this insect with the European
uwrfdi'lia, (8Spodopt, ,1a) ,'.ryqa Hbn., we must also adopt the credited
distribution which shows it to be truly cosmopolitan. Its range thus
includes middle and southern Europe, England and its near-by insular
possessions, Borkum, Mauritius, Madeira, Canary Islands, Africa, Asia
Minor, Syria, Armenia, Japan, China (?), India, Australia, and the
Hawaiian Islands.
Harvey described this species in 1876 from material from Oregon
and California (Can. Ent., Vol. VIII, p. 54). So far as the writer is
aware, however, it has never occasioned injury on the Pacific coast,
which is not a little singular, considering the fact that its favorite
food plant, sugar beet, is extensively cultivated in portions of Cali-
fornia, and that the insect was doubtless introduced there even before
1876. As to its origin, nothing appears to have been surmised. It is
doubtless like so many pests, oriental, and perhaps came from India
or Australia by way of Hawaii to California.
From present knowledge of its distribution it is obviously capable
of flourishing in both the Lower and Upper Austral life zones, and
of doing injury even in the Transition, but it may be that it agrees
with its congener, the fall army worm, in being better adapted to the
Lower Austral zone.
A single specimen was captured in northern Sonora, Mexico (Biol.
Centr.-Amer. Lepidoptera Heterocera, Vol. I, 1900. p. 280).
We have little definite information regarding the region of North
America which this species inhabits. The list of localities includes
Oregon; Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and other points in California;
Fort Collins, Palisades, Delta, Grand Junction, and Montrose, Colo.;






41


SRoswell, Mesilla Valley, and Carlsbad, N. Mex. Both the Col-
jr orado and New Mexico localities are east of the Rocky Mountain
range, and it appears to be only a matter of time when this species
will succeed in invading the great sugar-beet regions of Nebraska;
perhaps in time it will also travel farther eastward and become a pest
in the Eastern States. It does not seem, however, that there is any
immediate danger of general spread as in the case of the Colorado
beetle; first, because the insect is a general feeder capable of thriving
on plants belonging to several botanical orders, and hence does not
need to migrate for food; and second, because the migration of the
Colorado beetle is something almost unprecedented in entomological
history; third, because according to present evidence the insect is
Lower Austral and perhaps Tropical in origin, while the sugar beet
grows best in the Upper Austral or Transition zones. From observa-
tions of Professor Gillette it is obvious also that this insect, like the
fall army worm, although it may invade the Upper Austral area, is
not apt to survive severe winters; hence, if it becomes introduced very
far northward its ravages will without doubt be sporadic and depend-
ent upon the occurrence of winters sufficiently mild to favor its
hibernation.
PROBABLE METHOD OF SPREAD.

As previously surmised, this species has doubtless come to our shores
from Australia, India, or somewhere else in the Orient, possibly via
the Sandwich Islands, and originally through the "Golden Gate," Los
Angeles, or at some intermediate point on the California coast. If it
was introduced in the northern portion of California, it drifted south-
ward, as would any other species of semitropical or Lower Austral
origin (which zones we conclude must have been the original home of
the insect). From southern California its distribution eastward was a
matter of easy accomplishment, by short flights of the moths aided by
favoring winds through Arizona, possibly extreme northern Mexico,
and New Mexico, where few high mountains barred its course, to Colo-
rado, where, according to available data, its further spread appears to
have ceased.
In some respects this introduction has been accomplished in what we
may surmise was the manner of establishment of certain other injur-
ious insects, examples of which are the potato tuber worm (Gelechia
operculella) and perhaps the imported cabbage web-worm (Iellidla
undahis), both of which inhabit California. They probably originated
in the Orient, and evidently followed a similar course, with this differ-
ence, however, that as one feeds in the tubers of potatoes and the other
in the heads of cabbage, and both are small species, it is more likely
that they were introduced in part by "commercial jumps," which
accounts for their being found farther east throughout the South. Both





42

have spread to the Atlantic seaboard, the former occurring in North
Carolina. arid the latter in South Carolina. Neither (so far as records
show) has invaded Colorado.

ECONOMIC LITERATURE.

The first account that the writer finds of injury by this species in
America is entitled "The Sugar-Beet Caterpillar," and was issued as
Special Press Bulletin, dated August 19, 1899, of the Colorado Agri-
cu1ltur!l Experiment Station, C. P. Gillette being the author. Injury
in the vicinity of Palestine, Graod Junction, and Fruita is specially
mentioned, and some facts on the insect's occurrence are also given,
the main portion of the bulletin, however, being devoted to the discus-
sion of remedies. In Press Bulletin No. 3, from the same station and
author, a similar account appears.
During the same year also the writer mentioned furnished for Bul-
letin No. 26, n. s., of the Division of Entomology, an account of this
species and its occurrence during 1899, adding as localities infested
Delta. Montrose, and Rockyford. From this it appears that although
beets were principally devoured, the caterpillars also attacked potato,
which in some cases. suffered badly, as also small fruit trees where
beets were planted in orchards.
In a report of the same writer (12th Report Agl. Expt. Sta. of Colo-
rado for 1899-1900, p. 39) similar injury is cited, the estimate being
made that two or three hundred acres of beets were completely ruined
in three localities during August. The insect matured in enormous
numbers, and was noted to be passing the winter as a moth.
The same writer published in the 22d Annual Report of the State
Board of Agriculture of Colorado some additional facts in regard to this
insect's life economy (pp. 128-129). This account states that the species
disappeared as suddenly in 1900 as it had appeared the preceding sea-
son. Since parasitism was not especially noticeable, it was surmised
that the insect failed, although for no assignable reason, to properly
survive the winter. Three new food plants were added to the list
previously furnished, including lambsquarter (Chenopodium), Russian
thistle, and saltbush (Atriplex). Mr. E. D. Ball observed that the
moths were flying abundantly about the middle of May; caterpillars
began hatching the first week in June, and by the middle of that
month were abundant. Their ravages were worst on earliest planted
beets, late plantings suffering injury only when near weeds or patches
of early beets. Thousands of the worms were seen migrating, and
they were found to travel two or three feet a minute.
In "The Economic Entomology of the Sugar Beet" (Bul. No. 60,
Exp. Sta. Univ. Ill.), by Messrs. Forbes and Hart, an account of this
species also appears in which some new facts are given. These






43


include wild sunflower, Cleome, pea, and leaves of apple as food plants,
1the data having been derived from observations communicated by Pro-
.fessor Gillette. It is stated that this species evidently hibernates as a
Smooth, and at least two generations of larva? may be expected each
I year-the first about June, and the second in August.
SA similar account to the last is given by Prof. E. D. Sanderson in
"Insects Injurious to Staple Crops," page 262.
An account of this species and its habits, as occurring in Europe,
was given in 1893 by Dr. Ernst Hofmann in "Die Raupen der Gross-
Schmetterlinge Europas," page 109. This includes a characterization
of the genus and descriptions of all stages, with figures of the egg and
larva.
The following synonymical list is furnished by Hampson (Fauna
British India, Moths, Vol. II, 1894, p. 259):
Caradrina orbicularis, Wlk. Cat. x, p. 294.
Caradrina venosa, Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii, p. 7; C. & S., no. 2115.
Spodoptera cilium, Guen. Noct. i, p. 156; C. & S., no. 2117.
Spodoptera insulsa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 648.
Spodoptera erica, Butl. P. Z. S., 1880, p. 675.
Laphygma cycloides, Guen. Noct. i, p. 157.
Laphygma macra, Guen. Noct. i, p. 157.
Laphygma? caradrinoides, Wlk. Cat. ix, p. 190.
Caradrina flaviniaculata, Harv., Grote, New Check-list, p. 30.
Caradrina insignata, C. & S., no. 2112 (nwe Wlk.).
Huebner's description appeared some time in the early part of the
century in Sammlung europitischer Schmetterlinge, Noct. fig. 362.
This publication, however, is not available at the present writing, and
the exact date of its issuance can not be determined.
RECENT DIVISIONAL REPORTS OF INJURY.
The first intimation that the "writer had of the occurrence of the
beet army worm in injurious numbers in this country was received
through Prof. J. B. Smith, who wrote in February, 1900, that it had
been reported by Professor Gillette as destructive in Colorado during
Stheseason of 1899. In response to inquiry, Professor Gillette wrote that
there had been a considerable outbreak in Colorado during that sum-
mer, and prior to that season only three specimens of the insect had
been present in the college collection. The caterpillars were very
abundant during August at Grand Junction, Palisades, Delta, and
Montrose, and specimens of the insect were also received from Rocky-
ford, where they were reported to depredate on beets. Hundreds
of acres of beets were not harvested because of the ravages of this
X species in the region about Grand Junction.
It was noticed that but little destruction of the last brood by insect
.N enemies was observed, and that the moths appeared during the latter
Part of August and September in prodigious numbers.





44


"The moths spend the winter evidently in hibernation, since exam-
ination of the ovaries of many of the females appearing in the fall
failed to show the ova developed in any case.
During the same season Mr. Vernon Bailey, of the Biological Sur-
vey of this Department, observed this beet army worm in large num-
bers on the foliage of young sugar beets in a field near Eddy, now-
Carlsbad, N. Mex. According to Mr. Bailey's notes (which were
accompanied by specimens), the first occurrence was noted June 19,
1899, and the larvae were doing much damage to sugar beets in the
Pe(os Valley near Roswell and Eddy. Extensive areas, including in
some cases entire fields, were destroyed, necessitating replanting and
sometimes the abandoning of the crops. The crop of that region was
generally injured. Mr. Bailey informs the writer that a sugar-beet
factory started at Eddy has since been put out of operation, and sugar
beets have been raised there since only to a limited extent for feeding
stock. The cultivated portion of the valley lies mainly in the Lower
Sonoran life zone, but is so near the Upper Sonoran zone as to have a
mixture of the species from the latter.
During the summer of 1901 Mr. A. N. Caudell, of this office, spent
some time in the collection of insects in portions of Colorado, and
gathered some material found injurious to cultivated crops. Among
this was the beet army worm, all stages of which were found on sugar
beet at Palisades, Mesa County, and at Delta. At the latter place
larvw were captured also on table beet, although they did not occur
on this variety of the plant in injurious numbers.
In a letter dated February 4, 1902, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell fur-
nishes the writer the information that this species, which he listed on
pare 35 of Bulletin No. 24 of the New Mexico Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, as occurring in Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, had been
reared by him from the larva depredating on cultivated onion.

EARLIER RECORDS.

The first record that appears to have been made. unpublished hith-
erto, however, was by Mr. D. WV. Coquillett, when employed as
field agent of this Division in California. May 25, 18s2. he found the
larva at Anaheim. Cal. The following day the larva, spun their
cocoons, and moths began issuing on the 14th of the following month.
At the latter date more lar\iw were found, of all sizes, feeding on
corn, (7ChoWpo,;1,1,, (Al1,i and A.martntl,., 'tr<,el.cqx. Some of the
largest were placed in rearing cages, and June 22 crept beneath the
litter in the cages and spun very thin cocoons. The moths issued
the second week in July. An extended search for Iarva? was made in
the field July 8, but without success. November 5 still other larvae
were found in the above-mentioned locality feeding on a species of






45


mallow (Malva borealis,). Some of thcse began spinning their cocoons
three days later, and by November 14 all had spun up. Two produced
moths Pecember 12. October 24, 1886, a larva was found at Los
Angeles, Cal., feeding on Nicotiana glauca. This produced a moth
November 21. Two years later, February 18, Mr. Coquillett captured
a moth much worn.
The above notes are of particular interest as showing new food plants
and as verifying Professor Gillette's observations on the hibernation
of the species in the adult condition.
We would naturally expect a somewhat different life history as
regards dates of appearance and disappearance in localities in south-
ern California, so different from that of Colorado. According to Mr.
Coquillett's observations, moths were rare in April, but became abun-
dant the latter part of May and during June. Adopting the hypoth-
esis, if it can be called such, that hibernation takes place as moth, some
moths must appear in early April in order to produce mature larv'? as
early as May 25. With the somewhat incomplete notes on actual field
observations, it would appear that this species, like many other Noc-
tuids, such as common species of cutworms, has a spring brood and a
late autumn brood, but differs from most cutworms in the stage of
hibernation. Between the first and second generations there is evi-
dently a very long season of estivation or complete quietude passed
under the around when the larva does not feed.

SUMMARY OF FOOD PLANTS.

As with other larva that frequently or occasionally migrate in num-
b)ers, the beet army worm is liable to attack most forms of vegetation
in its line of march. Sugar beet appears to be the favorite host plant,
but table beets are also relished, and the larvae feed quite as well on
lambsquarters (Chenopodium) and pigweed (Amaranthus). They also
attack saltbush or saltweed (Atriplex), all plants rather closely related
to beets. When ntumerous they affect corn, potato, pea, onion, wild
sunflower, the leaves of apple, mallow (Malva), Nicotiana qlawta,
Cleome, and plantain (Meyrick). They are also said to feed on wild
grasses.
NATURAL ENEMIES.

A single enemy appears to be recorded for the beet army worm, a
Tachina fly, reared at this office May 29, 1897, from a caterpillar
received May 17 of that year from Mr. S. A. Pease, San Bernardino,
Cal. This is Frontina archippivora Will., a rather common species on
the Pacific coast, although it occurs eastward also. It is a parasite of
Agrotis ypsilon, a destructive cutworm, as well as of other moths and
some butterflies (Tech. Ser., No. 7, Div. Ent., p. 15).






46


METHODS OF CONTROL.
Several remedies were tried in Colorado during the year of greatest
infestation there with satisfactory results. These included Paris green
and kerosene emulsion. Both killed the insects, checking their num-
bers for the following year. Paris green was applied in the form of a
spray and dry, mixed with flour. Used with flour it cost about 80
cents an acre. Two sprayings with the liquid preparation were found
to )e most effectual.
When this species occurs in fairly injurious numbers the remedies
that have been specified should 1)e sufficient. When it is unduly abun-
dant, however, army-worm remedies should be applied. The latter
form of remedies is discussed in Bulletin No. 29 (n. s.), a copy of
which will be furnished to anyone desiring it.

NOTES ON WEBWORMS.
During the las-t two years three species of webworms that occur in
gardens and do inmore or less injury to various crops have been reported
as the cause of damage in various parts of our country. These are the
garden webworm, )eet webworm, and imported cabbage worm, each of
which will be considered under a separate heading.

THE GARDEN WEBWORM.
( Luj.ro.xff',' sin 1ialis (4uen. ) a
The reported injurious abundance of the garden webworm during
the year 19(.) in localities in three different States indicate that this
species was somewhat generally destructive in that region that year.
It is rather singular that, although the insect is widely distributed, real
injuries by it appear to be confined to the States bordering the Missis-
sil)pi River in the South. Some of the notes given show that it has
even a longer list of food I)lants than have yet been credited to it.
May 14, 119m). Mr. J. D. Mitchell, Victoria, Tex.. reported this web-
wormn as abIundlanit in his vicinity, where it was known locally as the
grass worm., a name which it shares with the better-known grass worm
or fall armnly worm1 (Lap/yqIta tfraftje'da). Its favorite food in that
a In early works this species has been generally referred to Eniryrcun rantialis Guen.,
and nmw to Plidl{ta iwdet'.s'iiiiaihlis Gn. The following synonymy is credited by Sir
G. F. Ianips-on (Pr. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 210, 1899), in addition to eight names
bes,-towed by Walker:
Phi I,'f'hr'ods x similalis Guen. Delt. & Pyr., p. 405.
Nylup/,iia rantalis Guen. Delt. & Pyr., 405.
Boi s piirafii Grote and Rob. Trant.. Am. Ent. Soc., 1, p. 22, pl. 2, f. 25.
Ei/,I'rre i communnis Grote. Can. Ent., ix, p. 105.
K1n/r,11<'I,; ,,.'I un fa. Pack. Ann. N. Y. Lye., x, p. 260.
The list of Walker's nanies includes-: Ebulee' murclld.s, B,,ft s licea uis, B. siriusalis,
S,',,iil, nttfu.i.is, crii-sali.,, fthio6nli.s, and diutimeal s, and NcpJioplerix intractella.






47


Slocality, according to our correspondent's observations, appears to con-
sist in the finer and softer forms of grasses, such as buffalo, crab, and
joint grasses. In some seasons the caterpillars did great damage in
patches. In ordinary years they were found here, as elsewhere,
S"worming" the so-called "careless weed" (Amaranthus spp.), par-
ticularly in cotton fields. When other foods failed the larvte attacked
young cotton, but if the field was kept clean and well cultivated it was
not injured. June 13 Mr. W. J. Patton, Springdale, Washington
County, Ark., gave information that the moths were found everywhere
in field and orchard in prodigious numbers, and that the greatest appre-
hension was felt lest the larvae which would develop from the eggs
deposited by the moths would do great damage. July 24 Prof. H. A.
Morgan, Baton Rouge, La., wrote that this wehworm was a pest upon
cotton and alfalfa in the northern portion of his State.
In the three instances of injury that have been cited communications
were accompanied by specimens.
The larva at maturity is somewhat variable in color, but such indi-
viduals as have come under the writer's notice from different sources
are usually dull pale green above and dull greenish yellow on the lower
surface. The dorsal surface is strongly marked with large shining jet-
black piliferous spots, more or less distinctly relieved by a paler border,
and there is a median double pale line in well-marked individuals and
a lateral single whitish line, while below this line the piliferous spots
are lighter. The head is dull gray, niottled with brown. The hairs
proceeding from the tubercles are mostly single and black; some are
in pairs, and those of the dorsal surface are surrounded by a small
area of white, and of the ventral surface by a much larger area. Just
before transformation larv'a become paler yellow. The length when
full grown is a little less than an inch (21-23",n).

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BEET WEBWORM.
(Loxostegc s ticlicalis Linn. ) a
For some reason writers on this species, which is shown in fig. 10,
appear to have overlooked the fact that it is not native, but intro-
duced from abroad, presumably on the Pacific coast, whence it has
found its way eastward to Colorado and Nebraska. From specimens in
aThe following synonymy has been indicated by Hampson (Proc. Zool. Soc.
Lond., 1899, p. 211):
Phlyctanodes sticticalis Linn. Faun. Suec., 1354.
Pyralisfuscalis Hiibn. Pyr. f., 45.
Pyralis tetragonalis Haw. Lep. Brit., p. 385.
Pyralis lupuidina Cl. Icon., pl. ix, f. 4.
The species is mentioned by Kaltenbach as Botys sticticalis Linn., and Meyrick
(Handb. Brit. Lep., 1895, p. 418) preserves the better-known name of Loxostege
sticticalis Linn.






48


the Natioilal Museumi it zeemnis that the insect was collected at Palmer,
Utah, in July, 1869, which is evidence that it must have-been intro-
duced many years earlier. In 1873 it was found in central Missouri.
It has been taken by Messrs. Dyar and Caudell in Denver, Salida, and
Sedalia, Colo., by Cockerell on the top of the range between Sapola
and Pecos rivers in New Mexico at about 11,000 feet elevation. It is
also recorded from Winnipeg, Manitoba, as well as from several
localities in Nebraska, Kansas, and Michigan. It does not appear to
have been observed in Illinois, although search has doubtless been
made for it .on sugar beets cultivated in that State. Dr. Dyar, in a
note to the writer, generalizes that the species is rather common
throughout the Rocky Mountain range.
Meyrick records this species as inhabiting England, Ireland, western
and central Europe, and northern Asia, as well as North America,
and mentions its occurrence on the upper side of the leaves of Arte-
s i ia vuilgari. and camp.j&trLs. Kaltenbach also records Artemisia as a
food plant.









b al
FIG. 10.-LuoJr.4,71 sticticalis: a, moth, twice natural size; b, larva, less enlarged: c. upper surface of
first proleg segment of larva; d, side view of same, c, d, more enlarged (reengraved after Insect
Life).
There seems no reasonable doubt that we have another case of
introduction from Asia into the Pacific States of this country, analo-
gous to that of the beet army worm treated in preceding pages. There
is this difference, however, that the present species was introduced
many years earlier, has a much wider range, and is capable of sustain-
ing life in several zones, from the Lower Austral, perhaps to the
Transition. There is no doubt about the establishment of the species
in the Colorado localities, but larve do not appear to have been
observed in the localities mentioned in New Mexico and Manitoba,
which are obviously transitional.

THE IMPORTED CABBAGE WEBWORM.
( tellula idllqs Fab.)
Up to November 19, 1900, only one complaint of injury effected by
the imported cabbage webworm reached this office. It was, however,
reported from a new locality in Georgia by Mr. H. Walter McWilliams,






S49

.. Griffin, in a letter dated November 15. He stated that this insect
had been very destructive during the season. December 1 he sent
*specimens, and stated that the insect had cost some of his neigh-
b ors several hundred dollars, the larvae having simply eaten the buds
from all the ruta-bagas and turnips in the settlement, causing the
I plants to rot and fail to develop roots. May 7, 1900, Mr. J. H.
SHeard, Montreal, Ga., wrote that this webworm had made its appear-
ance in his vicinity the previous year.
During 1901 Mr. W. M. Scott, State entomologist, Atlanta, Ga.,
wrote, July 1, that this species was still prevalent in southern Georgia.
During 1900 it appeared in injurious numbers at Augusta, Tifton,
SAlbany, Marshallville, Fort Valley, and Meansville, its occurrence in
these localities indicating that it was generally distributed throughout
the southern part of that State. A Mr. Long, Leesburg, Ga., had
informed Mr. Scott that only the week before writing this webworm
had practically precluded the possibility of growing late cruciferous
vegetables in that section. In 1900 his crop of late turnips was
I entirely destroyed by this pest as if by fire. October 38 Mr. H. Walter
7: McWilliams reported this species still present at Griffin, Ga., and
U likely to remain. It devoured cabbage, ruta-baga, turnip, rape, etc.
: He had tried several mixtures, but without any noticeable good effects.
SNovember 9 Miss Blanche Dix sent larvae of this species from Beech
I Island, S. C. In an earlier letter she referred to having observed this
Species present on cruciferous crop plants in that locality.
THE RED TURNIP BEETLE.
(Entomoscelis adonidis Pall.)
In a letter dated March 9, 1900, Mr. Percy B. Gregson, Waghorn,
Alberta, Northwest Territory, wrote that this species was very abun-
dant in several districts in his vicinity, and that even so late as Octo-
ber, 1899, he had letters from farmers complaining of it. June 29 our
correspondent sent specimens of the beetles noticed in coitiLat the time
of gathering them, and when they reached this office July 9, eggs
were found in the soil in which they had been packed. In 1901 this
insect was also troublesome in the same region.
This species is occasionally troublesome through its ravages on tur-
nip, cabbage, and other crucifers in the Northwest. Up to date, how-
ever, it has attracted little or no attention in the United States,
receiving frequent mention, however, in different Canadian publica-
tions, chiefly by Dr. James Fletcher, in his annual reports as Entom-
'ologist and Botanist of the Dominion of Canada.
DESCRIPTIVE.
The beetle.-The adult of this insect, as its common name would indi-
cate, is red; at first glance nearly scarlet. The under surface of the
.23987-No. 33-02---4





50


body is black, as are also the eyes, legs, and antenna. The dorsal sur-
face is mostly red, with the middle portion of the thorax black. The
elytra are ornamented with three stripes, a rather narrow sutural one,
and a shorter black stripe on each side, about midway between the
sutuire and the margins. (See fig. 11.) The punctation of the elytra
is dense and rather fine. The form of the body is elongate oval. The
length is about one-fourth inch or longer. The species belongs to a
genus represented by several forms in Europe, but it is the sole rep-
resentative of its genus in this country. Zoologically, Entomoscelis
is placed near Chrysomela; hence this insect is a relative of the Colo-
rado potato beetle (Chrysomela [Doryphora] deceinli'eata). It is char-
acterized by having a long metasternum and closed front coxal cavities,
having the tibiae gradually but not strongly dilated at the apices, the
outer face deeply concave, the distal edge
S / obtusely angulated, and the claws simple.
SThe ,'gg is ellipticalin form, twice or a little
More than twice as long as wide at its greatest
diameter, deep blood-red in color, and finely
p hexagonally granulated, the areas being just
discernable with a one-fourth-inch hand lens.
Length, 1.50 to 1.60m; width, 0.75 to 0.80mm.
De / ;ie a has been fully described by Doctor
Fletcher and others, who will be quoted.
r When first hatched it is orange, with black
FIG. 11.-Entomoscelis adonidis- spots, but turns black in twenty-four hours.
much fiii argud (original). , i 3 'L 4
much ergId (original) t is then wedge-shaped, and measures about
2mm in length. It undergoes two molts. In the second stage it meas-
ure 3.25mm when not extended. The body is now slug-shaped, flat-
tened below and rounded above; not narrowed at the thorax, as is the
case with the larva of the Colorado potato beetle. In the third stage
the larva measures about 5Pm, and does not differ materially from
the second stage. When fully mature the larva reaches a length
of about one-half an inch (12mm).
T e pupa is bright orange in color, the wing, antennal, and leg
cases, honey-yellow, the first mentioned bearing each three longitudinal
striae.
DISTRIBUTION.
This species is common to North America, Europe, and Asia, and
evidently belongs to what is known as the circumpolar fauna; in other
words, it is not of recent introduction, but is native to the boreal
regions of both the old and new world.
According to Doctor Hamilton (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXI, 1894, p. 397), it. is
to be found everywlhere through the Rocky Mountains at 8,000 to 11,000 feet eleva-
tion (Bowilitch). A more exact list of localities includes Montana, Hesterburg's
Law., Colorado (Cockerell); British Columbia; Fort Simpson and Mackenzie River,
A1a-ka (Leconte); the Hudson Bay region, Minnedosa, Elkhorn, Brandon, and








SLorlie, Manitoba; Alberta, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Grenfell, Pheasant Forks, and Regina,
Northwest Territory. According to Fletcher, it is rare toward the eastern and
western limits of its range. The foreign distribution comprises southern Europe,
including France, Austria, Germany, Roumania, Western and Eastern Siberia to
Turkestan.
DIVISIONAL RECORDS.
Writing December 1; 1900, Mr. Gregson .stated that immediately
after the receipt of the writer's letter, dated August 22., bhe paid a
visit to the farm where Swede turnips were being injured by this
species. Many of the beetles were still feeding, and he succeeded in
securing a number of eggs, as many of the individuals captured were
in copulation. About this time the weather turned very cold, snow
falling to a depth of many inches, with an extremely low temperature
for September, the result being that none of the eggs hatched. The
eggs obtained by the writer at Washington during the extremely hot
weather also failed to hatch.
These observations are in uniformity with those made by M. Lesne
in Roumania and Dr. Fletcher and his correspondents in the North-
west Territory of Canada, conclusively showing that eggs do not
hatch until the following spring.
According to Mr. Greg.-on's observations, the eggs are never found
on growing foliage. They are deposited invariably under d(lead leaves
and in similar rubbish on the ground, or under a small clod of earth
or other shelter about the roots of turnip or other food plant. The
larve appear to attack plants chiefly at night.
Writing August 15, 1900, our correspondent stated that hlie had
recently left a district very badly infested with this species. One of
the farmers whose crop was inspected had just planted out his third
lot of young cabbages, and had also resown his turnips three times,
each crop having been destroyed by this pest, larvae and beetles of
which were at work.
September 6, 1901, Mr. Gregson stated that he had kept careful
watch for this species during the year, and had made special visits to
farms where in ordinary years he had always reckoned on finding plenty
of the beetles. He had also received letters from different farmers
who had been on the lookout for this species, but the insect had appar-
*ently entirely disappeared, at least temporarily, from that portion of
Alberta, Northwest Territory. It is probable that atmospheric condi-
tions have been responsible for the insect's nonappearance during the
year. In that vicinity an unprecedentedly wet year was experienced in
1900, and a still wetter spring and summer followed in 1901. Assuming
that this has been prejudicial to the beetles, it is quite evident that this
species is largely dependent upon the weather for its multiplication,
and that it prefers dry weather. This statement is borne out by M.
Lesne, who writes that "droughts favor its multiplication while cold
and rainy weather greatly retard it." Had it appeared in consider-
able numbers, Mr. Gregson writes he would certainly have heard of it.





52


HISTORY AND LITERATURE.
E ,,m,.'(.Jf i,,,,,idL was given its specific name by Pallas in 1771
(Reisen durch versch. Prov. des Russ. Reiches, etc., Vols. I, 2, p. 463),
the description appearing under the genus Chrysomela. It has also
been placed in the genus Phwdon (Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am.) and was
described by Fabricius as tri;,,n Kfinstler, Koppen, Weise, Tm)niaOsvary, Lesne, and other European
writers have furnished descriptions of the larva. (See Rupertsberger
Biol. Lit. KIifer Europas von 1880 an. etc., 1894, p. 259.)
Rape (Br(tx.;ea vij),s, CochlIcaria d,('ulia, butter-bur (Petas'ites peta-
.;/,.s [uft /'i;, .,], and Adonis auitiudis have been recorded as food
plants by European authors, as also thistle and barley (Korn).
Of recent publications the reader is referred to Erichson's Naturge-
schichte der Insecten Deutchlands (Vol. VI, p. 310-312) and Lesne in
the Annales de la Soc iete Entominologiques de France for 1890 (Vol. VI,
pp. 177-179, figs. 1-9), for technical descriptions and bibliography,
as also to Dr. Fletcher's works, which will presently be mentioned.
M. Lesne's article is accompanied by an illustration of the larva.
What appears to be the first instance of attack by the red turnip
beetle on cultivated plants in America was recorded by Dr. Fletcher
in his report as entomologist and botanist for the year 1887 (1888, p.
19). He states briefly that he collected this species on turnips at
Regina. Northwest Territory, in August, 1885. The beetles were
noticed to be sluggish in their habits, like the Colorado potato beetle,
and it was said that they did not occur in sufficient numbers to do
much injury, although they were sufficiently abundant to show that
with the increase in cultivation of its food plant the species might in
time develop into a troublesome pest.
In his report for 1891 (1892, p. 202), the same writer gives addi-
tional notes in regard to the occurrence of this species in Northwest
Territory and Manitoba. Extracts from correspondence are given
from six different localities showing attack on turnip, cal)bbage, and rad-
ish, it being noticed that rutabaga was very little troubled, provided
other more preferred crucifers were available. The choice food
plant appeared to be rough-leaved varieties of turnip in preference
to smooth-leaved varieties and some other plants.
In his report for the following year (pp. 152-155) Dr. Fletcher
gave a still longer account of this species, with extracts from corre-
spondence from several sources and detailed descriptions of the differ-
ent stages with references to European publications.
In 1893, according to the same writer's report for that year (1894,
p. 17), the species again attracted attention, it being noticed that the
beet, en made their first appearance according to Mr. Thomas Copland,
Saskatoon. Northwest Territory. June 17, and that the beetles fed






53


Supon a common cruciferous weed, the prairie wall flower (Erysimuim
parviflowrm).
Brief mention is made of this insect by Dr. Fletcher in the Trans-
Sactions of the Royal Society of Canada for 1899-1900 (vol. V, 2d ser.,
p. 212).
NATURAL HISTORY.
From the sources of information that have been furnished, it
appears that eggs are laid normally in autumn, although sometimes
earlier, and that the species hibernates in this stage. The larve
hatch in early spring long before cultivated crucifers appear above
ground. According to Dr. Fletcher, the larvm feed both in the day-
time and by night, and are comparatively active, although, as is well
known, the larvawe of the larger leaf-beetles are mostly rather sluggish.
When disturbed they drop from their food plant.
The beetles seem to make their first appearance in the Northwest
STerritories during July and August, and do their worst injury through-
Sout September, continuing in the field in some instances as late as
SOctober. The occurrence of the beetles in the latter part of June, as
noted by Mr. Gregson, at Waghorn, is perhaps rather exceptional.
Eggs are laid in clusters, loosely fastened together in the same
manner as those of the Colorado potato beetle, and are deposited
under clods or in cracks in the soil in similar locations.
Larvae have been noticed to bury themselves in the earth to a depth
of about an inch, and to change at once, in small smooth cavities, to
pupae.
REMEDIES.
The measures to be employed for the destruction of this turnip
beetle are practically the same as those used against the Colorado
potato beetle. Paris green is the best of these, and may be applied
dry, mixed with from ten to twenty parts of cheap or spoiled flour,
fine plaster, or air-slaked lime; or as a spray, mixed with lime or
Bordeaux mixture at the rate of a quarter of a pound of the Paris
green to 40 gallons of the diluent. In order to insure success, where
the insect abounds in great numbers the wild food plants of the insect
should also be treated.
Hand-picking or jarring the beetles from infested plants into pans
or other receptacles containing a little water on which a thin scum of
kerosene is floating may also be employed. It follows, as a matter of
course, that rotation of crops is advisable; and the planting of crops
subject to the attack of this species, particularly crucifers, should be
Avoided in the vicinity of wild plants affected by the same species.





54


THE CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGE WORM.
p
( Piom'n rimoahis Guen. ) a
This destructive enemy of cabbage and other cruciferous crops,
after an apparently complete absence from the neighborhood of the
District of Columbia in 1899 made its appearance in great numbers
in May and June of 1900 in different fields of cabbage at Brookland,
D. C., and was found later in most gardens in which cabbages were
grown in near-by localities in the neighboring States of Maryland
and Virginia. In nearly every case that came under notice that year
the species was much more abundant on cabbage than the larva of the
common imported cabbage butterfly (tie'r. nYpfr), and it was noticed
that although it works in much the same manner as this latter species,
it dug still more deeply into the heads, and in many cases completely
destroyed cabbage by eating out the hearts while young and tender.
The insect continued to be the most destructive cabbage pest in this
vicinity until late August. when it was replaced by the cabbage looper,
and in some restricted localities and on other plants than cabbage-
horse-radish, for example-by the harlequin cabbage bug.
This species first became known as an enemy of cruciferous crops
over twenty years prior to the d(late of writing, but since that time has
not attracted the attention that would seem to be warranted by its man-
ner of attack. For some reason it does not seem to have multiplied
to any great extent during that time. except locally, until 1900. When
conditions favor its increase there is no reason why it should not take
rank as one of the foremost cabbage pests.

DESCRIPTIVE.
Tio ,,oth is pale ocher yellow in color, the fore-wings much suffused
with fuscous and brownish black, the pattern formed being about as
shown in fig. 12, a, subject to some variation. The hind-wings are
paler, nearly transparent except at the anterior angle, where they are
infuscated. There is also a row of five or six small, dusky spots
between the middle of each hind-wing and the inner border. The
wing expanse is about 1 inch (25"m), and the length of the body less
than half an inch (10m"11).
Til ,f/gs (fig. 12, b) are laid in masses, and, being flattened and over-
lapping like the scales of a fish, strongly resemble the masses deposited
by Tortricide. The outline of an individual eogg is rounded oval,
the longest diameter being 1.2" and the shortest diameter 0.9 to
1.0". The eggs are rather bright light yellow in color, and so thin that
the green of the leaf on which they are deposited can be seen through
aThis species lias been restored to the genius Evergestis by Sir G. F. Hampson
(Rev. Pyraustidae, Pt. II, Pr. Z. S. Lold., p. 1S6, 1899), anil the genus Pionea is
reserved for other species.






55


the middle, the yellow color showing strongest about the margins.
The sculpture is fine, but strong and very irregular, the areas showing
as irregular triangles, quadrangles, and pentagons (c). They are
usually deposited on the under surface of the leaf and in masses of
from one to two score, although smaller masses of from two to three
or five eggs are not uncommon.
The newly-hatched larva is nearly uniform gray in color, with small
black tubercles and no visible evidence of striation. The head is
round and prominent and nearly twice as wide as the body, and the
hairs of the body are sparse and about as long as the width of the head.
The full-grown larva.-The larva when mature is bluish-gray above,
with conspicuous transverse black stripes. The head is yellowish or
light brown, the thoracic plate mottled (fig. 12, d), and each segment
has three or more well-defined, nearly straight or curved, transverse
stripes. (On the second and third thoracic segments the first stria
curves forward between the anterior tubercles.) The dorsal tubercles,











ed
FIG. 12.-Pionea rimosalis: a, moth; b, egg mass: c, sculpture of egg: d, larva; e, cocoon-a, d, e, twice
natural size; b, much enlarged; c, more enlarged (original).
of which there are two pair of prominent ones in each segment, are
gray, partially encircled with black. There is a wide stigmatal line
of bright yellow extending from the second to the last segments, and
above each spiracle there is a large prominent black tubercle. The
ventral surface is green-, somewhat mottled with yellowish, and the
tubercles bear each a long, black hair about half as long as the width
of the body. In form the larva is subcylindrical, moderately slender,
about six times as long as wide, and the segments of the body show
strongly at the sides. The length of the mature larva is about six-
tenths of an inch, 15m' in repose, 17m"" when fully extended, and the
greatest diameter is about 2.Jm.
Thet pupa is of the usual pyraustid form, the wing-cases and head
dark brown and the abdomen light yellowish brown. "Head small,
rounded, with a slight transverse notch anteriorly; wing, antenna and
posterior leg-sheaths extending nearly to tip of fifth abdominal joint.
Abdominal joints with sutures plainly marked, the two terminal joints






56


closely welded together and forming a conical tip, at the extremity of
which are two very minute brown tubercles" (Riley). The length is
11 to 12"m, or a little less than half an inch.
The cO((oont.-Transfoirmation to pupa takes place in a cocoon formed
of earth and constructed near the surface. The appearance of a cocoon
is well illustrated at e of figure 12. The measurement is a little less
than five-eighths of an inch in length, and three-eighths of an inch in
diameter. The outer grains of sand are rather loosely held together,
but the interior is fairly substantial, the lining being of light-gray
color, nearly white.
DISTRIBUTION.
So far as the writer is aware, no comprehensive list of localities of
this species, or other data that give any idea of the insect's distribu-
tion, have ever been published. From material received at this office
and at the National Museum, and from reports of correspondents, the
following list of localities has been compiled:
Newark and Dover, Del.; Cabin John, Marshall Hall, and elsewhere in Maryland;
Cameron's Mills, Carterton, Chesterbrook, St. Elmo, and Alexandria, Va.; Brookland
and elsewhere in the District of Columbia; Lexington, Ky.; Springfield, Ohio;
Aurora and Lafayette, Ind.; Mount Juliet, Tenn.; Carbondale and Anna, Ill.; Raleigh,
N. C.; Montreal, Athens, Macon, and Storeville, Ga.; Alabama; Lone Star, Oxford,
and Agricultural College, Miss.; West Point, Nebr.
From the above list it would seem that the southern distribution of
this species and its southern origin are well established. The moth
has been recorded as occurring farther west and north, but injurious
occurrences are lacking, at least in reports of injuries sent to this
office. It seems, therefore, that the species attains its highest devel-
opment in the Lower Austral life zone, although occasionally it
invades the Upper Austral and even, perhaps, the Transition area.
This, however, is only temporary.

RECENT INJURY.
During 1899 we received this species from Mr. E. Dwight Sander-
son, at that time at Raleigh, N. C., September 18. They were found
in numbers on cabbage. July 28, Mr. S. S. Simms, Storeville, For-
syth County, Ga., sent this species, also found on cabbage. Septem-
ber 18, Mr. Thos. I. Todd, Athens, Ga., sent the species, with the
accompanying information that it did great damage that year feeding
in the buds and tender leaves of cabbage and turnip, and stated also
that it was known as "the-common webworm," in contradistinction to
the imported cabbage webworm (lelllla. undalis). He stated that
this species succumbed to Paris green and pyrethrum dusted upon the
plants, where the imported species did not.
In 1900, Mr. J. H. Heard, Montreal, Ga., sent this cabbage worm,
Jly 5, with information that it was concerned in attack on cabbage






57


....In that vicinity. We received, August 6, specimens of this species
K from Dr. E. K. Harding, Carterton, Va., where they were attacking
i cabbage.
NUMBER AND OCCURRENCE OF GENERATIONS.
SObservations conducted during the season of 1900 indicate the pres-
:i ence of four generations in the District of Columbia and vicinity.
From larvae obtained in the latter days of May and in early June inll
different fields of cabbage, in and near the District of Columbia, moths
were obtained during the last days of June and until July 6.
The second generation produced from the first of these moths and
placed in a rearing cage July 2, issued August 1, having passed all
stages in just thirty days, which will come very near to being the mini-
mum period for this latitude, since the heat was excessive during the
greater part of the month of July.
S The third generation began to appear in the rearing cages, on Sep-
t tember 1, from moths which issued August 1, or in thirty-one days,
Sthe temperature during that period, with the exception of a few days,
having been about the same as in July.
The fourth generation, as might naturally be expected, failed to
Develop in confinement, and it seems probable that this was the last
generation produced in the field. This was only apparent, however,
for after repeated failures to find the larva in the field, a colony was
Taken September 21 in a small head of cabbage. This last colony was
obtained on the Department grounds, and was evidently the progeny
h of moths which had purposely been liberated from our rearing jars, so
That it represents in all probability the normal fourth generation.
S It must not be supposed from the above that there is any such
regularity of development except in a single season and in a given
locality. At other times, from specimens gathered where the tem-
perature was somewhat different, moths were reared July 14; larvae
were obtained, nearly all mature, July 30. From other lots moths
have issued August 9 and 10. In one instance larvr were noticed to
mature August 20, and to develop as moths September 1, giving ten
days for the period occupied by the larva in the cocoon. Perhaps
two or three days elapsed before the larva? changed to chrysalides.
In still another case larva? were found to enter the earth August 29
and 30, and moths developed September 9, giving about the same
period as just mentioned.
SUMMARY OF LIFE HISTORY.
Observations conducted by the writer go to show that in many
Respects this cabbage worm, although the larva of a moth, conforms
I very closely in its life economy to the imported cabbage butterfly.
SIt is attacked by some of the same natural enemies, and appears to
Differ from the imported species only in unimportant details. Like





58


the imported worm, it makes its first appearance some time in April
in the vicinity of the District of Columbia.
The eggs hatch in six days in hot July weather, a longer time being
required in a cooler atmosphere. The stage passed in the cocoon in
warm weather has been observed to be ten days. Part of this time
the larve were probably quiescent. The exact pupal stage was not
observed, but probably varies from six days to considerably longer,
according to temperature. The period of the larva varies from two
to three weeks, and perhaps longer in cool weather.
NATURAL ENEMIES.
The cross-striped cabbage worm is subject to the attack of small
four-winged parasites of the genus Apanteles, and a few other natural
enemies, including wasps, destroy it.
Apitl .,con!/,',yath.? Say is recorded as having bred from material
received in 1880 from Mississippi (Report Comn. Agr.. 1883, p. 127).
A. ittX.d French was reared from material received from Lone Star,
Miss., October 17, 1879 (Ins.ect Life, Vol. III, p. 16).
A. xylina Say was reared from cocoons on and with its host by Dr.
A. D. Hopkins, Morgantown, W. Va., July 26. Of this latter occur-
rence, Dr. Hopkins (1. c., Vol. IV, p. 259) remarked: "This species
was found plentifully wherever the host was ol served. Gardeners
generally were destroying the cocoons, supposing they were the eggs
of the caterpillars."
A. 1af:';c from Athens, Ga.
A. (,dluedensis Ashm. was reared July 16, 1900, from larvae obtained
from Montreal, Ga., and sent to this office by Mr. J. H. Heard. Fully
half of the larve (a large number) were parasitized.
ifelflHUs ; n(Ifuator Riley MS., issued from material received from
Oxford, Miss., September 1880 (1. c., Vol. III, p. 59).

REME DIES.
In treating this species it should be borne in mind that "worms" of
other species as well as other cal)bbage pests are more often present than
otherwise.
Ari:., ;cd.x.-The best remedy is Paris green applied either dry or
wet, preferably, however, as a spray, at the rate of about one pound
of the poison to 150 gallons or a little less of water, and it should be
used when the plants are first set out, to insure its reaching the young
larvwe or caterpillars before they have burrowed far into the heads;
in other words, this poison should beapplied in the same manner as
for the imported cabbage worm, as the two species have much the same
habits. Other applications should follow frequently, as required, and
can be made with safety until the heads are about half formed, and






59


even later, as the poison, under ordinary circumstances, disappears from
the plants within three or four weeks after being applied.
Branmash.-A mixture of bran with Paris green, a standard remedy
for cutworms and grasshoppers, is, according to the testimony of those
who have used it, successful against cabbage worms. It is best to mix
the bran with water and sugar before adding the poison. The propor-
tions are two or three ounces of sugar or other sweetening, and a suffi-
cient amount of bran (about one pound to the gallon) to make, when
stirred, a mixture that will readily run through the fingers. This is
to be sprinkled either wet or dry upon affected plants.
Kerosene emulsioun has been used for many years against the imported
cabbage worm, but is not as efficient as the arsenicals, because it is
necessary for this spray to come into direct contact with the larwve,
in other words, to hit them in order to kill them.
Pyrethr-um has been used for some years as a remedy against the
common cabbage worm, and is of use against the present species. It
has the advantage of not being poisonous to human beings, but is said
by some cabbage growers to discolor the leaves, and if its use is not
continued at frequent intervals the larvae recover and continue their
destruction. It is therefore more expensive than the other remedies
that have been mentioned.
Mechanical method/w.-For small gardens where for any reason it
may be undesirable to use arsenicals hand-picking can be practiced and
is of especial value when the plants are first set out.
The corn-mneal remnedy.-Corn meal dusted on cabbage, according to
the testimony of Prof. Lawrence Bruner, causes the worms of the
imported cabbage butterfly to drop off and protects cabbage and other
crops until washed off by rains. It is advised to apply it in the morn-
ing while the dew is on. The meal acts as a deterrent.
Clean cultivation and trap crops.-If cooperation in clean farming
could be secured, together with the use of arsenicals, the losses due
to the ravages of this as well as other leaf-feeding pests of cabbage
might be largely averted. The practice of leaving cabbage stalks in
the field after the main crop has been secured is reprehensible. Rem-
nants should be gathered and destroyed, with exception of a few left
at regular intervals through a field as traps for the females for the
deposition of their eggs. These plants should be freely poisoned with
arsenicals, where feasible, so that the last generation will not develop.
Water as a remedy.-Washing the plants with a stiff stream from a
hose is of value where this can conveniently be done.
Hot water at a temperature of about 130 F. has been advised as a
remedy against cabbage worms. Applied at this temperature it does
practically no harm to plants and destroys all insects with which it
comes in contact.






60


THE CABBAGE LOOPER.
(Pl 'ia brassiccw Riley.)
The remarkable scarcity of this species during the entire spring,
summer, and autumn of 1899 has been mentioned in an earlier article
(Bul. 22, n. s., p. 59). It was, therefore, a cause of considerable sur-
priseto find larvae in abundance during the last week of November in
1900, the work of this species and Pieris rapw being quite noticeable
on the older leaves of cabbage. The finding of larvae only a quarter
grown showed that eggs had been deposited during the month.
Larvae were kept in a cool indoor temperature and fed freely on cab-
bage leaves. All but one, however, sickened and (lied within a week
after capture. The last larva of this lot died when full grown, Decem-
ber 11. Numerous larve, however, were still living in the fields where
this species was under observation, all of the living ones observed
being in first-class condition December 13. One larva was found less
thaii half grown, showing that eggs had been deposited about the last
week of November.
The cabbage looper is an unusually voracious species, developing
rapidly, and a single individual is capable of doing considerable dam-
age, as when at work on pea. On cabbage, while the larvaw are feeding
on the outer leaves, the plant can more readily withstand defoliation.
One looper was noticed to eat more than its own bulk each day.

DESCRIPTIVE.

The moth which produces this looper is of somewhat obscure appear-
ance, although its markings are fairly regular and constant.. The upper
wings are grayish brown, mottled with gray, whitish, and blackish.
Just on the inner side of the inner half of the wings there is a varia-
ble white mark, looking, particularly in the male, something like
the letter Y. The hind-wings are paler brown, with the latter half
more or less infuscated, and both wings are strongly scalloped, as shown
in the illustration. The veins of the hind-wings are rather strongly
defined. The lower surface is pale brown, and both the upper and
lower surfaces are shining. The wing expanse varies from about an
inch and one-eighth to an inch and three-eighths.
The egg.-The egg is silvery white in color, with no appearance of
iridescence, and as it rests upon a green leaf, the color of the leaf
showing through causes it to appear pale green. It is of the usual
semiglobular Noctuid form, the surface strongly marked with radiat-
ing vertical ribs, about forty-eight in number as counted from the
sides from which they project rather feebly but distinctly, and forty
as counted from above where some vanish. Cross strike are not dis-
tinct, but the spaces between the ribs are filled with rounded concave
areas.. The lower surface of attachment is nearly smooth and not
ribbed. The diameter is about 0.6)"'" ind the height 0.4'".






61


7wThe larva derives its name of looper from its habit of "looping"
Walking, due to the absence of legs on the sixth and seventh seg-
ents. It is from the first a pale-green, fragile-looking creature.
t varies considerably in color when mature; a large proportion of
cpeimens that have come under observation are darker green than
normal, and these are usually rather more strongly marked with the
hite lines shown in figure
S3 at c. Upon attaining full A
Maturity the longitudinal
white lines frequently disap-
ipear. In some individuals
also there are rounded spi-
;mYacular spots on the three
thoracie segments. b a
An immature larva is
shown in figure 14.
The cocoon and pupa.-
When the larva becomes full I
rown it constructs for
upation a remarkably fine,
White, gauzy cocoon, which
t usually attaches to the...
broad surface of a cabbage
eaf or other plant on which FIG. 13.-Ptasia brassier: a, male moth; b. egg shown
it has fed. Strictly speak- from above in upper figure and from side in lower;
g t i s p full-grown larva in natural position feeding; i, pupa
ring, this is seldom a perfect in cocoon just before development of moth-a, c, d,
.cOCOon, although some such about (me-third larger than natural size; b, more en-
S found, as it uses the larged (a, c, d, adapted from Howard; b, original).
.,.:.can be found, as it uses the
surface of the leaf for protection on one stde and the gauze on the
other. It seems probable that this is quite efficient against many of
its enemies; and it is in the larval stage that the insect usually suc-
cumbs to the numerous natural enemies which will presently be men-
tioned. The chrysalis varies somewhat in color, being rather pale for
a Noctuid, the wing-pads moderate brown, and the abdominal seg-
ments yellowish. The total length is a little less than three-fourths
of an inch. It is shown in its cocoon at d (fig. 13).
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE STAGES OF THE LARVA.
.7
Stage 1.-Head higher than wide, bilobed, mouth projecting, clypeus high, nearly
reaching vertex. Antennae long; free from joint 2, somewhat flattened; luteous
trown, the sutures of clypeus dark brown, area around mouth black, epistoma red-
Lish, antennae pale; width 0.25mm. Body slender, moniliform, smooth. Whitish,
Iranslucent, pale green from the blood. Abdominal feet on joints 9, 10, and 13. Cer-
Pical shield trapezoidal, black, small but distinct. Thoracic feet blackish, abdonm-
FalI ones grayish outwardly, no distinct shields. Joint 12 enlarged. Tubercles




..... ..*"v ..".

62

small but round and distinct, normal, no subprimaries. ia to iib on thorax sepa-
rate, iv of abdomen below the corner of the spiracle, halfway to v on joint 11. i:!
Stage II.-Head higher than wide, mouth broad projecting, squarish shallowly
bilobed, flattened before. Green, the broad sutures of the high clypeus blacka i;'.
width 0.451"". Large ocelli black, in a close semicircle, jaws reddish. Body slender, ::'
moniliform, joint 12 enlarged dorsally. Feet on joints 9, 10, and 13. Transhlue
green, a narrow white subdorsal (below tubercle ii) and stigmatal lines. Tupif
iii on joints 5 to 7 and less so on 8, enlarged, black. Others also black but indntt
Setae long, black, pointed; subprimaries present, normal. Feet all pale and Coneol0C 1
orous; no shields. I
Stage III.-Head high, flattened before, held obliquely, vertex against joint 2, cIt |::
peus two-thirds to vertex, the paraclypeal pieces broader than before and concoloroutt
with the head. Antennae moderate, blackish ringed. Green, ocelli black, whitish'
ringed, setae black; width 0.7"mm. Body humped up in the legless part; joint.121
slightly enlarged. Green, tubercles whitish with narrow black hair points, iii on"i
joints 5 to 7 somewhat larger and black, largest on joint 6, not very conspicuous. 'I
Fine, irregular white lines, viz, geminate dorsal, small and subobsolete, addorsal i
(above ii), subdorsal (below ii), and stigmatal somewhat broader than the others'I
yet narrow. Set.e blackish, rather long. Tubercles of joint 12 somewhat enlarged.:
Feet absent on joints 7 and 8. Thoracic feet brownish at tips. Spiracles pale, con-
colorous; tubercle iv below the stigmatal white line.J
Stage IV.-Head as before, green, ocelli black centered; width 1.2f Body slen-
der, joint 12 a little enlarged; feet on joints 9, 10, and 13. Cylindrical, inciBures a
little narrowed. Translucent green, the & sex glands in joint 9 large, pale yellow,







FIG. 14.-Plusia brassica'e: larva about half grown-somewhat enlarged.

conspicuous. White addorsal line narrow, a broader subdorsal (above ii, overi,
narrower lower subdorsal (below ii and near the subdorsal), narrow white stig-:
matal lines, all as before. Tubercles distinct, a little elevated, small, white, iii of'
joints 5 and 6 black. Feet concolorous, claspers and spiracles whitish; no shields.:.
Setae blackish, rather long. Tubercle iv behind the spiracle on joint 5, below the,
lower corner on 6 to 8, opposite the corner on 9 and 10, halfway to v on 11, at.
the lower corner on 12. Tubercles i and ii on joint 12 in a square. Lines irregularly!j
edged and broken at the extremities... ,I
Stage V-Head rounded squarish, slightly bilobed, flattened before, oblique,,fr
from joint 2. Translucent shining green, antennae and palpi yellowish, ocelli black;i.
width 1.8 to 2-11. Body normal, moderate, joint 12 enlarged dorsally. Green, Bno
shields marked with white lines. Addorsal narrow, crinkly; subdorsal (between`
i and ii) broader, upper lateral (below ii) and stigmatal narrow. Tubercles whit4J
iii of joints 5 to 7 black, but small and inconspicuous. Spiracles white, narrowly..:
black-rimmed. Feet green, the abdominal ones on joints 9, 10, and 13. Tuberel,
iv below the spiracle. Setae blackish but obscure. The larva occasionally comem
darker colored. The ground color is darker green, more transparent, especial
along the dorsal vessel and above the stigminatal line, making the lines more conej
trasted and whiter. Tubercles iii are black the whole length, largest on joints 6 to .
but plain on 5 to 12. Head brownish on the lobes.
(Larva had only 5 stages.) [H. G. DYA.] J:|






63


DISTRIBUTION.
Although the cabbage looper remained un(describ)ed until 187". and
there is no doubt that it is a native species, it hlas t iow becotlle widely
Distributed throughout that part of the United States lying east of the
Rocky Mountains, together with Utah, and from Maine to the Gulf.
It is probably of somewhat remote southern origin, and is much more
destructive in the southern portion of its range than in the most north-
ern, if we except a few localities like New Jersey and Long Island, where
it is periodically troublesome. We have no reports of destructive
occurrence in Maine, and it is possible that the species is recorded only
from fugitives there; and the same applies to soime other northern
localities which appear in our divisional records. The moth appears
to be a strong flyer, and has been recorded as far north as Winnipeg,
Manitoba (Hanham), from captures; but it does not seem probable
that injury has been committed there
RECENT INJURY.
During the past three years much complaint has been made of the
ravages of cabbage hh worms," but, as a rule, the letters of complaint
have not been accompanied by specimens, and we have thus not been
able to identify the species. It seems probable, from the abundance
of the cabbage looper, that this insect was often the cause of injury,
although attack is frequently complicated by the presence of Pl)ieris
rapx, the common imported cabbage worm, and other species.
During the year 1899 we received complaints of this looper from
Athens and Montreal, Ga., and Rollover and China Spring, Tex. Mr.
James I. Todd, of Athens, Ga., reported that in his locality this cater-
pillar fed mainly on the older and lower leaves of cabbage, turnip, and
rutabaga, but did nearly as much damage during 1899 as Ieonea Hmio-
salis, which is treated in another paper in the present bulletin. At
Evansville, Ind., where Mr. J. B. Walsh reported this species as
injurious during the same year, it was currently reported that the gar-
deners of that vicinity considered the species new as a cabbage pest.
During the next two years we received complaints, accompanied by
specimens, from Mr. J. L. Phillips, Blacksburg, Va., who stated that
this looper was doing considerable damage to peas near Norfolk, hav-
ing almost displaced the destructive green pea louse in point of injuri-
ousness. Specimens were also received from Carterton, Va., and Cor-
pus Christi, Tex., in both cases complaint being made of injury to
cabbage. In the latter locality this insect was called the common cab-
bage worm. In the vicinity of the District of Columbia the writer
and Mr. Pratt at different times found this larva attacking pea, aspara.
gus, common pigweed (Amaranthu/t retroflexus) growing between rows,
lamb's-quarters (Chenoiwpodium album), mullein, plantain, and tomato.





64


ECONOMIC STATUS.
It is nearly as difficult to define the exact status of an insect as regards
destructiveness as it is to obtain reliable estimates of its injuries. What
is true of one is about equally true of the other. We can obtain
reliable information as to the relative injuriousness of an insect com-
pared to others which affect a given crop in a given season over a
small area, and we sometimes receive valuable estimates of injuries
that have been inflicted over such small areas, but it is only with
slight hesitation that the writer places the cabbage looper among the
first three cabbage pests of this country, considering what has been
written in regard to it. In view of its much wider distribution, its
manner of attacking cabbage, and its destructive appearance so much
earlier in the season, there can be no doubt that the imported cabbage
worm (Pierf i;pqte) is our worst enemy to cruciferous crops; and next
in order comes thie harlequin cabbage bug ([ur fqantia hlstri(mica),
after which comnies the cabbage looper as the third in rank.
Writing of this insect in 1870, Riley stated that, next after the
cabbage worm mentioned, this was the most common insect which
attacked cabbage in Missouri-a remarkable fact, considering that the
species had not hitherto been described (2d Mo. Rept., p. 110). The
same author, writing again in 18-3 (Rept. Conmmr. Agric. for 1883, p.
119), said that the larva of this species was the most destructive enemy
to cabbage and other cruciferous plants known to the Southern gar-
dener, and shared that distinction with the imported cabbage butter-
fly as far north as Illinois and New Jersey. Since the time of the
publication of that statement, however, the harlequin cabbage bug has
become much more widely distributed and injurious, and has alone
destroyed many fields of cabbage, as the writer can testify from per-
sonal observational
As previously intimated, owing to the fact that the cabbage looper
comnies late in the season, its injuries are not so noticeable, as ordina-
rily it confines itself to the outer leaves of cabbage. It has a much
wider range of natural food plants than the other two species men-
tioned, and there is no doubt that some injuries done by it are attrib-
uted to the common cabbage worm, as the latter is better known.
Profess.-or Sanderson has recorded an instance of unusual abundance
in Maryland during 1S198 (Practical Farmer, December 31, 1898). He
states that most of the large cabbage growers of Maryland had lost
between 75 and 9O per cent of their crops, and rarely could first-class
heads be found in a kitchen garden. When from twenty-five to forty
loopers were greedily devouring a single plant, as he frequently found
a At the present writing, however, this species is held in check in many localities
in its northern range by weather that has been inimical to) its multiplication, and it
may lbe a matter of some years before it regains the lost footing.






65


em, this is not surprising. The writer noticed much the same
condition of affairs in portions of Maryland, Virginia, and the Dis-
.itrict of Columbia which he visited that same year, entire fields being
practically failures, the growers not taking the pains to gather any of
the plants on account of the ravages of this pest. In most cases, how-
.I ever, the writer had noticed other insects at work earlier in the year,
is and the loopers took what was left. The following year, as the writer
Shas already recorded; the species was very rare, on account of the
Extreme cold and the sudden changes of the winter of 1898-99.
LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES.
Comparatively little has been published in regard to the cabbage
looper when we take into consideration its excessive injuriousness. In
addition to the accounts that have been quoted, Lintner published an
*! article on this species in his Second Report on the Insects of New
SYork (1885, pp. 89-93), in which, however, little is added to our
: knowledge of it, but the report in question gives a very full bibli-
ography to date; and in Bulletin No. 23 of the Geneva Station, pub-
lished in 1894, an account, by F. A. Sirrine, is given, on pages 667-671,
with photographic illustrations. In 1893 Mr. G. C. Davis (Bul. 102,
Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta., p. 27) made the statement that this insect was
taken on celery in Michigan, the moth appearing July 14.
In the American Florist for March 3, 1900 (Vol. XV, Plp. 912, 913),
Mr. Sirrine gave a short account of this looper in connection with
injury to carnations, stating that it and the variegated cutworm were
the worst of the transient enemies of this plant. Like the cutworm,
he writes, it feeds usually at night on the buds. It can be carried in
the house on plants, but more commonly the female moth finds her
way indoors through open ventilators.
FOOD PLANTS.
This species feeds normally on Cruciferaw, favoring cultivated forms,
and, when such are to be had in abundance, it is not often that the
loopers feed to any extent on other plants in the same neighborhood.
It appears to greatly prefer cabbage and cauliflower, but during its
seasons of abundance attacks also turnip, rutabaga, radish, both culti-
vated and wild, kale, mustard, and the like. Peas are frequently the
object of attack, while cowpeas and beets are also eaten. Sometimes
the insect is quite destructive to celery and lettuce, and will feed also
upon tomato and, less frequently, on asparagus beds, clover, and
Possibly tobacco.
SIt is sometimes a pest in greenhouses, when it does damage to
L carnations, mignonette, and German ivy (Sen-cio scandens). Other
food plants include dock, dandelion, lamb's-quarters, Japan quince
(Gydoniajaponica), plantain, mullein, and pigweed.
I 23987-No. 33-02-- 5





66


LIFE HISTORY.
The pupal period varies greatly, according to the season. Thus, in
hot weather in July a number of loopers were observed by the writer
to transform to pupe July 5 and to issue as moths on the llth, or in
six days, the temperature indoors averaging about 85-'. Another lot
of pupa taken from celery in the field October 7 did not develop moths
until the 29th, or in twenty-two days. The weather was cool, but the
temperature was not noted, so it is plain that we have a pupal period,
varying according to temperature, of from one to three weeks. No
definite records (can be found of the duration of the egg or larval periods,
but assuming three generations for the Upper Austral zone, where
this species seems to attract more attention than in the South, we
can safely assume from analogy with the observed pupal periods
and other knowledge of related species that the egg period will vary
from four to ten or more days, according to temperature; that the
larva imay undergo all its changes (five stages in number) in from
two to four weeks, the minimum of two weeks being estimated from
the fact that the larva' grow so rapidly, and the maximum, four weeks,
from our knowledge that the insect breeds later in the season than
nearly any other injurious species of its kind.
In reviewing the life history of this species. Dr. Lintner (1. c.)
stated that there were only two generations produced during the year,
and this is perhaps true of its extreme northern limit. Mr. Sirrine,
however, states that it is apparently three-brooded on Long Island,
and that hibernation probably occurs both as adult and l)pupa.
If the last generalization is correct it would seem probable that four
generations may ) possibly be produced in the District of Columbia, but
the writer is inclined to believe that there are only three, and that
hibernation takes place chiefly in the pupal stage. A fourth genera-
tion is evidently attempted, but fails to survive the winter.
The time when the moth makes its first appearance in the District
of Columbia or elsewhere appears not to be recorded. Few individuals
survive the winter northward, but the propagation of the species is so
rapid that by the time autumn is reached great numbers of larvae are
produced which do much damage to crops in cultivation at this time.

NATURAL ENEMIES.
PARASITES.
This cabbage looper is unusually susceptible to bacterial and fun-
gus diseases; it is also preyed upon by birds and other insectivorous
animals and by parasitic and predaceous insects. Its most efficient
insect destroyer in the field in Maryland, Virginia, and the District
of Colutmbia is a minute chalcis fly (CUopidoioma fruncatellum Dalm.),
an imported European l)arasite, which has evidently selected this'






67


cooper as its favorite host in this country. In Europe this chalcis
Sis also particularly attached to the genus PIusia, although known
to parasitize larvae of several other genera of Noctuidae as well as
other families. The habits of this parasite were described by Dr.
Howard in the American Naturalist for February, 1882 (pp. 150,
151). An interesting instance of its value as a destroyer of the looper
is citeil in the annual report of this Department for 188.2 (18S3, p. 121).
i n the fall of 1880 nearly fifty larva? were collected, with the intention
of rearing the moths, but all, with a single exception, were eventually
destroyed by this parasite, only 2 per cent. of the hlrva' having reached
the imago state. As parasitized loopers approach full growth they
Lose their characteristic pale longitudinal stripes and become uniform
: pale green or yellow in color. As a rule, in the writer's experience, the
larvae spin utip before succumnIbing. and in a few days plarasitism by this
Schalcis fly is clearly evident, since the pupa1 do not develop and the larvm
Assume a peculiar twisted form. Almost without exception the bodies
Sof the parasitized larvae are completely tilled with these almost micro-
S scopic parasites. By actual count 2,528 chalcis flies issued from a
Single parasitized larva. In recent experience the parasitic flies have
i been reared only from their host duringg the last week of September
Sand in October.
Apanteles con greqatus Say, a well- known parasite of the imnl)orted
cabbage worm (1Pier.. raj)f) and other noxious species has been reared
from this looper.
It has been noticed on several occasions that when the larva of the
looper forms its characteristic gauzy white cocoon on other plants than
those on which larvae have fed, the individual is usually diseased or par-
asitized. Thus, on one occasion the writer took five chrysalides from
eggplant, although no evidence whatever could be found that the larvte
had fed on this plant. Larvae were found on eggplant, but not feed-
ing, and all of these, although kept in the best of condition, died of
disease or were parasitized by the Copidosomna truncatella. It may be
interesting to note of this parasite that the adults issued in late Sep-
tember, sixteen days after their detection in the body of the host. At
Brookland, D. C., on one occasion all of the pupa that could be col-
lected were parasitized, an evident case of complete parasitism.
PREDACEOUS ENEMIES.
SA medium-sized white-spotted black spider, PhIidippus audax Hentz.,
:: was observed by the writer July 13, destroying the moth of this insect.
SThis spider appears to be specially adapted to prey upon Plusia, since
i the web spun by it looks almost precisely like that of the looper.
I Other species of spiders crawl into the empty cocoons of the moth, and
it seems probable that they feed on the larva also when these are just
about to transform.





68


Several species of Carabida- and other l)predaceous Coleoptera have
been recorded to occur in badly infested cabbage fields, with the pre-
suimption that they had been feeding on the looper. (Rept. Dept.
Agr. 1,S83, p. 120).a
Mr. J. B. Dunn, Corpus Christi, Tex., wrote that he knew of only
one insect that fed on this worni, a large black beetle locally known as
"pinch bug." This insect was not sufficiently abundant, however, to
keep the looper in subjection. Specimens kindly sent to this office
proved to be the larva of a species of Calosomnia, probably calidumn,
and the beetle ,Pai.achws calt;nrn; w. He also wrote October 14
that a bird locally known as jackdaw, and which Dr. C. H. Merriam
identifies as either the great-tailed or boat-tailed grackle (Quiscdlus
itucrIauwS0 or Q. mYnjor), was particularly fond of these cabbage loopers.
These birds would alight in the fields and feed on the larva daily until
they would clean them up and save the crop." During recent years,
however, hunters and others had slaughtered these birds to such an
extent that they now shunned civilization. Our correspondent thought
this bird deserved protection.
)DISE CASES.
Bacterial d -..a.e.-During July some recently collected larvae were
found to be'suffering from a disease. A larva thus affected first grows
pale and yellow, and in a very few hours bI)ecomes weak and flaccid, upon
death assuming an ashy gray color, which later imay turn to brown or
blackish. Diseased larva usually become fastened by the prolegs to
the plant upon which they have fed, and hang head downward, in
time often becoming a putrid niass much like that observed of the
common cabbage worm when diseased. In the jar in which these
larvae were fed a cabbage leaf had been l)laced which was not quite
fresh, and, evidently as a result o(f feeding upon that, the remaining
larvae contracted the distemper, and all were d(lead two days after the
first appearance of infection.
Diseased larvva were referred to Mr. B. T. Galloway, Chief of the
Bureau of Plant Industry, who wrote that, to the best of his knowledge,
the organism concerned in the infection had never been described or
named, but was apparently a species of bacillus.
What is perhaps the first mention of a disease of this insect, and
prol)ably the same as under present observation, was by Prof. Herbert
Osborn (Bul. No. 30, n. s., 1892). He states briefly that larvae were
attacked by a disease that swept offn many of them. In Mr. F. A.
Sirrine's account, previously cited (L. c., p. 670), mniention is also made
of the disease and its occurrence in 1894 on Long Island. Mr. Sirrine
aThe following is the list: Cra(wictultiis di{flndiR. Ihtrlipuis cnligiosus, H. fiiunus,
ti. pem,.ylvait'n.s, and the larvz of Collops qjiwliimcul us, Hippodami w conrergens,
and HI. parenthesis.






69


states, however, that it was not noticed until the cold, wet weather of
October and November set in. It should be added that the writer
observed the same disease upon Plusia in the field during the last
week of July, and that pupar also suffered from it. This disease is
readily communicable from one larva to others, and it frequently
happens that if a diseased one is placed in an ordinary tin collecting
box over night all of the others that may be confined with it develop
the disease in a day or two.
Fungus disease.-One of the fungus diseases from which Plusia
larvae die is Botryti. i'iley; Farlow. The affected worms,. according to
Riley, become sluggish and then die, after death appearing stiff and
brittle and firmly attached to the leaves or stems upon which they
have died. They are profusely covered with a greenish mold.
REMEDI) ES.
The same remedies as advised for the cross-striped cabbage worm
should be used against the present species. It should be observed,
however, for the benefit of our correspondents, that they m ust I)e
used with great persistency at frequent intervals in order to insure
perfect success, and should be applied to the lower surface of the outer
leaves. The killing off of the first generations of the insect should be
particularly observed, but this will be of little or no avail if other
cabbage growers within several miles of the saute locality do not take
the same precautions. One of our correspondents, Mr. Dunn, pre-
viously referred to, tried Paris green and lime, and succeeded in kill-
ing all of the common cabbage loopers.
Notwithstanding this, however, the writer noticed during September,
in the vicinity of the District of Columbia, an entire field of cabbage
which had been liberally dusted with Paris green and plaster mixed
at the usual rate of 1 pound of poison to 20 pounds of plaster, with no
perceptible effect upon these insects. The first application had been
made about two weeks previous, another had been made within five
days, and vet the larvae were feeding quite contentedly on the lower
surfaces of the leaves in their usual manner and no dead were to be
found under the plants or elsewhere. This simply indicates that the
poison, as previously stated, should be applied to the lower surface.
and preferably in the form of a spray. Mr. Pratt, who observed this
species at Chesterbrook, Va., noted the same results. After a rainfall
eggs hatch, and the larva are able to do injury without being affected
by the poison.
A NEW CABBAGE LOOPER,
(Phlusia precaionis G n.)
The larva of this species in different stages of growth were observed
during 1899 and 1900 attacking cabbage and some other plants in two
gardens in the District of Columbia. The same insect was observed





70


the previous year in less numbers in the same gardens. Cabbage does
not appear to be recorded as a food 1)lant of this insect, and in fact its
habits are little known.
RECENT ATTACK.
June 1-3, 1899, this species first came under the writer's notice,
when a few larv e nearly grown and several less mature were observed
on cabbage. June 5 an inmnlature individual was brought to the
writer by Mr. T. A. Keleher, of this office, who found it feeding on
cultivated morning glory, and June 19 a larva was taken by the writer
feeding on common pigweed (A y,'..i artem.isiafolk(). The indi-
viduals found were so few in number that it was impossible to trace
the species through its life history. The following June, however,
larvae were present in greater abundance, all on cabbage.

DESCRIPTIVE.
The moth of this species is a little larger and more graceful than
that of the .cabbage looper. The general color of the fore-wings is a
beautiful bright shining brown, variegated with bronze, purple, and
pale-faiwn color. The fore-wings are not so strongly scalloped as in
the species mentioned, but the hind-wings are similarly colored, and







", \ '-',. x *a f ,7.%





FIG. 15.-Plusia precationis: a. female min.h: tb, larva extc.midled, feeding; c. pupa in cocoon-allsome-
what enlarged (original).
the veins are equally noticeable. In the common looper the white spots
on the fore-wings are chalky-white, while in this species., although
they are of very similar form, they are decidedly silvery, and the two
portions are usually well separated (.s-ee fig. 15, d.) The thorax is
also brown, and the abdomen fawn-colored, while the lower surface is
similarly but a little more strongly marked than that of the common
looper. The wing expanse., of specimens at hand shows a variation
from an inch and an eighth to nearly an inch and a half.
The p,;2o1tuu,,/f, .#gqe.-In next to the last stage this larva lacks
the characteristic ia-rkino's of the mature form. It is very much
more slender, and looks, in fact, more like a Geometrid than a Plusia.








It is of nearly the same green color, but the sides of the head and the
legs are not marked with black. There are two white undulating
stripes on each side of the middle of the dorisuim and a broad yellowish
white stripe above the stigmata. In most individuals one or more of
the abdominal segments bear on each side a black suprastigmatal
tubercle.
The last stage.-In the last stage the larva may be readily distin-
Sguished from the common cabbage Plusia by the long eye-like ellip-
Stical spots on each side of the head. The hind pair of thoracic legs
! are nearly black, the middle pair a little lighter, and the front pair
Still paler. The dorsum is mottled with white, the lines being irreg-
i:ular, and the dorsal tubercles, of a green color, being quite prominent.
SThe lateral stripe of the abdomen is broad, white, and well defined.
In some individuals on the first two or three abdominal segments the
suprastigmatal tubercles are black, but images hatched from larvme
thus colored look no different from those hatched from unmniarked
larve. There is also considerable difference in the arrangement of
the white marks on the back, the same being true of the common
cabbage Plusia. In some individuals these white marks show as four
.strong undulating stripes, while in others half a dozen or more very
irregular striped markings are seen. In one individual the black
lateral spot on the head was much less strongly defined than in the
others. When fully matured the larva measures in its natural slightly
curved position about one inch in length. In figure 15, b, a larva is
shown extended in a position which it often assumes.
The pupa (c) does not appear to have been described. It is not likely
that it differs in any important particular from that of P. brassicae.
The eggs have not been compared with those of P. bhtr.xicW, but it is
more than probable that they are nearly identical, and. in fact, the
species differs very little in structure and life history from that of the
common cabbage looper.
DISTRIBUTION.
Smith states that this species occurs in the United States east of the
Rocky Mountains from May to October, also in Canada. Exact records
of localities are rather meager. They include Canada; Cambridge,
Mass.; Sharon, Pa.; Dayton, Ohio (Pilate); Woodstock, Ill.; Wiscon-
sin; and the District of Columbia. Hanham states that this species is
rare at Winnipeg, Manitoba. It does not seem probable that the
insect breeds there, but is merely a stray from a more southern and
congenial locality.
HISTORY OF THE SPECIES.
The biological literature of this looper is quite limited, which is to
Sbe explained by its seldom having been found attacking useful plants.
S In the year 1869 Dr. A. S. Packard made mention of this species in





72


his first edition of the Guide to the Study of Insects. He states on
the authority of Mr. Saunders that the larva, of which he gives a brief
description, feeds on the hollyhock in August. He also makes men-
tion of Plusia larve figured by Glover in his work onl insects injurious
to the cotton plant, but as this work was never published, in the true
sense of the word, it need not be further mentioned here.
In the late Dr. Riley's second Missouri Report (p. 112), published
in 1870, this species is briefly treated in connection with a discussion
of Jtlus'a bra.x'.'4,. He states that it occurs commonly on thistles
and proposes the name of thistle Plusia. The larva is said to differ
from the cabbage Plusia only in having the sides of the head, the
thoracic legs, a row of spots above the lateral light line, and a ring
around the breathing pores, )lack.
In the Canadian Entomologist (Vol. XIII, pp. 21-23) for February,
1881, Mr. D. W. Coquillett, now of this office, published an article
entitled, "On the early stages of IP1ti.i p'rece!;,n;.s Guenee." Sub-
sequently, in the same publication (Vol. XIV, p. 60), Mr. Coquillett
calls attention to the wrong identification of the species, the insect
which he had under observation being P. .xinjql,' and not precautions.
The species is again referred to in connection with a consideration of
Plusia fiiqil,'. by Mr. Coquillett in the Eleventh Report of the State
Entomologist of Illinois in 1882 (pp. 38-42). From studies made at that
time of the larve of these three species of Plusia, deductions were
made that tJuh.sR;,. ;,plex differs from brs..icfr only by the black
rings around its breathing pores, and that both of these larva differ
from pr'ectt;oni8 by lacking the black stripes on each side of the head.
Unfortunately, as the writer has previously observed, some examples
of brlt.x.y.;cw also have these black rings about the breathing pores.
No extended observations have been made on the life history of this
species, but it is probable that it will be found to agree perfectly with
P. brassi.e when it occurs in the same localities. Such individuals as
were under observation by the writer transformed to pupw. in seven,
eight, and eleven days, pupation beginning in three instances in early
June, and in two in late June, the eleven-day period being passed in
unseasonably cool weather.
It should be added that there is in the National Museum a moth
reared October 4, 1882, on Gr'ardia j District of Columbia), and of a Proctotrypid, bred from the cocoon of
this species March 29 of the same year.
The name of eyed-cabbage looper is proposed for this insect.
REMEDIES.
This species would yield to the samnie remedies as advised for the
common cabbage looper, namely, Paris green, best applied in the form
of a spray, but it is usually not abundant, and hand-picking would
suffice on small patches of cabbage or other plants affected.






73


I THE CELERY LOOPER.
(Plusia simple." Guen.)
In some portions of our country, as, for example, in Illino s, this
species to a certain extent takes the place of the cabbage looper
(Ptusia brassica Riley). It is stated to be the commonest species of
its genus in Illinois, and is rather generally distributed in the United
States east of the Rocky Mountains, from Canada to New Mexico. In
most places, however, where it has come under observation it s con-
siderably rarer. It is described by Messrs. Forbes & Hart as a very
destructive celery insect, and has been bred by them from sugar beet,
and by Mr.-Coquillett from lettuce as well as celery. To the latter
we are indebted for our principal account of the species.

DESCRIPTIVE.
Thernoth (fig. 16) is decidedly dissimilar to that, of the cabbage
looper, having a greater wing expanse, nearly two inches, entirely
different coloration, and differently shaped upper wings. These differ-
ences are brought out quite distinctly in the accompanying illustra-
tion. The lower edges of the fore-wings have a well-defined conical
projection. The border
is not scalloped, the color Yui /.S1 .-/
is somewhat purplish
brown, the darker shades
being velvety brown.,X
The silver marks are
very distinct, and form
the pattern illustrated.
th . t. FIG. 16.-Plusia timplex: male moth at left, larva atl right-some-
The hind wings are what enlarged (original).
ochreous or yellowish
brown, strongly banded with dark fuscous, particularly toward the
white border. The ground color of the thorax, fore-wings, and
abdomen is duller than that of the hind-wings. The lower surface is
pale ochreous, with a rather distinct darker band running through
both wings near the middle.
The egg is described by Coquillett as milky white, flattened, globular,
or turnip-shaped, sometimes with an impressed spot in the center of
the upper surface. The upper half of the egg is grooved vertically;
the grooves are narrow and the spaces between them roughened. The
transverse diameter is about gt inch.
The larva (fig. 16) is similar to the cabbage looper, and in the examples
seen rather more robust posteriorly. The color is very pale yellowish
green, and the markings are very similar to those of the cabbage
looper, but all of the larvae examined have the supra-spiracular spots
I black, which only occasionally happens with the cabbage species.
I: The length is about the same, 11 inches when fully extended.





74


Thj ppja has never been described by comparison with related
species. It is in most respects like that of the cabbage looper.
A more detailed description of the moth has been given by Thomas
in his fourth report as entomologist of the State of Illinois (9th
Report, St. Ent., 111., pp. 47, 48), which is quoted in Mr. Coquillett's
account, which was published in the Eleventh Report of the State
Entomologist of Illinois, 1882 (pp. 38-43).

DISTRIBUTION.
The celery looper appears to be a Transition species, but it is fre-
quently taken also in the Upper Austral region, where it breeds in
certain localities, particularly westward. Possibly its being more abun-
dant in cold climates will account for the scarcity of reports of injury.
Smith reports its occurrence in Hudson Bay territory, Canada; in the
United States .ast of the Rocky Mountains-Colorado at 12,000 feet,
and New Mexico; also that it appears throughout the season. Our
National Museum collection, with some other sources of information,
shows the following list of localities in addition to those that, have
been mentioned above:
Maline; .la.sachu-'etts; Rochester, Rhineheck, and Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Wash-
ington, D. C.; Westpoint, Nebr.; Caney, Kansas; Merino Valley, New Mexico; Longs
Peak, Colo.; Wi.-c'insin; St. Louis, Mo.; Portland and Albina, Oreg. Several of these
localities are furnishe,1 on authority of Dr. H. G. Dyar. In New York, in the region
specified, he captured specimens on different occasions (luring the last week of July;
in Oreg on, during the sec('ond week of May.
DIVISIONAL RECORD.
There is a single divisional re,-ord in regard to the biology of this
species. April 10, 1893, we received from Mrs. J. S. Maurice, Caney,
Kans., a moth stated to have been observed on iblossonms of apple.
This had deposited eggs en route, and some larvae began feeding as
soon as received. By May 2 they had nearly completed their growth,
and the following day the first larva, spun up. As it takes from one to
three days for larva to transform, and the first inoths did not issue
till May 20, the pupal stage in this instance may bIe placed at fifteen or
sixteen days. The larval stage during the same period was approxi-
mately three weeks. La'rv fed on weeds with which they were sup-
plied, but as there is no evidence that these were natural foods their
naiues need not be mentioned.
We have no information as to any natural enemy of this species.

REMEDIES.
The same remedies advised for the cabbage looper would, of course,
be applicable to this species when it occurs in injurious numbers. It
is necessary, however, that whatever remedy is employed be used
also on wild food plants, including weeds, which this insect affects.






75


NOTES ON DIPTEROUS LEAF-MINERS ON CABBAGE.
The leaves of cabbage, radish, and other cruciferous plants are
liable to injury from the attack of maggots of the families Drosophil-
ide and Oscinidte. Three species have been identified with such
attacks in this country, and a fourth can now be added. It seems
probable if the leaves of cruciferous crops in various portions of the
country were carefully examined, we might find that several more
species have this habit. They are not of themselves particularly
destructive, but they contribute their share toward the injury of these
plants, different species of cabbage worms being the principal enemies,
except in regions where such other pests as the harlequin cabbage
bug and the cabbage plant-louse are most numerous.
The Imported Turnip Leaf-miner (,&aptvo-yza flavuiui Meig.). -This
appears to be the most abundant species, and has received attention
Sby Mr. D. W. Coquillett in an article in Insect Life (Vol. VII, 1895,







6







FIG. 17.-Scaptomyzaflavrola: a, larva; b, puparium: c, adult: d. anlenna of fly: e. work in radish leal-
natural size: all others enlarged reengraved after Coquillet).
pp. 381-383). Since that publication was issued the writer reared
the same species from the leaves of cabbage in the District of C('olum-
bia, the adult issuing June 7, 1900. October 4 of the following year
the same species was obtained from cabbage at Tennallytown, D. C.
It was noticed that the mature flies were quite sluggish in the cool
temperature which prevailed at that time. Being interested in this
group of insects, the writer obtained from Prof. H. Garman, of the
State agricultural experiment station at Lexington, Ky.. a specimen
of the species which he described and figured on pages 46-51 of
Bulletin No. 40 of that station as Drosophila sp. This was pro-
nounced by Mr. Coquillett to be the same as that figured in Insect
Life, and mentioned under the name of Drosop)ia/lafareola. It is
illustrated herewith (fig. 17). Mr. Coquillett has since adopted the
: generic name of Scaptomyza. A short notice is given of this species





76


by Dr. W. E. Britton (19th An. Rept. Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta. for 1895
[1 S.,], p. 2)4). He mentions it as a leaf-miner of the cauliflower, and
states that some plants growing iu the shade were seriously injured,
while others finally died.
In looking through the material in the National Museum references
have been obtained to hearings of this species which have evidently
never been made public. Adults were reared September 9, 1885, from
"1 olls" of horse-nettle (Sfmont,,n i'rl;io,,l.,.)-)-no locality given, but
with little doubt the District of Columbia or vicinity. July 15, 1894,
the flies were reared from Iceland poppy ( llp ar-'r ,ledcinale) received
from Mrs. Celia Thaxter. Apple(lon. Isle of Shoals, off Portsmouth,
N. H.; and April 21, 14,oo. flies were again reared, from the District
of Columbia. from larvate mining the leaves of mouse-ear or thale-cress
(StenoJlrey/u,, /Iia/iiu,). a cruciferous plant naturalized from Europe.
The Native Cabbage Leaf-miner ( Salltmyi /z, d,../a Loew.).--This was
reared with the preceding from the same locality, adults issuing from
December 22 to 2S. They outnumbered the preceding species three
to one, and it i- not improbable that this is the mIost abundant form
of (ldil)terous leaf-m'iner attacking cruciferous crops in the South. We
have an earlier record of the rearing of this same species from a growth
resembling a gall or fungus on the stems of water lilies, obtained by
Mr. Albert Koebele in Virginia, near the District of Columbia, August
24, 1883. The flies issued September S, and four days later a different
species wa.s reared.a
We have no ( very compl)lete knowledge of this insect's distribution.
It occurs, however, from Maine to Florida. and westward as far as
Illinois. From specimens in the Nutional Museum we have the fol-
lowing localities: Eastport, Me.; \Vashington. D. C..; Virginia; Bis-
cayne BayFla. Augusta.(ra.: Algonquin, Ill. The insect was described
from the United States. and is evidently indigenous to our soil.
The Imported Cabbage Leaf-miner (,Sct(pfqnqyzi .qrunai,/nt, Fallen).-
This was reared Decenmber 22. 1,S.8, from leaves of cabbage received
from Augusta. (Ga. This is the second rearing of the species from
cabbage, the fir.nt having been made l)v Dr. A. ). Hopkins in West
Virginia. It is probable that in time this miner will be found to
develop in many other plants, since in Europe it is known to attack
chickweed, co)ckle, lanmb's quarters. and two genera of catchfly or cam-
pian (Viscaria and( Silene).
April 5, 1902. Prof. H. A. Morgan, Baton Rouge, La., sent speci-
inens in all stages, with the statement that this species was found with
the corn stalk-borer in sugar cane in that vicinity, and the larvaw were
confused with the young of the true borer.
In Europe this species is common and widespread, and the same
is true of its distribution in this country, although it appears to be
This wa (leternlineld by Mr. (Coquillett as Ci ', .e, ii iqricepst Loew.






77


. more abundant in the North. Possibly, however, this is only appar-
ent, and it may be found to occur also throughout the South, as it
was once taken at Texas College Station by Prof. F. M. Webster on
wheat. The distribution taken from specimens in the National Museum
includes, besides the District of Columbia and West Virginia, White
Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass.; Connecticut; and Detroit, Mich.
It is subject to parasitism, but the species of parasite does not appear
to have been identified.
The Native Clover Leaf-miner (Ayroimyza dint/nttfa Walk.).[-During
the year 1900 this species was several times reared at this office by Mr.
Th. Pergande and the writer from larvae mining the leaves of hedge
mustard and smooth rock cress (ArablN. /r iqfaht) as well as cabbage.
The adults issued from the third week in May to the first week in
June. The species is treated in the Annual Reports of this Depart-
ment for 1879 (p. 200) as Oscins t;/t',//l, and 1884 (p. 322) as (0. bhra-
sice. The above name is suggested to distinguish it from preceding
forms.
REMEDIES.
Nothing of value of a remedial nature has been attempted in the
treatment of these -leaf-miners, as far as the writer is aware, and it
seems improbable that the application of any poisonous mixture would
destroy the larve at any stage of their growth. Fortunately none of
these leaf-miners is, as a rule, very injurious; at least we have no
records of injuries to large interests. In small kitchen gardens the
insects can be controlled by clipping the infested leaves as soon as the
larval mines are found, and destroying them.
It is possible that the flies might be attracted to cans of decolnpos-
ing turnip or cabbage leaves, slightly sweetened to assist fermentation,
and that, if a slight amount of Paris green, arsenic, or other arsenical
be dropped in these cans. it would effect the destruction of many flies.
Such cans should be distributed about infested fields. The cabbage
grower should know by observation when to expect the flies in his
vicinity.
THE FOUR-SPOTTED CABBAGE FLEA-BEETLE.
(Phyllotreta bipustulatta Fab.)
Throughout the summer, from May to September, during the past
three years the writer has found this species of flea-beetle, though some-
what sparingly, in the District of Columbia and neighboring parts 6f
Maryland, on cabbage, turnip, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium qfici-
nale), charlock (Brassica arvensis), and shepherd's purse (Bursa bursa-
pastorzsm).
Phyllotreta vittata, the striped cabbage flea-beetle, was comparatively
rare the first year, and bipustilata was apparently more numerous
than in former years, which will account for its being noticed on so





78


many plants. The latter has not previously been recorded, to the
writer's knowledge, to occur on any particular plant, although it is not
improbable that observing collectors are familiar with its occurrence
on Cruciferi. Its life habits have apparently never been studied, so
Sit is not known whether the larva is a leaf-miner
or root-feeder. The beetle appears here at about
^, f ~the same time as the more injurious r'ltata, the
*first observed date being toward the end of April.
*k Egg deposit has been observed as late as August 4.
; J I The name above used is suggested f(or the species.
This flea-beetle (fig. 18) resembles vidtata but
averages slightly larger, and each elvtron is orna-
,, ) mented with two large irregularly oval yellow
,/ spots, one humeral, the other subapical. The
j ^ basal 5 joints of the antennie are paler than the
FIG. 18. -Ph/fl,,bips- remainder and the legs are more or less irufo-
tialta: beetle-highly testaceous. The above characters will serve to
n~mi., (irikina]). distinguish it from individuals of i'itata in which
the vitta is broken neair the middle.
The distribution accorded by Horn (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVI,
1899, p. 300) is from Pennsylvania to South Carolina. The writer has
a series from Ithaca. N. Y., and these localities, together with those
from the Hubbard and Schwarz and other collections in the National
Museum and a few recorded localities, give the following list:
LAncta-ter, New York, Ithaca, N. Y.; Camden, Anglegea, Orange Mountains, Fort
Lee, Hul.-in County, and elsewhere in New Jersey; Pennsylvania; Marshall Hall,
Md.; Wz-l'ington and Tennallytown, D. C.; Rosslyn and St. Eimo, Va.; Grand
Ledge. Mich.; Marietta, Ohio; Berkeley Springs, W. Va.; central Missouri; Iowa;
South Carolina; and Columbus, Tex.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON SOME CABBAGE INSECTS.
The Cabbage Curculio (( utor],yrcwsl rapxe Gyll. ).-This species, an
account of which was published in Bulletin 23 (n. s., pp. 39-50), made
its appearance in still greater numbers in 1900 than in the previous
year, and was found in some localities in abundance where it, was
scar.cely r n on previous occasions.
At Cabin John, Md., all of the cabbage plants examined showed
attack by this beetle, one or more individuals being always to be
found on each plant. The beetles confined their feeding to the edges
of the leaves, as previously noticed. Kale was attacked in about the
same proportion, the beetles attacking the pods. Attack was confined
to the individuals of the new generation, but the extent of injury
could not be estimated. Shepherd's purse (Bu,,', in f<-pal./ns) was
found on different occasions to harbor the beetles, and it seems prob-
able that this plant and kale serve as food for the larvae as well as for
the beetles.






79


Dr. Sylvester D. Judd reported to the writer that of six specimens
of the rough-winged swallow (,digql'ioptery'" .,,,,';),-n;.L) shot at
Marshall Hall, Md., July S, 1898, three had eaten this beetle, as shown
by an examination of the contents of their stomachs.
The Seed-stalk Weevil ('cuor/lynchtw/. qtalridenx Panz).-After the
publication of the writer's note (Bulletin 23 n. s., p). 51) onil the identity
of this species with (C. .erie.Neto.nx I)ietz.. reference was noticed to the
same species in Mr. M. V. Slingerland's Bulletin 78, of the Cornell
University Agricultural Experiment Station, page 5;(3. The remarks
in question form a footnote in the discussion of the cabbage-root
maggot, and the statement is made that this weevil is a ver'vy serious
pest in the great cabbage seed-growing region on Long Island. To
make certain of the identity of the species, Mr. Slingerland kindly
sent specimens from Nattituck for comparison with named specimens.
Pemphigus sp.-February 14, 194,)1, Mr. S. A. McHenry, of the
Beeville substation of the Texas Experiment Stations, sent specimens
of an unknown species of Pemphigus, stating that it was doing injury
to the roots of cabbage in the vicinity of Beeville. some of the fields
being reported as totally destroyed. One person who furnished
material wrote that as soon as thle lice attacked the roots of the plants
the leaves turned yellow and the plants soon (lied. He stated that
several fine patches had been utterly destroyed.
Wasps as destroyers of cabbage worms.-During July and August,
1900, different species of wasps, and particularly P,/is/t.. pldl/ews St.
Farg., were observed hovering about worm-eaten cabbage plants in
several gardens. In one garden they were always numerous in the
western part of a large patch of cabbage. At the extreme eastern end
the plants were more or less protected by shade. particularly in the
afternoon. At this end larvae of Plutella, Pionea, and Plusia were
at work, but no Pieris, while in the sunshiny places., where the wasps
were flying freely, no larvfe at all could be found, although holes in
the leaves were evidence that they had been present. The wasps
were carefully watched on several occasions, and it was plain from
their manner of work that they would first destroy the imported cab-
bage worms, afterward the loopers, and that the Pioneas would he the
last to be captured, as these bored directly into the hearts of che cab-
bage, concealing themselves between two leaves in such manner that
it would be difficult for the wasps to find them in the cursory manner
of their search. The Plutellas, owing to their smaller size, might pos-
sibly evade discovery.
Singularly, in spite of utmost endeavors, it was impossible to detect
a wasp in the act of destroying a cabbage worm. nevertheless circum-
stantial evidence was so strong that the writer felt no hesitation in
attributing the absence of the "hh worms" in the sunny portion of the
garden to the presence of the wasps. The worms" workingon plants





80


growing' in shade were nearly free from wasp attack. The wasps
would hover about a plant and then alight and walk about it, but, find-
ing nothing, would continue to the next plant, and so on to another.
The following year, in the latter days of August, the writer observed
this wasp attacking the larva of Pier;. ',vpap, leisurely chewing it
before flying away to provision its nest.
It is evident that this habit of wasps has been observed before. The
following was published in Dr. Lintner's third report as State Ento-
mo)logist of New York, for 1886 (1887, page 135): "Mr. C. R. Moore,
of Johnson Town, Va., states that he has seen the common brown wasp
(? iPoit. f.f.U) seize the green worms on cabbage (? Pier, irapm),
sting them repeatedly, and then carry them away.
The Cabbage Root Maggot injurious to celery.-Mr. James Granger,
Broadalbin, N. Y., mentioned in preceding pages as having reported
injury to celery by the carrot rust fly (Psila roce Fab.), sent, under
date of November 19, 1901, a larger larva than that of the rust fly,
stating that it occurred in the heart of celery, and that he believed it
to be causing rot." He was aware that the same species, or a similar
one, infested radish in the same field, and there is little doubt that
this insect spread from the radish to the celery. The cabbage root
maggot, as its name implies, attacks cabbage, including all its varieties,
as well as most other forms of cruciferous plants. As Mr. Granger
has shown himself a good observer by his correspondence, there can
be no doubt of his statement that these larvw occurred in celery. He
distinguished the two species, and sent the cabbage maggots in about
equal numbers with the rust fly maggots. Celery appears to be a new
food plant for the cabbage root maggot. The early hearings were
without doubt unnatural, caused by the overheating of the rooms in
which the rearing jars were kept.
While there is no doubt that this cabbage maggot is quite closely
restricted to cruciferous plants for food, it will occasionally, in case
of emergency, attack plants of other botanical orders. Miss Ormerod
has quoted Mr. Meade as saying that maggots were reared in 1882
from "earth round partly decayed clover roots," while Lintner has
stated on one occasion that the larva, had been detected mining the
leaves of beet (Bul. 78, C. U. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1894, p. 513).

OBSERVATIONS ON INSECTS AFFECTING LATE CABBAGE AND
SIMILAR CROPS.
Some attention has been given by the writer in recent years to the
study of some of our common insect enemies of cruciferous crops,
with a view to ascertaining more in regard to them, and the notes
which follow were made to determine just how far careless methods
of culture are to blame for injury by these insects. Brief mention
has been made in Bulletin 22 (n. s., pp. 55-61) and in Bulletin 30 (n. s.,








pp. 63-75) of the effects of cold and of parasitic attack in limiting the
increase of these, insects. This work has been continued, with some
results which appear to justify the furnishing of more details.
The study of extreme cold and its effect upon insects affecting
crucifers was continued until late in December. after which time it
usually happens that we have severe freezes which put a practical end
I to the breeding of most insects. Some species were actually found
breeding upon winter cabbage as late as December 24. and this in spite
of the fact that, with the exception of perhaps seven days distributed
Sat intervals through November and December, there had been con-
Stinuous nightly frosts from the time when observations began in the
last week of November until their completion. Observations were
Conducted in the District of Columbia and at. near-by points in Mary-
land. The species under particular observation were five in number.
There was no great difference as to the number of individuals or
injuriousness. The approximate order, however, was as follows: The
cabbage plant-louse (Aphi)h' r.;(-. Linn.), diamond-back moth (Put-
tella cruciferarnnt Zefl.), harlequin cabbage bug (Jhryqn t, t;1t isri-
onica Hahn.), imported cabbage butterfly (Pirr'L/ tj); Linn.). and the
cabbage looper (1J7.sn;, hrtN.W/'fr Riley). Of these the dianond-back
moth was the most active, and the looper and the larva of the imported
cabbage butterfly the most injurious.
Like many introduced, and Southern forms of insects which have
recently migrated northward from the South, these species remain
feeding in the field long after mo4t of our strictly native forms, or those
which have long been established in the District and vicinity, have
sought winter quarters.
The Imported Cabbage Butterfly (/Vr/.i-x I'- qe Linn.).-Larvm were
noticed the last week of November feeding with the others which have
been mentioned on late cabbage. The work of this species and the
cabbage looper was noticeable on all old leaves. Many larv'e were not
above half grown at this time, showing that egg deposit had taken
place not earlier than the last week of October, and perhaps in early
November. Larva? taken at this time fed freely on cabbage, and most
of them attained maturity during the second week of December.
It was quite noticeable that when rains and freezing weather
occurred during December, the larva? crawled deeper into the large
heads of cabbage, where they appeared to be abundantly protected.
It was noticed throughout the season, and particularly in late autumn
and early) winter, that this species was remarkably free from disease
as compared with Plusia occurring on the same beds and same cabbage
plants, a fact, however, that has been observed by others.
The Diamond-back Moth (Plitella eruwtc &raru Zell.).-In recent
years this species has always been found in about the same abundance
in spring and summer, but it sometimes occurs, like the other species,
23987-No. 33-02 6
L-"





82


more abundantly late in the year than earlier in the season. During
the last week of November larvae have been seen nearly grown, with
about an equal number of pupae at the same time. Moths captured
then deposited eggs even in a quite cold temperature. As with the
imported cabbage worm, most larva, transformed to pupa during the
first week of December. Moths began issuing from this lot, December 9.
An interesting feature in connection with the late occurrence of this
species was the presence at the same time of one of its most active
,parasites, an Ichneumonid LV,,,wria !0a/0or Cr. These parasites
began issuing the same time as the moths just noted, showing that the
enemy has about the same time of appearance in the fall as its host,
and perhaps this is the same in the spring. Such coincidence in the
time of occurrence of a parasite and its host, however, the writer
believes to be rather exceptional.
Moths were seen on a warm day, December 13, flying in the sun-
shine. This was after three or four days of very cold weather.
Nearly every head of cabbage that was touched was found to harbor
one or more moths, while others were flying about other vegetation of
the vicinity. At no time during the entire year were moths seen in
anything like the same abundance as at this time in mid-December.
Larva and pupa were also observed.
The Harlequin Cabbage Bug (JA['gn tia h,4r u nica Hahn).-This
insect was exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the preceding
species, and was observed feeding with them until late in November.
When fields were visited during the middle of December, however,
none of the bugs were to be found in exposure upon the l)lants, although,
as has been said, the diamond-back moth was flying freely in the bright
sunshine. Under leaves which touched the ground some specimens
were found, and such stalks as were pulled up and shaken showed that
many of the bugs had crawled in between the leaves into protected
places. They were dislodged in some numbers, two score and more
being found in single large heads. When the infested cabbage fields
were visited a month later it was seen that the more severe frost which
had occurred during the month had killed great numbers. By gathcr-
ing numbers of the bugs and taking them home for counting, an
estimate was made that 85 per cent had been killed. Cold spells which
followed afterwards doubtless killed many more.
As a result of study of this species for several seasons, it has been
ascertained that the bugs do not, as a rule, issue from hibernating
quarters until near the end of April. Eggs were first noticed on the
28th of that month, but in some seasons the bugs may lay earlier. The
first inmagos of the new brood have been observed to develop during
the last week of June, the 26th being the first observed date of their
development. The second generation usually begins to develop about
the beginning of the third week of August.






83


The wheel bug ([''on idus crs.t at.i) was observed attacking the
nymphs of this bug on several occasions (during June.
The Cabbage Looper (Plitsia hmra.sre Riley).--The observations which
were conducted on this species were much the same as for Pieris
rap.., with which it was associated. Numerous .larvae were still living
in the fields as late as the middle of December. At this time one larva
was found less than half grown, showing that the eggs had been
deposited about the last week of November.
The Cabbage Plant-louse (Aphis brax..-.c Linn.).-Of this species it
was observed that numerous individuals, but no winged forms, wer"
still present in cabbage fields by the middle of December, mostly,
however, in the hearts of cabbage where they had crawled for protec-
tion. No parasites or other enemies could be observed at this time.
A number of individuals of this plant-louse were kept in the insectary
of this Department in the coolest temperature that could be obtained,
the object being to have them furnish food for ladybirds. It was
noticed that they survived a temperature of 20 F., which occurred
during three successive days in February, and that they were ac(-tive a
few degrees above the freezing point, seeming to be able to fly, since
winged individuals were found at the top of rearing cages a foot
above the plant on which they had been feeding at a temperature a
little below 40 F. Meanwhile the ladybirds, although not dormant,
were inactive, responding feebly to stimulation.

(CONCLUSIONS.
The practice of planting late cabbage and other crucifers is calcu-
lated to be of great benefit to several species of insects, particularly
those just mentioned, and the particular reasons are that, as a rule,
natural enemies, such as parasites and wasps, and diseases are less
active in cool weather, while their hosts are seemingly nearly as active
as in warm weather. This, of course, is not really the case; they do
not work so many hours in a day, and their growth is slower. The
trouble is that the farmer and truck grower generally, at least in those
parts of Maryland and Virginia lying near the District of Columbia,
appear to think that the insects have disappeared to such an extent
that it is not necessary to apply remedies. For the imported cabbage
worm, the looper, and the larva of the diamond-back moth, this is the
best time to make applications of poisons, as the crops are not needed
until a considerable time after poisons are applied, and this does away
with any danger of poisoning to human beings. Many individuals of
the insects mentioned, without doubt, perish for lack of food, as most
wild crucifers are dead at such times.
Such cabbage as is pulled arid "heeled in" and covered with under-
brush is apt to carry with it many individuals of all of the five cabbage
pests under discussion, and when the cabbage heads are covered with





84


brush this affords a line shelter against storms and (cold. A very
large percentage of injury to cabbage in the spring (and this is the
time when the principal daniage by the imported cabbage worm is
done) could be avoided by treating the cabbage freely with Paris green,
and the same applies to stalks left in the field for sprouts. Stalks that
are not needed for this purpose should be pulled up and burned as
rapidly as their uselessness is manifest, and all rubbish should be
destroyed in the immediate vicinity of the gardens.
Not alone cabbage, but all other crucifers should be freely poisoned,
and if this were practiced over considerable areas the effect the follow-
ing spring would soon be observable. If plant-lice are found to be at
work, kerosene emulsion should also be applied to the crucifers where
this would not interfere with their food qualities. Where the cabbage
is destined to be soon eaten, pyrethrum, or Persian insect powder,
should be applied.
It does not seem that* the present methods of growing late crucifers
has any appreciable effect upon the development of the harlequin bug,
but care should be used not to permit accumulations where the insects
can hibernate, and a trap crop of kale should always be left in the
field, or planted as early as possible in the spring, and from this trap
crop the insects can be collected, or after the main portion of it is
taken out for use the remainder can be burned, with the insects Nhich
it contains.
In one field recently visited in the latter days of April, a patch of
about half an acre of kale was found to be infested rather freely along
one side by harlequin bugs. The gardener was advised to burn this
side of the patch, using straw to facilitate the operation. This was
done, and when the garden was visited two weeks later not a single
specimen of the bugs could be found in a walk about this patch. The
same was true of the cabbage grown in the same vicinity.

THE SEED-CORN MAGGOT.
(Phorbia fit.clctps Zett.)
For a number of years economic entomologists in several portions
of this country and Canada have had frequent complaints of injuries
by a maggot working on young growing beans. More recently this
maggot has been found to destroy peas in the same manner.
Considerable doubt has been expressed in some early publicationss
on this insect as to its identity, whether it is the same species as the
cabl)age root maggot or specifically distinct. This was caused by the
fact that both species attack the roots of cabbage, sometimes acting in
concert and by the further fact that the group to which these insects
belong, two-winged flies of the family Anthomyiidp, had not been
carefully studied. The species under discussion, known by several
popular names besides seed-corn maggot, including "bean fly, has






85


received no less than seven Latin names showing its description that
many times as a supposedly new species.
A careful perusal of the notebooks of this office as well as of litera-
ture go to show that this maggot is considerably more destructive to
beans than to corn, and as many of our Div.isional notes have not been
recorded they may be mentioned here in connection with reports of
injury.
DESCRIPTIVE.
The parent fly of this maggot looks to the casual observer much like
a small house fly. It can best be identified by the male (fig. 19, a).
The principal characteristics of the male consist in a row of short,
rigid, bristly hairs of nearly equal length on the inner side 'of the
posterior tibiae or shanks. The female can scarcely be distinguished


9e
C



I !





b a d
FIG. 19.-Phorbia .fasciireps: a. male fly, dorsal view: b, female, lateral vicv: r, head of female, from
above; d, larva, from side: e, anal segment of larva: f. anal spiracles: p. thoracic spiracles: h,
puparium-all much enlarged original i.
from those of related species, such as the adults of the cabbage root
maggot and onion maggot. The length of the body is about one-fifth
inch (5f1D) and the wing expanse about two-fifths (9.5m111).
The lrVra also resemble the species mentioned. Like other mag-
gots, they are footless and of cylindrical form. As will be seen by
illustration 19, d, which represents a larva in profile, they are narrowed
at the anterior extremity and enlarged posteriorly. They are, however,
considerably smaller than the onion maggot, measuring about one-
fourth of an inch (gOm') in length and about one-sixth as wide at the
thickest portion. Alcoholic specimens are very pale yellow in color,
and the chitinous or harder parts at the ends are usually considerably
darker. The anal segment is shown at e; f represents the anal
spiracles, and q the thoracic ones. There appear to be only 6 or 7
divisions in the cephalic spiracles, whereas in the onion-feeding species
there are Usually 11 or 12 such divisions.





86

The jpi)artli (h) is barrel-shaped, of elliptical outline, and light
brown in color. It measures about three-twentieths of an inch (4am)
and is about one-third that in diameter.

DISTRIBUTION.
The fact of this fly having been described first in Germany in 1845
and of its not having been identified in this country until more than a
decade later is indicative of European origin. It appears to have been
first recognized in New York State by Dr. Fitch in the year 1856.
Like so many other flies, it ranges through several life areas, and we
know of its occurrence in Canada and Minnesota, southward to the
Gulf, and westward to the Pacific.
The following list of localities has been compiled from published
records and from specimens in the National Museum:
Holderness and White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass.; Greenport, Ithaca,
Long Island, Albany (?), and Elmira, N. Y.; Ridgewood, Palisades, Atlantic High-
lands, Westville, Jaiieslmrg, and Riverton, N. J.; Travilah, Md.; Washington and
Benning, D. C.; Falls Church, Va.; Van Wvrt County, Ohio; Lexington, Ky.;
Tippecanoe County, Ind.; Algonquin and Altaimont, Ill.; Grand Rapids, Mich.;
Plainfield, Wis.; Park Rapids, Wadena, Alexandria, Camden Place, Rockport, and
St. Paul, Min.; University, N. Dak.; Tabor, Iowa; Nebraska; Hiawatha, Lawrence,
and Parsons, Kans.; Eureka, Mo.; South Carolina; Augusta, Meansville, and
Atlanta, Ga.; Florida; Auburn and Boligee, Ala.; Mississippi; Shreveport, La.;
Rollover and Colhlge Station, Tex.; Las Cruces and Beulah, N. Mex.; Salida, Colo.;
Los Angeles, Cal.; Ottawa, Ontario, and Chateauguay Basin, Quebec; Lambton
County, Aitkens Ferry, and Prince Edwfiardl Island, C-inada.

RECENT OCCURRENCES.
During 1899 this fly was found in privies and reared sparingly with
other insects inhabiting human excrement. (Howard, Proc. Wash.
Acad. Sci., Vol. II, p. 584.) January 4 it was reared from cabbage
received from Augusta, Ga., and infested also with the impl)orted cab-
bage webworm (JIl libi undalis).
March 27 we received specimens of the larva from Mr. F. S. Earle,
Auburn, Ala., who wrote that the species was destroying a planting
of garden peas at that place, eating out and boring the underground
stems of young plants, sometimes destroying the plant before it could
get above ground. April 2 he wrote that an entire planting of peas
had been destroyed. The previous year he lost many plants of snap
beans in much the same manner, attributing the loss to the same
species.
June 23 the writer reared a considerable number of the flies from
beanls in a somewhat novel manner, and one that suggests itself as of
considerable utility in rearing root-feeding species. In the course of
experiments it was found necessary to place gauze frames over several
hills of beans on an experimental plat. These were left in place for a






87


week, and were fitted tightly to the earth. At the end of this time
Many flies were found and a number captured for identification.
During the same month Mr. E. E. Ewell, assistant chemist, called
the writer's attention to injury to bean stalks grown on the Depart-
ment grounds, due to the work of a maggot and to other causes.
Some were collected and reared to the adult, which proved to be
Phaorbiafuseiceps. The fly issued Junie 11.
November 6 to 15 the species was again reared from cabbage from
Meansville, Ga.
In 1900, May 15, we received larva from 1Mr. E. A. Wilson, Roll-
over, Tex., where they were doing much damage to the roots of cab-
bage. June 20 we received information of the occurrence of the flies
in alarming numbers at Falls Church, Va.

EARLIER D)IVISIONAIL RECORDS OF INJURY AND OCCURRENCES.
March 5, 1880, we received from Mr. J. S. Newman, Atlanta, Ga.,
a lot of turnips infested by the maggot of this species.
April 8, 1884, a fly appeared from among a lot of Tineid galls col-
lected by Mr. A. Koebele on poplar at Holderness, N. H.
December 4, 1885, we received from Mr. J. G. Jack, at that time
at Chateauguay Basin, Province of Quebec, Canada. specimens of this
fly with the statement that the larva, had been very destructive to
beans that summer. This attack will be mentioned more at length
under the heading Literature of the species."
June 7, 1889, we received larvi from Mr. F. N. Tillinghast, Green-
port, N. Y., with the report that the species was doing much damage
to the roots of young cabbage.
April 30, 1890, we received from Mr. Clark, Benning, D. C., some
young cabbage plants rained by this maggot.
During 1894 we received, August 6, from Mr. M. V. Slingerland,
Ithaca, N. Y., larvae about which hlie has published, as will be pres-
ently mentioned. Later we received from the same correspondent
adults reared from cabbage roots on Long Island. September 14 we
received this species in cabbage heads from Mr. L. H. Reed, Grand
Rapids, Mich. From this lot the mature flies issued June 14, 18, and
20 of the following year.
June 14, 1895, Mr. Reed sent bean plants showing injury by this
species from Plainfield, Wis. (See Ins. Life, Vol. VII, p. 429.) Feb-
ruary 5, 1895, we received word from F. A. Young & Co., of New
York City, that this species was causing considerable trouble to cab-
bage crops in South Carolina. It appeared to confine its operations
to the stems and roots, and was more plentiful in new land.





88


LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES.
Dr. Fitch's account. of this species is brief. He noticed that the fly
occurred in abundance upon the heads of wheat the latter part of June
in New York, presumably in the neighborhood of Albany, and as this
fly had been currently regarded as the parent of the wheat midge
(Diploxi. t,'ti,-, Kirby), he gave the insect .-omie attention, and, finding
it new to our fauna, described it as the deceiving wheat fly (Hylemyia
bctlj)va) (1st Rept. Ins. N. Y. for 1856, p). 301, PI. I, fig. 3). Noth-
ing was known by Fitch of the- habits of this species further than
that the flies hovered over and alighted upon wheat heads at the time
when they were in flower. In, 186 ) Dr. Riley redescribed this species
(1st Mo. Rpt., pp. 154-1-56. PI. 11, fig. 24, text figs. 86 and 87), giving
it the name of the see(l-corn nmggot (Ant/i/,,,! z,'sp),a" also the corn
Anthomyia. The maggo()ts were noticed attacking kernels of sprout-
ing corn in the vicinity of Ridgewvood, N. J., and in other fields ill the
same (Bergen) county. Mere mention of the species was made the
same year by Riley, and the case is cited here to show the tendency
that existed even in those early days, as well as later, to multiply
book names for insects. Hie refers to the species as the "seed-corn
flower-fly" (American Ent.. V)ol. 11, p. 137). In 1877 Dr. Riley's third
account of this species appears under the title "-The Anthomyia egg-
p)arasite" (AnW,1u,,,/!,i ,f./,f/r,,. Mleigen). The statement is made
that in the fall of 1s74; the maggot (destroyed about 10 per cent of
locust eggs in Misisouri, Kansas. and Nebraska. and in some localities
a much larger percentage: it was quite common also in Iowa and Min-
nesota and oCcurlred in (Colomradlo and Texas (1st Rept. IT. S. Ent. Corn.
for 1877 [ST7s]. pp). 2S5-2S9).
During lss5 this species was injurious to beans at Chateauguay,
Quebec, Canada (John (G. Jack. Can. Ent., Vol. XVIII, p. 22; 17th
Ann. Rpt. Ent. Soc. Ont., 887, lp. 17). The beans were planted June
15, and in that part of the field that was most seriously injured at least
nine-tenths of the crop was destroyed. Ten days after planting, as
few beans had appeared above the surface of the ground, examination
was made as to the case, and it was then found that nearly every bean
was infested by from 1 to 25 matggots. Both stems and seed leaves
were attacked. By the 28th of Jutine many larv':e had pupated, and
scarcely a magoot was found after July 2. The adults issued July 10.
Mr. Jack. in rel)orting this occurrence, stated that "if this bean-
feeding haltbit of the insect should become general, it might prove very
annoying.
In Insect Life (Vol. V I, p. 372) Dr. Howard, in referring to para-
sites of the sugar-beet webwormin, makes mention of this species,
stating, among other things, that the fly had been reared by Dr. Riley
aSpelle'l (1 1,tth 1patges 154 andi 155 5"z,.ts."' without (doubt a typographical error.






89


from the roots of cabbage and radish. It was surmised that the larvae
fed upon beet roots and perhaps crawled into the larval cases of the
webworm for pupation. The writer indorses this opinion, and it
would seem that beet is to be added as a food plant of this insect.a
As in previous cases of reported injury, the maggots attacked the
plants before they appeared above ground, and were found in the
stems after the plant had reached a height of about 2 inches.
In the year 1894 this species did damage to bean plants in Tippecanoe
County, Ind., and Van Wert County, Ohio, as reported by Mr. F.
M. Webster (Insect Life, Vol. VII, pp. 2)4-2-5). Adtlts. were reared
June 10 to 18. The nature of attack was as usual with this species.
In the late Dr. Lugger's first annual report as entomologist of
Minnesota for 1895 (189.6, pp. 111-114, pl. 14. fig. 58), injury to young
bean stalks by what is probably this insect is treated, the species
receiving mention as the bean-fly (An/thoi ,/,t sp.). Whole fields of
beans, in many places containing many acres, were reported as being
completely ruined in the vicinity of Park Rapids, MIinn. At, Wadena,
Minn., injury was also noted. After the seed had been planted about
ten days and had not come up, Mr. H. W. Fuller, the correspondent
in question, had dug into the hills and found the beans gone. It was
not until he had opened several hills. that he succeeded in finding the
maggots. According to Dr. Lugger, about one-third of the State was
more or less infested with this enemy, which was new as regards
known injury there. On some farms the insect destroyed nearly all
bean plants, while on others farmers were forced to reseed their fields.
Another locality specifically mentioned as hav ing suffered losses from
this insect was Alexandria, Minn., where about 25 per cent of the crop
was destroyed, necessitating replanting.
In 1897 this maggot was concerned in injury to seed-corn at
Aitkens Ferry, Prince Edward Island, Canada. The corn w;a, planted
June 5 about 3 inches deep, and very little showed above ground.
The spring was described as very wet and cold in that locality. This
is recorded by Mr. M. V. Slingerland (Rural New Yorker, September
11, 1897, p. 596).
In the year 1900 Prof. W. Lochhead, Guelph, Canada, reported
what is also in all probability the seed-corn maggot' as injurious
during that year in Lambton County, Canada. His note is )published
under the caption of "The Bean fly (Anlf/nnyia l ,radsuit)", and he
states that in June many complaints reached him regarding the attacks
of "grubs" on beans. Hundreds of acres were being destroyed,
a Mention is made of the synonymy of this species, but the insect is unfortunately
referred to as Phorbia fuscipes Zett.
b There is very little doubt that the insect which was so injurious in 1895 in
Minnesota and in 1900 in Canada was Phiorbiafusciceps, but specimens are not avail-
able, hence the identification can not be positively made at present.





90


many bean did not germinate at all, owing to the fact that the maggot
ate the interior of the seed, while many stems failed to develop
through the destruction of the central portion of them. Professor
Lochhead was of the opinion that injury might have been due to deep
planting. The note in question, 31st Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1900
(1901, p. 73), was illustrated with a figure adapted from Dr. Lugger's.
A review of the known history of this species was given by Dr. Lint-
ner in 1882 (1st Rpt. Ins. N. Y., pp. 181-184), and later, in 1894, Mr.
Slingerland gave a similar review (Bul. 78, Cor. Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
1894, pp. 499-501). Dr. Forbes also published an account in 1894
(18th Rpt. St. Ent. 11l. for 1891 and 1892, pp. 16-19), which includes
a few notes on occurrences in the seed of corn and dates of rearing,
and detailed descriptions of the larva, puparium, and imago, with
original illustrations. Some shorter accounts have been published
that add little to our knowledge of this seed maggot.
Although this insect is not restricted to either corn or beans, it
seems to the writer that the name "' seed-corn maggot," bestowed upon
it years ago by Dr. Riley, may be retained in preference to b' Fringed
Anthomyiian,;' which has recently been proposed. It has priority,
and the latter iamne would not be apt to be adopted by the average
person engaged in agriculture.
The following are among the synonyms of PIhorsaf..s.ccel, Zett.:
A,';ri, fi.cit,',p. Zett., 1845; Iin,,il,(t 1 ,'pf,')t f Fitch, 1856; Clwrloiph l il irtrurai
Rond., 1866; A ,il,,'i/y;, :,i Riley, 1869; Antlmyia rvliuinm var. (dilouteoii Riley,
1877; Ainlmmyia ,,,1.4lifi,,n. Mei.uen, 1878; Plior,'bt cilicrura Rond (Meade), 1883.
SUMMARY OF FOOD HABITS.
From what has been related of the habits of this species it will be
seen that real injury is practically confined to planted seeds and very
young sprouting plants, particularly of Indian corn and beans of dif-
ferent kinds. When young plants of bean, corn, and cabl)bage are not
available it will attack other plants, and future study will undoubtedly
show that it has a wide range of these. Peas are attacked in the same
manner, but this does not appear to have previously been recorded.
It may be, from the fact of Fitch finding the flies so abundantly in wheat
fields, that the insect also attacks sprouting wheat, as the fact that
injury has not been detected is no indication that attack is not made.
There is little doubt that beets are attacked. Turnips and radish are
known to be infested, and it seems more than probable that the insect
may feed on decaying vegetable arid perhaps animal matter, as the
larvwe are so frequently found on such portions of plants as have first
been attacked by other insects. The rearing of the fly from galls on
poplar, previously mentioned, is an unusual indication of the last-men-
tioned habit. Dr. Riley's account of the species having been bene-
ficial upward of a quarter of a century ago by feeding upon locust






91


eggs should not be overlooked. It does not necessarily show more
than an occasional carnivorous habit, as the attack under consideration
occurred during extreme abundance of the locusts. The onion has
been recorded as a food plant in England, seed potatoes have been
attacked, according to Lintner, and hedge mustard has been recorded
as a food plant by Slingerland.

LIFE HISTORY.
The life economy of the seed-corn maggot is very imperfectly under-
stood. In spite of the many writings on this insect the species has
evidently never been under continuous observation in any locality, and
what has been published affords evidence only of a single generation.
It has been surmised that the species agrees with others of its kind in
passing the winter in the adult condition, although it is possible also
that it hibernates, in some localities at least, as a pupl)arium. Of one
thing we may be tolerably certain, that only a single generation is
developed in corn, but it is quite 1)prol)alble that two generations might
be produced in beans and peas owing to the longer period in which
these crops are kept in the field, and the second and third plantings
that are made in many localities. In the Gulf States the dies have
been reared as early as January 4, and the rearing notes which have
been cited for that region show that the flies may api)pear through the
first three months of the year. The fact that larvtu' were received from
Texas in the middle of May would indicate a second generation in the
South, the progeny of the flies appearing in the earlier months. Flies
have been reared also in or from different localities in June, .Julv,
August, September, and December, and it seems probable that where
weather conditions favor, several generations are normally produced
each year, although there must be a period in midwinter in which
breeding ceases, and possibly another in midsummer.
Professor Forbes has admitted the probability that later generations
might appear than that observed by him on corn, the adults from
which emerged from June 11 to August 7. In the Northern States
it is probable that we have at least two generations, the first injurious
in May and( June to such seedlings as are then to be found, and the
second generation feeding upon weeds or dead or dying plants, in
excrement and in refuse, without their presence being manifested.
It would be interesting to learn if most of the injuries occasioned by
the seed-corn maggot are not due to the attraction of the winged fly
for oviposition on manure used in the field or to the decomposition of
a portion of the seeds (something which must always happen) or to the
presence of other decomposing material, due to natural causes, to
fungus attack, or to infestation by l)rimary pests.





92


NATURAL ENEMIES.
The seed-corn maggot undoubtedly has many insect enemies, but
none appear to have been recorded.
June 21, 1897, we received from Mr. E. F. Bouchville, Boligee, Ala.,
a large number of flies of this species with their bodies distended byv
a white powdery growth caused by the presence of a fungus disease,
identified at the time as Enmpu.a (aflnericana. It belongs to the same
genus as the house-fly parasite (Empn m uscce).
Frequently the latter disease causes much mortality among flies living
out-of-doors, as happened during the summer of 1891. (See note by
C. L. Marlatt in Insect Life, Vol. IV, pp. 152, 153.)

REMEDIES.
Owing to the great difficulty of destroying subterranean larve and
the cost of the chemicals that are used for this purpose, such as bisul-
phid of carbon, we have to depend more upon methods of l)prevention.
One of the best means of deterring the parent flies from depositing
their eggs consists in sand soaked in kerosene-one cupful to a bucket
of dry sand-placed at the base of the plants, along the rows. This also
kills young larvae that might attempt to work through thle mixture.
Fertilizers, preferably kainit and nitrate of soda, are also useful as
deterrents, particularly when employed just before or after a shower
has thoroughly wet the ground. They should be applied as nearly as
possible to the roots, and the earth should be turned away from the
plants for this purpose. This remedy has the advantage of acting as
a fertilizer as well as a preventive of insect attack.
As soon as plants show signs of wilting, and this maggot is known
to be present in the field, the injured plants should be promptly pulled
and destroyed.
The above methods of control have been used with success against
onion maggots and similar root-feeding species.

THE BEAN LEAF-ROLLER.
(Emdiun ms proteus Linn.)
In October, 1901, Mr. William R. Polk, Orlando, Fla., complained of
what he described as a green leaf-roller on snap beans. No specimens
were received at the time, but the adult insect was identified by our
correspondent as being the indirect cause of the injury. At the time
of writing he stated that it had been busy laying eggs, and the leaf-
roller or leaf-curler worm, as it was also called, was "destroying muLich
of his beans by cutting and curling the leaves." Novemnber 12 our
correspondent .ent specimens of the butterfly as well as larva in differ-
ent stages of growth.






93


The same month we received by request from Prof. H. A. Gossard,
Lake City, Fla., specimens of the larva of this species found on cowpea,
with the accompanying information that two hours' search in a patch
of velvet beans failed to find any of these caterpillars. Mr. Gossard
was not certain that velvet beans were exempt from attack, but it is
evident that they must be comparatively so.

DESCRIPTIVE.
The buttefty.-This leaf-roller is the larva of a butterfly called the
"swallow-tailed skipper," anrid is quite unique among garden pests.
The butterfly is illustrated in figure 20, a. It has a robust body and
wide head, and the antenna are curved at the tips as figured. Its color









N^N
,^e -!s' t^^^ ^ v,
# c .%> =


*!?,
,-- -. .. .-" .. .. . .. .. .-,..". ..

06


FIG. 20.-Eadam s Iproteus: a, butterfly: b, larva, dorsal view; e, larva, lateral view; d, chrysalis
in rolled-up leaf-somewhat enlarged (original).

is velvety brown, with long metallic-green hairs on the thorax and
contiguous parts of both pairs of wings. The fore-wings are orna-
mented with white spots and the hind-wings are bordered with a zigzag
line of white; the latter terminate in two long, dark-brown tails. The
wing expanse is from 11 to 2 inches. The lower surface is much paler
brown, with broad bands of darker brown.
The egg is nearly spherical, depressed below, and marked with ridges,
converging at the polls. The eggs when first deposited are glistening
white, but soon become yellow. They measure nearly a millimeter in
diameter and about 0.8"1m in length.
The larva is of the peculiar appearance shown in the illustration
(6, c), nearly cylindrical, with narrow neck and prominent head. The







ground color is yellow, dotted with black, and the surface is covered
with numerous short, pale hairs. The head is black, with orange
spots near the mandibles, and the apical third is reddish. The thoracic
plate is also black. It measures, when full grown, about 1- inches.
The p1pqa (fig. 20, d) is shining brown, the eyes brownish-black.
Two or three days after being formed the pupa becomes covered with
a peculiar white flocculent coating. Its length is about seven-eighths
of an inch.
DISTRIBUTION.
This species is tropical, and apparently injurious only in Florida,
although it is recorded to occur in South Carolina, Georgia, and south-
ern Texas. Along the Atlantic seaboard it sometimes extends, prob-
ably only by flight of the adults, to a considerable distance north,
individuals having been captured in New York City and about New
Haven, Conn. It is probably not possible for the insect to breed in
the Northern localities. It does not appear to be found very far
inland.
As to the foreign distribution of this species Scudder has not indi-
cated special localities with the exception of Mexico. Through the
kindness of Dr. Dyar the following localities, based mainly upon
material in the National Museum, may be added: Cuba. Jamaica,
Trinidad, Guatemala. Venezuela, Buenos Ayres, Argentina, and
Paraguay.

GENERAL REMARKS ON BIBLIOGRAPHY AND HABITS.
For many years this caterpillar, known as the bean leaf-roller or
"roller worm" (Elaum i/.r protl.s Linn.), has been recognized as an
enemy to leguminous and some other crops in the Gulf States. Injury
is usually confined to beans and to cultivated beggar weed (Desmodilum
tort O sm)); but according to Prof. J. H. Comstock, who gave an account
of this insect in 1880 (Annual Report U. S. Dept. Agr. for 1880, p. 269),
cabl))aie and turnip may also be affected. The article cited has long
been out of print, and as the species has not received any attention,
or been figured in any later publication of this Department, the
opportunity is taken to present illustrations of the insect in all its
stages, together with such brief descriptions as are necessary for
identification, to which is added a summary of the life habits. For
the benefit of anyone who desires to go more deeply into the subject,
it might be added that an extensive account of this species, with illus-
trations and bibliography up to 1889, may be found in Volume II of
Dr. S. H. Scudder's Butterflies of the Eastern United States and
Canidla, pp. 1386-1393. A more recent account has been given by
Mr. A. L. Quaintance (Bul. 45, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1898, pp. 55-60).






95


NOTES ON DIVISIONAL RECORDS.
Our Divisional records of injury by this species, including the
reported damage by Professor Comstock, comprise the following:
February 5, 1880. at, Rock Ledge (Brevard County) and Enterprise,
Fla., it was destructive to beans, turnip, cabbage, etc. The larva
was generally known by gardeners sil the roller worm. February 21
larwe were received which were found feeding upon the cowpea
growing wild along the banks of the St. John's River at De Land
Landing, Fla. Noventer 4, 1881. larvae were received from Mr. J. C.
Neal, Archer, Fla.. where they were destructive to D,..,m//7,n,, (Jfei-
bmrnia) c an.crn... December 2. 1895, we received from Mr. C. K. Bab-
bitt, Lakeville, Fla., larvt found feeding on bean and cowpea.
An individual of this species kept at Washington in confinement in
a moderately heated room (60 to 7(P F.) transformed to pupa October
30, and it was noticed that the pruinosity appeared the next day,
increasing in intensity for two or three days. The butterfly matured
December 15, the individual having passed six weeks in the pupal
condition. In its exit from the chrysalis it left the skin nearly intact.

HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
A few plants other than those mentioned -erve as food for the larva;
these include different species of Wistaria a (tid litworia. Frequently
larve are so abundant as to nearly destroy otherwise promising fields
of beans.
According to the observations of Mr. Quaintance (1. c.) the first
generation appears in early spring, and successive generations continue
until cool weather. In the extrenwme south of Florida. however, devel-
opment may be nearly continuous throughout the year, as larval have
been noticed there during the last of December and in January. In
the heat of summer the life cycle is short. requiring, in some cases,
only twenty-four days from the deposition of the eggs until the emer-
gence of the adult. The eggs may hatch in four days, the larve go
through their five molts, and in two weeks from the time of hatching
have been noted to enter the pupal state, the latter stage requiring a
period of six days. In colderweather in October and November the
life cycle may require as long as 37 days. It is probable that the
species hibernates as pupae.
Eggs are deposited on the lower surface of leaflets of bean in groups
of from one to six. After feeding a short time the larva prepares a
retreat by folding over a flap of a leaf. From this shelter the larvae
crawl out sometimes 6 or 7 inches, and feed upon the surrounding
foliage. This species does not differ from other butterflies in being
diurnal in habit, larvaTe and adults moving about freely at all times of
day.






96


REM EDIES.
Paris green has been used with .success by Mr. Quaintance in the
treatment of this species on beans in Florida, applied at the rate of
a pound to 150 gallons of water, which is sufficiently strong to destroy
the larvae. Quicklime should always be added, in the preparation of
this spray, as it neutralizes the arsenious acids which might otherwise
be produced when rain follows the spraying. Equal amounts of lime
and Paris green are the proportions. Arsenate of lead would probably
be more satisfactory, because not ipt to scald the foliage.
THE PEA MOTH.
(S,',,,i nj/',, Steph. )
In New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario, in the Dominion of
Canada. where pea-growing is an important industry, there is, in addi-
tion to the pea weevil discussed in previous pages, a seed-infesting
insect known as the pea moth, the larva
:t / l of which develops in ripening peas in
the pods. This species first attracted
J attention near Toronto, Ontario, in the
year 1893, and since that time yearly
complaints have been made of its
..'-^r.^, ,ravages.
i .,,- .. : -+ -2 4 .- "'','^P .'r
q S -'-- DESCRIPTION.
FIG. 21.-.si ,iisi..(nigricana Steph.: moth The moth is a small Tortricid. with a
above, larva below-about three timeswin expanse of half an inch. The
natural size (original). n expanse of hal an inch. The
fore-wings are dark fuscous or dusky,
tinged with darker brown and mottled with white, about as shown in
figure 21. The hind-wings are nearly uniform, dark fuscous, and bear
a rather long fringe with an inner line.
The la/'a, shown also in figure 21, is whitish-yellow with pale brown
head and thoracic shield, the latter inconspicuous. Its length when
mature is about the same as the wing expanse of the moth. The
tubercular spots are also inconspicuous, and the hairs are short and
sparse.
TNe p'qpa does not appear to have been described.
DISTRIBUTION.
This is a comparatively new importation from the Old World, where
it has been known for many years as an enemy of the pea. It does
not appear to affect any other plant, and injuries are most notable on
late crops. It is practically unknown in the United States, but since
it is an imported species, there are the best of reasons to believe that
it will in time invade New England, New York, and other Northern
States, and pea growers should be warned against it.





97


NOM31ENCLATUIrE.
Considerable confusion might be cau-ed if one did not have at hand
a rather full literature bearing upon the classification of the pea moth.
In a catalogue of Lepidoptera issued by Staudinger & Wocke in 1871,.
two species are l)laced in the genus Grapholitha. the pu.i moth beintr
represented by nn mian Tr.. with ,,,;ri.,,i Steph., mand )l.ollill Gn.
as synonyms. There is also a ,,//,m/'*,/ Il-S. I. Mevrick's laiand-
book of British Lepidol)tera. published in 1.i', th, pea mothI i. placed
in the genus Laspeyresia, p,1.rn.vnv,, \Walk. being indicated as a
synonym, while our other specie,: ik listed as Ep -'l, ifr',in' I-S.
This latter is stated to lbreed in the buds of 1,,i. p;.i,. It is -iowni
herewith for compl)arison with the true pea moth (-ee fig'. .2).

HISTORY AND HABITS.

It is somewhat singular, consideri, the, time that thi- species- must
have been present in America inl order to Ie dc-.4ructive a- early as
1893, that it has not occasioned lo--es also in our Northern States.
Even as early as the date inentioied it wa- .-tated to he the pirilicipal
obstacle encountered in the cultivation of the
pea in Canada, the attack frequently re.-ultinig
in destroying the usefulne.-ss of from u10 to 20
per cent of the crop.
The full life history of thi- species has
not been studied. It is known that the moths FIG. 22.-Epihd. m1,iqricanu H-S:
fly about sometimes in large nUllll',1)er around m 1tli. about tiree times natural
.size (tr ~i'. inal ..
pea blossoms a short time after -sunset. The
females lay from 1 to 3 e'g's on very young' pod, or ouvaries. The
caterpillar, according to ob)servations in Europe. is- hatched in four-
teen days., and goes into the pod and attacks the .-eed, the opening
made in the margin of the pod closing- afterwards. IPodl thu.- affected
usually ripen early. Whlieni the pod opens the mature caterpillar
creeps out and enter-. the earth, there to spim a cocoon-like covering
formed of silken threads. Authorities differ as to the ,,tate of hilber-
nation. Miss Ormerod (Manual of Injurious Insect.-. p. 16;3) states
that the larva winters over, and in spring turns to a chrysalis, the
moth appearing in June, while Dr. J. Ritzema Bos. in hi.- work on
Agricultural Zoology (London. 18!4), ._ays that "the i)up;v live through
the winter." The peas attacked are always covered while in the pod
with the cross-grained excrement of the caterpillars, and frequently
two or three are joined together by web) fibers.
Recently it has been ascertained that the pea moth larva does not
injure to any extent the earliest and latest varieties of peas.
23987-No. 33-02-7-






98


REMEDIES.
What has just been said indicates the value of planting the earliest
and the latest varieties of peas, and this will probably hold as a good
remedy in many localities where the species occurs injuriously. Mr.
W. T. Macoun has named Alaska, American Wonder, Gregory's Sur-
prise, Gradus, Nott's Excelsior, and McLean's Little Gem as among
the best early varieties. The first three mature as early as June 17,
before the appearance of the moths. Crops grown for seed are more
difficult to protect.
It has already been advised that clean culture would be found a
valuable mieains of riddance of this insect, and if during the picking
the plants are found to have been infested, as. soon as the crop is off
the remnants should be gathered and burned.
Early fall plowing has also been recommended, but it does not seem
that this is necessary if the fields are burned over promptly. In Dr.
Fletcher's report for 1900 (1901, p. 214), the results of some experi-
ments that were made in New Brunswick are given. They consist
in the use of a spray of Paris green, 1 pound to 100 gallons, with 4
pounds whale-oil soap added, in order that the mixture shall adhere
to the waxy pod of the pea. The results were so promising as to show
them of importance. Three sprayings are suggested: the first to be
applied when the blossoms begin to fall, the second a week later, and
the third ten days later than that.
THE BEAN CUTWORM.
( Oploconta cinrr, (ut, Guen.)
A caterpillar which has been called the bean cutworm does injury
to the foliage and pods of beans, at times stripping the vines bare.
The species has long been known to collectors of Lepidoptera, but
although widely distributed little has been published concerning its
habits, although all of its stages except the egg have been described.
It appears to be recorded as doing injury only in the States of Florida
and Mississippi.
DESCRIPTIVE.
This species belongs to the family Noctuidoe, or owlet moths, which
includes many cutworms, but it is not related to any of the true cut-
worms, and has never been observed, so far as the writer knows, to
be nocturnal or to cut tender plants. Hence it is probable that it is
not a cutworm at all and the above name is a misnomer. It is more
closely related to the cabbao-e looper and similar forms.
TI/e ioth is a tolerably well-marked species, having a wing expanse
of a little over an inch. the fore-wings being light brown and marked
with a transverse paler band on the outer third. The reniform mark
is distinct, as are other similar markings between that spot and the